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M.A. (OXON), 








-^/ u> 

Ganthaarena niaguruno Siri- 

Arthur. Anthony. Macdonbll. 

-acarianarindassa Baillatitthatthassa 

nam a 

aavvaim uvaaranaim sumaria 

imassa potthaassa adimmi 





Degree courses in Sanskrit almost invariably include a 
Drama, of which a considerable portion is in Prakrit. In 
practice, whatever Examiners may imagine, the student reads 
the Sanskrit chayd, which most editions provide for him on the 
same page. At any rate he begins that way ; reading the 
Prakrit afterwards, noticing certain similarities, and some of 
the differences, so that he may be able to recognize a passage, 
with which he is already familiar in its Sanskrit form, and 
perhaps in an English translation. Even the more advanced 
student who reads the Prakrit as it comes, at the slightest 
check looks down at the ' shadow.' Consequently few students 
have any definite knowledge of any one of the Prakrits One 
cannot blame them. Tlie editions they use are often incorrect 
in the Prakrit portions, and there is no convenient book of 
reference on which they can find definite rules. One object of 
this Introduction to Prakrit is to provide students with a guide 
for the more attentive and more scholarly study of the Saura- 
seni and Maharastri passages in their Sanskrit Plays. 

The main object however is to assist the student of the 
History of the great Indo- Aryan Language from Vedic times 
to the present day. The Indian student starts with an inti- 
mate knowledge of at least one modern Indo-Aryan language. 
In the Sanskrit he learns at school, he becomes familiarised 
with the stereotyped literary form of the ancient language. 
If he studies Sanskrit in the University, he will discover that 
the Vedic language represents a still more ancient stage of 


Indo- Aryan. For this there are accurate texts, and many 
works of reference available.' 

The middle stage has been comparatively neglected. In 
India itself, the mediaeval Prakrits are in a more real sense 
dead languages, than is Sanskrit itself. Outside India scholars 
have found in Pali, the language of the oldest Buddliist 
Scriptures, a convenient representative of this stage. The 
student of Indo- Aryan Philology needs a clear view of tlie 
main characteristics of the diflFerent Prakrits. It is hoped that 
this work may prove useful for this purpose. 

Method of Study. Perhaps the best plan is to begin with 
the thorough study of one dialect, afterwards comparing others 
with this as a standard. This was the method of the Indian 
grammarians who took Maharastri as their standard. But the 
only fyroae extant in Maharastri was written by Jains, and that 
not in the same dialect as the songs in the dramas. There are 
excellent aids to the study of Pali, but Pah is too archaic to 
make a good central point, and it is a separate subject in our 
curricula, and generally regarded as appropriate only to 
students of Buddhism. Moreover the Sanskrit student does 
actually first come into contact with Prakrit in the plays, and 
most of it is Sauraseni. For this, among other reasons, it has 
been thought desirable to present a general view of the subject, 
with special stress on Sauraseni and Maharastri. 

The student making use of this book is advised to read the 
general sections, and to study the chapters on Phonetics and 
Grammar with special reference to the two main Dramatic 

' Particularly recommended : A Vedic (>iinnninr for Students by 
Prof. .A. A. Macdonell, Clarendon Press. 19)1). 


Prakrits. The more important examples are printed in bold 
type, and may be memorised. The Extracts 1 to 14 should 
then be thoroughly mastered, and the knowledge acquired 
applied to any play the student may be reading.' 

The next step will be more philological, consisting in the 
comparison of the several stages and dialects as far as they are 
described in Chapters IV to X, and illustrated in Extracts 15 
to the end.* 

The specimens of PaH and of old Prakrit are intended as 
inducements to further study. 

Modern forms have been occasionally quoted to show the 
historical continuity of words from ancient times. The student 
should be able to connect up a much larger number of forms 
from his mother tongue. 

The Index is intended partly for convenience of reference, 
and partly to provide an instrument by which one may test 
one's ability to explain forms, and to recognize them out of 
their context. 

Transliteration. The Roman script has been used for 
several reasons. Over a dozen years of teaching experience has 
convinced the writer that the slovenly spelling, so prevalent in 
both Roman and Devanagari scripts, is partly due to the fact 
that Hindi and Sanskrit are written in the same script, but 
with slightly different sound-values. A word written in Deva- 
nagrl may be pronounced as in Sanskrit or as in Hindi, e.g. — 
HJWTf, as hhagavan or as bhagvdn, VH as dharma or dharam, 

' If he will read a play for the sake of these two Prakrits only, let him 
choose KarpCiramanjari (Konow's Edition). 

2 The most interesting play for variety of dialect is the Mrcchakatikam. 


^I«5 as mmaveda — or samved and so on. Confusion is in- 
creased if the student has to distinguish a Prakrit pronuncia- 
tion when the spelling is identical witli that of a modern word. 

Another reason is that the Roman script being more atomic 
than Devanagarl has advantages for stating phonetic laws in 

Moreover any Indian student who aims at keeping abreast 
with modern scholarship should make himself thoroughly fami- 
liar with the use of this script. To make use of many books of 
reference, and Oriental Journals, it is almost as important to 
him, as Devanagarl to the Western scholar. 

These reasons seemed to outweigh the disadvantages of 
increased labour in proof-reading, and tlie initial feeling of un- 
familiarity with Sanskrit in this guise that may be experienced 
by the beginner. 

On doubtful points, such as derivations where "Doctors 
disagree," the authority of Pischel has generally been followed. 
Controversy has generally been avoided, and where any refer- 
ence has been made to rival theories or matters of dispute, 
it is only to suggest to the student fields of enquiry that still 
await his enterprise. 

Apart from facilitating the study of the Indian Drama, and 
of Indian Philology, it is hoped that this little book may lead 
some of our students and graduates to take an interest in the 
great field of Indian thought and literature that lies outside the 
Sanskrit circle. Without some knowledge of this, it is impos- 
sible to obtain an adequate idea of the life of mediaeval India. 







-^ a 



T i 

^ u 




For Sanskrit add "^ r, "^ f, «? 1, ^ ai, and %T 


Note 1. mT. and ^'^3 in Prakrit should strictly be written ai and avi 
to distinguish them from the Sanskrit diphthongs ^ ai, ^ 
au ; but as the latter do not occur in Prakrit the dots can be 
admitted without any ambiguity, e.g. uttarai 'he crosses' 
can only represent '>a'n^v 

2. ^ and ^T in Prakrit sometimes represent short vowels. When 
distinguished these are written S and 6 {vide § 61). 






1 « 










^. j 









^ d 









^ d 









W b 










«T 1 








W S 


Visarga (not 

used in 

Prakrit) h. 



A nasalised vowel is 

represented as 

in a, 


Note 1. Sanskrit Sf n is generally represented in Prakrit by 'D n, but 
the dental n may occur before other dental, e.g. danta as in 
Sanskrit. This, however, is often written ^f datata. In 
Jain works the dental n is frequently written at the begin- 
ning of words. 


2. Similarly other nasals are often represented by anusvara. 

^^ pamca for pafic 
^^ sainkha for sankha 
^ damda for danda 
SJ^, jambu for jambu 
but see § 35 . 

3. For the weak y see § 9. Note. 

4. Hindi ^ is represented by r, cerebral oS by 1. In practice 

this causes no confusion with the vowels ^ f and ^ 1. The 
letter ^ d was probably pronounced as a cerebral r long before 
the diacritical dot for ^ was devised. 

5. In general it should be understood that transliteration is 

merely the substitution of one set of symbols for another, and 
does not tell us anything more about the pronunciation. It is 
quite possible that ^ ca was pronounced something like tsa in 
Maharlstri as in modern Marathi, and that in Magadha ^T a 
was pronounced as Bengali renders it to-day. Even if so, we 
may feel sui'e that a Midlander would use his own sounds iu 
pronouncing either Prakrit. 


Preface . . . . . . v-viii 

Table of Transliteration . . . . ix-x 

Corrections . . . , . . . . . . xv 


Chapter I: Subject Defined. 

Three periods of Indo-Aryan speech — Three stages 
of the middle period — Various uses of the 
word Prakrt . , . . . . 1-4 

Chapter II : Prakrits 

Enumeration of the more important Uterary 

Prakrits . . . . . . . . 4r-7 

Chapter III : General Character of Prakrit. 
Remains synthetic — Grammar simplified — Pho- 
netic changes — assimilation — Parallel of Ro- 
mance languages . . . . . . . . 7-10 

Chapter IV : Phonetics. Single Consonants. 
A. Initial §§ I to 8.— B Medial §§ 9 to 28.— 

C. Final § 29 . . . . . . . . 10-16 

Chapter V : Compound Consonants. 

Assimilation § 33 — Two mutes § 34 — Nasal and 
Mute § 35— Mute and Sibilant § 38— Semivowel 
and Mute § 38 and § 41— Two Nasals § 46 —Nasal 
and Sibilant § 47 — Nasal and Semivowel § 48 — 
Sibilant and Semivowel § 49 — Two Semivowels 
§ 50— Svarabhakti § 57 .. .. .. 17-23 

Chapter VI : Vowels. 

Substitutes for r § 60 — for ai, au § 61 — Change 
of Quantity § 62 — Lengthening § 63 —Shorten- 
ing § 67 — Vowel for Vowel § 69 — Omission of 
Vowels § 74 — Samprasarana § 75 — Epenthesis 
§ 76 . . . . ". . . . . . 23-28 

Chapter VII: Sandhi. 

A. Consonants § 77— B. Vowels § 80 . . .. 29-30 


Chapter VIII: Declension. Pages 

A stems § SO— I stems § 88— U stems ^ 90— 
Feminine declension § 91 — Variants § 92 — 
R stems § 96— AN stems |j 98— IN stems 
§ 100 -AT stems § 102— S stems § 104— Pro- 
nouns § 106— Numerals § 112 . . .Sl-41 

Chapter IX: Conjugation. 

Indicative § 114 — Imperative 5> 116 — Optative 
§ 117— Future § 118— Passive § 119— Causa- 
tives § 120— Participles and Infinitive § 121 - 
Gerund § 122— Irregular Verb.s § 123— Past 
Participles § 125 — Irregular Indicatives § 126 — 
Irregular Futures § 134 — Irregular Passives 
§ 135— Infinitives § 136— Gerundives § 137 . . 42-57 

Chapter X: Classification of Prakrits. 

Magadhi— Dialects of Magadhi — Ardha-Magadhi 
— Geographical classification — Pali-Apablirain4a 
— Pai^aci . .. .. .. 57-69 

Chapter XI : Prakrit Literaturk. 

Jain Literature — Ardha-Magadhi ahgas— J Siin 
Maharastri-Kavya : — Setubandha — Gaudavaho — 
Hala — Dramatic Prakrits — Prakrit Grammars 70-80 


Extract No. 1. Sauraseni Ratnavali^-(Dialogue) — 

, 2. Sauraseni Ratnavali— (The Picture) 
— Translation 


3. Sauraseni. Sakuntala — (Vidiisaka) 
— Translation 

, 4. Sauraseni. Sakuntahx — (Before the 
King) — Translation 

, 5. S'auraseni. Karpura-manjari — (Hero- 
ine and Tunnel) .. 92-96 

, 6. S'auraseni. Same Play — (Puns) . . 96-97 

, 7. S'auraseni. Mrcchakatikam — (Scene 

with the chiid^ . . . . 97—100 

, 8. Sauraseni. Same Play — (Jester ad- 
mires the door) .. .. HX> 102 

, 9. Maharastri. Verses trom Sattasai 

of H Ala .. 102 107 


Extract No. 10. Maharastri. Five Songs from Sa- 

kuntaia . . . . 107-109 

,, ,,11- Maharastri. Three Verses from 

Mrcchakatikam .. .. 109-110 

,, ,, 12. Maharastri. Six Verses from the 

Camphor Cluster ., .. 110-112 

,, ,,13. Maharastri. RatnavaU — One Song 

and Three Verses . . . . 112-113 

,, ,,14. Maharastri. Setubandha — Building 

the Causeway — Rama's head — 
Sita's lament — Return to Ayodhya 
— Translation .. .. 113-122 

,, ,, 15. Jain Maharastri. Ma ndio the Rob- 

ber — Translation . . . . 122-127 

,, ,, 16. Jain Maharastri. Domuha — King 

Doubleface — Translation . . 127-133 

,, ,, 17. Jain Maharastri Kakkuka Inscrip- 

tion — Translation . . . 134-139 

,. ,,18. Jain Maharastri. Kalakacarya — 

Story of the Shahi — Translation 139-144 

,, ,, 19. Ardha-Magadlii. Udayana— Tmws 

lation . . . . . . 144-149 

,, ,, 20. Ardha-Magadhi. Uvasagadasao — 

Saddalaputta the Potter — Trans- 
lation . . . . . . 149-156 

,, ,, 21. Ardha-Magadhi. Kalpasutra — The 

King^s Toilet— Translation .. 156-165 

,, ,, 22. Magadhi. S'akuntala. Fisherman 

and the PoHce . . . . 165-168 

,, ,, 23. Magadhi. Mrcchakatikam. Stha- 

varaka on the roof . . . . 168-169 

,, ,, 24. Magadhi. Same play. The King's 

brother-in-law .. .. 169-171 

,, ,, 25. Magadhi. Same play. S'akari ver- 

ses .. .. .. 171-172 

,, ,,26. Magadhi (Dhakki). Same play. 

Mathura and Gambler . . 172-174 

,, ,,27. Magadhi. Lalita Vigraharaja. Two 

Turushka Prisoners and a Spy . . 174-176 


Extract No. 28. 



Avanti and Daksinatya. Mrccha- 
katikarn. Viraka and Candanaka 

Pravacanasara . . 


Pali. Jataka (308) 

Pali. Jataka (339) 

Pali. Mahavaipsa 

Old Prakrit. Hathigumplia In- 

Old Magadhi. 


Index of Examples . . 
Students' Bibliography 




191 193 




Page 11, § 7, for dhvanksa read dhvanksa. 

,, 29, § 79, for dulaha read dulaha. 

,, 38, last line for tain read tai. 

,, 65, note 3, for Biography read Bibliography. 

,, 75, note, line 3, for Mrcchakatikam read Mrcchakatikam, 

,, ,,12, for CandakauMkam read Candakau^ikam. 

,, 79, line 24, for Prdkrtd- read Prakrta-. 

,, 85, penultimate line. Insert a comma after " Bow" and 
delete stop after " vanquishing." 

,, 87, line 9, for nivinno read iiivinno. So in note 2. 

,, 93, line 7, for vitthavena read vittharena. 

Footnote 6 refers to line 8 vinnaviadi. 

Note 13, for Cakkavatti read Cakkavatti. 

,, 99, line 1, for mattaa read mattia. 

,, 101, line 5. -pataa-, better reading -padaa-. 

,, 102, line 9, f(yr bhakkanti read bhakkhanti. 

Note 9, for sa-dahina read sadahina. 

J, 110, verse (a), for nisasa read nisasa. 

,, 112, verse (a), for sasahara read sasa-hara. 

,, 113, verse (6), Hyphen between -supadi-tthia-. 

,, 115, footnote. Omit " ? rather to chastise the monkeys." 

,, 116, verse 63, note, for saindattha read sanidattha. 

,, 120, verse 82, note, for vinajjai read vi-najjai. 

,, 83, for nivvudham Naha read nivvudhatii Naha. 

,, 121, verse 14, for latthim read latthirn. 

,, 124, note 13, cerebral n thrice. 

,, 136, verse 17, for pagada read pagada. 

,, 19, /or bia read bla 

,, 141, note 6, for nirvuha read nirvaha. 

,, 161, note 5, for paccurpanna read paccuppanna. 





The history of the North Indian or Indo-Arj^an languages 
may be conveniently divided into three periods — ancient, 
mediaeval^ and modern. 

(i) The speech of the ancient or Old Indian period is repre- 
sented in literature (a) by the language of the Rig Veda, (&) by 
that of later Vedic books. To this period belonged also those 
spoken dialects on which were based (c) the poetic diction of 
the Epics, and {d) the more highly polished (Samskrta) literary 
language of Panini, Patanjali, and thereafter of Kalidasa and 
the others down to the present day. 

(ii) The mediaeval or Middle Indian period is represented 
in literature by Pali and the Prakrits, It comprises all the 
dialects from the time (whenever it was) that certain phonetic 
changes, with some variations in grammar also, had produced 
a language obviously different from Old Indian, down to the 
time (? about 1100 a.d.) when further phonetic changes and the 
complete break up of the old grammar had produced a new 
type of language similar to that of the modern vernaculars. 
Our knowledge of this period has to be pieced together from a 
variety of records, referring to different localities and different 
times. These records comprise inscriptions as well as literary 
works. Of the inscriptions the most famous are the Edicts 
of Asoka. The literature comprises the Pjxli Canon of the 
"Southern" or Hinayana Buddhists, the Prakrit Canon of 


the Jains, the Prjikrit of Lyrics, Epics and Plays and the 
Prakrit grammars. 

(iii) The beginning of tlie third or modern period has not 
been fixed with precision. It Hes between the latest sort of 
V Prakrit, or apabhramsa described by Hemacandra in the 
twelfth century, and the earhest poetry of the Old Vernaculars. 
The oldest poem in Western Hindi is the Prithi Raj Rasau by 
Chand Bardai of Lahore (about 1200 a.d.). 

The middle period can be again divided into three stages : 
(1) Old Prakrit (or Pali); (2) Middle Prakrit; (3) Late 
Prakrit or Apabhramsa. 

(1) The Old Prakrit stage includes (a) Inscriptions from the 
V middle of the Ord century B.C. down to the 2nd century 

A.D. The dialect varies with time and place. 

(6) Pali of the Hinayana Canon and other Buddhist works, 
as the Mahavamsa and the Jatakas. 

In the Jatakas, or Birth Stories of the Buddha, the verses 
(gathas) preserve a more aichaic form of language than the 

(c) The language of the oldest Jain Siitras. 

(d) The Prakrits of early plays, such as those of A^vaghosa 
of which fragments have been found in Central Asia. 

(2) The Middle Prakrit stage includes (a) Maharastri. the 
language of the liquid lyrics of the Deccan, (b) the other Drama- 
tic Prakrits, Saurasoni, Magadhi, etc., as found in the pla3's of 
Kalidasa and his successors, and in the grammarians; (r) the 
dialects of the later Jain books ; (d) Paisaci, in which the 
Brhatkatha is said to have been composed, but which is known 
only from the statements of grammarians. 

(3) Apabhram&as were not much used for literary purposes. 
They represent the stage reached by ordinary colloquial speech 
when the Prakrit type of speech as found in the plays was 
already archaic, and had been refined and stereotyped by the 
grammarians. By the time that Hemacandra recorded a 


particular Apabhram^a of the West, this was probably already 

This book is concerned in general with the second, mediaeval, 
or middle period of the Indian language, and in particular 
with the Middle Prakrit stage, especially the Dramatic 


Various uses of the word " Prakrit." 

Prakrta derived from prakrti has two lines of meaning (a) 
the more precise meaning of something belonging to or derived 
from a prakrti, the original form of anything as opposed to a 
vikiti its modification, as in Samkhya Philosophy : prakrta 
means what is derived from Prakrti, the original element; (6) 
the looser meanings of ' natural, ordinary, vulgar, provincial.' 

It is probable that it was in this more general sense that 
'prakrta^ (S'auraseni 'pdiida' Maharastri 'paiia^) was first 
applied to ordinary common speecii as distinct from the highly 
polished, perfected Saniskritam. 

Grammarians and Rhetoricians of later days however explain 
prdkrtam as derived from the prakrti, i.e. samskrtam. This 
explanation is perfectly intelligible even if it be not historically 
correct. Practically we take Sanskrit forms as the basis and 
derive Prakrit forms therefrom. Nevertheless modern philo- 
logy insists on an important reservation : Sanskrit forms are 
quoted as the basis in as far as they represent the Old Indian 
forms, but sometimes frhe particular Old Indian form required 
to explain a Prakrit word is not found in Sanskrit at all, or 
only in a late work and obviously borrowed from Prakrit. 

If in "Sanskrit" we include the Vedic language and all 
dialects of the Old Indian period, then it is true to say that 
all the Prakrits are derived from Sanskrit. If on the other 
hand " Sanskrit " is used more strictly of the Panini-Patanjali 
language or "Classical Sanskrit," then it is untrue to say 
that any Prakrit is derived from Sanskrit, except that S'aura- 
seni, the Midland Prakrit, is derived from the Old Indian dialect 


of the MadhyadeSa on which Classical Sanskrit was mainly 

In Europe the word Prakrit has been used (a) to refer to 
particular languages classed as Prakrit in India, e.g. Maharastrl, 
or to the Prakrit passages in plays. 

(6) Of the Middle Period of the Indian languages (Pali 
and the early inscriptions forming an earlier stage were some- 
times distinguished from Prakrit '). 

(c) Of the natural spoken language as distinct from the 
literary learned language. In this last sense some writers* 
distinguish Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Prakrits as the 
natural spoken dialects of the three great periods. Out of 
these successive types of spoken speech grew the various 
literary idioms which became stereotyped or fossilised as it 
were, and remained in use alongside of the living and ever- 
changing dialects. 



The following are the more important literary Prakrits (Pali 
being excluded) : — 

M. Maharastri ) 

V f 

S*. S'auraseni > Dramatic Prakrits. 

Mg. Mag"adhi J 

AMg. Ardha-Magadhi ^ 

J. M. Jain-Maharastri \ Jain Canon. 

J. S'. Jain- S'auraseni ) 

(Apa. ApabhramSa.) 

1 Dr. O. Franke in his Pali and Sanskrit uses ' Pali ' for the Middle 
Period including Inscriptions. 

s Vide Article on Prakrit by Dr. Sir George Qrierson in Encyclopaedia 
Britaumica, XlXth Edition. 


M. Maharastri was regarded as the Prakrt par excellence. 
Prakrit gratamars gave the rules for this first. For others 
there were some special rules, and then "the rest is like 
Maharastri." Danclin remarks (K.D. 1.35) : Mahardstrdsraydm 
bhdsdm prakrstam prdkrtavn viduh. 

In the drama ladies who speak Sauraseni, sing their songs in 
Maharastri. The Maharastri lyrics were famous far beyond 
the limits of Maharastram. The same language is used for the 
Prakrit Epics such as the Gaiidavaho. This language of the 
Deccan poets carries further than other Prakrits the principle 
of omitting single consonants between vowels {vide § 10). 
This is natural in a literary song-dialect, for in a song it is the 
melody and sentiment that matter most, the precise words or 
forms of words are less important. It is not to be supposed 
however that Maharastri is a mere invention of the poets. It 
is based on the old spoken language of the country of the 
Godaveri, and contains many features that survive as peculi- 
arities of modern Marathi. 

S'. S'auraseni was the Prakrit of the Madhyade^a taking 
its name from Surasena the country round Mathura (' Muttra'). 
This is the ordinary prakrit of a Sanskrit drama. It is spoken 
by ladies and the Vidiishaka; in the Camphor-cluster (Karpiira- 
manjarl) even by the king. This Prakrit is the nearest to 
classical Sanskrit. It arose in the same countrj'-, and is 
descended from the spoken language, on which classical 
Sanskrit was mainly based. It thus forms an intermediate 
stage between Sanskrit and Hindi (that is, the Western Hindi 
on which Literary Hindi has been based). Owing however to 
this close kinship with the sacred tongue, Sauraseni was over- 
shadowed ; continually influenced by Sanskrit, it failed to 
make much independent progress. 

Mg. Mag-adhi is the Prakrit of the East. Its geographical 
centre was in the ancient Magadha not far from the land of 
modern Magahl, a dialect of Bihari. In the plays Magadhi is 



spoken by low people. Dialects of Magadhi also occur, e g., 
Dhakki in the Mrcchakatikam. This Prakrit differs conspicu- 
ously from the others in its phonetics, "^ is replaced by U, and 
^ by ^, The nominative singular of -a stems end in -e. "^ 
remains and even replaces ^, (For further particulars vide 
Chap. X). Where other Prakrits say haliho, Magadhi has ha&te ; 
others so rdd = so raja, Magadhi se laa. 

Jain Prakrits. 

AMg. The oldest Jain Sutras were composed in Ardha 
Magadhi, a prakrit based on the dialect spoken between 
Surasena and Magadha (about Oude). In its phonetic character 
it resembles Magadhi in some respects. It preserves more 
traces of the old grammar than S'auraseni, and shows a greater 
independence from Sanskrit. 

J. M. The non-canonical books of the SVetambaras were 
written in a form of Maharastri that has been termed Jain 

J. S'. The language of the Digambara Canon in some res- 
pects resembles S'auraseni and has been termed Jain S'auraseni. 

Apabhramsa has been used in India (a) for anything 
diverging from Sanskrit as the standard of correct speech, (6) 
for spoken languages as distinct from literary "Prakrits," 
including non- Aryan as well as Aryan languages ; (c) a literary 
form of any such vernacular. The only literary Apabhramsa 
described in detail by the grammarians is the Ndgara Apa- 
bhramsa which appears to have belonged to Gujarat. To this 
is said to be related the Vrdcada Apabhramsa of Sindh. 
Dhakki and some other dialectic forms of the main Prakrits 
are sometimes styled apabhramins. If wc had records of the 
apabhramsas spoken in the areas connected with each of the 
main Prakrits an important link in tiie history of the Indian 
languages would be supplied. Even as it is, the tendencies of 
Apabhramsa in phonetics and grammar, as shown by the rules 


and specimens given by Hemacandra, help to bridge the gap 
between typical Prakrit and the modern languages. 

The use of various Prakrits in the Drama is discussed in 
Chapter XI on Prakrit Literature. Further details as to sub- 
dialects, Paisaci dialects, tlie dialects used in Inscriptions, and 
their relationships, are given in Chapter X on the classification 
of Prakrits. 



Prakrit (including Pali) was still a synthetic language. The 
ancient grammar had been somewhat simplified. The number 
of case forms and verbal forms tends to dwindle. The Rigveda 
possessed a greater variety of forms than the later Vedas. 
Panini's Sanskrit has discarded a number of forms used in the 
Brahmanas. Pali and old Ardhamagadhi retain a good deal 
that has disappeared from the Maharastri and S'auraseni of the 
lyrics and plays. Apabhrara^a finally indicates the approach- 
ing dissolution of the last remnants of the old etymology. 
The time was approaching when a noun might have only two 
or three distinct endings , and the verb was reduced to little 
more than one tense and two participles. The ambiguity thus 
produced was avoided by new devices, and out of the ruins of 
the old language grew up the analytic languages of modern 

Though simplified, yet the remaining Prakrit grammar is of 
the same type as Sanskrit grammar. There is a strong 
tendency to reduce all declensions to one type, that of 
a-stems, and to conjugate all verbs according to one scheme, 
that of the old A. Conjugation. The Dative disappears. 
Nominative and Accusative Plurals tend to coincide. The 
Imperfect, Perfect and numerous Aorists had gone by the 


time of the Middle Prakrit stage. Tlie Dual number was 
found unnecessary. The Atmanepada hardly survived 
after the Old Prakrit stage and never in its original mean- 
ing. But it was not yet necessary to resort to postpositions 
or auxihary verbs. Tlie essentials necessary for ordinary 
conversation and even verse-writing remained down to tlie 
ApabhramSa stage. For more important work, for more exact 
thinking the tendency was to resort to Sanskrit. As Pali, 
Ardhamagadhi and the other Jain Prakrits 8uccessivel3' lost 
the advantage of being the language of the day, or of the 
locality, they were unable to withstand this tendency and 
were eventually replaced by Sanskrit. 

Apart from this simplification the main changes arising in 
Prakrit are phonetic. Conjunct consonants are mostly assimi- 
lated : rakta became raita (as Latin fructu-s became Italian 
frutto) ; sajpta became satla (as Latin septem became Italian 
sette). Some of the sounds of the old language disappear : 
^ .?", ^ ai, %T au, ^ ya (except in Mg. and a shadowy ^ to 
bridge hiatus), U &a (except in Mg. where "^ is missing), '^ sa and 
Visarga; whereas the only sounds contained in Prakrit and not 
recorded for Sanskrit are the short vowels e and 6. Final 
consonants are avoided. Not more than two consonants can 
follow a short vowel, nor more than one follow a long vowel. 

[For details see Chapters IV to VI.] 

The cumulative effect of such changes in the case of a particu- 
lar word may be such as to completely alter its appearance. 
" Vappairaa " does not immediately' suggest Vakpatiraja, 
" oinna " is not very like avatlrna. On the other hand some 
words are identical with Sanskrit and the majority could 
readily suggest a Sanskrit equivalent to anyone with a living 
colloquial knowledge of the classical language. This is true 
not only of S'auraaeni but also of the others. 

From this circumstance it may be understood that the 
different Prakrits were mutually intelligible among the edu- 


cated. A speaker of Sanskrit, whose mother tongue was the 
spoken form of any one of the Prakrits, would readily under- 
stand any of the literary Prakrits. Moreover a speaker of 
S'auraseni would easily learn to recognise many Sanskrit 
words, and even grasp the meaning of a Sanskrit sentence 
without being able to speak Sanskrit. In the older stage the 
difference was still less marked. Still further back we should 
find only the difference between ' correct' and 'incorrect' pro- 
nunciation, grammatical speech and ungrammatical, standard 
speech and dialectical — the differences between the speech of 
educated and uneducated people speaking substantially the 
same language. At this stage though differences existed the 
new speech had not attained a separate existence, it was not 
yet distinct enough to be recognized as a separate language 
capable of having a fixed grammar and a literature of its own. 

Even in the Rigveda we find " prdkritisms ,' ' that is phonetic 
variations along just those lines that were followed by the 
Prakrits. For instance Sithird = " loose "' instead of S'rithird 
as might be expected from the root ^rath. From this and 
similar instances it is not necessary to deduce a wide difference 
between the language of the hymns and contemporary speech. 
Rather the inclusion of such " prakritisms " in the sacred 
texts indicates that the priests were not yet conscious of the 

An interesting parallel to the history of the Indo-Aryan 
languages is shown by that of the Romance languages in Europe. 
Of several old Italic dialects, that of the Latin tribe prevailed, 
and Latin became the dominant language of Italy — and then 
of the Roman Empire, It became the language of the largest 
Christian Church of the middle ages, and thence the language 

1 It has to be remembered that phonetic changes are generally uncon- 
scious. Men slip into new pronunciations without knowing that they 
have done so. They will therefore retain archaic spelhngs centuries after 
the sounds have changed. This is very conspicvious in Tibetan and in 


of Science and Philosophy until the modern languages of 
Europe asserted their independent existence. Like Sanskrit 
in India, Latin was long the medium of conversation between 
educated men of different nations. Again, as the language of 
religion Latin was always to be heard in the mouths of priests, 
and common people caught stray phrases of it. The mediaeval 
quack or schoolmaster, however ignorant, must needs air his 
Latin.' Here again phonetic changes and the working of ana- 
logy have gradually simplified the old grammar until prepo- 
sitions and auxiliary verbs had to be used to avoid ambiguity. 

Some speculation has been devoted as to the causes of such 
changes as in India may be styled prakritic. Economy of 
effort, progressive refinement especially in courts and cities, 
softening influence of a semi-tropical climate, influence of the 
speech habits of non-Aryan peoples who adopted the Aryan 
speech — all these may have been at work both in India and 
in Europe. 


Single Consonants. 
§ 1. A. Initial. The general rule is tliat a sing'le consonant 
at thfi beginning- of a word remains unaltered, except 
n, y, s, ands (^T, ^, U, W). 
y n is cerebralised {§ 7). 
I tA^ ^y becomes j (except in Mg.). 
' -n ^ I iiv. .iadha=?/a<Art (Mg. yadha), jai' = ?/nrfi, S'aur. also has jadi 
* ^ Y (Mil. yai, yadi). }0^i=yogi. 

'\ i and § become S (§8). 

§ 2. The initial consonant of the second member of a compound 
is usually treated as if it was in the middle of a word. 
A verbal root however often retains its initial letter. 

' See Love's Labour Lost, Act V. Holofornes the Schoolmaster. 


putta = pM/ra, but dryaputra becomes ajjaiitta. 
paasei = prakdsayati. aadam or agadam = drjaiam. 

§ 3. Enclities are similarly treated, kim una = kim punar. vi = 

{a)pi. Si = ca. 
In tdvat and te (2nd pers. pron.) S'aur. and Mg. change t 

to d as in the middle of a word, ma dava = ma tdvat. 
na de = na te. piduno de = pitus te. tado de = tatas te. 

§ 4. In several dialects bh becomes h in the root bhu and its 
derivatives. M. ho'i^hhavati (Saur. bhodi). 
S". havissadi (Mg. havissadi) = 6^ams?/aii. 
S'. Mg. hodavva = 6/iawtovya. 

(5). Ph at the beginning of the second member of a com- 
pound is often retained as at the beginning of a word. 
S'. cittaphalaa = cj7ra23^aZa)fca, bahuphala saphala. 

(6). Aspiration. 

kh for k. khujja = kubja. y khel= y krid. 
ph for p. S'. phanasa. M. panasa = pawasa "bread-fruit 
tree," an aspirated sibilant becomes ch. AMg. chava = 
Pali chapa = ^a6a or kdha "young animal." M. AMg. 
cha = sa^, chattha = f7Sf^a. 

(7). Change of Place of Articulation. 

Examples, Palatal for Dental. M. citthai. S. citthadi. 

Mg. cht\\B,^\ = tist}iaii. 
Cerebral for Dental. M. dhankha = dhvanksa "crow." 

n for n. nuna = nunam, naana = nayana. 

(8). The three sibilants s, S, S (TT W '^) are reduced to one, the 
dental s (except in Magadhi where we have the pala- 
, tal i). 


§9. B. Medial. Medial or intervocal k, g-, c, j, t, d, are 
generally dropped. (^, T, '^, ^, (T, ^). 
M. loa = Zo^a, saala = saA;aZa, anura a =awMmg'a, juala = 
yugala, naara = wagram, p aiir a = pracMra, bhoana = 
bhojana, rasaala = rasatoto, hiai^Si = hrdaya. 



Medial p, b, v, are sometimes dropped. (^, W, ^). 

jM. rVLQ, = rupa, ym\\a, = vihucUw,, d\a,ha, = diva sa. 

Medial y is always dropped ('£?). 
, vioB. = viyoga, 'p\B, = priya. 
Note. — In place of the omitted consonant was pronounced 
a weakly articulated ya {laghw-prayatnatara-ya-kara). 
This was weaker than the ^ of Sanskrit or Magadhi, and 
was not expressed in writing, except in MSS. written 
by the Jains, e.g., hiysby Q. = hrdaya. 

§ 10 This principle of omitting single consonants between 
vowels was carried to great lengths in the literary form 
of Maharastri used in Lyrics. It naturally leads to 
ambiguity. Kai may represent Icati, kavi, or kapi\ A 
string of vowels like uaa { = udaka) has lost all the 
character of the original word. The fact that such 
changes were possible at all shows that the Indian 
consonants were, as now, weaker in articulation than 
the English consonants. The actual workaday dialects 
however were more conservative. In ApabhramSa, 
Hemacandra tells us, k, t, p between vowels were not 
dropped, but became gf, d, b, respectively. naagu = 
ndyakah,,do = dgatah, sabhalau =saphalakani. Some 
of the literary Prakrits also have the same change. 
In the older stage, as in Pah, k, t, p remain unchanged. 

§ 11. Examples. 

S'aurj &,didh.i = atifhi , 'ka.dhedvi = kathayatu, paridosia = 
pdritosika, hhodi = bhavati, ksidhido = kathitah , Kira- 
da. = Kirdta, Sinedi = dnayati , = tatah, ]s.\dci = krta, 
ga.da, = gata, sakkada = sams^'r/a, Sarassadi = /Sam^ 
vati (M. SarassaT). 

Magadhi: pii]ido^'m = pdritosika, ■^ASkdum = svdgatam , h&ge 
(" I ") *ahakah, a derivative of aham. 

Ardha-Miigadhi and Jain Maharastri : Asogai = Aioka, loga 
= loka , agasa = dkdka. 

Pah : loka, gacchati, rupa. 



§ 12. In this treatment of medial t we have one of tlie charac- 
teristic distinctions between tlie Sauraseni and Maha- 
rastri of the plays. Compare the following : — 


































§ 13. The aspirates kh, gh, th, dh, ph, and tah between 
vowels are g'enerally reduced to h. (1, '^, W, V, ^ 
and ^ become ^). 
muha = mMHa, sahi = .saM*, ra.ehd, = megha, lahua = ?a- 
ghuka, mhirsi = rud}iira, = vadhu, Sahara = iapAa- 
ra, ahinava = aS^mava, naha = wa6^a.s or nakha. 

§ 14. Here again Sauraseni, Magadhi and some other dialects 
merely replace the surd th by the sonant dh. 

S'. adidhi, kadhedu, tadha, adha, jadha = ?/ai^a. 

Mg. ya,dh.a, = yaiha, tadha. (Pali retains the surd — atha, 
yatha, tatha.) 

This forms another distinction between Sauraseni and 
Maharastri, e.g. : — 

Saiirasenl. Maharastri. Sanskrit. 

adha aha atha. 

manoradha manoraha manoratha. 

kadham kaham katham. 

nadha naha natha. 


§15. Sometimes instead of being dropped (§9) or reduced to 
h (§ 13) a consonant between vowels is doubled. 

S". ujju = r;M, M.'nakkha = nakha, M. S'. ekka = eA;a. 
N Note 1. Other consonants are similarly doubled, e.g. : — 
j ovvana = ?/a wuana, te\la. = iaila, pemma, = preman. 

Note 2. The vowel before the double consonant is 
always short. Here "Ijr and "^T represent the short 
vowels e, 6. (§ 68). 

Note 3. An aspirate is doubled by prefixing the corres- 
ponding non-aspirated sound : kkh, ggh, and so on. 

Some MSS. literally double the aspirates, writing khkh, 
chch, and so on. This is merely an orthographical 
difference, the pronunciation was the same. 

§ 16. Cerebral surds t th between vowels become sonant d dh (2', 
3" become ^, ^). 
pada = 2?afa, padaa = y>afaA;a, kudila = ^M/i7a, kudumba 
^y =kuiumba, vada = va^a, padhana = 2Ja?/ia??.a. 

"^^ Some dialects had the further change of d to 1. (§ 22). 
M. kakkola = ^arA;ofa. Mg. ^aala = ^aA;a/a (Saur : saada). 
\ Mg. yulaka = ;M<a^a (S'aur : *jiiclaa). 

(17). P if not omitted becomes V. {^^ becomes ^). 

ruva = r?ipa, diva = d?pa (cf. Diwali), uvari = wpari, uva- 
arana = wpaifcarana, uvajjhaa = M;)a(i/it/a?/a (cf. Ojha), 
avi = api, avarat = apara (Hindi aur), tava = <a/>a. 

(18). B becomes V. (W becomes ^). 
kavala = kabala, savara = Sahara. 

(19). Aspiration. Prakrit sometimes has kh instead of Sanskrit 
k (§ 6). This in the middle of a word generallj'^ be- 
comes h. 

M. nihasa = ?iiA;asa, M. S'. phaliha = spAafiA-a. 

ta through tha becomes dha. AMg. vadha = m/a, ta 
becomes tha, then ha. M. bharaha = 6/iam/a, vasahi = 
vasati Rarer; p through ph becomes bh. A.Mg. 
kacchabha = AroccAapa. n, m, 1 and the sibilants are 


sometimes aspirated. Aspiration is sometimes shifted. 
M. dihi from *dithi = dhrfi. M. dhiia S' Mg. dhuda = 
duhitd, S'. Mg.hahini = bhagini, M. ghettum = grahitum 
through *ghrptum) Aspiration is sometimes lost. S'. 
sankala = ^rnMa/a but sankhala and sinkhala are also 
/ found. 

(20). Change of place of articulation. 
Cerebral for Dental. 
padi = y>raii', M. padia- S'. Mg. ip?i6.id3i = patita, padhama 

— prathama. This cerebralising is much commoner in 

Ardhamagadhi : 
AMg. osadha =aMsaiAa (M. S'. osaha). 
In most dialects n regularly becomes n ('^ for •T) ntina, 


(21). Sibilants. The three sibilants of Sanskrit are represented 
by the dental s (except in Magadhi which has only the 
palatals), asesa = a^esa, etc. 
Mg. ke^e^n = ke^esu (S'aur. etc. kesesu). 

(22). D often becomes 1. (§ 16) (^ becomes 55). 
In North India books and MSS. use ^ for ^. 
M. garula (S'. garuda; Mg. galuda), M. S'. ^ila. = kridd, 
-v/ khel = v/ krid. 

(23). T and d sometimes become \ or \, (rf, ^ become ^ or o5). 
S'. alasi = atosi, M. ^. Yi]i\x[\a. = *vidyutikd " hghtning " 
(whence Hindi bijll). M. Salavahana = Satavahana. 
M. S'. doh'dla, = dohada. 

(24). D becomes r in adjectival and pronominal compounds 
with -dri -drSa -drksa. 
erisa.=idrsa (S'. also Idisa) kerisa, aiinarisa tumharisa, 

(25). In dialects m sometimes became v. (T becomes ^). 

So M. vammaha S'aur. mammadha = mawma^^a. M. 
onavia = at" anato (from *avanamita). 



This change is more frequent in Apabhram^a which at 
the same time nasaUses the preceding vowel and the 
semivowel, and then often omits either the semivowel 
or the nasal element. Thus Apa. kavala = ^ama?a, 
Jauna = Yamuna, na vahl = waman^j. This nasalisation 
also appears in M., e.g. Caunda = Saur. Camunda. 

This change accounts for forma like ' ' Kanwar ' ' from 
Kumara, and gav (<l|cj) with its manj' minute varia- 
tions in the modern dialects. (Skt. grama-. Pali and 
most Prakrits (g)gama-). Cf Beames, I, 254. 

(26). In Magadhi r always become 1, in other dialects the 
change is exceptional. (?" become ^). 
M. S'. dalidda ^rfantZra, muhala = m?iMara. 
The change is more frequent in Ardlia Magadhi than in 
M. or S'. 

(27). Sometimes sibilants become h, especially after long 
vowels. M. anudiaham(Saur a nudiasara) =anMdiOTsam. 
Loc : Sing: tahim = tassiin [tasmin). 
The change is commoner in Apabhram^a and has an 
important effect on the inflectional system. 

(28). Sometimes instead of h in- Sanskrit we find an aspirate 
dh etc. in Prakrit, eg S'. Mg. idha M. ita. 
Here Sauraseni preserves the more original sound. H. 
in Sanskrit often represents an original sonant aspi- 
rate. Cf. hanti and aghnan, jaghana. 

§ 29. C. Final. All final liiutfes are dropped 

Nasals become anusvara. ah becomes o, otherwise vi- 

sarga is dropped. Sometimes the final vowel is then 

For treatment of finals in compounds see Sandhi 

(Ch. VII). 



$ 30. At the beginning of a word only a single consonant 
can remain. 
Exceptiom 1. nh, e.g., nhana = 5wawa, 

2. rah as in mhi=^ (a) ami, mho mha-smai^ 
/ (enclitic). ' 

3. At the beginning of tlie second member of 

a compound. 

^:il. In the middle of a word no group may exceed two 
consonants, and these must be only 

(1) Doubled, e.g. kk (or for aspirate kkh), 

(2) Mute after nasal of the same class, e.g. lik, nd, or 

(3) Aspirated Nasal (or Ih). ( [ ' ; '^ 

^ 32. Consequently most compound consonants are either 
assimilated or separated by a svarabhakti vowel. 

§ 33. Assimilation. The general rule is that between equals 
the second prevails, between unequals the stronger 
The consonants can be arranged as follows in a scale of 
decreasing strength for this purpose, 
(i) Mutes. (The five vargas less the nasals), 
(ii) Nasals. 
(iii) 1, s, V, y, r, in order. 

h stands by itself (§§ 52-54). 

§ 34. Two mutes. According to the rule given above, k + 1 
becomes tt, g + dh becomes ddh, d + g becomes gg and 
so on. 
Examples, iutta, = yukta, vappairaa = w^pa^^'m^a, dud- 
dha, = diigdha, chaccarana = sal + ccra^ia (§ 6), khagga 
= khadga, haAa,kka,ra. = baldtkara, uppala = «*<pa/a, 


ug'gama = udgama, sabbhava = sadbhava, sutta = supta, 
khu}}3i = kubja (§6), saddsi = 6abda, laiddha. = labdha. 

§ 35. A nasal before a mute of the same class remains, before 
a mute of another class it becomes anus vara. 
Sankhala = ^.mH»a?a, konca = A-mwwca, kantha, man- 
thara, jambu, but dimmiihsi = dinmiik-ha, pamti- 
pankti, vim^ha. - vindhya (§44). 

§ 36. A nasal following a mute is assimilated 

aggi = a(jrm/^ viggha, = vighno, s&Vdtti = sapatni. jugga 
= yugma. 
-s^ Exceptions, (a) jna becomes mia. anavedi = a/zlo/jayaii. 
anahinna = anabhijna. j anna - yajna . 
Note 1. At the beginning nf the second member of a 
compound jna can become jja, e.g. manojj a = wffnopa. 
Note 2. Magadhi has liiia according to Hemachandra 
^ (4-293). 

(6) ainian in M. nearly always, in Apa. always becomes 
appa (cf. Hindi i\p). The other dialects vary between 
appa and atta. 
(c) dma becomes mma, pomma = jxidma (alsopaiima, § 57). 

§ 37. L with a mute is assimilated. 

vakkala = t;a/A;a?a , iphB.ggunB, = phalguna, appa = a/pfl, 
kappa = te^'pa. [Exception ^/jalp becomes ^ jamp, but 
also japp]. pavamga = p^aua»»<7a. 

§ 38. Mute and Sibilant. The mute of course can only be a 
surd. When the sibilant comes first, it is assimila- 
ted, and the mute is aspirated, e.g. sta becomes tht. 
When however the sibilant stands at the end of the 
first member of compound, the following mule need 
not be aspirated, especially if the first member is a 
prefix like (/w.9. sca becomes ccha, accharia = at<carya, 
paccha = po^caf but niccala = m^c<7/a, duccarida = f/?/.<- 
lln Magadhi ica remains: niscala.] 


Ska and skha become kkh. 8'. pokkhara = p^<5^•ara, 

sukkha = JMsAra. In this case however the aspiration 

is often omitted. 
M. caiikka, S'. ca,dnkka, = catusko . M. S. dukkara = 

duskara, nikkam — for niskram— etc. 
Sta and stha become tth. ditthi = drsH, sutthu = susthu. 

Exception vedha = vesia (cf. PaU vethati). 
Spa and spha become pph. puppha = 25Ms?;a, nipphala 

= nisphala. _ . 

^ Sta and stha become tth. thana = . s/ana, a.tthi = (isti, 

h&tthi =hasla (cf. Panjabi hatth), &va.tth2i = a vastha, 

kaatthaa = M?/as<Aate. Compound. duttara = ^/ ^ts/ara. 

Sometimes this tth is cerebralised. M. S'. aitthi = asthi. 

The ^/sthd especially varies between tth and tth. Saur. 

thida or ihida =^ sthtta (M. thia or thia). M. fe". thana 
= sthdna (M, also thana). 8', thidi or i\iidi =^ sthiti (M. 

thii or thii). 
Spa and spha become pph. phamsa = sparer/ (§49). 
y "ph&liha. = sp}iatika. A. Mg. ■phusa'i^sprSaii. 

§ 39. When the sibilant follows the mute they become cch, 

SbCchi = aksi, riccha, — r ksa, M. chuhii = ksudkd, macch- 

a.r a, = matsara, va,ccha, = vatsa (aAso = vrksa) , acchara = 

apsard, juguccha -jugupsd. 

\ • ■ 

§40. Ksa however more generally becomes kkh. 8'aur. 

khattia = ksatriya, khitta = ksipta, akkhi = aksi, 

nikkhividum = wtX'sep^mn , sikkhida = sifet/o. dak- 

khina = daksina (* ' Deccan "). 
Sometimes the dialects vary between cch and kkh. 

M. ucchu, S'. \kk\i\x = iksu, M. kucchi, 8'. kukkhi = ^•M^•s^, 

M. pecchai, S. pekkhadi - preksate, M. sariccha, 8'. 

sarikkha = *sddrksya. 
Sometimes "ksdit becomes ^jh. 
S'. paj jharavedi = *praksardpayati , M. 8'. jhlna = kfiva (also 





[Note. Pischel distinguishes : (a) original ksa (Avestan 
xsa) becomes kkh, (6) ksa from Ssa (Avestan §a) 
becomes ccha, (c) ksa from zza becomes jjha. S'sa and 
zza would seem rather difficult to pronounce. Presum- 
ably 4sa represents in origin a front palate stop plus 
the corresponding fricative, and zza the sonant equiva- 
lent, while the original ksa is a back palate stop plus a 
fricative. Tlie ^ in '^ can hardly have been originally 
identical with the Indian cerebral sibilant. The 
' history of the different pronunciations of ^ and ^, and 

the relation in Iranian languages of x ^^'^ ^> need 
further investigation]. 

§41. In compounds —t + 6— or —t + s- become —ss— or 
with lengthening of previous vowel simply s — pajjussua 
= paryutsuka, VLsa.vai = utsava, S'. ussasa. M. usasa = 
j ucchvasa. 

§ 42. V with a mute is assimilated. 

M. kadliia S. kadhida = A;ua/7M7a, S'. pakka — /x?A-t;a, ujjala 

- ujjvala, satta = sattva, dia = dvija, uvvigga = udvigmi. 

^43, Y with a mute is assimilated. 

Canakka = Ca»aA;?/a, sokkha. = saukhya, jogga. = yogya, 
nattaa = ndiyaka, abbhantara = abhyantara. 

44. A denial is first palatalised. 

S&cca, = satya, nevaccha = nepathya, accanta = at.yanto, 
raccha = ^a<%«, ajja = a%a, uvajjhaa = Mparf^yaya, 
samjha = saw(Z//!/a, majj ha = mad/»/a. 
N ' < 
§ 45. R with a mute is assimilated. 

takkemi = tor^ayam?, cakka = caA;ra, magga= //wrr/a, 
gama = grama, samucchida = samucchriia, uibbandha 

— nirbandhxi, citta = Ci7;r/, patta = pa//ra, attha = ar//irt , 
bhadda = 6/iac?rrt, samudda = i<tawmrZw, addha — orrf/Mi. 

/ Exception — atra becomes attha, tatra becomes tattha. 
[When R precedes a dental it sometimes cerebralises it 
6r8t. vattadi = vartate]. 


§ 46. Two Nasals, "^'u and ^ n before ^m become anusvara : 

«Tm is assimilated to following "Rm and ^m to following 

«Tm (i.e., "^ n). 

dimmuha. = dinmukha. M. chammuha = sa/mwMa. um- 

muha. = unmukha, niiina = wmna, Pajjuima = Prady- 

/ umna. 

§ 47. Nasal with sibilant. If the nasal precedes it becomes 
anusvara. When the sibilant precedes it becomes h 
and the order is reversed. 
Ska becomes nha. panha = /jra^wa. 
f^ma becomes mha. Kamhira = Kasmira. 
8na becomes nha. VLuhB, = tisria , Kanha = Kr8nci. 
Sma becomes mha. gimha = g'mma. 
Sna becomes nha. nhana = 5nawa. 
Sma becomes mha. amhe = asme. vimhB,B> = vismaya. 
Exceptions : 

(1) ra^mi always becomes rassi. 

(2) InitiaHma becomes m. masana = ^ma^«wa. 

(3) Sneha, snigdha, either neha niddha or sineha, 

siniddha . 

(4) Loc. Singular Pronominal ending —smin becomes 

mmi; —smin becomes either —ssim or —mmi. 
S". edassim= efasmm M. eassim or eammi. (AMg. 
msi lo(i;amsi = loke). 

§ 48. Nasal with semivowel. The semivowel is assimilated. 

gumma = gulma, meccha = mleccha, annesana = aw- 

vesana , punna = puny a , anna = a nya , somma - saumya , 

dhamma = f//iarma, kanna = ^arna. 

Note, my after a long vowel become m. kamae - kamyayd. 

§ 49. Sibilant and semivowel. The semivowel is assimilated. 

sahania = ^^%Aam?/a, pasa = par^va, M. asa S'. a33a = 

.-^^ a^va, 3i.Ya,sS3im = avasyam, M. misa S'. missa = wt^a, 

' ^^ manussa = 7nanusya , S'. parissaadi = parisvajate , rahassa 

— rahasya, vaassa = «;ayas?/a, ta,ssab = tasya, sahassa = 


sa/iasra, sahattha = s?/"a//a5to, 8'. Sarassadi :=Sarasvati. 
saadani = svdyalam. 

Note 1. Sometimes this ss is reduced to s with (a) leng- 
thening of the previous vowel (M. niisa, dsa above) oi 
(6) nasalisation of the previous vowel, which is more 
frequent from Ara and general with ria. Anisu = a^M, 
-phamsB. — spansa , damsana = rfar.§a?ia (§64). 

Note 2. A furtlier dialectic change is s becomes h. So 
Magadhi kamaha, Apabhrain^a kamaho. Later on 
this had an important effect on inflections. 


50. Two semivowels. The stronger prevails in the order 

h V, r, y. ■ 
g"allakka = f/aZyar^a, mvi\\3b — muly a , duWdiha ^(hirlabha, 

kavva = kavya, parivvajaa = parivrajaLa, savva = 

Exception. In ry y becomes j, hence it becomes jj, ajja 

■=drya, kajja = ^ar?/o. Sometimes r becomes /, hence 

11, pallattha = 2>a>"?/asto. 
Note, yya becomes jja^ except in Magadhi. 

§51. Visarga before k, kh, p, ph is treated like a sibilant, 
6.\\\ikhQ, = duhkha, antakkarana = an<aMam//a ; so is 
visarga before a sibilant. S'. cadussamudda-cafwA- 
sunivdra, du8saha = rfwAsaAa (also M. 8'. dusaha). 

§ 52. When h precedes a nasal or 1, the group is inverted. 
avaranha = apardhva, majjhanha = madhyahna, M. 
genhai, S'. goiihadi = grhndli, ciiiha = cihna (M. also 
cindha) , barahana = brnhmana, palhattha = *prahlasta 

\ (from ^/hlas = /iras). 

§ 53. In hy the semivowel becomes j and then the group becomes 
jj h. Sajj ha = sahya , anugej j ha = anugrahyd. 

§54. IIv becomes either bbh (through vh) or //. vibbhala = 
nhvala,jihai = jihvd (AMg. jibbha). (For fir, rh see § 57.) 



^ 55. Cerebralisation. Dental groups sometimes become 
cerebral. ma,\tia = mrttikd , vuddhn = vrddJia , ganthi = 
, (jranthi. 

§ 56. The same principles apply to groups of three consonants, 
e.g., matsya becomes macclia, arqhya aggha, astra attha, 
and so on. 

5 57. Svarabhakti. When one of two consonants is a nasal or a 
semivowel, the two may be separated by an inserted svara- 
bhakti vowel. The two consonants are then treated 
according to the rules for simple consonants. The 
vowel is generally i, or u with a labial, but some- 
times a. 
M. raana, S". radana, Mg. ladana -=ra/wa, M. S'. salaha = 
Magha, amarisa = amarsa, varisa = 'yarsa, harisa = 
harsa, kilanta = klanta, kilinna = fcZmwa, milana = 
mlana, tuvara = tvara{sva), duvara duara = dvara, 
suvo = Svah, ariha = ar/ict, paiima = paf/ma (Pali pa- 
duma) S'. sumaradi = smora/i. 

f 58. // one of the consonants is y, this is then omitted. acaria = 
acarya. (The' actual difference of pronunciation here is 
slight) xQv\x\\a. = vaidurya, corisi = caurya . h'lo = hyas. 
Sometimes i appears, accharia 07 S'. accharia = aicar?/a 
(M. also acchera § 76). S'. padhiadi = Pali pathiyate 
= pa thy ate. 



§ 59. Tlie sonants r and / ("^ and '5) counted as vowels in 
Sanskrit Grammar disappear in Prakrit, as in Pali. In 
the old Indian language "^ was not pronounced ri (iT) 
as it is nowadays. It was not a consonant plus a 
vowel, but a " sonant " fricative used as a vowel. Its 


pronunciation may have been similar to the sonant r in 
some Slavonic languages, e.g. Srbi, the name of the 
Serbs in their own language. Languages not possessing 
this sound naturally represent it either with the neutral 
vowel or introduce a vowel sound before or after the 
consonant r. (Sometimes both before and after). 
Hence it is more intelligible why (a) the guna of r ia ar 
(not re), [b] Vrtrahan appears in Avestan as Ver6th- 
raghna, rju as erezu, (c) Pali has iritvija for ftvij, 
irubbeda for rgveda, and (d) Prakrits not possessing e 
(or a sign for it) replace r by a, i, or u as well as by ri. 
Still less does Iri express the old pronunciation of ^. 
This was more like the final sound ('sonant' or 
syllabic I) in English " battle " where there is no vowel 
between the t and the I. Its guna is al. It is repre- 
sented in Prakrits by Hi, li, or a. Kilitta = ArZpto. 


§60. Substitutes for r. 

ri. (for initial r) [Magadhi li.] 

riddhi = rddhi, riccha = rksa, ri<i = rsi. 
- a^. M. kaa S. kada = A:r/a, vasaha = vrsa6Aa. 
^ ■^^^. (commonest) kiwina. - krpana, gxddha, = grdhra , ditthi = 
drsti, siaila. = srgdh , hia.a, = hrdaya. 

U. (after labials or when another u follows). 

M. nihua !S'. nihuda, = nibhrta, M. pucchai S'. pucchadi = 
prcchati, raunala = mr«a/a, vuttanta= vrttanta. 

Note 1. The vowel often varies even in the same dialect. 
S'. dadha or didh a. = drdha. M. iiiatta or nivutta=:7?/- 

Note 2. Nouns in /• generally have u for r before the 
suffix -ka, and when they begin compounds, b" jfimfi- 
dua = ;ama/;r^a, bhadusaa = 6/<r(7//-va/rt. But i also oc- 
curs: S'. bhattidaraa = bliartrdaraka. 

Note 3. a, i, u, also occur at the beginninsr of a word. 
M. acchaT= rccliaii, S'. isi = r5j", ujju=;/w. 

Note 4. Lona r becomes l or u. 



§61. The Diphthongs ai, au are replaced by e, o. Before double 
consonants e and u are short (§§ 15, 68). 
S'. edihasia, ■=aitihasika, Eravana = Airavana, tella = 

taila, \e]}a, = vaidya. 

M. komui, 8'. komxxdl = kaumudl , jovvana = «/a%mwa, 

somma = saumya. 

/^ote. Sometimes in M.'and other dialects ai become 

^ a — i, and au becomes ail, eg. ya,'ira. = vairin, mauU = 

7nauli. This is not correct for S'auraseni or MagadhL 

§ 62. Change of Quantity. .4 long vowel can he followed by 
only one consonant, and therefore every vowel before a 
double consonant is short This law obviously covers 
many cases where a long vowel in Sanskrit appears as 
a short vowel in Prakrit. There was also a tendency 
to shorten the consonant and lengthen the vowel in 
such cases. This is commoner in Maharastri (and 
especially in Ardha Magadhi and Jain- Maharastri) than 
it is in S'auraseni or Magadhi. This principle has 
played a great part in the modern Indian languages (cf . 
Pr, aggi Panjabi agg, but Hindi ag). 

§ 63. Lengthening of short vowel. 

This occurs most frequently before r + consonant (espe- 
cially a sibilant), and before sibilant + ;ya, m, va, or 
sibilant. S'.kadm]^ = kartum,kMsi.vv a. = kartavya. AMg. 
phasa, = spar ia, AMg, ma.nu8a. = 7nanusya (S'auraseni 
manussa} M. asa = a^ya (S'. assa). M. S'. iisava = Mfsam, 
diisaha = duhsaha. 

§ 64. Instead of being lengthened in such cases the vowel is often 
nasalised. -^darsana, p hams a = spar^a (49) 
M. a,msa = a^ru (S'. assu), AMg. amsi -asmi (S'. mhi). 

§ 65. Vice versa a vowel is sometimes lengthened instead of being 
nasalised before r, s, or h. 
dadha = c?am.sfra, M. pisai S'. pisedi = *pinisaii-pinasti, 
M. 3iha. = simha (also simgha S'. siinha). 


§66. There are a number of other cases where the vowel is 
lengthened : sometimes in the middle of a compound, 
before certain inflections, or by analogy with other 
words, e g. M. Ahriccha, = sadrksa by analogy with taric- 
cha, jariccha. 

§ 67. Shortening" of vowels. As stated above every vowel 
followed by a double consonant must be short, so must 
every vowel with anusvara and a consonant. 

A vowel is sometimes shortened when the previous vowel 
is accented : alia = aZ«^a : or when the following vowel 
is accented: M. mamjara =war;ara, but also mamjara 

Note. Maharastrl follows rather the Vedic, and S'aura- 
seni the classical Sanskrit accent. The difference often 
accounts for divergences between Marathi and Hindi. 

§ 68. A long vowel before a single consonant is often shortened, 
the consonant being doubled, if the word was originally 
accented on the la>t syllable. 

evvam = emw, j6vvana = ?/aMuawd, tella = /ai7«, pemma 
= premdn. 

Note I. Final vowels are shortened before enclitics with 
double consonants, e.g. M. thia mhi = sthitds)iii . 

Note 2. 8'aurasenl jeva jewa = eva becomes jjeva jjewa 
after a short vowel e.g. ajjassa iiewa, = dryasyaiva : or 
after a shortened e 6: bhuniie jjevva = 6//»m//amet'fl, 
ido j jevva = ita eva. 

Note 3. Sri becomes Siri. 

Note 4. In M. the final a of adverbs is very often short- 
ened : iixhd = yatJia. 

§ 69. Vowel for vowel. Examples. 

a hecoiiicK i in syllables preceding tlie accent. (Coaimonei 

in M. than S'. or Mg.) pikka = /)aA-ua (S'. also pakka). 
M. niajjhinia but S'. majjhania ^madhyama, 
M. kuTma but S'. kii(.\iima, = katania. 


[Note. Hindi has pakka, Marathi pika.] 

a becomes u (i) with labials: pnloedi = pralokayati (com- 
moner in M. AMg. than in S'.). 

(ii) stems in a especially -jua : S'd.VY annm = sarvapia. 

a becomes i (sometimes) after the accent; M. jampimo = 
jdlpamaJi : before the accent: AMg. vihatthimitta = 
vitastimatra . In this case i generally becomes e. metta- 
= midtra-. 

§70. » becomes u if an u follows: M. ucc\\xi= iksu, AMg. usu 

= isu. 
i becomes c before a double consonant: etthsi = ittha , 

g"ejjha = grr%a (from* gijjha, from* grhya for graliya). 
I becomes e in idr&a etc., or it remains : S'. erisa, generally 

idisa, so kerisa, kidisa. 
{Note, erisa is really from Vedic aya + dr&,'\ 

§ 71. u becomes a in the first syllable when the second contains 
n. ga,r\i^ = guruka, mSiVila, = mukula. 

u becomes i. purisa = pitrMsa (Mg. puli^a). 

u becomes 6 before a double consonant. S'. pokkara = 
puskara, p6ttliaa = ^MS^aA;a (cf. Hindi pothi), moggara 
= mudgara, M. gdccha = gMCcAa. 

u becomes 6 or o before double consonant, or where a 
compound consonant has been simplified. M. m6lla = 
raulya, thora from *thorra = 5f^Mra, so tambola = fam- 
bula [tambula — *tambulla — *tambolla — tambola]. 


§72. e becomes i (i) in unaccented syllables: 'M.'xnk — end, 
viana = vedana , diara = devard. 

(ii) before double consonants : S'. Mittea = Maitreya. 
(iii) (dialect) after a long vowel : S'. Mg. edina = e^ena 
(also edena). 

§ /3. o becomes u (i) before double consonants : M. annunna 
for annonna (§ Q\)—anyonya. 

(ii) In Apabhraiiisa where o comes from ah, as in the 
Nom. Sing, of nouns in a : e.g. \ou = lokah, siliu 


= simhah. [This survives in Siudhi, v.g. candu 

/ or candru = " moon."] 

§ 74. Omission of Vowels. Examples. 

AMg posaha = upavasathd, S'. vatthida = ava<ithita, M 

v&nna. = aranya{" Rann " of Kach). 

api after anusvara becomes pi, after vowels vi. 

\y iti^iter anusvara becomes ti, after vowels tti. 

S'. Mg. idanim in its weaker sense "then" becomes 


M. -piusaia, = pitrsvasrkd from *piusasia. 

M. S'. ip6ppha]i = pugaphali — k.h\x=^khalu. 

majjhanna = madhydmdina, 8'. Mg. dhida = duhiid {*dv- 

hltd) . 

Note. Only unaccented vowels are omitted. Such omis- 
sion therefore sometimes throws light on the accentua- 
ttion of a word. 
. Samprasarana. The reduction of ya to i and of va to n 
is more frequent than in Sanskrit. Aya and ava 
become e and o. S'. tiriccha. = *tiryaksa from tiryak, 
tuTida. = tvariia, "k&dhedn = kathayatu , odSiTa. = avatdra , 
nomai,\iai. = navamdlikd , M. lona = /at;a7/a S'. bhodi = 

§76. Epenthesis. -aria from -(trya sometimes becomes -erOf 
pera,i\ta, ^paryanta, M. acchera = aicarr/a (but also 
accharia as in S'.), M. kera. = kdrya. S'. tumhakera, 
[Nole. From a derivative keraka was derived the Old 
Hindi and Old Gujarati kero keri used to form a geni- 
tive. Beames disputed the derivation of keraka from 
kdrya, vide B. ii. 286. Generally H. ka, ki, etc., RSjas- 
thani -ro -ri, etc., and Bengali -er are derived from 



A. Consonants. 

§ 77, As Prakrit does not allow final consonants (§ 29) most 
of the complications of Sanskrit external sandhi dis- 

Sometimes however the final consonant, usuall}' dropped, \ 
is as it were revived before a vowel : 

AMg jad Sitthi = yad asti. Mg. yad \^c3i,^e = yad icchase, 
or before an enclitic : AMg. chacceva = sad eva chap 
pi = sad api. R in dur and nir regularly remains. 

S'. duragada = (^Mmgra/a, nirantara. 

m sometimes survives as in M. ekkam-ekkani = ekaikamfi. 

i} 78. This form is then declined, e.g. ekkam-ekke. Thus m \ 
comes to be used as a sandhi consonant, e.g. aiiga-m- 
angammi = a%e'n^e, AMg. gona-m-ai = gravac?a?/o, esa- 
m-aggI = eso'g'm^. 
More rarely y and r are used as sandhi consonants. \ V 

AM.g. d\\\-x Skt\:\\\i = dhig astu. ' 

% 79. In compounds the final consonant of the first member is 
usually assimilated to the initial consonant of the 
second member : but sometimes the two are treated as 
separate words. 
M. sarisamkula = sanVsamA;M?a, duIaha = c?MrZa6^a (usually 
dullaha), dnsaho. = duhsaha (usually duasahaor diisaha). 

. / B. Vowels. 

§80. Prakrit is tolerant of hiatus : but in compounds the final 
vowel of the first member is usually combined with the 
initial vowel of the second, as in Sanskrit. 
S'. kilesanala = ^/e^a/ia?a, jammantare = /anmaritore (a 
before two consonants) raesi = raa + isi = rdjarsi. 


Sometimes however they are not combined. S". puaariha 
= pujdrha, vasantussava-uvaana = vasantotsavopayana. 

§81. If the second member of a compound begins with i or u 
before a double consonant, or with i, u the final a or a 
of the first member is dropped. 
M. gsbinda. = gajendraS'. n^trinda. = nare)iclra manda-marud'- 
u vvellida = manda-marutodvellita, mah'usava = wahofsa- 
va, vasantusava. 
Exception. Sometimes when the second member begins 
with long t, u followed by a single consonant, the 
vowels are combined : S', mantharoru ; so regularly 
with a prefix : 8'. pekkhadi, M. pecchai, Mg. pcskadi = 
preksate. Hiatus between ! or u and a dissimilar vowel 
remains . 

§ 82. Hiatus caused by dropping iniervocal consonants renmins. 
Exceptions, (i) Similar vowels are sometimes contracted ; 
paikka for ^ixii\kka, = paddlika ' foot-soldier.' 

(ii) a, d followed by t, i or u, u, thera for thaira = 

M. pomma 8'. paiima = parfma, mora. = mayiira (also 

maiira), M. moha, = may uk ha (also mauha). 
(iii) In compounds. M. a,ndhATisi, = andJMkdrita. D 
cammaraa = carma&araA"a. AMg. lohara = /o/m- 
kdra. denla = devakula, Mg. ]au]ix = rdjaknla. 

§ 83. Between loords in a sentence hiatus remains. 

Exceptions, (i) Na ('*not") is often combined witli an 
initial vowel, natthi = ndsti, naham = wa + aham 
S'. nadidnr a = 7idtidura, ncccha,di = na -i- icchafi. 
(ii) In 8aur. Mg. nu + etad make one word nedam. 
(iii) Initial a after e, o is sometimes dropped, ac? in 




§ 84. Prakrit declensions differ from those of Sanskrit mainly 
through (a) the working of the phonetic rules given 
above and some others affecting particular inflections, 
(6) the simplification effected hy transferring words 
from one declension to another, i.v. by analogy. There 
are a few cases where tlie Prakrits preserve old endings 
or methods not found in Sanskrit. There is little that 
is new. On the whole Prakrit Grammar represents the 
gradual wearing away of the old system ratlier tlian 
the building up of a new one. 

§ 85. The Dual has been lost. The Dative is almost entirely 
merged in the Genitive — (Dat. sing of a-stems occurs in 
M.) The general phonetic rules rule out the consoDan- 
tal declension, though some traces of it remain. 
The great majority of nouns are declined as : — 

1. Masculine or Neuter stems in a. 

2. Masculine or Neuter stems in i or u. 

3. Feminine stems \na, i.l, u,u. 

§ 86. Declension of A stems. Normal. 

Masc : putta = pM^m " son " 



Singular : Nom. 



















puttammi or putte 




putta or putte 

"j puttehi(m) 

Plural : Nom. putta 
Ace. putte 
Instr. puttphim . 
Abl. (puttehim-to) ', (various) 
Gen. puttanain jputtana(in) 

Loc. puttesu(ni) puttesu(m). 

Note, (i) puttado puttao, abl. 9,mg. = *j)utratas. Before 
this ablatival ending -ias a short vowel is lengthened, 
though when used adverbially it can keep the short 
vowel, e.g. Sioaa,do—a(jraiah, \di,mnia,do=^janmatah. 
(ii) putte ace. plur. by analogy with pronouns tumhe, 

ime, etc. 
(iii) puttehim instr. plur. = *pMf7'e6^i^ (as in the Kgveda) 

(iv) abl. plur. is rarely found except in AMg. The form 

quoted = Instr. plur. + tas. 
(v) ^\xt\.Sbmm\ — *'putrasmin. pronora. declension. 

§87. Neut: phala, "fruit." 

This is declined like putta except : 

Nom. Ace. Sing, phalain N. Ace. Plural phalaim. 

§ 88. Declension of I stems, Normal. 
Masc. di.ggi=agni, "fire." 

Singular : Nom. aggi. 

Ace. aggii]^- 

Instr aggina. 

Abl. Not common. Various forms. 

Gen. aggino or in M. aggissa. 

Loe. aggimmi. 

Plural : Nom. aggio or aggino (M. aggino or aggi). 

Aec. aggino. 

Instr. aggihim (M. agglhi). 

Gen. agglnani (M. or aggina). 

Loc. agglsu(m). 


Note, (i) Gen. Sing, aggino like the Neuter in Sanskrit 
is borrowed from the declension of tw-stems ; aggissa by 
analogy with puttassa. 

(ii) Loc. Sing, aggimmi compare puttammi. 

(iii) Nom. Ace. Plural aggino from m-stems aggio com- 
pare the Feminines in I plural -io = i as. 

(iv) M. aggi by analogy with putta from putta. 

(v) aggihim Instr. Plur. The vowel is always lengthened 
before the endings -hi him, cf. puttehim. The final 
anusvara is optionally omitted in all these forms by 
M. and some otlier dialects. 

§{89. Neut. dahi = c?arf;ii, "curd." 

This is declined like aggi except : 

Nom. Ace. Sing, dahim or dahi. Plur. dahiim. 

§ 90. Closely parallel are the U stems. 

Thus Ya,\i = vdyu (wind) has Sing. Nom. vaii, Ace. vaum, 

Instr. vauna,Gen. vauno (orinM. vaussa),IiOC. vaummi. 
Plur. Nom. vauno (or in M. vau), Ace. vauno, Instr. 

vaiihi(m), Gen. vauna(m), Loc. vaiisu(m). 
Neuter. msihvL = madhu, 'honey,' has Nom. Ace. Sing. 

mahu(ip). Plur. mahuim. 

§91. Feminine Declension. The instrumental, genitive and 
locative smgular have fallen together. Nouns in a, 
i, ii are exactly parallel. 
Singular: Nom. mala devi vahil, 'bride.' 

Ace. malam devini vahum. 

Abl. malado devido vahiido. 

(M. malao) (M. devio) (M. vahiio). 
I. G. Loc. malae devie vahue. 

Voc. male devi vahu. 

Plural: Nom. Ace. maiao mala devio vahuo. 

Instr. malahi(m) de\ Ihi(m) vahuhi(m). 
Abl. (malahimto devihimto vahuhimto). 
Gen. malana(m) devrna(in) vahiina(m). 
Loc. mala8u(in) devisu(m) vahusu(m). 


Note 1. Abl. Sing, ado-ao from the masculine declen- 
sion. Sauraseni also uses ae. 

2. I. G. Loo. Sing, -ae from Skt -ayai used for Gen. 

Abl. in Yajur Veda and Brahmanas 

3. Nom. Plural -ao by analogy with devio, etc. 

{—10 = 1 ■*- ah). 

§92. Variants in the Normal Declensions. 

A stems, (i) Nom. Sing, in Mg. and AMg. ends in e. 
Mg. puliSe. AMg. pur'ise = purusah ; in Apabhrain^a 
Nom. Ace. Sing, in u. 

(ii) AMg. has a Dat. Sing, in ae (from fem. decl.) : 

devattae = devatvaya. 
(iii) Abl. Sing, -do in M. AMg. becomes dii metri causa : 
rannau = aranydt. 
M. AMg. have also a form in a from -at: vasa = 

va&dt, gha,vsi — grhdt. 
Common in M. is Abl. Sing, in hi : mulahi, diirahi. 
Rarer is -himto : hia,ahim-to = hrdaydt. 
(iv) Gen. Sing. Mg. has Ma ox — ha. CaludattaS^a or 

(v) Loc. Sing. In M. forms in -e -ammi often stand 
together : gaammi paose = g'a^e pradose. 
In AMg. the commonest form is in msi ( = 5min 

§ 47). logainsi = loke. 
Some dialects have Loc. in -him. Mg. pavaha- 
nahim = pravahane. 
(vi) Neut. Plur M. dim -ai -ai. Forma in dni also 
occur in AMg. and Sauraseni. 
Dialectic also d (as in Veda) S'. midhuna, jana- 
vatta = ydnapdtrdni. 
jvii) Ace Plur. Masc Dialectic d = dn M. guna = 
qunnn, A.Mg. asa = a^van (common in Apa- 


§ 93. / and U stems. 

(i) Abl.Sing. Examples. M.\ia,h\ii = udadheh,AMg. 
kucchlo = kukseh, JM. kammaggino = kar- 

(ii) Loc. Sing. In AMg. the commonest form is in 
msi: kucchimsi = A;M^saM ; in Apabhram^a hi: 
a,ihi = adau. 

(iii) Nom. Plural. Ay[g.Tisa,o = rsayah,sa.ha,vo = sadha- 
vah, (Neuter) M. acchrini = a^.«//i, also acchini, 
AMg. mamsuim-or ina.msn ni = s/na^runi. 

(iv) Masculines in I and u shorten these and are 
declined like nouns in i and u. 

§ 94, Feminine stems. A stems. 

(i) 1. G.L. Sing, -ae is shortened metri causa to ai. 
(ii) A form in -aa is forbidden by some grammarians: 

but occurs as in M. ]6nha,si = jifotsnaya. 
(iii) Abl. Sing. Commonest form is in M -a > S'. Mg. 
-ado. S'. Mg. also have -de. imae maa-tanhiae 
= asyd mrgntrsnikdydh. 
(iv) N. Ace. Plur. sometimes in a: M. reha = reA;Mfe. 
S'. puijjanta devada = pS;?/amana devatdh. 

§ 95. I, U stems. 

(i) For -le M. often has ta. 
(ii) S'. d\tXhiB, = distyd preserves the older form of the 

(iii) Nom. Ace. Plur. to uo become lu uu, metri causa. 

§96. Stems derived from Skt. R stems. Tlie distinction 
between relations and agents is maintained. In the 
Nom. Ace. Sing, and Nom. Plural Prakrit follows the 
Sanskrit. Otherwise the stems become stems in u (or 
in f) or a now stem is made from the Accusative: piu-, 
pii-, or pia ra- = pj7r- ; bhattu , bhatti-, or bhattara- 
= hharir. 


§97. Agent, bhattu = fe^arir Relation. piu = pt7f. 

Singular: Nom. bliatta S'pida, M, pia. 

Ace. hhdttdram pidaram, M. piaram. 

Ins. bhattuna piduna, M. piuna. 

Gen. bhattuno piduno, M. piuno. 

Log. S'. bhattdre 
Plural : Nom. bhattdro S'. pidaro, M. piaro. 

Ace. pidaro or pidare piaro or piuno. 

Ins. bhattdrehim piuhini. 

Gen. bhattarana(iii) piunam. 
Loc. bhattaresu piiisu(m). 

Note. 1. 6/iar/r =" lord " beeomes an i-stem., Nom. 
bhatta. Ace. bliatta ram. Inst, bhattina. 
2. mdtr Nom. M. maa. S*. Mg. mada. 

Ace. M. maaram. S'. madarani. 
Inst. maae. S'. madae. 
Can be declined as maa — mai — mau — or maara — 

§ 98. AN stems. These are mostly reduced to A stems by omit- 
ting N ( = middling base before pada endings and in 
compounds), or a new A stem is formed from the strong 

So pemma = preman Nom. Ace. pemmam ; I. pemmena; 
G. pemmassa; i/)c. pemme (M pemmammi); Plur. 
Nom. Aec. p6mmaini ; Gen. pemmanani. 

Muddha or muddhano = mUrrf/m. AAIg. Instr. muddhena 
or muddhaiienam ; (the Nom. Sinsr. in a is often the 
only relic of the old declension). The old -an declen- 
sion however is partially preserved, especially in the 
common words rajan and atman. 

§ 90. Declension of raa = ra;an. 
Singular: Nom. raa = raya. 

Ace. raanam = rdjdnam. 

Ins. ranna = m/na (§36) or raina (with 
Svarabhakti vowel i). 


Gen. ra n no = rdjnah or raino. 
Log. (raimmi raammi rae). 
Voc. T&sim = rdjan. 
Plural: Nom. (Ace), raa no = m/anai^. 

Ins. raihim (as if from an I stem; from 

Gen. rainam. 

Note. In Compounds rda does not always follow the 
A declension. S'. msiha,Ta.o = mahdrdjak , ]ua,VRO = yuva- 
rdjah, Va,ccha,va,o= Vatsar a j ah, but AMg. devaraya = 

S'. maharaam (Ace.), maharaena (Ins.), maharaassa (Gen.), 
but AMg. devaranna, devaranno. 

§ 100. Atman becomes atta- or appa- (§ 366). 
M. S'. Mg. 

Nom. appa atta. 

Ace. appanam attanaam = * afmawa^am 

Ins. appana 

Gen. appano or attano attano (Mg. attanaai^a). 
AMg. also declines Nom. appo in the A declension. 
New A stems are also formed; appano, attano, and in 
Compounds attana-, appana-. 

§ 101. -IN stems. These partly retain the Sanskrit method, and 
partly become I stems. As the I stems in Prakrit 
have borrowed from the -IN declension the difference 
is apparent only in a few forms. 
Nom. Sing. ]idX\,\n. = hasti, but Ace. hatthim = fea5^mam 
(occasionally S'. has. Ace. in -inam). Jain Prakrits 
often have Gen. in -issa, otherwise it is regularly 

§ 102, -AT stems. Stems in -at, -mat, -vat form ^-sterns anta, 
manta, vanta. 


Examples. S'. karento = A;urt7an,puloanto = pralokayan, 
karentena-A;wr?'a<a, mahantassa = wia^afa^, gacchante- 
him = gacchadbhih. 

§103, Exceptions. Ardha-Ma'jjadhi often retains the old de- 
clension, e.g. knvvAvn = lcurvan, mahao = mahatah. 
Other dialects do so in bhavat and bhagavat. 
Nom. bhavam bhaavam 

Ace. bhavantam bhaavantani 

Ins. M. bhavaa. S' bhavada M. bhaavaa. S'. bhaavada 
Gen. ,, bhavao. S'. bhavado ,, bhaavao. S'. bhaavado. 

§ 104. Stems in -S. Nouns in -as -is -us form stems in -a -i -u. 
Examples. S. Pururavassa, = dirghai/usam, AMg. 

sa joi = sajyotisam. 
Exceptions. There are some traces of the old declension. 
S'. Pururava (Nom), Pururavasam (Ace), Puriiravasi 

(Loc ) Old Instrumentals are common in AMg. JM. 

manasa, sahasa, t&vsiaa, = tapasd, teyasa, = tejasd, cak- 

khnsa, = caksusd. 

§ 105. Other exceptions or irregular forms consisting generally 
of the old forms subjected to phonetic changes, occur 
sporadically, and cannot be reduced to rules. 

§ 106. Pronouns. A great variety of forms is found for the 
pronouns of the first and second persons. 
The following table gives only the commonest : — 

\st Person. 

2nd Person. 

Singular : 


aham 'ham 

tumara (M. tarn) 


mam (M. 



tumam te 



tae tue 



(tumnhiinto) (a plu- 
ral form) 


mama me maha 

tuha te (AMc tava) 



tam (M. tumammi) 


Plural : 





amhe, no 

tumhe, vo 






( ) 


amhanam, no 





§ 107. Personal Pronouns. Variants. 

\st Person. Sing. Norn. A group is derived from a 

form *ahakam or ahakah: M. ahaam JM. ahayam 

Mg. hage, Apa. ban. Ace. M. Amg. JM. raamam 

formed froru Gen. mama. Ins. Apa. mai, also Ace. 

Loc. Mg. mai. Abl. is rare. 
Gen. M. uses maba(ra) majjba(m) (derived from mah- 

yam) and me. 
Plur. Nom. ambe= Vedic asme. AMg. also vayara. 
Ace. S' ambe, no; M. amhe amha ne ; Mg. a^me. 
Gen. Mg. a^manani. M. AMg. JM. amham. Saur: very 

often no. 
2nd Person Sing. Nom. Commonest form is tumarn, 

tarn is common in M. AMg. bas tume. Dbakki bas 

tubam, Apa. tubu. Ace. mostly like the Nom. Apa. 

tai. te in AMg. and in S'. Mg. where as enclitic it 

becomes de. 
Ins. MSS. vary between tae tue. M. bas also tai, tui, 

tumae, tumai, tume. Abl. S'. ta,tto = tvattah also 

tuvatto. M. tumahi, tumabimto, tumao. 
Gen. S'. tuba, te M. also tubam, tujjba(tp), tumbam, 

tumma, tu. 
Loc. S'. tai, tui M. tai tuvi tumammi tume. 
Plur. Nom. tumhe by analogy with ambe. AMg. bas 

Gen. M. also tumba. AMg. tubbbam, M. S'. also vo. 
For the Abl. a great variety of forms is given by 

the Grammarians. Tumbatto, tubbhatto, tujjhatto, 



S 108. 

'Srd Person, sa- 

and ta- 




Singular; Nom. 















. tae or tie 



or tammi ^ 


Plural : Nom. Ace. te taim (AMg. tani) tao or ta 
Ins. tehi(ni) tahi(i]i) 

Gen. tesim or tana(in) tasini or tana(rn) 
Log. tesu tasu. 

§ 109. Variants. From sa are found also : Nom. Sing. Mg 6e. 

Ace. AMg. se. Gen. M. AMg. S'. se. Mg. §e (any 

gender). Plur. Nom. AMg. se Mg. 4e, also se for 

Ace. Gen. 
From ta-, Abl. Sing. AMg. tao. 8'. Mg. tado = <a<as. 

M. ta= Vedic tat. 
Gen. Mg. ta§§a. M. also tasa. Fein. M. also tissa. 

AMg. tise. 
Loc. S'. tassiin. Mg. taSsiin M. tammi. AMg. tamsi. 
Plur: Nom. te becomes de in S'. Mg. after any other 

pronoun: ede de. Abl. AMg. tebbho tehimto. 

§ 1 10. Similarly are 


3clined : — 

eso esa 


edam . 

.M. cam 

( = etat) 

jo 3^ 


{ = yat) 

ko ka 


imo ima 

imani or 


{ = idam) 

The other stems used in Skt. with idam also occur : 

8'. aat)i = ff?/aw, AMg. ayain is used for all three genders. 

8. iajp = t?/am. M. AMg. 8'. idaiii (only Nom.). 
M. assa = a.s?/a, eiia = owena, AMg. S'. anena. 
-ina becomes na : nani, nena, ne. 
Amu is declined like a Nouu in u. 


§111. Pronominal adjectives are similarly declined. 

Examples- S'. a,ima,3sim = anyasmin , kadarassira = toa- 
rasmin, avarassirn = aparasmtw, parassim = para5mm, 
anne = ant/an. S'. savvanani AMg. savvesim = sarve- 

§112. Declension of Numerals. 

1. ekka (AMg. ega) follows the pronominal declen- 

sion. Log. Sing. S'. ekkassim Mg. ekkas^im 
M. ekkammi AMg. egaipsi or egammi. Plur. 
ekke AMg. ege. 

2. do { = dvau) duve (from dve Neut. Dual.) also 

Neuter (by analogy with tinni ( = ^nwt)) donni 
dunni. All are used without reference to gen- 
der. S'. donni kumarIo = (Zi'e kumaryau. Ins. 
dohi(m), Gen. donha(m), Loc. dosu. 

3. tinni = <n«t, AMg. ta,o = trayah (used without dis- 

tinction of genders). Ins. tihim, Gen. tinh(am)- 
Loc. tisu. 

4. cattari is the commonest form. Cattaro from the 

Nom. Masc. and caiiro from the Ace. occur and 
are used for either case. Ins. caiihi(m), Gen. 
caunha(tp), Loc. caiisu. 

5. panca I. pancahi(m), G. pancanha(m), L. paficasu. 

6. cha I. chahirn, G. chanha(m), L. chasu, and so on 

up to 18. 
19 to 58 are neuters in -am or feminines in -a in the 

Nom : other cases mostly like feminine singular, 

e.g. 20 Nom: visain visa Ace. visam I.G.L. 

visae (also Nora, visai and vTsaim). 
59-99 are neuters in irn or feminines in i. 
100. S'. sada M. saa and 1000, sahassa are neuters and 

declined according to the A declension. 


§113. The Prakrit Verb has undergone greater changes than 
the Noun. The general phonetic laws have naturally 
disintegrated the consonantal conjugation, and by for- 
bidding final consonants have tended to make the old 
forms ambiguous. There has been the same tendency, 
as in the case of declension, to reduce all verba to one 
type. This process had not gone so far in the old 
Prakrits such as Pali, whereas by the Late Prakrit or 
Apabhram^a period only one conjugation remained, 
with a dwindling number of "irregularities," i.e. 
isolated survivals of tlie older system. 
Moreover fewer forms were used. The Dual Number 
disappears: the Attnanepada Voice has almost gone; 
apart from some scattered remnants all the wealth of 
Perfects, Imperfects and Aorists has been lost, and 
the past tense is expressed by a participle with, or 
without, an auxiliary verb. Thus of tlie old system 
there remain only: Present Indicative, Imperative, 
Optative, acid Future: Active and Passive: Parti- 
ciples, Infinitive and Gerund. 
In place of the old Ten classes of Verbs only two are 
normal : — 

(i) the A-class including the great majority of verbs 

and the Passive, 
(ii) the E-class (with e derived from axja) including 
all Causatives, most Denominatives and some 
simple verbs. 
The inflections of the two classes are the same. 

§114. Present Indicative. {Normal Conjugation) 

A -Class. 
Singular: 1. p\icchB.Wi\ = pfcchaini 

2. pucchasi 

3. S'. pucchadi M. pucchai 



Plural: 1. pucchamo 

2. S'. pucchadha M. pucchaha 

3. pucchanti. 


kahemi = kathaydmi 


Singular: 1. kadhemi 

2. kadhesi 

3. kadhedi 

Plural: 1. kadhemo 

2. kadliedha 

3. kadhenti 
Note 1. AMg. follows M. in pucchai, pucchaha. Maga- 

dhl has the same endings as Saur. puscadi, pu^cadha, 
and of course puscadi. 
Note 2. ApabhramSa has travelled much further : 
Sing. 1. pucchau, 2. pucchasi or pucchahi, 3. pucchai. 
Plur. 1. pucchahu, 2. pucchahu, 3. pucchahi. From 
this stage it is not a long step to the modern forms, 
e.g. Hindi. Sing. 1. pucchu, 2-3. pucche. Plur. 
pucche. 2 ,p^. Y^ <^ f t ^C , 

§115. Atmanepadam. 

In SaurasenI this is rare, occurring occasionally in verse, 
and in stock expressions. It is somewhat commoner 
in M. AMg. JM. The endings are shown in : Sing. 1. 
jane, 2. janase, 3. janae (S'. would have janade if it 
occurred). Plur. 3. janante. 

Examples. M. S'. jane, M. ma,nne = many e , S'. lahe 
= labke, icche, M. janase, Mg. iic a,ie = icchase , M. pec- 
Gha,e = preksate , tlrae = tiryate (passive). 

§116. Imperative. 

• Singular 1. (pucchamu) 

2. puccha, kahehi, pucchasu, kahesu. 

3. S'. pucchadu M. pucchau. 


Plural 1. pucchamha. kahemha. 

2. S'. pucchadba M. pucchaha ( = Indie.) 

3. pucchantu. kahentu. 

/ Note 1. By rule hi is added to a long vowel in the 2nd 
Sing. AMg. generally, M. Mg. sometimes add it to a- 
stems lengthening the a. AMg. gacchahi (S' gaccha) . 
Note 2. The ending -su has been explained as a survival 
of the Skt. Atmanepada ending -sva. Pischel (§ 467) 
explained it as a product of analogy : Indie, pucchadi , 
pucchanti: Imperat, pucchadu, pucchantu. ..Indie, 
pucchasi, Imperat. pucchasu. So also the 1st person 
Singular, Indie, pucchami : Imperat. pucchdmu. 
This -dmu however is found only in grammars. It is 
true that Sauraseni and Magadhi often have the form 
in -su though otherwise they rarely use the Atmane- 
padam. S'. karesu^^wrw, anesu = a/iai/a, kadhe8U = 
kathaya. As however Pali derives -ssu from sva, and 
uses this also with Parasmaipada stems (E. Miiller, 
Pali Grammar, p. 107), this is probably its origin, 
though analogy may have aided its adoption in the 
active voice. 
Note 3. 1st Plur. -mha = 5ma is from the Aorist accord- 
ing to Pischel (§ 470), who compares Vedic jesma 
desma (Whitney 894 c.). 

§ 117. Optative. This is common in AMg. JM., rarer in M. and 
exceptional in the other dialects 
There are two types — (i) the usual form in M, AMg. 
JM. derived from the Opt. of the 2nd conjugation. 
= ydm, -yah, -ydt, etc. 
e.g.. Singular 1. vattejja, (vattejjami, analogy with Indie.) 
2. vattejjasi (°ahi) (''asu). 
3 vattejja. 
Plural 1. vattSjjaraa. ' 

2. vattSjjaha 

3. vattejja = 3rd Sing. 


(ii) the only form in Sauraseni, also found in the others 
derived from the Opt. of the 1st conjugation, 
-eyam, -eh -et. 

Singular 1, vatteam (vatte analogy witli 2, 3, persons). 

2. vatte. 

3. vatte also used for 3rd Plural. 

Note. The short e in -ejja seems to be for ^ (§ 72). So 
janiydt becomes AMg. janijja, janejja, but doubtless 
its prevalence is partly due to the influence of the 1st 

§118. Future, (-issa- from -isya-) 

Singular 1. pucchissaip, AMg. pucchisaami. 

2. pucchissasi (M. AMg. pucchihisi). 

3. pucchissadvM pucchissai (or pucchihii). 
Plural I. pucchissamo. 

2. pucchissadha, M. pucchissaha. 

3. pucchissanti (AMg. pucchihinti). 

Note. The forms in ihi arose from forms in hi after 
diphthongs or long vowels. The 3rd Sing, pucchihii 
contracts to pucchiln as the metre requires. The 
grammarians give also 1st Singular in ihdmi, ihimi: 
(Apabhraima has \iek.\i\\\\\'\va\ = 'preksisye) , 1st Plural 
-ihimo, 2nd Plural -ihiha ihittha. 

§119. Passive. The Prakrit passive either (i) corresponds to 
the Sanskrit form in -ya (y being omitted in S' Mg, 
and becoming -;;;■ i^ ^^^ others), or adds -la- (S'. Mg. 
la, others -ijja) to (ii) the root, or more commonly to 
(iii) the present stem. 
The endings are those of the (A-class) parasmaipada ; 
but M. AMg. often have atmanepada endings especially 
in the Present Participle. 
Examples, (i) M. jujjai. S'. iujjsidi = yujyate. M. gam- 
mai, M. dijjai, S. dijjadi -diyate. 

(ii) ¥vom. ^/(jam M. gamijjai, S'. gamiadi. 
(iii) From gacch- S'. gacchiadi. 


S'auraseni. Mdharastri. 

Singular 1. pucchiami pucchijjami, 

2. pucchiasi pucchijjasi, 

3. pucchiadi pucchijjai, 
and so on. and so on. 

§ 120. Causatives. This is formed as in Skt. by the addition 
of aya (becomes e) to the strong form of the root, 
hase'i = hasayati. After a Skt. inserts p ; -paya be- 
comes Pkt. ve. 
/ ni vvavedi = ntrmpai/a^t. Prakrit extends this usage to 

many other stems, lengthening the a of the present 
stem, e.g. pucchavedi. 

§ 121. Participles. The normal forms are shown in the follow- 
ing scheme : — 


Present, pucchanto, F. pucchanta, N. pucchantani, 

causal, puccha\;'ento . .etc. 
Future, pucchissanto, -ta, -taip. 
Perfect, nil. 

Middle (active meaning, common in AMg.) 
Present, pucchamano -na (ni), -nani. 
Future, pucchissamano etc. 
Passive . 
Present. S'. pucchianto, AMg. pucchijjamano. 
Future. ("Gerundive") pucchidavvo - M; pucchiav- 

vo (pucchanio). M. pucchanijjo. [kajjo = kdryah] 

Past. S'. pucchido, M. pucchio (§§ 124-5). 

§ 121. Infinitive. Sanskrit -turn becomes S'. Mg. -dmn. M. 'iim. 

The ending is added (a) to the root, (6) to the present 

stem (with i). S'pucchidum M. pucchium. 
Examples, gantum, S". gacchiduiii, gamiduin, S'. kame- 

dum = krimayitum, dhixridum = dhdrayitum, S*. kadum 

and karidutn M. kiium = kartum. 
(For Inf. in -ttae see § 136.) 


§ 122. Gerund. 

S'. pucchia. M. pucchitina. AMg. pucchitta or puc- 
chiduna. S'. Mg. have ksidua. - krtvd , g'adua = gatva. 
S'. has sometimes in verse the ending una-duna, e.g. 
pekkhiiina, otherwise only -ia is correct. 
Examples. S'. naia (for nltva.) = *nayiya but avan!a = 
apaniya, oda,r\a, = avatirya (Mg. odalia), pekkhia, 
bhavia, pavisia, 

In Magadhi tlie form in -una is the commonest. 
Examples, hauna, gantiana, hasiuna, kauna. 

AMg. prefers tlie form in ttd (to, after a nasal) : 
bhavitta, ganta, hasitta, karitta, also ttdnam : bhavit- 

§ 123. Irregular Verbs. 

The normal or regular conjugation being as given above, 
there are also numerous '' trregular^^ forms. These 
are of two kinds; (a) tliose that agree with Sanskrit in 
their formation, only undergoing phonetic changes ; 
(&) those that are irregular by both Sanskrit and 
Prakrit standards. These latter, wluch are not very 
numerous, may be due to analogy, or to the survival 
of forms used in the ancient spoken language, but not 
recognised by classical Sanskrit. 

§124. A large number of "irregular" verbs in Prakrit differ 
from the normal conjugation only in the Past Parti- 
ciple Passive. It was natural tliat older forms 
should be preserved in the case of this participle 
Some words like gafah, krtah were in such constant 
use, that their phonetic equivalents, e.g. gado, gao, 
kido, kao, were hkely to hold their own against new 
forms suggested by analogy such as *gacchido, karido. 
Moreover in many cases this participle has acquired a 
width of meaning as an adjective over and above its 
literal meaning as a participle. Words, e.g. like snig- 
dha, mugdha, Buddha are not necessarily thought of 



as parts of verbs, though their derivation is clear. 
The degree to which normal analogous forms pre- 
vailed, or older forms survived (or were introduced' 
from Sanskrit) varies with different dialects and differ- 
ent writers. It is not a matter of precise rule, nor 
would an extensive list of occasional exceptions be of 
much value. There are however a number of forms 
of more frequent occurrence, with which the student 
should be familiar from the outset (§ 125). 

§ 125. Past Participles Passive. 

Irregular Forms. 

P. P. P. 


Present Tense. 


' offended ' 


M. avarajjhai. 


' appUed ' 


M. adhai (or adha 


vai if Causal). 


' ordered ' 


S'. anavedi (§ 36). 


' begun ' 


S'. arambhadi. 


* mounted ' 

M. aruhai. 


' sat down ' 


S'. asiadi. 


' spoken ' 


(AM'j;. vutta). 


' crossed ' 


M. uttarai. 

oinnaS'. odin- 

' descended ' 



M. kaa AMg. 

' made ' 


M. karei. 


S'.kida (§11) 

S'. karedi. 

kada (§ 60.) 


' afflicted ' 


M. kilissai. 


' angered ' 


S>. kuppadi. 

— °kkanta 

* gone ' 

— ""krdnia 

S'. kamadi. 

M. k h a a , 


(AMg. khaya khat 



[S; khanida] 

' dug ' 


M. khanai. 

M. khaa, S'. 

' hurt' 






' wasted ' 


M. khijjai. 


' thrown ' 

ksipta . 


M. gaa, S'. 

' gone ' 


S. gaechadi. 



' sought ' 


M. gavesai. 

M. gahia, S'. 

' seized ' 


S. genhadi (§ 52). 



'sung ' 


M. gaai. 


' hidden ' 


S. guhadi. 




M. chindai, S. chin- 

M. jaa, S'. ja 

' become ' 


S, jaadi. 


M.jia, S'. jida 

' conquered ' 


S. jaadi, M. jinai. 


' yoked ' 


M. jufijai.S.yujjadi 
(Pass. §119). 


' abandoned ' 


M. caai. 

M. thia S. 

' stood ' 


S. citthadi. 

thida (§ 12). 


nada (M. naa) 

' bowed ' 




' destroyed ' 


nassadi . 

M. naa (S. 

' known ' 



nada) [also 


S. vinnada 

' discerned ' 


vinnaviadi (pass.). 


' promised ' 


nida (M. ma) 




(S. avanida = apawzto, paccanrda = pmf?/amto, uvanlda = 
upanita, parimda = parinlta, d\ivwinlda. = durvintfa. 
anlda = amta.) 
[M. also nia. ainia, = atinita , ania = amto]. 
nhaa 'bathed' sna,ta nhai (AMg. sinai), 

tatta ' heated ' tapta (also tavida). 

tutta 'broken' trutita tntt&i [cf. Hindi tuta]. 

tuttha ' pleased ' tusta tussadi. 



dattha (dak- 

' bitten ' 


dasai [S. darasadi 




' burnt' 


dahai (S. dahadi) 






' seen ' 




' given ' 



paatta pa- \ 

vatta 1 


' set out ' 


pavattai, etc. 


' used ' 




' exiled ' 

* pravasta, — 

[pavasai. (?)] 


' scattered ' 


[pairijjai pakiriadi. 


' resorted to ' 




' obtained ' 


pavai, pavedi. 

M. palaia 

S. palaida 




M. palaa ' 


JM. palana ^ 


* entered ' 




' praised ' 




' drunk' 



puttha ' 

' asked ' 



[usually puc- 



' bound ' 




' enlightened ' 




' fallen ' 



* split ' 



bhia bhlda 

' frightened ' 


bihei {k bhaadi). 

s: bhuda 

' become ' 



' Also ' touohod ' sprala (phusai). 



' enjoyed ' 




' released ' 

*mukna — 


muda (M, 

' dead ' 



mua maa) 


' perplexed ' 




' gratified ' 




• reddened ' 




' brightened ' 


ruccai (S. ruccadi). 


' vexed ' 



M. runna 

' wept ' 


M. ruai. 

(S. rudida) 

S. rodadi roadi. 


' obstructed ' 




' fixed ' 


laggai (^. laggadi). 


• taken ' 



lia lina 

• attached ' 




' licked ' 




' reported ' 




' carried ' 




' consoled ' 


samassasai. (?) 


■■ told ' 

iisia {^Sas) 



•' sprinkled ' 




' accomplish- 




' slept', 'asleep' supta 


suda (M. sua) 

' heard ' 




' purified ' 



M. haa, S. ha- 

' killed ' 





• seized ' 



M. hua (S. 

* become ' 




• Hemacandra allows M. hoi, huvai, hava'i, bhava'i; S. huvadi, bhavadi, 
havadiy bhodi, hodi. 


§ 126. Irregularities in Present Indicative. 

Regular or Normal Indicativ^es are of the type pucchadi 
or kadhedi (§114) and are either (a) the phonetic 
equivalents of Sanskrit Indicatives of the 1st Conjuga- 
tion, or (6) from roots in the 2nd Conjugation, equiva- 
lents of what Sanskrit would most naturally have had, 
if they had been included in the 1st Conjugation. 
\ Thus we may class as regular such forms as (a) gac- 

chadi, icchadi, siiicadi, muncadi, maradi, suraaradi 
^ pivadi, phusadi, kuppadi, naccadi, kadhedi, takkedi, 

cintedi, (6) hanadi (y/han) sasadi {-y^vas). 
f * Irregular ' forms comprise (i) forms not of the normal 
type, e.g. thai; (ii) verbs attracted into the E class, 
e.g. karedi ; (iii) forms diverging from Skt. types in a ; 
(iv) nasalised roots; (v) addition of n original or by 
analogy ; (vi) other survivals of Skt. conjugation : 
(vii) anomalies. 

§ 127. (i) Type with 3rd Sing, in di (S. adi) arises (a) by contrac- 
tion. Apa. k\mi = kha:SL'i = khddati ; (b) by survival 
of form in Skt. 2nd class. M. va,i = vnti but also vaai 
(S. vaadi),M. Tp SidihM = pratibhdti {S. paclihaadi), S. 
h\mdi — bhdti, vihsidi = vibhdti; (c) by analogy M. 
■/ thM = * sthdtiiov tisthati (S. citthadi) and so with 
all roots ending in a. dhai or dhaai, gai, jhai ( = 
Epic dhydti). 
Other contracted forms are S. bhodi = bhavati, nedi = 
( v^ da to give has demi desi dedi — denti. 

dedi is from *ddyati, cf. S. Fut. daissani. Absol. daia. 

§ 128. (ii) Many verbs are attracted to the E class (10th class 
in Skt.). Examples. Karedi ( = Karoti) (distinguish 
from causal karedi =^*aral/a/^), muncedi (causal 
moavedi) , hasedi, sumaredi , cinedi , sunedi, bhanedi , 
dhuvedi, etc. 


§ 129. (iii) v/ »*M tias ravai (1st class), ruvai (6th) and rovai 
Inf. roviura. (S. has forms from riid. rodiduin). 
y/ dhau. M. dhuvaii. AMg. dliovai dhovei S. dhoadi. 
v/ bhu has M. hoi huvai. S. homi hosi bhodi. Opt. 

bhaveam bhave. Infin bhavidum. 
ruccadi = * ntc?/afe (transferred to 4th class) (also roadi \ 
Mg. loadi)— similarly laggadi, vajjadi (^Z vraj), jujjadi ; 
— ^yujyati (Epic yunjati). 

§ 130. (iv) From chid come chindai chindadi. This is natural 

as the root was nasalised in the Sanskrit Present. 

Similarly with other roots of the 7th class. Bhin- 

dai, bhanjai, bhunjadi. 

The nasal in rambhai [^ rabh) is also familiar in Skt. 

derivatives. (Epic rambhati). 
muncadi (M. muiicai) is regular, but M. has also muasi 
= *mucasi. 

§ 131. (v) N is preserved in cinai S. cinedi {Skt. cinoti) , kunai 

(Vedic krnoti), sunedi (M. sunai), janaii S. janadi, \ 
na anadi, kina>i = knndti, gen\ia,di =^grhnati, S. sak- 
kanomi sakkunomi = ^aknomi, dhunai (S. dhoadi, 
Pali dhovati) : by analogy in jinai (8. jaadi) thunai 
{x/ stu). 

§132. (vi) ^/i "to go" has emi esi edi (M. ei) — enti: ^ as to i \^ 
be. .mhi si atthi, mha (M. mho) ttha santi. ' 

{Note. — Atthi the only common non-enclitic form is used V 

with all numbers and persons). 
^/ bhl. M. bihei (S. bhaadi). 
(vii) bhanadi as if from bha-na-mi (9th class) also bha- 

nedi. sunadi = sunedi as if in 9th class, 
v/ svap becomes suv, lience suai and (by analogy with 
ruai rovai) sovai S. sovadi. 

§ 133. Survivals of other conjugational forms. 

Imperfect, asi = a5?< used f or all persons of both num- 
bers. "^ 


Optative. AMg. siya = sydt, kuj ja = kurydt, buya = bruydt, 

sakka = Vedic &akyat (Pischel § 465), 

Precative M. AMg. hojja = 6/m?/a<. AMg. d6jja = d€?/a/. 
Aorist. AMg. akasi = aHrsl/i or akdrsit. Plural -msw 

akariipsu (cf. the Aorist in Pali). 
Perfect. AMg. ahu- dhuJi. Plural aharnsu. 

§ 134. Irregular Futures. 

Futures in -issadi (or M. ihii) are normally formed from 
the Present base: pucchissain, kadhissaip, M. pucchi- 
ham kaheham (§ 118). They are also formed from 
the root as in Sanskrit. M. ne\\\\ = nesyati, but S. 
naissadi, S. gamis.sadi. 

From ^ bhu various present bases are used to form the 
future. S. bhavissam, huvissam, Mg. huvi^^ani M. 
hokii hossam. 
/ v^ Sthd M. thahii (pres. thai). S. citthissadi (pres. cit- 
thadi). Other forms represent the Sanskrit — sydmi 
especially in M. AMg : so dacchani = rf;'ai'si/awt, (2. s. 
dacchisi,3.s.dacchii 3pl.dacchinti), mSccham {y/ muc) 
veccharp (y/ vid), rocchani (v^ rud) voccham (^Z vac). 
daccham and the rest are not used in S. Mg. 

S. pekkhissam (M. pgcchissam) rodissam, vedissam. 
Causatives and others in E- class form Futures (a) as in 
Sanskrit (omitting intervocal y). S. kadhaissam moa- 
vaissasi = * mocdpayisyasi , niattaissadi = nivartayis- 
yati (b) M. AMg. from the e-stem : vattehami = vartoyis- 
, ydmi (c) omitting aya = e. M. kahissam, S. kadhissam, 
M. puloissani = pro/oA;a?/a?/isyami S. takkissadi = /ar/ra?/- 
i'syati, su3smssa,m -^u^rusayisydmi. Mg. mali^SaSi- 

v/ dd has S, daissam M. dahain, y/ kr has S. karissam 
M. also kahaiii 

J? 135. Irregular Passives. 

(a) Many passives that are often called irregular a.s 
not being formed with the commonest ending 



-ijjai S'. iadi, are regular equivalents of Sanskrit 
passives. (§119. (i)) e.g. iuHsidi = yujyate, gam- 
m&l- gamy ate. Other examples are: — Khippai 
{ksifi, luppai {Iwp), bhajjai (&/<ai), bajjhai (badh: 
dhy becomes jjh §44), rujjhai [rudh], arabbhai (a- 
rabh), gijjai {gd), khajjai (khad), labbhai S. lab- 
bhadi (Za6^), ehijjai {chid), bhijjai {hhid), bhujjai 
(hhuj), muccai (mwc), vuccai (vac), tirai {tr), kirai 
{h) Others are similarly formed from obsolete roots or 
modified forms of roots, e.g. vubbhai = M%af e 
(from *vuhh), dvihhha.i = duhyate,\ihhha.i = lihyate, 
ruhhh&i = rudhrjate, gheppai = gr.r%a«e ; and with wi' 
for u TUYv a.1 = * ruvy ate (S. rodiadi), suvvai (sru) 
(S. sunladi), thuvvai {stu), dhuvvai {dhu) also 
dhunij jai. Similar are civvai {civ. for ci) also cini j- 
jai, S, cladi, jivvai {jiv for ji).^ 

(c) adhappaiis a causative Tpsissire ^adhapyate, so also 


(d) jammai, "is born," is derived from janman Pkt. 

jamma; similar is the case with hammai {y/ Jian) 
khammai {,' khan). 

Anomalous summai {sru), cimmai {\/ ci). 

j\^ofg._SaurasenI and Magadhi often prefer the form from 
the present base. M. labbhai, S. labbhadi, but also 
lambhladi ; M. muccai, S. muncladi; M. suvvai, S. sum- 
adi, Mg. Sunladi; M. ruvvai. S. rodiadi; M. bhujjai, 
S. bhunjiadi; M. kirai. S. kariadi (AMg. kajjai = 
*karyate); M. najjai, S. jdniadi; M. bhannai, S. 

1 The two passives civvai jivvai are assigned to ci and ji by the 
Grammarians. They have been explained as analogous to the forma 
from roots in u or u. Pischel held that civvai was a regular passive from 
CIV given in the Dhatupatha (= ' take' or ' cover') and jivvai probably 
from jiv {- 'please '). Vide Pischel, §537. 


§ 136. Infinitives. (Variations). 

Tlie commonest form especially in Sauraseui is tliat 
derived from itum (M. mn, S. idum) added to the pre- 
sent base, i.e. gacchidum, anucitthidum (stha), genhi- 
duni (grah), janidum {jnd), dahidum (dah), khividuni 
(ksip), haridum {hr). Causatives, karedum, dhilre- 
duip, damaednm—dansayitum, (sometimes uncontrac- 
ted S.\im = nivartayitum) , or by analogy with 
A-stems: dharidum, maridum, kadhidum. 

Equivalents of Sanskrit forms in -turn are also found in 
Saur : but are commoner in M. 

S. Ihadum {stha), padum (to drink), kadum kauin (kr). 
gantuni (gam). M. hhottum = bhoktum, datthuin = 
drastum, dclum {da), neuin {ni), pauni {pa) S. paduni 
JM. pivium, souin {^rotum), jeutn {ji) (AMg. jiniuui), 
laddhum {labh), vodhum {vah), chettum {chid), bhet- 
turn {bhid), mottum {muc), naum {jna). Similarly 
formed are ghettuin (§ 19) { — * ghfp-tumior grahitum) ' 
sottum ( = *sov-tum for svaptum cf. rottuni = ro^uw). 
v/ vac has M. vottum S. vattuni. 

Ardha-Magadhi often uses the -tum form as a 2:erund, so 
that kauiii means krtvd. For the Infinitive this dialeer 
prefers a form in ttae or ittae. citthittae (stha), gacchittac 
(gam). This is derived from a Dative Infinitive a.* 
found in Vedic. 

§137. Gerundives (Varieties), (cf. §121). 

(a) From -tavya, either (i) with the present stem, or (ii) 

with the root (strong form), 
(i) pucchidavva, gacchidavva, hodavva (§ 4) or bliavi- 

davva, anucitthidavva, dadavva, sunidawa, jaiii- 

davva, genhidavva. 
(ii) sodavva M. soavva {iru), ghettavva, kadavva (§63) 

M. kaavva {kr). 

■■'■'■ ■! ' ~ ' ' '■ " 

' Al.go M. pahium. AMg. ginhinm, JAT. jr^nhinm, 6. gJ*nhidiim." 


(6) From -niya. M. AMg. -anijja, S. Mg. -ania: karania, 
damsania, (from Present stem pucchania), M. kara- 
nijja, danisanijja. 

(c) From -ya. kajja (§ 50) = karya. AMg. vojjha = vahya ; 
from Present stems: gejjha {^10) — *grhya from 
present stem grha (as in Vedic grhe and Apa : 
(Hemacandra) grhanti).' 


The rules and examples given in the last sis chapters deal 
mainly with Maharastri and Saurasenl.. other languages being 
mentioned incidentally. 

The principal peculiarities of some of these may now be 
brought together. 

Magadhi. It is a matter for regret that the sources of 
information about this language are not more abundant, as it 
is in some ways the most interesting of the Prakrits. We 
have here striking variations in phonetics that are not easily 
accounted for. 

S'. for S. (^ for ^) is an equation that is reflected in the 
modern languages of the East of India, where people speak, 
and even write of the "Sham Ved " and " Sheeta." As 
other Prakrits use only ^ s this law should cause the student 
no diflBculty : bhavissadi is easily recognised as the equivalent 
of S. bhavissadi, tassiin of tassim, sa of sa, puttassa of puttassa. 
and so on. 

L or R (^ for T) is more striking, especially at the begin- 
ning of a word, laano = ' ' kings." 

1 This is Pischel's derivation. However grahya would become *gaj- 
jlia, and association with the group gSnhadi ghSttum, etc. , might account 
for the change of vowel a to e. 


puliso = S. puriso, galuda = S garuda, Caludatta, ovalida- 
i8Al}a, = apavaritaAarira, ia,ma\e ^samare, nagalantala = nagrara7?- 

This change I for r is found occasionally in other Prakrits 
(§ 26) and in Pali (taluno = taruno) ; it is found also in the Vedic 
language, where alam y/ kr replaces aram-{krnoii) , and v^ ^w<^ 
replaces nic. There are many instances in other languages, and 
it is often difficult to determine which was the original sound. 

It is however remarkable to find an Aryan dialect without 
an R sound at all. The modern dialects of Bihar and Bengal 
have not replaced every r with an I. Perhaps this rule for 
dramatic Magadhi is a conventional exaggeration of a marked 
tendency of the Eastern dialects. Possibly as Magadhi is put 
in the mouths of only low-class people, it represents only the 
habit of a non-aryan stratum of society, which like the Chinese 
coolies of to-day may have had no R's. 
Y remains and replaces J (^ for^). 

yadha = S. jadha (§1), yanadi = ?awa^i. 

yanidavvam = S, janidawam, yanavada = ;/a7iajoa(fa. 

ya,y&de = jay ate. (jh becomes yh. Yhsitti = jhatiti.) 
Dy. rj, ry. all become yy. So that where Sauraseni hasjj, 

Magadhi has yy. (^ for ^). 

a,yySi = adya or arya (S. ajja), 

avayya = avadya, mayya = madya . 

(dhy becomes yyh : mayyhanna = majjhanna § 74), 

ayyuna = ar;Mna, ka,jya. = karya (kajja § 50). 

duyyana = durjana. 

From these examples it is clear that '^ in Magadhi represents 
a front palate fricative different from the semivowel sound in 
English " yes." The equivalent of "^ was used in the North- 
West to express a foreign sound written Z in Greek. So on 
coins of King Azes we find the genitive Ayasa. Words spelt 
in Bengali with the equivalent of ^, are pronounced in some 
dialects with a sound resembling Z, in ' zeal ' or zh in 'azure.' 
A similar sound is commonly given to ^ in many words, e.g. 
^=r^ pronounced ziie. 


Ny, ny. jn. nj become nn. 

punna = 2)Mwt/a (S. punna § 48). anna = an?/rt. 

(S. anna) ksLunskka. = kanyaka. \3inno = rajnah (S. ranno § 99). 

a,nnsM = anjaU (S. keeps fij). 
Medial cch becomes sc. ("^ becomes ^.) ' 

gSLSCSi = gaccha , isciadi = tcc^aft (*icchyate), uScaladi = wcc^a- 

lati, puscadi = prcchati. 

tili^ci peskadi = M. tiricchi pecchai = ^iVyafe preksate. 

A sibilant is retained at the beginning of a group of con- 
sonants. Grammarians differ as to which sibilant should be 
written. MSS. vsivy too much to give much help in the 

Ska. ^P^ becomes i^kh according to Hemacandra, other- 
wise we find ^11% i\i&ke = ^uskah, Tulu§ka = Turu3ka. 

Sta sth become sta (or ^ta) 5Fg becomes «=h^ or ^T2" 
susthu becomes ^ustu or Sustu. 

Spa, spha become spa, spha, nisphala = w?'sp^a?a (M. S. nip- 
phala, §38). 

Ska, skha. -pabskhalsidi = praskhalati. 

Sta. stha becom'e sta for 6ta) haste or haste = /^a.stoi^ (M.S. 
hattho § 38) uv&stida, = upasthita. 

Spa. Buhaspadi = Brhaspati (or Bihaspadi). 

Ksa becomes ska. peskadi = preksate (or it is written Ska. 
paSka = pa^sa. Hemacandra says pahka, i.e. with visarga 

The real Magadhi sound may have been neither the "^FT nor 
their of the Midland Sanskrit. These groups being difficult, 
it is not surprising to find that MSS. generally write the 
assimilated forms ttk^ etc. 

' As verbal forms in ccha go back to I.E. forms in -SKA the MagadhI ' 
.<c might be regarded as more archaic than the Vedic cch (however pro- 
nounced): cf. Slavonic, but this is considered inadmissible as Magadhi 
has 6c also for secondary cch as in uScaladi, ma^cali (=Fish. matsya-Vi- 
Pr. maccha), cf. Hindi machli. On the other hand if originally correct foi 
iechadi etc. , the sa jae group would be readily introduced in other cases 
where ^auraseni etc. had cch. 


rth becomes st. (or ^t) so t\stsb = tirtha, a.3te = arthah. This 
may be merely conventional analogy,' e.g. Sauraseni hattho: 
Magadhl liaste .*. S. attho: Mg. aste. Iti grammar the two 
characteristic points are Nom. Sing, in -e. §e liaste = so hattho 
and hage = "I" (§107). Otherwise the grammar closely 
follows Sauraseni. 

Some Dialects of Magadhl appear in the plays. 

S'akari is spoken by the King's brother-in-law in tlie Little 
Clay Cart. 

Peculiarities. — A weak y before palatals. Yc'isthsi^tisl/ia/ 
da in Past Participles especially from roots in r. kada = ^T^a 
(the same feature is found in AMg.). Gen. Sing, in aha as well 
as a&&a Caludattaha. Loc. Sing. ahim. pavahanahim = praua- 
hane. Voc. Plur-aho. {y edxc-asdh) . These last three points 
resemble Apabhramsa. 

Dhakki spoken by Mathura and the two gamblers in the 
Mrcchakatika. A form of Magadhi that approaches the Apa- 
bhramsa stage. Has both sa and ia. 

Oandali and Sabari appear to be dialects' of Magadhl. 

Ardha Magadhi. Jacobi called this Jaina Maharastri and 
regarded it as an older, more archaic Maharastri. The Indian 
grammarians called the language of the old Jain Sutras 
" Arsam " from Rsi. Hemacandra explains that all his rules 
have exceptions in ' ' Arsa. ' ' Trivikrama, another grammarian , 
excluded "Arsa" from his treatise, because its meanings 
were rudha, or conventional, not strictly in accordance with 
etymology, i.e. not based on Sanskrit. 

Namisadhu commenting on Rudrata's Kavyalaiiikara (2-12), 
derives the word Prakrit from prakrii in the sense of natural 

' On tho other hand tlie change rt becomes .s is found ii\ Iranian. 
Avestan niasyo=war<.i/aA. G.I. P. I. §289. 

^ MSrkandeya gives this for Magadhi and Vracada Apabhrara^n. 
Yf\\nm:=ci mm. The prontinciation is not rloar {ride Selivtiona. ATapadhi). 


speech free from the rules of grammarians, or from prak krta, 
' created of old ! ' because, says he, the Prakrit of the Arsa 
canon, Ardhamagadhl is the language of the gods. Arisa- 
vaijane siddham devanam Addhamagahd vdnl. Obviously Nami- 
sadhu was a Jain. The Jains indeed supposed that Ardha- 
Magadhl, the language in which Mahavira preached, was the 
original language from which all others were derived.' 

There is some difference between the prose and verse portions 
of the Canon. Verses often have Nom. Sing, in -o instead of 
the characteristic -e (like Mg.), gerunds in tuna Turn (like M.) 
while prose prefers ltd or ttdnam (§ 122). 

Other points are. Verse meccha, prose milakkhu. Verse 
kunai, prose kuvvai {=^* kurvati) . The verse dialect is thus 
somewhat nearer to M. than the prose. 

Ardha Magadhi agrees with Magadhi in the Nom. Sing, in 
-e, the use of Gen, Sing, tava ; past participles in da for ta after 
roots in r (but not always) ; in ka becomes ga " Asoga" (but 
this is rare in Mg.) ; and in Pluti of -a in Voc. Sing, (common 
in ApabhramSa). 

It differs markedly in the retention of ra and sa. In general 
AMg. (like Pali) retains more archaic features than the drama- 
tic Prakrits. AMg. is assigned by the Bharatlya-natya-§astra 
(followed by Sahityadarpana) to servants, Rajputs, and the 
heads of guilds. The Jain monks in the plays who might be 
expected to speak AMg. appear to speak ordinary Magadhi.' 

AMg. differs in many respects from Maharastrl.^ 

Phonetics. — am becomes am before eva and avi [ = a'pi). 
iti become i after pluti vowel or in iti vd. 
prati drops i : pad uppanna = prafi/M^pawwa (rare 
in other dialects). 

I Vide Pischel, § 16. 

^ One of the dialects in the fragments of Buddhist dramas found in 
Central Asia is classed by Liiders as Old Ardha Magadhi. 

3 Jacobi considered the language of the Jain Canon to be an older 
form of Maharastri. Kalpa Sutra, S.B.E. XII. Pischel showed this view 
to be untenable. Pr. Gr. § 18. 



dentals for palatals, teiccha = cikitsd. 
aha = yatha. 

use of samdhi consonants (§ 78). 
Noun : dative in -ttae (§ 92), 

instrumental in sa (§ 104), 
locative in -msi (§ 92 v.). 
Verbs : v^khya aikkhai (Pali acikkhati) M. akkliai, 
kuvvai (in prose, see above). 
Relics of Aorists, e.g. 3 plur. pucchirasu. 
Infinitives in ttu -ittu used as gerunds, e.g. 
kattu (means krtva) avahattu (means apahrtya) 
sunittu, janittu. 
Infinitives in -ttae -ittae (§ 136). 
Gerunds in -tta, ttanam, -cca, -ccana(in), 
Moreover where they agree what is common in AMg. is often 
rare in M. Cerebralisation is much commoner in AMg. and so 
is the change la for ra. 
The vocabulary is also often quite distinct. 
It will be obvious that AMg. differs still more from Saura- 

The later Jain writings belong to times when the sects had 
spread more widely and were influenced by other dialects. 
Owing possibly to the popularity of this reUgion among the 
rich mercantile communities on the West coast, the non- 
canonical writings of the Svetambara Jains are in a language 
which may be regarded as a form of Maharastri, although it 
retains a number of the peculiarities of AMg, , e.g. infinitive 
in -ittu, gerund in -itta and ga for ka. This is the main dialect 
of Jacobi's Selected Narratives in Maharastri. 

The language of the Digambara canon has Nom. Sing, in o : 
t, th become d, dh. Hence it has been called Jain S'auraseni. 
It has however much that is foreign to Sauraseni, but found 
in either M. or AMg. In the direction of Gujarat were many 
strongholds of Jainism, and here the Sauraseni type of dialect 
would meet Maharastri. That JS. preserves rather more of 


the peculiarities of AMg. than JM. does, is probably due to the 
fact that it is somewhat older. 

The resemblances and differences of the i^rincipal Prakrits 
given above would not necessarily lead to a closer classifica- 
tion. We have an Eastern Prakrit (MagadhI), a Southern 
Prakrit (Maharastri), and a Central Prakrit (^auraseni). Ar- 
dhamagadhi appears to resemble the Southern more than the 
Central Prakrit. Hoernle,' on the basis of a comparative 
study of some of the modern Indo- Aryan languages, supposed 
that the whole of Aryan-speaking India was at one time 
divided between two languages, a " S'auraseni tongue " and a 
" Mdgadhl tongue.'''' Maharastri he regarded as an artificial 
literary language, without any direct relation to the spoken 
language of Maharastram. Further study of the Prakrits and 
of the modern dialects has shown that this view is untenable. 

Maharastri (and Jain Maharastri) has peculiarities which 
can be traced in modern Marathi, aad there can be no doubt 
that this Prakrit was based on the language of the Marathi 

Grierson^ with more abundant material has developed the 
idea of the geographical classification of the Prakrits on the 
basis of a comparison with modern dialects. His classifica- 
tion is — 

Central Prakrit . . . . Sauraseni. 

Outer Prakrits . . . . E. Magadhi. 

S. Maharastri. 

Intermediate . . . . Ardha Magadhi. 

This is a convenient classification inasmuch as Sauraseni 

is the most Sanskritic, and the representative of the Madhya- 

desa, which was the centre of Hindu culture after the early 

Rigvedic times : while literary centres at a distance from this 

1 Grammar of the Gaudian Languages, 1880. Introd., p. xxx. 

2 See Introduction to Volume on Marathi in the Linguistic Survey of 

3 See Article on Prakrit in Encyclop. Britaonica, 11th edition, and 
chapter on Language in Imperial Gazetteer of India. 


middle point naturally show more independence from Sanskrit. 
This classification is indeed connected with a theory relating to 
the immigration of the Aryan-speaking tribes into the Penin- 
sula. The speakers of the dialects out of which classical Sans- 
krit was created, and on which later on Sauraseni was based, 
are supposed to have forced their way into the Madhyadesa 
some time after a previous Aryan invasion. The descendants 
of those first-comers produced the " Outer Band " of languages. 
Much may be said both for and against this particular 
theory as an explanation of certain linguistic facts. It is 
however possible to accept a classification based on such facts, 
without necessarily accepting this particular explanation. 

A weak point in the classification might appear to be the 
position of Ardha Magadhl. If this was centred in Oude, one 
would expect the language to be roughly speaking half Magadhl 
and half S'auraseni. Now Magadhi as far as we know it hardly 
differs from Sauraseni except in striking phonetic variations. 
If we allowed Ardha Magadhi a Nom. Sing, in e, a certain 
amount of 1 for r, and § for s with perhaps some traces 
of the other phonetic peculiarities of Magadhi, we could invent 
a Prakrit that would fit in with the scheme, but it would be 
quite different to the real Ardha Magadhi of the old Jain 
Canon. Eastern Hindi does indeed lie between Western Hindi 
and the dialects of Bihar, and combines some of the peculiarities 
of the languages on either side ; but in the case of the Prakrit 
Ardha Magadlu this does not appear to be the case. 

It must however be remembered that this classification deals 
primarily with the spoken languages on which the literary 
languages were based. The literary Prakrits were not all 
crystallised at the same time, and so do not represent strictly 
contemporary dialects. Ardha Magadhl is obviously more 
archaic than Sauraseni. Further tho lancuage of even the 
oldest Jain Sutras may have been influenced by the spreading 
of the sect towards the West. It is also possible that later 
literary Prakrits were influenced by earlier literary Prakrits. 


Pali. Pali originally meaning a " boundary, limit, or line" 
was applied to the Canon of the Hinayana Buddhists. Thence 
it is used of the language of that Canon, found also in some non- 
canonical books : all being preserved in what were originally 
the missionary Churches of Ceylon, Burma and Siam. Thence 
again ' Pali ' is sometimes applied to (a) the inscriptions of 
ASoka, although these comprise three or four distinct dialects ; 
(b) the official court language of Asoka's Empire, a form of 
Middle Indian wideh' understood,^ and (c) 'monumental 
Prakrit ' including all the inscriptions down to the time when 
Sanskrit ousted Prakrit (or " Pali ").''^ The Pali language of 
the Buddhist books forming a separate academic subject, (a 
classical language appropriate to Buddhists of Burma), has not 
been much studied in India, Nevertheless it is important for 
the study of (a) the history of Indian speech, and (6) the Old 
Prakrit inscriptions. 

For the study of classical Pali numerous grammars, readers, 
texts and translations are available.'' Only a verj'- general des- 
cription need be given here. 

Characteristics of Pali. Pah retains more of the old gramma- 
tical system than AMg. The atmanepada is commoner ; 
Aorists, especially the S-Aorists, abound. (The Aorist and Im- 
perfect have fused together). The reduplicated Perfect is rare, 
but occurs. There are more survivals of the old conjugational 
classes, e.g .sunoti = S. sunadi, karoti (Atm kubbate) = S. 
karedi, dadati (also deti) = S. dedi. 

In Phonetics the striking points are : — the sibilant is dental 
^, y remains, r sometimes becomes I, but not always as in 
Mg., n is sometimes cerebralised but not always. Intervocal 
consonants generally remain, and surds are only exceptionally 

1 See Rhys Davids, Buddhist India. 

2 This wide use of "Pali" is made by Dr Otto Franke, Pali und 
Sanskrit. Pischel preferred "Lena" dialect for 'monumental Prakrit,' 
and "Lat" dialect for Anoka's inscriptions. Liiders suggests that the 
widely understood Lena dialect was really Old Ardha Magadhi. 

■^ See Biography. 


replaced by sonants. Hence we have bhavati, or hoti, katheti, 
pucchati, gacchati, etc. : mato = mrlah, kato = kftah. 

In some words conjuncts like dr- br- remain. 

Svarabhakti is common. Arya becomes ayya or ariya. 

From these examples it will be seen that Pali is more archaic 
than the Prakrits described above. 

The geographical basis of Pali has been disputed. The 
Buddha was supposed by tradition to have preached in 
Magadhi. The Scriptures were naturally supposed by Southern 
Buddhists to be in the language of the Buddha. Therefore 
Pali should be Magadhi. As a matter of fact it is not. The 
Nom. Sing, in -o, the presence of sa, ra, ja show this clearly. 
Some regard it as the language of Ujjain, whence Mahinda, 
the son of ASoka, took the sacred Canon to Ceylon, others as 
the Aryan language of the Kalinga country.' The latter seems 
the more probable. Pali would then represent a very old form 
of Eastern Maharastri in touch with Magadhi on the North. 

Asoka's Edicts are found in two different scripts, Kharosthi 
and Brahmi, and in a variety of dialects.^ These often preserve 
conjuncts not found in Pali, e.g. pr in priya. Such are not 
to be explained as Sanskritisms but as Archaisms, survivals of 
the old phonetics, especially in the North-West where such 
conjuncts still exist. Cf. Sindhi tran, T.ahnda tre = 3. 

Dealing with the circle of Buddhist ideas these inscriptions 
have in many instances to be interpreted by comparison with 
the Pali scriptures. 

Later Prakrit inscriptions are generally of a simpler character, 
often too brief for their dialect to be classified with certainty. 

Apabhramsa (see Ch. II, p. 6). 

To the student of philology it will be of interest to state 

' Vide Oldenborji, Vinayapitaka, Introduction, p. liv. 

'^ Pischel (Gr. § 29) tidmitted clear traces of dialects, but conaidered tlio 
" L5t. -dialect " to be on the whole one definite language, perhaps the 
official language more widely understood than spoken in the North-West 
and South. 


some of the main features of the Apabhraiiisa stage. Whereas 
in the Old Prakrit stage the typical phonetic and gramma- 
tical charges are not carried so far as in Dramatic Prakrits, 
so naturally in this Late Prakrit all such changes are carried 
further. At the same time being in close touch with spoken 
dialects, the ApabhramtSas occasionally retained very ancient 
features, that had survived outside the main current of lin- 
guistic development. Some of the "Outer" dialects preserve 
quite ancient features to the present day. 

The following tables of typical declension and conjugation 
gives only forms peculiar to Apabhramsa, not those shared with 

Sing. Nom. Ace. puttu 
[Neut. phalu] 
Ins. putte 
Abl. puttahe puttahu. 
Gen. puttassu puttaho puttaha 
Log. putti puttahl 

Plur. Nom. Ace. putta (Neut. phalal) 

Ins. puttahi(m) 

Abl. puttahQ 

Gen. puttaha 

Loc. puttahl 

If the oblique forms be compared it is apparent that it 
needed only the blurring of the final vowels to reduce these to 
one form for the singular and a nasalised form for the plural 
(vide Beames, II, § 42). The Apabhramsa Nom. Sing, in u 
is seen in the Sindhi forms with a very short m.' In the 
Genitive Sing, an s form survives in Apabhramsa. This .'? 

I Nom. Sing, in o (Rajasthani and Western Hindi dialects) or 5 (Stan- 
dard Hindi and Panjabi) is derived directly or by analogy from forms in 
-aka-. K was dropped, hence from *aL-o we get *a-o. Apa. a-u whitli 
becomes either o or a. 


appears in tlie Marathi dative and in Kashmiri.' In Hindi it 
is seen only in the pronominal declension tis-ka kis-ka.'^ 

Sing. 1. pucchaii Plur : 1. imcchahu 

2. pucchasi or -hi 2. pucchahu 

3. pucchai 3. pucchahi. 

This is very close to Old Hindi and not far from the modern 
forms pucchu, pucche, puccho, pucche. 

In general it may be said that the Apabhratiisa forms, when- 
ever these can be ascertained, should be taken as the starting 
point for the derivation of words in the modern languages and 
the comparative study of their phonology."" Thus to derive 
Hindi pahla "first" we should start from an Apabhramsa 
form pahilail rather than from prathamah or padhamo.* 

Pais'aci Prakrit. — Paisaci lies outside the circle of languages 
dealt with so far. The term seems to have been used (a) of 
the language of demons '• Bhutabhasa," (ft) of a number of 
uncivilized languages, including some Apabhranisas and some 
non-aryan languages, (c) the Paisaci dialect of the grammarians 
(especially Hemacandra) with asubdialect Ciilika PaiSaci (C.P.). 
This Paisaci dialect is archaic in character. Its chief pecu- 
liarity is the substitution of surd mutes for sonants. Tamo- 
tara = Damodara. C.P. nakara = nagara , raca = raja, khamma 
= gharma, kanitappa = kandarpa. 

na W becomes na «T, ^ la becomes 35 /a : T ya remains. 
Intervocal consonants are not dropped. Aspirates are not 
reduced to h. jn, ny become nn fas in Mg. and probably every 
other dialect at a sufficiently early stage). 

Who were the speakers of this dialect ? The Shahbazgarhi 
Edict agrees with tliis dialect in a number of particulars. The 

I Also in •• Roniani "' of Gypsies in Europe, C'oros-kero = • t>f a thief." 

^ These forms have fused with the old fominino tifsa. etc. 

•^ Sec Grierson's Phonology of the Indo-Aryan Vernaculars. 

* Grierson derives from an Apabhrainda padhdvillail apparently deduced 
from AMg. padhamilla with the suffix -ilia so frequent in M. : cf. Pischol 
§ 44!t wlio assumes Old Indian *pra(>iila. 


Brhatkatha of Gunadhya was composed, according to the 
story, in Paisacl. This work was popular in Kashmir in the 
ilth century. Soraadeva produced one version in the Katha- 
saritsagara, and Ksemendra a shorter one in the Brhatkatha- 
maiijari. Some scliolars have concluded that Culika PaisacI 
was a dialect of the North-West of India. Sir George Grierson 
connects it with the Dard and Kafir languages of the Hindu 
Kush, including Shina and the under-layer of Kashmiri.' 

On the other hand it is admitted that Gunadhya was a South- 
Indian, The Brhatkatha was composed many centuries before 
that late literary development in Kashmir which produced 
Ksemendra, Bilhana, Somadeva and Kalhana. '^I na becomes \ 
♦f na, and ^ becomes 55 1 are suggestive of Dravidian influence. ) 
Other features such as the retention of medial t, and of y are 
merely archaic. Surd for sonant can be paralleled in the South 
as well as in the North. It is a common corruption when a 
language is adopted by an alien race.'^ The student will re- 
member the Welsh parson Sir Hugh Evans in the Merry Wives 
of Windsor. Speakers of Gaelic have the same tendency. 
Any such corrupt dialect on the fringes of Aryan speech would 
necessarily disappear with the continued extension of Aryan 
speech. So that it seems quite as possible that the original 
Cockscomb' Demons belonged to the Vindhyas as that they 
were Cannibals of Kashmir.* 

1 Vide the PiSaca Languages of North- Western India. R. As. Soc. ilon. 
Vol. VIII, 1906. The author's theory that these, mostly mixed, dialects 
should be provided with a separate compartment between the Iranian and 
Indian subdivisions of Aryan, because they combine Indian and Iranian 
peculiarities, is not convincing. Nor is the connection with C. PaiSaci 
obvious, as the main peculiarity of C.P. (surd for sonant) is exceptional 
in this area. 

'^ It is quite probable that the same change in Armenian (tasn = • ten ') 
and Teutonic (Gothic taihun) is due to the same cause. 

3 If that is the meaning of ciilika, cuhka. 

* References. Grierson's Monograph, pp. 1 and 2. Sten Konow. 
Home of Paisaci Z.D.M.G. Ixiv, pp. 95 ff. Grierson Z.D.M.G. xlix. pp. 




If the whole of the Middle Indian period be included, the 
tirst place in literary development must be assigned to Pali. 
Its claim to this place is due not only to its antiquity, but 
also to the inherent worth and historical interest of the early 
Buddhist literature. Of all Indian religions, Buddhism has had 
the profoundest effect on Asia as a whole. Tlie Pali_5ipitaka 
or " Triple Casket " contains the oldest scriptures of that 
religion. Moreover from the Pali books we get incidentally 
a view of Indian life, that serves to supplement the more 
pedantic outlook of the orthodox priesthood, and the romances 
of the bards. Every student of Indian History should at least 
read some of the Jatakas or Birth Stories of the Buddha.' 
Representations of these stories, and scenes from the life 
of the Buddha occur continually on the sculptured panels of 
Buddhist stupas and vihdras. Indeed without a knowledge of 
the outlines of the Buddhist doctrine, and some comprehen- 
sion of the lives of Buddhi.sts, lay and cleric, as revealed by 
these old scriptures, the student cannot really grasp what was 
one of the dominant factors in Indian History for more than a 
thousand years after the Founder's death. The student of 
Indian Philosophy will find that acute reasoning and bold specu- 
lation were not confined to the ortliodox schools of tliought. 
but also found among the Bauddhas. 
i] History is represented by the versified monkish chronicles 
I contained in the Mahavamsa dealing with the early history 
» of Ceylon. 

The term Prakrit Literature however does not ordinarily 
include Pali Literature. If Pali works be excluded, then the 
greater part of the whole of the Prakrit Literature is made up 
of Jain Literature. This, as we have seen, is found in three 
distinct Prakrits. 

' See Bibliography. 


/, _ 

Ardha-Magadhi is the language of the oldest Jaiu books, 
which form the Canon of tlie S'vetgjubara^ct. This canon 
comprises 4:5 dgamas including ele ven anga s and twel ve updngas . 
These are sometimes spoken of under their Prakrit names and 
sometimes under the Sanskrit equivalents, e.g. 

1st Anga. Ayaranga-suttani = Acdrdnga-sutram. 

2nd ,, Sii5'a-gadangani = Sutrakrtdngam. 

7th ,, UviissLgardskaao = Updsaka-daSdhJ 

1st Upanga. Ovavaiya-suttam = Aupapdtika-sutram. 
This great collection of writings was arranged by Devaddhi 
Ganin in the 5th century a.d. The date of the completion of 
the work is given as 980 years after the entrance to nirvana of 
the Founder of Jainism, i.e. a.d. 454 (or possibly a.d. 514). 

The older books, G'a,\]ed_Puzvas , on which this redaction was 
based, have completely disappeared. Thus the collection con- 
tains materials of different centuries mixed together, so that it 
is difficult to distinguish them. Some portions are ascribed to 
Bhadrabahu (about 300 B.C.). One such work is the Eappa- 
suttam'" {Kalpa-sutram) which contains a life of MaEavira. 
This apparently is not really older than the 5th century a.d. 

The style of the oldest prose books is diffuse, delighting in 
elaborate descriptions and endless repetitions. Their chief inter- 
est to the general student lies in their incidental references to 
facts and circumstances of the ordinary everyday life in India. 
The oldest Kdvya work in Jain literature is the PajimaL^cariya, 
which gives a version of the Ramayana. It dates perhaps 
from the 3rd century a.d. 

In Jain Maharastri there are non-canonical books of the 
Svetambaras, consisting mainly of collections of stories : 
stories from the lives of famous saints, and narratives of the 
conversion of various people to the Jain religion. The Svetam- 
bara literature has as yet been only partially explored by 


1 Edited and translated by Hoernle in the Bibliotheca Indica. 
^ Edited by Jacobi, and translated in Sacred Books of the East Series. 
See Bibh'ography. 


modern scholars, and much material both for philology and for 
history awaits scientific treatment. Even less known are the 
works of the Digambara sect in Jain S'auraseni. Bhandarkar 
has published extracts from the Pavayana-sara of Kundakund- 
acarya and the Kattigeyanupekkha of Karttikeyasviimin, both 
of which are in verse. 

Jain literature is neither so famous, nor so widely studied as 
the Pali Buddhist hterature. Much of it is still in manuscript, 
or in uncritical editions. Much of it again is difficult without 
(and even with) a commentary. 

Apart from the Jain Canon the earl}' literary development of 
Ardhamagadhi has been deduced from its occurrence in certain 
inscriptions, and in fragments of plays ' ascribed to Asvaghosa 
or his contemporaries. Jain Maharastri is found in the Kak-^ 
kuka inscription. 

For the purposes of Kavya however the most important 
Prakrit was from an early date Maharastri.^ This was the 
language of the Prakrit Epics and Lyrics, and formed the 
starting point for Prakrit Grammarians. 

Most famous of the Epics is the Setubgjidha, a work of such 
excellent technique, that it has often been ascribed to Kali- 
dasa. The poem, which is called in Prakrit Ramnavaho or 
Dakamuhavaho , relates the story of Rjima, but is supposed to 
commemorate the building of a bridge of boats in Srinagar by 
Pravarasena, king of Kashmir. •- 

' Luders. 

^ Jacobi (Selected Narratives, Introd.. 1886) suggested the 4th centur\ 
A.D. as about the time when M. attained this position. Early inscrip- 
tions of M. country are of the Pali type : the latest of these (sliowing 
some instances of elision of single intervocal consonants) date from 150 
and 200 a.d. Tlie Jain Canon according to tradition was written down 
in 454 A.u. Its language [AMg.j was influenced by M. [Pisohel denies 
this]. Dandin praises the Sotubandha. 

^ Macdonell. Sanskrit Literature, p. 331. For Pravarasena II see 
Rajatarangini, Steiii'a trana. : Bk. Ill, V. 354. For an attempted identi- 
lif-ntioii of Kfilidasa witli Mntrigupta, sec Stein's note on verse 129. 


The Gaiidavaho celebrates the conquest of Bengal by 
Ya§ovarman of Kanauj about the end of the seventh centur}' 
A.D. Its author's name was Bappai'raa ( = Vdkpatirdjd) possibly 
a nom de plume. The same author composed another Epic 
Maliumahaviaa of which only one or two verses have been 
preserved in quotations. 

The Ravanavaho and the Gaiidavaho have both been much 
influenced by Sanskrit models, and dehght in long compounds. 

The last eight cantos of l^' s Dvyd&raya-Mahdkdvyam 
form a small Prakrit Epic entitled Kumdrapalacarita describing 
the deeds of Kumarapala of Anhilvada in Gujarat. The 
object of these cantos, as of the whole work, is to illustrate 
the rules of the author's compendious Sanskrit and Prakrit 
grammar called Siddhaj-Hemacandra. 

The most important work for tlie study of Maharastri is the 
Sattasai {Sapta&aiakam) of Hala, This is a n_anthQlogv_jcom^ 
prising verses by many poets. One commentary gives 112 
names, another, that of Bhuvanapala, gives 384. ' The various 
recensions differ very much in the distribution of the verses, 
and probably few can now be definitely assigned to their 
authors. The collection is evidence of the immense amount of 
Maharastri poetry that must have been composed, but not 
preserved. Besides Hala who is identified with Sdtavahana 
(spelled variously Sahvahana, etc.) there are a few names 
known from other sources. Hariuddha, Xandiuddha and Pottisa 
are mentioned in Raja^ekhara's Karpuramaiijari Act I, p. 19, 2. 
The Vidiasaka says, " ta ujjuam jeva kini na bhaniadi : amha- 
nani cedia Hariuddha-Xandiuddha-Pottisa-Hala-ppahudinam pi 
purado sukai tti." ' 

The date of this anthology has not been determined. Weber 
put it in the 3rd century at earliest, but earlier than the 7th 
century. Macdonell says, the poet Hala probably lived before 

^ In Lanman's racy translation this runs: "Then why don't you say 
it straight out : Our little pussy 's a first-rate poet, ahead even of 
Harivrddha, Nandivrddha, Pottisa and the rest." {Sukai- Stikat'i.) 


1000 A.D. Some confusion has been caused by the identifica- 
tion of this Hala-Satavahana with the 17th king of the Andhra 
dynasty (68 a.d.).' Jacobi on the other hand identified him 
with the Siitavahana, king of Pratisthana, who induced the 
Jains to change their Church Calendar in 467 a.d. 

There can be no doubt that this anthology, including lyric 
poets well known in the time of Rajasekhara, was not put 
together in the 1st century a.d.* when we should rather expect 
early Prakrit of the Pali stage. The introductory verses of the 
Sattasai rather suggest that these love lyrics of the South 
were not so universally on the lips of men as they had formerly 
""A Another anthology of similar material is the Jaavallaham 

or Vajjalagga of Jayavallabha a Svetambara Jain. It contains 
some 700 verses. Some of these are common to Hala's collec- 

Dramatic Prakrits. The ordinary use of three Prakrits 
(M. S. Mg.) in Sanskrit plays is familiar to every student of 
Sanskrit. The authorities however differ as to the precise 
allotment of the Prakrits among the roles. The Mrcchakati- 
kam is one of the richest in its variety of Prakrit dialects. 

The Hero of course, and male characters of similar standing, 
except the Vidusaka, speak and sing in Sanskrit. It is excep- 
tional for a woman to speak Sanskrit, bub the Nun in Mala- 
timadhavam does so. A purely Prakrit play in which even the 
Hero speaks Prakrit is also exceptional. A well-known instance 
is the Camphor-cluster. 

The author however thinks it well to explain why no 
Sanskrit has been >ised. In the Prologue the Stagemanager 

' See Vincent Smith, Early History of India, '2nd edition, p. 19<i. 
whence it has been copied by school liistories of India. 

* Vincent Smith has evidently given too much weight to hi.s " late;^t 
leading authority , on the relations between the vernacular language and 
the * classical' or ' .secondary' Sanskrit," i.e. Professor O. Franke's " Pali 
and Sanskrit," 1902. This is a book of some ingenuity, but little historical 


reflects, * Then why has the poet abandoned the Sanskrit 
language and undertaken a composition in Prakrit ? " His 
assistant replies in Maharastri — 

" parusa, Sakkaabandha Paiia-bandho vi hoi suumaro i 
" purisa-mahilanani jettiam ihantaraiii tettiam imanani II 
"Sanskrit poems are harsh: but a Prakrit poem is very 
smooth : the difference between thera in this respect is as sjreat 
as that between man and woman." 

Sauraseni is the ordinary prose language of ladies and of the 
jester. Mtiharastri is the corresponding verse dialect. Magadhi 
is used by menials, dwarfs, foreigners and the like, e.g. the 
two policeman and the fisherman in Sakuntala. It is also 
spoken by Jain monks and small boys.' MSS. and texts often 
assign the dialects contrary to the rules of Poetics and the 
statements of commentators. They also confuse the dialects, 
so that Magadhi appears almost the same as Saurasenx- 

This mixture of languages in the Indian Drama has been 
much discussed, and various explanations suggested. 

There is no exact parallel to the Indian usage. Comedy has 
always made fun of the speech of foreigners. Aristophanes 
brings in the Thracian barbarian Triballos, who speaks a 
jargon with a vague resemblance to Greek. The Phoenician 

1 The following note of characters supposed to speak Magadhi as re- 
corded bj' Pischel (§ 23) may be useful to students of the Drama. 

Mrcchakatikatn : 6akara, his servant Sthavaraka, the shampooer- 
Kumbhilaka, Vardharaanaka, the two Candalas and Rohasena. Sitkun, 
tala : Fisherman and two policemen, Sarvadamana Sakuntala's young 
son. Prabodhacandrodaya : the Carvaka's pupil and the messenger from 
Orissa. Mudraraksasa : servant, Jain monk, messenger, SIddharthaka 
and Samiddharthaka while they appear as Candalas. Lalita-vigralia- 
raja: the bards and the spy (who also speaks 6.). [Otherwise Turuska 
captives and spy. The Indian spy speakes 6.]. Vemsamhara : the Raksasa 
and his wife. Mallikamarutam : elephant-keepers. Nagananda : servants. 
Caitanyacandrodaya : servants. Candakausikam: Candalas and Rascal. 
Dhurtasamagama : barber. Hasyarnava : Sadhupirnsaka. Latakainelaka : 
Digambara Jain. Kamsavadha: the Hunchback. Amrtodaya: Jain 


tongue was parodied in Latin comedy, tliough the readings are 
too corrupt for much to be made of it now. Shakespeare's 
Welshmen and Frenchmen are familiar. Again the vulgar 
speech of common people, as opposed to the language of the 
educated, has al\va3rs found its way on to the comic stage. 
Dialect also, in a more or less conventional form, has appeared 
even in serious plays from Shakespeare's time onwards. More- 
over in Greek Tragedy vvc have the chorus singing in a dialect 
dififerent to the general language of the play. The Doric chorus 
in the Attic play, like other lyric poetry, is in a conventional 
dialect, a literary poetic language based on the Doric dialects,' 
in fact what in India would he called a (literary) Prakrit. 

The Indian usage however dififers from all these partial 
parallels. In the first place we may find four, and regulady 
three, different dialects used in the same household, nay by 
members of the same family ; secondl}^ one of these is a learned 
('dead') language belonging to a previous stage of linguistic 
development; thirdly, dialects purporting to represent widely 
distant areas are combined iu a single play, and assigned to 
particular characters without any obvious reason ; and finally > 
the practice has been reduced to definite rules. 

The systematisation of the Dramatic Prakrits is not sur- 
prising. Everything else about the Drama has been classified 
and codified, from the virtues of tlie various sorts of Hero to 
the ' faults ' in the endless kinds of poetic ornament. The 
making of minute rules seems to have characteristics of the 
Brahman in all ages. 

Explanations of this Sanskrit- Prakrit Drama may follow two 
or three different lines. One line is the Realistic : namely that 
the conversations in the plays represent the actual conditions 
of Indian life in say the Gupta period. Grierson writes: " In 
India there is nothing extraordinary in such a polyglot medley. 

' See Giles. Manual of Comparativo I'liilology. §§ 014-6. Almost 
every word of these three sections dealing with Greek dialects can be 
applied to Indian dialects. 


It is paralleled by the conditions of any large house in Bengal 
at the present day, in which there are people from every part 
of India each of whom speaks his own language and is under- 
stood by the others, though none of them attempts to speak 
what is not his mother tongue." ' Beames suggested a similar 
explanation.'^ Of course it is admitted that the dialects are 
conventional in form, not faithful copies of spoken vernaculars, 
also that the assignment of a particular dialect to a particular 
sort of menial may have been mor#or less true to fact. Again, 
granted that educated men could speak Sanskrit and that 
ladies generally could not, it is not to be supposed that the 
men could speak nothing but Sanskrit, and habitually addressed 
not only their wives but even their grooms in that language. 

The well-educated man was able to speak Sanskrit. The 
hero therefore spoke Sanskrit, and by a stage convention ^^ 
spoke it always, just as stage kings almost always, and real 
kings rarely, wear a crown. 

Of course this explanation implies that the form of the classic 
drama was fixed in the SaurasenI country. Another line must 
be adopted to explain the use of Maharastri in verse. This 
is clearly a case of Literary convention. A school of lyric x, 
poetry developed in the South and became famous far beyond 
the borders of the Great Kingdom. Maharastri verses were 
doubtless sung throughout India as Persian verses still are. 
It was natural to regard this dialect as the only appropriate 
one for Prakrit songs. 

It is more difficult to account for the use for the other dialects 
along this line.^ The solution of the problem is obviously 
bound up with the history of the origin and development of 

I Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., Vol. 22, p. 254. 

^ Grammar, Vol. I, p. 7. 

■^ Sylvain Levi — Le Theatre Indian (1890), p. 331, suggested that the 
use of Sauraseni was connected with the development of the Krishna cult 
at Mathura the capital of the 6urasena countrj'. The use of Magadhi 
he would regard as a legacy from the ancient Magadhas, the bards of 


the Indian drama. Of this we have little direct knowledge. 
Opinions have differed as to whetlier richness in Prakrit, as in 
the case of the Mrcchakatikam, is a sign of early or of late 
date, Again some authorities believe in an original Prakrit 
drama to which Sanskrit was added later. 

Tlie fragments of Buddhist plays ascribed to the time of 
Kanishka show the use of two or three distinct Prakrits. The 
Sanskrit is not quite "correct" and Prakrit is sometimes 
used in stage directions. On the other hand the plays ascribed 
to Bhasa (not yet dated) evidently prior to the Mrcchakatikam 
are not so rich in Prakrit. One play has none, and some at 
lea8t of these plays are closer in feeling and diction to the 
Mahabharata than to Kalidasa or Bhavabhuti. The extreme 
antiquity of Bhasa' s plays has been supposed to be supported 
by the character of his Prakrit, e.g. ayyautta instead of 
ajjautta. This however is a common feature in South Indian 
MSS. The Trivandrum edition of Bhasa's works is based on 
South Indian MSS. As so often happens, these MSS. are evi- 
dently unreliable for the original form of the Prakrit.^ 

A Prakrit origin has been proposed not only for the Drama, 
but also for the Epic and Puranas,* that the Brhatkatha was 
composed in Pai^aci Prakrit is recorded by literary tradition 
{vide p. 69 above). The evidence for Prakrit originals of the 
Mahabharata and Puranas consists in small points of grammar 
and metre considered to point to translation from Prakrit. 
The question cannot be discussed here. It should be remem- 
bered however that all poetry and verse, that has had a 

J hm for mh and hn for nh at first siglit appear archaic, but are pro- 
bably only orthographical variations ; cf. guhniadu = (,r7«?7jp/ta<M). In the 
SvapnavSsavadatta the Vidusaka speaks ^auraseni, while the dialect of 
the ladies and servants contains many forms proper to MaharSstri (or 

^ Pargiter. Dynasties of the Kali Age. Griersoii. Enc. Brit. Prakrit, 
p. 253. 

Compare also the tlieories of the origin of the Paucatantra. (Hertol.) 

Jayadeva's Gitagovinda is supposed to be based on an Apahhramia 
original. (Pischel). 


popular origin, must litive existed (in some form however in- 
definite and fluctuating) in the popular speech before it was 
crystallised in Sanskrit. If the poem be old enough, the 
original must have been current in Primary Prakrit, not in 
Middle Indian. Primary Prakrit would not be identical with 
the "Sanskrit" of Panini but it would bear a strong family 
resemblance thereto. Progressive Sanskritising at a later 
period, acting unevenly on various portions of the work, 
would produce much the sort of plienomenon we actually 
find in tlie Epic Dialect. Such a sanskritisation of Primary 
Prakrit is very different in its significance from translation out 
of a Middle Indian Prakrit into the Classical Sanskrit. 

A special section of Prakrit Literature is formed by the 
Prakrit Grammars. 

The oldest authority is the Bhdratiyandtya sdstra which gives 
only a short description of Prakrit grammar in verses 6-23 of 
Chapter 17. Chapter 32 contains examples in Prakrit. Un- 
fortunately the text of this work is so corrupt, that little use 
can be made of it. 

There seems to be no good authority for ascribing to Panini 
a grammar called Prdkrtal aksa na. The oldest Prakrit grammar 
extant is the Prakrtaprakasa of Vararuci Katyayaua, who 
has been identified with the author of the Vdrttika kdraJ The 
oldest commentary on the Prdkrtd- prakdsa is the Manorama of 
JBhamaha. With this commentary the work has been edited 
and translated by Cowell. (See Bibliography). In Chapter X 
on PaiSaci Bhamaha gives two short quotations from the lost 

Canda in his Prakrtalaksana deals with M. and the Jain 
Prakrits (AMg. JM. JS.) together. The arrangement of the 
work shows it is comparatively ancient. 

The most important of the Prakrit grammars is that of 
Hemacandra of Gujarat (1088-1172 a.d.). 

1 For the authorities see Pischel Gr. § 32. 

2 Under Sutra 4. ivasya pivah || Kamalam piva miikham. Sutra 14. 
hrdayasya hitaakam \\ Hitaakam harasi me taluni. 


This forms the eighth chapter of his Siddha Hemacandra, 
the first seven chapters of which deal with Sanskrit grammar. 
The same author compiled a De^Inamamala. 

Other grammars are : — The last chapter of the Samksipta- 
ffdra of Kramadi^vara ; this follows Vararuci and is of little 
value. Prdkrtavyakarana of Trivikramadeva (about 13th cen- 
tury) follows Hemacandra. 

Prdkrtasarvasvam of Mdrkandeya Kavindra who lived in 
Orissa in the reign of a Muiiundadeva (perhaps 17th century). 

Prdkrtakalpataru of Ramatarkavagi^a and many others of 
less importance. 

Isolated verses in Apabhramsa occur in Jain works, in 
treatises on poetics and in late collections of stories like the 
Seventy Tales of a Parrot and the Twenty-five Tales of the 
Vampire. More remarkable is the inclusion by many MSS. of 
Apabhramsa verses in the 4th Act of the VikramorvaSiyam tu 
be recited by King Puriiruvas.' Another source of Late Prakrit 
or Apabhramsa verses is the Prakrta-Paiiigalain, an Anthology 
of the fourteenth century or later .'^ 

i S. P. Pandit (Bombay Sanskrit Series) omits them as spurious. His 
reasons for doing so have been disputed. 

2 Edited by C. M. Ghosh in the Bibliotheca Indica, with commentaries, 
various readings and glossary. 


S'auraseni. Extract No. 1. 

Interlude preceding the 2nd Act of the Ratnavali. A dia- 
logue between the heroine's two girl-friends Susangada and 

Susangada enters with a maina in a cage. 
Susan : HaddhI haddhi ' l Adha kahim daniin mama hatthe 

imaiii sariani nikkhivia^ gada me piasahl Saaria bhavis 

sadi? (Looking another loay) Esa khu^ Xiunia, ido jjevva 

{Enter Nipunikd\. 
Nipu : Uvaladdho* khu mae bhattino vuttanto : ta Java gadua 

bhattinie nivedemi. {Steps round). 
Susan: Hala Niunie! Kahim danim vimhaakhittahiaa^ via 

idha-tthidam mam avadhiria ido adikkamasi? 
Nipu : Kadhain Susangada ? Hala Susaiigade ! sutthu tae 

jaiiidam.'' Edain" khu mama vimhaassa karanam. 

1 Haddhi = ha dhik. Adha § 14. Kahim in form a loc. sing. =fca«mtn 
also used for '* where ? " and " whither ? " danim § 74. 

^ nikkhivia gerund of nikkhivadi {ni-\-kfjip). In the previous Act the 
Heroine Sagarika mentioned giving her maina into SusahgadS's charge, 
" Saria mae Susahgadae hatthe samappida " (= samarpita) before going 
with Queen Vasavadatta to the Love God's grove, where indeed she saw 
not the God but the liing. gada § 125. piasahl §§ 9, 45, 13. 

;s Capeller has Esa kkhu for esa khu ( = khalu § 74) but only e and o 
should be so shortened in 6. (Pischel, § 94). ido jjSvva § 68 (2). 

* uvaladdho §§ 17, 125. mae § 106. bhattino §96. ta from vedic tat 
"so." Java §§ 1,29. gadua, gerund § 122. " So I will go and tell my 

6 vimhaa §47. Skhitta (^^ksip) § 125. hiaa §§ 9, 60. via— iva (from 
(v)iva). (t)thida {^stha) § 125. adikkamasi {^ati hram). 

6 sutthu § 38. janidam § 125 (i^jila) " you are quite right." 

■J edam § 12. 


Ajja ' kila bhatta Siri-pavvadado aadassa Siri-Klianda — 
Dasanamadheassa dhammiassa saasado aala-kusuma-sanja- 
nana-dolialain sikkhia, attano'^ parigahidaTii nomaliaip 
kusuma-samiddhi-sohidam '^ karissadi tti edam vuttantam 
devie iiivediduiii pesida mhi. Tumani una* kahim 
patthida ? 

Susan : Piasahim Saariam annesidum.' 

Nipu : Dittha*' mae Saaria gahida-8amuggaa-oitta-j)halaa- 

vattia kaaliharaiii pavisanti. Ta gaccha piasahini. Aharn 

pi Devisaasani " gamissam. 



Susan: Oh dear, oh dear! Now wherever has Saaria got to 
after thrusting this maina into my hand ? {Looking another 
way) Why, hereis Niunia coming this way. 
[Enter Nipunika]. 

Nipu : Well I have received this news from the master, so I 
will just go and tell my mistress. (Steps round). 

Susan: Hullo Niunia! why, how is this? you seem altogether 
perplexed, and go walking off without noticing me stand- 
ing here. 

Nipu : What Susangada ? Hullo Susangada ! You are quite 
right. This is the cause of my perplexity. To-day the 

• ajja § 44. Siri § 68. pavvadado " from the mountain." § 50, § 86. 
Sada §2. dhammia 'righteous' here = " juggler," dhammiassa saasado 
" from a juggler " (saka.<at). aala = akala. 

2 attano § 100. gahida (^grah) § 125. nomalia § 75. 

3 " bright with an abundance of flowers " tti § 74. pesida mhi § 08(1) 
(pro + if). 

* una=' but ' (piinar in this meaning is treated as an enclitic § '■\ : 
meaning " again " it becomes puno). patthida (pra-^ \^iftha). 

6 annesidum Inf. fr. annesadi {anu-k-\/is). 

« dittha § 125 (dr^) samuggaa " box " (aamudga). citta-phalaa " paint- 
ing tablet," vattia " paint brush " {vartika also means " wick." cf. H 
batti). kaaliharam for kaaligharam. 

T -aBsain " to," pi § 74. 


master learned from a juggler named Siri Khanda Dasa, 
returned from the mountain of Sri, about the longing to 
see flowers produced out of season, and I have been sent 
to inform the Queen, that he will make a jasmine bright 
with an abundance of flowers if she will embrace it. 
But where are you off to ? 

Susan : To hunt for our Saaria. 

Nipu : I saw Saaria with her paint-box, tablet and brush going 
into the plantain-house. So go to your friend. I will go 
to the Queen. 

Sauraseni. Extract No. 2. 

Katnavali, Act II. Soliloquy of Sagarika and conversation 
with Susaiigata. 

[Enter Sagarika with a painting tablet, and evidently in love]. 

Sa : Hiaa, pasida pasida.' Kim imina'^ aasa-mettaphalaena 
dullahajana-ppatthananubandhena? Annamca, Jena jevva 
ditthamettena idiso^ sarptavo vattadi puno vi tam jevva 
pekkhidum ahilasasi tti aho de* mudhada! Adinisarasa^ 
hiaa. Jammado^ pahudi saha samvaddhidam imam 
janam pariccaia khana-metta-damsanaparicidam'' janam 
anugacchanto na lajjasil adha va ko tuba doso ? Ananga- 
sarapaclanabhidena^ tae evvam ajjhavasidatn. Bhodu! 
Anangam dava uvalahissam.*' {Tearfully) Bhaavam Ku- 

1 Pasida (pro -t- sad). 

2 imina = anena. -mStta § 69. dullaha ' hard to attain', ppatMiaaa 
' desire' (prarthana). annam § 48. 

3 idiso § 70. samtavo • anguish ' (tap), vattadi § 45. ahilasasi (abhi + 

* de § 3. 

5 ati — nrsamsa ' very cruel. ' 

6 Jammado 'from birth' pahudi § 12. vaddhida past. part. [vrdh). 
pariccaia cf. sacca § 44. (pari + iyai). 

7 damsana §§ 49, 64. 

8 paclana § 20 (cf. H. ^5It). ajjhavasidam cf. § 44. (adhi + ava + <to) 
bhodu cf. § 75. 

** uvalahissam ' I will reproach ' (upa + a + labh). 


sumaiilia nijjida-surasuro ' bhavia, itthljanam paharanto 
ua lajjasi ? savvadha mama mandabhainle imina dunni- 
mittena'^ avassam maranarp uvatthidani. (Looks at her 
tablet) Ta jilva na ko vi idha aacchadi tava alekkha-samap- 
pidara^ taiii aliiinadain janain pekkhia* jadhasamihidani 
karissani. {Takes the tablet and resolutely fixes her atten- 
tion, then sighs) Jai vi adi-saddhasena*) vevadi aani adi- 
mettam me aggahattho, tadha vi tassa janassa anno 
damsanovao^ natthi tti jadha tadha alihia pekkhissam. 
[Enter Susangada]. 

Susan : Edam khu kaaliharam ta Java pavisSmi, {Enters and 
looks surprised) Kiiu una esa garuanuraakhitta-hiaa "^ 
alihantr na mam pekkhadi. Ta Java ditthipadam se ' 
pariharia niruvaissam. {Goes softly behind her, and looks 
over her shoulder. Delightedly) Kadbam ^ Bhatta alibido ! 
sahu Saarie sahu ! Adha va na kamalaarani ^ vajjia raa- 
hamsl annassim ahiramadi. 

Sa : {Tearfully) Alibido mae eso. Kim una nivadanta '"-baha 
-salila me ditUiI pekkbiduip na jDabhavadi. {Looking up 
and forcing a smite) Kadhaiii Susangada ? Sahi Susarigade 
ido uvavisa." 

1 nij jida (mr + /i). bhavia S 122. itthi (=s</I) held to indicate old form 
*istrl. paharanto pres. part, (pra + hr). 

2 dun-nimittarn ' omen.' u\atthidaiii {upa+stha). 

3 = alelchija-sainarpita))i. 
+ pekkhia § 122. 

•'' saddhasa=sad/(-t;asa. 

6 uvao. ' means' § 17. natthi '• isn't " ij 8."5. 

"^ garua " heavy " § 71. 

' se 'her' S 109. pariharia. gorund (pari -\-h/). niiQxaissain ' I will 
investigate ' S 17. 

1* kamalaarani • mass of lotuses,' a lotus pool, vajjia gerund of vajjed 
(vrj) " excepting." 

I" nivadanta § 17. -baha- (65.*/)// a) against § 38. For -'• tear." appar- 
ently Ijappha becomes *b5pha — baha (§!) 0.'5. 13). In the moaning ' steam," 
etc., it remains bappha (cf. H. ^HS 'HHT ' (Pisch. §305). 

II nvavifia (iipa +viN). 


Susan : {Approaching and looking at the tablet) Sahi, ko eso tae 
alihido ? 

Sa : Sahi nain pautta-maliusavo ' Bhaavam Anango. 

Susan: [Smiling) Alio de niunattanam! Kim una sunnaiu via 
cittain padibhadi ! ta ahani pi alihia Radi-sanadhaip 
karissai)!. [Takes the brush and paints). 

Sa : [Indignantly on recognising the drawing) Klsa^ tae ahaiii 
ettha alihida ? 

Susan : Sahi kini aarena kuppasi'? Jadiso tae Kfimadevo 
ahhido, tadisi mae Radi alihida ta annadha-sanibhavini 
kira tuha edina^ alavidena ? Kadhehi savvain vuttantam. 

Sa : [In confusion aside) Xam^ janida mhi piasahie. [Aloud) 
Piasahi, mahadi khu me lajja. Ta tadha karesu'' jadha 
na edam vuttantam avaro ko'vi janissadi. 

Susan : Sahi, ma lajja, ma lajja. 

Sa : Be quiet, my heart, be quiet. What is the use of keeping 
on wanting a person that is unattainable ! It only results 
in trouble. Another thing — ^What folly is this, that 
though the mere sight of him results in such anguish, thou 
desirest to see him again ! Cruel, cruel heart ! art not thou 
ashamed to desert this person that has grown up with you 
from birth, and go after one known only from a moment's 
glance ? Nay what fault is it of thine ? Thou didst so 
determine when frightened by the falling of the Love- 
God's arrows. Be it so, then I will chide the God of Love . 
Revered Lord of the Flower Bow after vanquishing. Gods 
and Demons art not ashamed to harry womenfolk ? 

' paiitta § 125 {pra-irvrt). 

^ KIsa " why ? " ettha '• here " § 70. 

^ kuppasi " art angry." 

* edina = edena. alavida (5 + iop). savva § 45. (H. sab.) 

^ nam=nundm. 

5 karesu § 116. avaro § 17. (H. aur). 


Utterly illfated that I am, this omen inevitably means 
my death is imminent. 

So while no one is coming, I will just gaze at this beloved 
one in picture limned, and gaze to my heart's content. 
Although perturbation makes my finger shake so violently, 
yet I have no other means of seeing him, so I shall see 
him just as I draw him. 
Susan: This must be the plantain house. So I will go in. 
Why her heart is so beset with deep attachment that she 
does not see me as she draws. I will avoid her line of 
vision and find out what she is up to. What ? drawn the 
master, Bravo, Saaria bravo ! Of course a swan does not 
delight in ought but a lotus pool. 

Sa : I have drawn him, but my sight is drowned in falling tears 
and cannot see him. What Susangada ? Sit down here 
my dear Susangada. 

Susan : Who is this you have painted ? 

Sa : The Revered Lord of Love, whose great Festival it is. 

Susan : Ah, how clever you are ! But the picture seems rather 
empty. So I will paint in Rati at his side. 

Sa : Why have you drawn mp. there ? 

Siisaii : My dear, why are you angry without, any reason ? I 
have drawn a Rati to match your God of Love ! So, dis- 
sembler, away with circumlocution, and tell me all about it. 

Sa : So she lias found me out — the dear ! 

My dear, 1 am much ashamed. So do take care that 
nobody else comes to know of it. 
Susan : My dear, there's nothing to be ashamed of. 

S'auraseni. Extract No. 3. 

This extract is taken from the Bengal recension edited by 
Pi.schel (1877), p. 29. A comparison with the usual or " Deva- 
nagarl" version will show that considerable liberties must 
have been taken witli the original text. Here the king carries 


a bow in his hand and wears a garland of forest flowers, in the 
other version he is attended by Javanihim ' with Yavana women' 
who carry the bows and wear the flowers. There the kin? passes 
a sleepless night thinking of his beloved, here it is the Vidusaka 
who cannot sleep though worrying about his return— to luxury ! 

The VidGsaka in the second act of vSakuntala describes his 
troubles as companion to a sportive monarch. 

Hi manahe,' bho hado mhi, edassa miaa-silassa ^ ranno 
vaassabhavena nivvinno. ' Aam mao,^ aam varaho' tti maj- 
jhandine vi gimhe virala-padava-cchayasu vana-raisu'* ahindia, 
patta-sankara-kasaa-virasaim 5 unha-kaduaim pijjanti giri-nai- 
salilaim. Aniada-velam^ ca unhonhara mamsam bhunjiadi. 
Turaa-gaanara ca saddena rattim'' pi natthi pakama-suidavvam. 

Mahante jjeva pacciise- dasTe puttehim saunia-luddhehim 
kannovaghadina ** vanagaraana-kolahalena pabodhlami '" etti- 
kenavi " dava pida na vutta jado gandassa uvari vipphodao 

I Hi manahe, an exclamation assigned by high authority to VidQsakas, 
expressing weariness. Another reading is Hi hi bho. This however is 
said to express astonishment. 

^ miaa 'hunting.' ranno § 99. nivvinno ' disgusted ' (nir-i-vid). 

"^ mao " deer." majjhamdine of. § 69. gimhe ' in summer ' §47. padava 

• tree' § 17. 

* vana-raisu 'in forest tracks.' ahindia ■ wandering' hind a Prakritic 
possibly non-aryan root, " to wander" cf. ahindaa = traveller (Mrcch.) 

5 patta 'leaf §45. samkara "mixture." unha -hot" §47. kadua 
' bitter.' pijjanti Passive ' are drunk.' 

s aniada 'uncertain' (x/yam). bhunjiadi Passive 'is eaten.' 

^ rattirh pi, ace. of duration, ' Through the night' : the other version 
has rattimmi vi ' even at night.' suidavvam = suvidavvam from suvadi 

• sleeps.' 

^ paccuse ' at dawn' cf. §44. saunia (= vakunika) -hiddha (= lubdha, 
commoner lubdhaka) ' hunter, ' fowler.' 

" 'ear-splitting.' kanna cf. Panjabi kann, H. kan. vana-gam.ina 
' forest-going,' i.e. of foresters not of ascetics. The other version has 
-ggahana 'forest-taking' explained by commentary as a "drive.' This 
makes better sense. 

1'^ pabodhiami ' am awakened' passive. 

II 6. 6ttika(M. gttia)e<am<. vutta ' finished' (y.r.'). vipphodao ' a pimple 
on top of a boil' (vi+sphut). 


sanivutto. Jena ' kila amliesum avahlnesum tattha-bhava- 
da maanusarina assama-padam pavitthena^ mama adhannadiie 
Sauntala nama ka vi tavasa-kannaa dittha. Tani pekkhia 
sampadajii naara gamanassa kadhain ' pi na karedi. Edain 
jjeva cintaantassa mama pahada,'* acchisum raani. Ta ka 
gadi ? Java nam kidaaraparikammaiii ^ pia-vaassaiii pekkha- 
mi. Eso banasana-hattho hiaa-nihida-pia-ano vana puppha- 
mala-dharl ido jjeva aaccliadi piavaasso. Bhodu anga-madda- 
vialo" bhavia citthissani, evam pi nama vissamain" laheani. 


Pf. lieigho ! I am weary to death of being companion to this 
king with his hunting habits. After wandering along tracks 
in the jungle with hardly a tree to give shade, in the middle of 
a summer day, mind you, with cries of 'Here's a deer' or 
* Here's a boar ' ; then the water we drink is from mountain 
streams warm, bitter, and with a nasty astringent flavour from 
being mixed witli leaves. Meals at ungodl\' hours, and nothing 
to eat but meat, burning hot! Even during the night it is im- 
possible to get proper sleep for the noise the horses and 
elephants make. At earhest dawn the rascally "^ fowlers wake 
me with the earsplitting din of a forest drive.^ And with all 
this my troubles are not ended, for now there's a pimple on 
top of the boil. For (yesterday) after leaving us behind, His 

' The other version has hio ' yesterday ' S 58. amhesum loc. phir. 
§ 106. The anusvara is optional. 

2 pavittha (pra + vi.s) adhnnnada 'misfortune,' ij 48. SaiintaliT. this is 
correct not Saiindala. 

■' kadhani ' mention' § 13. {kathwti). 

* pahada (pra + bha). acchisiim loc. plur. S 39. 

' kida § 125, aara {acara), parikammo " toilet." 

" madda 'crushing,' • bruising ' {mrd): the other version has l>hanca 
vialo (= rikalo) ' lame.' 

1 vissamain ' rest' {vi-.sram). lalieam opt. S 117, (ii) (Inhh). 

^ Literally 'sons of a slave (girl),' more abuse like the 
" whoreson" so frequent in Shakespearian comedy. 

" Reading -ggahana. 


Highness in pursuit of a deer entered a hermitage and, to my 
misfortune, caught siglit of some hermit girl called Saiintala. 
From the moment he saw her, not a word does he say about 
returning to town. I was thinking of this when night fell on 
my eyes. Well, what's to be done ? 1 will go and see my good 
friend when he has finished his usual toilet. (Steps round and 
looks up). Here he comes witli bow in hand, his beloved fixed 
in his heart, and a garland of forest flowers round his neck. 
Good, 1 will pretend my limbs are so knocked about I can't 
stand up straight. So perhaps I may get a rest. {Stands 
leaning on his staff) . 

S'auraseni. Extract No. 4. 

S'akuntala before the King, who has forgotten her (Act 5).' 
(Aside) Imain avatthantaram ^ gade tadise anurae kim v^ 
sumaravidena.^ Adha va atta danim me sodhanio.* Bhodu, 
vavasissam.° (Aloud) Ajjaiitta! (Breaks off) Adha va sam- 
saido^ danim eso samudaaro.' Porava! juttam' nama tuba 
pura assamepade sabbhav-uttanahiaani^ iniani janani tadha 
samaa-puvvam '" sambhavia sampadam Idlsehiin akkharehim 
paccacakkhiduni . ^ ' 

' Pischel's Edition, p. 104. cf. Monier Williams, p. :203. 

=2 ' Changed condition.' 

? Past part. cans, of sumaredi. 

•* sodhanio caus. gerundive (sudh). The other version has soanio ' to 
be sorrowed for.' 

5 vavasissam fut. (vy -ir ava -t so) ' I will decide.' Coram, supplies ' to tell 
a secret.' Perhaps " wiU make an effort." Ajjaiitta § 2. 

<> "questionable" (sam-\-H). 

7 =sa7nudacaro "address," i.e. the word 'Ajjaiitta.' In the drama 
this is the regular form of address for a wife to her husband, but t is 
not limited to this relation. 

8 juttarn nama ' It is fitting forsooth ' § 34. Other version has na 
juttam nama. 

** " Open-hearted through good nature." 

10 With (preceded by) a contract (samaya). sarpbhavia. The other ver- 
sion has pataria ' having seduced ' or ' misled.' akkhara ' syllable.' • \^ ord.' 

1 1 ' To repulse ' ( prati + 5 + calc;). 


The King is shocked and indignant.' 

S'akuntala continues : — 

Bhodu. Paramatthado ^ jai para-pariggaha-sankina tae edam 
paiittain, ta ahinnanena^ kena vi tuha* samdeham avana- 

[The King mutters a legal phrase about the ' Primary Rule 'J. 

Haddhi haddhi ! anguliaa-sunna'' me aiigul! (Turns in 
distress to Gauiami). 

Gautami. JJida" nam de Sakkavadare Saoititthe " udaam 
vandamanae pabbhattham angullaaip. 

[The King smiles and reflects on female cunning]. 

S'ak : Ettha" diiva vihina damsidam pahuttanarri,"^ Avaram 
de kadhaissam." 

[The King is still willing to listen]. 

Xaiu ekkadiasam vedasa-lada-mandavae nalinl-vatta-bhaana- 
gadani'- udaam tuha hattlie sainnihidaiii asi.'' 

[The King still listens]. 

Takkhanani '^ so mama putta-kidao maa-savao uvatthido. 
Tado tae aam dflva padhamam '* pivadu tti anukampina uva 

1 Sanskrit coining between the ^auraseni speeches has been omitted. 

'^ =. paramdrthafo 'really.' jai 6. has also jadi !? I. pariggaha 'wife.' 
pauttam § 125 {yuj). 

•^ 'token.' The name of the play in 6auraseni would be Ahinnann 

+ Pischel read tava. in 1900 he would have preferred the other 
reading tuha. cf. Grammar !? 421. 

■' {apa + nl). 

<> ' devoid of its ring.' 

^ Jada " my son." 

"i ^akravatare Sacitirthe. pabbliattliain • slipped off' (pra+bhrain-^). 

^ ettha ' here.' S ^(^■ 

10 = [prabhu-'vam) -ttanani goes bacU to -Iranaiii 

" kadhaissam I; 134. 

li ' lying in a lotus-leaf cup.' 

I a asi § 133. 

I* =:tat ksaiiam. puttakidan ' fostoreliikl." The compound is inverted. 
maa-s5vao 'fawn' {"iahaka). 

"> padhamam S 20. u\ac(liaiidido • coaxed ' {iipa -^-rhfind). 


cchandido. Na una de avaricidassa '■ hatthado udaaiii avagado 
paduni. Paccha tassim jjevva udae mae gahide^ kado tena 
panao.' Etthantare vihasia bhanidam tae. " Saccaip savvo 
sagandhe visasadi,* jado duve vi tumlie arannakao " tti. 

[The King is touched, but thinks that these are "false 
honied words," and to Gautamis' protest replies with a verse 
on the guile of female cuckoos— much more the guile of 
women ! ] 

S'akuntala is indignant. 

Anajja! attano hiaanumanena kila savvam edani pekkhasi. 
Ko nama anno dhamma-kancua-vavadesino ° tana-channa- 
kiivovamassa tuha anukari bhavissadi. 

[Dusyanta's acts are well known — says the King. This is 

Sutthu. Danim attacchandanuarini samvutta nihi ja imassa 
Puru-vamsassa paccaena'' muha-mahuno hiaa-pattharassa 
hattha-bbhasam uvagada. 

{Hides her face in the end of her sari and weeps). 


S'ak : (Aside) When such love has so changed, what use is 
there in bringing it to mind ? Yet it is for me to clear 
myself. Well, I will try. (Aloud) My sweet lord ! {Breaks 
off) Nay this address may now be questioned. Scion of 
the Purus ! It is meet forsooth for thee after union with 
me at that time in the hermitage, after a solemn pledge 
to me, that am openhearted through good nature, now to 
repulse me with such words as these. 
So be it. If in real truth you think I am another's wife and 

I avaricida ' stranger' (a-^- pa7-i + ci). 

'2 gahida § 12.5. 

'^ panao 'confidence' (pra + ni). 

* visasadi = vissasadi (vi + suas) cf. § 63. dhamma § 48. 

* vavadesi ' pretending' {vi-Yapa-\-dis). channa "hidden." 

6 paccaa (= pra^^/af/a). patthara (cf. H. patthar) (pro + .'?<r). ablihasam 
(= ahhifaiam sometimes written ahhyasam) ' proximity,' etc. 


hence your attitude, then I will remove your doubts with 
a token — alas ! there is no ring on my finger. 

Gautami : Why, j-^our ring must have slipped off when you 
were worshipping the water at Saci's tirtha in Sakravatara. 

S'ak : In this indeed Fate shows its power ! I will tell you 
another thing. — One day then in the Cane Bower some 
water lying in a lotus- leaf cup was resting in your hand — 
at that moment my fosterling the fawn came up. Then 
you coaxed it gently that it should drink first. But it 
would not come to drink the water from your hand, as 
you were a stranger. Afterwards when I took that very 
water it gained confidence. Then you langhed and said — 
" Truly, everything trusts its kin, and both of you are 

Caitiff! You look at all this in the light of j'our ovrn con- 
science. What other could resemble you airing the garb of 
virtue, but all the while like a hidden well in the grass ? 

Verj^ well! Now am I become a wanton, who through trust 
in this race of Puru sought refuge with a man of honey-lips 
and a heart of stone. 

S'auraseni. Extract No. 5. 

Karpiira-manjari. Act. IV.' 

The Heroine " Camphor Blossom " has been shut up in a 
room in the Queen's section of the palace, but there is a 
subterranean passage from this room to the palace-garden. 
Tlie Queen has had the garden end of this passage closed 

Sarangika enters to the King and Jester with a message 
from the Queen. 

1 Harvard Oriental Series, No 4. An oxcellont edition (if this play by 
Dr. Sten Konow with Vocabulary, and also a racy translation by Prof. 
Laninan, with some touches of Western apabltratnsa I Text pp. 102-110. 
Truns. pp L'S 1-285. 


Sarangika. {Looking before her) Esc maharao raaragada- 
punjado ' Kaaligharam anuppavittho. Ta gadua devie 
vinnavidam*nivedemi. {Approaches) Jaadu jaadu bhattS. 
Devi vinnavedi jadha saanisamae^ tumhe mae parinai- 
davva* tti. 

Jester : Bhodi kiin edam akanda-kumbhanda-padanam ? ^ 

King: Sarangie sabbam vitthavena'' kadhesu. 

Sara: Edam vinnaviadi. Anantaradikkanta-caduddasi-divase'^ 
Devie pomma-raa-mal Gorl Bheravanandena kadua 
paditthavida.^ Aani ca dikkha-vihi-ppavitthae ^ Devie 
vinnatto'" joisaro guru-dakkhina-nimittam. Bhanidain 
ca tena " Jai avassam dakkhina dadavva, ta esa diadu."" 
Tado Devie vinnattam. "Jam adisadi Bhaavam " ti 
Puno vi ullavidam i'^ tena. " Atthi ettha Ladadese 
Candaseno nama raa. Tassa duhida Ghana-sara-manjari 
tti. Sa devva-nnaehim '^ nidittha jadha esa Cakkavatti- 
gharini bhavissadi tti. Tado sa maharaenaparinedavva,'* 

1 maragada § 12. " emerald-heap" apparently the name of a seat or 
an arbour, whence the king watched ' Camphor-cluster' on the swing. 
anuppavittho {anji+pra+vii). 

2 Past part. caus. (vi + jna). 

3 saamsamae " in the evening." 

4 Gerundive of causal {pari + n'i), Ht. " you are to be made to marry 
by me." 

5 akanda 'unexpected' kumbhanda 'white gourd.' §62. Lanman 
renders " shower of water-melons from a clear sky." 

6 Causal Passive. 

■J ' On the fourteenth day just past.' pomma § 36 ' made of rubies.' 

8 Caus. p. part, {prati+stha). 

« dikkha 'consecration' vihi 'observances' ppavittha (pra-\-vi.^) 
' begun.' 

10 vinnatto 'consulted' { = vijiiapto), joisaro 'sorcerer' — lord of yoga, 
dakkhina ' present,' ' fee.' 

" diadu Pass. Imperative ' let it be given.' 

12 (ut + lap). 

13 devvanna ' soothsayer' {daiva-jna), nidittha {ni->rdi8). gharini ' wife, 
of a Cakkavatti ' Emperor.' 

1^ • ^lust be married.' 


jenagurussa' vi dakkhina dinna bhodi ; bhatta vi Cakka- 
vattr kido bhodi. Tado devie vihasia bhanidam "Jam 
adisadi Bhaavain " ti. Ahanica vinnavedutu pesida. 
Guiu-dakkhina vi dinna. 

Jester: {Laughing) Edam tarn sise sappo, desantare vejjo ! ^ 
Idha ajja vivaho, Ladadese Ghanasaramanjari! 

King. Kim de Bheravanandassa pahavo parokkho ? " 

Sara: DevIe karidam pamad-ujjanassa* majjha-tthida-vata- 
tarum51e Camunda adanam.^ Bheravanando vi Devie 
samain tahim agamissadi. Tag-gade*' a tak-khana-vihide 
kodua-ghare vivaho bhavissadi — (Steps about and exit). 

King. Vaassa! savvam edara Bheravanandassa viambhidam'' 
ti takkemi. 

Jester: Evam nedam.*' Xa hu maa-lanchanam*' antarena 
anno mianka-mani-puttaliaip "^ pajjharavedi sehalia-kusum- 
ukkaram va karedi. 

[Enters the magician Bhairavdnanda], 

Bhaira : lam sa vata-taramule nibbhinnassa^' suranga-duva- 
raasa pidhanam Camunda. {Stretches out his hand to her 
in worship and recites a verse in Mdhdrdstri) — " Victorious 
is Kah," etc. {Enters and sits down) Ajja vi na niggacc- 
hadi suranga-duvarena Kappura-manjarl. 

I gurussa § 90. dinna § 125. vinnavedum to inform. 

* Proverb. " Snake on the head, and doctor abroad.'" \ejjo=t'a2V/*/o 

•^ pahavo, power {pra-¥hhu), parokkha=paro"A\sa. 

♦ ' Pleasure-garden' (pra -^^ mad) , raajjha § 44, tthida §§ '.\B. 125. 
6 aadanam 'sanctuary' {ayatanam) , tahim § 27. 

* tag-gade = Skt. tad-gate, \iod\ia,=kautuka. 

T viambhidam ' exploit, machination' (vi -^ j rmbh). takkemi §45. 
8 nu+idani. 

• • moon ' (mrga-l'). 

I'' miankamaiii ' moon-gem,' puttalia • statue,' pajjharavedi ' causes to 
ooze ' cans, {pra -^-kitar) § 40. .sohalia (= ,<cphalifc5), ukkara ' inviltitude.' 

I I nibbhinna (nir+bhid), duvSra * door ' § 57. 


[Enters Karpura-manjari making an opening in the mouth of I he 


Karpa : Bhaavam panamiimi ' ! 

Bhaira : Uidani* varam lahasu. Idha jjevva uvavisa. 

[Karpura-manjari sits down]. 
Bhaira : {Aside) Ajja vi na edi Devi. 

[Enter the Queen]. 
Queen. [Stepping about and looking in front of her]. 

lani Bhaavadi Camunda [Bows. Then looking round]. 
lani Kappilra-manjarl. Ta kim iiedam ? {To Bhairavd- 
nanda) Idaip vinnavladi,^ nia-bhavane vivaha-samaggini 
kadua aada mhi. Ta genhia* agamissani. 
Bhaira : Vacche evam kariadu. 

[The Queen steps round as if departing]. 
Bhaira : {Laughing to himself) lam Kappura-manjari-thaiiaiii 

annesidum ° gada. 
{Aloud) Putti Kappura-manjari suranga-duvarena jjeva turida- 

padam^ gadua sa-tthane cittha. Devie agamane puno 


[Karpuramanjarl does so]. 
Queen. Idamrakkha-gharam'^. (Enters, looks around— aside). 
Ae, iam Kappura-manjari! Sa ka vi sarikkha^ dittha. 
{Aloud) Vacche Kappura-manjari kidisam*' de sariraiii ? 

1 ipra + nam). 

2 :=ucitam. lahasu § 116, note ii (?a6/i). uvavisa {upa + vis). 

3 vinnavladi Caus. Pass. {vi-\-jna). niabhavane 'in (my) own house." 

* genhia Gerund of genhadi (grah), vaccha ' girl' (=vatsa) cf. H. baca = 

6 ' to search.' 

6 ' at a quick pace ' § 75. gadua § 122. sa-tthane ' in your own room ' 
cf. § 20. 

7 = raksa-grham. 

8 sarikkha ' like ' §§66, 40. 
« kidisam § 70. 


(In the. air) Kini bhanasi maha siro-veana ' samuppanna 
tti. (To herselfj Ta puno tahiin gamissam. {Enters and 
looks to every side) Hala sahio vivahovaaranaini "^ lahuni 
genhia aacchadha. {Steps about). 

[Karpuramafijarl enters and sits down just as before]. 
Queen. {Looking before her) lam Kappura-manjari ! 
Bhaira : Vacche Vibbhamalehe anidaim^ vivahovaaranaim ? 
Queen: Adha im! Krm una Ghana-sara-manjari-sarauidaini 

aharanaim* visumaridaiTii. Ta puno gamissaip. 
Bhaira : Evani bhodu. 

[Queen acts in pantomime as if making an exit], 
Bhaira : Putti Kappura-manjari tain jeva karladu.^ 

[Exit Karpura-manjai'i] 
Queen : {Pretends to enter the prison-room — seeing Karpura- 

manjari) Ae ! Sarikkhidae vinadida'' mhi. [Aside) 

Jhanavimanena nivviggham parisappina tarn anedi joisaro. 

{Alo^ld) Sahio jam jaiii nivedidara tarn genhia aachadha. 

{Pretends to return to Camunda' s shrine and sees Karpura- 

manjari) Abo sarikkhada ! 

Bhaira: Devi uvavisa. Maharao vi aado jjeva vattadi. 

S'auraseni. Extract No. 6. 

Karpiira manjari. Act II. (pp. 40. 41 and 245-6). 
Specimen of decadent punning style — The Vidusaka describes 
his master's love-fever. 

' siro-veana ' headache.' 

* iivaarana = upakarana S 17. lahuni 'quickly' {=laghu). 
■■^ (a-¥ni). 

* aharana ' ornament,' visumaridn • forgotten,' of. sumaradi S 57. 
^ Imperat. Pass. 

8 vinadida " puzzled " (nad a Pkt. root). jhSna ' meditatioD. magic ' 
5 44. niv-viggham 'without hmdrance' §31). vattadi §45. In such 
more or less redundant verbs " to be " we have the beginnings of the 
later system of auxiliary verbs, aado vattadi of. a gaya hai, dinna bhodi 
cf. div»T hai, kido bhodi cf. kivii hai. 


Esc piavaasso hamso via mukkamanaso,' kari via maak- 
kliamo,^ munaladando ^ via ghanaghammamilano,* dinadinna- 
divo* via vialidacchao,*' pabhada-punnima-cando via pandura- 
parikkhino citthadi. 

S'auraseni. Extract No, 7. 

Little Clay Cart. Act 6. [Edition Hiranand and Parab. Bom- 
bay 1902]. Vasantasena and a maid. 

Maid: Kadham ajja vi ajjaa'' na vivujjhadi. Bhodu. Pavisia 
padibodhaiasain. {Steps around). 

[Enter VasantasenM wrapped up and sleepy]. 
Maid: Utthedu'' iitthedu Ajjaa! Pabliadam samvuttam. 
Vasa : {Waking) Kadham ratti ^ jjeva pabhadam samvuttam ? 
Maid : Amhanara eso pabhado. Ajjaae una ratti jjeva. 
Vasa : Hanje,'*' kahim una tumhanam jildiaro ? 
Maid: Ajjae, Vaddhamanaam samadisia pupphakarandaam " 

jinnujjanam gado ajja Carudatto. 
Vasa : Kim samadisia ? 
Maid: Joehi '•' rattie pavahanam, Vasantasena gacchadu tti. 

• (a) ' out of spirits,' (6) ' having left (Lake) Manasa.' 

2 (o) ' thin with love-fever' {ksama), (b) ' thin as an elephant with rut.' 

3 munala § 60. 

* (a) ' languishing from violent ardour,' {b) ' wilted in the intense heat.' 
uiilana § 57. 

& ' a lamp given in day-time.' Note the alliteration " like a lamp that 
is lit in daylight." 

<> vialida 'vanished' (iH+gal). chaa (a) colour, ( b) light. 

■J Ajjaa ' my Lady.' vivujjhadi ' awakes ' (vi + budh). 

s utthedu ' let her get up ' (ut+stha). Pabhadam ' morning.' 

y ' What, it's night, how is it morning ? ' Sarnvuttarn is Neuter. In 
the next sentence pabhado is masculine. 

10 Hanje regular form of address by a lady to her maid. Judiaro 
• gambler ' (dyutakaro). 

11 puppha § 38. karandaa ' basket,' jinna * old ' (jf), ujjana ' garden.' 

12 joehi ' harness' imperat. caus. (yuj). rattie as in the edition quoted 
is impossible. Bombay edn. radio. 



Vasa : Hanje, kahiiii mae gantavvara ? 

Maid: Ajjae, jahim Carudatto. 

Vasa: (Embracing the maid) Sutthu na uijjhaido ' rattle. Ti"* 
ajja paccakkham^ pekkliissam. Hanje, kini pavittha 
aharn iha abbhantara-cadus-salaaip ? 

Maid : Na kevalam abbhantara-cadus-salaam. Savvajaiiassa 
vi hiaara pavittha. 

Vasa : Avi samtappadi ' Oarudattassa pariano. 

Maid : Samtappissadi. 

Vasa : Kada ? 

Maid : Jado ajjaa gamissadi. 

Vasa : Tado mae padhamam samtappidavvam. (Persuasively) 

Haiije, yenha edam raanavalim.' Mama bahiniae^ ajjfi 

■ Dhudae gadua samappehi ! Bhaiiidavvam ca ' Siri- 

Carudattassa gunanijjida dasi, tada tumhanain pi. Ta 

esa tuha jjeva kanthaharanam hodu raanavall.' 

Maid : Ajjae, kuppissadi^ Carudatto ajjae dava. 

Vasa : Gaccha. Na kuppissadi. 

Maid : (Taking the necklace) Jam anavedi. {Exit and re-enter) 
Ajjae, bhanadi ajja Dliiida — 'ajjaiittena tumhanam pasil- 
dlkida.'' Na juttam mama edani genhidum. Ajjauttf 
jjeva mama aharana-viseso tti janadu bhodl.' 

[Enter Radanika ^oith a child]. 
Rada : Ehi vaccha, saadiae "* kilamha. 

I =nidhyato. 

i pratyakmrn. cadus-salaam ' having four halls.' 

■^ ' Is in distress.' 

* raana ' jewel ' § 51. Saur. has also radann. 

f> bahinia ' sister.' samappehi imperat. caus. [nam-i-r). 

• kuppissadi ' will be angry.' 

■J * presented it to you,' i.e. the necklace. 

s saadia ' toycart' (rfafcattfca). kilamha ' let us play ' § 22, § 1 1(>. 


Child : (Mournfully) Radanie ! Kim mama edae mattaa ' 
saadiae ? Tarn jjeva sovanna-saadiam dehi. 

Rada : (Sighing despondently) Jada, kudo amhanani suvan- 
navavaharo. Tadassa puno vi riddhie''^ suvanna-saadiae 
kllissadi. Ta java vinodemi' nam. Ajjaa Vasantasenaae 
samivam uvasappissam.* (Approaches) Ajjae panamami. 

Vasa : Radanie, saadam de. Kassa una aani darao ? ^ Anal- 
amkida sariro vi candamuho anandedi mama hiaara. 

Rada : Eso kkhu ajja-Carudattassa putto Rohaseno nama. 

Vasa: (Stretching out her arms) Ehi me puttaa alinga. (Sets 
him on her lap) Anukidara anena piduno^ riivam. 

Rada: Xa kevalam riivam, silam pi takkemi. Edina ajja- 
Carudatto attanaam vinodedi. 

Vasa : Adha kim nimittam eso roadi.'' 

Rada: Edina padivesia-gahavai-daraa-keriae^ suvanna-saadiae 
kilidam. Tena a sa nida. Tado una tarn maggantassa *" 
mae iam mattiasaadia kadua dinna. Tado bhanadi " Ra 
danie, kim mama edae mattia-saadiae. Tam jjeva so- 
vannasaadiara dehi " tti. 

Vasa : Haddhl haddhl. Aam pi nama para-sarapattie samta- 
ppadi. Bhaavam Kaanta"' pokkhara-vatta-padida-jala- 

' mattia ' earth' §55 (cf. H. mitti). Rohasena the son of Carudatta 
is supposed to speak Magadhi : but the text here gives him ordinary 

^ viddhi=rddhi § 58. 

•^ Caus. imperat. (vi + nud). 

* (upa+srp). 

s ' boy.' 

6 pidui^o § 97. 

7 roadi ' weeps,' cf. roda, rodasi further down, and rodissam. 

8 padivesia 'neighbour,' gahavai { = grhapati), keria, belonging to. 
Hence the Genitive in kerau (in Chand Bardai's Old Hindi). 

1* raagganta Pres. Part, of maggadi ' demands,' vSkt. margati (H. malig- 
'0 Kaanta ' Fate.' pokkhara § 38, § 71, ' vatta ' leaf. 


bindu-sarisehim kilasi tumam purisa-bhaadheehim. {Tear- 
fully) Jada, ma roda ! ' sovaana-saadiae kilissasi. 
Child : Radanie , ka esa ? 

Vasa : Piduno de guna-nijjida dasl. 

Rada: Jada, ajjaa de janani bhodi. 

Child : Radanie, aliam'^ tumam bhanasi. Jai amhanain ajjaa 
janani, ta kisa alamkida ? 

Vasa : Jada, muddhena muhena adikarunam mantesi. {Put- 
ting off her jewels— and weeping) Esa danim de janani 
samvutta. Ta genha edam alamkaraani. Sovanna-saad- 
iam ghadavehi.'" 

Child: Avehi. Na genhissara. Rodasi ' tumam. 

Vasa: {Wiping away her tears) Jada, na rodissam. Gaccha 
kila. {Fills the clay-cart with jewelry) Jada, karehi 

[Exit Radanika with the child]. 
There is an excellent translation of this play in the Harvard 
Oriental Series, Vol. 9, Dr. A. W. R5-der. 

S'auraseni. Extract No. 8. 

Two of the Jesters' speeches in the Little Clay Cart to 
illustrate the use of long compounds. (Act 4, p. 114). 

A maid sai/s to the Jester : Pekkhadu ajjo amha-keraani 

The Jester looks and says with admiration : Alio salila-sitta- 
majjida-kida-haridovalevanassa* viviha-suandhi-kusumovaha- 
ra-citta-lihida>bhilmi-bhaassa^ gaana-talaaloana-koduhala-dur- 

' roadi 'weeps,' cf. roda, rodasi further down, and rodissarn. 

^ aliam § 67. 

•^ Cans, from v^'C^at fashion, mako (cf. H. gharnS ghapana). 

+ sitta 'sprinkled' {sic), majjida 'swept' {mrj). harida 'green,' uva- 
levana ' smearing ' (with cowdung) (upa + lip). 

6 suandhi 'fragrant.' uvahara 'oblation-scattering,' citta-lihida lit., 
• picture painted.' hhRa=bhaga. 


unnamida-sisassa ' dolaamantvalambid-Eravana hattha-bbha- 
maida-mallia-dama-gunalamkidassa ■^ samucchida-danti-danta- 
toranavabhasidassa'' maha-raanovaraovasohina pavana-bal- 
andolanalalanta-cancal '-aggahatthena ' ido ehi ' tti vaharan 
tena via mam sohagga-pataa-nivahenovasohidassa* torana- 
dharana-tthambha-vedia-nikkhitta - samullasanta- harida- cuda- 
pallava-lalama-phatiha-mangala- kalasabhiramohaa - pasassa '' 
kanaa-kavadassa'' duggada-jana-manorahaasa-karassa'^ Va- 
santasena-bhavana-duarassa sassiriada '* ! Jam saccam majjha- 
tthassa vi janassa baladitthim aaredi.'' 

1 gaana='sky,' tala + a(v)aloana, unnamida 'raised high,' sisa 'head, 

^ avalambida ' hanging ' — bbhamaida. Comm. gives = bhramdgata. 
This should be S. -bbhamaada. Rather it is bbhama(v)ida ' agitated.' 
of. rodavida, 'made to weep' in this play, mallia-dama-guna 'festoons 
of jasmine.' 

3 ' Shining with an elevated portal of ivory.' 

* uvasohida ' made brilliant ' nivahena ' by a niultitude ' of sohagga 
' auspicious' pataa ' flags,' vaharantena, ' calling' [Pres. part, from vaha- 
radi — {vi + a + hr)], uvasohina ' brilliant ' with uvaraa ' colouring ' of maha- 
raana 'precious jewels' or {—maharajana) ' safflower,' agga-hatthena y 
'with finger' cancala 'quivering' alalanta, 'waving to and fro' with 
the andolana ' swing,' from the bala * force ' of the pavana ' wind.' 

5 'Having both (uhaa) its sides (pasa, §44) charming (abhirama) 
with auspicious pitchers (mahgala-kalaSa) made of crystal (phatiha § 19, 
phadiha or phaliha would be better vide Pischel, § 206) placed (nik- 
khitta) on the ' altar ' or ' balcony ' (vediS) of the columns (tthambha) 
supporting (dharana) the gateway (torana), and brilliant (samullasanta) 
with head-ornaments (lalama) of green inango shoots (harida-ciida- 
pSkllava).' [passa is impossible.] 

6 ' With golden door-panels (kanaa-kavada) studded (padibaddha) 
closely (nirantara) with impervious (dubbhejja) [dur -vhhid'] adamant (vajja) 
like the breast-expanse (vakkha-tthala) of a mighty demon (mahasura). ' 

T ' Which causes (kara) trouble (aasa) to poor people {d\\g-g&da,=durgata). ' 
8 sas8iriad5=sa^rJA;a<a ' beauty, loveliness,' -ss- as if the svarahhahti 
vowel had not been used. cf. sakkunodi=:saA;no<i. 

y Edition has ' baladditthitn ' which is impossible, bala is found in 
M., perhaps balado is better 6aur. aaredi causal {a + hr), majjhattha. ' in- 


The maid says: Edu edu. Imam padhamain paottham ' 
pavisadu ajjo. 

The Jester enters and looks about: Hi lii bho ! Idho vi 
padhamo paotthe sasi-sankha-munala-sacchahao'^ vinihida- 
('unna-mutthi-pandurao' viviha-raana-padibaddha-kancana-so- 
vana *-sohidao pasada-pantio^ olarabida-mutta-damehim phati- 
lia-vadaana^ -muhacandehini nijihaantl' via Ujjainaiii. Sot- 
tic* via suhovavittho niddSadi dovario. Sadahina*' kamalo- 
danena palohida na bhakkanti vaasa balira sudha-savannadae. 
Adisadu bhodi. 

A sentence of such enormous length as this " Aho Va- 

santasena-bhavana-duarassa sassiriada ! " is difficult to trans- 
late into English. Dr. Ryder breaks it up into nine separate 
sentences, of which the eighth is — " Yes Vasantasena's house- 
door is a beautiful thing." (H. 0. S. vol. 9, p. 67). 

Extract No. 9. 

Maharastri. Hala's Sattasai. 
Verse 2. Amiam paiia-kavvaip 

padhium soum a je na ananti , 
Kamassa tatta-tantim 

kunanti, te kaha na lajjanti ? 

' paottham ' courtyard' (=:prakostham). 

■? 'Ha\nng the same hue as' (sa-cchahao cf. M. chaha 'shadow,' but 
M.6. chaa, 'beauty.' Pischel (§255) derives chaha from *chakha from 
*chayakha from *chai/aka) ' moon, conch, or lotus-stalks.' 

•' mutthi ' handful,' cunna 'lime.' (Apa. eunnau H. cuna.) 

•* sovana ' stairs,' § 17. 

' ' rows of palaces,' § 35. 

'' 'window' "where the wind comes in" {vaidi/ana). [The English 
word means " wind-eye "] 

■? nijjhnanti ' look at' (nir+dhi/ai). 

"* sntt\o=)(rotriyo. niddaati -'slumbers" (H. nid), duvario door- 

t* sa-dahina instr. 'with sour milk' (dadhi cf. H. dahi). kamala 'au- 
tumn rice.' palohida (pm-ijt6/i), bhakkanti 'eat' {hhaks). vaasa 'crows.' 
[Rdn. hn»i rayana which is Sanskrit not Saurasenil. 


Amia = amrto. paiia Saur. paiida, § 12. kavvain§50. pad- 
hium, ' to read,* H. parh. soujp "to liear." ananti, 'know' 
§ 131. tatta-tantim. This is the reading in the Kavyamala, 
which represents it by tittva-cintdm in the Sanskrit version, 
in accordance with Gangadhara Bhatta's commentary, which 
adds however tantravdrtam vd. Weber (1870) finding the read- 
ing tamttatarnttim conjectured tantratantrim. In his edition 
(1881) he read on the authority of other MSS. tattatattira 
( = — taptim). We may translate it either—' practise the mys- 
teries of love,' or 'take thought on the principles of love,' 
i.e. on the principles laid down in the KamaSastra. kaha = 
kaham, ' how.' 

Verse 3. Satta saaijp ' kai-vacchalena koclia majjhaarammi ; 
Halena vira'iaim salankarana gahanamn 

•' The Seven Centuries of embellished verses were arranged 
from among a crore by Hala devoted to the poets." 

K.a,i = kavi, vacchala, § 39. 'devoted to poets.' kodia, ' of 
a crore,' § 95, i. majjhaara JM. majjhayara de-H word for 
madhya . 
Verse 4. ua niccala-nipphamda'^ 

bhisini-vattammi^ rehai balaa* 
-paritthia^ samkhasutti wall 

ua ' Lo ! ' Weber explained as a shortened form from the 
vedic y/uh, ' mark, observe.' Pischel conjectured a *^u'p 
whence oppam, ' seen ' in Trivikrama. bhisi ni = bisini, S. bisini. 
Pali and AMg. have bhisa for bisa. .Aspiration of a sonant is 
rare, of a surd commoner, § 6. vattammi = pdtre, rehai, ' shines 
of. Vedic rebhati, 'crackles,' etc., rebhdyaii, 'shines.' bhaana, 
platter.' aatpkhasutti, 'mother of pearl.' This verse is 

' BuVI. sataim, ivrong. 

2 KM. nippanda. pph is commoner. 

■^ patammi. 

* W. valaa following majority of MSS- 

5 KM. -tthida, wrong. 


quoted by the Kavyapraka^a and other works on jjoetics to 
illustrate vyangya — the suggestive. 

" Lo there gleams a crane quite motionless on a lotus leaf, 
like mother of pearl at the edge of a platter of pure emerald." 

Verse 8. atta! taha ramanijjam 

amham ' gamassa mandam-huam i 

sisirena kaam bhisinl-sandam ii 

atta cf. attia in Mrcch. (p, 110) Commentators "mother-in- 
law." Apparently used to any elder lady in the household, 
mother, elder-sister, etc. lua, 'cut' { — *luta for luna) vadi. 
' garden ' { = vatt). cf. H. bara {vata + ka-). 

'' Oh mother! so the mass of lotuses that was so dehghtful 
and the ornament of our village, the cold has made like a 
garden of cut sesamum." 

Thus the lady gives a hint to a lover. As to her precise 
meaning the pandits differed. Some said the lotus-tank was 
to replace the sesamum garden as a meeting place, as people 
would be going and coming to harvest the sesamum. The 
frost-bitten lotuses would be deserted. Another view was. 
that neither place was suitable. 

Verse 13. i andhana-kamma-niunie ! 

ma jhurasu, ratta-pad^'la-suandham i 
muha-maruam pianto 

dhumai sihl, na pajjalai II 

"Skilled in the work of destruction," i.e. in love's magic, 
jhurasu, ' be angry,' ^/jvar or jur, ' get hot ' (because the fire 
does not burn), dhumsbi = dhumdyate. The denominative -a?/a- 
becomes -aa-, so Mg. ciUia d'\ = cirdyati , S'. sido,\aa,di = iitaldyati ; 
this -aa- often contracts to -a- in M., etc. pajjalai ' blazes ' 
{pra^jval). While the fire can drink in the breath of thy 
mouth, fragrant as red piltalas he will only smoke and not 
burst into flame, for then thou wouldst blow no more. 

I KM. alimani, wrong. 


Verse 16. amaa-maa gaana-sehara 

raani-muha-tilaa canda de chivasu i 
chitto jehi piaamo 

mamam pi tehim cia karehira II 

Addressed to the moon, amaamaa consisting of amrit. de 
said to = ^e. chivasu imperat. of chivai, ' touch ' {^ksif). 
chitto p. p. p. of the same, cia (KM. reads via) a restrictive 
particle ' with these very hands.' 

Verse 42. arambhantassa dhuam 

Lacchi Maranam va hoi purisassa i 
tam Maranam anarambhe 
vi hoi, Lacchi una na hoi ii 

dhuam, ' certainly' {dhruvam). Lacclii =Lafesmi. 

Verse 49. thoam pi na nisarei ' 

majjhanhe ua sarira-tala-lukka i 
aava-bhaena chahi 

vi, ta pahia kira na visamasi ii 

thoaiu, ' a little ' {stokam). nisarei for nisarai { = nihsaraU) ; 
majjhanha, ' mid-day,' §52. ua see v. 4. 

-lukka ' sticking to,' as explained in Skt. by Una : ' torn loose 
or torn out' =*lukna connected with ^/lunc (Pischel, §466). 
aava 'heat' (dtapa). chahi 'shadow,' not derived directly 

from chdya, but from ^chaydki ^*chayakhi (aspiration, 

§ 19). ■ V *chaahi contracts to chahi. (Pischel, § 255). 

pahia 'traveller.' visamasi {vi + &ram). For short vowel cf. 
forms from ^kram nikkamai, 8. adikkamasi, etc., so from 
iram M. JM. visamai, etc., 8. visama, pass, visamiadu. 

At midday the shadow does not move out, even a little way 
from the bodj^ — or but clings to the body — from fear of the 
heat — so traveller stay by me. , 

1 KM. nisarai. Weber rejected this as against the metre. Later he 
adopted niti ima. 


Verse 76. na vi taha viesa-vaso 

doggaccam maha janei santavam i 
asaTpsiattha- vi muho 

jaha panaiano niattanto II 

viesa 'abroad' (videka). doggaccam 'poverty' {daurya- 
(yam). vimuho 'indifferent to, without a thought of.' asani- 
sia 'desired' (d + mms). panai 'beloved' {pranayi), -ano = 
jano. niattanto ' returning ' (m + vrt). 

Verse 81. addamsanena pemnaam 

avei, aidamsanena vi avei ' 
pisuna-jana-jampiena vi 
avei , emea vi ave i ii 

' Out of sight, out of mind ' and ' familiarity breeds con- 
tempt.' a.vei=apeti. emea = evawieca (Pischel, § 149). 
Verse 94. suano jam desam alam- 

-karei, tarn cia karei pavasanto 
gamasann' ummulia- 

-maha-vada-tthana-sariccha nj ii 

pavasanto (pra + vas). vada ' fig-tree ' {vata). ummilia ' roote d 
up.' The rendezvous is cancelled. 

Verse 107. Gola-ada-tthiam pecchiiina 

f = KM. ii.7). gaha-vai-suarp halia-sonha i 

adhatta uttarium 

dukh'uttarae paav le ii 

Gola = Godavari, ada ' bank ' (tola), -suam ' the son ' of gaha. 
vai ( = grhapati). sonha ' daughter-in-law,' for commoner sunha 
contracted from *sunuha, cf. Pai^aci aunusa = 57iusa. adhatta 
' she began ' {d + dhd. caus. fidhavai with pass, adhappai p.p. 
adhatta). halia ' ploughman.' paavie * by a path.' 

She wishes to see if he will help her. 
Verse 115. savvattha disa-muha-pasariehi 

( =KM. ii. 15 ) annonna — kadaa-laQ;gehiini 

challini va muai' Vimjho 
mehehi visamghadantehini 


challim ' mantle, skin.' rauai (v/wwc). meha 'cloud.' ka- 
(iaa ' slope,' etc. {kataka). vi + sam + qhat ' dispersing.' 
The end of the rains. 

Verse 128. mahu-masa-maruahaa- 
{ = KM. ii. 28). -mahuara-jhamkara-nibbhare ranne 
gai virah'akkharavaddha- 
-pahia-raana-mohanam govi II 

In a forest full of the buzzing of bees carried by the vernal 
zephyr there sings of love in absence maddening to the 
traveller's heart, the maiden with the kine. 

Verse 171. Gola-nale kacche 

( = KM.ii. 71). cakkhanto raiai pattaim i 

upphadai makkado khokkei 
a pottham a pittei ^i 

' On the bank of the Gola river,' of. 107 above, cakkhanto 
pres. p. cakkhai —jaksati devours, cf. Marathi v^cakh. raia 
'mustard,' rdjika H. rai. makkado 'ape' (markata). uppha- 
dai KM. gives -utpatati which should = uppadai. Weber suggests 
v/sphat related to sphut, cf. phudai phidai. khokkhei ' snarls ' 
deSi word, pottham 'belly' ? -prostJiam 'bench or stool.' 
pittei 'crams' den. Weber suggests a connection with 

"On the bank of the Goja river, devouring the leaves of 
black mustard, there leaps the monkey, snarls and stuffs his 

Maharastri. Extract No. 10. 

Verses from S'akuntala. 

(a) Spring song in Prologue. 

Islsi-cumbiaim ^ bhamarehim suumara-kesara-sihaim 
odamsaanti ^ daamana pamadao sirisakusumaim ii 

I isisi =:l.iadl>^at. '^ {ava -^ tarns). 


{b) Grief at S'akuntala's departure. 

Ullalia-dabbhakavala ' maipariccatta-naccana'^mora . 
osaria-pandu-vatta '^ muanti atpsuim va* laaoll 

(c) Act III. Sakuntala reads the verse she lias composed 

at her friend's bidding. 

Tujjha na ane hiaam, mama una niaano diva a 

rattiin ca 
nikkiva dabai baliam tuha hutta-manorahai angainiii 
na ane ' I do not know,' of. No. 9, verse 1. maano Monier- 
Williams reads kamo. nikkiva 'cruel' niskrpa. dabai comm. 
gives tapayati. Pischel (p. 154) says, not exactly tapayati but 
Marathi dabne, Gujarati dabavu, Urdu dabna to press, com- 
press. (M.W. tabei, i.e. ta,vei = tapayati). baliain (hallyah). 
hutta 'facing' Comm. ' abhimukha.' Derivation uncertain. 
With numerals M. huttaip AMg. khutta = krtvah. M.W. reads 
vutta = 'yr^to. -ai gen. sing. 

" Thy heart I know not, cruel one, but day and night does 
Love grievously afflict my limbs, whose desires are fixed on 

(d) Act V. Hamsapadika is overheard singing. 

Ahinava-mahu-loluvo tumam 
taha paricumbia ciia-mailjarini 
4 kamala-vasai-metta-nivvuo 

mahuara visario 'si nam kaham ? 
loluvo 'greedy,' Bengal version has loha-bhavio. cua 
' mango.' metta § 69. nivvuo (nir + vrt), M.W. reads nivvudo 

' Ullalia, deH word (cf. H. iiltna, ulalna). iidgalita is an explanation, 
hence the Pkt. reading uggaHa. (Pischel'.s edn. , p. 191.) -kavala ' mouth- 
ful.' mai ' doe ' as- in Pischol's edn. Devanagari MSS. have miio. Boeht- 
lingk conjectured raia ' deer.' 

'^ cca.tta.^tyak(a. naccana, of. H. nScna. mora • peacocks.' Pischel 
morl ' a peahen.' 

•■* osaria (ava+sr). vatta ' loaf.' muanti (muc). 

* Pischel, Bengali version reads angaim va. DevanSgari MSS. have 
jissuni via. Boehtlingk conjectured amsu-. ' assiini (for assuim) via ladsu " 
is oaur. not Maha. The reading above amsuiin va laao suits dialect, 
naetre and meaning, amsu, §§ 40, G4. aa. § 12. 


which is Saur. mahuara ' bee.' visario ' forgotten.' M.W. has 
vimharido. He supports this bj' Vararuci iii. 32, by which 
vimhaa, etc., cf. § 47. But -ido is not M. M. has visaria, 
visaria. S'. sumarida (JS. visarida, JM. vissariya, dialectic 
vimharia), cf. Hindi bisarna. The past part, is active in 

(6) Act VI. (MW. p. 230, P. p 120). 

Arihasi me cuahkura dinno Kamassa gahiacavassa 
saccavia-juai-lakkho paiicabbhahio saro houm. 

gahia = Saur. gahida, cava 'bow.' saccavia, past part, of 
ssbccava,! = satydpayati 'make true, verify, contract.' juai = 
yuvati. pa>nca, + abhy-adhika. houm ' to be.' M.W. differs, for 
arihasi houip he has hohi ' be,' and begins with turn si mae 
" Thou art offered by me to " ; for saccavia the easier pahia- 
jana, cf. Megh. 8. pathika-vanitdh. 

•' Oh mango-sprout, given by me to Kama grasping his bow, 
do thou become the best arrow of his five, with contracted 
maidens as thy mark." 

Maharastri. Extract No. 11. 


(a) (Verse 19). 

Vicalai neurajualam, chijjanti a mehala mani-kkhaia 
valaa a sundaraara raanankura-jala-padibaddha. 

neura, regular Pkt. for Skt. nupura; from a form *nepura 
cf. keyura, Pkt. keiira. (P. § 126). chijjanti, pass. (chid). 
k\xdbidi (khac). sundaraara =Saur. sundaradara. raana§51. 

(6) Act II. Karnapiiraka (verse 20). 
Ahaniilna sarosam tam hatthim Viipjha-sela-siharabham 
moavio mae so dantantara-samthio parivvajao. 

ahaniiina gerund (a -i-^w). Virajha, § 35. sela = iat7a [H. P. 
edition reads " saila " which is not Prakrit, vide Pischel, 
gr. § 60]. moavio past part, causal (muc). thio § 38. pa- 
rivvajao 'mendicant.' 


(c) Act IV (verse 30). The Vidusaka mocks at Vasantasena's 


eavattham gaa hi attia, 
jai marai ettha attia, 

hoi siala-sahassa-pajjattia. 

sihu 'rum' {sldhu). sura ' wine, etc' asava ' intoxicating 
drink made from uncooked vegetables and water,' ' toddy.' 
eavattham = e^a + auas^^am. attia 'mother,' vide M.W. Die. 
sub atta, apparently a non-aryan word, pajjattia ' sufficiency ' 
{parydptikd). " She would make a good meal for a thousand 
jackals." Texts read gada and bhodi, these are Saur. forms. 

Maharastri. Extract No. 12. 

(a) Act 11. Verse 10. 

nisasa hara-latthi-sarisa-pasarana candan-uccodakari, 
cando dehassa daho, sumarana-sarana hasa-soha muhammi . 
anganain pandu-bhavo diaha-sasi-kala-koraalo ; kiiii ca tie 
niccani baha-ppavaha tuha, suhaa, kae honti kullahi tuUa. 

nisasa ' sigh.' latthi a lathi, also a necklace string ['* es- 
cape Hke pearls from off their string " Lanman.] uccoda' wither- 
ing.' cut meaning not certain ; cut is said to mean ' split off' 
or ' grow small.' Perhaps the sandal ' throws out ' fragrance 
owing to the moist heat of the sighs, cando ' fierce.' sumara- 
na-sarana " has memory as its refuge." tuha kae 'for tiiee." 
fi\iha,a. = subhaga. kulla ' river-canal.' tulla ' equal to.' bJiha 
(vide p. 84). 

(6) The Jester's rejoinder. (Verse 11.) 

Param j6nha nnha, garalasariso candana-raso, 
kliaa-kkharo hilro, raani-pavana deha-tavana, 
raunair banali, jalai' a jala-dda tanu-laa 
varittha jam dittha kamala-vaana sa su-naana. 

jonha 'moonlight.' unha §47. garala 'poison.' khaa ' u 
wound.' khara ' alkali,' ^5am. -tavanil (top), jalai ' blazes. ' 


jala-dda 'running with water.' tanu-laa 'body-creeper,' §12. 
varittha ' the choicest maid.' 
Note the internal rhymes. 

(c) Verse 25. 

Nisagga-cangassa vi manusassasohasamummilaibhiisanehirn 

manina jaccana vi hiraehim vihGsane laggai ka vi lacchi. 

nisagga 'nature' (ni + srj). caiiga " liandsome," cf. Pan- 
jabi canga ' good.' manlua for manlnani, gen plur. jaccana, 
gen. plur. 'genuine' (jdtya). lacehi laksml. 

{d) Describes the swinging of the Heroine. (Verse 32.) 
Rananta-mani-neuram jhana-jhananta-hara-cchadam 
na kassa mana-mohanara sasi-muhia hindolanani. 

ran ' to tinkle.' jhanajhan ' to jingle.' chada ' mass-lustre.' 
kana-kkan ' to ring ' (kvan). kinkini 'bell.' muhala 'noisy' 
§ 26 mukhara. dambara 'mass-noise.' sinja 'jingle.' sasi 
-muhi 'moon-faced maiden.' Lanman describes this stanza 
as " a ' tour de force ' in the use of imitative words," p. 255. 

(e) Even the Jester waxes eloquent, and describes the swing- 
ing in eight verses concluding : (Verse 40), 
la eai vilas-ujjalaim dola-pavanca-cariaini 
kassa na lihai va citte niuno kandappa-cittaaro ? 

ia * thus ' related to iti. eai = Saur. edaim, pavafica ' dis- 
play,' prapanca. citta ' heart.' citta-aro ' picture- maker.' 

(/) Act III, Verse 2. 

Maragaa-mani-guttha hara-latthi vva tara 

bhamara-kavalianta malal-malia vva i 
rahasa-valia-kantham tia ditthi varitthi 

savana-paha-nivittha manasam me pavitthaii 

guttha 'strung' (gumph). tara bright.' kavalia 'eaten, 
sucked.' anta 'end.' rahasa 'impetuously.' valia 'turned 
round.' savana'ear' {iru). pskha, = patha. 


(g) Verse 31. The Heroine's cotuposifcion. 
Mandale sasaharassa gorle danta-panjara-vilasa-corae 
bhai lanchana-mao phurautao keli-koila-tulam dharantao. 

sasa-hara ' hare-bearer = moon." danta 'ivory.' bhai 'is 
bright' ["appears in all its beauty"], -mao 'antelope.' 
phurantao 'manifest' (sphur.) -tulam 'likeness.' 

(h) Act IV, Conclusion. " Bharata-vdkyam.'^ 
Anudiahain viphuranto manlsi-jana-saala-guna -vinasa-aro 
rittattana-davaggi viramau kamala-katakkha-varisena. 

manisi ' clever, learned.' rittattana 'emptiness — Poverty.' 
davaggi 'forest fire.' Kamala = Laksm!. katakkha ' side-long 
glances.' varisa 'rain' §57. 

Maharastri. Extract No. 13. 


(a) Act I. Madanika sings. 
Kusumauha-piya-duao maiilaia-bahu-cuao 
sidhilia-mana-ggahanao vaai dahina-pavanao. 
viraha-vivaddhia-soao kankhia pia-ana-melao 
padivalanasamatthao tammai juvai-satthao. 
iha padhamam mahumaso janassa liiaaim kunai mauaim 
paccha vijjhai kamo laddha-ppasarehim kusuma-banehim. 

vaai ' blows.' dahina ' south,' dakkhina becomes *dakbina 
by lengthening the vowel, hence dahina by § 13. Cf. ' Deccan' 
and H. ddhinii riuht. kankhia 'longed for.' pia-ana 'lovers,' 
valana (pal), asamatthao ' unable.' satthao ' troop.' kunai 
'makes,' maiia' tender' (wrrfM). paccha §38. vijjhai (vtrfAt/o 
ti) § 35. latldha-ppasara ' unimpeded.' 

''The south wnid blows, sweet messenger of Love, making 
many a mango blossom, and dissolving lits of sulky temper. 
With pangs increast-d by separation, longing for union with 
their lovers, a troop of ladies is fauit with love, incapable of 
defence. First comes the month of sweetness and softens 
mortals' hearts, then Love wounds them with his flowery 
arrows unimpeded." 



(fe) Act IV. The Magician. 

Panamaha calane indassa indaalammi laddhanamassa, 
taha ajja-Sambarassa vi maa-supadi tthia-jasassa. 
(Deva) kini dharanle miaiiko tiase mahiharo jale jalano, 
niajjhanhamini paoso, davijjaii dehi anattim. 

panamaha, iraperat, {pra + nam). calane, nom. ace. plur. 
for Skt neut. indrajala 'illusion.' padi-tthia {prati + stha) . 
jasa 'renown.' aasa 'sky.' jalano {jval) majjhanha § 52. 
davijjau, imperat. pass. cans, {da) ' let it be caused to be given- 
demanded.' anattiin (a + ;na). 

" Revere the deeds of Indra, who takes his name from 
sorcery, so also those of worthy 8ambara whose renown is well 
established by his masic. Wliat shall it be? moon on the 
ground, earth in the sky, or flames in water ? or dusk at noon ? 
give your commauds." 

(c) Kim jappiena bahuna ? jain jam liiaena mahasi sanda- 

tarn tain dainsemi ahain guru no manta-ppahavena. 
mahasi ' desirest.' 

(d) Hari-Hara-Bamha ppamuhe deve damseini devaraain ca- 
gaanammi Siddha-Vijjahara-bahu-satthain ca naccantam. 

Bamha, cf. § 52. deve. ace. plur. 

[There is very little Maharastri in tliis play. Note its 
simplicity, and the great contrast with the decadent Camphor 
Cluster which uses the same motif of the magician producing 
a vision of the Heroine, b}' bringing on the lady herself], 

Maharastri Extract No. 14. 

Setubandha or Ravanavaho. 

Bk. I. Verse 57. How the monkeys crossed the mountain 
Bolanti a pecchanta padima-sanikanta-dhavala- 

ghana-sainghae i 
phuda-phadiha-sila-saiiikula-khaliovari-patthie via 
naippavahe i; 


^bol ' pass, cross,' cf. bolei ' passes (the time).' M. pecchai 
= S'. pekkhadi § 40. pecchanta, nom. plur. pies. part, padi 
ma-sa)iikanta - 'reflected.' satngliae, ace. plur. § 86. khalia = 
S*. khalida. patthia= S'. patthida (pra-stha). -ppavahe = pra- 

" And they cross the streams ol rivers that they see reflect- 
ing masses of white clouds, as if trickling through and run- 
ning over a welter of clear crystal rocks." 

Bk. VII. Verse 56. The waves splash on high as tlie monkeys 
drop in the mountains. 
Uttlianghia-duma-nivaha giri-gha'-uvvatta-mucchia- 

vela-sela-kkhalia uddham bhijjanti uahi-jala-kallola. 

utthahghia. Co mm. = uttamhhita (ut + stambh). This is 
regularly in M. uttambia, S'. uttambida. uvvatta (ud + vrt). 
mucchia 'stunned,' maccha § 56. kkhalia (skhal). bhijjanti 
pass of hhid. uahi 'ocean.' 

" Supporting a multitude of trees, with might}' fish turned 
over stunned by the impact of the mountains, the ocean billows 
break on high checked by the rocks of the shore." 

Bk. VIII. Verse 3. The sea subsides. 
Giri-sainkhoha-vimukka jhina appatta-padhama-gaman-oasa , 
mand-andolana-maiia gaagaa ccia samudda-salila-upplda. 

samkhoh a = samfcso6/ia. vimukka(w + mwc). jhina § 40. ap 
patta (a + pra-i-ap) padhama § 20. oasa = ayo^a^a. maiia^ 
mrduka. ccia ' like.' uppida ' bursts'. 

"The jets of sea-water when freed from the shock of the 
mountains do not mount so high as before, but subside, and 
oscillate in a slow and gentle swing." 

Verse 6. Mingled spoil of land and sea. 

Motta-gl'adanta-kusuinaiii saraa-maragaa-vattft-bhanga- 

vidduma-milia-kisalaarn sa-sankha-dhavala-kamalarn pa- 
sammai salilam. 


motta 'pearl.' ghadanta, pres. part, (ghaf) 'being joined 
witli.' maragaa ' emerald ' § 12. vatta ' leaf.' avattain 
(d + vrt). vidduma ' coral.' pasaramai (pra + iam). 

"Quiet grows the water, blossoms united with pearls, the 
whirlpool filled with fragments of leaves and emeralds, buds 
mingled with coral, white lotuses with the Triton's shells." 
Verse 14. Weariness of the workers — (Sugriva speaks to 
Khavio vanaraloo duratthia-virala-pavvaam mahi-vedhain 
na a disai seu-vaho, ma hu namejja guruarn puno Rama- 

Khavio * exhausted ' {ksap caus. of ksi). pavvaa ' mountain.' 
mahi ' earth.' vedha = vesta ' enclosure ' § 38, cf, M. vedhia, S'aur. 
vedhida, Comm. gives the meaning a,s mahi-prstham. disai = 
dr^yaie. -va,ho = patho. namejja, opt. 3rd person sing, or plur. 
The Comm. is uncertain whether -dhanum is nom. or ace. 
(a) Nom. then neuter, ' may Rama's bow not bend,' 
{b) Ace. Met not him (i.e. Rama) bend Rama's bow. Comm. 
suggests naynayata but namejja is not 2nd person plural. 
" The monkey-people are exhausted, the surface of the earth 
has mountains left, but few and far between, yet the mole of 
the Bridge is not in sight, so let not Rama's bow bend ' 
heavily again. 
Verse 20. Nala's reply. 

Khavio pawaa-nivaho dalia va rasa alam dhuo vva 

jiam va pariccattam ajja va sambhavana tuham 

pariccattam {pari + tyaj). Comm. va is affirmative. After 
ajja one Comm. would prefer to read vi. 

" A multitude of mountains has been exhausted, the surface 
of the earth may be torn up, the sea may be agitated, and life 
despaired of, but now must your design be carried out." 

' Comm. says samudra-tidanaya, ' to chastise the sea " ? rather to 
chastise the monkevs. 


The Raksasas show Sita a vision of Rama's severed head. — 
Bk. XI, Verse 61, p. 345. 
Pecchai a sarahas-oharia-mandalaggahighaa-visama-cchinnani 
oharia, past part, (ava + hr). mandaldgra ' scimitar.' aliighaa 
(abhi + han). sa,mghiai,hcia, = samhita + aiicita ^ 65. sara-punkha 
' shaft of arrow.' ahddha (a + lip) =*aligdha. avamga 'eye- 
corner ' § 17. The object of pecchai comes in verse 69. 
— " Rama-sirara." 

"And Sita saw (a human head) rudely lopped, hacked off 
with a scimitar's stroke, the corners of the eyes darkened by 
the shaft of the arrow set to the bow and drawn far back." 
Verse 62. nivvudha-ruhira-pandura-maiilanta-cchea- 
masa-pelHa- vi varani 
niv-vvid\iSb — {iiirvyudha). maiilanta lit. 'budding ' {muhula) 
§71. chea ' the cut.' pellia through *pelia *peria =prerita. 
Comm. gives the meaning as mudritam, 'sealed up.' bhajjanta 
part, from bhajjai ' is broken.' dara ' cleft.' 

"The dust of the sword-edge clung to the cleft hewn in its 
neck where the weapon fell breaking in pieces, while the pale 
bloodless flesh at tlie wound had shrivelled and sealed the hollow 

Verse 63. niddaa-samdatthahara-miil-ukkhitta-dara- 
dittha-dadha-hiram , 
samkhaa - sonia - paiika - padala - purenta- 
kasana-kantha-ccheaiii , 

niddaa 'ruthless.' saindattha (sam + dam^). adhara. ukk- 
hitta (m< + yfcMp). dadha 'tusk,' §65. samkhaa Comm. = saw- 
slyana 'coagulated' from the rare root styai. Rather from a 
past part, sam-styata through *sarnskydta. knaa,nii = krs)m. 

' ' A tooth of adamant is seen through the gaping rent at the 
base of the lower lip, ruthlessly bitten through, and the dark 
neck-wound is filled with a muddy iilm of blood congealed." 


Verse 04. nisiara-kaa-ggahama-nilada-ada-nattha- 
galia-ruhir-addha-lahuam anahia-uinmil- 
lataraani Ramasiram ! 

n\s\-a.rsi=*niiicara. kaaggaha 'hair-seizing' {kaca-). ania = 
ania nilada 'forehead' also nalada, Pali nalata or lalata and 
with metathesis M. nadala or M. S'. nidala. Apa. nidala (Pischel 
§ 260). lata, bhiudi Comm. =b7irukuH really = bhr-kufi, which 
occurs. AMg. bhigudi. The forms bhuudi huudi Pischel says 
are incorrect. (P. § 124). bhumaa 'brow.' anahiaa means 
ahr day a cL an.Simi\ia. — amilita. a,na,d\h.Sir a, — adirgha. 

"The frown that furrowed its brows had faded from its 
broad forehead, for the demons brought it with a grip of the 
hair— lighter by half with the blood poured forth, with its orbs 
open but devoid of soul — the liead of Rama." 

Sita's Lament. 
Verse 75 (p. 350). 

Avaa-bhaaaram cia na hoi dukkhassa darunam nivvahanani- 

jaip mahila-vihatthamditthamsahiamcatuhamaeavasanaip. 

Avaa, = apata. cia (AMg. ciya), ccia after vowels means eva: 
also cea. {caiva ci, ney a, z=7iaiva). vlhattham = 6t6/ia^sam. sa- 
hiam ' endured.' 

' Though frightful in its onset the end of sorrow is not so 
terrible, if I can view a sight loathsome to women and endure 
thy death.' 

Sita not knowing that the vision is unreal, marvels that she 
should continue to exist. The commentary takes mahila- 
vlhattham to mean ' a cause of reproach among women.' 
Verse 7(\ valiunbani tujjha ure jani mocchihirai tti 
sainthiam maha hiae, 
ghara-niggamana-paattam sahasu tani 
kammi nivvavijjau dukkham ? 

vaha or baha = "tear." unham 'hot.' Text has uhnani, 
incorrect, tujjha this oblique base of tuaiii survives in H. tujh 
ko ; it comes from ^tuhyam analogous to mahyam. ure loc. of 


uro ' breast/ ' mocchihimi. Fut. of muc, also moccham. 
thia §12. paattam = prat;rf<am. sahasu 'tell' imperat. ids. 
kammi loc. = S'aur. kassim. niv-vavijjau (nir + vap) pass, 
imperat. 'let it be poured out.' 

"It was fixed in my heart from the moment of leaving 
home, that I would dissolve my sorrow with hot tears on thy 
breast. Now tell me, where shall my grief be out-poured ? " 

Verse 77. virahammi tujjha dhariam dacchami 
tumain tti jiviam kaha vi mae, 
tarn esa mae dittho phalia vi manoraha 
na piirenti mahatp. 

dacchami 'I shall see,' also dacchirai and dacchani ; Saur. 
uses pekkhissam. kaha vi = A:ai/iam apt, kahaiii is commonef. 
Final anusvara in pronouns and adverbs tends to be optional. 
So maham = maha, esa = eso. esa is used freely, according to 
Hemacandra, for all genders, sa on the other hand is rare. 

"In separation from thee my life was barely stayed by the 
thought of seeing thee. Now I see thee thus, my desires 
though bearing fruit bring no satisfaction." 

Verse 78. Puhaviahohii pal bahu-purisa-visesa-cancala Raasiri, 
kaha ta maliain cia imam nlsamannain uatthiani 

Puhavl Earth,' Saur. Pudhavi, oblique forms in Ta are 
common in M. pal = pa/i7i. hohii " will be." 'ta = Vedic tat. 
uatthia (iipa + sthd). vehavvam ' widowhood.' 

"Of the Earth there will be a Lord. Royal Fortune is 
fickle with many distinguished men, so why falls absolute 
widowliood on me alone? " 

[Earth and Royal Fortune are regarded as the other wives 
of Rama. ' Absolute,' lit. having nothing in common (witli 
those other two).| 

Verse 79. Kim ea tti palattani visa-ummillehi loanehi a 
vialia-lajjae mae phudam Naiia tuha muham ti 


earn ti (Saur. edam ti) is more usual, palattam = *pralaptam. 
visa meaning visama ; reading should apparently be visani- 
ummilP. vialia (vi + gal), phuda § 38. parunnam (pra + rud) 
jjast. part, by analogy with bhid hhinna: chid, chinna, etc., 
Saur. rudida. 

" ' What is this 1 ' I cried, and looked with obliquely opened 
eyes, then casting modesty aside I shrieked. • Clearly it is 
thy face, my lord." 

Verse 80. Sahio tujjha vioo raani-arihi samaam sahihi va 
datthum tumani ti hottam jai ettahe vi jiviam 

vioo 'separation' § 9. vuttha,m = *vyustam ' dawned.' dat- 
thum =c^ra5/Mm. hottam = hontam pres. part, of hoi. ettahe 
(Comm, = iddnlm) cf , ettio so much ? *ettadrse *ettaise *ettahe 
of. Apa. taisa for tarisa and M. divaha for divasa. Hottam 
and vialantam are used in the sense of the conditional, cf. the 
Hindi usage, agar hota. 

" Separation from thee I endured with female demons as 
friends — it dawned with the stars as companions — were it 
onlj' to see thee, then would my life melt away." 

Verse 81. Jae paraloagae tumammi vavasaa-matta-suha- 
liarisa-chane vi mahara dajjhai adittha Dahamuha 
-vaham hiaam. 

matta = ma/ra commonly metta § 69. daddhavva = c?ras/a- 
vya. -chane Comm. — sthdne ; this should be (t)thane, or perhaps 
we should read harisa-cchane. chana = ^sa«a, but this gene- 
rally means 'festival,' 'moment' being khana (Pischel, 
§ 322). 

"Now that thou hast gone to the other world, and I may 
see thee with joy though only through tribulation, in place of 
that joy my heart burns, not to have seen the slaying of the 
Ten-Headed demon." 


Verse 82. Vaham na dharei muham asabandlio vi me na 
rumbhai hiaatp. 
navari a cintijjante na vinajjai kena jiviam sam- 

rumbhai means runaddhi {rudh forms rundhai) ; this is from 
a root *ruhh, analogous to Wbhhai = lihyate from a root *libh 
(Pischel §§ 266, 507). navari " tliereupon," some say from 
na pare, Pischel disputes this (P. § 184) : cf. iiavarani •* only." 
cintijjante pres. part. pass, vinajjai pass, (vi + jna). 

"My face bears no tear, even the bond of hope does not 
stay my heart, and when it is considered, it is not seen by 
what my life is restrained." 

Verse 83. Bolino maara-liaro majjha kaena maranam pi de 
nivvudham Naha tume ajja vi dharai akaannuaip 
maha hiaam. 

Bolino 'passed.' Form appears to be pres. part., cf. melina 
from melai (mil), maara-hara ' home of sea-monsters.* padi- 
vannam {prati + pad), akaannua cf. savvannu § G9. 

"For my sake thou didst cross the ocean and incur thy 
death. Thou hast gone my lord, and yet my ungrateful heart 

Verse 84. Uggahihi Rama tumam gune ganeiina purisa-maio 
tti jano. 
galia-maliila-sah avail! sanibhariiina a mamain niatti- 
liii kaham. 

uggahihi ' will sing.' ganeuna counting, gerund, niattiliii 
Fut. caus. (ni-^-vrl). bhariuna 'remembering' gerund from 
bharai; *mbharai *mhiirixi =smnrati Saur. sumaredi, sumaria. 
kaham ' story.' 

" Folk will sing of thee, Rama, counting thy virtues as of on*- 
nuvde of valour, and remembering me that missed a woman's 
nature they will change the story." 


Verse 85. Tuha banaukkhaa-nihaam dacehimmi Daha-kantha- 

muha-nihaam ti kaa, 
maha bhaadhea-valia vivara-hutta manoraha pal- 

ukkhaa for ukkhaa ' destroyed.' nihaa {ni + han). dacchimi 
or dacchami have better authority (see v. 77 above), nihaa 
- nighata. vivara = vi + pardn - hutta , Comm. = mukhd, this has 
the same meaning, but the form is like AMg. khutta for krtva 
■as with numerals (Pischel § 206) cf. AMg. ananta-khutta ' end- 
ess times, endless-ly ' ; k becomes kh becomes h, cf. iiihasa 
5519. palhattha, Comm. =paryasta 'upset,' but that would be 
pallattha (r assimilates y and becomes I), palhattha = *praA- 
lasta from root hlas — hras to diminish. 

" Those wishes of mine, that I might see Ten-necks with 
his faces smashed, destroyed and struck down by thy arrow, 
have gone awry reversed by destiny and come to nought.'-' 

Verse 86, Jam tanuammi vi virahe pema-bandhena sankai 
janassa jano. 
tarn jaaip navara iraaru peccliantie a tarisam maj- 
jha phalam. 
tanua ' short.' pema- =premd', pemma is commoner § 68. 
navara, Comm. =kevalam, means "only," cf. navari v. 82 
above, Pischel's objection (§ 184) to the derivation from na 
param 'no more,' i.e. that the anusvara appears to be secon- 
dary, is not conclusive. 

" What a body dreads through love of another, even in a 
tiny separation, such a dread result has come to pass for to 
me only gazing at this sight." 

Bk. XV. Verse 14. Happy return to Ayodhya. 

Ghettuna Janaatanaam kaiicana-latthim va hua-vahammi 

patto purim Raghuvai kaum Bharahassa sapphalam anu- 

Ghettuna ' taking ' cf . ghettuin § 136. latthi (Hindi latlii) the 
equation with yasti is curious. kaum = S'. Mg. kadum Saur. 


also has karidum. sapphalam, Comm. =saphalam, but this 
would be saphalam ( § 5) , rather = sai-phalam. 

" Taking Janaka's daughter, purified in the fire like a staff 
of gold, Raghupati arrived at the city, to give good fruits to 
Bharata's loving kindness — " 

Jain Maharastri.] Extract No. 15. 


[Jacobi's Selected Stories, No. IX.] 
Vennayade nay are ' Maiulio nama tunnao'^ para-davva-hara- 
na-pasatto c^si. so ya duttha-gando mi-tti jane pagasento 
janu-desena niccam eva adda'valeva littena baddha-vana- 
patto' raya-magge tunnaga-sippam uvajlvai. cakkamanto vi 
ya danda-dharienam paenam kilimmanto kahamci cakkamai.* 
rattim ca khattam khaniilna davvajayam ghettuna — nagara- 
sannihie ujjan'ega-dese bhumi-gharain tattha nikkiiivai.^ tat- 
tba ya se bhagini kannagil citthai. tassa bhilmi-gharassa 

1 Vennayada or Bennayada {Bernatada) a town in Western India. 
The letter y in this section represents the laghuprayalnayakara y not th« 
strong ^ {vide p. 9) nayara, hence in many modern names -nair, -net. 

2 tunnao or tunnago appears to mean a ' beggar ' with an implication 
of rascality-. Exact derivation uncertain, but evidently connected with 
tiirna a.s in turna-ga a ' swift goer.' pagasento pres. part, of pagasei 
" shows" (pra-^kaii). For k . g compare AMg. Asoga (§ 11). 

s duttha = duHa. gando has a variety of meanings in Sanskrit includ 
ing "cheek," "pimple," "rhinoceros"; for Prakrit Hemacandra gives 
vanam ('abundance'?) danda-pasiko M.W. 'policeman,' Jacobi. (for 
this passage) ' nightwatchman.' 'beggar'. (Probably slang). laghu- 
mrgo (?) and napitah • barber.' adda ' damp ' (ardra). avaleva ' ointment 
(ava + lip). litta 'smeared.' vana 'wound' (vrana). -patta 'bandage' 
whence pattika modern patti. This context suggests that dutthagando 
is bahuvrihi ami means ' one with a bad boil.' Tho trick is still familiar 

* cakivamai ■ goos in circles,' 'wanders.' pacna ■ witli his foot.' Kiliui 
manto pres. part, kilimmai ' gets weary ' (klam). 

f> khattam ' hole.' -jaya (;5/a) "quantity." -sannihie 'in tlie vicin- 
ity' (sam-^nidha). egadesa "portion," cf. § 11. 


majjhe kuvo. jain ca so coro davvena palobheuin ' sahayain 
davva-vodharam anei, tain sa se bhagim agada-sanaive puvva- 
natth'-asane nivesium paya-soya-lakkbena pile genhiuna tainmi 
kuvae pakkhivai.^ tao so vivajjai.^ evani kalo vaccai* naya- 
ram ipusantassa. cora-ggaha tam iia sakkenti genhiuiii tao 
nayare bahu-ravo jao.^ tattha ya Muladevo raya puvva- 
bhaniya-vilifinena jao.'' kahio ya tassa paurehitn takkara- 
vaiyaro, jaha : ettha nayare pabhuya-kalo musantassa vattai 
kassai takkarassa, na ya tirai kenai genhium.'' ta kareu 
kirppi uvayani. tahe so annam nagar'arakkhiyam tbavei, so 
vi na sakkai coram genliiuni. tahe Miiladevo sayam nila- 
padam pauniuna rettim niggato.** Muladevo anajjanto egae 
sabhae nivanno acchai Java, so Mandiya-coro agantum bhanai : 
ko ettha acchai ? ** Muladevena bhaniyam : aham kappadio 
tena bhannai : ehi, manusam karemi.'" Muladevo utthio. 
egammi isara-ghare khattam khayain." su-vahum davva-jayaiu 
nineuna Muladevassa uvariin cadaviyam.''^ payatta nayara- 

' palobheum from palobhei "entices, allures" causal (pra -\- lubh) ; 
form infin. used as gerund. 

=^ agada Pkt. word "well," •'spring." nattha 'placed' (nyasta). 
nivesium gerund of causal (ni-k-vis). soya ' washing' {-^auca). 

3 vivajjaii "perishes" {vi->rpad). 

* vaccai "goes, passes," generally referred to vraj (a case of c for j). 
but Pischel thinks possibly from vratya so = " tramps " ; *vrtyate would 
be a simpler explanation, (cf. Pischel, Gr. § 202) H. bacna. 

6 Sakkenti. From sak either sakkei or sakkai. 

6 -vihana ' manner " {vi dha). 

T -vaiyaro ' story ' [vyatikara). kassai (kasya +api). tirai pass, from tf. 
• is accomplished.' 

■^ pauniuna ' putting on ' (pra+v?) paunomi, p.p p. paunia. 

^ anajjanto 'unknown' pres. part, of najjai ' is known ' pass. Una), 
niv&nno {m+ pad), acchai 'stays' §60. Pischel refers to _rcc/ia<i (Gr 
§ 480. He quotes the other theories), aganturn gerund. 

''^ kappadio • pilgrim,' karpatika. bhannai pass, of bhanai. 
' ' isara ' rich man. ' 

'*' cadavia past part. cans, from cadai which Hemacandra represents by 
a + rw/i. (cf. H. cafh-na). suvahum = subahum. 


vahiriyam.' Muladevo purao, coro asimi kaddhiena'^ pitthao 
ei. sampatta bhumi-gharam. coro tarn davvam nihanium ■ 
araddho. bhaniya ya nena bhagini : eyassa pahunayassa * 
paya-soyaiii dehi ! tae kuva-tada- ^ -sannivitthe asane nivesien 
tae paya-soya lakkhena pao gahio, kuve chuhami-tti.^ Java 
ativa sukumara paya, tae nayam, jah' : esa koi anubhuya- 
puvv^a-rajjo vihaliy'ango.'' tie anukampa jaya. tao tae paya- 
tale sannio : nassa-tti ma marijjihisi-tti. paccha so palao. 
tae volo kao: ^ nattho nattho-tti. so-y-asim kaddhiuna magge 
olaggo * Muladevo raya-pahe aisannikittham nauna caccara- 
siv'antario thio.''^ coro tain siva-lingam, esa puriso-tti kauin 
kankamaena asina duha-kaum" padiniyatto gao bhumi-glia- 
ram. tattha vasluna pahayae rayanle tao niggantuna gao 
bahim. antar'avane tunnagattaiii karei. raina purisehini 
saddavio.'^ teiia cintiyam, jalia : so puriso nunam na mario, 
avassani ca esa raya bhavissai-tti. tehini purisehini anio. 
raina abbhuttlianena puio asane nivesavio,''^ su-vahum ca 

' payatta =pravrltah. vahiriya=bahiriya " outside." 
i kaddhia 'drawn' from kaddhai (H. 4. lS7=krs) : krsta could give 
*kattha thence *kaddha. 

'^ nihanium ' to bury' {ni kJian). 

* pahunaya 'guest' (praghurna). 

* tada ' edge.' 

6 chuhai or chiibhai -'throws." Heraacahdra = A.->//j : ratlier from 
ksubh cognate with EngHsh " shove." 

"^ vihaliya {vihvalita) ' trembling.' 

8 sannio (samjhitah) ' made a sign.' marijjai pass, of marei " kills." 
palao 'fled' past part, of palayai 'flees.' volo=bolo «a cry' in M. 
bolo = ' speech ' cf. modern bolna. 

"^ so-y-a.sim 'and he' (drawing his) 'sword' or y is merely a sandhi 
con.sonant. olaggo ' followed ' means anulagna, but the form is ava or apci 

'0 ai-sannikittham=a<t-sam-nifc/-.;'(a?n. eaccara • squaro " (catvara) Ti-s- 
chel. S 299. antario ' hidden.' 

II kankamaa * shaped like a herons beak.' dnhS kiiiun ' luiving split ' 
{dvidha krtva). 

1* avana ' market.' saddSvio (sahdupitah). 

\^ nivesavio past part, of nivesavei fuUor form of nivosei. 


piyam abhasio samlatto: mama bhaginim dehi-tti. tena 
dinna, vivahiya raina. bhoga ya se sarnpadatta. ' kaisuvi'^ 
dinesu gaesu raina Mandio bhanio : davvena kajjam-ti. tena 
su-vahuin davva-jayani dinnam. raina sarapujio. annaya 
puno maggio ; puno vi dinnam. tassa ya corassa ativa sakkara 
sammanam paiinjai.'' eena pagarena savvam davvam dava- 
v^io.* bhaginim se pucchai ; tie bhannati : ettiya mceva 
vittarn. tao puvv'aveiya-lekkhanusarena^ savvam davvam 
davaveuna Mandio siilae arovio. 


In the town Bernatada there lived a beggar named Mandio 
addicted to taking other people's property. He used to practise 
the beggar's art on tlie high-road, tied up in bandages, with 
a smear of grease, kept always wet, about his knee, to show 
that he suffered from a virulent sore. Mouching wearily 
around with his foot supported on a crutch he wandered at 
random. And at night he would dig a hole (in a walli and 
taking a lot of property -to a baoli in a corner of a garden 
near the town — would bury it there. And there lived his 
unmarried sister. In the middle of that baoli, there was a 
well. Anybody the thief brought with him to Ccxrry his loot, 
having allured him therewith, the sister would have sit down 
on a seat previously arranged at the edge of the spring, and 
then, taking hold of his feet on the pretence of washing them, 
she would tip him into the well. And so he perished. Thus 
time went on while he robbed the town. The thief-catchers 
were unable to catch him, and a great noise about it arose in 
the town. 

Now Miiladeva had become king there in the manner re- 
lated above. The citizens told him about the thief; that a 

' sarnpadatta (sam+pra+da). se ' on her.' 

* kaisuvi {katisu + api). 

3 sakkara ' favour." paunjai ' employs' (pra+yui). 

♦ pagara ' manner' {prakara). davavio past. part. eaus. da. 
^ aveia past part, of aveei causal (a + vid) lekkha ' list ' 


certain thief had been for some time robbing the town, and 
that nobody had succeeded in catching him— so he should 
devise some remedy. Thereupon he appoints another superin- 
tendent of the town police. He also is unable to catch the 
thief. Then Muladeva himself put on a dark cloak and went 
out one night. Miiladeva goes and lies down incognito in a 
certain hall and stays there. The thief Mandio comes and 
says, 'Who is it stopping here?' Muladeva said, 'I ani a 
pilgrim.' The other said, 'Come I will make a man of 3'ou 
Muladeva got up A hole was cut in a certain rich man's 
house. He 1 00k out a great quantity of plunder and piled 
it up on Muladeva. They set out for the outskirts of the 
town. Muladeva goes in front, the thief comes up behind 
with a drawn sword. They came to the baoli. The thief set 
to work to bury the loot, and he said to his sister, ' Wash 
the feet of this guest ' ; she set him on the seat placed on the 
edge of the well, and took hold of one of his feet as if to wash 
it, meaning to shove him into the well. As his feet were very 
deUcate she perceived that this was some one who had enjoyed 
royalty and had sensitive limbs. She took pity on him, and 
made a sign on the surface of his foot. "Flee, lest you be 
slain." After that he made his escape. She raised a cry — 
"He's fled, he's fled," and the other drew his sword and 
pursued him down the road. Muladeva finding lie was very 
close to him on the highway, stood hidden behind a lingam in 
a square. The thief mistook this Siva's lingam for a man, 
split it in two with his heron-bill sword, and went back to his 
baoli. He stayed there till the night grew light ; and then he 
came out and went abroad. He plays the beggar in the mar- 
ket-place. The king sent men to summon him. He thought 
to himself, "so that fellow was not killed, and no doubt he 
will turn out to be the king." 

The king rose to greet him, and made him take a seat. 
After several friendly remarks the king said to him, ' Give me 
your sister.' He gave her, and the king married her. Wealtli 
was bestowed upon her. 


When a few days liad passed, the king said to Mandio, ' I 
need some treasure.' So he gave him a good quantity. The 
king honoured him. Then again he asked, and again it was 
given. He lavishes the greatest favour and consideration on 
the thief. In this way he made him give all his wealth. He 
asks his sister. She said, he had just so much property. 
Then he caused all this wealth to be given away according to a 
list previously announced, and Mandio he had impaled. 

Jain Maharastri.] Extract No. 16. 


[Jacobi's No. V.] 
Sampai Dummuha-cariyam.' atthi ih' eva Bliarahe vase 
Kampillani nama puram. tattha Hari-kula-vamsa-sambhavo 
Jao nama raya, tassa Gunamala nama bhariya. so ya raya 
tie saha rajja-sirim anuhavanto gamei kalam. annaya atthana- 
mandava-tthiena pucchio diio:^ kim n'althi mama, jam anna- 
rainam atthi ? diiena bhaniyam : deva, citta-sabha tumha 
n'atthi. tao raina anatta thavaino,^ jaha : lahum citta-sabhain 
kareha! aesananantarara samadhatta.* tattha dharanie khan- 
namanie kammagarehira ^ pancama-dine savva-rayanamao jal- 
ano-vva teyasa jalanto dittho maha-maudo, sa-harisehim 
sittho^ Jaya-raino. tena vi parituttha-manenam nandl-rava- 
puvvayam uttario bhumi-vivarao. piiiya thavai-m-aino'' 
jaha'riha-vattha-m-aihim. theva-kalena^ vi nimmaya uttunga- 

' Sampai " now" (samprati). Dummuha=Do-muha ' two-faces.' 

2 atthana ' audience hall' {a-\-stha). dQo ' envoy.' 

3 anatta ' commanded ' (a+jfia) § 125. thavai ' architect ' (sthapati). 

♦ samadhatta ' begun' past pass. part. {sam-\-a-¥dha) for dha becomes 
dha, compare § 7. The derivation from arabdha is quite impossible. 

6 dharanie khannamanie ' during the excavations.' kammagara 
' workman,' cf. Asoga. 

6 sittho • told' p. p. p. of sahai (b'ista *sasati) § 125. 

1 thavai-m-aino ' the architects, etc' -m- is a sandhi consonant. 

■i theva 'little' (Pali theva) ^stip ' drop.' 


sihara citta-sabha. sohana-dine kao citta-sabliae paveso. 
Arovio mansfala-tura-saddena' appano uttim'ange maudo. 
tap-pabhaveiia do-vayano so raya jao. loena^ tassa Domuho- 
tti naraaiii kayani. 

aikkanto koi kalo. tassa ya raino satta tanaya jaya. duhiya 
me n'atthi-tti Gunamala addhiim' karei. Mayana'bhihanassa 
jakkhassa icchai uvaiyaip.* annaya ya pariyaya-manjari- 
uvalambha-suvina-suiya tise duhiya jaya. kayam ca vaddha- 
vanayam.* dinnam jakkhassa uvaiyatp. kayani ca tie namain 
Mayanamanjarl. kamena ya jaya jovvan'attha. 

io 3'a Ujjeiile Candapajjoya-raya. tassa duena sahiyani, 
jaha: raya domuho jao. Pajjoena bhaniyam : kaham ? duena 
bhaniyam : tassa eriso maudo atthi ; tammi arovie do muhani 
havanti. maudass' uvarim Pajjoyassa lobho jao. duj'ani 
Domuha-raino pesei : ^ eyam mauda-rayanam mama pesehi ! 
aha na pesesi, jujjha-sajjo'' hohi ! Domuha-raina duo bhanio 
Pajjoya-santio : jai mama jam maggiyam deha, to aham avi 
maudam demi. duena. bhaniyam: kim maggaha? raina 
bhaniyam : 

deha: Nalagiri hatthi Aggibhirii taha raha-varo ya i 

Jaya ya Siva devi leh'ariya Lohajangho ya il 

e5''am Pajjoyassa rajja-siram. pacligao duo Ujjenini. sa- 
hiyam Pajjoyassa Domuha-santiyaiii padivayanam. kuddho^ 
aiva Pajjoo, calio caurariga-balena : donni lakkhii mayaga- 
lanam," donni sahassa rahanam, panca ajuyani hayanam, 

1 tura * musical instrument.' 

* loena ' by the people ' § 0. 

■^ addhii " care, anxiety." {adhrti.) 

♦jakkhassa 'to a demon.' icchai 'promises.' uvaiyam 'offering' 

^ suiya 'revealed' {sue). Satir. suida. suvina 'dream.' pHriyaya= 
parijata " coral tree." vaddhavanayam ' l)irth leremonj- " i^ardhapana. 

6 pesei ' he sends.' 

■? jujjha-sajjo * ready for battle.' 

8 knddho " wroth." 

" mayagala 'elephant' {madakala). 


satta koflio payai ' jananam. anavaraya^ -payanaeliiin patto 
Pancala-janavaya-sandhim. iyaro vi Domuha-raya cauranga 
bala-samaggo '' nihario nayarao. gao padisammuham Pajjoy- 
assa. Paficala-visaya-sandhie raio garuda-vuho * Pajjoena, 
sagara-vuho Domuhena. tao sampalaggam donha vi balana 
jujjhain. so mauda-rayana-pahavena ajeo ^ Domuharaya. 
bhaggam*' Pajjoyassa balam. bandhiuna Pajjoo pavesio 
nayaram. dinnam calane kadayam.'^ suhena tattha Pajjoya- 
-rairio vaccai kalo. 

annaya dittha tena Mayanamanjari. jao gadha'nurao. tao 
kam'aggina dajjhamanassa cinta-samtava-gayassa voliya* 
kahavi rai. paccuse ya gao atthanarp. dittho parimilana- 
muha-sariro Domuha-raina ; puochio sarira-pauttim, na dei 
padivayanam. s'asankena yagadhayaram puttho. tao diham 
nisasiuna jampiyam ** Pajjoena : 

Mayana-vasa-gasaa, nara-vara vahi-vighatthassa '° taha ya 

mattassa i 
kuviyassa marantassa ya lajja durujjhiya hoi ti ' ' [eyam i 

ta jai icchasi kusalam payaccha to JVlayanamanjarim 

niya-dhuyam '^ me nara-vara na desi pavisami jalanammi II 

tao Domuhena nicchayam nauna dinna. sohana-dina- mu- 
hutte kayam paniggahanam. kaivaya-dinehim dhario,^^ 
puiiina visajjio, gao Ujjenim Pajjoo. 

' payai ' footsoldier ' (padati). 

2 anavaraya ' incessant.' 

3 samaggo ' complete.' 

* v&io=zracito. vuha ' order of battle' {vyuha). 

■' ajeo ' invincible.' 

•i bhaggam ' broken.' 

'7 kadaya ' fetter ' (kataka). 

8 dajjhamana 'being consumed.' voliya 'passed,' cf. bolei. 

y nisasivina ' sighing.' jampiyam {jalpitam) § 37. 
'0 vahi ' illness ' (vyadhi). vighattha * consumed' (vi + ghas). 
'I kuvia ' angry.' dur-ujjhiya ' left far behind.' 

'2 dhOyarn 'daughter,' dhuya=:I\l. dhiaa S.Mg. dhuda =*dhuta from 
*dhukta (Pischel, § 65). 
'3 dhario ' waited ' {dhr). 



annaya agao Inda-mahusavo. Domuha-raina aittha ' naya- 
ra-jana: ubbheha indakeum ■' ! tao mangala-nandi-maharavena 
dhavala-dhaya-vadaho doya-khiukliinl-jala'lamkio^ avalam 
biya-vara-malla-damo mani-rayana-mala-bhusio nanaviha-pa- 
lambamana-phala-nivaha-ciiicaio * ubbhio indakeu. tao nac- 
canti nattiyao, gijjanti^ sukai-raiya kavva-bandha, naccanti 
nara-samghaya, disanti ditthi-raohanaim indayalfiiip, in- 
dayalino'' ya dijjanti tamboraira ; khippanti kappura-kun- 
kuma-jala-chada, dijjanti maha-danaim, vajjanti muiiigai- 
aojjaim.^ evara raaha-moena gaya satta vasara. agaya 
punnima. puio maha-vicchaddena "^ kusuma-vatth'alhiip Do- 
muha-raina indakeu. maha-tiira-ravena annammi dine padio 
meinle. dittho raina amejjha-mutta-duggandhe nivadio janena 
pariluppamano ya.* datthiina cintiyam : dhir-atthu vijju-'" 
reha-vva cancalanara parinama-virasanam riddhinam. eyain 
cintayanto saqabuddho, patteyabuddho " jao. paiica-rautthi- 
yara loyam kaiina pavvaio."^ uktam ca : 

' aittha ' commanded ' {a-^-dis). 

2 ubbheha 'erect' imperat. from ubbhei 'erects' from ubbha = 
urdhva (also uddha uddha). For dhv becomes bbh compare dv l>ecomes 
bb. barasa * twelve '^(dvadasa). -keum ' banner.' 

3 dhaya=dftva;'Gt. vadaho {-pataka). doya " daruhasta" ': 'clapper.' 
* cincaio ' adorned,' Pkt. root. 

f" gijjanti ' are sung' § 135. 
6 indayalino ' magicians.' 

T khippanti pass, of khivai ' throws ' § 135. chada ' abundance (chata). 
vajjanti "are sounded" (vadyante). muihga 'drum.' aojja "musical 
instrument " atodya. 

8 vicchadda 'liberality' (vi-^chrd). 

w araejjha * impurity' (amedAj/a), mutta=mMtra, pariluppamana ' being 

'0 vijju "lightning." 

'I patteya-buddho=pratyeka-buddho one who obtains enlightenment 
all alone. By analogy with pacciisa, etc., one might expect *pa(oeya (cf. 
Pali pacceko). 

Pischel (Civ. § 28 1 ) explains patte^a in this phrase, patteyam ( = " pra- 
tyekam") and patti in M. pattiaT AMg. pattij'ai 6. IMg. pattiaadi = 
" pratiyaW as being derived not from prati but from *parn'i 
*parti, and compares Greek porti beside the ordinary proti. 
'* mutthiya ' handful.' pavvaio * lie entered the Order ' {pra-^vraj). 


jo indakeu suyalamkiyam tain datthum padantani pavi- 

riddhim ariddhiin samupehiyanani Pancala-raya vi saraik- 

kha ' dhammatn i 

[Now comes the story of Double-face.] 

In this land of Bharata there is a town called Kampilla. 
There was a raja named Jaya born of the lineage of Hari. His 
wife was Gunamala. And he passed the time together with her 
enjoying his royal fortune. One day in the pavilion of the 
audience hall he asked an envoy. "What do I lack, that 
other kings have? " The envoy said, " Your Highness has no 
picture-gallery." Then the raja commanded his architects, 
saying, ' Quickly build a picture-gallery.' They started work 
immediately on the command. While the excavations for this 
work were going on, the workmen found on the fifth day a 
great diadem of all sorts of gems flashing with brilliance like 
fire, and in great glee reported this to Raja Jaya. He was 
very pleased, and had it taken out of the hole in the ground, 
after the recitation of a blessing. The architects and the rest 
were honoured with appropriate robes and the like. In a very 
short time a picture gallery with lofty pinnacles was com- 
pleted. On an auspicious day came the opening ceremony. 
To the sound of happy music the raja placed the diadem on 
his head, and so shone with the light of a double countenance. 
So the people dubbed him " Double- face." 

Some time passed, and there were born to the raja seven 
sons. Gunamala grieved that she had no daughter, and 
promised an offering to a demon named Mayana. And then 
was born a daughter revealed to her in a dream of conceiving 
a cluster of the Coral Tree. The birth ceremony was per- 

1 samupehiyanam gerund («am +!«<-♦- prefes) shortened for samuppe — to 
scan. This verse is in AMg. quoted from Sva^yaka niryukti 17. 44. 
samikkha " aamlksate" i.e. for samikkhai which is regularly contracted 
in AMg. verse to samikkhe, but this would not scan here. 


formed, and the offering given to the demon. They named 
the baby Mayana Manjarl, and in course of time she grew to 
maid's estate. • 

Now iiing Candra-Pradyota of Ujjain was told by an envoy 
that the raja had become double-faced. "How?" asked 
Pradyota. The envoy said, "He has such a diadem, on 
putting it on he has two faces." Pradyota was filled with 
desire for that diadem. He sent a messenger to King Domuha, 
" Send me that jewel of a diadem ! If you don't send it, pre- 
pare for battle." King Domuha said to Pradyota's messenger, 
'•If you give me what I ask, I will give the diadem." The 
messenger said, "What are you asking? " The raja said, 
" Give me — there's the elephant Nalagirl, and the excellent 
chariot Agnibhiru, and the consort Queen S'iva, and the writer 

This was the cream of Pradyota's kingdom. The messenger 
returned to Ujjain, and told Pradyota Domuha's answer. 
Pradyota was exceedingly angry and set out with an army 
of the four arms : two lakhs of elephants, two thousand chariots, 
fifty thousand horse, and seven krores of footsoldiers. He 
reached the frontier of the Paiicala country by forced marches. 
King Domuha on the other side came out of the city with all 
his army, and went to meet Pradyota. On the Paiicala frontier 
Pradyota took up the " Garuda " formation, and Doubleface 
the " Ocean " order. Then both forces joined issue. Through 
the puissance of that jewel of a diadem Doubleface was invin- 
cible. Pradyota's force was broken. Pradyota was bound and 
brought into the city. A ring was fixed on his foot. And 
there king Pradyota quietly passed his days. 

One day he saw Mayana-maiijari. He became deeply en- 
amoured. Then consumed with the fire of love, and fallen 
into a fever of thought he passed the night as best he could. 
King- Domuha noticed his pale face and emaciated form, and 
asked what ailed him. He gave no answer. He was anxiously 
questioned more closely. Then witli a deep sigh Pradyota 
quoted — 


" The man in the power of Love, good sir, the man that is 
drunk or consumed by disease, he that's wroth, and he that is 
on the point of death — has left modesty far behind. So if you 
wish your own good, vouchsafe me this Mayanamafijari : if you 
give me not your own daughter, good sir, I shall enter the 

So Domuha, perceiving his determination, gave her to him. 
The wedding was celebrated on an auspicious day and hour. 
After staying some days Pradyota, having paid his respects 
and taken his departure, went to Ujjain. 

One day there came the Great Indra Festival. Domuha 
instructed the citizens to raise an Indra Banner. Then the 
Banner was erected with a great roar of auspicious blessings, 
with white pennons and flags, adorned with a chain of bells and 
their clappers, hung with fine festoons, decorated with strings 
of jewels and gems, and laden with an abundant variety 
of pendent fruits. Then the dancers danced ; poems composed 
by good poets were sung, crowds of people danced, dazzling 
illusions are shown, and the magicians are given betel and the 
like. Quantities of camphor, saffron and water are thrown 
in the air, masses of alms are given away, the bands crash with 
drums and the rest. Thus in great delight pass seven days. 
The full-moon came. King Domuha honoured the Indra-Banner 
with great liberality, with flowers, robes and the like. On 
another day with a great roar of music down it fell on the 
ground. The king saw it fallen in a place foul with dung and 
dirty water, and plundered by the people. Seeing this he 
reflected — " Out on the pomps of this world fleeting as a flash 
of lightning, ending in disgust! " As he thought thus he was 
enlightened, and became a Pratyeka-Buddha. Regarding the 
world as but five fist-fulls he entered the Order. 'Tis said : 

" What was an Indra-Banner, that he saw adorned, but fallen 

and plundered. 
*' And perceiving the pomp that was no pomp, Pancala's king 

discovered the Law." 


Jain Maharastri] Extract No. 17. 

From an inscription found near Ghatayala, a village situated 
about twenty miles north of the city of Jodhpur. Text and 
translation published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society 1895, Vol. 27, p. 513. The inscription is dated 
Sarnvat 918. This probably refers to the Vikrama era, and 
is equivalent to about 861 a.d. It records that a chief named 
Kakkuka founded a Jain temple, estabhshed a market, and 
erected two pillars. 

0(11. Saggapavagga-maggara padhamani sayalana karanain 

devaiii I 
nisesa-duria-dalanam parama-gurum namaha Jina-nahain ii 1. 
Rahu-tilao padiharo asT Siri-Lakkhano tti Ramassa i 
tena Padihara-vanso samunnaim ettha sampatton 2. 
vippo Hariando bhajja asi tti khattia Bhadda i 
tana suo uppanno viro Siri-Rajjilo ettha ii 3. 
assa vi Narahada namo jao Siri-Nahado tti eassa i 
assa vi tanao Tao, tassa vi Jasa-vaddhano jao. ii 4. 
assa vi Candua-namo uppanno Silluo vi eassa i 
Jhoto tti tassa tanuo, assa vi Siri-Bhilluo cain 5. 
Siri-Bhilluassa tanuo Siri-Kakko guru-gunehi garavio 
assa vi Kakkua-namo Dullahadevie uppanno ii 6. 
Isiviasaiii hasiam, raahuram bhaniam, paloiam sommaiii 
namayam jassa na dinara ro[so] theo, thira metti li 7. 
no jampiam, na hasiam, na kayaip, nu paloiam, na samblia- 

riarn i 
na thiani, na paribbhamiam, jena jane kajja-parihlnani II 8. 
suttha duttha vi paya ahama taha uttima vi sokkhena t 
janani vva jena dharia niccam niya-mandale sawa ii 9. 
uaroha-raa-macchara-lohehim i naya-vajjiam jena i 
na kao donha viseso vavahare kavi ' manayam pi i 10. 
diavara-dinnanujjam jena janam ranjiuna sayalam pi 
nimmaccharena Janiam dutthana vi danda-nitthavanani ii 11. 

I Read kori or kahai'i. 


dhaiia-riddha-samiddhana vi pauranam niakarassaabbhahiani | 
lakkhani sayanca sarisantananca taha jena ditthaim ii 12. 
nava-jovvana-ri3a-pasahiena singara-guna-garukkena < 
iana-vaya-nijja-malajjani jena jane neya sancariamii 13. 
balana guru tarunana taha sahi gayavayana tanao vva i 
iya-sucariehi niccaip jena jano palio savvoll 14. 
jena namantena saya saiumanam gunathuim kunantena I 
jampantena ya laliani dinnam panaina dhana-nivahamll 15. 
Marumada-Valla-Tamani-panawM-a^Ya-Gujjarattasu i 
janio jena jananam sac caria-gunehim anuraoii 16. 
gahiuna gohanaira, girimrai jalau[la]o pallio i 
janiao jena visame Vadananaya-mandale payadamil 17. 
niluppula-dala-gandlia ratnma mayanda mahua-vindehim t 
vara-icchu-panna-cchanna esa bhumi kaya jena II 18. 
varisa-saesu a navasum attharasam'aggalesu Cettammi i 
nakkhatte vihu-hatthe Buliavare dhavala-blae il 19. 
siri-Kakkuena hattain mahajanam vippa-payai-vani-bahulaip i 
Rohinsakua-game nivesiam kitti-viddhiell 20. 
Maddoarammi ekko, bio Rohinsakua-gamammi i 
Jena jasassa va punja ee tthambha samutthavia || 21. 
tena siri-Kakkuenam Jinassa devassa duria-niddalanam | 
karaviam acalam imam bhavanam bhattie suha-janayaraii 22, 
appiam earn bhavanam siddhassa Dhanesarassa gacchammii 
taha santa-Jamba Ambaya-vani-Bhauda-pamuha-gotthieii 23. 

Notes. — Verse 1. Apavagga ' final beatitude ' (apa + vrj). ni- 
sesa ' all ' {nihissa) § 63. durita ' sin.' 

V. 2. -padiharo ' doorkeeper.' or name of clan, vanso, better 
spelling vamso, 

V. 3. bhajja 'wife' § 50. 

V. 5. Inscription has -nama a mistake for -namo as in the next 
verse, cai 'generous' { — tydgt) cf. AMg. catta = 
tyakta. § 44. ? 119. garavio means gauravitah 
' highly esteemed ' cf . M. AMg J.M. garava for M. S*. 
gorava { = gaurava) : Pali garu ; Skt. gariyas. 

V. 7. namayam perhaps corrected to namiyam ' meekness.' 
theo = thevo ' little.' 


V. 9. ipsiya = prajdh, niya = m?o. 

V. 10. uaroa ' favour ' or ' ill-will, obstructiveness ' {upa + rudh). 
macchara ' envy ' cf . vaccha § 39. i = iti. In AMg. 
ti after a long vowel becomes i (Pischel § 93). In 
JM. — im pi is more usual. 

V. 11. dia 'twice-born,' § 42. nitthavanam 'infliction' 
{nih + sthdpanam) for short vowel cf. thavei = .s^M- 
payati. § 67. 

V. 12. paura = S'. pora (=paura) § 61. ahhha,hia,rn = abhyadhi- 
kam. Kielhorn suggested sarisattananca. = *sa- 
drsatvanam ca ; -ttana = vedic -ivana is common 
instead of -tva. (His translation of this verse is ten- 
tative and he notes that the wording of the original 
may be wrong.) 

V. 13. garukka 'heavy with,' 'full of =*garukya cf. Pali 
garu ; Skt. guruka (Pischel § 299). janavaya = yana- 
pada. nijja = wedya ' to be blamed.' neya = waii"a. 

V. 14. gaya-vaya 'aged ' { = gata-vayas) iysb, JM. AMg. =iti. 

V . 1 5. saya = sadd. panai = pranayin. 

V. 16. Marumadaprob. =Marwar. Gujjara = (zwr^'ara ' Gujar.' 
Here we have an older form of the modern ' Gujerat.' 
-parianka ajja has not been explained. 

V. 17. gohana 'herd,' ^o-c?)^wa. palli ' hamlet.' jalaula = ;va- 
Idkula, payadam =prakatam, M. paada AMg. pagada. 

V. 18. ma\'anda ' mango tree ' {mdkanda). 

V. 19. aggala { = argala) used technically in dates, see Indian 
Antiquary, vol. xix, p. 61, note 52. vihu ' moon.' 
hattha = Hasta the constellation, bia 'second,' 
AMg. JM. biya biiya. 

V.20. mahajanam as an adjective 'for merchants.' payai 
' foot soldier,' also payai (padati). 

V. 23. appiam (arpi7a). gaccha ' series,' 'lineage,' i.e. 'school.' 
gotthi ' society.' 

Translation.^ — Om ! Bow to the lord of tlie Jinas. wlio is tlie 

I Follows what is apparently Kielhorn's. J.R.A.S. quoted above. 


path to Ilea veil and beatitude, the god who is the 

first cause of all things, the destroyer of every sin, 

the supreme preceptor. 
V. 2. The glorious Laksmana, the ornament oftheRaghus, 

was Rama's doorkeeper ; hence the Pratihara clan has 

attained here to eminence. 
V. 3. There was a Brahman named Haricandra ; his wife was 

Bhadrd of the Kshatriya caste. To them a valiant 

son was born, named Rajjila. 
V. 4. To him, again, Narabhata was born, and to him Nahada 

{=Ndgabkata) ; his son was Tata, and his son, Yaio- 

V. 5. To him Canduka was born, and to him S'ilhika ; his 

son was Jhoto, and his, the generous Bhilluka. 
V. 6. Bhilluka^ s son was Kakko highly esteemed for his noble 

qualities; and to him was born from Durlabhadem, 

V. 7. His smile is [like a] slightly opening [flower-bud], his 

speech sweet, his glance benign, his meekness not 

timid, his anger slight, his friendship firm. 
V. 8. He never has spoken, or smiled, or acted, or looked, or 

remembered a thing, without benefiting mankind. 
V. 9. Like a mother he constantly has kept in comfort all 

the people in his dominion, the poor and the pros- 
perous, the lowest as well as the highest. 
V. 10. And never has he, departing from what was right, 

through favour, affection, envy, or greed, made the 

slightest difference between the parties in a suit.' 
V. 11. Following the advice given by the best of the twice-born, 

he has pleased everybody, and free from passion has 

also caused punishment to be inflicted on the wicked. 
V. 12. Even to citizens possessed of abundance of wealth he 

has assigned more than his revenue (?), a lakh and a 

hundred and the like (?)* 

' K. " transaction." * "As much as was suitable (?) " 


V. 13. Though adorned with the freshness of youth and 
beauty, and full of the sentiment of love, he never 
has behaved to people so as to incur men's re- 
proaches, or witliout modesty. 

V. 14. To children like a guru, to young men like a friend, 
and to the aged like a son, by such good conduct has 
he constantly cherished everyone. 

V. 15. Always showing respect with politeness, praising virtues, 
and speaking pleasantly he has given an abundance 
of wealth to those attached to him. 

V. 16. By his good behaviour and virtues he has won the 
affection of the people in Marumada, Valla, Tamani, 
....(?) and Gujarat. 

V. 17. He has taken away the herds of cattle and has made 
a conspicuous illumination ' of the villages on the 
mountain in the rugged Vatananaka district. 

V. 18. This land he has made fragrant with the leaves of blue 
lotuses, and"pleasant with groups of mango and ma- 
dhuka trees and has covered it with the leaves of 
excellent sugar-cane. 

Vv. 19 and 20. And when nine hundred years were increased 
by the eighteenth, in Caitra, when the moon's 
nakshatra was Hasta, on Wednesday, the second 
lunar day of the bright half, the illustrious Kakkuka, 
for the increase of his fame, founded a market, fit 
for traders, crowded with Brahmans, soldiers, and 
merchants at the village of Rohinsakupa. 

V.21. He has erected like heaps of his renown these two 
pillars, one at Maddoara, and another at the village 
of Rohinsakupa 

V. 22. This illustrious Kakkuka piously has caused to be built 
this imperishable temple of the god Jina, which des- 
troys sin and creates happiness. 

I Iv. " has boldly destroyed by Hre." 


V. 23. And he has entrusted this temple to the community 
presided over by the ascetics Jamba and Arabaya (?) 
and the merchant Bhakuta (?) in the gaccha of the 
holy Dhane&vara. 

Jain Maharastri. Extract No. 18. 

From story of Kalakacarya. Jacobi Z.D.M.G. Vol. 34 
(1880), p. 262. 

Failing to influence Gandabhilla the wicked King of Ujjain, 
who had the nun Sarasvati conveyed into his harem, and then 
refused to give her up, Kalakacarya, the saintly brother of 
the nun, went abroad to contrive Gandabhilla's overthrow. 

tara ca kuo vi nauna niggao nayario silri, anavarayam ca 
gacchanto patto Saga-ktilam nama killam.i tattha je sa- 
manta, te Sahino bhannanti ; jo samanta-'hivai sayala narin- 
da-vanda-cudamani so Sahanusahi bhannai.^ tao Kalaga-siiri 
thio egassa sahino samive, avajjio^ ya so manta-tantalhim. 
io ya annaya kayai* tassa Sahino siiri-samanniyassa harisa- 
bhara-nibbharassa nanaviha-vinoehira cetthamanassa^ samagao 
padiharo, vinnattam ca tena, jaha: " sami ! Sahanusahi-duo 
duvare citthai." Sahina bhaniyara : " lahum pavesehi." 
pavesio ya vayanena antaram eva nisanno ya dinnasane. tao 
duena samappiyam uvayanam^ tam ca datthiiria nava-pausa^- 
kala-nahayalam va andhariyam vayanam Sahina. tao 

' kuo vi ^=kuto'pi. nauna ^jna, JM. usually does not cerebi-alise initial 
n. Saga-kula ' the shore (land) of the Sakas ' for the form cf. Asoga. 

2 ahivai "overlord" Sahi-,9a/ii, i.e. Pers. sah or Sahi. This word, and 
also mhan'^ahi='PevR. sahansah ' King of Kings,' occur in the Allahabad 
prasasti. (Fleet, Gupta Inscriptions, No. I, Samudra). The context 
there indicates the use of these two terms in the West of India in connec- 
tion with the Sakas. 

3 avajjio a + vrj. 

* itas ca-anyada kadacit. 
6 ' busying himself ' (cest). 
6 'gift' 
T pausa ' rains ' (pravrm). 


cintiyani : " hanti kamam apuvva-karanam uvalakkhijjai,' jao 
sami-pasayani agayam datthuna jalaya-darasanenam va sihino 
harisa-bhara-nibbhara jayanti sevaya, so sama-vayano disai. 
ta pucchami karanam ' ' ti. etth' antarammi Sahi-purisar 
damsiya-vidahare^ gao duo. tao pucchiyain surina : " hanta, 
sami-pasae samagae kim uvviggo viva lakkhiyasi ? ' ' tena 
bhaniyam : " bhayavam, na pasao, kim tu kovo samagao : 
jao amha pahu jassa rilsai, tassa nam'ankiyam muddiyaiu 
churiyam patthavei.^ tao kenai karanena amho ' varini* 
rusiuna pesiya esa churiya. eie ya appa amhehim ghaiyavvo : ^ 
ugga-dando tti kaiina na tav-vayane viyarana kayavva." 
surina btianiyam : "Kim tujjha ceva ruttho, uyahu ^ annassa 
vi kassa vi ? " sahina bhaniyam : *' mama vajjiyanam anne- 
sira pi pancanauf-rainam, jao disai chan-nauimi imie satthiyae 
anko " tti.'' surina jampiyara: "jai evara, ta ma appanain 
vinasehi." tena bhaniyam : " na pahuna rutthena kula- 
kkhayam antarena chuttijjai'; mae puna maena sesakulassa 
khemam bhavai." surina bhaniyam: " jai vi evani, taha vi 
vaharesu ^ niya-dilya-pesanena pancanauyam pi rayaiio : jena 
Hinduga-desam vaccamo." '" tao tena pucchio duo, jaha : 
" bhadda ! ke te anne paiicanaui rayano, jesini kuvio devo ? " 
tena vi savve niveiya. tao diiyam visajjiiina savvesim pi 
pesiya patteyain" niya-diiya, jaha: " samagacchaha mama 
samive, ma niya-jiviyaim pariccayaha, aham savvattha bhah- 

I hanti=:hanta. nvalakkhijjai pass, of uvalakkhei (wpa + /«/>•>'). 
^ -vidahara apparently "rogues' hall" {*vita-ghara). 
s patthavei ' sends' cans, {pra stha). 
* uvarim=uvari. 

f> eie ins. fem. * with this.' ghaiyavva fut. part, from caus. of han. 
6 uyahu ' or ' {utaho). 

T chan-nauinil 96th. satthiB 'weapon' {.sastrika) . ' for the numher of 
this weapon appears as 9Gth.' 

■* chuttijjai pass, chut cut off, leave off cf. H. chutnti, oluitti. 
^ vaharesvi ' summon ' (vi-^a + hr). 

I" Hinduga=Fers. Hinduk. vaccimo "we are going." 
" ' severally ' pro/i/eiom. 


ssami." ' tao te dupariccay-anlyattanao^ pananam savva- 
samaggim kauna agaya jhadatti^ tassa samivam, te ya sa- 
magae datthuna tenavi pucchiyii surino : " bhayavarii kiiii 
amhehiin sampayani kayavvam?" surihim bhaniyain : " sa- 
bala-vabana uttariuna Sindhum vaccaha Hinduga-desam. 
tao samaruhiuna janavattesu * samagaya Surattha-visae. 
ettli' antarammi ya samagao pausa-samao; tao duggama 
raagga tti kauni Surattha-visao channaui-vibhagehim vibhan- 
jiuna thiya tatth' eva. 

[Then came the Autumn— elaborately described.] 
evamviham ca saraya^-kala-sirim avaloiiina niya-samihiya- 
siddhi-kamena bhaniya te Kalaya-surina, jaha: "bho, kim 
evam nirujjama citthaha ? " tehim bhaniyam : '* aisaha kim 
puno karemo " surina bhaniyam : " ginhaha Ujjenim, jao tie 
padibaddho pabhuo Malava-deso : tattha pajjattfe tumhanam 
nivvaho "^ bhavissai." tehim bhaniyam: "evam karemo: 
parain n'atthi sambalayam, jamha '' eyammi dese amhanam 
bhoyana mettam ceva jayara." tao surina joga-cunna-ca/mw- 
/zz/a-metta-pakkhevena suvanni-kaiina savvam kumbhakara 
-vaham bhaniya:- " eyam sambalara ginhaha" tao te tarn 
vibhanjiuna savva-samaggie patthiya Ujjenim pai.** antare 
ya je ke vi Ladaya-visaya-rayano, te sahetta "^ patta Ujjeni- 
visayasandhira. tao Gaddabhillo parabalam agacchantam 

I bhalissami fut. : of bhalai=bharai., either from ,yhhr • take care 
of ' or from smr through *mharai. 

* :=duhparityajanlyatvat. 
•i jhat iti. 

* janapavatta " vessel" {yanapatra) , § 92. 
& saraya ' autumn ' {sarad). 

6 nivvaho ' abundance, liveUhood ' (nirvuha). pajjatti ' sufficiency * 

"^ sambalayam 'stores, supplies' (sambalam). jamha abl. sing, {yas 
mat) used adverbially ' since.' 

^ cunna ' powder' H. cun. cahuntiya (?) Unexplained. 

^ Tpa,i=prati. 

if> sahetta gerund of sahei=sahai (^asati) ' telling, summoning.' Ladaya, 
i.e. Lata=S. Gujerat. 


SO una raahabala-samaggle niggao patto ya visaya-sandhim. 
tao donham pi dapp'-uddhara -sennanam laggam aohanam,' 

When the sage by some channel came to know of this, he 
departed from the city, and travelling without stopping he 
came to the land called the Land of the S'akas. Those who 
are chiefs there, are called Shahis, and he that is overlord of 
the chiefs, the crest-jewel of the whole bevy of princes, is 
styled ShahanshahT. Then the Kalaka sage abode with one of 
the Shahis, and won his favour by charm and spell. Now once 
upon a time when this Shahi was with the sage and full of 
great delight was passing the time with various amusements, 
the porter entered and made this announcement, " My lord, a 
messenger from the Shahanshahl is standing at the door." 
The Shahi said: "Bring him in at once." At the word he 
entered and sat down on the seat given him. Then the mes- 
senger handed over a present. At the sight of this the Shahi's 
face grew black as the sky at the beginning of the rains. Then 
thought (the sage), "Well, surely this seems an extraordinary 
thing; for servants when they see a mark of favour sent by 
their master become filled with great joy — but his face is black 
as thunder. I will ask him the reason." Meanwhile the mes- 
senger went to the quarters (?) shown him by the Shahi's 
people. Then the sage asked : " Come now, why do you seem 
distressed at the coming of a favour from your lord? " He 
replied: "Your Reverence, this is no favour, but a mark of 
his anger that has come. For with whomever our king is 
wroth, to him he sends a dagger marked with his name, so for 
some reason or other being wroth with us, he has sent this 
dagger; and with this same must I slay myself. His word 
may not be gainsaid under pain of dreadful punishment.' " The 
sage said: "Is he wroth with you only, or with some other 
also?'" The Shahi said: "With ninety-five other kings be- 
sides myself for the weapon is marked with the number 96." 

' \\ddhavi\=uddhura. acihana ' l)attlo ' (5 + j/wdA). 


Quoth the sage : " If that is so, do not do away with yourself." 
The other said : " When the king is enraged, he does not stop 
short of destroying a family, but when I am dead, the rest of 
my family will be left in peace." The sage said: " If that is 
so, send the word to all the ninety-five kings by your own 
messenger, that you are going to the Hinduk country." Then 
he questioned the messenger thus, " Good sir, who are the other 
five and ninety kings with whom His Majesty is angry ? " 
He gave all their names. Then dispatching a messenger lie 
sent his own message to them all severally, saying, "Come 
to me, do not abandon your lives, I will take thought for 
everything." Then they came to him straightway with all 
their gear, for it is hard for a man to abandon his life, and 
seeing they had arrived, he asked the sage: " Your Reverence, 
what are we to do now ? " The sage replied : " Cross the 
Indus with troops and transport and go to the Hinduk coun- 
try." Then they embarked on vessels and reached the district 
of Surat, and in the meanwhile the rainy season arrived. 
Then finding the roads were difficult, they divided the district 
of Surat into ninety-six parts and stayed there. 

Observing the glory of the autumn season as described above, 
the Kalaka sage, with the desire of fulfilling his own wish, said 
to them: "Ho, why are you idling here?" Said they: 
" Direct us what we should do." 

The sage said: "Capture Ujjain, for that is the key to the 
Malava country ; there you will find subsistence in abun- 
dance." They said : " We will do so ; but we have no supplies, 
for in this country we have obtained barely enough to eat." 

Then the sage turned all the potters' stuff into gold by 
simply sprinkling it with magic powder and said to them : 
" Take this as supplies." 

So they divided it and with all their gear set out for Ujjain. 
And meantime all the kings of the Lata region, these they 
summoned and arrived at the frontier of the Ujjain country. 

Then Gandabhilla, hearing of the approach of a hostile army. 


went out with a great army all complete and reached the frontier. 
Then began a battle between the two armies swelling with pride, 

Ardha-Magadhi.] Extract No. 19. 

[Jacobi No. Ill, Portions.] 
(p. 28 ) tenam kalenain tenam samaenam Sindhu-Soviresu 
jaiiavaesu Viyabhae namam nagare hottha ; ' Udayane nama 
raya, Pabhaval devi. tise jetthe putte Abhii nama juvva-raya 
hottha; niyae bhainejje'^ Kesi nama hottha. se nam Udayane 
raya Sindhu-Sovira-pamokkhanam^ solasanham janavayanam 
Viyabhava-pamokkhanam tinham tevatthinara nayara-saya- 
nam* Mahasena-pamokkhanam dasanham rayanam baddha- 
maudanam viinna seya-camara-vaya-viyananam annesini ca 
raisara-talavara-pabhilnam ahevaccam kunamane viharai.^ 

evam ca tava eyam. 


The tale then switches into Jain Maharastri and tells of 
Kumaranandi the uxorious (' itthilolo ') goldsmith who col- 
lected 500 wives at 500 of gold apiece, and was chosen as their 
lord by the demi-goddesses of Five-Rock Island. Eventually 
the story comes round to Udayana, and we are told in Ardha- 
Magadhl (i.e. scripture language), of his conversion. 

(p. 32.) tae nani se Udayane raya annaya kayai posaha- 
salae posahie ege abie pakkhiyam posaham sammam padija- 

I Viyabhae=F*to6Aa2/o, iiom. sing, in e being a characteristic of this 
Prakrit, hottha 3rd sing. aor. atm. of ho=bhava, used also of other 
per.sons and numbers. 

* bhainejja ' sister's son ' {bhagineya). niyaya=niya ' own ' (nija). 
3 pamokkho (pramukha). 

* tevatthi 'sixty-three' (also tosatthi) saya 'hundred' /^ata ^ 112, 
Apparently means " of .30.3 towns." 

6 viinna ' bestowed' (vi-^tr). seya ' white' (.weta). vlyana ' fanning 
[vlj). annesim gen. pi. ' of other ' (M. has annanarn). rSisara ' princes 
(rajeSvara). talavara " chief . " talaro in De§i-nama-mala=" na<;ardraA".*a 
A-a." ahevaccani ' overlordship ' (ad/iipatyam). kunamane atm. pres, 
part, of kunai. 


garamane viharai.' tao tassa puvvaratta'varatta-kala-sa- 
mayanisi jagariyam karemanassa eyaruve ajjhattliie samup- 
pajjittha : ^ dhanna nam te crama-nagara, jattha nam samane 
Vire viharai, dhammam kahei ; dhanna nain te ralsara-pabhiio, 
je samanassa Mahaviraasa antie kevali-pannattani dhammaia 
nisamenti,-' evam panea'nuvvayam sattasikkhavaiyam savaga- 
dhammam duvalasa-viham* padivajjanti, evam munda bha- 
vitta agarao anagariyam pavvayanti.^ tarn jai nam samane 
hhagavam Mahavire puvvanupuvvim diiijjamane ih' eva 
Viyabhae agacchejja,'' ta nam aham avi bhagavao antie munde 
bhavitta Java pavvaejja. tae nain bhagavam Udayanassa 
eyaruvam ajjhatthiyam janitta Campao padinikkhamitta, jen' 
eva Viyabhae nayare, jen' eva Miyavane ujjane, ten' eva 
viharai. taoparisa'' niggaya Udayane ya. tae natii Udayane 
Mahavirassa antie dhammam 3occa liattha-tutthe evam vaya-- 
si:* jam navaram jettha-puttam rajje ahisiilcami, tao nam 
tubbham antie pavvayami. sami bhanai : ahasuham, ma padi- 
bandham karehi ! tao nam Udayane abhiogiyam hatthi-rayanam 
duruhitta** sae gihe agae. tao Udayanassa eyaruve ajjhatthie 

I kayai ' kadaoit.' posaha 'fast' (upavasatha) ^ 74. a-bie 'without 
a second.' pakkhiyam ' lasting a fortnight.' sammam (samyak). padi- 
jagaramane ' keeping vigil.' 'performing religious duty.' 

^ puvvaratta ' first part of the night, avaratta ' second half of the 
night.' karsmana atm. pres. part, from karei. eyaruva ' of this form.' 
ajjhatthie 'thought' (adhyatmika). samuppajjittha. aorist (sam+ud 
-^pad) cf. hottha ' was.' 

•^ kevali 'supreme or absolute knowledge.' -pannattarn (prajnaptam). 
nisamenti ' hear ' (ni + sam). 

+ aauvvayam 'ordinance' {anuvrata) : o commands for laymen. Jain 
technicality, sikkhavaiya 'precept' {*siksapadika). duvalasa ' twelve." 

•^ bhavitta gerund § 112. agara ' house.' 

6 puvvanupuvvim ' in succession.' diiijjamane ' wandering ' {du) 
agacchejja, opt. 

"J parisa ' community ' (parimd). 

^ socca 'having heard' (srutva). cf. caccara = ca< vara. J.M. hattha = 
hrnta. vayasi ' spoke.' aorist {vad). 

'^ abhiogiyam (abhiyogika) sometimes a kind of deity " belonging to 
the heavenly service." Here Jacobi suggests a state elephant, duruliitta 
' having mounted' (*uduruh for ud + ruh). mucchie ■ greedy ' (murch). 


jae ; jai nam Abhiiip kumararn rajje thavitta pavvayami, to 
Abhii rajje ya ratthe ya Java janavae ya manussaesu ya kama- 
bhogesu mucchie anaiyani anavayaggani samsara-kantaram 
anupariyattissai.' tarn seyam khalu me niyagam bhainejjara 
Kesim kumarani rajje thavitta pavvaittae.'^ evam sampe- 
hetta ^ sobhane tihi-karana-muhutte kodumbiya-purise ya 
saddavetta * evam vayasi : khippam eva Kesissa kumarassa 
raya'bhiseyam uvatthaveha! ^ tao mahiddhle^ abhisitte Kesi 
kumare raya jae Java pasasemane viharai. tao Udayane 
ray a Kesim rayam apucchai : ahan-nam, devanuppiya,^ sam- 
sara-bha'uvviggo pavvayami. tao Kesi raya kodumbiya-purise 
saddavetta evam vayaai : khippam eva Udayanassa ranno 
mah'atthani mah'ariham nikkhamana'bhiseyam uvatthaveha! 
tao mahaya vibhuie abhisitte siviy'ariidhe^ bhagavao samive 
gantuna pavvaie Java bahiini eauttha-chatth'-atthama-dasa- 
ma-duvalasamas'addhamas'aini tavo-kammani kuvvamane* 

(p. 34). tao se Udayane anagare bahOni vasani samanna- 
pariyagam paunitta satthim bhattaiin anasanae cheetta '" jass' 

' anaiyam ' without beginning.' anavayaggani • without end,' lit. 
' having the point not bent.' anupariyattissai ' will wander through ' 
(anu + pari + vrt). 

2 seyam ' better ' (sreyas). pavvaittae, infin. 

■ sampehetta ' having pondered over' (sam-^pra-k-iks). This treat- 
ment of ks especially in the root iks is common in AMg. JM. anuppe- 
hanti^anupreksante. dsih\na=daksitia occurs also in M. and Saur. 

* kodumbiya ' belonging to the family.' saddavettS, gerund of 
saddavei caus. of saddei nominal from sadda (^abda). 

'' khippam eva (ksipram eva) AMg. regularly lengthens a of final am 
before enclitic eva : juttani eva =yuktam eva (Pischel § 28). uvatthaveha 
caus. (upa-^8tha). 

fi iddhi = rddhi. 

1 devanuppiya, voc. sing, deva+anuppiya. 

^ siviya ' palki ' {Hbika). 

** kuvvamSne cf. and kunamane above. 

'0 saiiianna abstract of 8amana (iframano). pariyaga ' wandering' means 
paryaya : another form is pariyaya. Pischel doubts derivation from 
paryayaka, suggests *pariyava with ga for va (cf. -AMg. juvala = J/i<(/o/a). 
^'o also AMg. JM. pajjava=pan/a!/(( : .j6. pajjaya. paunitta * havinu fnl- 


atthae' kirai nagga-bhave mundabhave, tain atthani patte 
jav^a dukkha-pahine-tti. 

tae nam Abhil-kumarassa puvvarattavaiatta-kala-samay- 
anisi evam ajjhatthie jae: ahani Udayanassa jetthaputte 
Pabhavaie attae ; mam rajje atthavetta Kesim rajje thavetta* 
pavvaie. imenam manusenam dukkhenam abhibhue samane^ 
Viyabhayao niggacchitta Campae Koniyara uvasampajjittanam 
viula-bhoga-samannagae yavi hottha.* se nam Abhil kumare 
samano'vasae* abhigaya-jivajive Udayanenam ranna samanu- 
baddha-vere yavi hottha. tao Abhii kumare bahuim vasaim 
samanoVasaga-pariyagatn paunitta addhamasiyae samlehanae 
tisam'' bhattaim cheetta tassa thanassa'naloiya-padikkante 
kalam kicca'' Asurakumarattae uvavanno. egara paliovamam 
thii'^ tassa; Maharidehe sijjhihi-tti.'' 

At that period and at that very time there was a city Vita- 
bhaya by name in the countries of Sindh and Sauvira. Uda- 
yana was the king thereof, and PrabhavatI his queen. Her 
eldest son was crown prince, Abhijit by name, and she had a 
nephew named Ke^i. Now that Udayana the king was wielding 
the overlordship of sixteen countries whereof Sindh and 

filled' {pra-¥ap). anasana 'fasting.' cheetta 'having cut' cf. chettum 
M. JM. chettiana (*chtittetta chetetta). atthae ' on account of.' 

' attae ' son ' {atmajah). 

^ thavetta, gerund cans. (stha). 

^ samSne ' being.' 

•* uvasampajjittanam gerund {upa + sam-\-pad). samannagaya 'pro- 
vided with ' (sam-^anu + a + gmn). yavi (ca+api). 

<> samanovasaya ' lay believer.' 

<> sarnlehana ' final mortification ' (before death) samlekhana). tisam 
• thirty." 

^ anSloiya ' unrepented ' (analocita) padikkante ' confe.s.sed.' kicca 
gerund (A\r). 

8 paliovama ■=palyopama, a very high number, thii • durance ' ^ 12. 

" sijjhihi • will be fulfilled,' fut. of sijjhai. 


Sauvira were the chief, of three hundreds of townships and 
s^ixty-three, with Vitabhaya as the chief, of ten crowned rajas 
of whom Mahasena was the chief, granted the right of fanning 
with white chauris, and of other princes, chiefs, and the like. 
And even so it was. 

Now once upon a time that king Udayana fasted in the hall 
of fasting, all alone, a fast that lasted for a fortnight, duly 
performing his sacred duty. Now while he was keeping vigil 
in the middle of the night there came to him such a thought 
as this : rich are those villages and towns, wherein the ascetic 
Vfra dwells, and declares the law; rich are those princes and 
the like, who in the presence of the ascetic Maliavira hear 
the law perceived by absolute knowledge, who accept the Five 
Ordinances, the Seven Precepts and the Twelvefold Disciples' 
Law, and stripped of all leave their homes, and homeless enter 
into the Order. If now the holy ascetic Mahavira wandering 
from place to place should come here to Vitabhaya, then 
would I before the holy one strip me and enter the Order. Now 
the holy one knowing this thought of Udayana's departed from 
Campa and took up his abode near that very town of Vita- 
bhaya, where the Deer-park was, and the community came out, 
and also Udayana. Then Udayana having heard the law in the 
presence of Mahavira was pleased and delighted and spake 
as follows: — " I will even now consecrate my eldest son in the 
kingship, and then will I enter the Order before thee." The 
master said: "Please make no obstacle!" Then Udayana 
mounted a splendid state elephant and went within his house. 
Then there came to Udayana such a thought as this: 'If 
now I put Prince Abhijit on the throne, and enter the Order, 
then Abhijit on the throne, in the kingdom and the country, 
lusting among the. human joys of passion will wander along 
through the wilderness of rebirth without beginning, without 
end, 80 is it better to place my nephew Prince Kei^i on the 
throne before I enter the Order." Having pondered this over, 
on an auspicious lunar day, half-day and moment , he summoned 
the men of his household and spake thus: "Quickly prepare 


the coronation of Prince Kesi." Tlien with trreat pomp Prince 
Kesi became king, and continued reigning. Then king Uda- 
yana took leave of King Kesi : " 1 now, oh beloved of the gods, 
disquieted by the fear of rebirth, will enter the Order." Then 
King Ke^I summoned the men of his household and said : 
"Quickly prepare a rich and sumptuous ceremony of initia- 
tion for King Udayana. 

Then was he consecrated with great eclat, and getting into a 
palanquin went into the presence of the holy one and entered 
the Order, and continued to perform many an act of penance, 
those of the fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth and twelfth months, 
those of the half-months and the like. 

Then that Udayana having for many years fulfilled the 
ascetic's vow of homeless wandering, and in his fasting having 
cut off sixty meals, he attained that end, for the sake of which 
a man becomes naked and shorn — release from pain. 

Now in the middle of the night a thought occurred to 
Abhijit as follows : " I am the eldest son of Udayana, the son 
of Prabhavatl. Setting me aside, he has set Kesi on the 
throne, and entered the Order. Overwhelmed by this human 
trouble, he left Vitabhaya and found his way to Konia in 
Campa where he was provided with plentiful enjoyments. 
Now that Prince Abhijit was a lay believer with a knowledge 
of the Uving and the dead, and he retained an enmity against 
the King Udayana. Then Prince Abhijit having for many 
years fulfilled the wandering of a lay adherent, having cut off 
thirty meals in the half- monthly final mortification, confessed 
his unrepented deeds of that stage and met his fate, to become 
a Demon prince. The duration thereof is one myriad; it will 
be fulfilled in great Videha. 

Ardha-Magadhi. Extract No. 20. 

From the Seventh Lecture of the Uvasagadasao. 

(180). Polasapure namam nayare Sahassambavane ujjaiie. 
Jiya-sattii raya. 


(181). Tattha nam Polasapure nayare Saddala-putte namam 
kumbhakare Ajiviovasae ' parivasai. Ajiviya-sa- 
mayamsi^ laddh'atthe gahiy'atthe pucchiy'atthe 
vinicchiy'atthe abhigay'atthe atthi-mimja-pemanu- 
raga-ratte"* ya " ayara auso,* Ajiviya-samae atthe 
ayam param'atthe, sese anatthe " tti Ajiviya-sama- 
enain appanam bhavemane viharai. 

(182). Tassa nam Saddalaputtassa Ajiviyovasagassa ekka 
hiranna-kodi nihana-pautta, ekka vaddhi-pautta, 
ekka pavitthara-pautta, ekke vae dasa-go-sahassie- 
nam vaenam.^ 

(183). Tassa nain Saddalaputtassa Ajiviyovasagassa Aggimitta 
namam bhariya hottha. 

(184). Tassa nam Saddalaputtassa Ajiviyovasagassa Polasa- 
purassa nayarassa bahiya panca kumbhakaravana- 
saya hottha. Tattha nam bahave purisa dinna- 
bhai-bhatta-vejana kallakallim* vahave karae ya 
varae ya pihadae ya ghadae ya addha-ghadae ya 

' Ajiviovasae, ' an adherent, follower (upasaka) of the Ajivikas.' The 
Ajivika sect was founded by GosaJa, the son of Mankhali, a contemporary 
of Mahavira. Gosala's doctrine was " that there is no such thing as exer- 
tion or labour or power or vigour or manly strength, but all things are 
unalterably fixed." Uvasaga-d, VI. 160. (Vide Hoernle's note. 253.) 

^ " in the doctrine," loc. sing. S 92. v. 

3 mimja, 'marrow': Panjabi minjh, mijjh : SindhI miju : Guj. mij. 
H, migi (Skt. majja). Hoernles translates " being filled with a passionate 
love towards them as tor the most excellent thing," i.e. as in his note '* as 
for the marrow of bones." The marrow is rather the physical basis of 
passion, not its object. 

* auso ' longlived ' voc. (Skt. base ayusmat) used as a title of respect. 
Hoernle, following the commentary on another passage, takes ayamauso 
together, this being the form of address used by a teacher to his pupil. 

^ vae ' herd ' (vratah). 

6 bhai 'hire' (bhrti) veyana 'wages, salary' (vetana). Hoernle takes 
it "received food in lieu of wage.*;." Compare however bhrtyannam 
' board and wages.' It would appear that their salary comprised food 
and wages. Kallakallirn (Skt. kabjam knlyam) * every morning.' For 
ending, compare puvvini (=punnm). 


kalasae ya alinjarae ya jambulae ya uttiyao ya 
karenti,' anne ya se bahave purisa dinna-bhai-bhatta- 
veyana kallakallim tehim bahuhim karaehira ya jd'va 
uttiyahi ya raya-magwamsi vittitn kappemana viha- 

(185). Tae nam se Saddalaputta Ajiviovasae annaya kayai 
puvvavar'anha-kala-samayarasi jeneva Asoga-vaniya 
teneva uvagacchai, -ttd''' gosalassa Matikhaliputtassa 
antiyam dhamma-pannattim uvasampajjittanam'^ 
viharai . 

(186), Tae nam tassa Saddalaputtassa Ajiviovasagassa ege 
deve antiyam paubbhavittha.* 

(1 S7). Tae nam se deve antalikkha-padivanne sakhihk hiniyaim 
Java parihie Saddalaputtam Ajiviovasayam evam 
vayasl. " Ehii nam, devanuppiya, kallani iham 
maha-mahane uppanna-nana-damsana-dhare 'tlya- 
paocuppanna-m-anagaya-janae^ Araha Jine Kevall 
savvannu savva-darisi te-lokka-vahiya-mahiya-piiie, 
sa-deva-manuyasurassa logassa accanijje vandanijje 
sakkaranijje sammananijje kallanam mangalam 
devayam eeiyam'' jdva pajjuvasanijje,^ tacca-^' 

1 karaka " water- vessel, esp. one used by students or ascetics." M.W. 
varaka * kind of vessel,' pitharaka 'pot. pan.' ghataka H. gharS, kalasa 
'pitcher' alinjara ("small earthen water jar" M.W.), jambulaka and 
uttiya ' three very large kinds of jars.' Hoernle. 

^ -tta after a verb stands for the corresponding gerund, gacchai, -tta = 
gacchai. gacchitta ' he goes, and having gone.' 

3 Gerund from uvasampajjai (upa -^ sam + pad). 

* atm. aor. of paubhavai {pradur -^bhii) ' appeared.' 

'' 'tiya- 'past' (atlva), paccurpanna. 'present' {prati + ut -^- pad) , -m- 
sandhi consonant, anagaya ' future.' Text has padupanna for padup- 
panna, i.e. padi + uppanna. 

6 ceiya * sacred ' lit. =:caitya sacred shrine. 

7 'Worshipful' (prati-^upa+as). 

* tacca ' meritorious." Comm. sa,y=tatlvja , so also Heraacandra II. 21 ; 
but Pali has taccha. Otherwise irom tattva. Pischel (§ 281) says rather 
*tattva through *taUya. Cf. Romani tatcho=' true.' 


kamma-sampaya-sampautte tarn nam tumam van- 
dejjahi jdva pajjuvasejjahi, padiharienagi ' pi- 
dha-phalaga-sijja-samtharaenarp uvanimantejjahi." 
Doccaiii pi taccam pi evam vayai, -tta jam eva disam 
paubbhile tarn eva disani padigae. 

Hearing of the arrival of Mahavira — 

(190). Tae nam se Saddalaputte Ajlviovasae imise'^ kahae 
laddhatthe samane " evam khalu samane bhagavam 
Mahavire jdva viharai, tani gacchami nam samanam 
bhagavam Mahavlram vandami ;a?;a pajjuvasami," 
evam sampehei ; '■ -ttd nhae jdva payacchitte "* 
saddhappavesaim ^ jdva appa-mahagghabharanalari- 
kiya-sarire manussa-vaggura''-parigae sao'' gihao 
padi-nikkhamai, -ttd Polasapuram nayarani majjham 
majjhenaTp niggacchai, -ttd jeneva Sahassambavane 
ujjane jeneva samane bhagavam Mahavi'ro teneva 
uvagiicchai -ttd tikkhutto'' ayahinam payahinain 
karei ttd vandal naraamsai -ttd jdva pajjuvasai. 

Mahavira addressed the company and accepted 
Saddulaputta's hospitahty. 

(195) Tae nani se Saddala-putte Ajlviovasae annaya kayai 

I pratiharika "a Jain technical term, meaning ' what is always kept 
ready for the use of some one.' " Hoernle. 

* imi8e=M. imie, imia J.M. imie, imae 6. imae. 

3 sampehei 'reflects' (sam-^pra + lk/f). kkh ^ kh ^ h. This 

change occurs in both AMg. and JM. 

* Comm. z=praya.icitta ' expiation,' i.e. prpcautionary rites. Another 
interpretation is ' touched \)y the feet,' chitta from chivai ' touch ' (ksip). 

^ Comm. Auddhdtma-vaimkani ' (clothes) fit to adorn a purified person ' 
or Auddha-pravcyf/mii ' clean and fit for entering a king's court.' 

* vaggura ' crowd' (vugura " toils "). 

'' sao ' from his own ' (sra), giha ' house' (so also JM. commoner geha). 
^ tikkhutto 'thrice' (*trii^krtrnh or trikrtvah). Cf. AMg. dukhutto, 
dukkhutto ' twice.' 

i'\'nhinnin •\^f\y n\<'\<nH.\n = u-d(tkKina-pradakiiiuam. 


vayahayayam kolala-bhandani anto salahinito bahiya 
ninei, -itd ayavamsi dalayai.' 

(196). Tae nam samane bbagavam MahavTre Saddalaputtani 
Ajlviovasayaip evam vayasi. " Saddalaputta, esa 
nain kolala-bhande kao ? " ■^ 

(197). Tae nam se Saddalaputte Ajiviovasaye samanam bbaga- 
vam Mahavlram evam vayasi. " Esa nam bhante 
puvvim mattiya asl, tao paccha udaenam nimijjai; 
■ ttd charena ya karisena ya egayao misijjai ; -ttn cakke 
arohijjai ; tao bahave karaga ya jdva uttiyao ya 

(198). Tae nam samane bhagavam Mabaviro Saddalaputtam 
Ajiviovasayam evam vayasi. "Saddalaputta, esa 
nam kolalabbande kim uttbanenam jdva purisakk<\ra- 
-parakkamenam kajjanti, udahu anuttbanenam jdva 
apurisakkara- •■ parakkamenam kajjanti ? " 
Saddalaputta maintains tbat they are made without 
effort, etc. because effort does not exist, but he is 
refuted and convinced. 


(180). There was a town called Polasapura. Near it there mas 
the garden Sabassambavana. Jiya-sattii was king. 

(ISl). There in the town of Polasapura lived a potter named 
Saddalaputta, a follower of the Ajiviyas. Having 
heard of, and acquired a knowledge of the tenets 
of the Ajiviyas, and having questioned, determined 
and mastered the meaning thereof, he became en- 
amoured of these with a passionate love suffusing 
the verv marrow of hir^ bones and continued to 

' ayavanisi 'in the heat of the sun ' (atape). dalayai. coram. =dadati, 
also dalai (dalami) usual form in AMg. foi* ' gives.' 

* kao ' from what' (ktttah,i.e. *ka-tah), S. kado. 

•'' p\ivisakkaTa=punisat kara ' as can be made by a man." cf. balakkara 
=balat-kara. Ordinary Skt. word purum-kara. Pali 


conduct himself in accordance with the doctrine of 
the Ajiviyas, considering this to be the truth, the 
highest truth, and all the rest to be false. 

(182). That Saddalaputta, the follower of the Ajiviyas, had 
one kror of gold placed in deposit, one kror put out 
at interest, one kror invested in estate, and one herd 
with ten thousand head of cattle. 

(18S). That Saddalaputta, the follower of the Ajiviyas, had 
a wife named Aggimitta. 

(184). That Saddalaputta, tlie follower of the Ajiviyas, had five 
hundred potter shops outside the town of Polasapura. 
Therein a large number of men receiving wages in 
the form of food and goods, used to make from day 
to day numerous bowls, pots, pans, pitchers of three 
sizes and three sizes of water- jars ; and another large 
number of men, receiving wages in the form of food 
and goods, used to carry on a trade on the king's 
highway with those numerous bowls, pots, pans, 
pitchers of three sizes and three sizes of water-jars. 

(185). Then that Saddalaputta, the follower of the Ajiviyas, 
at one time or another at the time of the midday 
hour used to betake himself where there was a 
little grove of a&oka trees ; this he did and he was 
living in conformity with the law which he had 
received in the presence o Gosala Mankhaliputta. 

(186). Then in the presence of Saddalaputta. the follower of 
the Ajiviyas, there appeared a certain deva. 

(187). Then that deva standing in raid -air and decked out (ow 
described above, down to "with small bells") spoke 
thus to Saddalaputta, the follower of the Ajiviysw : 
" There will come here to-morrow, <) beloved of the 
devas, a great Maliaiia, who possesses fully formed 
knowledge and insight, who knows the past, present, 
and future, who is an Arhat, and Jina. aKevalin, 



who knows all and sees all, who is rapturously gazed 
at, adored and worshipped by the dwellers in the 
three worlds, who for the world with devas, men and 
asuras is an object of worship, praise, lionour, respect 
and service as something excellent, auspicious, divine 
and sacred [and so on), who is furnished with an 
abundance of meritorious works, him shouldst thou 
praise (and as above, down to "wait upon") and 
hospitably invite to a standing provision of stool, 
plank and bedding." A second and a third time he 
said this, and having done so he returned in that 
direction whence he had appeared. 
(190). Then that Saddalaputta , the follower of the Ajiviyas, 
being informed of this news thinks to himself: " So 
then the Ascetic, the blessed Mahavira {and so on, 
down to) is paying a visit here ; I will go and praise 
the Ascetic, the blessed Mahavira, and I will {so on, 
dovm to) wait upon him." Thinking thus he bathed 
and (as before) performed precautionary rites, put on 
clean robes, adorned his person with a few costly 
jewels, and surrounded by a crowd of men-servants 
came out of his house. Having come out, he passed 
right through the midst of the town of Polasapura. 
Having passed through he approached the place, 
where there was the Sahassambavana Garden , where 
the blessed Mahavira was, and having approached, 
he circumambulated him three times from left to 
right. Having done so he praises him, and wor- 
ships him and (having praised him, and worshipped 
him, and so on, down to) he stands in waiting upon 
(195). Then that Suddalaputta, the follower of the Ajiviyas, 
at some time or other brought out his air-dried 
potter's ware from within his workshops : and having 
done so placed it in the heat of the sun. 


(196). Then the Ascetic, the blessed Mahavira, spoke thus unto 
Saddalaputta, the follower of the Ajivias, " Saddala- 
putta, what is this potter's ware made of ? " 

(197). Then that Saddalaputta, the follower of the Ajiviyas, 
spake unto the Ascetic, the blessed Mahavira, as 
follows: "This ware was at first clay, and after 
that it is kneaded with water; and then it is 
thoroughly mixed with potash and dung ; and then it 
is placed upon the wheel and thence are made many 
bowls {and the rest as before).^ ^ 

(198). Then the Ascebic, the blessed Mahavira, spake thus 
unto Saddalaputta, the follower of the Ajiviyas: 
" Saddalaputta, is tliis potter's ware made with 
exertion and (so on, down to) manly strength, or is it 
made without exertion and {so on, down to) manly 

Ardha-Magadhi, Extract No. 21. 


being part of the Kalpastitra ascribed to Bhadrabahu. 
Edited by Jacobi. 

(56). Tae ' nam Siddhatthe khattie pacci5sa-kala-samayamsi 
kodumbiya-purise saddavei, -tta evam vayas! : 

(57). • "khippam'^ eva, bho Devanuppiya ' ajja savisesam 
bahiriyam uvatthana-salam-^ gandhodaya-sittam suiya- 
sammajjiovalittam * sugandha- vara- paiica- vanna- 
pupphovayara^-kaliyam kalaguru-pavara-kundurukka- 
turukka- dajjhanta-dhuva- maghamaghanta-gandh-ud- 

I J. reads tate in this and some other places. Other MSS. have tae. 

' Vide page fil. 

•° * assembly-room, pavilion.' 

* ' cleaned ' {^uc) ' swept ' (aavi+mri) and ' smeared ' {upa + lip). 

' uvayara 'decorations, festoons' (upa + kr). 


dhuyabhiramam ' sugandha-vara-gandhiyaii) gandha- 
vatti '^-bhuyani kareha karaveha, karitta ya karavitta 
ya sihasanam rayaveha,'' -tta main eyam anattiyam 
khippam eva paccappinaha.* ' ' 

(58). Tae nam te kodumbiya-purisa Siddhatthenam ranna 
evam vutta samana, hattha-tuttha-/ava -haya-hiyaya, 
karayala- jdva kattu:^ "evam sami!" tti anae 
vinaenam vayanam padisunanti. -tta Siddhatthassa 
khattiyassa antiao padinikkhamanti, -i/a jen'eva bahi- 
riya uvatthana-sala, ten'eva uvagacohanti, -tta khip- 
pam eva savisesara bahiriyam uvatthana-salam gan- 
dhodaya-sittam sum-jdva sihasanam rayavinti, -tta 
jen'eva Siddhatthe khattie, ten'eva uvagacchanti, 
-tta karayala- pariggahiy am dasa-naham sirasa vattam 
anjalim kattu Siddhatthassa khattiyassa tam anat- 
tiyam paccapjiinanti. 

(59). Tae riam Siddhatthe khattie kallain pau-ppabhayae raya- 
nle, phull'uppala - kamala- komal'ummilliyammi aha- 
pandure pabhae. rattasoga-ppagasa-kimsuya-suya-mu- 
ha-gunj 'addha - raga-sarise '' (bandhujivaga "^ - parava - 
na-calana - nayana -parahu3'a-suratta-loyana-jasuyana- 
kusuma - rasi - himgulaya - niyaraireya -rehanta - sarise) 

' aguru ' aloe.' kundurukka ' olibanum.' turukka ' incense.' magha- 
maghar.ta cf. Pb. maghna ' burn,' H. maghan ' redolent.' uddhu\-a= 
xiddh'ita. dhQva ' incense.' 

'^ vatti (varti). 

'^ rayaveha ' have prepared ' caus. {rac). 

+ 2nd plur. imperat. of paccappinai ' returns ' denom. from pratyarpana 

^ kattu (kartu) originalh' infin. used as gerund krtva. 

8 ppagasa (prakasa). kimsua " Butea frondoaa ' (kitnsuka). suya 
"parrot" {suka). gunjaddha. The eonstrucfcion is Siddhatthe. .. .saya- 
nijjao abbhutthei ; with locative absolutes rayanie, pabhae. siare, 
dinayare, andhayare, jlvaloe. 

"^ handhujlvaka " Pentapetes Phoenicia." paravana ' pigeon " (paravata). 
parahuya 'cuckoo' (parahhrta). jasuyana 'Chinese rose.' hingulaa, 
* cinnabar.' nikara ' mass.' alireka ' excess." rehanta ' shining.' 


kamalayara-sanda-bohae ' utthiyammi sure, sahassa- 
rassimmi dinayare teyasa jalante, (ahakkamena uie 
divayare, tassa ya kara-paharaparaddhammi andhaya- 
re, balayava-kunkumenam khaciya vva jlva-loe)^ 
sayanijjao abbhutthei. 

(60). -ltd paya-pidhao paccoruhai,* -Ud jen' eva attana-sala,* 
ten'eva uvagacchai, -ttd attana-salam anupavisai, 
-ltd anega-vayama jogga-vaggana-vamaddana-malla- 
juddha-karanehim,^ sante parissante saya-paga-sa- 
hassa-pagehim " sugandha-tilla-m-aiehim pinanijje- 
him divanijjehim mayanijjehim vimhanijjehiin dappa- 
niijehira savv'indiya-gaya-palhayanijjehijii abbhari- 
gie," tilla-cammamsi niunehim padipunna-pani-paya- 
sukumala-komala-talehim purisehim abbhangana-pari- 
maddan-uvvalana-karanaguna-nimmaehini " cheehitn 
dakkhehim patthehim kusalehini mehavihim" jiya- 
parissamehim atthi-suhae manisa-suhae taya suhae "' 
roma-suhae cauvvihae suha-parikammanae samva- 
hanae samvahie samane avagaya-parissame attana- 
salao padinikkhamai. 

(61). -ttd jen'eva majjana-ghare, ten'eva uvagacchai, -ttd 

I bohae ' awakening' (bodhakab). 

i aha-kkamena ' in due time ' {yatha-krameua). paliaia ' blows' (pra- 
hara). aparaddha ' driven away' (apa + radh). balayava 'young .sun." 
khaciye, text has khaciya. 

"^ descends (prati-^ava + ruh). 

* attana-sala ' gymnasium ' meaning shown by context. Kadambaii 
has vyaySma-6ala. 

^ vaggana 'jumping.' vamaddana (ui-t-a+mordona). mallajuddha, 

< saya-paga- ' refined a hundred times ' (^ata-pakor), 

1 abbhaiigie ' anointed ' Mg. abbhahgide JM. abbhahgio retain the 
oldgf. (Skt. abhyakta v^an/). prlnaniya ' soothing.' madanlya ' invigorat- 
ing.* brmhanlya ' nourishing.' -prahladaniya refreshing. 

8 nirmata ' experienced.' udvalana ' stretching.' 

" cheka * clever.' praHha ' pre-eminent.' medhavi ' intelligent.' 

10 tayS 'skin' {*ii:aca = tvak). 


majjana-gharam anupavisai, -tta sa-mutta-]alakula- 
bhirame' vicitta-mani-rayana-kottima-tale* rama- 
nijje nhana-mandavaipsi, nana-mani-rayana-hhatti- 
cittamsi'^ nhana-piclhamsi suha-nisanne pupphodaehi 
ya gandhodaehi ya usinodaehi ya suddhodaehi ya 
kallana-karana-pavara-majjana-vihie majjie, tattha 
kouya-saehim* bahu-vihehiin kallanaga-pavara-majja- 
navasane pamhala-sukumala-gandha-kasaiya-luhiy'- 
ange ^ ahaya-sumah'aggha-dusa-rayana-susamvude ® 
sarasa-surabhi-gosisa-candananulitta-gatte '' sui-mala- 
vannaga-vilevane"* aviddha-mani-suvanne kappiya- 
har'-addhahara ^ -tisaraya-palamba-palambamane ka- 
di-suttaya-kaya-sobhe "^ piniddha-gevijje " angulijjaga- 
laliya-kayabharane '■' vara-kadaga-tudiya-thambhiya- 
bhue'^ahiya-ruva-sassirie kundala-ujjoviyanane'* mau- 
da-ditta-sirae har'otthaya-sukaya-raiya-vacche '^ mud- 
diya-pingal'-angulie palamba-palambamaria-sukaya- 
riha-niunoviya-misimisinta- viraiya-susilittha- visittha- 
naddha-aviddha-vlra-valae; "^ kim bahuna: kappa- 

1 jala ; lattice windows of stone work. 

2 kottima ' mosaic pavement ' {kuttima). 

'^ bhatti (hhakti), ' variegated decoration, arabesques.' 
* kouya ' pleasure ' (kautuka). 

5> pamhala ' long-haired -downy ' (paksmala). kasaiya ' dyed red.' lii- 
hiya ' dried' (luifita ?). 

6 ahaya 'new' (ahata). dma 'robe' (cf. dusya ' tent, cotton'). 

1 gosisa ' cow's-head — a rich sandal ' 

* vannaga • sandal ' (varnaka). 

** hara " necklace of eighteen strings." tisaraya ■' of three strings." 

'0 kadi ' hip' (kati). suttaya, « belt ' (sutraka). 

" piniddha 'put on' (pinaddha). graiveya ' collar.' 

12 kaya ' pair ' {kaca). 

15 kadaga ' bracelet' (kataka). tudiya ' bangle' ? (trutika). 

'* ujjoviya lighted up' (nd-^dyut but Pischel § 243 refers to ^dyu). 

16 otthaya ' covered with' (ava->r8tr), cf. M. otthaia (ava + sthoe). 

16 oviya 'decorated.' mieimisinta 'shining brightly,' onomatopceif 
denominative, taken into Sanskrit as mifjamisayate. Pischel § 588. 


rukkhae ceva alamkiya-vibhiisie nar'inde sa-korinta- 
malla-damenam chattenam dharijjatnanenam seya- 
vara-camarahim uddhuvvamanihim ' raangala-jaya- 
sadda-kayaloe anega-gananayaga-dandanayaga-raisa 
ra-talavara-madambiya-kodurabiya-manti -mahamau- 
ti-ganaga-dovariya-amacca-ceda-pidhamadda - nagara- 
nigama-sitthi-senavai-aatthavaha-duya-sandhipala ^- 
saddliim samparivude dhavala-mahameha-niggae iva 
gaha-gana-dippanta-rikkha-tara-ganana majjhe sasi 
vva piya damsane nara-vai nar'inde nara-vasahe nara- 
sihe abbhahiya-raya-teya-lacchie dippamane majjana- 
gliarao padinikkhamai. 

(62). «a jen'eva bahiriyauvatthana-sala, ten'eva uvagacchai, 
-ttd slhasanamsi puratthabhimuhe ^ nisiyati. 

(63). -ttd appano uttara purattbime disi-bhae attha bhadda- 
sanaim seya-vattha-paccutthuyaim* siddh'atthaya- 
kaya-maugalovayaraiin rayavei, -ttd appano a-dura- 
samante nana-mani-rayana-mandiyain ahiya-peccha- 
nijjara inah'aggha - vara -pattan' - uggayarp sanha- 
patta-bhatti-saya-citta - tanam ^ iharaiya - usabha - tu- 
raya - nara - magara-vihaga-valaga-kininara -ruru-sara- 
bha -camara - kunjara - vanalaya - paiima -laya - bhatti- 
cittam'* abhintariyam javaniyam aiichavei,^ -ttd na- 
na-raani-rayana-bhatti-cittani attharaya-miu-masu- 

' uddhuvvaraana 'shaken" {ud + dhu), dhuvvai !; l.'i."). 

* This list of personages may be interpreted variously, ralsvara 
(raje^vara) Comm. z=ijuvaraid. Jacobi S.B.E. 'kings, princes' danda- 
nayaka 'judges.' Jacobi 'satraps,' talavara 'bodyguards,' J. 'knights.' 
madambiya ' sheriffs.' ptthamanda ' parasites, companions,' J. ' dancinsi; 

■^ purattha ' ' (purastat). 

* pacciitthuya=paecutthaya 'covered ' (prati +ava+str). 
^ sanha ' smooth " (alaksna). tana ' thread ' (tana). 

* ihamrna • wolf.' i'i/ala(ka) 'snake ' -lava laya = /a/a. 
T amchavei ' has drawn.' 



rag' -otthayam ' seya - vattha - paccutthuyarp su- 
mauyam anga-suha-pharisagam"'^ visittham Tisalae 
khattiyanie bhaddasanain rayavei, -tin kodumbiya- 
purise saddavei , -ttd evam vayasi. 

(64). "khippam eva, bho Devanuppiya! atth'atiga-mahani- 
mitta-sutt-attha-dharae viviha-sattha-kusale suvina- 
-lakkhana-padhae saddaveha. 


(56). Then the Kshatriya Siddhartha at the time of daybreak 
called his family servants and spoke thus : 

(57). " Now, beloved of the gods, quickly to-day make ready 
or have made ready in all particulars the outer hall of 
audience, (see that it be) sprinkled with scented 
water, cleaned, swept and newly smeared, furnished 
with offerings of fragrant, excellent flowers of all 
five colours, made highly delightful through curling, 
scented fumes of black aloe, the finest kundurukka 
and turushka, and burning incense, exquisitely 
scented with fine perfumes, and turned as it were 
into a scent-box ; and having done all this arrange 
my throne, and having done this report to me quickly 
the execution of these orders." 

(58). Then the family servants, on being thus addressed by 
the King Siddhartha, with glad, pleased and {so on 
down to) enraptured hearts, saluted (as before down to 
' on their heads ' ) and .politely accepted the words of 
the command saying : ' Yes master 1 ' Then they left 
the presence of the Kshatriya Siddhartha, and went 

' attharaka ' coverlet.' {a-^str). masi?ra{fca) ' pillow.' 

^ mauya 'soft' (mrduka), pharisaga (sparsaka). 

■^ The Kalpasutra was translated by Dr. J. Stevenson, 1848. That 

translation however is not accurate. The standard translation is that of 

Hermann Jacobi's Sacred Books of the East Series, vol. XXII, p. 241ff. 

This has been modified here only to make the text clearer to the student. 



to the outer hall of audience and quickly they (made 
ready) in all particulars the outer hall of audience, 
sprinkled with scented water, cleared {and so on) and 
prepared the throne. Having done this they repaired 
to the place where the Kshatriya Siddhartha was, and 
joining the palms of their hands so as to bring the ten 
nails together, laid the folded hands on their heads 
and reported the execution of that order to the 
Kshatriya Siddhartha. 

(59). Then on the morrow wlien the night was growing light, 
when the pale morning disclosed the soft flowers of the 
full-blown lotuses, and the sun arose ; in hue like the 
red a&oJai, the open rottlesia kimsuka, a parrot's bill 
or the gufijdrdha, intensely bright like the bandhu- 
jlvaka, like the eyes and feet of a turtle-dove, the 
. cuckoo's scarlet eyes, a mass of China roses or a lump 
of vermilion, the waker of the lotus pools ; and the 
maker of the day thousand-rayed was shining in his 
radiance ; when in due time the maker of the day had 
risen and by the blows of his hands the darkness was 
driven away, and while the inhabited world was, as 
it were, dipped in saffron by the morning sun, — the 
Kshatriya Siddhartha rose from his bed, 

(60). and having risen he descended from the footstool, went 
to the hall for gymnastic exercises and entei'ed it. 
And with many strenuous exercises such as leaping, 
massage and wrestling ' he became thoroughly tired, 
and then lie was anointed with various kinds of 
fragrant oil, distilled a hundred or a thousand times, 
which nourished, beautified, invigorated, exhilarated, 
strengthened and increased all senses and limbs. On 
an oiled hide he was shampooed with soft and tender 
palms of the hand and soles of the feet, by clever men 
who were well acquainted with the best qualities of 

1 Jacobi renders: "jumped, wrestled, fenced and fought." 


anointing, kneading and stretching ; well trained, skil- 
ful, excellent, expert, intelligent and never tiring. 
When by this fourfold agreeable treatment of the body 
the kino's bones, flesh, skin and hair had been bene- 
fited, and his fatigues banished he left the hall for 
gymnastic exercises and (61). 
having taken his way towards the bathing house, he 
entered therein. In a pleasant bath-room delight- 
ful with many windows adorned with pearls, its 
floor decorated with a mosaic of jewels and gems, 
he sat comfortably on a bathing-stool inlaid with 
arabesques of various jewels and precious stones, and 
bathed himself with water scented with flowers and 
perfumes, with tepid water and pure water, according 
to an excellent metliod of bathing, combined with 
healthy exercises. When this healthy excellent bath- 
ing with many hundredfold pleasures was over, his 
body was dried with a long-haired soft scented and 
coloured towel, he was clad in a new and costly excel- 
lent robe, his limbs rubbed with fresh and fragrant 
go&irsha and sandal and adorned witii line garlands 
and sandal-ointment. He put on jewels and gold, 
hung (round his neck) necklaces of eighteen, nine and 
three strings and one with a pendant and adorned 
himself with a zone. He put on a necklet, rings and 
ciiarming ornaments for the hair, and encumbered his 
arms with splendid bracelets and bangles. He was 
of exceeding beauty. His face was illuminated by 
earrings, his head with a diadem. His breast was 
covered, decked and adorned v^ith necklaces, his fingers 
were gilded with his rings. His fine cloth toga was 
swinging with pearl pendants. He put on as an 
emblem of his undefeated knighthood, glittering, well- 
made, strong, excellent, beautiful armlets, made by 
clever artists of flawless and costly jewels, gold and 
precious stones of many kinds. In short, the kin» 


was like a Wishing Tree, decorated and adorned. An 
umbrella, hung with wreaths and garlands of korinia 
flowers, was held above him. He was fanned with 
excellent white chauries, while his appearance was 
greeted with auspicious shouts of victory. Surrounded 
by many chiefs, judges, princes, bodyguards, sheriffs, 
heads of famiUes, ministers, chief ministers, astro- 
logers, doorkeepers, counsellors, servants, dancing 
masters, citizens, traders, merchants, heads of guilds, 
generals, leaders of caravans, messengers and frontier- 
guards, he — the lord and chief of men, a bull and lion 
among men, shining with excellent lustre and glory, 
lovely to behold like the moon emerging from a great 
white cloud in the midst of the flock of the planets 
and of brilliant asterisms and stars — left the bathing 

(62). entered the outer hall of audience and sat down on his 
throne with his face towards the east. 

(63). On the north-eastern side he ordered eight state chairs, 
covered with cloth and auspiciously decorated with 
white mustard , to be set down. Not too far from and 
not too near to himself, towards the interior of the 
palace he had a curtain drawn It was adorned with 
various jewels and precious stones, extremely worth 
seeing, very costly and manufactured in a famous 
town : its soft cloth was covered all over with hun- 
dreds of devices and decorated with pictures of wolves, 
bulls, horses, men, crocodiles, birds, snakes, kinnaras, 
deer, ^arabhas, yaks, elephants, shrubs and plants. 
Behind it he ordered to be placed for the K.shatriyani 
Trisala, an excellent chair of state decorated witli 
arabesques of various jewels and precious stones, fur- 
nished with a coverlet and a soft pillow, covered with 
a white cloth, very soft and agreeable to the touch. 
Then he called the family servants and spoke thus : 


(64). "Quickly, O beloved of the gods, call the interpreters 
of dreams who know well the science of prognostics 
with its eight branches, and are well versed in many 
sciences besides ! ' ' 

Magadhi.] Extract No. 22. 

Interlude at the beginning of Act VI. (Pischel p. 113 ; M.W. 
p. 216). City -superintendent, two policemen and a fisherman. 
Pohcemen. Hande kurabhilaa ! kadhehi , kahini tae e^e maha- 

ladana-bha^ule ukkinna-nam'-akkhale laakie anguliae sa- 

masadide ? ' 
Fisherman. (Nervously) Pasidantu bhavami§Sa! na hage idi- 

sas§a akayyas4a kalake."^ 
First Policeman. Kiin nu kkhu ^ohane bamhane si tti kadua 

laiina de paliggahe dinne ? ^ 
Fisher. S'unudha dava. Hage kkhu S'akkavadala-va^i dhl- 

Sec. Pol. Hande padaccala ! kini tumam amhehirn yadim va- 

sadim ca puScide ? ^ 
[Superintendent. Suaa ! kadhedu savvam kamena. Ma nam 


• hande cf. hanta ' go to ! ' : only used to inferiors, kumbhilaa * thief ' 
orig. ' crocodile.' ladana=6aur. radana (M. raana) § 57. -bha^ula= 
bhasura. ukkmna,=:utklrna. akkhh\a=^aksara, according to Gramma- 
rians should be a6kala or (Hemacandra) ahkala. [h=jihvamuliya]. 
laakiye ' royal.' Pischel thought we should read laa-kelake. samasSdide 

^ akayya [akdrya) ' crime.' Pischel's text has akajja^^a, most of his 

MSS. akajjassa which is Saur. kei]ake = karakah. 
^ lanna ' by the king.' 

* Sakravatara, dhlvarah. 

' pataccara or pataccara ' thief.' yadim text has jadirn like the MSS. 
Pischel Gr. § 236 shows that ^ should be read in every case. pu§cide= 
=l§aur. pucchido. 

» The Superintendent does not speak Magadhi. Suaa ' spy ' (sue). 


Both. Yam lautte anavedi. Lavehi, le lavehi.! ' 

Fisher. S'e hage yala-badi^a-ppahudihim raa^ca-bandhano 
vaehim kudumba-bhalanani kalemi.^ 

[Supdt. (Laughinq) Visuddho danim de ajlvo !] 

Fisher. Bhattake ma evam bhana ! 

Sahaye kila ye vi nindide na hu ^e kamma vivajjaniake 
pa^umali kaledi kalana chakkamma-vidule vi Lottie. ^ 

[Supdt. Tado, tado ?] 

Fisher. Adha ekkadiai^ani mae lohida-inascake khandaSo 
kappide.* yava tas^a udala-bbhantale edam maha-ladana- 
bha^ulam aiigullaam peskami. pa4ca idha vikkaa'ttham 
nam dam^aante yyeva gahide bhavami^Sehim. Ettike 
dava edaS^a agame. Adhuna maledha kuttedha va.^ 

[Supdt. {Sniffing the ring) Janua, macchodara-samthidam ti 
natthi saradeho. Tadha aam se vissagandho. Agamo 
danini edassa vimarisidawo. Ta edha raaiilani jjeva 

Policemen. {To the Fisherman) Ga^ca le ganthi-chedaa ga4ca. ' 

[Supdt. Siiaa! idha Go-ura-duare appamatta padivaledha 
mam Java raaiilam pavisia nikkamarai]. 

Both. Pavisadu lautte 4ami-ppa^ad'attham. 

[Supdt. Tadha]. {Exit), 

I lautte contracted from laautte = Saur. raautto (rajapufrah). or = Apa. 
raauttu, Bihari raut (rajaduta). vide Grierson, Phonology. 

^ ySla ' net.' bali^a * hook.' raaica ' fish.' kalemi=Saur. karerai. 

■* ^ahaya (so/!a;a). rivarjanlya — mB.\\ = '^maraiiam.^' kalana = A*arar!a/ 
— kainma — long for metre, vidule ' skilled ' (in the six occupations). 
Lottie =irotriy ah . 

* lohida- ' Roh ' Saur. rohido, M. rohio (?), Apa. rohiu, Hindi rohu. 
khanda^o kappide (kalp) ' cut into pieces." peskami, according to Hema- 
candra and others this is the correct form. (Pischel Gr. !j 324). .According 
to another authority and the Lalitavicraharaja-natakani it should be 
pe4kami. Text has pekkhami. 

■'' vikkaattham ' in order to sell' maledha imperat. of m8ledi = marf»- 
yati. kuttedha imperat. of kuttedi (kartayati). 

Januka — Policeman's name. vissa=tnsra 'musty'; Comm. amisa 
' raw flesh.' vimarisid&yvo=i^marstavyah ' must be investigated.' 

'' ganthi-chedaB * cut-purse.' 


Spy. Janua ! cilaadi lautte.' 

Januka. Nam avaiSalovasappania khu laane honti.^ 
Spy. Janua! sphulanti me agscahasta. (Pointing to the fisher- 
man) imam ganthichedaam vavadedum.'^ 
Fisher. Nalihadi bhave akalana-malake bhodum.* 
Jan. (Looking round) FAe amhanaip i4ale patte genhia laa- 

saSanam. (To the fisherman) S'aiilanam muharn peskasi, 

adhava giddha-sialanam ball bhavii^^as^i.^ 
[Supdt. (Entering) Siggham siggham edain (drops his voice)]. 
Fisher. He hade mhi (in distress). 
[Supdt. Muiioedha re muficedha jalovayivanatn, uvavanno se 

kila anguhaassa agamo.. amha-samina jjeva me kadhidam]. 
Spy. Yadha anavedi lautte. Yama-va4adim gadua padiniutte 

khu eie. (Releases the fisherman). 
Fisher. (Saluting the Supdt.) Bhattake tava kelake mama 

ylvide! (falls at his feet).'^ 
[Supdt. Utthehi, utthehi ! Eso bhattina aiiguliaa-mulia — sam- 

mido paridosio de pasadikido. Ta genha edam] (Gives 

the fisherman a bracelet). 
Fisher. (Receiving it with delight) Anugahide mhi. 
Jan. E^e khu lanfia tadha name anugahide yam 6ulado, odalia 

hasti-skandham ^amalovide.^ 
Spy. Lautte! paHdo^ie kadhedi mahahha-Iadanena teni ahgu- 

liaena Samino bahumadena hodavvam ti."^ 

1 cilaadi ' is a long time. ' 

^ ' Kings must be approached as occasion offers " (upa+srp). 
5 sphulanti 'quiver.' Text phulanti but see Pischel§31l. Similarly 
*i 310 for -hasta (text hattha). vavadedura infin. caus. (vi-\-a+pad). 
* na+alihadi (arhati). 

5 ^aiila (" sakula") kind of fish. Thet-e are various readings here. 
Pischel aays=^svakulanafp,. 

6 kelake = kerako the prototype of genitival affixes like -kero -ker- er. 
yivide ' life." 

^ odalia (of. odara § 75)=avatarya. ^amalovide past part. caus. 
(aam+a+ruh). ' Mounted on the withers of an elephant ' denotes eleva- 
tion to high dignity (M W.). Text has— hatthi-kkhandham. 

S mahaliha=ma^dr?/a. 


[Supdt. Nain tassim bhattino mahariha-radanani ti na paridoso. 

Ettikam una — ]. 
Both. Kim nam a 1 
[Supdt. Takkemi tassa damsanena ko vi hiaa-tthido jano 

bhattina sumarido ti, jado tain pekkhia rauhuttaain paidi- 

gambhiro vi pajjussua-niano asi].' 
Spy. To^ide danim bhatta lauttena. 
Jan. Nain bhanami ima^^a ma^cali-sattuno kide tti {looks 

jealously at the fisherman).'^ 
Fisher. Bhattaka ido addham tumhanam pi sula-mullain 

Jan. Dhlvala ! mahattale ^ampadam me piavaas^^ake 4am- 

vutte'^i kadambali-saddhike kkhu padhamam amhanam 

6ohide i^cladi. Ta 4unclikagalain yyeva ga^camha.^ i 

{Exeunt omnes). 

Magadhi. Extract No. 23. 

Sthavaraka (Mrcch. Act X). 

Enters along the roof and in chains. 

{Listens to the proclamation in distress). 

Kadhani apave Caludatte vavadiadi ! Hage nialena ;§amina 
bandliide. Bhodu! akkandami. S'unadha, ayyasunadha. Asti 
danim mae pavena pavahana-padivattena Puspa-kalandaa- 
yinnuyyanaiii Vasantasena nida. Tado mama isamina ' main 
na kame^i' tti kadua, bahu-pas^a-balakkalena malida, na una 
edina ay yena. Kadham ? Viduladae na ko vi sunadi. Ta kirn 
kalemi ? Attanaatp paclemi. (Reflecting) Yai evvam kalemi, 
tada ayya-Caludatte na vavadiadi. Bhodu. Imado panada 
balagga-padoli kado edina yinna-gavakkhena attanaain nikkhi- 

' p&i(ii=.prakrti. pajjussiia (paryutsuka) cf. § 41. 

* ma^cali 'fish," cf. Hindi machli ; Sindhi raach«di ; MarSthi mas»li 
from a popular diminutive of maccha=matj»j/a § 56. 

3 mahattale t-ompar. of mahat-. kadainbali, kadamba ' toddy.' dad- 
dhike 'feast enjoyment' (sagdhi). ^ohide z=sauhrdam or sauhityani. 
dundikagala 'grog-shop.' 


vami. Balani hage uvalade, na una eie kula-putta-vihaganaiii 
vA^apadave ayya-Caludatte. Evvara yai vivayyami laddhe 
mae palaloe. (Throws himself down) Hi hi ! na uvalade rahi. 
Bhagge me danda-niale. Ta candala-ghosam ilamanneSami. 

apave ' sinless.' vavadiadi, pass. caus. (vi + d + pad), iiialena 
' with a fetter ' (nigada). malida = S'. marida. -balagga- ' dove- 
cot ' (?) [vdldgra). padoUka {pratoli) 'gateway' (vide Vogel, 
J.R.A S., July, 190(5). gav'akkha • bull's-eye,' round window 
or loophole, cf. French ' oeil de hoeuf meaning 'bull's-eye,' 
i.e. ' window.' (Ace. Grammarians should be gava4ka or 
gavahka). uvalade 'done for' (upa — ratah). padave 'tree.' 
vivayyami (text vivajjami) (vi + pad), pala-loe ' the other 

Magadhi.] Extract No. 24. 

S'akarah (Mrcch. Act X). 

{Entering in great glee). 

Mamsena tikkhamilikena bhatte 

^akena §upena sa-maseakena 
bhuttam mae attanaa^^a sehe 

sali^^a kulena gulodanena.' 

(Listening) Bhinna-kam^a-khankhanae Candalavaae ^ala- 
Samyoe.'' Yadha a e^e ukkhalide vaj^^a-dindima-^adde pada- 
hanam a sunladi, tadha takkemi, dalidda-Caludattake vajjha- 
tjhanam niadi tti.^ Ta peski^iam. S'attuvinase nama mama 

1 bhuttam mae ' I have dined' (bhuj). tikkha ' pungent' =tlksna. 
(Possibly tihkha oi tilkha would be better Mg. ). amilika * acid,' ' tama- 
rind ' (amlika cf. H. imll). bhatte 'food,' 'rice.' bhakta cf. H. bhat. 
SiTpa, would expect ^iiva cf. ruva. attanaa^a a later form than attano, 
§ 36. kula ' food, boiled rice.' guJodana ' treacle porridge' (H. gur). 

2 Sala-samyoa ' combination of accents.' (svara) ' intonation.' vsa 
' speech.' kamia ' goblet, gong' (kanisya ' brass,' etc.). 

^ ukkhalide 'raised.' khal 'move or shake.' vajjha 'of execution.' 
vadhya. Proper Mg. said to be vayyha. The combination yyha suggests 
that Mg. y differed from the usual pronunciation of "^ in the direction 
of zh. -ttana ace. Hemacandra should be -stana. 


mahante hajakkassa palidoSe hodi.' S'udain a inae, ye vi kila 
sattuni vavadaantatn peskadi, tas4a anna^sim jammantale 
ahkhi-roge na hodi. Mae khu visa-ganthi-gabbha-pavistena 
via kidaena kiin pi antalam maggaraanena uppadide taha 
dalidda-Carudattaha vina^e.^ Sampadaiu attanakelikae pana- 
da- balagga-padolikae ahiluhia attano palakkamam peskami.^ 
{Does so, and has a look) Hi, !il, edaha dalidda-Caludattaha 
vajjham niamanaha evaddhe yana-samraadde, yam velain 
amhaliSe pavale vala-raanuA'ie vajjham niadi tarn velam keliSe 
bhave ? * {Looking again) Kadharn ! ESe 6e nava-baladdake 
via mandide dakkhinam disani niadi. ^ Adha kiraniraittain 
mama-kelikae pa4ada-balagga-padolikae samlve ghosana niva- 
dida, nivalida a ■? ^ {Looking round) Kadham ! Stavalake cede 
vi natthi idha.^ Ma nama tena ido gadua raantabhede kade 
bhavi^Sadi.'* Ta yava nam annesami. {Descends and comes 
forward) . 

Servant. {Catching sight of him) Bliattalaka, e^e 6e agade I 
Executioners. O^aladha, dedha maggain, dalam dhakkedha, 
hodha tunhia, 
avinaa-tikkiia-vi^ane du^ta- bailie ido edi.'* 
This character is supposed to speak a dialect Sakari (see 

' hadakka is the usual form ; also halaa. halaka (in verse) *hrdaka. 

^ Textakkhi (Pischel § 24). Uidaa • insect ' (Al(aA:a). vi^aganthi ? a plant. 

■^ ahiluhia (abhi-^rtih). balagga {vide Ex. 23 V 

+ evaddhe 'so great' (JM. evaida ovaddaga) e- not from evain. but 
trom *ayat (Pisch. § 149, cf. *ayat + tya -*ayattia — 6ttia) vaddha = vrddha. 
yanarSarnraadda ' press of people.' pavale = Saur. pavaro. keli^e = 

^ baladdake ' bull' (cf. balivarda). '! dahkinam. 

*> nivadida (ni +pat). nivalida (m + y.r caus.). 

^ Stavalake (text thavalake) {Sthavaraka). 

^ raantabhede ' breach of counsel,' ' betrayal." kade = krto. 

^ oSaladlia (apa or ouo+«r). dalam 'door' (Saur. duaram). dhakkedha 
'shut' from ilhakkedi 'shuts,' cf. Pali thaketi from an O. I. root 
like *8thak, cf. H. dhaknS, tlhaknS 'cover — shut.' -vidana ' horn ' bailie 
" bull," Apa. baillu, modern. • bail.' Candali is sometimes spoken of as a 
separate dialect, and classed aij an Apabhram^a. 


next extract). This passage however appears to be in much 
the same kind of Masadhi as spoken by other characters. 

Mag-adhi.] Extract No. 25. 

Dialect. Sakari. 

(a) Act I, V. 18. 

cyistha Va^anta^enie, cyistha, 

kini ya^i, dhavat^i, palaaSi paskhalanti 

vasu pa^lda na niali§4a§i, cyistha dava I 
kamena dajjhadi hit me hadake tavaS^I 
angala la^i-padide via raanii^a khande ii 

cyisthn, = tistha, Pischel Grammar § 24, and § 217 quotes 
the commentator Prthvidhara as the authority for the form 
ycistha, and in general a weak y before c: he also quotes 
Markandeya for a weak y before c and j in Mg. and Vracada 
Apabhrara^a: Mg. ycilain = c^>am, yjaa = jaya. The spelling 
cyistha may be explained as the substitution of the familiar cy 
^ for the strange yc ^"^. At the same time it may be noted 
that no one knows how 'ycistha ' should be pronounced. We 
cannot be positive how "^ was pronounced in old Magadha ; 
but if it resembled any modern pronunciation, or any sort of 
palatal stop with an ofif-glide, one could more readily under- 
stand a weak y being heard after it. Very probably the ^ was 
used to mark a peculiar way of pronouncing ^, not amounting 
to a distinct sound either before or after it. (So the h in 
English wh does not represent a separate sound either after w, 
or before w as written in old English hiv, but the surd equi- 
valent of the sonant w). The reading of V'^araruci's rule XI, 5 
(Cowell, p. 179) is doubtful, but it evidently refers to a method 
of pronouncing ^ not to the addition of a distinct sound. 

paskhalanti (pra f skhal). According to the grammarians .s^A 
should remain. Text pakkhalanti. mali4§aSi = S'aur. marissasi. 
H. and P. text has cittha, which is S'aur. dajjhadi ' is burned.' 
(? dayyhadi). hadake 'heart,' the prose form is hadakke 


(*^rrfaA;a) Pise liel § 194 ta.vsbm = tapasir. Ia^i =rdH. mam^a 
= mdmsa. 

Verse 21. Mama maana-raanangam vammaha'ii vaddhaanti 
nisi a §aanake me niddaam askivanti i 
pasalai^i bhaa-bhida paskhalanti skhalanti 
mama va^am anuyada Lavana^^eva kunti II 

Vammaha so in M. and Mg. verses. Saur. mammadha. (Text 
has mammalia), niddaa 'sleep,' askivanti = aA;stpaw/t. Ks 
becomes sk. (Text has akkfiivanti, the a is impossible), pa^a- 
\a,&i = prasarasi skh remains. (Text has anujada the Saur. 
form). LavanaiSsa ' of Ravana.' The student will probably 
find the characteristic change / for r the most baulking feature 
in reading Magadhi or its dialects. 

Verse 23. Esa nanakamiisi kama-kasika ma^casika lasika 

ninna^a kula-naSika avasika kamassa manjii^ika i 

e4a vesavahii suvesa-nilaa ve^^angana vesia 

ese 6e dasa namake mai kale ayyavi mam ne^cadi n 

ndnaka ' coin.' mil^i, mosi ' stealing.' ka^ika ' whip.' 
masca + a^ika ' fish-eating.' (Text maccha°). lasika. ' dancer.' 
ninnaSa 'snub-nosed' (nir + ndsa) , i.e. of low caste. (Text 
kamassa = Saur.). e^e nom. pi. raasc. ' these.' se = Saur. se 
'of her.' mai 'by me.' kala Mg. has also kada and (like 
Saur.) kada. (Text, like Northern MSS. kale) (ajja in Text is 
Saur.). nescadi (na + icchati). Text has necchadi. 

Magadhi. Extract No. 26. 

Dialect, Dhakki. 

Mathura and the Gambler (Mrcch. Act II). 

Mathurah. Ale bhatta, da^a-suvannaha luddhu jiidakaru pa- 
pallnu papalinu. Ta genlia genha, cittha cittha diila- 
paditto si.' 

' Gren. sing, in -aha is common in Mg. cf. aha in .\pa. hiddhu = rud- 
dhah. judakaru, standard Magadhi yOdakaro. As Prthvidhara says 
nothing about ; becomes //, the / may stand. The MSS. uive ; for Magadhi 


Gambler. Jai vajjasi Padalam Indam salanam ca sampadam 
sahiam vajjia ekkam Luddo vi na lakkhidum taladi.' 

M. Kahim kahim su-sahia-vippalambhaa 

palasi le bhaa-palivevid' angaa i 
pade pade sama-visamam khalantaa 
kulam jasam adi-kasanam kalentaaii ^ 

G. {Looking at his foot) Esu vajjadi. lam panatta padavi.^ 
M. {Looking doubtfully) Ale, vippadivu padu. Padima-sunnu 

deulu! (Reflecting) Dhuttu judakaru vippadivehim pa- 

dehini deulu pavitthu.* 
G. Ta anusaremha. 
M. Evvam bhodu. 

{Both pretend to enter a temple. Looking at one another 

with comprehension). 
G. Kadharp kattamayi padima ? ^ 
M. Ale, nahu nahu, ^ela-padima. Evvam bhodu. 
Ehi, yudam kalemha. 

Notes. — Prthvidhara classes this dialect Dhakkl as an Apa- 
bhram^a, with the phonetic peculiarities of prevalence of / 
(presumably as in standard Magadhi excluding r), and dental 
as well as palatal sibilant. It is not quite clear whether it 

itself, papalinu means prapalayitah , cf. JM. palana. M. has pallia S. Mg. 
palaida-. cittha, this is the same as in Saur. cf. cyistha. yeistha above 
(p. 171). genha cittha do not end in u like pasalu. dulat-pa as in H.P. 
text is impossible. 

I This verse as printed in the editions looks much like M. except for 
^alanarp {^■^aranam) and one has salanam. 'Ruddo, rakkliidurp, tarai ' 
have been corrected. (Pischel Gr. § 25). 

i khalantaa (skhal), no evidence whether Dhakkl followed Mg. in the 
treatment of skh. Text jasam ; the wrong sibilant, kalentaa pres. part. 
kaledi = Saur. karedi. 

8 Text eso, but esu is established elsewhere. Mg. would be e^e. 

* vippadlvu = vipratlpah. deulu = devakulam § 82. The last sentence 
seems to be a quotation : hence perhaps the mixture of forms in the 
editions, beginning with Dhakki and ending in Sauraseni. 

6 katthamayl ' wooden ' : here y has been retained. 


followed Mg. in any other respects. Features pointing to Apa- 
bhrarn^a stage are nom. sing, in u (masc. and neuter), impera- 
tive 2nd sing, in u. The MSS. as usual fluctuate considerably 
and it is not always possible to determine the correct form 
(assuming that the author wrote the dialect consistently), 

Magadhi. Extract No. 27. 

Lalita-Vigraharaja— nataka (Act IV). 
(Edited Kielhorn, Indian Antiquary, vol. xx, 1891). 
Two Turushka prisoners meet a spy who is a fellow-country- 

Vandinau : Ese 6e S'ayambhalisala-!^ivila-nive6e.' Edas- 
sini alaskiyyamana-jaayyande kadhaiii [laj-ulam yani- 
davvam.^ {Purovalokya) Vaya^sa ese ke vi chale * vva 
diSadi ? Ta imado eda^sa sivilas^a saliivam * laularn ca 
Carah : A'^caliyam a^caliyam ! Alio Viggahala3-nalesala-;iili- 
nam avayyandada.^ {Purovalokya) Amha-desiya vva kevi 
puli^a pc^kiyyandi. Yane vandihim edehim huvidavvam. 

Vandinau : Bhadda, amhanam Tuluskauam de^iye vva tum- 
am peSkiyyasi. Ta kadhehi Cahamana-^ivila-^alilvarii 
laulam ca. 

Carah : S'unadha le vandino sunadha. Hage Tuluskalaena 
^aambhalisala^^a 6ivilani pe^kidurii pe^ide, Tani ca d lisani- 
calain ; yado tatthastehim idale puscande vi ni[li^kan]de 
vi a palakiye tti yaniyyadi.^ Tadhavi raae kiinpi kiiiipi 
paccakkhikadam . '' 

' SakambharUvara : divila = Sibira 

^ alak»yamana- par y ante. YSnidavvani = S. janidawani. 
' chale * spy' (carah). 
* Inscription has 65aluvatn (svarupain). 
''' 'boundlessness' (aparyantata). sill nam ' of glories ' 
f idale = 6. idaro; puscande = S. pucchanto. ySniyyadi should be 
ySniadi. niliSkande = 8. nirikkhanto (ntr-fifc^). 

"T = pralyaknkrtam but cf. bhiSkain la^kidam below. 


Vandinau : A^caliam asscaliam ! Kadham bhadda, tattha uva- 
stidanam cadulide anuam pi tae la^kidam.' 

Charah : Sunadha le vandino yadha mae tarn Sivilam niluvi- 
daiu. Hage khu sili-Sbme^ala evam peSkidum vannanda^^a 
sa^ta§^a milide, inilia a ettha paviiiuna bhi^katn paStidum 
lagge.'^ Tado yam yam yanidam tam tarn tumhanam 
yahastam '^ kadhiyadu. Maavali-ni;?^Za-kalala-kada8tala- 
nam kalindanain dava sahassam.* Tulunganam una las- 
kam. Nalanam una ?/M;;Aa-!5kamanain daha la^kaim ti.' 
Kim vahuna yampidena ? Tas§u kadaas^a pasu-stide §aale 
vi suske bhodi.*^ (Bahum utksipya) Edam ca tam laulum.'' 
(iti dar&ayati). 

Vandinau : Sahu le cala sahu ! 

Charah : Ale le vandino cilam khu me 

nia-stanado ni§^ali-da^sa." Ta hage vafifiami.'* 

Vandinau : Gasca le cala ga^ca. 

{iti caro niskrdntah). 
Vandinau : (Purato gatvdvalokya) Tam nidam laula-duvalam 
ta idha stida eva nia-laa-ppahavam paya^emha. {Punar 
avalokya : sanandam) Ese se ^aambhalf^ale astana-stide 
pulado disadi. 

The Magadhi in this inscription is interesting because it fol- 
lows more closely than any MS. the rules given by Hema- 
candra. As the author Somadeva was a contemporary of 

I cadulide (?) = *caturite from catura 'in their cleverness." la^kidam 
= 6. lakkhidarn. 

^ Sotnesvaradeva may be the name of a prince -paviiiiana a M. , JM. or 
AMg. ending, pa^tidum = prarthayitum. 

> yathartham. According to the rules should be yadhastain. 

•* mada-vari-nirjhara nijjhala = M. nijjhara ? should be niyyhala. 

"> yujjha = yuddha is against the dialect, daha for da^a according to 
Pischel is wrong. 

" kadaa ' host.' (kataka). Saale ' ocean.' 

■? niS^alida p. part from nii^aladi {nih-^sr). 

"> • wander.' *vrajnami in class !). 


Hemacandra, it has been suggested that he may have been 
acquainted with that grammarian, or at least with his grammar. 
Some errors have been corrected in the inscription itself, never- 
theless there remain forms which are not correct according to 
Hemacandra, e.g. nij jhala, j'ujjha, yahastaip, pavi^iilna. There 
is no reason to suppose that the stage kept up the correct form 
of Magadhi down to the twelfth century, and this probably 
represents an attempt to carry out the rules for M agadhi that 
were traditional among the grammarians, more consistently 
than usual , in order to make the speech of the Turki prisoners 
and spies sound very foreign. It is a curious accident that the 
latest recorded fragment of Magadhi is the most archaic in form 
that has been found. 

"Avanti."] Extract No, 28. 

and Ddksinntya. 

Viraka and Caadanaka (Mrcch. Act VI). 

Virakah. Are re are jaa-jaamana-candanaa-mahgala-phulla- 
bhadda-ppamuha — 

kim acchadha visaddhii jo so govala-darao baddho, 
bhettunasamain vaccai naravai-hiaam a bandhanam cavi ii 
Ale, puratthime padoli-duare. 

Cittha tumam. Tumam pi pacchime, tumam pi dakkhine, 
tumain pi uttare. Jo vi eso paara-khando, edatn ahiruhia can- 
danena samaiii gadua avaloemi. Ehi Candanaa, ehi. Ido 

Candauakah. Are re Viraa-visalla-Bhimahgaa-dandakalaa- 
danda-sura-ppamuha , 

aacchadha visaddha turiain jatteha lahu karejjaha 
Lacchi jena na ranno pahavai gottantaram gantuniH^ 

' ^aur. acchadlia. M. bliettuna. vaccai. These latter however occur 
in a verse : gadua below is of tlie 6aur. type. Ale seems to be a frag- 
ment of Mg. out of place here. 

i visalla=ri-^a/)/a. 


avi a, 

ujjanesu sahasu a magge naarla avane ghose i 
tain tain johaha turiam sanka va jaae jatthall ' 
Re re Vlraa kirn kim darisesi bhanahi dava visaddham 
bhettuna a bandhanaam ko so govala-daraam haraiin * 
kass' atthamo dinaaro, kassa caiittho a vattae cando, 
ehattho a bhaggava-gaho, bhumisuo pancamo kassa? ^ 
bbana kassa jamma-chattho jivo navamo tabea surasuo 
jiante Candanae ko so govala-daraam harai ? * 

Virakah. Bhada Candanaa ! 

Avaharai kovi turiain, Candanaa, savami tujjha hiaena 
jaha addh-uida-dinaare govalaa-darao khudido.^ 
[Servant. Yadhagona, yadha.]'' 

Candanakah. Are re, pekkha pekkha. 

Ohario pavahano vaccai majjhena raa-maggassa 

edam dava viaraha kassa kahira pavasio pavahano tti.'' 

Virakah. Are pavahana-vahaa ! ma dava edam pavahanam 
vahehi. Kassa-kerakam edam pavahanam 1 Ko va idha 
arudho 1 Kahim va vajjai ? 

1 turiam 6. turidarn. jatteha = 6. jattedha (yatadhvam). karejjaha 
opt., pahavai, are all M in forml naarla loc. sing, oblique fem. sing, in 
-ia is common in M. verses, johaha (" yojayata" " anve^ayata") ? fut. of 
(Apa. ) joedi 'sees.' {dyu) or Vyudh to "go for." jaae = JS. jayade. 
jattha relat. of attha = atra. In other dialects generally jahirn is used. 

'^ darisesi " seest." 

■■^ caiittho ' fourth,' S. caduttho. ehattho ' sixth ' (of. H. chata). gaho 
for ggaho ' planet.' bhaggava ' belonging to Bhpgu's daughter.' bhumi- 
suo ' son of the earth ' = Mars. 

•* tahe&^tathaiva. surasuo ' son of the Sun ' = Saturn. 

5> savami 'I swear.' addh'uida 'half risen,' 6aur. udida : M. udia(? 
read udia). khudido ' removed' (" khanditah ") ? from a root khut. Not 
the same as S. khudida ' broken,' = *ksudita for ksumia. (Pischel S 568). 

6 The servant speaks Mg. gono ' bull ' is the masc. form usual in AMg., 
Mg. For derivation Pischel suggests *gavana or *gurna. The first seems 
the more probable. 

■7 oharia' covered' (opa + vr). pavah ana ' carriage.' (pra + vah). vaccai 
' goes ' (of. JM. p. 123, n. 4). viaraha ' ascertain ' (vi + car). pavasio ' set 
out' {pra-\-vas-=propita). 



[Servant. E6e kkhu pavahane ayya-Caludattaha kelake. 

Idha ayyaa Va^anta^ena aludha. Puspha-kalandaani 

yinnuyyanam kllidum Caludattas4a niadi.] ' 
Virakah (going wp to Candana). Eso pavahana-vahao bhanadi 

'• ajja-Carudattassa pavahanam ; Vasantasena arudha; 

Puppha-karandaam jinnujjanam niadi 'tti,"*^ 
C. Ta gacchadu. 
V. Anavaloido jjeva. 
C. Adha im ? 
V. Kassa paccaena ? 
C. Ajja-Carudattassa. 
V. Ko ajja-Carudatto ? Ka va Vasantasena, jena anavalo- 

idam vajjai? 
C. Are, ajja-Carudattara na janasi, na va Vasantaseniam ! jai 
ajja-Carudattam Vasantaseniam va na janasi, ta gaane 
jonha-sahidam candain na janasi.^ 

Ko tam gunaravindam sila-miankam jano na janadi ? 

avanna-dukkha-mokkhara caii-saara-saraam raanani, 

do jeva piiania iha naarie tilaa-bhOda a 

ajja Vasantasena, dhamma-nihi Carudatto a.* 
Notes. — Prthvldhara makes both characters speak Avanti, 
of which he gives only the jejune information that it possesses 
the dental s, and m, and is rich in proverbial sayings. Mar- 
kandeya describes it as a mixture of S'auraseni and Maharastri. 
Such indeed appears to be the character of the dialect as given by 
the MSS. Candanaka however speaks of himself as a Southerner 
" vaam dakkhinattha avvatta-bhasino — " 'We Southerners 

1 MSS. and Editions have ja and jja for Mg. ya yya. Mg. kelake 
= A kerako. puspha (following Homacandra), MSS. vary. Usual reatling 
puppha. yinnuyyanam ' old garden.' Here we have the two Mg. geni- 
tives side by side. 

=2 There is no point in supposing V. mimics the servant's dialect 
especially aa he does not repeat his exact words ; naturally he reports to 
C. in his usual language. 

3 jonha ' moonlight.' 

♦ cau-sSara-saraam ' containing the essence of the four oceans.' -nilii 
' treasury.' 


speak indistinctly. So Pischel thought it unlikely that Can- 
danaka spoke AvantI, but more probable that he spoke Dakei- 
natya (Bharata 17. 48. Sahityadarpana, p. 173. 5). It would 
appear that this was not very different from Avanti, and that 
both were nearly related to Sauraseni. ' vaam dakkhinattha ' 
however would be ' amhe dakkhinacca ' in Sauraseni. 

Jain S'auraseni] Extract No. 29. 

(Portions of this were printed with Sanskrit version by R. 
Bhandarkar in Appendix III, (p. 379 £f.) of Report on the 
Search for Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Bombay Presidency 
during the year 1883-84. Published 1887. There is a complete 
edition with several Sanskrit commentaries published at Bom- 
bay. Vira Samvat 2438). 

I. (69). Deva-jadi-guru-piijasu veva danammi va susilesu i 
uvavasadisu ratto suhovaog'appago appa || 
(70). Jutto suhena ada tiriyo va manuso ya devo va i 

bhiido tavadakalam lahadi suham indiyam viviham ii 
(74). Jadi santi hi punnani ya parinama-samubbhavani 
■* vivihani i 

janayanti visaya-tanham jivanam devadantanam n 
(75). Te puna udinnatanha duhida tanhahim visaya- 
sokkhani i 
icchanti anuhavanti ya amaranam dukkha-santatta H 
III. (13). Caradi nibaddho niccara samano nanammi damsa- 
namuhammi i 
pay ado mula-gunesu ya ajo so padipunna-samanno ii 
(18). Havadi va na havadi bandho made hi(m) jive'dha 
kayacetthammi i 
bandho dhuvam uvadhido idi savana chaddiya 
savvain n 
(19). Na hi niravekkho caii na havadi bhikkhussa asaya- 
visuddhi i 
avisuddhassa ya citte kaham nu kamma-kkhayo 
vihiu 11 


The cerebral w is used initially whereas AMg. JM. manu- 
scripts prefer initial n (dental). The letter ya is used as in 
other Jain MSS. 

This Prakrit contains words and forms that are quite foreign 
to ordinary Sauraseni — bub found in Maharastri or Ardha- 
Magadhl. Perhaps some of the Sauraseni forms which are 
allowed by Hemacandra, but never found in the dramas, are 
derived from Digambara Texts. (Pischel § 21). 

(69). veva. Editor suggests ye va. Sanskrit version co/w. 

The MS. seems to have fluctuated in the use of 

ya and va. danammi loc. as in M. upayoga- 

(70). a,dei = dtmd, i.e. *dtd, cf. AMg. aya ; JM. atta. tiriyo 

' animal ' {tiryak). 
(74). devaddntdndm. 
(75). tanha = tanha. This is merely an orthographical 

peculiarity ; so is the spelling khk for kkh. 
III. (13). nanammi 'in knowledge.' 

(18). uvadhido abl. of uvadhi (MpadA^). idi = iti. savana 

= sramandh, chaddiya should be chaddida (Piscliel 

^ 291) = chardita cf. S'. vicchaddida, M. vicchad- 

dia, AMg. JM. vicchaddiya. 
(19). cdiVi — tydgo JM. cayo. The ending u cf. vihiu 

is exceptional and probably wrong, the mistake 

being due to the influence of later vernacular. 

Bombay Edition has cayo and vihio. 

Bhasa.] Extract No. 30. 

Svapna -Vasavadattam (Act IV, p. 29). 

Enter the Jester. 

Jester. {Oleefully) Ditthia taitahodo Vaccha-raassa abhippeda- 

vivahamangala-ramaniy/o kalo dittho. Ko nfuua edaiii 

jaiiadi — tildise vayam anattha-saji] avatte pakkhitta una 


ummajjissamo tti.' Idanim pasadesu vasiadi, andeura- 
digghiasu hndiadi, palama-maiira-suumardni niodaa-khaj- 
jmni khajjianti tti an-Acchara-saravaso Utturakuru-vaso 
mae anubhaviadi.'^ Ekko khu mahanto doso,maraa aliaro 
sutthu na parinamadi, suppacchadanae sayyde niddaiii ria 
labharai, jaha vada-sonidam abhido via vattadi tti pek- 
khami.^ Bho suhain ??amflt/a-paribhudam akallavattam 

Enter a Maidservant. 

Maid, Kahim nu khu gado ay^a- Vasantao ? {Stepping round) 

1 tattahodo should be tattha. § 45. man gala. Cerebral 1 is written 
throughout for the dental. This is common in MSS. written in S. India. 
Cf. ramanlam, p. 36. vayam Saur. has amhe, Daksinatya vaam (also 
allowed in Saur. by Vararuci and Markandeya), AMg. vayam, Pali 
vayam. ummajjinamo ' we shall emerge.' 

2 andeura. anteura is correct (as on p. 24) but MSS. often give -nd 
for-nt, so "Saundala" for Sauntala. This was probably due to the 
influence of Apabhram^a in which the change is common, hnaladi. Saur. 
nhaiadi. The MS. has regularly hn and hm for )ih, mh. At first sight 
this looks like a sign of antiquity ; for h here represents s and hna seems 
nearer sna than nha. The spelling hm, hn however is found in texts, 
where nh, mh is well estabUshed as correct. Pali forms like amhe, naha- 
tako {=snatako) show that the inversion is ancient. ^Moreover the 
difference between eg bamhano and (as in Bhasa) bahmano is not very 
great to the ear. So hna, hma vaa,y be only orthographical variations, 
palama =paramo. No apparent reason for I or Zhere. maiira for mahura 
(=madhura). This appears to be a mistake, p. 6 has mahura. suuma- 
rani = °rairn. Neut. Plural in -arii occurs in AMg. JM. .j6. not in M. or 
Saur. In Pali it can be -ani as in Skt. 

3 sayyae (:=sayyayam) M. AMg. JM. sejjae, Mg. ^eyyae. Here again 
double yy for double //, as in ayyaiitta, might be taken as a sign of anti- 
quity. Hemacandra allows yya for rya in Saur. The spelling is occa- 
sionally found in South Indian MSS. ]\Iost write only a circle ^c^ 
a°a which, says Pischel, either allows a choice between yya and jja, or is 
intended to express a sound between the two. (Pischel § 284). In the 
case of Skt. yya there is no authority for Saur. having anything but jja. 
jaha is regular in M. (6aur. jadha). 

* namaya- amaya ' indigestion ' should be amaa in 6aur. If it is not a 
mistake, it is an archaism, kalla-vatta ' breakfast.' 


.4/imo eso Vasantao. (Approaches) Ayya\ Vasantaa! Ko 

kalo i tnmara annesami.' 
Jester. (Looking) Kirn nimittaiu, bhadde ! mam annesasi ? 
Maid. Ahmanam bhattim bhanadi-avi hnddo jamaduo tti.'^ 
Jester. Kim nimittam bhodi, pucchadi ? 
Maid. Kim annam ? sumana-vannaain anemi tti. 
Jester. Hnado toWabhavam. Savvam anedu bhodi vajjia 

Maid. Kiin nimittaiu varesi bhoanam ? 
Jester. Adhannassa mama koilanam akkhi-parivatto via kuk- 

khi-parivatto samvutto.^ 

Maid. Idiso evva hohi. 

Jester. Gacchadu bhodi. Java aham vi tattahodo. Saasam 



(Enter Padmavati with retinue and Vasavadatta wearing 
Avanti dress.) 

Maid. Kimnimittam bhatti-daria Pamada-vanani aada ? 
Padma. Haja, tani dava seh^lisi-guhmadni pekkhami kusami- 

ddyii va na vetti.^ 
Maid. Bhatti-darie ! tani kusumidaru' nama, paval '-antari- 

dehiip via mottia-lambaehini aidant kusumehini. 
Padma. Hala ! jadi evvam, kira danim vilambesi ? 
Maid. Tena hi imassim sila-vattae muhuttaam upavisadu 

bhatti-daria. Java aham vi kusumavacaam karemi.^ 

' ayya, see note on sayyae above. Ahmo usual spelling ammo, see 
note on hnaladi above. Telang's edition of the Malati-madhavam has 
the spelling ahmo. Another reading here is amme, p. 10 htis ammo. 

^ jamaduo § CO. 

•^ kukkhi • belly.' 

* Java is the ordinary form. Ya does not appear here, ahampi would 
be better. 

6 guhmaa {'' gulmaka") AMg. 6. Mg. yurama ^ 4S. There seems no 
reason for the spelling with hm. In the previous Act " guhmadu " 
represents gumphadu, where the inversion is not archaic. 

« Hlapattaka 'stone slab.' (On p. 3<i, sil5-pattaka). uvavisadu is 
correct 6aur. So correctly uvarada, p. 40. a\aoaani, no ya appears here. 


Padma. Ayyel Kim ettha. Mpavisamo ? 
Vasava. Evvam hodu. 

(They both sit down). 

[The words in italics are not normal S'auraseni]. 


Jester. Hurrah ! We must congratulate His Highness King 
Vatsa on this happy occasion graced by the good auspices 
of his intended marriage. But who knows that — —in an 
affair like this after being chucked out in the sink, we 
shall come up again ? At present all through the palaces 
they are dressing themselves, bathing themselves in the 
private baths, and eating the sweetest, tenderest sweet- 
meats — while I may enjoy the arctic regions, without a 
Nymph to keep me company ! — There's one thing about it 
that's very bad — my food doesn't digest well, and though 
my couch is piled with quilts I can't sleep, for seing the 
Wind and Blood disease circling all around. Bah ! it's a 
bad business, prostrate with illness and — no breakfast ! 

Maid. Wherever has worthy Vasantaka got to ? Why ! 
here he is. My good Vasantaka, how are you ? I was 
looking for you. 

Jester. And why, good lady, were you looking for me ? 

Maid. Our mistress says — Surely son-in-law has bathed. 

Jester. Why do you ask lady ? 

Maid. What do you think ? I am bringing the wedding paint 
of course. 

Jester. Bring anything except food. 

Maid. Why do you bar food ? 

Jester. I've got a twist in my poor belly like the squint of a 

Maid. May you keep so. 

Jester. Fare you well. I will just go to His Highness. 

Maid. Why has my mistress come to Cupid's grove 


Padmavati. Ah, I am looking to see if these vitex bushes are 

in flower or not. 
Maid. They are in flower, madam, with flowers like strings 

of pearls hidden in the young leaves. 
Padma. Ah ! If that is so, why do you delay ? 
Maid. Wont your ladyship sit on this stone seat while I 

gather some flowers ? 
Padma. My good girl ! Why should we sit here ? 
Vasava. Let us do so. 

Pali.] Extract No. 31. 

Jataka 308. 
(Fausboll. Edn., Vol. Ill, p. 25. Trans. Francis and Neile, 

Vol. Ill, p. 17). 


Atite Baranasiyam Brahmadatte rajjam karente Bodhisatto 
Himavanta-padeserukkha-kottha-sakuno hutva nibbatti. Ath- 
'ekassa sihassa mamsam khadantassa atthi gale laggi, galo 
uddhumayi, gocaram ganhitum na sakkoti, khara vedana 

Notes. — Fara?m5?/a?n = A Mg. Vanarasle. Brahma-Pkt. bam- 
ha. karente causal participle, S'. , karente is active, ruk- 
kha° — " woodpecker " rukkha so in M. S'., etc. —ruksa Vedic 
"tree" doubtless related to vrksa whence M. JM. vaccha- 
(Pischel § 320). hutva = S'. bhavia, AMg. hotta. nibbatti " was 
born again" aor. (nir + vri) from nibbatti = 8'. nivvattadi. 
Atha=S'. adha. siha so in M. (§65). laggi "stuck" aor. 
from laggadi. ud-dhumayi 'was blown up, swelled up,' 
pass, aor: from uddhumi\ya,t'\ ^uddhnynayate. ganhitum = S'. 
genhidum. sakkoti = S'. sakkunoti. JM. sakkai, sakkei. vat- 
tanti =S. vattanti. 

Atha nani so sakuno gocara-pasuto disva sakhaya nilino 
'* kin te samma dukkhatiti " pucchi. So tarn atthaiii acikkhi 
" Ahan te samma etarn atthiiii apaneyyaiii, bhayena te 
mukham pavisitum na visahami, khsideyyasi pi man " ti " nia 
bhayi samma, nalian tarii khadami, jlvitani medehiti." 


Notes. — i\a,m * him.' pasuto 'intent on' seekincr (food) = 
prasita. disva = drsiva, AMg. dissti, dissa, dissani. Sakhaya cf. 
M. loc. nialaa. nilliio " perched" past part. pas.s. of niifyati 
of S'. nillamana. samma '" friend, good sir" ? from sninyak. 
acikkhi "told" acikkhati {a + khyd redupUcated) = Amg. 
aikkhai. apaneyyam "I would remove" S'. would be ava- 
neam, AMg. avanejja. visahami (vi + sah) "dare." 

So "sadhu" ti tarn passena nipajjapetva " ko janati kiiii 
p'esa karissatiti" eintetva yatha mukham pidahitum na sak- 
koti tatha tassa adharotthe ca uttarotthe ca dandakara tha- 
petva mukhani pavisitva atthikotini tundena pahari. Atthi 
patitva gatam. So atthiin patetva sihassa mukhato nikkha- 
manto dandakam tundena paharitva patento nikkhamitva 
sakhagge niliyi. 

Notes. — passa = S'. pasa. nipajjapetva gerund of causal from 
nipajjati {ni + pad). pidahitum infin. from pidahati ' shuts ' 
{{0)^1 dha). niliyi 'perched ' see nilino above. 

Siho nirogo hutva ekadivasam vana-mahisam vadhitva kha- 
dati. Sakuno " vimamsissami nan" ti tassa uparibhage sa- 
khaya niliyitva tena saddhim sallapanto pathamam gatham aha : 
Akaramhase te kiccam yam balani ahuvamhase, 
migaraja namo ty-atthu, api kifici labhamase. 
Notes. — vimamsissami fut. of vimamsati "examine, try" 
(mimamsate). pathama = Pkt. padhama. akaramhase imper- 
fect (or aorist) atm. ahuvamhase the same from bhavati. 
try-athu = (t7i -i-asiw). labhamase imperative atm. 

Tarn sutva siho dutiyam gatham aha : 

Mama lohita-bhakkhassa niccam luddani kubbato 
dant'antara-gato santo tam bahum yani hi jivasiti 

Tarn sutva sakuno itara dve gatha abhasi : 

akatannum akattaram katassa appatikarakam 
yasmim kataiinuta n' atthi nirattha tassa sevana. 
Yassa sammukha-cinnena mittadhammo na labbhati 
anusuyyam anakkosam sanikam tamha apakkame ti. 
Evara vatva so sakuno pakkami. 


Notes. bhakkha 'feeding on.' kubbanto pres. part, of 

karoti. luddani ' cruelties.' (lubdha). abhasi ' spoke ' aor. 
of bbasati. kataniiu ' grateful ' (krtajna). -cinna ' performed ' 
(*clrna) used as p.p.p. to carati "a deed done in a person's 
presence, so, a personal kindness." sanikam ' quickly.' 
Sometimes means 'slowly' like sanaih: original meaning 
'gently, softly.' tamha (tasmdt) is used adverbially in S'. 

Pali]. Extract No. 32. 

Jataka 339. 

(Fausboll. Vol. Ill, p. 126. Trans. Vol. Ill, p. 83). 

Bdveru jataka. 

Atite Baranasiyain Brahmadatte rajjam karente Bodhisatto 
iiiora-yoniyam nibattitva vuddliim anvaya sobbagga-patto 
arailne vicari. Tada ekacce vanija disa-kakam gabetva navaya 
Baverurattharn agamamsu. Tasmim kira kale Baveruratthe 
sakuna nama n'attbi. Agatagata rattha-vasino tam kup'agge 
nisinnani disva " passath' imassa cbavivannam gala-pariyo- 
sanam mukhatundakani mani-gulaka-sadisani akkhiniti " ka- 
kam ev'^a pasamsitva te vanijake ahatnsu : "imam ayyo saku- 
nam amhakani detha, amhakam bi imina attbo, tumhe attano 
rattbe aiinam labhissatba ' ' ti. " Tena bi miilena ganbatba " 
ti. " Kabapanena no detbii " ti. "Nadema" ti. Anupub- 
bena vaddhetva " satena detba ' ' ti vutte ' ambtikara esa babu- 
pakaro, tumbebi pana saddbim raetti botu " ti kabapana- 
satam gabetva adanisu. 

vuddhim anvaya " attaining full growtb " geruud {ami + i) 
formed by analogy witb maya from mi, instead of *anvetva. 
ekacce ' certain ' {*eka-tya-) disa kakam ' foreign crow.' aga 
mamsu, 3, plur. aor. "went." Kira = kila. Tbe Baveru 
kingdom was evidently on the sea, in a country where birds 
were supposed to be scarce, probably up the Persian Gulf, 
agagag'ata "passers by, spectators." kupa 'mast.' ni- 
sinnam ' perched ' = JM. nisinna. passatha, 2nd plur. imperat. 
"look at." -pariyosanam "at the end of" {paryavasdna) 


" termination. ' ' ayyo, perhaps we should read ayya. ' ' Sirs ' ' 
= S'. -ajja. Kahapana a coin, here probably of silver, metti 
"friendship." adamsu, adv. " they gave." 

Te tarn gahetva suvanna-panjare pakkhipitva nanappa- 
karena macchamamsena c'eva phalaphalena ca patijaggimsu. 
Annesam sakunanam avijjamanatthane dasahi asaddhammehi 
samannagato kako labhagga-yasagga-ppatto ahosi. Punavare 
te vanija ekain may ura-rajanam gahetva yatha accharasaddena 
vassati panippaharasaddena naccati evam sikkhapetva Baveru 
rattharp agamamsu. So mahajane sannipatite navaya dhure 
thatvapakkhe vidhunitva madhura-ssaram niccharetva nacci. 

phalaphala "wild fruits." Pali often lengthens a vowel 
when a word is repeated in a compound, so khandakhandam " in 
pieces," kiccakiccani "all sorts of duties." patijaggimsu, 
aor. pati-jaggati "watch over, look after" {prati + jagr) . 
samannagato ' ' endowed with ' ' {sam + anu + a + gam) : the 
equivalent of this is found in Buddhist Sanskrit, yasagga 
"height of glory." puna-vare "the next time." acchara 
" snapping of the fingers." vassati " screams " x^'va&. They 
had trained it to scream at the snapping of the fingers and to 
dance at the clapping of the hands, dhure "on the prow." 
thatva M. JM. thaiiina AMg. JS'. thicca. nicchareti "emit, 
-utter ' ' causal of niccharati (nU + car). 

Manussa tam disva somanassa-jata " etam ayyo sobhagga- 
pattam susikkhita-sakuna-rajanam amhakam detha " ti aham- 
su. " Amhehi pathamam kako anito, tarn ganhittha, idani 
etam mora-rajanara anayimha, etam pi yacatha, tumhakam 
ratthe sakunanam nama gahetva agantuni na sakka " ti " Hotu 
ayyo, attano ratthe afinarn labhissatha, imam no detha" ti 
mulam vaddhetva sahassena ganhirpsu. Atha nam satta- 
ratana-vicitte panjare thapetva macchamamsa-phalaphalehi 
c'eva madhu-laja-sakkhara-panakadihi ca patijaggimsu, Mayu- 
raraja labhagga-yasagga-ppatto jato. Tassagatakalato pat- 
thaya kakassa labhasakkaro parihayi, koci nam oloketura pi 
na icchati. Kako khadaniya-bhojaniyani alabhamano ' kaka ' 
ti vassanto gantva ukkarabhumiyam otari. 


ahamsu aor. "they said." ganhittha 2, plur. '\vou 
took." anayimha " we have brought." sakka "it is pos- 
sible." Sometimes this can be explained as the plural of sakko, 
'able' { = iakyah), but it is often indeclinable, and Pischel 
derived from iakyal § 13'J. " It will be impossible to come and 
even mention the name of any bird in your country." tha- 
petva = AMg. thavetta, JM. thavitta, thaviilna, thaviya, S'. 
thavia, thavia. laja " fried corn." patthaya " from " lit., 
" setting out from " {'pra-'r stha), so ajjapatthaya "from this 
day forth." parihayi " fell off." khadaniyam " what can 
be chewed, hard food." bhojaniyam " soft food." In verse 
we find kajjabhojjam. 'kaka' ti vassanto "crying caw, 
caw." ukkarabhumi " dunghill." otari " settled on." 

Palil Extract No. 33. 

Mahavamsa, Bk. VII. 
Conquest of Ceylon. 
(Dines Anderson's Reader, p. 110. Geiger's trans, p. 55). 
The Buddha at his decease informed Indra that Vijaya son 
of King Sihabahu had gone to Lanka with seven hundred 
followers, and asked that he and his followers should be care- 
fully protected. Indra handed over the guardianship of Lanka 
to Visnu. 

V. 6. Sakkena vuttamatto so Lankam agamma sajjukam 
paribbajaka-vesena rukkhamiilam upavisi. 
7. Vijaya-ppanuikha sabbe tain upecca apucchisum ; 

" Ayani bho ko nu dipo ? " ti. " Lankadipo " ti abruvi. 

V. 6. " vutta p.p. p. from vatti " he speaks " so in JM. AMg. 
matta {matra), Pkts. have more commonly -metta. 
AMg. -mitta. agamma gerund of Jigacchati. sajju- 
kam " quickly " derived from sadyah. vesena " in 
the disguise " (of a parivrdjaka, wandering ascetic). 

V. 7. -ppamukha ' with V at their head,' i.e. 'V. and his 


V. 8. " na saflti manuja ettha, na ca hessati vo bhayam " — 
iti vatva kundikayam te jalena nisinciya 
9. suttan ca tesam hatthesu laggetva nabhasagama, 
dasaesi sonirupena paricarika-yakkhini. 

10. Eko tarn variyanto pi rajaputtena anvaga 

*' gaaiamhi vijjamanamhi bhavanti sunakha " iti. 

11. Tassa ca samini tattha Kuveni nama yakkhini 
nisldi rukkha-miilainhi kantanti tapasi viya. 

12. Disvana so pokkharanirn nisinnam tan ca tapasi m 
tattha nahatva pivitva c'adaya ca muilalayo — 

13. Varifi ca pokkhare heva so vutthasi, tana abruvi : 

" bhakkho si mama, tittha " ti, alhabaddho va so naro. 

14. Parittasuttatejena bhakkhetum sa na sakkuni 
yaciyanto pi tam suttani nada yakkhiniya naro. 

15. Tam gahetva surungayara rudantatp yakkhini khipi, 
evatn ekekaso tattha khipi sattasatani pi. 

V. S. hessati, fut. from bhavati (*havissati) bhavissadi is 

also common. 
V. 9. suttam, e.g. as a protection against evil sprits, agama, 

aor. " vanished"; also agami, agacchi, agamasi, etc. 

dassesi "there appeared," aor. cf. dasseti = dar- 

iayati. soni " bitch." 

V. 10. variyanto, partic. of variyati pass, of vareti "forbid," 

caus. of vunati. anvaga "followed." sunakha 

" dogs " {iunakdh) — " only where there is a village." 

V.ll. Kantanti " spinning." 

V. 12. disvana, gerund = disva, also passitvana. mulalayo, 

ace. plur. "lotus shoots" {mrndli). 
V. 13. So Reader has sa but it was the man who came out of 

the tank not the yakkhini. alhabaddho "fast 

bound." alhaka is a tethering post (drdhaka). 
V. 14. sakkuni aor. sakkunati 'is able.' also asakkhi from 

sakkati. paritta-sutta "protection thread," i.e. 

"thread charm" or "magic thread." nada = na 

ada " he did not give." 
V.15. khipi " hurled." 


V. 16. Anayantesu sabbesu vijayo bhayasankito 

raddhapaficayudho gantva disva pokkharanim subbani 

17. apassa-m-uttinnapadam basantin c'eva tapasim, 
"ituaya khalu bbacca me gahita nil " ti cintiya : 

18. " kim na passasi bbacce me bboti tuam " iti aba tain, 
"kim rajaputta bbaccebi, piva nabaya " ty-aba aa. 

19. " Yakkhini tava janati mama jatin " ti niccbito 
sigbam sanamarp savetva dhanum sandbay' upagato. 

20. Yakkbim adaya givaya naraca-valayena so 
vamabattbena kesesu gabetva dakkbinena tu 

21. ukkbipitva asira aba: "bbacce me debi dasi, tam 
maremiti," bbayuttba sa jivitam yaci yakkbini: 

22. *' Jivitam debi me sami, raj jam dassami te abam, 
karissam' ittbikiccaii ca aniiam kinca yatbiccliitam " 

23. Adubbattbaya sapatbam so tam yakkbim akarayi, 
" Anebi bbacce sigban " ti vuttamatta va sa nayi. 

24. " Ime cbata " ti vutta sa tanduladi viniddisi 
bhakkbitanam vanijanam navattbam vividbam babuni 

25. Bbacca te sadbayitvana bbattani vyafijanani ca 
rajaputtam bbojayitva sabbe capi abbunjisuin. 

V. 16. anayanta " not coming." naddha " fastened, equip- 
ped witb." apassa — " wbere be saw no footstep of 
any man coming fortb," -m- is a sandbi consonant. 
bhacca "servants" (hhrtyah). bhoti "Lady." 

V. 19. sa-namam "bis name." savetva, gerund, caus. of 
sunoti. sandhaya "making ready-drawing" also 
sandbetva, sandabitva, from sandabati, sandbeti 
{sam + dha) . 

V.20. naraca " a weapon." valaya- " noose." 

V. 21 . bhayattha = bhaya-sthd. 

V. 22. -kiccam {Icrtyam) so in S. 

V.23. adubhatthaya. "tbat be migbt not be betrayed." 
sapatbam " oatb." 

V. 24. chata " bungry " {psdta) §39. viniddisi "sbowed" 
(vi + nir + di6) . 


Old Prakrit ] Extract No. 34. 

Hathigumpha Inscription. 

This Inscription is in one of the Udayagiri caves 19 miles 
from Cuttack. A corrected text was published by Bhagwanlal 
Indraji in the Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress 
of Orientalists at Leiden, 1883, Part III, p. 135. It is written 
in Old Brahml characters and has been assigned to the 2nd 
cent. B.C.' The inscription gave a summary of Kharavela's 
reign year by year. Unfortunately it is very fragmentary. 
As is the case with Asoka's inscriptions, double consonants 
are written single, but tliey have been rendered as double 
consonants in this extract in order tiiat the forms should 
be more " familiar to the student. The difference is only 
orthographic, once it has been determined what words were 

(1) Namo Arahantanam ! Namo savva-Siddhanam ? Verena 
maharajena maha-megha-vahanena. Ceta-raja-vamsa-vaddha- 
nena pasattha-subha-lakkhanena catur-antala-thana-gunopaga- 
tena Kalingadhipatina siri-Kharavelena pandarasa-vassani 
siri-kumara-sarlravata kidita kumara-kidaka. 

verena, = virena. pandarasa = Pali pannarasa. Pali, AMg. 
JM. pannarasa, Apa. pannaraha, H. pandrah. It is remarkable 
that the d should occur so early. 

Salutation to the Arhats. Salutation to all Siddhas. For 
fifteen years princely sports were played with an auspicious 
princely body by the heroic Maharaja the illustrious Kharavela, 
the lord of Kalinga, with a mighty cloud (elephant) as his 
vehicle, propagator of the Chaitra royal dynasty, bearing 
lauded and auspicious marks, and endowed with the four inter- 
nal virtues. 

1 Vincent Smith, ' Early History of India,' 2nd Edition. Xotes on 
pages 38, 40, 187 and 196. Fleet, J.R.A.S. 1910, p. 242 and p. 824. 

2 Follows that of Bhagwanlal Indraji, with some slight modifications. 


(2) Tato lekha-rijpa-ganana-vavahara-vidhi-visaradena sav- 
va-vijjSvadatena nava-vassani yovvarajain pasasitani. 

yovvarajam {yauva-rdjyam) Pali raj jam. 

Then for nine years he enjoyed power as heir-apparent, 
being proficient in writing, painting (?) arithmetic and the rules 
of procedure, and excellent at all learning.' 

(3) Sanipuiina-catuvisati-vasso ca dwaua-dharamena sesa- 
yovvanabhivijaj'a- vattiye Kalinga- raja- vamsa-purisa-yuge 
maharajabhisecanarn papunati. 

Danava. In his Sanskrit version Bh. gives danena ca and 
he translates " hy peace and religious policy," but he records 
no doubt about the reading given as above, except that he 
leaves a space in the plate between na and va. papunati, Pali 

And wiien he had completed twenty-four years, according to 
Danava law (?) in a generation of the Kalinga royal family,^ 
that he might pass the rest of his manhood in conquests, he 
was installed as Maharaja. 

(4) Abhisitta-matto ca padhama-vasse vata-vihata-gopura- 
pakara-nivesanam patisamkharayati Kalinga-nagarim khibi- 
ra(m) ca sitala-tarlaga-padiyo ca bandhapayati savv-uyyana- 
patisaip-thapanain ca karayati panatisahi sata-sahassehi paka- 
tiye rafijayati. 

padhama. Palipathama. S*. etc. padhama. khibira(i§{6j>a). 
'royal camp.' sitala read sitala. padi (pali) 'dike' Bh. 
'tanks.' panatlsa JM. panatisa, Pali paiicatinisam. paka- 
tiye Bh. renders by prakftlh and " the people." We should 
expect pakatiye. 

' Compare Biihler. Indian Studies N'o. Ill, p. 13. 

^ Bh. "in the i/oke of the (previous) personages of the royal dynasty 
of Kalinga." The meaning of this is not clear. If the reading is correct, 
it would appoar that a Kalinga prince could not become MaharSja until 
he was 24. 


In his first year being barely installed he repaired Kalinga 
city and the cantonment with the gates, walls and dwellings 
injured by the wind, had built cool tanks and dikes, and had 
all the gardens put in order for thirty-five lakhs, artd thus 
pleased the people. 

(5) Ditiye ca vasse abhittayitta Satakanni pacchima-disam 
haya-gaja-nara-radha-bahulam dandam patthapayati. Kusam- 
banam khattiyanam ca sahayavata pattam Masikanagaram(?). 

abhittayitta, gerund abhi + ira. Reading from Kusam- 
banam not quite certain. 

In the second year, S'atakarni protecting the west sent a 
numerous army of horses, elephants, men and chariots. 
Assisted by the Kusamba Kshatriyas (he) obtained the city of 

(6) Tatiye ca puna vasse gandhavva-veda-buddho dampa 
natta-gita-vaditta-samdassanahi ussava-samaja-karapanahi ca 
kldapayati nagarim. 

natta = wr/to. karapana as in Pali ' a causing to be made.' 

In the third year again, he learnt the science of music, and 
amused the city by exhibitions of dampa (?) dancing, music, 
and musical instruments, and by holding festive parties. 

The inscription continues up to the thirteenth year of the 
reign. There are however so many gaps in the text that it is 
often difficult to interpret the remaining words or letters. In 
the eighth year he gave trouble to the king of Rajagrha — ^ 
(Raja-gaha-napam pidapayati) — who apparently deserted hi-s 
army and made off to Mathura. In the twelfth year he caused 
great consternation among the people of Magadha — Magadha- 
nam ca vipulam bhayam janeto)— made his elephants drink 
of the Ganges, and having severely punished the king of 
Magadha made him bow at his ieet—{Magadham ca, rajanam 
bahu patisasitta pade va(n)dapayati). 

13 / 



Old Magadhi.] Extract No. 35. 

S'utanuka nama devada^ikkyi 

tarn Kamayittha Balana^eye 

Devadinne nama lupaddakkhe. 
The long vowels and double consonants are not shown in the 
original in the Jogimara cave on Ramgarh Hill. The inscrip- 
tion is in Old Brahmi characters. The dialect appears to be 
Old Magadhi. The meaning of lijpadakkhe {rupadakso) is 
doubtful: " skilled in painting " "sculptor" ci. {rupakrt) ha,ve 
been suggested. Balana§eye ' belonging to Benares.' ' Ka- 
mayittha, 3 sing. aor. as in AMg. 

1 Liiders. For another explanation see Bloch. Annual Report Arch. 
Survey of India, 1903-4, p. 124. 


[This index comprises moat of the examples given in Part I, and of the 
words explained in Part 11] 

anavayagga, AMg., ' endless,' p. 

146, n. 1. 
anavaraya, JM., ' incessant,' p. 129, 

n. 2. 
anasana, * fasting,' p. 146, n. 10. 
anahiaa, * heartless,' p. 117, v. 64., * ignorant,' § 36. 
anaiya, AMg., ' without beginning,' 

p. 146, n. 1. 
aniada, ' uncertain,' p. 87, n. 6. 
anU2;ejjha, 6., * to be favoured,' 

anudiahaijl, ' day by day,' § 27. 
anuraa, ' affection,' § 9. 
anuvvaya, AMg., ♦ordinance,' p. 

145, n. 4. 
anena, ' by this,' § 110. 
anna, other,' §§ 48, 111. 
annunna=annonna ' one another,' 


annesana, * search,' § 48. 
annesidum, p. 82, n. 5. 
attae, AMg., ' son,' p. 147, n. 2. 
atta, ' self,' §§ 36, 100. cf. appa. 
attia, ' mother,' p. 110 (c). 

attha, (1) ' here,' § 45 (atra). 

(2) -artha, § 45. 

(3) * weapon,' § 56 (astra). 
atthi, (1) 'is; (asti), §§38, 132. 

(2) * bone,' cf. atthi. 

(3) -arthi, JM. 
adidhi, 'guest,' §§ 11, 14. 
adda, *wet,' p. 122, n. 3. 
addhii, ' anxiety,' p. 128, n. 3. 

a, ' and,' § 3. 

aam, 'this,' § 110. (AMg. aj^am). 

ainia, 'led beyond,' § 125. 

amsi, AMg., ' I am,' § 64. cf. mhi. 

ainsu, ' tear,' §§ 49, 64. Also assu. 

H. asu. 
akaannua, 'ungrateful,' p. 120, 

V. 83. 
akanda, ' unexpected,' p. 93, n. 5. 
akayya, Mg. (akarya), p. 165, n. 2. 
akarimsu, aor., ' they did,' § 133. 
akasi, AMg., ' he did,' § 133. 
akkhala, Mg. , ' letter,' p. 165, n. 1. 
akkhi, ' eye,' § 40 Pb. akkh. H. 

akh. cf. acchi. 
agada, ' a well,' p. 123, n. 2. 
anguliaa, ' rmg,' p. 90, n. 6. 
aggala, ' bolt,' p. 136, v. 19. 
aggahattha, ' finger,' p. 101, v. 4. 
aggi, 'fire,' §36, 62, 88. Pb. agg. 

H. ag. 

aggha, ' valuable,' § 56. 
accanta, ' excessive,' § 44. 
acchai, 'stays,' § 60, p. 123, n. 9. 
acchara, ' nymph,' § 39. 
acchariam, ' wonderful,' §§ , 58. 

Also accharlarn. 
aechi, ' eye,' § 39. cf. akkhi 
acchiim, acchi ni, M. plur. , § i 
acchera, M. =accharia, § 76. 

ajja (1) ' to-day,' § 44. Apa. jju. 

Pb. ajj. Old H. aju. H. aj. 

(2) = urya, § 50. 
ajjaa, 'lady,' p. 97, n. 7. 

ajjaiifcta, 'gentleman,' § :'. 
ajjhatthiya, AMg. {-adhyatmika). 
ajjhavasida, 'determined,' p. 83, 

n. 8. 
atthae, AMg., 'on account of,' 

p. 147, n. 1. 

atithi, ♦ bone,' § 38. 
anajjanto, ' not being known,' 
■p. 123, n. 9. 

adha, ' then,' § 14. 

adhannada, 6., ' misfortune,' p. 88, 

n. 2." 
antakkarana, ' conscience,' § 51. 
andharia, ' darkened,' § 82. 
apavagga, JM., 'final beatitude,' 

p. 135, n. 1. 
appa, 'small,' § 37. 
appa, ' self,' §§ 36, 100. H. 5p. 

cf. atta. 
appatta, ' unobtained,' p. 114, v. 3. 



appia (1) ' not dear,' 6. 

(2) * sent,' JM.,p. 136, V. 23. 
abie. AMg., ' without a second,' 

p. 145, n. 1. 
abbhantara, ' interior,' § 43. 
abbhahia (=:abhy-adhika) , p. 109(e). 
amiam, ' nectar,' p. 102, v. 2. 
amejjha, 'impure,' p. 130, n. 9. 
amham, 'of us,' M., AMg., JM., 

§ 107.' 
amhakera, 'our,' § 76. 

amhe, 'we,' §§47, 106. 

ariha, ' worth,' § 57. 
alasi, ' wandering mendicant.' cf. 
vedic atasl, § 23. 

alia, ' in vain,' § 67. 

alihadi, Mg. ■=arhati. 

avanida, ' taken away,' § 125. 

avattha, ' condition,' § 38. 

avara,* other,' § 17. H. aur. Rom- 
an i {w)aver. 

avarajjhai, passive. apa + radh, 
§ 125. 

avaranha, ' afternoon,' § 52. 

avaratta, AMg., ' latter half of 
night,' p. 145, n. 2. 

avaricida, ' stranger,' p. 91, n. 1. 

avassam, ' necessarily,' § 49. 

avahga, ' corner (of eye),' p. 116, 
v. 61. 

avi, ' also,' § 17. 

asamatthaa, ♦ unable," p. 112 (o). 

asesa, 'all,' § 20. 

asoga, § 11. 

assa, (1) 'of liim,' § 110. 

(2) ' horse,' § 49. cf. M. asa. 
assu, ' tear,' § 04. cf. amsu. 
Hha, 'then,' § 14. 6. adha. 
ahara, ■ lower,' p. 116, v. 63. 
ahigliaa, ' smitten,' p. 116. v. 61. 
abinava, ' new,' § 13. 
ahinnana. ' token,' p. 90. n. 3. 

aada, ' arrived,' § 2. 
a(y)ava, ' heat,' p. 153, n. 1. 
aai>a, (I) ' trouble,' p. 101, n. 7. 

(2) 'sky,' p. 113(6). 
aaredi, ' invites,' p. 101, n. 9. 
aittha, JM., ' commanded,' p. 130, 

li. 1. 
aihl, Apa., ' in the beginning.' § 93. 

auso, AMg. , ' long-lived one,' p. 15Q, 

n. 4. 
Sojja, JM. , • drum T ' p 130, n. 7. 
aohana, * battle,' p. 142, n. 

agada, 6.=aftda, § 2. 

agantum, JM. . ' having come,' 

p. 123, n. 9. 
agara, AMg., ' house," p. 145, n. 5. 
agasa. AMg., JM. = aasa, § 11. 
acaria, ' teacher," § 58. 
adhatta, ' begun — applied," § 125,. 

pp. from adhai. 
anatta, ' ordered," § 125 
anavedi, * orders,' § 36. 
ania, * brought,' § 125. 
anida, S. , ' brought,' Ji 125. 
anesu, ' bring,' § 116. 
ane, (na ane) ' I (don't) know,' 

'p. 108 (c).' 
adhappai, caus. pass, adha, § 135(c). 
abhioia, abhiogiya, AMg.. -of the 

state ?' p. 145, n. 9. 

amarisa, ' impatience, § 57. 
araddha, ' begun,' § 12 •. 
arabbhai. arambhadi. ' is begun,' 

§ 125. 
aruhai, ' mounts,' § 125. 
aliddha, ' embraced,' p. 116, v. 61. 
alekkha, ' picture,' p. 84, n. 3. 
avajjia, JM. , ' poured out,' a orj. 
avatta, ' turned roimd,' p. 114. 

V. 6. 
aveia, ' announced,' p. 125, n. 5. 

asa, ' horse, ' = assa. 
asa, ace. plur. , AMg., § 92. 

asi, ' was,' § 133. 

asiadi, 6. ' sits down,' § 125. 

ahamsu, AMg.. ' they said,' § 133. 

Also ahu. 
ahevacca, AMg., ' overlordship,' 

p. 144, n. 5. 

i =ili, p. 136, v. 10. 

ia =iti, p. Ill (e). 

iaip, ' this,' § 110, 

ikkhu, * sugar-cane,' § 40. cf. 

icchai, ',' JM., p. 128, 

n. 4. 
icehe, ' I desire,' atiu., § 115. 
iddhi, AMg., ' increase,' p. 146, n. 6. 
iijiarp, ' this,' §71. 



itthi, ' woman,' p. 84, n. 1. 

idha. • here,' § 28. 

indaalammi, ' in the rainbow, 

p. 113(b). 
imise, AMg. =imie. ' of this,' fern. 

ifica^e, Mg., • desirest,' § 116. 

isi, ' sage,' § 60. 

iha, ' here,' § 28. =idha. 

idisa, ' like this,' § 70. 
isisi, ' gently,' p. 107 (o). 
Thamiya, ' wolf,' p. 160, n. 6. 


ua, 'lo!,' M.,p. 103, v. 4. 

U£ia, ' water,' § 10. 

iiatthia {=upa-sthita), p. 118, v. 78. 

uaroa. ' ill-will,' p. 136, v. 10. 

tiahi, ' ocean.' p. 114, v. 56. 

uahiu.M., abl., §93. 

uida, ' fitting.' p. 95, n. 2. 

ukkara, ' multitude,' p. 94, 10. 

ukkinna, ' scattered,' p. 165, n. 1. 

ukkhaa, ' rooted up,' p. 121, v. 85. 

ukkhitta, • thrown up,' p. 116, v. 63. 

Uggama, ' rising,' § 34. 

uggahihi, ' will sing,' p. 120, v. 84. 

uccoda, ' withering ? ' p. HO (a). 

ucehii, M., ' sugar-cane,' §§ 40, 70 
cf. 6. ikkhu. H. ikh. E.H. ukh. 
Mar. us. Bg. akh. 

ujjala, ' blazing,' § 42. 

ujjaij.a, ' garden,' p. 97, n. 11. 

ujjua, ' straight,' §§ 15, 68. 

ujjoviya, ' lighted up,' p. 159, n. 14. 

ujjhida, (JM., ujjhiya). 'left be- 
hind,' p. 129, n. 11. 

una, ' but,' § 3. 

unha, 'hot.' § 47. Guj. unhu. 
Mar. un. 

utta, ' spoken,' § 125. 

uttinna, ' traversed,' § 125. 

utthahgia, M., ' supported,' p. 114, 
V. 56. 

utthedu, ' let him stand up,' p. 97, 
n. 8. 

uppala, ' lotus,' § 34. 

uppida, ' bursting out,' p. 114, v. 3. 
ubbheiya, ' erect,* p. 130, n. 2. 

umtnuha, • looking up,' § 46. 
ure, ' on the breast,' p. 117, v. 76. 
ullavida, 'shouted out,' p. 93, 
n. 12. 

uvaarana, ' aid,' § 17. 
uvacchandido, ' coaxed,' p. 90, 

n. 16. 
UVajjhaa, ' teacher,' § 17, 44. 
uvatthavei , AMg. ,' prepares,' p. 146, 

n.' 5. 
uvaraa, ' colouring,' p. 101, n. 4. 
uvari, ' above,' § 17. 
uvalevana, ' smearing,' p. 100, n. 4. 
uvasappissam, ' I will creep up,' 

p. 99, n. 4.' 
uvasampajjai, AMg., 'gets to,' 

-ittanam, ab^ol. , p 147, n. 4. 
uvahara, ' oblation,' p. 100, n. 5. 
uvaiya, JM. , 'offering' p. 128, 

n. 4. 
uvalahissam, ' I will reproach,' 

p. 83, n. 9. 
UVvatta, 'turned over,' p. 114, 

V. 56 
uvvigga, ' anxious,' § 42. 
usu, AMg., ' arrow,' § 70. 
ussasa (M. usasa) ' sigh,' § 41. 
uhaa, ' both,' p. 101, n. 5. 


usava, ' festival,' § 41, 63. 
usasa = ussasa. 


eassim, ' in this,' § 47. 
eavattham, ' in this state,' p. 1 10 (c). 
e(y)aruva, AMg., ' of this form,' 

p. 145, n. 2. 
ei, ' goes,' § )2. 

ekka, ' one,' § 15, 112. JM. ega. 
ettahe, M.,p. 119, v. 80. 
ettha, ' here,' § 70. 
edi,' goes,' §§ 12, 132. cf. ei. 
edihasia, ' legendary,' § 61. 
enti, ' they go,' § 132. 
eravana, § 61. 
erisa, ' like this," §§ 24, 70. 
evaddhe, Mg., ' so great,' p. 170, 

n. 4. (evadda, JM.). 
evvam, ' thus,' § 68. 
eso, ' this,' § 110. 



oSsa, M., ' space," p. 114, v. 3. 
oinna, ' descended,' § 125. Also 

onavia, ' bent down,' § 25. 
otthaya, ' covered with." p. 159, 

n. 15. 
odaria, ' having descended,' § 122. 

Mg. , odalia. 
olagga, JM., ' followed,' p. 124, 

n. 9. 
oviya, ' decorated,' p. 159, n. 16. 
osaria, ' gone off,' p. 108 (6). 
osaha, ' herb,' AMg., osadha, § 20. 
oharia, ' lopped,' p. 116, v. 61. 

kaa, • done,' § 125. JM., kaya, § 60. 

S. kada and kida. 
kaa-ggaha, ' hair-seizing,' p. 117, 

V. 64. 
Kaanta, ' Fate,' p. 99. n. 10. 
kaall-hara, ' plantain-house,' p. 82, 

kayai kva^avi, AMg., 'sometime,' 

p. 145, n 1. 

k«i, ' poet,' p. 103, V. 3. 
kaima, M., (=katama), § 69. 

kae, ' for the sake of 'p. 110 (a). 

kao, J. AMg., 'whence,' 6. kado, 

p. 153, n. 2. 
kakkola =kankota, § 16. 
kahkamaa, JM., 'like a heron's 

bill,' p. 124, n. 11. 
kankhia, 'desired,' p. 112 (a) (kan- 

kacchabha, AMg., ' tortoise,' § 19. 

kajja, ' to be done,' § 50, 137. 
kajjai, AMg., ' is done,' § 135. Note. 

kflt;tkkha, ' side glance,' p. 1 12 (g). 
kadaa, JM., ' fetter,' p. 129, n. 7. 
kadua, ' bitter,' p. 87, n. 5. 
kadhia, ' boiled,' 6. kadhida, § 42. 
k 'na«, ' gold,' p. 101, n. 6. 
kanakkania,' resounding,' p. 1 1 1 (d). 
kantha, ' neck,' § 3J. 
kaQna, ' ear,' § 48. 
kanha, =krma, § 47. 
knda, see kaa. 

kadama, kadara, ' which ? " §§ 69, 

kadhaissnip, ' I will relate,' § 134. 
Also kadhissam, M. kahis.sam. 

JM. (karmagneh), 

n what ? ' p. 117, 

karania), ' to be 

kadharp, 6.. how?' § 14. M. 

kadhida, ' told,' § 11. 
kadhidura, ' to tell,' § 136. 

kadhedu, ' let him tell.' §§ 11. 14. 

kadhesu. ' tell,' § 116. 
kanta, ' gone,' § 125 (kram). 
kappa, ' age, etc.,' § 37. 
kappadiya, JM., 'pilgrim,' p. 123, 

n. 10. 

kamala, (l) ' lotus,' p. 84, n. 9. 
(2) ' rice,' p. 102, n. 9. 

karaala,=.E'afc«wz, p. 112 (/t). 
karamagara, JM.. 'workman,' 

p. 127, n. 5. 

kammi, M. . ' i 

V. 76. 

karanijia (S. 
done,' § 137. 
karandaa. ' basket,' p. 97. n. 11. 
karidurn, ' to do,' § 112. 
karitta, AMg., ' having done,' § 122. 
karissam, ' I will do,' § 134. 

kariadi, ' is done,' § 135. 
kariadu, ' let it be done,' p. 96, n. 5. 
karedi, 'does,' § 128. 
karenta, ' doing,' § 102. 
karemana. AMg., ' doing,' p. 145, 

n. 2. 
karesu, -do,' § 116. 
kalemi, Mg.. ' I do,' p. 166, n. 2. 
kalevara, ' body,' § 18. 
kallakallim,' everv morning,' p. 150, 

n. 6. ■ 
kavala, ' mouthful,' § 18, p. 108 (b). 
kavala, Apa., ' lotus,' § 25. 
kavalia, ' eaten,' p. Ill (/). 
kavada, * door-panel,' p. 101, n. 6. 
kavva, ' poetry,' § 50. 
kasana, ' dark,' p. 116, v. 63. 
kaha, kaham, ' how ? ' p. 102, V. 2, 

§ 14. 
kahS. ' story,' p. 120, v. 84. 
kabiqi ' where,' p. 81, n. 1. 
knhissam, ' I will tell,' § 1.34. 
kaatthaa =kayasthaka, § 38. 

kaiirp, (1) M., • to do,' § 121. 

(2) AMg., ' having done.' 
§ 136. 
knuna, M., ' having done,' § 122. 
kaduip,6. Mg..' to do,' §§63, 121, 



kamae =kamyaya, § 48. 

karedi, cans., ' has done,' § 128. 

kSredum, infin., § 136. 

kfilake, Mg., 'door,' p, 165, n. 2. 

kSlana, Mg. =karanat, p. 166, n. 3. 

kaham, ' I will do,' § 134. 

kim una, ' what then ?,' § 3. 

kinkini, 'bell,' p. Ill (d). 

kicca, AMg., ' having done,' p. 147, 

n. 7. 
kinai, ' buys,' § 131. 
klida, 'done,' § 11. 
kilanta, ' weary,' § 57. 
kilittha, 'afflicted,' § 125. 
kilinna, ' moistened,' § 57. 
kilitta, ' prepared,' § i9. 
kilissai, M , ' is afflicted,' § 125. 
kivina, ' wretched,' § 60. 
kidlsa, ' of what sort ? ' § 70. 
kirai, ' is done,' § 135. 
kisa, ' why ? ' p. 85, n. 2. 
kuo, JM., ' whence,' p. 139, n. 1. 

kukkhi, 6 kucchi, M. ' belly,' 
§40. kucchio, AMg., abl., § 93. 
kucchi rnsi, loc. , § 93. 

kujja, AMg., ' he may do,' § 133. 

kuttedi, Mg. , ' has cut,' p. 166, n. 5. 

kudila, ' crooked,' § 16. 

kudumba, ' household,' § 16. 

kunai, ' does,' § 131, p. 112 (o). 

kunamane, AMg., 'doing,' p. 144, 
n. 5. 

kuddho, J.M., ' angry, p. 12S, n. 8. 

kuppadi, ' is angry,' § 125. 

kumbhanda, ' white gourd,' p. 93, 
n. 5. 

kumbhilaa, Mg. , ' thief,' p. 165, 
n. 1. 

kulta, ' canal,' p. 110 (a). 

kuvia, JM. , ' angry,' p. 129, n. 11. 

kuvida, * angry,' § 125. 

kuwam, AMg., ' doing,' § 103. 

kuvvamane atm. , p. 146, n. 9. 

kera, ' to be done,' § 76. 

keria, ' belonging to,' p. 99, n. 8. 

kerisa=kidisa, § 24, 70. Mg., 

kelake, Mg. , ' belonging to,' p. 167f 
n. 6. 

kevali, AMg., ' absolute know- 
ledge,' p. 145, n. 3. 

kesesu, (Mg. keieSu), § 21. 

ko, • who,' § 110. 

koila, ' cuckoo,' p. 112 {g). 

konca, ' crane,' § 35. 

komudi (M. komul), ' moonlight,' 


khaa, (l) -hurt — a wound.' ^. 
khada, § 125, p. 110(6). 
(2) 'dug,' §125. S.khanida- 
khaia, (^ khacida), 'inlaid,' p. 
109 (a). 

khagga, ' sword,' § 34. 

khajjai, ' is dug,' § 135. 

khanna, « dug,' § 125. AMg., JM., 

Khattia,= Ksatriya, § 40. 
khammai, ' is dug,' § 135 {d). 
khavia. ' exhau.sted,' p. 115, v. 14. 
khai, Apa.=khaai, ' eats,' § 127. 
khama, ' thin,' p. 97, n. 2. 
khara, ' alkali,' p. 110 (6). 
khijjai, ' is wasted,' § 125. 
khinna, ' wasted,' § 125. cf. khina. 
khitta, ' thrown,' § 40, 125. 
khippai, ' is thrown,' § 135, p. 130, 

n. 7. 
khippam eva, AMg., 'quickly,' 

p. 146, n. 5. 
khividum, ' to throw,' § 136. 
khina, ' wasted,' § 40. H. chin, 
khu, ' particle,' § 74. 
khujja, ' hump-back,' §§ 6, 34. 
khel. khel (• play '), §§ 6, 22. 


gaa (6. gada) ' gone,' §§ 11, 125. 
gaana, 'sky' {gagana), p. 101, 

n. i. 
gaammi= grafe. § 92. 
ga(y)ava(y)a, JM., ' aged,' p. 136, 

V. 14. 
gainda, ' lord of elephants,' § 81. 
gaccha, (l) 'go,' § 116. Kash. 
(2) JM., "school-sect," 
p. 136, V. 23. 
gacchahi, AMg., ' go,' § 116. 
gacchittae, AMg., inf., § 136. 
ganthi, ' knot,' § 55. 
gando, ' night-watchman ? ' p. 122, 

ganta, AMg., ' having gone,' § 122. 
gantum, 'to go,' §§ 121, 136. 

Also gacchidum, gamidum. 
gamissadi, ' will go,' § 134. 
gamiadi. 6. passive, ' is gone,' 

§ 119. M. gammai, §§ 119, 125. 



garala. ' poison,' p. 110 (6). 

garua, * heavy,' § 71. 

garukkha, JM., ' full of,' p. 13fi, 
V. 13. 

Garuda, 6.=Garula, M. Galuda, 

gallakka, ' crystal,' § 50. 

gavittha, ' sought,' § 125 (gaveaai). 

gahavai, ' house-holder,' p. 99, 
n. 8. 

gahia (6. gahida), ' seized,' § 125. 

gahium, M. inf., § 136, note. 

gai, ' sings,' §il27. 

gam a, * village,' § 45. cf. § 25 end. 

garavia, JM., 'highly esteemed,' 
p. 135, V. 5, from M., AMg., JM., 
garava=M.S. gorava =^aMroro. 

gijjai, ' is sung,' § 135, p. 130, n. 6. 

ginhium, AMg., 'to seize,' § 136, 

giddha, ' vulture,' § 60. Pb. 
giddh. H. gidh. 

gimha, ' summer,' § 47. Mar. dia- 
lect, glm. 

giha, AMg., ' house,' p. 152, n. 7. 

gia, ' sung,' § 125. 

guttha, ' strung,' p. Ill {/). 

gumma, ' bunch,' § 48. 

gejjha =grahya, §§ 70, 137. 

genhai, (6 genhadi) ' seizes,' 
§§ 52, 131. genhia, gerund., p. 95, 
n. 4. genhiura (S. genhidum), 
inf., § 136.' genhidavva. § 137. 

geha, JM , ' house,' p. 152. n. 7. 

goccha, M., ' bush,' § 71. 

gotthi, JM., ' society,' p. 136, v. 23. 


ghadanta, ' joining with,' p. 115, 

v.' 6. 
ghadavehi, ' have fashioned,' p. 100, 

ghara, M.AMg., abl. 'from home,' 

gharini, ' wife,' p. 93, n. 13. 
ghettum,M. ' to seize,' §§ 19, 136. 
ghettuna M.,' having seized,' p. 121, 

V. 14. cf. genhia. 
gheppai, ' is seized,' § 135. 

caai, M., ' abandons,' § 125. 
caiira, 'four,' § 112. causu. loo. 
§ 112. 

cakka, • wheel,' § 45. Apa. cakku. 

Sindhi caku. Pb. cakk. H. cak. 
cakkamai, JM., ' goes in circles,' 

p. 122, n. 4. 
cakkavatti, ' emperor,' p. 93, n. 13. 
cakkhusa, ' with the eye,' § 104. 
eanga, ' beautiful,' p. Ill (c). 
caccara, ' square,' p. 124, n. 10. 
cadavia, ' increased,' p. 123, n. 12. 
catta, ' abandoned,' § 119. 
cattari, ' four,' § 112. 
cadukka, ^. (caiikkaM.),' square', 

§ 38. H. cauk. 
cadussamudda, ' four oceans,' § 61. 

cammaraa, ' leather- worker,' §82. 

H. camar. 
cai, JM., 'generous,' p. 135, v. .5. 
Canakka, § 43. 
Caunda, § 25. 
cava, ' bow,' p. 109 (e). 
cia, 'like,'p. 114,v. 3; p. 117, v. 75. 
ciiicaia, ' adorned,' p. 130, n. 4. 

Citthni, M. (6. citthadi). Mg. 

cisthadi, 'stands,' § 7. 
citthittae, AMg., inf., § 130. 
cinai, ' collects,' § 131. 
cinijjai, pass., § 135. 
einedi, 6. 'collects,' §§ 128, 13 1. 

cf. cinai (cinoti). 

einha, ' mark,' § 52. 
Citta(l) 'bright,' §45. 

(2) ' heart,' p. Ill (e). 
cittaaro, 'painter,' p. Ill (e). 
cittaphalaam, ' picture tablet,' § 5. 
cindha=cinha, § 52. 
cimmai, passive ci, § 135. 
cilaadi, Mg., ' delays,' p. 167, n. I. 
civvai = cimmai. 
ciadi, passive ci, § 135. 
CUUna, 'lime,' p. 102, n. 3. H. 

cuna, (cur7ia) 'powder,' p. 141, 

n. 8. 
CUmbia, • kissed,' p. 107 (o). 
CUa (6. cuda), 'mango,' p. 101. 

n. 5. 
ceiya, AMg., ' sacred,' p. !51, n. 6. 
coria = ca?ir^a, § 58. 


Cha, M. AMg., ' six,' § 6. § 112. 
chaccarana, * six footed,' § 34. 
chattha, ' sixth,' § 6. 
chuna. 'festival,' p. 119, v. 81. 
chai;ii;La, ' hidden,' p. 91, n. 5. 



chammuha, ' six- faced,' § 46. 
chaa, 'colour,' etc., p. 97, n. 6; 

p. 102, n. 2. 
chane (?), p. 119, v. 81. 
chava, AMg., 'child, etc' Pali 

chapa=.^a6a, S G. 
chaha, 'shadow,' p. 102, n, 2. 
chijjai, ' is split,' p. 109 (a). 
ehinna, * cut,' §§ 125, 130. 
chindai, (6 chindadi), ' cuts,' 

§ 130. 
chuhai, JM. , ' throws,' p. 124, n. 6. 
chuha, M., ' hunger,' § 39. 
chea, ' a cut,' p. 116, v. 62. 
cheetta, AMg.. ' having cut,' p. 146, 

n. 10. 
chettum, ' to cut,' § 136. 
chettuna, M. JM., 'having cut,' 

p. 146, n. 10. 

jai, (6. abso. jadi), * if,' S 1- 
J auna= Yamuna, § 25. 
jakkha. =yaksa, p. 128, n. 4. 
jaccana, gen. plur., "genuine,' 

p. iii(c). 

janna, ' sacrifice,' § 36. 

jadha (M. jaha. Mg. yadha), 

'a3,'§§l, 14. 
jappia, ' babbled,' § 37. 
jampia, JM., 'said,' p. 129, n. 9. 
jampimo, ' we speak,' § 69. 
Jambu. § 35. 

jammai, ' is born,' § 135 (a). 
jammantara, ' another birth,' § 80. 
jalai, ' blazes,' p. 110 (6). 
jaladda, 'running with water,' 

p. Ill (b). 
jalana, ' flames,' p. 113 (6). 
jasa, ' glory,' p. 113 (6). 
jaha =jadha, §§ 14, i8. 
jaa (6. jada), ' born-child,' § 125. 
ja(y)a, JM.. 'quantity,' p. 122, 

n. 5. 
jaadi, ' is bom,' § 125. 
janae. atm. ' knows,' § 115. 
jada, 6. ' child,' p. 90, n. 7=jaa. 
jamadua, ' son-in-law,' § 60. 
jalaula, ' mass of flames,' p. 136, 

V. 17. 
jia (6. jida), 'conquered,' § 125. 

Also jitta. 
jinai, M. , ' wines,' §§ 125, 131. 
jinna, ' old,' p. 97, n. 11. 
jibbha, AMg., ' tongue,' § 54. H. 


jivvai, • is conquered,' § 135. 
jiha, ' tongue,' § 54. 
juai, ' young women,' p. 109 (e). 
juarao, ' heir apparent,' § 99, note, 
juala, ' pair,' § 9. -AMg. juvala, 

p. 146, n. 10. 
juguccha, ' jealousy.' § 39. 
jugga, ' pair,' § 36. 
jujjadi, ' is joined,' §§ 119, 129, 

jujjha, • battle,' p. 128. n. 7. Pb. 

jujjh. H. jujh. 
junjai, ' joins,' § 125. 
jutta, ' joined,' §§ .34, 125. 
judiaro, ' gamester,' p. 97, n. 10. 
jeum, ' to win,' § 136. 
jeva, jevva, § 68. 
jo, ' who,' § 110. 
joisara, ' magician,' p. 93, n. 10. 
joehi, ' harness,' p. 97, n. 12. 
}ogi=yogl, § 1. 
jogga, ' fit,' § 43. 
jonha, 'moonlight,' p. 110(6). 

dat. jonhaa, § 94. 
jovvana, ' youth,' §§ 15, 61, 68. 


jhanajhananta,' jingling,' p. HI (d). 
jhai, ' reflects,' § 127. 
jhana, ' meditation,' p. 96, n. 6. 
jhma=khina, § 40. 


thai, ' stands,' § 127. 
thadurp, ' to stand,' § 136. 
thavetta, AMg., 'having made to 

stand,' p. 147, n. 2. 
thahihi, ' will stand,' § 134. 
thia (6. thida), ' stood,' §§ 12, 38, 

also thia. 
thii (6. thidi), ' standing-state,' 

§ 38. Also thii. 

dakka, ' bitten,' § 125. 

dajjhamana, JM.,' burning,' p. 129, 

* n. 8. 

dasai, ' bites,' § 125. 

doya, ' dapper ? ' p. 130, n. 3. 


dhakkedi, ' shuts,' p. 170, n. 9. 
dhanka, ' crow,' § 7. 



naa, ' bent,' § 125. (6. nada). 
naHna, 'eye,' §§ 7, 20. H. Pb. 

nain. S. nenu. 
naara, 'city,' § 9. nayara, JM., 
■ p. 122, n. 1. 
naia, ' having led,' § 122. 
nalssadi, ' will lead,' § 134. 
nam, (l) 'him,' § 110. 

(2) ' now,' p. 85, n. 5. 
nakkha, ' nail,' § 15. 
naccana, ' dancing,' p. 108 (b). 
najjai, ' is known,' § 135, n. 
nattaa, ' drama,' § 43. 
nattha (1) ' lost.' § 125. 

(2) ' placed,' p. 123, n. 2. 
natthi, ' isn't,' § 83. 
namayam, ' meekness,' p. 135, v. 7. 
naraejja. ' may bend,' p. 115, v. 14. 
narinda, ' king,' § 81. 
navara, ' only,' p. 121, v. 8?'. 
navari, ' thereupon,' p. 120, v. 82. 
navahl, Apa. = (namanli) , § 25. 
naha = nakkha, § 13. 
naa, ' known,' § 125. , 
naagu, Apa. (=nayakah), § 10. 
na'iip, ' to know,' § 136. nauna, 
' absol., p. 139, n. 1. [Jain MSS., 

vary in the use of initial n and 

nadha (M. naha). ' protector,' § 14. 
naham, ' not I,' § 83. 
Ilia, (1) 'own,' AMg., niyaya, 
p. 95, n. 3 {nija-ka). 
(2) ' led,'=nia, § 125. AMg. 
niatta, ' returned,' =nivutta. 
niattaissadi, fut. caus. , § 134. 
niattSidurn, caus., inf § 136. 
niattihihi, fut. caus , p. 120. v. 84. 
niala, ' fetter.' p. 169. 
nikkam — ' go out,' § 38. 
nikkiva, ' cruel,' p. 108 (c). 
nikkhitta, ' placed,' p. 101. n. 5. 
nikkhivirt,* having thrown down,' 

■ p. 81, n 2. 
nikkhividum, inf., §40. 
niccalH, ' still,' § 38. Mg. niScala. 
nijja, ' to be blamed,' p. 136, v. 13. 
nijjida. ' vanquished,' p. 84, n. 1. 
nijjhaida, ' looked at.' p. 98. n. 1. 
nijjhaanti, ' tliey look at,' p. 102, 

■ n. 7. 

nitthavana, 'inflection,' p. 136. 
V. 11. 

ninna, ' low,' § 46. 
nidittha, ' informed,' p. 93, n. 13. 
niddaa, ' pitiless,' p. 116, v. 63. 
niddnati, ' sleeps,' p. 102, n. 8. 
niddha=siniddha, § 47. 
nipphala, ' fruitless,' § 38. 
nibbanda ' perseverance,' § 45. 
nibbhinna, ' burst open,' p. 94, 

■ n. 11." 

nilada, 'forehead,' p. 117, v. 64. 

■ H. hlar. 

niruvaissam, ' I will investigate,' 

■ p. 84, n. 8. 

nivadanta, ' falling down,' p. 84, 

■ n. 10. 

nivanna, ' entered,' p. 123, n. 9. 
nivaha, 'multitude,' p. 101, n 4. 
nivuttT, 'returned,' § 60. Apa. 

nivuttu. H laut. 
nivesavia, ' made to enter,' p. 124, 

■ n. 13. 

nivvavijjjaii, ' let it be poured out,' 

■ p. 118, V. 76. 

niv-vavedi, ' pours out,' § 120. 
niwiggha, ' without hindrance,' 

p. 96, n. 6 (mrvighna). 
nivvinna, ' disgusted,' p. 87, n. 2. 
nivvuo, 'finished, etc' p. 108 (d). 
nivvudha, 'accomplished,' p. 116. 

v. (52. 
nisagga, ' nature.' p. Ill (c). 
nisamenti, AMg. 
nisiara, ' fiend,' p. 117, v. 64. 
nihfla (6. nihada), ' struck down.' 

■ p. 121, V. 85. 

nihanium, JM., "to bury.' p. 124, 

■ n. 3. 

nihasa, M.. ' rubbing,' § 19. 
nihaa, 'smashed,' p. 121, v. 85. 
nihuda, (M. nihua) ' secret, etc.* 

■ §00. 

^la (6. nida), ' led.' § 125. cf. 

nisasa, ' sigh.' 110 (a) (niMvasa). 
nisasiuna, 'sighing,' p. 129. n. 9. 
nisesa, 'entire,' p. 135, v. I. 
nu^a^l, ' now,' § 7, 20. 
n9, 'thoy,' § 110. 
ne(y)a = na vci, p. 136, v. 13. 
I^eaip, ' to load,' § 136. 
^eura, 'anklet,' p. 109 (ti). 
Ijlgochadi, ' does not wiBh,' § 83. 



nena, ' by this,' § 110. 
neda,m=nu + etad, § 83, p. 94, n. 8. 
nedi, ' leads,' § 127. 
neha, ' affection ,'=sineha § 47. 
nehihi, ' will lead,' § 134. 
nomalia, * fresh jasmine,' § 75. 
nhaa, ' bathed,' § 125. 
nhai, ' bathes,' § 125. 
nhana, ' bathing,' §§ 30, 47. 


tar, loc. ' in thee,' § 107. 
tal, Apa. 'thee,' § 107. 
rae, ' by thee,' § 106. 

tao, (1) =tado. 

(2) ' three,' AMg., § 112. 
tam, (1) ' him, her, it,' § 108. 

(2) 'thou,' M., § 107. 
tamsi, loc. AMg., § 109. 
takkissadi, fut., § 134. 
takkemi, ' I guess,' § 45. Pb. takk-. 

H. tak-, ' gaze.' 
takkhanam, 'at that time,' p. 90, 

n. 14." 
tacca, ' meritorious,' p. 151 , n. 8. 
tada, ' edge,' p. 124, n. 5. 
tanua, ' small, p. 121, v. 86. 
tanhiae, abl., § 94. 
tatta, (1) ' heated,' § 125. 

(2) =tattva, p. 103, v. 2. 
tatto, ' from thee,' § 107. 
tattha, ' there,' § 45. 
tado, 'then,' §§11, 109. 
tadha, 'so,' § 14. 
tamhola =tambula, § 71. 
tammi, loc. ' in that,' § 109. 
talavara, ' chief,' p. 144, n. 5. 
tavana, ' heating,' p. 110 (6). 
tavida=tatta, 'hot,' § 125. 
tassa, ' of him, § 45. 
tahim=tassirn, § 27. 
ta, 'so,' § 109, p. 81, n. 4. 
tae, * of, by her,' § 108. 
tSo, abl. AMg., § 109. 
tava, ' fever,' § 17. 
tasa, M. = tassa, § 109. 
ti, ' thus,' § 74. 
tikhutto, AMg., 'thrice,' p. 152, 

n. 8. 

tinni, 'three,' § 112. Pb. tinn. 
tiriccha, ' oblique,' § 74. H. tefhS. 
tissa, M., ' of her,' § 109. 
tirai, 'is accomplished,' § 135, 
p. 123, n. 7. Also tirae. § 1 15. 

tisam, * thirty,' p. 147, n. 6. 

tise, AMg., 'of her,' § 109. 

tisu, ' in three,' § 112. 

tui, 'in thee,' § 107. 

tue, ' with thee,' § 106. 

tujjha, ' to, or of thee,' § 107, p. 117, 

V. 76 ( = *tuhyam for tvbhyam). 

H. tujh (ko). 
tutta, 'broken,' § 125. 
tuttai, ' is broken,' § 125. 

tuttha, ' pleased,' § 125. 

tunnao, tunnago, JM., 'beggar?' 

p.' 122, n.'2. 
tubbhe, AMg., 'you,' § 107. 
tumammi, M., ' in thee,' §§106, 107. 
tume, AMg., ' thou,' § 107. 
tumma, M., ' of thee,' § 107. 
tumhakera, ' your,' § 76. 
tumharisa, ' like you,' § 24. 
tnmhe, ' you,' § 106. 
turukka, ' incense,' p. 157, n. 1. 
tuUa, 'equal,' p. 110 (a), 
tuvara, ' hasten,' § 57. 
tuvatto, ' from thee,' § 107. 
tussadi, ' is pleased,' § 125. 
tuha, ' of thee,' § 106. 
tuharn, ' thee,' § 107. 
tuhu,'Apa. 'thou,' § 107. 
tura, JM., ' musical instrument,' 

p. 128, n. 1. 
teyasa, AMg. ^tejasa, § 104. 
tebbho, AMg., ' from that,' § 109. 
telia, 'oil,' §§ 15, 61, 68. 
tevatthi, ' sixty-three,' p. 144, n. 4. 

Also tesatthi. 
tti=ti, § 74. 
ttha, ' ye are,' § 132. 


thana, ' breast,' § 38. 
thala, -surface,' p. 101, n. 6. 
thavai, ' architect,' p. 127, n. 3. 
thia, ' stood,' =thia, § 38. 6. 

thii (6. thidi), =thii. 
thuvvai, ' is praised,' § 135. 
theo=thevo, JM., 'little,' p. 127, 

n. 8; p 135, v. 7. 
thero, ' elder,' § 82. 
thora, ' large,' § 71. 

daia, ' having given,' § 127. 
damsaissam, ' I will show,' § 127. 



damsadi, ' bites," § 125. 

damsanta, damsanijja, ' worth 

showing,' § 137. 
daipsida, (I) 'shown,' 

(2) 'bitten,' § 125. 
damsedum, inf., § 136. 
dakkhina, ' right-south,' § 40. 
dakkhina, ' fee,' p. 93, n. 10 
dacchara, M. AMg. , 'I will see,' 

§ 134.' dacchami, p. 118, v. 77. 

dacchimi, dacchimmi, p. 121, 

V. 85. 
datthuip, 'to see,' § 136, p. 119, 

dadha, ' firm,' § 60. 
dadiha, ' burnt,' § 125. 
daddhavva, 'to be seen,' p. 119, 

dalayai, dalai, AMg., • gives,' p. 153, 

n. 1. 
dalidda, 'poor,' § 26 
davavia, ' made to give,' p. 125, 

n. 4. 
dahi, ' curd,' p. 102, n. 9. 
dahidum, ' to burn,' § 136. 
daissaro, ' I will give,' § 134. 
daum, ' to give,' § 136. 
dadha, ' tusk,' § 65, p. 116, v. 63. 
danim, 'now,' § 74. 
dadavva, ' to be given,' § 137. 
dabai, 'heats,' p. 108 (c). 
damaguna, ' festoon,' p. 101, n. 2. 
darao, ' boy,' p. 99, n. 5. 
dalarn, Mg., ' door,' p. 170, n. 9. 
dava=<5uo<, § 3. 
davaggi. ' forest fire.' p. 112 (h). 
davijjau, 'let it be demanded,' 

p. 113(6). 
daham, ' I will give,' § 134. 
dahini, = dakkhina, p. 112(a), 

p. 146, n. 3. 
dia, ' twice-born,' § 42. p. 136, 

V. 11. 
dia,r8i= devara, § 72. 
diaha, 'day,' § 9. 
dikkhS, ' consecration,' p. 93, n. 9. 
dijjadi, ' is given,' § 119. 
ditttia, 'seen,' § 125. 
ditthi, 'sight,' §§ 38, 60. Sindhi 

diti. Pb. ditth. H.-dlth. 
ditthia.=di/ftffa, § 95. 
didha, * firm,'' § 60. of. dadha. 
dina, ' day,' p. 97, n. 5. 
dil^Ijia, 'given,' § 126, p. 97, n 5, 

p. 109 (e). 



dimmuha, ' facing the quarters,' 

§§ 35, 46. 
dihi, M., ' firmness,' § 19. 

diadu, 'let it be given,' p. 
n 1. 

diva, 'lamp,' § 17. H. diya. 

dlsai, 'appears,' p. 115. v. 

6. disadi, § 125. 
dihaurn, ' long-lived,' § 103. 
duara, ' door,' § 57. 
dukkha, ' trouble,' § 51. 
duggada, ' poor,' p. 101, n. 7. 
duccarida, ' wickedness,' § 38. 
duttha gando, JM., ' rascal T ' 

p." 122, n. 3. 
dunnimitta, ' bad omen,' p. 84, 

n. 2 
duttara, ' invincible,' § 38. 
duddha, ' milk,' § 34. Pb. duddh. 

H. dudh. 
dubbhai, ' is injured,' § 134. 
dubbhejja, 'impervious,' p. 101, 

n. 6. 
duria, ' sin,' p. 135, v. 1. 
duruhitta. AMg., 'having mount- 
ed,' p. 145, n 9. 
dull aha, ' difficult,' § 50. Also 

dulaha. § 79. 
duvara, • door,' § 57. 
duvario, ' door-keeper,' p. 102, n. 8. 
duvalasa, AMg., 'twelve.' p. 145, 

n. 4. 
duve, ' two,' § 112. 
duvvinida. ' ill conducted,' § 125. 
dussaha, • intolerable,' § 51. 
duha kaum, ' having split.' p. 124, 

n. 11. 
dua, ' messenger,' p. 145, n. 6. 
duijjamane, AMg., 'wandering,' 

p. 145, n. 6. 
dusa, ' robe,' p. 157, n. 6. 
dusah.a= dussaha. § 61, 63, 79. 
de,=^e, § 3. 
deula. • temple,' § 82. 
dejja, ' he might give,' AMg., § 13S. 
dedi, 6., -gives,' §§ 125. 127. 
devattae=de?'nff'5v«. § 92, ii. 
devSnuppiya, AMg., ' beloved of 

the gods,' p. 146. n. 7. 
dovi, ' declension, § 91. 
devvannaa 'soothsayer.' p. 93, 

n. 13.' 
desi, 'givest,' § 127. 
do, ' two,' § 112. Also donni, gen. 

donha(m), ins. dohira : loc. do- 



8u(m), doggacca, ' poverty,' p. 
106," V. 76. 
dohala, ' longing.' § 23. 


dhaya, JM., 'flag,' p. 130, n. 2. 
dhQ.minai, = dharma, § 48. 
dhamraia, ' juggler,' p. 82, n. 1. 
dharia, 'waited,' p. 129, n. 13 
dhai, dhaai, ' places,' S 127. 
dharidutp, ' to support,' § 136. 
dhida, S. 'daughter,' § 74. JM., 

dhiya. cf. dhuda. 
dhua, 'agitated,' p. 115, v. 20. 
dhuam, ' certainly,' p. 105, v. 42. 
dhunai, 'shakes,' § 131. 
dhunijjai, ' is shaken,' § 135. 
dhuvai, ' washes,' § 129. Also dhu- 

vei § 128. 
dhuvvai, ' is shaken,' § 135. 
dhuda (M. dhua. JM., dhuya), 

'daughter,' § 19. p. 129, n. 12. 

Also S. duhida. 
dhumai, ' smokes,' p. 104, v. 13. 
dhuva, ' incense,' p. 157, n. 1. 
dhoadi, 'washes,' § 129. AMg., 

dhovai, dhovei. 

paada, (M.) ' evident,' JM. , payada, 

p." 136, V. 17. 
paatta, ' setout,' § 125. paatta, 
p." 118, V. 76. payatta, JM., p. 
124, n. 1. 
paavl, 'path,' p. 106, v. 107. 
payai, ' foot-soldier,' p. 129, n. 1 ; 

p. 136, v. 20. 
paasa, ' reveals,' § 2. 
pal, 'towards,' p. 141, n. 9. cf. 

painna, 'scattered,' § 125. 
paidi, AMg., 'beginning,' p. 168, 

n. 1. 
pai, ' husband,' p. 118, v. 78. 
paiinjai, ' uses,' § 125. 
pautta (1) 'used' § 125, p. 90, 
n. 2 {prayukta). 
(2) ' set forth,' p. 85, n. 1 
paiittha, ' exiled,' § 125. 
paiima, ' lotus,' §§ 36, 57. 
paiira, (1) 'abundant,' § 9 (pro- 
cur a). 

(2) ' of the city,' .JM. =S. 
pora, p. 136, vv, 1, 2. 
paottha, ' courtj'ard,' p 102, n. 1. 
pakka, ' cooked,' § 42. 
pakkhalanti, ' stunibling,' p. 171. 
pakkhiyarn, AMg., 'lasting a fort- 
night,' p. 145, n. 1. 
pagSra, JM., ' kind,' p. 125, n. 4. 
pagasa. AMg., ' clear,' p. 156, n. 6. 
pagasento, JM., ' revealing,' p. 122, 

n. 2. 
paecaa, * trust,' p. 91, n. 6. 
paccakkha, ' vi.sible,' p. 98, n. 2. 
paccacakkhldum,' to repulse,' p. 89, 

n. 11. 
paccanida, ' restored,' § 125. 
paccutthuya. AMg., 'covered,' 

p. 160, li. 4. 
paccupanna, AMg., 'present,' 

p. 155, n. 5. 
paccuse, ' at dawn," p. 87, n. 8. 
paecha, ' afterwards,' § 38. 
pajjatti, 'sufficiency,' p. 141, n. 6. 

Also pajjattia, p. 110 (c). 
pajjalai, ' blazes,' p. 104, v. 13. 
Pajjunna=Prad^?<»ina, § 46. 
pajjussua, 'excited.' § 41, p. 168, 

n. 1. 
pajjharavedi, 'makes ooze,' § 40, 

p. 94, n. 10. 
pataa, ' flag,' p. 101 , n. 4. =padaa. 
patta, ' bandage — " putty " ' p. 122, 

n. 3. 
pattha, ' eminent,' p. 159, n. 9. 
patthavei, ' sends,' p. 140, n. 3. 
pada, ' cloth,' § 15. 
padaa, M.6. ' flag ' (pataka—pa- 

tUka), § 16. cf § 20. AMg. JM., 

padSga. JM al-o padaya. Pai^. 

pataka. Pischel § 218." On p. 101, 

read padaa for pataa. 
pad'\.=prciti, § 20. 
padia (S. padida), ' fallen,' § 20. 
pad'ikkante, 'AMg., 'confessed,' 

p. 147, n. 7^ 
paiiyngaramane, AMg., ' keeping 

vigil,' p. 145, n. 1. 
paditthavida = pratisthapita, p. 93, 

paditthia,, ' established,' 113 (b). 
padivajjadi ' attains,' § 125. 
padivanna. ' attained,' § 125, p. 126, 

V. 83. 
padivesia, ' neighbour,' p. 99, n. 8. 
padihai (6. padihaadi), 'seems,' 



padihara, JM.,' door-keeper,' p. 135, 

V. 2. 
padhana, ' reading,' § 16. 
padhama, ' first,' § 20. 
padhium, ' to read,' p. 103, v. 2. 
padhiadi, ' is road,' § 58. 
panaa, ' confidence,' p. 91, n. 3. 
panai, 'beloved,' p. 106, v. 76; 

' attached,' p. 136, v. 15. 
panamami, ' I salute,' p. 95, n. 1. 
panamaha, ' revere,' p. 113 (6). 
panasa, (6. phanasa), ' bread-fruit,' 

§^- ' ■ .> 

[pannattam, AMg., ' perceived, 

p. 145, n. 3.] 
panha, ' question,' § 47. 
pataria, ' seduced,' p. 89, n. 10. 
patta (1) ' wing- leaf,' § 45. 
(2) 'obtained,' § 125. 
patteya, 'alone,' p. 130, n. 11. 
' severally,' p. 141, n. 11. 
patthana, ' request,' p. 83, n. 2. 
patthara, ' stone,' p. 91, n. 6. 
patthia, 'set out,' p. 114, v. 57. 

6. patthida, p. 82, n. 4. 
padolika, ' gateway,' p. 169. 
panti or pamti, •row,' § 35, p. 102, 

n. 5. 
papalinu, ' fled away,' p. 172, n. 1. 
pabodhiami, ' am awakened,' p. 87, 

n. 10. 
pabbhattha, ' slipped off,' p. 90, 

n. 8. 
pabhada, ' morning, p. 97, n. 8, 9. 
pamada, ' pleasure,' p. 94, 4. 
pamhala, AMg., 'downy,' p. 159, 

n. 5. 
paramatthado, ' really,' p. 90, n. 2. 
parassim = parasmin, § 111. 
parahua, ' cuckoo,' p. 157, n. 7. 
pariynga, AMg.,' wandering,' p. 146. 

n." 10. 
parikamma, ' toilet,' p. 88, n. 5. 
pariggaha, ' wife,' p. 90, n. 2. 
parlccaia, ' having abandoned,' 

p. 83, n. 6. 
pariccatta, 'abandoned,' p. 115, 

V. 20. 
parinaidavva, ' to be made to 
marry,' p. 03, n. 4. pariaedavva, 
p. 93, n. 14. 
parinlda, ' married,' § 125. 
pariluppamana, JM., ' being des- 
troyed,' p. 130, n. 9. 
peurivvnjaa, ' mendicant,' § 50, 
p. 109(6). 

parisa, AMg., ' community,' p. 145, 

n. 7. 
parissa£uli, ' embraces,' § 49. 
pariharia, 'avoiding,' p. 84, n. 8. 
parunna, ' cried out,' p. 119, v. 76. 
parokkha, ' invisible,' p. 94, n. 3. 
palattam, 'cried,' p. 119, v. 79. 
palaa, M., JM., 'fled,' § 125. M. 
palaia. 6. palaida, p. 172, n. 1. 
JM. , also palSna. 
paliovama, AMg., ' myriad,' p. 147, 

n. 8. 
palobheum, ' to allure,' p. 123, n. 1. 
palohida, 'greedy,' p. 102, n. 9. 
pallattha, ' .surrounded, etc.,' § 60. 
palli, * hamlet,' p. 136, v. 17. 
palhatta, ' brought to nought,' § 52, 
p. 121, v. 85. cf. H. palta. Mar. 
palhayanijja, AMg., ' refreshing,' 

p. 158,' n. 7. 
pavarnga, 'monkey,' § 37. 
pavanca, ' display,' 111 (e). 
pavattai, ' occur,' § 125. 
pavasanta, ' living abroad,' p. 106, 

V. 94. 
pavittha, 'entered,' p. 88, n. 2; 

p. 93, n. 9. 
pavutta, ' arisen,' § 125. 
pavvaa, ' mountain,' p. 115, v. 94. 
pavvaia, ' entered the Order,' JM., 

p. 130, n. 12 (pravrajita). 
pavvaittae, inf. AMg., p. 146, n. 2. 
pasammai, ' is soothed,' p. 115, n. 6. 
[pa§ala6i, Mg., ' goest forward," 

p. 172, v. 21]. 
pasadikida, ' presented,' p. 98, n. 7. 
pasida, ' be quiet,' p. 83, n. 1. 
[pa§tidum, Mg. , ' to request,' p. 175, 

n. 2. 
paha, ' path,' p. Ill (/). 
paharanta, • attacking,' p. 84, n. 1. 
pahavanahirn, loc. Mg. , § 92. 
pahada = pabhada, p. 88, n. 4. 
pahava, ' power,' p. 94, n. 3. 
pahui (6. pahudi), 'beginning," 
§ 12. cf. AMg., paidi and pabhii. 
pahuttanain, ' power,' p. 90, n. 10. 
paa, ' foot,' p. 122, n. 4. 
payacchitto, ' expiation,' p. 152, 

n. 4. 
pSikka. ' foot-soldier,' § 82. 
paiia (6. puuda). ' Prakrit,' § 12, 

p. 103, v. 2. 
pBuin, ' to drink ' (t>. padurn), § 136. 
pauiiiuna, 'putting on,' p. ''''* 
n.'S. ■ 




paunitttl, 'fulfilling,' AMg.,p. 146, 

paubbhavittha, 'appeared, AMg., 

p. 151, n. 4. 
pausa, JM., ' rains,' p. 139, n. 7. 
pnga, AMg., ' refined,' p. 158, n. 6. 
padaccale, Mg. , ' thief,' p. 1G5, n. 5. 
padava, ' tree,' p. 87, n. 3. 
parnvana, ' pigeon,' p. 157, n. 7. 
pariyaya, JM., 'coral tree,' p. 128, 

n. 5. 
paridosia, 'reward,' § ll.Mg.,pali- 

pavai, pavedi, 'obtains,' § 125. 
pasa, ' side,' § 49. 
panada, 'palace,' p. 102, n. 6. 
pahunaya, JM , 'guest,' p. 124, 

n. 4. 
■pi=api, § 74. 
pia, ' dear,' § 9. 
piaana, ' lover,' p. 112 (a), 
piussia, ' paternal aunt,' § 74. 
pikka, * ripe,' § 69=pakka. 
pittei, ' crams,' p. 107, v. 171. 
piniddha, 'put on,' p. 159, n. 11. 
pida, 6. • father,' (M. pia), declen- 
sion, § 97 ; gen. piduno, piuno. 
pivai, pivadi, 'drinks.' § 125. 
pidhamadda, ' parasite,' p. 160, 

n. 2. 
pinanijja, AMg., 'pleasing,' p. 158, 

n. 7. 
pisei, pisedi, ' crushes,' § 65. 

pucehai, pucchadi, ' asks,' § 60. 

puttlia (1) ' asked,' § 125 {prsta). 

(2) 'touched,' AMg., § 125 

(3) ' back,' JM. (prstha). 
Gfij. puth. Sindlii pu- 

puijna (1) 'full,' 

(2) ' meritorious,' § 48. 

puttSi, ' son,' § 2; declension, § 86. 
puttakidao, ' fosterchild,' p. 90, 

n. 14. 
puttalia, ' statue,' p. 94, n. 10. 

puppha, 'flower,' § 38. O.H. 

puhup. H. phup. 
purattha, ' East,' p. 160, n. 3. 

purisa, 'man,' § 71. 
purisakkara, ' with a man's 

strength,' AMg., p. 153, n. 3. 
PururuvS, § 104. 
puli^a, Mg. , ' man,' § 92. 
puloedi, * looks at,' § 69 ; pros. past. 

puloanto, § 102; fut. puloissam, 
§ 134. 
puvvaratta, AMg., * first part of 

the night,' p. 145, n. 2. 
puvvanupuvvim, AMg., ' in succes- 
sion,' p. 145, n. 6. 
puficide. Mg. =pucchido ' asked,' 

p. 165, n. 5. 
puhavi (S. pudhavl), ' earth,' 

p. 118, V. 78. 
peccha, ' see ! ', § 40. 
pecchai, ' sees,' p. 114, v. 57. 
pecchae, atm., § 115. 
pecchissarn, M., ' I will see,' § 118. 
pekkhacii, ' sees,' §§ 40, 81. 
pokkhissam, fut., § 134. Apa. pek- 

pemma, 'affection,' §§ 15, 68; 
declension, § 98. pema, p. 121, 
V. 86. 
peranta, ' limit,' § 76. 
pesida, ' sent,' p. 82, n. 3. 
pesei, ' sends,' p. 128, n. 6. 
peskami, Mg. , ' I see,' p. 168, n. 4. 
pokkhara, ' lotus,' §§ 38, 71. H. 

pokhar, ' tank.' 
pottha, ' belly,' p. 107, v. 171. 
popphall, ' areca nut,' § 74. 
pomnna, 'lotus,' §§ 36, 82, cf. 

posaha, AMg., 'fast-day,' § 74, 
p. 145, n. 1. Pali uposatha. 


phamsa, ' touch,' §§ 38, 49, 64. 
phagguna, ' the month,' § 37. 
phadiha, ' crystal.' Alsophaliha, 

§§ i9, 38, p. 101, n. 5. 
phanasa=panasa, § 6. 
pharisaga, AMg., 'soft,' p. 161, 

n. 2 (*sparsaka). 
phSsa, AMg., =pharnsa, § 63. 
phurantaa, ' manifest,' p. 112 (g). 
phusai, AMg., ' touches,' § 38. 

bailie, Mg., 'bull,' p. 170, n. 9. 

Apa. baiilu. H., etc., bail, 
bajjhai, ' is bound,' § 135. 
badifia, Mg , ' hook,' p. 166, n. 2. 
baddha, 'bound,' § 125. 
bandhai, ' binds,' § 125. 
bappha, ' steam,' p. 84, n. 10. 
bainbana=brahmana, § 52. 



balakkara, ' violence,' § 34. 
baladdaka, Mg., ' bull,' p. 170, n. 5. 
bal«, • perforce,' p. 101, n. 9. 
baliarn, ' more strongly,' p. 108 (c). 
bahinia, 'sister,' p. 98, n. 5. 
bahini. ' sister," s 19. 
bahuphala , ' fruitful,' § 5. 
barasa, ' twelve.' p. 130, n. 2. M. 

Apa baraha. H. barah. cf. § 24. 
baha, ' tear,' p. 84, n. 10. 
bihei, ' fears.' §§ 125, 132. 
bla, biya, AMg. . JM. , 'second,' 

p. 136, V. 19. 
bujjhai, ' is wakened,' § 125. cf. 

Pb. bujjh. 
buya, AMg., ' might say,' § 133. 
bola, ' speech,' p. 124. n. 8. cf. H. 

bolanti, ' they pass,' p. 114, v. 57. 
bolina, ' passed.' p. 120. v. 83. 


bhaavam, ' blessed,' declension, 

§ 103. ■ 
bhai, ' hire,' p. 150, n. H. 
bhakkanti, ' they eat,' p. 102, n. 9. 

Rather bhakkhanti, vide § 40. 
bhagga, ' broken,' p. 129, n. 6. 
bhajjai, ' is broken,' § 135. 
bhajjanta, 'being broken.' p. 116, 

n. 62. 
bhajia, ' wife,' p. 135, V. 3. 
bhanjai, ' breaks,' § 130. 
bhatta, ' lord,' declension. § 97 ; 

gen. bhattino. 
bhattidaraa, ' crown prince ' § 60. 
bhattha, ' dropped,' § 125. 

bhanaii, ' speaks,' § 132. Also 
bhanedi, §§ 128, 132; passive bha-, 
niadi, § 135, n. 

bhatta, ' food-rice,' p. 169, n. 1. 

bhatta, ' husband,' declension, 

§ 97 ; gon. bhattuno. 
bhadda, ' blessed,' § 45. H. bhalS 

through. Apa. *bhallau. cf. M., 

AMg.. alia, 'wet,' =6. adda 


bhamara, ' bee,' p. 107 (a). H. 
bha lira. 

bhamaida, ' agitated,' p. 101 , n. 2, 

Bharaha, § 19. 

bhavam = 6/tauan declension, § 

bhavitta, bhavitt&narn, AMg., hav- 
ing been,' § 122. ' 

bhavissam, ' I will be,' § 134. 
bhaveam, ' I might be,' § 129. 
bhaa, ' part,' p 100, n. 5. 
bhaadi. ' fears, §§ 125, 132. 
bhai, • shines,' p. 112 (g^). 6. bhadi. 

S 127. 
bhainejja, 'sister's son,' p. 144, 

n. 2. 
bhadusaa. • 100 brothers,' § 60. 
bhiudi, 'frown,' p. 117, v. 64. 

AMg., bhigudi. 
bhijjai, 'is split," § 135, p. 114, 

V. 56. 
bhinna, ' split,' § 125. 
bhindai, ' splits,' §§ 1_'5, 130. 
bhia, bhida, ' frightened,' § 125. 
bhujjai, ' is enjoyed,' § 135. S. 

bhunjadi, enjoys,' § 125. 130. 
bhutta. 'enjoyed,' § 125. 
bhumaa, " brow.' p. 117, v. 64. 
bhua, bhuda. • become,' § 125. 
bhettum, ' to split.' § 136. 

bhoana, ■ meal,' § 9. 
bhottum, ' to enjoy,' § 136. 
bhodi, ' becomes,' §§4.11, 75. 127. 
M. hoi. 


maa, (l) 'dear,' p. 87, n. ."J; 
p. 112 {<7). (mvrga). 
Also mia. 

(2) ' intoxication, etc' p. 97, 

n. 2. {mada). 

(3) • dead,' § 125. {mrta). 

Also mua, muda. 

(4) ' mode of {■=maya), p. 

105, V. 11. Also maia. 
maagala, JM., 'elephant,' p. 128. 

n. 9. 
raaanijja, AMg.. 'invigorating,' 

p. 158, n. 1. 
maarahara, ' sharks' home,' p. 120, 

V. 83. 
maalaiichana, ' moon,' p. 94, n. 9. 
mai, loc, ' in me,' § 106. 
mai, Apa., ■ by me,' § 107. 
-maia = ma i/a. 
mai, ' doe,' p. 108 (6). 
maiia, 'tender,' p. 112 (a), p. 114, 

V. 3. 

maiila, 'bud,' § 71. 

maiilanta, ' budding,' p. 116, v. 62. 

maiili, 'head,' § 61. 
maura = mora, § 82. 
mao, ' by nie,' § 106. 



mamsuim, mamsuni, AM<j;., • mous- 
taches,' § 93. 

iiiakkada, 'ape,' p. 107, v. 171. 

magga, • road,' § 45. 

inagganta, ' demanding,' p. 09, n. 9. 
H. mag-na. 

maccara, ' selfish,' S 39. p. 13G, 
V. 10. 

maocha, ' fish,' § 56, p. 114, v. 56. 

majjara, S. ' fat,' § 67. M. mam- 

majjida, • swept,' p. 100, n. 4. 

majjha (1) ' middle,' § 44. 

(2) M. 'of me,' S 107. 
majjhaaranimi, ' in the middle,' 

p. 10.3, V. 3. 
majjhanna, ' midday,' § 74, maj- 

jhamdine, ' at midday, p. 87, 

n. 3; also majjhanha, § 52. 
majjhima, • middle,' § 69. 
mattia, 'earth,' § 55. H. matti, 

manasa, ins., § 104. 
manina, ' of gems,' p. Ill (c). 
manlsi. ' clever,' p. 112 (A). 
manussa, 'man,' § 49. AMg. , 

maniisa, § 63. 
manojja, " charming,' § 36. 

manoradha, S. ' wish,' § 14. M. 

naandalagga. • scimetar,' p. 116, 

V." 61. 
manne, '.I think,' § 115. 
-matta= -metta, p. 119, v. 81. 
madda, ' crushing,' p. 88, n. 6. 
mamam, M., AMg., JM.. • me,' 

§ 107". 
mammadha, 6. 'love' (M. vam- 

maha), § 25. 
marai, maradi, ' dies,' § 125. 

maragaa, M. (6. moragada), 

• emerald,' § 12, p. 93, n. I : 

p. 115, V. 6. 
mallia, • jasmine,' p. 101, n. 2. 
masana, ' cemetery,' § 47. 
maSca, ma^^ati, Mg. , ' fish,' p. 166, 

n. 2; p. 168, n. 9. 
mahara, ' of me,' p. 118, v. 77. 
mahao, AMg., ^=mahatah, § 103. 
mahasi, 'desirest,' 113 (c). 
maharao, ■ great king,' declension, 

§ 99, n. 
mahalika, Mg. , ' precious,' p. 167, 8. 
raahila, 'woman,' p. 117, v. 75. 

mahuara, ' bee,' p. 109 (d). 

mahusava, ' groat festival,' § 81. 
mada, S. maa, M. ' mother,' 

declension, § 97. 
maridum, ' to strike,' § 136. 
mala, ' garland,' declension, tj 91. 
mali^a^i, ' with strike,' § 134. 
miaa, ' hunting,' p. 87, n. 2. 

miahka, ' moon,' p. 94, n. 10. 
mimja, AMg., 'marrow,' j) ISO, 

n". 3. 
midhuna, S. ' pair.s,' ij 92. 
mittca =niaitreya, § 72. 
milana, ' faded,' jj 57. 
misimisinta, ' shining,' p. 159, n. 


missa (M. misa), • mixed,' § 49. 

mua, muda, ' dead,' § 125. 

muai, ' releases,' § 1.30, p. 170, 

v. 115. 
muinga, ' drum,' p. 130, n. 7. 

mukka, ' released,' § 125. 
inuccai, ' is released,' § 135. 
mucchia, • stunned,' p. 114, v. 56. 

AMg., ' greedy,' p. 145, n. 9. 
mujjhai, ' is perplexed,' § 125. 

muncai, muncadi, ' releases.' 
S§ 125, 130. Also muncedi. § 1 28 ; 
passive munciadi, § 135, n. 

mutthi, ' handful,' p. 102, n. 3. 
JM.. mutthiga, p. 1.30, n. 12. 

munai, ' knows,' Pali munati. 

munala, ' lotus fibre,' § 60. 

mutta, * urine,' p. 130, n. 9. 

muddha, 'foolish' (niugdha). 

muddha, 'head,' declension,' § 98. 

mulla, ' value,' § 50. 

muha, ' face,' S 13. 

muhala, noisy,' § 26. 

mulahi, M.=mulat, § 92. 

moavaissasi, ' will make release,' 
§ 134. 

raoavia, "having made to release,' 
p. 109 {&). 

moavedi, ' makes release,' § 128. 

moggara, 'hammer,' § 71. Bg. 

moccham, mocchihimi, ' I will re- 
lease, '"§ 134, p. 118, V. 76. 

motta, ' pearl,' p. 115, n. 6. 

mottura, ' to release,' § 136. 

mora, ' peacock,' § 82, p. 108 (b). 

mblla, 'price,' § 71. H. mol. 

mha, ' we are,' §§ 30, 132. Also 

mhi, ' I am,' §S 30, 132. 




raa , ' gratified ,' § 1 25. 

raia, ' formed,' p. 129, n. 4. 

ralsara, ' prince,' p. 144, n. />. 

rakkhaghara, 'prison,' p. i)r», n. 7. 

raccha, ' highroad,' § 44. 

ranna, ' jungle,' § 74. Alii. AMg. . 

rannau, § 92. 
ranna, ' by the king,' § 99. 
rattim, ' during the night.' p. 87, 

n. 7. 
ramai, ' delights,' j? 125. 
rasSala. ' lower world,' § 9. 

rassi, ' ray,' S 47. 

ravai, ' weeps,' § 125. 

rahasa, ' force' (rabhasa), p. 1 1 1 (/). 

rahassa, • secret,' § 49. 

raa, . king,' declension, Jj 99. 

raia, 'mustard,' p. 107, v. 128. 

ral, ' road,' p. 87, n. 4. 

raesi, ' royal sage,' § 80. 

riecha, ' bear,' §§ 39, 60. 

rittattana, 'emptiness, p. 112 (h). 

riddhi, ' increase,' § 58. 

risi=rsi, § 60. AMg. ,plur. risao, 
§ 93." ■ 

ruai, ' weeps,' § 125. 

ruia, ' bright,' ij 125. 

ruccai, ruccadi, ' is made bright,' 
§ 125, 129. 

rujjhai, ' is obstructed,' § 135. 

ruttha, ' angered,' § 125. 

rundhedi, ' obstructs,' pp., rud- 
dha, § 125; passive, rubbha. 

rumbhai, ' supports,' p. 120, v. 

ruvai, " weeps.' Also rovai ; pas- 
sive ruvvai, § 125. 

rusai, ' is vexed,' S 125. 

rudhira, ' red,' ^ 13. 

ruva, ' form,' § 17. (M. rila, Ji 9). 

reha, M. ' lines,' § 94. 

rehai, M. ' shines,' p. 103. v. 4. 

roadi, ' weeps,' S 125, p. 99, 7- 

rodadi, rovai, ruai, ruvai: fut. , 
rodissam, roccham, S 134; pass., 
rodladi, § 135; inf. rottum, 
§ 136. 

laa (6. lada), ' creeper,' § 12. 
Laccia=Lakami, p. Ill (c). 
latthi, 'stick,' p. 110(a): p. 121. 
v. 14. 

laddha, 'taken,' §§ 34, 125: inf. 

laddhurn, S 136: passive labbha, 

labbliadi, S 1.34. Also lambhiadi. 

§ 135. 
lahai, ' takes,' § 125. 
lahetsu, ' take.' p. 95. n. 2. 
lahua, 'light,' S 13. 
lahum, 'quickly,' p. 91, n. 2. 
lahe, ' 1 take.' atm.. § 115. 
lahearn, opt., p. 88, n. 7. 
laaklya, Mg. , ' royal,' § 165, n. 1. 
laiile, Mg., ' palace," § 82. 
lautte. Mg. , :=rajapiUrnh, p. 160. 

n. 1. 
lia, ' attached to,' § 12.5. Also Una. 
litta, ' smeared,' p. 122. n. 3 (Up). 
libbhai, ' is licked,' S 135. 
lihai, (1) ' licks,' § 125. 

(2) ' writes,' p.p. lihida. S. 
' painted,' p. 100, n. 5. 
lukka, ' sticking to,' p. 105, v. 49. 
luddha, ' hunter,' p. 87, n. 8. 
luppai, ' is robbed,' § 125. 
lekkha, ' list,' p. 125, n. 5. 
16a, M. • world,' § 9. Apa. lou. 

§ 73. AMg., JM., loga, *! 1 1 ; loc. 

logamsi, § 92. 
loadi, Mg., 'shines,' § 129. 
loua, ' salt," § 75. Sindhi lunu. 

H. lun. 
loluva, 'greedy,' p. 108 (rf), (=/n- 

lohara, ' blacksmith,' § 82. 
lohida, Mg. , ' ro/i,' p. 166, n. 4. 

va = ira, p. 108, n. 4. 
vaassa, ' companion," § 49. 
vayasi, AMg., 'spoke,' p. 145, n. 8. 
vaiyara, JM , ' story,' p. 123, n. 7. 
vaira, .M. 'hostile,' § 61. 
vae. AMg., ' herd," p. 150, n. 5. 
vakkala, ' bark,' § 37. 
vakkha, ■ breast," p. 101, n. 6. 
vaggana, ' jumping,' p. 158, n. 5. 
vaggura, AMg., • crowd.' p. 152. 

n. •".. 
vaccha (l) ' ciiild,' § 39 (ratsa). 

(2) ' go,' see vaccha'i. 

(3) ' tree " {vrksa). 

(4) ' breast, ' = vakkha. 
vacchai, 'goes," p. 123, n. 4. 
vaccha, ' girl,' p. 95, n. 4. 
vajja, ' adamant,' p. 101, n. 6. 
vajjadi, ' wanders," § 129. 



vajjanti, ' is sounded,' p. 130. n. 7. 
vajjia, ' excepting,' p. 84, n. 9. 
vajjha, * of execution,' p. KH), n. 3. 
vanfiami, Mg., 'I wander,' p. 17"), 

n. 8. 
vattadi, ' twins,' § 45. 
vatti, • box,' p. 157, n. 2. 
vatte, opt. of vattadi, § 117. 
vatthida, ' engaged in,' § 74. 

vada, 'fig-tree,' § 15. AMg., 

vadha, § 19. 
-vadaa, ' flag,' p. 130, n. 3. 
vaddhida, ' increased,' pp. 83, 6. 

vatta, ' leaf,' p. !»y,n. 10; pp. 108. 
3; p. 115, V. 6. 

vattia, 'paint brush,' p. 82, n. G. 
cf. H. batti, ' wick.' 

vattum, ' to speak,' § 130. 

vattehami, ' I will perform,' § 134. 

vaddhavanaarp, AMg., ' birth cere- 
mony,' p. 128, n. 5. 

Vappairaa, § 34. 

vammaha, M., 'love,' S 25, 

p. 172, V. 21. 
varittha, ' choicest,' 111 (6). 
varisa, ' rain,' § 57. 
valia, 'turned round,' 111 (/). 
vavadesi, ' pretending,' p. 91, n. 5. 
vavasissam, ' I will decide,' p. 89, 5. 
vasantusava, ' spring-festival,' § 81. 
vasaha, • bull,' § 60. 
vasahi, ' dwelling.' § 19=vasai. 
vasa, ' by force of,' § 92. 
-vaha, 'path,' p. 115, v. 14. 
vahai, 'carries,' § 125. 

vahu, 'bride,' § 13; declension, 

vaai, ' blows,' p. 112 (a). S. vaadi. 
vaasa, ' crow,' p. 102, n. 9. 
vai, M.=vaai, § 127. 

vau, ' wind' ; declension, § 90. 
vadaana, ' window,' p. 102, n. 6. 
vamaddana, ' massage,' p. 158, 

n. 5. 
valaga, AMg., ' snake," p. 160, n. G. 
vavadiadi, "is destroyed,' p. 169; 

inf., vavadedurp, p. 167. n. 3. 
vaharanta, ' calling,' p. 101, n. 4. 
vaharesu, • summon,' p. 140, n. 9. 
vahi, ' illness,' p. 129, n. 10. 
vahiria, ' outside,' p. 124, n. 1. 

vi=api, § 3, § 74. 

via, ' like,' p. 81, n. •'). 

viana, ' pain,' § 72. 

viambhidam, ' exploit, p. 94, n. 7. 

viala, ' lame,' p. 88, n. 7. 

vialia, M., ' vanished,' p. 119, v. 79. 

vialida, S., p. 97, n. G. 

viinna, AMg., ' bestowed,' p. 144, 

viuha, ' learned,' § 9. 
viesa, ' abroad,' p. 10(), v. 7G. 

vioa, ' separation,' § 9. 
vikkaa, ' sale,' p. 166, n. 5. 
viggha, ' obstacle,' !? .36. 
vighattha, ' eaten up,' p. 129, n. 10. 
vicchadda, ' liberality,' p. 130, n. 8. 
vijju, ' lightning,' p. 136, n. 10. 

vijjulia, ' lightning,' § 23. 
vijjhai, ' wounds,' p. 112 (a)- 
Virnjha, § 35. 
vidahara (?), p. 140, n. 2. 
vinajjai, 'is perceived,' p. 120, 

V. 82. 
vinadida. ' puzzled,' p. 96, n. G. 
vinodemi, ' 1 divert,' p. 99, n. 3. 
vinnatta. ' reported,' § 125, p. 93, 

n.' 10. 
vinnaviadi, ' is reported,' § 125, 

p." 95, n. 3. 
vinnada, 'understood,' § 125. 

vinnavei (S. vinnavedi), ' re- 
ports,' § 125; inf. vinnavedutn, 
p. 94 n. 1 ; p.p. vinnavida, p. 93. 
n. 2. 
vittharena, ' in full,' p. 93, n. 6. 
I vidduma, ' coral.' p. 115, v. 6. 

vidhappai, ' has arranged,' § 135. 
i vipphodao, 'pimple,' p. 87, n. 11. 
' vibbhala, 'agitated,' § 54. 
vimukka, ' unloosed,' p. 114, v. 3. 
vimuha, ' indifferent,' p. 106, v. 76. 

vimhaa, ' astonishment,' § 47. 
vimhanijja, AMg., 'nourishing,' 

p. 158, n. 7. 
vimharia=vlsaria, p. 109 (d). 
vivajjai, ' perishes,' p. 123, n. 3. 
vivara, ' aury,' p. 121 , v. 85. 
vivujjhadi, ' awakes,' p. 97, n. 7. 
visaraghadanta, 'dispersing,' p. 100, 

V. 115. ■ 
visalla, 'pointless,' p. 176, n. 2. 
vissa, ' musty,' p. 166, n. 6. 
vissama, ' rest,' p. 88, n. 7. 
vihatthimitta, AMg., 'measure of 

a span ,' § 69. 
vihalia, ' trembling,' p. 124. n. 7. 
vihana, "manner,' p. 123, n. 3. 
vihadi, 'shines,' § 127. 
vihi, ' performance,' p. 93, n. 9. 
vihu, ' moon,' p. 136, v. 19. 
viana, ' fanning,' p. 144, n. 5. 



visaip, ' twenty,' § 112. 
visameisi, ' takest rest,' p. 105, 

V. 49. 
visasadi, ' trusts,' p. 91, n. 4. 
visaria, ' forgotten,' p. 109 (d). 
vis5=visani, § 112. 
vihattha, ' loathsome," p. 117, v. 75. 
vuccai, ' is said,' § 135. 
vuddha. ' grown,' S 55. 
vutta, 'iinished,' p. 87, n. 11. 

vuttanta, ' news,' § (iO. 
vuttham, 'dawned,' p. 119, v. 80. 
vubbhai, ' is carried,' § 135. 
vudha, ' carried,' § 125. 
vGlia, ' order of battle,' p. 129, n. 4. 
veyana, AMg., 'wages.' p. 150, 

n. 6. 
veana, ' pain,' p. 96, n. 1. 
veccham. ' I shall know,' § 134. 
vejja, 'learned,' § 61. 
vedha, 'enclosure,' p. 115, v. 14. 
vedhia, 'enclosed,' p. 115, v. 14. 
vedia, 'raised seat,' etc., p. 101, 

n. 5. 
vedissarn= veccham, § 134. 
verulia, ' cat's eye,' § 58. 
vehavvam, 'widowhood,' p. 118, 

V. 78. 
vo, 'you, of you,' §§ 106, 107. 
vocchani, 'I will speak,' S 134. 
vojjha, ' to be carried,' § 137. 
vodhum, ' to carry.' § 136. 
vottum, ' to speak.' § 136. 
voliya, JM., 'passed,' p. 129, n. 8. 

M. bolina. 
volo, JM., ' cry.' cf. M. bolo, 

' speech.' 

sa (1 ) ' with.' (sfl). 

(2) * own' (sva), p. 95, n. (>. 

saa, (f^. sada. AMg., saya. Mg., 
Sada), 'hundred,' SS '2, 112, 
p. 144, n. 4. 

saada, ' cart,' (Mg., ^aala), S 16. 

saadia, ' toy cart,' p. 98. n. 8. 

saasa, ' presence,' p. 82, n. 7. 

samlehana, AMg., "final mortifica- 
tion,' p. 147, n. 6. 

samsaida, 'questioned,' p. 89, n. 6. 

saki<ai, sakkei, ' is able,' p. 123, 
n. 5 

Hakkada, 'Sanskrit. !j II. 

."akkft, ' able,' S 1.3.3. 

sakkara, ' favour,' p. 125, ii. 3. 

sakkunomi, ' I can,' S 131. 

sahkala, ' chain,' § 19. Also san- 

khala, sihkhala, ij 35. Mar 

sakbal. H. sikar. Bg. jikal. 
samkhasutti, ' mother of pearl,' 

p. 103, V. 4. 
samkhaa, 'coagulated,' p. 116, 

V. 63. 
samkhoa, ' shock,' p. 1 14. v. 3. 
samghia, 'applied,' p. ll(i, v. 01. 

sacca, ' true,' S 44. 
saccavia, ' verified," p. 109 (e). 
sacchaha, ' of the same hue,' p. 102 , 
n. 2. 

sajja, ' ready," p. 128, 1. 
sajjha, ' practicable,' § 63. 
samjha, ' twilight,' § 44. 
satthaa, ' troop,' p. 112 (a), 
satthia, ' weapon,' p. 140, n. 7. 
sanha, ' smooth.' p. 160, n. 5. 
sannia, ' made of sign,' p. 124, n. 8. 
sannihie, ' in vicinity,' p. 122, n. 5. 

satta (1) ' seven.' 

(2) 'nature, etc." (sattra). 

sada, S., ' hundred.' M. saa, 5t 12 

sadda, ' sound," S 34. Pb. sadd 

H. sad. 
saddavia, ' sutnrnoned,' p. 124 

n. 12. 
saddavetta, AMg., gerund., p. 146 

n. 4. 
saddhasa, ' panic,' p. 84, n. 5. 
[Saddhike, Mg.. 'feast,' p. 168 

n. 3. 
samtappadi, 'is in distress,' p. 98 

li. 3. 
samtava, 'anguisli,' p. S3, 3. 
samdattha,' bitten through.' p. 116 

v. 63.' 
saphala, ' fruitful,' !} 5. 
sapphala. ' of good results," p. 122 

n. 14 
sabbhava, 'good nature,' S 34 

p. 89, n. 7. 

samaa, 'contract, p. 8!t, n. 10 
'doctrine.' p. 150, n. 2. 

samagga * coniplett>,' p. 129. 

n. 3. 
samannagaya, .AMg., ' provided 

with,' p. 147, n. 4. 

samappida, 'consigned." p. "^4, 
n. 3; iuiperat. sainappehi, p. 9S. 
n .">. , 

samadhatta, 'begun,' p. 127, n. 4. 

saniane. .\Mg., pass. part. ' being, 
p. 147, n. 3. 



[damalovide, Mg., ' mounted,' 

p. 107, n. 7. 
samasattha, 'consoled,' § 125. 
samikkha, AMg.,' discovers,' p. 131, 

n. 1. 
samuggaa, ' box,' p. 82, n. 6. 
samucchida, ' elevated,' § 45. 
saraudaara, ' address,' p. 89, n. 7. 
samudda, ' ocean,' S 45. 
samuppajjittha, AMg. , ' occurred,' 

p. 145, n. 2. 
samupehiyanara, AMg.. 'perceiv- 
ing,' p. 131. n. 1. 
samullasanta, 'brilliant,' p. 101, 

n. 5. 
sampai, JM., 'now,' p. 127, n. I. 
sampadatta, 'bestowed,' p. 125, 

n. 1. 
sainpehei, AMg.. ' reflects,' p. 152, 

n. 3 : gerund, sampehetta, p. 146, 

n. 3. 
sambalayam, JM., 'stores,' p. 141. 

n. 7. _ 
sambhariuna, ' remembering,' 

p. 120, v! 84. 
samma, AMg., ' right,' p. 145, n. 1. 
sammajjia, ' swept,' p. 156, n. 4. 
saraa, ' autumn,' p. 141, n. 5. 
Sarassadi, § 11. 

sarisa, • like,' § 24. 

[6ala, Mg. , • accent," p. 109, n. 2. 

salalia, 'praise,' § 57. 

savana, ' ear,' p. ill (/). 

savatti, ' co-wife,' § 36. H. saut. 

Mar. savat. 
sa vara =,«a6or a, § 18. 

savva, ' all," § 50. H. sab. 
savvannu, ' omniscient,' § 09. 
savvanaru, 'of all," § 111. AMg. 

sasahara, • moon," p. 112 (g). 
sasimuhi, 'moon.' p. Ill (d). 
sassiriada. ' loveliness,' p. 101, n. 8. 
sahattha, ' own hand," S 49. 
s&hava =,<-aphara, S 13. 

sahassa, ' thousand,' § 49. 

sahl, ' friend," § 13. 

saamsamae, ' in the evening,' p. 93, 

n. 3. 
saadam, S. , ' welcome,' S 49. Mg. , 

^aadam, § II. 
[6aala, Mg. , ' ocean," p. 175, n. 6. 
saunia, ' fowler,' p. 87, n. 8 
Sauntala, p. 88, n. 2. 
sao, ' from his own,' p. 152, u. 7. 

sarikkha, 'like" (M. sariccha), 
I §§ 40, C(^ 
Salavahana, § 23. 

sahai, 'tells,' § 125; imporat. 

sahasu, p. 118, v. 76; gerund. 

AMg. sahetta, p. 141, n. 10. 
sahania, ' praiseworthy,' § 49. 
I sahavo, '.saints,' § 93. 

si, ' art,' § 132. 
' siya, AMg., • may be,' S 133. 
siala, ' jackal,' § 60. H. sial. 
simba, simgha, ' lion,' § 65. 
sikkhavaiya. AJNIg. . 'precept,' 

p. 145, n. 4. 
sikkhida, learnt,' § 40. 
sijjhai, 'is fulfilled.' § 125; fut. . 

AMg , p. 147, n. 9. 
sificai. 'pours,' § 125. 
sifija, ' jingle,' p. Ill (d). 
sitlha, ' told,' § 125, p. 127, n. 6. 
siniddha, ' sticky,' etc., § 47. 
sineha, ' affection,' §47. cf. neha. 
sitta, 'sprinkled,' § 125, p. 100, 

n. 4. 

siri=sVi, § 08. 
' sivia, AMg., ' palki,' p. 140, n. 8. 
' [^ivila, Mg. , ' camp,' p. 174, n. 1 

sisa, • head,' p. 101, n. 1. 

! Siha, M., 'lion.' cf. simha. § 05. 

I Apa. slhu, § 73 

; sihu, M , ' rum,' p. 110 (c). 

sua, (I) ' hard.' § 125. 
(2) -parrot' (suka). 

suai, ' sleeps,' S 132. 

suandhi. ' fragrant,' p. 100, n. 5. 

suia, ' cleaned,' p. 156, n. 4. 

suidavva, ' to be slept,' p. 87, n. 7. 

SUkkha, ' dry,' § 38. Pb. sukkha. 

H. sukha. Bg. Suka. 
sujjhai, • is purified," § 125. 
sutthu, -well,' § 38. 
SUuai, 'hears,' § 131. S. siuiadi, 
I § 132 ; gerundive sunidavva, § 137 ; 

passive, suniadi § 135, n. 
[Sundikagala, Mg. , -grog-shop,' 
i p'. 'l08, n. 3. 
sunua, 'empty.' p. 90, n. 6. Pb. 

sunna. H. sijna. 
SUnedi, 'hears,' §§ 125, 12S, 131. 

cf. sunai. 
sunha, ' daughter in-law,' p 100, 

V. 107. 
sutta (I) 'asleep,' §§34, 125. 
(2) =sutra. 



suttaa, AMg., 'belt,' p. 159, n. 10. 
suda, 6. ' hoard.' ij 126. cf. sua. 
suddha, 'purified, § 125. 
siindaraara, ' more beautiful," 

p. 109 (a). 
sumaraua, ' memory,' p. 1 10 (a). 

sumaradi, • remembers." S 57. 

Also sumaredi, § 128. (M. bharai. 

p. 120, V. 84) ; caus. part, sumara- 

vida, p. i'O, n. 3. 
summai, ' is heard,' S 135 (</). 
suvai, 'sleeps.' § 125. 
suvahum. ' very much,' p. 123. 

n. 12.' 
suvina, 'dream," p. 128, n. 5. 
SUVO, ■ to-morrow," § 57. 
suvvai, ' is heard,' § 135. 
sussuissam, • I shall wait upon,' 

§ 134. 
suhaa, ' fortunate," p. 110 (a). 
suaa, ' spy," p. 165, n. 6. 
suida, JM., suiya, 'shown.' p. 128, 

n. 5. 
se, (1) AMg., 'he.' Mg., 6e, j; 109. 

(2) 'him,' AMg. 

(3) 'his.' M., AMg.,S., § 109. 

(4) 'her,' AMg. (Mg. ie gen.). 

(5) ' they, them,' AMg. (Mg. 6e), 

§ 109. 

sea, (1) ' sweat' {.iveda). 

(2) AMg. seya, ' white,' p. 144, 
n. 5 {sveta). 

(3) .AMg. seyam, ' better,' p. 
14G, n. 2 (sveyas). 

sela, ' rock,' p. 109 (6). 
aohaUa, ' vitex,' p. 94, n. 10. 

SO, 'he,' § 108. 

soa, (1) ' grief {«oka). 

(2) JM. soya, ' washing,' p. 123, 
n. 2 (muea). 
soavva=sunidavva, § 137. 
SOUqi, ' to hear.' !i 13(), p. 103, 

V. 2. 
SOkkha, • happinoss,' § 43. 
socca, .\.Mg., • having heard," p. 146, 

n. 8. 
sonlia=sunha, p. KXi, \'. 107. 
80ttia,=iirotriija , p. 102, n. 8. .Mg. 

Lottie, p. I(>6, n. 3. 
sottum, ' to sleep,' § 130. 

sodavva=soavva. § 137. 
sodhania, ' to be purified,' p. 89, 
n. 4. 

.somma, ' good sir,' §§ 48, 61. 
sovai, sovadi, ' sleeps,' § 132. 
sovana, ' stairs,' p. 102, n. 5. 
sohagga, 'auspicious,' p. 101, n. 4. 

haa, hada (1) ' struck,' § 125. 

(2) ' taken,' § 125. cf. 
hage, AMg., • S.,' §§ 11, 107. Apa. 

hafi, § 107. 
hattha, ' delighted,' p. 145, n. 8. 
hadakka, Mg., 'heart,' p. 170, n. 1. 
hanai, ' kills.' § 125. 

hattha, ' hand.' !; 38. 
haddhi, ' alas," p. 81, n. 1. 
hammai, ' is killed,' § 135 (d). 
harida, ' green,' p. 100, n. 4. 
haridurn, ' to take,' § 13(>. 
harisa, • joy,' § 57. 
havissadi, ' will be," S 4. Mg. 

hasedi. ' laughs.' § 128. 
hia, hida, ' taken,' § 12. cf. haa. 
hiaa, ' heart,' §§ 9, (50: abl. § 92. 

H. hia. 
hio, ' yesterday,' >? 58. 
hihgulaa, 'cinnabar,' p. 157, n. 7. 
hutta, 'facing,' p. 108 (c), p 121. 

V. 85. 
huvai, M.=hoi. 
huvissam (Mg. huvi^iam). ' I shall 

be.' §134. 
hua, ' become,' § 125. cf. bhua. 

H. hua. 
hoi, ' becomes.' §S ■*■ I--'- "-'f- 'i"" 

vai. 6. bhodi. 
houin, 'to be." p. 109 (<;) ; gerund. 

houna, ii 122. 
liojja, AMg., • miglit be,' § 133. 
hottani, being,' p. 119, v. 80. 
hotthS, AMg., ' was,' p. 144, n. 1. 
homi, ' 1 am.' S 129, hosi, ' thou 

hossani=havis3ain, § 134. 
hohii. 'it will be." § 134. 


[This Hat is intended to assist the student to extending his knowledge of 
Prakrit, and to serve as a guide to ('oUege Libraries. ) 

Prakrit. A. Grammars, etc. 

(1). Pischel (Dr. Richard) Grammatik der Prakrit- 
Sprachen. ["Grammar of the Prakrit Languages''] 
Forms one volume (Band 1, Heft 8) of the Grundriss 
der Indo-Arisehen Philologie und Altertumskunde. 
Strassburg, 1900. 500 pages. Price £l-ls.-6d. 

[Deals with Jain Prakrits, Dramatic Prakrits, Pai^aci and 
Apabhrani^a. A monument of industry and sound scholarship. 
A student who was worked through this "Introduction," 
should be able to make use of this work of reference, without 
any knowledge of German, by studying the examples given. 
The book contains an index of more unusual and special 
forms. ] 

(2). A complete Index to Pischel's Grammar has been pub- 
lished by Don. M. deSilva Wickremasinghe in the 
Indian Antiquary. [Is sold separately,] 

(3). Jacobi (Dr. Hermann). Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen 
in Maharashtri, zur Einfiihrung in das Studium des 
Prakrit. ["Selected Narratives in Maharastrl as an 
introduction to the study of Prakrit."] Leipzig. 

[As regards the classification of Prakrits, and in some details 
of derivation this book is no longer up to date. For .Jain Maha- 
rastrl it gives a concise account (in German) of Phonetics and 
Grammar, 86 pages of Selections, and a Vocabulary (Prakrit- 
Sanskrit-G«rman). Nos. V. and IX of the Selected Narratives 
have been annotated and translated in this " Introduction" ; 
also portions of No. Ill to illustrate Ardha-Magadhl.] 

(4). Cowell (Professor E. B.). The Prakrta-Prakas'a, or 
the Prakrt Grammar of Vararuci with the commen- 
tary (Manorama) of Bhamaha with notes, an 

English Translation and index of Prakrt words ; to 
which is prefixed a short introduction to Prakrt Gram- 
mar. Second Issue. London, 1868. 

[Unfortunately Bhamaha's commentary on the Xllth Sec- 
tion, which deals with Sauraseni has been lost, and many of 
the sutras are " obscure and corrupt." The corresponding 
rules in Hemacandra's work are given in an Appendix, " but 
even these leave many difficulties unexplained." Bhamaha 
has sometimes misunderstood Vararuci.] 


(5). Hemacandra {vide page 79). 

(n) Siddha-hema-candra (Adhyaya VIII deals with 
Prakrit), edited by Pischel, Parts I and II. Halle, 
1877, 1880, with translation and notes. {Oerman). 

(G). (ft) Des'inamamala, edited by Pischel. Bombay, 1880. 

(7). Hcernle. The Prakrta-Lak§anam or Canda's Grammar 
of the Ancient (Arsha) Prakrt. Calcutta, 1880. 
I Ar3a=AMg., not as Hoernle .stated=AMg. +M.] 

(8). Biihler. Edition of Prakrta-laksmih. 

"The Paiyalachchhi Namamala, a Prakrit Kosha 
by Dhanapala. Edited with critical notes, an intro- 
duction and a glossary bv George Biihler " Gottin- 
gen, 1878. 

B. Texts. Mdharasiri. 

(9). Hala. Saptasatakam. (Ftrfep. 73). 
(a) Edited by Weber. Leipzig, 1881. 

[Vocabulary in German,] 

(10). (6) Kavyamala Series No. 21. Edited by Durgaprasad 
and Parab. Bombay, 1889. 

[With Sanskrit commentary.] 

(11). Setubandha or Ravanavaha. (Firfep. 72), 

(a) Kavyamala Series No. 47. Edited by S'ivadatta 
and Parab. Bombay, 1895. 

[With Sanskrit version and commentary.] 

(10). (h) Edited by Siegfried Goldschmidt-Strassburg, 1880. 

[With German tran.^lation and vocabulary.] 

(11). Gaiidavaho, ed. Sh. P. Pandit. Bombay, 1887. 

I Bombay Sanskrit Series XXXIV. Out of print, revised 
edition expected.] 

Dramatic Prakrits. 

[It is unnecessary to enumerate editions of Sanskrit Plays. 
Many will be familiar to the student, others he will find in 
Schuyler's bibliography. Very few editions givo a correct or 
consistent Prakrit text. This is mainlv due to corruptions in 
the iMSS.] 

(12). Karpuramaiijari of Rajai^ekhara. 

Critical edition with Vocabulary by Dr. Sten Konow. 
Translation and Introduction by Prof. C. B Lanmau. 


[Harvard Oriental Series, Vol. 4. This play is also in the 
K. M. Series No. 4, edited Durga Prasad and Parab. Bombay, 


(13). S'akuntala, ed. Pischel. Kiel, 1877. 

[Follows the Bengal version, edited with a sounder know- 
ledge of Prakrit than Monier Williams' edition of 1867.] 

(14). Mrcchakatikam, ed. Godabole. Bombay, 1896. 
(Bombay Sanskrit Series). 

[Other editions — Stenzler, 1847. Rama Maya Sariiia. 
Calcutta, 1829. Hiranand and Parab., 1902. The last has 
been quoted in the extracts, as it is much used by students. 
Translation. Dr. A. W. Ryder, Harvard Oriental Series, 
Vol. 9.] 

(15). Ratnavall. A second text of this, with a Prakrit- 
Sanskrit glossary by Capeller, is given in Bohllingks 
Chrestomathic, p. 290 ff. St. Petersburg, 1877. 

(16). Kalpasutra (Kappasutta), ed. Jacobi, Leipzig, 1879. 

[Translated by Jacobi, S.B.E., XXII, vide p. 71, and p. 161. 
n. 3.] 

(17). Ayarangasutta, ed. Jacobi. London, 1882, 
(Calcutta edn., Samvat 1936). 
[The first aAga and the most archaic. Important for prose.] 

(18). Suyagadangasutta, ed. Bombay. Samvat 1936. 

[Second ahga. Important for verse. ] 

(19). Uvasagadasao, ed. Hcernle. Calcutta, 1890. 

(Bibliotheca Indica). 

[Eleventh anga, contains narratives. Both text and com- 
mentary are edited critically.] 

Jain Mahdrdstri. 

(20). Avasyaka, Erzahlungen, ed. Ernst Leumann. Heft 1. 
Leipzig, 1897. 

See also No. 3 above, Jacobi. 

(21). Kalakacarya-caritam, ed. Jacobi {vide p. 139). 
Z. D. M. G. Vol. 34 (1880). p. 262. 

(22). Kakkuka Inscription. (Extract No. 17, p. 134). 


Jain Sauraseni, 
(23). Pavayanasara by Kundakundacarya. 

(24). Kattigeyanupekkha by Karttikeyasvamin, ed. Bhan- 

PaUaci. {Vide p. 68-69). 

[It is only necessary to mention a few books useful to the 
student who does not make a special study of this language.] 

Grammars, etc. 

(25). Miiller, E. A simplified grammar of the Pali language. 
London, 1884. (Triibner). 

[There is a short grammar by Frankfiirter with selections 
and vocabulary. A better grammar is that of M. Duroiselle.] 

(26). Childers, R. C. Dictionary of the Pali Language. 
Fourth Impression. London, 1909. 

Texts and Translations. 

(27) Jatakas, edited by Fausboll. Triibner. 7 vols. 
London, 1877. 

(-8). ,, translated by various hands, edited by 

Cowell and Rouse. Cambridge.. 1895. 

[With these the student can make a good start without a 

(29). Andersen (Dines). Pali Reader. Copenhagen. 

(30). Mahavamsa, edited Turnour, translated Geig^er. 

(31). Publications of the Pali Text Society. 

Old Prakrit. 

The material is scattered. For Asoka's Edicts 
the student may consult 

(32). Senart .Les inscriptions de Piyadasi. 

The first volume of the Corpus Inscriptionum Indi- 
carum. Asoka's Edicts edited by Cunningham is 
difficult to obtain — and needs revision. 

(33) Franke (Professor 0.) " Pali and Sanskrit," 1902. 
IGerman. Vide p. 74, n. 2.] 


(34). Liiders. " Fragments of two buddhistic dramas." 
[German. Vide p. 72, p. 78.] 

Late Prakrit. Apahhram&a. 

Hemacandra. Vide No. 5 above, and p. 6. 

(35). Pingala-chandahsutra or Prakrta-Pingala-siitra. Ka- 
vj'amala series No. 41, ed. Sivadatta and Parab. 
[A critical edition is needed.] 





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