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I 



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BartatB College librarj 

THE GIFT OF 
GINN AND COMPANY 



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3 2044 097 074 611 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 



BY 
HENRY S. LUPOLD 

INSTRUCTOR IN LATIN, 

CRBBTYIEW JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL, 

COLUMBUS, OHIO 



ipart ©ne 



D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS 

BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO 



£- JbuxSV o\ \ <T , I T. 5 4 



Copyright, 19 18, 
Bt D. C. Heath & Co, 



2e2 



Printed in U. S. A. 



PREFACE 

The way of the beginner in Latin is too often confined 
to those subjects in which, aside from memory, the 
powers of the mind find little chance of development. 
This fact, with the opinion that in the American schools 
the study of Latin is usually undertaken so late that 
every lesson of the first year must be planned with a 
view to covering an assignment and preparing for the 
second year work, led me to work out for myself a simple 
sentence method, adapted to the ability of the average 
seventh grade pupil. Out of seven years of successful 
experience with this method has grown this small volume 
for seventh grade pupils. 

The prime object in the preparation of this work is to 
achieve the utmost simplicity of treatment of subject 
matter, so as to render it easy to the pupil, thus sparing 
him the perplexities attendant upon the use of a regular 
first year Latin text until he is better able to cope with 
them. Instead of spending long hours from the begin- 
ning in endless drill on the rules of grammar, on declensions 
and conjugations, and on the perplexities of syntax, the 
pupil is, in his first lesson, introduced to the simple sen- 
tence, "Agricola aquam portat," as shown in the model 
lesson. The development of the translation of this sen- 
tence by English derivatives creates in every child an 
interest and desire to see the very close relation between 
Latin words and those of the English language, as well 

• • • 

ni 



IV PREFACE 

as an interest in finding the translation of the sentence. 
By careful questioning we are always pleasantly sur- 
prised at the number of English derivatives that the 
small seventh grade pupil can name. We also find that 
he shows much interest in the three possible English 
translations of the sentence, in the Latin word order, in 
the omission of the article in Latin, etc. 

After a thorough discussion of the above Latin sentence 
and the use of the most common English derivatives in 
sentences, the terms, subject and nominative case, are 
discussed in Lesson I. The use and the terminations 
in the singular and plural of the nominative case are 
given. Other sentences are used to show that the endings 
are "a" in the singular and "ae" in the plural. 

In like manner the most common use and the termina- 
tions of the accusative, genitive, dative, and ablative 
cases are studied and learned, new words, mostly Csesarean, 
being introduced in each new sentence, up to Lesson IX, 
when the pupil is able to form for himself the paradigm 
for first declension nouns. Further application of the 
first declension forms is then made by exercises from 
Latin into English and vice versa. 

Nouns of the second declension, masculine and neuter, 
adjectives of the first and second declensions, first conju- 
gation verbs, active and passive, second conjugation verbs, 
active, and the simplest and most common constructions 
of the various cases are very similarly treated. The book 
affords much drill for the application of all new phases of 
the work as they are presented. 

Review lessons are frequent. They embrace vocabu- 
laries, derivatives, and constructions. Many of these 



PREFACE V 

lessons contain Latin sentences using the different con- 
structions studied during a certain period of time. 

Short reading lessons and conversational exercises 
occur frequently in the latter part of the text to arouse 
interest and to prepare the pupil for his later connected 
reading of the language. 

Following the eighty-six lessons there are a few pages 
of abbreviations from the Latin, Latin phrases common 
in English, easy fables, poems, etc., to be used at the 
teacher's discretion during the year. 

Thus the pupil thoroughly familiarizes himself with a 
working vocabulary of about 175 words and with the 
use of approximately 700 English derivatives — which 
makes the work alive and interesting to him. He also 
lays for himself a sure foundation of a limited number of 
forms and fundamental constructions. 

Henby S. Lupold. 
Columbus, Ohio. 



SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS 

In the belief that pronunciation is best learned directly 
from the teacher, the use of the material on that subject 
at the beginning of the text is left to the discretion of the 
teacher. 

In connection with the earlier lessons on the develop- 
ment of the cases, etc., it is desirable that much time be 
.spent in oral work and in the correlation of English and 
Latin grammar. 

Throughout the entire course it is very desirable and 
profitable to develop the meaning of the new Latin words 
by English derivatives, to obtain as many common 
derivatives* as possible from each new word, to under- 
stand their meaning, and to use all the most common 
ones in good English sentences. Such work serves to 
relate the study of Latin more closely to the pupil's study 
of English, and so makes clear the great importance of 
the Latin element in the English language. 

It is profitable and quite necessary that particular 
attention be given to the review lessons as they occur 
in the book. 

Instead of the usual arrangement of lessons which 

must be divided into two or three assignments, this 

text provides short lessons which can usually be covered 

in a single assignment. The rate of progress through 

the book must, of course, be determined by the ability 

and aptitude of the class. It is found that with pupils 

vn 



vill SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS 

of the seventh grade much supervised study is very 
advantageous, and also insures economy of time. 

In conclusion, to those who are for the first time teach- 
ing Latin to the young beginners of the seventh grade, 
permit me to say that it is very easy for the adult to 
overestimate the ability of these young pupils and to 
underestimate the difficulties under which they struggle. 
Assume that they know no English grammar, present 
the work very slowly at first, repeat many times, and be 
patient with their crude mistakes. 



THE VALUE OF LATIN 

Latin, the language of the ancient Romans, derived 
its name from the Latini, who first spoke it. Later it was 
the chief language of the vast Roman Empire. 

The Latin language, however, extends much further 
than the Roman Empire. Physicians, lawyers, clergy- 
men, scientists, and scholars in general continue to study 
it, for many Latin terms are used in medicine, law, and 
the sciences. 

The study of Latin is valuable in business life. Since 
the majority of the words of the English language are of 
Latin origin, either directly or indirectly through the 
French language, it gives one a larger English vocabulary. 
Furthermore, accuracy and training in the careful choice 
of words are gained through the experience of translation. 

The study of Latin is of further importance to us, since 
the greatest works of English literature have been written 
by men who knew Latin. These works cannot easily be 
understood without a knowledge of that language, as 
they contain many famous Latin quotations, phrases, 
and even passages of great length. 

Another important reason for the study of Latin is 

that the Romance languages — Italian, French, Spanish, 

and Portuguese — are modern forms of it. If one knows 

Latin, he has the foundation of all these other languages 

and can easily learn any one of them. This is of direct 

concern to us, since these languages are spoken in most 

ix 



X THE VALUE OF LATIN 

parts of South America and Mexico, and in some parts of 
Canada and the United States. 

In these and other ways Latin is of great practical 
value in English and is closely connected with everyday 
life, so that anyone who wishes to become in the best 
sense efficient and intelligent cannot disregard the study 
of this language. 



CONTENTS 

Lmson Page 

Introduction 1 

Model Lesson 4 

I. Nominative Case 7 

II. Agreement op Verb 9 

III. Accusative Case 10 

IV. Genitive Case 11 

V. Dative Case 13 

VI. Ablative Case 14 

VII. Ablative Case (Continued) . . .15 

VIII. Review 16 

IX. First Declension 17 

X. Accusative op Limit 20 

XI. Predicate Adjective 21 

XII. Adjectives (Continued) .... 22 

XIII. Vocabulary 23 

XTV. English Derivatives . ; . . .24 

XV. Verbs 25 

XVI. Vocabulary . . . > . . .26 

XVII. Exercise 27 

XVIII. Exercise 28 

XIX. Review 28 

XX. Vocabulary 29 

XXI. Verbs (Continued) 30 

XXII. Verbs (Continued) 32 

xi 



xu 



CONTENTS 



Lesson 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 

XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

XXXVII. 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 

XL. 

XLI. 

XLII. 

XLIII. 

XLIV. 

XLV. 

XLVL 

XLVII. 

XLVIII. 

XLIX. 



Paob 

Vocabulary 34 

Exercise 35 

Second Declension 36 

Second Declension {Continued) . „ 37 

Vocabulary 38 

Exercise 38 

Exercise 39 

Adjectives in us 40 

Second Declension {Continued) . . 41 

Vocabulary 42 

Adjectives {Continued) .... 43 

Exercise 45 

Reading Lesson 46 

Dative with Adjectives .... 47 

Vocabulary 49 

Review op Second Declension . . 50 
Conjugation op Sum, Be . . . .51 

Exercise 52 

Exercise 53 

Reading Lesson 53 

Passive Voice 54 

Review op Active and Passive Forms op 

Verbs 56 

Exercise 56 

Exercise 57 

Ablative op Personal Agent ... 58 

Conversation Exercise .... 59 
Principal Parts op Verbs [ . . .60 





CONTENTS 


xm 


Lemon 
L. 




Page 
62 


LI. 




64 


Ln. 


Pluperfect Indicative Activb . 


. 65 


un. 


Exercise 


. 66 


uv. 


Future Perfect Indicative Active 


. 67 


LV. 


Exercise 


. 68 


LVI. 


Exercise 


. 69 


LVII. 




. 70 


LVIII. 


Ablative of the Place from Whicb 


[ . 71 


ux. 


Reading Lesson 


. 72 


LX. 


Review 


73 


LXI. 


Perfect Passive System . 


74 


LXII. 




. 76 


LXIII. 




77 


LXIV. 




78 


LXV. 


Exercise 


. 79 


LXVI. 


Future Perfect Tense 


. 80 


LXVII. 


Exercise 


81 


LXVIII. 




82 


LXIX. 




83 


LXX. 


Reading Lesson 


. 84 


LXXI. 


Masculine Nouns of the First De< 


3LEN- 




sion 


84 


LXXII. 


Nouns in -ius and -ium. Vocative 


Case 86 


LXXIII. 


Second Declension Nouns in -er an 


D -IR 87 


LXXIV. 


Exercise 


. 88 


LXXV. 


Second Declension Adjectives in -e 


R 89 


LXXVI. 


Ablative of Means or Instrument. 


91 



XIV 



CONTENTS 



Lxsson 

LXXVII. 
LXXVIII. 

LXXIX. 
LXXX. 

LXXXI. 

LXXXII. 
LXXXIII. 
LXXXIV. 

LXXXV. 
LXXXVI. 



Page 

Review op Second Declension . 92 

Vekbs — Second Conjugation ... 93 

Exercise 95 

Carolus et Poma ..... 96 

Vocabulary Review 97 

Second Conjugation. Perfect Tenses . 98 

Exercise 100 

Exercise 100 

Exercise 101 

Review Sentences 102 

Abbreviations prom Latin . . . 103 
Latin Words and Phrases Common in 

English 104 

Fables . . 106 

Poems 109 

Latin-English Vocabulary . . .113 

Vocabulary for Supplementary Matter 122 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

ALPHABET 

1. Latin has no w or j. 

2. The vowels are the letters a eiou and sometimes y. 
All other letters are consonants. 

3. J is used both as a vowel and as a consonant. It is 
a consonant when it stands before a vowel in the same 
syllable. 

SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS 

Vowels 

(Long) (Short) 

ft as in father a like the first a in aha 

$ as in prey e as in step 

i as in machine i as in pin 

6 asm old o as in obey 

u as oo in moon u as oo in foot 

Diphthongs 

Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels that are 
pronounced as one sound. 

ae like ai in aisle 
oe like oi in coin 
au like on in house 
ui is almost like we 
eu as in feud 
ei as in eight 
1 



2 INTRODUCTION TO LATEST 

Consonants 

Consonants have the same value as in English except 
that c and g are always hard, as in come and give. 

i consonant is like y in yes. 
t is always like t in time. 
v is like English w as in wood. 
s is always like s in sun. 

u followed by a vowel and after q> g, and sometimes s, 
is pronounced like Latin v. 
x is like ks or the x in extra. 
bs and bt are pronounced as ps and pt. 
In ch, ph, and th the h is silent. 

SYLLABLES 

1. Every Latin word has as many syllables as it has 
vowels and diphthongs ; thus ae-di'-fi-c6 has four syllables, 
ca'-sa, two. 

2. When a word is divided into syllables, a single con- 
sonant is joined with the vowel following : a-mi'-cus. 

3. If two or more consonants occur between vowels or 
diphthongs, the first consonant is put with the preceding 
vowel : lau-dan'-tur. But a consonant followed by I or r 
usually goes with the I or r : a-gri'-co-la, pu'-bli-cus. 

4. Doubled consonants are separated : pu-el'-la. 

5. The last syllable of a word is called the ultima. The 
next to the last, the penult; the one before the penult, the 
ardepenuU. 



QUANTITY— ACCENT 3 

QUANTITY 

1. Vowels are long (~~) or short ( w ). The long vowels 
are marked in this book ; unmarked vowels must be con- 
sidered short. Diphthongs are long and not marked. 

2. A vowel is short before another vowel or h : fi'-U-a ; 
nl'-hil. 

3. A vowel is short before a final m or t, before nd or n£, 
and before final I or r in words of more than one syllable : 
lau-d&'-b&m, pa-r&'-b&t, a-m&n'-dus, por-t&n'-tur, a'-ni-m&l. 

4. Vowels are long before nf, ns, nx, and net : In-fir'- 
mus, in'-su-la, s&n'-xi, func'-tus. 

5. Syllables as well as vowels are either long or short. 

6. A long syllable is one which contains a long vowel or 
diphthong, or one whose vowel is followed by two or more 
consonants (except when one consonant is followed by 
lor r): n&-tu'-ra, nau'-ta, vo-can'-tur. 

7. A syllable is short, if it ends in a short vowel : d6'- 
ml-na. But in the final syllable of a word the short vowel 
may be followed by a final consonant : dd'-mi-n&m. 

ACCENT 

1. Words of two syllables accent the first, or penult: 
f&'-ma, tu'-ba. 

2. Words of more than two syllables accent the penult 
when it is long, otherwise the antepenult: ha-bi-ta'-re. 
do'-mi-na. 

3. The syllables que, and ; -ve, or ; and -ne, the sign 
of a question, called enclitics, are attached to the ends of 
words. The syllable before an enclitic is always accented : 
nAr-rat'-que, vo-cant'-ve, pro-pe-rat'-ne. 



4 INTRODUCTION TO LATEST 

MODEL LESSON 

DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSLATION BY DERIVATIVES 

Agricola aquam portat 

i. What English words does agricola suggest? Can 
you give an English word containing the agric of agricola? 
Agriculture, agriculturist, etc. Who is an agricul- 
turist? What is the word used more commonly than 
agriculturist? Farmer. Agricola means farmer, the 
farmer, or a farmer. 

2. What English words does aquam suggest? Can 
you give an English word containing the aqua of aquam? 
Aquarium. What is an " aquarium"? It was named 
" aquarium" from the Latin word aqua, which means 
water. 

3. Can you give English words from portat? Words 
with port in them? Export, import, transport, etc. 
What is the meaning of "export"? To carry out of. 
Ex is the Latin meaning out of or from. Port means carry. 

4. What is the translation of the sentence into Eng- 
lish? The (or a) farmer carries water. In what other 
ways may we translate the sentence? The (or a) farmer 
is carrying water. The (or a) farmer does carry water. 
Do all these translations denote the same time? They 
do. Portat means carries, is carrying, or does carry. 
Every Latin verb in present time has the three transla- 
tions. 

5. How many words are there in the Latin sentence? 
How many in the English translation ? What is omitted 



DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSLATION 5 

in the Latin? There is no article in Latin. Agricola may 
mean farmer, the farmer, or a farmer. 

6. What part of the sentence is agricola or farmer t 
The subject^ 

7. Aquam or water t The receiver of the action of the 
verb is called the direct object. Notice the ending of the 
subject ; of the direct object. 

8. What are the English derivatives from agricola? 
Agriculture, agriculturist, agricultural. 

From aquam? Aquarium, aquatic, aqueduct, aqueous, 
terraqueous, subaqueous, etc. 

From port at? Port, portable, portableness, portly, 
portal, porter, portage, portcullis, port-folio, portico, port- 
manteau, export', ex'port, exportable, exportation, ex- 
ported, exporting, exporter, import', im'port, importable, 
importation, importer, imported, importing, important, 
importantly, importance, deport, deported, deportation, 
deporter, deportment, deportable, comport', com'port, 
comportable, comportment, report', reporter, reported, 
reporting, reportable, support', supportable, supported, 
supporter, supportless, transport', trans'port, transported, 
transportable, transporter, transportation, unportable, un- 
important, unsupportable, unsupported, unexportable, 
unimportable, unreportable, untransportable, unreported, 
unexported, unimported, untransported, pur'port, purport- 
ing, purported, re-export, re-exported, re-exportation, re-im- 
port, re-importation, re-imported, misreport, misreported, 
misreporting, insupportable, etc., etc. 

9. Discuss meanings of the more common derivatives 
and have the pupils use them in good English sentences. 



6 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

io. Teach the prefixes used in the above words ; as, 
comport, to carry together; (corn-port) 
deport, to carry down or from; (de-port) 
export, to carry out; (ex-port) 
import, to carry in; (im-port) 
report, to carry back; (re-port) 
transport, to carry across; (trans-port) 
support, to carry under, to carry up under; (sub-port) 
importable, not portable, not capable of being carried; 
(un-portable) 
re-export, to carry out again; (re-ex-port) 
misreport, to report wrong; (mia-re-port) 
ii. Teach new prefixes as they are used in the work. 



Aqricola abat 



NOMINATIVE CASE 



LESSON I 

NOMINATIVE CASE 

Agricola aquam portal. 

The farmer carries water. 
The farmer is carrying water. 
The farmer does carry water. 
A farmer carries water, etc. 

Agricolae aquam portant. 

The farmers carry water. 

The farmers are carrying water. 

The farmers do carry water. 

Nauta tvbam portal. The sailor carries a trumpet, etc. 

Nautae tvbam portant. The sailors carry a trumpet, etc. 

Nauta lunam special. The sailor looks at the moon. 

Nautae lunam spectant. The sailors look at the moon. 

RULES 

The subject of the finite verb is in the nominative 
case. 

When the nominative singular ends in a, the nomi- 
native plural is formed by changing the a to ae 
(pronounced like ai in aisle) . 

DERIVATIVES 

Develop as many as possible common English deriva- 
tives from each new Latin word. Discuss their meanings 
and have the most common ones used in sentences. 



8 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

From spectat : expect, expectation, expectant, expecter, 
expected, expecting, expectancy, inspect, inspection, in- 
spector, perspective, respect, respectable, respectability, 
respectful, suspect, circumspect, retrospect, aspect, unex- 
pectedly, spectator, speculation, spectacle, specimen, etc. 



SCHOLA ROMANA 



AGREEMENT OP VERB 9 

LESSON II 

AGREEMENT OF VERB 

Agriccila aquam -portal. The (or a) farmer carries 

water, etc. 

Agricolae aquam portant. The farmers carry water, etc. 

Nauta lunam special. The sailor looks at the moon. 

Nautae lunam spedant. The sailors look at the moon. 

Nauta viddriam reportat. Thesailor reportsthe victory. 

Nautae victonam reportant. The sailors report the victory. 

RULES 

A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 
The ending t in the third person singular becomes 
nt in the third person plural. 



Navis bt Nadth 



10 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 



LESSON III 
ACCUSATIVE CASE 

Agricola aquam portat. 

Agricola fabulam narrat. The farmer tells the story, etc. 

Agricolae f&bulas warrant. The farmers tell stories, etc. 

Reglna patriam amat. The queen loves her father- 

land. 

Reglnae patrias amant Queens love their fatherlands. 

Domina fQiam vocat. The lady calls her daughter. 

Dominae filias vocanL The ladies call their daughters. 

Filia ptcturam laudat. Her daughter praises the pic- 

ture. 

FUiae pictures laudant. Her daughters praise the pic- 
tures. 

Sagitta agricolam vulnerat. The arrow wounds the farmer. 

Sagittae agricolas vulnerant. The arrows wound the 

farmers. 

RULES 

The direct object in Latin is in the accusative case. 
When the accusative singular ends in am, the accu- 
sative plural is formed by changing the am to &s. 

Notes. — The normal Latin word order is subject, direct 
object, verb. 

Notice that the possessive adjectives, her, etc., may be 
put into the English, when they improve the translation. 



GENITIVE CASE 11 



LESSON IV 

GENITIVE CASE 

# 

Filia agricolae aquam portat. The farmer's daughter 

carries water. 
The daughter of the 
farmer carries water, 
etc. 

Filiaeagtico]&rumfdbuld8 ndrrant. The farmers' daugh- 
ters tell stories. 
The daughters of the 
farmers tell stories. 

Incolae insulae servos vocant. 

Filia dominae picturds laudat. 

Agricolae ndturam terrae laudant. 

Domina amlcitiam puellarum laudat. 

Regina patriam agricolae amat. < 

Puellae victoriam agricol&rum nuntianJt. 

Poetae patriam rSginae laudant 

RULES 

Possession in Latin is denoted by the genitive case. 
When the genitive singular ends in ae, the genitive 
plural is formed by changing the ae to Arum. 

Notes. — Notice that the English 's = ae and s' = drum. 
The genitive is often translated by a prepositional phrase 
introduced by of. 

The genitive usually stands after the noun it limits. 



12 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

Suggestion. — Change forms in sentences for variety in 
drill, as from singular to plural, and vice versa. For example : 

Puellae victoriam agricoltirum n&ntiant. 
PueUa victoriam agricoltirum nUntiat. 

Puella victSrids agricoltirum nuntiat. 
Puella victorias agricolae nuntiat. 

PueUae victorias agricoltirum nuntiant. 
Puellae victoriam agricolae nuntiant. 

Puella victoriam agricolae nUntiat. 
PueUae victorias agricolae nUnHant. 



Roman Whiting Materials 



DATIVE CASE 13 

LESSON V 
DATIVE CASE 

Agricola dominae ffibulam ndrrat. The farmer tells the 

lady a story. 
The farmer tells a 

story to the lady, 

etc. 
Agricolae dominis fdbidds ndrrant. The farmers tell the 

ladies stories. 
The farmers tell 

stories to the ladies. 
NaiUa ffliae lunam demonstrat. 
PueUae dominis curds ndrrant. 
Regina Belgis cenam parol. 
Flliae agricolae c&nam parant. 
Dominae puellis f fibulas poelae ndrrant. 
FUiae poetdrum agricolis cenam parant. 

RULES 

The indirect object in Latin is expressed by the 
dative case. 

The indirect object states to or for whom something 
is done. 

When the dative singular ends in ae, the dative 
plural is formed by changing the ae to Is. 

Note. — In Latin the indirect object generally stands 
before the direct object. 



14 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON VI 
ABLATIVE CASE 

Agricola in insula habitat. The farmer lives on the 

island, etc. 
A farmer lives on an island, 

etc. 
Agricolae in Insulls habitant. The farmers live on the 

islands. 
Columbae in silva volant. 
Nautae in Insulls habitant. 
Est 1 aqua in insula. 
Sunt columbae in silvis. 
Nautae in Insula sunt. 
Tuba in agricolae casa est. 
Est tuba in agricolae casa. _ 
Nautae et agricolae in terra Italiae habitant. 

RULES 

Place in or on which is expressed by the Latin 
preposition in with the ablative case. 

When the ablative singular ends in ft, the ablative 
plural is formed by changing the ft to is. 

Notes. — Notice that the dative and ablative plural have 
the same ending is. 

A vowel before ns is long, as the i in insula. 

1 Est, beginning a declarative sentence, there is; sunt, 
there are. 



ABLATIVE CASE 15 

LESSON VII 
ABLATIVE CASE (Continued) 

NaiUa cum agricolA habitat. The sailor lives with a 

farmer. 
Nautae cum agricolis habitant. The sailors live with the 

farmers. 
Dominae cum puellis nautas curant. 
NaiUa cum agricolis pugnai. 
Domina cum fOi& poetae habitat. 
Regina cum puellis servos voccti. 
Nautae cum feris pugnant. 
Agricola cum ffliA in casft habitat. 

RULES 

Accompaniment (association with) is expressed by 
the ablative case with the preposition cum (with). 
This is called the ablative of accompaniment. 




Tuba 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 
LESSON VIII 



Review thoroughly the vocabulary, derivatives, and 
rules of construction taught up to this point. 

EXERCISE 

Dominac vias Italiae laudant. 
Sunt ferae in provincia. 
Agricola Belgls fugam nautae reportat. 
Ptliae regmarum cum poeta habitant. 
Agricola vitam nautae non amat. 



Kalendae Aqbicolab 



FIRST DECLENSION 



17 



LESSON IX 
FIRST DECLENSION 

From the preceding work it is seen that there are five 
cases in Latin : the nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, 
and ablative. 

With these cases the following form for the declension 
of Latin nouns ending in a is made. 





Singular 






Case 


Use 


Terminations 


Nominative 


Subject 




a 


Genitive 


Possession 




ae 


Dative 


Indirect Object 




ae 


Accusative 


Direct Object 




am 


Ablative 


Place, Accompaniment 
Plural 


, etc. 


& 


Nominative 


Subject 




ae 


Genitive 


Possession 




ftrum 


Dative 


Indirect Object 




is 


Accusative 


Direct Object 




as 


Ablative 


Place, Accompaniment, 


, etc. 


is 


Comparis( 


on between English and Latin Cases 


English Case 


Latin Case 


Nominative 




Nominative 


Possessive 




Genitive 


i 


Objective with 


to or for 


Dative 




Objective — direct object 


Accusative 


Objective with by, in, with, from, etc. 


Ablative 


> 



18 


• 

INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 




Singular 


Nominative 


agricola 


a or the farmer 


Genitive 


agricolae 


of a farmer, or farmer's A 


Dative 


agricolae 


to or for a farmer | 


Accusative 


agricolam 


a farmer 1 


Ablative 


agricola 


by or with a farmer 1 




Plural | 


Nominative 


agricolae 


the farmers 


Genitive 


agricol&rum 


of the farmers or farmers' 


Dative 


agricolis 


to or for the farmers 


Accusative 


agricol&s 


the farmers 


Ablative 


agricolis 


by or with the farmers 



This is called the first or A Declension. Nouns of this 
declension are feminine, except a few which denote males; 
as agricola, farmer; nauta, sailor. 

The base is that part of a word which remains un- 
changed in inflection, as agricol in agricola. 

Decline like agricola : 

1. Insula. 2. Domina. 3. Fabula. 4. Silva. 
5. Aqua. 

Give English words suggested by each of these Latin 
words. 

* 

Decline like agricola : 

1. Fera. 2. Nauta. 3. Puella. 4. PoSta. 
5. Regina. 

Give the English translation of each form in the above 
declensions. 



FIRST DECLENSION 



EXERCISES 



Pronounce, give case and number, and translate each 
form in all the possible ways : 

1. Dominarum. 2. Insulae. 3. Agricolas. 
4. Poetae. 5. Silvia. 6. FabulS. 7. Dominae. 
8. Aquam. 9. Agricolls. 10. Silv&rum. 

Write the Latin for the following : 

1. For the farmers. 2. On the island. 3. The 
water (accusative). 4. Lady's. 5. The stories 
(accusative). 6. In the forest. 7. With the 
farmer. 8. Of the islands. 9. For the lady. 




Deniiuus Romanits 
coin with the head of Julius Caesar 



20 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON X 
ACCUSATIVE OF LIMIT 

PueUa aquam ad silvam portal. The girl carries water 

to the forest. 

Dominae jncturas ad port&s portant. The ladies carry pic- 
tures to the gates. 

Agricola aquam in silvam portal. The farmer carries 

water into the 
forest. 

Nautae in cas&s properant. The sailors hasten 

into the cottages. 

Columbae ad insulam volant. 

Nautae ad insulam properant. 

Belgae in silvas properant quia nautae incolds fugant. 

RULES 

Place to which is expressed in Latin by the preposi- 
tion ad with the accusative case. 

Place into which is expressed in Latin by the 
preposition in with the accusative case. 



Hasta 



PREDICATE ADJECTIVE 



21 



LESSON XI 
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE 



Porta est lata. 
Porta est alta. 
Porta est pulchra. 
Porta est magna 
Porta est alba. 
Porta est l&ta et alta. 
Portae sunt pulchrae. 
Portae sunt mcgnae. 
Portae sunt l&tae et altae. 
Ffta m insula est gr&ta. 
Sifca provinciae est d€nsa. 



The gate is wide. 
The gate is high. 
The gate is beautiful. 
The gate is large. 
The gate is white. 
The gate is wide and high. 
The gates are beautiful. 
The gates are large. 
The gates are wide and high. 
Life on an island is agreeable. 
The forest of the province is 
dense. 



RULES 

A predicate adjective is an adjective that stands in 
the predicate and refers back to the subject. 

A predicate adjective agrees with the subject in 
gender, number, and case. 

Any form of the verb be takes the same case after it 
as before it 

Note. — In English the predicate adjective is often called 
the attribute complement. 



22 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 



LESSON XII 
ADJECTIVES (Continued) 



The white gate is high. 

The large gate is beautiful. 

The high wide gate is 
white. 

The white gates are beau- 
tiful. 

The large gates are white. 



Porta alba est alia. 
Porta m&gna est pulchra. 
Porta alta et lata est alba. 

Portae albae sunt ptilchrae. 

Portae m&gnae sunt albae. 
Portae l&tae et altae sunt albae. The wide high gates are 

white. 

RULE 

An adjective directly modifying a noun agrees with 
it in gender, number, and case. 

From the above sentences we may form the following 
declension. 



Singular 

Norn, porta lata 

Gen. portae l&tae 

Dot. portae l&tae 

Ace. portam l&tam 

Abl. porta lata 



Plural 

Nom. portae l&tae 

Gen. port&rum l&t&rum 

Dot. portis latis 

Ace. port&s l&t&s 

Abl. portis latis 



EXERCISE 

Decline : 

1. Silva magna. 2. Aqua alta. 3. Insula l&ta. 



READING LESSON 23 

LESSON XIII 

VOCABULARY 

longa, long Ala, Alae, wing 

labfirat, he labors, works saepe, often 

timida, timid fugat, he drives away, puts to 

multa, much flight 

multae, many 

READING LESSON 
ITALIA 

Italia est terra pulchra. Viae ftaliae sunt longae 
et latae. In agris {fields) Italiae laborant agri- 
colae. Sunt silvae miignae in Italia. In silvis sunt 
ferae multae et columbae timidae. Columbae alas 
pulchras habent (have). Ferae columbas Baepe 
fugant. 



24 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 



LESSON XIV 
ENGLISH DERIVATIVES 

What Latin words are suggested by the following Eng- 
lish words? 



latitude 


portable 


preparatory 


inhabitant 


fabulous 


density 


agriculturist 


demonstration 


gratitude 


ferocious 


altitude 


laborious 


albino 


narrative 


vocative 



Give other English derivatives from the Latin words 
suggested. 

Give English derivatives from the following Latin 
words: 



ctira 


multa 


spectat 


p^gnant 


amat 


timida 


longa 


filia 


terra 


provincia 


luna 


patria 


pictura 


vulnerat 


laudat 




A Roman Slave's Collar 



VERBS 25 

LESSON XV 
VERBS 

In Latin the person of a verb is shown by its ending, 
which is called the personal ending. 

The following are the regular personal endings of the 
active voice : 

Singular Plural 

First person -6 or m, J -mus, we 

Second person -s, thou, you -tis, you, ye 

Third person -t, he, she, it -nt, they 

To form the present indicative add the personal end- 
ings to the present stem of the verb. 

Notes. — In the first person singular the & of the stem is 
dropped before 6. In the third persons the a becomes short 
before -t and -nt. A vowel is always short before nt or final t. 

To find the present stem of a verb drop the re from the 
present active infinitive. Portftre is the present active 
infinitive, to carry. Porta is the present stem. 

If the present infinitive ends in -are, the verb is of the 
first conjugation. 

Present Active Indicative 

Singular 

1. por'td, J carry, am carrying, do carry. 

2. por't&s, you carry, are carrying, do carry. 

3. por'tat, he, she, or it carries, is carrying, does carry. 



26 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

Plubal 

1. porta'mus, we carry, are carrying, do carry. 

2. porta'tis, you carry, are carrying, do carry. 

3. por'tant, they carry, are carrying, do carry. 



LESSON XVI 
VOCABULARY 

narr&re, to tell. am&re, to love, to like. 

habit&re, to live, to dwell. voc&re, to call. 

par&re, to prepare, make fugare, to drive away, to put 

ready. to flight. 

Iab6rare, to labor, to work. p gn&re, to fight. 

Find the present stem of each of the above verbs. 

Write all the forms in the present active indicative, 
singular and plural, and give all the English translations 
of each form. 

Review the English derivatives from these verbs. 




Denarius 



LESSON XVII 

EXERCISE 

Translate, give the person and number of each verb, 
and the construction of each noun in the following. For 
the construction of a noun give its case and the rule for 
the case. 

1. Domina filiam amat. 

2. Paramus. 

3. Laboro. 

4. PXcturas portas. 

5. Nautis fabulaa narratis. 

6. Cum agricola habito. 

7. Nautam vocant. 

8. Filias nautarum amamus. 

9. In Insulls habitatis. 
10. Dominas vocat. 



I 



28 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON XVIII 
EXERCISE 

Translate into Latin : 

1. She is carrying pictures. 

2. We do tell stories. 

3. You (sing.) love the forest. 

4. The ladies do like water. 

5. I am living on an island. 

6. You (plural) do work. 

7. He prepares. 

8. We are calling the sailors. 

9. You (sing.) are telling the farmers stories. 
10. They carry pictures to the cottage. 

LESSON XIX 
REVIEW 

Review thoroughly the vocabularies from Lesson VIII. 
Give much attention to English derivatives. 
Decline in Latin : 

1 . Long road. 

2. White wing. 

3. Faithful (flda) girl. 

4. Small (parva) dove. 

5. Beautiful rose (rosa). 



EXERCISES 29 

LESSON XX 

VOCABULARY 

Adjectives Adverbs 

bona, good ubi, where 

mala, bad cur, why 

fida, faithful n6n, not 
parva, small 

EXERCISES 

Translate into English : 

1. Ubi sunt silvae m gnae? 

2. Rosae albae sunt parvae. 

3. Puellae parvae rosas pulchrSs portant. 

4. Cur columbas non amatis? 

5. Vias provincial amo. 

Translate into Latin : 

1. We praise good girls. 

2. The white wings of the dove are beautiful. 

3. You (sing.) love. 

4. She praises the large gates. 

5. I do praise a wide street. 



30 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON XXI 
VERBS (Continued) 

The sign of the imperfect indicative is -bft. 
The imperfect indicative is formed by the present stem 
plus the tense sign, b&, plus the personal endings. 

ports, ba m • 

carrying was I. 

Imperfect. Active Indicative 

Singular 

1. port&l>am, / was carrying, carried, did carry. 

2. port&l>&s, you were carrying, etc. 

3. port&'bat, he, she, or it was carrying, etc. 

Plural 

1. port&b&'mus, we were carrying, carried, did carry. 

2. potrt&b&'tis, you were carrying, etc. 

3. port&'bint, they were carrying, etc. 

Notes. — The imperfect indicative represents an act as 
going on or progressing in past time, or as repeated in past 
time. 

A vowel before final m, t, and nt is short, as port&'b&m. 

EXERCISES 

Conjugate in the imperfect active indicative : 

1. Necare. 2. Laborare. 3. Pfignare, 4. Nar- 
rare. 5. Parare. 



VERBS 

Translate into English : 

1. Cenam parabamus. 

2. Dominls fSbulas narrabant. 

3. In insula m gna habitabas. 

4. Ctir pugnabatis? 

5. Puellas ad cenam vocabam. 

Translate into Latin : 

1. I was driving away the wild beasts. 

2. We were calling the girls. 

3. They were praising the sailor.' 

4. You (sing.) were telling a story. 

5. She was working. 



31 





Galeae 



32 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON XXII 
VERBS (Continued) 

The sign of the future indicative is -bi. 

The future indicative is formed by the present stem 
plus the tense sign, -bi, plus the personal endings. 

The i of the tense sign is dropped before the personal 
ending 6 in the first person singular, and becomes u before 
the ending nt in the third person plural. 

Future Active Indicative 

Singular 

1. porta'bd, I shall carry. 

2. portftlris, you will carry. 

3. porta'bit, he, she, or it will carry. 

Plural 



1. porta'bimus, we shall carry. 

2. porta'bitis, you will carry. 

3. porta'bunt, they will carry. 



EXERCISES 

Conjugate in the future indicative : 

1. Laudare. 2. Culpare. 3. Fugare. 4. Amare. 
5. laberare. 

Translate into English : 

1. Columbae silvam amabunt. 

2. In casa parva habitabo. 



VERBS i 

3. Fugara puellae laudabitis. 

4. Nautas ttberabimus. 

5. Cur ad insulam properabis? 

Translate into Latin : 

1. I shall praise a good dinner. 

2. They will work in the forests. 

3. You (sing.) will love. 

4. We shall fight. 

5. She will prepare dinner for [her] daughter. 



a Sacred Chickens 



34 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 



LESSON XXIII 
VOCABULARY 

culpare, to blame 
necare, to kiU 

EXERCISE 

Translate, giving the person, number, and tense of each 
verb: 



1. Vocabunt. 

2. Paramus. 

3. Laudabam. 

4. Pugnabatis. 

5. Amabis. 

6. Culpo. 

7. Fugare. 

8. Necabamus. 

9. Habitabitis. 



10. Laudabit. 

11. Servas liberabant. 

12. Puellis fabulam nar- 

rabo. 

13. Columbas fugabatis. 

14. Cum nautis bonis 

non pugnabit. 

15. Servam malam cul- 

pamus. 



EXERCISE 35 

LESSON XXIV 
EXERCISE 

Translate into Latin : 

1. I was calling. 

2. They will kill. 

3. You (sing.) were fighting. 

4. We shall praise. 

5. You (plu.) do love. 

6. I shall prepare. 

7. She was telling. 

8. We work. 

9. You (sing.) will call. 

10. They were living. 

11. We shall praise the good girl. 

12. Why were you (sing.) blaming the farmer? 

13. I shall kill the large wild beast. 

14. They were driving the doves away. 

15. The farmer praises [his] daughter. 



36 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 



LESSON XXV 
SECOND DECLENSION 

Dominus agricolam laudat. The master praises the 

farmer. 
Fllia domini agricolam laudat. The master's daughter 

praises the farmer. 
Puetta domin6 fdbulam ndrrat. The girl tells her master a 

story. 
Agricola dominum laudat. The farmer praises his 

master. 
Servos cum domind habitat. The slave lives with his 

master. 





Singular 


Terminations 


Nom. 


dominus 


US 


Gen. 


domini 


I 


DaL 


dominft 


5 


Ace. 


dominum 


urn 


Abl 


domind 


5 




Gladius 



SECOND DECLENSION 



37 



LESSON XXVI 
SECOND DECLENSION (Continued) 



Domini agricolds laudant. 

Fttiae domindrum agricolds laudant. 



Puellae dominis fabulds n&rrani. 
Agricolae dominfts vocant. 
Servi cum dominis habitant. 

Plural 

Norn, domini 

Gen. dominfrum 

Dai. dominis 

Ace. dominfts 

Abl. dominis 



The masters praise 
the farmers. 

The masters' daugh- 
ters praise the 
farmers. 

The girls tell the 
masters stories. 

The farmers call 
their masters. 

The slaves live with 
their masters. 

Terminations 
I 

drum 
Is 
5s 
Is 



Notes. — Nouns of the second declension end in I in the 
genitive singular. By dropping this I we find the base of 
the noun; as domin, the base of domini. 

Nouns in us are masculine. 

The final i and 6 in this declension are always long. 

The dative and ablative plural have the same endings as 
the nouns of the first declension. 



38 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON XXVII 

VOCABULARY 

amicus, -I, m., friend. equus, -I, m., horse. 

l€g&tus, -l, m., lieutenant, cibus, -I, m., food. 

ambassador. numerus, -I, m., number. 
murus, -I, m., wall. 

EXERCISE 

1. Decline the nouns in the above vocabulary. 

2. Give English derivatives from each of the Latin 
words in the vocabulary. 

LESSON XXVIII 
EXERCISE 

Translate into English : 

1. Cum servo. 

2. Numerum. 

3. Ad muros. 

4. Amicorum. 

5. In equo. 

6. Servus patriam amat. 

7. Cur legatum non laudas ? 

8. Sena cibum parant. 

9. Numerum puellarum laudamus. 
10. Dominus servum liberat. 



LESSON XXIX 



Translate into Latin : 

1. The wild beast kills the horses. 

2. Why does the master not free [his] slaves ? 

3. We are driving the horses away. 

4. You {sing.} blame the girls. 

5. The farmers are fighting with the sailors. 

6. You (plural) praise a faithful daughter. 

7. The fight is long. 

8. I praise a good fight. 

9. We carry food to the wall. 

10. I am telling my friends a number of long 
stories. 



40 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 



LESSON XXX 

ADJECTIVES IN US 

The masculine form of every adjective (except pulchra) 
so far given may be found by changing the ending a to us. 
The masculine form is declined like dominus. 





Singular 


Plural 


Norn. 


dominus bonus 


domini boni 


Gen. 


domini boni 


dominfrum bonftrum 


Dot. 


dominft bon6 


domiriis bonis 


Ace. 


dominum bonum 


dominds bonds 


Abl. 


dominft bon6 


dominis bonis 



EXERCISE 



Decline in Latin : 

1. Wicked slave. 

2. Pleasing friend. 

3. Good girl. 



4. Faithful lieutenant. 

5. Small horse. 




Circus Romanus 



SECOND DECLENSION 



41 



LESSON XXXI 
SECOND DECLENSION (Continued) 

Nouns of the second declension which end in -urn in the 
nominative singular are neuter. 

Neuter nouns of all declensions have the nominative 
and accusative cases alike, and in the plural these cases 
always end in -a. 

The neuter forms of every adjective (except pulchra) 
so far given may be found by changing the ending -a to 
-urn, as, longa, longum. This neuter form is declined like 
oppidum. 

Notice that the dative and ablative plural of the first 
and second declension nouns end in -is. 





Singular 




Plural 




Terminations 


Terminations 


Nom. 


oppidum 


urn 


oppida a 


Gen. 


oppidi 


i 


oppiddrum drum 


Dot. 


oppidd 


6 


oppidis is 


Ace. 


oppidum 


urn 


oppida a 


Abl. 


oppidd 


6 


oppidis is 



Note. — Compare very carefully the terminations of 
feminine, masculine, and neuter nouns. 




Lrruus 



42 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON XXXII 
VOCABULARY 

Nouhs Verbs Pronocnb 

bellum, -i, n., war. occupare, to seize, quis, who. 

dfinum, -I, n., gift. donare, to give. quern, whom. 

frumentum, -i, n., grain. quid, what. 

tetnplum, -I, n., temple. 
periculum. -i, n., danger. 

EXERCISE 

Decline: 

1. Great danger. 2. Small town. 3. White rose. 
4. Wicked slave. 5. Long war. 



ADJECTIVES 



43 



LESSON XXXIII 
ADJECTIVES (Continued) 

Latin adjectives are declined like nouns and, in order 
to agree with their nouns in gender, they have a mascu- 
line, a feminine, and a neuter form. 

Adjectives of the first-and-second declension have their 
feminine forms like nouns of the first declension, and their 
masculine and neuter forms like masculine and neuter 
nouns of the second declension. 





longus, long. Base, long. 








Singular 






Afasc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Nom. 


longus 


longa 


longum 


Gen. 


longi 


longae 


long! 


Dot. 


longd 


longae 


longd 


Ace. 


longum 


longam 


longum 


AU. 


longd 


longa 

Plural 


longd 




Afasc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Nom. 


longi 


longae 


longa 


Gen. 


longdrum 


longarum 


longdrum 


Dat. 


longis 


longis 


longis 


Ace. 


longds 


long&s 


longa 


AU. 


longis 


longis 


longis 



44 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

VOCABULARY 

Adjectives 
novus, nova, novum, new. 
clams, clara, clarum, clear, bright; famous. 
multus, multa, multum, muck; plural, many. 

Note. — Adjectives like these are always declined in the 
three genders. 

EXERCISE 

Decline in the three genders : 

1. Altus. 2. Bonus. 3. Latus. 4. Magnus. 
5. Malus. 



SlQNA RoUANA 

2. Signum 3. 



EXERCISE 45 

LESSON XXXIV 

EXERCISE 

Translate into English, giving the reason for the end- 
ing of each adjective : 

1. Frumentum multum portamus. 

2. Oppida sunt magna. 

3. Via est longa. 

4. Servi sunt mall. 

5. Serv5s bonos laudabO. 

6. Oppidum est clarum. 

7. Rosae sunt albae. 

8. Cui fabulam bonam narras? 

9. Equus bonus est parvus. 
10. Quern laudabatis. 




Tbmplum Jovis Capitolini 



46 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON XXXV 

READING LESSON 

QERMANIA 

GermSnia patria GermanOrum est. In silvis latls 
Germaniae sunt ferae multae. Multi German! in 
oppidls magnls et in vicis (villages) parvis habitant. 
Multi sunt agricolae. Bella Germanorum sunt 
magna. German! bellum amant et saepe pOgnant. 



Gaiub Julius Cesar 
Who twice invaded Germany 



DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES 47 



LESSON XXXVI 

DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES 

VOCABULARY 

Nouns 
oculus, -i, m., eye 
locus, -I, m., place, spot. Locus is neuter in the plural 

and is declined loca, loc6rum, etc. 
M&rcus, -I, m., Mdrcus, Mark 
forma, -ae, f ., beauty, form 

Adjectives 

iddneus, -a, -urn, fit, suitable (for) 
amicus, -a, -um, friendly (to) 
inimicus, a, -um, unfriendly (to), hostile (to) 
gr&tus, -a, -um, pleasing (to), agreeable (to) 
c&rus, -a, -um, dear (to) 
fidus, -a, -um, faithful (to) 
dignus, -a, -um, worthy, dignified 
meus, -a, -um, my, mine 

barbarus, -a, -um, strange, barbarous. As a noun, 
barbari, -drum, m. plural, savages, barbarians. 

RULE 

The dative is used with the adjectives iddneus, ami- 
cus, inimicus, gr&tus, c&rus, fidus, to denote the object 
toward which the given quality is directed. 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 



Translate . 

1. Locus est idoneus casae parvae. 

2. Donum meum erat l gratum MarcO. 

3. CQr erant barbarf inimlcl legato claro? 

4. Domina est arnica puellls. 

5. Forma reginae dfgnae erat grata oculis domi- 
narum. 

6. Serva erat iida reginae pulchrae. 
7.' Mea ftlia est cara puellae parvae. 

8. Patria est cara nautls et agricolls. 

9. Reglna erat arnica servls. 
10. ServT erant fldl domino. 

1 Srat, was; erant, were. 



DERIVATIVES 49 

LESSON XXXVII 
VOCABULARY 

Nouns 

cftpia, -ae, f., abundance, plenty 
animus, -I, m., mind, soul, heart 
annus, -i, m., year 
frftmenta, n. pi., standing grain 
. lftdus, -I, m., school, play 
pilum, -I, n., spear 
scutum, -I, n., shield 
verbum, -i, n., word 

Verbs 

c&l&re, to hide, conceal 
exclfim&re, to cry out, exclaim 
mftt&re, to change 

Adjectives 

antiquus, -a, -urn, old, ancient 
certus, -a, -um, certain, fixed 
m&tfirus, -a, -um, ripe, mature 
centum, indeclinable, hundred 

Discuss English derivatives from the Latin words in 
the vocabulary. 



50 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON XXXVIII 
REVIEW OF SECOND DECLENSION 

Translate into English : 

1. Frumenta sunt non matura in agris. 

2. Incolae cibum et aquam in silvas dfinsas 
portant. 

3. EBt in agris c6pia frQmentl. 

4. Ubi scuta et pfla celabatis? Scuta et plla in 
oppido celabamus. 

5. Legatus cum amicis Belgis dona parabit. 

6. Annus est longus. 

7. Verba domini animos servorum mutabunt. 

8. Servi in insula exclamabant. 

9. In liido erant centum puellae. 

10. ScQtum legati est longum. 

11. Kla ad oppidum portabitis. 

12. In oppidls antiquis erant multl barbari. 



CONJUGATION OF SUM 51 

LESSON XXXIX 
CONJUGATION OF SUM, BE 

Principal parts: sum, esse, fui. 

The present stem is -es ; the perfect, fu. 

Present Indicative 
Singular Plural 

1. sum, I am sumus, we are 

2. es, you are estis, you are 

3. est, he, she, or it is, there is sunt, they are, there are 

Imperfect Indicative 
Singular Plural 

1. eram, / was er&'mus, we were 

2. eras, you were er&'tis, you were 

3. erat, he, she, or it was, there erant, they were, there 

wm were 

Future Indicative 

Singular Plural 

1. erd, / shall be e'rimus, we shall be 

2. eris, you will be e'ritis, you will be 

3. erit, he, she, or it will be erunt, they will be 




Aecus 



2 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON XL 
EXERCISE 
Translate into English : 

1. In oppido eramus. 

2. Oppidum est magnum. 

3. Ubi eritis? In oppido? 

4. In silva erimus. 

5. Eras bonus. 

6. Eratis mail. 

7. Non mall sumus. 
8- Gflr non bonus es? 
9. Bellum erat longum. 

10. In insulis parvls erunt. 



READING LESSON 53 

LESSON XLI 
EXERCISE 

Translate into Latin: 

1. They are in the small town. 

2. You (plural) were bad. 

3. We shall be slaves. 

4. I am faithful. 

5. He was in the forest.' 

6. You (sing.) will be with (your) master. 

7. They will be good. 

8. You (plural) are faithful. 

9. We were with the ladies. 

10. She will be with the little girl. 

LESSON XLII 

READING LESSON 

MARCUS ET EQUUS 

Marcus in Italia habitabat. Amicus bonus Marco 
equum mSgnum et pulchrum donabat. Marcus 
equum amabat; equo aquam et frumentum saepe 
donabat. Olim (once upon a time) equus in silvam 
densam errabat (wandered). In silva erant ferae 
multae et magnae. Equus timidus magno in peri- 
culo erat, sed Marcus equum llberabat. 



54 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON XLIII 
PASSIVE VOICE 

The rules for forming the present, imperfect, and 
future indicative in the passive voice are the same as in 
the active voice, the passive personal endings taking the 
place of the active ones. 

The personal endings in the passive voice are : 



Singular 


w 


Plural 


First person 


-r 


-mur 


Second person 


-ris (re) 


-mint 


Third person 


-tur 


-ntur 



Present Indicative 

Singular 

• 1. por'tor, J am carried 

2. portar'is or porta're, you are carried 

3. portfi'tur, he, she, or it is carried 

Plural 

1. porta'mur, we are carried 

2. porta'mini, you are carried 

3. portan'tur, they are carried 

Imperfect Indicative 

Singular 

1. port&'bar, / was carried 

2. portaba'ris (re), you were carried 

3. portaba'tur, he, she, or it was carried 



PASSIVE VOICE 55 

Plural 

1. port&b&'mur, we were carried 

2. port&b&'mini, you were carried 

3. port&ban'tur, they were carried 

Future Indicative 

Singular 

1. portfi'bor, I shall be carried 

2. port&'beris (re), you will be carried 

3. port&'bitur, he, she, or it will be carried 

Plural 

1. porta'bimur, we shall be carried 

2. port&bi'mini, you will be carried 

3. port&bun'tur, they will be carried 

Notes. — Note the change in the vowel of the tense sign 
in the first and second persons in the singular, and in the 
third person in the plural of the future passive. 

A vowel before the final -r in words of more than one 
syllable is short, as in port&bor. 

Compare very carefully the English translation of the 
active and passive in each tense. 




Navis 



1 



56 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 



LESSON XLIV 

REVIEW OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE FORMS OF 

VERBS 

EXERCISE 

Conjugate in the present, imperfect, and future indica- 
tive in the passive voice : 

Laudare, amare, necare, vocare, and narrare. 



LESSON XLV 
EXERCISE 

Translate ; giving the tense, voice, person, and num- 
ber of each verb : 



1. Pugnabunt. 

2. Amamur. 

3. Laudabantur. 

4. Necabat. 

5. Necaris. 

6. Vocabimus. 

7. Vocabamini. 

8. Fugo. 



9. Culpabamus. 

10. Amabitur. 

11. Laudor. 

12. Narrabuntur. 

13. Narrabas. 

14. Necatis. 

15. Laudaberis. 

16. Pugnabam. 




IUMENTUM 



EXERCISE 57 



LESSON XLVI 
EXERCISE 

Translate into Latin : 

1. You (sing.) will be called, 

2. You (pi.) were telling. 

3. She does blame. 

4. I am praised. 

5. They were praised. 

6. We shall be loved. 

7. You (sing.) were carried. 

8. I was called. 

9. We were living. 

10. They will put to flight. 

11. I shall free. 

12. We shall be freed. 

13. They are loved. 

14. He will be killed. 

15. It was killed. 




lUGUM BT ArATBUM 



,^S INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON XLVII 
ABLATIVE OF PERSONAL AGENT 

RULE 

The personal agent with a passive verb is expressed 
by thv ablative with & or ab. 

Notks. — In this construction the English translation of 
A, at> is by. This ablative is used with passive verbs to indi- 
cate the person by whom an act is performed. 

A is used only before words beginning with a consonant ; 
%\> is used before either vowels or consonants. 

, EXERCISE 

Translate into English : 

1. Equus ab servo vulneratur. 

2. Fabula pulchra ab amlco meo narrabatur. 

3. Regnum a populo servabatur. 

4. Provincia a Belgis occupatur. 

5. Oppidum a Gallis occupabitur. 

6. Nautae a servis vulnerabuntur. 

7. Cena a filia agricolae parabatur. 

8. Populus oppidi a nautis servabitur. 



PlLUM 



CONVERSATION EXERCISE 59 

LESSON XLVIII 
CONVERSATION EXERCISE 

Quis columbam amat? 

Puella columbam amat. 
Cur puella columbam amat ? 

Puella columbam amat quia (because) columba 
pulchra est. 
Ubi columba habitat ? 

Columba in silva habitat. 
Quern laudatis? 

Agricolas laudamus quia agricolae laborant. 
Quern laudas ? 

Marcum laudo quia equum amat. 
Quid portatis? 

Rosas portamus. 
Cuius rosas portatis ? 

Rosas puellarum portamus. 
Quis servum laudat ? 

Dominus bonus servum laudat. 
Cur in insulis habitatis? 

Quia Insulas amamus. 
Cur Insulas amatis ? 

Quia sunt magnae et pulchrae. 
Cuius columbas liberabas? 

Columbas puellae Uberabam. 
Cui fabulam narrabis? 

Puellis bonis fabulam narrabo. 






60 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON XLIX 
PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS 

The principal parts of a Latin verb are : 

The first person singular of the present active indicative. 
The present active infinitive. 

The first person singular of the perfect active indicative, 
and the perfect passive participle. 

These are called the principal parts because when they 
are known all forms of the verb may readily be found. 

Pres. Ind. Pres. Inf. Perf. Ind. Per]. Part. 

port6 portfire portfivi portfitus 

The fixed parts of a verb, to which the different end- 
ings are added, are called stems. Every regular verb has 
three stems : present, perfect, and participial, correspond- 
ing to its principal parts. 

To find the present stem of a verb drop -re from the 
present active infinitive : portfire ; stem, porta-. 

To find the perfect stem, drop -i from the perfect in- 
dicative active : portfivi ; stem, portfiv-. 

To find the participial stem drop -us from the perfect 
passive participle : poirtfitus ; stem, pojrtfit-. 

Verbs whose present stems end in a are said to be of 
the first conjugation. In the first conjugation the first 
person of the perfect indicative active (the third part of 
the verb) is regularly formed by adding -vi to the present 
stem. 

The perfect passive participle (the fourth part of the 



PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS 61 

verb) is regularly formed by adding -tus to the present 
stem. 

EXERCISES 

Give the principal parte of : 

Narro, laudo, amo, occupo, and pQgnO. 

Write the three stems of each of the above verbs. 



A Vestal Virgin 



62 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON L 
PERFECT TENSES 

To find the perfect stem, drop -I from the perfect in- 
dicative active. 

The perfect (the English past and present perfect), 
the pluperfect (the English past perfect), and the future 
perfect indicative active are formed from the perfect stem. 

The perfect indicative active has its own characteristic 
personal endings. 

Singular Plural 

First person -I -imus 

Second person -isti -istis 

Third person -it -Srunt (-€re) 

The perfect tense is formed from the perfect stem plus 
the perfect personal endings. 

The perfect indicative represents an action as com- 
pleted at the present time, or it may simply represent 
something that happened in the past. 

Perfect Indicative Active 
Singular 

1. porta'vi, I carried, I have carried, I did carry 

2. portavis'ti, you carried, have carried, did carry 

3. porta'vit, he, she, or it carried 

he, she, or it has carried 
he, she, or it did carry 



PERFECT TENSES 



Plural 

1. porta'vimus, we carried 

we have carried 
we did carry 

2. portavis'tis, you carried 

you have carried 
you did carry 

3. portave'runt, they carried 

or they have carried 

portave're they did carry 

EXERCISE 



Translate into English : 

1. Pfignavistia. 

2. Narraverant. 

3. Habitavimus. 

4. Vocavi. 

5. Laudaverunt. 



6. Fugavisti. 

7. Habitavi. 

8. Pugnavit. 

9. Vocavimus. 
10. Laudavere. 



Youth Reading a Paptrdb Roll 



64 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON LI 
EXERCISE 

Translate into Latin : 

1. She has called. 

2. You (pi.) have fought. 

3. I have hastened. 

4. They have told. 

5. We have praised. 

6. They will call. 

7. I was praising. 

8. You (sing.) have loved, 

9. They have blamed. 

10. He freed. 

11. We did call. 

12. They loved. 

13. You (pi.) do hasten. 

14. I praised. 

15. She will praise. 




Anulus 



PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE 65 

LESSON LII 
PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE 

The pluperfect tense is formed from the perfect stem 
plus tense sign -era plus regular personal endings. 

The pluperfect indicative represents an action as com- 
pleted before some past time. 

Singular 

1. port&'veram, I had carried 

2. portfc'ver&s, you had carried 

3. port&'verat, he, she, or it had carried 

Plural 

1. port&ver&'mus, we had carried 

2. port&ver&'tis, you had carried 

3. port&'verant, they had carried 

EXERCISE 

Translate into English : 

1. Pugnaveramus. 6. Narravisti. 

2. Narrat. 7. Culpaveram. 

3. Laudabunt. 8. Habitaveratis. 

4. FugaverSs. 9. Habitavit. 

5. Amaverant. 10. Uberaverat. 



66 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 



LESSON LIII 
EXERCISE 



Translate into Latin : 



1. You (pi.) had hastened. 

2. He had loved. 

3. I had told. 

4. They have praised. 

5. They had praised. 

6. You (sing.) had fought. 

7. She was calling. 

8. I shall seize.. 

9. You (sing.) carry. 

10. We had freed. 

11. She has called. 

12. They had hastened. 

13. I did prepare. 

14. You (pi.) worked. 

15. We had told. 




GfNivs 

HVIVSIOCI 
NONTIS 




Arae 



FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE 67 

LESSON LIV 
FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE 

The future perfect tense is formed from the perfect 
stem plus tense sign -eri plus regular personal endings. 

The future perfect indicative represents an action as 
having taken place before some definite time in the future. 

Singular 

1. portfc'verfl, I shall have carried 

2. port&'veris, you will have carried 

3. portft'verit, he, she, or it will have carried 

Plural 

1. port&ve'rimus, we shall have carried 

2. port&ve'ritis, you will have carried 

3. port&'verint, they will have carried 

EXERCISE 

Translate into English : 

1. Necaverint. 6. Narrabit. 

2. Donavero. 7. Laudaveris. 

3. Occupaveratis. 8. Paraverimus. 

4. Necavisti. 9. Properabas. 

5. Donaverftis. 10. Properaverit. 



8 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON LV 
EXERCISE 

Translate into Latin : 

1. We shall have prepared. 

2. You (sing.) will have fought. 

3. They will have called. 

4. You (pi.) have praised. 

5. I had hastened. 

6. He will have killed. 

7. You (pi.) will have told. 

8. She will hasten. 

9. We have blamed. 

10. I shall have set free. 

11. I was calling. 

12. You (sing.) did prepare. 

13. He does announce. 

14. We shall have worked. 

15. They had blamed. 



LESSON LVI 



Translate into English : 

1. Puella columbas pulchras amavit. 

2. Domini servos maids culpaverint, 

3. Cur equum non libera visti? 

4. Feram mUgnam necaveramus. 

5. Servl ftdl ad muros altos properaverant. 

6. Marcus equls frumentum d5naverit. 

7. Amid Marcum laudaverunt. 

8. Servl in agris laboraverant. 

9. Properavistis. 

10. Ad oppidum properaveris. 



70 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON LVII 
EXERCISE 

Translate into Latin : 

1. Where had the girls worked ? 

2. We shall have told the story. 

3. I was praising [my] master. 

4. You (sing.) have driven away the doveB. 

5. You (pi.) live on the island. 

6. He will fight with the sailor. 

7. You (sing.) had seized the grain. 

8. They will have blamed [their] slaves. 

9. She has hastened into the town. 
10. I had worked in the forest. 



ABLATIVE OP THE PLACE PROM WHICH 71 

LESSON LVIII 

ABLATIVE OF THE PLACE FROM WHICH 

The place from which is expressed by the ablative 
with the prepositions a or ab, de, e or ex. 

a or ab, from, away from. 

dfi, from, down from. 

6 or ex, from, out from, out of. 

EXERCISE 
Translate into English : 

1. Monstrum magnum ex aqua ad terram pro- 
perat. 

2. Servus malus ex castrls arma portabit. 

3. Nautae a silva ad insulam properaverunt. 

4. Columbae albae de templo volabant. 

5. Multl amlci ex templo properant. 

6. Nautae cibum ab oppido ad insulam portabunt. 

7. Legatus ex oppido magno in vicum parvum 
properabat. 

8. Columbae de templ5 ad terram volant. 



Chubs Suction op a Rohan Road 



72 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON LIX 
READING LESSON 

MARCUS 

Marcus in casa, in insula magna habitavit. Olim 
erravit in silvam densam, ubi erant multae ferae. 
Ferae malae Marcum vulneraverunt, sed Marcus 
exclamavit. Agricolae ex agrTs in silvam densam 
properaverunt, feras fugaverunt et Marcum servfi- 
v§runt. 



Translate into English, giving special attention to form 
of verbs and construction of nouns : 

1. Galll multOs agrds in provincia vastaverunt. 

2. Agrl multi a GallTs vastantur. 

3. Marcus populo Italiae victoriam nuntiabit. 

4. Servf dominorum ex oppidls in provinciam 
frumentum portabftnt. 

5. Puella bona a femina mala culpabatur. 

6. Domina cum amico habitaverat. 

7. Domini servos fldos llberaverint. 

8. CSnffi bon:« il nautls laudabuntur. 

9. Nauta in insula magna habitat. 

10. Cur erant dominae servo inimlcae ? 

11. Fllia agricolae ad vicum properavit. 

12. Silva magna est densa. 



74 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON LXI 
PERFECT PASSIVE SYSTEM 

The perfect passive system is built on the participial 
stem, which is found by dropping the -us from the per- 
fect passive participle (the last one of the principal parts). 
The perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses in the 
passive voice are made by combining the participial stem, 
plus the endings seen in bonus, bona, bonum, to agree 
with the subject, with sum for the perfect, eram for the 
pluperfect, and er6 for the future perfect tense. 

Third Person Singular 

port&'tus est, he has been carried 

he was carried 
port&'ta est, she has been carried 

she was carried 
porta 'turn est, it has been carried 

it ivas carried 

Third Person Plural 

port&'ti sunt, they (mas.) have been carried 

they were carried 
port&'tae sunt, they (fern.) have been carried 

they were carried 
porta'ta sunt, they (neu.) have been carried 

they were carried 



PERFECT PASSIVE SYSTEM 

Perfect Tense 
Singular 

1. porta 'tus sum, / have been carried 

I was carried 

2. porta'tus es, you have been carried 

you were carried 

3. porta'tus est, he has been carried 

he was carried 

Plural 

1. porta'ti suraus, we have been carried 

we were carried 

2. porta 'tJ estis, you have been carried 

you were carried 

3. porta'ti sunt, they have been carried 

they were carried 



76 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON LXII 
EXHRCISB 
Translate into Englia h : 

1. Oppida fi servis occupata sunt 

2. LaudatI sumus. 

3. Equus necatus est. 

4. Fabula a puella narrata eat. 

5. Fabulae narratae sunt. 

6. A nautfe vulneratl estis. 

7. Vulnerata es. 

8. Servatus sum. 

9. Servi a dominls servatl sunt. 

10. Laudata sum. 

11. Aniatae sumus. 

12. Monstrum necatum est. 



EXERCISE 77 

LESSON LXIII 
EXERCISE 

Translate into Latin : 

1. We have been wounded by the slave. 

2. You (sing.) have been praised. 

3. Food has been prepared. 

4. The wild beasts have been killed by the sailors. 

5. You (pi.) have been excited. 

6. She has been wounded. 

7. The town has been seized by the wicked 
farmers. 

8. The land has been laid waste. 

9. The victories have been announced by a 
faithful slave. 

10. I have been freed. 

11. The slaves have been called. 

12. The grain has been given. 




Scorpio 



78 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON LXIV 

PLUPERFECT TENSE 

Singular 

1. porta'tus eram, / had been carried 

2. porta'tus eras, you had been carried 

3. porta'tus erat, he had been carried 

Plural 

1. port&'ti era'mus, we had been carried 

2. porta 'ti era'tis, you had been carried 

3. porta'ti erant, they had been carried 

EXERCISE 

Translate into English : 

1. Victoria ab agricolis reportata erat. 

2. Puella bona creata erat. 

3. Vici multi occupati erant. 

4. Citati eramus. 

5. Amatus eras. 

6. A domina laudatus erat. 

7. Curat! eratis. 

8. A barbaris vulnerati eramus. 

9. Frumentum donatum erat. 

10. Servatus eram. 

11. Laudatae eramus. 

12. Oppida occupata erant. 



LESSON LXV 
EXERCISE 

Translate into Latin : 

1. The story had been told by the little girl. 

2. Many roads had been pointed out. 

3. I had been freed by the sailor. 

4. You (pi.) had been praised. 

5. The good horse had been killed by the wild 
wast. 

6. You (sing.) had been freed. 

7. We had been cared for. 

8. Beautiful gifts had been carried out of the 
own. 

9. Arms had been given to the good sailors. 

10. I had been blamed. 

11. You (pi.) had been called by the slaves. 



MlLITEB ROHANI LlQlONABTI 



80 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON LXVI 

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE 

Singular 

1. port&'tus erd, I shall have been carried 

2. porta 'tus eris, you will have been carried 

3. port&'tus erit, he will have been carried 

Plural 

1. port&'ti e'rimuSy we shall have been carried 

2. port&'ti e'ritis, you will have been carried 

3. port&'ti erunt, they will have been carried 

Translate into English : 

1. Superati erunt. 

2. A domino meo laudatus ero. 

3. Cibus a servo fido paratus erit. 

4. Oppida occupata erunt. 

5. Ctiratus eris. 

6. Creati erimus. 

7. Italia vastata erit. 

8. Servati eritis. 

9. Curatus ero. 

10. Superati erimus. 

11. Laudatae erunt. 

12. Laberata ero. 



LESSON LXVII 



Translate into Latin : 

1. I shall have been called to the town. 

2. The victory will have been announced. 

3. The slaves will have been conquered. 

4. He will have been praised by the sailors. 

5. You (sing.) will have been killed. 

6. The battles will have been reported by the 
barbarians. 

7. She will have been saved. 

8. You (pi.) will have been saved. 

9. I shall have been called. 

10. They will have been freed. 

11. The large monster will have been killed. 

12. Grainwill havebeen given by the good farmers. 



A Roman Litter 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 
LESSON LXVIII 



Translate into English : 

1. Servl a dominls vocati erant. 

2. Fabula ab amlco meo narrata erit. 

3. Oppidum 5 populo servatum erat. 

4. Vulnerati sumus. 

5. Laudatus eras. 

6. Provincial occupatae sunt. 

7. Provincia vastata erit. 

8. Ab incolis curat! estis. 

9. Servati eritis. 

10. Vocatus ero. 

11. Frumentum in oppidum portatum e 

12. VictOriae ndntiatae erunt. 

13. Cibus paratus erat. 

14. Aqua ab insula portata est. 

15. Culpatl eratis. 




LESSON LXIX 



Translate into Latin : 

1. The pictures had been carried to the town. 

2. Many horses had been killed. 

3. We shall have been called. 

4. You (sing.) will have been overcome. 

5. I shall have been wounded. 

6. A good road had been pointed out. 

7. A great battle had been reported. 

8. You (pi.) had been saved. 

9. A long story had been told by the little girl. 

10. A famous victory will have been announced. 

11. A beautiful rose has been given. 

12. We have been blamed by the slaves. 



A Roman Villa 



84 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON LXX 

READING LESSON 

ROMANl ET SABlNl 1 

Romulus Romam, pulchrum Italiae oppidum, 
aedificavit. Romanl in oppido habitaverunt. ValidI 2 
erant Romanl et patriam amaverunt. Saepe cum 
Sabinis pugnaverunt et saepe eos (them) supera- 
verunt. Olim erat victoria diu dubia. Nam Sabini 
arma bona habuerunt 3 et magna cum audacia pug- 
naverunt. Sed Romanl Sabinos fugaverunt. Cara 
Romanis erat ilia (that) victoria. 

1 Sabini = the Sabines, a tribe in Italy. 2 Valid! = strong. 

8 Habuerunt = they had. 

LESSON LXXI 
MASCULINE NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION 

Agricola bonus aquam portat. 
FUia agricolae boni f fibulas narrat. 
Nauta agricolae bond pecuniam donat. 
Puellae agricolam bonum vocant. 
Servi ab agricola bono laudantur. 

Singular 

Norn, agricola bonus 

Gen. agricolae boni 

Dat. agricolae bond 

Ace. agricolam bonum 

Abl. agricola bond 



FIRST DECLENSION — MASCULINE 85 

Agricolae boni patriam amant. 

Ddna agricolarum bondrum magna sunt 

Puettae agricolis bonis fdbulds ndrrant. 

Poeta agricol&s bonds laudaL 

Pirdtae cum agricolis bonis nbn habitant. 





Plural 


Nom. 


agricolae boni 


Gen. 


agricolarum bonSrum 


Dot. 


agricolis bonis 


Ace. 


agricolas bonds 


Abl. 


agricolis bonis 



When an adjective is used with a noun, it must show 
by its ending the same gender, number, and case. A 
masculine noun of the first declension takes a masculine 
adjective, which has the endings of the second declension. 

VOCABULARY 

Galba, -ae, m., Galba. 

pirata, -ae, m., pirate. 

po€ta, -ae, m., poet. 
Decline : 

1. Rrata malus. 2. Poeta clarus. 

Write the Latin for the following : 

1. Faithful sailor's. 

2. With the wicked sailor. 

3. Worthy poets (accusative). 

4. Of the good farmers. 

5. For the unfriendly pirate. 



86 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 



LESSON LXXII 
NOUNS IN -/MS AND -IUM. VOCATIVE CASS 

Nouns of the second declension in -ius and -ium end 
in -I in the genitive singular, not in -ii : filius, gen., fill ; 
praesidium, gen., praesi'di. These shortened genitive 
forms are accented on the syllable before the last, even 
if short. Adjectives are not thus contracted. 



Filius, m., son. 


Praesidium, n., garrison. 


Base, fili-. 

• 


Base, 
Singular 


praesidi-. 


Norn, filius 




praesidium 


Gen. fili 




praesidi 


Dat. f0i5 




praesidid 


Ace. filium 




praesidium 


Abl. fiU6 




praesidid 



The plural is regular. Note that the -i of the base is 
lost only in the genitive singular. 



VOCABULARY 

aedificium, aedifi'ci, n., building, edifice. 
filius, fili, m., son. 
nuntius, nunti, m., messenger. 
praesidium, praesi'di, n., garrison, guard. 
proelium, proeli, n., batlle. 



Decline : 

1. Nuntius fidus. 



2. Proelium longum. 






NOUNS IN -I US AND -IUM 



87 



The vocative is the case of direct address. In Latin it 
is regularly like the nominative. The following are the 
exceptions : 

1. Nouns of the second declension ending in -us like 
dominus have the vocative singular in -e, as domine, 
Master ! 

2. Proper nouns ending in -ius and also the common 
noun filius form the vocative singular in the same manner 
as the genitive singular; hence, Vergi'H and fill may 
be either genitive singular or vocative singular. 



EXERCISE 



Translate into English : 

1. Male serve. 

2. Male fill. 

3. Mali fill. 

4. Malifilii. 



5. Clare domine. 

6. Multorum proeliorum. 

7. Belli longi. 

8. Ad proelia dura. 



LESSON LXIII 
SECOND DECLENSION NOUNS IN -ER AND -IR 



Puer, 


m., boy. 


Base, puer- 


Age] 


r, m., field. 


Base, agr 




Singular 


Plural 




Singular 


Plural 


Nam. 


puer 


pueri 




ager 


agri 


Gen. 


pueri 


puerdrum 




agri 


agrdrum 


Dai. 


puerd 


pueris 




agr6 


agris 


Ace. 


puerum 


pueros 




agrum 


agrds 


AU. 


puerd 


pueris 




agr6 


agris 



88 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

In some words with bases ending in -r, the -e is inserted 
in the nominative singular only, for pronunciation. The 
genitive printed after a word in the vocabulary will show 
whether or not the e of the nominative appears in the 
other cases. 

VOCABULARY 

liber, libri, m., book. 
magister, magistri, m., master, teacher. 
signifer, signi'feri, m., standard-bearer. 
vir, viri, m., man. 



EXERCISE 

Decline in Latin : 

1. Strong standard-bearer. 3. Good messenger. 

2. New book. 4. Large building. 



LESSON LXXIV 
EXERCISE 

Translate into English : 

1. Nautae pueris bonis sagittas donant. 

2. Ubi sunt libra puellae? 

3. Legatus virum ftdum laudavit. 

4. Signifer signum magnum portaverat. 

5. Plratae mall in insula habitabant. 



SECOND DECLENSION ADJECTIVES IN -ER 89 

Translate into Latin : 

1. The small boys wandered into the large forest. 

2. The man's son is proud. 

3. The good slaves will work in (their) l masters' 
fields. 

4. The teacher was praising the small boy. 

5. Food had been prepared by the slave. 



LESSON LXXV 

SECOND DECLENSION ADJECTIVES IN -ER 

Adjectives of the first and second declensions with 
bases ending in -er have lost the termination -us in the 
nominative masculine singular. 

liber, libera, liberum, free, base, liber- 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, beautiful, base, pulchr- 







Singular 




Masc. 


Fern. 


Norn. 


liber 


libera 


Gen. 


liberi 


liberae 


Dot. 


liberd 


liberae 


Ace. 


liberum 


liberam 


AU. 


liberd 


libera 



Neut. 

liberum 

liberi 

liberd 

liberum 

liberd 



1 Words in parenthesis are not to be translated. 



90 



INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 





i 


Plural 






Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Norn. 


liberi 


liberae 


libera 


Gen. 


liberdrum 


liberarum 


liberdrum 


Dat. 


liberis 


liberis 


liberis 


Ace. 


liberds 


liber&s 


libera 


Abl. 


liberis 


liberis 

Singular 


liberis 


Norn. 


pulcher 


pulchra 


pulchrum 


Gen. 


pulchri 


pulchrae 


pulchri 


Dat. 


pulchrd 


pulchrae 


pulchr6 


Ace. 


pulchrum 


pulchram 


pulchrum 


Abl. 


pulchrd 


pulchrS. 

Plural 


pulchrO 


Norn. 


pulchri 


pulchrae 


pulchra 


Gen. 


pulchrdrum 


pulchrarum 


pulchrdrum 


Dat. 


pulchris 


pulchris 


pulchris 


Ace. 


pulchrds 


pulchras 


pulchra 


Abl 


pulchris 


pulchris 


pulchris 



Note. — The nominatives, feminine and neuter, show 
whether -er adjectives are declined like liber or pulcher. 



VOCABULARY 

asper, aspera, asperum, rough, harsh. 
miser, misera, miserum, wretched, unfortunate 
niger, nigra, nigrum, black. 
piger, pigra, pigrum, lazy. 

liberi, liberdrum, m., children (lit., the freeborn or free 
members of a household). 



ABLATIVE OP MEANS OR INSTRUMENT 91 

EXERCISE 
Translate into English : 

1. Sumus liberi viri. 

2. Femina misera est quia pueri pigri sunt. 

3. Via longa et aspera erat. 

4. Multl pueri equos nigros amant. 

5. Agricolae bonl flliabus 1 rosas pulchras dona- 
verunt. 

Translate into Latin : 

1. The woman has given (her) son a new book. 

2. The master of the slaves was harsh. 

3. We had often praised the good sailor. 

4. The slave is wretched because he is not free. 

5. The farmer will have worked with the lazy 
slave. 

LESSON LXXVI 

ABLATIVE OF MEANS OR INSTRUMENT 

Means or instrument is expressed by the ablative with- 
out a preposition. This answers the question " By means 
of what? " "With what?" 

Vir feram pfl6 necdvit. 

The man killed the wild beast with a javelin. 

Servl gladiis pugnabunt. 

The slaves will fight with swords. 

1 The dative and ablative plural of the first declension nouns, 
filia, daughter, and dea, goddess, end in -abus instead of -is. 



92 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

VOCABULARY 

art, ar&re, aravi, ar&tus, plow. 
d6, dare, dedi, datus, give. 
gladius, gladi, m., sword. 

Note the irregularities in the principal parts of d&. 
The stems are found in the regular way. 

EXERCISE 

Translate : 

1. Agricola validus agrum equis arabat. 

2. Tuba signum dabimus. 

3. Regina ad poetam clarum dona portaverat. 

4. Rratae mall nautas fidos gladiTs lonps neca- 
verunt. 

5. Galba columbam sagitta vulneravit. 

Translate into Latin : 

1. The strong sailors will put the lazy pirates to 
flight with spears. 

2. Famous poets will praise the beautiful queen. 

3. The bad master fights with a javelin. 

4. Galba had wounded the wild beast in the forest 
with an arrow. 

5. The farmers were carrying grain on large 
wagons. 

LESSON LXXVII 

REVIEW OF SECOND DECLENSION 

Review constructions, declension of nouns and adjec- 
tives, and verb forms in the following exercise. 



VERBS — SECOND CONJUGATION 93 

Translate into English : 

1. Magister puerum bonum laudavit. 

2. Fflius poetae timidus est. 

3. Ubi est liber novus ? 

4. Nuntium fidum semper (always) ctirabimus. 

5. Viri in vico frumentum celabant. 

6. Signifer ad bellum properabit. 

7. Erant equi albi in agro. 

8. Cum servo misero laborabam. 

9. Scutum fill validum erat. 

10. In templum picturas pulchras portaverimus. 

11. Nauta liber filiabus fidis peciiniam dedit. 

12. Locum idoneum castris parvis demonstraverat. 

13. Forma reginae pulchrae erat grata oculis 
dominarum. % 

14. Cur pills non pugnavistis ? 

15. Quern puer superbus culpat ? 



LESSON LXXVIII 

VERBS — SECOND CONJUGATION 

The same rules as to stem, tense sign, and personal 
endings are followed for forming the different indicative 
tenses in the second conjugation as in the first. 

Note that in the first person singular of the present 
tense e of the stem is retained but shortened before the 
personal ending -6 : moneO, I advise, I warn. 

Verbs of the second conjugation end in -Sre in the 
present infinitive. 



94 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

Pres. Ind. Pre8. Inf. Perf. Ind. Perf. Part. 

moned monSre monui monitus 

The present stem is mone- ; the perfect stem, monu- ; 
the participial stem, monit •. 

Present Active Indicative 
Singular 

1. mo'ned, I advise, am advising, do advise. 

2. mo'nSs, you advise, are advising, do advise. 

3. mo'net, he, she, or it advises, is advising, does advise. 

Plural 

1. mone'mus, we advise, are advising, do advise. 

2. mone'tis, you advise, are advising, do advise. 

3. mo'nent, they advise, are advising, do advise. 

Imperfect Active Indicative 
Singular 

1. mone'bam, I was advising, advised, did advise. 

2. mone'bas, you were advising, etc. 

3. mone'bat, he, she, or it was advising, etc. 

Plural 

1. moneba'mus, we were advising, advised, did advise 

2. moneba'tis, you were advising, etc. 

3. monS'bant, they were advising, etc. 

Future Active Indicative 

Singular 

1. monS'bd, I shall advise. 

2. mone'bis, you will advise. 

3. monSTut, he, she, or it will advise. 



EXERCISE 95 

Plural 

1. monS'bimus, we shall advise. 

2. monS'bitis, you will advise. 

3. monS'bunt, they will advise. 

VOCABULARY 

dSled, dSlSre, dSlSvi, dSlStus, destroy. 

habed, habere, habui, habitus, have, hold ; consider. 

moved, movfcre, m6vi, mdtus, move, castra movfcre, to 

break up camp. 
praebed, praebSre, praebui, praebitus, furnish, supply, 

offer (prae, forth, and habeo, hold). 
vided, vidSre, vidi, visus, see. 

Note. — Nearly all regular verbs ending in -ed belong to the 
second conjugation. 

Find the stems of each of the above verbs. 

Conjugate in the present, imperfect, and future active 
indicative and give all the English translations of each 
form: 

1. VidSre. 2. Habere. 3. Delere. 



LESSON LXXIX 

EXERCISE 

Translate, giving the person and number of each verb : 

1. Patriam caram non videbimus. 

2. Castra movet. 

3. Amicos bonos habetis. 

4. FrQmentum m&turum et aquam puram prae- 
beb5. 



96 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

5. Aedificium delebant. 

6. Marcum videbitis. 

7. Cur pueros monebas ? 

8. Viri frumentum publicum delebunt. 

9. Quis pecuniam praebebit ? 
10. Monstrum magnum vident. 

Translate into Latin: 

1. We often warn (our) small friends. 

2. The farmers will furnish food to the sailors. 

3. You [pi.) will consider. 

4. She will see the girl. 

5. You [sing.] were destroying the camp. 

6. I see the danger. 

7. They were breaking up camp. 

8. He has a number of weapons. 

9. We were building a wall. 

10. The free man will give many arms. 

LESSON LXXX 
CAROLUS ET POMA 

Carolus, agricolae ftlius, puer bonus erat sed 
amicos malos amavit. Agricola igitur puero cala- 
thum p5morum plenum dedit. Bona erant multa 
poma sed pauca erant mala. Puer donum dfligenter 
curat, sed poma mala maculant bona, et mox mala 
erant cuncta. Turn agricola fllium ita monuit: 
" Poma mala maculant bona, certe mall amlcl 
maculabunt puerum bonum." 



VOCABULARY REVIEW 



97 



cunctus, -a, -urn, all. 
pauci, -ae, -a, few. 



VOCABULARY 

calathus, -I, m., basket. 
pdmum, -I, n., apple. 
planus, -a, -urn, fidl, filled. 

(Followed by the genitive case.) 
macula, -Are, -&vi, -&tus, spoil, spot, igitur, therefore. 
certS, surety. ita, therefore, so, thus. 

dOigenter, carefully. turn, then. 



LESSON LXXXI 



VOCABULARY REVIEW 



aediflcium, aedifici, n. 
filius, fill, m. 
gladius, gladi, m. 
liber, librl, m. 
magister, magistri, m. 
nuntius, nuntl, m. 
pecunia, -ae, f . 
plr&ta, -ae, m. 
potta, -ae, m. 
praesidium, praesidi, n. 
proelium, proell, n. 
puer, pueri, m. 
signifer, signiferi, m. 
Vergilius, Vergili, m. 
vir, viri, m. 



asper, aspera, asperum. 
liber, libera, liberum. 
miser, misera, miserum. 
niger, nigra, nigrum, 
piger, pigra, pigrum. 
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum. 
ard, ar&re. 
d€le5, dSUre. 
dd, dare, 
habed, habere, 
moneo, monSre. 
moved, movSre. 
praebed, praebSre. 
vided, vidtre. 
semper. 



What Latin words are suggested by the following Eng- 
lish words? 



98 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 



library 


puerile 


admonish 


liberty 


equine 


oculist 


mural 


dative 


nautical 


peril 


pecuniary 


visualize 


filial 


gladiator 


laborious 


movement 


miserable 


evident 



Give other English derivatives from the Latin words 
suggested. 

LESSON LXXXII 

SECOND CONJUGATION. PERFECT TENSES 

The perfect tenses of second conjugation verbs are 
formed from the third principal part like the perfect 
tenses of first conjugation verbs. 

Perfect Indicative Active 

Singular 

1. mo'nui, I advised, have advised, did advise. 

2. monuis'ti, you advised, have advised, did advise. 

3. mo'nuit, he, she, or it advised, has advised, did advise. 

Plural 

1. monu'imus, we advised, have advised, did advise. 

2. monuis'tis, you advised, have advised, did advise. 

3. monuS'runt or monuS're, they advised, have advised, 
did advise. 

Pluperfect Indicative Active 
Singular 

1. monu'eram, I had advised. 

2. monu'er&s, you had advised. 

3. monu'erat, he, she, or it had advised. 






SECOND CONJUGATION — PERFECT TENSES 99 

Plural 

1. monuera'mus, we had advised. 

2. monuera'tis, you had advised. 

3. monu'erant, they had advised. 

Future Perfect Indicative Active 
Singular 

1. monu'erd, I shall have advised. 

2. monu'eris, you will have advised. 

3. monu'erit, he, she, or it will have advised. 

Plural 

1. monue'rimus, we shall have advised. 

2. monue'ritis, you will have advised. 

3. monu'erint, they will have advised. 

VOCABULARY 

compled, complere, complSvi, computus, fill up. 
debed, dSbere, d€bui, dSbitus, owe, ought. 
maned, manere, m&nsi, mansurus, remain. 
tened, tenere, tenui, hold, keep. 
timed, timere, timui, fear, be afraid of. 

EXERCISE 

Conjugate in all tenses of the active indicative, and 
give all the English translations of each form. 

1. Timere. 3. Tenere. 

2. Manere. 4. Dare. 



100 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON LXXXIII 

EXERCISE 

Translate into English : 

1. Timuerint. 6. DSleveramus. 

2. Mansistis. 7. Moveritis. 

3. Vidit. 8. Debueram. 

4. Tenueras. 9. Complevit. 

5. Habuerunt. 10. Monuerimus. 

Translate into Latin : 

1. He will have destroyed. 

2. You [pi] have feared. 

3. I had considered. 

4. They have held. 

5. You [sing.] will have remained. 

6. We had owed. 

7. She has warned. 

8. I shall have moved. 

9. You [pi.] had remained. 
10. We have destroyed. 

LESSON LXXXIV 
EXERCISE 

Translate, giving the person, number, and tense of each 
verb: 

1. Proelium cum barbaris vidimus, 

2. Ventus oppidum deleverat, 



REVIEW EXERCISES 101 

3. Amlcls pectiniam debuit. 

4. Famae perlcull oppidum compleverint. 

5. Cur in vico mansisti ? 

6. Quid timueratis ? 

7. Monstrum in Insula vlderint. 

8. Servl mall in agris manebunt. 

9. Viri validl periculum non timent. 
10. Ornamentum pulchrum tenebam. 



LESSON LXXXV 

EXERCISE 

Translate into Latin : 

1. I had seen the messenger's danger. 

2. We shall have remained in the old town. 

3. The men have destroyed the beautiful forest. 

4. The boy did not owe (his) friend money. 

5. You [pL] feared the teacher's words. 

6. Who had seen the lieutenant? 

7. The woman will remain in (her) daughter's 
cottage. 

8. Why were you [sing.] warning the wicked 
pirates ? 

9. We are breaking up camp. 

10. The free men will have held the town. 

11. They will remain. 

12. We have considered. 



102 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

LESSON LXXXVI 
REVIEW SENTENCES 

Translate into English : 

1. Viri magna cum audacia pugnaverant. 

2. In oppido parvo manebo. 

3. Liber a filio meo datus est. 

4. Magister pueris bonis fabulam narrabat. 

5. Gladium nunti vidimus. 

6. Quid tenebas? 

7. Feram sagittis vulneravistis. 

8. Cur poetae bono pecuniam non praebent ? 

9. Proelium cum barbaris timueramus. 

10. Liberos domini monuero. 

11. Cur servus miser ex agro in oppidum propera- 
bat? 

12. Quis vicum pulchrum delevit? 

13. Piratae pigri necati erant. 

14. A magistro laudamur. 

15. Ex templo vocaberis. 



ABBREVIATIONS FROM LATIN 



A.D. 


anno Domini, 


in the year of our Lord. 


A.M. 


ante meridiem, 


before noon. 


etc. 


et cetera, 


and the rest. 


i.e. 


id est, 


that is. 


N.B. 


notd bene, 


note well, take notice. 


P.M. 


post meridiem, 


after noon. 


P.S. 


post scrlptum, 


written after, postscript. 


vs. 


versus, 


against. 


ult. 


ultimo mense, 


last month. 


prox 


proximo mense, 


next month. 


inst. 


Instantl m&nse, 


the present month. 


M. 


merldies, 


noon. 


pro et con. 


pro et contrd, 


for and against. 



103 



LATIN WORDS AND PHRASES COM 

MON IN ENGLISH 



Alias, 

Alibi, 

Equilibrium, 

Exit, 

Ex tempore, 

Extemporaneous, 

Finis, 

Gratis, 

Impromptu, 

Maximum, 

Minimum, 

Omnibus, 

Simile, 

Vacuum, 

Vale, 

Verbatim, 

Veto, 

Via, 

Ante bellum, 

Post bellum, 

Multum in parvo, 

Pater noster, 



Otherwise. 
Elsewhere. 
Equal balance. 
Departure. 
At the time. 
At the time. 
The end. 
For nothing. 
Offhand. 
The greatest. 
The least. 
For all. 
A comparison. 
Empty space. 
Farewell. 
Word for word. 
I forbid. 
By the way of. 
Before the war. 
After the war. 
Much in little. 
Our Father. 
104 



LATIN WORDS AND PHRASES 



105 



Habeas corpus. 

Ad valorem, 

Alma Mater, 

Bona fide, 

Deo volente, 

Ex officio, 

Ex post facto, 

Fac simile, 

Magna Charta, 

Mirabile dictu, 

Pro et con, 

Post mortem, 

Pro tempore (pro tern), 

Subpoena, 

Tempus fugit, 

Una voce, 

Veni, vidi, vici, 

Vice versa, 

Viva voce, 

E pluribus unum, 

In pace, 

In meinoriam, 

Labor omnia vincit, 

Pax vobiscum, 

Per annum, 

Per capita, 

Per diem, 

Terra firma, 

Mens sana in corpore sano, 



Have the body. 

According to value. 

Gentle Mother. 

In good faith. 

God mlling. 

By virtue of the office. 

After the deed. 

An exact copy. 

The Great Charter. 

Strange to tell. 

For and against. 

After death. 

For the time. 

Under fear of penalty. 

Time flies. 

With one voice. 

I came } saw, conquered. 

The order being reversed. 

With the living voice. 

One out of many. 

In peace. 

In memory. 

Labor conquers all. 

Peace with you. 

By the year. 

By the person (head). 

By the day. 

Solid land. 

A sound mind in a sound body. 



FABLES 

THE KID AND THE WOLF 

Haedus * stans 2 in tecto 3 domus lupo 4 praeter- 
eunti 5 maledixit. 6 Cui lupus, " Non tu," 7 inquit, 
" sed tectum mihi 8 maledicit." Saepe locus et tem- 
pus homines timidos audaces 9 reddit. 10 

* kid * maledicio, speak ill of, abuse 

* standing 7 you 
9 tectum, -i, roof * me 

4 lupus, -i, wolf • bold, daring 

1 passing by 10 makes 

THE FOX AND THE GRAPES 

Vulpes x ad uvam 2 subsiliebat 3 sed earn 4 attin- 
gere 5 non poterat 6 tandem, defatigata 7 inani 8 la- 
bore, exclamavit ; "At nunc etiam 9 acerbae sunt, 
et eas edere nolo. ,, 10 Haec n fabula docet multos ea 
contemnere, 12 quae 13 assequi 14 non possint. 15 



»fox 


9 nunc etiam, after all 


J bunch of grapes 


10 1 do not wish 


1 leaped up 


"this 


«it 


u despise 


1 to reach 


19 what 


6 could, was able 


14 obtain 


7 exhausted 


18 they can, are able 


•vain 





106 



FABLES 107 

THE GOAT AND THE WOLF 

Lupus capram * in alta rape 2 stantem 8 conspica- 
tus, 4 " Cur non," inquit, " relinquis 5 nuda ilia 6 et 
sterilia 7 loca, et hue 8 descendis 9 in herbidos cam- 
p5s, 10 qui n tibi 12 laetum pabulum 18 offerunt? " 14 
Cui respondit capra : " Mihi non est in animo dulcia 
tutis praeponere." 15 

1 goat • you descend 

1 cliff, rock 10 fields, plains 

* standing n which . 
4 having seen lf you 

1 you leave u food 

6 those 14 offer 

7 unfruitful 1S I do not intend to prefer sweet 
1 hither things to safe ones 

THE DOG IN THE MANGER 

Canis iacebat x in praesepe, 2 et boves latrando 3 a 
pabulo arcebat. 4 Cui unus bourn dixit ; " Quanta 6 
ista invidia 6 est ! Non patens 7 alios cibum edere, 
quern 8 tu ipse 9 edere non potes ! " 10 

1 was lying • that jealousy (of yours) 

1 manger T you allow 

• by barking ■ which 

4 was keeping away * you yourself 

1 how great 10 can 

THE WOMAN AND THE HEN 

Mulier quaedam x habebat 2 gallinam, 8 quae 4 el 5 
cotidie ovum 6 pariebat 7 aureum. Mulier ita existi- 

1 a certain * had ' gallium, -ae, hen 4 which 

1 her, for her • egg 7 laid 



108 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

mabat : " Mea gallina sine dubio massam s ami 
intus s celat ; si galllnam occldara 10 omne " aurum 
atatim 1! possidebQ." " Itaque " earn oceidit. Sed 
nihil 16 in ea repperit ie nisi quod 17 in aliis gallnls 
reperitur. Maioribus 1S dlvitils u inhifibat M ; mi- 
nores " etiam perdidit. 2 * 

* quantity " reprrio, find 

' inside " nisi quod, except that 

11 occldo, kill » greater 

11 all " wealth 

« longed for 

"lost 



A Roman Fkeiqht Ship 



POEMS 

MICA, MICA, PARVA STELLA! 

Mica, mica, parva stella ! 
Miror quaenam sis, tarn bella ! 
Splendens eminus in illo, 
Alba velut gemma, caelo. 

Quando fervens Sol discessit, 
Nee calore prata pascit, 
Mox ostendis lumen purum, 
Micans, micans per obscurum. 

Tibi, noctti qui vagatur, 
Ob scintillulam gratatur ; 
Ni micares tu, non sciret 
Quas per vias errans iret. 

Meum saepe thalamum luce 

Specularis curiosa ; 

Neque carpseris soporem 

Donee venit Sol per auram. 

109 



HO INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

TWINKLE, TWINKLE, LITTLE STAR 

Twinkle, twinkle, little star ; 
How I wonder what you are ! 
Up above the world so high, 
Like a diamond in the sky. 

When the blazing sun is gone, 
When he nothing shines upon, 
Then you show your little light, 
Twinkle, twinkle, all the night. 

Then the traveler in the dark, 
Thanks you for your tiny spark ; 
He could not tell which way to go 
If you did not twinkle so. 

In the dark blue sky you keep, 
And often through my curtains peep ; 
For you never shut your eye 
Till the sun is in the sky. 

AMERICA 

Te cano, Patria, 
Candida libera ; 

Te refert 
Portus et exulum 
Et tumulus senum 
Libera montium 

Vox resonet. 



POEMS 111 

Sit modulatio ! 
libera natio 

Dulce canat ! 
Labra vigentia 
Ora faventia 
Saxa silentia 

Vox repleat. 

Tutor es tinicus 
Unus avum deus 

Laudo liberis ! 
Patria luceat 
Libera fulgeat 
Vis tua muniat 

Omnipotens. 

THE SHEPHERD PSALM 

Dominus regit me, et nihil mihi deerit. 

In loco pascuae ibi me conlocavit. 

Super aquam refectionis educavit me. 

Animam meam convertit. Deduxit me 

Super semitas iustitiae, propter nomen suum. 

Nam, et si ambulavero in medio umbrae mortis, 

Non timeb5 mala, quoniam tu mecum es. 

Virga tua et baculus tuus, ipsa me consolata sunt. 

Parasti in conspectu meo mensam, 

Adversus eos qui tribulant me. 

Impinguasti in oleo caput meum. 



112 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

Et calix meus inebrians quam praeclarus est ! 
Et misericordia tua subsequetur me 
Omnibus diebus vitae mgae, et ut inhabitem 
In domo Domini in longitudinem digram. 

THE LORD'S PRAYER 

Pater noster, qui es in caelis ; sanctificetur nomen 
tuum. Adveniat regnum tuum. Fiat voluntas tua, 
sicut in cael5 et in terra. Panem nostrum da nobis 
hodie. Et dlmittite nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos 
dlmittimus debitoribus nostris. Et ne nos inducas 
in tentationem, sed libera nos a malo ; namque tua 
sunt regnum, potentia et gloria, in aeterna. Amen ! 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 

Nouns of the First Declension 

agricola, -ae, m., farmer. 

&la, -ae, f., wing. 

amicitia, -ae, f ., friendship. 

aqua, -ae, f., water. 

aud&cia, -ae, f., boldness, audacity. 

Belgae, -arum, m., the Belgians. 

casa, -ae, f., hut, cottage. 

c£na, -ae, f., dinner. 

columba, -ae, f., dove. 

cdpia, -ae, f., abundance, plenty. Plural, cdpiae, -Arum 

troops. 
culpa, -ae, f., blame, fault. 
cura, -ae, f., care, pains. 

disciplina, -ae, f., instruction, training, discipline. 
domina, -ae, f., mistress, lady. 
f&bula, -ae, f., story, tale, fable. 
f&ma, -ae, f., report, rumor, fame, reputation. 
fgmina, -ae, f., woman. 
fera, -ae, f., wild beast. 

£Dia, -ae, f. (dat. and abl. plur. fOi&bus), daughter. 
forma, -ae, f., form, shape; appearance, beauty. 
fuga, -ae, f ., flight. 
Germ&nia, -ae, f., Germany. 

113 



114 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

Galba, -ae, m., Galba. 

gl6ria, -ae, f., glory, fame. 

hGra, -ae, f., hour. 

incola, -ae, m. and f., inhabitant. 

inopia, -ae, f., want, need, lack. 

insula, -ae, f., island. 

Italia, -ae, f., Italy. 

luna, -ae, f., mood. 

n&tftra, -ae, f., nature. 

nauta, -ae, m., sailor. 

patria, -ae, f., fatherland, native land. 

pecunia, -ae, f., money. 

pictura, -ae, f., picture. 

pirftta, -ae, m., pirate. 

poena, -ae, f., punishment, penalty. 

po£ta, -ae, m., poet. 

porta, -ae, f„ gate, door. 

prfvincia, -ae, f., territory, province. 

puella, -ae, f., girl, maiden. 

pugna, -ae, f., fight, battle. 

r£gina, -ae, f., queen. 

rosa, -ae, f., rose. 

sagitta, -ae, f., arrow. 

serva, -ae, f., slave. 

silva, -ae, f., wood, forest. 

superbia, -ae, f., pride, arrogance. 

terra, -ae, f., earth, land, ground. 

tuba, -ae, f., trumpet 

via, -ae, f., way, road, street. 

victdria, -ae, f., victory. 

vita, -ae, f., life. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY .115 

Masculine Nouns of the Second Declension 

ager, agri, m., field, farm. 

amicus, -I, m., friend. 

animus, -I, m., mind, heart; spirit, feeling. 

annus, -I, m., year. 

barbarus, -I, m., barbarian , savage. 

calathus, -I, m., basket. 

carrus, -I, m., cart, wagon. 

cibus, -I, m., food, victuals. 

equus, -I, m., horse. 

fflius, fill, m., son. 

gladius, gladi, m., sword. 

legatus, -I, m., ambassador, lieutenant. 

liberi, liberdrum, m., children. 

liber, libri, m., book. 

locus, -I, m. (plur. loca, -drum, n.), place, spot. 

ludus, -I, m., play, school. 

magister, magistri, m., master, teacher. 

Marcus, -I, m., Marcus, Mark. 

murus, -I, m., wall. 

ntunerus, -I, m., number. 

nuntius, nunti, m., messenger. 

oculus, I, m., eye. 

populus, -I, m., people. 

puer, pueri, m., boy. 

servus, -I, m., slave. 

signifer, slgniferi, m., standard-bearer 

ventus, -I, m., wind. 

vicus, -I, m., village. 

vir, viri, m., man. 



116. INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

Neuter Nouns of the Second Declension 

aedificium, aedifici, n., building, edifice. 

anna, -drum, n. (plur.), arms, weapons. 

bellum, -I, n., war. 

castra, -drum, n. (plur.), camp. 

ddnum, -I, n., gift, present. 

frumentum, -i, n., grain. 

mdnstrum, -I, n., monster. 

oppidum, -I, n., town. 

drnamentum, -I, n., ornament, jewel. 

periculum, -I, n., danger; trial, test. 

pHum, -I, n., spear, javelin. 

pdmum, -I, n., apple. 

praesidium, praesidi, n., garrison, guard. 

proelium, proeli, n., battle. 

regnum, -I, n., kingdom; sovereignty. 

scutum, -I, n., shield, buckler. 

signum, -I, n., signal; ensign, standard. 

telum, -l, n., weapon. 

templum, -i, n., temple, shrine. 

verbum, -i, n., word. 

Verbs 

aedificd, -are, -avi, -atus, build. 

amd, -are, -fivi, -atus, love, like, be fond of. 

ar6, -are, -avi, -atus, plow. 

c§16, -fire, -avi, -atus, conceal, hide. 

cit6, -fire, -avi, -fitus, rouse, stir up; excite. 

compleo, -ere, -§vi, -etus, fill up. 

cre6, -are, -avi, -fitus, make, elect, appoint. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 117 

culp6, -fire, -£vi, -fitus, blame, censure. 

curd, -Are, -fivi, -fitus, care /or, look after. 

d€be5, -€re, -ul, -itus, owe, ought 

d€le5, -fire, -5vi, -€tus, destroy. 

d&ndnstro, -Are, -fivi, -fitus, point out, show. 

dSsiderd, -fire, -fivl, -atus, long for. 

dd, dare, dedi, datus, give. 

ddnd, -fire, -£vi, -fitus, give. 

errd, -fire, -£vi, -fitus, wander, stray about. 

exclfimd, -fire, -fivl, -fitus, cry out, shout; exclaim. 

fugd, -fire, -fivi, -fitus, drive away, put to flight. 

habed, -€re, -ui, -itus, have, hold; consider. 

habits, -fire, -fivl, -fitus, dwell, inhabit, live. 

labdrd, -fire, -fivl, -fitus, labor, work. 

Iaud6, -fire, ^fivi, -fitus, praise. 

liberd, -fire, -fivl, -fitus, free, set free, liberate. 

maculo, -are, -avi, -fitus, spoil, spot. 

maned, -€re, mfinsi, mfinsurus, remain. 

moned, -5re, -ui, -itus, advise, warn. 

moved, -€re, mdvi, mdtus, move ; castra movSre, to break 

up camp. 
mutd, -fire, -fivl, -fitus, change. 
narro, -fire, -fivl, -atus, tell, relate. 
need, -fire, -fivl, -fitus, kill. 
nuntid, -fire, -fivl, -fitus, announce, report. 
occupy, -fire, -fivi, -fitus, seize, take possession of, occupy. 
par6, -fire, -fivl, -fitus, prepare, prepare for. 
port6, -fire, -fivi, -fitus, carry, bear. 
praebed, -fire, -ui, -itus, furnish, supply, offer. • 
properd, -fire, -fivi, -fitus, hasten, go quickly. 
pugnS, -fire, -fivi, -fitus, fight. 



118 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

reportd, -fire, -fivl, -atus, carry back; win, gain, report. 
serv6, -are, -fivl, -atus, save, keep, rescue. 
specto, -are, -fivl, -atus, look at, witness. 
sum, esse, fill, futurus (irreg. verb), be; exist 
superd, -are, -fivi, -fitus, conquer, overcome, surpass. 

tened, -ere, -ui, , hold, keep. 

timed, -ere, -ui, , fear, be afraid of. 

vfisto, -are, -fivi, -atus, lay waste, devastate. 

video, -Sre, vldi, visus, see. 

voc6, -are, -fivi, -atus, call, summon. 

vol6, -are, -fivi, -atus, fly. 

vulnerd, -fire, -fivi, -atus, wound, hurt. 

Adjectives 

albus, -a, -urn, white. 

altus, -a, -urn, high, tall, deep. 

amicus, -a, -urn, friendly. 

antiquus, -a, -urn, former, ancient, old. 

asper, aspera, asperum, harsh, rough. 

barbarus, -a, -urn, barbarous. 

bonus, -a, -urn, good, kind. 

cfirus, -a, -urn, dear, precious. 

centum, (indecl.) numeral, hundred. 

certus, -a, -um, certain, fixed, sure. 

clfirus, -a, -um, clear, bright; famous. 

cunctus, -a, -um, all. 

d€nsus, -a, -um, dense, thick. 

dignus, -a, -um, worthy. 

dubius, -a, -um, doubtful, dubious. 

durus, -a, -um, hard, tough; harsh. 

fidus, -a, -um, faithful. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 119 

firmus, -a, -urn, strong, stable, firm. 

gr&tus, -a, -urn, acceptable, pleasing, agreeable. 

iddneus, -a, -urn, suitable, fit. 

infirmus, -a, -urn, weak, infirm. 

inimicus, -a, -urn, unfriendly, hostile. 

l&tus, -a, -urn, wide, broad. 

liber, libera, liberum, free. 

longus, -a, -urn, long. 

m&gnus, -a, -urn, "large, great; loud. 

malus, -a, -urn, bad, wicked, evil. 

m&turus, -a, -um, ripe, mature. 

meus, -a, -um (possessive adj.), rny, mine. 

minis, -a, -um, wonderful. 

miser, misera, miserum, wretched, unfortunate. 

multus, -a, -um, much; plural, many. 

niger, nigra, nigrum, black. 

novus, -a, -um, new. 

parvus, -a, -um, small, little. 

pauci, -ae, -a, few. 

piger, pigra, pigrum, lazy. 

planus, -a, -um, full, filled. 

primus, -a, -um, first. 

publicus, -a, -um, public, of the people. 

pulcher, -chra, -chrum, beautiful, pretty. 

purus, -a, -um, pure. 

superbus, -a, -um, proud, haughty. 

suus, -a, -um (reflexive possessive adj.), his t her, its, their. 

timidus, -a, -um, timid. 

tuus, -a, -um (possessive adj.), your, yours. 

validus, -a, -um, strong, well, able. 

v£rus, -a, -um, true, actual. 



120 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

Adverbs 

bene, well. 

cert€, certainly. 

cur (interrogative), why, wherefore. 

diligenter, carefully. 

diu, for a long time, long. 

ita, therefore, so, thus. 

n6n, not. 

Slim, formerly, once upon a time. 

saepe, often, frequently. 

semper, always, forever. 

turn, then. 

ubi (interrogative), where, when. 

Prepositions 

& or ab, prep, with abl., from, away from, by. 

ad, prep, with ace, to, towards, near. 

cum, prep, with abl., with. 

d§, prep, with abl., from, down from; for, about, concerning. 

$ or ex, prep, with abl., from, out of, off. 

in, prep, with ace, into, against, at, upon; with abl., in, on. 

Conjunctions 

et, and, also. 

igitur, therefore. 

nam, for. 

quia, because. 

sed, fail, on the contrary. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 121 



Interrogative Pronouns 

cui, to whom, for whom. 
cuius, whose, of whom. 
quern, whom. 
quid, what. 
quis, who. 



VOCABULARY FOR SUPPLEMEN- 
TARY MATTER 

Nouns 

anima, -ae, f., breath, life. 

animal, -alis, n., animal. 

aura, -ae, f., air. 

aurum, -I, n., gold. 

avus, -I, m., grandfather. 

baculus, -I, m., staff, stick. 

bos, bovis (gen. plur., bovum), m. and f., ox, cow; plur., 

cattle. 
caelum, -I, n., sky, heavens. 
calix, calicis, m., cup, goblet. 
calor, -dris, m., heat, glow. 
canis, canis, m., dog. 
caput, capitis, n., head. 
conspectus, -us, m., sight, appearance. 
debitor, -5ris, m., debtor. 
debitum, -I, n., debt. 
deus, -I, m., god. 
dies, -€i, m., day. 
domus, -us, f., house, home. 
exsul, exsulis, m. and f., exile, banished person* 
gemma, -ae, f., jewel, gem. 
homd, hominis, m. and f., man, person. 

iustitia, -ae, f ., justice, uprightness. 

122 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 123 

labor, -dris, m., labor, toil. 

labrum, -I, n., lip. 

longitudo, -inis, f., length. 

lumen, -inis, n., light. 

lux, lucis, f., light. 

m£nsa, -ae, f., table. 

misericordia, -ae, f., pity, mercy, compassion. 

modulatid, -dnis, f., measure, proportion. 

mdns, montis, m., mountain. 

mors, mortis, f., death. 

mulier, -eris, f., woman. 

n&tid, -Arris, f., nation, race. 

nihil, n., indict., nothing. 

nomen, -inis, n., name. 

oleum, -i, n., oil. 

6s, 6ris, n., mouth, beak. 

panis, -is, m., bread. 

pascua, -ae, f., pasture. 

portus, -us, m., harbor, port. 

potentia, -ae, f ., might, power, force. 

pratum, -I, n., meadow. 

refectid, -dnis, f., refreshment, restoring. 

saxum, -i, n., rock, stone. 

scintillula, -ae, f., sparkle, little spark. 

semita, -ae, f., way, path. 

silentium, -i, n., silence. 

sdl, sdlis, m., sun. 

sopor, -dris, m., sleep, slumber. 

Stella, -ae, f., star. 

tempus, -oris, n., time. 

tentatio, -dnis, f., temptation. 

thalamum, -i, n., chamber. 



124 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

tumulus, -I, m., heap, mound. 
tutor, -dris, m., protector, defender. 
umbra, -ae, f., shadow, shade. 
virga, -ae, f., rod. 
vis (vis), f., strength, power, might. 
voluntas, -atis, f., will, wish. 
vox, vdcis, f., voice, cry, word. 

Verbs 

advenid, -Ire, -veni, -ventus, come, arrive. 
anibuld, -are, -avi, -atus, walk. 

cand, -ere, cecini, , sing. 

carpd, -ere, carpsi, carptus, pluck, nibble, enjoy. 

con-locd, -are, -avi, -atus, place, station. 

cdn-sdlor, -ari, -atus sum (deponent), comfort. 

con-vertd, -ere, -verti, -versus, turn, restore. 

d€-duc5, -ere, -duxi, -ductus, lead down, escort. 

d€-mittd, -ere, -misi, -missus, send down, let down, lower. 

d€-sum, -esse, -fui, -futurus, be wanting, lack. 

died, -ere, dud, dictus, say, speak, tell. 

dl-mittd, -ere, -misi, -missus, send away, dismiss. 

dis-ced6, -ere, -cessi, -cessurus, depart from, withdraw, 

leave. 
do, dare, dedi, datus, give. 
doced, -£re, -ui, -tus, teach, show. 
edd, -ere, §di, essus, eat. 
e-duc6, -are, -avi, -atus, bring up, nurture. 
e6, ire, ii (Ivi), iturus, go. 
ex-istimo, -are, -avi, -atus, estimate, think, judge. 
f erro, ferre, tuli, latus, bear, bring forth, yield. 
ferveO, -ere, , , be hot, glow. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 125 

fid, fieri, factus sum, be made, become, happen. 

fulged, -£re, fulsi, , lighten, glitter, glisten. 

fungor, fungi, functus sum (deponent), perform, do, exe- 
cute, fulfil. 

gr&tor, -ari, -&tus sum (deponent) , feel joy, rejoice. 

inipingud, -are, -&vi, -atus, make fat, anoint. 

in-duco, -ere, -duxi, -ductus, lead into, bring into. 

in-habit6, -fire, -fivi, -atus, dwell. 

inquit, said he, said she. 

luced, -§re, Ivad, , be light or clear, shine. 

mic6, -are, -ul, , quiver, flash, twinkle. 

miror, -&ri, -atus sum (deponent), wonder, wonder qJt. 

munid, -ire, -ivi, -itus, fortify, defend. 

ostendd, -ere, ostendi, ostentus, stretch out, show, display. 

p&scd, -ere, pfivi, p&stus, feed, tend. 

re-fer6, -ferre, rettuli, rel&tus, bear back, report. 

reg6, -ere, rSxi, rectus, govern, rule. 

re-ple6, -£re, -£vi, -etus, fill again, replenish. 

re-sono, -fire, -fivi, -atus, resound, reecho. 

sancio, -ire, sanxf, sanctus, make sacred, ordain, fix, ap- 
point. 

santificd, -Are, -ftvi, -&tus, sanctify; hallow. 

sci6, -ire, -Ivi, -itus, know. 

speculor, -Sri, -fitus sum (deponent), spy out, watch; peep. 

splended, -£re, , , shine. 

sub-sequor, -i, -secutus sum (deponent), follow closely. 

timed, -Sre, -ui, , fear, be afraid of. 

tribuld, -&re, -&vi, -&tus, trouble, harass. 

vagor, -ari, -atus sum (deponent), wander. 

venio, -ire, vSni, venturus, come. 

viged, -gre, , , live, thrive, be robust, flourish. 



126 INTRODUCTION TO LATIN 

Adjectives 

acerbus, -a -urn, bitter, sharp; cruel, harsh. 

adversus, -a, -urn, turned against, facing; unfavorable. 

aeternus, -a, -urn, eternal. 

alius, -a, -um (gen. -ius, dat. -i), another, other. 

aureus, -a, -um, golden. 

bellus, -a, -um, pretty. 

candidus, -a, -um, white, fair. 

curidsus, -a, -um, inquisitive, curious. 

dulcis, dulce, sweet, pleasant. 

herbidus, -a, -um, grassy. 

in€bri&ns, -antis, filled full, running over. 

laetus, -a, -um, glad, joyful. 

medius, -a, -um, middle, in the middle. 

nudus, -a, -um, bare, exposed. 

obscurus, -a, -um, dark, obscure. 

omnipotens, -entis, mighty, omnipotent. 

praeclarus, -a, -um, noble, excellent. 

senex, senis, old. 

unicus, -a, -um, single, only, alone, rare. 

unus, -a, -um, one. 

Adverbs 
cotidiS, daily. 

Sminus, from afar, at a distance. 

ho-die, to-day. 

ibi, there, in that place. 

ita, so, thus. sic-ut, just as, as if. 

mox, soon, presently. tarn, so, such. 

noctu, at night, by night. tandem, at length, finally. 

quam, how, than. vel-ut, as, like as, just. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 127 

Prepositions 

per, prep, with ace, through, by means of. 
propter, prep, with ace, on account of y because of. 
sine, prep, with abl., without. 
super, prep, with ace. and abl., over, above. 

Conjunctions 
at, but. 

ddnec, until. 

nam-que, for, inasmuch as. 

n€, in order that not, lest. 

nee, and not, nor. 

ni, if not, unless. 

quandd, when. 

quoniam, since. 

si, if. 

ut, that, in order that. 

Pronouns 

hie, haec, hoc, demonstrative adj. and pron., this (of mine). 
ille, ilia, illud, demonstrative adj. and pron., that (yonder). 
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, intensive, that very; self, himself, her- 
self, itself. 
is, ea, id, demonstrative adj. and pron., this, that; he, she, it 
n6s, personal, we. 

noster, -tra, -trum, possessive adj. and pron., our, ours. 
qui, quae, quod, relative, who, which, what, that. 
qulnam, quaenam, quidnam, interrogative, who, what. 
tu, personal, thou, you.