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if '^W'T 

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VIDIBIia IPiilfiVaa 





Rev. W. YATES, 



CxUtttta { 








The Hindustdni language, from the extent to which 
it is spoken, and from the capacity which it possesses of 
expressing ideas on any subject with facility, deserves 
the attention of every European in this country. The 
design of the present publication is to supply a short and 
easy introduction to this popular tongue. 

It must be observed, that the Hindustdni or Urdii 
differs essentially from the Hindi or Hindui, the for- 
mer being derived principally from the Arabic or Per- 
sian, and the latter from the Sanskrit. The inflections 
of both being the same, and the strange admixture of 
them that frequently obtains, where both are spoken in 
the same city, have led some to the erroneous conclusion 
that they are the same language ; whereas the Urdu 
is peculiar in its application to the Musalman popula* 
tion in every part of India, while the Hindul applies 
only to the Hindus in the Upper Provinces. 

The work is divided into three parts, and contains a 
Grammar, a Vocabulary, and a select assortment of Read-* 
ing Lessons. 

The first part of this volume, though concise, will be 
found to contain all the important grammatical rules 
that are to be met with in much larger works. Conden-* 
sation, perspicuity, and arrangement have been the great 
objects at which the author has aimed. The Syntax of 
the different parts of speech has been intermixed with 
the Etymology, in order to save the multiplying of 
chapters, and with a view of comprising every thing 
necessary to be said on one subject in one place, which 


IS an important advantage, when it can be secured with- 
out creating confusion. Both the size and design of the 
work prevented the introduction of a regular system of 
Prosody ; this is not considered as a part of Grammar 
by the Natives, and if included in it, could be studied 
with profit only by those who are acquainted with the 
Arabic and Persian languages. 

The second part contains a Vocabulary of nouns^ ad- 
jectives, and verbs. In supplying the list of substantives, 
an attempt has been made to remove the difficulty aris- 
ing from their gender, which is confessedly a source of 
great perplexity to a learner, both in speaking and in 
writing. It is so, because the gender of the noun affects 
the final terminations of adjectives, pronouns, and verbs 
to such an extent, that it is impossible for a person, with 
certainty in his own mind, to speak or write a single 
sentence correctly without a knowledge of it. If the 
substantive is feminine, adjectives ending with a vowel 
must be changed to agree with it ; as hura admit a 
bad man ; hurt chiz, a bad Jthing. If the substantive 
is feminine, the possessive case of all the pronouns must, 
like the adjectives, be made to agree with it ; as merd 
gkar^ ray house ; meri kit/ih, ray book. In like man- 
ner the verbs must agree with their nominative case, not 
only in number and person, but also in gender ; as, ddmi 
dtdy the man comes ; (purat dti, the woman comes. This 
being the case, it is desirable that some plan should be 
adopted, by which the learner may be able to distinguish 
a feminine from a masculine noun. No rules of grammar 
are found sufficient for this purpose, as may be seen from 
the confession of the best grammarians. " Males and fe- 
males are naturally masculine and feminine, whatever their 
terminations may be : ee (i), /, sh, are in general feminine, 
while a (d)^ u (a or ah)y and all the rest, ^there being no 


neuter in HindustaDi,) may be treated as masculine finals, 
till the scholar learns the reverse from practice, the 
grammar, and dictionary*." *^ Rules on the subject of 
gender are extremely vague in the Hindustani, and prac- 
tice in the language must be appealed to as the only sure 
guidef ." Committing the subject, however, entirely to 
practice, leaves the student in a labyrinth for a consider- 
able period, which, to a mind resolved on certainty, is 
far from being happy. With a view, therefore, to remove 
this difficulty, a list of the nouns contrary to, or not to 
be accounted for by rule, has been given in the second 
part : these being known, all others may be considered 
as regular, according to the rules of the grammar. To 
these a list of such regular nouns as occur in the Read- 
ing Lessons has been prefixed, by which addition the 
work is made complete ; and it is believed, the first and 
second parts now contain an explanation of all the words 
that occur in the third. 

The third part consists of Reading Lessons, and is 
divided into five chapters, each containing a number of 
sections. The first chapter is a collection of simple sen- 
tences, familiar and moral : the second, a selection of 
short and easy fables : the third, a collection of anecdotes, 
partly from the Hindi Story-Teller, and partly translated 
from English : the fourth, a selection of stories from the 
Khirad-Afroz : and the fifth, of argumentative pieces 
from the Ikhwan-us SufL Care has been taken that 
all the Reading Lessons should be pure Hindustani, 
without that admixture of Sanskrit words, which is some- 
times admitted ; and the chapters have been so arrang- 
ed, as to rise one above another in difficulty : so that, 
after being perfectly master of these, the student will be 
able to proceed to any other work in Hindustani. 

* Gilchrist. f Shakespeare. 


The author is sensible, that there are persons in this 
country who might have executed the task which he has 
undertaken, in a much better manner ; but as their time 
is chiefly occupied in more important, or more pressing 
engagements, and as the want of an introductory work 
of the kind was once felt by himself, and he doubts not 
is still felt by many others, he thought himself justified 
in making this attempt, hoping that it might prove use- 
ful to such as are commencing the study of the Hindu- 
stani language. 

Since the printing of the second edition in the Arabic 
character was commenced, the propriety of writing the 
Hindustani in the Roman character has been warmly 
advocated ; and a systematic scheme, after the plan of Sir 
Wm. Jones, adopted for that purpose. The friends of 
that system having requested me to allow them to put 
this work into the Roman character, I cheerfully con- 
sented ; and a third edition of it, in the Romanized form, 
is now presented to the Public as the result of their 



Chap. I. Of the Letters, &c. . . 1 

Chap. II. Of Noune, . . . . 8 

(1) Of the Declension of Nouns, .. .. •• 8 

I. Declension, .. .. .. «. •• 9 

II. Declension, •• •• .. .. ll 

(2) Of Gender, .. .. .. - .. 12 

(3) Of Number, .. •• .. ..14 

(4) OfCese, .. .. .. .. 15 

Chap. III. Of Adjectives, . . . . . . 20 

Chap. IV. Of Pronouns, . . . . . . 24 

(1) Personal Pronouns, • • • • • • 24 

(2) BektlTe Pronouns, • . . • . . . . 26 

(3) Interrogttive Pronouns, • . . . . • 28 

(4) AdjeetiTe Pronouns, . . . . • • 29 

Chap. V. Of Verbs, .. ..33 

Paradigm of the Verb To Be, . . . . • . 34 
Paradigm of a Regular TransitiTO Verb, in the Actire Voice, . • 37 

Paradigm of a Regular IntransiU? e Verb, in the Active Voice,. • 41 

Paradigm of a Regular Verb, in the Passive Voice,. . ••44 

Of the Moods, Tenses, and Construction of the Verbs, . • 48 

Chap. VI. Of Indeclinable Words, . . 69 

(1) AdTcrbs, .. .• .. ••69 

(2) Prepositions, •• •• •• ••61 

(3) Conjunctions, •• •• •• ..63 

(4) Interjections, •• •• •• ..64 

Chap. VII. Of Derivative and Compound Words, . . . . 65 

(1) Nouns, •• •• •• ••65 

(2) Adjectives, •• •• •• ••68 

(3) OfVerbs, .. •• •• .. 70 

Appbndix, . . . • 75 

(1) Specimen of Parsing, • • . . • . • . 7& 

(2) Grammatical Terms, in the order of the parts of Speeebi . • 80 

(3) Days of the Week, .. •. .. ..83 

(4) Months of the Year, •• •• •• ..83 

• •* 

Vlll C0KTEKT8. 


Chap. I. Of Nouns, . . . . . . 87 

(1) Nouns regularly Masculine and Feminine occurring in the 

Reading Lessons, .. •• .. ..87 

(2) Irregular Masculine Nouns, .. •. ..103 

(3) Arbitrary and Irregular Feminine Nauni, .. ..106 

Chap. II. Of Adjectives, .. .. ..128 

(1) Common Adjectives, •• .. .. ..128 

(2) Numerical, .. •. .. •• .. 141 

Chap. III. Of Verbs, .. .. ..143 

(1) Of Transitive or Active Verbs, . . . • . . . . 143 

(2) Intransitive or Neuter Verbs, .. .. . ..146 

(3) Compound Verbs, . . • . • • • • . . 15o 


Chap. I. Select Sentences, . . . . .... I 

(1) Familiar, •• •• .. .. ..1 

(2) Moral, *• ;• .. .. .10 

Cha*. II. Fables, . . . . .... 24 

The Deer and the Fox, .. •• ». .. •• 24 

The Hares and the Eagles, . . . . . . . . 24 

The Gardener and his Herbs, •• .. .. ..24 

The Man and his Idol, . . « , . . . . 25 

The Wolf and the Lion, .. ». .. ..25 

The Boy and the Scorpion, • • . . . . . . 25 

The Cat and the File, .. .• ., .. ..25 

The Hawks and the Cocks, • • . . . . . . 26 

The Dog and the Hare, <• .« ». .. ..26 

The Goose and the Swallow, . . . . • . . . 26 

The Deer and the Lion, .. •• .. .. ..27 

The Dog and the Fox, . . • • . . . . . • 27 

The Belly and the Members, •• .. •• •« 27 

The two Cocks, • . ' • • . . • • • . 27 

The Fly and the Ox, .. .. .. .. •• 23 

Man and Death, .. •• •• .. ..28 

The Blackamoor, • • . • . . • . . . . 28 

The lion and the two Bullocks, . . • • . . . . 29 

The Boy iSsUen into the River, •• .. .. ..29 

■ The Sun -and the Wind, •. . • . . . . . . . 29 

The Wolves drinking up the Water to get at the Hides, . .• • . 30 

The Tortoise and the Hare, . • . . . . . . 30 

The Lion and Fox, . . • • . . . . . . 31 

The Pigeon, .... •• .. .. ..31 

The Dog and the Blacksmith, • . . . . . . . 31 

The Man and the Mare, • . ... ,. ,. •• 32 

The Man and the Hog, . . . . . . . . . • 32 

The Deer and the Ass, • . . . . . . , . . 32 

The Bird and the Crow, . . . . . . . . . . 33 

The Stag drinking, • . . . . . . . • . 33 

The Spider and tifie Bee, ' • . . . . • . . 34 

The Bramble, .. •• .. •• ..34 



The Lion, Fox, and Wolf dmding the Prey, •• •• •• 35 

The sick Lion, the Fox, and the Wolf, .. •• ' •• 35 

The Pigeon and the Crow, . . • . . . . . . • 35 

Chap. III. Anecdotes, . . . , . • 37 

The Daty of Kings, . . . . . . . • 37 

Eating, when proper for the Rich and the Poor, •• •• 37 

Plato's Saying, . ^ .. •• .. .• •• 37 

As yon do to others, it will he done to yon, •• .• ••37 

The five Virtues and Vices of Men, . • . . • . • • 37 

Devotion and Liberality commended, •• •• ..38 

The Man and the Lion, . . . • • . • . • . 38 

Luqman's Advice to his Son, • • • . . • • • 38 
Wicked Men can be consistent only by being silent on Religion, • • 38 

The Miser displayed, . . . . • • • • 38 

- The Fnlfilment of a bad Promise avoided, • . • • • . 39 

The Saying of Titns Vespasian, . . • . . • • . 39 

What Youth ought to learn, • • . • . • • . 39 

The Miser refusing his Ring, .. .. »• ••39 

The Remembrance of Justice and Oppression eternal, . • 40 

The Advantages of Sovereignty, . . • . • . 40 

The Physician's Advice, • • .. .. •• «. 40 

Pride mortified, . . • • . « . . . • 40 

The Industrious and Idle Youth, .. .. .. ••41 

Kings have no cause to complain of the Instability of Fortune, . . 41 

The best Friends and worst Enemies of Satan described, .. •• 41 

The Advantages of Learning, .. •• ..41 

Gaming the worst of Vices, . . . . • . 42 

Cheating detected, .. .. •. •• ••42 

The Impertinent Man reproved, • . . . . . 42 

The Frugal Youth and the Spendthrift, . . . • * • 43 

Friendship destroyed by Elevation in Rank, •• •• ••43 

Termination of Vain Delights, • . • . . . • . 43 

The Monarch's Pride mortified, • . . . • • • . 44 

The Considerate Man, .. .. .• .. ..44 

Alexander's manner of bestowing Gifts, . . • • . . 44 

Singular Artifice, . . . . • . . . . . 44 

The two Painters, .. ^. .. .. ..45 

The Logician and the Swimmer at Sea, • . . • • . 45 

The Darvesh, the Grocer, and the Judge, • • . . . . 45 

• The diligent and indolent Boy, .. •• •• ..46 

Two Women quarrelling for a Child, .. .. .•46 

The Thieves detected, . . . . • • • • 46 

Trial of Youthful Sagacity, . • . . . . • • 47 

The courageous and the fearful Youth, .. .. ..47 

Loye of the MarveUous reproved, • . • . • • • • 47 

The faithful Servant, . • • • . . • • 48 

Filial Affection, .. .. •• •• 48 

The two Travellers, . • • . . . . • 48 

Great Regard to Exteriors reproved, . • . . • . 49 

The Man who fell among Thieves, • . . • • . . . 50 

The Saying of Cicero, . . . . • • . . 50 

J£sop' 8 Advice to his Master, .. .. .. ..51 

An Artifice to get Money restored, •• .. .. ..SI 

The King and his Viziers, • . • • . . . • 52 

The diligent and indolent Scholar, • . . . • • • • 53 

Money regained by Artifice, . . . . . • • • 53 

The Dutiful Youth rewarded, • . . • . • . . 54 

Damon and Pythias, . . • . • • . • 55 


Chap. IV. Moral Stories, 

The Ph^^sician and his Patient, 

The Arab and the Baker, 

The Persian and the Merchant, 

The Huntsman and the Fox, 

The Darvesh and the Confectioner, . 

The Oppressor punished, 

The Gardener and the Nightingale, 

A Mortal Life with Society preferable to Immortality without it, • • 

The Merchant and his Friend, 

The Tyrannical King, 

The Farmer and the Mice, •• •• •• 

The Revealer of Secrets punished. 

The discontented Travellers, 

The Envious Man and the Ascetic, 

The King and his Hawk, 

How to guard against Anger, . • 

The two Friends, . . . . • . • . 

The King and the Ascetic, 

The Judge and his Monkey, 

The Merchant and his two Sons discoursing on Fate, . • 

Chap. V. Controversy between Men and Animals, respecting 
their natural Rights, 

(1) The original state of Men and Animals, and the Beginning of 

the Controversy between them before the King of the Genii, 
in an Island where the Men had been shipwrecked, • • 

(2) Man claims authority over the Animals, from the superiority 

of his form, wisdom, &c. ; to which they reply, 

(3) Man defends his right to rule, from the power he has of selling 

Animals, &c. ; to which they reply, . • 

(4) The Assembling of all Parties, after their Private Consultations, 

(5) The Jackal, the Representative of the Lion, the King of 

Beasts, examined, .. .. .. 

(6) The Parrot, the Deputy of the Chief of Birds, examined, 

(7) The Frog, the Deputy of the King of Reptiles and Fishes, 
examined, •• •. .. •• 

8) The Bee, the king of Insects, examined, 

9) The Men questioned ; their Replies, and the Objections of the 
Animals to them, . . . . . . • • 

(10) Conclusion of the Controversy, 




• • 

• • 









h%>% %%%%%«%%%%«^% %v%% v% \V««i% 





Thosb letters of the Hindust&ni language, which 
are of Persian origin, when expressed in the Roman 
character, will be as follows : — 
























a, &c. 






































w orr 









In addition to these there are diacritical marks for a 
and II, and compounds for i, A, ^, a», <J, ««. 

* For the pronunciation of these letters see pages 3, 4, &c. 


To the preceding letters from the Persian, the fol- 
lowing of Hindu origin are added : — 

Lettert. Namet* i^tterB*- hamw, Letiert. 













and perhaps n 

The letters thus obtained from two different sources 
may be divided into vowels and consonants: 


























gh q h ^1 

z z z z z h 


s s 















The whole reduced to the order of the English al- 
phabet will stand thus : a 4 a ai au b bh ch 
chh A dh d* dh e f g 
j jh k kh kh 1 m n 

r s s s sh t th t 

• • •• • 

z z z z zh. 



gb h 
o p 
u ti 



1 1 

q r 

w y 


* Dots are put to distinguish one letter from another ; they are appli- 
ed to those which are of the least frequent occurrence. 

HfVDUSTA^Nl^ grammar: 3 

That the learner may be able to pronounce the Hin- 
dustani language correctly by means of the Roman 
letters, it will be necessary here to explain the name 
and power of each letter. 

1. Of the Names and Powers. 

a akltr is pronounced like a in ahove^ adrifty adroiij 

&c. and never like a in ale. 

Short u as in but, would express the sound 

very well in English, and by many it is so 

employed; but it cannot be substituted for it 

without entirely destroying the analogy which 

exists between it and the next letter. 
k kkkr is the elongated sound of the preceding letter, 

and is uniformly pronounced like a in artj 

pardon, &c. 
i ikar has the sound oft in j'm, hegin^ &c. 
1 ik^r is the elongated sound of the preceding, as in 

the words antique^ caprice, police, &c. 
u uk&r is pronounced like u in bull, push, &c. 
6 6k^r is the long sound of the preceding, as in the 

words pure, rule, tube, secure, &c. 
e ek&r is pronounced like the first e in ere, where^ 

there, &c. This is the French i, as iti, bontS, 

or charactSre. 
o okkr is sounded like o in no, note, go, &c. 
ai aik&r has always the sound of ai in aisle. 
au auk^r has the sound of au as pronounced on the 

continent of Europe. It is like ow in English 

in cow, now, &c. 


a } a* aign. When a dot is placed under any Yowel, 
it signifies that it is a guttural, and is to be 
pronounced as far as possible from the throat. 
On this arrangement and method of expressing the 
vowels, a few observations. may be offered, if the 
characters for expressing the long and short vowels are 
to correspond, as ihey must do to be systematic, then it 
is impossible to liave a simpler or more exact repre- 
sentation of them than is given in a d^ i i^ u A.^ Those 
who reject system for sounds express them by u if, i ee, 
oOy 00 ; by which representation the analogy existing 
between the letters is entirely destroyed, and the sound 
only preserved. Every scholar must acknowledge, that 

that representation which unites system and sound is to 
be preferred to that which sacrifices either: this happy 
union is completely effected in the case of the vowels a 
d^ii^ud; so that it may be fairly inferred that no 
improvement can be made upon this representation. 

It would be a felicitous circumstance if the same 
could be said of the diphthongs; but here exists a little 
discrepancy : e and o, which in Nagari and Persian are 
diphthongs, are represented by single vowels ; while ai 
and au, which properly represent diphthongs, have no 
unexceptionable words in the English language to con- 
vey their sound ; the word aisle being irregular. In 
the diphthongs, therefore^ a considerable sacrifice is 
made both in sound and system. If represented sys* 
tematically, they would be written ai di, audu^ the first 
two being composed of a and 2, and the second two of a 
and u ; by this systematic arrangement the whole of the 
vowels and diphthongs, ten in number, would be redu- 
cible to the three simple elements of a, e, u. This would 


be a great advantage as to system, but sound is not in 
its favour. The ai would be sounded as it commonly 
is in English, in laid^ paidtsaid^kc, and this would an* 
swer very well ; but au must be pronounced as in haui^ 
boy^ &c. which is irregular. The di and da would be 
sounded almost distinctly as separate vowels. Since 
therefore it is impossible to find such representatives 
of the diphthongs as will combine all the advantages 
of system and sound, we are laid under the necessity of 
abiding by those which Sir W. Jones and scholars on 
the continent of Europe have approved and adopted. 
The e, o, a/, an, have at least this advantage, that they 
express the sounds in the most concise way possible. 

2. Of the Names and Powers of the Consonants. 

b ba has the regular sound of h in such words as 
bad^ bed, bid^ &c. 

bh bha is the preceding letter aspirated. Each letter 
must be distinctly pronounced, but both in 
one breath. The only method of giving a 
tolerable idea of this in English is to take the 
last letter of one word and the first letter of 
the next, and unite them together in one 
sound, as hob-house^ or dropping the first 
syllable b^house. 

ch cha has the sound of cA in cheats churchy chin, &c» 

chh chha is the aspirate of the preceding, as in the two 
words church-hilly or dropping the first parr, 

d da is a dental, and is pronounced by applying the 
tongue to the teeth, nearly as in duke, die, den. 



dh dha is the aspirate^ of i^ as in mad-house^ or drop- 
ping the first part, d^house. 

d da is a palatine, and is pronounced by applying 
the tongue to the palate or roof of the mouth, 
, as in dullf <^old, holdy &c. 

dh dha is the aspirate, as in cold-hand^ or dropping 
the first part d^hand. 

f fa has the regular sound of y in fit^^ fancy. 

g . ga has the regular sound of ^ in gety gOj goty dog. 

gh gha is the aspirate of it, as in dog-house, drop- 
ping the first part of the word, g^house. 

h ha is the light sound of A, as in have, he, &c. 

h ha is the deep guttural 'sound of h, sounded 
more strongly than h in horse^ house, &c. 

j ja has the regular sound of j in jam, join^ &c. 

jh jha is the aspirate of it ; j not occurring as a final 
in English, soft g^ which is pronounced the 
same, must be substituted to give the sound 
as college-hall, or omitting the first part, 

k ka has the regular sound of ^ in keep, king, kiss. 

kh kha is the aspirate of it, as milk-house, or unitedly 

kh kh is sounded like x in Greek, or as ch in loch 
by the Scotch. 

1 la has the regular sound of / in land, lord, 
lake, &c. 

m ma has the sound of m in man, mind, me, &c. 

n na is sounded like n in nap, nape, not. 

n na is a nasal n, like n in French bon. 

p pa has the regular sound of p in pot, pan^ 

pup, &c. 
















ph pha is the aspirate of it, as up-hill or p^hiL 
q qa has nearly the same soand as in quacky clique, 


has the regular sound of r in rain^ ripe^ rice. 

has a singing sound, as r in the French eternel. 

has the regular sound of s in sin^ see, seven. 

is sounded as in the word sahib, sir. 

is a dental, and sounded like s in hiss, or by 
the Arabs like th in though. Except to 
mark the kind of s used in native cha^ 
racters, the distinction of these three letters 
s, S3 and s would not be worth preserving, 
sh sha is pronounced as sh in shelly shine, shave. 
t ta is a dental, and pronounced by applying the 

tip of the tongue to the upper teeth^ nearly as 

in tube, tune^ butter. 
th tha is the aspirate of it, as pot'house, or together 

t ta is a palatine, and is pronounced by applying 

the tongue to the roof of the mouth, nearly as 

in tub, tin, fat^ &c. 
th tha is the aspirate of t, as fat-hen, or unitedly t^hen. 
Y va has the regular sound of v in vain^ vale, velvet. 
w wa has the sound of w in way, wet, win, &c. 
y ya has the sound of y in you, ye^ year. 
z za is pronounced like z in zeal. Of the three 

remaining z's, z z z, the same may be remarked 

as of the three 5's above, 
zh zhais pronounced like z in azure, razure, &c. 




To nouns belong declension, gender, number, and 


The declensions in Hindust&iii are two. 

1 be genders are two, the masculine and the fe- 

The numbers are two, the singular and the 


The cases are eight, the nominative, the genitive 
or possessive, the instrumental, the dative, the objec- 
tive or accusative, the ablative, the locative, and the 
Tocative. The dative being always the same as the 
objective, is not repeated in the declensions. 

(l) Of the Declension of Nouns. 

After various attempts to reduce nouns to one or 
more regular declensions, according to their final 
letters, it appeared evidently more simple, and more 
conformable to the genius of the language, to class 
them according to their gender, and it is hoped that 
this classification will remove the obscurity arising 
from the total want of arrangement. 

That the division of nouns into two declensions is 
not merely artificial, is plain from this, that the 
second declension is distinguished from the Jirsty by 
its gender, by the formation of the nominative cases 
plural, and by its invariably ending with an immu- 
table letter. 


I. Declension. 

The first declension, consisting of nouns of the mas- - 
culine gender, varies according to the final letter of 
the word, which is either mutable or immutable. 

First, Mu tab lbs. 

Substantives ending with d and A are mutable, and 
change the d and hto e when inflected in the singular, 
and drop them in like manner after the nominative 
case in the plural ; as be\k a soUf bandah a slave. 

N. Bet& a «on. 
6. Bete \& ke, ki, of a son. 
I. Bete ne by a son. 
O. Be(e ko a son, to a son. 
A. Bete Be from a son. 
L. Bete men in a son. 

Befe sons. 

Befon k& &c. of sons. 
Baton ne by sons. 
BetoQ ko sonSf to sons. 
Befos se from sons* 
BefoQ men in soni. 

v. Ai Bete O son. \ Ai Befo O sons. 

Bandah a siave^ is declined in exactly the same man 



N. Bandah a slave 

G. Bande ka of a stave^ ^e. 

N. Bande slaves^ 
G. Bandon k& ofslaveSf 4*c. 

The instrumental and vocative cases being peculi- 
arlj applicable to nouns of agency or animate beings, 
and comparatively seldom used to nouns signifying 
inanimate things, unless personified, may be omitted 
in the inflection of all such nouns: thus, rksik a road^ 
d&nah grain^ &c. may be declined precisely like the 
preceding, with the omission of these cases. This re- 
mark applies to all inanimate things, whether masca- 
line or feminine, and consequently to both the declen* 

10 hindusta'ni' grammar. 

]Chud& God^ u&tk a barber, umark, nobles, hkhk or pit& 
a father J peshw& a leader, datj^ a river, rkjk a king^ 
dknk a gefierous man, saud& xnelancholy, kabitit a poet, 
gad& a beggar, \k[k a teacher, mxkMk a learned man^ 
and mir^ a prince, are exceptions, and neither change 
nor drop the final ; as sing. nom. Khudii, gen. Khud& 
k&, &c. plur. nom. ^hudlt^ gen. l^hud^on kit, &c. 

Nouns ending with h preceded bj a long vowel, or 
be two consonants which render it long by position^ 
do not change the h in the singular, nor drop it in the 
plura] ; as sb4h a king : sing, nom. sh&h, gen. shah k^, 
&c. plur. nopi. sh&h, gen. shahon kk, &c. So raunh a 
mouth, sing. gen. mugh k&„ plur^ gen. munhon k&. 


Masculines ending with a consonant or the vowel 
I are immutable, and do not change or drop their final 
letter when inflected i as mard, a man or male; qdzi 
a judge. 

Singular. | 

N. Mard a man, 
G. Mard ka of a man. 
I. Mard neby a man. 
O. Mard ko a man» 
A. Mard sefrom a man. 
L. Mard men in a man.. 
V« Ai Mard Q m^n. 

Q4zl a judge, kAmi a man, and masculines ending 

with any consonant, are declined like mard ; as. 

N. 0*351 ^judge^ 

Mard men. 

MardoQ kd of men., 
MardoQ ne hy men. 
Mardon ko men. 
Mardon sefrom men. 
Mardon men in men. 
Ai Marda O men. 

6. Qazi ka &c. of a judge, ^q. \ Cr. Qazipu ka ofjsukdgee, ^e^ 

N. Q&zijudges. 



Bany&Q a trader is declined like the regular noun 
bany^, but retaining the nasal letter, as banyeQ k&, &c» 

11. Declension. 

The second declension, consisting of nouns of the 
feminine gender^ does not change or drop the last let^ 
ter of the Word, either vowel or consonant ; but sim- 
ply adds to it the different terminations. It differs 
however from the immutablesof the first declension in 
the formation of its nominative cases plural, as beti a 
daughter, aurat a woman. 

N. Beti a daughter. 
G. Beti kiofa daughter. 
I. Bed neby a datighter. 

0. Beti ko a daughter. 

A. Be(i sefrom a daughter. 
L. Beti men in a daughter. 
V. Ai Beti O daughter. 

N. Aurat a woman. 

G. Aurat k& of a woman. 

1. Aurat vkehy a woman. 
O, Aurat ko a woman. 

A. Aurat sefrom a woman. 
L. Aurat men in a woman. 
Y. Ai Aurat O woman. 

Betifin daughters. 
Betion k& of daughters. 
Betion ne by daughters. 
Betion ko daughters. 
BetioQ Be from daughters. 
Betion men in daughters. 
Ai Betion O daughters. 

Auraten women, 
Auraton ka of women. 
Auraton ne by women^ 
Auraton ko women. 
Auraton sefrom women. 
Auraton men in women. 
Ai Aurato O women. 

Feminines ending with i are declined like beti a 
daughter, and all others like aurat a woman ; conse- 
quently feminines ending with dor h do not change or 
drop them like masculines. Thus iza pain, makes 




sing. notn. iz&, gen. izk kit, &c. plural notn. fz&en, gen. 
iiJkon kkf &c. So jagah a place, makes sing. nom. ja^^b, 
gen. jagah kk, &c. plural nom.jagahen, gen. jagahon ka^ 
&G. Those ending with iyd drop the yd in the gen. 
plural, &c. and those preceded by wd sometimes add i; 
as chiriy& a bird, plural gen. chi|riofi Jik, &c. dauw4 me- 
diciney plural gen. danw&ion kk, &c« 

(2) Of Gender. 

The gender of nouns, as far as it can be ascertained 
by their meaning or termination, will be considered in 
this place ; nouns, the gender of which can be known 
by no rules^ will be enumerated in the second part of 
this work. 

Some nouns are recognized at once from their mean-* 
ing to be masculine or feminine ; as mard a man, aurat 
a woman ; b&p a father, m& a mother ; l;:hasam a hus-* 
band, joru a wife; malika king, malikah a queen; bail 
an ox, gke a cow. 

The Persian words nar a male, and m&dah a female, 
are sometimes used to distinguish the gender ; as nar 
gau a bull, m&dah gau a cow ; sheri nar a tiger, sheri 
m&dah a tigress. 

Nouns ending in t, sh, and i are feminine: as hkt 
a word, tal&sh search, roti bread. 

Nouns ending in any other letter besides those 
above mentioned are masculine; as bachcha a 
child, pardah a skreen, pagw afoot, tk} a crown, sir 
the head^ 

Denominatives, or words descriptive of profession, 
are masculine; as k&sibi, a weaver, kiighazi a paper^ 
maker, n^bi a prophet, darvesh a dervise. 

NOUNS. 13 

Di^^syllables of Arabic origin, beginning with t and 
ha\ing i before tbe last consonant, are feminine; 
as t&sir impressionj t&kir delay ^ t&dib correction^ tltri^h 
date^ &c. Tkviz an amulet^ is a solitary exception. 

Some nouns which are feminine in the singular, 
become masculine when they take the Arabic plural, 
or vice versa ; as tarf f. a side^ atr&f m. environs; mas- 
jid F. a mosque^ masijid M. mosques; waqt m. timCp 
auqitt F. time; walad m . a son^ aulltd f. offspring. 

All nouns of Sanskrit origin ending with A are fe* 
minine ; as ]gAX}pk favour ^ puj^ worship. 

Of the letters in the Alphabet, a,^, s^ sh, f, z, a, ^A, 
/, k, I, m, n, are masculine, and the rest are femi« 

Compounds are of the same gender as the last word 
of which the J are composed, as daftar l^hltnah M. a 
book-room or office^ rustumg&h f. afield of battle. 

Feminine nouns are formed from masculine ones by 
the terminations i, n, or in ; as be^ a son^ be^i a 
daughter ; shlthz^dah a prince^ sh&hz4di ]a princess ; 
duiha a bridegroom, dulhan a bride; dhobf a washer* 
man, dhobin a washerwoman ; bany& m. bany&ifi f. a 
shopkeeper^ &c. 

Sometimes dni and ni are used for the same pur- 
pose; as mibtar m. mihtar&ni f. a sweeper; mor a 
peacock, moritni a peahen ; u&t m, untni f. a camel ; 
b4gh a tiger, bitghnl a tigress. 

A few are irregular in their formation ; as hhki a bro- 
ther^ bahin a sister ; beg or kh&n a lord^ begum or Ifhk-^ 
nam a lady; tk^k a king, rkuia queen; randi (obso- 
lete) a widower J r&n4 o, widow ; sassur a father^n4aw. 




s&s a mother-in law ; sh&ir a poet, shkir or sh&irah a 
poetess ; mltinu an uncle, mamanl an aunt ; bliaiosi m. 
bhaiQs F. a buffalo t chakw& a ttild drake, cbakaii a 
wild duck; gaur4 a cock-sparrow, gamriyk a hen^par-^ 
row ; b&tbi m. hathni f. an elephant. 

(3) Of Number. 

The general method of forming the plurals from the 
singular may be seen in the declensions : it will be 
necessary therefore in this place to state only the addi- 
tional methods that are occasionally adopted. 

The plural of many masculine nouns being the same 
as the singular, it is often necessary to add some such 
words as sab all, and bahut many^ to distinguish the 
plural, as ghar a house, sab ghar the houses. 

When the noun is preceded by an adjective of 
number or quantity, the plural termination is 
often omitted, as das aurat ten women, bahut hkt 
many words. 

The regular plural termination on is used not only 
with the cases, but with the prepositions when the cases 
are omitted ; ap ghoroQ par upon horses. 

Mouns derived from the Persian sometimes form the 
plural by an for the masculine, and ha or jdt for the 
neuter; as, s&qi, ^€{ikn cup-bearers ; s&l, sitlhli years; 
subah, subahjlit provinces. 

Nouns derived from the Arabic occasionally take the 
Arabic plural, for the formation of which no regular 
rules can be given ; as khat, l^hutut, letters ; ^habar, 
akhbar news; unsur, an£tsir elements ; klim, ulam4 the 
learned; nabi, ^rahijk prophets ; mauj6dah, mauj6d4t 
beings. To these plurals the regular plural is some- 

NOUNS. 15 

times needlessly added, as from hukm is formed 
ahkitm and ahk&mofi kk commands. 

Words of time and number may take the plural 
termination an in the nominative plural as well as the 
other cases ; so baras, barson yean ; din, dinon days ; 
mahjnah, mahinon months ; pahar, paharoB watches ; 
hazlir, haz&ron thousands. 

Words of two syllables with an initial short vowel 
followed by zabar, drop the zabar in the plural 
number, as kamar, kamren the loins. 

(4) Of Case. 

AH the cases are simple in their formation and also 
in their use, with the exception of the possessive and 
instrumental ; these being a source of great perplexity 
to learners, require more particular illustration. The 
following observations, it is hoped^ will simplify this 
subject, and show the proper application of all the 

The nominative occupies the first place in the sen- 
tence, and always remains uninflected in the singular. 

When two nouns coming together signify the same 
person or thing, they are put in the same case ; but 
when they signify a different person or thing, the one 
governs the other in the possessive case, and requires 
that case to agree with it in gender ; as, Ahmad uska 
bhki his brother^ Ahmad ; ghar kk malik the master of 
the house ; mard ki poshltk the man's clothes. 

if the possessive is governed by a noun of the mas- 
culine gender in the nominative casCy kd is used ; but 
if governed by a masculine noun in any other case, or 
by a preposition, he is used ; as r&ja kk naukar the 



king^s servant ; rij& ke naukar ko to the kingU servant ; 
hkdshkh ke be^ the king^s sons ; naukaroQ ke s&th with 
the servants. 

If the possessive is governed bj a feminine noun» ki 
IS used in all cases ; as rkjk ki be^ the king^s daughter ; 
l^huda ki hkt wfrom thewordof God. 

The possessive case of nouns generallj precedes the 
word by which it is governed, though it may option- 
ally be put after it ; as shukar kk sijdah or sijdah shu* 
kar kk the worship of thanksgiving ; gbar ke p^ or p&s 
ghar ke near the house. 

The Persian and Arabic forms of the genitive are 
occasionally used in Hindustani; as ganje d&nish 
a treasure of wisdom ; talib ul ilm a seeker of know^ 
ledge^ a student. Persian words ending with either 
vowel or cousonant take e fox the sign of the genitive ; 
as bandahe Khud& a servant of God ; hauw&e bahr air 
of the sea. 

The sign of the possessive case is often omitted be. 
fore the prepositions, as kin&re pius to or near the shores 
nazdik darw&ze near the door. 

Instances sometimes occur in which a genitive cane 
is used ill consequence of a noun understood ; as 
tum uski suno hear ye him, i. e« uski b&t his word. 

The adverbs yah&n here^ and wah^n there, govern the 
possessive case like nouns or prepositions ; as, slthib ke 
y ab&n jko go to the gentleman^ s here^ 

The quality or universality of a thing is expressed 
by the possessive case; as, bayesir k4 clihokrk a boy with 
a great head ; khet kk khet the whole of the field. Hence 
also such expressions as, sabk& baf& greatest of all; 
sab kk sab all of them. 

NOUNS. 17 

The instrumental case is always used instead of the 
nominative, before iransiiive verbs in the perfect tense or 
itsformatives; the nominative case to the verb follows, 
and the verb which succeeds, thoug'b active in its ter- 
mination, is passive in its signification ; as, &dmi ne 
arz ki by the man a request was made, or the man re^ 
quested; aurat ne jaw&b dijii by the woman an answer 
was given, or the woman gave an answer ; uske bete ne ye 
b&ten sunen by his son these words were heard, or his 
son heard these words ; kauwon ne ghonsle ban4e the by 
the crows the nests had been built^ or the crows had built 
their nests how^. 

When the nominative follows the instrumental case, 
or when instead of a nominative a dative case follows, 
the verb is used impersonally, and is always of the third 
person singular masculine ; as, b&dsh&h ne ka\ik it was 
said by the king, or the king said; aurat ne kahk the 
woman said ; mardon ne auraton ko mkrk it was bea- 
ten to the women by the men, or the men beat the women. 

It is not uncommon for both the above forms to oc- 
cur even in the same sentence; as, unhuii ne b&dsh&h ki 
madah o sank ki, aur kah& they praised and commended 
their king, and said, &c. 

If the verb is not transitive, or being transitive, if it 
is not used in the perfect, &c. the construction is differ- 
ent : the nominative case is placed first, the objec- 
tive next, and the verb last ; as mkVik apne naukar ko 

* In the above instances k{ agrees ^ith ^rz as its nominative ; diyd 
agrees with jawdb, sunen agrees with bdten, and bande the agrees with 
ghonsle ; and this being granted, which it is supposed no one can deny, 
there is no possible way of accounting for the other words grammati- 
cally but by considering them as Instrumental cases. 

18 hindusta'ni' grammar. 

mkrik tha the master was beating his servant; sab in* 
^kn kpnk martabah baj&n karenge all men will relate 
their own greatness. 

The dative case is like the objective in form, and of- 
ten connected with it ; hence when by this position 
the termination ko would occur twice in succession, 
the ko of the objective is omitted, and that of the dative 
only retained ; as, yih larki hamko do give this girl ie 
me; wuh qaziyeko faisal kar degk he will put an end 

to the dispute. 

In nouns signifying inanimate things, the objective 
termination is often omitted, and the nominative forns 
used; as, rkstk taiykr karo prepare the way ; wuh tum- 
hen sub chizen dega he will give you all the things. 

When the objective termination of a noun governed 
by an active verb is omitted, the influence which its 
presence would have on the word in regimen with it, 
is lost, and it becomes a nominative, not only in its 
form, but in its government too ; as, b^p bete ka ghar 
ban&ta hai the father is building his son^s house ; but 
with ko thus, bap bete ke ghar ko banatit hai. 

When a postposition*, or another word is understood 
after a noun, and it is not governed by an active verb, 
the preceding genitive case, &c. are aflfected the same 
as if it were expressed j as, apne bete ke ghar gaya, he 
went to his son^s house; understand men after ghar. Ab- 
ke koshish karung^ now I will seek^ understand waqt 
men time. 

* For the sake of distinction, we call those postpositions which 
always succeed the noun, and those prepositions which often precede as 
well as follow. 

NOUNS« 19 

The ablative and locative cases, like the objective, 
generally precede the verb by which they are govern- 
ed ; as, we sab is kkm se hkz kye they all turned away 
from this business ; usne apne pet ko lazlz ghosht se 
bhara he Jilled himself with sweet meat ; mere sir meg 
dard hai / have a pain in my head; wuh us mulk mcQ 
gay a he is gone to that country. 

The ablative termination is also used with undeclin- 
able words^ and frequently both the locative and ab- 
lative terminations are used at the same time ; as, wuh 
&pne ghore parsegira he fell from, off his horse; un id- 
mion men se ek ne kaha one of the men said. 

When two or more nouns succeed each other, the 
terminations which form the cases are commonly ap- 
plied only to the last ; as usne bahut si arz o iltim&s ke 
b^d kaha he^ after exceedingly much praying and he-- 
seeching^ said; burhape ke sabab meri ankhon, kknon, 
aur hauw^s meQ khalal k gay& hy my eyes^ ears^ and 
senses have become injured through old age. 

To conclude these remarks on the cases, we may add 
as a general rule, that conjunctions connect the same 
cases ; prepositions govern the possessive case ; and an 
interjection is generally used before the vocative case 
of nouns ; as, ai zam&ne tere s&th kitna fitn& o fasad 
hai timCy how much perfidy and wickedness are with thee ! 

so hindusta'ni' grammar. 



(1) Adjectives generally precede their substantives^ 
and if they end with a, undergo a change similar to 
that of nouns in the genitive case, to agree with the 
word which they qualify in gender ; as,achchh41ark& a 
good boy, achchhe larke ke s^th with a good boy, achchhl 
good larki a good girl. 

Adjectives of Arabic and Persian origin, ending with 
d or ah, particularly compound words, are not inflect* 
ed ; as, p&rsa aurat a chaste woman, shayistah miz&j hk 

' L w^- f ^f^ good disposition. 

^itk^xnaJi ^luor rpjj^ following are some of the principal common ones 

which follow this rule ; viz. those ending with sd and 
dnah, together with judi separate, r&ndah rejected, s&dah 
plain, i^mdah exalted, gandah fetid, mandah tired, kho- 
rindah gluttonous, sharmindah ashamed, alihidah separ- 
ate, kaminah mean, bech^rah helpless, nak&rah bad^ 
nadidah not seen, kar&niz^ah base bom, ek s&lah annual, 
do sitlah biennial. 

In Persian words, if the adjective follows the noun, 
according to the idiom of that language*, e is added 
to the noun ; as, marde nek a good man. 

If adjectives, ending with a vowel, are separated from 
the noun which they qualify, and united with the verb, 
they undergo no change; as uske munU ko kklk karo 
blacken his face. 

* In this instance, the construction of the adjective and noun is the 
came as of two nouns — see page 16. 



Adje ctiv es, ending with a consonant, do not under - 
go any change,; as, p&k ^mi a pure man^ p&k aur«it 
a pure womaUf p£tk cbiz a pure thing. 

There are a few adjectives of Arabic origin which 
form their femininesby ah; as, k4mil m. k&milah F.per^ 
ftci^ ^haffi'f M. khaffi'fah f. contemptible. 

Adjectives do sometimes, but very seldom, take t he 
floral form ; they never admit of the cases being add- 
ed, unless they are used substantively, or after the sub- 
stantive ; as, r&ten bh&re&Q heavy nights^ baghair kirdar 
nek ke without virtuous conduct, unhon ne us ko fkidah 
tam4m se baz rdkhk they deprived him of all the advan-- 

If an adjective qualifies two or more nouns of the 
masculine and feminine gender, it is used in the mas- 
culine form ; but if the nouns are the names of inani- 
mate things, it generally agrees with that to which it 
stands nearest; as, usne bete beti ko mult dekhkar 
kah4 he seeing his son and daughter dead, said, &c. 
kapre bitsanaur kitliben bahut achchhi haio the clothes, 
plates, and books are very good. 

I'he adjectives are simple in their government ; 
those which retjuire of or to after them in English, for 
the most part govern the possessive case ; and those 
which require with or &y, the ablative, and most others 
the locative ; as, qatl ke l&iq worthy of death ; misl 
dary& ke like or like to a river ; \aiki se rk^ pleased 
with war ; aditlat semulzim convicted or condemned by 
the court ; aqlmandi meg sab se ziyluJah greater than 
all in wisdom ; mashwarat men Aknk wise in counsel. 



(2) In Hindustani, adjectives do not admit of com- 
parison hy any regular inflections; the comparative 
degree is expressed by the ablative case of the noun, 
&c. and the superlative bj prefixing another word to 
the adjective ; as, sulh jang se behtar hai peace is bet^ 
ter than war; yih sab se kharkb hai this is worse than all; 
bara kharab larka a very bad boy ; nihayat buri jaghah 
a very bad place. 

The Persian comparative formed by affixing tar, and 
the Arabic by prefixing a, are frequently used ; as^ 
badtar worse, behtar better, buxurgtar greater ; azlani 
more unjust, ahsan more virtuous. 

llie word is sometimes doubled to express the su-- 
perlative degree ; as, achchhit achchh& very good ; but 
the words most commonly used for this purpose are 
aur more, bprk great, bahut much, had beyond bounds, 
ziy&dah more, nih&yat extremely, sa most, very. 

The particle sa is frequently used to express com- 
parison or intensity, and when so used, is inflected like 
adjectives ending withd; as, attkr s&hotu aur luharon 
ki bhatti sk naho be like perfume, and not like the fur" 
naceof the blacksmith ; thorask p&ni leao bring a little 
wateVyM^nt se hathyar wahan the there were many 
arms there. 

When the comparison made by «a alludes to one 
thing out of many, it governs the possessive case ; as, 
tumhar^ bhi unhi ka sa jism hai you have a body like 
theirs; usk& sk ad mi ham ne nahin dekha we never saw 
a man like him. 

(3) Numerical adjectives are not inflected ; as, b&rah 
^dmi twelve men, barah admi ke sath with twelve men. 


The ordinals are formed from the cardinals* after 
four, bj adding wdn to them ; as, pahl^ firsts dusra 
second, tisra third, chautba Jourth, pknchwkn^fth, 
chhath^ or chat^an sixth, sathwan seventh, kthwkn 
eighth, nuwan ninth, dasw^n tenth, &c. When these 
words qualify nouns of the feminine gender, the dn i s 
c hanged into in, as panchwan m. panchwin f. 

The aggregate or collective numbers used are gan- 
dah a four, gahi ajive^ bisia score, chalisi a forty, sai- 
kar& a hundred, hazkr a thousand, lakh a hundred thou^ 
sand, karor ten million. These are often used in the 
plural form, while the noun connected with them is in 
the singular ; as, wuh hazaron jan kandani se halak 
Yxdk he perished with a thousand agonies. 

Fractional numbers are expressed by pao a quarter, 
adha a half, pawn three-quarters, saw& one and a quar^ 
ter, derh one and a half, arh&i two and a half In com- 
pounds, saw& adds one quarter to the number, sarhe 
one half\ pawne decreases one quarter \ as saw& tin 3|-, 
s4rhe tin 3^, pawne charSf , &c. 

Distributives are formed by doubling the number ; 
as, do do two hy two. 

A doubtful numb er is expressed by adding ek to th e 
numeral ; as, ad mi das ek about tenim 

To signify /o/c/, chand or guna are added to nume- 
rals ; as, do chand two-fold, das gunlt tenfold. 

Figures are expressed by the following signs : | 1, 

^ 2, 1^ 3, pr 4, 5, »^ 6, V 7, A 8, i) 9, f 10, &c. 

• ■ ■ ■ 

* For the cardinals see the Vocabulary. 


hindustaW grammar. 




Pronouns are of four kinds^ the personal, the relative 
the interrogative, and the adjective pronouns/ 

( 1 ) Personal Pronouns. 
First Person. 

Main /. 

N. Main /. 

G. Mera, mere, meri, of me. 
I. Main ne by me. 
O. D. Mujhko,mujheiit«, to me. 
A. Mujh 86 from me. 
L. Mujh men in me. 

Ham we. 

Hamfira, humiie ham&rf, ofw. 
Ham ne hy us. 
Hamko, hamen us, to fss. 
Ham sefrom us. 
Ham men in us. 



Second Person. 

Tu Thou. 
Tu thou. 
Tera, tere, teri of thee. 

Tu ne by thee. 
Tujhko, tujhe thee^ to thee. 
Tujh se from thee. 
Tujh men in thee. 

Third Person. 
Wuh or Wo He, She, It. 

Tum you. 

Tumhara, tumhte, 1 ^ 
tumhari \ of you. 

Tum ne by you. 
Tumko, tumhea you, to you 
Tum Be from you. 
Tum men in you. 




Uska, ke, ki his, of him. 
Us ne by him. 
Usko, use himy to him. 
Us sefrom him. 
Us men in him. 

We they. 

Unki, ke, ki theirs, of them. 
Un ne, unhon ne by them. 
Unko, unhen them, to them* 
Un Be from them. 
Un meg in them. 


When an inferior speaks of himself^ instead of maig 
/, the first personal pronoun, he uses some such word 
as, ghul&m slave, bandah servant, kjiz poor creature, &c. 
and when he addresses his superior, instead of the se- 
cond personal pronoun, he uses some such term as, 
&4hib master, khud&wand lord, ha^rat worship: as, 
ghulam h^ir hai, s&hib kk hukm kyk hai the slave is 
present, what are the master^s orders ? In like manner, 
when one friend addresses another in respectful terms, 
he uses instead of the first personal pronoun, the words 
dostd&r your friend, or JjfLhair-khwith your well-wisher^ 
or some such epithet. 

The pronoun tu thou, when used in addresses to 
God, is considered respectful ; but when applied to 
men, it is generallj reckoned disrespectful. 

No distinction is made in the third person wuh he, 
on account of gender; but in this respect it corre- 
sponds with the first and second persons. The language 
has but two genders, and all the personal pronouns 
may be masculine or feminine. 

The plural number of all the pronouns is frequently 
used instead of the singular, much in the same man- 
ner as you is in English. When A or hon is added 
in the oblique cases, the word must be understood 
as having a plural meaning; as, tumh se or tumhoii 
se from you. Log people, is used with the pronouns 
in conversation, to distinguish the real from the 
apparent plural ; as ham log we, tum log you, we log 


The cases of the pronouns are used in the same way 
as those of the nouns* ; tujhe, mujhe, and us, with their 
plurals turn, ham and un are often employed instead of 
their possessive cases, and often like adjectives ; as, 
mujh par on me, tujh.kane near youy us makan men in 
that place^ &c. 

The honorific pronoun £tp selfy thysdf, &c. is com- 
monly adopted instead of the second personal pronoun 
to express respect, and is thus declined : 

N. Ap self. 

G. Ap ka, ke, Id of self. 

I. Ap ne by self. 

O. Ap ko self to self 

A. Ap sefrom self 

L. Ap men in self 

The word dp is often employed emphatically with 
the other pronouns ; as, main kp 1 myself, tu ap thou 
thyself. The Persian word khdd self is used in like 

The pronoun dp with as added to it, in the locative 
case, is used in a plural and reciprocal sense ; as, kpas 
men among themselves. We ^pas men qaziyah karte 
hain they are quarrelling among themselves. 

(2) Relative Pronouns. 

The relative pronoun in Hindustani is generally 
attended with its corresponding relative, which isthence 
called the correlative. 

* See Section IV. of the Nouns. 


The RBiiATnra. 

Jo Who. 




Jo who. 

Jo who. 


Jis ka, ke, ki of whom. 

Jin ka, ke, ki of whom. 


Jis ne by whom. 

Jin ne by whom. 


Jis ko, jise whom^ to whom. 

Jin ko, jinhen whom, to whom 


Jis sefrom whom. 

Jin sefrom whom. 


Jis men in whom. 

Jin men in whom. 

The Correlative. 

So HCy She, It. 




So he. 

So they. 


Tiska, ke, ki his, of him. 

Tin ka, ke, ki theirs, of them. 


Tis ne by him. 

Tin ne by them. 


Tis ko him, to him. 

Tin ko them, to them. 


Tis sefrom him. 

Tin sefrom them. 


Tis men in him. 

Tin men in them. 

In English the correlative stands firsts and the rela* 
five immediately follows; as, he who, that which : in 
Hindustani it is just the opposite ; the relative generally 
stands in the former part of the sentence, and the cor- 
relative in the latter ; as, jo bad kam karegit so saz4 
pawega who does evil, he will suffer, i. e. he who does 
evil will suffer ; &khir jo main andeshah kart& thk so \i\ik 
at length which I suspected that happened, i. e. at 
length that which I suspected happened. 

The above, which is the regular order, may be, and 
frequently is, inverted, and the personal pronoun used 
instead of the correlative ; as, Aknk wuh hai jo larai 
se parhez kare; or, jo lar^ se parhez kare wuh dana 

hai he is a wise man who abstains from war. 



The relative, like the personal pronouns, are often 
used adjectively, as in this sentence ; jis kdmi ko wuh 
piy&r kart& bai use kuchh degit he will give something 
to the man whom he loves. 

The relative and correlative are sometimes coni'* 
pounded ; as, jis tisne kaha hai whosoever has said fit J ; 
jis kk tis kk bai whose soever (it J is. 

(3) Interrogative Pronouns. 
The interrogative pronouns are two: kaun whoj and 
ky^ which or what? The former is applied chiefly to 
persons, and the latter to things. 

Kaun Who? 

N. Eaun who. 
G. Eis ka, ke, ki whose. 

I. Eis ne by whom. 
O. Eis ko, kise to whom. 
A. Eis wfrnm whom. 
Jj. Eis men in whom. 

Eaun who. 
Ein k&, ke, ki whose. 
Kin ne, kinhon ne by whom. 
Ein ko, kenhen to whom. 
Ein sefrom whom. 
Einme^m whom. 

Ky k Which or What? 

N. & O. Ey&, which or what t 
G. Eahe ka, ke, ki of what f 
jy. Eahe ko to or for what 9 
A. Eahe sefrom what 9 
L. E&he men in what f 

In negative sentences, the interrogative is substitut- 
ed for the relative, as in this example ; wuh kaun hai 
ham nabin j^nte baiji we know not who he is. 

Kaun when usedadjectively may be applied to things, 
and kySt as an exclamation may be applied to persons ; 
as, turn kis chiz ko ch&hte ho what thing do you want ? 
ky& chor what a thief! 


Kyk is sometimes used as a conjunction ; as, kyk Hindu 
kja Musalm&n whether Hindu or Musalmdn; kyk 
hkgh kyk khet me]i whether in the garden or thejield. 
The compounds formed by the interrogative pro- 
nouns are, aur kaun who else ? aur kyk what else f kaun 
sa what^ and kiskis which ? expressive of variety or 

(4) Adjective Pronouns. 

These are of three kinds : the possessive* the demon- 
strati ve, and the indefinite. 

The Possbssiyk. 

The possessive apnit my, thtfy his, her, our, your, 
their, is inflected like an adjective ending in d, and is 
always substituted for the possessive cases of the pro- 
nouns, when they refer to the same person as the nom. 
or inst. case of the verb ; as, Khud& ne apne faf I aur 
ihsan se ham ko h^nkyk. God of his own goodness and 
kindness created us. If a different person is intended, 
the possessive cases are used ; as, usne unkk kam kiy& 
he did their work. 


These are yih this and wuh that. 

Yih This. 




Yih this. 

Ye these. 


Is ka, ke,kiofthis. 

In ki, ke, ki of these. 


Is ne by this. 

In ne, inhoQ ne by these. 


Is ko, ise this, to this. 

In ko, inhen these, to these. 


Is se from this. 

In se from these. i 


Is men in this. 

In men in these. 



Wub thatf is inflected the same when a demonstra- 
tive as when a personal pronoun*. 

As adjective pronouns, yih and wuh agree in number 
with their substantives; thus, yih bat this word, ye 
baten these words, wuh he\k that son. ^weheie those sons. 

Sometimes the singular is applied to an Arabic 
plural ; as, yih atwar these customs. 

In the oblique cases is and us are adopted for the 

singular, and in and un for the plural : is jahan men 

in this world, us jahan men in that world, or a future 

state, in kamon se front these works, un kamon se 

front those works. 

Yih this, and wuh that, are often used objectively 
without the addition of the objective case ; as^ yih 
karo do this, jo kuchh turn mangoge^ main wuhi kar- 
ung& whatever you a^k that I will do. If these sentences 
are taken elliptically, the pronouns may be considered 
as used adjectively, some such word as kdm or chiz 
being understood ; as, yih k4m karo do this work, jo 
kuchh chiz whatever thing, &c. 

The Indefinite. 

The indefinite pronouns are ek one; dusr& another, 
dono or donon both; ^uv other; (more;) ghair other 
(different); baze certain; bahut many; ^nh all ; har 
each; falanah a certain one; kai some, many ; koi any 
one, some one; kuchh an^ thing, something ; kitna or 
kitt& how many ? jitn& or jitta a^ many ; itna or ixtk 
so many. They are all regular in their inflections, 

* See Section I. page 27. 



viith the exception of koi any^ and kucbh some^ which 
are thus declined: 

Koi Any^ or Some one. 

Singular. l Plural 

N. Koi any one. 
6. Eisi ka, ke, ki of any one. 
I. Kisi ne by any one, 
O. Kisi ko any one. 
A. Kisi sefrom any one. 
L. Kisi men in any one. 

Kuchh Some or Any thing. 

Koi any. 

Kini ka, ke, ki of any. 
Kini ne by any. 
Kini ko any^ to any. 
Kini sefrom any* 
Kini men in any. 

Kuchh some. 
Kind ka, ke, ki of some. 
Kind ne by some. 
Kind ko some, to some* 
Kind sefrom some. 
Kind men in some. 

N. Kuchh something. 
G. Kisu ka, ke, ki of something* 
I. Kisu ne by something. 
O. Kisd ko something. 
A. Kisu sefrom something^ 
L. Kisd men in something. 

When not used adjectively, koi is generally applied 
to persons and kuchh to things; as, koi hai is any one 
(there) ? kuchh mat karo don^t do any thing. When 
used adjectivelj, the application is indefinite ; as, jih 
kisi kam kit hai is this of any work or use ? wuh kuchh 
kam ka hai is that of some work or use ? ek one is often 
put after dusra another^ to express opposition of idea, 
and connected with it to express reciprocity ; as, ek to 
khiita hai dusra pit& hai the one indeed is eating and the 
other is drinking ; turn kyun ek dusre se qa^iyah karte 
ho why are you quarrelling with one another ? 

The compound adjective pronouns of the indefinite 
kind are ek aur, aur ek or dusr& ek another^ ek koi some 



onejdiisrk koi or dusrfi kachh some other, ek pah ek one ot 
other, aur koi some one else^ aur kuchb something else^aur 
sab the rest, baze koi or b&f e aur some others, babiit ek 
many a one, bahut kuchb much, bahut aur many more, 
sab koi or bar koi every one, sab kucbb or bar kuchli 
every thing, sab ek, bar ek, bar kis every one, koi ek 
whichever, koi aur some other, jo koi whoever, jo 
kucbb whatever, koi nab koi som£ one or other, kuchb 
ek or kucbb kucbb somewhat, kucbb aur some morey 
kucbb nab kucbb some thing or other. 

These compounds when inflected follow the simple 
forms ; as, n. jo koi p. jis kisi ka, &c. n. jo kucbh 
p. jis kisa k^^ &g* 




Verbs are of two kinds, transitive and intransitive^ 
or^ as they are commonly called, active and neuter. 
They are all, with scarcely any exceptions, perfectly 
regular, and therefore need no further subdivision. 

As in English to is prefixed to the verb in the in- 
finitive mood, so in Hindustani nd is affixed^ but 
does not form a constituent part of the root ; the word 
divested of this affix, is to be considered as the root. 
Thus the root of jank to go^ is j& ; of honk to he^ ho ; of 
karn& to do, kar ; and of mkrnk to beat, m&r, &c. 

To verbs belong conjugation, voice^ moodj tense^ 
gender, number, and person. 

There is only one conjugation, and every transitive 
verb may be conjugated after the example of m&rn4 
to beat. 

There are two voices, the active and the passive. 

The moods are five, the indicative, the imperative, 
the potential, the subjunctive^ and the infinitive. 

The tenses tire seven, the present, the present defi- 
nite, the imperfect, the perfect, the perfect definite, the 
pluperfect, and the future. 

The genders of verbs, like those of nouns, are twoj 
the masculine and the feminine. The masculine sin- 
gular is formed by d, and the feminine by i ; the mas- 
culine plural by e, and the feminine by in or idn. 
Any other termination may be masculine or feminine ; 
thus, wuh hai may mean he is or she is. When two or 
more feminine plurals occur in sfuccesifrion, the terminal 


tion n is most frequently applied only to the last 5 as, 
we m&re j^te hain they are being beaten^ instead of we 

mare j^ten bain. 

The numbers of verbs are two, the singular and the 
plural, and in each number there are three persons, 
corresponding with the personal pronouns. 

When one verb is employed to assist in the conjuga- 
tion of another, it is called an auxiliary j the words 
employed for this purpose are thawa*, hona/o be.^knk 
to go J and karn^ to do. 

Thk WaSy is thus inflected : 


1. Main tha / tvaa. 

2. Tu tha thx>u wast. 

3. Wuh tha he was. 


1. Ham the we were. 

2. Turn the you were. 

3. We the they were. 

Feminine singular, main thi, &c. plural, ham thin &c. 
The verb hon^, to be or become, which is extensively 
used both as a principal and auxiliary verb, is conju- 
gated in the following manner : 

Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. 



1. Hamhote we are. 

2. Tum hote you are* 


1. Main hot& / am. 

2. Tu hota thou art. 

3. Wuh hota he is* 
Fem. hot! I Hotin 

Present Definite. 
Now am. 

3. We hote t?iey are. 

1. Main hota hiin I now am. 

1 . Ham ho te hain we now are. 

2 Tu hota hai thou now art. 2. Tum hote ho you now are. 
3. Wnhhot&htii he now is. 13. Wehotehain they now are. 
Fem. hoti throughout ; the other the same as the masculine. 



Then was. 




Main hota tha / then was. 

1. Ham hote the we then were. 


Tu hota tha Mom then wast > 

2. Turn hote the you then were. 


Wuh hota tha he then was. 

3. We hote the they then were. 

Fern. Hotithi. 

Hoti thin. 






Main hda / was. 

1. Ham hue we were. 


Tu hua thou wast. 

2. Turn hue you were. 


Wuh hua he was. 

3. We hue they were. 

Fern* hdi. 

1 Hdis. 
Perfect Definite. 




2. Main hiia hun / have been. 
1. Tu hua hai thou hast been. 

3, Wuh hua hai tie has been. 


1. Hamhiiehaiiiwe have been. 

2. Turn hne ho you have been. 

3. W ehnehain they havebeen. 

Fern, hiii &c. like the present definite. 

Had been. 


1. Main hu& tha / had been. 

2. Tuhnithitfiouhadstbeen. 

3. Wuh hua tha he had been. 
Fern, hui thi. 


1 . Ham hue the we had been. 

2. Turn hiie the you had been. 

3. We hue the they had been. 
Hui thin. 




Shall or will be. 

Singular, Plural. 

1. Main hoiinga I shall or will 


2. TiXihcf^epk thou shali ox wilt 

8. Wuh howega he shall at will 

Fem. Houngi, &c. 

1. Ham howenge we shall or 

will be. 
3, Turn bouge you shall or 

will be. 
3. We howenge they shall or 

will be. 
Howengi, &c. 

The u and w may be omitted throughout ; thus, honga, &c. 

Imperative Mood. 


1 . Main houn let me be. 

2. Tu ho be thou. 

3. Wuh howe let him be. 


1. Ham howen let us be. 

2. Tum boo be ye. 

3. We howen let them be. 

Ho jiye he or one should be* Ho jiyo Ae, you^ or they should be. 

Potential Mood. 
M<^y^ mighty should,^ or would he» 


1. Miun houn or han / may be. 

2. T^nhoyfeorhothoumaystbe. 

3. Wuh howe or ho he may be. 

1 . Ham howenor hon wemay be^, 
9* Tum boo you may be- 
3. We howen or hontheymaybe* 

Subjunctive Mood. 
JBe^ werCy had been. 


1 . Agar main hota if I be. 

2. Agar tu hota if thou be. 

3. Agar wuh hota if he be. 
Fem. hoti. 


1. Agar ham bote if we be. 

2. Agar tum bote if you be. 

3. Agar we bote if they be. 



Infinitive Mood. 

Hone to be. 



Singular, or Uninflected. | Inflected, or Plural. 

Hota, or hotft hud, | Hote, or hote fade being. 

Hua. I Hue been. 

Past Indefinite. 
Ho, ho ke, ho kar, ho kar ke, ho kar kar having been. 


Of a Regular Transitive Verb^ in the Ai^ive Voice. ,/ J/.'^ ^ 

Mkrnk To Beat. 
Indicative Mood, 
Present Tense. 


1. Main m&rta I beat. 

2. Tu marta thou beatest. 

3. Wuh marta he beats. 
Fem. Marti. 

Present Definite 
Am beating. 
1. Main marta hiin / am beat- 


1. Ham marte tve beat. 

2. Turn marte ye beat. 

3. We marte they beat. *-*--<c^ "i^ 
Martin or martian. 


2. Tu marta hai thou art beat- 

3. Wuh marta hai he is beat- 


1 Ham marte hain ti^e are ftea^ fc/U>»-^'<' 

2. Tum mirte hoyot^ are beaU 


3. We m&rte hain ^Aey are &ea^. 


The feminine marti throughout, the rest the same as the masculine. 



Was beating. 


1. Main marta tha I was beat- 


2. Tu marta tha thou toast 


3. Wuh mini thi he was beat- 

Fern. Marti thi« 



1. Ham mfirte the we were 


2. Tum marte the you were 


3. We marte the they were 

Marti thio* 


1. Main ne mara / &ea/. 

y^ 2. Tu ne mara t?iou didst beat. 

*» '^ W"*>f^'^* ^® ^'^ rsLhsi he did beat. 


1. *Ham ne mara we beat. 

2. Tum ne mara ye beat. 

3. Un ne m&ra they beat. 

Perfect Definite. 
Have beaten. 

IL L It^ ^* Main ne mara hai / have 




1. Ham ne mara hai we have 


tJ^^\, 2. Tu ne mar& hai thou hadst I 2. Tum ne m&rfi hai you have 



}^ ,A '^ 3. Us ne mara hai he has beat- 
'^. K^.,1 Fem. Marl. 

3. Un ne mara hai they have 
Mari haii)* 

* In this and the two following tenses mdrd is changed to mare if a 
masculine plural precedes in connection with the instrumental case* 
See Chap. II. Sec. (4) p. 17. 

OF VERBS. ;^ ^^ ^ ^ 39^ ^^^ 

Pluperfect. ^^^ ^ ^^ 

Had beaten. r- J^t^e^ ^^^ ^^ 


1. Main ne mara tha / hc§^ 


2. Tu ne mara tha thou hadst 


3. Us ne mara tha he had 

Fern. Marl thi. 

!• Ham ne mara tha we had /4c uk, 

3. Turn ne m&ra tha you had .-U-^*^ 

heaten. "J^Jf ^^ Z 

3. Un ne mara tha they hadj^^l ^^ 
beaten. ^^ ^g^T ^ 

Man thin. ^ tf ^ ^^ 

- — ' y ,• 

Future. /f^^^^^ 

Shall or will beat. 


1. Mainmarunga/«Aa//orti7t7/ 


2. Tu marega thou shalt or 

will beat. 

3. Wuh marega he shall or 

toUl beat. 


1* Ham marenire we shall or * ^f^ ^ 
will beat. ^ / 

2. Turn maroge you shall or 

will beat. 

3. We m&renge they shall or 

u;i// beat. 

Fern. mdrHngi, &c. changing the final <f and « to i throughout. 


1. Main martin let me beat. 

2. Tu mar beat thou. 

3. Wuh mare let him beat. 

Imperative Mood. 


1. Ham m&ren let us beat. 

2. Tum maro beat ye or you. 

3. We maren let them beat. 

Maiye he^ or one should beat. 

Maryo he, youj or they should 


Potential Mood. 
May, might, should or would beat. 


1. Main manin / may beat. 

2. Tu mare thou mayst beat. 
8. Wuh mare he may beat. 


1. Ham m£ren we may beai» 

2. Tum maro you may beat. 

3. We maree they may beat. 


Subjunctive Mood. 

Seat or had beat. 


^ii^h> Singular. Plural. I 

1. Agar ham m^rte if we heat. 

2. Agar tum marte if ye beat, 

3. Agar we marte if they beat. 
Martin or martian. 

Infinitive Moqp. 

Tj^ - '^J' 1 . Agar main marta if I beat. 
\c (fC*^^ 2. Agar tu marta if thou beat* 
3. Agar wuh marta if he beat. 
Fem. marti. 

Mame to beat* 

. 1^ 

Mama to beat. 



Singular, or Uninflected. I Inflected, or Plural. 

Marta or marta hiia, 1 Marte or marte hue 6«i^«n. 

Mar4 or mara hiia, | Mare or mare hue beaten. 

Past Indefinite*^ 
Mar, mare, mar ke, mar kar, mar kar ke, mar kar kar having 


The intransitive verbs are conjugated in the same 
manner as the preceding, with the exception of the 
perfect tense and its formatives, viz. the perfect defi- 
nite and pluperfect. 




Of a Regular Intransitive verhy in the Jctive Voice. 

Ckalnd To move. To go. 
Indicatiyb Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Move. . 


1. Main chalta / move. 

2. Tu chalta thou movest. 

3. Wuh chalta he moves. 
Fein, chaltu 


1. Ham chsXte toe move. 

2. Turn chalte ye move. 

3. We chalte they move. 
Chaltin or chaltian. 

Present Definite. 
Am moving. 

1. Main chalta hun / am mov* 

% Tu chalta hai thou art mov^ 

3. Wuh chalta hai he is mov^ 



1. Ham chalte hail} fre are moo- 


2. Turn chalte ho you are mov- 


3. We chalte haii) they are mov^ 


The feminine chalti in the singular and the plural. 

Was moving. 


1. Main chalta tha / was mov- 


2. Tu chalta tha thou wast 


3. Wuh chalta tha Ae ti;ae 19101?- 

Fern, chalti thi. 


1. Ham chalte the we were 


2. Turn chalte the ye were 


3. We chalte the they were 

Chalti ihiQ. 





1 . Main chala / moved. 

2. Tu chala thou movedst. 

3. Wuh chala he moved. 
Fern. Chali. 


1 . Ham chale tve moved. 

2. Turn chale you moved. 

3. We chale they moved. 
Chalin or chali4n. 

^^ 'yA^ 1. Main chala hun / have 
^ \^' vnoved. 
^'^'''t^ .^|2. Tuchalahai^AowAa^^moved. 
ulrT' \ ^(^) 3. Wuh chala hai he has moved. 

Perfect Definite. 
Have moved. 


1« Ham chale hain toe have 

2. T^xxmcYx^XeYioyouhavemoved. 

3. We chale haio they have 
I moved. 


Fem. chali in singular and plural. 
Had moved. 


1. Main chala tha / had 


2. Tu chali thA thou hadat 

8. Wuh chala tha AeAadffKwed. 

Fem. Chali thi. 


1. Ham chale the we had 


2. Tum chale the you had 


3. We chale the ^AeyAod moved. 

Chali thin. 

Shall or will move. 


1. Maio chalungi / shall or 

will move. 

2. Tu chalegi thou shalt or 

wilt move. 

3. Wuh chalega he shall or 

will move. 


1. Ham chalenge we shaU or 

will move. 

2. Tum chaloge you shall or 

will move. 

3. We chalonge they shall or 

will move. 

Fem. chalungi &c. changing a and e to i throughout. 




1. Main chaldn let me move* 

2. Tu chal move thou. 
3« Wuh chale let him move. 

Imperative Mood. 




1. Ham chalen let tu move* 

2. Turn chalo move ye or you. 

3. We chalen lei them move% 

The feminine and the masculine both alike. 


Chalye he or one should move. I Chalyo he^ you^ or they should 

\ move. 
Potential Mood. 

Mayj might, should, or would move. 


1. Main chalun / may move. 

2. Tu chale thou mayest move. 

3. Wuh chale he may move. 


1 . Ham chalen we may move. 

2. Turn chalo you may move, 

3. We chalen they may move. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Move J Had moved. 
Singular. I Plural. 

1 • Agar main chalti if I move. 

2. Agar tu chalta if thou move. 

3. Agar wuh chalta if he move. 
Fem. chalti. 

Agar ham chalte if we move. 

2. Agar tum chalte t/^oti99tov6. 

3. Agar we chalte if they move. 
Chaltin or chaltiaQ. 

Indicative Mood. 

Chalna to move. 

Chalne to move. 



Singular and Unmflected. 
Chalta, chalti hua. 

Inflected or PluraL 
Chalte, chalte hue. 



Chal&, chali hda. 

I Chale, chale hue mwed. 

Cbal, chale, chalke,chal kar, chal karke, chal karkar having moved. 


Of a Regular Verb^ in the Passive Voice. 

Mdrd jdndy To be beaten. 
Indicativb Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Am beaten. 


1. Ham mare jate t<;6 are beat" 

2. Turn mare jate youare beat^ 

3. We mare jate they are beat-- 


1. Main mara ja4 / o^ beat^ 


2. Tu mara jata thou art beat- 


3. Wuh maia j&ta he is beat- 

Fern, marijatf. 


Present Definite. 

Am being beaten^ 

Singular. Plural. 

1. Main mara jata hiin I am 1. Ham mare jate hain we are 
being beaten. being beaten. 

2. Tu mdra jat4 hai thou art 

being beaten. 

3. Wuh mara jdtS hai he is 

being beaten. 

2. Tum mare jate ho you are 

being beaten. 

3. We mare jate hain they are 

being beaten. 

Fern, mari j4ti throughout; the rest the same. 



Wets then beaten. 


1 . Main mara jata tha Itoa^ then 


2, Tu mart jati tha thou wast 

then beaten. 
3* Wuh miri jata th& he was 
then beaten. 
Fern, marl jati thi. 


1. Ham m&re j&te the we were 

then beaten. 

2. Turn mfire jate the you were 

then beaten. 

3. We m&re j&te the they were 

then beaten, 
M&ri jati thiQ. 

Woe beaten. 


1. Main mara gayd / was beat- 


2. Tu mara gaya thou wast 


3. Wuh mara gaya he was 

Fern, man gayi. 


1. Ham m&re gae we were beat" 

2. Turn miie gae you were 

3. We mare gae ^Aey were beat- 


Perfect Definite. 
Have been beaten. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 . Main mara gayi huii / have 

been beaten. 

2. Tu mara gaya hai thou hast 

been beaten. 

3. Wuh mara gay& hai he has 

been beaten. 

1. Ham mare gaye haio we have 

been beaten. 

2. Tum mare gaye ho you have 

been beaten. 

3. We m&re gaye hain they have 

been beaten. 

Fern, mari gayi in both numbers. 




1. Main mar4 gaya tba I had 

been beaten* 

2. Tu mara gayi tha thou 

hadst been beaten. 

3. Wuh mard gaya th& he had 

been beaten. 
Fein, man gayi thi. 


Had been beaten. 


1. Ham maregaye the we had 
be^m beaten. 

2. Tum mare gaye the you had 
been beaten. 

3. We mara gaye the they had 
been beaten* 

Marl gayi thin. 


Shall or will be beaten. 


1. Main mirik ja6ng& / shall o^ 

will be beaten. 

2. Tu mara jawega thou shalt 

or wUt be beaten. 

3. Wuh mari jawega he shall 

or will be beaten. 
Fem. miii jaungi, 4*c. 


1. Ham mare jawenge we shall 

or unll be beaten. 

2. Tum mare jdoge you shall 

or will be beaten. 

3. We mare jawenge they shall 

or will be beaten. 

Imperative Mood. 

1« Main mara jaiin let me be 

2. Tu mara ji be thou beaten. 

3. Wuh mara jawe let him be 



1. Ham mare jawen let us be 


2. Tum mare jao be ye beaten. 

3. We mare jaweQ let them be 





Mare jaye he or one should be 

Mare jijo he, you, or they 
should be beaten. 

Potential Mood. 

il/oy, mighty should or wotUd be beaten. 


1. Main mara jadn / may be 


2. Tu mari jawe thou mayst be 


3. Wuh mara jawe he may be 



1. Ham m&re jawe^ u>e may be 


2. Turn in&re jao you may be 


3. We m&re j&weQ they may be 


Fein, mari &c. 

SuBjUNCTiTB Mood. 
Be beaten or had been beaten. 

1 • Agar main m&ra jata if I be 

2* Agar tu mara jata if thou be 

3. Agar wuh m&rfi j&ta if he be 
Fern, mari jati. 

1« Agar ham m&re j&te if we 
be beaten. 

2. Agar tum mare jdte if you 

be beat^. 

3. Agar we m&re jite if they be 

Mdri jatiQ. 

Infinitivb Mood. 

Uninflected. i Inflected. 

Mara j&na, | Mare jane to be beaten* 


Singular or Uninflected. 
Mara jata or mara jata hu&, 

Inflected or Plural. 
Mire jate or mire jate hde be^ 
ing beaten. 

M&r& gay& or mdra gayd hu&. Mare gaye or mire gaye hue 

been beaten. 


Past Indefinite. 
Maraja, in&raj&ke,m&rfijakar, i M£re j&, mire j&ke, mfire ji- 

I kar having been beaten. 

Intransitives, when used in the passive voice, are 
conjugated in the same manner as mkrk }knk to he beai^ 
en. When, j&na to go^ is applied to the root of the 
verb, and not to the past participle, it has an active 
signification ; as, wuh ham ko mar ]k\k hai he is beat^ 
ing us* 



The moods and tenses of all regular verbs are form- 
ed in the same manner as those of mkrnk to beat. There 
are very few verbs irregular, and those only in the 
perfect tense and its formatives : jknk to go^ makes 
perfect gay& ; karn4 to do^ makes kiy4 ; marn& to diej 
makes vadk ; and bon^ to be^ makes h6a ; which being 
excepted, all verbs may be considered as perfectly 

The indicative mood, as in English, simply declares 
a thing, or asks a question ; as, tu xxkkrik hai thou art 
beatingy or art thou beating ? The tone of the voice 
determines whether it is interrogative or not. 

I'he present tense of the indicative mood is employ- 
ed to express the act in a general sense, without spe- 
cial regard to any particular time ; as, sunnit bihtar 
hai kahne se to hear is (at any time) better than to 

OF VERBS. 41) 

The present definite is generally used to express the 
precise point of time when the action takes place ; it 
is sometimes used with an indefinite and future signi- 
fication ; as, wuh ghar jktk hai he is (now) going home ; 
main jald kh&n^ l&ta hun / am bringing (shall bring) 
the dinner quickly. 

The imperfect tense represents the action as taking 
place at a particular time past ; as, sab us ke farm&n bar- 
Akr the all were (then) obedient to him. 

To prevent mistakes in the use of th& wa^^ and h6& was^ 
which are generally translated by the same word into 
£nglish/and which in many cases appear to be synony- 
mous in their application, it is necessary to pay parti- 
cular attention to the following rule ; thd is used in 
reference to simple existence at a distant time or parti- 
cular place, while hu& is applied to time or circum- 
stances less remote in the sense oi become; as, us mulk 
roen ek p&dsh&h th& there was a king in that country ; 
wuh hairan hiia he was (became) confounded. 

The perfect is like the past tense in English when 
applied indefinitely ; as, tum ne Mkhkyou wrote^ which 
though indefinite as to time^ conveys the idea of a com-* 
plete or perfect action. 

The perfect^ in addition to its common acceptation, 
is sometimes used with a present, and sometimes with 
a future meaning ; as, jo wuh mill, to hami^ri jan rahi ; 
nahin, to gayl if she is founds then my life remains; if 
not, then it is gone. Jo hojk so kk^ what he sows that 
he reaps. Pkni lao bring the water. Lkyk khud&wand / 
have brought it^ sir, (meaning / will bring it immedi- 


It h sometimes applied in an idiomatical mannet ; 
as^ hfik to h6& if it be so, why he it so. 
^^ii' Monosyllables ending in ^ or o take y before tlie 
>^^ ^ n of the perfec t, and change it to e before any- 
other vowels ; as, \kok to bring; perfect singular \kyk; 
\ fem. l&e. Bon& to sow; perf. sing, boy It ; plu. boe ; 
fern. boL 

Dissyllables having a consonant before n£t, and a 
penultimate short vowel followed by a, drop the 
a when the d of the perfect or any vowel follows ; as, 
]ipatQ& to cling to; perf* lipta. Samajhnii to under^ 
stand; perf. samjha ; fut. samjheg&. 

The perfect definite answers to the perfect tense in 
English ; but is sometimes used with adverbs of time iu 
a manner that it cannot be in English ; as, main ne 
\Aikjk h4i 1 have eaten; maiQ kal wah&Q gay& h6n / 
have gone there yesterday ^ for 1 went there yesterday. 

The pluperfect tense corresponds with the pluper- 
fect in English, and represents a thing not only a^ 
past, but as prior to some other event; as, us ke 
pahunchne ke iige main ne jkhat likhk ihklhad written 
my letter before he arrived. 

The future dejinitey or, as it is called by Gramma* 
rians, the Pau1o-post*futurum, is expressed by chlthn4 
to desire, with the past participle of the verb ; as^ wuh 
mar& ch&ht4 hai he is about to die, or will soon die. 
There are also other ways of expressing the same idea; 
as, wuh marne par hai, or wuh marne wallt hai. 

Rftots ending in a or o lake or omit we in the 
future; as, j&n& to go, fut. jligit, j&weg&. Hona to be^ 
fut. hog&, howeg&, hoega. The e of the roots de nk 


tind leiA is dropped before uj as d6ng& I will give, 
16ng^ / will take. 

The imperative mood is confined in its application 
chiefly to the second persons singular and plural. The 
honorific form is often used impersonally ; as, chup 
rah be silent, idhar ko come hither, ham ko muaf kijye 
pardon me. 

The adverb mat is applicable to the imperative mood 
alone, naor nah is applied to it in common with the 
other modes, nahin is never used with it; as mat bhu« 
lyo, or bhulyo mat don^t forget, aisa na kar don^tdo so. 

The imperative mood is sometimes used idioma« 
tically, as in the following expressions : ho to ho per^ 
haps it is, or it must be, ko to ao come if you mean ta 
come, na kh& to mat kh& donU eat if you don^t like. 

The potential mood implies possibility, liberty, or 
obligation ; as &j jo kuchh ho sake wuhi karo whatever 
it is possible to do to^ay, that do ; hamen ummed hai kih 
yih k^m sararvj&m howe our hope is that this business may 
be brought to a conclusion ; jo badsh&h elchi kisi jagah 
bheje ch^hye kih wuh apne qaum men sab se dknk &ur 
zab^n&war ho if a king sends an ambassador to any 
place, it is desirable that he should be the wisest and the 
most eloquent man of his race. 

The c oni unctions kih and t&kih that, agar and jo if ^ 
agarcbih although, jab tak unttl, and mabad& lest, gene^ 
rally require the potential mood after them ; as, agar 
inais ch&hun kih jab tak main k&n wuh thahre to 
tujhe kya if I desire that he should stay till I come, 
what is it to thee? 

When the power of doing a thing is designed to be 
expressed, the verb sakna to be able, is used in all its 


parts, with the root or infinitiTe mood of the principal 
verb ; as, wuh jk nahin sakt& bai, or wuh j&ne nabin 
saktit bai he cannot go. 

Obligation^ or necessity is co mmonly expressed by 
i/e in stead of the regular e of the potential mood ; as, 
tumko wah&n jknk chahye you must go there ; is rki 
makhfi ko kisi Aknk se kahye one for we J must tell this 
profound secret to some wise man. 

The verb bon4 to be, and other intransitive verbs, are 
also employed to express the same idea; as, turn ko 
jknk hai must you go ? turn ko j^na hogit you must 
gOj tum ko likhne hog& you must write, tu'm se likh& 
jaega must you write. ^ 

The future tense may be used definitely or indefi- 
nitely with respect to time, and it admits of no dis- 
tinction for shall ^nd will; as, wuh kwegk he will come, 
ham kal j&wenge we shall go to-morrow. 

In respectful language the future is often employ- 
ed instead of the imperative mood ; it is also occasion- 
ally employed for the potential mood ; as, s^hib in&yat 
karke mujhe ek kitab deng^have the kindness. Sir, to 
give me a book. Main samajht4 h6n kih jo kuchh we 
kahte hain hasad se hogk 1 am thinking that what they 
say may be from envy. 

The second future, or future completive, is formed 
by connecting the word chukn& to finish, with the root 
of the verb ; as, mk\n kh& chuk6nga I shall have eaten.' 
Wuh Wik chukegit he will have eaten, Sfc. 

When a future act is designed to be expressed doubt- 
fully, the present participle of the verb is used with 


the future tense or potential mood of the verb to be; as, 
main mltrl^ hiing^ or hun perhaps I may beat. 

A more distant future of the same nature is express- 
ed by the perfect participle with the verb to be ; as, 
main mara gaja hiing4 or huQ perhaps I shall have 
been beaten. 

The subjunctive mood, as in English, represents a 
thing under a condition or supposition; it is in form 
the same as the present tense of the indicative mood, 
but is distinguished from it in being generally preced- 
ed bj agar or jo i/*, and followed by to then; as, 
agar wuh at&, to kuchh nuqs&n nah botit if he had com€,i\\>^3£^ 
then there would have been no loss; jo maig kaht& 
to meri bat na suntk if I had spoken he would not 
have regarded^ or if I should speak he would not regard. 

The conjunction is frequently omitted in the former 
or latter part of the sentence, and sometimes in both ; 
as, agar main jat& to use ^h6b marta, or main jat4 to 
use ^b6b marta had I gone I would have beaten him 
spundlff ; main hot& ghor& chhutne na ^ktk had I been 
present the horse would not have escaped. 

1 o express the subjunctive mood in a more remote 
manner, the past participle of the principal verb is 
used with the subjunctive form of the verb to be; as, 
agar main ne pinjr& khola hoik, wuh ur na jktk ? if 
I had opened the cage^ would it not have flown ? The 
other forms of the subjunctive are the same as the in 
dicative ; as in these examples : jo main piicbht^ th& wuh 
jaw&b det& th& had I asked^ he would have answered; 
agar main p6chh6ngli to wuh jawab degk if I ask^ he 
will answer. 


The infinitive mood is employed to express a thing 
in an unlimited manner, without any particular refer* 
ence to number, person, or time; as, main bolne 
nahin $akt& I cannot say; we sbor karne lage they be^ 
gan to make a noise. 

When the infinitive is applied as a nominative case, 
nd is used ; when it is governed by another word, ne; and 
often when it governs a feminine noun, ni ; as, sunnlfc 
nahin misl dekhne ki hearing is not like seeing, haai 
ko jane do permit us to go, nashtar par ungli rakhni 
mashkil hai it is hard to put one's Jinger on a lancet. 

The infinitive is often used elliptically for the im- 
perative ; as, hargiz qasm na kh&n^ swear not at all. 
Wah&n mat jan& donH go there, or you must not go 
there, (understand hoga). 

The infinitive is also frequently employed as a ver- 
bal noun ; and with ira, ko, &c. added as a gerund i 
thus, uskk jkn& munasib hm his departure is proper ; 
intiq&m lene k& yihi waqt \m this is the time of or for 
a I L> ^^^^S r^^^^g^9 wuh ghar dekhne ko kjk or wuh ghar 
tpc <^f^()[^ekhne ke w&ste kyk he has come to seethe house. 
i^y^^/^ The pre sent and perfect participles , when they 
^^^[^ allude to time, agree in gender with t he noun whic h 
the y quali^ ; but when they are employed to descri be 
^ the state of the agent or object of the verb , t hey are 
i^J. (It. used only in the inflected form ; as, chir&gh jalta rahli 
"^^"^^ the lamp remained burning ; wuh j^ti rahi she remained 
^iA)^i> or continued going ; we rang barang ki posh&ken pahne 
i^Jv^ h6e n&chti thin they having put on various coloured 
garments, were dancing ; main ne ghore par saw4r bote 
usko dekha / saw him mounted on a horse. 


The present participle is doubled, to express the 
€X>iitinuation or frequency of the act ; as, hamara 
k&m hote hote nah h6k our work being and being tva9 
notj i. e. continuing to be done was not completed. 

The present and perfect participles connected with 
other words are often applied adverbially ; as, subah 
bote when it w€is morning ; sh&m hote when it was even- Sp'^'- 
ing ; mere rahte while I remain; jinke dekhe at the c^^ 
sight of whom ; hmk samjhe without understanding ; c/L^ 1^ 
dete waqt at the time of giving. "^^ ^^iUZ 

The past indefinite participle, by connecting the 
members of a sentence, saves the use of conjunctions ; 
it commonly agrees with the agent, sometimes with the 
object of the verb ; as, 4j wah&n j&kar ham&ri kit4b. 
lekar phir &o going there to^ay^ and bringing my book^ 
return ; is kkm men jaldi karke mujhe yih pashemlmi 
b6i hai this disgrace has come upon me (through) makm 
ing haste in this business. 

We shall close these observations with a few general 
rules on the concord and government of the verbs. 

A verb must agree with its nominative case in 
gender, number, and person ; as^ wuh kahta hai he is 
speakingy yih khabar pahunchi hai this news has arrived, 
we gae hain they have gone. 

When several nouns of different genders occur in a 
sentence, the verb takes the masculine plural in pre* 
ference to the feminine ; as, uske m& b&p bhai tinos 
uski shkdi ki fikr men the his father, mother, and bror^ 
ther were all three meditating the accomplishment of his 
marriage; uske h^hi, 6nt, gari \kde jkte haig hisele^ 
phant, camel, and carriage are loaded. 


Two nouns in the singular number^ coupled by a 
copulative conjunction, take a verb in the singular 
number agreeing with the one to which it stands near- 
est ; as^abhi bail aur ghori pahuncha hai the bullock and 
horse have just now arrived; klfhir k&r fareb ka zillat o 
rusnai hai the end of deceit is ruin and infamy, 

A number of inanimate things, taken collectively, 
may have a singular verb, whilst one rational being 
spoken of with respect may have a plural; as, usne 
sau riipiyah diyk by him a hundred rupees were given ; 
kp kah&n tashrif lej&te ha in where are you going? 
hkdshkh yih denge the king will give this; munasib 
nahie kih jahkn panlth kjiii karen it is not proper that 
your majesty should submit. •^ 

Sometimes a verb singular agrees with an infinitive 
mood or member of a sentence for its nominative case ; 
as in the following example: dunyli ke witste bahut mih« 
nat karnk filw&qi ziy&dah daurnit hai na chiz par to do 
much for this world is in fact much-ado about nothing. 

Sometimes a verb plural is used without a nomina« 
tive case, some such word as they or men being un- 
derstood ; as in this example : ek talw^r se saikron ko 
mkrte hain men kill thousands with one sword. ^ 

W hen two different persons occur in a sentence, the 
verb agrees with the first person in preference to the 
second, and with the second in preference to the third ; 
as, ham turn j^wenge we and you will go j turn we 
j&oge you and they will go. 

In quoting any phrase, or relating any circumstance, 
the pronouns are not changed, as in Englisli, but are 
given as they were stated or spoken at the time; as^ usne 

OF VBRB8. A 7 

kah&, kih main nah jhAngk, he saidi ^ I will not go.* 
In English it would be, he said he would not go^ 

In negative sentences the nominative case commonly 
a|orrees with the verb understood; as, zulm teri sh&n Ice Ab 
l&iq nahin cruelty (is) not becoming your dignity. 

The verb to he^ and verbs of naming or calling, may 
have two nominative cases before them ; as, wuh sard&r 
hai, he is the chief , wuh Sikandar kahl&t& hai, he is called 

Active or transitive verbs govern the objective case ; 
aSy usko mere p&s llto, bring him to me ; main usko 
tarbiyat kardnga, / will educate him. The preposition 
tain with the genitive is often used in conversation 
after active verbs instead of the objective case; as, us- 
ke mush ke tain dekho, see his face. The genitive too 
without the preposition is often used instead of the 
objective before a compound verb; as, is b&t ki yad rakbo 
remember this word. 

Causal verbs, verbs of clothing, givinjif, &c. may be 
considered as governing two accusative cases, or the 
accusative and the dative^ both being alike ; as, larke- 
ko khknkkhilkk^iT ghnr jko^ having given the child food 
go home; use yih kapr& pahn&o, put on him these clothes; 
usko ek rupiyah do, give him a rupee. 

Some neuter verbs, as knk to come^ bann& to become^ 
to Jit^ \A\kxkk to suity parna /oy<i//,'pahunchn& to arrive, 
phabnii to become, ch^hnlt to be desirable, rahn& to re* 
main^ sdjhn& to appear, lagna to unite, milna to meet, 
and honk to be, govern the dative case, and are fre- 
quently used impersonally; as, mujhe rahm ktk hai, 
/ feel compassion; mujhe is blit mcQ shubhah hai, / 


have some doubt in this matter; hamko chlthye kih wa- 
hkn jiwen, it is desirable that we should go there. 

Verbs meaning to sell or implying gain have hkth 
f hand J connected with them; as, tumne kiske hkih 
becha hai, to whom have you sold it? Wuh kkm bahut 
mihnat se hkih kjk, that point was gained with great 
difficulty: us kk ek ph61 tolifah hkth kyk he gained a 
Jlower as his prize. 

Verbs which in English require with^ ffomy or by^ 
after them, govern the ablative, and those which require 
in^ within^ into, the locative case; as, bihtar jih hai, 
kih uski dosti ke wasile se dushmanoQ ke h&th se 
chh6t6n, this is better, that by means of his friendship I 
should escape from the hand of the enemies; wuh kpne 
ghar men j&kar dil men sochne lag^ going into his house 
he began to think within himself. 

Verbs of fear and caution require the ablative case; 
as, sh&yad wuh tum se dart& hai^ perhaps he is afraid 
of you. 







Of Indeclinable Words. 

(1) Adverbs. 

The following are some of the principal adverbs, 
arranged according to the subjects of time^ place, &c« 

0/ Time. 


Ab now. 

Ab tab presently, 

Ab talak till now. 

Aj to-day. 

Akhir at last. 

Al ^al at this ttme^ presently. 

M ^\ Ek bar, ek dafi^h oneSy one time. 

Barbar, barhi often. 

Bare once. 

Bilfel immediately. 

Parson two days ago. 

Phir again. y^: 

Ta to, wntil' 

Tab to then. 

Tab talak till then^ so long. 

Tarson three days ago. 

Tak, talak up to^ until. 

WabiQ ewactly then. 

Jab, jiswaqt when^ since. 

Jab tak whilst. 

Jab ka tab at the time when. 

Jab kabhi whenever.. 

Jab na tab perpetually. 

Jaldiy turt quickly^ soon. 

Jonhin ewactly when. 
Jyon jyon at what time. 
Tyon tyoQ at that time. 
Roz ros, daily. [ing. 

Sawere, taf ke early in the morn- 
Shabi shab by night. 
Farda to-morrow. 
Filfaur, filf^il immediately. 
Kab when f 
Kab tak how long f 
Kabse since when f 
Kabhi kabhi, kabhu some time^ 

Kabhi na kabhi, gfih g&he some // (t 
Hme or other. ^^^ """^ 

Kabhi nahin never. 

Kal to-morrowy yesterday. 

Waqt ba waqt from time to 

Waqt be waqt constantly. 

Waqt VL& waqt occasionally^ 

Hargix ever. 

Ham^shah, hamwarah, dam ba 
dam always. 




t I ■* 



Idhar hither. 

Udhar thither. 

Aur kahin somewhere else. 

Bhitar, dardn within, 

Tahin there. Lj 





Tidhar thither. 
Jidhar whither. 

Jidhar tidhar hither and thi- 
Jahaii where. 
Jah&n jahan wherever. 
Jahan tahan here and there- 
Jahan kahin wherever. 
Dar kinar aside. . IjJ j <^ 

Zer belowj under. 
S&mhne, rii ba ru before. 
AUhidah apart, separately. 

Of Quality. 

Achanak, nagah suddenly. ^ 
Asian by no means. ^ [/^ 
Aghlab most likely. 
Ak^ax for the most part. 
Albattah truly, indeed. 
Algharz, alqissah in short. 
Alag alag, juda juda separately. 
Ahiste gently, slowly. 
Aisa, waisa thus, so. 
Bas enough. 
Bale yes, right. 
Bahut much* 
Tale lipar upside down. 

Of Place. j^l 

Aqab at tHe heel, behind*^ 
Qabl before. L3 

Kidhar whither f 
I E idhar se whence f 
Kahan where t 
Kah&n se whence. 
Kahin somewhere. 
Kahin nahin nowhere. 
Kahin na kahin somewhere or 

Wahan there. 
Wahiu exactly there. 
Har kahin, hargah every where. 
Yahan here. 
Yahin exactly here. 
Yahan tak to this time or pitch. 

Jaz, alawah hesi des. 

Jaisa, taisfi as, so. 

Jaisa taisa as well as. 

Jaisek& taisa exactly the same. 

Jyon, joe» jyonkar as. 

Tyon, ton, tyogkar so. 

Jyon tOQ, jon ton some how 

or other* LjS^ 

Chagdnah, kaif hawf * 
Chananchih so that, like as. 
^asb agreeable to. 
^aqau, l^aqiqatau really. 
Blaq na Ijiaq right or wrong. 


' I -' 




i;i> "■■•■■' 



Khasusan particularly. 
Khwah nah khwah willing or 

Ziyadah more. 
Sach truly. 
Samet together with. 
Shayad perhaps. 
Sirf only. ~ J)/^ 

j^qlau prudently. 
Ghaliban chiefly^ most likely. 
Ghair, ba ghair besidesy eivcept. 
Faqat only^ simply. 
Filjumlah upon the whole. 
Qarib nearly^ almost. 
Kash would that. /j^**J 
Kyon or kyun whyf 

I J Iv ^^ Negation 

Mabada lest^ God forbid. 
Mat do not. 

Mutlaqan not at atlj entirely. 
Na, nah, nahin, na noj not. 



Kyon kar how 9 

Kyon nah ho why not f 

Labud necessarily. 

Ldjarm undoubtedly. 

Masewa, mawara besides^ more-- , 

over. Iii^ (yf^ 

Miglan for example. J 
M uft gratuitously. 
Nipat very^ only. 
Nihayat ewceedingly. 
Waghairah et aetera. 
Wiin in that manner. 
Y^ne viz. namely. 
Yon, yon kar in this manner. 

Yon nah yoii in one way or 

and Affirmation. 

Han, hun yes. 
Ho to ho t^ may be. 
Ho nah ho it must be. 
Hi, i emphatic expletives* 


(a) Prepositions. 

Prepositions are of two kinds: those which govern the 
masculine, and those which govern the feminine pos- 
sessive case. 

These prepositions govern the masculine possessive 

case : • / , 

Age before. Baig by reason of. c->^ • 

Andar within. Badal instead of. 

U^par above. Biddn without^ except. 



«• • 




Bar&bar eqtial toj apporiie to. 

Barae /or. 

B^d after. 

Baghair without^ ewcept, 

Bich in or among- 

Par over. 

Pas by, near. 

Pichhe behind. 

Tale under, beneath. 

Tain to. 

Kharij without y outside. 

Darmiyan between, among% 

Sath with. 

8amhne before. 

Sabab by reason. 


Sew& ewcept. 

fwai instead, for. 

Qabl 6e/ore. U3 

Qarib near. ^ 

Kane fi^ar, ti^t^A. 

Gird round, around. 

Liye for, on account of 

M&re through (in a bad sense,) 

Mutabiq conformable to. 

Muwafiq according to. 

Miijib by means of 

Nazdik near. 

Niche under, beneath. 

Was{e/or, on account of. 

Hath in the power of. 

The preposition nazdik near, appears sometimes to 
be used, in such a manner as to render it little more 
than an expletive to a foreigner; as, mere nazdik 
sal&h yih hai near me the advice is this, or this is my 

The following prepositions govern the feminine 
possessive case : 

Babat respecting, concerning. 
Badaulat by means of. [of. 
Jihat on account of, on the side 
Khatir /or the sake of 

TaraljL after the manner of 
Taraf towards. 
M^rifat by or through. 
Nisbat relative to. 

Besides the above prepositions, the following Arabic 
and Persian prefixes are occasionally employed : 


Ilia except. 

B, Ba, bah with, into. 

Be without. 

Bar on, in. 

Barae /or. 

Bin, bina, bila without. 
Dar in. . . 

Ali upon^ {^^ 
An from. C^ 

Ind near. 



K according to, 
L tOyfor. 

M^ with. 



(3) Conjunctions. 

The conjunctions are divided by the Natives into 
various classes, but they are here enumerated without 
regard to such distinctions. 

Azbaskih since, for as muchaa. 

Agar if. 

Agarchih although. 

Ammi but, moreover. {j* I 

Aur, wa and, also. 

Balkih but. 

Bhi also, indeed. 

Par but, yet. 

Fas then, therefore. 

To then. 

Jabtak until, while. 

Jo if, when., 

Halankih whereas, notwith^ 

Khwih either, or. 

Kih or ki that, because, than, 

Kyunkih or kyonki because. ^ ^ 
Gokih although. ^ y 

Goya as if. 
Lekin 6ti^. 

Magar ewcept, unless. 
Nahin to, otherwise* ^* T^Y^ 

Niz also, likewise* ^ r^ 

Wax for wa agar and if. 
Warnah and if not, unless. ^ J ' 
Har-chand although, wherever* 
Ham also, likewise. 
Hanoz yet. 
Yi or, either. 

The conjunction kih, in addition toits being employed 
in all the senses above stated, is also sometimes used as 
a relative pronoun ; as, jo aziyat, kih ham ko pahunche 
hai, khatir men nah \kon let us not mind the trouble 
which has come upon us; dknk wuh hai, kih k&mse 
pahle anj&m kkr ko sochhe he is a wise man, who before 
the commencement thinks of the end of his work. 



(4) Intrrjbctions. 
The follo\^in<j^ are a few of the principal interjec- 

tions : 

Afsos, Haif alas ! O sad ! 
Ai, are, ya O ! oh ! 
Bapre astonishing ! 
Chakhe, chal chakhe begone I 
Dur begone ! 
Khabardar have a care! 


Shabash, afrin well done ! 

Kya khub, kya bat hai, wah wah 

Lo lo ! look ! 
Mar^aba hail! 
W£, wae, wawaila wo ! 
Wae, hae, haebae alas! 
Hat/y, begone ! 



Of Derivative and Compound Words. 

(1) Of Nouns. 

Derivative and compound nouns are principally 
those of agency, instrumentality^ and locality ; ver- 
bals, abstracts^ and diminutives. 

Nouns of Agency. 

These are formed by adding wdld or hdrd to the infi- 
nitive mood of verbs, or to nouns; as, lakarh^ra a 
wood'Cuiterj kh&new41a an eater, sunnewala a hearer. 

They are also formed by adding to nouns the fol- 
lowing terminations : _ ^ 

Ban to dar a door, darban udoor-keeper. /^ c^^ 

Baz to murgh a cock, murghbaz a cock-fghter. 

Bar to rah a road, rahbar a guide. 

Bardar to nishan a flag, nishdnbardar a standard hear-- 


Band to n%l a horse-shoe, n^lband a farrier. 

Chi to tambiir a drum, IsmhmcYd a drummer^ 

Dar to zamin land, zamindar a land-holder. 

R to Bdnigold, sdnar a goldsmith. 

Kar to bad evil, badkar an evil-doer. 

Gar to sauda trade, saudagar a merchant. 

Gar to gunah sin, gunahgir a sinner. 

Go to dardgh a lie, dar6ghgo a liar. 


War to ghat a wharf, ghajwar a wharfinger. 

Wan /o gati a cart, gariwin a carter. 

X to dhob a washing, dhobi a washerman. 


Instrumental Nouns. 


These signify the thing by which the action may 
be performed, and are derived from verbal roots by 

An as bd to roll, belan a rolling pin. 

Na as ram to play or sporty ramna a park. 

Ni as katar to clip^ katarni a pair of scissors. 

W as jhay to sweep^ jhiru a broom. 

They are also formed from noons by affixing 

AI as ghafi an houvy ghacial an hour bell.. 

Anah as dast the hand, dastanah a glove. 

Ak as chashm the eye, chashmak spectacles. 

Ah as dast the hand, dastah a handle. 

Nouns of Locality. 
These are formed by uniting two nouns together ; as, 

Abad a city^ Haider, Haiderabad the dty of 


Bapi, wap a garden^ phul ajtower, phulwa|:i ajlower gar^ 


Piir a city, Ghazi, Ghazipur Ghazlp^r. 

fi Kh&nah a placCf bawarchi a cook, bawarchi khanah a 

t cook-room. 

Zit multitude^ lalah a tulip^ lalahzar a tulipied. 

Sal or sala a placcy gho|ra a horsey ^ ghorasdl a stable. 

Staa a places qabr a grave^ /^ qabrstan a burying 

^ ground. 

Shan a place, gul a rose, gulshan a rose-bower. 

Gah a placCy aram rest, iramgah a resting 





_ z*^ 







Abstract nouns are formed chiefly from adjectives 
bj affixing some termination to them ; as, 

A to garm warm, 
Ta, ti <o kam little. 

garmi warm^weather. 
kamti deficiency. 

Pa, pan, or pan& to la; kd a cAtM, la^kapan childhood. 


mithas sweetness. 
sa^tgiri ewtortum. 

tizgi freshness. 
unchan height, 
burai badness. 

- ^ 

S to mitha sweety 

Gin to sakht hard, 

Gi /o tazah fresh^ 

N ^0 lincha At^A, 

I to bura 6ad, ^'Tj^^^^,, y 

Hat ^0 karwa frt^^er, \^ r ^^1^^^^^ bitterness. 

To nouns ^ is frequently added to form abstracts 
as, kdtui a man, adoiiyat humanity ; hukm a command^ 
hukumat dominion. 

• Some abstracts are formed by a repetition of the 
word^ i/vith a slight alteration in the last ; as, jhutb mfith 


Verbals are either the same as the verbal root ; as, 
bol speech, chkh desire, &c. ; or they are formed from it 
by adding other terminations ; as, 

kahi a saying. f 

bo&i a sowing, ^T ^ ^ 

milap a mimng or union 

A to kah speak, 
Ki to ho sow, 
A-p to mil miWf 
As to, pi drink. 
An to lag apply, 
Ish to dan know. 
An to jal burn, 

pias desire to drink, thirst. 
Iag4n an applying. 
danish knowledge.. 
jalan a burning. 





W& to bhuia deceive^ 
Wat to saj& preparCf 
Ki to khel feed^ 
Hat to bali cally 

bhul&wa a deception. 
sajawat preparation. 
khelii a feeding. 
balahat a calling. 

The infinitives of the verbs are commonly employed 
as verbal nouns ; as, karnii a doings boln& a saying. 
Some are formed by doubling the perfect tense of the 
verb, and altering the last syllable ; as, kah&kabi alter^ 
cationj m&r&mari scuffle^ &c. 


These are formed from other nouns, by adding to 
them various terminations ; as, 

A to beti a daughter ^ 
j^f^Lr^*^^^ ^^ chah to deg a cauldron, 
tk^ ^jjL Ri to palang a bedstead, 
Ak to top a cannon, 
W& tomard a man, 
Oti or iti to harn a deer, 
I1& or a to mor a peacock, 
Ichah to bagh a garden. 


bitiya a little daughter. 
degchi a kettle. 
palangri a small bedstead, 
topak a musket. 
mardw& a poor wretch* 
hamota a fawn. 
morila a pea-chicken. 
baghichah a kitchen garden. 

(2) Of Adjectives. 

Derivative Adjectives are of two kinds, negative and 
positive. The negative ones are obtained, by prefix- 
ing to different words these terminations : 

An to bona to be, anhona impossible. 

Be to sabr patience, besabr impatient. 

Bad to nam a name, badnam infamotis. 

Ghair to hizir present, ghairhazir absent. 

Khilaf to aql wisdom. khiIaf-^1 foolish. 


Kam io bakht fortune, kambakht tm/ortunate. 

La to chdrah help, lacharah helpless* 

Hi to khiish plec^ed, na^hush displeased. 

Bd prefixed does not negative the word ; as, \A waft 

The positive ones are formed by affixing the follow* 
ing terminations ; as, i^ ^ ' 

A tohYi^cish hunger y ^^ hMkhi hungry^ IjjjH^ 

Anah to tifal a child, *^;2>^ childish. ^^ , f/jji? 

Awr to aor strength, sor&war strong. ^ 
Band to hathyar arms, liathy&rband armed. 

Dir to \fa& fidelity, yfv&Aix faithful j'^^V Jk 

Zi to vaayat foreign country, vil4yata4 foreign-born. / ^ S^A W*^ 

Sar to koh a mountain, kohsar mountainous. S^^^J^ 

Gfr ^o dil /A^A^ar/, dilgir grieved. y"*^^ ^ ♦ 

Gin ^o gham sorrow, ghamgin sorrowful. jM^ 

|ja or lo ifo pichhi behind, pichhla hindermost. 0^'' 
Mjgd <o d*^i*tJ^^J^ ^^^ ^^dawl^and wealthy. 

Nak to hawl terror, hawlnak terrible. ( ij A^jir 

y/ to didar view, eidirn sightly. lJ // ^»^ 

War to sog ^frt c/, sogwar grievous. 1 J ) 

War to nim nafn^, namwar renowned. ) " 

Ah to dosal /tro year*, dosalah biennial. _ .x.^>«^ 

f to hizia a market, bazari o/ the market. n tJ^'^^' "^ i^ 

lya, iyari, or tia to bakheya ^ w*^- " 


contention, bakhepya conton/iou^. / ^pp^. 

El or el& to dant /oott, dantel tusked. ^V 

In, inah or yinah to chob trood. chobin tooocf«n« ^ «>^ 

jFrfm and giin are added to words to denote colour ; as, 
z&fran ft m saffron-coloured, nilg6n blue-coloured. Kond 
and goshah are added to numerals, to express the 
figure of things ; as, chaukona quadrangular, sh&shgo- 



shah hexagimal^ &c. Wa$h and wdr are added to ex- 
press likeness ; as, barq wash like lightnings mard&nah 
w&r like brave men. 

In addition to the compounds included in the 
foregoing sections, there are various other compound 
nouns and adjectives, which are formed chieflj bj the 
union of two nouns, or of a noun and adjective ; as, 

Bamin aecurityj m&lz&min a bail* 

dan a container, qalamdin a pen ca9e. 

qatar a row, 'Jj shutarqat&r a camel 

' herd. 

b&til vain, 
posh covering f 

Mai wealthy 
Qalam a pen, 
Shutar a camely 

Khiyal /ancj^, 
Palang a bed. 

Ithatir the hearty jwnf oollectiony 

Dil the hearty 
Mai wealthy 
^lJi) Sukhan a wordy 
{jJT Khiish pleasinffy 

chor a thief y 
mast drunky 
ras arriving aty 
taqrir orationy 

khiyalbatil whim* 
palangposli a eoun* 

kh&tirjam^ collected, 

dilchor inattention. 
m&lmast pureeproud* 
sukhanras eloquent. 
^hiish taqrir eloquent* 

To compound nouns a participial adjective is some- 
times added^ and the word formed by it may be consi- 
dered as an adjective^ or as a denominative noun ; thus, 
mal mardam khor eating the property of another man, 
or one who borrows and never pays. 

(3) Of Verbs. 

Derivative verbs are formed from nouns, adjectives^ 
and other verbs ; as, 

,^ J HbUi^ argumentatumy h^UxBAxA to dispute* 

J/ "^ Thuk spittlcy thukni to spit. 

Samajh understanding^ samajhni to understand. 


Tars fwerojr, r>^/^ tarasna to long ; to pity. 

Jurna to be joined^ jorna to join. 

Katna to he cutj cut. 

Bandhna to be bounds bandhna to bind. 

The most useful class of derivatives are those deno- 
minated causals: they are formed by adding k to the 
verbal root ; as, 

fiolnd to speaks bolini to call. 

Dauina to run^ daurana to make run. 

Sunna to heavj sunnana to cause to hear. 

Chamakna to shine^ chamkana to make to glitter. 

Samajhna to understand, samjhina to cause to under* 


Latakna to hang up, latkana, to make hang. 

Roots ending with a long vowel take Id and shorten 
the vowel ; as, 

* Ehana to eaty kh3&n& to feed. 

Dena to give, dilana to cause to give. 

Dhona to wash, dhul&na to make wash. 

llona to weep, rulaaa to make weep. 

Kabn4 to speak, makes kahl&n4/o he spoken or called. 

Sometimes Id is changed to a/, and in neuter verbs 
wd is occasionally inserted, to give the verb an addition* 
a! meanings as, pai^hni to enter, pai^h&lnii to cause to 
enter; jaln& to be /lo^, jal4n4 to 6Mrn, jalw&na to cause 

to burn. 

From the above examples it will readily be perceiv- 
ed, that monosyllables become dissyllables when made 
causals, and that dissyllables remain such by dropping 
the (0 or last vowel of the verbal root when d is added. 


A is the in6exion most commonlj used in the formation 
of causal yerbs : Id and wd seem to be substituted 
chief! J for the sake of euphony. 

Compound verbs are of various kinds ; the follow- 
ing are the principal ones, ^hen the compound is 
formed^ onlj the last part of it admits of conjugation, 
and this is the same as in simple verbs. 


These are formed by uniting with the verb a noun 
or adjective ; as, b4t karnk to converse^ mol len& to pur- 
chase, chbot4 karn& to shorten. Ex. U.sne babut hurk 
k&m kiy4 hai, he has done a very bad thing. 

3. Imtbnsitives. 
These are obtained by uniting one verb with the 
root of another ; as, khkjknkto eat up, hojknk to become, 
ixkkxAkhikto destroy totally, gir parna /oy*a// down. 
Ex. Wuh h^thi par se gir par& he fell from off the e/e- 

3. Potentials. 

These are formed by adding saknk to be able, to a 
verbal root, or to the infinitive mood of the verb ; as, 
kh& sakn& or kh&ne sakn& to be able to eat, chal sakn& 
to be able to walk. Ex. Maig &j kuchh kh& nahifi sak- 
tk I cannot eat any thing to^ay. 


These add chukn& to be^nished, to ^ verbal root; as, 
khit chukna to finish eating, pi chukn4 to finish drinking, 
kah iAi\xkji\k to finish speaking. Ex« Wuh khitna kha 
chuk& bai, he has finished his dinner. 


5. Desideratives. 

These are formed by adding the verb ch&hn& to desire^ 
to the past participle of another verb ; as, likhlt ch&hn& 
to wish to write, jkjk chahn&;/o desire togo^iMLrk chahnii, 
to desire to die. In compounds, Jay^ and mardare em- 
ployed, instead of the irregular forms gayd and miid. 
Ex. Wuh tumblire pas jaj4 chahta bai, A^ desires, oris 
upon the point of going to you. 

6. Frequentatives. 

These add karn£t to do, to the past participle of 
another verb, and generally signify the habit of doing 
a thing ; as, kyk karn&, to make a practice of coming, 
ja}& karn&, to make a practice of going, chauki kiylt 
karna, to make a practice of watching. Ex. Wuh hame- 
shah mere p&s kyk kart& hai, he is constantly coming to 

Sometimes another verbis employed instead of kar* 
nk to do ; as, is kam men |^hub tammul kiy& ch&hiye> we 
must think seriously on this subject, 


These are formed by adding jan& to go and rahnli to 
remain, to the present particle of another verb ; as, ro« 
tkjknk, to continue weeping, parhtlt rahn&, to continue 
reading. Ex. j^ui*at qabrist&n men rotf j&ti thi, the 
woman was going to the burying^ground, weeping. 

8. Statisticals, 

These prefix the inflected form of the present partici- 
ple to another verb ; as, rote daurn&, to run weeping, 


1. e. in a weeping condition. Ex. Wub warqon ko 
ultate j^ta bai, he is doing nothing but turning over the 

9. Reitkratites. 

These are a repetition of the same verb, with some 
trifling alteration in the last: they are an exception to 
the general rule, being conjugated alike in both parts; 
as, boln& ch&ln&, to converse, dekhna bhalna, to see. Ex. 
Wub apna hisab dekhta parht4 hai, he is examining 
his accounts. 

10. Double Compounds. 

These are formed bj adding to two verbal roots tbe 
verb karn& to do; as, khk pi karn&, to eat and drink. 
Ex. Wuh nah& dhokar kyk^ he having bathed and 
washed himself, came. 

What are called Inceptives» Permissives, Acquisi. 
tives, &c. are not properly compound verbs, since they 
consist regularly of two verbs, the one governed hy 
the other in the infinitive mood; as, sikhne laglt, he be^ 
gan to learn, jkue diy&, he gave permission to go^ jane 
p^ya, he obtained perrnission to go. 



y £>o ^uraten ek la^ke ke wiste fipas men jhagpa karti thin, aur 

y\ v gA^ah nahin rakhtin. Donon qazi ke pas gain, aur insaf ch&hin. 

Qazi ne jallad ko bul4ya,aur farmaya, ki Is l&^ke ke do tukre kar,ek 

ek donon ko de. Ek ^urat yih bat sunte hi chup ho rahi, dusri ne 

I % fariyad shurq ki, ki mere larke ke do tukre mat kar, larke ko mail} 

* / nahin chahti hiin. Qasi ko yaqin hda, ki larke ki ma yihi hai, la^rke 

ko use supard kiya, aur dusri ko k(»e mar ke nikal diy&. 

Do two^ a numerical adjective, agreeing with the noun following. 
See p. 22. 

Auraten toomen^ a common noun of the second declension, femi- 
nine gender, third person plural, nominative case to the verb 
jhagra karti thin. It might have been in the singular number. 
See p. 14. 

Ek ouBy a numerical adjective, agreeing with the following noun. 
See p. 22. 

Liarke ke child^ a common noun of the first declension, masculine 
gender, third person singular, possessive case. See p. 15. 

Waste /or, a preposition, governing the masculine possessive case. 
See p. 62. 

Apas men be^treen^Aem^e/t^e^, a reciprocal pronoun, locative case. 
See p. 26. 

Jhagra karti thin were quarrelling^ a compound verb, from 
jhagra kamd, indicative mood, imperfect tense, third person plu- 
ral, agreeing with the nominative case ^uraten. See p. 55. 

Aur andy conjunction, coupling the preceding verb with the fol* 
lowing one. See p. 19* 

Gawah evidence^ a common noun of the first declension, mascu- 
line gender, third person singular, objective case, governed by 
the verb following. See p. 18. 

L 2 


Nahin noi^ an adverb of negation. See p. 61. 

Bakhtin did place or give^ a regular tranaitiye verb, active voice, 

indicative mood, imperfect tense (thin being understood), third 

person plural, agreeing with the nominative case ^uraten. See p. 55. 

Dooo bothy an adjective pronoun of the indefinite kind, agreeing 

with ^uraten understood, nominative case to the verb gain. 
Qazi ke thejudge^ a common noun of the first declension, singular 
number, possessive case, governed by the postposition pas. See 
p. 15. 
Pis tOy a preposition governing the masculine possessive case. See 

p. 62. 
GaiQ fjoevty an irregular intransitive verb, of the indicative mood,, 
perfect tense, third person plural, feminine gender, agreeing 
with the nominative case dono. See p. 55. 
Aur andy a copulative conjunction, connecting the preceding verb 

with the one following. 
Insaf justice^ a common noun of the first declension, objective 

case, governed by the verb following. See p. 18. 

Chahin desired or demanded^ a regular transitive verb, active 

voice,, indicative mood, perfect tense, third person plural, femi-« 

nine gender, agreeing with the nominative case dono. See p. 55. 

Qazi ne by thejudge^ a common noun, &c. of the instrumental 

case, governed by the following verb. See p. I7. 
Jallad ko to the ea^ecutioner, a common noun of the first declension 
dative case, governed by the following verb. Seep. I7 and 18. 
Bulaya it was called^ a causal verb, from bolna to speaks indica* 
tive mood, perfect tense, third person singular, masculine, used 
impersonally. See p. 17* 
Aur andt> a conjunction, coupling the preceding with the 

following verb. 
Farmaya commanded, a regular transitive verb, indicative mood, 

&c. like the preceding verb. 
£i, a connective conjunction : in such cases as the present, idu 
omatical in its use, and incapable of being rendered into English, 
60 as to correspond with the other words in the sentence. 


Is this 9 an adjective pronoun of the demonstrative kind^ agreeing 
with the following noun. See p. 30. 

Larke ke childy a common noun of the first declension, possessive 
case, governed by the following noun. See p. 15. 

Do two, a numerical adjective, agreeing with the noun that fol- 

Tukre parts, a common noun of the first declension, plural num- 
ber, objective case, governed by the verb kar. See pp. 57$ and 1 8. 

Ear make, an irregular verb transitive, imperative mood, common 
form, second person singular, agreeing with the nom. case tii 
understood. See p. 55. Or it may be considered as the past inde- 
finite participle in this place. 

£k ek one, a numerical adjective used distributively, (see p. 23,) 
the objective case, governed by the verb de. See p. 18. 

Dono ko to both, an adjective pronoun of the indefinite kind, dative 
case, governed by the succeeding verb. 

De give, a regular transitive verb, imperative mood, common form^ 
second person singular, agreeing with the nominative case tii 
understood. See p. 55. 

Ek one^ a numerical adjective, agreeing with aurat. 

Aurat tcoman, a common noun of the second declension, singular 
. number, and nominative case to the verb ho rahi. 

Yih this, an adjective pronoun of the demonstrative kind, agree- 
ing with bat. See p. 30. 

Bat word, a common noun of the second declension, singular num* 
ber, objective case, governed by the participle sunte. p. 57* 

Sunte hearing, the present inflected participle, from the verb 
sunna to hear, agreeing with ^urat. See p. 54. 

Hi, an emphatic particle. When connected with a participle, it 
may be rendered by upon ; as here, yih sunte hi upon hearing 

Chup silent, an adjective, agreeing with ^urat. 

Ho rahi remained, a compound verb, intransitive, indicative 
mood, perfect tense, third person singular, feminine gender, 
agreeing with the nominative ^urat. See p. 55. 


Dusri ne hy the other^ an adjective pronoun of the indefinite kin^, 
singular number, instrumental case, governed by the verb shura 

ki. See p. 17« 

Fariyad a complaint^ a common noun of the second declension^ 
nominative case to the verb shurii ki. 

Shuru ki was commenced^ a compound verb, active voice, indicative 
mood, perfect tense, third person, singular number, feminine 
gender; and agrees with the nominative case fariyad. Seep. 55^ 

Ki, a connective conjunction as before. 

Khuda ke for GocTsy a common noun of the first declension, pos- 
sessive case, governed by liye. See p. 10. and 15. 

Liye aake^ a preposition, governing the masculine possessive case. 
See p. 62» 

Mere my, a personal pronoun, possessive case, used adjectively> 
and agreeing with the noun larke ke. 

Lafke ke child, as before. 

Do tukre two parts , as before. 

Mat do noty an adverb of negation, always connected with the 
imperative. See p. 51 . 

Kar makcy as before. The imperative in this place, from karna ta 
make or do* 

Larke ko the child^ a common noun of the first declension, objec- 
tive case, governed by the verb following. See p. 57- 

Main /, a personal pronoun, first person singular, nominative to 
the following verb« 

Nahin no/, adverb of negation. See p. 51. 

Chahti hun do desire, a regular transitive verb, active voice, in« . 
dicative mood, present definite tense, first person singular, and 
agrees with the nominative case main. See p. 55* 

Qazi ko to the judge, a common noun of the first declension, 
dative case, governed by the verb hiia. See p. 57* 

Yaqin certainty, a commoanoun of the first declension, nomina- 
tive to the verb hiia. 

Hua was,fkn intransitive verb, indicative mood, perfect tense, third 
person singular, and agrees with its nominative case yaqin. See p. 55» 


Ki, a connective conjunction, as before. 

Larke ki child's, a common noun as before, possessive case, govern- 
ed by ma. See p. 16. 
Ma mother y a common noun of the second declension, nominative 

case to the verb hai. 

Yihi this, an adjective pronoun of the demonstrative kind, with 

the emphatic particle! affixed, agreeing with the noun ma. See 

p. 30. 

Hai 18, an instransitive verb, indicative mood, present tense, third 

person singular, agreeing with the nominative case m&. See p. 55. 

Larke ko the child, as before : here the objective case, governed 

by the verb supard kiyd. See p. 18. 
Use to her, a personal pronoun, third person singular, dative 

case, governed by the succeeding verb. 
Supard kiya was delivered, a compound verb, active voice, in-i 
dicative mood, perfect tense, third person singular, used imper- 
sonally. See p. 17- 
Aur and, a copulative conjunction, coupling the preceding with 

the following verb. 
Dusri ko the other ^ an adjective pronoun of the indefinite kind, 

objective case, governed by the following verb. Seep. I7. 
Kore fvith a whip, a common noun of the first declension, used 
elliptically for kore se, governed by the participle following. 
See p. 19. 
Mar ke having beaten, a past indefinite participle, agreeing with 

the instrumental case us ne, understood. 
Nikal diya was dismissed, a compound verb, active voice, indica- 
tive mood, perfect tense, third person singular, used imperson- 
ally, like the preceding. See p. 17< 





Sarf o nauo, grammar, or etymology- and syntax. 

Rasm vlkhaitn'imliorthography. 
^uriif i tal^ajji, or alif be the 

llarta letter. 
}rab, or ^arf i ^arakat a short 

Hart i }IIat a long vowel. 
Muta|]iarrik movable. 
Sakin quiescent. 
Harf i saj^iti a consonant. 
Ghunnah a nasal. 


Makhraj, or talaffxxzpronuncia^ 

Ta^sin talaffus euphony* 
Irib ^arkat orthographical 

markSf as a iu. 
Hajaf apocope or elision. 

Tauvin nunation^ or the use 
of ^^^ 

Kalimah part of speech. 

T^rif, or tarf i m^rifah an arti- 
cle, or any definite word that 
serves its place. 

Ism a noun, 

Mausiif a noun with an adjec- 

Tasrif declension. 

lSluxi8a,xi£ declined or inflected. 

Ghair munsarif undeclined. . 

Mubni a word that does not 
changCf as page 9* 

Jins gender. 

Tajkir masculine gender. 

Tinifi feminine gender. 

Mu|Eakkir of the masculine gen- 

Muwannas of the feminine 

Si^hah number. 
Tasniyah dual. 

Mufrid,or wa^id singular num- 

Jam% plural number. 

Halat case. 

Fail nominative or instru- 
mental case. 

Halat i izafat a genitive case. 

Mutifthe governor of the geni-' 
live case. 

Muiaf ilaiyah the genitive case. 

I^alat iinaf4l the dative, ob- 
jective, ablative, and loca^ 
tive cases, or 

Maful ila jalah the dative. 

Mafdl bih the accusative. 

Mafdl m^h the ablative. 



Nidi the vocative case. 

Munadi of the vocative case. 

Alamat signs of a case, <$*c. as 
ka the sign of the genitive, 

Matdf alaih the noun connect- 
ing others with it* 

Matiif the noun or nouns con- 

Ism i sifat an adjective. 

Ism i adad a numeral adjective. 

Sighah tafsil comparative de- 

Sighah mubalighah superlative 

Zamir a personal pronoun. 

Mushtarik common pronoun, 
i. e. masculine or feminine ; 
as, ly thou, 4fC* 

Ism i mauful a relative pro- 

Silih mausiil a correlative pro- 

Ism istifham an interrogative 

Ism isharah a demonstrative 

Ism isharah qarib the proximate 
demonstrative ; as, yih this. 

Ism isharah baid the remote, as 
wuh that. 

Nakrah or ism i tankir an in- 
definite pronoun. 

Fel a verb. 

Fel i mutaddi verb transitive. 

Fel i Uzimi a verb intransitive. 
Mutaddi bad o maful a causal 

verb with two objective cases. 
Mutaddi basih mafdl a verb 

with three objective cases. 
Rabitah zam&ni an auxiliary. 
Baqiyasi or b&q&|dah regular. 
Sama^ irregular. 
Naqis defective. 
Manafi negative, or with a 

Tas rif conjugation. 
Sighah voice, mood. 
Sighah mardf active voice.. 
Sighah majhul passive voice. 
Zaman tense. 
Zaman i hal present tense, and 

present definite. 
Mazi istimr&ri the imperfect 

Mazi past tense. 
Mazi mutlaq the imperfect. 
Mazi qarib the perfect definite. 
Mazi baid the pluperfect. 
Mustaqbil the futures. 
Amr the imperative mood. 
Amr t^zimi the respectful im- 
Muzari the potential mood, 

present tense. 
Sharti the subjunctive mood. 
Masdar the infinitive mood. 
Ismi^ialiyah present participles. 
Ism i mafnl perfect participle. 



Ism i m^tuf past indefinite 

Mutakallim^r^/ person. 

Mukhat'ib ^azir second person. 

Gbaib third person > 

Mutakallim wa^id 1^/ person 

Mutakallim jam^ 1st person 

Mukhatib w4^id 2nd person 

Mulkhatib jam^ 2nd person 

Ghaib wal^id 3rd person singu- 

Gh^b jam^ 3rd person plural. 

Fa kalimah the first syllable^ or 
antepenultimate of the verb. 

A in kalimah the second or pe- 

Lfim kalimah the third or final, 
as seen in the word f el. 

A sal origin or root. 

Ishtiqaq derivation. 

Mansiib o mushtaqqah derived 

Basit simple or primitive. 

Murakkab compound. 

Ism i fail noun of agency. 

Ism i alah noun of instrument- 

Ism i makan noun of place. 

Ism i sifat abstract or concrete 

Ism i ma^dar verbal noun. 

Ism i tasgbir diminutive noun. 

Zaif indeclinable word, adverb. 

Tamez adverb of quality i, 

Zk[( i zaman adverb of time. 

Zarf i makan adverb of place. 

Zarf i (ara^ji adverb of manner. 

Zarf i ijab adverb of affirmation. 

Nafi or sarf i nahi adverb of 

Harf i m^nawi a postpositifm. 

Harf i atf a copulative conjunc- 

Harf i tardid a disjunctive con- 

Harf i bayan an explanatory 

Harf i shart a conditional con- 

Harf i jaza a consequential con" 

Harf i nida an interjection. 

Takiyah i kalam an expletive. 

Zabt construction, 

Zabitah qanun qaidah rule. 

Be qaidah ungrammatical. 

Mubavirah istila^ idiom. 

Malfuz mazkur ewpressed. 

Muqaddar muzmir understood. 

^u\vai omitted. 

Takid emphasis. 

Takidi emphatic. 

Mahdud limited^ defined. 

G^air mahdud unlimited^ unde^ 




Etwar Sunday. 
Pir Monday. 
Mangal Tuesday. 
Budh Wednesday. 

Jum^rat Thursday, 
Juma Friday. 
Sanichar Saturday, 


Bhaisak April, (beginning 
from the 10th* : so the rest.) 
Jeth May. 
Asafh June. 
Sawan July. 
Bhadon August. 
Asin, or Kuar September. 

Katik, kartik October. 

Aghan November. 

Pus December. 

Magh January. 

Phagan, or Phalgan February. 

Chait March. 

* When the sun enters the first degree of Aries, allowing for the 
precession of the equinoxes. 

























Ababil, a swallow. 
Abdal, a devotee. 
Ab-dar, a waier^keeper. 
A'bid, a worshipper.. 
Achar, pickles. 
Adab, politeness. ^ «j\ 
Adam, non-ejrisienee. ^>^ 
Adat, habit. 

Adl, justice^ equity. 3*^ 
Afat, misfortune. ^— ^ 

Aftab, the sun. ,_j\ii^ 
Aftabah, an ewer. 
Afu, forgiveness. 
Agari, the forepart. 
Ahad, compact ; promise ; 

A hi, people. 

A^wal, state^ condition - 
Aish, pleasure. 

A. Ajaib, wonders. 

A. Akhirat, a future state. 

p. Alaish, contamination. 

A. A^am, the world; people. 

A. Amal, action^ work. 

A. Amanat, deposits ; faith. 

p. Amboh, a crowd. 

p. Amezish, miofture. 

A. Amir, a nobleman. 

A. A'mm, the vulgar ; pi. 

s. Anaj, grain. 
s. Anda, an egg. 
p. Andaz, guess. 
8. Andheri, darkness. 
H. kwgnt^ a grape. % 

s. Angiithi, a finger ring. 
A. Anq^^ the chief of birds. 
H. Ara, a saw. 





* All nouns i;i this list, that are not regularly feminine by the rules 
given at page 12 and 13, are masculine. 


^ ' '• Aram, ease^ health. 

A. Arbab, l(yrd. 

p. Asaish, resL 
A. Agar, tfi^n ; effbct, 
. . I -^^ Asbab, goods^ apparatus. 
^ \tjjj I P- Ashiyinah, bird^s nest. 

, A. Afl, ort^m; capital, 

\^^\ **• Asman, heaven. 
s. Asra, Ao/>e. 
p. Astanah, a threshold. 
p. Atash, fire. 
A. Atir, |}cr/w»icr. 
A. Atlas, satin. 
A. Attar, a perfume. 
A. A^yin^ grandees. 
A. Azah, punishment. 
^j 1 p. Azhdaha, a large snake. 
A. Aziyaty oppression; distress, 
A. Azo, a joint, member, 
^j^ p. Bachchah, a child. * 
iax^ «• Badah, tc;i72&. ^^(j 
V \^ p. Badal, a cloud, 
\J * A. Badan, Me body. 
I ^V> ^' Badban, a sail. 
\ aH ) A. Baddal, a cloud. 

A. Badla. exchange.^ retaliation. 
A. Badii, cloudiness ; a substi- 
A Badrah, a bag of money. 
p. Badshah, a king. 
p. Badshahat, a kingdom. 
p. Bagh, a garden. 



A. Baghawat, rebellion. ^ 

p. Bagh-ban, a gardener. 

H. Bagla, a heron, 

A. Bahi, price. 

A. Bahaim, beasts, 

H. Bahaliya, a huntsman. 

p. Bahrah; property <, share; 

gain.. t 

s. Bail, 6w//ocAr. (JUHJ 
A. Bais, cause, reason. 
s. Bakri, a ^oa^. 
8. Bal, hair ; a child. 
s. Bal-bachchah, children. 
p. Bandagi, service, 
s. Bandar, a monkey, 
A. Bani-adam, men. 
8. Bap, a father, 
A. Baqir-khani, cake mLved 

with butter and milk. 
A. Baqqal, a grain merchant. 
8. Barf, a dish of pulse. 


p. Bariam, public audience, j^J ' 
p. Barkha8t, removing from 

s. Barsat, the rainy season. 

p. Bartari, ewcellence. d /^ /^ 

H. Basan, a bason. ^-^ J 

Basera, a bird's roosting, 
A. Basilar, man. JjiP 

A. Bashriyat, humamty. 
8. Basti, a village. 
s. Bat, word, speech. 
A. Bat, a goose, a duck. 
H. Bat, tripe ; twist ; wrinkle. 























i P. 









fiayaban, a desert, 

BaK, a hawk. 

Bazi, play^ sport. 

Bazd, the arm, 

Beri, a chain for the leg. 

Bhai, a brother, 

Bhed, a secret^ secrecy. 

Bheriya, a wolf. 

Bichchhona) a bed. 

Bichchhd, a scorpion. 

Bidat, violence^ oppression. 

Bigar, quarrel. 

Bihisht, heaven. 

Bijli, lightning. 

Billa, a he-cat, 

Billi, a sKe-cat. 

^rmUawasp. ^^^^ ^ 

Buhtan, calumny. ^ W^ 

Buraniy a dish of the egg- 
plant fruit fried in sour 

Burhapa, old age. 

Buzdrgi, greatness. \ jhJ, 

Byora, account^ historyi 

Cbahchahd, song of a bird. 

Chakki, a millstone. 

Chalaii) habity use. 

Chamak, glitter. 

Chamaa, a parterre. 

Chamra, leather. 

Chandni, moon-light. 

Charagah, pasturage. 

Charcha, relation of past 





























Ch&shni, flavour of sweet 

and sour. 
p. Chaurahi, a cross-road. 
Chena, millet. 
Chhat, a roof. 
Chhed, a holCy rent. 
Chhura, a large knife. 
Chhuri, a knife. 
Chita, a leopard. 
Chonch, a beaky bill. 
Chori, theft. 
Chot, a hurt. 
Chottfi, a thief. 
Chughal-khor» tale-bearer. 

Chughliy tale-bearing. 


Cbyunti, ant. 

Did-khwab, a plaintiff, w ( 3 J '"^ 

Dilin, a hall. ' 

Dalil, proof; pL daUfl. 

Dam, nety snare. .^ \ J) 

Daman, skirt. ' \ 

Dinai, wisdom. 

Danky sting of scorpiany4^0m :'*« . 

Dar, /«ar. i 3 

Dar, a door. \ 

Dity a dwellingy Jlwed 

abode. J^ 

Dard, pain. 

Daregb, sorrow y a sigh. J^J 
D4tbi, a beard. 
Daro^b, a lie. 
Dar-ul-maqam, dwelling 

place ; grave. 





A. Dir-vl-mBttsxiin^ abode of the 

good ; heaven. 
A. Dar-ul-qarar, the grave. 
p. Darwazahy a door. 
p. Darya, a river. 
p. Darzi, a tailor. 
^H. Daul or dil, or both, shape ; 

^^ mode. [^Ic^/-***^ 

W ^ P. Dastar-khwan, a table-cloth. 
p. Dastur, custom. 
p. Dasturi, perquisites. 
A. Daulat, wealth. 
A. Dauran, ^imc ; fortune. 
A. Dawa, cZaiwi ,• law-suit. 
p. Dewinagi, madness, 
s. Dhal, a sAicW. 
fl. Dhar, ^Ac body. 
H. Dhokha, deceit. 
H. Dlidp, sun-shine* 
A. Dijlah, a lake ; the Tigris. 
p. Dil, heart. 

p. Dil-jamai, ccwc of mind. 
P. Dil-nawazi, blandishment. 
A. Dimagh, ^Ae fcram ; pride. 
8. Din, a day. 
p. Dinar, a coin^ a ducat. 
p. Diwar or dewal, a wall. 
H. Del, bucket. 
H. Doriya, striped muslin. 
p. Dozakh, hell. 
8. Dudh, fwiZfc- 
A. Dur, a pearl. 
p. Durusti, rectification. 



















Dd8h&lah, ttoo shawls worn 

Dushman, an enemy* 
Du8hnain, ahuse. 
Faidah, profit^ gain. 
Fakhar, glory^ boast. 
Falak, the firmament ; pi. 

aflak. <(Ji' 
Falij, iKe palsy. 
Faraghat, repose ; compe- 

Farotani, humility. 
Faqr, poverty. \ 3 

Farq, difference^ distance* 
Farz, indispensible duty. 
Fasad, depravity. 
Fauq, superiority. ^^ ^ 
Fa^ilat, excellence. 
Fel, action ; work. 
Fil, an elephant* 
Firasat, physiognomy ; «a- 

Firqah, a tribe ; a troop. 
Fisq, adultery^ wickedness. 
Fursat, leisure. 
G&I, the cheek. 
Gdnw, a village. 
Gari, a cart. 
Gapi-ban, a carter. 
Gathri, a bundle. 
G&w or gai, a cow* 
Gehiin, wheat. 
Genda, a rhinoceros. 


A. Ghailat, negligence. 
A. Ghallah, grain* 
A 6har» a cavern. 
8. Gbar, a house. 








8. Ghaia, a waier-pot. /r//j 
8. Ghtffinahf family, 
A. Gharat, rapine. ,* 
s. Ghari, an hour. 
A. Ghanimaty prixe ; plunder. 
A, Ghaur, refieadon. S^ 

Jy^ A. Ghazab, rage^ violence. ) "^ 
8. Ghora, a horse. 
p. Ghotah, a dipping, 
p. Ghul, noise, tumuli. 
A. Ghulam, a slave. 
A. Ghusl, bathing* 
u. Gida^r, a jackal. 
8. Gidh, a «M/^tir«. 
p. Gilah, complaint. 
p« Girdab) a whirlpool. 
p. Gireban, a coUar. 
p. Goshah, a comer j solitude* 
p* Goehah-Bashin, a hermit. 
p. Gulbadan^A^'ndqf «i/ipci^^ZK 
p. Guman, cbm6^ ; /ancy^\C|U 
p. Gumashtab, an agentr 
p. Gunah, sin. ^ 

p. Gurob, a hand^ troop^^^ y 

H. Gutbli, a kernel. 

p. Gupr, a ferry. 

A. Habsbi» an Ethiopian ; an 

A. Haibat^/ri^A/) terror. 

VOCABULAEY. \ %>^ ^^ 

A. HaiwM, an animid ; pi. 

A. Haisaby cholera morbus. | 

A. Hajat, ne^ci. .^^iiAT?^^ 

A. liiiU a pilgrim. ' 

A. Hakim, philosopher ; physi- 

8. Hal, a ploughs 

A. H4I, statCy condition. 

A. Halat, 9/a^6, circumstance. 

H. Hal-jota, a p/ou^A-man. 

H. Halka-pan, despicableness. 

A. Halw4, sweetmeat. 

A. Halwii, a confectioner. 

p. Ham-dam, an m/iiiia/ie 

A. Hami, a protector. 

A. Hamlab, aw attack* 

p. Hamtai, likeness^i 

A. Haxidasah, geometry. 

H. H&n^i or bafi, a po^. 

p. Hangamah, crowd ; riot. 

8. Hansi, laughter ^ fun. 

A. £[aq, equity ; pi. ^aqiiq. 

A. ^ardrat, heat. ^ 

A. Harf, a letter of the alphc^ 

A. Harir, silk cloth. 
A. Hiarkat, motion. 
A. ^asbrat, reptiles ; insects. 
A. Hasil, produce ; jram. 
A. Hasrat,ifric/. 
s. H&tbi, an elephant. 











fcfc^- A. 





Hath-kafi, a handcuff. 
Hathyar, tools^ armSf ap- 

Hausilab, stomach; capa^ 

Haul, a pond. 
Hawas, inordinate desire. 
Hay4t, life. 

Hasar-dist&B, a nightingale. 
H4zimah, the digestive 

Hisiri, breakfast. 
Hasm or hasmi, digestion. 
E[if&fat, memory^ custody. 
^ikiyat, history ; tale. 
^ilm, mildness. 
Himiy&niy a purse. 
Himmat, resolution^ cou-- 

Hiqarai) contempt, scorn. 
l^iriisat, watching, care, 
^laa, feeling. 
Qissah, a share, part. 
H<Mith, the lip. 
^MJJAt, argument, aUerca* 

Hajdm, crowd; assault. 
Hukm, order, command; pi. 

Hunar^ art, skUl. 
^utn, beauty. 
Iblis, Satan. 
\tbkt, abstinence, purity. 























Ifshi, a publishing. 
Iftikhar, glory. 
Ifisan, benenolence; favour m 
Ititimal, bearing ; doubt / 

probability. l>i-^ 

I^tiyat, cautidfT; foresight. 
Ijazat, order ^ permission., , i 
IkhtUit, friendship. Uli^' 
Ikhtiyar, authority; choice^ 
Ilaj, remedy^ cure. 
Il&m, a proclaiming. yf 
Ilaqah, connexion. ^ y^ 
11^4^, importunity. ^\s^J 
Ilham, inspiration. ^ 
Ilm, science ; pi. oiluiii. 
Wiy&ty friendship, courtesy. 
Imam, a leader in religion. 
Iman, faith. 

Imtiban, examination^ triat. .• / 
Imtiyaz, discrimination, y^ 
In^m, a favour, gift, \i > 
Infial, shame, modesty. 
Insan, man. 
Innram, a cutting j^, com-. 

pleting. '» *^ ma — 
Intizam, arrarigemefU. « 
Iqab, chastisement. NJSt^ 
Iqrar, agreement. 
Irsbad, commcuid. 
Ifbal, loosening. 
Isharab, a sign. 
Isbiat, society; pleasssre. 





A. \etitj prodigality. 

jl. Israf, eafpenditurey waste. 

A. Israr, obstinacy. 

A. Istabal, a stable. 

A. Isti^qaq, demanding jus- 
tice ; merit. 

A. Ita^t, subjection^ obedience. 

A. Itidal, temperateness. 

A. Itimad, confidence^ reliance. 

A. Itminin, tranquillity. 

A. Ittt^q, agreement; occt- 

A. Iwai, reward ; ewchange. 

A. Iztirir, violence^ agitation. 

A. Izzat, honour. 

A. J add, grand-father. 

A. Jahalat^ tjmoranoe. 

A. Jahannam, Ae//« . 

p. Jah&B, a ship. iw^ 

H. Jalebi, a sweet^meai. 

9. Jam-dam, cloth in which 

Jlowers are woven. 
8. J axkgaiy forest, wood. 
T. Jia-kandani, agonies of 

p. Janwar, an animal. 

s. p. Jau, barley 
A. Jauhar, a gem^ jewel. 
A. J tatty violence. 
A. Jazirah , an island. 
p. Jeb-katii, a cut'pwrse. 
H. Jbagxfi) quarrellingn 

?. Skrxwsx, an animal, .fii 
5. Sim, cold; winter. I j^^ 

H. Jh&t, bramble. . I 

H. Jharokha, a lattice. / 
H. Jhilmil, a Venetian, shutter, 
H. Jiddy 6^>r/. 
A. Jinn, spirit, genii ; pi. jin- 

H. Jor, a joining. 
8. Jua, gambling, dice ; a yoke. 
8. Jn&ri, a gambler. 

p. Eab&b, a roasting. 
p. Eabk, a kind of partridge, 
p. Kabdtar, a pigeon. 
8. Kachhud, a tortoise. 
A. Kafir, an infidel. 
A. E&fdr, comphor. 
8. Kah&ni, a tale. 
8. Kahawat, a proverb, 
p. Kahili, languor. 
8. Kal, a machine ; a trap. 
p. Kalla, a cabbage. 
8. Kalai, pulse. 
A. Kalam, word, speech. 
H. Kalejah, the liver, 
p. Kulichah, biscuit. 
8. Kalol, wantonness. 
8. Kamli, a small blanket. 
POST. Kamra, a room. 
8. Kin, the ear. 
8. Kanti, a thorn ; a fork. 
8. Kappa, chth. 
A. Karamut, generosity ; a mi^ 
































^ *A. 

K&rb&r, business. 

Kari, a beam ; a fetter. 

Kar-pardas, conductor of 

Kasby trade ; gain. 

Katir, dagger ; pole-cat. 

Kaush, a slipper. ^ . 

Eaww&, a crow. ^^ 

Khachchar, a mule, j' 

Khafagi, anger. 

Khairat, charity. 

Khanah, house ; place. 

Khan 81, a cough. 

Khar, a thorn ; spur. 

Khar, an ass. 

Khara, a hard stone. 

Khargosh, a hare. 

Khaslat, nature^ quality. 

Khatar, recollection ; dan- 

Khatt) <K letter, a line. 

Khatti-istiwa, equator. » 

Khauf, /car. ^^^ 

Khawind, lord, rmster. 

Khel, play. 

Ehidmat, service. 

Khidmat-gar, a butler. 

K hiffat, lightness ; contempt. 

Khilqat, creation. 

JShilt) one of the humours 
of the body ,- pi. ikblat* 

Khilwat, retirement. 

Khirman, harvest. 



























Khiyal, imagination. 

Ehiyanat, perfidy. 

Khizab, colouring the beard, 

Ehoh, a cavern. 
Kho8hah, bunch ; ear, spike. 
Khud&, God. 
Khujli, itch. 
Khdk, a hog. 
Khdnf, a murderer. 
Khuahkiy dryness, dry land. 
Khdshnddi, delight. 
Ehusdsiyat, peculiarity. 
Ehutbahy oration. 
Eutta, a dog. 
Ehwab-gah, bed-room. 
Ehwahish, desire. 
Ehwan, a tray. ^ 

Ehwesh, a kinsman. ^^^ 
Einarah, side. *j * 

Elf ^9 a worm ; insect* /. 
Eishmish) raisins. 
Eiaht, a sown field. 
Eisht-kari, htubandry. 
Eitabat, inscription. 
Eona, a comer. 
Eofa, a whip. ^ 

Eornish, salutation. j^Jy 
Eos, a measure of 4,000 

cubits, commonly reckoned 

Eoshisb, endeavour. 
Eotwal, a police officer. 































Kii4, a well. -^ ^ 

Euchah, a lane. (r^J 
Eulhari, an aw. 
Eunji, a key. 
Kurah, globe ; region. 
Eurta^ a coat. 
Kiiza, a gugglet. 
Lalach, covetoueness. ^ rf / 
Lakri, wood. / Cf 
Laqab) a little. ^"^^ 
Larak-pan, childhood. 
Larka, a child^ a boy. 
Lauziyat, sweetmeat with 

Libas, dress. 
Log, people. 

Lohii, blood. . 

Laab, saliva. \^ 

Luqmah, a morsel^ nmiihful. 
Lutf, kindness. 
La^t, pleasure. 
Ma, mother. 
Machchhar, a musquito. 
Machhli, a fish. 
Madad-gar, an assistant. 

Maghz, brain ; pride. 


Mal^abbat, /ove, friendship. 
Maf^all, a place, house. 
Maf^allah, a district, 
M ahina, a month. 
Ma^kamah, a tribunal. 
Mal^mudi, fine muslin. 
Maidan, afield. 




8. Mail, dirt. 

A. Makan, a place, dwelling ; 

pi. makan&t. 
p. Makhlasi. deliverance. 
A. Makkar, a cheat. 
8. Makkhi, a fly. ^ 

A. Makr, deception^ cheatiwf. 
8. Makri, a spider. 
A. Maktab, a school. 
A. Mai, wealth. 
Malak, angel. 
A. Mal&l, sadness. 
A. Malamat, reproach. 
8. Mall, a gardener. 
A. Malik, lord, master. 
A. Man^, prohibition. 
A. Manadi, proclamation. 
p. Mandagi, weariness. 
A. Manf!|t, emolument. 
A. M^ni, meaning. 
A. Maqddr, ability. 
A. Maqsad, design ; object. 
p. Margi-mufajat, sudden 

A. Marham, a plaster. 
A. Mar^amat, compassion. 
A. Martabah,«/ep; ranft; /ime. 
A. Marz, sickness ; pi. imiit. 
8. Masabri, bed curtains. \ 

A. M^sh, life, livelihood. ^. \ ^^'^ 
A. Mashwarat, counsel, v^ 
A. Maslah, question, proposi^ 


• • 

























Masla^at, advice. 

Mat^, goods. 

Mausioiy season of the year. 

Maut, death. 

Mazah, taste ^flavour. 

Mazarrat, detriment. 

Mendak, a frog. 

Mcndha, a ram. 

Menh, rain. 

Mewah, fruit. 

M ihr-bani, kindness. 

Milk, possession. 

Milkiyat, property. 

Mimbar, a pulpit. 

Miqdar, quantity. 

Miqnatis, the magnet. 

Mir-bakhshi, pay-master 

Misri, sugar-candy. 
Mithai, sweetness. 
Mithas, ditto^ 
Mitti, earth. 
Mizaj, temperament. 
Mom, waa^. 
Moza, a stocking. 
Mu^llim, a teacher. 
Muamalah, affair^ business. 
Muamma, an enigma. 
Mubarakbadl, congratula- 

Muddai, a plaintiff. 
Mudd^i-alaihi, a defendant. 
Muddat, space of time. 

A. Mufti, a law^fficer who 
passes decrees- 

A Mu^Lasabah, computation. 

A. Mu^awarah, idiofn^ usage. 

A. Mujadalah, contention* 

A. MukhaXi[a.U opposition. 

A. Mukhannas, an hermaphro- 

A. Mulhid, a heretic. 

A. Mulk, a country. 

A. Munafiq, a hypocrite. 

A. Munasabat, suitableness. 

A. Munazarah, disputation. 

s. Munh, mouthy face. 

A. Munsif, arbitrator. 

A. Muqabalah, comparison. 

A. Muqaddamah, business ; 
cause in law. 

A. Murabbi, a guardian. 

A. Muraj^t, return. 

A. Muruwat, manliness. 

A. Musaddas, an hexagon. 

A. Musafir, a traveller. 

A. MussLVLwiiy a painter. 

A. Mushahadah, eighty vision. 

A. Musharakat, community. 

A. Musbrik, infidel^ icUdator. 

A. Musibat, calamity, 

A. Mutabaqat, conformity. 

H. Mutiya, a bearer of bur- 

A. Muzayaqah, penury ; im^ 



A. Hibiya prophet; pi. Ambiya. 

s. Nach, dance. 

A. Nadamat, repentance. 

A. Naf^, profit. 

p. Nafarmani, disobedience* 

A. Nafas, breath. 

A. Nafrat, aversion. 

A. Nafs, soul; pi. nufiis and 

*. Nagar, a /otc^n, city. 
A. Naghmah, melody. 
A. Naghmah-sara, a singer. 
A. Nahdsat, 6ad presage. 
A. Naib, a deputy. 
A. Najat, salvation. 
A. Najm, a ^^or ; fortune ; pL 

• / 

nujum. j# j^ijw* 

p. Nakhun, finger'nail. 

s. Nail, a /t/&e. 

p. Nalisb, plaint^ law suit. 

p. Nalishi, complainant. 

p. Namad, coarse woollencloth. 

p. Namak, «a//. 

p. Namaz, prayer. 

p. Nanbai, a baker. 

A. Naqd, ready-money. 

A. Naqqasb, a j}am^er, a sculp- 

A. Nashd, into^cfltion, or its 
effects. \AM^ 

p. N^htah, breakfast. 

A. 'SsLBihy fortune, fate. 

A. Nasi^at, admonition. 

A. Nau, kindi species; pi, anwa. 

A. Naubaty time, turn. 

p. Nawazisb, caresses, polite- 

p. Nek-o- kari, doing good. 

A. tii^m^tj favour. 

Nigah-bani, watching. 

p. Nihang, an alligator. 

s. Nikas, suburbs; adjustment 
of accounts. 

8. Nil, indigo, blue-colour. 

A. Nisbat, relation.. 

p. Nishast, sitting etiquette. 

A. Nisyah, credit. 

A. Niyabat, deputyship. 

A. Niz^) contention. 

A. N ubuwat, propA^cy. 

A. ^n^Kkmi, an astrologer. 

A. Nuqsan, loss. '*'^ /iJL^ 

A. Nur, light. / ^y""^ 

A. p. Nur-i-chashm, /ijA/o/MV"^ 
6ye«» a «on. 

A. Nusrat, victory. 

H. Pahar, a mountain. 

p. Pahlu, /Ae side. 

p. Paighambar, a prophet. I 

p. Paiman, a compact. [^ ^^i*:" ; 

H. Paisa, a copper coin, 

H. Palki, a litter, sedan. 

p. Panjit-khanah, a prison . 

p. Panjah, a c/au*. 

s. Pdnw, foot. 

p. Pardab, a curtain.. 



p. Parhez, abstaining from. 

p. Parhezg&ri, abatinenoe* 

p. Pari, a fairy. 

p. F&rwmtihi preservation. 

p. Pashshah, a musquito. 

8. Pat» a leaf. 

8. Patthar, a stone. 

B. Patti, a bandage. 

p. Techishy contortionftroiU>le. 

s. Phal, fruit. 

H. Phandiy a noosoy net. 

8. Phiil, afmoer. 

A. Pil> or fily an elephant. 

8. Pinjra, a ca^e. 

8. Pip&l, fig-tree, (Ficus reli- 

p. Pi8tan« the breasts. 
p. Piyalah, a cup. 
p. Pul, a bridge. 
8. Punji, capital, stock* 
8. Purab, the east. 
p. Purzah, a piece, a bit. 
T. Qabu, power, command. 
A. Qabdl, consent. 
A. Qad, stature, sixe. 
A. Qadam, the foot. 
A. Qafilah, a iocJy o^ travel* 

A. Qalam, a pen. 
p. Qalam-rau, sovereignty. 
A. Qalb, ^Aa heart. 
p. QaliD^ a carpet. 

A. Qairan, conjunction of pla- 

nets ; number of years ; pi* 
iqran. I ♦* 

A. Qarar, rest, stability, v y^ 

A. Qarinah, likeness. / ,% 

A. Qariyahy a village. jM /"^ 

A. Qarz, debt. 

A. Qas&iy a butcher. 

A, Qasiwat, hardness of heart ; 

A. Qasidy a messenger. ^ 

A. Qa8dr,/aM//. mj^^^ 

A. Qaul, a trorr/, ji7/romt8f. 

A. Qil^y a fort. 

A. Qimaty price, oo/ue. 

A. Qinaat, contentment. 

A. Qisas, retaliation. 

A. Qismskt, fate ; share. 

A. Qissah, a tale. 

A. Qital, battle,Jighting. 

A. Qitran, tar. 

A. Qiy&mat, the last day. ^, 

A. Qiyas, conjecture. ^C^ 

A. QmAtsX, power. (JT 

A. Qufl, a lock. 

A. Rafahiyat, content^ repose. 

A. Rafiq, a companion. 

8. Rag, a mode in music, pas- 

A. Raghbat, desire, (iffectum. 
A. Rahat, repose. 
A. Ra^m, or ra^mat, compoA- 


































lUh-xant a high-way robber. 
Rais, a prince, a chief, 
B^iyat, a tenant ; pi, ri^ya. 
Rang, colour. 
Ranj, grief, trouble. 
Rashk, spirit, envy, jea- 

Rassi, a rope. 
Rafiul, a messenger. 
Rat) night. 
Raughan, oU. 
Rass, a secret. 

Reshah, a fibre, stringi- 

Ret, sand. 

Riayat, honour, protection. 
Rifaqat, society, friendship. 
Rishwat, a bribe. 
Riyasat, government, 
Riya^att austerity. 
Rizq, food ; support. 
Roshni, light. 
Roti, bread, 

Rozahy a fast. ^/Jj 
Rozi, daily food. /) * J 

Roz-namchaby a jourfim. 
Rui, cotton ; P. face* 
Ruju, return. 
Rukn, a pillar ; pi, ark&D. 
Ruqah, a bit ; a not^'. 
Ru8tag&r, a saviour. 
Rutubat, humidity. ^^ 
S^HAt, felicity. 



ir. . 

A. Sabaq, lesson, lecture. 

Sabqat, excelling, 
p. Sabzah, verdure ; incipient 

beard. 9 

A. ^adqahy alms. 
A. Safai, purity. 
8- Sag, greens, herbs. 
A. Sa^ib, lord, sir ; pi. l^\ih. 
A. Sa^n, a court-yard. 
A. Sair, perambulation. 
A. Sais, a groom. 
A. Saiyad, a hunter. 
A. Sa^hiwat, liberality. 
A. Salamati, safety, health. 
A. Salik, a traveller ; a devotee. 
A. Salis, an arbitrator. 

A, Salsabil, fountain in pa- 


B. Samajh, understanding. 
p. Siman, apparatus. 
s. S&mp, serpent, 
A. San^t, profession, art. 
p. Sanduqchabf a small bost> 
s. Sa]}8, breath ; sigh* 
A. Saqar, hell. 
A. Sarab, mirage. 
p. Sardar, head-tnan, 
p. Sardi, cold. 

A. Sarraf, a money-changer. ^ 

p. Sarsam, delirium. - ^ O-^ /;• 

A. Sarwat, wealth ; mtiltituae. 

8. S&8, a mother-in-law. 

A. Sauda, melancholy ; trade* 






P. Saud&gar, a merchant, 
s* Sauteli-ma, step-tnother. 
p. Sawari, riding. 
p. Sayab, shadow • 
8. Sendh, hole made by thieves. 
p. Sh&di, pleasure ; marriage, 
A. Shafqat, clemency. 
[ !*) p. Sbagird, a disciple. 
-^ A. Shahwat, lasciviousness. 
A* Shaitan, the devil. 
A. Shak, doubt. 
» V P. Shama, a lamp^ candle. 
p. Shamadan, a candlestick. 
A. Shamat^ laughing at an- 
other's calamity; adversi- 

p. Sh&n&, a comb. 
A. Sbarafat, nobility. 
A. Shararat, wickedness. 
p. Sharmindagi, bashfulness. 
A. Shauq, desire. 
p. Sher, a lion; tiger. 
A. Shiddat, violence ; trouble* 
A. Shikam, the belly, 
f »\; P. Shikari, hunting. 
p. Shir, milk. 
p. Shir-birinj, rice-milk. 
p. Shirini, sweetness. 
A. Shirk, society^ partnership, 
p. Shir-mal, bread made with 

p. Shor, cry, noise, 
p. Shorah, saltpetre. 


A. Shubah, doubt ; shabah, re- 

A. Shuhrat, /ame. 
A. Shuja^t, bravery. 
A, Shukr, thanks. 
p. Shutur, a camel. 
A. Sijdah, worship. 
p. Sifarisb, recommendation. 
A Sifat, quality, praise ; pi. 

p. Sinah, breast. 
p. Sipahr, sphere, globe, time. 
8. Sira, beginning ; ewtremi- 

A. Sirat, nature, quality. 

A. Sirat, a road. 

H. Sirhana, bedCs-head. 

V. Sirkah, vinegar. 

A. Sirr, a secret ; pi. israr. 
Siyasat, government ; pu- 

8. Soch, reflection. J 

s. Suar, a hog. ^ ) 

s. Subbita, opportunity, con- 

A. Sukdt, silence, peace. 

A. Sultan, a sovereign. 

8. Suraj, the sun. ^^j^ 

p. Sdrakh, a hole. ^ 

A. Surat, /brw. 

A. Surur, pleasure, joy. 

s. Susur, father-in-law. 

A. Taammul, thought, purpose. 

lead. / ) 



























Taassuf, /a9ii«n/£n^.%.3*^v 

Tabal, a dirum. 

Tabaq, a cover ; a plate ; 

pi. tabqat. 

Tabib, a physician, 

Tadaro, a pheasd 

Tadbir, deliberation^ coun- 


T^ddi, ewtortiofiy injury. 

Tafawat, distance. ^$ 


Taghir, alteration. jJU 
Taharat, purity. / 
Tahlil, celebrating. 
Tahqiq, exactness, 
Ta^rik, moving. 
Tair. a bird. 

Tajarrud, the being solitary. 
Tajribah, experiment, 
Tajviz, consideration. 
Taka, a coin, two pice. 
Takabbur, arrogance. 
Takhta, a plank, 
Takiya, a pillow. 
Talab, a tank, *' 

Talaf, loss, 
Talash, search. 
Tali^, rising ; fortune. 
T^lim, instruction, 
T&Iuq, relationship^ lord- 

T^m^ food, 

Tamasha, show, spectacle* 
Tamassuky a bond. 

• (J 


A, Tanbur, ^ut^ar, drum; also 

A. Tamizy discernment^ dis^ 

A. Tan, reproach, 
P. Tang-dastiy parsimo 

P. Tanin, the largest species of 

crocodile ; Leviathan, 
p. Tanur, an oven, 
A. Taq, an arch ; recess in a 

wall, shelf, • 

A. Taqat, power ; ability. ^^^j^V^ 
A, Taqsim, division, 
A. Taqsir, fault, m^^^ 
A. Taraddud, hesitating; re* 

p. Tari, water as opposed to 

dry land, 
A, T$rxf, praising, describing. 
A, Tariqah, way, mode ; sect. 
A. Tarjamah, translation, 
A, Tark, leaving. 
H. Tarkari, vegetables. 
A. Tasarruf, possession; ear- 

A. Tashihi praising God; a ro^ 

A. Tasdf, trouble, pain. 
A. Tashrif, honouring. 
A, Ti^ir, impression. 
A. Taslim, taslimat, consign- 
ing ; saluting. 






A. TafvuT) a picture. 

A. Taufiq,/aootiro/£rod. 

A* Tauq, a eoUar^ necklace, 

A. Tauqir, Aoroourtn^. 

A. Taufy fitodtf ; pj. fMiwar. 

A, Tads, a peaoocAp. 

A. Tawakkul, ^ru«^ in God. 

p* TawangaH, opulence. 

A. TazamI, lamenting. 

A. T^jEim, reverence, respect. 

A* Tai^iik) mocking. 

8^ Tel, oi/. 

H. Thaill, a bag. 

H. Thatha, /tin, je«/. 

A. Tifl, a child. 

A, T\6if infancy . 

Tilism, a talisman; pi. 

p. Toda, or tuda, a heapt a 


p. To6bah»proi>i««on* 

A. Tufan, a hurricane. 

A. Tuhfahta|;iaif,aci:irio«i^j(, a 

A. TuhmAtiSUspidof^j slander. 
H. Tukdi-gadii a mendicant. 
p. Td^hm, seedy sperm. 
A. Tdl, length. 
p. Tuti and to|a, a parrot. 
H. Uchakka, a pick-pocket. 
A. Ulfat,/rtencbAip» 
A. Umdq, depth. 
8% Ungli, a finger. 


8. Ud^, a camel' 

A. Uqab, an eagle ; iqibj* cAae- 

tisement. | 

A. Ustad, a /eaeAer. %Ou>^l 
A. UstukhwaOf a bone ; kernel. 
A. Up, ewcuse. 
A. Wab&U plague ; crime* 
A. W^dah, a promise. 
A. Wahm, imagination. mM J 
A. Wakil, an ambassador. 
A. Wall, a prince ^ a saint 9 a 

A. Waqr, dignity. 
A. Waraq, a leaf. 
A. Warig, an heir^ 
A. Warisah, heritage. 
A. Was^t, amplitude; oppor^ 

A. Wasf, quality ; praise ; pi. 

A. Wafiiyat, making a will. 
A. Watad, a peg or pin ; pi. 

p. <4Vazir, a prime-minister. 
A. Yaqin, certainty^ truth. 
A. Yfir, a friend. 
A. Yaxqin^ jaundice. 
A. Y^sub, the king of bees. 
A. Zahid, a hermits 
p. Zahr, poison. 
p. Zahr-mahiah, antidote to 

poisofif beggar. 
A. Zakhirah, q, treasure. 




P. Zakhm, a wound. 

A. Zamanah) time^ age* 

A. Zambdr, a hornet. 

A. Zamharir, intense cold. 

p. Zamindar, a land^holder. 

p. Zang, ruet. 

A. Zani, an adulterer. 

A. Zarar, injury. J /^ 

A. Zat, caste. ^\& >s:ul\J 


p. Zer-^biryan, a di%h of meaty 

rice^ Sfc. 
p. Zewar, jewels ; pi. sewarat. 
An ZiUaty baseness. 

A. Zil^, a district ; pL s^ii. 
p. Zin, a saddle, 
A. Zinat, ornament. 
p. Zindagani, existence. . » 

A. Ziri^ty agriculture. Jt>^|A/\ • 
A. Ziyafat, an entertainment. J^Vs^^ 
A. Ziy&n, lossy damage. ) 

A. Ziyarat, visiting ^ pilgrim-^ 

p. Zor, forccy power. 
A. Zuhiir, a» appearing. , 

A. Zulm, oppression. JLJ^ 

p. Zumurrud, an emerald. 


p. Admi, m. f. a man or wo- 
A. Afi, a serpent. 
A* Aish, pleasure. 
H. Akhrot, a walnut. 
H. Amawat, Me in«pmafed 

juice of the mango, 
A. Arsh, a roof a throne. 
p. Bad-kash, a/an, at?en^/afor. 
H. Baionty cutting out of 

p. Bakhsh, a share or gift. 
p. Bakht, fortune. 
p. Balish, a pillow, 
p. Band-o-bast, settlement^ re- 











Bant, a share, a weight. 

Bat, a tree (Ficus Indiea) ; 

tripe; twist. 

B&t, rheumatism* 

Bent, a handle. 

Bet| a cane. 

Bhiit, a demon. ^ 

But, an ido/. %JJ<^ 

But, a A^n(i of pulse. 

Chait, name o/a month. 

Chap-o-ra8t, unsteadiness. 

Chhapar-khat, a bedstead 

with curtains. 

Chaukhat, frame of a door^ 

Chirkat, dirt, filth. 

Churkut, powder. 

(7?i?£a. rA. 



8. Dahi, curdled milk. 

8. Dant, a tooth. 

p. Darakht, a tree. 

p. Dasht, a desart, 

p. Dast, a hand. 

p. Dosh, the shoulder. 

p. Dost, a friend. 

A. Farsh, a carpet. 

A. Fuhsh, obscenity. 

A. Ghash, a fainting. 

8. H. Ghat, a landing place; 
manner^ want. 

8. Ghi, clarified butter. 

H. Ghunt, a gulp. 

P. Gird-pesh, all rounds cir- 

H. Girpt, o lizard; a came- 

8. Git^ a song. 

p. Goe, a ball. 

/p. Gosh, the ear. 
p. Gosht, meaty flesh. 
A. Hazrat, his honor, or high- 
p. Hisht, a hiss ; pish i 
l« ^ A. Ho&h, sense^ mind. 
U^y^ A. Iftit, any thing frightful, a 

A. Irti-ash, trepidation. 
H. Ispat, steel. 
8. Jamghat, a crowd. 
H. Jhunnat, crowd. 
H. Ji) life, soul. 
T. Josh, heat. 

p. Juft, a pair. 

p. Kadii-kash, an instrument 

for cutting pumpkins. 
p. Kbalish, m. f. interruption, 

p. Khargosh, a hare. 
p. Khaxosh, a crash, a tumult. 
p. Khashkhas, poppy seed. 
A. Khawasi, the place behind a 

great man on an elephant. 
H. Khet, a feld. 
A. Khilat, m. f. a robe of ho- 

H. Khunt, o corner ; ear-waof. 
p. Khwan-posh, covering for a 

tray, a tray-lid. 
p. Kibrit, sulphur. 
p. Kisht, a sown field. 
8. Kit, dregs of a lamp or 

huqquh ; an insect. 
H. Kot, a fort. 
A. Kumet, a bay horse. 
p. Kunisht, a Christian 

church ; idolatrous tem- 
H. Kut, a survey ; a task ; a 

guess. • 

p. Lakht, a bit, or piece. 
s. Lat, an Arabian idol. 
A. Mabni, a foundation. 
H. Malat, a worn rupee. 
s. Marglvit; the place where 

Hindus burn their dead^ 
8. Markat, an emerald. 

(i?i?ia, N[, 



8. Mash, a kind of vetch^ 

(Phaseolus maof,) 
8. p. Mesh, a skeep^ a ram. 
A. Minnat, an obligation; an 

earnest request. 
p. Mosh, a mouse. 
8. Moti, a pearl. 
T. Muqqaish, brocade. 
r. Musbt, the fist ; a blow ; a 

handfuL ^{j j W* 

8. Mut, urine. ij^^^ 
p. Narnsh, a kind of food 

made with milk, 
A. Na^sh, picture. 
A. N^sh, a bier* 
p. Nawanosh, banquetting. 
p. Nesh, a sting^ a puncture. 
p. Nosh, a draught; a pre- 
p. Padash, retaliation. 
p. Pai, the foot. 
H. Palang-posh, a counterpane. 
8. Palit*, a ghost. 
H. Pani, water* 
H. Parat, a fold^ a stratum* 
H. Pat, a shutter ; cloth. 
H. Pat, breadth (of cloth or a 

river) ; tow. 
H. Pet, the belly. 
p. Pisht, a hiss ; pish / 
8. Pit, bile. 
p. Post, skin. ^.^^^^^ 
T. Qash^ eye-brow ; a bit. 

A. Qumash, mannersy, trifiesj 

H. Rahat, a wheel for drawitkg. 

p. Rakht, goods and chattels. 

A. R4yat, a standard. 

p. Resh, a wound, matter. 

8. Ret, seed (sperma). 

p. Saresh, glue. 

p. Sari-gosh, the ear. 

p. Sarosh, an angelj or heaven* 

ly sound. 
p. Sar-posh, a cover. 

B. Sathi, rice produced in the 

8. Shall, ricCy paddy. 
A. Sharbat, beverage. 
p. Shush, the lungs. 
p. Siyah-gosh, an animal (felts 

s. Sot, a spring. 
A. Subut^ JirmnesSj corifimia-. 

a. Sdt, thread. ^ 

A. Tabut, a coffin^ a bier^ ark ^< 

of the covenant. 
A. Tafawut, distance. 
A. Ta^t, lower part. 
A. Tai, a folding. 
A. Taish,/o//y, anger* 
p. Takht, a throne. 
p. Tarkash, a quiver. 
H^ Tash, cloth ofgoldy brooade^ 




P. Tasht, a large bason. 
H. Tat, canvas^ sackcloth. 
H. Tent, ripe fruit of the 
Kurul ; speck on the eye, 
H. Th4t, the frame on which 

thatch is put. 
A. Tilt, a mulberry. 

T. Ulash, the leaving of a su- 

A. Wa^sh, a wild beast. 
p. Yamani, cornelian. 
A. Yaqiit, a ruby, 
p. Yorish, assault^ invasion. 
p. Zar-baft, brocade. 



f, Ab, water^ lustre, edge. 

p. Abrd, honor. 

p. AbtTj^^he eye-brow. 

p. Ab-sbar, a water-fall. 

I J I ^A. Ada, payments coquetry. 
- *^ A. Adan, Eden^ paradise. 

A. Adas, lentils. 

H. Adhotar, a fine kind of 


A. Afim, or afyiin, opium. 

p. Afrin, praise. 

p. Afsar, m. f. a crown or 


s. Kg.Jire. 

p. Ah, a sigh^ alas! 

A. Ahd, m, f. contrast^ treaty, 

A. A in, the eycy a fountain. 

A. Ainak, spectacles. 

A. Ajal, death. 

H. Akar, crookedness. 

A. Akha|, a taking. 

p. Akhgar, live ashes ; a spark. 

A. Akhor, refuse, offals. 

A. Akb|, an objection. 

A. Aksir, alchemy y chemistry. 

A. Al, progeny, race. 

H. Alang, side^ way. 

p. Alang, intrenchments. 

H. Alaf-balar, trifling talk or 

p. Alif be, the alphabet. 
A. Alkhalaq, a coat or garment. 
s. Alol, gambol ; also alol 

p. Amad, arrival^ income ; also 

amad-amad, approach, and 

amad-shud, access. 
A. Aman, security , quarter. 
H Ambiya, a small unripe 





A. An, time; f. affected gait. 

A. Ana, distress. 

H. An-baD, spirit, pride. 

H. Anch, heaty blaze. 

A. Andalib, a nightingale. 

H. Angiya, bodice, stays. 

p. Anjuman, assembly ^ ban^ 

H. Ankh, the eye. 

H. Ans, fibrous part of any 

A. Aql, wisdom. 

H. Ar, a goad. 

H. Ar, a screen. 

H. Ar, contention. 

H. Arang, a manufacturing 

A. Ardz, versification. 

A. Arz, a petition. 

A. Arz, Me earth. 

p. Arjiz, W«. 

p. ArzQ, desire. 

s. As, Aope. 

A Asas, a foundation, a pe- 

V. Asiyiy a mill. 

A. Asl, root. 

p. Astin, a sleeve. 

A. Ata, o^i//, afaWr. 

p. Atashak, venereal disease* 

p. Atashist&n, region of fire. 

H* Atkal, guess, opinion, 

p. Aw&z, sound, voice. 

p. Ayal, a horse's mane. 

p. Az, avarice. 

A. Aza, mourning. 

A. Azal, eternity retrospect 

A. A zan, summons to prayer. 
8. Bach, o/ri« roo/. 
p. Bad, u;inc{. 

p. Badar-rau, a c/raan or sewer* 
p. Ba&, scurf of the head. 
u. Bag, a bridle. 
H. Bagdor, a ^^ mn to lead 

p. Baghal, the armpit, em* 

p. Bah, an arm, virility. 
K. Bahal, o carriage* 
p. Bahar, spring, beauty. 
A. Ba|^r, a fieet, metre ; m. a 

bay or sea. 
A. Bahs, argument. 
A. Bai, buying and selling, 

H. Baikhak, a seat, a sitting^ 

H. Bak, bak-bak, prattle. 
A. Bala, misfortune. 
8. Balu, «and. 
p. Bam, an eel. 
H. Bam, a spring of water, a 

fathom ; a deep tone. 
p. Bamd&d, aurora. 
p. fianafshah, a violet. 








P. Bandy m. f. a fastening ; <z 

bond ; also bandh. 
T. Bandtiq, a musket* 
H. Bang, voice^ crow^ call. 
p. Bang, an intoxicating drug, 

hemp ; 8. bhang. 
8. Banh, the arm. 
H. Banjar, waste land. 
H. Bank, ornament for the 

arm ; a dagger. 
8. Bao or batas, wind. 
8. Baph, steam^' vapour. 
A. Baqa, efernity, duration, 
A. Baqam, sapan wood. 
8. Bar, times 
JB. Bar, edge. 
V. Bar, the bosom, fruit. 
p. Bar-amad, expenditure ; in- 

farming against for bribery. 
T. Bar-award, estimating ex- 


8. Barbar, muttering or speak- 
ing as in a delirium. 

V. Barbat, harp or lute. 
T. Barf, m. f. ice, snow. 
H. Barb, a food. 
p. Bar-khurd, enjoyment, suc- 
A. Barq, lightning. 

9. Barr, a wasp. 
6. Bas, scent. 

G. BasaHq, the great vein in 
the arm. 


Bauchhar, driving rain. 
A. Bayas, whiteness, a blank 

p. Bazm, an assembly. 
p. Bed, a willow ; a cane. 
r. Bekh, root^ origin. 
H. Bhabhak, bursting for 

water, Jire, Sfc. 
H. 8. Bhal, point of a spear ^ 

forehead; m. a bear. 
g. Bbanak, a low or distant 

8. Bhandsar, provisions laid 

up for years. 
8. Bhasam, ashes. 
8. Bhaun, the eyebrow. 
H. Bher, sheep. 
8. Bfaikh, begging. 
H. Bhir, a multitude. 
H. Bhor, dawn of day. 
H. Bhiikh, hunger. 
s. Bhul, forgetfulness. 
H. Bhdr, charity. 
A. Bikr, virginity. 
8. Bin, a stringed instrument. 
A. Bina, a foundation; also 

H. Bisahan, offensive smell. 
A. Bisat, bedding. 
p. Bo, smell. 

H. Bol-chal, conversation. 
A. Biid, distance. 
H. Buharan, sweepings. 

I R ^^(^-: f 



8. Bujh, understanding^ 

p. Bulbul, a nightingale. 

p. Bun, a basis f root ; ban, a 

8. Bund, a drop. 

8. Bundiya, sweetmeats like 

H. Bar, vulva. 

p. Burd, term at chess ; oppor- 
tunity of gain. 

A. Butlan, abortion. 
p. Cha, tea. 

p. Chadar, chadar, a sheet. 
p. Chah, desire. 
H. Chahkar, singing of birds. 
p. T. Chakachak, chaqachaq, 

sound of the stroke of a 

p. Chakb, quarrel. 
8. Chal, motion. 

B. Chal, custom^ habit. 

8. Chalachal, the bustle of set- 
ting out on a journey i <$*c. 

8. Chalan, clearance. 

H. Cbamp, lock of a gun ; the 

p. Chan^, a clau\ a harp. 

H. Changer, a Jlower-pot. 

H. Cbapkan, a kind of coat. 

H. Chaprasy a buckle^ badge. 

T. Chaqmaq, ajlint. 

H. Char, a knock. 

H. Chas^ plowing. 














Chaahak) a tasting. 

Chashm, the eye; hope. 

Chashmak, spectaciex, 

Chatak, crash ; glitter. 

Chattan, rocky ground, 

block of stone. 

Chaunk^ the act of starting. 

Chaupar, a game with ob^ 

long dice. 

Chechak, the small-pojB. 

Chhagaly leathern bottle 

with a spout ; a goat. 

Chhakkar, a slapy a blow. 

Chhal, skiny bark. 

Chhan, a roofy a frame for 


Cbhand, tether^ net. 

Chhantan, a chip. 

Chhanw, a shadow, also 


Cbhap, stampy print, seal. 

Chbar, pole of a spear ; 


Chh&r, bank of a river. 

Chbat&Qk, a weight of two 


Chhenk, confiscation. 

Cbher, act of irritating or 


Cbbilan, paringg, m 

CbbiQk, sneezing. v,J>*-Ht'TrH 
Cbbuchhiindar, a mole, a 






H. Chik, pain in the hin8. 

H. Chik, or chikar, mttd. 

p. Chikan, m. f. embroidered 

8. Chikh, a scream. 
s. Chil, chilh, a kite. 
H. Chilam, top part of the 

H. Chillar, or chalhar, a louse. 
H. Chilman, a skreen ; also 

p. Chin, a fold or wrinkle. 
H. Chingh&]r, a scream. 
T. Chiq, a kind of skreen to 

keep out the glare. 
u. Chip, chifh, vexaiion* 
H. Chirand, smell of burning 

leather^ hair^ <$*e. 
H. Cbifiya, a bird,. 
H. Chitw&n, sights a look. 
p. Chiz, a thing 9 a commodity^ 
H. Choan, a dropping. 
p. Chob, woodj posti club. 
p. Chobak, a drum-stick. 
8. Chonch, beakj bill. 
H. Chiian, a cistern. 
H. Chudas, lust, 
n. Chuhal, mirthy jollity ; also 

H. Chiik, an error. 
H. Chul, itch. 
H. Chumkar, sound made in 

calling dogs and horses. 

A. Dabur, a zephyr. 

p. Dad, laWy equity. 

A. Dafah, time^ one time, 

H. Dag, a pace^ step or measure. 

p. Dagha, deceit^ treachery. 


P. Dahliz, a portico. 

H. Dak, post ; constant vomits 

H. Dakar, a belch. 
8. Dal, pulse. 
H. Dal, a branch. 
u. Daldal, a quagmire. 
H. Dang, a c/ub, summit. 
p. Dang, i of a dram^ i of a 

H. Dangal, a crowd. 
s. Darh, jaw-toothy a grinder ; 

also darh. 
H. Dard, medicine ; spirituous 

liquor ; gun-powder, yr^ 
p. Dardd> congratulation, 

blessing. -^7J"^ 

p. Darzan, a needle. 
p. Dastak, clapping hands ; 

rapping ; a pass. 
p. Dastan, a story ^ a fable. 
p. Dastar, a turband. 
H* Daur, attackj labour. 
A. Dawa, medicine, remedy. 
p. Dawadau, labour, fatigue. 
p. Deg, a caldron. 
p. Der, delay. 
s. Dhaj, attitude; appearance. 

IflfEC, .f 



H. Dhak, pomp^ fame ; fear. 
H. Dhamak, noise of footsteps 

H. Dhanak, lace. 
H. Dliandhal, wrangling^ trick. 
s. Dhanuk, a bow. 
s. Dhap, a foot measure, as 

far as a man can run with- 

out taking breath. 
s. Dhar, edge, a line ; a stream, 
H. Dharak, palpitation. 
8. Dharas, m. f. firmness of 

s. Dhaul, a thump. 
H. Dhaunk, panting, the asth- 

H. Dhil, looseness^ laziness. 
H. Dholak, a small drum. 
8. Dhul, dust. 
H. Dhum, bustle^ tumult, 

smoke; dhum-dham, bustle, 

s. Dhun, ]yropensity, appli- 
cation; sound. 
H. Dhiip, sunshine, a per- 

fume ; a sword. 
H. Dibiya, a small box. 
p. Did, m. f. sight, show. 
p. Dimak, white-ant; also 

H. Diwar, a wall ; also dfwal. 
p. Doaly a strap^ a belt. 
p. J^ochktj interview, meeting. 
























Dor, a string. 
Du&9 prayer, benediction. 
Dub, a grass, (Jgrostis 

A. Dubur, posteriors. 
Dukan, a shop ; also dokan. 
Dum, a tail, end. 
Dunya, the world. 
Diir, distance. 
Durd, sediment. 
£r, spurring. 
Fajar, mornijig^ dawn. 
Fal, an omen. 
Fala|^, prosperity, refuge. 
Falakhun, a sling. 
Falez, a field of melons. 
Fan a, mortality. 
Fands, a glass shade. 
Faq, notch of an arrow. 
Fara, a bough, a branch. 
Faraj, cheerfulness, joy. 
Fard, a sheet, a roll. 
Farghul, a wrapper, a cloak. 
Farhang, wisdom ; a voca- 
bulary. » 
Faryad, complaint. (j ^ 
Fasd, phlebotomy. **^ 
Fasl, a section ; harvest. j\^ 
Fatah, an opening, victory, ^^ 
Fauj, an army. ^ %p 
Faza, open space, or field. Q^ 
Fida, sacrifice, ransom. . , 
Fighdn, m. f. lamentation. \jf^ 










5' l(/*- 






Fikr, m. f. thought, counsel. 
Filfil, pepper. 
Finduq^ Jllbert nut. 
Fiqah, knowledge of religi- 
on and law. 
Fuldd, steel. 
Gad, sediment. 
Gagar, a pot for holding 

Gah, a handle. 
G&h, place ; time. 
Gajar, a carrot. 
Gand, stinky filth. 
Gand, the anus. 
Gandh, scanty odor* 
Gandhak, brimstone. 
Ganjiya, a wallet. 
Ganth, knot. 
Gap, gap-shap, chit-chat. 
Gard, dust. 

Gardan, revolution ; conju- 

GardaD, the neck. 
Gardanak, the pointers in 
the Great Bear. 
Garh, a difficulty. 
Garj, a bellowing, thun- 

Gartop, burial. 
Gathiya, a sack; pain in 
the joints, a bump, 
Gathiya bao, rheumatism. 
Gaun, opportunity. 

p. Gazak, a relish. . 

p. Gaiand, m. f. misfortune ^ 

8. Gham, Jieat, sweat* 
H. Ghan, as much as is thrown 

into a mill at once. 
A. Ghana, riches. 
H. Ghanghan, an imitative 

A, Ghara?, design, business. 
H. Ghariya, a crucible ; a 

8. Ghas, grass. 
H. Ghasan, act of rubbing. 
A. Ghaur, deep thought. 
A. Ghazal, an ode, a poem. 
A. Ghib, a tertian ague. 
8. Ghin, disgust, hatred. 
A. Ghina, a song. 
A. Ghirbal, a sieve. 
A. Ghiya§, redressing wrongs. 
A. Ghizi, food, diet. \\^ 

p. Ghvlel, a pellet-bow. ^ 
H. Ghus-paith, acce^tf. 
p. Gird-bad, a whirl-wind. 
p. Gird-nawa^, environs. 
p. Giyah, grass, straw, herb* 

H. God, the lap, the bosom. 
p. Golak, a till, a drawer. 
s. Gon, a bag, a sack. 
8. Gond, gum. 
II. Gophan, a sling. 





F. Gor, a tomby a grave. 

•r. Gospand, a sheep^ a goat* 

T, Guftar, speech* 

p. Guft-go, conversation. 

p. Guft-O'shamd, discourse ; 


H. Gdlar, a wild Jig. 

p. Gulbang, warbling ; fame. 

8. Gdnj, echoy buzzing. 

p. Gvxez^Jlight. 

s* Guriy 4, a head of a rosary. 

/H. Gufiya, a dolL 
p. Garob» ^ 
.a band. 

Garob» m. /. a multitude^ 

p. Guaaf, a falsehood^ rash 

p. Gu^n, livelihood^ employ^ 

A. Habb, a grain. 
A. Hadd, boundary^ limit; 

pi. Iiudiid. 
A. Hadis, m.f. tradition. 
H. Hagis, tenesmus. 
p. Haikal, figure^ ornament; 

a temple J apal<we. 
A. Hais-bais, hesitation, per^ 

plemty^ suspense. 
A. Haiz, the menses. 
A. Hajxn^ thickness, bigness. 
A. Hajo, satire, lampoon. 
A. B^smA, praise. 
H. Hagk, a bawling; driv^ 


H. Har, name of a nut (Myro- 

A. Harb, war, battle. 
s. Hartil, orpiment. 
A. Hasady envy, malice. 
8. Hath, violence ; teasing, o6- 

A. Haw&, air ; desire. 
A. Hawa8, desire, lust. 
A. fiiaya, shame, modesty. 
p. Hezam, ySr^-tcoocf. 
A. Himayal, a swordrbelt hung 

from the shoulder ; necklace 

of fiowers. 
A. £[ma, a tree (Lawsonia 

A. Hirs, avarice, ambition, i \^y^ 
A. Hubb, love, friendshipr^ 
H. Hiik, ache, stitch. 
H. Hdl, a thrust. 
H. Hd|r, wrangling. 
A. ^uaim, a sharp sword. \ 

A. I^tini, care, labour. Vju^ 

A. I^tiraz, objection, opposi* ,i | 

tion. * I ^A-^ 

A. Ibtida, beginning. J 

A. Id, a festival. 
A. Idbar, calamity. 
A. Ifa, performing, paying. 
A. Ifrat, nt. /. ewcess, super* 

A. Iftirfi, fiction, calumny. 
A. Il^atah, an inclosure. 



A. Ibtimim, diligence^ •oluA- 

A. I^tiyij* needj want. 
A. Ijlis, acf of ritting. 
A. Ikrah, aftAoiT<?ncc, awrwon. 
A. Iktifi, sufficiency. 
A. Jlaj, m. / remedy, 
A. Il^^it, «o/fct7a^ton. 
A. Iltijs, a request^ refuge. 
A. Iltimis, m. /. a beseeching 

or praying. 
A. tm&, ««9n, wink. 

A. Irobisat, gladness, mirth. 

A. Imdad, ^{p, succour. 

A« Jnin, rein*, bridle- 

8. IndrayaD, colocynth. 

A. Insha, creatioHj composi- 

A. Intiha, end. 

A. Irad, bringing, producing. 

A. Isha, /?r«^ wa^cA ; evening 

A. Itminan, retff, security,^ 
A. Ittila, in/oriAa^ion*^^ 

A. IstiMa, derife ^(ir please^ 


A. I|a, pain, tewatwr^^ 
A. Izar, drawers. 
p. Ja, a place. 
p. Jabin, the forehead. 
A. J^d, a ringlet. 
p. Jad&d, or Jaid&d, tf p^ace ; 
service ; an assignment of 
A. Jadwal, rf^/ed /tneff* 
p. Jafa, oppression. 
H. Jagah, a place ; also gah. > 
p. JagiT, or Jaigir, a pension 

in land. 
p. Jab, dignity, rank. 
H. Jajam, or Jazam, a cloth to 

sit on. 
A. Jam^, a congregation, coL 

A. Ishti^lj m. /. in/?amingr, H. Jamsk, state of success or 
burning. | h. Jaman, a/rt^i^ Iglory. 

A. Ishtiha, hunger. 

p. Istad, act of standing. 

A. I8tid4» re^ae*^, desire. 

A. Istidad, readiness ; ability. 

A. Istikrab, aversion^ reluc 

A. Ijtil^l?> phrase, idiom. 

p. Jan, lit./, life. 

A. Janab, side ; majesty. 

p. Jang, battle. 

s. Jdngh, the thigh. 

A. Janib, a part or side. 

■%, _ 

H. Jap, a root. V?^ 
s. Japawal, winteHlress. 

A. Istimdid, begging assist- h. a. Jarib, a sort of stick ; 
ance. I a measure. 












Jast-jd, searching » 
Jauhar, m./. a gem^ skill ; 

Jaza, requital^ reward. 
Jeb, a pocket. 
Jehar, a pile of pots filled 
with water. 
Jhalak, splendor. 
ShilsXi fringe. 
Jhak, absurd conduct ; 
passion^ a/«o jhal. 
Jhamak, glitter. 
Jhanak» or jbankir, tink- 

JhaDJh, cymbals ; passion. 
Jhank, peeping. 
Jhaf , heavy rain ; kind of 

Jhij^an^sweepingSf a coarse 

JhutafffierinesSf acrimony. 
Jhatak» a twitch^ throw. 
Jhijhaku a start. 
Jhil, a lake. 
Jbilam, armour. 
Jhinga, shrimp. 
Jhi^akf threat. 
Jhok, a jolt. 
Jhonk, a shovcy d blast. 
Jhiil, body clothes of cattle ; 
a bag. 

Jhdmak, an assembly ; bat- 

8. Jibh, the tongue. 

A. 3'Aiy splendor. 

A. Jilauy a rein ; retinue. 

A. Jild, skin, a book. 

A. Jimi, copulation. 

A. Jina^y a pinion or wing. 

A. Jins, kindy race. 

H. Joar, Jlood4ide; Indian 

H. Jonk, a leech. 
A. Jua, hunger. 
H. Juo9 a louse. 
H. Jung, collection (of books 

^c.J ; emotion. 
p. Eabuk, a pigeon-house. 
p. Kacbkoly a cup, a beggar^s 

8. Eachnar, a tree, (Bauhinia 

H. Eacbpacb, a crowd. 
A. Eadd, search, labor. 
p. Kaf, foam. 
A. Eafak, a part of the hand 

A. Eaff, palm of the hand. 
p. Eab, grass, straw. 
p. Eajak^ iron for driving ele. 

p. Eakul, a curl, a lock. 
p. Eam&n, a bow. 
p. Eamand, a scaling ladder. 
p. Eamar, the loins ; a girdle. 
A. Eamiii) an ambush. 






A. Kanh, mtbstance^ quality. 
H. Kanjiy^, a small sty, or 

s. Kap&8, cottim. 
H. Kafak, a craah^ thunder. 
p. Kird, a knife. 
A. Earez, a canal far water- 

ing gardens. 
p. Kas, a kind of graaa 

H. Kasak, painy stitch. 
p. Kashdd, an opening. 

A. Kasr, I0SS9 affliction. 
H. Eastdra, an oyster. 
s. Eatran, parings. 

B. Kenchul, «/<mgrA of a snake. 
8. Eesar, saffron. 
A. Khabar, netr«, account* 
H. Ehadei, pursuit. 
H. Ehail, armed multitude* 
A. Khair, goodness, health. 
p« Khak, c/u«^, ^ar M. 
p. Ehakistar, a«^e«. 
8. Ehal, ^^0 tfftm. 
A. Ehalq, creation, people. 
H. p. Ehan, or kan, a mine. 
A. Khanqah, a monastery. 
H. Khafich, a splinter. 
H. Ehaprail, a ^iZ^ house. 
A. Kharad, a /a^Ae. 
H. Eharfthandy stalk of burnt 

p. Kharid, purchase. 

A. ^harif, autumn, or its har- 

p< Khas, a grass, (Andropo- 
gon muricatum.) 

A. Khatiy mistake, crime. 

A. Eh&tim, a ring, a seal. 

A. Ehatir, the heart. 

H. Ehainch, pulling, 
a I A. Ehazz, coarse sUk cloth. 

A. Ehifa, a secret. 

H. Ebfl, parched grain* 

8. Ehir, rice-milk. 

p. l^birad, wisdom. 

p. Ebiram, par«, gait. 

p. Ebistak, /otrer garment* 

A. Ehiyat) a needle. 

A. K hizan, at^^umn, or its fall- 
ing leaves. 

p. Ebo, na/ure, habit. 

A. Ebusb-bo, j9^r/umff, 

H. Eicb, or kichar^ miul. 

H. Eicbpicb, mud, mire. 

8. Eil, a small nail or peg ; 
also kila. 

p. Eilid, a key. 

p. Eilky a reed, a pen. 

8. Eiran, a ray of the sun. 

p. Einar, 6o«oi7i, embrace. 

A. Eirb, aversion. 

H. Eiricb, a splinter ; a 

A. Eitab, a book. 

A. Kitabiya, a small book. 



€. Koyal, a cuckoo. 
8. Kuch, m. /. the bosom. 
H. Kiid, a leap. 
A. Kufr, nt. /. infidelity. 
8. Kdk, sighinffy sobbing. 
p. Kul4h, a cap^ hat. 
H. Eulanch) a bounds a leap* 
H. Kulhiya, a cup. 
p. Kumak, aid, assistance* 
p. Kuo, Podeco. 
V. Kunjashk, a sparrow. 
Kufukj chuckling. 


H. L&d, a load. 

p. L&f, boasting, vanity. 

8. Lig, hitting ; enmity ; 

p. Lagh&m or lagim, a bridle. 

A. Lal^ad, niche of a sepul- 

H. LaBak, ^/f7/er. 

8. Lahar, a wavcj a whim. 

A. "Lafyny a sound, melody. . 

A« Lail, night. > llf 

8. Laj, «Aat7i6. 

p. Lakad, a kick. 

H. Lalk&r, a caU, a challenge. 

H. Lam-chhar, a long musket. 

A. Lan, cursing ; also lantan. 

H. Lap, a handful of water. 

fi. Lapak, a flash ; the spring 
of a tiger, ^c. 

H. Lapetan, a roller on which 
cloth is wound. 

H, La|r, a string of pearls, a 

H. Latak, dangling, coquetry. 
8. Lath, an obelisk ; also laf. 
s. Lau, ^am^ of a candle. 
A. Lau^, a plank, tablet* 
s« Laung, a clove. 
p. Lezam, a kind of bow made 

for exercise. 
H. Lid, dung of horses. 
H. Likh, a nit. 
A. Liqa, act of meeting. 
A. Lisan, the tongue, language* 
8. Loh-sar, an iron mine. 
H. Loth, a corpse. 
H. Luh, a hot wind. 
H. Lutiya, a small pot. 
A. M^d, place of return, 

A. Madad, help. 
A. Mada^, praise. 
A. Madan, m.f. a mine. 
A. Madd, extension. 
p. Magas, a fly ; a freckle. 
H. Mahak, odour, perfume. 
p. Mahar, reins, wood in the 

nose of a camel. 
A. Ma^fil, place of meeting, 

A. TAvi^Aisx, the last judgment. 
H. Maini, a kind of jay. 
A. MtLjil, power, ability. 
A. Majlis, an assembly. 




A- M4.jttn, an electuary medi^ 

cine ; confection* 
H. Malmal) muelin. 
H. Mind, a faded color; a 

dunghilly a den. 
H. Mdng, division of the hair; 

a prow. 
p. Manind, m. /. resemblance. 
A. Mankhar, the nostril. 
A. Maiitiq« logic; an oration. 
A. Manzil, a day's journey ; 

an inn, a dwelling, 

A. Maq^d, a place to sit on . 
the hips. 

B. Mar, a beating^ a blow, 

F. Mardumak, the pupil of the 

p. Marg, death. 

A. Marqad, a bed^ a grave. 

A. Maaiy evening. 

A. Mas&f, a field of battle^ the 

A. Masai, a fable f proverb ; pi. 

A. Mash^U a torch. 

p. Mashk, a leathern water- 

A. Mashq, beating ; labour ; 
ewample^ use. 

A. Masnad, a throne^ a cushion. 

A. Mail, enjoyment, advan- 

A. Mut^y merchandixe. 

H. Ma^ak, coquetry^ ogling ; 
also matkaD. 

A. Mauj, a wave ; a whim. 

H. A. Mawi, substance; starch; 
m.f dwelling. 

A. Mazar, m.f a place of visi- 
tation ; a grave. 

p. Mekh, a naUy a tent-pin. 

H. Mend, a bank, a border. 

p. Mez, a table* 

A. Mihak, a touch-stone^ a 

A. Mil^rab, the pulpit, or chief 
place in a mosque. 

p. Mil, a needle, a skewer* 

s. Milap, agreement, reconci- 

A. Mindil, a table-cloth, a 
towel ; a turband. 

A. Minqir, a bird*s bill or beak. 

A. Miqraz, scissors. 

A. Miraj, a ladder. 

A. Mirag, heritage, patrimony. 

s. Mirch, pepper. 

8. Mirdang, a kind of drum. 

H. Mirop, a twist, a turn. 

A. Misal, or migl, simile, like- 

A. Misb&t, a lamp. 

A. Mistar, a rule, a line. 

A. Miswak, a tooth-brush. 

p. Miy&n, scabbard ; the loins. 

A. Miz&n, a balance, a scale. 



P. Mi^hah, the eye4a8h ; pL a, Namat, way^ manner. 


Ai Mizrab, a quill with which 
a mtisical instrument is 
p. Morchal, an intrenchment. 
H. Morchang, a Jew'^s-harp ; 
also mdrchang, mdchung, 
and mdhchang. 
A. Moth, bundle^ load ; muth, 

a handle. 
A. Mubtidd, commencement. 
H. Mdchh, whiskers. 
A. Muhimm, important busi- 
ness ; pi. mahamm. 
p. M.vlhdXy a sealj a gold coin. 
8. Mung, a kind of pulse. 
s. Mdnj, a grass of which 

ropes are made. 
A. Murad, desire^ design. 
A. Mutad, custom^ use. 
A. Nabz, the pulse, 
p. Naf, the navel. 
p. Nafir, a braxen trumpet. 
p. Nafnn, detestation^ curse. 
A* Nahar, a stream. 
A. Na^o, syntax; way^manner. 
p. Hai-shakBTy sugar-cane. 
8. Nak, the nose. 
8. Nakel, the iron in a cameFs 

8. Nak-sir, the veins of the 

p. Namaz, prayer, 
p. Namkfn, pickled lemons. 
V. Namdd, guide ; appearance. 
A. Nimn&9 m. f. reputation. 
p. Nan, bread. 

H. Nand, a large earthen pan. 
H. Nanhiyal, maternal grand- 
father"* s family. 
p. 8. Nao, a boat. 
8. N&p, a measure. 
A. Naqa, purity. 
A. Naqb, a burrow, a mine. 
A. Naql, a history^ a taloy a 

A. Nar, fire. 

p. Nard, a counter ; backgam^ 

p. Nargis, a narcissus. 

A. Na8, a vein, a winew. 

s. Nas, snuff. 

p. Nashtar, a lancet. 

A. Nasim, a gentle breeze. 

A. Nasi, race. 

A. Nagr, prose. 

8. Nath, m. f. ring of the nose. 

A. Naum, sleep. 

8. Nau-ratan, ornament of nine 
pearls for the wrist. 

p. Nawa, voice. 

p. Nawak, an arrow; a tube: 
a sting. 

p. Naward, a j>/^, a/o/(/. 

^iiO, \ 



A. Natm, verse^ order; a string. 

A. Najr, sighty vision^ 

A. Na|r, a gift ; a vow ; an tn- 

H. Neg, marriage presents. 
H. Neo, a foundation. 
H. Nichh&war, sacrifice^ a vic- 
A. Nidi, sounds voice. 
p. Nig&h, a looky a glance ; 

\^yj^ s* Nind, or Nid, sleep. 
A. Niqab, a veil. 
A. Nisab, root^ dignity; capital. 
. hi} A. Nisar, m.f. scattering mo- 
U ney. 

H. Niwar, tape. 

p. Niyaz, a petition ; poverty ; 

a thing dedicated. 
p. Nokj a beak or billj also 

H. Ojhali privacy. 
u. Ok, sickness at the stomach* 
H. Os, cfetr. 
H. Pachchar, a wedge. 
H. Pachhar, afall^ a winnow^ 

H. Pag, or pagiya, a turband. 
p. Pagah, dawn of day ; and 

poh, or pah. 
H. Pahunch, arrival. 
p. Paikan, head of an arrow. 
8. Paik&r, war. 

B. Paizar, a slipper or shoe. 

H. PakAj^y act of seizure. 

H. Pakhawaj, a kind of drum 

a timbrel. 
H. Pal, m. f. a sail ; a smaU 

V. Palak, the eyelid. 
p. Paliz, a field of melons. 
E. Paltan, a battalion. 
p« Panah, protection^ refuge* 
H. P&r, a scaffold. 
8. Parakh, examination^ trial. 
p. Pargar, m,f. a pair ofcom^ 

8. Parhan, the act of reading. 
u. Partal, the baggage of a 

p. Parw&, fear ; and parwah, 
p. Parwaz, the act of flying. 
p. Pasand, choice* 
p. Pashm, wooly hair. 
H. Pathiya, a young full-grown 

p. Patil-80Z, a lamp-stand. 
H. Patkan, a knock orfaU. 
H. Patwar, a rudder ; also 

8. Payal, straw. 
8. Payil, ornament of the feet. 
H. Pau, ace on dice ; dawn. 
p. Pechak, a ball of thread. 
H. Peng, exertion made in 




p. Pechak, a haU of thread. 
H. Peng9 exertion made in 

H. Penth, a market. 
8. Per, a tree. 
p. Peshwfiz, a goionj female 

H. Phab, phaban, ornament. 
8. Fhi\, ploughshare* 
H. Phank, a slice orpieee of 

H. Phatkar, curse^ removal. 
H. Phenk, throWy cast, 
s. Phonhaf, or phorb&r, small 

drops of rain. 
H. Phonk, notch of an arrow. 
H. Phiink, act of blowing. 
H. Phuriya, a sore^ a pimple* 
8. Pib, puSf matter. 
H. Pichh, rice^ruel. 
p. Vih^ grease J tallow. 
H. Pik, betel spittle. 
H. Pinak, intomcation from 

8. Pit, pain. 
s. Pith, the back. 
8* Piyar, m.f love. 
6. Piyas, thirst, yj^^^^: 
p. Piyaz, an onion. 
8. Por, a joint. 
p« Poshak, dress, clothing. 
8. Puchhi inquiry. 
8. Pdnchb, a tail. 















Purchak, deceit, trick. 
Puw41, straw. 
Qab, a large dish for knead^ 
ing dough ; a measure. 
Qaba, a garment, a jacket. 
Qabr, a grave. 
Qabz, contraction, receipt, 

^&dT,worth, quantity, fate. 
Qafa, back of the neck. 
Qaid, imprisoment, obliga-. 

Qanut, despair. 
Qasam, an oath. 
Qata, cut, shape. 
Qatar, row, string of ani- 

Qaum, a tribe, a sect. 
Qaus, a bow. 
Qausquzah, the rainbow. 
Qaza, fate, death. 
Qisin, kind, part ; pl.aqsim. 
Qist, a portion. 
Qital, battle, slaughter. 
Qor, a cotton rope, tape 

Qulqul, gurgling. 
Bab, sirup. 
Rafah, repose. 
Rahir^gait, pace. 
Rag, a vein, a fibre. 
RagajT, attrition. 
Raged, pursuit, chase. 









p. Rah, rah, a way. 

s. Rakh, ashes. 

s. Ral, saliva ; pitchy rosin. 

A. Ramz, a wink or sign. 

p. Rin^ the thigh. 

8. BAngy pewter ; tin. 

H. Ranjak, priming powder. 

A. Raqam, kind, writing. 

H. A. Ras, reins of a bridle ; 

m. the head. 
p. Rasad, stores for an army, 

p. Rasid, a receipt. 
A. Rasm, custom ; pi. rusdm. 
8. Rath, a carriage. 
p. Rauarau, travelling* 
A. Raunaq, splendor ^ beauty. 
p. Raz, a vineyard, grape. 
A. Raza, consent^ permission. 
p. Reg, sand. 

H. Rel-pel, abundance; crowd. 
H. Renk, braying of an ass. 
p. ResmaD, string, cord. 
p. Rewand, rhubarb. 
A. Rida, a cloke. 
A. Rib^ wind. 
A. Bil^h support for a book. 

A. Rija, hope. 

B. Rijh, Zove, desire. 

A. p. Rikab, a stirrup ; a dish. 
p. Rim, matter, pus. 
H. Rirh, the back-bone. 
Sr Roas, inclination to cry. 

p. Robab, a/oo?. 

s. Rohd, name of a fish. 

8. H6k,and'R6ksLn,prevention. 

8. Rokar, ready-money. 

p. Rddsd, a narration. 

A. 'Rubi,sotU, spirit; pi. arwa^. 

8. Ruk and Rdkan, to boot. 

A. Sahi, a gentle breeze. 

A. Sabil, a way, a road* 

A. Sabr, patience. 

A. Sada, a sound. I y^ 

A. Sadaf, a shell, a pearl. 

A. Sadd, a wall, a barrier. 

A. Sadr, the breast^ 

A. Sa£i, purity. 

A. Saff, a line, a series. 

H. Sagdn, teak wood. 

A. Sa^nak, a plate. 

A. Saho, an error • %>r^ 

A. Said, the fore-^arm. 

A. Said, game,prey; complaint* 
A. 8. Sail, a flood ; a cold. 

A. Sair, perambulation. 

8. Saj, shape, appearance. 

p. Sakanj BLhin,owymel,an aci d. 

A. Sakha, liberality. 

A. Salakh, the day preceding 
the first day of the new 

A. Sanad, signature, a prop. 

s. .Samajh, understanding. 

A. Samsam, a sharp sword. 

p. San, a whetstone. 

A. Sani, praise. 

A. Sandiiqym.f.abowyatrunk. 

8. Sang, a spear, 

p. Sangin, a bayonet. 

p. Sanjaf, a border, 

8. Sanjh, evening. 

8. Sans, breathy sigh. 

A. Saq, M^ /e^. 

A. Saqf, a roof^ a canopy. 

p. Sara, house for caravans ; 

s. cover of a poL 
A. Sar^) the epilepsy, 
H. Sar&h, praise^ commenda- 

H« Sar&hind, a disagreeable 

* smell. 
8. Saran, rottenness. 
p. Sarbarah, supply^ cash, 
p. Sar-dawal, reins^ head- 
A. Sarfah, ewpence, profusion, 
A. p. Sar-hadd, boundary. 
p. Sark&r, jfovernmen^) state; 

(m.) Aead maTi. 
A. Sarsar, a cold boisterous 

8. Sarson, a kind of mustard 

A. Satai^, a platform^ a sur- 

A. Satar, a line. ij^^ 
p. Satoh, distress. / 
p. Saugand, an oath. 



p. SasS, correction^ punish^ 

8. Sej, a 6erf, bedding. 
p. Shab, night. 
p. Shab-deg, a di«A of m^a/ 

and turnips kept on the fire 

all night. 
p. Shab-nam, dew. 
p. Shah-r^^, the great vein 

in the arm, 
p. Shakar, sugar. 
p. ^hfikeh^ patience. 
p. Sh&kh, a bought a branch. 
p. Shakhsar, a^arc^^n. 
A. Shakl, shape. 
s. Shal, a shawl. 
A. Shalakh, a round of mus-^ 

ketry ; also shalaq. 
A. Shallaq, a flogging. 
p. Sham, evening. 
A. Sham a, a lamp. 
A. Shamim, odour. 
p. Shamsher,a «2<7ord. 
p. Shin, dignity^ business^ 
p. Shanid, ac/ of hearing. 
A. Shardb, irme, liquor, 
A. Shara^^ explanation. 
A. Sharif, a Ai^A roac^. 
p. Sharm, shame ^ modesty. 
A. Sharr, wickedness, ». i 

A. Sh9x\,^conditioni agreement. \) (^ 
A. Shatranj, cAew. 

A. Shif4, cure^ recovery. 




A • 



P. Shikan, shrinking. 

p. Shikoh, dignityj state, 

A. Shiriyan, an artery. 

8. Shisham, a kind of wood^ 

A. Shu^s lights rays* 
p. Shustoshiiy washing. 
p. Sikh, a spit. 
8. Sil, a grinding-stone. 
A. Silat* armour^ arms. 
8. Sim, a flat bean. 
A. Sinan, p(Ant of a spear ^ S^c. 
p. Sindan, an anvil. 
A. Sinf, species^ kind. 
H. Sink, a culm of grass for 

H. Sip, a shell. 
p. Sip&h, an army. 
p. Sipar, a shield. 
p. Sipas, praise, thanksgiving. 
p. Sipurd, charge, trust. 
H. Sip, madness. 
p. Sitad, a taking. 
s. Sith, dre(/« o/ &e/e/. 
A. Sirat^ a way. 
8. Siwin, vermicelli. 
p. Sohun, a/S/e. 
H. Sojh, straightness. 
8. Sonf, aniseed. 
8. Sonth, dry-ginger. 
p. Sozan, a needle. 
p. Sii, a side. 
A. Suba|jL, saba^, datc^n of day. 

p. Sdfar, i9t. /. the notch of an 

arrow ; needles eye. 
8. Sdj, a swelling. 

H. Siijh, sight. 

A. Sula^, salah, peace. 

A. Sulb, crudfimon, teasing. 

H. Sumsum, t20i«« of wood 
burning, simmering. 

A. Sumdm, hot pestitential 

s. Sdnd, proboscis of an ele^ 

s. Sdngh, a smell. 

s. Sunghun, a thing to smell, 

8. Surang, a mine, subter- 
raneous passage. 

A. Sdranjan, a medicine. 

p. Surin, the hips, the thighs. 

p. T&b, heat, light, power. 

A. Taba, nature, genius. 

A. Tabashir, sugar of the bam^ 

A. Tablak, a little drum^ 

A. T^dad, number, computa- 

p. Tagapd, tagdau, bustle, fa- 

p. Tah^fold; the bottom. 

p. T&h, a plait. 

H. X^hak, pain in the joints. 

H. 'J'ahal, housewifery, a job. 

A. Taj, the bay tree,or its bark 





ajassus, spying. 

H. Tak, a scaie^ staring. 

8. p. Tak, a glance ; a vine. 

H. T^kkar, shoving or knock- 
ing against. 

A. Takr&r, repetition. 

8. 7^8^19 fn.f. mint* 

H. f al, a heap ; evasion. 

A. Talab, wages. 

A. Tal^, a divorce. 
I l| H Talwfir, a sword ; also tur- 
iv wfa. 1^ 

A. Tain^9 avarice. 9^ «• 

A. Tamanna, a requesh^ (t^ ' 

A. Tammauwul) riches^ grow- 
ing rich. 

p. Tan, note^ tune. 

A. Tanab, a tent rope, 

H. fingj the leg. 

H. f&nkf an iron pin^ a stitch. 

p. Tankhwah, wages. 

8. TaQt, m.f. cat-gut^ sinew. 

A. TanZ) mirth. 

p. Tap, a fever; tapidiq, a 
hectic fever ; tapi^hib, a 
tertian fever. 

H. T^P) pawing of a horse. 

H. ipapokj sound made by 
dropping ; pain ; also tab- 

p. Tar, m, f thread ; wire. 

H. Tar, understanding. 

p. Tarab, a musical tone. 

A. Tarab, cheerfulness^ joy. 

A. Tara^, mocfe, manner. 

8. Tarang, a wave; whim; 

H. Ta^ap, agitation^ hastSf a 

leap. . „ 

p. Tarazu, a scale^ balance. ^tlj 
p. Tans, a piece of cloth cut^ 

8. 7^(A^» chattering. 
A. Tarz, /oriw, manner. 
H. 7^Ak, stitch^ throb. 
H. T^tiya, a skreen. 
A. Taubafa, p^ni^ence. 
A. Tawaf, encompassing ; pit 

A. Tawajjuh, turning to^ kind^ 

A. Tawaqq^, hope^ trust. 
A. Tawiziji, humility^ compli- 
A. Tawazzii, ablutionyarriving 

at puberty. 

p. Tegh, a scimitar. 


H. T^m, snuff of a candle. 
p, Teshah, a carpenter^s awe. 
H. Thah, bottom^ ford. 
H. 'ifhak-thak, mf. hardwork ; 

a sound. 
H. 7 hand) t^andak, coldness. 
H. Th&p, a tap^ a paw. 
H. f hasak, state, dignity* 
H. fhaixr, place* 


m^ .f 



H. T^ek, support 
H. fbes, a knockj a blow, 
'^TH. fhUiyii a ioater-pot. 

H. f hH^I^9 standing amazed, 

H. 7hokar, a blow 9 a tripping ; 
so thes. 

H. T^o^S' striking with the 
finger or beak. 

H. f humak, walking grace- 

A. Tib, medicine. 

A. Ti^al, spleen. 

H. f il^^y^9 ^ wafer^ small cake 
:> of charcoal. 

V. Tilak, a gown. 

A. Tims41, resemblance. 

H. Tip9 ^ note of hand ; draw- 
ing a- cord. 

H. ipiftip^ ornament ; act of 

H. T^s, a throb. 

H. ipo-i, feeling^ groping. 

H. f ok, hindrance. 

H. Tondj pot-belly. 

T. Top, a caTznon. 

T. Topak, or tupak, a musket. 

p. Toshak, a quilty a mat- 

p. Tufang, a musket ; a tube, 

H. Tok, a moment. 

H. T^ngar or tung, pecking or 
nibbling fruit. 

s. Ukh anef ikh, sugar-can^ 
a. Ulaq, a kind of small boat. 
H. Uljhan, involution^ compli-- 

H. Ulu, grass used for thatch. 
H. Umang, transport^ joy. 
p. Ummed» or ummaid, hope, 
A, Umr, age. 
8. Unchas, height. 
u. Ungh, nodding^ sleepiness. 
H. Upaj, Me chorus of a song.^ 
H. \JpaS90ffensive smell f rotten- * 

H. Uran, ac^ of flying. 

H. Ureb, complication. 

G. Ustarlab an astrolabe. 

H. Ut&ran, a fragment ; cast- 

H. Utawal, quickness. 

H. Uthan, oc^ o^ appearing. 

H. Utb-baith, restlessness. 

A. Waba, the plague or pesti- 

p. Wah, bravo ! alas / 

A, Wafi^performingapromisef 

A. Wajh, catMe 

A. Wara, iw. /. timidity ^ fear 
of God; temperance. 

A. Wasaty m, f the middle^ 

p. Washud, opening^ dispers- 

^tode ; face. 



A. Wai^^situationyStateimode^ 

A. Wiliy friendship. 

p. Yad, recollectionj memory. 

p. Yal, a horae'e mane. 

A. Yas, despair. 

p. Zaban, the tongue^ speech. 

A. ^abh, sacrifice^ slaughter. 

A. Zabiir, the Psalms of David. 

A. Z^faran, saffron. 

p. Zagfaan, a kite. 

p. Zaghand, sally^flightj levity. 

A. Zahr, the back. 

A. Zak, zik, injuring^ dis- 

p. Zakhm, m.f. a wound. 

p. Zalu, a leech. 

A. Zamad, a bandage, a plas- 

p. ZBmim^m.f. a rein^ bridle. 

p. Zambil, a basket, purse. 

A. Zamburak, a small gun. 
A. Zaminyearth. 
p. ^amm, blame. 


A. Zanjabil, diy ginger. 
p. Zanjir, a chain. 

B. Zarb, a blow, stamping. 
p. Zardak, a carrot. 

H. Zatal, quibbling^ chattering. 
A. Zawa, or ziyi, light, splen^ 

p. Zeb, beauty, ornament. 
A. Zidd, opposition. < ^ 

p. Zih, a bow-string. 
A. Zini, adultery, fornication. 
p. Zinjifj/nn^e. 
p. Zir, zil, the .treble, {in 

p. Zirah, iron armour. 
p. Zulf, a curling lock. 
A. Zunnar, a &e//, or girdle; 

a rosary. 







p. JCbid^populous. 

p. Abi, watery. 

H. Abk&, present (time). 

A. Ablaq, pye^ald. 

8. Achchha, good. 

A. A'dil,^W^. 

A. Adim, destitute. 

H. Adkhila, . AdkhoU, half- 

H. Adna, low, mean, inferior. 

p. Afshurdah, pressed, filtered. 

p. A{svLTdah^fro«en^aded,sad. 

p. Afzdn, increasing. 

p. Agih^informedof acquaints 
ed with. 

p. Aghashtah, nioM/ened, mio?- 

& Agla, /ormcr. 

8. Ahani, ahanin, of iron. 

A. Ahmaq, /ooZi^A. 

A. Aiy&r, cunning. 

A. Ajib, ti7on(2^/f^/. 

A. Ajiz, impotent, humble. 

A. Ajnab, ajnabi, foreign} 


8. Akela, alone. 

A. Akhir, akhir> last. 

H. Alagy separate, apart. 

A. All, high. 

A. A 111, weak. 

A. Alim, trt^. 

A. Alim, learned. 

p. Aliidah, defiled. 

A. Amali, artificial, practical. 

A. Amin,/atYA/%«J« 

A. Amiq, deep. 

p. Amiranah, lordly. 

A. Amdm, common. 

p. Andak, a little, a few. 

s. Andardn, m^^na/. 

p. Andha, blind. 

8. Andhiyara, dark. 

8. Andhla, &Zmc2. 

A. Aqal-mand, wise. 

A. Aqil, e<7i«e. 

A. Aqim, barren. 

p. Aramidah, at ease. 

p. Arastah,jorepare(l,ac(omed. 

A. Arghawani, purple. 

A. Arif, sagacious. 



A. A^rizi, accidental. 

p. Aijmand, beloved; happy. 

p. Arzan, cheap. 

A. Arzaq, blue. 

p. Arzumaxidi desirous. 

p. Asan, easy. 

p. Ashkara, clear^ known. 

p. Aahuftah, distracted. 

A. Asiyor mu^fi, sinning y a sin-- 

ner^ sinful. 
A. Asli, original^ noble. 
p. Asmani, celestial ; blue. 
p. Asudah, satisfied. 
A. A'^, odoriferous. 
A. Auwal> /ir«^, 6c«^. 
s. Awarah, wandering. 
p. Awizah, pereient. 
p. Ayandah, /M^«rc. 
p. Azad, azadah, /re«. 
A. A?4f, very weak. 
p. Azari, «ieZp. 

A. A'zim, resolved, determined, 
A. Azimy great. 
A. Aziz, beloved, respected. 
p. Azurdah, cy^ic/ed, «ad. 
A. Ba-a§ar, effectual. 
p. Bad, 6ad, et^i/. 
p. l&oA-iAiiXy flagitious. 
p. Bad-chashm^mo/ijfnan^, evt/. 

p. Bad-dil, suspicious. 
V. Biddy flatulent. 
A. Badi§, noveh 


p. Bad-saluki, ill-mannered^ 

p. Bad-surat, ugly. 
p. Bad-zaban, afrt^^ve. 
p. Bad-zat, wicked. 
p. Bahadur, brave* 
p. Bahari, verna/. 
p. Bahra^ deaf. 
p. Bahrahmand, blessed ; pro- 

A. Ba^ri, maritime^ 
H. Bahut, mtichy many. 
H. Bahuteri, many. 
H. Bain, fe/*/, to the left. 
A. Bakhily miserly. ./.'., .. 
p. Bala, high. ' ^ / 

p. Bi-mazah, delicious. ^ ' ' V 

p. Ba-muruwat, manly. 
s. Banjh, ftarren. 
A. Baqi, remaining. 
H* Bara, (/reo/, large. 
p. Barabar, Z«v6/, equal. 
p. Barani, rainy. 
p. Barbad, destroyed. 
p. Bar-guzidah, chosen* 
p. Barham, confused ; angry. 
p. Barlk, >!n0, subtle. 
A. Bar-taraf, a^icfe, dismissed. 
p. Bas, enoughy plenty. 
p. Ba-tadbir, prudent. 
p. Ba-tamfz, j'z^eliciotitf. 
A. BatiU vain, futile. 
A. B&tin, tnu^ard. 

• ». 



K. BitAni, talkative. 
p. Bi'W9,% faithful. 
p. Be-aram, sick. 
p. Be-charab, helpless. 
p. Bedar, wakefuL 
p. Be-dard, unfeeling. 
H. Be-dhAi^ik, fearless. 
p. Be-dil, heartless. 
A. Be-£aidah, tt«etew, unprofit- 
A. Be-fikr, careless. 
A. Be-^ham, sorrowless. 
p. Be-gunah,/au/^^««* 
A. Be-tay^> shameless. 
p. Be-hoab, senseless^ 
p. Be-hddah, absurd. 
A. Be-Ufhtiyar, involuntary. 
p. Be-ja, improper. 
I*. Be-kar, unemployed. 
A. Be-khabar, careless. 
H. Be-mat, o/ a different mo- 
p, Be-parw a, ^orte««. 
A. Be-qadar, worthless. 
A. Be-qaiar, unsteady. 
A. Be-qiyas, i«co«m»a6te. 
A. Be-ratBtt> fnerc»te««- 
p. Besb, flfood, more, 
p. Be-shumar, nwmterfe**. 
A. P. Be-taq§ir, be-gunah, inno- 

A. Be-wafa, /aiYAfew. 
p. Be-waquf j /oo/wA. 

p. Bez&r, disgusted. 

8. Bbalfi, ^oocf. 

H. Bhar, bbari, ftdl. 

s. Bhari, heavy. 

H. Bhukha, hungry. 

p. Bibtar, 6e^/er. 

p. Bina, clear-sighted. 

p. Bisyar, manj^, mfM;&. 

s. Bujbail, laden. 

p. Buland, Ai^A ; barhe, old. 

p. Burd-bar» patient. 

p. Buzurgy great. 

p. Chalak, active. 

H. Cbanga, healthy^ cured. 

H. Ch&pti^Jlattened. 

p. Cbarindab 9 ^rdisrmjr. 

H. Cbaukas, cZet^er, cautious. 

H. Chaura, u;ide, broad. 

H. Chbipa, cZoee, hidden. 

H. Chhota, small, little. 

H. Chikkan, clean. 

H. Chup, silent. 

s. Dahina, ri^A^ 

A. Dakbil, entering^ entered,. 

p. Diman-gir, dependant on, 
attached to. 

p. Dana, tc^iee. 

p. Dangy astonished^ foolish. 

p. Dard-mand, afflicted, sym- 

p. Darindab, tearing, rapad- 

p. Darkar, nece«eary» 



p. Darmandah, helpless, 

p. Daulat-mand, rich. 

s. Dhila, loosey laxy. 

p. Dilawar, hrave» 

p. Dil-band, attractive* 

p. Dil-chasp, pleasant. 

p. Diler, bold. 

p. Dil-gir, melancholy. 

p. Dil-shikastuh, broken-heart- 

p. Diwanah, mad. 

p. Do-dilah, double-minded. 

8. Dubia, /Am, lean. 

p. Durusbt, roughs fierce. 

p. Durust, ri^A/, /!/• 

p. Dushwar, difficult. 

B. Ektba, or ikatth&, collected 

A. Fahim, intelligent. 

p. Faidab-mand, profitable. 

A. Faiyaz, liber al. 

A. Fajdr, adulterousy wick- 

A* Fakhir, excellent. 

A. Faqir, poor, a beggar. 

p. Farakb, u^ide, ample. 

p. Far&mosb, /or^o^/en. 

p. Faraz, At jfA, ewalted. 

p. Farbih,/a/. 

p. Fareftah, deceived^ ena- 

A. Farigb, /r«c, a/ leisure. 

p. Farm&n-bard&r, obedient. \ 

p. Faro-mandab, /ired, deject-^ 

p. Farrukh, happp. 
A. F&sid, viciot»«, perverse ; 

also fasiq. 
A. Fata^mand, or fata|i-yab, 

A. Fazi(i, m/amou9, disgrace* 

A. Fazil, ea^cellenti learned. 
A. Fazdl, eofuberant. 
p. Fikr-mand, thoughtful. 
p. Firoz,firozniaDd, /or/fina/e, 

p. Gandab, /tf^fd. 
p. Gar&mi, dear, praeiou«« 
p. Garan, heavg, important^ 

dear in price. 
p. GaTdan-ka8b,Aatf$rA/y,«/u6* 

p. Garm, hotf tcarm. 
p. Gawar, gawara, digesting, 

H. Gb&br&, or gbabri, con* 

A. GhiSl^senseless, negligent. 
A. Gbafdr, clement f forgiving. 
A. Gbaib, hidden^ absent. 
A. Gh&ib, absent. 
A. Gbairat-mand,iea2om,cm«- 

A. Obaiydr, jealous, high* 






rf. GhiUhf victorious. 
A. 6halis» dirty. 
p. GhsXt^n^ rolling. 
H. Gham&gham, ^AtcA;, crowd- 
A. Gbamgin, sorrowful. 
A. Ghaniy rtcA,' incfepevK^^n^ 
A. Gharib, poor. 

A. Ghariir, proud. 

B. Ghasiii^ grassy. 
H. Ghayal, wounded. 

H. Gherdy round, surrounded. 

A. Ghufsah, an^rry. 

p. Girifta, giriftah, /aAren. 

H. GoT&, fair J white. 

p. Goya, speaking^ speaker. 

p. Gud&z, melted, mild. 

p. Gum, gum-shudah, lost. 

p. Gum-rah, errtny, wander- 

p. Giinagdn, variegated, va- 

p. Gunah-gar, sinning, a sin- 

H. Gunga, dumb. 

f. Gursanah, hungry. 

p. Gustakh, arrogant, rude. 

p, Guzidab, chosen. 

A. Hadiq, or t^fiq* ingenious. 

A. Hairan, astonished. 

A. Halak, lost, destroyed. 

A. Halini) mild, affable. 

H» H41ka, light, mean* 













Ham^ard, compassiondtcy 
Hamilah, pregnant. 
Ham-sbakI, like in appear^*^ 


Hansor, facetious* 
Haqiqi, real, true. 
Haqir, vile, contemptible. 
Haram, sacred, forbidden. 
Haram, unlawful, illegiti- 

^arif, clever, plea^ant^ 
^asid, envious. 
Hasin, or jjiasain, beautiful, 
Hasin, strong, fortified. 
HA\il'nik,frightfuly terrible 
Hawa-dar, airy. 
Hawa-parast, vain, volatile. 
HaziD, sorrowful* 
GLazir, present. 
Hirsi, or \sx^, greedy. 
Hoshiyar, sensible, clever^ 
Hosb-mand, intelligent^ 
Hunarmand, skilful. 
I \i^ixi-m2iXLA,obliged^grateful, 
Ikka, iklauta, unique, only. 
Imindir, faithful. 
Iqbalmand, fortunate. 
Istadab, standing. 
Ittifaqi, accidental* 
Jagmaga, glittering, 
Jagta, awake. 
Jabil, ignorant. 



A. J&is, lawful^ proper. 

p. Jald, quick. 

p. J aiilf glorious^ illustrious. 

p. Jamil, beautifuly elegant. 

H. Jangli, wild, clownish. 

A. Jiri^Jlowing. 

A. Jaridah, alone, solitary, un- 

A. Jawan-mard, brave. 

H. Jhuta, jhutha, /a^6. 

A. Jismanf) corporeal. 

s. Jita, alive. 

A. Juda, separate, different. 

p. Kabab, roasted. 

A. Eabir, great, large. 

H. Eachcha, rat&, unripe* 

A. Kafi, sufficient. 

A. Eahil, Ziiiiry, weak. 

p. Eajy crooked. 

p. Earn, /i//fe, deficient. 

A. Eamal, complete, perfect. 

p. Eam-bakht, unfortunate. 

A. Eamil,p6r/ec^. 

p. Eaminah, fra^e, m^a^. 

p. Eam-kharcfa, parsimonious. 

p. Eam-qadr, worthless. 

p. Eam-yab, scarce. 

p* Eam-zor, weak. 

p. Eardan, e^/>&r^ 

p. Ear-gar, kari, effectual ; 
also kam-gir. 

A. Earim, ^eneroutf, liberal. 

p. Ear-rawa, useful. 

s. Eatua, hitter, virulent. 
A. Easal-mand, ^icfc, relaxed. 
p. Eashidah, drawn ; sullen. 
A. Easif, dense, dirty. 
A. Easir, many, miM^A. 
A. Ehabir, knowing, wise. 
A. Ehafa, khafah, angry. 
A. Ehafi, khafiyah, secret, con^ 

A. Ehair, ^ood. 
A. Ehajal, modest, bashful. 
A. Ehali, empty. 
p. Eham, raw. 
V. Eh&mosh, silent. 
H. Ehara, erect, standing. 
A. Eharab, bad,spoiled. 
p« Eharidah, purchased. 
A. Khas, ^hasah, noble. 
p. Ehastah. wounded* 
H. Ehatta, acid. 
A. Ehirad«inand, wise. 
A. KHySli, fanciful. 
p. Khiib, good. . 
A. Khujistab, happy. 
K. Ehula, open, 
p. Ehursand, contented* 
p. Ehdsh, pleased. 
p. Ehushk, drj^. 
p. Ehushnud, pleased, content. 
p. Ehw^han, wishing,desirous. 
p. Ehwastab, desired. 
p. Einah-war, malicious, ran* 





Kor, blind. 


Kotah, kotah, shorty small. 


Kotah-undeshy improvident 



Kiihan, kuhan-sal, old. 


Kumaki, auwiliary. 



Eush&dah, open. 



Labalab, brimful. 



La-char, destitute^ help^ 




Ladd, fit to carry a load. 



LafiSf, eloqtient. 



Laf-zan, boasting. 



Lagbar, lean. 



L^-^asil, unproductive^ pro- 





La-il&j, la-dawa, itremedia^ 







L^iDi accursedf detested. 



Laiq, worthy ^ fit. 



La-jawab) silenced^ speech- 




Lai, red. 



Lalchi, covetous. 



Lamba, long^ talk 



Langfa, lame in one foot. 



Larik,laraka, quarrelsome. 



La-ganv, onJy^ unequalled. 



L&-8hak, laraib, doubtless^ 





Latak) hanging. 



Latif, pleasant. 


p. La-zaban^ la-sukhan^ la- 


kalam, silent, speechless^ 

Lizini, necessary, urgent, 

Laziz, delicious, pleasant. 
Lula, lams in the hands. 
Lunji, lame; also lunj, lun- 

M$f, pardoned. 
Mafldj, paralytic. 
Maghlub, conquered. 
Maghmura, grieved. 
Maghrdr, proud. 
M ahanga, dear. 
Maljifuz, preserved. 
Mahir, acute, ingenious. 
Mahkdm, subject, under 

Ma^mdd, praised ; worthy. 
Maljirum, prohibited ; dis- 
Ma^zun, grieved. 
Ma^zuzy delighted. 
Mail, inclined to* 
Maila, dirty. 
Maimdn, happy. 
Majbdr, forced. 
Majndn, mad in love. 
Makhtdb, betrothed., 
Makkar, deceitful. 
Mal-andesh, reflecting an 
Mal^uj, contemplated^ 































Maldnr, kfiowfim 
Mamnun, obliged. 
Mandah, Hredy weary. 
Man^usy unfortunate. 
Miu^y forbidding^ prevent- 

Mansukh, abolished. 
Mantiqi, logicaL 
Maqbul, agreed, agreeable. 
Mardanah, manly. 
Mardud, rejected. 
Mariz, sick. 
Mashghul, engaged in. 


Mashhiir, well known. 
MasIn^» heard* 
Masriif, expended. 
Mast, drunk. 
Mat-wala, drunk, 
Maujud, ewieting., 
Mauqdf, stopped. 
Mausdf, described^ praised. 
Mazah-dar, delicious, i 
Mazbut» strong, jp Y\^ 
Ma|kdr, above-mentioned. 
Mazmdm, contemptible. 
M^^dr, excused, 
Mihin, /Sne, thin. 
Mihr-ban, kind, compas^ 

Miskin, poor, miserable, 
Mitha, sweet. 
TAot&9 fat, thick, 
MvLaiyaD, fiofed. 

A. MvL^tl^, perfumed. 

A. Mu^zzaz, honoured. 

A. Mubarak) happy. 

A. MvLhtali,involved in trouble. 

A. Mudauwar, round. 

A. Mufassal, distinct. 

A. Mufid, profitable. 

A. Muflisy poor. 

A. Muhaiya, prepared, ready. 

A. Mul^airam, sacred. 

A. Muhib» awful. 

A. Mvi^it, encircling. 

A. Mu^kam» strong. 

A. Muhmil, negligent. 

A, Mul^sin, obliging. 

A. Mu^taj, necessitous, indi- 

A. Mujarrab, tried. 
A. Mujarrad, alone. 
A. Mukhdlif^ opposite, ad* 

A. Mulaim, soft. 
A. Mulazim, assiduous. 
A. Mumkin, possible. 
A. Mumtaz, distinguished. 
A. Munasib, proper, Jit. 
H. Munh-zor, headstrong, 
A. Munkir, denying. 
A. Muntashir, published. 
A. Munzal, sent, 
A. M\x({i\A\,confronting,equaU 
A. Muqaddam, prior. 
I A. Muqaddar, predestined. 



























Muqarrab, apprommated^ 

Muqarrar, certaifif fiofed. 
Munibbi^9 square, 
Murauwaj, current. 
Murdah, or murdar, dead. 
Murtakib, mounted. 
Musa^ib, associated with. 
Musakhkhar, subdued. 
Musallam, preserved. 
Mushki, dark bay. 
Mushkil, difficult. 
Mushtaq, desirous. 
Mustaghriq, immersed. 
Mustahil, impossible. 
Mustahiq, worthy. 
Mutabiq, agreeable. 
Mutafakkir, thoughtfuL 
Mutljjib, wonderful. 
Mutakabbir, proud. 
Mutamad, confidential. 
MutanaflSr, detesting. 
Mutawajjih, turning to, at- 
tentive to. 
Muttafiq, agreeing, 
Muttila, acquainted with. 
Muwafiq, conformable. 
Muyassar, attainable^ easy. 
Muzirr, pernicious. 
Mualum, oppressed. 
Mualumnawaz, pitying the 

















Muztarib, or muztaribaiiah, 
Na-bad, destroyed. 
Na-chfir, remediless. 
Na-chiz, trifling^ of no 

Nadan, ignorant. 
Nafi, profitable^ salutary. 
Nafis, precious^ delicate. 
Nafs-kush, temperate 
Na-gawar, indigested, un^ 
Na-^aq, unjust. 
Na-kfim, disappointed; aU 
so na.murad. 

Na-kardahkar, inea^perien^ 

Na-khush, displeased. 
Na*laiq, unworthy. 
Nam, moists wet. 
Na-mard, cowardly, impo- 

Nam-didah, st$ff\ised with 

Namiy namwar, celebrated. 
Namudar, noted^ famed. 
Nanga, naked. 
Ni-paedar, unstable, frail. 
Napak, impure. 
Na-pasand, disapprov ed 

Na-qis, imperfect, inexpert. 
Narm, soft. 



A. Na-sabr, impatient 
p. Na-saz, disootdant 
p. ^i'SBzi, unmerited, imper- 
A. Nasf, half. 
p. Na-shukr, unthankful. 
p. Naflip&s, ungrateful. 
A. Na-tamam, unfinished. 
A. T^i^q, speaking. 
H. Nat-khat, roguieh^ trickieh. 
p. Nau, naya, new. 
p. Ni-umed, hopeleesydespair- 

A. Nawazish-firma, caressing. 

p, Na-yib, scarce. 

p. Nazak, delicate^ gracious. 

A. Nazil, d<?fiC€ndi«^* 

p. Nek, jTood. 

p. Nek-bakht, /or /t««a^«, Aap- 

p. Nek-kar, virtuous. 

p. Nek-nam, r^wau^wed. 

p. Ni%ittat.khwar,w>yins^/»- 

p. KigAhbinygUarding^watch- 

H. Nikammi, useless; also 

p. Siko^good. 
p. Nim, half 
p. Nim-jan, Aa(f dead with 

A. Nknjotb, coddled, 

p. Paedar, /{rm, durable. 

H. Pahila, or p8hla,^r«/« 

p. Pahni, broad, wide. 

p. Paida, born, produced. 

p. Pairau, /o//otr»fi^. 

p. P&ji, inean^ 

p. Pak, p&kizab, pure. 

s. Pakka, ri/>&« 

p. Pand-pasir» advised^ taking 

p. Pareshan, wretched, dis^ 

p. Pasandidah^e&o^en^ajsrpro!?- 

p. Pasheroan, ashamed^ peni** 

p. Past, Zotr, medn^ 
H. Patl4, /fn«, ^Am. 
p. Pechan^ twisted, 
p. Pefsh^dasty pre-eminent. 
H. Phabta, pertinent, fit. 

ttw Phapcbha, clear, pure. 


H. Pichhla, or pichfata, latter. 
p. Pilidy unclean.^ 
s. Piyasa, thirsty. 
p. Pif ir, pi^^raby acceptable. 
H. Popla, toothless. 
p. Pukhtah, eookedf ripe. 
H. Pura, or pur, /w//. 
s« Pur&na, oZd. 
A. Qabi^, vile. 
A. Qabil^ capable. 
I A. Qabol, accepted, approved. 







A. Qadim, old. 

A. Qadir, jpotoer/u/. 

A. Qiim^ standing^ firm. 

A. Qam>Ji//fo. 

A. Qarib, near, 

A. Q&sir, defective. 

A. Qati^, cutting. 

A. Qavi, strong. 

A. Qimati, vafoa6l«. 

A. RalLin&n, merciful. 

p. Ram, tame. 

p. Kangi-rang, vartott«9many- 

p. Rangin, colored. 
p. Ranjidah,cf^M?^erf,dwptea«- 

p. R&st, rigrA^ 

p. Raw&, ri^fA^ 

p. Raw&dar, approving. 

p. Rawanaby despatchedt de^ 

p. Raz&-jo, seeking consent or 

A. Raza-mand, con«ei»/in<;r, 

p, Raz-dar, faithfviy {in «e- 

A. Razi, contented. 
p. Rekhtah, scattered. 
p. Roshan, %A^, splendid. 
V. Rusiyah, black-faced. 
p. Ruswa, i»#/a«w)w«. 
A. S^b, Aard, difficult. 




























Sabiq, /orm^r, preceding. 
Sabir, f ubdr, patient.. 
Sabit, firmy proved^ 
Sabzy green. 
Sach, true. 
Sadah, white. 

Sadat-mand, fortunate^ 


Sadiq, just^ sincere. 

Sadr, chief. 

Saf, clean. 

Saf-dil, pure in heart. 

Safed, white. 

Safi, pure. 

Saghir, smallj little. 

Sahaj, easy. 

Sa|^ib-dil, pious. 

Sa^ifi, accurate^ perfects 

Sahl, eo^y. , jy^ 

Saiqal, polishmg. 

Sakhi, liberal. 

Sakht, hard. 

Sakin, quietj quiescent. 

Sakit, silent. 

Salamat, safe. 

Sili\^^ goody fit. 

SaliiD, mildy pacific. 

Salim, safe, perfect. 

Sails, easy. 

Salig. east/. 

Samajh-war, prudent^ conh 


Sang-dil, hard-hearted* 









Sangin, stony. 
Sanjidah, weighty ^ grave. 
Saqil, heavy f lazy. 
Sara, rotten^ musty. 
Sara, the whole^ all. 
Sarasimah, amazed. 
Sar-bulund, ewalted. 
Sard, cold. 

Sar-faraz, exalted^ eminent. 
Sar-garm, intent on, ear- 

Sar-gashta^, afflicted^ asto- 

Sar-kash, rebellious. 
SaX'Shir^fullj intoxicated. 
Sayahdar> shady. 
Saza-war, worthy, deserv- 

Saz-gar, consonant, proper* 
Ser, full. 
Shad, happy. 
Shadab, verdant. 
Shid-dil, cheerful. 
Shadid, extreme. 
Shad-kam, joyous. 
Shadman, pleased. 
Shah-war, kingly. 
Shahwati) lascivious. 
Shaida, mad, in love. 
Shakir, grateful, thankful. 
Shakki, doubtful. 
Shamil, united with, con- 

































Sham SI, solar. 
Sharif, great, noble. 
Sharir, wicked. 
Sharmindah, ashamed* 
Sheranah, tiger-like. 
Shiguftah, expanded. 
Shikari, of the game or 
hunting kind. 
Shikastah, broken. 
Shinfis, knowing. 
Shirin, sweet, affable. 
Shitabi, quick. 
Shokh, wanton. 
Shiim, black, unfortunate. 
Sidhi, straight. 
Siflah, ignoble. 
Sinah-soz, tormented* 
Sinah-zor, robust, athletic* 
Siyah, blacks 

Siyah-bakht, unfortunate. 
Siyah-kar, wicked. 
Siydh-mast, dead-drunk. 
Sog-war, grievous, afflicted. 
Subuk, light. 
Sddaul, handsome. 
Sud-mand, profitable. 
Sufi, wise. 
Sukha, dry. 
Sukhan-dan, eloquent. 
Surkh, red. 
Sust, idle. 
Susti, idte. 
Suthri, good, fine^ 
































Tabih, bad^ 8pailed. 
Tabi, tibidir, dependant^ 

Tabi-i, natural, innate, 
Tahir, pure, chaste. 
Taiy&r, ready. 
TtAyiVfJlyingy ready. 
Talab-dar or (alab-gir, de- 
sirous, seeking. 
Talib, asking. 

Talibi-dttDyi, worldly-mind^ 

Talkh, bitter. 
Tamam, complete. 
Tamia, (amni^) covetous. 
Tan-durust, healthy. 
Tang, strait, narrow. 
Tanha, alone. 
Tar, wet, moist. 
Tarik, dark. 
TiBTsin, fearful, afraid. 
Tars-nak, timid., 
Taw&na, powerful. 
Tawangar, rich. 
Tawil, long. 
Tazah, fresh. 
ferha, crooked. 
Tez, sharp. 
Tez-rau, swift. 
Thaka, tired, weary. 
7handa> or thandha, cold. 
fhik, exact, right. 
Thora, a little. 

s. Tikha, puftgent, angry. 

p. Tisbnahy thirsty, 

H. Totla, stammering. 

p. Tund, hot, angry., 

p. Tursh, sour, harsh. 

8. Udas, sorrowful. 

H. Ultay turned over, opposite* 

p. Umedwar, hopeful. 

p. Uncha, high. 

A. WafB^div, faithful, sincere* 

A. Wafir, abundant. 

A. Wa^id, wahid, alone, one. 

2. Wairan, wiran, desolate. 

A. Wajib, necessary, proper^ 

A. Wdqif, knowing, e^peri^ 

H. Waqr-wala, dignified. 
A. Waqa&dar, informed of, em- 

A. Wasiq, firm, steady. 
A. Waswasi, doubtful. 
A. Wazi^, evident, dear. 
p. Yaganuh, single, incompar- 

p. Yak-dil, of the same mir^. 
p. Yak-ru, unanimous. 
p. Yak-s&n, equal, alike. 
p. Yakta, single, solitary. 
A. Yaqin, certain, true. 
p. Yar-bash, sensual, 
p. Zabar, above. 
p. Zabar-dast> oppressive. 



A. Zahir, evident. 
A. ^ahin, sagaciotts. 


P. Zahr-dar, poisonous. 

A. Za-i, lostf abortive. 

A. Zaid, redundant. 

A. Zaif, tc;eaAp. 

A. Zail, deficient^ injurious. 

p. Za|chmi, wounded, 

A. Zaiil, abject^ base. 

A. ^alim, tyrannical. 

p. Zangari, rt^^ty. 

p* Zar-bafi, embroidered. 

p. Zard, yellow. 

A. Zarib, beating. 

A. Zarif, ingenious. j>jJ> 

A. Zardr, necessary. 

p. Zeba> adorned^ beautiful. 

p. Zer, inferior, below. 

p. Zer-dast, under command. 

p. Zer o zabar, topsy-turvy. 

p. Zindah, a/ive« 

p. Zirak, ingenious. 

p. Zisht, t/^/y. 

p. Zdd, ^uicAr. 


Ek, one. 
Do, /tc'o. 
Tin, /Arce, 
Char, four. 
Panch, five- 
Cbhah, siw. 
Sat, seven. 
Ath, ei^Af. 
Nau, nine. 
Das, /en. 
Giyarab) eleven* 
Barah, twelve. 
Terahi thirteen, 
Chaudah, fourteen, 
Pandrahy fifteen. 
Solah, siwteen. 
Satrah, seventeen. 
Atharah^ eighteen. 
Unis, ninet^n^ 



Bis, twenty. 
Ekis, twenty-one. 
Bais, twenty-two. 
Te-is, twenty-three. 
Chaubis, twenty-four. 
Pachis, twenty-five. 
Chhabis, twenty-siw. 
Sat&is, twenty- seven. 
Athdis, twenty-eight. 
Untis, twenty-nine. 
Tis, thirty. 
Ektis, thirty-one. 
Battis, thirty-two. 
Tetis, thirty-three. 
Chautis or cbauntis, thirty-four, 
Paintis, thirty-Jive. 
Chhatis, thirty- siof. 
Saintis, thirty-seven, 
A(htis, thirty-eight. 



. Untfilis or unch&Iis, thirty-nine. 
V> ChQi^, forty. 

Ekt&lis, forty-one. 

Be&lis, forty^ttvo. 

Tet&lis or ttint&USf forty-three. 

ChaualiB, forty-four, 

Paint&lisy forty-Jive. 

ChhealiB, forty-eiw, 

Saintalis, forfy-eeven. 

Athtalifly forty-eight. 

Unchdsy forty-nine. 

Fanch&s, fifty. 

Ek&wan, fifty-one. 

Bawan, fifty-two. 

Tirpan, fifty-three. 

Chauwan, fifty-four. 

Pachpan, fifty-^five. 

Chliappan. fifty-aia. 

Satawan, fifty-senen. 

Athawan, fifty-eight. 

Unsath, fifty-nine. 

Sith, siwty. 

Eksath, siwty-one. 

Basath, siaty-two. 

Tirsath, eiwty-three. 

Chausath, eiofty-four. 

Painsath, sixty-five. 

Chhasath or chheasath, siwty- 


Satsath, siafty-seven. 
Afhsath, siwty-eight. 
Unhattar, eisoty-nine, 
Sattar, seventy. 


Ekhattar, seventy-one. 
Bahattar, seventy-two. 
Tihattar, seventy-three. 
Chauhattar, seventy-four, 
Pacbhattar, seventy-five. 
Chhihattar, seventy-siw. 
Sathattar, seventy-seven% 
Afhhattar, seventy-eight. 
Unasi^ seventy-nine. 
Assi, eighty. J> 

Ek&siy eighty-oner^ 
Beasi, eighty-two. 
Tirasi, eighty -three .> 
Chaurasi, eighty-four. 
Pachasi, eighty-five. 
Chhe&si, eighty-six. * 
Satasi, eighty-seven. 
Athasiy eighty-eight. 
Nauasiy eighty-nine. 
Nauwe, ninety. 
Ekanauwe, nit^ty-one. 
Banauwe^ ninety-two. 
Tiranauwe, ninety-three. 
Chauranauwe, ninety-four. 
Pachanauwe, ninety-five. 
Chhednanwe, ninety-sia. 
Satanauwe, ninety-seven. 
Athanauwe, ninety-^ht. 
Ninnanauwe, ninety-nine. 
Sau, a hundred. 
Hazar, a thousand. 
Lakh, a hundred thousand. 
Earor, ten million. 






H. Adhiyana, to halve. 

H. Ahama^ io paste, 

H. Ainchna, to diaw^ attract. 

H* Atkalna^ to guess. 

H. Aundhana, to overturn, to 

r. Azmana, to try, to prove. 
H. Badalnas to change. 
p. Bakhshna, to give, to for^ 

H. Banana, to make, builds 
8. Bantna, to share, or divide. 
H. Bannana, to bore. 
n. Barr&na, to talk in one'*s 


s. Basana, toper fume, to scent, 
H. Batana, to show, explain. 
H. ^^tomi^to gather up, collects 
H. Becbna, to sell. 
8. Bedhna, to perforate. 
H. Berhna, to enclose. 

H. Bhambhoirna, to worry, to 


H. Bharna, to fill. 

H. Bhauokna, to thrust or 

H. Bhejna, to send. . lu^^i 

H. Bhunana, to exchange mo* 

p. Biga|:na» to spoil. 

H. Bit&na, to scatter. 

H. Biy&na, to marry. 

s. Bojhna, to load. 

H. ♦Bolna, to speak. 

H. Bahama, to sweep toge- 

8. Bdjhna, to understand. 

H. Bukna, to grind to pow- 

H. Bunna, to weave. 

H. Chahna, to desire. 

s. Chakhna, to taste. 

H. Chalna, to sift. 

H. Chasni, to plow. 

H. Chdtn4, to lick, to lap. 

H. Chaurana, to widen. t 

♦ Note, bolnA to speak, and Uni to bnng, though they are active verbs. 
And govern the objective case, do not admit the instrumental case before 

them in the perfect tense, &c. 

t, a9t/A**U 

^L^;s^ ^^/(A^hi 6s^€^ 


8. Chhani, to cover over. 
H. Chhflnd, to peeh to scrape. 
H. Chhinna, to pull^ to snatch, 
H. Chhirakna, to sprinkle. 
H. CYihitnk^ to scatter ^sprinkle. 
8. Chhitr4na, to spread^ to 

H. Chhorna, to let go^ to loose. 
H.Chhurana, to set free ^ re- 
8. Chiknina, to smooth^ to 

H. Chirni, to tear^ to rend. 
8. Choran&9 to steal. 
H. Chumkania, to coax, 
8. Chdmna, to kiss. 
H. Chunna, to gather^ to col, 
* I 8. C\\usnk^ to stick. 
\s \t n^BUmi, to press down. ^^' 
± * r I?5 H. Dalna, to throw down. 
*^X^ J^^L^4^' Datni, dantna, to daunt ^ to 
4^'^^^^ threat. 

8. Dekhna, to see. 

8. T^tvA^togive. 

H. Dhakeln&9 to shove^ to push. 

H. DhampDi, to conceal, to co^ 

H. Dhinkna, to cotter. 
\ 8. Dbarna, to place, to lay 
\^f y hold of. 

H. Dharni, to cry ont or roar. 
8. Dhondy to wash. 


H. Dhundhna, to gegfe^ *^^ ^ ^ 

H. Duhranay to double. 

8. Dolina, to shake, to toss. 

p. Fitmini, to command. 

8. Gana, to sing. 

8. Garna, to bury. 

B. Ghisna, to rub, to beat. 

8. Ginna, to count. 

H. Ginwana, to lose. 

H. Girana, to throw down, to 

H. Godna, to prick, to punc-- 

p. Guzrana, to present, to of" 

H. Hankna, to drive. 
H. Hichkan4, to jolt. 
H. Hulna, to goad, to push. 
H. Jakarna, to tighten. 
H. Jancbna, to examine, to try. 
H. Jannfi, to know, to under- 
H. Jarna, to shake off, to join. 
H. Jbankna, to peep or spy. 
H. Jharakna, to browbeat, to 

snap at. 
H. Jharna, fo sweep, to bru^h. 
H. Jhunjlana, to reprove ; (n.) 

to be vexed. 
H. Jhutlana, to falsify. 
H« Jugalna, to chew the cud. 
s. Jutna, to unitCy to join in 


TSEB8. ^ li5 

2 /. 

fi. Kahna, to speaks to tell. 

H. Kamana, to earn ; to lessen. 

8. Earn4, to do, to ntaAw* 

s. Katarna, to c/ip, to cut out. 
\^i^s.. Kitnij to cut, to reap. 
^f^l^ (T Katrani, to cut out^ to go 
round about. 

8. Khanft, to eat. 

8. Khodni, to dig. 

B* Kbojnfi, to «e«A; for, to in- 
quire after. 

8. Kfaoln&» to ope9». Uy^ 

H. Khon&y to /oM. 

8. Lamb&na, to lengthen. 

B. Lani, to irtn^. 

B. Lapetna, to wrap up* 

a. Laf axuii to fight. 

B. Lathiyani, to ftetoiour, to 

H. Latiyana, to kick. 

H. Lend, to toApe or receive. 

B. Lepna, to plaster. 

8. Likhn&, to tcrito. 

8. Lutoa, to plunder. 

B. Malna, to r^fr. 

B. Mangni, to a«ft /or, to 6i^. 

8. Mauni, to regard. 

8. Mama, to 6ea/. 

B. Milana^ to mtcP, to mee/. 

8. N&pna, to meo^ur^. 

B. Nichhopna, to wring. 

8. Nigalna, to swallow, 

B. Nihuma, to 5end. 

H. Nikilni, to toilptf or put 

H. Nochni, to pinch^ to daw. 
H. Pichhni, to iitoctifato. 
H. Pabanni, to put on, to wear. 
H. Pabchinni, to ibnofffi to r^- 

B. Pak4na, to ripen, to cook. 
B. Pakafni, to oatoA, to ^eiivtf. 
8. Panfi, to^e/, to find. 
fl. Paiiiy&n&, to irrigate. 
8. Pafbn&y to read. 
B. Pa^akni, to da«A dotpn, to 

8. Fhandoa, to jump ovoTj to 

8. Ph&rn&, to toar, to rend. 
B. Pheoknfi, to throw. 
B. Phincbni, to rinee, to 

s. Phdnkna, to btote* 

H. Phusl4ni,toooaj?,toteA00d/f. 

8. Pina, to drink. 

s. Piichbna, to oeAp, to iitjtitre 

H. PuUrn&, to cry ot«^, to 

B. PuQchhni, to wipe. 
8. Rakbna, to pu/, to Areep. 
8. Raundbni, to trample on. 
8. Rindhna, to cook. 
B. Samighna, to understand. 
VL. Sadwarn&» to prepare ; to 





H. Sarihna, to praise. 

A. Satin&9 to oppose^ to tea%e. 

8. Sendhni, to mine. 

H. Senkni, to toast. 

H. Setn&9 to take care of. 

8. Sikhnfi) to learn. 

8. Sinchna, to irrigate. 

8. Sochni, to consider. 

8. Sompna, to deliver over. 

H. Sujhn^, to appear^ or be 

8. Sdnghnay to smell. 
8. Sunni, to hear. 
H. Tagna, to thread. 
A. Tal^silna, to collect. 
H. Takna, takna, to stare or 

look at. 
H. Talna, to fry. 
H. T^ngna, to hang up by a 

H. 7^nkn&, to stitch* 
p. Tarashnd, to cut. 
H. Tairna, to understand. 

8. T^rtarana, to chatter. 

H. 7ftto^ii&, tofeelforj to touch* 

H. fhagni, /o cheat. 

H. Th&nn&y ^o resolve to settle. 

H. f h®l>>&9 ^opt^A, or shove. 

H. Thdkn^, ^o spit. 

H. T^pna, to press. 

^. Tolni, or taulni, to weighi 

H. Topni, to cover^ to bring. 

6. Tofna, to break, to change 

as coin. 
H. Ujhalna, to pour quickly 

from one vessel into ano* 

ther. V 

H. Uljh&ii&, to entangle, to s^ 

H. Ut&ma, to bring down, to 

break off. 
H. Wainchhna, to skin, 
p. Warghalana, to deceive, to 

H. Waraa, to surround ; to 

offer sacrifice. 


H. Ana, to come. 

H. Bachna, to be saved, to 

8. Bahn&, to^flow. 
H. Baithna, to sit. 
H. Bajna, bajni, to sound, to 

play on an instrument. 
H. Bakn&9 to prate. 


8. Bandhn&, to be tied. 

H. Banna, to become. 

8. Barasna, to rain. 

s. Barhnd, to increase. ^,^^' 

8. Basna, to abide, to inhalfit. 

H. Bhigna, to flee. ^ /j/U/ 

H. fihigni, to be toet. 

8. Bhulnfi, to forget, to err. 

(jSU ^'^ ^^' 





• « 





H. Bhdnii&, to roa$ti to broil. 
H. Bichhalni, to slip^ to •epa- 

H. Bigtrni, to be spoiled, 

Biknfi, to be eold^ to sell. 

Bujhni, to be ewtinguished, 

Chalna, to gOy to move* 

Cha^nky to caeendytofnount. 

Gharna, to graze. 
H. Chaunkna, to starts aefrom 

H. Chhapna, to print. 

Chbinkna, to sneeze. \J^ 

Chhipni, to be hidden, ct^^ 

Cbhdtna, to escape^ to get 

H. Chfllfiniy to scream. 
a. Chitnky to be tom^ to split. 
H. Chugni, to pick up food 

with the beak ; to select.. 
H. Chukna, to be finished. 
H. Chdkni, to blunder, 
n. Chulchulani, to itch. 
M. Chapn(, to be silent. 
H. Ghuragni, to chirp. 
H. Dabiift, to be pressed down^ 

to crouch. vi>,«^ 
H. Dakarai, to belchj to bellow. 
H. Darni, to fear. 
H. Daurnft, to run. 
H. Dhukna, to enter, 
u. Dign&y to move ; to shake ; 

to slip. 

H. polni, to shake. 

8. pdbn&, to be immersed, to 

H. Oalni, gbulii&, to melt. 
H. Gatgafani, to gargle, to 

H. Gsxniy to penetrate, to sink. 
H. Gbabran^y to be confused. 
8. Gbatn&9 to become less. 
H. Ghum&, to be surrounded. 
F. Gbumna, to go round. 
H. Ghdsnfi, toenter orbe thrust 

in. . / 

H. Girnd, tofaU. ^A U^iipfiiJ^. 

H. Gurgufini, to rumble^ as 

p. Gufarna, to pass. 
H. H&mpni, to pant. 
s. Hausn&y to laugh. 
H. Hatna, to go or be driven 

H. Hicbakna, to draw back 

H. Hilna, to shake. 
u. Hinhinina, to neigh. 
H. Honi, to be or become. 
H. Jagmag4n&9 and chakmak- 

na, to glitter. 


s. Jaln&, to bum. 

g. Jinfi, to go. 

». Janna, to be delivered. 

H. Jbaga^niy to wrangle, f -' ' S * 

na, to glitter. a . ^ 

I. Jagni, to be awake. '^^^fc/fcfet^ 



H. Jhapatni, to pounce upon. 

a. Jharni, to fall off^ to drop. 

H. Jhijhakaiy to startle. 

H. JhilraUana, to undulate^ to 

H. Jhukni, to bend down^ to 

H. Jhalni, to swing. 

a. Jina, to live. 

H. Kachaknd, to sprain^ to 

a. Kamfalaniy to wither^ to 

8. KJimpni, to shiver, to trem- 

n. Ka^akniy to crack. 

a. Katn&, to out. 

a. Khinsni, to cough. 

H. Kharkharfin&, to ereak. 

H. Kbatkhatina, to knock. 

H. Khelii&9 to play. 

H. Khilkhilind, to laugh hear- 
tily 9 to giggle. 

H. Khisalna, to slip. 

a. Khiyianii, to itch. 

H. Kuchalna, to bruise, to 

H. Kudakni, to frisk. 

H. Kiidua, to fea|>, to jump. 

H. Kdkna, to cry, to sob» 

H. Ku|rku|raiia, to c/ucA ; to 

H. Ladni^ to ie loaded. 

K. Lagniy to 5^ applied ; to 

H. L&na, to bring. 

p. Larazni, to aAafea, to Sem- 

H. Lafni, tojight, to quarrel. 

H. Latakni, to hang, to dangle" 

H. Lingpfina, to /t«»p. 

H. Lipatna, to cling to. 

a. Marni, todfe. (y-^^^ 

H. tAavLT&ni, to blossom. 

H. Miiiia, to m^e^, to begot.- 

a. Mitna, to 6e destroyed or 
blotted out* 

s. tAundni, to be shut. 

H. Murii&, to turn away. 

H. Mu8kiiT&n&, to smile. 

H. Nachna, to dance. 

H. Nahana, to 6€C^A&. 

H. Nihorni, to fiend, to stoop. 

H. Nikalni, to i9#f«e. 

H. Pacbhtana, to &a sorry, to 

8. Pachni, tofted^e^tod, to roaL 

H. Pairna, to «ic^fn« 

H. Paifhni, to enter. 

8. Pakna, to be ripe, to be 

H. Pasijna, to perspire, to melt. 

s. Pathrana, to be petrified. 

H. Phabn&, to 6ecotneyto 6e/2#. 

H. PhaiUna, to spread, to pro* 




8. Phalni, to bear frnii. 

8. Pbandni, to he entrapped 
^ impnaaned. 

0. Phasni, phaQsna, to be en- 

M* Phatn&f phataa, to be torn 

or split. f^iUri^^lt 

8. Phima* to turn, to return. 
8. Phttlni, to bloeeomf to be 

H. Phusphuiani, to whisper. 
H. Fi»nif to be ground. 
H. Pitn&, to be beaten, 
u. Beokni» to bray. 
H. Hingn&, to creep. 
B. Boni, to weep. 
H. Rukii&, to be stopped or 

hinderedy to be angry. 
8. Bdthna, to quarrel. 
s. Sajni, to be prepared. 
8. Sakn&, to be able. 
8. Samina^ to be contained 

H. Saf akai, to moesj to get out 

of the way. 
s. Sast&na, to rest. 
p. Sharmfinif to be ashamed. 
s. Soni, to sleep. 

8. Sajna, to sweU^ to rise. 
8. Sulagna, to be kindled. 
u. Tarapna, to flutter ^ to pal^ 

pitate. ; ; 

H. Tluibarni, to remain^ to be U/V^ 

fixed or settled. ^ir^^X^^sh^ 

u. Ihstai, to be tired. '^T^ ^^ 
H. Tbanni, to be fiaed. 
n. Thanthanini, to jingle. 
H. Thartharinfi, to quiver^ to 

H. Thdkiifi, to spit. 
H. Tutl&niy to lisp. 
H. f^paif to break, 
n. Uchakni, to rise up. 
H. TJchhsini^toboundftospring 

H. Ugni, to grow. 
H. Ujafiii, to become desolate. 
H. Ukhafiii, to be rooted tij 
8. Vktinii to be vemed. 
H. Ulatn&y to be reversed or 

H, Unghni, to nod^ to doxe. 
H. Upaf a&9 to be rooted up. 
8. Urnif tojly. f 

H. Utarni, to descend. ^ 
H. IJighniy to rise up. 

\ • 





Ab&d kanii, toinhabii^ to build. 
Abrd deni, to give another 

honor f or lose one*s own. 
Abrd lent, to take away a 

peraon^s character. 
Abrd ntimij to disgrace. 
Ada karni, to perform^ to pay. 
Adab karni, or deni, to treat 

A dal karni, todojuatice or right. 
Admiy&t pakarna, to become 

Ag dena, to burn a body. 
Al^wal batlan&, to state one*s 

Aib lagina, to defame. 
Anak&ni den&, to connive at. 
Andeahah kami, to reflect ^ to 

Ankh buch&n6, to steal pri- 
Ankh chur&na, to avoid seeing. 
Ankh dekhlani, to frighten. 
Ankh m&rni, to wink* 
Ankh pathranfi, to have the 

eyes dim with expectation. 
Ankh phern^, to shew aversion. 
Ankh rakhn&9 to lovcy to have 

Ar&m karna, to resty to repose. 
Ari kami, to request^ to re-- 


Ashnai karni, to associate. 
Awarah karni, to harass. 
Awaz parn&, to be reported; 

to be hoarse. 
Awaz ufh&ni, to spread a re^ 

Aiid kam&, to set at liberty. 
Baghal baj6na, to be highly 

pleased J to jest. 
Band baithna, to succeed. 
Band bindhn&, to stop an in-- 

Bandkarni, to bind, to shut, 

to stop. 
Band pakafnfi, to object to a 

Band rahn&, to be engaged in. 
Bar den&, to load, to impose on. 
Bartaraf kama, to dismiss. 
Bas karna, to stop. 
Bit banana, to make up a 

Bit bandhni, to prevaricate* 
Bat ba^rhana, to prolong a 

Bit bigafni, to mar a plot. 
Bit chalanfi or kama, to can* 

Bat dalna, to ask in vain. 
Bit katni, to interrupt. 
Bit lag&n&i to calumniate. 
Bit mam&, to evade. 



Bit' p&nfi', to effset 6ne*s pur- 

Bat phenkna, to jeer or scoff. 
Bat phema, to equivocate. 
Bat rahna, to be succesaful. 
Bat rakhna, to agree^ to comply. 
Bat (alna, to put off^ to excuse 

one's self. 
Baz ana, or rahna, to leave off. 
Bazi khoni, to lose. 
Bazi lagana, to wager. 
B&zi pana, or lejani, to win at 

Baz rakhna, to hold back, to 

forbid. lifJfy }U 

Bazd denif to help^ to assist. 
Bef& bandhha, to collect a 

Bera dalna, to propose a re- 

ward for a work. 
Bismil kami, to sacrifice. 
Bosi karn&» to kiss. 
Ch&buk iD&rni, to whip. 
Changi banini, to correct, to 

Changi kami, to cure, to heal. 
Chhati jalna, to have the heart 

burn ; to lament. 
Chhati phatna, to break one's 

hearty to sympathize. 
Chhati pitna, tolament greatly. 
Chhati thokna, to encourage. 
Dad deni, to make reparation. 

D&d leni, to take revenge. 
Dad miln&9 to obtain redress. 
Dagh dena, to brand. 
Da^h lag&na, or cbafhani, to 

Daman chhoirani, to escape. 

Diman paka^n&^^o take refuge^ 
to prevent. 

D&man phaiUnfi^ to beg, to peti- 

Dam charhni, to pant, to re-, 

Dam chhof ni» to empire. 
Dam chur&ni, to feign death. 
Dam deni, to coaa, to deceive. 
Dam kh&ni, to be deceived or 

Dam khainchni, to be silent. 
Dam lena, to take breath, to rest. 
Dam marna, to speak, to boast. 
Dam rakhni, to be content with 

Dint pisni, to gnash the teeth. 
Dard &na, to be effected with 

Dast b%i hon&9 to become a 

Dast bardir bona, to depart 

Dast barsar honfi, to be unable, 

distressed^ or weak. 
Dast basar honi, to salute with 

the hand to the head. 



Dast hoti kunif to kiss hand»f 

to salute. 
Dast-dar ginbin honi, to on- 

gage in combat. 
Dast ras boni, to be able, to 

Daur dbtfp karni, to labour 

Didah khulni, to consider at- 

Dikbii or dikbUi deni, to 

Dil den&, to give the heart, to 

be in love. 
Dil lagni, to be attentive to. 
Dimigb karni, or boni, to be 

Din cbairbini, to commence 

late ; to be idle* 
Din gayw^ni, to lose time. 
Din k&tn&y to pass away time. 
Diqkarna, to tease. 
Du$ karna or mingnd, to wish 

or pray for. 

Dunist karni, to arrange, to 

Durust rakbni, to admit, to 

Faisal karnfi, to settle, to 

Faqon tnarni, to starve. 
Farod ini, to descend. 
Fitrat lar&ni} to practise tricks. 

Grab kanii, or gahna, to lay 

hold of. 
6al4 baitbni, or parn4> to be 

Gsli bandbnl, to be ensnared 

in love, ^. 
Gala dibni, to strangle^ 
Gala ka^fi, to cut the throat. 
Gala lagna, to embrace. 
Gall dena, to abuse. 
Gardan marna, or katna, to 

Gham khani, to have patience. 
Gharat karn&, to plunder. 
Gheri dalni, or gher karna, to 

Ghotab deni, to dip. 
Ohotah m&rn&, to dive. 
Ghul macbanfi, to make a noise 

or tumult. 
Ohusal karni, to bathe. 
Ghusb an&, to faint. 
Halal karna, to slay according 

to prescribed forms. 
Har&m kam&, to defile. 
9afiin khani, to receive the 

wages of iniquity. 
H&fil bona, to be acquired. 
Hafil karni, to acquire. 
Hl&zir bond, to be at hand or 

EHii&b karn£, to calculate, to 




Halak bona, to be destroyed. 
Haldk karna, to destroy- 
Halal karna, to slay according 

io prescribed forms, 
Baram kam&, to defile* 
Haram khana, to receive the 

wa^es of iniquity. 
Hasil hand, to be acquired. 
Hasil kama, to acquire. 
Hath baitlina, to attain perfec- 
tion in .any art. 
Hath bharni, to have the 

hands full of work. 
Hath chatna, to relish food 

Hath dahia, to interfere. 
Hath dena, to take interest in^ 

to assist. 
Hath dhona, to wash the hands; 

to despair. 
Hath jha^na, to give^ to bestow. 
Hafhjonia, to join the hands 

in supplication. 
Hath karna, to subdue,. 
Hath khainchna^ to desist 

H&th lagana, to be employed ; 

to reprove. 
Hath malna, to regret. 
Hath mixviiy to promise; to 

get ; to wound. 
Hath mUana, to claim equality. 
Hith phenkn&> to fence. 

Hathpherna, to stroke y to caress. 
Hath rokna, to prevent. 
Hath uthana, to leave off; to 

Hawa bandi karna, to build 

castles in the air. 
Hawa dena, to blow the fire ; 

to foment quarrels. 
Hawa ho-jana, to scamper off. 
Hawa kama, to fan ; to di- 
Hawa kh&n&, to take the air. 
Haw& phima, to change condi^ 

Hazir bona, to be at hand or 

His&b kam&, to calculatCi to 

Hisab lend, to take an account. 
Hisab rakhna, to keep account 

I^timal hon&, to be probable. 
I^tunal karni, to doubt^ to 

I^as kama, or r^khnd, to 

tl^htiyar karna, to approve^ 

choose^ adopt. 
Imtiyaz karni, to discriminate. 
Iqr&r kam&, to promise. 
Istifsar kama, to ask an ewpla- 

Istimal karna^ to use. 



JtiWr rakhn&y to give credit to. 
Ittifaq hona, to happen^ to be 

Ittifaq kam&, to accord^ to 

Jan bar hon£, to survive* 
Jin chhufana, to escape. 
Jan marna, or khana, to over- 

come, to veat. 
Jan par ana^ to be in imminent 

Jan par khelni, to run the 

hazard of life. 
Jan pa^na, to be refreshed. 
Jawab den a, to answer ^to reply. 
Ji jalna, to be vexed. 
Si lagna, to love. 
3i mdmd, to mortify^ to dis^ 

Ji p&n&, to know one^s temper ; 

to be pleased ; to escape. 
Eafdr hon&, to disappear* 
Kalejah kampna, to be afraid ; 

to be cold. 
Kalejah phatna, to grieve ; to 

be jealous. 
Kalejah ulatna, to be exhausted 

with vomiting. 
Kam chalana, to carry on busU 

Kam karni, to work. 
K&m nikalni, to carry into 


Kam rakhna, to make use of. 

Kamar bandhna, to get rectdy^ 
to resolve. 

Kamar khohia, to quit ser- 

Kamar marna, to strike side- 

ways, to attack in flank. 
Kamar pakarna, to urge a claim 

Kamar tutn&, to be hopeless. 
Kan dharna, or dena, to be 

Kan hilana, to acquiesce in. 
Kan katna, to excel another. 
Kan khulna, to inform. 
Kan lagna, to get into confir^ 

Kan mahia, to punish, to chas* 

Kan phunkna, to tell take ; to 

excite quarrels. 
Kaf karna, to cut. 
Khabar dena, to inform. 
Khabar lena, to look after, to 

Khalas karna, to release. 
Khajra hona, to stand up, to 

remain standing. 
Kharfi kama,/o erectjtoraiseup. 
Kharid karna, to buy^ 
Khat nikalna, to have a beard. 
Khatir ksLm^: to fondly, td 



Kb6t$r rAkbna, to candliate. 
Kfadn kama, to kill, to aaaas^ 

Kin&rah karna, to retire fromy 

to abstain. 
Kirayah karna, to let for hire 

or rent. 
Kirayah leni, to hire, to rent. 
Langar 4^1na, or karni, to cast 

Langar uthana, to weigh an- 

Magbc khana, to distract. 
Maghz pachana, or phirana, to 

Makhi marna, to be idle or un- 
Mami pina, to shew partiality. 
M&ng nikalna, to divide the 

hair on the head. 
Mar dena, to smite. 
Mar guand, to knock down. 
Mar kh&na, to get a beating. 
Mariana, to rob. 
Mar len&, to smite, to overcome. 
Mar marna, to commit suicide, 
Matti dalna, to conceal ano- 

ther'^s faults. 
Matti dena, to bury. 
Mol barhana, to enhance. 
Mol lena, to purchase. 
Mol thahrana, to appraise. 
Muiih banana, to make faces. 

Munb 4^Ina, to beg. 

Munh dekbna, to be partial. 

Munh dena, to familiarize. 

Munh marna, to put to si- 

Munh morni, to turn away^ 
desist from. 

Munh rakhn&9 to keep on good 

Munh toyni, to harass. 

N4k kitnd, to dishonour. 

Nak rakhna, to preserve on^s 

NSm karnd, to make famous. 

Naql karna, to relate. 

P&emal karna, to trample on, 
to destroy. 

Paida bona, to be born. 

Paida karnd, to produce, to r*/v*^^ 
create. f.^^^^ ^ 

Palak marna, to wink. 

Panw barhana, to take the 

lead, to reform, 
Panw chalana, or uthana, to go 

Panw dalna, to prepare for 

a work. 
Panw digna, to slip. 
Panw jamana, or garna, to 

stand firm. 
Panw lagna, to make obeisance. 
Panw nikalna, to go to excess ; 

to withdraw. 



Panw papnfi, toffdl at the feet 

in Bupplication. 
Pinw pitna, to stamp with 

Panw torna, to tire or be tired. 
Pardah chhorna, io let clown a 

curtain ; to reveal, 
Pardah karna, to conceal, 
Pardah rakhna, to give obscure 

Par jharna, or girana, to at» 

tempt to fly. 
Partiitna, ^0 be without pow-- 

Pech bandhni, to grapple. 
Pech chalna, to prevail by 

Pech dalna, to throw obstacles 

in the way. 
Pech dena, to circumvent. 
Pech karna, to deceive^ tograp- 

Pech khana, to coil; to be 

Pech kholna, to untwist. 
Pech parna, to be difficult or 

Pech uth&na^ to suffer loss or 

Pet bandhna, io restrain the 

Pet bharna, to fill the belly y to 

be, satisfied. 

Pet chaln&9 or chhdtna, to he 

Pet girna, to miscarry. 

Pet jahia, to be very hungry. 

Phansi dena, to hang. 

Pher dena, to return. 

Pher khana, to wind about. 

Phul'jharna, to use ^flowing 

Pichha karna, to pursue. 

Pichha pherna, to withdraw. 

Qabar dena, to bury. 

Qabiil karna, to canfessy to 
consent^ to promise. 

Qadam lagna, to take protec- 

Qadam lena, to acknowledge 
another'^s superiority. 

Qadam ranj karna, to take the 
trouble of walking. 

Qarz dena, to lend. 

Qarz karna, to spend. 

Qarz lena, to borrow. 

Qarz rakhna, to owe. 

Qasm karna or khana, to swear^ 
take an oat^. 

Qalam band karna, to write. 

Qalam karna, to cut off. 

Qat% karna, to perform a jour- 

Qat lagana, to mend a pen. 

Qatal karna, to kill^ to murder. 

Qaziyah karna, to quarrel. 



Quran u^litoi} io swear. 

Bd^i bandhni, to siQp one's 
road or progress. 

Rah ^alna, to establish a 

Rah dena, to give place or 

Rah karna, to contrcu^t friend- 

Rah kitnd, to travel^ to take a 
short cut., 

Rah marni, to way-lay^ to 
roby to ruin. 

Rah napni, to lounge about. 

Rah rakhna, to keep up an 

Rakh deni, to put down. 

Rakh lena, to take in charge. 

Bang karna, to paint ; to lead 
a life of pleasure. 

Rast &na, to regain one'^s tem- 
per^ to be set right. 

Rd dena, to attend to^ to re^ 

Rujii karn&, to return. 

Rukh karna, to attend to* 

Sabit kama, to confirm. 

Sabr kama, to wait^^ to stop. 

Sabz hon&, to flourish. 

Safar karni, to travel; to 

SaU^ dena» to advise. 

Shamil karni, to blend. 

Sher mAchani, to make a 

Shukr kaiii&, to thankf to be 

Sir chaFh&n&, to eaalt ; to 


Sir dhama, to be obedient. 

Sir karoi, to begin; to per^ 

Sir m&rna, to take great 

Sir phir&ni, to labor in vain. 

Sir pitna, to beat the head in 

Sir uthini^ or pherD&i to rebel. 

Siyah kama, to blacken ; to 
take an account of. 

Sukhan daina, to interrogate. 

Sunnat karna, to circumcise^ 

T&b lana, to be able to bear. 

T&bi kama, to control^ to sub- 

Tai karna, to fold ; to travel. 

Takht chhopid, to abdicate. 

Takht par baithni, to reign. 

Takht se utarna, to de^ro»e. 

Takiya den&, to receive re- 

Takiya kama, to support^ to 

Taipam karni, to complete. 

Tamanchah mama, to slap. 

Tamasha kam^ to make fun* 



Taq par rakhna, to lay on the 

shelf 9 to neglect. 
Taqrib karna, to commend. 
Tiv bandhna, to continue to 

do a thing. 
Tar tutna, to be disjointed or 

Tasalli deni, to comfort, to 

Tashrif I£na, to come or honor 

by coming. 
Tashrif lejani, to go or honor 

by going. 
f handa parna, to become cool 

or weakn 
'!fhik&n& karna, to account for, 

to search out. 
Thik karna, to rectify. 
f hokar khana, to stumble. 
Thuk chatna, to break one*s 

Thuk dena, to give up. 
Tiy^r karni, to prepare, to 

make ready. 
Top chhorna, tojire a cannon 

or gun. 
Unch4 sunna, to be hard of 

Waqt katni, to pass time. 
Waqt paina, to be distressed. 
Yad dilana, to remind. 
Yad karna, to remember. 
Zaban barhana, to chatter. 
Zab&n chalana, to abuse. 
Zaban dabna, to hold one^s 

Zab&n ^sAni, to ask a ques^ 

Zaban den&, to promise. 
Zaban katna, to grieve; to 

Zaban pakapa, to criticise ; to 
prevent another'*s speaking. 
Zaban palatna, to equivocate, 

Zabar karna, to oppress. 
Zabt karna, to take possession; 

to control. 
^at dena, to give up caste. 
Zat lena, to deprive of caste. 
Zay^ karna, to lose. 
Zer kami, to subdue. 
Ziyadah kam&, to increase ; to 

remove the table cloth. 
Zor karna, to compel. 
Zor marna, to endeavour. 








1. Familiar. 

Misri do. 

Hazri lao. 


Chira^h jalfio. 

Batti bujhao. 

Ekhi hai. 

Kyi hua ? 

Bhuliyo mat. 

Idhar ao. 

Nazdik &o. 

Chi banao. 

D&hine phiro. 

Bayan phiro. 

Jaldi jao. 

Jaldi chalo. 

Chup rah. 

Khabard&r ho. 

Kuchh muxayaqah nahin. 

Hukm kya hai ? 

Turn ko fursat hai. 

Ham ko m^f kijiye. 

Mutiyon ko bulio. 

Gari taiyir karo. 

Thori roti Ho. 

Bichhoni bichh&y6 hai ? 

Darw&zah band karo. 

We buirhe haig. UrT> ^-^* f-;-^. ^ fr^ 

Yih kam-bakhti hai. ^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^ 

We jdhil haig. 
Yih wuhi hai. 
Wahag sabhi haig. 
Wuh kaun hai ? 
Wah£n koi hai ? 
Wuh pher kaho. 
Turn kaise ho ? 
Ham kal jawenge. 
Idhar ko chalo. 
Udhar ko chalo. 
Top kydn chhuti ? 
Palki jaldi magg&o. 
S&tib uth& hai ? 


Ghumkar io. 
Zara abistah chalo. 
Ao, mose ut4ro. 
Gbar ae niklo. 
Apne hath dh^. 
Uske bahut dost baiQ. 
Us men kya faidab boga ? 
Unbon ne bahut ranj ufbaya. 
Uski bari darbi bai. 
Yib kya chirya hai ? 
Yib unka tamasha bai. 
Wub bara matwala bai* 
Unka bara gunah hai. . 
Yib maidan kis ka bai ? 
Yahan bahut makkhiyan haifi, 
Unko bari durandeshi hai. 
Kitne admi l^itii the ? 
Chirabgb meg tel nahin. 
Ham ko ek namunah dijiye. 
Yib faqat ^ilab hai. 
Uski dukau kaban hai ? 
Tumbare pas rassi bai ? 
Badsbah takht par baitbd. 
Us ki awaz achchhi bai. - 
Yib kaunse janwar hai ? 
Tumh&ri kya sala^ hai ? 
Tumbari i^mr kya hai ? 
Paiki mere pas bhego. 
Cbibuk aur topi do. 
Hath dhoae ka paBi lao. 
Mizaj dpka kais& bai ? 
Miswak aur manjan do. 
£k jo^ kapira lao« 
Daw&t, qabn, k^gbaz lao. 

Wub gora kaun hai f 

Wub kis ka ghora hai ? 

Yib kis ka ghar hai ? 

Tumhara nam kya hai ? 

Wub bahut cfaalak hai. 

Yib zamin lonk hai. 

We bafe tami bain. 

Yih rupaya mekhi hai. 

Uski sbakl bad hai. 

Angiieki aaban musbkil bai. 

Yih bahut khub mewah hai. 

Yih ajib khabar hai. 

Ham bhukhe piyase bain. 

Wub hushiyar admi hai. 

We bare jhuthe bain. 

Sab zamin barabar hai.. 

Us ka dil ranjidah hai. 

Tumhara kam ab tamam hua ? 

Uski dalil mazbut bai ? 

Wuh bari gustakh bai. 

Asman khub saf bai. 

We laxke shokh bain. 

Us ne bari saza pai. 

We sab chhip rahe. 

Us ka dil beqarar hiu. 

Wuh bewaquf hai. 

Yih kaghaj tar bai. 

Kaun shor karta bai. 

Tum ky& kahte bo i 

Sali§ Hindi kaho. 

Kahin se ae ho ? 

Chale jao, ru^cbsat bai. 

Wahan phir mat jao. 

Ham ko kinare par utaro. 


WaUo Itaun rsKta hai ? 
Sidhe age chale jao. 
Kuchh flharab pini Uo. 
Pini l^hub (hai)4a karo. 
Khina met par aya ? 
Ham ko ba^i fajar jagao. 
Aj din phirchha hai. 
Us ne iqrar kiya hai. 
Yahan 4ne ki i&fairah karo. 
£k faxi sabr karo. 
Unko hamare ghar bhej do, 
^hora pani chhifkow 
Us waraq ko ultao. 
Uiike hath paon bandho. 
Un rupayon ko thaili meQ bharo. 
Darwase par ek faqfr hai. 
Wuh bara aqil hai. 
Yih bahut achchhi roti hai. 
Makri ka jala chhura d&lok 
Usne kya taqsir ki hai ? 
Ghas par bahut shabnam }m. 
Ab we bahut lachar hain. 
Turn kya kam karte ho ? 
Uske baSne ki iatiha nahin. 
Unhoi) ne bahut afar kiya. 
Ma hap imke mar gae hain. 
Us bag^L men phal bahut bun. 
Hamare sir men dard hai. 
Turn ne kahan yih khabar tuai ? 
Der hui, ham rukhsat hun. 
Us ko jigar ki bimari hai. 
Ua ka ba^ nuqsan hua hai. 
Yih achobha mausim hai. 
Us bij ko bagh meo bo. 

Us ke dfiQt men dard hai. 
Bazdr men bahut khilone hain. 
Tumbara kya karobir hai ? 
Yih tarjumah bahut khub hai. 
Us ka muqaddamah aj hoga. 
Tumhiiri ghari achchhi ehalti 

Yih batti mom ki hai. 
Nio ka kitna bhara hai ? 
Kai ghari din charhi hai ? 
Topi aur kurtl jhiro. 
Ek din ka bhara kya hai ? 
Jhiimil utbao, bartan lejao. 
Hamari gharri mes par rakho. 
Yih {dial bara khatta hai. 
Kya, tum gfausfe bote ho f 
Yih bapi muthkil kiim hai 
We bare i^flabis bain. 
Wuh bahut Vhubfurat b&ffh 

Yih kapfi bar& mota hai 
Tum kam ke laiq ho ? 
Kal se ii sardi sijridah hai. 
Yih aaliar bihiar hai. 
Uska dil baf a ghamgig hai. 
Wuh guege aur bahari hai. 
Yih bahut khub mewah hai. 
Yih qifsah tam&m darogh hai. 
Yih bahut khub kiahmish hai. 
Uska bahut bafi makan hai. 
Yih kamra Ishub raushan h$L 
Yih kamra bahut uncha hau 
Yih kaprfi kitni lainbi hai ? 
We bahut ]|;harab larke hai^.. 


Jnki misij bera^m hai. 

We 8U8t aar gb&fil hain. 


We bare tund niis4j haig. 
Yih qalam bahut naram hai. 
Yih U^haf bahut moti hai. 
Yih ^arf bad surat hai. 
Turn bahut ihistah bolte ho. 
Turn angrezi bol sakte ho ? 
Utro, nahin to giroge. 
Ham&re sdth tumhen jini hqgi. 
Is gathri ko le ehalo. 
Badli hai bal kuchh barasti bai. 
Dekho, dsmaii kuchh khuhi hai. 
Ham sab kochh jante hain. 
We bahut kuchh jante hain. 
Usne ham ko bapi tasdia di. 
Besabab kyun hanste ho ? 
Unhon ne ham ko bahut ghab* 

Yih ghar ham&ra nahiQ hu. 
Wuh phul ham ko sunghne do. 
Us chauki men raughan malo. 
Us darwdze ka qufal kholo. 
B&ze sipahiham&re zakhmi hue* 
Us sust la^ke ko m&ro. 
Us jangal ko khod dalo. 
Yih kahkar us ne rukhsat li. 
Kapre ki pani nicbor dalo. 
We bekhabar sote hain. 
Kya jama hai, tumhare hisab ki? 
Ham ko ek birni ne ^ank mara 

Rishwat len&, yi dena, bura hai. 
Is.jahdz ka kya bojh hai P 

Kji i^tiyaj itnf khabard&n ki ? 
Kyi qfmat hai in chizon ki P 
Is talab k& kya ^muq hai P 
Kya faraq hai in donon men P 
Jaise ust&d, waise shigirdhonge. 
Yih fauj qawatd nahiii jfinti hai. 
Tum donon men kaisi larai hai. 
Is kitab men kitni fasten bun P 
Is asbab par kuchh dastuii hai ? 
Tambor qil&h meo har roz bajta 

Yih la^ka hamari bahut piyfira 

Is talab men kuchh machhlin 

hain ? 
Yahan zamin men ek surakh 

Ham ne bansi se ek raachhli 

Is g&e ke sing nahin haiy. 
Eis qism ki yih kapra hai P 
Wil&yat jane ko tumhari ira- 

dah hai P 
Yih chira^h d&lan men Iatk4do. 
Tum khushki jaoge, y& tari P 
Us zanjir men kitni kapi hain P 
Tum miqnatis ki khasiyat jan- 
te ho P 
Tumhare ^induqche men qufal 

nahin hai. 
Dary 4 ke kinar bairi kichhar hai. 
Kitne mus&fir is jah&z men the P 
S&ra kamri khushbo se mu^tt^T 



Turn is ghar ke miVk ho ? 

Is mahine men pint bahut 

Ek naukar ko yahan bhej do. 
Is darakht ke s&e men baitho. 
In motiyon ki kya qimat hai P 
Yih patthar kitna bhari faoga P 
Is basti ka n&m kya hai P 
Sawiri ke gho^e ko ^asir karo. 
Masahri ^hub jhapo, jo mach- 

chhar na rahe. 
Juti ko achehhi tara(^ $it karo. 
Ham ko chahiye ki ra|^m dil 

Tumhari jini wah&Q kucbh 

larur oahifi. 
|lm se wuh khdb wfiqif hai. 
Wuh bapa dan& aur ^Imand 

Yih sab se Uhtar hoga. 
Kaho, to wuh kya kahta hai. 
Sais se kaho, ghofi taiyar kare. 
Main bbi bahir jay4 ch&hta hun. 
Darakht par kahe ko charhteho ? 
Turn kab tak chal sakoge? 
Ghore par «n bandha hai, ki 

nahin P 
Koi dam men ham phir &wenge. 
Jo kh&na taiydr ho, to lao. 
Haroara salam apne sal^ib se 

Is &droi ko turn j6nte ho P 
Usne bahut ilm ^asil kiya hai. 
Usne bahut daulat jam^ ki hai. 

Ao, ham tum kuchh bitchit 

Ek gho^ itni bojh khaioch sak- 

Tum fige jao, ham fite hain. 
Yih chiaen wilayat se iiQ hain. 
Aj ki rat ham kah&n rahegge? 
Ham ko fursat abhi khelne ki 

nahin hai. 
Uska pawn garm pani se jalgayi. 
Un chlvUriyoi) men tam&m aang 

lag gayi. 
Lafke tam&m din chillay& karte 

Ham isko tam&m din 4huQ4- 

te the. 
Tum ne apne khat par muhr 

ki hai P 
Ham&r& ghar darakhton se 

s&yahdar hai. 
Pini barasta hai ; ham ko pan&h 

Ham bari mushkiloo meg pa|e 

Tufin se bahut jaha^ mire pare. 
Wuh har roz tazah dddh piti 

Chupke bai^hna bihtar hai 

la^rne se. 
Chakki meg in gehog ko piso. 
Tum j&nte ho uski gumish- 

tab kaun hai P 
Do shamfdan hamarc waste 

mol lo. 



Is bilH ke bftre bap9 dbaegiil 

I>u8Te kamre meo is palang ko 

le jao. 
Yih jagab Kalkate ke a ilf. men 

Ham turn ko ek kbub^urat 

taswir dikbawenge. 
Is tamassuk par tumb&ri fa|^i^ 

lariir hai. 
Aj unke ghar meg ek mihmin 

Is lafke ka murabbi kaun bai F 
Babut der bui, bam ko gbar jane 

Is kam men bari bemurowati 

We bar tara^ ka sulm karte bain. 
Ham is waqt dur ka safar rakble 

Tumbare pas sbisbi, dawai ra^b- 

ne ki, bai ? 
Aql admi ko bai, j4nwar ko 


. Ek sifarisb ka khat ham ko |na- 

Tum kis waste bure qalam se 

likbte bo ? 
Un donon men se kaun acbcbha 

bai ? - 
Main tujb se kam lugga aur use 

Wafaio baibke j&o, aur kba^e 


Palki meo se ye cluaed uthi Ur>. 
Pukarke bolo to bam suuenge. 
Usko Hindi zaban meg kya 

ki^bte bo ? 
Eucbb dhiip ki ar ke wiste kbafa 

Us ne is waqt bamari bat q$iml 

Tum likbneaur parbne ki mashq 

Yib kbabar suuke bdktt 4ar gae 

Kitni nil is siaduq me sami- 

We sab ek dusre se kbafa bain. 
Gariban se kabo, ki itoa jald 

na hagke* 
Ham dusbman ke bfttb se bhag 

Tamam sbahr meg sailah bo- 

gaya bai. 
Un domMI kishtiyon ko ek sath 
* miUlo. 
Is se bamari l^bushi siyadab 

Ham apna J^arch babut kam 

kiya bai. 
Ye rupaye us ko pber d€4ie hoQ- 

Faujdar ne ek sipibi ko iiifm 

Apne kagbaj par misl«r k9tV>9 

tab tikbo. 
Sab admi mire bbuk ke mar gae. 


We tk dune (Mr ^r pAre. 

In donoo rassiyon ko miUkar 

We bari miJ^DatBe guiran karte 

Us ne Grangi kt kin&tt ek 

makitt baniyi. 
Do kos gari k^ fcafikiyfi/ ek 

pahiyi tuf gsyi. 
Ham kyun bb&geii ? wafiigi knehh 

khauf irahiQ. 
Usne apne pichble doston ko 

eblier £ya.- 

Chhab mabfne hue ki wilfyat 

We ghore se, jo gire, to chot 
htHmt fti. 

Pjpal ke darakht tale iruh M>ta 

Istaral^ ki bat tfcmlbe ire bansne 

Mali, isphulkabfj b&gfa meftbo. 
Usiie,l:idh<ti ae bkri kfi kundali 

k^t 4ala. 
Usne, tmri ni^iuit se, biun ko 

sikh&ya hai. 
Ek ^K kh&kair, kutti bhig 


Khudikt mi^rbSni se bam ne 

itim payfi. 
fiar& abat fana bai, sb&yad pSni 

khiib barse. 
XJmie babtit mfti aor mata 

jam^ kiy4 hai. 

Is gliar men ek d&Un hai, aur 

tin kothri. 
Sitne din hue ki turn ne yih 

khabar pai ? 
We apne ma bdp lit satfa rahte 

Ham ne daryt ife kinire sair ki 

Ek cMngiti «are g&on ko jM 

deti hai. 
Kkne ko ifteve kb&wind fee hith 

bechoge ? 
Wah4ii kuelih khine pine k( 

chia milti hai t 

We have be-i^tiyit> Mif n&d&n, 

aur suet hain. 
T«fii ko kudih m^Ium hai, ki 

kahan gae hain ? 
Yahin rako', jabtak ki ham phir 

Yti dkizen sir karo, aur jdiii 

par lejao. 
Hamire h&th se chfauti daryi^ 

men gbr pari. 
Agar turn jaldi ite, to hamiri 

madad hoti. 
Turn kyun apna waqt ^baflat 

men katte ho ? 
Yid nahin. kahan ham ne apni 

kitab Takh di hai. 
Us ke marne se sire shahr ko 

ffham hua. 
ffihtat hai ki turn tiski taqsii' 

m6{ karo. 



Turn jo jo chiseii chahCe ho 

nikil lo. 
Tumheu kyi sardf bui lud jo 

turn chhinkte ho ? 
Wuh 8uba|^ tairke ufhkar, apni 

rih chali gaya. 
Aa ham&re 8&th» ham daryi 

par jawenge. 
Wuh apne sir ka bojh pheok- 

kar chala gayi. 
Tumh&re kapre par gardpafi 

hai, jhaf dalo. 
Us ne kamre men jakar, darwi- 

zah bandkar liyi. 
Wuh apne ^ha^am ke mame se 

bahut roi. 
Turn kyun bahir kha^ ho, ghar 

men ao. 
Kiswaste ais4 karte ho ? tumko 

kuchh ra|;im nahin iti ? 
Is kam men ham kuchh p&qah 

nahin rakhte ham. 
Ham ko kuchh kam tha, is 

waste d^wat qabul na ki. 
Is mal aur mat4 ka koi waris 

nahin hai. 
We qaid*khine men the ; lekin 

ab chhute hain. 
Ham ko munasib hai, ki musi- 

bat men sabr ikhtiy&r kareu. 
Tum jante ho unki dawa kaun 

ibakim kartd kai ? 
Un suwar ke bachchon ko bagh 

se nikil 4o. 

Tum ne safar ke vaste sab jins 

laiyir ki hai ? 
Hamare sathhi s&th sab chii« 

bast bhijwa do. 
Tum bahut jaldi bolte bo, main 

samajhta nahig hun. 
Agar tum jante, to kyuQ nahis 

juw&b dete ho ? 
We apne auqat n&chne, g&ne 

men sarf karte hain. 
Us ne apne mi bap ko ba^ a ranj 

diyd hai. 
Ham ne sab chisen taiy&r kame 

ki ]^ukm diya hai. 
Kitne din hue ki yih kitab 

chh&p& hui hai ? 
Agar is men kuchh ^haltiho, 

to tum dusrust karo. 
Tum jante ho yih muqaddamah 

kab umam hogA P 
Us ne dant se chabikar^ do 

fukre kar 4ala. 
Yih ghor& ham ne do sau rups- 

ye ko mol liyi hai. 
Jab tak waha^ raha, tab tok we 

nakhush rahe. 
Hamare pahlo men daid m^lum 

hota hai, kya karen ? 
Jo ham kahte hain suno, b%d 

us ke juwab do. 
Us ne sab apna kam sarkar piur 

chhor diya hai. 
Wuh sab apna rupaya qar|; 

dekar gharib ho gaya. 

Wuh itni ddr p&lki par sawar 

hokar thak gaya. 
Is. &i\^ih ke in£l par tuia aur 

Uii kuchh d^wi rakhte bo ? 
Hamare is kam meg turn kuchh 

madad kar sakte ho ? 
Yih bahat jj^hub bill! ban aur 

us ke do bachche baiu. 
Wuh apne gho|re se gir papa, 

aur panon. tut gaya. 
^buda ki inayat se, jrih dawa 

kb&kar bam bache. 
Ky& is ki rang kaxeu? $iyah, 

safedylal, sabz, ^h&ki, asm&ni, 

ya zard? 
Apna kam jo bihtar na ka- 

roge, to maig tumbeg jairab 

Age daurke jd, l^babar le, ki 

^a^iib ghar men hai ya nabig. 
Ham sa^ib ke yahan kh&na khi- 

wenge ; tumben sipabri ko 

wahan jana hoga. 
Yih khat sa^ib ke p&s leja, aur 

jawab ke liye baith raho» 
Rah, rah, bol, aur juda karkar, 

to ham teri bat samjhenge. 
Hamari yih m^^li^at hai, ki tum 

thore din sabar karo. 
Wuh yih k&m faqat hamare 

rai^j dene ko kart& hai. 
Wuh nangon ko kapf & pihnata 



hai, aur bbiikon ko khani 

khilati hai. 
Tum ghope pas khabardari se 

cha]4inft, aisa nabo ki gir pa^o* 
Usne tote ke pas kat dale, taki 

wuK u|; na jae.. 
Barabi se kaho, ki is ta^ht ko- 

ari se do kar de. 
Eal ek rui ki bhari bui nao. 

Ganga men 4ab gai. 
Wuh sab rupaye^baracb.karke* 

ab bhik m&ggti hai». 
Wuh muft raeg ^urb4 ka 

dawa aur flaj deti haL 
Ham ne is ko dawi di ; par da* 

wfi ne kuchh faidah na kiyi. 
Hameg achar, nimak, mirch, tii^. 

sirki, sharab, pani, gosht, aur 

9&f basan do. 
Hameg ek piyalah dudh ka, aur 

mifri, an^i, makkban, ro^i, 

muU, h41im, murabba^ aux 

chamchah do. 
Itni bit kahne se kyi \i^ilf 

usk4 idh4 bhi mug nabig 

samajhti hug. 
Is chitthi ko bihi ke yabig lej&oi; 

agar b&hir gaig hog, to darban 

ko de ao. 
S4is ke pas jikar, yih d4nak 

uske age rakhkar dekho ki 

wuh ghofe ko khil4t4 hai. 



Sttsti te tijin hat. 
Jaisa karega, waiaa p&wegi* 
Bihtar sathi taufiq hai. 
Dunyi fareb ka ghar hai. 
{Im ki afat bhul hai. 
Jaldi ka phal nadamat hai. 
Burdbari achchbi khaalat hta. 
Parhez bari daw& hai. 
Sunna bihtar hai kahne se. 
Mi^nat se bafai milti hai. 
Jo soya, so khoya. 
Zaban shirin, to mulk giri. 
Jaisfi kahega, waisi sunega. 
Sabar kushush ki kunji hai. 
MaBtiq sire ilmoo k& |:hadim 

Dunya akhirat ki kheti hai. 
Achchhi ^ho &dini ki sipar hai* 
Tuna fillat ki kunji hai. 
Qiiia%t ar&m ki kunji hai. 
Zindon ki maut jihil honi hai. 
Kibar, dana ke waste, ifat hai. 
Zamanah khubhi sikhine-wa- 

la hai. 
Bich bar chiz ka bihtar hai. 
Naqd bihtarhai w^de se. 
A 'qil ko isharah has hai. 
£am sona martabah barh&ta hai. 
Maut hansti hai ummedon par. 
Apnebhaimazlum kimadadkar. 
Akgar auqat dawi bimari hai. 
Ehuda rast-baz aur pak hai. 

[2.] Moral. 

Sunn& nahin mi|al dekhne ke. * 
Admi, mu^male se pahchani 

j4ta hai. 
Mana kanie se chah barhti hai. 
Danai se rozi nahin barhti. 
Bakne se Ijiharabi uthti hai. 
Bahut ikhtalat fasad lata hai. 
Qarz se ma^abbat qita hoti hid. 
Bandagi bari khwfihishon ko 

khoti hai. 
Haya, rizaq se ma^dm rakhtt 

Earim apne w^de ko pura karta 

Bahut jagah chup rahna bhi 

jawab hai. 
Hareknai chiz mazedar hoti hai. 
Agloij ki hai pichhion ko naf i* 

\jtBt hota hai. 
There par qina%t karna tawdn- 

gari hai. 
Khuda ka ]||:hauf ddnish ki amal 

Dunya me^ koi begham nahin, 
Baghair aqi ke, daulat kis kam 

Sawal se pahle dena bakhshish 

Waqt par bhagna fata^mandi 

Bahut tajribe se %ql baphti hai. 
Jo bota hai, so katta hai. 



Agar talw&r na hoti, bapa lolm 

Bafi jbadat dunyi ki cbhofni 

Bad ko nek j&nna, bad karna 


Jis ka Khuda baml^ us ka sab 

Amal 8e gawib hota baL 
Farotani se AUah martabah bar- 

hata hai. 
Tanhai bihtar bai bad fu^at 

Bahut bhai tere bemat hai^ 
Dost ek jan, do qaUb bain. 
Apna dushman se dushoiani 

fihir mat kar. 
Insaf se khalq ko itim hoii hai. 
Jo kosbish kart& hai, wuh pati 

Jo sabar karta bai, so fata^mand 

hota bai* 
Bab i^hirat ka bihtar toshiJi 

parbexgdri hai. 
^ikmat sbarif ki sharafat ko 

barbdti hai. 

Jab gharaa dariniyan &U tab 
basirat kahag ? 

Baa rahna ^hwahishon se dau- 
latwari hai. 

Dunya wasilon se milti hai, na 
kamal se. 

Har roa mat ao, ma^abbat 

Bafi bebasirati dil kl bebafl. 
rati hai. 

Danishmandon ke sinet razoQ 
ki qabreij bain. 

Sardaron ki ^at sab ^datoft ke 

sard&r hai. 
G[ikmat aur qudrat Khud& kl 

be qiyas bai. 
^hwahish ki pairawi nadimat 

kl kunji hai. 
Biusan, lohe ki beri se, sakht haL 
Khuda pan&h de ^aris ke fitqr se. 
Dost l^difah ke vaqt pahchani 
jata hai. 

Sire gunahonke sard&r Amyi 

ke mafiabbat hai. 
Gunah ka chhornd, ^sar khwi- 

hi se, bihtar hai. 
Jise qana^t nahin, use seti 


Fasid se bahut mil barb&d 
hota hai. 

Admi libis men chhipe phire 

Qalam wuh darakht ha! jis ka 
phal m&ni hai. 

Dirhi k« barhne se ^ql kamti 

Apne aalii ki pahchin bari 

dushwar hai. 
Jis men adab na ho, wuh sakdt 

ikhtiyar kare. 

Na^u kalim men, jsise aami^ 
tam mefi. 


RtiADfKO l.£:8I^Ol9l). 

Admi mil ke liye pah&t ufhata 

J^lhtk VAi amaly ja&se^^e par 


Achchhe log jddi badli nahio 
lete hain. 

liai dinij j&hil tawi^gar 
se bihtar haf. 
DiBJk gungiy nadan i goy& se 

bihtar bai. 
Dfini dusbman bihtar hai, nfi- 

dini %qlmand se. 
Kutti sindah bihtar hai sher 

murdah se 
B4s waqt y&qut be qadar hota 

Mil andesh ifat se bach& rahta 

DU k& kas&d kalam se khulta 

Du&ya gusai^h hai, na qarar- 

Tho|r4 khini bahut bim&ri se 

bachata hai. 
Dinishmand be sabab kam na- 

hin karta hai. 
Gungiisaban bihtar bai jhuthi 

sabin se. 
Jaldi se nadamat, aur tawaqquf 

se salamat. 
Taw&s9 shar&fat barh4ti hai, 

aur r&sti n|amat. 
flm ke charche se ^1 s&f hoti 


Sardar qaum ki vrtxhi bai jo ufi 

ka khadim hai. 
Bara ^Km ^uh hai jo jlm men 

bara hai. 
Ins&n jai8ahdt& hai, waisa diunre 

ko janta hai. 
Khaitdah rui se-dil ki %&l m^lum 

hota hai. 
M41 ki ma^abbat akhirat ko 

barb&d deti hai. 
Har jins apni jins ki t^raf mail 

katti hai. 
Admi jise janta nahin us ka 

dusbman hai. 
Jhuthe ki bat na manye, yihi us 

ki saz4 hai. 
Bura wuh shakhs hai jo akeli 

khati hai. 
Aql ke barhne se admi kam 

sakhun hot& hai. 
Aksar tam^ sabab halakat ki 

hoti hai. 
Bakhshish vuh bihtar hu ki 

jis se ^ajat rawa ho. 
Jis ne fir&m ki qadar na jam, 

wuh ranj measpa^ra. 
Nadan haraesbah apne nafs se 

razi rahta hai. 
Jo bahut bolta hai wuh |alil 

hota hai. 
Dunya murdfir hai, aar us k» 

chahnewale kutte. 
Jis ka sack kam hua, ua ke 

dost kam hue. 



Jise ^ayl nahin« ut se gun&h 

bahut bote baio. 
Jo %ib kart& bai, so nuqffin pfit& 

Jjs ki ba^chsbbb babut bai, us 

ke dushman kam baig. 
Achchbi mil wub bai, ki jis se 

ihri rabe. 
Tajribabkar pas j&, Ubib p&s 

mat j&. 
Talab kar ilm ko (ifli se jaw&ni 

B^yat ko sona cbabe, aur Bfid- 

sbdb ko pasbani. 
Aurat be^ayi, jaise kbani be- 

namak ka bai. 
Jise tu pabcbanti nabin, us se 

ddr rab. 
Agar aqli sural pakarti, to r&t 

rausban boj&ti. 
Maut ke pable apne mal ko taq- 

sim kar de. 
«Alim apne ghar men, jaise 

cbandi kan men. 
Jo maut se bbaga, so maut meo 

Farotani martabab bapbati bai, 

aur takabbur gbatata bai. 
Jis ne parbaya nabin, us ne 

paya nabig. 
Jo babut ruthta bai, us se duri 

bihtar bai. 
Bakbii AUab ka dusbman bai, 

agarchib z&bid bo. 

Bibtar ba]|:bsbisb ^ql, aur 

badtar musibat jibal bai. 
Qin&f t kar, ^bani bog& ; tawak« 

kul kar, qawi bogi. 
Y&qut aur samurrad ki cbib 

dil ko tukpe karti bai. 
Babut bat kabne se log nafrat 

karte baig. 
Tbo|ra tadbir ke s&tb babut 

muntasbar se bibtar bai. 
Pair&ban teri gbar bai, cbah 

baf bio, cbab gbatio. 
Jis ki sawiri tam^ bai, uski 

faqr mu^a^ib bai. 
Jo kisi ko bansta bai, wub apbl 

bagsa jata bai. 
Sbarif wub bai, jo i^sin kare 

aur %sdz rakbe. 
Jo fib sunti bai, wub aib kame* 

wile men gini jiti bai. 
Dunyi ki bil aisi bai jaise 

makfi ki jili. 
Ma^abbat bone se nek bad ki 

tamiz nabio rabti bai. 
Bibtar wub sba^b? bai ki jis se 

aurog ko naf^ pabugcbe. 
Bimir dil ki bitU ki taraf maU 

karti bai. 
Ghazab ki itif t se %dab barbid 

jiti bai. 
Zabin tasbi|;i karti bai, aur dil 

|aba^ karti bai. 
Sun, to bujhegi ; cbup rab, to 

salimat rabegi. 



Jis ke akhUq nek haiQ, oske dost 

babut haiQ. 
Neki kar, jaise Allah ne tere 

sath neki ki hai. 
Thori sabar kar, ki b^d ranj 

ke ra^at hai. 
Sochkar bat kame se nadfimat 

kam hot! hai. 
Basan ge wuhi (apakta hai, jo 

us men hota hai. 
Jo bahut bakt^ hai, so bahut 

khata karti hai. 
Dara chahe, aisa naho ki ten 

zaban tujhe halak kare. 
Umi ke bahut hone se dost 

kam ho jate hain. 
Dunya ke do mazin hai^, kahig 

taikh, kahin shirin. 
Jab do bala meu papO) ^ isin 

ko ikhtiyax karo. 
Tam%-walah majj^rdm rahta hai, 

aur qin&^t-w&lah isudah. 
Sab ka sab chahni, sare ka sara 

barbad dena hai. 
Wuh bara bina hai jo apne ^ib 

ko dekhe. 
JKalam kaza|diam,tir ke zakham 

se, sakht hai. 
Jis ke ilm se naf^ na pahunche, 

wuh bara admi hai. 
Admi bila adab ke, jaise jisam 

bila rub ke. 
}ffat Baddiah ka taj hai, aur 

insaf qil^ us ka« 

Ghusfe ki ibtida dewangi, aur 

intiha naddmat hai. 
Tawangari bila salphawat ke^ 

jaise darakht be phal ke. 
Nek wuh idmi hai jo dusre se 

pand pi|ir ho. 
Faqr bila sabar ke, jaise qandfl 

bila tel ke. 
Jawani bila taubah ke, migl ghar 

be chhat ke. 
Dushman, agar i^if ho, us ko 

l^aqir na jani chahiye. 
Bihtar t^rif wuh hai kijis ka 

dushman bhi iqrar kare. 
Dana ki guman bihtar hai, 

nadan ke yaqin se. 
Admi fareb nahin khata hai ek 

jagah se do bar. 
Nadan ki bandagi se 4^°^ ki 

nid bihtar hai. 
Ek sa^t ki fikr bihtar hai sab 

ibadat se. 
Dina wuh hai jo apni shahwat 

par nigahban haL 
Pani ki qaid, lobe ki i]aid ae, 

dushwar hai. 
Kliuda panah de sakhti se jo 

b$d aram ke hai. 
Bayat ko khdsh rakhna, lash- 

kar ke barhane se bihtar hai. 
Qasd kar mar dalne ka, to rasi 

ho jaza ka. 
Rishwat lene-wale aur dene- 
wale, donoQ jahannami bain. 



Bakhshish men deri kami ach- 

chhon ki adat nahin hai. 
Dana wuh hai jo ma^all tuhmat 

se parhez kare. 
Binai ka nuqsan, dil ki basirat 

ko muzir nahin hot 4 hai. 
^huda ke die par qina^t kar, 

^hani ho jaegfi. 
Be gunah uzar karna, apne upar 

gunah lend hai. 
Jo chiz ki hone-wali hai, us par 

sabar bihtar hai. 
Ranj ke b^d arim, aur b4d 

rahat ke ranj hai. 
Jis ne ek bat par sabar na 

kiya, usne bahut baten sunin. 
Cbup rahne se salamati, aur 

salamati se najat hai. 
Mame ke age maro, to ^ayat 

abadi ko paoge. 
Nekokarhi nur aur nar men 

farq karta hai. 
Agar jihal surat pakapta, to 

din tarik ho jata. 
|Im dohi hain ; ek )Im din ka, 

dusra ilm badan ka. 


jpasad neki ko kha jatdhai, jaisa 

ig lakri ko. 
Bimari qaid badan ki, aur gham 

qaid rub ki hai. 
Jahil talab karta hai mal ko, aur 

aqil kamal ko. 
Rayat par ^dal kami bihtar hai 

lashkar ki kagrat se. 

Adl, bakhshish, aur narmi se 

mulk ki tiifaiat hoti hai. 
Maut ek din a pakregi, agarchih 

mazbut qil^h men bhi ho. 
Jis ghar mei> mihm&n nahig 

ita, us meg firishtah nahig 

Adl ka gamrah salamati, aur 

zulm k& gamrah nadimat hai. 
Ag, marz, aur ^dawat, agar 

thori bhi ho, to bahut hai. 
Ch&ndi, sone ki talab, nafs kt 

khubiyan kho deti hai. 
Dunyd ki ni^mat, jaise badal ki 

sayah, ya bijli ki chamak. 
Taw&n4iyon se ho, aur ad ml' 

ke pas ap ko Ijiaqir mat kar. 
Thore khdne se sihat badan, 

aur safai qalb ki hai. 
Jagah ^dawat ki dil men, jaise 

jagah ig ki r6kh men. 
Dushman ke sath neki kame 

us ki badi k& badla hai. 
Hakim wuhi hai jo apni sha* 

waton par ghalib ho. 
Insdn wuhi hai jo apne ghazab 

par gh&lib ho. 
A'lim ka ek din, j&hil ki tamam 

zindagi se, bihtar hai. 
Be taammul bat mat kar, aur 

kam be tadbir ke. 
Khizab se jawani hath nahin 

lagti hai, aur tamanna se 




Dunyi kf |^hu8hi men gham 
miU hai, aur uski shirini meg 

Jab badi admi ki ^dat hui, ub 

ka khona dushwar hai. 
Mai ek qa^ibah hai; kabhd 

nek P&8, kabhd bad pas. 
Jia padiihah mei) ^1 nahig, 

r^yat uski tabi nahin. 
Har nafs apni jins ki (araf mail 

hot4 hai. 
Farotani se manzalat ^asil hot! 

hai, aur takabburi se halakat. 
Maut se fara^hat, aur zindagi 

se mash^huH hai. 
Zin&, sud, riyi, shait&n ke 

bh&i hain. 
Qina^t se istiehna, aur sabar 

se maqstid milt& hai. 
Jo kisi par ra^m nahin kart&, 

so wuh bhi r^hm nahin kiy& 

jata hai. 
Sach bala ko dur karta hai, 

aur jhuth bala meo ^alta 

Jo apne bhed ko chhipata hai, 

so murad ko pahunchta hai. 
Jo l^awas ki pairawi karta hai, 

iruh hal4k hota hai. 
Ins&n jis chiz ko bahut dost 

rakhta hai, use akgar yad 

karti hai. 
Dunyadar ghafil hain ; jab mar- 

enge tab ^habardir hoyge. 

Jo apne rutbe se baph nahin 

chalta hai, wuh salamat raht& 

Jo koi i^Lsdn se inkar kare^ us 

par minnat rakha chahe. 
Gu|ran karo bhaiyon ki t&i^ali, 

aur mu^malah karo beganon 

ki tara^. 
Khuda tawangar hai, aur ham 

us ke darwaze ke faqir hain. 
Razi kame se jo razi na ho, wuh 

bapa |alim hai. 
Tu apne chhoton par raj^m kar^ 

bafe tujh par ra^m karega. 
Jis ne t&qat se ziyadah uthaya, 

wuh $jiz hua. 
Khat faqir ke waste mal^ aur 

ghani ke liye jam&l hai. 
Ehudi jo chahta hai, asbab us 

ka muhaiy& kar deta hai. 
A^im pahchanta hai jahil ko, 

kyunki wuh bhi jahil tha. 
Jo chahta hai ki tujh par ihsan 

kare, tu us par i^san kar. 
jis Badsh&h men adl nahin, 

so ek nahr hai bila pani ke. 
Jis ^lim meg amal nahin, so 

badil hai bila pani ke. 
Kam par iqdam mat kar, jabtak 

us men iikr na kare tu. 
Jabki mil ho jata hai, tab dost 

bhi kam ho jate hain. 
Dushman se dosti lahir kar» 

agar us se naf^ chahta haic 

Keadino lessons. 


Jd bhed ko clihipata hai, ikh- 

tiyar uske hath se uahin jata 

Dunya ek sayah ila paedar faai, 

aur jawani ek mihman musa- 

fir hai. 
Zalim ka ghar wairan hota hai, 

go thof e din ke bad ho. 
Bala unhin ka ghar dhundti 

faai, jo Khuda ke dost hain. 
Jo chiz apne waste bad janiye, 

wuh dusre ke liye bhi bad 

Jo admi apne se razi hua, 

us par badiyan bahut hoti 

l)unya ek pul hai, us psit gu^ar 

jao,aur abadi ke, uski, darpe 

mat ho. 
Akela bona aqimand ka bihtar 

hai, bad ke sath hamnashinise. 
Nek ke sath hamnashini bihtar 

hai, akele baithne se. 
Hasid ki yihi saza hai, ki teri 

khushi se maghmdm hota 

Dunya us ke taliboii ko chhor, 

aur murdar kutton ke samhne 

Mai kya hai ? mazbut qila hai, jo 

malamat ke tiron ko rokta hai. 
Kamal (laya ka yih hai, ki admi 

ap se bhi sharra kare. 

Jo aqimand se madad chahti 

hai, wah kabhu khata nahin 

Jalin apnahi dushman hai ; 

dusre ka dost kab hoga. 
Sabr kunji hai khushi ki, auf 

jaldi kunji hai nidamat ki. 
Jis amar ko tu janta nathin, us 

men dar mat a. 
Agar jahii ka jihal na hota, to 

dan& ki danai malum na hotf. 
De, aur minnat mat rakh, ki us 

ka faidah tujh ko pahunchega. 
K^ramat ka chhipana bthtat 

hai ; par mushk chhip&ne se 

kahin chhipti hai f 
Allah ki sifat men fikr kar, aut 

us ki zat men khauz mat kar. 

Ghina ghiza hai ruhon ki, jaise 
• • • 

(am ghiza hai jismon ki. 
Bahut admi dunyi ke Uye ag 

ka jalna qabul karte hain. 
Waqar walah, jaise moti, niche 

baitha hua ; aur jaldi- walahs 

jaise machli, tairti hue. 
Jis chiz se admi ki izzat rahe, 

wuhi us ka sadqah hai< 
Nek bakht wuh hai, jo apne 

bap ki riyasat ko kamal mep 

Duttyadar,jaise sawar kishti ke ; 

ki wuh un ko liye phirti haif 

aur we sote hain« 


Sabr karn& kasab par bihtar hai, doston ke pas faajat le jiit€ g^^ 

Jo apne |^aq men bad jiniye, wuh dusre ke ^aq men bhi ba<f 

Bap dade par fakhr kame se, hunar par fakhr kamd bihtar hai. 

Jis ne dene ka i^san kiya, us ne gaw4b ko barbad diya. 

Iqrar karne^wale se m^f kiya jata hai» na israr karne-wale se. 

Jis ne ghair ka \^il tujh se kaha, wuh tera hal ghair se kahega^ 

Parhezgari ek darakht hai, jis ki jar qinaat, aur phal rahat hai^ 

Jab bat mukarrar hoti hai, tab dil men qar&r pakarti hai. 

Hasad ek zang hai ; jab tak use khata nahin, j4ta Habin. 

Jo qina^t nahin karta hai, zamanah us ko bala men daltfi hai, 

Kaminah barhne se takabbur karta hai, aur ^akim hone se zulm. 

Do shakhs kabhu isodafa nahin bote, t&Iib i ilm, aur (alib i mal ka^ 

Tajrabah se ilm baphta hai, aur taraddud se ghalajti hoti hai. 

Zinat admi ki ilm se, aur zinat ilm ki m^rifat se hai. 

Ghair ke kapre matutar, aur chiiiyon ke par mat ukhar. 

Ek salt ka adl, sath baras ki ibadat se bihtar hai. 

Bihtar admi wuh hai ki jis ke h&th aur zaban se kisi ko iza sa 

Aqil apni zaban k& m&Iik hai, aur jahil apni zaban ka mam-t 
luk hai. 

Kafs ki tabidari se baz rah, aur Khudake khilaf mat kar. 

Hauski pairawi se baz rah, aur Khuda ki mukhalifat se dar. 
Jis ne larakpan men ilm na sikha, wuh burhape men muazza^ 

na hu£. 
Taw&ngari ko hartaur se (alab kiya, par qinaat se ziyadah koi 

ghina na pai. 
Do ehizen admi ko halak kartin hain ; mal ka israf, aur ziyadah 

Khushi ka ansu sard, aur gham ka ansu garm hota hai. 
Din yaqin se milti hai, aur yaqin Khuda ki taufiq se. 
Tu apne hath ko khainch, aur tamanna ke darwaze par qufal de« 
Bihtar bakhshish wuh hai, jo be deri aur be i(^san ke howe. 
Apni umar ko gunahon men mat kho, aur Khuda se khauf kar. 
Halaki hojiyo us ko, jo ibadat khanah men dikhlane ke liye 

baithta hai. 
Zulm se asaish kho jati hai, aur baghawat se badi milti hai. 


Chap rahna wasilah najat ka hai ; goy4i bulbul ko pinjare me^ 

dalti hai. 
Apni rozi ke liye gham mat kha, wuh pahle tere muhaya \i 

gai hai. 
Jo apne se kam rutbe par zulm karta hai» wuh ba^a nidin hai. 
Jis ne maut ko bahut yad kiya, wuh dunya se thofe par 

razi hu&. 
Jis ne apne ^aq ko khoyi, wuh dusre ke haq ki pairawl kab 

karega ? 
Ummed ek surab hai ; use jo dekhta hai dbokh& khiti hai, aur 

maqsud ko nahin pahunchta. 
Maqsud tera jab ghairoi) se ^asil ho, to bh&i se mat (alab kar. 
Jo apne nafs ko pahchanta hai, kisi ka kahni use zarur nahi0 

karta hai. 
Thora kalam jo bujha jae, bihtar hai bahut se, jo malal meo 

Agar insan faidah farmiobardiri ka j£nt4, to Padshah us ii 

ghulam ho jata. 
Jism ki sihat khane se, aur ru^ ki si^at farmanbardari se hai. 
Jo apne bbai ke liye kua khodta hai, so &phi us men girta hai. 
Apne bhai par t^n mat kar ; Allah us ko najat dega, aur tujb 

ko mubtala karegi. 
Nafs ka mu^asabah kar, salim rahega ; aur khatron men dar mat i^ 

nidamat khainchega. 
Nek o bad men, jo tamiz nahin karta hai, wuh bhi ek j&nwar hai. 
Hub duniya ki ^ql ko khoti hai, aur dil ko ^ikmat se baa rakhti 

Bina wuh hai, jo apne gunahon par mu^it, aur apne ^ibon par 

waqif ho. 
Khuda ke qurb se ndr, aur khalq ke qurb se gham, paida hoti, 

Hasad ya ^asid ke marne se chhu^ti hai^ yi, jis par f^asad kiya, 

us ke marne se ? 
Kishti par sawar bona khatre men parua hai, aur Badsh&h ke 

pas jana us se ziyadah. 
Jis ne bakhshish ki, wuh buzurg aur sardar hu& ; aur jis ne bu^hl 

kiya, wuh jcalil aur khw^r* 


Jis ne apni ummedoi} par takhir ki, us ne payi ; aur jisne ja]di 

kiy wuh ma^rum raha. 
Khushi nahin hai, magar nekon ke liye ; aur gham pahin hai, 

magar badon ke liye. 
Nek wuh hai jo dusre ko shar se bacbawe, aur achchhi rah 

Jo hit na kahi, wuh ikhtiyar men hai, ^ur jab kahi, to ikhtiyar 

86 gai. 
Admi aj mahhalon men, kal qabron men, parsun Itashr men hoga. 
Jo jaldi karti hai, so ^hat& karta hai ; jo deri karta hai, so murad 

pata hai. 
Aqil ke liye do fazilat hain, ek aql, jis se ^dah ^asil kare ; dusri, 

goyai jisse faidah de. 
Jo muqaddar men hai, so pahunchega ; l^aris ma^rum rahta hai, 

bakhil aur |;ia8id maxmum aur maghmum. 
Ghar lene ke pahle, hamsae ka |;ial ta|^qiq kar ; aur chalne ke 

pahle, rafiq ka, 
Aqil ke, jo munh men so dil men; a^maq ke^jo dil men so 

m.UQh men hai. 
Zikr wuhi bihtar hai, jo dil se ho tazarrd, ke sath, na wuh ki zabau 

ise parhezgari ke sath. 
Pak kar nafs ko, us chiz se, jo us men hai ; tu unki khubiyan 

aur buraiyan janta hai ? 
Dost sacheba wuh hai, jo tere aibon par tujhe khabardar karta 

hai, aur ap par muqaddam rakhta hai. 
Agar sach surat pakarta, to sher hota ; aur, agar jhuth surat 

pakairta, to lombri hota. 
Iman wuh hai ki sach ko jhuth par ikhtiyar kare^ jahan ke sach 

zarar kare, aur jhuth faidah de. 
Bar Khudaya, tune bala ko nazil kiy^, to sabar bhi de; aur 

si^t ata ki, to shukr bhi de. 
Jo Urn ki sala^iyat na bakhshe, wuh gumrahi hai ; aur jo mal ki 

nafa na de, wuh wabal hai. 
Bihtar admi wuh hai, jo ^pne §.ibon par bina, aur dusre ke aiboQ* 

men andha ho. 
N/eki karpewale se mahabbat, aur badi karnewale se kinah rakhna, 

dilon ki sarisht hai. 


Himmat ki kotahi, tadbir ki kami, fikr ki susti, bartari se mahrum 

rakhti hai. 
Din men parhezgari, ^adison par sabr, aur maishat men sabr 

karna, kamal aql ka hai. 
Asbraf ashraf hi hai 9 agarchih muflis bo ; aur kamina kamina hai^ 

agarchih taw&ngar ho. 
Dil ki t.araf nik&h rakhna nek bakhti hai, aur nig&fa ki (araf dil ko 

lagana bad bakhti. 
Bukhl aur jihal tawaz^ ke sith bihtar hai, ilm aur sakhawat se jo 

gharur ke sath hai. 
Jo zamanah tere sath mawafiqat na kare, to tu zamanah ke sath 

roawafiqat kar. 
Agar neki tujhe pahunche, to bhi khushi kar ; aur agar badi tujh 

se dur kijae, to bhi khush ho. 
Jo har bat par na khush hota hai, us ke dost aur rafiq kam honge. 
Jo ap ko dana janta hai,Khuda aur admi us ko a|^maq jante hain. 
!JuIm ka din majlum par aisa sdkht nahin, jaise badle ka din 

jcalim par. 
Sharir ko apni shararat zikr karna asan hai, us se ki maghmum 

apne gliam ko zikar kare. 
^^hut sona aur susti Allah se dur karti hai, aur gharibi lati hai. 
Ghulam ka koi bhai nahin, jaise jhuthe ko maruwat, aur hasid 

ko aram nahin. 
Aqil ki shan se nahin ki fareb kare, aur phir ap us men pare. 
Paulat aur ni^mat laiq iatibar ke nahio hai, ek sayah na paedar 

hai, dusre mihman musafir. 
Dilon ki quwat ^ikroat hai, jaise jismon ki qawat t^m hai. 
Bis baras ka gabhru, tis baras ka jawan, chalis k4 adher, pachas 

ka buddha hota hai. 
Admi jabtak bahut sakhti par sabr nahin karta, thore matlab ko 

nahin pahunchta. 
Bukhl mihrbani ke sath bihtar hai, bakhshish se, ki jis ke sath 

bahut iza ho. 
Admi ke zikr se parhez kar, ki wuh bimari hai, aur Allah ka 

zikr kiva kar, ki wuh shifa hai. 
Sayad wuh hai, jo guzre hue se pand pi|ir ho ; aur bad wuh hai 

jo ap ko bihtar janta hai. 


Jo rat aur din ke taghir se khabardar na ho, to malamat auf 

nasibat se kab khabardar boga. 
Ijkhlis wuh hai, ki |badat karne men sawab ki ummed aur ^zih 

ka dar na ho. 
Agar busurgi chahta faai» to ^jixi il^htiyar kar ; aur agar daulat 

chahta hai, to qinaat ko. 
Jo ilm ki talab men khub koshish nahio karti hai, wuh us ilm ke 

maqsud par nahiQ pahunchta. 
Mat higi^ us chiz ko jis ki isla^i dushwar ho, aur mat band kar 

wuh darwazah, ki jise khol na sake. 
Jis ne d%wi kiya us chiz ka, jo us men nahin hai, wuh imtihan ke 

waqt ruswa hoga. 
Har al&qe se dil ko baz rakhna, aur Allah ke sath alaqah rakhna^ 

tawakkul hai. 
Dunya men musifir, aur rfth cbalnewale ki iBxa,^ rah, aur ^p ko 

ahili qabar se gin. 
Kaminon se dosti karne men parhez kar ; kiyunki qaribon ko 

tujh se dur, aur duron ko nazdik kar denge. 
^alim murdah hai, agarchih zindon ke ghar men ho ; aur mu^sin 

zindah hai, agarchih murdon ke ghar men ho. 
Bat wuhi kiya chahye, jis ki shuhrat se nek nami ho ; aur kam 

wuhi bihtar hai, ki jis ke karne se sawab mile. 
Jo teri bat par iatimad nahig karta hai, use nasi^iat mat kar. 
Aur jo koi tujh se qabul nahin karta, us par ihsan mat kar. 
Jo ilm janta hai aur izhar nahin karta, wuh bihtar hai us se, ki jo 

janta hai, aur laf zani karta hai. 
Ahmaq wuh hai jo ihsan nahin karta, aur shukar guz4ri chahti 

hai, aur badi karta hai, aur tawaqqu neki ki rakhta hai. 
Dushmanki islah mithi bat se asan hai, ki us ki islah ihsan se kare, 
Aql se bihtar koi tadbir nahin, aurharam na karne se bihtar koi 

parhezgari nahin, aur khulq se bihtar koi ^ubi nahin. 
Admi do qisam par hai, ek to wuh jo matlab ko nahin pahunchta ; 

dusra, wuh jo pahunchta hai, atir ser nahin hoti. 
A^maq se do khaslaten nahin chhutti hain, raste mcQ idhar udhar 

dekhna, aur be soche jawab dena. 
Jo mil jam^ karne ka qasd karta hai, wuh ma^izuo rahta hai ; aur 

jo zam&ne ki muwafiqat ka guman karta hai, wuh miynu^ hia«^ 

Heading lessons. 29 

So cliiz tere hath se j&ti rahi us par afsos mat kar, kyunki teri 

agar hoti, to dusre kepas na jati. 
Tin admi tin shakb? se nafi^ nahin uth&te ; sharif dani se, neka 

kar bad kar se, dani nadan se. 
Wazir ke khonte hone, aur niyat ke bad rakhne, aur rayat paif 

xulm kame, aur bad tadbiri se, mulk jata hai. 
Char chiz ko char chi^ se siri nahig ; aijkh ko dekhne se, kan ko 

sunne se, randi ko mard se, zamin ko pani se. 
Haq dar kabhon jalil nahig hot&, agarchih sara &lim muttifaq ho 3 

aur b^til walah kabhoQ muazzaz nahin hota, agarchih rudar ho. 
Jo apne |^aq men dost rakhti hai, so bh4i ke s4th kar ; aur jo 

apne haq men bad janti hai, wuh us ke liye bhi bad jan. 
Tin admi muazzaz bote bain ; ek bu^rha burhape se, dusre, sahibi- 

ilm ilm se, tisre Badshah Badshahat ke sabab. 
Kisi ne ek ^akim se puchha, Tnm jante ho us chiz ko, ki jis par 

(lasad na howe ? aur sahib bala ko, ki jis par ra^m na kiya 

jawe ? kaha, ban, tuwaz^ aur takabbur hai. 
Hoshiyari admi ki yih hai ki kisi ko fareb na de, aur kamal as ki 

yih hai, ki ap bhi kisi se fareb na kh&we. 




CHAt». II. 


■.V r 


^'- ^' 


iliran aur Lomri ki tams'H, 

) TAe Z)eer a«d Me i^o«2?* 

£k hirail pjyasa hokar p4ni ke chashme pas aya, ki us se panf 
pie ; wuh chashmah bare ghar men tba. Jab pani prkar chaha 
ki upar charhe, charha na saka. £k lomri ne dekhkar kaha, 
Ai bhai, tu ne bahut bura kam kiya, kyunki utarue se pablej 
charhne ka rastAk dekh na liya. 

Hdsil us kd yih hat. 

Jo pani men utarta hai aur pair nabin sakta, wuh dubega. 

Khargosh aur Gidh ki tamsiL 
The Hares and the Eagles. 

£k bar khargoshon aur gidhon men iarai thi. Khargoshon 
ne lomriyon se madad chahi. Unhon ne kaha, Agar ham turn- 
hare aur unke ^al se waqif na bote, to jaisa kalite ho, waisahi 


Hdsil us kd yih hat. 
Admi ko chahiye ap se jo qawi ho, us se bigar na kare- 

Mali aur tarkari ki tamsiL 
The Gardener and Ms Herbs, 

Kisi ne dekha ki ek mail tarkari ko sech raha tha ; us ne kaha, 
Yih kya hai, ki jangli tarkari ko koi nabin sechta aur khush 
numa hoti hai ! Mali ne jawdb diya, Ki wuh apni ma se parwarish 
pati hai, aur yih apne bap ki joru se. 

Hdsil us ki yih hai. 

Ma ki parwarish bihtar hai, sauteli ma ki parwarish se. 


Jdmi aur Bui ki tamsil. 
The Man and his Idol. 

Kisi idmi ke ghar men ek But th&, ki wuh hameshah use 
pujta, aur har roi us ke waste ek janwar |abati karti. A^ir 
ko, us ki mal sab kharch ko gay a. Pas, i^airan hokar, us but ne 
kaha, Ki apna mal mere liye kharch mat karo, ki phir tum mujhe 
mal&mat karoge. 

Ha§il U8 ka yih hai. 

Jo apna mal gunahon men kharch karta hai, wuh kahta hai, 
Ki Allah ne mujhe faqir kar diya. 

Bher^ aur Sher ki tam§il. 
The Wolf and the Lion. 

Ek bar bheriya khuk ke bachche ko liye jata tha, rah me^ 
fiber se mulaqat hue ; us ne chhin liya. Bhere ne apne ji men 
kaha, Kaisi chiz main ne ^hasab ki, jo mere pas na rahi. 

Hd§il U8 ki yih hai. 

Jo chiz ki zulm se hath ati hai, wuh uske pas nahin rahti ; aur 
agar rahti hai, to kam nahin ati. 

Larke aur BichchhH ki tam§il. 
The Boy and the Scorpion. 

Kisi waqt ek larke ne tiddi shik&r ki thi. Ek roz bichchhii 
ko dekh-kar samjha, ki yih ^i^di hai. Is khiydl se us ne hdth 
barhaya ki pakre, phir hath ko khench liya. Bichchhu ne kaha, 
agar tum mujhe pakarte, to phir kabhii ti^di ka shikar na karte. 

Hdsil us ka yih hai. 

Ki admi bhale aur bure ko samajhta hai, aur har ek ke muwafiq 
k^m karta hai. 

Billi aur Sohan ki tamsil. 
The Cat and File. 

Ek billa kisi lobar ke gh^r men jakar sohan Ico cha(;ne laga, aur 
uski zaban se khun jiri hua. Wuh yih samajhkar, ki sohan se 


nikalta hai, use nigalta tha, yahan tak, ki us ke sari zaban kat 
gai aur mar gaya. 

Hdsil us kd yih hat. 
Ki bad kam achchha malum hota hai, aur use laziz janta bar, 
aur yih bat nahiij samajhta, ki us se umr kho jati hai. 

Chargh aur Murgh ki tamsiL 

The Hawks and the Cocks. 

Charghon ko kbabar pahunchi ki murgb bimar hain. Taiis 

ki khal urh-kar, unhen dekhne gae, aur kaba, AUssalam alaikam f 

Ai bhaio, kya Jial hai tumhara ? We bole, Ki jis roz ham tumhara 

munb nahin dekhte, khair se bote bain. 

Hasil us kd yih hai. 
Babut admi aise bain, ki mahabbat zahir karte bain, aur ji men 
dagbabazi rakbte bain. 

Kutte aur Khargosh ki tam§iL 
The Dog and the Hare. 
Ek kutte ne khargosh ko pakra aur danton se katta, aur kfiun 
zaban se chatta. Khargosh ne kaba, ki Ai bhdi, jab tu katta 
hai, to aisa maliim hota hai, ki jaise koi kisi ka dushman bo ; 
aur jab chatta hai, to yih malum hota hai, ki jaise koi dost bo. 

Hdsil us kd yih hai. 
Ki jis ke ji men fareb hota hai, wuh dosti aur mahabbat s^ahir 
karta hai. 

Bat aur Ahdbil ki tamsiL 
The Goose and the Swallow. 
Bat aur ababil apas men shirkat se guzran karte the, aur ekbi 
makan men donon ki cbaragah thi. Ek roz un donon ne gumai» 
shikari ka kiya. Ababil, chunki halka tha, ur gaya aur bach 
raba. Bat is liye ki bhari thi saiyadon ne use pakar liya aur 
zabah kiya. 

Hdsil us kd yih hai. 
Jo apni ghair jins ke sath shurkat karta hai, wuh akbir ko 
kbarab hota hai* 


Hiran aur Sher ki tamsil. 

The Deer and the Lion, 

Kisi waqt ek hiran shikari ke dar se bhagkar ek ghar ke 

andar baitha. Ek sher ne wahin jakar us ka shikar kiya. Hiran 

marte waqt kahne laga, Ki afsos ! ineri yih kya bad-bakhti thi, ki 

admi ke dar se bhagkar, aur ek zabardai9t le panjemen phansa ! 

Hdsil is ka yih hai. 
Ki jo shakhs thori afat se tarsanag hokar bhagtd hai, wuh us 
se bari afat men parta hai. 

Kutte aur Lomri ki tam§tL 
The Dog and the^J^ox. 
Kisi waqt ek kutte ne Sher ka chamra dekha us ke nazdik jakar 
dant se katne laga. Yih be adabi kutte ki, lomri ne dekhkar kaha, 
Agar yih ^aiwan, ki hamara tumhara fiadshah kahlata tha, zindah 
hota, to turn us ke panje ke nakhun ko apne dant se bara dekhte^ 
aur aj turn us ke chamre ko katte ho ! 

Ifdsil is kd yih hai. 
Bad marne ke bhi murdon a\^^3Uzurgon ke nam ki pasdari 
zardr hai, aur jitna adab ki jine ki l^alat men kiya jata hai, 
marne ke bad bhi chahiye. 

Pet aur Aza ki tamsil. 

• • • •« 

The Belly and the Members. 
Ek bar shikam aur aza men qaziyah hua. Dono ne kaha, Ki 
jism ko ham uthae phirte hain, aur us ki hifazat karte hain. 
Aza bole, Ham apni quwat se liye phirte hain. Pet ne kaha, Agar 
main kuchh na khaun, to tum na chal sako, aur na uth sako. 

Hdsil is kd yih hai. 
Jo. shakhs apne sardar aur apne se zorawar ki pairawi na kare, 
balki us se dawe barabari ka kare, to akhir ko, wuh kharab hoti 
hai, aur jis kam men muqarrar hai use kar nahin sakega. 

,Do Murgh ki tamsil. 
The two Cocks. 
Do murgh kisi chiz ke liye apas men larte the. Un men ek 
ghalib hua^ dusra bhag gaya. Bad uske, jo ^halib hua tha. 







wuh ek UQche b&Ukh&ne par baithkar, b£au pbaik&te aur bang 
dete hue, fa|^har karne Iag&. Itne men ek kutta use dekb, ekhi 
hamle men, pakair le gay&. 

Hd$il is ki yih hau 
Admi ko na ch&hiye ki apne zor ka fa^har kare, kyunki 
gharur aur fa^iar admi ko jan se khota hai. 

Machchhar aur Bait ki iam§iL 
The Fly and the Ox. 

Ek machchhar kisi bul ke sing par buthkar sochne laga, ki 
Main bhari hua hungi. Xlfc us ne kaha ki, Ai bail, mere baith* 
ne se agar turn ko bojh malum hua ho, to kabo, main chala jaun. 
Bail bola, Ai machchhar turn kis par baithe ho, so mujhe malum 
nahin, aur kis ko dukh pahunlntii hai, so bhi main nahin janta 

Hi§il is kd yih hai. 

Jo shakhs apni quwUfaur tawanai par auron se gharur karta 
hai, wuh nipat l^aqir hai. 

A^dtni aur Maut kl tamffil. 
Man, and Death. 

Koi shakhs lakri ka ek bojh liye jata tha. Bojh ke mare bahut 
thakkar, us ne use apne kandhe se phenk diya, aur maut ko 
pukara. Wuhin maut l^azir hokar boli, Tum ne mujhe kyui| 
bulaya. Us ne kaha, Ki mere kandhe par is bojh ko utha do, is 
liye bulaya hai. 

H&^il us ki yih hai. 

Duny& ke bich sabhi apni hayat chahte haig. Bahut gharib 
aur lachar hone par bhi koi maut nahin mangta* 

Habshi ki tamffil. 
The Blackamoor. 

Ek habshi kappe utar, barf le apne badan men malne laga. Is 
men kisi shakhs ne kaha, Ki aji, tum kyun barf malte ho P Bola, 
Ki sufed hone ke liye. Is mea kisi danfi ne, akar kaha, ki Ai 


miyan, turn apne badan ko dukh na do, tumhiri badan barf ko 
8iy4h kar sakta hai, par barf tumhare baadan ki siy&hi kho na 

Hdfil is ki yih hau 
Bad admi bhale ko bura kar sakti hai, par bure se bhala karne 
ki taqat kam kisi ko hai. 

Sher aur do Bail ki tam§U. 
The Lion and the two Buttocks. 
Kisi waqt ek sher do bail par daura. Dono bail muttafiq 
hokar us ko sing se marne lage^ aur us ko apne bich ine na die. 
Sher ne un dono ko fareb dene ke liye, jud& hokar kaha, Ai bailo, 
turn apas men juda hokar jo farq se raho, to main kisi ko kuchh 
na kahunga. Is bat par i^timad karke, dono alag ho gae, wuhii} 
sher ne dono ko shikar kiya. 

Hdfil is kd yih hai. 
Admi jab-tak ki muttafiq rahen, tab tak koi dushmani karke 
un par ghalib ho nahin sakta. Be ittafaqi se sabhi mdre jate 

Larke ki tam$il. 
The Boy fallen into the River. 
Kisi waqt ek larka ipse pani men gira. Pair na janta tha, is 
liye ghote khane laga. Baste par se ek shakhs ko madad ke liye 
pukari, aur bulaya. Wuh nazdik ja pani men girne ke bab 
men malamat karni shuru ki. Larke ne kaha^ Pahle mujhe 
bachaiye, pichhe maUmat kar lijiega. 

Hd§il is ki yih hai. 
Tumhari koi dost jo &fat men pare, to pahle use afat se 
bachakar^ pichhe malamat karni bihtar hu. 

Siiraj aur Hated ki tam§il Wm^ 
The Sun and the Wind. 
Suraj aur havi ke bich jhagra hua, ki dekhen kaun admi ke 
kappe utarwa sakta hai. Is meii hawa bape zor se baiine lagi. 
Admi ne us zor ke samhalne ke liye apna kapra badan men lapef 


liyi. Jab din cbatha, aur aftab ki sbu^ bahut tez hui, tab 
ddmiyon ne garmi ke mare, apna kapra, bojh samajhkar, badan 
8e utar dala. 

Hasil is tea yih hai. 

Admiyon ko cbahye ki apne bausle ke muwafiq dawi kareij, to 
pichhe sharmandagi na ho, jaise hawa pasheman hui. 

Kai Bheriyon ki tamsil. 

The Wolves drinking up the water to get at the Hides. 

Kai bheriyon ne ck khandaq meij gae ka chamra dekhkar 
khane ka iradah kiya. Lekin khandaq pani se bhara tha, aur 
chamra bhi nazdik na tha. It ne men unhon ne baham ittifaq 
kar yih mashwarah kiya,ki pahle pani pikark handaq ko sukhawen, 
pichhe chamra khawen. Yih dil men thankar, pet bharkar pani 
ke pine se, sabhi pet phatkar mar gae, chamra kha na £ake. 

Hd§il is kd yih hai, 
Kam $ql wuh kam karta hai jis se jan kho jati hai. 

Kachhwe aur Khargosh ki tamsil. 
The Tortoise and the Hare. 

Kisi waqt ek kachhwe aur khargosh ne apas men daurne 
ka ahad paiman karke, ek pahar tak had muqarrar ki, aur us 
pahar ki taraf daure. Khargosh apni laghri, aur tezrawi, aur 
halkapan ke sabab raste men thakkar so gaya. Kachhwa apne 
jisamat aur ahistah chalne par bhi raste men na sustaya, na dar- 
mandah hua, aur pahar par ja baitha. Tab khargosh ne jakar 
dekha, ki kachhwa age chala gaya hai, is men sharmindah hua, 
par us waqt ki nadamat kisi kam na ae. 

Hasil is ka yih hai. 

Zorawar aur kam zor men larai hone se chahiye ki kam zor 
ghafil na rahe, aur «isa bhi ittifaq hota, ki zorawar ki ghailat 
se kam zor fata^Lmand hota iiai« 


Sher hahar aur Lomri ki tam§il. 
The Lion and the Fox* 

Ek sher babar, burhape ke sabab; kam zor hokar kisi janwar 
ko shikar kar na sakta tha. Is liye apni khurak ke waste fareh 
dene ke irade par tumaraz kar ek ghar ke andar raha tha, ki jo 
koi haiwan us ke dekhne ko awe^ us ko usi khandaq ke andar 
pakarkar khawe. Is men ek lomri uske yahan ja, ghar ke dar- 
waze par khari ho salam kar boll, Ai j&nwaron ke Badshah, Ap 
kaise hain ? Sher ne kaha. Turn is ke andar kyun nahin ati ? 
Lomri ne kaha, Jahanpanah, main ne yahan akar bahu(on ke 
paithue ki alamat dekhi, lekin bahir nikalne ka, ek ke bhi nishan 
na paya. 

Hd§il is ka yih hai. 

Admi ko na chahiye ki bin bujh samjhe, kisi kam men dakh- 
al pare. 

Kahutari ki tam§iL 
The Pigeon. 

Koi kabutari piyasi hokar ek diwar ke gird ghumti thi. Itti- 
faqan ek kansah pani se hhaik hua, us diwar par nazar para. 
Kabutari ne jaldi se urkar ap ko us kanse par mara, ki pota phat 
gaya. Us waqt us ne kaha, Ki main ajab badbakht hun? ki p§ni 
ki talab men jaldi ki, aur apni jan khoi. 

Hasil is ka yih hai. 
Susti aur sahulat se k&m karna bihtar hai jaldi se. 

Lohar aur Kutte ki tam§il. 
The Dog and the Blacksmith. 

Kisi lobar ke ghar ek kutta tha; jab tak malik us ka kam 
kiya karta wuh soya karta. Jis waqt wuh lobar kam se faraghat- 
kar khdne ke liye baithta, us waqt wuh kutta bedar hota. Lobar ne 
kaha, Ai badzat, kya sabab hai, awaz gahan se, ki jis se zamin 
kampti hai, tu bedar uahin hota, aur dant ki awaz se jag uthta. 

Ha§il is kd yih hai, 
Admi jab namaz ki awaz sunta hai, to so rahta hai, aur jab 
baje ki awaz suni to pichhe daurta hai. 


A^dmi aur Ghori hi tam§U. 
The Man and the Mare. 

£k &diiii ghop gabhin par sawar hua tha. Itdfaqan wuli rah 
men jan pari. Us ka bachcha thori diir chalkar thahar gayi, 
aur kahii, Ai iqa, dekhti hai, ki main chhota hun, aur chal nahin 
aakia ; agar tu mujhe chho^kar chala jawega, to main yahan 
bal&k ho jaunga ; aur jo tu mujhe apne sath lewe aur meri par- 
warish kare, ki jawin ho j&un, to maig apni pifh par tujhe le 
chalunga, aur jahia kahio jiji chihega, wabai} jald pahun- 

Hifil is k& yih hat. 
Admi ko ch&hiye ki jo must^aq il^san ka hai, us ke sath i(isan 

A'dmi aur Suar ki tam§il. 
The Man and the Hcg. 

Kisi waqt men ek admi ne men4ha, aur bheri, aur suar ko bail 
par ladkar, shabr ki taraf le chala, ki sab ko beche. Mentha aur 
bheri bail ko kuchh ija na deti thi, aur suar sari rah chiUata tha, 
aur bail ko marta. Us admi ne kaha ki, Ai badzat, kis waste tu 
qarar nahin pakapta, aur ye donon chup hai{i ? Khinzir bola, Har 
koi apne ^al se w&qif hai, men^he ko jo koi lewega, us ke balon 
ke liye : aur bheri ko dudh ke waste. Mujh men na bal hain, 
na dudh ; pas, jis waqt ki shahr meg pahunchuQga mazba^ men 
bhej4 jaunga. 

Hdsil is k& yih hai. 

Jo &dmi badiyan aur gunahon ko kart& hai, wuh apne anjam 
ko jant& hai. 

Biran aur Gadhe ki tafn§il* 
The Deer and the Ass. 

Ek hiran aur gadhd b&ham fishna the. Rat ko chame be 
waste kisi bag^ men gae. Hiran ne gadhe ko kaha, khabardar 
boliyo mat, baghban sota hai. Gadha bewaquf kahne laga, ki is 
waqt meri tabiy^t bahut ]chush hai, turn kaho, to maifi repgun. 


Hiran bola. Agar aisa karoge, to mili ke h&th se khub kutke 
khaoge. Do tin bar us ne ise man^ kiya, lekin us gadhe ne us 
ke kahne ko na inana> rengne laga. Mall hi ankh jo khuli, to ek 
sonta hath meo lekar, pichhe un ke dau|r& ; hiran to apm jaldrawi 
se nikal gaya, aur gadha kam zor bh&g na saka. Mali ne khub 
mar dhari. 

JE[i^il is ki yih haL 

Gharaz, jo koi apne dana dost ka kah& na m&negi kharab hoga. 

Chiriyi aur Kawe ki tam$iL 

The Bird and the Crow. 

Ek kawe ne namak ka ghar banaya tha, aur ek chipyfi ne 
mom ka ; we donon p&s, pas, rahte the. Ek ros chi|:iya ne khdnfi 
pakaya, namak na tha, kawe se manga. Us ne kaha, Kyi main 
tere waste apna ghar topun ? chal, dur ho. Chifiya phirkar 
chali ai. Ek roz men jo barsa, kawe ka ghar ghal gay^, tab kawe 
nechifiya ke pis jakar panah mangi. Chiriya ne kaha, Suno, 
bam ne |aras& namak manga tha, tum ne na diya, kya muzayaqah i 
ao, baitho. 

Ha§il is kd yih hai. 

Ki badi ka badla len4 asan hai, lekia burai ke iwaz bhalai 
kama sakht mushkil. 

Bdrah-singe ki tam§il. 
The Stag drinking. 

Kisi waqt ek barah-singa piyasa hokar talab men ja, pani piya, 
aur wunhin, pani ke bich, apni naliyon ka dubla pa dekhkar 
ghamgin hua, lekin sing ki barai par khush hua. Shikdriyon ke 
pahunchte hiran bhagkar dur ho gay a; is liye, shikari us ko shikar 
kar na sake. Jab wuh pahar men jakar ghane jangal men baitha, 
aur lambe sing ke sabab, darakhton ki dal o pat men phansa, tab 
fihikariyon ne wahau jakar, us ko mara. Hiran ne, dam f utne ke 
waqt, ah markar kaha, Afsos f jis hath panw ko main ne haqir 
jana tha, us ne mujhe bachaya ihi ; aur jis sing ki bharosa kiya 
tha^ us ne meri jan khoi. 


Basil is ka yih hat. 
Admi ko chahiye ki asbab par takiyah na kare, aur be asbabi 
se naumed na ho. Aksar aisa hua hai, ki be-asbabi asbab ^asuI 
matlab ka hui hai, aur asbab mujab mazarrat ka. 

Makrt aur Shahad ki Makkht ki tam§iL 

The Spider and the Bee, 

Kisi waqt ek makri ne shahad ki makkhi se kaha, Agar turn 
mujh ko apne sath rakho, to main tumhari tarah shahad laun. Is 
bath ke barbar kahne se makkhi ne use qabul kiya. Bad us ke, 
jab roakri wuh kam baja la na saki, tab makkhi ne use dang 
markar mardala. Dam tutne ke waqt wuh apne dil men kahne 
lagi, afsos ! jis kam se mere bura hua, use main ne qabul kiya. 
Has lane ki qudrat mujh men na thi, kis liye shahad banane ki 
drzd ki thi. 

Hasil is ka yih hai. 

fie maharat agar koi kisi kam men dakhal kare, to us ki bat 
jhuthi hoti hai, aur wuh admiyon men halka aur na laiq hota hai. 

Jharberi ki tam§iL 

The Bramble, 

Ek jharberi ne kisi mali se kaha, ki Agar koi ihtiyaj se mujhe 
bagh men lagde, aur pani se sench kar meri khidmat kare, to 
mere phul aur phal ke dekhne ki arzu padshah karen. Yih sun, 
baghban ne us ko le bagh men achchhi jagah lagaya, aur bar 
roz barbar pani dene laga. Us ke kante barh gae aur mazbut 
hue. We darakht jo uske nazdik the, unke upar talak us ki 
shakhin phail kar, aur peron ko zarar pahunchane lagin. Akhir, 
ahiste, ahiste, us ki jar ne barhkar, sare bagh ko gher liya ; 
kantoQ ke sabab koi us ke pas ja na sakta tha. 

Hasil is ka yih hai. 
Bad admi ko panah dekar jitni ki us ki tauqir kijiye, utni hi 
us ki shararat aur badzati barbti hai ; aur jitnar us par i|isan 
kijiye, utni hi wuh burai karta hai. 


Sher^ aur Lomri, aur Bheriye ki tam§U. 
The LioUy Fox^ and Wolf dividing the prey. 

Sher, aur lomri, aur bheriye men dosti thi. Ek roz shikar ke liye 
sab ke sab nikle. Ittifaqan ek gadhe, aur hiran, aur khargosh ko 
shikar kiya. Sher ne bheriye se kaha, A, tu taqsim kar de. Us ne 
kaha, Gadha turn lo ; aur khargosh, lomri ; aur hiran mujh ko do. 
Sher ne ghusse hokar bheriye ki ankhen nikal lin. Us ke bad 
lomri se kaha, Ki tu taqsim kar. Us ne kaha, Taqsim to xa^ir 
hai, gadhe ko kal khaiyo, aur hiran sham ko, aur khargosh se 
bich men nashtah karo. Sher ne kaha, Ai lomri, tu taqsim men 
to bari dana hai, yih tu ne kahan se sikha ? Us ne kaha, Bheriye 
ki ankhon se. 

Etm&r Sher^ aur LomrU o,ur Bheriye ki tam§iL 
The sick Lion, the Foar, and the Wolf. 

Kisi waqt meij ek sher bimar para, sab darande us ki $dat ko 
ie, magar lomri na ai. Bheriye ne us ki chughalkhori ki. Yih 
khabar lomri ko pahunch gai. Sher ne bheriye se kaha, Ei jab 
lomri awe, tab mujhe khabar kar dena. Jis wapt ki wuh ai, bheriye 
ne isharah kar diya. Sher ne puchha, Ki itne din tak tu kahan 
thi ? Us ne kaha, Dawa ki talash men. Phir us ne kaha, Kya 
dawa lai ? Kaha, Bheriye ki saq ka muhrah ap ki dawa hai. Sher 
ne us waqt changul bheriye ke mara, aur ha^di us ki nikalkar kha 
gaya. Lomri rukhsat hiii, aur bhepya pichhe se, lohu men tar 
batar, nikla. Lomri ne kaha. Jab badshahon ke pas baithe, to 
us bat ko, ki munh se kya nikalta hai, khiyal rakhna zarur 

Kahiitari aur Kawe ki tam§iL 
The Pigeon and the Crow. 

Ek bar kabdtari aur kawe se pani ke garhe par jhagra hu& ; 
aur har ek d^wi karta tha, ki yih meii hai. Akhir chiriyon ke 
qazi pas gae, aur har ek ne apne d^wi ko bayan kiya. Us ne 



gaw&h talftb kiyi. Gawah koi la na saka. Qazi ne yih \vkm 
kiyi, ki kabdtari k& hai. Us ne puchhi, Ei mere waste turn ne 
kis dalil se ^ukm kiy&, aur kawe ko kis wajah se, na dilwaya ? 
Q&zi ne kahi, Ki ter& sach mashhiir hai, chunanchih, Arab men 
magal hai, ki falani kabutari se sachcha ziyadah hai. Us kabdtari 
ne kaha, Agar yuii hai, to sach yih hai, ki ^aq kawe ka hai ; aur 
main wah nahin, ki jis ki nek khaslat mashhur ho wuh us ke 
l^hil&f kare. Phir qizi ne puchha, Ei tu ne jhutha dawi kyun 
kiya th& ? Bolf us ne, Pani ko man^ kiya, is liye ghusse men 
ikar main ne jhutha d$wi kiya tha ; lekin rajui kama liaq ki taraf 
bihtar hai, batil par israr karne se, aur yih shuhrat mere liye 
chaqar se bihtar hu. 





Hika'yat 1. 
The duty of Kings. 
Ek Badsh&h ne apne wazir se puchha, Ei sab se bihtar mere 
^aq men ky& hai ? Arz ki, Adal karna, aur r^iyat kf parw&rish. 

Hika'yat 2. 
Eating^ when proper for the Rich and the Poor. 
£k ^akim se puchh&, ki Waqt khana khfine k4, kaun && hai ? 
BoU, Daulatmand ke tain, jis waqt ishtU^.ho; aur faqir ko^jis 
waqt muyassar awe. ^^' ' '^ ' ' 

Hika'yat 3. 

PlattPs Saying. 

Ek shakhs ne Aflatun se puchha, Ki tum ne bahut barsoQ 

darya ka safar kiya, darya men kya ky& ajaib dekhe ? Afl&tun 

ne jawab diya, Ki yihi ^jubah dekha, Ki main dary& se kinare 


Hika'yat 4. 
As you do to others^ it will be done to you. 
Ek shakhs ne kisi ko be taqsir mar ^aXL Log use (i&kim p&s 
le gae. Hdkim ne us ke qisas men use top ke munh par uf & 
diy&. Naqal mashhur hai, jo jaisa karega, so waisa pawega. 

HiKA'YAT 6. 

The five Virtues and Vices of Men. 
Admi men panch jauhar hain, aur un paQchon ke pinch 
dushman. Pahla, ilm, us ka dushman takabbur. Dusri, bakh< 
shish, us ka j^asid taassuf. Tisra, ^ql, us ka ^du ghussah. 
Chautha, sabr, us ka mul^halif lalach. Paijchwan^^ach kahna, us 
ka mu^halif jhuth bohia. 


HiKA'YAT 6. 

Devotion and Liberality commended. 
Ek Toz Akbar Badshah ne Birbal se puchha, Wuh kya hai jis 
r^^^ se Badshah ka nam taman muIkoQ men shuhrah pakre, aur 

^A^„y^ naj&t i akhirat ho ? Arz ki, Do chizen, ek ibadat, dusri khairat. 


Hika'yat 7- 

• • • 

The Man and the Lion. 
Ek sher aur ek mard ne apni taswir ek ghar men dekhi. 
M ard ne sher se kaha, Dekhta hai, insan ki shujaat ko, kaisa 
sher ko apne tabi kiya hal ? Sher ne jawab diya, ki musauwir 
(^.jt. &dmi tha ; agar sher musauwir hota, to aisa na hota. 

Hika'yat 8. 

Luqman'a advice to his son. 

I ly/^ Luqman ^akim ne apne bete ko wasiyat ki, ki Tu hameshah 

/{^^^^ ek maslah sikh, aur ^mal kar, taki jald^ewah us ka tu pawe. 

j^ s Bahut lira mufid nahin hai, jab tak fmal men na lawe. Jo na 

(pf^y^ l^hainche, tu, dushman par talwar, to ink&r hazar tegh k& 

raklita hai. ^/p^f^^ sU,»^^ 

^ J 

Hika'yat 9. 
Wicked men can be consistent only by being silent on Religion. 
Ek roz Imam ne apne ydrou ko nasi^iat ki, ki Jo koi tum se 
puchhe, ki Khudi se darte ho, ya nahin ? chahe ki jawab na do, 
aur chupke ho raho ; is waste, ki jo kaho, Nahin darte hain, to 
kafir hoge ; aur jo kaho, Darte hain, to jhuthe hoge; kyunki tum- 
hare ^mal rustakaron ke se nahiQ. 

IIika'yat 10. 
The Miser displayed. 
Ek darwesh ne ek bakhil se kuchh sawal kiya. Bakhil ne 
kaha. Agar ek bat meri qabul kare, to jo kuchh kahegi karunga. 
Faqir ne puchM, Wuh kya bat hai ? Us ne kaha, Mujh se kabhi 
kuchh mat maug, uske siwa, jo kuchh tu kahega, so manunga. 


Hika'yat 11. 

The fulfilment of a bad promise avoided. 

Ek ne ek se yih shart ki thi, Ki agar main bazi na jitun, to ser 
bhar gosht mere badan se tarash len. Ais4 hua ki us ne b4zi 
na pal. Harif ne kaha shart ada kar. Us ne na mana. Dono 
qazi pas nalishi gae. Qazi ne mudai se farmaya, Mdf kar. Us 
ne inkar kiya. Qazi ne barham hoke kalia, ki Tarash le ; par jo 
ek ser se ek rati ziyadah kategd, to saza pawega. 

Hika'yat 12. 

The saying of Titus Vespasian. 

Rdm ka Padshah, ki us ka nam f^aitas Vispeshiyan tha, 
hameshah, roz namchah dekhta« aur ^isab karta tha, guzashtah 
umr ke amal ka. J is roz dekhta, ki koi nek kam nahin hui, 
dastkhat karta, ki Yih din ham ne mufc khoya, akhirat ke zakbire 
ke waste nek nami ka tukhm na boya. 

Hika'yat 13. 

What youth ought to learn. 

Ek admi ne ek hakim se puchha, ki Eaun ilm bihtar hai pahle 
larkon ke siklane ke liye. Us ne jawab diya, ki Wuh ilm zarur 
hai, jis ki hajat hoti hai jawani ke waqt men. Dusre admi ne 
kaha, ki Sikha larkon ko wuh chiz, ki jis ke muwafiq chalen, aur 
jab we bare hon, tab us ke mutabiq kam karen. 

Hika'yat 14. 

The Miser refusing his Ring, 

Ek shakhs, kisi bakhil se dosti rakhta thi. Ek din use kaha, 
Main safar ko jata hun ; apni anguthi mujhe de, to main apne 
pas rakhun ; jab us ko dekhunga, tujh ko yad karunga. Us ne 
jawab diya, Jo mujhe yad rakha chahte ho, to apni ungli ko khali 
dekhkar yad karna, ki falane shakhs se anguthi mangi thi, us 
ne na di. 


^IKA'YAT 15. 

The Remembrance of justice and oppression eternal. 

Abdzar chamhar ^akim se kisi ne puchha, ki Admi ki jins se 
bameshah kaun zindah hai. Jawab diya, Do shakhs ; ek adil, 
dusra salim. Har khas o $m men kya khub magal mashhdr hai, 
ki ^dil aur salim kisi t&ra^ se nabin marte. Ek bhalai ki jihat se, 
dusra burai ke sabab se. 

HiKA'YAT 16. 

The advantages of Sovereignty. 

Kahte hain, ki Badshah Chin ne Iskandar se puchha, Lazfat 
saltanat men kis chiz se p^i tu ne ? Kaha us ne, Tin chizon se ; 
pahle, dushmanoQ ko maghlub karna ; dusre, doston aur hawa 
khwahon ko sarfar&z karna ; tisre, mutitajon ki \i]2X barlana* 
Siw&e us ke jo aur laz|at hai, so i^tibar nahin rakhti. 

Hika'yat 17. 

The Physidan^s Advice. 

Naql hai, ki ek ^akim bemar hu& ; bahut log us ke iyadat ko 
ie, aur der talak baitbe rahe. Hakim un se bahut na khush hua. 
Ek ne un men se kuchh dariyaft kiya, aur kaha, ki Hakim sa^ib, 
kuchh hameii nasi^at karo. Kaha, ki Agar kisi ki Iyadat ko 
jaye, to der tak na baithe. 

HiKA'YAT 18. 

Pride mortified. 

Ek din koi maghrtir apne tain kahta tha, Jo kuchh zamin as- 
mdn men hai, so sab mere waste hai; mujhe Khudi ne bahut 
bara paida kiya hai. Is men ek machchhar us ki nak par a 
baitha, bola, Tujhe gharur na chahe ; kyunki jo zamin asman 
men hai, Khuda ne tere liye banaya hai, aur tujhe meri kha^ir. 
Tu nahin janta, ki mail} tujh se bhi bara hun? 


Hika'yat 19. 
The Industrious and Idle Youth. 
£k daulatmand ke do larke the. Ek ka nim Faqirallahy 
dusre ka Amirallab. Jab wuh mar gaya, to bap ki daulat un 
donon ne nisfa nisfi kar li. Faqiralldh to tho^e dinon men apne 
faisse ki daulat aish o ^shrat men khokar faqir ho baitha. Aur 
Amirallah apna mil saudagari se chauguni baph&ke amir 
fao gaya. Pas, lazim hai, ki jo koi mil pawe, to use saudagari se 

Hika'yat 20. 
IKingahave no cause to complain of the inatability of Fortune. 
Naql hai ki ek roz Bahldl diwanah Hariin rashid ke pas aya, 
aur us ko mutafakkir dekhkar kaha, Ki sabab itni fikr ka kya 
bai ? H&Tun ne kahi, Dunya ki bewafai se mutafakkir bun. Us 
ne kaha, Tujh ko yih andeshah kuchh sardr nahin hai ; agar 
duny& wafad&r hoti, to yih Badshahat tujh tak na pahuQchti. 

Hika'yat 21. 

The best friends and worst enemies of Satan described. 

Eahte bain ki ^%i Alaih-is ne lUis se puchhi, Ki tu kis 
ko dushman, aur kis ko dost janta hai ? Kaha, Fasiqi jaw&Q« 
inard ko dushman, aur zahidi bakhil ko, dost. Bole, Kiswaste ? 
Kaha, Agar f4siqi jaw&nmard ko ap tambih karen, to wuh 
tumhari hidayat qabul kare, aur donon jahin se faidah uthiwe ; 
aur zahidi bal^hil bukhl ki nafiusat se kafir o gumrah hota hai, 
aur donog %lam meg ranj khainchta hai. 

EUkaVat 22. 

The advantages of Learning. 

Do ashna apne shahr se, tabah hokar, kisi mulk men gatf. Jo 
parha tha, so larke parhane lagfi ; aur jo hunar janta th&, so apni 
peshah kame lag&. Ittifaqan, we donon b^mar pape ; jo paphatha, 
so us (lalat men paphata tha, aur paise paida karta tha ; aur jo 
hunarmand tha, so m&re muflisi ke marta tha ; kyui)ki wuh to 


lete letehi parhi sakti thi, aur is H kirn, be h&th panw ke hilie 
bo na sakti thi. Pas laxim bai ki parbni sikbe, ki yih aab ae 

Hika'yat 23. 

Gaming the worst of Vices. 

Ek B&dah&h ne tin sbakh? ko bul&kar pucbbi, Ki turn kya 
kam karte bo ? Ek ne kaha, Ki main cbor bun, cbori kbub karti 
buD. Dusre ne kaba, Ei main sharabi bun, sbarab kbub pita 
bun. Tisre ne ^rz ki, Ei jahanpanab, main jawari bun, jawa 
kbub kbelti bug. Agar farmaye, to ek dawan men apki sari 
saltanat lagi dun. Badsb&h ne cbor aur sbarabi ki jan bakbsbi 
ki, aur us jawiri ki gardan m&ri. 

^IKA'YAT 24. 

Cheating detected. 

Eksbakbs kegbar men rupaye ka Xo^i gum bua tba. Us ne 
q&si ko j^babar di. Qasi ne ghar ke sab admiyon ko (alab kiya, 
aur ek ek lakfi, (ul men barabar, sab ke bawale ki, aur kaba, Ei 
cbor ki lak^i ek ungal barb jaegi. Tis picbbe sab ko ruksat 
kiya. Jis ne cbori ki thi khaufse ek ungal lakri kat dali. 
Dusre ros qasi ne sab ki lakriyan dekhin. Cbor ko pabcbana, us 
se rupaye liye, aur saza di. 

Hika'yat 25. 

The Impertinent Man reproved. 

Ek sbakbs likbta tba, ek beg&nah fidmi us ke nazdik baitba 
bua ^hat ko dekhne laga. Tab us ne kbat men likba, ki Ek 
a^maq mere pas baitba bua, kbat parbt& bai ; is liye main kucbb 
ras nabin likbta bun. Us ne kaba, Ei kya tu mujh ko ahmaq 
janti bai ! kyun apna bbed nabin likbti ? Main ne tera kbat 
nabin paphi. Eatib ne jawab diy&, Agar khat nabin parba, to 
kis tara^ malum kiy&, ki main ne aisfi likh& bai. Wub babut 
abarmindab bu£. 



9ika'yat 26. 

The Frugal youth and the Spendthrift. 

Ek haji saudagar tha, us ke do bete the. Tho^e dinoQ me^ 
wuh saudagar mar gaya. Bap ki daulat donon ne bint li. £k 
ne do tin mahine men apni sab daulat ura di, bure idmiyon ki 
aala^ se. Dusre ne saudagari i^htiy&r ki, bhale idmi ke kahne 
ae. Ek faqir hua, dusra daulatmand. Pas, jo koi bhale ki bit 
manegi, us k& bhala hoga; aurjokoi bure ki m&negi, us k& 
bur& hoga, jaisa un donoB ki hua. 

Hika'yat 27. 

Friendship destroyed by elevation in rank. 

Eisi ko Bidshah ke yahan se bari kim mili. Yih khush khabri 
aunkar, us ki dost mubirakbid dene ko, ek din us ke ghar iyi. 
Usne apne dost se anjin hokar puchhi, Tum kaun ho, yahis 
kyun ie ho P Wuh gharib nihiyat kha^f hui, aur kahne lagi, 
Kyi mujhe turn nahin pahchinte ho ? main tumhiri qadim dost 
hun. Suni thi ki andhe hogie ho, is liye tumhiri khabar ko 
iyi thi, so dekh chali. 

HlKA^YAT 2a. 

The termination of vain delights. 

Ek roz kai shakhs ipas men muttafiq ho, kisi big^ men jikar 
fish ishrat karne lage. B^d do char ghafi ke, ek un mei) se 
rukhsat hone lagi. Mini hue, aur kaha, Ki ek sift tawaqquf 
kar, ki ham bhi chalte hain. Us ne na mini, chalihi gayi. A^hir 
we bhi apne makan ko chale gae. Phir us ke dil men iyi, to 
wahiii chali iyi, dekhi, ki jahin jim i mul chalte the, wahii) 
piyile tute pare hain, aur shishe Ifihali ; tab us ne yih shif r par* 

" Gayi waqt phir hath ati nahin, 

Sadi fish daurin dikhiti nahiu.^^ 


HiKA'YAT 2?. 

The Monarches pride mortified. 

Ek roi HarttnrashidBadshah kemunh par makkhi finkar baithi; 

wuh diq hua, aur apne ek muaahib se puchha, Ki khilqat makkhi 

ki Haqt41a ne kis waste banai ? Us ne kah&, Jahinpanah, mu- 

takabbaron ki nakhwat torne ko. Badshah sunkar chup bo raha. 

Hika'yat 80. 
The considerate Man. 
Ek sbakhs bar roz cbhah rotiyan kharid karta tha. Ek dost ne is 
se pucbba, Ki cbhah rotiyan ky a karta hai ? Is ne kaha, Ek rakbta 
bun, ek ^il deta bun, do pher det4 bun, do qarz deta bun. Dost 
ne kabi. Main yib mu^mma nabin samjba, saf kah. Us ne jawab 
diya, Ek roti jo rakbta huQ, is ka yih matUb, ki main khata 
bun ; ek roti meri sas khati hai, wuh dal dene meo dakbil hai ; do 
jo wapis karta bun, us se yib mur4d, ki ma bap kbate bain ; do 
ro^i jo bete kbate bain, wuh qaras deta bun. 

HiKA'YAT 31. 

Alexander's manner of bestowing gifts, 
Ek din Sikandar ne apni majlis men kaba, Ki jis ne jo mujb se 
m&nga so pay&, koi mahrum nabin gaya. Ek sbakhs ne arz kiya, 
ki Ai khudiwand, mujbe ek diram dark&r hai, inayat kar. Sikandar 
ne farm^y6,Padsbahon se cbhoti chiz ki darkhwast kama be adabi 
hai. Us ne iltmas kiya, ki Badshah ko ek diram ke dene se sharam 
iti hai, to ek mulk mujbe bakhshiye. Sikandar ne kaha, Tu ne 
do sawal beja kie ; pabli, mere martabe se kam ; dusra apni qadar 
ae ziyadab. Wuh Ujawab aur sharmindab hua. 

Hika'yat 32. 
Singular artifice. 
Ek sbakhs siwi ek ghore ke aur kuchh nabin rakbta tha. Us 
ne us ghore ko iftabal men bandha, par is (arah, ki agari ki 
(araf picbhari ki ; aur shahr men manad^ di, ki ajab tamasha ! 
dekho, ki dum ki jagab ghore ka sir hai ! Shahr kelogjam^ hua. 
Wuh sbakhs kuchh naqd leta, tab admiyon ko istabal men jane 
det&. Jo koi tawile se phirta, sharam se kuchh na kahta. Wuh 
muflis tha, us ne us bah&ne apnfi kam karliyi. 


HiKA'rAT 88. 

The two Painters. 

Do musanwiron ne ipas men kaha, ki ham donon taswir kaig- 
chen, dekhen, kaun achchhi khainchta hai P Ek ne angur ke kho- 
she ki shabih khainchi, aur darwaze par latka di ; chiiryan us par 
chonch mame lagin. Dekhne-wale bahut ^hush hue. £k din 
log dusre ke ghar gae, puchha, ki Turn ne kahai} taswir khainchi 
bai ? Usne kaha, Ki is parde ke pichhe. Musauwir ne parde 
par hath rakha, samjha, ki pardah nahin, diwar men parde ka 
naqsh khainchd hai. Tab us musauwir ne kah&, Tumh&re kam 
se chiry&o ne fareb kh&ya, aur meri naqq&shi se turn ne ! 

Hika'yat 84. 

The Logician and the Swimmer at sea. 

£k kishti meg do shakhs sawar hue ; ek un men mantiqi tha, 
dusra pair&k. Mantiqi ne pair&k ko puchhi, Eaho, yir, tum ne 
kuchh ilmi mantiq k4 bhi sikh&hai, ki nahin ? Wuh bold, Ki main 
ne abtak man^q k& nim bhi nahin sun&, sikhne ka to zikr kya 
hai ? Sunkar afsos karne lag&, ki tum ne apni adhi ^mr jihalat ke 
darya men 4ubai. Itne men (ufan namudar hua. Pairak ne 
thatholi se mantiqi ko kaha, Kaho, sa^ib^ kuchh paima bhi ap ko 
atahai, ki nahin ? Yih bola, siwa mantiq ke nahin. Phir usne 
]^aif kh&kar kaha, Ki tum ne apni &&ri ^mr barbad ki. 

Hika'yat 85. 

The Durwesh, the Grocer, and the Judge. 

£k darwesh baniye ki dukan par gaya, aur saude ke liye shitabi 
karne laga. Baqq&l ne g&li di. Darwesh ne ek juti us ke sir par 
mari. Us ne kutwal se nalish ki. Kutwal ne faqir se puchha, 
Ki baniye ko kis waste mara ? Faqir ne kaha, Ki us ne dushndm 
di thi. Kutw&l bola, Ki tujh se bap taqsir hui, par faqir hai, is 
liye siyasat nahin karta hun ; j&, ^th ane faryadi ko de; tere 
qasur ki saza yihi hai. Darwesh ne ek rupaya jeb se nikalke 
hath men diya, aur ek paposh kutwal ke sir par markar^ yih kaha» 
Kiagar aisa insaf hai to &th, ath dne dond bant lo. 

46 RBADINO LE880N8. 

^KA^rxT 86. 
The diligent and indolent Bay. 
Jo d&ai lapka hai, apni kitab apne ghar met) be-kahe paihta 
hai. Aur larka n&dan apni kitab ko khel ke waste (aq par dal 
rakhti hai, agarchih us ke mk bap us bad chal se hazar nian% 
kares. Pahla la^ka us asil ghore ki Ura]^ hai, ki jis ke w&ste 
ko^a zardr uahiij. Aur dusra us khachchar munh zor ke barabar 
hai, jo lagdm nahin manta. Gharaz, ek la|:ka, jo sach puchho, 
to goya zambdr ke shahd ke pichhe hai, aur us ke nesh ki t&^af 
nazar nahin karta. Aur dusra nachiz tatli ke pichhe dau^rta hai, 
aur yunhin, apni mi|^nat ko, sirf us ke rangin paroi) par, barbad 
deta hai. 

Hika't AT 37. 
Two Women quarrelling for a Child, 
Do %uraten, ek lapke ke waste 4pas meg jhagra karti thin, aur 
gawah nahin rakhtin. Dono q&zi ke pas gain aur ins&f chahiu. 
Qazi ne jallad ko bulaya, aur farm&ya, ki Is lafke ke do tukre kar, 
ek ek dono ko de. Ek ^urat, yih bdt suntehi, chup rahi, dusri 
ne faryad shur^' ki, ki Khuda ke liye mere lapke ko do tukre mat 
kar, main larka nahin chahti hun. Qazi ko yaqin hua, ki larke 
ki ma yihi hai ; larka use sipurd kiya, aur dusri ko kofe marke 
nikal diya. 

Hika'yat 88. 
The Thieves detected, 
Ek shahr men rui ka 4her chori gaya th&. Rui-walon ne 
Padshah se nalish ki. Padshah ne harchand tajassus kiya, par 
ek chor na paya. Ek amir ne ^rz ki, ki jo ijizat ho, to maio 
choron ko pakrun. Padshdh ne (lukm diy& : amir ne shahr ke 
sab rahnew&Ion ko, ziyafat ke bahdne, apne ghar bulaya. Jab sab 
jama hue, amir us majlis mej} gaya, aur sab ke munh ki t^raf 
dekhke bola, Ki kya ^aram zade aur behaya admi hain, ki rui 
churai hai, aur phahe rui ke unki darhiyon men lage hain, aur meri 
majlis men ae hain ! Eitne logon ne wahin apni darhi jhifi : 
m%lum hud, ki we chor hain. Padshah ne amir ki (likmat par 
dfrin ki. 


HLika'yat 89. 
^rial of youthful Sagacity, 
Do larke bhiikhe piyise kisi ke yahan gae. Us ne bar ek ke 
sh^ur ki azmaish ke waste, ektaraf mez par kuchh shar&b aur 
misri rakb di, aur dusri t^raf thofi thanda pfini aur rukhi roti. 
Aqlmand larke ne To%i aur pani se apne pet ko bhar&y aur piyas 
ko bujhdya. Atimaq la^rkene shar&b ka lal rang, aur misri ki mithas 
jo dekhi, bahut rag^bat se us ko piya aur khaya. Par faidah 
kuchh na hua, balki us ki piyis ziyadah hui. Magar apna pet 
khali hawa se bhi^ra hua pay&. Lekin apni cbuk ki ilaj na kar 
saka, kyunki waqt gu|ar gaya tba. Sach hai, ki bahut chizen, ba- 
zahir, khubtarhain aur batin men ^4fil unk& thora hai. Chanan- 
chih phulna gul&b ka sath rang aur boke, agarchih khushnuma 
hai, lekin phulna ghas ka insan ke ^aq men dahchand mufid Jiai. 


Hika'yat 40. 
The Courageous and the Fearful Youth. 
Ek larke ne tafawut se dekha, ki chaman ke kinare par ek phul, 
nihayat khush rang phul, rabahai. Jab larki us ke nazdik pahun- 
cha, to us gul ki khush bo aur rang ne, yahag taklubhaya, ki 
be-ikhtiyar us ke torne ki khwahish us ke dil mee paida hui. 
Jonhig apna hath us ke patton tak pahunchay^, wuniu usko 
bahut se kante, patton ke niche na|fr ae. M4re dhashat ke hath 
khainch liya, aur khali hath chala gaya. Ittifaqan, uska chhota 
bhai dur se dekhta tha, us b&t ko duryaft kar gay&. Agarchih 
^mr men chhota tha, par dil ka bara, un kdnton se na diara. 
Bedharak phul tor liya, balki sath uske ek aisa phul bhi tu|^fa 
hath aya, ki jitni us phul ke torne men dukh saha tha, so bhf 
dil se bhula diya- Pas, jo shakhs ki kan^on ke 4ar se phul na 
le saka, us k& dimagh kab muf ttar hui, aur kyd phal usne piya ? 

Hika'yat 41. 

Lave of the Marvellous reproved. 

£k Badshah wazir ke s&th sair ko gayi th&. GehuQ ke darakht 

idmi ke qad se lambe dekhke mut^jjab hua, aur bol&, Ki aise 

buland darakht gehun ke kabhi nahin dekhe. Wazir ne ^rz kiya, 

Ki mere ^atan meg fifilbi ke ^\ bar&bar bote haiij. B&dshib 


muskurayi. Wazir ne jana ki Badshih ne mere qaul ko darogh 
samjU 1181 se hansa. Akhir ghar pakunchtehi, us ne watan ke 
logon ko likha, ki thore dara^ht gihun ke bhejwa do ; kbat 
pahuochte tak fasal ikhir ho gai. £k b^d gehun ke da^ 
rakht wahinseae. WasirB&dshah kehuzurmenlegayi. Badshah 
ne sab istifasir kiya. Us ne ^,n ki, Ki pirsal main ne kaha tha, ki 
gehuQ ke d&rakht hithi ke barabar lambe bote haio, tab jaha^* 
panih hanse the ; apni bat ki tasdiq ke liye laya bun. Badshah 
ne fannay &, ki ab mail) ne bawar kiya, par hargiz kisi se aisi bat 
mat kah, jo ek baras gufame ka b^d i^tibar ki jawe. 

HlKA^YAT 42. 

The faithful Servant 

Kahte haio ki Sult&n Ma^mdd Ghaznawi Ayaz ko bahut dost 
rakhta tha. Hasad ke sabab, sab Amiron ne Badshah se kaha, 
ki Ayaz bar roz akela jawahir-khaiie men j&ta hai, m^Ium hota 
hai, ki kuchh churata hai, nahin, to jaw&hir-khane men us ka 
kya kam hai ? Badshah ne farmaya, Ki jab ankh se dekhun tab 
bawar karun. Dusre din logon ne Sultdn ko khabar di, ki Ayaz 
jawahir-khane men gayi ; Ma^mud ne fauran jharoke se jhan- 
ka, dekh4, ki Ay&z ne ek sanduq kholke purana, maila kapra 
pahina hai. Badshah mak^n ke andar gaya, Ayaz se puchha, Ki 
aise kapie kyiin pahine ? Us ne ^rz ki, Ki jab midn ^uzur ki 
bandagi men na tha, aise kapre pahinta tha, ab khudawand ki 
inayat se nafis poshak muyassar hai ; is liye purana jamah bar roz 
pahint& bun, ki apni qadim ^alat faramosh na karun, aur Badshah 
ki ni^mat ki qadar samjhun. Sultan ko yih bat pasand ai, usko 
chhati se lagayd, aur us ki martabah baihaya. 

HlKA^YAT 43. 

Filial Affection. 

Ek martabe ek ke ghar men bari ag lagi, chdron t^i^af luka 
urne lage. Gharwale do bhai the, aur un ke ma bap nihayat 
z^if, ki hilne ki taqat nahin rakhte the, aur us ag se bach nahig 
sakte, balki khauf se kampte the ; we do bhai us musibat me^ 
^uran. Ek ne ir&dah kiya, ki ghar ^erasbab bahir nikale. Tab^ 
unhon ne apas me{i yih kahaj Ki kahan pawenge ham aisi 


beshumar daulat, jis se ham ne zindagani pai ? A09 asbdb chhofke, 
un ko nikal lawen. Yih bit kahke, ek ne b&p ko kaodhe par 
cha^ha liyi, aur dusre ne ma ko, aur us &g se bachikar un ko ek 
jagah men baitha diya ; aur kisi chiz k& khiy&l na kiy&; sab 
asb&b jal gay&. We kaise dindar the ! un ke kam se ham 
samajhte haio ki dunyi men ma bap ki i^hidmat se koi kam ba^ 

Hika'yat 44. 
The two Travellers. 
Do shakhs b4ham hokar nikle, ki kisi dur mulk men j& rahe. 
Thore dinon ke bich, ek mulk men ja pahunche. £k ne dariy&ft 
kiya, ki diljam^i aur khubi ke sath, jo yah&n ki rahe, to zarur 
hai pahle yahan ke rakne-walon ki zaban sikhe ; gharaz, us ne 
sikhi. Dusra itn& maghrur tha, ki §wam alias ki zaban ko, 
hiqarat se, na sikh&, sirf darb&ri aur ^liinoa ki zabfin ta^sil ki. 
Qazakar, b%d kai baras ke, donon kisi basti men ae ; wahan ki 
bhakha aur us mulk ki zaban ek thi, par wahan ke rahne-waloi^ 
ne hangamh machakar ghair mulk ke hakimon ko qatl kar-4ala 
tha. We donoD musafir jude jude makanoQ men bazar ke bich 
the, ki un khuniyog ne unhen pak^a aur alag le jakar^ ek se 
puchhne lage, ki Tumhdra yah^n kya kam hai? Jis ne mu|^awarah 
^wam ka sikhi tha, i^hubi se jawab diya, us ko unhoQ ne salamat 
chhora. Aur dusre musafir ne, jo sirf t^&kimon ki zaban se 
jawab diya, us amboh ne jalkar khafgi se, sir us k& kit 4ala. 

Hika'yat 45. 
Great regard to ewteriors reproved. 
Ek danishmand ek shahr men warid hua, suna, ki yah&n ek 
baf a sakhi hai, sab musafiron ko khani khilata hai. Danishmand 
phafe, pur&ne kappon se us ke ghar gayd. Us ne kuchh iltifat 
na kiyi, balki bat bhi na puchhi. Danishmand sharmindah hoke 
phir &ya. Dusre din p&kizah kapre kir&e mangwa pahinke, us 
ke ghar gay&. Us ne dekhtehi Iambi t^tim ki, apne pas bithayi, 
aur Ia{i| khana mangwaya. Jab dastarkhwin par baitha, danish- 
mand luqme apne kapre men rakhne lag&. Tab us ne puchhfi, 
Ki yih kya (larkat hai P Danishmand ne jawab diyi, Ei kal 


purane kapte pahine hoe iyi tha, farah tam nahin pay4. 
Aj m^lum hu&, ki yih nafis khana is kapre ke sabab se mila bai. 
Sfi^ib i khftna bahut sbarmdyi. 

Hika'yat 46. 
The man who fell among Thieves. 
£k admi sair karta hua, Aursbalim se hoke Iraho ke tain 
gay a ; nagahan choron se mulaqat hui. Unhou ne us ko aisa 
mara, ki qarib marne ke hua, aur us ka asbab lutke bhage. 
Thori der ke bad ek mutaqqi admi us rah se gujra, us nim 
tiiurde mu$&fir ko dekh dusri rah se chala gaya. Thori der 
pichhe ek admi aur ay&, us ne bhi dusri (araf ka rasta liya. 
Akhir ko, ek shakhs, ki us ke mizaj men nihayat ra^m thi, us 
adhmue ke nazdik gaya, aur us ki khastah ^ili dekh mi^rbani 
se bola, ki Afsos hai ; choron ne is ko aisa zakhmi kiyd, ki tamam 
badan se khun jari hai. Aur us ko utha zakhmon par marham 
ki patti lag&i. B$d us ke, us ko apne char pai par dalkc ek 
sar&e men pahunchfiyd, aur bari khabardari ki. Suba^ ke waqt, 
do roz pichhe, vahan ke zamind&r ko kuchh dekar yih kaha, Ki 
is ki khub ^habardari kijiyo, ki kisi tar&(i ki tasdi§ na pawe, 
yabin tak ki agar ziyadah kharch hove, dareg]^ na kijiyo, jab 
main phirke iungd sab ad& karungi. Turn is ^ikayat se sikho 
mi^rbani aur shafaqat kama un par jo ranj men giriftar hais. 

Hika'yat 47. 
The saying of Cicero. 
Zamani peshin men ek shakhs Sisiro nam, munsif, aur grlim, 
aur rast-baz mashhur thi. Ilm ki ta^sil men bahut koshish 
karta, aur us ki aql aur danish ko sab bihtar jdnte the. Us ka 
qaul yih th&, ki Siwae ilm ke, aur koi chiz aisi nahin, jo Khud£ 
ki rah dikhawe, aur admiyon ke t^aq ki (araf pahunchawe. Jo koi 
ilm se khali hai, wuh sab chiz se khali hai. Bharsurat ilm 
besh baha hai sab chiz se. Ham nahin jdnte hain, ki ^uh admi 
kyunkar khush hai, jo ilm se waqif nahin, aur wuh din apne sustf 
men gu|irta hai. Jaisa ki be-zahr ka s^mp sab ki nazaron men 
^aqir hota haii waisahi, jo ilm se $ri hai, be-tauqir hai. Wuh 
paida hua hai sirf zamin ki tasdi^ dene ko. Bhalon ki f u^bat 


ko bad jankar, wah lanir bad ma^shoQ meo raheg&, aur bad rih 
chalega) aur sab ke nazdik, ak^ir ko, mardiid bogi. Dana aur 
nekbakht idmi ka nishan yih hai, ki dana s^i karta bai Urn ke 
sikb&ne meo, aur raia-joi men, un kf, jo us ke )Iaqe mes haiQ. 

Hika'yat 48. 

JEsop's advice to his master. 

Kabte bain ki ek martabe, Luqman ke sahib ne use kahS, Ki 
falani khet men jau bo. Luqm&n ne us zamin men china boya. 
Luqm&n k& malik us jagah men gayfi, aur hari kheti dekh Luq- 
m&n se bola, Ki main ne tujh se kaha tha, Is khet men jau bo : 
kis w&ste tu ne china boya ? Luqman ne jawab diya, Is umed 
par main ne china boya, ki jau phalega. Malik ne kaha, Yih 
kya bendi samajh hai, kahin aisi hota hai ? Luqm&n ne farmaya, 
Ki turn hameshah dunya ki khet men gunahon kd bij bote ho, 
aur guman rakhte ho, qiyamat ke din sawab ka phal paoge. Is 
sabab se main ne bhi khiyal kiya, ki is chine se jau paida honge. 
Bani Isrdil is bat se sharmindah hue, aur Luqman ko, us ke sa^ib 
ne azad kiya. Yih baten bhi Luqman ki farmaya hui hain, ki 
nidan harchand khubsurat ho, us ke sath suhbat na rakha chahe ; 
kiswaste, ki talwar agarchih dekhne men su daul hai, par kim us 
ka bura hai. Jo koi achchhi kho rakhta hai, begane us ke dost 
bote ; aur bad kho wale ke yigane dushman ho jate hain. 

Hika'yat 49. 

All artifice to get money restored. 

Ek shakhs ne bahut sa mal ek sarraf ko supard kiya, aur ap 
safar ko gaya. Jab phir ay a sarraf se taqaza kiya. Us ne qasm 
khai, ki Tu ne mujhe nahin sompa hai. Mudd^i ne qazi ko 
ittila ki. Qazi ne taammul karke kaha, Ki kisu se mat kahiyo 
ki falana sarraf mera mal nahin deta ; main tere mal keliye ek 
tadbir karunga. Dusre din qazi ne us sarraf ko bulake yih kaha, 
Ki mere pas bahut kam hai, akela nahin kar sakta hun ; chdhti 
hun ki tujhe apnii naib karun, kisw&ste ki tu bara imandar hai. 
Sarraf ne qabul kiya aur bahut |chush hua. Jab wuh apne ghar 


gajra, tab qfif i ne muddai se kahfi, Ki ab mil ki darkhw&st aarrif 
se karo, albattah dega. Wuh shakhs sarraf ke ghar gaya. 
Sarr&f ne us ko dekhtehi bul&ya, ki Aji, idhar ao, bhale fie, main 
tumharfi mal bhul gaya thfi, agli rat mujhe yad ayi. Khulasah 
yih hai, ki mil us ka pher diya, aur niyabat ki tam^ se qazi pas 
gaya. Qazi ne farmaya, Ki aj main ne Padsh&h ke darbar men 
suna ki Padshih tujh ko bara kam diya cb&hta hai. Khuda 
ki shukr kar, tu rutbah ^li pawega ; main dusra naib taUsh 
karunga. A^hir qazi ne is bahane us ko rul^hsat ki. 

Hika'yat 50. 

The King and his Viziers. 

Ek Badshah ne apne wazir aur mirbakhshi se salahan puchha, 
Mal aur lashkar ke jam^ kame meu meri ^ql kuchh kam nahin 
karti ; agar mal jam% karun, to lashkar nahin rahta ; aur jo 
fauj rakhuu, to daulat nahin rahti. Wazir ne ^rz ki, Khudawand, 
daulatjama kijiye; jo fauj na rahegi, to kuchh nuqsan hahin, 
kyunki jab zariir hogi rakh lijega. Jo men bat ka, ap ko iatibar 
na ho, to us ki yih dalil hai ; ki ek bartan men thora shahd 
rakhwa dijiye, abhi hazaron makhhiyan gird us ke a jam% hongi, 
Jonhin shahd ka basan rakhwadiya, lakhon makkhiyan, bat kahte 
hi, us ke alaptiyan. Tab us ne kaha, Ki dekhiye, (lazrat, jo fidwi 
ne ^rz ki thi, so ipne dekha. Phir mirbakhshi ne kaha. Agar 
meri arz suniye, to fauj rakhiye, jo waqt par kam awe, us waqt 
mil hargiz kuchh faidah na karega ; agar ip ko yaqin na ho, to 
meri bit ko imti^in kar lijiye. Ek hindi men shahd rit ko is 
jagah rakhwi dijiye, jo makkhiyin us par iwen, to meri bat 
jhuth ; aur jo nahin, to sach hai. Us ke kahne bamujab, rat ko 
shahd ki bisan jo rakhwiyi, to ek makkhi bhi na ki. Khulasah 
is ki yih hai, jab apni fauj apne qabze se gai, phir roz siyih 
mcQ mil bhi kharch kijiye, to waisi muyassar na hogi. 


HlKA^YAT 51. 

The diligent and indolent Scholar. 

Do larke nau javan ekhi sath ilm silkhne lage. Ek lark^ un 
men bahut achchha nekbakht tha ; ustad jo sabaq use papha 
deti, so yadkar leta, aur apni kitab, apne ghar men, parha kiya 
karta. Dusra ghafil^ bara sharir tha, jo apne ham xyaai ki mi^nat 
par hansa karta tha, aur hameshah yih bat apne ham maktab se 
kaha karta tha, ki Tu gadha hai. Wuh use aksaryih jawab diya 
karta, Yar, thore dinon men dekha chahe, kya ho ? Akhir, 
imtihan ka roz a pahuncha ; un donon ko ilm ke darya meg 
pairne para. Dana larke ne us a^maq ko bahut pichhe jihalat 
ke girdab men, sharam se dubte hue, chhora, aur pukame laga» 
Ai yar, jo tumhare khiyal men bewaquf nazar ate hain, so we 
aksaron ke nazdik aqlmand ho niklenge ; aur jo aise waqt tum ne 
sikha, to tumhare kam nahin ane ka lahasil hai. Agar apne 
hamjolipar, ab ham bhi thahfhe maren, to hamari bazi hoti, 
mawafiq us magal ke, ki ^^ jo jite so hanse.^' Lekin danaon ke 
nazdik nihayat b^id hai, kya dosti, aur kya ^ql se aisi ^alat men, 
afsos ki jagah, taz^ik karna. Ab main apni bat ko mauqdf karunga, 
us nasihat aur kahawat se, ki bona ek khubi ka, der kar, bihtar 
hai, na hone se; aur jitni jaldi ho sake, bure kam ko chhojr kar 
bhale ki taraf ana achchha hai. 

Hika'yat 52. 
Money regained by artifice. 

Dk danishmand bazar dinar ek ^tfar ko supard karke safar ko 
gaya ; ek muddat ke b$d phir aya, aur rupaiye attar se roapge. 
Att^r ne kaha, Tu jhutha hai. Akhir guftgo barhi, bahut log 
jama hogae. Sabhon ne danishmand ko jhutha thahraya aur 
kaha, Ki yih att^r bara diyanatd&r hai, us ne kabhi khiydnat 
nahin ki ; agar tu us se uljhega, to saza pawega. Danishmand 
chup raha, aur sawal us matlab ka, Badshah ko guzrana. Bad- 
shah ne farmaya, Ei tin roz us ki dukan pas baith, us se kuchh na 
kah ; chauthe din main us t^raf aunga aur tujhe salam karunga ; 
salam ke jawab siwa mujh se kuchh na kal^iyo ; jab maio wahao 


86 chala j&un, ^itir se rupaiye mangiyo, aur jo kuchh wuh kahe 
mujh ko ittila kariyo. Danishmand ne waisahi kiya ; chauthe 
roz Badshah ki sawari udhar gai. Dekhtehi Badshah ne danish- 
mand ko salam kiya, us ne salam ka jawab diya. Badshah ne 
kaha, ki Ai bhai, kabhii mere p&s nahin ata hai, aur mujh se kuchh 
apna ^I nahin kahta ? Danishmand ne zara sir hilaya, aur kuchh 
na kuha. Attar dekhta tha aur darta. Jab Badshah ki sawari 
nikal gai, attar ne danishmand se kaha, Ke jis waqt tum ne mujhe 
rupaiye sompe the, main kahan tha, koi aur bhi mere nazdiktha ? 
phir kaho, shay ad main bhul gay a hun. Danishmand ne phir sab 
majra bayan kiya. Attar ne kaha ki, Tu sach kahta hai, ab mujhe 
yad 2LfL Hasil kalam ka yih hai, ki us ne bazar rupaiye danish- 
mand ko die, aur bahut up kiya. 

HiKA'YAT 63. 

The dutiful Youth rewarded. 

Ek Badshah ne nagahan apne khidmatgar ko pukara ; jab 
&waz kisi ki na pai, tab darwazah kholkar bahar gaya, ek chhote 
lapke ko, ki us ka naukar tha, dekha ; us ke pas gaya ki us ko 
jaga dewe, Kyd dekhta hai, ki ek likha hua kaghaz us ke jeb men 
para hai. Badshah mutajjib hua ki dekhun is kaghaz men kya 
likha hai ; us kaghaz ko jeb se nikalkar dekha, ki us ki ma ka 
khat hai, aur yih bat likhi hai ; ki ^' Barkhordar mere, tum ne ban 
tasdia uthakar, apni tankhwah se thore rupaiye ham ko bheje ; ni- 
hayat sadatmandi, ki farzandon ko laiq hai, tum bajalae. Khuda 
tum ko is ka iwaz dega.**' Badshah us ko apne kamre men legaya, 
aur ek kaghaz men kai ashrafiyan lapet-kar us ki jeb men rakh 
din, aur use chillake pukara, ki Uth baitha. Badshah ne kaha, 
Tum aise be-khabar so jate ho ? Larka kuchh jawab na de saka» 
aur jab us ne apni jeb men hath dala, to ^hat men lapti hui 
ashrafiyan pakar nihayat hairan hua ; aur khauf se Badshah ke 
pa on par gir para, aur ashrafiyan dekhkar rone laga. Badshah 
ne kaha, Ki tum kyun rote ho? Larke ne kamal ajizi se jawab 
diyd, ki, Ai Badshah, kisi admi ne meri halakat ke liye yih kam 
kiya hai. Main nahin janta ki ye kaisi ashrafiyan hain. Badshah 
ne tasalli karke kaha, ki Ai ^ziz, Khuda ne yih ashrafiyag tujh ko^ 


di bain, iwa^ us neki ke, ki tu ne ki hai. In ashrafiyon ko apni 
ma pas bhej, aur jnain teri ma ki khabargiri karunga ; yih b&t 
us ko likh bbej. 

HiKA'YAT 64. 

Dainon and Pythias, 

D&unisiy&s n&mi, Badshah Sairakus ke mulk k4, hameshah 
bure kam kiya karta tha. Ek roz yih malum karke, ki Daman 
taqsir-war, aur qabil phausi dene ke hai ; us ne Daman se kaha, 
ki Tumh&ra juram sabit hua, turn phansi die jaoge. Daman 
ne Badshah se kaha, Ki main chahta hun ek nazar apne larke 
balon ko dekh lun ; kyunki marne ke b^d phir dekhne na iunga, 
jara fursat mile, to ghar jaun. Badshah ne kah&, Ki ham ko 
kyunkar yaqin ho^ ki tum ghar se phir doge ? Us ne javab diya, 
Ki agar apko yaqin nahin hota hai, to mainPitiyas apne dostkoapne 
jwaz chhor jata hun ; yi^ qarar karke wuh apne ghar chala gay&* 
Qabl us ke phirne se, Badshah qaid-khane men gaya, aur Pitiyas 
se kaha, Ki tum ne Daman ki bat par i^timad kiya ? a^imaqi ki ; 
kyunkar jante ho, ki wuh tumhare liye apnijandega? Pitiyas 
ne jawab diya, ki, Ai hamare Badshah, ham hazarbar marne sakte 
hain apne dost ke waste, agar pura na kare apne w^de ko. Aur 
Diman hargiz ^had shikni na karega, wuh musallam dwega, aur 
ham nahin marenge. Magar, ham Khuda se dua m&ngte bain, 
ki hamare dost ki jan bache, istar^h ki wuh yahan phir na a sake, 
Jabtak ki ham jite hain ; shayad koi us ka mani ho raste men, ki 
wuh na awe aur na mare, ki larke bale us ke ^jiz hon. Hamare 
marne se kuchh nuqsan nahio, aisd ho, ki wuh jita rahe. Badshah 
yih guftgo sunke^ mutajjib hud. Jab ki Daman waqti muaiyan 
par na dpahuncha, aur jallad de, aur Pitiyds ko qaidkhdne se bdhir 
Ide, tab wuh nihdyat khushi se phansi ki lakri par charhd ; aur 
hdthon se dekhne walon ko ishdrah kartd thd, ki ham jante hain 
Khudd bahut rdzi hai, hamdri du4 qabul hui ; koi sabab ho, ki 
Ddman dne na sake, Khudd ne us ko man^ kiyd, wuh is sabab ke 
dafi^ karne ki tdqat nahin rakhtd ; jab hamdre qatal ke bad wuh 
dwegd to jiegd. Yih nihdyat hamdri khushi hai, aur kamdl 
khwdhish. Jab Pitiyds ne yih kaha, wahdn bhale, bure, sab 


^m ke logon ne ron& shuru kiya. Aiir jall&d jaunhin ttthi, — ^ki 
itne men Daman jaldi se i pahuncha, ghore se utra aur phansi ki 
lakri par chafh gay&. Pitiyas se gale mila aur bola, ki Ai dost, 
Ehudi k& shukr hai, ki us ne tujh ko bachaya sab buraiyon se ! 
Pitiy&6 ne kah&,ki Ai dost, turn kyun ie? yih tumhare waste bahut 
bura bua. Daunisiyas sunkar haiian hogaya, aur us ke dil ki 
inkheii khul gain, aur ji men rahm aya ; apne takht se utarke 
phansi ki lakfi pis gaya, aur kahi, Ei ham ne aisi dosti kabhi 
nahin dekhi, tum sab jieo, ki nek-bakht bande ho Khuda ke. 
Khaliq ne tum ko yaqin ka iwai diya, aur rastbaz mashhur kiya. 
Ab ek shimmah apni dosti ka ham ko talim karo, achchhi {arah, 
ki All&h T^la ham ko bhi arbab yaqin men dakhil kare. 




Naql 1. 
The Physician and his Patient. 
Naql haiy ki ek shakfas kisi tabib ke pas aya. Pet ke dard se 
beqarar hokar zamin par lofne, aur betabi se nala karte hue, 
dawa mangne lag&. Tabib ne us ke hamrahiyon se puchha, ki 
Is ne aj kya khaya hai ? Kaha, Jali roti ka tukra. Us ne farmaya, 
ki Dawa jo ankh ki basarat ko ziyadah karti hai lao, ta is bimar ki 
ankhon men lagaun. Wuh chillaya, ki, Ai tftbib, yih kaun sa 
maqam khush t^b^i aur hazil ka hai P Main pet ke dard se 
chillata hun, aur tu ankhon ki dawa batata hai ! Ankh ki dawa 
dard i shikam se ky4 ^laqah rakhti hai ? Tabib ne kaha, Main 
chahta hun ki teri ankhen raushan hon, taki siyah aur sufed men 
tafawat kar sake. Phir kabhi jali hui roti na khawe ; pas, teri 
ankhon ki dawa, pet ke ilaj se, wajibtar hai. 

Naql S. 
The Arab and the Baker. 
Naql hai, ki ek Arab badwi shahr i Baghdad men aya, aur girde 
roti ke, nan-bai ki dukan men, dekhkar, muztarib hua. Becharah 
sirf bo se jita tha, jab ki roti ka munh dekha, sabr ka gariban 
chak karke nan-bai ke pas gaya, aur kaha, Ai khwajah, mere pet 
bhar rotiyan khilane ka kya loge? Us ne us jaw&n ko auron ki 
manandkhiyal kiya ki kitna khayega; agar bahut bhukha ho, to 
do tin rotiyon se ziyadah na kha sakega. Bola, Ai Arab, tu adha 
din&r de, aur jitni chahe kha. Arab ne adha dinar diya, aur dajle 
ke kinare baitha ; nan-bai rotiyon nikal nikal detatha, aur wuh pan! 
men bhigo bhigo kar khata tha. Rotiyan adhe dinar ki qimat se 
guzarkar char dang talak pahunchin, balki us se gu jarkar, din&r ki 
naubat ai. Nan-bai beikhtiyar hokar bola, Ai Arab, kitni khdega ? 
Us ne jawab diya, ki Jab talak yih pani bahega, main khata ja- 
unga. Hasil is dastan ka yih hai, ki jab talak zindagi baqi hai, 
kbauf aur il^tiyat se baz na awega. 


Naql S. 

The Persian and the Merchant. 

Naql hai, ki ek mard Parsa kisi saudagar kcr hamsae men rahta 

tha, aur us ki badaulat Parsa ki auqat khushi aur kamrani men 

guzarti thi. Saudagar hameshah shahd aur ghi ki tijarat kiya 

karta, aur har roz us men se thora Parsa ke yahan bhejta, aur 

wuh us men se kuchh kharch karta, aur baqi gharon men rakhta 

jita. £k din gharon ko bhara dekhkar socha, ki agar yih das iser 

ho das diram ko bechunga^aur apna saranjam karunga, aur us zar se 

panch bakriyan mol luijga ; we chhah chhah mahine men janengi, 

aur har ek ke do, do bachche honge ; har sal pachis bachchah 

honge ; das baras unke bachchon se kai galle ho jange, un men se 

b^zon ko bechunga aur us se auqit basri karunga. Aur ek 

randi, kisi ba|re gharane ki, dhundhkar us se biyah karunga; 

nau mahine ke bad ek la|rka paida hoga ; tab us ko tarbiyat 

karunga, aur ilm aur adab sikhaunga ; agar kabhi beadab karega, 

to isi asa se, jo mere hath men hai, use adab dunga. Gharaz, is 

khiyal men, beadab larke ko apne samhne |;iazir jankar, asa 

utha, shahd aur ghi ke gharon par mara. We t^q par dhare they 

aur ap niche us ke muqabil baitha tha ; jonhin asa un par laga, 

we tut ga^. Tamam shahd aur ghi us ke sir, aur munh, aur 

darhi,aur kapron par para, aur we sab khiyal ekbargi jate rahe. 

Naql 4. 
The Huntsman^ and the Fox. 
Naql hai, ki koi sbikiri, ek din, kisi jangal men chaU jata 
tha. Ek lomri nihayat khubsurat, khushayand nazar ai. 
Shikari ko pasham us ke bahut khush a^. Khiyal kar liya ki, 
goya, bari qimat men use becha hai. Lomri ke pichhe chali 
aur bil se us ke muttala hua. Usi ke nazdik, rah men, ek kuwd 
khodkar kore se chipa diya, aur ek murdar us ke upar rakh, ap 
ghat men ja baith&. Lomri ko is murde ki bo khainch, khaineh, 
kue par lai, par soch men thi, ki agarehih tame ki bo dimagh ko 
mu^ttar karti hai, lekin bala ki bo bhi, dur andeshi ke maghz men 
pahunchti hai. Agarehih ho sakta hai ki koi mua janwar ho, par 
yih bhi mumkin hai, ki is ke niche dam lagaya ho, aur dana, jis 
kam men i^Ltimal ziyan ka ho, wuh nahin karte hain. Akhir 


lomri dur andeshi ki madad se murde k& khiy41 chhor, salamat 
rahi. Is men ek bfaukha chita pahar par se utrd, aur us ki bo 
par apne tain kue ke andar giraya. Shikiri ne jab ^hat dam kU 
aur janwar kue ke andar girne ki suni, kamal ^irs ke mare 
apne tain myian kue ke andar giraya. Chite ne, is khiyal par ki 
wuh shikari mujhe is murde ke kbane se baz rakhega, jast ki, 
aur saiyad ke pet ko phar dala. Gharaz, wah lalchi shikari, 
i^irs ki shamat se, dam men phansa, aur qan^ lompi ne halakat se 
ma^lasi pai. 

Naql 6. 

The Darvesh and the Confectioner. 

Naql hai, ki ek darvesh dana, jis ka (ariqah qina^t tha, bazar 
men gaya. Ek ^alwai ne, jo faqir ki chdshni se kuchh bahrah 
rakhta tha, us §ziz se iltmas ki, ki Ek dam meri dukan men 
thahare, ta apki nasihat amez baton se main faidahmand hon. 
Wuh mard i l^huda, shinas dil nawazi se, wahan baitha. Halwai 
ne ek tasht shahd se bharkar darvesh ke age rakhi. MakkhiydQ, 
jo taur un ka hai, ki mithai par jam% hoti hain, ekbargi us par 
girin ; b^ze kinare par baithiij, aur baze darmiyan men. Halwai 
ne chauri hilai, ta makkhiyon ko hanke, we jo kinare thin sahaj 
se up gayin ; aur we jo bich men thin, jab unhon ne chahd ki 
uren, shahd unke paron men lipat gaya, aur dam halakat men 
phansin. Darvesh is a^wal ko dekhkar khush hua, aur Khuda 
ke shukr men mustaghriq, jab ba^al aya ^alwai ne us se sabab 
khushi ka puchha. Us ne kaha, A\ bhai, main is tasht ko 
dunya, aur shahd ko dunya ki niamaten, aur makkhiyon ko, 
shikam parwar ni^mat khwaron ki manind samjha. Aur unheij 
jo tasht ke kinare baithin thin, mardan i azad, ki taqdir ke Ibiukra 
se dunya men ae, par is men ji na lagae, aur thoie par qinaat ki, 
aur dunya ko nachiz jdna : aur janiyo, ki jab chauri maut ki hile, 
jinhon ne apne dil ko thorasa us ke ishq men aludah kiya hai, 
we samjhen is bala ke dam se chhutenge. Aur jinhon ne tamam 
himmat apni dunya men sarf ki hai, aur us talkh mithas ne un 
be mizaj ko Khuda ki rah se phera hait akhir we ruswa honge. 


Na^l 6. 
The Oppressor punished. 
Naql bai^ki agle zamane men ek zalim tha ki gharibon ki lak- 
fiy&n sulm se mol leia, aur jitne mol ki hatin, us se qimat bahut 
kam detd, aur ap mahangi karke, daulatmandon ki sarkar men 
bechta. Ghurba us ke zulm se 4jiz hue the, aur daulatmand bhi 
tang ae the. Ek din us ne ek muhtaj bebas ki lakriyan zulm se 
mol lin» aur adhi qimat di. Wuh mazlum Khuda ki dargah men 
6h o nalah kame laga : is menkisi saf^ibdil ne is a^wal se muttala 
hokar us lalim ko nasihat ki, aur kaha, Zulm karna, aur kisi ka ^aq 
mar rakhn^, don himmati aur bemuruwati hai, is ke siwa na 
khushi Khuda ki bhi hoti hai. Alawah, yih, ki isi dunya men 
saikron ruswai sc badi ki saza use milti hai ; khusiis in becharon 
par |ulm karne se jo siwae dargah Khuda ke koi asra nahin 
rakhte bain. Aisi bad saluki na kar, ki is hal se shitabi bala 
men giraftar hoga. Wuh zalim, jo sharab ghaflat ka nisha 
apne dimagh men rakhta tha, uski rast goi aur nek andeshi se 
barham hokar bola, ki In baton se mujhe dard sir na de, aur in 
afsanon se ranjidah na kar; aur kha^ hokar apne ghar gay a. 
Azbaski, mal-k&r zalimon ka achchha nahin hai. Qaza ilahi se, 
usi rat lakriyon ke dher men ag lagi, aur wahan se ghar talak 
pahunchi, jo kuchh asbdb tha jalkar khak ho gayd. Fajar ke 
waqt apne doston men baithkar afsos mal ka karta tha, aur kahta 
tha, ki Yih ag kahan se lagi ? Wuh darvesh, ki jis ne agle roz 
nasihat ki thi, wahan aya aur kaha, Ai zalim, ab talak tu ne 
nahin m^ldm kiya hai, ki yih ag mazlumon ke dil ke dhuen ki 
hai ? Us ke jo tAH yar the, is bat ne dil men us ke tasir ki, 
sharmindah hokar kahne laga, Sach hai, ki bij zulm kd jo main 
ne boy4 tha, us ka samrah mujhe mila, Akhir us zabardasti se 
dar guzra, aur zulm chhor diya. 

Naql 7« 

The Gardener and the Nightingale. 

Naql hai, ki kisi kisanka ek phula phala bag|^ th&. Goshah 

chaman men ek jhar gulab ka tha, nihal kdmrani se tazah, aur 

darakht shadmani se har ek shakh us ki ziyadah. Har subah 

phul khilte aur baghban nnhen dekhkar khush hota. Ek roar 


phulon ka tatnasha dekhne ko nikla tha, ek bulbul ko dekha ki 
munh ko gul ke saf^e par raklike chahchahe mar rahi thi, aur 
us ki rangin pattiyon ko apni tez chonch se torti thi. Baghban 
gul ki pareshani dekh besabr hua, aur bulbul se ranjidah hokar 
fareb ka jal rah men bichh&ya, aur hile ke dane dalkar use 
pakar pinjre men band kiya. Us bedil bulbul ne toti ki manind 
zaban kholi aur kaha, Ai §ziz, mujh azurdah khatir ko kyun qaid 
kiya tu ne ? Jo meri khush iwazi tujhe is bat par lai, to meri 
ashiyanah terehi bagh men hai. Agar koi aur bat teri khatir men 
ai ho, us se mujhe itt^H kar, to sabr kar chup rahungi. Kisan 
ne kaha, Nahin janti hai, ki tu ne mera kyi a^wal kiya, aur gulon 
par, jo wasilah meri zindagi ka hai, kya kharabi lai, aur mujhe 
basabab us ke kaisa azurdah kiya ? Bulbul boli. Is bat se dar- 
guzar aur soch, to sahi ki maiu itne qasiir se, jo ek gul ko 
pareshan kiy&, pinjre men band hui ; aur tu jo dil ko ranjidah 
karta hai, teri ^alat kya hogi ? Is bat ne us ke dil men agar 
kiya, bulbul ko azad kar diya. Bulbul us ki shukr ada karke 
boli. Jab tu ne mujh se neki ki to albattah main bhi is ke badle 
bhalai karun. M^lum kar, jis darakht ke niche tu khara hai, 
yahan ek aftabah ashraiiyon se bhara hua gara hai, nik&lke apne 
kam men la. Kisan ne, jab wuh jagah khodi, aur bulbul ki bat 
sach hui, kaha, Ai bulbul, ajab hai ki aftabah zamfn ke niche 
tujhe nazar aya, aur dam khak ke upar tu ne na dekha ! Bulbul 
ne jawab diya, Tu nahin janta hai, jab qaza pahunche nadidah 
danish men roshni rahe, na tadbir aql ki kuchh faidah kare. 

Naql 8. 
J mortal Life with Society preferable to Immortality without it, 
Naql hai, ki Hazrat Sulem&n ki (lukumat ke ayam men, ki we 
tamam jind&ron ke, kya admi, ky^ sewae unke, Badshah the. Un* 
ke Huziir ek dana ^lim i ghaib se piyalah ab |^ay at ka bharkar 14ya, 
aur ^rz ki, ki Ilham se mujh par yun khula hai, ki agar &p is 
piyile ko na piwen jald is jahan se rul^hsat howen ; aur jo piwen 
i^mr daraz ho. Ab yih piy&lah ab t^ayat se bharkar liyi huQ, ji 
eh&he pijiye, aur qiy&mat talak zist kijiye ; ya na pijiye aur mulki 
^amkokuch farmaiye. Hazrat Suleman dil men apne soche, 
is k^ mea ^qlmandon se mashwarat kiya chahiye. Ijlasbul 


];iukin un ke, dana aur dur andesh bar guroh ke, kya insan, 
kya Taiwan, sab \^iz\r bue ; ws makhfi bhed ko un 8e zahir kiya, 
tab barek ne zindagi ke liye dil pasand baten kaben« Hasil 
unka yih bai, ki naqd i umr wub daulat bai, ki bamadad aql ke, 
us se khubiyaQ baham pahunchaiye, aur raza Kbuda ki hasil 
kijiye. Gbaraz, sab ki rae yibi thabri, ki Blazrat piyalah ab 
j^kayat ka piwen* Suleman ^leh issalamnefarmayayki Mere mulk ke 
danaon se koi aisa bai, jo is masbwarat men hazir nahin bai. 
Sabbon ne ^rz ki, ki Falanab bugla nabin bai. Hazrat ne gbore 
ko us ke bulane ke liye bbeja ; us ne ek goshe par qina^t karke 
Icbalq se milna tark kiya tba, gbore ki bat na mani, aur balur na 
jiikla. Dusri bar kutte ko bbeja ki use le i ; bugla us ke kahne 
se Hazrat ki bargab men ^azir liua. Hazrat ne farmaya ki 
Tujbe ek masbwarat ke waste bulaya bai, tab ab l^ayat pine 
ka zikr darmiyan lae. Us ne kaha, Ab hay at apbi akele piweuge, 
ya doston kbairkhwabon ko bhi pilawenge ? Hazrat ne farmaya, 
ki sirf mere liye fiya bai, auron ke dene ki ijazat nabin bai, 
kyu^kar dun ? Us ne arz ki, Ai jabanpanab, bamdam aur doston 
se juda bokar zindagi kami kya kaifiyat rakbti bai P Ap ko 
Kbuda ne dunya men sardar kya bai, baghair madadgaron ke 
koi k4m saranjam na boga. Hazrat ne us sachcbe dur andesh 
ki bat par afrin ki, aur ab l^ayat pber diya. 

NAftL 9. 

The Merchant and his Friend. 
NaqI bai, ki koi tat punjiya saudagar safar ko jata tba, sau 
man loha kisi dost ke ghar men amanat rakba, ki tangdasti ke 
waqt mujib faraghat ka bo. Jab dur daraz safar karke muddat ke 
b^d ghar ko aya, aur loba mangne dost ke pas gaya, wub becb- 
kar tasarruf men laya tha, kabne laga,kL Ai bbai, tere lobe ko main 
ne ghar ke kone men rakha tha, aur is bat se main ghafil tba, ki usr 
kone men ebuhe ka bil bai ; jab talak m^lum bo, chuba fursat 
pakar sab ka sab kha gaya. Saudagar is bat ko jbuth saraajh- 
kar koi tadbir sochta tha, aur bazahir kahta tha, kya b^id hu i 
chuhe ko to lobe se kamal ulfat hai, aur danton se wub loba 
chaba sakta hai ! Wub jhu^ba, is bat se, khush hua^ aur dil 
9aeo kaha, ki Yih ba^ a nadan hai ki meri batoo par bhul gaya. 


aur lohe se dast bardar hua, bihtar hai, ki apne him ki mazbuti 
ke liye us ki aj ke roz siyafat karun. Tab us ko ghar men 
legaya aur dawat ki taiy&ri karne laga. Saudagar ne kaha, ki 
aj mujhe zarur kam hai, kal aunga. Gharaz, us ke ghar se chala, 
aur us ke ehhote larke ko churi, apne ghar lejakar, chhipa rakh&. 
Fajar w^de par dost ke ghar aya, aur us ko pareshan dekhkar 
puchha, Ai bhai, turn kyun ghabrae hue ho? Kah&, Kal se 
beta mera, jo ntir chashm, aur sariir i dil tha, ghaib hua hai ; 
bahutera dhundha kuchh pat4 na paya. Bola, Kal jo main 
tumhdre ghar se nikla, usi shakl ke ek larke ko, jo turn batate 
ho, main ne dekha, ki ek chuhemar uth&e, ura chala jata hai. 
Tab vrnh chill ay a, ki Ai bewaquf, na mumkin bat kyun zaban 
par lata hai ? Moshgir larke ko kyunkar le urega ? Saudigar ne 
hanskar kaha, us se kuchh t^jjub na kar, kyunki jis shahr ka 
chuha sau man loha khata hai, wahan ka chuhemar bhi ek larke 
ko utha sakta hai. Us ne haqiqat daryaft ki, aur kaha, Kuchh 
andeshah na kar, chuhe ne tera loha nahin khaya hai. Jawab 
diya, ki Tu bhi pareshan na ho, ki moshgir tere larke ko nahin 
le gaya hai. Us ne kaha, Khair, mera loha mujhe de aur apn& 
larka tu le. 

Naql 10. 
The tyrannical King, 
Naql hai, ki agle zamane men ek Badshah ne dast sulm ki 
daraz kiya tha, aur qadam ^dalat ki rah se bahar rakha tha. 
Rat din log zulm se us ke, Khuda ki dargah men nalan the, 
aur use l^nat karte the. Ek din Badshah shikar ko gaya, aur 
basabab is ke, ki fasal ilahi shamil |^al tha, aise ek maidan men 
jahan be t^lluqi ka ^^^m thi, usko ilham hua. Badsh&hi 
naibarat hai, is se,ki darwazah ^ish o kamrani ka apne upar khole ; 
balki Badshahi p&sb&nihai, ki auron ke ranj ko uthdkar khalaiqki 
nigahbani kare, aur i^alimon ke dast i zulm ko mazlumon ke d&man 
se kotah kare. Jab shikargah se bargah ki {axaf chala, aur 
maidan se shahr men pahuncha, khilqat ko bulakar farmaya, ki 
Ai guroh, ab tak meri didah dil haq bine se band tha, aj ilham se 
main ne daryaft kiya, aur khwab ghaflat se jaga. Ummedw&r 
hug ki aj ke din se kisi zalim k& dast i zulm r^yat par na pahun* 


che, ttur kisi jafakar k& panw, kisi gharib ke ghar ke gird na 
j4we. H4jibon ko fann&ya, ki Yih khush khabri shahr ke chhote 
bafon ko pahunchi do. Is manadi se rayat ki jan men jan hue, 
aur gul murid ke un ki ummedwari ke bagh men khile. Alqissah, 
manlum nawazi o ;ulm gudazi us ki kamal martabe par hue, aur 
^dalat us ki aisi phalli, ki bakri ka bachchah sheml ke than se 
dudh pita, aur tadru baz ke s&th baziyan karta. Is waste laqb 
us ka shabdad hua. Dargah ke marram i razon men se kisi ne 
puchh&, ki Agle ain ko chhor, t^riq adalat ki shuru kame ka 
sabab kya hai ? Badshah ne majra bayan kiya, aur kaha, ki Sabab 
is ghaflat se bed&r hone ka aur hushiyari ka yih hai, ki ek roz 
shikfirgah men bar taraf ghora daurata tha, aur nazar karta tha ; 
ach&nak, dekha main ne, ki ek kutta kisi lomri ke pichhe daurta 
hai, aur dinton se haddi us ke paon ki chabta hai ; bechari lomri 
langre pion se ghar men bhag gai, aur kutta phira. Wahin ek 
piy&de ne pattar kutte ko mara, ki paon us ka tut gaya. 
Piy adah hanoz kai qadam na gay a tha, ki ghore ne ek lat jo paon 
par us ke man, to us ki bhi fang tut gai. Wuh ghora bhi 
dur na gaya tha ki paon us ka kuchi men a gaya, aur tut gaya. 
Tab main masti se hosh men aya, aur dil se apne kaha, Dekha 
tu ne, in sabhon ne kya kya k&m kie, aur kya kya pa^ ? Ehabardar 
ho, ki tujhe dikhlate haig, ki jo koi wuh kam kare ki laiq us ke 
nahin, wuh aisi kuchh dekhe jo na dekha ho. Akhir meo ghaflat 
se baz aya, aur taufiq ka darw&zah mujh par khula. 


^ • X 


Naql 11. 

The Farmer and the Mice. 

Naql hai, kisi zamindar ne, durandeshi se thora sa ghallah 

jam^ kiyi tha, aur us men se kharch na karta tha, ki zurdrat ke 

j^ waqt k&m awe. Qazara, koi chuha us khate ke nazdik rakhta 

) * tha. Hameshah zamin ko bar \txtdLt se khodta, aur ^harah 

shigaf d&nton se, bil apni bar taraf se banata tha. Ittifiqan, ek 

nek si^t men bil ka sira ghalle ke darmiyan se nikla, to wunhin 

bahut si rozi ghar men us ke phail gai. Badah faraghat ne us 

kam hausle ko, danish ki r&\ se bhatkakar, maehruri o ghaflat ka 

sarshar kiya. Ma^alle ke chuhe is a^Lw&l se waqif ho, us ki 

l^hidmat men l^azir hue ; aur khane pine ke ishna us ke pas 


jami hokar, khush&madin karne lage; aur is andeshe se, ki 
mabada, ^aq bat ke kahne se jah o rozi men l^halal pare, koi bat 
us ke khilaf mani na kahte, aur us ki madah o sana ke siwa koi 
^arf zaban par na late. Wuh bhi dewane ki taral^, laf ni&rt&, 
aur behudah l^harch karta, aur aj ka khiyal kal par na rakhtfi. 
Jab kitne roz gujre, aur kal para, zamindar ne khate ka dar* 
wazah khol-kar dekhi, ki us goalie men nuqsan hu& hai. £k 
thandhi siQS bharkar socha, ki ghamgin bona, waste us chiz ke, 
ki jiski (lasrat befaidah hai, danish ke ain se nahfn. Bihtar hai 
ki baqi ghalle ko aur jagah rakhun. Akhir zamindar us qadiri 
qalil ko aur jagah legaya, aur chuha us jagah men, jahao ka malik 
aur rais apne tain janti, so raha tha ; aur chuhe jo khane pine 
ke ashna the, is ^adise se waqif hokar jate rahe, aur Khudawand 
ni^mat ko apne akela chhor ga^. Sach kaha, jisne kaha, ki In 
daghabiz doston ko jo tu dekhta hai, we makkhiyan hain gird 
mithai ke. Dusre din wuh chuha aramgah se uthkar, harchand 
dahine baen takne laga, yaron se apne kisi ko na dekha ; aur 
bahuter& age pichhe talash ki musa^ibon men se kisi ko na paya. 
Apne makan se uth, musa|^ibon ki talash ko nikia tha, ki alam ki 
pareshani aur ghalle ki girani ki khabar pahunchi ; muztaribanah 
ghar ki taraf chala, ki zakhirah jo rakhta hai, us ki mu^iafazat 
men koshish kare. Jab ghar men pahuncha to us ne ghalle ka 
kuchh nishan na dekhi ; usi fail ki rah khate men jo gaya, to 
dekha, ki itna ghallah jo ek rat bhar ki khurish ho sake na tha ; 
tih o taqat us ki jati rahi, aur muztarib hokar sir par sauda ko 
apne diwar par itna patka, ki phut kar mag^z khul gaya, israf 
ki shamat se halak hua, aur ^hak men mil gaya. Faidah is 
^ikayat ka yih hai, ki chahiye, kharch admi ka amad ke barabar 
ho, aur jo punji apne pas rakhta hai, siid se us ka faidah 

Naql 12. 

The Revealer of Secrets punished. 

Naql hai, ki agle dinon men ek ^akim tha, ki dunya ki masti 

ke sabab ^.qlmandon se suhbat kam rakhta tha, aur kamine, past 

himmat, ]|ihushamad aur chaplusi se uske yahan pesh hu^ the. 

Un men se ek kaminah rikabdar us ka mi^atamad hua tha. Ek 


din ^dkim shik&r ko gays ; jiswaqt nazdik thi ki 4ete pahunche, 
rik&bdar se kahi, Main cb&hta bun ki tere sath ghora dauraun, 
aur muddat se yihi arzd hai ki malum kaiun ki mere mushki 
gho|:e kf daur achchhi hai, ya us naqure ki, jis par tu sawar hai. 
Rikabdar ne ^asbul-^ukm hikim ke ghora phenka. Hakim ne 
bhi apne tezrau ghore ki bag uthai yahag talak, ki donoi^ 
shikargah se daufke nikal gae. Badshah ne nk^b dabakar 
bag li, aur kahi, Ai rikabdar, meri gharaz gho^e dau|rane se yih 
thi, ki ek fikr meri ^hatir men gu|ri thi, is bahane se khalwat ki, 
taki wuh raz tujh se kahuii. Dekho, kisi se na kahna. Rikabdar 
ne, jaisa iin badzaton ki hai, bhed ke chhipane men qasamen. 
khain. Hakim ne farmaya, ki Mai^ apne bhai se fikrmand hun. 
Agar bad andeshi ke uski peshani se zahir bain, aur mujhe yaqin 
hai ki us ne mere qati par kamar bandhi hai. Main chahta hun 
qabl is ke, ki us ki taraf se mujhe kuchh aseb pahunche, ha^sti 
us ki, ki bat ka rora hai, nest karun, aur hig\i saltanat ko us ke 
l^haristan se pak. Chahiye ki tu hameshah us se chaukanna 
rahe, aur meri nigahbani meg i^tiyat kare. Rikabdar ne arz ki, 
Maio kis laiq hun, ki ap ka ma^rami raz ho sakun. Far jab 
Badshah ne mujh par nawazish farmai, ummed hai^ ki khidmat 
baja laun aur raz chhipiun. Azbaski badzati uski tinat men 
thi, yih bat suntehi ]f;hiyal bewafai ka apne ji men laya, aur fur- 
fat ka waqt pakar ^akim ke bhai ke pas ja, yih majra kaha. 
Us ne mamndn hokar, use khush kiya, aur kahi, Ummedwar rah, 
ki bar waqt tu sarfaraz hoga ; — ^aur nek tadbiron se apne tain 
bhai ke hath se bachane laga. Qazaran, us ^akim ki bahari 
daulat-l^hizan par &i, aur shagufah ummed ka nihal zindagi se 
jha|r gay&. Jab sarir daulat bhai ki shakoh saltanat se khali 
hud, us ne panw takht shahi par, aur taj shahr-yari sir par dhara. 
Pahla ^ukm jo us shah ki zaban se nikld, us rikabdar ke qatl 
ka tha. Bechare ne ^rz ki, Main jo ap ki daulat-khwahi ki thi, 
us ki jaza yihi hai ? Badshah ne farmaya. Sab gunahon se 
badtar ifsharaz hai, aur tujh se yih taqsir hui; hargah tu ne 
bhed mere bhdi ka, ki tu us ka mahramiraz tha, pushidah na 
kiy4, mujhe tujh par ky& i^timad hai. Gharaz, rikdbdar ne 
bahuteri iztirabiyan kin, faidah na hua, aur us ne saza pai. 
Hasil is distan kk yih hai, ki izhar raz ka gamrah nek nahig 


Na^l 13. 

The discontented Travellers. 

Naql hai, ki tin shakhs a§na i rah mei} ekathe hokar chale. 
Un men jo bafa tha, us ne donon rafiq se kaha, ki Turn apne 
shahr se kyun nikle ? aur kya sabab hai, ki ghar ka aram chhof- 
kar safar ki mitinat ikhtiyar ki ? Ek ne kaha, Jis shahr meQ 
main rahta tha, wahan, mere khweshon dostoQ ko garwat aur 
khushiyan baham pahunchin. Main dekh na sakta tha ; atish 
i rashk se jalne laga, is liye, main ne apne dil se kaha, ki kitne 
ek din watan chhorun, jo yih nadidani na dekhun. Ddsre ne kaha, 
Mujhe bhi, is dukh ne ghar se awarah kiya. Tab, us bare ne 
yih sunkar kah4, ki Tum donog mere hamdard ho ; main ne bhi 
isi afat se safar ikhtiyar kiya. Qharaz, bad nihadi har ek ki ashnat 
aur rifaqat ka miijib hui. Dunya ke tdmashe dekhne lage. Ek 
din, rah men, tora ashrafiyon ka para paya. Tinon kahin utre 
aur bole, ki Is ko taqsim kar len, aur yahin se phirkar apne» 
apne ghar chalen, chand roz khushi se guzran karen. Sab ki 
ragi ^asad jumbish men ai, aur har ek yihi chata thi, ki main* 
hi lun, dusra is men sharik na ho. Is khiyal men tinon hairan 
hue ; nah yih himmat thi, ki zar ka khiyal chhoren, aur rah 
men para rahne den ; na is par razi, ki 4pas men |^is§e kar len. 
Oharaz, isi taraddud men, ek rat din tinoQ maid&n men bhukhe, 
piyase pare the, aur khw&b aur khur apne upar talkh karkar 
larte the. Dusre roz wahan ka Badshah shikar ko nikla th& : 
ittifaqan, muqarribon ke ek guroh ko sath lekar, barwaqt 
pahuncha, aur un tinon ko maid4n men baithe hue dekha, a(^w&l 
puchha. Unhon ne majra bayan kiy&. Badshah ne farm&y&, 
ki Tum apni, apni jjiasad ko bayan karo ; dekhun, kaun kis mar- 
^abe men hai, us ke muwafiq yih ashrafiyan tumhen ^isgah kar 
diin. £k ne kaha, Mujhe (^asad is qadar hai, jo hargiz nahifi 
chahta hun ki kisi par i^san karuQ, ta wuh khush ho. Dusre 
ne kaha, Ki tu nek mard hai, aur meri l^asad ka ek pasang tujh 
men nahin. Mujhe itni |]iasad hai, jo dekh nahin sakta hun ki 
koi kisi par i^san kare, ya apna mal kisi ko bakhshe. Tisre ne 
kaha, Ei tum donon l^asad se asia bahrah nahin rakhte ho; 
tumhara $irf d^wi bem^m tha ; maig aisa hun^ ki hargiz rawadar 


nahin jo mujh se koi bhalai kare. Badshah ne angusht i (lairat 
ko kata, aur un ki guftago se mutajjib hokar kaha, ki Tumhari 
baton se gabit hua, ki in ashrafiyon men se tumhen na dija 
cb&he, baiki bar ek ko, muwafiq gunah ke, saza deni zardr hai^ 
Jo shakhf kisi par i(isaQ ka rawadar na ho, saza us ki yih hai, 
ki is daulat se mafiruin rahe, aur koi us se bhalai na kare. Aur 
jo i^san aur ka aur par dekh na sake, bihtar hai, ki use sangsar 
kijiye. Aur jo apna hdsid if hai, us ki saza yih hai, ki pandat* 
khane men qaid rahe jabtak ki mare. Tab farmaya, ki Is pahle 
ko nanga kar, bhukha piyasa jangal men chhor den ; log hukm 
baja lae. Aur dusre ka sir teghi bedaregh se juda kiya, aur tan 
ke ranj se rihai bakhshi. Tisre ke badan men qi^ran malwakar 
garm ret ke andar dilwa diya, yahan tak ki wuh hazaron jan- 
kandani se halak hua. Gbaraz, ^asad ki shamat se tinon zalil 
hue. Hasil is qisse ka yih hai, ta m^Ium ho, ki l^asad ki nihayat 
yahan talak hai, ki b^ze hasad se apni bhalai nahin dekh sakte 
hail} ; yahin se samjhiye, ki auron ki bhalai kab dekh sakenge ? 

Naql 14. 

The envious Man and the Ascetic. 

Naql hai, ki Baghdad men kisi hasid ke hamsae ek mard i Khuda- 
parast rahta tha. Log use buzurg jante the, aur us ki mulaqat 
ne bahramand bote the. Us mard hasid ka dil parosi ki buzurgi 
se jalta tha. Aur wuh hameshah, aql ko ek kinare rakhkar, us 
ke satane men koshish karta tha, aur bahut makar sochta ; par 
kuchh faidah na hota tha. A'khir us muamale se tang aya. Ek 
ghulam mol lekar, us par mihrbaniyan bahutsi karne laga, aur 
in^m dene ; aur parwarish aur khatirdari men us ki maqdur 
bhar s%i karta. Aksar khilwat men kahta, ki Tujhe ek mushkil 
kam ke liye palta hun, ummedwar hun ki mere dil ki arzii ko 
bar lawe, aur meri khatir ki fikr ko dur kare. Jab ek muddat 
guzri, aur ghulam ko adae haq aur wafadari men mustaqil paya, 
tab bhed khola, aur farmaya, Khabardar rah, ki mera is hamsae 
ke hath se, dam nak men aya hai, aur main ne jitna chaha, aur 
tile uthae> ki us par koi afat pare na ho saka, meri zindagi 


taikh gujarti hai. Tujhe is waste main ne pala hai, ki &j tu 
mujhe hamsae ke kothe par lejakar mardale, aur wahin chfaoikar 
chala awe; jab log fajar ke waqt walian mujhe mua dekhenge, 
beshak, us ko khun ki tuhmat se pakrenge ; jah aur mal us ki, 
gharat hoga, aur abru ^urmat bhi j&ti rahegi. Ghulam ne kahfi, 
Haarat, is khiyal se dargujre, aur is kim ki tadbir aur tara|^ se 
thahraiye aur gharaz ap ki zahid ka qatl hai, main use mar- 
dalun, aur us ki taraf se &p ki khajir jam^ karun. Us ne kaha, 
Yih khiyal dur daraz hai, shayad tu us par qabd na p&we, aur 
jald us ka qatl na ho sake ; mujh men ab itni taqat nahin rahi 
hai ; uth, aur is kam ko bajala, aur w^de ko wafa karke mujhe 
khush kar ; aur yih khat azadi, aur ek badrah zar ka, jo teri 
zindagi bhar ke kifayat kare, tujhe deta hun ; le, ta is shahr se 
nikal jae, aur jabtak jiye kisi ki mu^taj na howe. Ghulam ne 
kaha, Hazrat, koi dana yih khiyal jo apne kiya hai, na karega.' 
Dushman ki saz& apne jite ji maqsiid hai, jab ap jan se jate rahe, 
to us ke marne mei) kya lazzat milegi ? Ghulam harchand is* 
tarah ki baten darmiyan laya, par kuchh faidah na hua. 
Bewaquf ghulam ne, jab khushniidi apne sa^ib ki isi men dekhi, 
use paposi ke ghar ke kothe par lejakar sir kat dala. Aur khat 
azadi aur badrah zar ka lekar, Isfahan ki t^^^f rukh kiya. 
Subal^ ko logon ne badniyat khwaje ko, ek mard ke kothe par, 
kushtah dekha, aur use pakarkar qaid kiya. Azbaski nek 
zati us ki Baghdad ke chhote baron par z&hir thi, is sabab khuu 
us par sabit na hota tha ; aur usi taxa}^ qaid men thd, yahan talak, 
ki Baghdad ke ek bare saudagar ka gu^r Isfahan men hua. 
Ghulam ne us ko pahch&nfi, aur mulaqat karke apne saj^ib aur 
hamsae ka a^wal puchha. Saudagar ne mijra bayan kiya, aur 
khwaje ka mara jana, aur us nek |at hamsae ka qaid honi 
sharhawar kah sunaya. Ghulam ne kaha, Ajab zulm us mardi 
begunah par hua, aur yih bura kam, us ke ^asbul-^ukm mujh 
se sarzad hua hai, aur wuh nek mard is bat se asla khabar nahin 
rakhta. gharaz, jo kuchh majra gufti th&, ghulam ne sab 
sharhawar us se bayan kiya, aur saudagar ne jo kuchh sund, us 
par ek guroh ko gawah karke, Baghdad ke hakim Ke pas laya,. 
aur us Khudaparast darwesh ko qaid se chhuraya. 


Naql 15. 

The King and his Hawk. 

Naql hai, ki agle zamane men, koi Badsh&h ek baz ko bahut 

piyar karta thi^ aur wuh hameshah B4dshah ke hath par baitha 

raht4 tha. Ek roz baz ko hath par baithakar shikar ko gaya ; 

ittifdqan, ek hiran samhne nazar aya. Bidshah ne kamal shauq 

se us ke pichhe ghora dala aur us ko pakra. Mulazimi dargah, 

agarchih piehhe lage ehale ate the, par koi Badsh&h talak na 

pahuncha tha. Is men Badshah piyasa hokar har taraf p4ni ki 

talash men ghora daurata tha. Akhir ek daman i koh menpahunch- 

kar dekha, ki pahar par se pani tapakta hai. Tarkash men se 

piyalah nikal niche rakha, ki qatre jo tapakte hain, us men jamu 

hon, aur piydlah bhar j&we. Jab piyalah bhar chuka, chaha ki pie, 

baz ne wunhin par mara, tamam pani gir gaya. Badshah ne is 

^arkat se khafa hokar phir piyale ko usi patthar ke niche rakha ; 

der ke bad, jab bhar chuka, chaha ki munh ko lagawe. Biz ne phir 

wahi ^arkat ki, aur us p&ni ko bhi gira diya ; Badshah ne kamal 

tishnagi ke sabab be taammul biz ko zamin par patak diya, 

aur wuh mar gay&. Is men rikibdar apahunchi, baz ko mua 

aur Badshah ko piy&sd pay a. Filfaur chhagal shikar band se 

khol, piy &Ie ko khub dhodhdkar, chaha ki Badshah ko pani piUwe. 

Us ne farmaya, ki mujhe is khalis pani se, jo pahar se jharta 

hai, kamal raghbat hui hai. Tu pahar par charh, aur is chashme 

se pini ka piyalah bharkar le i, kyunki, phir yih tab nahiu hai, 

ki jab talak piyale men qatrah, qatrah jama ho, main intizar 

karun. Rikabdir, jab chashme ke kinare pahuncha, dekhta 

ky& hai, ki ek azhdha mua hua us ke kinare para hai, aur zahar 

bhara \^h us ki, pani men milkar, qatrah qatrah pahar par se 

tapakta hai. Wuh ghabrikar utra, aur yih ahwal arz kar, ek 

piyalah thande pani ka chhagal se bharkar Badshah ko diya, 

wuh piyalah munh se lagakar rone laga, aur rikabdar ko biz ke 

mijre se igih karke, apni jaldi aur iz^iribi par bahutsi nafiriu 

ki, aur jab talak jiyi, yih digh i hairat us ke dil se na gaya. 

Faidah is qisse ka yih hai, ki ^qlmand apne kirn ko, baghair 

fchub taammul kie, shuru nahio karte haiQ. 


Naql 16. 

How to guard against Anger, 

Naql hai, ki Yaman men ek ^akim th&, rae durust aur 

kirddr nek se mausiif. £k din shikar ko gaya tha, bahuteri 

4aur dbdp ki, koi shikar h4th na laga. Badshah us bat se 

ghamgin hokar (lairat zadon ki \!XtB\^ idhar, udhar, dekhta tha. 

Ittifaqan, ek gharib, bekas lakaf hare ne, hiran ke chamfe ki topi 

aur angarkhi pahankar, us jangal men lakfiyan bahutsi jam% 

ki thin, aur us mi^nat se mandah ho, kisi patthar se kamar teke 

hue, dam le raha tha, B4dshah ki najar dur se us par pa^i ; 

azbaski nihayat shauq shikar ka rakhta tha, us ko hiran jankar 

bedhafak tiri dil doz us par m&ra, aur jab us ke p&s gay&, dekhfi 

ki ek becharah, zakhmi sinab, majruh i dil pur, ^hun pa^ra hai. 

Nihayat maghmiim hua, aur apni be taammuli par apne taiQ 

malamat karne laga, aur, us se bahutsi ^^ar khwahi karke, use 

marram baha men bazar dinar die ; aur wahan se shahr ki \fixt£ 

mutwajjih hua, aur apne dil meo %had kiyi, ki b$d is ke, 

jo kam karuD be-taammul na karun. Us shahr ke atrif men, ek 

salik, apni nafs kushi ke waste, tark dunya karke, goshe men 

baitha tha, aur ^qlima^d se bahrahwar hoke, razae ilahi ki just-ju 

me^ auqat basar karta tha. Badshah ke dil men yih bat ai, ki 

uske pas jaiye, aur us se kuchh nasi|^at talfth kijiye. Al^hir, is 

irade par, us ki }badat gab meQ gaya, aur jis Xjblib}^ ka saluk 

sardaroQ ko darweshog se lazim hai, baja lakar darkhwast ki, 

ki Maio chahta bun, ki koi dur i yakta, kan i danish se mujhe 

bakhshe, taki wuh wasilah taraqqi ka dunya meo, aur mujarrib. 

dawa, waste aram dil ke, ho. Us $af dil, sufi mizaj faqir ne 

^rz ki, ki, Ai Jahanpanah, wuh khaslat, jo Badshahon ke ^aq 

men sarmayah zahir aur ba^in ki daulat ka hai, so ghusse ko 

inarna, aur khafgi ke waqt tahammul karna hai. Badshah ne 

kahi, Ai darwesh, tu ne sach kaha ; par ^hafgi ke waqt ikhtiyir 

ki bag ko thambn& bahut mushkil hai ; aur koi daulat-khwah 

bhi mere yahag aisa nahii) hai, ki waise waqt men ^aq bit ^rz 

kare ; ghazab ki bag thambne ki koi tadbir bataiye. Darwesh 

ne kaha, Bare fidmiyon ko lazim hai, ki apne naukaron mei) 

se us naukar ko, jo sabhoo se danish, aur diy&nat dari, aur 


rasti men mumtaz ho, mahramiraz apna kare ; aur yih ijazat 
de, ki ghusse ke waqt jis t^rah se bo sake, bure kamon se 
agih karke baz rakhe. Lekln jab talak ki aisa shakhs hath 
lage, |laj us ka yih hai, ki main tin purze ap ko likh deta 
hun, chahiye ki un tinon purzon ko, apne muqarrib naukaron 
men se ek ke hawaie kijiye, aur kah dijiye, ki hameshah in 
purzon ko apne pas rakhe, aur ap ke ajjiwal ko dekhta rahe ; jab 
jane ki ghazab aur khafgi ka waqt apahuncha, ya kisi kam men 
tu gbusse hua hai, in men se ek ko tere h&th men de. Ummed 
hai, ki jo tu dil hushiyar aur bakht bedar rakhta hai, is khat ka 
parhna tujhe ghazab se baz rakhega; aur agar dekhe ki, pahla 
khat mufid na hua, wunhin dusra dewe : agar nafs basabab is 
ke, ki us ki sarshit meo sarkashi hai, dusre purze se bhi kama- 
haqqah hushiyar na ho, tisra purzah ap ke hath men de. Ehuda 
ki dargah se yih ummed rakhta hun, ki is martabe khafgi ki 
tariki nur i |^ilm se badal ho. Badshah is bat se khush hua, 
aur darwesh ne we tinon purze, muqarrib naukaron men se, ek 
ke hawaie kie. Fahle ka mazmun yih tha, ki Qudrat ke waqt, 
ikhtiyar ki bag bad andesh nafs ke hath na de, ki tujhe Khuda 
ki nazari inayat se girakar halak karega. Dusre purze ka ^asil 
yih tha, ki Ghusse ke waqt zer-daston par mihrbani kar, to 
zabardast tujh par mihrban rahe. Tisre kaghaz ka matlab yih 
tha, ki Aql ka hukm man, aur insaf se munh na pher. Badshah, 
Khuda ka shukr baja lakar darwesh ke yahan se apne ma^al 
men dakhil hua, aur wazir hameshah, kya khilwat, kya bari ^m 
men, jo waqt khafgi aur ghusse hone ka hota, bar waqt ye tinon 
ruqae us ko dikhlata, isliye, us ko log zurruq^ kahte the. 

Naql 17. 

The two Friends. 

Naql hai, ki do sharik the. Ek, danai ke sabab, tez hosh 
kahlata tha ; dusra, sadah lau^i se, khurram dil mashhur thd* 
Donon ne saudagari ke irade safar ikhtiyar kiya. Ittifaqan, 
asnai rah men ek himiyani ashraiiyon ki pai. Tez hosh ne 
kaha, Ai bhai, dunya men aisa bhi bahut hota hai, ki be mi^nat 
manf^t ho. Ab isi par qina^t karni, aur chain se rahna apne 
ghar ke kone men, bihtar nazar at& hai. Tab donon phire, aur 


shahr ke qarib pahunchkar kisi jsgaih utre. Khurram-dil ne kahi, 

Ai hhiU is zar ka hissah kar, taki har ek apne bisse ko, maw&fiq 

Jtiausile ke, kharch kare. Tez-hosh ne kaha, Bantna salah nahin ; 

chahiye ki is men se thora nikalkar shirkat men kharch karen. 

Baqi ko, bahut ihtiyat se, ek jagah rakh chhoren, aur hameshah 

a akar, jitna dark&r ho, le jiyi karen, taki &fat se bacben. 

Kburram-dil uski b&ton par bhul gaya ; thorasa us men se lekar, 

baqi ko ek darakht ke tale gar, chain se apne apne ghar 

gie. Jab rat hui, Tes-hosh akela us darakht tale gaya, aur 

ashrafiyon ko samin se nikal apne ghar le gaya. Khurram-dil usi 

naqd par, ki shirkat men le gaya tha, auqat basar kartd tha. 

Jab us men se kuchh na rah4, Tez-hosh se kahd, Ki chalo, ashra- 

fiyon ki, jo zamin men gdri hain, khabar len, aur phir thori un 

men se le ilwen. Kaha, Achchhd. Tab donon ne darakht tale 

jakar bahuteri tal&sh ki, kuchh na p&ya. Tez-hosh us ki dast ba 

gireban hua ki we ashrafiyan tu le gay4 hai, kyunki aur koi 

waqif na th4. Ulte chor, kotw&l ko dande. Us bechdre ne bahut 

61 qasamin khdfn, aur iztirabiyan kin ; mufid na hua. Akhir, 

Khurram-dil ko ^akim ke yah^n lie jftkar a|^wal bayan kiya. H&kim 

ne Tez-hosh se gawah ialah kie, ki agar gawah hazir na kar sake, 

to mudai ^laihi ko qasam khilaungi. Tez-hosh ne kaha, JahaQ 

Bshrafiy&n gari thin, wahan koi admi ^azir na tha jo gayrihi de. 

Par, jo main apni r4sti, aur us ki darogh goi par khub iatim&d 

rakht& bun, is liye yih yiqin jinti hun, ki agar ap kisi shakhs ko 

tain karen, ki us darakht ke tale j4we, aur main Khudi ki 

dargah men iltija o z&ri karun, aghlab hai ki Khudi meri zari se 

mihrban ho, aur wuh darakht, ki jis ke niche ashrafiyan gari 

thin, bole ki kis ne khiyanat ki hai. Akhir, bahut guftagu 

ke bad yih bat thahari, ki fajar tarkehi darakht tale jakar Khuda 

ki qudrat ka tamashah dekhc. Khurram-dil ko hakim ne pandit 

khane men bhej diy&. Tez-hosh ne apne ghar men akar, is raz 

ko bap se apne zdhir kiy&, aur kaha. Main ne, aphi ke lutf ke 

bharose, darakht ki gawahi ka khiyal kiya hai ; agar nawazish far- 

mawen, jitni ashrafiyan baham pahunchi hain, aur utni us sejari- 

m&nah lekar faraghat se din katenge. Bap ne kaha. Is kam men jo 

tadbir kijiye, wuh kya hai. Larke ne kaha, Wuh darakht andar 

se ais4 khokhla hai, ki agar do admi us men chhipeo? koi 


dariyfift na kare. Aj ki tit jakar us ke andar tahiye, kal suba^ 
main (lakim ke idmiyog ke sath darakht tale jakar, iltija o zari 
karunga aur gaw4hi in&ngung& ; jaisa munasib ho, wahan se 
pukiriye, aur yih khabar dijiye, ki we ashrafiyan Khurram-dil 
le gaya hai. Us ke hip ne kaha, Ai larke, ^ile o fareb ke khiy&l 
se darguzar. Bilfarz, agar bande ko fareb degi, Khudfi ko na 
de sakega ; ki wuh tere sab ras i dil ko j&nta hai ; aur mu ba 
mu, rag o reshe se w&qif hai. Is par bhi main janta hun, ki 
makhar o ^ilahgar ka a^wal chhipa nahin raht& hai, aur chhote 
bare ke nazdik ruswfi hot& hai. Befe ne kah&, Yih bat mauquf 
kijiye, aur daraz khiyalat ko chhoriye, ki us kim men ziyan kam, 
aur nafi| bahut hai. Bechare bufhe*bap ko larke ki mafiabbat 
aur zar ki khw&hish ne .^ql ki rah se bahka diy&. Andheri rat 
ko darakht ke andar raha« Fajar ke waqt karpardaz log 
darakht tale ankar jam^ hue, aur Tez-hosh iltija o zari karne laga. 
£k dam ke b^d darakht se awfiz ai, ki Ashrafiyan Khurram-dil le 
gaya hu. Dan4 |^&kim ba zor i aql samjha, ki kuchh hilah kiya 
hai, aur is darakht ke andar kisi admi ko chhipiya hai ; kuchh 
tadbir is ki kiya ch&hiye. Farmdya, ki shayad yahan kuchh 
tilsam kiya hoga ; is ki daf^e ke waste ek chiz main janta huni 
Tab us darakht ke as pis lakriyan jam^ karwakar phuukw& 
din. Wuh nikardahkar burha ek dam sabr karke chillayd aur 
aman chahi. Tab logon ne us adhah jale burhe ko, darakht ke 
andar se nikali ; aur us ne l^aqiqat i ^al bayan karke dunya se 
kdch kiyfi. Makk&r Tez-hosh, chhote ba^on men ruswa hokar, 
apne b&p ki lash ko k&ndhe par dhar, shahr ki taraf chala, aur 
Khurram-dil sach ki badaulat khalas hua. 

Naql 18. * 
The King and the Ascetic. 
Naql hai, ki ek Khuda-parast, %qlmand fi&dshah kisi goshah 
nashin zahid ki ziyarat ko gaya aur iltimas ki^ ki Mujhe kuchh 
nasihat kijiye. Zahid ne kaha, Ai Badshah, Khudai men %lam do 
hain ; ek fani, ki ^lam i sdrat kahlata hai; dusra, baqi, jis ko 
41am i m^ni kahte hain. Ali himmat ko chahe, ki dunya i fani 
men mustaghriq na ho, aur khubiyon par ^lam i ro^ni ki, jo ^1 ke 
nazdik pasandidah hain, nazar kare. Badshah ne farmaya, ki 



4Iam { m^ni ke ^aa dlli tariqah ky£ hai ? Z4hid ne kah&, Shahwat 
aur ^haxab ko i^tidal par rakhe ; aur is&ish ko ek qalam chhof- 
kar, din rat ijizon ki dastgfri, aur mailumon ki faryad rasi meg 
mashghiil ho. Jo Badsh&h chahe, ki rasae il4hi ^afil kare, use 
^lam m^ni ki Badshihat mUegi, chahiye ki serdastog ki rafa- 
hiyat, aur salimog ki tambih men sfi kare; kyunki Khudane 
BadsUhon ko, r^iyat aur mulk ki nigihbini ke waste, paidi 
kiyi hai. Pas, r&t din, apna bisab yihi kiyi kare, ki Aj maig 
ne kya, kya kirn kie ; aur tamam karob&r par najar rakhe, aisi 
na ho ki ek adni kam ikhtiy&r karke, bare kamog se baa rahe. 
Ai Jahanpanah, ak§ar log, is 4sr se ki mabada sach kahne se 
hamari rosi men khalal ho, ya, i^tib&r meg batta lage, mul4^ar 
fah karte hain. Dani Badsh&h wuh hai, jo apni ^ifajeat, aur 
auroij ki nigahbani is (sra^ kare, ki ^aq gupron ko i^tir&z ki 
jagah na rahe. Agar bashriyat se kuchh chuk ho jae, to fiaq ke 
sunne se barham na ho, aur tokne-wale ko na jhirke. 

Badshah us zahid ki nasifiat se ma^sui^ hu4. Logog ki khusha- 
mad se parhes karne laga. Hameshah uski sdlibat men j&kar 
nasij^at ki bateg sunta, £k din usi zahid ke pis baitha tha, acha- 
nak, ek guroh did khwahon ka akar faryad kamc lag&. Badshah 
ke (lukm se, sahid ne un ko bulakar a|^wal puehha, aur daniog ke 
nazdik, jo jis ke ^si ke munasib tha,Bsdshah se kaha. Badshah ko 
s&hid ki mu^malah rasi, aur muqaddamah fahmi khush ai, aur us 
se Utimas ki, ki kabhi kabhi muqaddamah ap ke ^uzur pahuncha 
kare. Zahid ne nek niyati se qabul kiya, ajizon ke kam meg 
B^ karne laga, aur kamdl tawajjuh se unki nalish sunne. Naubat 
yahan talak pahugchi, ki akgar karobar us mulk ke zahid ki tadhir 
se saranjam bote the, aur roz ba roz mulki aur mali karobar 
men wuh mashghul rahta. * Raftah, raftah, jah aur jalal ka khiyal, 
aur daulat ki irzu zahid ko hui ; aur ^ql ki it^&t meg qusiir 
ine laga. Gharaz, kaunsa shakhs hai, jise is jadugar dunya ne 
gumrah na kiy&? aur kisne uske hath se jam badah fareb ka 
na piya. B&dshah ne jab zahid ki tadbiren sala^ muIki ke 
mawafiq dekhin, ek bargi usko ikhtiyar kuUi diva. Age, darwesh 
ko ek roti ki fikr rahti thi, ab andeshah ek jahan ka darpesh hua ; 
aur^- q )bl is ke, ek kamli k& saman karta tha, ab ek saltanat ka 
saranjam karna pari. Kisi din ek darwesh, jo hameshah se zahid ki 


mfiq aiu* ma|^rami Hz tha, malaqat ko aya ; to aurhi rang dekhi 
aur hair&n hua. Chupke zahid se puchha, ki Yih kya (ariqah 
tu ne ilihtiyaT kiya hai ? Zahid ne harchand chaha, ki kuchli 
9|r kare, ban na aya. Faqir ne kaha, Jah ki mahabbat, aur mal 
ki liyadah (ftl&bi se teri ^ql mari gai hai ; ki tu shahwat aur 
ghafab men giraftar hua. Ye atwar chhor, aur daman i tajarrud 
ko dunya ki alaish se pak kar, logoQ ki amad o shud ka darwa* 
lah band kar, akelehi goshe qinaat ko pasand kan Zahid no 
kaha^ Ai yar ^zis, logon ki &mad o raft, aur guftago se mujh me^ 
kuchh taghaiyur nahin ay& hai ; main dil se usi kam par muta« 
wajjih hun, ki tu janta hai ? Darwesh ne kah&» Tere didah 
danisl^band ho gae ; afsos ! ki tujhe koi tadbir apni nahin sujbti 
bai) aur jab sujhegi kuchh faidah na hoga ; teri ^ahit mujbe, us 
andhe ki manind nafar ati hai, jis ne kore aur samp ke bicb 
faraq nakiya, akhir ^alak hua. Zahid ne jab yih bat suni, gosho 
nashini ki kaiiiyat ko yad karne laga, aur ankhon se ansu baha- 
ne. Us ko yaqin hua, ki us dost ki b&t kamai mihrbaDi se hai. 
Fajar hotehi logon ne xahid ke darwdze par hujdm kiya, aur wul| 
kamon ke insiram men mashghul hua, shab ki pashemani.bhul 
gayi. Alqisfah, aahid ki yih naubat pahunchi) ki dunya ki 
masti se rah r&st chhofi, aur hawa aur hawas ki pair&wi karke 
khud pasandi meo auqat katne laga. £k din kisi begunah ke 
qatl ka b^km kiya, aur b^d uske pasheman hokar talafi ke 
darpai hua. Us begun&h ke ^wesh aur aqraba Badshah ke 
^uzur ankar sahid ke lulm se dad ^hwah hue ; is muqaddame 
ki tajwiz auron ko supard hue. Un diy&natdaron ne tajjiqiq kar- 
ke kaha, ki Zahid ne na ^aq khun kiya hai^ us ko bhi qatl kijiye. 
Zahid ne harchand makhlasi chahi, aur logou ko rishwat dene 
ki) par mufid na hui. 

Naql 19. 
The Judge and his Monkey. 
Naql hai, ki Kashmir ke mulk men bara ek hakim tha. Wuh 
ek bandar ko bahut aziz rakhta tha, aur Badshahi nawazishon se 
use nawaza tha. Hameshah bandar maj^abbat se khidmat me$ 
^azir rahta ; aur rat ke waqt, ek abdar katar bath men lekar,liakim 
ke siihane khara rahti, fajar talak lazimah nigahbani ka baja lata ; 


Aur yih ^hidmat apne shauq se kiya karta. Ittifiqan, ekdana ehor 
dur 86 Kashmir men aya, ek rat chori ke waste nikalkar ma^alle 
mahalle, gali gali, phirta tha. £k nadanchor, jo us shahr men 
tha, wuh bhi usi ^hiyal men nikla tha, hamjinsi ke sabab donon 
mile. Musafir chor ne puchha, Ai y4r, hamen kis ma^alle men 
jana munasib hai, aur kis ke ghar men sendh dena bihtar? 
Bewaquf chor ne jaw4b diyi, Ki yahan ke r&is ke tawilemen ek 
mota, t&zah, tez rau gadhd hai, ki wuh usko bahut ^ziz rakhti 
haiy aur zanjir se muhkam bandh-kar, do ghulamon ke sipurd 
kiy& hai ; salah yih hai, ki pahle wahan chalen aur us gadhe ko 
churiwen, tab shahr ke chaurahe men, jo ek shishagar ki dukan 
hai, wahan sendh den, aur khush rang, s&f shishe nikal, us gadhe 
par ladkar ghar ko jawen. Dana chor is ki baton ki (arz se 
hairan hua, aur ch4ht4 th4 ki uska a|^wal dariyafit kare. 
Ekaek, kotwil un ke samhne i pahuncha. Dana chor, aql ki 
madad se, ek diwar ki ot men chhipa; naddn pakra gaya. 
Kotwal ne puchha, Kahdn jata hai, aur tu kaun hai ? Jawab 
diya, Ki maig chor hun, aur chahta hun ki shahr ke riis 
ka gadh4 churaun, aur shishagar ki dukan tor, shishe lad- 
kar ghap ko le jaun. Kotwal ne hanskar kaha, Chof us ko kahiye, 
ki ek gadhe ke liye, jo mazbut bandha rahtd hai, aur kitne 
nigahbdn us par muqarrar hain, aur un shishon ke waste jo take 
ko das das bikte hain, ap ko halakat ke girdab men dali. Aisa 
khatarnak kam, agar rae ke khazane chur^ne ke liye karta, to ek 
bat thi. Yih kahkar hath bandh pandit khane men bhejd. 

Dani chor ko al^maq chor ki baton se nasihat hui, aur kotwal 
ki baton se tajribah hasilkar apne dil men kaha, ki Yih chor 
mere haq men nadin dost tha, aur kotwal dani dushraan. Ud 
dost ne bewaqufi se mujhe halak kiya tha, agar yih dana dush- 
man na hota, to kam mera h&th se j4 chuka tha, aur jan meri 
is khiyal men tamdm hui thi. Ab jis tara|^ kotwdl ne kahi, rAe 
ke khazane ki taraf rukh karna bihtar nazar at& hai. Tab ahistah 
ahistah rae ke mahal ke niche akar sendh dene laga. Akhir shab 
talak rupaiy on ki arzu men, pattharon ko apne hathiy aron se tarash ta 
tha. Thoyi si rat rah gai thi, ki sira sendh ka rae ki khwabgah 
ke pas nikla ; dekha, ki wuh takht zarrin par sot& hai, aur dunya 
ke asbab besh qimat, aur jawahir waghairah aur aur chfzen us 


ke in pis paf i hai^ ; kluit&yi parde bar (araf lage hain ; kafdrf 
battiydn rau^an h)iin, nur saltanat bar t^^af se cbamakta bai. 
Jab kbub ghaur ki, to dekhi, ki ek bandar, katar batb men liye, 
Badsbab ke sirbane khara bai, aur pasbani ki nazar se dabine 
b&en dekta bai. Chor l^airan bua, ki kaban bandar aur kabaQ 
pdsbani ! is becbare ki sakat kabai) ! aur sbamsber abdar kaban ! 
Is fiocb meo tha, ki ekb&rgi kitni cbyuntiyan cbbat se Badsbab 
ke sine par giren. Badsbab ne un ke rengne se %in jj^bw&b men 
cbbati par batb mara. Bandar ne jbukkar dekba, ki cbyuntiyan 
rae ke sine par pbirti bain ; gbusse bokar kaba, Mujb aise pdsban 
ke bote, adni cbyunti ko kya maqdur bai, jo be adabi kare aur 
pdnon mere Kbudawand niamat ki cbbati par dbare ! Tab mar6 
gbusse ke, katar nikala, ki rae ki cbbati par mare, aur cbyuntiyoii 
ko balak kare. Cbor pukara, Ai namard, be bak, apne batb ko 
tbam ; kya alam ko talaf karega P Yib kabkar lapka, aur bandar 
ka batb katar samet mazbut pakar liya. 

Rae is sbor se cbaunk para, aur cbbor se pucbba, Tu kaun 
bai ? Us ne jawab diya, ki Main tcra dusbman dana bug. Cbori 
ko yaban ay a tba, agar ek dam teri ^ifazat me{i der karta, to 
yib bewaquf janwar, jo ter& dost i nad&n bai, teri kbwabgab ko 
labu se bbar deta. Rae is a^wal par muttal^ bo sijdab sbukr 
ka baj& l&y&» aur bola, Sacb bai, jab Kbuda ki inayat kisi ki 
^ifazat kare, cbor pasban bo jawe, aur dusbman mibrban. Tab 
cbor ko nawaza aur apna muqarrab kiya, bandar ke gale men 
sanjir dalwakar istabil men bbeja. Gbaraz, cbor, jis ne daulat ki 
umedpar kamar bandbkar kbazane ki diw^r tori tbi, qabai 
danisb pabina bua tba, taj daulat us ke sir par rakba gaya; 
aur bandar, jo dp ko pasban aur mabram i raz samjbfi tba, paiyab 
iatibar se gira, izzat ka kbil^t us ke badan se utara gaya. 

Is qisse ka khulasab yib bai, ki insan ko chabiye ki dosti 
iqlmand se kare, aur nadan dost ki su^ibat se koson bbage. 

Naql 20. 

The Merchant and his two Sons discoursing on Fate, 

Naql bai, ki ek saudagar tba, us ne sardi garmi zamane ki 

dekbi thi, aur talkbi shirini us ki cbikbi tbi. Us ke tin bete 

tbe. Jawani ke masti ke mare apne peshe ko cbborkar bap ke 


mil par hath dalte, aur bek&ri o ni hamwari meg auqat ganwate. 
Padari mihrban shafaqat o mihrbani ke ru se un ko nasi^at karne 
laga, ki Larko, agar is mal ki qadr, jis ke jara^ karne men tumhen 
kuchh a|iyab nahin pahunchi hai, nahin jante ho, to aql ke nazdik 
turn m^zar ho ; lekin jiniyo, ki daulat punji nekoQ ki, aur 
wasilah khushiyon ka ho sakti hai. Dunyadar tin chiz ke 
khwahin hain; khush gufrani, jah ki taraqqi, Khud4 kiraza: 
aur in darjon men nahin pahunchte hain magar ch&r chizon ke 
wasile se ; nek peshah ikhtiyar kama ; aur jo kuchh baham pahun- 
che, us ko ^ifazat se rakhna, aur muwafiq i|ql ke ^harch kama ; 
aur (lattal maqddr bad chizon se parhez kami. Pas, susti 
chhoro, aur kasb ki ^hwahish karo ; aur itni muddat se ham&re 
jo atwar dekhte ho un ko ^mal men lao. 

Bape bete ne kah4, Baba jan, &p to mujhe kasb ke liye farmate 
hain, par yih tawakkul ke khilaf hai. Main yaqin j&nta hun ki 
jo rozi mere liye muqarrar ho chuki hai, harchand us ki taldsh meg 
koshish na karun, tab bhi mujhe pahunchegi ; aur jo meri rozi 
nahin, us ki talash men kitnehi s^i karen kuchh faidah na karegi. 
Fas, jo chiz qismat men hai, turt milegi, aur jo nahin, so hargiz 
muyassar na hogi. Pas, jo chiz milne ki nahin, uske w&ste 
befaidah mi^nat na kiya chahiye, aur behudah ranj uske w&ste 
kyun ? Main ne kisi buzurg se suna hai, ki jo meri rozi tbi, us 
se main harchand bhag&, par mujh se lipti ; aur jo chiz meri 
nasib ki na thi, jis qadr ki us ki koshih ki, wuh mujh se pare 
bhagi ; pas, khwah s%i karun, ya na karun, azai se jo meri qismat 
ka likhi hai na mitega. 

Bap ne farmaya jo kuchh tum ne bayan kiy&, so thik hai, 
par yih $lim asbab hai, is ke aksar karobar us par mauquf haio. 
Chahiye ki asb&b ke w4ste koshish kare, aur tawakkul par 
i%tim&d na rakhe. Manfi^t kasb ki, goshah nashini ke naf% se, 
kahin ziyadah hai ! kyunki ahli kasb se aur ko bhi f&idah 
pahunchta hai, aur ghoshah nashini se usi ko. Jo sha^s chahe 
ki dusre ko nafa pahunch&we, haif hai ki wuh kahili kare. 

Dusre larke ne kahd, Bab&, jo (ariqah kasb ka ikhtiyar karuQ, 
aur Ehudi apni in&yat ke khazane se mal o mat^ mujhe bakhsKe, 
to Inarch aur j^if&jat kis t^ur par karun ? Bay4n kijiye, ki apni 
gup&n ki dastur al^mal karuQ. 


Bap ne kahft, M41 jam% kani& sahal hai, par ^ifaiat us ki, 
aur U8 86 faidah uthana mushkil. Jab mal kisi ke hath lage, do 
kam kare, ek yih, ki us ki khabardiri is tarah se kare ki zaya 
hone se bache, choron, batparon, ganth katton ke h&th us par 
na pahuncheij, ki rupaye ke dost bahut hain, aur dushman bhi 
beshumir ; &sm&n na gharib ko sat&ti hai, baiki daulatmandon 
ke qafile ko lutata hai. Dusra yih, ki asl i mal men hath na 
4ale, aur us ke faide se bahrahmand howe ; agar punji men 
hath lag&we, aur us ke nafa par qina^t na kare, to thore din 
men asl barbad howe. Jis darya men p&ni ki imad kahin se 
na howe, jald khushk ho jae, aur agar pahar men se kuchh 
Ifjiye, aur |was uske na rakhe, to akhir wuh khali ho jae. Jis 
ke yahan &mad na ho, aur hameshah kharch kare, y& amad se 
kharch ziyadah ho, nidan tukargadil hokar mar j&e. 

Jab b&p ne is bat se faraghat ki, chhota utha, aur pahle us ne 
bip ko du4 di) tab kaha, Ei jab kisi ne asl mal ko khub hifasat se 
rakha, aur Use kamal manfS^t hui, to us munafi ko kyunkar 
^harch kare« Bap ne kah4. Do qaidon ki riayat zurur hai ; ek 
yih hai, ki israf se parhez kare, aur tariqah iatidal par, jo sab 
chiion se bihtar hai, qaim rahe ; ki ^\i himmat logon ke nazdik 
bukhal israf se bihtar hai, aur bakhshish, agarchih sab jagah 
pasandidah hai, jo baja ho wuhi khub hai, na beja. Dusri 
yih, ki bakhili aur kam himmati se ihtiraz kare, kyunki bakhil 
k& mal dkhir ko lut jata hai, jaise kisi bare bauz men, ki kai 
nahrog se pani &we, aur jaisi amad waisa nikas na ho, to, nachar, 
har tai&f se rah dhundhta hua, kar ek kinare se chuwe aur 
chhed us ki diwar men parjaen ; nidan, wuh faauz ekbargi dba 
jawe. Alqissah, larkon ne jab bap ki nasibaten sunig kahili 
chhor, har ek ne ek peshah ikhtiyar kiya, behudagi o ghaflat tark 
ki) bari saudagari ke irade kahin durdaraz safar ko chali. 




Pahli Fasl. 

The original state of Men and Animals^ and the beginning of 
the Controversy between them before the King of the Genii, 
in an Island where the Men had been shipwrecked. 

Likhne wale ne a|^wal ibtidae suhur bani adam ka yuQ likha 
h&i, ki jabtak ye thore the, hameshah haiwanoQ ke dar se bhagkar 
ffharon men chhipte, aur darindon ke khauf o khatar se (ilon 
8ur paharon men panah lete ; itni bhi, itminan na tha, ki do 
char idmi milkar kheti karen, aur khawen ; is ka kya |ikr ki 
kapra pahineg, aur badan ko chhipawen ? Gharai, phal, sag, 
pat jangal ka, jo kuchh pate khate, aur darakhton ke pattoQ 
se tan ko chhipate; jaron men garm jagah men rahte, aur 
garmiyon men, sar zamin sard ka rahna ikhtiyar karte. Jab us 
^alat meQ thori muddat gu|ri, aur aulad ki kagrat hui, tab to 
andeshah dam o dad ka, ki har ek ke ji men samaya tha, bilkul 
nikal gayi. Phir to bahut se qile, shahr, qare, nagar basakar, 
chain se rahne lage; zira^t ka saman rauhaiya kar, apne apne 
kar o bar men mashghul hue, aur haiwanon ko dam men giraftar 
karke sawari aur barbardari, zira^t, aur kisht-kari kd kam lene 
lage. Hathi, ghore, unt, gadhe, aur bahut se janwar, ki hameshah 
jangal biyaban men shutur i be-muhar phirte the, jahan ji 
chahta, achchha hara sabz^h dekkar charte, koi puchhne-wala 
na tha : so un ke kandhe, rit din ki mij^nat se, chhil gae ; pithog 
men ghar par gae. Harchand bahut sa chikhte chingha|:te, par 
ye ^azrat i insan, kab kan dharte ? ak§ar wa^shi khauf giraftari 
se durdast jangaloi) men bhage. Tair bhi, apna baser& ehhor, 
bal bachchon ko sath le, in ke mulk se uranchhu ho gae. Har 
ek bashar ko yih |chiyal tha, ki sab {laiwdnat hamare ghulam 
hain, kis kis makar o ^ile se phande, aur jal bana bana un ke 
darpai iiue. Is d&rogir mea ek muddat gu|ri. 


^akim Jinni, ki laqab us ka, Shah mardan tha, qaum Jann&t 
k& Badshah hui; aisa ^^il tha, ki jU ke ^had men sher aur 
bakri ek ghit men pani pite the ; kya dakhal ki koi thag, 
cholta, da^hab&z, uchakka uske qalmrau me^ rahne na p&we ? 
Jazirah Bilasaghun nam, ki qarib kha( i istiwa ke waqa hai, us 
Shahanshah ^dil ki takht gah tha. Ittifaqan, ek jahaz admiyon 
k&, bad mukhaUf ke sabab tabahi men akar, us jazire ke kinare ja 
lagi. Jitne saudigar aur ahli ^Iau^) ki jahaz men the, utarkar 
us sar zamin ki sair karne lage. Dekha, to §jab pahar hai, ki 
rang barang ke phiil aur phal, har ek darkht men lage, nahren har 
taraf jari, ^aiwanat, hara hara sabzah charchug kar, bahut mote 
laze, dpas men kalolen kar rahe hain. Azbaski ab o hawa 
wah&n ki bahut khub, aur zamin nihayat shadab thi, kisi ka 
dil na cbaha ki ab yahan se phir jae. Akhir, makanat tarah tarah 
ke, band bana, us jazire men rahne lage, aur haiwanat ko dam men 
giraftar karke, badastor, apne karobar men mashghul hue. 
Wal^shiyon ne jab yahan bhi subhita na dekha, rah sahrakili. 
Admiyon ko to yihi guman th&, ki ye sab hamare ghulam hain, 
is liye anw^ o aqsam ke phande banakar, bataur sabiq, qaid 
karne ki fikr men hue. Jab ^aiwanon ko yih zam fasid unka 
m^lum hua, apne raison ko jama karke darul adalat men |iazir 
hue, aur beord sab {lakim ke samhne sara majra zulm ka, ki 
unke hathon se uthaya tha, mufassal bay an kiya. 

Jis waqt Badshah ne tamam a^wal |iaiwanon ka suna, wahin 
farm&ya, ki Han, jald qasidon ko bhejen admiyon ko huziir men 
^azir karen. Chunanchih, un men se sattar admi, jude jude 
shahron ke rahnewale, ki nihayat fasi^ o baligh the, bamujarrad 
talb Badshih ke, ^azir hue. Ek makan achchha si un ke rahne 
ke liye tajwiz hua. B^d do tin din ke, jab mandagi safar ki 
raf^ hui, apne samhne bulwaya. Jab unhon ne Badshah ko 
takht par dekha, duain de, adab o kurnish bajala, apne apne 
qarine se khare hue. Yih Badshah to ninayat ^dil o munsif, ja- 
uranmardi aur sakhawat men, iqran aur amsal se sabqat le gaya 
tha ; zam&ne ke . gharib o ghurba yahan dnkar parwarish pate 
the ; tamam qalm rau men kisi zerdast djiz par, koi zabardast 
^alim zulm na kar sakta ; jo chizen, ki shar^ men l^ardm hain, 
uske ahad men bilkul uth gai thin ; hameshah, siwae razamandi^ 


BUT j^hushnudi Khudi ke, koi amar mal^iii khitir Aa thi. 
Is ne nihayat akhldq se un se puchh^, ki Turn hamare mulk men 
kyuQ ie f Ham&re tumhare to kabhi khat o kit&bat bhi na thi ; 
kya aisa sabab hu&, ki turn yah&n tak pahunche ? £k sha^ha 
un men se, ki jahandidah aur fasi^ tha, taslim&t baja I&kar kahne 
Iag$, ki Ham ^dal o insaf fi&dshah ka sunkar ^uzur men hazir 
hue bain, aur aj tak is ist&nahi daulat se koi dadkhwah ma^nim 
nahiQ phira hai ; ummed yih hai, ki Badshah hamire dad ko 
pahunche. Farmaya, ki gharaz tumhari kya hai ? Arz kiya, ki 
Ai Badshah ^dil, ye ^aiwanat hamdre ghulam hain, in men se 
b^ze mutanaiHr, aur b^ze, agarchih jabran tabi bain, lekia 
hamarimilkiyatke munkir. Badshah nepuchha, ki Is dawi par 
koi dalil bhi hai ? kyunki dawi bedalil dar ul ^dalat men, suni 
nahin jata. Us ne kaha, Ai Badsh&h, is d^wi par bahutsi dalail 
f qli o naqli bain. 

Dus&i Fasl. 

2.— -J/an claims Authority over the Animals from the supe- 
riority of his form, wisdom^ <$*c. ; to which they reply. 

Jis waqt Badshah ne yih bat suni, is qaziye ke infisal ke liye 
badil masruf ho, irshad kiya, ki qazi, o mufti, aur tamam ayfin 
o arkan jinnon ke ^azir hon ; wanhin, bamujib |^ukm ke, sab ke 
sab b&rgah Sult&ni men ^azir hue. Tab ins&n se farmay&, ki 
Apni bat bayan karo. Tab ek shakhs in men se tashm&t baj41a- 
kar yun ^rz karne laga, ki Ai jah^npanah, sab hamire ghulam, aur 
ham unke malik bain ; ham ko sazawar hai ki l^ukdmat kha- 
windanah un par karen, aur jo kam chahen, un se len ; in meij 
se, jisne ham^ri ita^t qabiil ki, maqbul Khuda ka hua ; aur 
jo ham&re ^ukm se phira, goy&, Khuda se phira. 

Badshah ne farmaya ki D^wi be-dalil ma^kamah i qaz& men 
masmu% nahin hotd, koi sanad aur dabl bhi bayan karo. Us ne 
kabd Bahut dalail ^qli o naqli se hamara d$wi sdbit hai. Farrodya, 
ki We kaunsi dalilen hain ? Tab wuh kahne lagd, ki AUdt^la ne 
hamari suraton ko kis pakizagi se banaya, bar ek azV mundsib, 
jaisa cbahiye, ata kiya ; badan sudaul, qad sidha, aql aur danish, 
jis ke sabab nek o bad men imtjy&z karen^ balki tam&m dsman^ 


ka ahwil janen aur batawen : — ye khubiyan bamfire siwi kis men 
bain ? Is se yih m^ldm hua, ki bam malik aur ye gbulam haia. 
Backbab ne ^aiwanon se puehha, ki Ab turn kya kahte bo ? 
Unbon ne iltimas kiya, ki un dablon se dawi gabit nabin bota. 
Farmaya, ki Turn nabin jante, ki durusti nisbast o barkhast ki 
kbaslat Badsbaboy ki bai, aur bad surati o kbamidagi alamat 
gbulamon ki ? Un men se ek ne jawab diya, ki Allat^la Badsbah 
ko taufiq nek bakbsbe, aur afat zamane se ma|^fuz rakbe ; arz 
yib bai, ki khaliq ne admiyon ko is surat aur dildaul par, iswaste, 
nabig banaya bai, ki ham are mdlik kablawen ; aur na ham ko is 
sbakl aur chal dbal par paida kiya, ki un ke gbulam bo wen. 
Wub ^akim bai, us ka koi fel se ^ikmat kbali nahin, jiske wagte 
jo surat munasib jani, ata ki. 

Ti'sBi' Fasl. 

3.-^3fan defends his right to rule^ from the power he has of 
selling animals^ SfC. ; to which they reply, 

Badshah ne insanon ki tai'^f mutawajjib bokaf farmaya, ki 
Turn ne jawab us ka suna, ab, tum ko jo kuchb kabna baqi bo, 
bayan karo. Unbon ne kaba, Abbi bahut se dalilen baqi hain, ki 
un se dawi hamara sabit hota bai ; baze un men se aise bain, ki mol 
lena, becbna, khilana, libas pabinana, sardi garmi se ma|^fu| 
rakhna,qusuron seunkecbashm poshi karna,darindon ki mazarrat 
se bachana, jab ki bimar hon shafqat se daw^ karna, — ^ye saliik 
hamare in ke sath banazar shafqat aur marahmat ke bain : taroam 
malikon ka yihi dastur hai, ki gbulamon par bar ^al men, nazar i 
shafqat o maral^mat ki rakhte hain. 

Badshah ne yih sunkar baiwan se farmaya, ki Tu us ka jawab 
de. Us ne kaha, Yih admi jo kahta hai, ki haiwanon ko ham mol 
lete aur bechte bain, yih taur admiyon men bhi j^i hai ; chunan- 
ebib, Faris ke rahnewale, jab Rum par fati^ pate haio* Rumiyo§ 
ko becb ^Ite hain ; aur Riimi jis ghari Faris par ghalib bote hain, 
Farsiyon se yihi saluk karte hain. Hindke rahnewale sindhiyon se, 
aur Sindh wale Hindiyon se ; Arab Turkon se, aur Turk Arabon 
se yihi mu^malah waqua men late hain. Gharaz, ki ek dusre par jab 
ghalib hota, aur fatib pata bai, ghanim ki qaum ko apna ghulaia 


jfinkar bechd&lt& hai ; kya j&ne, ki ]|iaq(qat mei) kaun ghuUm 
hai, auT kaun malik ? ye daur aur naubatei) hain. B^d us ke, 
har ek Taiwan ne Badshah kc rubaru shikoh un ke fulm ka jud& 
juda bayan kiya. Ab sham hui, darbar barkhast ru|^h$at ho, 
apne apne makanoQ men jao^ 8ub}i ko phir ^azir hon&. 

[After this, all parties retire, and consult among themselves. The 
judge^ the king of the genii^ and hia counsellors. The men among eacl^ 
other : they appoint persons to plead their cause. The animals among 
themselves : they send messengers to the principal tribes, and each tribe 
sends a deputy to the court. The account of these proceedings occupies 
more than 100 pages. All things being arranged, the trial proceeds, at 
here described.] 

Chautha' Fasl. 

4.— T^Ae assembling of all parties^ after their private cou' 


Subh ke waqt, ki tamam l^aiwanon ke wakil har ek mulk se 
&kar jama hue, aur jinnon ka B&dshah q^ziye ke infisal ke w&ste 
diw&n i-^m men akar baitha, chobd&ron ne bamujab ^ukm 
ke, puk&rkar kah&, ki Sab nalish karne wale, aur dM ke 
chahne wale, jin par xulm hu& hai, samhne ikar \im hon ; 
Badshah qaziye ke infisal karne ko baitha hai, aur q&^i o mufli 
^azir hain. Is bat ke suntehi, jitne Taiwan aur insan ki har ek 
taraf se jam^ hue the, saf bandhkar Bidshdh ke age khafre hue, 
aur adab o taslimat baj4 lakar du^eQ dene lage. Badshah ne 
har taraf khiyal kiya dekhi, to anw^ o aqsam ki khilqat nih&yat 
kagrat se hazir hai, ek 84%t mut9>jjab hokar aakit rah gayi. 

B^d us ke, ek {lakim jinni kf (araf mutawajjih hokar kaha, ki 
Tu is ajib o g^arib khilqat ko dekhti hai ? Us ne ^rz kiy&, Ai 
Badshah, main un ko didah dil se dekhti, aur mush&hidah karti 
hun. Badshah un ko dekhkar mut^jjab hota hai, — maig us %in\ 
^akim ki hikmat, aur qudrat se mut^jjab huQ, kijisne un ko 
paid& kiya, aur anw^ aqs&m ki shakleg banain, hameshah par* 
warish karta, aur rizq deta, har A bala se maj^fuf rakhta hai. 
Balki ye us ke ilm i ^uzuri meo l^^zir hain, iswaate ki jab AUat^I^ 


•hi i hta&rat Id naiar se nur ke parde men poshidah hu£, wahan 
wahm aur fikr ki bhi taa aawur nahin pahunchta ; in sanaton ko 
U8 ne s&hir kiya, ki bar ek sa^ib basirat mushahidah kare. Aur 
jo kuchh us ke pardah ghaib men tba, us ko ^rsagah lubur men 
liyiy ki ahl i nazar us ko dekhkar us ki sanat, o behamtai, aur 
qudrat, o ektai ka iqrar karen, dalil o ^ujjat ke muhtaj na hon. 
Aur ye suraten, ki alim i ajisam men naxar at^ bain, amial o ash* 
k&l un suraton ki bain » jo $lim i arwa^ men maujud bain ; we 
furaten, ki us 41am men bain, ndrani o latif bain, aur ye tarfk 
ka§if bain ; jis taral^ taswiroi) ko bar ek ^zv men munasibat boti 
bai, un ^aiwanon ke sath, ki jinki we taswiren bain, usi tarafa in 
f uraton ko bbi munasibat bai, un suraton se, ki $lam arwah men 
maujud bain ; magar we suraten ta^rik karne-wale bain, aur ye 
muta^rrik ; aur, jo in se bbi kam rutbah bain, be his o harkat, 
aur beiaban bain, aur ye ma^siis bain ; we suraten, ki alam i baqa 
mes baiQ> baqi rahti bain, aur ye fani o zail ko jati bain. 

Pa'nchwi'n Fasl. 

5.<— 7%6 JacJcaly the Representative of the Lion^ the king of 

BeastSy examined. 

Jis waqt tamam ^aiw&n o insan Badshab ke riibard saf bandb- 
kar kbaf e bue, B&dsb&b ne sab ki taraf mutawajjih bokar dekba ; 
gidar sambne nasar aya. Puebba, Tu kaun bai ? Usne arz kiya, 
ki Main l^aiw&non ka wakil bun. Bddsbah ne kaba, tujb ko kisne 
bbej&bai ? Us nekaba, Mujh ko darindon ke Badsbabsher abiil- 
l^iris ne bhejabai. Farmaya, Wub kis mulk men rahta, aur r^yat 
us ki kaun bai ? Kaba, Jangal biyaban men rabta bai, aur tamam 
wa^usb o babiim us ki rayat bain. Puchba, Us ke madadgar 
kaun bain ? Kaba, Cbite parbe, barin, kbargosb, lomri, bbere, 
sab us ke y&r o madadgar bain. Farmaya, Us ki surat aur sirat 
bay an kar. Gidar ne kaba, Wub dildaul men sab haiwanon se 
bar&, quwat men ziyadab, baibat o jalal men sab se bartar ; sina^ 
ebauta, kamar patle, sir bara, kalaiyan mazbut, dant aur jangul 
sa^bt, &waz bhari, surat mubib; koi insan o Taiwan kbaufse 
6&mbne nabfn a sakta ; bar ek bat men durust, kisi kam men yar 
^ madadgar ka muhtaj nabin ; sakbi aisa ki sbikar karke sab 



^aiwinit ko taqsim kar deta hai, aur sip muwafiq il^tiy&j ke khiti 
hai ; jabki dur se roshni dekhtd hai, na^dik j&kar khard hota hai, 
us waqt ghussah us ka faro ho jata hai ; kisi %urat aut lafke 
ko nahin chherti ; rag se bahut khwahish o raghbat rakhta hai ; 
kisi se darta nahin, magar chyunti se, ki yih us par aur us ke 
aulad par ghalib hai, jis tar^h pashshah hathi aur bail par, aur 
makkhi adiniyon par ghalib hai. 

Chhatwik Fasl. 
6.— TAc Parroty the deputy of the Chief of Birds, examined. 

B^d is ke Badshah ne samhne dekha (ota ek darakht ki shakh 
par baitha hua, har ek ki bateo sunta th& ; puchha, Tu kaun hai ? 
Us ne kaha. Main shikari janwaron ka wakil hun : mujh ko unke 
Badshah ^nqane bheja hai. Badshah ne kaha, Wuh kahan rahta 
bai?. Us ne ars kiya, ki Daryae shor ke jaziron men, buland 
pahafon par, rahta hai ; vahan kisi bashar ka gujar nahin hota, 
aur koi jahaz bhi wahan tak nahin ja sakta. Farmdya, Us jazire 
ka ahwal bayan kar. Us ne kaha, Zamin wahan ki bahut achchhi 
hai, ab o hawa mutadil, chashme khushgawar, anw^ o aqs&m ke 
daral^ht mewedar, l^aiwan&t tarah tara^ ke beshumar. Badshah ne 
kaha, Anqa ki shakl o surat bayan kar. Kaha wuh dildaul men 
sab (airon se bap 4 hai ; upne men qawi, panje aur minqar sa^ht ; 
bazii nihayat chaure chakle, jis waqt un ko hawa men ^arkat deta 
hai, jahaz ke se badban m^lum bote hain ; dum Iambi ; urne ke 
waqt, liarkat ke zor se, pahar hil jdta hai ; hathi, gainde, wa- 
ghairah bare bare janwaron ko zamin se uthalejata hai. Badshah 
ne kaha, Khaslat us ki bayan kar. Kabd, Ehaslat us ki bahut 
achchhi hai. 

A'dmiyon ki qaum men Namrud, Fir^un, kafir, fasiq, mush- 
rik, munafiq, mul^id, bad^had, jalim, rahzan, chotte, ^iy&r, 
jaib kutre, uchakke, jhdthe, makkar, dag^abiz, mu^hannas, 
zani, mughlim, jahil, a^maq,. bakhil, un ke siw& aur bhi bahut 
se firqe, ki jin ke qaul o (^\ qabil bayan ke nahin bote haio, aur 
ham un se bure hain. Magar beshtar khasaili l^amidah, aur 
akhldq i pasandidah men sharik ; isw&ste ki ham are guroh 
men bhi sardar o rais, aur yar o madadg&r bote hain, balki 
ham&re sardar siyasat o riyasat mea insdnon ke B&dshahoQ se 


bifitar hain, kyunki we faqat apni ^haras aur manfat ke liye, 
r^yat o fauj ki parwarish karte hain ; jab ki maqsad un ka ^asil 
bo jatd bai, ua waqt fauj o ri^yd ke ^al par kuchh kbiyal nahin 
(arte. Halacki yih (ariqab raison k& nahin bai, riydsat o sardari 
ke waste I&zim bai ki Badsah apni fauj o rayat par bamesbah 
sbafaqat o mihrbani rakhe ; jis tara^ AlUt^la apne bandon par 
bameshab ra^mat karta bai, isi tarab bar ek Badsbab ko cbahiye, 
ki apni ri^yi par naiar sbafaqat ki rakbe ; aur ^aiwanon ke 
aardar fauj o rayat ke ^al par bamesbab sbafaqat o mihrbani 
rakbte bain. Is tara^ cbyuntiyon aur t^iron ke rais bbi, apni 
r^yat ki durusti aur intizam men masruf rabte baif}* aur jo kuchh 
fauj o riaya se saluk o ij^s&n karte bain, us ka badla aur iwa; 
nahin chabte ; aur apni aulad se bbi parwarish ke iwaz neki ki 
tawaqqd nahin rakbte, jis tara^ admi aulad ki parwarish karke 
phir un se kbidmat lete bain. Haiwan bachchon ko paida karke 
parwarish kar dete bain, phir un se kuchh gharaz nahin rakbte, 
faqat shafaqat o mihrbani se palte aur khilate bain. Khuda ki 
rah par gabit qadam bain ; kyunki wuh bandou ko paida karke 
rizq pahunchat& bai, aur un se shukr ki tawaqqu nahin rakhta. 
Insanon men, agar ye f^l i bad na bote, to AUat^la un se kyuQ , 
farmata, ki Shukr karo ham4ra, aur apne ma bap ki ; hamari 
aulad par yih faukm nahin kiya, kyunki ye kufar o nafarmani 
nahin karte. Tota jis waqt us kalam tak pabuncha, Jinnat ke 
^akimon ne bbi kaha, Yih sach kahta bai. Insanon ne sharmin* 
dab bokar sir jhuka liya, kisi ne kuchh jawab na diya. 

Sa'thwi'n Fasl. 

7. — The Frogj the Deputy of the king ofReptUea and Fishes^ 


Badsbab ne ek (araf dekha mendak darya ke kinare, ek tile 
par khara hud, tasbifi o tahlil men mashghul tha ; pucbha, Tu 
kaun hai ? Us ne kaha. Main darydi jdnwaron ke Badsbab ka 
wakil hun. Farmaya, Us ka nam o nisban bayan kar. Kaha« 
Nam us ka Tanin hai, daryae shor men rabta hai, taman daryai 
janwar kachhwe, macbbli, mendak, nihang us ki rayat baig. 
Bidshab ne kaha, Us ki shakl o surat bayan kar. Us ne 


^ildaul men sab daryfii janwaron se bara ; fiirat ^jib, ahakl 
muhib, qad lamba; tankain dary& ke janwar us se khauf karte bain;- 
sir bara, £nkhen roshan, munh chaura, ddnt bahut, jitne daryii 
jinwar patfi hai, beshumar nigalti hai. Jab ki bahut kbane se 
bad hazami hoti hai, us waqt kaman ki taral^ kham hokar, mx aur 
dtim ke zor par khara hotfi, aur bich ke dfaap ko p&ni se nikal 
kar hawa men buland karta hai. Aftab ki ^ardrat se us ke pet 
ka khana hazam ho jdta hai, aur beshtar us ^alat mei) behosh 
bhi ho jata hai, us waqt badal jo daryd se uthte hain, us ko lekar 
khushki meg dal dete haig ; phir to maijata aur darindon ki 
ghiza hota hai ; aur kabhi badilon ke s&th buland hokar, Yfijuj 
o Majuj ki ^ad men ja girti hai, aur chand roz un ke khine men 
&ta hai. Gharaz, jitne daryai janwar hain is se darte aur bh&gte 
hain ; yih kisi se nahin diarta ; magar ek janwar chhotfi, pasbshe 
ke barabar hai, us se nihayat khauf karta hai, is waste ki wuh, 
jiswaqt us ko katta hai, zahar us ka tamam badan men is ke 
agar kar jata ; dkhir yih mar jata hai, aur tamam daryii janwar 
jama hokar ek muddat talak us ka gosht kh&te hain ; jis tara^ 
aur chhote j&nwaroij ko yih khatd hai, usi tara^i we sab milkar us 
ko khate hain : yihi (lal shikari janwaron aur t&iroQ ka hai. B(d 
us ke kaha, Main ne sun& hai, ki sab 4dmi gumin karte hain 
ki ham malik aur tamam Taiwan hamire ghulam hain ! Main ne 
jo haiwanon ka ahwal bayan kiya, us se kyun nahin dariy&ft 
karte, ki sab l^aiwanat musdwi hain, kuchh faraq nahin ; kabhi, 
to kh&te hain, aur kabhi ap dusron ki ghi|& ho jfite bainF 
M^lum nahin, ki ^aiwanon par kis chi2 s^ fakhar karte haig; 
Halanki, jo l^il hamara hai, wuhi Ml un ka hai ; kyunki nekf 
aur badi hid marne ke zahir hoti hai^ matti meg sab mil 
jawenge, &khir Khuda kitaraf rujukarenge. B^d us ke Badshdh 
se kahii, ki Insan jo yih d^wi karte hain, ki ham m&Iik aur sab 
taiw&n ghul£m hain, is makar o buhtan se un ke sakht t&jjub 
hai! Nipat jahil hain, ki aisi bat khilaf qiy&&r kahte hain. Main 
^airan hun ki we kyunkar yih tajwiz karte hain, ki sab dai^nd, 
charand^ shikari j&nwar, azdiha, nihang, sdmp, bichchhu, un ke 
ghulam hain! Yih nahin jante, ki agar datimd jangal se, aur 
shikari j4nwar paharon se, aur nihang darya se nilkalkar un par 
hamlab kareg, koi insan baqi na rahe; aur un ke mulkmen 


ikar sab ko tab&h kar dewen, ek idmi jitfi na bache ? Ghanimat 
nahin j&nte, aur is k& shukr nahin karte hain, ki Khuda ne 
unke mulk se in sab (laiw&iion ko dur rakha hai ; magar ye. 
bechare ^aivdn, jo yahan giriftar h^g, rit din un ko a^b men 
rakbte hain ; isi sabab ghariir men &gae bain, ki baghair dalil o 
bnjjat ke aisa d4wi bemani karte hain. 

Athwi'k Fasl. 
8. The Bee^ the King of Insects y examined. 

Us ke bad B&dshah ne ^aiwanon ki taraf kbiyal kiya. Nagah, 
ek mahin awai kan men pahunchi ; dekha, to makkhiyon ka 
sardilr Y^sub samhne u^rta, aur Khuda ki tasbi^ o tahlO men 
naghmah sarai karti hai. Puchha, Tu kaun hai ^ Us ne kaha,; 
Main ^asharat ul arai ka Badshah hun. Farmaya, Tu ap kyun 
iya ? jis tara^ aur haiwanon ne apne qasid aur wakil bheje, tu 
ne apni rf yat aur fauj se kisi ko kyun na bhej& ? Us ne kaha^ 
Maid ne us ke \^i\ par shafaqqat aur mi^irbani ki, ta kisi ko 
kuchh taklif na pahunche. Badshah ne kaha, yih vasf aur 
kisi Taiwan meo nahin hai, tujh men kyuekar hua ? Kaha, Mujh 
ko Allat^la ne apni inayat o mar^amat se yih wasf ^ta kiya. Us 
ke siwa aur bhi bahut si buzurgiyan aur khubiyan bakhshl 
hain. B4dshah ne kaha, Kuchh buzurgiyan apni bayan kar, ki 
ham bhi malum karen. 

Us ne kaha, AUat^la ne mujh ko, aur mere jad o aba ko, bahut 
si ni^maten bakhshin ; kisi haiwan ko us men sharik nahin kiya. 
Chunanchimulk o nabuwatka martabah hamkobakhsha.aurham- 
ire jad o £ba ko nasal damasal us k4 wargah pahunchaya ; ye do 
ni^maten aur kisihaiwdn ko nahin din. Us kesiwa AUatala ne ham 
ko ilm handasah,aur bahut si sanatin sikhain, ki apne makanonko 
nihayat khubi se banate hain« Tam&m jahan ke phal aur phul 
bam par l^alal kie, ki be lihalish khate hain. Hamare lu^b se 
shahd paida kiy&, ki jis se tamam insan ko shifa fiasil hoti hai. 
Is martabe par ham&re ay&t qurini natiq haio^ aur hamari sdrat 
o sirat Allatila ki san^t o qudrat par ghafilon ke waste dalil hai. 
Kyunki khilqat ham&ri nihayat latif, aur surat bahut 9Jib hai» 
iswast^ ki AUat^Ia ne ham&re jism men tin jor rakhe hain ; bich 
ke jof ko murabb^ kiy &, niche ke dha; ko lamba, sir ko mudauwar 


intnaya ; char hath paon, m&nind azl% shakl musaddas ki» 
nihayat khubi se mun&sib miqdar ke banie, jin ke sabab nishast 
o barkhast kartehain ; aur ghar apne is khuah aslubi se banate 
haiij, ki hawa un men hargiz nabin ja sakti, ki jiske bail ham 
ko, ya hamare bachchon ko taklif pahunche. Hath paon ki 
quwat se darakht ke phal, patte, phul, jo kuchh pate haig, 
apne makanog men jam^ kar rakhte hain. Shanon par char 
bazu banae, jin ke bais urte hain ; aur ham&re ^ank meg kuchh 
zahar bhi paida kiya hai, ki us ke sabab dushmanon ki shar 
se mal^fuz rahte hain ; aur gardan patli banai, ki dain baig sir ko 
bakhubi pberte hain ; aur us ki donon taraf do ankhen raushan 
^ta ki hain, ki un ki roshni se har ek chiz ko dekhte hain ; aur 
munh bhi banaya hai, ki jis se khane ki lazzat jante hain ; do 
houth bhi die, jin ke sabab khane ki chizen jam^ karte hain ; 
aur hamare pet men quwat hazimah aisi bakhshi hai, ki wuh 
rutubat ko shahd kar deti hai, aur yihi shahd waste hamare aur 
aulad ke ghi;a hai ; jis t<^ra^, charpaon ki pistan men quwat di 
hai, ki us ke sabab kliun musta^il hokar dudh ho jata hai. 
irharaz, ki ye ni^maten Allatala ne ham ko ata ki hain, us k& 
shukr kahan tak karen ! is waste main ne rayat ke h&l par 
shafqat o mihrbani karke, apne upar taklif rawa rakhi, un men 
se kisi ko na bheja. 

Jiswaqt Y^sub apne kalam se farigh hua, Badshah ne kahi, 
Afrin ! sad afrfn ! tu nihayat fasi^i o baiigh hai ! Sach hai, ki tere 
siwa ye ni^maten Allatala ne kisi Taiwan ko nahin bakhshin. 
Bad us ke puchha, Teri rayat aur sipah kahan hai ? Us ne kaha, 
file, pahar, darakht par, jahag subhita pate rahte hain, aur 
baze admiyon ke mulk men jakar, un ke gharon men sakunat 
ikhtiyar karte hain. Badshah ne puchha, Un ke hath se kyug- 
kar salamat rahte haig ? Kaha, Beshtar un se chhipkar apne tain 
bachate hain, magar kabhi jo we qabu pate hain taklif dete 
hain, balki aksar chhatton ko torkar bachchog ko mit dilte 
hain, aur shahd nikalkar apas men kha lete hain. Badshah ne 
puchha, Phir, tum us zulm par un ke kyugkar sabr karte ho ? 
Us ne kaha. Ham yih zulm sab apne upar gawara karte haig, 
aur kabhi $jiz hokar un ke mulk se nikal jate haig ; uswaqt we 
sulah ke waste, bahut bile pesh karte haig ; tara(i tara|^ ki 


Bwi^bity ^yur, o ^hushbu, wa^haiiah bhejte hain ; tabal but ^af 
bajite haid ; gharai, ki anw^ o aqsam ke tu^fe ta)^&if dekar ham 
ko xi|i karte hain. Hamire mizaj men shar o fasad nahig hai, 
hm bhi un se sula^ kar lete hain, unke yahan phir chale i%e 
baig ; tis par bhi ham se razi nahin hain, baghair dalil o l^jjat 
ke d^wa karte hain, ki Ham malik, ye ghulam haiff. 

Nawin Fasl. 

^ • 

9* The Men questioned^ their repliesy and the objections of 

the Animals to them^ 

Baddah ne nihayat ^hush hokar us ki (% rif ki, aur insanon 
ki jama^t ki taraf mutawajjhih hokar farmayd, ki Is ne jo kaha 
sab 8un&, turn ne ? ah tumhare nazdik koi jawab baqi hai ? Un 
men se ek shakhs Irabi ne kaha, ki Ham meo bahat si fazilaten 
aur nek ^ha^laten hain, jin se d%wa hamara gabit hota hid. 
Badsh&h ne kaha unhen bayan karo. 

Us ne kaha, ki Zindagi hamar^ bahut ^ish se gufarti hai, 
anw^ o aqs&m ki ni^maten, khane pine ki, ham ko muyassar h^n, 
j^aiwanon ko we na^ar bhi nahin ati^. M ewon ka maghz aur guda 
hamare khane men ata hai, post aur gathli ye khate hain ; us ke 
siwa tara^ tarah ke khane shermal, baqirkhani, gaodidah, ^gaoza- 
ban, kalichah, matanjau, zerbariyan, muzafar, shirbaranj, kabab, 
qurma, burani, fimi, dudh, dahi, ghi, qism qismki mithai, halwa 
sohan, jalebi, laddu, pere, barfi, amriti, lauziyat waghairah, 
.khate hain. Tafrin (ab^ ke waste nach, rang, hansi, chuhal, 
qisse, kahani muyassar haio ; libas fakhirah aur ziwarat, 
(ara^ batara^ ke pahinte hain ; namad qahn, chandni, je^&m, 
aur bahut se farsh furosh bichhate haig ; ^aiwanon ko ye saman 
kahan muyassar hain ? Hameshah jangal ki ghas khate hain, 
aur rat din nang dharang ghulamon ke tara^i mihnat aur 
mushaqqat men rahte hain. Ye sab chiz^n dalil hain is par, ki 
Ham malik aur ye ghulam hain. 

Tairon ka wakil bazar dast^n s&mhne shakh i darakht par 
baitha tha, us ne Badshah se kaha, ki Yih admi jo apne anw^ o 
aqsam ke khane pine par ifti^har karta hai, yih nahin janta, ki 
l^aqiqat men in ke waste yih sab ranj o ^zab hai. Badshah ne 
kaha, Yih kyunkar hai ? use bayan kar. 


. Kaha, Iswastie kjl is aram ke liye, bahut mi^natea ftur raDJ 
utbate hain ; zamiii khodna, hal jotna, bail khaichniy pani 
bbarn&, anaj bona, katna, tolna, pisna, taniir mcQ 4g jalani, 
pakana ; gfaosht ke waste qasaiyon se jhagafni ; baniyon se 
Ipsab-kitab karna. Mai jsun^ karne ke liye mi(tnatea uthana, 
}lin o hunar sikhna, badan ko ranj den&, dur dur mulkon 
ko jani, do paisoo ke was|e amiron ke samhne h&th bandh- 
kar, kha^e bona. Ghataz, is jad o kad se mal o asbab jain% 
karte haiQ, b%d marne ke wuh ghairon ke hrs^e men ata 
hai; agar wajh ^alal se paida kiya hai, to us ka hisab o kitab 
hai, uahin to ^^ab o aqab ; aur ham is ranj p %zab se ma^fu} 
rahte haiQ, kyunki ghiza hamari faqat ghas pat hai. Jo chiz 
zamin se paida hoti hai, be mi^nat o mashaqqat us ko apne 
tasanruf men late hain ; anw^ o aqsam ke phal aur mewe, ki 
AUat&la ne apni qudrat se bamare waste paida kie hain, khate 
hain, aur hameshah us k4 shukr karte hain. Fikr o talash 
khane pine ki, hamare dil men kabhi nahin ati ; jahan jate 
haiu, fazal ilahi se, sab kuchh muyassar ho jata hai, aur ye 
hameshah qdt ki fikr meg ghaltan bechan rahte bail}. Aur 
tara^ tarah ke khane, jo ye khite haig, waisebi ranj o a^ab bhi 
uthate hain. Amraz muzmanah men mubtala rahte hain ; bu- 
kh&r o dard sir, haizah, sarsam, falij, laqwah, jauri, khansi, yirqan, 
tap i diq, phora, phunsi, khujii, dad, khanazir, pechish, ishal, 
atishak, sozak, filpa, nakwasa ; gharaz, aqsam ki bimariyan 
un ko ^riz hoti hain, — dawa daru ke liye (abibon ke yahau daupe 
phirte hain, tis par be|^ayai se kahte hain, ki Ham malik aur 
Taiwan hamare ghulam hain ! 

Insan ne jawab diya, Ei bimari ki khususiyat kuchh hamare 
waste nahin hai, l^aiwan bhi beshtar amraz men mubtala bote 

Us ne kaha, Haiwan jo bimar bote hain, sirf tumhari amezish 
aur ikhtilat se; kutte, billi, kabdtar, murgh waghairah l^iaiwanat, 
ki tumhare yahan giriftar hain, apne (aur par khane pine nahin 
pate hain, isi waste bimar ho jate hain ; aur jo haiwan ki jangal 
men mukhalla bittab^ phirte hain, bar ek marz se mahfua^ hain ; 
kyunki khane pine ke waqt un ke muqarrar hain, kami beshi 
us men nahin ati; aur ye l^aiwanatjo tumhare yahan. giriftar 


bain, apne taur par auqat basar nabin karne pate ; kbana bewaqt 
kb&te^ y& mare bhukh ke andaz se ziy&dab kba jate bain, badan 
ki riy&zat nabin karte, isi sabab kabhi kabbi bimar ho jate bain. 
Tumhdre larkon ke bimar bone ka bbi, yihi sabab bai, ki ^imi- 
lab ^uraten, aur daiyan birs se ghair munasib khane, jin par tain 
apna fakbar karte ho, kba jite bain, isi se akhlat ghah'zah paida 
bote baim dudh bigar jata bai ; us ke asar se larke bad surat 
paida bote, aur bamesbah amraz men mubtala rahte bain ; 
inhen marzon ke b^i§ marg i mufajat, aur shiddat i niza, aur 
gham o gbusse men giriftar rahte bain. Gharaz, ki turn apne 
%mal ki shamat se in azabon men giriftar ho, aur ham in se 
malifdz bain, kh&ne ke aqsam men tumhare yahin shahd 
nafistar aur bihtar hai, jis ko khate aur dawa men istiamal 
karte bo, so wuh makkhiyon ka luab hai, tumhari sanat se 
nahin. Phir, kis chiz ka fakbar karte ho ! baqi phal aur dane. 
Un ke khane men ham turn sharik bain, aur qadim se hamare 
tumhare jad o aba sharik bote chale ie bain. Jin dinon turn- 
bare jadd i ala, hazrat Adam o Hawi, b&gh i bihisht men rahte 
the, aur be mihnat o mashaqqat wahdn ke mewe khfite, kisi tarah 
ki fikr o mihnat na thi, hamare jad o abd bhi wahan us naz o 
ri^mat men un ke sharik the. Jab tumhare buzurgwar apne 
dusbnian ke bahk&ne se Khuda ki nasij^at bhul gae, aur ek 
dane ke wagte birs ki, wahan se nikale gae, firishton ne niche 
lakar, aisi jagab ^i\ diya jahan phal patte bhi na the, mewon 
ka to kya dakhal ? Ek muddat talak is gham men roya kie, 
akhir ko taubah kabul bui. Khuda ne gunah m^f kiya, ek fi- 
risbte ko bheja, us ne yah&n akar zamin khodna, bona, pisna, 
pakdns, Hbas banana sikhlaya. Gharaz, rat din us mihnat o 
mashaqqat men giriftar rahte the. Jab ki aulad bahut paida 
bui, aur liar ek jagah jangal o abadi men rahne iage, phir to 
zamin ke rahne walon par bidat shurd ki ; ghar un ke chhin 
liye, kitno ko pakarkar qaid kar liya ; bahutere bhag gae, un ke 
qaid o giriftar karne ke waste anwa o aqsam ke phande aur 
j&l bana banakar darpai hue. Akhir ko, naubat yahan tak 
pahunchi, ki ab tum kha^e ho fakbar omurtabah apna bayan karte 
ho ; munazare aur mujadale ke waste mustaid ho, Aur yih jo 
tum kahte ho, ki ham khushi ki majlis karte bain, nach, rang 


men mashghdl rahte hain, ^ish o ishrat men auq&t basar karte 
bain, libas fakhirah, aur zewar anw% o aqsam ke pabinte bain, 
aur un ke siwi aur bahutsi chizen jo ham ko muyassar nabin bain. 
Saeb bai, lekin un men se bar ek cbiz ke iwaz tum ko 9|ab o 
%qab bbi bota bai, ki jis se bam mabfuz bain ! Kyunki tum sbadi 
ki majlis ke iwaz matam khane men baithte bo ; kbusbi ke 
badle gbam utbate bo. Rag, rang, aur bansi ke badle, rote 
aur ranj kbeijcbte bo. Nafis makanon ki jagab, tarik qabr 
men sote bo. Zewar ke iwaj gale men t&uq, batbon men batb- 
kari, paon meij zanjir pabinte bo. .T^rif ke badle bajo meo 
giriftar bote bo. Gbaraz, bar ek kbusbi ke iwaz gbam bhi 
utbate bo, aur bam in musibatoij se ma^ifuz bain ; kyunki, ye 
mi^naten aur ranj ^bulamon, bad bakhton ke waste cbahe. Aur 
bam ko tumbare sbabron aur makanon ke badle, yih maidan 
wasia muyassar bai, zamin se asman tak, jaban ji cli4hta bai 
urte bain ; bara bara sabzab darya kc kinare be taklif cbarte cbugte 
bain ; be mibnat o masbaqqat rizq haUl khate, aur pani latif pite 
bain, koi man^ karne wala nabin ; rassi, dol, masbak, kuze ke 
mu^taj nabin ; ye sab cbizen tumbare waste cbibe, ki apne 
kandbon par uth&kar ja baja liye, pbirte, aur becbte bo ; 
bamesbab mi|^nat o musibat men giriftar rabte bo. Ye sab 
nisbaniyau gbulamon ki bain, yib kaban se gabit bota bai, ki 
tum m&lik aur bam gbulam bain ? 

Badsbab ne insanon ke wakil se pucbba, ki Ab tere nazdik 
koi jawab aur baqi bai ? Usne kaba, Ham men kbubiyan aur 
buzurgiyan babut bain, ki bamare dawa par dalalat karte bain. 
Badsbab ne kaba, Unben bayan kar. 

In men se ek sbakbg Jbrani ne kaba, ki Allal^la ne bam ko 
anw$ o aqsam ki buzurgiyaij bakbsbin, din o nabuwat, aur 
kaUm i munazzil, ye sab ni^maten ata kin. Halal o ^aram, aur 
nek o bad se agab karke, wagte dukhul jannat ke, bam ko khis 
kiyi. Gbusal, t^barat, namaz, rozab, sadqab, zakwat, masjidon 
men namaz ada karna, minbaron par kbutbab parbna, aur babut 
ibadaten bam ko talim kin. Ye sab buzurgiyan is par dalalat 
kart^ bain, ki Ham mdlik bain aur ye gbulam. 

Tairon ke wakil ne kaba, Agar taammul o fikr karo, to malum 
ho, ki ye cbizen tumbare waste ranj o ^zab bain. Badsbab ne 
kaba, Yib ranj kis iaxahy bai P 


Us ne kaha, Te sab ibadateQ All&t$]a ne is waste muqarrar ki 

hain, ki gunah un ke ^fd ho jiwen, aur gumrah na bone pairen. 

Agar ye qawaid i sbarai par ^mal na karen, Khuda ke nazdik 

ru siyih howen ; isi khauf se ibidat men roashghul rahte bain ; 

aur bam gunabon se pdk bmo ; bam ko kuchb i^tiyaj ibadat 

ki nahin jis se ye apn4 fakhar karte bain. Aur AUat^la ne 

paigbarobaron ko un logon ke waste bbeja bai, jo ki kafir o 

musbrik, aur gunabgdr bain us ki ibadat nabin karte. Rat din 

fisq o fujur men masbghul rahte ba^n, aur bam is shirk o masi 

^ bari bain, Khuda ko wabid o lasbarik jante bain, aur uski 

ibadat meQ masriif rahte baio. Aur ambiyi o rasul migl tabib o 

najjdmi ke bain. Tabibon se wuhi log ihtiyaj rakhte b^n, 

jo ki mariz o %lil bote bain. Aur najjiimiyon se manias o 

bad t&H il^ij^ karte bain. Aur gbusal o tabarat tumbsire wiste is 

liye farz bu& bai, ki bamesbab n&pak rahte bo, rat din zina aur 

igblam men auqat basar karte bo, aur beshtar gandab badan 

bote bo, is waste tum ko ta^iarat ka hukm bai ; aur bam in chiEon 

se kinarab karte bain ; tamam sal men ek b&r qurbat karte bain, 

so bhi shabut o la^Ezat ke waste nabin, sirf baq4 i nasal ke liye 

is amar ke murtikab bote bain. Namaz o rozah is waste farz 

bai, ki us ke sabab tumhare gunah afu ho jawen ; bam gun&b 

karte nahin, ham par kyun farz bowe. Sadqah zakwat is liye 

wajib bai, ki tum babut mal ^alal o ^aram se jama kar rakhte 

bo, ahli huqdq ko nahin dete ; agar gharib o miskin par kharch 

karo, to kaheko zakwat farz bowe P Aur bam apne abnae jins 

par shafqat o mibrbani karte bain ; bukhal se kabhi kuchb 

jama nahin karte. Aur yih jo kahte ho, ki Allatala ne hamare 

waste halal o ^aram, aur (luddd qisas ki ayaten ndzal ki bain, 

so yih tumhard talim ke waste bai ; kyunki qalb tumhare tarik 

bote bain, jihalat o n^ddni se faide aur nuqsin ko nahig 

samajhte ho, isi waste muallim aur ustad ke mu(it4j rahte bo ; 

aur bam ko, bila wastab paigbambaron ke, bar ek chiz se AUat^li 

khabar karta bai. 

Tairon ka wakil jis ghari yih kab chuka, Badsbab neinsfinon ki 
taraf dekhkar kah&, Ab aur jo kuchb tum ko kahna b&qi ho 
bayan karo. 

Insanon ki jama^t se Iraqi ne jawab diya, ki Abbi bahat 
fazilaten aur buzurgiyan ham men bdqi hain, jin se §abit bota 


hai ki ham mdlik, aur (taiwin ham&re ghulam hain. Chunanchih 
Eeb o araisli ke waste anw^ o aqsam ke libas, doshalah, kimkh&b, 
}iarir, deba, samdr, mashriji, gulbadan, malmal, ma(imudi, sa^an, 
atlas, jamdani, doriya, charkhanah, tara^i tarali ke farsh, qalm, 
namad, jajam, chandnf, us ke siwa aur bahut ni^maten ham ko 
muyassar hain : is se m^lum hota hai, ki Ham malik aur ye ghulam 
hain; kyunki (laiwanon ko yih sam4n kah4n muyassar hai? 
Uryan, mahaz jangal men ghulamon ki tara^, pa^e phirte hain* 
Yih sab Khuda ki bakhshishen aur niamaten bamare milkiyat 
par dalil hain ; ham ko laiq hai, ki un par ^ukumat ^hawindanah 
karen ; jis tara^chahen un ko rakheg, yih sab haro&re ghulam hain. 

Badshah ne haiwanon se kahd, Ab, tum is k& kya jawab dete 
ho ? Darindon ke wakil Ealelah ne us &dm] se kaha, Ki tum us 
Jiibas fakhirah aur mulaim par, jo itna fakhar karte ho, yih 
kaho, ki ye tarah (ara^ ke libas agle zamane men kahan the ? magar 
^aiwanon se zulm o bidat karke chhin liye. 

Admi ne kaha, Yih bat tu kis waqt ki kahta hai ? 

Kalelah ne kaha, Tumhare yahan sab libason men n&rak o 
mulaim, deba o ^arir, aur abresham hota hai, so wuh kire ke 
lu4b se hlii. Aur kapra adam ki aulad men nahin hai, balk! 
Ij^ashr^t ul arz ki qism se hai, ki apni panah ke wd8t.e darakhtOQ 
par lu^b se tanta hai, ki j^re garmi ki ufat se ma^ifiiz rahe ; 
tum ne bajaur aur zulm us se chhin liya, isi waste A116 ne tum 
ko 18 ^fab men giriftar kiya hai, ki use lekar mi(inat se tanta 
binte ho, phir darzi se sil&te, aur dhobi se dhuUte ho. Gharaz, 
aise aise ranj o mil^nat uthite ho, ki is ko i|^tiy&t se rakhte, aur 
bechte ho, ki hameshah isi fikr men pechan rahte ho ; 
isi t^a|^ aur libas, ki beshtar l^aiw&Qat ki khal bal se binte haii). 
Khusus libas fakhirah tumhare akgar l^aiwan ki pasham bote 
hain, zulm o t^ddi se un se chhinkar apni taraf nisbat karte ho ; 
is par itna fakhar karna beja hai. Agar ham is se fakhar karen 
to zeb deta hai, kyunki Allat&la ne hamare badan par paida 
kiya hai, ki ham apne satar o libas karen ; us ne shafqat o 
mihrb&ni se yih libas ham ko ata kiya hai, ki sardi garmi se 
ma^(uz rahen ; jiswaqt ham paida bote hain, usi waqt se Allat^la 
hamare badan par yih libas bhi paida karta hai ; us ki mihrbani 
«e, bemil^nat o mashaqqat, yih sab ham ko muyassar hai, aur 


turn hamesbah dam i marg tak, isi fikr men mubtali rahte bo; 
tumbare jidd i ili ne Khuda ki na farm&ni ki thi, usike badle turn 
ko yili as^ab bot& hai. 

Badsbah ne Kalelah se kaha, ki Adam ki ibtidae khilqat ka 
abwal ham se bay an kar. 

Us ne kah& jis waqt Allat%la ne Adam o Hawa ko paida kiyi, 
gbij& aur poshish, migl ^aiwanat ke, un ke waste muhaiya ki ; 
cbunanchib purab ki taraf, Yaqut ke pabar par, kbat istiwa ke 
niche, yedonon rahte the ; jis waqt un ko paida kiya sirf nange the, 
sir ke balon se tamam badan un ka chhipa rahta, aur unbin balon 
ke sabab sardi garmi se roaf^fuz rahte the; us bagh men chalte 
phirte, aur tamdm darakhton ke mewe khate the, kisi nau ki mihnat 
o mashaqqat na uthate, jis tara^ ab ye log is men giriftar hain. 
Hukm ilahi yih tha, ki Tamam darakht ke mewe khawen, magar 
is diEirakht ke nazdik na jawen. Shaitan ke bahkane se Khuda 
ki nasi(iat bhula di ; usi waqt sab martabah jata raha, sir ke bal 
gir gae, nange ho gae, firishton ne, bamaujab l^ukm ilahi ke, 
wah&n se nikal bahir kar diya. 

Jis waqt darindon ke wakil ne yih ahwdl bayan kiya, admi ne 
kaba, Ai darindo, tum ko lazim o munasib nahin hai, ki hamare 
s&mhne guftagu karo ; bihtar yih hai, ki chupke ho raho. 
Kalelah ne kaha, Is ka kya sabab? Eahd, Is waste, ki ^aiwanon 
men tum se ziyadah sharir o badzat koi nahin hai ; aur kisi 
Taiwan mei} tumhari si qasawat i qalbi nahin ; aur murdar-khine 
men bhi itna haris koi nahin hai, ^aiwanon ke zarar ke siwa tum 
men koi faidah nahin, h^mesbah un ke qatl o gharat men rahte. 
ho. Us ne kaha, Yih kyu^kar hai, use bayan kar ? Kaha, 
' Is w&ste, ki jitne darind hain, haiwdnat ko shikar karke khajate 
bain, ustalihwan tofte aur lahu pite hain, hargiz un ke ^al par 
ra^m nahio karte. 

Darindon ke wakil ne kaha, ki Ham jo yih harkat l^aiwanon se 
karte hain, faqat tumhari talim se : o illd ham us se kuchh waqif 
bhi na the, is waste ki qabl adam ke, darind kisi Taiwan ko shikar 
na karte the. Jo haiwan ki jangal bay&bdn men marjata tha, us ka 
gosht khate ; zindah Taiwan ko taklif na dete. Ghiaraz, jab talak 
idhar udhar se gira para gosht pate kisi jandar ko na chhe|rte, magar 
waqt i^tiyaj o iztir&r ke majbiir the. Jab ki tum paida hue, aur 


l)akri, bher, gae, bail, unt/gadhe pakarkar qaid karne lage, kisi 
Jiaiwan kojangal men baqi na rakhd, phir ghost unk^ jangal meij 
kalian se milta ? Lachar hokar zindah (laiwan ko shik&r karne 
lage, aur ham are waste yih halal hai, jis (arah tum ko iztirar ki 
halat men murdar khana raw& hai. Aur yih, jo tum kahte ho, 
ki DarindoQ ke dilon men qasawat aur bera^mi hai, ham kisi 
haiwan ko apna shaki nahin pate, jaisa kuchh tum se shikoh 
karte hain. Aur yih, jo kahte ho, ki Darind ^aiwanon ka pef 
chak karke lahu pite aur gosht khate hain, tum bhi yihi karte bo. 
Chhuriyon se katna, jabl^ karke, khal khainchna, pet chik karke 
ustakhwan to^na, bhunkar kh^na, ye harkaten tum se waqvL men 
ati hain ; ham aisa nahin karte hain. Agar ghaur o taammul 
karo, to m^lum ho ki darindon ka zulm tumhare barabar nahin 
hai, aur tum apas men apne bhai bandon se yih ^arkat karte 
ho, ki darind us se waqif bhi nahin hain, Aur yih, jo kahte 
ho, ki Tum se kisi ko nafa nahin pahunchta hai ! so yih zfihir 
hai, ki ham^ri khal bal se tum sab ko nafa pahunchta hai ; aur 
Jitne shikari janwar tumhare yahao giriftar hain, shirkar karke 
turn ko khilate hain : magar yih kaho, ki tum se (laiwanat ko 
kya faidah pahunchta hai.^ Nuqsan zahir hai, ki ]^aiwdnon ko 
zab^ karke, un ke gosht ko khate ho. Aur ham se tum ko itni 
bukhal hai, ki apne murdon ko bhi matti meg gar dete ho, ki 
ham khane na pawen ; ham ko na tumhare zindon se faidah 
'hota hai, na murdon se. Aur yih, jo kahte ho, ki Darind ^aiwanoQ 
ko qatal o gharat karte hain, so yih tum ko dekhkar darindon 
ne ikhtiyar kiya hai ; ki Habil Qabil ke waqt se, is waqt talak 
dekhte chale ate hain, ki tum hameshah Jang o jadal men 
mashghul rahte ho ; chunanchih Rustara, Isfandiyar, Jamshed, 
Zuj^^iak, Faredon, Afrasiyab, Maniichar, Dara, Iskandar wa- 
gl^airah hameshah qital o jidal men rahe, aur isi men khap gae. 
Ab bhi, fitnah o fasad men tum mashghul ho, tis par be(iayai 
se fakhar karte ho, aur darindoo ko badnam karte ho. Makar 
o bahtan se chahte ho, ki apni malikiyat sabit karo : jis tarah tum 
hameshah jang o jadal men rahte ho, darindoQ ko bhi kabhi 
dekha ki apas men ek dusre ko ranj dewe ; — agar darindon ke 
ahwal ko khub taammul aur fikr se daryaft karo, to malum ho, 
ki ye tum se kahin bihtar hain. 



InsanoQ ke wakil ne kaha, Is par koi dalfl bhi hai- Us ne 
kah&, Jo tumhari qaum men zahid o ^bid bote bain, tumbare 
mulk se nikalkar pahar jangal men, jahan darindon ke makaa 
bain, jate bain, aur unben se rat, din, garm suhbat rakbte bain, 
darind un ko nahin cbherte. Pas, agar darind turn se bibtar 
na bote tumbare sabid o abid kabeko un ke pas jate? kyunki 
f41i^ aur parbezg&r sbariron ke pas nabin jate, balki un se dik 
bbagbte bain, yihi dalil b'ai, ki darind turn se bibtar bain. 
Aur dusri dalil yib bai, ki tumbare jEalim Badsbabon ko, agar 
kisi ddmi ki salal^ o zabud men sbak waqi bota bai, us ko jangal 
men nikal dete bain ; agar darind us ko nabiu cbherte, is se we 
m$lum karte bain, ki yib sbakbs salib aur mutaqqi bai ; kyunki, 
bar ek jins apni bamjins ko pabchan leti bai, isi waste darind salili 
jankar, un se t^truz nabin karte. Sacb bai, Wall ra wall mai sba- 
nasad. H an, darindon men sbarir aur badzat bbi bote bain, so 
yib kaban nabin, bar jins men nek bad bote bain; magar jo 
darind, ki sharir bain, we bbi nekon aur sali^on ko nabin 
ebberte; par badjat admiyon ko kba jate bain. 

Jis gbari darindon ka wakil is kalam se farigb bu&, jinnon ke 
gurob se ek ^akim ne kaba, Yib sacb kabta bai, jo nek log bain, 
we badon se bbagkar nekon se ulfat karte bain, agarcbib gbair 
jins bowen ; aur jo bad bain, we bbi nekon se bbagte, aur badoQ 
se jakar milte bain. Agar ins&n sbarir o badzat na bote, to abid 
o zdbid un ke kabeko jangal pabif men jakar rabte, aur darin« 
don se, b&wajud gbair jinsiyat ke, ma|^abbat paida karte P kyunkj, 
inke unke kuebb mun&sibat fabiri nabin bai, magar nek khaslat 
meii albattab sbarik bain. Tam&m jinnon ki jamaat ne kaba, Yib 
sacb kabt& bai, is men kucbb sbak o sbubbab nabin. Insanon ne 
bar taraf se jo yib l^nt^n suni, nibayat sbarmindab bokar, sab ne 
apnd sir jbuka liya. 

Daswi'n Fasl 

10. — Conclusion of the Controversy, 

Jis gbari we is kalam se farigb bue, jin ke ek ^akim ne kaba, 

Ai insanoo aur ^aiwanon ke guroh, ka§rat i ^balaiq ki m^rifatse 

turn gbifil bo, we log jo ru^ani aur nurani bain, ki jism se kucbh 

^laqau nabi{} rakte, unko nabin jante bo ; aur we arwa^ mujar* 


radah, a^r nafds basitah hain, ki (abq&t aflak par rahte hain. 
Bite unm^n se, ki guroh malaikah hain, we kurah i aflak par 
mutaaiyin hain ; aur b^ze, ki kurah i zamahrir ki was^t men rahte 
bain, we jinuat aur guroh shayatin haig. Fas, agar turn ub 
i^halaiq ki kasrat ko daryaft karo, to m^luin ho, ki insan aur 
^aiw&n un ke muq&bale men kuchh wajiid nahin rakhte ; is waste 
ki kurah i zamahrir ki was^t darya aur khushki se dah chand hai, 
aur kurah i falk ki was^t bhi, kurah i zamahrir se das hisge ziyadah 
hai. Isi tarah kurah falk i qamar sab kuron se das hisge ziyadah 
hai ; gharaz, bar ek kurah fauqani ko, kurah ta^tani se, yihi nisbat 
hai, aur ye sab kure khalaiq rdf^ani se bhare hain ; ek balisht 
bhar jagah baqi nahin hai, ye arwa^ mujarradah waha^ rahte 
halQ. Fas, Ai insano, agar tum un ki ka§rat dekho, to malum 
karo, ki tumhara guroh unke age kuchh martabah nahin rakhta, 
aur tumhari kagrat o jamaiyat is par nahin dalalat karti, ki tum 
malik ho, aur sab tumhare ghulam ; kyunki, sab bande Alia ke, 
aur us ki fauj o rayat hain ; b^zon kei b^zon ke waste musakh- 
jkhar aur tabi kiya hai. Gharaz, jis t^^&^ us ne chaha, apni 
^ikmati bali^hah se un men a^kam intijsam ke jari kie ; bar jbial 
men us ka ]^amd o shukr hai. 

Hakim jinni jis waqt is kalam se farigh hua, Badshah ne 
insanon se ka^a, Jis chiz par tum apna fakhar karte ho, us ka 
jawab ^aiwanon ne diya, ab aur jo kuchh kahna baqi ho, use 
bay an karo. Khatib i hijazi ne kaha. Ham men aur bhi fazilatei) 
hain, jin se yih sabit hota hai, ki Ham malik aur Taiwan ghulam 
hain. Badshah ne kaha, unheij bayan karo^ 

Us ne kaha, AUat^la ne ham se bahut ni^maton ka w^dah kiya 
hai : qabar se nikalna ; tamam rue zamin par muntashar bona ; 
^isab qiyamat ; pul sarat par chalna ; bihisht men dakhil bona ; 
fardaus, jannat annaim, jannat khuld, jannat ^dan, jannat mawa, 
dar-us salam, dar-ul qarar, dar-ul maqam, dar-ul mattaqin ; da« 
rakht tuba, chashmah i salsabil, nahren sharab aur dudh, shahd 
aur p4ni se bhare howen ; makanat buland ; hdron ki mulaqat ; 
Khudi ka qurb : in ke siwa aur bahut si ni^mateij AUat^Ia ne 
hamare waste muqatrar ki hain, |;kaiwanon ko ye chizen kahag 
muyassar hain ? Yihi dalil hai, ki Ham malik aur Taiwan 
hamare ghulam hain. In ni^raaton aur faziiaton ke siwa, aur 
bhi buzurgiyoQ ham men haig, jin ko ham ne mazkur nahin kiya. 


Tairou ke wakil hazar dastan ne kaha, Jis (arah turn se Allat&l& 
ne w^de nek kie hain, isi tarah tumhare azab ke waste wade bad 
bhi kie hain. Chunanchih azab i qabar, sawal i munkar o nakic, 
dahshat i roz qiyamat, shiddat (lisab, dozakh men dakhil bona ; 
^|4b i jahannam, jahim, saqar, lazza, s^ir, ]^atniah haweh, pairab- 
an i qitran pabinna ; zard ab pin&, zaqum ke darak^t khana, maiik 
i dozakb ke qarib rabn& ; sbaitanon ke hamsae ^zab men giriftar 
honi ; ye sab tumhare w&ste hain, in ke siwa aur bhi bahut se 
aj4b o aq&b hain. Aur ham un se bare hain, jaisa ham se w^dah 
gawab ka nahin kiy&, waisahi w^id ^ih ka bhi nahin kiyi. 
Khuda ke t^km se ham razi o shakir hain ; kisi f^l o ^arkat 
se ham ko na faidah hai, aur na nuqsan : pas, ham tum dah'l 
men barabar hain, tum ko fauqiyat ham par nahin. Hijazi ne 
kaha, Ham tum kyunkar barabar hain, kyunki ham bar hal men 
hameshah baqi rahenge ; agar Khuda ki ita^t ham ne ki hai, to 
ambya aur auliya ke sath rahenge aur un logon se suhbat rakbeij* 
ge. Jo ki said, ^akim, fazil, abdal, autad, zahid, 4bid, sali^. arif 
hain ; aur mushibahat un logon ko maUikih muqarrabtn se hai, 
ki neki karne men sabqat karte hain, laqa irabbani ke mushtaq 
hain, aur apne jan o mal se usi ki taraf mutawajjih hain, aur 
usi par tawakkul karte hain, usi se saw^l karte aur ummed 
rakhte hain, aur us ke khauf se darte hain ; aur agar ham guna- 
gar hain, ki uski itaat nahin k%rte, to ambiya ki sbafa^t se 
hamari makhla^i ho jawegi. Khasusan, nabi barhaq, rasul beshak 
ki shafaft se sab gunah hamare afu ho jawenge. B^d us ke 
ham hameshah jannat men rahenge, aur firishte ham se yih 
kahenge, Salam tum par, khush ho, tum, aur jannat men 
dakhil ho, hameshah us men raho. Aur tum, jitne guroh 
^aiwanon ke ho, sab in niamaton se ma|^rum hokar dunya ki 
mufaraqat ke bad bilkul fana ho jaoge, nam o nishan bhi 
tumhara na rahega. 

Is bat ke suntehi sab l^aiwanat ke wakilon ne, aur jannat ke 
^akimoij ne kaha, Ab tum ne bat (laq ki kahi, aur dalil mazbut 
bayan ki, fakhar-karnewale aisi chizoo se fakbar karte hain: 
lekin ab yih bayan karb, ki we log jin ke ye ausaf o ma^amid 
hain, akhlaq o khubiyan, aur nekiyan unki kis (aur par hain ? 
agar jante ho, to mufassal bayan karo. Sab insanon ne ek saat 
mutafakkar hokar sukiit ki. Kisi se bayan na ho saka. 



fi%d ek dam ke, ek fazil i zaki ne kaha, Ai Badshah &dil, jab 
ki huzdr meo insanon ke d^we ka sidaq zdhir hua, aur yih bhi 
m^ldm hua,ki in men ek jama^t aisi hai, ki we muqarrib ilahi hain, 
aur unke waate ausif i hamidah, safat i pasandidah, akhlaq malki- 
yah jamflah, siratin, ^cUah, qudsiyah, a^wal ^jibah gharibah hai> 
ki zaban unke bayan se qasir hu ; ^1 unki kanuhi sifat men &jiz 
hai, tamam wa^z aur khatib, hameshah, muddat ali^mar un ke 
wasf ke bayan men pairawi karte bain ; par qarir waqi un ki 
kanuhi m^rif ko nahiij pahunchte. Ab Badshah ^dil, un gharib 
insanon ke ^aq men, ki ^aiw&nat jin ke ghulam haig, kyi'^ukm 
karta hai ? 

Badshah ne farmaya, ki Sab (taiwan&t ins&non ke tih\ aur zer 
^ukm rahen, aur un ki farm&nbardari se taj&waz na kareg. 
Haiwanon ne bhi qabul kiya, aur razi hokar sab ne b^afiz aman 
Wuhan se murajat ki. 

tama'n shud. 

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