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4j*W»^J J^/" 















Wm. H. ALLEN & Co. 





J. & H. COX, BROTHERS (late COX & SONS). 


74 & 75, Great Queen Street, Lincoln'«-lnn Fields. 


TO I 1 fj. 

Sir HENRY WILLOCK, K.L.S., Chairman. ; ^ ^ J 
JAMES WEIR HOGG, Esq., M.P., Deputy Chairman. 







Major-Gen. Sir J. L. LUSHINGTON, G.C.B. 


















Jl^ottoutatiie ^^i^U%v^\^ OTompan^, 









London, V2th May, 1845. 


The conviction that great advantage is likely to accrue to 
Candidates for the Indian Service, from the acquisition of some 
elementary and grammatical acquaintance, with the most common and 
practicall}/ useful dialect of India, previous to their arrival in that 
country, is now become so prevalent, that argument seems hardly 
needed to extend or strengthen it. And, as in India a knowledge 
of the languages of that region, but especially of the Hindustani, 
is made indispensable to the attainment of staff, as well as of other 
extraordinary beneficial appointments, no opportunity — no time 
should be let slip or lost by those about to go thither, for commencing 
and continuing the study of that dialect. To facilitate this study, the 
author or compiler of the following sheets has before prepared and 
passed through the press, various editions of a Grammar, Dictionary, 
and two volumes of Selections, the utility of which is best proved by 
the uninterrupted public countenance shewn them ; and, for such 
learners as can obtain the assistance of a fit instructor, these helps might 
have sufficed. From the manner, however, in which some persons are 
obliged, without much previous notice and with little or no instruction 
in the language, to proceed to India, a compendious work, made as easy 
as possible, has been judged still requisite for individuals thus circum- 
stanced : and, though some little instruction from a qualified teacher 
is earnestly recommended where it can be obtained, to guide the reader 
in the pronunciation and other particulars, yet it is hoped this book 
may prove essentially useful to the assiduous student, whether aided 
by others or obliged to rely solely on his own application and dis- 



Chapter I. — Grammar ... 

Persian alphabet, with the diacritical 
marks and the composition of the 

Devanagari alphabet, with the com- 

Pronunciation of the Persian and Na- 
gari, with diacritical signs adopted in 
them as well as in the Roman 
Chapter II. — Nouns substantive 


Plural, how formed 

Cases, how formed 

Postpositions, how used 


Persian and Arabic words, how con- 


Adjectives, how inflected and used . . . 

Adjunct of Similitude, Lj 5a 

Chapter III. — Pronouns 

Chapter IV. — Verb 



Past Participle 



Present Participle 

Past Conjunctive Participle 

Past Tenses 

Present Tenses... 

Future Tenses .. . 


Transitive and Causal Verbs 

Compound Verbs 

Derivative Verbs 

Passive Verbs ... 

Auxiliary Verb, conjugation of 

Intransitive Verb, ^ jo.-^ Go . . . 

Transitive Verb, conjugation of, Active 
and Passive ... 
Chapter V. — Indeclinable words 

Postpositions, the most usual ... 


Conjunctions ... 


Chapter VI. — Numerals, Cardinals 

Ordinals and Aggregates 

Numerals, used distributively 


Chapter VII. — Derivatives 

Chapter VIII.— Syntax 


Vocabulary, English and Hindustani ... 88 

Nouns, Celestials, Infernals 88 

Fabulous beings. Some general terms 89 

The Elements 90 

Heavenly bodies, signs, appearances, &c. 90 

Things relating to Fire ... ... 93 

Things relating to Air 93 

Things relating to Water ... ... 94 

Things relating to the surface of the 

Earth 95 



Vocabulary (continued) — 

Minerals, Metals, &c 

Trees, Shrubs, Plants, and Herbs 
Esculent Roots and Vegetables 



Grains, Seeds 

Food in general for Animals ... 
Worms, Reptiles, Insects, Spiders 
Fishes ... 


Beasts ... 

Man ... .; 

Human beings in relationship 
The Body and what relates to it 
Hurts and Diseases of the Body 
Persons employed in curing Diseases 

Medical Means 

The Mind and its Attributes ... 


Morals, — moral and immoral Actions... 146 

Professions, Occupations 

People of Professions, Trades, &c. 

Meats and Drinks 

Spices, Condiments 

Apparel, Dress 


Household Furniture ... 

Country and Country Affairs 

Society and Government ... 

War, Military Affairs 

Naval Affairs 

Divisions of Time 

Other useful Nouns, alphabetically ar- 

Verbs of frequent use, alphabetically 

Adjectives, Adverbs, &c., of frequent 
use ... 




Short Sentences of common use... 


.. 400 I Dialogue 

... 42? 

Short Stories, in Persian and Nagari characters, with translation and grammatical analysis 46^ 


Hindustani Composition, or facilities for translating English into Hindustani 

... 51C 


Forms of Letters and Notes, with verbal 
translations ... 530 

Grammatical Terms, with examples of 
their application 537 

Military Words of Command, English and 
Hindustani, in Nagari and Roman 
characters 54t 

Corrections ... ... ... ... 565 







Alphabets J Orthographical Signs, and Pronunciation. 

The most common dialects of India, whether that of Hindustan 
proper, or that of the Dakhan, are often found written in the Persian 
or Arabic characters, especially by the Musalman population of the 
country ; by Hindus, however, the Devanagari (a word often con- 
tracted to Nagari), or characters allied to the Devanagari, are usually 
adopted : the alphabets and other orthographical signs, therefore, 
made use of in each of those two systems of writing claim the earliest 
attention of the learner; and, will in the first place be submitted to 
his notice. 

> e *• i • 

A Grammar of 

'Persian Alphahet.* 


Names in 

Persian and 



equivalents in 



Names in 

Persian and 



equivalents in 



s^\ alif 

a, a, i, u. 


tjU sad 



di be 



iiU zM 






^^ tp'e 



Ji te 



^^ zo'e 



J f^ 



4^ ain 

, a, ly Uy &c. 


^ fi"^ 



^ ghain 



^ Che 









cJU kaf 



^ m 



uJl^ kaf 



Jb dal 



^^ gaf 



JU %al 



/♦iJ lam 



^J ^^ 



^ mim 



^) ^^ 



^y nun 



^J 2^/<e 



jlj wa'o 

w, V, Uy Oy auy Scc. 


^^ sin 





^JJ^ shin 



^ ^^ 

y, ly Cy aiy &c. 

* The characters of this alphabet are to be read from right to left. 
+ Called hcLt hutti (^ias*-^ ^)by way of distinction from the other he* 
J Called ha^e hawwaz (j^Jb ^ U) or hd^emudawwara (^j*3^ lS ^)« 

the Hindustani Language. 3 

The Persian characters, as above described, are used when standing 
alone ; and, the letters jj J j J J \ neither admit of junction to a fol- 
lowing one, nor are liable to any material change from aripther letter 
being prefixed : the rest of the characters, however, become apparently 
abridged, retaining their essential portion only or assuming some varia- 
• tion of form, when used in composition j as in 

kk kl ka kz gh f f" zr shsh sr rs zr jd pch hh ha ah 

ym ye lihli ha II we mm nn hy yh nw mn ma Ik la gd 
tXxJ laiii j^M »_xc Lial? fja^2*a e:^,.^-^ Jc>-t> fr^^^ cJllXU ^-^f^ 
k^d fkt ghghgh *** ttt zzz shst djd jjj ttt hhb 

^^ ^ i^ ^ ^ JW ^ J^ 
yyy hhh hhh nnn mmm III khh kkk 

To represent some sounds peculiar to the Hindus, additional marks 
are commonly assumed with a few of the Persian letters, or certain 
combinations may be adopted ; as, 

e^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Jbj Jbb) Jti>^ ^ -p- -^ -^ •^ ^J J J cJL> 

phah nh mh gh kh rh dh dh chh jh th th ph hh r d t 

^.^ <-r-f* S^ S^^J c^J *-r^^ S-^* 
nhah mhah khah rhah dhah chhah thah 

In uttering cl? or J or J the point of the tongue is to be reverted 
to the palate ; and the aspiration intended in ^ hh^ &c. is to be ex- 
pressed at once with the preceding consonant. 

Of the letters above recited, the term ci^U <— i^ haj-f-i-iUat (infirm 
letter) is technically given to 1 or j or t^, as that of f^^-^^ *— i;^ ^«^- 
i-safilh (sound letter) is applied to each of the rest. 

The short vowels are three, namely ' (yj) zahar or {issxs)fat'ha, 
to which may correspond the Roman a ; ^ ( rJj) zlr or {j^) kasr, 

4 A Grammar of 

which may be represented by i ; and ' ((J^) pesh or (a^) xamm, by 
M ; so, in JJ &ac? ; JJ 5ic? ; Jo 5mc?.* 

The long vowels and the diphthongs are formed by the adjunction of 
the infirm letters (j^j to consonants uttered with the short vowels; 
yet, at the beginning of a word or syllable, each of these infirm letters 
may perform the office of a consonant; and, instead of writing 1 \ (two 
alifs) at the commencement of a word, one of those letters with the 
sign '^ (* Jk^) madda, is commonly adopted : so, 

JuSf Jur>- Ju5*- Ci:>y tl^^ Ll^jJ V ^->Jl 4-r^l ^-^^l ^, i^j C-JT 

jaid je^d jid haut hd'\t hut ha auh o^h uh yah wah ah 

^y. ^. L^. V. lt- ^j-' ^5^ l-» 

yai yeX yi ya sai sej 57 sd 

* These short vowels are but rarely marked by the natives in writing 
Hindustani; yet, for the guidance of European learners in pronunciation, 
they may with much convenience be frequently used ; the most common 
of them, however, faVha or zabar^ will be left generally unmarked in 
this work ; and, must then be understood after a consonant, which is not 
final, nor marked with either of the other short vowels, or with 

+ For the sound here intended there is no discriminating mark in the 
Arabic orthography, because it is unknown in that language : and the 
wai'd in such case termed waw-i mafhul (unknown wa'o) is left without 
any vowel accompanying the preceding consonant, which circumstance 
will sufficiently distinguish it from the wa'd when following a vowel and 
taking another sound. 

J The yU'i mafhul (unknown ye) is, for the like reason as the 
waw'imafhul^ left without any vowel accompanying the foregoing con- 

the Hindustani Language, 5 

Other orthographical signs are — 

(yUJb) hamza, which is always initial in a syllable and accompanied 
or moved by a short vowel either written or understood ; as, in 
L^\ {ab), fc^jjb (jiu'i), JoU (^d\id). 

'' or (z*^) jazm shews that the subscribed letter has no vowel to be 
sounded after it ; so, in m^\ {ism), Jxs (ji*i), t-^/>- {(^cirf), 

" (jjJcU) tashdidj which shews that the letter underneath is to be 
pronounced double ; as, in Ci^^Xi. {shiddai) : and the letter so 
marked must be distinctly twice sounded. 

"* ( J-tf^) wasl, which serves to join together two Arabic words, the latter 
having the article J 1 (aZ) prefixed, the vowel of which is dropped in 
pronunciation; as, in^il \j>-\ (dkhiru'l-amr) : and, the J (lam) 
of the article becomes converted in sound to the following letter, 
if this beci^<^fc>ijj (J^^^^iJo\s)0^}oTf^ which may 
then be marked with tashdld, and is to be uttered as double ; 
so, in (jJc^ \ ^\yi (awammu-n-nas). 

V ^ ^ (i^yj) tanwin, giving the nasal sound to the final vowel ; as, 

in (jOj^fv. {Miususun)y ^y^^:>- (Jdiumsinjy U?^*ur>- (khususan). 
Some few words, in which the use of these letters and signs will be 
farther exemplified. 

« •« 9 <* 9 '■ C 

siddha zhola khair jabbdr huda bojh bud aur ayat andar abad 

j^l5^ <il^ J^ ju/i^ tXcl^ jLc jLii y^ jwJ .^^ 

la-sdni lata Idl gumbaz kd gh az gh ubbdr aiyar turra zidd shubha 

--<-0 m f <. y ^S- w.-OXO O -^9 •m 9 

fi'l-faur alhamdulillah inda-l-hakJc maghrab muddat muzakkar 
hiba nujabd kaVa ta'us zu-l-fakdr kakJkatan fauran fi-l-halakat 

6 A Grammar of 

shu*d^ dhundhna dubna thandha thora shahanshah shuhab 

O M oO ~ «o c 

tam^hihf bismi-l-lahi-r-rahmani-r-rahlm 

Devanagari Alphabet.^ 

^ a, ^ a; T z, t ?; ^ z^, ^zi; "^ n, '^rl;\\ ^/n,|| 
W/n;|| ^ ^, ^ai; '^ o, ^ au. 
Gutturals, ^ ka, "^ kha, '^ ga, ^ gha, '^* nga.\\ 
Palatals, ^ cha, ^ chJia, ^ ja, ^ jha, ^ wy«-|| 

Cerebrals, '^ ta, "^ tha, ^ c?a,1[ '^ dha,^^ na. 

Dentals, ^ ta, ^ f^a, T day ^ dha, ^ na. 

Labials, ^ pa, ^ ^^a, ^ ha, ^ hha, ^ ma. 

Semivowels, ^ ya, ^ ra, ^ Za, ^ ija. 
Sibilants and Aspirate, ^ sa, ''^* ^ sAa,tt ^ 5a, ^ ha. 

* The jj (www) before aC--^ (&e) or L-^(pe) becomes m in pronunciation. 

+ When a \he) sensibly expressed is preceded by a vowel, it may be 
thus represented to distinguish it from the ha-e muMltaft (concealed he) 
as in <to ga, or from the aspirated compound as in ^ gha, 

X Frequently called Nagari alphabet, and read from left to right. 

II But very rarely, if ever, used in writing Hindustani. 

f ^ and ^ are often pronounced rather as ra and rha by reverting 
the tip of the tongue to the palate ; and, to mark this variation, a point 

may be subscribed, as ^ ray ^ rha. 

** ^ is a palatal sibilant ; and often adopted to represent the Arabic 

JL (shin). 

++ " is sometimes uttered as kha. 

the Hindustani Language, 7 

In addition to the above are the two characters, anuswara (*) and 
visarga (♦), the first of which placed over a letter imparts to the 
vowel a slight nasal sound, somewhat stronger however than the 
French n in bon ; and the latter placed after a letter denotes a soft 
aspiration (not perceptible, and but rarely used in Hindustani).* 

The forms of the vowels, as above described, are used when standing 
alone or when initial in a syllable : after consonants, however, there 
is no character for ^ (a), which is to be understood in case no other 
vowel be noted, or no consonant be added as a compound, or no 
mark called virama (rest) be appended, as in ^. Yet, in Hindus- 
tani, this unwritten vowel is not to be understood at the end of a 
word, where indeed no vowel, unless expressly marked, is to be 

After consonants, and as compounded with them, the rest of the 
vowels are represented by the following forms : — 

•5; ^ i; ^i; si^'; c^^u; ^ri; ^fi; ^Iri; ^ hi ; e; ai ; 

' o; ' au. 

And the composition of vowels and other marks with consonants 
may be exemplified in 

'^Rf ^rnri Tf^ t^ ^IP "^3^^ "^f^ ^Pff ^^ W^ 

aka aka iki iki uku uku fikri rikn Iriklri Irlklri 

j^ t^ ^9?!^ ^^ ^^ ^rar: ^* f^ 

tk^ aikai oko aukau akan akah kansah dis 

'^ Though in repeating the alphabet, it is usual to say 0, o, /, «, &c. 
Arc, kha, ga, gha^ &c. simply, as before noted, yet in naming the letters 
^^^ kdra (or kar) is added to the sound of each ; so ^^TT (akar) 
the letter ^, ^'^^K (kakar) the letter ^. 

8 A Grammar of 

If two or more consonants come together without the intervention 
of a vowel, they should coalesce and become one compound character. 
Such compounds are formed in various ways ; either by placing the 
body of the subsequent consonant under the first, as in ^ kw ; by 
arranging them in their usual order, omitting however the perpendicular 
line in all but the last, as ^*"*^ smy ; or, by varying somewhat the 
elementary characters and blending them together, as in ^ jn, ^ 
ksh, ^ ddh. With the semivowels ^ y, and ^ r, composition is 
of most frequent recurrence : the adjunction of the first to a pre- 
ceding consonant does not much, if at all, change its original shape ; 
as,in^ %, ^khy.^jy, ^ dy, "^ py,^ phj, "^ sy, ^ hy : 
but, the latter, when immediately following a consonant, usually takes 
the form ^ beneath, as when preceding a consonant it is denoted by the 
character placed above ; so, ^ A:r, ^ gr, ^ tr, ^ 5r, ^ sr, 
^ hr ; * rkf ^ rg, ^^ dharm. 

Other compounds, of most frequent use, are the following : — 

"^kk, ^kt, ^kn, ^/cm, 1» kl, '^ ghn,^ ghy,'^ chck,^ ckchh, 
"^ chchhr, '^ jj, ^ jm, '^ jny, '^jhjh, T tt, "^ nd, '^ tt^ 
^ tty, ^ tn, "^ try, ^ thth, W thn, If dg, ^ dd, ^ ddh, J. dn, 
^ ddhn, ^ ddhw, ^ dbh, ^ dm, W dr, ^ dw, ^ dhn, ^ dhm, 
^ dhw, ^ nn, ^ nny, ^ ntry, ^ ndy, ^ pt, '^ pn, ^ pp, ^ pi, 
'^pw, ^ps, 'Sptw, "^ bb, W bj, W bl, '^ bhy, ^ bhri, ^ mm, 
^ ml, ^ ru, ^ ru, ^ II, ^ wr, ^ wri, ^ sch, ^ schh, ^ sry, 
^ ??, ^ shk, "2^ sht, ^ shty, ? shtw, ^ shth, M sri, ^ 571, "^ hu, 
^ hu,, ^ hri, ^ hfi, ^ A w,^ hm, "WT hy^ ^ hi, ^ hw. 

To represent such Arabic or Persian letters as have no exact cor- 
respondents in the Nagari, the following characters, which approach 
most nearly in pronunciation, are commonly used in writing this lan- 
guage ; and, though not the practice of the people of India, points 

the Hindustani Language, 9 

may be adopted beneath the letters, in such cases, to shew the extra- 
ordinary use made of them : thus. 


for tij 





~ Z 








J (final) J^ {alif-i maksura), 


— 3 



5 for ^ {tanwiTi). 



^ — 





1 - 




^ for 


ay as in America. 



I' - 


or 1^ a, as a in all. 




or T 2, as i in fin. 




^' - 


or T i^ as ee in peer. 




or ^ M, as u in pull. 





or e^ w, as oo in cool. 





or e or e, as ai in pair. 



/ - 

or ai, as ei in height, 
or ' or 0, as o in bone, 
or ' au, as ou in our. 

C— > 


J — 


h, as the English b. 



e — 


hh, as in abhor. 





p, as the English p. 



<i — 


phy as ph in up-hill. 





ty as t in tube. 



e — 


thy as the last aspirated. 





ty as t in true. 




f — 


thy as the last aspirated. 

10 A Grammar of 





^ s, as s in sin. 





'^ jy asj in judge. 

^ jh, as the last aspirated. 



^ chf as ch in church. 

1^ chJiy* as the last aspirated 





'f ^, as h in horse. 





^ ]dif as the German ch. 





^ c?, as d in dew. 





V dh, as the last aspirated. 




^ ^, as d in dim. 



^ dh, as the last aspirated. 





^ z, as z in zeal. 





"5^ r, as r in rain. 





^ ri, as ri in river. 

^ rl, as the last prolonged. 




^ r, as r in rim nearly. 





^ rh, as the last aspirated. 





'^ 2r, as z in zeal. 





^ zh, as s in pleasure. 





^ 5, as s in sin. 




1[ 5^, as sh in shine. 





^ 5, as s in sin. 





^ s, as 2? in zeal. 





fT tt as t in tub. 


^ — If 2, as z in zeal. 

* The Nagari compound ^ Is occasionally represented by -^, and 
similarly pronounced. 























the Hindustani Language. 11 

c- for ^ ^* *j ^> ^s a, i, or u.* 

£. — 1 Mhy as the Northumberland r.+ 

3 — ^ /, as f in fin. 

3 — ^ /:, as k peculiarly uttered. J 

^ — ^ A:, as k in king. 

X — §?§ M; as the last aspirated. 

f — ^ g, as g in give. 

^ — "^ gh, as the last aspirated. 

1 — ^ Z, as the English 1. 

^ — 1{ m, 2LS the English m., 

j — • T TO, as n in tint, 

jj or J — ^ 71, as n in king, 

^j or j — ST w, as n, in singe. 

* With the Arabs, this letter is a guttural consonant of peculiar 
utterance, which is hardly attempted in Hindustani ; and the mere vowel 
used with it is noted, in the Nagari character, when it occurs at the 
beginning of a syllable : so, in that character, for c , 7 may be 
adopted ; for U, ^; for c, \; for ^c, \; for j^£, ^; for c , ^; 
foryi, ^; for ^, ^ ' . In the Roman characters, this letter c when 
initial in a syllable will be here represented by a small form of itself 
written over its subsequent vowel; and, when in the middle or at the 
end of a syllable, by the same mark placed after the vowel which pre- 
cedes ; so, Jifi akl^ J^J^*^ makul, 

+ Or, as the sound gha, gha, gha^ formed in gargling. 

I With the root of the tongue pressed back on the throat, so as to 
check the voice gently and to occasion a clinking intonation. 

§ The Nagari ^ may occasionally be sounded like this and represented 
by the same Persian or Roman letters. 


A Grammar of 





W n, as in none. 





Uj a slight nasal.* 





^ V, or w, as v in voice.f 





^ ^, as h in horse, how.J 




^ y, as y in yoke.§ 

* The Nagari sign may be used for any nasal not initial in a syllable. 

+ Pronounced as w when compounded with some other consonant. In 
the Arabic orthography, moreover, this letter, subsequent to fafha be- 
comes au ; to zamm, u ; and, when mafhul, it is sounded o, as before 
noted under the vowels. In some Persian words, j though written is 
scarcely, if at all, sounded ; as in li\^^ (jdmaJi) desire^ Lr)^ (ichusli) 
pleasant. When thus used it is technically termed <xlj4X*^ ^j {waw^i 
ma^dula) ; and may in the Nagari translation be either wholly omitted, 
or distinguished by a point underneath, as well as in the Roman, so 7 
W or V, In a few instances, too, of Arabic words, this letter may take 
the sound ofalif; so, SjJLa saldt. 

J When final, however, in Indian and Persian words, this letter is 
sometimes, but very slightly, if at all, sounded, and is then termed 
^^i::^-* ^ \jb (ha'e-mukhtafz) ; in which case, it may be denoted by I 
(^visarga) in the Nagari character, and omitted in the Roman. At the 
end of certain Arabic words, too, this letter may occur with two points 
marked above it, when it takes the sound of t, as it is often transmuted 
to CJ; 80, in Jc*.^^ lJi>- (idiulasatu-l-hina) , 

§ In the Arabic character, however, this letter when secondary in 
a syllable becomes, together with the preceding vowel, \^ fat ha^ ai ; 
if Arasr, 1 ; and, if it be mafhul, it is sounded e, as before instanced 
under the vowels. A final ^ moreover, preceded by faVha, in Arabic 
words, is sounded as alif; so J^lUj n^TWT (^ta'dla) : but, when followed 
by Jl (aO, as fat^ha only ; so, ^LJ 1 ic' (ala-s-sabdh). 

the Hindustani Language. 13 


Words may be divided into Nouns substantive or Adjective, Pro- 
nouns, Verbs comprising participles, Prepositions, Adverbs, Conjunc- 
tions, and Interjections. 

Nouns Substantive, 

1. Nouns substantive may be, in gender, masculine or feminine; in 
number, singular or plural ; and for case, are frequently liable to in- 
flection or change in the termination. 

2. The gender of nouns is sometimes to be determined from the 
nature of the beings to which words are applied ; as t>^ (mard) man, 
CL^j^ {aurat) woman : in numerous instances, however, the distinction 
is conventional, and to be learned by practice in the language only ; 
yet words terminating in a (a), \ (a),* ^ {an), are generally mascu- 
line, and those ending in ^j (i), ^^^ (m\ dJ {t), ^ (^sh), ^j (ti), 
will most commonly be found to be feminine. 

a. As marked exceptions to the foregoing rule, may be noticed 
^l» {jpani) water f ^ ighi) clarified butter, ^J {dahi) curdled 
milk, ^^ (ji) life, ^y< (motf) a pearl, which are perhaps the only 
masculines, unless by nature, terminating in ^^ (?) ; and, many words 
ending with C-> {t\ ^ {sh\ or ^ (») will occur in use as of the mas- 
cuhne gender.f 

* Most of the pure Sanskrit and Arabic nouns ending in 1 (a) are 
feminine, as well as some of the latter tongue terminating in a (a). 
Arabic verbal nouns of the form J-JWJ* (taf if) are said to be all feminine in 
the Dakhni of Madras; and, in Urdu or proper Hindustani, to exhibit but 
one exception, S.\jx3 (^ta^wlz) an amulet, which in this dialect is masculine. 


+ Some words are naturally of both genders; such as, ic^t^t \admz) 
and (^^U \manus) a human being, l<*^^ \asamt) a client ; whilst. 

14 A Grammar of 

3. To form feminine nouns from masculines, such of the latter 
description as end in 2f (a), \ (a), or b (ya), usually convert those 
finals to 4/^ (2) ; such as end in J\ (an), or ^^b (yan), to ^,^ (m) ; 
and such as end in ^^ ^ (?) to ^j (an or iti) : so ^J^i\l,^ (shahzadi) a 
princess f from if jlj^ (shahzada) a prince ; ^Jjy^ {g^^p) ^ mare, 
from \J^ (ghora) a horse ; ^j \y^ (para't), from l> J^ (par ay a) foreign ; 
^yU (satwln), from ^^Ufl-J (satwan) seventh; ^ji^^^ (dhohin) a 
washerwoman, from ,<jyi>'^ (dhobf) a washerman. 

a. Masculines, ending in other letters, may either assume certain of 
the above-mentioned feminine terminations, or take \ (a), jJ (w?), ^\ 
(dnf), ^^^ (yaw), or ^^J (ayan) ; so ^yb (harnf) a doe, from ^^^ 
(haran) a deer; ISoU (nayaka) the female of LL^/b (ndyak) a 
leader ; ^jyo (mornt) a peahen, from j^ (rwor) a peacock ; ^\/^ 
(mihtardni), from j:^ (mihtar) a sweeper ; ^^;>U:J (hanydyan), the 
wife of a Ijj (hanya) shopkeeper, 

4. To form the nominative plural, masculine nouns ending in ^ 
(a) or 1 (a) change the termination to ^ (e) ; as ^\j (piydle) cups, 
from i\\j (piydla) ; ^^5^ (bete) sons, from llo (beta) : other termi- 
nations remain unaltered ; as t>^ (mard) a man or twcti ; ji^ (chor) a 
thief or thieves.* 

a. Certain nouns substantive masculine, as well as adjectives, 
though ending in 1 (a) remain unchanged in the nominative plural ; 
such as, l*x>- (khudd) God^ \yo\ (umard) nobles or a nobleman, 


others, like^ (fkr) care^ (jW" (i^'*) W^^ niay be used indifferendy as 
mascuHnes or feminines. On the subject of gender, indeed, considerable 
difference will be found io exist between the Hindustani and Dakhni; and, 
even speakers or writers of the same dialect are sometimes at variance. 

* In Dakhni, however, ^^1 (dn) is subjoined to such nouns ; so, jjl*^ 
(marddn) men^ ^Ji^ (chdrdn) thieves. 

the Hindustani Language. 15 

iU (mulld) a doctor, U-lj (raja) a prince, "U (laid) master, bb (hdha) 
or \iJ (^pitci) father, \dy> (sauda) melancholy, lib (dana) wise, bb 
(data), liberal, I4XJ (paida) produced, and various others.* 

h. Feminine nouns ending in ^j (2) assume ^ (an) for the nomi- 
native plural, as those of all other terminations take ^^, (e/i) jf so, 
^UIj (betiydn) daughters, from ^5-J (iefl) ; ^^li^ (kitdbm) books, 
from L-^\::i (kitdb). 

c, Persian nouns may form their plurals in j^l (an) Ito (ha) lu\ (at) 
or ti^U*- (jaO, or by changing a singular if (a) to ^jlf (ga/) ; as, 
^^LiU (sdkiydn) cupbearers, from ^L (sdki) ; l^L (sdlhd) years, 
from JL> (saZ) ; CjUbJ^y (nawdzishdt) favours, from (j>^\jj (nawd- 
zish). Arabic plurals, too, of various forms may occur ; as, j*a\ix. 
(andsir) from^^u^^ (unsur), ^Uci-l (akhbdr) froiHj^ (khabar), \j^\ 
(umard) from j^\ (amir), 

5, Cases of nouns, excepting the nominative, are formed in this 
language by the means of small words, generally placed after the 
nouns, whence the term postposition is conveniently applied by 
Europeans to these words ; and, such masculine nouns as have for 
their final in the nominative singular a (a) or \ (d) mostly change it 


to t/ («) in the other cases of that number ; so, ^ lJ}^jj<^ (darwdze 
ko) to the door, from ^j^jji^ (darwdza), \i ^S^ (larke kd) of the boy, 
from l^il (larkd),ji^ ^j^ (ghorl par) on the horse, from \j^(ghdra). 

* In the Dakhan, ^^ \pn) is usually added to nouns ending in 1 (a) 
unchangeable, to form the nominative plural; so, (^jIj^ (khuda'dn) gods, 

+ In Dakhni, ^jj (on) or more rarely ^jlj (wdn) is added to feminine 
nouns whose singular final is \ (a) to form the plural, whilst other femi- 
nines assume jj\ (an) or sometimes change (_^ (?) to jjl> (i/dn); so, 
jj^U (md^on) or ^^^j|\^ (mdwdn) mothers^ from U (md), ^jV.*^ naddVdn 
(or naddydn) rivers^ from ^JS) (naddi). 

16 A Grammar of 

Masculines in \ (a) which are not hable to change in the nominative 
plural, some of which are enumerated at paragraph 4. a., as well as 
masculines of all other terminations, and all feminines, admit of no 
inflection before postpositions in the singular ; so, ^ U-lj {raja se) 
from the prince ; ,jt^ j^ {ghcir men) in the house ; ^ IjJ {dawa se) 
with medicine ; ^'\ ^ ^j^ (ghori ke age) before the mare. 

a. The inflection for the plural is, in proper Hindustani, constantly 

Li? (p^^> though in Dakhni it is more usually j^l (a/i) ; excepting, 

however, the vocative, in which it is commonly j (o) ; so, ^jJ ^ i^^Ji 

(jarkon ketaln) to boys ; ^^Ij ^ ^^\j\i^{dana'dn kepas) near the wise; 

ji U3ij^ (s^^T^y^'"' P^''^^ ^^ mares; ^^^ ^j^i^ {kitabdn men) in books.^ 

b. It may here be noticed that words of two syllables, the first of 
which has any short vowel and the second is sounded with ' (a), drop 
the latter when any termination beginning with a vowel is afiixed ; 
so, (^ji (Jbaras) a year becomes ^y'*>Ji (barson), -^^ {jagah) a place, 
\^yj^f^ {jag'hon) : and, on the contrary, nouns ending in \ («) un- 
changeable may assume «^ {y) before the affixes of the plural ; as, 
^S< c5\ («i mayo) O mothers ! from U (ma) ; ^«j u^})^ {dawayon se) 
with medicineSj from lj«i {dawa). 

6. The simple postpositions used with nouns, inflected if capable of 
inflection, are — 

For the Genitive case, l^ {ka) ^ {ke) ^ {kt) of 

For the Dative, or l/'/\*'y/ \ 

. \ ^{ko) ^ ^ {ke ta'in),Scc.,to,for,S^c, 

For the Accusative J '-'^ v 

\j^ {se) ^^Ji>^ {sen) ^y^ {son) ^ {sitl) from, by, 


jj {par) or <u {pa) on, at : ^^ {men) in, among. 

* yb {panw)afoot, becomes contracted to ^j'lj {pa' on) in the inflec- 
tion of the plural. 

For the Ablative, 

the Hindustani Language* 17 

Of these postpositions, l^ alone is liable to change, as above noted, 
to agree with the noun to which it has reference ; and, most com- 
monly this noun follows immediately the postposition : thus, before a 
masculine nominative singular, o is used; as, ll*^ l^^ljyj [saudagar 
ka beta) the merchant's son : before a masculine singular acted upon 
by another postposition, or before a masculine plural in every case, 
^ (ke)', as,^ (^^ ^ ^"l; (raja kc hathipar) on the prince's ele- 

- - ^ - c 

phant; i^j^^ ^ ^\j {rani ke ghore) the princess's horses ; ^ ^Sjt 
15*** M^^ {lafkoii ke hathon se) from the hands of the hoys : and 
before a feminine noun in every case of each number, ^i^ (jd) ; as 

tjfjij i/^y (jf'fJ'Ukar kl pagri) the servant' s turban ; ^J^j^ \^ }y^ 
{ganwar ki murghiyan) the jjeasant's hens. The rest of the postpo- 
sitions remain unchanged ; as j^ -i^ (kutteko) or ^j^ ^ ^^ {kutte 
kt ta'in) to the dog or the dog ; ^ j Joj (jbandar se) by the monkey ; 
^J-^ [mez par) on the table; ^j^ k^X" ^^ (us arse men) in that 
space of time.* 

a. Many other words, moreover, are adapted to the like postpositive 
use ; and, as some of them generally take ^ (ke), whilst others re- 
quire ^ (kt) before them, they have been termed compound postpo- 
sitions ; so, in ^^b ^ i^li>jb (badshdh kepas) near the king; J ^ ijO^ 
{dar ke upar) at the door ; ^j3-»^j ^ JJi (wazir ke waste) for the 
vizir ; ^T ^ i^Jj^^ (g^ore ke age) before the horse; .^ ^ C:^**uJ 
(dost ke We) for the sake of the friend ; icf^ ^ j4 {ghar ke 
pichhe) behind the house ; uJjh ^ Jusr*'* {masjid ki taraf) towards 
the mosque ; _Jb ^ ^^ (sipahi ki tarah) in the manner of a sol- 
dier : yet ^ (ke) is sometimes omitted ; as, jJj\ j<^ {dar upar). 

* CSj {tak, or dakh. v^ tag), lL^)j {talak. or dakh. cJ^ talag), 
^^^ C^^S")? i-^^y {j^T^J ^^? ^P ^^9 near, are also much used as simple 
postpositive words; so CS^ j^ {ghar tak) up to the house. 


18 A Grammar of 

U*^ ^jy^ (s^^r^ P^^) • occasionally, moreover, words of this descrip 
tion may precede the noun or pronoun ; as, ^J^\ ^-^.'iP (nazdik us-ke) 
near him, : and two or more of the simple postpositions may occur 
together ; as, ^ ^j^ j^ {ghar men se) from within the house. It 
may be noticed, too, that with pronouns, such words require an inflected 
masculine or a feminine genitive ; so, (j*.\j^ lJj^ (mere pas) near me, 
i^Jb ^jJ (fert taraf) towards thee. 

7. The vocative may be the same in form as the nominative; or, it 
may be denoted by some one of the signs ,^\ (ai), ^\ (e), ^ {he), 
J^ (^)' L5?"' (^*0> [^} (abe), l> (ya), or ^j\ (are) before the noun 
singular, inflected if capable of inflection ; but the usual termination in 
the plural isj (o); and, to a plural with this termination one of the 
signs above-mentioned may be prefixed. The vocative may likewise 
be expressed by CLy> (hot), ^j (re), or ^^ (he) after the noun ; but, 
t^l (are) is changed to ^j\ (art), as <^ (re) is to ^j (rt) if applied 
to a feminine : the interjectional words, moreover, i^J\ or ^j\, and ijj 
or i^j, are generally used in a disrespectful or contemptuous sense, 
and ^Ji as well as ^\ is perhaps always so applied. So, llj (beta), or 
,^-J t^\ (ai bete) O son ! J^ ^\ (e mard) O man ! ^ji ^\ (o larke) 
^ ^^y •' l/rft; '^J^ (^^'^ ramchera) holla servant ! cf^j ijj^ (art 
randi) O woman ! jjo (yard) or jjIj ^\ (ai yard) O friends ! 

8. With Persian and Arabic words, the construction and preposi- 
tions peculiar to those languages are frequently adopted. Thus, to 
shew the connexion between two substantives, or between a substantive 
and its following adjective, the Persian izafat may be used ; and it is 
denoted, if actually written, after a consonant by , (zer or liasr), after 
b (he) silent, or after ^ (ye) by (hamza), and after \ (alif) or ^ 
(wcCo) by s^ (ye) : so, ^Li ^^\s>- jtt^^ (mushlr-i Idiass-i shah) privy 

counsellor of the king ; \s^ as^j (handa-i khudd) servant of God ; 
4--ys- t^lyfc (hawd-e khub) good air ; *V, (^Ul (amd-e rah) midst of 

the Hindustani Language. 19 

tJie way. And, when two Arabic substantives come together, or a 
substantive is followed by its adjective in the Arabic construction, the 
latter of the two words has the article ^]\ (at) prefixed, and they be- 
come united in pronunciation, the sign wad being occasionally used 
in writing ; so, J^ \ c-JH? (talibu-l-ilm) a seeker of knowledge, a 

student ; ^»X^^J ^ ^ {lillahi-r-rahman) to the merciful God. 

9. Declension, according to the preceding remarks, may now be 
formally exemplified ; as, with a mascuhne noun substantive ending 
in i (jie) silent, thus — 


N. iTAij {handa) a slave. 

G. ^ iS ^ iJ'^ of a slave. 

D. ^ uf*^ to a slave. 

Ac. ^ 1^'^ « slave. 

V. fc/*^ ^^ ^ slave ! 

Ab. ^ lS^ from a slave. 

N. u5^ (bande) slaves, 
^* L5^ l/ ^ ^jjcj of slaves, 
D. tf (jj^ to slaves. 

Ac. ^ l;^^ slaves. 

V. jjaj ^5^ or jJCo O slaves! 

Ab. j^ LJ*;'^ /rom slaves. 

Or, as with a masculine noun ending in \ (a) liable to inflection, 
thus — 

N. \j^ {ghora) a horse. 

^' Lsf ^5^ ^ ^J^ ^/^ ^^^^^• 

V. ^ij;^ o( or \^^ O horse ! 
Ab. ^ hfj^ from a horse. 


N. irfj^ (s^^ore) horses. 
G. J J \^ ^^^^ of horses. 
T>, if (jjj^ to horses. 

Ac. / ij^Jj/ horses. 

V. j,J^^ ^j^\ ^^ ^hi^ ^ horses! 
Ab. j^ ^3j^ from horses. 

And nouns ending in ^J\ (a?i), the last letter being the obscure 
nasal, change that termination to ^, {en) in the inflection of the sin- 
gular as well as in the nominative plural ; so ^^,j=f^ {panchwen), from 
^^^^Ij (pdnchwan), fifth ; or, sometimes, to ^ (h), as jc;*:j (jhaniye), 

20 A Grammar of 

from j^LiJ (jbaniyan), a trader ; and they may convert it to ^jj ipn), 
and J (o) if used, in the obUque cases and vocative of the plural. 

Or, as with a masculine noun ending in 1 (a), not liable to inflection, 
thus — 


D. ^ \p^\j to a prince, 

Ac. ^ \s>-\j a prince. 

V. \^\j 1^1 or \s^\j O prince ! 
Ab. J--5 U-lj /roTW a prince. 


N. *W"5^ (j'ojoi) princes. 
^- l/ l/ ^ UjVb of princes. 
D. ^ cJ!^ ^^'b ^^ princes. 

Ac. j^ (j^ ^^b princes. 

V.J U-l^ i_f^ or J U^lj O princes ! 
Ab. ^<«j jjj \^\j from princes. 

And, according to this example, are declined all masculine nouns 
ending in a consonant, or in any vowel not liable to inflection ; as, j^ 
\ghar) a house, l^ j^ of a house, j^ houses, u i^)j^ of houses ; 
j^^Jl {admt) man^ l^ i^^^ of man, &c. 

Or, as with a feminine noun terminating in ^5 (?), thus — 

N. lSj^ (s^orf) a mare. 

D. ^ ^ji^ ^0 a 7nare. 

Ac. ^ ^J^ ^ mare. 

^* ^J^ ^^ ^ mare! 

Ab. j^ f^j^ from a mare. 

^ -ij^j^i^ghoriymi) mares. 

^- L^ l/ ^ ^^J^ of mares. 
D. j^ u^J^ ^o mares. 

Ab, ^^ L)^.]^ from mares. 

Or, as with a feminine noun having any other termination than 4^ 
(t), thus — 

* This particular word has been met with inflected like \j^ pre- 
ceding, though this is very uncommon. 



CL>[i (bat) a wordy an affair. 



^ ^^ L2j\i of a word. 



^ cjb to a word. 



j^ tr-jb a word. 



C-^b ^\ word ! 



^ ci?b from a word. 


the Hindustani Language, 21 

^^*b (jbaten) words, 
\J^\J^ uy'^^ ofi^ords. 
f uy^ ^0 words, 
if j^yfb words, 
y b cil or y b O words I 
L5*^ (jyb /rom words. 

And a dissyllabic noun, which drops the short vowel of the second 
syllable before affixes beginning with a vowel, as explained at para- 
graph 5. Z>., might be exemplified in the feminine *|X>- ijagaJi) a place, 
which becomes in the plural ^j^:^<»- (jag^hhi) places, l^ uj^^ (jag^hdii 
ka) of places, &c. 

10. The affix ^^,^ (on), or j (o), is often taken, in an emphatic as 
well as plural sense, by numerals, whether cardinals or aggregate, 
whether in the nominative or in some other case ; so, i^y^^ (ddndii) or 
y^J (dono), all two, the two, both ; ^yJj (tlnon) all three, jj^ i^}^ 
(lakhon shahr) hundreds of thousands of cities. And, the nouns of 
time, ^^ji (Jbaras) a year, b-^ (jnahina) a month, ^^^ (din) a day, 

j^ (pahar) a watch, not unfrequently, and for the like purpose, as- 
sume the adjunct ^j (ow); as, «^J^ \:)y^J> {bur son guzre) years (many) 
have elapsed; ^ ^J>^*:^V^ (mahinon se) for (many) months, or months 

11. Adjectives are generally liable to the same changes in their finals 
for gender, number, and case, as substantives: in the plural, too, 
they may assume the same adjuncts, with the exception of ^»^. {tn) ; 
yet when followed immediately by nouns in this number, the plural 
signs jjl (an), or ^^j (on) are usually, though not always, omitted, the 
substantives for the most part alone retaining them, as may be ex- 
emplified in l^ ^|^^ (chhotd lafkd) a little boy, thus — 


A Grammar of 

















/ D^j J)i=- 


Jj J^ J^ 






LS- U)/i L5'.>«^ 


' ^^ ^} Jj^ ^^^^^-^ ^^^^^ 

a little girl, as — 






u^) ^^v 








/ .S Jj^ 








^- v^i Jj^ 


The adjective, however, may occasionally stand alone, as when used 
substantively, or it may follow its substantive, in either of which cases 
it requires in the plural the affixes ^ {an) or ^^^ (jon), 

12. The ordinals of numbers are declined and used as adjectives, 
though they seem hardly capable, like the latter, of following the sub- 
stantives to which they relate ; sojb ^^ {chauthi-har) fourth time, 

O t, " ^ CO 

y cijljjj*^ K^j^ {tlsre darwaze par) at the third door, l5-j ^y^^ 
{pdnchwan beta) fifth son, ^ ^^iJ ^»ji,y^^ (chhatwen bete se) from 
the sixth son. 

13. The comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives are 
denoted by means of postpositions and adverbs, or occasionally by 
reduplication : thus, for the comparative may be used ^from, than. 

the Hindustani Language. 23 

jj-^ among, ^ ^^< from among, ^ of, after the noun to which com- 
parison is made, as well as i^jbj {ziyada) or jj\ (aur) more, \ji great, 
\j^ (thora) or ^J {zarra) a little, &c. before the adjective; so, 

L5^ ^J^. lJ^ l5^^ ^^ (/o/^a tdmbe* se bhdrl hai) iron from copper 
- - " " p^ 

heavy is : for the superlative, such adverbs as 4.:^.^ (bahut) much, 
UL^ly {nihdyai) or l!U-j (nipat) or ^j\ {att) extremely ^ do- (hadd) 
for Jc>-jl (a^r ^arfc?) beyond bounds, excessively, Lj (basa) most, very, 
Ijj (bara) great, before the adjective; or, the expression ^ c_^wj (saJ 
.9e) orli w-^v«5 (sa^ ka) of all, as well as a reduphcation ; so \=^j\ c:-^ 
(bahut uncha) very high ; J^^ <-^^H (j^ipctt hoshydr) extremely pru- 

Jew^; •^^ c^ *-^^V {P'^^O'VO't burljagah) very bad place; ^ l^ v -v-o 

(^aJ kd bard) or 1^ ^^ c^«s (saft se ^ara) greatest ; \^\ l^i 
{achchhd achchha) very good, best, 

a. With Persian adjectives, J {tar) is at times suffixed for the 
comparative, as ^^y {tarln) is for the superlative ; &o j:jy>- (khub- 

" O >> J> 

tar) handsomer, ^j:j^ (jdiubtarin) handsomest, from ^^^ (khub) : 
and, Arabic forms, like J]o\ (azlam) more unjust, /♦& (zalldm) most 
unjust, from J]s {zulm) injustice, may occur, though but rarely. 

14. The adjunct of similitude, L» (so), ^ {st), ^ {st) like,f 
varying in its termination to agree with the noun to which it has re- 
ference, is much used after other adjectives, as well as after substan- 
tives and pronouns. To adjectives, which like it must be made to 
accord in gender, number, and case with the governing noun, it seems 
often to convey but little, if any, additional meaning, though in many 
instances it corresponds to the English useful affix, — ish, and in 
others it imports a degree of intensity to the expression ; so c-^T L \2^ 

* Observe that ^^ before ^-> or L--> is pronounced as m. 

+ ^j*-* {sarekd)^ of similar import, sometimes occurs ; and in Dakhani, 
Lvj^ \sartkd) like, is extremely common in use. 

24 A Grammar of 

{khatta sa amh) a sour or sourish mango ; ^IJ ^ l^.}^ (chhote se 
kele) little plantains ; \jd ^ u^j^ (karivi si daw a) hitter physic ; 
^^b Ls c:-^^ {hahut sa pant) much or very much water. 

a. Before this adjunct, substantives or pronouns become inflected, 

O G 

and its meaning is fully intended ; so, t^ Lo -^S b (jbagh sa mard) a 
tiger-like man ; ^j^ ^ ^Ji {larkt si larki) a hoy-like girl, ^ ^^ 
l/J^ l5^^ (m2(/ a St achchhl larkt) a good girl like me : L-jJ (aisa) 
for U (jJ\ (is-sa) like this ; L*>j (waisa) for Lj ^^-1 (us-sa) like that ; 
and, upon the same principle, L-^ (kaisci) what-like ? L^sw (^jaisa) 
which-like? L-J {taisa) that-like. Sometimes, however, it is sub- 
joined to pronominals in their uninflected form, when it has a discri- 
minative meaning ; as LJ^ (kaun-sa) which ? xohat ? what sort of 2 
LJ^ (jaun-sa) whichever, Li^i {taun-sa) that, \^ ^ S {Wi-sa) 
someone, certain person. 



15. Pronouns, in Hindustani, may be personal, demonstrative, 
common or reflective, interrogative, relative, correlative, or indefinite. 
Generally they are the same for feminine as for masculine ; yet, the 
interrogative and indefinite exhibit each two forms, and each of these 
forms is, in great part, appropriated to a distinct gender. In the 
changes for case and number, pronouns diflfer essentially from 
nouns ; as — 

the Hindustani Language. 
First Person. 



N. ^^J^ (main) I. 

\j^ (mera)y ^Jjfr^ (mere), 
LSjf^ (meri), of me, mine. 

^ ..^ (mujh ko), or ^j^-^ 
(mujhe), to me, me. 

Ab. j<-j -fs^ (mujh st) from me. 

Second Person. 
N. y (tu), or ^J^ (taifi) thou. 

N. Jtib (ham) we. 

J IjUjb (hamara), c^Ujb (hama- 
f^j u^Ujb (hamart) of us, our, 

D. I ^ ^ (ham ko), or ^J^i^^ 
Ac. J (^amen) fo m5, us. 

Ab. j^ AJb (^aw? s'e) from us. 

^ J Irr' (tera), ^j^ (tere), ^^ 
[ (terl) of thee, thine. 

D. I ^ 'AsfT (tujh ko), or 
Ac. j(tuj he) to thee, thee. 
V. y t^l (at tu) O thou ! 
Ab. ^ .ifsT (^ly'A 5e) from thee 

N. tp (turn) ye or 3/0M. 

bV^ (t'^T^^OLra),^j\^ (tum- 
hare), u^^W (tumhari), of 
you, your. 

jfj (tum ko), or ^J^ (tum- 
Ac. J hm) to you, you. 

V. ^ \J^ (aiturn) Oyou; 

Ab. ^ w (^M/w se) from you. 

Third Person. 


N. ^ (t^?M^) ^e, she, it. 

19 9 

^ {j^ (us ka), ^ (j^ (us kl), 
^^cT U^^ (uskt) ofhim,her,it. 


^ (j^\ (us ko) or ^^\ (use) 

to him. 

Ac.^(jJ\ (us ko), or ^\ (use) him. 

9 " 

Ab. ^ ^ (us se) from him, &c. 

N. ^^ (we) they. 

r " 9 9 

l^ j^l (un ka) ^ ^ (un ke) or 


^ ^\ (un kl) of them, their. 


)9 OP 

^ J\ (un ko), or ^^1 (un- 
hhi) to them, them, 

Ab. ^ ^ (un se) from them. 

26 A Grammar of 

And the same word is declined in like manner when used for the 
remote demonstrative, ^ that, in contradistinction to which is the 
proximate demonstrative, ^^^ iyih) this, declined as follows — 

N. ^^ iyih) this, it. 


fJ\ (is ka), ^ (jJ^ {is ke), 
or ^ (j^\ (is kt) of this. 
J) 1 / U-1 (w ko), or ^\^(ise), 

Ac. to this, this. 

Ab. ^ (^\ (is se) from this. 

N. j^^ (ye) these. 

[l^ ^1 (in ka) ^ ^ (in ke) or 

I ^ fj\ (in ki) of these. 

D. I ^ ti>^ G*^ ko) or (j-^1 (inhen) 

Ac] #0 ^^ese, ^^ese. 

Ab. ^^^ (in se) from these. 

Singular and Plural. 
N. l-jT (op) self, myself, thyself, himself, ourselves, &c. 

o c 

G. \^ c-jT (op /ca) j^ c-jT (ap ke) ^ c-if (op ki) or 1:j1 (apna) ^\ 

(apne) ^\ (apni) of myself, &c., wzy own, &c. 
D. ^ cJT (ap ko) or ^ ^\ (apne ko) to myself, &c. 
Ac. ^ L-/T (op ko) or ^ ^\ (apne ko) myself, &c. 
Ab. ^ c->l (op se) or ^ ^\ (apne se) from myself, &c. 

This pronoun is applicable to each of the three persons, according 
to the nominative, expressed or understood, with the verb in the same 
sentence : ^j-j \ (apas), moreover, is frequently adopted before post- 
positions, especially in a plural sense ; so, ^j^ ^\ (apas men) among 


This is of two forms, the one ^^ (kaun) being generally applied, 
whether absolutely or adjectively, to persons, as the other L^ (kya) is 
to actions or things ; yet, ^ (kis) the inflection of ^^^ may occa- 
sionally be applied to things ; and, L^ in the uninflected state only 

the Hindustani Language. 27 

seems fitted to precede, as an adjective, the names of inanimate ob- 
jects : so, ySb ^^ aj (jtum kaun ho) you who are ? ^ 15^^ ^ (%« 
chdhte ho) what desiring are you ? f jtr^ [j^ {kis chlz ko) to which 
(or what) thing 1 \jj^ \S {kya karna) ichat (is) to do ? j^ L^ (kya 
chlz) what thing ? 



N. ^J^ {kaun) who ? which? what? 
i\^f^(kis ka) J^jJ {kis ke) 

^fj^{kiski)ofwhonil whose? 

T>. ^ \j^ (kis ko) or ^^^ (jcisl) 

to whom? 
Ac. S u-S (kis ko) or ^--^ (kisl) 

whom ? 


N. ^^ (kaun) who? which? what? 

^i^(^^nki) ofwhoml whose? 

J). ^ ^ (kin ko) ov^j^ (kinhen) 
to whom ? 


Ac.y ^^ (/:i7i A:o) or^^^-^ (kinhen) 

whom ? 
Ab. ^^(kin st)from whom,hc. 

Ah.^^j^ (kis se) from whomfiic. 

Singular and Plural. 
N. and Ac. L^ (kya) what ? 

G. l^ ^\^ (kUl ka) J ^^ (kdhe ke) Jjb^(khhtki) ofwhati 
D. ^ jJbl^ (kaht ko) to or for what ? 
Ab. j^ ,^\^ (kdhe se) from what ? 

Singular. Plural. 

N.^ 0*0)* or jj^ (jdun) who, 
which, what. 

N. ^ (jo) or ^^ (jaun) who, 
which, what. 

* In an indefinite sense, this pronoun may be repeated ; as, ^^5*- 
(j^fi) "whoever ^ whatever ; \^ ^^^^ u^^- {jisjis ka) of whichever : and, 
it is very frequently compounded with the indefinite pronoun; as, lS ^^ ^ 
(jo ko^z) whoever ; o ^j^ (j-^ G^* kisz kd) of whomever ; -^^ y>- 
(jd kuchh) whatever ; <f yS ^j.^ (fis kisu ko) to whatever. 



^U*^ (j^s ka) ^{j^*^ (jiske) 

l/ U^ O'^^^O of whom, &c. 
D. / ^j^ (J is ko) or ^^ (jise) 

to whom, 
Ac./^^ (Jis ko) or ^^ (jise) 

Ah. ^(jMS>-(jisse) from whom,Sic, 


A Grammar of 


L5^ cJ?" 0'^^ ^^) ^/ whom, &c. 

hen), to whom, &c. 
Ac./ i^ 0*^/^ A;o)or ^^ {jin- 

htn), whom, &c. 
Ab.,<«jjj5j-(ji7i si) from whom,^c. 



N. y^ (so) or ,^y (taun) that, he, 

fl^ ^/*J (tis ka) ^ ifJ> (tis ke) 
S {j^ (tis ki) of that, &c. 

D./jj-J (tis ko) or j^^* (^i^e) to 

Ac. / ^ (tis ko) or ^^_g-J (^zse) 

Ab. ^M» ,^ (^is St) from that,^c. 

N. ^ (so) ov^y (taun) those, they. 


l^ -J (^^7^ ka) ^ ^ (tin ke) 
^ ^ (tin ki) of those, &c. 

D. / ^^ (^m ko) or ^^;-^* (^2w- 
^ew), to those, &c. 

Ac. / ^^ (^i» /co) or ^jj>^ (tin- 
hen), those, &c. 

Ab. ^ ^* (#iw se)from them, &c. 

This is of two forms ; the one t5 / being more commonly applied 
to persons, as the other -^^ is to things : and, for number, each form 
admits of no change ; thus — 

N. t/ / (ko^) a, an, any, some, 
^ ^J^ (kisi ka) ^ ^»S (kisi 
kc) ,S i<-^ (kisi ki) of any, 
some, &c. 


N. ^^ (kuchh) some, a little, a few, 
^ yS (kisu ka) ^y^ (kisu 
ke) ^ ^ (kisu ki) of some, 


the Hindustani Language. 29 

D. ^^^(jiisi ko) to any, some yU.c. 

Ac. ^ ^^J> (kisl ko) any, some,^c. 

Ab. ^ j^—^ {kisi se) from any, 

D.j^^-^ {kisuko) to some, &c, 
Ac.^yJ^ (kisu ko) some, &c. 
kh.^y^ (kisu se) from some. 

16. In pronouns, the genitive terminations \j (ra) U (no) admit of 
inflection, like l^ (ka), so as to agree with the nouns to which they 
relate ; thus,^ *^J^ s£/^ (mere ghdre par) my horse on ; lJ]^ iJjt^ 
(terighofi) thy mare ; ^J=i^\j ^J c:^w^J ^\ (apne dost kt waste) on 
account of his friend. When, however, any word intervenes between 
the pronoun and postposition, .^s^ and -^ as well as ^^Jb and <J are 
then used with the genitive of the succeeding word ; as l^ S-^^ -f?-'* 
(mujh gharlh ka) of poor me. ^^ and ij^ and ^ too, when 
separated from any postposition, may remain uninflected; as, ^^ 
^ ^^\ l^ c^^L? (jiaun sahib ka ddrni hai) what gentleman's ser- 
vant is it ? ifij^- ^ ,j^ f jj<^ c/V (^^'^ ^*^ ^^ ^^^*^ c^aZ5 
jcLunga) I shall depart on some day ; ^^ \^ -^ (kuchh chJz 

9 9 

men) in something. To ^Jj ^j^- [^f [J^ ij^ (^ (^ *^® plural sign jjj 
(on) may still be subjoined, provided that no noun having the like 

9 9 

termination immediately follows ; the finals of ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 
moreover may be aspirated, when used with, or without, the affix ^jj 


(on)* ; so, ^ AJb (ham ko) or ^ i^y^ (hamon ko) to us ; ^-j J (turn 
se) or ^ ^ (tumh se) or ^^ ^ji^ (tumhon se) from you; 
^^^ ^syi^ -^1 OX ^ (un or unh logon men) among those people. 

OP O^ 

And, by the poets, ^jsr* and ,^ are frequently adopted in a posses- 

* The word c-^wj (sab) all, becomes on the same principle u^^f*-* 
(sabhon) for the inflection of the plural. 

30 A Grammar of 

sive sense, instead of the regular genitives ; as, J J -^ (jnujh dil) 
my heart, JJLc- Ǥsr {tujk ishk) thy love. 



17. Verbs denote the motion or action intended in a sentence, and 
admit of two principal divisions ; verb intransitive and verb transi- 
tive ; the latter of these, moreover, may be subdivided into active and 

18. The most simple form of the verb, and which may be termed 
the root, is the imperative in the second person singular : this form, 
also, serves frequently as a verbal noun; so,jto (war) beat or a heat- 
ing ; ^]y (lot) speak or speech ; i\^ (chah) desire {thov) or the 

19. The infinitive requires the addition of l3 (no) to the root ; and 
before postpositions, when the infinitive often comes into use as a 
gerund or verbal noun, this b is changed to ^ (nt) ; so, from ^U> beat, 
comes IjjU) to heat or a heating ; from Jy speak, ^ {pi) drink, 
ji L^^' {^olne par) on speaking or about to speak, ^ ^^^i^ \pint 
ko) for drinking : the same inflection also takes place when the 
infinitive is in construction with certain verbs ; as, 19 ^j^ (jcahn'e laga) 
he was applied to saying or he began to say. This termination, 
moreover, may be changed to ^ (m) ^ (nln) or ^L) (niymi) when 
a feminine noun, singular or pluml, is the object of the verb ; so, 
L5^^ uVj *^^} (^^ zaban bolni) to speak a language, 

20. The past participle is obtained by subjoining to the root, \ (a) 
c^ (^) v/ ^ (j) ^Ji, (m) or (jb ^ (iyan) according to the gender and 

the Hindustani Language. 31 

number of the governing noun ; so, for a masculine noun in the singu- 
lar il^ (hola) and in the plural J^ (Jbole) ; for a feminine noun in the 
singular ^%i (Jboli) and in the plural ^jJ (bolhi) or j^U^J (jbdliyan) 
spoken, from Jy . 

a. If the root, however, ends in \ (a) or ^ (o) the letter ^j becomes 
inserted before a subsequent \ (a) ; but, it may be either assumed or 
omitted when followed by an affix consisting of, or beginning with, ^^i 
so, from "i {id) bring, come W (idya), ^} {iaye) or ^j^ (id'e), ^} 
{idyi) or fc^ iJ {loJt), &c. hr ought ; from ^ (ho) sow, by (hoy a), ^^y 
(jboye) or ^*jj (fio'e), ^.y (io?/7) or v^ y (^o'l), &c. 502^w. And, 
when to roots ending in ^j, an affix consisting of, or beginning with 
u?^ (i) would regularly follow, to form the feminine of this participle, 
one of the long vowels is usually dropped ; so, ^>^ {di), ^ J (diii) or 
j^b J (diyan), from \d (diya) given ; J (jti) ^ {ihl) or ^^L! (jiiydn)^ 
from U {liya) taken ; ^ {ki) ^^S (ktn) or j^L? (kiydn), from l^ 
\kiya) made, 

b. Roots consisting of more than one syllable, having any short 
vowel in the penultimate and fat'ha (a) followed immediately by a 
consonant in the final syllable, drop the latter vowel before all affixes 
beginning with a vowel ; hence, \j'Si (guzra) from j j^ (guzar) pass ; 

CO o 

l^jsf**** {samjha) from -fs^^ {samajh) understand, 

c. The few anomalies are \J {gaya) gone, from U- (ja) ; U^ {kiyd) 
done, made, from J {kar) ; \^ (jiu a) been, become, from yb (ho) ; * 
1^ (mu'a) dead, from ^ (war) ; b J {diya) given, from i^ J (^e) ; and, 
U (liya) taken, from J (/e). 

* The regular forms, however, sometimes occur ; but, more especially, 
V.V O^y^) ^nd J^ {mara}^ when used with Ij^ (karna) to form a 
species of compound ; and \^ (jcara) under other circumstances, though 
but very rarely. 

32 A Grammar of 

d. When used adjectively or substantively, this participle is often 
followed by \fi {hvHa) been, become; as Icl^ \^ l^ {likha hu'a 
kaghaz) the become written, or the written, paper ; \^t> 151^ {kata hu'a) 
the cut. 

21. The present participle is had by affixing to the root, Ij {to) ^ 
(je) ^ (ti) jj-j (fin) or ,jlJ {tiyan), agreeable to the gender and 
number of the governing noun ; so, from 2>U- (chah) wish, come 

c c _ * ^ _ 

liJbU- {chahta) he wishing, ^^^ (jchahti) she wishing, j^UitoU- \chah- 
tiyan) they {females) wishing : and, to adapt it for use as an adjec- 
tive or even substantive, \^ become is frequently subjoined, like as to 
the past ; so, \^ IjjU {marta hiCa) striking, the person striking. 

22. The past conjunctive participle may be the same in form as the 
root of the verb, or it may be formed by subjoining to the root, ^J (e)* 

CO c 

^ {ke) J (Jkar) ^J> {karke) or ^J (karkar) ; so, ^ {kah) or ^J^ 
{kahke) or Jl^ {kahkar), &c., having said : and, from 1 (a) come, ^^\ 
(an) or J^'\ {ankl), as well as the regular T or ^\, &c., having come. 

23. The past indefinite tense is the same in form as the simple past 
participle, explained at paragraph 20 ; so, iJy ^^o (jnain bola) I {a 
male) spoke, ^^ i^ (wuh bolt) she spoke, ^^^J *i> {ham bolinj we 
{females) spoke, f^;^ ^ ijJ\ {us ne mara) he or she struck, 
+ l^l« ^ jj\ {un ne mara) they {males or females) struck. 

* With this affix, verbs become generally the same as for the inflected 


past participle masculine singular ; so, lS ^ {hii'e) from JJ^ (Ao), ^^^ 
{kiye) from^ {kar\ ^i^ {dlye) from u^J (rfe), ^ {Hye) from ^ {le). 
+ Before transitive verbs in any past tense, viz. any tense formed with 
the past participle in the active voice, the particle (j {^^) ^* once fol- 
lows, or is affixed to, the noun or pronoun denoting the agent, which, if 
not the first or second personal pronoun, is inflected before it, if capable 

the Hindnstam Language. 33 

a. The pluperfect or past past tense is obtained by adding the 
auxiliary past to the past participle ; as, lf> ^^ ^^-^ [main hola tha) 
I had spoken* \^ U=*^* f ^y;r^'^ j^ ^ f^ itum ne do admiyon ko 
bheja tha) you had sent two men. 

h. The past definite or past present tense is had by the addition of 
the auxiliary present to the past participle ; as, ^^ ^^ y ii^ ^old hai) 
thou hast spoken ; *^ l^J ^ u^^- ^ s-5^ (hilll ne baghon ko dekhd 
hai) the cat has seen the tigers. 

c. The past future is obtained by the addition of the auxihary 
future to the past participle ; as, ^^ or ^^^ ^Jy n^ (wuh boll howe 
or hogt) she may {shall or will) have spoken^ or she might {should or 
would) speak ;* ^,*^ or lJ^^ ^j ^ jj^^ (unhon ne rakhd howe or 
hdwega) they may {shall or wilt) have placed, or might {could or 
would) place. 

of inflection ; the verb being" made to agree with its object, provided this 
be, as is most customary, in the nominative case : when, however, the 
object is placed in an oblique case, or is not a word but a sentence, the 
verb is then invariably constructed as the third person masculine singular. 
Thus, J»U vjby>- J Jj {billt ne chuhd tndra) the cat killed the rat ; 
t^U (jT^ ls^ "^ ^ {bdgh ne ghofi mart) the tiger killed the mare ; 
L<f ^ ^^^ '^\ L^ S^^y^ {sauddgar ne pdnch ghord bcche) the 
merchant sold Jive horses ; ^J^ ;f '^JJ^ l5^ U^^ {bdghon ne ghorl ko 
mar a) the tigers killed the mare ; l.j^ iS^T (^ V^^' ^ c^^V 
^ ifi^'^ {icifkon ne puchhd turn kaun-st kitdb parhtz ho) the boys 
asked^ what book are you {female) reading? '''^ In the Dakhani of 
Madras, however, though ^i is often used, it does not interrupt the 
agreement of the verb with the nominative or name of the agent ; whilst 
the dialect of Bombay conforms to that of Hindustan in this respect as 
well as in most other particulars. 

* See note + on the foregoing page. 

34 A Grammar of 

d. The past conditional or optative is formed by the addition of the 
present indefinite of the verby& (jio) he, become, to the past participle 
of the verb conjugated, with a conditional or optative adverb, ex- 
pressed or understood, in the same sentence ; so, by> ^^ u^^^f^ {agar 
main bold, hota) if I had spoken ; b^Jb l> t ^^ r^^ {agar wuh aya hota) 
if he had come ; b**Jfc \J<^ . ^i«jl ^\^ {kash us-ne mara hota) would to 
God he had struck ! It may be noticed, moreover, that when any 
plural feminine form of the auxiliary verb ^, terminating in ^ (n) or 
f^\ {an), is used in construction with participles preceding, these 
commonly drop the like plural signs ^^^ {n) or ^ {an) ; as, ,^-Jb J^J t^ 
{ham boli hain) we {females) have spoken ; ^^-Xijyb ^^ i^j^ lS^ {^^ 
mart ga'i ho'engln) they {females) may have been struck : yet, some- 
times, they are retained; as, ^j^ cJ^^ (^ {ham boliyan hain) we 
{females) have spoken, 

24. The present indefinite tense is the same in form as the present 
participle, already explained at paragraph 21 ; so, UjjJ ^^^ {main 
daurta) I {a male) run ; ^T a^ {wuh ati) she comes ; ^J^ /^ {ham 
jate) we {males) go ; ^^^ /»j {turn boltln) ye {females) speak.* 

a. The imperfect or present past tense is obtained by adding the 

CO ^ 

auxihary past to the present participle ; as, l^ \i^ ^^ {main likhta 

CO ^ ^ 

tha) I {a male) was writing ; ^ \J^ji ^ {wuh parhti thi) she was 
reading ; ^j^ ^ly -J {tum bolti thin) ye {females) were speaking.-f 

* The present indefinite tense, moreover, with a conditional con- 
junction or adverb of wishing, expressed or understood, is much used to 

^ c ^ ^ 

convey the sense of a past conditional or optative; as, Hj y lixLj mtT* t^^ 


li^ {agar main bo ltd to wuh likhta) if I should speak ^ then he would 
write ; yet such sentences when rendered word for word are intelligible, 
if I speak, then he writes. 

+ When one or more feminine participles precede an auxiliary verb in 
the pluriil, the plural sign ^^ {n) or ^i {an) is generally omitted in all 

the Hindustani Language. 35 

b. The present definite or present present is formed by the addition 
of the auxihary present to the present participle ; so, (j^ lJj.J ^j^ 

y 9 

(main daurta hurt) I {a male) am running ; ^ ^\ y i^tuatt hai) 
thou (a female) art coming. 

c. The present future is had by the addition of the auxihary future 
to the present participle ; so, \^»^ or ^^^ ^y^ ^^< (main parhta 
ho'un or ho'unga) I (a male) may (shall or loili) he reading; 
jJoj^^ or ^J^^ ^^ a^ (wuh gdtl home or howegf) she may (shall or 
luilt) he singing. 

25. The future indefinite or aorist* is obtained by affixing to the 
root, for the first, second, and third persons singular of either gender, 
jj^ (un) ^ (e) ij (e), and for the like persons of the plural, ^^, (en) 
3 (o) j^. (jn) -J so, jjj)^ ^J0^ (main karun) I may do, ^Ji y (tu kart) 
thou may est do^^S^ ^j (wuh kar'e) he (ox she) may do ; ^^Jj^ *Jb ijiam 
karen) we may do, ^j> p (tum karo) ye may do, ^S c^ (^^ karen) 
they may do : and, in a more strictly future sense, by subjoining li 
(^«) l/ ^S^^ \J, ^^^ ^^ ^S'^^^ ^^ ^^^^ (g^yan), agreeable to the 
gender and number of the governing noun, together with the afore- 
mentioned affixes, to the root ; so, l^j [>- ^^-^ (main ja^unga) I (a 
male) will go, ^Si^\ *j (wuh dwegf) she will come, ^S^^ /^ (ham 

" " c ..I 

kahtnge) toe (males) shall say, ^^i^ *A (ham kahtngln) we 
(females) shall say. 

but the final auxiliary, as above exemplified ; yet, sometimes, though but 

rarely, the participle retains it, as jo^ {J^i^. (^ (ham boltiyan thVdn). 

* This form serves for a subjunctive mood, and has occasionally an 

indefinite present meaning ; so, ^^ l^ ^-^ y t^jl i^ (wuh awe to main 

ja*un) (if) he should come, then I shall go ; ^^ ^-j l_5^^ ^^^^ ikhudd 

chdhe so hare) (what) God wills^ that he does. 

36 A Grammar of 

a. To such verbal roots, however, as end in \ {a) j (o) ^ (e) or ^^ 

(5), the letter J may be optionally affixed, or not, before every future 

termination beginning with (^ (e) ; so, from t come, may be formed 

ij^\ {awe) ^^1 (aw'en), &c. ; from jJ sow, ^^j^ {howegt) ^^t^^jji 

(howengiyan) : and, on the contrary, verbs ending in ,^ (e) or j 

i " ^ 

(0) may admit of contraction or elision ; so, j^^ J {de'un) or j^j J (c?zi7i) 

(/) may give ; c/jJti \dewe) or ^^J (cZe) (Ae or she) may give ; 

boy J {de'unga) or Ujj J {dunga) (/) ^AaZZ gi?;e ; j;> J (c?e*o) or jc) (<^o) 

(ye) ?wa?/ give ; ^ji,^,j^ (dewen) or ^j J (f?e7i) (z^e or ^^ez/) may give ; 

j^jjJb {ho* tin) or ,^^ (Zto/i) ( j) y/zay &e ; c/jj^-^^ (jiowe) or ^^ jjb (Ao'e) 

or ^ (jio) {thou or he or sAe or z7) may become ; ^^-i^ij mJJ) {howengin) 

or ^^;-xj^ {ito^engin) or ^j^^ jX^g^'^) (^^ or ^Aey females) shall 

become; ^j^ {le'un) or ^^^ (Zmw) (/) may ^a/ce; ^/jJ (Zez^;e) or J 
(Ze) (Ae or 5^e) ^way #aA:e ; ^ (Ze'o) or j! {lo) {ye) may take. 

b. Roots of more than one syllable, having a short vowel in the 
penultimate and fafha {a) in the final, drop the latter vowel when the 
signs of the future are subjoined ; so, UjjIC {niklunga) from Jio 
{nikat) issue ; l^j3^ {guzrega) iromj j^i {guzar) pass. 

26. The imperative for the second person singular is the mere root 

of the verb ; and, for the second person plural, it is formed by adding 

J (0) to the root ; so, Jy {bol) or Jy y {tit bol) speak thou ; Jy 

{bold) or jiy J {tum bold) speak ye. The other persons of each 

number may be the same as in the aorist ; so, ^^y ^^^ {main bolun) 

I may speak, or {if) I may speak ; ^Jiy ^ {wuh bole) {if) he or she 

may speak : yet, to express the imperative sense in these persons, the 

verb t/J {de) give {thou), or in the pluraKt) {do), or in the respectful 

form j^<-^^.ii {dijiye) be pleased to give, or j^.J {dijiyo) you must give, 

is more commonly used, like the English " let" ; so, ^d ^y f -^^ 

C 9 " " 

{mujh kb bolne de) let me speak ; ^^^'^ 15*^^ 15**'^ ^^^^ bolne dijiye) 

the Hindustani Language. 37 

he pleased to let him (or her) speak ; ^-^.(^ ^^, jf^\ (u7i-kd bolne 
dijiyo) you must let them speak, 

a. In this mood of the verb, moreover, and of very frequent use, is 
the respectful or precative form ^^ ^ (iy^) c>r in a future sense UL> ^ 
{iyega), which some honorific term, such as l->T (op) self {you, Sir), 


ci-^-Js*- (hazrai) the presence, \^^s^^ (sahih) the lord or master, &c., 
generally precedes ; so, jJ^j l->1 {ap boliye) be pleased, Sir, to 
speak ; l^rj^ c-/T (jip Vijiyega) you. Sir, will be pleased to take : 
but, the termination ^^ ^ (iyt) is at times adopted impersonally, and 

O >> O i 

as an indefinite future or present ; so, -gi J ^ j\-«.i-j J \^}^ r* !^ 
i^j^ ^ (^'o marjd'iye to sansar ke dukh se chhutiyt) when one 
dies, then one escapes from the tfsii}^ of the world; ^^^cf^^ {chahiyt) 
one should desire, {one must). And, to give intensity to the impera- 
tive sense, or to express command respectfully, or even with a precative 
or future meaning, the termination ^^ ^ {}yo) comes, also, frequently 
into use ; as, ^U l^ \j^ {mtra kaha maniyo) mind my saying ; 
^yi aUj \j^ jLm*\ {us-ko mera paigham boliyo) speak to him my 
message; ^j {j:^-*^ Jj^ \j^ (niera yar salamat rahiyo) may my 
friend remain in safety ! ; ^\s>- j^ (mar jaiyo) may you die. After 
words ending in ^^ ^ (j) orj (o), too, it must be noticed that the affixes 
i^. ^ (.^y^) c>r l^^ ^ dy^g^) s-i^d ^ ^ (^3/^) become ^^ (j^y^) or ^»^ 
{fi)y ^4r^ ijwg^)y Jtrr 0'*>o) or ^ (jo) ; so, ^c:^^';> V^ («P 
dtjiye) be pleased, Sir, to give ; ^f:^=^^ t-^^^-U (sahib kljiytga) the 
gentleman will be pleased to do ; ^^^^ U)! (azma Ujiyo) you will take 
(and) try. Before these terminations, we may add, the roots ^ (ho) 
j> (kar) 4^J (de) J (le) usually become y> (hu) ^ (ki) ^^J (di) \ 
(^i) ; so, (^^rr^yb O^ujiije) ^^i (kijiyo) ^c^^^ ((^w) ^^} (liji- 


b. Another way of expressing an absolute command is by the use 

38 A Grammar of 

of the infinitive ; as, bT lJ^^^ /^* {turn jaldi ana) you (are) to come 
immediately ; li^ <U (^\ (us-ko na kahnd) not to tell him. 

c. In a prohibitive sense, l::-^^ {mat) is generally used before the 
verb ; as, jjU l::^^ ^L^\ (us-ko mat maro) do not heat him ; ^f ^ 
^^ ei^A) {turn kuchh mat hold) do you not say anything ; CL^b ^J\ 
^^ Lz^^ [us-ki hat mat suniyo) hear not his word : for the like pur- 
pose, however, <0 (jia) may occasionally be adopted ; so, ^^^Sy Jt3 <^i w 
{laga na dil ko kahln) place not the heart {or affection) anywhere. 

27. A transitive verb is formed from an intransitive, or a causal 
from a transitive, by the addition of \ {a) or \^ {wa), and sometimes of 
^ (o) to the root, the vowel of the primitive, if long, being frequently 
shortened before those additions j so, \:>- {jald) hum (transitively), 
IjL?- {jalwd) cause to hum (by another), from J^ {jat) hum (intran- 
sitively), he hurnt ; hb {hild) move (transitively), Ijbb {hilwd) cause to 
move (by another), from Ji& ijiit) move (intransitively), he moved ; L 
{hula) call, l^b {hulvjo) cause to call (by another), from J^ {hoi) 
speak ; •J J {duho) drown, from <— ^^i^ {dub) he immersed or drowned ; 
•^ {hhigo) wet, steep, from c^^J {^hlg) he wet : and if the primitive 
root end in \{a) ^j ^ (?) cf {e) or j (o), the letter J {l) is to be inserted 
before the transitive or causal sign, the vowel being shortened ; so, 
1^ {khild) feed, \^ {khilwd) cause {another) to feed, from l^ {khd) 
eat;\i^ {pild)give to drink, ^j {pilwd) cause {another) to give to drink, 
from ^c) {pi) drink ; ilJ {dila) cause to give, Uj {dilwd) cause {ano- 
ther) to cause to give, from ,_? J {de) give ; Lb J {dhuld) cause to wash, 
\^i} {dhulwd) cause {another) to cause to wash, from ^J {dho) 

«. In other cases, these verbs are obtained by lengthening, if short, 
the vowel of monosyllabic, or the last vowel of dissyllabic, roots ; as, 
<3l^ {kdt^ cut, from lIU^ {kat) he cut ; 0^^ {chhcd) hore, from J^ 

the Hindustani Language. 39 

(jchhid) he bored ; J^ ig^ot) dissolve (transitively), from J^^ ighul) 


he dissolved ; J^s^ {jof) join, from j:>- (j^f) he joined ; J\0 (nikdl) 
make issue, expel, from Jio (nikal) issue : yet, when the termination 
Ij (wa) is used, the short vowel of the primitive remains ,• as, \^^ 
\katwa) cause (another) to cut ; \^ \nikalwa) cause to he expelled, 

h. In a few instances, especially if the root be a monosyllable ter- 
minating in an aspirated consonant, either 1 (a) or 51 (la), as before 
described, or very rarely Jl (a/) may be added to form the causal ; 

C Co O C. 

so, l^J (dikha) or l^t^ (dikhla) shew, from ^d (dekli) see; ^Lo (sikha) 

or \^ (sikhla) teach, from .^C-j (sikJi) learn ; \fj (hitha) or il^ (hithla) 

or Jl^ (haithdl) seat, from -^ (haitji) sit ; Jl^ (paithdt) cause to 
ew^er, from .^ (paith) enter, the long vowel being continued in the 
syllable before Jl (at). On a principle nearly analogous, too, are 
formed L^ (nahla) cause to bathe, and l^iy (nahalwa) cause to cause 
to bathe, from l^J (nahd or w^a) JaMe : and, a very few causals seem 
to deviate more from analogy ; as, ^j (becJi) sell, from v.lio (biJc) be 
sold ; j^^ (chhor) let go, from L!Uf»- (chhuf) be let go ; j^ (phof) 
and J l^ (phdr) break or hurst, from ^^ (pf^ut) and LlUf> (phaf) be 
broken ; Jy (tor) break, from <J!jp (tut) be broken ; ^ (nib cf) finish, 
from JJ (nibar) he ended. 

c. In dissyllabic roots, the short vowel of the last syllable, if it be 
fafha (a), is dropped when 1 (a) but not when Ij (w;a) is suffixed ; so, 
IfS!^ (samjha) inform, from ..fs^ (samajh) understand ; l^ (sarka) 
wiove, and 1^^ (sarakwa) cause to move, from (Jj^ (sarak) he moved ; 
\i (hahla) amuse, from J^ (bahal) be amused. 

28. Compound verbs may be formed in various ways. If regard 
be had to the structure of the words, a compound may be obtained, 
firstly, by the addition of some verb, regularly conjugated, to a sub- 

40 A Grammar of 

stantive or adjective, which remains unchanged as a masculine singu- 
lar uninflected ; secondly, by the addition of a verb, regularly conju- 
gated, to the root, or the infinitive, or the past participle, or the pre- 
sent participle of another verb ; and, thirdly, by the construction of 
two verbs, both admitting the usual changes of conjugation : and, 
verbs of this description may, according to their import in English, be 
arranged under particular terms, as follows : — 

1st. Nominals;so, l3^ ci?b (hat karna) to discourse; l3^ c jj^ 
(shuru^ karna) to begin ; U^ u)b [ydd rakhna) to recollect ; liJ J^^ 

o o 

{mol Una) to purchase ; IJ^U i^^i (gh ota mama) to dive ; l3^ aUJ 

{tamam karna) to finish ; liyb \j^^ {purd hona) to he complete. 

2nd. Intensives ; as, L> J J^ (Jbol dena) to declare ; Ub ,^^ {de 

ddlna) to give away ; li.O J\ j (ddl dena) to throw away ; U)l J jU 

(war ddlna) to kill downright ; \j\p^ \^ (jchdjdna) to eat up ; ^V^ 

{gir parna) to fall down ; U^ J *y (tor ddlna) to hreak to pieces ; 

U^l Jy (^oZ uthna) to speak out ; l3U- \ (a jdna) to come suddenly, 


3rd. Potentials, formed by the addition of I^Cj (sakna) to he ahle, 

o c 

to the root of another verb ; so, li^ ^ (likh sakna) to he ahle to 
write ; liCs J^ (chal sakna) to he ahle to walk* 

4th. Completives, formed by adding li^ (chukna) to he finished, 
to the root of another verb ; as, li^ ^^ (pi chukna) to have done 
drinking ; UC>- l^ (khd chukna) to have finished eating. 

5th. Inceptives or Inchoatives, formed by the addition of US (lagna) 
to come in contact, to he applied, to hegin, to the inflected infinitive 
of a verb ; as, U^l ^c^ V (holne lagna) to hegin to speak ; U3 ^^-^ 
(kahne laga) he hegan to say ; Ixl ^^^y (parhne laga) he hegan to 


* Sometimes, however, especially in Dakhani, Ux«3 may be constructed 
with an inflected infinitive, or even an uninflected one. 

the Hindustani Language, 41 

read: and, sometimes, though but rarely, \C1 precedes ; as, ^^U- \1) 
(lagajane) he began to go,* 

6th. Permissives, formed by adding lij J (dena) to give, to let, to 
permit, to an inflected infinitive ; as, LjJ i^W" Qane dtna) to permit 
to go ; liJii jJ \ {ane dena) to let come. 

7th. Acquisitives, formed by the addition of bb (pana) to get, to 
acquire, to an inflected infinitive; as, l3b ^^T {ane pana) to he allowed 
to come; bb ^b>- (jane pana) to be allowed to go. 

8th. Desideratives, Requisitives, and Proximatives, formed by adding 
liJbU- (chahna) to desire, to require, regularly conjugated, to the past 
participle of a verb, which remains unchanged in the state of the 
masculine singular, whatever the gender and number of the governing 
noun may be ; so, IfcU- L« (niara chaha) or ^l>- U< (mara chahi) 
he or she wished to die, or was about to die ; Lii>U- bl?- {jaya chahna) 

o o * 

to wish to go, to be about to go ; bjbl>. l^ (jiikha chahna) to wish to 
write, to be about to write.-^ In this compound, the regular past 
forms \j< (mara) and bU- (jaya) are preferred, as in the examples 
above, to the more common 1^ (mu^a) and L^ (gayu). 

9th. Frequentatives, formed by the addition of U^ (karna) to do, to 
make, to the past participle of a verb, which is invariably used as an 
uninflected masculine singular, whatever the gender and number of 
the governing noun may be ; so, b^ bj (ay a karna)) to make a prac- 
tice of coming ; b^ l^ (likha karna) to make a practice of writing ; 
\ij> bU- 0'«?/a karna) to make a practice of going. In this com- 
pound, too, like as in the last described, bl^ is preferred to IX 

* In Dakhani, especially in poetry, the verbal noun in ^ (an) may be 
used with L^l ; as W ^^ he began to open, 

+ In Dakhani, or even in Hindustani occasionally, an inflected in- 


finitive, or in Dakhani even an uninflected one, may precede Li»lp-. 


42 A Grammar of 

10th. Continuatives, formed by adding UU- (jana) to go, or \usbj 
(rahna) to remain, to a present participle made to agree in gender 
and number with the governing noun ; so, UU- Ixl^j (bo ltd j ana) to go 
on speaking (« male) ; Ikfc; bU- {jdtd rahia) to keep going, to go 
entirely away (a male) ; ^J> lyV" lJ^V (^^^* J^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ S^^^ ^^ 
weeping ; ^j-Jb ^J V [J^ji (jP^T^^^ j^^^ hain) or ^ij> ^^Jb^ l<^ 
{parhte rahte hain) they (males) continue reading. 

11th. Statisticals, formed by adding a verb regularly conjugated, 
to a present participle used invariably as an inflected masculine singu- 
lar; so, l)l:>- 1^4?^ (jbolte jdna) to go (in the state of one) speaking ; 
L5^ iJl ^^ (gate ati hai) she comes (in the state of one) singing; 

^ bjjJ i<Jjj (j'ote daurtd hai) he runs (in the state of one) weeping. 
12th. Reiteratives, formed by using together two verbs regularly 


conjugated ; as, UU- Uy (bolnd chdlnd) to converse ; Ul^ ^^.<^ 
(dekhnd bhdlna) to see. 


29. Verbs may be derived from either substantives or adjectives, by 
afiixing the verbal signs only in some instances ; or, more commonly, 
by shortening the vowel of the original, if long, and inserting \ (a) 
or I) ^ (iyd) before those signs : so, ^J^J^^ (chaurdna) to widen, from 

Ij^ (chaurd) wide; \j\c] (latiydnd) to kick, from ci^^ (idt) a kick; 

^ p 

13 LI^ (galiydnd) to abuse, from ^li' (gdli) abuse ; IjIjj?- (jutiydna) 
to heat with ^j>- (juti) a slipper. 


30. The Passive voice is formed on the past participle of an active 
verb, by the addition of UW to go, both parts of the compound being 
made to agree in gender and number with the governing noun ; so, 
LS [;U ^j^ (main mdrd gay a) I was struck ; ^^^ tfls*- !^U ^^ (main 
mdrd jdtd hun) I am struck ; Uij U- IjU ^j^ (main mdrd jd'ungd) 

the Hindustani Language. 43 

I shall he struck; .^^^^ ljJ^ ^j> {larki mart jawegi) the girl will 
be struck. 


31. The auxiliaries,* used in forming the definite tenses of verbs, 

are to denote the 




t (.M)\ii 

I was. 

thou wast. 

§ Hj he was. 



>Ji> we were. 

aJ ye were. 

v^j they were. 


(jiun) jj^b jj-^ I am. 
(jiai) ^Jb y thou art. 
(jiai) jJi> ^j he is. 

(hain) ^^ *Ji> we are. 
II (jio)c!i p ye are. 
{hain) ^Jb ,^^ they are. 

Aorist or Future. 
{hon) jjyb or, (jio'un) ^^ ^Jb ^j^ I j ^ 

{ho) ^ or, (^o'e) l5^ or, (jiowe) ^^^ y thou / ^§ ^o 
(jio) y> or, (^o'e) ^j^*^ or, (jiowe) ufj^ ^ Ae, sAe J | 

* Which are, also, the substantive verb, answering to the English be, 
am, art, is, are, was, wast, were. 

+ The above is for the masculine gender : vi^ith a feminine nominative, 
it vrould be^^ {tht), and in the plural + ^^ {thin) or J^ {thVan) ; 
in Dakhani, the latter only. 

§ Dakh. a^ {wah) or jl (o), S;c. 

II Dakh. ^^nr^ V {turn, hain) as in the two other persons. 



53 "^ 


44 ^ Grammar of 


(jion) ^j>^ or, (Jid'en) ^^*;ii> or, (hdwert) ^^jj^ >^ w;e 
* (Ao) yb or, (jio'o) ^ ^ (^ ye 
(^ow) ijJb or, {Wtn) ^j^^^ or, (Jidwen) ^j^fe oj Mez/ 


+ (jiunga) li^ or, (jid'unga) l^^yb ^^ / 

/ y*^ ^ ^ ^ 

{jioga) ^y& or, ijio'tga) lx>jJb or, (jidwega) l^,jyb y ^/^om 

(jioga) liyi or, (hd^ega) l^,^ or, (jidwega) l^jy^ ^ ^e 

J {hdnge)^ybor{hd'enge) (<^,y> or (jidwenge) iJ^,j^ Jtibwe \ ^ 

§ (^oge) ^ or, Ao'oge ^"^b j^* j/e ) i^ ^ 
(jiojigi) ^^ ox (Jio^ enge) ^J^^^^ ov (jidwenge^ jjj ^^eyj -^ 

Conditional or Optative. 



g ^ 

S -o 



I become. 

{koto) \j^ ^ y ^^oM becomest, 
^ ^e becomes. 

aJ& 7i?e become, 
{hottj^yib ^ jf yg become. 
v^j i^ey become. 

* Dakh. jj^b or M«J^i> or j^.j^y^ V like as in the other two persons. 
Remark that the jj in all these forms is the soft nasal letter \n), 

+ For the feminine, the termination o \ga) becomes ^ \gt) in the 

% For the feminine, this termination ^ \ge) becomes ^ \g~in) or 
ij^ \giyon) in the plural; and the latter only in Dakhani. 

§ Dakh. iS^,^^ {hdwenge)y &c., like as in the first and third persons. 

the Hindustani Language, 46 

32. The intransitive verb IjU. (jana) to go, is much used in form- 
ing the passive voice of transitive verbs, as well as in other compounds 
and it is conjugated as follows, for the mascuhne gender. 

Imperative for the second person singular, or The Hoot. 

Infinitive and Gerund, 
(jane) ^^ or, {jdna) Ul>. to go, going. 

Past Participle, 
Singular. Plural. 

lybL^ or, (gaya) Lf I 
(gayd hu^a) J 


S^V ^5? or, (ga'e) ^ \ 
{ga'e hu'e) 


Present Participle. 

\jb\j\>' or, {jdta) Ij'U- [ 
(jdtd hu'a) 


J'^ J* V ^^y 0*^^^) 4^ \ 
(Jdte hu'e) J 


Past Conjunctive Participle. 
Singular and Plural. 

CO ^ 

^^U- or iJJ^ ^ V l5^^ s^ ^ V ^^f^^^g gone. 

Past Indefinite Tense 
I jj-^ / went 

J thou went est. 

i^ he went. 


we went. 

1^^ they went. 

Pluperfect or Past Past Tense. 

^^ I was gone, 
V r^ ^ y thou wast gone. 
^j he was gone. 

♦Jb 2^76 z^ere gone, 
ye were gone. 
t^ they were gone. 


A Grammar of 

Past Definite or Past Present Tense, 
Singular. Plural. 

^j^b Lf ^^ lam gone, 
2ti Li' yi thou art gone. 
^ \f i^ he is gone. 

Past Future Tense 

^-Jb ^^ ♦Jfe we are gone. 
*yb ^jS J ye are gone. 

'i •^ 

yjjJiLT^/ "lay, shall, or 
c ^ ^ 2iJz7Z have gone, 

c5^y^ .. ^ ^^iSfc. or TwigA^ 

e^jy^L^f^ ^^ 

wiay, sAaZZ, or 
will have gone, 
■''J'^ L^^ f y ]src. or ».%A<, 
d'-a^^'^i iAeyj^c. go. 



't "^ ^ *^ ,. \shall, will, or 

■ o \s.r ;- vmay have gone ; 

%Ji:^^Sfy^ [or, mgAif, ^c. 

Pas^ Conditional ov Optative Tense. 

shall, will, or 
^ may have gone; 

^~i^^ 9 ^^'^ox, might, Src. 
l&jJfeL^^ ^e J go. 


if, would to 

vo had gone; OX, 

^ then I, Sfc, 

. should have 

L.^> ^/ 

ijf, would to 
^ God,we,Scc., 
^ had gone; or, 

'^ should have 
gone. See. 

But the conjugation of Dakhani verbs varies in many particulars from 
the proper Hindustani, as may be seen in the ' Short Grammar of the 
Dakhani," appended to the author's more extended " Grammar of the 
Hindustani Language." 

the Hindustani Language, 


Present Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. Plural 

Ic;-^ I go- I f^ we go. 

y thou goest. 
i^ he goes. 


f ye go. 
W^ i^ey go 

Imperfect or Present Past Tense. 
^j^ I was going. 

^ ^^ \ y thou wast going, 
i[^ he was going. 

we were 


J , ^j\s>- / Ji ye were going. 
t^^ they were going. 


Present Definite or Present Present Tense. 

j^yb IjU- ^j^ I am going. 
^ \ji\s>. y thou art going. 
Jb Ijlj*- 2^ he is going. 

jj-Jb ^^ ^ we are going. 
^ ly^" ^ ye ^^^ going. 
^j^ jJU- ^^^^ they are going. 

Present Future Tense. 


^,^yb bl^ ^^^ I 

may, shall, 
^^y^\i\>- yithou )or will he 

^j^b UU- 2iyhe 


ij^'3^ L5^^ (^ ^'^ ^^y* shall, 
^ " going* 



^^\j\:^^ thou W ^^y ^e 

L5^-'^ LS"*^ (*^ ^^^ shallfWill, 
J^^j\^^ye \ov maybe 

* This form of the verb, if a conditional conjunction or an adverb of 
wishing accompanies it, may be used in the sense of a conditional or 
optative, like the tense immediately preceding : see paragraph 24, note *. 


A Grammar of 

Future Indefinite or Aorist. 
Singular. Plural. 

(jawe) lS^ ^ thou / '^ o 


kj^^y thou / 

(jdwen) f^i^^ (»^ we 


(jdwen) ^^. jU ^j they) | "I § 

Future Indefinite Tense 


(jd'unga) l^jU- ^^ 


{jawega) lx>jU^ J tJioiu ^ gi 
(jdwega) l^jl^^ ^ '^^ J "^ 

ijawtnge) ^Cu)^^ t^ we 

(j^'oge) ^^ V ^ ye ) ^ >^ 
{jdwenge)^^^^^^^ they 

^ « 



(jdweii) fj^,^\:>- *^ we may go, let 
us go. 

(^ jdwen) ^^,^ c5j let them go. 

(jd'un) ^jt U- ^^^ I may go, let 
me go. 

{ja) ^ y go thou. 


(jdwe) lS^^ ^3 let him or her 

Respectful and Precative forms of the Future and Imperative. 

•^ Vv * I * I you, Sir J or your excellency, Sfc. may, 

or, I c^:>-U \ shall, or will go ; or, m,ay you. Sir, go ; 

(jd'iyegd) iL V I ^j^j ^^^ ^^"^ excellency, ^c. go. 
(jdHye) ,c>*U- we may, shall, or will go ; or, may we go. 

V ' 

% ^ 

y thou may est, shalt, or loilt go ; or, go thou. 
^j Ae /way, shall, or i^iZZ go ; or, may he go. 


J ye may, shall, or will go ; or, go ye. 
t^j they may, shall, or will go ; or may they go. 

For the feminine gender, the masculine singular final \ (a) of the 
infinitive, the participles, the auxiliaries, and the future, as above 

the Hindustani Language. 49 

described, must be changed to y/ (?) in that number, and to ^^ ^ 

(jn) or j^l> ^ (iyun) for the plural ; but, where two or more feminine 

plurals come together, it is usual for the last only to take the numerical 

sign ^ (n) or ^^1 (aw), the preceding participle or participles being 

constructed in the feminine singular form : sometimes, however, the 

plural termination is repeated, as shewn at note to par. 24. a. 

33. Conjugation of a regular transitive verb for the masculine gen- 

der, exemplified in l?^l« (marna) to heat or strike. 


Imperative for the second person singular, or The Root, 
{mar^ jU heat, strike. 

Infinitive and Gerund. 

[marne) ^J^ or {mama) UjU to heat, heating. 

Past Participle. 



lyb \Ju or, {mara) ]^U heaten. 
(jnara hu^a) 

^^ ^J^ ^^' (rware) t^jto heaten, 
(mare hu'e) 

Present Participle. 

^jU or, (marte) ^J^< heating, 

" " f. 9 

{marte hu'e) \j^ 

\jib IJ^U or, {marta) l5;to heating 
{marta hu'a) 

Past Conjunctive Participle. 
Singular and Plural. 

^Aj^ ^^ K^J^J^AJ^ \^J^ t^UjU having heaten 

Past Indefinite Tense. 

1*15^ c^ ^ ^^^^' 

{mara) IjU < ^ y thou heatedst. 


^ fj^ he heat. 


^ ^ we heat, 
{mara) IjU | ^ (J ye heat. 
^J f^\ they heat. 

* See the note to paragraph 23, for the reason of this particle in con- 
struction with the past tenses of transitive verbs. 


A Grammar of 

Pluperfect or Past Past Tense. 

\^ \j\ii 

^ ^j0^ I had beaten. 

J* thou hadst beaten. 

\ he had beaten. 


fJ >Jb 2^e had beaten. 
^ ^ i^ (^ ye had beaten. 


^ ^ they had beaten. 

Pa^t Definite or Past Present Tense. 


I have beaten. 

^ -^ 1 L^ y thouhastbeaten. 


\ he has beaten. 

we have beaten. 

^ -^ \ Ls' H y^ ^^^^ beaten. 

^J (i>' ^^^y ^^^^ beaten. 

Past Future Tense. 


!\may, si 
J'iJ^^^ \ovwillh 

^^1 ^^ thovJ^^f^i^^ ; or, 
" , \mightjSrc., 
[jfjJhe j^^at. 

(ynay, shall 
Lr r prwillhave 

^^^ U^\\J J ye ijbeaten; or, 
p vmightySfc, 

J Jth^y]beat. 


yhall, will 
ks t:^ \oT may have 

P \shouldySfc., 
^ (J^ he j^eat. 

\shall, will 

V I \ox may have 

l^ljU { ^ J ye \beaten; or, 

9 )shouldjSfc., 

J> J they%^^t^ 

Past Conditional or Optative Tense, 

byb !jU 

^ icT" 


y u-^ 

If, would to 

. JP had beaten ; 

J then J, 6fc., 

.5 would have 
' «> 

beaten, Sfc. 





If, would to 
^ ^ had beaten ; 
*^then we, ^c, 
.® would have 

beaten, Sfc. 

the Hindustam Language. 
Present Indefinite Tense, 




^^P^ I beat. 

Mib we heat. 

* \\J^ ' 


J thou heatest. 



' jjj ye heat. 

i^ he heats. 

i^j they heat. 

Imperfect or Present Past Tense. 

^j^ I was heating. 

Mjb we were heating. 

J \jjl< ' 

y thou wast heating. 



J ye were heating. 


i^ he was heating. 

^^ they were heating. 

Present Definite or Present Present Tense. 

j^yb IjjU j-^ / am heating, 
^Jb IJjUy thou art heating. 
^ \jjio Sj he is heating. 

^jJb j^Jjto AJb we are heating. 
y> ^J^ /J ye are heating. 
^-Jb ^jU cJj they are heating. 

Present Future Tense. 


uj^ bjU ^^^ / 

o o / 

ij^yti ij^Ujj thou 


may, shall 
» or ii;j7Z he 

^j^ Jju ^ we 

S-C " t. 9 

o o 

^.jyb Jjlc yj^ they 

may, shall 
> or will he 


^^y^ IjjU ^^ / ^;^^^;^ ^ -^^ 
\^ bjU ^ ^^OM [ or may he 

o o o I 

J^..3!i^ Jj^ ^ '^e shall, will 

S^^Jj^'^ye \ ox may he 
/ " ..^ .7. heating. 

* When a conditional conjunction or adverb of wishing precedes in 
the sentence, this form of the verb is often used in a past conditional or 
optative sense, like the tense last described : see the note to paragraph 24. 


UV^ CT^ ^ 

A Grammar of 
Future Indefinite or Aorist Tense 

I may, shall or 

c^U y thou \ y^ill ieat ; or, 
heat, Sfc, 

^£^to ^ he 



Future Indefinite Tense, 

may, shall or 
will heat ; or, 
heat, Sfc, 

5^aZZ, will or 
UjjU y ^^OM [ 'fn'Ciy heat ; or, 

heat, Sfc. 

JjOjU aJi> ire 

^ J^J^ ^ y^ 


I shall, will 


ma^ Z>ea^ ; or, 
heat, Sfc. 


^jjjlc ^j*^ I may heat, let me heat, 


jU y heat thou, 


ijf;U) ^ Ae TWO?/ heat, let him 


(jjjU Ja we may heat, let us heat, 

jjU V Jea^ ye^ 
^jU t^j ^^ey Tway heat, let them 


Respectful and Precative forms of the Future and Imperative. 

(mariye) ^ij^{ cJTjy^^* ^^*^> ^^ 2/^^^ excellency, Sf-c, may, 
I shall or t^Jz/Z &e pleased to heat; he pleased. 


^^J^y'^r^] pleas 

to heat; may your excellency, Sfc, he 
(marly ego) it^^U [ ciyi^ | ^/e^^grf ^o heat. 

(^mariye) j^jU zre ?way, shall, Sfc, heat ; may we heat, 

9 I 

y thou mayest, shalt or wilt heat ; or, heat thou, 


. a^ he may, shall or wiil heat ; or, may he heat, 

(mdriyoj^jU s ^ 

f»j ye may, shall or will heat; or, heat ye. 
. (j:^ they may, shall or will heat ; or, may they heat. 

* Dakhni ^^y^J^ ^ and ^^^Jl< 

the Hindustani Language. 



Imperative for the second person singular, as The Root. 

\^ J^U he beaten. 

Infinitive 2Lnd Gerund. 

j^U- or IjU- l^lo to be beaten, 
being beaten. 


^U" or IjU- t_^U to be beaten, 
being beaten. 

Past Participle. 
LS'l^U been beaten. \ ic^ ^J^ ^^^^ beaten. 

Present Participle. 
IjU- l^U being beaten. \ if* V t-?;^ fteiwg beaten. 

Past Conjunctive Participle. 

having been beaten. 
Past Indefinite Tense, 


I was beaten. 

-^1 y ^^^^ "'^^^ beaten, 
^ //e t(?as beaten. 

^ ^J^ 

M^b we were beaten, 
Mi ye were beaten, 
4j:j they were beaten. 

Pluperfect or Past Past Tense, 


/ had been beaten. 

^ i/b^^ 

y ^^OM hadst been 

Hj he had been beat- 

C A^ we had been 



>- ^? \ ) ^ V^ had been 

ijj they had been 


A Grammar of 

Past Definite or Past Present Tense. 

^y> Lf IjU ^^p^ / y^az;^ 5eew heat- 


^Jb Li' I^U y thou hast been 

^ U^ j^to ^j Ae ^«s 5ee» 5ea^ 


U^ L5^ *^^ (^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 


jfe ctr^ c^Lc J ye have been 

^^-jb ^ ^j^ 1J3 t^^y ^««^^ ^^^» 


j^ ^ ^ beat- 

Past Future Tense. 

9Wfl!z/, shall 
or i<;iZZ ^«z?e 
5eew beaten; 
or, mighty 
Sfc. be heat- 


shall, will 

or wzay have 

^ -^ , .beenbeaten; 

\S^\/\jl< 2Sj he 

Sfc. be beat- 

shall, will 
or may have 
been beaten; 
I or, should, 
\Sfc. be beat- 


Uyb Lf l^U, 

jPa5^ Conditional or Optative Tense. 

ijf, would to 

^ God, I, ^c. 

^ /iac? been 

,^ beaten ; or, 

^ Mew /, ^c. 

would have 

ieew beaten. 

If, would to 
^ God, we, 

¥5 beaten ; or, 

^ thenwejSfc. 


^ TTV-^ 

t-^ would have 
been beaten. 

the Hindustani Language, 
Present Indefinite Tense, 


^^^ / am beaten. 
Ub- }jU <^ y fjiQy^ dy^i beaten. 

Hj he is beaten. 


AJi we are beaten. 
S^W" lsJ^ \ J ye are beaten. 

Vj^j they are beaten. 

Imperfect or Present Past Tense. 

^^-^ I was 
V l^V b^ S y thou wast 
a^ he was 

AJ^ we were 
^^.^J^ J (J ye were 
4^^ they were 

Present Definite or Present Present Tense. 
^^^ Ulsj- l^U j^^ I am \ %, 

•• ^ ^ Is 

jjb bU- I^U iTj ^e is 


^^ ciW tj;to ^Jb M7e are | § 

^ f § 

y> vJV ^j^ f ye are ( '^^ 

I '"^ 

lU i_?^ thev are ) ^ 

(Jti^ <J V ^J^ h^J ^^^y ^^^ 

Present Future Tense. 

t^j^yj) bU-J^U J thoumayest) -I 

I "^ 

^jjyi) ciU- i^Lo aA 2i?e wzay "j -^ 
j*yi> (Jl5>- u^U aj 3/e may 


Uj^b b'U- l^to ^.-Aj / shall 
lijjb li'U- IjU y thou shalt 
l^ UU- IjU 2^ ^e sAcfZZ 

^S^^ <J^ ^j^ (^ ^^^ shall 
15^ ti V 1-5;^'* ^ y^ shall 



A Grammar of 

Future Indefinite or Aorist Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

^ I or will he 

(^^W l^U y thou ) beaten ; or, 
, . . ' _ 1 5e beaten 

f" y^ ^ ^AoM \beai 

' ^ or tf?i7Z be 

J V Sr^^*^ (*^ y^ \ beaten ; or, 



Future Indefinite Tense. 

shall, will 
>> I beaten. 

l/^ V 4^^-* i*^' 2/e r^ ^^y ^^ 

/ I beaten. 


lO^W" IjU) ^^-^ Ze# ?we 5e beaten. 
l^ l^tc y 5e f AoM beaten. 

ii?:l5^ 4-f;^ (»^ ^^^ ^5 ^^ heaten, 

j^ lsJ^ (^ b^ y^ beaten. 
c^.?^ ^J^ ^J ^^^ Mem be beaten. 

Respectful and Precative forms of the Future and Imperative. 

L5i, • ^i'^ I ^1 y^'^y ^^''^f ^^j 2/^^^ excellency shall, will or may 
or < t-^^U» \ be beaten ; be you, Sir, beaten ; may your ex- 

^*^- ljJ^ I Cl\*^3>. cellency, Sfc, be beaten. 

L_5^. V 4^^ ^''^ ^'^^y? sAttZZ or z«z7Z 5e beaten ; may we be heaten. 

( i ^ 

J thou mayest, shalt, Sfc. or be thou heaten. 

y. he may, shall, Sfc. or may he he heaten. 

\ *j ye may, shall, Sfc. or be ye heaten. 

Ic^j they may, shall, ^c, or may they he beaten. 

For the feminine of both the active and passive voices, the singular 
masculine final \ (a) of the infinitive, the participles and the auxiliaries. 



the Hindustani Language, 57 

where it occurs in conjugation, must be changed to ^^ (z) in the 
singular, and to ^^^ (jn) or jjl>^ (iyan) in the plural : when, how- 
ever two or more words are constructed together, each of which might 
assume the feminine plural sign ^ (n) or ^ {an), as in many of the 
definite tenses, whether active or passive, that sign is usually omitted in 
all such words but the last ; so, ^L5oj .y) or ^^^Joj^yb \S^^ ^3 ^^^V 
{females) shall he going; ^^,lXy^ or ^jr^^ ^\>- ufjl< ^b we {females) 
shall he heing heaten. Sometimes, though but rarely, the plural 
termination is repeated : see in paragraph 23, d. also paragraph 24, 
note f. 



To words of this description, answering to our prepositions, adverbs, 
conjunctions, and interjections, the word uJ^ (^«^/) borrowed from the 
Arabic, is generally apphed. The preposition, which in Hindustani usage 
is mostly a postposition, may be termed^ *— ip" {harf-i jarr) : and, 
this is of two kinds : the simple {^^Ju mufrid) which follows the noun 
it governs without the intervention of any other word ; and, the com- 
pound (^^^^^ murakkah) which usually requires ^ {ke) ov ^ ^ {ki) 
to intervene between the noun and itself. 

34. Of the simple postpositions some notice has already been taken 
at paragraph 6 ; to which reference may be made : and, the most 
usual postpositions, which become compounds by taking ^ {ke), or 
the inflected mascuUne genitive of a pronoun, in common before them, 
are — 


58 ^ Grammar of 

(j^\i^ near, at the side, by. 

tlx>4^ neary about, tcith, 

{^» {yahan) at the abode, with 

j^Ja-jlj on account, for, 

L5^ (%e) on account, for, 

ljJ^ by reason. 

by reason, 
ib by reason. 


c-*^^ by means, 
^\ in fronts before, 


^^-^L in front, before. 

^yi\&yc in front, opposite. 

yj^{ in the rear, behind, 

SM after (in point of time). 
ji^^ over, upon, above, 

j^flcU beneath, under, below. 

^ beneath, under, below. 
jJJl within, in the inside, 
jitXi oxjb\i without, out, 

vl^* to, up to, till. 

{^Jl near, to, as far as. 
^jL«jJ between, among. 
^j among, in, between. 
^j^:s\j among, in the midst. 
^jb«L-it round about. 

ji\j^ equal to, opposite to. 
(J->} fit, suitable, loorthy. 
JjlJ> capable, icorthy. 
(JJ^yo according to. 
j:jIL< conformable to. 
jJc without, besides. 


^jtXJ besides, without. 
^'Ls in company, with. 
{jo^ instead. 

Jjj (badal) in exchange, instead. 
-gjlto into the hand. 
j[} over, across, through. 
i^\ji by reason, for, to. 

/>" 9 

3j^-V f^^^ ^^ f^^^y ^^ i^^ presence. 

the Hindustani Language. 59 

The most usual, too, of the postpositions, which become compounds 
by taking ^J (/:?), or the feminine genitive of a pronoun before them, 
are — 

j>;^3 in relation, in respect, 

ju^b on the subject. 

(_J;t on the side, toviards. 
^Js in the manner, like, 
Jb\£>~for the sake, for. 

5Jt^ hy means, by. 

35. Adverbs admit of various divisions ; and are too numerous to 
be here fully detailed. The adverb of time or place is often derived 
from the demonstrative, interrogative, or relative pronouns, though 
many are of other sources ; and, a few of the words before described 
as compound postpositions, are of frequent use as adverbs : so, — 

^\ in front, before. 

j^^-saj in the rear, back, 

jti\i 0XjSb\i out, 

L^\ now. 

l!J3j l^\ or lUS c-^1 till now, yet, 

»X^ or c^^^ when ? 

fj^^ or ^\ 
" ^ . . " Tr ^^^» sometime, 


^j^ ^^ &c. sometimes, 

O O 

(^^^ ij ^^ some time or other, 
^ i^^ since when? how long ago ? 
^ ^ never, 
^ or Jo- or t-^c>" when. 

or uX' 

till when, until. 

^tillthen, so long. 

ij •^-r'^ perpetually 
y or y or JJ or t-^ then, 

^l^^ here, this place. 
jj->^ exactly here, 

or LlJi jjl^, 

or lS^ ^\i, 
or c^l ^L^, 

1^^ there, that place. 

hitherto, to this 


^J^J exactly there, 

jjl^ wherel 

^^j^ somewhere, anywhere. 

{j^ ^ (*^ somewhere or other, 

{jf^ e^-v^ nowhere. 

^^^yi> every where. 

y*)t*r ji^ elsewhere. 

j^ll^ where, which "place, 

ii^V^ l;V?" "wherever. 

u;V uV^" ^^^^ ^'^^ there, every- 

[j^ jjl^ wherever, 

jjly there, that -place. 
y5iX)l or^jt here, hither. 
^Jjl or^jl ^Aere, thither. 
jSb>^ or JbJ^ where ? whither ? 
^Jur>- or JbJc»- where, lohither. 
jJfeJuj or^Jj ^Aere, thither, 
^ jbdi &c. whence? 

b o 

^JjybJc>- ^ere aweZ Mere. 

-4 Grammar of 

ii€jb every where, 


(jjyJ iw, within, 

j:^ within. 

ijjj on this side, near. 

(jr^ on that side, beyond. 

jUjlj on both sides, across, 

^1 to day, 

J^ yesterday or #o morrow. 

J^ «-.! nowadays, shortly. 

L^J*^ ^^^ t?a?/5 «^o or ^o come. 

i^y^ three days ago or to come. 

ii!^"!/ /^^^ ^^y^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ coTwe. 

(^^' a^ ^^e 6Za^^?^ of day, early. 
lJj:^^ in the morning, early. 
C*-/*Jfe always, ever. 
Lii^j always, ever, 



/•1*X^ always, eternally. 
^^ a^ some time or other, 
j^ yet, 
^ also, too, moreover, even. 

The most common adverb of interrogation is ^^^ {kyun) or Jj^ 

b c 

{kyunkar) why ? how ? or ^JbJ^y^ (jkiswaste) wherefore ? why ? 

the Hindustani Language. 61 

The adverb of cause or reason, ^^ {kgunki) because that, or 

CO '' 

^Lrftj^l (iswaste) for this reason. 

The adverb of similitude, l--^ \jaisa) as, like as, or bj^ igoya) one 
might say, as it were. 

The adverb of explanation, ii ^-^^ {jaisa ki) or <!^Vij*- {chunan- 
ch%) like as, so as, or ill< (mislan) for example. 

The adverb of peculiarity, Jb (A?) or ^j^ (jiin, used as an affix or 
a separate word) or ^5 , (?, as an affix only) very, exactly. 

The adverb of assent, ^J<ib (jian) or ^y> (^ww) or ^ (JaZe) yes. 

The adverb of negation, dj {no) or ^^^ (nahtn) no, not, nay, nor, 
neither, j^lfcl {ahan) or ^;^j^ (unhun) nay, no, do not. 

The adverb of prohibition, ^jl.^ (mat) not, do not. 

36. The Conjunction (<d.*^ *— IP" harfi-jumla) may be — 

Conditional—^ ( Jo) i/, z^Aew, or^l (f^gctr) if. 
Consequential — y {to) then (answering to the conditional). 
Of exception — ^ (par) but, moreover, ^jL^ (lekhi) but, yet, S^ 

(magar) but, unless, except, iili (balki) but. 
Of explanation — ^ (ki) that, because. 
Conjunctive — j^\ (aur) ov ^ (0) and: or (dakh.)jyi> (haur). 
Disjunctive — b (ya) or, i\ys>^ (khwdh) whether, or, ^ (ki) 

that, or, 

37. The Interjection may be — 

Of addressing or calling to — 1^\ (ai) or <^1 (e) or ^1 (o) or 

O?"^ («/?) O ! ^j\ (are) or ,^1 (abe) you fellow ! &c., 

ji (id) look ! see ! there now ! 
Of astonishment or of applause — ^\^ (wah) or aS^ ^\^ (wah wah) 

well done I bravo I \^s>\ (achchha) or ^-^:>• (khub) well ! 

excellent ! 

62 A Grammar of 

Of grief or pain — ^T {ah) or ^5 Ifc (Jia^e) or cS |^ (wa^'t) or Ij 

(z(;fl) or L jlj (wawaila) or 4^ l& ^^'U (Aa'e ^a'e) z^jo / alas ! 

lackaday ! 
Of applause or exultation — (jJibl-i» (shdbash) bravo ! j^i^ ^^ 

(jaijai kar) huzza ! 
Of blame or censure — 154^ {chhi), ^y <oy {tauba tauba), 

i-Jl (w/), tush ! fy / 



38. The Cardinal numbers, from one to one hundred, with Indian, 
Arabic, and European figures representing them, are as follows ; — 














• •• ••• .••(nau)y 








{das) (j*.(^ 








{igarah) )iji\ 








{bar ah) ajo 




(panch) ^V 




{terah) ij^ 




(chha) ^ 




... {chaudah) a^^^ 




(sat) C^L 




{pandrah) ^JJJ 








{solah) ^j-o 

^^e Hindnstam Language, 












(satraJi) xj^ 




... {aVkfis^ t^l 




(^aVharah) ^l^! 




... {untaUs) (j-Jli3l 




\unis) (j--J1 




{chaUs) (j~JU- 




(^75) j^;--J 







(ikkls) ^j^\ 




^ " 




{bals) fj^ \j 





(tetalis) fjJi\::^ 




(^tels) (j-^ 




... (chau'alis) ^'^^^ 




• •• (chaubls) {j^,*^ 

■ 45 



• ••{paintaUs) j^^-Jlsj^^ 




{pachis) ,j,.^^ 




...{chhVdris) cr-JUe- 




• . • {chhahhts) ^j^;^^ 




...(saintalis) j^;--*!lii--o 




{satcTis) ^^^ 




... {aVhaiis) ^Q\ 




... (avhdris) y^;\^\ 




(unchas) (jJ^\ 




(untts) ^j^\ 




(pachas) ijJc^^ 




' {fis) (^' 




(ikdwan) ^^^\ 




{iktis) ,^^S\ 




... ... (hawan) j^^lj 




(bath) t^rrr^ 







{tetls) fj-.^ 




t5 ^ 

(chauwan) ^^ 




• •• (chautls) {j^^^ 




... (pachpan) ^^^, 




{paintls) ^^-:u-J 




... (chhappan) ^j,^ 




. . . (chhattis) {j-^i^^ 




... (sattawan) ^^\:^ 








• •• (aVhdwan) j^^fl 


j4 Grammar of 


iunsat'h) .j?.jl 








... («m) ^»*!\ 




(saVJi) .^Ls 




(ikasi) ^\^\ 




(zter/i) .fill 




... ... (be^dsf) ^-J^ 




(j)RsaVh) ^\j 




... ... {tirdst) ^\y 




{tirsafh) 4^^ 




... {cJiaurdsi) i^\)^^ 




... {chausaVh) -gl*>^ 




... (pachdsi) ^\^ 




... (painsafh) -^l**i-J 




... {chhVdsi) ^L^ 




(chhTasafh) ^«jU^ 




{satdsf) j^li-3 




4, O 

... {satsaVh) ,gIL.:ui 




(afhdsi) ^\^\ 




... (afhsath) .gL^I 




.s. (nau^dst) ^^f 




{unhattar) j^\ 




(nauwe) ^j^ 




... . c . isattar) ji^ 




(ikdnawe) tjyl^l 




m O 

(ikhattar) j:^\ 




... {hdnaioe) (j^yV 




(jbahattar) j:^. 




... (tirdnawe) i^^]/ 




Ktihattar) j^ 




(chaurdnawe) i^y>^j^ 




. . . {chauhattar) jJb^ 




(^pachdnawe) uSy>^ 




. . . '{pachhattar) yj^ 




{chh'Vdnawe) u?yl»f>- 




...{chhihattar) J^-^p- 




... {satdnawe) ^^y^ 




... (safhattar)jx^ 




... {aVhdnawt) (jryl^'l 




... {aVhhattar) j:^\ 




... (nindnawej ^jy^ 




{undsi) ^\j\ 




{sau) y^ or (sai) j^ 

the Hindustani Language, « 65 

Some variations from the above occur in the dialects, even, of 
Hindustan and Bombay ; and still more in the Dakhni of Madras : 
for the latter, reference may be made to the appendix of the author's 
Hindustani Grammar ; but the most striking differences discovered in 
the former are here subjoined. So, aj^ gyarah, 11; \j\^\ aVhara, 
18; \j-^\ unnis, 19; ^j.^) ekiSy 21; (j--::>^J ektis, 31; (j^.f>. \ J' 

taintisj 33; fj^^ chauntlsy 34; j^^-rti;^ artis, 38; ^^Isri 

unchalis, 39; ^^«Jli^l ektdlzs, 41 ; ,j^l::j.-j* taintatis, 43 ; ,^^'c^ 
chhataliSj 46; ,j--Jl^j^ ar talis, 48; ,^^l^J ekawan, 51; ^j;^^ chaupan, 

^ '' o o 

54 ; ij^ts^ pachawaUy 55 ; .^Uol eksaVk, 61 ; L!Uf>-l^ chhdchhat 
or .^J^ chha-safhy QQ; ^j\ arsaVh, Q^ \ j:j^\ ekhattar, 71; 
^;:Jfc^ tirhattar, 73 ; ^-f>- chha-hattar, 76; ^^^3 ^^^^^j 81 ; ^b 
hasi, or (^|;J birast, 82; ^-sUi panchdsl, 85; l5«'^>- chhasl, 86; 
jy nauwad, 90 ; c/y^J ekdnawe or tjyl^l ikdnauwe, 91 ; ij^jjb 
hdnauwc or c/y|/ birdnauwe, 92 ; oy|/ tirdnauwe, 93, &c. ; i^y'^^ 
panchdnawe, 95 ; ^/j3l^ chhdnawe, 96 ; cjy W nau^dnaioe, 99. 

a. The series after one hundred is continued thus, uX>J ^ l1X>J 
eA; saw eA:, 101 ; j^^,,-^^ jj c?o sa?/ pachls, 225 ; lI^oI j.i jJ^Jb tl^^i 
eA: Aazar aur ek, 1001 ; ^j^\ y^ ^\i jUto uJol eA: hazdr pdnch sau 
ikkzs, 1521. 

^. When the word tliol is immediately subsequent to another 
numeral or other numerals, it may convey the meaning of near or 
about, one more or less than such number or numbers ; as, lL^\ y^ 
about a hundred ; lLXj! jii ^ jJ near two hundred and two : and, if 
a noun is used, it generally precedes the numeral, when this sense is 
intended ; so, CJj\ ^^j ^^^T about ten men ; Jou CSi\ ^ J ^^J^ two 
gharts or so afterwards. 



66 A Grammar of 

39. The Ordinals are—- 
1st. l^j^ pahla. 

2nd. 5/-*j^ dusrd. 
3rd. \j^ tlsra. 

4th. V;-^ chaufha. 

5th. (^^^ssrb panchwan. 

\f^ chkafhd or (^^^i^ 

7th. (^^yl-s satwdn, 
8th. ^\j^*.M dVhwdn. 




10th. j^^^tS daswdn. 

And so forth, by adding generally jj|^ (z^a^) or occasionally ,^1 
(a^) to other cardinal numbers. 

40. The common aggregate or collective numbers are — 

IjLmj saikrdy 100. 
j\yb hazdr, 1000. 

^^ Idk'h, 100,000. 
j^y /caror, 10,000,000.^ 

41. In a distributive sense the numerals, whether cardinals or 
ordinals, are repeated; as, uJoJ lS^\ one hy one; (j^d (j^^ hy tens ; 
^J^y^;b (j^»^V ^^^^'2/ twelfth Proportionals and reduplicatives are 
formed by adding \:^ gundy or, more especially vt^ith regard to the folds 
or rows of any material, ly tahdy or \^ lard, or by partd to the 
modified forms of the cardinals as used in composition, and in some 
cases to the unaltered forms ; so, 1^1 single, Ijl^J double, \3jJ treble, 
^^ quadruple, l^^ quintuple, \ji ^»- sextuple, ^j^ septuple, 
\£ ^ octuple, l^y nine fold,\:^ ^^ tenfold. With Persian numerals. 

^ In the decimal arrangement of numbers, the rank or degree of 
units is termed ,^1^1 eka't; that of tens, ^ Uj dahd^l ; that of hundreds, 
5jLu«j saikrd (or at Bombay, J^^:^-' senkra) ; that of thousands, \^jib 
hazard ; that of tens of thousands, \J\\Sti ^^*J das -hazdr a ; that of hundreds 
of thousands, l^ lakk*hd, &c. 

the Hindustani Language, 67 


is much used for the same purpose ; as, ^^i^;t> twofold, twice as 

O ^ ^ i. J> 

much; Jc^ ^ treble; Jc^ j\^ quadruple; ^f- ^3 ninefold; 
JCJ&- ^J tenfold: whilst ^|^ or ^ may be subjoined in a hke meaning 
to the simple forms of the cardinals as before given, or to the Persian 
nouns of number; so,ji\ji»^ twice as much; d3 ^threefold; jAj CjL 

or ij ^^z-^ seven fold, 

42. The usual terms for fractional are— 


f jb i«jb> derh pa'o, 


\i Ifc-o sa2^a (with a 

iijj J. derh, 

jj Jjj paune (quarter 

less) do, 
jj ly-j 5atf>5 do. 

^i u;:!-' L5^J^ ^^f^^ (with a 

half) ^?/i. 
1^4 (.^^ j^^J pawwe bis. 



And with the aggregate numbers, these terms are used as follows — 

75 ^ (Jy paune sau (lOO--7-)« t 
125 ^ \^ sawa sau (lOO+i-)* 
150^ ^i derh sau (100+ y)- 
175^-j ti^ ^y^paune do sau(200--^J 
225 j-j^J U«j sawd do sau(200-\--^) 
250 ^ ^ \it>j\ arha'l sau, 
750 y^ ci^L Lc^jbrf sdrhe sat sau.^ 

1 ,250 jUjb 1^ sawd hazdr, 
1,500 jljJb ^J derh hazdr, 
l,750jUfe^J(j4; paune do hazdr. 
2,250 jJjJb^iJ 1^ 5az^a do hazdr, 
2,500 j^jJb c5 b^Jl afhd'i hazdr, 
75,000 ^^ Jy^jpawwe Z«A;'A.§ 
125,000 4'^ \y^ sawd Idk'h, 

* At Bombay, \jy paund, + At Bombay, y^\)y paund sau. 

X At Bombay,jJjib \i%i^paund hazdr. § At Bombay, ^^ b^pawwa /aA'A. 


A Grammar of 

150,000 ^i ^vjJ derh lak'Ji, 
175,000 ^Sjt^ fjtJ^paune do lak'h. 

225,000 -^^ jJ 1^ sawa do lak'h, 
250,000 ^^ J\^f^ afha'i Idk'L 


43. Abstract nouns are often obtained from adjectives by subjoining 

c5 , (?)* as (^ |%f" breadth, from \j^ broad. 

Of OP 

^i (p^) ?> t ^i^ old age, „ Uj^j oZc?. 

\:j {pana) „ ^|^ widowhood „ 1^ widow. 

u-' W >> tu-^^ sweetness, „ 1^2-^ si/;ee^. 

. y • 

iJUfc (^«f) „ ^JL^^ji bitterness, „ l.J^ bitter, 

b (^a) „ lid^^ softness, „ J-«^ 5q/jf. 

J (^z) „ Lj-^ deficiency, „ J> little. 

U (^) ?> Ci)^=e6^ height, „ W^^ /^^g^. 

Sometimes, though but rarely, by subjoining to primitive nouns 
substantive — 

CL^ ' («^) as u::*^-^Ji humanity, from ^c'^'^t waw. 

C^,^ {ayai) „ l::^Wu a council, „ ^\j^flve. 

* When the original word terminates in ir silent, i^ becomes substi- 
tuted for that letter before the aflSx c5 / (i) ; so, ^j\j freshness, from 
iij\i fresh: and, in Dakhni, ^\ (flgi) or iJyJ C^'egi) occurs as an affix 
to form abstracts. 

+ A long vowel is sometimes shortened before the affixes, as in these 

the Hindustani Language. 69 

Abstract or verbal nouns, moreover, are abundantly derived from 
verbs ; some having the same form as the imperative in the second 
person singular ; others resembling the past or present participle in 
either gender ; so, J^ speech ; jj fear ; jU heating; IsJ^ the faculty 
of speech, from Jy speak ; ^z:>^ a reckoning, from ^i count ; \^ a 
saying or order, dictum, from ^ say. They are, also, to be obtained 
from the second person singular of the imperative, by adding — 

J (o) as ^ b J pressure, from b J press down. 

yi (d'o) „ /^j^ ascent, „ ^jf^ ascend. 

^,(7) „ ^14 a feeding, „ l^ feed. 

tj ^jJ a sowing, „ 

J.>- burn. 
\^^ deceive. 

lij contrive. 
1> caZZ. 

iiA=r « burning, „ 

Ij (z^a) „ i^ deception, „ 

Llfj (wat) „ <^bj contrivance, „ 

iJUJb (^af) „ tSsibL a calling, „ 

And, to Persian adjectives, or to imperatives of verbs, fjt , (ish) is 
often added to form nouns of this description, not unfrequently used in 
Hindustani ; so, ^jti\>^, production, from 1ju> produced ; ^\d know- 
ledge, from jjlt) know. 

44. The name of the agent or doer is commonly obtained by sub- 
joining ^Ij {wala) or \J^ {liar a) each liable to change for gender, num- 
her, and case, to the inflected infinitive of a verb ; as, "iS^ ^j^ writer, 
\j\ji^j\^ smiter : nouns of the hke use are, moreover, sometimes had 
from verbal roots by affixing — 

CJiak) as CS^ a writer, from ^ write. 
CJ^ (ak) „ <-^lri ^ ^^" 




Ul (a^a) 

Wj^J a runner. 

\y> rww. 

70 ^ Grammar of 

|?j (ora) as Ij^ a deserter, from t^^J j^ee. 

bj (waiya) „ V.^^ singer, „ ^ sing. 

And, words denoting the manager or agent in anything, are occa- 
sionally formed from nouns, by the addition of — 

JljM) as Jl,5/| ^ . ■ 

)a wharjinger,iwm cJ!-?lf a wharf. 

J\^ (war) 





o ^ 

^-i3t) a trotter, 


J^ (har) 



jl^J^^ bracelet-seller. 


ijj^ bracelet. 

j\ (ar) 


jU^ a currier. 


>»U- leather. 

\j (wR) 



U^-* a fisherman. 




9 o 

j^ a watchman. 


^ a watch. 

\jj^ (era) 



J^^--:s**5 snake-catcher, 




^_^)JCm-o « messenger. 

^^j JC.-J a message. 

V, / (^y«) 


Ui^ butter-man. 


j^^^ butter. 

bV. / (ij/ara) 


\j b— .^ grass-cutter. 


U-^ grass. 

'j^l ' (ait) 


c:--Jl^ spearman, 


i5l^ spear. 

Jb (paZ) 


^^ a cowherd. 


if cow. 

^^1^ (wan) 


^^„j^ a carter. 


Jj€ cart. 

Ulj (waha) 


bbl^ ploughman. 


Jji> a plough. 

Jj (ban) 


^^bji> a porter. 


jd a door. 

OCJ (band) 



J^iJjO a farrier. 


Jx3 a horseshoe. 


jUc^ cockfighter, 

ii\j away, 
i;-< a cocA:. 



^^jij-ii? a drummer. 


j^-ji? a drum. 

jb (dfar) 


lUi-^J a landholder. 


f^^j land. 

the Hindustani Language. * 71 

^\ {zari) as ej^ «^ archer , from jJ an arrow, 

jL {saz) „ jL) j^*^ ari orator, „ ^^-^ speech. 

jl^ (fcar) „ jl^J^ evildoer, „ 4>J ez;iZ. 

j^ (gar) „ j\ijb\:^ sinner, „ )fl:»i siw. 

P (gar) „ ^\^y^ a merchant „ 1 J^ <ra(fe. 

45. The noun of place is sometimes the same in form as the infini- 
tive of the verb; as, in ^^j ^e.!/* ^^ **^ ^ range ox park for deer ; 
but, it is more frequently formed from substantives by affixing — 

^li-j, (istan) as jjl::^-*;:^ hurying-place, from ^ a grave, 

^\:l-s (s^flw) „ ,^L-;^JCJI> /7if?k, „ ^dcJb Indian. 

J^^(sthdn) „ e;W^,^ . , . ^ 

CO, «^ewijy^^, » ^,^agod. 

ill (aid) „ ^1^ Siva^s temple, „ ^ »Siz;a. 

J ' (ai) >y J^.*^ « rm;?/e, „ ;J J a goc?. 

J^\i (bm) „ c5?^tf> ^ , f "^ ^ 

•<^* * "'^ o / \a flower-garden, j^^ a flower, 

^% (^ari) „ c^jV^^ J 

JL (saZ) „ ^Vi^ a stable, „ \^^ ahorse. 

ilL (saZa) „ %^^^ a cow-house, „ ^^ a cow. 

jy^ (pur) „ j^J^ ci^y o/ G^a^r?, „ uijU 

/j(nagar) „ Jj x^\ city of Ahmad, „ .v^l I names, 

M (abdd) „ d\i}jS^ city of Haidar, „ jS^ ) 

^\i^ (dan) „ ^^X^ a pen-case, „ Ji a pen. 

j\j (zdr) „ jlj^il a tulip-bed, „ <0^ a tulip. 

^ (shan) „ ^^;XJ^ a rose-bower, „ JT a rose, 

i^ (gdh) „ ii^s^^ a resting-place, „ Aj\ rest. 

72 A Grammar of 

46. The noun of instrument may be the same in form as the infi- 
nitive of a verb ; or, it may be obtained by adding ^ (an) or ^J {m) 
to the second person singular of an imperative ; so, U-j or J^ a 
rolling-pirij from J-j roll ; ^^J^ « pair of scissors, from^ clip. In 
the instance of il^S a ball, this noun seems formed from the adjective 
J^ round, by the addition of \ (a) : and, from substantives it may be 
had by affixing — 

fj\ {at) as JVjt^^^* hour-bell, from ^j$ ghari, 

Jj (eZ) „ J-*C a camcVs nose-stick (J^\j a nose. 

if (a) „ <ti-jJ a handle, „ ll^^^^ a hand. 

<Ul (a/ifl) „ ^jI:l1j31 a thimble, l::^^L^\ a finger. 

CS{ak) „ lLC«w1«>- spectacles, „ Jl^ an eye. 

47. A diminutive noun is obtained from the common noun by 
adding — 

\ (a) as \3 a little daughter, from ^J^^ a daughter. 

\ a tiger s whelp, „ ^h a tiger. 
h(ela) „ L^J 
h^{iyo) V \J^ asmallbedstead, „ LlA^ a bedstead. 

CO o 

Ij (zra) „ Ijtyo « manikin, „ ^^ « »^a?^. 

CJ (ak) „ CJ^^ a musket, „ L^yi a cannon. 

<^ , (jcha) „ <^^snilj a little garden, „ ^b a garden. 

^ (cha) „ ^^.J 

L5f (^^0 .; ^_^ •• 

a kettle, „ lL^j J a caldron. 

Or, by changing a final \ (a) to ^5 ^ (?) ; as, ^j a string, from L; 
a rope ; Jj^ a bullet, a pill^ from i|^ a iaZZ. 

48. Adjectives may be formed from substantives by prefixing — 

the Hindustani Language. 



l3 {no) 



J^ {nir) 

^'. (be) 
*3J (bad) 
J {kam) 
^ (Jiam) 
LT {su) 
Or, by affixing- 

<^> , (jna) 
<Gl> , \iyana) 


h itld) 

Jj ' {ait) 
JCwo {mand) 

jjU {man) 
l::^^ {want) 

j (a) 


as Jf>l fruitless, 

„ l3^1 impossible, 

„ Ju^lU hopeless, 

„ j^^ helpless, 

„ jJu fearless, 

„ jS\j) disrespectful, 

„ J^ undefiled, 

„ ^r*^^ incautious, 

„ ojM Jj ill-bred, 

„ LH^^^ssTj^^ wretch, 

„ tSJ^i (^ concordant. 

from J4^^ /rMZ^ 

„ jjT respect. 
„ J-< ^/^A. 
„ j^ care. 
„ CL^\ii nature. 
„ ^.::^^sir fortune. 
„ <^,^Ubl sound. 


„ <-->j/-» wellformed^ „ t^^j form, shape. 
„ i^.^;\^ ill-mannered, „ i^S^^ manners. 


S^liV ^ ^^^ market, 
^^^ wooden, 

<L.>^^. 'j silken, 
<01JUj annual, 
\^j juicy, 
Ly^ domestic, 
J-cJJ tusked, 

O o • 

Jc»^jJ icealthy, 
*-^^ powerfid, 

9 C 

^h^^ quarrelsome, 

from jljb market. 
„ (^y>- wood. 

„ JL year 
„ ^jjuice. 
„ j^ house. 

;jt> wealth. 


iiiXi wisdom. 
Jj power. 
W^ quarrel. 



A Grammar of 



O 9 

^^e hungry, 


^^J hunger. 



<^L^i^ biennial. 


JLjJ ^i^,'o ?/eflr5. 

h. ' {ahla) 



l^jy^ golden, 


l3^«j go/c?. 



l^afl hinder most. 



l^j ^7ie rear. 



jj^JjJ sightly. 


j^O z;ze?^. 



^\ single. 


uJo\ 07«e. 




l3jt3 double. 


^d two. 



1;--J third. 


^ three. 

Jij {wan) 



(j*.d ten. 

U (^5) 


l,^ aquatic, 


^b water. 

^fT (fig) 


>.^^^lo marriageable. 


Ijblj marrying. 

J) i«'ar) 


J^fy^ grievous. 


tL^ gTie/. 

A:j (hand) 

„ SujjLfJt> armed, 



jL^ arms. 

*Xi^ (mand) 


JCwiiib intelligent. 


Jic intelligence. 

^\ (ana) 


aJiftL childish. 


jb (c?ar) 


jblij faithful, 


lij fidelity. 

jLs (sar) 


jLjd^ mountainous, 


if a mountain. 



j^^Xkc sorrowful. 


*i sorrow. 

C/lJ (waA;) 


C/Uyb terrible, 


Jy> terror. 

jj («^«0 


j^li renowned. 


a\3 « wfljwe. 

jjl (awar) 


jhiJ ^i^'^^gy 


j^j strength. [try. 

\j (za) 


lf^.^J foreign-born. 


ijL^)j foreign coun- 

^Jlj (zacZa) 


;<^w<" noble-born f 


.j,^-^ woJZe {man). 



yjf^ blue-coloured. 


Jj Z>ZMe, indigo. 

the Hindustani Language, 75 

o o 

j*li {foLTn) as /»li^J^i£j saffron-coloured, from ^^jicj saffron, 

JjU {ma! it) yjd^y*LS'^jj yellowish, „ o^J yellowness, 

l3^ (jwna) „ ^<f^^ four-cornered, „ ^mcova^four, 
^^ (gosha) „ ^if^jLl^ hexagonal „ {JiJ^ six. 

49. Adjectives of intensity may be obtained from verbs, by affixing 
to the second person singular of the imperative d/l {ak) 1^1 {dka) or 
\^\ {anka) or b^ {waiya) ; as, (^|;j<^ a great runner, from JjJ run ; 
l^ljl quarrelsome, ^rom Ji Jig ht ; l>^:> eloquent, from ^ speak, 

50. Adjectives, as well as adverbs, *of which latter some notice has 
already been taken at par. 35, may be derived from pronouns in 
various ways ; and, like their originals, they are used demonstratively, 
interrogatively, or relatively : so, from ^^ (or Dakh. ^^ yah) this, 
are deduced Lji or liijj oy\j\ or [:j\ this-much, so much, so many ; Lj\ 

this-like, such; ^)^.,ot ^^ in this manner, thus : from a^ (or Dakh. 

^j wah) that, liJl or \j\ or Li.; j or 1:l>j that-much, so many ; Ljj that- 
>• o / .... 

/z/:^, so ; (j^j oxj^^^ in that manner, so : from ^^ who ? what ? 
which ? lii^ or U:i-^ or li^ or li-^ Aoz/; 7WMc/^ .i* Aoi/j many ? ^ how 

Twawy .^ l--i what-like ? z^^a^ 5or^ o/.'' ^oi^ ? ^^ oy Jjy^ how ? in 
what manner ? why ? ^j^ somewhere, anywhere : from y>- or j^^5»- 
who, what, which, l::;>. or li-:>- t^^a^ quantity^ as much as, as many as ; 
^^ as many ; L->5^ what-Uke, as ; ^^^ or ^^^ ovj3y>c>- as, like as : 
and, from ^ or ^^y that, come li:u or l:uj 5o much, so many ; ^ so 
many ; L-*j 5wc/i, 5o ; ^^ or j^^' or J^y*} so, in that manner, 

51. Transitive and causal verbs have been already noticed at para- 
graph 27. They are generally formed from other verbs by the inter- 
position or addition of ^ or^ or ^J or Ij or 1 The letter \ is frequently 
inserted after the first consonant of the root; and sometimes, though 
but rarely, it follows the second ; in other cases, it is added to the 

76 A Grammar of 

last : so, U5l^ to cut, from US^ ^o &e cm^ ; UlC ^o ^aA:e om^, from UJio 
^o issue; liW]* ^o 5ai;c, from l:»r:sr ^o escape: ^ and ^5 are used imme- 
diately before the last consonant of the root ; as, liL^ to open, from 
lil^ to he opened ; l:»*--j to pound ov grind, from li*«J ^o he ground: and 
Ij or ^ is always subjoined to the root ; so, ^^^j^ to cause to frighten, 
from l3j J to fear ; l3^ J to cause to give, from Uj J ^0 gzi;e. When the 
root, moreover, is a monosyllable ending in 1 or j or ^^ , the last letter 
is commonly dropped and J inserted before the causal sign ^ or Ij ; as, 
l)^ and l3y^ to feed and ^o cause to feed, from 1)1^ ^o ea^ ; ULo and 

l3l^ to cause to sleep and to cause to put to sleep, fromljj-i to sleep ; 
ULs and \i\^ to cause to sew and to cause to he sewed, from U--^ ^0 




52. The terms usually applied to grammar are ys^ ^ uJ^ {sarfo 
nafiw^ which may be translated inflection or accidence and syntax : 
the first has already been treated of, in Chapters II., III., and IV. 
especially ; and the latter, with which practice in the language will 
give the best acquaintance, seems not to require here any very minute 
or lengthened explanation. 

53. The noun in the genitive case usually precedes that with which 
it is constructed, as does the adjective its substantive : with these 
exceptions, and unless a conjunction occurs, a relative pronoun, an 
interjection or vocative, or some word which by way of especial dis- 
tinction or of emphasis takes the lead, the nominative case to the 
verb generally presents itself first in a sentence ; nouns in other cases 
if required, a participle or adverb, may follow almost promiscuously ; 

the Hindustani Language. 77 

^ * « 

but, the verb generally finishes the whole : so, ^ ^^, i^Joli l^ ^j^ ^^-l 

5^ory the advantage this is, that of the low bred the society (makes) 
the free born a slave, and the slave ruined makes. In poetry, how- 
ever, but little regard is sometimes had to this arrangement: as, 
' jjj jjIj^o /♦iJ ^ ^ ^jki^ ' jw*iib ^^ j^J^ ^ ^jky' studious of 
language are the intelligent ; by language is the name of the good 

54. Nouns of various genders, coming together in a sentence, re- 
quire the adjective, verb, or participle, governed in common by them, 
to have the masculine form ; as, yj^^ \^J^ ^yi? t/^ ^ ^^ i/ U^^ 
^ ^-^ J^ ^ her mother, fathei', brother {alt) the three in the 
meditation of the marriage of her were. With regard to inanimate 
beings, however, the adjective or participle usually agrees in gender 
with the noun, nearest which it is placed ; so, L^hi ^ ^JLi ^J^ 
^-J^ 4^ ^l^j iXcl^ J your son^s book and paper are lying here. 

55. Two nouns, having reference to the same person or thing, may 
stand in apposition without any word intervening ; as, ^Jj cf l^ ^ (jJ\ 
his brother Bikram. 

56. Notice has already been taken, at par. 6, of the changes to 
which the postposition l^ is liable in construction : and, though this 
particle serves generally to link together words of various import, 
yet on certain occasions it seems to be idiomatically dropped, and 
especially after a noun of weight or measure -, so, ^j^ lil^ Ganges- 
bank-on; \j^ Jy j\yb a thousand tolas {of) gold: and, on the con- 
trary, its use in some cases may appear to us redundant ; as, in 
la&l ^ Jsi fikr's word, or the word fikr. This postposition, moreover, 
is adopted to denote pui'pose, worth, size, possibility, totality, &c., as 


well as mere relationship ; so, cfj^^ ^ ^^ «*i eating room ; 

78 A Grammar of 

\j^^ l^ ^j y^ ^d of two hundred rupees a horse ; ^^^ ^ j^ l^V 
of a large head a hoy ; ^^^ ^ ^^s'^i^ -iri ^^^^ (female) cannot live ; 
c:.^^ l^ *-^^ ^^*^ whole field ; t-^«5 l^ u-^«j aZZ together; ^^ ^>^ 
«ZZ a picture; ^^^ CL>\j ^ CL>\j iji the dead of the night; ^ cijU 
^j^ cijb in the mere vjord; U^^ l^ i^t" ^^^^^ concealed. 

57. The nominative case is very often used when it is the object to 
a transitive verb ; and, indeed, no inflection of a noun, except for the 
nominative case plural, can take place without a postposition or pre- 
position immediately expressed or understood ; the latter circumstance, 
however, not unfrequently occurs, there being many expressions which 
from use are become idiomatical without the postposition : so, l^ ^jJ 

s- ^ 

jk^y M^j do tell me the name of this; ^ j4 house go, go home; 

li«s ;^y^ ^ ^.^^ c'v^^^ ^ neither seen (with) eyes nor heard (with) 
ears; ^^JcS "^ Ganges bank (on) ; ^Jb ^^j^\ (in) a good manner ; 
Ui^ ^-J jt) (^ ^^ (at the abode) of him were two daughters, an 
ellipsis of some word, perhaps ,^^j occurring in this and generally 
in similar sentences. The nominative case, moreover, supplies the 
place of the accusative, when another word with the dative postposi- 
tion occurs in the same sentence ; unless both words happen to be 

o ? 

pronouns, when each may be followed by its casual sign : so, ^jJ\ J 

^d / AJ ^j^ ^j^ thou thy own daughter to my son give; ^\ ^^ 
Ui. J 4 p I will give him to you. 

58. When two or more words in the same oblique case are used 
together, the postposition is usually subjoined to the last only; as, 

^J:i^^ ^^ ^jt^ 3 L5^^ lS^^ kJ.V ^Jr" ^^^^^ ^f gold, silver, copper, 
iron, &c. : and, if they are in an oblique case of the plural, though 
even a conjunction intervene, the plural sign may be omitted in all 
such words but the last; so, ^^ l^^*^ ^ ^^ V^j^ J3^ ^jf how shall 
we give a description of the elks and deer? 

the Hindustani Language. 79 

69. The simple postpositions follow immediately the nouns they 
govern; but, such nouns, participles, or adverbs, as are in common 
use postpositively, may sometimes precede the words with which they 
are constructed : so, ^^J^\ -§jI-s or -^fL ^ fjJ\ with him ; cj?;to 
^ L::^JLSbi^ or lJj^ ^^ ^::^LJbi} through fear {stricken of fear); 

l/ ^J^ ^^ ^^ <^h l/ ^J^'^^^'^ *^^ horse, 

60. Adjectives, if immediately preceding or following the substan- 
tives they qualify, must be made to agree with them in gender, case, 
and number ; but, when separated by any other word, they may be 
used in the uninflected form of the masculine singular, whatever the 
state or gender of the substantives may be ; as, *^^ ^^ f -^ ^ (jJ\ 
make his face hlack. 

61. With numerals, the singular form of a noun, whether in the 
nominative or any other case, is generally preferred to the plural ; so, 
\J^^ ^jV l^ l5^W cT^ '^^^^ soldiers heat four men; cSj^ j^}!^ 

^jb jS >^ <«3 there may he something less than a thousand horse: 
yet masculine nouns capable of inflection usually take the nominative 
plural form, as feminine nouns may occasionally take the latter, when 
more than one in number is to be denoted; so, iJj^4' [j^ three 
horses; f^}^^. J^ four daughters, 

62. When the feminine genitive of a pronoun or adjective, or even 
some feminine form of a verb, is used without any noun expressed, 
such common word as cjb affair, matter, is generally understood ; 
so, ^c:*^ ^ j^ <JJ \:^ ^^\ ij he neither mentions his own {affair) 

nor attends to {that) of others; lS ^ y^ ■jf' ^Jyi> '^^ whatever 
was to he, that {has) happened. 

63. In speaking of one's self with another, it is customary to give 

* Yetjj^ \^li may be regarded as a compound (nominal) verb: see 
par. 28. 

80 A Grammar of 

the first person the precedence, and, for that person even the plural 
is often adopted, though an individual only is intended ; so, ^ ^^^ or 
j^^^jUs- J* *Jb J and you will go. 

64. If the saying of a thir^ person be reported, the same pronouns 
and the same w^ords, in every respect, are commonly retained, as vi^ere 
used by the first speaker ; so, ^S^l^ <0 ^,-^ d^ [j^S ^ ^^\ he said that 
I shall not go, meaning in our idiom, that he should not go ; i^|^ 
jj^ jto VSj\^ ^ ^^ ^^^ king wished that striking the sword I 
will die, meaning, that he would die. 

65, The second personal pronoun is rarely used in the singular, 
unless from motives of adoration, endearment, familiarity, or contempt: 
in speaking respectfully to any one, the plural of this person at least 
must be adopted ; but, v^^hen a dependant addresses his superior, or a 
great degree of deference is intended, l^\ self, (^_^^:>-U? master, lUi^J^ 
the presence, -r^J^^^ great prince, or some other such term of honour, 
must be used, and generally with a verb in the third person plural. 
In mentioning a third person, moreover, respectfully, the plural is 
substituted for the singular, as it is not unfrequently done in the first 
person ; yet, when any one speaks of his own actions or circumstances 
with humility to a superior, or seeks even to address his friend with 
great respect, it is customary to substitute such words as ssuj or aIs. 
slave, i^j^i devoted, j»-U weak, jJ} beggar, Ltf-plc sinner, &c. ; or, 

CO op (j y 

in the latter castQ, j\d::^^d friendly , j^/aLs.-* sincere, ii\^jt>- wellwisher, 
&c. for the first personal pronoun. 

6Q. When a possessive pronoun, referring to the same person or 
thing as the subject of the sentence or the nominative case before the 


verb, is required, the common or reflective \ui\ &c. must then be used; 
as, lu >%lj Lj! tell thy name ; W ^j^ ^^ ^j>- ^}j^^ -rb *^'^ prince 
began to say in his own mind : and this reflective possessive may even 

the Hindustani Language. 81 

be used substantively ; as, JJ^^ ^^ V*^ ^^} 9 ^Jv^ f ^ iij>i^ y=r 
2*/* yoM shall kill your very own, then the protection of whom will 
you make? In a second member of a sentence, however, the peculiar 
possessive, and not the common, must be adopted ; as, c->b L^ j •! . -^ 
/ and my father, 

67. If used in a respectful sense merely, as noted at paragraph Qb, 
the word c— >1 does not admit of inflection before postpositions; so, 

^ ^ L5f^ l5^ ls^J y^^J^ l/ *^' I have pleasure, Sir, in your 
living a long life : and, to l^\ when used as a term of respect, the 
Persian t^S- (Jdiud), of similar meaning, is at times subjoined ; or, 
even the word c^ jjeople, or ^^ if plurality be intended. 

68. The interrogative, L^ tvhat ? which ? seems not immediately 
applicable to persons. It is often used by way of scorn, as well as to 
express satisfaction, astonishment, or desire : and, in these senses it 


may be followed by the appellations of human beings ; so, xS\yo\js^ \^ 
what a scoundrel ! It may be, also, adopted discriminatively ; as, 
^^UL-^ L^^JcJb L$ whether Hindu or Musalman. 

69. The interrogative adverbs ^^l^ and c-^^ are very emphati- 
cally used to denote non-existence, dissimilitude, or difference ; as, 

9 " 9 y 

Lf'b ^J uk'^ ^b ^ ^J^ where {is) that prince? where that princess? 
meaning, that they exist not ; ^XJ IxuT^jl^ —^j \^\j ^J<^ where is 
king Bhoj ? where Ganga the oilman ? importing that there is no 
resemblance between them. 

70. Though the indefinite pronoun u^ *^ is generally applied to ani- 
mate beings, as .^ is to inanimate, yet this distinction is not always 
observed ; as, in J*^ ^ f ^''^V thing, ^^\ '•^ some man. 

71. The verb commonly agrees in gender and number with the 
nominative or subject of the sentence ; except, however, that to a 
number of irrational beings, taken collectively, a singular verb may 
be attributed ; and, that in general a plural verb is used with such 


82 A Grammar of 

terms of honour or respect in the singular as are often substituted for 
the second personal pronoun : so, \j^ l> J i^^f^ ^3 ^^ makes a practice 
of guarding ; ^j^ \^<^ji (J"^ lJ^ ^^^ S^^^ ^^^ reading a lesson; 
\j\ \j^^ ^^ or ^ \ fj^j^ ^^ a hundred horse or horses came ; 't^\)^y^ 
^Jb t/ ^ L5^*l^ <^^^*^ ljC^ ei-^i^s'* ^5JjJ l-j1 ?/oMr majesty has with 
great labour come on my account. And, when two or more nomina- 
tives of different genders come together in the same member of a sen- 
tence, the verb and participles usually accord with the masculine in 
this particular, as exemplified at paragraph 54. 

72. Transitive verbs in any past tense of the active voice, in con- 
struction with which the particle ^J must follow the subject or agent,* 
if actually expressed, are made to agree in gender and number with 
the object of the sentence, provided that it is a noun, either understood, 
or stated as is most usual in the nominative case; but if the object be 
placed in the oblique case, or if it be a member of a sentence, the verb 
has invariably the form of the third person singular masculine. In 
this construction, the subject or agent, if actually expressed, is gene- 
rally inflected by ^J if capable of inflection ; the first and second per- 
sonal pronouns being the only words liable to change for case, that 
retain the form of the nominative, whether in the singular or plural, 
before this affix. f With the verb \il to brings however, which is in 
fact compounded of jj take and l3 \ to come, or with IJy to speak, 
though the former seems in all cases to convey a transitive meaning 
and the latter sometimes so, this construction is never admitted ; as, 
\ii JJ cs- ^^f^, jjU ,J^ ^ ^ ^ Brahman purchased {and) brought 
an egg-plant ; ^ "i^^ Hj he said that — 

* These remarks do not apply to the Dakhni, in which dialect the 
particle ^ does not interrupt the usual concord of the verb with the 
nominative case. 

+ See, moreover, the note to paragraph 23. 

the Hindustani Language. 83 

73. The form of the infinitive serves for the gerund or verbal noun, 
and in many cases for the noun of instrument or of place, as has before 
been noticed : but, it is also not unfrequently used as an imperative, and 
imports the absolute necessity of the action intimated ; so, ^i^ ^ ^1 

c^ . ^ "V - 

Ljb; d:^^ (it is necessary) not to remain neglectful of him ; ^i^^ ^ 

i^ (^fi • c op ^ '^ 

Lsi^ you (must) arrive quickly ; l^ ^^^ ^J1!^ ^J^ i^rr-* ^ ^^^ ^V 
no means obey your (word) ; l^ ^jJ^j j^-y «y.» this (is under the abso- 
lute necessity) of not remaining. 

74. The past and present participles, whether in the simple form or 

compounded with \^ , are much used in the state of the inflected 

masculine singular, whatever the gender or number of the governing 

noun may be, to denote some action incidental with, or preceding, 

* OP 
that which the subsequent verb declares ; as, ,-*! lJ^^ (in the) taken 

of him or for his sake ; (j?;to (X-^ (in the) stricken of which or 
by reason of which ; ^^ ^J^^ ^^ 4^*^ {J^J^ '^d j^"^ *-T^ 
having made to accord all the instruments in one tone (she) was 
dancing ; ^j[^jj\ ^^j^.j ^j^^ '^^J^y^A U^^ ^^^ '^ ^ ^ \S^ ^^ 
on going away he had kept saying that (on) becoming mounted on this 
do not use the whip nor strike the spur. With ^ the adverb of pecu- 
liarity or identity, or with d^J^ timcj subjoined, the simple present 
participle, too, is thus very frequently brought into use ; as, 

*^ CO p 

^ Hj ^-i CS^. ^ ^J^,'^ ^j immediately on seeing that she 
remained as one aghast. 

75. Both the past and present simple participles, moreover, are 
often used absolutely, and sometimes substantively, in the invariable 
state of the inflected masculine singular, when constructed with a 
preceding noun, or even with a postposition or preposition, or with a 

J, op 

genitive case j so, c5 *i> /^l^ (on) the become evening; ^Jy!> ^-^ (on) 
the becoming morning ; jAjU Jj (in) the striking an eyelid ; ^^■sr***' Ij 

84 A Grammar of 

without having understood ; ^j^ llj\) lij without having heard a 
word ; ^i^j ^rfr^ \in) the remaining of me or before me ; ^fC)t3 ^X^ 
(at) the sight of which ; ^Ji^,^^ ^ l-^-j (in) the sight of all ; 
lub; <0 ^ S^ \^^y^ \J'' (*^ ^^y ^^^ moment without the meditation 
of deceit he rests not. It should be remarked, too, that both these 
participles are occasionally used as nouns in either gender : and, by 
the repetition of a participle, continuance of the action is frequently 

76. The indefinite future or aorist may not only convey a present 
meaning, but it may be constructed with an auxiliary verb as a pre- 
sent participle even ; yet, when used in the latter way, it may be 

often understood as retaining its future sense : so, jj^-^ ^jt^ c^^ 

*:>*'> ^ 

^^ ^ A^ y ls^.*^ \^ J^ ^^ ^^^^^ (5p«ce of time) he went forth 

(many) kosy {when) he looks then evening is become ; ^fy ^^^ ^ 

M^ ^ ^ neither cold nor hot pleases ; ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^'^ opening, 

or / am about to open. 

77. The adverb of prohibition lh^vo as well as that of negation ^ 
or ^j^j may be used either before, or after, verbs ; but, ^^^3 though 
unfit for construction with an imperative, is more emphatical and in 
more general use than <0 with other forms of the verb ; so, lii^vo 
^^y do not ask ; ^j:^^ ^^^ by no means forget ; ^J U- <U do not 
suppose. And, when the emphatic ^^^ is adopted, it frequently 
supplants the present of the substantive verb at the end of a sentence ; 
as, ^j^ fji} J]i> ^ j^l-i> ^j;j acts of cruelty (are) not becoming thy 

78. The conjunctions a^ and ^ that, are used at the beginning of 
one member of a sentence, which explains the object or reason of 
another generally preceding. Tlie conjunction <^ too may be used 
in the way of comparison or distinction ; as, <5^ jx^ 4^*i<**"^' •— ^.^ 

the Hindustani Language, 85 

o o y o 

jJi> aUJ {that) one man die is better than a whole city ; ^\ ^ ^\ 
^^J^ y thou mayest take either this or that: it may, also, convey 

* * ^ C CO o 

the sense of saying that ; as, CS^ ^U j^ V.^^*^ j^^^-^ ^H 'V. 
^*Ji <*;:-^:?^^ ^-^^ ^ ^ V3^^y LA-^^^.^ saying this, he called for the 
throne, and having given him pan and tilak seated (him) on it, 
(saying) that you are now become invincible. At times, though but 
rarely, ^ may be adopted as the relative pronoun, after the idiom of 
the Persians : and, in some cases, the appHcation of it seems intended 
merely to connect the members of a sentence, the meaning in other 
respects appearing redundant. 

79. The conditional conjunction^ \ or y>- if requires the conse- 
quential y or ^J^ then in the following member of the sentence ; as, 

i3T J (^\j ^j^ ^\ y oj^ ^ ^^ u-\ ^/ j"^ if ^^y ^^^ 

should interrupt thee in this, then {fail not) to bring him to me : yet, 
the conditional is sometimes idiomatically omitted ; so, l^ ^ ^\ 
Ik)^ l^ ij n;^ y lT ^^ TrbV* ^^^^ {person) said, Sir, {if) you will 
give, then why shall I not eat ? 


80. The adverb ^^^ or ^^^ must in general be answered by the 
correlative ^J or ^^ and ^f^ ^^ by ^y ^y ; in like manner, 
the emphatic adverb of time ^j^^ is followed by ^J^•^ ; so, 

it, at that very moment he tossing about expired. As adverbs of 

9 p <- 9 ? ^ 

manner ^ys>r ^^^ e;^ frequently assume^ ; so, ' ^yfrT u^ [jir*' 

L.9 S~^ ^ O 

' ^y^ ^ ^jjj ^ \i^ ^ as I may say, so it is incumbent on 
thee to perform the business, 

81. The usual term of affirmation or assent is ^U (han) yes; but, 
this may be understood, and ^\f AJfi or Juiy« ^^^ or c--^>-l-' or some 
other appellation of respect only be expressed, especially in the reply 
of a servant to his master, or of an inferior to his superior. 

86 A Grammar of 

82. The residence of any one is often denoted by j^l^^ and, if more 
than one place is mentioned, ^J^^ may be used distinctively for a 
similar purpose \ as ^^-y ^J^^ ^ c-^^.^U ^U- jjl^^^ ^ c^&-Uj go to 
the gentleman's house here, not to that there. Sometimes, however, 
the mere genitive case is adopted, the adverb being understood ; and 
the postposition ^^-b may be applied in the same manner as ^l^, : so, 

^'h ^ ^\ ^/ c/-^ / u-^ y c/jy J u-'^ fr >V h ^^^ 

servants, who ran to her house, seized and took her away from it, 

83. Two words of similar meaning, which resemble each other in 
sound, are often brought into use where one alone might have sufficed, 
as in the instance of^U-^y exemplified in the last paragraph: one 

of such words, however, seems frequently to have httle or no meaning, 

» ^ \, ^ 
and to be adopted for the sake of the sound chiefly ; so, ^yo -f|;f>- 

falsehood, j^^ j^ a whisper. By a repetition, moreover, of nouns 
or pronouns, as well as of some other words, individuality may be 
intended ; as, ^^ l^ ^d^d \j^ tlioj CSA ^o\ lL^\ Ji> each man 
having filled each a pitcher of milk; ,^„;^j\ V.*^ ^^} \^} ^^^ ^^ 
each try his own skill : and, when two past participles of the same 
transitive verb come together, the latter of them being in the feminine 
gender, reciprocity of action is intended j so, ;<^^^ ^^t4 pu^^g 
and hauling; ^^ \^ altercation-, t^U IjU scuffle; ^j^,^ ^;^ 
competition, emulation. Here, too, may be noticed such idiomatical 
repetitions of participles as bLj 1:j ready made ; l»l^ IC> ready 
cooked ; ^j^ tj \^j ^4^ ^^ sitting still : or, of nouns ; as, -^vj ^j^^ 
in the very midst ; ''^Iji^y]; in- the dead of the night; ^l^ ^y^ ^^^^ 
all {his) ears. 

84. To the names of different classes or sects of men, different 
appellatives are by way of distinction prefixed or subjoined ; thus 
Brahmans take ^.^ or u?;V ^^ l3^>'^ ^^ Sr*^^ ? Musalman Fakirs 

the Hindustani Language. 87 

are addressed with AJ^ or ^y^ or -*j ; Hindu devotees or religious 
people, with jj/^or e:-^' or ^, L^ or ^^^ L ; Rajputs, with ^l^* ; or 
Rajputs and Sikhs, with t^l^ or -^^ ; Moghuls, with \)j< before the 
proper name, or i^S^. ^^^r ; Saiyids, with ^o or iX*^ ; Shaikhs, with 
,1^ ; Pathans, with ^U- ; Doctors, with c:^Jcj or i^^yo or L« ; 
Merchants or Bankers, with ifU or -^l^j ; Ladies, with JU^ or >Cj or 
jjyU- or yU- or «U5-U or ^^ , which are placed after the proper 
name, as jUi- *i-^l , <U^U t-^J : and, some of the most common 
terms of respectful address, used generally, are irUj fj<^ or ^\,»l^ 
or JU <d-i your Majesty ! jJyojj-j or jJ^J^ *Sire / t-^-o-Ls or ^L<3 
or ^^c»- or^^ or "fi oryb 5ir/ Master! j^y^ S-^/^ cherisher of the 

poor ! 

PART 11. 




God, Deity, \s:>^ Miuda, jy^^y parameswar y <d!\ allah. 

Lord, jj— jj tswar, c-^ rahh. 

CresitoY, ^\:>- M^alik J j\j.^ kar tar, J^S)j3\ dfridgdr. 

9 c^O >" 

Godhead, Divinity, c5*^*Xs- khuda^i, ^j^\ iswartd, ii^i-^^ ilahiyat. 

9 C 

A god, a deity, ^ti cZei;, ^ swr, byj dtvtd. 
Goddess, c/^J c?ei^?, (^J debt, ^^^^^ de'dtin (f.).* 

Angel, ^cJiiJS firishia, uJX« malak, CJj J c?w^, <— cJlfe ^a^i/*. 

Heaven, (^f^y^ swarg, ^U-J dsmdn, L::^.^^ hihisht (f.). 

Sky, Firmament, Atmosphere, ^^-l^T a/ca^ (or ^^-.1^1 a/cas), j^I/*-jI 
dsmdn, (.IAj falak. 


X O 

Devil, Satan, ^^Ua--! shaitdn, (j--j1j^ i2>Z25. 

* For the convenience of the learner, feminine words not terminating 
in ,_j (?) will be marked (f.) generally ; as masculines ending in ^j (?) 
will be marked (m.). 

Vocabulary — Nouns. 89 

Demon, jJi asur, jjJ dtv, i,::^jAc- ifrit. 
Ghost, Goblin, Fiend, ci^^ hhut, li::^ hhutna, c^^ prtt. 
Hell, /♦i'-^ jahannam, fjjJ dozakh, CJy narak. 

Fabulous beings. 
One of the Genii, ^^jinn. 
Fairy, ^y^ pan. 

Some general Terms. 
Thing, J-^ cKiz (f.), ^^-i ^Aai (f.), c:^-j Jcw^, t— ^J c?ar6. 

-' 9^ 9 O • 

Mode, Manner, c-^JbJ rf/^aJ, j^ /aMr, c-J'jL-jI uslub, w*<?^ t^Jas* (f.). 
Kind, Species, j,/-.i:>- jin^ (f.), 9^ waw*, ♦-i ^wm, c^*! J sa^ (f.). 
Whole, A>^ jumla, ^^^ jam^ (f.), ^^^v-j sab. 
Part, J^juz, <)U3>. ^iwa, ^^^ aws, Jjl^ kdnd, d<u^ khand. 


Cause, C-----J sabab, u^,^^ mujib, ^jj^ karany ti^^b Ja'i.v. 
Nature, cljIj za^ (f.), ^^J>j{ prakrit (f.), j^ bhdv, Jl^ nihad. 
Essence, yfe^jaw/iar, d^U za^ (f.), l::-^Ic mdhiyat (f.), ei^-o s«^. 
Element, j^c:*^ unsur, ^^:^ tat, (proper sphere) l3l^ thikdnd. 
Fortune, Lot, ^....^^ra) nasib, tS/W? J/^ag, Ll-v*— J kismat (f.), ci^-ojr bakht. 
Fate, Destiny, l^ Zi/c^a, Ufi kazd (f.),^,Jviu takdir, c:^v«wJJ kismat (f.). 
Beginning, Ijcjl iZ>^ic?a (f.), J^j pa^aZ,jUT dgh az, <^^jJ^ shuru^. 
End, c:^3l aw#,^l dkhir, lynjl intihd(f.), ^*::^}^ nihdyat (f.). 
Time, j^Uf zamdn, Jl^ A:aZ, ^^.^-j samai, l::^^ wakt,jSti^ dahr. 
Space (absolute), y>jl adHiar, ^^'\ dkas. 
Order, ^JJ tadbir (f.), » ^ibj (^^^a^, t--r^ ^«rf7Z> (f.). 

90 Vocabulary.— Nouns. 

o coo 

Number, JJ^ adad, J^J^* ti^dad (f.), U^^ sankhya (f.). 
Form, Figure, ^j-^ ?Mm^ (f.), jLi> 5^«A:Z (f.), ^^^^ hai'atif). 
Matter, ^|^ hayula, j^j>- jauhary ^ jU madda. 

o o 

Body, jf^::^jismj ^f '^ kathi, ^jJo badan, ^(^ deh (f.). 
World, jL*i**5 sansar, JW aZawz, ^J^^^ jahaUj L) J dunya (f.). 
East, ^->j^ purab, jy^ mashrikj jjJ^ shark. 

w O O 

West, -*§£s:; pachchham, ^J^ maghrab, L-^i. gharb. 
North, J 1 w^^ar, JU-i> shamal (or shimat). 

o «, ;> 

South, ^^J dakhan or ^^J dakkhan, (^y^ janub. 

9 O 

Spirit, Soul, «.^j rw^ (f.), ^^3 tzo/s, ^J^ jan{mA^. 
Life, (<>-j7 (m.), <^\j^ hayat (f.), \J^jan (m. f.), J^j{pran or par an. 
Light, ISlsj-l ujalctfjy nur, LZJy>- jot (f.), <^ ^jj roshna't. 
Darkness, ^r^j^Jol andhtra, ^SiJ^ tar'ikiy ^j:..^^ zulmat (f.). 


Heat, c:^!^ hararat, ^^-J ^opa/i (f.), ^^ garrrvi, 

.,o ^ o 

Cold, Coldness, i^ i^awc? (f.), t/^ sardi, \j\:>- jam. 

The Elements. 
Ether, ^^-l^T akas (or akas),jJ\ aslr. 
Fire, c^T ag (f.), ,^T dtash (f.). 
Air, \jb hawd (f.), ^^^ pawan or j:>aM7i (f.), ^ b bd'o (f.). 
Water, c-?T a&, J^ jal, ^\j^pdni (m.),^ ner. 

«• 9 

Earth, ^^J zamin (f.), ^fU wi^^/?, cl/lr^ Ma/c (f.), z*^ JAwm (f.). 

Heavenly bodies, signs, appearances, Sfc. 
Sun, ^j^<«»> siira;, CJkiT dftdb, >^j^ khurshaid. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 91 

Moon, JJls^ ckdnd, ii\^ mah^y^ kamar, j^^c.^^- chandar. 

New Moon, JuU-^b bald-chdnd, Jht, hildl, Jol>. Lj nayd chdnd. 

Full Moon, jJJ iac?r, *iJ punim, ^^ ^^jjJ puran-mdsl, 


Star, !^b' ^ara, y>li-j sitdra, jfSsT najm. 

Constellation, .ir^-1 aTditar, ^^^ kaukah. 

Planet, ir>L-» saiydra, 

Saturn, yf^ samchar, ^»-\ zuhal, i^yS kaiwdn. 

Jupiter, l::^^-— Jb^ brihaspat, hfj^'^^ mushtari. 

Mars, J^ mangal, ^^ mirrikh. 

Venus,^;Lj sukr, cSy^ suk, ajbj zuhra (f.), JuJfcU ndhid. 

Of P * 

Mercury, «Jo Jwrf^, «^lk& utdrid. 

9 9 

Comet, jjl^ J Aarw (m. f.), *--^ to, |;Ij l^ /•<^ dum kd tdrd. 
Meteor, ^\^ shihdb, 


Falling Star, ul^l Ink, ^-^^-i» sMhdb. 

Zodiac, S^ (jJ^j rdS'chakr, ^^jA\ ij^2:>>^ mintakatU'l-buruj . 

Sign of the Zodiac, ^^ iwr;, c^); rds. 

Aries, the Ram, J.4^ ^^ burj-i-hamalj -^ mekh. 

Taurus, the Bull,jy ^^ burj-i-mur, ^jJ brikh, 

' y 09 90 

Gemini, the Twins, \j^ ^/ burj-i-jauzd, ^^^ mithun. 
Cancer, the Crab, J^j-^ ^y. burj-i-saratdn, CJJ> kark. 
Leo, the Lion, Ju^l ^ji burj-i-asad, ^L^ singh. 


Virgo, <d^ sumbula, L^ kaniyd (f.). 

, 9 

Libra, the Balance, J^j^ mizdn (f.)> ^^' ^^^^ (^)« 

92 Vocabulary. — Nouiis. 

Scorpio, the Scorpion, c-^ib akrab, ^^csr hichchhu. 

Sagittarius, the Centaur, ^^i kaus (f.), ^Jtd dhan or dhanu, 

Capricornus, the Goat, ^^ '^y, burj-i-jadi,^^ makar. 

Aquarius, ^J ^^ burj-i-dalv, .^ kumbh. 

Pisces, the Fish, ci^'^s- ^ji burj-i-hutj ^j^ rriin. 

Milky way. Galaxy, ^JsLL^ kahkashdn. 

Mansion of the Moon,^*^..'^' nachhattar, Jj:^ manzil. 

Zenith, ^^^1 c:^v*«-p samtu-r-ras,J^\ c:^vK«a samtu-n-nazar. 

Nadir, d^v^-J^^r-laJ naziru-s-samtf J^J\jJt3J naziru-r-rijl, 

9 . 9 St. 

Sunshine, c-jysJ dliuip (f.), ^\^ gham (f.), cU-t) shu'd^ (f.). 

CO o 

Moonshine, ^JjJl>. chdndm, c-^bibto mahtdb. 

Eclipse, ^j^ gaJian, (of the sun) uJ^*-^ kusuf, (of the moon) uJj-**=>- 

9 ^ 

Rainbow, «-j3 ^^-y kaus-i-kuzah (f.), ^^y Joro. 

Cloud, ji\ abr, J Jb Z>ac/a^, i_^ jwej;^ (m. f.). 

Rain, .^^ /we?i^, ^|^b bdrdn, ^b bdrish (f.), (dakh.) ^^t?f« mhyun. 

Shower, lSj^ jkari, ^.^^^jhzsl, ^J^jJ daungrd, (jJu^jhapds (f.). 

^ -<' 

Fog, Mist,^ib^ kohar, \jSb^ kohrd, LjI^ kuhdsd. 

9 p 

Vapour, jLi. gh ubdr, \ssr^ bukhdr. 

Lightning, (^^ji-^f^ %'n, J^ Jar/: (f.). 

Thunder, '^j^ garj (f.),jJoj tundar, Ssj ra^d. 

Dawn, Daybreak, i^ poh (f.), l^' ^arA;a, j^ bhor (f.), j^jl arww, 

^ sub ft (f.). 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 93 

Twilight (evening), ^^d^ godhuli, jJl^ shafakj ^^-J^AJ^ -^ munh- 


Things relating to Fire. 
Flame, AsJii shu'^la, c-^ lahab, (of a fire) -^ \ anch, (of a candle or 

lamp) ^ tern (f.). 
Flash, LlXyl Za^aA: (f.), CS^ hhahhak (f.), lLCk>. chamak (f.). 

Blaze, l^^f-^ bhahhuka, CSj^i bharak (f.) : see Flame. 

> > «. 

Spark, ^jjt:^ chingari, ^^y^ chingl, <0l^ parkala, ^J/i* sJiarara. 

Smoke, ^^y^J dhu^an, ^ybj dhuniy J^ rfwJ. 

Soot, 5^^ saunra, tl^l^ /raZzA;, ^JjJ ^fSc^a, J^^ sawad. 

Ashes, ^1; 7'a/:A (f.), j\^ cA^ar (f.), a--^ bhasam (f.), ^;Sw-^l^ 
khakistar (f.). 

Cinders, (cold) 1>^ ko'eld, (hot) Ijlil angdrd. 

Embers, J^^ bhubhal, \j^\ angdrd. 

Firebrand, ifc:^^ sokhta, ^^ luktty (dakh.) ^^ kolti. 

Fireworks, u^b \J^\ dtash-bdzi. 

Firewood, Fuel, ^yjb hezam (f.), ^^'^J tndhauy <U-Jb /ilwa. 

Coal, Charcoal, ib^ ko^tld, JU) z vgh dl. 

Things relating to Air, 
Wind, jb Ja'o (f.), Jb &arf (f.), \^ hawd (f.) 


^JuT aw(ZA7, ^b^b tufdnj€^^jhakkar. 

94 Vocabulary. — Nouns* 

Whirlwind, tib Ji^ gird-bad (f.), ^^x> bagula, j3oy bawandar. 

Stormy Wind, JcJ jb bad-i-tund (f.). 

? 9 

Hot pestilential Wind, m^^^,^ samum (f.), /♦^/♦^-s Jb bad-i-samum. 
Gust, Blast, Breeze, \j^L^ jhakord, ^^^jhoka, uJi^ phunk. 
Fair or favourable Wind, jl^ Jb bad-i-murad (f.). 
Contrary or adverse Wind, *^Ur* Jb bad-i-mukhalif. 
Zephyr, morning breeze, \^ jU bdd-i-sabd (f.) 

Things relating to Water, 

Drop, Jjy 5^lwc? (f.)> ^;5aJJ itafre, (of rain) \L2 tapkd. 

Bubble, LL bulbuldy L JwZZa, ^->U^ hubab. 

Foam, Froth, Scum, ^^jr^^^phenj uJ^ kaf(j.). 

Vapour, steam, jlik^ bukhdr, ^\) bdph (f.), -^^^J 5^ap/i (f.). 


Dew, (j-*j\ 0.S (f.), Ai^ shabnam (f.), C-^--^ s7^ (f.). 

Fog, Mist, jsb^ kohar, \yi>^ kuhrd, j\:kr buMidr, Ll^ kuhdsd. 
Frost, Hoar-frost, % pdld,j\^ thdr. 

Snow, cJ^ harf(m, f.), iJbpaZa,jl^ f^ar. 
Hail, ^jl oZa, <id]; zhdla, {^S^ tagarg. 

Ice, <*c y«M> *-^ ^«^/ (m. f.). 

Wave, Billow, ,^ mauj (f.), i^yo mauja,j;^ lahar (f.). 

op O 9 P O 

Ocean, j(\i^*M-» samundar, ji^^^^ samudr, \x^ jss^r hahr4-muhit, 

o op o 

Sea,ysr hahr,jdcA^ samundar, bjJ daryd,^\^ sdgar. 
Lake, J-^JAH (f.), jji/- sarwar, L^tj tdldb, j^^^ pokhar, 


Bay, Gulf, J^ kolyjs^^ bahr, ^\^ khatij. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 95 

Creek, Cove, J^ koL 
Abyss, Gulf,ytJ A:a*r, (^\dj girdahy lA lujja. 

» o ;> o 

River, ^^JJ naddi, \j^ darya, d^j rud, iJ^ sar^a (f.). 
Rivulet, Brook, Canal, ^^ nahr (f.), ^l3 waZa. 
Pool, Pond, JC^ /:mwc?, c—^illJ talab. 
Deluge, (jl^j^ fufi^} tiW*^ t ugh yani. 
Inundation, \ii>\ ahld, ^-'V^ sailab (f.) : see Deluge. 
Whirlpool, Eddy, Vortex, ^-^lJ^ girddb, jy^^ hhanwary (dakh.) 
]/^, hhaunrd. 


Harbour, Haven, Port, jJcj bandar. 

Tank, c_^i)l5 ^a/aJ, ^^^ sarwar, ^^ hauz. 

Quagmire, JjJt^ daldal (f.), uJob pawA:, ,^j-Jbt> dhasan (f.). 

Bog, Slough, uJob paw/c, JjJj daldal (f.). 

Fen, Marsh, jI^ jAaJar (f.), (dakh.) jj^ maru. 

Spring, Fountain, <U1^ chashmaj \Jy-o so^a, Jc^ A;M7<cf. 

Well, 1^ ku*d, ^U- c^aA, (large one of masonry) \j\dj\ inddrd, ^Jj b 

Pit, i(U- cAa^. 

Ditch, Moat, ^^ l^ A:^a7, JJc^ Idiandak (m. f.). 
Shore, Strand, Beach, Coast, Bank, ^ {xr^ aj^ kindra, «*-^»! /a&. 

Things relating to the surface of the Earth, 

9 «. ~ 

Land, Ground, Soil, a^ bhum (f.), JU ?wi\<j2 or ^^ mattiy ,j^j 


zamm (f.), m^ bum. 

96 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Dry land, ,Xi-^ Tdmshkt (in opposition to ^Jj tarl, water). 

Island, y\!i ta'pu, *— ^.(^ di'py ijj>' jazira. 

Peninsula, ^J>,j>- jazira^ SrV.*^ ^^V- 

Plain, Level, J'^***^ musaUah, ^<^ maidan. 

Field, jj:^-^ kh^ty ^^^^V* fnaidan. 

Park, Chase, ^:*^j ramna, a^ JSJit shikar-gah. 

Mountain, jl^j pahaVy s^ koh, J-^c^- jabal, ^^i^j^ parhat, (dakh.) 

^^J dongar. 
Hill, Mount, L3 tlld, Jj tall, lJ%^^ paharij a^ koh, (dakh.) lj/^^^ 

Hillock, LH f?Zfl, Jj tall, (dakh.) Vi^ tekra, c/J^V {^^krl. 
Rock, J^ sil (f,),j\^pahdr, a^i koh. 

Stone, jfj patthar, i^i«j sang, ^hajar, (dakh.)^^ phattar. 
Block of Stone, ^J^^ chatdn or chattdn (f.). 
Pebble, ijj^j^ sang-reza, ^.^^-^ J^^^^ sangrtza. 
Gravel, Grit, Li;fJ patthri,J^ kankar : see Pebble. 
Sand, c:-^j ret (f.), ^Ij Ja/w (f.), t^j y*^g (f-)> cU; ^«^^- 
Mould, Loam, ^1« Twif/I or ^^ ?wa^^f7 : see Clay. 
Chalk, ^^5^ M«n or ^Jto ^^J^ kharl-mittl, ij ^^ chhu'l. 
Clay, ^ giliS^, ^J2^ i<^ chikm-mitti. 


Mud, Mire, Dirt, ysn^ fcTcAar (f.), ^.^ kick, \^ chahld or c/u///fl, 
Dust, JybJ cZAiiZ (fOj^y^*^ ^^'2^^ (^O? ^/gard{f.). 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 97 

Turf, jU- char(f.), 1::^ ckaktd. 

Clod, iLfcJ dhela, ^%^ kuluM, i!3 c^aZa, Ijcj pinda. 

Minerals, Metals, Sfc. 
A Metal, Mineral, Ore, C-^Uj £?Aa^, jii ^/i^r^:. 
Gold, l3**-j sdna,jj zar, ^»ffS kanchan, ilt iJz'Za. 
Silver, bjyj rwpa, *-**: sJw, ^JjJU- chdndni, SjSJ nukra. 
Tin, ^*Ji kala'i, \^\j rdngd,J^jj\ arziz, ^Jo[^J rasas. 
Copper, L^iJ tdmbd, ^J*^ mis. 
Brass, J:uj pl^aZ, ,*=^ birinj. 
Pewter, L::.^.^jast, ^ '^ ^ ^j rup-jast, \^\j rdngd. 
Lead, L-^-j sisa, ^-^ swrJ, jjaLs; rasas. 
White Lead, \dJu» safedd. 
Black Lead, ^^^ ^11^ A:a/7 mi/^I. 

yo ^O t 

Red Lead, j^ Jc-j-j sendur, J^\ ingur. 
Iron, l&^ ZoAa, ^\ dhan, iX>Jk>- hadid. 
Untempered Iron, ^^^^ kach-lohi. 


Steel, Si^fuldd {or fauldd). 

Zinc, Tutanag, Lapis calaminaris, 1:ujJ dastd. 

Lapis lazuli, 4^^^ Idj award. 

Mercury, Quicksilver, c.-'U^ stm-db, \Jj pdrd. 

Salt, j^y ton, cliUj namak, ^y non. 

Saltpetre, Nitre, ^jJii shora. 

Brimstone, Sulphur, ^^f gogird, ^:l^Ij4 kibrlt. 

Coal (fossil), hjf ^ j€i patthar kd ko'eld, h^^ ko'eld. 

98 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Alum, cfj^^ phitkari (m.), Jua-j ^\j zaj-i-sufaid. 

Amber, b^^^ kah-ruha. 

Lime, l3^ cliuna, (quicklime) u^l a/^aA:. 

Marble, ^^.«^ marmar^j^j^ i^S:^ sang-i mar mar, /♦l^^ rukham, i 

Alabaster, aUj rukham, 

9 O 

Porphyry, jU-j (^.^i-j sang-i sumak. 
Ochre, (^^Ic 1j pzZ? jwz'ffl, ^^^ gem. 

CO o 

Loadstone, Magnet, ^^-.l?liiU i^Jiu^ sang-i mihiatjs, ^j*J^\:>si^ mik- 

?2a/Js, VjiM^^ ahan-ruhcLj tliwi^ chumhak, CJi^iJ>- chummak. 
Jewel, Gem., jit>^jauhar,Jb\^^ jawahir, ^ man, ^j ratan. 
Diamond, \j^ hira, (j*\a\\ almas. 

«. 9 

Ruby, J^ Za*Z, Cl-^yV. y^h^t) <^jOU manik. 

9 ^ , i 

Garnet, ci^^ V. yakut : see Ruby. j 

Carbuncle, 9^-^:^ shab-chlra gh . 

•S>p 9 

Emerald, J^j zumurrud, liJ panna. 

Sapphire, Ju3 mlam, ^ J-J 7i?Z mani,jJui safJr. 

Topaz, r^J;^ pukhraj, >^y.j zaharjad. 
Turkois, Beryl, ^^^ firoza. 
Amethyst, /♦jA^*- jabalkum. 

y 9 O 

Agate, Onyx, JUw»L» {^Jz^ sang-i sulaimam. 
Jasper, Agate, >1j t.^^.- sang4 yashm. 
Opal,yfj L&J^J dudhiya patthar (?). 
Cornelian, Jh^S^ akik. 
Corundum stone, i3^ kurand. 

Vocabulary Nou7is. 99 

Crystal,j^ billaur, l^-^; phatak. 

Glass, ^JLJ^ shlska, ^^ kanch. * 

Talk, Mica, j^l ahrak or cli^l abrak, jlL (aZit, J?yi horal, JJj^J 

Arsenic, -is^jjj zarmkh, jUl 1 ^^-j sammu-l-fdr, 

Orpiment, ^JjJ zarnikh, JlJ^i* hartal. 

Cinnabar, Vermilion, i^JcJ^ shangarf, jdji^ dardar. 

Blue Vitriol, Tutty, Ljy ^i^iya. 

Naphtha, Bitumen, !aA3 wa/)[ or Laj nifl. 

Red Earth or Ochre, .^gdrM. 

Armenian Bole, ^^^J\ J^ gil4 armam, ^JU ^l^l** multarii matti. 

Natron, , ^^ sajjl, 

TreeSf Shrubs, Plants, and Herbs. 

Tree, c:^o-;J darakht,J^^per (f.), ^€ gachh, (dakh.) Jlf^^'Aar. 

Shrub, j\^jhar, \S^ Jiija, i^j^jhari. 

Plant, Herb, ci^Lj waZ>a^ (f.). 

Oak, i?^J iaZiij;. 

Chesnut, LjL ifli. sAaA ^aZwif. 

Cypress, Cedar, %j^ sarv. 

Pine, Fir,^^ sanaubar. 

Willow, Jlj &e6? (f.). 

Poplar or Plane Tree, jli^ chanar. 

Teak tree, Tectona grandis, ^/"L sagaww (f.) or J\^Li sagwan (f.) 

Bassia latifolia, 1^^ mahiCa. 

Trees, foreign to India; and, 
bearing foreign names. 

100 Vocabulary. -^Nouns. 

Mesua ferrea,^^--*^ t^l3 nag-kesar, 

Nauclea orientalis, a^ kadam or 4^^v«j^ kadamb. 

Xanthyocymus pictorius, JUj tamal, 

Dalbergia Sisu, j—-*- sisu. 

Lagerstroemia regina or Flos regina, Roxh, (JJ^jaraL 


Mango tree, Mangifera Indica, a\ am, < >S\ amb. 

Embryopteris glutinifera, Roxh. c->l? gab. 

Melia Azedirachta, aJ mm, t— ^ mmb. 

Melia sempervirens, ^i}Li hakayan. 

Michelia Champaca, CS^^*^^ champak, 

Cratseva Tapia, or Capparis trifoliata, ^ji^ barun, li^ barna. 

Amyris Agallocha, J^ gugal. 

Mimosa Arabica, J^^ babul (f.), j^ babur (i^' 

Mimosa natans, ^c^^j ruthnl, jils^ lajalu. 

Mimosa pudica,jlls^ lajalu. 
Mimosa scandens, Li gela. 
Mimosa Seris, ^^-r' siris. 
Mimosa Suma, j^^i^-o sami. 


Dillenia Indica, lil>- chalta. 
Echytes caryophyllata, ^^ malatt, 

Shorea robusta, JL sal, Jli» shal, 

<^ fi p 
Ficus glomerata,^'<u>l udumbar, 


Ficus Guleria, j!^ gular (f.). 
Ficus Indica, l!Uj Jaf, J^ &«,«"• 
Ficus religiosa, J--J plpal. 

Vocabulary NovM. '■ - '^^''' 101 

Ficus venosa (or infectoria), J^b pdkar, 

Zizyphus Jujuba, tj?^ herz. 

Laurus Cassia, Cassia or wild Cinnamon, ^ taj. 

Salvadord Persica (also, in the Dakh. Careya arborea), jIlj pilu. 

Mimusops Elengi, LJj^yo maulsari, 

Mimusops Kauki, ^j^ khirni. 

Cedrela Toona, ^ tun, or ^^ tun, 

Celastrus (stafF-tree) ^i^U malkangni. 

Morinda citrifblia, JT al. 

Uvarialongifolia,jlJu>J debddr, jjj^t>y.t> devddru, {^yJ\ asog, 

Webera tetrandra, \J^ hard, 

Butea frondosa, ^/«)b palds, d/lfcJ dhdk, 

Tamarix Indica, ^ l^ jhd'u. 

Acanthus ilicifolius, cii^^jib harkat. 

Terminalia alata or glabra, ^^j^ arjun, 

TerminaUa alata or tomentosa, ^^T dsan. 

Terminalia Belerica, Beleric Myrobolan, ij-^ hahtrd. 

Phcenix sylvestris, wild Date,jj^ khajur, 

Justicia Adhatoda, (^J\ arus. 

Justicia Gandarussa, ^\i bdkas. 

Justicia nasuta, ^^ Lli3b pdlakjuhl, 


Achyranthes aspera, |/>-^ chirchird, lj\^T dgdrd. 
Tamarind us Indica, JloI imll, ^jjiiJ tintirt, 


iEgle Marmelos, t,Jj bilb. 
iEschynomene paludosa, ^Li shold. 

102 .ViycfihMlary . — Nouns. 

^schynomene Sesban, ei^^*^ jait, 

Hyperanthera Morunga, Ixsir* saliajna, ^^b han. 

Jack fruit tree, Artocarpus integrifolia, J^5^ kafhal. 

Chironjia sapida, ^J^^jf- chironfi, JL> piyal. 

Plantain or Banana tree, Musa sapientum, \s>-yo mocha, \S held. 

Bombax heptaphyllum, J-'*«^ slmal, J-^i--5 semhal, 

Bauhinia variegata, Jtjf kachndr, JUf^ kachnal. 

Palm or Toddy tree, Borassus flabelliformis,jlj ^ar, Jb Jj bal-tdr, 

Pinus longifolia, J.--J saral. 

Sappan wood, Csesalpinia Sappan, *ib bakam. 

Papaw tree, Carica Papaya, L-j papaiyd. 

Cane, Ratan, Calamus Rotang, u:^ let (f.). 

Creeper, J^ hel (f.), l::i /a^a (f.). 

Agrostis linearis, c-^jt) c?w&, \^^>:^ janewd. 

Alangium hexapetalum, J^\ akol. 

Aloe perfoliata, jljL^g^I/cMi^-ar. 

Alpinia Galanga, Galangal, ^^Isrll^ khdlinjdn. 

Andropogon muricatum, ^„^ khas (f.), jtt'^ ^^^^ (^O* 

Anethum Sowa, Fennel, \y^ so'd. 

Annona squamosa, CJ>T dt. 

Argemone Mexicana, JuW^ bharbhdnd, 

Artemisia vulgaris, !•-« maru'd. 

Arum campanulatum, J^l oZ. 

Arum Colocasia, ^j^j\ arwl, yjf kachchu. 


Arundo tibialis, l!L^ narkat. 

Vocabulary — Nouns. 103 

Asclepias gigantea, Swallow-wort, cJj\ arkj SJ^\ akwand. 
Asclepias rosea, ^<■&'^J^^ dudhi. 
Barleria longifolia, UULo JIj tdl makhana. 
Boerhavia diffusa, bjy l&cXi' gadhd-purnd, 

Bryonia grandis, Linn., Momordica monodelpha, Roxb., c^-^ Jzm5. 
Callicarpa Americana, |^;i-J bastard. 

Cannabis sativa. Hemp plant, Iff^^ gdnjhd, ;^^l^ bhdng. 
Carissa Carandas, Corinda or Caronda, ^J^j^ karondd. 


Cassia alata, jj^^^^ ^i^ti dad-mar dan. 

Cassia fistula, ^^«\lL<l amaltds. 

Cassia Tora, ^J^%^ chakaundd, (or obtusifolia?) jl^ panwdr. 

Cassia Sophera, ^<sj^ kasaundi. 

Chrysanthemum Indicum, c/^j*^*^ J^ gul-i-dd'udi, 

Cissus quadrangularis, Ij^jlfe hdr-jord. 

Cleome Viscosa,^^Jb;Ji> hurhur, 

Clitoria ternatea, ^^\;i} apardjitd. 

Cordia latifolia, \jyJ hj bard lasord. 

Cordia Myxa, \jyJ lasord. 

Crinum Asiaticum and Zeylanicum, ^^J^^ sukhdarsan. 

Crotalaria juncea, ^ san (whence, a kind of flax). 

Cucumis Colocynthis, ^j}}j'^\ indrdyan. 

Cucumis Madraspatanus, Ja-<-» send (f.). 

Cucumis momordica, ^j^ phutj, <3j$j j^^Awf (^f.) 

Cucumus sativus, ^^ khlrd. 

104 Vocabulary, — Nouns, 

Cucumis utilissimus, ^fj^ kakrl. 
Cucurbita citruUus, jyij tarhuz, 
Cucurbita lagenaria, ^J^ kaddu, \^ ghiya. 

i o 

Cucurbita Melopepo, jJ^ 15^** ^^^^^^ kaddu, 

Cucurbita Pepo, <UjJ^ kadlma, Uj/f^ kamrha. 

Curcuma reclinata or Zerumbet,j^^^ kachur. 
Curcuma Zedoaria, ;^_5-*{/ nirhisi, j^^^ jadwdr. 

Curcuma Zerumbet, t^V^^J zurumbdd, j^ kachur, 
Cuscuta reflexa, Air plant or Dodder, ^^; ^^\^ 1 dkds-pawan. 
Cyperus pertenuis or juncifolius, l^^ ^^l) ndgar-mothd, 
Cyperus rotundus, l^^c mothd. 

oc/ J? CO ;» 

Dolichos biflorus (kind of pulse), '^^ kurtJu or ^^fJ^ kulthi. 

Dolichos pruriens (Cowitch or Cowach), t^\^ kiwdnch or ^\^ 

Dolichos Sinensis (kind of bean), \jji lohiyd. 

o p 

Echinops echinatus, Globe thistle, \j3>i katdrd or \j\S^ (JUJjl unt- 

Echites caryophillata, jJU mdlati, 


Eclipta prostrata, ^|y^^ bhringrdj. 
Elaeocarpus serratus, ,^*\J^jalpd't, 

Epidendrum tessellatum, Mistletoe, Ijub hdnddf IjoJ bandd, U:j 

Euphorbia antiquorum, J^^: sthund, \j\sbSi tidhdrd. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 105 

Euphorbia hirta and thymifolia, ^i^>^ duddhi. 
Euphorbia neriifoha, Jt)^ thuhar, 
Euryale ferox, Ul^Cc makhana. 
Feronia elephantam, <^::-^ kait. 
Flacourtia cataphracta, %^^ paniyala. 
Gsertnera racemosa, yjbjU madholata, W ^^ malti lata. 


Gardenia florida, ^^jSb^ gandhraj. 

Gardenia latifolia, l^b papra. 

Gossypium herbaceum, Cotton plant, j^ti^ kapas. 

Grewia Asiatica, Ul^ phalsa. 

Grislea tomentosa, ^Uj dhari. 

Hedysarura Alhagi, ^\y>- jawasa. 

HeUanthus annuus, Sunflower, ^4^ 7rJ^ suraj-mukhu 

Hehcteres Isora, jl^ Jj^ maror-phaU. 

Hibiscus Phoeniceus, ^ L^l Ju*» sadasuhagan. 

Hibiscus Populneoides, J-^ (j^Jj pdras-plpaL 

Jasminum auriculatum, ^^juKi. 

Jasminum grandiflorum, great flowered jasmine, ^^s^- jati. 

Jasminum Zambac, Lj hela. 

Jatropha Curcas, ^^-JcjJj bagrendl. 

Jonesia Asoca, cSyJ^ asok or (jj^\ ashok. 

Ixora undulata, ^fr ^-^^ palak-juhl. 

Ksempferia rotunda, Li^ ^»^^ hhun-champa. 

Lawsonia inemiis, u5Af«.« menhdi, \i:^ hinna (f.)- 

106 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Linum usitatissimum, j<-*j^ atasi, j<-**y tlsl. 
LufFa acutangula, \^i=>- jhlnga. 
Luffa pentandra, ^5 jy U^ ghiya-tora'l. 


Lycopodium imbricatum, ^5;^^ If*^ hatha-jofi. 

Menispermum glabrum, ^ j> gurch (f.), ^^ gurach^ ^ gilau, 

Menispermum hirsutum, ^^^ <^j farid'hufi, 

Menyanthes Indica or cristata, ^^y^ kamodini (or kamodam). 

Momordica Charantia, \i karela. 

Myrtle (Myrtus communis) ^^T as (in Arab.), J^ murd (Gilch.)- 

Nelumbium Speciosum, Lotus, ^Si^ padam, J-^ kamal^ Jyi* kanwal. 

Neriura odorum, sweet scented Rosebay, w*i^ kaner (f.), J^kanel (f.). 

Nerium oleander, Oleander or Rosebay, ^j^jj'>' khar-zakra. 

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, jljbjlxi«s singar-har. 

Nymphsea Lotus, ^ ^ ko't, t^jL sarangjj^ ntlofarj J^ kamal, 
J^ kanwal, ^^ amhuj, 

Ocimum basilicum, sweet Basil, a^;^ sahza, lJ}^ sahzt, 

Ocimum pilosum, Ij.^ maru^a, i^}^j rVian^, yjl3 nazbo. 

Ocimum sanctum, ,^_jJj ^wZs7, \jjy^ Irinda, ^_^-Jj Jli A:a/« #w?52. 

Oldenlandia biflora, J«j\j c::-^ pit-paprd, iiji Al^ shah-tar a. 

Orange tree, il}^ kaunla. 

Origanum Majorana, Ij^^ marwd (?). 

Ovieda verticillata, ^jlto ^^'«lJ bamdn-hatfi, ^ 

Pedalium murex,^^i'5jJ Jam gokhru. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 107 

Phamaceum Mollugo, U^s guma, 

Phyllanthus Emblica, Emblic Myrobalan, 1«1 amla. 

Physalis flexuosa, ixS^\ asgandh. 

Piper Betle, Betel plant, J-^ t^l) nag-hlL 

Piper Cubeba, Cubebs, ,^<:»-^ ^-'^f^ A;aZ>aZ> c/ilwl, iAS kababa. 

Piper longum, long pepper, j^Lj pipal, 1-j ^ipZJ. 
Plumbago Zeylanica, l:;»xs- chitta, 
Poa Cynosuroides, ^^^ /cms^, t-->lj c?a& (f.). 
Pteris lanulata, jjlibjL-y parishjawashan, 
Rhus coriaria, ^\A^sumak (prop. ^\A^summaJc). 

a^ «^ r.'' «^ 

Ricinus communis, JO^l arand, Jul awe?, t^Jojj rewc?!, ^3^ rawc?. 

Rosa Chinensis, c-^K^ kathgulab. 
Rottlera Indica, jIIjcj piwrfaZw. 

o o 

Rubia Manjith, -e^^ majith (f.), L2-^-Js^^ 7wa7i;7f (f.). 
Ruellia longifolia, }j4f gokhru. 
Rumex vesicarius, \^^ chuka, 

? P 9 P 

Saccharum cylindricum, ^ ulu, ^^ ulu (f.). 

Saccharum Munja, >^yo munj. 

Saccharum officinarum, -^1 ukh, 

Saccharum procerum, oj^ sarpat, 

Saccharum Sara, ^ sar, ^iii^ sentha, ^^u^ senthi. 


Santalum album. Sandal wood or tree, ^'^^ chandan. 
Serratula anthelmintica, jcf- . bakchi. 
Sesamum orientale, Jj ^iZ. 

108 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Sinapis dichotoma, a species of mustard, ^y^j^ sarson, 
Solanum Jacquini, ^ \^ l!U^J bhat-kata'i. 

Solanum melongena, ^^^ haingan, ^^^ haigan. 
Solanum nigrum, Nightshade,^ makoj (jtjJjls tulidun. 


Sonchus, '7^\j^ kamraj, 
Sphseranthus Indicus, j^I:^ mundi. 
Strychnos nux-vomica, ^jsT kuchla, 
Symplocas racemosa, ^J»^ lodh. 
Thymus, Thyme, jbl ipar. 

Trapa natans, IjI^xim-j singhdra. 
Trianthema pentandra, |^^ ^ his-khaprd. 
Trichosanthes dioica, jjj 'parwar, J A^ palwal, 


Trigonella foenugrgecum, ic^V« methi, 


Trophis aspera, Ij^---} st'ord. 

CO o i* 

Typha (a species?), ^^^ gondm : (elephantina) K^ hugld. 


Valeriana Jatamansi, Spikenard, ^^^Uor^^U \i^jatd-mds'ior-mdnsi. 
Vallisneria spiralis or octandra, jL*: siwdr. 
Vangueria spinosa, jj<X< madan. 


Verbesina prostrata or scandens, -j^!;^^ hhringrdj, \ji'^^, hhangrd. 

CO s> 

Vitex Negundo, j<3\;*^J^ indrdm, ^U«i samdlu. 
Vitex trifolia, ^Uw-j samdlu. 


Volkameria infortunata, lSOI^ hhdnt. 

Urtica interrupta, stinging Nettle, l^lfacr bichhdtd, ifjssr\ anjira (?). 


Xanthium Indicum, 5;^^^ ghdghrd. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 109 

Esculent Roots and Vegetables, 
Potato, pi alu, 

9 ^ 9 

Yam,j)T alu, ^j ratalu. 
Sweet Potato, Jcj ^^ shakar-kand. 
Turnip, *iLi> shalgham. 
Carrot,^ l^gfl/flr (f.). 


Radish, ^y< muli. 

Omon, j\j^ piyaz (f.), \Si^ kandaif), J-oJ basal (i,), \^ gaitha. 

Leek, l3Jai gandana. 

Garlick, ,^^— ^ lahsan,j^ sir. 

JJ 9i^9 9 

Beet, luU.^-^ cMchinda, j^i^^**^ chukundur. 


Ginger in the undried state, ^jd\ adrak. 
A Vegetable, ^J^J tarkari. 

Egg-plant, j^^ baigan, ^^S^, baingaUy \2j\^ bhanta. 
Greens, <^L sag or CL;b t^L sag-pat, ^^l^ &Aa;7. 

Cabbage, K ^^ karam-kalla, ^^^ kobl. 


Cauliflower, ^^ (}^^phul'kdbl. 
Cucumber, \j^ khira. 

Gourd, Pumpkin, jJ^ kadu. 

Pea, ,lo malar, (dakh.) IjISj batdna. 

Bean, ^b 6ait/a. 

Kind of bean (Dolichos Sinensis) Lj^! lobiyd. 

Spinage, (Jj3b palak. 

Mint, <U>t>^ podina. 

110 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Parsley, Ciy^^-S ajmud. 
Endive, ^»J^ kasm, b*XiJi» hindha. 
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) ^^ halm. 

Portulaca oleracea, Purslain, U^l loria, U^ loniya, lJj3 noniya, ^p^'^ 
kandli, ^j:>- khurfa, 

9 O 

Cresses (garden), cJj^ ^ tara-tezak,j..^ chansur, Jl& halim. 
Cresses (water), U^j c3^ lot-putiyd, jSj^^i^ dl'okandar. 


Arum campanulatum (root), ^jj^*-' suran. 

Arum Colocasia (root),jlU^ kachalu, ij^,^^ ghoyan. 

Amaranthus Gangeticus, (^U J^ lal-sag. 

Amaranthus oleraceus, U^ marsa. 

Amaranthus polygamus, Lj\f- chaula't. 

Basella alba and nigra, t/^ po'e, 


Chenopodium album, \^fj bathu^a. 
Convolvulus repens, ;<^^ kalnii. 

CO 9 

Dioscorea fasciculata (root of), ^^y^ suthnt. 

Dolichos Sinensis (kind of bean from), \^J lobiya, ^\j rawans. 

„0 9 

Hibiscus esculentus, t/Jc^ bhindi, cS^Ji Aj ram-tural. 
Hyperanthera morunga (the root used for horseradish), li^srV^ sahajnd. 
Lathyrus sativus, ijj^ kisdri. 

Althea rosea, J^&- ^ gul-i-khaird. 
Arghawduy ^f-j^ • 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. Ill 


Bassialatifolia (flowers of), ^Ji^ J^ g'^l chikdn. 


Chdndni, . ^Si\»- , 

Chrysanthemum Indicum, ^^t3j 1 J ^ gul-i-dcCudi. 

CUtorea ternatea, ^^2^^^ \^ kawwd-thenthl. 

Cockscomb flower, Amaranthus cruentus, ^JL^ gul-kesh, ^^j^ ^^^ 

Globe Amaranth, Gomphrena globosa, J.^^-* Ji gul-i-maldimaL 
Hibiscus mutabilis, c^Lsf^ Ji gul-i-ajd'ih, 


Hibiscus rosa Sinensis, \^ jawd. 
Hibiscus Syriacus, Jjbb gurhal, 

GO ^ 

Impatiens Balsamina, u5*^i^ J^ gul-mihndi. 

o o 

Jasmine, j^-^-jV. y^smin or ^^^-^^^-jIj yO'Smtn, 
Jasmine (white), a hly or an Iris (?), ^Jjj zamhak. 
Jasmine (a sort of), ^ "|y niwdrl. 
Jasminum auriculatum, ^^ juhi, 


Jasminum grandiflorum, ^Ju^i^ chambell. 
Jasminum multiflorum or pubescens, Lj ^II^ kath-btld. 
Jasminum Zambac, J-j Z>^Z. 
Jasminum Zambac, var. j3, ^y< motiyd. 


Jasminum Zambac, var. y, li^ mogrd. 



Lily, ^^^ 505071 (f.), (of the valley) j^/^w-o saman, 
Linum trigynum, ujy-'^jafarlj ^^j^\ Js gul-i-ashraft. 
Madan ban, ^\j ^jJ^ . 

112 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Mango-tree (blossom of), j^ maur. 

Marigold, \x^ genda. 

Michelia Champaca, Ux>- champa. 

Mimusops Elengi, cfj^yo maulsarl. 

Mirabilis Jalapa, Marvel of Peru, (jJ^ Ji gul-i-ahhas. 

Nafarmarij ^l«;3l3 . 

Narcissus, Narcissus Tagetes, ,^y nargis (f.), 51^ u-V nargis-i- 

Nelumbium speciosum, Lotus, 4^^ padam, (J^ kamal, Jy^ kanwal. 

Nerium odorum, sweet-scented Rosebay,^;-!^ kaner{{.\ J^^ A^aweZ (f.). 

Nerium Oleander, common Rosebay or Oleander, ^J^jj^ Miar zahra. 

GO y^ ^ 

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, jl^-o^ harsingar orjl^l-j^U harsingar, 

o o 

Nymphsea Lotus, ^'^ ko'e, J*^^ kanival, i^jj^ sarang, jS^ nilofar. 
" ^ ^ 

Pandanus odoratissimus, \jy>^ kt'ora, .^J^ ketakt. 

Pantapetes Phoenicea, \>^J^ dupahriya. 

Plumeria, ^^^^ gul-achtn. 

Poinciana pulcherrima, ^^ ^ gul-i-turra. 

Polianthes tuberosa, *^-i» ^^ gul-i shab-bo, ory u^ shab-bo, 

Rd'e-belf J-J ^'\j . 

Ratan-mala, ilU ^j . 

Ratan-manjariy cfj^^ \j^j • 

Rosa centifolia, c--?K' gulab, J^ gwZ. 

Rosa chinensis, t-^1^5i kathgulab. 

Rosa glandulifera, ^*^ se'o^?, <^^ J^^ md-barg, ^j:^ nastaran. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 113 

White Rose of India, Rosa glandulifera (?), ^^^^ nastaran, ^^ rw 


Sinapis ramosa, i^^-^ sarson. 

Sunflower, Helianthus annuus, ,^j^ ^jy^ suraj'-mukhi, 

Tagetes patula, lJjOj^ ^ gul-i-ja^fari. 

Tulip, ^"i lala, Jh»lii-i> shaka'lk, 

Vinca rosea, t^y Ji gul-i farang. 

Violet, <l.liij hanafsha(f.J. 

Zizyphus Jujuba (flower of), cfrf^ khichn. 



Mango, /♦! am, v--^t ami. 

Plantain (fruit), L^ ktla, ^6^ kadall, jyo mauz. 

Custard apple, J^j \i--j slta-pkal, UT a^a, «Uj^ sharlfa. 

Annona reticulata (fruit of), IjJ Idna, \iy nona. 

Jack fruit, J^ kathal. 

Barhal, JJ^5J . 

Rose apple, ^^^ jaman. 

Hog Plum, ^Jyi^ antra. 

Guava, tJ^jj^^ amrut, a»\ t^J^ safri am. 

Date, ^^^-^ chhuharoLf Up- Idiurma. 

Pomegranate, jUl anar,Jj nary ^j\ii darim. 

Pineapple, ^^^Ix)^ anannas. 

Cocoa-nut J;>jl3 nariyal, Sir^)^ narjil. 

^ J' 


1 14 , Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Lemon or Lime, y^l limu, y>AJi nlmhu. 

O C -^ (^ y CO 

Orange, ^'^J^ narangz, ^j\j naranj, "i^ kaula or \iif kaunld, ^j:^^ 

Citron, *=ry turunj, Ji!L galgal, \i^ karna, 
Pompelmoose, Shaddock, ^J^^ chakotara. 


Figj^^-rsrl anjir. 

Grape, jylil angur, < ^£ *wa&. 

Mulberry, CL.*c^ shahtut, lU^ tut. 

Musk Melon, ^^J/^ Miarluza, J^'*^ jamaM, :^Jai bittlkh. 

Water Melon, Jy^ tarhuz. 

Kind of Melon (Cucumis Momordica), ^^J phutz, <^^^ phut. 

Gourd (Cucurbita Pepo) bbj^ kamraha, Ujoj^ kondha. 

Gourd (Cucurbita lagenaria), ^^ kadu, or ^J^ kadduj ^jl lauka. 

Gourd (of uncertain species), Ifly pethd, j^y^ parwar, (j^y^^ 

Apple, c--^--j s^J, j-«j 5eu. 
Pear, j^'LjbU nashpdtl. 


Quince, ^^ bihi, aj 5i^, Js*-^ safarjal. 

Peach, ^lifijj shaftdlu, *^ dru, J^lskr'^T dlu-bukhdrd. 

Apricot, jlT t>;J 2rarc? aZw. 

Cherry, ^T ^\J» 5^aA aZii. 

Almond, >bb bdddm, j^ lauz. 

9 ^ ^ O 

Olive, ^^j zaituUf ^ Uj*- jalpd't. 

Betel nut, from Areca Catechu, ljJ^ supdri. 


Vocabulary. — Nouns. 115 

Cashew nut, fruit of Anacardium orientale, ^^ kdju. 

'Nut j^jauz. Vilhert J js:»i finduk (f.). Vkt^Lchio, ic^ pista. 

o o 

Tamarind, <_f JoJb j^ tamr-i hindi. 

Emblic Myrobalan, LcT amla. 

^ « *' 
Rottlera Indica (fruit of), jl^J^ pindalu. 

Scytalia Litchi (fruit of), ^5^ Ucht. 

Vangueria spinosa (fruit of), J^ ^^^ main-pkal. 

Jujube, Zizyphus Jujuba (fruit) ,^ ber. 

Phyllanthus Cheramela (fruit of), (-^J^.jW/> harphare'drl. 

Cordia Myxa (fruit of), Ijj-J lasora. 

Cordia latifolia (fruit of), \JyJ IjJ bara lasora, 

Averrhoa Carambola (fruit of), -^j^ kamrakh. 

Mimusops Kauki (fruit of), 15^7^ khirnl. 

Chironjia sapida (nut of), ^^ssr^j>- chironji, 

Flacourtia cataphracta (fruit of), ilLiJ paniyala. 

Grains, Seeds. 
Rice (in the husk), ^\jbJ dhan. 

Rice (cleared of the husk), J^^^ clianwal, ^, birinj, JJLJ tanduL 
Wheat, ^^^ g^huriy a<x^ gandum, (dakh.) ^^^^ ghyaun. 
Barley,^ Jaw. 

to '' 

Holcus Sorghum, jl^j5'ar,^i;l3^JaMwc?n, (dakh. also) ^j^j^^rl, 

^J'fr jo'arl. 
Maize, Zea Mays, Indian corn, lii^ bhuUa, ^^^ kukri, (dakh.) 

kjJ^ ^J^< makkt jdrt. 

116 Vocabulary Nouns, 

Mdgee, Elusine Coracana, IjjjXo manru'a, or c5 jj}^^ manrlVi, (dakh. 

TEL.) i^^j ragi. 
Millett (kind of), Panicum Italicum, U-^ chtnoLy ^J>^ kangni, 

(dakh.) ^\j raid. 
Millett (kind of), Panicum colonum, Ull shdmd. 
Millett (kind of), Panicum frumentaceum, lyL sdnwd, UU> shdmd. 
Millett (kind of), Panicum miliaceum (?), li-.>- chaind. 
Millett (kind of), Panicum pilosum, ^jj\ arzan. 
Millett (kind of), Panicum spicatum, J^>.Ij Idjrd, \j^ laharrd. 
Pulse, Vetches, Jb ddl. 
Vetches, Lentils, ^yo moth. 
Vetch or Pulse, ^j-— ^ masin. 
Pulse (kind of), Ervum hirsutum, j^— ^ masur. 
Pulse (kind of), Cicer arietinum, L^^ chand. 
Pulse (kind of), Phaseolus Mungo, c^^ mung (f.). 
Vetch (kind of), Phaseolus radiatus, ^^U mdsh. 
Vetch (kind of), Dolichos biflorus, ^j^ kulthi, ^J kurthJ. 


Vetch (kind of), Vicia sativa, lJJ^^ ankrt. 


Coriander seed, \^i^ dhaniyd, J^^JiS kishniz. 
Cumin seed, ajj zira, \j^jird, ^y^ kammun. 

p o • 

Anise seed, (j^— -3l amsun, 4— c3^ saunf(f.). 
Cardamoms, ^^'i\ ildchi, ^l5 kdkula. 


Serratula anthelmintica (seed of), rr\r*^ somrdj. 
Sinapis ramosa (seed of), ^ \j rdl. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 117 

Food in general for Animals. 
Grass, Hay, Straw, (j^\^ ghds (f.), ^^ giyah (f.). 
Leaf, ^ patfi, ^<:u«j\:j bandspattz, i^ji harg. 
Root, Jo^ hand, ^\ alu. 
Flower, Jj^ ^AwZ, Ji gxd. 
Fruit, J^ phal, Sp^ mtway d^^y fawaUih. 
Grain, Corn, «di ghalla, >J^\ andj, i^\d dana. 
Milk, jisJjJ c?^^c?/^, ^^ shir,j^^ chliir, ^jf ^-ras. 

Honey, J^ shahdy J—c a^a/, JbJk^: madh. 

Sugar, ^ shakar (f.). 

Insects, Reptiles, Grubs, Worms, ^^J-^ k'lre, t^j^ i^j^ klre makorl. 

Fish, jjff* machhli. 

Fowl, iiSiji^ paranda, jy\>- janwar. 

Flesh, j^U ma^, ^ ma^, lz^^ gosht. 

Worms, ReptileSy Insects, Spiders, 
Worm, Grub, Maggot, Reptile, Insect, \j^ klrd, ^f kirm, \j^ \yS 
kird makord. 


Earth-worm, ^^^^ kenchwd. 

Small Worm, CS>^J> kirmaky \^ klrd. 

Snail, iSj^ ghongdy \S^\ aintd. 

'-• 9 ^ 

Leech, CS^^ jonk (f.), jJlj zdlu (f.), lSjL>" jalaukd (f.). 
Snake, Serpent, l^L samp. 

Kind of Snake, dj^^ gohuna, c:-v,j!^ karait, Jy^ donr, ^j^olfc^i <f A«- 
r/iiw, y l$a^ sunkdtar, CJ>j .J harwat (f.)- 

118 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Boa constrictor, ^fs>\ ajgar. 
Coluber Naja, t^l3 nag. 

Dragon, jUj] azhdar, IfcJ;*! azhdaha. 

Viper, ^ti\ aft (m.), t^^U sam/?, t^l3 wag. 

Lizard, jJiL^ chhipkaUy ^V^ chilpasa, tJL^^ girgit. 

Tortoise, l^fs^ kachhu'a, Ub hakha, l::-^ (.^.^^-j sang-pusht. 

OP o 

Crocodile, JVjS^ ghariyal, r!^ kumhir, i^-y nihang. 

Alligator, ^^ magar, ^\^ grah^ .^ ^ magar-machh, ^f goh. 

// ^ ^ 

Chameleon, CL^ girgit, (j^^j^ bukalamun. 

Frog, l1/jL-^ mendak or menduk, jS\d dadur, t^^ gh uk. 
Toad, Lj^ rJ -^^ kath-birukl, CJ^ gh uk. 
Salamander (fabulous inhabitant of fire), j Jc^-o samandar. 
Centipede, \jys^r^ kankhajurajj>-^ gojar. 

Beetle, \iX>jjij:i gobarondcLy \j^jS gubrautd. 

Fire-fly, Glowworm, ^jS^ jugm. 

Grasshopper, Hj Jzc?c?a, Ul^j phangd. 

Locust, tjA'j Ji</^2, u^jLJ f?cfj, ^'Uj tlfi, d\f>- jardd. 

o o 

Bug, J/iii^ khatmaly \j^ ^^ kath-klrdy bU ntndyd. 


Bug (green), ^^ gandki. 

Cricket, il-^J^iwgMT', ^^ jhillt. 

Mole Cricket, Gryllus gryllotalpa, \j^j^ ghurgliurd. 

Butterfly, uf/itP t^t^'i, ^Sj^ pariodna. 

Moth, iXuiiJ patangd, <<il)^ parwdna. 

Vocahulary. — Nouns, 1 19 


Caterpillar, \^\^ jhanjhaj \%^ klra. 

Silkworm, a.^ c3b pat-kirm, <d-j ^J kirm-i-pela. 

Hornet, j^J zarnbur, (dakh.) ^j^'^ dikori : see Wasp. 

Wasp, J^ hirniyji harr (f.), ^JJi> hadda. 

Bee (honey), ^<^Uw^ mumakhi or ^^^UjbJ^ madhumakhij ^^j^ >^-i^ 

shahd-makkhi or ,<^ ^^ «X.^ shahd ki makkhi. 
Bee (humble or large black), ,<^^ bhringi. 
Bee (large black), jy^ hhanwar or \;y»^ hhanicra or !y^ hhaurira, 

^Ji aZ?, ;^^^ bhring. 
Ant, Pismire, j^ mor, J^ wamZ. 

Ant (black), lii3^^ chyunta, (large) tl>l^ pllak, (small) ^J^y,^ 

Ant (large), ^^^ chunta, \j^ rnakora, (dakh.) \j*^ makhora. 
Ant (small), ,^^ chunti, ^J^?^ chinti. 
Ant (white), «JJCk> J cZJwaA: (f.), (Jjo J cZImjaA; (f.). 
Fly, ^__<^ makkhiy \jS^ magas (f.). 

Gadfly or large Mosquito, ^bc?aw5,(dakh. gadfly) ^^\^^ gomachi. 
Mosquito, Gnat, Midge, ^^-^ machchhary iJLi^ pashsha, ^Jci kutkl. 


Midge (that flies into the eyes at night), t?^ ^T dnkh-phora. 

Louse, ;j^ j'ww (f ), jls- chillar (f.). Lice, ^jjyr i^'e/i, &c. 

Nit, ^ ZiH, (f.). 

Flea, ^ pissu, ^-j p?Aw, LlX^ A:a^/:. 

Weevil (small insect in rice, corn, &c.), VSj%^ sunda, lSj^"-'^ pitart, 

120 Vocabulary Nouns. 

Spider, c^J^ makri, IjfLo makrd. 

^ ~ O ft. 

Scorpion, ^^sr hichchu, ujLsr*^ hrischik, ^Jj^ kazhdum. 

Fish, (J^'* machhVi, jcff* machchhi, jJi>tc ma/^I, ^^--^ we/i, c:-?^ 

^M^ (f.). 
Eel, ^b 5aw2. 
Lamprey, jJ^"* ^f^' tamhu machhli. 


Mango fish, Polynemus paradiseus, ,X^^ l<^ tapassi (or ^opsi) 

Bikti, j^Ji^ hhikthi. 


Species of Herring, Clupea alosa, L1& AiZsa (f.). 
Species of Herring, Clupea cultrata, 1^1^ chalwa. 


Cyprinus denticulatus, ^^j rohu (f.). 
A species of Silurus, \f:^ tengra. 
Silurus pelorius, ^/^ maguri. 
Silurus pungentissimus, ^X^ slngl. 
Silurus sagittatus, ^^-Ixuj pangds. 
Mullet, j^ibjj parhin (f.). 

(, P 9 

Porpoise, jU-s^«s susmdr, (j^y^ sus. 

Sprat, or fish resembling a sprat, \j^ khaird. 

Prawn or Shrimp, ^Sc^^Pr jhlngd (f.). 

G C 

Crab, IjL^ kekrdy ^^ gegtd. 

9 O 

Oyster, \j^:^ kasturd (f.). 

Muscle, W ^ ^c*^ stpt kd ktrd {shell-worm). 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 121 


Phoenix (fabulous), Ujb huma, Uic ankcLy (j-:JG kuknus. 

Griffin (fabulous), 9y^>^ simur gh . 

Eagle, t_^Uc akah. 

Vulture, Jbdi giddh, JbsS gtdh, ^j-^J^ kargas,j>J> nasr. 

Falcon (species of), SjS^jurra or \j>-jurra (male of jb haz). 

Falcon (royal white), ^j^^ shahm. 

Falcon (female), jb haz. 

Falcon (Falco calidus), ^^^ hahri or cS/=^, hahrl. 

Hawk, jb ia2r, ^^ shikra, J^^ jhagar. 

Hawk (Falco cristatellus), ^if> kohi. 

Hawk (Falco fasciatus or dubius), ^^y turmati. 

Hawk (Sparrow), Lijlj hasha,j^ fj^yo mush-gir. 

Kite (Falco Cheela), J-^ cliil (f.), ^j zaghan (f.) 

Owl, ^1 2^/Zm, ii!^ ulagh, /tyi hum, J^ chughd, Isnj pecha. 

Sparrow, \jjS gauriyd (f.), 1^ chird, (hen) bj^ chiriya (f.). 

Lanius Boulboul (Nightingale of Persia, &c.), JJj hulhul. 

Turdus salica or Gracula religiosa (Moina), ITjL sdrikd. 

Swallow, J-jb1 ahdhil. 

Swallow (Hirundo apus Batassia), 1:^jI>^ supahmd. 

Lark, ]^J^ hhadrd, ^\ agin, (Alauda Aggia) Lf 1 agiyd. 

Starling (kind of), ^jL saro (f.). 

Raven, ^^ i^^^ j<^ngli kawwd, ^f -iJ^i dhar-kawwd. 

1*22 Vocabulary Nouns. 

Crow, \f kawwciy (^S^ kag, c^l^s- gh uroib. 
Rook, Jackdaw, \ff kawwcty c^l^ kag : see Crow. 
Coracias Bengalensis, -^^»^l-j ml-kanth. 

Hoopoe, Upupa, JJ^Aii hudhud, j^ <UU> shana-sar, 

Hornbill, Buceros, ^j^^^^ dhanes. 

Woodpecker, \j^ ^ kath'phord,j^ jf.j patthar-phor. 

Cuckoo (the black or Indian), J^^ kokil (f.), d^„f koyal (f.), lL^ 

Cuculus castaneiis, ^y^ mahokkd. 

Cuculus melanoleucos, lL^\s>- chdtak. 

9 9 f f 

Parrot, l>y tbtd, \y^ su'd, CS^ suk, ^^ tutjj ^j^ nun. 

Paroquet, \y^ su'd, li^ sugd, ^^ tutj, ^^]-?^ hirdman. 

Domestic Cock, jJU^ kukkut, \^^ kukrd, \lj< murghd. 

Domestic Hen, ^^ kukri, ^j^ mur gh u 

Peacock, jyc mor, Jbji bar hi, (^j ^ td'us. 

Peahen, ^j^^ morrn, Peachick, i>^ mureld. 

Fowl, j^ murgh, ^^U^U mdkiydn. 

Turkey, J5^ plru^ j^ ^}J fil-murgh. 

Pheasant, ji^Jj tadarv. 

Partridge (Perdix francolinus),^^ tttar, ^jii durrdj. 

Partridge (unknown species), ^1;J durrdj, CS4 kabk. 

Quail (kind of. Perdix olivacea), J-iJ batlr. 

Quail (kind of. Perdix Chinensis), ^ lawd, 


Pigeon, Dove, ci?^ kapot, |y^^ partwd,jiyi kahutar. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 123 

Pigeon (green. Columba Hurriala), Jj^Jb hariyaL 
Pigeon (tumbler), UJLo mandaliyd. 

Ortolan (Emberiza hortulana ?) J^y^ bar gel, ^j$ji^ par girt. 
Ostrich, ^j^j^ shutur-murgh. 
Sort of Bustard (Otis Bengalensis), J^ charz. 
Crane, {^S^ kulang, ,^S kunj : see Heron, 
Heron (Ardea torra and putea), Kj bagld or ^ baguld, Cj^^ bak, 
j\^y bufimdr. 

Heron (Ardea Antigone), \j*>j^ sdras. 

Heron (Ardea Argala), Adjutant Bird, LijJb harglld, ^^^^ khages, 


Heron (Ardea Indica), Jf^W jdnghal. 

Bittern (Ardea stellaris), 1^ j^^ chamar-bagU, J^y, butimdr, 

o, o 

Stork, t2^ /flg^ag-, jiaJ laklak. 


Sandpiper (Tringa Goensis, Lath.), ^J5j tatirl, uJf^ tatihrl. 

Waterfowl, iJ^j^ mu rgh dbi. 

Coot or Diver, yj.^ pandubi. 

Flamingo, ^j-JJb ^\j rdj-hans (?). 

Pelican, ,^\^hawdsil, (Pelecanus onocrotalus) J-.^ ^J^i gagan-bher. 

Swan, (^la> Aa^, ^J.,:Jb ^\j rdj-hans. 

Goose, Duck, ^j..jj^ Aaw5, laJ Z>aJ (^O? J^ ^^"^^ 
Gander, Drake, UaJ bata, J j\i kdz-nar, 

Beast, ij^yf^ haiwdn, ^^j^- charanda, ^ pasu. 

124 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Horse, \j^ ghora, <— ^^^ asp^ (^j^^ faras. 

Mare, i^j^ ghorlf ,^V.^^ madiyan (f.), (dakh. also) ^^^Jlo madwan. 

Foal, Filly, iJjn^, hachherl. 

Colt, l^^-fsr hachhlray Jci'U na-kand, ^^ kurra. 

Pony, Galloway, ^b yahu^ y^ tattu, ^^^t* tanghan. 

Gelding, a;::^! dkJita, \5»^ kutiya. 

Mule,jjsr^ khachchar, jxJ^ astar. 

Ass, \sti^ gadha, (she Ass) ^Jt>,^ gadhi,js>~ khavj J^>- himar. 

Wild Ass, Onager, Zebra, j^jf gor-Miar, j:JiJ^ khar-i-dashtt. 

Camel, l!U3^\ wtzJ, ^^ shutur, jJ^\ ushtur. 

CO ^ c^o c 

Camel (female), ^^J^^ untm, ^SjLisandm, (dakh. also) ^j^ sarm. 


Dromedary, JIjLj sdndm. 

Camelus Bactrianus (camel with two humps) Ifc^^J do-koh-d. 

O CO c 

Stag, Ul-j ^b hdrah-singdy J^^ kandsdr, l3yj> harnd. 

Elk, Moose, ^'L sambar, ^jf gawazn : see Stag. 
Spotted Deer of India (Cervus axis), J:^^ ch'ital. 
Deer, c^^ wzzrg, ^^^ haran,^\ dhujj^^^ kdl/har. 
Buck, Hart, l3yb harnd, ,^^ haran. 


Doe, Hind, jJyb harm. 

Fawn, b^}^ harnautd, ^ ^1 dhu-hara. 

Camelopard, or Giraffe (from Arab. ij\jj zarrdfa), (^S^ ^ gdw- 

Antelope, ^^Jfc haran, ]J^^ chikdrd : see Deer. 

Antelope (painted or white-footed. Antilope picta), -f^^j rojh. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 125 

Goat (Caper segagrus), \fj hakra, (fern.) ^j^. bakriy J^^^ chhagal, 

(dakh.) L^ chhela, (fem.) ^X^^ chhel'i. 
Kid, 'vi/*-.^ memna, <'Jli^ huz gh ala^ u^^^ halwan. 
Sheep, J-^ bher (f.), ^u,y gospand (J,)y j^'^ gadar (j.), (dakh.) |^ 

Ewe, ^j^ &Aer (f.), w^J;:^ 6^m, (dakh.) ^jLi bakri. 

Ram, UjL-^ mendha, Ij-^ bhera, ^^jt^ mesh, (dakh.) \Jj bakrd. 

Lamb, &s^ ^ jtii ^^^T ^^ bachcha, L! leld, Xji bar a. 

Cow, ^^ gat {{^y^ gdw (f.), (cow or one of the cow kind) ^ go. 

Bull, J-J ^Ju ! andu-bail, Jy barad, ^ Ji nar gdw, j^ saur. 

Ox, Bullock, J^ bail, LJ^JJ badhiyd. 

Calf, \j^. bachhra or Ij^ bachhrd, l^b bdchhd, (female) L^ 

bachhiydy (dakh.) Ijb joara, (fem.) LSj^^pdri. 
Heifer, jt^ kaldr,j^^\ osar (f.). 
Steer, young bullock, ^^^t} dohdrif L^ khaild. 
Buffalo (male), \^ v .;^ ^ bhainsd, IC^-^ maihikd, ^JL^ ^^ gdw-mesh, 
Buffalo (female), ^r-^;;^ bhains (f.), ^^J>^^ maihiki, (JL^ jlf gaz^- 

Buffalo, (wild, male), l3j^ arwa, (female) ^j\ arm. 
Buffalo (calf), ,c^J^ park?, Ijl^ /cam, ]^^ sungrd, Ijb ^am. 
Bos grunniens. Yak, ^^l^^ sara-gd'e orj\^^^ sara-gd'o. 
Hog (wild), Ljbjj barKeld or il-J^^ barheld. 

S- 9 9 ? 

Boar, Hog, j^^ 5M'ar, 2^J^b bdrdJi, cJ^ khuk^S^ sukar. 
Sow, \^j^y^ su^ari. 

126 Vocahulary. — Nouns, 

Pig, \^u^ ghmta, (female) ^J^:^ ghentt : see Hog, Sow. 

Rhinoceros, 1 Jc^ gainddf ^^^^ kargadan, 


Elephant, j^f*^ ^aM? (m.), (female) ^^^J*^ hathnl, J^ flL 

Elephant (large) J^s^^ kunjal, (small) V.'Nr^ kumedya. 

Hare, Rabbit, IXJ lamkana, lf*3 lamha, (JL^ js>^ khar-gosh, lib^ 

Porcupine, j<a>^ 5a^7, JjbL sa^z/, «*::^^ j^ khar-puskt. 

Rat, Ifc^ chuhciy \^yc musa,jS:<j\ indur, 

Bandicote Rat, Mus giganteus, Hardw., ^^ ghus, Ls^ ghusa, 

L. 9 9 

Musk Rat, Sorex cserulescens, jjJj^-^ chhuchhundar, 

9 %y f> 9 

Mouse, ,c^^^ chuhl, ^j^y< musri, (J^yo mush. 

Squirrel, ^^j^^^ gilahri, j^^ chikhur, ^^j rukhl, (dakh.), ^jj^ 

giltrl (?). 
Cat, L Mild, (fern.) ^« JzVZ^, ^L hild'o, (fern.) c5^ &z7a7, <^^ gurba, 

O X' 

jlsio manjdr, y^ mdno, (dakh. also)^?^ij hildwar. 
Kitten, <Sa< l^ . Jj Mill kd bachcha. 
Lion, -^5l<-j singh, \Jj^ kesari, ^j*^ kthari, jJa sher, <\J[ asad, 

CO o 

Lioness, jc^^^^ singhim, ^y r^ sherni, 


Tiger, ^b bdgh,jJ^ sher,j^^ babar,jib\i ndkar. 

G, CO O 

Tigress, ^^\J, bdghan or ^i^ b bdghm, i^jii^ sherni. 

O, ^JOO 

Tiger's Whelp, L^ bagheld, ^jy\^ ddnwru, (dakh.) j^ bor (?). 

>> o 

Panther, \s^ chttd,jy^ yuz, tL^J^ palang. 

Leopard, Lynx, \^^ tendu'd, iJ^S^^ palang, (small hunting) 'cu^ 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 127 

Persian Lynx (Felis Caracal), fj:^ i\^ siyah-gosh. 
Hyena, ^girir, \^ lakra, J^ kaftar. 
Ichneumon or Mongoose, ^^f^. blji, j-^\j rdsu, J^ newal, (dakh.) 

^^yo^ mungus. 
Dog, \:^ kutia, jif kukar, (^S^ sag, ^yi swan. 
Fox, ^y*^ lomrl, ibjj robdh (f.). 

Wolf, bj-^ bheriya, ^Sj"! landgd, i^S^ gurg, j\3cJt> hunddr. 
JackQ],jsS gldafj JU-i> shaghdl, JL-j siydL 
Otter, jLJj! ud-bila'd, j^ ^\>< mdhi-glr. 
Weasel, Ferret, Fitchat, Marten, JjJ wetcaZ, j-j); rdsu. 
Polecat, (^\!l^ khatds, JS^ katdr. 
Bear, -^:sr;j richhj Jl^ JAaZ, jll^ bhdlu, \j^^ khirs. 
Mole,jJu^^^ chhuchhundar (which is the musk rat). 
Hedge-hog, c:^^ j^ khdr-pusht, -f»-*-» slw^. 
Bat, Jj^-X*^ cJiamgidar,jd\i bddur, xj «^^ shab-para. 
Monkey, Ape,jJcj bandar, (fem.) c5;«XJ bandrl, ^j^ bozna. 
Baboon, jjkJ langur, ^jy^-^ maimun: see Monkey. 

Man, human being, jj«*3U mdnus, ^>^ admi, ^^jan, ^LjI insdn, 

9 ? 

fjLji purush. 
Man (in opposition to woman), J^ mard. 
Man (servant), ^y naukar,Jij nafar. 
Woman, kj'^^j randt, ^^^jf- aurat, {^J^ istrt, ^.b bd^tko, ^j zan. 

128 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Old man, IfeJ^ burha, ^ pzr, i^-ii skaikhy (dakh. also) Uj^j buddhd. 

O^ OP 

Old woman, Lifejj bur My a (f.), ^J^ ptr-zan, (dakh. also) Lfeju 5mc?- 
'' ^ "^ 

^iy5 (f.), , J^ j^ buddhi or t_^Jo Z>2^^. 
Young man, ^^^ ^ naujawdn, ^j^ gabru, 

■^9 9 ^ 

Young woman, ^^juvatt, \^j\f livUdrl, ^^^>- chhokri. 


Maid, Virgin, ^b bdkiraj lJj^^ ku^dri, *J--i>jt> doshiza, ^jS koru 
Boy, Lad, l^ larkd, ]/^i^ chhokrd, (servant) \S>^ launda. 
Girl, j^^ ZarA:F, ^^^^ chIidkTi,j:s>'ii duMitar, (servant) l/J^^ laundi. 
Child, Babe, Infant, <i^ bachchaj (fem.") ^^^ bachcJii, LliSb Z>a/ayt, 

Jit (z^, Jjj^ far Zand. 

" _ "l » - 

Giant, J1 J danav, e:^^^ i/*r7#: see Tall, Big. 

Dwarf, l3^ baund, (fem.) ^^^ baum, Bl3 wafa, (dakh.) ^xu^ thengu. 

A Human being by relationship may be — 

Husband, A*a»- khasam, yt^ shauhar, ^^j zauj. 

Wife, jj^Jorw, is^yj zauj a (f.), ^j zan. 

Father, c—^b bap, bb babd, ^jb 5a2z;a, bj pita, j jj pidar. 

Grandfather, (paternal) bb rfa6?a, b>-T djdy (maternal) bb nana, Jc»- 

Great Grandfather, (paternal) bb^ par-dddd, (niatemal) bby joar- 


Father-in-law (husband's or wife's father), ^^---o sasur (or susar), |^---*> 


susra,j*».^ khusar. 
Adopted Father or God-father, L->b >^j dharm-bap. 

Vocabulary Nouns. 129 

Mother, U ma, ^^U man, bU mata, jt)to madar, iiJi^j walida. 

Grandmother, (paternal) \jf'^\^ dadi, (maternal) ^b nam. 

Great Grandmother, (paternal) ^d\i^j^^ par-dadi, (maternal) i^^ ji 


Mother-in-law (husband's or wife's mother), ^>-Lj sols, ^J^\f^ LT^ 

Step-mother, c:-^U^ bemdt, \^^»-^ maibha. 
Brother, ^ l^ bha^i (m.),jjjy biradar,j^^ bir. 
Own brother, t-5 l^ Ix-j saga JAa'J, uf l^ j^jir* sahodar bhd'h 
Brother-in-law (sister's husband), \J y^. bahno't, yy^^ bahne'd. 
Brother-in-law (husband's elder brother), ..^L>- jeth. 
Brother-in-law (husband's younger brother), j^j J dewar. 
Brother-in-law (wife's brother), iJL said. 


Brother-in-law (husband's sister's husband), ti jJ^ nando^i. 
Brother-in-law (wife's sister's husband), y^JU sdrhu, uJij *Jb /*«»?- 

Step-brother (brother by the father only), ^ U Lj^ sauteld bhd'i. 

Step-sister (sister by the father only), ^,j ^J^jy^ sauteti bahin. 

Son, IS-j 6ef a, cl^jj pw^, ^n-j pisar. 

Son-in-law (daughter's husband), jUIj ddmdd, ^ \a^ jamd^i. 

Adopted Son or God-son, l5^ ^ybJ dharm-betd. 

Step-son (son by a former husband), c-^-Jj rab'ib, (or dakh.) li:-j t ^*jj 

Daughter, ^5-j btti,j:s>^,^ duJditar (f.), ^/^j jpw^rl, ^^ibJ dhJ. 

130 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

9 9 <^ 

Daughter-in-law (son's wife), ^^i haJiu, y&JJ hadhuj ^^:u patoh. 
Step-daughter, i^^j rahiha, (or dakh.) ^^^^ <UJj rahlba hefi. 

Sister, ^^ hahin or hahan, ^J^, bhagint, y^ bubu. 
Sister-in-law (wife's sister), ^JLj saB. 


Sister-in-law (husband's sister), ocJ nand (f.). 
Sister-in-law (husband's elder brother's wife), ^\^Lp^ jetham. 
Sister-in-law (husband's younger brother's wife), ,^^j^!,^ de'dram. 
Sister-in-law (brother's wife), ^jl^J bhawaj (f.), ^^^. bhauju 

9 y y 

Sister-iuTlaw (younger brother's wife), ^^j bhaihu, i^^ bhawah (f.). 
Grandson (son's son), llv pototy (daughter's son) \J\^ nawasd. 
Grandaughter (son's daughter), ^^j potl, cfj^,^ pautri. 


Grandaughter (daughter's daughter), ^^'U ndtin, ^:^ natm, (dakh. 

also) 5l3 nafi, ^^-^^^ nawdsi. 
Great Grandson, lj^^^ar-po^«, \j^^j3^par-pdtrd. 
Great Grandaughter, ^^j^ ^j par-pofi, l5/^ ^ par-potrl. 
Uncle (father's elder brother), jb' td'u, (dakh.) bU ^aya. 
Uncle (father's younger brother), Ul-^ chachd (or dakh.) ts.f~ chichd. 
Uncle (father's sister's husband), l^^ phuphd, j^^ phuphu. 

9 9 

Uncle (mother's brother), j^U mdmu, UU mdmd, Jj'U matuL 


Uncle (mother's sister's husband), ^U- khdlu, 

09 99 

Aunt (father's sister), j^^ phuphi, (or dakh.) ^j^ p/iwp, 1^ 

phu^d (f ). 

Aunt (mother's sister), ,^yo mausi, %>- khdld (f.). 

Aunt (father's elder brother's wife), ^*\j ta'l. 

Vocabulary . — Nouns, 131 

Aunt (father's brother's wife, or father's younger brother's wife), ^^f" 
chachi or , ^^ chachcln, (dakh.) , <3ls-^ chacham. 


Aunt (mother's brother's wife), (^^ maml, ^^^a^ mumani. 

Nephew (brother's son), Isn,:^ bhatljd, :?j!j jJ\jJ hiradar-zada. 

Nephew (sister's son), Isrl^ hhanjd, i{J\jjb^y>. Tdmdhir-zdda, 

Niece (brother's daughter), ^_^<^s^ bhafiji. 

Niece (sister's daughter), j^yf^l^ bhanji. 

Cousin (dakh. father's elder brother's son), ^ l^ \ji\j td'erd bhd't. 

Cousin (dakh. father's elder brother's daughter), ^^ ^f^lj td'ert 

Cousin (father's brother's son), * o ^ ir^f^ chacherd bhdi. 
Cousin (father's brother's daughter), f ^ ^ji^^ chacheri bahan. 
Cousin (father's sister's son), J u? ^ lr?€?^ phupherd bhd'i. 
Cousin (father's sister's daughter), § ,^ *-^>r^^ phuphtri bahan. 
Cousin (mother's brother's son), ^^ l^ J/r*^ mamerd bhd'l. \\ 
Cousin (mother's brother's daughter), ^^ LSj^y^^ mamerl bahan.^ 

* In Dakhni, said to be ' father's younger brother's son." 

f In Dakhni, said to be ' father's younger brother's daughter." 

\ Dakh. c5*l^ Irf?^ phuperd bhd'l. 


\ Dakh. ^^^ ^jl^^ phuperl bahan, 
II Dakh. ^5 Iff y^^ maulerd bhd'z, 
f Dakh. j^^ ^j^y^ mauleri bahan. 

132 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Cousin (mother*s sister's son), cj'l^J \;fr^y^ mausera bha'l. ^ 

Cousin (mother's sister's daughter), ^^ ^jir'y^ mauseri bahan.f 

The Body and what belongs to the body. 

Body,^,^ sarir, ^^jj badan, <0 j deh (f.). 

Limb, Member, Joint, ^*a^ azv, i^'A ang, \Jj tukra. 

Sense, ^^-.^ hiss (plur. ij^\^ hawass, senses). 

Sight, vJl^jJ cZns^f (f.), ^ li-J bmal., C^LaJ basdrat (f.), ^b CJy 

kuwat-i-basira, Jaj nazar. 

Hearing, ^U^L ci?y kuwat-i-sdmi'a, ci^^-U-j samd'at (f.). 

Smell, <uli> ciy kuwat-i-shdmma, <t<l-l shdmma. 

Taste, <^>3j zd'lkd, ^\^ lU^ kuwat-i-zd^lka. 

Touch or Feeling, ^l-^^ Idmisa, <U^il c:Jy kuwat-i-ldmisa, ^j^ lams, 

^? ^ 

Voice, Speech, <ULl> ndtikd, aJiLl} ci^y kuwat-i-ndtika, jUl ai^az. 

Colour, t^j rang, ^^ Zaww. 

Stature, Jcj ^ar7c?, ci^^^Ij • jJJ ^ac?c? o kdmat, Jj J ^/. 

Skin, Hide, c:^>«j^po5^, Jl^ khdl (f.), }/^ chamrd, A^ jild (f.). 

Cuticle, Pellicle, Membrane, ^Ip^ jhilU, Hi^y par da. 

Pore, /♦L*^ masdm, (Pores) oUL^ masdmdt. 

Flesh, jjJU ?wa^5, <:l^^ gosht, kJ^ /iera. 

Bone, fc^-tXto haddi, JU A5r, ^l^i:Ljl ustujchwdn, jjac «2m. 

* Also, t^ l^ y^ khalerd bhd'h 
f Also, jj^ «^.*^ khalert bahan. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 133 

Blood, ^j! Mu,^ lahu, (dakh.) ^ Ihau, i^j rakat or rakt, ^^ 

Chyle, {j^^ kailuSj (j^y^ kaimus. 
Humour (of the body), lai^ Mkilt, (j^j ras. 
Serum, ^^ manj, ^b pdrii. 

9 9 9 

SaHva, Spittle, l15^* thuk, JJ; ral (f.), uJJ tuf^ <-^US hCab. 
Urine, c->ll^ peshahj J^ haul, C->^ mut, fj^ shash. 
Sweat, U-— J pasind, ^-— j pase'd, ^JjS- arak. 

Phlegm, **b halgharriy uJ^ kdf(f.), ^ kaph (f.). 
Bile, Gall, u:-^ pit, \Ju> safrd (f.), \ij pitta, 


Milk, J^J^ J c?2ic?A, -J» shir,j^^ chhir. 

Marrow, \iif gudd, jt^ ma gh z. 

Muscle, Tendon, l^ patthd, ^^ pai, jj-J nas (f.). 

Nerve, Sinew, t-^-^s asab, l^ patthd, ^^ pai, {^ nas (f.). 

Fibre, ^j resha, 4^ rag (f.), (^T a?w (f.). 

Membrane, u^jl^ khalrl, (of the foetus) ^:>-jhilli, ^J^j parda, 


Artery, ^b -i, sAiryaw (f.), t^ rag (f.). 
Vein, CL^ rag (f.), ^-J ^05 (f.). 

Great vein in the arm, vena basilica, JpJu^b bdsalik, i^f^ shahrag, 
/•IjJl cu^AJb haft-anddm, 

~>» ;> o ^ 

Gristle, Cartilage, ^^ kurri, u-jj^-oc. gh uzruf. 
Gland, .^^^ gilt I, JJ^c gh udud, ^^ guthli. 

CO o 

Joint, -^^gawf/i (f.), Jcj band, jy>. jor, ^^ girik (f.). 
Hair of the head, Jb 5a/, ,^^^ /:e5 (f.),jy< mu. 

134 Vocabulary/. — IVouns. 

Hair, small of the body, ^)^j ro'an, a^j rom, m^ lorn, JLi pashm (f.). 

Feather, ji par, -,$^ pankh. 

Head,^ sivy S,u^ mund, ^«-.*«j sis, j^ sar, ^ kalla. 

CO o 

Crown of the head, lS^^^ chdndlf ijjfS fatri, j^Ij tdrakj jJlh ma- 

Skull, Pate, Pericranium, lJJ^^ khopri, j^ ^^ kdsa-e-sar. / 

Face, «^ munh, ^^ mukh, (dakh.) ^yo mun, ^j^ chihra, ^j rukh. 

Forehead, Front, l^*U mdtha, Jl^ bhdl (f.), ,^^^ peshdrii, ^^p^ 
jahin (f.). 

Horn, i^Su^ sing, «> shaMi, ^J» karn. 

Brain, Isn.^ bhejd, \i^^ guda,jk< maghz, iUt) dimdgh. 

Pia mater, J^ ^^J^ parda-i-maghz. ^ 

Temple (of the head), ^^ kanpat}, &mJ^ shalfika. 

Occiput, back of the head, Iw kafaii.). 

Eye, ^T dnkh, ^J warn or nayan, JL:>- chashm, ^^^^ dida. 

Eyebrow, ^^^ 5^az^?7 (f.), j^l ct&rw (f.), ^-^ bhirkuti. 

Eyelid, \5^j joofa, (JLi3j ^a/a^' (f.). 

Eyelash, ^t< mizha (plur. j^^j^ mizhgdn), ^ji baram. 

Pupil of the eye, ^Jzj putlt, CJ^'^j^ mardumak, J^ ^i^j^ mardum- 

Tear, ^T dnsu, ^^'\ dnjhu, CSJ^\ ashk,jj^ lor. 
Nose, (Jj'lj wflA; (f.), ^^ wasiita (f.), ^^ blm. 
Nostril, \ifj nathnd, jSsL) minkhar (f.) 
Bridge of the nose, Ljb bdnsa. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 135 

Snot, Mucus, l53y^ ponta or ^jJ potcij ^j rentdy l2J wefa, c»->Ul /w'ai. 
Mouth, -^ munh, -^ mukhj ^jJ^J dahan, ^\ anan, 


Roof of the mouth, Palate, ^l3' ^a/w, /*l^ kam, j^^Xo mazak. 
Tongue, -^^^-^ 7^^^ (^O^ (dakh.) c^-^->^ jih^ .^\jj zaban ((.), ,^U 

lisdn (f.). 
Breath, /♦J darrif j^-jL 5aw5 (f.), ^^-^ nafas (f ). 
Tooth, ci-^l J ddnt, j^ljJ J dandan, ^t-J dasan. 
Gums, 1?«*-^ masurd, <)si3 Zisa. 
Lip, ^y> hontky t-^ ZaJ (m. f.). 
Beard, ^J^^ c?ar/i7, ^j rls^ (f.), ^ M^?/.- 
^ Ear, (jl^ /raw, ^^Ji^ gos^, ^^j-^ srawan. 

Lobe or tip of the ear, ^^ 1:j bind-gosh, ^j^^^y narma-e-gosh. 

Drum of the ear. Tympanum, iJj ^j^^ /i^aw /^« par da. 

Cheek, J^gaZ, jL^j rukhsdr, J^ kapol. 

Jaw, \j^jabrdy \^^^ jabhrd, (jaws) K /raZZa. 

Chin, t^I§5 thuddl, (dakh.) ,js^ thuddi, ij zakan, J^j zanakh. 

Pit or dimple in the chin, ^j zanakh, ^^*^^srj zanakhddn, L--^«-i ^U- 

chdh-i- gh a bgh ab. 
Dewlap, c-^x^ gh abghab. 
Throat, '^ gala, ^^U- ^aZ^, /•yi^ halkum. 
Larynx, Throttle, Windpipe, Gullet, \Sj4j narkhari, \y:^ tentu'd, 

^j*^j narkasi, ^ij nail, ^ gulu, "t^ gala. 
Neck, i^d^^ gardan (f ), ^ gala, \^^^ griwd (f.), ^^ ghanch. 
Nape of the neck, ^.^Jki guddl, Ui yj^o/a (f.). 

136 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

ex. oc „ O^' 

Shoulder, l&JJl^ kdndha, \it>3jy< mondha, (jtjti dosh, (dakh.) 1JL« 


/ ^ / 

Shoulder blade, ^l-i» shana, t-Jix^ katif. 

Wing, y par, ..^iGj pankh, .^^'pachli, ^jU Jas^S. , 

Arm, ^\ hanhj -filib ^aM, 

Arm (from the shoulder to the elbow), jjb hazu, ^ hhuj, jui c?aw^. 

Arm (from the elbow to the wrist), Uiy pahuncha. 

Wrist, ^j K kal&ty l^^ pahuncha, (dakh.) (JU^ mangat. 

Hand, ^^^'bb ^a^^, l^-v-jJ cf«5^, J.>1>- changul, (extended) i^j panja, 

O ~ C w 

Palm of the hand, ^f^ hathelzy <-J^ kaff{i.\ l::-w:J l-c^ kaff-i-dast. 

Fist, ^^ mutthiy ci-^X:^ musht. 

Thumb, l^yi^ angutha,jj l:^L^\ angusht-i-nar, a\^\ ibham. 

Finger, ^Ji3l MwgZ7 or ^J^l angll, ui^^vijil angv^ht (f.). 

Forefinger, Cl^jl^ Lii^liil angusht-i-shahadaty ^^J^\ ^ ^^^i^ kalme 

ki ungliy <)uL-j sahhaba. 

Middle finger, ^^^\ ^ ,-^J b'lch ki ungli, 

Ring finger, (dakh.) ^)^\ ^^ lzJi^V^ shahddat ki angli. 

Little finger, (Gilch. ^i^\ ^J^ kdn angli?), ^^J^^ chhinguU (?), 

Tips of the fingers, J^l3l andmil. 

Nail of the finger, &c., ^j>-^ ndjdiun, ^ nakh, <0 nah. 

Claw, J>1^ changuly <i5^s:u panja, jj£>-\3 ndkhun. 

Elbow, (cX^ kuhniy Jpi^ mirfaky ^^J*^^ kohnl. 

Knuckle, -^U J^ (j*:A^I ungliy on kt gdnthy JcJ Jawrf. 

Vocabulary Nouns, 137 

Armpit, JjtJ haghal (f.), ^j4^ kakhri. 

Breast, Bosom, ^yl^ chhati, <^*-o sina. 

Pap, Nipple, Teat, Dug, ,^^2--*j ^ sar-i-pistan, ^j hhitni, U^ 

iy^3/« (f.), ^yf>r (^^unchu 
Breast-bone, a;^--*:^ sar-sina. 
Back, ^^ ;?7f^ (f.), Ll^ ^Ms/^^ (f.). 

Backbone, ij>j r?rA (f.), Jul j dand, (dakh.) ^b I? -^ p^f/^ A:a &aw5. 
Side, Ribs, ys^ pdnjar, ^J^ pasU. 
V Bosom, J>^ god (f.), ^^ A:aMZa, jli^ kandr or A;iwar (f.), ^^^T 
a gh osh (f.). 
Belly, l2^ ^ef, jLi> shikam. 
Stomach, irJ^jc* midday ..^^p^ jhojh, -^^ o;A. 
Maw, Craw, Crop, aL?^ hausilay li^ />oJa. 
Point of the sternum or ensiform cartilage, j^J^ kauri. 
Navel, uJl3 wa/ (f.)> -^^ nahhi (f.), t/Jjy ^ow^z. 

Co to o 

Bowels, Intestines, ^j?/^^ antrl, or plur. ^jbj-ix^l antriymij ^j^A 
dnten (f.)- 

^ CO 

Mesentery, ,^^i^* ^ ^^.j^^ antriydn kt thaili. 

o o 

Heart, lt>^ hirdd, u-^ i^ra/^, Jj cfi/. 
Liver, f^sali* kaleja, S^ jigar, <xS kabid. 

9 CO 

Lungs, Lights, ijj riya, or plur. Ci^bj riydt (f.), ,^^^ shush, ufj^^^ 


phephre (?), (dakh.) L-m^ phepsd. 
Spleen, Milt, ^Jj ^i/Ze, Jlsr (i^a/ (f-)> 1;?*^ supurz. 

138 Vocabulary Nouns, 

Pluck, ^^:s^ \j^^ ^ u^^i^ haiwan ka antarya kaleja. 

Pancreas, <uU lahlaha. 

Kidney, ^^X^j gurda. 

Bladder, ijXf phukna or U^^ phukna, ^li-* masana. 

Gall-bladder, Gall, Bile, li^ pitta, i^jbj zalira. 

Abdomen, (JU^ pet, Jji> sJiikam, ^^i kokh (f.), \£^ kokha (f.). 

Loins, Waste, ^^ kamar (f.), ,^L« miyun (f.). cU^ /caf (f.)» 


Flank, >^^ kokh (f.), Jjo haghal (f.) ; see Loins. 

Pelvis (lower part of the belly), jJ-j peru, \^^ kokha. 

Private parts, ^^ /♦Ijol andam-i nihani, ^rx-j satr. 

Hip, Buttock, Ham, Haunch, Rump, %f kula, J^^->- chutar, ^„j^ 

fj 9 ^P 

surin (f.), -i^i puth, l^!b puttha. 
Thigh, ^Ij ra?z (f.), ^\>- jangh (f.), \^C'^ jangha (f.). 
Knee, li% ghutna, ylj ^raww, l3^-f> the'dnd. 
Kneepan, b^^ khuriya, ^>- chakki, ^^ 1 a^na. 
Lap, i^f god (f.)?y|; s^aww. 
Leg, jL sa^ (f.),yb, ptt?J?^, j/gor, ^^ philU. 
Calf of the leg, J Jcj piwc?/7, ^Ju> ^IZJ, (dakh.) L:u.-i>^ l^ ^5«iJ pi»n 

ka gosht. 

Shin, Shin-bone, c^JJi ^ ^J^ philli ki haddi, (dakh.) ^Jj ^ ^^:j 
pinri ki nalli, 

9 c o c ,. 

Ankle, ^^ ghut}, w^x^ /ca*^, tL^U-i* shitdlang, (joint) Lsr* takhnd. 
Pastern (of a horse), \j^ tht'ond, ^^ ghuti. 
Heel, ^^\ erl, s^\j pdshna. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 139 

Instep, b 'j:^Lj pusht-i pa. 
Foot, ^\i^panWj b pa,j^^ pair, {^Jj pag, ^^ char an* 

>> o - 

Sole of the foot, Uj faZii'a or \^ talwciy b t^ji^ ^«^-i pa. 

Toe, jjiil l/ y^ pa^iif? Ai MwgZl, (great) y ^j:^^JL^\ angusM-i nar. 

9 P 

Hoof, *-o sum, j^ khur. 

Hurts and Diseases of the Body. 


Blow, Stroke, Stripe, l!U^j-^ chapet (f.), c-y? zarZ> (f.), j^j war^J^ 

mar (f.). 
Blow with the fist, e:^^.!^ musht, ,X< mukki, ^^ ghusa. 
Bruise, Blow, Hurt, <-^^ c^of (f.). 
Sprain, Strain, ^yo moch, (dakh.) \jyc mora. 


Cut, Slash, \j^ chira, *r>.J zakhm. 
Scratch, small wound, l^^ charka. 


Wound, Sore, ^j zakhm, ^\^ gha'd, ^'\^ ghd'e, c:^:*-^ jarahat 

Ulcer, Abscess, ji^lj nasur, is>-y karha, Jjj^ phora. 
Fistula, j^l) nasur. 

Issue, Running sore, L::-^^XJ handarkhat. 
Gangrene, Mortification, \jy>- Idiora, j^V saran. 
Imposthume, Bile, Blain, Jv<J dummal, \j^i^ phora. 
Whitlow, Felon, ^5;^^ chhalort. 

" y' 

Pimple, Pustule, small Bile,J^J haltor, >.>.vgj phunsi, "f^ chhala, 

L-^ pansa (f.). 
Blister, ^^^ phaphold, "A^ chhdld, IC^^ phulka, <djT a^iZa. 

140 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Kibe, Chap on the foot, Chilblain, ^j 1^ biwd'i. 

o « o 

Scar, Cicatrix, Mark, 41 J dagh, -f.^- chinh, ,A>- chitti, l:^^^ chakta. 
Bump, h^^ gumroLj L^ gathiya, (from the bite of an insect) JJj'^'^ 

Swelling, Tumour, J^J dummal, ^j^ war am, ^^.Ul awa^, ^y^ suj 

Wen, h^ji'gwwm, (dakh.) ^y^j rasuli. 

Bronchocele, Goitre, \^^ ghtga, l^:;^ ghegha. 

Scrofula, King's evil, ilU .^5i^ kanth mala, ^J^ khanazir. 

Cancer, ;^ll?;«i sarafan, i^isL^j\^ hazar-chashma. 

Chancre, ^J^lj ZaTiA;!, l!Ujs- cAaf (f.)- 

Wart, Excrescence, L^ massa, J^^-.-^ mashird, ^\ ^ZZa. 

Pain, Ache, Ail, ^J dfwAA, J, J dard,j^^ ptr (f.j, ^^' Z>eo?aw. 

Sickness, Illness, Disease, Disorder, Distemper, j^jU^J hlmari, ^j^ 
marz or ^^a) maraz, j\J\ azar, t^j rog. 

Contagion, Infection, ^^::^}j'^ sarayat (f.). 

Sickness at Stomach, Nausea, cLi^l oA; (f.), lL^ ^iA:, cf^< matlal. 


Indigestion, ^^^^^ ^^ had-hazmi, ^jf^ ajiran. 

Fainting, Swoon, ^JLi ghash, ^Jls. ghasJii, ^^jy^ rnurchha (f.). 

Fit, .^j>- «_/ <-5;W^ himari k't charhti, ci^^y nauhat (f.). 

Headach,^ J, J dard-i-sar, tljwtf 5M(Za*, (dakh.) oj^y-* sir-phort. 

Vertigo, Giddiness, Swimming in the head,^ i^b^^ dauran-i-sar. 

Ear-ach, ^jijf J; J dard-i-gosh (?). 

Toothach,^ l::-Jo dant-plr (f.), ^1j^*^ ^^^ cZarrf-i danddn. 

Vocabulary Nouns. 141 

C ^ CO 

Ophthalmia, Jlj^^ ^->yt>t dshob-i chashm, ^j^ l^ -^T aiikh kd maraz. 


Quinsy, jl:^ khunak. 

Sore throat, J^ J li ^^y^ gaZe A:a dard. 

Ringworm, Herpes, Jb ^ac?, jIj W«->i^ hhainslya-dad. 

Cold, <X»^ /Aawc? (f.), ^^j^ sardi, ^\ij zukdm. 

Catarrh, Rheum, ajj nazla, a^j zukdm. 

Cough, ^j-^^ khdnsly iij»^ surf a, (dakh.) ^j-JlibJ dhdns. 

Hiccough, Hickup, jXf-^ hichkl. 

Hoarseness, jljT ^^^^ giriftagi-dwdz (f.). 

Fever, t_^' ^op (f.), <--»^ 'a^? 00?yrj«^» ^^j)/*" hardrat (f.). 

Ague, 2^^ c-^ tap'i-larza, cSjj^juri. 

i. i . y 
Ague, quartan, ,c*{; cfU.^*- hummd-e rib'l. 

Ague, tertian, c5;W^ tijdri, e^ i«^ ^op-i ghibb. 

Intermittent fever, l>j:;3t antriyd, cii-Jy * ^ ^ap-i naubat, 

Hectick fever, j J t^^ tap-i dikk, J**j siZZ. 

Quotidian fever, ^\yo » J ^op-i muwdzaba. 

Burning fever, ^jS^ c^ ^ap-i muhrik. 

Madness, Phrenzy, ^S^\^j^ diwdjiagi^ \dy^ saudd, y^ sir (f.). 

Consumption, Phthisis, J-j sill, t^j ^5^ chkai-rog (or, vulg. 

CO o o 

Dropsy, Hydropsy, ybjJo- jalandhar, \a^>^ istiskd, 

~ o o 

Anasarca, ^j t^ liL^';^^! istiskd-i zikkt, 

o 00 

Tympany, ^^^Lt (^ !.(?.»,•;.. 4 istiskd-i tabli. 

142 Vocabulary Nouns» 

Pleurisy, ^^^^lJS.Mcl^lJ zatu-l-jamb, A^j^jirsam, aX^j barsdm. 
Plethora, \A>-\ LJ^l ifrttt'i akhlaU ^^ l^J^l ifr^tr^ khun. 
Asthma, lLXjI-s sank (f.), ^^--Aillj;-^ ziku-n-nafas, iu^ dama, 

O ..CO 

Palsy, c^,^:a**j sitang, (or hemiplegia) ^^ /«?«;, {^S^^^\ adhang. 
Paralysis, a^ lahwa, iJLs-j ra sha : see Palsy. 

Gout, (^JsJ nikris (improp. nakris), (dakh.) ^\ U^ gathiya-ba^i. 
Rheumatism, ^ b ba'i or Z>a'e (f.), ci>b Z»a^ (m-)^ J-tfli< ^^j waja't 

mafasilj (dakh.) (^*|^^i^ jhanakwa't. 
Jaundice, J^ kanwal or Jb J^ kanwal-bad, U^-tl ya'^kan. 
Gravel, Stone, <0b^ c^^^-j sang-i masana, 
A stone in the bladder. Calculus, c^;f^-> patthri. 
To have a palpitation of the heart, l^jJb J ^^s*- j7 dharakna. 
Smallpox, ^Lm-; 5z^a/a (f.), UU wza^a (f.) or (dakh.) l^U matlia, ^^ 

goti, lS^s^^ chechak (f.). A Pock, ^^ gotl. 
Measles, ij\s^^ garrni-dana (?), ^'^ pangoti (Gilch. ?). 
Chincough, ^^^^ khansi, (dakh.) i^S^ khang, 


A sty on the eyelids. ,^J^\ -^ I aw/c^ anjarii, ^^l^irsr\ anjanharl. 

o /> 

Gripes, Colic, j^/^J peckish (f.), );;[^ mar or a, -j^ly kulinj. 
Tenesmus, ^^Ui ^agas (f.), (^>5-f^ peckish (f.)> j^*^ s^^^* 

o;' ^ CO 

Vomiting, ^ \^\ ubka't ^ kai, (f.), d^^^ii-jl istifr agh . 

Cholera, JLo-A haiza, \jj waba (f.). 
Piles, Hemorhoids,^;^!^ bawaslr. 
Stoppage of the nose, Coryza, i Ju*! sudda. 

Vocabulary Nouns. 143 

Hemorrhage, (from the nose) uJUj ru'af, (from other part) ^jJ^ J-,-a 

Polypus, Inflammation in the nose, Vii'u nakra. 
Obstruction of the liver, jX?»- as^ sudda-ijigar. 
Diarrhoea, Flux, Dysentery, jLj^ atisar, ^j^-^ sitrasy J 1^1 is'hal, 


aLI ij^ij^ jiryan-i shikam. 
Constipation, Costiveness, j^/aJ /:a&f (f.), ^'^/^'O ^^ kahziyat (f.) ^_5^i--*J 

Venereal,^ b ha'o (f.), CL^ *^V bdd-ifarang, lSLj] dtashak (f.). 
Gonorrhoea, u-^Jj^ sozdk, ^jJ parme^o, <U<^ pranith. 
Diabetes, J^ J-J-j ^ilsil-i hauL 

Dysury, Strangury, J^l lt-?^^ habsu-l-baul, J^l^^^ usru-l-baul. 
Epilepsy, ^Xr* ?wir^7, jU*-j1 apasmdr. 
Rupture, Hernia, <ol:>> jb Z>ac? khdya^ ^Jsj fatk. 
Leprosy, JbJ^ korh, /*\^ juzdm, ^J^^ pes, o'^^*^ sufaidi. 
Elephantiasis, b J-i fd-pd, Ji>^^ l,^ ma^a A;or/*. 
Plague, Pestilence, bj wabd (f.), ^£^ Twarl. 
Epidemic, jUl^^ mahd-mdr, ^U ^^^ maraz-i-dmrn. 
Famine, ks.-' ;t«/z/J, j^L ks.^ kaht-sdll, J'<^ A:aZ, ui^t) dubhuk, 

'■'9 j9 ^U ^ 

Hunger, ^^ J^m/:^ (f), ^^^^J^ gursinagt, 9^ju^' 

Thirst, (j-\^^piyds (f.), (^\ji trds (f.), jJ^i^ tishnagJ, ^ji^ atash (f.). 

Persons employed in curing diseases. 
Physician, jL>- hakinij t^.>,....V> /aJIJ, Ju^ Jaic?. 

144 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Surgeon, Aj^ jar rah. 

Apothecary, Druggist,jlla^ attar, j\^^^<^dawa-sds, i^j\^pansari(\n.). 

Phlebotomist, ^J t^ rag-zan, jLis fassad. 

Cupper, A^ hajjdm, ^Ij ^^-^^t*^ singi-wdld. 

Bonesetter,y^U^ kamdn-gar. 

Medical means, 

y s o >» 

Medicine, Drug, |^<3 dawd {i^, ^J\>^ ddru (f.), ^Jk-i»j\ aushadh (f.). 
Remedy, Cure, ---Li zZa;, ^U- chdra. 

Emetic, ,^^JU mukaiyi, IjJ ^^ ^^' A:ai H c?a2i?a. 

P urge, c-j^ julldhy j\p^ jhdr. 

o » 

Bleeding, s^fasd(f.). 

Electuary, ^^^^s*^ ma^jun, ^j\i^ Jty nosk-ddru. 

Ointment, ^Jb^ mar ham, l^J /ep. 

Plaster, Salve, Jfc^ mar ham, ^^ Zep, jl^ zamdd (f.). 

Fomentation, tlX^ sew/c, jW kimdd. , 

Embrocation, jlu ^a^ar (f.), jUw^ zamdd (f.j, ilL i[iZa. 


Poultice, uiJ^jJ Zopn, j^fl fiy^or. 
Bandage, jU*^ zamdd (f.), ^^ ^af J?. 
Clyster, Xuss>- hukna. 

The Mind and its Attributes or Affections. 

Mind, ^ Twaw, -^s*-^ Jzi^Vi (f.), <^^4X« mudrika, ^yb ^05^. 

Intellect, Understanding, Jjic aA:Z (f.), ^jiyb hosh, JbJo ftwc?^ (f.), ^^ 

Vocabulary, — Nouns, 145 

Reason, JJlc akl (f.) ; reasoning faculty, ^laj tim^^. 
Will, Wish, iid\j\ irada, \^\ ichchha (f.), jlsr bichdr. 

Desire, j^ shauk, iW cAa^ (f.), (j^^ hawas (f.), (ji^^^ khwa- 

hish (f.). 
Avarice, m^^I Idlach, J^ bukhl, ^^ fiirs (f.). 
Ambition, ^^-yb hawas (f.), tS>^l umang (f.), *lL»^ hausila. 
Affection, c:^.^^'* muhabbat (f.), jU piyar, ^ weA (f.), JjO rfarc?. 
Love, ^jLs- ishk, i\:>- chdh, j\j pydr, lyb hawd (f.). 

Hatred, Dislike, Aversion, ci^ nafrat (f.), ^^^ ^^J bad-khwdhi, 
JiJ gurlz. 

Disgust, Abhorrence, li^J^ kardhiyat (f.), CJ^ii nafrat (f.), ^ 
g^iw, (f.), tj?;5/t^ bezdri. 

O O w >> 

Anger, Passion, Rage, JbJ^ brodh, JLs>^ [diashm, <Uai gh ussa^ c^*di 
ghazabj (^j ris (f.), ;^/rr^ Jjaw^ (f.)* 

Pleasure, Joy, Mirth, Gladness, ^^^>- Idkushlj ^jL^ aish, d^o-y 

farhat (f.), ^^^ JiZas, JcJ ! dnand, jmj--» surur, ^^ khurramt. 

Happiness, Felicity, ^-31^1^ kdmrdnl, JcJ! dnand, ^^y^y^ khiish- 

Hope, Jwol ummed (f.), ^j^T 05 (f.), l**'T asa (f.). 


Reliance, Faith, Trust, ^^T ds (f.), jUc^l i^timdd, L^^ bhrosd, <uO 
takiya,j^^\ i^tibdr. 

Fear, Dread, Apprehension, jJ cfar, (j-^j-j^ waswds, ^^ bhai, Kim-j 
saw/ca (f.). 

Doubt, Suspicion, LlXi* 5AaA:A:, ^.J^-j sandlli, Uj>jJ dubdhd (f.), 
<^^ shubha. 


146 Vocabulary — Nouns. 

Courage, Valour, clAj^ jur^at (f.), c:^-w*Jb himmat (f.), iJj^'^ dileri. 

Cowardice, ^a>^ ^i he-himmatl ^ lS<^j^ ^ na-mardi. 

Shame, Bashfulness, Modesty, /»^ sharm (f.), -.^ /a; (f.), ^r?^ 

hay a (f.). 
Jealousy, ^^ zawTi, Ji>- jhal (f.), 2^^ J c?aA (f.), u-^-i shakk, 

op o 

Spite, Malice, Grudge, Envy, ^^j hughz, CS-i^j rashk, AuJ kma. 
Animosity, Enmity,^ hair, t^f^ lag (f.), CL^^^s. adawat (f.). 
Vengeance, Revenge, a»\scj\ intikam,j^ hair, ^Si hadla, 
Mercy, Compassion, Pity, *^j rahm, b J day a (S'\jti V^'"' C^-)' 
Patience, ^-Mtf mhr (f.), tj?^;^ sahurl, >^j^i^ dkiraj. 

Morals, moral and immoral Actions. 
Morals, Manners, ci^;---* sirat (f.), J^l>-1 alMak, 4«-;jl «c?(25. 
Ceremonies, Custom, Etiquette, t--?ljl arfaS, *-j; rasm (f.), JU* (f.). 
Politeness, good manners, j;is^ khulk, CJ^J^ muruwat (f.). 
Civility, Ci^Lj suluk, Jii>- khulk, l::— JL.j| insaniyat (f.). 
Honesty, Probity, t/*^**' sachcha'i, ^'^^j rasti, ^Jyf^ sachautt. 
Immorality, Dishonesty, (^U^jj had-ma'asM, ^J'i^\ adharm. 
Knavery, Treachery, ^^bUj dagha-hazi, .^^} ^P he-imani. 
Falsehood, Deceit, ^^>- jhuth, J>^ makr, ijjjJ dar ogh . 
Temperance, Sobriety, JJb^ parhez, -^«o sanjam, cj^ wara^. 
Intemperance, Extravagance, c^^*^ "^ had-parhezl, J^i fazuli. 

o o 

Prodigality, Waste, uJ^l w^«/> (^^^ JJ ivar-kharchl, u-ib* ^aZa/. 
NiggardUness, Stinginess, ^^:^ kanjusi, ^Jj^ tangdilu 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 147 

Liberality, Generosity, ciJjls*^ sakhawat (f.), Jy>- jud, ^i karam. 

c / , 

Beneficence, (^L-^^ ifisan, j^\ upakar, j^aJ faiz. 

CO o 

Friendship, Kindness, ij^^.j^-^ mihrhain, \)S kirpa (f.). 
Professions, Occupations. 

o o 

Theology, Divinity, isi jikh (f.), ^^^ J^ ilm-i ildhi. 

Medicine (practice of), Physic, ci^U? tahahat (f.), < J? Ji66 (f.)« 

Law, Jurisprudence, <Uii filch (f.), cuJlja: adalat (f.), ^j-i» shar'^. 
Military Profession, 4_f^ s\^ sipah-garl, 

c o 

Agriculture, Husbandry,^-M-s57r, cfj^"^ kishtkarty ^-^^^^^j) zira^at(j.). 
Merchandise, Commerce, aJj\^ tijdrat (f.), ^j/^'^y^ sauddgarl, 

jLj haipdr, -^^ hanijy 1 Jyj saudd. 
Servitude, Slavery, ^Jcj bandagl, lJ^^ chdkarl, Ls/y naukdrl, 

^^Ic ghuldmi, (J^ faAaZ (f.). 

People of ProfessionSf Occupations, or Trades, 
Theologian, djii faklh, ^z^jx^ Jjbl aAZ-i ma^rifat, ^jl^l achdraj. 
Lawyer, <Ui3 falfih, J-^j l^ c:>.!W addlat kd wak'il. 


Soldier, (^'•--» sipdHi, iJL^^ \^\'^ sipdhi ptsha, ^J^ lashkari. 
Physician, c-.^««l^ tah'ib, Juj haid, *-^ hakim. 

Author (writer), i-Jl^ mu'allif, JS ^j> granth-kdr, cJi.-3-o musannif. 
Cultivator, Husbandman, ^^L^ A;isa/i, j^UibJ dihkdn, ^j\yo muzdri , 
Merchant, Trader, ^1Jj«^ sauddgar , j>-\i tdjir, ^J^, baipdrl (m.). 
Grain-merchant, \j\^, banjdrd, (J^^J <)ic gh alla-farosh. 

148 Vocahulary — Nouns. 

Banker, Moneychanger, ^^\^ mahajan, i^\j*a sarraf, ^!Im*j stth. 
Broker, Salesman, JilJ dallal, *JU mukim. 

Artificer, Artisan, ^iojl^ karlgar, ^j>^ hasbi(m.\j^iJL^^pesha-war. 
Draper, Linen-draper, Mercer, Cloth-merchant, J^ hazzaz. 

o o 

Silk-mercer, (A/ ajw^wlj^! ahreshmina-fardsh, {J^^j^J^j^ harir-farosh. 
Weaver, Ifc^^'wZa^a, ^^5^ tantiixa^y i^xib hafinda, 


Embroiderer, J^JjJ zar-ddz,j^d^^>- chikan-doz. 

o c 

Carpet-weaver, uJ^ 15^=?^^ shatranji-haf. 

Tailor, ^5;jt> c^ars^i (m.), ^j>-y^ sup (m.), 1^L>> Miaiyat. 

Shoemaker, Cobbler, ^^>-yo mochl (m.), Jj^xli^ kafshdoz. 

Saddler iljj ztngar, l<->v^ ?wocH (m.), «-.|y«: sarrqj. 

Tanner, Currier, jU^ chamar, 4b J dabbagh, ^5j j dabgar. 

Grocer, JUb bakkal, i^J^,.*:^ pansarl , J^ cLttfl'"'' 

Druggist, Apothecary, lSj^'-^, pansari (m.), jlL^ «.yar. 

Ironmonger, ^^jj/ ^^1 ahan-farosh. 

Blacksmith, jlfcjl ldhar,J:M ahangar, S\,y^ haddad. 

Farrier, joJjO na^l-band, ^Jy^^ salotari : see Horse-doctor. 

Coppersmith, Brasier, Tinker, ^^L^ misgar, \j^ kasera, \;^^^ 

Jev^reller, cfjbyf^jauhariy \j^ jariya, (j^j/ j^J zewar-farosh. 
Goldsmith, Silversmith, j^u^ sunar, Jfj zargar. 
Cutler, ^>^J^ karadgary Jjuji lohdr. 
Needle-maker, ^fij^ sdzan-gar. 
Arrow-maker, ^jJ ttr-gar. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns, 149 

Cartwright, Carpenter, Cabinet-maker, ^j^^y, bar ha' i (m.), ^\^ khdtt 

(joci.),j\sf^najjdr,ji^jji^ darodgar. 
Cook, ,c>-j^V ^dwarchi (m.), V.,y-i; raso^iya, ^U? tabbdkh. 
Sutler, Innkeeper, 1^1;^^ bhathiydrd. 
Baker, «^ U3l3 ndnbd'l (m.),j-jl3 ndnpaz, f U? tabbdkh. 
Butcher, c-^laJi kassdb, ^ UaJJ Arasa"/ (m.), -<^ J zdbih, 

CO ; c;> 

Poulterer, ^J<^j^ murghbdny ^^j-i^ mur gh iwdld. 
Fishmonger, c/-J>/ i^^ mdhi-farosh, ^\jl<^^'* machhU-wdld. 
Green-grocer or -seller, ;^ji/ ^ tara-farosh, ^yf^ kunjrd. 
Gardener, ^U TwaZJ, ^U^V bdghbdn, (dakh.) iJ|yib bdghwdld. 
Architect, Builder, Mason, Bricklayer, jUjco mi^mdr, ^J ^ thawa^i 

(m.), '^jrdj,j\jrdz. 
Stonecutter, ^jy t^S^ sang-farosh, 
Brickmaker, Jj ^^^Lr^ khisht-paz, 'i\j ^S^\ mt-wdld, 

op P C 

Potter, j\^ kumhdr, JK kuldl, JL^ kas-gar. 
Plasterer, jX--^ kas-gar. 

^9 ^ P 

Accountant, Cashier, Clerk, Writer, ^jjuas^ mutasaddi,jjs^ muharrir 

CS44 Ukhak, 
Village Accountant, ^j^^^ karamchdrt (m.). 
Steward, J^\^ bakdwal, u^iics$J bhanddrt (m.), (j;\j:>^ diwdn. 
House-Steward, Butler, ^ULi'^ MiioLnsdmdn, J^^^^^ Mddmatgdr, 

(j^lJL^ bhanddrl, ijtiyo modi. 
Brewer, ^|j^ bozd-gar. 

150 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Printer, ilU^^^l^ chhape-wala, (of cloth) ^^^^^ chhlply fjXsJ 

Engraver, jl^ Ji kalam-kar , ji ^Jc^ kanda-kar. 
Carver, Sculptor, Statuary, jl^ ^ixS kanda-kar, J:\'sii nakkash. 
Painter, Draftsman, jl^^^rx^ chitr-kar, j^.^2^ musauwir, ^\sj nakkash. 
Actor, Mimic, Player, I3\^J bhdnd, ^^y-^ swangi, U^^^^^ bahurupiya, 

JU) nakkal. 
Adjutant, Aide de camp, e-^3 nak'ib, c^s^La^! musahib. 
Administrator, Executor (of a vidll), ^^ waft. 
Advertiser, Reporter, Intelligencer,^^-* m,u]Mir, J^d jJ^ Miabar-dar, 

In^^^ skahr-khabrd. 
Alchymist, {^y^ muJiawwis, ^\aS kimiydgar, 


Amanuensis, v^^j'l^ /ca^iJ, ^^.b ,^5:^ likhm-dds, lL^^ Ukhak. 

V -^ >> 

Ambassador, Envoy, ^^^^\ llcJii^ JJJ^ i<;a/!;7Z, ci^jc^ dut,j^ so fir. 

Angler, jb ,5*-^ bansi-bdz, 

Annotator, y-i^ mufassir, ^^^-i* sJidrih. 

Appraiser, Valuer, Assizer, ;^£>-y nirkhlj ^Ji^ mukim. 

Arbitrator, Umpire, ciJU saZ2>, JIp^ fiakam, u-i-a:^ munsif. 

Archer, J 1 Jul ^ tir-anddz,J\^\Ai kamdn-ddrjjtn^ CS^d dhanuk-dhar. 

Arithmetician, c«..^**jI^'* muhdsib, CS^ ganak, ^1^ jL-s siydk-ddn. 

Armourer, ^ JJi-*tf saikal-gar. 

Artist, ^\^ «*::^wu> dast-kdr, ^:>\lJ\ ustdd, jijj^ kdrlgar. 

Ascetic, ^^^--J ^ajos? (m.), ^^^--13 «Lij^ gos^a nishin. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 151 

Assassin, JJ\5 katil, cl/U«; saffak, (^S^ thag, 


Assayer (of coins), si\j nakid, jIa3 nakkad, L^ parakhaiyd. 
Assistant (in office), fc::^-**!J ,^^^ pesh-dast, J^ ^jLj pesh-kar. 
Astrologer, Astronomer, ff^ munajjim, ^^^^jotikhi (m.), ^f^ 

Attorney, c-^U ncHihy ^^ wakil. 


Auctioneer, 1^^ ^J> aX^ nilam karne-wala. 
Auditor (of accounts), J^i--* mustaufi (m.), c---*-jIs^ muhasib, 
Augurer, U3^ shuguniya. 
Barber, a^^ hajjam, «.J-^l3 napit, li-jl W5^a. 

Bearer (of a letter, &c.), J-oU- hdmil, (porter) JUo- hammal, \Zy< 
motiyd, ^ kuB, (chairman) \j^ mahrdyj^ kahar, ti j^ bho'i. 

Beggar, u^il^ bhikhdri (m.),jJJ fakir, \^ gadd, JjL ^a'iZ. 

Bell-founder, J L ^^j^ jaras-sdz. 

Binder (of a book),^ d^jild-gar, uJls?^ sahhdf. 

Bird-catcher, jlCi» ^^ mlr-sAikdr, jW}y>^ chirlmdr, JL^ saiydd. 

Boatman, JLo malldh, ^jlo^^-.^X kishfibdn, ^^^stU mdnjhi, (rower) 


j^jJ^J c?aw6?2 (m.). 
Bookkeeper, ^^y <— >L->- hisdb-nawis, j^sr^ muharrir. 
Bookseller, uJls?^ sahhdf, (jijy t--?\::>^ kitdbfarosh. 
Bootmaker, ^^jyo moza-gar. 
Bowmaker, iiU*^ kamdngar. 
Boxer, ^^J l::^^!^ musht-zan, JU rwaZ, J^ Twa/Z. 

152 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Bracelet-maker, jl^J^ churi-har. 
BuflPoon, ^^-^ masTdiara, jul^ bhand. 
Burnisher,^ Jiu«? saikal-gar, 


Butterman, l-i^^ makhaniyd, 


Camel driver or keeper, ^Vj^ sarbdn, ^^j:J^ shutur-bdn, 

Cardmaker, jL <U--sd^ ganjlfa-sdz. 

Carman, Carter, Coachman, fj\^^j\^ gdriwdn, ^J^fS gdribdn. 

o o 

Carpet-maker, t_ib csrja^ shatranji-bdf. 

Cashier, j^jJj^asT tahwil-ddr,j\i^ ^y fota-ddr, Vj^jJJ rokariyd, 

Cavalier, jl^ sawdr,J^J\y^ sawdr-kdr, V.J^ J^ bhal-ghoriyd. 


Chairman (president), (jJ^ ^-^ mir-majlis : (^bearer) see Bearer. 


Chandler, J L ^aJ^ shann'-sdz. 

Charioteer, ^b ^^ rath-bdn, ^^J^ sdrathi (m.). 

Cheesemonger, fj^^y j^^ pamr-farosh. 


Chess-player, J IcsT^la-ik shatranj-bdz, Jb\J^ shdtir. 

Chiromancer, ^j>\a^ samudraki (m,). 

Chronologer, Chronicler, Aj^ mu^arrikh. 

Chymist, ^U^ kJmii/d-gar, ^A^^ij rasdyani (m.). 

Clockmaker, jL c:^^^ sd'at-sdz. 

Coiner, c->U«? zarrdb, (counterfeiter, forger) l^-Jjw t agh allubi (m.). 

Collector (tax-gatherer), ^^ J J-*A:sr tahsil-ddr, j\s>-\j hdj-dar. 

Colonel, ^5;]jJ^ hazdri (m.), jilL saZar. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 163 

Comedian, l^^j^ hahu-rupiya, ^^^y^ sawangl, JUi nakkal. 
Commander, jIj^ sarddr, j^\^ sdldr, jS\>- hakim, j^\ amir. 
Commentator, j.Jui mvfassir, ^jli» shdrih^j^ l^'J tlkd-kdr. 
Commissary, jli ^)/^ sarbardh-kdr, <^^j^J ddr ogh a. 
Commissioner, ^^-^1 amtiiy J^ Jc^ mukhtdr-kdr, *.<*i^ muhtamim. 
Compiler, i^yo mu^allif,J^ ^^ granth-kdr, ^\>^jdmi*. 
Composer, L,g;.^^ musannif, j\^ji llJl inshd-parddz. 
Conductor, Uj ^1^ rdh-numd, ji ii\j rdh-bar, \ji\ agwd. 
Confectioner, o'^/^=^ halwd'lyj^ ^ l^ milhd'i-gar. 
Conj urer,^jU jac^zigar, l^y Jo?iAa, ^V^^ hdzirdfi, ^^jdn. 
Consul, J-^ wakil: see Commissioner. 
Contractor, ^^l::--^ mustdjir. 

Controller, <Ujj!j ddr ogh a^ (of accounts) ^J^i-^ mustauft. 
Cooper, ^1^ ;^W ^ ^7pa bandne-wdld. 
A Corporal, lLX>\j ndyak. 

P ^9 CO 

Counsellor, ^-.1^ mus1iir,j3J^ mudabbir, ^j^:^ mantri (m.). 

^ o 

Courier, jJXj paiA:, Ou^li kdsid, iJSja harkdra. 

Courtier, j^bjt> darbdri, ^jjyA^ huzurl, ^/J^ Jji>l a^/-^ majlis. 

Cow-herd, Cowkeeper, J^ygopaZ, (y\^ gwdl ovl^^i gwdld, j^\ahir. 

Crier, bjy^JL&J dhandhoriyd, ^jl:^^ munddi. 

Critic, ^uJp- harf-girj uJUli> ^ mu-shigdf. 

Cuirassier, ^yj:S^ baktar-posh. 

Cupbearer, ^L saA'7, J^l^ bakdwah 

154 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Darner, j^ji; rafu-gar, 

Dervis, ^,^j^ darwesh,j^ fakir. 

Devotee, JJb^J zahid, AjIc dhidj (^^\>j riyamtl, ^^^jogi- 

Dier, i\^ sahbagh, jij i^S^j rang-rez. 

Digger, j^^j bel-ddrj^^^ kodgar, 

O fi ^ f 

Director (manager), j^ J,j j^ kdr-pardaz, ^ J^ kdr-kun, j\i Jc^s^ 

Disciple, ,^* sikhj i^Ll shdgird, \^ chela y <X*^* talmlz. 

Distiller, j^XjT db-kdr,Ji^ kaldr, cfjiy*^ sunn (m.), (dakh.) JK kaldL 

Diver, ^jfi\j^ ghawwds, Usf^ marjiyd,j^ jj^ji gh ota-khor. 

Diviner, ^b c-^^ ghaib ddn, \jf-^ shuguniyd : see Astrologer. 

Doctor, JU «/z;w, ij^yo maulawi (m.), CL?Jcj pandit : see Physician. 

o o o 

Doorkeeper, uVjti darbdn or jj^^j^^ darwdn,j\d ^j^,^ de'drhi-ddr. 

Drover, bjJj baldiyd, jjb i^ galla-bdn. 

Drudge, U.^ tahlu'dj jcSJ.^-* mihnati (ni. f.). 

Drummer, lJy^i dholiyd, ->-^^-ai? tambur-chi, J^y JJ? tabl-nawdz. 

Embroiderer, jjt) ^^^^ chikan-doz, jj^jj zar-doz. 

Enameller, jl^ L*^ mind-kdr. 

Enchanter,^^jU- ja^M-gar,y (j^^ af sun-gar , ^\>^ sdhir. 
Executioner, J^ jalldd, uJjfe^^J badhik. 

Factor, Agent, izJ^\^ gumushtay j\^j^J^ kdr-parddz, J\'^ J^ kdr- 

Falconer, j^J J b bdz-ddr, j^y ^J*il>\^ skahm-parwar, 


Farmer, j^L-^ A;waw, ^^ milki, ^\j>' chdsl, j^^^ ^j^j zamln-ddr. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 155 

Fencer, Cudgeller, jb ^^ paie-bdz, j^J^ lakar-baz. 
Ferrj'^man, ^^.j'^ guzar-bdn, j:>2j patnl, Li naiya. 
Fiddler, 1-^jI-j sarangiyd, j\y ,<SjL sdrangi-nawdz. 
Fisherman, ^-i'jb to mdhl-glr, W^'* machhwd, Ul:>- jaliyd. 
Footpad, jjj i^^j rdh-zan, j\i <JUj bat-par : see Robber. 
Forester, ^^b ^ ban-bds : see Ranger. 
Fortuneteller, ^jS^^^ samudrikl (m.), JUj rammdl, ^f^ nu- 

jurni (m.). 
Founder, Caster, J^-*-^ kaserd, (dakh.) jL-f /rasar : see Coppersmith. 
Friar, ^^ /aA:7r, A&lj zdkidjjxSj kalandar : see Monk. 
Fruiterer, (^-^^ ^y^ mewa-farosh. 
Furbisher, Polisher, ^i Ji--^ saikal-gar. 


FuiTier, jL^j j^^^ samur-farosh. 

Fusileer, ^^^^J zambur-chl, ^yf-^jJCJ banduk-chi. 

Gambler, Gamester, ^j^^ jwdri (m.), jb J^ phar-bdz, jb jUi 

General, j^'w-o5aZar,j5Lj 2(L-» slpdh-sdldr, j\i}j^ sarddr. 
Generalissimo, iji^Ax^ sendpat, \j^ \j^\ amiru-l-umard. 
Geometrician, f^,^^ muhandis, ^\i} <UjcJfe handasa-ddn. 
Gilder, J l^ 51L tild'kdr,^<:L^if koft-gar. 
Glass-maker,^«x.l-»i» shisha-gar. 
Glazier, ilU (Jj^ <tl-Jj shisha jarrie-wdld. 


Governess (female teacher), ^jT dtu (f.). 

Governor, S^ hdkim, J^lc ami/, aIjU ndzim,Ji}^ sarddr. 

156 Vocabulary Nouns, 

GT2imm2in^i\,^i^f^i^j*asarf-nahv-dany ^cJ/W^ hyakaravii. 

Grass-cutter, \;^^ ghasiyara. 

Grave-digger, ^jf gor-kan. 

Grazier, ^\j^;^ charwaha, ^^jti^^ cJiarane-wala : see Shepherd. 

Groom, ^«*j L- 5a75, ,i> nafar, ^'-*-**» 5«'25. 

O ^ VJ? CO 

Gunner, J^JcJ^»i gofowc?a2^, iLs^ gw/cActZa, ^IjbJCJ handhanl. 
Haberdasher, ,<i?l-^ Z>2Sfl/J or ^jLj hisatl, \yi patwa : see Pedler. 
Harper, ^^ changl,j\y L.* j harbat-nawaz. 

CO ~ >> 

Helmsman, , .^srU manjJii (m.), ^^IL.« sukkanl (m.) : see Steersman. 
Herald, 4_fi>liA5 munadly bj^AiJfeJ dhandhoriya. 
Herdsman, ^^ galla-ban, bjlj baldiya, W\*y>- charioaha. 


Hermit, ^^JLJiJL^ gosha-nishin, j^-^ci^^L:*» khalwat-nishin. 
Highwayman, j^J ^|^ rah-zan, J^ ^«??^^* j^ ^-^ bat-par. 
Historian, ^^^ mu^arrildiy ^t^j rawi, 

y P ^ c 

Horsebreaker,jt^*- (JL^jU- chabuk-sawar, J^y^^j^J^ shah-sawar. 
Horse-doctor, cSy^^ salotariy jUa-j baitar. 

y o ^ op 

Horseman (trooper), ^^^ sawar,j^j\j bargir,J^^ (^Ji turk-sawar. 
Hosier, <— ^Vt-^^ mdze-baf, {J^*J^„}^ mozt-fardsh. 
Hostler, ^^ L ^ (Jlc*- tj'^L^' bhathlyarl Idiarie ka sd'ls. 

oc c 

Housebreaker, L&jc-^ sendhiya, ^j;*— ^ nakb-zan. 
Hunter, Huntsman, J bjl^ shikar-bdz, Ci\^ saiydd. 

c . c 

Jailer, ^\^/j li (jU-c^Jcj bandi-khdne kd nigahbdn. 

Jester, :[^*-^ mdsJdiara, (funny fellow) jb ,^^f% tkathe-bdz. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 157 

Inlayer, ^I^l::^-Jw< munahhat-kar, 


Innkeeper, \j\^, hhathiyara, J^ kalar, (dakh.) JK kalal. 
Interpreter, (^U^y tarjuman, L-i»\^jJ do-hhashiya. 
Jockey, jL-j CS^}^ clicibuk-sawar, j\^^ sawar, ^^^^ shah-sawar. 
Joiner, ^c^^y. harha'l,jt^ sutar : see Cartwright, Carpenter. 
Judge, ,<-^^ kazi (m.), ^U- hakim, uJ-^si^ munsif, ,c^:i^ muftJ, 
Juggler, jb^J^Jb- hukka-haz, sd ,^:3 cTith-hand, j\i^ batte-bdz. 
Justice (of the peace), ^\s kazl : see Judge. 

CO o ^ 

Keeper, ^^^^ rakh-wdla, ^^LJ^lxi nigdh-bdn. 

Labourer, m^^J-c mazdur, ,<::^i».s^ mihnafi (m. f.), ^ijj ytw/i. 

Land-steward, jlyb^aj!^7ar, J«U-» sazdwal. 
Land-surveyor or -measurer, ^^^^^}j>- jarib-kash. 

Of 9 O/ 

Language-master, ^J:.*:^ munshi, ^*^T dkhurty t>U ws^acf. 
Lecturer, (^jX^ mudarris : see Professor, Preacher. 

y 9 

Lexicographer, ^^yLii^i! Iv gh at-nawis. 
Librarian, i^^j\i^ l^ ^\^i^\:^ kitdb-khdne kd ddrogha. 
Lighterman, il|^ij^ bhar-wdld, JLc l^ J^ Z>^ar /:a malldh. 
Limner,^CJ^j-tf surat-gar, jy<^^ musauwir : see Painter. 


Mace-bearer, jUj^ chob-ddr, Jjiy^^y^ sontt-barddr. 
Machinist, jLJ^ kaLsdz^J^::^.jc^ sarCat-gar (?). 
Magician,^jU- Jaf?if. gar, ^^-i^ af sun-gar , (j-«^j^ bhokas. 
Magistrate, jlj^jiy«iy*c?ar, j^l^ /:af7, a^U- hakim: see Judge. 
Major-domo, jjKl^ kulkuldn, JS aSyij^ sarbardh-kdr. 

1 58 Vocabulary, — Nouns, 

Manager, j\',^ J^ kar-guzar , J^J:^ peshkar : see Director. 
Manufacturer, /^,J^ karigar, jl^ J dast-kar : see Artificer. 
Mariner, JLo malldh, ^[^axL!^ kishti-ban : see Sailor. 
Mathematician, ^^ \^\j Tiyafi-dan^ ^-.Ax^ muhandis. 

y GO 

Mechanic, ijjl^ karigar, Jj^ JJ^1 ahl-i-hirfa^j^ikL^'pesha-war, 
Mendicant, Ij^i gada, j^jj^^ darwesh, jjii faJfir, Jc^ jangam, 

o ;> o 

Messenger, Jk-^li kasid, xj^jib harkara, CJ>iJ c?m^, ,^*-jcX:m*j sandesi. 
Midwife, j^^l:^ t^lti ddl-janal. 

Milkman, ^|yi>JjJ dudh-wdld : Milkmaid, ^\^d^d dudh-wdli. 
Miller, \j\j^^„^^ plsan-hdrd. 


Minister (of state), ^J^ wazir, ^J^i^j^ pardhdn : see Priest. 


Mint-master, ^jj\<^ ^ JL^ taksdl kd ddr ogh a. 

Monk, (j^,^ji^ darweshjj^ fakir, JJblj zahid, iS^ji^, bairdgi. 


Muleteer, (^^^{/f-^ Miachchar-bdn. 

^9 « ^ Ox- 

Musician, c--J^k^ mutrib, (<i*^ mughannt, ul^^ kaldwant. 

Mustermaster, (j<3;lc arzjs, IJ^ karord, j^ ^W jdHza-gtr. 

Musketeer, J^^J^^ barkanddz, . c^^^ bandukchi. 

~ o o o 

Navigator, -I* malldh , ^J^tS kishtibdn, ^j^^ mdnjhi (m.). 
Necromancer,^ jU- jddugar, jb ^y ione-bdZyj^X^ sdhir. 
Needle-maker, ^ i^JJ^ sozan-gar. 
Notary,^ J dabtr. 


Nurse (of a sick person), jb^U-J bimdr-ddr. 

Nurse (of a child), ^\ annl, bb c?ac?a (f.), ^^^ij c?a7. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns, 159 

Nurse (wet), ^5 1> ^f \ J da'i-pila'ij (dry) ^^^ ^j \<^ dd'l-khila'i. 
Nurse (male), \i\d day a, 1)1 anna. 
Oculist, JUe kahhal, L^i-s sathiyd (?). 

Officer, j^ J c^v^ai^ mansab-ddr, j\ii hSj^^ uhda-dar, j\dj^ sarddr. 
Oilman, Oil-merchant, ^Lj ttUy (J^^^ ^^j raughan-farosh. 
Ostler, (j-jU sc*?*, jb\jys^ chirwdddr (?) : see Groom. 
Overseer, IJ^^ karord, ^•j\^ ddrogha, j^^-^Uuil ihtimdmcKi. 
Palmister, ^^^x**-* samudrikl, ^^J>^, hhadri (m.). 
Papermaker, ^^3^1^ kdghazi, f *\il^ kdghaz-gar, 
Parcher of grain, IsT^^jJ^ hJiarhhunjd. 

m ^ b 

Pastor, j^b i^ galla-bdn, ^^ chaupduj ^jL-sU pdshdn, (spiritual 

guide) ^^ guru, ^jjlib Aac?7, dJ^j< murshid. 
Pastry-cook, ^^ U^ halwdl : see Confectioner. 
Patcher, JjJ 2(^b pdra-doz,J6 JJ^ paiwand-kdr. 
Paver, Pavier, Jcj j^i^i farsh-hand. 
Pavv^n-broker,j-i3jbJCJ bandhak-gir, j^^** murtahin: see Banker. 


Paymaster, j^^ljri^ khazdn-chl, .^J^^ssT bakkshJ, (general) ,A^, j^ 

Pedler, ^^Lj JisaiJI (m), ^j^ l::^»*jJ dast-farosh, bj^ phariyd. 
Penman, (^.y cr^^ Jdiiish-nawis, Llk>> JdiattdL 
Perfumer, ^J^J^i^ gandht (m.), jlki: «.ya^, ltj/ t^ atr-farosh. 
Pewterer, K--^ kaserd : see Brasier. 
Philosopher, uJ^-Li failsuf, ^J-Ji falsafi (m.), j*:;'^ hakim. 

160 Vocabulary, — Nouns, 

Physiognomist, ^j'^^^^^ samudrikl, ^^^J <blJ kiyafa-dan. 

Pickpocket, |^ <^^^ jth-katraj ji <L-^^ kisa-bur. 

Pilgrim, ui^^pi «^7^, uf/^ jatri (ra.), ^L-: saii/ahy (to Mecca) ^ 
^tf;7 (m.). 

« y o o 

Pilot, *Lc^ mu'allim, ^^j\ arka(i,j\jbi^ ^^ karn-dhar. 
Pioneer, LJ^I luniya, J\SLji hel-dar. 
Pirate, ^•^^^'^'^ dakait, ^\j daku : see Robber. 
Plaiter,^^*! uttu-gar, ^yj\ urtu-gar, 

o c o 

Planter, oj:!^ ko'en (m.), JcJ^ nakhlband.: see Gardener. 

Plasterer,^yC-^ kasgar. 

Player (stage), Jlai nakkal, [^^^^ pekhniyUj ^J^^^ swangi (m.). 


Ploughman, Ijy^^U hal-jotcLy Ifcl^lto halwaha, Jj^:>- jotar, 


Plumber, iJ^^^ /♦l^ « ^ >>.i me A:a kam-karmwala. 

Poet,^Li> sha^ir, t^^ kab, Jl^S kabishar, L^^^^s:^ sukhan-sanj , 

Polisher,^Jiu^ saikal-gar,^l>- jila-gar, \^^^^ ghotan-har. 

Porter, (carrier) j^J^jb barbardaVj \J^ motiya, Jw« itw/I.' see Door- 
Postman, L^b dakiya, ^J^ kasid, (dakh.) iJ\j JtS tappaLioald, 

Potter, jl^ kumhar,Ji^ kasgar, (dakh.) jl^ kunbar, 

i, p ^p 

Poulterer, ^J^^j^ murghl-icala, (J^^J^jo mu rgh -farosh. 

Preacher, ^\^ wa'lz, f^^ wa^z-go, c^-ia^ khatib. 

OP ^ ^ " ' ^ 

Preceptor, S^\ ustad, ^^T akhun, Jj«^ mu'allim. 

Prefect, S^ hakim : see Governor. 

Prelate, Primate, /♦Ul ima/w, *X|f:i^ mujtahid. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 161 

President, ^^fJ^ ^l^ bald-nishm, ^jJ-sr«^ niir-i majlis. 
Priest, j^ guru fj^^ pir, ^j:^^jy^ purokit : see Preacher, Prelate. 
Professor (teacher), jj--;J^ mudarris, l!J^*^ pathak, Ax^ mu'allim, 

o y o 

Prophet, j^ wa67 (m.),^^-.«jLj paighambar^ ^j rikh. 
Pursuivant, J^l— ^. yasawal, J\siy>- chob-ddr. 
Purveyor, oj^*^ bkanddrl, J^i>\ji^ sarbardh-kdr. 
Quarter-master, tir^^*?^ mlr-i manzil, cJpj^ niir-i-tusuk. 

^ -y y y ^ 

Ranger (of a forest), J^\^ kardwal, JiJ^j^ mir-shikdr. 

Recorder, j\di:J^jj^ sar-rishta-dar, (j~^y ^^^ daftar-nawls. 

Renter, ,^.J^ 5Aarai7«, jl J5;\p-\ ijdra-ddr, j\iiij}S kirdya-ddr. 

Retailer, (^j^J^i>;^ khurda-farosh, bj^ phariyd. 

Robber, J j^ c^or, u^ chottd, c:-^3 dakait, (oJ*\; rdh-zan. 

Ropedancer,^jb bdzi-gar, \^ natwd,j\i^j rasau-bdz. 

Ropemaker, J^^j-^ rasan-sdz. 

Rower, ^Julj ddndi, t3*-^ khewat, CSy,^ khewak. 

Ruler, S\>- hdktm, J^lc dmil, fia\j ndzim, (or dakh.) /♦Uaj nizdm. 

Sailor, -.Lo malldh, ^j\^ jahdzi (m.), ^^^ khaldft (m.). 

Salt-maker, IJ^ luniyd, ^^^^ malangJ, Liy noniyd. 

Sawyer, i^^^^l arra-kash, ^\^ kardnti. 

Scarifier, /♦Is^ hajjdm,' 

Scholar, -§Ci sikh, J^l.^ shdgird: see Disciple, Student. 

Schoolmaster, j^^i dJdiun, ^^r^J^ miydn-ji (ni.), ^^ mulld. 

^9 9 P ^ 

Schoolmistress, ^^ mulldni, ^\ dtu (f.), (dakh.) ^j^l dtun. 

162 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Scullion, ^i^S^J deg-sho. 

Sculptor, j>tycuj but-tardsh, ^\aj nakkash, (J^\y{^S^*^ sang-tarash, 

op o ;> 

Secretary, JLi^ munslii (ni.)> ^<^■'^*^ jt^ rmr-munshi, j^^^ dahir. 

Sentinel, Sentry, ^jL-o^ pasban, b ,^^ pahriya, j'^^^^^f- chaukl-ddr. 

Servant, ^^ naukar, ^[^ chakar, j\^S:>. khidmat-gdr. 

Shaver, /♦Is^ hajjdrriy Lii^^^lj ndpit : see Barber. 

Shepherd, Ij^^^J-^ bhlfihdrd, ^J^ galla-bdn, (dakh.)^^J dhangar. 

Shoemaker, ^^y^ mdchi,j*'^^J:i^ kafsh-doz, jU^ chamdr. 

P 9 

Shopkeeper, LiJ baniyd, jSd^^^d dukdn-ddr, ^^^<^ dukdni (m.). 
Skinner, ^ci-wjy post-kan, ^L^ salldkh, jU^ chamdr. 
Slave, if Jcj banda, ^is- ghuldm, L^ cAeZa, Ijujl launda, (jJ\i^ dds. 
Slave (female), c^J^V bdndi, f^3j^ laundl, CS^ kanlzak {jl.j. 
Slave merchant, (J^^J^^y. barda-farosh. 
Smuggler, jUjl^g^ttf-wzar,jU.^^ chaukl-mar, 
Snake-catcher,^;-^U mdr-gir, ^^ gum (m.). 

Snake-keeper, j^^^^.^ samperd. 

^ p 
Soap-boiler or -maker, f^^}^ sdbun-gar. 

Soothsayer, li^ ^^^T dgam-baktd, ^jib^ kdhin, JU; rammdl. 
Sophist, liJ w::-o bat-band, ^J^-s^ hujjati (m.), ,^^ ?2(/*2. 
Sorcerer,^^^! af sun-gar, \^^^ bhokas, ^^^\s>- jddu-gar. 
Sorceress, ^^ ^S^ jadu-garnl, ^Jl^ kankdlin, ^*^y tdnhd'z, 

^ L, t, O 

Spearman, c:-.^-.^^*^ barchhait, j^^iji a^ neza-barddr. 
Spinner, Spinster, ^Jf;^ charkh-zan, ^^1^*1^ kdtanhdri (J. J, 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 163 

Sportsman, jbjlCi» shikar-haz, ^JLl^ shikari j ^lj^\ aheriya. 
Standardbearer,jlj^ ^JjLJ nishan-hardar, ^y^ hairak-i (m.). 
Stationer, ^S^Si k agh azi : see Bookseller. 

Steersman tJ.^-^ jhingatj ^IjL^ kandari (m.) : see Helmsman, 
Steward ^ULjI^ khansaman, ,^j\l:^ hhandari (m.), J^l^ bakawal. 
Steward (agent), lJj^j^ karbarJ (m.), ^;^^.^ diwan : see Factor, 
Stonecutter, ^jJ!:ly t,^.A«j sang-tarash : see Carver, Sculptor. 
Student, JjcM^Jli? talibu-l-ilm or ^^Icu^H^ talib-i ilm. 
Sugar-boiler, ^ Jo li A*awc?M. Sugar-seller, ^•jijjti shakar-farosh. 
Sutler, 5;U^ bhatkhjarciy (dakh.) \;U2^ bhate^'drd. 
Sweeper, j;^ Twi^^ar, ^J:^jj\^jhdru-kash, ^ l^»j\^ jdrub-kash. 
Swimmer, lI/K-j pairdk,j^\iJ^ shindwar, 

Swordman, Swordplayer, ^jjJL^Jii shamsher-zan, Vj5^ talwariyd, 
Targetier, lii-wJ^J dhalait. 

Tavern-keeper, ^K /raZar,^^^ kalwdr,\jS^i bhangerd. 
Tax-gatherer, jljc»"b bdj-ddrjJ^>:iL;>^3s^ tahfdddr. 
Tenant, j^J <)uj^ kirdya-ddr, ^.:i-^r^fr; ra'aiyat, ^A^Ul bharaiti (m.j. 
Tent-maker, J^tJJUwJ- Jdiaima-doZj JjJ ^b pdra-doz. 
Testator, ^ya musl. Testatrix, ^*ay< musiya. 
Thatcher, jcj^-^ chhappar-band, b^f>- chhawaiyd, ^^jA^ ghar- 

dmi (m.). 
Thief, j^ff>- chor, ^^ chottd, dj^ duzd^S^ taskar. 
Thief-catcher, jb^ nazaT-bdz,j^ Sj^ duzd-gir. 

164 Vocabulary Nouns. 

Thrasher, lylfct^ dhanwaiya. 
Tiler, dc^ lSt^ khapre-band. 

Timber-merchant, \j\ii€] lakarhara, ^^J ^ji^ hezam-farosh. 
Tinman, ^je*^^ kaVi-gar, ^j^j rassas. 
Tirewoman, Jb\L^ mashshata (f.), ^jj;^ pahara^oni. 
Tobacconist,^^L:J tambaku-gar , (jl^J^L^J tambaku-farosh. 
Toll-gatherer, b^x) J dandiya : see Tax-gatherer. 
Torchbearer, ^^jsW^ maslbal-cluy J^^y^ i::J^ falita-bardar. 
Toyman, (J^^ji ^=f.j\ hazicha-farosh, ^j^\j rangbhara. 
Trader, Tradesman, ^\dyj saudagar, lJj\^, baiparJ : see Artificer. 
Translator, {^'^y ^^^J tarjuma-nawls, ^j^ mutarjim. 
Traveller, JL^ musajir, -.U-j saiyah, ^^^, batolii (m.). 
Treasurer, ^rsrU^ khazanchi (m.), ^J^jj rdkariyoLj jb cfe^^sr tahwll- 

y OOP • o* 

Trooper, jl^ savmr, \itij^'l^ ghur-charhafJ^^^LlJp turk-sawar. 
Tumbler, ^jb bazlgar, lIU3 waf,jbK kala-baz, ^S^^ kautuki (m.). 
Turner, cit)^^^ kJiaradl (m.), ,J^5/*- kharrati (m.), LJ^ kharrat. 
Tutor, (j-lljfl atalik, i^f>^ aldiun, (patron) ^j^ murabbi (m.) : see 


Vamisher, L»^ lakhera. 

s. s ' 

Vicegerent, ^liU *.'15 ^a'/m makam, l^\u^ ^^^i^ nd^fb mandb. 
Viceroy, J,dijiyc suba-ddry <— ^^ naicwdb : see Vicegerent. 
Victualler <lc. ,L^ l^ J^-.-, r«5arf /ca ddrosha : see Purveyor, Sutler. 

Vocahulary Nouns. 165 

Vintner, (A^ ^^ mai-farosh : see Distiller. 
Usher, ^^J^ ^J^s- arz-hegl : see Mace-bearer. 

Waiter, L-sj?/^ parosaiya, jlSi^J^^ khidmatgar. 

Warden, ijj^jj*^ darwazi (m.), ^^j\^ darogha : see Keeper. 

Warrior, ^^^ jangt (m.), JjL« muhariz, jC\j^^ hahadur. 

Washer-man, ^yi>i^ c?^o J7 (m.), lS^j rajakj jil^ gazur. 

Washer-woman, ^^jy^J dhobin (f.), ^j^^;^ barethan. 

Watchman, jIju^^^ chauladar, jjV-'^ 'pasban, •j.^j pahru, 

Water-carrier, jc^^wl-^ bihishtl (m.),jl^t abkar, iLo sakka. 

Water-cooler, jtti c->l ab-dar. 

Waterman, <^^ khewat, JLo mallah : see Water-carrier, 

Wharfinger, j^^S^g^afi^ar or ^\^ ghatwdl, 

Wiredrawer, (^A^j^j tdr-kash. 

Wizard, u^^, bkokas, ^jp:^ jantrl : see Magician. 

Wood-cutter, Ijl&J^ lakar-hdrd, J^ >*j-Ji hezam-kash. 


Woodmonger, (j^^jj/ /^^ hezam-farosh, IjUjfl lakar-hdrd. 
Workman, ^j'v^ kdrigar, L^ kamerdy J^^c^J dastkdr. 

Wrestler, ^Ij^ i.^^ kushti-gir or -ga?", jV ^5^ kushtl-bdz. 

Writer, ^^^^^ muharrir, CS-^ UkJiak, l-^o kdtib, *j1j rdkim. 

Writer (one in the Company's service), (^A.u2w< mutasaddi. 

Writingmaster, j^^j^ ^^ M7/5A nawis : see Master. 

0/ Meats and Drinks. 
Food, Victuals, l3l^ khdnd, CJ\j^ Idiurdk(f.), \s£. gh izd (f.), ;^?-^ 
bhojan, lS y^j rasd^ifj\ib\ dhdr (or vulg.jlfcl ahdr), C^y ^w^. 


166 Vocabulary, — Nouns, 

Drink, c-^-t shurh. Meat and Drink, <--^ j J^l akl o shurh, 

L*j l3\^ khana pina, ^^b <0l J tZa/ia parti. 
Fodder, ^l^ chara, ^^-l^ ghas, c:^b ^N-lf> ghas-pat. 
Grain, Corn, <di. g-halla, ^\j\ anaj, <^W (iaw«,' tuldim. 

Rice (cleared of the husk, but not cooked), J^l>- chawal, J^^ 
chanwal, ^y hirinj, JJcJ tandul. 

Rice (boiled), ci^l^ J^a^, dijL^ khushka. 

Rice-milk, ^^ /i:7izr (f.), ^y ^rwi, ^^y ^^ hawikh-jirm. 

Wheat, ^y^ gehuriy auX^ gandum, (dakh. also) (j»;jf> ghyaun. 

— ^- -^ 

Flour, Meal, GT afa, t>^l ard, ,^y^ sujl, ^L-J pisan. 

Flour of Wheat, 15 \ l^ eJU-v:^> gehun ka ata. 

IJlour of pulse (especially of U^ Cicer arietinum), j^*«-j htsan. 

Flour, fine or twice sifted, as^^ maida. 

Bread, ^^j roti, ^j\j nan (f.). 

Thick Bread, Loaf, lHj^j rot, ^^j rotu 

Small loaf of bread. Cake, ^Jj tikki, i^^ girda, if-=f^ kulicha. 

Parched grain, \Ji lawa, J^ khll (f.), l^*-.^ chahtnay ^j3^ thuddi. 

Parched grain, reduced to meal and made into a paste, ji«j sattu. 

Parched grain of j\y>'jd'dr or |^b bqjrd, ,J^j parimal. 

Milk, JbJ.t) dudhjjJ^ shir, ^ pai, u^j^ goras, j^^ chhlr, 

o o o 

Butter, ^j^ makkhan, j^U mdkhan, d^^^ maska, jj^ nVun, 
Butter clarified by boiling and straining, ^jf ghl (m.). 
Buttermilk, -f>-l^ chhdchh (f.), IfU matthd, 4^J dogh. 
Thick sour coagulated Milk, ^^ibJ c?a/« (m.). 

Vocahulary — Nouns. 167 

Cream, ,^ 1^ malady ^J^ sari. 

Whey, jj^ rtc maHu-l-juhn, ^^U b JiJ^J c?2/c?A ka panij Jy ^or. 
Curd, l^ ckakkd, ^j^ chhend. 

Cheese, ^^ pariir. Round (of a cheese), ^jf^ chakti. 
Meat, Flesh, lz.^^ gosht, ^^ mans, (dakh. also) \j^ herd. 

O O .0 

Broth, Soup, Vjj-i» shorbd or \jj^ shorwd, (j^^^jus, ^ly^ par eh. 

Porridge, Pottage, ^_^ Zaps?, ^^JiT dsh (f.) : see Broth. 

Flummery, ^Jjlii fdluda : see Porridge, Rice-milk. 

Gravy, c:^^4i'c->l dh-i-gosht, fjL^(^\ db-josh, ^^loT yakJim. 

Roast meat, c_^U^ kabdh, c-jL^ W^^^ sildiiyd kabdb. 

Stew (of meat), l::--^ /♦t} dam-puldit, ^5^*^ yakhni. 

Curry (said to be from the Arab. <ulJ>), JU sdlan, UL 5a/wa. 

A certain dish made of flesh and rice, /h puld'o. 

Meat dressed dry with onions, ^j^^^^ dopiydza. 

Minced meat. Hash, <uJJ kima. 

Pie, ^Urfj^rM.i sdmbosa, ^yi^ samosa. 

o o 

Forced meat, cjjb p^/^. Pounded meat, ^^ kofta. 
Beef, ci^^l^ t^^^li'ga'e /:a gosht, Jji^Jb^j li g«'o gosht. 
Mutton, ei^-ij^l^J-^ 5/ier hd gosht. 


Veal, vj:^*£>ji^ ^ >-^5FvC bachhfe kd gosht. 
Pork, c^-i*^ l^j^^ 5M'ar /ca gosht. 
Ham, (j5^ ra/i (f. m.). 
Lamb, Kid, c:^^ l^ ul?^ halwdn kd gosht. 

168 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 


Venison, ^z^J^if l^ ^^ haran kd gosht. 
Hare, Rabbit, fj^fj>- Tdiargosh^ l^^ lambha. 
Fish, tJ^'* machhll. 
Fowl, p^ murgh. 

ij ? CO 

Wild fowl, j^-* L5^"^^ j^'^E^ murgh. 
Turkey, 4^^ J-i j^Z murgh, _jj^^ peru. 
Peacock, jyc mor. Peachick, ^y« mureld. 


Goose, j^U ^a/25. 
Duck, Waterfowl, ^<^^/< mu rgh abi. 
Partridge, ^^' ^7^«r. 
Pigeon,y^ kahutar, <-^^ kapot. 


Vegetables (esculent). Greens, c5;^* tarkari, ^j>\) hhaji. 


Sausage, Ui^ kulmd, ^-^-j^ languchd, ^uJi kulma. 
Pastry, Pasty, tU-^-:«-j samhosa, l^^ parathd, l^j-l^^ khajd. 
Sweet cakes fried in butter, &c., iliCK gulguld. 
Confection, Conserve, Jam, Preserve, <)U^ murahha. 

^ o o ^ 

Sweetmeat, c/ ^'< mithd'l, Ijl^ halwd, ^J^ laddu. 

Egg, ^Jol awc^a, <L4j haiza. 
Omelet, <U.^U- khdglna. 

c o 

Rice-water, Rice-gruel, -f^^ joIcA/i (f.), (dakh.) ^c^^ g^^j^' 

Barley-water, Watergruel, ^c^T dsh-i-jau. 

Water, ^^b j9aw2 (m.), ^-»T a J, Ji>' jal. 

Wine, Spirituous liquors, <— ^J;-i> shardh (f,), ^^ mai (f.), Jy^ ?wac?. 

Vocahulai'y, — Nouns, 1 69 

Arrack (from the Arab, jy; arak, juice, spirit), ^j\i tafi (toddy), 

, ^JCww-s sendhi. 
Beer, \jyi hoza or ^^ 5o2ra. 
Tea, U cha (f.). 

Coffee, iy^ kaJiwa, (unground) ^^ 5m;i. 
Breakfast, lJj^^ haziri, (j[;l^ ^^U nan-i-nahdrt, \zJ^\j nashta. 

Luncheon, Tiffin, cold meat, i^-K kalewa, ib-lU nashta, c:^U- 

chasht (f.). 
Dinner, lil^ khana (eating), <U»lri- khassa. 
Supper, t/)l-j Jyare, \Ls. asha, lil/ l^ cuU ra^ ka khana. 

SpiceSf Condiments. 
Spices, Condiment, Seasoning, ^^^ masalih, j\^ baghar, 


Salt, ijj! Ion, JS^ namak, (rock) libJa-**> sendha. 
Pepper, ^^ mirch (f.), Jili ^Z^Z (f.). 

Pepper, black, ^^ J^ goZ wiirc^ (f.), -.^^ ^^l^ A;aZI mirch, ^j^ 

mirch (f.). 
Pepper, red or Capsicum, -.^ Jil ZaZ mirch (f.). 

Co c 

Ginger (dry), -$53^ 5owf^ (f ), J-.^^ zanjabll (f.). 


Ginger (undried), cJj^^ adrak (f.), b! ac?a. 
Clove, c^^ Zawwg (f.), JiJ/ karanfal. 

ex O o 

Mace, s^y^ jdwatrt or lS^^ jdwitri, ^L^ hashdsa. 


Cinnamon, ^tfi;^^^'^ ddrchini. 

Nutmeg, J^ c^ Wj^'^ phal, jy>. jauz. 

Allspice, Jamaica pepper, Myrtus pimenta, ^^^'^ Jv ^^^^^ c/^7w?. 

170 Vocahulary — Nouns. 

Turmeric, ^>^ haldi, ^->^^ ^j) zard clioh (f.), c/^/r^, pitras. 


SafFron,^^*--*^ kesar (f.), ^J^^j za^faran (f.). 

Anise-seed, uJ3^ saunf{i.\ ^y^\ amsun. 

Cumin-seed, ]jiprjtrd, \jij zira, ^^ kammun. 

Mustard-seed, ^^'l^ ra'i, Jj^:^ khardaly j— a-^^ sarshaf, cSj^ tori. 

Pickles, jW I achar. Pickle (brine), ^3U ^^X«J namkln pdm (m.). 

Apparel, Dress, 
Apparel, Clothes, Dress, t«^ kaprd, (^U ZiJas, cLS'li*^ poshak (f.). 
Hat, j^y /op2, ifK /cwZa^ (f.). 
Cap, ^K /cwZaA (f.), '^ tdj, ^y Jop?. 

Turban, ^/;^ J9«gn, t^V, P% (^O^ \;;^^^ c/^^'a, j'^-'^^ dastar (f.). 
Tiara, Diadem, Crown, --Ij ^o;, 4.1X< mukut, j^\ afsar, 
A kind of Turban, <uUji amdma. 


Ornaments for the turban, J:> Jo^ mandil (f.)> /^^ V. i./-:^^ sar-pesh or 
-J9ec^, ^U l> -^^ fjL^ gosh-pech or -wdra, ^^.^p-j lgh a, ^y^ kalght, 
^ turra. 

Veil (woman's), «Jy burka^, C^^^ ghunghat (f.), »^JU makno^. 

Veil or woman's cloak, (A^^Jji drhm. 

Handkerchief, JUjj rumdl, \^^\ angochhd; see Neckcloth. 

Neckcloth, jcj^1> guluhand. 


Necklace, ^U waZa, ^^2i^ kanthl,Jji> hdr, iltc^SL^ kanth-mdld. 
Shirt, Chemise, (./s*'^ /ta?w?s ^i?;^ kurta. 
Long vest resembling a shirt, i^fS^jubba. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 171 

Co o 9 

Waistcoat, iJ;f- choUy \^^i\ angarkha, ^j^^fatuhl. 
Bodice, Stays, ^^ cholt, \^\ angiya (f.), ^jS^ mahram. 

Coat, ^^ kurtl, ^\ angdj ^J>J^ angarkha. 

Cloak, Great-coat, ^y^/ farghul (f.), ^|;V Jara7iT, if^iU luhada. 

Gown (female's), jlyL-j yeshwaz (f.), u^l? ^iZ«A; (f.). 

Gown (male's). Robe, ^U- J«»2«, (^|/;?:> pairahan. 

Frock, iSs^ jhagula, ^/ /cwr^a, icJ daghla. 

Jacket, v/'l^i^ mirzd't, ^\ angd, ijj> kurta, \Sp\ angarkha. 

Mantle, ^^jU luhdda^ ^j /;a//z/ ; see Cloak. 

Drawers, Trousers, Pantaloons, ^ulsT^ pd'ejdma, ^^\^ tumhdn or 

tamhdn, ^^j'^ sharply J^^ shilwaryj^j\ izdr (f.), J^j>^ siriodl. 
Garter, jcj *Jj^ mdza-band, ^2j paf /7. 
Girdle, JcJ^ kamarband, l^ patkd. 

Breeches (short), \^\:>^ jdnghiyd, li$^^ kachhnd, l3^ charnd. 
Breeches (that reach below the knees, and fit tight), (dakh.) ^^ 

Cloth worn round the waist and passing between the legs, i^S^ lung, 
^X^ lungi, Jcj &3 tah-band, ^^^ langotl. 

Belt round the loins, to which the langotl is attached, <U--J tasmuy 
j^i^jJ dvUdU. 

Petticoat, \iu^ lahangd or Ixi^ Ihangd, \j^ ghaghrd, <uL sdya. 
Night-clothes, ^\y>~ u^ shab-Jdiwdbi. 
Stocking or Sock, l^\j=>. jurrdb , <oI:jjI> pd'etdba, 

9 9 O 

Shoe, Shpper, ^^=^jutd, ^^juti, (j^^b V^V^^^ (^O? u^ ^^f^^^ (f-)- 

172 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Boot, }ijy< moza, <U^ chahma : (leg of) ^^ ly pawa'l. 


Glove, <UL*:J dastana. 

Ear-ring, ^Jyit^ goshwara : (kind of), J^^ ^^ karn-phul, ^^^ 

Ring, (worn on the finger) ijpJL^\ angushtarij (on the thumb) 
<0li.ljjl angushtana, 

t* CO ^ 

Ring, (worn in the nose) «fj tic^^A, j^^ nathrii, Jb buldk, j^^ 
hesar (f.). 

Bracelet, c-f;^f^ churl , ^L5 kangan, Jc^jjb bdzu-band. 

Button, ^uC* tukma, ij>\:>^ ghundt. 

Buckle, c^\;->^ chaprds (f.) : (tongue of) LJj baksu'd. 

Clasp, c^^^-f- chaprds, ,^jp \ ^ ^S Jcj 5a?ic? /car/ie A;? dnkfi, 

A Building, Edifice, c:jJu& imdrat (f.)- 
Wall, ^^jJc3 c?7M;ar (f.), c:^^ Mie (f.), J^.^ d'lwdl (f.). 
Roof, <-::-^f>- c^^a^ (f.), jjV=^ chhdn (f.), (of thatch) ^^ chhappar. 
Arch, Vault, Dome, Cupola, jlL tdk, d^ gumbaz, dJi kubba. 
House, Mansion, y^g/iar, ^^^,y>■ haweli, ^^^ kothi, J^-* mahalL 
Dwelling, Abode, ^jl^ makdn, ^JL»^ maskan, Ul^* thikdnd. 

CO >> 

Cottage, Cot, Hut, ijj^^^ jhompn, ^^ kuti. 

\, ^ o o o 

Palace, <0\^^(J daulat-khdna, j*aj kasr, jdc»A^\jrdjmandir, 

o o^ 

Castle, Fort, <uij )taZ'a (Hind. kiVa), JbJ^ garh, ji^2^ fiisdr, 


Tower, Bastion, Bulwark, ^^ burj. 


Obelisk, Steeple, Minaret, c3^ Za,^ (f.), -^'^ Zaf^ (f ), jL^ mindr. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 173 

Pillar, Column, ,^,>vg'C khamhJi, ^j:^ satun, ^^ tkunl, ^j rukn. 
Temple (Mahommedan), Jls-"* masjid (f. a mosque), ^Ju*^ ma^bid. 
Temple (Hindu), J^ J dewal,j<X^ mandir, L^jJ dtJira, 

Shrine, i^l^ti dargah (f.)j jIH ^^^-^^^ ("^« ^O- 

Altar, t^JuJ 5^c?I, i^li^^b J> kuvban-gah (f.)? -fC*^ mazbih. 

Church, Chapel, <uJi^ kaltsuy ^^ girja, s^o ma bid. 

Bridge, Jj j5wZ, ^^^^-^^ set. 

Inn, ^5 L-3 sara^t (f.), <0U- iL-^ musajir-khana. 

o o 

Storehouse, Magazine, Granary, ;o}sr* makhzan, ^if kotki. 
Cow-house, i^\*^f gausala,^ sar, Cjj4 kharaky \^^ kotha. 
Stable, J^5£^ ghursalj JJa^l istabal, Ai^jo tawtla. 

Elephant stable, ij[s^^ ftl-khdna. 

Shop, Warehouse, jjl^^J c?MA:a7i (f.), t3l^ Aaf (f.)> l>^^ c?MA:a7i (f.). 

Workshop, <Ol>.jli kar-Tdiana, ii€j^ kar-gah (f.), ^^l^j'^ dukan (f.). 

Gate, Door, uX* V p^atakj ^j^^j^^ darwaza, ^jj^^ pauri. 

Gateway, Porch, Threshold, jJjb J dahliz (f.), ^j^\^ dewrhl, (dakh.) 


^j^„<^ de*drl. 
Window, Casement, ^Jj4 khirkl, \^<fjp^jhardkhd. 
Floor, ^Kj zamin (f. ground), (of cement) ^ gach, (of plank) ^cxsr 


fc_^Jcj takhta-bandi. 
Chamber, Room, Apartment, ^^ kamara, ^j^f kothri, ^j^ hujra. 
Closet, Cabinet, aJlsT^ khalwat-khdna, ^^ ^z^/ra, &J^f gosha. 
Cell, ^/s:?" ^z^;Va, ^^ gosha, tuli* /cwZ&a, i^^^ kothri. 

1 74 Vocahu lary — Nouris. 

Hall, jjillj dalaUj ^^\ aiwan, (of entrance) ^^^i^j^^ dar dalan. 
Dining room, ^U- ^j^'v*^ mihman-khana. 
Hall of audience, jbjt) darhar, ^^ uV.'^ dlwan-khdna. 
Kitchen, ajU- ^j>-j^, bawarchi-khana, ^ko mathakh. 
Balcony, Gallery, <0 U- ilb bdld-khana, ^^^JLi <Li» shah-nishin. 
Verandah, if^Xol^ bar-amada. 

Garret, ilb a;iLl? /czJ^a Z>a/a, lJj^^ >J y^ ^ ^^ makdn ke upar k'l 

Theatre, Playhouse, i\^l-i>Uj tamashd-gdh (f.), ^\=^ Jii3 nakl-M-dna. 
Brick, tiUjJ Iwf (f.), ^jl^^^ khisht (f.). 

c o 

Tile, i^ khaprdy l>y nariyd, e:^.!^ khisht (f.). 

Stone, ^^ patthavj ^^^ pakhdn, J-i siZ (f.)? tS^-«9 sawg. 

Mortar, Plaster, ^ gack, <fcis^j rekhta. 

Thatch, ^[^ghds (f.), Jb^ A;^arA (f.). 

Glass, -ctI^ kdnchj ^JLJt> shisha : (pane of) ^^Sy parkdla. 

Beam, Bar, j;^^ shahtlvy ^^ kafi, \^ lathd. 

Rafter, Spar, <^ karl, ij^^^ kdndi,jj^ koro, CJji tarak (f.). 

Chimney, J^^^ybJ dhunwdrd, ^Ji^^^<^ dud-kash. 

op ^ c, 

Fire-place, l^^ chulhdf ^b ^T dtash-ddn, (^^w\^ J dtg-ddn, 
Oven,j^* tanur,j^iXJ tandur, iJU^J Maf (f.). 
Shutter or fold of a door,?^^^ ktwdr, 'h palld, cUj /)«f. 
Palisade, Balustrade, Railing, |^^ kathard. 
Plate or clamp of metal,^ pattar. 

9 9 C 

Hinge, iAi kuldba, J^ c/iw/ (f.), ^^ kabza. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 176 

Pivot on which a door turns, J^ chul (f.). 

Lock, JiJJ kujlj % tdld. 

Key, ^j^ kunjl, ;Xl^ kilid (f.), j^^ chdbl. 

Bolt, jl-j Z>zZZI, ^jSS^ chhitkam, JcjjJ dar-hand. 

Bar of a door, l^ hurkd, JoJjtS darhand, \'Sjdj\ ardandd. 

Staple (of a lock), ^X-j siA;r7, <0)ljj kuldba. 

Hasp, iAi kulaba. 

Hook, t^J^l ankri, t_-?iii5 kulldb : see Hasp. 

Stair, Step, Ladder, ^J^Jr^ slrAi, ^V*^ nardbdn, <^>J 2:Jwa. 

Stairs, Steps, ^j -3iwa. Staircase, Steps, ^b J^ nard-bdn. 

Bedchamber, Dormitory, )i^\^ Idrndb-gah (f.), ^j^f ^ ^y^ sane 
ki kothri. 

Cellar, Vault, iOU- <)J tah-Miana, \j^^^ bhonghara. 

Well, ^^ ku'd, (large one of masonry) J^^ JJl inddrd, ^Jj b bd^oU 

Cistern, Reservoir, ^^ hauz, ^J^^^Vv^ chahbachcha. 

Household Furniture. 


Table, J-^ we^r (f.), dzssT l^ J-^ ?we2? kd takhta. 

CO o >> 

Tablecloth, ^^j:^^ dastar-khwdn. xjui sufra, jd>:>- chaddar(f.). 

Chair, Stool, ^^ kursl, ^^ chaukl, JjCw.? sandaU. 

Footstool, l&Ju*^ mondhd, Ifcjj^ morhd. 

Shelf, jlls J[a/i:, «iliiJi? tabka, ^^^ takhtl^ \^j patrd. 

Trivet, Tripod, <ijU <u si-pdya, ,^ L*j sipd'ij ^iji tirpad. 

Clock, ij^ gharly {]\"j$ ghariydl, j^i^^-L sd'at (f.). 

176 Vocabulary, — Nouns* 


Carpet, fJijS farsh, ^\i kalin, <^ll3 kalicha, ^^j^J^J^ shatranjl. 
Carpet, (to sit or pray on) ^^T asan, (to pray on) i^jl^*^ sajjdda. 
Carpet (to clean the feet on),jljjt b pa-anddz. 


Cloth spread over a carpet, ^JjuW chdndm. 
Cushion, ^di gaddt, 

y C 

Bed, Couch, ^»t sej (f.), l3^f^ bichhaund, <3l^ khdt (f.). 
Bedstead, ^^ ^j^ chdrpd^i,i^S^i palang, lzj\^ khdt (f.). 
Bedding, ^j^^ bichhaund, ^j^ farsh^j:^ bistar. 
Mattress, ilJj^y toshak (f.), ^j^ sozm, l3^^^ bichhaund, 


Pillow, Bolster, <U^ takiya, ^b bdlish, L«*«-il w5Z5a. 


Coverlet, Quilt, Counterpane, (^j^^^^J hdld-posh, J^^^^:^J palang- 

Sheet, jt^U- chddar (S')}j^^ chaddar (f.), Ljbjjl orhnd. 
Blanket, J^ kammal, ^4^ kamli, ^^ ^ lo'i. 

c o 

Curtain, ^J^ par da, (of a bed, against mosquitos) lSj^"^ masahri. 
Looking-glass, Mirror, <U; I «'?/?«, ^^^j^) darpan, cjl^ mir'dt (f.). 
Picture, j^,j-A> taswlr (f.\ jk^ chitr, ^sJ ndksh. 

Wash-hand bason, ,^_<^'*^ chilamchl, ^b li ;^y^*^ -f'^ ^«^/* dhone 

kd hdsan, 
Goglet, Ewer, Water-jug, ajbiT dftdba, tjbiT dftdwd. 

p oo o 

Towel, JUjj rumdl, JU:i**sJ dastmdl, Jy,^^:^ mindil (f.). 

Comb, j<«^ kanghi, &j\J^ shdna. 

Brush, (English) ^j^ barash, ^J^^ kuncht. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 177 


Box, Chest, Trunk, Coffer, J^Jc^-^ sanduk (m, f.), ^'-j petu 
Small box, Casket, i^%d:»^ sandukcha, ISj hatta, bj dibha. 
Basket, |^^ tokrcLy uf/y foA;n, U j daily a, IjlSj pilar a, 

CO ^ 

Bellows, j^y^^ybJ dhaunkni, Jl^ /cAaZ (f.), ^J dama. 
Spit (for roasting meat), ^„-s 5zM, (smaller) ''^^^^ slMicha. 
Caldron, Boiler, Copper, c^.^ c?eg (f.), IjcJb handa, «\j^ karah. 
Kettle, Pot, <t5ESl^ degcha, \jj^ tatahra, ^JJl& hdndJy Lj ^a5/«. 
Lid, Potlid, U^3 dhaknd, U-Jb^^ dkapnd, (j^^j^ sarposh. 

CO o 

Chafing dish, ,^^«V^1 angethiy ^tjcUT dtash-ddn. 


Trivet or fireplace (for a kettle, &c.), ,^^J^.t^ degddn. 
Fryingpan, ,^^J^ kardht, isy ^U mdhi-tawa, iJ>}3 taba. 
Ladle, Wooden spoon, ^/j^ c?57, V^^ karchhd, <i^'*^ chamcha. 
Skimmer, ^ i_-i^ kaf-glr, \jj^jharnd, (of iron) ^J»i^^ karchhani. 


Dish, Platter, Salver, ^Jl^ ^Aa/J, c-jIj /taZ> (f.), lL^:^ sahnak (f.), 

JmL tabak, 
Plate, ^_5^^ rikdbl, ^c^^j riktbt, ^ji bar tan, CS^^ sahnak (f.). 
Plate (silver), ^y»«^ *— 'J;^ mruf-i-simi, c/j^ '-^Jj^ zuruf-i-nukra^l. 


Spoon, ^i^'*^ chamcha, ^^^^ karchhi : see Ladle. 

;> c 

Knife, ci;^ chhuri, J^l^ /care? (f.), (pen) ^^i^ Ji kalam-tardsh (f.). 
Clasp knife, ^o- chakku, \Jj bakiyd (f.). 
Fork, l5jl^ kdntd. 

o c 

Saltcellar, ^\<sL^ namak-ddn. Cruet, (^J^'J^ sirka-ddm. 


Bowl, (jJ^ tas, Lii^-wi? /as/«^, mX^- jam, (of brass) \j^ katord. 

2 A 

178 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

CO? p 

Jug, Goblet, \^ kulhra, £^^ kasa, aj^ kuza, ^^11? tas. 

Bottle, Flagon, n^:.^ shisha, ^^^\f^ surahi, ^\^ gulahi. 

Cup, Glass, Can, <^L> phjala, M^jam, ^^-11? taSy <L*jI^ kasa. 

Phial, small Glass, , Jl— 2) shishi. 
V^ ■ ^ 

Decanter, li*^ rmna, ^'i-l^ shishay <^^1 dbgina. 
Water-pot, Pitcher, Jar, ^J^ g^ara, y^ sahu, l^^ matka. 
Porringer, Is^ mzifa, <Ut)b hadiya : see Cup. 
Pan, Bason, ^-jb hasan, ^ji hartan : see Fryingpan, Bowl. 
Funnel, ^o^ chonga, Jj waZz, (dakh.) ^^^^ j9wr7z7 (?). 

CO c 

Tub, J^^ kathra,j\xj taghar, ijj^ taghari, \^ gamla (?). 

^C o 

Pail, Bucket, ^J^ kathauiifj^ taghar, (milkpail) ^jJt^Ji dohnl. 

jjC o ^ 

Milkpan, t_f Jcjb jbJ>. J dudh-handl. 


Churn, Ui^ mathaniya (f.), ^U.^* mihanl. 
Cask, Barrel, Pipe, Lo ^Tpa. 

c c c 

Tray, ^^:>- TdmaUy ^\)^ khwancha, \jfi kathra. 

cc o ^ o 

Trough, V^ kathra, ^fi^^ dongi, Jj\3 wawtZ : see Tub. 

s> ? 

Besom, Broom, jjl^ J Aarw (f.), c-->jU-/aro5, «^^ huhari. 

O C C <y 

Sieve, Riddle, ^J^ chalniy Jb^i ghirhal, ajj^ pezna, \^\ akha. 

y cc j,c / 

Mortar, ^^Ito hawan, ^X4^ dkhli, cS'^^ kundi. 

p ^ o »- c 

Pestle, dio^ kutakf (J^yc musal, (i:x-jJ dasta, IS3^-j sowf«, \j^y Zor/m. 
Lamp, i|^ chiraghy l> J c?^^/a, v— ^.^^ c?7p, cl^t^ dipak. 

Oil, J-J ^|Z, ^^jj raughan. 

Candle, ^ Ja^^I, ^-/i-i) sAam*(f.), (of wax), ^ ^^^ rrmnlatti. 

Vocahulary: — Nouns. 179 

Chandelier, Lustre, Jlp-JAar. 
Shade (for a candle), u^y^ fcinus (f.), J^l^ kandll (f.)* 


Candlestick, ^^yxAJ^t sham dan. 

Lantern, fj^yM fdnus (f.), J:'.^ kandtl(f.). 


Torch, Flambeau, JjC*^ mash'al (f.),jJJ damar. 
^mxffex^j j^\^ gul-gir, fjL\j:!^ gul-tarash. 

Country and Country Affairs. 
Country (not Town), cl^^j^^ dihat, cuL<"j>^ herunjat, J-oi* mufassal. 
Village, y^ ganw, .^^ hastl, a^^ gram, <0J d'lh, 

'' o 

Field, tn^-^ /c^e^, jj^J^ maidan, j:.;^ chhetr. 

Farm, CS^chak, ^}cA ijdra, (dakh, also) ^ gutta: see Field. 

Garden, Orchard, ib ^a g-A , ijj\j hart, (small) i^sf-\^^ ha gh cha^ <*^^V 

Flower garden, t/j^^^ pkulwarl, ^\:x^ gulistdn. 
Forest, Wood, Jx>s>' jangal, ^ ian, l::.^J dasht. 
Heath, Copse, Brushwood, kJj^ jhdfi, j\^jhdr. 
Hedge, Jb bar, ^s:j ^\p^ jhdr-handi, \j^ gherd. 


Meadow, Mead, Marsh, ^J \y taral,j\\^j^ marghzdr. 


Pasture, Meadow, ^^^j^- cliardgdh,j\'J^ alafzdr. 

Park, Chase, <u^ ramiia, ^liilLl shikdr-gdh (f.), ^L 4^.^ mirg-sdld. 

' o o 

Agriculture, Husbandry, ^^^ sir, cfj^'^^ kishtkdri, ^-^^-^jj zird^at (f.). 

" ^ ^ ^ 

Cart, Waggon, l^J€ gdri, Vj^>- clihakrd, ^}jS- ardha. 
Plough, ^ hal, <ul.i kulha, Ji^lj wagaZ, Jiolj ndngal. 

180 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Harrow, Ul-Jb hengd, ^^< ma' J, ^^j^ sarawan, 


Spade, Shovel, J-j Ml, ^\S^ kudali, \j^ l^J pha'dra. 

Hoe, ^\>^ kudali, <ls.^ belcha, \]/^^ phd'ora. 

Dibble, ^j>:j>^ khanti, ^\i^ kudaU. 

Mattock, Pick, Pickaxe, Jlj^^ kudal,\j<^ kudra, \j/\^pha'draj ^J^ 

Ploughshare, ^^ chau, \jy tord, d^ hars, J^^ l^ Jjb hal kd phal. 


Pitchfork, \jd^jandrd. 


* Axe, Hatchet, ^jj\^\^ kulhdfi, jJ tahar. 

Sickle, Scythe, 1^-jJi> hansu'd, ^\j'^ dardntl, (jJi^ dds. 

^> O O (j 

Sieve, ^^-^ chalnl, J^ ghirhdl, ^jij pezna, \^ \ dkhd. 

Society and Government. 

People, Nation, t^ log, ^^ kaum (f.), jU- Mialk (f.), i»,J guroh. 

Family, Tribe, J^ kul, ^y kaum (f.), <d--JJ kahila. 

Family, Household, L^ kumbd, ^ kutum, \)\j^ ghardnd. 

A Country, Region, (_^.t> rZe5, CJLc mulk, i— ^,<^ <%?, jV.^ diydr. 

Territory, jjt^*)^ sar-zamin (f.), |^.4> des,j^ kis/iwar. 

9 O 

Province, <U^ 52iJa,jl^ sarkdr : see Country. 

King, Sovereign, Monarch, Potentate, i^U>tib bddshdh, \pAj rdjd, 

1^1^ l^ mahd-rdjd, \jj ijU^ farmdn-rawd. 
Queen, Empress, ajlL* malika, ^\j rdni, .^\j l^ mahd-rdm. 
Prince, j|y»^ kunwdr , jy^ J\j rdj-kunwar,, iftilj*;^ shahzdda. 
Princess, i^Jj^li> shdhzddi, lsJ^*^\; rdj-kumdri, ^\j rdni. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 181 

Chief, Ruler, Prince, l^J^ ?'«;«? ^^ wall, \j^,j ra'is. 

" CO /o 

Minister (of si2iie),j/^^wazir, ^J-:^ mantri (m.),jyujJ dastur, 


Secretary (of state), (jf/^:^ mantri (m.), ^j|^0 diwan. 

o o 

Officer (military), Commander, j!j^ sar-dar, ^1 J i^-^i^ mansah-dar. 
Officer (civil) c:^v«Jcs- Jjb^ a^Z-i khidmatj j1 J c-^„^:i^ mansah-dar. 
Judge, t<-^^ /:af7, *^U»- hakim, uJoL) nyayak. 
Magistrate, chief officer of police, J^^j^ kotwal, j\s>'^ faujdar. 
Nobleman, Grandee, ^^--^1 amir, (or plur.) \jji umara, hj^as. umda. 
Of noble birth, uij^ sharif, uJ^l ashraf, ^^li kulin. 
Landholder, jljki-^ zamlndar, j\i^j^\>- jagirdar . 
Plebeian, Commoner, ^i^i-^ kamina, ^<3l /♦Ic- a mm atfrnl. 

o o 

Townsman, Citizen, lJ;-^ shahri, ^\*^ kashatt. 

Villager, Peasant, jl^ gawz^jar, ^^^^^ gramin, ^j\JUbJ dihkam. 

Wary Military Affairs. 
War, {^:S^j(ing, ^j ran, c-^ harh (f.), ^\j^ lara'i, ^}^jadaL 
Battle, t/JjJ larcTi, ^>^s>-judh, i^S^jang, ^Xs^ muharaha. 
Peace, J^ sulk (f.). 

Dissension, Discord, Jlio bigar, d:^ fitna, Lls^^phut (f.). 
Pacification, Reconciliation, t->^ mi/ap (f.), <)Ls!L:,< musalaha. 
Enemy, Foe, ^^^^ dushman, ^j^-j^^ durjan, L!U-i> J dusht. 
Adversary, Antagonist, ^,/>- harlf, ^5^ hairi (ra.), m^ ghantm. 
Friend, Ally, ^(f^'paclichhi, ^^J^ kumaki (m.) , j:^ mitr, ^jrafik. 
Stratagem, <d-£^ hila, Jj J^ chhal-hal, ^^jyj ^^ f anno far eb. 
Slaughter, Carnage, Jci katl, ^y„y^ Idmn-rezi. 
Massacre, see Slaughter : (general) ^Ir, Jnjj katl-i-amm. 
Victory, Conquest, ^:>- Ja?, J.i fath{{?), ^.::^^ jit (f.),yl? ^afar. 

182 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Triumph, jl^i^^ ^^ jai-jai-kar, ^^jai, ^j<^ bijai, ^ifath. 
Defeat, Discomfiture, Loss, ci^w^^ shikast (f.)>j^ ^^^ (f-)* 
Flight, t.::-^^^ hazimat (f.),jf I^j bhagar (f.)jji^^^gurez (j'),j\;ijlrar. 
Pursuit, [f^jpichha, t_^U3' ta'dkub, iJ^j^ pairau'i. 
Pillage, Plunder, cL?^ lut (f.), l::^.*^ ghanimat (f.), <-ii^b ci?jl 

lut-pat (f.). 
Onset, Attack, Assault, Charge, ^d^^c^ hamla, c?^/^ charhct'i. 
Incursion, Inroad, Invasion, l::-^Ij takht (f.), t_^^J>- charha't. 
Devastation, Depredation, ^\j(j \J:^^s>^3 takht-tdraj , J'ujIj pd'emdlu 
Destruction, fSh^ haldkt, ^^}J>' Idiardbi, ^U.-^ mismari. 
Army, Jjj!^ lashkar, Lm*j send (f.), i^U**j sipdh (f.), -p.^ /az^; (f.). 
Battalion, ^Jjb paltany ^Lii^- Llioj l^ ^y /«m; A^a e/c hissa. 
Brigade, Squadron, <tL«jJ dasta, ^^^ ghol. 
Troop, Corps, ^^ jauk, J^ ghoU (of horse), ^\^j risdla. 
File, i^Jus saff (f.), ^UaJJ toar (f.), ei^jU paw^ (f.)- 
Rank, C:^l> pant or pdnti (f.), <— a-^ ?«^ (f.)* 
Centre or main body (of an army), t«^ kalb. 
Wing or Flank (of an army), ^L^ pa^Zw, Jcs^jandh (f.). 
Right wing, ^f^i/*-^ maimana. Left wing, ^j—-^ maisara. 
Watch, Sentinel, 1^ pahrd, l>^^^ pahriyd, J^^^ chauklddr. 
Guard, Patrole, 1^^ pahrd, \.^j pahru% l>yv^ pahriyd, ^J^ shab- 

Soldier, ^U-o ^ipa^i (m.), cJ;^ lashkari (m.). 
Foot soldier, :^t)L> piydda. Infantry, J JuJ paidal, c/^Uj piydde. 
Horse soldier, j^^ sai^ar, [sby^j^ ghur-charhd. 
Pioneer, j^^sArO belddr. 

Ensign, Standard, Colours, ^^llj nishdn, \x>^ jhanddy j^ bairak. 
Ensign-bearer, jb^ jjlU nishdn-barddry jl J^ Jx alam-barddr. 
Hostage, JU^. yarghamdl, JJS kafil, Jjl oZ. 
Captive, Prisoner, j^\ aslr, j^/ giriftdr, ^^ kaidi. 
Parade, if\f j^ly kawd'id-gdh (f.), ^'^^ -If^ff-g^^ (f-)> ci^^'V* ^(^iddn. 
Muster, ^jx:S ginti, CL:\j^yomaujuddt{f.), ^aIxj ^^^fauj kd tallka. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 183 

Arms, jL^Ub hathyar or hathiyar (m. f.), -1-j silah (f.). 

Sword, j^»ij talwar (f.), ySj\^ khanda^jJLAJ^ shamsher, *--j tegh. 

Dagger,^^sd^ khanjar, Jc^ katar, \j^ chhura. 

Spear, I'l^ JAaZa, i<€^^ harchhij aj^ neza, Jj hallam. 

Bow, LLioJfeJ dhanuk (f.), j^U^ kaman (f.), ^^y ytaws (f.). 

Arrow, ^ ^Ir, j^b ban,j»^ sar, i^JjSs^ khadang. 

Quiver, ^J tarkash, ^jt^ tukkash, ^y tun, (^S^' nikhang (f.). 

Bowstring, !>- chilla, aj zik (f.). 

Sling, ^^^fgophan (f.), ^h falakhun (f.), \:^J gophia (f.). 

Poleaxe, U\1:S ganddsd, Ltj^^pharsd, <ls^ belcha. 

Shield, Target, JlfeJ c^AaZ (f.), ^^ 5i/?ar (f.), c/^ pharl. 

Helmet, J^ Moc?, c-jy topjjsJco m igh far. 

Coat of mail, A^ jhilam, j:ij baktar, ij J^ chihaUtah. 

Cuirass, ^^ jaushan, j:ij> baktar, (f.), <^3 jl>- char-cCina. 

Musket, Firelock, J^J^ banduk (f.), lLO ^wpaA: (f.). 

Swivel, large Musket, wall-piece, JjJ/*- jazd'il. 

Barrel, Bore, Chase (of a gun), Jl3 nal, ^Jj waZi. 

Chamber (of a gun), ^^ kothi, <Ut^ khazdna. 

Pistol, <tsuJ tamancha, i^:\^ tabancha. 

Bayonet, ^^;-X:«j sangln (f.). 

Pike, ^ we^ra, l53l^ kdntd, 

Flint, (for striking fire) l!JU^ ^^.^i-s sang-i-chakmak. 

Powder, tl-JjjV ^^''^i^ (f')>jjj^ ^^^^ (^Ooj^^ ddru (f.). 

Ball, Bullet, (for a musket) (Jy go^, (for a cannon) ^jS' go/a. 

Cartridge, lS3y {owja, jj-yj^ kdrtus. 

Match, (for a gun) Jjy ^om, <toJi falita, (brimstone) ^iLo l> J diyd- 

Cannon, Gun, piece of Ordnance, c->y top (f.). 
Ordnance, ^^)^y) topen (f. plur.). 
Fieldpiece, Kjb^ rahkald, c-Jy 4^;^ safari top (f.). 
Park of Artillery, JjU t-jy top-khdna. 
Arsenal, ^OW- ^Lc sildh-ldidna, <0U- c-jy top-khdna. 

184 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Gun carriage, i^i\j\ araha. 

Cannoneer, Gunner, jljjl c-y top-andaz^ j\S'^^^ golandaz. 
Bomb, Mortar, Shell, ^Li ghuharay (small mortar) JJ^ garnaL 
Bombardier, ^j^y top-chi (m..\j\d^<f golandaz. 
Fusileer, Musketeer, ^^^jJcj handukchi,j\s:3ji harkanddz. 
Fort, Fortress, Castle, Jb€ garh, db^ kot, <ulj} karS. 
Redoubt, ^Ls*^ kiVa-cha, ^€ garlu: see Fort. 
Bastion, Bulwark, — ^ hurjy <tL>y< marhala. 
Battery, ^jya morcha, <UJ^t> damdama, A^yc marhala. 
Embrasure, aSij randa, \^^j^ '^ t-jy top kajharokhd. 
Ditch, Trench, Fosse, Moat, JJc^ khandak, i_f\^ khd'i. 
Trenches, Lines, J^^^** morchdl (f.), y^i-j sangar, ^j\^ khd^'i. 
Wall or intrenchments round a town, i^lij^^ shahr-pandh (f.). 
Walls of a city, Jc.^^^ shahr-band. 

Rampart, Breast-work, Parapet, J>^ fasti (f.), ^x.^ kangara. 
Ponton (bridge of boats), Jj l^ , ;:JL^ kishti kd pul. 
Tent, Pavilion, \jd derd, ^^^^^ khaima, ^-cJ tambu. 
Camp, Encampment, a^JsL^ lashkar-gdh (f.), ^\jj pard'o. 
Decampment, March, ^^ kuch. 

Halt, place of residence or encamping, ^liU mukdm, jlfc, rahd'o. 
Field of battle, ii\^ ^jj razm-gdh (f.), ^j^^ maraka. 
Drill, —ji Jccly kawd'td-i-fauj. 

Furlough, c:^,-*^^^ rukhsat (f.), ,J%^ chhuttl, ci-^jU-l i/a^ra^ (f.). 
Drum, JybJ ^^o/, JJs JJaJZ, Ll^3y>^ dholak. 
Kettledrum, ^,Ui nakkdra, l^ J dankd, ^f kos. 
Trumpet, ^^Jy torhi or ^^Jfey ^wrH, l^ singdy jJu naftr (f.). 
Clarion, iJ^Js karndl or karnd'e, jy Z>Mifc, <-5^f-^ shahnd't. 
Bugle, Horn, lxx«op narsingd, jyo sur (f.) : see Trumpet. 
Hautboy, t^ly-s surname. 

Flute, Flagelet, Fife, Pipe, 2(;y<ll alghuza, c5/-iV bdnsrl, J^ ?w?^rZi, 
^^ pungt, ^*-iJ Jansj ^ nai (f.). 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Naval Affairs. 

Navy, Vleei, js^^ hahr (f.), -^y ,S ^*)\'=^ jo-hazdn kifauj. 

^\iv^, j^^ jahaz, ^J^ kishtl, ^^^ wan, ^\^ wahan, (Roebuck.) 

Ship (or Man) of war,jl,^ ^S^:,^ jangi jahaz. 

Merchant-ship or -man,jl.^^ ^^\^y^ saudagari jahaz. 

Boat, ^jJl^ kishti,j\j na'd (f.), ^y tarnl, \ys^ machwa. (Roeb.) 

Barge, \jssr bajrd, \j^y niwardy ^^^f^j^ mdr-pankht. 

Barge, large Boat, Lighter, J^ hhar,j^ hhar. (Roeb.) 

Brig, jlys- iJ;<^j^ dd-doUjahdz. (Roeb.) 

Rudder, Helm, ^^ sukkdn,j^yj patwdr (f.), j^ kanhar. 

Prow, Head of a ship, l^U mdthd, j>^ sir, (^SjV< mdng, (f.) 

Stem, LjyJ dabusd, ,j^^ pichhil. (Roeb.) 

Poop, u?r^ chhatri. (Roeb.) 

Deck, iz^kr takhta, J^< manzil (f.), lS^ tutak. (Roeb.) 

Quarter deck, CS^ ^ ^^^ ^ J^"^ c/awr ke pas kd tutak. (? Roeb.) 

Main deck, CS^ ^ ^.J ^ A^ uparkd blch kd tutak. (? Roeb.) 

Forecastle, l:»f> jpAana, lii ^^1^ dgal-fand (Roeb.), (dakh.) ^jS\ dgal(j). 

Mast, J^J dol, Jy:— -« mastul. (Roeb.) 

Afore, J^\ dgil, ^\ dgal. (Roeb.) 

Abaft, Aft, Astern, Jfs^ plchhil, \j^yf^^ phichwdrd> (Roeb.) 

Ahead, Ji^l dgil, ^\ dgal. (Roeb.) 

Aloft, ^^^ upar,j J.J dol par. (Roeb.) 

Amidships, ^^\:^xj blch-a-blch, ,-^ -^j bich men. (Roeb ) 

Anchor,^;^ langar, ^ nangar. (Roeb.) 

Anchorage, ^^ ^ ^^ ^ langar karrie kl jagah, i^l^^J langar- 

g-ah. (f.) 
Ashore, csj^ kindre, (aground) J lSj^ kindre par. 
Ballast, /tjJ niram, J-J nildm, JJ lilam. (Roeb.) 
Bank or Shoal, ^;.>- char,^}j^ khardba. (Roeb.) 
Beam, a-j bim, \j\ drd. (Roeb.) 
Bell, ^y^ gharl. (Roeb.) 


186 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Between decks, -^^.J ^ tliij tutak ke hich. (Roeb.) 

Birth, ^^ jagah (f.), ^iCc makan. 

Boatswain, t^:Jb^ sarhang, ;^U-i^ hosman, ^^^^^^. hochman. (Roeb.) 

Bottom (part of the ship in the water), -glj pith, (f.) 

Bore or Boar in the Ganges, Ujb hummd, L/*>iJ> humba, ^^b ban. 

Broadside, Volley, :J^ shallch (f.), tl^L* salak. (Roeb.) 

Bucket, i^>^\j baldij ^b balti. (Port, balde : Roeb.) 

Cabin, \j^^ kdmara (Port, camara : Roeb.), Lo^ J dabusd. 

Cable, jl.*Jb hamdr. (Port, amarra: Roeb.) 

Call (boatswain's), ^A^-' siti. (Roeb.) 

Calhpers, l--?1<3 mdp, (j^^^^ kupds or ^^-L<^ kumpds. (Roeb.) 

Can (jug), C^ lotd, Cl^b pdt (from Eng. pot : Roeb.). 

Cannon, <^y top (f.) : to cannonade, l3^to ^\^y or c-y top or topdn 


Cap (for the head), ^^y topi or ^^y ^op7. (Roeb.) 

Cape, CS^J tek, y* ^•--'' tenk, t;^3y ^ow^, ^j*^ 5?s. (Roeb.) 

Captain, (European) ^^^ kaptdn, (Indian, &c.) \s>Xj ndlchudd. 

^^^go, ^j^, bharfif jb bdvj t-?Vr^J bojhd'i. (Roeb.) 

Carpenter, c_f/i— < mistri (m.), jlii-s sutdr, ^Jb^ barhai. (Roeb.) 

Carriage (of a gun), ^j€ i* L->y ^op /:7 gdrl. 

Cartouch, ^\x^y tosddn. 

Cartridge, {j^yij^ kdrtus, Ijy totd or liyy fowfa. (Roeb.) 

Case shot, "if b^^ chhintd gold. (Roeb.) 

To be cast away, (a person) l3l^ ^\^ tawdl khdnd, (a ship) Ul?- cSy 

tutjdnd, liU- l,U mdrdjdnd. (Roeb.) 
Catamaran, J]j^ katmardl, Ay^ katmardnif \sf\jj pardnchd. 
To Caulk, \jj j^ Jl^ kdlpattl karnd. (Roeb.) 
Centry or Sentry, lJJ^'^ santrt,j\j l^^j pord ddr. (Roeb.) 
Chain, ^^-.fisrj zanjtr, JOL sdnkal,JjVi sdnkar. (Roeb.) 
Chain pump, Ijj Z j^sfTj zanj'ir kd bambd. (Port, bomba : Roeb.) 
Chain shot, "i^ ^jr^J ^CL'^fifl gold. 
Channel, jUxJ dhdr. Mid-channel, ^IfeAsx* manjdhdr. (Roeb.) 

Vocabulary — Nouns. 187 

Chest, ^5-j pefij J^J^i-tf sanduk, (for arms) ^^^2-j ^ Jj«-^^ handuk kl 

To clear for action, ^Jj\^ f ^j^ larne ko taiyar karna, 
Coboose, ij^J^ chulddn. (Roeb.) 
Cockswain, ^J^^ kaksen. (Roeb.) 
Coil (of a rope), KjLj sankla. (Roeb.) 
Colours, iJ^^ vautUy IJy hauta, ^lU nishan. (Roeb.) 
Compass, iA^ hukka, u^\r^^ kumpas. (Roeb.) 
Cook, ^_^j\jj\^ hhandari, ^^j^^ hawarchi. (Roeb.) 
Cooking place. Galley, ij^^-J^ chuldan, ^U- ^J=^ji^. hawarcJii-khana. 
Cooking kettle, t^.t^ deg. (Roeb.) 
A Cot, (Jyr <-^V^ khatjoli : see Hammock. (Roeb.) 
A Crane, ^^j:^ katrl. (Roeb.) 
Crew, ,jfj\j^^jahazlyJsA laskar. (Roeb.) 
Cuddy (in E. I. ships), .j,^^ ^ ^\^ Ijl^ ^Jc^ kaptan khdnakhane 

To Discharge (unload), \jj3\ utdrnd, (a gun) ^;j^ chhopid, l>jU 

mama, lii^J daghnd. (Roeb.) 
Discipline (regulation), c:^— JjJjj handobast, (punishment) U-s sazd 

(f.), W** sajdf lh^amJjIo mdr-plt, (f,) 
Dismasted, jLijJcJ Zmwc? hiindy Ix)^ IxJ nangd bungd. (Roeb.) 
Dock, ^ii^'^ godi. Dock yard, jlw^j l^ t^^f> godi kd bansdr, l^ lJ^^ 

JLjj goc?7 A;a bansdl, (Roeb.) 
Double headed shot, ^^ 'i\^ ^*J0 J or t^«3u^J ddndj or dandi wdld gold. 
To Dress (a ship), l3jl2Lj singdrnd. 

To Drop anchor, lilli^^ nangar ddlnd, l3^ ioJ langar karnd. 
East, ^-'Jy^ purabj ^-^1 ugmaii, J/-^ mashrik, (Roeb.) 
Ebb-tide, l^'l^ bhdthd. 

Eddy, t-^3^^ bhaunrl, ^y^^ ghumrl, ^\i \ua^ ghumtd pdnl. 
Ensign, Flag, ^jll.3 nishan, \'Jy^ bautd, l^uj vautd. (Roeb.) 
Fair (as wind), libOu-j sldhd, (J^\^^ muwdjik, m^\^ jdliom. (? Roeb.) 
Fair (not cloudy), \^j^ pharchhd, uJU sa/, U^ khuld-sd. (Roeb.) 

188 Vocabulary Nouns. 

To Fall in with, ULj milna, \j^ CLJ^l^ mulakat karna. (Roeb.) 
False fire or blue flames, c->1:l^ mahtab, ^jyc rndrarn, a^j^^ mordm, 

To Fasten, l3^ '—^^r* ^^^^^i^ karna j U^ J^ij band karna, liAJob 

bandhna. (Roeb.) 
Fathom, /»U waniy >b Z>a/w. (Roeb.) 
Flag, see Ensign. Flagstaff, ^j'l^ tj^ wauta katl, jj-Jbj^^ c/«^ar 

5aw5. (Roeb.) 
Fleet, w::^:^^ philltj AsXs kafila, j\^ bhar, jsr^ bahr, (Roeb.) 
Float (of a fishing line), IjJy tarinda, VSjJi tirindd. (Roeb.) 
Flood-tide, the ^ow , J^^^^jawdr^ ^^ bhartl. (Roeb.) 
Fore, J.^1 dgil, J^\ dgaL Fore and aft, Jfs^ JS^l agi/ plchhil. 

Foreland, lLX^' ^e^, <-l^^ ^ew/c. (Roeb.) 
Fore mast, JjJ cu^ trikat (or tirkat) dol. (Roeb.) 
Fore sail, c.::^^' trikat. (Roeb.) 

Freight (hire), Jy yiawZ, Jy nuwal, \i}ji kirdyd. (Roeb.) 
Freight (cargo), JU li Jy nuwal kd mdl. (Roeb.) 

Fresh water, ^JIj l^*:-^ niithd pdnl. (Roeb.) 

Gale of wind, ^^ tufdn, Ji«^3^ dndhl. 

Quarter gallery, Jj J^ kandlL (Roeb.) 

Stern gallery, <UyJ dabusa. 

Gangway, ^j Sj^ gdngwa'e. (Roeb.) 

Glass (hour), ,^j-l-j-i> ^ ^j4 gharl ki shlshi. 

Glass (spy or telescope), ^^j^ durbln or ^j^^j^>^ durmm. (Roeb.) 

Glass (spy or telescope for night), ^^j^^ ^ c^]; rdt kd durrnin, 

Grape shot, ci^l^s*- c-^ gerab chhdnt. (Roeb.) 

A gun-shot, LJ l^ 1^ gole kd tappd. (Roeb.) 

Gun tackles, ^^:^ l^ c-jy top kd laptl. (Roeb.) 

Gunnel (of a boat),J-.« mtz or ,J^< mench. (Roeb.) 

Gust, \l^^ jhapcld, Lb J dhapd. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 189 

To Hail, l3^ cub ^ J&*^ bungal se bat karna. (Roeb.) 

Half pike, ^l^ bhala, ^j^J barchhi. 

Hammock, ^^joU, ^^^jholi, ^^^jhulJ. (Roeb.) 

All hands, ^^^ c-.-'wj sab adnii, (c-^^ t«^^«» sab Idialasi. (Roeb.) 

Hand pump, L-iJ ^*^ cJihota bambd, \^ -f>U hath bamba. 

Handspike, LlX*-*Jlft> hansptk. 

Harbom*, jJCJ bandar or bindar, lIA^ ghat, (Roeb.) 

Harpoon, jjli ^|^ l::-J^J '■l^.^ ^^ Jaw^ if;a/a kawar, (Roeb.) 

Hatch or Hatch way, ^\^^phalka or \^\i falka. (Roeb.) 

Hatches, j\^ l^ 15^^ phalke ka kewdr, ^j^^j'^ ^ ^^U /aZ/ce A;a 

Hatchet, oj^/ kuwdrlj ^\^ kurdli, (Roeb.) 
Head (ornamented figure), ibj putld, ^-^jyo murat, (Roeb.) 
To Heave the lead, U^J /^ prum ddlna. (Roeb.) 
A heavy sea, bj J c^^ a/cArl daryd, b jJ z*^ garm daryd. 
Heel, jUj , S e;^ swA^a/z ki dhdr, (Roeb.) 
Helmsman, Steersman, ^3lLo sukkdni. 
Hold, j^ khan,y^ khanr. (Roeb.) 
Hook (for fish), J^ gal. (Roeb.) 
Horizon, jlfc J l^ ^^^^ dsmdn kd dhdr. (Roeb.) 
Hoy, ^^^ machwd: see Boat. 

YLviWy j\j^\s:»^ mundd jahdZy j\j^^ ^Jc^ IJu lundd munddjahdz. 
Jib, i^.^^^^ jib. (Roeb.) Jib boom, j^y ^^^^jib bum. 
Insurance, U-j bimd, Uj^ vlmd. (Roeb.) 
Jolly boat, ci^y \\s>^ jdli bot. (Roeb.) 
Journal, <ul3j^j ^ j\.^^ jahdz kd roz-ndma. 
Island, Isle, ^\j tdpu, \j^^:s^ janjlrd (for ijj^ jaztra: Roeb.). 
Jury mast, J.J ^U phdltu dol, J^ J ^b fdltu dol. (Roeb.) 
Keel, ^l^ pathdn, c— ;|^J em5, i-J^^jJ em/. (Roeb.) 
Key, Quay, iioJ dankd, ci.>l^lJ^JoU bdndheld ghdt, cL'l^ 10 paA:a 

g^flf. (Roeb.) 
Ladder, «ii>*:--: sir hi. Stern ladders, ^5-^:^-= ^^ is*^^*^ dabuse kl sir hi. 

1 90 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Land, ^li^ kinara,y tar. (Roeb.) 

Lantern, ^j^yM fdnusj or (j^y\^ phanus. (Roeb.) 

Larboard, ^J>;^ ljtt> dawa hurdu. (Roeb.) 

Lascar, ^^^^ Jdialasi, ^^J^ kharwa or kharu'a. (Roeb.) 

To Launch, \jjj\ j^^ jahaz utarna. 

Lead (used to heave), aj prum. To heave the lead, IJlj ^^ prum 

League, ^^-^ JbJ>J dtrh kos (one and a half kos : Roeb.). 
Leak, uJX*j sulak, <^=- chhed. 

To spring a leak, liyb l::^^^ gamat hona, b^i> U3«> humba hona. (Roeb.) 
Lee-side, <_J^ uf;W ^hare taraf, ^J^i^ <-£;V ^^^^^ hurdu, (Roeb.) 
Lee-shore, ajt^ ^^ ^J^. bhart mln kinara. (Roeb.) 
A Light (candle), ^^ hatti. 

Light-house, Ub^ kandiliya, iijoyo l^ jij hatti ka munara, (Roeb.) 
Fishing Line j^<^ ^ ls^* machhi ka dor, ijfj^'^ ^ J^ gal kl dorl, 

To Load (a gun) U^ c-y top hharna, (a ship) l3^^ J^^ jahaz 

Log, 4.^ to^. Log-book, <uli c-^' tap-nama. Log-line, ^^1 l^ t ^ 

tap ka len. (Roeb.) 
Low water, Jb -^l^ kd'im (for >jU ka'im) pant; (if in a river) USl^^U 

5ar bhatha. (Roeb.) 
Lubbers hole, ill? ^ lJj^^ panjre ka gala, (Roeb.) 
Magazine, <iOU- CL^jJo bdrut-khana. 

Magnet,^^ (JSas^ chamak pathar, Itoj! \i^j'itd lohd. (Roeb.) 
To Make sail, \j^ ij^ serh karnd. (Roeb.) 

To Make stern way, bjj j^f^ pichhe parnd, L2jb ^:s^jpzchhe hatnd. 
Mallet, i^fyo mogrt, uf/i^ mongri. (Roeb.) 

Marines, ^U-j ,<^ J^^j- jahdz ke sipdhi (lit. ship soldiers : Roeb.). 
Mast, J^J dol, (by landsmen called) J^:^— -< mastul. (Roeb.) 
Main mast, J^J hj bard dol. Fore mast, J^<-^ l::^0 tirkat or trikat 

dol, Mizzen mast, JjJ ^^^^♦i^ /ct7ml dol or J^J ^l^ A:a/r/?7 dol. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 191 

Mate (of a ship), JU malam (for Arab. ^^.U^ mu^allim: Roeb.). 

Midshipmen, ^^^--^.saj hlchmen, j^*/»Lsx<! mlchilmen. (Roeb.) 

Midships, ^j \^ j\^jakaz ka hlch. 

Mortar, ^\^ hawa'e, ^J^^\ ukhli, CL^y lj^^ kothl top, (Roeb.) 

Muster, ^^^ ginti, c^^ hazirl, lJ^T^ hajiri. (Roeb.) 

Mutineer, ^^^^ danga'iy ^d^s fasadl, ^J'^^ mutfarnl. (Roeb.) 

Mutiny, lioJ dangd, C^^Uj b agh dwat (f.), ^\^ fasddj ^-'^-i>T dshob. 

Neap tides, j^^5^ l^ cL^^ bhang kdjaivdr, Jli^ markatdl. (Roeb.) 

North, yjl uttavj ^^ gd'l, jU-i> sJiimal. (Roeb.) 

Oakum, ^^x^gaAwI, (Roeb.) L^fJ^ istub, ^.^^-^ istap. (Port, estopa.) 

Oar, LJjb halesd, Jub c?anc? (Roeb.), ^-^ chappu. 

Officer (of a ship), JU mdlam : see Mate. 

Over board, \^ ^-^ bj J daryd men gird. 

To out sail, lii^ ^j^^ saros chalnd, lils- i^^Vj ^iyo,da chalnd. (Roeb.) 

Packet, (j:^J^\j pdket, j\^ ^ Ju?^i ita^i^ kdjahdz. (Roeb.) 

Paddle LJjb -ffUb hdth-halesd, ^"^^ chamcha, ^^^^ pangai. (Roeb.) 

Pass or Passport, ij\j rawdna, <Ulj^ parwdna. 

Passage boat, \y^ l^ i^y^J^ «->!/ tari pdr hone kd machwd. (Roeb.) 

Pig of ballast, (if of iron) ^J^ ketU, (if of lead) Cjb pat, (Roeb.) 

Pike (spear), ^j^J! barchhl, i!l^ bhdld. 

Pilot, (tfS^l arkdti, (at Surat) cij^^^ duvgvi, (with Arabs) ^b^j rubdn. 

Pirate (ship), J l^ l^ ^-^^-^^ dakait kdjahdz^ \\^ ^ J^ ^^^^ ^^ 

Pitch, -«b ddmar, ,^:sX)^ ptchh. (Roeb.) 
Pistol, ^^^sxJ tabancha, Jj:>^ pistaul. (Roeb.) 
Plank, ic^ taTdita, ^^\i^ pdtiyun. (Roeb.) 
Pleasure boat, \ys.'^ l^ ^j^^-^ sawdrl kd machwd. 
Pole axe, lJj^^ kuhdrljjJ tabar, (Roeb.) 
Priming, CS^j ranjak, ^ kdn. (Roeb.) 
Privateer, J l^ ^ j^ chor kd jahdz, Cl:>^\^ li W^-T chanchiyd kd 

galwat. (Roeb) 
Prize, jl,f5»- v^JuJs kaid'i jahdz, j\^ i>J^ pakar eld jahdz. (Roeb.) 

192 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Pump, UiJ hamha (from Port, bomba: Roeb.)- 

Punt, Uo«t> dunga, !ylf> thapara, ^^.j^ dingi. (Roeb.) 

Purser, ^\^ \S j\^jahaz ka kirarii, j^ pasar. (Roeb.) 

Quadrant, Sextant, ^U^ kaman. (Roeb.) 

Quicksand, jlljj^ chor balu, ^j^j ^^Ji^^ daldal zarriin. (Roeb.) 

Raft, \sf\ji^ paranchcLj \i\y trapa. (Roeb.) 

Reel, i^j^ charlchi. 

Rocket, ci^^ hawa't. 

Bread Room, dj[^ h^j roti Idiana. 

Spirit Room, djU- ^-^^-i» sharab khana. 

Ropes, cuill alat. (Roeb.) 

Rowers, iJi^ t<— :A^ haUse wdla. (Roeb.) 

Sail, ^j^ serh, bj^ serhyj^ sar. (Roeb.) 

To set sail, \j^ ^^ serh karnd. (Roeb.) 

Salute (from a ship or fort), ^^ salami. 

Scull, L--1& l^ Jy^ ^^/I kd haUsdf L»-iJ^ ^^^ chhotd halesd. (Roeb.) 

Sheet, ^^^ daman, ^U\j daman, ^\^ii daman. (Roeb.) 

To Ship (put on board a ship), l3ljbj=^ jjj\j^^jahdz par charhdnd. 

To ship a sea, Ul^^ -^^^ mauj khdnd. 

Shipping, jl^ ^ j\j^!>- jahdz kd bhdr, Ai^\i ^ j\^ jahdz kd kdfila. 

Shipwright, uj?/;-^ \^ j[^jahdz kdmistrl. (Roeb.) 

Shoal, \j>' ^Ij bdlu chard. (Roeb.) 

Shore, ^U^ kindra, |^1j ddrd. (Roeb.) 

To shot the guns, Ij^ ^^^^^.r* ij^y topon men gold bharnd. 

Shrouds, ^^LJ labrdn. (Roeb.) 

Sick birth, l3l^j l^ ^j\j\ dzdrikd thikdnd. (Roeb.) 

Side, jJ^J burdu, jJji^ bordu. (Roeb.) 

Signals, J;>.vCm.i slknel, (Ji-ic^ sitnel, Xj\J^\ ishdra. (Roeb.) 

Skiff, \ys< ^S£'\i kd gh zi machwd. (Roeb.) 

Slack water, ^\^ (*J naram pdnl. (Roeb.) 

Sloop, t—^ji-' salup, L^^Juj salup. (Roeb.) 

Smuggler, l5^ ^ J^-*JbU mdltsul kd chutid. (Roeb.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 193 

South, ^^J dakkan, (^^ janub, ^y^ suit, (Roeb.) 

Speaking trumpet, J£:j bungal, J^ bhungal. (Roeb.) 

Spring tide, j^^ h^ bardjaivdr, Jli^ \ji bard katdl. (Roeb.) 

Sponge, ^5^^^ plnchi, \^^ sunibhd (Roeb.), (of a gun) \j\cf,puchdrd. 

Squadron, ^y ^ j\^ jahdz kd toll, (Roeb.) 

Staff, j^^l^ by t|^^ chhotd bautd kdtlii, ^^ bjj '"^^if- clihold wautd 

Ensign staff, ^^ b^j \ji bard wautd kdthi, (Roeb.) 
Jack staff, ^^l^Ujj cJ\p^ jdk wautd kdthi, (Roeb.) 
A flag staff, ijf'l^ Ij^^ ^ ji^^ upar kd wautd kdthi, (Roeb.) 
Stage (for carpenters or caulkers, &c.), ^^U pardnchd. (Roeb.) 
Starboard, J Jy \uas>- jamand burdu, »>^jJ Isj-^^ ujd burdu. (Roeb.) 
To Steer, bj^ ^\L^ sukdn pakarnd, l)l>- J V^ j^^^.^ chaldnd. 
Stern ports, j^b^b or ^j^b ^ ic-^y.^ dabuse kl bdr'i or bdriydn. (Roeb.) 
Steward, jjuJ\ istur or istor. (Roeb.) 
Stores (naval), /♦bs:*^ or /♦^j^ 4^Wf" jahdzi sarinjdm or saramjdm. 

Store-keeper, k_.^»-L? l^ jL-jj bansdr kd sdhib, (Roeb.) 

Stowage, JU»^ khamdlj JU^ samdl. (Roeb.) 

A strait, "i^ gdld, ^ khuch. (Roeb.) 

Studding sail, ^ji-o J dastur, (lower) jji-j J 15^ niche dastur, (Roeb.) 

Supercargo, (if an Englishman) Jy tarriif ^ tanni, (if a Musalman) 
ljc>.b nd-khudd, (if a Parsee) ^\^ kirdnly dzJiX^ gumdshta. 

Surf,^ Ur. ( Roeb.) Surge, -.^ mauj, ^yo mauja. 

Surgeon,^! J ddktar, ^J daktar, j^Jjh hakim, (Roeb.) 

Swivel, Hj^^Asi^jambura, ^jy^j zambura, (Roeb.) 

Tar, ]^1 alkatard (for Port, alcatram), J3 tdr, (Roeb.) 

Teak (wood), ^^^^ sdgwdn. (Roeb.) 

Tide, ;^b* l^ ^^poLnl kd tdn. Tide way,jbbJ dhdr, (Roeb.) 

Tier, j^ thar^Jjn hdr, (Roeb.) 

Tiller (of a ship), 1^ bakrd, <3^ l^ j^ILj sukdn kd Idt. (Roeb.) 

Tilt, ^j^i^ chhatrl, (Roeb.) 

Tonnage, ^j>'^ or ^J^b ^^l^^j bojhd'i kd vmzan or wajan. (Roeb.) 

2 c 

194 Vocabulary Nouns. 

Trade winds, ^*Jb if^y^ mauml hawa, \^ ^j^^^^mausami hawa. (Roeb.) 

Trousers, <uWl> pa-Jama, jU-l ijar,j\j\ izar, (Roeb.) 

Trunnions, CL^ye ^ L-jy top ki mut, ^^ ^ CLJy top ka kdn. (Roeb.) 

Turn of the tide,^^^ ^ ^\j tan kapher, (Roeb.) 

Vane, 2fJCwJ hendhy ^^ ben, ufW^ katwdl. (Roeb.) 

To Unmoor, \:JbjjiJ!:J Lljoj ek nangar par rahnd. (Roeb.) 

To Unship, Ul^ nikdlndy IJ^^jV ^^^ karnd. (Roeb.) 

Upper deck, CS^ li y^ upar kd tutak, (Roeb.) 

Watch, j^ por, >S^^ chaukl. Dog watch, j^ ^^i^ chhotd por. 

Middle watch, j^ \j^ji} dusrdpdr,j^^ \=sXi bichildpor. Morning 

watch, jy ^j^goriydpdr,jyi^hj^ghariydpdr,jy^ \ij^ ghuriyd 

por. (Roeb.) 
Fresh water, Jb 1^2^ mithd pant. (Roeb.) 
Salt water, ^Jb \j\^ khdrd pdm, j^3lj \jy nondpdni. (Roeb.) 
Way (of a ship), ^>*i^j rus, JU- chdl,^j rav, CSjS>- cJiark. (Roeb.) 
Weather, ^-j^aj mausim : see Wind. 

Weather or Weathergage (windward), ^ jl^ wd'o par,yj\^ bd'o par. 
To weigh anchor, \j\^\ S^ nangar uthdnd, \jj^ ^^S^y\ y^ nangar 

atrang karnd. (Roeb.) 
Wharf, ilA^ghdt, ICfcJ dhakd. (Roeb.) 

Wheel of the helm, ^j>'j^ ^ ^J^ sukdn kd charkM. (Roeb.) 
West, f-r-yt^ maghrab, j^^pachham, ^tSJs kibla'i. (Roeb.) 
Wind, y> hawd (f.), j|^ wd'o, ^\j bd'o. (f.) Fair wind, \^ j*ybl> ydhom 

hawdj L& M^iti\^ jdhom hawd, lyb jL« b bd murdd hawd. Side 

wind, \ySb ij^f ^>^ chau gost hawd, l^ii ij^yj^ ^^^^ g^si hawd. 

Head wind, \yb JL:^ gosdti hawd, |ys>^ -^ munh par haicd. 

Wind's eye, j^\^ |y2> hawd kd ghar. (Roeb.) 
Windlass, JjJ ^j L*^ chlnd^t daur, ^J^^<^ dhigU. (Roeb.) 
To windward, ^^Ij wd'bpar, .^ l^ \^ hawd kd munh. (Roeb.) 
Worm-eaten, V\^ ^ ghu^-khd'Ud, LjI^ l^ ^ g^'^'n' kd khddeld, 

Wreck, \^^ khokhrd, ^j^^ khokherd, j\^ "i^Ji tuteld jahdz. 

Vocabulary Nouns. 195 

Yacht, \^^ li ^_}y^ sawari ka machwa, (Roeb.) 
Yard (for a sail), ^•y^ parwan, ^^jj pirman. (Roeb.) 
Zenith, ^^1 ^ JU^ kapal ke upar. (Roeb.) 

Divisions of Time. 
A moment, i^'^ lamha, u-^ palak, -^i*4J nimikk, Jj pal, /♦J dam. 
Minute, <^<^ daUika, 

A twenty-four minutes (Indian hour),^^g^arI, \5:^ ghanta. 
Hour (may be denoted by the Arab.) c:^^Lj sa*at. (f.) 
Watch (term of three hours), ^ pahar, ^^-b pas. 
I^^y> (i)*^ diuyjtij roz, z*^ yaum, (in oppos. to night) j^J Jiw, jl^ nahar. 
Night, c:jV, ra^ (f.), u^ shah (f.), JJ /at7(f.), ^^j rain, (f) 
Midnight, ci^|; J^Jl adhi rat (f.), ^^ *J mm shah, (f.) 
Morning, Morn, ^-^ 5?iM (f.), j^ fajar. (f.) 
Dawn of day, j^ i^or (f.), l^ tarkd,js^ sahar (f ), ^^^ arww. 
Forenoon, ^'^^<^ Jj^ axowal-i-do pahar. 
Midday, Noon, ^^ ^J do-pahar (f.), jjt>^.J ^fc> do pahar din, j\j^\ ^ * a ) 

misfu-n-nahdr, j^j *J nim-roz. 
Afternoon,^^ <Lj si-pahar, CSj /•li» i^-*^^*^ ^^o pahar se sham tak. 
Evening, -f^f^L sanjh (f.), A\-i» ^Aa/w (f.), /•Li> ^ sar-i-shdm. 
Twihght, ^^i^f gddhuri,\j^,^\ ,^ munh-andhtra. 
Week, iij\^\ athwdra, idub hafta. 
Decade, ajL:- ashara. 

Fortnight, izsJb jj do-hafta, -^ pakh or •^s^ pachh. 
Month, li-Y* i^f^hind, ^^U rwa5, i'U mdh, j^^ shahr. 
Year, ^^^j haras, JL 5a/, ^^ saw, <)L:--j sawa. 
Age (period, cycle),^^--ac asr, ^ ahd, tS^ ^wg. 
To day, ,J\ dj, (adv.) ^J ^ J a; /rS din. 
To night, CjIj j^ —^ a; /ci ra^ or (JL^\j ^\ dj-rdt. 
Yesterday, J^ kal, j^ji>^ diroz, ^<^\^^ pichhld din. 
Last night, lijSj ^ J^ kal kt rdt, fjL^ii dosh. 
Day before yesterday, or day after to morrow, jj**^ pamon. (adv.) 

196 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Three days ago, or to come, ^y^jj tarson, (adv.) 
Four days ago, or to come, jj^«y narson. (adv.) 
To morrow, J^ kalj \d^ farda (adv.), ^V^ hihan. 
Spring, l::.-^.— J basant (f.\ j\^ bahar (f.), ^j rab'i^. (f.) 
Summer, \^^ gar may ^tgirlkham, ,^\::«-jIj tabistan, c-c-^ saif. 
Autumn, J^ l;:-^ pat-jhar (f.), ^^/>' Miizan (f.), t_ij^ kharif, (f.) 
Winter, Vjl:>-Jara, Up*3 sarmciy jjIil.*^* zamistan, ':i-i> s^i^a. 

Other useful Nouns alphabetically arranged. 
Abatement, ^^ ghattz, ^^4^ kaml, ^^a^ kamtl, c-c-Asr takhflf. (f.) 
Abbreviation, jLs:^! ijditisar, j\^\ iktisdr, ^j^"^ sanchhepan. 
Abdication, {^^ ^y^^y ^f tark. 
Abhorrence, d^ nafrat (f.), l::.^a|^ kardhiyat. (f.) 
Ability, j^aL* makdur, v::^JJlL jfaita^ (f.), ^j c:^^c3 dast-ras. (f.) 
Ablution, J-«-i. ghusl, (^1:w«j 5wa/z or j^L-;^ asndn, ^j wazu. 
Abode, bl^j thikdnd, ^J^ makdn, fjL\i J*) budbdsh (f.),j^ thaur. (f.) 
Abroad,^Jbb bdhirj ij^,^j^^ pardls, (^,J^ iicZes. 

Absence, <.^.*^ biyog, iJ/^^>- j^ ^hair-hdzirl ; (in the) (cf^-> pichhe. 
Abstinence, Abstemiousness, l::^*^1>j riydzat (f.), ^j^ j^j^, parhez- 

Abstract (abridgment), J..Ksr* mujmalj i^JiJ^ khuldsa. 
Absurdity, ^J^.^ behudagl, ^^^l2j c3^1 ut-patdng, u/j^^jV. ydwa-go^. 
Abundance, b^^ iA«/., ci-'^l^^^ bahutdt (f.), ci:>^ kasrat. (f.) 
Abuse (contumely), }^ gdllj ^j^j^ ^j zabdn-dardzi. 
Abyss (cavern), jlc ghdr, CSit>^ dahak, s^ khoh, W-^ garhd. 
Acacia, (gum) Lilil akdkiyd, (tree) jC^ klkar, ^%^ mughaildn. 
Academy, A-a^J^ madrasaj JLtJU^ chat-sdl, ^^^zL< maktab. 
Accent, ilLsrr lahja, j^ sur, L^j*a zarb (f.), i^JfcJ dhqran. 
Acceptation (of a word), ,<i*^ mainly ^J»*^ >^^r< ^S lifil /a/2 A;7 ?ww- 

ramoaj ma^ni. 
Accessary, Accomplice, jl^^^Jc* madad-gdr, l!Jo^ sharlk, ^Ji^ sdthl. 
Accident, jUjI ittifdJf, <!GjU- hddisa, (^.^sd-j sanjog. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns, 197 

Account, accompt, c_->L,.:5^ hisah, <u«:lsr* muhasaha, (narration) ^^Lj 

hayan, j^ khahar (f.), (value)jU-i» sTiumar, (sake, cause) ,^^^ 

waste J t-^-**' sababj l::-^^ babat, (f.) 
Accusation, ,^l5 nalish (f.), J^^ct^ dcf'ioa, tX«U bar-amad, (f.) 
Ace, (at dice) »j j?aM (f.), (at cards or dice) IC nakka, (at cards) 

lio l^ ^;^lj ^a5 /ca yakka. 
Acquaintance, (familiarity) ci^-iSlj wakifiyat (f.), i^ 1^1 ashna't, 

(associate) L-ll ashndjj^fj^- chinhar, (jAuJi> ^ i ru-shinas. 
Acquisition, J-.*^a=c? ^a^^IZ (f.), c, ^■■■^ /rosJ, o^ kama'i. 
Act, Action, |*l^ A:a7w, -.1^ /ca;, c-^^ kartab, Jje ^*/. 
Addition, AiUl %«/«, (in arithmetic) ^)^ mizan, (f.) 
Address, (skill) ^^l>- ckdlaki, (of a letter) <ul3 ^«o sar-nama. 
Adjective, (.ji^^i-* sifat (f.), er^xi-* >-3^ ism-i-sifat, ci-^xj Tia*^ (f.) 
Adjustment (settlement), A^ faisala : see Arrangement. 
Admonition, L::^.srr^ nasViat (f.), lacj i^a*z, (j-JJ^^ upadts. 
Adoration, CJjLc ibddat (f.), Uj-jJ pw/a (f.), j^/i*-^ parastish. (f.) 
Advantage, (gain) -^il ZaJ^, ^ ndf*, njAi fd'ida, (superiority) 

<l1c ghalaba, ^J^Jf- charhti, ^z^^-^ Jit, (f.) 
Adverb, uJ^ zar/, cJp- harf.J^ *— ir^ harf-i'tamiz. 
Adversary, »— aJ^ harifj cJll^-* mukhdlif : see Enemy. 
Adversity, l::^ Jzpa^ (f.), Ji^r jj bad-bak/itly ^^Is faldkat. (f.) 
Advertisement, jl^l ishtihdr, <ul3 j^^l ishtihdr-ndma. 
Advice, L::--rsn^ nafihat (f.), (^-^.J^^ upades, -.L^ saZay^. (f.) 
Adulation, J^l cr^^ khiish-dmad (f.), ^^-«>^U- chdplusi, 
Adulteiy, l3j 2ri«a (f.), 4^l^l3j zind-kdrt, il^i^ chhindld. 
Affair, aI^ /cawi, clA) bdt (f.), id,«ljc« mu^dmalaj i^Ssuc mukaddama. 
Affection, a^.^ ^re/w, l::^! «Z/a^ (f.),c:^.s-^'^ muhabbat. (f.) 
Aflaiction, i^^- sog, ^ ra/z;, ^J ^ZmA;^, j-^jJuoj ^as^z*. (f.) 
Age (time of life),^;^«x umr (f.), Jj^3 dyurbal : see Time. 
Agent, (doer) JwcUya'*/, Ij^ A:ar#«, (deputy) J-^ wakil: see Factor. 
Agility, ^^^ chdldki, ^^•;,.,^r>- chustij ^j^^ 'phurti, ^,^ chdbukl. 
Agreement, (concord) jUjI tttifdk, (compact) L^ sAarif, dlU kabdla. 

] 98 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Aid, iL^ kumak (f.), ^^^^ madad (f.), ^jj^i^d dast-glri. 

Alacrity, j^-i> sJiaukj Jb^lj dildihl, ^"^^^ chalaki. 

Alien, ^ij^y pardesi, ^cf^^ ajnahi, (^^j^ upri. 

Alliteration, ^;-«-:^ tajiiis. (f.) 

Almanac, *jyD* takwim (f.), ]^^ patra. 

Almighty (the), jS^\ al-kadir,j<jL^j^ parameshwar : see God. 

Alms, .^L^ 5HM (f.), i-^\^=>- Miairat (plur. f.), ^b dan. 

Aloes, (gum) \^\ elwcLjj^^^i^ musabbar (f.), (wood)^l agar, ii^c ud. 

Alphabet, ^^ u-all a/^/*5e (f.), ^-^ ^^j^ huruf-i-tahajji. 

Amber, b^ kah-ruba. Ambergris, j^ ambar. 

Amount, dLis>'jumla, -^^^jam^ (f.), ^j^ gathri, ^yo moth, (f.) 

Amusement, li>UJ tamashaj ^su tafarruj, J-^ A:^eZ. 

Ancestor, X^ji^purkha, Ss>-jadd. 

Ancestors, jIjc*-! W aba-ajddd, ^j^j^ purkhe. 

Ancients, ^^jJb.< mutakaddimln, (JJ^^ pur ant. (plur.) 

Angle, l!!^*^ khunt, dj^ /co/ia, iJ^^ gosha, ^^^j zawiya. 

Anguish, l-j»1 j^ azab, e:-^:>.3^ aziyat, (f.), Jl aZawz, lIU^^ /ra^/^f. 

Animal, jyl>-Jaw?^;«r, ;^\jrp- haiwan, ^^ pasu. 

Answer, Jl uttar, (^\^jawab, \j\j\ utara. •'* 

Anvil, t^l^j niha'ij ^X^ sindan. (f.) 

Anxiety, 4^>JJl andesha, J3 fikr, JJy taraddud, ^^^^ udusi. 

Appellation, /♦U wa/w, i--^iil lakab, (plur. c-->lijJl alkab) : see Name. 

Appointment, ^^-^' ta^aiyun, (office) 2^Jk.^ m/4c?(2, (promise) i^J>^j wada. 

Argument, lL^ss^^ bahs, ^li^ munazara, JJj rfaZe/. (f.) 

Arithmetic, ^j:^^ ganit (f.), jl-*^ siyak, jL*j ^^i fann-isiyak. 

Arrangement, f^-^^y tariib {jl.\ ij:^^ ^ jcj band-o-bast. 

Art,^ hunar, Ac ilm, ^ fann, ci^^jc-^ san'at. (f.) 

Artifice, iU makr, «d-5»- /^IZa, J^ chkal, ^.^y ^jS fann-fareb. 

Ashes, -^1; raM (f.)>^W" ^^^^^ (S')>/^^ khakistar. (f.) 

Assafoetida, (^.^i-ji hlngj i>j^^ anguza, l::.^^,^^ ^I'Z^I^. 

Assembly, ^^ majmc^, U"**^'* '^^^^^ (f-)> J^'* mahjil. (f.) 

Assessment, ^--l^ khiraj, J^<^is'* mahsul^ —Ij Z>a;. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns, 199 

Assistance, ^^X< madad (f.), jKj^ upakar, ^}^ sahayata. (f.) 

Assistant, jli J Jk^ madadgar, ^S^ kumakt, ^ l^ sahd'l. (m.) 

Astonishment, ^J>^ji^ hair am, j—^^js*^ ta'ajjub,j^^ tahaiyur. 

Astrolabe, L^'ija^\ usturlab. 

Attendant, jUi^Jk:>- khidmatgar, ^jLo muldzim. 

Attention, ^^Llyfe hoshyarl, lUj^ surt (f.); (to a guest) ^\y tawdzu^. 

Attraction, ,J^ khainch (f.), ^^J^ kashish (f.), i^'s^ jazb. 

Attribute, ci-vi^ sifat (f.), u-a^ ^^^j L::^«ffl>. khassiyat, (f.) 

Auction, j^Lj nlldm, «-.lyfi> harrdj, ^jSj bikrt. 

Authority, jUi:^! ikhtiydr, er^^^o- hukumat. (f.) 

Awe,jk^ 6?ar, <-^j ru^byj^ ghor, ^ >>■« ..f^ haibat, (f.) 

Axis, axle, axle-tree, u^^ c^Awrl ; (pole of the earth) t^jJaJJ to&. 

Babbler, tl^jlj bd'obhak, CS^^^i bd^ojhaky S^^, ydwa-go. 

Babe, baby, i^sf^ bachcha, l^ larkd (m.), ^-^ Zor/:!. (f.) 

Backbiter, j^ lJ*^ chughtd-khor^ jUi gh ammdz. 

Badge, ^^«J^^-^ chaprds, jjlU nishdn, ci^^lc aldmat. (m.) 

Bag, (^^Lf* thailiy <^.^ kharita, (sack to carry grain) ^,^i go/i. (f.) 

Baggage, <-r^L-:l asbdb, lJ-^wjJ^ chlz-bast (f.), (slut) Lrs^j behayd. 

Bail, (surety) ,<^^ zdmin-l, (person) ^^l-^ zdmin. 

Balance, ^^J^ /w7;3a7i (fOojir' tardzuX^.), (of account) ^b 5aA:i. 

Bale,^^^gG<Aar, ^^ two^^^ (f.), -$2jl^gawfA. (f.) 

Ball, ^ji goZa, J^ ^^^> (for play) \s:*^ gendd, (dance) ^l3 ndch. 

Bamboo, y^\i bans. 

Band, (bandage) j^Sj patti, Jcj 5a wc?, (company) )i^^ gurolu (f.) 

Bane,y&) ;?aAr, ^ bis, ,^|/*- khardbl, j^I-ga) nuksdn. 

Banishment, illO (j-^,fc> des-nikdld, ^jh^-jild-watan. 

Bank (of a river, &c.), iij^ kindra,jJ tir. 

Bank (for money), <Ol=s^ cJ|^ sarrdf-khdna, cl^J ^awA;. 

Bankruptcy, ill^ J dewdld, ^J\d\i nd-ddrl, (jAs\ iflds. 

Banquet, Lii^Li ziydfat (f.), CL;yiJ da^wat. (f.) 

Bard, <3l^ JAaf, tj:-^^-^ karkhait, i.::-^.*^;^ bardait. 

Bargain, ^ ahd, j\ji J^ kauhkardr, \pjJ^ shart. (f.) 

200 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Bark (of a tree), J W- chhal, ^^^^ chhilkdy '^■^^^^^^ post. 
Barm, ^-./♦^ Idiamir. 

Barter, ^^t) ^ Un deny ilJo iljl adla-hadla^ <J jLc muhadala. 

Bastard, ^^Jlj a|^ haram-zadaj L (^^J/^- harami pilld. 

Bdellium, J^y gugal, JJU /wm/:Z. 

Bead, \^S guriyd (f. j, <!j^J l^ ^U maid kd ddna, l^ mankd. 

Beak, t^^ chonch (f.), Lli»3 nok (f.), jlii^ minhdr. (f.) 

Beauty, ^Jjy^,^^ Miuhsurati, \ijd:^ sundartd (f.), f^\Aa>^jamdl. 

Beginning, -^-^1 drambk, ^^j^ shuru^, ^i^\ ibtida. (f.) 

Behalf, ^J^ kdran, ja\s>^ khdtir (f.), ^_^ ^a^-/^, ^J Zi?/e. 

Behaviour, JU- c^aZ (f.), Jl&i JU^ chdl-dhdl (f.), c^.^J dhang. 

Being, ^^iL-Jfe liasU, <^yfj iuujud,J\Si\s>- jdnddr. 

Belch, jl^j dakdr (f.), ?.^jl drogh. 

Belief, i^Juib aJada, ^J^\ imdn,j^ hdwar* 

Believer, Ssax^ mu^takid, J\i^^J^\ imdn-ddr, ^^ mumin. 

Bell, ^u^ ghantd, ^^.^ jaras, {sm^ll) ^j^u^ ghunghru. 

Belt, Jcj JawiZ, (girdle) ,^_<5^ pefl, jcj ^^ kamar-hand, (sword) ^ 

Bench, i/^-^- chaukl, ^^sjsT takhta, (of justice) d.^^Ls^ mahkama. 
Bend, t^ Idiam, cS ^j^ terhd^t, (twist) Jj bal, -^j peek. 
Benediction, ^rr^^^ ^^^^ (f.), Wj du'd (f.\ t^V.;tj-i>^ dshirbdd. 
Benefaction, a\m\ in^dm, jjL^l ihsdn, ^JlJ^, bakhshish, (f.) 
Benefit, if JoU fd^ida, jjL-^1 i^saw, (profit) «-aJ naf^. 
Benevolence, ^ib\y^j^ khair-khpdhl , ,^^ij niko'i, \j^ kirpd. (f.) 
Berry, <0b ddna, J^ l^ '--^^ \^ 'J>^^ ^^^^ ^^ surat kd phal. 
Betel-nut, c5;^ supdri or i^j^-*' supydri. 
Betel-leaf, ^jb pdn, J^t^ tambol. 
Bier, iij\u>- jandza, C-^^lJ tdbut. 
Biestings, ,<«i^ pe'osl, j^-^J phenus, (j^ya^^ peyus. 
Bill, (of parcels) cl^^^ &ya/[;, l&L-s siydhd, (of exchange) t_f jcji> 

hundl, (account) l-->L.5*. /fwaZ>, l^ lekhd, (of a bird) see Beak, 

(instrument) ^b c?a'o. 

Vocabulary Nouns. 201 

Billet (note), ■<^2^ chittJii, &xsj rulfa, vJb pati. 

Billet (of wood), \^ chaila, a^ kunda. 

Bin, ^^ kotk?, lSj^^ kothrl. 

Binding (of a book), j\s>- jild (f.), ^SuiJ^ juz-bandz. 

Bird, ^,jf- chiriya (f.), ^jf^ pakheru, JJ^ parandy p^ murgh. 

Birth, s,:^janam, ^JjuJ paida'lsh (f.), *^Sy tawallud. 

Birthday, ^^L sal-girih (f.), ^U /;*uJ baras-ganth, (f.) 

Biscuit, jjj'l^ /cfl/:, ^iK kullcha, Jo /zA;/:7. 

Bit, (piece) 1^ fM/:ra, ^ J zarra, njy^ purza. 

Bit (of a bridle), <OUj dahana, /»lx] lagam. (f.) 

Bitch, i^i^ A;m^^I, Ls^ kutiyd (f.), •-^^ kukarl. 

Bitterness, uS^Jbl^J^ karwahat (f.), ^<s^ talkhl. 

A black (negro), .^>-w habshl, ^j zangi (m.), ^JcJb hindu- 

Blackguard, Is' luchcha, ^Jl^ shuhda, Jjj riwc?. 

Blade, (of grass) lu patta, (of a sword) J^ pAa/, (a fellow) l^b 

Blame, (J>^%^^ doSy -^jJ dokh, 4,^:->^Ju« mazammat (f.), /♦J^l ilzam. 
Blank book, ^Lj bayaZy A:>^^ saflna. 

Blemish, 4L> cfa^,, uXl^ kalanky ^^ khot (f.), w.;-^ «2Z>. 
Blessing, Uj c?m'« (f.), jj~-^\ asJs (f ), l::^^ barakat (f.), c::-^/i*J 

ni^mat, (f.) 
Blindman's buff, |^^^^< -^1 rtw/:^ mundaura. 
Blindness, ^^4>o\ andhldpaUy ijj^ korly ^J^^i^ nd-blna'J. 
Block, (of wood) if Jc^ kunda, ^'l^ kdthy (of stone) ^l-^ chatdn. 
Blockhead, uJjJ^-j be-wukuf, (J^^^ ahmaky ^J^\^ gdwdJ. 
Bloodshed, ^f^j ^,^ khun-reziy JzH kath 

Bloom, <ljy-i) skiguftty J^Jp^wZ, (of youth) ci^^y nau-jaiodni. 
Blossom, J^^ phuly ^ kaU, (of the mango) jyo maur. 
Blot, Q^J ddghy L^-fs^ c/^Aif (f ), .^1^ chink. 
Bludgeon, ^^"i Idthly l!l3^ sontd, U33 dandd. 
Blueness, u<L-} rnldly J^ kabud. 

Blunder, l^yfcJ dhokhd or \^ybJ dhokdy CJ^f- chuk. (f.) 

2 D 

202 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Board, <^::^ talditay (table) ^ mez (f.), (food) L.J Ul^ khana pina. 

Board-wages, ^^\)^^ Tdiiiraki, ^1 J S ^^j^^ khiiraki ke dam. 

Boast, boasting, Jj uSJ laf-zani, ^ \ji bara'ijj^-^Ju tafdkhur. 

Boaster, (j^^y ^^j^ khiid-fardsh, ^j c-iiJ laf-zan. 

Boldness, ^>"J<^ dilerl^ Lu\j:>.ju7''at (f.), ««5 ^f-^^ dhitha'J. 

Bond, (fastening) cJcj band, ^^>^ bandhan, (written obligation) ulX-^ 

tamassuk, )i,^c^^ dast-dwez. 
Bondsman, ^^ zdmin, J^ kaflL 
Book, ^"^^ pothl, t—^ln^ kitab (f.), ^^h^*^ safiifa. 
Boon, ji bar, ^jtJLsT bakhshish (f.) : see Bounty. 
Boor, j\^ ganwdr, ^l^i^jangU (m. f.), ^Ui^J dihkdm. (m. f.) 
Booty lHj^ lut (f ), i,,::^A^£. ghautmat (f ), Uij> yaghmd. 
Borax, b U^ sohdgd, jl^jJ tlnkdr, jj^J burak. 
Border, (side) ^li^ kindra,j^^ chhor, (edging) j^Ji kor. 
Botany, d^U ^Ic ilm-i-nabat, aIc l^ i:;^'^ Z>w{o?i /ca zZm. 
Bottom, ^ taldy Jj ^aZ?, ^Ifi ^^a/i (f.)? ^^-J ptndd. 
Bough, J^J c?aZ?," JIj c^aZ (f ), ^ll sAaM. (f.) 
Bound, (leap) Jj^ /cwtZ (f.), (boundary) Jew hadd (f.), Jc^-^-j sar-hadd 

(f.), (limit, end) 1^1 intihd (f.), ^^ kindra. 
Bounty, fjAJ faiz, Ij^ /:irpa (f.), ^^ karam, c:---:>^ indyat. (f ) 
Bow (obeisance), ;^Jj^ kornish (f.), *J— J taslim. (f.) 
Boyhood, ^^->^ larakpan, ^ l^ larkd*t. 

Brand, (burning stick) <J:i>-^ sokhta, ^J^^ lukti, (mark) ib <iaj:A. 
Brat, Ujj! laundd, l^^if- chhokrd, ^^ gurgd, Jir l[^^. 
Bravery, tj?;-lt) diUri, ci^/^Jb himmat (f.), u^tjl^ bahddurl. 
Brawl, ]}^^ jViagm. Brawler, ^\^»^jhagrdluy ^\j^ lardkd. 
Breach, (Jj^j^phut (f.),j\j(^ dardr, (quarrel) Jlxj bigdr, JU- khalal. 
Breadth, ^5 \J^ chaurd'l, ^ ^j pahnd'i, (of cloth or a river) Ll^\jpdL 
Breech of a gun, ^^^ ^J J^^^ banduk ki kothi. 
Breed, J*J nasi (f ), CD\ti zdt (f ), J-^^ flsZ (f.), m^ kism. (f.) 
Breeding, (education) <ju^y tarbiyat (f ), (manners) ^^^L>- chalan. 
Bribe, <-i!^^;-2»^ rishwat (f.), {j^^ ghus, u^J -^ murih-bhari. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 203 

Brickbat, \\j rdra, Brickdust, ^-ri- -a surkhl. 

Brick-kiln, U|^ pazawa (f.), a^ssr pajdwa. 

Bride, ^i^dulhan (f.), (j^^j^ arus, (f.) Bridegroom, y^J dulhd. 

Bridle, /♦Id lagam (f.), ;^lj hag (f.), ^^liii *waw. (f.) 

Brightness, ^^^j roshnl, ^U-1 2{;aZa, lLC**^ chamak. (f.) 

Brim, Brink, ^li^ kindra, c-^! /a5, UV;^ kardrd. 

Brine, ^Jb ,j-^ namklnpdnJ, ^^^\j^ khdrd pdnl. 

Bristle, Jb \^ -^ i_S J^y^ su'ar klplth kd bdl. 

Brushwood, i^f^>- jhdfi, ^\^ jhafy \.yj\^ jhdr hutd. 

Brute, i^\j^ haiwdn, ^JL^^wahshi, jyi\^ jdnwar. 

Bud, ^ kali, JJ^ konpal (f.)j ^-^ gh uncha. 

Bulk, ^ 15^ motdl, ^ ]Jj bardl, Jj J c?7/. 

Bunch, (of fruit) i^ guchchhay &Ji»y>^ khoska, (of ribbons) (^^^^phuL 

Bundle, ^jf^ gathri (m.), ^yy< motrl, ^^. bukcha. 

Bung, l^j dhatthd. 

Burden, -p-y bdjh,Jj bdr, J.^*.^ haml : see Grief. 

Bush, cj?; W j^^^Th j^^ j^^Tf ^^ ^Mfa, ^li> shdkh. 

Business, /^l^ /cam, ^'^ kdj, (avocation) see CaUing. 

Butt, (mark) uJj^ hadaf, <U\lJ nishdna. 

Buying and Selling, ^^L^y^ ^^ kharld-farokht. (f.) 

Cage, l^snj pinjrd, (j-i5 A:a/5, (large) 1^^ katahrd. 

Calamity, iz^\ dfat (f.), l::^ bipat (f.), L 5aZa. (f.) 

Calculation, c->L-.>- hisab, ^iii ginfi, jU-i> shumdr. 

Calendar, |^ patrd, aJ^u takwlm. (f.) 

Calling, iJL^i^pesha, UjcJiJ dhandhd, J^:t>^ bydhdr. 

Camphor, Camphire, j^ kapur,j^^ kdfur. 

Cane, (stick) tj^Jt?' chhafi, Ju Z>ec? (f.), (sugar-) ^^^1 wA:^ (f.), Lf 

Canon, ^ylj kdnun, i^Jarljj kd^iddj ,j 1 a'zTZ. 
Canopus, J;*^ suhail. 

Canopy, ;^bjl-j sdyabdn, <!OL^Li> shdmiydnaj jx^ chatr. 
Canter (pace)^ <U^^ poya. To canter, LU- ^^^ poyon chalnd. 

204 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Canvass (cloth), c1>1!J tat^j\^\ ajaVj t3lj .^^}^ wilayati tat. 
Capacity, (space) jLi\s^ gunjd\lsh (f.), (ability) lii^JjIj kabill- 

yat. (f.) 
Capital, (city) Ai::^ takht-gah (f.), (sum) ^J=^^^ punjl. 
Caprice, capriciousness, ^^ waJim, i<=r|;'<' ^^ talauwun-mizaji. 
Captive (prisoner), t/^ kaidi, j^\ asir, J^^ giriftar. 
Caravan, ^^jj^ karwan, ^dilS kajila, (car) i^j^ garl. 
Caravansary, 1^ u^J'J^ karwan-sara, cf^j^ sara't. (f.) 
Carcass, ^il lash (f.), ^^ Zojf^ (f.), ^^ murda, c::^-^ maiyit. (f.) 
Card (visiting), <Uj^ l^ <%1-j salam ka ruk'a, j»j^ warak. 
Cards (playing), ^^-Ij ^as, ^^^^U li (^^^ khelne ka ids. 
Care, lii^ chintd (f.),Jj jikr, dstj6J\ andesha, \t)ji^parwd. (f.) 
Carefulness, t-f;^'^;:^ Idiaharddri, ^jKj^i^ib hoshydri. 
Carelessness, c:Jii ghaflat (f.), lJj^^^ bekhahart, j^:u-«o sm5^7. 
Carnage, J::i /ca^Z, JliJJ kitdl (f.), vJ^y^^ khunrezt. 
Carriage, J^^ JaAaZ (f.), see Cart, (carrying) ufjWjV bdrbarddri. 
Carrion, j\fc3^ murddr : see Carcass. 

Cascade, \jj^jharndj Jji <-->^ db-shar, jJ^ chddar. (f.) 
Case, (covering) uJii^ghildf, J.^ /cAoZ: see State, Condition, Box. 
Case, (in grammar) c:^!U^ ^aZa^ (f.), (jjj^ kdrak. 
Cash, L.-.j^az5a, <Aii3 nakd,^^^j rokar. (f.) 
Cast, (throw) lLjC;.*^^ phenk (f.), (form) <CJi3 naksha, (tribe) ci^l J 

s5^. (f.) 
Catalogue, c:^wj^ fihrist (f.), l&U«a siydhd, (Ust) Lli^^ Z>y a/:. 
Cattle, ic-^^^-o mawdshly j^S dhor, ^jf ^ \^ gd'e-goru. 
Cave, cavern, 2^^ MoA, jli j:Aar, l^ gupkd (f.), c-^^ /raA/*. 
Caution, l?Ui5»-l ihtiydt (f.), jjc^ ^asar, ^^L-i»y^ hoshydri. 
Celebrity, cSjy<\i ndmwari, ^-^j^^ shuhrat (f.). 
Celerity, ^S^^ chdldki, ^2^-->- chustt, ^}^ shitdbi. 
Celibacy, ^ j^S ku'dr-pandy c:-Jl=^ ^ ^ \ss^\j nd-katkhudd'! ki 

Cell, ^^ gosha, ^j^ hujray tUli kulba, lJj^^ kothri. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 205 

Censure, ^\j^ ilzam, r*^ t.'^i^y li^-v^Lc malamat (f.), Sx^ ninda. (f.) 

Cent, (hundred) ^ sau, (or, per cent.) ljC«j saikra. 

Centre, ^^ markaZj ^J^^j^ darmiyan. 

Certificate, l>j\ c:^>«}J dast-awez (f.), ^"^^Jj wafika. 

Cessation, u_«y taioakkuf, c:-^Ui far a gh at (f.), l::-->L^ muhlat, (f.) 

ChafF, ^^ Z>Aw57, J^^j phokar. 

Chain,^,-rsrj zanjlr (f.),^U sankar (f.), A-Lj silsila. 

Champion, j^^ J^^ pahlawan, jy^ sur, 

Chanc€, (accident) jliJ^ ittifak, (fortune) c:^-^^^' kismat. (f.) 

Change, Ji*xJ ^aic??/ (f.),^^ t agh aiyur, J^V Z>acfaZ. 

Change (small money), c^j rezgi, ^jS L-»^ paisa kauri. 

Chaplet, \j>^ sihrdf (rosary) ^^u-J* tashVi. (f.) 

Chapter, t-^b Z»ai, <V.V^'^^ adhyayay J-^ /asZ. (f.) 

Character, (mark) ^llj nishdn, v-Jp- /^a^/* (writing) Ls^ lh^'-jJ c?rt5^- 

khatt, j^j rakam (f.), (reputation)j\-acl ttibdr, ^13 wawi. 
Charcoal, L^^ ko'ela, Jlcj zughdl, \JL.^Lij\ ankisht. 
Charge, (care, custody) d!^.^ hawdla, <ui zimma, lh^UI amanat{j.\ 

(office) c:^-^Jo- khidmat (f.), (expense) ^--^ kharchy c:^^ Z«ga^ 

(f.), (assault) <iLf^- hamla, (accusation) ^\j\ ilzdm, -^J c^o/c/i. 
Chariot, ijj^ gdrlj J^j^ ghur-bahal (f.), -^j rath, (f.) 
Charity, (benevolence) ^^^jJl^^ khair-andeshl : see Alms. 
Charles's Wain, j^\ L^d dubb-i-akbar , -^J^ saptarikh. 
Charm, (spell) ^S^ jddu, j::^ mantar, (amulet) *X>^*J tawiz, lSj5 

Chart, illij naksha, tlULi l^ ^j^ \$ Vj'^ darya ke kindrt kd naksha. 
Charter, jc«*! sanad (f.), j^tc/ farmdn, <ul3 vX^ ahd-ndma. 
Chase, (hunting) jlCi» shikar, (park) i:^j ramna : see Pursuit. 
Chastisement, \y^ sazd (f.), ^JU-i»^ goshmdlt, c-^,t>lj* tddib. (f.) 
Chastity, ^^i^^J^b pdkddmanl, ^^}1^^{ pdklzagi, L:i^A^*w»^ac asmat, (f.) 

Chat, ( -^ gfJ'P (f-)j i-l^ ^«^ (f-)> •^^^ tJ^ ^J 5e takalluf guftgu. 

Cheat, Uj df ag-A a (f.), Jas^ cA^a/, (cheater) jb Uj daghd-bdz, i^Se 


206 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Cheer, Cl-y-^ masarrat (f.), ic**/*- Mturratra, (food) ^^^, hhojan. 

Chess, >^j^ shatranj. (f.) Chess-board, LL.J ^ ^^ shatranj kl 
hisat. Chess-man, ^^^ muhra, Jy nard.^ (JLy got. (f.) King 
at chess, i^Lt shah, ^l-ib jb pads hah. Queen, ,.t:ij/ farzin, y J^ 
wazlr. Castle or rook, ^j rwM, (JU3jl ziw? (?). Bishop, (J^^pll, 

j<^U hathi. Knight, * .wjI asp, \j^^ghdrd. Pawn, i? jU pii/ada, 

jJuj haidak. 

Chick, chicken, ^J^^ chuza, ^^^^^ cMngrii, 

Chief, chieftain, jIj^ sardar, j^/o mlr, (^^;**^j rals. 

Chisel, ^X5l' tdnkl, .J^^j rukhani, ^^if^ chhem. 

Chitchat, i.^^^JL^ gapshap, u:-^^ CJlj hat-chit (f.), Jl^ J*j io/- 
c/iflZ. (f.) 

Choice, (will) j\-»::i-l ikhtiydrj (selection) t--^lsa3l intikhdb. 

Christianity, w::^^!^ nasranlyat (f ), w^^j^jwo u5>-^ isaz^?? mazhah. 

Chronicles, f^^}yi tawdrlkh. 

Chronology, f^j^y fX^ ilm-i-tawarildi. 

A Chnrl, J\y^ ganwavy ^\il&J dihhdiiij (miser) J-s^ hakh'il. 

Chymistry, U^*^ kimiyd, i^^L^*^ kimiya-gari, ^}^j rasdyan. 

Cipher, (in numbers)^^ s7/r, U-j sunnd, (letter) uJ^s:^ ^«^7 CS^\ dnk. 

Circle, J<^ kundalj bj\d dd^lra, \j^^ gherd, <Ui»- halka. 

Circuit, j^J daur, J^ chakkar, fjii^i^ gardish (f.), i^\p-\ ihdta. 

Circumference, t)^ gird, \j^ gherd, j^£j^ pher, ^-sr* muhlt. 

Circumstance, ci^lU- hdlat, cl^^ kaifiyat (f.), ^fi^^ chigunagi. 

Citizen, ijSjy* shahriyjj^ Jjbl ahl-i-shahr, <tl-o Jjbl ahl-i-pesha. 

City, .^-i» shahr, ^ nagar, 2^jJj halda, 6^Xc madina. 

Civet, fc>bj zahdd. 

Civility, l::^\*J1 insdmyat (f.), *^j^ muruwat. (f.) 

Claim, J^^^ dawdy ^i:^\J\ istihkdky (Js>- hakk. 

Clamour, j^b shor, U^ ghaughdy Ji g-A ^Z. 

Clamp, ^ pattar, (of bricks) i^^^ pajdwa. 

Clap, (blow) lilj^*^ chametdy l^^ khatkdy (of hands) ^Ib' ^a/7. 

Clasp-knife, yU- chdku, S^ chakku, \Sj bakiyd, (f.) 

Vocahidary. — Nouns. 207 

Class, (division) i^J firka, *^Js kism, (degree) <^-j^ darja. 

Clause, (sentence) ^jsi Jikra, A^>- jumlaj (condition) L-i> shart. (f.) 

Clearness, ^J U-<? safci'l, ^Uib shaffafi, ^ IpA ujldl. 

Cleaver, (butcher's) \iXkj hvghda, ^Jol^ khanda. 

Cleft, dc^j raldina, jjt> darz, J^j^ darar, ^J-i» shakk. 

Climate, clime, J^\ iklim, ;^t) deSj lyi.c-?t ab-o-Jiaxca. (f.) 

Cloth, J-^ kapar, \j^ kapra, j:^ bastar, ^^'^ parcha. 

Clown, j\y^ ganwar, ^\3jbi^ dihkamy\^\ anchhild. 

Club, l23»-o sontd, Lie «sa, . ^iJ Zaf^I, ^Jki gadd. 

Cluster, <Li>4-5- Jdiosha, <t^^ guchchhaj (crowd) yU^Jarwa'o. 

Coach, ^j^ gOLfh J^ bahal(f.)j ,^':^ ghur-hahal. (f.) 

Cobweb, ^U- l^ t^J^o makfi kd jdld. 

Cochineal, U^ kirmiz, ij\dA^ kirm-ddna. 

Coffin, JS kafan, JjJc»^ sanduky i-^^}^ tdhut. 

Coil, iJ«i^ kundli, Jj iaZ, ^^ p/ier, ^^ kliam. 

Complaint, ^\i ndlish (f.), jly farydd (f.), <i^^ wa/a : see Disease. 

Coin, dL^ sikka, c-^J zarb (f.), IjA^ mudrd. (f.) 

Collection, ?.U:xi^^ ijtimcT, •^^'^ majrna', (sum) ^-^♦^ Ja?w*. 

College, a;*^J^ madrasa, ^U ^b pdth-sdld. (f.) 

Collusion, ;^J^ bandish (f.), ^^wjL> sdzish (f.), lib IS-o saffa iaffa. 

Collyrium, ^^/^^^ anjan, J^ /rw/iZ, <X^ surma. 

Colour, v^^j rang J ^ji bar an, (pretext) Isj- jd, <)ul^ bahdna. 

Column, jjju-j situn, -f!i) Za//i (f.), <L>Ij J-o pil-pdya. 

Combat, ^5 V-:l lard'l, ^j\s.^ muhdraba : see Battle, Fight, 

Combination, J-^ wzeZ, c-->l< m^/ap (f.), jUjI ittifdk. 

Comfort, \Ji^ dil'dsd, .^C-s 5m/c^, ^\j\ drdm. 

Command, Commandment, Jl>. hukm, l/T dggyd,j^\ amr. 

Commencement, Ijcj^ ibtidd (f.), c^^-i shuru*, jliT d gh dz. 

Comment, Commentary, -^ sAar^ (f.), IL5 J?A;a (f.), ^W hdshiya. 

Commission, (warrant) Jc«^ sanad (f.), (acting) <-r?l^^l irtikdb. 

Committee, l::^jIsL panchdyat (f.), (^rJ^ majlis. (f.) 

Commodity, ^j,,:^ jins (f.), JU mdl,\^^ chiz (f.), tr-wj Ja^^. (f.) 

208 Vocabulary Nouns, 

Common shore, j^»jJo hadar-rau, (f.), <^l3 j parnala. 
Commotion, (tumult) ^j balwa, d^'ii fitna ; see Motion. 
Community, (whole people) j^i^^ jamhur : see Society. 
Compact, j\Ji J^ kaul karar, \sjJ^ shart (f.), Jk.^ ahd. 
Companion, ^\*^ satin (m.)> J^Jj 'rafik, c-^^L^^ musahih. 
Company, (society) cuo-i-o sangat (f.), ci^lij rifakat, (assembly) 
^^;-lsr* majlis (f.), (guests) ^l^^ mihman, (partnership) \jL^^\jJii 
shardkat (f.), (body of people) iij^ guroh, (f.) 
Compass, \j^ ghera^ ^\s>.\ ihdta, j^^ p/ier : see Circuit. 
Compasses (pair of), jl^^ pargdr (f.), or (dakh.) jl^ parkdr. 
Compassion, JjJ dard,j^^pir (f.), bj c?a?/a (f.), ^^^ rahm. 
Compensation, ^^ taldfij iJjJ hadld, \j:>-jazd, (f.) 
Complaint, (lament) Li\Ji farydd (f.), ^l) ndlish: see Disease. 
Complexion, (colour) t^^j 7'<27^g•, t^j l^ ^j^^ cliihrt kd rang. 
Compliment, (salutation) ^Lj saldm, (service) ^'^ handagi. 
Computation, <U-;U:.'* muhdsaha, Ci\sxj ti^ddd. (f.) 
Concern, (care) I^^j parwd (f.), illjJJ^ andesha: see Affair. 
Concord, (agreement) J-^ w2eZ, Lii-^iij^^/o muwdfakat (f.), u^l^ mzVop 

(f.), (harmony) ^^1 *a ham-dhangi, U»-> samd. 
Concourse, z*^^^ hvjunij^^ hhir{j.\ (meeting) <— ?^« mildp. (f.) 
Condition, JU- /i«Z, e:-^!!^ ^aZa^ (f.), (stipulation) L^ shart. (f.) 
Conduct, ^^^1^ chalany CJ^ suluk,j\^\ atwdr. 
Confidence, ^->;^ hharosd, d\scsS i^tikdd, lJjt^^ dileri. 
Congratulation, ^^jb lL^L< muhdrak-bddi, <^:^^^^ tahniyat, (f.) 
Conquest, Si fat h (f.),^^ zafar, j^^k^ tasklur, (f.) 
Conscience, ^;;j**-i zamTr (f.), -$.f?^^ samajh (f.), ;^U.j\ maw. 
Consent, ^jSu^\^j razd-mandt, J^ kabul, J->^ Twe/, JfUji ittifdk. 
Consequence, <^^i:xj natija, (moment) <UjUu muzdyaka, \*ji parwd, (f.) 
Conserve of roses, JcJ J^ gul-kand, ls/^ J? gul-shakari. 
Consideration, ^LfcJ dhydnyj^^ bichdr,j3 fikr. 
Consolation, ,^JuJ tasaUt, Lib dildsd, ^^w-jl&jk dhdras. 
Conspiracy, ^^jcj ban^ish (f.), iS^/ gosht (f.), ^jL 5«zw/^ (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 209 

Consternation, L5^U»f> ghahrahat (f.), ci^^^o- hair at. (f.) 
Constitution, ^^yo mizdj, ^::^*xJb tah'iyatj <jl^^ jihillat (f.), u-^vij^ 

sirisht, (f.) 
Consultation, jc^^^ ^^ salah-khwahi, CJ;^1^ mashwarat. (f.) 
Contemplation, J^Ij ta^ammul, ^J^^ dhyauj jji gh aur. 
Contempt, d^li^ hikarat (f.), i^)^^ apaman, lii^-JUI ihanat, (f.) 
Content, contentment, ^j^^ Mmshl, ci^^liS kana'at, (f.) 
Contract, j]^ Jy itawZ A:arar, Jl^ ahd,j^ hor. (f.) 
Contrivance, jlsrl ya^Z, li^^.*^ hikmat (f.)yj^Si tadh'ir, (f.) 
Controversy, t-i^^atr iaZfj? (f.), Jj^*^^ radd-hadal (f.), iU^ kaziya. 
Conversation, yiftfgw/ifgM (f.), c:^,-??^ <-^V bat-chit, (f.) 
Copy, JLiii wa^Z (f.), <Ls-— ^ nuskha, (first or foul) i^J^.«-« musauwada. 
Coquetry, jU was:, lysT nakhrd, bl acZa (f.), ^>-^ chochla Jyl^=^ 

Coquette, jb^ysT nakhrd-bdZj j^s^L^- ashwa-gar. 
Coral, \^yo mungd, ^J^j^ marjm, (child's) ^^^y^- chusnl. 
Cord, ^j rassi, j^J dor (f.), \j^^ je'ord. 
Cork, (plug) l^J dhatthdf ^^ I v^ thenthi. 
Comer, U^/cowa, iJit^ gosha, iJUJj^i khunt, JSi kunj. 
Corpse, irJ^ murda, ^^ ZasA (f.), ^^ ZoM (f.), lS^j^ mirtak. 
Correction, (amending) ^.s^ tafhih (f.), (punishment) lj«o sa^a. (f.) 
Correspondence, (by letter) L:i^t^l2r5- khatt-kitdbat (f.) : see Rela- 
Cost, J^ mol, d^^ A:7ma< (f.), l^ bahd, ^js^ kharch. 
Cotton, (undressed) ^^-t^ kapds, (dressed) ^ »ij ru't, i^^ pumba. 
Covenant, <t«l) j^^ ahd-ndma, Jy kaul, L,-! sAarJ. (f.) 
Cover, U^3 dhaknd, (J^^ j^ sar-posh, (shelter) a^ui pandh, (f.) 
Covetousness, ^"l Idlach, ^^ lobh, (j^/>- hirs. (f.) 
Coulter, ^«J nasi, j\^ phdr. 

Council, [j^'* majlis (f.), \^ sabhd (f.), lh^j'^u panchdyat. (f.) 
Counsel, L::->sA-a3 nasihat (f.), Joj pctwfZ ; see Counsellor, Attorney. 
Countenance, ^j^ chihra, ^< munh, (favour) <l>-y tawajjuh. (f.) 

2 E 

210 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Country, (region) ^^^JJ^ sar-zamin (f.), z*^ hhum (f.), lIXLj mulk, 
^j^d des, (opposed to town) CLJli^J'^ dlhat, J^-sa^ mufassal, (na- 
tive land) ^j watan, a^ m::^ janam-hhum. 
Countryman, (of the same country) ^j aJd ham-watan, ^ \^ U-^.'^ 
des-bhalj (peasant) ^-jl&ibL) dihkam, J^yJ^ ganwar. 

County (division of a country), *-L? z'lC , ^A P<^'i'g(^^^' 

Couple, jt> dOf \^^^ jora, i::^k>- juft. 

Couplet, l::-^ bait (f.), ItojJ doha. 

Course, Jj J daur (f.), uUjJ ^Zapaf (f.), (race-course) Jj J J^^gAwr-c?awr. 

Court, (of justice) jju-J^Jlc adalat (f.), <-i;-vf^ kachahri, (yard) ^^.s?^ 
sahUf (hall of audience) jbj*^ darbdr : see Palace. 

Cracker, (squib) \ri-lib patakha, (boaster) ^^ uJ^ Idf-zan. 

Cradle, ^AXfe hindold, ^J^yf gahwdra, J^^ mahd. 

Crane, (for raising goods) K^J damkald, (dakh.) CLi^^ malsut. 

Crease, ^^fj^ shikan (f), ,j^ cliin (f.), i.::-^i^ chunat. (f.) 

Creation, ^r^yT afrJnish (f.), fj^\s^jpaidd' Ish (f.) : see World. 

Creature, J^i-^"^ maJdiluk, (irrational) ^^;r^^ haiwdn. 

Credit, jUxci i*tibdr, /^j bharam, ^Lo saM (f.) : see Reputation. 

Creditor, ii\^ ^Jiji karz-khwah, ^,j^^ bydhariyd. 

Crew, j^^J 5& (f.), c:-^^U;>- jamd'at (f.), (ship's) jl^ Jii>l a/iZ-i- 

Crime, ^^j^aiu faA:s7r (f.), i^ gundhy t-jbpop, ^j>-jurm. 

Criminal, j|^ ^^t^-aiu taksir-wdr^ J^it^ gundk-gdr. 

Crisis of a disease, (j;^/^ buhrdn. 

Critic, J^ i— ail; wdkif-kdr, f^\j isj^ nukta-ddn, <ulc alldma. 

Crop, (harvest) j-aj /as/ (f.), (produce) J^\^ hdsil : see Maw, Craw. 

Cross, v-^-Lp 5aZ?&, ^^ chatipd. 

Crowd, J-^ 5A?r (f.), c:^^U5>- Ja?wa'a ^ (f.), z*^^ hujum. 

Crumb, (particle of bread) ]jfl l^ ^^j rofi kd tukrd, (soft) 1 J^i gMC?a. 

Crush, ^ IjJ dabd'o, (shove, push) l^J dhakkdjJS takkar. (f.) 

Crust, (shell) l^3i^ chhilkd, (of bread) e:-«jy j905^, ^ paprd. 

Crutch, ^"^ Idthiy ^L<*j baisdkhd, Ua& a 5a, c5j«*V phd'ofi. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 211 

Cry, j^ pukar (f.), j^ shor, (lament) ib^j wdwaild. 

Cub, aisT hachcJia, h pilld. 

Cube, e-^^ /!a*i, jJulJ* shashdar. 

Cubit, ^'Ifc ^a^A, t— >U)^ ^Ito 7ia^^ 5Aar map, ei^wjj ^a^^ 

Cuckold, C-?^0 daiyus, u-^lrsrj zan-jalah, ^^UJi kaltabdn. 

Cud, Jl^ j^g^^i^\, pdgur. 

Cudgel, -f^ Idthi,^ lakar, U,i-^* tJienga. 

Cupping glass, ^^tf-^^:*;?-* siwg?. Cupper, iJ|^ ^^^f^*^ singi-wdld. 

Curd, l^ chakkdf li-^ chhend, ^^J e/a^j. (m.) 

Curl, J^l^ /ca^wZ (f.), ^^ gesu, <— alj ^rw//" (f.) : see Bend. 

Currency, (of money) ^\^j rawdj, ^^^ chalan. 

Currycomb, )/J^ kharahrd. 

Curse, <—»)/-» sardp, ^>::.^^:>■^ Za*wa^ (f.) : see Calamity. 

Custody, ^l\y>- hawdla, ^yV^ nigah-bdrii: see Imprisonment. 

Custom, JU- c^aZ (f.), J^ chalan, CL^As. ddat (f.), jj^-^ dastur, 

(tax) Jj-Asr* mahsuL 
Custom-house, ^^^ chabutara, j^^^j{ parmit-ghar. 
Customer, CJjb€ gdhak, j^'Hj^ khariddr. 
Cut, (gash) t3l^ A:af (f.), ^j zaJdim, (shape) J^J dauL 
Cut-throat, Jjj^^ khun-rez, t^^ <Aag, jbjJi-^j bat-pdr. 
Cycle, jj J daur, ^Ij da' Ira, ^^j}^ daurdn: see Circle. 
Dalliance, ^^*\j rd'o-chd'o, jl^jj^ ndz-o-niydz : see Delay. 
Dam, (bank) J^A;'l; bdndh, Jj p^Z: see Mother. 
Damage, cl^JLJ^ khisdrat (f.), ^i)^*^ nuksdn, ^^j=>' Jdiardbl, 
Damask, (silk) jsr^ mushajjar, (cloth) ^s^\>- jdmddni. 
Dance, dancing, --l3 ndch, ^j^j raks. 

Dancing girl, ^J>^S kanchani : (band of) cJJljl? tawd'if, (f.) 
Danger, ^^^ khatra, j J ^ar, ^^jokliim. (f.) 
Darning (s.), ^ ra/w. 

Date (time), ^jb' tdrlMi (f.), -fJ ^ii^ (f.), ^c•^ /wiV?. 
Day-book, aLsr^lJj^jro^-wamc^a, V^-^ khasrd. 
Dearth, J\^\ akdl, ks-' kaht, ^J<J tangi, ^^ karni. 

2 1 2 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Death, OJyc maut (f.), tS^ marg (f.), CL^/s faut (f.), J>-\ ajl. (f.) 

Debate, (J^rsr hahs (f.), <UJJi kaziyay A1^L« muhahasa. 

Debauchery, tc-^^j^ aubasKi, ^^j rindi, j\^ khumar. 

Debt, ^jJJ dain,j\it>(A udhar^ ^i ^ar;s, |»1^ warn. 

Debtor, J^s^^ karz-dar, j^J^Jti dain-dar, Lr> riniya. 

Deceit, t— ^:>/ fareh, IcJ dagha (f.), J^ JwZ, J^ chhal. 

Decision, Jl-^ajl injisal, *J; ^«/*j 5;^ niptara. 

Decree, a^ hukm, ^yj fatwa, JLii}! infisal. 

Deed, ^l^ A:a7w, ^}xi fi*l, (written) Jj^l::--: J dast-awez. (f.) 

Defect, j^siii' kusur, t-^^--c «iZ», i<:x2^ gkatti. 

Defence, ci^liUs*- hifdzat (f.), ^lu panah (f.), cL^lj ro/c. (f.) 

Defendant, (in law) <uL: J^^^x^ muddoHa alaihi, .^\^\ asaml. 

Deficiency, ^J^ kamtl, ^^ gkatti, jy£^ kusur. 

Defile, (narrow pass) l^U nakcLy ^ gali, ^\^ ghati. 

Definition, ^^V^ hakharif iX^ hadd (f.), t— tt:>ytj tarlf. (f.) 

Degree, <^^t> darja, <Uj^ martaba, jSs kadr (f.), a;-J; ruiba. 

Delay, ^<J rfer (f.), u^4> rferl, u^5^ bilamb, J I ar. (f.) 

Deliberation, J^U ta^ammul, J^ jikr, ^y^ soch, jy:. ghaur. (f.) 

Delight, JcJ! anand, iJ^^ Jdiushi, j<«p- Izhurrarm. 

Delirium, (<-i»^ be-hoshl, ^^jyku be-khiidt,J^ sir. (f.) 

Deliverance, delivery, Cl?\rsr ?z«;a^ (f-)> j ^^ bacha'd : see Birth. 

Delusion, l^^y^J dJiokha, c--o J fareb, liJ dagha. (f.) 

Demand, (claim) LcJ dtf'wa, (question) c-J^ talab. (f.) 

Demolition, aIj^^^I inhiddm, L.?^\i \ c— ^j^ khardb-abddJ. 

Den, (lion's, &c.)^^ ^^ar, JoU mdnd(f.): see Cave. 

Denial, ^1^1 inkar, ^Jd naft (m.), (JliJ tanafi. 

Dependant, ^jUi^ muta^allik,j^ ^\d daman-gir, ^j^ji^ parbas. 

Depth, ^Jyi^ urnuk^ j j^ galird'o, (dakh.) ^^^^*^ dongan. 

Deputy, icJ^\^ gumdshta, c:^^**.0 ^^Ij pesh-dast, i^jlj wo'/^. 

Derision, jj^fi thatkolJ, <li*l:> ta^na, \^ thatlhd. 

Deiivation, jUi-ijl ishtikdk, ^\j£S^.J\ istikhrdj. 

Descendant, ^j-jj iaw5, jjI:;Jm-j santdn, (plur.) J^^l auldd. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 213 

Desert, J^^- jangal, i^lfUj hayahauj <OJb hadiya. 
Deserter, Jj^^^ hhagora, i^j^y firarl, Cjp tarik. 
Design, (purpose) Jye-^x* mansuha, iiS^j\ irada : see Plan. 
Desire, 2>U- chdh (f.), ^jti>\y>- khxpahish (f.), (j>-y> hawas. (f.) 
Despair, ^^^iw<1l3 nd-ummediy (j^\j^ yds (f.), ,^5/ nirdsi, ^^\< md- 

Destiny, JJ^ takdlr (f.), LiJf kazd (f.), c>"«>-J kismat. (f.) 
Destruction, J^>^ pd'emdli, cSha] ihldk, ^]/^ khardbl. 
Detail, J-*aw #a/>7Z (f.), (in detail) J-aL« mufassal. 
Determination, Ju^ tec?, j^ azm,J)^ tajiolz, (f.) 
Detestation, ^ A:arA (f.), CL?^ nafrat (f.) : see Abhorrence. 
Detraction, c:-^:*;^^ gh ibat (f.), ^ f iM bad-go'l, ci^^J tuhmat. (f.) 
Detriment, j^Uaii nuksdn, CLij^An mazarrat (f.), By fo/a. 
Devastation, CL^J^ ghdrat (f.), ^^UjIj ^a'ew.a/7, ^U^* tabdhl. 
Deuce (at cards, dice, &c.), \jJ du^d, (dakh.) IS^J c?oga. 
Device, (contrivance) Ln^^^i^ hikmat (f.), (on a shield, &c.) ^jlU 

Devotion (worship), ci^jLc ibddat (f.), U^y^ jsii/a (f.) : see Prayer. 
Dexterity, ijj^ ei^^-ti dast-kdrl, ^^if- chdldkl. 
Dialect, ^Jy boli, U^l^ bhdkhd : see Language, Idiom. 
Dialogue, ylfei^gw/ifgM (f.), J^j-j l^\^ jawdb suwdl. 
Diameter, JaJ kutr, Lrs>. l^ ^ ^^ s£;?J*^ c?a7r6 /:e J7cA kd khatt. 
Diary, <uU j^^ roz-ndmaj ^^^)^j rozndmcha, ^j^^\ dwdrja. 
Dice, ^b ^ase (plur. of Lb pa^a, a die), (dakh.) j<^^ phdnse. 
Dice-board, LLj &wfl(. (f.) 

Dictionary, i^S^y farJiang (f), l::^ lu gh at (f.), ^^j^ A;o5^. 
Die (colour), (^Jjj rang, (stamp) <iCj sikka, U^ thappd. 
Diet, Iji: g-A iza (f.), lL/I^^ khiirdk (f.), l3l^ khdndj ci-y' /cm^. 
Difference, jy /a?*^, C-\Uj tafdwut, i^S^j bilag : see Discord. 
Difficulty, 4f;^^<^ dushwdri, JlCll w/ifraZ : see Labour, Trouble. 
Diffidence, -jr^^ sankoch, l^^JbJ dharkd, lL^^ shakk. 
Digestion, >*<aii> hazm, t^^lto cjy kuwat-i-hdzima. 

214 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Digit, JxJI angul, (of the moon's diameter) K kala. (f.) 

Dignity, A^ jah (f.),j^ kadr (f.), <Loyc martaba, (^Lij s/^aw. (f.) 

Dilemma, lij^ti dubdha (f.), (dakh.) JLsr^^ bhonjah 

Diligence, ^^fj^ sar-garmi, ^d dhun (f.), L<-^i^^J* tan-dihi. 

Dimension, l-jU mdp,j\Ss^ mikddr, ^tjJl andaza. 

Diminution, ,J^ g^^^f^j (^s^ksnT takhfif (f.j, ^^-^^ kam-t. 

Din, ^^ s/ior, Jjj j:^wZ, (dakh.) t'Li Ji ghul ghaijdtd. 

Diploma, Jc«-5 sanad (f.),j^.l.i^ manshur , ^^jc^^i^ dastdwez. 

Direction, (way) ^)^ m^ (f.), (label) 1::j patdy (of a letter) <ul3 ^«j 

Dirt, (filth) J-^ mail(f.), Jc< maZ, (mud)^^]^ klchar. (f.) 
Disagreement, ci^iiil^U nd-muwdfakat (f.), (discord) L<i)^ ^ wa- 

HnisM, J liJl anband'o, j\>j bigdr. 
Disappointment, i<<l^ ^ nd-kdm-i, l^^ybJ dhokhd, jjUp- hirmdn. 
Disaster, c:^^-^*a^ musibat (f.), ^^1x^2^ aj bad-bajdu-i, ci^il a/a^. (f.) 
Disbelief, uJ^-^^^^l*^ be-i^tikddi, ijj^f^iji be-i^tibdri. 
Disbursement, ^jd-^ kharj, ^J^- kharch, cl:\^\js>-\ ikhrdjdt. 
Discernment, J--4J tamlz (f.)? ^J.) zirak-ly uXj-J bibek. 
Discharge, ,^^ chhuttl, dj^y. bar-taraf-l, (of debt) \<^\ add. (f.) 
Disciple, -^ si/cA, L^^- c/^eZa, 4^1.^ skdgird, j^-^* talmlz. 
Discipline, L-^,t3lj tddib (f.), <^::-^y tarbiyat (f.) : see Punishment. 
Discovery, ui^bjJ darydft (f ), uJlliol inkishdf: see Invention. 
Discount, l5j battd, iJ^ chotd, 

Discourse, C-Jb Z>a^ (f.), c:-^:*^ CL;b Ja^ chit (£.), ^t:xsi^ guftgu, (f.) 
Discretion, J Lx«l imtlydz, JJlc aA:Z, c5^^y^ hoshydri. 
Discus, ^^i.^ cAa/nr or chakkar. 

Discussion, aA^L^ mubdham, Jjo J^ racZc? badal. (f.) 
Disdain, c:^lji>l ihdnat (f.), cl^lis^ hikdrat. (f.) 
Disease, jljt azar, ^^^ rog, ,jfi;^ maraz, ^J cZmA;^. 
Disgrace, ^^^ |^ ruswd'if J<c dr, (dismission) u?^ ta gh irl. 
Disguise, ^^-^ Z>Ae5, -^C^ bhekhy (sham) <d->. ^7Za. 
Disgust, C-yj 7ia/ra^ (f.), ^^ ghin (f.), u:-^!/ kardhiyat. (f.) 

Vocabulary — Nouns. 215 

Dishonour, LJ*jji^ ^. be-abru-t, ^Ji^j=^ ^ be-hurmatl. 

Disk (of the sun or moon), ,joJs kurs : see Discus. 

DisUke, \jo\A i*raZy jy^ chirk (f.)fj^^gurez. (f.) 

Dismission, c:^-..3r;^ rukhsat (f.), ^J>)^y. bar-taraf-t. 

Disorder, ^--J^ bt-tarfib-i, (illness) c5;U^ bhndr-1. 

Dispatch, ^^ shitab-i: see Messenger, Epistle. 

Displeasure, ^^jj^ azurdagi, ^^j^l3 na-khushl, ^^^s^ Jdiafagi, 

Disposition, ^^Haijl intizdm, (nature) y>- kho (f.), ^|^ ^12:0;. 

Dispute, (J^osT bahs (f.), (quarrel) \ji^jhagrd, 'UiJ kaziya. 

Disregard, ^j 1«j j be-parwcCij ^^\ ^ be4ltifdt-i. 

Disrespect, ^ti\ ^^ be-adab-l, (^^^ CJy tark-i-adab : see Disregard. 

Dissembler, jl^^b J riyd-kdr, j\L^ makkdr, ^^^ kaptl. 

Distance, ^^jJ dur-1, lUj\su tafdwut, c::^L^ masdfat, (f.) 

Distemper, (j*^ mara2,^ljl dzdr, i>^^j rog, o;U^ blmdru (f.) 

Distich, l::^-j iai^ (f.), IbjJ ^Zo^a, JybjJ dohrd. 

Distraction, L^\JaJ\ iztirdb, ^^^^^^\j^ sardsima-gi. 

Distress, \Si\ izd (f.), C^ kasht, c:^ bipat (f.), c:-^! a/a^. (f.) 

District, *-L? 2i7*, K>- chakld, J^** mahall, ^y^ pargana. 

Disturbance, <uUoJi> hangdma, ^j^ -.^ harj-marj. 

Diversion, (turning aside) uJ|^pcri inhirdf, (sport) LIUj tamdshd. 

Divination, c^ ^,^ r. ^U ilm-i -gh aib, J-«; ramal, .^5^^ fdl-go^t. 

Division, *--ij taksim (f.), (share) cj: '>i»4>^''» kismat : see Difference. 

Divorce, J^ /a/a;t (f.), (^'^J^ l/ (^•'^^J JJ^ J^^^ ^ khasam kijudd-i. 

Dizziness, ^ e;!;^'^ daurdn-i-sar, ^j^ ghumrJ, 

Doctrine, *Jjtj tallm (f.), v,^j^ maz'hab, ^,Jo tarlka. 

Doer, J^^t^j^ karne-hdrd, \j^ kartd, J^\sfa'il. 

Doings, J^ kdm, ^^^y^ kartut, L^ kiyd^ JUi\ afa/. 

Doll (child's), ^j^ guriyd{i.\ ^^zj putU, IjA^ khilaund. 

Domestic (a servant), ic,^^ wdbasta, j\^ Jc^ khidmatgdr. 

Dominion, l::^^^^,^ hukumat (f.), <j:^^Xw« mamlukat (f.), ^Ij ra;. 

Donation, Donative, ^tL'k^^ bakhshish (f.), j^lt> c?a7i. 

Doom, (sentence) S^ hukm, J^^ fatwd, (fate) LaJf ^asa. 

216 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Dot, <daa3 nukta, 1 JkiJ hunda, ^jSui hindl, \j^ suna. 

Double-dealer, ^jj^ do-ranga, j^ Ut3 dagha-baz. 

Double-entendre, \^j^janika, ci^b ^1ju:.*,<jJ do-ma nt-dar bat. 

Doubt, lS-J^ shakk, -^ shubha, ^J^ guman, \L^ sanka. (f.) 

Dovecot, ij\s>-Jj^ kabutar-khana, ^^^^ dhabri. 

Dough, ^jib^^ gundhan,j^j^ Mtamir, ^^^ lu'i or lo'i, 

Down (hair, small feathers), a^j rdm,jj^ ^y narmpar: see Plain. 

Drain, ^Jjyo mori, ^\j nalJ, »uj^, badar-rau. (f,) 

Draught, (of liquor) ijl^j^a^ ghunt, (of a carriage) ^*ls:\-^ khincha'o, 

(plan) ^LB nakslia, (of a letter) 2f J^— ^ musauwada, (of soldiers) 

^*^ CS^\ ^ ^y fauj ka ek guroh, (for money) ui*^ hundi. 
Draughts (the game), ,^}^ J^ mughal pathauj &c. 
Drawer, (of a bill) ^,,y) (^Sj:>Jb hundt-nawls, (of a chest) <lil>. khana. 
Drawing (delineation), ,<-i»U3 nakkdshi, jjjlftj naksh. 
Dream, ^-^\J^ Tdmab, li-.-3 sapna, (fancy) JU^ khar/aL 
Dregs, L2-^.>y tirchhat (f.), lS^^ talchhat (f.), J^J c?Mrc?. (f.) 
Drink, <-jyi> shurb, L:i-^yi> sharbat, ^-^5/^ sharab. 
Drollery, ^^^5/^"**^ maskhara-pan^ i}^^ thatholi, ^^^ khilU, 
Dross, J-j^ jwai/ (f.), ^^^ kit, ^liij zangar. 

Drove, (of cattle) <iL gaZ/a, (crowd) J^^ bhlr (f.), ij:^^\A>^ jamd'at, 
Dmdgery, Jy tahal (f.), Lu^i^** l::.^-' saM^ mihnat. (f.) 
Drunkard, ^^U-i* shardb-t,j^kx< mai-kJior, 
Dung, l!U-^ Z>7^^ (f.), ^j^ gw^ (^0^ (of the cow) y^ gobar, (of the 

horse or elephant) jJ M (f.), (of birds) Jlisaj plkhdl : see 

Dungeon, j<*-i^ bhaksl, «l>- ^L-j siz/a/i cAa/i, ^I^S^ gidangi. 
Dunghill, Ajyo mazbala, \iy^ guhariyd, j^ ghur. 
Dusk (twilight), .^^^L JbJ dhur-sdnjh (f.), ^ySb^^ godhuVl. 
Dust, Jy^J c?Aw/ (f.),jybJ c?/ri/r (f ), J^ garcZ (f ), jUc gh ubdr. 
Duty, (obligation) j^i^ /«^?j (service) Jy faAaZ (f.) : see Tax. 
Dwelhng (habitation),^ gkar, ^\£^ mukdm, ^^~-^ maskan. 
Earnest (money), ^\if^i baVdna, ^<^^<^ dddnl. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 217 

Earthquake, Jl>- ^^^ hhun-chal, Ajij zalzala. 
Ease, a\j\ dram, J^ kal (f.), ^^ chain, (facility) jjLsT dsdnl. 
Eaves, (of a roof), ^^\ oltl, ^^^^1 orl, ,^H^ parchhati. 
Ebb (of the tide), lf>l^' bhdthd,jj>' jazr, .^j:2^ ghattl. 
Ebony, ^^^1 dbnus. 
Echo, ^^ gunj (f.), Ijutf 5a(ia. (f.) 
Economy, ^jJp^ juz-rasi : see Arrangement, System. 
Ecstacy, Jc»-^ i^;a;c?, ^^Jyku be-kkiidi. 
Edge, (of a blade), jUj c?/mr (f.), JIj Jar (f ) : see Border. 
'Edging, J\^ jhdlar (f.), c5/«^ maghzl, (.JI^sLj sanjdf. (f.) 
Edict, ^^^^ far man, ^j rakam (f.), ^^L» sdsan. 
Edition (of a book), l>l^ chhdpd, cS V^ chhapd'l. 
Editor, (compiler) <-il^ mu'allif, (arranger) c-^^ murattib. 
Education, v-ii^y tarbiyat (f.), jj>~;j^ parwarish. (f.) 
Eel, A^ Jam (f.), JbU^to mdr-mdhl, ^^^^^^ A^. bdm-machhli. 
Effect, (impression) ^1 asar, jJ^ tdfir (f.), (result) JL?U^ ^a5^/. 
Effects, JU mdl, c->L-j^ asbdb, cli^ j JU maZ o matd^. 
Effigy, Jil-l shakl (f ), c:-^^-^ wa^ (f.)» '-^jy< murat, (f.) 
Effort, j^x-j sa i, ^J^^ koshish (f ), l::*a1s;* mihnat. (f.) 
Eft (newt), A-J lLX*! ^^ ^J^^^i^ chhipkali ki ek kism. 
Egg, \Sj\ andd, <Uio Jaiza. 

Egotist, j^jj/ t)^>- khiid'farosh, U3 J^ khud-numd. 
Egress, ^j>/>- khuruj, J^J^ bar-dmad (f.), ^\j rawdnagi. 
Election, ^dj^^ji barguzidagt, iji^^JU makbuliyat. (f.) 
Elegance, uJla! Zz<(/, ^^i^Ha! latafat (f.), c:^^!^ nazdkat. (f ) 
Elegy, <cJ^ marsiya, :fju-^ lij^Jo j^ soz-guddz kd kaslda. 
Elevation, ^^Jkilj bulund-t., ^J^y, barhti, ^ IstI unchd-i. 
Elixir, ^^--*^1 aA*5?r; see Essence. 

Elocution, cfj^^ c^Vj zabdn-dwari, ij:^^s>-\^ fasdhat. (f.) 
Eloquence, lJJ.J>^ lt^ Mnish-takrlri, ci^iL bal dgh dt : see Elo- 
Embryo, ^Jf^:^ janin, IcsrL sdnchd, \S^ gdbhd. 


218 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Emersion, c^li? tulu , j \^\ utha'd, 'X<\y har-amad. 

Eminence, J^\ unchan, ^jj) buzurgij J-^ fazL 

Emissary, ^^^V jc^sus, b*X«^ bhediya, sj^ja harkara. 

Emperor, ^^ll^Jilii shahanshah, '^-^J^^ maka-raj. 

Empire, ^^lliJili shahanshah-ij Lii^i-lsLj saltanat. (f.) 

Employ, Employment, Jx^ sh ugh h z*^ kaniy iS^c- uhda. 

Emporium, i^S^V^ arang, j\j^ bazar jjS:j bandar. 

Empress, ij'^j\^ maha-ranly i\L:Jt>\Ji» >Lj begam-i-shakanshdh. 

Emulation, aj^ui ghibta, ICjb hiska, CS^j rashk. 

Enamel, L*^ mma, ^JT abj h>- jila, ^j6 l:*-.^ mmd-karl. 

End, Ls-^xj^ antf |^ 5ira,^2s-T dkhir, (object) ^joy. gharaz. (f.) 

Engine, Ji kal (f.), Lii^^i-^ san'at (f.), ^l-^ hathydr. 

Enigma, ^5^;j-i^ pahellf ^^^2— >^ chistdn, Ujc< mu'ammd. 

Enjoyment, «-::^ tamattu^, ^ maza, ^Jl^ aish, ^^f^ khushi. 

Enmity, ciJJjlj^ addwat (f.), ^-»J JazV, j^/«.-SjJ dushmani. 

Entertainment, ti^-* mihmdni : see Feast, Amusement. 

Entrance, ^-j paith, Jo- J dakhL i^\ ^JL^ pesh-dmad. (f.) 

Entry, <dri.lj ddJdiila, <^:x*^ ras^a : see Door, Insertion. 

Environs, uJ\Jb\ atrdf(f.), ^\j^ pairdman, (^\^\ ds-pds. 

Epistle, lx>^ khatt, <Ujj ruk'a^ <uU ndma, ob jya^I. 

Epitaph, iUl:;^ kitdba : see Inscription. 

Epithet, Cj^a! lakab, ^z^^ na^t (f.), ci^^i.^ ?i/<^^j ^^ nam. 

Epitome, j\.asJ-\ iJditisdr^ ^^-^aiLs-* mulditasar. 

Epoch, J^rjo tdrikh (f.), ^-^ san, i.::^^,^^ sambat, JL sal. 

Equator, \j^ Ito- khatt-i-istiwd. 

Equipage, c-?L-j^ as&aft, j^UL sdmaUj ^jj^y^ sawdri, c->l^. ri/:aJ. (f.) 

Equity, uJUajl iw?a/, Jj>^ cidl, ^^^j rdsfi, o l^-* sachdl. 

Era, -k^jlj* ^arlM (f.), l^L sa/:a, c:.^^./*^; sambat. 

Ermine, ^\s kakuniy c-^ls^w^ sanjdb. 

Errand, L^^j^i-j sandesd, *U*j paighdm, JS kdm. 

Errata (in a book), <ulj laii gh alat-ndma. 

Error, ^iaii ghalatj, CS^ chuk (f.), j^*a5 kusur, J^ J/i?^Z. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 219 

Eruption, -^^^ khuruj, j\^\ ubkar, (of the skin) ^lu ^^j rakt-pitti. 
Essay, ^jt^ sa^l, tAjUjT azma'lsh (f.), (treatise) ^U, risala. 
Essence, Cl^Mj zat (f.),^ Kir, (spirit) j^c arak, (perfume) ^l^c atr. 
Estate, (condition) JU- hal, (possession) l!J3^ milk : see Degree. 
Esteem, ci/Lj tapak, ciJJlc izzatjj^pyaryjdi kadr. (f.) 
Eternity, /♦^jJ dawarrij dj\ ahad, ^^^st^^Mb hamesha-gL 
Ethics, ^%^\ aMilaky J^^ ^^ ^Im-i-akhlak. 
Etiquette, c-^lji adah, ^j>*»i-sr* Cl^lil^ takallufdt-i-majlis. 
Event, (incident) ^jW hadisa, LH-^-ib j^ sar-guzaskt. (f.) 
Evidence, ^\^ gawahJ, JJj cfaZ?/ (f.), (witness) A&lij shahid. 
Evil, jJU huroTi, Ji^j zahun-i, (calamity) 5b 5aZa. (f.) 
Evildoer, jl^ Jj bad-kdr,J^ !i\:>:i gundh-gar. 
Eulogy, ^^j^ tarlf (f.), ^J>^ 7wa<^^ (f.), L5 .^awa. (f.) 
Eunuch, <^>-^ khdja, V,^ ^^^ khzpdja-sard, I'Lsr* kijrd. 
Examination, ^jtl\^j\ dzmd'ish (f.), j^lrsi^l imtihdn. 
Example, <0^ namuna, ^j^^i^\ uddharan : see Pattern. 
Excellence, ^^^^s faukiyat (f.), (as an address) ciyd^^ hazrat. (f.) 
Excess, Irl^l «/^fli5> L^ ^^"J ziyddafi : see Intemperance. 
Exchange, ^Ju iljl adld badld, ^f- iwaz, (place) CJ^ chauk. 
Excrement, i^ guh (f.), \ii}^ ghoiU: see Dung. 
Excrescence, a^ girih (f.), (fleshy) L^ massd, i^j^^^^ masbird. 
Excuse, J JkC uzr, (pretence) A3l^ bahdna, ci^n^sP^ hnjjat. (f.) 
Execution, ,^j\ j^l^ kdr-gvzdr-1, (killing) JiJ katl. 
Executor, ^j was! (m.). Executrix, tU-^j waslya. (f.) 
Exercise, c:^:.^'* mihnat (f.), (practice) J,4x awaZ, j;.!^ mashk. (f ) 
Exertion, ^J^^ koshisk (f.), ^^_^ soTe, u:-.xs^ mihnat. (f.) 
Exhibition, jl^isl iz'hdr, ^ i^J dikhld'ij (show) UUJ tamdshd. 
Exhortation, ci^^r^*^ nafihat (f.), kcj z^oTs, c-^;*i/ ta rgh ib. (f.) 
Exile, (banishment) ^%1p^ jild-watan, (banished) ^Js'^ bc-watan. 
Existence, ^^^--Jb /ms^I, ^^^J wujud, (life) ^/^^J zindagl, 
Expedient,^jJ tadblr (f.), ^U- chdra, ^S^} upd't. 
Expense, ui^iJ Zaga^ (f.), r^ »>- kliarch : see Money, Cost. 

220 Vocahulary.^^Nouris. 

Experience, Experiment, ^Uysr tajriba, \J^\<)\ dzma'ish. (f.) 

Explanation, ^Ij hay an, J-*Aa} tafsil (f.), «y-l shark, (f.) 

Express, (messenger) s^\j kasid, lLXj^ ^azA; : see Message. 

Expression, lailJ talaffuz, Lu\i bat (f.), (squeezing out) j^s^ nichdr. 

Extension, yL^pAttiZa'o, ^^jll^ kushadagi. 

Extract, -*ib Kir, ^JiJ- khulasa : see Essence, Selection. 

Extreme, Extremity, 1 .«s sira, e^-^l^j nihayat (f.) : see Distress. 

Exuvise (slough or skin), ^X=f^ kenchli, J-srU^ kenchul. (f.) 

Eyesore, l^ ^jf^\ jU~ khar ankhon ka. 

Fable, liuoIG^ fiikayat (f.), Jaj %aA:Z (f.), ^^\S kahani. 

Fabrication, <^liJ hanawat (f.), ci^r^^L sakht. (f.) 

Facility, ^JI-jI asarii, l::-^^^^ sahulat (f.) : see Readiness. 

Fact, (deed) z*!^ /cawz, i}joJi*l, (reality) lii-^as- haklkat, (f.) 

Factory, j^^^^ /cofAI, 6j\s>^ J^ kar-khana. 

Factotum, ^<!^T^ har-bab-t, ^J^^ kulkullan. 

Faculty, CU^ kuwat (f.), (quality) ^ gun, (skill) ^ hunar. 

Fair, (market) L^ mela, <3\jb 7^aJ (f.), .^f^o penth, (f.) 

Faith, (belief) (^U^J iman, i^Juac aklda, (religion) cu^i'* millat, (f,) 

Falsehood, Falsity, ^^p^jhuth, i^jd darogh, c-^j^ /ci2&. 

Fame, /»l3 warn, jIy'i-^1 ishtihar, {j^-^ jas, f-^j^ shuhrat. (f.) 

Familiarity, IsLj^l irtibat, L::^-w^.sf^ suhbat (f.), ci^^ll wZfa^. (f.) 

Family,jlj^ g^arZ>ar, IjJ^g/zarawa, (race) ^jWls^ khandan. 

Famine, ksr ^a^(, J 1^1 akal, l1^<^ dubhuk. 

Fan, l^ij pankhd, ^j^ panklii, (for grain) ^^ parii, i~J^ sup. 

Fancy, JU^ khiydl, *i>j wahm, (whim)^ lahar. (f.) 

Fare, (food) C/];^ khurdk (f.), (hire) ^Jl^« bhdrd, ^}^ kirdya. 

Farewell, clj^l al-wida^, laiU- ijc^ Mw^a /'^A?* 

Fashion, Jji daul,jjb taur, (form) JiLl shakl, (f.) 

Fast, disVsfdka, aj^j roza, CDj bar at, ^\i\ upas. 

Fat (of animals), ^j>- charbt, ,^ ^^^^^ chlknal, 

Fate,^jJu takdTir (f.), l::^.vk-J kismat (f.), (death) C-.*^ wia?/^ (f.) 

Fathom, c-jU j^ .^ItojU- chdr hdr ki ndp, ^i bam. (f.) 

Vocahulary, — Nouns. 221 

Fatigue, ^5 l^ thakd'iy ^JoU mandagl, jP—-' susd. 

Fault, jy^ kusur, l^^^^ aib, (crime) j^;»a£j takfir, (f.) 

Favour, i^Vjir* ^^^'^^^^h ^y tawajjuh (f.) : see Gift. 

Feast, L^Li ziyafat (f.), d^y^*^ dawat (f.) : see Festival. 

Feature, Jil^ ^AaAZ (f.), <Ll-ft3 naksha, fj rwM, -^i^ chinh, 

Fee,^^ ajvy My^j rusum, Ailii^-* mihnatana, Hj^ ajura. 

Feeling, <)U-^ lamisa, (sense) ^^^ ^m, (affection) jLj ^^ar. 

Feint, <0l^ haJiana, l^^J dhokhd, iLs>. hlla. 

Felloe, <lftU- v. ^r?t^ ^ ^^^ chakkar kd gher or halka. 

Fellow, (equal) ^.1^ ^ ham-chashm : see Companion, Manikin. 

Fellowship, ll,^^^ suhhat (f.), ^\ uns, J^ mel. 

Felon, *j^ mujrimj j\^ j;>>asu taksir-wdr : see Whitlow. 

Felony, Xj^ s\:,^ gundh-i-kablra, tjas- ^j^- jurm-i-azlm. 

Fence, \j^ gherdf iXui^pandh (f.), ^ij tatrl : see Defence. 

Fermentation, fJL^josh, Jb\ uhdl, (ferment) ^^-^♦o- khamlr. 

Ferry, (passage) Sj\d^ guzdra,j^^x^ ma bar : see Boat. 

Festival, jl&4-5 te^ohdr, c-v parab, Ju* id, (f.) 

Festivity, t^jLl shddl, ^jL^jashn, ^JL^ aish, ^j^y>- khusht. 

Fetter, Fetters, ^%j hefi, l^J^ paikarhd, ^\^,j^ beriydn. 

Fiddle, ^S^j\^ sdrangl, ^jf^ kingrJ, ifjJ^U sdrinda. 

Fidelity, ij:j^^^J^} imdn-ddrJ, lij wafd (f.), ^3y^ sachautl. 

Fight, i^'y lardl, Ji>s>-judh, i^J^jang, ^^j ran : see Battle. 

Figure, (for number) jJJoT dnk, ^j rakam : see Form, Image. 

File, (instrument) ^y^ sohan (f.), ^j reti : see Row. 

Filings, j^ chur, s,^\j burdda, (of iron) ^^ i^^ loh-chun. 

Filth, J-^ mail (f.), tli^ cliirkj ^)'T dld'ish. (f.) 

Fin (ofa fish) jijb l>y ^ ^.^Wf-'* machhli kd par or 5a-2M. 

Finance, cj?;^»^ J^ mdl-guzdrl, -n'^/*" MB'^^Jj *^^ dmad, (f.) 

Firman, (J;^r9 farmdn, <is3|.^j parwdna, <ul3 >i>. hukm-ndma. 

Fish-hook, ^<-:J Jaws?, Liii katiyd (f.), l2jl^ kdntd. 

Fissure, C^U- c^aA;, Jjj* tarak, uJ^Xi> shigdffjji^ darz. 

Fitness, <*::^y liydkat (f.), ljJ^^}^ sazdwdrt, ^ii^^\j^ shdyastagl. 

222 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Flannel, c5*^ Zo7, Ly^J dhosa. 

Flask, (powder-hom) U^--j singra, ^^^ '^jV bar ut- dan : see Bottle. 

Flattery, x<\Ja^ khusliamad (f.), ^^^^ chaplusl. 

Flavour, ^ maza, i^\y^ sawad, CL^JJ lazzat (f.), ^^«'V^ bu-has. (f.) 

Fleam, ^::^ nashtar. 

Flight, (of a bird) jlj^^ pariuaz (f.), (running away) J^ gz/res'. (f.) 

Flock, (of animals) ^ galla, 'su^ jhund, (of cotton) Jy pahal. 

Flood, ^->L-o sai/aZ> (f.), ijjb barh (f.), (tide) jt^ jawar (f.) : see 

Flower, Jj^ pAw/, J^ gul, (prime) jl^^ Jct^ar (f.), ^^i^joban. 
Flowers on cloth, Ij^ J^ bel-buta, 

A Fluid, (JSj^pam (m.), jy: arak,J^ S ^^^,i bahne kl cMz. 
Fold, (plait) ^ tah (f.), ^^p>> chin (f.), (of a door) L palld. 
Folk, t^ /og, ^tM ac?»i?, /♦J^ mardum, ^^\s^\ ashJdias. 
Folly, Foolishness, tiy^ bewukufi, ci^SU^ fiimakat. (f.) 

Fondness, jLj pyar, j^ shank, al^ c^a^. (f.) 

Food, Ul^ khana, CJ\}^ khurak (f.), l»Xc ghiza (f ), ci-y ^m#. 

A Fool (buffoon), ^^---^ maskhara^ jjI§j bhand. 

Footman, ^y naukar, ^jl^ harkara, sJij piyada. 

Footpath, i^]^ r-fl^ (f.), c^Ijii^^ pag-dandi, ^ gait. 

Footstep, b (jjwij naksh-i-pa, (step) /♦^^3 kadam. 

Fop, lijU banka, L^ chhaild, ^-J\ albeld, l*i^ chikaniyd. 

Force, ^^J s^or, Jj JaZ, c^y kuwat (f.)yj^jabr. 

Ford, ^-^V.^ pdydb, s\^ thdh, (f.), (JjX^ ghdt. 

Forefather, s^jadd, J\fjy, buzurgwdr : see Ancestor. 

Foreman, jl^ll-J peshkdr, lyL-j ptshwd, J\<^j^ sarddr. 

Forepart, Wj^\ agwdrd, li'T aga, <)ua:5- ^1 agZa ^is^a. 

Forerunner, ^j ,^^^ pesh-rau, U3 ^j^ ptsh-numd. 

Foresight, ^^^-.j ^^I-j ptsh-blni, ^j^ j^J dur-bim : see Prudence. 

Forfeit, Forfeiture, JuU c?flwc?, ^Wij^jarlmdna. 

Forge, iOU^ jU^ lohdr-ldidna, ^^, bhathi. 

Forgery, ^^U libds, ^^JjO* taghallub, ^JL}\p^ jdl-sdzl. 

Vocabulary Nouns. 223 

Fornication, ^l^>- chhinala, Uj zina (f.), ^--i jisk. 
Fornicator, 5L^.>- chhinala. Fornicatress, Jl-^>- chhindl. (f.) 
Fortitude, CL^\jS^ jur'at (f.), ^l)jAJ\^ jawanmardi : see Courage. 
Fortune, (chance) c:-.^.«^ kismat (f.), (portion) ^^l^' J/i«g, J^^ 

Foundation, (of a building) jLjj hunyad (f.), ^^-L^t o^os. (f.) 

Fraction, (bit) \J^ tukra, ajij reza, (in numbers) jJ^ kasr, (f.) 

Fragrance, ^ c^^=*- khush-hu (f.), JiJcilj su-gandh. 

Frame, (plan) Issrlibj dhdnchd, (shape) J«J daul: see Shape. 

Frankincense, j^U luhdny ^\}^ lobdn, j^^ hakhur. 

Fraud, k,^j fartby liJ da gh d (f.), J^s- chhal,^ makr. 

Freckle, j^^r-^ magas (f.), ,^j«-^ lahsan, 41j dd gh . 

Freedom, jX^J^^ dzadagl, ^"^ khaldsi, c:J>\ssrnajdt. (f.) 

Freehold, j^^--«j (j^U- ^^i^^ apw7 Ma55 zamln, j^\s>- jdglr. (f.) 

Freight, Jy waz^Z, ^^ bharil, (hire) Ijl^ bhdrd. 

Friday, S^^s^ junCuy <CjJ! ddina, J^^J^ sukrwdr. 

Friend, L::^^«J•J dosty i.^^s^ muhibb,j\j^ ydvyj:^ mitr. 

Friendship, ^J^j^i dosfi, ^^^'^ muhabbat (f.), ^j:^\ ulfat, (f.) 

Fright, jj dary uJp- khauf, cz^-UbJ dahshat (f.), ^^ sa/i/w. 

Fringe,^!^^ jhdlar (f.), J^^T dnchal. 

Fruit, J^ ^AaZ, 25^ »2e?<;a, (profit) ^^ samaray ^J6 naf^. 

Fruition, ^l;-<l^ kdmydbl, «-:uJ tamattu^y Jy-a^ husuL 

Fulness, c^^-^'*^ ma^muriy u5'[;^ purd'ly lJj^ stfly d,j^^ bhartl. 

Fun, Li»UJ tamdshdy J-^ A;^e/, t^b Ja-^I, ^^^ shokhJ. 

Fund, ^^j^y^ punjly Sj\^ mdyay <uto j^ sar-mdya. 

Funeral, ^Si tadfin (f.), J^^^^sr taf/iiz (f.), ij\:^jand2a. 

Fur, ^^;r-';i posfiUy jyA^ samur, JLj pashm (f.), (scum) ^5 l^ /ca'I. 

Furnace, ^^^ bhathl, Jl^ iAar, ^b ^T dtash-ddn. 

Furniture, c--;'u«j1 ^^ j^ ghar kd asbdby ^UL sdmdny ^--L 5a;. 

Furrow, la:^ lyb bo ^^ Jjb ^aZ se band hud khatt, lJj^Ij rtghdri. 

Fury, ^^jazba, (^j/^ u^^ josh kharoshy c-^v^gi ghazab. 

Gain, (earning) ^ U^ kamd'z, J-^U- ^a5z7, (profit) ^ wa/*. 

224 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

A Gallant, jb ^t^ ishk-baz, L^ rasiya, (J^^ aiyash. 

Gallows, jU dar, ^y^ suU, ^jI^^^^jI^ phdnsi-kdth. 

Game, (play) ^^jb hdzlj J.-^ khel, (prey) jlCij shikar. 

Gaming-house, dj\s^ hfy^ ju'e-khdna, 'J^ phar. (f.) 

Gang, J^ gh ol, \f^jathdj <dJlL td'ifa, ^>^»^ juth. 

Gaol, tOlrs^ c/«^ handi-khdna, &j\^ J^J kaid-khdna. 

Garb, cL/lij^ j90sAa/[; (f.), ^>*IJ ZiJa^, (guise) ^r^ hhes. 

Garland, ^Ic J^ phul-mdld (f.), 1^^** sihrdyj\sb hdr. 

Garner, JOU-jIjI amhdr-ldidna, ^^ gold, ^l>- <di ghalla-khdna. 

Gas, jlskr huTdidr, .^b JapA (f.), ^l^j hhdph. (f.) 

Gauze, J^^)-*^ kapar-phul, J^J«-^ kapardhul. 

Gazette, <ul3jLr^! akhbdr-ndma. 

Gender, ^j,.:,^^ jins : (fem.) Li^'b* ^aw?j5 (f.), (mas.)^JJ tazkir. (f.) 

Generation, jJy taivallud, (race) J-J was? (f.), l::-^^ pusht. (f.) 

Generosity, CJ^jls.-* sajdiawat (f.), (jJt-iUar baldishish. (f.) 

Genitive case, c^-sbil cl^I^ hdlat-i-izdfat. 

Gentleman, ^t>l J^ mard-i-ddiriij ^\^ khwdja, l-^^^I^ .va^ii. 

Gentlewoman, ^Ssji^jtA ashraf-zddi, ,g-«J ,J^ bhali bibi. 

Geography, ik^\Jts>^ jughrdjiya. 

Geomancy, J^^ ramal, ^^^; rammdl-i. 

Gesture, ^^:^^js>- harakat (f.), ^.*:*:>- jumbish (f.), ^j ?/?a2*. (f.) 

Ghost, (spectre) ci:^ 5Am^, ^-::-^.^ p-e^, (spirit) _.j.j r^i/^. (f.) 

Giant, ^^* *Jac i^ mard-i azjm tarty c:^Jt> daiyat. 

Gift, /»U3l i7i'ff?w, jjJ2-1^ baJdishish (f.), j^b c?aw, <d*tf 5^/a. 

Gilding, ui;^^ tild-kdrt, ^jj^jj zar-nigdri, J^^ ^aZZ. 

Gills, (of a fish) \j^ gal-phard, (dewlap, &c.) <--^^ ghabghab. 

Girth (of a horse), v^^j ^awg, j^j pe^<7, c^^v"^.^ pushtang. 

Gladness, ^Jli^Jchushl^ ^^jbi shddzyj^j*^ surur, JcJI dnand. 

Glass, (substance) ^l^ kdnchy il*J^ sKisha, (vessel) L*a! ??277ia. 

Globe, a^ kura, "i/ gold, (world) ^^^ j^^^^- 

Gloom, Gloominess, ^^^iUjfcJ dhumld't, (sadness) (j:Jil*« maldlat. (f.) 

Glory, (praise) A^«>- ^«?w</ (f.), (splendor) j^ nur, Jjjj raunak. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 225 

Glossary, t^^jy/ar^awg (f.), ^^J^< '^'^ lughat matruka. 

Glue, {J^,j-*s saresh. 

Goodness, ^ il^ bhala'l, ,^ ^ niko'ij ^^ khuhl. 

Goods, (furniture) c-^L-j^ ^ j^ ghar kd ashdh, (effects) JU mal. 

Gossip, ^^^jj^ harza-gard, (sponsor) U l> l->'o ^^J dharam-bap or 

Government, .j:^^^ hukumat (f.), '^j "raj, (state) jI(;«j sarkar. (f.) 
Grace, (divine) Jjti fad, (favour) ^jcusfaiz: see Beauty. 
Gracefulness, wJlal lutj(f.), t^'^j zebdl, c3jLs^ sajdwat, (f.) 
Grammar, ^asr ^ uJ^ .^ar/ o wa^o (f.), 2f^\cl5 kafida. 
Grandee, i^SAS- umda,j^\ amir, ^j rukn, uJy-i»^ ashraf. 
Grandeur, ^*\y baroTi, L:u^/Uic azamat (f.), ^^^^^ buzurgl. 
Grant, -♦Ixjl iw'a/w, ,^/-l^ bakhsliish (f.), liac «(a. (f.) 
Gratitude,^ shukr, ^j\^Jj^ shukr-guzdrl. 
Grave, j/gor (f.), ^ A:a&r (f.)> j^r* wm^ar (f.), ^^^^-o madfan. 
Gravitation, ^^ uJjb ^ ^f< markaz k~i tarafrnaildji. 
Grease, ,<^^ charbi, ^ l:il>- chiknd't, ^^jj raughan. 
Greatness, ^ \ji bard^, ^i^ kaldrii, ^jy, buzurgt. 
Green (the colour) ij^ sabza, (grassy plot)^|j Hj^ sabza-zdr. 
Greyhound, li^ ^^b* tdzl kuttd, li^ ^J^ shikari kuttd. 
Grief, ^i gham, ^J dukh, Jl alam, JU mdtam, Jtj ranj. 
Grimace, (j--^ khls (f.), j*\^ jjcj bandar-bhd'o. 
Gripe, (grasp) J^/?aA;ar (f.), <tclJ kabza, (squeeze) ^fjsr nichdr. (f.) 
Grot, Grotto, ui^ /ca^/, i^ Ho^, ajU- .0* tah-khdna. 
Grove, ib Z>fl g-A y -^C^ kunj, Jc^ l^ l.i^^J'^ darakhton kd jhund. 
Groundwork, jL:j bunydd (f.), J-^l a^Z (f.), J>. ;fir. (f.) 
Growth, (vegetation) ^S^„^j ro'idagi, (increase) ^J^y. barhti. 
Grudge, &:>S klna, i:^ l^ lUS^ muddat kd klna : see Envy. 
Guard, (watch)j^Ju<l^ chaukiddr, (protection) Li^]a\ii^ hifdzat. (f.) 
Guess, Jfil atkal (f.), c^*^ kiyds, ^Si\ anddz,j\suj^ pinddr. 
Guest, j^U^ mihmdn, jii\^ J^l^ wdrid sddir. 
Guidance, ^ Uufe^ rahnumd'l, cuj^J^ hiddyaf. (f.) 

2 G 

226 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Guide, U3 i>\j rah-numa, \>f \ agwa, u^tilfe hddl, (m.) 

Guilt, ii\:^gundh, ^^ J dokhy jyos kusur, Itari- khatd, (f.) 

Guitar, j\i-5 kitarjjc^ sitdr. 

Gum, Si^ gond (f.), %-^*^ samagh. 

Gutter, ufjY^ muhri, (^\ij}parndla, ;^^J^l3 nabddn. 

Habit, (dress) ^^U lihdSj (custom) C1.*JU ddat (f.) : see Mode. 

Habitation,^ ghar, ^JL< makdrif ^litc mukdm. 

Haft, ^,< muth (f.), <^*4^ kahm, <i*;u^t> dasta. 

Hag, (witch) ^jU ^a'e/i (f.), (fury) Jjj^ churail. (f.) 

Halo, <dlfe ^ttZa, Jjki^ mandal, Jjc»^ kundal. 

Halter, (for a horse) j«i(^b hag-dor (f.), (noose) ,<-^^, phdnsi. 

Ham (of pork), ,j]^ i^JjT lL^^ l/j^>^ sw'ar H narnak-dluda ran. 

Hammer, (sledge) ^*f^ hathord, (small) u^V-^ hathaun. 

At hand, i^^^j^ maujud, j^\s>- hdzir. 

From hand to hand, lh^-jJj c:^«:J c/«s^ ba-dast. 

Handful, ^c^ inutlii, ^j t J lap-bhar, c:--wl^ musht. 

Handle, <^:i«jJ dasta, cU^^ 2>i?2j, ^-J kabza, ^yo muth. (f.) 

Handmaid, ^J^n'*** ^^^^^j J^^ '^i'^^^ (f-)> i-^'^^^ laundi. 

Handwriting, krs- Miatt, Lri. l::^**!^ dast-khatt. 

Hap, (accident) jUj\ ittifdk, (luck) c:^v4wJ kismat. (f.) 

Happiness, I* 1^1 aram, JcJ! dnand, ^\j^ kdmrdni. 

Hardware, ^^ lokhar, ^J-^ ^^^ j<^^l ^o^e ki chizen. 

Harm, ^^LaiiJ nuksdn, jj^ zarar, ^\ij ziydn, ^j ranj. 

Harmony, J^ 7nel, jWi ittihdd, lSj^^j^ sdzgdri. 

Harp, \2iji barbat (f.), i^S^ chang (f.), ^ &7w. (f.) 

Harvest, (time) jjJ l::^^ wakt-i-dirau, (grain) -.13 1 andj. 

Haste, ^A>- jaldJy ^^^ shitdbi, J/b1 utd'oll : see Rage. 

Hate, Hatred, Cl^ nofrat (f.), O^Ijlc addwat (f.), ^ ghin. (f.) 

Haughtiness, jyr gh urur, Sua^ gkamand,j^ kibr. 

Health, ^^i-o^JcJ tandurusti, lh^^*^ sihhat (f.), aJ^T aram. 

Heap, -Jbi dher, j\j\ ambdr, Siiyi toda, (jJ\j rds. 

By heart, (j;^^jcL^ nok-i-zabdn. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 227 

Hearth, l^^ chauka, l^^ ckulhd, (dakh.) ^^ chula. 

Heat, ^^ garmly c:-^,l^ hararat (f.), ^^J^jalan: see Summer. 

Heathen, ^il^ A:a^r, L::^*^JCi^j but-parast, -^ gabr. 

Height, t^ \sfj\ uncha'z, t^ Ijbj^ charha'l, lJ>^ bulandi. 

Heir, <^^^ waris, ^J^j i(;a/7, Jo.^ J^ watl-ahd. 

Help, JJc^ madad (f.), ij:^Ui«sl istVdnat (f.) : see Aid. 

Hem, (border) 4^*^ m agh zl^ uJl^srUj sanjaf (f.), jy for. (f.) 

Hemisphere, IfcJl l^ jjf^ Arwre /:a adha, il^ i(j\ adh-gold. 

Hemistich cK-^a^ misrd^j CS^ tuk (f.), |0^ charan. 

Heptagon, ^.m . < musahbt^, \3^ cl?Lj sdt-kond. 

Herd, (flock) jl3 war, ^ galla, (crowd) i}^ ghply s:,^jhund. 

Heresy, L::.-%i:Jj JicZ'a^ (f.), jlsSl iZ>^ac?, .f:-^ kupath. 

Heritage, cA-^ TwJra* (f.), C->;^ irs, ^^ bajjauti. 

Hermaphrodite, J^S^i^*- khunsa^ \ys^ hijrd, 

Hero,^ blr, ^J\^^ pahlawdn, ji^\^_^ bahddur^ ?W^ shuja^. 

Hexagon, ^^-Ju-^ musaddas, jLl^-^ ^JJ^ shash-pahlu shakl. 

Highlander, V.**^^^ pahdriyd, ^J'^-Jb^ kohistdni. 

Highness, tJ*^ bulandi j (an address) c>^*tfi>- hazrat (f.): see Height. 

Highwater,jy»- 1^ bhard jatodr, JU^Jk^ madd-i-kamdl. 

Highway, i\j AL shdh rdh (f.), 6z^\j J«j Jam rdsta. 

Hilt, ^^ ?WMf A (f.), <Us-i kabza, <!ii«jJ dasta, 

Hinderance, JlSl atkd'o, jl^ rukd'o, J-»U- AaVZ, ?T ar. (f.) 

Hint, ^l-i»^ ishdra, \aji\ irnd (f.), <oli^ kindya. 

Hire, ^^ JaZaJ (f.), <l>l^ kirdya, Sjj^A ajura, Ijl^ J/iara. 

Hireling, ^Iji^^l ajuraddrfj^ii^j^jrozma-ddr. 

History, ^J^y tawdrikh (f.), ^^Ij ^arlA;^ (f.), O-Aj r away at. (f.) 

Hive, lix^ chhattdj f^L^.makhiydl, dj\^jyjj zambur-khdna. 

Hock (of a horse) ^^JjI j^ ^j^e g^^^re ki tri. 

Hole, (pit) [iyf garhd, (rent) Ju^^ cA/tec?, ^|^^ surdldi. 

Hollow, 2r^L-^-lJ nasheb gdh (f.), ^^ jaufjjk^ khaldr. 

Holyday, ^X^ id (f.), jU^* te'ohdr, c-^j parab. 

Home, j^ ghar, ^,lLo makduy ^J cZera, ^^;C*.< maskan, Jbj watan. 

228 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Homicide, ^J^i Adj^ mardum-kushl : see Murderer. 

Honesty, «^*Ul*^ sacha'i, ^<-'|^ rasti, iS\j4 khard'i, JJc^ sidk. 

Honey-comb, l::^ chhatta ^Jj^ shan, ajU- 4^^^ shahd-khana. 

Honour, ci^ izzat (f.), li^j pat (f.), (rank) <LJ^ martaba. 

Hoop, <';iiL»- halka, ^J*^ kundli,j»:^ chambar. 

Horoscope, ^JJ:^^ j^^ janam-patrl, <^ \j za^icha. 

Horror, c:----Ji> haibat (f.)? Jy^ /^awZ, L::^^^>J wahshat. (f.) 

Horserace, ^j^^J^^ ghur-daur. (f.) 

Horseshoe, JjO %a*/. 

Horticulture, t/'-J^V^^'f- chaman-bandi, i^WV bagh-bam. 

Hospital, ajU^jU-J bimar-khana, Ull^^^J daru-sh-shafa. 

Hospitality, ^5^^^yL^ musafir-parwarl, t^j\Si\^^ mihmandari. 

Host, (entertainer) (^l^j--< mezbdn, ^IjoU^ mihnanddr : see Army. 

Hovel, 5j-^^f- jhompra,j^K^ chhappar, ^Ji^ kufi. 

Hound, Isi^ t-f;^ shikari kuttd. 

Hour-glass, lii^^L <ll--i» shisha-e-sd'at, ^^jf ^^ <^[> bdlu ki gharj. 

Householder, o — ib^ girhist, j\>^ ajU- khdna-ddr. 

Hubbub, iSj\^ Ji ghul- gh apdra, Ljy.J^ harbarl. 

Hue and cry, jl^j CS'i\^ hdnk-pukdr (f.), ^c ghul. 

Humanity, l::-a-^j1 ddmiyat (f.), Cl^L*:^/*!^ bhalmansdt. (f.) 

Humankind, ^l--jl insan, a»^\ ^j baniddam. 

Humility, i<t^^ gharlbi, lii^jl adhlntd. (f.) 

Humour, (juice) ^^-^ ras, ^.^ ^a/'I, (of the body) laLs- Mz'/jf. 

Hunger, .^^ bhukh (f.), 9^ju(f.\ ^^:^^ gursinagi. 

Hunt, Hunting, jii-Sj shikar, Ju-^ 5aic? (f.), ^jjk^ khader. 

Hurry, ^Ap^jaldi, . ^jli-i* shitdbl, ^y.j^ harbarl.. 

Husbandry, ^^^^ kisna'i, ^Ji^ kheti, ^^l^o^ kishtkdrt. 

Husk, 1^3^ chhilkdyKj bakld: see Chaff. 

Hyperbole, <UiL« mubdlagha, ^^ji\ igh rdk. 

Hypocrisy, b^ ny«, ^^«^U ^a/w^, ^^ wzafcr, cU-i kapat. 

Jack, (engine) J^ /caZ (f.), (for raising weights) K,ct> damkald. 

Jail, <Olr>. JuJj kaid'khdnaf tOlaTJcj bandtkhdna. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 229 

Jalap, J5»- ^ (^\^ J^ gul-i abbas kl jar . 

Idea, Jl-i> khiyaU jy^ tasauwur, ^Lfci3 dhyan. 

Idiom, Ai^ jjo tarz-i-kalam (f.), 3k,tfl istilah, (f.) 

Idiot, -^^ ^^^:»^ janarni murakh, ^>\^ gidi, J^^^pagaL 

Idleness (want of employment), ljJ^, bekarl, (laziness) ^^x^,.*^ susti : 

see Sloth. 
Idol, l::^ but, ^ sanam, <-^j^ murat. (f.) 
Idolater, e:^^ ^j:^3 but-parast, CJy^ mushrik, j^ gabr. 
Jealousy, ^ zann, jjU^ <^, bad-gumdm, CL^jfS, gh airat. (f.) 
Jest, ^y^ khilB, J^ mazakhj \^ thathd. 
Jesus Christ, ^J^— ^^c c:J;*i>. hazrat-isa. 
Jet, Jet d'eau, ^^y fawwdra, ^Jip^} dbkhezt, C->^ 50^. 
Jew, J^>J yakudf t-?<^j^. yahudi. 
Jews-harp, t^^^^ murchangj t^^'* muchang. 
Ignorance, yjL^\.>^ jahdlat (f.), j<3^^^ ndddnl : see Folly. 
Ill, (evil) fc_?^J^ burdi, (harm) ci^T a/a^ (f.), h bald, (f.) 
Image, il:L> putld, i-^jyo murat (f.) : see Idol, Likeness. 
Imagination, ji^^ tasauwur, Jl-^ khiydl, ^J^^ dhydn. 
Immodesty, ^Xs^- be-hijdbl, ^^ ^r^^^ be-hayd'l. 
Impatience, ijj^^, besabrt, ^ l^Jjlj nd-shikebdl. 
Impertinence (disrespect), j^jl ^^ be-adabl, ^^^t^ gustdJdii, 
Impiety, (J^ fisk, ^^y ^^ ^ nd-khudd-tarsl, /♦/^•^^ adharm. 
Import (meaning), ^^^*3t^ ma^ni, ^y^^^ mazmun. 
Impostor, jb IcJ daghd-bdz, tL^ thag,jLomakkdr. 
Impression, (mark) ^Jiso naksh, (print, edition) bl^ chhdpd. 
Imprisonment, JuJi kaid, ^J->.^ habs, Joj band. 
Improvement, ^J^, bihtari, ^J tarakki, 3^\ isldh. (f.) 
Inability, ^^iilLlj nd-tdkati, lSj^>^^ ,^ be-makdurt. 
Incarnation, (of a divinity) jlvjl autdr, (of a wound) JUjJ! indimdl. 
Incendiary, Jjiyl ^*! dtash-afroz, (seditious) jJi^ ^^T dtash-angez. 
Incense, ^jb^ lobdn, j^^ bakhur, jy: ud. 
Inch, j-J tassu, Jiil ungalov J&l angul, jy^ por . (f.) 

230 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Incision, <3l^ kat (f.), ^^^ hurrish (f.), \j^ dura. 
Inclination, i^^iL^ mailan, J-*^ mail, (wish) <*^:^^j r agh hat. 
Income, (rent) iJ\^ kiraya, (revenue) J»^l amad, (f.) 
Inconvenience, Lci^l^li na-muwafakat (f.), ^^AC* takltf. (f.) 
Increase, ^^^^i^ barktl, ^yj^l afzum, ^J tarakki. 
Incubus, (y-^jl^ kabusy (dakh.) lJ^^ ^^r* sina-kondl. 
Indenture, <u\3 »X^ ahd-nama, <^^3jsr« machalka, tdLji kabala. 
Index, (pointer out) Jb tZaZ/, JJ J (/aZ?Z, (of a book) ^^^.^i Jihrist, 
Indigo, (die) J J 7i7Z, (plant) c:^rs.jt> l^ JJ ?i7Z /ca darakht. 
Indisposition, (disinclination) ^/^^ namarzl, (illness) ^^V< man- 

Individual, t)^ fard, (j^k"^ <-l^J ^^ shakhs, J>.|^ wahid. 
Indolence, ,^i*-**s susti,\}jb^ kahili, ^ 1^3 dhlla't. 
Industry, c:-^xsr< mihnat (f.), -^^ j Ss^jidd o jahd. 
Infancy, ^^-^ bachpan, Lii^J^iL tufuliyat (f.), ,^^^ ?.^j^^. 
Infection, c:^:tJ;->' sirayat (f.), ci^y^ ufunat. (f.) 
Inference, <ts^:i3 natlja, J**!^ AasiZ, Ji>^ af/caZ. (f.) 
Infidel, ^l^ kaJlr,jS gabr, ^.<^:jJ bedln, CJjL^ mushrik. 
Infidelity, i^ /cw/r, tiJ^ sAir/:, iS^}^J bc-imani. 
Inflammation, ^J^jalan, (J^jy^ sozish (f.), <-r^^'=>J^ iltihab. 
Influence, yl asar, jJ\j tdfir, >^ hukm, l-jU byap. 
Information, ^ khabar (f.), ^1 ^'/jJiZa* (f.), -^'■^-' 5wc?^. (f.) 
Informer, aUj nammam, ^j^„y <^^^ khufya-nawis. 
Infraction, '^'^ faskh, e, — d shikast (f.), (.^^i^ bhang. 
Ingot, ilj c?aZa, l^ thakka, cUX)J 2wJ. (f.) 
Ingratitude, c$/^^ na-shukrl, ij:^aju ^J>^ kufran-i-ni^mat. 
Inhabitant, ^^L sdkin, >JU mukim, ii^'J^\ji bdshanda. 
Inheritance, d^l irs, cL?];-^ »22^«;?, lt!^ bapauti. 
Injury, (hurt) t-^-^-^l a5eZ>, ^ j^l Izd (f.) : see Detriment, Injustice. 
Injustice, ^^\ ^, be-insdfi, (wrong) j]b zulm. 
Ink, ^\^ siydhl, ^j li-i»jj roshnd'i, (red) ^^j^ surkhl. 
Inkhorn, Inkstand, ci^ljJ dawdt (f.), ^b JJJ kalam-ddn. 

Vocabulary Nouns. 23 1 

Innocence, ^Jb^^ htgunahl, ^^.♦.-ac ismat (f.), ^^b 'paki. 
Inquiry, -^l> -^^ puchh-pachh (f.), (^/i-^ pursish, (f.) 
Inscription, tuli^ kitaba, ^.i:--^ likhat (f.), (♦y^-* markum. 
Insertion, Jlr>-jl idklidU -rb^^ indirdj, <d>lj dajchila. 
Inspection, ^Ui mgaA (f.), ^ wa^ar (f.), Is'ls! Zi^as. 
Inspector, ^^-^1 amin, (%-^»3>^ muhtamim, d^^J\i^ dar ogh a. 
Inspiration, (drawing in the breath) yj^(*^ damkashl, (divine) ^>-^ 

wahu (f.) 
Instalment, (to office) j^J».i-^Jo- MiiVat-dihlj (portion) k«J kist. (f.) 
Instance, (entreaty) c::^-*-!^^ darkhwast (f.) : see Affair, Example. 
For instance, ^ masalarij ^ ^...^jaisa ki. 
Instruction, >-Lu ta^llm, (f.), ^ l^ sikha'i: see Education. 
Instrument, <iJT a/a, z:^ jantTj ^L^ hathyar, tj-^b 5a'/^. 
Musical Instrument, l^b baja,jLi sdz, 
Insult,J-^ ch/ier (f.), jJ? (an^r (f.), l::^*U-1 shamdtat. (f.) 
Insurance (against loss), U-j Jl/wa. 
Insurrection, \^ balwdj ^ulxJi hangdma, jLi fasdd. 
Integer or Integral number, ^^*^ i-^<A;i adad-i-mfiih. 
Intellect, Intelligence, Jjb a/:/ (f.), ^^yb ^o^/i, JbJJ 5mc?A. (f.) 
Intelligence (news)^^-r5^ khabar (f.), c^l ifiiia^, i<^^^ dgdhi. 
Intent, Intention, Ju^ itovvc?, Si^\j\ irdda, ul^ my at. (f.) 
Intercession, L::^£.U-i» shafd'at (f.), ci^L. wasdtat. (f.) 
Intercourse, JJi tX« I dmad-shud (i.\ ^Sis. aldka. 
Interest, (for money) J^j sud, «-.Ij iya; .* see Concern, Benefit. 
Interference, J^ii dakhl, i^j^^\ ci^-^O dast-anddzi. 
Interjection (in grammar), IjuuJp- harf-i-nidd, uJp- ^ar/. 
Interim (in the), ^j-^ cjW^^ U^^ ^ darmiydn men. 
Interposition, Intervention, un-^LLj wasdtat (f.), j1*«jj waslla. 
Interpretation, <Uȣ>y tarjuma^ f^j^ tashrlh. (f.) 
Interrogation, jLi:;«jl istifsdr, A^-b-jl istifhdm. 
Interruption, lt^^^ harakat (f.), Ji>- khalaU ^yt> harj. 
Interstice, A^\sfdsila, (between fingers or toes) ^ \^ ghd'i. 

232 Vocabulary — Nouns. 

Interval, ^^}>f^j'^ darmiyan, ^i hich,jLi\ antar. 
Interview, CI-jUL) mulakat (f.), cUx^ hhent. (f.) 
Intimation, ^l-i>l ishara, <oLi kinaya, ^^\ tma. (f.) 
Intoxication, liJ nasha, ^j:,...^ masti, ^j^y^^ hehoshi. 
Introduction, Jl>jl idkhal, (of a book) ^1-Jt3 dtbaja. 
Invective, Jli ga^, t-5;\;<^ ^^Vj zahan-darazi. 
Invention, t>l^J yac?, ^\/i>-^ iJditird^, C^:^L sakht. (f.) 
Inventor, *X^^ mujid, ^|^ wazi^^ ^Jb Ja?zz. 
Inventory, I&L-j siyaha, J i /arc^ (f.), ^ULUj* ta^lika. 
Investigation, ^ji:^ talash (f.), ,^_;:l-:iA^ taftish. (f.) 
Invitation, cuy:^ da^wat (f.), b^J nyotciy t-^ii? Jfa/aJ. (f.) 
Invoice, (_/-l:^l i::^^jji^ fihrist-i-ajnaSf lS^J, hijak. 
Job, (work) J^* Ja^aZ (f.), z*^ ^^5 jAz/ca /cam, (stab) Jyb hul. (f.) 
Jointure, ^;^ mahr. 

Joke, l^' thatha, ^1^ khilll, ^j^ mazdkh. 
Jolt, iJJbJ dhakkdf CLi^^jhok (f.), ^^^^ hachkola. 
Jot, Iota, ^;c> zarra, i^ nukta, JJ ^zZ. 
Journal, <^b Jjij roz-ndma, ^J^^\ dwdrja, \j^ khasrd. 
Journey,^i-j safar, tr^L.^ musdfarat. (f.) 
Journeyman, L*^ kamerd, ^Jojl^ kdranda. 
Joy, Lc-^^^ khishly ^J^- Miurraim, (jJL bilds, ^s^jai. 
Irony, ^[^ ys^ hajo malih (f.\jsr^ tasa Mikh ur. 
Itch, (disease) «-.l^ khdj (f.), ,J-^^ /cZi.zf/Zi : see Desire. 
Judgment, (decision) uJUaJl insdf, (sentence) |X>- ^w^m : see Intel- 
Judgment (day), c:.-^^lJ kiydmat (f.),jLs>- hashr. (f.) 
Juice, (^^j ras, jy^ arait, !fjjJ^ shtra, \^j>' jusj ,Jb joawz. (m.) 
Jump, ^^ kuldnch (f.), t^f kud (f.), L::^^,^jast. (f.) 
Junction, J^Jor, Jo^ jpaiwand, J^^wasl. 
Juncture (time) l::-^^ i/;a^^, c:^lU- ^aZa^ (f.) : see Junction. 
Ivory, ci^Ij L<f'^ hdthi-ddnt, -.U «;, ^jltX3jLi fll-danddn. 
Jurisdiction, S^ hukm, cji^vcj^ hukumat {^'),^j(Xs kalam-rau. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 233 

Jury, l::^\s^j panchayat (f.), ^^panch. 
Justice, t-jLa3\ insdf, Jj^ adl, j\^ nyaw: see Judge. 
Kalendar, t^ifj takwim (f.), \/V^ patra. 
Kali, ^1j itaZz, ^^^ ^W^- 

Keepsake, ^liJb yadgarl, «Jyfc3lj y ad-hud, ^\tJ nishanl. 
Kennel, (for dogs) dj\>-^j\i tdzl-khana : see Gutter. 
Kermes, L^ kirmiz. 

Kernel, JjU maghz, \df gudd, (of cocoa-nut) \.j/ gari. 
Kick, cJi Idt (S.\J^ thokar (f.), J^ /a/ca^?. (f.) 
Kiln, ^c^ hhathl, (especially for grain) Jl^ hhafy (potter's) \^\ dwd. 
Kin, j^jIjU ndtd-ddry ICj saga, jl J<ti-i>^ rishta-dar. 
Kind, (genus, race) ^^.j^jins, CL^^J zdt (f.), ^y 7ia^A 
Kindness, ^^^j^^ mihrbdnl, i^y tawajjuh. (f.) 
Kindred, Jcj u^*l^ bhd'1-band, byl akribd, ^,f- khwesh. 
Kingdom, c::--:JaL5 saltanat (f.), c:^Jbl-i>t)l> bddshdhat, (f.) 
Kinsman, jb <b-2b^ rishta-ddr, ,<^^ kardbafi. 
Kiss, to^ chumd, «iUy Josa, i<ff^ machhi. 
Paper Kite, ijS^ guddi, i^S^ patang, Jij tukkal. (f.) 
Knack, (habit) e^Jb J rf/iai, <U-Lj saZiita : see Dexterity. 
Knapsack, "^^^^jholdyl^ thaild, ^^^^Li^ jdma-ddrii. 
Knave, jbliJ daghd-bdz^J^ aiydr,j^ makkdr. 
Kneading-trough, \j^ kathrd,j\i3 taghdr, ^^^ kathaufi. 
Knight, jJI^ bahddur, \jj^ mirzdy (at chess) \j^ ghdrd. 
Knob, -^^ gdnth (f.), (dakh.) ^dc^ gundi. 
Knocker (of a door), <itiiL>- halka, j J iAs>- halka-dar. 
Knot, ^l^ gdnth (f.), jJLc akd, a^ girih (f.), ^j pec/^. 
Knowledge, Ac *//w, J&JJ Jm^ZA (f.), en — jlfc> ddnist. (f.) 
Label, li^ pa^a, ,<^5^ chitthi, <ul3 --» sar-ndma. 
Labour, d-^i^** mihnat (f.), ^J rfw/r^, (in birth) i^ JjJ dard-i-zih. 
Lace, (gold or silver) ^^ gold, ^^'-^ kindri, (cord) t^jt^ dori. 
Lacker, (varnish) lL^ luk, ^^j raughan. 
Lady, j^^j JiJ?, j^yU- Midtun (f.), Jlr^ Midnam. (f.) 

2 H 

234 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Lamentation, <^l3 nala, csj^j zari^ <^y nauha, ^ij giriya. 

Lampblack, Jc>-1^ kajal, ^i)^J dudaj \^ kajla. 

Lampoon, tjs^ hajo (f.), ^j^^:*^ hhandauwa. 

Lancet, ^^ nashtar. (f.) 

Landlord, jljCuj^J zamlndar, (of an inn) ^^bj-^ mezbdn. 

Landmark, ^W siwdna, Ja^^ mend (f.), 1ju^3 ddndd. 

Landscape,^j-A> ^ S\y»i b lLA^ ^*-^ kisu mulkyd sawddkt taswlr. (f.) 

Lane, ^ gall, ii\j rah (f.), l^U ndka. 

Language, ^\jj zaban (f.), ^^!^ 5oZ?, l^l^ bhdkha, (f.) 

Lap, i^tf gdd{i,\ ^^dif godi, ^f^ ^j>^^^ ^^ ^Jj 2rawM ke upar kljagah. 

Lappet, A^ shamlay ^^|;rj^ pairdman. 

Lard, ,^^;^ ^^^ ^J^y^ su'ar kt pakki ckarbl. 

Lascar (from c-^/J lashkar?, soldier), ^1^ khalafi. 

Lash, (thong) \jf kord, (stroke) LL^jI^ <-r^ zarb-i-chdbuk. 

Lass, (young woman) i^--u>jt3 doshlza (f.), l^U nd'ekd. (f.) 

Last (for a shoe), ^^^ w-^llJ> kdlib-i-kafsh, jJl^ kdlbud. 

Lathe, J^^ khardd (f.), L|^ kharrdt. (f.) 

Latitude, j-i'lj*^ chaura't, ^y:- arz (f.), ^/^^^-j^^ darja-e-arz. 

Lattice, uX»-i> shabak, i^Jji^^jhanjhrt, (j^jdl, ^^ khirkl. 

Laudanum, jf^ 1^ >-i^ afim kd arak. 

Laughing-stock, ijsr'*^ ynasTdiara, ijjis.*^^ muzhik. 

Laughter, Laugh, (JLXj^*^ tazhik (f.), (<— ^^ hansi. 

Law, (rule) 2f*Xcli kd'ida, (statute) ^^M a'aw, j^^yliJ kdnun. 

Lawn, j]fy^ marghzdr, ^i^ maiddn : see Muslin. 

Lawsuit, ^j^L> da^wd, <U^ kaziya, <UJJU mukaddama. 

Laziness, ,J2— *j 5?/5^7, ^^y^ mafhuli, J^J c?^7Z. (f.) 

Leader, ^yL*j peshwd, j\jj^ sarddr, ^^$j^ sar-guroh. 

Leaf, l::j pattd, C-^b pa^, (^^ 6arg, (of a book) jj^ warak. 

League, (aUiance) J-^ ?we/, (three miles) i^S^u^/ farsang. 

Leanness, Ij^j J dubldpd, ,jjci Idgharl : see Poverty. 

Leap, J».^ kud(f.)y l:l^>*.*>' jast (f.), JJl^p/mwc?: see Jump. 

Learning, J^ ilm, bjj ftic?2/a (f.), lil^X^ fazilat. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 236 

Lease, ^}^ kiraya, ^W-1 ijara, (deed) l5^ pattd. 

Leather, j/**^ chamra, /»^ charm, d^ jild. (f.) 

Leave, d?jl?-l ijazat (f.), ^; ?'o^a (f.), (to depart) Lii^-w^ori^j rwM- 
sat. (f.) 

Leaven (ferment), ^^-.'♦^ Idiamir, iA^ may a. 

Leavings (oiFal), \^^^ jhutha, i^j^ ^ pas-kkiirda. 

Legacy, <UJb hiba, sj>^j wafiyat. (f.) 

Legerdemain, ui^ -^p dlth-bandl, t^\j2rJuJtA sha^bada-bazi. 

Leisure, c:^*^ fursat (f.), c:->iy faraghat (f.), ,^^ chhuttl. (f.) 

Length, ^^ LJ lambdl, AL (S/, jIjc^I imtiddd. 

Lesson, JU-> sabak, (^jJ dars, (precept) jcj pand. 

Letter, uJ^ ^a^, (epistle) lar^ ktcttty ^->- chitthi. 

Lexicographer, tj:^ c-clj^ mu^allif-i-lughat. 

LiberaUty, i^^jud{f.), ^p«4^Jlc dli-himmatl : see Generosity. 

Liberty, (freedom) ^jIj I dzddi, ^5 ^; W/m'i : see Leave. 

Library, <i3lri. c^c^ kutub-khdna, ^^^ <.:L^x^y4^jamTat'i-kutub. 

License, Jo- fiukm, ^J^/ farmdn, ^Sj^^ parwdna : see Leave. 

Licorice, (j^y^ sus, ^^-j-JI J-^l aslu-s-sus, JbX< ^,^Ls>^ jtlhl-madh. 
Lie, ^^^jhuthy c^^J darogh, <— >j^ tei. 
Lieutenant (deputy), ^liU JI5 HVw makdm, c^5l3 waVi. 
Life, ^^ jl (m.),^-:^ J2W?, J^ jan, (hving) ^^J ^^iWagl. 
Lighter, (large boat) j^ bhar. 

Likelihood, JU::^! ihtimdl, ^^jy^ surat (f.), ^^US gumdn. 
Likeness, «j:^^L1 shabdhat (f.), ^.h^IjU^ mumdsalat (f.) : see Form. 
Limit, Limitation, Jk:>- ^ar/c? (f.), <)lLL>-1 ihdtay \j\^ siwdnd. 
Line, (string) jji c^or (f.), i^J? tanab, (streak) j^ lak'ir (f.), (of a 
book) ia-j sfl/ar (f.), (hemistich) ^\;*^j^ misrd^, (equinoctial) 
1^1.^1 Lr^ khatt-i-istiwd : see Limit, Rov^^, Lineage. 
Lineage, J-J wasZ (f.), ^^JJl>- khdnddn, t^.^ nasab. 
Lineament, JU- MaZ, la^ ^a/j[ ; see Feature. 
Linen, ^Jz^ kattdn or katdUy \^ kaprd. 
Lining, ^::m-:\ astar, ^j^tj^ marhan. (f.) 

236 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Link, (of a chain) &j% kaldha, ^jj^ karij (torch) J^l^ masNal. 
Linseed, ^^Ji\ alsi, ^Jc:S assT tukhm-i-katdn, .^*^\ atasi. 
Liquefaction, j*^^ l^zg'AZa'o, ^^ galan, t::^ljki guddkht, (f.) 
Liquid, Liquor, j*^ arakj tjb pdrii (m.), (j^j ras, *^jJ^ shurh. 
List, (roll) ci^^ fihrist (f.), *Xi /arc? (f.), (bandage) ^3 j^a.^f?, 

(border) ^L^ kindra, (palaestra) JJl^ ! akhdrd : see Desire. 
Litharge, i^S':^j>^r< murddr sang, (^i**3 ^J<« murda sang. 
Litter, (chair) j^b ;?aZA:7, (straw) j^T dkhor (f.), (brood) i}^^jhdl. 
A Little, .^^ kucJihy ^3 zarra, JJi jjJJ kadr-i-kaUl. 
Livelihood, ^_fjfjj ro2^?, jjj ri^^/:, l::^^*^ ma'ishat. (f.) 
Load, «^»J hojhyj^^ hhdr, ^yo moth (f.), oil ZatZ. (f.) 
Loaf, ^^^ rof, ^jj rof7, ^^j y b jjawz^? rof?. 
Loan, ^Js karz, ^JbJ c:-^j^ driyat-dilu, J^^ udhdr. 
Lock, (of a door) Jij kufly illj* ^aZa, (of a gun) ^^l^ chdmp (f.), 

J^ kal (f.), (of hair) uJlj zulf (f.), J^l^ /ca/cwZ (f.), (for water) 

Lodge (small house), ^^^ C^^ chhotd gJiar, ^Jj^f kothrt. 

Lodger, *Jl<j muklm, ^rjcJjb hdshanda, j\i^iJ\^ kirdya-ddr. 

Loftiness, (height) ^i*^iJj hulandij (pride) m<^ gh urur. 

Log, i^Jci^ kunda, <^ tana : see Block. 

Logic, ^jL:^ rnantik (f.), ^1?L^ J-c ilm-i-mundzara. 

Logician, (Jii^i^ mantiki, l1X>U3 naiydyik. 

Longitude, J^L jfwZ, ^^^^ lamhdn. 

Looby, ^^jok^ ^Ju-i^U nd-tardshlda shaMis, (dakh.) ]^JC^ hendrd. 

Loom, c:^b* ^aw^ (f.) : see Instrument. 

Loop, ^J^ phaliy <uO tukma, <JJil.>- halka, ^*J\^^ phdnsi. 

Looseness, ^jll^ kushddagl, v^JuiLj bekaidi : see Diarrhoea. 

Lord, (master) ujOU rwaZz/c, ^^^^^U? sa^iJ, (nobleman) ^^U- khan, 

(^-j ieg, -^ ?w7r : see Husband, God. 
Lordship, ^ci^^ sdhihi, d-^Ul imdrat (f), s.::^^U mdliklyat. (f.) 
Lore, Jx *Z/w, l>Jo iu/ya (f.), J^fazL 
Loss, jjIar) nuksdn, C-?;L.>. Miisdrat (f.), (defeat, q. v.)jU ^ar. (f.) 

Vocabulary — Nouns. 237 

Lot, K^ "^^n'} nafihj \jL^A^i kismat (f.), (share) <Uz^ hissa. 

Lottery, ^^j^ sharfi, ^j\j is.^ kur'a-bazl, J-^ \$ l«€^?" chitthi ka 

Lover, ^\s. ashik, c-^lL talihjj\ yar, ^j^ sajjan. (m. f.) 
Lowland, c-^^rj^ fj^<) zam~in-i-nasheh, ^J^^ nlchdn. 
Lowness, ^ l:sa3 riicha'l, ,J^ pusfi, (meanness) d^ J zillat, (f.) 
Lucifer, (the planet Venus) «^J zuhra (f.), ^^ sukr : see Devil. 
Luck, (chance) jUj\ ittlfdk, (fortune) <,,,^;^.^.> nasJb : see Lot. 
Lucre, «-i3 wa/*, i(i^\i fd'ida, Jj-» swc?, ^^ Za&^. 
Luggage, l::^-jJ^^ chlz-bast (f.), c-jL-jI ^ »;?-» ^«i^ ^« a^bdb. 
Lumber, ij:^^J^ «-^^^ nakari chiz-bast, \i^'^\ agarbagar. 
Lump, ilj c^aZa, \j^ tukrd, ilJS tuk, (of sugar, meat) ^J dali. 
Lunacy, J^^^i'^ diwanagi, y^ sir (f.), 1j^ saudd. 
Lunch, Luncheon, \y^^ kalewd, \::Jit\j ndshtd, ^^:Ju tafannun. 
Lust, j<:i--< masti, <-^j-v--» shahwat (f.), ^^-j^ j \^ hawd o hawas. (f.) 
Lustre, jy nur,CJ>^^ chamak (f.), \:>- jild (f.), a^is^jalwa. 
Lute (instrument), lav barbat (f.), ^j-j1? tambur, ^ ilw. (f.) 
Luxury, cl-^^Lx i^^Ar^ ^**^^ ashrat (f ), ,<-i>l*^ aiydshl. 
Lyre, kj^ barbat (f.) : see Harp : (constellation) *J1^1^ nasru-l- 

wdki . 
Mace, (club) 153^ 50w<a, La;^ cisd, j^ gurz : see under Spices. 
Machine, J^ A;aZ (f.\j::^jantr, ^ dla, u:^^i*tf san'at. (f.) 
Madam, j^^^-^ JlJz, Cj^^o-U ^^^^ bibJ sdhib, Jurs-U Xj Je^ra^w sdhiba. 
Mademoiselle, ^J Zar/cl, ^jf^^ chhokrl, i,^^ sabiya. (f.) 
Madness, J-s sir (f.), ^ys>- junun, ^\y,,'^ diwdnagi. 
Magazine, (store) i:i\^ Idiizdna, ^Jk--^ maldhzan, (book) jJL, risdla. 
Magi (one of the), (j^^^ majus, ^ m vgh ^j^gabr. 
Magic, CI^I^W hdzirdt (f.), ^jl^ jarZw, ^^ si^r, iSy totkd. 
Magician, ^j^^- jddugar, jL <i^3^ nairang-sdz, ^L ^a^iV. 
Magistrate, j^Ap-y/a2/;ofar, a^W hakim, J^lc «mZ. 
Majesty, (royal title) ^^ ^l^^ jahdn-pandh, CLJfy,^ hazrat : see 


238 Vocabulary, — Nouns, 

Maintenance, (protection) ^^^j^ Idiahargtri, (food) j^j^^ par- 
war ish. (f.) 
Majority, (greater part) ci?^ kasrat (f.), (full age) ^^b hulugh. 
Make, (form) J^i daul, (structure) t-^jUj hanawat (f.): see Fashion. 
Maker, W karta, ^^^^y^ hananeioala: see Creator. 
Malady, j^^ maraz, csj^^. himarl, tS-^j y'o^, j|j ^ a^^ar. 
Malice, Jo.^ /c7?za, j^«j bughz, lUj\ss. adawat (f.), ^^j^j J«c?7. 
Mallet, \fy<' mogra, ^^y< ^^©^^^ ^>- -f^'* 'mekh-chu, ^S koba. 
Mam, Mamma, UU mama, U^ amma, U ?wa, lv< maiya. (f.) 
Manacle, ^ij^ -f^ hath-kariy (Manacles) ,^V.^ -€^ hath-kariyan. 
Management, ;^];^ sarharahiy lJj^'^j^ karguzarl : see Care. 
Mane, Jb ?/aZ (f), JbJ aydl (f.), l^^^^^* chonti. 
Mange, ^J^ kharish (f.), ^i>s^^ j^ ^^^jy\^ janwaron ki khujU. 
Manger, ^j^ khurliy \j^ kathra, ^J^ than. 
Manhood, ^^j>- jawani, <--^U-^ shahab, u^^^ mardi. 
Manikin, U^b ba'dna, ijjl^j^ mardak, l^jJ larka : see Dwarf. 
Mankind, ^^LjI cy nam insan, /♦J! ^^ Z>a7i? adam,jLi bashar. 
Manna (in medicine), c:^^=s>.^^ sJnrMiisht, ^^vfi-^Ji taranjubm. 
Manner, -^ tar ah (f.), J.k> c?awZ, u^JbJ dhab, j^ taur. 
Manners, (morals) jl>-l aTdilak, (politeness) c—jIj! ftcZa^. 
Manufactory, ^\s>-J^ karkhdna. Manufacture, ijj^j^ kdrlgari. 
Manure, ^b pdnSf clA^ khdt (f.), jl^ Mac? (f.) : see Dung. 
Manuscript, (writing) ks.**' J daskhatt, (book) ^:xJ^y <>z.^^i^ dast-nawishta. 
Map, i>LsiJ naksha, Ci^ iJLsu naksha-i-muluk, il^j pat. 
A Marble (for playing with), \2j\ antd, ^f goU. 
March, (journey) ^^^ kuch, jk^ safar, (month) c^^^^^- chait (?). 
Margin, <U-i>U- hdshiya, }ij\:S kindra, t.^ lab. 
Mark, (sign) ^^lU nishdn, (stamp) 41 J dd gh : see Coin, Butt. 
Market, CJ^:>- chauk,J\j\i bazar, c3\jb hat (f.), .^5i^ penth. (f.) 
Marriage, 2^1^ 5ya^, -.1^3 nikdh, ^S^ shddJ, ^^ IJci-iX^ kadkhadd'i. 
Martingal, ^^J zlr-band, Oll« ,^^^ pesh-band. 
Martyr, Ju.^^ shahld. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 239 

Mass, (lump) \3c^i pinda, ilj dala, (multitude) j U>. jama'd. 

Massacre, JcJ katlj ^U J::JJ katl-i-dmm : see Carnage. 

Master, (proprietor) tl^U malik, (lord) t-^A>-U 5a/n6, (teacher) 

j\;jj-j1 ustad. 
Mastich, ^Jla^a^ mastakl. 

Mat, l>jy horiya, ^ lil>- chata'i, i^Jja saff(f.), ^^b j9«{7. 
Match, (contest) AjIJU mukdbala, ,j;j\i hazl, (an equal) ^^ namr. 
Mate, (comrade) (^f'l-J saM7, \j:^si^ juft : see Husband, Mate (of a 

Materials, c--?L-j1 asbdb, (jUL» sdmdn, <Ujl^ lawdzima. 
Mathematics, e<^Vj(^ ilm-i-riyazi. 

Matrice, Matrix, (mould) latrLs sdnchd, (womb) >>^ ri^w. 
Matter, (substance) ^^ hayuld, (pus) c-^ pi (f.) : see Affair. 
Maxim, (axiom) SiisXs kd'tda, (adage) ^^Jio makula. 
Meadow, j^^^ marghzdr, ^*\p tardily i^\y>- chardgdh. 
Meal, (flour) \5T did, Jj\ drd, (eating) bl^^ khdnd. 
Meaning, ^J'J^^ mc^ni, ^J|^1 irdda, ^j\ arth, JuaiU maksad. 
Measure, ^\a,^ paimd'lsh (f.), l-jIj ndp (f.), l-^U two/?, (in verse) 

^j^ wazn, ^)^ mtzdn, (in music) JIj ^aZ, (portion) <U35>- ^i^sa, 

(means) JjJ daul, c-*^-0 tarklb (f.), (a land measure) «.---J;f- 

Jani (f.), ^^ kafthd, (for cloth) f gaz. 
Meat, (flesh) \.z^^f gosht, {^U 7war*5, (food) l3l/ khdnd: see Food. 
Mechanics, J-i3^^ Jlz ilm-i-jarr-i-sakiL 
Medal, <Uxj t agh ma^ d^ sikka, \jX< mudrd. (f.) 
Mediation, j'lsT' ^j btch-bichd'o, c:^L^ wasdtat, (f.) 
Meditation, jjtjb^} dhydn, (thought) .lj^A:r, J^b* ta'ammuL 
Meed, ^ sila, j>-\ ajr, \\>-jazd(f.), <^Jtssr tuhfu. 
Meeting, \^^ sabhd (i.\ ^\a^ jamd^Oj ^^:^^^jt^^ jam'tyat. (f.) 
Melancholy, U^to mdkhuliyd, \jy^ saudd, JiU maldl. 
Melody, <Ux) naghma, ^^j^ sarod, (^S^\ dhang. 
Memoir, <*^jly tawdrlkh, c:^^ j^ sar-guzasht (f.), ^JJ tazkira. 
Memorandum, L::--wi>U jb ydd-ddsht (f.)» j^ '^V. yad-dwar. 

240 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Memorial, ;^ibb yad-gar, (petition) c:^-i>b ^joy:. arz-ddsht. (f.) 
Memory (faculty of), <daiU- hdjiza, kbs- hifz, (remembrance) Jb ydd. (f.) 
Mendicity, ^'\si gadd'lj i^j^ fakiri. 
Mending (repair), ci^-v*^ marammat, (f.) 

Mensuration, (^jU-j paimd'lsh (f.), (of land) JL^ ^^jP;- janb-kashl. 
Mention, ^^ J zikr, l>y=^ charcha,j^x^ mazkuVf j\^ c:--j hat-kaha'o. 
Merchandise (goods), JU mdlj ij..^jins (f.), Jfj rakam, (f.) 
Meridian, (noon) jl^^^i «— i-^ nisfu-n-nahdr, (line) jl^JI u-ii*a5 L:^ 

Merit, ^gun,j^ kadr (f.), jib^ jauhar, t*r^U liydkat. (f.) 
Mermaid, ^j-jUi:?-j*<2Z»2a?zw5 (m. water-man) fjs:^\<j:^uj bintu-l'bahr,(j.) 
Merryandrew, iy^'-*^ maskhara, JulgJ bhdndj ^J^\^ swdngJ. (m.) 
Message, /♦Uj payam, /♦^^ pa igh dm^ L-jAi«j sandesd. 
Messenger, j^\x^ paighdmbar, ^^^^x*^ sandesi, ^JSy^ harkdra, d^Xi 

Messiah, ,j^*-a5 maslhj lsn.*«^ masihd, J5— ^ cr-5,Ma>- hazrat Isd. 
Metaphor, ^Ic^^ istVdra, jls^ majdz, (simile) Uj\ upamd. (f.) 
Metempsychosis, ^lij tandsukh, j\j^\ autdr, ,ji^\^^ dwdgavjan. 
Method, (order) c-^J^J w^ZmS, (manner) jjb taur, J^i c^awZ, <isA^ 

Metre, ^j^^ mlzdn (f.), jssr bahr (f.), *la3 nazm (f.), j^J^ wazn. 
Metropolis, L::--^:.l2LJ)J^J ddru-s-saltanat, ^l^sT taMitgdh. (f.) 
Mettle, CL^ phurt (f.), i.::^/»Ji) himmat (f.), i^j^\>- jdnbdzl. 
Mice, jjL&^s*- clmhiydn, ^y>- chuhe. 
Mien, <!JlJ kiydfa, ^j^ chihra, ^J c?^a;, j-*i?^ 2^02*. (f.) 
Might, CJy kuwat (f.), Jj bal, j*j s-or, jiJjU makdur. 
Mildew, IfcJcJ lendhdj ^^^ chittl, \S^j4 g^^^^^j 1*^ hardd. 
Mile, J-j^ wzzZ, ^^^ UjI ac?Aa /;o5. 
Milestone, jl:^* mandr, J^.^ mindr, j^^ j^JJll.j 1^ J^ w7Z /:« nishdn- 

ddr patthar. 
Mill, ^^ chakklj lL/1>- c/mA:, I2JW jdntdy L«j1 «5i?/«, (wind) 

L5^^^ pawan-chakk'i, (water) ;^^^-s^ pan-chakkl. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 241 

Minaret, Jc^ manar, ajc^ manara, Jc^ minar. 

Mine, J^ khan (f.), ^^ kan (f.), (under walls) i^^ surang. 

Mint (place of coining), JLio taksal (f.), i~r^jA\Jd daru-z-zarb. (f.) 

Miracle, d^jU j^ khark-i-ddat, l::^J karamat (f.), ^^^F*^ mn^jiza. 

Misbehaviour, ^^-^ »^:' bad-sulukl, ^^^^^ kudhangi. 

Miscarriage, (failure) j^1^^\3 nd-sarbarahi, (abortion) ^^ao- \s\aJ\ 

Miscellany, JXf-^ kachkol (f.)? i^S^jung (f.), <U^^»js^ majmu'a. 
Mischief, t^JJ Jfirt/?, ^5 J;^ buroTi, ^laii3 nuksdn, jj^ zarar. 
Misery, ijjj/*- khardbl, lZ^3 zillat (f.), (Jll^v pareshdnl. 
Misfortune, ^j:^jj bad-bakhtl, l::-^ 5ipa^ (f.), lb &aZa. (f.) 
Miss, (young woman) ^j^ kori, ^JLi betl, (lady) t/jlje-^>-U sahib- 

Miss, cLi^ c/iiiA; (f.), J^ bhul (f.), (loss) j^ kusur, (jo&j naks. 
Mission, tii^Lj risdlat (f.), ^_f^-»/«j«-j paighambariy Jl-^^ irsaZ. 
Mistake, Ikr;^ Ma/« (f.). ^S^ chuk (f.), J^ ^»/^^iZ. (f.) 
Mistress, ^U^l^ sdhiba, ^^-^ Z>7i7, (sweetheart) <j?;^ pydri. 
Misunderstanding, ,<^ laic gh alat-fahmi : see Disagreement. 
Mite, (particle) y,j zarra, xjij reza, (insect) ^ ghun: see Weevil. 
Mixture, ^ L> mild'o, ^/i^T dmezish (f.), (compound) *---^ »wm- 

Mob, J-^ &A7r (f.), /♦jjs^ hujum, Xy^\ amboh, ^y^^ majmu'a. 
Mock, Mockery, ^Lsi'^ maz'haka, j'Vj^ chird'o, \^ thattha. 
Mode, (custom) fji^j rawish (f.), ^Ji\ din (f.), (form) CL^j^^a surat 

(f.) : see Manner. 

Model, <tli3 naksha^ ^y4J namuna, J^J daul, ( Jli ;taZi&. 

Moderation, J^jcxl i^tiddl, c:,-xlijj kana'at (^0,}^j parhez. 
Modesty, ^ Idj (f.), /^jJ^ sharm (f.), L>. hayd (f.) : see Chastity. 
Moistness, Moisture, ei-^^^j rutubat(f.), (j:J^\Jstardwat(f.)f^^ nawii. 
Mole, (spot) JJ fiZ, JU khdl, (mound) dCwlj pushta, ^Job bdndh. 
Molestation, i-J-Kj takUf(f.), \dj\ tzd (f.), j->Ju3j tocZi* (f.), Jbsx^r 


2 I 

242 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Monarchy, ^^li»jb hadshahi, ui^laL saltanat (f.), -V, raj. 

Monastery, i^lii3l^ Miankah (f.), ^^b da' Ira. 

Monday, <U:Jbjt3 do shamba^j^ piryj\^<y^ somwdr. 

Money, jj zar, ,^^--j paise (plur.), ,^j rupai (plur.), ^ take. 

Monk, (^jj4> darweshf jJj fakir, ji\:^ kalandar, i^:b\j rahib. 
Monument, jlft)l> ydd-gdr, (pillar, &c.) ^^^ sm^ww, (tomb) dU5.j 

Mood, (state) cu^U- hdlat (f.), ^^ z^jgs* (f.), (in grammar) ^m^ 

s lgh a. 
Moonlight, Moonshine, ^y^^ chdndm, c-^kibU mdhtdh. 
Moor, (negro) ^^j zangi (m.), ^J^*-^ habslu (m.) : see Marsh, Bog. 
Moral, (of a fable) u::^rsn.^ nasihat (f.), <Ltfl>- khuldsa, ^^:J natija. 
Morality, Morals, J^l akhldk, t— ^t>\ ac?a&, ,^^ tl^ nek-suluki. 
Morsel, <Uiil lukma, i^^^ nawdla, J^ kawal, \J^i tukrd, Sj\j para. 
Mortality, Ui /a/za (f.), 15^ chhai (f.), (deaths) (jty^ mauten. 
Mortgagee, ^^;Vr* '"^urtahin, j^ CSsn^ b JLr g^^^u- or handhak-gir. 
Mortgager, ^»^1^ rdhin, jSd^j^ girauddr, 1)\^ ^^d LliJbJcJ handhak 

Moss, u5*li H'?, j|^ siwdr (Vallisneria spiralis), (dakh.) ^jj run 

(? Harris). 
Mother (on vinegar, &c.), ^ vJyb ^ ^j>^ ^ ^Si^^^ phaphundi 

jo sirkeMar hoii hai. 
Mother of^ pekrl, uJ J^ sadaf (f.), ^^^ sipi. 
Motion, c:--^ harakat (f.), ^J^.i^ jumbish (f.), jljfe Jiild'o : see 

Motive, j^it^V ^^'*:S S-^^'* '"^ujiby t.;--,***' sabab, ilaJi^ wdsita. 
Motto, cu^li^ kitdbat (f.), c:--«lc aldmat. (f.) 
Moveables, <dyb^ JU mdl-i-mankula, ci^wJ J-js- cH^: J«s^ (f) 
Mountaineer, bjl^ pahdriyd, ^^ kohl, ^^ parbatl, J-^ J/«/. 
Mourning, (grief) *i gham, ^wU mdtam, (dress) ^^U ^^*to mdtaml 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 243 

Mouse-trap, ^^b 15^^^ chuhe-ddn,J^ii dahkar, (f.) 

Mouth, *^ munh, (of a river, &c.) l3l^<< muhana, (of a water-bag) 

<!OUj dahana. 
Mouthful, <U^ ZwAr/wa, <01y nawala, J^ A'ai^aZ. 
Mucus, l^^ c^if/ffl, <— >UJ luab, li-^j rewf, >«b bal gh am. 
Mud wall, j\jJt) ,^yse kachclii diwar, J\^^^ ^ ^J^ mitti ki diwdr. 
Mullar (for grinding colours), l5j battd, IjbJ;! lorhiya^ U^ Zor^5. 
Mulatto, L-i--^ mastisd (m. f.) : see Mongrel. 
Multiplication, (in arithmetic) c-^ sarJ (f.), ^jj5>- jorti, (table) 

Ijl^j pahdrd. 
Multitude, (great number) lzj^ kasrat (f.), J^i j^Ao/ : see Crowd. 
Mummy, \^yo momiyd, (a medicine) ^^'L<^ momiyd*!. 
Munificence, d^^ls.-* sakhdwat (f.), J^ Jiirf (f.), ,^/-l>aC baM- 

shish, (f.) 
Murder, ^^ khun, Ujb ^a^ya (f.), J::i ^ ^^ ba gh z se katl. 
Murderer, ^^ khunl (m. ^'),j^j i^y>' khun-rez, ^ aJ^ mardum- 

Murrain, b^ ^J ^^i\j jU- chdr-pdyon ki wabd, ^^y;^ JVj y^ctbdl-i- 

Mushroom, A^ l^ Liir^^ dharfi kd phul, ?j>jU«i samdrughy (dakh.) 

^jjj kudratl. 
Music, ^^^yo muslB, ^^^ naghma, jjWl alhdn, {^\j rdg. 
Musk, iliw^ musJik, uX-< mwA;. 

Muslin, J/*!* malmal (f.), /•^^ shabnam, ^^j lJ\ db-i-rawdn. 
Mustaches, -^^ muchh (f.), ;:;:t«^^ muchhen (plur. f.), Cl?.^ 5w- 

rw^. (f.) 
Muzzle, -^ mz^TiA (f.), Jj^* f^uhrdy (bore of a gun) ^jj^-^ muhriy (for 

cattle) <_^W-ja5. 
Myriad, (ten thousand) j^ (j^d dashazdvy f^\^y toman. 
Myrrh, (a gum-resin)^ murr, J^ boL 

Mystery, j\j rdzy ^^r^ ghaiby Ju^ bhed, (trade) t-^--i' kasb. 
Mythology, ^tc;:'.«^ dt'o-mdldy ^\^ ^J jo; ^^,^ dewtd'on kt kahdm. 

244 Vocabulary, — Nouns, 

Nag, ^jb yahUf »!S tattu^ W*^ gkora. 

Nail, (of iron, &c.) li^^ mekh (f.), J-^ kil (f.), (in measure) Sj^ 

girik. (f.) 
Nakedness, ^^j^ harahnagt, ^^,j^ uryani, cf^^ nangoHi, 
Name, ^l3 nam, ^\i nanw, *-ol ism, (title) c-^ lakah : see Fame. 
Namesake, ^\3 ^Jb ham-nam, is^*^ sam7, ^<<^ sananii (?). 
Nap, (short sleep) JdJ <J>;^^* ^^on tiztzcZ (f.), (of cloth) i^j resha. 
Napkin, JU:i«iJ dastmal, Jtcjj rumal, \^^\ anguchha. 
Narration, Narrative, Jii3 naJcl (f.), l::^j\^ hikayat (f.), <^ itma. 
Narrator, t^jlj ra?/j7, Jilj wa^eV, ^^iU w«^Z7, ^^^ hakJ, 
Narrowness, ^^icJ ^aw^?, l/^J^ sakra'i, (meanness) ,^c^fc^ {^A^* ^«wg- 

Nastiness, c^^^l^sr najasat (f.), J-^ maz7, j^^^l aludagl, c:-^lc 

ghildzat. (f.) 
Native country, ^j watan, ^^J cZe^, /♦y J^J zad-bum. 
Nativity, jJ J tawalludf *:^ janam, (place) jJ^ maulid. 
Nature, (constitution) \.:l^jlJ!^ tahVat (f.), «-.l^ mizaj : see Custom, 

Navigation, ,<:>-^ mallahi, t^ Ijci-lj nakhuda^i, As. ^j\^jahazl ihn. 
Nearness, fj^,'^jj nazdtkl, l^Js kurb, JUxf^ ittisal : see Covetousness. 
Necessaries (things needed), ^j^j^ c-jL-jI asbab-i-zarurl, <ujl^ la- 

Necessity, CL^ji^ zarurat (f.), ^->j5>-^ wujub, (need) ci-^^U- ^a;a^ 

(f.) : see Force. 
Necromancy, jJU- Jac?w, l?;^^^- jO'dugari, ij^^ sahiri, ^^*^ 

tasMur, (f.) 
Nectar, CIJ^I amrit, \jy^ \i\^ sharaban tahura,J^ lJ\ db-i-kausar. 
Need, ^l:^i^^ ihtiydj (f. m.), jj^^ gh araz (f.), -j^j C-jIJ tdtparj : see 

Needle, (for sewing) ^ y^ su% ^jy*i sozan (f.), (packing) 1^ sw'a, 

(of the compass) i^ y» ^^^ c^LJJ kutb-numd ki su'i, liUl^ kdntd. 

Eye of a needle, l^U ndkdyjiy^ sufdr, (m. f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 245 

Negation, jlCl inkar, ^Ju nafi (m.), c-Ju*j salh, dj radd. 
Neglect, Negligence, L::-Jii ghaflat (f.), ^^^^ kahiUy ,^^i— j susti. 
Negotiation, A^\x^ mu^ dmala^ J^^J^ karohar, 
Negro, .t..->- fiabshl, ^j zangiy A^ siyah, t^Ju-j sidi or «^JlJ» 

5^7c?J (?). 
Neighbour, ibL,/«Ji) hamsaya, ^jj^ pardsl,J\^s^ hamjawar. 
Neighbourhood, (j^^ji paros, J\^ jawdr, ^jL^aJh hamsaya. 
Nest, "LJj^ ghonsld, UjJ^ khondhd, <0'wJjT dshiydna, Lb ia^a. 
Nestling, \s^ geddy 3l;-i»T ashiydrii, IjJ Zer/a. 
Net, J\>-jdl, bUj dhdhd, aIj c?aw2. 

News, ^lo"l aJMdr, (sing.) ^^ khabar (f.), ci>U5lj wdkVdt, 
Nib, (point) (Jjy woA; (f.), J^ aw«, (beak) ^^ f^or. (f.) 
Niche (recess in a wall), jll:?, jtflit, <Sjsrll? tdkcha. 
Nickname, l---a1 Jj 5ac? lakab, a\j ^^ urfi ndm. 
Niggard, J-s^ bakhJU lIX-**^ mumsik, (j^^^ kanjus, *y^ sum. 
Nitre, Saltpetre, ^^ shdra,jAi\ abkir or a5A:ar (?). 
Nobility, (J:^^^ shardfat (f.)> <*^W=^ najdhat (f.), (nobles) li^ 

Noble, Nobleman, ^^\ amiry j\S^*a:>.^ mansabddr, xSa£- umda. 

Nobody, ^^^ c^j^ /co7 nalnn, (figurat.) J-^ l3 nd-chiz. 

Noise, jy^ shor, i^fj\i bdng (f.), j\^ dwdz (f.), Jji ^m/, Ic^ 

Nomenclature, ^U /♦b ndm-mdld, \^'^ji farliang (f.), j.::^ lughat, (f.) 
Nominative (in gram.), ^^^ fa^il, C^Ja:ls ci-Jlc*- hdlat-i-fd'iliyat. (f.) 
Nonce (purpose), ifjl^l irdda, JusJ /ca^J, c_^la^ matlab, ^^ 

gh araz. (f.) 
Nonentity, Nonexistence, aJu: adam, ^A«*-J wes^I, ci^^^^b nd-budi. 
Nonsense, ^*b ^^^^'♦^j be-ma^ni bdteuy ^^'^i^jb ydwa-go't. 
Nook, b^ /cowa, <Li»^ gosha, (narrow place) -^&- i^j^ f^ kam- 

Noose, j^_<-J^ phdnsl, ^J^jl^ phdndd, >X^ kamand, (f.) 
North-east, ^^ jjLj\ Isdn-kon, U^3 ?saw. 

246 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

North pole or star, ,JU-^ ^-Ja* kutb-i'shimdli, ^-M»t> dhruh. 

North-west, w^.V hayah. 

Nosegay, <ti*rfjJ^ gul-dasta, ajs turra, ^ l^ U^^ yhulon kd 

Notch (in a log of wood), \j\d^ khanddnd. 
Note, (mark) jjliJ nishdn, (letter) ^^^ chitthi : see Comment. 
Nothing, ^j^ .^ kuchh nahm, ^h hech, (worthless) J-.^l3 nd-cliiz. 
Notice, (attention) j^ ghaur, Lu\sc!i\ iltifdt (f.), (information) ctt?! 

ittild^ (f.), (notification) a^\c\ i^ldm,j^ khahar. (f.) 
Notion, c:^Vj'^ darydft (f.), j^Joj pinddr (f.), i^*]^ ra'e (f.), JUi^ 

Novel (tale), <!GL-i^ afsdna, ^UsS tern, (Jl^ kakdm, jjli-ol J ddstdn. (f.) 
Novelty, JAsT* tajaddud, ^\J naydparif cSjJ^ y nau-tarzi. 
Nought, j^-y .^^ kuchh nahm, ^jb hech. 
Novice, jyo\ jj nau'dmoz, c/'Jo-^ muhtadi, ^j^^ andri, aI>. khdm, 

Is? kachchd. 
Noun, a-jI i5?w, /♦Ij wfljw. 

Nourishment, ^^^^ parwarish(f.)j \S£-^izd(f,\ cl/1^^ khprdk, (f.) 
Nuisance, J-^ j^Vj ziydnkdr chtz (f.), Jbj wahdl, ^fj l^ 1^^^ 

chhdtl kd patthar. 
Number, J Ac ac?aJ, cl^T aw/:, (reckoning) ^jx:^ gintijJuJti shum^r : 

(in gram.) singular, Jc»-lj wdhid; dual, <Ui2J tasniya ; plur. j-^^^r 

Jaw*, (f.) 
Numbness, [S^\j^ thithrdhat (f.), (^^j-*-^^ be-hissi, ^y^ be- 

Numeration, c_>L^ hisdb, ^^:^ ginti, iil»\^* ti^ddd (f.), jU-i» shumdr. 
Nuptials, s\^i bydhf ^J^2l\Ji» shddt, -.10 nikdh. 

Nursery, <Olsr'b ddl-khdna, (for plants) ^y^,^ bihnaur, ^\^^ bVar. (f.) 
Nursling, ir^l^ --1 shir-khxpdra, Jil? Ij JbJjJ dudh-piyd tifi. 
Nutriment, Nutriture, Vsh ghizd (f.), (j^j»ij^ parwarish. (f.) 
Nymph, |y^^ apchhard (f.), jy»- ^wr (f.), t^jf>^ hurl. 
Oaf, CJJjl S^, jll wZZm, J;^*.5»-! ahmak : see Idiot, Dunce. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns, 247 

Oath, >-i kasam (f.), JOi^ sa^igand (f.), J)y^ sonh (f.), (dakli.) 

ci-w sapat, (f.) 
Obedience, l::-^ILj1 i/a'a^ (f.), i_^IaxjIj tabi^ddrl, liu^Ji adhinta. (f.) 
Obeisance, l-->1JT ac?a5, (j^jj^ kornish (f.), aLo saldm, CJ>jJu3 c?awc^- 

?^a^. (f.) 
Obelisk, jLjrc minar, lUI Idt (f.), LjIjc^ kanddsd. 
Object, (purpose) JuajU maksady ^ji- gh araz (f.) : see Affair, 

Objection, ^\j:s\ i^tirdz (f.), jC» pakar (f.), (argument) '-::^>.sr*" huj- 

jat, (f.) 
Oblation, jlJ wi?/a<2r (f.), jjj wasr (f.), ^^by hirhdn, Jj 5a/. 
Obligation, (contract) L^ shart (f.), Jc^ a Ac?, (duty) ^j farZy ^f^^ 

wujub, (favour) j^L-5»-l ihsdn, \jy^ nihord. 
Oblivion, ^J^yo\^ fardmoshi, (^L-J nisydn, LlJ^^^ bisrdwat. 
Obloquy, ^^*L ta^Uy ^ y ., lj ^^^ fa*7i tashm* (f.), /♦Ull ilzdm. 
Obsequies, ^jJi^ ^j^>Y^ tajhiz o takfin (f.), ^^ \jS kriyd-karm. 
Observance, (respect) a^I ikrdm, (attention) ^^ssJLc muldhaza. 
Obstacle, «JU mdnC, {^\^ hd'il, j! dr (f.), c:-v*^|j^ muzdhamat. (f.) 
Occasion, (cause) ci^^^U Ja'?^, (need) t^j^ zarurat (f.), (time) 

^j:^^^ fur sat. (f) 
Occupation, (business) ^\^ /cam, l&JcJbJ dhandhd : see Calling, Abode. 
Occurrence, <UJi|^ wdkVa, <)UjU- hddisa, <iss^Li sdniha. 
Ode, Jji gh azal (f.), (long) )^Ju*£j kasida, (Hindustani) tUsTj 

Odour, jj bo or 5m (f ), ifjc^i' gandh (f.), lIX-^ mahak (f ), ^^.L«J 

subds. (f.) 
Offal, iddi/wsZajj^T aMor (f.), ^J,y- ^ pas-khurda. 
Offence, j^^>a^ taksir (j.), i\:^ gundh : see Injury, Displeasure. 
Offender, jlxfcL^gM?2aA^ar,jlj^^-,^' takslrwdr, ^^ asl. 
Offering, j^b^ kurbdn, Jj 5aZ, (present) j JJ wa§r, <0 JJb hadiya. 
Office, (service, duty) i.::,^j^ khidmat (f.), irj^ wA^/a, (room) c/^f-^ 


248 Vocabulary.— Nouns. 

Offset, l&Jy paudha, Ul^ kalgha (?). 

Offspring, (child) JJ^/i farzand (m. f.), (children) J^jl aulad (f.) : 

see Lineage. 
Oil, Juj ^e/, j^jij raughan, (scented) JJ^^ phulel. 
Oil-press, ^<f kolhu, ^\^ gJiani. 
Omen, ^^ sJiugun, fj\ifaL (f.) 

Omission, CJ^^ chuk (f.), J^ bhul (f.), y^ sahu (f.), j^*^ kusur. 
Omnipotence, ci^Ji kudrat (f.), c^^^l^ kddiri, ^J^ d^jJf kudrat-i- 

Omniscience, (^^J ^UJb hama-dam, J^ zJx ilm-i-kulL 
Openness, ^jll^ kushadagiy (candour) ^t>Lj sadagl, ^j \Iu> safd'i. 
Operation, ^}as. amal, J^ kar, (effect) J\ asaVj j^\j tasir. (f.) 
Opinion, ^ \j ra'e (f.), .^^ bujh (f.)> J^ khayal, ^Ja zann,J^ 

Opium, jji^l cifyun (f.), *-il afim (f.), j\>y tiryak. 
Opportunity, ^jL^*a^ fursat (f.), %J^ i^raSzi, ci^JJj ?^aA:^, ^tf gaun. (f.) 
Oppression, Jii zwZm, >:i«j sitam,j^jaur.^ hr*^-' ta^ciddi. 
Oppressor, Jll? mlim, J^^::^ sitamgar, j\j\ ak^j^ mardum-azar. 
Optative (mood, in grammar), ^^i^ii^ mutamanni. 
Option, J Ln^-l ikhtiyar, ifU- c^a^ (f.), j<*^ marzi, JCw^ pasand. (f.) 
Opulence, ci^^J daulat (f.), cj^^y tawdngari, \j:^^>^a^ sampat, (f.) 
Oration, j*^J^ kaldm,jijj takrir (f.), jj^**» sukhun, cl^\j bat. (f.) 
Orb, ^ A;Mra, ^^ charkh, ^^dj^ gar dun, JjCw« mandal : see Globe. 
Orbit, iii\i^,dd^lra, (of the eye) j*.l.^<lSl.^ halka-e-chashm. 
Order, (command) j»^ hukm,j^\ amr, (method) u--^y ^ar^?& (f.) : 

see Class, Rank. 
Ordinance, c^ shar^, f^y\j kdnun, (rite) *-j; rasTw: see Law. 
Orifice, <^^ti^ chhed, -r-];^ surdkh, (-JUli» shigdf, jix« manfaz. 
Origin, J-^l asl (f.), jLiJ bunydd (f ), ^J 5eM (f.) : see Root, Family. 
Ornament, jyj zewar, ^^::^:>^j zlnat (f.),jl^**3 singar, ^J:j}j\ dra'lsh. (f.) 
Oi*phan, ^-:l> yafim, Ito^ murhd. 
Orthography, lao-^-j; rasm-i-khatt^ \<\ imld, ^j^j^\ achhrautl. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns, 249 

Oscillation, J ^J duld'd,j l^jhuld'o, lJj^j^ tharthari. 

Outcry, j^ shor, \i^ gh aughd, Js. ghuly ^Lc Jx ghul ghapara. 

Outrage, J^a zulm, j;x^ sitam, \k:>- jafd (f.),j^jaur. (f.) 

Outside, Jib hahar, {^JsjaXi hdhar taraf, ^^1 upar,jb% zdhir. 

Outworks, Ij^ yb\i hdhar kotd, M artald, <d>^ marhala. 

Owner, Lli3lc mdliky J\<SJi^ hakk-ddry Jo.U^ khdwind. 

Oxymel, ^^--.rsniL; sikavjahln. (f.) 

Pace, (step) /^Si kadam, (gait) Jcij raftdr {JL.\ «-.ij ^ ij^ chalrie 

hi waz . 
Pack, (bundle) 1^5^ gatthd, Jc^ basta, ^yo moth (f.), (of cards) 

<!Cijjs^^ ganjifa, (of hounds) IfeJjJ tendkdj Ju^ jhund: see 

Package, Parcel, 0%^ gctthri, ^^ po/^, <S:l-j ias^a ; see Pack. 
Packcloth, jj^ bethan, <Gli3 lifdfa. 
Packet, (mail) ^,j=^ kharJta, ^X*^ ^ v_^^ chittht ki thaili: see 

Packhorse, \j^ li JJj partal kd ghord, yj l^ t-^^^j^ bdrbarddrl kd 

Packsaddle, ^^ gaddt^ ^"^ pdldn,j^^ Miogir, 
Padlock, Jij kuflf c-cli kalaf ox kulaf, i!b' ^aZa. 
Pagan, ci-^y <j:.^ but'parasf,jS gabrj lLS/L^ mushrik, jS^ kdfir. 
Page (of a book) <)Ls**^ safha, (servant) ^_/»^^ Idiawdss.Jd^jilauddr, 
Pagoda, ^Jk^ but-kada, ^Iku but-khdna, lHj-1 shiwdld: see Idol. 
Pain, -^J Jm/c^, J; J c?arf?, ^ p?r (f.), ^ rawj : see Labour, 
Pains (toil), c:^:.^:^ mihnat (f.), ,c*-' ^«*^^ (of labour) bj cVj J dard-i- 

Paint, t^j ra7?g, ^y bar an, ^^j raughan. 

A Pair, |»^ jord, Lii^isj- Jw/jf, v^^ j*wg ; (one of a pair) t3^ jo<. 
Palanquin, ^[j^pdlkl, ^fllj waZ/c?. 

Palisade, l^S^ kathard, ^j^f^ kathghard, l^*:^ mutakkd (?). 
Pall (for the dead), jJ^^ chaddar (f.), ^^ kafan. 
Pamphlet, l^tJ^ chaupati, <)JLj risdla. 

2 K 

250 Vocabulary Nouns. 

Pan (broad vessel) ^ji \J^ cJiaura hartan, (of a gun-lock) <dL> 

Pancake, l^U malpu'a, \y^ pv/a, ff kuku. 

Pane (of glass), <idl^j parkala, dJ^fy>- il>--i» shlsha-e'cha^igosha. 
Pang, C)j<^ '«^^;>V '^^hayat dard, w::^**sL**s siyasat (f.), (of death) cjj 


Panic, jj^l^lJ nagahan dar, i.::^--^ haihat (f.), Jyb ZiawZ* 

Paper, iccl^ k agh az, (j^^Ji kirtas. 

Par (equality), c:l>|^L^ musawat (f.), c/y J^ harabari ; (at par) ^ly 

Parable, J-*l^* tamsll (f.), Jl^ TwasaZ (f.), c:^3l!LijJ drishtant. 

Paradise, (j^^i^jS jirdaus, ^S£. adrij l:^!^ hihisht. (f.) 

Paragraph, ^ fikra, <uSai* A:if a, t^^-> prakaran. 

Parallel, Parallelism, l/-^!^ harabari ^ i^^^ tasawl. 

Paramour, li-i>l dshnd, JL-ilc dshikfjo^ ydr^ j\s>- jar, \^^ dhagrd. 

Parasite, t/J^lij*^ khushdmadi, jijss- l::^^*^ muft-Tdwr, J-,a1? tufail. 

Parasol, b*lf&- ^^^ chhotd clihdtd, :x^^ chhatr, lJJ^'^ chatri. 

Parcel, (bundle) i^. bukcha, ^j^i gathri, (part) <Ui^ hissa. 

Parchment, j^ raA:^, ,<.l-^ niesKi (?). 

Pardon, ci'**^ mu'dfi, ^ ofu, (jtjj^\ dmurzish. (f.) 

Parent, c->b l> U ?wa (f.) or bdp,jd\^ V. J'^ j^icfar or mddar. 

Parents, t— >b U md bap, ^j^^^^j wdlidainy ^^ru pitarau. 

Part, <U3^ ^ma, 1^ bakhrd, (JU3b iawf, (duty) aI^ kdm. 

Parterre, jlj aj^ sabza-zar, ^J^ chaman. 

Partiality, ^^jlji.L taraf-ddri, ^JL^ Ai^palla-kashl, ..^^pachk. 

Participle, (active) J^U j^Ji ism-i-fd'il, (present) <jJU- *-i^ ism-i-haliya, 
(past or passive) J^*a^ ♦-j^ ism-i-maful, (past conjunctive) 
aJuc t-jj3jc< ^-9l< W2a:27 ma^fuf alaihi. 

Particle, lUS tuk, *jJ zarra, ^ kan, (in gram.) «— J;r>- ^ar/*. 

Partition, *-— i3* taksim (f.), (Jir*^ ^a/rlA: (f.), (fence) jT ar. (f.) 

Partner, tlio J» shariky j\Ci\jS£r bakhrdddr, ^^\.»m sdjlii: see Com- 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 251 

Partnership, ei^J^ sharakat (f.), lf>-L 5a;^a, i^l^ijJ^ shirkat. (f.) 
Party, (of men) J^i g-^ oZ, i[.^ guroh, (in a suit) ^;->y /«r7A: ; see 

Pass, ^^ gaily <3?l^ gh at, s^j rah (f.) : see Passport. 
Passage, aj^^ guzara, ic^j rasta, (Jj>j^ sarak (f.) : see Paragraph. 
Passenger, iL^ musafir, j^]j rahglr, ^^yJ hatoKi. (m. f.) 
Passport, ijj^'^^j ^ij\^ji^ parwana-erahdarly dj\^j rawana. 
Paste, ^ le'Jy jUl afidry cJjU marriiy j^^^*^ khamlr, t*::^ lei. 
Pasteboard, ,jrr^i> daftln (f.), l^^j wasll. 
Pastime, lJj^ d^lijl aukat-hasarlj CSj^ kautak, JL^^ hahla'b : see 

Pasturage, ^fj^ chart, uJL alaf, (or Pasture) *l^];f- charagdh. (f.) 
Patent, Jc^ sanad (f.), jjU/ farmdny «l)Uy parwdna. 
Path, Pathway, Ll>b 5af (f.), <t:-^ rfl5^«, C/J-j saraA: (f.), il; rah. (f.) 
Patriarch, j^J^ l^ ij>\j^ ghardne kd sarddr, ^jj\ huzurg. 
Patrician, cJjy^ sharlf, i^Jc^^ umda, ^^b-JW dlishdn. 
Patrimony, CL;|^ mlra.v (f.), cj^ bapautl, Cj,1 ir<f. 
Patriot, (.^i^-yjJ ^js"^ watan-dost, ^j!^^\^^^^o. hahbu'l-watant. 
Patriotism, ^^j^^^-r'^^ habbu-l-wataUy lilt— ^^^^ despdltd. (f.) 
Patron, ,^y^ murabbiy jSc^^ dastglr, ^^ hdmly ^^^0J*^ kadrddn. 
Patronage, ^^ ^.j^ murabbi-garly c>V.t*»^ himdyat (f.), {j^j*j{ 

parwarish. (f.) 
Pattern, <OyiJ namunay ^Sj^, bdngly (leader) s^Ss kidwa: see Leader. 
Paucity, ^j4^ kamJ, ^^^ ghattiy ,<2^^ kamtl, c>-lj killat. (f.) 
Pavement, ^^>t^ farsh, \=^j4 kharanjd, ^lib patd'o. 
Pay, (payment) 1j1 ac?a (f.), (wages) ii\^kXj tanTdmdh (f.), l-^xIL 

talab. (f.) 
Peace, ^i*^ ^mZA (f.), ^^-^\ dshfi, (ease) >*|^T drdm, (concord) J-^ 

Peak, (top of a hill) ^^ chdnti,j^ sikhary (point) lL5^' nok. 
Peal, ^\^ thahdkd, ^JL^\^^ gargarahat (f.), IC^JbJ dhamkd. 
Pearl, (J^.« ??zo^I (m.), jJ dur, ^^ gauhary ^^ lulu. 

262 Vocabulary.— Nouns. 

Peasant, j|^ga7ii(?ar, ,^U-^ kisauy ijlibj dihkdm. 
Peasantry, 1>U^ rVdya, {^^ ^\»Jb^ dihkani log, l::-^-^ ra'iyat. (f.) 
Pebble, ^^^ kankar, ^.^^^ J/^5'^^ sangreza, \j^j rora. 
Pedestal of a column, ^j^-* t/ ^ pci'e situn, ^^ ^^i hun-i-situn. 
Pedigree, c-^-J nasah, aL-Lj silsila, (table of) <uU c.^^ nasab-ndma. 
Peel, c::-— j^J J905^, Jlf^- c^^aZ (f.), ^^f- chhilkd, K^ Z>a/:Za. 
Peer, j^ mH, ham-sar, (nobleman) j^\ arriir, c-^o-ltf sahib : see No- 
Peg, lA^ mekh (f.), ^^ khunti, l^^^ khuntd. 
Pellet, ^dJii gh uUla^ ^^ goll, ^^d^ girdgdn. 
Pellicle, ^^J^jhilll, ^JV?" chkdli. 
Pen, Ji kalam, <uU- khdma, (enclosure) <d^W i^aija. 
Penalty, 1^ 5a2'a (f.), ^j\^\j tdwdn, J^lj fl?aw^, ajUj^ jarimdna. 
Pence (money), ^c— :?i P«ise, j^fi /a/:e : see Penny. 
Pencil, (of lead) ij"^ sala't, (of hair) ^ yo mu-kalam. 
Pendant, ^j! dweza, ^^L^,^ jhumkdj ^^f^ latkan. 
Penitence, <tJy tauba, lh^a^IjJ naddmat (f.),jU«w-jl istighfdr. 
Penny, L--J ,j^ ij\ l^ *^ <^-^.- ^^"^ A:is?w /ca angrtzi paisd. 
Pension, <Ji-i^ ivazlfa, j^\»-jdglr (f.), ,^li>J^ bandhdn. 
Pentagon, ^^-^^.i:.'* mukhammas^ <Li)^^j J^ shakl-upanj-gosha. 
Penury, |^«jJ^' tangdasfi, ^:--:Juy tihldasti, ^j>Jji^ mujlisi. 
People, 4^ Zog, ^Is--^! ashkhas, J.}}^ khald'fk. (f.) 
Perception, d^bjJ darydft (f.), ^f-^ ^if;^ (f-)> <-^j^ basdrat, (f.) 
Perch (for birds), (^r*^ chakkas, \S\ addd. 

Perfection, J-.^ takniil (f.), JU^ kamdl, (completion) a\aj\ itmdm. 
Perfume, ^,(j^y^ Jduish-bo (f.), ^ atr, ^^-L-» 5w&a5. (f.) 
Period, (circuit) j^ J daur, (time) ajUj zamdna : see Sentence. 
Perjury, wJ ^i^^jhuthl kasam, l^3\^ >^^ saugand-7-kdzib. 
Permission, tl^lsj-l ijdzat (f.), ^^il izn, L:i.A*^a:J^ ruldisat. (f.) 
A Permit, ^<^x>- ^ ^^ nikdsi kt chitthi, <0U^ parwdna. 
Person, ,^jck.^ shakhs^ is*^^ ddml (m.), (in gram.) i\m sl gh a : see 
Body, Form. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 253 

Perspicuity, \jL^Li salasat (f.), L::^o*-i^ sarahat (f.), cS^ safal. 
Perturbation, i^s^\j^ gliahrahat (f.), ^^^ tashwish. (f.) 
Petal, ^ ^S Jj^ phul kl pattl, lJJ^^ pakhrl. 
Petition, ^jsy:. arz (f.), i^j^ arzl, (j^\i:ij\ ardas, (f.) 
Petitioner, f^^^ ^jS- arz-karritwala, i\^ d\d dad-ldiwah. 
Phantasm, Phantom, J^^ J»^ namud-i-hehud, V.^-^*" chhaya, 
Philolos^y, y=^^ t— i^ *1^ ilm-i-sarf o naho. 
Phrase, ci?b 5a^ (f.), ^ilk^^ w(J/a^ (f.), 4^jU ?6ara^ (f.) 
Piece, (bit) |jfi fM/:m (JJ^j ^w/c, ''^j^ parcka, (patch) *l^jdr. 
Piety, ^fj takwoiy ^ li>^^ bhagtd'l, (to parents) ,Ji-yjcjUjjJL> 

Pilgrimage, J^U- Ja^ra (f.), CL^bj ziyarat (f.), (to Mecca) ^f^ /{fl;j;. 
Pill, ^f golly <-^i^ ^aiJ, ^f ^ ^y^ dawa kl goU. 
Pillory, ^t^^j^:^ chamhar-i-gardan, JLri-lijjJ do-skdkha. 
Pimp, \^^i bharwdf 1:^5^ kutndy ^Uiii kultahdn. 
Pimple, (on the face) L-l^ muhdsd, (on the skin) ,<— i^ phunsl. 
Pin, ^^ 5m'7, 123 1^ kdntd, (peg) ^^ mekh: see Peg, Straw. 
Pincers, ^^liL-j sanddsi, ^^\\>.^ sangsi, ^^^ muchnd. 
Pinion, ^^ guddi,ji^ par, •Ai bdzu, (quill)^-^ shahpar. 
Pinnacle, ^^^ kalas, ^j^ kangura, (peak)^,^ sikhar. 
Pipe, (tube) Jj nal, ,}j nail, (musical) lJj^^. bdnsri : see Cask. 
Pitch, (resin from the pine) J|^ rdl (f.)>^ ^^r : see Degree, 
Pitfall, lLS^S dahak, Xia^j^ chor-garhd, 
Pith,JiA> maghzjj^ sdr (f.), -Jb Kir, \d^ gudd. 
Pity, i,^j rahm, J;ti dard, (j^Ji tars, l> J dayd (f.), ^i gh am. 
Place, ...t^^jagah (f.), j^l^ makdn, (office) i^Jc^ M^c?a. 
Plainness, ijjy^ hamwdri, (sincerity) ^'^^ sddagi : see Clearness. 
Plaintiff, c/t>l>y farrjddi, i\^ j1 J ddd-khwdh, ^*^ mudda'i. 
Plait, ^ ^a^ (f.), ^^^ shikan, ^^^ chin (f.), (plaits) c:-^i^ c^m- 

waif. (f.) 
Plan, (scheme) ^y^x*^ mansuba, j,y^ tajwlz (f.) : see Model. 
Plane (joiner's tool), ^Jj^ randa, (tree) j\i>- chandr. 

254 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Plank, iz^ckr taMita, «-^ lauh (f.), \p.i patra, ^jSj patri. 

Plantation, (place planted) jjU-JusT nakhlistan, (colony) ^~' bastl. 

Plaster, (cement) ^:xsrj rekhtaj J" gacli, (salve) ^j< marham. 

Play, J-^ khely ^j\) hazij J^Jo kalol (f.), CS^S^ kautuk. 

Plaything, l3^1^ khilauna, c:^-.*) la^bat (f.), ^>=^j^. bazicha. 

Plea, (argument) ^jl^,s^ hujjat (f.), (suit) 1^ J da^wa : see Excuse. 

Pleading, <iii^L« mubaham, J\j3 takrar (f.), c:^^^ hujjat. (f.) 

Pleasantness, c^Ual latafat (f.). Pleasantry, i^ mazakh. 

Pleasure, ^-2>^ Tdnishi^ u^ aish, la^ ^«H> (assent) ^-^ marzl. 

Pledge, ji^gzVo, tl^Aij bandhak, ^j rihn : see Bail. 

Pleiades, b J suraiya, ^ji,^y^ parwin, \r^^ kachpachiya. 

Plenty, \s\J>\ ifrat,j^j wafur, (enough) j^^ bhar-pur. 

Pliers, liUs- chimtdj ^\1:^ sandasi, ^^^ che'unta (?). 

Plot, (j!i^ bandish (f.), aj^^^o:^ mansuba, (of ground) Lai /af «. (f.) 

Plug, Uj datta, ^^2i^ thenthi, jc^-f' tkepi. 

Plume, (ornament) ^ turra, ^9^ ka lgh l : see Feather. 

Plummet, Jyi>Ls sahul, J^<-5 ^a/zo/, (plumb or lead) ^Jl-l latkan. 

Plunge, ^ji dubkl, <)d?yi ghota, ^'ji burki (?). 

Plural (number), ^^a^ jam^ (f.), ^/♦^'^--^ figha-i-jam^ . 

Ply, <0* #a^ (f.), ^^^-^ cH?i (f.), d^ par at, ^JJ:> shikan, (f.) 

Pocket, L^^^^^jeb (f.), L--^ khisa, ^,j>- kharlta^ ^^^jhoU^ 

Pod, -.K*^ chhtnii, ^J^ phali, ^^^^ chhilka, c:^-.y ^os^. 

Poem, J^ gh azal (f.), ^Ju^* kasida, iJy^ masnawi. 

Poesy, Poetry,^^ sAi*/-, Ji3 nazm (f.), u:^^ ^aJi^. 

Point, (end) cLiy woA: (f.), (Jl arii, (stop) cJJJj «daii3 nukta-e-wakf. 

Poison, Jbj zahr, j^-j Ji^, ^ bikh, Jj&l& halahal, *-» samm, 

Pole, ^iJ ZafA (f.), ^->^f- c/ioJ, (of the earth) c-^kif /cw/fJ. 

Polestar, c*^ ^w(6, ^JU-Si ^.^jj kutb-i-shimall : see Guide. 

Police, Lj^j L-Mtf i^j-^ shahr k'l zabt rabt, JV/ kotwali, 

Pohsh, LlUjbU^ chiknahat (f.), JiL^ saikal, (of manners) jj^ khiilk. 

Politics, c^-jL-j Jx ilm-i-siyasat, l::-^^L*^ j^t umur-i-mamlukat. 

Polygon, <Vj1P^7::^ J^ shakl-i-kafiru-z-zawlya. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 255 

Poppy, J^/ koknar, (head) c:-w:j^ post, (seed) jji-s-^^ khashkhash. 

Populace, (^U\ a\^ au^ammu-n-nasj j^y*^ jamhuTy /♦U a?wm. 

Population, c5^V^ abadi, ^^^ hastl, ufjy*^^^ ma^muri. 

Portion, i^n^ hissa, \jsr bakhra, (bride's) J^^p^jahez. 

Portmanteau, ^^jrrTJ^ khiirjln, (J,\iy<\:>- jamadam. 

Portrait, <U-wi> shabih ({.),jiyaj taswir. (f.) 

Position, .jffp^jagah (f.), J-sr< mahall, ci^lU ^aZa^ (f.), -^ tarah. (f.) 

Possession, l-j^ tasarruf, ^^aa amal, <U3-i kabza, \z^ zabt. 

Possessor, t^^U malik, L-^^^-ltf sahib, (^j*ai^ mutasnrrif. 

Post, (stump) l^-:^ khambha, ^y>- chob, (business) iiS.^^ uhda, ^l^ 
kam, (for conveying letters) ul/U dak, (post oflSce) ^S tl/^ J 
dak-ghar, (man) Wi dakiya, i^Jd kasid, cJ^^ dak. 

Postage, Jj-Asr* l^ lL/1 J c?aA; A:a mahsuly Ay^j rusum. 

Posterity, Jl a/ (f.), fc>^^^ aw/ac? (f.)> <"^ ■^'^"^ santat, JuJ was/. 

Posture, «--^j if?as* (f.)> <-^^ sSra^ (f.), c:^-— 1.3 nishast. (f.) 

Potash, jl/ /c^flr, ^J^ ,^^^ sq;[;7 Twif/?. 

Potsherd, ^1^ thikrd, JlL* si/aZ. 

Poverty, (jJii\ iflas, ^-Ji^ mujlisl, ^j^-jJ^xJ tangdasti. 

Pound, (weight) ^-*JJ)jT adh-str, JL; ra/Z, (fold) li^-j berha. 

Powder, ^jS^^ bukrii, (medicine) uJ^-j safuf, (gun) CLJ^^b iarw^. (f.) 

Power, S.J Ij^y tawana'l, (authority) jLi^^l ikhtiydr: see Force. 

Practice, (use) (JJL^ mashk (f.), (custom) ci^jU acZa^ (f.), J^.«j^ 

Praise, c-fiJ^* ta^rif (f.), ^;-l--*5 si/?a5 (f.), U .^awa (f.), --<x« madh. (f.) 

Prayer, (request) ^^Uill iltimds, (to heaven) jUj namdz. (f.) 

Precaution, ,^^.0^1 ci^-^jVc dkibat-andtsht, cSj\Sj taddruk. 

Precedent, <JJ^ namuna, J/ix!V|^j dasturu-l-amal. 

Precinct, Jcs- hadd (f.), <01^«j siwdna. 

Precipice, t^l^^ dhdng (f.), t^^ sriwg, ^J^i^ kandald. 

Predecessor, jj^^i^ peshin, JJjI-j sdbik, a^'Lc mukaddam. 

Predestination,^ jJij takdlr (f.), Lii^-iJ -*: sar-nawisht. (f.) 

Preface, ^It*^'^ dibdja, (f.), ^i^^-LjJ dibdcha, <UJ^iU mukaddama. 

256 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Preference, ,-^^^J tarjih (f.), <^:.-^^ faukiyat (f.), t/ ^j^ sarsal. 

Preferment, ^^y, barhtl, ^Ji tarakklj lJj\^j^ sarfarazi. 

Pregnancy, J.'**^- haml, .^^^ garhh, ^J^^^\ ahistant. 

Prejudice, u-..«.axj ta'assub, ^j\s3jh tarafdari : see Detriment. 

Premises (houses, lands), i^^^oj^h, J^^^ amwal-i ghair mankula. 

Premium, (on bills, &c.) ^^^^ htshty l5^ chota : see Gift, Bounty. 

Preparation, j^ilJ taiyarl, ^J^. 'bf^nawarl, l::-^-^* tahiyat. (f.) 

Prepuce, ^^ khalri, <-jL& ghalf, ^/f ^ chhichra. 

Prerogative, (js>^ ^^ khass fiakk. 

Presage, Jli fal (f.), ^^ shugun, \j:^1(^ dalalat. (f.) 

Prescience, ^J^Ju^ gh aib-dam, ^v^ l ^^ peshbinl. 

Prescription, (medical) ^lsl-^ nuskha, (custom) ^^j rasm: see Custom. 

Presence, lJj^^ hazirif lJj^'^^ huzuri, (view) jl Jo J didar. 

Present, ^t^ bakhshish (f.), (in gram.) JU- hal : see Gift. 

Preservation, jW; bacha'd, iji^Ui*- hifdzat (f.), L*jt asra. 

Press, (for oil) ^^^ kolhu, (for bookbinding) a^s^Ll shikanja, (for 

printing) J^ ^^ y^S^ chhapne ki kal: see Crowd. 
Pressure, (weight) t-->b (Za5, Sr^V" ^^^P? ("Agency) Ulaj' takdzd. 
Presumption, (arrogance) ^ \f^j dhithd't, s>-\::^ gustdkhl : see 

Pretence, <5jl^ bahdna, lii^^L: sdkht. (f.) Pretension, l^rJ da*wd. 
Preterimperfect, ^j\jA:i^\ ^*^^ mdzi istimrdri. 
Preterite, ,<^^ mdziy icJ^dd guzashta. 
Preterperfect, ^^,Ji ^^^ mdzi karlb. 
Preterpluperfect, Ju*) l<^^ mdzi ba^id. 
Prevarication, ^^^^^ chakar-makar , ^'^j^i}u>- Kila-hawdla. 
Prey, <JL^ lut (f.), C-^.*wojj ghanimat (f.), (game) Ju^ .vaicZ. (f.) 
Price, J^ two/, o-^ A:ma^ (f.), l^ bahd, (reward) y^-l ajr. 
Prick, Ju^ chhed, ^JCJ 5iwc?A. Prickle, l5j\^ kdntdjj^ Ididr, 
Pride, ^^ImO J^ khtid-blnl, j^js. gh urur^ J^^ ahankdr. 
Primogeniture, j^.^Juj J^l awwal paidd'ish (f.), i^ JJj bardl. 
Principal, (head man) jIj^-j sarddr, ^j^j rals, (sum) ^ssr^^pHnjl. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 257 

Principle, J-^! asl (f.)^ '^jar (f.), (tenet) ^\j rd'e (f.) : see Canon. 

Print, ^jtAJ naksh, i^llj nishan, <— -^^f^ chhap. 

Prison, JL)l>> JkJ kaid'khana, iOUrjjj handi-khana, ij^^j zinddn. 

Prisoner, i^Juj kaid-i, \^XJ handhu'dy j^\ asir. 

Privilege, ^jJli ^yjis"^ maldims fd'lda^ ^l^ hakk. 

Privity, (secrecy) Ju^ bhed, (collusion) ^JtjLi sazish. (f.) 

Prize, (reward) a\j6\ iiCdm, (winnings) ^^jb hdzi : see Plunder. 

Probe (surgeon's), ^J\^ ^ J^j>- jarrdh ki salary Jw« rnil. (f.) 

Problem, J|^ suwdl, 4*»^ masla. 

Proboscis, jJ^-j ^ i^^ JiatKi ki sund, z*^^^ khurtum. 

Procedure, iji^jS" harakat (f.), JU- chal (f.), iL<\x^ mu'dmala. 

Proceeding, Process, ^^ kdm, f-^yj kartut (f.) : see Method, Affair. 

Proclamation, i^jli^ manddl, (by drum) |^yb^XJ^J dhandhord. 

Procuress, ^^ili^ kutnl, ^ilJ dalldla. (f.) Procurer, Ij^j hharwd. 

Prodigal, ^^^j^ ^y:^ ^t>l>J ziydda kharch karne-wdld, ^\j\ urd'u. 

Produce, Product, Production, J-^U- fidsil, ,^}<^^ paidd\ish. (f.) 

Profit, hjjM fd'ida, ^ naj^, ^} Idbh, ^^ rnandfi^. 

Progeny, iSi^\ auldd (f.), J-J nasi (f.), ^j^ bans. 

Progress, Progression, (Jlj -1-j ptshrawdni, ^y tarakki. 

Prohibition, c:u^Uw« mumdna'at (f.), *-i-< man^. 

Project, iJyau^ mansuba, Jiy:^ tajwiz (f.) : see Invention. 

Promise, Jy kaulj ^jsf^ bachan, j\J\ ikrdr, as^^ wa^da. 

Promotion, ^^^y, barhtl, ^Jy tarakki, ^j^/j^ sarfardzi. 

Prong, l23l^ kdntd, ^li> shdkh, J^ sul. 

Pronoun, j^^ zamir, (demonst.) ^;l-i»l*«jl ism-i-ishdra, (interrog.) 

^l.^i:x-jl ^jS>- harf-i-istifhdm, (relat.) J^-^^ *-j^ ism-i-mausul. 
Pronunciation, lailj talaffuz, ^jk^ makhraj, jl>-] uchchdr. 
Proof, (^JtcjT dzmd'lsli (f.), (confirmation) culJl ?.9&a^, JJ J c?aZ2Z. (f.) 
Prop, tij^* thurvi, ^^^ itkan, CS^ {ek (f.), ci^^^ pw^/i^ (f.). 
Property, {j:^^^\S- Jdiassiyat (f.), (possession) lL^ milk (f.), JU 

Proportion, bj\^\ anddza, j\sLii mikddr, ^^^^^ sudauli. 

2 L 

258 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Proposal, L:L^y>-ji^ darkhwast (f.). Proposition, «d*«^ masla. 
Proprietor, LL^to malik, JJjU- khdwind, c-^o-U sahib. 
Prose, ji} nasr (f.;, jy>:»^ z*^ kalam-i-inansur. 
Prosecution, (suit) <Ua3 kaziya, <UJsiU mukaddama. 
Prosody, ^^j^ J-& ilm4-aruz, ^^J^ rriizan. (f.) 
Prospect, (view)Ji3 wasar (f.), ^ J^-* madd-i-nazar : see Hope. 
Prosperity, ^^l^<i^ kamyabiy ^j^\z^ baTditawart, CJjU-o sa^ddat. (f.) 
Prostitute, ij— -J Z>esM;a (f.), J^s»- chhinal (f.), ^Us* kahba. (f.) 
Protection, lii^^Us^ himayat (f.), jl=sr bacha'd, (J^j^y^ parwarish. (f.) 
Protector, ^^U- ^aw7, ^^LibUj nigah-ban, ksU. ^<2/?z. 
Provender, i^U- char a, <0\j c?a7ia, U^J lehna, (j*X^ ghas. (f.) 
Proverb, Ji^ ?w«j9aZ (f.), CJ>jl|^ kahawat (f.), Jl^ilc-^ zarbu-l- 

Providence, (of God) «^^J^ khudd'i, ^J^jj razzdki : see Foresight. 
Provision, (food) 1)1^ khdna, Vd^L gh izd (f.) : see Preparation. 
Proximity, L.J>Ji kurb, ^^^jj nazdtki, ^^^-^jj**-^ sarnipl. 
Prudence, jj^:*- hazar^ Ji'l*^.^^ ihtiydt (f.), ^^-j ,^^^^ pesh-bim. 
Psalm, ij:^'i^\ astut (f.), Jj^ c/b pak sarodjjyj zabur. (f.) 
Puberty, '^::^^^, bulughat (f.), ^\j>- jawarii, <— >U-i> shabdb. 
The Public, jU. M«^^ (f.)> J:'.^^ MiaWlk (f.) : see People. 

Publication, jl^^ iz'hdr, (of a book) U^yilli ^^^\^^ chhdpke zdhir 

Pulley, i/>-j^ charJdil, ^jSj^^ phirki, ^Lp ghirrii. 

Pulpit, -Jw< mimbar, ^^A^^ singhdsan. 

Pump, \is^, pichakkdf \i^s^ pachukd, LiJ bambd. 

Pun, (jL^J^jugut (f.), Jjj zatah (f.) 

Punch, (the instrument), ^J'-;^ chheni or (J^>- chhe'dm. 

Puncheon, (instrument) t->l^ chhdp (f.) : see Punch, Cask- 
Puncture, <.U{.^ chhed, '7-];y^ surdkh. 

Punishment, |j-j sa^ra (f.), i-j\ss. azdb, cj^>«oLrf siydsat. (f.) 

Puppet (doll), \,jf guriydy j^Jcj pw^Z7. 

Purchase, Jo^&- khartd (f.), *L.J iwa/i. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 259 

Purchaser, j!jjj>. kharldar, lS^^ gahak, ^j:JL^ mushtari. (m.) 

Pureness, Purity, ^^b paki, S^'^*^ ?({f^'~h ^^/ nirmalta. (f.) 

Purport, ^J'Jf-o mainly Jc^siU maksad, J^ murad. (f.) 

Purpose, aS^jS irada, Ju^ kasd, l::^ nlyat (f.), ^jOj£. gh araz, (f.) 

Purse, jJ^jf* thaili, &>^ klsa, ir^ surray Ijfy ^ora. 

Pursuit, C;^%A*j' ta'akkuh, t^^j^^ pairatvl , ^j raged, (f.) 

Putty, ic.!L^ ^^xlj kala'l-i kushta, J Ze'7, ,^ r-j saresh (?). 

Pyramid, jL« manar,j\:.^ mlnarj ^d>^^ gaw-dum, (f.) 

Quadrangle, ^ji^ jX-i shakl-i-chaugosha. 

Quadruped, ^.^j^^ charpayay jy^ sutur. 

Quality, ci-^sA-? si/ai (f.), *— iU.^ awsa/, (rank) <LJ^ martaha. 

Quantity, jtjJU mikdarj (heap)^J dher^jSi kadr (f.) : see Part. 

Quarantine, !>- chilld, (after the death of a relative, &c.) ^--Jl>- 

Quarrel, \y.^jhagrdy <Ui3 kaziya,j^ higar. 
Quarry, ^ L$^jfi patthar kl kdn, ^^o-JI-j sangistdn. 
Quarter, ^}l^'^ chauthci'i, (district) As:^ mahalla: see Abode, Pardon. 
Quean, <ul!a5 kuttdmaj HjP^M fdjira, Alj>-\i ^J zan-i fdhisha. 
Query, Question, Jl^ 5wz^aZ ^J^j^^ pursish (f.), /♦l^^i::^^ istifhdm. 
Quest, ^^ /:%*, ^^JIj ^aZo^A (f.), y^ j l:u^--jj- J«5^0;;m. (f.) 
Quickness, ^t-1 shitabl, ^j\s^ jaldi, ^^^ chdldkl, ^jJ tezl. 
Quietness, Quietude, ^^ sukun, j^\J\ dram, j\j5 kardr. 
Quill, ^^ j{ paT kd kalam^j^Y^ shahpar, (porcupine) l53l^ kdntd. 
Quintessence, <Ltf^ khuldsa^ c:^^ sat,J^ sdr. (f.) 
Quire, (of paper) JLi«:J dasta, \^ J7f Aa, (choir) <dJlL tdHfa, 
Quota, i>*a>- hissa, ^j^, hakhrd, c?^ hihri, ^(^ hahra. 
Quotation, ^^-Icil iktihds, ^\J^\ istikhrdj, ^dd-lj ddkhila (?). 
Quotient, J-^U- ^asi/, «J-^ mahla gh , 

Race,jjJ cZawr (f.), i.ij^'^jjjt^ daurd-dauri : see Breed, Family. 
Rack, (engine of torture) <L=si^ shikanja : see Anguish. 
R-adiance, ^U-i» shu'd* (f.), y^y^partau, ^}sir tajallJ, iJU^jot. (f.) 
Rafter, ^ hargd, ^'^^ kdndl, jj^ koro. 

260 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Rag, \^:>. cMthra, \i) lattRy ^^^ dhajjl, jd^ gudar. 

Rail, Railing, \j^ kathara, \j^>^ kathghara. 

Raillery, \f^ thattha, ^yo mazaJdi^ ^J^f^ thathoU. 

Ramrod, y> gaz, .Vo^gli thasni. 

Rank, (row) jlLJJ katdr (f.), cJ-* saff (f.), (degree) <b^J c?a?;y«. 

Ransom, \S5 jida (f.), i^di fidya, ^5JaJjc nctlhandi. 

Rap, Jyi>t> J /z«mZ (f.), ^-^* thappar, I^-UJ tamacha. 

Rapture, Je^^ 2f?a;c?, L^d^jazb, fj\s>- hal, ^J^<^>■^ wajdan. 

Rascal, }id\jK\j>~ haram-zada, ijjdj^ mardak : see Base. 

Rate, (price) ci^^iwJ kimat (f.),jl^ 5^a'5, ^y nirkh: see Tax. 

Ratio, yjljjl andaza,^\^ hha'd, ^Ji nirkh.. 

Ray, jo/ kiran. (f.) Rays of the sun, &U-1 shu'd*. (f.) 

Razor, ^^1 ustura, \ja:>- chhura. 

Readiness, iJj^fP taiyari, j^jUI amadagi: see Alacrity. 

Ready money, tXii3 waM, cS^j rok, €^j rokar. (f.) 

Rear, U^J pichha, ); W^/ piclthwara, t-?;'^^- pichhari. 

Receipt, (reception) Ub pawa, (for money, &c.) Ju-*^ rasid. (f.) 

Receptacle, ^Sg^ar, fOUi- khana, ,.*f:>- jagah, (f.) 

Reception, ^S^^ gvriftagi, Jc>.l «M|, 4-::-^iV. ^^/if* (f-) 

Recess, yS^^^j rawanagi, c:^l&^ rihlat, (respite) <Ujj wakfay il\j 

Recipe (medical prescription), i>k^ nuskha. 
Reckoning, ^^^ ginfi, c-^Lj!^ hisdb,j\y^ shumar. 
Recollection, jb ydd (f.), c5;^^^V. ydddwari, JS)Ju*s s7/c?/i. (f.) 
Recommendation, (JiJ^ slfdrish (f.), u--^.yu takrlb. (f.) ' 
Record,^ J daftar, fCjyi tawarikh. 

Recovery, cu^bjb baz-yafi (f.), (from illness) li-i» s/ii/a. (f.) 
Recreation, ^pL^« bahld'o, j^ sair (f.) : see Amusement. 
Recruit, (soldier) ^^ ly nayd sipdhtj (supply) ic^W** sarbarahi. 
Redemption, \j^^^ chhutkdrdj ^IsxJ istikhlds. 
Redness, jVSr' surkhi, jjil IdlJ, (pale) ,^'^\^ gurd'l. 
Redress, cjf;^*^^ chdra'sdz'ij cu^.U.5*- himdyat (j.), cSj\Si taddruk. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 261 

Reel, (frame) ^j^\ aferan, (dance) ^l) l^ mJs lLX>J ek kism ka nach. 
Reference, ^^=rj ruju*, jl^ lagcLO, iSlc alakaj uci ■^^^. > nishat. (f.) 
Reflection, (throwing back) ^^-l^l in'ikas, ^,J-s, aks : see Thought. 
Reform, Reformation, JLA islah (f.), ^jS^ tashih. (f.) 
Refuge, *\iJ panah (f.), ^j^l amw, ^! asm, oiU maldz. 
Refulgence, ,J^ tajallt, s^jalwa,j^ nur, LL^js^jot. (f.) 
Refusal, jl^Uw/:ar, j^3 nafi (m.), \i\ iba, ^-i^ man*. 
Regard, <)d2&-L« mulahaza, d^y taicajjuh (f.), (look) Jia5 nazar. (f.) 
With Regard to, L::,^^.; ba-nisbat, ^^ J^>- ^aA:^ ?we?i. 
Region, (JjX* twmZA:, ^^;tt^^ sar-zamm (f.), /»-iJ»l z^Jr/Im. 
Register, (book)^J daftar, (officer), jl J <tJjj^ sar-rishta-ddr. 
Regret, ^/-.j-il a/505, d.^^-.^ hasrat (f.), ujLsIJ ta'assuf: see Grief. 
Regulation, ^^lliul intizdm, ui^^jJcj bandobast : see Law. 
Rein (of a bridle), ^Lc ?wa?z (f.), (^b iag (f.), ^^]^ ras, (f.) 
Reiteration, j^IJ takrar (f.), ^Jy^j^^ dohra'o. 
Relation, (recital) ^yu ^a^r7r (f.), (affinity) l::^-w«J nisbat. (f.) 
Relative, jl J ttL-ii^ rishta-ddr, ^J^]/ kardbati, ^,^ kJiwtsh. 
Reliance, jUiicW *^i?wa6?, jUicl i*tibdr, \j^\ dsrd, ^^i as. (f.) 
Relief, JJ^ madad (f.), ^^JLjpushtl, <^JuAssr taTdifif, (f.) 
Religion, t^*^ c?77i, c^ j>^ maz'habf /^J dliaram : see Piety. 
Relish, ^ Twa^ra, tl^JJ lazzat (f.), j1^ sawdd, ^j^y>- khushl. 
Remainder, ^b JaA:?, ^i=f^ bachtl, <UcJ tatimma, ^\c mdbala. 
Remark, Jy itawZ, d^b Ja^ (f.), (note) ^^ s^ar^ (f.) : see Regard. 
Remedy, ^U- chdra, « "Zq; (f.), ^^'U upd^e, cL/)1jJ taddruk. 
Remembrance, Jl> ydd (f.), d^--^ cAe^, j^^X-j sudh. (f.) 
Remorse, \j\i^ pachhtdwdj (j^^\ afsos, ujLsb* ta'assuf. 
Rencounter, ddjl^^ mukdbala, i^\j j\ji bardz-i ndgdh. 
Rennet (for curdling), iS^c j^^pamr-mdya, j^li ajU mdya-i-shir. 
Renown, ^\) ndm, LJjyo\j ndm-warl, <^^jy^ shuhrat, (f.) 
Rent, (split) C/U- chdk,j^ chlr, (hire) ^oj/ kirdya, J\j^ Jdiirdj, 
Repentance, \}c:.^^pachhtdwd, tj\A^pashemdni : see Regret. 
Repetition, jJ/5 takrdr (f.),jlyb^J dohra'd, (rehearsal) ^Lj baydn. 

262 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Report, ^^ Idiahar (f.), (rumour) ^^^ shuhra, (sound) j|^T awaz. (f.) 
Repose, ^j\ aram, ^j!^y^\ asa^lsh (f.), ^^^^ chain j .^^ sukh. 
Reprehension, Reprimand, lii^^^U malamat (f.), Ujlj* tdrna. 
Reproof, ^^ ta^n,.^\^^ gosh-mall, ^JijjJ^ sar-zanisk, (f.) 
Reputation, ^liCj nek-namt, •yj abru (f.), ^U nam. 
Request, (ji^^^j;^ darkhwast (f.), ^^Utill iltimas : see Question. 
Research, ^^* talash (f.), (^-liij* taftlsh (f.), --.^ Mo;. 
Residence, ^^ gAar, |*liu makam, ^^JibjJjj hud-o-hash. (f.) 
Resin, Rosin, l3yi>ti dhunciy J]^ raZ (f.), L-j>jJbJ (i^wp. (f.) 
Resolution, Resolve, ^a^o^ JuaJj kasd-i-musammam. 
Resource, ^U- chara, Jic- ilaj, t/ W upd'e, ci-a/*^ hikmat, (f.) 
Respect, At^ixJ' ta^zjm (f.), mJ^^ takrim (f.), l-^j1 adah : see Re- 
Respite, Asij wakfa, ^^ l^ J:;5 ita^Z H wakfa, <^l3 ndgha. 
Rest, (jjCs sukun, (quiet) a^jT aram, jj^ A:arar : see Remainder. 
Result, ^}J[s>^ hdsil, ^^ samara : see Consequence. 
Resurrection,^^ J C^^j Ja*;5 o nashr : see Judgment (day of). 
Retaliation, Revenge, ^libJl intikdm, ^JO^ iwaz, iljj hadla. 
Reticle, ^^\>^ ^^ chhotdjdlj ^X^ is^ji^ chhoti thaili. 
Retinue, jh^-jilau (f.), ^Jj^^ sawarl, cSji tuzukj j^s kor. (f.) 
Retirement, Retreat, lzj^ khalwat (f.), i*l6ji>- khalwatgdh. (f.) 
Revenue, Jt^! awac? (f.), Jo-l^x* maddkhil, Jj^-^a^'* mahsul. 
Reverence, *.>^ takrim (f.), /♦J/^^^ ihtiram, (bow) *-Lj taslim. (f.) 
Reverse, (opposite side) ^-^ ^Aer, j^^r-^ <2A:5 : see Adversity. 
Revolution, (going round) ^^^ gardish(f.), (change) c-jlaj! inkildb. 
Reward,^! ajr, \j>- jaza (f.), ^\^ sawdb, fjtLs^r bakhshish, (f.) 
Rhetoric, c:^L I) a^ Ac ilm-i-kaldm or -baldghat. 
Rhyme, <uilJi kdfiya, u-i>t3; rac??/*, ^jsr» so;*, lL^* ^m/:. (f.) 
Ribaldry, ^Jls^ fuhsh,^^^ phakkar, '^y^puch. 
Riband, Ribbon, ^to^ l^ f^.J^ ^^'^^sham kdftta, j^ kor. (f.) 
Riches, cii^jj daulat (f.), JU /waZ, ^^ JU maZ matd*. (f.) 
Rick, 2(jy ^MfZa, Jl5 faZ, ill!! tdld, j^J dher,Ju\ ambdr. 

Vocabulary — Nouns. 263 

Riddle (enigma), jJ^ paheliy U^aj mu^amma, (j^^^*-^ chistan. 

Ridicule, ^^;.fe hansi, ^Lsi^ maz^haka, ^^f^ thathoU. 

Right, fj,^ hakk, \y: J da^wa, (hand) li-Jb J dahlna : see Property. 

Ring (circle), iA^ halka, ^^M kundli : see under Apparel, Dress. 

Ringleader, ^lA^j^ sar-halkay ^^/j^ sar-guroh : see Chief. 

Ringlet (small ring), ^^^ ij^^^if' ^^^^f^ angutJii : see Curl. 

Riot, jljb hullafj ^Ulfc hangama, ^J^^^^^ f^ kfiar-ma^ti. 

Ripeness, i<^i^ pukhtagl, ^^ \ij pakal, : see Perfection. 

Risk, ^^k>. khatra, ^^^ jokhim (f.), \ii>- chinta. (f.) 

Rite, ^^J ^^T a'lw-i rflw, <.::--:>j rlt (f.), Jh>jt /an/: (f.), m^j rasm. 

Rivet, <^ TweM (f.), ^^j^pachrl, ^j^^Jul andherl (?) : see Nail. 

Road, <i:u-; rosfa, tl5j-o saraA: (f.), al, ra^ (f.), ilAi bat. (f.) 

l^oar, >^/garj (f.), ^/ gunj (f.), Jiy. ghurrish. (f.) 

Robbery, 4?;^ cAorl, c-^JJJ duzdl, lJ^"^ dakaitl, iSj^j rahzanl. 

Rocket, (used in battle) ^^b ban, (skyrocket) ^ \^ hawa'i. 

Rogue, iS\j *U^ haram-zada, (^fi \hag^ Is! luchcha. 

Room, (space, place) ..^^^ jagah (f.), ^li^ makam: see Chamber. 

Roost, t jl ac(!fi?a, w^ chakkas, U---J baserd* 

Root, Jc>- jar (f.), J^ twmZ, ifv.j bekh (f.) : see Origin. 

Rope, ^^J rassi, f^j^rT fi'^Py ^J^"^ dori, ^j rasan. 

Rosary, (of beads) ^j^ tasbih (f.), (rose bed) ^Jc.*^}^ gulabistdn. 

Round, (turn) ^jJlJ/> gardish (f,), jy} daur : see Circle, Ring. 

Row, lJu> 5a^(f.), jUaJJ katdr (S^yj^ ffor (f.), <*i^^ pant, (f.) 

Rubbish, cU^ kurkut (f.), c/liU. Ididshak, \j^ kurd. 

Ruffian, ^\;=^ hardmiy J^J^s*- chanddl, J^ katar, Sis>^ jalldd. 

Ruin, ^\f^ khardbij ^JUJb pd'emdlJ, ^\J tabdhi. 

Rule, j^yliJ kdnun, aSsXs kd'ida, (sway) J^ hukm, ^^as. amal. 

Rumour, ii\^\ afwdh (f.), Ci.^ shuhrat (f.), s^ gap. (f.) 

Rupture, j|^t) tZarar, c3jj fzif (f.), (hernia) {j^^ Ju! and-kos. 

Rust, c^J 2«wg, j'i^jj zangdr, ^jyo morcha, J^ maiZ. (f.) 

Sabre, ^--1.^ shamsher (f.), Uj teghd, A^sa.^ samsdm. (f.) 

Sack, (bag) ^fgon (f.), V|jj Jom, (plunder) «^\jIj ci^r^Klj taldit'tdrdj , 

264 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Sackcloth, t3ti tat, ^X^^^ mekhlz, l1^\j ^^^U matami tat. 
Sacrifice, ^^J kurhan, Jj hal, ^J zahh (f.), \s5 fida. (f.) 
Saddle, ^^J zin, ^'^ kathi, (pack) j^ilb pdldn, (camel's) ^^Is^ 

Sadness, ^^'^\ uddsl, *c gham, JLo maldl, cSr!^<^ dil-giri. 
Safety, ^^Lo salamati, ^\ amn, jlcsT hachd'Oy l^>-^ rachchhd. (f.) 
Sage (person), ^^\ l3lj dand ddmi, JU dlirrij Jj)\3 fdzil, ^ muni. 
Sago, ^\i^^Li sdgu-ddna. (From the pith of the Sagus Rumphii). 
Saint, jjj wf It (m.), ^X^ sidhyjj pir, tL?ji gh am. 
Sake, <da-jlj wdsta, S-^r***' sababjJb\->~ khdtir, (f.), o-Jb /ze^ or hetu. 
For the sake, J^-olj vmste, '-r^f**' sabab,Jb\:>- khdtir (f.), jJ Ziz/e. 
Salad, (English) <aLj saZa^a (?). 

Salary, cUULo sdliydna, <xi*i^j wazjfa, ii\^s^ tankhwdh (f.) 
Sale,/li^ bikd'Oj ^jJj bikrl, s^l^^Jj farokht (f.) • see Auction. 
Salvation, CL^UsT yxo^a^ (f ), l:uX« mukt (f.), lsJ^^ rastagdri. 
Salutation, aLj saldm, ^j^ kornish (f.), ^X^^^ bandagl. 
Sample, ^^ namuna, ^J^\ bdngt, l^j^^^ mddari. 
Sandal, if 11 algdj b^ kharpd, (pair of sandals) ^^J^ na^lain (?). 
Sandal wood, Sanders, ^'^^ chandan, ^}su*a sandal. 
S^P) {j^j "^^s, ^jS- arak, iS\ pant (m.), JiJjJ dudh, 
Sarsaparilla (Smilax, sp.?), <Ul-c ushba, ij^ mako'e. 
Sash (for dress), i}^jdl, Kfb patkd, ^X^ sell, ^^, baddhi. 
Satiety, ^j\^\ aghd'z, ,V/^ bharti, ^j^ sert, ^ 1$^^ chhakd^i. 
Satin, ^^jJ^\ atlas, aXj^ pildm, J;silj* tdfta, ^*L ^afiw (?). 
Satire, ^ hajo (f.), j;*^ bhandauwd, IjcJ nindd. (f.) 
Satisfaction, (content) Jt/«c»- JbU- khdtir-jam'i : see Retaliation. 
Saturday, jWiji-j samchar, <iLa-i» shamba, i^zksti hafta. 
Sauce, j^^U- chdshni, ^5^^ chatm, ^js\i binjan. 
Saucer, ^J/J^ tashtarl, lJj^ sakori, ^^ pirich (?). 
Savour,^ Jo or Jw (f.), JbSi^ gandh (f.), i[^ ?wasa, J\y^ sawdd. 
Saw, c:^)/ kardnt, iSj\ dra, \j\ drd, j\L:^ minshdr. 
Saying, C-Jjl^^ kahdwat (f ), Ji^ masal (f.), CJb &a^. (f ) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 265 

Scab, ^^ khuthly \j**^ khasra, tiU^ chat (f.), ^^ papfi. 

Scabbard, ^Lj niyam, ^^ kathl, t-jiU ghilaf, j^Lc miyan. 

Scaffold, ^J^ macharij l^t^ daunjaj -^2jIj payath,j\: par. (f.) 

Scale (of a balance), h palldy J^ paZr«, (fish) 1^1$^ chhilka. 

Scalp, J/^*^ ^ ^j^,^ khopri ka chamrd. 

Scammony, LjykiLi sakmuniyd. (From Convolvulus scammonea.) 

Scandal, c----^ aih, 41 J d dgh , CS:^ kalank, ^l3jo badndmi. 

Scapula, i^JJb ^ ^JbjOl^ kdndhe ki haddl. 

Scarceness, Scarcity, ^Aa^ kamtt, ^\^ kamydbly ioJ tangi. 

Scarf, ^A^j^\ orhrii, ^2>^\ ek-patta, <i2j •fc> do-patta, \jjA uparnd. 

Scene, JuJ c?7c?, iaJ Jl< madd-i-nazar y (theatre J \j\^\ akhdrd. 

Scent, 4j bo ox bu (f ), 4_^Ij bds, JiX>^ gandh (f), lL^< mahak. (f.) 

Sceptre, (c^iJ^ c/^-^»^ asd-i-shdhly c: >^:.V?L^ ijJ kabza-i-saltanat. 

Scheme, (plan) <iLli3 naksha, (contrivance) c^-'*'^ hikmat (f.): see 

School, c--^-< maktaby ^jX< madrasa, j^li— jJ dabistdn. 
Science, Acilm, IjJj ^irfya (f.), (.::^^^»il5»- hikmat (f), ^jsfann. 
Scissors, (jo\ja^ mikrdZy ^y^V hainchiy Q,j^ katarm. 
Sconce, ^SxaJ^ sham^dduy j^j\^^ dtwdr-glry J\^ jhdr : see Head. 
Scope, (space) ^^ jagah (f.)y JL^^ phaild'o, (aim) s^aiLo maksad. 
Score, (notch) Ijljc^^ khanddnd, (line) )a>- khatt: see Account, Twenty. 
Scorn, ]l^\ istihzd, ei^Ul ihdnat (f ), ci:>^lii:>- ikdrat. (f.) 
Scoundrel, jL^ kurramsdky )jc^ shuhdd, iZJ\i^ dJ bad-zdt. 
Scourge, \j^ kord, <t3l>jlj tdziydna : see Punishment, Affliction. 
Scout, c^^^- JasM5, V.*^ bhtdiyd, aj^jb harkdra. 
Scrape, ^Xj ^awg?, ^^ijl«wl^ kashmakash (f.), k^^ss^<^ jhanjhat. 
Screen, Skreen, j^iS fa/f7, <^^\^jhdmpy d-JliJi kandt. (f ) 
Screw, ,^^ptchy iJj^y< mar or i: see Nail. 
Scrotum, <d?y /o/a, <)Ciy^ ^o^a. 

Scrutiny, J!:^ taldsh (f.),y>jL:u^-^jM5%'S (f.) : see Examination. 
Scuffle, ^fX^\js:<^ khainchd-khainchiy L&J J^J dhaul-dhappd. 
Sculpture, ^\so nakkdshl, (work of) ^J!LJiJ \^ Ij^^ khodd hu'd naksha. 

2 M 

266 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Scurf, lb hafa (f.), ^Jj^l paprl, ^^j rusi, ^^^ sahusa. 

Seal (stamp),^^ muhj- (f.), c-^l^ chhap (f.), ^^ khatim. 

Sealing-wax, ^^ lakh, a'i lah. 

Seam, ci^^J dokht (f.), (^^^ siwan, ^^ jor, jjiH darz. 

Season, i^^%^ mausim, lUj rit or rut (f.), J--23 ^a^Z (f.), M aiyam. 

Seat, (chair) j/j^ chaukt, (mansion) ^^IC* makan, (place) a\sl^ makam. 

Secession, ^y\jzs\ i^tizal, <-^^ phut (f.), uJj^l inhiraf. 

Secrecy, Urs.\ ildifa, iSi^i^ par da, i^j^<^j\j raz-dari, ci^^^L^ khalwat. (f.) 

Secret, j]^ raz,j»^ sirr, Ju^j 5^eJ, C-?b ^^^ <-i^?i pef ki hat. 

Sect, d^^J ^flif (f.), d^^ firka, (^::^£\ac!^ jama'at (f.), w».^J^jw« maz'hab. 

Section, ^uLjf A:zT« (vulg. kafa), 3^ khand,y>- juz, J^ fasl. (f.) 

Sedition, <ulx:J& hangama, I^j balwa, ii\^ fasad, Uj;^ danga. 

Seduction, l.i.1 i^hwa, /\^S^ bhatkao, ^j\^jSi badrahsazi. 

Seed, <j^J %*, asT tukhm^ ^^ bihan, (sperm) ^UiaJ nut fa. 

Segment, \€5 tukra, (of a circle) ^*^ss>- l^A l^ «-^J-^ c?a'/re ka ek 

Selection, c->lkijl intildiab, l!U)1^ chhant (f.), ,^b bachh. (f.) 
Self, L->1 op, d^ Idiud, '.^\ dp-ne, C-^1 J zdt (f.), ,^^^ w«/5. 
Semicircle, ^.^^^/^J mm-dd\iray ]^-€^^' ctdh-gherd. 
Senna, li**s ^aTza, ^Lcli-: sand-makki. 

Sense, Sensation, (j-»c*- ^m, j^l-ijl ausduj -&Ju*s smc?^ (f.) : see Meaning. 
Sentence (decision), ^^ fatwRj jX»- hukruy UiJJ ^«^a. (f.) 
Sentence (period in writing), AA^jumla, ajii fikra. 
Sentiment,^ fikr, ^\ rd'e(i.)y ^J^ zann, ^yi bujh. (f.) 
Sepulchre, jjfgor (f.),^ kabr (f.),jU^ mazdr, ci-^y turbat. (f.) 
Sergeant, (military) jlj^j daj^ddr, (at law) J^j wjaHZ. 
Series, <i^^ sarishta, ^xL-Lj silsila, j^d daur. 
Sermon, licj W7a*<s, A-ia:^ Jdiutba, ei^rsa^oj naslhat. (f.) 
Service, c^y naukart, ljJ^ chdkarl, l::^v«Jo- khidmat, (f.) 
Set, ^^ ganjf ^^jor, J^ TweZ, tUjll? tcClfa. 
Seton, ^l3 wa^/i, JS gid. 
Settlement, <-::-^-J^ J^:j band-o-bast, JLaAil infisdl : see Abode. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns, 267 

Sex, (.siiJ ling, (j-^>'w5 (f.), CL:\i zat (f.), c:^\>'jdt. (f.) 
Shackles, ^^-s:^ zanjlr (f.), ^j^^ berl, Jui kaid (f.), Jcj fcawc/. 
Shade, ylf?" chhanw (f.), <oUs saya : see Darkness, Shelter. 
Shadow, ^J^}^J^ parchha'in (f.), jj-Xi «/:« ; see Protection. 
Shaft, (column) ^,j^^ situn, (pit)^^l^ khankhar : see Arrow. 
Sham, ti^jl:^ hanawat (f.), li^^ pekhna, ^^^^jhuth. 
Shambles, ^r-**^ maslakh, ij\s^}^ kossdh-khana. 
Shank, i^ philU,yi)J> narhar, (of a tool) ^^JuJ dandi. 
Shape, Jv£i sAa/cZ (f.), ^^^jy^ surat (f.), ^.Li ka^, (f.) 
Share, L^b Z>a»^^, <Ua>- ^2.wa, (plough-) Jl^ pAa/, Ijy ^ora. 
Sharkj^lto hangar, (^J^ nihang, i\ji grdh: see Artful. 
Sheet, (cloth) jJU- chddar (f.), (of paper) dji fard (f.)o*^ ^^'^> *'^=^ 

Shell, L^^,M.i 57p (f.), ^J^ ghongdy <^?^ kauri: see Case, Husk. 

Shelter, ^ \;^, bachd'o, *Lj pandh (f.), Jt ar (f.), JuL saz/a. 

Shift, J\5 fa/ (f.), <dl^ <)d-o- Ifila-hawala : see Contrivance, Shirt. 

Shillishalli, ^^snj ^ \ dgd-pichha, ,^^ ^ ^^ pas-o-pesh. 

Shot, (shooting) CS:^^phenk (f.), ^-^ sari (f ), (bullet) jjji goZ7. 

Shroud, ^^ kafan, <GU1 /^/H/a : see Shelter. 

Shutter, (of a window) J-*A^ jhilmil, {^^ cMlwan, tl^ c^iA; (f ), 

(of a door)jl^ klwdr, (matted) ^jS /affi, c-^l^J^awp. 
Sickness, u^U-j blmdri, j\j\ dzdr, ^j^ marz, c^j ^i>g. 
Side, jL^^ pahlu, ysf^^ pdnjar, «_J^ /ara/ (f.), (party) <Gy ^r^a : 

(on this side) uJ^ ^^-l is taraf (f ), (on all sides) j^\ ^^J^ 

chdron dr. 
Siege, ^Isr* muhdsara, \j^ gherd, t^j^^^J^ girddwari. 
Sigh, i\ dh (f.), ^'U ^a'e (f.), ^jJU saris (f), j-i>jt> dar egh . 
Sign, lJ:^^^ic aldmat (f.), j^lU nishdn, (hint) ^lil ishdra, \aJ\ hnd. (f.) 
Signal, d^liil ishdrat (f.), j \:^jand'd, JJj JaZH. (f ) 
Signature, kkLcJ dast-Miatt, lzj%\^ likhdwat (f.) : see Mark. 
Signification, ,<i*^ ma^ni, .^jl ar^A, ^y^^^ mazmun. 
Silence, ^^^U- khdmoshl, C->yL: smA;w^ (f.), (^j-* /waM«. 

268 Vocabulary Nouns, 

Silk, (thread) J^^/S ahresham, (cloth) \^ ^j^j reshmi kaprd. 
Silliness, ^^^^ hhola-pan, ^,j^^ anar-pan, cJ^t^U ndddnl. 
Similarity, LJji\j harabarij ciJl^L-^ musdwdt (f.) ; see Likeness. 
Simile, Jl^ masal (f.), Jb.^ misal (f.), -f^.:^' tashhih, (f.) 
Simpleton, JJUll 4^x^ zo'ifu-l-akl, '•^j^-^ rnurakh. 
Simplicity, t/*|y WM-a^i, iX>^ sddagl : see Folly. 
Sin, ii\:^ gundh, L^\jpdpy m^ jurnriy e:->-*a*^ ma^siyat, (f.) 
Singer, \jif gawaiyd, iJ^jj^ sarodJ, ^U ga'm> lJ-^j^K kaldwant. 
Singing, j^L ga?z, t>»^ sarod, ,<^ taghanrii : see Song. 
A Sink, ^ l^ panbahd'Of jjl3 waZz, 4^;^ J^ p«^aZ muhri. 
Sinner, jl^li^gMwa^-gar, ^^^^ i?«p2 ^ j^'V badkdr, ^^^ dsi. 

Sir, t *-U 5a^iJ, ^^U-< miydTij ^\i bdbu, ,<=^J2. 

Sire, blj 5a Ja, c-^lL^- L!X3 ^ ,^jJbU»t)b pddshdhon kd ek khitdb, 

Sirius (the star in the great dog), J^^*--* shi^rd or shi^rl, 

Sirname, t-^ V. ^-'^^^>• ^ ^\jf ghardn& kd khitdb or lakab. 

Sirup, £^ 5A?ra, l-^ rw&, c-->]^ ra5 (f.), (j.-; 1^5-^ mif^a ras. 

Site, Situation, ^^ jagah (f.), 1)1^ thikdnd: see Condition. 

Sitting, c:>.^.*J nishast (f.), ui^ baithak (f.), (^^ jmZw5. 

Size,jljJU mikddr, JjJ tZzZ, jJJ kadd : see Bulk, Starch. 

Skein, ,<2:^ phlntl, ^ \ dnti, sj^ kaldwa, lf>-^l larchhd. 

Skeleton, t^^fJ thathrl, \3j tiddd. ' 

Sketch, <C-iiJ naksha, 1=^^ sdnchd, \j^ kharrd. 

Skewer, <isr^ slkhcha, JL^^ slkh. 

Skill, ^^*-i» shu'ur, v^ U; rasd'iy ju:Sb hunar, ^ gun. 

Skirt, ^U^ kindra, ^\d ddman, JjJ saiZ. 

Skyhght, jj^J^lj tdbddn, j^\ JcJijj raushan-ddn, ^^^JrT jharokhd. 

Slander, L::.-vk^ tuhmat (f.), ^jJiJcj bandish (f.), lt.^^- gh ibat, (f.) 

Slavery, jc*^ gkuldmiy l:*-^.^^^ laundi-pand. 

Sleep, Ja-3 wIticZ (f.), <-r*|^i>- kJmdb, ^ l^j\ unghdl : see Rest. 

Sleeve, ^^;-:«-jT as^m (f.), <^^ kharlta, l^ hatthd. 

Slight, (indignity) L::^i:i- khiffat (f.), (sleight) ^Jux.1 shu^bada, 

Sliness, ^l*-* siydn-pan, ^ i^^ chaturd'l, ^j\i^ aiyargl. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 269 

Slope, JUj dhal, j<i\ utar, ^y„j\;^ sarazeri. 
Sloth, 1^:1-*- sustl, (J-!*^ kahili, ijL^J\ askat (f.), ^1 alas, 
Slough, (of a snake) ^ji-s^ kenchli, (of a sore) ])f^ chhichra. 
Slowness, ^^^^LjbT ahistagi, J-^3 c?^!^ (f.), ,^_c:u.— *» 5M5^?, ^^^•sr° 

Sluice, i^Jfi^ muhri, i^\jy>- kkiirah : see Di'ain. 
Slumber, ^5*l^j\ ungka'z, X»J ^^J^ kachchi nlnd: see Sleep. 
A Slut, Jjbjf) phuhar (f.), ^o;^^ anarin (f.), J:>J^ churail. (f.) 
Smallness, ^^ tJ^^ chhotal, t^*^^ kfmrdi, ^X^^ kuckakl. 
Smell, ^^^sungh (f.), (odour) JbJ^gandh (f.)?^ ^o (f.), ^^-^ ^«^' (f*) 
Smile, (J^^UL-^ muskurahat (f.), *-«J tahassum. 
Smut, (spot) l1^^ kalak, (obscenity), cjUJ^ khurafat (f.) : see 

Snare, >*U Jatw, t jJI^ pAawcfa, (dakh. al^o) Ci^ sarak. 
Sneer, L^^y^ cl/lj ndk-charhl, J^-ySu^^ istihzdj 1;—-^ thtsra. 
Snout, ^J^y^ thuthni (?), (elephant's) *Xi^ 5Mwrf (f.), (crocodile's) 

^j^y tumri. 
Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), (JJoU- J^ gul-i-chdndm. (?) 
Snuff, (of a candle) JS^ gM/, (the powder) ^jJj nds (f.), ^J^y^ 

Snuffbox, jjlj^^li nds-ddn. 
Soap, (j^ltf sabuuy /^^OjLj suklikarm. 

Sobriety, ijf;^5:tJ^ parliezgdri, ^jj\J^^ hoshydri : see Moderation. 
Society, ^jJi\ uns, Lir^-w*^;^ suhhat (f.), ei^ll^ mushdrakat (f.) : see 

Soda, jl^ Mar, ^Xo ^^sf^ ^ »^Ji tlX>J e/: kism ki sajji mittl. 
Softness, ^^y nariniy liiLoj^ komaltd (f.), ^jl^-^aJLo muldyamat. (f.) 
Solicitation, cu^Jy-^J darkhwast (f.), c-Jis ?a?a& (f.), ^-::-^iA5 Twiw- 

wa^ (f.) 
Solitude, lj\^ tanhd'tj ^^\ ikldl: see Desert, Retirement. 
Solution, y^I^pig^/a'o, J ^gaZa'o, ^hall: see Explanation. 
Somnolency, ^IJcJ nindds (f.), ^^^ ^^^ Jdrndb-dludagi. 

270 Vocabulary.— Nouns, 

Song, ^<::^f^ git, ^j^ gan, J.^ sarod^ <Ujo naghma, <^\j rag. 
Sorrow, (j^^\ afsos, a^ ^am, ^&*i^ kurhan (f.) : see Grief. 
Sort, A-J kism (f.), l::^31^ hhant (f.), ^^^ toa/f (f.), (^r-:^ J^'ws. (f.) 
Sound, Jl^t aMJfl^r (f.), Iju? 5a(i« (f.), C^^\ ahat, t^^V ^^^g« (S') 
Space, i^jS- arsa, AJ^ fasila: see Room, Distance, Interval. 
Span, Lir^^lb hallsht (f.), 1:ij Z>z7^a, «— --5»-^ ivajab, JjL hiland. (f.) 
Spasm, J^JaA:ar, ^Sij\ amfA (f.), ^J:js:u peckish (f.) : see Twist. 
Spawn, tJ<iol ^^^ jj^^JLj^ ^|^\ ^^l^-* machhliyon aur mendakon ke 

Speaker, Jius mutakallim, y^« holwaiya : see President. 
Specimen, <0j^ namunaf ^tf^3b bangt, i^j^^^ madarl. 
Speck, cb c?«^, \;^5^ chitkdra, (in the eye) ^j^ phuU, 
Spectacle, U»Uj tamasha, [J^\^ ^r^ ^j^^ numcCish. 
Spectacles, <U.i*^- chashma, CS^L^s^^ chashmaky CS^ ainak. (f.) 
Spectre, ^U) 5a?/a, CL^^bhut, jj^l2-j-i» shaitan. 
Speech, j^bj zuban (f.), J^ JoZJ, ^iLj Tiw/yt, l^l^ bhakha, (f.) 
Speed, t^<^^ jaldiy ^y,j^ harbari, ^c^'I^JIj shitabi. 
Spell, ^>o mantary^i^\>-jddu: see Turn, Time. 
Spendthrift, j\jl wra'w, «-^ ^^fazul-kharch. 
Sperm, ^i^ ?wa7ii, cjUj dhdt (f ), -jaj %' : see Seed. 
Sphere, see Globe. Spheroid, J-->- lSj*^. baizawi chtz. 
Spike, (of corn) Jb bdl (f.), ^^ khosha, (nail) ^^ meM* 
Spindle, Kj ^a/cZa, ^o taku'd, -^r^ chamrakh. 
Spinning, Jj f^ charkh-zam, (-wheel) ^jf- charkhd. 
Spirits, (liquors) L^ijJ^ shardb (f.), Jj^Jt^ tez arak: see Mirth. 
Splendour, a^s^jalwa, CS^^ chamak (f.), Jpjj raunak, (f.) 
Splinter, -.^ /:irc^ (f.), CS>^t>^ sink (f.), ^L^ khapdch. (f.) 
Spoke (of a wheel), Ijl ^ ^^^ chakkar kd drd, ^^^^ bent. 
Sponge, JjU 1^ ?w?i'a bddal ^Li\ isfanj. 
Sport, (of the field) j\Ci» shikdr, (play) J-/ khel, ^j\i bdzu 
Sportsman, ^lCi> shikdrJ, jbj^-i* shikdr-bdz, (^^\ a/^m. 
Spot, (speck) 4) J c?ag:A, (disgrace) CS^ kalank: see Place. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns, 271 

Spout, ^p tonfi, iJli-J paindldy (pipe) cIjj^ pot (f.), J3 w«Z. 

Spread, jL^ p^ai/a'o, <^W ihatajj^ gher : see Extension. 

Sprig, Sprout, ^J^^phungi, ^^li shakhcha, ^\^ daB, 

Sprightliness, j^^ chalakl, ^^^f^- achpall, L::^^-i>llJ bashdshat. (f.) 

Spur, l23\^ Hwfa, JjJ er (f.), J;?-*^ mahmez, (f.) 

Spy, (j*.yJ^ jdsus, V.<^ hhtdiyoLy j\ijaj nazar-hdz: see Scout. 

A Square, »-J^ jCi» shakl-i murahha, ^y>- chaukd. 

Squib, (firework) U-l5j patdJdid, (lampoon) ^^ ^a;o. (f.) 

Squire, \\j^ mirzd, xd\j u^-^^-lo sdhib-zdda, H ZaZa. 

A Squirt, ^J^^ pichkdrt, K^J damkald, \is^ pichukkd, 

A Stab, Jyfe AiiZ (f.), vUo^ hhonk (f.), l^^^ khonchd. 

Stability, j\y kardr, j\;^ thahrd'o, i^j^y^\ ustuwdrl. 

Stack, Jl5 tdl{f.), Jljl atdl (f.),jlJl ambdr, a^iy tuda. 

Staff, l^:c asa, ^<^^ /af^I, c^J^^ chharl, ^y>' choh. (f.) 

Stage, J^^ manzil (f.), (platform) ^^^^ machdn^ (of a playhouse) 

2(ls li»UJ tamdshd-gdh (f.), Jjl^l aklidrd: see Station. 
Stain, 41j <fa g-A lIXJ ZiA: (f.), tliil^ kalank, (on cloth) LibJ dhappd. 
Staircase, cj^J-j pairl, ^^\^,^iy nardbdn, y^j^ pharki. (?) 
Stake, (post) l^^ khambhd, ^^ khuntd : see Peg, Wager. 
Stalk, }\j dally l^'J dathd, (J^y bonty icJ tanay ^5^^"^ ddntJfi. 
Stall, (for a beast) ^J^ thduy Ai^^ tawela, \^j\ drgard (?): see Bench, 

Stallion, JuLo sandy \j^ l^ -jAJ blj kd ghord. 
Stammerer, Stutterer, UiKib hakldhd, ^^^ luknatl. 
Stamp, (instrument) ^^^ chhdpdy j^ muhr (f.) : see Print. 
Stanchion, IjLo danddy ^^ tJiunly ^^-^ ttkni, -.l) pushfi. 
Stand, (stop)Jl^! atka'd, (station) l3l^ thikdnd: see Cessation. 
Stanza, <uLi kit'a,jXJ^ shf'r o-:;^ ^ai^ (f.)? ^^^^ dohd. 
Starch, &i«sUJ nishdsta, u^^J^^ kalap, |^U mdwd, (f ) 
A Start, Llio^ chaunk (f.), CS^^^i^ jhijhak (f.), LLij^ bharak. (f.) 
State, t:JU- ^a/a^ (f), «--^j 2^;fls* (f.), JU dlam: see Kingdom. 
State, Stateliness, ^^3^ tamtardk, ajJoJ dabdaba. 

272 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Station, .^^ jagah (f.), l3l^^5 thikana: see Place, Degree. 

Statue, f-^jyo murat (f.), c^j hut, 1*^^ putla, c:---^ la^hat. (f.) 

Stature, Jjf kadd, Jj3 c?JZ, ci^^lJJ kamat (f.), ^^<^\ andaza. 

Statute, (jy ^ kanun, ascXs ka^ida^ ^j 1 a'tn, ei^j r?^. (f.) 

Stay, jl$3 fi'/ca'o, jj^V^^^ hudohash (f.), tA^; raha'lsh. (f.) 

Stead, ^^jagah (f.), %jy< mauka^y (instead) ^^^ *z^a2. 

Steak, IC' ^zA:/[;a, Jy hotJ, Stealth, ^Jjj^ chori, iJ^^Ji^ duzdi. 

Steed, \j^ ghora, btib hadpa, Jc.^*^* samand. 

Steeple, j\^ mlndr, Li/i lat (f.), \jt>j^d dhaurahra. (?) 

Stem, (stalk, twig) ^l-i> shdMi, ^^Jfj^^ dantht: see Lineage. 

Step, /♦JJJ kadam, a^ gam, t^^O c?eg, (of stairs, &c.) ,^y^;;r* ^^r^'^* 

Sterility, c/'^^^ usard't, iS\}^ kallara'i, ^i=^\i hdnjhpan. 

Stick, ^jd^l Za/crJ, ^i Idthi, Lxa asa, S->j^ choh, \Sj^ dandd. 

Stigma, qU ddgh^ ^i^ chink, (disgrace) t-lJoi^ kalank, ^y>- harf. 

Stillness, (JL-:^-^ sunsdni, (JUJilx-j sundhat (f.) : see Silence. 

Sting, tlioJ c?aw^, di^j^i c^a/i/c, j^jS-J wesA, Lli^^-*^ chahhak, (f.) 

Stink, yJo bad'bu (f.), JbJc^J durgandh (f.), j^^* ta'affun. 

Stipulation, L^ s^ar^^ (S')fJ^y Jy kaul-kardr : see Contract. 

Stirrup, <-->l^ ri/^aJ (f.). Stirrup-leather, Jljc3c_->1^ rikdh-do'dl. 

Stitch, 1^3 1' tdnkd, ^^1 ZapH, (pain) lLCJ fasaA:. (f.) 

Stock, d:J tana, (gun-) ax^^ kunda, (capital) J^ mul: see Cattle. 

Stocks, (wooden) Jji har, ^*l^ kdth, (funds) ^^^ ^j4^^,, i^-^ \J^^^ ^^^^^ 

kist punji men. 
Stop, Stoppage, jl^3\ atkd'o, lIJoI afafc (f.), (in gram.) ^t^--J hisrdm. 
Store, (plenty)^i c?Aer, (house) ajj^ khazdna, j\3c^ hhanddr. 
Story, (tale) ^JLaJI Arwm, cil^ kahdni, (floor) J^ manzil. (f.) 
Stove, ^j^ gul-khan,jyJ tanur, ^^^sXl angttht,j\^^ hhdr. 
Stranger, k-^\^^ ghair-jdnih, ^^^„^j{ par-desi : see Guest, 
Strap, (of leather) ^}\^^ do'dl, (razor) ^y^>- chamoti : see Belt. 
Stratum, CL^^ parat, ^j tah (f ), jU? tahak, jUs JjiJa/i:. 
Straw (stalk of grain), ^JU /laZ?, J^^ puwdl (f.), l^" ^iwH. 
Streak,^ lakir (f.),^ lahar(f.), \2^ khaft,: see Line, Ray. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 273 

Stream (current), )^Uj dhara (f.),jU>^ dhar (f.) : see Brook, River. 
Street, <l>-^ kucha, iz^j rasta, ^ gall, (Jjj-- sarak, (f.) 
Strength, jjj zor, Jj 5cf/, cr-Jj A'MZiJa^ (f.), ^»^^ mazhuti. 
Stress, j^J zoTf <-^^ chot (f.), -^^ bdj7i,Jj bar. 
Stretch, JL^ phaild'd,j\^ pasar, ^L-^ kasa'd : see Effort. 
Strife, l5:j fawfa, Jj^^ jhagra, ^y l^y toka-toki : see Dispute. 
String, c^jfc> fi?or7, ^^-o^ rassl, ^^ sutlif ij^^jel: see Row. 
Strip (slip), (cf^^ dhajji, ^j:^ katran, \^ tukra, ^^ paifi. 
Stripe, (line)^-iJ lak'ir (f.), (from a whip) jU mar (f.), \jf kora. 
Stroke, jU mar (f.), ^y>- chot (f.), L!io^^ {/iowA:: see Stripe. 
Strophe, »-lk« matla^^ iULj A:i/'rt : see Stanza. 

Structure, -**«jO* to^mir (f.), (edifice) crJjUx imdrat (f.) : see Shape. 
Stubble, JaJ^J badh (f.), ,^^^ t hunt hi, ^jjd ndrl. 
Stucco, t_^J 1^ i_5^j^ chune kd Up. 

Stud, (of horses) J-o^ MaiZ, ^U j:^aga, (button) J^^ /j/^mZ. 
Study, <u!lla^ mutdla'a, (room) <Ol:S- <ullk< mutdla'a-khdna. 
Stuff, ^rjU mddda, lil^j rakht, fjX^ kimdsh : see Nonsense. 
Stump, t/^y tundl, Jjy tund, -^^^ thunth : see Root. 
Stupefaction, ^^^, bt-hoshl, \»-jyf> murchhd. (f.) 
Stupidity, ^^yr>. bt-ioukufi, ^3\as>- himdkat (f.), t^J^ kundl. 
Style, (idiom) ^Ma-^^ wfiZa^ (f.), Cl^V^ "Jara^ (f.) : see Title. 
Subject, Lii-'-iij ra'aiyat (f.), Ic*-^ ^ar;a (f ), (matter) ifjU mddda. 
Sublimity, <*::--:> ji-s- ulwiyat (f.), u5«^^ bulandl : see Height. 
Submission, ^Jb^^jjo: uzr-Jdwdhl, ^ bt) dabd'o : see Obedience. 
Subpoena, e<4^ i^JJ? talab-chitthl, <^»a-s saflna. 
Subscription, (signing) L^LjJ dasMatt, (sum) ^.xis^ chandd. 
Subsidy, ^^l^JJ^ j^ ^j rupai ki madadgdrl : see Aid, Tribute. 
Subsistence, (being) ^A*^ hastl, Jy^-^ wujud: see LiveUhood. 
Substance, (being) jA-Ji> A«5^7, (matter) isjU mddda: see Body, 

Substantive, >-:\ wm, aU wawz. 

Substitute, /♦lil* ^^Jli kd'lm makdm, ^^ twazl : see Agent. 

2 n' 

274 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Subtileness, Subtilty, (fineness) ^c-^.jV barlkl : see Artifice. 
Subtraction, ^Jb karan, *^j waz^ (f.), c-f ^^ ghatal. 
Subversion, c-->ila3l inkilah, lS-^.jJj zerzaharif \WAi pa' email. 
Suburbs, jy^ /^^^ daman-shahar , \j^^ jj^ shahar-purd. 
Success, ^^V*^ kdmyably ^ \.i i^^j^^c- uhda-hard'i. 
Succession, J— L-J tasalsul, ^ 1^1 lagd'o : see Series, Lineage. 
Successor, ^JLj\^ jd-nishm, /♦liU J}^ kd\em-makdm. 
Sucker (a shoot), J-3^ kompal, J^ karil: see Sprig. 
Suckling, \j\y>^jJti shlr-khzpdrdf <^r^ l^ Jb^^jJ dudh kd bachcha. 
Sufficiency, CU>U^ kifdyat (f.), j^j wufur, lij zt-o/H. (f.) 
Suffocation, ^^-^1 cr-r^ habsu-n-nafas, ^Jc— j^J dambastagt. 
Sugar, iLi> shakar (f.), (coarse) ,<i^ cAIwz, JJl^ khdnd, (candy) 

ijj'^i^ misri, JcJf kand, (-cane) -^^1 ukh (f.), Ui' gannd, \J::^ 

Suggestion, ^,li»! ishdray,jsj^'^ fji^ gosh-giizdri, JLa saldh. (f.) 
Suicide, ,-1^ J^^ kkiid-kushl, (murderer) ^^ J^>- khud-kush. 
Suit, 1j^5>- jom, (retinue) L::^^.♦«l.^ hashmat (f.) : see Lawsuit, 
Suitor, (plaintiff) ^^^ri-J^J ddd-khwdh^ (wooer) (JJ^^ dshik. 
Sum, iju^ mablagh, ^ kulB, (summary) J-4^ mujmal. 
Summerhouse, ^j^^j^, bdrah-dart, iiiij bangld. 
Summit, \^^-(i* phunang (f.), ^J^^ chonfi, Ai kulla. 
Summons, t--«li' talab (f.), ^j^^ t-^ talab-chitthi. 
Sunbeam, ^^ kiran, ^ \^ c-^liiT a/ifaZ> kd partau, 
Sunday, j^l itwdr,Juij rabibdr, ^Ui-i* CS^} tk shamba. 
Sunrise, 4--jliiT c^ tuliCi dftdby ^^jl ttJ^*^ suraj-udai. 
Sunset, cyliil c-^^ gh urub-i-dftdb, c::^wj\ -jrj^^ suraj-ast. 
Superficies, -^^ 5fl'//^ (f.), c:^«x-jj wus'at (f.) : see Outside. 
Superfluity, 4^V.*^^ izdiydd, CL^Ji^ kasrat (f.), ci-'l^ bahutdt. (f.) 
Superintendence, ^\^ nigahbdm^ ^^/./^ sarbardhi. 
Superiority, u^;^ bartari, f^:^^ fauklyat (f.), o^ \jj bara'i. 
Superstition, jLb ^^.O din-i-bdUl, ^^.waxj' ta'assub. 
Supplement, <i^^*Jr tatimma. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 275 

Supplication, Ujo-jI istid'd (f.), Uj du'd (f.), i^j\} zarl. 

Supply, ^Jj&i hharfiy s^j rasad (f.), *^^T dmad (f.), ^~^^ khep. (f.) 

Support, (prop) ^S'cJ\ istdda, (sustenance) {j^j^y^ parwarish. (f.) 

Supposition, jj$3l atkal (f.), ^"-Uji kiyds, ij\Si\ anddza. 

Suppression, J bj dabd'o,^ U^ chhipd'o. 

Suppuration, ^ l^ pa/:a o, l^^\---jJ plhiydhat (f.), -is:*^ nw^/. 

Supremacy, C-^^l awwaUyat (f.), c^^*^ sarddri. 

Surcingle, ^^5-j j^efz, (^:J ^o bdld-tang, ^^ JJ^ kotal-kash. 

Surety, (bondsman) ^^•<l«^ zdmin, (bail) ^^i^l*^ zdmim. 

Surf, Surge, ^^ «-.yo mauj-i-bahr^ ^^^ hilkdra,j^ laliar, (f.) 

Surface, -tf^*-^ 5a][/f (f-)>^J rM,yi>lj bahar, LLj ii^a/. (f.) 

Surfeit, (j^^r^T^ ajiran, ^ \j^\ aphral, ^ Ue kachdl. 

Surgery (practice of a surgeon), ^^t^j^-jarrahl. 

Surplus, (c^ Z>M7, ^c^i^ barhtt, ^A=^ bachtl, ^}J>\3 faziL 

Surprise, c-.-^^-s*^ ta'ajjub, ^^^ ndgahdnl, CS^\^\ achdnak. 

Survey, s\ij nigdh (f.), ^^ nazar (f.) : see Mensuration. 

Surveyor, iili ndzir, ^LfclS nigdhbdn : see Land-surveyor. 

Surviver, 2f jOU-j pasmdnda, 2f JuJ {jmJ^ pas-zinda. 

Suspense, U-j • cJp- khauf o raja (f.), IfcJoJ dubdhd. (f.) 

Suspension, yi^ latkd*d, (putting off) jj«/^ <^ l^J3J "^^ chand 

roz ke TVe ma zuTi, 
Sustenance, jlto^ ahdr,cS^j%s>^ kkiirdk (f.), \Lp^jlkd: see Livelihood. 
Suture, (seam) ^^ siwan, ^ i-j sild'l, (of the skull) jy>- jdr. 
Swain, }^ jawdrij ^J^^ ls'^'^^^ chaupdrii jawdn, lIX^IJ ndyak. 
Swamp, JjJj daldal (f.), ^^-JfeJ dhasan (f.), (^;^<j j^-=^ <^^or zamln. 
Swarm, Jc.^ jliund, Jjl:^ mandal, ^\>-d^ izdihdm. 
Sway, c:^-^yo- hukumat (f.), ^\y\^Ji farmdn-rawd'l. 
Sweepings, ^f^>- jhdran (f.), (j;j^ buharan (f.), ^J/ /^Sfa. 
Sweetheart, I^Lj pydrd (m.), <Gyjc< mashuka (f.) : see Beloved. 
Swell, ^J^ phulariy ^^^ sujan, (wave) -j-^ »2az{; (f.) : see Increase. 
Swiftness, ^5J-J ^ez?, ^^jA^ jaldi, ^^^ chdldkt, ^^}cJ^ shitabi. 
Swindler, c-^V.y (♦'^^-^ mardum-fartby j^^^ butte-bdz. 

276 Vocahulary. — Nouns. 

Swing, J 1^ jhuld'Of (machine) "^j^ jkuld, ^jjLa hinddld. 

Swoop, CL^^^ jhapat, (f.) Swop, ilJo 1i^\ adld-hadld. 

Sycophant, ^jx<\i^^s>- khushdmadi, j^ J"^ ch ugh uUkJior, 

Syllable ^^•f^ Mje^ <u)^ kalima. Syllabus, see Abstract. 

Syllogism, <UJJJ kaziya, (j^\^ kiyds, JJii dalil. (f.) 

Symbol, j^lU niskdn, c:^^^£. aldmat (f.), j|^ murdd. (f.) 

Symmetry, <^>^ karina, ^y^ sudauU, j\i^\ anddz. 

Sympathy, ^^jS^Sti ham-dardl, ^jj'^^ dil'sozl, Lii-vij rikkat. (f.) 

Symphony, ^^iJbl/*Jb ham-dhangif ^j^f^^Mb ham-dwdzi. 

Symptom, c:^^lc aldmat (f.), ^^1^ nishdn, Ji\ asar. 

Syncope, see Fainting ; (in gram.) f-tt^y ^S ^ l<rf?, ki tarkhim. 

Synopsis, j»aJs^ muTditasar, ^.U.^ mujmal, (J\^^\ ijmdl. 

Syntax, ^ naho. (f.) Syringe, ljJ^^ pichkdri, i^:,h>- hukna. 

System, ^y^ kdnun, adsXi kd^ida, (plan) ^CJi3 naksha. 

Tablet, ,^^ lauh (f.), ^Jb pdti, ^_^2^ taMiti. 

Tackle, Tackling, ^Issrl^ sar-anjdm, llij^ J-^ ktl-kdntd. 

Tactics, {^S^^^ fann-i-jangy ij')j\ u-i-^ saff-drd'i. 

TafFeta, <txslj tdfta, ^ IjjJ daryd^i, Jj-^ cht'oli. 

Tail, /♦J JwTW (f.), -f:<^^ punchh (f.), JLJ;^ dumhdl. 

Taint, (stain) <^d ddgh, (corruption) ^ Z>w (f.), (j^b Jas. (f.) 

Tale, ^oJJ itmcf, ,<3^ kahdnl, Ji3 naA:/ (f.) : see Calculation. 

Talebearer, j^ J^f" chughul-khor , j\as. gh ammdz. 

Talent, (weight) ^^Jj M'a<^w, (coin) dL^ sikka : see Faculty. 

Talisman, (»-ib tilism, (or plur.) Ci^U-Jl? tilismdt. 

Talk, c^b Jajf (f.), l::^.-^ c:^^b ia^cHiJ (f.), JU!^ JoZcAaZ. (f.) 

Talkativeness, ^j ^ 2f Jb j ziydda-go't, ^*if j\^^ bisydr-go'l. 

Tallow, ^j^ charlii, ^ pih (f.) : see Fat. 

Talness, ^^ l-^ ^i^ J^ kadd ki lamhd'l, ^ bsTjl unchd't. 

Talon, j^b ndTdiun, ^ nuhy ^ nakh, &s^ panja, 

Tambourin, ^i^^-^ khanjari, A^ tabla, ^oj daph. 

Tameness, ^^ ha hildly ^\j rami, ,^ |^^j poswd't. 

Tap, c-jl^j" Map (f-)? ij^^ thapkly Ci^J /Ao/c, |^»^' takord. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 277 

Tape, j^ kdr (f.), c^^^ po-ttjt (coarse) j^y niwar. (f.) 

Tapestry, ^j^ j\^d diwar-giriy j^r^ mushajjar. 

Tar, ^)=^ kitran, J 5^ ral, (sailor) ^-^^J^ khaldsi. 

Tardiness, ^Jc,^.^] ahistagi, ^^^^^^ susfi, ^ji^^ deri : see Sloth. 

Tare, (weed) (^^ ghas, (in weight) l^J dhara, CD\ji>^ dharat. 

Tariff (Arab. u-iv«j), <uli£N-jJ l^ Jj-^^^"^ mahsul ka nirkh-ndma. 

Tartness, ^y turshi, t/*!:?J^ karwd'l, ^J^-s:^ sakhti. 

Task, <tLl?. wazifa, ^l^ A-awz, l^-^^ chukautd, CIJ^ Am^. 

Tassel, \^ jhahhdj \jsu£j^phundnd, ^J^ lafkan. 

Taste, ^ maza, C->JJ lazzat (f.), <)UjJj za'ika : see Discernment. 

Tattler, ,^^ hakkJ, ^j^ g^PP^y Vj^*^ barbariyd. 

Tavern, <0U. ^-^|;-2» shardb-khdna, <0U- -Jo»^ bhangtr-khdna. 

Taunt, j^^ ^^flTw, ^j <^xL tana'Zanl,\u^ mihnd,J:Sff tanz. (f.) 

Tautology , j^IJ takrdr (i.\ jjj takarrur. 

Tax, J^*As:r* mahsul, J-^U- ^anZ, ^U^ Tddrdj, <OUr>. Tdiazdna, 

Teacher, J^^ mu'allim, jI:i-j^ ustdd, (j-^jXo mudarris, %ji guru. 

Teacup, iJW l/ ^ ^^^ klpiydU, Teapot, jj^^^^ chd-ddn. 

Te Deum, ci^-i ^ .f^j<^^ ^^ g}i' 

Telescope, ^.j^^^ dur-bln. 

Teller, ^\j-:^ kahnewdld, "^^^^ ginnewdld : see Accountant. 

Telltale, j^ J*^ chughul-ldwr , UJ Zw^ra, jo}^ nesh-zan. 

Temerity, tj?;-jjc-j be-tadblrl, jyP tahawwur. 

Temper, Temperament, ^\yo mizdj, ci^-Ji^ sarisht. (f.) 

Temperance, Temperateness, Jl4>:ii:l i" tiddly yjnj par htz. 

Temperature, J^Jcxl Ctiddl, ^J> j cJ^/-» l::->JU- hdlat-i-sardi o 

Temptation, c-^^-^cy tar gh ib (f.), 1^^^ ighwd, ^^,lsru\ imtihdn. 
Tenacity, c^jfeLU laslasdhat (f.), LiUjbUrso^ chipchipdhat. (f.) 
Tendency, ^_,U« wictiZ, j^^Lj^ maildriy ^'^^>- jhukd'o. 
Tenderness, ^j^ narml, IJ^^ komaltd (f.) : see Pity. 
Tendril, CL^^ sm^, ^,j resha, (of a vine) J-J Z>eZ, ^Lj Je/z. 
Tenour, (continuity) fji^j rawish (f.), (drift) ^^^fafiwd: see Meaning. 

278 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Tense, <U-^ sigha^ J^e <GUj zamana-i-jtl. Past, ^^ mazi. Pre- 
sent, JU- fidl. Future, J-Jbw«*.c mustakbil. 
Tension, Tenseness, j*!—^ kasd'o^j Is^ khichd'dj ^^Ij ^ati. (f.) 
Tenter (hook), lJ^\ ankrl, ic-^^ anksi. 

Term, (limit) Jo- hadd (f.), (word) C^b Ja^ (f.) : see Condition. 
Termination, Jc!^ ^atZc?,^ 1 dkhir, (of a word) ^.g/^t uJ j^-harf-i-dkhirt. 
Terrace, ^y^^ chahutara or ^"^^ chautaraj /•b 6«/w. 
Terrour, L::^.lJfcJ dahshat (f.), Jyb haul, j3 dar, uJ»r^ khavf, 
Testament (last will), <u\3 ci-^^j wasiyat-ndma. 
Testicle, ^\:>' khdya, <U»^ Musya, Sj\ and, |jLj pelrd. 
Testimony, cr^jl^ skahddat (f.), ^-^^^ gawdhl : see Evidence. 
Tether, ^y^ gardnwan, l^ poghd or l^ paga. 
Tetter, jlj ^ao?, c/ ^J*^ dina'i, ^y,^»^ stnhu'd, S.^ sell. 
Text, ^iA) rwa^w, J-^^ asl (f.), Jj^ ?wmZ, ^^I^j rawdn. 
Texture, ^^^, bindwat(f.), ci-^liJ bundwat, ^Ui kimdsh. 
Thanks, Thanksgiving, ^^x-i shukr, ^j^d^Jjt» shukr-guzdri, 
Thaw,/il^ l^ ^\j pale kd pighld'o, l::^:^\^ guddkht. (f.) 
Theft, ijjy^ chorJ, lJ'^j^ duzdi, lsJ^ taskari, ^*o sarika. 
Theme, IIj^a? manshd, jXa^o masdar, ci-^Nrsa^ maVhas. 
Theorem, id-^ masla, ^^U* A:iz/as. Theory, ^^-^J' kiyds. 
Thermometer, M CSi} ^ is^^ ^.J^j^ kA^J^ garnii sardi ndpne kd 

ek dla. 
Thicket, Jc^ jhund, J^^ Jl^ jhdr-jhur (f.), J^ls^ jangaL 
Thickness, «^*^^ motd'i, Lii^ili^ kasdfat (f.), ^\:s^ gunjdm. 
Thimble, <Gliliol angushtdna, c->^ {op. 
Thinness, ,JoJ tunuki, 4^'^ patla't, Lz^'ij rikkat. (f.) 
Thong, <U-J' tasma, jLj ^a/Zw ; see Strap. 

Thorax, jJLj j9e{?, t-J;!? iJJ^. ^ l5^^ chhdtl ki bJiitrl taraf. 
Thorn, (tree) ^^l^-^j^ l^ i^-'^ kdntt kd darakht, (spine) l2il^ kdntd. 
Thought, b^^-» sochnd, Jl^ khiydl, <C-jj01 andesha, ^j^^^ dhydn. 
Thraldom, Thrall, ^^ ghuldml, ^::^.\J^ uhudtyat. (f.) 
Thread, ijl>^ sut, <^lj* ^ag, «J:^^ rishta, iTUt) dhdgd. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 279 

Threat, Threatening, ICiJbJ dhamka, *x> Jc^J tahdid (f.), j^j zijr. 

Thrift, ^>^jj^ juzrasl, ^^^j>- ^ kam-Miarchi, \j\^ ward. 

Throe, Jj^ l*y bard dard,j^^ plr (f.), ^ JjJ dard-i-zih. 

Throne, ij:^sr takht, ^\^^ singhdsan, Jo..^ masnad. (f.) 

Throng, J->^ bhlr (f.), iiy^\ amboh, A^^j\ izdihdm, ^^s,^ hvjum. 

Thrust, l^^ khonchd, Ju^ tkel (f.), ^^ dhakkdj lL^^^ bhonk. (f.) 

Thump, Thumping, lC♦J^J dhamkd, tl^UjbJ dhamak (f.) : see Stroke. 

Thursday, CL^\ji^xA^ jum'a-rdt (f.), i-'>:'>t.^^panj'shamba. 

Ticket, (<^5^ chitthl, c^^ ?7p (f.), J;>jli«.'J dastdwez, (f.) 

Tide, (flood) j1^ Jai^-ar (f.), tX< madd (j.\ (ebb) l^l^« bhdthd, jj»- 

Tidings, jU>.\ akhbdr, L-jJo-j sandesd, J':>-\a^ samdchdr. 
Tier (row), <iJ #a^ (f.), ciV par at f ^jJjo tabka,J^2i katdr. 
Tightness, ^'L-^ ^5a7, JIj tangi, ^j:...^ chustl,^ \uj tand'o. 
Tillage, ^*\:^ jutd'ly ^^^^ halwdhi, ^i— ^ kisna'l. 
Tiller, l^lJjh halwdhdy l}jc>- Jji hal-jotd, ^j <Ui kulba-rdn. 
Timber, ^jfj^ lakri, ^\^ fj^ gol-kdthj "i^ gold, ^->^ chob. (f.) 
Timbrel, <dj? /aJZa, c^«^^ mirdang, ^^^ j^a/c^az^jo;. (f.) 
Timidity, uJ^- khauf, j^i^^-UbJ dahshat (f.), ^^'J/T /^ kam-jur'atJ. 
Tincture, (extract) Jy; ara/t, (colour) tL^j rawg, (quahty) ^^S^ gun. 
Tinder, <fciri.^ sokhta, J^ ^mZ, <d*-ii shula. 
Tinsel, ^. ^jy^^J. (J^yj raunak-i-be-nur o bahd, ^^^s^ jagjagd. 
Tint, t^j rawg. Tip, j^ sir, CJ^ nok, (blow) ^-y? iS^ halki 

Tippler, iL-^ chusakkar, ^^plwakkar, ^jj;^ shardbi. 
Tissue (brocade), ij:^jj zar-baft, iljb bddld, . ^^UJ tamdmt. 
Titbit, Ji <U.£l lukma-tar, ci^-v*^ nimat (f.), <^!^y '-r^/?' charb nawdla. 
Tithe, j^Lj dasdns,jL£- ushr, lLXj^J dahyak. 
Titillation, ^dSd^ gudgudl, lSj^j*^ sursuri. 
Title, L-^lk^ Tddtab, c-^ii] ZaA:a5 or (plur.) 4-->liill aZiJraJ. 
Titlepage, <ul3^ sar-ndma, ^^^ sar-i-lauh. 
Tittle, (dot, particle,) ^j ?arra, l^' a'w/ca, y^^^ sar-i-mu. 

280 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Tittletattle, l^^^Jl/ gaps hap (f.), lIS^- bak-jhak. (f.) 

Toast (dried bread), ^^»J ^»Si> ^J'^^^ stnki hu'i roti. 

Tobacco, ^V^ tambakUf I— L^J bhelsa, JU gal. 

Toil, cu.i^'* mihnat (f.), l^^^ J^^) daur-dhup (f.), J-^-' tahal. (f.) 

Token, ^^^ nishan, \xi pata, (memorial) t-^^^V. y^dgart. 

Tolerance, Toleration, cu-llt>^ bardasht (f.), j'^i^-* saha'o. 

Toll, «-.b Jo;, ,<^o^ chunglj ^jj\s]i>\j rahdarl, ^ kar. 

Tomb,^ kahr (f.), ^^^ gor (f.), ^j^o makbara : see Grave. 

Ton or Tun, ^J^ uioj l^ ^j^* jj^J* ^-^.y karib tis man ka ek wazn. 

Tone, j\^T awaz (f.), Iju* sada (f.), '^t Za^'a, J lai. (f.) 

Tongs, ^1:j l::^^«5J dast-panah, ^J\3c^ sandast. (f.) 

Tonsil, ijj^ kauri y ^\S^ gilti. Tonsure, ^^3c,^ mundan. 

Tool, jUfJb hathyar, d-! I aZa^ (f.) ; (tools) j|jj! auzar. 

Top, j^ sir, LL^v^g> phunang (f.),j^ sikkar, ic^j^ chontt. 

Toper, ^j-j piwakkar, ^«j^^c> dabusu (?) : see Tippler. 

Topic, ^^fc4M-£« mazmun, <ry^y< mauzv^, Icj^^ mudda^d. 

Topography, j^Lj l^ e;^^^ jaghon ka bay an. 

Torch, ^jxL^ mash'al (f.), ^:cAs falita, j^\S damar. 

Torment, v::,,^L-j siyasat (f.), c::-^,^! a^yat (f.), \dJ\ iza. (f.) 

Torpor, ^^j^^, be-harakati, ^ L^ :^ ^ la-jumbishl, ^^ sum. 

Torrent, |^lfcJJJ> tez dhara, J-*«j sail(J.),jy tor, ^/jJ TiarfJ. 

Torture, ^:>i ^U- jan-kanl, {j:^i^ ukubat (f.), ^^<«o 5mZ7. 

Total, Totality, dL^jumla, ^^^A^jam(f.), -^Jjaj mofA. (f.) 

Touchhole, ^j^*^ ^ '^^-^^j 'ranjak ka surakh. 

Touchstone, ^y^ kasaiiti, lLXs** mihakk (f.), JLs. ^±t'.... sang-i-ayar. 

Tour,jjJ daur, j^ sair {f.j, (JL^^ gar dish (f.), (turn) ^^^Ij bari. 

Tow, cL*b l> jjL |yb 1;'^^ jhard hu'd sdn or joaf . 

Town,^^ shahr, <U^ kasba, a^i balda, ^^ ganw. 

Townsman, ^?;^^ (»ii> ham-shahri, (of a town) ^^^^ shahri. 

Toy, U^i^ khilauna, '^CjV ^^^~^^^^y }f^ 1/ i^^^W^ khelne kt chiz. 

Trace, Track, iJJ^J Z7/: (f.), Ij <llij naksha-i-pd : see Footpath. 

Tract, (of country) L^u:>-jamb, ^y nawdh (f.) : see Country ,Treatise. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 281 

Trade, ^J^^y^ sauddgarl, LUj\£sr tijarat (f.), <ll^ pesha. 

Tradition, '^:^}^j riwayat ({.), ^}^SJ tadawtd,(^L^\S:»^ hadls. 

Traffic, jL-J haipar, CL^Ur tijarat (f.), u^^^^ saudagarl. 

Train, ^J dum (f.), (skirt), ^b daman : see Retinue, Series. 

Traitor, jbUt) daghabaz, j%Uv. tlX*^ namak-haram^ ^-cb bdghl. 

Trammel, J^l^ chhdnd (f.), J^^ V^ lambdjdl, ^J^^ paikarhd. 

Trance, <fc:iLj sakta, Jjtiji lauhdr, (ecstacy) do^^ wajd : see Swoon. 

Tranquillity, a\J\ drdm, ^<^^ dsudagi, ^j^ kal(f.), ^jl^».\j rdhat, (f.) 

Transaction, j'jjjl^ kdrobdr, A^\x^ mu'dmala, c:-^^ kartut. (f.) 

Transfer, Jj^ tahwll (f.), *-Lj tasUm. (f.) 

Transformation, J>Lii b c:^^ oV.*^ tabdil-i-surat or -shakl. 

Transgression, JjlsT tajdwuz, ?y ^or, ^.^J^ ta'addJ: see Fault. 

Transit, Transition, j^jkrgMsar,^^ M^z/r, t^b-xJ tabdiL{i\) 

Translation, (version) <Uc»-y tarjuma, (removal) Jlibjl intikdl. 

Transmigration, ^^l^ JiU nakl-i-makdn : see Metempsychosis. 

Transparency, (V^ shaffdfif yJ^A barrdki : see Clearness. 

Transportation, Jlibjl intikdl: see Banishment. 

Trap, J^ A:aZ(f.), ijJ dabkar (f.), zj\s>-jdnt7 : see Snare. 

Trappings, ,j:f^!;T drd'ishen (f. plur.), (dress) ^^li^J pdshdkhl. 
(f. plur.) 

Trash, J>jJ^l agar bagar, (unripe fruit) J^j U? kachchdphal. 
Travail, see Throe. Travel, ^i-j safar, C-^L.^ musdfarat. (f.) 
Treacle,Ji gwr, 15^ chotd, ^-^]^ raJ (f.), jb/ tirydk. 
Tread, aJj kadam^ Jj ajJ* kadam-zanly JU- c/^aZ. 
Treason, ^^J^^*^ namak-hardml, CJ'^Uj baghdwat. (f.) 
Treasure, <^;Jjri^ khazdna, ^*j rdkar(j.)y ^^<i zakhira. 
Treasury, <0l^ khazdna, ^\:>' Idhaztna, ^U--^ ganjina, 
A Treat, ci^iU-i ziydfat (f.\ cuy:J daivat(f.\j\j^^p^je'dndr. (f.) 
Treatise, <)Jl^ risdla, <ks^ nuskha, <ub ndma, c-^bi Ai^aJ. (f.) 
Treatment, lL5^ suluk, (^J^J dhangj i^\x^ mu'dlaja. 
Treaty, <d^'jc< mu'dmala, 2^ sulh{{.\ jSJs J^ kaulrkardr. 
Tremour, ^<-^ kapkapl, (Jij^ larzish (f.), <t.l.cj rasha. 


282 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Trencher, ^^^ kathaufl, (trench-digger)^ i^'l/ khal-gar. 
Trepan (saw used in surgery), ^U mah (?), 2fU^ parmdh (?), <lsnj 

pecha, (?) 
Trepidation, cSj^j^ thartharlj i^jj larza, JU J^3 dol-mdl. (?) 
Trespass, lk>- khatd (f.),^.-.»fiiD* taksir (f.), ^li^ gundh. 
Tresses, L-ilj sulf(f.), J^^ kdkul{i.\ ^^ gtsu, cfj^^ hahri. 
Tret (an allowance), ^^J^^^ uparlap, |^^iir>-^ sojditani, j l^jpAa'o. 
Trial, (^^Ujl dzma'csh(f.), i^\ssLo\ imtiharij (legal) jH..;ia^ tahkik. (f.) 
Triangle, ti^Ji^ lar^ khatt-i-musallas, iJ^^ i^ si-gosha. 
Tribunal, l::^1j^ addlat(f.\ tJi/^X^-* mahkama, Jo*-.^ masnad. (f.) 
Tribute, «^Ij 5a;, -^^/^ khirdjj^ kar, ^JSjl^^ peshkash. 
Trice, i^a^ lahza, ^d dam ; in a trice, ^^ *— ^-^^ j^^^P ^^• 
Trick, <dj^5»- fiday Jy J\5 tdl-tol, S^!/ farebj ^ fann, J^ chhal. 
Trident, J^*^* tirsulov trisuL 

Trifle, U>-l3 nd-chiz, Cl^b cJ;^' thon hat {^.\ ^Jb hech. 
Trifler,jU) ^^^ makkhi-mdr, ^,^^^ tdpdio'iyd, J^ ^jjb harza-kdr. 
Trigger, J^ ^ Jj-^ handuk ki kal. 
Trill, J^ lahrdj \Jj^j^ l/JV ^^^^ ^^ tharthari. 
Trimming, jy j^J zark-bark, ^y^\^ jhaldjhal. (f.) 
Trinity, cJ^^*i^' toZ?5 (f.), Jj^3 <JJIj sdlis-saldsa. 
Trinket, j^jfj zewar, \u^ gahnd, \:jpattd : see Toy. 
Trio, {^\j tlJoj l^ ^jli^^iLo ^_/:^'**'^' tin shaMs milkar gdne ka ek rag. 
Trip, (stumble) uXf lachak (f.),J^j thokar (f.) : see Error, Journey. 
Tripe, ^5ji)l antri, lil^jI dnt(i'.\ a^^j roda, iJ!^ bat, iJji>-^^ ojhari. 
Triplet, c.^J^ musallas, c:---^ Jk.> J tripad-kabit. 
Trituration, C^:b\^j ragrdhat (f.), j Lj pisd'o. 
Triumph, ^jai, ^ fath (f.), ^j^j^firozl, ^^ ^jai-git. 
Trollop,JJb^;)/iwAar (f.), ^Jj^ Joo?/?, (^^i^ g^^^«- 
Trope, jlsr* majdz, C-^^Lc- ibdrat (f.), <l>li^ kindya : see Metaphor. 
Trophy, j^lU l^ -^i y«2^/^ /ca nishdn, ij:^-.^^ ghanimat. (f.) 
Tropic, (of Cancer) ^^IL^ kc*. khaU-i-saratdn, (of Capricorn) «^J^ ^ 

Vocabulary Nouns. 283 

Trot, ^J duM, J^-// kukar-chal. (f.) 

Trouble, 4^ dukhj uJJX; takllf{f.)y ^,^>^ tasdf- (f.), y^\ tza. (f.) 

Trowel, ^J karnlj ^\^ thapi, ^J^j^ surma'i. (?) 

Truce, J^ ^ ^ <JU| t-fj^ thorl zamane ke liye sulk, (f.) 

Truck, tj^j^i^ ^-y , <J^r^ chhote-pahiye-ddr gdfi : see Barter. 

Trull, t^jlj Jto mdl-zddJ, ^j^ kashl, ^^*--j beswd, (f.) 

Trumpery, ^ ^^)j^ harza-go^J, J^^ ^\ agar hagar : see Trash. 

Trumpeter, iJi^W; -i3 nafir-hajdntwdld, ,^_c^^/» karndcht. 

Truncheon, *^ t^^ asd-i-hukm, ^y>- choh (f.) : see Club. 

Trunk, (of a tree) <Uj tana, ilsyjp^ jarwat : see Box, Proboscis. 

Truss, (of straw, &c.) ^^ puld, (bandage) ^i^ pattl, 15^ langotd. 

Trustee, jl J ci^jUl amdnat-ddr, ^j-^l anun,j\j(Ui^ zimma-ddr. 

Truth, -tf^ 5ac^, ^J^\; rdsfi, jJu? sirfit: see Fidelity. 

Tube, ^ nail, ^^ chdngi, ^ nai (f.), ^^^ phukm, 

Tuesday, J^ mangal, ^Ui-l &^ si-shamba. 

Tuft, ^ fwrra, li^ jhund, ^ guchcliha, (of hair) 1*^3^ chondd. 

Tug, -^u^ khainch (f.), -^J aiwc^ (f ), j^/-l^ kashish. (f.) 

Tuition, ,JljbUi nigdhhdni, {J^j^y^ parwarish (f.) : see Instruction. 

Tumbler, ui-J naf, jbK kald-bdz, (pigeon) ijj^ ghirm : see Glass. 

Tumult, H*^ bakherd, <u'^ hangdma, c->^T dshob. 

Tune, jl^l at/ja^r (f.), Jj -j sarod, j^ sur, ^ lai (f.), j^lJ ^tfw. (f.) 

Tunic, iJ^ c^oZi, <U^ kurta, (membrane) tij^ khalri. 

Tunnel, (funnel) ^^ chongd, (shaft) ii\j rah (f.) : see Chimney. 

Turbulence, Ly^jLa\ iztirdb, ^X^ khalbali, i^jbl^ J dangdbdzi. 

Turn, j^^ pIter, j\a>^ ghumd'o J (tour) ^.^^b bdri : see Change. 

Turncoat, jLcOUj zamdna-sdz. 

Turning, ^J:^^ gardish (f.)> Jlr^i phird'o, (of a river) lI^V b^^^- 

Turpentine, njjfji adc^ ganda biroza. 

Turret, ^j^^ kangura, Jc^ mandr, ^^rj. ^w^j^j (j-J-^ kalas. 

Tusk,^ bir (f.), {^Sj\^ khdng, ^-^l3 ndb. 

Twang, j\^' tankdr (f.),j^ tankor (f.), ^^ tan, t^jif>ji'i harhafi. 

Tweezers, ^<^y^ muchnd, 1!Ik>- chimtd. 

284 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Twig, ^j-J laiSf i^j^ chharl, ^ palloy ^\j daU. 

Twine, ^Jjj-j sutli, ^^iU--jj resman, (twist) -^^^ peek : see Twist. 

Twinkle, Twinkling (of the eye), ^J^-^pr i/ -^^ ankh ki jhapki. 

Twist, (wrench) ^i\ ainth (f.), *jj-« maror (f.) : see Bend, Thread. 

Type, (mark) iji^^lc alamat (f.), (emblem) J;j2-4J" tamslL (f.) 

Types (printer's), t— J^p- ^^^ 15^^?" chhdpe ke huruf. 

Typographer, .^l^^ chhapegar. Typography, ^^\A^ chhapagarl. 

Tyranny, A^ zulmfj^s^jabr,j^^j\ andhery j^ kahr. 

Tyrant, Jll^ zalim,ji^iz^ sitamgaVf J^\su>- jafakar, 

Tyro,J^<iy naii-amoz, v-f^^^V* mubtadl. (m.) 

Vacancy, Vacuity, ^icS- jdiulu, ^ khala, i^y>- jauf : see Leisure. 

Vacation, <Lcl3 nagha, j^\ antaVf J^ia*!' taHJL (f.) 

Vagabond, Vagrant, (jiil^^^ aubash, ^1^1 awdra, Is) luchchd. 

Valerian, ^^ fj\:>- jdl lakri, ^^;iJj billi-ldtan. 

Valet, jl^Jc>- khidmatgdr. 

Valetudinarian, ^ja^LjJj dd'tmu-l-marazy ^^j m*.^ janam-rdgi. 

Validity, cfj^j^ ustmvdrt, A^^s^Ji istihkdm, ^A^^ yakirii. 

Valley, Vale, j^W* nickdn, h\^ ghdli, ^^\^ wddi, ifjJ dara. 

Valuation, L::^^^ ,jf^ ta'in-i-klmat (j.), /\^\ ankd'o. 

Value, c:^'*^ kimatff.), J^ mol, 1^ bahdyjSi kadr. (f.) 

Valve, jl^ keivdr, ^j4 khirkl, (lid) J^J dhakrii. 

Van, Vanguard, i^^ muhrd, J^lyb hardwal, ^f^\ agdri. 

Vane (weathercock), UJ jb bddnumd, lyb^ pharahrd. 

Vanity, -s.^ l^^^g^ jhuthd fakhr^ 15^-^ skekhi : see Boast. 

Variance, uJ^lc^l ikhtildf, i^jSa aks, Ju? ;sirfcZ (f.), t3^j p^iif . (f.) 

Variation, Jj JuJf ^a Jc?7Z (f.), (of the compass) l::^J furkat. (f. ?) 

Variety, jjs fark, (mixture) -ylaJ -Jb tarh ba-tarah : see Sort. 

Varnish, lL^ Zm/c, ^c.^ raughan, ^ lakh. 

Vase, <tli3 uJo\ l^ '^j^ ,^ (^y/ bartan ki surat kd ek nakska. 

Vassal, ^^\ asdmlj j^^^ tdbi*ddr. Vassalage, ^^ gh uldmu 

Vat, ^^^ hauZy *^.-^ chahbachcha. 

Udder, \yl lewdy ^ thauy ^j^ khtr'i. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 285 

Vegetation, j^J^V ,5^ c:-?l>lJ nahatat hi bdlJdagi, y^ namu. 
Vehemence, ci^ Jyi> shiddat (f.), ,^_c^*^ sakhtl, jjj zor, ^JoJ tundi. 
Vehicle, cSj^y^ sawarl, i^WjV barhardari, c--^^ markab. 
Velocity, ^\^ tezz, ^J^jaldly sJ^ tundi, ^^jj^ tezrawi. 
Velvet, ,\a^ makhmal. 

Veneration, a»\J>\ ikram, s^^Jj takrim (f.), U-^ pujd. (f.) 
Venom, ^J zahr, Jt>^ samm, ^ bikh, ^^ bis. 
Vent, Ju^ chhed, ^jy^ surdkh, ^^-10 nikds : see Breath, Sale. 
Ventilator, j^^^^V bddkash. Ventilation, ^^t)b bddkashi. 
Venture, ij^a^ khatra, j^^^ jokliim (f.), (of goods) \Sj^ tdndd. 
Veracity, i^^j rdstl, t/ ^^ sachd'i, Ln-J^iX-.- saddkat. (f.) 
Verb, (Jjf^J^l- Verdict, j^ysT tajwiz{^.)y Jlaijl hifisdl. 
Verdigrise, ^\5jj zangdr, iS^J^^ pitrd'ly (dakh.) Jl^J zangdl. 
Verdure, lJ}^ sabzi, ^jj^j^ sarsabzi, ij*^yt> hard'}. 
Verge, (border) c-^ lab, ^L^ kindra, (wand) u^Jf*- chhari. 
Vermicelli, /♦JcS ;<j^/ kirmdnl gandum, ^jiy^ stwa^in. (f.) 
Vermilion, i^J^ slimgarf,^\ Ingur. 

Verse (line), f^^ misra, cl^ ^m/:, J^ yarc? (f.) : see Poesy. 

Versification, t,^^ tanzlm (f.), t/*i^ ^^ kafiya-bandi. 

Vertebra, ^ ^ jljli rfaw^ ki glrih, (of the neck) l^ mankd. 

Vespers, /»li» jU3 namdz-i-shdm, l^sd^j sanjhd(f.\ \JL& ishd. 

Vessel, (cask) Lj pipd, (bason) ^'ji bartan, (ship)j\.^Ja^a<2r; see 

Vestige, b ^JLsJ naksha-i-pd, ^\Lj nishdn, lu paid. 

Veteran, i^^y6j\ i^ji:^ jang-dzmuda, ^\^ l3]/ purdnd sipdhi. 

Vexation, ^^.J^aj* tasdf (f.), ^ joj 7|a (f.), ^J f?2fM. 

Ugliness, ^Ji4*tfjj bad-surati, \S^j L::--i>J zisht-ru'i. 

Vibration, ^Jji^j^ tharthari, CJj^^ pharak (f.), ^JL^:^ jumbish. (f.) 

Vice, j^Ju &af??, t/*t^ burd't, \^^^ aiby f^^j^j^ shardrat. (f.) 

Vicinity, jl^Jait^ar, c:-o^ kardbat(f.\ ^j^^y^ paros. 

Vicissitude, e:-»^y naubat (f.), c-?;^ ^^^^> j'^^ ^^'^ • ^^^ Change. 

Victim, jjbyi kurbdn, Jj bal,j\^ nichhdwar. (f.) 

286 ^ Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Victor, y 11^ zafir, c--Jlc ghaliby jc^ ^i fath-mand, ^^j^l ghazi. 

View, i^U3 nigah{i.\J^ nazar(j.\ iJU^j^ drisht (f.) : see Prospect. 

Vigilance, i^J^^, beddrz, ^^}'^j^ khabardarl, t_^L-u.^J^ hoshydrl. 

Vigour, j^J zor, lU^s kuwat (f.), Jj bal, ^.z^^ takat, (f.) 

Villa, ib baghj Ifilj bdtikdj ibajU- khdna-bdgh. 

Villain, ^Jlj^J^s- hardmzdda, J^^^^-^- chanddl, ,^=r^ P^fi- (™*) 

Villany, iP^)}'*]/^- hardmzddagiy ^^jblcJ daghabdzi. 

Vine, C/U #a/i:, ij:^*-;J l^j^^il angur kd darakht. 

Vinegar, i^j^ sirka, J^ khalL Vineyard, ^Jc^j^S anguristdn. 

Vintage, J-^ i/j!^^ angur kt fash 

Violation, ',f^ fasMi, ii*Xij shikastagijjSj bigdr. 

Violence, jjj zor, jy"tdr,j^jabr, l^*^ ghazab, t;:^^ sitam. 

Virginity, CL^jlL* bakdrat (f.)yj^, bikr (f.), ,^_j^j^jJ doshizagl. 

Virility, t/^^ mardt, ^j:^^j rajuliyat (f.), i(b Z>aA. (f.) 

Virtue, ^_^ weA:7, t^^^J neko'i, (efficacy) ^ g2^»: see Effect. 

Virulence, CLiSJ^ shiddat (f.), j<:2^**' sakhtl, cJ^ tundi. 

Visage, ^j rw, ^fjj rz7'e,jljjJ dtddr, ^.^ chikra. 

Visibility, Visibleness, u^i^ zuhur, ijj^^y^ namuddri. 

Vision, u.5*^i^ bmd'i, (phantom) JU:J- khiydl: see Sight. 

Visit, Ll^ULo muldkdt (f.), ciUi^ JAewf (f.), |y^ mujrd. 

Visitant, Visitor, t^^Lsr* mujrd^l, V._j2-^ bhentwaiyd. 

Vitality, u?;^^ ^jj ruh-parwart, ijj\dj\^ jdnddrl. 

Vitriol, ^\j zdj, (blue) \Jy tutiyd. 

Vivacity, ^JirJjj zinda-dilt, t^t^\j^ f\t^ dil-shddt. 

Vixen, ^^^ lardnki. Vizard, Vizor, c-?^ -f^ mukh-chhdp. 

Umbrella, ljlf>- chhatd, j^^ chhattary iJJ^>- chhatri. 

Umpire, C-J15 saZzs, ^JL^jti darmiydnty ^^Lau^ munsif. 

Unanimity, j\Ju\ ittifdky ^dCSi) ek-dilt, ^:>^lL>^\ ek-manl. 

Unbelief, ^/jlibc^ ^^ bt-Ctikddi, jS^ kufr, jWl ilhdd. 

Unbeliever, jJhx< -ji ghair mxi'takid, Ji^ kdfir: see Infidel. 

Uncertainty, cSjJ^j^ gh air mukarrari, CS^ shakk. 

Uncleanness, ^bli nd-pdki, 4^^ nd-sdfi : see Filth. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 287 

Unction, ^U malish (f.), t/^-^J^' ttl-maloCl : see Ointment. 

Underling, <:L^^djj zer-dast, ^.y tahlu'a, »iy^ talihru. 

Undertaker, (of funerals) j^ J ^^ kafan-doz : see Contractor. 

Und^erwood, JW jhar, J^ Ip- jhankar, c-?; W J^i«r^- 

Underwriter, ^^j ^^^^ btme-ioald. 

Undulation, -^ lahar (f.), l^^bb hilora, j^l^ hilkor. (f.) 

Uneasiness, ij^);^^*^ he-ararniy ^^ hetabl, ^^^J'-frf^. bechaim. 

Unevenness, ^j\y^\j nd-hamwarl, ^j\jSu^LJ nashehfardzi, 

Unfavourableness, ^jLol) nd-murddi. Unfitness, ^'L;l3 nd-rasa*!. 

Ungracefulness, i^lo J U nd-ztha'ish. (f.) 

Ungratefulness, ^^L«sl3 nd-sipdsi. 

Uniformity, «JL^3 ^k-sdrii, ^Jji^/, bardbarl, J-^ we/. 

Union, ^l^ yagdnagl, j^jdr, ^^$::^y^^ paiwastagi. 

Unit, fc^ l^. yakd'ty Jc^l a^acZ, l^\ ikkd. 

Unitarian, Jo-j^ muwahhidy c-^IsJ^li^ munkir-i-tasBs. 

Unity, c:^.'^^^ ahadiyat (f.), ^ l::ij yaktd'i^ ij^^. y^g^^^g^ - 

Universality, c:-^ hulliyat (f.), l:^-^^-*^ umumiyat. (f.) 

Universe, Jlc aZa/w, cljIijI^ kd'indt (f.), tL5^y tri-lok. 

Unkindness, (Jlj^^U nd-mihrbdnl, ^jy^^. be-mihri. 

Unlawfulness, ^^il-j^jU nd-durustl, ^^'^ <^ be-insdfJ. 

Unreasonableness, JyU^lj nd-ma^kuli. 

Unruliness, ^ia^ ^ be-zabtj, ;^'«^^<? be-lagdmi, ^*\t^ magrd't. 

Unseasonableness, ^^iJj ^ be-waktl, ^Ul& ^^ be-hangdmi. 

Unsteadiness, t^j^y ^, be-kardrt, ^JLj ^ be-mbdii. 

Unsuccessfulness, oJu^aiUj^ be-maksadl, ^^Lol^U nd-kdmydbl. 

Untruth, ^^5^^ nd-rdstJj -^j^ jVmjA : see Falsehood. 

Unworthiness, c5;*^ ^J bt-kadri, uJ^^J^ nd-rasd'l. 

Vocabulary, i^uJby farhang (f.), l::-^ l ugh at (f.), %o Aj ndm-mdld. 

Vocative (case), Ijj nidd (f.), ^iiJ>^-.^w«j sambodhan. 

Vociferation, Ji^j^* shor-pushtt, U^i gh aughd : see Noise. 

Vogue (fashion), «^l^j Hi/jo; (f.), JU- cAaZ, ^Jj>- chalan. 

Void (empty space), ^i^- ^\^ khdlijagahy iU^ Miald, ^ Jdiulu. 

288 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Volcano, ^j^f\^ jwala-mukhl, ^J^\^\ s^ koh-i-atashafshan. 
Volley, :J^ shalMi, ^^^ dehur (f.), (dakh.)jyt3 dewar. (f.) 
Volubility, (aptness to roll) ^ libj! lurha'J : see Eloquence. 
Volume, jis*- Jz'M (f.),j2iJ daftar, (compass) jX^ptoVa'o. 
Volunteer, c-^^sr najih. Voluptuary, jjiiLc aiyash. 
Vomit, ^jh..^^ mustafrigh^j%\ ^ ^f ^j^ dawa-i-kai-awar. 
Voracity, i^jA^^ c^ju'u-l-bakarl, ^^j^\ c^Jw^w-Z-ZcaZZ*?. 
Vortex, y^ chakvj (^\d^ girdahj jy^ hhanwar. 
Votary, ^^d^ifidwl, j^Jcj handa, As. ghulanif (jJ\Ci das. 
Vote, Jy kaul, c:^U hat (f.), ^J^ boli : see Consent. 
Voucher, ii\^ gawah, JJj fi^aZiZ (f.), Jjjl:i**sJ dastawez. (f.) 
Vow, c:-aJ nii/at(f.)fj^ nazr(f.\ ^-^i.^ sankalp. 
Voyage,^A-o t^\jJ darya'i safar, jSu^ ^ s^ ^^''^ ^^ safar. 
Upholstery, c-^L-j1 l^^ gAar /ca asbab, <0l>. j^UU saman-i-khana. 
Upland, ^^^J 1^.5^^ uncht zamm. (f.) 

Uproar, ^Uc Ji ghul-ghapara^ U^ gh a ugh a^ <ulxx& hangama. 
Upshot (result, consequence), /♦^^l anjdm, ^l^sJ natlja. 
Upside, i^jo ^ji ^ upar kl taraf. Upstart, ei-Jjjy nau-daulat. 
Urbanity, tl->j^ muruwat (f.), 4?'L.:^^ hhalmansa'i. 
Urchin, see Hedge-hog ; VSj^ launda, ^s^^ bachcha. 
Urethra, i'jjlj na'lzha or ^^b na'lzaj ^-^y^ mutm. 
Urgency, Uliu takaza, ,^^*^ sakhtlj ^^j^j^ zarurat. (f.) 
Urinal, ^j^^ karura, ^^ti J^j bauUdan, ^^ ^^^ peshab-dan. 
Urn, (^y>- charasy ^^ dalwy ^d^ guldan,j\j^ sattwar. (f.) 
Usage, (JJ^ suluk, <::>^j rit (f.), J^ c^«Z (f.), ^^^ dastur. 
Use, JUjCm-jI isti'mal, J-*^ awaZ, ^l^ /cam ; see Custom, Need. 
Uselessness, u^^^ na-bakari, X^\s>-^ Id-fidsilJy —1^1 «/[;«;. 
Usurer, j^ --.U bydj-khor, j^ Jj-j sud-Tdmr, ^^^^^ ^yy^- 
Usurper, j5^ J c:,.«-jt3 dast-dardz, l:^«jJ^jJ zahar-dast, k^^^lc gh dsib. 
Usury, —Lj Ji/o;, or (dakh.) jU bydz, Jyjj^JuJ bedastur sud. 
Utensil, ^J)JJ bartan, uJja zarf^ jW^ hathydr : see Tool. 
Utility, Usefulness, j*!^ A:a?w, i^Ajli fa' Ida, ^u naj^, ^) Idbh. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 289 

Utterance, jls^l uchchar, kaLf talaffuz, <^r ^ t-^ lah-o-lahja. 
Uttermost, Utmost, ^•::^^}^ nihayat (f.), c:^;>U ghayat (f.), tJU^ 

Vulgar, ^^-Ul /%1y: awammu-n-nas, lJj^ kunjre, ^\jj\ arzal. 

Uvula, 1/ l^ jL^ ^aZA: ^a kawwcij ci^ly) Za^a^ (?), ^jl lola (?). 

Uxoriousness, uf^^^ ;jj zan-murldJ, ^^^J^ ^jf^ joru-parasti. 

Wad, Wadding (of a gun), ^^y nawala, ^j^ kasan (?). 

Wafer, ^Ji3 fiA;Z7, U->- chapra^ LC tikiya, liL>- chipta. 

Wager, L^ ^^ari? (f.),j> ^of (^O.j^^ ^«'o> e-^b J^ burd-bakht. (f.) 

Wages, ^_^^ J«Za&, <!jli:»^'* mihnatana, ^ll^ mushahara. 

Waggery, ^J^„j^ .^arT/*?, ^c)L<»^ thathebazij l<*-«^ hansi. 

Wail, Wailing, t-f;|j^ <'Jl3 nala-o-zari, is>-^ nauha. 

Wainscoat, ^^ ^:xs£r taldk^a-bandt, c^JCJ*jlri~ khatim-bandi. 

Walk,^^ 5air (f.), ^^z.^ gashtj (gait) JU- cAaZ, (path) 2^1^ ra/i. (f.) 

Wallet, ^^^jhola, i^^^-^j zambil (f.), ^^^jhoti. 

Walnut, ij!j%j>-\ akhrdt,Jk^ji\»- char-m agh z. 

Wand, ^ji^ chharl, Iac asa, ^-^ kamchl, ^JSj patkan. 

Want, ^l^:;^! ihtiyajj er^^U- hajat (f.), ^^ tangly lIA^ ghat. 

Ward, (guarding) ^^:>- chaula, (of a lock), ^p^ jkar: see District. 

Wardrobe, j^lju^U libasdan, <)GU-<Li>y tosha-khana. 

Ware, Wares, Ij^ saudd, {j^^jins (f.), JU mdlyj^ chiz, (f.) 

Warfare, ^j^^S^^ jang-dwarlj ^^j\Su>- jangbazi. 

Warmth, ^^ garmij l1^j\jS>- hararat (f.), (ardour) C/Uj tapdk. 

Warning, c^\ ittild* (f.),^^ khabar (f.), ^J^^l dgdlii. 

Warp (the threads lengthwise in a loom), jJb' tdni, JO tar. 

Warrant, Cjc^d dastak (f.), (j;tc/ farmdn, (voucher) jc.«j sanad, (f.) 

Wash, (cosmetic) ^1 ubtan, ij^ gulgunaj (washing) ^ l&J dhuld'l. 

Waste, (land) <'^U>^ wlrdnaj ij\j>~ khardba : see Ruin. 

Waste-book, IjI^ khdtd, ^<^ S '^\^jdnkar ki bahl, \j^ khasrd. 

Watch, i^j^^f:^ beddriy (guard, watching) ^^^ chaukJ, (guard, 

sentinel) t^^ pahrd, (jlt»-jl> pdsbdn, (time piece) ^j4 ghari. 
Watchhouse, d3\s>-^y:>- chauki-khdna. 

2 p 

290 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Watchmaker, ^^j^l^^J ^^^ ghari-hanarit-wala. 

Waterfall, jIIjT dbshar, \jj^jharndyjii\j>- chddar. (f.) 

Wax, Ayo mom, ^^^^ sham (f.), (sealing) ^^ lakh, cJ'i Idk. 

Way, (road) ii\j rah (f.), aa^ rasta, (JJJ-j sarak (f.) : see Method. 

Wayfarer, ^\j rahi (ra.), ^y^, hatohi (m.), j^^j rdhgir. 

Weakness, c^jjJ^ kamzorl, ti^U ndtawanl, ,<^**^ zaifi. 

Weal, ci^-Jbli; rafahiyat (f.), ^^J^ tarakla, ^5Jc»/♦3lJl ikhalmandi. 

Wealth, L::-Jjt> daulat (f.), ^^ibJ t^^a/i, JU TwaZ, ^^^^ff? lachhmi. 

Weapon, jL^ hathyar, 6^j>- harha, JL^ sildh, (f.) 

Weariness, ^^Jjl* mandagi, C^\i^ thakdhat (f.), c?f5»-lc a;z2r7. 

Weather, ^yo mausim, M aiydm, CJj rit (f.), ^^J 6?m. 

Web, ^\^jdUy <3jlij hindwat (f.), ^^l^ ^^an, (film) ^J.^jhiH7. 

Wedding, ii\j hydh, ^JtSll sAac?7, (feast) ^j!^ jashn, 

Wedige, jsf, pachchar (f.), ^j^^phanij ^^ /weM (f.), li-fJ f^eita. 

Wedlock, ^^^ {,::J^\>' hdlat^-nikdhi, 

Wednesday, JbJo 5mc?A, i^'J^j\:>- chdr-shamha. 

Weed, (O;^^ chikhuran, (jA^ ghas, (widow's weeds) ilLjoU rdndsdld. 

Weight, (for weighing) t3b hdt, |^^l!Uj bat-khard, {^S^*^ sang, ^j^ 

wazn^ (heaviness) jl^^ bhdr, (importance) j^i' kadr, (f.) 
AVelcome, (JU^JT d'obhagat (f.), j--^\jJ tawdzu^ (f.) : see Respect. 
Welfare, <^*% bhald'l, lJJ^^ bihtarl, J^ (*:?^ chhem-kushal. (f.) 
Welkin, ^^1^1 a/ca^, lyb ^ai^a (f.) : see Sky. 
Wellbeing, cJ^jt^V ^^h^udij^ khair : see Welfare, Prosperity. 
Wellwisher, i\y>--S' khair-Jdmdh, s\^^^ nek-khwdh. 
Wench, c/'^j u!^ jawdn randi, {J^^i->- chhokrl, ij^^ laundl. 
Wetness, ^S^^ namndkl, c^'L^ gild'i, lJj^^^j:^,J^j rutubat-ddrl, 

t^Ji tart. 
Whale, ^"^ J^ magar machchh (?), Oj^ hut (f. ?). 
Wharf, Llf\^ ghdt. Wharfage, ^j\^ ghatwdrt. 
Wheel, Js»- chakr, Ly pahiyd, (potter's) CS\>- chdk : see Spinning. 
Wheelwright, il^^ (J\:j Ly pahiyd-bandne-wdld. 
Whelp, h pilld, i^^i^S^ sag-bachcha, (tiger's) L^ bagheld. 

Vocabulary — Nouns. 291 

Whetstone, jjLj san (f.), ^i-j siliy ^j^ patthrl, (jl-*i fisan. 
WhifF, j^L sans (f.), (♦^ c?am, CS^^^jphunk (f.), CJj^^jhurak (?)• 
While, (time) {ji^^wakty (length of time) c:j*V< muddat. (f.) 
Whim, Whimsey, Jlp- Idhiyal, j^ lahar (f.), t^^ ZaZoA; (f.), ,^ 

mauj. (f.) 
Whip, Lli^l>- cJiabuk, \^<f kora, ^<^ kamchi, <^Vj^ taziyana. 
Whirl, (jiiJi^ gardish (i.), ^\^ ghumd'o, <11jj jb bad-resha. 
Whiskers, .f>-^ muchh (f.), c:-^^ Jwrii^ (f.), --^^ gonchh (?). 
Whispering, (JUii>L.gj...g> phasphasahat (f.),j^^j^ khusar-phusar. 
Whistle, (musical pipe) ufj^^. bansri, (whistling) ^^5-^ siti, 
Whit (point, jot, tittle), i^ nukta, ^j rati, JJ til^ l^* tinka. 
Whiteness, t^Jui-i sufaidi, ^\j baydz (f.), ^*^\ ujld'l. 
Whitewash (a compos, of lime and water), ^ kaU» 
Whiting, j<lfsr* ^ j^Js uJo\ ek kism kl machhli: see Chalk. 
The Whole, ^ kulliya, %-^jam^ (f.), A^^jumla: see Total. 
Wick, j^ batti, ^Jb bdfi, iz^ falita. 
Wickedness, «^JJ bad^, tj^j zabunl, C^L& shardrat. (f.) 
Wicket, ^^j^ khirkl, ^^j^ darlcha. 

Widow, \y>j) bewd (f.), dj\j rdnd. (f.) Widower, IjJJj randu'd. 
Widowhood, b^J^j randdpd, ^^, bewagi, ^^Uj^ bewdpan. 
Width, o 1;^ chaurd'iy ^jll^ kushddagl, (of cloth) <JL>b pdt,J bar, 

^^Sy Liiy 15^ J^ ^^^ ^^ ?9P^5 L5V^ barkl (?). 
Wight, j^fcM a(fm? (ra. f.), ^^jan, (jas^ shakhs, ^ kas. 
Wild, Wilderness, ,jbl-^ baydbdn, \j^ sahrd, (^>- jangal. 
Wildgoosechase, ^^x-j ^Joli^ befd'lda sal, ci^-xs^ jb j barbdd mih- 

nat. (f.) 
Wile, <!lo- ^7Za, ^^ makar, C->^ ^//«^ (f-)> W ^?^^^a. 
Will, (choice) ^^j^ marziy i^U- chdh, (last) a^^b i-::-^:**^ waslyat ndma. 
Will-o'-the-wisp, \^^^ chhaldwd, ^J^ lukdri (?). 
Wimble, U^ barmd. Winch, di^sJ l^ (5^7^ charkhl, kd dasta, 
Windegg, VSjS ^^ Tdidkl andd. Windingsheet, ^ kafan. 
Windfall, 1^ cho'd, J^ \y pardphaly (figur.) jIjIjc*. khudd-ddd. 

292 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Windlass, <^U^1 arghad (?), ^J^^:>:sx<> manjanlk. 

Wink, ,^_^^ jhapki : see Hint. Wipe, -^^ ponckh : see Stroke. 

Wire,jt> tar, tzJ^ij rishta. Wire chain, ^f/-*- sikriy ^L^ sa'i. 

Wisdom, Jjlc akl (f.), ^ 1)1 J ddnd'i, rJbJj budh (f.), ^J^ gydn. 

Wise, -yL (ara^ (f.) : see Manner. 

Wiseacre, t^.^ l^^ kachchd huzurg,^f.^:^^f^1 Idl-hujhakkar, 

Wisp, ^1^ puld, ^3J\ dnfiy \j^ juna, ^]f gurht (?). 

Wit, ^j4^JJ tez-fahmi, ^J zihri : a Wit, ^'<S\ Cjjj zirak ddrni. 

Witch, ijjIj dcCcn (f.), ^c^^ dankam, ^^^d\'>- jddugarm. 

Witchcraft, J jU- JarfS, l3y tondyjs^ sihr, ^ l^^l ojha't (?). 

Witness, (testimony) Cl^jl^ shahddat (f.), (person) A&lii shdhid. 

Witticism, ^^ nukta, >Sjj zlrakl, <s]jj hazla, ^.z^S>- jugat. (f.) 

Wo, ^ ghamy i^i^\ andoJi, tS-^-J sog, ^^^-il a/505, -jU mdiam. 

Womankind, CL>L> c5^1; randi-zdt (f.), LJ Jlc dlam-i-nisd. 

Womb, j^s^j rihm, j^l J a;sr bachcha-ddn, ^^ kokh (f.), cU-j pe/. 

Wonder, ^«^%s^ ta'ajjub, l^^^i achambhd, c:-?;^:>- hairat, (f.) 

AVood, (the substance) cij^ Za/cn, ^*l^ A;a^^A ; see Forest, Timber. 

Woof, t>^ pw^, ^y^ bharriiy lib Z>ana. 

Wool, ^j^l WTi (f.), Jlj pashm (f.), ^jljj ro'aw, uJj-tf 5m/. 

Word, ciL^lj 5a^ (f.), ^csr bachaji, j^jsr* sukhan : see Message, Pro- 

Work, 1*1^ /rawi, «-.l^ /ra;, C-sXs^ mihnat (f.) : see Book, Workmanship. 

Workmanship, lSj^j^ kdrigart, ci^^jCw.* san^at (f.), c^i-^^ masnu*. 

Worship, (^A::w-j^ parastish (f.), t:i>jLc ibddat (f.), ^^;^' hhajan. 

Worth, tj:-v*-j3 Hma^ (f.), J^ mdl,jiXs kadr (f.), ^^l^X^ fazilat, (f.) 

Wrangle, Wrangling, ^j^i>- jhagrd, iS^^^j^x^jhanjkat, \€j ragrd. 

Wrangler, ^\j^^jhagrdlu, l^hl lardnkd, ^^^^sP' hujjafi. 

Wrapper, ^Ul lifdfa, j^^^ btthan, ij^, l:::^>-}J dast-bukcha. 

Wrath, c-.^^r. ghamb^j^ kahr, ij'^jazba, l^^ kop. 

Wreath, (garland) \^^ siAra, j^^ maur, (thing twisted) ^j^ peck. 

Wreck, (of a ship) \j^^ khakhrd (?), ^j^ ^S ^^^ kishti ki ghd- 
rafi : see Ruin. 

Vocabulary Verbs. 293 

Wrench, (instrument) jUfJi ijSA l^ ^^ J ^J peck dene ka ek hath- 

yar: see Twist. 
Wretch, l::^^^ kam-bakhtj U^ nigora, ^\j na-kas : see Poor. 
Wretchedness, ^jxk\/^ kambakhtij ^^IIj^ pareshanl, cr-J J zillat, (f.) 
Wrinkle, ,j-^ c^T/j (f.), ^^/-^ sfdkan (f.), ^j^ jhuri, j^ sikor. (f.) 
Writing, Writ, ^^^ ^a^rlr (f.), <3j\^ likhawat (f.), ca.^:.^; ^as- 

m/. (f.) 
Wrong, JI? zulrriy ^J^^^ na-hakki, l::^^.^ bid'at(f.). 
Yard, (measure)^ ga-zr, c\jj zira*, (enclosure) ^^s^ sahn, \:Sj\ angnd. 
Yarn, c:-?^ l^ ^^\ un ka sut, CL^y^ sut. 

Yearning, ^^1^>^ b ifU- ^^ Jar? c/^aA or khwahish, J;t> c?a?'c?. 
Yeast, <KjU maya, j^^a^ khamlr, ^jjlj ^flr7 ; see Leaven. 
Yell, JL^^f- chikh (f.)> j^ chikkar (?) : see Roar. 
Yeoman, ^^^ lc^ milki Zog,jl jXlto malguzar, ^jl-^ kisan. 
Yoke, ^'f^ju'a, ^\^ju'ath, (pair) \Jy>-jdra, ^j^Ji^juft. 
Yolk, (or Yelk) of an egg, t^^^J ,<^ t/AJl awc?6 klzardi, IjU mawd, (f.) 
Young (of any creature), d^ bachcha, Ji^ tifl : see Child. 
Youth, ^\^ jawdm, <— ^U-i» shabdb, ^j:>-jdban: see Young man. 
Zeal, ^^ garrrii, c:-^-*4>>. hamtyat (f.), ^^ ^ sar-garrrii. 
Zone, (girdle) <^j^ kamarband, (frigid) ^i^j^;f-<j <Ulai/o mintaka-e- 

mabruda, (temperate) <iiJjcjt^ *JLiik:^ mintaka-e-mutadila, (torrid) 

<G.-sr* (J^iiLi^ mintaka-e-mahruka. 
Zoology, culjLp- aLc ilm-i-haiwdndt. 


To abandon, IkrsT tajnd, l3^ Cy* tark-karnd, ^J^^ chhdrnd. 
To abase, \j%f^^ pachhdrndy \i\^ girdndy l3^ JJj saZH karnd. 
To be abashed, l3W lajdnd, l3U^ sharmdnd, l:^^*** sukuchnd. 
To abate, l3l2^gAa^<awa, l3^ a^ *-^^-^ Hmaf /cam karnd. 

294 Vocahulary. — Verbs, 

To abdicate, liSw tydgnd, ^J^^f- chhornd : see To abandon. 

To abet, U^ JJc^ madad karna, LjJ ^-r^J V. ^-^^^^^^ himmat or tar- 

gjub dend. 
To abhor, Uil^ ^j J c?Mr bhdgnd, U^ c^a3 b e:.,^!^ karahiyat or 

nafrat rakhjid. 
To abide, li--J hasna, l3^ thaharnd, l:J^; rahnd. 
To abjure, l)^ uJj^^i inhirdf karnd, l3^ ci-^Jc*- ^ac??s karnd : see 

To reject. 
To be able, \:X-j saknd, Ijyb ^il Za'/^ ^owa, l:^ cuilL Jja^a^ rakhnd. 
To abolish, L>J l^'l uthddend, lillo mitdnd, \i^ \^^yamaukuf karnd. 
To abound, \j*X«l umadnd or lijc^ol umandnd, \iyii jy^>x,< ma mur hond. 
To abrade, (act.) l?:^ ragarnd, l3L^ ghisdndj (act. or neut.) L-^ 

To abridge, U^^^-^a::^'* mukhtasar karnd, l3^ jLair^l ikhtisdr karnd. 
To abscond, l:Jb; L^ chhipd rahnd, Ui^l^» bhdgnd, l3^ c/V-?J '''uposh 

To absolve, li^ L^ mubarrd karnd, ^i uJU^ mvUdf karnd. 
To absorb, l:^^ sokhnd, \j^ i^'s:^jazb karnd, ^\^ khapdnd. 
To abstain (from), lit jb b^ &ar or ia^r a?ia, U^JJby parhez karnd. 
To abstract, l3^ c-^liiil intikhdb karnd : see To select, extract. 
To abuse, (revile) L> J ^^ gdli dend, (ill treat) U^ (c^;^ ^ bad-sulukl 

To accept, LJ Zewa, l3 i JjJ -Jra^wZ karnd, IjU mdnnd. 
To accept (a bill of exchange, &c.), IjjlC- sakdrnd. 
To accommodate, l3^^ ^jJj^ khabar-giri karnd, IjL^ mandnd. 
To accompany, l3yi> ^L^Jb hamrdh hond, ^S ci^'lij rifdkat karnd. 
To accomplish, U^ ^j^^ j?Mra karnd, liJblJ nibdhnd, 13jLj sdrnd. 
To account, (compute) l3^ .U-i» shumdr karnd, (answer for) ^JjI^ 

\i^ jawdb'dihi karnd. 
To accuse, Uf^jJ dokhnd, ^/jj^^ da^wd karnd, L-JlfcJ dhdnsnd. 
To accustom, 13^ Ljj b ^[;jlsc* b CJjlc ac?af or muhdwara or raJj? 


Vocabulary, — Verbs. 295 

To ache, U^J dukhnRy \j\jj^ pirana, \j^ JjJ dard karna. 

To acknowledge, ^SJ]/^ ikrar karna^ \:^\^ manna. 

To acquaint, ^^ j^ V. ?^^ ittila^ or khabar karna : see To inform. 

To acquire, \jS J-^l^ kasil karna, \jj ^*X-J paida karna, l3U^ kamana. 

To acquit (of crime), ^j;^-^ ^^^ be-gunah thahrana : see To absolve. 

To act, l3^ karna, (a character) l3^ Ji3 nakl karna. 

To actuate, L>J c:^^^ harakat dtna, l3\^ sarkana. 

To adapt, Is^ i^^wjli^ l> ^^^ muwajik or mundsib karna. 

To add, bW lagdnd,\jj^ jornd, (up figures) U^ ^jf^ gathrt karna. 

To address (a letter), U^ <ul) -*j l^ ^^e^^ chitthi kd sarndma likhnd. 

To adduce, l3iJ Zawa, l3)bj batldnd : see To bring, relate. 

To adjust, L) J *-^y ^ar^lJ c/ewa, l>l^ chukdnd, l3^ cl^-o;J durust 

To admit, liJt) ^iT awe c?ewa; (to allow) U^ J^-i ^aZ>zlZ karnd. 
To admonish, l3l£js'*-' samjhdnd, \j^ ^jL^-^sXaJ nasViat karnd. 
To adopt, \j^ j\^\ ^ ^U-V^ mutabannd ko ikhtiydr karnd, (use) 

Ij^ ^-^ J..^*^ amal men Idnd. 
To adore, l:^y pujnd, ^€ bhajnd, \3^ ^^^js^ bhajan karnd. 
To adorn, \3jlji**s sanwdrnd, \jj\sbX^ sudhdrnd, IjliJ bandnd. 
To advance (v. n.), Lfc'iJ barhnd, \j^ ^y tarakki karnd. 
To advance (v. a.), lil&JJ barhdnd, Ul>- chaldnd: see To propose. 
To advance (money), L> J ^_5^^ ptshgl dend. 
To advertise, b^jl^^l ishtihdr karnd, \jj jib^ zdhir karnd. 
To advise, Uj J (ji^ss^.^} nasihat dend, \3/ ^;-^ Miabar karnd. 
To afflict, \jli-j satdnd, L> J t— a jO ^a/rZi/ Jewa. 
To agitate, liiU hildnd, U^J ^Jl^ jumbish dend, (in the mind) lii*^ 

j^/cr karnd. 
To agree, \3y> ^_^^a:^ V. i<^b ^^?^ ^^ muttafik hond, l:JU mdnnd. 
To agree (to stipulate), Ij^ ^csr b j^l l> L^ 5^arJ[ or i^trar or 

bachan karnd. 
To aim, liJbJab c:^— i» sAas^ bdndhnd, Uij ^aAiwa : see To guess. 
To ahght, \jjj\ utarnd, l3yb Jo farod hond. 

296 Vocabulary. — Verbs, 

To allow, UjU manna, \j^ J^ kabul karna ; (to permit), Uj J dena ; 

(to abate) \j^S^ gJiatana, Uo t-jLasr takhfif dena. 
To allure, L> J «-r"4;^ /ard5 dena, lil^ luhhana, UL-^ phuslana. 
To alter, U<A^ badalna, l3^ <Jr*'V' tabdll karna, l3^^-*xj ta gh lr karna. 
To amass, l3^ ^ifel^ faraham karna, l3^^ t^^ Jawi'^ karna. 
To amaze, UlCs^ bhachkana, \j^ e^)/r^ hairan karna. 
To amuse, l)il^ bahlana, \uid f^^jS^ tafrlh dena. 
To animate, Ij^sf jilana ; (to encourage) liJti ^j^^jUi dharas dena. 
To annex, 13 U3 lagana, \jj^^ jorna, U^ jJj-j paiwand karna. 
To annoy, lilsF khijana, liJJ j-:*'-^^* tasdi^ dena. 
To anoint, U^ m;:?^'^ V. ^ ?.^^^ ^^ tadhln karna, LLj malna. 
To answer, ^^yl V. ^^^ jojwah or w^^ar cZewa, (to suit) Ul lLC^ 

f^I/c awa. 
To appear, U^^*-^ sujhna, U I laJ wazar awa, \ij J i_^ 1^^^ dikhla^i dena. 
To applaud, b\^ (i;:^^''^ a/rzw karna, ^\j^ sarahna, 1:jJ ^^--l:*^ 

shabashi dena. 
To apply, (v. n.) l:^^^! lagna ; (to suit) 1)1 LL^-fJ J/^z/i^ awa; (v. a.) Ijul 

lagana, ^jy>- jorna; (to address to) l)^^ lii^wjI^^J darkhwast 

To appoint, l3|^;^' thahrana, \j^ jjLc mukarrar karna. 
To appraise, \ii^ kutna, U^l dnknd, \j\j^' J^ wioZ thahrana. 
To approach, UT u^ J> V. C/*^ V. *--^:'.'^ nazdik or joa* or A*an6 ana. 
To approve, \j^ Jj»-j pasand karna, \iJbU- chdhnd, liLi kabulnd. 
To argue, l3^ ci^-^f^ hujjat karna, l3^ (J^o^ 5a^5 karna, ^S jb Jarf 

To arise, li^lll uthnd, ^y^- charhnd. 
To arrange, ^J t_^y tar fib dena, l)j1^i«j ^awi^arwa. 
To aiTive, ^-si^^ pahunchnd, 1)1 awa, l3y> *Jl^ z/;aA:z Aowa. 
To ascend, ^J^ charhnd, l3jJb tXib buland hond, li^oL bilangnd. 
To ascertain, l3^ (jf^^ tahklk karnd, ^^j^ thahrdnd. 
To ascertain (a disease), 13^ ^jia*^?^ tashkhis karnd. 
To ask, Ufs-y ^Mc^^wa, Ltols*- chdhnd; (ask for) LSU mdngnd. 


Vocabulary. — Verbs, 297 

To assault, l3^ L::^.'<^t> b Aas>- hamla or takht karna. 

To assist, ^Ji dX< madad karna, Ul^-..4-*5 sambhalna : see To help. 

To assuage, L> J ^^ks^ takJifif dena, l3^ ^*Xi^* thanda karna. 

To assume, LJ /e«a, (grant, admit) Ij/ ^y farz karna. 

To assure, ^/ j]/^ ikrar kariia, (to comfort) L> J ^J^ tasalli dena. 

To astonish, b^ ij|/^ hair an karna, \j\^.^^ j habkdna. 

To attain, (v. n.) li^^ <^ haham pahunchnoLy (v. a.) U^ -$^^ ZaM 

To attempt, U^ Ju^ai b ^^x-o b ^jtJ^^ koshish or sa*Z or kasd karna. 
To attend, (wait on) L&j ^-*?U. ^a^ir rahna, (observe) b^^ ^J^^ 

dhyan karna, (as a physician) b^ |^J b <LJbc< mu'dlaja or 

cZfli^a karna. 
To attest, L> J ^5^^?^ ^1 e^J^^ shahidi or gawahl dena, (to sign) 

b^ -^-^^ 5a^7^ karna. 
To attract, b.-^^ khainchnd, b^ l~jJ^ jazb karna: see To allure. 
To avail, bl /♦li kdm and, \j^ iisi\i fdHda karna. 
To avert, \jj> «Jj b j^^i dur or rfa/* karnd, lill5 faZwa. 
To augment, bUjj barhdnd, \jS *jbj ziydda karnd. 
To avoid, Ih^ J^^l:*-^ V. J:?^ parhez or ihtirdz karnd, b^:^ hachnd. 
To avouch, avow, U..^ kahnd, b^ jlyl iA:rar karnd, b^^U? saAiV 

To awake, (v. n.) b^U-^'agwa, \:Sc»^jagnd, (v. a.) blS:^^*a^awa. 

To babble, U^j baknd, bX^ Jjjl arJar baknd, bljjjj harbardnd. 

To back, (mount a horse) byi> j^j**.- sawdr hond, (second) b^ 1^5^ 

pushti karnd. 
To backbite, bl^ 15^'*?' chughli khdnd, b^ ^^l^^ gjubat karnd. 
To bait, (a hook) b^ 2r^l>. cAara rakhnd, (take food) b^^ c5::^b 

ndshta karnd. 
To bake, blL pakdnd, (to make bread) b^ ^owa. 
To balk, bo J ^b Z>aZa dena, \j^ (♦v/^^ V. '^rr*^ ^ nd-ummed or mahrum 

To bang, bjU mdrnd, bJLo pitnd, bW JybJ cZAawZ lagdnd. 


298 Vocabulary. — Verbs. ^ 

To bar, UW IjLj benda lagana, (obstruct) li^^j rokna, l)^ s^ sadd 

To banish, l3^ ^Js^%^ jila-watan karnUj li^J ^l^ u^,'^ des-nikala dena. 
To bargain, (promise) \j^ ^Sc^ wa^da karna, (to buy) UJ J^« wo/ 

To bark, (as a dog) li^^ bhaunkna, (v. a. a tree, &c.) l:J^^ chh'ilnu. 
To bate, lj'!i^ ghatana, l3^^ ^ ^^ '-^^'^^^ H?wa^ /co kam karna. 
To bathe, (v. n.) 1)1^ nahana, (v. a.) lj,i J— x ghusl karna, 1)1^3 

To bawl, \jj\ij pukarna, l3^ chillana, IjjU lUoU ^a/i/c mama. 
To be, to become, Ij^jfe ^owa, lijij rahncLy Lj banna, UW^ib hdjdna. 
To bear, (endure) 1:*^,«j sahna, l3^ d^ij^J^j bardasht karna, (carry) 

To beat, U2-J pltna, Ujlo mama, \uj^ kutna : see To conquer. 

To beckon, U^ UjJ b ^Li»l ishara or 7wa karna. 

To become, (suit) IjjJb ^J^ b jpi^^ muwafik or Za'/A: ^orza: see To be. 

To beget, \i\A:^janmana, \ij) Ijuj paidd karna. 

To beg, l:^U ..^^^ bhikh mdngnd, \j^ f^\^^ suwdl karna, \:Ji>\^ ckdknd. 

To begin, (v. a.) l3^ c^^-1 shuru^ karna, (v. n.) Uxl lagnd, L&JcJ 

To begird, UjijJb^^ kamar bdndhnd, UlJ lapttnd, l3^ Jcj Jawc? karna. 

To beguile, l3l^.J bahkdnd, liJJ c-^.>y /are6 c?ewa, UjJ /♦J t/aw o?ew«. 

To behave, lJ->- (j^ chalan chalnd, Uj^U nibdhnd. 

To behead, UjU ^^Jp gardan mama, IxJl^ --j sir kdtnd. 

To behold, U^.*^ dekhnd, li^^b bildknd, ^^J^ nazar karna. 

To behove, b^ib t-^woU^ l> J^V* fnuwafik or mundsib hond. 

To believe, l:JU mdnnd, b^j^b bdwar karnd, \ui\^ jdnnd. 

To bellow, bjl^J dakdrnd, Uls-- chilldnd, \j^^ jyJ^ slior karnd. 

To belong, ijXl lagnd, Ij^Jb J^ix:^ muta'allik hond. 

To bend (v. a.), U^ -^ b Ifc^ Jer//a or A://Qm karnd, liVfy nihurdnd. 

To benum (v. a.), b|^^^ thilhurdnd or thithirdnd, \iS r^ sun karnd. 

To bequeath, l>^« v^J c?e mama, U/ <Ub l> ci^-^^^j waslyat or /^i^rt karnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 299 

To beseech, \j'^^'^'€ girgirancLj l3^ ^j=T^ V. is^- ^^^^^ ^^' djizl karna. 

To beset, l3^^ gherna, l)^ ^^Isr* muhasara karna. 

To besiege, \:J^ j*^ ghtr lend, \ij> ^Is-* muhasara karna. 

To besmear, U-J Upnd, ^jt^ chuparna, l3^^ /iZa karna. 

To bestow, liJ J (^/^ baldish dena, b.^ llai: «i?a karna, liJ J c?ewa. 

To betoken, l3^ ci^lib daldlat karna, \ihj batland. 

To betray, li^j«j ^<-s ojbliJ daghd-bazi se sompna, (a secret) Uj^ 

phornd, l3^ ^jdSi^ji^ parda-darl karna. 
To betroth, l3^ ij"^ V. <^^*^' nisbat or mangnt karna, \3^ ^->^l^ 

mansub karna. 
To bid, U^i^ kahnd, IjIi-j sundnd : see To command, invite. 
To bid for (offer a price), l3^ J^ twoZ karna. 
To bilk, l3^ ^fjbliJ da gh dbazi karna, U^ «-rVV /«^eZ> karna. 
To bind, UjiJub bdndhnd, \)^^ jakarnd, UjJl^r^ chhdndna. 
To bisect, l3^ l/^=^ J^^l^ bardbar do hisse karna. 
To bite, 1:jI^ kdtnd, lijl^ ^^-j l::-O^J (iari^ se kdtnd, l^L^ chabdnd. 
To blab, b^ ijmJ 2fJ^ parda-dari karna, U^ u-^^jb ^^^ ^^ /^'^^ 

To blame, li^t> dokhnd, \j^ ui^^^iU maldmat karna. 
To be blasted, l3l^;>y< murjhdnd, l)il^ kumhldnd. 
To blaze, L^J^J dhadhaknd, (blaze forth) li^> bharaknd. 
To bleach, U^l^ nikhdrnd, \j^ uJL b ^1 z<;7a or sdfkarnd. 
To bleat, IjL*^ mimiydnd, (dakh.) l3^ ^^^ ^^-^ Z>/iew Z>Ziew karna. 
To bleed, (lose blood) Uj J ^^ lohu dend, (let blood) U^^ Ju^ /«?<^ 

To blemish, l3^ ^ib f/ qg-A z A-arwfl, Uld c.^-^ aiZ> lagdnd, \ij> J^Ij 

nuksdn karna. 
To blend, UiL mildnd, l3^ Irjlsr* V. Jrr-*^ ame2' or makhlut karna. 
To bless, L) J U J c?M'a c?ewa, lij J {j^^ asis dend, \)J> cJj^ mubdrak 

To blight, U.; J u~«i^^ jhulas dend, \jj^ ^^r<P pazhmurda karnd. 
To Ijloom or blossom, Id^^ kJiilnd, U!*^ phulnd,\:^,^^ bikasnd. 

300 Vocabulary Verbs. 

To blow, (v. n.) li^^ bahna, lil^ chalna, (v. a.) UCj^ phunkna. 

To blunder, ^^^ chukna, UI^^j bhulna, 13^ lia^ Ma/a karna. 

To blush, Ijl^l ci^Ls^ khijlat uthana, \3yi> Jis>- khajil hona. 

To boast, brag, \3^ Jj (_J^ laf-zam karna, l3^ ^^ fakhr karna. 

To bode, \iJ J (j^-i» shugun dend, l3y e:Jjj daldlat karna. 

To boggle, l:il^5f> thithaknd, L^l^^^ jhajhaknd. 

To boil, (v. n.) U^ khaulna, \:^A ubalnd, (v. a.) UU ubdlnd, (cook 

by boiling) L> J J^^^josh dend. 
To book, l3^— ^J c?ar; karnd. To boot, l3^ i^\3 fd'ida karna. 
To bore, Iji^^^- chhednd, liJfeJuJ bedhnd, l3U,J barmdnd. 
To be bom, lii5>- jannd, li^*.i5j- janamnd, \j^ 1 Juj paidd hond. 
To borrow, UJ i^^U wzawg Zewa, liJ j^y itarz Ze«a. 
To bounce (jump up), l3jj t-l^^^- chaunk parnd, l3^ <-i^^^ chaukarl 

To bound (jump up), Ut)^ kudndj l^J^f^^ uchhalnd. 
To bound (limit), l:JbJJlj A?^ /mcZri bdndhnd, l3^ Jcj 5awJ karnd. 
To bow, (v. n. to stoop) l3jy nihurnd, \:S.^p^jhuknd, (v. a.) see To bend. 
To box (strike), bjU Ljj^ ghusd mdrnd, lijU ^UJ tamdcha mdrnd. 
To brace, lii».4»-s sametnd, L^ kasnd, (a drum) Ijl^j^ charhdnd. 
To braid, LibJJ^ gundhnd, liJ bunnd. 

To brand, liJj 4^J (jgg-A (fewa, Ijli^l ^ gul lagdndy Lc^J ddghnd. 
To brandish, liU^g^w/wawa, ^jl^^^*^ chamkdnd, \j\j^J phirdnd. 
To bray, (to pound) l:^^ kutnd, (as an ass) l:^:>j renknd. 
To break, (v. a.) Ijjy ^orwa, l3"^ pliornd, (v. n.) bu^ fwfwa. 
To break (become bankrupt), Ijl^^,^^^-!*^ muflis hojdnd. 
To break (v. a. break in, tame), l3^ /^\j ram karnd, LfcjL> sddhnd. 
To break (v. a. dismiss), l3^ Jj?}*^ ma^zul karnd. 
To breathe, (draw breath) LJ ^J dam lend, (expel breath) ^^^ ^^ 

dam chhornd. 
To breed, (produce) \j\:>j>' jandnd, \jj^ \xj paidd karnd, (nourish) Ub 

To bring, l3il Zawa (v. n.) or UT^J It-dnd, (v. a.) IjT aw«a. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 301 

To broil, 1^3^^ bhunna, U^ ^^ kabab karna, \j/ ^f garm karna. 

To brood, l3^-««s sewna, (over) l3^ JL1jjJ\ andtsha karna. 

To browbeat, bliljJ dabkandy Ui^ti -^1 dnkh dikhldna. 

To bruise, \'S^ kuchalndy L--J plsnd, UU ddlna. 

To brush, \ij\^ jhdrndy Ij^ (^JU? ^^ ^^^t^ bar ash se saf karna. 

To bud (v. n.), 13 Ui^ kaliyand, U!J^ lVj^ konpal phutnd. 

To budge, U2ji hatnd, LIj faZwa, li^^-o saraknd. 

To build, l3^^^^^ ta^mlr karna, \j^ \:j bind karna. 

To burden, U^ l> liJiJ -^^ ^o;7j Iddnd or rakhnd, ^^ J^.jij ^^^ bo,r 

To burn, (v. n.) \As>- jalnd, Uj balnd, LfeJ dahnd, (v. a.) IjL?- JaZawa. 
To burnish, 131^3.^ ^'AaZ/cana, blL*.^ chamkdnd, \)J> iSsu^ saikal karnd. 
To burst, (v. n.) 'cJ*^ phutnd, li5^ phatnd, (v. a.) l3j^ phornd. 
To bury, l3jli^garwa, l)^ ^^J rfa/k karnd : see To hide. 
To buy, liJ J^ moZ lend, ^^. »^ khartdnd, lii-i klnnd. 

To buzz, liL^-^ bhimbhindnd, (whisper) bl {^;-g> phusphusdnd. 

To cajole, UL-^ phusldnd, IijJ «*-r^y V. (♦'^ ^^'^ ovfartb dcnd. 
To calculate, liiS'giwwa, 13^ c-^L.^ hisdb karnd: see To guess. 
To calk (a ship, &c.), \j^ ^5^^^ kdld-patti karnd, \:J^ gdbnd. 
To call, I3L buldnd, (send for) U^ c-Jl? JaZai karnd, l:*^^ ^ iw/a 

bhtjnd, (name) l:^^ -♦U warn rakhnd, (cry out) l3jlG pukdrnd. 
To calve, (v. n.) IjLj bydnd, X:,:^ ^ ^ji^» bachhre kojannd. 
To calumniate, l3u) C-vk^ tuhmat lagdnd : see To revile. 
Can, U^ saknd : see To be able. 

To cancel, liiL^ metnd, \3^ ^'« ma^zi? karnd, l3liU mitdnd. 
To cannonade, l3l>- l> l3jU ^^* ^opc/i mdrnd or chaldnd. 
To canvass, (examine) l:Jlf&- chhdnnd, \:^\>- jdnchnd, USuasT bahasnd. 
To caper, l3J^ kudnd, l:lf>-^ uchhalnd. 

To captivate (to charm), UJ ^^ ?woA Zewa, U^ dc^Jifartfta karnd. 
To card (comb cotton, &c.), liJoJbJ dhunaknd, lii>J dhunnd. 
To care, ^^J^ fikr karnd, (care for) l3il ^-^ isW- khdtir men Idnd. 
To caress, l3^ jLj pz/ar karnd, l3^ c/^iV nawdzish karnd. 

302 Vocabulary. — Verbs, 

To carry, 'Jlsn! lejana, \jyi>S dhona, \i\^\uthana. 

To carve, Ijl>j^ khodna, \3^ axS kanda karna, li-tj/ tarashna. 

To case, liirU marhna,, LfeJc^ mandhna, \)^ uJlc ghilaf karna. 

To cashier, l3^ '— ^j^ ^^^ tar of karna j li^ Jjj/^ mazul karna. 

To cast, ^^-^^ phenknciy liJ^J ddlna, \:Sjy^ jhonkna, \j\^ girana. 

To catch, l3j^ pakarna, ^jf-^ pakar lena, IjLj^ phansana. 

To cavil, l)^ (^^ *— LP" V. i_5^?" ^'^ nukta-chml or harf-glri karna. 

To cause, l3j^ karanRj \iS karna, UJl^ nikalna, \ji lana. 

To cauterize, LiL> daghnu, Ljt3 Ji^V. f^'^ <^«^ or gwZ f^e/za. 

To cease, (v. n.) li^ jV ^^-^^ rahna, Uy^ ^Ij^' vJi^-jJ dast-barddr hona. 

To cease, (v. a.) ^j^^ chhornd, l3^ uJy^ maukuf karna. 

To celebrate, Lfc^^ sardhna, \jji ^ly^ ta^rlf karna. 

To challenge, \:iito ^ Vil Zara'7 mdngnd, Ujbl^s- aLU^ mukdbala chdhnd. 

To change (v. a,), l3^^ Jd'V ^«^<^2^ karna, U^^j^j badldnd. 

To charge, (load) l3^ bharnd, (impute) l^^;-^^ thahrdnd, (attack) 

\jj A>4^ hamla karna, (enjoin) U^ sS\i tdkld karna. 
To charm, (bewitch) \3^ j^^=r ^'atZzi karnd, (enchant) liJ ^^^ r;?oA 

To chastise, chasten, \jj> c^j jIj b <U>jJ tambih or ^atZzZ* karnd. 
To chat, \:Sj baknd, l3jU ^.^^ gap mdrnd, Ij^^xiAi guftgu karnd. 
To chatter, l)H?JJ barbardnd, liL baknd, U\^>-^ chirchirdnd. 
To cheapen, l3^^ ci-^^J b J^ mol or kimat karnd, \j\!i^ ^z^^aJs kimat 

To cheat, \:i^* thagnd, li.^^ chhalnd, U^ ui;V^^ d agh dbdzi karnd. 
To check, l3ls3l atkdnd, li^j roknd, IjIjJ dabdnd, \:^\'S ddntnd. 
To cherish, Ulj paZwa, l3^ l^---* b (jtjtj)^ parivarish or sez^a karnd. 
To chew, ^Is*- chdbnd, bU^ chabdnd, (the cud) UUi*- jugdlnd. 
To chide, iJD^i ddntnd, \:S^.^ jhiraknd, L^jJ dokhnd. 
To chirp, b»S^ churagnd, \3^ l;^^ cJ^?" c/^^^^^ c/izi/i karnd. 
To choke, liSj^ i!^ gaZa ghdntnd, li~-.jl^^ K^ gald phdnsnd: see To 

To choose, l3^ jki-«j pasand karnd, lii>- chunnd, \-^^\s>- chdhnd. 

Vocahulary,— Verbs, 303 

To chop, U!lli «3 ^^ *— ^.;' ^^ ^^^^? *^ katnaj ljjl.'j pharna: see To 

To churn, Ixf:^ mathnd, U^-^ maknciy lillC <t$L^ maska nikalna. 
To circulate, (v. n.) \jj^j^ phirna, \:^^ ghumnd, (v. a.) 1)Lj pAirawa. 
To claim, Ij^^i LjIw V. Jst^^ c?««m or takazd karnd. 
To clang, l:^";^ kharakndy (dakh.) UU^^^rs- chhanchhandna. 
To clap, (to place) Ul^l lagdnd, (strike hands) IjUr JU ^a/7 hajdna. 
To clarify, l3^ uJt^ safkarnd, liiDl^ J^ mazZ chhdntna. 
To class, li^ ^^^ ^-r^y tarfib mm rakhnd. 
To clatter, lj|;:^J^ kharkhardnd: see To chat, gabble. 
To claw, \^^-> nochndy Ijlj^ nakhiydndy \:^:>-^j^ kharochnd. 
To cleave, (to split, v. a.) ^jr^ cKirndy Ijjl^ phdrnd: see To cling. 
To climb, l:Ji>-;5»- charhnd. li^ hilanmd. 
To cHng, U5j lipatndy \j\l^>- chimtdndy l:J^; l2J Zij;Ja rahnd. 
To clip, Ij^ katarndy VSsy tardshndy lijli kdtnd. 
To close, (v. n.) IjJc*^ mundnd, (v. a.) ljjjj.« mundnd, \j^ J^j 6awi/ 

To clothe, ^^^ ^'J^ kaprd pahndnd or l3|^^ /^aArawa. 

To cloy, ^l^^^ chhakdndy \ijtj^ str karnd. 

To coagulate, (v. n.) \:>.a^ jamndy (v. a.) ^iW^- jamdnd. 

To coalesce, liLo milndy l3yb <5^2u*j^ paiwasta hond. 

To coax, liL-^^ phusldndy \ii^) hhuldndy lx> J ^J rfam <fe«a. 

To cock, (set up) \jJ>V:^ khard karndy (a gun) ^^y^^j^ ghord 

To collect, (v. a.j \jj^ ^^} V. r^»- jant^ ox ekthd karndy \iW^jamdnd. 
To colour, (v. a.) ^j rangnd, U^.^ {^fjj rang hharnd : see To blush. 
To combine, (v. n.) liL« milndy \jj>- jurndy (v. a.) \jhe mildnd. 
To come, liT dndy (arrive) li^^,J pahunchndy (out) liKj nikalnd. 
To comfort, L)J l^^ tasalU dend, LjJ ^xas>- Jb\s^ khdtir-jam't dend. 
To command, l3^ jX>- ^M/cm karndy \jV<ji farmdnd. 
To commence, (v.n.) l3^ C(j^ shuru hond: see To begin. 
To commit, (entrust) \jj, ^S^ hawdle karnd : see To imprison, do. 

304 Vocabulary Verbs. 

To compare, Ij^ <djliu) mukabala karnd, \jl^ mildnd. 

To complain, \jj jljy farydd karndy (against) \j^ ^\j ndlish karnd. 

To compose, IjI:j bandnd, (a book) \j^ i^Juu^oj tasnlf karnd. 

To compound, \i\^ mildnd, \)J> (.«^^ murakkab karnd. 

To comprehend, Lfs-^*** samajhnd, l3^ cii^bjJ darydft karnd. 

To compute, \'S ginnd, ^J) c-^L«:>- V. J^^ sJiumdr or ^wai karnd. 

To conceal, l3L^:»- chkipdnd, UJl&i dhdmpnd. 

To conceive, l3yb <ilL«U- hdmila hondy (think) UU- Ja?iwa. 

To conclude, (v. n.) Ui^ chuknd, l3yb /♦UJ tamdm hondy (v. a.) 

l3^ ^UJ tamdm karnd. 
To concur, luJi ^Jix< muttajik hond, (agree) 1^3 U mdnnd. 
To condemn, \j\^^ j^Si^ gunahgdr thahrdndy lx>J ^^fatwddend. 
To conduct, l3^ ^^'Ui ^]^ rdh-numd^i karnd, 1:1^1 le-chalnd. 
To confess, li3U mdnnd, \3yi» (JJiJi /(:a'/7 ^owa, l)^ jl^JJl iArrar karnd. 
To confine (v. a.), l)^ jJJ b Jc.J i«wc? or ^azVZ karnd. 
To confirm, (prove) l3^ l::-^\j sabit karnd, (establish) Ij^ jjL< mu- 

karrar karnd. 
To confiscate, li^ jy V. W^ ?^^i5 ^^ '^^^^ karnd. 
To confound, (mix) IjLo mildndy (perplex) \i/ ^\JLijJpareshdn karnd. 
To confuse, li^ j^s^j -^J darham bar ham karnd: see To confound. 
To congeal, be congealed, li/*^ jamnd, Uyb X^^rsx* munjamid hond. 
To congratulate, li^ t>b cl5;L^ miibdrak-bdd kahnd. 
To connect, conjoin, l3"y?- ;oma, l3l< mildndy l3l2 lagdnd. 
To connive at, l3^ ^^Uil ighmdz karnd, Ijl-ito matiydnd. 
To conquer, li::-.^?- j7^wfl, U^ ^i /a^^ karnd. 

To consent, l:Jlc mdnnd, \j^ ^\jrdzi hond, \j^ Jj^ kabul karnd. 
To consider, l^^ sochnd, ^^"^^ Ja^ akl daurdnd. 
To consign, l3^ jJ^^ hawdlt karnd, li-3j«j sompnd. 
To console, L>t> ,^;;r^ V. 15^' tasalU or taskln dend. 
To construct, liliJ bandnd, ^^ ^^^Lsu b Uj Z>iwa or naksha karyid. 
To consult, \i^ d^ «*1^ b i.::^^:!^'* maslahat ovjrnashwarat karnd. 
To contain, l:^^ rakhna, l3yi> J*«al^ mushtamil hond : see To restrain. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 305 

To be contained, \j\^^>^ samanay l3U^ amand, \iSj\ antna. 
To contemn, l:JU- jJb»- hakir jannd, IJ^ jji^UI ihdnat karnd. 
To continue, \:Jbj rahnd, \:Ji>j \jji b JW; ba-hdl or bar-pd rahnd. 
To contract, (v.n.) lil*-o simatnd, (bargain) L&jjIj L^ shart bdndhnd. 
To contribute, (give) li^J c?e7ia, (bear apart) UjJ ^^^^ chandd dend. 
To contrive, \)^ ^\:^\ijdd karnd ^ Ul^o nikdlnd, \j^j^Si tadbir karnd. 
To cook, \j^^ pakdndf L&Ju|^ rdndhnd, UliJ t/*^* raso'I bandnd. 
To copy, l3^ Jii) waA:/ karnd, l3^ ^<-:iy «J^ nakl-nawisi karnd. 
To correct, l3^ LL^jjf' V. '^^^^ sa^z^ or f A7A; /carwa : see To punish. 
To corrode, L?l^ kdtnd, LJ l^ kkd lend, UU- l^ khdjdnd. 
To corrupt, (cause to rot) Uk-j sardnd, (spoil) Ijjl^ bigdrnd. 
To cost, li^ l> Ijjj <*.^-^^ ktmat parnd or lagnd, liT awa, l:^-J baithnd. 
To cover, lijUj dhdmpnd, l3l^ chhdnd, \:>Cj\jbS dhdnknd. 
To covet, U^ ^1' Idlach karnd, Ijl^ lalchdnd. 
To cough, (v. n.) li-Jl^ khdnsnd, li^^ khonkhnd. 
To count, \:6 ginnd, l3^jU-i> shumdr karnd, (sum up) \j^^ jdrnd. 
To counterfeit, U^ jJju taklid karnd, U^ u~:^^ ^^^^ karnd. 
To crack, (v. n.) Lsjj* taraknd, 1:3^ phatnd, (v.a.) Ute' tarkdnd. 
To crackle, U^lx>- chataknd, lil^:^«sv. charchardnd. 
To cram, L-jI^j thdsnd, \:*=f^ khonchnd, L-j^bJ dhusnd. 
To crave, lixjU mdngnd, \:^\^ chdhnd, Ij^ l::^^^ minnat karnd. 
To creak, l3Vl>-';.>- charchardnd, \j\s:^^^ machmachdnd. 
To create, U^ Ijuj ^jazc^a karnd, ^c^^ sirajnd, l3^ karnd. 
To creep, l:»Su^j rlngnd, (as a snake) l3\^^ sarsardnd. 
To crop, 1:j\^ kdtnd, Uiijl^ chhdntnd, \i-i»y tardshnd. 
To cross, (pass over) \jSj\jpdr karnd, (lay across) U^ \"! am rakhnd. 
To crouch, li^ J dabaknd, (to fawn) \3^ l/^^,^^ chdplusi karnd. 
To crow, l)jU t^V ^«wg mdrnd. To crowd, b*!^ bhirnd, \:..As>'jam7id. 
To crush, Ui^^ kuchalnd, (squeeze) ^Jy^ nichornd. 
To cry, (out) 13^2^ chilldnd, IJjlO pukdrnd, (we,ep) l3jj rowa. 
To cull, U^ chunnd, l3^ <— ;ls^\ intikhdb karnd. 
To cultivate, (till) \ui^ jotnd, \3l>. Jjb ^a/ chaldnd : see To people. 

2 R 

306 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To curb, \i^jj rokndy \i^lf> thamna : see To restrain. 

To cure, U^ —Ic ilaj karna, L> J U-i» sAz/a 6?e?ia : see To heal. 

To curse, 1:^-^^ kosnd, Uj|^ sarapnd, \ij> c:^:^ la^nat karnd. 

To cut, L>\^ kdtnd, \i^Uj tardshnd, \j^ y V?j ^«/f /cflr/ia : see To carve. 

To dally, (delay) U^ ui>;>^ ^^^^ karnd y (trifle) \3^ (-/V'V,^ tdpdto'i 

To damage, l3^^ C-^L-.>^ khisdrat karnd, l3jUo bigdrnd. 
To dance, li^li ndchnd, l)^ j^j raA:5 karnd, (jump) l3t>^ kudnd. 
To dangle, U^ lataknd, \:Shb hilagnd. 
To dare, l3^ cl:^js>. jur'' at karnd, (defy) Ul^^^JbJ dhamkdnd. 
To darn, l3^^ rafd karnd, \:>ji^j^^ hhar dend. 

To dash, \:>i3jpataknd, UjU j^J de mdrnd, (sprinkle) ^f^ chhiraknd. 
To daunt, l)|ji dardnd, blCiJbJ dhamkdnd, 1)1^ J dabkdnd. 
To deal, lijJ cLOb Ja/zf (fewa, ^,i^S <^*^2^- ^ma /jar cfewa. 
To debate, (think) U^ J-^\j ta^ammul karnd, (dispute) \ijij\i3 takrdr 

karnd : see To argue. 
To decamp, \3 .? ^$ kuch karnd, (move off) \j\>- ^^ chalejdnd. 
To deceive, Uj J l^^J dhokhd dend, liif>- chhalnd, lix^' thagnd. 
To decide, ^l^f thahrdnd, Ij^ J 1^1 infisdl karnd, l3Ul>- chukdnd. 
To deck, lj^lj:.«j sanwdrnd, l3^ <fci*-s\jl drdsta karnd, l3jlxi«i singdrnd. 
To declare, U^ kahnd, \i^<x>- jatdnd, ^^j5/1 zytrar karnd. 
To decline, (as the sun) Ujb3 dhalnd : see To bow, refuse. 
To decoy, liJt> i-^. y /a^eJ c?e7i5, UL-i^ phansdnd. 
To decrease, \:^ ghatnd, l3ys» *^ /:am ^owa. 
To dedicate, l3^ cJJij V. J^ wiya-sr or i^a^/ karnd, l3liJ aU ^jf /rS wa/w 

To deduct, l3^ «-*^ it'a:s* karnd, UU Jl^ w{A;aZ ddlnd. 
To deem, l:JU-Jawwa, l3^ J^^^rsr tajidlz karnd, l3^ (^IJ Hyas karnd. 
To deface, Lo ll< ?wif a dend, li^ ^'* w^a/^^^ karnd, IjJ l^ bigdrnd. 
To defame, l3^ /♦^^J bad-ndm karnd, 13 12 ^^-^ «i^ lagdnd. 
To defeat, lij J c:^-Xi» shikast dend, \i\jJb hardnd, (frustrate) \:J^ kdtnd. 
To defend, l3^ ^jJk^i^ b c:^.|U^ himdyat or das f girt karnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs, 307 

To defile, U^ Cj\i I) l> L,« maila or na-pak karna. 

To deform, bjUj jLi 5/iaA:Z bigarna, ^S Jj*A.^ bedaul karna. 

To defy, l:Ji>l^ «_^ W lara'i chahna, Ul/j Ifj^J^ angutkd dikhana. 

To deign, l3y) ^^ mutawajjih hona, \jj^ J^J ^gJmZ karna. 

To delay, (v. n.) l3^ t-£/.'^ ^en karna, (v. a.) Ull^ faZwa. 

To deliver, (free) \i^ S\j\ \j Ij^, riha or a-s^ac? karna: see To give. 

To demand, (claim) li^ U^J da^wa karna : see To ask. 

To demolish, \jj\^\ ujdrna, \i\f girdnd : see To destroy. 

To deny, \jj j\^\ inkdr karna, UjUJ na-mdnnd. 

To depart, Ul?- Jl>- chale-jdnd, ImUju*j sidhdrnd. 

To depend, li^ laiaknd, (upon) l3j^ ^1 J ddman pakarnd. 

To depopulate, 13JU-1 ujdrna, U^ ulnl^ t^Ira/i karna. 

To deposite, l*-j^ sompnd, l:^ ci-^Ul amdnat rakhnd. 

To depress, lij\j ddbnd, l3^ t::-^^a5^ karnd, Ubj dabdnd. 

To derive, (v. a.) lilK3 nikdlnd, (v. n.) l3yb J^i.!^ mushtakk hona. 

To descend, Upi utarnd, b'cj- ,<^^ niche jdnd, l3yi Jjlj wa2:^/ /^owa. 

To describe, U3l^ bakhdnnd, \j^ jiyj takrlr karnd. 

To desert, l3^ lL5^ ^arA; karnd, ^j^^ chhornd. 

To design, (intend) l3^ i^j[;! iraJa karnd, (plan) l3^ <lljj naksha 

To desire, lii»\^ chdhnd, U^ ,^^^^ Jdmdhish karnd. 
To desist, ^j jV ^^^ rahnd, \j^ ij rahjdnd. 

To despair, despond, UjJb Ju^\lj nd-ummed hond, l3yb ^y wiVas hond. 
To despise, UiU-j^Ji^ hakir jdnnd, li^ tl^liiis- hikdrat karnd. 
To destroy, \:jJjl5»-\ 2/yar cZewa, 13^ ;Jj\& b c:-^-^ we5^ or haldk 

To detain, U^ jb Ja^r rakhnd, U^j roknd, \jS JuJf i^airf k^rnd. 
To deter, litjj dardnd, \3^ <^::-^^.r?^ be-himmat karnd. 
To determine, bl^ thahrdnd, l3^ tlX»^ f/z?/: karna: see To decide. 
To dethrone, bjbi ^^ jji-^sT ^a^^ se utdrnd. 
To devise (by will), l3^ e:--r^j icaslyat karnd : see To invent. 
To devote, \3^ (j^^ V. ^'^ V. jV^ wiya-^ orjidd or kurbdn karnd. 

308 Vocabulary Verbs. 

To devour, li^ bhakhnd, l3U- l^ khajana, L*l l^ kha Una, 

To die (colour), U^j rangna, UlifeJ>- i^S^j rang charhana. 

To die (expire), l3^ marncLy \>Jt> cShb b ci?y /aw^ or halak hona. 

To differ, l3yb CJjUj tafawut hdna, (quarrel) \j€^jhagarna. 

To diffuse, IjL^ phailana, \jj^z^ bisfarncif lJl$^ bichkdnd. 

To dig, l3J>^ khodndj \ij^ gornd, (up) Ujl^i ukhdrnd. 

To digest, l3^ -»«^ ^am karnd, U W; pachdnd : see To arrange. 

To dignify, ^^j]/y-» sar-fardz karna, Ulibjj bar hand. 

To diminish, (v. n.) \:Ji^ ghatnd, (v. a.) Ijlfi^ g'Aafawa. 

To dine, l3l^ lj\^ khdnd khdnd, 13 .^ cn^-llsw chdsht karnd. 

To dip, (v. n.) \:j.J dubnd, (v. a.) lib j dubdnd, L> J ^^3 c?m&/:7 e^/ia. 

To direct, (shew) 13^1^ J dikhldnd, (command) l3tc^/ar?wawa. 

To disagree, l3^ ^lil^lJ nd-muwdfik hond, (quarrel) U^ bigarnd. 

To disallow, l3j^ *J^ l> jlil inkdr or ma/** karnd, U^b 6arwa : see 

T^ deny. 
To disappear, ^f^ chhipnd, \)^ c>.-:c>- champat hond. 
To disappoint, l3^ jL< l3 %a murdd karnd, IjKji>J dahkdnd. 
To disapprove, l3^ JCw^^ Ij nd-pasand karnd, l3^ «.>^ rac?c? karnd. 
To disband, l-Jt^ l^\^ jawdb dend, UjJ |%^ chhord dend. 
To disbelieve, IJ'v^J na-mdnnd, \j^j\^\ inkdr karnd. 
To discern, U^jUiajI imtiydz karnd, l:»^.t> dekhnd. 
To discharge, l3lj^ chhurdnd, U^i *— ?/^ bar-taraf karnd. 
To disclose, IJj^ kholnd, U^jl^l iz'^ar karnd. 
To discontinue, l3^ <lcU ndgha karnd, \j^ uJy *^ mdukuf karnd. 
To discover, l3^ l*X*j pairfa karnd, \j^ jSn^ zdhir karnd : see To show. 
To disembark, (v. n.) l3yl utarnd, (v. a.) IjjIjI utdrnd. 
To disengage, l)^ Ij^ jMC?a karnd, \J^^ kholnd. 
To disfigure, IjJUj bigdrnd, \j^ ^-^\r*" khardb kdrnd. 
To disgrace, UJy Lr^v^p- hurmat tofnd, l3^ JjiJ*^ ma^zul karnd. 
To disgust, IjlibJ^ kurhdnd, ^^ J^jrp. bezdr karnd. 
To dishonour, l3jb'l ^^j1 a6rw utdrnd, \i^ ^.^l^^jS^j behiirmat karnd. 
To dislike, \jiW* na-chdhnd, b^ w\i*-jl3 nu-pasand karnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs, 309 

To dismiss, U^ ui^^^^ci-j rukhsat karnd, \jj ^J^y, bar-taraf karna. 

To dismount, (v. n.) \jjj\ utarna, (v. a.) bjbi utarna. 

To dispatch, U i ij\^j rawana karna : see To kill, waylay. 

To dispel, ^J j^^ dur karna, \j^ ^J daj^ karnd. 

To disperse, l3l^>- chldtkdnd, U^^-ii^ muntashir karnd. 

To displease, \ji ^^^ nd-khush karnd, \jj Si:)jj\ dzurda karnd. 

To dispose, l3^ ^ti-jJ^T drdsta karnd : see To arrange, give. 

To dispute, liiasr bahasnd, (quarrel) \jy^jhagarnd. 

To dissipate, \j\j\ urdnd, \jj> i^\jJi isrdf karnd, liJJ Jjl wra c?e7ia. 

To dissolve, (v. n.) \:>\^ galnd, \:1^ ghulnd, (v. a.) Ij^l^ pighldnd. 

To dissuade, li^ jb iaa^ rakhnd, l3^ ^-:^ rwa/i* karnd. 

To distil, (v. n.) U^^ chund, liL3 tapaknd, (v. a.) ^\^ cho'dnd, Sfc. 

To distil (as spirits), \j^ iaiU mukattar karnd. 

To distinguish, l3^ j^ /arA: karnd, l3^ jLloI imtiydz karnd. 

To distribute, U5jb bdntnd, \j^ <Uto- /ima karnd. 

To disturb, U^ c-^^k«i« muztarib karnd, bjrr$^ chhernd. 

To dive, l3jto ^id^^i ghpta mdrnd, li^jJ dubnd. 

To divert, (amuse) l3l^ bahldnd, (turn away) Ijl^ phirdnd. 

To divide, U^ ^m,.bV takslm karnd : see To distribute. 

To divulge, Ij^ ^jJili /as/^ karnd, \jhj batldnd. 

To do, l3^ karnd, IjliJ bandnd, \3il Ur 5a^*a Zawa. 

To dodge, ULi^ kaniydnd, lix) ,^_<«^^ pichht lagnd. 

To doiF, Ijjbi utdrnd, (to dofF clothes, UjIjI ^j^--,^ /cajpre utdrna). 

To doubt, U^ (JXI shakk karnd, lijlsT ^^^ yakin na-jdnnd. 

To doze, li^^\ unghnd, ^yn ^j^ i^^ jhapkt men hond. 

To drag, (v. a.) \:JL^ ghasltnd, (v. n.) \:Jl^ ghasitnd : see To draw. 

To drain, l:jl^>- chhdnnd, Ulj Jl^ (Jb pawi m/caZ ddlnd. 

To draw, b^V^ khinchnd, (a sword) luJb!;!^ kdrhnd, (out) UlC) nikdlnd, 

(on, as a garment) bl&j^ charhdnd. 
To dread, l3j3 darnd, l3l^ L::^U^J dahsJiat khdnd. 
To dream, li^,t> ^->|;^ Jdmdb dekhnd, (dakh.) b^.*^ ^^ bashdra 


310 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To dress, liy pakanna or pahinna, (food) bl^ pakand. 

To drink, L-j pmd, LiiJe^ ghuntnd, \j\^ \Lj nashd khdnd. 

To drive, (v. n.) IjJ^J daurnd, (v. a.) Ij^^ chaldnd, ^^j^^ daurdnd. 

To droop, l^Vf:r* '"^'^'"'j handy Uyi> ^J^jj pazhmurda hond. 

To drop, (distil, v. n.) Ij^ chund, (v. a.) UlLS tapkdnd : see To fall. 

To drown, (v. a.) \jyS dubdnd, (v. n.) li.'.3 duhnd. 

To drum, lil^f^ J-i Jja&Z bajdnd, L$l5^^ j^-Jb tambur thonknd. 

To dry, (v. n.) U^^-s sukhnd, (v. a.) l3l^ sukhdnd. 

To dwell, Lm-j basnd, Uj^^ rahnd, \i^ ci^j^Ls sukunat karnd. 

To earn, liLo kamdnd, \j^ J.*tfl:>- b Ijuj paidd or ^a^viZ karnd. 

To eat, l3l^ khdnd, \ij> J^l:J tandwul karnd: see To corrode. 

To educate, l3^^ ^*^^rP./ tarbiyat karnd, 13 1^ sikhdnd. 

To efface, \:^2^ metnd, bliU mitdnd, UL^^*- chhtlnd. 

To effect, U^ karnd, biJ ^^ J/*,^ amaZ 9wH Zawa. 

To eject, liJJ JIC m'/caZ c?e/za, Ij/ j^^^ c?wr karnd. 

To elapse, I3^«l\i guzarnd, Ijjib <twij3c> guzashta hond. 

To elect, UJ ^^^ cAz<w Ze/za, l3^ d:.^^ pasand karnd. 

To elevate, l3l^l uthdnd, \3^ jJj buland karnd, l3ljb«J barhdnd. 

To embark, l3l&J>- b lujbj^y j\j^jahdz par charhnd or charhdnd. 

To embellish, l3jl5owj singdrnd, l3^ jliJ band'o karnd. 

To embrace, Uyb^^-^ J*j b agh al-gir hond, li^J ^ gale lagnd. 

To embroider, l3^ is^^?" J^ kdr-chobi karnd. 

To emigrate, byb ^j il^ jild-wotan hond, ^j^i^ lH.'^ ^^ chhornd. 

To employ, U^^ JUoc*-! isti^mdl karnd, l3^ ^-^ aI^ /cam we^ Zawa. 

To enable, liJJ c:^,^aJ* V. ^■^>' A;Mw;a^ or takwiyat dend. 

To encamp, Iji" /*Ia^ l> L>c) l> ^U^ khaima or c?era or mukdm karnd. 

To enchant, l3^ Ijy V. J*^V V. uy^^ of sun or jddu or Jowa karnd. 

To encircle, l3^ *^W* b 4>/ gircZ or muhdsara karnd, U^^ ghernd. 

To enclose, U^^g/ierwa, \3^ iiU-l i^a/a karnd, liJbJJb bdndhnd. 

To encourage, Uj J Lj^Ij b L::-v*Jb himmat or dildsd dend. 

To end, (v. n.) l3jJ5 aUj b .r>-T dkhir or tamdm hond. 

To endanger, bJ^ j ^^^ s^^;^ Jdiatre men ddlnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 311 

To endeavour, U^ ^'^J '^ V. l^**^ ^^'* or jidd-o-jahd karnd. 

To endure, (v. n.) liji; rahnd, (v. a.) Ij^ c:^Jjb.j bardasht karna. 

To engage, (in service, &c.) LJ ^ raM Zewa ; see To employ, allure. 

To engrave, ^^^ khodnd, \j^ ,^^ift3 b ^rjc^ kanda or w«it5^ karnd. 

To enjoin, l3^ Ju^Ij faHof karnd, l3^ Jo^ /i?//:w2 karnd. 

To enjoy, l3b pawa, Ijl^lSl uthdnd, lii^ bJivgatnd. 

To enlarge, lil&JJ barhdnd, \jj^ ifjlli kushdda karnd. 

To enlighten, U^j^i^ b 1>-1 ?{;7a or munauwar karnd: see To teach. 

To enrage, b^ C/U-*^ b l5*^ gh usst or ^azab-ndk karnd* 

To enrol, l3^ Jo-1 J ^^^^jjj daftar men ddkhil karnd. 

To ensnare, li-Jl^ phdnsnd, blfsT bajhdnd, Ijl^' balbhdnd. 

To entangle, IjL-^ ^Aasawa, IjJol^ j^/iawJ/ia, Ijl^l uljhdnd. 

To enter, (v. n.) li^ paithnd, l3^ J^lt) ddkhil hond. 

To entertain, U^ e:^W V. si W^ mihmdni or ziydfat karnd. 

To enthrone, UllfuJ j cz^osT takht par baithdlnd. 

To entice, l)L«^ phusldnd, lil^ lubhdnd: see To allure. 

To entrap, l34\il^pAawc??ia, Ijl^J j^Aawsa/ia. 

To entreat, U^ ls:\Jl zY^z/a karnd, (dakh.) li«y tarasnd. 

To equip, liJJ ^^UI-jj jLj 5^2; sdmdn dend, \j\^ sajdnd. 

To erect, \j\^\ uthdnd, \jS ^^jIj kd\cm karnd: see To build. • 

To err, \^y>' chuknd, \jyb ifl^ gum-rdh hond, U!^ bhulnd. 

To escape, l:^ bachnd, liSl^ Jio wiA:aZ bhdgnd, ^'^^ chhutnd. 

To espy, b^.t> dekhnd, 1^0 taknd, L>J c^i/wa. 

To establish, l3^ JI5 ^a'm karnd, ^]j^^ thahrdnd. 

To estimate, lilCl afkalnd, Lj^ kutnd, \ij> l::-^-^ y^'^o.i karnd. 

To evacuate, 13^ ij^ Ma^* karnd, Ul^ nikdlnd, ^j^i^ chhornd. 

To evade, Ut* faZwa, l3ljl urdnd, U^ chhalnd. 

To exaggerate, l3^ ^^-^ mubdlagha karnd, UUJj barhdnd. 

To exalt, b^ JcL buland karnd, ^\ibji barhdnd, blibj^ charhdnd. 

To examine, bUj! dzmdnd, (as money) U^ parakhnd. 

To excavate, bj^ kornd, b i^ ^j^^ khokhd karnd. 

To exceed, Ityfe i^jbj z'lydda hond, L&Jj barhnd: see To excel. 

31<? Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To excel, liJ ci^w sabkat lena, \jySb t^lU ghalib liona. 

To exchange, IJ<^ badalna, \i^ ^jj ^j1 adla-badli karna. 

To excite, l3J-^^ chJierna, L)t> c-^-^* targhib dena. 

To exclaim, bi^ cJiillanoLf \u^\jLi pukar uthna. 

To excuse, Ij^ uJl*^ mu'df karna, (make excuse) U^ j^kc wzr karna. 

To execute, l3^ karna, l3^ /♦^^^ anjam karna: see To kill. 

To exhibit, liil^J dikhlana, 13^^11^ mhir karna. 

To exist, Ijyb Aowa, ljyi> t)»5j-^A: maujud hona, \:^^\ achhna. 

To expand, (v. n.) UL^ phailna, (v. a.) IjL^ phailana. 

To expect, l3^jlla:Jl intizar karna, l:»X>t> if\; raA dekhnd. 

To expel, L>t> JIC wi/caZ c?e?ia, ly jJk^^^ shahr ba-dar karna. 

To expend, \j^ t;/^ Tdiarch karna, \j\^\ uthdnd, \j\j\ urdnd. 

To expire, ^]^i>- /♦'^ dam chhorna, (to die) Ij^ mama. 

To explain, bl^jsr^-*' samjhdnd, \ih.i batldnd, \}^jb^ zdhir karna. 

To explore, l:^>-^ khojnd, IjjU ^^l^^ c^^aw mama : see To seek. 

To express, (utter) l3jU-l uchchdrnd, (squeeze out) ^Jy^ nichornd. 

To expunge, Uli:^ mitdnd, \j^ ys^ mahw karnd. 

To extend, UjU-j pasdrnd, (v. n.) Ul-^ phailnd : see To spread. 

To extinguish, IJ^sT bujhdnd, Ij^ji ^wZ karnd: see To destroy. 

To extirpate, IjJ'l^^ ukhdrnd, ljl^5l ^^^jar khod uthdnd. 

To extort, ^?lj«}^ ba-zor lend, LJ J^sr nichor lend. 

To extract, U^ _.|ykLsl istikhrdj karnd, LJ -^-^ khainch lend. 

To extricate, b|j^^ chhurdnd, U^ (j^^ Maids karnd. 

To face, l3yb ^^^L sdmne hond, (oppose) l)^^ <idjliU mukdbala karnd. 

To fail, ^•^ chuknd, (become bankrupt) \j^ jjJ-Lo muflis hand. 

To faint, l3t {Jis.ghash dnd, lil^ W^>* mur child khdnd. 

To fall, \i^ girnd, \jy^parnd, (decrease) \:d^ ghatnd. 

To famish, (v. n.) l3^ ^j^^. V. uy^/^^^'^ ^^ bhukhon marnd. 

To fasten, U^ JlrsfL.^ mustahkim karnd, (tie) l:jbJJlj bdndhnd. 

To father, l3ly^ t_jU Jap kahldnd, ^^ J le pdlnd: see To apply. 

To fear, U^j darnd, l3l^ ^^ J^ai khdnd, li^^ sahmnd. 

To feed, l3^ khildnd, L» J c/|^*:^ khurdk dend : see To graze. 

Vocahulary. — Verbs. 313 

To feel, (touch) l3»p- chkund, \j^ fj^ lams karna: see To know. 
To feign, IjIij banand, l)^ <0l^ bahana karnd. 
To fell, U^3 <JL>1^ /:aj daJnd, li^,t3 4-1jI^ /:af fi^ewa : see To cut. 
To ferment, (v. n.) li^1 -^Lj ^^ ^jL^josh ke sdth uthnd. 
To ferry over, \jj\j\ jb pa?- utdrnd, ^^ j^ J5«^ karnd. 
To fetch, I3T J le-dndj ^ J4 ^kar dnd : see To reach. 
To fight, bjJ /arwa, Ui i^S^ Jang karnd: see To quarrel. 
To fill, l3^ bharndf ^j^ j^, bhar dend, U^ l^^^J pSra karnd. 
To filter, l3jlf»3 nitkdrnd, li^^^^ chhdnnd. 
To find, l3b pawa, liJl^ --.^ A7^o; nikdlnd, UIO nikdlnd. 
To finger, Ul^li tatolnd, l3j^ chhund, IjUiOl ungliydnd. 
To finish, \3^ *ir>- l> aUJ tamdm or khatm karnd. 
To fire, (a gun, &c.) bj*^ chhornd, Lcb ddghnd : see To kindle. 
To fish, U^ jlCi» \^ (J^** 'fnachhli kd shikdr karnd : see To seek. 
To fit, (v. n.) lit el^.tf ?/"/c awa, (v. a.) l3^ Jcu*jljt drdsta karnd. 
To fix, liAJjb bdndhnd, Ul^l lagdnd, ^j> jf^ mukarrar karnd. 
To flame, li^^l aix-1 shu^la uthnd, \:Sl^jhalaknd. 
To flap, lJL^>-jAaZwa, (the wings) blS^^j pkatphatdnd. 
To flatter, l3^ ^^^U- chdplusi karnd, liL-^ phusldnd. 
To flee, lii IgJ bhdgnd, ^j>j^„fgurez karnd, by> jj^ ^rar Aowa. 
To flinch, liSib hatnd, IJJ fa/wa, l3^ phirnd. 
To fling, li^f> phtnknd, l3l>- chaldnd, Ll^ J ddlnd. 
To float, L^ bahndf L«^J bhasnd, \jjJ tairnd. 
To flog, bjU l1JoI>- chdbuk mdrnd, UjU ^^J^ A;ore mdrnd. 
To flounder, liJJJ tarapnd, l3\2L%>> chhatpatdnd. 
To flourish, (v. n.) b^Jb ^j^ 3? ^^^ ^ ^^-^^ ^owa, (v. a.) bU^g^wma/ia. 
To flow, U.,^ bahnd, byh ci;V V. (O^^J rawdn or jdrl hond. 
To flutter, blj^jjj tarpJiardnd, bl}^^J^^ pharphardnd. 
To fly, bj^ z^rwa, \iji j\^j^ parwdz karnd: see To flee. 
To foal, bio bydnd, \u:>^ jannd, bUj ^-»^£^ bachherd bydnd. 
To fold, bl^j* tahdnd, bJLJ lapetnd, \jS ^ tah karnd. 

2 s 

3 14 Vocabulary, — Verbs, 

To follow, UW b 13! i^f^ pichhe ana or jana, \j^ \J 3ji:^ pairau*! 

To forbid, \i^ *-i^ mar^ karna, U^j rokna, \jj\j barna. 
To foretel, Ul::^ ^ ^\ age se jatana, \:^ til agam kaJina* 
To forge, \:^^ iS^, pitke garhna, l3^ ^^-.L! lihas karnd. 
To forget, liJ^ bhulna, l3^ iJ^yo\j3 faramosh karnd. 
To forgive, l)^ t_Jlc« wm'«/ karnd, ^J^^ chhornd. 
To form, U^ Ijuj paidd karnd, lil:^ bandnd, l3^ karnd. 
To forsake, ^J^^ chhornd, ^^i^i tydgnd, b^ (Jj^ ^arA; karnd. 
To forswear, (swear falsely) l3l^ <»*JJ ^^jhuthi kasam khdnd. 
To fortify, (make a fort) l3^ c5«J^ ''^ kaVa-bandi karnd. 
To frame, Ulij bandnd, LfcJjb c-^iij ^ J^3 c^awZ 5 dhab bdndhnd. 
To free, U^ ^j^^ V, ^1; ^ ^-^-ac? or khalds karnd, bj^^ chhornd. 
To freeze, (v. n.) \uA>>-jamnd, ^i^ ^^ (^ U:^ thandl sejamnd. 
To frighten, l3t^3 dardnd, (scare) l3^^' bharkdnd. 
To frisk, U^J^ kudaknd, \:S^ phudaknd. 
To front, l3yi> J-jliU b L_5^»^b*s sdmne or mukdbil hond. 
To frustrate, U^ (♦ji^'* mahrum karnd : see To disappoint. 
To fry, U^^ bhunnd, b^ (j;b^ birydn karnd, bL' ^aZwa. 
To fulfil, (complete) b i^ li^j j9wra karnd, (perform) b^ 1 j\ ac?a karnd. 
To furl, Ll*J lapetnd, b^^sL^ khainchnd. 
To furnish, bl^l^ pahunchdnd, b^ <3i:i«st^\ drdsta karnd. 
To gabble, b^ tlio lL^j Z>a/c JaA; karnd, b^ ^^ ^^ gh lnpen karnd. 
To gain, (earn) bU^ kamdna, (get) bb ^ayia, b^ J-^U- ^a5z7 karnd. 
To gall, (v. a.) bJu^ 1/*^ ^J>^ ghiskt chamrd chhllnd. 
To gallop, (v. n.) bJbJ dapatnd, (v. a.) bXu-^ ^-^y-* sarpat phenknd. 
To gamble, bJu^ ^^ jd'd khelnd, \j^ ,_/jbjUi kimdr-bdzi karnd. 
To gape, (yawn) bJ ^*\^a^ jamhd'i lend, (with surprise) bjL-j ,^ 

mMw^ pasdrnd. 
To garnish, bjbi>Ju*j sudhdrnd, b^ ^fcL-sl^t drdsta karnd. 
To gasp, liJ ^^1 ij-jbrf •'fflws mZ/I lend, bl^Sl^ lakhlakhdnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs, 3 1 5 

To gather, ^S ^-^ jam^ harna, ^jyi batorna, L>- chunna. 

To gaze, l3 1^ ghurnd, Uib; CSj tak rahna, L&j -^ J dekh rahna. 

To gesticulate, IjliiJ jl^ bha'd batana. 

To get, lib pana, \jS ^J-j b J*tfU- ^a^i/ or paidd karnd. 

To gild, U^ J^ l> \^y^ sonahld or ^aZ/ karnd. 

To gingle, Uli^^i^JAary^awawa, l3U^5i^ thanthandnd. 

To gird, LjfeJjlj (<^^2:j-J lapetke bdndhnd : see To tie, reproach. 

To give, liJ J (Zewa, Ixlusr bakhshnd, li-Jj-j sompnd. 

To glad, gladden, l3^ (j^^ M?/s^ karnd, ljL-b> halsdnd. 

To glitter, liC*^ chamaknd, li$3^ jhalaknd. 

To glow, Ijl^JkiJ dagdagdndj l:»^Ji»J dahaknd. 

To gnash (the teeth), IjU^-f ^ kichkichdnd, l:—-^ j0?5na. 

To gnaw, IijI^ chdbnd, bol^ kdtnd, l3L>- chabdnd. 

To go, Ulp- Jawa, Li^^ chalnd, \j^ ij\^j rawdna hond. 

To govern, l)^ c:^^^^ hukumat karnd, (actuate) l3l^ chaldnd. 

To graft, l3^ Ju^ paiwand karnd, Ijl^l JJJ kalam lagdnd. 

To grant, lijJ rfe/ia, LLssT bakhshnd, lijto mdnnd. 

To grasp, l3j^ pakarnd, U^ gahnd, l3^ l::^^ ^^'"'^fl karnd. 

To gratify, li^ u-^^- M^^5/^ karnd, (requite) U^ Jj5»- Ja^ra karnd. 

To graze, 13^ charnd, Uio- chugnd, (touch) bis*- ^f>- chhujdnd. 

To grin, UlC d^b c?a7i^ nikdlnd, Ul^ u~^ ^^"^ nikdlnd. 

To grind, \i-^ pzswa, li^y buknd, (afflict) Uli-j satdnd. 

To groan, Ltol^ kardhnd, l3^ cj^lj ^ ^ dho zdri karnd. 

To grope, U^ij tatolnd, by Jowa, l3^ <^ p^^ to'd-to'i karnd. 

To grow, (vegetate) Ull wgwa, (increase) Li^jj barhnd. 

To grub, UU Jj^ /tc^oc? ddlnd, lijl^l ukhdrnd. 

To grumble, bljj jj barbardnd, \i\jj tarrdnd, \i\€^ kurkurdnd. 

To guess, l:iC\ atkalnd, l3^ c^bi ^i?/^^ karnd. 

To guide, b^ o l**^ rahnumdl karnd, bi^ chaldnd. 

To gush, byb c5;b>- -*^ Lrf^fi^^ sejdri hond. 

To hail, (v. n.) bjj J^l o/e parnd, (salute) b^ a1-j 5«Zam karnd. 

To halt, (limp) bjj^ii langrdnd, (stop) bjb; \j^ /:Aam rahnd. 

316 Vocabulary. — Verbs, 

To hang, (v. n.) l:^ latakna, (v. a.) 1)1^ latkana: see To choke. 

To happen, l3jj jjt an parna, \i\s>- \ ajanoLy Ui-j bitna. 

To harrow, ^j^ ^^■^^ henga pherncLf (disturb) U.> J ^j ranj dena. 

To hasten, l3^ ^<A>-jaldi karria, (v. a.) bl^-^l^^ shitabtar chaldnd. 

To hate (detest), l3^ CJJu nafrat karnd, IjU- ^iU makruhjdnnd. 

To have, li^ rakhndf lib pawa, l3J^^ pakarnd, \j^ hond. 

To heal, (v. n.) l3^ (♦W^^ iltiydm kond, (v. a.) Ij^ ^^f^ changd 

To heap, l3^ *^as^ jam* karnd, l)W ^J c^^er lagdnd. 
To hear, hearken, li-o sunnd, U .^J ^jl^ /caw dharnd. 
To heat, l3^ /^ garm karnd, ^J> t^T ag /r«rwa : see To enrage. 
To heed, take heed, li^ (jJ^ b [J^^ dhydn or ^a5 rakhnd. 
To help, Ik^ l::-^U:uj1 b J<x< madad or istVdnat karnd. 
To hem, Ijl^l c£/^ maghzi lagdnd, bL&jl lurhiydnd. 
To hesitate, l3^ cA^-? LriP^^ o pesh karnd, bLs~ hichkichdnd. 
To hew, yi^ ^ *->;^ kulhdn se kdtnd, \j^\p tardshnd. 
To hide, bL^ chhipdnd, l3l^ lukdnd, (v. n.) 1:^-^^ chhipnd. 
To hie, Ulsj- *Ap^ jald jdnd, bW^liLi* shitdbtar jdnd. 
To hinder, li^j roknd, l3Uj\ atkdnd, l3^ «-:^ wza/i* karnd. 
To hire, UJ ^5/ kirdya lend, (to let) U^ t/ ]/ /:zra'e karnd. 
To hit, (v. a.) IJjU mdrnd, L> J ^-^*^ fa^*^ r/ewa, (v. n.) l:i^! lagnd. 
To hold, U^ rakhnd, \j€j pakarnd, li^b g«A?ia : see To think. 
To honour (shew respect), \3^ d^ b c-->j1 «c?a& or *z2rrt^ A:arwa. 
To hop, Ij Jj^ ^^ yb (JSj} ek pdmv se kudnd, blj^ langrdnd. 
To hunt, U^ jlLi» shikdr karnd, \rb,<^ khadernd. 
To go a hunting, bJu^jlCi* shikdr khelnd. 

To hurry, 0^ i^d\s^ jaldi karnd, bLljb halbaldnd: see To hasten. 
To hurt, (pain) bl^J dnkhdndy (injure) b^ j^^*^ nuksdn karnd. 
To jabber, liSj baknd, (dakh.) b\jy^ watwatdnd. 
To jeer, b i j--i^ ^«^ /«*w tashnT karnd, b|^ chirdnd. 
To jest, b^ b b^lo l^ thathd mdrnd or karnd. 
To illumine, b^ ilb»-l b ^^^j roshan or ?/;aZa karnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 317 

To illustrate, (explain) l3^ -K/^ tashrih karna : see To illumine. 

To imagine, \jSj^ tasauwur karna, ^^^y^ sochna. 

To imitate, (follow, ape) \jj ^-c5 tatabbu karna : see To copy. 

To immerse, Ijjji dubona, Ijj^ borndy \j^ j^ ghark karna. 

To impart, (inform) li^ kahnd, \jhj batldnd : see To grant. 

To impel, l3^.&- chalana, ^^j**^ daurdnd. 

To imply, l3^ *j:^^J daldlat karna, l:^^ ic^'*^ woTwI rakhnd. 

To import (as merchandise), l)il JU ^^\<^y^ sauddgari mdl land. 

To importune, l3^ Uliu takdm karna, liJ j<f^ pichhe lend. 

To imprison, U^ jcj b (j^y*^'* b ^ ^'^*^ <^^ mahbus or )^awc? karna. 

To improve, (v. n.) byi>^^ bihtar hond, (v. a.) l3j\jbju*j sudhdrnd. 

To impute, l3l^! lagdnd, l)U^ thahrdnd, L&jjlj bdndhnd. 

To incite, UjJ i^^-^y tar gh ib dend, \j\^\ uthdnd, lj>^ chhernd. 

To include, l3^ Jd-tj ddkhil karnd, (surround) l3^i ghernd. 

To increase, (v. n.) l:Jb^ barhnd, (v. a.) IjU^j barhdnd. 

To indicate, l3^ w^^J daldlat karnd, \ihj batldnd. 

To induce, liJ J u^.f^ V. ^-r^y targhib or tahr'is dend, lii! /a?2a. 

To inflame, l3^ Ja/awa, 131^3 ^^T ag lagdnd, liC^ pkunknd. 

To inflate, l))!^ phuldnd, l3^ ^ wa/M karnd, L^^ phunknd. 

To inform, l3l:x^ ^'a^awa, ljl^'*-*» samjhdnd, \j^ b^\ dgdh karnd. 

To ingraft, 13 u) dJ ^^ paiwand lagdnd, (fix) 1:JULj baithdhid. 

To inhabit, U-j basnd, Lib^ rahnd, ^S L::^yL» sukunat karnd. 

To inherit, l3yi) <-i-^\j t(;ar2> Aowa, LJ t^\ ir.? /^«a. 

To inject, liJb c?aZwa, (with a syringe) l3jto ^j^isf^piclikdri mdrnd. 

To inquire, ^^^ puchhnd, 13/ tA-'^ pursish karnd. 

To instigate, li3ii|^ warghaldnnd, ULi'i uksdnd : see To incite. 

To instruct, l3il^ sikhldnd, \jj> ^Ixj tallm karnd. 

To intend, \jj <\^ l> ^jj^l zVat/a or kasd karnd, l^^l^ chdknd. 

To interfere, 13/ Jr^J c?aMZ karnd, l3l^j ^lib AaM lagdnd. 

To interpret, l)/ ^U^ry tarjuma karnd : see To explain. 

To interrupt (hinder, stop), \i$^j roknd, Ixll^ d^b Z>a^ /caj/za. 

To intimate, 13/ ^ll! wAara karnd, LjJ^^ khabar dend. 

318 Vocabulary, — Verbs, 

To introduce, (to a person) l3|^ ci^ULo mulakat karana: see To 

To intrude, ^^ J.^^^ dakhl karna, bjj ^,^ ghus parnd. 
To intrust, UJ^ sompnd, b^ ^J b J^ sipurd or zimma karna. 
To invade, U^ <-/*^/?" charhd'i karndj 13 1 J^Js^ cAar^ awa. 
To inveigle, I^jUjI uhhdrnd, l3l^ balbhdnd, lils^J lalchdnd. 
To invent, U^ ^l^^ y^<^ karndy Lll^) nikdlnd : see To feign. 
To investigate, l3^^ (Js-^csr l> ;^^i*:iAJ' tafiish or tahkik karnd. 
To invite, liJ^ nyotnd, l3^ CJy:J da'^wat karnd. 
To involve, (wrap) l:JbJoU ^S-J lapetke bdndhnd: see To entangle. 
To join, (v. n.) \:s^ juind, \)y>- jurndy (v. a.) \Jj^p^ jornd. 
To jostle, liJJ 1^0 dhakkd dend, lii-^J dhakelnd. 
To irrigate, l:^:*«5 sinchnd, ^^y ^«^ karnd. 
To irritate, liUrf khijdnd, ^}i^ chherndy l3l:;»*j satdnd. 
To issue, (v. n.) IdO nikalndj (v. a.) U'^ nikdlnd. 

To judge, Wj^ V. c!*^ V. ' '^^ iwsfl/' ovfaisal or w?/ait' karnd. 

To jumble, l3^ L^Ls.'* makhlut karnd, (dakh.) bK kaldnd. 

To jump, l3J^ kudnd, (over) \JS>\^ phdndnd. 

To keep, L^ rakhnd, (preserve) \j\s^^ bachdnd : see To protect. 

To kick, bLJ latiydndj bjU /^5 b ci^j Za^ or tjiokar mdrnd. 

To kill, UUjU mdr-ddlnd, U^ ^^>- l> Jcj A:a^Z or khun karnd. 

To kindle, (v. a.) bli^Lo sulgdnd, (v. n.) liS^Ls sulagnd. 

To kiss, b*^^ chumnd, U-1 b W'^ ^^ ^^^'^ ^^^^ ^^' ^^'^^^ 

To knead, bju^ gundnd, biLssawwa, bjuU mdndnd. 

To kneel, U^-j y Vj ^j do-zdnu baithnd. 

To knit, UiJ binnd, b^ (^ L::^3b^^ baghair tdnt ke binnd. 

To knock, bXj*^^ thonknd, (at a door) blii^^l!^ khatkhatdnd. 

To know, bJbs-Jawna, (recognise) L3 bsirf pa/^c7^a/^wa. 

To labour, \jj c:^^*^"* mihnat karnd, b^ ^J Jw/cZt bharnd. 

To lack, byb -^'b.^'* muhtdj li^nd, b^ j^^ darkdr hond. 

To lament, b,^ <)Jb wa/a karnd, bjjj rowa, b^ <lt^y nauha karnd. 

To land, (v. n.) Iy1 utarnd, (v. a.) b^bl utdrnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs, 319 

To lapse, (pass) l3j j^ guzarndj (err) ^^ chukna : see To fall. 

To last, l:i^5 tikna, ^j^ thaharna, lu^; rahna. 

To laugh, L-jJi hansna, (deride) Ij^ \^ thatha karna. 

To lay, \u^j rakhna, \jjibi^ dharna, (eggs) ^ti \3j\ andd dend. 

To lead, Id^ J Zd chalndj l3yb t^L-J peshwd hond. 

To lean, l3y& JjU Twa'/Z Ao«a, (on) l3l^ <uC* takiya lagdnd. 

To leap, Ut}^ kudndj (over) \i dj\^^ phdndnd, li-j tapnd. 

To learn, li^^ sikhnd, \j^ J-^U- Ac *Zm ^a^^Z karnd. 

To leave, ^Jj^ chhornd, \jj CJy iark karnd, (by will) l3^ <Ui> hiba 

To lend, liJ J ^j^ ariyatan dend, lijj jj^o^ itarz rfewa. 
To lengthen, UU^j barhdnd, l3L*J lambdnd: see To delay. 
To lessen, (v. n.) \:^ ghatnd, (v. a.) \j^^ ghatdnd. 
To let, (permit) L> J cZewa, (let go) lij J "^^ chhor dend : see To hire. 
To lick, lijl>- chdtnd, U-.-1 Ze^wa, (to beat) bjU mdrnd. 
To lie, (rest) iJLl letndj IjJj parnd, L&^ rahnd : see To lean on. 
To lie (speak falsely), L^ \.\ U^ ^^^jhuth bolnd or kahnd. 
To lift, l3l^'\ uthdnd, liJ 1^1 wf^a Zewa, Ijlibjj barhdnd. 
To light, (kindle) \3L>-JaZawa, (make bright) b^ t:/-»;j roshan karnd. 
To lighten (v. n. to flash), l:*^'*^ chamaknd, IX^ lahaknd. 
To lighten (make light), Ij^ l^ halkd karnd : see To descend. 
To like, \jj JjJ V. '^^^ pasand or ^a^wZ karnd., lubls^ chdhnd. 
To liken, U^ «-^i;^ V. <'^^ mukdbala or bardbari karnd. 
To listen, lii-* sunnd, UyfcJ l> Ijlx] j^l^ itaw lagdnd or dhamd. 
To hve, (exist) li-59- J7wa, (dwell) liJb; rahnd j L-^ &a5w«. 
To load, liJ^ Iddndy li^^ bojhnd, U^ bharnd. 
To lock, l3\^ Jijj ^w^ lagdnd, liJj illJ ^aZa cZewa : see To fasten. 
To lodge, (v. a. to place) ULj basdnd, Ul^ baithdlnd : see To dwell. 
To long, l:^ tarasnd, liU:^ lalchdnd, \j^ j'ol^ mushtdk hond. 
To look, (v. n. to seem) l:^^ sujhnd, (v. a. to behold) l3/^ 7ias«r 

karnd, li^.t> dekhnd, \:Sj taknd, (for) Lfcjuybj dhundhnd, (to 

expect) b^jUiul intizdr karnd. 


320 Vocabulary. — Verbs, 

To loose, loosen, IJ^ kholna, L>J J^^^ chhor dena. 

To lop, l:^lf>- chhdntna, \uj\^ katna^ U-i»^ tarashna. 

To lose, \j^ kJiona, (at play) Ijjlfc harna, (err) ^y>- chukna. 

To love, liJbl^s- chahna, l3^jLj p?/ar karna, U^ j;-!^ ?5/4" rakhna. 

To lounge a horse, Lo^>-^i ^^j^g^^re kochakkar dena. 

To lower, l3^^ IsaJ w7cAa karna, (the clouds) U^ ghirnd : see To 

To lug, (drag) \uS.^^^^ ghasltnd, (by the ears) U^ i//^ u^ ^'^'^'^ P^~ 

karke land. 
To lull, ULj suldnd, l3il JCwJ mw^? Zawa. 
To lurk, li^ j^-^ lu\^^ ghat men baithnd, li^J dabaknd. 
To maintain, (defend) Ul^-./i-o sambhdlnd, (rear) Ub joaZwa : see To 

To make, UUj bandnd^ \jS Ijuj pazc?a karnd: see To do, cause, get, 

To mar, Ijjl^ blgdrnd, U/ ^-^5;>- V. J^ khalal or khardb karnd. 
To mark, Ij^ ^lU nishdn karnd, (brand) liJ J 4^^^ c/ag-A /^Swa. 
To marry, Ui" i^Uj Z>?/aA karnd, LfcLj bydhnd, UiJ ^Lj %a^ Zawa. 
To measure, L>U mdpnd, UjU ndpnd, l3^ ^jLi\j^^paimd'ish karnd. 
To meditate, l3^ ti^V^'^ c?%an karnd, (think) ^^-^ sochnd. 
To meet, liU milnd, ^^ i,lJ>\sL< muldkdt karnd, Uy>jl>-j J du-chdr hona. 
To melt, (v. n.) \:^^ galnd, \:1^ pigkalnd, (v. a.) \j\£)^ pighldnd. 
To menace, Ij^ JbJ dhirdnd, UlCk&J dhamkdnd, 1^53 U* ddntnd. 
To mend, l3^ c:^-*^ marammat karnd, l3jlfcw\**} sudhdrnd, IjjLj sdrnd. 
To mention, ^^^^i siA;r karnd, \:^ kahnd, U/ j\3i ^jt^ gosk-guzdr 

To milk, liibjJ dohnd, Lll^ ^JjJ c?mc?A nikdlnd. 
To mince, (hack) li^-^^ chhenchnd, (mince meat) l3^ <uJ itFma 

To mind, (reg;ard, notice) l3 i l^ls) Zi^a^ karnd, (remind) liiJj jl) ?/a(f 

To mingle. 111* mildnd, ^J}^ Vl y^** maMilut or awc;;r A:arwa. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs. 321 

To mislead, l3l^% bhatkanUf iJl^^^J bahkand, [iS i\y^ gumrah karna. 
To miss, (not to find) IjlJ na-pdnd, (mistake) \jS llar^^ kJiatd karnd. 
To mistake, (v. n.) l^j->- chuknd, U^^ bhulnd : see To miss. 
To mitigate, \jS IjL^* b *^^ l> /♦y narm or muld'cm or thandd karnd. 
To mix, (v. n.) I^Lj milnd, (v. a.) U^^ mildnd, U^ L^Ls-* makhlut 

To moan, l:J^':^ kurhnd, Ij^ ^j-^! V. ^^ ^^^^ <^^ a/905 /carwa ; see To 

To mock, (make faces at) l3'ij .^ www/^ bandndy (gibe) ^y>- chirdnd, 

^\ji birdnd. 
To molest, IjIil-s satdnd, Uls^ khijdndf IjJ uJ-Kj takUf dend. 
To mortgage, L^^ .^ ?/rr^j (ir?'^ zaniin gh aira girau rakhnd. 
To move, (stir, v.n.) lJJ^ ^z7wa, li^ saraknd, (go) lii^ chalnd, (v. a.) 

Ijlfe hildndf IjiU- chaldnd, l3\^ sarkdnd: see To excite, propose. 
To mount, (v. n.) ^:Jfe^^ charhnd, (a horse), Ijyi ^^^ 5aw;ar /iow(/, 

(v. a.) ^l^fej^ charhdnd. 
To mourn, Ufeji kurhnd j l3^ *£ b j»jU l> d]l3 j iM a/^ wa/a or mdtam or 

gh am karnd. 
To mow (cut with a scythe), l;ol^ ^ ^j-l.J 6/as st kdtnd. 
To multiply, (as in arithmetic) l3^ Jj^ b c-yJ 2ar6 or jdrfi karnd : 

see To increase. 

To mumble, mutter, \u^ t J yj zer /ai kahnd, Oijjjj barbardnd. 

To murder, U^ ,^^ M*''* /:«rrt«, \3^ JcJJ ^^-j ,jaxj^ baghz st kail 

To murmur, l3t":^^ kurkurdndy (mutter) ^\yy^ barbardnd. 
To muse, b»^^ sochnd, \jS {j^y>- \\ dJL}Si\ Ji's Jikr, ancUsha or khauz 

Must, ^ >»J^ Za-^iw Aa?, j<:t^b^ clidhiyt, l^yb /io^a, ^J3j^ zarur hai. 
To name, l^^ /♦li ndm rakhnd, (mention) l3^ J^l3 ndmzad karna. 
To nauseate, feel nausea, Ijlx^ , .^ 77 matldnd, IjUlfe halhjdnd: see 

To abhor. 
To need, \ijb\^ chdhndj \i^ J^jd l> «^l:i^'* muhtdj or darkdr hdnd. 

2 T 

322 Vocabulary. — Verbs, 

To neglect (act carelessly), l)^ ei-Jii ghafiat karna, l3U- J^ bhul 

To negotiate, U^ A^^ mvUdmala karna, (a bill) Ij1>- 4^JCJ^ /^wwcf? 

To neigh (as a horse), l}li^ Mnhinana, 

To nibble, li^^^ khutakna, Uiy tungnd, l3^ kutarnd. 

To nip, l^y nochnd, l:J ^^^2^ chutki lend. 

To nod, U^^^ jhuknd, Ul^l^ -*» sar jhukdnd, (from sleep) U^^^ 

To nominate, liJ J l> ^^ z*^ ^«^ batldnd or (Zewa : see To appoint. 
To note, (observe) \j^ j^ gh aur karnd, (set down) LJ -^1 ZiM 

To notify, (declare) l3^ /♦icl £*Zam karnd, (tell) l3l:x5*-Ja^awa: see To 

To nourish, Ub pdlnd, li-j^ posna, \jj \J^J3ji parwarish karnd. 
To number, li:»^giw?za, l3^ c-^L^ V.J^'*^ shumar or ^waZ> karnd. 
To nurse, (the sick) l3^ t-^^'^W bimdrdari karna, (a child) JbJ^t) 

IjL cZmcZA piland, l3^ i^^ ^^'b dd'i-gari karnd. 
To obey, l:Jl< manna, \iS ^j\sxi}j b i^^J^to^ farmdn-barddri or 

tdbi^ddri karnd. 
To object (urge against), U^ (jfl|^t i^tirdz karnd, l3j^ pakarnd. 
To oblige, (bind) Ij^ <S:l--j1j b Jc.^ ^awtZ or wabasta karnd, (bind by 

gratitude) l3^ L::^>i^ ^^^ys^ marhun-i-minnat karnd: see To 

To observe, (watch) U^ i^Uo wzga/* karnd, (look to) ^^^^ nijhdnd. 
To obstruct, li^j roknd, l3jT arwa, l3yi» /•i^lj^ muzdhim hond. 
To obtain, l3^ J-^U- ^a^iZ karnd, bb pawa, (be current) l3yj) ^\j rd'lj 

To obtrude, \ji ^W^^ ddkhil karnd, UL-^ ghusdnd. 
To obviate, b^r bachand, UJIj talna, l3^ ^Ji ra/** karnd. 
To occur, U^ /^owa, l3y^«J»lJ 2i7a/ti /iowa, l3jJb t>j^ sar-zad hand : see 

To meet. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs, 323 

To offer, (present) U^ ;^_5^^ samhrw rakhna, (sacrifice) \j^ j^by 

kurban karna. 
To ogle, li^.ti ^^t4^ kankhiyon dekhnd, UJ (Jylf>- jlianwU lena. 
To omit, 13 ^jt-?" chhorna, UU- J^^ bhuljdndy U^ L::-,-i»lj^ ji ^«ro 

guzasht karna. 

To ooze, 1:10 nikalnd, l3^^ chund, \:^j risnd, l:.^ clihannd. 

To open, (v. n. be opened) lil^ khulnd, (v. a.) U^ kholnd. 

To operate, U^ ^l^ /:aw karnd, (upon) li^ ^1 a.var karnd. 

To oppose, U^ ci^l^'* mukhdlafat karnd, U^j roknd. 

To ordain, IjL^ thahrdnd, \iji jji< mukarrar karnd : see To fix. 

To order, (command) \j^ Jo- hukm karnd, (regulate) L> J j .^JJi 

tarfib dend. 
To organize, \j^ S^r^ tarkib karnd. 
To ossify, (v. n.) UU-ys* ^3jb haMi hojdnd, (v. a.) Ul^J^ ^i^Jb ^«^fi?? 

A:ar ddlnd. 
To overawe, lil^i dardnd, L>J Lii^vUbJ dahshat dend. 
To overcome, Ij^ J\i fath karnd, l3^ ^j:^^^SJ:» shikast karnd. 
To overflow, (v. n.) ^:*S^if>- cithalaknd, \jjj ^ bah parnd. 
To overlook, (inspect) l:»^,J dekhnd, (excuse) l3^ j»^;«^ dargvzar 

To overset, (v. a.) UjJ (.f-Jl mZ«{ <idwa, (v. n.) l3U- lIUII ulatjdnd. 
To overtake, lil yly bardbar dnd, ^jf^^ pakar lend. 
To overthrow, (overturn) li; J Ci^ll wZa? dend : see To overcome. 
To overwhelm, (crush down) Ix) J bj c?aZ»fl c/ewa, (immerse) U^ Jyi 

gh ark karnd. 
Ought, ^_<r?i^l>- chdhiye, ^ ^p ^,j^j^ zarur or Idzim hai. 
To oust, yiC nikalnd, l:oJ l^i wf^a c?ewa. 
To outroot, lilb Jl^t w/cAar ddlnd, \jj\^\ ukhdrnd. 
To outstrip, \j^ ^^-^A^ sabkat karnd, LJ Jbt^ ^ \ age dhar lend, 

U^ J ijf^^ pichhe ddlnd. 
To owe, l3jUj dhdrnd, Uy> j^juy karz-ddr hond. 
To own, (possess) l3yi> lL53U ma/iA: Aowa, li^ rakhnd: see To confess. 

324 Vocabulary Verbs. 

To pacify, W li&Jc^ thandha karna, Uj4> ^*^^^ taskin dena. 

To pack, l:JbJob i^j^^ gathri bandhnay U2-J lapetna. 

To paint, 13/ ^JlJsiXo munakkash karna, li2u>- cKitna, 

To palpitate, U-Jl^ kdmpna, \:Sj^^ pharakna, U^J dharakna. 

To pant, l:»^->:Ji> hamphna, l3\^^ haphha'phana. 

To parch, liJ^ bhunna, l3^ ^^Iv biryan karna. 

To pardon, Ij^^jj^i^J Ij u^U^ mu'df ox darguzar karna. 

To pare, l:^-^ chh'dnaj l3^i katarna, \:J^\ji tarashna. 

To participate, liSjb bantna, Ij^Jb^^J^Ua^ hissa-dar hona. 

To pass, (v. n.) \jjd^ guzarnd, ^j bahndy (v. a.) l3^^j^ gw|arwa. 

To pat (strike lightly), 1:j1^j' thdpnd, l3jU l^Uj tamdchd mdrnd. 

To patch, \jjj>- jornd, l3l^l ^^ paiwandlagdnaj 1:^13 tdnknd. 

To pawn, li^ j/ g^^o rakhnd, li^ LL^ajcj bandhak rakhnd. 

To pay, iJ/ 1j1 at/fl karna, 1^,^^ ri^ JAar dtnd: see To beat. 

To peck, li^jJ tungndf 1)1^^ thongdnd, bjUjUbwo minkdr mdrnd. 

To peel, (v. a.) 1:1*^ chhilnd, \ijj\ ^^:>^ chhilkd utdrnd. 

To peep, liyb t>j^ ^^i^paJiU namud hond, (v. a.) l:*^l^=^jy^aw/i:/ia. 

To penetrate, 1:^3^^^ chonknd, ^Ou^^ chhtdnd, (affect) l3^ yl <7.var 

To people, \3L-j basdnd, \iji jm^ l> jbl aJac? or ma^mur karna. 

To perambulate, U^ phirnd, \ij> j^^ sair kaimd. 

To perceive, \3/ ci^ibj J darydft karna, l3 b ^/ J rfeA:^ ^awa. 

To perfect, (finish) \j^ Aaj tamdm karnd, Ij«-J nibernd. 

To perform, \j^ karnd, l:J^lJ nibdhnd, \il\ssr bajd land. 

To perish, \3^ marnd, l3y> tl/iU 7^aZaA: Aowa, l:Jb; ljl:>-^'a^a rahnd. 

To permit, ^J rfdwa, Uj J <^V^ ijdzat dtnd, L^ \jj ?'«?/;« rakhnd. 

To perplex, U/ u^rt^ hairdn karnd, U^3 ^j-^ -^j peek men ddlnd. 

To persevere, persist, \:^j Jlji /caVm rahnd. 

To perspire, U. ^^ ^^.) pasijnd, UKj L^ paslnd nikalnd. 

To persuade, Uli^ mandnd, U/ J*?.^* ma'// karnd, \i;>(^ «-!.<? 5a/a/^ c?e««. 

To pervade, l:^^2-j pailhnd, b»i-^ phaUnd, Ij! jJ J^r awa. 

To pervert, Ijl^l ulldnd, UJl^ bigdrnd, \jj i— ^j/*" kM^'o-b karnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 325 

To peruse, l3^ <ullk< mutdla'a karnd, liJfeJj parhna. 

To pester, l3li*^' satdnd, Uls^ khijdnd, L.O '>^t^ taklif dend. 

To petition, U^ u^Hj^^ u^ ^^? ma^ruz karnd : see To request. 

To petrify, (v. n.) l3j^^ pathrdnd, UU-yj> ^j patthar ho-jdnd, 

(v. a.) ^1^^*^ patthar karnd, \ij> ^^::^^k^ ^jr^. patthar-sd sakht 

To pick, li:>. chunnd, l:»J ^^ c/iww Zewa, Lx^ chugnd : see To choose. 
To pierce, ^j^ chonknd, UL saZwa : see To bore. 
To pilfer, U*<.yo musiid, l3l.>- churdnd. 

To pinch, l^y nochnd, liJ j<^>- cliutki lend, (press) Ult> ddbnd. 
To pine, ^;^^ jhurnd, l3^ 2f J^l afsurda Iiona, liJb; j-< w?ar rahnd. 
To place, li^ rakhnd, lill^-J baithdlnd, ^^j^ thahrdnd. 
To plan, (scheme) l3^ Ji.y=!^ tajwiz karnd, (design) l:J^^U <CJi3 

naksha bdndhnd. 
To plant, (set) UW lagdnd, ^^j rompnd, (settle) Ul^ baithdlnd. 
To play, UL^ kheJnd, (to toy) ^^^^ j)^ ''a'o c/za'o karnd, (music) 

ljl:sr bajdnd. 
To plead, l3^ c:^^?^ hyjjo-t karnd, \ii JJc3 dfa/7Z Zawa : see To argue. 
To please, b^ (J^^ kkiish karnd, ^'\^j rijhdnd, (v. n.) l:.^^ ruchnd. 
To pluck, LJ ,^^ chhm Una, (as a fowl) \ij\^\j^ par ukhdrnd. 
To plunge, (in water) IJ^U <d?y. ghpta mdrnd, liJ.J dubnd, (v. a.) 

Iib3 dubdnd. 
To polish, U^ li^ l> uJL? b Jiu-tf saikal or .m/ or chiknd karnd. 
To pollute, l5^ <-^^^^ ndpdk karnd, l3jl5o bigdrnd. 
To possess, L^ rakhnd, iL^ «-J;-aj tasarruf karnd, IJ^^J dharnd. 
To postpone, Ull5 ,<aZwa, Aj^^^U tdMiir karnd. 
To pound, li!>^^ kutnd, lu^^^* thonknd, ^jy>^ churnd : see To confine. 
To pour, uJU3 dhdlnd, UjJuI undelnd, (flow) U.^^^* bahnd. 
To practise, 13^^ karnd, l3^ L^ /czz/a karnd, \jS (JJL^ mashk karnd. 
To praise, ^:JJ>1;«j sardhnd, l3^ <— 'V.-^J' ta^rif karnd : see To applaud. 
To prance, l3^ ij;W^ lambiydn karnd, bjU ^^.^Jjb shalang mdrnd. 
To prate, prattle, l3^ CS-^, V. ^^^>^ gapshap or bakbak karnd. 

326 Vocabulary. — Verbs, 

To pray, (entreat) U^iU mangna, (to heaven) l3^ jU3 namaz karna. 

To preach, l3^ licj ica^z karna, liJbJj aL»k>- khutba parhna. 

To precede, l)U- ^^1 agtjana, l)yb j*jJlc mukaddam hond. 

To precipitate, L)J l^gira ^ewa, Lo J-^^ dhakel dend: see To 

To preclude, U^ jb &a2r rakhnd, IJ^ kdtnd, U^j rdknd. 
To predict, l3^ l> li^ ^^ -^i age se kahnd or batldnd. 
To prefer, Ujt) ^=fy tarjih dend, Ujl^?- ^jj-*>-\ ahsan jdnnd: see To 

To premise, U^ *^?f^ tarnhid karnd, \i\:^ ^^ S\ age se jatdnd. 
To prepare, \i^ j\j taiydr karnd, IjliJ bandnd, l3^ Jjlj> ^a^iZ karnd. 
To prescribe (medically), liibj Ijt^ l> <3Ls!--^ nusJdia or <iaif?a batldnd. 
To preserve, liW; bachdnd, (as fruits, &c.) ^3^ <5.j|j^ murabba karnd. 
To press, (squeeze) UjU- chdpnd, (out) l^Vsr nichornd, (down) Ijbj 

dabdnd, (to distress) Ij^ (^:J ^awg karnd, (urge) \jj> sJXi tdkld 

To presume, l3^ JL:^ Miiydl karnd, (be bold) \j^ ^^li*-^ gustdkhl 

To pretend, lllij LlAi bdt bandnd, l)^ ^l^ bahdna karnd. 
To prevail, (be current) \jyb ^J^ jdri hond: see To extend, conquer. 
To prevent, li^j rdknd, UKSl atkdnd, l3jT arwa : see To hinder. 
To prick, (v.n.) 1%^ chubhnd, (v.a.) l34^-^ chubhond, ^^ chonknd. 
To prime, bib CS<=^j ranjak pildnd, (in painting) Ubj ^^^--^ zamin 

To print, bjlf»- chhdpnd, b^ bl^^ b ^_^ waitsA or chhdpd karnd. 
To proceed, (on) bU- ,^1 dgejdnd, blc»- chalnd, (from) blO nikalnd. 
To proclaim, b^ J^lli sa^ir karnd, b -^ IjybJkX&J dhandhord phernd. 
To procrastinate, Dl5 fa/wa, b^^ cJ/:'<^ b J^ «-•! dj-kal or c?en karnd. 
To procure, b^ \juj paidd karndy bUa^ ♦.^ baham pahunchdnd. 
To produce, (bring forth) [uup^ jannd, (make grow) bbs:;! upjdnd. 
To profess, b^jt^l litrar karnd, \:^ kahnd, \j\x»^ jatdnd. 
To prohibit, b^ w:^ waw* karnd, b^ jb bds rakhnd, L^j rdknd. 

Vocahulary Verbs. 327 

To prolong, l3^ Jjjb tawll karna, UljiJ^ harhana, \jl^^ p/mildna. 

To promise, \j^Jiji\ ikrdr karna, Uj J ^^t^ hachan dend. 

To promote, \3to barhdnd, \j^ ^y tarakki karna. 

To prompt, L>J .^ /ra^ dend, \ihj batldnd, \j\is^jatdnd. 

To pronounce, l3jl>-^ uchchdrnd, \j^ laiij talaffuz karna. 

To prop, li^ tekndf 1:^1^* thdmnd, Ijjl flfwa : see To support. 

To propose, Iji^jl^^ zsAar karnd, l3^ ;^;0;X. «r;2 karna: see To intend. 

To prosper, li jjb Jc^ »^^ b c-^L«\^ kdm-ydb or bahra-mand hond. 

To protect, U^ rakhnd, Ulc^ bachdnd, \j^ c:^,U^ himdyat karnd. 

To prove, (try) IjUj! dzmdnd, (evince) l3^ c^l5 5a5i^ karnd. 

To provide, \3^ L^^ muhaiyd karnd, L> J rZcwa ; l3 Jo badnd. 

To pry into, LJ Ju^ J/^e(i Zena, LOl^ JAawA:wa. 

To publish, ^^ jy^ mashhur karnd, (a work) ^}^ chhdpnd. 

To pull, l^^s^-^ ^JV ^^^ ^^ khtnchnd, UjIj tdnnd. 

To punish, Ujt) U-s 5a2^a cZewa, IjJulj ddndnd. 

To purchase, l5^ ^V^ Mmrtd karnd, LJ J^ twoZ Zewa. 

To pursue, UJ b Ij/ l^^ plchhd-karnd or -Zewa : see To hunt. 

To push, liLiJbJ dhaktlnd, liLfJ thtlnd, ULj pelnd. 

To put, Li^ rakhnd, \jJbJ dharnd, Ul^j ddlnd. 

To put off, (as dress) lijU^ utdrnd, (defer) lillS faZwa. 

To put on (as dress), liX;^ pahannd or pahinnd, \:Ji,%\ orhnd. 

To put out (extinguish), b^fsT bujhdnd, U^ J? gwZ karnd. 

To put up with, L^^ sahnd, \jj ei-^ijlfc)^ barddsht karnd. 

To putrefy, (v. n.) IjJ«j sarnd, UL galnd, (v. a.) Ulj-o sardnd. 

To quake, U-Jl^ kdmpnd, \ijj laraznd, \:^ kapnd. 

To quarrel, \j^^jhagarnd, l3«! larnd, \}J <LuJi kaziya karnd. 

To quaver, L^ lahaknd, ^j^j^ J^jT aira^^ marornd. 

To quell, l3bt> dabdnd, by ^orwa, b^ «-i; ra/* karnd. 

To quench, bl^sT bujhdnd, b^ Iti^^* thandd karnd. 

To question, b^ J^^ swi^aZ karnd : see To debate, To doubt. 

To quit, bj^^ chhornd, \ussr tajnd, b^ cL^* ^ar^ karnd. 

To quiver, U-i kapnd, bjj laraznd : see To quaver, quake. 

328 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To quote, U^ (jA^\ iktibas karnd, \j^ -^jJ darj karna, l3il Ji^-o sanad 

Quoth (said), l^ kahoLy \^ katha. 
To rain, (v. n.) li-jj barasna, U^ (Jb pan! parna, (v. a.) bLy 6ar- 

To raise, l3l^l uthand, U^ b^ bar-pd karnd, ^^j^ char hand. 

To ram down or in, Ix-ol^' thdsnd, \u^ kasndy U*^.*^.* thesnd. 

To ramble, IJ^j phirndj Uj3 dolndy \j^ j^ sair karnd. 

To range, (place in order) L^^ ^-^^^ batartib rakhnd: see To 

To ransack, bjU ;^l^ chhdn mdrndy (pillage) U5^ ZwJ?za. 
To rattle, \i\^^ kharkhardnd, ^jLu^ jhankdrnd. 
To raze, U^jU-**^ mismdr karnd, \jj\^\ ujdrnd, l3lfc3 dhdnd. 
To reach, Ub ^^^jI& ^aM se pdnd, li>3 lagnd, ^^s:^^ pahunchnd. 
To read, LjbJ^ parhndj 1:^^ bdnchnd, l3^ ^xHlo^ mutdla'a karnd. 
To reap, L'jl^ J^ fasl kdtnd, \i^ ^jCi dirau karnd. 
To rebuke, l3^ l::,.vcLo maldmat karnd, liii^i ddntnd. 
To recede, UW^ phirjdnd, UU- c—^J dab jdnd, Li& hatnd. 
To receive, UJ Zewa, l3b pdnd, li^ J^Ji kabul karnd. 
To recite, U;^ ^L^ baydn karnd, ^J^j^J^ takrdr karnd. 
To reckon, \ii.i giwwa l3^ jUj» shumdr kariid : see To deem. 
To recognise, Lils-vi pa^cAanwa: see To allow. 
To recollect, l3^ jb ydd karnd, lij^ ^Ai> Ao5^ pakarnd. 
To recommend, l3^ ^J!:^li**5 l> i_^ .iiJ* takrlb or sifdrish karnd. 
To reconcile, l3L« mandnd, ^J ^ sulh karnd, IjLc mildnd. 
To record, l3^ J::i-b ^^^^ij daftar meii ddkhil karnd, l:.^! likhnd. 
To recover, Ijb^ p^irpawa, (from sickness) Ul> U-i> shifd pdnd. 
To rectify, lij J ^L?1 i^Za/i dtnd, IjjlfeJk^j sudhdrnd. 
To recur, Ij t ^ pAir awa, (to the mind) U i jl> ydd dnd. 
To reduce, l3lilf> ghatdnd, \jj^ jS kam karnd : see To subdue. 
To reflect, \jj\sfl bichdrnd, (throw back) Uj J ^jSc aks dtnd. 
To reform, \3^ ^Lsl isZa/i karnd, bj^Ju- sudhdrnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs, 329 

To refuse, \j^ ^< V. J^^ inkar or man^ karna : see To abstain. 

To refute, li^ t3^ l> jLb bdtil or radd karna, \:}\Si^jhutdlna. 

To regard, l3^ ci^UiJl iltifdt kdrndy UU manna : see To behold. 

To register, \jj> J^Ij ^^^ j:id daftar mm ddkhil karna. 

To regret, \)\^.^^ pachhtdnd, l3^ (j^y^\ afsos karna. 

To reject, ^j^^ phernd, \j^ ^^J^^ V. ^J ^^dd or matruk karna. 

To rejoice, l.;^^^ rijhnd, \j^ (j^^ khttsh hond : see To glad. 

To relapse, Uj^s^^^ phir pachhapid, IjjjU-J^j^Air bimdr parnd. 

To relate, (tell) li.^ kahnd, (relate to) Lg^ <^ic aZa^a rakhnd. 

To release, lj|;^ chhurdnd, IjJ ^^ U; WAa'2 dfewa. 

To relieve, (ease) L>J /»|;i aram c?ewa, (help) \u^\^ thdmnd : see To 

To relinquish, l3j^^ chhornd, \:S\j tydgnd : see To leave. 
To rely, \u^j ^)^ bharosd rakhnd, \}S <uij takiya karna. 
To remain, Lii^ rahnd, l:io tiknd, ^j^ thaharnd^ l3^1 ubarnd. 
To remember, Ij^ jb ?/ac? karnd, \u^j ^^-^^U^ khatir men rakhnd. 
To remind, I) lb jb yac? dildnd, Ijl:^^ chitdnd. 

To remove, ^^j^'^ c?flr karnd, Ul^ sarkdnd, \j^ jJu tagJur karna. 
To rend, Ujl^ phdrnd, ^J;r^>- chtrnd, lilL--* maskdnd, 13?^ phorna. 
To render, (give back) L>J 1^ ^^ira rfena: see To give, make, 

To renew, renovate, U^ Li waya karnd, Ijil ^ pAir Zawa. 
To rent, U^ <bl^ kirdya karnd, (take at rent) LJ dj\^ kirdya lend. 
To repair, \3^ l:uv«^ marammat karnd, l)^ l::-^J durust karnd. 
To repeal, U^ t— ^^^ V. r^-^^ mansukh or maukuf karnd. 
To repeat, l3^ *^V^«^ \^J^ mukarrar or do-bdra karnd: see To tell. 
To repent, Ij^^ pachhtdnd, \j^ ^.^.Jlj^ pashemdn hond. 
To reply, Uj(J ^->^^ Viy^ w^^ar ovjawdb dend, L^ kahnd. 
To repose, (v. n.) l3j**5 sowa, l3^ a»\j\ drdm karnd, (v. a.) 1:jJ Jjl aram 

To represent, \j^ ^jC arz karnd, (personate) \j^ JiJ nakl karnd. 
To reproach, \3^ c:^^!^ l» ^xL fo*/i or maldmat karnd. 

2 u 


330 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To request, IxfcU- chahna, U^ L:L^y>^ji^ darkhtpast karna. 

To require, liSiU mangna, l3^ v ^IL i[aZa5 karna: see To need. 

To reside, lijb; rahnRj L^ bo^na, \jSyfghar karna. 

To resign, UJ^^ sompna, \j^ mJlJ taslim karna : see To leave. 

To resound, \:^f gunjna, liife; ^^ gunj rahna: see To praise. 

To respect, \j^ (^^^ V. <-^^-^ *2^s^a^ or ta^zim karna : see To relate to. 

To rest, \j^ ^\J\ dram karna, liJ /♦tJ dam lend : see To sleep, lean on. 

To restore, Ij^^ phir land, \:>Jd j^ pher dend : see To cure. 

To restrain, U^j roknd, l3l^5t atkdnd, V^j j\i bdz rakknd. 

To retail, UrfU ^X^ Ij^* Ij.^' thord thord karke bechnd. 

To retain, L^ rakhnd, Ulfi tikdnd: see To keep, hire. 

To retreat, iJjJb L— j paspd hond, liifc hatnd. 

To return, (v. n.) IjU- b l31 j^ phir dnd or jdnd, (v. a.) IjliiljpaZjawa. 

To reveal, Uj^ kholnd, (divulge) Ij^ ^U /asA karna, Ix^,^ kahnd. 

To revenge, liJ iJjo b ^^^ V. (^^^ intikdm or ?2^a|; or Z>fl!cfZa Zewa. 

To review, revise, l3^ ^\j^^ nazar-i-sdm karnd. 

To revile, \j\J^ galii/dnd, bo J ^\^ gdli dend: see To reproach. 

To revoke, bjJ l^'l uthd dend, bj J lIUm<< ?wef dend : see To repeal. 

To rid, blj^>- chhurdnd, \j^ uJb^ sdf karnd : see To free. 

To ride, \jybj\^ sawdr hond, bjij^ j c^j^ ghore par charhnd. 

To rinse, \:>1^,^:>^ ghangholnd, bJl^i^ khanghdlnd (?). 

To rip, bjl^ phdrnd, bj-Jj>jl udhernd, \jj> Ci'^ c/^a/(: karnd. 

To ripe, ripen, (v. n.) bX> paknd, (v. a.) blL pakdnd. 

To rise, L^l uthnd, bjbjj barhnd, ^y>- charhnd, (the sun or moon) 

bjb o'^^ w^«i /?o/ia, b^ib c^ tulu^ hond, (the moon) Ui'l ugnd. 
To roast, b^^ ^b^ kabdb karnd, b^ j^bj birydn karnd. 
To rob, bbsi- churdnd, bjb« 2^1^ ra/* mdrnd, blj^ Zwfwa. 
To roll, (v. n.) b^ phirnd, bjb«! lurhnd, (v. a.) b|^ phirdnd, bbbj) 

lurhdnd, \i\^ ghumdnd^ (roll up) L2-J lapetnd. 
To roof, Ujb pdtnd, bl^ chhdnd, bjJ^^- chhappar dend. 
To rot, (v. n.) bj**) sarnd, bif galnd, (v. a.) b]^ sardnd. 
To rouse, (v. n.) b^lp- ^'flgwii, b^l uthnd, (v. a.) bbi>- Jflrgawa. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs, 331 

To row, li^-^ khVona, l3jto Jub dand mama. 

To rub, (v. n. chafe) \u*^^ ghisnUf (v. a.) \j'bj ragarna, liL? malna. 
To rue, lillfs^pac/^A^a7^a, l3j^ rowa, Ij^ c:,.^^^^ nadamat karnd. 
To ruin, \j^ ^^\j\^ b i^lj ^aJa/i or satyanas karnoiy Uy ^oma. 

To rule, l3^ u:^-^^^ hukumat karna, (lines) ^^ J^ « mistar karna. 

To mminate, ^Jj^ pagurdna, l3^ }\xp^ jugdlJ karna : see To muse. 

To run, l3jjJ daurnd, lil&J dhdnd: see To flee, dissolve. 

To rush, l3jjJ daurnd, Ubj reZwa, (upon) \:J.^^jhapatnd. 

To sacrifice, l5Uj^ charhdnd, \ij> ^J b j^b^ kurbdn or faJ^ karna. 

To saddle, LfejJb ^j 2:2^ bdndhnd, lijj ^l^jl>- chdr-jdma dend. 

To salivate, bil -^ mw^A Zawa, bK^ thukdnd. 

To sally, b^ ^^j^khuruj karnd, bjj JO nikal parnd. 

To salute, b^ lA'j^ V. r*^ 5a/aw or kornish karnd. 

To sap, b^ i^S^j^ surang karnd, bjl* Jbjc-*«j sewrfA mdrnd : see To ruin. 

To sate, satiate, b^ bharnd, blS^^ chhakdnd, (v. n.) blf>l aghdnd. 

To satisfy, b^ l<-^1; V. cr^ khiish or rasl karnd, bL^ mandnd. 

To save, bbsT bachdnd, U^ t::--v<Lj saldmat raklind, b^ rakhnd. 

To say, b^^ kahnd, bJjJ 5oZna, b^ CLJb 5a^ karnd, bUu batiydnd. 

To scald, bL>- ^^ 2r^ ^ ijb /»^ garm pdm gh aira sejaldnd. 

To scan, (measure) b^ j-rr^ takfi^ karnd : see To examine. 

To scare, bljJ dardnd, bl^J^ bharkdnd, bbl::^ bichkdnd. 

To scarify bjJ \:>,^pachhnd dend, bUsr^ khonchujdnd (?). 

To scatter, bl^^i^ chhitrdnd, bbl5^ chhitkdnd, b|^ bithrdnd. 

To scoff, b^ j^*b b 1^2^ thathd or /a w karnd, \j\^ galiydnd. 

To scold, \:Si^p^jhiraknd, blC♦J^t) dhamkdnd, bjJ ij^ g^i^ dend. 

To scorch, (v. n.) LJi^ bhulasnd, (v. a.) bU.^ j^wZsawa. 

To scour, LstUs mdnjnd, b^ uJL? sdf karnd, (purge v. n.) bl>- l!U-j 

pef chalnd. 
To scowl, b^ i^'^ t:;^ J^aw^ Jer^7 karnd, bbfej&- ci/b waA: charhdnd. 
To scrape, bL^^ chhilnd, bo.-^ khurachnd, bi^^^ chholnd. 
To scratch, ^^ r^ khurachnd, \ii^ khujldnd, b»^y nochnd. 
To scream, bLs-^- chichiydnd, bl>- chilldnd, L^l il^s- cAt/Za uthnd. 

332 Vocabulary. — Verbs, 

To sculk, l:J^; L;*-^ chhip rahna, lijb; CSii^ dabak raJina. 

To seal, ^$jy< muhr karnd, \j^ d^^ lA^jY^ muhr karke band karnd. 

To seclude, \:^j ljJ^ kindre rakhnd, UlC nikdlnd. 

To seduce, l)^--^ phusldnd, lijli^j warghaldnnd, 1)1^^ bhatkdnd. 

To see, 1:^.^^ dlkhndj \jj> ia3 ?2«^ar karnd, bjly nihdrnd. 

To seek, Uj&l3y&i dhundhnd, l3^ ^ji^^Jj ^aZasA karnd, l:^^ khojnd. 

To seem, I^^^j-j sujhnd, U jJb /♦4l«^ medium hond, li 1 ^^loJ nazar and. 

To seeth, l3lg^*^ sijhdnd, LjLI nsdnnd, (v. n.) LsO-j ^l/wa. 

To seize, l)j^ pakarnd, \jS ^joJ kabz karnd : see To confiscate. 

To select, Ui^ chnnnd, LJ (j^^ ^^^ c^w?i chhdn lend : see To cull. 

To sell, li^ bechndy l5^ c:^£*-;)y faroTdit karnd, Uj J J^ ?woZ <iewa. 

To send, li^^ bhejnd, \j^ Jl-^^ i^^aZ karnd, \jtf- chaldnd. 

To separate, l3V tornd, ^Jj^f^ bichhornd, 13^ \s>-judd karnd. 

To serve, l3^ ».::.^^A>. l> («^;^J naukarl or khidmat karnd : see To help. 

To set, (place) l:^ rakhnd, l3y^J dharnd, (plant) l3lg5j bithldnd, (as 
the sun) li^i^ ui^wj^ b ^-^^ ghurub or as^ /^ozia, (set up) l3l^i 
uthdnd, see To raise, (set on) l3 .1^ hulkdrnd, see To excite, 
(set on fire) IjW ;^T ag lagdnd, liJ J <-^^, phunk dend. 

To settle, (v. n.) L^l*^ baithnd, (v. a.) Ul^ baithdlnd, L3l^' thdnnd, 
(an account) bl^ chukdnd : see To fix. 

To sever, l^r?^ chlrnd, L>Jjl^^ p^ar 6?ewa, l3^ \dc^ judd karnd. 

To sew, li^ slwa, l3^ ui^^-j;.) dokhht karnd, ULo sildnd. 

To shake, (v. n.) liU ^zZwa, Ui dulnd, (v. a.) biib hildnd : see To 

To shape, liLj bandnd, Vxifeji garhnd, lubJob Jili 5^aA:Z bdndhnd. 

To sharpen, b^ J:?^' ^^-2: karnd, bl^^ chokhdnd, ^t) jb Z>ar rZewa. 

To shave, IjJoj^ mundnd, l3^ ^::^^Ur^ hajdmat karnd. 

To shear, l3^ katarnd, l3^ (^|yu mikrdz karnd, liDl^ kdtnd. 

To shed, (v. n.) bjJ^s-J^arwa, \j^ girnd, (v. a.) Ub c?aZwa, l3^girawa. 

To shine, liL*»:>- chamaknd, \:S1^ jhalaknd, l:iji lauknd. 

To shiver, liJl^ kdmpnd, (to shatter) b/ j^j^ chur-chur karnd. 

To shoot, (let go) bj^^ chhornd, (bud) liUl^ kaliydnd : see To hasten. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 333 

To shorten, Ui b\i^ kotah karnd, \j\^ ghat ana : see To abridge. 

To shove, liL^fcJ dhakllna, liL^ thelna, Ujj relna, Uuj pelna. 

To shout, IjJj terna, (huzza) ^^ J^ ^^ ^J=T j^^-j^^-^o,r karnd: see To 

To show, U^J dikhldnd, l3l:iJ batdnd, 13^^11^ za^zV karnd. 
To shrink, shrivel, IjjCi sukarnd, \u!La^ sametnd. 
To shruor up the shoulders, l3l& IfeJoli kdndhd hildnd. 
To shudder, l3|;^jf> tharthardnd, IjljJbJJb harhardnd: see To quake. 
To shuffle, UIj /a/«a, l)^ J^C tdlmatol karnd: see To mix. 
To shun, US faZwa, Uyb J^^^^j rugarddn hond, U&; jb ia;2r rahnd. 
To shut, U^ Jcj band karndy bl3 lagdnd, ^^y^ muclind. 
To sift, UU- chdlnd, \jj\^jhdrnd, Ljl^ chhdnnd. 
To sign (ratify by writing), li^ ^-s*^ V. ^^^^^^ dast-khatt or 5a^?/i 

To signify, l3lf=sr bujhdnd, \)\:>p^ jatdnd, U^ i^^j^**^ ?wft*/27 rakhnd. 
To sing, li^gawa, 1:j1'1 aldpnd or dldpnd, ^jJ> ^^ gdn karnd. 
To sink, L'«3 dubnd, LL-JbJ dhasaknd, IJ^ ghatnd. 
To sit, li^ baithnd, l3^ l::^^^.!) nishast karnd : see To fit. 
To skim, (v. a.) ^^^ kdchhnd, \i\^^pasdnd, (v. n.) li^-j^ c/i/m 

To skin, Usi»^ Jl^ khdl khlnchnd, (a wound) ^^ J^g^a'o bharnd. 

To slake, ljl$sr bujhdnd, \iji t>^ 5arrf karnd: see To quench. 

To slap, IjU^J dhauliydndy l3jU <t^Ub tamdncha mdrnd* 

To slash, lijl^ kdtndy ^j^ chirndy l3^ l^IS^ katdkat karnd. 

To slaughter, slay, l3^ J:i katl karnd^ UUjU mdr-ddlnd. 

To sleep, l3^ sowa, liJ JoJ nlnd lend, IrJ*-* sutnd. 

To shght, Ui LzAss. ghaflat karnd, Ujl^ I^IU halkdjdnnd. 

To slip, liL-^ khisalnd, Lib j rajjatnd, Ll^ '^ bichhalnd. 

To sht, UjI^ j^_^ UJ Zawzia ZawJI kdtnd, li^^ chirnd, l3jl^ phdrnd. 

To slop, by^ 15^^*^ L^^ pdniddlke bhigond. 

To smart, ^\;iy>- charpardnd, ^^JJ JJ parpardnd, li^J dukhnd. 

To smell, li^^ sunghnd, ^ ^bo lend, (v. n.) lil^J bo'dnd. 

334 Vocabulary. — Verbs, 

To smile, \3^^^C-^ muskurdna, \jj a^ tabassum karna. 

To smite, (strike) l3jto mdrnd, (kill) Ub jU mdr-ddlnd. 

To smoke, (emit smoke) UUlyj^t^ dhmiwdrdnd, (tobacco) \u*jp'ind. 

To smuggle, l3^to t3l^ g'^^? mama, l3jU ^^ chaukl mdrnd. 

To snarl (a dog), ^^^^f^ gurqjnd, \:Sj^ ghuraknd, \i\j^ ghurrdnd. (?) 

To snatch, liJ ^jti^ clilnn lend, liJ <JL^^^jhapat lend. 

To sneak, (creep slily) UT l> liU- lL^jJ dabak jdnd or awa: see To 

To sneeze, Lx:^.^^ chhinkndj 13^ <L«»kc fea karna. 
To snub, liiD^J ddntnd, 1:»-JLj sdnsnd, \i^ kdtnd. 
To snufF, (a candle) liJ Ji' g^Z Zewa, (inhale) ^=f^ khlnchnd. 
To soak, (v. n.) l3^ ^-'^^;:r-' ^emJ ^owa, (v. a.) l3^^^ bhigond. 
To soar, l3jl wma, b^ ojl^, *^. buland parwdzi karnd : see To mount. 
To sob, liL«-*5 sisaknd, li^l:^ thunuknd, \jj^ bisurnd. 
To solicit, liJbl^ chdhnd, U^ Ic;^::^! l> (j>»:w< minnat or istid'd karnd. 
To solve, l3^ J,>- ^aZZ karnd, \i^ t—iU? /fajf karnd : see To explain. 
To sooth, U^ jk^U>^ khushdmad karnd, UL< mandnd, \jj^:>- chum- 

To sow, UjJ Jowa, U13 -^j ^y ddlnd, b^ t^j >*sr tukkm-rezl 

To spare, (v. n.) U^ u^jj^ juz-ras hond : see To save, forgive. 
To sparkle, l3j^ V. ^';f?" lJ^'"^ chingi chhutna or jharnd. 
To speak, Uy JoZwa, L;^ /ca^wa : see To pronounce, praise. 
To specify, ^\j^ thahrdnd, L^jI^Ln^aj tafsil-wdr kahnd. 
To spell, l3^ (c-?^ V. ls^ V. ^^ *^^^ ^^ ^'^^ ^^ tahajji karnd. 
To spend, 13^ -^^ kharch karnd, \j\j\ urdnd, \j\^\ uthdnd. 
To spike, l3jU i^^ meM mdrnd, \iS *Xu ^ ^^ mejdi se band karnd. 
To spill, yii&i dhdlnd, l3l^l^ chhalkdnd, l3l^ bdhdnd. 
To spin, liJfl^ kdtnd, (out, protract) l3lJ^^ barhdnd. 
To spit (eject), U^^* thuknd, li^^J '-^^ fhuk phenknd. 
To spit (meat), lil^ ii^«j s7M lagdnd, \u^^ guthnd. 
To split, (v. a.) l3^^-«>. chlnid, \jj\^ phdrnd, (v. n.) L5^ phatnd. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs, 335 

To spoil, (v. n.) l)yb i-r^]/^ Tdiarab hona, (v. a.) Ijjlf} bigarncij <^\;:>- 
\j^ Ichxirab karna, (to plunder) li5^ lutna. 

To sport, LL^^ khelna, \jj Jjl^ Jjl^ alol-kalol karna. 

To spout, ^^^f=^ chhutnaj U^fsw^ uchhalna, (v. a.) ^J^£->- chhornd. 

To spread, (v. a.) \3l^ bichhancLy \jj^pasarna, (v.n.) IJ-^ phailnd. 

To spring, li^l uthnd, lii'l iigwa, (a mine) UJJ^ «ra/i« : see To leap. 

To sprinkle, ^J^ chhiraknd, 1:^5^^^ chhltnd, \j^ bhigond. 

To spur, UjU liijl^ b "j\ er or A:awfa mdrnd, Ul>- chaldnd : see To 

To spurn, l3jU CL5iJ Idt mdrnd, (reject) UIj faZwa : see To despise. 

To spy, \:Jj)\^jhdnknd, U^ljf tdknd, ^^=f^ nijhdnd: see To seek. 

To squander, \i\j\ urdnd, \i^y^ ganwdnd, \j^ uJ^^l isrdf karnd. 

To squeeze, (press down) \i\ii^ dabdnd, (crush) \j^y^ nichornd. 

To squint, l^O lf>-y tirchhd dekhndy l3^ i^Uj ^J:t5 Jer/^^ wigaA karnd. 

To squirt, ^j^^^ V. ^J^ ^J^^s^ pichkdrl-mdrnd or -chhornd. 

To stab, l:*^^ bhdnknd, Ujfc hulnd, \:Sj^ chonkndy ^^^^^ konchnd. 

To stagger, \jlx«^J dagmagdnd, (be staggered) Ijlf v hichkichdnd. 

To stain, l3^ ■c^^'^ d dgh i karnd, Ub LfcJ dhappd ddlnd. 

To stammer, UKji> hakldnd, \j\^A larbardnd. 

To stamp, (with the foot) LiL^ ^^ ^^^ b pa'o?* 5e pif/ia ; see To print. 

To stand, Lib; b l3yi) Ij^ khard hond or rahnd : see To stay. 

To starch, \jj\jb\ ahdrnd, IjlXl l> L>J y^^ kalap dtnd or lagdnd. 

To stare, lij^ g7^S7•wa, U^b' tdknd, lxfc> b bl^l tl5o ^aA; lagdnd ov rahnd. 

To start, (up) bjj b li^'l tl^^ chaunk uthnd or parnd : see To pro- 

To startle, (v. n.) \:JU=>- chamaknd, (v. a.) blC^s"- chamkdnd: see To 


To starve, (v. n.) b^^ u^^. bhukhon marnd. 

To state, (settle) SjSjjL-omukarrar karnd,{ie\]) \jj>j\^\ iz'hdr karnd. 

To stay, bjb; rahnd, \'^ tiknd, bw«*j basnd : see To prop, stop. 

To steal, bLs- churdnd, blrsn] \^^ cAwra Ujdnd, L-;^ musnd. 

To steep, b*^ bhigond, b^ ^^ j Jli ddl-dubo rakhnd. 

336 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To steer, l3l>- chalana, \3lsal le-jana : see To direct, guide. 
To step, blf 1 l> \^j /♦Ocj kadam rakhna or uthanctj U1&- chalna. 
To stew,lj^ c:^^:; (♦t^ dam-pukht karna, blfsr* sijhana : see To seeth. 
To stick, (v. n.) l:^i*^ chipatnay l:»5/»^ chimatna, (in mud) L«*^ 
phasna or li*-^ pJiansna, (v. a.) l3li*rs- chiptana: see To stab. 
To stimulate, Ij^^ chalmicLy ^h^*^ daurdnd, ^jt^i>- chhernd. 
To sting, UjU ^J wesA mama, LfcJcj bindhnd, IjL^i dankiydnd. 
To stink, l3^ JbJc^J V. ^^'^^ bad-bo or durgandh karnd, \j\y bo'dnd. 
To stir, (v. n.) L^«o saraknd, ULb ^iZwa, (v. a.) l3l^«j sarkdnd. 
To stitch, li^ 52 wa, luj J turapnd, U^t* idnknd. 
To stone, l3jto^^ patthdr mdrnd, Ij^jLil-j sangsdr karnd. 
To stoop, Xi.Lp^ jhuknd, l3^ nihurnd, (submit) UU mdnnd. 
To stop, (v. n.) 1:^^*1 ataknd UiS if/cwa, (v. a.) blfii atkdnd. 
To storm, U,^ ci^rs-b' ^aM^ karnd, UjUj^J ^Zaz^r mdrnd. 
To straddle, liL>- (^|r^^ t^^t ?«wg chhitrdke chalnd. 
To straggle, l3^ ^l^j* ^^l^ jahdn tahdn phirnd : see To ramble. 
To strain, (filter) l:Jl^^ chhdnnd, (sprain) UlLs? kachkdnd. 
To strangle, l:-si.^ <U-«J ^asma khainchnd, 1:^3^ K gaZa ghontnd. 
To stray, U^^ bhataknd, U^.^^ bahaknd, IJ^ bhulnd. 
To strengthen, l) .^ 1?^-m^ b ^y /:az:?2 or mazbut karnd. *» 

To stretch, 1^3 17 tdnnd, ^J^ pasdrnd, ^^^ phaildnd. 
To strew, l:*5i-^ chhmtnd, liU^J barsdnd, l^l^rsr bichhdnd. 
To strike, IjjU mdrnd, L)J ^U ?war- c?ew5., li^^J thdnknd. 
To string, bW c/j^S c?on lagdnd, (as pearls) l3j> j parond. 
To strip, (off dress) Ujbl utdrnd, (make naked) Ij^ l^i3 nangd karnd. 
To strive, l3^ *H^ J <^ jidd djahd karnd, ^J^ j^j zor mdrnd. 
To stroke, Ijil^ sahldnd, l3 -*^ ^*U /ia^/2 phernd. 
To struggle, l3jl« -o ,£jlfc /iaM joaiV mdrnd, l3^ Lf^ kushtt karnd : 

see To strive. 
To strut, U^J ainthnd, \>\y\ itrdnd, \j^\ akarnd. 
To study, l3^ <u!lk< mutdla^a karnd, \j^ JJfikr karnd. 
To stuff, l:«-j^j thdsnd, l3^j bharnd, (the belly) l3l^^ aphrdnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 337 

To stumble, U\^^^» thokar khdnd, l3l^ ^rr^f' !^^^^ khdna. 
To stun, Ui^ c:-'*:?^-^ l/^ jV V. ^-^ ?^^^ ^^' dwdzse achet karna. 
To stutter, l3i^ hakldnd, Uljjj! larbardnd. 
To style, l3^ t^J-^lj namzad karnd, L; J L-^lkri^ khitdb dtnd. 
To subdue, l3^ *-^Ij b c->jU,< maghlub or ^a^r karnd, \3jU mama. 
To submit, (v. n.) l3yj> j^A— j tasTim hond, (v. a.) l:*^ rakhnd. 
To subscribe, l3^ ^•^'^ V. ^^^^^^ dastkhatt or .va/z7/i karnd. 
To subsist, \3y> ^owa, L*^ Jlwa, l3i^ e;!;'^ guzrdn karnd. 
To substitute, U^ Jjj b j^^:: *i^-a2 or badli rakhnd. 
To substract, subtract, LJ <lca>- /dw^a /ewa, l3^ «--tfj t£;a:s karnd. 
To subvert, \3^ y.jji.} \.^^. ^ ^ tah-o-bdld or zer-zabar karna. 
To succeed, li^^ V. ^' 15^-^^ F^^^^^ ^^^ or jdnd: see To prosper. 
To suck, ^y^ chusndy (as a child) L^ JiJ.J c?mc?A /?7wa. 
To suckle, UL b Lo jbJj J ^fwc?/* Jewa or pildnd. 
To sue, U rs : ! ;^^ ^^^ ci-Jljcs addlat mm khainchnd : see To entreat. 
To suffer, U^ sahnd, \j^ j^ b J,.4.asr tahammul or ^aJr karnd. 
To suffocate, Ljjj /»t> b ^Lj saws or dam roknd: see To strangle. 
To suggest, L^ ^^ s^^^ ishdre st kahnd, b'j;*^ chitdnd. 
To suit, bT lL^-^j //^7^• awa, byi (JJ|^ muwdfik hond, U-»^ phabnd. 
To sully, b^ iL« Twai/a karnd, bJ^j jlj (/g o-A ddlnd. 
To sum, bjy>- jornd, b^ ^^^jani karnd, \j^ J'^^-s^ mujmal karnd. 
To summon, b^ c-^JJ? (aZaZ> karnd, b^^ni^j ^^ ^M/i^ja bhejnd. 
To sup, bl^ bl/ l^ CjIj ra^ H Mawa khdnd. 
To superintend, b^ i^I/tr* ^ ^^ nazdra or sarbardhi karnd. 
To superscribe, L^O Liy-j V.>'i^^ ^P^^' or sar-khaU likhnd. 
To supersede, b^ «s^b^ b J^ b Jl^b Ja/iZ or r«r/c? or kindra karnd. 
To supervene, bjj ^\ b b i ^b^^i b 7idgahdn dnd or dn-parnd. 
To supplicate, b^ ^j^bcJl b Ujo-jI istid^d or iltimds karnd. 
To supply, b^j bharnd, b^ ci^j bhartt karnd, bj J c?e/ia. 
To support, U,i u:^-i>lj^ barddsht karnd, bl^\ uthdnd, LjibJ nibdhnd. 
To suppose, (admit) b^ j^^^o^ /ar^ karnd : see To guess, think, know. 
To suppress, U^ cJ^j rok rakhnd, bbol atkdnd, bbj dabdnd. 


338 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To suppurate, Ul> pakna, \3L-wJ pibiyana, liiJ^^ pib lana. 

To surfeit, (v. a.) ^\^} aphrana, l3^ ^-j str karnd, (v. n.) Ijl^i 

To surpass, lil^ JfeJJ Jar^ chalna, Lib ^^-s^ plchhl dalna : see To 

To surprise, liJ l1x>^ 1^1 ek~d-ek lendf \jjy\ i^iU-l achdnak d-parna. 
To surrender, U^ >rji-«-^ tasTim karnd : see To consign, resign. 
To surround, \jj^ ghernd, l3^ iLl^*-! b d^ gird or i^a/a karnd. 
To survey, l3^ .la3 wasar karnd, (land) l3^ ^J;-^ ^— ^:^^ jarib-kasht 

To suspect, l3^^ LlXl shakk karnd, li^^ -^^ shubha rakhnd. 
To suspend, liKSl latkdnd, (to stop) l3^ '— '^^ maukuf karnd. 
To sustain, U^*/»««j sambhdlnd, Ug-jlf> thdmbhnd: see To support. 
To swagger, b^ 15^^^ V. 15^^^ shaikh! or Idf-zani karnd: see To strut. 
To swallow, Uii nigalnd, LL) ZzZw5, \i!:3^^ ghuntnd, \:Sj^ suruknd. 
To swarm (as flies, &c.), l:*^^ bhinaknd. 
To sway, (incline) l3^ c^-*:x^ mutawajjih karnd : see To rule. 
To swear, l3l^ a»Js kasam khdnd, (make) l3i!j *-Jj kasam dildnd. 
To sweat, (v. n.) li^«-j pastjnd, (to toil) l3^ ci^i-s-^ mihnat karnd. 
To sweep, \jj\^ jkdrnd, ^j\^, buhdrnd, \:y\3 j\^ jhdr ddlnd. 
To sweeten, l3l^ mithdnd, l3^ l^fL^ b ^,j^ s/ilrln oxrmthd karnd. 
To swell, U^J phulnd, U^*«» sujnd, (look big) l3^ t/ |}^ iflfa'? karnd. 
To swim, l3 -J pairnd, l3y ^zrwa, (float) li-^ bhasnd, li^^ bahnd. 
To swing, (v. n.) U^^^ J/^^iZr((a, Uji dolnd, (v. a.) \i\^ jhuldnd. 
To swoon, l3^ V. ^^ ^f>y^ murchhd dnd or khdnd. 
To swoop, l3jU b UJ ij^'^^z^jliapat lend or mdrnd. 
To swop or swap, U i iJjo iJjl ac?Za Z>a6?/a karnd. 
To tack, li^lj tdnknd, \jj^o^ jornd, \j\^^j\^jahdzphirdnd. 
To taint, (stain) l3^ ^5^^ g^ag*^? A:arwa : see To corrupt, spoil. 
To take, LJ lend, lij^J pakarnd, (away) IjlsnJ lejdnd: see To think. 
To talk, lily JoZwa, l3Lu batiydnd : see To prate, chatter. 
To tally, \A.< milnd, l3yi>yl^ b (JX?^ f/il/c or bardbar hond. 

Vocabulary Vej'bs, 339 

To tan, l3^ Lii^bti dihaghat karna, (in the sun) \j\y,^:>- jhanwand. 

To tantalize, liLy tarsandj Ul^3 dahkdnd, \)\^ lalchdnd. 

To tap, Ul^II^' thakthakdndy IijI^ thdpnd : see To pierce. 

To tarry, 13^^* Ihaharnd, liC' tiknd, l:*-^ hilambnd. 

To taste, li^^ chakhnd, UJ ^ ma^ra Ze«a: see To enjoy, feel. 

To taunt, l3^ ^^ ^a*/i karnd, UU*^ chirhdnd : see To revile. 

To tax, Ul^J -rlr^ khirdj lagdnd, (accuse) liJJ ^^1 iZ^ram rfewa. 

To teach, l3^Lo sikhdnd or ULCj sikhldnd : see To instruct. 

To tear, Ujl^^ phdrnd, ^j^ chirnd, (v. n.) LC-^ masaknd, &c. 

To tease, Ul:u^ satdnd, liJJ j-rlJ^' totTi* c^ewa; see To vex. 

To tell, li.^ kahnd, UL-s sundnd : see To count, betray. 

To temper, Ij^ J jox^ mu^tadil karnd : see To mix. 

To tempt, lijlcjj warghaldnndj \i\^ lalchdnd: see To excite. 

To tend, (incline) Uy> JjU ma'/Z //o»a : see To attend, aim. 

To tender, l3^ j3J \j ^^y tawdzu^ or wa§r karnd : see To offer. 

To terminate, (v. n.) l3yD ^T aMir /^owa, (v. a.) \)^ ^UJ tamdm 

To terrify, Ul^j dardnd, liJti cu^-lJbJ dahshat dtnd: see To frighten. 
To testify, L> J ij'^^y^ gaivdhl dend, \j^ ^jL^'lii daldlat karnd : see To 

To thank, return thanks, \jj Jj^ shukr karnd, lijU ^^JbJ dhan mdnnd. 
To thaw, (v. n.) Idg^j pighalnd, lil^ tighalndf (v. a.) U^l^ pighldnd. 
To thieve, l3^ v^'^J*^ V. »-sL?^ cAor/ or duzdi karnd. 
To think, ^^^ sochnd, l:^*^ bujhnd, \iji ^ jikr karnd. 
To thirst, l3yb LjLj pydsd hbnd, lixl ^^U j9r/«5 lagnd. 
To thrash or thresh, lijbli^ gdhnd, UL* malnd, liS-j ^7f wa. 
To thread, l3j^ plrdnd, \j\.\ji lariydnd, \:^^ guthnd, li/b* tdgnd. 
To threat, threaten, IjlC^JbJ dhamkdnd, \:>^j^ jhiraknd. 
To thrive, liJ^J barhnd, li->ij panapnd, l)^ ^5y tarakki karnd. 
To throb, U--^ f^S7^a, IjjU j^^^ Jis mdrnd, liC•J^J dhamaknd. 
To throng, l3^ j*^^ V. Jrr€^ ^^^.'^ oi^ hujum karnd, ^T^ 5^«r awa. 
To throw, li^^:^^ phtnknd, U^3 G?aZwa, (down) l3jl^ pachhdrnd. 

340 Vocabulary Verbs. 

To thrust, (shove) lk> J l^J dhakka dend : see To stab, shove, stuff. 

To thump, l:.^jf> thonkna, 1:JIj pitna, (v. n.) liC*.JiJ dhamaknd. 

To thunder, \:>s>-^ garajnd, \:>^jf karaknd, (in menace) blC^JbJ dham- 

To thvi^art, (oppose) l3^ Lii^iJl^'* l> Ju? s,'jc?rf or mukhdlafat karnd. 
To ticket, lx>J tlX^sqj JyaA; c?ewa, lili^ ^^-o ^bJ nishdn sejatdnd. 
To tickle, \i\^i^ gudguddndy \i\^ sahldndy ULjJb hansdnd. 
To tie, L&Job bdndhnd, \i€>^jakarndy \u^\i gdnthnd. 
To tighten, li*-^ kasnd, \jj^:>-jakarnd, 1:^^^ khainchnd. 
To till, \:J^^ jotnd, U^ u**^ chds phernd. 
To tincture, tinge, l3^ ifJ>jl 1 aZS^a karnd, 1:j J (^^ftj rawg c?ewa. 
To tingle, UUtuJ tantandnd, liU^s-^f" chamchamdnd. 
To tinkle, Ij^rs:;^ j'^a/y Aawawfl, UU^S:^ thanthandnd. 
To tire, (v. n.) lu^^J thaknd, (v. a.) l3^ 2^tX3U mdnda karnd, UIX^' 

To titter, li-^Ji ,^^'W> ^^ mw/i/^ ddbke hansnd. 

To toast, li.(i--o senknd, Ij^ bhunnd, U^ j^l>^ birydn karnd. 

To toil, l3^ c:.^;,*g'^ mihnat karnd, 13^ ^^3 ^fwM bharnd. 

To torment, UUl^ kalpdnd, UlfcJ^ kurhdndj lil^J dukhdnd. 

To toss, \:L^^phenknd, l:Jl^l uchhdlnd, \:S^)^^ jhdnknd. 

To totter, lil^l^J dagmagdnd, l:Jj^ dolnd, Uj J laraznd. 

To touch, (feel) l3^^ chhund, li^ ^^^^^ ?wa5S karnd, (come in contact) 

L^l lagnd, Ul-* milnd, (handle) ^J:?^^ chhernd. 
To tovi^, li^-^^ ^W j^^ 7-^552 lagdke khainchnd. 
To toy, lii^ khelnd, l3^ '^f'ib ^^'o-chd^o karnd. 
To trace, track, Ij^ c/^y:?^ ^ b^-liij naksha-i-pd kl pair awl karnd. 
To trade, l3^ jLj -^j l> t_c^\j^ sauddgari or banij-baipdr karnd. 
To traduce, l3U3 c:^'*>y tuhmat lagdnd, ^S (*^'^. badndm karnd. 
To trail, \:JL*^ ghasltnd^ ^U-^ ghisiydnd : see To draw. 
To train, Ij^^jljAib l> ei-^trJ/ tarbiyat or hamwdr karnd: see To teach. 
To trample, IJi^ ^^-a ^jb jpa'ow 5e malnd, liLs^ kuchalnd. 
To transact, Uil>- chaldnd, l)^ <!Ju«W« mu'dmala karnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 341 

To transfer, (make over) li-j^ sompna, iL^ ^J^* taslim karna. 

To transgress, \j^ Ikrs^ l> j^lasr Ij JjAi mc?wZ or tajawuz or khata karna. 

To translate, l3^ J-a3 wfl^'Z karna, (interpret) l3^^ d^^Ji tarjuma karna. 

To transmit, l3^ <Olij rawana karna, ^snJ^ bhejna. 

To transport, Ul^ ^-o lH.'^ ^^ ^^ nikalna ; see To banish : (put 

into ecstacy) L^ ,-^ Jcj-j wajd men rakhna. 
To travail, be in travail, \i\^ i^ji^ dard khana. 
To travel, \3^ Jui safar karna, U^ phirna, bl^ chalna. 
To traverse, (lay athwart) l3\d JJI om lagana, (pass) l3^ phirna. 
To tread, li^yl) b /♦Ji kadam ox panw rakhna, (thrash) Ijjlt) dd'ond. 
To treat, l3^ l15^ suluk karna, (of) U^^^J |z/cr karna : see To feed. 
To tremble, ^jl^ kdmpnd, U^jJj daldaldnd, li^;! laraznd. 
To trick, lif!gli thagnd, l:A^>- chhalnd: see To cheat, adorn. 
To trickle, l3|^^^^^J^zr;7/-irawa, bb'^^ bundiydnd. 
To trifle, Ijjto ^^^ makkhi mdrnd, l3^ ^ ^J* b\5 tdpd-td'l. karna. 
To trim, 1^23 1^ chhdntnd, l3^ <i^«Ji^l drdsta karnd: see To shave. 
To trip, (stumble) l3l^ ^^^^ thokar khdnd, (up) U^U iJ Zawg? 

mdrnd (?). 
To triumph, l3lsr <01>jL2j shddiydna bajdnd: see To conquer. 
To trot, lil^ l> 1)1^ i_5^^ dulkl jdnd or chalnd, lil^Jj^^ khudrdnd. 
To trouble, l3\:x-j satdnd, Uj J c (Ll^J takUf dend, ^%ii^ chhernd. 
To trundle (v. n.) l)^J dagarnd, (v. a.) l3\^k> dagrdnd, \jW'^ lurhdrid. 
To trust, li^ jjb bdwar karnd, li^ j V^^ i^tibdr rakhnd, (sell on 

credit) l:.snj j ^yi Aar^ p«r bechnd: see To consign. 
To try, b/(^.te;l dzmd'tsh karnd: see To attempt, examine. 
To tug, (pull along) b^-sru^ khainchnd, (strive) bjU j^J zor mdrnd. 
To tumble, (act as a tumbler) \jS ^j\j K kald-bdzi karnd: see To fall. 
To tune, l)iU mildnd, l3^ jL^^fe ham-sdz karnd, (the voice) Lj^! aldpnd. 
To turn, (v. n.) b^ phirnd, \u^^ ghumnd, (v. a.) l3|^.^J j^AzVa/ia. 
To tweak, (pinch) li^y nochnd, (twist) bjji^ marornd, li*--v« mlsnd. 
To twine, bbjo^ baundiydnd, (to plait) \:>^^^i gundhnd : see To fold. 
To twinkle, l3Ui/»5 iimtimdnd, (move the eye) bl^ matkdnd. 

342 Vocabulary. — Verhs. 

To twirl, (v. n.) \u^^ ghumna, (v. a.) Ij]^ ^d^jaldi phirana. 
To twist, (v. n.) ^2i:>^ ainthnd, \j\^ Jb bal khana, (v. a.) \ujii Jj bal 

dtna, ^J^j^ marorna, \j"yo morna. 
To twit, OjU < jja^/ia mama, \>^ ci^^l* malamat karna. 
To twitch, liS.^^ nijhotna, ^uj^^ khasotna : see To snatch. 
To tyrannise, ^^j^j ^jtT- V. (*^ ?.^^^ ovjabr or ^ror karna. 
To value, l3L^ J^^ moZ tkahrdnd, liOT dnknd, Ijlsj- J^jjii aziz jdnnd. 
To vanish, l:Jij \jb>- ja^a rahnd, \i^ S^d^ V. '^^^-^r*^ champat or 

ghcLtb hond. 
To vanquish, Ui*»-j'7^wa, l3*J #oma, \3.^ c:^.v«JL2> shikast karnd. 
To varnish, l3bb^ cl^l ^/c charhdnd, ^J-^ chuparnd: see To cover. 
To vary, l3^ i^S^J^j rangdrang karnd, ^j^^ phernd : see To change. 
To vault, (leap) l3 J^ kudnd, see To leap, (arch) IjUj <Us kubba banana. 
To vaunt, bjU uJtji uJ^ Idf-guzdf mdrnd, \3^ ^j uJi! Idf-zani karnd. 
To veer, U^ pJdrnd, \:^^ ghumnd, liJjj badalnd. 
To vegetate, U^ 1 ^^ ^^^ ci^^L) TiaSa^ kl si ugnd, \:^>- jamnd. 
To veil, UU ^^ burhi^ ddlnd, l3^ cU^ »^ ghunghat karnd. 
To ventilate, l3^ UJL^ ^^ \y& ^az^ja se thandhd karnd. 
To venture, \3l^l ^j>- jokhim uthdnd : see To dare. 
To verify, Ij^ d^lJl b lh^Ij ^aJi^ or isbdt karnd. 
To versify, U^ Jaj wasm /carwa, li^ ^^^ Joi wasw we/i likhnd. 
To vex, li^ J J rfiA:A: karnd, Ijjr?^ chhernd, l)L*j satdnd. 
To vibrate, (v.n.) l3|;f>^* tharthardnd, lij^* tirmirdnd: see To shake. 
To vilify, U^ C^vctX* b /♦bjj bad-ndm or mazammat karnd. 
To vindicate (justify), b^ cujIj Ij ifU^^ begundh or sa&i^ A:arwa. 
To violate, LJ c:^.*^ hurmat lend, (infringe) \j^ :^ faskh karnd. 
To vitiate, lijlx; bigdrnd, \ij ^-^ly>^ khardb karnd, IjL-3 nasdnd. 
To vivify, l3^ Ji/awa, U/ 2fJuJ sriw^a A:arwa. 
To unbind, U^ kholnd, U^ ^^J^ bandhan kholnd. 
To unbolt, bj J^ ^^ b l^i& ^wr/ca or bilUkhol dend. 
To unbosom, U^jlj ^^^ A>ioMa, \ij (^^\3 fash karnd. 
To unbuckle, U)^ 1^ 6aA:sS'a A:^oZwa. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 343 

To unbutton, U^^ lS*^^ ghundl kholnd. 

To uncase, UIO ^ J^ l> uJic gh ilaf or Mo/ 5e nikalna. 

To undeceive, U^fsr^ samjhana, \)j^ J^^ hoshyar karnd : see To 

To undergo, \j\^\ uthand, U^^ bharnd, y^' < \ ^ khainchnd. 
To underline, li^u^^^ U k>- ,^_5^J wlc^e M«y. or laklr khainchnd. 
To undermine, W^^ i^S^j^ surang daurdnd, lijl^ ^■:^ kanni kdtnd. 
To underrate, l3l5^ Lii^viJJ klmat ghatdnd, \:J\:>- j^Js>. haklr jdnnd. 
To understand, lifs^*^ samajhnd, ^>-^ bujhnd, \:J\^jdnnd. 
To undertake, U^ karnd j lil^l -f>l& ^a#^ lagdnd: see To accept. 
To undervalue, iJU-^^-i^- V. J^ (^ kam-kadr or haklr jdnnd. 
To underwrite, l3i f^-^ V. ^^ l5^ necAe likhnd or sa^I^ karnd. 
To undo, (ruin) l)^ ^-^J/- fdiardb karnd, (open) Ub ^}^ kholddlnd. 
To undress, l3jlj\ \^iS kapra utdrnd. To undulate, l)!^^! lahrdnd. 
To unfasten, U^ kholnd, ^J^f^ chhornd. To unfix, \:^^ kholnd. 
To unfold, Ul^^ kholnd, ^-^t>l udhernd : see To discover, explain. 
To unfurl, li)^^ kholnd, LJ-J^J\ udhernd, (spread) \jjL-j pasdrnd. 
To ungird, liJ^ t^.^ b ^^^'♦^ kamarhand or ^awg kholnd. 
To unharness, Ijjbi jL ^a^r utdrnd, LjJ J^^ /c/^o/ c?ewa. 
To unhinge, l3jl^^ ^UaJ b J^ c/iwZ or kabza ukhdrnd. 
To unhorse, l3l^ j^-s lJJ^ ghore st girdnd. 

To unhusk, IjjIjI l^i^ chhilkd utdrnd, U!l^ Li**!^ JAzi^i nikdlnd. 
To unite, liLc milnd, l3^ J^a:!^ muttajik hond, (v. a.) IjLo mildnd. 
To unlace, bJ^ c^j^ ^^rl kholnd, \^^ ^<^^. bandhan kholnd. 
To unlade, unload, \3jb1 ^^ Jo/7^ utdrnd, Ujl^l ubhdrnd. 
To unlatch, U!^ ^ 6iZ/? kholnd. To unlock, lil^ Jii ytw^ kholnd. 
To unloose, liJJ J^ A:^oZ cZewa, U^ ^^I:^ ^ AiJ band se Mialds karnd. 
To unmask, UjIj\ «Jy Jwri^ra utdrnd, \3^ Jbll? sa^ir karnd. 
To unpack, U^ ^^^ l> a:i--j l> l^*i^ gatthd or Z>«5^a or mof /^ kholnd. 
To unravel, (v.n.) lifs^ sulajhnd, (v.a.) 13'v^.s:^ suljhdnd : see To open. 
To unriddle, l3^ J.»- hall karnd, lil^ kholnd. 
To unrol, Ijj^^i^l udhernd. To unroot, l3?l^) "^p^- jar ukhdrnd. 

344 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To unscrew, U.!^^^ ^^ ptch kholna. To unseal, l3Jy ^^ muhr torna. 

To unsheath, \jS J-c a lam karna, li!l^ -**5 /♦Lj niyam se nikalna. 

To untie, Ulj/ kholna. To untwist, l:J^ ^„^^ pecA kholna. 

To unveil : see To unmask. To unyoke, L>J jIj! \^:>^ju'a utar dena. 

To vouch, liJ J ,^\j^ gawahi dena, 13/ lii^jIj .^aSz^ karna. 

To vouchsafe, 13/ J^(A'^ mihrbani karna, IjU/ farmana. 

To upbraid, 13/ ci^^^^ l) (^j/-' sarzanish or malamat karna. 

To uphold, (support) l^^^V thambhna: see To support, raise. 

To urge, I)/ Jk/lJ l> UlaJ' takaza or ^aA:!^/ karna, l3\Jl urana. 

To use, liJ^ bartnd, l3^ ^-^ ^l^ A:am Twe/i /awa : see To treat. 

To usurp, UJ ijTrrf^^ c^^iw Ze/za, liJ JJ^^ na-hakk Una. 

To utter, li^ kahna, ^}^^\ uchcharna, \i^ J^^ zikr karna. 

To waddle, lil>- Jl>- ^Xa^*^ b tUslaJ batak- or dagmagi-chal chalnd. 

To wage, l:^^ 1?^ 5^ar( rakhnd, (war) 13/ cS^jang karna. 

To wail, l3iLij bilhildnd, Ij/ ijj^jj ^^ ndla o zdri karna. 

To wait, 13/ ^Uiu^ intizdri karna : see To expect, attend. 

To wake, (v.n.) \:Xp^ jagna, \:^\>- jagnd, (v. a.) \i^^ jagdnd. 

To walk, Uiji- chalnd, (go about) \3^^ phirnd, \i^ j^^ sair karnd. 

To wallow, IJ^ ^^^ Lf^ir?" ^^^^^^ "^^^ lotnd, iJ/ ci;y <3^ lot-pot karnd. 

To wander, Lc; ranmd, l3^ phirnd, (stray) li^% bhataknd. 

To wane, li% ghatnd, l3yb / /cam ^owa, U^Jb ^,« Jljj zawdl men 

To want, (be wanting) l3y> ^U. Ichdli hond, (need) li^l>- chdhnd : 

see To wish. 
To war, bj) Zarwa. To warble, l3l^ lahkdnd, \j^ gdnd. 
To ward off, L>J c^\^ Hf dend, Ij W; bachdnd : see To protect. 
To warn, bl:;^ chitdnd, Lo ^i^lsT a^aA7 tZewa, \j\::^ jatdnd. 
To warp, (v. n.) l3^Jb ^ ^ /:a; Ma/w hond, (v. a.) UjJ j'^^ ?w«ror 

To warrant, li^j5U>-^'a'/2r rakhnd, lijj^l-i>.| ilditiydr dend. 
Was, ^J ^/za, lyb ^ii'a, Ijh; ra//a, Uf gaya. 
To wash, l3ybc> dhond, 13/ .-1 ^ t::^.^ shust o shu karnd : see To bathe. 

Vocahulary. — Verbs, 345 

To waste, (v. n.) \:>3^ ghatna, \:SS galna, (v. a.) liijl urana. 

To watch, lijj ^^ chauki dtna, (not sleep) Ujb^ jIjuj hedar rahna. 

To water, liU^J panii/andy UjJ <Jl> joaw/ (few5, l:-:s;a«} sichna. 

To waver, l3yi> JJ^ V. j1/^ hekarar or mutaraddid hond. 

To wax, (v. a.) l3^ (<*^* momi karnd, (become) l)y> ^owa : see To 

To waylay, bjU aSj rah mdrnd, \j^ iZj\^ ghat karnd. 
To wean, liV^^s- -JiJ.J dudh chhurdnd, ^V.^^^ *>~ kho chhurdna. 
To wear, (rub, v. n.) U— ii^ ghisnd, (v. a.) IjL-^ ghisdnd, (dress) ^c^^ 

pahannd, (hold out) liJbj rahnd, liC <iA:wa. 
To weary, Uliff thakdnd, l3^ 2(JJU mdnda karna. 
To weave, liiJ iiwwa or hunndy Uibjl^ ^\^ jdU kdrhnd. 
To wed, liJ^l^ hydhnd. To ween, lJlr>- Jaw?2a: see To think. 
To weep, Ujj rowa. To weigh, Lly ^o/wa: see To consider. 
To welter, L5^ Idtnd. To wend, IjU-^awa, l3^ phirnd. 
Went, \^ gaydy (out) il^ wzA;Za. Were, ^* ^^e, v_f^ib hue. 
To wet, (v. n.) li^ hhignd, (v. a.) l3^^ bhigond, \jj J 7i«m karnd. 
To wheedle, \jL^ phusldnd. To wheeze, lili-J»-j sansandnd. 
To whet, liJLs 5awwa, U^ -€^^ V. Jt^ ^^-^r or chokh karnd. 
To whine, li^^C^.-s- jhikhnd. To whinny, l^^sijb hinchnd (?). 
To whip, lj\S IJ^ l> lUoU- chdbuk or /com lagdnd. 
To whirl, (v. n.) Ij^p^irwa, \:^^ ghumnd, (v. a.) \j\a^ ghumdnd. 
To whisk, li^i.^ slhathnd. To whisper, l3\>.,. g.; ... g> phusphusdnd. 
To whistle, Ijl^sT j^S-«j 57J? bajdnd. To whiten, l3.^ Jui-j SM^erf karnd. 
To whitewash, l3^ ^^ kali phernd, ^\^>' chhuhdnd. 
To whiz, \j\ufUi pinpindnd. To whoop, Ijjtojl^ kilkdr mdrnd. 
To will, liJfcl^ chdhnd, \3 i^ ^j|^l irac?a karnd : see To command. 
To win, Ur.^'>>j7^7ia, liJ o-:r>- J«^ ^ena, ^Isa! ^\\i bdzi lejdnd. 
To wince (from pain), l3'iL2^ ^^ J^ti dard se chhatpatdnd. 
To wind, (v. n.) \u^^ ghumnd, li^^ phirnd : see To twist, fold. 
To wink, li^ mataknd, (v. a.) Ijlilfto matkdnd: see To connive. 
To winnow, liU^ usdndy U^"^ phatakndy \jj\^ jhdpid. 

2 Y 

346 Vocabulary.— Verhs, 

To wipe, \i^^ ponchhna, \jj uJU 5a/ karna. 

To wis, ^>'^, hujhna. To wish, ^^ chahna : see To desire. 

To wit (adv.), j^^ix> ycS^nl, ^\^ jario. 

To withdraw, (v. n.) liSjD hatna, U^ jb haz rahna: see To take away. 

To wither, \ii^ kumhland, \j\^j^ murjhana, \ijs^ jhurna. 

To withhold, \^j rrf V. jV ^^^ ^^ j9^er rakhna^ L^^ chhenkna. 

To withstand, l3?T ama, li^^j rokna, li^-^lf* thamblmcLy Ulll faZwa. 

To witness, li^iJ ^\^ gawahi dendj Ijyb iXfcl-i» shdhid hond. 

To wonder, l3^ S^^?*^ ta^ajjub karnd. To be wont, U^ karnd. 

To woo, U^ (J-ii*^ w^A: karnd, l3^ l5^^ mdngni karnd. 

To work, l3^ ^l^ /cam karnd, (ferment) l3ls^ gajdnd: see To embroider. 

To worry, l^J^^t^^ bhambhornd, \i\^ j\^phdr khdnd. 

To worship, ^^^^^ pujud, Ls^ bliajnd, \iji (^A^>^ parastish karnd. 

To worst, (foil) Ullfe hatdnd, l3^ hardnd, 1)1^ bhagdnd. 

To wound, l3L5^ chutiydnd, Ij^ i<'*^J zakhim karnd. 

To wrangle, l3j^^ jhagarnd, lila^ bahasnd, \i^ j\Jj takrdr karnd. 

To wrap, LJLJ lapetnd. To wreak (revenge), LjJ ^libJl intikdm lend. 

To wrench, wrest, LJ -su^ i^Jlr* ^cirorke khainch lend. 

To wrestle, l3^ j^^^^ kushti karnd. To wriggle, L>Jj tarapnd. 

To wring, l3jj=sr nichornd, \jj^j^ marornd, li^, J ^^ pec A cZewa. 

To write, l:^ likhnd, \jj ,x.^ kj.j^ tahrir or kalamband karnd. 

To writhe, l3j^l akarnd, U^J ainthnd, lij jj tarapnd: see To twist. 

To yawn, ljlf«^ Jam^awa, LJ S\^^ jamhd'i lend. 

To yearn, l:^ e:^Ju-i» shafakat rakhnd, ^j^r< marornd. 

To yell, l3i»- ckilldnd. To yelp, l^^* bhaunknd. 

To yield, U l^ nikdlnd, \jj \-Xj paidd karnd : see To give, resign. 

To yoke, li5^£>- Jo^wa, LibjU nddhnd, \jh^ jutdnd. 

Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c, 347 


Aback, i^Jb \,f<,pichhli taraf, ^^j^^^ pichhe. 

Abashed, v::--^ %}^^ t:;W--^ pashemdn, a^JCw«^ sharmanda. 

Abject, JJj zaltl, e:^ patit,j\y^ khwar, t— ")^ kharab. 

Able, JjlJJ kdbil, ^j^^ sdmarthl, ^} Id' Ik : see Capable. 

Aboard (a ship), ^^^j\.^jahdz men, y^ j\^ jahdz par. 

Abominable, ifjj^ makruh, l3y^ ghinaundy <0^ karlh. 

Aboi-tive, l^ birtkd, *JU zd'i^, J-^W Id-hdsiL 

Above, ^^\ upar,ji^ par,jij zabar. 

About, ^^-^^^-t ds-pds, ^J^^^^ gird-peshy fjAi^pds, 

Above-cited, above-mentioned, j^jw< mazkur, jjb.*^ mastur. 

Abreast,^^^ bardbar,j\:S ^ ham-kindr, ^\ ^ lagc-lagl. 

Abridged, jou^ muMitasar, c^.,-.^^s^-j sanchhep. 

Abroad, ybb bdhar, (^,^ji^ par-des, ^^;^ CS^ j^ ghair mulk men. 

Abrupt, j^^ behar,j\j3 ^^^^ niskeb-fardz, (sudden) lI^^I^^ achdnak. 

Absent, \^ judd, j^\s^j^ ghair-hdzir, (in mind) JiU ghdfil. 

Absolved, uJW« mu'df, l::^X< mukt. 

Absolute, (supreme) jlii-* mukhtdr, (sole, complete) jiko mutlak. 

Abstemious, Abstinent, jlij-JbJ parhezgdr, ^j4^ neml. 

Abstruse, J^^ dakik, J^k^ mvghlak, j^^U ghdmiz, JbJ^i gurh. 

Absurd, jLb bdtil, ^y\ anarth, JyU^l3 nd-ma^kul, iijja harza. 

Abundant, ^jy^. bahuterd, J^\ aksar, j^V/ firdwdn, }iS[ij ziydda. 

Acceptable, Jv^ makbul, ^^-ixc matbif', ^-^^^y, bar-ivakt. 

Accidental, ^\i^\ ittifdki, tjl^^ ndgahdm. 

According (to), (ji\yo muwdjik, ^j11x« mutabik. 

Accurate, l1^-^5 thlk, ^^^ sahih, (person) ^^ chaukas. 

Acid, l5^ khattd, J^^ ami, fjiji tursh. 

Acquainted, ^Jii\^ wdkif, ^'o'T dgdh, (intimate) ^jS^ mahram. 

Across, V'l drd: (adv.)jl) po,'^y J^,J^^ umr-pdr. 

348 Vocabulary. --Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 

Active, u/iJlf- chalak, Isio man-chala, \j^^^y>- charphara, c-ii^--^ cJiust, 

Actual, U*- sachcha, ^iuib- hakiki. Actually, ^j:^s.J\dfi-l'ha1akat, 

Admirable, ^^---^^ ajib,jS^ nadir, (interj.) l^^^ U^ kya khub. 

Affable, ^Lj1« milansar, >Jo- halm, cl^jj^\j ba-muruwat. 

Affectionate, (J-i-i» shafik, J^V''^ daya-s'il, ^^^ chhohi. 

Aforesaid, j^j^ mazkur,jyh^^ mastur. 

Afraid, \^ \j^ dara hu'a, ifiiJxJLJbi^ dahshat-zada. 

After, ^^j^:fjplchhe, Sxi ba^d. 

Afterwards, J^ ba^d, ^JsJ\ JotJ ba^d is-ke, JJ tad. 

Agmujj^^phir, j^ pher, a^^ alawa, iij^ *^ do-bara. 

Against, uJ^ khilaf, (over against) -^C**!**? sanmukh. 

Aged, WSj buddha, l3L> purana, f^^Ss kadim : see Old. 

Ago, ^ \ age, j:JL^i peshtar, ^L sabik. 

Agreeable, Jki*^ Jj dil-pasand. Agreeably (to), (JJ^^yc muwafik. 

Alert, j^^j^ Tdiabardar, j\J^^ hoshyar. Alien, ^^t^;^ pardesl. 

Alike, ^1^ barabar, ^J^CJ^^} ek-san, j^U**j saman, <u«ij shablh. 

Alive, ^^^^t^jitd, 2iSJj zinda, j\Sj\s>' jdn-ddr. 

All, t-^^ sab, aUj tamdm, \jL> sard, J^ sakal,j^^ bhar. 

Almost, L_^ Jiic ankarlb, c_^j J karlb, j:^J>J) nazdiktar. 

Alone, L^i akeld, IfJ tanhd, '^\ ikld, t^jc sirf. 

Although, ^^\ agarchi, ^Sx^jit> har-chand-ki. 

Altogether, J^L^ mutlak, ^jos^ mafiz, \jj nird. 

Always, Ijuj sadd, SJL^tb hamesha, ^i^jii> har wakt. 

Ambiguous, cJfjL^ mashkuk, J\Ss:^^ pechddr, *^-^ mubham. 

Ancient, ♦J ji kadim, ^Jt^^J^ pardchm, Jft^ purdtam. 

Anew, Afresh, ^ phir, y^ sar-i-nau, ^j^^ naye sir se. 

Angry, ^j^ ghusse (in anger), il^ Idiafa, ^^^^ krodhi. 

Angular, jljuij^ koneddr , j\sJ^ji goshtddr. 

Animated,^ J diler, (*/ (}^ dil-garm; (as language) ^Jf^ namkin. 

Annual, (OUL sdliydnd, ^^y->ji baras-ivdn, <CUys> har-sdla. 

Another, \^jj dusrd, j^\ tlioj tk aur, CS^j^\ aur ek. 

Anterior, ^j fJLj jjesh-rau, JJ kabl. Antique : see Ancient. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, 6fc. 349 

Anxious, i^:^J^ fikr-mand, JJ^ mutaraddid. 

Any, t/ ^ ko'J, -fs? kuchh, ^ f ko'u. 

Apiece, ^ l1X>1 -fc har ek ko. 

Apt, ^^ ld\ik,j\J taiyar, Jjli A:aZ>i/, f^f^ chalak. 

Aquatic, V^^paniha, ^\ abi, j^^ jalchar, i^\jti darydl. 

Around, (j^^^ij-*\ ds-pds, Jp gird, ^^^^ pairdman. 

Arrogant, jjj^ ma gh rur^ r!^^**-^ gustdkh, jJc^ mutakabbir. 

Artful, Juc aiydr, ^„j ^^ fann-farebl, ^J^ chhali, C^%>- chdldk. 

Artificial, iz^\^ sdkhta, \^ IjUj bandyd hiCd, 

Artless, oj^^ andrl, jj^ bkold, <i^L--J be-sdJdita, ^jU sdda. 

As, L.^.^ jaisd ; (conj.) ^^ kyunki: as much, as many, \:cs>'jitnd. 

Ashamed, !iX>^jJ^ sharmanda, l::-^ ^W^^j d-¥^ khajlL 

Aside, (apart), i^\ alag, \s>.judd, ^J^ kindre. 

Aslant, ^ o Wv' ^^^cAAa'7 st, l^Jo CSJ\ ek taraf. 

Asleep, ly& \jy^ sotd hu^d, ^^^ ^\j\ drdm men. 

Astonished, \ji\^ ghdbrd, (j^ybS^madhdsh, [j:..4^chakit, ^j^hairdn. 

Astray, I^j bhatkd, Aj^ gumrdh, ^^ hhuld, ^\;^, be-rdh. 

Asunder, \j^judd, i^\ alag : see Separate. 

At all, (jllx* mutlak, Uila^ mutlakd. 

At all times, \j:^^jb har wakt: see Always. 

At length. At last,^T dMiir, ^ pas. 

Atrocious, y-i> ci^^l^ nihdyat sharir, u^^^jt^ c:^-if^ bahut ma^yub. 

Attentive, \^^ chaukas, j\J^^ hoshydr, is>-^ mutawajjih. 

Averse, cJllsr* mukhdlif, ,^]j^ nd-rdz. 

Austere, l::^^^^ sakht, c::^^-i>JJ durusht, i^ tund, \^ kard. 

Auxiliary, jliJJco madadgdr, ^S^ kumakl. 

Awake, l::^U-jag-^«, ^Iju^ beddr,j\J^^ hoshydr. 

Aware, t-w1j wdkif, j\dj^ khabarddr, islil dgdh. 

Away (absent), ^U--*c gh air hdzir,jj lU^\su tafdwut par, \^ judd. 

Awhile, ci^Jl« jc^ chand muddat, d^jS. \j^ thord arsa. 

Azure, ^^jUJi dsmdnl, jjj^ azrak, ^S JJ nil-gun. 

Back, (adv.)^.^ |>/ier,jb bdz, ^>^^^ wdpas. 

350 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Backward (loath), ^^^ ^j ru-gardan, :sXJL^ kashida, ci^^-^i sust. 

Bad, \ji bura, Si bad, ^^^j zabun, ^\/>- kharab, jjJ^ sharlr. 

Bald, ^Jor*- chandla, Is^^ g<^^j^i (unadorned) U:>jl3 na-zebd. 

Baneful, ^t J -fcj zahr-dar, j^ muzirr. 

Bankrupt, Ul^ J devmliyd, ^Ak^ 7nufiis,J^S^ nd-ddr. 

Barbarian, (adj.) ^}^^jangll, ^J^*^^ wahshi, ^j^ be-rahm. 

Bare, (naked) IkJ nangd, (plain) 2^jL sdda, (void) ^\:>^ Midli, 

Barren, (land)^;^! usar,J^ kallar, (animal) .^\j bdnjh. 

Base (adj.), ,<^^ P^j^j ^^h^ kamina, >^j nlch, ^^d dun» 

Base-born, i^jlj J^ hardm-zdda, ^j^ U^ barn-sankar. 

Bashful, iL<,-i> sharmild, Ljs) lajild, ^-jCi-j sankochi. 

Bay-coloured (a horse), l::-'^-^ kumait, Jc..4w^ samand. 

Beastly, L (j;)^:*^ haiiodn-sd, lL/^j U nd-pdk, ax^ ganda. 

Beautiful, ci^^^ Miubsurat, jS:^ sundar^ L^'*j^surup. 

Because, i^ \j>j zird ki, \s^ lihazd, ^^S kyunki. 

Becoming, ^Jil la Ik, (Z^\J^ shdyasta, Uj ^^ khiisk-numd. 

Before, ^Ji age, ^^i^Lo sdmne, ^jL^^jplsh. 

Behind, ,cfsn.j pichhe, ^^-^ c-^ib akab mm, Jco Z>aV. 

Beloved, ^j\^^pydrd (m.), LjJ^^pycLrl. (f.), ^->^;*.s^ mahbub,jijc aztz. 

Beneath, ^^^ wzc^e, (unworthy) (J,j^ U nd-ld\ik. 

Beneficent, Jbj daydl, ^\i faiyaz, blj c?a^a. 

Beneficial, *\-i^ mufid, Jo^J^ sudmand, \i bhald. 

Beside, Besides, 1^ siwd, a^ aldwa, ^J^ kindre, LlX>"iP nazdik. 

Best, wl uttam, \^^ ^ t-^**3 5aZ> se bhald, Jil^ auldtar. 

Between, Betwixt, ^j> bich, ^J^j^^ darmiydn. 

Beyond, ^Jy^pare,jh pdr, ^S'\ dge. 

Biennial, ^^ILj^J do-sdla, l^ gUi>j tl^ J^-«» jt^ do sdl tak rahnt kd. 

Big, J«j bard, Zyo mold, ^ kaldn, (pregnant) <d^U. hdmila. 

Bigot, bigotted, c-^*a«^ muta'assib, ^^ hat hi. 

Bilious, ^5 \j&^ safrd't, i^j^J^ safrdwl, ^^i^j) zarddbi. 

Bitter, \^^ karwd, li-J tltd, J^ talkh : see Cruel, Sharp. 

Black, "i^ kdld, i\*^Mydh, (complexion) ll-^ kalutd, Ul^ kdliyd. 

Vocabulary — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc, 351 

Blamable, ^^jL? tnulzim, j^jijy^i kusurwar. Blameless: see Innocent. 
Blank, (white) Jk-i-s sufed, (unwritten) hSLs sada, ^^3l^ be-likhd. 
Bleak, (cold) J^ sard, l&jL^ thandha, (pale) Jfjj zard, \j pila. 
Blear-eyed, \j^ chiprd (m.), ICj&3 dhalkd (m.). 
Blessed, C/jU^ mubarak, JU- (J^^^ khiish-hdl, ^r>l..^^ bihishti. 
Blind, UjJ^ andhdyj^ kor, Lj l3 nd-blnd, (of one eye) 13 1^ /:awa. 
Blinkard, iljbjk:^>- chundhld. la>JkUS>J dhundhld. 

' V ' 

Bloody, j^l^J y>^ lohu'luhdn, sJJi \ ^^ khun-dluda, j^j^ khunl. 

Blue, L3 wiZa, L! ZJ/a, j^y^i-J ml-gun, ^^y^ kabudi : see Azure. 

Blunt, (dull) <Ai^ kund, \j^ bhotd, (unpolite) jl-i^^ j<^ ie imtiydz. 

Boisterous '^^^j> jy^ jjj zdr-shor-karnewdld, Jo xl shadTid, JcJ ^mwc?. 

Bold, Jj rfi/er, j^^J dilawar,j>Aj^^ bahadur, ^^-^f^ manchald. 

Born, Usj- jGCTia, ^J^y paidd, (in compos.) ijjj ^^^<2> ]j -s^fl* 

Both, y^ c?o«o or j^<^j«^ donon, •^J^ har do. 

Bounteous, bountiful, Ulti data, ♦j^ karlm, ^Li faiydz. 

Brackish, 1^1^ khdrd,j^ shor, l3j! Zowa, ^^;X»J namkin. 

Brave, j^\i, bahddur, ci^jLj sdiuant, ^\dj^ marddna : see Bold. 

Brawny, ^S^^jia hurmushtd, \^^ kungrd, .^IjC^^ chahkaith. 

Brazen, L-j pi^/a, i^^^f^ birinji : see Impudent. 

Brief, 2i\j^ kotdh, j^asJs^ mukhtasar, Jl4>.s^ mujmal. 

Briefly, ^jL^:;<l ikhtisdrse, (in short) ^y^ gharaz, i^y^\ a lgh araz. 

Bright, ^»j^»j roshan, \pA ujld, uJfla sdf : see Illustrious. 

Brilliant, j^ J ^Jj^j raunak-ddr, \^\:J^ tdbndk, \S^i^ chamklld. 

Brimful, c-^lU lab-d-lab, j^^j^^ bhar-pur. 

Brisk, ii^jald, ^yt» shokh, (J-i^^l^ chdldk, l::^^.^ chust, ;-J tez. 

Brittle, cJj\j ndzuk, tlX>jV bdrik, Lj patld, CS^ tnnak. 

Broad, \j^ chaurd, ^^y^ arlz, (vulgar) <^t^ karmna. 

Brown, (,^S->j aS:^ gandum-rang, ^^ ^sj^ gandum-gun. 

Brutal, . tfj^:^ haiwdnl, (savage) ^J*^^ wahshi : see Cruel. 

Bulky, ^yc moid, m^;..^ jaslm, \ji bard, ^jj^, bhdri. 

Busy, J^i.1^ mashghul, ^^ j-^ sar-garm, l^»j^2^ masruf. 

But, (except) \^ siwd,j>' juz, (conj.)^^ magar, ^^J^ Itkin. 

352 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 

By, ^ se, u^-^-w-> ^ ke sabab, <U ba : see Near. 

Calamitous, ^JJ t^i^il afat-zada, \J^,ji^ pareshan : see Wretched. 

Callous, Lii^^*^ sakht, L^ gathila,j^ kathor, JjJ ^^ bt-dard. 

Calm, UwJbi^ dhima, Jjci*^ mu^tadil^ Joj Jawc?, l^ rwA'a. 

Cancelled, U^ blfU mitaya gay a, LS" L^ ^^-^ wza^y /czz/a gay a. 

Candid, uJU saf, jb l::^J\j rast-baz, ^ ul ^J be-laga'o. 

Capable, JjIj /<•«Z>^/, j:A' la' Ik, y b pa^r, l^:>- J^ga. 

Capacious, aJ^ kushada, ^^Js farajdi, Ij^ chaura. 

Capital, (as a cvimo) Ju^ jimar , (principal) IjJ bara, ^^ azim. 

Capricious, «_J?^^ talauwun-tab^, V^^^ dchhd. 

Cardinal, J^c] a*zam, jS\ akbar, J^^ awwal. 

Careful (cautious), ^lj^^ khabar-ddr, jL^ ^Jb lioshyar. 

Careless, Jilc gh dfiUjJui be-jikr, ^^y^^ asochi. 

Carnal, ,JLJj nafsdni, c:^-^ *— Vv-^ shahwat-parast, ^^ kdml. 

Carnivorous, jj^ri. c:^-i>^ gosht-khor, ^j\itS\ ^^mU mds-adhdrl. 

Casual, ^IajI ittifdki, ^J^ drizi, ci v^ ndgahani. 

Cautious, jL-i>yi) hdshydr,j\^j^^ khabarddr, {j^^ chaukas. 

Celestial, ^Ji^'^^ bihishti, ^^:^ jannafi, (JU-j! dsmdrii. 

Censorious, j5^u-^^^ aib-jd,j£i^j>- harf-gir, lL^JcJ nindak. 

Central, Centric, (J^!;^ darmiydnl, ^j (^^j^ blchon blch. 

Certain, ^^^^ yakln, {JS^'*> be-shakk, jJl< mukarrar. 

Certain, (some) ,^<-a«J ba^ze, lS ^ ko'l, (i^erson) ^Jis fuldn, djlifuldna. 

Certainly, <fc:Jl albatta, liJb yaklnan, jjA^ mukarrar. 

Charitable,^^-* mukhaiyir, Ub rfa^a, ^^*^ sakhl, ^\J faiyciz. 

Charming, Ljb^ mohnd, bjl^^ suhdwana, l^-w^ J J dil-chasp. 

Chary, jLl^ hoshydr, j\Cij^ khabarddr, (frugal) ^}^ kifdyati. 

Chaste, C/b pdk, j:^^ pabitr, ax^ sudh, <U-i^ afifa (f.). 

Cheap, \:l»---> sastd, \<x^ mandd, ^jj^ arzdn, b^ »S kam-bahd. 

Cheerful, jj 2(k\i:>. khanda-ru, ,^C*wy-.iJb hans-mukh, (J^^s>- kkiish. 

Cheerless, ^^.Ijl wc?a5, b^ swwa, (dreary) J<^ j J^J ZaA;^* o 6/a^A:. 

Chief (principal), Jjl awwal >♦ JJU mukaddam, hj Jam. 

Chiefly, UU ghaliban,J^\ aksar, U?^>. khusumn. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Adverbs, Sfc, 353 

Childless, t^^j^^e^ be-auldd, >^p Id-walad, \j^ niputd. 

Chill, Chilly, \1:^ thandd, t)^ sard, U^JL^* thandd-sd. 

Choice, (select) <UjU- khdssa, (careful) J^ax< ma^kul, ^\si kifdyati. 

Christian, u^j— -^ isawi, iS^j^ nasrdni. 

Chronic, Chronical, ^»r<j^ muzmin, ^^^}^ dd^lmi, ^A^^ der-pd. 

Chubby, ^^^ galphuld. Churlish, J-^^J^^ be-tamiz, (^JcjJ dabang. 

Circular, ^jjc< mudauwar, ^J^ gdl,J^J dAs>- halka-ddr. 

Circumjacent, J-^a::-^ muttasil, c-^ JJ karlb, (jJ^\ dspds, tlX^t^ 

Circumspect, {j*^^ chaukas, j\f^^ hoshydr, ^^ chaukannd. 
Civil, (sociable) ^L-iL> milansdr, (political) ^^1^ mulkl, (not military) 
^U mdti. 

Clammy, jlju-! las-ddr, L-U laslasd, V^-^ chipchipd. 

Clandestine, irju-i>y poshtda, L^ chhipd, <-::-^ gupt. 

Clean, uJ\^ sdf, ^^b pdkiza, L»-l ujld, J^ nirmal, t^b pa/i:. 

Clear, (bright) uJU-i> shaffdf, uJU 5a/, (not cloudy) l^.>^^ pharchhd, 
(evident) \jlCi>l dshkdrd, jb^ zdhir, (free) ^J^s- Midli. 

Clearly, cJL? sdf, W;^^ sarVian: see Evidently. 

Clever,^i>- chatur, cJl\>- chdldk, j\Ji>^ hoshydr , J.w)l^ kdmil. 

Close, Jcj Jawc?, Ijc^^ mundd, \:^ ghand, ^ bhird. 

Cloudless, ^y>^ M«/a hiCd, ^\ ^^ be abr. Cloudy, j^^:>^ghanghdr. 

Clumsy, u/Jbl andrl, ^ilsLLj ^j Z>e salika, J^^^ J^ bad-daul. 

Coarse, \!ye moja, irjoi gunda, (rude) %::-^-iJ^3 durusht. 

Coeval, j.4£ aJ& ham-umr, ^ *ii ham-sinn, J^ /^ ham-jolt. 

Cold, Ijc^ thandd, Jij^ sard, lLS:^ kh?muk, J:u-o 57^ctZ. 

Comical, Comic, jV:?^' thathebdz, ?j-:Ji5 hansor. 

Commercial, «Olp ^tJ^ sauddgardna, ^Jj^ tijdrati. 

Common, C^jJl^ mushtarak, (inferior) <)^-^ kamlna. 

Commonly,^! akmr,jxJL^ beshtar. 

Compact, (^*^ thos, J^ji^ pur-kdr, fjJis- ghafs. 

Compassionate, Jf-i-i> shaflk, Jlj J daydl, JlJ ^y narm-dil. 

Competent, fj-l ^ Id'tk, til^ /:a/7, JjU A:aii/, ^^ Z>a5. 

2 z 

354 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 

Complete, 1;^ pura, /♦Uj tamam, (ready) j\^ taiyar. 

Compound, compounded, u^^ murakkab, ci^i^cus sanjukt. 

Conceited, j^t>j^ khud-bm, ^Uj dimaghi, j\i/f\ akarbaz. 

Concise, yi^si^'* mukhtasar, ^^^^-.^si-j sanchhep, i\iif kotah. 

Confessed, (declared)ji^.^ mash'hur. Confessedly, ^^i^\j:.A f'tirafse. 

Confident, \^Xc man-chala, -^-Jfc3 dhith, jJh*^ mu^takld. 

Conscious, cJJJ\5 wakif, 2^l^T agah,j^^y>- khiid-ldiabar. 

Consequently, \s^ lihaza, liJ\yJ\ us-waste, ^j»j^ zaruratan. 

Consistent, v«,.wUa) munasib, ^J^} laUk. 

Conspicuous, -toll^ zakir, <U3lc alaniya, jy^L^ mashhur, \^ khula. 

Constant, ui-^-'Ij mbit, ^jS\ atal^ A^lsdL*^ mustahkim, ijj\^ kardrl. 

Constantly, ^i c:^ nit-uth, ^\ji> har an, m\^^\^X^ ala-d-dawam. 

Contagious, uf;Uj sari, 

Contemptible,^ib- hakir, JJj zalll,j^y^ khzpdr, uiw*5 subuk. 

Content, contented, |<-^5; razi, ^A>- Mnish, ^^jiu-s santokJii. 

Contiguous, ,J*a2^ muttasil, |yi ^^ 7wz7« hu'd, ^«.;^ paiwasta. 

Continual, ajIj dcJim, (continually) <ll-*^«Jb harriesha. 

Contrary, j-Jlls-* muJdidlif, ls!\ z^Zfa, J^ zidd, t-JLi^ Idiilaf. 

Convenient, ^j^ la'tk, t_^^*-j'w< mundsib, CS-f^ thlk. 

Convex, j^ J juw»i gumbaz-ddr, j\d iJs kubba-ddr. 

Cool, IjL^* thandd, J:^-^ si^aZ, J^ sard'. 

Copious, c:^ bahut, ^jl>J ziydda,j^ ka!!lr,Jc^j bistdr. 

Cordial, u^^ mukauwi, (sincere) Is."* sachchd, Jt^U sddik, b^ be-riyd. 

Corporeal, ^JU*-^ jismdnl, ^j>,^ sarirl. 

Corpulent, ^^^^.^ jaslm, Ij^^ wo<a,^ljJj dalddr,j^ tandwar. 

Correct, ^^^-^ sahih, CS^ thlk, li^^^J durust, JUftisr^ tahklk. 

Corrupt, Ju-jli fdsid, \yi sard, L-j1 w^sa, \j^ bigrd, ^-*U>' khardb. 

Costly, ,^_j:i^ kimati, u;:^/^:^ ,^/y btsh-Jdmat, 

Covetous, ^^"i Idlchi, (joi^ harls, ^^J lobhu 

Counterfeit, ^A^ libdsi, \^^<^jhuthd, \5^^ khotd. 

Country (adj.), cJUibj dihkdm, ijy^ gdnwt,j\^ ganwdr. 

Courageous,^ J diltr, jJ[^ bahddur : see Brave. 

Vocabulary — Adjectives y Adverbs , Sfc. 355 

Courteous, ^->t>J^ mu^addab, J^t Lr^ khtish-akhlak, til^ <^Xj3 nek- 

Coward, Cowardly, li^y^J dar-pokna, Jt^ buz-dil. 
Coy, L-<^ sharmila, c— >lsr"^ pur-hijab : see Bashful. 
Crafty, jLc aiyar, ^J^ jitrafi, IjL-j syana, i^yJL^ failsuf. 
Creditable, ^^-i:^*^ mu'tabar, j^lj namwar, j^'^^j ru-dar. 
Crimson, t^-*/ kirmizi, ^S^^J^ arghawanl, Ifc^ swAa. 
Cripple, \j^ langra, ^jl ZziZa, j^ pangu. 
Crooked, IjbjJi ferAa, *>- kharriy ^^y tirchha, J^ kaj. 
Cross, \j\ ardj ^if-y tirchhd, (peevish) \'j:>^y>- chirchird. 
Crude, Ue kachchd, /♦!> khdm, «i^i£krl3 nd-pukhta. 
Cruel, (t=^j^ be-rahm, j^ kathor, Jt^t^/:^ sang-dil. 
Cumbersome, c/^V bhdrl, j^\sfj ranjdwar. 
Cunning, \i\*^ sydnd, Jus- aiydr, 10 pakkdyj:j>- chatur. 
Curious, y^jlj rdz-jo, (rare) l^yl anuthd, (nice) ^CSij\i bdrlk-bln. 
Current, (customary) ^J^ rd^fjf (flowing) ^jj^jdr-t, ^tj rawdn. 
Customary, ^%j^ murauwaj, ^c^^j rasmi, lSj^^^ dasturi, ^\j rd'lj. 
Dmly, j^ji Uj roz ba-roz^ j^jjSb liar roz, j^j )^j roz roz. 
Dainty, (squeamish) ^]j^ J^^^ khush-kJmrdk : see Delicious. 
Damp, L? glldj y tar, ^^j^ martub, J nam. 
Dangerous, cS^J^ Jdiatar-ndk, iji^s\y pur-dfat, ^y pur-btm. 
Dark, LjbJjl andhtrd, CS^j^ tdrik: see Blind, Abstruse. 
Darling, "iji Idrld, \j\j pydrd^Jijc- aziz, l^^s:^ mahbub. 
Dauntless, jij nidary <-1/Lj bebdk,j3^^ bedar. 
Dead, \yc miCdy sdj-o murda, \j^ mard, (insensible) ^ sun. 
Deadly, JJlJi kdtilf tli^^ muhlik, ^ht> haldku, Jjfe^i> hhldhaL 
T>Q2iiy\j^bahrd^ »^ summ,^ kar. 
Dear, (costly) Ul.^ mahangd, ^J^y girdn: see Beloved. 
Deceitful, jbli J daghd-bdz, ^^ chhall,j\Lo makkdr. 
Decent, iz^\Ji> shdyasta, ^J.:) Id' Ik, c:-^^^ uchity ^z^\j\ drdsta. 
Decisive, ^l?ljj kdti^, uJU saf, \j^j purd^ ^^-ib yakin. 
Declinable (in gram.), i^j.£xxx mutasarrif, i^-»ui-« munsanrif. 

356 Vocabulary — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 

Deep, \j^ gahra,j^ gambhir, (coloured) i^jj^ ghor-rang. 

Defective, tl^ khota, (^13 nakis, ^UJ Ij na-tamdm. 

Deficient, J kam,jA'i kasir, (^l3 nakis. 

Definite, JjJ^s-* mafidud. Definitive, ^^^^xi^ muta'aiyin. 

Deformed, J^ Aj bad-shakl : see Ugly, Humpbacked. 

Dejected, ^j1 udds, ii^jj\ dzurda, ^^^^as^ gham-gm. 

Delicate, (exquisite) ^j^ naps, (fine) ijjp ndzuk : see Dainty. 

Delicious, Jo j3 la^z, j\d ^ maza-ddr, {J'^ khiish. 

Delightful, L^^ws!j dil-chasp, s:J\ fjiy^ jdmsh-dyand. 

Delirious, J^^in^. be-hosh, Ciy^^ be-ldnid, ^S^^d diwdna. 

Dense, <— a^ kasjf, ^^^-^ sangln, ^jl^ bhdri, \^j€ gdrhd. 

Desirous, j\:xl^ mushtdk, t-^); rdghib, ^j-i» shaukin. 

Desolate, ^j^^ wirdn,j\pA ujdr, 9)/sn.j be-chirdgh, ^^^ TdtoTi, 

Desperate, (hopeless) Ju^l U nd-ummed: see Hopeless, Mad, Rash. 

Despicable, JJj mVilyJsu>- haklr, ^j^V P4/^^ ^^j^ kamina. 

Destitute, jU-il Id-chdr, ^JoU^J darmdnda, ^j^ kJidli. 

Detestable, ir.^^ makruh, <ij^ karih, \j\u^ ghindnd. 

Devilish, j-jllu-i) shaitan-i, ^j<^\ dsur-1, ^^yj zabun. 

Devious, i(t^ be-rdh, i\jSJ bad-rdh, i\j^ gumrdh, ^j^ kaj-rau. 

Devoted, jli3 ^^^ jdn-nisdr, ^^^di fidwi, ,^rf^ mu'aiyan. 

Devout, Ju*:^ muta'abbid, t_?jU3 namdz-i, uJjlc drif. 

Dexterous, cuwJ lL/^1^ chdldk-dast, jli »-::^-Jt> dast-kdr, cui-.^- cAm^^. 

Different, c^oL.'rr^ mukhtalif, \j\J nydrd,jj\ aur, t^^ a/ag. 

Difficult, f^L^ mushkil, jLl J dushwdr, ^j^ kathin. 

Diffident, jJll shakki, ,<^ wahmi, ^j:^^^^ be-himmat. 

Diffuse, ^^.1::^^ muntashir, JjjL jfai^7Z, Lfc ^^^^ chhitkd hu^d. 

Diligent, a^^ sar-garm, J^*.l-« mashghul, \^^ chaukas. 

Dim, lib Jo 1 andhld, l&Jj^ chondhld, lybJjjJbJ dhundkrd. 

Diminutive, lS^^ kuchak, Ifj nannhd, ^^if- chhotd. 

Dire, U^lj^i dardwnd, d/li l::-wJi> haibat-ndk, v«^--^ muhib. 

Direct, U*X-«j sIc^Aa, ^Jy^^^ mustavl, (open) cJU 5a/. 

Directly, cj;? twr^, iS^\ ^ fi-Hal, ^^\ abki : see Direct. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs y Spc. 357 

Dirty, (filthy) L^ maila, ^^-^ najis, laJx ghaliz : see Base. 
Disaffected, ^^U^Ju bad-guman, ^\^ Jj bad-khwdh. 
Disagreeable, JCw--j l3 na-pasand, (j^^ l3 na-kJmsh, 
Discontented, j^lj U nd-raz, ^jij^ l3 nd-khush, ^\Jii sJidki, 
Discordant, (j^^y< ^ nd-mmodjik, (in music) Jli^ be-tdL 
Discreet, J-^" b bd-tamlz, j\^^ hoshydr, ^S^^ bibek-i. 
Dishonest, \j:^^j\j nd-rdst, ^^UjJ ^^J be-imdn, ^^Ifarebi. 
Disloyal, a\jS^ i^Xw namak-hardm, \i^ be-wafd. 
Dismal, (^Uyb haul-ndk, cIn) L^ bhaydnak, ^ j1 wrfas. 
Disobedient, jj;^i Ij nd-farmdn, ^J^ j-^ sar-kash. 
Displeased, (J^^ ^ nd-k]viis1i, j\\^^ blzdr, sdjj\ dzurda. 
Disputatious, lAsP^ hujjat-i, d^lar bahhds, ^ W^^ jhagrdlu. 
Disrespectful, l^j\ ^^ bt-adab, ^yi> shokh, l^W^^ be-lihdz. 
Dissatisfied, ^]j\j nd-rdz, (jtJ^\j nd-khiish^M^ blzdr. 
Dissimilar, (JJ^yo U nd-muwdfik, c-aliir* mukhtalif. 
Dissolute, (J^,j\ aubdshj ^^J ^^ be-kaid, iij\j\ dwdra, jJj rind. 

Distant, ^j J dur, Juxj Z>a'l6Z : see Bashful, Shy. 

Distinct, \s>-judd, J/^l^ mutafarrik, (clear) cJU .va/. 

Distracted, L^Ja.^ maztarib, \j\^ ghdbrd, ic^JJ^X dshufta. 

Ditto, Uwl aizan, ji^j^ mazkur. 

Divers, Jc^ ckand, ^S ^^ ka^i ka't, w-:u>^ '-i^V ^^^'^^ bahut. 

Divine, ,<3b^ rabbdni, ^^\ ildhl, ^JUo^ rahmdrii. 

Diuretic,j^!j5;^l idrdr-dwar^jXa mudirr, 

Dizzy, ^<^^ j^ sar-garddn, ^^Xo madhush. 

Docile,^^Jj ^::^Ji tarbiyat-pazlr, ^^J JJ tez-zihn. 

Domestic, .A^^ khdngz, \ij^g1iar-eld. 

Done, U^ kiyd, \^ li* kiyd hu'd, l^ chukd : see Good, Well. 

Double, l3j J dundj ^jJ dohrd, J^ju> do-chand. 

Doubtful, cJ^Jl^ mashkuky <LCwl,.< mushtabih. 

Doubtless, tlXij j^ be-shakkf li-ib yakinan : see Certainly. 

Down (prepos. or adv.), ,<saj wlc^e, ^* ^aZe, ,$lJb heth. 

Downcast, ^^j^ sar-nigun : see Bashful. 

358 Vocabulary — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 

Dreadful, C-^U^J& haul-nak, diiU^ bhayanak, d/Li^^ khaufnak. 

Drowsy, Ls\jcJ nindasa, ifJjl! l^\^ khzmb-dluda. 

Drunk, i!^^ matwala, ^:l^,.^ mast, ^iJ kaif-t. 

Dry, (arid) CSt*>- khushk, \^^ sukha : see Thirsty. 

Dull, (blunt) iXS kund, U^ bhota, (stupid) ^^^ks^^ ahmak. 

Duly, j<r?^^->- ^***r?^ jaisa chahiye, CS^ thik. 

Dumb, \^^ gunga, J^ Idl, l5o^ gunga, Sj bukm. 

Dunce, (ja^s>'\ ahmak, \^^^ bhakwa, sli balid, ^\ ullu. 

J)\xv2h\Q,j\i\i\ipd'e-ddr, J)\s kaUlm, by J der-pa, ^yb baJci, 

During (postpos.), ^Jy^ hott, ^^^ men, ^^j rahte^ (jV^^'^ darmiyan. 

Duteous, Dutiful, %^^^ mutT, (child) Ju-ij^ rashid: see Obedient. 

Dwarf, Dwarfish, l3^b bd'ond, I5l3 ndtd, IC*.§j thumkd. 

Each, l1X>1 J!> har ek, tlX>! tlX>l ^/c e/:, ^^ [J'T^'^ 3^ ^ ^ ^^'^ ^^ ^^^ *^' 

Eager, (*^ j^ sar-garm, ^y^ shaukln, i^Xo^jj\ arzumand. 

Early, (in the morning) uiVy-s sawere, (as fruit, &c.) \:^i\ agmana. 

Earnest, Sc^r ba-jidd, ^^^ sd'i, dJi< mukaiyad. 

Earthen, ^^ gil-i, ^^J^ mitti kd, (as ware) JU**} sifdl-i. 

Earthly, ^^j\ arz-1, (worldly) ^•^J^ dunya-wi. 

Eastern, ^jy^^ purbi, ^j^ sharkl, (<^-^ mashriki. 

Easy, (^Ll dsdn, J^ sahl, (at ease) JU^ ^jy^l dsuda-hdL 

Economical, (A>U^ kifdyati, (j^jj>- juz-ras. 

Effectual, Efficacious, ^Ji kdr-gar,Jit< mu^assir. 

Effeminate, Ln-^i-e ^JJ zan-sifat, t2>j^ l3 nd-mard, L./l3j randi-sd. 

Egregious, \ji bard, i^L^k*^ saTdit, l-^^ ajab,j^^L^ mash'hur. 

Eightfold, lii ^*T dth-gund. 

Either, uJol l^ u^3'^ donon kd ek, ^5 ^ ko't, (conj .) il^=>> Miwdh. 

Elastic, l^S.*^ chimthd, \j^i>- chimrd,j\i^ ai^ dam-ddr. 

Elder, Ijj Jara, [^l^jethd, ^^ kaldn, t^JJ buzurg. 

Elegant, cji-U ^fl/J/j <-^b ndzuk, \j^i^ suthrd, ^-^»- Mm5. 

Eloquent, ^joi fafih, yi (j^y>' khish-go, ^\jj ^^,jJ^ shlrln-zabdn. 

Else, (other) jjl aur, l^jJ dusrd, (conj.) i!l illd. 

Eminent; xSj buland, ^^\ ald,jy<\j ndm-war, i^fji buzurg. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, 6fc. 359 

Empty, Jl>> IMll, ^f>-^^ chhuchha, \iy> suna, ^ tihl. 

Endless, <-::-J^ i^, be-nihayat, Jo- ^ be-hadd, A^\i^^ mudam. 

English, c/j:> r-^^ angrezl, ^li^^l inglishtdm. 

Enormous, j»-la£. aztrn, L::^iL-» saldit, S)dsJ^ shadid. 

Enough, (j~J basj ^'^ kafi, o^^^ Z>a/iw^ : see Sufficiency. 

Entire, j*Uj tamamy J^l^ /:awzi/, l^o pwra, ^^ .90^7^. 

Entirely, y-j^^-s sar-asar, JXL bilkull, ^li uJol ek-kalam. 

Envious, iX-s^o- hasid, ^^\^ ddhl, *i-^^ bad-chashm. 

Equal, ^Ij bardbar, ^\^lL^} ek-sdn,j^^ ham-sar. 

Equitable, e:„^*-'\; rdst, <— La:.^ munsif, fjs>- hakk, CS*^ thik. 

Equivocal, >^^ muVham, j\i^ ^j»x^ ^^^ do-ma rii-ddr. 

Erect, ^jIi-jI istdda, ^ " >^.< mustaJam, \^ khard. 

Ere long, ^^ (JUj c/;^ More zamdne mm. 

Ere now, ^vjl JJj /:a5Z a^r-Iw, ,^^^^ ,^^T age is-ke. 

Erroneous, Lli ghalaU Erroneously, Dali. ghalatan, \^j^ sahwan. 

Esculent, d><-^jf^ khtirdanl, Jjli ^ ^^ khdne ke kdbiL 

Especial, (^l>- khdss. Especially, ^^..n^- khnsus, Uj^ori- khususan. 

Et caetera, 2^^ zi;a ghaira, l1531 J_^ ^air zdlik. 

Eternal, ^/JjI abadl, J)jjil Id-yazdl, J^J dd'im. 

Even, (level) j^j^*Jb hamwdr, uv^^ chauras : see Equal, Straight. 

Even (adv. or conj.), ^ 5acA, ,<«^|; wdkl'i, jp bht. 

Ever, (at some time) ^j^ kabhi, ^^ kadhi : see Always. 

Every, Jb har, CJ^} jSi> har Ik, ySS c»^v-j sab ko't. 

Every where, ^j^ jib har kahin, -^X>-^ har jagah. 

Evident, (^Uc aydn,Jb^ zdhir, \^ khuld, \J^J^\ dshkdrd. 

Evidently, W;^ sarlhan, LfcU? zdhir an, uJl.* sdf. 

Evil, 1^ 5Mr«, Jo bad, ^^j zabun, j\^ khwdr. 

Exact, cliCg" f^I/c, l::-^*^J durust, j\j bardbar : see Nice. 

Exactly, <ti^ ba-aini-hi, ^^^^ hu-ba-hu, CS^ thlk. 

Exalted, j]^^5^ sar-fardz, jcJj^ sar-buland. 

Exceeding, cUJ nipat, i^t^bj ziydda, i-::-^^^J bahut, 

Excellent,^^ bihtar, J^l\i fd\ik, aj\ uttam, c,^Ui gh dlib. 

360 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sec. 

Except, L*j siwd, jc^ ba-juz, j^^ ba-ghair, ^ \y^ siwa'e. 

Excessive, 2? jl>J ziyada, LlivJbJl adhik, '^:^}^ nihayat. 

Expeditious, J biXl^ J aZc?-ia2r,^jJ-j tez-rau, CS%>- chalak. 

Experienced, jl^ <Lysr tajriba-kdr, J^i^Jj\j wdkif-kar. 

Expert, Ji>U mdhir, ^-[^ phurtlld, l^ pakkd. 

Express, t-Jl^ ^of, ^^11^ zdhir. Expressly, \s^ kasdan. 

Exquisite, (j^JiJ nafls, jxj^ bihtar,jd\j nadir. 

Extempore, ^ijJ\^^ fi-l-badiha, J-«t;^^ he-ta'ammuL 

Extensive, ^-^^ wasi^, i^jll^ kushdda, \ji bard. 

Exterior, External, i^^ suri, c^H^ zdhiri, j^3j^ berurii. 

Extra, 1^ to md siwd, a^ aldica, ^t>Vj ziydda. 

Extraordinary, \^y\ anuthd, c-^^ ajab, jd\> nddir. 

Extravagant, ^^ J^^ faml-ldiarch, jy^Juj be-dastur. 

Face to face, ^jU^\*^j>^\ dmne sdmne, ^y, ^j ru-ba-ru. 

Facetious, j--i? (jt^ Tdmsh-tab^, Jj*«jJi> hansor, J^^2f> thathdl. 

Facing, ji^j^ ru-ba-ru, JjliU mukdbil, ^x«Lj sdmne. 

Fair, (in complexion) ^j^J gora, (honest) (ji^-slj ra^^ ; see Beautiful. 

Faithful, j1 J ^^UjI tmdn-ddr, j\ii\i^ wafd-ddr, Ls*^ sachchd. 

Faithless, U^-j be-wafd, ^V^ lLXk) namak-hardm. 

False, \^^jhuthd, jLb JfljfiZ, (forged) uf*^^ takUdi. 

Famous, ^^li wamj^tj^U ndmddr,jy^L^ mash'hur. 

Far,j3J dur, ;^^ Ja'l^, (much) ^.i:^^^ bahut, aS^^/j ziydda. 

Farther, Jij^d durtar, (besides, moreover) ^1& aldwa. 

Fast, (firm) L^^ mazbutf W^j paurhd or ^orAa ; see Swift. 

Fat, t^ ?wofa, <Uy farbih, ^^^p^jaslm. 

Fatal, tl^l^ muhlik, JjIj /ra^iZ, (fated) !jj iarfa. 

Faultless,^;;M£:iu ^ be-taksir, /^/r^ Id-jurm, t-*^^ be-aib. 

Faulty, ^-i^t) c?057, j^^j^^aisj takfir-wdr : see Bad, Defective. 

Favourable, (^tyv* w*^/^^^«w, (suitable) ^ii^^ muwdfik. 

Fearful, (afraid) cl/l3 L::^^.lJ^J dahshat-ndk, (awful) c--->^-< WM^iZ>. 

Fearless, Ll/b ^^ be-bdk.jSj ni-dar: see Bold. 

Feeble, ^^,y l3 nd-tawdn, L-i-x^ ^^'^'f>J3Jf^ kam-zor. 

Vocabulary — Adjectives ^ Adverbs, Sfc. 361 

Fell, ^\x^u^ sangdil, j\ykr^ !diunJdiwar,^i katar. 
Female, Feminine, ^ jl< mdda : see Effeminate, Soft. 
Ferocious, ,<l^j wahshl, f^j^\ bc'rahm: see Cruel. 
Fertile, J-^^y zar'kluz^i^^..:^^ sansgar^ s^ jaiyid. 
Fetid, sx^ ganda, ,^/^c^ muta'affin, \x^\^ bisahinda. 
Feverish, <Sii^u-^ fap-girifta, a,^ garm, JJUt.^* tap-ma' II. 
Few, \^^ thord, o?^' thore, Jc^ chand, ^ kuchh. 
Fickle, l^^^ ochhdy -ttIHl^^ talauwun-mizaj , J^>- chanchal. 
Fictitious, <^i^Lj sdkhta, If ^p- jhuthd, ^J^ t agh allubl. 
Fierce, JcJ tund, Jjxi» shadid, ci-^-ii^J durusht, ^^ ikawi. 
Fiery, ^J^\ dtashi, o;U ndrl, (passionate) J-J ieZy j^ij tund. 
Figurative, i/jl^ majdzi, iXr^ tamslU. 
Filthy, iL* maildy (j--=f^ wa;i5, Ll/b l3 nd-pdk, li-li ghaViZ, 
Final, ci):^! d/diirl, js^\ dkhir, il^ pichhld, JajI^ kdmil. 
Fine, (not coarse) cIXnIj bdr'ik, (^showy) j\Si:>- jildddr : see Elegant. 
Finite, JjJt^r^ mahdudj J\Si\}j^^ ifjljjl anddza o pdydn-ddr. 
Firm, ^-mJ^ mazbut, L::^^ir-' sakht, V^ kard, Ll^j^ subut. 
First, 1^ pahld, ^\ agld, Jjl awwal : see Chief. 
Fit, clXjf' J/i7^, j;iil ZaV^, ci^w^J durust, w^>^L« mundslb. 
Fixed, jjlji kd'cm, J^ — « mustahkim, ^i^L sdkin. 
Flabby, Flaccid, Lb pilpild, /y war/w, iLaj <//i7/tt. 
Flagrant, (burning) j^Jj^ sozdn, (enormous) j^^JuI shadid. 
Flat,^!^ bardbar, j\y4Jb hamwdr, (insipid) l^L^ pliikd. 
Flexible, \%\^^ chimrd, 1.^ lachlld, ,*J narm: see Soft. 
FHmsy, ilcj patld, J-:;j patll, j^jj kam-zor, ,^=rV, P^*^* 
Fond, (Jjl-- shd'ck, ^j-i>U dshik, JjU waV^ • see Fool. 
Fool, Foolish, ^^1 akmak, uJjJJ^ he-wukuf, -^jyo murakh. 
Forasmuch, ^^ chunkij ^^L^ jabki^ d^\j)j z'lrdki. 
By Force, Forcibly, \j^ jabran, ^j-^^j zor se, j^j ba-zor. 
Fore, L 1 ag/a, (ji-J pe*^, ^^-.l^^ pesliin, iy pahld. 
Foreign, Foreigner, ^— J*^ pardesl, ^r^^ ajnabl, ^^„<^, bidesl. 
Former, ^1 «g/a, 1,^^ pahld, ^^j peshtn, ^Ls sa5iA:. 

3 a 

362 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 

Formerly, ^ \ dge,jxt^^ peshtar, ^j^ Jf^^ sdbik men. 

Formidable, c^-^/-* muhlb, lL/13 <^:-^^ haibat-ndk. 

Forth, (forwards) ^T age, (abroad) ybb bdhar. 

Fortunate, Lir^ssTilXJ nek-bakht, L::^5jil^ bhdgwant. 

Forward, (early) l:^T dgmand, (bold) ^ shokh: see Before. 

Foul, 5L« TwaiZa, (_JU l3 nd-sdf, ^/-^ wo; w, i^t3^T dluda. 

Fragrant, jbjj^^ Mmsh-hu-ddr, )ax^ mu' attar. 

Frail, (weak) uJ-x-? fa'*/, (not durable) b>^ kampd, ^\i fdrii. 

Free, Jtjt dzdd,j\z^ mukhtdr, <fc>^j\» wdrasta, 

French, (j*^ji fardsis, ^^^.^ji fardsisl, l^ ^\/ frdns kd. 

Frequent,^! aksar, ^j^^paiham, i-::-^ bahut. 

Frequently, <0^1 aksartya, Jojj bdr-bdr,jxL^:^ beshtar. 

Fresh, (new) L3 nayd, ifj\j tdza, (not salt) \j^\ alond : see Cool. 

Fretful, ^j^j^ chirchird, [&>- khafd, (>tj>.l3 nd-khush. 

Frightful, l1/U Jb haulndk, ^)\j^ dardwnd, ^.^^^r-^ muhlb. 

Frivolous, l^ halkd, J^\j nd-chlz, uX«-» subuk. 

Frosty, jl J uJ^ barf-ddr, L l^ ^^b j9aZe M 5a. 

Fruitful, jl J ^^-^ mewa-ddr^j^j\i bdrwar : see Fertile. 

Fruitless, J^^ aphal, j^ be-bar, (profitless) ti.^ abas. 

Full, (complete) Ij^ pSra, (replete) ^j bhard, y pur,j^ ser. 

Fulsome, U^^ ghinaund, j\^\j nd-gawdr, Jc«-*jl3 nd^pasand. 

Furious, JjJ ^M/jcZ, Jo Jjj shadid, ci/li-Mdx. gh azab-ndk. 

Further,yj^ J durtar, (furthermore) ^ ^^ ^2*5 par. 

Fusty, d^^^^^pkaphund, ^\i bdsl, IjcJbLj bisdhindd. 

Future, JLjh--^ mustakbil, ^>^^\ d'lnda, ^j^\ dgami. 

Gamesome, LL>- chulbuld, ^jj^ khildri, L^ rasiyd. 

Gaudy, L^ bharkild, L.^2^ chatklld, Ifij rangild. 

^^y> LT^ khiish, jjU jli» shddmdn : see Gaudy. 

General, <%U: am, --.jj^ murauwaj,J^\ aksar. 

Generally, Jy^\ aksartya,J^\ aksar, U^ umuman. 

Generous, j^^ir' sakM, bb c?a^a, w^ /ccirlwi. 

Gentle, (tame) lib hild, (well-bred) J^\ asil. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc, 363 

Gently, ,^_<2u-Ji>! dhiste, j^-^^jfeJ dhlme, ^y m^ narm narm. 

Genuine, J^l afil, (pure) f^\s>- khalis, ^^ chokha, 

Giddy,j\i} ^j^ ghurm-ddr, (volatile) J>^7^^ chanchaL 

Glad, (j^^s^ khiish, Ci\J^ shad, jtj.*^ masrur, /^j>- khurram. 

Gladly, ^ ^3^ khusJii st, ^^ JcJ 1 dnand se. 

Globular, Globous, JjS goZ, [^^'i^ gold-sd, ^^^J> kurawi. 

Glorious, (JAp;- jalil, j^\jA^ jalilu-l-kadr, s^^ majld. 

Glutinous, ^-^-^^ chipchipd, L-LJ laslasd, j\^ las-ddr. 

Glutton, Gluttonous, ^5-j petu, ^J^^ petdrthu, Jl^i akkdl. 

Golden, X^^ sonahld, ^jijj zarrtn, ^ "^ tildl. 

Good, \^\ achchhd, \i bhald, <^y>- khub, t.l>-J nek. 

Graceful, L^ sajlld, ^\.^kA^ janiil, j\j^Jb tarah-ddr. 

Gradually, ff^j^ ba-tadrij, <fc:i> icij rafta rafta. 

Grammatical, iScXi Ij bd-kd'ida, ^y.j< marbut. 

Grand, \yi bard, >-iac azlm,j^ kablr, i^S^y, buzurg. 

Grateful, j^J^^^Cij shukr-guzdr, (jJ^^J^ hakk-skinds. 

Gratis, Gratuitously, (j:^Ju muft, Jo^ jj-j be-zar kharid. 

Grave, J^t> dhlrd, 2rjursd«j sanjlda, \j^'S gambhlrd. 

Greasy, jljk-j^ charbl-ddr, l:*^ chiknd, cU^ chikkat. 

Great, \y^ bard, *-jlac azjm, (^j\i buzurg, jJ^ kablr. 

Grecian, ^J^^, yundn-t. 

Greedy, i^lj^ harls, j<^'^ Idlchl, (ravenous) ^4^,j^ mar-bhukkhd. 

Green, \yb hard,y^ sabz, (fresh) Xj<i tdza, (raw) Ls? kachchd. 

Grey, ,.j^^i^U>- khdkistari, \j^ kabrd, c— ^^^1 ash^hab. 

Grievous, SiSJ^ shadid, d^i:**' sakht, jSj\t^ji^ dard-angtz. 

Gritty, \^^ kirkird, (as bread) LiL^ kaskasd. 

Gross, \iyo motd, ^^;,^ jaslm, ljJ^. bhdrl : see Stupid. 

Guiltless, i^l:Xj be-gundh, >^^(XJ nirdokh, ^j^ bari. 

Guilty, )^^ gunahgdr, J^^j^^^asu taksirwdr. 

Hairy, (full of hair)j^jJ^^ mu'eddr, (made of hair) ^j4>Lj pashmi. 

Half, Ujl ddhd, (-jLa3 nisf, ^J riim. 

Half and half, in halves, ^JuoLi U^ nisfd nisft. 

364 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 

Handsome, j^*-^ hasin, \j^ suthra : see Good, Beautiful. 

Happy, (lucky) ^|^l^ kamran, (at ease) JU^^^^^ii^ khush-haL 

Hard, i^L^-sk^ saTdit, \ji kara : see Firm, Difficult. 

Hardly, (with difficulty) ^ (ji^'J dikkat se : see Scarcely. 

Hark ! ^u^ y^ suno suno, ^^.^^ ^,^^ dekko dekko . 

Harsh, ^^.^jii durusht, L::^^^*-' sakht, (sour) ^Jiy tursk. 

Hasty, (quick) A^^jald, Ijjj^jphurtila, (rash) s:^ tund. 

Haughty, J. ycij maghrur, ^'S^u^ ghamandi : see Proud. 

He, (pron.) x^ wuh, ^^ yih, (male) y nar. 

Healthy, Healthful, L::^^Jk:J tan-diirust, Ix:.^ ^ bkala ckanga. 

Hearty, (sincere) b^^ be-riya, uJU saf: see Healthy, Strong. 

Heavenly, ^JU-jI asmarii, c/^Uu-j samawi, ^Jls falakl. 

Heavy, t^jl^ bkari, ^^ giran: see Grievous, Stupid, Sad. 

Hebrew, i^Lj: ibram^ ^'^^'i, yakudi. 

Heedless, Ij^r?^ be-parwa, (^^ ghafil, e^^l acket. 

Helpless, jWiJ la-char, ^^^^ be-ckara, (j*^ be-bas. 

Hence, (adv.) ^ ^^l^ yahan se, (conj.) j^l-sl is-liye. 

Hence ! (interj.), ^iij*<^ dur ko ! yb *JJ c?«/* ^o .' 

Henceforth, Henceforward, ^-o c-^\ «5 se, ^ \ age, i^ J^ij ! a'lnda. 

Her, j^ j^ ^jj-^ V. U^' ^^" ^^ is-ka, -ke, -kt, >f (jJ\ us-ko. 

Hereafter, jX-j^ ^ ^«*<^ «s/:e, ^^ \ age, 2fjjJ I d\mda. 

Hereditary, ^J^jyo maurusl, ij\\ abal, CJj^^ paitrik. 

Hideous, c-^^--< rnuklb, Ll/Ulyb kaulnak, ^S karlh. 

High, 4\ib buland, \af^ uncka, (proud) h-^cl^ mutakabbir. 

High-born, 2fj|j -*^1 amlr-zada, ^j^jJU- Jlc dll-khanddn. 

Highly, c:^.ly nikayat, lS^ nipat, nS^j ziyada. 

High-mettled (as a horse), jU3U-^*rtw-5a2:,J-J ^e^^. 

High-seasoned, ^"Jj^ ckirpira, J\i^ J^\*a.< masdlih-ddr. 

Hind, Hinder, Hindermost, il^ss^ joic/i/^/tt,^:^! dkhir. 

Hitherto, tliij^ ab-tak, CSj ^^^, yakdn tak, j^ kanoz. 

Hollow, ^^j^^ ckkuckha, <— i^* mvjauwaf, ^^ khokJild, 

Holy, fjmdSL< mukaddas, jit^ fakir, cA^pdk. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc, 365 

Honest, \^ khara, joC>^^j rast-baz, js>jU sadh. 
Honourable, Jjx^ mu'azzaz,jyc\j ndmwar: see Honest. 
Hopeless, S^\ 13 na-ummed, (^\jj niras, ^^«J:>^ mayus. , 
Horrid, Horrible, c--^'^ muhib, d/Llyb haulnak: see Dreadful. 
Hot, M^ garm, lij* tatta, y>j ttz : see Eager, Furious. 

How long ? klJj t ^ A:«5 tak? How oft 1 j^ ^ kai ber? 

How many? ^^ci' /:i^we (m.) ? How much ? l:c^ /czV^ia (m.)? 

However, (conj .), ^^Cl /e/:f w, ^;X< magar, jJ par. 

Human, ^^LJ^ insanl, tj?r^ basharl. 

Humane, J^/*/ narm-dil, (J^^^ hallm, a*Lj salim. 

Humble, ^jy farotan, e--y.^ gharlb, Is-lc o/i-s'. 

Humid, Ll/li^ namnak, '-r^^j^ martub, y tar. 

Humpbacked, IjJ* kubra, l^^^J^ kuz-pusht. 

Hungiy, l/^ bhukha, ic^ji gursina. 

Hurtful, jl^bj ziyankar,jA^ mvzirr, JL^-* mukhill. 

Hypocritical, Hypocrite, ^^^ kapafi, j^Vj 'riyakar. 

Ideal, ^\^ khiyalt, ^c^ wahmt, ^jS farzi. 

Idle, (unemployed) jILj bt-kar, (lazy) l::^ : sms#. 

Jealous, j^JJ bad-zann, (emulous) ^jticLij^l ghairat-kash. 
Ignorant, ^S\j na-dan, jJ^ bt-khabar : see Fool. 
Ill, (bad) \ji bur a, jj bad, (sick)jU-j blmar : see Evil. 
Ill-behaved, ^\^ kuchali,J^\^ bad-atwar : see Rude. 
Illiterate, ^Jul^lj nd-khwanda, j»jx.u> beta^llm, -^CjI ansikh. 
Ill-natured, jj^^J'^^ bad-bdtin, S'^^Si bad-nihdd. 
Illustrious, (<^^ WttTwJ, jj^,.C-^ mashhur, '^z>A^ mumtdz. 
Immediately, ^j^^. ba-mujarrad, lUJ turt, ^^' tabKi. 
Immense, Jcsnj bt-hadd, ^^-IXj bt-kiyds : see Infinite. 
Immoderate, ^^^^,c^ bt-anddza, ^J^J ziydda, Jcsnj bt-hadd. 
I Qi mod est, /♦^-^J be-sharm, L2s:\.» be-hayd. 
Immoral, ^U<w\j bad-ma ash, l^^^< ma*yub : see Bad. 
Immortal,^^ «m«r, t^.^^ be-marg, J\j)} Id yazdl. 
Immovable, J^l tzcAa/, Jji rzfa/, (JJ^srL<^i ghair mutaharrik. 

366 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc, 

Impartial, ^j^, be-gharaz, cJ-si^ munsif, JjW ddil. 

Impatient, ^;^maj be-sabr, c^-.Ci>l3 na-skikeb, ^f garm. 

Imperfect, aUjI) na-tamam, {j&s\j nakis,j>c\h kasir. 

Impious, ^j^JJuJ be-dm, ^jJ^ fasik, ^ji'>^\ adharmi. 

Important, t^\ ahamrriy ijj^ bharl, \y bard. 

Impossible, ^^C*^^^ ghair mumkin, \j^^\ anhond. 

Impotent, (unable to propagate) tyd} nd-mard : see Weak. 

Improbable, ^jA:Ls^JJ: gh air muhtamilj (jJJslJ»%>' khildf-i kiyds. 

Improper, Is^ be-jd, ^j.^&x^\j nd-ma^kul, Jiy^^j nd-hamwdr. 

Improvident, Imprudent, ^}dj\ ij^ kotah-andesh, j^s:^i be-tadbtr. 

Impudent, (»J^, be-sharm, (bold) -^iL&o dliith. 

Impure, uJl^U nd-sdf, ^j-^ najis, Ll/l>l3 nd-pdk. 

In, ^j^ rnen, ^j^ bich, ^£j bhitar, (dakh. also) ^j^ mane. 

Inaccurate, ^.s^^^ gh air sahih, c:--^jl3 nd-durust. 

Inactive, c^'.-^ sust, Ljbi dktld, ^^'<\;\ drdmi. 

Inadvertently, ^ c:^ii£ gh aflat se, ^^ bhulkar. 

Inanimate, Inani mated, ^l=s^^ be-jdn, CS^'-^, be-namak. 

Inattentive, JiU gh dfiL C-jUiI^^^^ be-iltifdt, ^^j^ be-parwd. 

Incapable, j^a^ kdsir, ^i\ij^ gh air kdbil, \^j\i nd-rasd. 

Incentive, * J c^^^jji^* targhib-dik, CJj^'^ muharrik. 

Incessant, J|^ mutawdtir, j\i\^ lagdtdr, t^^ paiham. 

Inclined, JjU md^ll, (desirous) e^lj r dgh ib, ^*?l-i» shd'lk. 

Including, Inclusive, J-Cwl^ mushtamil, J^U* shdmil. 

Incomparable, rjiai^ be-nazlr, (J\j^ Id-sdm. 

Incomplete, /•Ujlj nd-tamdm, ^^\j ndkis. 

Inconstant, Cl^Ui-j be-sabdt, j\jui be-kardr. 

Incorrect, ^-sf^^ nd-sahih, jbd>J\ asudh, lali gh alat. 

Indebted, j^Juiys karz-ddr, (obliged) ^^^^ mamnun. 

Indecent, Indecorous, l.^S\^ be-adab, aJl^^ bt-sharm. 

Indeclinable (in gram.), Cjj^jfS. gh air mutaharrik. 

Indeed, ^\j wdkVt, ^ sack, iUJl albatta. 

Indefinite, jji<j^ gh air mukarrar, (noun) aij nakira. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives ^ Adverbs y Sfc, 367 

Independent, J.ib*«*^ mustakill, ^^j^ sar-kkiid. 

Indiscreet, lils)^ be-lifiaZj jU:^^ ^i be-imtiyaz. 

Indisposed, (disinclined) jLl3 na-saZj (sick) suaL^ kasalmand. 

Industrious, ^^f^ mihnat-iy ^^5»-lCcl^ kdmkdjl, (^^L> sd'i. 

Inestimable, 1^-j bl-baha, l::^^^ be-klmat. 

Infamous, >*l3 Jo bad-ndm, \y^j ruswd, ,^_5-^l apajasi. 

Inferior, Isai nlchdj C^^ chhotd, yjjji farotar, \jS\ adnd. 

Infinite, a^J be-hadd, j^V.W ^^'po.ydn, \ji^\'i be-intiha. 

Infirm, u.fl^fog za^if-^ ^t> dubld, ^^y^ nd-tawdn, ^^j rogi. 

Ingenious, ^^j zaH, ^^^ zahin, \ji>- chatura. 

Initial, iL^ pahld, /♦J^ mukaddam, Jjl awwal. 

Inlaid, ci^-mC^ munabbat, [\y>-jard'u. 

Innocent, t^b pa/:, al:*^ be-gundh, (harmless) ^.^ijS- gh arlb. 

Innumerable, jIk1-j be-skumdrf i::^^:Sj\ anginat. 

Insane, ^\)i,t^ diwdna, T.b bd'bld, ^y^"^ majnun. 

Insatiable, l^(Jys>^^l3 nd-ser-hone kd, ^^^j-^ marbhukhd: see Greedy. 

Insensible, jj--=^ be-hiss, (j^y^^, bt-hosh : see Gradually. 

Inside, ^;:i-^ bhJtar, ^^j<y^\ andarun, jdj\ andar. 

Insipid, *|/»«J be-maza, IC*^ pKikd, (JjUxj be-namak. 

Insolent, \J^ magrd, ^j*^ sar-kash, ^\i^ gustdkh. 

Instantly, ^^\ abhl, j*J ^^1 isl dam, j^\^ ji-l-faur. 

Instead, \Ji^ iwaz, Jjj badal, ^ \^> ba-jd'e. 

Intelligent, Jilc dkily f,^ fahtm,j\Jii^ hoshydr. 

Intemperate, J^yJkj bad-par hez, ^^ shardbl. 

Intentionally, \xaj kasdan, \iSas, amdan, iS^T}^. iJ^ j^'^ bujhke. 

Interior, Internal, cSJh^. bhltrl, ^^j^^ darum. 

Intimate, ^'^^ ham-dam, mjS^ mahram, \j^yo munis. 

Intransitive verb, ^J^ Jxs fi^l-i-ldzimi, CS^p\ akarmak. 

Intrepid, tJjLj bt-bdk,j3j nidar, j\j\^ jdn-bdz. 

Intricate, jb-^jpecA-c?ar, «r«fV,J'^ '^{P^^^ dar pech. 

Intuitive knowledge, <JjJ Jx ilm-i-ladunnl. 

Invalid, (null) Jtb bdtil, (sick) ^^c^t Jb dd'tmu-l-maraz. 

368 Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Adverbsj Sfc. 

Invaluable, l^^ hl-baha, J^! amol^^y^ azlz. 

Inverse, Inverted, l5ll ulta, IfcJJjt aundMj c-?jlJU makluh. 

Invincible, (ji^i^T^ ajit, J*J1 atal, L^^ix^j^ gh air maghluh. 

Invisible, ^.^^ andekkdf c^jli gha'ih^ ^,^^^ na-padld. 

Involuntary, i^J'}^\ mi'^o,rij j\^^\ ^ he-ikJitiyar, 

Jocular, Jocose, J^^%J' tkathol, j^*-*iJ& kansor, f^~s^J^ .^^^I/* 

Jolly, Jovial, (^>^^^ Miiish, Jj^^J^Jj zinda-dil, ;<^J hhogl. 

Joyful, ^y>' khush, mJ>- Idiurram^ ^Ujli> shadman. 

Irregular, ^^Xtli*^ be-ka'tda, (^\Ji^l>- khilaf-i-kiyas. 

Irremediable, \^Si la-dawa^ r^^^<^, be-ildj. 

It, Sj wuh, ^, yih or yah. Its, \L^\ us-kd, IC^I is-kd. 

Judicious, jU-iyb hoshydr, cXi/*»lilc aklmand, ^^^ parbin. 

Jugular, l^ ^ gale kd ; vein, Jl>jj1^ J-o- hablu-l-warld. 

Juicy, L-i; rasild, j\^^j rasddr, c-->l jli shdddb. 

Junior, u^f^ ckhotd, l1X>-j^ kuchak, jM saghlr. 

Just, JjU «c?iZ, C-wj]^ rfl5#, Ur' sachchdj CJ>^ thlk. 

Just now, ^^1 ab-Iilf Jl^M «//^a/, c-->l a5. 

Keen, (eager) (j5l-ij slid' Ik, (sharp) ^ ^e^r, (severe) JcJ ^(fmt/. 

Kind, (j;^J;Y* ^^hrbdUf l::^3jIo daydwant, ^«i-i» shaftk. 

Knotty, Knotted, \^ gathild, (abstruse) ^^^ixo m ugh lak. 

Knowing, cJ5|^ wdkif, \j\<^ ddnd, 3^^ gydm,jSi>l< mdhir. 

Laborious, ^lu.*?-^ mihnati: see Industrious, Difficult. 

Lame, 1^ langrd, i^S^ lang, J.\ lunj, (of the hands) ^^ ZiiZa. 

Languid, i^JuxJ) za'if, irjjU mdnda, Jji>\^ A:aAz7, ^1^--^-: 5M5^. 

Large, Ijj bard, ^yo mold, Aj fardkh^ ^J^, ^kdrJ. 

Lascivious, (^^.-^ mast, ^^^^ shahwatt, |^V~=>- chulhdrd. 

Last, \^^ pichhld, j^\ dkhir, j^\ akhir. 

At last,^! dkhir, ^IjJ niddn, cu-iU dklbat. 

Late, (after time)^ J c?er, (deceased) (»j>y<» marhum, (past) L ! agld. 

Lately, ^ ^y j «t^I?t^ tliore dinon se, 1|^ j^j*^ darin wild. 

Laudable, ..^^X^^ mamduh, Jjl5 ^ '— ^.^ ta^rif ke kdbiL 

Lawful, ^jJ^ shar'i, (allowable) jJU-JaV^r, JL>- haldL 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 369 

Lazy, l::.^^^^. - sust^ JaI^ kahil, ^%C nikhattu. 

Lean, 51jJ dubld,jci laghar, j^a^ hakir : see Poor. 

Learned, JU a/iw?, J-iU yaf i^? J-^^ kdmil, ci^Jcj pandit. 

Least, I5^p^ ,<^ 4^-5 scr& se chhotd, ^^„j^ kamtarin. 

Left, (opposite to right) jjlb JayaTJ, (remaining) ^\j bdki. 

Lenient, Lenitive, ^-Lo mulaiyin, ^^^^--^ musakkin. 

Leper, Leprous, ^j^f korhi, ,^_<— -{ p^si, ^^'^jazdrni. 

Less, S kam, B^f>- chhotd, j:^ kamtar,j:^ kihtar. 

Lest, (that not) IjLo mabddd, (for fear that) ^3 LjI aisa wa/io. 

Level, jjj bardbar,j\y^ hamwdr, J^"^ musattah. 

Liar, \^^^ jhuthd, c-> jl^ A'a?iZ>, f^j^ daro gh -go. 

Liberal, (munificent) ^s:-*' sakhl, Ub ddtd : see Generous, Free. 

Libertine, JuiLj be-kaid, Ud luchchd, JJj n'wcZ, ^;lji dwdra. 

Licentious, Jui-j bt-kaid, ^J^j^ sarkash, ^l^JJ badkdr. 

Lifeless, ,^^^^ be-jdn, (inactive) ov.«-j 52^5^, J^^^^ mafhul. 

Light, (bright) L»-l ^^;7a, ^^jj roshan, (not heavy) Ulto ^aZA:tf. 

Like, (equal) (J^^yo muwdfik, (similar) L> sd, j^l-^J tksdn. 

Likely, (probable) jlyj^ honhdr, (probably) ^<^Jy^ howe, LWi. gh dliban. 

Likewise, (adv.) ^^^ bhi, jJ niz, ^J-->\ j{^ upar-iske. 

Liquid (fluid), hj patld, JL-5 saiydl, l^\xo muzdb. 

Little, 1"^ ^^ora, (small) B^^ chhotd, Jjys- kkiird. 

Live, Living, li-5»- Ji^a, *Ju>j 3:iW6?a, (burning) ^^ garm. 

Lively, Jj^fJuj zinda-dil, ^^-i. s^oM, ^^^^^£5- kkiish-tab^ : see 

Lo ! ^^.t> dekho, jl Zo, -^J rfe/c^. 
Loath, ;jotjl3 nd-rdz, xsJL^ kashlda, J^^yxf rugarddn. 
Lofty, (high) JcL buland, (proud) jj.^ maghrur : see Conceited. 
Lone, Lonely, Kl iA;Za, IfJ tanhd, 1S\ akUd : see Sohtary. 
Long, L^J lambdyj\jddardz, (time, dilatory) i^j<^ dirang. 
Loose, ^ MwZa, Cj^ chhutd, 1^^ dhild, *X*iLo bt-kaid. 
Lost, t^ gum, ^\f>- Tdiardb, \S gayd, c-^y^-^ ghdHb. 
Loud, cj[;^-i> s^ori, j^^T J^Jj buland dwdz, \sf^\ unchd. 

3 B 

370 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc, 

Loudly, with a loud voice, ^_c^^ pukarke, ^j^ shor se. 

Lovely, \j\j pyara, ^j^j^ nazmn, jld dilbar. 

Lovesick, ^i^y farefta, ^j^ maftun, \^y^"^ majnun. 

Lousy, Ul^i^ chilraha, \j^ ij-!.^ ju'en-bhara : see Base. 

Low, ls:i3 nlcha, lc^-w^j past, (weak) cp.»,y.»P fa'*/": see Base. 

Low, (adv. not loud) ^JX*Jit ahiste, i<V^i3 dhlme: see Down. 

Lowly, ^jj/ farotan, >-L>- halim, <^,J^ gharib : see Humble. 

Loyal, J)U-(JjU3 namak-halal, A-ii^w*-^ mustakim : see Faithful. 

Lucid, uJU? 50/", j5^ barrak, ^^j roshan, uJU-i> shaffaf. 

Lucky, L^^ (J^f*" khush-nasib^ J3^^^ bakJitawar : see Fortunate. 

Ludicrous, ^^^-^ masMiariyj^ tannaz,jJ^\ifi\u:>' khanda-angez. 

Lukewarm, ^^j-^ shir-garm, (dakh.) UC*^ kumkumd. 

Lunar, .jJ^-* mahtabi, cS/^ kamari, (day) -fJ tith, (f.) 

Luscious, l^IL^ mitha, \^j rasila, «X) JJ Zam : see Delicious. 

Lusty, (stout) j^I:j tanawar, ^5y kaiv'i,j»\j^j zordwar: see Corpulent. 

Luxuriant, r*2^ kaslr, J^^ wdjir, ^tJl>J ziyada. 

Luxurious, (jiiUc aiydsh, ^Ji\x^ (jtyi*- khiish-ma'dsh, JLj petu, J}^J6 

Mad, <0 V J diwdna, l^b bd'old, (enraged) lL/U-m^^ gh azabndk. 
Made, !y> bUj bandyd liTCd, <t:^L sdMita, y*^ karwdyd. 
Magnificent, j^llJ!*-.lic azjmu-sk-shdn : see Grand. 
Main, (chief, principal) J^l awwal, /♦ JJU mukaddam : see Important. 
Major, J^J Z>ara, c^J^ buzurg, Jjl awwal, J^^^j^ sarddr, 
Male, J war, -^jy narukh, t:^J narlna, dj\dyQ marddna. 
Malicious, Malevolent, ^Jij^i^ kina-kash, 2(\^:^Jo bad-Mmdh. 
Manifest, ^\^ wdzih,jb% zdhir, 1^ khuld, \J^J^ dshkdrd. 
Manlike, Manly, ^Ij^ marddna, <^jAJ\y>- jawdnmard. 
Many, l::-^^ bahut, ijj^^, bahuttre (m. plur.), jL-j bisydr. 
Marine, Maritime, tjf/asr bahri, ^^ b^J daryd'l. 
Marvellous, c--^-^ ^j^^} W***^^ achambhd, <0^^"^ ajuba. 
Masculine, (in gender) ^*x< muzakkar, i^S:lj puling : see Manly. 
Material, (of matter) d,U,..^ jismdni: see Important. 

Vocabulary, — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 371 

Maternal, Motherly, ^Jj^^^ madari : see under Grandfather, &c. 
Maybe, Jjll shay ad, ^^^^ howe, l^ hoga, y> ho. 
Mean, i:,^ karnina, i^^r^ P^j^f (middle) &jL^ miyana. 
Meek, ^^^ bhola, jJ^ kalzm, *A-o salim, u--:>^ gharlb. 
Meet, t_^^L^ munasib, c>^^ durust : see Fit. 
Mellow, l^ pakkd, <*y warwi, irJu*^; rasida, (J^^ khush. 
Mercantile, ^^j^ tijdratl, ^^\^y^ saudagarl, ^^\^^ mahdjani. 
Merciful, /»-^ rafiim, J J a^o mom-dil, l::-JjIj J daydwant. 
Merciless, (>»y^, be^ahm, <3iJuj be-dard, fjdi^j:^ sang-dil. 
Mere, (pure) ly tiiVa, jly nirdld, (merely) uJ^ sir/*, j_/asr° mahz. 
Merry, ^jUjli) shddmdn, jy.^:Jb hansor, ^^ magan, (J^f>. khiish. 
Metaphorical, ^l«—K< musta*dr, u5;ls^ majdzi, (adv.) \j\s^ majdzari, 
Methinks, ^ ^'^■^y^ l5^^ mujhe sujhtd hai, j^ lifl ^ .^ 7Wt<;A A:5 

Zag^a hai. 
Mid, Midst, -^j i^jl adh-bich, ^j ^yf^ btchon btch. 
Middle, Middling, <l)L« miydna, ^^J^^ wasatl, ^^f?^ majhold, 
Midway, i\j^\:i\ asnd'e rdh, ^^^ i\j ^SbS{ ddhi rdh mm. 
Mighty, c:-^^ balwant, ^ijs kawi, ^j^Ls sdmarthi, (dakh.) Jc.^ 

Milch (giving milk), jlftj^J dudhdr, J-J^JJ dudhail. 
Mild, *j1^ muld'im, ^y narm, tji>- haUm, J-^^ komal. 
Military, tJ;^ lashkarl, ^^^ jcingl, ljJ^-"*^ askarl. 
Million, ^iJ (j^ii das Idkh, CL-^sT nijut : ten millions, J^^ karor. 
Mine, tj?;^ V. s^./^* Ir^* mcra, were or jwerl, ^^1 ^^1 LjI a/jwa, apwe, 

Minor, JLj,j>. Jzhurd-sdl, (jjas.-**') iJl^O nd-bdligh (shakhs). 
Minute (very small), ^j^ *^wV ^^^^y^^ chhotd, j^-^^ mihin. 
Miraculous, c--^-^ fl;75, <^^^ ujuba, ,J^]S kardmtt, l::.^^! 

Miser, J-^r bakhil, lLX--^^ mumsik, a»j^ shum, o»-j^^ kanjus. 
Miserable, JJi §aZ7Z, Jl:^^^:^.-^ Miasta-hdl, ^jlsu muflis. 
Modern,^l;x^ muta'akh^ir, s^J^jadid, ^lU. kdli : see New. 

372 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 

Modest, (bashful) LJ lajila, J^ halim, (chaste) i-^^^^ mahjub. 

Moist, y tar, J nam, cl/li^ namnak, 1^ gild, bjl odd. 

Mongrel, <dijJ doghla, ^d-JjJ do-nasla. 

Moral, (of manners) li jl>.l aMildk kd, (virtuous) jA^ khallk. 

More, jjl aur, ^*3bj ziydda, tli^J^ adhik, {JLj btsh. 

Moreover, ^^' tis-par, ^S-^^j^,,^ ^V^'^ ^^^^y ^^ aldwa. 

Morose, c:^-^j J durusht, ^j (Jiy tursh-ru, \^ kard. 

Mortal, ijli fdm, ^y< mautt, (deadly) lJ^^^ muJdik, JJl5 kdtil, 

Most,^l aksar, c:-^ bahut, ^Jbj ziydda, jxL^ beshtar. 

Mostly, for the most part, jSi\ aksar, J^J^, beshtar, UU ghdliban, 

^J^\ aksariya. 
Motherly, ^jU mddari, LU md-sd, £j\jd\^ mddardna. 
Much, l::->^j bahut, j\^^ bisydr, (adv.) c:^.l^ nihdyat. 
Muddy, (foul) L^ maild, ^ J^ gadld, (stupid) t/^j^ gdiodi. 
Murky, CSjj^ tdrik, \j^Si\ andherd, j^^:^ ghanghbr. 
Musty, \yi sard, ^J^y bosida, \*^ gumsd. 

Mute, (dumb) \^ gungd, JiJ Idl, (letter) ^^^isr«cJp" harf-i-makhfi. 
Mutual, Mutually, ^j>^^^ do-tarfi, ^^\p^ jdnibain. 
Myself, t3^ j^^ mai9i Tdmd, c-^1 dp, c-^1 ^^^^ maz^ op. 
Mysterious, ,<&^'* maldifi, ^'^^^, poshida. 
Naked, \^ nangd, ^:Jbji barahna, j^V.j^ wrz/arz : see Bare. 
Namely, j<i^. ya^ne, \aya^ khususan, ild^ masalan. 
Narrow, {^S^ tang, ^-^^^ chust, IjLo sakrd^ ^^^4^ saket. 
Nasty, L^ maild, jJj jgaZJt?, ,^/^ wa;z5, ad^ dluda. 
Native, ii>xJi»\j J*tfl l^ lL^Lo ^^ kisi mulk kd asl bdshanda. 
Natural, ^^^ tabVi, ^\3 zdti, jJil>- khilkl, (unaffected) icx^L*^ 

be-sdkhta, (illegitimate) 2^j1j^|^ hardm-zdda. 
Naval, kJj=^* bahri, lSj^^ jahdzu 

Naught, Naughty, Jo bad, \ji burd, ^->)/^ khardb,jijJ^ sharlr. 
Nauseous, \jy^ ghinaund, ^^J^ makruli, ^^J> karih. 
Near, Nearly, (postpos.) u^^^Jids, tl^.^ nazdik, (adj.) c^-y karib, 

t^^£ix,< muttasil, 1^1 lagd. 

Vocabulary. — AdjectiveSj Adverbs^ Sfc. 373 

Neat, uJltf safj cl^l» pak, \j^ suthrd, ^^ pakiza. 

Necessarily, ^j)j^ zaruratan, i^/i Id buddy ^j>- S Idjaram. 

Necessary, Needful, j«^ zarur, ^p Idzim, c--^)^ wdjib. 

Needy, Necessitous, -rT-ls^sr^ muhtdj, Jlx:^ kangdl, ^^AJlo muflis. 

Negative, j<a>o manfij (sentence) <lJL sdliba. 

Neglectful, Negligent, JiU ghdjil, jf^^ be-khabar, e:.^,...^ sust. 

Nether, Nethermost, "iji tarld, ^„J,) zerin, Ji-jl asfal. 

Never, ^j^'fji> hargiz nahin, ^^^ ^ kabhu nahin,j\^j zinhdr ! 

Nevertheless, ^ jJ ^ tis par bhi, ^^ y tau bht, *Jb iJ ^a ham. 

Neuter, (in gram.) lL.^..>\*'> napunsak, (a verb) ^ji lazimi. 

Neuter, Neutral, JbJl JJ j&j1<0 na idhar na udhar, {^S^\ alag. 

New, L3 naj/d, y nau, (fresh) sj\j tdza, (modem) >^,^ jadid. 

Next, (postpos.) (j-^b pas, c---jy karib, (second) 1^^ J dusrd, (Jlj sdm. 

Nice, u-Cf> tkik, ,*f^ sahih, '^j^^jj^ mirzd-mizdj : see Dainty. 

Nigh, (postpos.) fjJj pas, lLCj^ nazdTik, (adj.) c-^jy karib. 

Nightly, J^jM-i. shabina, l^ c:^!^ ra^ /ca, (every night) <^!^yi> Aar ra^ 

Nimble, d/ill^ chdldk, A^- jald, t::-- ^ chustjjJ tez. 

Noble, <— cJr^ sharlfj c^.^-c" 7ifl;75, ifJ^.*^ umda: see Brave. 

Nocturnal, <U»--i» skablna, ^^L! Zai/I, ^^^ s^ail. 

Noisy, j^i^ pur-shor, <-::-vLj ^i^ shor-pusht, ^ Uji ghaughoTi, 

Nolens volens, *l^ir< :(|^ khzpdh ma-khwah, j\:>\) j\:>- char nd-chdr. 

None, (no one) ^^^ ^j^*^ A:o1 wa^zw, (nothing) ^^ ^ kuchh nahin. 

Northerly, Northern, jJU-i»5^maZ7, ji^ JU-i> shimdl-ru, \it\y\ uttrdhd. 

Notorious, (well known) u.^^-!^ mash'hur, ^^^ ma^ruf: see Infamous. 

Notwithstanding, ^ c^^^j V bd-wujude ki, ^ ^^'^j^ ^^'^ chand ki. 

Novel, L3 nayd, dJ^<s>- jadJd, l^-^^ achambhd, ^^dJ badi^. 

Now, L^\ abf J*i)b bi-l-jfl, jWi alhdl, ^y^\ aknun. 

Nowadays, J^ J* dj kal, ^^^ ^ in dinon. 

Nowhere, ,^^3 ^^^ kahin nah'in. 

Nowise, ^j^ ^ ^}s ^ kisi tarah se nahm. 

Noxious, Ju-i^-c mufsidfjoo,^ muzirry J^li fdsid: see Hurtful. 

Nugatory, J--5\:>-^ Id-hdsil, UC nikammd, ,^ hech. 

374 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, 6fc. 

Null, Jijb batil, ^i^j raddi, -:.^-^ mansukh, Jwi^U-if la-hasiL 
Numberless, jtkJ^J be-shumar, ci-^i&l anginat, t-->L.^ be-hisab. 
Numerous, f^::^-^, bahut,jJi^ kasir, js\^ wafir. 
Nuptial, ^^^ nikaht, <Ol.yl-i> shadiyana, ^^ urust. 
Obdurate, c::^^**' saJdit, u^y^ na-tars, \jCo magra, -^Ijbi dJnth, 
Obedient, ^--ia^ muff", j\djS^j far manbardar, aSj ram. 
Objective (case), J^-^ maf'ul, J^«^ mafuli. 
Obliging, j^L-^iJl>-.4^ amimu-l-ihsan, J?-L>- khalik. 
Oblique, ^ kaj, IfcjJ terhcij V>:/ tirchha, iS;f^;f konakom. 
Oblong, ^l^^ kitdbt, JuLo-^^-j^ murabba^-i-mustatiL 
Obscene, {J*:>-\i fahish, ^^^ puck, y!>i^^ phuhar, cJ\j\i na-pak. 
Obscure, CSjj^ tarik, \j^^\ andhera, (abstruse) jix^ mughlak. 
Obsequious, ^J^|^^ adhm, j\*^xj\j tal)i^dar, j\t^yij\:>^ khaya-bardar. 
Obsolete, cl^^/u; matruk, fj«-i^ mansukhj -rllL^ be-rawaj. 
Obstinate, |^ magrd, l^sr* machla, j^SLfc hathi. 
Occasional, ^\sij\ ittifdki, ^^J^ drizi, Jfl^^J dd'd-ghdti. 
Occult, iiSJ^^^ poshlda, L^^ chhipd, ^J^ makhfi, <::^^ gupt. 
Octagon, Octangular, ^^^^t^ musamman, A^,j L;:^l.Jb hasht-pahlu. 
Odd, (unpaired) {JL^^^pkut, jlL? tdk, (in number) dyfard: see Strange. 
Odious, ijjj^ makruh, ^j^ ghinaund, ^^ karih. 
Odoriferous, jIj^^^ khush-bo-ddr, Jhx^ mu' attar, (^J^ subds. 
Off, (distant) jj J dur (f.), ^ se ; (be off!) ^jjc> ^fiir ^o / ci^t) c?m^ / 
Offensive, (unpleasant) Ju-«jU na-pasand, ijj> karih: see Hurtful. 
Oft, Often, A^l a/t.9flr, lfe,b bdrhd,Jjj\i bar bar, liixiJ dafatan. 
Oily, jIjc^jj raughan-ddr, ^J^^j raughani, li^ chiknd. 
Old, UL) purdnd, f,iSi kadim, (as a man) l&Jv burhd. 
Omnipotent, ^Ik^jjli kddir-i-mutlak, Ji3! IijU zdbitu-l-kulL 
Omnipresent,^l3 ^j^^ hdzir o ndzir, U-»i ^ l3lj c?awa o Z>7wa. 
Omniscient, c--^Ulc- dlimu-l -gh aib, ^^1J<UJ^ hama-ddn. 
Once, ^b tlX>3 e/c Jar, <Ui J lISA ek dafa, (formerly) ^il age. 
At once, all at once, ^Jj^ u-^J ek bargi, ij:.^ Llijl ek lakht. 
Oneeyed, Ijl^ kdnd, JL:>- CSA ek chashm. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, 8fc. 375 

Only, (adv.) <_J^ sirf, i^^^^s^ mahz, (adj.) \j^\ iklauta: see Single. 

Onward, ^1 age, ^^^ barhke, jit>^\ udhar, -^j«^ ba-tadrzj. 

Opaque, uXi^ ^(^.^f> (^^j^ gh air shaffaf. 

Open, \^ khula, iiS[zS kushada, j|^ waz, (evident) ^U^ zdhir. 

Openly, \j^ zahiran, Lo^ barmala, \^ \^ khula khula. 

Opiniative, cS^j t>^>- khiid-ra'e, Jo— jJ^:^ kkiid-pasand, \Jio magrd. 

Opportune, Opportunely, '^^^^^y, bar-wakt, t^^V^ bar-maukcT, 

Opposite, JjU^ mukab'il, uJlls:* muTdmlif, ^J^'*^ sdmhne. 

Ordinary, ^^^ rasml, ^^^ chalanl, (middling) j^ibXa maddham. 

Organic (constitutional), ^jl^ khilkl, J\6 zdtl, ^X^\ asti. 

Oriental, , J^ shark:!, i^**/^ mashrakl, ^^j^^ purbl. 

Original, ^J^l asli, 1^ pahld, (as writing) <Uc J^Ai^ mankul anhu. 

Other, jjl aur, \^^<^ dusrd,%^ dJgar, j^ ghair,ji^par. 

Otherwise, r^j^ clut tar ah, ijj^ war na, j^\ .^ kuchh aur. 

Oval, jLl <ULj baiza-shakl, c/j*^ baizawi. 

Over, jjl upar,ji par, ilb bald, (across) ^Jl art, jb par. 

Overboard, ^b ^ j\j^ jahdz se bdhar. 

Overcast (clouded), j^^^l^ ghanghor, |^A3l andherd. 

Overhead, J ^ sir par,ji^^\ upar, % bdld. 

Out,^lj bdhar or bdhir, (jj>^ berun, ^J^ khdrij, ^ se. 

Outcast, JjJ^ mar dud, ij\^\ dwdra, ^b>- khdrij. 

Outlandish, ^c:i>^\ ajnabt, t<-«J«^ bidesl, (queer) ^^j^ be-rawdj. 

Outright, uJU? sdf, Ij^ purd, ^in hi, uJiy L Jz'Za tawakkuf. 

Outward, ^yi>b Z>a^ar /:o, c^V ^dharl, ^^j^, btrum. 

Outwardly, lybll? zahiran, i^\^J\j^ zdhir asbdb. 

Own, lijl apwa, li ^ wy kd, l^ J^ M?/c? /ca, jj^U- Maw. 

Pale, Pallid, Jjj zard, Lj jj7/a, l^-^ 57jAa, IC^ phlkd. 

Parallel, ^]^ bardbar, t/jb-^ musdwi, c^*-^^"* muhdzi. 

Partial, jjal>- khdss, (biassed) v^^v^^ixXc mata^assib. 

Particular, (j«l»- khdss, ^js^*^-^ maMisus : see Intimate. 

Particularly, \*ay^ khususan, {,^\ (^Jl\ alag alag, \^Lo mufassalan. 

Passionate, jj<tAc ghussa-war, ;:^Jk:J tund-kho. 

376 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sec. 

Past, dzJii'^ guzashta, \^ gaya, \jds^ guzra, (in gram.) ^\^ mazl. 
Pat (fit, exact, fitly), lS^ thlk, Jj) la\ck,j\J taiydr. 
Paternal, ^j'^l pidari, ^^jS^^^ pidarana, ^^i\ ahwi. 
Patient, ^U? sabir, UXJ* shikeba, (one sick) ^^ martz. 
Peace ! ^^^ chup ! ^^\^ khamosh ! 
Peculiar, j:\s>^ Tdiass, ^yosr^ maTdisus, ^ ^ nij kd. 
Peevish, ^J-^^ chirchird, ^j^^j zud-ranj. 
Penitent, ^i«i-^ mustaghjir, ^jl3 nddim, jjU-^ pashemdn. 
Penultimate,^! JJ» U md kabl dkhir. 
Peremptory, (decisive) ^li kdti*, (absolute) J, il Id-radd. 
Perfect, J^l^ kdmil, \j^^ purd, (faultless) c---;?^^ be-aib. 
Perfectly, Jilb bi-l-kuU, JU^ j (•Uj tamdm o kamdl, 
. Perfidious, Af^CS^ namak-hardm, li^ be-wafd. 
Perhaps, JoUi shdyad, ISyb hogd, \'i\su\ ittifdkan. 
Pernicious, j^^U muzirr, Ju-i^i mufsid, j^,yj zabun. 
Perpetual, ^5b dd'lmi, ^\i bdki, ^J\ja::J\ istimrdrl, J\i kd'lm. 
Perpetually, isL.^ hamesha, \s*^ sadd, a^j-^^ ^^ dla-d-dawdm, 
Persian, ^e^J^ fdrst. 

Pert, ^y^ shokh, J^s^ chanchaly .^LibJ dhith, \f^ machld. 
Pertinent, ^51' ld\ck, d::^\j^ shdyasta, c-^n-jIi^ mundsib. 
Perverse, lJ'^ ziddi, ^^2a» hathild, Isr* machld. 
Petty, 154^ chhotdf <^j^ Mmrd, ^U> tS ham-mdyay ^) riich. 
Piebald, jijl ablak, \jS kabrd, \;^^^ chitkabrd. 
Pious, ^Jb^ muttakij JU sdlihj <-::-^^ bhagat, ^J^^ dJiarmi. 
Pish ! lJ)\ ufy ^JL^ phish, ^<f>- chJii, 
Piteous, Pitiable, Pitiful, y^\ J, J dard-angez. 
Plain, j\ji bardbar, j\^^iJi> hamivdr, (simple) ^^jLj sdda : see Clear. 
Plain, Plainly (adv.), \j^ zdhiran, uJU sdf, ^ ^J^\j ^^^'^^ ^^• 
Playful, ^jll alold, J^-^ chanchal, J-^^ achpal, ^^-i> shokh. 
Pleasant, jj^y^ kJmsh, \^\ achchhd, Jo jj /a|72 : see Cheerful. 
Plenteous, Plentiful, ll^^ bahut, j^ kafir, JU^U mdldmdl. 
Plump, t^o rnotd, ^yc motldy i^U ^Ji tar o tdza. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs y Sfc. 377 

Pointed, j^J^ nok-ddr, l^y nokild, J^\ ^^ hajo-dmez. 
Poisonous, jlJjJfej zahr-dar, ^$ybj zahri, ^j^^ sammi. 
Polite, jJ^ M«^^? J^^ (J-f^ Mkif'Sh-aldildk, 
Politic, Political, ^^J^ mulkl, lJj^,^ tadblrl : see Cunning. 
Poor, (weak) cjLxJ ?^'!/> (lean) Jl^ kangdl, (needy) jjJi^ muftis. 
Popular, JjU: Ji^yfi> ^<2^ dilazlZj (usual) -j^ murauwaj. 
Populous, jbT dbdd^jyA.x^ ma*mur^ jyjj^ ^ i^^ log se bkar-pur. 
Positive (certain), ^:^, yakiniy i^^ Id-radd, lLXi^ be-shakk. 
Positively, liwJu yaJanariy cl^j^'j bi-z-zarurat : see Certainly. 
Possible, ^^f^*^ mumkin, J^i^ honhdry (Jjui» shudani. 
Potbellied, ^'.J^y tondaildy SJi»^^ sabu-shikam. 
Potent, j^l>(M zordwary Jc»/*cj'i? tdkatmandy ^^ kawi. 
Powerful, c:-'3j)^ balwanty jjiJy^ shah-zory c,--!«Vi zabardast. 
Precious, ^j^j^JJ klmaiiy ^,(j^, besh-bahdy jijc- aziz. 
Precise, (exact) CS^tV thiky ^J^^ daklky (formal) (Jyli kdnuni. 
Pre-eminent, ^\i fd'iky J^l afzalyjtj^.^ mumtdz. 
Pregnant, <d^U- hdmilay ^ •-^^ p^t scy J^ bhard. 
Present,^U- fidziryj^ji^j rubaruy ^f^y^ maujudy ^J^\^ sdmne. 
Presently, ^\ ab-hi, <^\ ab^ j^\^ Ji-l-faur. 
Presumptuous, fj-i» shokh, ^li— i gustdkh : see Bold, Arrogant. 
Pretty, \jf^ suthrd, see Beautiful, (in some degree) >^^ kuchh. 
Prevailing, Prevalent, (common) ^y^ muramoaj : see Victorious. 
Previous, Previously, JJ kabl, ^1 dgCy ^^ pahle, ^J^^ peshln. 
Primitive, Primeval, ^^\ asliy 1^ pahldy yS\ ddau : see Ancient. 
Principal, J^l awwal, Ijj bardy il^ pahldy (essential) Ju^l asU, 
Principally, ^^^^pahUy \ayas>- khususan. IJli. ghdlihan. 
Private, L^ chhipdy <ti.^ nihuftay (own) ^U- Majfg, t^ nij. 
Probable, J^yit> honhdry J-4CLsr* muhtamily t-^lU gh dlib. 
Probably, JoU> shdyady ^^ ho'cy UU ghalibariy ^^^ chdhiye. 
Profitable, .>:^i^Jol5 fd'ida-mandy Jui^ mufidy jc^J^j sudmand. 
Profligate, jJ^ fdsikyjp^M fdjiry Jjj rindyj^Sjj badkdr. 
Prolix, Jj^ Ja?^7/, a)1^ J^ tul-kaldm, lsJ^^^I bistdri. 

3 c 

378 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverts, 8fc, 

Prompt, jIJ taiyar, -^ W hazir, CJf^ chalah, ^j^^ chaukas. 

Proper, ^ nij, ^\^ Tdiass, (fit) ^^-^l:^ munasib, CS^ thlk. 

Properly, ^5:?^^ l....;/^ jaisa chahiye, ^J^, U^ kama yamhagJu, 

Proud, jj^jU maghrur, jSx< mutakabbir, \J^ magra. 

Prudent, jU-i»yi) lioshyar, CJjj zirak, \j*^^ chaukas. 

Pshaw ! ^_^ phish, uJl uf^ ^j^ chhi. 

Public, (common) ^^U dmm, J^Lii shdmil, (manifest, q. v.)^lli zdhir. 

Pugnacious, \^H lardkd, ^Jj^ jangi, t^\J^>' jhagrdlu. 

Punctual, lLXj^' t/iik, Isr* sachchd, li^ i^Jccu wa da-wafd. 

Pungent, jU- hddd,JJ tez, Suj tund, IJj^^ parpard. 

Pure, (^Uk khdlis, uJU sdf, J^ nirmal: see Genuine. 

Purple, <J|^-^^ ar^hawdm, j^'Lj ^}i Idl-mldmez. 

Putrid, K-j sard, ^ gaZa, usi^i ganda, ^<^^'> bosida. 

Quadrangular, ^,ro murabba , d^^^ chau-gosha. 

Quadrilateral, ^^ chau-pahlu, 

Quadriliteral, ^j^^f- chau-harfl. 

Quadruple, ^y>- chaugund, Jc^^jU- chdr-chand. 

Quarrelsome, jl^Jxp-JAagraZw, ^^JU-Jj kaziya-jo. 

Queer, c-^*^ ajab, »— ^--s--^ «;zZ>,jlju-ijUj tamdsheddr. 

Quick, j\iA»- jald-bdz^ Cj^'l^^ chdldk,jJ tez: see Alive. 

Quickly, c5 jJ^ JctZrfJ, c:>.3y turant, l2^.s->%s- jkatpat. 

Quiet, Quiescent, ^^^U sdkin, (silent) (_^o»- chup : see Still. 

Quietly, ^j4^i^ dhime, ^Jiu-Jbl dhiste, <iCL-JM dhista. 

Quintuple, ^^»^^snj panchgund, \j[^:^\^ pdnchtahd. 

Quite, Ji3b bi-l-kull, ^Jy>- MmJ, 1^^ j?wra, <iix**j bi-ainih. 

Radical, ^Le\ asll, ^1 J §a^7, ^SLui bunyddi. 

Random, s*aLj be-kasd. At Random, ^:^ Jfll atkal pachchu. 

Rapid, jJ tez, ^jjJ tez-rau, jip- jald, JoJ tund. 

Rare, jjlj nddir, c-^l^ kam-ydb, c— -js^ 4/^^' ^ ^irZa. 

Rash, 1ij\j\ utd'old, ls>ls^ be-lihdz, A>-jald,JJ tez. 

Rather, J^l awwal, ^J^^ paJde,j:JL^^ peshtar, JJ -j:aZ>Z. 

Rational, JjiU^ makul, ^^Jac akli, ^ilj waZiit. 

Vocabulary, — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc, 379 

Raw, \^ kachcha, icJs:^\j na-pukhta, (as skin) oi^' be-jild. 

Ready, jLJ taiyar, 2^jUI amada, <Axi-^ musta'idd. 

Real, ,<A«i^ hakiki, ^J^, yaJanl, Is-* sachcha, l.^! a^Ze. 

Really, ^ sach, liiua^ haJakatariy ^^^^^ fi-l-waki*'. 

Reasonable, ^^^^Uc aA:Z7, Lii-^^J durust, CS^ thik: see Rational. , 

Rebel, Rebellious, ^^b bagJu, ^J^j^ sarkash, ^\j t agh i. 

Recent, L) nay a, ^ nau, <^,S>- jadid, ^'J taza, \^ tatkd» 

Reciprocal, ^sjbji^ do-tarfi, ^^^\^ janibain. 

Reciprocally, ^^-^ ^^A apas men, ^ ^^^\^ janibain st. 

Recumbent, ^S^< muttakt, 2fJ3«uC takiya-zada. 

Red, Jil Idl, ^j^ surkh, \i\j rata, jAcA ahmar. 

Redundant, ackij ziyada, c:^,J bahut, ujGbJl adhik. 

Regular, iJcslib ba-ka'ida, ^^ kiyasi, tlilf' tJiik. 

Relative to, ^jl*!^ muta'allik, d »^.......v.> ba-nisbat. 

Relaxed, ^L^J dhlld, d^-— -s 5W5^, Jji>lf /:a^i7. 
Remediless, ^^^ Id-ildj , J^'i Id-chdr, j\:>^\j nd-chdr. 
Remiss, Ij^J dhlld, lh ^>^,>,o sm5^, J^i^^ mafhul, JiU gh dfil. 
Remote, ^^ J tfwr, t::^^J>j« J dur-dast, Juju Ja'lc?. 
Renowned, j^U ndm-war, ^13 lIXj nek-ndm,jy^L^ maslChur, 
Repeatedly, jVjV bdr-bdr, Uxi J dafatan, ^j^^j^^ phir-phirke. 
Reprobate, \;3^U^ gayd-guzrd, ^-^\;^ khardb, Sij rind. 
Resolute, Ji::--^ mustakill, L*-wi< mazbut,j\^\ ustuwdr. 
Restiff, Restive, Resty, Is^ machld, l^Juls^ chalbidhrd. 
Restless, /•l^t ^ bt-drdm, J^JLj be-kardr, Jilo be-kal. 
Reverend, tS.^ buzurg, m^ mukarram, (JL^j*as>- hazrat. 
Rich, *x:-4cJ.J daulatmand, j\^yj zar-ddr : see Fruitful, Sweet. 
Right, e:-v«j^J durust, lLS^ thlk, *j:^j rdst, (hand) UjbJ dahnd. 
Righteous, CS^ nek, l^J bhald, j\z^\j rdst-bdz, jjU sddik. 
Riotous, Rioter, J L-.$jt) dangebdz, \^\ i:^ fitna-angez. 
Ripe, \ijpakkd, iz^pukhta, as^j raslda, \jy^purd. 
Rotten, \y^ sard, 1^ gala, ^Ju-.-*j bosida, a^ ganda. 
Rough, ]j^j^ kharkhard, (rugged) JjjI arbar : see Harsh. 

380 Vocabulary Adjectives y Adverbs ^ Sfc, 

Round, (jy golf ^.^^^^ chakreldj jjX< mudauwar. 
Royal, ic-fcl-i' shahiy ^JbLltib padshahl, ajl^Ll shahana. 
Rude, t--^jlj^ be-adaby .A^ gustakh: see Ignorant, Clumsy. 
Rural, Rustic, ^c>^j^ dihi, j^yli gdnwi : see Peasant. 
Russet, {^S^j *S:>^ gandum-rangy J^JindukJ. 
Rusty, i(J>^!(^^J zang-dluda, Ul^-^^ murchdhd. 
Ruthless, (>^fi^. be rahm, J j^xi-j sang-dily t3j Juj be-dard. 
Sacred, ^^sho mukaddas, cJ\i pdky Jwsr* rnajldyjx^ pabitr. 
Sad, (jJ\d\ udaSy ^^y^f^ gham-giny J^ maluly ^^j^"^ mahzun. 
Safe, ^y<\^ mdmun, )ayLS^ mahfuz, L::^^^l^ salamat. 
Sallow, ^L sanwldy IL^ phlkdy il-J pi/a, ^j-U? malin. 
Same, ^^^ wuh-iy ^^^ yih-ij ,<^jj eA:-AI, j^Ujb hamany ji\ji bardbar, 
Sandy, "hjj retldy L:l>j retlldy ^Ji>j i^egly ^j balu'd, \^^ kirkird. 
Sanguine, ^^ji pur-Mmriy j^Si^6>~ khun-ddr : see Confident. 
Savage, (wild) ^^J^^janglty , Jl^j wahshi : see Cruel. 
Saucy, ^[i^ gustdkhy ^Jb3 dhith, l^S\ ^<j be-adab, ^^ shokh. 
Save, Saving, 1^ siwdy ^j^^ chhorke : see Except. 
Savoury, j1 J ^ maza-ddry Joj3 lafiZyj\^y>^ khushguwdr. 
Scabby, ^j:Ji»J^ khdrishtiy ji}j^ khasrd-pur : see Mean. 
Scandalous, l^^^x^ ma' yuby a^J^ mazmuniy jj^J zabun. 
Scant, Scanty, Scarce, ti karriy JJi kalily \^^^ thord: see Rare. 
Scarce, Scarcely, S kamjjXA^ kamtary ^ ui^J dikkat se. 
Scarlet, ^j^ (JILLj sultdrii surkhy ^^S^j uf;-^ kirmizi rang. 
Seasonable, **^ij)y, bar-wakt, %^yo b bd mauka , (Js^ bar-mahalL 
Second, l^-jJ dusrdy ^\j .vaw7, aJjJ doyaniy (inferior) ^^ kam. 
Second-hand, J-*jcl«-^ musta^mal, \j\j\ utdrdy jjUxi»*5l is^i ma/7. 
Secondly, »-i/^t> dusre, LJIj sdniyan. 

Secret, *Ju-i»y poshlday ^J^'*' makhfiy L^ chhipdy c«-^.li gh d'ib. 
Secretly, \:u&>. Miufyatan, <uii^ kliufya^ ^\^ chhipdkt. 
Secure, ,^j^U mdmuriy )b^^ mahfuZy ajas^^i bt-khatra. 
Sedate, Ai^-jM dhistay l.4^J dhlmdy \^J dhird,j\j3 kardr. 
Seemly, ^tj^-jil-i* shdyasta, ^ l^J dikhd'u, iz.>^^j\ drdsta. 

Vocabulary, — Adjectives, AdverhSy Sf'c» 381 

Seldom, S ham, jli» shazz, \j^ thora, ,«^ ^^^ kahht kabhl. 
Selfish, Jo^jji gharazmandy ^^jS.^^ khud-gharaz. 
Senior, \y^ hara,j^ kahir, jjK kalan, >jJc5 kadim. 
Senseless, ^^r*^ he-hiss, ^ sun, ,^^snj he-jan : see Stupid. 
Sensible, (^/**5^ JjIj kabil-i-hiss, ^^j-»sr* mahsus: see Intelligent. 
Sensual, cJL-iJ nafsarii, ^y^ shahwafi, \^j rasiyd. 
Separate, \^ juda, (^J^\ alag, lLJ^ tafawut, \j\j nyara. 
Separately, !jc»- S^judajuda, {^J^\ <^J^\ alag alag, tliol CSA tk ek. 
Septuple, ^j^ sat'partd, lixL-j sat-guna, V^ l::^aj5» haft-taha. 
Several, J»^ mutafarrik, (many) c:^^ hahut, ^^^ ba*ze. 
Severe, JcJ tund,y3 tez, c:^^*** sakht, ^ji^J^jJ durusht. 
Shabby, ^jf^ pajora, fj^iy^j^ gudar-posh (?) : see Mean. 
Shallow, \^\ uthld, jp^*^ S kam-umuk, (silly) \^^ ochhd. 
Sham, l^^f>- jhutJia, ^X*^ amaU, ^^y^ swdngi, 1jC> nakli. 
Shameful, j^to^-ij sharm-dwar, ^ W lajd'u: see Bad, Vitious. 

Shameless, /^/^ bt-sharm, Ls^j bt-hayd, ^^z^ gustdkh. 

Sharp, J-J tez, ^y burrdn, ^^^ chokhd: see Acid, Pointed. 

Shocking, jJolcLJ^ nafrat-angez, yJ^\ ^.::^'^Ls>-^ wahshat-angez. 

Short, l^^^ chhotd, ii\i^ kotdh, \j^ thord, jS kam. 

Shortly, iA>-jald, c-^jy ^^ an-karlb, ^j^ /»J ^^ ko't dam men. 

Showy, ,<1jU3 numd'ishl, j\i^y^ namuddr, 1^^ bkarklld. 

Shrewd, f^^JJ tez-kosh, l^ pakkd, IjL-j siydnd. 

Shrill,^* tez, ^j^^^^ mihin, iJSi,jO bdrik. 

Shy, J-^ bharkel, ^J"-^^ wahshi, l^^^^ mahjub. 

Sick, jU-J bimdr, ^J^j\ dzdri, ^^j rogl : see Displeased. 

Signal, ^^^^^-sf- ajlb, l^-:^^ achambhd, j^^^L^ mash'hur. 

Silence! (interj.), c- -^ chup, ^^W- khdmosh. 

Silent, ^j^U- khdmosh, c—'U- ^^^ chup-chdp, c:^L sdkit. 

Silken, Silky, ^j^j reshml, Jb pdti, ^Jji,)^ hariri. 

Silly, ^.^ bhold, ^^^ nd-ddn, ^^jLs sdda. Is? kachchd. 

Similar, ^U^ bardbar, ^\^CS:\\ ek-sdn, ^^\^j:>^ mutasdwl. 

Simple, (plain) icf^ sdda, (single) J^^ mufrad: see Silly, Mere. 

382 Vocabulary — Adjectives, Adverbs, S^c. 

Since, (conj.) iSJ!^yJ\ is-wasteki, ii^jab-ki, (adv.) ^^ age. 

Sincere, ^.^^^j rast, Jt>l«* sadik, J^^^^^j rast-baz, Ul-» sachcha. 

Sinful, J^\:^ gundh-gar, ^}^^pcip-'i, ^-^Vc dsi, ti/bU nd-pak. 

Single, \^\ aklld, \^ tanhd, (not married) <^ysr° mujarrad. 

Singular, (uncommon) »--^wsP ajib, (in gram.) S>'\^ wdhid: see Rare. 

Sirrah ! ^\ abe, ^jj\ art, ^j be, ^j re, (fem.) ^j\ ari, ^j ri. 

Situate, *J|; wdkC, 9y^yo mauzu', \^j rakhd, JJj para. 

Skilful, y^U mdhir, <— wlj wdkif,.^\s kdbil, ^ gum. 

Slack, Ljbj dlald, c:,,— -j sust, (as a knot) IC*^^ phuskd : see Loose. 

Slant, Slanting, W;J tirchhd, libj^ ^^er^a, ^l&3 dhdlu. 

Sleek, li^ chiknd, uJla sdf: see Smooth. 

Sleepy, LljcJ ninddsd, cJ\^^^^ khwdb-ndk, \J^j\ unghdsd. 

Slender, hj patld, ^^t^ chhin, CSiJ^, bdrik, ijjj\j ndzuk. 

Slight, hj patld, ^^^ kdghazi, CS^ tunuk, Ijj^ chkotd, 

SHm, hj patld, lS^,Jo bdrik, Lj dubld, l15;13 ndzuk, 

Shppery, U^ chiknd, {.f^^phislahd, (uncertain) ^^Ij nd-kardr. 

Slope, Sloping, jllfe J dhdlu, ^J^\ utdru, J,j\;^ sardzer. 

Sloppy, L^ panklld, L^se kuchaild, J>^ J^jal-thal : see Dirty. 

Slothful, l::^...^,.^ sust, J-&1^ kdhil, c-^JL>lj! drdm-talab. 

Slovenly, ^'^-i-^ be-salika, IxAi ghaliZy ^j^jf- chirkln. 

Slow, <tx«JbT dhista, l:: •^■^...q 5W5^, L-toi dhlld, U-JfcJ dhimd. 

Slowly, <);:x*-Jbl dhista, tj^ij^^ haule-haule, ^y^ lJA^ deri se. 

Sluggard, Sluggish, ^^\ askati, t— Ji> Aj\ drdm-talab. 

Sly, UL-j siydnd,j:j>- chatur, {,^yA^ failsuf, j\s£. ghadddr. 

Small, 15^^ chhotd, l^ nannhd, CS^^ kuchak, i^jy>- khurd. 

Smart, (active) jl^li-5> shitdb-kdr,\jj^^phurttld: see Keen. 

Smoky, JlJ^JJl JbJ dhu'dn-dhdr, i^JjllJjJ dud-dluda. 

Smooth, ji\ji bardbar, j^y^ hamwdr, <j^j^ chauras, uJl^ sdf. 

Smutty, (obscene) laJx ghaliz, ^<J*^5/*- khurdfdti : see Dirty. 

Snappish, l.^ katahd, Jjf^J^ chirchird, U^ harkiyd. 

Snug, (private) ^J^-i>^ poshtda, (neat) l^f-j swMra : see Fit. 

So, L-j\ ai6a, L-j ^ waisd, ^ so, -r-J^ is-tarah, ^^, yunhi. 

Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc 383 

Sober, jLJ^^ hdshyar,j^J^jj^parhezgar, (grave) :id^j:f\>^ sanjida. 

Sociable, jL-iLo milansar, ^}^ milapi, ^^^^^y^ ^-^t ashna-parast. 

Soft, >*y narm, a5Lo muld'fm, ilJj pilpila, J^^ komal : see Easy. 

Solar, Solary, j^— ^♦Ji shamsi, ^}^\ aftabi. 

Sole, Ki i/c/a, W a/:e/a, l^* tanha, dj^ mujarrad. 

Solemn, (grave) i^A-rsi-j sanjlda, ^j\^ bharl, (awful) ^j^^^ ihrafi. 

Solid, Jt<4js^< munjamid, 1^3 Ij tantha, (j^^ thos, C:^^sk^ sakht. 

Solitary, l^' tanha, Kl ikla, i!jy nirala : see Sole, Hermit. 

Some, -fSL^ kuchh, ^ f kcTi, CS^\ ^ ^ kol ek, ^^i^ chand: see Few. 

Sonorous, jljt J pur-awaz , j\^\ JcL buland-aioaz . 

Soon, t/ji=»- jaldi, t-->\:;-i» shitab, t^^ 5eg, J^ ^a^> ,^^ «6A7. 

Sore, «^t)y pur-dard, ^ l^J dukha'u. Sorely, jc«» c:^^-^ shiddat st, 

Sorrowful,^^J dilgir, ^jSas, ghamgln, JjLo malul : see Sad. 

Sorry, ,^U--1j pashtman, (worthless) ^l^ U na-kara : see Vile. 

Sound, -^^'^ sahih, c::^v«\Lj salamat, Ul>. ^ J^aZa changa: see Firm. 

Sour, ^ji^* ^wrsA, IS^ khaftd, CJy^- chuk, j^^W hdmiz. 

South, Southerly, Southern, ^j:^^*.) dakhni, ^c^j^^ janubi. 

Spacious, «--j1j toast, s^\!:S kushdda, L^ phaild, ^^jS farakh. 

Spare, JJj /:aZ7/, l^j^J' thord ; (to spare) ifjbj ziydda : see More. 

Sparing, ^}^ kifdyatl, ^^ (»^ kam-kharch : see Economical. 

Special, (jfiU- khdss, ^jsy^is^ makhsus : see Great. 

Specious, UJybUi zdhir-numd, aI^ ^^^>^ surat-hardm. 

Speechless, ^^^,j^, bt-zubdn, a^L^-jj^bj zubdn-basta, J^-Jl anbol. 

Speedily, ^«: ^J^ jaldi se, ^ ^j}^^j^^ daurd-dauri st. 

Spick and span new, ^5 tatkd, jj'^^ tah-darz, \j^ kord. 

Spirited, jljuU-Jaw-f/ar, J J ^JjJ zinda-dilj jJiJ diler. 

Spirituous, Spiritous, UJ tez, JcJ ^mw^Z, ^^j-^- chokhd. 

Spiteful, jjfib^ klna-war, ^"i Idgi, ^^ kapatl. 

Splendid, V^2^ chatkild, ^J^ bharklld, L^j ranglld. 

Spoken, \yi> ^^ bold-hu'd, \^ib l^i^ kahd-hu'd, ^sii gufta. 

Spontaneous, i^Li:j>-l ikhtiydri. Spontaneously, ^L->i op-se. 

Sportive, ij^^ khiish, «-J?^jJl^ khiisk-tab*, J^\ achpal. 

384 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 

Sprightly, <.^:— *-«^ chust, l1JoI>- chabuk, ^^ shdkh.j^uib hansor. 

Spurious, [^^^jhutha, i}\^jal, ^U libasi, &:J>\»3 sakhta. 

Square, f-^j^ murabba , ^'f^^ chau-kona, ^^^>- chau-gosha. 

Stable, j^y^ bar-karar, J\s kd\cm,j\sj\j^ pa'edar : see Firm. 

Stagnant, Jcj band, ^^jj\j na-rawan, ^j^L sakin,j^ thir. 

Standing, \^j4 khara, ♦jU ka'lm, U^j bar-pa : see Stagnant. 

Stark, (adj.) ci^^-* saldit, J luch, (adv.) ^jlk<! mntlak, (^asr^ mahz. 

Stately, \ji bard, i^Xkc umda, ^^llJU dli-shdn. 

Stationary, ^L sdkin,j^\ asthir, f^\i kd'lm : see Standing, 

Steadfast, JiKs kd'lm, jXs>^ mustahkam, JjI atal. 

Steady, L^-^d^ mazbut, j\^\ ustuwdr, aJj iji^xi sdbit-kadam. 

Steep, \^^ khard, -ibjl^ tkdrh, Isr^ unchd, C^(^ aughaU 

Sterling, iL^ sikka, j^W- khdlis, il|y nirdld, ^^i>- chokhd. 

Stern, ^^^^j/^j rukht-surat, \jj^ karwd, •j^ talkh-ru. 

Sticky, (viscous, adhesive) ^-^s^ cJdpchipd, LJ.--1 laslasd. 

Stiff, h^l akrd, \^ kard, js^, bajr, (stubborn) \^ magrd. 

Still, j^ thir, V^ khard, (silent) ^L-:^ sunsdn, c-^^ chup. 

Stillborn, Lc»- \y< mu'djand. Stingy, j»^ tang-chashm. 

Stomachic, *-iU hdzim, tl^^V, pO'Chak, ^^^^xL^ mushtahl (?). 

Stormy, (JlsJ^' tufdni, l&l-JbJol andhiydhd, tiJ'U-MJi gh azabndk. 

Stout, L^mJ^ mazbut, ^^i kawi, L::^3t>j^ chau-dant. 

Straight, ItoJu-s szrfAa, lii^^J^, ra5#. Straightways, (•ii^J^' turant. 

Strait, \JsMi sakrd, t^'J tang, ^^ l3 nd-pahan, l::-— ->- cAm5#. 

Strange, (foreign) ajlCj btgdna, (unusual) l.^^^^ ajib. 

Streaked, Streaky, cSj^^^ dhdri, l>^ lahriyd,j\^:>~ khatt-ddr. 

Strenuous, J^sT ba-jidd, /^/*» sar-garm, L^-^J^ mazbut. 

Strict, LLi^^js.-* 5aM^, c^^j ^awg, (exact) j;J J daktk, ilJL^ thlk. 

Stringy, j^ J <0^ rtsha-ddr, (viscous) Ls*^ lijlijd. 

Strong, c/y itai^I, ^^\;;(j zordwar, Jj 5a/?, L^^m^ mazbut. 

Stubborn, L^ hathild, \J^ magrd, Jb Vl arya/, ^^Ju^J ziWl. 

Studious, Lii^-jj J J^ ilm-dost, ci^wsj J <u!lk< mutdWa-dost. 

Stupendous, c,.»^. ^-^ a;7&, j^^U wac?ir, ci^til adbhut, *Jac asrJw. 

Vocabulary, — Adjectives , Adverbs, Sfc. 385 

Stupid, ^jA>sA ahmak, (Jiy^, be-hosh, uJy^ be-wukuf. 
Sturdy, *JL:l-^ mustanda, ci^jJ^s^ chaudanty J*::-^ Jj balwant. 
Subaltern, \^ riicha, ^b* tabf, jl^S kihtar : see Inferior. 
Subject, j^J^U tdbfddr, ^->^U^ maghlub, J^irsduj mutahammil. 
Sublime, Jyi** mu^alla, ^JU dli, x^^^as. umda, jJj buland. 
Submissive, (j^y^ ^^^ halka ba-gosh, J-JJ dabcl: see Humble. 
Subsequent, 1^ pick hid. Subsequently, icfsx> pichhe. 
Substantial, ^^^ asll, ^jst^ jauhart^ ^\a>>.^ jismdni : see Real. 
Subterranean, ^^jj^j zer-i-zamtn, ,joJi]^::^<sir tahtu-l-arz. 
Subtile, Subtle, JpJ*^ daTfik, (witty) cJJal latif, \j:^ chaturd : see 

Fine, Thin. 
Successful, (t)ji>) c:--£sr,1^^^ b Cr^V«\^ kdm-ydb or beddr-bakht (jiona). 
Successive, y^^ mutawdtiry ^^^ mutawdll, J3^ lagdtdr. 
Successively, ^ j*^ ^ /?«* dar pai, Jyjilj tdbartor, ♦^^ paikam. 
Succulent, ^Ijuj^ ras-ddr, c-?bl-2i shdddb, \j^,(j**j ras-bhard. 
Such, L->^ waisdy LjJ awa, K,...^ jaisd, ^ ^Jb (^ is tarh kd. 
Sudden, ^iflj ndgdki. Suddenly, tl6U-l achdnak, ^\^\j ndgahdn. 
Sufficient, ^^ has, 4^ ^^P" Sufficiently, ,^c::JJ>ls^ \*^*^jaisd chdhiye. 
Suitable, j^jU-s sazdwdr, (ji^^ muwdjik, J-/*u*j sumeL 
Sullen, jdLc mukaddar, ^ji barham, ^^U nd-khush. 
Sultry, (^-^ khamas, L-4^ kJiamsd (?), ^:^' ukhmaj (?). 
Sundry, ^^-j^«^ rfo tin, CS^\ ^ ka'i ek, ^^oju bazl, Jc^ chand. 
Superb, m^s. azlm,j^ kablr, ^^l^l^ dlishduy xSas^ urnda. 
Superficial, 5^\ uparld, ^jj^} upraunchd : see Shallow. 
Superfine, ^JtY^ ♦-^^ bahut mihin, CSij\i ^ <^-^.jV bdrtk se bdrlk, 
Supei-fluous, Jotj 2d\id, «^Ui>-!3l Jo|j zd'ldu-l-ihtiydj. 
Superior,^ bartar, ^jl awZa, J.}}^ fd'tk, 1^ iara, J^lcl «/«, 
Superlative, J-asl cf/?<3^Z, 1/^ \i ^€^ i^ *-r^ ^^^ ^^ Z>/iaZa or bard. 
Supernatural, cTJjUll jy fauku-l-ddat. 
Superstitious, u^-sx:i^ mutd'assib, ^j^) wahmt. 
Supine, ,^W utdn, .^u^ '^'^j*^ urdh-munh, c:-^.^- chit : see La^y. 
Supple, /^ warm, ^uC^^ lachk'ild, *^1^ muld\lm, Vu^ chimrd. 

3 p 

386 Vocabulary, — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc, 

Suppliant, Supplicating, jj-/«aLo multamis, Jo^jU niyazmand. 
Supreme, Icl a*ld,yji bartar, \y bara, jXa sadr. 
Sure, ^Ju ya^Jn, ,<*5|^ wakVi, Surely, see Certainly. 
Surly, 'J^ taljdi, \^ kard, ))>■}>■ chirchird, i^jS^ tal]di-ru. 
Surreptitious, J^/-^ masruk, \^ bb ^ *-r^.-^ fareb se pay a hu'd. 
Suspicious, jJIA shahki, cJ\j £sLij^\ andesha-ndk, V«r^ bharmild. 
Swampy, ^Jj3j daldali. Swap, ^^ l.^^^^ jhap se: see Hasty. 
Swarthy, ^yL sdnwld. Sweet, l^^ mlthd, ^J^,Jt^ shlrin. 
Swift, As>^ jald,yJ teZfjjJJ tez-rau, S'J fund, (^S^ beg. 
Symmetrical, <)^ r^b bd-karlna, i^^Jolb bd-anddza. 
Synonymous, uJj^^ mutarddif, ,A«^ ^ ham-ma n't. 
Tacit, cu-^L sdkit, ^y< maum, (implied) ^^y^^^d:^ mutazammin. 
Talkative, lj3yb bdtuniyd, ^Jj bakkt, ^^^\j ziydda-go. 
Tall, IJ lambd, Jjjt tawll, W^l unchd, JcJj buland. 
Tame, !& ^i/a, /»|; ram, ^Jl^ halim, (dull) J^i^ A;MW<f. 
Tangible, ^_/-^— -4^ mamsus, u^\^a,^ mum.kinu-l-mass. 
Taper, Ai}j\^ gdw-dum. Tardily, ^j:,*^ dhiste, ^^ havle. 
Tardy, iLfcJ dhlld, Jjbl^ kdhil, Ijc^ mandd, <ti— J^! dhista. 
Tart, ^^y ^Mr5^, l2^ khattd, \^€ karwd, L:>.sr» ^aM^ 
Tasteful, jl J ^ maza-ddr, jojj Zrt|7s, <UijJj^^£i- jdnish-zd^lka. 
Tasteless, ^J/i-J be-maza, cl:^ ^^ be-lazzat, IC^ pliikd. 
Tawny, \jj^^jhaunrd, \j pJld, (^S^j\;^i bhurd-rang. 
Technical, ^^Vh^\ istildhi, ^^^^^^ hikmatl, ^^j^ ilrni. 
Tedious, LifcJ dhildy cSj^^, bhdrl, JjjL tawil, j l^* thakd'u. 
Temperate, J Jcjc« mu*tadil, t^Xo maddham : see Sober. 
Tempestuous, ,<3ls^ tufdm, JcJ jJ-J fe<2r o ^wwrf: see Stormy. 
Temporary, nj^j s^ chand-roza, ^J^ drizi, ^X^s fasli. 
Tenacious, j^^^-s^ sakht~glr, (viscous) LJ-J laslasd. 
Tender, ajJ narm, JiLo muld\m, CJj6 ndzuk : see Kind. 
Tenth, ,^,^j«*:J daswdn. Tepid, ^fj^ sKir-garm, i:».iui gunguna. 
Terrestrial, ^j\ arzl, ,^U- khdkl, ,<V*J zamirii, u?j^<.> dunydwi. 
Terrible, Terrific, d^U^ ^awZ?ia/c, J-l^lci^^JbJ dahshat-angez. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Adverbs, Sfc, 387 

Testy, Tetchy, |j->^Jf- chirchira, -.Ij^tlioJ tunuk-mizaj , 

Tete-a-tete, jj^^j ru-ba-ru, •^y,^^ do-bar-do. 

Than, ^-a se, ^^^ sen, ^^^ son or (dakh.) sun, <i^ ki,j\ as. 

That, (pron.) s^ wuh or (dakh.) wah, ^^-1 us, (conj.) i^ ki, ^^^ kyun-ki. 

Thee or to thee, ^ ^'sr tujh ko or ,^^^ tujhe. Their, ^^\ unh-ka, &c. 

Them, ^^\ unh-ko or ^j^\ unhen. Themselves, uj\ ^^ we ap, &c. 

Then, t-^J tab, JJ tad, ^ to. Thence, ^ ^^Ifcj wahanse: see Therefore. 

Thencefortli, Thenceforward, ,^<«^ {j^ tis pichhe, ^ Sj tad se. 

Theoretic, Theoretical, ^\i^ khiydlt, ^\^ kiyasi, ^_^^ ilrni. 

There, j^lfc^ wahan,jiiii\ udhar. Thereabout, i^S>^ lag-bhag. 

Thereafter, ^ j\ J^ bc^d az an. Therefore, Ja-j|^ f^ us waste. 

These, ^y. ye. They, ^^ we, ^. ye, ^ ^^t unhon ne. 

Thick, (not thin) 15^« Twoja, jljJj daldar, (close) l:^ ghana. 

Thin, )L> patld, ^Lo dubld, tl^J tunuk, ^J^j rakik. 

Thine, LJ tera,jyi tor. Third, iy--J ^J^ra, /•^--j siyum. 

Thirsty, LU pydsd, ^suLj tishna, j,_J <UU tishna-lab. 

This, ^ 3/i^ or dakh. ya/^. Thither, ^j1 udhar : see There. 

Thorny, iJi^ katild, J\dj\>- kharddr, (arduous) ^^ kathin. 

Thorough, J^\^ kamil, \jy purd. Thoroughly, ^|^ sardsar. 

Those, t^j we. Thou,y tu. Though, ^1 JU- hdl-dnki : see Although. 

Thoughtful, d:^J^ fikr-mand, cS\j ^LIjjJI andesha-ndk. 

Thoughtless, SJui be-Jikr, \»^ be-parwd, JiU ghdfil. 

Threefold, li& tigund, IjJj tilard, JCo-<Lo si-chand. 

Threescore, ^j^ ^' tin kori, -^L sdth. Thrice, jb j^* ^7w bar. 

Thrifty, {j^j}^ juz-ras, iA>l&^ kifdyati, ^j^ ^ kam-kharch. 

Through,^!^ sardsar, J^J^* wdrpdr, (by means of) ^ se. 

Throughout, b Ij^ sar-td-pd,j^ bhar, /•Uj tamdm. 

Thunderstruck, IjU Ji^ bijU-mdrd, V,to «p.IS gdj-mdrd. 

Thus, jj^ z/ww, ^<^^, yunhi, LjJ awa, ry^a-sl is-tarh. 

Thwart, 1 ?l am, l^^«J terhd, ^.>-/ tirchhd : see Across. 

Thy, 1^' terdjjy tor. Thyself, lJ\ y tu dp, ^y tu-hi. 

Tidy, i::^j\ drdsta, ^a,^y Za/.z/, J^f-J suthrd. 

388 Vocabulary, — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc, 

Tight, {^js^ tang, c:^-^ chust, asJiS kashida, fji^s^ sakht. 

Till, lL^ tak or dakh. t^* tag, t!i3j talak or dakh. i^J\j talag. 

Timely, ^^^^y, bar wakt, ^y<ji bar mauka^: see Early. 

Timeserving, jLs ^U| zamana-saz, ^^U) Jjbl ahl-i-zaman. 

Timid, Timorous, U^^ j3 dar-pokna, jl|^J daralu. 

Tiny, l^^f^ ^-J^-^-v^ ia^w^ chhota, l^ nannha, i}j^ khiird. 

Tipsy, c:^.v--^ wzas^, i!l^ matwala, ^^j^ sar-khush. 

Tiresome, ^*l^* thakoCu, j \jj^ sihra'u, ^ j\ wc?as. 

To, ^ ko or dakh. /:m, ^^ ^ ke ta'm, CS^ tak, (Jj3j talak. 

Together, -^Lj tl^l ^/: sa^A, u&\j bakam, d-^-yf-j samet, \fi\ ikattha. 

Tolerable, /^ sahd'u, j\f^ sahanhar, (passable) ^^ ^^tt^ bain-bain, 

Tonguetied, J^ ^\ij zabdn-band, j^IjJ <tij^ girifta-zabdn. 

Tonic (giving strength), )(Joc« i^^uj mukawwui-mi^da. 

Too, 2f Jbj ziyada, c:-^^ bahut, lIU-) wipaf, ,^ Jo- ^ac?^ 5e. 

Toothless, L^ popld, ^ murld» Toper, J^j-j pewakkar. 

Topsyturvy, l5lj liill ultd-pultd, ^b^ ^' ^aA o 5aZa. 

Torpid, 1^^ thithard, ^j>^ sun, ij^^sXi be-hiss, t::-- -» sust. 

Total, ^UJ tamdm, J^ Am/Z, c^-j 5^5, |;^ jpwra : see All. 
Totally, \j\j^ sardpd, ^ jj^juz-o-hdl, J^lb bi-l-kulL 
Tough, \yi^ chimrd, (j:^^ sakht, \sy^ mazbut, \f^^ chimthd. 
Toward, Towards, uJ;!? ^ kt taraf, »-^ V ^ kijdnib, fjJj ^ kepds. 
Tractable, jIj^ X>- hukm-barddr, ^Ji narm, JSj:>- halim: see Docile. 
Traditional, ^^j zabdnl, ^^^**^^ samd't, ^\m nakli. 
Traitorous, jbUj daghdbdz, li^ be-wafd, ^^\>' kha'in. 
Tranquil,^ thir, Si^y^\ dsuda, j^L-i-o sunsdn, ^^^ sukhi. 
Transient, Transitory, j\ Job iJ nd-pd'eddr, ^\ifdm, J^s^ chanchaL 
Transparent, uJU-i> shaffdf, jj^ barrdk, uJl-^ sdf. 
Transverse, \vl drd, \->-y tirchhd, ^JCwJ bendd, L>J ird (?). 
Treacherous, (jIkjJ ^, be-imdn,J\si ghadddr, ^^ kapatl. 
Treble, Triple, li^* tigund,\jj^ tihrd, jj^<^«j si-chand. 
Tremendous, 1—-*-^^ muKib, c/L!jJJ> haulndk, bj*);«J dard'bnd. 
Triangular, C^li,* musallas, ^^/^ tikbniyd^ <Li»^4Us si-gosha. 

Vocabulary, — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfd. 389 

Tnhut2LTy,j\^ ^\js^ khiraj-guzar, j\j^ ^^ bdj-guzar: see Subject. 

Triennial, <^!Lj <U si-sala, <dL-j ti-sala, Lj^ ^ tin-bar sa. 

Trifling (trivial), l^ halka, CS^ subuk, l^^l ochha. 

Trim, icJ^J\ arasta, loj zeba, (^ qJ^\ latjf,j\iju saz-bdz. 

Trite, \j\j purdnd, <u>^ J derma, (common) j*U dmm. 

Trivial, I0j& halkd, CS^ subuk, j^a^^ be-kadr, l3J^ adnd. 

Troublesome, j;^5 'ranjdwar, ^j\^t bhdri, J^JL^ mushkil. 

Truant, cu.^— sust, i}^ dwdra, j/ 2^jy^ harza-gard. 

True, U-» sachchd, ^ sack, c:^^\; ra^^ : see Just, Faithful. 

Truly, ^\^ wdki% ^j:^JJi^\^ Ji-l-haklkat, ^ sack. 

Trusty, Trust-worthy,^;-:;*^ mu^tabir,j\^i ci^Ul amdnat-ddr. 

Tumultuous, (J^^ halchati, ;^^T dshobi, c:-^i> dangait. 

Turbid, i!jkfgac?Za, J jiLo mukaddar, \^j\i gdrhd: see Dirty. 

Turbulent, u:-^^^ dangait, j\) ^^^ dange-bdz, UjJJjb hur-dangd. 

Tush ! Tut ! ^jt^^phish, ^j^ chhl. Twain, j J c?o. 

Twice, ^bjj do-bdra. Two-fold, l^*^*^ do-tahd, li^J dugnd. 

Typical, JlJ ddll, ^J-y^ tamslti. Typically, Li/«J tamsilan. 

Tyrannical, Jll3 zdlim, ^<^»<2uJ sitaml, ^^ kathin: see Cruel. 

Vacant, jJ^ Midll, ,<y <i^?, (unemployed) Jlax^ mu'attaL 

Vague, j^;t?*^ ^^ gh air mu^aiyan, /•^ij^ l3 nd-mo^lum : see Doubtful. 

Vain, (fruitless) ^^JoILj be-fd'lda, Jl?U &a(iZ J-^U-^ Id-hdsiL 

In vain, wi.^ aJas, (^l^.\; ra'egaw, jl>^ bar-bdd. 

Valiant,^ J diler,ji2\^ bahddur, tls^ shuja^, Ldj dil-chald. 

Valid, Jli kd^em, -X:^L^ mustahkim, ^::^iy sdbit : see Firm. 

Valuable, (c^*^ kimatl, <otc ^^^ girdn-mdya, l^ j^l^ girdn-bahd. 

Vapid, ^ ^^ be-maza, \^Lf> phikd, l^ij«o s7f Aa : see Insipid. 

Variable, J Ju:l< mutabaddil, j^^Isl^ mutalauwin : see Inconstant. 

Various, ,^J/2^ mutafarrik, Ijcj- \^ judd-judd, cJli^-* mukhtalif. 

Vast, Vasty, Vj 5ara, A-lifi az7m, jrj-'j wasi^, j\A apdr. 

Vaulted, jl J S^ gumbaz-ddr, j\^ ^Jfi kubbe-ddr. 

Vehement, Jj jJb shadid, ei^^-* 5«M^) ^ /cara, JJ ^e^;, <^ij tund. 

Vendible, {^^ lj-*^ bechne-jog, luil^ chalantd, ^^j rawdj. 

390 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Venerable, /»^< mukarram, jjx^ mu'azzaz, (^ji buzurg. 
Venomous, uObJ zahrt,j\j jJbj zahr-ddr, (noxious) lJ<^_^ muzl. 
Venturesome, Venturous, jb^jU-Jaw-Jajs: see Bold. 
Verbal, ^3U; zabant, ^j4^ V. ^^ -f^ munh-bola or -akhri. 
Verbally, Verbatim, Hail lafzan, I^aIj lift! lafz ba-lafz. 
Verbose, /♦K J^ tul-kalam, Jj^ J^ tul-tawll, ji^ pur-go. 
Verdant, J^ ^aS^f, lyfe hara,J^j>^ sar-sabz. 
Verily, see Truly, Certainly. Veritable, >^ sack, u:^>«i;43 durust. 
Vernacular, ^^^,j^ dest. Vernal, lJj\^ bahari, ^^j rabVi, 
Versed, ^^J^ kdr'dan,J^ i(i^ycj\ dzmuda-kar: see Skilful. 
Very, (adj.) ^ sack, see True, Real : (adv.) c:^ bahut, cIUJ nipat. 
Vexatious, Xi^j\j\ dzdr-dih, ^\f>- J'^ dil-Miardsh, ^ !j ^J dukh-ddl. 
Ugly, <^^ *V bad-surat,^j li^-IJ ziskt-ru, JiJ JJ bad-daul. 
Vicious, Vitious, L5t*:^c aibi,jijJ^ sharir, xJj fdsid: see Bad. 
Victorious, jx*5>- J?^M, c^b ^,s fath-ydb, ^_JU gh dlib^j^jJftrdz, 
Yidelicet,^^^^ ya^ne, y\>- j and. Vigilant, ^\ST aga^ : see Cautious. 
Vigorous, j^jjijlj zordwar, i^^ kawz, ei^^-jJ^j zabar-dast. 
Vile, -^3 w?cA, ui^wj pasf, JJ J zalil,J^^ khwdr, ^^^J Jmw, 
Villanous, jc>-^ ?^4/^? -j^J w7c>i, <)dljj rizdla,jfJi^ haJcir : see Base- 
Vindictive, j^<)^ klna-war, ^jtS Jjj Ij /^hj\ intikdm-OT wail-kash. 
Violent, Jj Jwl shadid, ij:^si:r' ggM^, JcJ ^mwc/. 
Violently, L:L^si^ saJdit, 

Virile, <Ul J^ marddna. Virtually, lh^aJLsiI i fi-l-fiaklkat. 
Virtuous, Lc^y^^ dharmt, <JXj we/:, il^ bhald, ^U 5a/^^. 
Virulent, jojt^ shadld,ij:^^s^ sakht. Viscous, Ls!^ lajlajd. 
Visible, yJbU^ zdhir, <*0^ son^. Visibly, \jti^ zdhiran. 
Visionary, j<^ wahmi, jJU^ Jdiiydli, \^j^*^ tasauwurt. 
Vital, )fjJj zinda, C-j>j--i^ Cl.?lp- haydt-mansub, J\<^\:>^ jdn-ddr. 
Vivacious, J J ^jjj zinda-dil, jli» J J dil-shdd, ^^^ magan. 
Vivid, (bright) ^^jjj roshan, (splendid) L$l5^ chatkild : see Lively. 
Ultimate, ^j^ dkhirl. Unab!e,jjJJuj^ be-makdur : see Weak. 
Unacceptable, jcm,-^U na-pasawc?, jjla:^* l3 nd-tnanzur. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^'c. 391 

Unaccoutred, jU|^ be-saz. Unaccustomed, ^J^J> be-rabt 
Unacquainted, uJi^jU na-wakif, ^\^\ ajan. 
Unaffected, <t::.i>>L-j be-sdkhta. Unanimous, Jjtliol ek-dil. 
Unanswerable, J^i) Id-radd. Unarmed, l^i^ nihatthd. 
Unasked, ^^^^^ be-talah. Unassisted, ^^J^^ be-madad. 
Unavoidable, J^j^l Id-budd. Unauthorised, J^:*-'^ be-sanad. 
Unaware, Unawares, u^l>-l achdnak, tlX>J l^J tk-d-ek. 
Unbecoming, c^J l3 nd-zeb, Uj JJ bad-numd : see Improper. 
Unbidden (uninvited), bljl an-buldyd, lt-J^JlJ be-dawat. 
Unblamable, ^5^^^^ nirddkhl, Oua-jjj ru-svfaid: see Faultless. 
Unblemished, 9^Juj bt-d dgh . Unblown, <fc:Li£i> Ij nd-sJdgnfta. 
Unborn, l-rsrl anjand, 1*V^ nd-paidd, (future) ^^JcjI dyanda. 
Unbound, (a book) oL^j^ghairmujallad: see Loose. 
Unbounded, jbl apdr, ds^b be-hadd, JjJls:^ -^i gh air-mahdud. 
Unbridled, /♦^lj^ be-lagdm, Unburnt, \s^\ anjald. 
Uncertain, tpft><->£ gh air mukarrar, (jJ^JL^ mashkuk. 
Unchangeable, JjJuj -j be-tabdll, JljJ ^ be-zawdl, l^<^ a7w^f. 
Unchaste, ^j^j^ shahwatl, ^\i^\j\) nd-pdhdaman. 
Uncivil, ^jU- Jj bad'khulk, ^jlri- -s:^ kaj-khulk, J;*— ^ ^e-sIZ. 
Unclean, see Filthy. Uncomfortable, ^A^^ nd-khnsh. 
Uncommon, c-?V.(^ kam-ydb, l^'Jyl awzif/ia, jjl) nddir, 
Uncompounded, ^^j< j^ ghair murakkab,\AJ\ an-mild. 
Uncontrollable, L ^ ^U j be-zabt, JuAj be-kaid, CJ^J\ arok. 
Uncouth, lo^j^J bhondd, c^J^ bt-dhab, c-j-^LjI^^j be-aslub. 
Uncultivated, ? j j/<^;!?^ gh air mazrii , ^y partJ, .JiXc^ jangB, 
Undaunted, lI/L*^ be-bdk, ^^--JbL sdhast. 
Undecided, jyUl3 nd-mukarrar, 

Undefiled, see Pure, Clean. Undefined, ^^^ast^Ij nd-mushaMiMias. 
Undeniable, ^j'-V bt-dar egh . Under, ,c^ 7i7c//e, ^' ^aZe. 
Underhand, ^^ pinhdrii, ^J^'^ mukhfl. Undermost, y^J ztrtar. 
Undeserved, t^^^\^ jJi ghair icdjib, ^_^l3 nd-hakk. 
Undesigned, OwaJ^^J be'ka§d. Undesigning, ijOjX^^ be- gh araz. 

392 Vocabulary,— Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Undetermined, jjl* j^ ^hair mukarrar, '^yo^S^ shakkl-mizaj , 
Undigested, j^^j^jJ^ ghair munhazim, t-^J^l5 na-murattab. 
Undisciplined, Ju:|y ^^ be-kawd'td, laij^ be-rabt. 
Undisguised, <fc;^L^ be-sakhta, ^ khula, ^i^ULj be-libas. 
Undone, (ruined) i^^J- kharab, (opened) \jbd\ udhra, (not done) 

\j^d\ adhura. 
Undoubtedly, (iS^L^^ be-shakk, \f j^ aur kya, ^^^ be-shubha. 
Undutiful, -^iio-l; na-hukmi, (son) ujLS^lj nd-khalaf, CJ^ kaput. 
Uneasy, Aj^ ^. be-dram. Unemployed, Ji«^ mu^attal. 
Unequal, Uneven, j^^^i) U nd'hamwdr , j\^ c,,>^^J nashebfardz. 
Unequivocal, Lli^^ll^ l3 nd-mashkuk, uJU sdf, ^j^jJ. ghair mubham. 
Unerring, tii^l achuk, Ua^ be-Idiatd, j\>yi\ ^^[LJ nishdn-anddz. 
Unexampled, J^^^ be-misdl. Unexpected, ^y^^^ ndgahdni. 
Unexperienced, jl^^U^U nd-tajriba-kdr , cJwljU nd-wdkif. 
Unexplored, ItoJj^AJJl an-dhundhd, iidyoj\\i nd-dzmuda. 
Unfading, ^1^5>-^1 an-murjhd'u. Unfair, ci-^^^jU nd-rdst. 
Unfaithful, Uj-j be-wafd. Unfashionable, -r!;/^ be-rawdj. 
Unfathomable, Unfathomed, Ifil atkd, S\ agam. 
Unfavourable, ^^b-^U nd-mihrbdn, A««-^U nd-mus'ad, 
Unfeathered, Jb ^^ ^^ be par o bdl. Unfeeling, see Cruel. 
Unfeigned, jJ^l abhagli, <J«'--^J be-hila, b^ be-riyd. 
Unfelt, (^y^^sr^j^ ghair mahsus, ^J^\ anjdn. 
Unfinished, ^UjU nd-tamdm, A^^^. be-anjdm, Vj^bjl adhura. 
Unfit, J^J^b nd-Wik, iz^\Ji»\i nd-shd'csta, Jjl^b nd-kabiL 
Unforeseen, j^ Jj..v*^j l3 nd-pesh-dida, ifJoJb nd-dlda. 
Unfortunate, ci^-rkr jj bad-bakht, ^^^ abhdgi, cl5^lA^ mafiuk. 
Unfounded, bl^^ be-thikdnd, Unfrequent, see Uncommon. 
Unfriendly, b-i»T^ j[^air dshnd, ^^b^b nd-mihrbdn, l^jj rukhd. 
Unfruitful, Jf»^ aphal, Jc^^,jb nd-bahramand : see Barren. 
Unfurnished, J L^ ic-sa2^, c-^U-*l^^ be-asbdb, d::^\j\\j nd-drdsta, 
Ungain, Ungainly, ci^JjJ <^ be-nazdkat, lSj^\ andri : see Uncouth. 
Ungenerous, J^Wb nd-jawdnmard, Ungenial, ^l^b nd-mwcdfik. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc, 393 

Ungenteel, ^_^L^-^^,i!i^l3 na-khnsh-khulk, iz^^\2»\j na-sha^ista. 
Ungovernable, Ungoverned, IcJj^ k-^ ^ be-zabto rabt: see Disobedient. 
Ungraceful, ^*^J bad-saj, ^...^JbjLj be-dhab, L::^i]ji-j bt-nazakat. 
Ungracious, \,:L^\y^^ be-nazakat,j\^^ na-gawar , jjJI:* sharir. 
Ungrateful, ^^U na-shukr, ci^^^jcyl^ kafir-i-ni mat, li^-J be-wafa. 
Unhandsome, UDjyadJ bad-surat, Jyi*^l3 na-ma kul. 
Unhappy, ^j^^li na-Tdiiish, c)^-S»^l3 na-klmsJmud : see Unfortunate. 
Unhealthful, Unhealthy, ci^wj^jcJU na-tandurust, ^s^yc\j na-muwafik. 
Unheard, li-Jl ansund. Unholy, (j^J^<\j nd-mukaddas. 
Unhurt, ci?^^j be-chot, /•^^^ be-zakhm, ^Laiii-^j bt-nuksdn. 
Uniform, (^LX)J ek-sdn,j\jj bardbar. Uniformly, ^^ ^^^y bardbarise. 
Unimportant, Mfii\ j^ gh air ahamm, CS^ subtik, KIjd halkd. 
Uninformed, jJixc^ ghair muttali', jJ^ be-khabar, j^l^^lj ndddn. 
Uninhabitable, JjlJ»l3 ^ ^j> crVj^V ^^d-'^'^ karne ke nd-kdbil. 
Uninhabited, L-Ji anbasd, ^^^-y nirjan, jbTli nd-dbdd. 
Uninjured, ^^la&i-J be-nuksdn, i^Ju^ ,lj! U nd-dzdr-raslda. 
Uninstructed, l^Cjl ansikhd, (^r^ ^ be-talim, '•^jyo murakh. 
Unintelligible, ,^sf*'^. bl-samajh, -ii-Jljb nd-danistarii. 
Unintentional, Unintentionally, J^^iuJ bt-kasd, ^^^U^ be-irdda. 
Uninterested, .i^jlj^ be-swdrth, ^joy.'i Id-gharaz, >^y^i bl-sud. 
Uninterrupted,^^! an-antar, AAih bild-fdsila. 
Uninvited, ciJyr^J^j bt-da^wat, Ij^i-j be-nautd, l>L3l anbuldyd. 
Unique, \i^, yaktd, 1^1 i/i;/:a, ,cilj^ Id-sdm, jlL /a^, iX^j loaKid, 
Universal, ^jUxo mutlak, ^ kulU, ^y^^ umunii, '^\:>^jdmC, 
Unjust, ^_^l3 nd-hakk, uJUyl^J be-insdf, ti^J^ be-ddd. 
Unkind, cu^iii-i» ^ be-shafakat, jj^^ be-mihr, ^^^jy<>^ nd-mihrbdn. 
Unknown, /•^Lc<U nd-malum, \i\sfr\ anjdnd, ^J^f^ anpahchdn. 
Unlawful, c^(_jL5- khildf-i-shar* , ^\:>\) nd-jd'iz, *\jS'- hardm. 
Unless, ^\ ilia, jJc baghair, ij^\ agar-na,^^ magar. 
Unlike, <ull^l3 nd-mushdbih, Ju^^ anmel: see Dissimilar. 
Unlikely, L--^li-U nd- gh dlib. Unlimited, Jks:u be-fiadd. 
Unlooked for, (Jl(^ l3 nd-gahdni. Unlucky, ^j^^sXa manhus, 

3 E 

394 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverhs, Sec. 

Unmanageable, Is-m* ^ he-zabt, ^J^j^ sarkashy a^^, he-lagam. 
Unmanly, <U\jy<jlj nd-mardana. Unmannerly, c-^jI^^ he-adah. 
Unmarried, liil-^l anhydha. Unmeaning, i<^*^^^ he-ma ni. 
Unmerciful, ,*»^ be-rahm. Unmindful, IsWiii be-lihdz. 
Unmixed, iUJt anmild. Unmoved, J^l achal, f^^^^j^, ht-rikkat. 
Unnatural, ^^-la^lj nd-matlu*, L^i^^^jtJ^ ^^s^ khildf-i-tab'iyat. 
Unnecessary, jj^ l3 nd-zarur. Unobserved, l^.*^^ andekhd. 
Unoccupied, ^jyiLJu nd-mashghul, jJU- Midli : see Vacant. 
Unpalatable, ^jj had-mazay j\f\i nd-gawdr. 
Unparalleled, dijU ^^j be-mdnand. Unpared, L^^ anchhlld. 
Unpardonable, Unpardoned, jjj^xo^^ ghair-ma zur. 
Unperceivable, ^JjojIj nd-didani. Unperceived, nd^cki nd-dida, 
Unperishable, J|^J^ Id-zaiodl, «JliiJ Id-fdni : see Eternal. 
Unpleasant, (ji^^l3 nd-Tdiush,J\^^ nd-gawdr: see Disagreeable. 
Unpolished, Jiu^ ^j be-saikal, (rude) iiSJi)\jj \j nd-tardshida. 
Unpolite, '-^xt^^A be-muruwat, ji>-J^ bad-Jdiulk. 
Unprecedented, J-i.KUJ be-tamsil, ^}y^^^^ei be-ma muL 
Unpremeditated, ^suJL^^i be-peshbandi, ^c^,<^. badihi. 
Unprepared, jLjI) nd-taiydr, Sxx^^^j^ ghair-musta'idd. 
Unprincipled, ci^MJjj bad-zdt,j^Si bad-guhar, i\j^^ he-rdh. 
Unprofitable, Jyc>U-^ Id-hdsil, iiJ^\su) be-fd\tda. 
Unpromising, ^l^^^ anhonhdr, Unpropitious, ^j^j^, bad-yumn. 
Unprotected, <V.W^ be-sdya, ^iJ^*^ be-wastla, ^jj^\ asaran. 
Unprovided, ^^UL^^^^ be-sar-d-sdrndn, c-^L-jI^ be-asbdb. 
Unqualified, (Jjfj nd-ld\ik, j\j^jJ6 nd-sazdwdr. 
Unquestionable, ^Jo\Jxc^h bild-i tirdz, -/{(^^ji be-shubha. 
Unquiet, ^^^jjsnj be-ckain, (J-s^ chanchal, l^JL^ muztarib. 
Unread, U»Jl anparhd, *Jol^l3 nd-Jdmdnda : see Ignorant. 
Unreasonable, l^ be-jd, JyU^l) nd-ma*kul, IJ^^^J be-thikdnd. 
Unreserved, i— ai^.^J bt-takallvf, JjcJU sdf-dil, b^ be-riyd. 
Unrestrained, JuiuJ be-kaid, /♦l^lLo be-lagdm, L^>4>.» be-zabL 
Unrighteous, ^U^ gh air-sdlih, uJlaJl^ bl'insdf, ^^}{po,pi. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Adverbs j Sfc, 395 

Unripe, ILjl anpaka, iz^\j na-pukhta, i$S^\j na-rasida. 
Unrivalled, ^^lii^ be-nazir, i.^^Sj^^ be-rakib^ t^^j^jJ:, gh air-harif. 
Unruly, k>..a,;.» be-zabt, ^^^^, be-lagam, fti-^sXi be-hukm. 
Unsafe, lii-^I-jU na-saldmat, ^^k>.lj ba-khatra, ^\ ^ be-amn. 
Unsatisfactory, L^\yJo na-sawab, j\J^ na-saz. 
Unseasonable, «*::^^J be-waktj Issaj be-ja, /♦V.W be-aiyam. 
Unseasoned, tlX*^J be-namak. Unseemly, c«*.v-jlx<l3 na-munasib. 
Unseen, l^.J^l andekha, c^-iiJ^ adishty 2^Jo jl3 na-dida. 
Unsettled, jlyi-j be-karar, l::. ^^ S:j ^j be-band-o-bast. 
Unshod, tjj^ij^ nange pa'dn. Unsightly, UJjj bad-numa. 
Unskilful, c-fljl^l3 na-wakify j>^ be-hunary ^J} nirgun. 
Unsound, ^CuXii shikastUy j^s^ aib-dary c:^asl-^ be-sihhat. 
Unsparing, ^jJuj be-dar egh . Unstable, j]^^ be-karar. 
Unsteady, ci^Ui-J be-sabat. Unsuccessful, ^^^^-aJU^ be-maksad. 
Unsuitable, ^Jil^li na-mmcajik. Unsullied, ^^^^ be-aib. 
Untamed, l^jl anhild. Untasted, l^^^l anchakhd. 
Untaught, <t;>-^l iJ nd-dmokhta. Untimely, c::-^^ bt-wakt. 
Until, l1X> ^^^^^ jab-taky t^ /ag". Unto, ^ /ro, ^^;l:u^ ke-to'ln. 
Untold, 1^1 ankahd. Untouched, ^*^\ anchhud. 
Untoward, see Perverse. Untrue, c:,^-:^^ l) nd-rdst. 
Unusual, ji^Juj be-dastur. Unwary,^^-^ be-khabar. 
Unwearied, (J.^1 athak. Unwelcome, tXi^j l3 nd-pasand. 
Unwholesome, j\j^^ nd-gawdr. Unwilling, ^Jo\J U nd-rdz. 
Unwitting, ^^1 anjdn. Unwittingly, ac--Jlj U nd-ddnista. 
Unworthy, (^} l3 7id-ld'ik, J^^^y> ^ nd-sazdwdr. 
Vocal, j^t>J^^t dwdz-ddry ^y^ sauti, ij^-^ shabdi. 
Vociferous, ci-^Ij jy^ shor-pushty ^'^y- ghavghd'i. 
Void, J^ khdliy ^y ^i^7, ^suUy (null) JLb Ja/i/. 
Volatile, (winged) ^jJ^ paranday (playful) J-^>- chanchaL 
Voluntary, ^jr^L:^^ ikhtiydrly ^s*ni kasdty ^^j\ az khud. 
Voluptuous, ij^i^ aiydshy \^j raslld : see Luxurious. 
Voracious, ^iiJ\ ^f^ ju'u-l-bakarj V^^* mar-bhukkkd. 

396 Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc* 

Up, y J upar, % bala, (out of bed) \^\ utha : see Standing. 

Upon,y par,ji^^^ upar. Upper, y^b balatar ^^\ a la. 

Uppermost, Isr^l V.y^V ^'^ S^^ ^<^^ ^^ balatar or uncha. 

Upright, (erect) \^.^ khara, (just) J^^l-^ sadik: see Honest. 

Upward, Upwards,^^! upar, (more than) ^^^Vj ziyada. 

Urgent, j^j^ zarur, vA^ lazim, l::^^^ sakht, SssT bajidd. 

Useful, l^ aI^ kam ka, ^S^SJ^ kar-amdani : see Profitable. 

Useless, \j\i\j nakdra, U^ nikammd, ^^Va^ be-fai'lda. 

Usual, ^.!\j ra'cj, ^tj.< murauwaj, ,J^ chalni^ ^J^j^^^' 

Usually,^! aksar, e--Lcl aghlab, ^wl-*: beslitar. 

Utmost, Utter, d-^^j nihayat, (JUJ nipat, ui^U gh dyat. 

Utterly, JU^ ^ /♦Uj tamdm o kamdl, Ci>:>- hadd^ *-^V ''^^^'^V^^' 

Vulgar, (common) aU «wz7w, ^J^ ^^j (mean) <5ii^ kamina. 

Uxorious, Jjj^ jjj zan-murld, ^^^ karlagu'd. 

Waggish, <^Ja zarif, ^jk*'*^ waskhara, «-J:> c/V*" khiish-tab^. 

Wan, L>;J ^^^(i, iU pila, ^^J^j za^fardrii. 

Wanton, ^j-Jb shokh, j\ij^ lahar-bdz, J^^ achpal, ^^^ kanii. 

W^arlike, ^^^^i^ jangi, &Jl^^ ajj razm-ptsha, l^jjjfl lardnkd. 

Warm, ^^ garm, liu tattd,j\s>- hdrr, (ardent) m^ ^ sar-garm* 

Wary, jL^^ hoshydr, ^^>y^^^ agrasocln, ^^ chaukamid. 

Waspish, H>J^ chirchird, ^ Ji)j zud-ranj, l3^ ghund. 

Waste, ^-^|^2>- Tdiardb, ijji,^ wirdn, JUJb j^a'ewaZ, Jls^l 2(/flr. 

Wasteful, j*ljl urd'u, uJj^.*^ musrif, 'r^j^ ^}^ fazul-kharch. 

Watchful, j^JuJ be-ddr , j\JjiJb hoshydr, {j^^^ chaukas : see Cautious. 

Watery, ^\ dbi, \j^^ panihd, (tasteless) Ljj pansd : see Insipid. 

Wayward, i^ shokh, L^lb hathlld, ^^ ziddi. 

Weak, j^J tS kam-zor, u-Lju? za'tf, c:^«jJ yj zer-dast : see Feeble. 

Wealthy,jljJU mdlddr,j\djj zarddr, <X^^d daulatmand. 

Wearisome, ^ l^* thakd*u, uJj^^ bhdri. Weary, i^JjU rndnda. 

Wedded, lubU 7;yfl/i^a (f.), UU %a/ia (m.). Wee, see Small. 

Weekly, iM> jib har hafta, idi^ i::s::t> hafta hafta. 

Weighty, ^J^ waznl, ^f;\^ bhdrt. Welcome, cJj^^^ mubdrak. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs,- Sfc. 397 

Well (adj.), \^\ achchha, ^ bhala, \xx^ \^i bhala-changa. 

Well (adv.), ci-^^t} durust, ^ bhala, (~r^y>- (chub, ^Jb ^c^l achchhl- 

Wellbred, ^2L>. ^y^- khush-khulk, j\^\ tlXJ nek-atwar. 
Well done ! (j>ibl-2> shabash, ^j zahty c^.y^ of arm. 
West, Westward, ^ >g^ pachchham ko, S-^'O •— v^ taraf-i-m agh rib. 
Westerly, Western, ^^^-^ pachchhami, ^j^ m agh ribi. 
Wet, Ul^ bhlgd, L^ g«/a, y ^«^, /»J wcrm, c/L^ namndk. 
What? Li /rz/a, ^^ /camw. What, ^:>- Jo. Whatever, -^ ^^jo kuchh, 
Wheaten, l^ ^^^ g^hun kd. When ? u-^ /:«&. When, ^.^^^jab. 
Whence ? ^^ ^^l^ kahdn se, (from what source ?) jja-j^j ^^ /vzs 

Whence, >-* ti^V^ j^^^^ ^^y (from which source) ^^-2-j\j ^-«5»- jis 

Where ? ^^l^ kahdn. Where, ^\j^^ jahdii, jibS^ jidhar. 
Whereas, aiL^jl az-bas-ki, ^^ chun-ki. Whereby, ^ ^j,^ jis se. 
Wherever, ^^ ^J<^ jahdii jahdn. Wherefore, ^^^^ (j^ is waste. 
Wheresoever, ^^ tj^rJ" i^^^^ kahln. Whereupon, ,^\ us-par. 
Whether, <Si ki, \J kyd. AVhich ? ^^ kaun. Which, ^ jo. 
Whichever, i^^jo-ki. While, Whilst, (JS-.^pt jab-tak, d^jad. 
Whimsical, ^\p^ C^ J^ har-dam-khiydlJ, ^j^ lahri. 
White, Jui- sufed, Ll^"^ set, (fair) \jf gord, (bright) 1^\ ujld. 
Who ? ^if kaun, ^ ^kis-ne. Who, ^ Jo, ^f^jaun, ^^j^^-^jis-ne. 
Whoever, iS^ j=^J0'kd't, Whomever, j^ ^^^ Lr^j^^ ^^^ ko. 
Whole, (sound) A--^ musallam, (entire) aUJ tamdm: see All. 
Wholesome, ^y cl-.s.-^ sihhat-dwar, (jj>\y< muwdfik : see Useful. 
Why ? ^yS kyun, ^^^ hdhe ko, ^^\^ ^ kis wdste. 
Wicked, \ji burd, ^^b pdp'i,jjl» sharlr, ^ bad, ^^j zabun. 
Wide, t?^ chaurd, K^ chakld, L.^j pahnd, ^\j5 fardkh. 
Wild, ^J^c^jangll, ^^J^-^^ wahshi, ^j:^^ dashti : see Licentious. 
Wilful, *\i*-j Jys- khud-pasand, j,^ J^ khud-sar : see Perverse. 
Wilfully, ^c^\j» SiiJi^ didao ddnista : see Intentionally. 

398 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sec. 

Willing, ^\j raziy Jc^ Ulj ram-mand, (JL^ Miiish : see Desirous. 
Wily,jb A^ hila-baz, j\j *bjj robah-baz : see Cunning. 
Windy, t/*^y> hawal, ^^jb badly (puffed up) \^j^; phula : see Stormy. 
Winning, liib^ mohna, y J dil-ruba, ^ Jc> dil-kash : see Charming. 
Wise, JO/Ji^ aklmand, Jilc aA:i/, l3b cZawa, c15jJ zirak. 
Wishful, jli.1^ mushtak, J^jjf arzumand, t-^|; raghib. 
With (prepos. or postpos.), ,^ 5e, (along with) ^L sa^^, ^ ?wft*. 
Within, ^^1-^ bhitar, jSi\ andar, ^i bich, ^j^ meii. 
Without, (adv.)^b bahar, ^^^^ berun, (prep.) ^j be, ^i bila. 
Wittingly, ^_/-^^ t^^j^^ bujhke, Jci-Jb^ )^JoJ dida o ddnista. 
Witty, (H^j^ tez'fahm, jx»^ chatur, u-2j^ ?.^^^f' see Jocular. 
Woful, Ll/l3 j^ gh am-nak^ Lii^"*^^ santapi, j%\ <^y^ sog-awar. 
Wooden, l^ ,J^ lakri ka, ^^,y>- chobin. Woody, ^J^^^ jangll. 
Woollen, jJ^l uni, ^^^^^ pashml, ^^^^t?**^ pashrmna. 
Worldly, j\ii\ji^ dunya-ddr, lJJjLJ>^ sansdrik, ui^^JJ dunt/dwl. 
Wormeaten, St^jys^ m^ kirm-Miiirda , \:^ ghund, \^-»^ klrahd. 
Worse, y Jj badtar. Worst, \ji ^ ^j^ burl se burd. 
Worthless, J JAj be-kadr, \j^\j nd-kdrd, J^\j nd-chiz. 
Worthy, ^5 Id'ik, Jj15 kdbil, w^^::-^ mustaujib, il^j bhald. 
Wrathful, c/b^r ghazab-ndk, l1/U JLsi^ khashm-ndk, ^^^ kopl. 
Wretched, t-^^^i-j be-nasib, ^;^^ pareshdriy Jlxu^ kavgdl. 
Written, ly> l^ /i/c^a Aw'a, icJit^ nawishta, ^^^j^ markum. 
Wrong, Uj^^Msliw^lj nd-mundsib, J>"b nd-hakk, Lli ghalat. 
Wrongful, uJLaJ^ ^^ be-insdf, (J^\j nd-hakk. Wroth, see Wrathful. 
Wrought, lij band, W^ garhd. Wry, WfJ /er/ia, -s;^ /:«;. 
Yclad, Li) liy pahrid hiCd, Ycleped, .^ /»l3 ndm^zad. 
Yea, j^ljb ^an, ^1j Z>a/e. Yearling, Jl-^J ek-sdli. 
Yes, ^U> Aflw, Jj bait, ^j\ dre, y tau, ^j^-ji. 
Yet, (conj.) ^ yj tau'bht, ji^ par, (adv.)^j ^jm3 tis-par: see Beside. 
Yon, Yonder, Sj wuh or (dakli.) wah, '^y^ parld, l^ <^j pare kd. 
Of yore, \^ CDX< muddat kd, K^l agld, ^ *.• jJi kadim se. 
Young, f^\y>'jawdn, JL i^jy^- khiml-sdl, y nau: see Small. 

Vocabulary Adjectives^ Adverbs, Sfc. 399 

Your, \)^ tumhara, \:J\ apnd. Yourself, l-JT *j turn dp. 
Youthful, ^^ jaiodn, iij\j tdza, ^^ kawi. 
Zealous, m^ gar my ^f j^ sar-garm, JcJ tund, ^^c^I-j sd^i. 
Zigzag, IjbJJ tlrhd, ^ j ^ kaj o peek, \j^i bakrd (?). 



yb <-5*T ^ iJ^ kahan se a'e ho . . . . Where are you from ? 

^V^J^ kidhar ja'dge Where are you going ? 

ys. ^f J turn kaun ho Who are you ? 

yj «-5*T ^J^^^ {j^ kis waste a'e ho . . . . Why are you come ? 

^y^ ^J ^j^ mujhe kuchh kahogt . . Will you say something to 


Jb ^^ ^j wuh kaun hai Who is he ? Who is that ? 

_^*'\jbd\ idhar a'o Come here. 

yT CJ^„^^ nazdik d'o Come near. 

U- i^J^ jaldija Go quickly. 

Jl>- ^>^y^ jaldi chalo Go (or move) quickly. 

ij V— *^ chup rah Be silent. 

^*j tjr-iU- haziri la'o Bring breakfast. 

J il Ijl^ khdnd la'o Bring dinner. 

J ^ |ljj roti Id'o Bring bread. 

J )l jbJjJ dudh Id'o Bring milk. 

jt> ci;-^3^ misri do Give some sugarcandy. 

J l^ l3l^ khdnd khd'o Eat (your) dinner. 

Lj JbJ^ dudhpTo Drink milk. 

j*L»- 4 J^ chird gh jald'o .... Light the lamp. 

^ jU- ^u battijald'o Light the candle. 

/"ijJl^ gulgir Id'o Bring the snuffers. 

jS jf gul Id Snuff the candle. 

Short Sentences, 


.*\^rsr* ^IJ hatti hujha'o 

/^ C^y^ ySwws la'o . 

yi^*\ (j-y^ ^ww5 utha'd 

(j:,^^ ^^^ hhuliyo mat 

• L» l>- cha banana . 

• ^ ^xfclj ddhne phiro 

J )b ^y^yo motiydn-kd buld^o 
J W J-^ mez lagd'o . 
j'l^ l-->Im*>! ashdh lejd'o 
y 1^1 J-AJ Twez uthao . 
yi>jlL>^-^ khahar-ddr ho 
^ L^ jXs*- ^M/:m 7iya hai 
j)^ juj t^Jli gan taiydr karo 
^jf^i <Ul>Lu -^^ kuchh muzdyaka nah 
Jb ^^:^^Ji if J turn ko fur sat hai 
^-jTCV^ uJW< f AJb ham ko mu'df kljiye 
i ^ <^V ^J^ thorl rott Id'o , . 
Jb V.V=5^ ^Jff^ hichhaund hichhdyd 
J i Jcj ^);)jt> darwdza hand karo 


^ ^<:^ i*^ *V:> y*^* kam-haMUi hai 
J il <_->li^ «-^j:r* '^^^^ /:iVaJ Za'o 

_j J iVyf" ^ji^ ^^^^ j^^^ ^^'^ • 

yU-jUb ^* ^Mm bazar jd^o 

J 3 u:^w2»^ Ij^' thord gosht Id'o 

jib j^j^ULjU^ Ljjit^ mere khdnsdmdn ko 

J J jX>- 1^ ^yl^ Maw^ /fa ^w/i'/w do 

Ujj l^ Jib ^^ maiw bdhir ju'ungd 

yi \^J^ L-A) wzera kaprd Id'o . 

3 F 

Put out the candle. 

Bring a shade (for the candle). 

Take away the shade. 

Do not forget. 

Make tea. 

Turn to the right. 

Turn to the left. 

Call the porters. 

Lay the table. 

Take away the things. 

Remove the table. 

Be careful. 

What is (your) command ? 

Get the carriage ready. 

It is no matter. 
, Are you at leisure ? 
. Be pleased to pardon me. 
. Bring a little bread. 
. Have they made the bed ? 
. Shut the door. 
. They are old. 
. This is a misfortune. 
. Bring my book. 
. Bring my shoes. 
. Go you to the market. 
. Bring a little meat. 
. Do not plague (me). 
buld'o . Call my khdnsdmdn. 
. Order dinner. 
. I shall go out. 
. Bring my clothes. 
. You must come quick. 


)2 Short Senten 


J'h ^ t_tf;i-^ J\j raj mistari ko hula'o 

. . Call the bricklayer. 

, i^ ^j:^^yo i_^^^ kothi marammat karl 

I . . Repair the house. 

^^ juil^ ^ j*^ Jdiabar kd kdghaz la 

. . Bring the newspaper. 

^ ^j ^ yih wuh'i hai . . . 

. . This is that very (thing). 

^jb ^j^ ^J^^ loahan sah-hi ham 

. . They are quite all there. 

Jb ^^ j^li»^ wahdn ko'l hai . . 

. . Is any one there ? 

^j^ ^j '^uh pher kaho . , 

. . Say that again. 

i^ijjl5>- J^ j^ ham kaljdwenge . . 

. . We shall go tomorrow. 

\J^^ UT^ Sry ^^P kyun chhuti . . 

. . Why is the gun fired ? 

/l^ ijd^s*- ^J3b palkljaldi manga' o . 

. . Send for the palanquin im- 


^ \^\ Uj^^^L? sahih uthd hai . , 

. . Is the gentleman up ? 

J 1 S-<^ ghum-kar d'o . 

. . Come round. Turn about. 

^^ dz..^ \j3 zarrd dhista chalo . 

. . Go a little more gently. 

^j(i\ \4jyo ^ \ d'o moze utdro , , 

. . Come, take off (my) boots 

jKi ^j^ ghar se niklo . 

. . Get out of the house. 

^ '— y^ *j ^^^ ^e-wukuf hai 

. . He is a simpleton. 

j^J^lfe ^jj\ apne hath dho'd . 

, . . Wash your hands. 

^y>J ^< \uj\ apna munh dho'b . 

. Wash your face. 

^ ^^ ^-^^-^ ^cihut garmi hai . 

. . .. It is very hot. 

^ J ^Ck!1) l-jI::^ Sj z^?m^ kitdb ham-ko do 

. . Hand me that book. 

\y^ i^^ j\su\ ^^ yih ittijdk kah hxCd 

. . . When did this happen ? 

J if ^Jb Ui^5 thandd pdrii Id'o . 

. . . Bring (some) cold water. 

J iJ ^^:^ji> \j^ thord sharhat Wo 

. , . Bring a little sherbet. 

lyb i^y^ l5^ gAafa namud hu^d 

. , . It appears cloudy. 

IC-.-^ ^^U ^T a; pan? barsegd . 

. , . It will rain to day. 

^ c:-.--:jj ^-^^-^ 15^^ 'f^s-ke hahut dost haiii 

. . He has many friends. 

Jb ^ye 1^1 ^^ T/iA achchha mausim 

hai . This is fine weather. 

^ ^j\^ lSjI ^^J^\ us-ki ban ddrhi hai 

. . . He has a great beard. 

^ \ijy>- \S -^j yih kyd chiriyd hai 

. . . What bird is this ? 

^ li»Uj \^\ •^ yih un-kd tamdshd h 

ai . . This is their fun. 

^ il\^ \y a^ wuh bard matwdld hi 

'd . . He is a great toper. 

^-rsTJ tOyiJ iJJoJ *C4Jb 
^^ l^^l l3l,'^ ^^-^ ^j 

Short Sentences. 

un-ka hara gunah hai , 

yih maidan kis-ka hai » , 

us-kd mukaddama aj hogd , 
yahdn hahut makkhiymi hain 
kitne admi hazir hain . 

chirdgh mm tel nahm . . 

yih fakat ffila hai , , . 

ham-ko Ik namuna dijiyl . 

tumhare pas rassi hai . . 
hddshah takht par haitha . 
us-ki dwdz achchhi hai . . 
topi aur kurtt jhdro . . . 
yih kaun-sd jdnwar hai . . 
tumhdri kyd saldh hai , . 
wuh mtwa khdnd achchhd 

is-mm turn fd^ Ida pd'oge 
apne hdloii-mm kanghi karo 
tumhdri umr kyd hai . . 
pdlkl mere pds hhejo . . . 
hdth dhone kd pdm Id^o . . 

j*iJ 1«^ !j^ (JJol ekjord kaprd Id'o . . 
j'il j^l^ Ji CjljJ dawdt kalam kdghaz Id'o 

^J^ ^^ \j^ Sj wuh gord kaun hai . 

^ \j^ lx*-i ^ wuh kis-kd ghdrd hai 

L5^ ^Jj^ S^^**^ *V- y^^ Aa?warz ghofl hai 

^ \j^ \L^ ,^ yih kis-kd ghard hai. 

^ L^ a\j \j^^ tumhdrd ndm kyd hai 

^ib cS'i'^ '^li^ ^^ f^uh hahut chdldk hai 


Their crime is great. 
Whose field is this ? 
His trial will be to day. 
There are many flies here. 
How many men are present ? 
There is no oil in the lamp. 
This is all a trick. 
Be pleased to give me a pat- 
Have you any string ? 
The king sat on the throne. 
He (or she) has a fine voice. 
Brush (my) hat and coat. 
What kind of animal is this ? 
What is your advice ? 
That firuit is not good to eat. 

You will find this very useful. 
Comb your hair. 
What is your age ? 
Send me the palanquin. 
Bring water to wash (my) 

Bring a suit of clothes. 
Bring the inkstand, pen and 

What European is that ? 
Whose horse is that ? 
This is our (or ray) mare. 
Whose water-pot is this ? 
What is your name ? 
He is very active. 


Short Sentences, 

L^JT* ^iJ^J "V. y^^ zainin sJior hai . . . 

LS^j^y iiT^V^ Xp^ ^^^^^ /^a/^^?^ to giroge . . . 

^Jb ^^sx^ ^^j -^, yih rupiya mekhi hai . • 

^^ Jo fjLHi ^J^\ us-ki shakl had hai . . . 

^Jb jCl^ jjbj ^jij^^ angrtzi zaban mushkil hai . 

jb 1^1 '^^^•v^ -Hii 2/^^ hahut achchha hai , 

i^j^ 4— ^>-js:^ •^^ yih a jib Tdiahar hai . . . 

j^-A tj-'V' ^j^_^ /*^ ^^^ hhukhe piyast hain, . 

^^ uJL? ^-?^ j^U-j| 

cr^^ r^ L5^ Sr^ 

Z£7mA hushyar admi hai . . 

jhilmil uthd'o 

hartan leja'o 

yih darakht jald maulega . 
turn hamesha gh alat karteho 
wuh handi-khane mm bhejd 

us-ki dalil mazhut hai 
wuh bard be-adab hai 
dsmdn khuh sdf hai 
we larke sholch hain 
us-ne bari sazd pa't 
we sab chup rahe , 
uS'kd dil be-kardr hai 
yih kdghaz tar hai 
kaun shor kartd hai 
turn kyd kahte ho . 
turn kyd khdte ho . 

This ground is salt (barren). 

Get down lest you fall. 

This rupee is adulterated. 

It looks ill. 

The English tongue is diffi- 

This is very good. 

This is wonderful news. 

^ We are (l am) hungry and 

He is a prudent man. 

Raise up the Venetian blinds. 

Take away the dishes. 

This plant will soon blossom. 

You are always blundering. 

He was sent to prison. 

His argument is strong. 
He is very unmannerly. 
The sky is very clear. 
Those boys are pert. 
He got a great punishment. 
They all remained silent. 
His heart is unsettled. 
This paper is damp. 
Who is making a noise ? 
What are you saying? 
What are you eating? 

* Like as in Europe the plural of the second person is commonly adopted when 
applied to an individual, so in Hindustani not only the plural of the second person, but 
also that of the first, and even of the third, is in use much substituted for the singular. 

L^ ^J k^/ J^3 

jV ^/e" ^/'i' ^5^'■v-' 

^J6 ^1 ^^i-j ^C^Jb 

L5^ l/ r^-* (J^ n'tl 

»S^or# Sentences 

sails hindi to hold 
chalejd'Of ruTdisat ho 
wahan phir matja'd . 
ham-ko kindre par utdro 
wahdn kaun rahtd hai 
sldhe age chalejd'o , 
kuchh shardb pdni Wo 
pdrii khuh thandd karo 
khdnd mez-par Id'o . 
ham-ko hari fajar jagd'o 
dj din pharchhd hai . 
dj kuchh ahr hai . . 
v^-ne ikrdr kiyd hai . 
ham-ko mnd dti hai . 
wuh aksar matwdld rahtd hai 
yih sdri lakri achchlii hai . 
us-ne hahut daulat jam ki 

ahhi ham kdm shuru karen 
apne sdth ham-ko jane do . 
wuh hard dkil hai . . . 
yih khuh mewa hai . . . 
yih achchhi roti hai . . . 
md hdp un-ke mar-ga'e hain 
tumhdri chhurl tez hai . . 
kyd yih chhurl tumhdri hai 
us-ke ddnt men dard hai . . 
yih hattt mom ki hai 
yih phal hard khattd hai . 
yih kaprd hard mold hai 
yih sah se hihtar hogd . . 
yih kalam hahut narm hai . 


Speak easy Hindustani. 

Go along, you are dismissed. 

Go not there again. 

Put me down on the shore. 

Who hves there ? 

Go straight forwards. 

Bring some wine and water. 

Cool the water well. 

Bring dinner on table. 

Waken me very early. 

It is fair to day. 

It is a little cloudy to day. 

He has made a confession. 

I am very sleepy. 

He is generally drunk. 

This wood is entirely sound. 

He has amassed great wealth. 

Let us now begin work. 
Allow me to go with you. 
He is a very wise man. 
This is fine fruit. 
This is good bread. 
Their parents are dead. 
Is your knife sharp ? 
Does this knife belong to you? 
He has the toothach. 
This candle is of wax. 
This fruit is very sour. 
This cloth is very coarse. 
This will be the best. 
This pen is too soft. 

406 Short Sentences. 

V C-? .^ Jo uJ»^ -^. yi^ ^flf^/ had-surat hai . . This letter is ill formed. 
^ zL^ J4J Lii>jil V ^^^''^ angrezi hoi sakte ho . Can you speak English ? 

1^ ' / ^••^ j^M,l is gharl ko U chalo . . . Take away this watch. 
,^ ji3l?-^^c--^v«j(Jfe ham sah kuchh j ante hain . We know all. 
^L>- ^-g^ '-^W^ (-?? ''^^ ^tt^?*^ kuchh jante hain . They know much. 

^ I^IL^ I5J L^ ganna hara mltha hai . . The sugar cane is very sweet. 
,j-jJ <UjU l^^^;i*l is ghar ka lawazima nahin. The house is unfurnished. 
.-Jb ^Jy^ r-^ ci> ^^ be-khabar sote hain . . They are dead asleep. 
^ L!i3U S j^ (jJ J turn is ghar ke malik ho, .Are you the owner of this 

house ? 
Jb \:^ U? ^« J 4.|^ A:aAo to wuh kya kahta hai Tell (me) what he says. 
jb jx3^-*j *^ ^j\;_^t is a/iml ko turn jante ho. . Do you know this man? 

^/^ Mtr* A^ nilam memja'dge .... Will you go to the auction? 
Jb \3^ A^ l^ aLj a^ wuh nilam ka kam karta hai He is by trade an auctioneer. 

^]^ Ji^\i 05) ^u'i ^« gathar kholo . • . Open this bale of cotton. 
■ -^ ^j^' ljs^J^^ l_s^^ ^^"^^ ddrht ban hai . . . He wears a long beard. 
Jb ■_g2j^- i— ^^^ l^^ aj turn iska sabab jante ho . . Do you know the cause? 
4^ ^1 l5^^ chauki Id baitho .... Take a chair and sit down. 
^Jfc«j *Jb L-jb ^4^ /l:aM7^ &aZ> ham parhen . . What chapter shall I read ? 
jb a^jc ^i«J ^JLI ws-/:7 bari izzat hai ... He bears an excellent cha- 
^ij\^, <^V.^ L5^Lj^ mittl se int banal, hai . . Bricks are made of clay. 
^l^j <Uj<x<lj ^j jj turn ne nay a madrasa dekha Have you seen the new 

hai, college ? 

3j^ j^ j^ ^ 15^^ kcii^ghi Id aur sir jharo . . Take a comb and comb your 

(Jb^l l^ L-->b ^^ 7/iA 5aZ> /ca aMiV hai . . . Thisis the end of the chapter. 
^ U\^ ^^;:*f*J \iji ^^ g'^ftg^ karnd tumhen bhatd Are you fond of conversation? 

\^ <»iJ^ -^^ ^y. ^ ga'e baras andj bahut hu'd There was plenty of corn last 
V thd, year. 

Short Sentences, 407 

\ . ^ (j:^.v4>---5 L^ kya Iftmat hai in chizon-kl What is the cost of these 

u' l5 

things ? 

ji> (<—3l^ tjjj ^\ us-ko hari khansi hai . . ' She has a bad cough. 

lJ^ [J^3 b^ "^ y*^ ^^^^'"'^ ^tttan hai . . This is my native country. 

l5^ k?^ (iT^ "V. y*^ bartan phuta hai . . This bason is cracked. 

4_5*^U (^ jiJjJ ^^1 is dudh se mala'l nahln hoti This milk produces no cream. 

^ j^ Cl^b ^^U-.kJ tumhart bat ham sach j ante I give credit to what you say. 

jj-JS> ^jx^ aJ jLjI w-A'o Za^^a /:aA^e hain . . This is called a creeper. 

Ji <ulc t^ ijt*;?^ ^j w?M/^ &7i7 barl a llama hai . She is an excellent critic. 

Uo^tM f-^-sr* Ijj jjbb^ wahanbaramajma ddmiyon- There was a great crowd of 

lf> /:a ^Aa, people. 

jjs> IjI^ ^r^ t:;:rf*^ ^ %^ tumhen chhena bhatd hai Are you fond of curds ? 

^ J u;^-s^ ^ -^J* yih ghar bahut nam hai . This house is very damp. 
Jirj\i ^^ ^ L:^ l/-^^ US-lit kJiatt kt kaun tdrlkh What is the date of his letter? 
^b hai, 

Jb iz^^ liw.^ L^\ ab kitna wakt hai . . . What time of day is it ? 
i^^^jui^ \y Sj wuh bard karzddr hai , . He is very much in debt. 
'ti^^ jjJ ^ S^^ s/j y^efareb se din kdtte hain . They live only by deceit. 

f u^-^.,,;, T. ^j-w*-j1 jJ turn is-men aib ko dekhte ho Do you observe any defect in 
^ ji^J this? 

L^jjtf. ^j^^^js. ^j^\ us-ne addlat-men uzr kiyd . He made his defence in court. 
^jl^ i^y. ^*;1r° f*^ U^^ is kdm men bari der hai . There is much delay in this 

^\J(J^ts-\i L^^i^ f^\ is tdldb kd umuk kyd hai . What is the depth of this 

!yb Ap ^ ^J^.j^^ ^3 ^^^ chausar-bdzJ se tabdh He was ruined by playing at 

hu^dy dice. 

,^2x:-JU d^b ^j\^ *^ ham tumhdri bat mdnenge . I shall attend to your direc- 

408 ' Short Sentences. 

Jb \h-} ^- ij^ ^\j -^i yih rah bar! ghaliz hai . . This road is very dirty. 
Ji3l>- .-J.J j^l»j-i-.yMj yihfaujkawahdnahmjanti These soldiers are undisci- 
Jb 1^1 ^-i^-v^ '^^C^ *j *^^^ ijad hahut achchha hai That is a great discovery. 

^ ilj dLs>- L-^^ A^b Aaw2 5aZ> hila na-karen , . Let us not use disguise. 
*^ a\j \i ijOj^ ^ *j turn is maraz kd nam kaho . Tell me the name of this 

tj^W <*i^^ ^j M^ «^ *^w^ bahut la-chari men She is now in great distress. 
^ ^^ hai, 

lyj ^^ (^_5^»:^|r* S^J'^ dusre mahlnd kt pahlt tarlfdi A dividend on his estate will 
1^ JU j^_^^ f^J^ tis-ke mal kl kist^ pahun- be paid the first of next 

^^^rrf^^ lii-j* chegi, month. 

^ l^ C^jU? <il-j ILjI us-kd pesha tabdbat kd hai . His profession is that of a 

L5^ Ur ^1? si^ ^' is-fca karne-wdld kaun hai . Who was the doer of this ? 
^ )j43 (Jjljyi- J J ^J^\ us-ne do khprdk-i dawd U . He has taken two doses of 

KJ>^ '^jy^iS^ l/-^ g'^ar ke niche mort hai . . There are drains under the 

^ iJl^ \ji ifj iDuh bard matwdld hai . . He is quite a drunkard. 
\s>J oy^^s:^ ^^j0*:^ fjJ\ isjins-kd mahsul lagtd hai . Do these article? pay duty ? 

C^i i^j-fc jjJ t^^-fj* ^^ore c?m Aw'e is mahalU An earthquake was felt lately 

V 1^ y i:^^ ;,^'* wzew Z<2r<2ra hu'd thd, in this part. 

L5^ V'V ^^ a5-/^^ bhdthd hai . . . . It is now ebb tide. 

ji ^"^ !r^^ b^ ^^^i> ham-ne dawd us-ko di par I gave him medicine, but it 

\ySb A3 Ss\^i ^ ^ us-sefd'tda na hu'd, had no effect. 

^^^^y^ cliOl ^J^ ^awi wd tk chiriyd kdghonsld I saw a bird's nest with four 

ijf<^\ j\^ ^j.^j,^^ jj^ aur US-men chdr ande eggs. 

^^,^ dekhe, 

1^^^ ^J^ Vj*^ v,^'*^ Aam-we cfart/a /ciware 5«if/i^ I saw him sitting on the 

l^ J /j\ ^'^ ku'l un-ko dekhd, bank of the river. 

Short Sentmces. 409 

\ij Ji Li-'JjJ Sr^ b ^^^* hare zor se kdm karta He goes to work with energy. 

^ hai^ 

*u^^ Si IL*>- J^ ijl3y hauna wuh hai jis-kd kadd Dwarf — one who is small in 

, ^Jfe chhotd hai. stature. 

L^3 L^l/ ^ J^'* Lj^^ i^5-A:e wa/ kd kaun 7vafi hai Who is the executor to his 

, ^ estate ? 

L^ ^-A) j^3^ aI^ ^ is kdm karne men kyd Jdiarch What will be the expense 

li^ '^ r^ Aogfl, of doing this ? 

Jb (J^-i*^ c;tr* jV Jj^ ^ ^wA /:ar o bdr men mash- He has experience in busi- 
shdk hai, ness. 

l^ ^SiJii' ^ /%1yt ^ \S kyd yih awdmm ki guftgu Is this mode of expression 

^jj^ kd taur hai, common? 

Ji3 ^ la^ fjJ\ ci ^ ham ne is khatt ki nakl I showed you an extract 

j_^ l^J M^jf^ tumhen dikhdl, from his letter. 

.^^ (Jjj-fejk^-^ X)^ >Jb ^(ZW2 mti-Zdo be-dharak kah I can speak to him without 

^-j& c5^ scf/v^e ^tti/i, fear. 

^pLo JiLi) ^ ajjj jj! 171 rfowo /:! s^aA:Z miltl hai . The features of these two 

^Jb are alike. 

lSJ\ ^^rir^ aUu* ^;-.! us makdm vfien ek dengi hai There is a ferry boat at that 

Jb ^J^^'^ place. 
^ ^ M-r-* <-r^^^^' u--^ is tdldh men kol machhli Are there any fish in this 

^Jio ^ J^'*^ <^^ ^^ chakmdk se nikle . . . Fire is produced by flint and 

^iAi& l^*J-^ Jji lUoI eA; j:^oZ hherdri-kd ham-ne I saw there a flock of sheep. 
l^O dekhd, 

LS^ l5^ Ly^J Li*** Lf^'^ ^f^ ^^ ^^.'^ &«w^7 hai . . . Bread is made of flour. 
^Jb lijls*" IrsT^j^^b iTj ii;wA hdnsri hajdjdntd hai . He plays on the flute. 
^j^ jjL^ "-^^^ t:;^;'. yahdn bahut makkhiydn Here are a great many flies. 

^ ^^^,^\ j^d ^y ^\ us-ko bari dur-andeshi hai , She possesses much fore- 


3 G 

410 Short Sentences. 

U^-.4-^4j:^ JU ^i*rf1 us-nt malhahut jam^ kiya , He has made a large for- 
,j;y jLiJ ^ j^ ghar-kt hunyad pari , . , The foundation of the house 

was laid. 
^^ *Jb iZJ\j ^ }fX^ ayanda-kt hat ham nahin We cannot see into futurity. 

j^U- jante, 

»\cl^ J j^ ic-j^ 15^^'*^ ^um-ne use khabar ke k agh az I saw this in the gazette. 

l^t) ^-^ men dekha, 

^ c«^^r>-U fj^\ jj turn us sahib ko jante ho . Do you know that gentle- 

Jb ^<2.jlp- man ? 

tliol «^r^<'u^J^ (J^ v^^ K5-w^ ilmi-arz men ek kitab He has composed a book on 
^ ^ (^Lunl <«->l:i^ tasnlf ki hai, geography, 

^ij ^* ^^^ -^b X-j! us-ke panch larke, tin bete, He has five children, three 

^^ j^2^ ^l) do beti ham, boys and two girls. 

^^ J^ -^^ jl J -»^ khabar dar yih sahl men tut Take care, this will easily 
l^ ^j^*^ ^l^ ^p ja'egd shlshe kd hai, break, it is made of glass. 

ij[:^t^ \j^ (JS^\ ^j^Mti ham-ne ek jord dastdna mol I have bought a pair of 

^ U fjyi liyd hai, gloves. 

^ ^^ jjb ^^ jJ turn jante ho kis se saresh Do you know what glue is 

^ lij ^,j^ band hai, made of? 

*-^ L^^ »^^-^ L5^>^ ^onerupelohepUalyd tdmbe Is this chain made of gold, 

jii^j (^ u5^^ V. *^ zanjir bam hai, silver, iron, brass, or cop 

^ J^. per? 

^r^ L5V^ L^'W* S-*^ ^J' T^^hrbdni karke khabar Have the goodness, Sir, to 

^_j-^^ %*iyc, inform me. 

J^:-^/ c->b ^1 j^^l 2^6'-we a;?we 5ap ko hahut He has caused much grief to 

4?J u- g j^J takllf di, his father. 

c:>/ \^.j^ ^ jO^ U-^ *'^ ^^X^^ kd 7nurabbi kaun Who is the guardian of this 

^ii> hai, child? 

l/ si'^ \J'^'^ ^^ y-s-kb subh-ke phirne k'l adat He is in the habit of walking . 

(^CJjli: hai, out early. 

Short Sentences. 411 

J 5^ ^*l& ICj! uS'ka hath pakar Id , . . Take hold of his hand. 
--J jJio -^i»-j ^LiJb ham-ko suraj nikalne se kam I must go to work every day 
^IJ^ ^l^^tj^ >»1^ karnejdne hota hai, yih at sunrise: this is a great 

^ JiLl^ t^j «^.J hafi mushkil hai, hardship. 

\^\ l^ JCJ j^ C^\j dak ghar hand hogd, is-li'e I write in great haste to save 
g^j>- (_^jJl&- l5^«*^ ham-nejaldt chit t hi likhl, the post. 

■>" g^ ivi.:"' ^j^^ (V^^ M5-we kamare men ghustt On entering the room he took 

Jjlji jy topi utdr It, off his hat. 

i^JuAs;rL^\ ^ ^1jLJ[ us-ko age se ah takhfrf hai, She is now much better than 
Jb she was. 

Jfe -jjbj Ijj l^ Jkil^jjLj yahdn ka gh az kd hard dher Here is a heap of papers, 

; ^j ^^ *^x?- j^J^ ^^^h t^kar aur jagah men put them away. 


^^ b \j^ ^^-^ Li^^ chalne mm merd pd'on us-ki I trod on his heel. 

l^«j^ ^^\ ^LJ eri par par gayd, 

jV.^ ^ tJ ^^^ i<^ kitni unchd'i is dlwdr kl hai What is the height of this 

J^ J wall ? 

^^ aI^ ^^-1 4^)^ (*^ ^^^ hamdre is kdm men Can you afford me any as- 

^ ^j^^ S ^-^ -ff- kuchh madadkar sakie hOy sistance in this ? 

^\^ ^J^J laiii t/j wefakat tarkdri khdkar jite They live on herbs solely. 

c:^^ Jki c^tf* L5^^^ iawgaZe mm pa/^ar 5a^M^ There are but few hills in 

^ J kam habiy Bengal. 

^j jl^l f^\ L^ ^U\ j^:«-l ws-we w^am kiyd is irdde He gave a hint to this effect. 

(JSj j^ IS^ lT^V. y^^^^"^^ S^^g^ sdgar tak What will be the boat-hire 
li^b L^ l^ ^1^ aji^ kirdya kishti kd kyd hogd from this place toSaugor ? 

J?/ c!^^ c;^ c?^ *^'^» 2/«^aw zamln men surdkh Make a hole in the ground 

karo, here, 

^ib c-;\ t^ ^ jij^ c:^-lfJ 6a^M^ c?er hu'i ah ham ghar It is late, let us now return 
^jjW^ jdwen, home* 

412 Short Sentences. 

J'h CL^fJc ijjj ^t^\ us-nt hari rzzat pa'i . . He has obtained much ho- 


tliol ^-0 ^^j j.M!> ham-ne hansi se ek machhli I have caught a fish with a 

•^J^ \J^^ P^^Py hook. 

(^tf-..., < ^^ ^ is ga'e ke sing naliin . . This cow has no horns. 

ifjj ^Uj UJ! jb CSi\ ek ddru-sh'Shafd wahan ha- An hospital is about to be 

riega, built there. 

Jb W; L^yb L5^^>- (»^ tumjantt ho kya haja hat . Doyou know what hour it is? 

^ ^ ^^ ^^ tum-ne girne se kuchh chot Had you any hurt from your 

^^ b cl?^ pa^tf fall ? 

Ai^l^l^^-y JU:^»Ck& ham-ko Tdiiyal nahtn tha ki I had no idea that you would 

(^1 _T turn aj a'oge, come to day. 

*^, ^^ (<«* ^t3 ^j^ kitne din se turn ko yih How long have you had this 

L5^ l5;U^ htmari hai, illness ? 

Ijuj ^^\^ J^ '-^. 3/^^ Tddyal kahan-se paida Whence came this idea? 

lyx> hu^a, 

^ *Jac >Y* "^i y^^ muhimm-i-azim hai . . This is an important affair. 

^ jy^ J^ ii^ wuh makkar4 mash' hur hai He is a notorious impostor. 

^^^i\ iji^ j^ '^„ yih muhr nahln uthtl . . This seal makes no impres- 

^j^'JA *^i^^^ ^^ "V. y^^ Idkrl agar ek por hari Had this piece of wood been 

^jf^ au ^^1 y) tjyb hoii, to is kam men att, an inch longer, it would 

cJi have done very well. 

iJ*X<1 (^^^IjJbj^ijlp- w turn j ante ho us-ki amdani Do you know what is his 

^ 1/ kya haiy income ? 

\S^» <j! LJ^'sfV* ^j^J*^ dusre mah'ine ki pahli tarlkh Will my staying here till the 

fc^Lk-A CSJ t^j^-^ tak hamare rahne se tum- first of next month be any 

•ff- \jti^ ^ LT*^ ^^'' A:wcyi^ ranj hogd, inconvenience to you ? 

Li-Mrf^ ^j^ L-^l:;^ ^ is kitah men Jihrist hai . . Is there an index to this 

, A book ? 

Short Sentences. * 413 

^^j^ ^\y^>f^ lT^'-^ (*-* ^^""^ kitne dinon se Hindus- How long have you been in 

y^ ^J^ jjli-jjJcJb tan men ho, India? 

J i^ j^^-y L-j! j*l^ ^\ yih kam aisa naliin ki turn This affair is not to be treat- 

%^ Lii^c ghaflatkarOy ed with indifference. 

Ji^l l^ ^^U-j t^l^* tumhari hlmari ka ahwal I heard of your indisposition 
^ ^jJ^ ^^ ^^J*^^ ham-ne ga'e hafte se suna, last week. 

,jrr* <-^'^ l/ F^ r*^^ agar ^m?w o; kJ dak men If the letter goes by to day's 
^\ y ^ 7^ .{. ,> ia^ khatt bhejo to ahhi dak post, you must send it to 

v^-*^^ {jir^j^ l1>^J ghar men hhejne chahiye, the post-office now. 

^ ^-^^ -V^ ij /»:t^ hakim ne yih nuskha likha The doctor wrote this pre- 

^ haiy scription. 

WJ \,,s^ "^^ L5^*^^ w5-we hamare sdmhne aisa He said so in my presence. 
^ kaha, 

^ l::^^^ J IoaJj IjUjb hamara talaffuz durust hat Is my pronunciation cor- 
^ iji JJj U^ j^^jLjI aJ turn is'kl kya dalil late ho . What proof can you give of 

^ji ^ y^ a-i>y Ji turn tosha safar ka karb . Make provision for your 

j^jl^ ^;kJ' c-->lii ^^ yi^ /:i7aJ kis-tarah chhapi Is the work printed in folio, 
b ^ Airkr !^L j^^ ga7 sara takhta hai ya quarto, octavo, or duode- 

^ u \3jik 4-j l> Uji^ ^J dO'Waraka ya si-waraka cimo ? 

^;^ ya chavrwarakoiy 

j^liij cxil^ 1^ JjjS gudar se kaghaz hanta hai . Paper is made of rags. 
y^J (^l&j <s^ j^l tliX* malik aur malika wahan The king and queen were 

^ j^\>- dono hazir the, both present. 

^^:^^ CS-i} jji ^ <-^.' ek kalam aur ek dasta ka- Give me a quill and a quire 

j^rrr^ c:^.;u^ tXib jViaz inayat kljVe, of paper. 

i^^'oi j^^-«i j^\ Hj&i ^^ yih jikra aur km kitdb-se This is a quotation from some 
ij,^ y {j^ <^^ww %« ^az, other book. 


Short Sentences. 

:.j"^ cr' 5j *-^-' L^^ is-nt sah rupTe ghur-daur kl He lost all his money at a 

^j !fi (itrr^ j^ S bazi-men ura dVe, horse-race. 

cL-J ?b .AS? <^ ?^ bagh ki kuchh bar tut gdH . Some of the garden rails are 

^ broken. 

biJ^^ ', j.4^ kaunyih khabar lay a . . Who brought these tidings? 

^Jb pL-J iji»- tjLJ ire hukka plte hain . . . They smoke tobacco. 

^^ ^h^ Jjtl^ ^^ji.4Jb 7/am-we mash'al jalake sair We travelled by the light of 

L^ kiyd, torches, 

jjup" (Jiol yUjb j^:w«j1 us-ne ham-ko ek chhoti kitdb He gave me a tract. 

^ U^ <)w-j 1;V*^ tumhdra pesha kya hai . . What is your trade ? 

^^ oU- H^ S^Ip* (^ ^^^ khazdne men jdtl I am going to the treasury. 


L^ <-::^vkJ ^^yc jjl MTi motiyon-ki Tamat kyd What is the price of those 

^ ^ai, pearls ? 

jy^ L5^^ ^^ (^ ham chhdta plchhe chhor d^e I have left behind my um- 

^^ fc^ T haiuy brella. 

ji>. CSA ^ <— ^\i^ fj^\ is kitdb kt ekjild hai yd do Is the book in one or two 

jj b ^Jb volumes ? 

^-^ J^-^ «-i'J ^-'^ ^^ wtjahdz men mandrds-ko He is now on a voyage to 

^^ (JU. ^|;Ja.« jdte hain, Madras. 

^ l^ -♦IC^ -^j z/i^ kis-kdm kd hai . . . What is made of this ? 

^-^J yijj uX>l ^^*4Ji) ham-ko ek wefdr dljiye . . Please to give me a wafer. 

(jtb vjb Jf U^^ \S kyd mahind turn pate ho . What wages do you get ? 

Sr!5i /j^^^*^ Li^^ bdgh-kl diwdr gir pari . . The garden wall is fallen 


^*-f->-^ tjj^ S^V*^ tumharlghafiachchht chalti Your watch goes well. 

^ ^^ ^jX^ i\j -yj 3^iA raA Chandarnagar ki Is this the road to Chander- 

hai, nagore ? 

^^^>r ^^ ZT^ C^ ^'"'" kis-farah iis-ko karenge In what way am I to do 

this ? 

Short Sentences, 415 

Lc^ ^J^. ^^jf^ -^^. yih patthar kitna hhari hai What is the weight of this 

stone ? 
(Jj^ ^-J1 \^ iJJol eA; ku'a un-se khodne kaho . Tell him to dig a well. 

J c^.v-jy fc&U- w ^wm chaho to sab Id . . , You are welcome to the 

^ L^ j^^l^sS- (j^V*^ tumhdrt khwahish kya hai . What is your wish ? 

^^Ji> liC; jjb ^ L<-^ tum-se yih ho sakta hai . Are you able to do this ? 
j^\:>- j^ j^j /^ J AJb ^am rfa5 ros gh air hazir the I have been absent ten days. 

LS^^y iiJ^J J^ (*^ ^"''^ Mfl^^ zammpar baithe We sat on the bare ground. 

^c«J the, 

jlj-MaiLf ^j-'*-*^ aA U^ kyd ham is-men takfir-wdr Am I blaraable in this ? 
^^ hairiy 

^jj.^g*» <J u„C*..») be-shakk turn be-kusur ho . Without doubt you are 

^ Jc^ tj'l^ ui;^ <^ yih chhuri ban kund hai , This knife is very blunt. 
l^' \jb \^ <-r^^ jiXoA^ samundar khub thera hiCd The sea was quite calm. 

^ J Jb \x^ Sj y>- jo wuh kahtd hai turn sach Do you think what he says 

^ ^^.^s^^^ samajhte hd, is true ? 

^j;JU- j^pftj ^Lj\ m^ ^\jb han ham us-ko y akin j ante Yes, I am certain of it. 

^J^ hairty 

1:^3 d-".^ \J^ i^*if^ hamenjard bahut lagtd hai I feel very cold. 

-Ji> jc3^ ^J /♦^y^ awdmm aisd kahte hain . . The common people speak 


(J^\^ ^^ jjbj ^ ^j 2^mA is zabdn men kdmil hai He is complete master of the 

^ language. 

a, Ja^jJ^ ^^ yih satr terhl hai. . . . This line is crooked. 

jj-^ (Jl ^ <JT ;^_5^1 W5-A:e awe na dne men shakk It is doubtful whether he 

jJb tlXi* Aai, will come. 

416 Short Sentences, 

^ i^T^. S-'^ b ^"^ gungl hahri hai, . . She is both deaf and dumb. 

jL» J J ^J ^Xc ^j we mitti ke hartan bandte They manufacture earthen- 

^^ hairiy ware. 

^^Jj;-«rf4L--3 4C«J AJfe ham tum-ko sahal sahak I will set you an easy lesson. 


^ S 1^*1^ i^ji ^\ apne bare bha't ko yih kitab Give this book to your elder 

lx> J (^\:S dena, brother. 

Li^ fJ!^ )j^' L^ uy^^ (^ ^^^ ddnon se bara kaun hai Which of you two is the 


ys^^ jiSji L^. jj do khatt barabar khaincho . Draw two even lines. 

^^ ^J^ v«^.-j ;,.5^ c/j ^^ sab ke sab ga'e hain . . They are gone, every one of 


^ ^j^ ^\^^j ^ if^ tum-ko ko't mani nahtn jo You are free to do as you 

^^^jSb\i>- chdho so karo, please. 

^^ J^^cLs.-*^ i^ wuh ghair muhtamil hai . That is not probable. 

uT *>!>• jl^ i^ wuh jahdz jald dyd . . . That vessel has made a 

quick passage. 

j^UjJjJU ^ yih nadir butd hai . . . This is a very rare plant. 

L^yL \j\^ Jj^ ^ kachchd chdwal khdnd khub It is not good to eat rice 

^ji^ nahm, raw. 

c-->u«^ JxRJu ^^Jrj^ ^, yt chizen bi-l-Ji^l kam-ydb This article is now scarce. 

^Jr:^ hain, 

^J lT^V J V (^ s^^" ^ ham jane se bdz nahin rah I cannot avoid going. 

,^<:^ sakte, 

'^}^ */? ^ i^^"*^ ham-ne sund we sahih said- I heard of his safe arrival in 

(^5-^4^ ^»xJ c:^^jL mat landan pahunche, London. 

ur?V v:r?^. vj---*^ hamen yakln nahm ki aisd I am not certain that it is so. 

^5A \^ LjI hu*d hai, 

^ L5^^ ^^ ^>* (*^ ^wm wo/tf kdghaz chdhte ho Do you wish for thick paper, 

clX>jb V. yd bdrtky or thin ? 

«^jV^^ ^i;-^ ,^^ ^1 nn-kefi*ldn men daghd'bdzi Their conduct was full of 

v^ SrL^ ^^'«^2 ^'««, treachery. 

Short Sentences, All 

Isi^ (Jl^l) lacs^ -^. yih khatt nagahani pahun- This letter was unexpected. 

^j l^ tfJi i^ j^ ^J*^ tum-ne aur Ki kism ka hlj You have bought the wrong 

15^ y J^ ^^^ %^ ^^^h ^\ndi of seed. 

yLsl *j ^-J& (Ai^ (*^ J^ J^ ^^^ kahte hain turn is-ko Do you accede to what I 

(iT^ V. ^ (V/ J^ kahul karte ho ya naJiin, propose, or not ? 

»^I^a3 ^-*^^^i^ijl >Ji) hamapneghar mm tumhari I can accommodate you in 

^-J5 ^S^^ S:^^'*^* mihmam kar sakte hairij my house. 

j^ ,^ L/^'^V*" lJ^^ hT^* ^^**^ a/?w? khzDahish hhar- I was not able to accomplish 

\L^^ pur na-kar sakd, my wishes. 

jt) ^Ji) '— yj^ Ji-s:* -^1 a; mahfil maukuf hai do To day's meeting was ad- 

^^j^^j^j ^ ^^^ shamhe ke roz phir hogl, journed till Monday next. 

^J,J| ci^j^^^ii-j^^ ^j touh khabar sunke hahut The news afflicted him 

lyb dzurda hu'd, greatly. 

4/t> ^^;-y AJb li-^ 1:^1 i^/ia mahmd ham nahh'i de I cannot afford to give so 

^Ji^ sakte, much wages. 

JJwo ljJ^^J^^ s/V/ir* ^ihrbdni kar kar hamdrt Pray afford me your assist- 

^^ madad karo, ance. 

L5^ l5^J^ 4^ cT^^'^ addlat-men khare hote hi On appearing before the 

12 ;^_5V^ h ^'^^ kdmpne lagd, court he was much agi- 

ijj-i lIXjJ J^ ^^^..i-^fjb ham-ne kal ek hart machhli I caught a large fish yester- 

S^J^v J^ P^^Th day. 

j^ ^j^ pS^^ ^j'd^ guzre mangal'ko maiii-ne I saw him last Tuesday. 
\^i^^\ is-ko dtkhdy 

IjU- ^j^ Ub«j l^ ^ yih likhd parhd nahin jdtd This writing is not legible. 

^ ^j.^^^\ Ix*.^ l^Ujb hamdrd mahtnd is-ke-se kam My wages are less than his. 

^ hai, 

J^ A ^J^J J ^ <J^f^. b y^uhhe-jdn hokar zaniinpar He fell to the ground life- 

[^ gir para, less. 

V. ^ 4^T? •^^. V. y^^ ^^j^ bhdri hai ya halkd Is this package light or 

^ heavy ? 
3 H 

418 Short Sentences. 

j^ *5i,j L->4i^ \j^ *^. yih kamara khub roshan hai This is a light room. 
ij^t^^^ij:^ i^^.r^^ ic^, V'^ kothriyan hahut unchi- These rooms are very lofty. 

^ yan havhy 

iS^J ^3 i*^^ lS^ (^ ^"^ ^^^^^ ^^^ wahan rahoge How long shall you remain 

there ? 
•^i:-^*^ «-5°^ '"■i^-v^ ^ ^^^ Sa^M^ ^/^or7 Jfimat The price he asks is very 
^ lii^U mangta hai, low. 

j^ !yb m^ <*^^^-V^ ^ w,'?/y^ 5a^M# wiofa hu'a hai . He is now grown very lusty. 
l3U-<0 bis*- IjIfiJ jjltoj wahan tumharajananajana It is immaterial whether you 
j,Ji>yl J harahar hai, go or not. 

^^^ (^^!L.j.^ ^$' Jly pahar ko jumhish nahm, . A mountain is motionless. 
\i^ iS}\i^ ^Jo ^j^;aJ\ is-men tarafain ka fa^lda This will be for our mutual 

hoga, benefit. 

jjU^ (^5^-* irfj^J^ (^ ^^^ 6?M57*e mahine wahan We will go there next month. 

lA..*V jawenge, | 

^^5?;^^^^Ui3l^JJjUib hamari ungliyan jare se My fingers are numbed with 

,j^jg2^ thithir gain, cold. 

t^j^ ^»;;i^^ ^} ^^J^ tum-neapne khatt mm tarlkh You have not dated your 
K^ {J^ wa^27i likhi, letter. 

L5^ \^ ^ 9- ij^J '*V. y^^* zamin bo'i gal hai . . This land is cultivated. 
J^T ^ -Ma^l <^ ^i^ istilah fi-l-hal matruk This term is become ob- 

^ CS^j:^ hai, solete. 

cS^j ^M ^^U ^ jj dar ke mare us-kd rang zard He became pale through 
\^ ^ Jfjj ho gayd, fear. 

^^fi> S-^;/^ ^^' *j ^"^ <^^ gharih ho gayd . . He is now become poor. 
^yas^ S;f ^ jj ^ ham turn se kol makhsus bat 1 wish to converse on par- 
jjt^ i^^W" ^ <-^V A;a^a chdhte hain, ticular business. 

J3^ \^ ^ »— j^ -^. yi^ ?«/ /i/c^a hai aur ba- This writing is plain and 

^ IjU- ^«j s^^V -dsdnl parhdjdtd hai, easy to be read. 

^^V v.j5*^'* ^ ^^^ unhon nt makhft bdt-chit ki They held a private conver- 
ts ^"^^-^1^ sation. 
f-^n^ ^ vif t ^^ ..yj yih kdghaz dg-se senko . . Dry this paper at the fire. 

Short Sentences. 419 

^^ ^^ ^ tj^'-^^^^ [j^^ is sanduk-ko khaU karo . . Empty this box. 

bo J a}S ^if^ ^^\ ^ff kaun aise logon-ko kamdega Who would employ such 

people as these? 
^j^ \2s>- ^j^\ lis^ IjUjb kamdrd khatt apne khatt Enclose my letter in yours. 

J J ^j jrien rakh do, 

L5^ ^J^y ^^ [J""^ ham-nl is-ko naukar rakhd I have engaged him as my 

hai, servant. 

j^ ^Cij ^^iL^-^^ aJJ) ham puchh-kar tum-ko I will enquire, and let you 

^^S^„^ khabar denge^ know. 

*— ^.'^ (jr^ s/'^^^ ^j ^uh ddndl men har-^k se He excels every one in in- 

^ \y, ^ hard hai, telligence. 

ijl^^^l^ kfti^yla- ^ ye jdnwar fakatghds khdte These animals feed only on 

^ hain, grass. 

y^i i^ \^j^ ^ db ^'U- jd'o hdgh se thord mewa Id'o Go fetch some fruit out of 

the garden. 
^— ^ lS*** ^J ^"^ C/-^ ^^ pech'ko ret! se ghiso , . File this screw. 
^^^^^ (*^ J ^- ^^T >J turn age jd'o ham pichhe You go before, I will follow. 

i^y^j) dwenge, 

l5^ (i^J^ L^:*. (*^ ^^''^ 3/^ c/tlzew kitni jaldl How soon can you furnish 
y> ^J^'^J^ «-/"^^ taiydr kar sakte ho, these things ? 

^--^•V^^Ji'-^ ^^ s:^> ^^ ^i''^^ makdur hhar hahut They hasted away as fast as 

^JS A^ jald ga'e, possible. 

^\yS^ \^\ L-.>1 M^j l^^l is-kd zakhm ah achchhd hu'd His wound is now healed. 

^ *-^^^j ^^,}f:^ \J!. y^ chlzen wildyat se d'ln These things were imported 

^^ (^tJ \ hain, from Europe. 

\ij> Lj\ ^JaJ^yS ^^^i tum-ne kis-wdste aisd karnd Why did you teach him to 

bii^Lj ^1 use sikhldyd, act thus? 

^j^ aD (jJ\ ^yS aJJ) ham kyun ns kdm men hath Why should we interfere in 

^li ^U> ddlen, that affair ? 

^ \x^ ^LiJb ^j y*- jo wuhham-kokahtdhai turn- You must interpret what he 
lilfc (J^ '^f^ ^::^ ^^^ tarjuma karne hogd, says to me. 

420 Short Sentences. 

Ju^l jCiJb v_^^l^ i^\ ai sahib ham-ko ummtd hai I hope, Sir, I do not in- 

X c-^L:^-5^ ^ ^ kijanab-ko tasdt na-den, terrupt you. 

:.«^sr ^^^ <UJsiu ^, ^i^ mukaddama hamen We must investigate this 

liyfe tJ^ tajwlz karnt hoga, matter, 

c:^ ij Ji:^ j^ ^^ yih khabar sim-kar wuh ba- The news very much alarmed 

LS'jJ hut dar gay a, him. 

•-^^ L^ <-^^ ^3J "^ w«'!^^ rupiye pant se we They allow five per cent, dis- 

kjLj^ ^^ ^j Jr\i panch rupiye saikra chhor count for ready money. 

•«jb ^^^ c_^L-:>- hisab karke pansau rupiye The bill will amount to five 

Li^y^ \^V honge, hundred rupees. 

S^j^ f*^ L«^^*-^ hisdb-kijam^dekh'kar ham- I was amazed at the amount. 

UjJ) t-^vs*' yUjb -/co ta'ajjub hu'd, 

f^'^A^^ fj-^\h^ j^i^Mrfl M5-/:2 chizen kimat tajwiz His goods will be appraised 

^-^j ^r^ j^'^ ^okar bechtjdiuengiy and sold. 

1y> Ju3 jjl ^ ]^ ^3 ^^^ pakrd gayd aur kaid He was apprehended and put 

hH^dj in prison. 

^j^--4«-j! j^^-^U- ^LiJb ham-ko chdhiye dpas-men We ought to assist each 

^^^ JXo madad karen, other. 

U^^ S^ ^ ^r^ LS^^**^ ham-ne khabar pd^i das I have received notice to 

^u cs^j ^ ,^,f^^ ghante ke wakt ddru-l- attend the court at ten 

S^^ Jr^ (jrf^^*^^ addlat-men hdzir hone o'clock. 

ojA hoga, 

jtfi f^y. f cjfjijj {J tumpere ko barhdkar tanur Bake this dough in the oven. 

3 '-^ (i;:?^ 'w^^ lagd'o, 

\ L5^ l5^ **^^ ^-? ^^^ ^^ ^aiVe se kam nahln He would not abate me one 

^fc-j^jT u:^ ^^J'^^ ham-ne bahut ddmiyon-ko I saw numbers bathing in 

vJp w)--^ (jrr^ ^^ gaiigd men ghusl karte the Ganges. 

^^ dekhd, 


Short Sentences, 421 

cJWo ^ \S ,^^iAfi> ^ jo ham-ne kiya kai mu'df I beg your pardon for what 

^j^^ kljiycy I have done. 

j^^'ds.^ ^j^ ^\ ^j^\ is-ne apne sdre k dgh azon- He blotted his paper all 

i^J ^j\3 ^\^ par siydhi dal di, over. 

^yi jl j^ J> ^^^ ^^ is'ko main-ne sir par hojh I saw him carrying a load 

l^t) S^^^ moitt dtkhdy on his head. 

i^^j^^J^^fS^^^ unhon ne khatt likh-kar chd- They have circulated no- 
^Jb t^J^i^. j^ ^jO ron taraf khahar hheji tices. 

"^s^ ^j^ (^y>- ^j Jb ham yih khub nahin samajh I do not well understand 

j^yii-j sakity this. 

jfe^J aI^ IjUa iXi tum-ne hamdrd kdm darham You have confused my work. 

1j t> ^ ^j) barham kar diyd, 

1^1 .^y^ \S j[^^^ jahdz kd bojh use drhat The cargo of the vessel was 
L^ b J ^^ cr^-^jT frien diyd gayd, consigned to him. 

jJisf-X^ ^ j<r^^ ^^ ham-ko na-chdhiye kisl-ko We ought not to despise any 

M.^g?^ f^aktr samjhenj one. 

v^:^^ JLJ^ ^ f^ lA (^ ^^^ ^* naukar-ko aur mat Do not detain the servant 

j'l^i atkd'oy any longer. 

I c^jjc) ilS^} y y^c^ J^ ^ ^'"^ ^^ pahar par ek guzre He dines at one o'clock. 

^ \j[^ \}\^ khdnd khdtd kai, 

S j^ (JJo -T jA-iJi) ham-nt dj tdk chor-ko na I have not as yet discovered 

\j\js\i ij pahchdnd, the thief. 

^^^ J, aJI) Jo- \LJ\ us-kd hukm ham radd nahin I cannot disobey his orders. 

j:>Lo ^ kar sakte, 

yb jiC-j ^ ««:v< yLj\ aj titm us-kd man^ kar sakte Cannot you dissuade him 

^Jj \*^}j^ *j ^ ho ki wuh phir aisd na- from doing so? 

[ -kare, 

y ^^ !ybJ ^ ^j ^ is rassl'ko duhrd karo to Double this string, and then 

^yb ^^^ kdm-kJ hogl, it will do. 

' *^^ b a/ J^ !J^ thord sabr karo wuh ab Wait a little, he is now dress- 
^ lu^^ ^^ kapre pahantd hai, ing. 

422 Short Sentences. 

/j^j f^ ^ y- 1? (jJ\ is tarh se ham das rupiye In this way I can earn ten 

jiC:U^li-M<< ^^j mahina kamd sakte haiiij rupees a month. 

S ^SJi\ib jJ^ U-jJ aisa jald hankne ko gdri- Tell the coachman not to 

•^ »-i^ »^ ^Jj ij% 'ban ko mdn^ karo, drive so fast. 

U3j L^ /T <i/«Ji> ^ jo ham-ne age khdtt na-likhd Pray excuse my not writing 

^.ss:^ i^\x^jyaLS ^\ yih kusur mu'df kijiyey before. 

A^ \j\^j c-^^^U ^\ aisdhib tumhdra hukmjaldi Sir, your orders shall be 

ujU- L? t^jis*- kiydjd'egd, executed without delay. 

J ^ J >6?'^ (*^ ^^ ^S^^ ^^^ P^chho to jo turn If you ask, he will explain 

a^ *Jb *•- jf T**^ ^"^ ^^ samajhte ho wuh turn- any part which you do 

Uj J IfS"^^ rvT?^ ^^^ 5tt7w;7ia c?eg«, not understand. 

-^ ^5|j ijl cub ^^ yi^ Z>a^ angrezi men kis-tarh I do not know how to ex- 

L5* S^V lJI^ r>^^^**^ ^^^^ -^'^^^ ^^^* ^^^ nahin press this in English. 

y (Jjy ^\ t3.x< ,^_5^^ us-ki madad agar na-hott to Had it not been for his as- 

^ /•^^];«-» z*^ 5/>^ hamdrd ham sar-anjdm sistance I should have 

Ij'lj w« pdtd, failed in my purpose. 

Vj*^ c;^* y ^!r?^ ^ >r ^ agar 2^m/« na-pakartd to I should have fallen into the 

^jiT ii^ ^fli^ daryd men gir river but for him. 

'•^'^ (*^ y ^^ (*^ >r ^ agar tum ate to ham bahut I should have been glad if 

^^ (j^^ khush hote, you had come. 

ltLt ..^ (^ jH J^^ agar phir tum aisa karo ge If you do so again, you must 

^fi I*y2r*y to mujrim hoge, be fined. 

J V^ L5^ J^ ^ J^f^ jawdr bhar-pur hai jahaz It is high water, the vessel 

\SS>- ji ^Jb c-^l aZ> pdni par chalegd, will now float. 

L5^*' ViT^* l5"^^ j^^ ^S^"^ pahle main use dek- If I should happen to see 

cJ*^ ji^ y* ^^.'^ hungd to khabar de dungd, him before you do, I will 

^j^ tell him this. 
^■^•^. jH J^'^'^ ^^} ^3 ^e apne makdur bhar bahut They hasted away as fast as 

^ '^ jald ga'e, possible. 

Dialogue. 423 

J^y^ Ji ^J^ \J^} ^3 wuhapneghoreparcharhkar Having mounted his horse, 

Lf !>. chald gay a, he rode off. 

(^ (iT^ ^J^ (*^ ^ fi ^(i^kahte ham turn sunte Do you hear what I say? 

L5^ Li^ L^^"^?^ U^J t^a/^a/i pahunchne ke IVe To go there I must hire a 

j^\ ^^l tlX>J ^j;;*'*^ hamen ek palki aur kishti palanquin and boat. 
Li^ (J^ ^.]^ Lf^ kiraya karne hogt, 

v^jkL?- ^^<x«^l ^j^C^Jb ham-koyih ummed haijaldi I hope soon to see you. 

^^ CLJlJiLo ^^_^— ^' tum-se mulakat hogi, 

y>- ^j^ LjI j^l^ ^^ j^ A:o7 yahan aisd nahm jo Is there no one here that 

S ,^J^ C/*^ (r;rf'** hamen is mukaddame ki can inform me concerning 

^J^ t^Jj^ khabar de sake, this? 

ci£^ ^ ks- CL.?lj y>- Jo bat khatt ke likhrie men Interhne what you have omit- 

s<j ^JS J^ J ^-^ turn bhul ga^e wuh satron- ted in your letter. 

^J ^ ^^j la-j -TweTi /i/:^ do, 

, 4^ ^^l*4J^^J jjL^ lL^J e^' c^J^e par ham-ne ka't We fired several times at a 

^^^ t^^^ c^y^ S^^^y^^ lO'gd'iym lekin chitd, but not one ball 

dj ^ t^Xj lX^^ Ms-A:e eA; bhi na-lagi, struck him. 

^ [l^ ^LiJbjiJL^^ s^^\ agar wuh beshtar ham-ko If he had informed me of 

J^ Cr^ "^^-V^ (^ /caA^!i ^5 ^am ia^w^ khush this before, I should have 

hote, been better pleased. 


Addresses at meeting, 

-♦l-» saldm Peace or safety ! 

JJs. JLj salamun alaikum .... The peace (be) on you ! 

jj^b \i^ ^^ \^^ bandagi arz kartd hun . . My service to you, Sir ! 

424 Dialogue, 

In reply. 

/*LJ1 jy^ J wa alaikumu-S'Saldm . . . And on you (be) the peace ! 

(j:^^^ K^^^^^Xa sahib salamat Sir, peace or health (to you)! 

jsi^ i<^^ ic^. ^jir^ "^^^^ ^^^ handagi pahunche My service, also, to you ! 
^JCJ ui-^^Lj c-yi:?- hazrat salamat handagi . . Sir, health (and my) service 

(to you)! 

At parting, 

laiU- !jo- jdiuda hajiz ..... God (be your) protector ! 

Farewell ! 
S^ ^Lo salamun alaikum .... Peace (be) on you ! 

Inquiry after health, 

jb j^U- U^ lsJ^ tumhari kyd halat hai , . How are you ? 

, JbL— ^— 1ul^u->i L-j\ ah dp kd mizdj kaisd hai .^ 

^''^^, \ \ .... . . . ^How do you do, Sir ? 

^ L--i <-^ V* ttLt* ^' ^^ mizdj-i muhdrak kaisd hai) 

In reply to inquiry after health, 

^yi \j^ IcJ du'd kartd hun .... I pray (for you). 

<dl Sa^\ alhamdu lilldh .... Praise to God ! 

c:^ ^ ^^\ J-£J3 fazl-i ildhi se hahut achchhd By the divine favour (my 

jJb 1^1 haiy health) is very good. 

Inquiry after time, 
^ IfeJ^ ^jJ lii^ A:i^na c?m charhd hai, . ."| What o'clock is it? (Asked 

|Jb U jjJ li::^ A;i7wa din dyd hai , 
Jb ^ii\:ci i^\ ah kitnd din hai . 

l5* ^J U'^ ^ /ci^wa c?m rahd hai 

,j before noon). 

What o'clock is it ? (Asked 
after noon). 

In reply to inquiry after time, 

JL^(^>^ dasghante "l 

" ^ > Ten o clock. 

cj?5^ (j^ii das ghafi J 

Dialogue, 425 

t_f^^j^J JbjL) sarhe das ghari .... Half past ten o'clock. 

^ f^As- \^ ^l^ igarah ka amal hai . . . Near eleven. 

, ^ Ja^ l^ Sj\S \j^ sawa gyarah ka amal hai . A quarter past eleven. 

^ Jai: l^ oj^ ij\i harah ghari ka amal hai . Between eleven and twelve. 

^^^^.si^^ 1^-^ \j^ mera mujra pahunche . . My respects (to you) ! 

Jb iX^siU L^ I^V*^ tumhara kya maksad hai . What is your desire ? 

Jb Jk*ail<) L^ l^ cJT ap ka kya maksad hai . . What is your wish, Sir? 

^-Jb i<^^ ^ ^ t— >t op A:ya kaha chahtt hain . What do you wish to say, 


jjjl^yj^\lJJ!^L^J^SxfiS guftgu darmiyan aka aur Dialogue between a gentle- 

^S ^r^c J naukaron o ghaira ke, man and his servants, &c. 

^ ^ S kol, hai Gent. Is any one there? 

^^vi^ lS ^ S^ naukar d'e hain .... Gew^. A re the servants come? 

^^ u>*T jj-y e-^w) saJ nahln d'e hain . . . <Ser2;^ They are not all come. 

LT ^^ 1^,^ kaun nahln dyd .... Gew^. Who is not come ? 

i^k^ ijls faldna shakhs Servt. Such a one. 

LT ^^ f^fiik^ ij^ faldna shakhs nahln dyd . Gew#. Is not such a one come? 

t s»Xa ^-^ riaA7?i .va^zi Servt. No, Sir. 

UjjT l-^ ^j 2/7mA A;a5 dwegd .... Gew^. When will he come ? 

c>i^ ^^ S^Jt^y Li^J^ s^r^^ ^"" g^arl /:e i/ja/t^ . Servt. At half past nine. 

LS^ \jT t^ U Tia'i aya hai Gent. Is the barber come ? 

1^ u-^^5^U ^^yb ^^O dekhtd hurt sdhih .... 5eri7^ I will see, Sir. 

CS^j] L-^A^^Ls ^^ nahln sdhih ah-tak nahln Servt. No, Sir, he is not 

1>T jj-y dyd, yet come. 

3 ^ 1)?^ v^ ''^^^^ /copm Id'o .... Gew^. Bring my clothes. 

-T ^^ ,^ (^^ L->T «p kaun-sl kurtl dj pah- Servt. What coat, Sir, will 

^Cu^^ nenge, you put on to day ? 

J^^ J ^ Lf "i/ l5^ j-frr* ^^''^ ^^^ kurtl Id'o aur Gent. Bring my blue coat 

j*^ .\j\ jjl l^^^\ lJj^ kamrl angarkhd aur izdr and waistcoat and pan- 

Id'oy taloons. 
3 I 

426 Dialogue. 

J «Jl> l^ J*ibt> -fw* -^U ^a^^ TwwwA dhone ka pant Gent, Bring me water to 

la'o, wash my hands and face. 

.t> mJ^ sabun do Gent. Give me the soap. 

L5^ j^,l^ J^>J rumal kahan hai .... G^ew^. Where is the towel ? 
15^ uW. ^'^^^ sahib yaJian hai .... Servt. Sir, it is here. 
J ^ (^\fT' trfj^ mere jurrab la'o .... G^ew^. Bring my stockings. 
ii.^jUj^\jy>'\:j\L^\ ^\ aj dp apnd jutd pahnenge Servt. Will you, Sir, wear 
LJJy^ V. y^ mozty boots or shoes to day ? 

J ^ «-^J^ 4^):^* ^^^^ ?wo^e Za'o .... Gew^. Bring my boots. 
^j^ liH^'O j^ Cj\y*^ miswdk aur manjan mere Bring me a tooth-brush and 

J i fj^j waste Id'o, the tooth-powder. 

joJlj ySj^j^ J ^ L5^^ kanghi Id'o aur sir ke bdlon Bring me a comb and hair- 
j i (j^j ,<l3-'\j (^ ke waste brash Id'o, brush. 

L5^ jjl^ J^i;];r* »wem rumdl kahdn hai . . Where is my handkerchief? 
^ J vJIjm-sJ s^./r° ^^^^ dastdne Id'o .... Bring my gloves. 
^ lJ\ vJli-iJ j^ ^^ kaun-se dastdne dp ko chd- Servt. Will you. Sir, have 
L5^ S^^/*^cr?^L5^ V" ^^2^^ ^^^^'^ chamre ke yd cotton or leathern ones ? 

J il iJli-jJ ^ H:^?" chamre ke dastdne Id'o . . Gent. Leathern ones. 

^h if (j-^ sa'ts ko buld'o Call the groom. 

Cj^^>-ltf ^JbjJ^ w*i!ir^ sa'Js hdzir hai sdhib . . . Servt. The groom is here, 


^'^^' {jtj A ^;^ g^ore par 2ln bdndhd . . Gent. Saddle the horse. 

J ^ oiy L5^ S^;^ ^^^ ^^'^ .^^i'^ ^^'^ • • • Bring my new hat. 

^ cr^* ♦-TT?^ J^J rumdl jeb men rakhd hai . Have you put a handkerchief 
15^ in my pocket ? 

y c-^lf- chdbuk do Give me the whip. 

^ . T (JJvjV kahdron ko buWo . . . Call the palanquin-bearers. 

Xr J^ L5^^ pdlk'i taiydr karo . . . Get the palanquin ready. 

jr ^ <-r^U CL^\J Grdnt sdhib ke ghar k'l taraf Goto Mr. Grant's. 
jV ^> ^5^ ja'o, 

-> ^ S5^ ^ y*/' c/iiJjAi %a'o .... Take this note. 

Dialogue, 427 

jT jJjj- jald a'o Come quickly. 

/il j^l^ \^ XJ>] akhbdr ka k agh az Wo . . Bring the newspaper. 

^"i (Jl» l&Jc^' \^^ tliora thandha pant Wo . Bring some cold water. 

l^ {^^s>\^ <JU3),f -^i yih Grant saliih ka ghar hai Bearer. This is Mr. Grant's 

Jb jf house, 

l^ u-%:>-l-tf j^ -^-^^ ^^f^ nahin yih aur sahib ka ghar Gent. No, this is another 

Ji^ hai, gentleman's. 

j^ l^ L-^^5»-U? (jTs JtJ turn falane sahib ka ghar Do you know such a gentle- 

ys) ^i^li^ jdnte ho, man's house ? 

SJ\ ^^ c.^^s»-L? jjU hdn sahib main usko Jchub Bear, Yes, Sir, I know it 
^yi li3lj>. c- >^ jdntd hun, well. 

Jj^ ^jIjj^ ^j^ darbdn darwdza kholo . . Ho ! porter, open the door. 
:^ CJ^\ ^ *Sj^ khabar karo ki ek ajnabi Porter, Give intelligence 
^^ u5 ^ c-^^:?-^ sahib d'e hain, that a strange gentleman 

is come. 
^J3\ jj3l> paZA;7 w^aro Gent. Set down the palan- 

J U3 IjI^ chhdtd lagd^o Hold the umbrella between 

me and the sun. 
\^ ^^ t^j^i fj^ Ms kamare men Grdnt sahib In what room does Mr. 
ti\^ jC^U- w^^U hdzirt khdte hain. Grant breakfast ? 

\j\^ ^£ \j ^-^ j^Sb c?aZan me/i yd ki khdnd In the hall or in the dining- 

mtt* uir^ t3^ vi^ Mane ke kamare men, room ? 

^ U- (JioJ jl^ Jo- khidmatgdr ek chd ki piydli Khidmatgar, bring me a cup 
iJ^^S ^j^ Li^^ w?ere w;a5^e Za'o, of tea. 

■ "■■ "/s 

•3. J ^y^ J3^ ^-^ w-.^o-U 5a^iZ> c^a awr kahwa dono Khidmatgdr, There is both 
^1 ,^i5? ^^ ^jb jlj taiydr hain jo kuchh un tea and coffee, Sir, which- 

JCw-j j^mj ^^ e^yj*^ cZowoTz 9wen se pasand ho ever you please I will 

^ c->T jj-»^ ^ yb 50 Twam op A:e wdste Wun, bring you. 

428 Dialogue, 

UrfL t-fr?*^ 1^ \^\ achchhapahlt mere waste ek Gent. Well, bring me a cup 

/"i J ^^-^ JLjc-liol piyalikahwakila'dy of coffee first. 

j^il ^3j\ ande la'o * Bring the eggs. 

j*^S •} jbjjj jjl .^ kuchh aur dudli to la'o . . Some more milk. 

j*il JL> ^ \s- l!Jv>J ^^ ^^^ ^^ piyali la'o . . . Bring me a cup of tea. 

jki-j Is*- L5^J^ ^^ ^^ ap'ko garhi cha pasand aii Khidmatgar, Do you like it 

Jb ^j7 hai, strong, Sir ? 

U- ,c^'^ Li^-^ LiJ^ ^^^ mujhe garhi cha pa- Gent. Yes, I like it strong. 

\yo <Cs'*^ \Ij1 (JJol ek anda chamcha mult roti Bring an egg, spoon, radish, 
-ff- j}\ 1*;^ lyjjj makkhan aur kuchh mu- bread, butter and some 

y^ tO^ ra^&a Za'o, jam. 

^ Jj' -^^ cT^* ^'^ ^ c/^a-c?a7^ Twe^i JtwcA^ aur cha Put some more tea in the 

jlli c?a/o, tea-pot. 

L5^ c^ LsW* '^'^ ^ %^ 4/ '"^o,chhU nahm milt . What, was there no fish to 

be got to day ? 
l/^ l5^^ u.-'^Uj 5a^iZ> achchhi machhli aj Servt. Sir, there was no 
L5^ L^tn-^ Zr^ ?2a^2w ?wz7?, good fish to be had to 

^\3 lJ/^s^ ^Jti^ Jt^ piyalt men misri dali hai . Gent. Have you put sugar 

^ in the cup ? 

Jb ^j^^ c-.^fl-U ^U ^a/i 5a^i6 Twim c?aZ7 hai • /Serz?^. Yes, Sir, sugar is put 

j'^ ^j^ L5^^ JJ^ LlXiJ namak aur kali mirch la'o . Gent. Bring me the pepper 

and salt. 

C^\^ ^}^j LSr!r^ fnerJ rikabi Grant sahib ke Take my plate to Mr. Grant 
J l=s^ fj^\j^ ^ L-^^s-L? pas le-ja^o aur thori for some fish and rice. 

Jy \^^^f^ '^J^ J^ wzac^AZI aur Miushka la'Of 

C->t j^iff* j^ *-~J ij-i kis Msm ki machhli dp Servt. Which fish do you 
w§5^ ^j^ L5^^ c^a/i^e ^ai/i hhikthi yd prefer, Sir, bikti or mango 

jrf--j" b tapassl, fish? 

Dialogue, 429 

^X^ L<*^ Li*^ *-^I^ ^^^P ^^ tapassi machhli Gent. Bring me some man- 

J^ U^.L ^_5■-^ mtre waste Id'o, go fish, 

j'i —j^ J^ led mirch la'o Bring the red pepper. 

^ «- -< ^ ^S \S kya kaun si mirch hai kali What kind of pepper is 

T>r* J^ ^ Tzj^ J^ mirch ya lal mirch, this ? black pepper or 

red ? 

Jt> ^j^ Jj «^ L--^^U 5a^iZ> yiA /aZ wiircA hai . . ,Serz;^ This, Sir, is red 


a.s.'*^ ^L^ U- tliol eA; c^a pirie-ka chamcha la'o Gent. Give me a tea-spoon. 

L^\ <Lx-»-^l£>. L )jj-fJ ^^om sa khdglna dp khd'i- Servt. Will you take some 

IxJl^ yegd, omelet, Sir? 

^ y^ ^J^^J' ^^^ liTV nahin hukka-harddr ko kaho Gent. No. Tell the hukka- 

vjjil JLa>. /:i hukka Idwt, bardar to bring the hukka. 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ULjU^ khdnsdmdn ko kaho ki tifin Tell the khansaman to pro- 

^1=^ ^^ (j:^j ^ ke wakt pdnch chdr sd- vide every thing for tifFen ; 

L5^1? L5^ U^f^^^ ^iioTi /:e T(?a5(e sdmdn I expect four or five 

*^ j^ ^ULj taiydr karo, friends. 

l3l^ ^^ j^ c-;T J^ a; dp ghar mm khdnd Khdnsdmdn. Do you dine at 

€J\^ khd'iyegdj home, Sir, to day ? 

^^ ^b .^L ^^ ^Jjt> hdn mere sdth pdnch chha Gent. Yes, I have five or 

,^L---,-mJ j^\ c^-o-ltf sdhib aur hlhiydn khdnt six ladies and gentlemen ; 

^' y^ ^'Ji\^^ ijl^ A:o khd'mge so tum un-kl prepare every thing suit- 

jIJ ^ l^-^-jL* ^S^\ mundsih ko taiydr karo, able. 

^^yj ^Ic^ J^j^l jli kdz aur fil-murgh in dinon Khdns. Good geese and 

^-Ji> i5^'« L^^^ ri;r^* ^^^ achchhe milte hainjo turkeys are to be had at 

Jb ^yo ^ L->! jt*- dp ki marzi ho to main do this season ; if it is your 

J^ u;^ ^'^ c^ y ^^^ ^^Z Ze'M/i, pleasure. Sir, I w^ill buy 

jjj^ two or three. 

^ mJs clio\ yb ^Ifc ^ttzi har Ik kism ke tin chdr Gent. Yes, buy three or 

^ jU- ^ Id, four of each sort. 

430 Dialogue. 

1^1 L::^-2bjS l^ J-^ ^ Jo bher ka gosht achchha ^^aw5. If good mutton Gall- 
ic t_5*^ y f^j-^-^ na-mile to ga'e ka gosht not be got, shall I buy 

^^ o^/ le'M, beef? 

ilSA j^\ 9j^ LlioJ ^J^^ naJCin tk murgh aur Ik hatak Gent, No, send for a fowl 

j'^l^lo vI^Lj mangd'Oy and a duck. 

L^ ci^W. l/ "^ ^ ^a^al ke yahan se gosht Id'o Get meat from the butcher's. 

^^ .^ J\ ^j\jij^ khaharddr ki dj chha ghari Take care that dinner be 
j\j 1)1^ **^J i/ ^^ wakt khdnd taiydr ready to day at six 

tjjiyb Aot^e, o'clock. 

1)1^ ^ijjUj- ^j1 ^ y^a/w flJAz jdwenge khdnd I must go now, it is dinner 
jJi) l::-^^ l^ (Jl^ khdrie ka wakt hai, time. 

J ^y ^ .Lf U\^^ khdnd taiydr ho to Wo . . Bring dinner if ready. 

\)\ ji j^\i\^ khdnd mez 'par dyd , . . Servt, Dinner is on the 

j*^ ^j^J^ lj%f> thord shorba Id'o .... Gent, Bring me a little 

<c^ ^-oIj l^ ^J5-^ shorbe kd bdsan mere wdste Bring me a soup plate. 

Ujl?* ci^jjIj <0j4wi» .j^ 3^^y^ shorba nihdyat gdrhd This soup is too strong and 

^ >4^s::-^.^ ,.\ ^ Aa£ awr Ja^w^ garTw hai, too hot. 

,^j-^^ ^-L^-sr« u?j*f' ^^on machhli mere wdste Get me some fish. 

«1 LS^^ uJltf CSi) ^k sdf rikdbt aur chhurt A clean plate, and knife and 

j^i! l23l^ 4?;^ kdntd Id'o, fork. 

•t> il:>-l )•! ^iS-s*- chatm aur dchdr do , , , Give me the chatni and 


j^k-j^j fcj?;-^ 4^j^ -fr ^wc^^ tarkdrJ mere ivdste Bring some vegetables. 

^1' /a'o, 

^ "iLxS ^ S\ ^ kuchh dlu kuchh karamkalld Some potato, some cabbage, 

^y3^ kuchh phul-kobt, some cauliflower. 

^^iJ c:;^-i»jf l^ ^^*lf ^ ^wc^/< ga'c /ca gos//^ /a'o . Bring some beef. 

Dialogue, 431 

iU«j ^z.^1^ ^ ~j^ \j^ thora hJier ka gosht su^ar kd Bring me a little mutton, 

l^ uSj^s^ ^^L^f l^ gosht hachhre kd gosht pork, veal, venison, kid, 

LiL^-ijj^l^jor^'-^i-^j^ hiran kd gosht halwdn fowl, partridge, hare, duck 

r^ r^ ?r* LO^*^ murgh iltar khargosh and ham. 

l^ .Lmj ul ^U^ 4/!;.^ murghdhi aur su'ar kd 

<^rir^ L.'b ^^^-^^-^ namak-dluda rdn mere 

jt> ^«j ^\) ^^-1 1?^ ^/iora us puld'o se do . , Give me a little of that 

^'^ aill^ jjl ^^ kuchh aur khushka Id^o . . Bring a little more boiled 

j^^ u^*l; j^^ tl^ "^ kuchh namak aur rdl aur Bring some salt and mus- 

/^ J^J3^ ^j^ 5ir/:a aur tel Id'o, tard and vinegar and oil. 

^ J t^"^ ^^^ lj'^^t^ U^^ ^ ^Md't se thori do , , Give me a little of that 


Jb a^ U u^ ^^, yih kaun sd mewa hai . . What sort of fruit is this ? 

j^\ ^Js. aT -^, L-^»-U .va/^^6 yi^ aw /^a^ aur yih Khidmatgdr. This is a man- 

ib iL^ -^^ keld hai, go, and this is a plantain. 

jjl v_^^^ jjl j^ol L^ kyd angur aur seh aur anjir Gent, What, have you not 

L« ^^ j:*^^ waA?^ TwiZe, got grapes and apples and 

l!J1a;^/«\ c^:>-L? j^^*y nahin sdhih is mulk men Khidmat. No, Sir, they are 
(J^ jpi^ ^ ^J^ kam milte hain, rarely to be met with in 

this country. 

i yi LyAjJ^ shardh Id^o Gent. Bring me wine. 

^i L-J[ ^->\;-i» ij-j (jj^ kaun si shardh dp-ko pasand Khidmat. Which wine, Sir, 

Jb Jt JCw--j dti hai, do you prefer ? 

uSjf^ ^->\;-^ J^ •-^j^"' ^^^^t^ ^^^ shardh mere wdste Gent. Bring me a little red 
^ ^ (J^-^^j ^^'^; wine. 

J ^ ''^•^-i' ^ r?^ (J-^i} ^k hir kd shisha Wo . . Bring a glass of beer. 

jjjbi t-?i^ ^ ^ ^'5 wio^re M^aro Come, take off my boots. 

^j\j\^J^ kurti utdrlo . . . . . Take off my coat. 

432 Dialogue, 

Jb V. Wr ^^^* hichhauna hichhaya hai . Have they made the bed ? 

,-*^J CSjxj\ c.^>^-L^ sahih ah- taknahln hichhaya Khidmat. Sir, they have not 
bUs^ yet made it. 

J l^j ^U^ chiragk laga'o .... Gew^. Set the lamp. 

J Uis. .js^ ^'b J^AJb ham-ko hari fajr jagd'o . Wake me very early in the 

^j jj J^ uf^ gharl mez par rakho . . Put my watch on the table. 

(jJ^ ^ j^ J^^ kursiyan mez ke aspas rakho Put the chairs round the 

^j table. 

^ c^Al^ ^}f ^ L5^^ P^^^ ^^ kuza palang ke Put the guglet of water be- 

^j f^^f^ niche rakho, neath the cot. 

^ j^l^.«5 ^ {^'^j palang ke sir hane par ghafi Hang up the watch at the 

j^l^ ^"^ latkd'o, head of the bed. 

Jj ^ icr^ ^^L:si^ kunjiydn takiye ke tale rakh Put the keys beneath the 

j(3 ^i do, pillow. 

jJ Jj^ Lf'^'^ ' ^*^ so>h dariche khol do par kha- Open all the windows, but 

jcj ^jijjt^ J^'V^ y barddr darwdza hand ki- take care to shut the door. 

^^i jiyoy 

d^ j^^ jc**' jlS^Jk^. khldmatgdr se puchho ki Ask the servant whether he 

<!L^ jb . /jl-J ci>^^ hdziri taiydr ki hai ki has prepared breakfast or 

^*.J nahm, not. 

^Jb l-^ >*l3 l^l^'y^M-j 5M?zo to tumhdrd nam kyd Pray, what is your name, 

\^ L--^^L? kJj^^ j^ ^cii aur tumhdre sahih kd and what is the name of 

\S A^i ndm kyd, your master ? 

ijSi ^ c-^2>-L? ^ us sahib ke pas kab se nau- How long have you been the 

y^Jy Li*^ '"r^ ^^^ ^^^* servant of that gentleman? 

J^^ L5^ kJ^ [J^3 L> W' tumhdrd watan kahdn hai What is your native country, 

L5^ J^^ lS^l^ U^' ^"^ T/a/ifl/i se kitnt dur and how far is it from 

hai, this ? 

^ L5^1/ L5^ L5^ <^k'^ (*^ ^^^^ A:a/iaw A*e rahne-wdle ho Where do ygu live ? 

^ e;V. c5^^ *^o^^' ^^''' ^^^^^ ?/«/ia?* se A:i7w? How far hence is your town? 

Dialogue, 433 

^ U«j1j l^ ^^t> jjM.i> das din ka rasta hai, . . It is ten days journey. 

\^ jxs. ijj\^ tumhari umr kya , . . . How old are you? 

fj^ji f^^ jAsC ^XaJh hamari umr his haras ki hai My age is twenty years. 

ij^. ^ uf/^'V' Relating to commerce, &c.* 

/^ jL-^jjj/lr^ o-lLjl^ Sarcar, take the draft and bring the 

money. Be quick. 
LS^ ly> ^^ ^i^ ^jti ^1 Ifyb J/ t^ What is there to do ? It is now eleven 

jj-Lo ^^;!J^ e-^j y^ >f"J*^" hf"^^ ^^ quick, that I may have the money 
^ in time. Let me have it by one 

^ L^J^J^ <-^ /^ t^rr* Li^P^*^ ^<^ *^ *^^ counting house, and speak to 

the head sarcar. 
^ ^SjJbJ^ (JLjj^ (JJoj <^ ^ ^J^j^ Tell the sarcar to take bank notes, and 

* ^ pay the amount of the draft. 

^ S. p 

^ L^^'f^ / 4^ ^^ LS^V The money must be sent to Mr. . 

^i^ ,-J <^ .^ ^-c ^«j t^^o-L? ^3 Request Mr. to order what re- 

s. p mains to be paid in before three 

dJ ^'^^ ^-^.ij jy. /' J o'clock. 

* Extracted from The Hindoostanee and English Student's Assistant," printed 
at Calcutta in 1826. 


434 Dialogue. 

l5^ lJ^ \i^ ^- l/ ^r^^^^ si^ ^ ^ Have you ever been to Mr. such a one's 

garden ? 

1^3 ^^ ^^ J/^" <-^^^ uW (*^' ^^^ ""^^* ^^ *^^^^ immediately, else 

nothing will be done. 
yf^' L5^ l/ ^4/ ''^.1/ ^Ji^ CSi\ ^ J^j^ Send a sarcar to hire a boat. 

kJ^»^^ \s^biT T^ (*^ ^ ^^^^ S^ *^ Chowringhee to day. 


J ^ J^ MT?^ J^ J'^^W' jIjV W?" Go to the China bazar, and buy a pair 

of globe lanterns. 

9 9^9 ^ 

^J J^*^^ ^^3j ^ «^ri; u/ ^^o will collect the bills ? 

^ Wm^ ^-^^ mtt* ci^^ dy^'^^ l;V ^^ Aghajan is clever in collecting bills. 

y O i- O 5-9 

Jb Jll^ liLo ^^^j ^'^ c-^^^U ^^li It is very difficult to get money of such 

a one. 

^fejL ^o:^<<^^j ^^ \J'^ ^ y^J^J^- (^ ^ ^^^® ^^^"^ *^ *^® bazar ; sugar is now 

three and a half seers a rupee. 

Jb^^x^ LJ Jj^ Jj-^ ^Ji j^ ^J 4>;^^ It will be better to wait a few days, and 

then buy the cloth. 
^ c-^v-5 t^j ^Jb j^ j^li ^^ ;^^^ ,^5-d^ Of what use are such people ? They 
^ . ,. . know nothing of business. 

liJ»^ S^^iy \ji^ \j^ \J^^ M J^ (*^ I understand business — I am not to be 

^ ^ imposed upon. 

• ^9 C 

j^ ^rr* -f?" ^v^' L5^ ^_;~Ali Raisins are six seers for a rupee. 

7 J^ lt ^j^V jI/^ Buy about one thousand rupees worth. 

l::!*^^ i^^j (♦J^-* *— ^^ jy ^jj . There is no understanding the bazar 


Dialogue, 435 

j^Lij ^j^^ jj ^ li jljb ^^^ ^^^J^ I" Calcutta, the bazar rate is scarcely 

^; ut?v 

for two hours alike. 

J^:^ ^V3 ij^ji^ J^ ^5^ ^^ ^^ ^J^^ I made a deposite ; to morrow I shall 

see them weighed. 
\j\^ c-^iy jJjIj^ See that you are not imposed on. 

j> OS* o;> 

♦-r-» ^-^ (^ 4 ^ lT' l^-?^ -?^^ Lf^-' Have you compared them with the 

sample ? Do they agree ? 

[j^J^^ lT^ ^^"^ L5^ i:^?^ V. ;*^ Two or three packages are superior. 

L_5^' J^^ J ^ [ji^ J^ \j:,jir^ fr fT ^^ ^n<i procure a pass for the things 
>^ -^^ '- that are ready. 

c>> c c 

J'^ -^-^'v^i JW t:;;?^^ ^} d^ ^— ^.^ ^^* ^ ^^^^' ^"^ ^^"^ *^^"^ ^'^ board the 


^1 a^ ^ ^ j^ ;^ ^^ U;^.^L ^5! Sir, the captain's sarcar said, the goods 
> cannot be shipped to day. 

? y i^ 

^ Mi> y to l::^^ ^1 j^ L^ js>- J^j^ Do not mind what the sarcar says, but 

9 > ^ mind what I say. 

UU- ^-^ ^«5 Jl^ ^ cJf ^.^o-L? ^\ Sir, according to your command, I am 


J ^ ^ J^*^..^ S^'^W J^ Piyada, call the cashier. 
c^ c/ y> t^^ <^ L5^/^J l5^ H^^ much was collected yesterday ? 

(^ lib L^ ^ jtcl^ ^^ LT*?^ c;:^« jljV What is the discount on the Com- 
pany's paper in the bazar ? 

436 Dialogue. 

o o ^ S. f 

^ ^}yc ds.^ ^ ^j^ IjC-j ^^^j ^ If you purchase the Company's paper 

o ^ s. y of six per cent, interest, the discount 

^i^ S?* "• '^^ " "^ <^^^-^ ^ u^ is two rupees six annas ; and, if you 

9 w 

-5*^ t?^^ J^^^ l/ <-^^ c;^!?^^ L5:^' ^^^^ *^^s^ letters as directed. 

o o 

L5V^ c:r^* hfj^ij^-j^^^i^ji^'^^''^, Bring those goods in carts from the 

s.^ Custom house. 


jj;*ib (^ \ L^^JSj^ ^ ^S^J^'^^j^y Darban, are the counting-house sarcars 

come ? 

L5^ v^ /*^ i^lr e;^ S^^;^ l/ J^ Who is at work in the iron-factory ? 

V.' (ijn^ <-^ (^' S^J^ L-^5^U ^\ Sir, nobody is yet come. 

ijAJ Ja«j*j |^\ ^ J^^' (^> J^j ^ This is the case every day, and there- 

' . *'♦ .• IX ^"^^^ ^^* ^^ work is not yet done. 

b^ c:r^y (*^ <-^ v^^' (^^ ^ L-^:^U 

^^^^ L5^ LS (* Cr^ Jjl' j^ t-^^^L? ^Jili Mr. is speaking to me daily about 

o this work. 

J*^ -^^ C/-^ «^^ J^^ y c^.J^ *-/^ S-^ When they come, send them to me. 

^^^^iJU^ ^^j-^ i^.^j t/j 4-^* S^ -^^^^ ^^"S ^^® those Europe goods to 

<> ^ lie at the Custom house ? 

ijfijU- c->u*j1 ^y^ jjW^^ U;-^>-U> t^l Sir, without an invoice to know what J 

' o they are, how can I bring them ? 

\J^^^ ^•^^'V' JJ^ l5^^ ^!^3'^^^ <-r^ -^y opening the boxes and seeing their 

<^ i^^ ^ value, you will be able to understand. 

Dialogue, 437 

CO • x- 

-jy ^^ <fci^ L^\ ^^ u-.'>^t>tf i^^ Sir, I cannot myself open the packages. 

J U. ^l&j ji:>- J^ J^J^j^ ^\ Sarcar, take the invoice and go directly. 

*-r*^^ LT ^ ^"^^v^i ^*^J v^ J^>rVi J*^ -^^ ^^^ o'clock, the custom house officer 

^^ ?^ came and opened the boxes. 

^^} J V^ (^ h/'^^ L5^ J^ ^^ «-?^ Kranee, copy these and give them to 

the Serjeant. 

&^ ^ Jh^J^j^ J^'^^J^ /jV Call a blacksmith and open the boxes; 

., ~ • 1.1^^ compare the value and quantity of 

' ' ' * the goods with the invoice, then 

•^ Jcj ^ i^ make them tight again. 

^ '^"f"^ LT L^ Lsi} **r^ S^'^^ S^^ Serjeant, when you have signed your 

*' - • ^ name, give (them) to the cashier. 

LT *-r^^ (^ '■^^yivr^^r:^ L;*f* ,^j Taking the invoice, I had to go again 

. ^ ... ^ ' and shew it to the head officer. 

;!;i ^^ i^ ^ jV* ^^ Si;^ ^ lsV. Having done all this, it had struck four 

^ ^ ^ o'clock, and the custom house was 

'^^^ shut. 

Lr S^^^y^ U^ \J [iSif^ J3J ^j^^^ The next day I delivered the invoice to 

^ the officer. 

/W* J.^'=*^'^ JJ^ '•^^--^ (/ c->L*j1 I — ^«j Having ascertained the value of the 

. '-<' articles and the duty, he signed it. 

438 Dialogue. 

^ cL^ J m\m\ ijj^ CSi\ /^ J^y^ lS^ Sarcar, I will not give a kowrie to the 

c c ^ ^ people of the custom house or wharf. 

? P o ^ 

^yS <ulj j^Ls-^U- ^^^ f }^J^ ^ Sarcar, why did you not go to the 

"^ police office and get a pass ? 

t^l 1^ ^-y 

^^^-,4Jb ;^^<^ ^^ jt> ^^^ Itj^ A^ c--^5^U o"^ Sir, what can I do ? For two or three 

^ / ^ "-f days I have not had a moment's 

^5 (^ . ^^.. «> » V ^ v^" »^ > leisure ; one cannot get a thmg done 

Ijyb ^^ ^U7 ^l^ at once at the court. 

^y^ ^ jXjI^ ^JUib jfM If I do not go myself, nothing is done. 

o^ P 

jJ jy^^ ^ hfJ"^ L^^ fv^^ 4X)jl Jcs- ^5! Sir, I know that five days ago you 

.o ^ o o wrote to Patna, that the things would 

^-^ v>c;'V"v> V * X -' be lorwarded to morrow or next day, 

L= ^^ ^l3 ^_^U lL^\J\ a^d no pass is yet obtained. 

jj-^ \jMi ^ ^\j ^Id^j^^ (^rir^?" 4^^ How can they go ? They cannot be 

^ sent without a pass. 



Selected from the >-llJJ^^c:^T^ {mir'atu-l-akaUm), printed at the 
School-book Society's press. Calcutta, 1836. 

^ <. ? 

i^ p p t. p(^ 

Ow^CO« P ^ y 

^^^u jji c-ys ^.u. ^ji j^jji <Ju1j ^.u. J \^ji cjiXo 

y ■^ ^ i^ o ^t* 

O O CO ^ ^ y y o o 

(JH:^ L5f ^^ /-^ -^^ ^iU' CT^ (»^JJ^ L5^ L5^ cr* ^ J^ 

'-> p P L, P y P L. COOy^ 

* ^^ the first letter, as a contraction, of Jij-j suwdl^ question, 
t ^ the first letter of ^\^ jawab^ answer. 

440 Dialogue, 

,0 y • o ^ 

L^ ^ lt' J^ ^-^ >^y^ *-4;^ ^ji uV.*^ ur^ L5" l/* l:^ j^^ 

e;^ L^^ jVfi c:^/ <^r tiT^* ti^^^'i^ c^ 
^l^j (^_c^l ^^;t?^ uf'^ ^y^ ^^ 15^^ jjr?-* uk^ (*^ ''^^ *J^ T 

b^ l3^ ^«) bjj ^J <d«Ju*3 IC-5S- cJL>\^ i^^ ,^H^ ^'^ j^ S^;V 


9 y ^ ^ y 9 ^ ^ 

^J^ ^J"}^ l/ ^^'^'^ ^J^^ ^!fr ^ b ^ ^, nr^ <^^^>^^^ "^ 

UutUi jijl JbJOu-j j^' lx:»:> ^ ^j <)L3J>- U*--J* j»^ <<i^ ^tf-si ^^ iS i^^,*^ ^ 
^ ' /''x' 9 y y 

er?^ jjir^yir^ (j/ u/ lt^* *^^ ''^r* c^ 

jj-^ j^l3 ii^I^J^^ ^^ ^^ ^j^ jbl <dl iJya ^^- 

Dialogue. 44 1 

jLT^I ^ 

? <^ o 

cT^ lt^ '^r^ jiT' c)/ cij/ u;^ ^/'^ ^^.y^ LT 
e;r u/ cr^ l^*;^ ^-y^ c^ 

^ jjlj <0^ ^j^ j^^ ^^^ uJ]^l?l ^ ^5^ -^'^ C^ 

^O O OO O ^ Go ^ O 

^jlU .-.i^l JfeJC^ J^lj^ jU> JCJ Jjl^^^;*.C*^ — 

^ jyr^j\^ ur Lj»/ u;^ u^b^^ tj u- 

x-P Co O^OO O ^ C y 

x- f ^ y y 

4^ djW^tf j^^ jj^ ^j^ L-jj ^^ 

^ ^ c ;> o ^ 

^ ^o o >• ^ o;' 

cT^J^ir-^^nr' (i)/ u/ L5^^ C/- 

>> y Pt^ y O^ 9 y J.-'O ^ 

x- O 

o ^ o o o >> 


442 Dialogue, 

^ 9 (^ ^ y " 9 9 

^jyr^jr^ ur ujf e;!?-* c.!^r^ J^ u- 

'/c;^« cw^/ -^^ ;j^ lii^-^ 
^J^y. Ls^ J^ ^^^^^ L5^r^ u/ ^f t:^* ^Wcr' 4i^^ u- 


o o^ o / o • 

^jb ^^^ J^ ^ c->\y ^_^j c^^ ^^, 
jjl ^U<: ^ J^j ^^^^1^ J^U- j^j JAc ^^1 c/v <-^ zr 

(^ y ■'^9 9 ■^ O O^O H ^ ^ 

y y 9 <^ o 

O C 9 -^ O O c 

y COX' 

L^^ l/^ ^^j^r' cr^* ^r-' c;r° cr^* '^WT;-^ l/ (*^ jj^ y^ ^ 

Dialogue. 443 

^ -^ ^ o c 

^^ LJ u-iUjj^ (^ jcJb Jjfel (^ 


c--^b ^ CL^ULtf ^^^ JU ^UJ <l^ lf> c-Jlc yi byb ^Lc j^j l^ tJ^ 

Translation of the foregoing ^^ Short Description of India, ^ 

Q. What sort of country is Hindustan ? 

^. It is a very extensive country, which by reason of its popu- 
lation, products, manners and customs, has continued famous from 

Q. What are the boundaries of the four (sides) of Hindustan ? 

A, The northern boundary is Tartary and Tibet, the southern 
boundary is the Indian ocean, the eastern is the Barma kingdom and 
bay of Bengal, and the western boundary is the gulph of Arabia and 
Persia (Arabian sea). 

Q. What great rivers are there in Hindustan ? 

A. The Ganges, which after flowing seven hundred kos (1400 
miles ?) falls into the gulph of Bengal. In it the Jumna and Gogra 
from the west, and Brahmapiitar, called also Sdmpu, coming from 
Tibet and Assam, fall. And, on the west is the river Sindh (Indus), 
also called Ntldb, which is composed of five rivers : so that, for this 
very reason they name the countries which are about it, Panjdb. On the 

444 Dialogue. 

south is the Nerbada, the Godavery, and the Kishna ; which three 
rivers, flowing to the east, fall into the bay of Bengal. 

Q, What celebrated mountains are there in Hindustan ? 

A. The Himalaya mountains are well known throughout the world, 
because that, in respect to height, no other mountain is equal to them. 
They lie between Hindustan and Tibet. Moreover, there are the 
hills of Rajamahal; and, in the Dakhan are the Ghat mountains, 
the chain of which is to the east and west over against the sea coast. 

Q. Into how many parts have geographers divided Hindustan ? 

A, Into four parts. The first part is that which is situate on the 
Ganges as well as on the shores of those rivers which fall into it : the 
second is in the districts of the river Sindh (Indus) as well as in those 
of the rivers falling into it : the third part is that which lies between 
the Ganges, the Sindh and the Kishna : and, the fourth is that which 
lies to the south of the Kishna. 

Q, What Subas (provinces) are situated on the sides of the Ganges? 

A. Bengal, Bihar, Ilahabad, Oude, Agra and Dehli. 

Q. In the Suha of Bang (Bengal) what noted cities are there ? 

A, Calcutta, Dacca, Murshidabad. 

Q. What in the Suba of Bihar ? 

A. Azimabdd (Patna), Benares, Aazam-gadh (Azemghur), Jaun- 
poor, Ghazipoor. 

Q. In the Suba of Ilahabad, which are the most renowned cities ? 

A. Ilahabad. 

Q. In the Suba of Oude, which are the most celebrated cities ? 

A, Lucknow, Baraitche, Fyzabad, Bareily, Gorucpoor. 

Q. In the Suba of Agra what cities possess celebrity ? 

A, Agra, Mathura and Caunpoor. 

Q. What in the Suba of Dehli? 

A, Dehli, Meerat, Hurdwar, Kurnal. 

Q. What Subas (provinces) are situate on the sides of the river 
Sindh (Indus) ? 

Dialogue. 445 

A. Cashmere, Cabul, Candahar, Mooltan, Sinde, Ajmeer, Malwah. 

Q. What celebrated cities are there in those Subas ? 

A, Lahore, Cashmere, Cabul, Attock, Ghizni, Candahar, Mooltan, 
Tatta, Ajmeer, Oojein, Guahor, Jeypoor. 

Q. In the middle part, what Subas are there ? 

A. Gujerat, Khandesh, Berar, Orissa, Circars, Dowletabad. 

Q. Of them, what cities are renowned ? 

A, In Gujerat, Ahmedabad and Cambay; in Khandesh, Surat 
and Boorhanpoor ; in Dowletabad, Bombay and Poona ; in Berar, 
Aurungabad, Nagpoor, and Ellichpoor ; and, in Orissa, Cuttack. 

Q, What provinces does the Deccan comprise ? 

A. Bejapoor, Golconda, Carnatic, Mysore, Concan. 

Q. What are the famous cities in those provinces ? 

A. In Bejapoor is Bejapoor ; in Golconda, Golconda and Hydera- 
bad ; in the Carnatic, Arcot, Madras, Pondicherry, and Tanjore; in 
Mysore, Seringapatam, Trichinopoly, and Calicut ; in Concan is Goa. 

Q. In (all) those provinces, what provinces are out of (exempt 
from) English sway ? 

A. To the north, whatever is lying on the north and west border 
of the Sutlej and Indus ; that is to say, Cabul and Panjab, all which 
country is under the government of the Seikhs : Oude is a kingdom 
of itself: and Sinde as well as the small provinces of Tanjore in the 
Deccan are all under the rule of their own princes. 

Q, What are the articles of commerce of Hindustan? 

A. Indigo, cotton, opium, mushn, silk, rice, sugar, shawls, warm 
spices, and jewels, so that the diamonds, emeralds, and rubies of India 
are celebrated in all the world. 

Q. How many are the inhabitants of India ? 

A. One hundred millions, of which seventy-five millions are Hin- 
doos, eighteen million seven hundred and fifty thousand Mahomedans ; 
and, six million two hundred and fifty thousand Christians and Jews, 
the latter of which are chiefly in the Deccan. 

446 Dialogue. 

Q. What is the climate of Hindustan ? 

A. In the provinces of the north and west, there is cold in the winter 
season ; but, in all the rest of Hindustan except the mountains there is 
no symptom of cold. The rain is excessive or the heat is excessive : 
by this alternation the difference of the seasons becomes known. 

Q. What are the qualities of the people of India ? 

A. In manners and customs excellent; but, void of probity and 
sincerity : that is to say, there is amongst them, for the most part, no 
reliance on one another, and disinterested friendship exists not. In 
works of art they are dexterous ; yet, with the construction of me- 
chanical instruments they are unacquainted : had science of this kind 
also prevailed among them, it is probable they would have become 
famous throughout the world in what relates to the arts. 



Extracted from " An Introduction to the study of the Hindostany Language as 
spoken in the Carnatic. Compiled for the use of the Company of Gentlemen 
Cadets on the Madras establishment at New-town, Cuddalore. Government 
Press, 1808." (" Reprinted by order of the College Board, 1843 "). 

With notes on the variations, where they may occur, of this dialect from the 
Hindustani of Northern India. 

jJb i^ ^ ko'i hai 

^Jb fj;*\ iJl^y naukardn* d'e hain . 

Mp*^ «-/ ^ c;t^V^ t-j^wj sab nahln a'e hain 

\^j^j\^ A^- ^\ djjald sawdr ho'ungd 

jh ^ f)^j hfj^ ghore-wdle ko buld'o . 

jbjjb ^^;J^ f^h^ ghore par zln hdndh 

%^S (jW< 9f^ hho'iydn* ko huld'o . 

J ^^ J^ 15^^ j^a/H taiydr kard'o . 

J \^ j^ ^ (^^"^ (J^ faldne shakhs ko gharjd 

t>«^ lJj^ ^ ii^y^^ dhohi ko kapre de'd . 

^ iJ ^^.^ ^ L5^^ pahanne ke kapre Id'o 
^^ uJl-tf <fJ^ kurta sdf karo . . 
J I^Lj jJiJ bdtti silgd'o . . . 
^j ji^y^ w^-i) sham mez-par rakho 
J \ >^J^ ^^"^ ^^ sabdn ujdld hote-chf d'o 
J T ^j^ Ljy, ^^ W scibdn ban fajr-tchf d'o 

Gent. Is any one there ? 

Are the servants come ? 

Servt. They are not all come. 

Gent. I will ride out soon to 

Call the horsekeeper. 

Saddle the horse. 

Call the palanquin bearers. 

Make the palanquin ready. 

Go to such a person's house. 

Give the clothes to the wash- 

Bring my clothes to dress. 

Clean (or brush) my coat. 

Light the candle. 

Put the candle on the table. 

Come to morrow at daylight. 

Come very early to morrow. 

* The plural form: see Shakespear's Grammar of the Hindustani, par. 87. 

f The ^Ja^,asir uJj:>- harfi-takhsls, adverb of identity or peculiarity in DakhnT, 
corresponding to ^Jb hi or ^^ ? in northern Hindustani : see Shakespear's Grammar, 
par. 156. 

448 Dialogue, 

^ib jfii^ ^j^ j^b ^^ hhd'iyan kakmi ga'e hain . Where are the palanquin 

bearers gone ? 
y.s>- L^Jjb Js>Ju«i sldhe taraf chalo .... Go to the right. 
^L>- uJ^ j^J J da'en taraf chalo . . . Go to the left. 
^ T ^^ j\i^x,ij>- ^\ ajjamdar nahm a'e hain . Is not the jamadar come to 

CiT^ day? 

^h ^ j\sxA>>- (^J^j^ harkartjamdar ko huld'o . Harkara, call the jamadar. 
^j:^j ^^-^ CLJ^ j\^f^>' jamdar kot men rahte hain Does the jamadar live in the 
^^y^j4 (j^-*^ V. {ji^ y^ apne ghar mtfij barracks or in his own 

house ? 
J L ^ j^, hatlar ko buld'o .... Call the butler. 
j^yiu^jU- -Ji j\ji^ khabarddr dj char ghanton Take care, dinner must be 
UjJbjlJ Ul^^ ko khdnd taiydr hond ready to day at four 

^ j^ i^S^ iJ ^ ,j^ main d'e tag ghar ko matjd Do not go home till I come. 

yi^ 'f iJ^^ L3^.^^ *--^. y^^ haweli kird'e ko Wo ^ Hire a house. 

J \^ ij\^ Ijjj l1X> yak parwd kirdya kard'o . Get a boat hired. 

c-.A».U> tJU- j^l^ kahdn jdnt sdhih . . . Where are you going, Sir ? 

^ j^ ^ \j^ daryd ke sair ko , , . . For an excursion to sea. 

lS^J U^^ (^ U*^ LS^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^"^ t^a^aw ra- How many days shall you 

henge,* remain there ? 

J3J tj^ V. J*^ ^0 yd tin roz Two or three days. 

j\y^ ♦J l::^*^ (j-^ Ms wakt turn sawdr ho- When will you embark ? 

^^^,^^ wenge,* 

^^^ J !/?" S^^ **r^ j^^ khdri chard'o howe . . When it is high water in the 


|Ji> Jo\ y 4-^1 a 6 ^5 w^ar hai . . . . It is now low water. 

C->1; (^,-.y i,h\ju< .^ kuchh muzdyakd nahm rdt No matter ; it will be high 

\x>^yi ^ !/?"^ J^ ^^ j?/fir chard'o howegd, tide again at night. 

* In DakhnT, the second person plural of the future and aorist is similar to the 
first and third. 

Dialogue. 449 

.^ ju^b ^ ^^\^ ^^jj parwe-walon ko takid hard Give strict orders to the boat- 

^jb, witfW i^ ki hazir rahen, men to keep ready. 

c^ (Jl^jj\ ^ VfC ^j^^ ^T^^ hichhana aur khdne Send the bed clothes, bed- 

j ijrj j-> c-jLm-sI \S pine ka ashab parwe par ding, with the things for 

t>fcX2Sj^ hhej-de'd, eating and drinking on 

board the boat. 

\L>- ^ju ^UL v--^«j-^^ yah sab sdmdn hhej chuka All these things I have sent, 

t^^o^-ltf ^^^ hun sahib. Sir. 

j^Ltf j^-^ ^Jb j^ jj^ A:yww J^7 Ao main sabdn I will positively go to 

\5gj*U- jd'ungd, morrow. 

l5^ (j/ j^ * /rawTi ^ai Who is he (or that) ? 

,^*l^ \i L^^jV i^ ^^ ^P ^^ bdwarcht kd bhd^i . Sir, the brother of your 


^S\>-^jJ^^^\^ ^j^ ghort'WdU pdsjdkar yahf Go to the horse-keeper, place 

J^j /T ^^J^\ <Oij ddna us-ke dge rakhkar this grain before him and 

j^J^ j^ ^ j^.^ dekhokid ghore-ko khildtd see that he gives it to the 

Jj> IjI^ haif horse. 

«i>by V- 1/ (^Lr*^ v. y'^^t ^^'^ ^i^wi kejdnwardn What kind of animals are 

^^ ha in, these ? 

^Jb ^^\i^ murghabl hain They are waterfowl. 

^lib , / JjjU" <«i/r« (»^ ^^^ ^^^^ khdwind ke hdth For how much will you sell 

li-.:snjj^ l5^ ^^^^ ^^ iec^e7ige,J them to my master? 

^^-.1 j^-^ Jic u^UJ ^M7war7§ akl mtn is ghar kd In your opinion is the back 

^«s ji'T \^:s^> l^ j^ plchhd dge se khushtar- of this house prettier than 

^i> UJ j:^^ numd hai, the front ? 

* Dakh. Ae, 5^e, ^Aa^ or z7; see Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, p. 158. 
+ See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, p. 159. 

\ In DakhnT, the second person plur. of the future and aorist is similar to the first 
(End third : see Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par. 113. 
§ See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, p. 158. 

3 M 

450 Dialogue, 

ufjf^ U^y. i^p^ ^j^ hargiz nahln bar aks mere By no means, on the con- 

\^T ICj! jj-^ J^ khiyal men us-kd dgd trary in my opinion the 

1^1 vJ>^J ^mj ,<^-^ pichhe se hahut achchha front of it is much prettier 

^ hat, than the rear. 

j^ lij li \sAj ^\^ kahdn raja ha beta aur What connexion is there be- 

i;Y^ -V" l;^^ kahdn yah shuhra, tween the prince's son 

and this report ? 

Jb JLa L^ lJj^ tumdri^ kyd saldh hai . . What is your advice ? 

lx> MJ^ 2LlJ ^ L-.^ -^^, yah sab se bihtar howegd , This will be best of all. 

^Jb -jiiiol ek-lchf hai It is all one (the same 


^^^ ji ^^ kuchh fark nahin . . . . There is no difference. 

L5^ J^ i^Ji,J^^ p tumangrezi bolsakte hain% Can you speak English? 

y iJ\::M-ijJcJb (^^--Lj ^ bhald salts hindustdm to Well, speak easy Hindus- 

yf kaho, tani to me. 

^Jb Ix.^ \J j\ ^ y^i kaho to oj^ kyd kahtd hai . Tell me what he says. 

jj-Jb ij \ ^^ jjl^ Jtj turn kahdn se d'e hain% . . Whence are you come? 

J^ J J -^ j^\ ^fs^ mujhe aur kuchh dar-kdr I do not want any more. 

,jAJi^ nahin, 

ci-N-j^ti A^ lij\ jj ^\ agar turn apnd kdm durust If you do not do your busi- 

\£) .^ <_J^ J y ^ ij na-karenX to har-taraf ness better, I will turn 

karungd, you away. 

^ <teJ»l3 ndshta Id'o Bring breakfast. 

J^ J ijj'a^ misri de'd Give me the sugarcandy. 

J^J y JbJjJ jjl ^^ kuchh aur dudh to de*d . . Give me some more milk. 

* See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, p. 158. 
+ See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par, 156. 

X Dakh. o or wah^ &c«9 instead of the Hindustani wuh : see Shakespear's Hindustani 
Grammar, p. 158. 

§ See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par. 113. 

Dialogue. 451 

'ijbls*- bW-^b ^\ ^^ main ah-hi hahar jaya I want to go out directly. 
,4ji> chahta hun, 

j'U- l:^v< ijJl j^U. wahan (pv w'han) andar mat Go not in there. 

L5^Ji>'^y c;^ jyj^ ^^^^ Tia/^m ^0 gir parenge * Come down otherwise you 

will fall. 
^J^j^ y^^ ji jWf- i^^^r i'^'' kahe-ko charhte Why do you climb up the 

^jb hain,* tree ? 

L^ j^ LfH^ *^^ lJ^^ *^^^ ^^^ /raAwe se kya hasil What is the use of talking 
Uj! ILol ^-^ J-pU- main us-kd ddhd bhl nahin so much? I do not com- 

^jji) lifsr*^ ^-^ ^j samajhtd hwhy prehend one half of it. 

Ja-jlj 1j^ y I*^ c^*^ ^ ^^''^ P^'' Mk^do, waste -];■ Do not tell me, for God's 
^yi l;:^^ ^.;f=r ^•'^ itndjhut% mat hold, sake, so many lies about 

this business. 
^ L^ aIj l^ 15^ U^^ ^^ ^O'Stl kd nam kyd hai . . What is the name of that 

place ? 
J^ .^ ^ vjl^ (^Uj wahan (or w'hdn) kJidne ki Is any thing to be got there 

jJb l52lLo kuchh chiz milti hai, to eat and drink ? 

l/ s/^' l<^ S-'^^^ 6?Awp /:c o^re ke wdstl kuchh Put up something to shelter 

ji^ V|^ ^ 15^!^ /c^ara A:aro, us from the sun. 

^ \y>- jj J ^^ ^^ ketl ghari din chard^ hai . What o'clock is it ? 

J Ixi^ vJ*^^ 15^^ j9a/H JaZc?2 mangd'o , . . Send for the palanquin 

^-r^ J^^3^. ^ ^V^^^T^ mazduron kd huld^o aur sab Call the porters and send all 
^^'L^^UibCL,^^!-^ chizbast hamdre sdthhhej my baggage along with 

Jj J ,^ de'd, II me. 

^ See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par. 113. 
+ Dakh. khudd wdstt or khudd ke waste. 

J Dakh,jhitty in Hindustani most commonly jhuth; but, in DakhnT, an unaspirated 
letter often occurs where it would be aspirated in Hindustani. 
§ In Hindustani charhd. \\ In Hindustani usually do. 

452 Dialogue. 

c^^^£9-U^Jijyjljjl^*j turn kahan utrmge sahih . Where will you alight (stop), 

Cj^^:?-!^ (Jls yUji ^^ chalo ham-ko falarie sahih Come, take me to such a 
1> J Isi^ (jJj^ ^S ke pas pahunchd rfe'o, gentleman's house. 

^^^ L-jy top chhuti Has the gun been fired ? 

t> J ^jj^ \j^ tlio yakjora kapre de'd . . . Give me a suit of clothes. 
jj\^ <0^ tc^y* {ojn kurta jhdro .... Brush my hat and coat. 
jb Ls^'^ V MdJ ^ *^^^ g^ore par zln hdndhi hai yd Is the horse saddled or not ? 
^^3 b nahlny 

J i \j^^ ufj^ sawdrl kd gkord lad . . Bring the saddle-horse. 
U \ ^ ^^ .^'Lj i^Ujb hamdre sdth tum-ko hhi dnd You must come along with 

UjJj paregd, me. 

c^^\ L-*^^U c^UJ tumdre sdhih ah-tag^ uthl Is your master got up yet ? 

L5^J>^ L5«5l howenge, 

^j^ ^^ C--.0-U yb ^0 5a^i& ZeA;i7» kahln hdhar Yes, Sir, but he is gone out 

^jJb ^^Jt\s ga'e haiuj somewhere. 

a^ ^Jb (V^ "^ y^ ^wM-/[;o kuchh malum hai ki Do you know where he is 

^^ ^l^ kahdn ga'e, gone to ? 

-fcjjj <i)L> uJ^)l ^L^ kam-ko ekpiydladudh thori Give me a cup of milk, a 
\Sj\ CSi\ ^j>ii^ ijj^ misri ek andd chamcha little sugarcandy, an egg, 

^u. ^Jy< ^"^ mull roti maska aur thord a spoon, a radish, bread, 

yj ajj^ 1?^ j^^ aL-^ murahha de'd, butter and a little jam. 

^ \S iJ\^ l^ (jJ uJo\ ek din kd kirdya kyd hai . What is the fare per day ? 
^^Isj- Irs- /T Uju^ s7c/^a age chalejd'o ... Go straight forwards. 

• T Sj^ phir-kar d'o Come round about. 

• ^ ^ ^Ijb (<^*X^-» sldhe hdth kd phiro . . . Turn to the right. 
jj^ ^ ^'\jb ^,^^^ ddwen hdth kd phiro . . Turn to the left. 

^>- c^jAjs- jaldi chalo Go fast. 

^L>- <t:uJiT i[; j zarra dhista chalo . . . Go a little slower. 
/U- ^^^ hat'kar jd'o Make way. 

* In Hindustani ab-tak. 

Dialogue. ^ 453 

^j ijSj4 khafe raho Stop. 

^l|^^ c^* ^^^j^.,ijir^ mainphir a'etag^yahanch\ Stop here till I return. 
fy raho, 

^j Ty^ ^i\ ^j^ main ab-ht phir a'unga . . I will be back immediately. 

i^ JJ j^ Jj^i} j^T age daurkar% Miahar Wo ki Run on before and enquire 

V. (^ jjtrV^ S'"^^ s^hib ghar men hai yd ifthe gentleman is at home 

^J^ nahln, or not. 

^j ^^^6 ^l> ^j ^j raho raho palki niche rakh Stop, stop, put the palan- 

Jjj cWo, quin down. 

a^^^^^l_^:>-L?1^Uj tumdra sahib ghar men hai Is your master at home? 

^ j^ j%\ j*l^l L5^^ pdlki uthd^o aur ghar ko Take up the palanquin and 

^l>. chalo, go home. 

jLsnJ ^ j^ ^j^ ^i^ yah gaihri ghar ko le-chalo Carry the bundle home. 

jjl^^, ,^^ c---r>-U (Jli ^ ham faldne sahib ke yahdn I shall dine at Mr. such a 

jj-j* *J i/^\4 ^^ khdnd khdenge turn tin one's, come there in the 

3 T 1^^^^ j\'^^ pahar ko wahdn d'o, afternoon. 

V^^ Srii^ ^* ' ^'^ Two^e If ^aro .... Come, take off my boots. 

J ^ ^Jb c—?^ *-^^ ^>^on shardb pdnl Id'o . . Bring some wine and water. 

j^ \ jc^' <-J>j:>- (Jl> ^awi khub thandd karo . , Cool the water well. 

^^y tj-ji^jlJ l3l^ khdnd taiydr howe to Id^o . Bring dinner if ready. 

^J l53l^jc^^ uJw sdf chhuri kdntd de'd . . Give me a clean knife and 


— yo ^ \s tl^Uj \j^ thord namak rd'i mirch Give me a little salt, mus- 

^b c-^lJi <!i^jU-T acAar sirka shardb pdni tard, pepper, (some) 


gosA^ awr ek sdf bdsan 

pickles, vinegar, wine. 



water, meat, and a clean 

* Observe this sentence, which in Hindustani might have been mere phir dne tak. 
+ See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par. 156. 

I Or, in Dakhni, daurkar; the dental or simple ^, f/, or r being in this dialect fre- 
quently substituted for the Hindustani t, d, or r. 

454 Dialogue. 

J Isr^ \^\ ^b hasan utha le-jd'o .... Take away the things. 

J il juil^ Ji ci^ljJ dawat kalam kaghaz Wo . Bring the inkstand, pen 

and paper. 

fjjj ^ c-;-^r>-U) tjlj faldne sahib ke pas yah Idiatt Take this letter to such a 

jjl ^*^^.-^ ^^^ "V" l^-jao aurjawab ke waste gentleman's and wait for 

_^j^ ^^J^_^ ^ ^^y>- thahrdj an answer. 

L5^ ^^ ^J^ ^ ^^^ /arawg? /:aM7^ /z«i . . Who is that European ? 

1^ \j^ \L^ n^ wah kis-kd ghord hai . . Whose horse is that ? 

L^^"^ (^y i:;^y-J'J^^ P^ikdrkar holen* to ham If you speak loud, I shall 

sunenge, hear you. 

Ijcj-Mj^l <tuJi>T <!tw-Ji! dhista dhista aur lafz judd If you speak slowly and 

^£^Uj j^y ^^^ 1 Jo- J^rfa holen* to ham tumdri distinctly, we shall under- 

i^^^i-.^s:*-' iZi\i hdt samjhetige, stand you. 

c^>.L? ^^^1 aLj IjUj^ hamdrd saldm apne sdhib ko Give my compliments to 

^ ^ kaho, your master. 

^\^ ^ ^ ^^\ u^\ us ddrni ko tumjdnte hain^ Do you know that man? 

\ ^ 
^ ^J f iuil^ fjj\ us kdghaz ko kurst ke tale Bring me that paper from 

yi lf}\ ^ ^ se uthd Id'o, beneath the chair. 

^ 1^ ^\aJ\ ^ J dekho dsmdn khuld hai . . See, is the weather cleared 

uJU -Jo ^^^\ \J^^ jutiydn achchhi tarah sdf Clean (my) shoes well. 
•if karo, 

^j\3 ^:zJi»\j ndshta taiydr hai, . . . Is breakfast ready ? 
^JL!i L^:>-L? ^^ ^^\ ab-hi nahin sdhib lekin zarre Not yet. Sir, but it will be 
Ju> ^^ (jL^j ^jj(^ wakt men taiydr howegd, ready in a little time. 

(J^ L^ l5^^ tt^ ^ %^ 4/ i^cLc^chht nahin mill What, could no fish be got 

to day ? 

* In Dakhni, the second person plural: see Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, 
par. 113. 

Dialogue, 455 

L5^ iiTV l5^'* l5^^ achchht machchhi nahin There was no good fish to 
^^.o-U miU sahib, be had, Sir. 

ilb l>. ^^^ e;^'^^-^ cha-ddn mm chd ddld* , , Have you put tea into the 

c«.^^^L> jj^b ^1 J c?aZa Amw* 5a^i& .... I have put it in, Sir. 
\^j ijj*^3^ ^Jf^ hfj^^ kathori nien misri rakhd* . Have you put sugar into the 


i^^^sXa yb ho sahib Yes, Sir. 

U- ^j^ lJj^^ ^-y^ Miub kathori men chd undel Well, pour out the tea. 

^l^ jjULs sdmdn nikdlo Take away the things. 

jj^^2i^ ju^^l <._^<s-Ls sdhib dj kite ganthonf ko Sir, at what o'clock must 

\jj jLj \j[^ ^ khdnd taiydr karnd, dinner be ready to 


^ ^^'^ jU- o;L sdre chdr ganthonf ko . .At half past four. 

,^_<i!bU- ^.ji^ \^ \^ kyd kyd chizen chdhVe , , What things do you wish ? 

tlio <--^V^ ^ Lii^w: J lLX> yak dast kd kabdb yak rdn A shoulder of mutton roast- 

Jb\ (cff-'* j^^ {J^j <2Mr machchhi ubdli hu'i ed, a leg and some fish 

^ ^Jff ^ ^J ^'^ do tin tarah ke sdlne boiled, two or three kinds 

j^\ ^j^j^ \^s^^ tarkdri aur pinddlu'dn,% of curry, vegetables and 

j^l>j^ ^fjj^j ^Ijllu^ thori puriydn aur achchhe yams, some sweet cakes 

^^ (^5^?"^ J^ 7wei^?e, and good fruit. 

\^\ ^z^Jtiji l^ ^Jj bakre kd gosht achchhd If good mutton cannot be 

^ 4-5 ^ y iU ^j^ nahln mild to gd'e kd got, shall I take beef? 

^jj c^-JjjT gosht le'un, 

* In these instances, the construction is not inverted by the use of ^J we, as it would 
have been in Hindustani, though UJlj ddlnd is a transitive verb in a past tense. 

+ In Hindustani, this word would be ^*2i^ ghanton, 

J In DakhnT, the plural of jl\l:>J pinddlu : see Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, 
par. 87. 

456 Dialogue. 

uJolj^l ij^ {iS^} j^-^ nahm ek murgh aur ek No, send for a fowl and | 

UK*^ ^Jj badakh mangana^ duck. 

^1a5 tJ"^ ^ **J> \^>S kis kism ke rnewe mile . . What kinds of fruit have 

you got? I 

j\j\ lJ/^^ Jyo *\ At\^ jam am mauz chakotare Guavas, mangos, plantains,^ 
U^^^ j^ ^jy.j!>' anar kharhuzt aur an- shaddocks, pomegranates, 

annas, muskmelons and pine- 

L5^ ^ \^ J3J '^^^ J^ char panchrozke age arabis' Did not any almonds or fil- 
>*** '^ ' L5*^ (i'^-^-ir ^^^ ^^ ^'^ sojahdzan men berts or dates or raisins or 

aIjIj ^^ ^^^ iJ^j\^ kuchh badam yd Jinduk currants come in the ships 

b jys^ V. (J*^^ V. y^ khajur yd munakkayd which arrived, four or five 

jj-y ^JL,^ l> <Uii^ kishmish nahin d'e, days ago, fiom Arabia ? 

^j;^ L--^^u9 j^f* ^ T a'e #^e jVfl^zJ lekinjald bikne Some came. Sir, but were so 

L5^^ LS*** L5^ "^^ ^^ mujhe nahin mile, quickly sold that I could 

^J^ ^^^ not get any. 

Uu^ a^ jji l^ y au» shdm-ko chd aur kahwa ba- Make tea and coffee in the 

ndnd, evening. 

j^ I) (Ja.-'^j tv-v'^ ^ %^ tumdrecli\ wdste yd aur What, for yourself, or will 

L5^'-?' ub^'ir' 4^J^ ^^*^ sarddrdn dwenge, any other officers come? 

^^\ j'4^ ^^-J J^J^^^'^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^'^ sarddr die Yes, two or three other offi- 

^*ib ^ai^, cers are coming. 

^ J^ly ^^ L^^o-U sdhib fajr kawd^id liai dp There is drill in the morning, 

^^^^:^ ^^^ ^^y^ L^\ ka-tain kete ganthon ko Sir ; at what o'clock shall 

^j \^\ ^ uthd^un, I waken you ? 

* In DakhnT, the infinitive form is very often used imperatively to denote the 
absolute necessity of doing the action intended: see Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, 
par. 72. 

+ See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par. 156. 

Dialogue. 457 

^ ^^^^ '^\ LS^y pawwe pa7^c/^ gaw^^^o^ /ro . At a quarter before five 

L^ cjU ^lj3 dd'ali saf kiya* .... Have you cleaned my belt ? 
\^jj\jj\^ talwar taiydrrakkd* . . Have you got my sword 

ready ? 
^j yb\i <^j^l ^'^^ kurta aur patka hahar rakh Put out my jacket and sash. 
j\j c^];-^ ^ "^^ guluhand ki chaprds taiydr Is the buckle of the stock 
^ S^ Itu'i haiy ready ? 

'^Jjijtr^ ^j^ J^ Ljiy ?9P^ ^^^ /wrra mez-par rakh Put my hat and feather on 

the table, 
^^y^ \^j\^ j^ULj c^^^^a sai sdmdn taiydr kiyd^ hun I have prepared every thing, 

c--*^:>"L> sahib, Sir. 

j^;-^ ^ j^lJj^, ^^\ achchhd hart fajr jo main Well, if I do not get up 
^y* y c?^^ crMf^ nahmuthun to Miubtarah early, you must waken me 

l3l$c9- ^*a -Jo sejagdnd. properly. 

jjlJ Jtyc j^\ ^jx) ^yc mdm-hatti aur mom-ddn ni- Take away the candle and 
L^^^^'^'^^r^V^'^ kdlkar fajr mujht uthdrie candlestick and light (it 

lxL> ji^ cujjj ^ ke wakt'par silgd, again) when you waken 

me in the morning. 
LS^'^^H L^A *-r^^ sdhih paune pdnch ghante Sir, it wants a quarter of 
^^ kJ ^ hWe utho, five, get up. 

^ [afT, jy^ lyj pahld tambur bajd hai . . Has the first drum beaten ? 
^^^^ f^} c-^vs^U* yb ho sdhib ab-lch bajne lagd . Yes, Sir, it has just begun 
ifl to beat. 

^jt3 ^^ \^\ achchhd kapre de , . , Well, give me my clothes. 
j^ b| /♦If^ hajjdm dyd hai .... Is the barber come? 
c^a-U ^j^ ^^^.'^ dtkhtd hun sdhib .... I will see. Sir. 

* The verl), though transitive and in the past tense, agrees with the nominative 
case understood ; the construction not being inverted, as in Hindustani, by the use 
of the particle ^J we. 


458 Dialogue. 

^ ti^ ijy^^ LJ}'* •f'^ ^fl^A mw/i dhone panl la . Bring me water to wash my 

hands and face. 

(^J j^^U? sabun de Give me the soap. 

^j Jtcjj rumal rakh Hold the towel. 

^jd ^^ff^j^ cJ\y*^ miswak aur manjan de . . Give me the tooth-brush and 


^ lJ ^'^'•^ kangul la Bring the comb. 

\^j ^^^ «— ^:^^ J^J rumal jeb-men rakha . . . Have you put my handker- 
chief in my pocket ? 
U^ U^ i^V^*^ dastiyan hahan hain . . Where are my gloves ? 
15^ (j^*^ d^^Lj lSj^ sdre sat ghanton ke wakt Make the horse be got ready, 
^\J> Jji \j^ (j:^^j ghora taujar karakar ka- and send it to the place of 

^£ ^ ,^ ^ joily wa'id kljagah-ko hhej de, exercise at half past seven 

v^J . o'clock. 

ci^voLo u^^U sahih salamat Sir, safety^ (to you). 

j\jj^ i-:^-^^ J jrp^ khair o dfiyat suhadar sahib Good and health,t Mr. Su- 
<3^j \S J\ j..^^o^U dj kya rapdt% hai, badar, what is the report 

^Jb to day? 

c^^^^-Ls ^^^ ^ jjl aur kuchh nahm sahib sab Nothing extraordinary, Sir, 

^J\J ^^^ ^^^^»i bhalt bhald'i,% all is right. 

^ju? ^j^ LsV*^ TT^ ^j kumpani-mlnX kite kdhile How many sick are there 
^jJb ^_jSjbl^ hain, to day in the com- 

ISJijj^f^* tlX> j^U-j jJ do sipahi yak tambur-wdld Two sepoys, one drummer 
]/ji^ ^^-^,jj^ aur yak chhokrd, and one boy. 

^ J> J ^jtS kis dard-se Of what illness ? 

* A respectful mode of address from a Musalman. 

+ A benediction much used as a respectful return to an address. 

X An English word as introduced into military use at Madras. 

§ A phrase, meaning that all is right or going on well. 

Dialogue. 459 

^ L-^ ^i (<^W *-^'^ ^^ sipaKi'kd tap hai dusre- One sepoy has a fever, the 

fc}; J l^ ^^ b j^ »-^J^ ^^ ^^'^ ^^ c?ar(i tambur- other has the rheumatism, 

^JX3 il^*-^^ LS^bjJt^ -waU-ko sitala nikli hai the drummer has got the 

j-^ ^ LjJ^i^ j^ ^ aur chhdkre ka sir dukhta smallpox, and the boy's 

^ l:i^J hai, head aches. 

^\ ^j^ c-^£wltf^^l3 daktar* sahib kuchh unki Has the doctor ordered them 

^j^ t/ ^j^ 1j*^ dawa farma'e hain, any medicine ? 

L5^l/^ ^} t«^^»-U^ Ao sa^zJ opef akar un-ke Yes, Sir, he came himself, 

^^ ci^bjJ ^J^^ marazan daryaft karkar enquired into their com- 

^ Ij J I^J dawa diya hai, plaints, and gave them 


•^x?- ^Jj\ ^j^ ^j^^ dspatri*-men un-ki jagah Is their place in the hospital 

^Jb j«jLe saf hai, clean? 

!JW" J-V J^ c-^>^l^ y^ ^0 5a^iZ> ha?' rozjhardjhurl^ Yes, Sir, they sweep it out 

^^ ^^ LJj^i^ karte hain, every day. 

\S^ hj J^ J^'^^f^ ci^^ kot hawdldar har roz kete How many times each day 

^^^ j^ ^^^\ <U3 J daf^a un-ki khabar line does the kot-hawdlddr go 

^ b'U- jdta hai, to enquire after them ? 

*\*J ^^ iisStjs ^ j^ fajr-ke kawd^id kt bad do After morning's drill, at 

^ AJ^ jt^\ ^ ^ jj pahar ko aur shdm-ke midday, and before even- 

l/^ ^ l/ l5^-^ warse-ke age, ing's parade. 

t^lkw*^ ^^^^>- ^j:>J — T q; A:e^e jane mengdt* chare How many men have mount- 

iiT!^ <^y^ ^ai«, ed the main guard to day? 

j\i}^\^ ti^J\SxA.p^ (JS^\ ek jam ddr do hawdldar fin One jamadar, two hawal- 

]}lj lJ^V '-^^ [ji? nd\ik bdnsU-wdld aur fin dars, three na'iks, the 

' JiL-s ^ ,jl sipdht, fifer and three sepoys. 

^z>j^ ^^ lIj^ ^ lU^ kot kl gdt^ -men kete hain . How many are on the 

^^ barrack guard ? 

^ Borrowed from the English. 

+ A Dakhni form corresponding to the Hindustani C-Jt dp. 

J A reiterative form jjhdrd-j hurt karnd, to sweep out. 

460 Dialogue. 

^ fciV M^r?^ ti^y^j' atdaWan^-mtn ko'i ga^e Have any gone as orderlies? 
^^ hain, 

jb ^-^ j^U^ u5 4^ /co'z kaman-f-men hai . , . Are any on command ? 
^ LvJT^ 15^ lJ^ j9aA:AaZ2 A;e^e ghanton-ko At what o'clock does the 

^Jb IjI (Jb ^a/il Zfl^a 7/ai, pakhali bring water ? 

^ ^\^j^ 'i=>- ij r^ fajr-ke chha aur sJiam-ke At six o'clock in the morn- 
4 \c)y^ f^^ panch ghanton-ko, ing and five in the even- 

jjlijJcjjJLj^jj-^^i-^ kumpam-men keti bandukan How many firelocks are 

^^ hain, there in the company ? 

^Jb jc^l 'fsr^^y LS**'^ assi-par panch achchhi hain There are eighty five good 

<«^!^ ^jcj j^l aur pandrah kharab, ones and fifteen bad. 

jj-b j^ ic^V*' *--^J 7^ ^^^ ^^ sipdhl'ke pas kete How many cartridges has 
^jJt> ^y j^Aj^ fo/e ^am, each sepoy ? 

^b ir^b bar ah bar ah Twelve each. 

^^UL l^ ^^U-s tlX>J j^ '^'^^ ^^ sipahi ka saman Are the accoutrements of 

1^ l::^^*^ J durust hai, each sepoy good ? 

,^ tl^.jj ^ t-j^^^-btf JS) ^0 5a^i6 ^ar eA: ke pas ek Yes, Sir ; each has a fire- 
j^\ jJjJc^ tlX>J ^>«b banduk aur ek sanln ek lock, a bayonet, a pouch, 

<uj dX>l ^;*i«j tlX>l dabba ek martol ek maron a hammer, a worm, a 

'^i} Jvr* *-^J ^^ kantd aur do phatre pricker and two flints, a 

j^\ l5;l^ tliol ijj^yo ek sanln hi do' all ek bayonet belt, a pouch belt, 

^j^ CSi} ijp^ j^ dabbe-ki do'dli ek banduk a sling, a bayonet sheath, 

j^jj iLJii\ jJ1j«^ j<^ ki do'dliek sanin-ki miydn a turband, a red jacket 

J^*3^ lS)\ \\^j ^ ek pagri ek Idl kurta aur and a breastplate. 

•^J^, '^J wV« ^/ 


* Plural ofardali, the duty of an orderly. 
+ Borrowed from the English. 

Dialogue. 461 

^j^ i" ^J<^^ kumpanl-ke kapre sab ach- Are all the clothes of the 
^^ ^^\ chhe hain, company good ? 

f^\j / ^L-j lUoJ -& har ek sipdhi ke pas char Each sepoy has four good 
^jb ^>.\ ^?*59- jls*- jore achchhe hain, suits. 

.%^ j^jj^uJ^j'j Ifs-l achchha nd'lk subaddr-ko Very well, na'ik, call the 

buld'o, subadar. 

^c^ c.-'O-ltf J\^,y^ subadar sahib mert gat-mm How many men, Subadar, 
i^^^ iji>^ jj-^ ^^ ketejawdn hain, are there in my guard ? 

^^ ,j^ ^^^i-? kete pahre hain .... How many sentries are 

Lj^J ^j^ U^ iJ^ kahdn kahdn khare rahtt so Shew me where they stand. 

• lij i'^ »-j mujhe batd'o, 

^ Ss»^ \J ^ K:)^9,.f^ pahrlwdldn-ko kyd hukm hai Tell me the orders which the 

^y L<f^ ^-J *^ fn'UJht bolOf sentries have. 

L5^ '^J^V^ L^ L_^ iJ^aZ'e /re darwdze kete ghan- At what o'clock do they 
^Jb ^^j>-yo^ uy^ ton-ko muchte hain, shut the gates of the 

clioj^jj^li^^tliol 5A; chha ghanton-ko ek dth One at six, one at eight, and 
vJb j^ ^ ^y:^ J)\ ghanton-ko aur bdJfi bdrah the rest at twelve o'clock. 

^ LAT*^ i>V ghanton-ko, 

^ ^y^ ^^ ^^^i, bandukdn kite ghanton-ko At what o'clock did they 
L5^ j^ J^ u5*^ 8uld'e aur phir kete ghan- ground arms, and at what 

^Jb ^\^\ f \jy^ ton-ko uthate hain, o'clock will they take 

them up again ? 
^zS ^^ <uiJ tlX>\ ek daf^a-nien kete sipdhiydn How many soldiers are 
^ji^^<^^iJ^^ ^^^o,ne-kd chhorte hain, allowed at one time to go 

^-Jb to dinner ? 

S^W" / U^^lJ^ U3J ^^^* ^^^^ ghantoflrko jdtt . At what o'clock do the 

rounds go ? 

* Borrowed from the English. 

462 Dialogue. 

L5^ L5*^ ti)^'^ S^J^ (^^s^^ g'^t^^^'^eketegkanton- At what o'clock do they 
^^^:irsn^<3^^^^yb^ 'ko rapot* bhejte hain, send the reports from the 

^J^ other guards ? 

^ ^^yii-^ ,^_^ tj?^ pa^re kete ghanton-ko had- At what o'clock do they 

^ dlsi late hain, relieve the sentries ? 

[J^ f ^T'-^ b^. iara^ ghanton-ko mujhe Send a na'ik to waken me 
C^\ ^^2J\^ ^ ^\^ jagane-ke waste ek nd\ik at twelve o'clock, and 

jUj^^ jl^ ^£ ^l^ hhej de'd aur phir bar ah- again at four. 

^ J^ ^ t?V "^^ char-ko, 

^^r^^^ ijj^ Sr^y ^^P ^^^^t^ sahib jawanan The gun has fired, Sir, shall \ 

^^^ \^ o'^yr /c^am karMy I fall in the men ? 

d^ tji -^ ^ j^L&U-a sipahiyan-ko Jdiabar karo Tell the sepoys that we 
^'^ xS ^J^. ^ f^j ki rdt-ko bdrah-ke do march to night at two 

^ -.S f \jy^ ghanton-ko kuch hai, o'clock. 

JoJu>- {j^^ ^jx^ (^Lm^ sabdn kete kos chalenge . . How many coss shall we 

march to morrow ? 
15^ ^^" \J^ kahdnjdnd hai .... Whither are we to go? 
(j\i) (ii:x»Aj *^ J-JfeJ 1^^^ kist dher-ko rdsta batdne ke Have some village cooley 

•S J^ L^^l? is^ 2i?a5/e taiydr karo, ready to shew the road. 

i^'-^S j^l^ /♦la^ ^V*^ 5a&a?i mukdm kahdn karenge Where shall we halt to mor- 

-^ j^^ ^4^ <— ^J ^^ wa'iA: awr c^^a sipdhi Send a na'ik and six se- 
ij>\fj^ jjUL ^<^^ sdmdn taiydr kardne poys on before to prepare 

4£s:jL^ ^^1^1 aghdri bhejo, things. 

(^^ l/ i^ V. •-r'^^ sdhib yahdn ke log bare sha- The people about here, Sir, 

i\d^\^ ^^jljJii tj^Jj rtr hain hawdlddr ki gdt are very riotous ; you 

libU- Isa^ ^U€ ^ bhejd chdhVe, should send a havaldar's 

^-Jb j*a\^ c-^«o 5a5 ^a:sir Aaiw Are all present ? 

* Borrowed from the English. 

Dialogue. 463 

^^Jjb A^ L--^>'l>tf ^ ho sahib larri^ bandhkar Yes, Sir, they are fallen in, 

^^ {^j4 khafe hain, in line. 

i^j JL*-S)y^ ^-i^ Sj>- hukm suno hoshyar raho Hear the word, attention, to 
fc— i^ ^Vjl J b ctf^'V^ Mhe ya dawtn tarafphir- wheel or turn to the right 

^ l3^ na haiy or left. 

^*\^\ A jJ (jt-io3 7^ (^^^ hukm-par ek-sdn kadam Raise your feet at once upon 

uthd'o, the word. 

^L:>.JL< Ju3 /fljiZf milkar chalo . . . March with close files. 
ir^^ L5^\j <-^'M^ uhde-wdle apne distans\ Officers, keep your distance. 
^j 4^-Jl2^0 rakho, 

•lU /»Ji Lii lambd kadam dalo . . . Step out. 
J^J Aji ^!^^ chhotd kadam dalo . . . Step short. 
ajJj V^y ^-'^ j^'^;:^ khabar-ddr ab tirchhd ka- Attention now, the oblique 
dam J step. 

y^Jj^i^Lo uJ^ LS^iNr«» s?c?Ae J[ara/ sdmne bar ho . Forward, on the right. 

^j <j?J^ khart raho Halt, stand still. 

\jj\j\ ^Ij^J^j bandukan utdrnd .... To order arms. 
J 1^5^ (^^r-** samnan charhd'o .... Fix bayonets. 
LJ ^ ij*^^ U^^^ bandukdn khdnde-par lend . To shoulder arms, 

l3Jjlj ^.^u5 ^^Ujjcj bandukdn kenchi bdndnd . To pile arms. 
1$^ C^V U^^ Li'l?*^^/^ pahre-wdU kahdn kahdn Where shall I post the sen- 

^J^^ khard karun .... tries? 

^ »-/7^.^j-i4jW^J'^ ^^^^ hdzu-par dere ke dge On both flanks, before and 
jfjl j^^-fsa-j j^\ ^ \ aur pichhe aur bandukdn- behind the tents, and near 

CSi\ (J^J^ j^ljjjjcj -kepds ektkpahra khard the arms, one each. 

^J Ij^ ^j CSi\ karo, 

Uyb ^ 1^^^ ^J^ ^j^ warsd kete ghanton-ko hotd At what o'clock is parade ? 
^ hai, 

* >*^ lam, or ^ /am, from the English military term, line. 
+ The English word, here adopted. 

464 Dialogue. 

A ^^^j;^ n^ ^y paunt chha ghanton-ko . . At a quarter before six. 
^Jl^Lj\ t-Jpl? Lj^^rr* sidhe taraf ankhan phird'o, Turn the eyes to the right. 

^ T j^T ^-./♦^j bich-men age a'o , . . . Dress up the centre. 
jj J iht^j^i uf ^ ^-^^-v^ ^^^^ ^'^ J5^2V zarra dabo . Too much ; dress back again 

a Httle. 

yj ^--^ t-Jl laf^-mtn dabo Dress back on the left. 

^;».«»^j ^ I— a! ^-3 santar^ laf^-ke bich-nien Dress up between the centre 
J T j^T age a'o, and the left. 

jlfc LH^A) ^^ i-^j rait^-men mat Mid . . . Do not move on the right. 
U^fT (jrP* 3'^ ^ j^'^^ santar^-ke do tin jawan Dress back two or three 
yJ ^it> larra c?<z5o, files in the centre. 

(j:^^ ^ (j-j 5a5 ^275 W2a^ Enough ; do not move 

jijIjI ^^<^ bandukan utaro .... Order arms. 
J Uj^- ti^^f^-^ saninan charha'o .... Fix bayonets. 

^U ^^Lo salami hath Present 


j!l^ j^li-i«j sanman nikalo , . ... Unfix bayonets. 

-^j'lfiy ^Jju baghll hath Secure arms. 

j'lfcjs-^^ J^^'i^ ]^^ ghorado kal-par charhd'o . Cock (your firelock). 
^Jji «J^ *— ^.^ Uj^^ ghord ek kal-par rakho . . Half cock. 

yf<^ J^ kal khaincho Draw the trigger. 

J 12 j^ ii)b "^^ ^^^^ ran-kd lagd'o . . . Keep your hands flat to the 

jjlib c^^ ^JiJ^ sirdn mat hild'o .... Do not stir your heads. 

J \^\ j^\j^ sirdn uthd'o Raise your heads. 

^J <j?;^ ^^^^**' sidhe khare rahd .... Stand erect. 
^i\c^ ^J^ (jj ^ '^. yaA ga'o/i A;25-A;e aldke men Who does this village belong 
^ ^j^ haiy to ? 

English military terms, adopted in Dakhni. 

Dialogue. 465 

4^ 4? ^-A) ^Jws-j:>- ^ is chau-haddi-men kb'i za- Is there any zemindar in this 

^ jSiSu^j mindarhai. neighbourhood? 

cT^* L^\) LS^ i^V*^ sahan-ke raste-men kuchh Are there any rivers or ri- 
^-Jb Jl3 t^JJ .^ naddi nale Jiain, vulets on to morrow's 

march ? 
Jb Jsi^ ^^[^ jhari jangal hai .... Is there thicket and jungle? 
-Jb e;^"V po,^o,ran hain Are there hills (or moun- 
tains) ? 

^Jb ^^ talawan hain Are there tanks ? 

CS^ ^ ujy^l ^S^ is'ke atraf-ka mulk hanjar Is the country about here 
^J^Lo b jJb ^^£sL ^ai ^a sag-marl hofi hai, waste or cultivated ? 

•^^^^^ u;^^ ii;rr* u^^ is-men dhan hoht pikfe^ They sow much rice here 
l-jjj j^\ ^-Jb (tf^i^ ^^«i^ aur dusrd anaj kam. and other grains less. 

y ^j^ ^^Sj ^ ^J<^ sahan-ke raste-men to hoht There will then be much 
^ ^Jb J^ c:^ chikkar pani hogd, mud and water on tomor- 

row's road. 
t^j (^^ jj l-^n:>U^ ho sdhih do kos-tag dhan Yes, Sir, two coss we have 
j^Ia-^ ^ ^y< ^J^i^ marl ke meddnf-par chal- to march along the banks 

(JJol j\ Sxi lil^ ji nd had-az ek kos tald'o of paddy fields ; after- 

ji^ ^3^ ^ J I'j (j^^ ke katte-par pailur sukd wards, for one coss, on 

jjb i:i^\j l^^ j^Lo rdsta haL the borders of a tank ; 

but beyond that the road 
is dry. 
4^fcX3 j-j ^ ^^^^j^.^^ hlch-men hai so naddi pdydh Is the river, on the way, 
j-Jb <— >l>^ hai. fordable ? 

* LLjpz/cTia, explained in Persian by ^^ ^^^^]j) zird'at shudan, To be 
sown (?). 

-f- From Ju.« med or (XUa,« mend, Bank. 

3 o 

466 Dialogue, 

^/if ^ a\^ ^J ^U*tf sahan ke mukam ke gd'on ke Are there any trees (groves) 

^^\j^\ ij^ (j--b ^J pas kol amra'i hai, near the village where we 

Jb shall halt to morrow ? 

h ^ Jlji^ ^ j^.j li' gcCon-kl kutwal-ko hula Send for the Cutwal of the 

^^^ h/tejo. village. 

i^U3^^^L^U^» ya^flw (or yhan) se faldna How far is such a village 

jJb jjj gd'on keti dur hai, from this? 

y^ tg? ^]yo ^\f^ jaiodndn mol We so sdmdn Have the men paid for the 

^^J <L-mJ l^ jjULj kd paisa di'e, things that they pur- 
chased ? 

^^ Jb ^^ y J.I aur to kuchh hdki nahm , Nothing more, then, remains. 


cjUju (nalcliyit), SHORT STORIES, 

In the Persian and Nagari characters, with translations and gram- 
matical analysis of some parts. 

<> t 

^ *U» Jb ^\ 1/ 15^ ^jf^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^IS) Jb ^jok!^ CSA 

1^*^' L5^ ^/ i.W L^r* cr?V «>* -^, L^y ^ V (^ ^^^^ 

/w Nagari characters. 

"q;^ "31^^ ^T^^ir^ ^ ^ ^Ti: ^ ^ft^ ^t ^^ ^^^ 


Short Stories. 

(X) for ek, one, or pahli, first, nakl, story. 

Eky one, a, 
shaMis, person, 
hadshahj king, 
kcj of, 

ain, eye (the very), 
kaVey castle, palace. 

mujhe, me, to me, 
kazzakon, robbers, 
huzur, presence, 
dlwar, wall. 

jharokke, window, 
musafir, traveller, tra- 
lute, plundered. 

lutj having plundered, jate, going, being, 
liya, took. hain, are. 

mche, under, beneath, I^ai^may a, comm^Luded, Kaha, said, 

lutd, plundered, 
gay a J went, was. 
Us-ne, he, 
kl, of, 

khidmat, service, 
men, in, 

arz, representation; 
kt, made, 
ki, that, 
jahan, world, 
panah, protection, 

tu, thou, kya, what? 
hushyar, careful, turiie, thee-by, thou, 
kyun, why ? yih, this, 
na-raha, not remained, masal, proverb, 
Bola, (he) spoke, wa-Azw, not-indeed, not, 
ghulam, (your) slave, sum, heard, 
ko, to, chira gh , lamp, 
ma lum, known, andhera, dark, dark- 
Ma-Ma, (it) was not, ness. 
hazrat, presence, 
zer, under. 

A person was plundered beneath the very castle of the king. He 
made representation in the service of the king,* (saying) that, world- 
protection If robbers took (and) plundered me under the wall of the 
castle of the (royal) presence. The king commanded,J (saying) that, 
why didst thou not remain careful ? (He) spoke (saying) that, it was 
not known to (your) slave, that travellers are being plundered under 
the window of the (royal) presence. The king said, what? by thee 
(has) not indeed this proverb (been) heard, " under the lamp (is) 

* He represented submissively to the king. + Your Majesty ! 

\ Implying said," when spoken of a sovereign. 

Short Stories, 469 

Grammatical Analysis. 

Eky a noun of number (frequently used as an indefinite article) : 
•pahlij an ordinal of number, feminine, singular, agreeing with nakl^ 
s. f. nominative case singular. 

Ek (as before) : shakhs, s. m. nom. case,^ governing the verb : 
bddshdh, s. m.7 gen. case, governed by ke, a simple postposition^ (or 
particle placed after a noun) governing the preceding word, and in the 
masculine inflected state to agree with the substantive following: 
ain, s. m. here used adjectively^^ to kaVe, s. m. gen. case, sing, 
inflected from kaVa, and governed by A;e, a postposition governing 
the genitive case preceding, and itself in the mas. inflected state (from 
ka) ^ to agree (like the termination of an adjective) with the following 
niche, s. m. sing, inflected from nlchd, "^ abl. case, governed by a 
postpos. understood,^^ or used absolutely as a postposition^^ or 
adverb '}^ lutd, v. a. past participle,^^ mas. sing, (root lut), agreeing 
with shakhs before described : gayd, v. n. past tense indefinite,^^ mas. 
sing, (root ja) governed by shakhs ; lutd gayd, however, may be 
accounted the passive voice,^^ past tense indefinite, mas. sing, from 
the root lut. Us, pronoun of the third person,^^ or the remote demon- 
strative, sing, from wuh, inflected by reason of the attached or sub- 

See 1st Part, Gram. par. 38. Gram. par. 39. 

Gram. par. 3. Declined like c:-?b (jbdt) Gram. par. 9. 

Declined like Is^-ij (rdjd\ Gram. par. 9. Gram. par. 53. 

Declined like rdjd, Gram. par. 9. Gram. par. 6. 

Gram. par. 6. Gram. par. 11. 

Declined like 2SXj {panda) G. par. 9. G. par. 6. 

^^ Declined like \j^ {ghdrd) G. par. 9. ^^ G. par. 57. 

^^ G. par. 34. ^^ G. par. 35. ^^ G. par. 20. 

^^ G. par. 23 and 20. ^^ G. par. 31. ^^ G. par. 15. 

470 Short Stories. 

sequent particle ne : hadshah, s. m. gen. case, governed by ki^ a 
postpos. fem. governing the preceding word and agreeing with the 
noun next subsequent : Miidmat, s. f. abl. case, sing, governed by 
rmn' a simple postposition : arZy s. f. nom. case sing, governing kl,^ 
V. a. past tense indef. sing. fem. (root kar^ : ki, a conjunction of ex- 
planation : jahan, s. forming, with the subsequent panah, a compound 
attributive (used hke the English, " Your Majesty") voc case sing. : 
mvjhe, pron. of the first pers. accus. or dat. case sing, (nom, sing. 
main)^ governed by the following verb : kazzakon, s. m. plur. inflected 
(from kazzak) by reason of the following ne: fiuzur, s. m. gen. case 
sing, governed by ke, a simple postpos. governing the noun which 
precedes and agreeing with the subsequent kaFe, s. m. gen. case sing, 
as before : A:i, postpos. governing the gen. case, and fem. to agree 
with the following diwar, s. f. gen. case sing, governed by kt, postpos. 
mas. inflected to agree with nicJw as before explained : luty v. a. the 
root^^ or the past conjunctive participle : liya, v. a. past part, or 
past indef. tense^^ third pers. mas. sing.^^ (root le), the object of the 
sentence (jnujhe) being in an oblique case. Badshah as before : ne, 
particle following the subject of the sentence before a transitive verb 
in a past tense : farmaya, v. a. past tense indef. third pers. mas. 

^ G. par. 23, note. ^ G. par. 6. 

Nouns ending in Cl^ are frequently feminine : G. par. 2. 
'^ G. par. 6. ^ Declined like C^V (^«0 • G. par. 9. 

^ The feminine of kiya: G. par. 20, a. and par. 23, with the note : 
also par. 72; the verb being made to agree with the object of the sentence. 
^ G. par. 36. ^ G. par. 15. ^ G. note to par. 23. 

^^ G. par. 6. ^^ G. par. 6. ^^ G. par. 18. 

^^ G. par. 22. ^^ G. par. 20, c. ^^ G. par. 23. 

G. par. 23, note. Lut liyd may be considered a compound 


verb: G. par. 28, Intensives. G. par. 23 and 20. 

SJiort Stories. 471 

sing, {root farma), the object being the following sentence:^ ki, conj. 
as before; tu, pron. second pers. nom. case sing, governing the 
verb ; hushyaVy adj. nom. case, agreeing with the person to which tu 
refers : kyurij adv. of method, derived from the interrogative pron. '? 
na-raha, a compound ofna, the simple adverb of negation,"^ and raha, 
V. n. past tense indef." third pers. mas. sing, (root rah), governed by 
tu. Bola, v. n. past tense indef. third pers. mas. sing, governed by 
shakhs understood : ki, conj. as before : _ghulam, s. m.^ dat. case sing., 
governed by ko, a simple postpos. governing the dat. or accus. case: 
malum, an Arabic passive participle, which may here be considered 
as an adj. agreeing with the subject of the sentence or the nom. case 
understood to na-tha, verb, subst. past tense^ mas. sing, having the 
simple adverb of negation^^ prefixed, and governed by the following 
sentence as the subject: ki, conj.: hazrat, s. f. gen. case sing.: ke, 
postpos. mas.^^ governing the foregoing noun in the gen. case, and 
inflected to agree with the compound following : ztr, prepos. : jharokhe, 
s. m. sing, inflected from jharokhd by reason of a postpos. under- 
stood :^^ musajir, s. m.^^ plur. nom. case, governing the following verb : 
lute, past part. mas. plur. (root lut) agreeing with musajir : jate, 
pres. part. mas. plur.^^ (root ja) agreeing with musajir : hain, verb 
subst. pres. tense third pers. plur. (root ho), governed by musajir. 

^ G. par. 23, note. ^ G. par. 15. ^ G. par. 50. 

^ G. par. 35. ^ G. par. 23 and 20. 

^ G. par. 23 and 20. Declined like U.V> (raja), G. par. 9. 

® G. par. 6. ^ G. par. 32. ^^ G. par. 35. 

^^ G. par. 6. ^er jharokhd may be regarded as a 

compound, and inflected by some postpos. understood : G. par. 57. 

^^ Declined like \^\j {raja), G. par. 9. ^^ G. par. 20. 

1^ G. par. 21. ^^ G. par. 32 : and, lute jate hain may be 

considered as the passive voice, see G. par. 31, and the conjugation of 
the passive voice. 

472 Short Stories. 

Badshah as before : nt, particle following the subject of a sentence 
before a transitive verb in a past tense: kaha, v. a. past tense indef.^ 
third pers. sing. mas. (root kah), the object being the following sen- 
tence '? kyoLf pron. interrogative, nom. case, here used absolutely as 
an interjection : tu, pron. of the second pers. nom. case sing, unin- 
flected though followed by ne, a particle following the subject before 
a transitive verb in a past tense : yih, pron. proximate demonstrative,^ 
nom. case sing, agreeing with masal, s. f. nom. case, sing, governing 
the verb : surii, v. a. past part.^ or past tense indef. sing, (root sun), 
governed by masal : ^ chiragh, s. m. gen. case, sing, governed by ke, 
a simple postpos.^^ as before : nlcht, s. m. sing, inflected, or adv. as 
before : andhtra, s. m. nom. case, sing.^ governing the subst. verb, 
liaiy understood. 

jl3 r 

OCX O -"C.O^C 

j^;JU! b j^^CjI ^UaL) J^/«sSr< j^ \ij> l>^ .^"L «^lJjj c^l^^^ ^ (i)^>'^'?r' 

* G. note to par. 23. '^ G. par. 23 and 20. 

G. note to par. 23, and par. 72. G. par. 15. 

^ G. par. 15. ^ G. par. 15. 

^ Declined like ob {hat) : G. par. 9. ^ G. par. 20. 

^ G. par. 23. ^^ G. par. 72. 

^^ Declined like U-lj (ro/a), G. par. 9. ^^ G. par. 6. 
Declined like ^^j^ {ghdrdjy G. par. 9. 

Short Stories. 


In Nagari characters. 

"^T ^^T^ ^'fi ^^ ^ '^T^ ^'n^ <4i^i fr^ 

r ( \) for do, two, or dusri, second, nakl, story. 

Ahmad (proper name), 
sultan, king, sultan, 
flpw7, own, his own, 
fauj, army, 
ko, to, 
wa^, month, 
ha-mah, by month, 
darmdhd, monthly pay, 
<fz?/a, given, 
kartd, makes, 
aur, and, 

apne, own, his own, 
lashkar, army. 
Are, of, 

sardaron, chiefs, offi- 
ko, to, 

donon, the two, both, 
if?«A:^, time, times, 

sdth, with, in (his) 

khildya, given to eat, 

kartd, makes, 

aur, and, 

mahmud (proper name) 

sultan, king, sultan, 

us-ke, of that, 

hiVaks, on the con- 

kartd, does, practises. 

J5JA:, one, 

6?2«, day, 

un, them, 

Twew, in, between, 

lard'i, fight, battle, 

/^M'i, became ; 

ahmad kl, of Ahmad, 
3 p 

fath, victory, 

mahmud kt, of Mah- 

shikast, defeat. 

Logon-ne, people, 

puchhd, asked, in- 

is'kd, of this, 

kyd, what? 

sabab, cause, reason. 

Kisl, some one, 

ne (particle), 

jawdb, answer, 

diyd, gave, given, 

ki, that, 

jis-ki, of whom, 

degh, caldron, pot, 

us'ki, his, of him, 

teghy sword. 

474 Short Stories. 

Ahmad Sultan makes given (makes a practice of giving) to his 
army, month by month, (its) monthly pay ; and, to the officers of his 
army, at both times (of eating in the day), he makes given to eat 
(makes a practice of giving to eat) : and, Mahmud Sultan practises 
the contrary of that. One day, a battle became (took place) between 
them ; the victory became Ahmad's, the defeat Mahmud's. People 
asked, (saying) what is the cause of this? Some one gave answer, 
(saying) that, " of whom is the caldron, of him is the sword." 

Grammatical analysis. 

Do, a noun of number^ : dusri, an ordinal of number,^ fem. sing, 
agreeing with nakl, s. f. nom. case sing. 

Ahmad, n. prop. mas. nom. case, sing. : sultan^ s. m. nom. case 
sing, governing the verb : apni, pron. common or reflective, gen. 
case fem. agreeing with fauj, s. f. dat. case sing, governed by ko^ 
a simple postposition : mah, s. m. followed by ha-mah, a prepos. with 
the foregoing noun repeated in the Persian construction : darmaha, 
s. m. nom. case sing, though the object of the verb : diya, past 
participle^ of the transitive verb (root de), uninflected mas. sing. : 
karta, pres. participle or pres. indef. tense, third pers. mas. sing, 
(root kar), forming with the preceding part, a compound frequentative 
verb: aur, conj.: apne, pron. common or reflective, gen. case 
mas. inflected to agree with lashkar, s. m. gen. case sing, governed 
by ke, a simple postpos. mas. agreeing with sardaron, s. m. dat. case 
plur. governed by ko, a simple postpos. : donon, a numeral, do with 

^ G. par. 38. ^ G. par. 39. 

Declined like \>'\j (raja\ G. par. 9. G. par. 15. 

^ Declined like c:jb (bat), G. par. 9. ^ G. par. 6. 

^ G. par. 8. ^ G. par. 20, c. ^ G. par. 24. 

^^ G. par. 28, Frequentatives. ^^ G. par. 15. 

Short Stories. 475 

the plural affix : wakt, s. m. sing, governed by some postpos. un- 
derstood :" sath, s. m. governed by a postpos. understood, and here 
used as an adverb :^ khilaya, past part.^ mas. uninflected sing, (root 
khila w^hich is a causal of kha) :^ karta, v. a. pres. indef. tense/ 
third pers. mas. sing, (root kar), forming with the preceding part, a 
compound frequentative verb : aur, conj.: mahmud, n. prop. mas. 
nom. case sing. : sultan, s. ra. nom. case sing, governing the verb : 
us-ke, pron. of the third pers. gen. case sing.^ the affixed postpos. ke 
being mas. inflected to agree v^^ith hi-l-aks, an Arabic preposition followed 
by the article with a noun, used here adverbially : karta, v. a. pres. 
indef. tense thirdpers. mas. sing, (root A:ar), governed by mahmud sultan, 
Ek, noun of number : din, s. m. sing, governed by a postpos. un- 
derstood •}^ un, pron. third pers. or remote demonstrative,^^ abl. case 
plur. governed by mm, a simple postpos. governing the abl. case : 
laro'l, s. f. nom. case sing, governing y^M'7, v. n. past indef. tense 
fem. sing, (root ho) : ahmad Q.nd mahmud, n. prop. gen. case, governed 
by kl, a simple postpos. fem. to agree with the subsequent noun : 
fath, s. f. nom. case sing, governing hu^z, v. n. past indef. tense 
fem. sing, (root ho) : shikast, s. f. '^ nom. case sing, governing hu'i 
understood. Logon, s. m. plur. (from log) inflected by reason of 
the following ne,^^ a particle : puchha, v. a. past indef. tense, third 

^ G. par. 10. ^ G. par. 57. ' ^ G. par. 35, 34. 

^ G. par. 20. ^ G. par. 27. ^ G. par. 24, 21. 

^G. par. 28. ^G. par. 15. ^ G. par. 8. 

^^ G. par. 57. ^^ G. par. 15. ^^ G. par. 6. 

Formed from the verb laru-na ; see G. par. 43 : and declined like 
ghorlj G. par. 9. ^^ G. par. 23, and 20, c. ; hu't being the 

fem. of Az?«. ^^ Declined like Cjb {bat), G. par. 9. 

Declined like W^ {raja), G. par. 9. G. par. 72. 

^^ G. par. 23, 20. 

476 Short Stories, 

pers. mas. sing, (root puchJi), preceded by we and governed by the 
subsequent sentence : is-ka, pron. proximate demonstrative/ gen. 
case sing, governed by the affixed ka, simple postpos. mas. un- 
inflected, and agreeing with the following noun : kya, pron. interrog. 
nom. case '? sahdb, s. m. nom. sing, governing the verb substantive, 
haiy^ pres. tense third person sing, understood. Kisi-ney pron. in- 
definite, (nom. ko'i) inflected by reason of the affixed particle ne: 
jawaby s. m. nom. sing, following we, and therefore, though the 
object of the sentence, governing the verb : diyoiy v. a. past inde . 
tense,^ third pers. mas, sing, (root de) i ki, conj. : jis-kty pron. 
relative,^ gen. case sing, with the governing postpos. kz, fern, to agree 
with degk, s. f. governing the verb subst. haiy pres. tense third pers. 
sing, understood : us-kl, pron. third pers. gen. case sing, with the 
affixed postpos. ki, fem. to agree with te gh , s. f. nom. sing, govern- 
ing the verb subst. hai understood, as before explained. 

y ^ 9 9 <^f oo ij 9 9 

9 (^ 9 <'/g Cg 

^ G. par. 15. ^ G. par. 6. ^ G. par. 15. 

^ G. par. 32. ^ G. par. 15. ^ G. par. 23, note, and par. 72. 

'^ G. p»r. 23 and 20. ^ G. par. 15. ^ G. par. 6. 

^^ Declined like C^U (6a0> G. par. 9. " G. par. 15. 

Short Stories, 


In Nagari Characters, 

^T ^^ ^ ^* ^5n^rr ^t fmrarr ^^ w^ ^t^t^tt ''C^ 
iiw ^f^ wV^ fwnr wro; ^ ^ tit ^^rrfr 

r (^) for ^?», three, or tlsrly third, waA:Z, story. 

Z>o, two, 

sipahl, soldier, soldiers, 

apas-men, among them- 

hist, some, a, 

shahr, city, 

/ce, of, ^ 

kuche, lane, street, 

mc^, in, among, 

Mana-jangi, quarrel, 

kar, having made, 

rahe, remained, 

the, were. 

Sk, one, a, 

julaha, weaver, 

yi^, this, 

khahar, news, report, 

5!^w^e, hearing (on), 

hi, very, exactly, 
apwe, his own, 
kargah, work-place, 

se, from, 
uth, rising, 
kar, having made, 
us, that, 
dyd, came, 
aur, and, 

tamasha, sight, sport, 
dekhne, to see, look at, 
Zaga, was applied, 

began : 
kazdkar, by chance, 
talwar, sword, 
jo, which, when, 
dusre ke, of the other, 
sir se, from the head. 

uchtt, slipped, glanced, 
to, then, 

juldhe ke, of the weaver, 
fl, having come, 
lagi, was applied, 

Masai, proverb : 
kargah, work-shop, 
chhdr, having left, 
tamashe, (to) the sight, 

jd'e, may go, (if) goes, 
na, not, un-, in-, 
hakk, right, just, 
chot, blow, hurt, wound, 
khd'e, may suffer, 

(then) gets. 

478 Short Stories. 

Two soldiers had remained making a rout (or quarrelling) in the 
street of some city. A weaver, immediately on hearing this report, 
having risen from his work-shop, came into that street, and began to 
look at the sight. By chance, a sword, which glanced from the head 
of the other (soldier), reached the weaver's (head). Proverb: having 
left the work-shop, the weaver goes (to) the sport, unjustly (without 
deserving it) a blow he suffers (or gets). 

Grammatical analysis, 

Tirif noun of number : tlsri, ordinal of number, fem. agreeing 
with nakl, s. f. nom. sing. 

Doy noun of number: sipdhi, s. m.^ nom. sing, or plur. derived 
from sipah by affixing i, and governing the verb : apas-men, pron. 
common or reflective, abl. case :"^ kisl, pron. indef. (nom. ko'f),^ 
inflected to agree with shahr, s. m. gen. case sing, governed by ke, 
a simple postpos. mas. inflected to agree with kuche, s. m. abl. case 
sing. (nom. kucha) governed by mm, a simple postpos. : kJidna^ 
s. m. nom. case sing. : jang-i derived from jang (battle, fight), 
khana-jang-i being an abstract noun, fonned in the Persian way, by 
adding "f to khdna-jang (house-quarreller), fem. nom. sing. : kar, 
V. a. root or past conjunctive participle : rake, past participle, 
mas. plur. (root rah), agreeing with sipahi : the, verb, subst. past 
tense mas. plur. governed by sipahi : rahe the, moreover, may be 
regarded as the pluperfect or past past tense^'"^ of rah, v. n. JEk, 
noun of number used as an indefinite article ijulaha, s. m. nom. sing. 

^ G. par. 38. ^ G. par. 39. 

^ Declined like U.^^ {raja)j G. par. 9. G. par. 44. 

* G. par. 15 and 6. ^ G. par. 15. 

'^ G. par. 43. ® G. par. 18. ^ G. par. 22. 

^^ G. par. 20. ^^ G. par. 32. ^^ G. par. 23, a. 
Declined like \j^ ighdra), G. par. 9. 

Short Stories. 479 

governing the verb: yih, pron. prox. demonstrative, nom. sing, 
agreeing with khabar, s. f. nom. sing, though the object to sunte, 
pres. part. mas. sing, inflected (root sunj : hi, adv. of peculiarity :^ 
apne, pron. com. or reflective, gen. sing. mas. inflected to agree with 
kargahf s. m. abl. case sing, governed by se, postpos. : uth-kar, past 
conjunctive part, (root uth): us, pron. remote demonstrative sing, 
inflected (from wuk) to agree with kuche-men, s. m. abl. sing. (nom. 
kucha), governed by men, postpos. : aya, v. n. past indef. tense,^ 
third pers. mas. sing, (root a), governed hy julaha : aur, conj.: 
tamasha, s. m. nom. sing, though denoting the object of the sentence: 
dekhne, v. a. infin. mas. (root dtkJi), inflected before laga, v. n. past 
indef.^ (root lag), third pers. mas. sing, forming, with dtkhrw pre- 
ceding, a compound inceptive verb :^ kazakdr, adv. : talwar, s. f. 
nom. sing, governing the verb : jo, pron. relative, nom. case, or 
adv. dusre-ke, ordinal of number or adj. used substantively, gen. 
mas. sing, governed by ke, postpos. : sir-se, s. m. abl. sing, : uchtz, 
V. n. past indef.^^ fem. sing, (root uchat), governed by talwar: to, 
adv. correlative to jo preceding : julahe ke, s. m. gen. sing, some 
postpos. or noun being understood after it: a, v. n. root or past 
conjunct, participle : lagi, v. n. past indef. third pers. fem. sing, 
(root lag) governed by talwar, Masai, s. f. nom. sing, used ab- 
solutely : chhor, v. a. root or past conjunct, participle : tamashe, s. m. 
sing, inflected by reason of some postpos. understood : ja^e, v. n. 
fut. indef. or aorist^^ {root j a), third person sing, governed hj julaha 

^ Declined like ^5^ ijagali)^ C . par. 9. ^ G. par. 21. 

^ G. par. 74. "^ G. par. 35. ^ G. par. 22. 

^G. par. 23. ^ G. par. 19. ^ G. par. 23. 

^ G. par. 28. ^^ G. par. 35. ^^ G. par. 39. 

^^ G. par. 23. ^^ G. par. 18, 22. ^^ G. par. 23. 

^^ G. par. 57. ^^ G. par. 25. 


Short Stories, 

understood : nd, adv. forming, with hakk, s. m. following, a Persian 
compound adjective: chot, s. f. nom. sing, though the object of 
khd'e, V. a. fut. indef. or aorist^ (root khd) third pers. sing, governed 

J^^ ^^ i^^trV u^ JV j}^ jW^ V si ^^^\ ^J^^ i^lij (^^v^ ^ \^ 
In Nagari characters, 

^■^HTTT % ^W^ % ^ f%^ t% ^^^T^ ^T^rf ^^TfT 
% ^PfT ^r^T^ ^T^T^ ^'TT ^^^T^ ^^^ Tl" ^ f?V T^^^T 

^T ^T f^ ^ni? ^rf^ I 

^ (^) for cAar, four, or chauthiy fourth, nakl, story. 

Akbar we, Akbar, 

Btrbalse, from BTrbal, 

puchhd, asked, 

A:i, that, 

lard^i ke, of battle. 

wakt, (at) the time, 
/rya, what ? 
A;aw?, action, use (to), 
dtd hai, coming is. 
Btrhal we, BTrbal, 

arZf representation, 
kiydf made, 
jahduy world, 
pandh, protection, 
az^rt w,presence of mind . 

^ G. par. 48. 

G. par. 25. 

Short Stories, 


Badshah ne, tlie king, 
kaha, said, 
hathyar, arms, 
aur, and, 
zor, strength, 
kyurif why? how? 

ho jdwe, should be- 
to, then, 
kis, what? 

kdm, action, use (to), 
awe, would come. 

nakm, not, 

kahtd, (art thou) say- 

Agar, if, 

khatd, error, fault 

Akbar asked of Birbal, (saying) that, at the time of battle what 
comes (of most) use ? Birbal (humbly) made representation (saying) 
that, world-protection ! (your Majesty !) presence of mind (or cou- 
rage). The king said, why sayest (thou) not, arms and strength ? 
Birbal replied, your Majesty! if presence of mind (or courage) should 
become wanting, then of what use would come (or be) arms and 
strength ? 

Grammatical analysis. 

Char, noun of number : chautht, ordinal of number fem. agreeing 
with nakl, s. f. nom. sing. 

Akbar, n. prop, denoting the agent or subject of the sentence, and 
followed by ne, a particle : birbal, n. prop. abl. case sing, governed 
by se, a postposition : puchhd, v. a. past indef. tense, third pers. 
sing. mas. (root puchh), the following sentence being the object: ki, 
conj.: lard^l, s. f. being an abstract noun derived from the root lar 
(fight) or lard (cause to fight),^ gen. case sing, governed by ke, a 
postpos. mas. inflected to agree with wakt, s. m. sing, governed 
by a postpos. understood : kyd, pron. interrogative, nom. case 
governing the verb: kdm, s. m. sing, governed by some postpos. 
understood :^* dtd hai, v. n. present definite tense, third pers. sing. 


G. par. 38. 
^ G. par. 23, note, and par. 72. . 

G. par. 43. 
7'G. par. 24, b. 

^ G. par. 39. 
^ G. par. 23. 
^ G. par. 57. 

3 Q 

482 Short Stories. 

mas. (root a). Blrhal ne, n. prop, denoting the agent or subject of 
the sentence, and followed by rie, a particle : arZy s. f. nom. sing., 
but here it is used as forming, with the subsequent verb, a nominal 
compound verb {arz karna) : kiya, v. a. past indef.*^ third pers. mas. 
sing, (root kar\ the following sentence being the object : jahan, s. 
forming, with panah, s., a Persian compound in the voc. case: awsaw, 
s. m. nom. sing, answering to the previous interrogation, and govern- 
ing the verb ata Jiai understood. Badshah rie, s. m. sing, denoting 
the agent or subject, with ne, b. particle: kaha, v. a. past indef. 
third pers. mas. sing, (root kah), the following sentence being the 
object : hathyar, s. m. nom. sing. : zor, s. m. nom. sing. : kyuny adv. 
of interrogation, formed from the interrogative pronoun : naJvin, 
emphatic adverb of negation :^ kahta, v. a. pres. indef. tense,^ second 
pers. mas. sing, (root kaJi), agreeing with liirhal understood. Agar, 
conj. conditional: khatd, s. f. nom. sing, forming, with ho or ho-ja, 
a nominal compound verb : ho-jawe, an intensive compound verb 
neuter, future indef. or aorist,^^ third pers. sing, governed by ausan : 
to, adv. consequential to agar or jo :^ kis, pron. interrog. inflected 
from kaun to agree with kdm, s. m. sing, governed by some postpos. 
understood : ^ dive, v. n. fut. indef. or aorist, third pers. sing, (root 
a), governed by hathyar aur zor. 

^ G. par. 23, note, and par. 72. ^ G. par. 28. 

^ G. par. 23, and 20, c. ^ G. par. 23. ^ G. par. 35. 

^ G. par. 35. ^ G. par. 24. ^ G. par. 36 and 79. 

^ G. par. 28. ^® G. par. 25. ^^ G. par. 15. 


G. par. 57. 

Short Stories. 


^^ l/^V l5^ ^rrJ^ L5^ LiV^ L5^ ^ 
/?i Nagari characters, 

d (*v) for pdnch J five, or ^awcAz^??^, fifth, wait/, story. 

Kamtne, low-bred, 
bhate, good, well-bred, 
ddmly man, 
1^05, poverty, 
rfos^I, fi-iendship, 
Aii7, became. 
Daulat-mand, rich, 
Ao^e, (on) becoming, 
hi, very, exactly. 

wq;75, noble, 
zadcy born, 
dnkhen, eyes, 
lagd, was applied, 
churdne, to steal. 
TaJ, then, 

2rMA, he, that (per- 

hokar, having become, 
bold, spoke, said, 
sach, true, 
hai, is, (it) is, 
jaisl, what-like, as, 
bdlu, sand, 
kt, of, 
bhlt, wall. 

khafd, angry, offended. 

With a low-bred and a well-bred man in poverty friendship became 
(took place). (On) becoming rich exactly (immediately), the low- 
bred (man) began to steal (turn away his) eyes from the noble-born 
(man). Then he, having become offended, spoke (saying) this is true, 
" the friendship of the low-bred (the base man) is like a wall of 

484 Short Stories, 

Grammatical Analysis. 

Pdnch, nouQ of number : panchwln, ordinal of numb. fem. 
JEk, noun of number, used as the indefinite article : kamlne, adj. 
mas. sing. abl. case^ (nom. kamlna), agreeing vfith admt understood : 
aur. conj. : bhale, adj. mas. sing. abl. case (nom. hhala)^ agreeing 
with adrni^ s. m. abl. sing., governed by si, postpos. : iflas, s. m. 
abl. sing., governed by men, postpos. : dosti, s. f. nom. sing, (being 
an abstract noun formed from dost, friend, by subjoining i), govern- 
ing hu'if V. n. past indef. tense, third pers. fem. sing, (root ho), 
governed by dostt, Karnina, adj. mas. nom. sing., used substan- 
tively, governing the verb: daulat-mand, adj. (formed from daulat, 
riches, by affixing mand)J nom. sing, mas., agreeing with karnina, or 
the substantive understood : hote, v. n. pres. part.^ mas. sing, (root 
ho), inflected and followed by hi, adv. of peculiarity or identity -? 
najih, adj. used substantively, and compounded with the following 
zadej adj. mas. sing. abl. case, here used substantively, and governed 
by se, postpos. : ankhm, s. f. nom. plur. (from ankh), the object to 
the verb churane : lagd, v. n. past indef. tense (root lag), third 
pers. mas. sing., governed by karnina : churane, v. a. (being a 
derivative from chor, thief),^^ infin. mas. (root chura), forming, 
with the preceding word, the compound inceptive, lagd churane. '^ 
Tab, adv. :^^ wuh, pron. third pers. "^ nom. sing., governing the verb : 
khafdf adj.^^ nom. mas. sing., agreeing with bhald ddmi understood: 

^ G. par. 39. ^ Dechned like 2fJCJ {banda), G. par. 9. 

^ Declined like U-lj (rdjd\ G. par. 9. ^ Declined like i^j^ 

{gh5r}), G. par. 9. ^ G. par. 43. ^ G. par. 23 and 20. 

^ G. par. 48. ^ G. par. 21. ^ G. par. 35 and 74. 

^® Declined Jike CJb {bde\ G. par. 9. ^^ G. par. 23 and 20. 

^^ G. par. 30. ^^ G. par. 28. ^^ G. par. 35. 
^^ G. par. 15. ^^ Not admitting of inflection : see G. par. 4, a. 

Short Stories. 485 

hokary v. n. past conjunctive part, (root ho) : bold, v. n. past 
indef. tense (root bol), third pers. mas. sing, governed by wuh, and 
agreeing with hhald ddmi understood : yih, pron. proximate demon- 
strative, nom. sing, governing the verb : sack, adj. nom. sing, agree- 
ing with yih : hai, verb subst. pres. tense, third pers. sing. : kamine, 
adj. gen. sing. mas. used substantively, and governed by ki, postpos. 
fem. agreeing with dostl, s. f. nom. sing, governing the subst. verb hai 
understood : jais}, adj. fem. sing, derived from the relative pronoun,^ 
and agreeing with bhit : bdlu, s. m. gen. sing, governed by ki, postpos. 
fem., agreeing with bhit, s. f. nom. sing, governing hai understood. 

y wy ^^ i:r!^"V cPt *i^ *1 ^ ^T* ■>'-JJ> ^r'«^ ^ *^'^^ '-^^ 
ui^ U' !!>/ w^ J^ Jjj ^'^ cr* '^^ ^i^ •^^i^ ^ uyii 
(J-y^ ^^. ^^^V ^ W. ^^ J^ ^ J j^'h D^ ^j^ iJiJjf^ 

In Nagari characters. 

^TT^ W Tm ^T^aiT^ ^-^rr wix ^w ^T ^^: 

^ G. par. 22. ^ G. par. 23 and 20. ^ G. par. 15. 

'* G. par. 32. ^ G. par. 14. 

^ Declined like Cj\i {bat), G. par. 9. 


Short Stories. 

1 (^) for chha, six, or chhathij sixth, nakly story. 

sarcLf rotten, musty. 
Phera, turned, 
na-thd, (it) was not. 
Bahut, much, very, 
khiishy pleased, de- 
martaha, rank, degree, 
ziyada, more, greater. 

Wazlrj vizir, minister, 
main, I, 
tm, three, 
haten^ words, 
kahta, saying, 
hun, am, 
^M, thou, 

tlnon, all three, the 

jawdb, answer, 
de,^ give : 
rotl, bread, 
jail, burnt. 

kyun, why? how? 

ghordj horse, 

ardf stopped, become 

restifF, stood still. 
pan, betel leaf. 

kiyd, made. 

Jiu V 

^ L::.JaL- ^. y ^^^ ciJj^ j^l l;yb 1^^ ^ ^, y y ^^ 

c- >> CO '^ ^ coy 

In Nagari characters. 
^ ^^ 

^T ^ ^ -^4^1 ^T % ^RT^ f^T ^sfhTT ^^ ^ ^T 'fT^f^ 

•^G. par. 21. 
G. par. 26 and 18. 

^ G. par. 15. ^ G. par. 9. 

^ G. par. 32. ^ G. par. 10. 

^G. par. 20. ^ G. par. 35. 

^ The adverb of negation, G. par. 35, and the subst. verb, past tense, 
third pers. sing., G. par. 32. 


G . par. 23, and 20, c. 

Short Stories. 487 

^ C^) for sat, seven, or satwln, seventh, nakl, story. 

Din, day. 

aurat, vi^oman. 

saltanat, empire, sove- 

ndshinudn, n. prop.^ 

maut, death (s. f.), 


jahan, world, 

hajat, necessity (s. f.). 

tujhe,^^ to thee, 

sah, all, 

Kyunkar,^ why? how ? 

pahunchti,^ arrives. 

chlz, thing. 

Na-hofi^ (if) exists 

comes ; 

par, on, over. 


tere,^^ of thee, thy, 

mukaddam, prior, ex- 

to'^ then. 

samhne,^^ (in) front, 


kahanf where ? 


Aai,^ is? 

paida, produced, born. 

khard, standing. 

i>iya,^ given, (he) 

hota^ becomest ; 

raJitd^ remain. 



JiO A 

>» • c 

A celebrated king of Persia. 
^ G. par. 23, and 20, c. 

G. par. 32. 
' G. par. 35. 

The simple adverb of negation : G. par. 35. 
^ G. par. 24, and 21. 
The consequential conjunction : G. par. 36 and 79. 

G. par. 35. 

G. par. 15 and 16 

G. par. 24 and 21 


G. par. 15. 


G. par. 34. 

488 Short Stories. 


/?z Nagari characters, 
^ WT^TT ^ '^TfT THT W T^ <tV ^TT^ ^T^TT % ^ 

^ ffr xTfT ^YfTT t ^nrr t%^ ^ ^ ^5¥ #r If ^ ^tV^^tt 

^ ^ «irra "^^ f%^ Tj^ ^THRf ^ ^tV it^ ^t ]|W^ 
^T ^ ^ ^rrf%T ^ ^3ryr ^^ wr ^wr^ ^ t^ i 

'^ (^) for flf^, eight, or aihwmy eighth, nakl, story. 

Kayath, name of a 

^uldm, slave. 

I — .■ 1 

donon, the two, both, 
ghar, house, 
sote,^ sleeping, 

th^y were. 

Laid, the master, 


^ G. par. 10. ^ G. par. 21. 

G, par. 32 ; and sole the may be regarded as the present past or 
imperfect tense^ G. par. 24, a. 
Uninflected, though acted upon by ne : see G. par. 5, and 4, a. 
^ Lit. slave of Rdmdy a term used in calling to a slave. 

Short Stories. 


dekh, see, look, 
to, then, indeed, 
pant, water, 
harasta,^ raining, 
kai, is, 
ya,^ or, 

khul,^ having opened, 
gaya, (it) is gone. 
Us-rie^ he. 
KisJ what ? 
/ara^, manner (in),^ 

jantcLy^ knowing, 
hai^^ art? 
Tain, thou, 
para, fallen, lying 

sotdhai, " art sleeping. 
JBilB, the cat, 
57, come, 


thi, was, 
M5-/i;o, it, to it, 
main -we, I, 

tatold^^ handled, felt, 
tJid, ^ was ; 
hhtgi, wet. 
Chiragh, lamp, 
hujhd^^ extinguish, 

7- 18 • 

ae, give. 
Munh, face, mouth, 
dhdmp-ke, having co- 
so, sleep, 
raho^^ remain ; 

^ G. par. 26, and 18. A mas. noun, though terminating 

in 2 : G. par. 2, «. G. par. 21. 

^ G. par. 32. ^ G. par. 36. 

Root of the verb, compounded with gayd^ past tense of jd: 
G. par. 28 ; also, par. 23, and 20, c. G. par. 15. 

^ G. par. 23, note, and par. 72. ^ G. par. 57. 

Jdntd'hai^ pres. def. tense of ^'tfw, know, third pers. mas. sing. : 
see G. par. 24, b. ^^ G. par. 20. 

^^ Pres. def. tense (root sd\ third pers. mas. sing. ; see G. par. 24, h. 

^^ Past part. fem. sing, (root a) agreeing with btlli, 
^^ A^t thl, pluperfect tense, third pers. fem. sing. ; see G. par. 23, a, 
G. par. 20. G. par. 32; tatold thd^ pluperfect 

tense (root fofoZ), third pers. mas. sing. : see G. par. 23, a, 

^^ A transitive or causal verb, from bujh ; see G. par. 27. 
G. par. 26 : bujhd dcy however, may be considered a compound 
intensive verb ; see G. par. 28. 


G. par. 22. 

G. par. 18. 

G. par. 26 : but so raho may be accounted a compound intensive 
^ verb ; see G. par. 28. 

3 R 


Short Stories. 

andhera, dark, 

jt:^ Hfe, master. Sir, 

aisdj this-Uke, so. 

ho-jd'ega,^ (it) will 

do, two, 

hujjati^ disputations, 


kdm, thing, business. 

sust, lazy. 

Phir, again, 

ham -n't, we. 

djdiir, at last. 

darwdza, door, 

kiyt, done, have 

uthd^ rose, got up. 

hand, fastened, shut. 


para para, continuing, 

kar,^ make, having 

turn, you, 

laid down. 


karo^ do. 

d:etd,^^ giving. 

Bhaiyd, brother, com- 

gharaz, in short. 

rahdy (he) remained. 


J5i ^ 

Fut. tense, third pars. mas. sing, of the comp. intensive root, hd-ja ; 
see G. par. 28, and 25. 


The root, G. par. 18, or the past conjunct, participle, G. par. 22. 
Much used after appellatives, in a benedictive or auspicious sense; 
unless it be from Turkish, or some other language, in the sense of 
G. par. 15 ; the plur. of main, often applied, as in this instance, to 
a single person. 
^ G. par. 23, and 20, c. ^ G. par. 26. ^ G. par. 14. 

Formed from hujjat^ by affixing t ; see G. par. 48. . 

^ G. par. 23, and 20. 


G. par. 21, 

Short Stories. 491 

* o *co cox 

/ti Nagari characters. 
^ '^ 

^R: ^* TTl''^* ^TfT ^fnr ^ TTW ^^ ^T^T ^^T g^T^TfT 
'r^ ^r^ t ^f^ ^^ ^ETff %7T fT^^ ^^^ ^T^ ^T 

^T fR I 

1 (^) for watt, nine, or nauwin, ninth, wait/, story. 

Musulman, a Mahom- 

blmar, sick, ill. 

ghularrif slave, servant, jakar^ having gone. 

/aZawe,such a, a certain, 
hakim, physician, 
^a5, to the side, near. 

dawa, medicine, 
loLj bring. 

Shayad, may be, per- 

A fein. noun^ ending in 

^ G. par. 18, and 26. 

^ G. par. 22. 

a ; G. par. 2, note. 


Short Stories, 

ji^ life : master, Sir, 
U'Waktf this time (at), 
ghar mtn, house in, 
na-hdwerLf may not be. 
Honge, (they) will be. 

j^, go- 
Tab, then, 
agar, if, 

mulakat, meeting, 
hht, even, also, 
howe, should be, 
Ukin, but, yet, 
na-dtn (they) should 

not give. 
Tad, then, 
ruk^a, note, letter, 
hamara, of us. 

le-ja, take, 
alhatta, certainly, 
denge, (they) will give. 
Phir, again, 
jo, which, when, 
unhon ne, they, 
di,^^ gave, 
fd\cda, benefit, 
na-karly^ (it) should 

not make. 
^2," O ! 

kam-hakht,^^ wretch, 
yahin, here, 
haitha, seated, 
tamhiden, preambles, 

handha, bound. 

kartga^^ wilt (thou) 

make ? 
ya, or, 

ja'ega, wilt (thou) go ? 
Sahib, master. Sir, 
farz, obligation, 
kiya, made, done, 
hasil, the gain, result, 
akhir, at last, 
ek-din, (on) one day, 
mama, to die, dying, 
bar hakk, on right, on 

(one's) lot, 
jaisa, what-like, as, 
ab, ^ now, 

mare, (one) should die. 
taisa, that-like, so. 

Much used after appellatives, as noticed under the eighth story. 
G. par. 15. ^ Governed by some postpos. understood: 

see G. par. 67. G. par. 25. The adv. even, also. 

Conjunction ; see G. par. 36. 
The plural in the first person substituted for the singular : G. par. 15> & 65. 

A compound intensive verb ; G. par. 28. 
^ G. par. 15, 16, and 65. ^^ G. par. 23, and 20, c. a. 

^^ G. par. 7. 


G. par. 48. 


A transitive or causal verb, formed from bandhy be bound ; G. par. 27, a. 


Forming, with the preceding past participle, a compound fre- 
quentative verb ; G. par. 28. 
'' G. par. 20, c. And farz kiyd should be regarded as a compound 
nominal verb, G. par. 28, in the sense of "granted," or "admitted.** 


G. par. 14. 

^^ G. par. 35. 

Short Stories, 493 

C .^ C S> 9 C 

^O ^ ^^^ i^ 1^1 ^_^i^ ^^ ^^^ «U Ci^b t£;^ j^y ^ l^' ^\^ Lliijl 

In Nagari characters, 
TT^ ^^\^ % ^^ W^^ ^ ^^fT ^ ^T w^ ^^^ 

ift ^Trf iT ^^ f^ ^r|^ ^^ f% If T^ fw ^* m f% 
^^ wr 'rri^ % ^^^ f%ft ^T ^^TfTT % I 

\ * (\®) for das, ten, or daswm, tenth, waA:Z, story. 

Larke, boy, 

us-ke, that. 

samjha^ understood ? 

nasthat, instruction. 

^*o jo,^ what what, 

Bola,^ (he) spoke. 

A:i,^ made, 



Ja*c?,^ after, 

sab, all. 

^J-^iaA:,^ till now. 

Past participle, or past indef. tense (root kar\ fem. sing, governed 
by the nom. sing. fem. preceding : G. par. 20, a. c, and par. 23, with 

the note. 

"^ G. par. 15, note to page 27. 

G. par. 33. 

G. par. 34. 
^ G. par. 20, and 23 
^ G. par. 34. 


kakan, where? 
jo,^ when, 

sum^ heard, heard- 

Short Stories. 

Kahne laga, began to 

fikr, thought, 
mekh, peg, nail. 

gdrte, driving down, 
mittij earth. 
kaun^ who? 
le-jatd, taking away. 

CO , O O >> G^ 

v^ l:r^lr' ^/^ i:;^^ J^^ cr^ ^ ^ J"^ J^ '^^^^-ti^ fT (^ ^^^ 
i/i Nagari characters. 

^ G. par. 35. 
^ Past indef. tense (root sun)^ fem. sing, governed by bdt^ s. f. pre- 
ceding : see G. par. 23, note, and par. 72. 
A compound inceptive verb : see G. par. 28. 
Pres. participle, mas. plur. governed by some such noun as /og, 
people, understood. G. par. 15. 

' A compound intensive verb, formed by the addition of jdta^ going? 
to the root /c, take ; see G. par. 28. 

Short Stories, 


T^ "q:^ ^ qf^ trN ^TfT ^TfT ^ft^ ^ -q;^ ft^ ^^ 
g^ ^ ^f^: ^TT ^TT^ tT ^t g^ ^T ^pff ^^ft 

^TTH ^RT ^TTfT ^TT ^ ^TT TRT^ I 

1! (W) for igdrah, 

Bare, great, 
ac?7w?, man, 
kho, custom, habit, 
jab, when, 
naukaron, servants, 
par, on, at, over, 
khafd, angry, offended, 
hota, becomes, 
unhen, them, 
Idiuh, good, well, 
marta, strikes, beats. 
Phir, again, then. 

eleven, or igdrawm, eleventh, nakl, story. 

ha^d, after, 

do char, two (or) four, 

gharl (a division of 

time so called), 
har, every, each, 
pdnchpdnch, five, five, 
sat sat, seven, seven, 
rupiye, rupees, 
detd, (he) gives. 
Roz, day, 
unh, those, 
titm, ye, you. 

jo, who, which, 
hamesha, always, 
khdte, eatingjsuffering, 
tumhm, to you, 
aur, other, else, 
kahln, somewhere, 
naukari, service, 
na-hin, not, 
milti, is met with, is 

hoi, having spoken, 
uthd, rose. 

In such indefinite expressions of number, it is usual to say, two 
(or) four>" where the English would say two or three." 
A space of twenty four minutes. 
In a distributive sense; see G. par. 41: so, pdnchpdnch^ each, 

five, &c." 
'*The pronoun aspirated; see G. par. 16. 


Short Stories. 

dudJiely milch, 

ya^ne, that means, that 

bura, bad. 

ga'e, cow, 


na-manly should not 

lat^ kick, kicks. 

dudh-wali, milk-hav- 


hhali, good. 


^h / ^^ ^^ ^ \j^ L^y^ i^\j ^^^ JC^ ^ ^^ U«3 j^^^ ^ 
l^^-y aCj^Joi t^yb C/*?*' t:i--^.y^ »xi^ jy^Jj j0^ y>- (^ IT L-Ji (^ jJi^W- 

^ CO -* o *• ^ 

j^jb j^yb 15^'^^ (^* L:^jt> 1/ l^ j^ 2rli, jb c:JjJ l^ ^^ U? ^\j 1^* 

• . 9 0,0C^ CO rf' 

lt- <-r^^j^ u-\ J} u^j^ J ^y^ -«^y Jye J'^^a^ \^^ M^ 

/ti Nagari characters. 

A feminine noun, which, though used here in a plural sense, does 
not take the plural form, because it is preceded by a numeral : G. par. 61. 

A verb, indef. fut. or aorist, third pers. sing, (root man\ with the 
simple adv. of negation prefixed ; and, the nom. case understood, which 
may be such word as ko^t^ any one. 

Short Stories. 497 

^ ^^Rftr <ft^T ^^^T ^^^ !|^ ^"q: ^^#r ^wt ^tt 

^ ^T ^ ^(T^ T^ ^5T^W ^ ^^T ^^fT TT^ "^^T ^T 

ir (^ \) for bar ah, twelve, or haraliin, twelfth, nakly story 

Andhl (f.), blind, 
gayan, female singer, 
barj lassan, very good 

badshdh, king, empe- 

-4w7r Timur, n. prop. 

^iwc?, India, 

aya, came, 

logon, people, 

yww, thus, 

jo, which, that, when, 

Miub, good, fine, 
hota hai, is becoming, 

kisl, some, 
gawaiyt-ko, singer, 
bula'o, call, send for, 
mainsunml,! may hear. 

khidmat, service, 
an, having come, 
hazir, present, ready. 
Aisa, this-like, so^ 
ga^i, she sang, 

nam, name. 

Daulat, fortune. 

Bhi, even, also. 

Jawab diyd, (she) gave 

tujh, thee, 

langrt, lame, 

razi, satisfied, pleased, 

irCdm, present, favour, 

chdhtd, wishing, in- 

sunkar, having heard, w5-se, from that. 

bahut khiish, much 

chand, what quantity, 
as much. 

The past conjunctive participle (root dj, instead of the regular form, 

a : G. par. 22. 
From the demonstrative pron. yihy this, with the adjunct, sd, like : 

G. par. 14, a. 

G. par. 41. 

3 s 

498 Short Stories. 

Ijy ^ UU ^'l JU ^jo ^j^- lU^l ^^. ^\ i lUl ^yr 
L5^^ L5^ t^^i^"^ l/'^ v^^^ ^'^ L5^ c:r* cT^ ^ U-^ J tir^e" 

» ^ .. .. • ^ *• X ^ " y 

^^ ^ " ' * ' - ^ * 

* o *<, c o 

Jw Nagari characters, 
\\ "^ 

^3?!^ ^T ^T^ ^^ ^rfT f% ttV^t ifr^ i T^ w 1^ ^* 
^t "^^ "^T^ ^T ^T3r ^f ^ ^^r^ g^ ^T^ ^ ^T 

^r^r^ ^ ^m ^ ^i f%^ ^ ^ t^ ^^T ^^^ ftf ^ 

^f^ T^T ^ 'HSIT ^ fTW ^ ^TT f^ ^^TW ^ ^T T^ ^ 
^* (§;% ^T t%^ Wr ^TP^T ^^ ^% ^T^T ^ft ^ ^^ % I 

Short Stories. 


ir* (\\) for teraky thirteen, or terawln, thirteenth, nakl, story. 

Sarrafy money- 

ashrafii/on, ashrafees, 

tora, a bag, 

lij/e, having taken, 
jdtd thdy was going. 

Use, him, it, that, 

dekh-kar, having seen, 

rahmdr, footpad, 
ji, hfe, soul, 

lalchdydy was tanta- 
lized : 

pichhey in the rear, 

lagy being applied, 

chaldy moved, went. 

Thofi, little, 

dury distance, 
jdkdy having gone, 

chdhdy wished, at- 

Unhon -wd, they, 
mushkm hdndh,^^ hav- 
ing tied his arms be- 
lin,^^ took, 
kotwdly magistrate, 
yaharty^^ to the abode, 
Uy having taken (him). 

cAAlrz, having snatched, chaUy moved, went 

Uy he might take, 
md'hain, inteiTal, 
ka*ty some, 
ka^i tky some few, 
a-ga'e,^came suddenly. 

Idhar^^ here, thither, 
gayd thdy wast gone, 
hdly state, condition, 
itniy this-much, so 

Plural of ashrafi^ a large gold coin so called. 

G. par. 22, note, 

Accus. or dat. sing, from wuh : G. par. 15. 

Past indef. tense of the neuter verb, root lalchd, apparently derived 

from Idlachj avarice : G. par. 30. 
Root of a verb, forming, with the next following, a compound 
intensive ; G. par. 28 : or, it may be regarded as an adv.; G. par. 3b 
and 34. G. par. 25, a. 

A compound of two Arabic words, meaning '' that which (is) between " 


A compound intensive verb : G. par. 28. 
G. par. 15 and 16. 
Mushken bdndhndy to fasten the elbows of a man behind him, to pinion. 
Past indef. fem. plur. (root /e), governed by mushken, s. f. nom. plur. 


G . par. 34. 


G. par. 35. 


Fem. of Una; G. par. 50; and agreeing with der^ s. f. 


Short Stories, 

der, delay, space of 

kii/d, done, hast done? 
handha gay a, bound 

Wah-1, that very. 
Makk/ii, a fly, 

bait hi, seated, sat, 
shahd-par, honey-on, 
pankh, (its) wings, 
ga'e, went, continued, 
lipta'e, clinging : 
hath (its) hands, 
male, (it) may rub,rubs, 

sir, head, 

dhune, (it) may beat, 

lalach, avarice, 
buri, bad, 
bala'l (for bala), evil. 

4 u^ <J ^ jH^^"^ -^ 4 ij^ L$^ ^j^ 4 y y^ ^^ \^ 4 

PC y O f /' f^ y- 9 ? C^ 

^,^ ^ ^^ j^\ ^j\^ j-^ y ^ ^ -vi 

In Nagari characters. 

G. par. 20, c. and 23. Passive voice, been bound; G. par. 31. 

Or zouh-t, the demonstrative pron. with the adv. of peculiarity, j, affixed. 

Past part. plur. mas. of the neuter verb, lipta^ cling, stick. 

Fut. indef. or aorist, third pers. sing. 

The e seems here added, for the sake merely of rhyming with Uptake, 

Short Stories. 601 

^^ (3; "'Tft ^t^T % ^% ^^-R f^ f% ^^ ^<t f^ 

;p (\^) for chaudah, fourteen, or chaudawin, fourteenth, nakl, story. 

Sha'ir, poet, 

kisi, some, 

tawangar, rich (man), 

ta^rlff praise, 

A;J, made ; 

kuchh, any (thing), 

na-paya, found (or got) 

Hajo, satire; 

tau, then, 
5^7, also, even. 
JDusre, the second, 

roz, day (on), 
darwdzcy door, 
JaA-e, having gone, 
haithd, sat: 
ai, O! 

na-diyd, gave not, 
aJ, now, 
yahan, here, 
^r-^ii (f.), desire, wish, 
mar, having died, 
jdwe, mayest go, 
marsiya, elogy, 
kahun, may say (or) 

Ji3 U 

' o ^ ^ 

CO O ^ O C G -^ </ 

o ^ -- o <■> ? ^ U 


/ti Nagari characters, 

VK ^^ 

Mar-jdwc, a compound intensive verb ; see G. par. 28. 
Fut. indef. or aorist, first pers. sing. : G. par. 25. 

502 Short Stories. 

^^'^^ TT^T^ ^T iTTf^T^: ^fNV ^?r^ ^^^ ^^ 

^ TJ^ ♦i^^gi ^ ^^ q^ ^KTT f^ ^^^ ^^i|^ ^T^m^ 

^TtT ^§^ ^ 'ni^ ^ ^^fT^ f^^ t W^T^ ^T^TTf ^f%^ 
^ ^v ^T I 

\^ (SK) for pandrah, fifteen, or pandrahwln, fifteenth, nakl, story. 

Md^,^ with, along 

shdhzdde, prince, 
shikar y hunting. 
Hawdy (s. f.) air, 
garm, warm, hot, 
dono, both, the two, 
apne aprie, each his. 

luhdde, outer coat, 
maskhare, buffoon, 
kandhe, shoulder, 
dhary having placed, 
diycy gave. 

Ba^d uske, after that, 
hanskar, having 

farmdyd, commanded, 

upar, over, upon, 

gadhe, ass, 

hojh, load. 

Jahdn-pandh, world- 
protection ! 

halkiy but, moreover. 

Ja3 n 

J^ ^J^\ yj CSA V ^J L5^!5'^ L5^ J^ L5^ C/^"^ '-^.^ 

An Arabic prepositiorij causing the following noun to be inflected. 

^ G. par. 10. 

By the repetition here individuality is denoted : G. par. 83. 

Used respectfully instead of kahd, as applied to a king. 

Addressed to a sovereign, like as " your Majesty " is often applied in 


Short Stories. 503 

In Nagari characters, 

^^ W^, t%^ Wt^ ^ T^ T^^ ^T TC^ Tt^ ^^^ 
^^t^ i ^rWT fir ^W ^ ^tR-^C ^ oHTTT ^ ^^ ^^ ^ 

fir^ ^rwTR ^^^ ^ ^^^^^T ^r^T^ fr^ fif ''it^ (i; ^ 
^m^ T^ ^r|frr % rrr ^r^ (i; ^ssr^t ^?^ ^r^ ^^^ im 

n (\x) for sofoA, sixteen, or solahwin, sixteenth, nakly story. 

Shaldis, person, 
bakhll, miser, 
dostz, friendship, 
Ab, now, 
safar, journey, 
apnt, thy own, thy, 
anguthtj ring, 
mujhe, to me, me. 

sath, (in) company, 

rakhun, may hold, 

5^ac?, memory, 

yad karun, may re- 

Kalam, speech, 

sunkar, having heard, 
rakha chahtUy wish- 
ing to keep, 
ungliy finger, 
khdli, empty, bare, 
dost, friend, 
mangi, asked, 
na-di,^ gave not. 

^ A compound desiderative verb, rakha chahnay to wish kept, or to 
wish to keep : G. par. 28. 
^ G. 20, o. c, and par. 23. 


Short Stories. 

Ji) IV 

*i «i 

Ji^ Ifv lT* i:^^ i:!^ ^5 ^ Jk^ ^ ^ j^^ '^ VJ ^V. J>^ U-^ 
^ J/ s^:-^ ^jU,j ^^1 J ^ f k\y>. \^ ^j\L ^ ^Ijji Ty^ ^f^jJ 

(j^ VJ c;j^ L5^ cT!^ ^ ^ ^"^^^^ <C-jjJ! «-5J^^ 4iki/*lib t/1 iJ^ Lyb 
//i Nagari Characters. 

TJ^ ^^^ ^f%fT ^ ^T^ ^T^^ ^^TW $ WTffT m 
T^ ^^TRTT ^^ ^ ftfTT ^T T^T^ ^T ^T ^^ i J^TT^T 

\ V (\^) for satrah, seventeen, or satrahwiriy seventeen, nakl, story. 

ydd, memory (in), 
ydd aydj came ia me- 

Masjidy mosque, 
tarafy side, towards, 

wastty for the sake. 

namaZy prayer. 
Asnd-ey^ in the midst of, 
rah, road, way. 

* G. par. 34. ^ G. par. 8. 

A compound nominal verb: G. par, 28. 

Short Stories, 


chiraghy lamp, 
bujhakarj having put 

out ; 
walian~ there, 
phira, (he) turned 

darwaze, door, 
«, having come, 
laundi, slave girl, 

pukdrkar, having 

cried out, 
gul kar, extinguish, 
maty not, do not, 
kholj open, 
kij^ because, 
ghisegd^^ (it) will wear. 
At sahibf O master, 


itnlj this much, so 

juttty shoes. 
Aklmand^ wise, 

andeshay thought, care, 
nangCy naked, bare, 
pa! oily feet (on), 
haghaly armpit, 
Idyciy brought, carried. 

^ -^rm ^T ^^ ^^ % t^^T^ f^^T ^TTTT^ T^ ^* 

^^ ^^TT^.^ r|fft % ^TT ^T^ ^ "^^ Wf^ ^^T 

^ G. par. 22. ^ G. par. 35. 

A compound nominal verb : G. par. 28. 

Adverb of prohibition : G. par. 355 and 77. 

G. par. 36. 
G. par. 48. 

^ G. par. 25. 
G. par. 5, a. note. 

^ G. par. 50. 

10 f^ . -.^ 

G. par. 57. 

506 Short Stories, 

Wt^^T ^^^ Ht ^Tf "^T fsT^ f%fT^ ^rff ^TT^ ^ 

^ wtf\ I3 ^^T ^"^ % ^-^ ^ETf f%^ ^ wr^ wif ^<ff 
^X ^ ^i ^ ^ft ^ff wr^ ^T ^^fft % ^§ ^T^ ^T 

W^fTT % f^T f^^ ^^^ f^^ i T^ ^ ^t^ ^^ % fiV 

^^ ^rnrt % ^t ^^t i^tt wt ^ i ^^ ^Wf ^Tf 

o-c: for atharahf eighteen, or atharatvm, eighteenth, nakl, story. 

Manushy man. 
surhir, hero. 
kayar, coward. 
lajjawan, modest. 
nilajja, shameless. 
h/tor, dawn of day. 
randiy woman. 
sonlun, before. 
upasthit, present. 
samhriey before. 
ahe, holla ! 
janoij person. 
hulwaye, ordered to be 

ajnoy (f.) command. 

hakhauj explanation. 

kal, time. 

susral, father-in-law's 

marey stricken, by 

laj, modesty. 
hhanti, manner. 
gala, throat. 
biriyarty time. 
hyah, wedding. 
galiyariy indecent songs 

sung at weddings. 
swamiy lord, husband, 
sasuTy fatheiMn-law. 

kutuniy tribe, family. 
kdriy shame. 
akell, (f.) alone. 
kdlhcy apartment. 
samaiy time. 
andheriy darkness. 
hathiydry arms. 
jdry paramour. 
nidharaky fearless. 
ghahdry dust (?). 
hhuty ghost. 
prety goblin. 
prasanuy pleased, 
pdritoshiky a compli- 
mentary present. 

Short Stories. 507 

^TT ^5RT "^r^ 'v;\^ ^ f%§ 'm^'^ Tj^^ ^f%^ ^^IVt 
T?rff^ ^t^ ^T 1^ ^^ ^^^ri ^ ^WT ^T ^^ 

ffr ^ ^ f%iT iT% ^ T^^ T^ i ^W ^^m f%^T ^Tf%^ 

^ ^T^ ^ ^ ?crR ^ ^ f^rrr ^ ^t^t t^ ^it ^ 
^m ¥J?^ ^ ^ ^* ^r^i ^?T^T T^ ^ g^ ^T^ ^fV ^r^ 

^TffW^T i 3^ ^ T% rTW T^ % ^Tt ^ T^ ^f%^ ^T 

^fV wr f5^ ^fTT T^ ^ TT^ i ^q^ if?t err ^T ^r^ ^ttt 

^irsf ifr^ ^m T^ ^TfT ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^W ^ TT^ fTT ^ 

^fW i ^^?^ % ^T "Q:^ ^ f%^T^T ^T ^^T ^^ ^^PITT 

^T ^T t t^ "^T ^^ ^T "Q;^ ^5R tt^^ t% ^?^ % ^^ 
^T^ ^T WTff % ^ ¥^^5T^ ^Tl" ^¥¥ % ^^^ ^T ^TTtrr ^^ 
^^T^ fT^ ^^ ^ f^^J^rft ^^T ^H" fj^ ^ ^srW ^TfTWfT 
^^ 5^ WT T<J^T ^^"?75f ^"^^ Tt" f% ^^ ^^T ^T ^^ 
^Tft it I 


Short Stories. 

X^ for urns, nineteen, or unlswln, nineteenth, nakl, story. 

Jawa, person. 
gdnw, village, town. 
baniya, trader. 
ganne, sugar-canes, 
tt/c^flr, having plucked 

phaitdiyan, bundles. 
chusne, to suck. 
khet-waU, field-owner. 
thonke, having beaten. 
jugat, contrivance. 
than, having settled. 
ram-ram, words used 

as a salutation. 
ji. Sir ! master ! 
guru, spiritual guide. 

mahajan, banker, trust- 
worthy person. 

gandt, sugar-canes. 

wyaz^, justice, decision. 

chhin liye, took away. 

jutiyakar, having beat 
with a slipper. 

dravya^ property jthing. 

hujhke yhdiVm^ thought. 

ujara, has wasted. 

hyaj, interest. 

dhauliyake, havipg 

hhanti, manner, mode. 

hachaya, saved, pre- 

achraj, wonder. 

andhtr, darkness, in- 
comprehensible thing. 

prahal, predominant. 

brittant^ circum- 


jug phutd aur nard 
marl ga'l, the pair 
(at the game of 
chausar) is sepa- 
rated and the piece 
is stricken (taken. 
A proverb, inculcat- 
ing the Value of 
I unanimity). 

^ vj xj vj • V ♦ 

Short Stories. 


\® for b'lSf twenty, or blswin, twentieth, naklj story. 

Kayathy name of a 

gam, singing (v. noun). 

bajarit, playing on 

sansargy meeting, as- 

gawaiycy singer. 

kabitdy poetry, verse. 

shaiy thing. 

kamily learned (man). 
tab-hly that very time. 
siddh, accomplished 

dhundh d hand hySe?irch. 
gosalUy a devotee so 

isen, to this. (The 

nasal added, like as 

in tumhm). 

dandawaty obeisance. 
vastu or bastu^ thing. 
day a, kindness, favour. 
babciy Sir! 

dtVy a god, a divinity. 
jhalaky refulgence. 
dhupy glare, shine. 
kadir, mighty. 
nadir, wonderful. 
rupy form, figure. 

ishk us^'i kl jhalak haijon suraj kt dhup : 
jahan ishk tahan ap hai kadir nadir rup. 
Love is the refulgence of that very (Being), like as sunshine (is) 
of the sun: wherever (is) love, there is He Himself j the almighty, 
all-wonderful Form ! 

Love ? Tis a ray, from Him it streams, 
Like as the sun darts forth its beams : 
Love ? Where is love, there Him you see ; 
Almighty and all-wondrous He. 

* This MS, like the Arabic hxHa \he\ refers to God> as He who really 
and universally is. 



Cases of Nouns.^ 

Of the house. 

To the boy. 

From the horse. 

From the cat. 

By deceit. 

O friend! 

O boy ! 

At the door. 

On the mouth. 

On the road. 

In the heart. 

In the hand. 

In the road. 

Up to the house. 

With sand. 

With (in company with) the dog. 

Housef-o/J {koLj ke or Id), 
Boy-to {ko or kt tain). 
Horse-from {se). 
Coi-from {si), 
Deceit-5^ (se), 
O (ai) friend ! 
O {at) boy ! 
Door-a^ {par). 
Mouth-on {par). 
Road-OTi (men). 
Heart-i/i (men), 
Hand-iw (men). 
Road-iw (men), 
House-up'to (tak or talak). 
SdAid-with (se). 
Dog-with (ke satk). 

♦ See 1st Part, Gram. par. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 
+ The Substantives, Adjectives, and Verbs, will generally be found 

under the particular heads in the Vocabulary. 

J The Hindiistani words are to be placed according to the order of 

the English, observed on this column. 

Hindustani Composition. 


Near the door. 

Near the village. 

Along with the boys. 

From among the people. 

Over the head. 

Beneath the ground. 

In the midst of the city. 

Towards the sky. 

For God's sake. 

For this reason. 

For the sake of the destitute. 

For the sake of a friend. 

Like (in the manner of) every man. 

Before the horse. 

Behind the house. 

In the presence of the judge. 

In front of the house. 

Within the city. 

According to that. 

With respect to him. 

The boy's father's horse. 

The girl's mother's maid. 

The merchant's brother's daughter. 

On the back of the horse. 

Near the friend's house door. 

Under the wall of the house. 
Betwixt the leaves of the book. 

Idoov-near (Jte pas). 
Village-wear i^ke nazdik). 
'Boys-along with (jze sath). 
People among {men) from. 
Head- o?;er {ke upar), 
Gvoxmdi'heneath {ke niche). 
City-of midst-in {ke hicJi), 
Sky towards {k~i taraf), 
God for the sake of {ke waste). 
This {is) for the reason {waste). 
Destitute for the sake of {kl 

Friend for the sake of {ke We). 
Every {har ek) mo-n-like or -in 

the manner of {ki far ah). 
JloTse-before {ke age). 
House- behind {ke plchhe). 
Judge-iw presence of {ke samhne). 
House in front of {ke age). 
City-within {ke andar or ke hich). 
That {us) -according to {ke 

Him {us) -with respect to {kl 

Boy-of father-of horse. 
Girl-of mother-of maid. 
Merchant-of brother-of daughter. 
Horse-of back-ow {par). 
Friend-of house-of door-near {ke 

House-of wall-under {ke tale). 
Book-of leaves betwixt {ke dar- 



Hindustam Composition, 

Among the houses of the village. Village-of houses-a?wowg(A;e hlcJi), 

Science learning {ilm slkhne) -for 
the sake of. 

For the sake of learning science. 

Towards the door of the mosque. 
Instead of the book. 
Instead of the bread. 
In exchange for gold. 
Thus far (hitherto). 

Mosque-of door-towards. 
'Booik-instead of (ju jagah), 
'BxQdiA-instead of (jke. iwaz), 
Gold-m exchange of (ke badle). 
Hitherto (jyahan-tak). 


Elder brother. 
Younger (little) sister. 
A very rich man. 
Good men. 
So much space. 
All the chamber. 
A little book. 
Such a gentleman* 
Of all the people. 
In great calamity. 
With much happiness. 
By a bad business. 
At midnight. 
A very virtuous lady. 
A very good boy. 
A very wise person. 
To such people. 
A few days ago. 
On last Tuesday. 
The least part. 

with Adjectives/^ 

Elder (jbara) brother. 
Younger (little, chhoti) sister. 
Very (bar a) rich man. 
Good (bhala) men. 
So much (itna) space. 
All {sab) chamber. 
Little {chhotf) book. 
Such a {faldna) gentleman. 
All people {logon) -of. 
Great (barf) calamity-in. 
Much (bahut) happiness-with. 
Bad (jbura) business-by. 
Mid (jidhi) night-a^ (ko). 
Very (bahut) virtuous (nek) lady. 
Very good (bahut achchha) boy. 
Very wise (bara ddna) person. 
Such (aise, plur. mas.) people-to. 
JF'ew (thore) days-from. 
Last (guzre) Tuesday-ow (ko). 
Least (sab-se chhota) part. 

* See 1st Part, Gram. par. 11, 12, 13, 14. 

Hindustani Composition, 


A very low price. 

Very high rooms. 

In the highest rooms. 

The greatest power. 

Of every moment. 

On the right foot of the mare. 

From low rooms. 

In muddy water. 

Several times. 

On the subject of the new book. 

Very large eyes. 
What sort of flowers ? 
Together with a littleish dog. 

Hundreds of thousands of cities. 

In the first chapter. 
The second woman. 
Twenty fourth year. 
In the twentieth year. 
Fairer than the girl. 
The fairest boy. 
In very hot water. 
Along with blackish dogs. 
To a poor man like me. 
Along with both the boys. 

Very (jbahui) low (thon) price. 
Very high rooms. 
Highest {sab se unchi) rooms-in. 
Greatest (sab se bara) power. 
Every (jiar-har) moment-of. 
Mare of right {dahnt) foot on. 
Low (nlcht) rooms-from. 
Muddy (gande) water-in. 
Several (kal) times (bar). 
New '(na't) book on the subject 

of (ki babai). 
Very large (bar! ban) eyes. 
What sort of (jiaise) flowers. 
Littleish (chhote-se) dog-together 

with (ke sath). 
Hundreds of thousands (lakhoir) 

First (pahle) chapter-in. 
Second (dusri) woman. 
Twenty fourth (chaublswm) year. 
Twentieth (blswm) year-in. 
Girl-/rom (se) fair. 
Fairest (sab se gora) boy. 
Very hot (bahut garm) water-in. 
Me-like (mvjh-st) poor-to. 
Both (donb^) boys along with 

(ke sath). 

Nouns and Pronouns.f 
I and my brother. I and (aur) my brother. 

* See Gram. par. 10. 

+ See 1st Part, Gram. par. 15, 16. 
3 u 


Hindustani Composition. 

My dog's name. 

My sister's house. 

I, thou and he together. 

We all three. 

In our books. 

With us both. 

To thy father's servant. 

On your mare's foot. 

They and their three dogs. 

That horse near my mare. 

This maid servant of your mother. 

This boy's mother. 

Near these fragrant flowers. 

To these but not to those. 

He himself and they themselves. 

Those soldiers' turbans. 
Who is that stranger ? 
Whose book is this ? 
Where is your honour's house ? 

Whose clothes are those ? 

What is the name of that village ? 

What is that for ? 

Whatdoyou, Sir, command (say) ? 

What you wish that do. 

Whatever officer or soldier. 

My dog-of name. 

My sister-of house. 

I, thou and he together (ikatthe). 

We all three {tinoii). 

Our (jiamari) books-in. 

Us {ham) hoth-with (he sath). 

Thy father-of servant-to. 

Your mare-of foot-on. 

They and them-of (unh ke) three 

That horse my mare-wear. 

This your mother-of maid servant. 

This (is) boy-of mother. 

These fragrant flowers-near. 

These-to but (par) those-to not 

He himself (ap) and they them- 
selves {dp). 

Those (un) soldiers-of turbans. 

That stranger who {kaun) is {hai). 

This whom-of (kis-kt) book is. 

Your honour (ap) -of house where 
(kahdn) is. 

Those whom-of clothes are (hain). 

That village of name what (kya) 


That what for (kdhe ko) is. 
You Sir (dp) what commanding 

(farmdte) are. 
What (jo) you wish (chdho) that 

(so) do (karo). 
Whatever (jo ko'i) soldier or (yd) 


Hindustani Composition. 


Whoever this may be. 
With whomsoever he met. 
On the back of some one. 

Whoever (^jo ko*i) this may he 

W/wmsoever-with (^jis kisi-se) met 

Some one (jiisi) -of back-on. 

Pronouns, Nouns, Verbs, ^c* 

Beat that dog. 

Open the door. 

Bring the palanquin. 

Give this book to him. 

I am here. 

We are standing. 

Thou art going. 

Ye are coming. 

He is my friend. 

She is my sister. 

They are my father's servants. 

Where are your horses ? 

This is my book. 

That is in our books. 

Are those your horses? 

What is the name of that village ? 

AVho is that person ? 

Whose hat is this ? 

What has been that has been. 

Why do you do so ? 

That dog-to beat (maro). 

Door (darwaza) open {kholo). 

Palanquin bring (jta'd). 

This book him-to give (do), 

I here {yahan) am (jiunj. 

We standing are. 

Thou going (jata) art (jiai). 

Ye coming (ate) are (ho). 

He my friend is. 

She (wuJi) my sister is. 

They my father-of servants are. 

Your (tumhare) horses where are. 

This my book is. 

That our books-in is. 

Those your horses are ? 

That (us) village-of name what is. 

That person who (kauri) is. 

This whose (kis-ki) hat is. 

What (jo) been (hu'a) that (so) 

You why (kahe-ko) so (aisa) doing 

are f 

Besides the paragraphs before referred to, see 1st Part, Gram, 
par, 17 to 33; as well as the Syntax, par, 52 to 83. 


Of what is this the key ? 
Whatever he says is true. 

He is abusing himself. 

The soldier went with his officer 

He beat his brother. 

They (respectfully for he) are 

They were talking amongst them- 

Of what place are they people ? 

I called him. 
But he came not. 
I know nothing. 
But what I have said. 

He minds not my word. 
But abuses me. 

If he go then he will see. 

I indeed was not present. 
What care indeed has he ? 

At the time of beating him. 

Hindustani Composition. 

This lohat-of (kdht-kf) key is ? 
Whatever (jo kuchh) he says that 

(so) true is. 
He self 'to (apne tain) abuse {gait) 

giving is. 
Soldier his own (apne) officer- 

with went {gaya). 
He (us-ne^) his {apne) brother-to 

They {ap) sleeping {sote) are. 

They themselves-amongst (apas- 

men) talking {hat karte) were. 
They where-of {kahdn-ke) people 

I{mai7l-ne) him-to called {buldy a), 
But {Ukin) he not {nahin) came. 
I any thing {kuchh) knowing not. 
Hut {magar) what I {main-ne) 

said have. 
He my word minds {mdnta) not. 
Sut {balki) me-to {mujhe) abuse 

{gdlt) gives. 
If {agar) he go {jdwe) then {to) 

he will see. 
I indeed {to) present not was. 
Him-to {us-ko) indeed {to) what 

care is. 
Him-to heating {mdrnef) -of the 


* See Grammar, par. 23, note, and par. 72. 
+ Infinitive used as a gerund or verbal noun : see Gram. par. 19. 

Hindustani Composition. 


An eatable thins*. 

Never do so. 

Having seen this she vi^ent away. 

They are gone to him. 

That woman had been beaten. 

I have done eating. 

I had wished to teach him. 

They were in the habit of coming 

to me every day. 
I could not find how to get across. 

He wished to come with me. 

I have bought this horse. 

Ten men were killed with him. 

If you had remained here, you 
would have seen him. 

Sating {kkant^) -of thing. 

So (aisa) ever not to do {karnaf). 

This having seen she went away 

(chali ga'iX). 
They him-near gone {ga*e) are. 
That woman beaten (mart) gone 

(ga'i) was. 
I having eaten (kha) have done 

l{main-nt) him-to taught{sikhaya) 

wished {chdha) had {thd^. 
They every day (jiar roz) me- 

near come (ay a) making were.§ 
I across (par) going (jane) not 

find (pa) could (sakd). 
He me-with (mere sdth) to come 

(dne) wished. 
/ (main-ne) this horse-to have 

bought (mol liyd hai^). 
Ten men (jawdn) him-with killed 

If (agar) you here remain (rahte\\\ 

then (to) him-to see (dekhte\\). 

* Infinitive used as a gerund or verbal noun : see Gram. par. 19. 
+ The infinitive used in an imperative or prohibitive sense : see Gram. 

par. 73. 

J- A compound verb : see Gram. par. 28, 10th. 

§ A compound verb : see Gram. par. 28, 4th5 8th, Qth, 1st. 

II The indef. present used in the sense of the past conditional : see 

Gram. par. 24> note. 

518 Hindustani Composition. 

I saw that woman coming. 

In going along, I saw. 

Immediately on hearing this. 
Immediately on hearing so much 

After it became evening. 

I used to converse with him. 

(If) I go, then what? 

Pray be seated. 

Be pleased, Sir, to say. 

What should we wish ? (What is 

You must get away hence. 

It is necessary to obey the orders 
of government. 

I cannot (shall not) go there. 
This is not a thing that can be. 

Your coming here is of no use. 

I that woman-to coming {ate)^ 

saw (dekha). 
In going along {chalte hu^e*) I 


This hearing exactly {sunte*'hif). 
So much {itni) speech hearing 

(sunte) exactly Ki-^), 
Evening become (jiu^e)* after 

I him-with (us-se) converse used 

{bat karta tha), 
(if l) go {ja'un) then {to%) what? 
Sit (you) (baithiyo^). 
You Sir {dp) say {kahiye^). 
What should we wish {chdhiye^). 

We (or they) should wish {chahiye) 

that {ki) you here-from having 

issued (nikai) may go. 
Government {sarkdr) -of order 

performed (ba-jd layd\\) it is 

requisite (chdhiye^j. 
I there not going-of {jdne-kd**). 
This being-of {hone-kd**) thing 

Your here coming {and) any use 

{kuchh kdm) -of not. 

* See Gram. par. 75. + See Gram. par. 35, page 61. 

J Gram. par. 79. § Respectful imperative : see G. par. 26, a. 

II See Gram. par. 28, 8th. f See Gram. par. 26, a. 

** See Gram. par. 73. 


There is no use of your coming 

That gentleman has departed 

What do you, Sir, say (command)? 

I (the devoted servant) have (has) 

a representation (to make). 
Give to each one. 
Divide and place them by fours. 

The three (all three) came toge- 
ther to me. 

That person had taken up the 

Those people bought the books. 

Allow me to go with you. 

Their parents are dead. 

This house is unfurnished. 

He has the toothach. 
This cloth is very coarse. 
This will be the best. 

Is your knife sharp ? 

Composition. 619 

Your here coming {tumhare yahan 

ane) -from any benefit not. 
That gentleman {sahib) here-from 
going (rawana) become (jiu'e),* 
The presence (hazrat) what com- 

manding (^ far mate) are ? 
Devoted servant (^fidwi) -of one 

representation (arz) is. 
One onef -to give. 
Four four-5y {se) having divided 

(bantkar) place. 
The three (^tinon) having met to- 
gether {milkar) me-near came. 
That person-by {us shakhs-ne) 

book taken-up (utha^i) was. 
Those people-by (un logon-ne) 

books bought (mol Un). 
Self-with {apne satJi) us-to to go 

(jane) give. J 
Mother father (ma bap) them-of 

having died (mar) gone§ are. 
This house-of furniture (lawa^ 

zima) not. II 
His tooth-in pain is. 
This cloth very (bara) coarse is. 
This all-from better (bihtar) will 

Your knife sharp is. 

* See Gram. par. 65. 
J Gram. par. 28, 6lh. 

+ See Gram. par. 41. 
§ Gram. par. 28, 2nd. 

II Gram. par. 77- 


Hindustani Composition, 

Does this knife belong to you ? 
Can you speak English ? 

We know all. 

They are dead asleep. 

Are you the owner of this house ? 

Do you know this man ? 
Will you go to the auction ? 
Do you know the cause of this ? 

Take a chair and sit down. 
What chapter shall I read ? 

This is the end of the chapter. 
What is the cost of these things ? 
This is my native country. 
This house is very damp. 
What time of day is it ? 
Tell me the name of this dis- 
There is much delay in this affair. 
Do you know that gentleman ? 

Have the goodness, Sir, to inform 

Take hold of his hand. 

What {kya) this knife yours is. 
You English (angrtzt) speak able 


We every thing (sab kuchh) know- 
ing are. 

They senseless (be-Idkabar) sleep- 
ing are. 

You this house-of owner (malik) 

This man-to you knowing are. 

Auction {nilam) -in you will go. 

You this-of cause (sahah) know- 
ing are. 

Chair take {lo) sit (baitho). 

What (kaun) chapter I shall read 

This chapter-of end is. 

What price is these things-of. 

This my native country (watan) is. 

This house much moist is. 

Now how much (kitna) time is. 

You this distemper-of name say. 

This affair {kam) -in great delay is. 
You that gentleman-to knowing 

You Sir (ap) kindness having done 

information make {kljiye-f). 
Him-of hand having seized take 


* Gram. par. 28, 3rd. 

+ Gram. par. 26, a. 

Hindustani Composition, 521 

What is the height of this wall ? How much (kitnt) height this 

wall-of is. 
He gave a hint to this effect. He (us-nc*) hint made this in- 

Make a hole in the ground here. Here ground-in hole make. 
Do you know what hour it is ? You knowing are what sounded 

{baja) is. 

Whence comes this idea ? 

The sky is overcast. 

Is this the sort you wanted ? 
He wears spectacles. 

This idea where-from produced be- 
Sky (asmari)~on cloudiness be- 
come is. 
You this sort-of wishing are. 
He (they) spectacles applying is 
I (or we) have bought a score of We (^ham-ne*) twenty sheep 

sheep. bought are. 

What did you give for that seal ? You (tum-nt*^ that seal-of what 


Sow this seed in the garden. 

Send a servant. 

Give me a sheet of paper. 

This seed-to garden-in sow (ho'o). 
One servant-to send (bhejo). 
One sheet (taTdita) paper us-to 

Dry grass (ghds) where shall we 

get (pawetige). 
He (us-ne*) self-to self killed 

We timber {shahtir) where shall 

Who brought this intelligence ? Who this intelligence (jdiahar) 

They smoke tobacco. They hukka drinking {pite) are. 

Where can we get straw ? 
He committed suicide. 
Where shall we get timber ? 

* Gram. par. 23, note. 
3 X 

522 Hindustani Composition 

He gave me a tract. 

Please to give me a wafer. 

On hearing the news he was much 

The bill will amount to five hun- 
dred rupees. 

I was amazed at the amount. 

His goods will be appraised and 

He was apprehended and put in 

Do you think what he says is 

true ? 
Yes, I am certain of it. 
I feel very cold. 

It is doubtful whether he will 

come or not. 
Give this book to your elder 

Which of you two is the elder? 

He (us-nt^) us- to little book gave 


Us-to one wafer {wtfar) please 
give {dijiye). 

This intelligence (khabar) having 
heard {sunkarf) much fear (he) 

Account having made (^karkef) 
five hundred {pansau) rupees 
will be. 

Account-of amount {jam^y f.) hav- 
ing seenf us-to wonder became. 

Him-of things price having been 
ascertained {tajwiz hokarf) 
sold (becht) will go. 

He seized \pakra) went,§ and im- 
prisoned became {kaid hu'a). 

What he saying is you true think- 
ing (samajhte) are. 

Yes, we it-to certain knowing are. 

Us-to cold (jara) much applying 

Him-of coming {an'e)\\ not coming- 
in doubt (jshakk) is. 

Own {apn't)^ great brother-to this 
book to give.''*'* 

You both-from great which is. 

* Gram. par. 23, note. + Gram. par. 22. 

% Giam. par. 28, 2nd. § Gram. par. 31. 

II Gram. par. 19. f Gram, page 26 and par. 66. 

** Gram. par. 73. 

Hindustani CompositiorK 523 

They are gone, every one of them. They all-of (sah-ke) all gone are. 
Do you wish for thick paper or You thick paper wishing are or 

thin ? thin. 

Do you accede to what I propose What (jo) we saying are you this- 
or not? to acceptance making are or 

not. ^ 

T was not able to accomplish my I own (apnl*) whhcomplete(bhar- 

wishes. pur) not make could. 

To day's meeting was adjourned To day (aj) meeting stopped 
to Monday next. {mavkuf) is Monday-of day {do 

sliambe ke roz) again (it) will 
I cannot afford to give so much So much (itna) pay we not give 

wages. can.f 

Pray afford me your assistance. Kindness having done {karkar'j^) 

our help make. 
On appearing in court he was Court {adalat)-m standing be- 
much agitated. coming (on) exactly to tremble 

I caught a large fish yesterday. We§ yesterday one great fish 

seized {pakriX 
I saw him last Tuesday. Past Tuesday-on (mangal-ko) I 

{main-ne^) him-to saw. 
This writing is not legible. This written (likha) read not 

goes. II 
How long shall you remain there ? You how many (kitne) days shall 

The price he asks is very low. He very little price asking {mang- 

ta) is. 

* Gram. par. 66. + Gram. par. 28, 3rd. 

• + Gram. par. 22. § G. par. 23, note, and par. 72. 

II Gram. par. 31. 


Hindustani Composition, 

It is immaterial whether you go 

or not. 
Enclose my letter in yours. 

Had it not been for his assistance, 
I should have failed in my pur- 

I should have fallen into the river 
but for him. 

I do not knov^r hovf to express 
this in English. 

I had no suspicion that he had 
done this. 

Sarkar, are all my things ready ? 

Sir, the sarkar has taken money 
for them ; no doubt they will 
be here by two o'clock. 

When the things come, send them 
immediately to Nya Ghaut. 

It is now high water; I cannot 
wait longer. 

The goods you. Sir, have pur- 
chased, are, I think, dear. 

There your going (jana^) not going 

alike is. 
Our letter (your) own letter- in 

place (rakJi) give. 
Him-of assistance if not becomes, 

Mew(^o)our business <2cco/wjyZ*V/«- 

ment {sar-anjam) not finds, f 
If he not seizes,t then I river-in 

fall {girparta),f 
This word Enghsh-in what manner 

{kis tarh^ spoken going is, we 

not know. 
Us-to (jiamen) suspicion {guman) 

not that (jii) he (us-ne) so done 

O sarkar our all things ready are. 
O sir {ai sahib) sarkar rupee 

taken (je-gaya) is ; and things 

two watch two-in certainly {al- 

hatta) here will arrive. 
When things may come (dwen) 

then that very (us-t) moment 

{dam) new quay-in having sent 

to give. 
Wow-exactly (ah-hi) ebb-tide near 

is, we more {aur) patience not 

make able are {kar saktt haiti). 
What goods {asbab) you. Sir {dp- 

ne) purchased me near (niert 

nazdlk) great dear (girdn) are. 

* Gram. par. 19. 

+ See Gram. par. 24) note. 

Hindustani Composition. 625 

House rent is very dear in Cal- Calcutta-in house-of hire great 

cutta. dear is. 

I would have gone there, but was We there going were, hut (Ukin) 

fearful it would be late before this fear-from that {ki) there 

I arrived. arriving-till{jpa1mnchne tak) de- 
lay will he {der hogl) not went. 

I know not if many or few were We not knowing are, that {ki) 

there. there few {thort) were or many. 

* State of Hindustan in the time of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznawi and 
of his house (khanddn). 

A thousand years after the {commencement of the) Christian era {sana 
isawJ)j Mahmud Ghaznawi, having made invasion on Hindustan twelve 
times, brought Multan, Lahaur, Dihli, Mathura, and Canauj into suh- 
jection {takt-men). Afterwards {ha^d us-ke) he demolished (kharab 
My a) the idol-houses of Somnat and Nagarkot and of wheresoever he 
went ; and spoiled the idols. Fifty thousand Hindus were killed in the 
defence of the temple (mandir) of Somnat. At length {akhiru-l-amr), 
when (their) power availed not (has na-chala), then all the Hindijs, 
having agreed together (muttafik hokar), said that we will give {dtte 
hain) eight crores (of) rupees on this condition {ha-tn sharf) that they 
(or you) should not destroy (mismdr na-ktjiye) the image. He not 
assenting {kahul na-karke), commanded that that image should he sawn 
asunder {ara-se chlrljdwe) ; so that from its interior {chunanchi uske 
pet-se) precious jewels, that in worth and value were more than those 
rupees, issued. In the house of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznawi the sove- 
reignty {saltanat) remained {kdHm rahl) during {tak) one hundred 
(and) eighty-five years : afterwards, it hecame annihilated {nest o nd- 
hud ho-gal.) by Sultan Shihabu-d-din Ghauri. 

* Here, the position of the Hindustani words is not always pointed out. 

626 Hindustani Composition, 

State of the Afghan sway (tasallut) in Hindustan after the extinction 
{nest o nd'bud hone ke ba^d) of the Ghaznawi family (ghaznawJ 

In the first place (pahle) Shihabu-d-din Muhammad GhaurT, having 
ravaged (tdkht o tdrdj karke) the Ghaznawi empire, became absolute 
in sway (mutasallit) over Hindustan. Afterwards, during three hun- 
dred (and) forty two years, seiwral (ka't ek) different families exercised 
the sway : among them, Kutbu-d-din, a Turkish slave JTurkl ghulam), 
that by the revolution of fortune had become the adopted son {muta- 
hanna) of Muhammad Ghauri, is of all most celebrated {sab-st mash''- 
hur). He gave great extension {wus'at) to the provinces of the people 
of Islam (ahl-i'isldm he mamdlik) ; to wit {ya^'rit), having become vic- 
torious over the Hindii Rajas, he made Dihli the royal residence 
{pd'e takht). 

Account (baydii) of the Ttmur dynasty (saltanat-i-tlmurt). 

In the year one thousand three hundred and ninety seven of Christ 
Qsawf) TTmiir Shah, having made invasion on Hindustan, arrived in 
DihJi. There, having put to the sword (tah-i-tegh karke) two hundred 
thousand men, he desolated the country \mulk-kd loirdn kar ddla), but 
kept it not in his possession ; yet, a hundred and twenty seven years 
after, his great grandson's grandson, Babar Shah, becoming (jiokar) 
victorious over the princes of DihlT, seized {le li) the empire. 

Akbar his grandson was just and wise. He made Candahar {kand- 
hdr), Cashmir, Gujarat, Sindh, Bengal and Orissa {uresa) comprised 
in one same (ek-hf) empire. After him Jahangir and Shahjahan en- 
joyed the sovereignty {bddshdhat kt), and, Aurangzeb, that is Aalamgir, 
who reduced all the subas of HindQstan under his rule. From his time, 
however (magar), the Moghal power became weak ; and, Bahadur Shah, 
after him, enjoyed the sovereignty, and Jahandar Shah and Farrukh- 
siyar and Rafi'u-d-darjat (rafi'u-d-dnrjdt) and Muhammad Shah, in 

Hindustani Composition. 527 

whose time Nadir Shah, emperor of Persia, having made invasion {yah 
ghar) on the empire of Hindustan, overthrew {tah o bald kar ddla) the 
Moghal dominion. After him, Ahmad Shah and Aalamgir {dlamgir) 
SanI and Shah Aalam {dlani) exercised the sovereignty (hddshdhat kl). 

The cause of Nadir Shah's coming into Hindiistan. 
Among the nobles of Dihli was great discord. He who possessed 
the rank oficaztry in the year 1722 of Christ {isawi) wrote (jikh bhejd) 
to Nadir Shah (saying)* that, now is the opportunity {wakt kabu kd 
hai) ; remove {uthd do) Muhammad Shah from the throne. Accord- 
ingly {chundnchij, he came into Hindustan, and was victorious. He 
slew two hundred thousand people. Having discovered {darydft 
karkt) the design of the nobles, he removed not Muhammad Shah from 
the throne ; but, having taken from him eighteen crores (jkaror) fifty 
lacs {idkh of) rupees, and having seized {kabza karke) on the provinces 
(mamdlilc) of the west side of the Sindh river, in the year of Christ 
1741, he (Nadir Shah) went to his own countiy. He was a great 
tyrant ; so that, in the stopping of some riot at the time of a fair, sud- 
denly a person discharged a ball, which went near him (Nadir Shah) 
and did not hit ; nevertheless, having become enraged, he gave com- 
mand to the soldiers that a general massacre should take place {ho). 
This command he gave at the second watch of the night {do pahar 
rdt kd, twelve o'clock) ; and, by the second watch two ghdris {do pahar 
do baje kt amal tak, forty-eight minutes after twelve) of the next day, 
more than a hundred thousand people were slaughtered. From his 
time, the Moghal sovereignty became void of a reality {be hakikat 
ho ga^i), that is to say {ya^ne) every commander and governor {amir 
umara), becoming {ban) each himself a master, sat, and were {ho ga'e) 
rulers with absolute sway {bi-l-istikldl), 

* See 1st Part Grammar, par. 78. 

528 Hindustani Composition, 

How and when the people of England obtained entrance {dakhl) into 


In the year 1600 of Christ, they first began to come in the way 
Qaur par) of commerce. Before them, the Portuguese and Dutch 
and French were possessing factories (kotht) in Hindustan. After 
some length of time (ba^d chand muddat he), the English, for 
{ke IVe) the protection of their factor and merchandise, by permission 
of the Nauwaby sent for (jbulaya) their soldiers, and prepared a 
fort (kaVa). Afterwards, the Mdjas of Hindustan, having become 
weak from the oppression of the Nauwab Siraju-d-daula, Nabob of 
Murshidabad, gave advice to the English, (saying) that do you expel 
Qdiarij karo) him from his provinces, and we are your assistants : 
so that, in the year 1757 of Christ, the English defeated {shikast di) 
the army of the Nabob, and received from Shah Aalam {dlam) 
the office of the diwdn-ship {diwdnt) ; that, by means of it, (us-ke 
ba-mujib) they brought Benares and the suba of Bihar and Uresa into 
their subjection {taht). In that very time, Asafu-d-daula, the Nabob 
of Oude {awadh) gave up to them {un-ke sipurd kiyd) the city of 
Benares : and, in the year 1793 of Christ, the kingdom of TTpoo 
Sultan in Carnatic (karnatali) came to (their) hand. In short 
igh araz) by some means {kisl surat st) the English people by degrees 
{I'ofta rafta) acquired the entire dominion. 


Some one said to a wise man, that such a person {faldn ddmi nt) 
has reviled you. Having made a little consideration, he said, hear 
(me) friend : who (jisne) reviled me, as it wei^e (goya) he threw an 
arrow in the rear {pichht), that {so) touched me not; but, thou, 
having taken up (ufhdke) the arrow, hast thrust it into me (mujhe 
chubhdya) : well, what advantage is there to thee in that ? 

Hindustani Composition. 529 


There was extreme {nihayat) friendship between a camel and an 
ass. By chance a journey became necessary {dar pesh hu^a) for the 
two. In the midst of the way, a river occurred. The camel entered 
into the water : the water was up to his belly. He began to say, 
O friend, come hither, the water is little. The ass said, it is true, it 
is up-to {tak) thy belly, it seems little to thee ; but, it will be up to 
my back ; / shall be drowned {dubja'ungd). 


A thief went to steal a horse at the abode of some one (kisJ kt 
yahan). By chance he was caught. The owner of the horse {ghdrt- 
wait ne) said to him, if thou wilt teach me to steal a horse, then I 
will set thee at liberty {tujht chhor dun). The thief consented. 
Having gone he loosened the foot-rope { pa-band) of the horse. 
Having given the bridle, he mounted (sawar hu'a) ; and, immediately 
on mounting {charhte hi) said, see, (in) this manner they steal. On 
the very saying this {yih kahtt Ki)y he made the horse run. Riders 
made much pursuit (^plchha) of him, but overtook (paya) not. 

3 Y 


Taken from the " Taleem Namuh," lithographed at Bombay in 1835. 

Letter from one friend to another. ^^ l::-^J ^j^3^ ^ d^--^^*^ CS^} 1==*- 

L^-^ uj ^ ^^^ j^ jj\ ^\xx^\s^ ^ b'lf'^ ^j^ ^ jIt^ vij/y^ 

ctV ti;:*.>^v u^^^' -^^ ^^ L5**' Lrt^=^ J^^ u^ ^^ (^ c^ ^ ^J 
oU c:^ Jj ,^^ ^5^1 ^y^ ^?^ / ^j/ J v^ jj^ ^5* fp ^} 

^^ <)^ U^ Jk-^ ICjil ^SU^jLj ^ (^^^^^^ ^ V. l5^^ U^y^l^ L5**' tJ*^ 

Muhdbhat wa dosti ke gulzar, the rose-bowers of love and friend- 
ship, rifdkat aur dshna'i ke chaman ke hahar, the vernal pride of the 
parterre of sociality and kindness, yar-i jam dost gam-khzpar, the 

The plural is adopted by way of shewing- greater respect. 

Forms of Letters y Sfc. 63 1 

dear, grief-dispersing friend, fulan, sallamahu'r-rahman, such a one, 
whom God preserve ! 

Dost-i iJdilasmand, fulan, the sincere friend, such a one, salam a 
muhahhat ka hadiya, khair-khwahi aur dil-kt chah ka tuhfa age 
rakhke, having placed before (you) the gift of salutation and love, 
the offering of good wishes, and of the desire of his heart, zamir-i 
yaganiyat tasjr par roshan karta hai, is representing to (your) 
unison-impressed mind, ki jis din se, that from what day, yih dost dp 
ke pas se judd koke, this friend having become separated from you, 
Sir, yahdn dyd Jiai, is come here, khudd jdntd hai, God is knowing, 
ki har ghari firdk kd dard uthdtd hai, that every hour he is suffer- 
ing the pain of absence, khudd'e ta'dla apne fazl o karam se aisd 
sabab kare, may God the most high of his goodness and gracious- 
ness make such a cause, ki turn ham jaldi milen, that you and we 
may soon meet, aur kkiishl se ek sdth baithen phiren chalen, and with 
happiness together may sit, walk and ramble. Ab arz yih hai ki in 
dinon men is mukhlis ke farzand ki shddi ki taiydri hai, now the 
petition is this, that in these days is the preparation for the wedding 
of your sincere friend's son, so dp-ki zdt ke ba-ghair kkiish aur 
gawdrd nahin lagtl, (and) that proves not pleasant and agreeable 
without the being (there) of you. Sir, shafakat farmdke, having 
granted the indulgence, do hafton ki fur sat karke, having made the 
leisure of two weeks, zarur tashrif Idke shddi kJ majlison ko raunak- 
bakhsh hond, (it is) a matter of necessity, having done us the honour 
of coming, (for you) to be the ornament of the assemblies of the 
wedding. Agarchi tasdi'^ hai sach, although it is an inconvenience 
indeed ; lekin doston ki Miush'i ke waste kabul karnd Idzim hai, 
yet for the sake of the happiness of friends it is indispensable to 
accede. Aur dp ke farzand ko betd hu'd, and a son (is) become 
(born) to your son, us-ki khabar sunke dil bahut shdd ho rahd hai, 
having heard the news of that, (my) heart has continued much 

532 Appendix, 

delighted. Mubarak howe, may he be fortunate, aur khdlik-i he- 
niyaz us-ki umr ziyada hare, and may the all-independent creator 
increase his life, aur dp-ke zer sdya parwarish pdwe, and may he 
(the child) find nourishment under the shadow of you. Sir ! ajah 
hai ki is khushJ ki khabar is mukhlis ko likh na bktjly it is wonderful 
that (they) did not write and send intelHgence of this happiness to 
this sincere friend. Is-tarah doston ko bhulnd mundsib naliin, to 
forget friends in this manner is not proper ; ummaid ki ab is mukhlis 
ko dil se fardmosh na-jdnke, (his) hope (is) that now not considering 
this sincere (friend) forgotten from the heart, yih khatt pahunchte hi, 
(on) the very arriving (of) this letter, tashrif Idne kd kasd karnd, to 
form the design of doing the honour to come; ki yih mukhlis 
hamesha dp-kd ihsdnmand rality that this sincere friend may remain 
for ever obliged to you, Sir. Ziydda kyd tasdi^, (to say) more what 
irksomeness (to you) : wa-s-saldm, and the salutation ! 

The friend's answer. (^^y>- l^ cl^-j»J 
d ^ \ji UJ\ ^^ J J l^ CJIjT ^\:^\ CjULc jUl^l ^ o^i:'* 

if! / ^^\ ^-oj^ l^ ^^^^j ^ JUjI::) _j c:^>.y ^ <uili2^ ^JJ\ 
-vi J3^ ^ ^=^^. cJ l// r" ^ i^ ^^ J^ 4?^^" '^^ '^^ 

^t/^b j*Oj it:^^^^^ 
Dost-vawdz, the friend-comforter, muftibb-i sddik, faithful attached. 

Forms of Letters, Sfc, 533 

yar-i dildar, ally possessing (my) heart, raftk muwajik, fellow 
traveller (in all things) accordant, fuldrif such a one ; sallamahu-l' 
lah ta'ala, whom may God, the most high, preserve ! 

MuMiUs fulan, the sincere (friend) such a one, ishtiyaJcA mulakat 
ikhlas-aydt kd dil men itnd hhard haiy the desire of a meeting with 
the model of sincerity has so filled (his) heart, ki zabdn kd tdkat 
nahin, that ability is not to the tongue, ki haydn kare, that (it) 
should explain (it), aur kalam ko kudrat nahin ki likhe, and power 
is not to the pen that it should write (it), khair saldm, well, saluta- 
tion (?). Sunnatu-l-isldm ke mardtih add karke apnl haklkat zdhir 
kartd hai, having performed the ceremonies of the law of Islam, he 
sets forth his narration, ki tumhdrd khatt khtishi aur khiirrami 
ke wakt wdrid hoke, that your letter having arrived at a time of joy 
and happiness, dil ojdn par hahut si tdzagi layd, brought much 
refreshing to (his) heart and soul, aur us-ke mutdla*a se, and from 
the perusal of it, farhat o shddindni ki roshnd'i kd surma ankhon ko 
lagd, the collyrium of the brightness of joy and gladness was applied 
to (his) eyes, aur farzand-i arjamand ki shddi kt khabar murium 
karke, and having learned the intelligence of the marriage of the 
worthy son, dp-kl marzi mujib, by reason of your pleasure, Sir, 
mukhlis ne shddi ke tajammul k'l majlison men sar-afrdz hone-kd 
irdda kiyd hai, the sincere (friend) has formed the intention of 
becoming honoured in the assemblies for completing the marriage. 
Inshd'a-l-ldh ta'dld, if God the most high wills, jitni jaldi ho sake 
so karke dn pahunchtd hai, as much haste as he can, that having 
made, he is (about) arriving. Aur yih mukhlis dpki ydd dil se 
fardmosh nahin kartd, and this sincere (friend) makes not the 
remembrance of you, Sir, forgotten from (his) heart, ga'e athwdre 
men farzand paidd hone ki tahniyat kd TdiaU rawdna kiyd hai, in the 
week passed he sent a letter of the joyful event of a son being bom, 
so albatta pahunchd hogd yd dj kal tum-ko pahunchegd, that must 

534 Appendix. 

certainly have arrived or will in a day or two arrive to you, wa-s-saldm 
hi'l-ikram, and the salutation with honour ! 

Method of writing notes. S^t^/ ^c^ l5^ t:;^^f" 

c-i>yLJ Jti\i L->T ^^f^ \^ ^^^'^ c;rr* «^i^'<^^ ,<^T irjcj ^ aXI^a Jf 

i^ C^-^ ^j^ J^ / J^ J "^jr" ^ jV cr^^' ^'^ J3^ \J^ J^ 
2rjljj IxJyb -itfU" ^j^ l::-.v<J^ S-^/^ «^ y i<^ ^ l*^ 4/^ *^ c:^-^ 

Hazrat, the presence, murahhl, patron, 5a^^&, lord, master, 
salamatf safety, health! 
Kal sham ko handa ap-kl khidmat men pahuncha thd, yesterday in 
the evening (your) servant had arrived to wait on you. Sir, lekin dp 
hdhar tashrif le-ga'e the, but you were gone out ; aur dj tin char 
khatt surat o bangdte ko likhne the, and to day there were three or 
four letters to write to Surat and Bengal ; 2*5 liye fursat na hu'l, for 
this reason leisure was not : khudd kartd hai, (if) God is doing (if 
God grants), to ba^d m agh rah khidmat men hdzir hungd, then after 
sun-set I will be present in (your) service. Ziydda kyd arz, more 
why the representation ? (what need to represent more ?). 

Bhdl. sahib, Mr. (my) brother, bahut mihrbdn, extremely kind, 
saldmat, safety or health ! 

Niydz-mand ne gulistdn ki kitdb dp-ke farmdne se shaikh ddam ko 
di thi, (this) indigent (person) at your commanding had given the 
book of the gulistan to Shaikh Adam, so chha mahtne hue ab tak 

Forms of Letters, Sfc, 635 

unhon ne plckhe nahin bhejl, that (book) six months past till now they 
(he) has not sent back, mihrbdnl karke un-ko tdkld dend ki jaldi 
rawdna karen, having done (me) the favour (it is necessary) to give 
injunction to them (him) that they forward it immediately. Wa-s-saldm 
bi-l-ikrdm, and the salutation with honour ! 

C^ ^-r^J J3^ cT^ ^J Ja5 ^ji J:^ ^\:S ^j\^ jjb ;^J^ 
J^h^J^. U-jJj !f^ ^-^ J^ C-^ 4^^^" ^^ *^^ ^ ci'T J J^ 

Barddar-i azizu-l-kadr saldmat, brother honourable in rank, safety ! 

ShaiMi dd'ud tumhdri kitdh-i gulistdn par se nakl kartt hain, 
Shaikh Da'ud is making a copy from your book of the gulistan, aur 
karih tamdm hone ke d^i hai, and it has come near to being finished ; 
inshd^a-l-ldh ta^dld, if God the most high wills, is hafte men tum-ko 
wdpas bhejmgej in this week they will send (it) back to you : was- 
saldnif and the salutation ! 

Dost'i karam-bakhsh saldmat, liberality-imparting friend, health ! 

Kal arabistdn se jahdz d'e, yesterday ships came from Arabia, un 
menjudde ke hdkim ne makke sharif kd kuchh hadiya marsul kiyd, 
in them the governor of Judda had sent some present of the honoured 
Mecca, so tabarruk jdnke its men se dp ke wdste bhejd hat, having 
thought that a blessing (l) have sent some of it for you. Sir, ziydda 
wa-s-saldm, more (what need ?) and the salutation ! 

536 Appendix- 

y i:;^/ lAj^J^ l^V ^^ ^'^ ^^ L^ -iA" l/ J^-^^i^^ c;^ ^^ 

Mihrhan-i karam-bakhsh salamat, liberality-imparting friend, health ! 

Yih ^arlb shakhs nasir khan ki ram das ke yahm naukar haiy 
this poor person, Nasir Khan, who is a servant at the residence of 
Ram Das, us-ko panch rupa'e mahineke milte hain, he gets five rupees 
a month ; so lyal-darl ke sabah bas nahin hote, they are not enough 
for the purpose of house-keeping ; ab wahan hawaldar kt jagah hai, 
now there is the place of hawaldar, us-ka mahina sat rupa'e, its 
month (pay) seven rupees, agar sif (Irish karen to wuh jagah is-ko 
milegi, if they will make recommendation then that place will come to 
this (person), aur apne bal bachchon samet dp ke hakk men du'd 
kartd rahegd, and along with his children he will (ever) continue 
making prayer on behalf of you, Sir, tis par yih mukhlis bht dp-kd 
ihsdnmand hogd, moreover this sincere (friend) also will be grateful 
to you. Wa-s-saldm, and the salutation ! 



Borrowed from the Arabic, and generally applied to the Hindustani 
by the Munshls or Muhammadan native teachers in India. 

Words admit of three principal divisions : namely, 

>mj! ism, Noun, jj^fi^l, Verb, ^j^ ^«^/> Particle. 
The Noun may be of various kinds: namely, 

jjdU- j^\ ism-i-khass. Noun proper; as, c- L:^^ yusuf, i:£i^ 


aU amjI wm-i-aw2,Noun common ; as, \j^ gJidray ljiVS kitdb, 

i^^si*£> f^\ is?w-i-5z/*af, Noun adjective ; as, 1^1 ackchha, 1^ bura. 

j^^ j^\ ism-i-zamlr, Pronoun personal ; as, ^^ main, y tu, 

Xj wuh, 
aj^it] Jt*J\ ism-i-ishdra, Pronoun demonstrative ; as, ^ yih, 
:sj wuh ; the first of which is called *^>li»l ***j1 
tl^ Jj ism-i-ishdra-i-nazdik ; and, the latter, 
Juxj *iij\l»\ tfJ\ ism-i-ishdra-i-ba^id. 
/Xf^sc^\ jt>J z^w-i-zV^zy/iflTW, Pronoun interrogative; 2ls, ^ji^ kaun, 

L^ kyd. 
fjy^yo w\ ism-i-mausul, Pronoun relative, as,^&- Jo, ^^jaun. 
i}y^yo c-->l^ A-al ism-i-jawdbi-mausul, Pronoun correlative ; as, ^ so, 
^^iji taun. 
mJ\ ism-i-zamir-i-mushtarik, Pronoun reflective ; as, 
L^\ dp. 
ffj^ ^ ism-i-mubham, Pronoun indefinite ; as, c5 ^ ko'J, 

^^S kisi, -fp kuchh, 
Jxls wl ism-i'fd'il, Name of the Agent; as,^lj ^J^ likhne 
wdld, ^J^S karnt'hdrd, 

538 Appendix. 

Jyu^ mJ{ ism-i-maf'ul, Participle Past ; as, \jU mard, or 

\^ tjU mara hu'd, 
<)l!U- mJ\ ism-i-hdliyay Participle Present ; as, l5^lc mdrtd, 
or \^ iJjU marta hu^d. 
jjtoj «— J;^ (»-^l ism-i-zarf-i'Zamdny Adverb of Time ; as, i~j\ ahf 

i^^ kab. 
jjlC< «— 'ri^ (^^\ ism-i'Zarf4-makdn, Adverb of Place ; as, ^^l^^ 
yahdn,jteii\ udhar, 
jjui t^\ ism-i-adad, Noun of Number ; as, lL^\ ek, ji) do, 
y^ sau. 
For Gender, a Noun common. Noun Adjective, Participle or Verb 
may be — 

^ j^ muzakkar, Masculine ; as ^ held, y^ J dulhd ; or, 
(J^^A) mu^ annas, Feminine; as, ,^^!Lj hetl, ^^d dulhan. 
For Number, Nouns of various descriptions, as well as Verbs, may be 
Jo-1^ wdhid, Singular ; as, li^ uioj ek kuttd, ^Jj^ lLS^\ ek ghofi ; or, 
^^^ jarrf'. Plural ; as, ^ jJ do kutte, J^,^^ w::-^^^ bahut 
A Noun common, moreover, may be ^^;-*^ mu^aiyan. Definite, or 
t^trr*^ -<i ghair mu'aiyan, Indefinite ; the first being often distinguished 
by the use of some demonstrative pronoun, and the latter by that of 
the indefinite pronoun : yet, this circumstance can frequently be ascer- 
tained from the context only. And, such Nouns masculine as admit 
of change of termination in the singular may be termed (_J,*a:^ mun- 
sarif, Inflected ; so, ^i c5j^ ghort ko, from \j^ ghord. 
As to Case (j^U- State), a Noun may be in the — 
Jucli eJ^ hdlat-i-fdilt. Nominative case ; as l^j) larkd, crjb bat. 
Jyw^ e:JU- hdlat'i-mafuU, Accusative case ; as, ^ ^^ji larkon ko. 
^j>- <^l^ hdlat-i-jarrt, Dative or Ablative case ; as, jf *^ mard 
ko, ^ ^\j piydU se. 
iUl 4^U- hdlat-i-izdfaty Genitive case ; as, U ^^ ^j^ larke ki md. 

Grammatical Terms. 539 

!jJ ^^\s>- halat'i-nidd, Vocative case ; as, ^5 l^ ,j;\ ai bhd't, 4jJj\ 
An Adjective in the Comparative degree is termed — 

J--aw ^\ ism-i'tafzil ; as, \=f^\ ^jl>J ziyada unchd : and, 
ii!L< A-»l ism-i-muhalagha, in the Superlative degree ; as, l^^v-# 
Ijj ^ sab se bard. 
A Pronoun personal, admitting variation for number and case, 
may be — 

First personal, Aiz^j^^ zarnir-i-mutakallim ; as, ^^ main, *Jb ham* 
Second personal, t^-^lsr*^/*-^ zamir4-mukhatab ; as,y tu, J tum. 
Third personal, c«-^jU^^-^i-^ zamtr4-ghd'lb ; as, ^ ?t7M^, ^^j z(?6. 
The Verb may be — 

^ji Jx5 f^l-i'ldzimiy Verb Intransitive ; completing in itself the 
action intended, without reference to any other object j as, 
\j\ ^j^ mai7i dyd, IJ^J ^ wuh daurd. 
i^djc^ JjM fi^l-i-muta'addl, Verb Transitive, requiring something addi- 
tional to which the action passes ; as, ^ bjU ^,j^4 ^ 
larkd ghore-ko mdrtd hai, VJjj*^ !I^S^ c^ wiam we g^om 
daurdydf Ix)^ i^J^^^asT <UJJu ^, ^^^ <i;^ l^ ^^j^\ us-ne kahd 
ki main yih mukaddama tajwiz karungd, He said (l will) 
he would consider the subject. 
K^^jX^Jxi fi*l-i-ma^ruf, Verb Active ; as, ,^^ ^:i^ ^J^ main likhtd 

J^ys^ J« fi^l-i-mafhulfY erh Passive ; as, ^ lJj^ ^^ ^^ ^ndre ga*e, 
^\sJji\j t/A*:^ Jj6 fi^U-muta'addJ bi-l-wdsita, Causal Verb ; as, bl^ 

likhdnd, ^\^d dilwdnd, 
^^j>c Jxi Ji^l'i-murakkab, Compound Verb ; as, b J Jb ddl dend, 

liLj ^ likh saknd, \jj C^b bdt karnd, 
^^U^ J*i fi^U-mu'awin, Auxihary Verb ; as, l3^.J!> hond. 
A Verb, too, may be — 

Ll^^^ musbit, Affirmative ; as, U^ Zi/:Awa ; or, 
^Ji:^ munfty Negative ; as, U^ ^ na likhnd. 

540 * Appendix, 

The Form of a Verb is termed <U-*tf si gh a. 

The Infinitive of a Verb,^Jux« masdar or^Jwa^ ^Ju»a sjgha-i-masdar. 
The Tense, j^Uj zaman, of a Verb may be — 
Past Indefinite, ^jlko j^U wazi mutlak ; as in l^^ \2>- (J, ^^-^ maiw 

Wd khatt bhejd. 
Past Proximate, t_^:>y ^^ ^^f ' itanJ ; as in^^^^ ki- ^^^ tj -J 

^ j^ <Mm we flpwe khatt par muhr ki hai. 
Past Remote or Pluperfect, Ju*j ,<-^tc twasI Ja'fc? ; as in ^^\ ^^ f*^ 

^j^ j^^2-j^ ham TdiaU zamln par haithe the. 
Past Continuative or Imperfect, ^^^^^Cw-sl ^c-^l* ?wa^7 istimrari ; as in 

^^f> j^i^lj* Xkfe i^^wj t^j t£?e 5a& ham-ko takte the. 
Past Conditional, ^J^ ^U TWfl;^? shartiya, or] ^ - ^ 

Fast Optative, ;^5^»'*s^ (^^ ^«?^ mutamanni J *-/••> ^ 

bj J c-^l;^ jC-il agar itm^ ata to main us-ko kitab deta. 
Past Dubious or Past Future, ^Jwi;^ l<^^ mazl mutashakkt ; as in 

l^ ^-^^ y^l ^ ^-^i^ ia^ <J Mr^< wiam we M«?j; ^/i^*« so us-ko 

pahuncha hoga. 
Past Conjunctive, (J^la*^ i<^^ »2a:22 ma^tufi or <l3^1ax« (^^ wa^I 

ma^tufa or JuLc uJ^la*^ l<^^ '^^^^ ma^tuf alaihi ; as in jCil 

_j^^fsr* jXjJ c->l^ ICol ^;$lf>-^ ci^b ^uS'ko yih batpuchhkar 

us-kajawab leke mujhe kaho. 
Present Indefinite, jik^ JU- hal-i-mutlak ; as in^lsj- ^jwejdnte: 

frequently, however, this form of the verb, with a conditional con- 

j unction or adverb of wishing expressed or understood in the same 

sentence, is termed Past Conditional or Past Optative, as before 

Present Definite or Present Present, tlXi> h JW ^U; zamdn-i-hdl 

bild shakk ; as in ^^ liJbj jj^> ^j^ main yahdn rahtd hurt. 
Present Dubious or Present Future, j^^^^-ls^ JU- j^U) zamdn-i-hdl 

mutashakki ; as in ^iyb ^\ a^ wuh dti hogi. 
Future, J-.*;.--^ ,jUj zamdn-i-mustakbil ; as in ^\^,\ lJ^ ^^ 


Grammatical Terms, 541 

In the Subjunctive or Aorist form, a verb is termed c.jLi< (J^ fi^l- 
i-muzari^ (so named, because sometimes imparting a future and some- 
times a present sense) ; as in jjjlf- ^^ y 4>;^ ^J ^^^ ^^^ ^^ main 
ja'un (if he shall come then I shall go), or LsSy^ 15^^ ^'^ khudd 
chd/ie so kare (what God wills, that He does). 

The Imperative is called ^1 amr^ or^\ ^Ju^ s lgh a-i-amr ; as in 
Jy holf jJ^ hold: the Respectful Imperative may be termed ~<1 
^yi-iaxj' amr-i-ta^zimi ; as in ^^^ boliye, ,<rj^.^ <-->! ap dijiye : and, 
when strict injunction is intended, ^i*^^' j^^ amr-i-tdkldi ; as in 
^U l^ ^^ merd kaha mdniyo, y^ l::-^ c^l^ (X*sl M5-A;i &ai wia^ 

The Persons in Verbs, like as in the personal pronouns, are — 
First person, /Ji^ mutakallim. 

Second person, (*«^lsr* mukhdtah. 
Third person, ^r^^ gh d^lh, 

A Particle, uJp- hO'T'f, may be — 

Preposition or Postposition, ^uJ^ harf-i-jarr ; and this may 
be simple, J^ mufrid; as l^ kd, if ko, ^ se, ^^ meuy 
jj^ par, (Jji tak ; or compound, «— --^^ murakkah ; as, 
cT^* ^/ ^« ^a7w, ^U j^ ke pdsyji^*,] ^^ ke upar, ^JsJj ^ 
kt waste, J) i^ ke We, «-J^ ^ kl taraf, ^U- ^ A"7 k^dtirf 
^Jo ^ kl tar ah. 
Conjunction, used to conjoin sentences, A^^^ *— !;^' harf-i- 
jumla, and this is of various descriptions ; so, 
\sjJii <— J/>- harf'i-shart (conditional); as,^l agar, ^ jo, 
\j>- uJp- harf'i'jazd (retributive) ; as, y to (then). 
UiiMsl uJp- harf-i-istisnd (exceptive) ; as, ^^f^ lekin, ^ par, ^ 
/♦^iuurfl uJp^ karf-i-istifhdm (of interrogation) ; as, ^j^ kyun, 
^^s^^yS kiswdste, 
Jjs^ harf-i-sahahi (of cause or reason) ; as, iij^ kyunki, 
ia-j!^l iswdste. 

542 Appendix, 

^U c-ip- ^ar/-i-Jaya/i (of explanation); as, ii ki, ^\*>*^ jaisdki, 

<^j=srli>- chunanchi, ^t^ masalan. 
Conjunction, used to link together sentences or words, and this 
may be — 
(-ike «-J;>- harf-i-atj (copulative) ; as, jjl aur, j wa : or, 
<X> J^* t-Jp- harf-i-tardid (distinctive) ; as, b ^a, ii\^ Idmah, ^ ki. 
Adverb, and this may be — 
<U»U «— ip- ^a7;/^i-^a5^Z>I^ (of comparison) ; as, L-js*- Jazsa, ^,^goya, 

h^ masalan. 
J^J •— tP" ^«?/-i-^«^wKof assent); as, ^^kan, j^yj M/i, j^ bale, 
^ ^— ir*" harf'i-nafi (of dissent or negation) ; as, ^J^ nahiriy 

<U 72ct, ^Ifcl ahan, j^^j^ ww/^mw. 
j-^ t-Jp- harf-i-nahi (of prohibition) ; as, l:l-v< ma^. 
(^*>a. 's-' '—LP" harf-'V'taTdms (of peculiarity) ; as, ^ hiy or j^ 7. 
Interjection, and this may be — 
Ijo <— V^ harf-i-nida (of addressing or calling); as, ^^1 ai, jl o, 

c^^ ^*^* ^£;^ «^^^ Ls^^ "^^' 
t-^^ *— !/^ hO'ff-'f'-tcL'ajjuh (of wonder or applause) ; as, ^Ij i(;a^, 

iflj 2(lj wah-wah, \^\ achchha, c->^ MwZ>. 
cJ-jb* uJp- liarf-i-ta'assuf(p{ grief or sorrow) ; as, M ah, i^ U ^a'e, 

j^ \j wa^e. 
The particle ^ rie, used after the name of an agent before a tran- 
sitive verb in a past tense is sometimes termed ,^^li c>*«lc aldmat-i' 



English and Hindustani, in Nagari and Roman Characters.''^ 

Stand at ease. 
Eyes right. 
Eyes left. 
Eyes front. 

^^ ^ ^y l^t chain se khare raho. 
^^MVT. TT Wr^ hushyRr hoja'd. 

dahni nazar, 
ha^m nazar. 
samhne nazar. 
dahne phiro. 
bd'en phiro. 

To the right face. ^^ fxjfffV 

To the left face. ^ f^^V 

[^ T^ ^rVt ^W To the right about ^[^ ^ ^^TT^T "^f^T dahne se adha 

*^^^* f^"^ chakkar phiro, 

: ^ fW^" ^^W To the left about ^nt ^ "THIT ^^IST ba'en se Mha chak 

"^^ face. f^"^ kar phiro. 

^ VJ f%^T ^TO Right ya (or) left ^l^TT ^^ ^ ^Tlt ddha dakne ya ha 

^^ half face. fti'^Tir phiro. 

^P^ Front. ijl^--^^ samhne. 

:T^f%TFT^>7 Right y'a{ov) left ^1^^^ ^T^ i 7T> ^«^.^\2^\ ^f f /^ 

*^ tin nisse chakkar 


f^ W^TZ^^ f °"* '^''^ l"^^*'-"^ %$ -5^ f^ 



* Extracted from the Ungrezee Lushkuree Kuwaed," translated into the Urdii 
nguage by Lieutenant Arthur Hogg, and published by T. Astell, at the British Library, 
Calcutta, 1837 ; to which work the reader is referred for explicit information on the 
ixercises of the English Army. 

544 Appendix. 

fr^rr Rear. ^ft^ pickhe. 

^l^d Halt. "^T^ tkahro, 

Hj^q^ Forward. '^CHl ^^ age barho. 

irnl March. "^^ c^a/o. 

'fT^^ ^^ Halt dress, (or) | ^T^T ^TT^T Tl" thaharkar bardhar 

^T^Z" ^T^ ^XI Halt dress up. J ^r^ ^o ja'o. 

T^iT^^H: step out. ^^T^r^W> {ZaU^^'" 

T^^ "SlV^^ Step short. If^ ^aj^ ^ XTR m awgwj^e A;e pt 

4 4c|chT "^Jtr '<ff'T^ rakh-kar dhire 
.^^^ kadam chalo. 

■PJ^ trr Mark time. '^W^ Wf ^ 'ft. °i'f >gf '^^"•^ 

^T^T'f^^r^ pitteraho. 

TZ ^^M ^W^ Right close, quick T'f^ fji^l W^^sfl" dahrii taraf sarko 

j(X^ march. ^f^^ WV -^'"^^^ ^^^^^• 

\^^^ ^^^ ^p| Step back, march. "'ftW "^^ "^^ ;??cA^e hato chalo. 

^ f^^TZ" Change feet. ^T^ ^^^ ^a^aTW 5«6f/o. 

3; ft f%^ ^ ,^t^ To the left oblique, WTltf^ ^^ WT ^«'^"^^ ^^*^^^^« ^^^^'^ 

i|l^ march. 

^ Two. tV ^0. 

^^^ TTT^ Quick march. ^f^^ "rf^ jaldi chalo. 

^W^ ^rH Double march. T^^T ^^ daurkar chalo. 

\^^ ^rri Slow march. "^if^^: 2h<(*| ahista kadam. 

^i^H Dress. ^^^T^"^ ^WPRV barabar ho ja^o. 

^ ^ T^ ^^^^^ By the right for- ^% ^^cf ^^ ^^. dahne dekh 
^rj-q ward dress. ^-^ ^"^^"^j^ ^ barhkar barabar 

-j^ hojd'o. 

% ^ T^ ^ f%^F^ By the right yd (or) ^^^ ^ ^TTII ^"^ dahne yd bd'en dekt^ 
^^T^^^ ^^ left backwards if^ r^ mjWK P'^^^^^^^ ^^' ^^^^ 
dress. ^ ^"ngV barhojd'o. 



Military Words of Command, 
Right wheel. 


^ ^3: TTT ^T^^ '^''^'''' -^''' ^'''' 
^ samhne se chakkar 

Left wheel. 

^ ^ samhne se chakkar 



.•N •n 

J On the right back- Tl^ ^^ ^T ^fl^ ^ ^^^^^^ Munt par 
wards wheel. WT ^T^ pichhe se chakkar 

•Z ^ f%^ ^>^. Right y-a (or) left TV^ ^T ^T^t ^. Oaj,^-^ y-^ j^^y^^ 

^"'^ ^^^"^ shoulders forward. "^^T "Sr^T'^fr kdndhd ghumao, 

Z ^^^^ Right oblique. ^"^^ f^^fl ^T^ dahne tirchhd Tea- 

"^^Y ^^^ chalo. 

[T^ f^T2" Halt front. T^^X '^^T^ "% thaharkar samhne 

^ f%^H- ^^ Right yd (or) left "^^^ Tl^ ^T '^T't ddhd dahne yd bd'tn 

half turn. 
Front turn. 
Support arms. 
Slope arms. 
Carry arms. 
Shoulder arms. 

samhne muro. 

fq^^l W ^^ pichhfi saf khulo. 

TJ^ ff^ ^M*t Rear rank take open 
"^r^ order. 

T TNt Z^ Rear rank take close f^^^ ^ {^{^1^ pichhU saf mild'o, 
^R^rrtr ^rl^ order. 

^"^ Right turn. ^^*T ^^ dahne muro, 

^ ^f^TjF^ ^WtZ Right yd (or) left Tl^ ^1" '^ ^ ^^- dahne yd hd'en si 
'Zryi about turn. ^J '^WK ^T^ 

::^1\T^ Squad. 

4 A 

ddha chakkar muro. 

546 Appendix, 

T;Z ^)^ Right wheel. ^^T "Wt dahnt ghumo. 

% ^ T^ ^ fWZ" % ^^e right z/a (or) ^[^^^^ ^ dahnl ya ha'ln ya 

^Tf^^T^'m !;!.S^"'-T1 ^^^>^^^^ i^cA .. .^«Za ,a 

march ya ( or j ^ ^ .,_,,_ 

-J^^ ^.,^ . , , TV mldi chalo, 

^^^ ^^ quick march. ^^T 

Z^^ T^ ^ f%^ To the right ya (or) ^^ m W(ii ^"^ ^«^'^^ 3/« *«'^« 

^"^V^ left close. 

'?;^2-Xf ^^cff ^n^ Step back march, ^t^ ^^^^ "^^ ;}7c/*Ac hatkar chalo, 
W^ WtT; ^^ Form four deep. "^TT ^ '^^TT ^'T cAar A:I A:a/ar ban 

tt^T ^?^ WtT Rear form four deep. "^1% "^T ^ ^R plchhe char Ki katar 
'^m ^^ Wr^ hanja'd. 

\z ^"^ ^"^ ^"q Right form four T^ "^T ^ ^FPT dahnl char kl katar 

deep. ^»f ^"raV banja'd, 

f%^H: T^^ x^rV"?: Left form four deep. ^TTT ^"^ ^ <^.riK ^a'^'* c^«^ ^^ ^«/.«^ 
^ ^^^Pfr ia/ijfa'o. 

f%TqF^ ^W Left face. "^ fq?fV ba'mphird. 

^ "^^^^'IT'T^ '^([^ By subdivisions ^T^ ^"'inft ^ ^^•T «^^« kamparn kl 

^ " right wheel. ^ TR: WP?^ ^ dahnl khunt par 

^ samhne se chak- 

^^T W^ ;tar kha'd, 

A ^^^^^ ^R By subdivisions on ^T^ '^^^^ M ^T^ adh'i kampanl men 

^ f^^ W^. the left backwards it^ xn: iftW $ ^^'^^ k hunt par 
*^ '^ •. pichhl si chakkar 

^^^ ^1^ wheel. ,g^,^ ^P^V ^^-,-_ 

%^^^^^I^ t%^? jjy subdivisions left '^^ ^^"^ ^ ^ ^'^^^ *«'»i""'^ « 
^^TT^^Ytil wheelinto line. ^^ ^ WT^ ^ hffin khunt par 

^ ^ ^ samhnt se saj men 

T^ ^ f%^^ "^^ Right 7/5 (or) left ^p|% ^ ^TTf f^^ dahne ya bain 

face. phiro. 

Military Words of Command. 547 

rr^ f^TT^ ^"^ Halt front dress. "ZT^X^^^^^^X- t^aharkar samhne 
[T^ fttT^ ^T^ ^""'^ ^T ^TT^T fr i^^"^^^^ ^«^^^^'' 

Halt front dress up. ^5 .-^'5 

y^v -s ^ Jh. if:ii-jr^ dahrie aur bd'en 

•Z -q;^ f%tre ^?v^ Right and left face. Tf^^^^^TOv ^.^- 

^ ^V^?;;Wr4 Right counter- T^ ^T^ ^^T dahne kawa dekar 

march. f^fV P^'''^' 

I -. ^ ^. TV fs ^ kampant hich par 

m^^fi f%?T Company on the 1f<Tm ^H TTT Tf^ ^^^^. ^-,5 ^j^j^, 

\z ^tW centre right wheel. rJJ^ -^^T: WlTl" karmiro. 

ff^t -51 ft ftrr Company on the ^nq^t ^'l^ ^ ^11^^'^"?^ -1'\T 

f^l^T ^^ ^^"^"-^ ^^^' ^^^^1- TT^ ^T wfV kar maro. 

5^ s\ «-v centre right about •. dalinl adha chak- 

in^^ ^T ^ f^T Company on the ^^^T^ ^"^ tpj^ ^"^ kamparii h'lch par 

c:. , »\ -v_ centre left about „^,^ ^--.-^ -rr^-^ ha en adha chak- 

•^ wheel. kar maro. 

J\^ <^*H«lt Form company. ^^^ ^•T WT^T kampant ban ja'd. 

%tKZ: ^^^JT3I^ Left subdivision left ^* '^TVt ^^^ ^«'^^ «^^^ kampant 

^ .^ ^^ half face, quick ^T^^TTlf^^T «^^«^^'^"'^ ^^"'■ 

:?^ ^^T^H«J^ Form subdivisions. '^^ ^:^^ ^^ ddhJ kamparii ban 
j[%t^W^^^5TJR^Left subdivision ^' ''tTVt ^nq^ JSIri 5rfA7 fcam;)an7 

i __ ^„ -%- quarters face, ==rT fbrrarr ai«r' ''^"''^''"" ^^"'■^■'"' 
I ^ xp W^ quick -rch. ^^^ ^" >''^^^''^^- 

I ^ 

l^^Z' ^^^f^lR Left subdivision left ^rf;' ^TVt ^^^f^ ba'U adh'i kampcm't 
f^^? THK ZTT half turn, double. •'5TW WHT IT^^^T^ udhaha'enmvrkar 

^?^ Quick. . 31^^ jaldt. 

548 Appendix. 

f%^<r ^^^c(5li*(bj Left subdivisions ^TT ^TVt ^nq^ ha'm MM kampam 

j^^TSiXZ^m mark time, right ^^ ^-^^ ^^ft apni jagah khan 

* half turn. •s „ ^ , . ' _^, ho kadam utha'd, 

"^ * ^ ^ ^dhJ dahne murd. 

f^Tt ^^ "^^ ^ Three files on the <ft^ ^JffTT ^TT ^^T ^^^ f^^fj^^ ^"'^^ ^«- 

^" ^ " left wheel. . \ ^" "^""rka?- ha en 

W'^Z fl^ WTT^T ^t ghumo, 

^^Z^f^X^ ^^One, two ya (or) H^ "^T ^ ^T fftT e/c y^ do ya fin 

<r ^ f^TH: *^^^^ ^^^® ^^ *^® ^TT ^T"^^ ^ if^tfl^ samhne kd 

front. -N iflr/io. 

f%^^^ ^ f^ft^ Sections ya (or) ^^ ^ fft^ fft^ idFi ya fin tin si- 

^,,^ ^„, (or; left shoulders ^ . Ja^7i5 y5 &«z/fl/i 

Y^ ^^^^ forward, ,uick ^^Tl^T^T^T^T ^J^ 

^A^'^\^^^^'^ march, forward. ^TVT^m^^^Tl jaldi chalo samh. 

"^^ ¥T^^ ^'^ ne harho, 
1%^^'^^ ^ f^Tt^ Sections ya (or) :fV^ ^T rft^ <ftf /oZ? ^^a ^In tin si- 

^^ -^ \Z ^ threes on the right |^^|:^^ ^ ^ pUiyon ki tdVi 

^ ya (or) left back- ^^ ^ dahie khunt par 

^ j^ ^ ^ J wards wheel, ^ ^ ^ •, pichht se chakkar 

^ ^^^ ^T^ quiek march. ^^^^^TWT^T uha'ojaldichald. 

T3" ^T f%T5^ "Sfr. I^ig^t yd, (or) left ^-^j jjj ^r^\ ^. dahna ya layaii 
^^■^ xr:^-^ s^^"1^^^^^°'^^^^- ^ ^^T^ kandha hatha 0, 

TZ ^ f%^ ^W Right ya (or) left ^^% ^T ^TT^ ^ dahnt ya ha' en 
T«r Z ^«f wheel into line. Tq-^- ^j-j^^ § "^^T ^^^iwf par samhne 

r\ 5e chakkar kha% 

f^T^ ^"^^ ^f^^ Front form company i^^X^TVt^^^i?wr7 ya adhi kam- 
VT ^^^^^ ^T 3/« (or) subdivision ^^^^^ ^^ -,^_ pam yd folz ban 
f%^^ ,« (or) section. ^^ Jd^o. 

t Military Words of Coinmand. 546 

H ^ f%f¥^ ^ On the leading file ^f%^ ^ffTT ^ pahill katar par 
\ ^ T^ ^'T to the right form ^^ ^ ^^ift dahne se kampani 
^^^^ * company. ^^^ ^^^ toja'o. 

JR <0 t^^'^ Tt?iW On the leading file ^f%^ ^j^T ^ pahiB katar par 
Z -^ J:^ ^^3" *<^ t^e right about ^^ ^ ftl|^ ^«^^^ «^ i'^'c/^^ 
ij^^^^^l form company. ^^^^^.^^^^ taraf kampanJ 

•. banjd'd. 

n^ f^^Z ^^ Halt, left wheel into ^^^^^ WTTf ^^ thaharkar bd'en 

T^ Z ^^ ^^^^* "RT ^T*^^ ^ ^"^ khunt par samhrie 

•v. «N^ se saf men chak- 

^ WT ^T^ uar kha-o, 

\^ '^ \Z t^^ To the right form ^^ ^^T ff^ ^^. c/a^w? kamar tak 

^jfKT^ company. if^ ^^ WPRV kampanthanjcCo. 

^r^ ^d^^^ Left shoulders for- ^T^T ^^ ^^T^ layM kandhR 
l y Q^;^^ ward. ghuma'd, 

^«t,^rl^ T^ Sections right. ^Vf%^t ^[^ tdlhjan dahrw, 

S^ ^ TT^^'t Form the rallying ^HR^ ^% ^ '^•jam^ hone ka chau 
T^W^T square. WtTT ^•f WP^ khunta hanja'd. 

ft T^^^T f^ The square will "^^^^ ^^T^% ^ chaukhuntd samhnt 
ifHzTtf%T2: n^arch to the front ^^^^ 2^5 ^^c/^^e ya 

^ K^T ^ T^: (or) right ya (or) ^T^ ^ ^^^^- ^ 

^T f%^^ left, 

r^^^^ ^^ Inwards face. ^rfT ftfT^ hhitar phiro. 

Tft^^T^frf^ Prepare to resist ^^f ^ ^T^F^fT ^^«^«7^ ^~' "^^f- 
_ -^ 1 T> 1 -N -N fa^at ko mustahd 

^T^ft T^ ca^al^T- Ready. ^ ^^^ :^ ^^^^. 

ft^^Ti ^ T^^^?: Reduce the square, "^^l ^^ ^T% chaukhuntd khul 

T^TTHf HT^^^'TRear rank, take ^ ^ ^ / ^ 1 7 7- 

open order. f^^ ^ ^^^ V^ohhli saf khnh. 

550 ' Appendix, 

f^^^IT TNt ^^ ^J^- Rear rank, take f^W^ ^^ f^jnchhnsafmilja'o^ 

^^^ff^'^nr^.The battalion will ^Z^ ^T^ ^? paltan Rge harhe. 
-^ advance. 

^wiwTt^^Tt^TThe battalion will M^^d^ ^ paltan hate. 

^^^ ^ ^^**'^* r^^^: ^T^ ^ ?T. liamla karne par 

tpCh^ ^ ^H Prepare to charge. | ' ^ ^-^ taiyar ho. 

^I'N Charge. "'^♦i^* ^v^ hamla hard. 

VtiKVR "^ TZ '^T From the right ^^a ^T "^^ ^f^^'Rt ^ /^ar ek kampam k'l 

*f%Ifi^ ^T,! ^. (or) left of com. ^^^^•^. dahmya b^ln 
*^ _ * • 1 />! ^ kamar se kalar 

^>r% ^^ ^ pamesbyfilesto ^^-^.^^^^^ ^.^^^.^ ^.^^;^-. 

qnq^ ^ ^Companies right y5^^ ^ ^ gT'"'^"'^"^2'a*o'«»™«r' 
t%^3:r^f%^ (or) left turn left ^Ti^^WT *«'"'y« '^«''»' 
__'^ ^ '^ ya (or) right wheel. ^ *" ghumo. 

TSrra ti iT^J^From the proper T^ T^^ 9^^ ^^«'' ^'^ 'tam^jam U. 
*^^f%^^ts right y5 (or) left ,^ ^ ^ «gfi dahra yi 

^ of companies pass "^^ "^ bain kamar s 

'^f^'Ht^ ^T¥ ^ by files to the ^TT^f^T ^^1^^^ j,,aar katar 
^^ \^ f^:yj^ rear. 3^;^ ij^i^ •:i^^ ^j^;j^^ ^;^^^5, 

f^^ ^ \z ^^Left ya (or) right ^^j jjj -^^ j^ b^'H yd dahne mvrl 

jj, ^ r^^ turn, ris^ht ya (or) ^ . -v dahne yd ba'h 

T^^^^ left wheel T^^J^^^ ^,.^J 

'^T^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^ Pass by files to the *;<1T< ^^TT"^ ^ ^ofar katar plchli 
ft^ ^ ^ ^ rear, right face, ^^ ^^ f^"^ ^^*«^^ dahne phin 
jx^ right wheel. -p-^ "OiJV dahne ghurno. 

^^ZW^t^^Srr^.The battalion will q^^J^f in|^ xj^^pa/to paA/w ;?rt/t/i 
^t^f^ advance by wings. ^^ chale. 

t^^^^^ ^ [Left wing p'^'^^^'l^] % )baijdnpahlu^ 


i'n^ J Imarch. J ^ ^[^> J 



Military Words of Command, 




^ ^^^^T^ 



r ^ •] waghaira r ^IISTT ^q^^ 

J ^ I (&c.). J 





do pd'e 

par charhcCoy 

shast Id, 
tontd bharo, 

•8 .a [ihahroy 
'^ ^ \wa gh aira. 


^ «f<d:^*f f%^ '^. The battalion will M^d^t M^^ V^^paltan pahlu pahlu 

^^Z;^V^ffT^ division to the front. ^^ ^^ man sdmhne barke, 

TwI^'T ^^IT^^ Remaining divisions ^T^ ^^*^ T^'T^ ^a^2 fwrnaTi dahnd 
TZ ^ f%^ '^. right yd (or) left ^ ^T^ iq^VT 2/« ^«y«^^ A*awc//ia 
^^^ ^T^^^ shoulders forward. ^^^^ 


XK^ ^^ ^ Form line on the t,f%i TTIH ^ ^^^paldR tuman ke 

^ baraoar saf ban 

tRT^ ^^^^ first division. ^-^ ^ ^cj g|X^ ^.-,- 

^ft^T ^^^^^ Two centre subdivi-WN ^ T^ ^(T^^^^^ ^^ ^V «^^" 
^ r-v /- ^ •s* kampani sdmhnc 

Z ^ t^T^ sions to the front. ^HRj ^Pf^ W^ Z>ar^ew. 

f^ft^f^^ ^^^T3[[^^ Remaining subdivi- ^T^ "^"Hft ^'^•ft iaArl a^ZA kampani 

TZ^^it. f^Y'ghty^^;--) ^^T ^ ^m dahna y-a bayan 

•" _ left shoulders for- ^^ ^^ kandhabarha'o. 

^^T^, ^^^^(^ ward. ^fT¥T W^mt 

1^?jR ^T ■^R ^ ^Form hne on the €N ^ T^ ''fT^ 57cA A? rfo 5d/« 

divisions. ^^g_j^^^ harsdfhanja'o. 

552 Appendix. 

T:^ 11^ f^^-^% Right and left W^ ^TT^ ^'^^hdfct adht kampam 
^T^ i^^T^ shoulders forward, -^rr^j ^-^ m^J ^«^^« aur haijm 

tR^ §^ ^ ^ T^ Form line to the ^^ fRT? ^^ W^ ^a^w? taraf saf Ian 

right. :gjp^ Ja'o. 

T2" ff ^ f%^Z ift. Right wing left T^^ ^^ ^T^ ^«^^« P«^^2i laym 
^"^T^ ^<q( T ^ shoulders forward, grf"^ ^^'sff kandha barhd'o, 

f^"^ ^^^"^ Left shoulders for- ^T^t ^t^T ^^TT^ Ja^^^Ti /cawcZ/^a 5ar- 
^ ^c| ^^ XR^^cl^v^ ward, forward. "^TT c(^ hd'o, age barho. 

1TZ"T ^ ^nq^ft^ ^ Retire by companies ^^^ ^ "^TVt ^''T. kampam yd ddhi 

^•^^TT^ XR^TO ya (or) subdivi- ift ^ WTT ^T ^^. ^^w^i^awi men 

^^^^^J^ sions from the left ^^^^^^^^^-^^ ^«'^^^y« dahnl 

t-^^ r, y5 (or) right in rv -sro. ^^"^'^"^ ^^ ^«'^^ y« 

T^fT^WTt Lr\,f the right ^^^'^^ ^^ daJ.ra kam^ 1^ 

T^ ^ fw^H: y- (^r) left. ^ P^^^^^ ^^«?^- 

5r^^ ^ ^^^'T Company ya (or) ^'^ ^ '^TVt ^«^i^aw^ y« adJit 
T:^^^\Z^^ subdivision right ^^^ ^^ ^ ddkT^^lhakkL^^ 

about face. '^T^ ^g^-^j^ f^ft phiro. 

O^T ^TH? ^Retire from both ^T^ ^^^ ^ T^ ^"^^^ kampam men 
^^ % ^^^^ flanks by subdi. ^i^T ^ ^1^ ^ dono kamar se blch 

_ ^. the centi'e. 

^ ^ t%^ ^^. Right ya (or) left Tl'^ ^ ^TT 'TnJt '^"^"^ ^^^ *«''» 5</« 

?^ T? -^ifr? Bubdivision right gf^t ^ % ''^'"^''"! ''"^"'' 
_ ^u 4. r ^ •. se ddhd chakkar 

<ft ^^^'T fW ^^ The battalion will ^^^ V^^^ VJ paltan kampam yd 
T*f '^V^nf? ^^ "^ove in column ^STTVt ^f^^ft ^ ^^^^ kampam kl 

r^ s^ ^ (or) sections from _ .^ ^ daknJ kamar se 

-^ X . . ^ '^ » ^ i\^Q ,.jgljt along ^ ' * ^^^f '^^ pichke 

^^TT f[ fr^T the rear. ^^ ^^ chale. 

Military Words of Command, 553 

^^Z" T^^ f%'^Z' Left face left wheel. ^TTtf^TV^Tlt^^^^"'^^ phiro hR'U 
f[^ ghumo. 

"^ ^^ Right face. ^^ f^fV da/ine phiro. 

^ ^ ^^ Right wheel. ^^^ "^^ dahne ghumo. 

5"?;;^ ^^irr '^T^'Porm column at ^^ ^ Tf^ '^J b'lch k'l dahrii ya 

UT2"T fr^*^ ^'f quarter distance ^TT^^^^T^T. ^^'In kampam par 

t^T ^^'T^ company. ^^T 

^"^Ct^ T^ i[^ Threes rio-ht and left ^^ ^^ ^ ^^ fin fin ki toll dahna 
f%^^ "^ft^^^ shoulders forward. ^^cfT Jfj WT^f I/^ bayan kandha 

^ft*^ f^^^ ^^- Threes left shoulders ^^ '^'^ ^ ^^ tin tin kl toll hay an 
^^ ^^=i^^ forward. ^T^ ^1^ ^^. kandha harha'o. 

KT^ TW^WT Form square. 'IV^T ^ ^TT^ chankhunfubanfi'd. 

^.,„^ ,. »^ . .«- IV-P. ._ . ^ . . _.*N Ci thaharkar dahne se 

^Z TZ ^^^V^Halt, right about ^S^\^ TV ^^ -,,,- ,^„;t,„, 

^W face. •^rrar 'g^T f^STl" phiro. 

IST^ T^#T ''If Form square on the T^ "^ ^ ^^- ^"'^"^ V^ *«'^« ^«™- 
^ ^ ^ f%XR2: right 2,5 (or) left sf^ TTT ^^1^31 f 1 ■?"^"' ^"'' "'^'^"- 
^l^f^>rl^ --P»y- Com- ^-Y ^^^-^ ^MnrS i«« ,«'5. 

^ ^ panies right y5 . -^"^ ^'""^'^"^ 

^ f^n^ ^>^- (,0,eftshoulders ^T^ '^ J^^ dahn,^ ,a Myan 
^^ ^1^1^ forward ^f"^ ^^"^ kandha harha'd. 

W^^X xfrT Wr^. Prepare for cavalry, ^^iff ^ ^T^^^ sawRron kl. mudd 

^f\ ft^l Ready. ^ 1^1^ ^ t. /«'«^ ^5 _^«^>«^ 

^0. Taiyar. 

*tiN THig f^KneeUrig ranks, ^j^ f^^ ^^zanu giril saf tai- 
rpnrlv Prp^pnf r=^^ -n -n vaf- ho. Shastkaro. 

4 B 

554 Appendix. 

^^ Load. ziZT HTV tontd bharo. 

^^T^ ^^i? Reform column. ^fJTT ftf"^ ^^ ^T.katdr phirbanja'd, 

"^^ -^ Z^ f^^T On the two centre ^^ ^ fV ^T^ hlch Ifi do MliI 

'^^'^m^^ XJf'^ subdivisions form ^Hlpft ^ ^if "^^ kamparii ke plchhe 

•V snuare • -v chaukhuntd ban 

^T^7 t^jf^ Halt front. Z^T^T ^T^^ ftt. thaharkar sdmhne 

"T^ phiro. 

^T^^T^lt^ f%^"2' Halt, right and left ZT^T Tl^ ^T thaharkar dahne 

•^^ face. ^TXf ft?TV ^"^ bd'en phiro. 

X)T:fi^ %if Reform line. ^qj f^'?;' ^cf ^T^ safphir ban jd'o, 

^T^ f^jT^ ^T^ Halt, front dress. "ST'f^^T ^T ^T^^ thaharkar aur 

fxff^jcR"^ ^"^^"^ samhne phirkar 
^ ar'nffV bardbar hojd'o, 

Hj"<?i ^^^ ^^^ Form double column ^Tlft ^'^nft ^ddhi kampani ki 
^X|f ^^"^^71^^ of subdivisions. ^"5^^ ^T?^ ^^ ^"^^* ^^f^'^ ^^^ 

^"'C'^ T^^^T ?' Form square two ^T^ ^T ^T ^^^T blch ki do kampani 
^^ ^T ^ 3" tl. deep on the two IIX; T^ ^ ^'PT'^'C ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^"-^^ 
^^^niRt^ft^. centre companies. ^^ ^^^^ ^^. kd chaukhun\d^ 
_ , * j^ Remaining com- •s r^ ^ ^^"^ j^'^- ^^^^ 

' T M I ^^ panics right and ♦ ■ kampani dahna 

^ f%^<r ^"^. left shoulders for- Tl^ "^T ^T^ aurbdydnkdndhd 
^^ ^^T^ ^^'"^* ^tVT ^^T^ barhd'o. 

^ T^^T f^ '^^^ square will ^?#7T ^Pf% ^ chaukhuntd sdmhne 
^Z^rw(^ march to the ^^ ^ ^ ^ 3,5 ^^,;i^, 3,5 

e^ ^' • ^ front ya (or) rear j i - - t.-^-. i- 

^ t^ X N *i» ^ "^ dahm ya ba in ki 

JJJ X^X'mT:^ va (or) right va ^TT *T TTl^ ^ -, - , , 

r \ ^ n, n •. "rah se chale. 

VJ^y^Wi (or) left face. ^^ 

Military Words of Command. 555 

I ^^^^^^ ^'T By subdivisions on ^^ ^T WTTJ ^H" dahrie aiir ba'eu 

j:^^ backwards wheel. rv> rv-v ^ kampam mm 

^^^^[^^^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^T p-ichhesechakkar 

^^^ ^^ Form line. ^^ ^^ ^"""^ ?«/ ^«w i«'o. 

^it^ f^I^^^^V^. Right and left Tl^T ^T ^JViJ dahna aur hay an 
^T^ ^T^'5^^ shoulders forward, ^f^ ^^T^ kandha harha'o, 

^m f^r^ ^ ^ Change front to the ^^'T ^ ^ T^paltan ke blch par 

ft^ centre. ^^ ^ ^^\^ samhne hoja-o. 

Rl^^^lt^t%^"2' Threes right and <Tt^ ^^ ^ ^fwf ^^^ ^^^ ^^ /o%a^ 
^3fl^^^^ Vh i^cl^^^^ ^^^^ shoulders -^^J ^^ ^T^ ^^^^^ ""^ *^^^^ 
forward. aftOT ^^^ kandha harha'd, 

T^ ^ f^TjFE" ^Tt^. Right and left T^ "^T ^R ^ dahne aur bd'hi se 
^ ^rr^ countermarch. ^"RT ^"^ ftl?'!^ kaiod dekar phiro, 

W^ ^^T^ ^SW^ Form open column ^^^ W^^ ^ ^T^ dahm kampam ke 

^ ^iq^ "S^^ company. ^^^^ ^a/i jd'o. 

"^ft^fif^ ^nq^ift^ Remaining compa- ^T^ ^f'^ '^^ bdki kampam dahne 

J^ ^^ nies right'face. f^"^ P^^^^- 


^T^H" f^TH" ^T^ Halt front dress. "^^^^T WT^ Tf- tM^arkar sdmhne 

^X ^TT^T Tl" hokar bardbar ho 

T^ ^t^ T^ 7 ^ I^^gbt wheel into ^^ ^^ i:^; ^T^% ^^^^^^ ^^^^? 1^^^ 

jjjjg .^ ^ .^ samhne se chak- 

^,\n ^^T *>l*i ^ Form open column ^^"ft IT ^TT ^ff - rfa^n? ya Ja'i?j fcam- 
f^T-^ftTZ i"7'^ftheright ;^ - ^-^ ^ pani ke plchhe 
yd \ov) left com- ^ khuli katar ban 

m f%^^ ^^q^ pany. ^TT ^^ ^T^ j^'u. 

556 Appendix. 

ft^fifTr ^fiq^^ Remaining compa- ^j^ ^jq^ T^hmkamparii dahnl 
^ -s nies mht ?/a (or) ♦ r- -v - 1-5-- t - 

^T f^T ^^ leftfaL -^^n^TOft yahaenphiro. 

tR^ f^ fV ft Form line to the ft^^^ ^^T rT^ ^*>«^*^ ^'«^«^ ^«^ 
f^:^^ T^^-cir reverse flank. :^ ^^ oTT^ ^''f hanja'd, 

%¥^f%¥^^^I[^By successive divi- % ^"?: ^ ^^^ ^i^^^ ^«'' i?«^ ^«»2- 
_ . ^ to the front. -0 •% ^ pahlu samhne ho. 

t ^^^ ^^^ ^TT^ By double files from ^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^1- kampanl ke hlch se 
^ f^^X tr^T *^^ centre. Rear ';j^ ^rfT"^ ^ ^^^"^ dukrl katar mtn 

WT^ -S ^t ftjT^ '''"^*'' *^^ ^'''''*- fW^T TTW ^. i^T^kar^ pichhla 
^ * ^ •. ^ pahlu sam^nt ho. 

Z f^ZX f%^ir^^ Two centre sections ^ ^ T^ ^i^^blch kt dotolidahne 

^^K^fV^. i^ * ^^^^^'^' ^^''^- ^^ ^T ^ '"''" ^'^["^ ^'^""- 

^ ^ par samhne se 
^ ^ ^T^ ^ chakkar kha'o. 

^?^ TWT ^S^ Form square on the '^r^ ^f^^^ tn:««'^ '='""^''"' ^«'" 
^ ^ . ^ r. . s^ . -s chaukhunta ban 

Tt f^TZ ^^ift ^'^'^^ company. -|V^ ^^ ^^ j^»5. 

^^ T^^T ^^ Form square on the ^fH ^ ^'f^ ^ Z>jcA ki dahni ya 
'^TZ'm f%^Z" ^^2:ht 3/5 (or) left ^-^^ ^^^ tf"^ *5'm kampanl par 

^ ~ »> ^'g'**' 2/« (of) left *^ . m'd. Dalma yd 

^T^^Z^^TZ wing, right about ^^^ ^^^^J b,y,n pahlu dah- 
^WtZ ^^ face. T|^ ^^^ ^ ^^ ,g ^^/,^ c/^a^t- 

"^T^ "^WT ftlTV kar phiro. 
ft^^rl^ ^V^. Sections outwards, ^f^^ ^^ ^T ?o%a^ c?aAwe awr 

^ ^ «\ hahar chakkar 

^TZ ZTy\ f%^- Front turn. ^ec-'^'^f^'^Z\^^ samhne phiro. Toll- 
^^^^^^^ tions outwards. ^^ ^V ^Tlt f_l ^f-' '"' 

^2" ^T ^Tf%T bdhir chakkar 

"mT ^T^ 


Military Words of Command. 557 

W^ T^^^T '^TT Form square on the ^ ^ Wf^^ j^j^ blch k'l kampanl par 

r>. r^. 4. s^ . -s chaukhunta ban 

f{im T^^"^^ Wings inwards turn. ^^ T?^^ ^'^'K dono pahlu hhltar 
^■<*f T^ muro. 

5ri^%T '^r^ Tt Square on the ^"^ ^T "^^1^ ^^ hich par chaukhunta 
f^-^ centre. ^j^ hanja'd, 

TiZ ff^ ^ ^^T Right wing, right ^^|^ ^^Tl^ ^ ^^^^^ P^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
^^ about turn. ^^^ ^^ ^^-y se adh'a chakkar 

^^^ I>ouble. fV^ ^ t^Wf^daurdya(ov)daur- 

ER^ ^ir^¥ ^ Form close z/a (or) f%^ ^^^ ^T f'lf- ^^sl kampani par 

W'^V^ fr^W^ quarter distance ^ ^ TTpfT ^^ miU ya pa'd khuU 

, ^ „ ^, ^ ^^.^ column on — ,,^-r.r-.- -.-^r^ ,.,^ ^ajJar dahnt yd 

5^ company. Right * *^. ^ ^ oam kampam 

^XZ^^^ ^- (^^) i^f^ i^ ^TT^^l^Pl^ samhnehokarhan 

T^ f^TS" front. Tl^T ^^ ^T^ ja'o. 

^T^^ f^TZ" ^T^ Halt front dress. <5^%<ftT ^T^^ f^- thaharkar samhne 

T^T ^TT^T ^ phirkar bardbar 

^\^ <*^^ '^•T — Form column on — ^T^ ^ r^^T ^'T'Tl bich k'l kisl kam- 
f^ZT ^^'T^ centre company. -q-x- "^^a"^ ^«f pant par chau- 

,^1. khuntd ban jd'o. 

'^'^ ^^^ "^TZ" Form column at f%^ ^'^ ^T ^- itisz kampam par 
W^X f^Z^ quarter distance, ^ ^^ ^f^TTT pa'o ^/iMZ2 toar 

_ . in front on — -v -n samhne hokar ban 

f^^^^_^. company. '^ ^^^ ^'^ J5'5. 

ift ^^ 

^Ct^t^^T^^^f^. Remaining compa- ^T^ ^5ir»lRt fft^ ^«^^ /cawpaw? ^m 

ft^THT^T^WH: nies threes right -^^^ ^^ ^-^^ ^^_ tin kl foU bankar 

•vl ^ yd (or) left shoul- . dahna ya bay an 

X \ . .\ \ ders forward. ^ kandha barha'o. 

568 Appendix. 

ch^"^ Z ^ f^nC^ Close to the front. ^T^^^f^^^T^ sdmhne ko mil ja'd 


^ ^f^^ f%WirnlThe column will <IJ n K TT^ ^ '^^ ^^tflr dahmya ha 
^^TH:^Tf%^ march to the right ^-^x^ "^ ^r^ taraf chale dahnl 
^^^^„^ ya (or) left flank. „, .^-v^l, yh Win phir'o. 
WT^^^R Right ,a (or) left ^^T^t^T>^^. Jaldi chall 
V^Z^'3^[^J{rk face. Quick march. ^ ^^^ 

W f%^^ ^rZ" ^ By sections right 3/a^f%^t ^^ V[l toliyan dahne yd, 
f%^^ (or) left. ^x^^ ha'tn. 

^^M ^ ^ T^ ^ Column to the right ^J^T Tl^ ^ ^TTf katar dahne yd, 
fW7 ^^ 3/5 (or) left wheel. ^^ q^ ^T^^ § ^p^ ^^hunt par 

'^ sdmhne se chak- 

'^WK ^fT^ kar khd'o. 

T^m fwIFH:^ Right yd (or) leftTl^ ^ ^ "^ dahne ydhd'enkhunt 

wheel. xn[ ^T^vf ^ "^^T P^^* sdmhne si 

-—-.•gTY chakkar khd'o, 

Wt^fZ^m^ % ^^.Countermarch by Wt"^ ^ f^T ''^(T^ hich ke gird ddhi 
^^ir«T^ Tr% '€\ subdivisions round ^Tqif) § «RT^T kampani si kdwd 
f%^* the centre. ^^^^ f^ft dlkarphird, 

TZ m f%^ W^. Right yd (or) left ^^ ^ ^TT ^T^ dahm yd bdln ddJfi 
^^Tt^<<r^^y^ subdivisions right g^q^ ^-^^ % kampani dahnl si 
;s„ "" * about face. „^„ ^^ J^ /- ^ «^^^ chakkar 

?^ ^r^ ^^T TOTT pM^^^ 

T^ ^^^11^ T^ Right subdivisions Tl^ ''^i\i(\ ^^^ dahni ddhi kampani 
^'^\Z 'ZT^ "S^* about turn. "^^ ^ "^T^T dahne si ddhd 

TV chakkar muro, 

r*<«i ^^ ^?^- Front turn, forward. ^'HW'T ^^^^ ^^^ sdmhne murkar age 
^^ ^^ harho, 

^ ^W^ ^m "^^^ The column will ^PTT ^^J^ ^^•ft itfl/ar agZ7 kampani 
^kWM ^ f%T^ open from the front. ^ ^^ ^j^ se khuljdwl. 

^ ^^T^^ f^^ ^^T^ The column will ^TfTTT ft^^ ^nq«ft katar pichhii kam- 
^^rmftfi^T ^P^^fr^"^^^*^^^^'- iw^if^ pam si khuljdwl. 

Military Words of Command, 559 

ftWiT ^^ ^ Deploy on the front ^SPIT^ ^f^qf^ § ^?:L «^^ kampani se 

f^HT^T^l company. ^ ^^ -^ ^^^^^ ^^Z ^^'^ 

♦ * jao. 

riM^TT "^«T ^[Deploy on the rearf^^^^^^Tt ^^^^R^-^jicA^^? kampam se 

f^X ^^^ company. ^-5^ ^xp ^^ ^^ ^Aai7/:ar ?a/ ia/i 

FtwtT ^^ <ft Deploy on the front ^^ ^ ^ agr\ampanJ se 
fij^ gpqift company. ^^^J^^ "l^^inC harRhar phailkar 

W^ ^^ ^T^ safhanja'd. 

ri'TrnT ^''RI^ Remaining compa- ^T^ ^^'Rt ^^ hakl kampani tin tin 
f^"^ T^ "3?!^. nies. Threes right ^f^if ^ ftf%^ kl tdliyan hankar 
^^^?^^^ shoulders forward. ^^^^ ^^^ ^|_ dahna k'andha 

•^ barhd'o, 

ft^f^ ^F^'Rt^ Remaining compa- ^J^ ^jq^ <^f^ i,^j kampani kan^ 

^ N ♦ • ^ ^ ward. 
^^"^ "^^^T^ Shoulders forward. ^rfVT ^^T^ kandha barhd'o. 

jqi^ _ ^i^ ^Companies ~ paces ^^q^ br^ W^ kampam ka'lkadam 

^1^ ^ (or) left wheel. ^^^^^.^^^ kku^t par sdmkn, 

^ se chakkar klid'o. 

^^ ^^f^ Ty\ ^Wheel back into ^ ^ ^ti^ ^ "^^^C saf men pichhe se 
^9{ l"ie. ^"raV chakkar khd'o. 

N f^T^ ^'SR — Change front on — ^-^ jf\ -^XTf 'T^dahneydbd'enpahB 
^nqift T3: ^T company right ya ^ ^^ ^^ ^ ke age barhne se 

^ -^ forward. . ^ waz'' badlo. 

^tft^ ^P^l^t^ — Remaining compa- WT^ <**M«ft ^ *«^2 kampani ka't 

^k^Zt\T:SW nies- paces to gr^ ^ ^ kadam dahnl ya 

,rW^V the right, a (or) ^^ ^^ ^ ^_ l^Zn khunt par 

*^ left wheel. ®^ samhne se chak- 


kar khd^o. 

560 Appendix, 

^T^ "^^ Dress up. ^TT^T TT ^T'SrV harahar ho ja'd. 

%*^ fttT^ "^^ ^ Change front on the ^^ ^ ^TT^^'=^-^"'^'^^2/« ^«'«»^«w. 
TH:^f%^^^^. right 2/a (or) left ^ ^ ^% ^ pa/iij,ar rf«A..e 

.TV Ssl-. ^^ Ci,^--^ company right ya i ^ .1^ V^ ha' en pahlu kl 

^ (or) left thrown ^ ^ ^^?^^ ^^ ^^? 

Tt^f^^'^^^ T^" Remaining compa- "^T^ ^^M-O '^^ baki kampam dahiie 
^^Z"^W — ^¥^ nies right about % ^RTVT "^l^T ^^ ^^^'^ chakkar 
^^T^^f^^Z face -paces to f^^> ^t^T^ /.^^Vo /:a'i M«/« 
^ "^ the right ya (or) -s . . c?a^wd 2/« Z>a'e7i 

left wheel. " "^ f^^^^t P«^ c^«^- 

qi^ ^WT W^ kar kha'd, 

TZ ^ t^l^^ ^ Right yR (or) left T^T ^ ^m ^Tf^^a^wS ya lay an 

TH: '^H- ^^ wing right about ^^^5(1^^^^ ^^^^^ ^"^"^ "^ 

_ • /. ^ . \ adlia chakkar 

^^^^ ^ ^^^ face. Jom^^^^^^^^ |^^ ^^^ ^ ^^.^.^ ^^^^^^. 

Irt^if^ ^^ paces mwars ^^^^ ^^^ ^ ka'i kadam hhltfi 

^TRHT^ — '^•f ^ Companies — on '=ft*-H«lT ^* ^T'^ kampani ka'i kadam 

TZ 'm t^^Z* '^^. ^^e "ght ya (or) ^^ ^JH" ^Tlf ^ ^«^«^^ 2/« ^«'^^ 

^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ backwards ^^" ^|| ^ ^^:^ khunt par p'lchhl 

wheeL ^ si chakkar khd'o. 

''F^ ^•f "^T ^ Form line on the ^W ^ «n*-Hnt ^ hlch ki kampani st 
f^^T ^^^ '^^- centre company. ^-^^-^ ^tjj ^cf harahar saf han 

* ^ * front, right about ^ ^ kampani dahne se 

^'^^^^ face. gri^RtTl^^^T. ^^^^ ^^^j^j^^^ 

VT '^WK f^Tf phird. 
^^P^^\^ '^•f ^ J^Z Companies on the <1^*"H«lT ^^%^ W^ kampani dahne 
^^ right backwards tj-^ lj^||^ ^ "^l^T ^^^^^t P^^ plchh't 
wheel. *\ se chakkar khd'o. 

Military Words of Command, 561 

^^^"^ T'f ^fr^ Advance in direct f^^ <^*-H«?t ^^^T tirchhi kampani 
T^^^^^^f^^. echellon of com- ^^^ TSij ^TT ^^'^^"^ ^"^^* ^^ 
-5v^ «-—,-« -,pv ^-p. panics from the ^^.^ r^. „^li -,-2i. ha*m kamar se 
* * right ya (or) left. * age barhb. 

lf^=^^^ T^ VJ Companies right ya ^'^^ ^^^T^ ^. kampani dahna ya 
f^^T Tl^^^ (or) left shoulders ^ 5irf VT ^^T^ ^^^^^ AawrfM 
^^^^ forward. &arAa'o. 

r^^l[^ VJ f%^. Subdivisions 3/a (or) ^TTVt **-M4t ^ fV. ^dhi kampani yd 
H-^TZ^^^ sections right 3^a f^f^ ^^ ^ toliyan dahne yd 
(or) left. ^^ " 6«'^^. 

f)M)<^*l #^ Reform line. ^ f^T ^T WnSt ?«/ P^i^ ^^w ja'o. 

5^ #^ ^f ift Form line on the ^PJ^ ^^TPft **-M«ft ag^ a^^J kampani 
^fi^^ftJpT leading division. '^fx fV^ % ^ ydtolisesafban 


















116, 19 -- 

118, 18 

120, 2 

121, 26 

- for ^ read ^ 
for rnrray read Wraj 

• for laye read layt 

• for diyt read diye 

9 f 

■ for \jSti read lyb 

■ for h^ {mislaii) read 5ll^ 

^^r ^j^ ghyaun read ^^ 

■ for ntnaya read ninaya 
' for bichchu read hichchhu 

• for 1^ c^ira read ll>- c^ira. 

127, 14 
138, 8 

142, 5 

143, 3 
160, 16 

166, 9 
168, 6 

^^ read (JuIj 

- for v^ 

- for A;b/[;A read kokh 

- for ra s^a read ra^sha 

- for wflitm read ndkra 

- for motiya read motiyd 

~ ^^^ «j.^ ghyaun read jj^-^ 

- for ^Z read ftl 

Page line 

174, 21 — kewdr read kewdr 

217, 19 — for 5a i read sa^i 

220, last — for hdr read ^a^^ 

225, 17 — for chiknal, read chiknd'i 

257, 30 — for khassiyat read khdssiyat 

296, 28 — for i^aA:!* read w;a^i* 

314, 14 — for thandl read thanddl 

321, 5 — for mildna read mildnd 

331, 24 — for ^a n read ta^n 

339, 4 — for liL^ read li^ 

352, 21 — for ^^^^ read ^^^ 

352, 31 — for hard read Jam 

358, 15 — for agmand read dgmand 

362, 15 ^ for c^-^ read ^^-^^ 

363, 13 — for ba-tadrij read ha-tadrij 
377, 29 — for ghalihan read gh dlihan 
380, 16 — for ^^ read fj-i 

385, 4 — forj^Js^b read ^^Jo^jI:^ 

386, 6 — for hharmila read hharmild 
402, 28 — for achchha read achchhd 
406, 29 — for JAa^a read 5Aa#a 
410, 7 — for hum read ^aw 

433, 2 — for^ read^;^ 












1 & 2 — dele the words after ^ 
1 & 2 — dele the words after Kishna 
5 — forjUx/*^ read jLvx.«c»" 

13 & 22 — for % substitute § 

28 — for Ub dalna read iJb dala 

last — for 31 read 30 

26 &30 —for 32 read 31 

31 —for 31 read 30 

9 — for inde . read indef. 
24 — for 32 read 31 

6— for'^l^'tread "^^ 
30 — for 32 read 31 

8 — for ^^^* read ^^^* 
30 — for 30 read 29 
26 —for 32 read 31 

19 -_ for ^irt^ read ^^t^'J 
23 & 26 — for 32 read 31 
21 — for 32 read 31 

14 — for T^T read T^ 
21 — for 32 read 31 

15 & 24 — for 32 read 31 

1 — for "^^ read ^T^ 

Page line 

499, 20 - 

500, 21 ■ 

506, 5 

507, 9 
507, 10 

507, 23 • 

508, 24 - 
523, last 

543, 23 

544, 19 

545, 20 

546, 10 

551, 23 

552, 25 

553, 6 
^bQ, 10 

557, 28 

558, 16 

- for 30 read 29 

- for 31 read 30 

- for ^T read ^T 

- for t^^T read t^T 

- for ^^T^T read ^^T^^ 

- for ^ read ^^ 

- for ^T read ^ 

- for 31 read 30 

- for Astell read Ostell 

- for ^ v^^ read ^f^^ 

- for t^r^i read ft^ 

- for ^li^ read ^^ 

- for adh read adhl 

- for ^^^^ read ^^^'T 

- for ^TT read ^K 

- for T' read T* 

- for f^^ read t^^^ 

- for T^T read ^"^ 


Return to desk from which borrowed. 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 

JAN 22 1918 ^/ 

jIVN 2t5 1948 


MAR 2 4 I960 

1 rb^MMoPf 

MAY 2 4 1960 t^' 
REC'D L_u 

MAY 26 1960 



LD 21-100m-9,'47(A5702sl6)476