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Full text of "Introduction to the study of Indian music : an attempt to reconcile modern Hindustani music with ancient musical theory and to propound an accurate and comprehensive method of treatment of the subject of Indian musical intonation"



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INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF 
INDIAN MUSIC 



INTRODUCTION TO THE 

STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 



AN ATTEMPT TO RECONCILE MODERN HINDUSTANI 
MUSIC WITH ANCIENT MUSICAL THEORY AND 
TO PROPOUND AN ACCURATE AND COM- 
PREHENSIVE METHOD OF TREATMENT 
OF THE SUBJECT OF INDIAN 
MUSICAL INTONATION 



BY 

E. CLEMENTS 

OF THE INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE, BOMRAY PRESIDENCY 



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 
NEW YORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA 

1913 

All rights reserved 



FOREWORD 

The time Is perhaps far distant when it will be possible to 
write a connected history of Indian music, tracing its origins, 
development, and old age. It is clear, however, that its golden 
age — that period so short in the history of any art cycle, and 
so prepotent in determining the modes of both art and life 
for long subsequent periods — must lie far back from the 
present. Not improbably, that golden age coincided with the 
moment of greatest achievement in drama, Kalidasa, and for 
the theory, Bharata. Long anterior to this, however, music 
was a most highly cultivated — perhaps the most highly 
cultivated — of Indian arts, and to the present day it has 
remained the most continuously vital and most universally 
appreciated art of India. Taking together what has been lost, 
and what remains, music is, then, the most complete expression 
of the soul or genius of the Indians — a mirror faithfully 
reflecting their inner life. That English Orientalists and 
educationists have so long ignored this music, is the measure 
of their misunderstanding of India. 

While it is true that, until modern times, music has 
remained in the best sense one of the most popular of Indian 
arts, it is also true, though with exceptions, that it has been 
neglected and despised, for example, by Aurangzeb, as well 
as by more modern puritans. But the music remained too 
intimately associated with religion, with the drama, and with 
life, whether courtly or popular, and was too faithfully 
guarded by the traditions of the guilds for it to be possible 
that it should die out altogether. There are to be found even 
now, for the most part at the courts of Indian rajas, or in 
specially musical towns like Lucknow, Tanjore, and Poona, a 
few ustads who are artists of high, and even of supreme rank ; 
but they belong to an order that is passing away. 



vi FOREWORD 

The neglect of centuries, as in so many analogous cases, 
has proved less disastrous than the renewed patronage of a 
few decades. The constant use of the tempered harmonium ; 
the endeavour to adapt Indian modes to the purposes of tenth 
or fifteenth-rate brass bands maintained by Indian rajas ; the 
absence of any aesthetic element in modern Indian education ; 
the mania for English accomplishments : all these causes have 
actively contributed to the degeneration of Indian music. By 
degeneration, I mean literally confusion, a running together, 
and destruction of bounding-lines ; a process quite distinct 
from any natural waning of vitality at the latter end of an 
art cycle. 

Now that life has changed, so that the old music, however 
splendid, no longer expresses race-intention (we are no longer 
united by such an intention), there are two considerations that 
must weigh with us, when we think of Indian music ; to 
maintain the memory of our past experience, as an interpre- 
tation and inspiration and delight, and to clear the way for 
new creators. For both these ends it is necessary to escape 
from the confusion into which the theoretical part of Indian 
music has unfortunately fallen. It is here, I think, that Mr. 
Deval has done great service in applying a purely experi- 
mental method to the analysis of the actual intonation of 
thoroughly trustworthy hereditary musicians. Mr. Deval's 
work, the results of which are published in his " Hindu 
Musical Scale and the Twenty-two Srutees," deserves the 
highest praise. It is true that Mr. Deval did not succeed 
in his endeavour to improve his case by importing aid and 
corroboration from scientific acoustics and Sanskrit philology ; 
but I think that certain of his critics fall into more serious 
error when they judge the results of his patient and invaluable 
experimental work by weakness or inaccuracies in his method 
of presentation. 

The preparation of the sruti harmonium, and the presenta- 
tion of the general results of Mr. Deval's work, combined with 
a critical discussion of the theory of music according to 
Bharata and Sarangdev in Mr. Clements' most interesting 
book, mark, I think, an epoch in the scientific study of Indian 
music. It will at any rate be possible for future writers, even 
when they disagree with Mr. Clements, to say more clearly 



FOREWORD vii 

and definitely than heretofore, what they exactly mean ; and 
still more important, for future recorders to make a nearer 
approach to a true transcription of the Indian ragas. I cannot 
but hope that Mr. Clements will himself extend his studies 
in this direction. It may be a long time before we have as 
full and as exact a knowledge of Indian music as we have of 
Indian literature ; but if that time ever comes, it will, I am 
sure, be acknowledged that the work of Mr. Deval and Mr. 
Clements did much to clear the way for such a development 
of knowledge. 

I should like to say a word of warning with regard to the 
sruti harmonium. This instrument is to be welcomed, in any 
case, as infinitely preferable, from the standpoint of intonation, 
to the tempered harmonium now in common use. It is a 
valuable tool, and may be used for purposes of research, and 
also for class teaching, where the instruction of large classes 
(a process foreign to the Indian conception of educational 
method) is unavoidable. Thus used, the sruti harmonium 
will serve the ends of exact knowledge, and will not (as the 
tempered harmonium now does) destroy the sensitiveness of 
the Indian ear to those " hair's-breadth " distinctions which are 
essential to a highly evolved art of pure melody. But, as I 
think, no harmonium of any kind should ever be regarded as 
a substitute for the tambura, because the quality of tone of the 
tambura is so infinitely superior to that of the harmonium, to 
say nothing of other aesthetic and social considerations ; above 
all, the harmonium should never be used as an accompaniment 
to the voice, leading or imitating note by note. This last, 
even with the vina, would be foolish ; with a blatant instrument 
like the harmonium, incapable, moreover, of any gliding from 
note to note, it becomes repulsive. 

Much the same argument applies to the use of a system 
of notation ; for the purposes of exact knowledge — most 
desirable as a means of escape from the present chaos — it is 
very important that a suitable method of transcription should 
be discovered. But the publication of Indian music in staff 
notation, without warning that the scale is other than that 
usually implied by that notation, tends to the destruction of 
the character of that music in the same way as the use of a 
tempered harmonium. It is for the purposes of science, of 



viii FOREWORD 

teaching, of the preservation of existing songs, and the 
making of these accessible to Western students, that a notation 
is now so necessary — above all, for the preservation of what is 
so rapidly disappearing, and must soon be lost. But if it be 
possible to maintain still, amidst the general popularization of 
music in the modern and democratic sense, a tradition of 
master-musicians in pupillary succession, as heretofore, then 
for these it is far better that the method of oral transmission 
should be maintained. No matter if the masters in different 
parts of India do not all agree ; the very divergences of their 
ragas may be an expression of local character. But it is not 
for the sake of variety that I would preserve the system of 
oral transmission ; but rather because this is the true method 
of learning for an artist, because every singer so taught must 
be in some degree a composer (he is taught, not merely to 
repeat a given song, but to sing in a given mode and mood), 
and because it is so great an advantage for the true musician 
to need no external aid to memory, such as a printed score. 
Indeed, I suppose that even if we succeed in recording the 
greater part of Indian music as it still survives, the music 
itself cannot persist as a part of everyday life unless it is thus 
handed on as a sacred tradition. 

In any case it is much that the existing music should be 
recorded and analyzed for the student of whatever time or 
country. The necessity of such a record in India need not be 
dwelt upon ; but perhaps the most valuable result of the 
growing interest in Indian music would be realized if the time 
ever comes when, in the words of Captain Day, " the study of 
the national music of the country will occupy, as it should, a 
foremost place in all Indian schools," and certainly, also, in 
the Universities. But I should also like to emphasize the 
importance of this study for western musicians ; not only as 
a means of better understanding the heart of India, but also 
because it must be in the long run disadvantageous to ignore 
one half of the world's experience in any art. If Indian 
music is very different from European — and the fundamental 
difference is less than at first sight appears — then all the more 
reason for the Western musician to enlarge his outlook. 
Perhaps even, in the words of M. Bourgault-Ducoudray, 
Oriental music may "provide Western musicians with fresh 



FOREWORD ix 

resources of expression, and with colours hitherto unknown to 
the palate of the musician." At least we may feel certain 
that both for us, and for the Western student, the exact study 
of the science of Indian music is a necessary process in the 
interests of progress and interpretation. 

It is then with gratitude that I have accepted Mr. 
Clements' invitation to write a preface to his learned and 
stimulating work ; in so doing I wish to specially commend 
both the whole subject of Indian music, and this book, to the 
notice of all Indians and Englishmen who have any voice in 
determining modes of education in India. 

ANANDA K. COOMARASWAMY. 



London, 
September i3, 1912. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

Foreword v 

Introduction xiii 

I. The Srutis of Modern Hindustani Music ... i 

II. The Staff Notation and the Srutis 15 

III. The Staff Notation {continued) 37 

IV. The Interpretation of the Ancient Text-Books 47 

V. Concluding Observations 76 

Appendix A, The Indian Srutis and the Tempered 

Chromatic Scale 89 

Appendix B. The Indian Harmonium 90 

Appendix C. Transposition on the Indian Harmonium . 94 

Appendix D. - 97 

Appendix E 100 

Index and Glossary 103 



INTRODUCTION 

The art of music in India has for centuries been neglected 
and despised by the general public. That period is now 
happily over, and an awakening of interest is everywhere 
manifest ; educational institutions of recent birth are in a 
flourishing condition, and there is a demand on all sides from 
amateurs for musical tuition, while treatises, and new notations 
and editions of ancient texts are continually being published. 
It cannot be denied, however, that all this energy is in urgent 
need of the guidance which a sound musical theory would 
afford. Modern text-books may appear learned to the 
uninitiated ; the historian will, however, frankly admit that, 
since the days of the Sangit Ratnakar, Indian musical 
systems have fallen into such confusion that no one has been 
able to reconcile the teaching of that authoritative treatise 
with later works on the subject, or with the practice or theory 
of modern musicians. The art is also in grave danger of 
being spoiled, as other Indian arts have in the past been 
spoiled, by cheap imitation. Contact with the West has 
resulted in a blend of Indian music with European intona- 
tion, a combination in the highest degree inartistic and likely 
to prove more harmful than the neglect of centuries. 

Those who invent notations no better than others already 
in existence, with an elaborate superfluity of new and 
wonderful signs, in the hope of handing their names down 
to posterity as inventors are friends of doubtful sincerity. 
Those who use the staff-notation for the purpose, without 
attempting to distinguish the special features of Indian 
intonation, are encouraging the heresy that intonation is of 
minor importance. Those teachers who promote the sale of 
tempered harmoniums, and make use of them in the class- 
room, are proving their own incapacity to guide the musical 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

renaissance of their country. The head of one institution 
finds the tempered harmonium an excellent means of teach- 
ing beginners " the scale." What scale, one may ask, for it 
does not give a reasonable approximation to any Indian 
scale } He admits that the " peti," as it is commonly called, 
cannot render all the Ragas ; has he not, in his publications, 
drawn attention to this defect ? When the beats given by the 
fifths, fourths, and thirds of his instrument are show.n to him, 
he says that he is aware of them, and considers them some- 
what like the Indian embellishment known as "kampit." 
When asked whether he follows the teaching of Sarangdev, 
the author of the Sangit Ratnakar, he replies : " He is not 
really an old authority ; we go back to the Sama Veda ; we 
are of opinion that Sarangdev is wrong in many respects, and 
we reckon our srutis downwards instead of upwards."^ To 
go back to the Sama Veda is a happy inspiration, as that 
work, so far as it touches the question of scales, deals in pure 
generalities. 

Europeans, on their part, are too ready to assume that 
the Indian scales are artificial and capricious, and too prone 
to ascribe to " quarter- tones " distinctions between intervals 
with which they are not familiar, such as the difference 
between the major-tone and the minor-tone. Intervals less 
than a semitone are frequently employed in grace or embellish- 
ment, but very seldom in scales. When they form part of a 
scale, it is possible in many cases to regard them as con- 
stituents of natural chords of the seventh, the tempered 
equivalents of which are well known to the Western musician 
as discords. It is also a prevalent idea that, in the study of 
Indian music, intonation may be neglected as being of minor 
importance. This view is, however, demonstrably wrong ; 
the student who masters the subject of intonation will find 
no difficulty in solving the remaining problems of Indian 
musical theory. 

The following pages deal with the subject of intonation, 
principally as applied to the school of music known as the 
Hindustani School. The author ventures to hope that when 
once the rationale of the " kaishiki " or hair's-breadth distinc- 
tions of the Sangit Ratnakar is grasped (and may the reader 

' See p. 48. 



INTRODUCTION xv 

beware of following a certain well-known author, and calling 

them ** aggravating ") writers and teachers will no longer be 

found ignoring the difference between the ri of Bhup and 

the ri of Deshkar, the ga and ni of Kafi, and the ga and ni 

of Bahiravi Ac .'f is impossible to treat the subject of in- 

without an appropriate musical notation, 

will be devoted to the presentation of a 

idian music may be accurately written. 

r. Deval of Sangli, which have rendered 

c treatment of the subject in hand, will 

account given of the Indian harmonium 

he accuracy of his conclusions has been 

iges from the Natya Shastra of Bharata 

^. nakar will be quoted and commented 

^ ^ this new science of intonation. It will 

>» 5ting conclusions suggest themselves as 

^ gs of the Hindu scales. As a result of 

I '^ )ns, tentative suggestions will be made 

g assification of the Indian scales. For 

are interested in European instruments 

:hey may be adapted to perform Indian 

on will be explained. 

5 to acknowledge his indebtedness to 

e of Malabar Hill, Bombay, the pub- 

^it, and author of Hindustani Sangitachi 

^orks, but for whose generous help in 

and collating Hindu texts this volume 

written. 

E. C. 



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xiv INTRODUCTION 

renaissance of their country. The head of one institution 
finds the tempered harmonium an excellent means of teach- 
ing beginners " the scale." What scale, one may ask, for it 
does not give a reasonable approximation to any Indian 
scale } He admits that the " peti," as it is 
cannot render all the Ragas ; has he not, in 
drawn attention to this defect ? When the 1: 
fifths, fourths, and thirds of his instrument i 
he says that he is aware of them, and consi 
what like the Indian embellishment kno) 
When asked whether he follows the teachi 
the author of the Sangit Ratnakar, he rep 
really an old authority ; we go back to the 
are of opinion that Sarangdev is wrong in m 
we reckon our srutis downwards instead of 
go back to the Sama Veda is a happy in 
work, so far as it touches the question of scc 
generalities. 

Europeans, on their part, are too read] 
the Indian scales are artificial and capriciou 
to ascribe to " quarter-tones " distinctions 1 
with which they are not familiar, such i 
between the major-tone and the minor-ton 
than a semitone are frequently employed in g 
ment, but very seldom in scales. When tht 
scale, it is possible in many cases to rega 
stituents of natural chords of the sevent 
equivalents of which are well known to the ^ 
as discords. It is also a prevalent idea tha 
Indian music, intonation may be neglected <. 
importance. This view is, however, demc 
the student who masters the subject of int 
no difficulty in solving the remaining pro 
musical theory. 

The following pages deal with the subj( 
principally as applied to the school of mu; 
Hindustani School. The author ventures tc 
once the rationale of the " kaishiki " or hair's-breadth distinc- 
tions of the Sangit Ratnakar is grasped (and may the reader 

' See p. 48. 



INTRODUCTION xv 

beware of following a certain well-known author, and calling 
them *' aggravating ") writers and teachers will no longer be 
found ignoring the difference between the ri of Bhup and 
the ri of Deshkar, the ga and ni of Kafi, and the ga and ni 
of Bahiravi. As it is impossible to treat the subject of in- 
tonation adequately without an appropriate musical notation, 
part of this volume will be devoted to the presentation of a 
method by which Indian music may be accurately written. 
The researches of Mr. Deval of Sangli, which have rendered 
possible the scientific treatment of the subject in hand, will 
be described, and an account given of the Indian harmonium 
by means of which the accuracy of his conclusions has been 
demonstrated. Passages from the Natya Shastra of Bharata 
and the Sangit Ratnakar will be quoted and commented 
upon in the light of this new science of intonation. It will 
be found that interesting conclusions suggest themselves as 
to the early beginnings of the Hindu scales. As a result of 
the author's conclusions, tentative suggestions will be made 
as to the scientific classification of the Indian scales. For 
the sake of those who are interested in European instruments 
the manner in which they may be adapted to perform Indian 
airs in correct intonation will be explained. 

The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to 
Mr. V. N. Bhatkhande of Malabar Hill, Bombay, the pub- 
lisher of Lakshya Sangit, and author of Hindustani Sangitachi 
Paddhati, and other works, but for whose generous help in 
the way of translating and collating Hindu texts this volume 
would never have been written. 

E. C. 

September <), 19 12. 



INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 
OF INDIAN MUSIC 

CHAPTER I 

THE SRUTIS OF MODERN HINDUSTANI MUSIC 

Mr. a. M. Chinnaswami Mudliar writes in his " Oriental 
Music in European Notation : " " Considering -., „. , . 
the prodigious number of nationalities and the and Karnatic 
diversity of provincial dialects in existence schools of music, 
throughout the length and breadth of the Indian Empire, it 
should be no matter of astonishment if there be found any 
number of heterogeneous systems, as well as incongruous 
classifications in standard works forming the musical litera- 
ture of the land. The primary distinction is into two classes, 
Marga (celestial) and Deshi (terrestrial) ; the latter is now 
broadly divided into Hindustani and Karnata, the former 
representing the school established by Hanuma, and the 
latter the much more ancient and authentic system introduced 
by Narada, the inventor of all Arts and Sciences. It is clear, 
however, that local tastes and methods of training have con- 
siderably upset the theories originally propounded. ... Of 
late the Hindustani element (which has itself much deterio- 
rated owing to foreign admixture) has been ingrafted on the 
Dravidian modes to an alarming extent." 

Mr. Mudliar's opinions as to the respective merits of 
" Dravidian " and Hindustani music, and on the subject of 
deterioration, are interesting, but in view of the fact that 
he accepts the tempered scale and the European tempered 
notation as a medium of instruction, they need not command 
acceptance. His volume is a praiseworthy effort and most 
valuable to the student, but, owing to a deficiency in the 

B 



2 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

critical faculty as regards musical intonation, Mr. Mudliar un- 
fortunately encourages the worst kind of deterioration which 
has ever affected Indian music. The present work deals with 
Hindustani music only ; the author hopes to be able to show 
that a great part of it is directly traceable to the systems set 
forth in Bharata's Natya-Shastra of about the fifth century 
A.D., and the Sangit Ratnakar of the thirteenth century. 
These are the most closely reasoned and critically worded 
of the early text-books. It is reputed that Sarangdev, the 
author of the Sangit Ratnakar, was an inhabitant of Kashmir. 
From internal evidence one would conclude that the music 
he describes is that of Hindustan. However, the pandits of 
Southern India endeavour to appropriate him to themselves. 
The present writer hopes to show that it is only by doing 
violence to his theory that it can be applied to Karnatic 
music. Roughly speaking, Hindustani music may be said 
to prevail in the north and west of India and the Deccan, 
while Karnatic music is confined to the south and east. 
Many scales are common to both, but the general spirit of 
the two systems is apparent from the scales which are first 
taught to beginners ; in the west, the scale is the same as 
the just major scale of Europe,^ in the south it is a chro- 
matic scale (known in Hindustani music as the scale of the 
Raga Bhairava) with semitones between the first and second, 
third and fourth, fifth and sixth, seventh and eighth degrees. 

There are grounds for believing that the remote precursors 
Indian music— °^ these two scales were pentatonic, one the 
the Gramas, scale which has been found amongst almost 

Jatis.and gas. ^|^ nations and which may be roughly indicated 
thus — C, D, E, G, A, C, and the other the old Greek scale of 
Olympus. Complete scales of seven notes were in existence 
many centuries before Christ, and the notes bore the "tonic- 
solfa " names sa ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, abbreviations of shadj, 
rishabh, gandhara, madhyam, pancham, dhaivat, nishad. Ancient 
theory puts the development of scales and melodic forms in 
the following order : first came the Gramas, which may be 
regarded as collections of notes definitely related to one 
another by musical intervals. Writers on the subject persist 

' Sometimes the scale with the high sixth is used ; the practice in this respect 
does not appear to be uniform. 



THE SRUTIS OF MODERN HINDUSTANI MUSIC 3 

in thinking of the Gramas as scales because each was named 
after a particular note. This was not the mode of thought 
followed by Bharata and Sarangdev. A grama might be 
regarded as a string of notes ranging through three or four 
octaves. To sing a scale out of the string, a starting-point 
must be chosen. A scale of seven notes from the string was 
called a MiircJiJiana of the note so chosen. This was the 
second step. A scale which was to form the basis of a melody- 
required something beyond a "lowest note," something to 
establish its harmonic individuality. The Jdtis were elabo- 
rated as the third step ; their character was largely determined 
by the note chosen as the drone or pedal accompaniment ; 
they also had a fixed final note, and Vadis and Samvadis ; 
the latter being pairs of notes a fourth or a fifth apart which 
determined the tonality or harmonic structure of the scale. 
After the Jatis came the Grama-Ragas, which may be regarded 
as generic melody-types, and their descendants the Rdgas of 
modern India. The best singers in India, those whose art 
has not been contaminated by the tempered harmonium, 
prefer to sing to an accompaniment of the tambura alone, or 
the tambura with drums. The tambura is a stringed instru- 
ment of rich tone upon which a powerful drone is produced 
consisting in almost all cases of the fundamental note, which 
Europeans would be incHned at first to call the " tonic," and 
its fifth. With such an accompaniment it would be next to 
impossible for any singer with a sensitive ear to sing the first 
five notes of the ordinary major-scale in anything but just 
tuning, unless he departed therefrom of set purpose, for the 
fifth upper partial tone of the bass is to be heard distinctly, 
and the third upper partial of the fifth above. Wherefore the 
use of the tambura is to be recommended for the singer of 
Folk-songs also, unless a harmonized accompaniment in 
natural tones is to be obtained. To proceed, the Indian 
singer will always be able to state in what Raga or Ragas his 
song is composed. The name of the Rdga connotes a scale 
bearing a fixed relationship to the drone, with its harmonic 
structure determined by a Vadi and Samvadi, a chief note 
("ansha svara") occurring more frequently than others, a 
lower limit described in terms of the Murchhana, occasionally 
an upper limit also, certain characteristic turns of melody, 



4 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

recurring with frequency, certain rules regarding the employ- 
ment of embellishments, and a stated time of the day for its 
performance. It is a common practice, after singing an air in 
a Raga, to improvise a series of free fantasia passages, each 
returning in due course to a characteristic snatch of the 
melody, only to wander off again in still more elaborate 
variations. The whole performance must be " within the 
Raga," that is, without transgression of the elaborate rules 
governing its structure. 

Until recently, with trifling exceptions, Ragas, with their 
Scope of the rules and scales and compositions, were handed 
present work. down from teacher to pupil without the aid of 
any written record. It is not surprising, therefore, that a 
good deal should have been lost, and that different singers 
should be at sixes and sevens regarding the names and dis- 
tinguishing features of the Ragas. Various investigators 
have made compilations with the intention of making known 
the scales used in various Ragas. These compilations are use- 
less to the present writer, because they one and all ignore the 
"hair's breadth" distinctions upon which correct intonation 
depends. The present work does not essay to give a list of 
Ragas or scales, but merely to point out a method by which 
they may be classified. Where the reader may have any 
criticism to offer regarding the scales given as examples, and 
the names attached to them, he should remember that they 
are taken, with one or two exceptions, from the repertoire of 
one artist, Abdul Karim. The author is aware that in some 
cases other singers employ other scales or sing the same 
scales under other names. The reader should also under- 
stand that, as an introduction to the study of Indian music, 
this book does not go beyond the province of intonation. 
Once a census of Indian Ragas is made, and once their 
scales are classified into groups according to the principles of 
correct intonation, their further subdivision according to 
harmonic structure, as determined by the " Nyas Svara " 
(final note), and Vadi and Samvadi, may be undertaken. 
With the material at present available it is impossible to 
make any suggestions as to the manner of proceeding with 
such further subdivision. 

From ancient times up to a comparatively modern date, 



THE SRUTIS OF MODERN HINDUSTANI MUSIC 5 

the notes or " svaras " which, strung together, constituted the 
Gramas were called " shuddhl' which means xhe shuddh 
" pure." In the modes or Jatis of each Grama andvikrit notes, 
certain chromatic variations in the notes were used for the 
sake of melodic effect. The notes so altered were called 
" vikrit." The name "vikrit" was extended to any new 
note obtained by shifting the frets of the solo instruments in 
use, such as the vina and sitar. Various tuning devices 
for a change of mode involving a shifting of the frets without 
retuning the chanterelle or drone strings came to be employed. 
A great deal of discussion has centred round these " shuddh " 
and " vikrit " notes, but for the most part it has been infruc- 
tuous because the looseness and inaccuracy of the term 
" vikrit " has not been sufficiently grasped. 

The ancients believed that if the octave were divided into 
twenty-two roughly equal parts all the notes 
in use could be obtained. They called these 
small intervals " sriitis," and spoke of intervals of two srutis, 
three srutis, and four srutis, and of raising or lowering a note 
by one sruti or more. They believed that all the " shuddh " 
and " vikrit " notes had srutis to themselves. The author 
concludes, from a study of Bharata's Natya Shastra and the 
Sangit Ratnakar of Sarangdev, that their system in reality 
involved the use of 25 notes to the octave, and not 22 as 
they imagined (see Appendix E). 

Their theories were founded upon the system of tuning 

described as confined to Hindustan in Captain -,. ,. z. • 

^ The old tuning 

Day s " Music of Southern India " (p. 109). method now 
In that system the chanterelle strings were obsolete, 
dhaivat, rishabh, and gandhara. This is a conclusion which 
one cannot fail to draw from a careful study of their text- 
books. Now, the modern system of tuning throughout India 
has shadj as the principal drone, accompanied by pancham 
or madhyam. Not only this, but shadj and pancham are 
regarded as fixed notes which may never become " vikrit," or, 
in other words, sharpened or flattened, and shadj has acquired 
the privilege of being regarded as the basis of all scales. All 
Jatis, therefore, start from Shadj, and all the scales of all the 
Ragas. 

It is clear, therefore, first that the modern srutis and the 



6 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

ancient srutis must differ in many cases, and, secondly, that 

there are no longer strings of shuddh notes 

minology no from which to construct Jatis and scales of 

longer appro- Ragas, This latter conclusion, which there 

priate. . ° . . , , , . . 

IS no gainsaying, has escaped the notice of 

all writers on the subject. In practice it has been recog- 
nized by some of the Hindustani musicians, who accord- 
ingly discard the word "shuddh" except in the case of 
sa and pa, and call the other notes atikomal, komal, 
madhya, or madhya-tivra, tivra, tartivra, according to their 
position in the scale. The author follows their practice in 
this respect. 

Until Mr. K. B. Deval, a retired deputy collector, residing 

at Sangli in the Southern Maratha Country, 
researches and commenced his researches, the subject of Indian 
the Indian intonation had baffled all inquirers. Many 

books had been written by Indian gentlemen 
and others with the laudable object of explaining what Indian 
music was, but the European in India, who was interested in 
the subject, found that there was a point beyond which he 
could not go. Mr. Deval constructed a diachord consisting of 
two wires of equal length stretched over a sounding board, 
one wire being provided with a graduated scale and a 
movable fret of the same height as itself. His method was 
to tune both wires to the same pitch, that of the shadj of the 
singer assisting him. He moved the fret of the wire which 
had the graduated scale into the position which gave the 
note which the singer had been asked to sing. A simple 
calculation from the reading of the scale gave him the com- 
parative vibration-number of the given note in relation to 
shadj. He persevered for years at this investigation, deriving 
assistance from many of the best singers that India could 
produce. As regards most of the notes in use, his conclusions, 
when referred back to ancient theory, may be summed up in 
the statement that two srutis make a just semitone, three 
srutis a minor-tone, and four srutis a major-tone. In respect 
of these notes the accuracy of his conclusions can fairly be 
said to be beyond controversy. The remaining notes belong 
to certain irregular scales ; a knowledge of the melodic struc- 
ture of the Ragas in which they are employed was called in 



THE SRUTIS OF MODERN HINDUSTANI MUSIC 7 

to assist the verification upon the diachord. Mr. Deval pub- 
lished his conclusions in " The Hindu Musical Scale and the 
Twenty-two Srutees," printed at the Arya Bhushan Press, 
Poona. The next step was to order a harmonium tuned in 
the twenty-two intervals which he termed the "twenty-two 
srutees" of the "Hindu Musical Scale." This instrument 
was designed by Mr. H. Keatley Moore, B.A., Mus. Bac, 
who assisted the late Mr. A. J. Ellis in the latter's transla- 
tion of Hemholtz' " Sensations of Tone." After some slight 
modification in tuning and the arrangement of the keys, 
the result of verification and experience, the instrument has 
been patented (15548/11); the manufacturers are Messrs. 
Moore & Moore of New Oxford St., London (the makers 
of Ellis' Harmonical), and the agents in India are Messrs. 
S. Rose & Co., Bombay. The author has, through Mr. Deval's 
courtesy, and with the help of Abdul Karim and other singers, 
been able to verify all the various scales mentioned in the 
following pages upon this instrument. 

The following table describes the twenty-four notes in 
most frequent use, showing which of them are ^ cr'of on of 
adopted in the Indian harmonium, and their terminology 
relationship with the ancient srutis. ^^""^ adopted. 











Comparative 




The more common of the 


European 

equivalents, 

Shadj being 

F. 




vibration 


Numbers and names 


Modern Srutis : in what 




number, sa 


of the Ancient 


Ragas used. Moore's har- 


Sign. 


being taken for 


Srutis. 


monium notes numbered in 




convenience of 




brackets. 




calculation to 










be 240. 


0. Kshobhiui 


(0) Nishadkomal* (Kafi, 
Khamaj) 


LowE> 


ni'fe 


213^- 


I. Tivra 


(i) Nishad kaishik * 
(Bahiravi) 


Et^ 


nit? 
nil^ 


216 


2. Kumudvali 


(2) Nishad tivra' (Kal- 


E 


225 


3. Manda 


yan) 
(3) Nishad tarlivra 
(Marva) 


Ft^ 


nirj* 


227I 


4. Chhandovati 


(4) Shadj » 


F 


s;i 


240 


5, Dayavati 


(5) Rishabh atikomal 
(" Septimal " Asavari) 


Septimal 


i-i [^ 


252 



Note. — The names of Ragas are merely given as a help towards identification. 
1 The modern Srutis, marked with a figure S are identical with the ancient 
Srutis of the same serial number. This will be seen in a later chapter. 



8 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 











Comparative 




The more common of the 


European 




vibration 


Numbers and names 


Modern Srutis : in what 




number, sa 


of the Ancient 


Ragas used. Moore's har- 


ecjuivalents, 

Shadj being 

F. 


Sign. 


being taken for 


Srutis. 


monium notes numbered in 




convenience of 




brackets. 




calculalion to 










be 240. 


6. Ranjani 


(6) Rishabh komal ' 
(Bahiravi) 


Gt? 


ri|7 


256 


7. Raktika 


(7) Rishabh niadhya • 
(Kafi, Deshkar) 


Low G 


iH 


266§ 


8. Raudri 


(8) RishalDh tivra ^ (Kal- 
yan, Asavari) 


G 


"tl 


270 


g. Krodha 


(9) Gandhara komal ' 
(Kafi, Todi) 


Low A !?■ 


ga'i^ 


284A 


10. Vajrika 


(10) Gandhara sadharan' 
(Bahiravi) 


At^ 


gal7 


288 


II. Prasarini 


(11) Gandhara tivra' 


A 


300 




(Kalyan) ^ 








12. Priti 


(12) Gandhara tartivra 
(Jayja>vanti) 


High A 

Bl? . 


ga + 


303f 




Madhyam atikomal " 


ma ]^ 


315 




(Yaman-Kalyan) 


Septimal 






13. Marjani 


(13) Madhyam komal' 
(Kafi, Bahiravi, Bihag) 


Low B !7 


ma'i^ 


320 


14. Kshiti 


(14) Madhyam kaishik 
(Dhani) 


Bt7 


mat?' 
mailf 


324 


15. Rakta 


(15) Madhyam tivra 


B 


337i 




(Kalyan) 


, 






16. Sandipani 


(16) Madhyam tartivra 
(Marva) 


C!7 


ma^ 


341J 


17. Alapini 


(17) Pancham' (Kalyan, 
Bahiravi) 


c 


pa 


360 


18. Madanli 


(iS) Dhaivat atikomal 
("septimal" Asavari, 
Todi) 


Septimal 
Dt7 


dha ]^ 


378 


19. Rohini 


(19) Dhaivat komal' 
(Bahiravi) 


D^ 


dhat? 


384 


20. Ramya 


(20) Dhaivat madhya' 
(Kafi, Bilaval, Marva) 


Low D 


dha + 


400 


21. Ugra 


(21) Dhaivat tivra' 
(Kalyan, Bihag) 


D 


dha if 


405 




Nishad atikomal 


Septimal 

E^ 


ni ]^ 


420 


22. Kshobhini 


(22) Nishad komal ' 
(Kafi, Khamaj) 


Low E '7 


ni't^ 


426 If 



It is a lamentable fact that there is no uniform system of 
naming the Indian notes. The difficulty which confronted the 
author was to put distinctive names to srutis, which although 



' See note i, previous page. 

- If C on Moore's harmonium is taken as sfi, the stud marked Xf ('■<?• in key 
pancham) gives atikomal ma. It was found impossible to inchide this note in 
key F. 



THE SRUTIS OF MODERN HINDUSTANI MUSIC 9 

invariably distinguished in practice, are generally confounded 
under the same name. Such is the case with numbers 7, 8, 
and 20, 2 1 of the above. The name madhya or madhya-tivra 
is used by Abdul Karim to distinguish the lower of the two 
notes, and the practice being generally acceptable is here 
adopted. With regard to the groups o, i and 9, 10 and 13, 14 
more difficulty was experienced. The last (No. 14) has never 
hitherto been differentiated in name from the note below. 
The following table will show at a glance what justification 
the author has for adopting the names above given. 





Ancient 
names. 


Names ob- 
taining in 
Madras. 


Names obtaining in Hindustan. 


Names here 




First Method. 


Second Method. 


adopted. 




I 


ni!? 


Shuddh \ 
Kaishik / 


Kaishik 


Komal 


(Atikomal 
(Komal 


Komal 
Kaishik 


9 
10 


gal? 


Shuddh 1 
Sadharan/ 


Sadharan 


Komal 


("Atikomal 
(Komal 


Komal 
Sadharan 



The confusion of nomenclature displayed in Southern 
India and for the most part in Hindustan is a heritage from 
the change of tuning discussed in later chapters. Atikomal 
for ni 1s( and ga "fe will be felt to be a misnomer by any one 
acquainted with the other atikomal notes. It is an absurdity 
to call the principal notes of Raga Kafi or Sri-Raga by such 
a name, notes which originally formed the basis of the Shuddh 
Jatis. They are no more atikomal than ma "fe which is uni- 
versally called either komal or shuddh. The author dis- 
tinguishes ma ^ and mab on the analogy of the corre- 
sponding srutis of nishad. The distinction between ga t? and 
ga b is of precisely the same nature, and the name kaishik for 
gab would be appropriate, were it not for the fact that the 
note has for centuries been called sadharan ga. 

It can hardly be disputed that the twenty-two notes 
chosen as the basis of tuning of the Indian harmonium are 
the commonest of the Indian notes. It must be remembered 
that in calling them the twenty-two srutis of modern Indian 
music, one is using the word sruti in a transferred sense, for 
strictly speaking a sruti is an interval and not a note. 



lo INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

Secondly, the orthodox ancient system regarded shadj (and 
other notes also) as of fixed absolute pitch, the pitch of each 
shuddh note being referable to the cry of some animal or the 
note of a certain bird. Although some singers of the present 
day follow the ancient theory in this respect and have their 
own inflexible notion as to the proper pitch of shadj, the 
usual custom is to take any pitch that is convenient to the 
singer or performer. Thus the term sruti has been made to 
depart from its original meaning in two directions. 

It will be useful to tabulate the notes employed in the 
Indian harmonium thus — 



Name of note 

as abbreviated 

in singing. 


Middle row of 

studs, marked 

" ak " and 

"k." 


Black keys. 


Front row of 

studs marked 

"m." 


White keys. 


Back row of 

studs marked 

" tt." 


sa 


— 


— 


— 


Shuddh — 


Ri 


Atikomal U 


Komal !?■ Madhya «|. 


Tivra tf — 


Ga 


Komal R 


Sadharan I? 


— 


Tivra b 1 Tartivra Jf 


Ma 


Komal "fe^ 


Kaishik [?■ 


— 


Tivra fa 


Tartivra Jf 


Pa 


— 


— - — 


Shuddh — 


Dha 


Atikomal U 


Komal !?■ Madhya ^j. 


Tivra t; 


— 


Ni 


Komal \ 


Kaishik !?■ 


— 


Tivra j? 


Tartivra J^ 



The rest of this chapter will be taken up with a brief 
Brief explana- account of these twenty-two notes and their 
tion of the nota- distribution among the commoner Indian 
tion employed. ^^^^^^ -pj^j^ account is intended for the Euro- 
pean reader who presumably has some acquaintance with the 
theory and notation of Western music ; others are referred 
to the more detailed explanation to be found in the next 
chapter. 

In the Indian harmonium, shadj has been given the pitch 
of F (Philharmonic, 1896) ; apart from that circumstance, the 
notation to be employed has absolutely no connection with 
any key or pitch. Shadj, which may be defined as the bass 
note of the drone in modern music, is represented as F for 
convenience, and the two F's of the treble clef encompass 



THE SRUTIS OF MODERN HINDUSTANI MUSIC ii 

the middle register of all voices from soprano to bass. The 
word " register " is here used in place of the Indian " saptak " ; 
the Indian musician divides the compass of all human voices 
into three "saptaks," or octaves, the middle one naturally 
being the one most frequently in evidence. The signs used 
above represent respectively — (i) [r a septimal flat, the true 
harmonic seventh of the note on the black key next above ; 
(2) "^ a low flat, derived in a descending series of perfect 
fifths from sa ; thus ma "^ is a fifth below sa, ni "^ a fifth below 
ma i^, and ga i^ a fifth below ni -^ ; (3) b a flat, ri b being a 
major-third below ma % and the rest related to ri b by an 
ascending series of perfect fifths ; (4) + a low natural, ri + 
and dha+ being in tune with ma^ ; (5) jj a natural in just 
tuning, the intervals being referred to the scale of pa (or C) 
major ; (6) + a high natural in the case of ga +, which is a 
fifth above dha tf, and respectively pab and sab in the other 
two cases. 

The first scale to consider is that of Raga Yaman — 

Common Chords. 



W 



IC^I 



1^=2^: 



m^^^^^ 



Sa ri ga ma pa dha ni 
Here, sa and pa are shuddh, and the rest tivra. As 
usual, the sign ]l is omitted. In order to facilitate explana- 
tion, the position on the Indian harmonium keyboard will be 
considered ; that is to say, the above scale will be taken to 
be actually from F to F. It will be noticed that the tuning 
is just tuning in the key of C major. D, F and D, A are not 
in tune ; C to D, F to G, A to B are major-tones ; D to E 
and G to A minor-tones ; and E to F and B to C just semi- 
tones. In the following scales (in all Indian scales, in fact) 
the positions of sa, ri, ga, etc., on the lines and spaces are 
exactly the same as above. 

(Bahiravi.) (BihaE^-.) 




Common Chords. (Kafi.) 



:q: 



!^3^EE^^^^g^ 



.^=|£i£i^S5^^g=t: 



12 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

The first (Bahiravi) is a mode of the scale just described. 
E to E in the Yaman scale has the same intervals in the 
same order. Here ri and dha and ma are komal, ga sadharan, 
ni kaishik. The Bihag scale is that of Yaman with the flat 
fourth. It differs from F major in just tuning in this respect, 
that the sixth being high (or Pythagorean) the number of 
common chords available is reduced to three. The Kafi 
scale is the mode of its second ; in other words, corresponds 
to the scale G to G in Bihag. The Kafi scale, therefore, has 
only three common chords. The notes used in Kafi are ri 
and dha madhya, ga, ma, ni komal. 

The above are what might be termed " diatonic " scales ; 
the first two belong to the Madhyam Grama, like the European 
major-scale in just tuning, while the last two belong to the 
Shadj Grama,^ It will be noticed that as many as sixteen 
different srutis are comprised in them. 

The following passage is also of a "diatonic " nature; it 
introduces the high flat fourth (ma kaishik) : — 



(Dhani.) 







The scale which is given on the right is hexatonic. 
Adding dha b (D b) makes it a mode of the Yaman scale, 
corresponding to the mode of the sixth of A b major in just 
tuning. This scale will have five common chords. 

This finishes the notes comprised in the "diatonic" or 
Grama-scales. The reader who is only acquainted with equal 
temperament may find it hard to realize that the D in tune 
with F, and the D in tune with G, to take an example, are 
notes separated by an interval (§J), which any untrained ear 
can appreciate and which can even be committed to memory 
and reproduced vocally. The accidentals above, which 
include a downward stroke (+, "jj^), in all cases mean a flatten- 
ing by this interval, the interval which separates the minor- 
tone from the major-tone. 

' The use of the high sixth instead of the harmonic sixth in what may be loosely 
termed the parent scale makes the difference between the two gramas. The 
gramas are fully explained in the next chapter. 



THE SRUTIS OF MODERN HINDUSTANI MUSIC 13 



The difference between just tuning and temperament is 
well illustrated, not only in the Indian Ragas, European Folk- 
but in the treatment accorded to Folk-songs 30"S music, 
by modern musicians. If it is not practicable to accompany 
Folk-songs with just harmonies, one would think that it might 
at least be advisable to write an accompaniment which could 
be played upon an instrument in just tuning if such were 
to be had. This, however, is not the course usually adopted. 
The compiler of collections of Folk-songs, instead of ascer- 
taining the chords in just tuning which are available to him, 
trusts to a vague musical instinct, with results of which the 
following is an example — 



[iiiiis^B 



^j^=^ 



7nJ' 




In the Folk-song to which this is an introduction (No. 5 
at p. 13, of " Trente Melodies Populaires de Grece et d'Orient," 
by M. Bourgault Ducoudray), the " final " is A and the 
" dominant " D, that is to say, low D (D +), the note a fourth 
above A. It is an error, in the chord marked {a), to make D 
harmonize with G, unless just tuning is entirely disregarded. 
To put the matter in another way, the D used in the G 
chord is not in the mode. In the same way, in the next 
number, at the thirty-fifth bar, a foreign chord is introduced. 
Similar examples might be multiplied ; they are to be found 
in many such collections. 

The reader is referred to the next chapter for a full 

explanation of the tartivra notes in connection », , 

•<1 4.U T f T>- T^/r- ^ J T • Explanation of 

with the scales of Ragas Marva, and Jayjay- notation con- 

vanti. Whether the view there suggested re- ^•""^'i' 
garding the development of septimal harmonies from the 
chromatic scales is correct, admits of considerable discussion. 
Septimal intervals may be an addition for which the Hindu 
people should be thankful to the Mahommedans. Harmoni- 
cally they add considerable charm to the Indian Ragas, and 



14 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

this short sketch of the modern Indian srutis would be incom- 
plete without some account of them. The following passage 
from the Raga Yaman-Kalyan introduces an atikomal note 
which it was found impossible to incorporate in the Indian 
harmonium — 




The eighth note is the harmonic seventh of C, forming the 
interval I with the middle C, and 1,^^ with A. Those un- 
acquainted with the natural intervals would be surprised at 
the large interval separating this note from the ordinary B 
flat {B i;^). As the Indian name atikomal implies, the note is 
very flat indeed. The atikomal ri and dha of the following 
scale, taken from a Raga which Abdul Karim call Asavari, 
belong to the same class — 



fa fg^ ^-Egjg 



-ifsz=m=i 



An atikomal ga and an atikomal ni of similar description 
are employed in some rare Ragas. A low ga, the very 
slightest degree lower than ga tivra, making the interval |- 
with ri b is also occasionally employed. The well-trained 
Indian singer is thoroughly conversant with septimal intervals 
and intones them with accuracy and without hesitation. 

The number of irregular scales employed by different 
singers is considerable, and modern Indian musicians, with 
pardonable exaggeration, describe the srutis they sing as 
" anant " or endless. In the following chapter will be found 
a note regarding the extent to which it is possible to discuss 
these rare scales and intervals in the present work. 



CHAPTER II 

THE STAFF NOTATION AND THE SRUTIS 

The purpose of this chapter is to give an account, fuller than 
the sketch given above, of the manner in which the various 
notes or srutis in use in Indian Ragas may be represented in 
an adaptation of the staff notation of Europe. 

For the sake of those who are not thoroughly conversant 
with the scientific side of the subject, it will be advisable to 
explain as briefly as possible what is meant by the harmonic 
series and by natural and tempered intervals. 

The sensation of sound is due to vibrations of the air. A 
musical note is distinguished by the regularity The measure- 
of the vibrations of which it is composed, l^tervals^y''*'^^ 
Strictly speaking, a musical sound defined by ratios, 
a certain number of vibrations per second should be denomi- 
nated a *' tone." In order to avoid ambiguity, however, the 
author uses the word " note " for the purpose. The original 
meaning of " note " was the sign in notation by which a tone 
was expressed ; in common parlance it has also the meaning 
which is here assigned to it. The interval, or " distance " as 
Bharata has it, between two notes is completely defined by 
the ratio which their vibration-numbers bear to each other. 
It follows that in order to obtain the sum of two intervals, 
one must multiply their ratios ; and to obtain the interval 
which constitutes the difference between them, one must 
divide the bigger ratio by the less. 

The notes of stretched strings and of many other musical 
instruments are clothed in upper partial tones The Harmonic 
or harmonics ; it is this circumstance which Series, 
gives them their " timbre " or quality. It is a general law 
that if the tension of a stretched string is constant, and 
notes are sounded upon different lengths of it (this may be 



i6 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

done by means of the device adopted by Mr. Deval in his 
diachord, namely, adjusting a movable fret of the same 
height as the string at the required distance, pressing the 
string lightly upon the fret, and plucking the string upon the 
side adjusted to the given length), the vibration-numbers of 
those notes will be inversely proportional to the length of 
string required to produce them. Thus, if the whole string 
gave a note of lOO vibrations a second, § of the string would 
give a note of 150 vibrations a second. The upper partial 
tones which enrich a note are thus explained : — The primary 
note which the ear recognizes is that given by the vibrating 
length of string as a whole. A plucked string, however, 
vibrates not only in its whole length, but in nodal segments 
corresponding to the fractions of the harmonic series, i, I, |, 
1, I, etc. Hence, together with the primary note of, say, « 
vibrations a second, are faintly sounded a long series of notes 
of vibration-numbers represented by 2n, ^n, 4n, 5«, 6n, etc. 
In the notes of the tambura, these upper partial tones are so 
strong that the untrained ear may easily recognize them as 
far as the fifth member of the series. The series of notes 
formed by the generator and its upper partial tones is 
commonly called the harmonic series. To the student of 
the Indian scales a knowledge of it is essential, as all the 
melodic intervals which the musicians of ancient Hindustan 
thought beautiful and worth preserving are traceable ulti- 
mately to its influence. 

The staff-notation is a graphic method of writing music. 
The Great Staff ^^ possesses a distinct advantage over any 
and the three method which requires the eye to follow one 
fndiS^vocal set of signs for melody (svara), and an entirely 
music. distinct set for time (laya). The pitch of a 

note in staff-notation is shown by its position {verticall)i) on 
the staff, and the character of its accidental if any, its time 
value by the sign used, and its place in the measure (avarta) 
by its position {horizontally) in the bar. This chapter deals 
only with the pitch of notes as shown by their vertical 
position ; an uniform sign known as the minim (^) will be 
used in every case. 

The Indian system of vocal music allots three "Saptaks" 
or octaves to the voice, each Saptak ranging from sa up to ni. 



THE STAFF NOTATION AND THE SRUTIS 17 

The lowest octave is called "mandra," the middle octave 
" madhya," and the highest " tar." The Great Staff consists 
of eleven lines, the middle one of which is thicker than 
the others. This middle line represents the middle C of 
the European keyboard. Other notes, above and below the 
middle C, are represented by spaces and lines alternately. 
Turning for a moment to the Indian harmonium, the shadj 
of which is primarily intended to be the F of European music 
(at the philharmonic pitch of 1896), the 22 srutis in the three 
octaves may be thus represented on the Great Staff: — 

Male Voice. 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 

/I : \ 1 1 1 1 1 — I I . ^- ^ 

tar. 



madhys 
mandra. 






^:fefe^:^^:^&p=tp$p5pE^4pi^ 



1 
ga ma pa 



18 19 20 21 22(0) I 2 3 Female Voice (tar octave). 
, , , . I I I I y--T^(<^ Sva 



L ' ' r -E=|=lz: 




sa ri ga ma pa dha ni sa 
dha ni 

These are the twenty-two more common srutis of modern 
music, numbered according to the ancient system, in the 
three " saptaks " of the male voice. Played on the Indian 
harmonium at the pitch indicated by the Staff, they are correct 
in point of pitch according to the notions of the singer Abdul 
Karim. The soprano voice would be an octave higher accord- 
ing to Indian ideas. The madhya and tar saptaks would be 
the mandra and madhya saptaks respectively of the soprano. 
The soprano tar octave would be written as indicated, either 
using short or " leger " lines above the Staff, or using the 
dotted lines and sign 8va, which mean "to be sung or 
performed an octave higher." 

C 



iS INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

The next example shows the relative pitch of the first 

„ .. . sixteen of the harmonic series of the lowest sa 

The Harmonic , ^ ^ r^ , ^ ^ r ^ ^ 

Series in on the Great Staff. (As before brackets are 

Notation. ^gg^ ^^ ^Y\o\v the three " saptaks.") 



It 



T^- 



1=^ 



I 



^- 



4=- 



12 3456 78 9 10 II 13 13 14 15 16 

The 7th, nth, 13th and 14th members of the series are 
not to be found among the keys of the Indian harmonium, 
the 13th is quite unknown to Indian music, so also is the i ith, 
unless, as stated in a later chapter, it formed part of the 
Gandhara Grama, while the 7th and its octave the 14th are 
the atikomal nishad mentioned above (p. 8). 

It will be convenient to state at this point that it is 
The use of the proposed to borrow from European music the 
sign tl- practice of using the sign n only in cases 

where the note of the denomination in question has, when 
last used, borne a different accidental. For instance, the 
fifth, ninth, tenth of the series are tivra, but the accidental is 
dispensed with ; the fifteenth bears an accidental, as the note 
immediately preceding it is also Nishad and bears the acci- 
dental [r. Thus, sa and pa, being unchangeable, according to 
the modern view, will never require an accidental, while the tivra 
notes will only use their accidental tj; in the circumstances ex- 
plained.^ In European music, the notes which require no acci- 
dental ordinarily and make use of the sign u when necessary to 
distinguish them from preceding notes, are the notes of the scale 
of C major. The scale of C major in just tuning when played 
from F to F is identical with the scale of the Raga Yaman, 
which consists of sa and pa shuddh, ri, ga, ma, dha and ni tivra. 

As the vibration-numbers of the notes of the harmonic 
. . . series are proportionate to their serial numbers, 

by the Harmonic the series gives at once the ratios of the 
^^"^^- intervals employed in music. The intervals 

given by the first ten numbers of the series are in order, the 

> See p. 43. 



THE STAFF NOTATION AND THE SRUTIS 19 

octave "f, the fifth :;, the fourth f,^, the major third i^, the minor 
third f;, the septimal third J.,^ the septimal tone 7, the major 
tone ;^, the minor tone -Ij'. The 16th and 15th members give 
the semitone [J-;. All Indian scales may be referred to some or 
other of these intervals. It is not suggested that scales were 
consciously built up upon such an elaborate foundation as the 
first sixteen terms of the harmonic series. The intervals 
given by the first five terms were sufficient for the construction 
of the early Hindu scales. If the two fifths, sa to pa, pa to 
ri, be added together and the interval sa to sa or an octave be 
subtracted, the major tone sa to ri results. Thus § X ^ —- j = {!. 
Subtracting the major tone sa to ri from the major third sa 
to ga gives the minor tone ri to ga, J^f. The semitone || is 
the difference between the fourth i and the major third f. 
Another semitone, |^, which may be termed the Septimal 
semitone, is obtained by subtracting the septimal tone ^ from 
the minor third i'. Septimal intervals appear to have been 
introduced at a comparatively modern period ; they pre- 
suppose some kind of acquaintance with the seventh term of 
the harmonic series. 

In Appendix B will be found examples showing to what 
extent the notes of the harmonic series may be The Notation 
obtained from the Indian harmonium. The simplified, 
reader who has access to such an instrument will be in- 
terested to discover how harmoniously these notes blend 
together. The examples are written in Pianoforte Score, 
which consists of the Great Staff with the middle line 
omitted. This method will be found to give more facility for 
reading than the Great Staff; the omission of the central line 
gives greater prominence to the position of the notes. The 
Yaman Scale is here shown in the three octaves in Pianoforte 
Score. The upper staff is known as the Treble and the 
lower as the Bass ; the signs used to distinguish them are 
called clefs. 

^ The author adopts these names as they are simple and appropriate, in 
preference to the cumbrous names at present used by European scientists. 



20 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 



:^=^: 



:^: 



-^- 



1^==^: 



m. 



.^_ 



:^==^ 



:?2=^ 



=^=:^: 



i: 



_j ^ 

For writing single melodies without accompaniment it will 
be unnecessary to use both the treble and bass clefs as here 
shown. The treble clef will be sufficient for the purpose, with 
the aid of the following simple convention, which is ordinarily 
followed in European vocal music. The melody will be 
written for the female voice ; the male singer will sing an 
octave lower. The following will represent the mandra, 
madhya and tar octaves in the Yaman-scale for all voices. 



tiir. 



mandra. 



madhya. 



2^:^ 




If found more convenient, the lower and upper notes, 
instead of being written upon leger lines, may be written in 
the madhya octave, with the sign 8va... below or above 
respectively. 

So far, this discussion has reference to Indian music 

The Notation in ^^^^^^^ ^o"" ^^^ Indian harmonium in the 
reference to principal key of that instrument. That key 

absolute pitch. (p philharmonic 1896 = Shadj) was chosen 
for two reasons — first, because one of the most proficient of 
Indian singers regards that as the correct absolute pitch of 
shadj ; and secondly, because the key is the very one which 
anyone in search of the simplest possible notation for Indian 
music would unhesitatingly fix upon. For purely instrumental 
music, F will do as well as any other pitch ; it will also suit a 
large number of voices. Difficulty arises only when a singer 
who finds F an inconvenient pitch wishes to accompany his 
voice in unison on the Indian harmonium or to learn from that 
instrument the correct intervals of any particular Riga. To 
meet these cases. Appendix C has been compiled. From the 



THE STAFF NOTATION AND THE SRUTIS 21 

typical scales there given it will be easy to pick out the 
correct notes of any Raga at approximately the pitch desired. 
The question of notation with regard to keyed instruments 
may be now put on one side, as, excepting the Indian har- 
monium, no keyed instrument capable of playing Indian music 
has yet been constructed. 

For the vina, sitar and other Indian instruments, and for 
the voice, it is not necessary that the notation shadj should 
be of any specific pitch. The notation last described is by 
far the best for two reasons. First, the Staff includes the 
madhya saptak completely and conveniently. Secondly, as 
modern Indian music allows no change in sa or pa, F sharp 
or C sharp will never be employed ; a slight acquaintance 
with the Indian system teaches one also that no other sharps 
are in use ; consequently, the notation will dispense with the 
sign jj, which is used for a sharp note.^ 

In the notation followed throughout this book the treble 
clef will be used, the lowest space being appro- xhe Notation 
priated to sa of the madhya saptak, and the finally chosen, 
top line to the sa of the tar saptak. Except in connection 
with the Indian harmonium, no element of absolute pitch is to 
be associated with it. 

A suitable notation having been found, the next step will 
be to examine certain typical Indian scales Scales and 
which between them furnish all the 22 notes Srutis defined, 
set out above on the Great Staff. To avoid misapprehen- 
sion, it will be advisable to premiss that a scale is a col- 
lection of notes ranging from a given note to the note an 
octave above and resembling a ladder in this respect, that 
the array (" th^t ") of notes must afford a practical means of 
ascent and descent. To describe the 22 srutis above given, 
or the collection of Shuddh and Vikrit notes given in the 
Sangit Ratnakar, as a "chromatic scale" is a misnomer. 
The European chromatic scale of twelve semitones stands 
upon a different footing, as chromatic passages taken from it 
are employed in music. Then, again, it is an error to suppose 
that the 12 srutis were ever pieced together by fitting small 

' It is a common practice to put sa on the line appropriated to C. This 
renders the use of the accidental J necessary for ma tivra. The scale of C is 
also an awkward one for passages in the mandra octave. 



22 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

harmonic intervals between the fundamental note and its 
octave. The ancient theorists of India had no knowledge of 
harmonic ratios ; to them the interval termed a sruti appeared 
to be the smallest interval which the human voice was capable 
of singing ; consequently, they assumed roughly that their 22 
srutis divided the octave into equal parts. Recent research 
has, however, made it abundantly clear that the direct descen- 
dants of the ancient intervals of four srutis, three srutis and 
two srutis, are respectively, the major-tone Q), the minor- tone 
(^) and the semitone (]-t;). One is therefore justified in 
assuming that these were also the ancient intervals. It will 
be found in later chapters that this postulate is of assistance 
in unraveling the meaning of the old text-books. Now, 
the sruti between four srutis and three srutis is §^,, while that 
which lies between the latter interval and the semitone is |^. 
So long as it is understood that the srutis were never equal, 
no great object is gained by measuring them individually. It 
was, however, a convenient terminology, and still is so, to 
distinguish the major-tone, minor-tone and semitone by the 
number of srutis they contain. The twenty-two notes adopted 
in the Indian harmonium have this merit, that they conform 
in this respect to ancient usage ; it will be found that every 
major-tone obtainable from them consists of four srutis,^ every 
minor-tone of three srutis, and every semitone of two srutis. 

It is impossible to grasp the facts of Indian intonation 
Th G " without a knowledge of the two principal 

and Jatis of the Gramas, the Shadj Grama and the Madhyam 
ancient system. Qj-ama, The Gandhara Grama is not in use, 
and need not be discussed here ; but it is a mistake to 
suppose that the other two Gramas are also to be regarded 
merely as objects of antiquarian interest. Writers who 
treat of the Greek modes and the Church modes, and 
composers who make collections of Folk-songs, generally fail 
to take adequate notice of this fundamental branch of in- 
tonation. The same tendency is unfortunately at work in 
India. The ancient Indian theory was based upon two 
collections of notes, or " svaras," known as Gramas. They 
differed in this respect, that the pancham was in one flatter 

* There are two exceptions : the major-tone between srutis 3 and 6, and 
srutis 16 and 19; but these intervals are rarely used, if at all. 



THE STAFF NOTATION AND THE SRUTIS 23 

by one sriiti. Until one of the notes was chosen as a 
starting-point, they were Gramas and nothing more ; the 
lowest note being chosen to sing from, a Murchhana named 
after that note was produced. For a scale or mode which was 
to become the basis of a musical composition, more was 
required, namely, the harmonic relationship given by the 
Vadi and Samvadi, and the stability given by a fixed initial 
note (Graha) and final note (Nyas). The initial note appears 
also to have been the drone or pedal note. The Vadi and 
Samvadi corresponded very nearly to the final and dominant 
of the Church modes ; they were invariably a fifth or a fourth 
apart (never a third as in some of the Plagal modes), and, as 
alternative Vadis and Samvadis were allotted to each Jati, it 
is probable that a kind of modulation was allowed, this being 
more permissible in a system which required a constant fixed 
drone accompaniment. The simplest modes formed upon 
the plan thus briefly described were called " Shuddh Jatis," 
There was one for every degree of the scale ; the " Shuddh 
Jatis" were distinguished from others in having the initial and 
final and chief note, or prevailing note of a composition, the same 
as the " nama-svara," or that note which gave its name to the 
Jati ; of the seven Shuddh Jatis, four belonged to the Shadj 
Grama and three to the Madhyam Grama. As a knowledge 
of the Shuddh Jatis is of great assistance to the student of the 
Indian scales, they are here given, first in their primitive form, 
and then in their modern position, based upon shadj ; it will 
be observed that their names are derived from those of the 
initial notes. The sruti-intervals between the different degrees 
are shown in each case in figures. 



24 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

The SiiADj GrAma. 
I. Dhaivati. 



f^^^ 



2. Naishadi. 



i^feg^^^^^^lSi 



4-^4 



W* 



2 432443 

(Bihag.) 



fefg^s^^gli^Ji^i^ 



4 3 

3. Shadji. 



4 4 3 



4 3 24432 
(Kafi or SrI-Raga.) 



^=2^5 



sg^^-^ jg^ ^i^gp^-^R 



244 



2 4 



i 



s 



3244324 

4. Arshabhi.^ 



S^ 



±^^s 



:t: 



t=^ 



i^^zfes^ 



443243 2443 

The Madhvam Grama. 
I. Gandhari. ,1^ (Yaman.) 



4 3 



ii^^^-plg^ 



±: 



-I- 



:^-^ 



^=^: 



-:^-=-^-^- 



--^~^. 



:t=: 



^ 4342432 4342432 

2. Madhyama. ^^ %^ (Rageshvari.) 



\J 1 A -7 ,1 



4^ W i 






*-' ■ 3 4 
3. Panchama. 



4324 



4 3 



ppiii^ii^^^^ 



—I 



_^ U^ pz:^- 



:^z:^z?^ 



:t: 



t=: 



:^ 



'^ 4 243243 4243243 

The following quotation from Bharata (Natya Shastra, 
Explanation of Ch. 28, Commentary on verse 25) may serve 
accidentals and as a text upon which to hang an explanation 
the two of the bewildering number of accidentals 

Gramas. used : " Pa is lowered one sruti in the 

Madhyam Grama. The interval passed over in raising or 
lowering pa by one sruti is the measure of a sruti." Although 

* If the text of the Sangit Ratnakar is followed literally, the scale here given 
would be in the higher or tar oclave, the usual (inadhya) octave being an octave 
lower. 



THE STAFF NOTATION AND THE SRUTIS 25 



the interval of two srutis is not double that of one sruti, nor 
the interval of four srutis double that of two, although in fact 
Bharata and his successors laboured under a misapprehension 
in considering that the sruti was a unit by which intervals 
could be exactly measured, yet the Indian musician had, and 
still has, a definite idea of what he means when he says a note 
is lowered or raised by a sruti. His idea of a sruti is ^J, the 
difference between the major tone and minor tone. The 
descending line used in the accidentals •[• and i;^ always implies 
a descent by this interval of ^/,. To make this clear, the 
following collection of major tones and minor tones is given : — 
4 3 4 3 



i 



i^-z^-r^-W^ 



■^-^^^ 



=f^q 







3 

1 — 



g^=^^ g^^^g^g=g Z^j^=^^ 



:=]iz:=^=q 



- _| — -1==— 1—- f^ — I- — ^ 



5^i 



12^: 



4 " 4 3 

The figure 4 denotes a four-sruti interval, and 3 a three- 
sruti interval. The tivra sign ti is used in the manner above 
explained. 

To enable the reader to distinguish with facility the 
consonant intervals of 7 srutis (the major-third, 2) and 6 
srutis (the minor-third, 2) from the discordant intervals of 
8 srutis (ff;) and 5 srutis (.jf), the following collection of 
intervals should prove useful : — 
Major Thirds. 




=g::fe^j?pjgi 



Minor Thirds. 



iz]- 



g :^r^^E^E^=g 






:ti=±:z: 



Dissonances. 



i:^--- 



^ ^^5gr Z ^=gEM=J gE 



E^£^":5^:¥pEE^^e 



:t: 



tn:: 



26 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 



The Indian reader is probably familiar with the scales 
of Ragas Bihag and Bilaval, although he may not perhaps 
have realized that the dhaivat of the latter is one sruti lower ; 
the notes of Bihag are sa and pa shuddh, ma komal, and the 
rest tivra, while those of Bilaval have dhaivat madhya (+) 
instead of tivra (n). These two scales are here given side 
by side, first starting from shadj, and then in three trans- 
positions from ma '^, dha b, and ni ^jj respectively. The 
intervals are shown in srutis as before. 
I. (a) Bihag. (^) Bilaval. 








4 3 
ib) 



jsggpp^] 



3 4 



^i 3^^g |p5^ ^^^ 



«-''i'^24'4 3 2 4 3 24'342 

The scales marked {a) are all exactly the same ; so also 
are those marked {b). The effect of lowering the sixth note 
in the (b) class is to change the harmonic structure of the 
scale. The sixth note, from being merely a relation (or in 
harmony with) the second, is transformed into a relation of 
the first and fourth notes of the scale. In Bilaval, for instance, 
dhaivat harmonizes as a minor third below sa and a major 
third above madhyam ; whereas in Bihag it is discordant with 
both sa and ma, and a fifth above ri. Scale II. {b) introduces 
the madhya rishabh, the note which is used with such telling 
effect in Deshkar Raga. This note is in tune with ni ^ and 
ma t?, whereby it is to be distinguished from ri tivra. Scale 
III. {a) contains the high or "chadh" madhyam (ma b). 
This note is used in Dhani Raga amongst others ; it is a rare 
note in modern music, because the sa drone strongly attracts 



THE STAFF NOTATION AND THE SRUTIS 27 



the perfect fourth (ma isj). Scales IV. (a) and (d) are com- 
posed of the shuddh notes of the ancient Shadj and Madhyam 
Gramas. It will be obvious that the flattening of pa by one 
sruti is precisely the same thing as the difference in harmonic 
structure which distinguishes Bilaval from Bihag. Lest it 
should be supposed that because Indian music does not employ 
harmony in the Western manner, considerations drawn from 
the study of harmonic intervals are of less importance than in 
the West, the following scale passages which are divisible 
into groups (as shown by brackets) of identical harmonic 
structure, are taken from the scales under discussion. The 
laws of harmony have been, in the East as in the West, the 
chief determining factor in the evolution of musical scales. 

Bihag Scale. 

-,— i— -I "^^-^ ..^^^=^— ^-^^"^- 





Bilaval Scale. 




32 24 24 43 43 

Returning, after this digression, to the Shuddh Jatis, the 
first remark one is inclined to make is that ^j^^ ,^^^^ ^^^ 
it is singular that so few of the modern scales modern scales 
are there. Three common scales, Bihag, Kafi, ^^o^^P^*^^ • 
and Yaman, are comprised among the Jatis, and one rarer 
one, Rageshvari. It maybe added as a possible explanation, 
that from Ratnakar (Prakaran 4, verse 15) ^ it may perhaps 
be inferred that the Madhyam Grama Jatis should be taken 
from ma and not from sa, thus — 

Ganclhari. .^^i.^feiS. Madhyama. 




3fc^£E 



±: 



_^4^. 



^^^^Eii 



Panchama. 



:^i?^: 



^^i^=z^: 



.f>fS^^ 



^^-^- 



±: 



Adding the sa drone would have the effect of compelling 
the ear to refer the scale to shadj as a starting-point. This 
gives for Gandhari and Panchama, the following familiar 

1 See p. 58. 



28 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

scales ; but the Madhyama scale must be discarded, as modern 
practice does not allow a flattened pa. 

Gandhari (Bilaval). Panchama (Bahiravi). 



:^^^g^ 



This method therefore gives five well-known scales in 
place of three. Yaman and Kalyan may also have been 
derived from the Shuddh Jati Naishadi by sharpening of 
the fourth, that is to say, by the not uncommon change from 
shuddh ga to antara ga, a change which will be fully 
explained later on. From the form of Panchama first given, 
the hexatonic scale of the uncommon Raga Dhani, may have 
been derived. Dhaivati and Arshabhi must, however, be 
rejected, the former because the fifth note is really komal 
pancham and not to be tolerated nowadays in such a scale, 
and the latter because the high fourth is not now used except 
in the Raga Dhani and possibly in some rare derivatives of 
the Raga Asavari. The secret of these dissimilarities and 
anomalies will be explained more fully in later chapters. It 
lies in a difference of tuning. In olden practice the Chante- 
relle or drone strings were dha ^ and ri «f., and for convenience' 
sake all Jatis were played from the pitch of one or the other 
of these two notes. The modern practice is to make sa the 
chief pedal note, and to add above it pa or ma ^ according to 
the nature of the scale. Assuming that, in the majority of 
ancient compositions, the scale was actually based upon ri •}., 
the drone would be the fundamental note of the scale together 
with another note (dha •}.) a fourth below it ; in other words, it 
would correspond to sa over pa, whereas the modern practice 
is almost invariably to take the fifth as a drone, namely, pa 
upon sd. If this radical change in the nature of the drone 
accompaniment did actually take place, it is sufficient to fully ex- 
plain the discrepancies between the ancient and modern scales. 

The next important observation to be made is that in 

modern music there are, strictly speaking, no 

word "Grama" Gramas, although the difference between the 

in relation to two Gramas is accurately exemplified in the 

scales of Bihag and Biklval. The history of 

the Indian scales may be divided into three periods, (i) the 



THE STAFF NOTATION AND THE SRUTIS 29 



Grama period, (2) the Transition period, (3) the Modern 
period. In the first, all scales were played from the shuddh 
notes of the Gramas ; in the second, in order to avoid 
changing the drone and re-tuning the tambura and drums, all 
scales were played from ri + as a basis, but as far as possible 
the frets of the shuddh notes were employed, the wire being 
tuned up or down to bring the required initial note (graha 
svara) to the pitch of ri + ; in the third, that is at the present 
time, all sense of the Gramas has died out, shadj is looked 
upon as the starting-point of all scales, and the scales of the 
Ragas are regarded, with certain exceptions, as independent 
structures. Those exceptions, although of no great import- 
ance, are highly interesting. Yaman and Bahiravi, as has 
been seen, belong to the Madhyam Grama, while Bihag and 
Kafi belong to the Shadj Grama. This inter-relationship is 
exemplified in the common practice of playing these pairs of 
Ragas respectively from the same set of frets. Thus I. a 
below becomes I. b if the wire is tuned up by two srutis, and 
W. a becomes II. ^^i if the wire is tuned down by four srutis. 



I. (a) 



ib) 



^gEpE^zg^ g igg^^^ 



i^t^ii 



II. {a) 






{b) 



Indian music may be said, then, to have outgrown the 
Gramas and the system of shuddh svaras. At the same time, 
a knowledge of the theory of the Gramas is essential to the 
student of Indian music, and the word Grama itself should 
prove a useful substitute for the Western and less appropriate 
term " diatonic," to designate scales which are derived from the 
shuddh notes of ancient India. The scales which have been 
discussed above may be referred to as the Grama scales. 
They are distinguished from others by the fact that they 
contain three major-tones, two minor-tones, and two semi- 
tones. 

In the music of Hindustan the Grama scales hold the 
first place in point of number and popularity. Scales of less 



30 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 



than seven notes, hexatonic or Shadava, i.e. of six notes, 
Scales other ^"^ pentatonic or Odava, i.e. of five notes, may 
than Grama be regarded as abridgments of the complete 

scales to which they approximate. They will 
most of them be classed among the Grama scales. Then 
came a very important class consisting of scales which com- 
prise three or four semitones in place of two. Such scales 
are to be found also among the Folk-songs of Europe. They 
may not inappropriately be designated Chromatic scales. 
The following are examples of chromatic scales and transilient 
(hexatonic or pentatonic) scales : — 



(Bhairava.) 




CHROMATIC. 

(Deshi Todi.) 



— — 4^— ^-^f^-f^-p^ i — '^— ' 



±^~. 



±=zztz=£z£ 



(Purvi.) 



^3^:^ 



:^=^i?^ 



5-r^z[^ 



(Multani.) 



^i^^^^g 



-A^^ 



(Bhup.) 



TRANSILIENT. 
(Deshkar.) 



g gEJ^gg^Eg^^Eg^E^fg 



(Hansadhvani.) 



:?2i^l 



(Malkans.) (Dhani.) (Marva.) 



§ 



The names of the Ragas employing the scales given are 
written in brackets. The Bhup scale may be regarded as an 
abridgment of Bilaval, that of Deshkar as an abridgment 
of Kafi with the sharpened or chromatic third, Hansadhvani 
as derived from Bihag, and Malkans from Bahiravi. The 
last two have an individuality of their own. Dhani is a 
Grama-scale, while Marva is an irregular scale of a kind not 
hitherto discussed in this chapter. 

The affinity of the Marva scale to the Chromatic scales 
Irregular above given is disguised by the Indian notation, 

scales. which treats the fourth and sixth notes as 

"tartivra," whereas, harmonically speaking, they are komal 



THE STAFF NOTATION AND THE SRUTIS 31 

notes. Tartivra ma, being a fourth above komal ri, should 
really be called komal pa, and tartivra ni similarly komal sa. 
Indian tradition is, however, bound up with a "solfa," or 
" Sarigama " system which allots one of the names sa, ri, ga, 
ma, etc., to the notes of all scales for the purposes of singing. 
It has become part of that tradition in comparatively modern 
times to restrict the names sa and pa to two fixed degrees 
of the scale. The real character of Marva is made clear in 
the following transposition (beginning the scale from ri instead 
of sa) : — 



Respecting the intervals (other than semitones of two 
srutis) employed in the Chromatic scales, it will be found 
that the sruti system as a method of comparing them breaks 
down completely. The sruti system appears to have been 
applied in its inception to the Grama scales only ; when used 
in connection with other scales it leads to nothing but con- 
fusion. The intervals of the Bhairava scale expressed in 
ratios are — 

16 ls> J n J « 7_5 1 « 
15» 64' loJ S» 15' 64> T5' 

while those of Marva are — 

J_6 7.") 2;-) 6 75 25 6 13 5 
15' 64' 225» 64' 225» 12 8> 



which approximate to 



1 (I 7 S 7 S T_35 
15' 6' 7' G' 7' 12 8' 



It may be that in this indirect manner, Indian musicians 
were led to incorporate septimal harmonies in their scales. 
Certain it is that in modern Indian music septimal intervals 
are employed with remarkable effect and in a considerable 
number of Ragas. There is a form of Asavari which employs 
atikomal ri in place of tivra ri and atikomal dha in place of 
komal dha, a form of Todi which employs atikomal dha, and 
many others which there is no need to mention "^ — 

* Amongst them may be specially noticed the Raga Yaman-Kalyan, which 
employs occasionally atikomal ma, followed by tivra ga (interval, -H/,). The scale 
of the common form of Asavari is sa, ri |;|, ga |7, ma \, pa, dha [?, ni I?. 



\2 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

(Septimal form of Asavari.) (Todi.) 



^ ^j^^^^-Jg^Ejz^S^Eg,^^ :^: 



Before leaving the Irregular scales, it will be of interest 
to give the following short passage in the Riga which the 
singer Abdul Karim calls Jayjayvanti — 




T ^^"^"^^ 1 ' t-^i f— T 1 1 1 t-V 1 1 1 f— i 




1 I t ^ — r | ™ ' " i |" '■i | i ' ^ 



^^ 



This example anticipates some features of the notation which 
are explained later on. To avoid misapprehension, the 
accidentals have been repeated before each note. The 
tartivra ni of Marva is really komal sa, as has been ex- 
plained ; the tartivra ga of this Riga bears approximately 
the same relationship to komal ma that the tartivra ni of 
Mirva does to si, but at the same time it is used frequently 
in conjunction with ri tivra and appears to be, harmonically 
speaking, what is known as high A, i.e. sharper than ga tivra 
by the interval gj. It is possible to regard the tartivra ni 
of this Riga as " high E," instead of F b. The difference 
between these two notes is so small as to be hardly per- 
ceptible even to the trained ear of the Indian singer. 

The reader may object that, as the above enumeration of 

, , the Indian srutis is admittedly not exhaustive, 
IrrcsTul&r SC3,16S 
further dis- it is inadequate for the purpose in view. It 

c"^^^^- is the writer's object, however, not to give 

a complete list of the Rigas known to any individual 

singer or singers, but to point out a method by which 

the scales of Rigas may be reduced to writing and 

classified. A slight consideration will show that all possible 

Grima scales and Chromatic scales may be put together from 

the twenty-two srutis accepted in the Indian harmonium. 

The only ones omitted are those which depart from modern 

usage in having a flattened pa. It is only with regard to 

Irregular scales, therefore, that the above criticism has any 

force, and in their case it should be remembered that, although 



THE STAFF NOTATION AND THE SRUTIS 33 

the exuberant fancy of Indian composers has led to an extra- 
ordinary number and variety of scales, the Grama scales and 
Chromatic scales greatly preponderate in point of universality 
and popular favour. Again, the Irregular scales, so far as the 
writer's experience goes, embody nothing new in principle, 
beyond the diminishing of the semitone exemplified in 
Jayjayvanti, and the use of the septimal intervals ^, ^ and f,V 
It may be noted that the septimal diminished fifth Q) is 
apparently unknown to Indian musicians as a melodic interval. 
The possibilities opened up by these septimal harmonies are 
completely summed up below .^ The figure 7 (above) signifies 
that the natural (or tivra) note on which it is placed is flattened 
in order to give a septimal interval. 



^ ^-•^y^j^^i^^^E l^ gizg^ ^^ 




ri- 



-i-;T 



f^^^^^^^E^^^. 



:*^ 



S 7 



\^ 



fe^ ij^pZ r^ ^ - f ^-^^ pai^ szTlz^ 



Vr? ^^Vr ^ 



Before concluding this chapter it will be convenient, now 
that the nature of harmonic intervals has been ^.j^ . j. 
discussed, to show in what way they differ equal tempera- 
from the tempered tones and semitones of '"^"^* 
Europe. The European system of equal temperament is a 
modern creation ; it originated in a desire to have unfettered 
liberty in the choice of keys and in modulating during the 
course of a composition from one key to another. For this 
purpose it was necessary that scales of exactly the same 
pattern should be available in every key. This object was 
attained by dividing the octave into twelve exactly equal 
intervals termed semitones. Instruments with fixed keys like 

' The progressions avoided involve either a flattening of sa or pa, or an 
incursion into " the sharp keys," both of which would be contrary to the genius 
of modern Indian music. 

D 



34 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

the organ, piano, and various wind instruments were con- 
structed and tuned accordingly, and this artificial system has 
been assimilated to such an extent that singers and performers 
upon stringed instruments without frets such as the violin 
produce tempered music, in perfectly correct intonation, 
without being aware in many cases that an element of arti- 
fici-ality enters into their performances. Indian airs and 
European Folk-songs, when sung without harmonized accom- 
paniment in tempered notes, are exceedingly harsh ; the 
addition of harmony tends to disguise the defective intonation, 
because the mind which grasps the harmonies intended has the 
capacity of correcti' g small errors. But the harmonizing of 
Folk-songs and of Indian Ragas in tempered harmonies can 
never be recommended, except by those whose acquaintance 
with natural intervals is too slight for them fully to appreciate 
their superiority. 

In order to divide the octave (f) into two exactly equal 

. , . ,.. intervals one must make use of the ratio 
Analysis of the _ 

swlef*^^ > because this ratio when multiplied by itself 

makes the ratio of the octave. Similarly, in order to divide 
the octave into three equal parts the ratio required would be 

. The tempered semitone, twelve of which make an 

octave, has therefore the ratio . The same idea has been 

developed further in order to afford a simpler means than 
ratios of comparing intervals. Each semitone is divided in the 
same manner into a hundred imaginary intervals called cents. 
The cent is therefore the twelve-hundredth equal part of an 
octave, and a hundred cents make a tempered semitone, and 
two hundred cents a tempered tone. With the aid of 
logarithms it is a simple matter to turn ratios into cents ; in 
this way it is discovered that the major-tone contains 204, the 
minor-tone 182, and the semitone 112. The practical advan- 
tage gained by this method is that intervals may be graphically 
compared (as in Appendix A), and the addition or subtraction 
of intervals simply means the addition or subtraction of the 
numbers of cents they contain, whereas it is necessary in the 
case of ratios to multiply and divide. 



THE STAFF NOTATION AND THE SRUTIS 35 



The demerits of the tempered scale as a vehicle for the 
expression of Indian musical thought may be Eaual temoera- 
summed up as follows : — ment unsuited to 

1. The distinction between the interval of Indian music. 

4 srutis and that of 3 is obliterated. Bihag is confused with 
Bilaval, and Bhup with Deshkar, while it is impossible to give 
any idea of such Ragas as Kafi, Bhimpalashi, Rageshvari. 

2. The atikomal and tartivra notes cannot be expressed. 

3. All intervals are out of tune. 

The minor-third is 300 cents instead of 316; the major- 
third 400 instead of 386 ; the fourth 500 instead of 498 ; and 
the fifth 700 instead of 702. A high degree of skill or training 
is not required to detect the errors in the thirds ; they are 
flagrant ; in fact, the minor-third is much nearer the dis- 
sonance of the third in Kafi (sa to ga ^, 294 cents), and the 
major-third to the interval from ma ^ to dha Q, another 
dissonance, 408 cents. 

One can only conclude that Indian writers who openly 

advocate the use of tempered instruments are ^. 

r 1 • . , ^ . The ordinary 

unaware of their utter madequacy to give any Western 

idea of Indian intonation. A word of warning notation equally 

unsuitable, 
appears to be needed by others, who, although 

not in favour of tempered music, are ensnared by Western 

notation. They should remember that Western notation, 

without drastic changes such as those here recommended, is 

as detrimental to their music as the tempered harmonium. 

It is a tempered notation. The extent to which it confuses 

the Indian intervals may be seen from the following : — 




600 



800 



900 



36 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

Each of the tempered notes shown below takes the place 
of two ; the extent of error involved in the compromise is 
evident from the figures of cents given. The keys of 
Western music with their key-signatures are part and parcel 
of the tempered system, and are not suited to the Indian 
Ragas. Some of the latter might be written under a key- 
signature adapted from those in use in Europe, but the 
majority could not, and nothing could be gained thereby. A 
great deal of Mr. Mudliar's book (alluded to in the previous 
chapter) is taken up with a lengthy description of the keys 
and key-signatures of European music. The information is 
of no value except to those who can take pleasure in hearing 
an approximation to Indian airs played upon the tempered 
harmonium. 



CHAPTER III 

THE STAFF NOTATION {continued) 

It is now necessary to explain how Indian music may be 
represented accurately and in detail by the Staff Notation. In 
doing this the author will have to go over ground which has 
already been traversed by other writers. Where he has struck 
out a line of his own, his object has been to secure the maxi- 
mum of simplicity with the minimum of innovation. 

As already explained, sound is represented by notes. 
Silence is shown by what are called "rests." The duration of 
silence (vishranti) or sound (svara) is indicated by the shape 
of the rests or notes used. 



Note. 



IMI 






Corresponding 
rest. 




English name. 



Breve 
Semibreve 

Minim 

Crotchet 

Quaver 

Semiquaver 

Demi-semiquaver 

Scml-demi-semiquaver 



Indian equiva- 
lent in matras. 



38 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 



There are three degrees of speed in Indian music : vilamhit, 
or slow, madhya, or moderate, and driita, or fast. Whatever 
the speed is, each measure (avarta) consists of a fixed number 
of units of duration called matras. The mdtra in madhya 
time will be represented by the note known as the crotchet 
(^'). In slow time it will be the minim (^J), and in fast time 
the quaver (^^). The relative values of notes and rests and 
their equivalents in matras of madhya time are as in the 
preceding page. 

Smaller notes and rests still may be obtained by adding 
more hooks to the stem. 

A dot after a note makes it half as long again. The use 
of dots with rests is not recommended. Two dots make a 
note I 4- ^ + i or i| the length. Thus — 




Just as rests are combined to make up the value required, 
notes may be combined where it is necessary or more con- 
venient to do so in order to make the phrasing or grouping 
of notes clearer. In this case the tie or bitid is used. Two 
notes of the same pitch joined by a tie are played as one note 
of the combined value of the two, thus : J 0=2 matras ; 



2), matras ; ^ 4^ 



I V matras ; 



.^ = 



= il 



matras ; •* 



^ = 



I matra. 



THE STAFF NOTATION 39 

The groHpi)ig of notes is a guide to the accent, the first 
note of the group being generally more accented than the fol- 
lowing ones. It is also, when used with a figure and slur, a 
means of showing the division of the matra (or other larger or 
smaller unit of duration) into a number of equal parts which 
is not a multiple of two. Grouping is effected by joining the 

hooks of notes, thus J^iJ • Grouping by slurs may extend 

over any passage of melody ; it means that the passage covered 
by the slur is to be played legato, i.e. smoothly, as one phrase. 
Grouping to show a division of the time-unit into equal parts is 
effected in the following manner : — 

(i) J J J means 3 notes equal in duration to 2, i.e. each 

v,^ I matra. 
/2\ n = two notes of \ matra each. 

I I I 
( ^) #1 ^ •• = three notes of 1 matra each. 

(4) ^Ts S = four notes of \ matra each. 
(c) tfSJdd = five notes of \ matra each. 

(6) ^TTm ^ ^ = six notes of \ matra each. 

(7) |=|sq=p:)=B = seven notes of \ matra each. 



(8) JJJ^^^Jt^ = eight notes of \ matra each. 



(9) J ^ J J J J ^J^ — "i"^ notes of J, matra each. 



In No. 6 the accent comes on the first, third, and fifth 
notes of the group. If two accents only are desired, the 
grouping is effected thus : — 



{6) dt^4f €^SS Here each group totals \ matra. 

It will be noticed that the same number of hooks is retained from 
one multiple of two in the dividend of the fraction, which shows what 



40 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

proportion each note bears to the unit, to the next multiple of two. One 
hook is used for half-matras and third matras ; two hooks for fourths, 
fifths, sixths, sevenths ; three hooks for eighths, ninths, etc. 

Grouping by Slurs. — To avoid an unnecessary multiplicity 
of small rests, it is laid down that the last note of a phrase 
grouped by a slur is to be played as if of half the length shown, 
the remaining half being a rest. This rule applies where the 
note is a hooked one ; in the case of longer notes, it is better 
to show the exact amount of rest desired. The curved line 
exactly similar to a tie used in the groupings below is desig- 
nated a slur. It may be used of any length to show the 
phrasing or legato grouping of a melody. 




1 1 i/t\iiii 1 I I , 1 '/'A 

2 2 ZyiJ'S 'g TS 'S 3 3 2 A 2 A\i} 

Below each note is written its matra-value, rests being shown 
in brackets. The manner in which the four demi-semiquavers 
are grouped with the three following quavers should be noted. 
A more cumbrous way of writing this passage would be — 




It is clear that the last note of a phrase must be cut off or 
detached from what follows ; hence the use of a slur implies a 
short rest. The rule above stated as to the time-value of such 
rests is founded on the practice of Indian singers. 

Sometimes notes which do not come at the end of a legato 
phrase are played in a detached manner. This is called 
staccato. There are three degrees of staccato, shown by (i) a 
slur and dots above or beneath the notes, (2) by dots alone, 
(3) by dashes. The effect of each is here shown in the same 
manner as above by writing the "laya" or matra-values in 
fractions. 




4 (i) 4 (i) 2 (2) 2 (2) vsd 5)ts(t'5) TsdyiVdlj) s (s) s (») I (s) s (s) 



THE STAFF NOTATION 



41 



Emphasis or accent is sometimes shown by grouping, as 
above stated ; it also follows from the nature of the measure, 
a subject to be dealt with ; occasionally a special emphasis is 
given to a particular note apart from that which comes natu- 
rally from the measure or the phrasing. Emphasis of this kind 
is denoted by the signs A or r> placed above or below the note 
in question. When very strong emphasis is required the letters 
Sf are used. 

Music set to time is divided into measures (a-vartas), which 
are marked off by upright lines or dars. The measure consists 
of a stated number of matras with accents occurring at regular 
intervals. Accents are : strong (sam), medium (tali), or weak 
(khal). The strong accent follows immediately after the bar ; 
the medium accent follows the dotted bar ; and the weak 
accent follows the dotted half-bar. The character of the 
measure may be shown by a time signature. A very good 
form of signature is one adopted by Mr. H. P. Krishnarao, of 
Mysore ("First Steps in Hindu Music," Weekes & Co., Lon- 
don). Above are noted the matras upon which the chief 
accents fall, and below the number of matras in a measure 

and their time-value. Thus -^^ means that there are eight 

O 1 

matras represented by crotchets in the measure, and that the 
accent falls on the ist, 5th, and 7th. The addition of sub- 
sidiary dotted bars is useful, as they show at a glance the 
phrasing of the melody. The measures in most frequent use 
are — 



I. Adital, trital or tintal. ^-'^^- (Panjabi is slower). 




=nn" 



ziz*r^^dzit^*z*=l 



=q= 



^^^ 



II. Chautal. '--^ — (Ekkatal differs as regards drumming). 







* The dha is ^ like the preceding one. See the paragraph below on " Acci- 
dentals." 



42 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 
III. Zhampa. -^'^ 






-I- 



-M± 



IV. Surphakta. 



1.5.7 



^^^^m^m^^^^s^ 



V. Dhamar. 




I. 6. II 



'$^- 



^^EW 



:j«i:^P 



:te::pr|ip==ir 



;t=: 



l^-T- 



=^^4=i= 



:*=^^: 



VI. Ada Chautal 



I-3-7-II 



l»l^-, 






VII, Tevra. 



T.4.6 



j^i-glj^^: i^si|iSgi^il^ ^j; 



VIII. MattaTal. ''•^•^•^•7-^. 

9r 



g 






=!>»zz 



IX. Saviri. I -5 -9. 13. 14. 






Si 



=P=P=^ 



-T^ha— I T=4^- 



F*<«== 



X. Zhumbra. — ^^^ 




^igS^=f=E^-^^g^£^|E^^^i| 



XI. Dipchandi. ''^' 
14^ 



rrlpzerizmfz^ii 



^|E^p3^Ei=Ur±=z|=P: 



THE STAFF NOTATION 



43 



XII. Dhumali.* L^^i^hli 



bzi^zzTT^czTi^irzi 



XIII. Dadra 



i^^£liii=3ii^s 




^^^^^^ 



XIV. Kerava. 



ilgi« 



55Sii^ 



-^^ 




The sign placed before a note, which shows which sruti of 
that svara is to be used, is called an accidental. Where the 
same sruti occurs more than once in an avarta, or measure, 
the accidental need be used once only. The object of this 
rule is to avoid an unnecessary number of accidentals. 

Thus, in Example IV., first complete bar, there are three komal 
madhyams, the accidental "fe being used for the first only. If the second, 
however, had been tivra, and the third again komal, it would have been 
necessary to place the sign tj before the second, and R before the third. 
It will be seen that the rule only applies where the sruti is not changed. 

It is necessary to adopt terms arid signs which will show 
the intensity or degree of loudness or softness of a composi- 
tion. The following terms are in general use in European 
music ; they represent fixed degrees of intensity : — 



Sign. 


Term. 


Rendering. 


PP 


pianissimo 


very soft 


P 


piano 


soft 


Vlp 


mezzo-piano 


moderately soft 


m/ 


mezzo-forte 


moderately loud 


f 


forte 


loud 


ff 


fortissimo 


very loud 



A gradual increase of intensity is shown by the 
sign -=mi!II and a gradual decrease by IIIIir=- 

* Dhumali is not differentiated from Tintal except in a certain kind of 
solemn music. 



44 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 



A dotible-bar 



is used to mark the end of a com- 



position or of any section thereof, such as the " astai " or 
•' antara." It may occur at the end of or at any place in a 
measure or " avarta." When used with the sign /tn, which 



is known as the pause, thus i=:Bzi:, it signifies the end of 



the whole composition. A double-bar with dots — 

is a direction that the composition is to be repeated up to 
that point, either {a) from the beginning, or {b) where the 

double-bar in this form ^Rl^ has been previously en- 
countered, from that point. Double-bars should be so arranged 
that the integrity of the measures is preserved. In the follow- 
ing example, the first and third bars together form in the 
repeat one whole bar of eight matras. 

Astai. 



w 



:^ 



q^=p: 



4=1=4 



E^^Ei^Ei 



X 



© 



! i I - 



:il=i): 



ws^^^^ 



Occasionally the last bar before the repeat sign is changed 
after the repetition, so as to lead to the next section. This 
is shown by the use of the numerals i and 2. The portion 
marked i is to be performed the first time, and at each repeti- 
tion except the last. The part marked 2 is to be performed 
at the last repetition in substitution for i, which is omitted. 
For instance, the last portion of the above example might be 
written as follows : — 

Antara. 



m^^^^^^ ^m^ 



In the next example there is no change. 

Antara. 



THE STAFF NOTATION 45 

It is convenient to write such words as astai and antara at 
the beginning of the appropriate sections. Such directions 
as " repeat astai once or twice," when used with a double bar, 
will be easily understood and will save writing preceding 
sections again in full. 

If it is required to repeat a composition from the beginning 
or from a certain point and this cannot be conveniently indi- 
cated by a double bar and dots, the directions " repeat from 
beginning " and " repeat from % " may be used respectively, 
the sign S being placed over the point from which the repeat 
is to commence. 

EmbellisJiments or ornaments are much used in Indian 
music. With the exception of the mend and ghasit, they 
consist chiefly of short notes the time of which is taken out 
of that of the note which they adorn. These notes are some- 
times " diatonic," that is to say, taken from the scale of the 
Raga, and sometimes what are generally spoken of as quarter- 
tones. The author makes no attempt to classify them or 
define them ; it is sufficient for his purpose to describe those 
which require special signs to express them. Others may be 
represented by the actual notes and in the actual time by 
means of the signs and notes already described. 

The mend is a glide from one note to another. So also is 
the ghasit, but they differ in this, that whereas the ghasit 
proceeds from a grace-note and is quick and somewhat 
violent, the mend passes over all intermediate sounds gently 
and is sometimes allowed to dwell for the briefest possible 
moment on the diatonic notes. Their signs are — 



Mend. Ghasit. 




=1: 



l^g^ 



Thok is an ornament applied to the first note in a mend. 
It consists in attacking the note forcibly, blending it at the 
same time with the "quarter-tone " above. It is primarily an 
ornament obtained by plucking a string with emphasis while 
the left hand almost simultaneously stretches the string to 
one side. The sign here adopted is taken from the sign of 
emphasis (>). 



46 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 




The khatka may be represented by grace-notes ; no 
special sign is needed. Grace-notes are minute in point of 
time ; they take their time out of that allotted to the note to 
which they are attached, and are represented by small notes. 
A single grace-note is usually cut through with a line as 
shown, in order to distinguish it from a peculiar kind of note 
known in European music as the "appoggiatura." 

. Khatka. 




Two kinds of trill are in common use, gamak and bhelava. 
The first is somewhat like a " mordent " with quarter-tones ; 
it may be represented thus : — 




Bhelava comes after a mend, and consists of a slow trill 
with the next higher or lower sruti. It resembles the vibrato. 




The ordinary trill of Europe is performed in combination 
with the next note above in the scale, and is denoted by the 
sign tr. 

The writer's acknowledgments are due to Abdul Karim, 
some of whose melodies ^ have been used or mutilated to 
serve as examples, and to Yeshvantrao Dinkar Bhramanalkar, 
who has published in a kind of " tonic-solfa " notation several 
of Abdul Karim's melodies.^ 

* "Sangit Svaraprakash." Sriramtatva-Prakash Printing Press, Belgaum. 

• "Jain Bhajanamrit Padyavali." Printed at the Arya Bhushan Press, Poona. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE INTERPRETATION OF THE ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 

This chapter will include annotated translations of the most 
important parts of the Natya Shastra of Bharata, which is 
generally allotted to the fifth century A.D., and of the 
thirteenth-century text-book, the Sangit Ratnakar of 
Sarangdev. The writer knows of no detailed exposition of 
Indian musical theory in any treatise except Bharata's Natya 
Shastra, earlier than the Sangit Ratnakar. Regarding later 
works, it may be said without fear of contradiction that the 
Ratnakar has been consistently misunderstood by all suc- 
ceeding authors. 

To understand the two works named one must grasp two 
important facts, namely — 

(i) That the system of tuning upon which they are based 
is that mentioned at p. 109 of Captain Day's "Music of 
Southern India." The chanterelle strings in such instruments 
as the vina and sitar were dha "f (the bass note), and ri ^ and 
ga k The drone used was almost invariably dha + and ri •{. 
combined. These were probably the notes given by the 
tambura. The wire upon which the melody was played 
was ri +. 

(2) The sruti was not an exact unit of measurement. 
Two srutis made a just semitone, three a minor-tone, and 
four a major-tone. 

The evidence to establish the first of the facts mentioned 
is as follows : — 

(i) Although the present writer has not been able to 
come across a vina-player who tunes his instrument in the 
method named, it is clear from Captain Day that the method 
survived until modern times in the Hindustani school of 
music. 



48 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

(2) The tuning method of Sarangdev could not have been 
the same as that now in vogue. Sa is omitted in several of 
the hexatonic and pentatonic scales mentioned by him. 

(3) The process of Grama-Sadharan discussed below is 
almost sufficient in itself to prove that two of the open strings 
were tuned to ri •}« and dha •}.. 

(4) This is not, perhaps, a very strong inference, but the 
name shadj itself — born of the sixth — shows that shadj was 
not always the fundamental note of music as it is now, and is 
compatible with the assignment of a more prominent position 
to dhaivat, for shadj is six srutis removed from dhaivat. 

(5) It will be found that it is quite unnecessary to make 
any verbal alterations or to do violence to the natural meaning 
of the text, if the two facts mentioned are accepted as a basis 
of interpretation. The general method adopted by modern 
Indian writers in dealing with the Ratnakar, is either to quote 
passages which obviously have not the remotest application to 
the modern system, without any attempt at comment or 
explanation, or to distort the meaning so as to make it 
applicable. For instance, Rajah S.M. Tagore takes the scale 
of Bihag as his shuddh scale (unconscious of the circumstance 
that Indian music has outgrown its " shuddh svaras "), and 
endeavours to fit it into the scale which Sarangdev calls 
Shadj i. The two scales are here shown side by side, with the 
sruti intervals below in figures — 

n Shadji. , Bihag . , 



3^E^ 



^^js^^^ ^ " I I 



3244324 4324432 

Rajah S.M, Tagore's argument is apparently as follows : 
" Our scale of Bihag must be the same as that of Shadji. If 
we take the srutis of sa which are four in number to be those 
above it instead of those which separate it from ni, the srutis 
allotted to each note work out the same. Hence it is reason- 
able to conclude that the srutis of a note are really those 
which separate it from the note above, and not from the note 
below. If there are any passages in the Sangit Ratnakar 
which are opposed to this view, there must be some error in 

the text." 

(6) There is a very significant passage in the Sangit 



INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 49 

Ratnakar which shows that even in his time there were rival 
schools in the matter of tuning. In Prakaran IV., verses 14, 
1 5 are to the following effect : " Some say that the last six 
Murchhanas of the Shadj Grama are got by putting each of 
the notes ni, dha, pa, ma, ga, ri, respectively on sa. The 
same principle may be adopted in the Madhyam Grama. 
That is to say, in place of the original first Murchhana, ma, 
pa, dha, ni, sa, ri, ga, ma, is to be read ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa, 
ri, ga, and so on." 

This is the same as the modern system except that now- 
adays the Gramas are not kept distinct, and the difference of 
pitch from sa to ma is not used to distinguish one from the 
other. 

Bharata: Natya Shastra (Ch. 28). Text and 

Coiiimentary. 

(Translated from the Bombay Edition) — Kavya Mala series. 
No. 42. Nirnaya Sagar Press. 

Verse 22. — There are seven svaras : shadj, rishabh, 
gandhara, madhyam, pancham, dhaivat, and nishad. 

Verse 23. — They are of four kinds according to the 
number of srutis between them : Vadi, Samvadi, Anuvadi, 
Vivadi. 

Commentary. — The "Ansha" svara is the same as the 
Vadi. Svaras between which there is a distance of nine or 
thirteen srutis are Samvadi to each other (examples are 
here given). 

Verse 24. — In the Madhyam Grama, pa and ri are 
Samvadi ; in the Shadj Grama, sa and pa. 

Commentary. — Those are Vivadi between which there is a 
distance of twenty srutis, e.g. ga and ri, ni and dha. The 
Vadi, Samvadi and Vivadi thus established, the rest are called 
Anuvadi. (A list of the Anuvadi intervals is given.) The 
speaking note is called Vadi ; the note which clashes (with it) 
Vivadi ; the note which converses (with it) Samvadi ; the note 
which increases the beauty of the Raga, Anuvadi. These 
svaras, when played, suffer slight modifications owing to 
differences in the wires and keyboard. 

Note. — The chief note of a composition (ansha svara) according 

E 



50 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

to this passage, is the Vadi. Its Samvadi is either at a distance of a 
perfect fourth or fifth. The note at an interval of an octave less a 
semitone is Vivadi, and the rest of the notes in the scale Anuvadi. The 
classification has an element of harmony in it, but regard is had to the 
melodic rather than harmonic point of view. The reader will remember 
that the notes here dealt with are the following : — 




33^ 



]±i 



m^f^- 



^^^. 



,^'^ 



I Shadj Grama. Madhyam Grama. 

The double-stemmed notes are the Vadi and Samvadi. 





It would be more in consonance with Indian ideas to represent the 
Gramas in the form of a closed circle ; as has already been pointed 
out, they are not regarded as scales. 



Grama and the 
Each is said to comprise twenty-two 



The Gramas. 

There are two Gramas, the Shadj 
Madhyam Grama, 
srutis. 

Verse 25. — In the Shadj Grama the srutis are arranged in 
the order following : 3, 2, 4, 4, 3, 2, 4, 

Commeiitai-y. — Pa is lowered one sruti in the Madhyam 
Grama. The interval passed over in raising or lowering pa 
by one sruti is the measure of a sruti. 

Note. — This passage, and the difference in harmonic structure 
between the Gramas, have been fully explained.* The ascending or 
descending line made use of in the accidentals means a difiference of 
one sruti or |^, except in two cases, ma -^ and ni f^, which should really 
be called pa t? and sa t?. From the passage " each is said to comprise 
twenty-two srutis," it might be argued with some show of reason that 
the existence of twenty-two srutis need not be taken to imply twenty-two 



» Ch. II. 



INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 51 

individual notes. The answer to this argument is found in the fact that 
individual names were allotted to the whole number of srutis. 

Verse 26. — Sa is of 4 srutis, ri of 3, ga of 2, ma of 4. 

Verse 27. — Pa of 4, dha of 3, ni of 2. This is the Shadj 
Grama. 

Verse 28. — In the Madhyam Grama, ma is of 4, pa of 3, 
dha of 4. 

Verse 29. — Ni of 2, sa of 4, ri of 3, ga of 2. 

MURCHHANAS. 

There are 14 Murchhanas in the two Gramas. 

Verse 30. — The first is Uttarmandra, and starts from sa ; 
the second, Rajani from ni ; the third, Uttarayata from dha ; 
the fourth, Shuddhshadja from pa ; the fifth Matsarikriti 
from ma. 

Verse 31. — The sixth is Asvakranta from ga ; the seventh 
Abhirudgata from ri. Such are the Murchhanas of the Shadj 
Grama. 

Verse 32. — In the Madhyam Grama the Murchhanas are : 
Sauviri, Harinasva, Kalopanata, Shuddhmadhya, Margi, 
Pauravi, Hrishyaka. 

Verse 33. — Such are the Murchhanas of the Madhyam 
Grama. The starting notes are ma, ga, ri, sa, ni, dha, pa. 

These Murchhanas are of four descriptions: (i) those 
which are Sampurna {i.e. complete with seven notes) ; (2) (3) 
the Shadava and Odava {i.e. hexatonic and pentatonic) ; (4) 
those which take the Sadharan (common) notes. 

Verse 34. — When all seven notes are taken in order, the 
Murchhana is called Sampurna. When five or six notes are 
taken it becomes Odava or Shadava. 

Verse 35. — Sadharan Murchhanas are of two kinds : those 
which take the Kakali Sadharan, and those which take the 
Antara Sadharan. 

Coninientary. — Each Murchhana is produced in two ways. 
Thus, in the Shadj Grama, when ga, in the Murchhana or 
Grama, is raised two srutis and made into dha. (So also in 
the Madhyam Grama, Murchhanas assume two forms, (i) 
when the dha is lowered, (2) when the ni is raised.) This 
is calling the same thing by another name, because the sruti- 
intervals are not changed. The interval between pa and dha 



52 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 



is four srutis. Even so, raising gandhara gives an interval of 
four srutis. The remaining svaras likewise become madhya- 
madi {i.e. relations of madhyam). 

Note. — (i) Murchhana is a high-sounding name connoting h'ttle. 
In Sarangdev's time, as the examples given by him clearly show, the name 
of the Murchhana merely indicated the lower compass of a composition. 
It would perhaps have been more logical to treat the subject of 
"Sadharan" under the head of Jatis. However, Sarangdev also deals 
with it under the section relating to Murchhanas. 

(2) The Kakali Sadharan was ni t| ; the Antara Sadharan ga tf- 
They appear to have been employed as alternative notes to the shuddh 
ones for melodic effect. 

(3) The commentary below verse 35 has hitherto proved a stumbling- 
block to students. The brackets have been added by the present writer. 
They enclose a sentence which is to be separated from the rest of the 
text, as it is merely a digression by way of analogy. Ga is raised two 
srutis, that is to ga tj, and becomes " dha." That means that the scale 
arrived at is at once realized as in the Madhyam Grama, if ga is called 
dha. 



^^^^^^ w r^"^ 



S^^ 



It: 



S 



'ma' 'pa' 'dha' 'ni' 'sa' 'ri' 'ga' 'ma' ma pa dha ni sa ri ga ma 



The scale arrived at by change of ga is that on the left ; the one 
on the right is the first Murchhana of the Madhyam Grama. It will 
be seen that, except in point of pitch, the two scales are identical. 

Again, lowering the dha in the Madhyam Grama gives — 



fe^^i^ 



_i,=Jfeei^ 



w 



which is the first Murchhana of the Shadj Grama transposed a fourth 
higher. If the reader will work out the ratios for himself, he will find that 
this is so. The inclined line in all cases means lowered by fj. Raising 
the ni of the Madhyam Grama gives 



^ 



^^ 



i^Efe 



It: 



which, transposed, is the following : — 



-A 



-^l 



it=^3^; 



:^^_^ 



m 



INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 53 

This is an interesting scale ; tivra ma must be what is known in 
Europe as an auxiliary note, that is auxiliary to pa, from which it would 
not be separated. The reader may ask, with respect to the first two 
of the scales above, why the lowering of pa should not have been con- 
sidered sufficient for the change of Gramas without the use of dha komal 
and antara ga. The writer thinks that the practice originated partly 
from convenience of pitch, and partly to suit the drone of the open 
strings. The question will be more fully discussed in treating of the 
Ratnakar Jatis. [The first scale gives the Jati Panchami when ri "f (an 
open string) is taken as the starting-point.] 

Nothing would be gained by transcribing further passages from 
Bharata. His Jatis are the same as Sarangdev's. 



THE SANGIT RATNAKAR. 
{Ananddshrama Series^ Poona). 
SVARADHYAYA (PRAKARAN 3). 

Verses 3 to 1 1 are taken up with an attempt to explain 
the phenomena of sound. 

Verse 12. — Take two vinas with 22 wires each and tune as 
follows : Let the first wire give the lowest possible note, the 
next a note a little higher and so on, so that between the 
notes given by any two adjacent wires a third note is 
impossible. 

Verses 1$ to 16. — These successive notes are the srutis. 
Sa will stand on the fourth wire, being a svara of four srutis ; 
ri will be on the third wire counting from the fifth ; ga, which 
has only two srutis, will fall on the second, counting from the 
eighth ; ma, being of four srutis, on the fourth, counting from 
the tenth ; pa on the fourth, counting from the fourteenth ; 
dha on the third after pa ; ni on the second after dha ; so 
ni will fall on the twenty-second sruti. 

Note. — Verses 24 to 38 are taken up with the various names of the 
svaras and srutis. These names are to be found on p. 77, below. As 
regards dipta, ayata, etc., the commentator, Kallinath, says, "It is said 
that this classification is based upon the effects which the srutis are 
supposed to produce." 

Verse 40. — Thus are produced the seven notes of the 
mandra saptak (lowest octave or chest register) ; the seven 



54 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

notes of the madhya (middle octave or throat register) ; and 
the seven notes of the tar saptak (highest octave or head 
register). These seven notes are called the shuddh svaras. 

Note. — The notes are those of the Shadj Grama (p. 50). 

Ve?-se 41. — When the shuddh svaras change their places 
among the srutis, they become vikrit svaras. There are 12 
vikrits. 

Verses 42, 43. — Sa has two vikrit positions — Chyut and 
Achyut. In both it is of two srutis. It becomes Chyut when 
ni takes its first sruti and changes to kaishik ni. Becoming 
Chyut, it leaves its unused (fourth) sruti to ri ; thereby ri 
becomes vikrit because its distance from sa is increased. 

Sa becomes Achyut (not fallen or unmoved) when ni is 
raised two srutis and made kakali ni. 

So, when ni becomes a svara of three srutis, by taking one 
from sa,sa is lowered one sruti, and becomes Chyut ; when ni 
becomes a svara of four srutis, by taking two from sa, sa 
becomes Achyut. 

Verse 44. — Sadharan and Antara are the two vikrit states 
of g^ ; Sadharan of three srutis and Antara of four srutis. 

Verse 45. — Ma, like sa, has two vikrit conditions, Chyut 
and Achyut. When ga takes its first sruti, ma, in order to 
stand at a distance of two srutis from this Sadharan ga, 
becomes Chyut ; again, when ga is raised to the second sruti 
of ma, becoming Antara, ma stands in its original place, 
but is called Achyut. It has lost two srutis, and so has become 
vikrit. 

Verse 46. — Pa also has two vikrits. First, when it becomes 
a shuddh svara of the Madhyam Grama ; secondly, it will 
become Chyut or Kaishik, when ma, the preceding note, is 
Chyut. It must fall one sruti to keep four srutis from Chyut 
ma. When pa becomes Kaishik, its last sruti goes to dha and 
makes dha vikrit. 

Verse 47. — When ni takes the first sruti of sa, it is 
Kaishik ; and when it takes two, it is Kakali. These are 
the two vikrits of ni. 

Such are the twelve vikrits. The total of shuddh and 
vikrit svaras is nineteen. 

Note. — The above classification of vikiits is inexact and confused. 



INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 55 

It was probably in vogue among musicians, and Sarangdev took it as he 
found it. Out of the twelve vikrits, seven, namely, chyut sa, ma and 
pa, antara and sadharan ga, kaishik and kakali ni, are new ; the rest are 
old svaras with new names. When chyut sa, ma and pa are made use of, 
the scale assumes the form here given : — 



g 



w*^ bog a, .G ^ f 

These changes (it is important to notice that the only notes which 
escape flattening or raising are ri and dha) are known as Gfdma- 
SAdhdran. The real sadharan ga and kaishik ni, corresponding to the 
modern Karnatic notes of those names, are to be seen in the Gandhdra 
Grama (see below). Here ga and ni become of three srutis, i.e. a minor- 
tone removed from ri and dha respectively. They are ga •)« ^nd ni •{. as 
shown, and not gal?. and nit?. The confusion of nomenclature is due to 
the theory of the equality of the srutis. The inclined lines all mean a 
flattening by |J. If one is removed from each note of the scale, that of 
Bihag results, of which, as has been pointed out, Kafi is the mode of the 
second. In other words, the above collection of notes taken from ri "I. to 
ri "j. gives the Jati known as Shadji (to be explained later). Grama- 
Sadharan was a tuning device adopted to enable the performer to play 
Shadji to a ri -f drone. 

The lowering of pa in the Madhyam Grama has already been ex- 
plained. The manner in which antara ga and kakali ni are used is 
dealt with under the head " Sddharan." Achyut is merely a fanciful 
epithet. 

Verse 48. — (Gives the names of animals which utter the 
shuddh notes.) 

Note.— This is interesting merely as showing that there was some 
idea, as there is to-day also, of absolute pitch. 

Verses 49, 50. — Svaras are divided into four classes — 
Vadi, Samvadi, Anuvadi, Vivadi. The note which occurs 
most frequently in a song is the Vadi. 

Verse 51. — Samvadi svaras are those between which are 
eight or twelve srutis. 

Ni and ga are Vivadi (discordant) with all others ; in 
other words, ni and ga are respectively Vivadi with ri and 
dha ; ri and dha are respectively Vivadi with ga and ni. 



56 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

Svaras which are neither Vadi, Samvadi, nor Vivadi are 
called Anuvadi. 

Note. — Ni and ri shuddh are not Vivadi ; perhaps the author had in 
mind ni kakaH. Even then his opinion conflicts with Bharata. It will 
be noted that to have eight or twelve srutis between, means intervals of 
nine and thirteen srutis respectively. 

There is nothing important in verses 52 to 60. 



The Chapter on Gramas and Murchhanas 
(Prakaran 4). 

Verse i. — A Grama is a collection of svaras. It is the 
foundation upon which Murchhanas are built. There are only 
two Gramas in this world. The chief Grama is the Shadj 
Grama. 

Verse 2. — The other Grama is the Madhyam Grama. 
When pancham stands on its proper fourth sruti, that is the 
Shadj Grama arrangement of svaras. 

Verse 3. — When pancham is lowered one sruti and stands 
on its third sruti, that is the Madhyan Grama. To express 
it in another way, in the Shadj Grama, dhaivat is of three 
srutis, and in the Madhyam Grama, it is of four srutis. 

Verse 4. — When gandhara takes one sruti from ri, and one 
from ma, that is the Gandhara Grama. In this arrangement 
dha also takes a sruti from pa ; and ni takes one from dha and 
one from sa. 

Verse 5. — Narada called this arrangement the Gandhara 
Grama. This Grama is practised by celestial musicians. 

Note. — The Gdiidhdra Grdnia has always presented difficulties to 
the student, and has always proved an attractive problem in spite of the 
fact that it was obsolete in Sarangdev's time. " Ga takes one sruti from 
ri " means that ri is lowered from ri "f to ri !?. At the same time ga takes 
one from ma, and so rises from ga \ to gat?. Dha takes one from pa, 
making pa " chyut." Behaving like ga, ni sends dha down to dha f? and 
itself rises to nit?. 



:=j^g*^±g: 



^^V^^^ 



=t: 



The difficulty of the problem attaches to the chyut pa, which divides 
the six-sruti interval between ma and dha into two intervals of three srutis. 



INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 57 



Now, two minor-tones -\p- x \y are greater than a minor-third (5 or six 
srutis). Here, then, is another practical example of the inequality of the 
srutis. If pa is taken to be a minor-tone or three srutis below dha 1?, the 
interval separating it from ma ^ will be ||, a difficult interval to sing. 
This may account for the disappearance of the Gandhara Grama. The 
differences in harmonic structure between the three Gramas will be 
apparent from the following : — 

First Murchhana at pitch sa. 

Shadj Gn\ma. Madhyam Grama. 



Ei3^ 



^^z 



e^s^eeeB 



Gandhara Grama. 



i^li^s^SS 



First Murchhana at pitch ri. 



^=m- 



=p=^ 



iEgE^^=^^^ 



i^tusi 



:^=:^2=^: 



:t=t: 



--!- 



:^z^^=^=g 



:?2=^; 






t=t 



Second Murchhana at pitch sCi. 



F=i^ 



— I- 



~^t=^-^ 



^=?2IZ^ 



--^~m 



l=t:: 



t=t 



-^-^z 



:^=^=^: 



:^=^ 



t=t 



izz: 



-^-^ -^-r ^-F 



i 



2:^ 



Common Chords. 



m 



s 



m 



:^g= 



r 



The only possible alternative solution is to regard chyut pa as the 
eleventh upper partial of ri |7. This would give a beautiful scale with the 
intervals : ga to ma ^Q ; ma to pa jj ; pa to dha -}f ; dha to ni » ; ni to 
sa iji ; sa to ri i-J ; ri to ga ;!:;. 

Verse 6. — The chief Grama is the Shadj Grama for two 
reasons : (i) It is the first of the series. (2) It has more 
Samvadis. The Madhyam Grama is also important because 
that svara is never omitted. 



58 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

Note. — The reasoning of this verse is not very convincing. The last 
sentence refers to " Shuddh Tans '' (see below). 

Verse g. — A Murchhana consists of the ascent and descent 
of the seven svaras in their natural order. Each Grama has 
seven Murchhanas. 

Verses lo to 12 name the Murchhanas. The names are 
those given by Bharata (p. 51). 

VtTse 13. — The first Murchhana of the Shadj Grama starts 
from sa of the middle register. The others start respectively 
from ni, dha, pa, ma, ga, ri in the lower octave. The first of 
the Madhyam Grama starts from ma of the middle octave. 
The remaining six begin from ga, ri, sa, ni, dha, pa (the last 
three of the lower octave). 

Verse 14. — Some say that the last six Mtirchhajias of the 
Shadj Grdina are got by pjitting each of tfie notes ni, dha, pa, ma, 
ga, ri respectively oji sd. 

Verse 15. — The same principle may be adopted in the 
Madhyam Grdina. That is to say, i?i place of the original fj-st 
Mjirchliana, ma, pa, dha, ?ii, sd, ri, ga, ma, is to be read ga, ma, 
pa, dha, ni, sd, ri, ga, attd so on. 

Note. — This is the method now universally accepted, with this varia- 
tion, that Ragas of both Gramas commence their scales from sa. It is, 
however, not the method treated of in Ratnakar. The reader should 
remember that these discussions refer more particularly to Jatis than to 
Murchhanas. (See p. 52.) 

Verse 17. — Murchhanas are divided into four classes : — 
(i) Those which take the shuddh svaras. 

(2) Those which take kakali ni and the rest shuddh. 

(3) Those which take antara ga and the rest shuddh. 

(4) Those which take antara ga, kakali ni, and the rest 
shuddh. 

In this way will be obtained 14 X 4, or 56 Murchhanas 
in all. 

Note. — This classification has the fault of overlapping. To show 
that this is so, the scales are here given : — 



INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 59 



Shadj Grama 
2nd 




'• I 3rd. 



---^—t 



z^. 



^z:^^: 



p— p- 



Madhyam Grama. 



^-^- 



1 ^ 

4th. 



— i— I — t d 



:^:*f^fzEl 



:t 



^4^^^m 



1?fO 



The third variety of the Shadj Grama is the Madhyam Grama pure 
and simple, transposed a fourth below. The fourth variety is the third 
of the Madhyam Grama transposed a fourth below. 

The writer suspects that verse 17 is probably merely inserted in order 
to lead up to one of those arithmetical calculations which Sarangdev so 
delights in. 



The Chapter on Shuddh Tans (Prakaran 5). 

Verse 27. — When Shuddh Murchhanas are made Shadava 
or Odava they become Shuddh Tans. 

Note. — Sarangdev distinguishes such Tans from Kut-Tans. The 
latter are simply permutations of a given number of svaras, such as sd ri 
ga, sd ga ri, ri ga sa, etc. 

The rest of the chapter is taken up with a calculation of the number 
of possible combinations of six and five svaras in the two Gramas. 



The Chapter on Sadharan (Prakaran 6). 

Note. — Bharata, after counting up the Tans, tackled this subject also. 
In verse 36, he says : " It is chilly in the shade, but in the sun one per- 
spires ; spring is coming, but winter has not yet departed." This is the 
Sadharan of the seasons. "In music there are two Sadharans — Svara- 
sadharan and Jati-sadharan. In Svara-sadharan, ni is raised two srutis ; 
it is called kakali, but is not shadj. The word Sadharan is appropriate, 
as it stands between ni and sa. Gandhara also becomes SadhS,ran, and 
is called antara ga, and not ma. It stands midway between ga and ma." 



6o INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

After defining Jati-sadharan, the author returns to the subject and pro- 
ceeds— " Svara-sadharan is assigned to the two Gramas. There is 
Shadj-sadharan (kakaU ni) in the Shadj Grama, and Madhyam-sadharan 
(antara ga) in the Madhyam Grama." 

Ratnakar : Verse i. — Sadharan is of two kinds: Svara- 
sadharan and Jati-sadharan. Svara-sadharan is of four kinds : 
Kakali-sadharan, Antara-sadharan, Shadj-sadharan, Madhyam- 
sadharan. 

Verse 2. — Kakali is the Sadharan of sa and ni. It is 
common to both ; hence the name Sadharan. 

Verse 3. — Similarly, antara is the Sadharan of ga and 
ma. The singer should sing sa, and then take kakali and 
dhaivat in order. 

Verse 4. — Likewise, after singing ma, he should take antara 
and rishabh, or he may take sa and kakali and then return 
to sa. 

Verse 5. — After that, if any of the other svaras is to be 
omitted, the singer should, omitting it, go to the next. Let 
the same thing be understood with the antara. 

Verse 6. — Antara and kakali are always sparsely used. 

Note. — These notes were therefore auxihary or passing notes ; they 
had originally no connection with the chromatic scales. This circum- 
stance is of the highest importance in examining the Grama-ragas and 
Jatis. 

Verse 7. — When ni takes the first sruti of sa and ri takes 
its last sruti, Shadj-sadharan occurs. 

Verse 8. — In the same way, in the Madhyam Grama, when 
ga takes the first sruti of ma and pa takes the last sruti of ma, 
Madhyam-sadharan occurs. 

Note. — This process is discussed at p. 55. " In the Madhyam 
Grama " is merely a way of expressing the fact that pa is chyut. Divid- 
ing Grima-sadharan into two parts appears to be merely pedantic. 

Verse 9. — These two Sadharans are also called Kaishik 
(of a hair's breadth) because of their tenuity. They are also 
called Grama-sadharan. 

Verse 10. — Jati-sadharan occurs when two Jatis of the 
same Grama have an ansha-svara in common. Examples 
are to be found in the Ragas themselves. 



INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 6i 



The Chapter on J axis (Prakaran 7). 

Verse i. — Shuddh Jatis are seven in number; their 
names, taken from those of the seven principal svaras, are : 
Shadji, Arshabhi, Gandhari, Madhyama, Panchami, Dhaivati, 
Naishadi. 

Verse 2. — A shuddh Jati must satisfy the following five 
tests : The Nyas Svara (the final) must be the Nama-Svara 
(that note from which the Jati takes its name). So also must 
the Graha-Svara (the initial note ; also, in all probability, 
either the upper or lower note of the chord forming the pedal 
accompaniment or drone) ; so also the Apanyas (final of a 
middle cadence, may be rendered *' medial "), and the Ansha 
Svara (the chief or prevailing note ; according to Bharata, 
the same as the Vadi). The Jati must be Sampurna (complete 
with seven notes), and the final must never come in the Tar 
(higher) octave. 

Verse ^. — When a Jati takes a note other than the Nama- 
Svara as medial, initial, or ansha it becomes a vikrit Jati. 
But even in this case the last rule as to the final must be 
strictly observed. 

Note. — According to Bharata, the Ansha Svara is the same as the 
Vadi. Judging by modern practice and from the Sarigama examples 
given by Sarangdev, one can be certain that the Nyas or final is not 
invariably part of the drone. The Graha Svara is more likely to be one 
of the drone notes, but it is a curious fact that theory paid no great atten- 
tion to the relation of the drone to the scale. 

It will not be out of place at this stage to describe in brief the Church 
Modes of Europe. Each was a Sampurna scale. It was determined by 
three factors— the lowest note (in India, the note which gives its name to 
the Murchhana), the final (the Nyas), and the dominant (that note round 
which the melody centred). Modes were either Authentic or Plagal. In 
the former, the lowest note and the final were the same ; in the latter, the 
final was a fourth above the lowest note. The dominant of an Authentic 
mode was, with certain necessary exceptions, the fifth of the scale ; the 
dominant of a Plagal mode was a third or fourth above the final. 
Generally speaking, final and dominant corresponded to Vadi and 
Samvadi ; as they were not invariably a fourth or fifth apart, but some- 
times a third or sixth, the modes gave more harmonic variety than the 
Shuddh Jatis. These modes are still employed for special effects. They 
are as follows :— 



62 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 



Authentic modes. 



Plagal modes. 




Verses 4, 5, 7 are taken up with a calculation of the number of per- 
mutations and combinations of vikrit Jatis. This is a kind of exercise in 
which musical pandits seem to revel. The total arrived at is 153. 

In verse 6 it is laid down that no Jati of less than five notes is allowed. 
Thus there are three kinds in respect of the number of svaras— Sampurna, 
Shadava, and Odava. 

Verse 8 states that there are only eleven vikrit Jatis in use. Verses 9 
to 20 give their names and other particulars (see below). 

Verse 21. — Sages such as Bharata advise the use of 
Svara-sadharan {i.e. the use of antara ga or kakali ni) in the 
case of Jatis Madhyama, Panchami, and Shadj-ma-dhyama. 

Verse 22. — More especially so when the Vadi notes are sa, 
ma, and pa. Others such as Kambal and Asvatar recommend 
the use of the antara and kakali in Jatis where ga and ni are 
weak. According to them this rule is to be observed not only 
in Jatis, but in Ragas of all kinds. 

Verse 23. — When in the Shadj-madhyama Jati ni and ga 
are Vadi, there will be no Svara-sadharan. Moreover, it takes 
place in vikrit and not in shuddh Jatis. 

Note. — The above rules are intelligible and of considerable importance. 



* Final and dominant are shown by asterisks. The accidentals, introduced 
by the writer, show that here also there are two Gramas. This fact is not 
as widely recognised as it should be. 



INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 63 

Verses 24 /o 27 detail the number of Vadi or Ansha notes 
in the 7 shuddh and 1 1 vikrit Jatis. Sarangdev's observations 
on the subject of Vadi and Samvadi appear to be somewhat 
deficient in discrimination. One may hazard a conjecture 
that as a Jati may take more than one pair of Vadi and 
Samvadi, its tonality may change during a composition, or its 
derivative Ragas may be distinguished one from another by 
the Vadi and Samvadi. 

Verses 28, 29. — There are 1 3 criteria by which to deter- 
mine a Jati : (i) Graha, (2) Vadi, (3) Nyas, (4) Tar {i.e. the 
higher compass, or top note), (5) Mandra (the lowest note, the 
one which gives its name to the Murchhana of the Jati), (6) 
Apanyas, (7), (8) Sannyas, Vinyas (two varieties of medial, 
the latter occurring at the end of the first line, and the former 
at the end of the first division of the song), (9) Bahulatva 
(strength or frequency of a note), (10) Alpatva (weakness or 
infrequency), (11) Shadavatva (having six notes), (12) 
Odavatva (having five notes), (13) Antarmarg (the relations of 
the Vadi with the other notes). 

Sarangdev proceeds to describe in detail (i) the Shuddh 
Jatis, (2) the Vikrit Jatis, (3) the Grama-ragas, which are 
generic Ragas themselves derived from the Jatis. 

So far two clear indications have been met with of the 
practice of varying the pitch of the different scales, the first in 
the commentary on v. 35 of Ch. 28 of Bharata's Natya Shastra, 
and the second in Sarangdev's description of Grama-Sadharan. 
The first reduces the Nama-svara of Panchami to ri •[•, and the 
second that of Shadji to the same note. It is not unreason- 
able to assume that in the dhaivat system of tuning, the drone 
consisted of ri + above dha + (the latter being clearly, from 
Captain Day's account, the bass note), and that the Nama- 
Svara of all the Shuddh Jatis was tuned down to either ri •{» 
or dha +, so as to avoid a readjustment of the chanterelle 
strings every time the Jati was changed. The keyboard 
string or speaking-string was in its normal state tuned to ri -f. 
and the frets arranged accordingly. A readjustment of the 
frets (Grama-Sadharan) was necessary in order that Shadji 
should be played from the pitch of ri +. Arshabhi required no 
change of frets or tuning. Gandhari could be obtained by the 
simple device of tuning the keyboard wire down by two srutis, 



64 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

leaving the frets unchanged. The intervals would be those of 
the Jati, but ga would be at the pitch (ri +) required for the 
drone.^ In the case of Madhyama there are two alternatives. 
The ga b string may have been brought into requisition for 
the drone, giving ga fa above dha +. In this case tuning 
down the keyboard wire by a semitone would bring Madhyama 
to the required pitch. The second alternative would be to 
play Madhyama without change over a ri •{. drone ; this 
was possible, as ri +, dha + and ma ^ harmonize together. 
Panchami required the use of antara ga, as explained in the 
notes below Bharata. Dhaivati, like Arshabhi, required no 
change ; Naishadi, on a keyboard wire flattened by a semitone, 
would take the dha + drone. It is possible that Dhaivati 
and Naishadi were played from the ri + and ga ^ frets 
respectively (the latter with a flattened wire), and brought into 
line with the other Jatis as regards pitch. The only difficulty 
in the way of this supposition is that it would require a 
lowering of the dha fret in order to give the intervals of the 
two Jatis. This flattening of dha is mentioned by Bharata, 
but not by Sarangdev. One would expect to find a reference 
to it in the Ratnakar if the method were in vogue. On the 
whole there is more reason to conclude that Naishadi and 
Dhaivati took the pitch of dha +. Although, curiously enough, 
Sarangdev does not enter into the question of the manner in 
which the drone strings were adjusted to the Jatis, or the 
Jatis to the drone, there can be no doubt that the method 
employed was something like the one outlined here. That 
the Jatis were adjusted to the drone, and not the reverse, 
is proved by the existence of Grama-Sadharan ; no other 
explanation is conceivable. The manner of adjustment must 
have been something like that now suggested, first because it 
is in conformity with the text of Ratnakar and requires no 
new " vikrit svaras," and secondly because similar devices are 
in use at the present day. 

The Jatis. 

Material particulars only are here transcribed. Those 
omitted have reference to the rhythm or the time and mode 

' This kind of practice survives to the present day (see p. 29). 



INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 65 

of performance. In small print will be found a short dis- 
cussion of derivative Grama-ragas or Ragas. Then will 
follow in each case three scales, the first representing the 
scale of the Jati with shuddh notes (the Murchhana being 
indicated by a separate note), the second representing the 
scale with the new tuning mentioned in Prakaran 4, verses 
14 and 15, the drone of Shadj tuning being indicated by 
double stems to the notes, the third showing what notes were 
actually produced by the various devices employed under the 
old tuning to adjust the Jitis to the drone of dha + or dha + 
combined with ri + (or perhaps, in the case of Madhyama, 
dha -f and ga). 

Shadji. — Vadi may be sa, ga, ma, pa, dha. Nyas s^ ; 
Apanyas ga and pa ; Murchhana dha of Shadj Grama ; ga 
frequent. When Sampurna, some make ni kakali. When 
Shadava, omit ni. Sa, ga and sa, dha often occur in pairs. 
When ga is Vadi, ni will not be omitted. Example : Varati- 
Raga. 

Note. — R%a-vibodh, Svaramela Kalanidhi, Sangit Sarimrit, all give 
varieties of the Hindustani Todi scale for Varati or Varali. The modern 
Varadi of Hindustan is sung to the Purvi scale. The present writer can- 
not explain this discrepancy ; he can only point out that Southern music 
has always, so far as is known, been steeped in chromatic influences, 
from which Bharata and Ratnakar were comparatively free. The modern 
Varadi may have come to Hindustan from the South. 

Old Style. New Style (the same). 






Grdma Sadharan. 



^-^'^ t^-'-^^-=?p:^ 



^r^ V- y ^rM 



Note. — None of the Grima-rdgas are derived direct from this 
Jati. 

Arshabhi. — Vadi may be ni, ri, dha. Nyas ri ; Apanyas, 
the Vidis ; Murchhana pa, of the Shadj Grama. Pa in- 
frequent ; Shadava omits sa ; Odava omits s^, pa. Ga and 
ni will be in close relation with the other svaras (this 

F 



66 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 



simply means that they will be frequent). Examples : Deshi, 
Madhukari. 

Note. — Raga-vibodh puts Deshi in our Purvi scale. Svaramela 
Kalanidhi does the same with Ardra-Deshi. Saramrit puts Shuddh-Deshi 
in the Kafi scale, and Ardra-Deshi in the Bhairava scale. In Hindustan, 
Deshi is sung either in the Kafi or Asavari scale. Madhukari is an un- 
common Raga ; it is mentioned by one Telugu writer. 



Old Style. 



New Style. 



^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^i 



^^ig^^ 



f 



1r^ 



4^^=-^ 






Note. — Taking Prakaran IV., verses 14 and 15 literally, the scale of 
the " Madhya Saptak " would be an octave lower, 

Grdma-Rdgas. — The Grama-raga Pancham-shadava (No. 22 of 
Sarangdev's list) is derived from Dhaivati and Arshabhi. It appears to 
consist of the shuddh notes with a ri drone. Derived from it is the Raga 
Gujri which Raga-vibodh, Chaturdandi, Svaramela, Sarimrit put in our 
Bhairava scale. The modern Hindustani Gujri is in Todi. Sarangdev 
says that Pancham-shadava takes ni kakaU. That may only be as a 
passing note. From the example given, it is probable that ni is shuddh. 
The example would be inharmonious if sung in Bhairava, as the pro- 
gression ma ni and ni ma is frequent and prominent. Moreover, pa and 
sa are omitted in the example given. 

Grama-raga Revagupta (No. 26) is also derived from this Jati (com- 
bined with Madhyama). Deshi (discussed above) is the descendant of 
Revagupta. The scale which best suits the example given is the 
Madhyam Grama with dha komal (it will be remembered that Bharata 
mentions this variety), and ri as drone. In fact, no other scale appears 
to fit in with this example. It is curious that if one starts Arshabhi from 
the Murchhana pa, one arrives at this very scale. Starting from the 
drone, the scale is as follows : — 



m 



^ 



-^. 



s^ =w=^ 



=^P=^= 



or, new style (putting pa I? instead of the current but irrational ma +) — 



5^E^^g3ppE^^ 



A Raga resembling Bhairava may quite well have originated in this 
Grama-Raga. 



INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 67 

Gandhari. — Any note but ri or dha may be Vadi ; Nyas 
ga ; Apanyas sa and pa ; Murchhana dha of the Madhyam 
Grama. When Shadava omit ri, when Odava, ri and dha. 
When pa is V^di, it is not Shadava ; and when ni, sa, ma, pa 
are Vadi, it will not be Odava. The Nyas will pair with one 
of the five Vadis. When Sampurna, ri and dha will come 
together. Examples : Gandharapancham, Deshi, Velavali. 

Note. — Madhyam-Grama, No. 17 of the Grama-ragas, is compounded 
of this Jati with Madhyama and Panchami. It takes the kakali ni. 
(That must mean occasionally.) Madhyamadi is derived from it. That 
Raga is even now sung in the Kafi scale, and all the pandits agree in 
putting Madhyam-Grama under Kafi. The shuddh scale of Ratnakar 
also suits the example given. Thus there can hardly be any doubt 
that the notes of this Grama-raga are the shuddh svaras of the Madhyam 
Grama. 

From Gandhara-pancham is derived Deshakhya, which the Southern 
pandits treat as chromatic. This Grama-raga begins with sa, " takes the 
kakali," and the scales of Yaman or Bihag suit it admirably. 

Velavali : Chaturdandiprakasha, Saramrit, Svaramela put this Raga 
under Kafi, and Raga-vibodh under our Bilaval (the common major 
scale). 

Old Style. ^ New Style. 






^=-^ 



Actual tuning. 



The second scale transposed to Sa would be Yaman ; 
taken as a Murchhana from sa, it would be Bilaval. The 
third is arrived at by tuning the speaking string one semitone 
lower, so that the ga fret gives ri. The 3rd, 4th, and 7th notes 
are respectively srutis 14, 18, 5 of those in the list on p. 'j'j. 

Madhyama. — Vadi may be any note except ga and ni. 
Nyas ma ; the Vadis will be Apanyas ; Murchhana ri of 
Madhyam-Grama ; sa and ma frequent ; ga less frequent. 
When Shadava, ma is omitted ; when Odava, ni and ga. 
Examples : Shuddh-shadava, Deshi and Andholi. 

Note. — Grama-ragas 17 (Madhyama -grama, mentioned under Jdti 
Gandhari), 19 (Shuddh-shadava), 21 (Bhinn-pancham), 26 (Revagupta 



68 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

discussed under Arshabhi), 28 (Kukubh), are derived from this Jati. No. 
19 is said to be a " vikrit " form of Madhyama. Ma is Vadi, Nyas, Graha, 
Murchhana. It takes antara and kakali. From it are supposed to have 
originated Todi and Bangal. The former is our Bahiravi ; the Southern 
pandits mention a Shuddh-Bangal with the Kafi scale, Chaturdandi and 
Saramrit notice a Karnat-Bangal in the Bhairava scale, while Raga-vibodh 
and Svaramela assign Bhairava scale to Bangal, and a chromatic scale 
called Karnat to Shuddh-Bangal. From the example given, there is no 
reason whatever to assume the scale to be other than that described in un- 
mistakable terms by Sarangdev. It is Bilaval starting from madhyam with 
the low sixth {i.e. in this case, ri "f.). Bhinn-pancham is the parent of 
Varati, which is discussed under Shadji. The Sarigama given is 
clearly in the shuddh Madhyam GrS.ma scale, and the drone must be 
Madhyam. 

In Kukubh, dha is Vadi and everything else, except Nyas, which 
position is assigned to pa. Descended from it is Asavari, which Raga- 
vibodh puts in our Bhairava scale. Bahiravi with a shadj drone suits 
best the Sarigama given. As the Grama-raga is partly produced from 
Dhaivati, it may have taken the form of Bahiravi. 

Deshi has been described (under Arshabhi). Andholi is Khamaj 
(Saramrit), or Kafi (Chaturdandi and Svaramela). 



r 






:t==± 



The Jati may also have been performed with the shuddh 
notes over the dha •{. and ri •}» drone. It takes chyut pa even 
with the new tuning. The time when chyut pa was abandoned 
must coincide with the time when the practice of beginning 
Madhyam Grama scales from ma instead of sa fell into disuse. 

Panchami. — Vadis ri and pa ; Nyas pa ; Apanyas ri, pa, 
ni ; Murchhana ri of Madhyam Grama ; sa, ga, ma in- 
frequent. When it is Sampurna, the leap from ga to ni is 
used. When Sh^dava, omit ga ; when Odava, ga, ni. When 
ri is Vadi, the Odava form is not used. Ri and ma will come 
together. Examples : Shuddh-pancham, Deshi, Andholi. 

Note. — Grama-ragas 17, 21, 28 described above, are partly derived 
from Panchami. Shuddh-pancham is No. 30. It is said to be composed 
in part of Madhyama and in part of Panchami. Pa is Vadi, Graha and 
Nyis, and also the Murchhana. Shuddh-pancham is the progenitor of 



INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 69 

Dakshinatya, Andholi, Malhari, and Malhar ; also of Karnat-Gaud, 
Deshval-Gaud, Turushk-Gaud, Dravid-Gaud. Sarangdev, in his chapter 
on Instrumentation, states that Deshval-Gaud is also called Kedar-Gaud, 
and Turushk-Gaud Malava-Gaud. Svaramala gives for the former a 
Bilaval scale without ga and with two madhyams. Chaturdandi and 
Saramrit introduce a komal nishad. The latter (Malava-Gaud) is by 
common consent the Hindustani Bhairava. The Sarigama given for No. 
30 appears to be in Shadj tuning, and the scale to be like that of 
Deshkar, but Sampurna (complete with seven notes). Deshi and Andholi 
have been discussed. 



|=g^^S|gfe 



fe^g^l^, 



:r ;-^ p-'r-r~r=t: 



I 



w 



^^Em^^: 



^^E^EEE3 



4/s__ 



The third of these scales is the Deshval Gaud or Kedar 
Gaud of Chaturdandi. With ni kakali, it is Shuddh- 
pancham. These are interesting circumstances, as they 
support the writer's arguments. 

Dhaivati. — Vidi ri, dha ; Nyas dha ; Apanyas ri, ma, 
dha ; Murchhana ri of Shadj Gr^ma ; in ascending the scale, 
sa and pa are omitted ; when Shadava, pa is dropped ; when 
Odava, sa and pa. Examples : Shuddh-Kaishik, Deshi. 

Note. — 22 and 28 described respectively under Arshabhi and 
Madhyama are partly derived from this Jati. So is 24, Takka by 
name. Takka is described as follows : Sa is Vadi, Graha, Nyas and 
Murchhana ; takes antara and kakali ; pa infrequent. It is the parent 
scale of Gaud or Gaul and Kolahal. All the pandits agree in putting 
Gaud under the Hindustani Bhairava (their Malava-Gaud) scale. The 
Sarigama given is in shadj tuning ; ri is omitted ; it would be most unin- 
teresting and could not by any stretch of the imagination be referred as 
it is to Dhaivati unless dha is taken to be komal. If that svara is komal, 
the scale becomes that of Bhairava. 

Shuddh-Kaishik above appears to be an error for Takka- Kaishik, No. 
31. The latter is produced from the Dhaivati and Madhyama Jatis ; 
Murchhana, Vadi, Graha, Nyas all dhaivat ; takes antara and kakali. 
The example given is probably in dhaivat tuning, and is therefore 
as described. Transposed to shadj it would be the Hindustani 
Asavari. 



70 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 



i 



^^fe=^^ 



^^=^^ 



^ BEfe^^^ 



Naishadi. — Vadi ni, ri, ga ; Nyas ni ; Apanyas the 
Vadis ; Murchhana ga of the Shadj Grama ; ni, ri, ga fre- 
quent ; when Shadava, omits pa ; when Odava, pa and sa. 
Examples : Shuddh-Sadharit, Deshi, Velavali. 

Note. — Shuddh-Sadharit is described as follows : Sa is Vadi, Graha 
and Murchhana ; ma is Nyas ; ni and ga are infrequent. It appears to 
have the shuddh svaras of the Kafi scale, with shadj as drone. 



Old Style. 



New Style. 



*> Murchhana p-a. 



=.-^=^=^-q 



t: 



Murchhana ga. 
Actual tuning. 



--?^- 



d=^^-p=e 



:q: 



:^=i^ 



-4=^-^- 



:^=g^ -i^- 



The speaking string is tuned down one 
semitone, so that the ni fret gives dha. The 
6th note is Sruti 1 5 of the list on p. yj. 

For convenience of reference the suggested scales of the 
Grama-ragas mentioned in the above discussion are here 
given — 

(i) Shuddh-Sadharit. (17) Madhyam-Grama. 

-4- ,^.,^^-^4^^^^ 



^g^^^f^^^g^i ^^g^g^ 



(19) Shuddh-Shadava. 



.1^r^ 



I— 
(21) Bhinn- Pancham, 



^H \-^'^^=^ %Ji'^ r J ^ ( ^^^\ I _ J_] 



(22) Pancham-Shudava. 

(sa and pa are omitted.) (23) Takka. 

-I -T— ^^— ,s4^-r 1- 1- 






INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 71 

(26) Revagupta. ^, (27) Gandhara-Pancham. 






(28) Kukubh. 



(30) Shuddh-Pancham. 
-I- 



i^i^^^H^^^S^ 



(31) Takka-Kaishik 



r 



— I- 



1^- 



There are eleven composite Jatis made up as follows 
(Ratnakar on Jatis, verses 9 to 16) : — 



Serial 
No. 


Name. 


Component Jatis. 


8 


Shadj-Kaishiki 


Shadji, Gandhari 


10 


Shadj-Madhyama 


Shadji, Madhyama 


16 


Gandhara- Panch ami 


Gandhari, Panchami 


17 


Andhri 


Gandhari, Arshabhi 


9 


Shadjodichyava 


Shadji, Gandhari, Dhaivati 


15 


Kamarivi 


Naishadi, Panchami, Arshabhi 


18 


Nandayanti 


Gandhari, Panchami, Arshabhi 


II 


Gandharodichyava 


Gandhari, Dhaivati, Shadji, Madhyama 


H 


Madhyamodictiyava 


Gandhari, Dhaivati, Panchami, Madhyama 


12 


Rakta-Gandhari 


Gandhari, Naishadi, Panchami, Madhyama 


13 


Kaishiki 


Shadji, Gandhari, Panchami, Madhyama, Naishadi 



Nos. 8 and 13 of the list are both called Kaishiki, and 
both have Shadj and Gandhari in their composition. The 
writer, from the examples given, is of opinion that the scale 
used was the following : — 



i^^^^^^^"¥^i^ 



As Played. 

It is an interesting fact that the scale which suggests itself 
in the case of Takka-kaishik (Grama-ra.ga 31) has similar 
intervals. Kaishiki means " of a hair's breadth," and seems to 
have been applied to a scale differing from the shuddh scales 
by a hair's breadth. Here ri, ga, dha, and ni are all one sruti 



72 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

only higher than those notes in Shadji. Shadjodichyava 
appears to be in the Bilaval scale ; the others are very Hkely 
in the shuddh Gramas. The commentator, Kallinath by 
name, puts all the Jatis in the shuddh Gramas ; there is 
nothing, however, to show that he applied his mind to the 
difficulties of the subject. 

The thirty Grima-ragas of Ratnakar appear to be 
generic Ragas, from which the songs and Ragas in use were 
derived. No object would be gained at this stage in hazard- 
ing conjectures as to the constitution of those which have not 
already been discussed. 



Recapitulation. 

The orthodox system of tuning in ancient times was in 
dhaivat madhya. This was the original dhaivat. It is that 
dhaivat which is in tune with shadj, that is, at an interval of 
six srutis from it. Shadj was so-called {i.e. born of the sixth) 
from this circumstance. The drone strings were dha -f, ri + 
and ga ; the speaking-string, upon which the air was played, 
was ri +• Just as the standard scales of modern Hindustan 
may be taken to be Bihag with the high dhaivat, and Bilaval 
with the low or madhya dhaivat, so the standard scales of 
Bharata and Ratnakar were from ni ^ to ni "fej with pa shuddh 
(in which antara ga corresponded to the tivra madhyam of 
scales of the Kalyan type), and from ni t? to ni t? with pa 
chyut. The modern " dha " was represented by pa. This is 
the secret of the much-vexed question of the Gramas. The 
first scale comprised the notes and intervals of the Shadj 
Grama, and the second those of the Madhyam Grama. Just 
as in the Church Modes of Europe and the Modes of Ancient 
Greece, new and interesting combinations were obtained by 
varying the starting-point of the scale, so in India, first the 
Murchhanas, and then the Jatis came into existence. It was 
the existence of the drone in Indian music which led to the 
evolution of the Jatis. Once they were evolved, the word 
Murchhana came to mean nothing more than the lowest note 
permissible in any Jati or Raga. The compass of a com- 
position was determined by its Murchhana ; its Jdti was 
determined by the drone and by various factors somewhat akin 



INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 73 

to the final and dominant of the Church Modes. There were 
seven shuddh Jatis, one for each shuddh note. It was found 
that the Shadj Grama was best suited to four of them, and the 
Madhyam Grama to the other three. Each required a drone 
corresponding to its chief note (Nama-svara). In practice it 
was found more convenient to vary the pitch of the scale than 
that of the drone ; various devices were invented for bringing 
the Nama-svara to the pitch of one of the drone strings. 
The reader's attention has already been drawn to the fact 
that present practice tunes the ma string ^ a semitone higher, 
so that the ni fret in the Yaman scale gives sa, in order to 
play Bahiravi without difficulty. Similarly, Kafi is got from 
the Bihag scale by tuning down a whole tone, and taking ri 
to be sa. In Sarangdev's time, the speaking-wire (ri +) was 
tuned down a semitone for Jatis Gandhari, Madhyama, 
Naishadi ; Panchami was obtained with the aid of antara ga ; 
Arshabhi and Dhaivati required no special device ; and 
Shadji necessitated the use of Grama-Sadharan, for, other- 
wise, the wire would have had to be tuned either a whole tone 
higher or a minor-third lower.^ Tightening a string by a 
whole tone is quite a different matter from lowering it by that 
interval. Possibly it was this Grama-Sadharan (in which the 
sa, ma and pa frets were shifted down one sruti, and the ga 
and ni frets shifted up), which led to the general adoption of 
shadj tuning. It is a curious fact that Minappa, a Madras 
writer, puts shadj on the sruti reserved for chyut shadj. 
Among the vikrit or irregular Jatis, the most interesting is 
Kaishiki. This appears to have differed from Shadji in this, 
that, in the process of Sadharan, sa and ma were achyut (or 
unchanged), while ga moved up to antara and ni to kakali. 
The scale was called Kaishiki because it differed by a hair's 
breadth from Shadji. The musicians of the present day in 
Western India call a scale somewhat like the first (but with 
komal dha) Asavari (some say Jivanpuri) ; Shadji corresponds 
to Kafi. The Jatis in their turn led to the Grama-ragas, and 
the Grama-ragas to the Ragas in common use. Even in 

' That is, the stiing upon which the melody is played. 

" Sarangdev and Bharata are completely silent on the question of the drone. 
They take it for granted that the reader knows. These statements are therefore 
inferences ; but none the less valid. 



74 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

Sarangdev's time, the first two seem to have existed in 
theory only. Ragas were divided into two classes, marga 
and deshi, which may be rendered classical and modern. In 
all probability, these names had some reference to the two 
schools of tuning. At the present day (although dhaivat 
tuning is mentioned by Captain Day) shadj tuning appears to 
have driven its rival off the field ; this may then perhaps be 
regarded as a victory for the deshi musician. The Sangit 
Ratnakar was written in the thirteenth century. From 
internal evidence one may conclude that the contest between 
the two systems was then in progress. As regards the 
Gandhara Grama, it may be mentioned that it was admittedly 
obsolete at the time of Ratnakar ; the description therein 
given of the scale is intelligible, and shows that it was one 
difficult of execution but capable of considerable development. 
One of its Jatis would be represented nowadays by Bihag 
with the note which the present writer calls kaishik ma in 
place of komal ma ; another by Kafi with sadharan ga in 
place of komal ga. 

The consequences of the change of tuning from dhaivat 
to shadj may be here briefly outlined. Whereas, in the 
orthodox system, roughly speaking, all compositions were 
performed in the key of ri +, with a drone consisting of 
dha "f (below) and ri •{> (above), in the modern system the 
universal key is shadj, and the drone pa or ma, according 
to circumstances, above sa. There appears to have been 
an intermediate stage in which the key for compositions in 
the Madhyam Grama was ma % with the drone ma above 
si. The effect while that stage lasted was, as regards the 
Madhyam Grama, precisely the same as in dhaivat tuning.^ 
With the disappearance of that stage went the note known 
as chyut pa, and it is a fundamental characteristic of the 
modern system that sa and pa are fixed and can never become 
vikrit or chromatically altered. They correspond in that 
respect to the ancient ri + and dha +, which never really 
became vikrit as the examples of actual tuning for the various 
Jatis and Gramas given in Appendix E will show. In a word, 
it may be said that the chief change to be associated with the 
substitution of tuning in shadj for tuning in dhaivat was that 

' Except, apparently, compositions in Jati Madhyama. 



INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT TEXT-BOOKS 75 

sa and pa took the place of dha 4, and ri +, and the chord 
of the drone was turned upside down. This must have led 
to changes of intonation and possibly of tonality. Signs of 
such changes are not wanting ; as an example may be quoted 
the modern Bahiravi scale with the harmonic fourth which 
has taken the place of the Jati Arshabhi. 

Arshabhi. (Bahiravi.) 

■ I, • 






^^^i^±^zz::p^. 



Drone. Drone. 

The lower note of the drone is more powerful and more 
reinforced in the tambura than the upper note of the drone. 
It is difficult to sing the high fourth in the scale of Bahiravi. 
The change of tuning led to a deplorable confusion of nomen- 
clature ; this and the organic changes just described may 
account for the difficulties encountered in any attempt to 
trace the modern Ragas back to the Grama-ragas of the 
Sangit Ratnakar. 



CHAPTER V 

CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS 

In this chapter will be included (i) speculations concerning 
the origin of the Indian scales ; (2) some remarks regarding 
Sarangdev's immediate successors ; (3) a suggestion as to the 
most convenient method of classifying the Indian Ragas ; (4) 
a discussion of the manner in which Indian airs may be per- 
formed in correct intonation upon instruments of European 
fashion. 

As a result of the above discussion of the actual orthodox 
I ferences r methods of tuning for the performance of the 

garding ancient Jatis, it now becomes possible to reconstruct 

belirrwn fr?m° ^^^ ^^^^ °^ ^^"^^^ employed by Sarangdev. It 
the Sanskrit is abundantly proved that he did not clearly 
Class-names. distinguish between all of them. Appendix E 
shows at a glance how Grama-Sadharan, the tuning down of 
Gandhari Jati, etc., by two srutis, and the shuddh notes of 
the three Gramas and of the scale known as Kaishiki, together 
furnished twenty-two srutis according to Sarangdev's theory 
of the equality of the srutis. When one goes further and 
ascertains from the laws of harmony the exact positions of 
these srutis, one finds that in three cases, two srutis which are 
near to one another but not identical are treated as one. 

In the following list, the exact position of the ancient srutis 
is given, together with the Sanskrit individual names and the 
class- names mentioned in the Sangit Ratnakar (Prakaran 3, 
verses 24-38). As remarked in an earlier chapter, the term 
" sruti " was primarily applied to an interval. 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS 



n 



The Srutis of the Sangit Ratnakar. 







Class-names. 




Comparative 
vibration 


Serial 


Individual 






Descriplion. 




number. 


names. 


Original 
svaras. 


Later 
additions. 




inimbers, sa 
being 240. 


O 


Kshobhini 


madhya 




ni \ (shuddh) 


2i3i 








^ 


\xi\^ (kaishik) 

Ini •f' (part of Grama-Sad- 


216 


I 


Tivra 




dipta 


222f 










haran) ' 




2 


Kumudvati 




ayata 


ni h (kakali) 
sa.^ (chyut sa) ^ 


225 


3 


Manda 




mridu 


23757 


4 


Chhandovati 


madhya 




sa (shuddh) 


240 


5 


Dayavati 


karuna 




sa J (major-third above 
dha +) ' 


250 


6 


Ranjani 




madhya 


rit? 


256 


7 


Raktika 


mridu 




ri + (shuddh) 


266g 


8 


Raudri 




dipta 


ga \ (shuddh) 


270 


9 


Krodha 




ayata 


284-5- 


lO 


Vajrika 




dipta 


|ga|? (sadharan) 

\ga •], (Grama-Sadharan) ' 


288 
2965T 


II 


Prasarini 




ayata 


ga n (antara) 


300 


12 


Priti 




mridu 


ma *|« (chyut ma) ^ 


316^1 


13 


Marjani 


madhya 




ma \ (shuddh) 


320 


H 


Kshiti 


mridu 




ma 4. (major-third from 
ri+)' 


333i 


IS 


Rakta 




madhya 


ma 


, (Gandhara Grama) ' 
. (Madhyam Grama) ' 


337* 


i6 


Sandipani 




ayata 


/pa* 
Ipa. 


3455- 
3555 


17 


Alapini 


karuna 




pa (shuddh) 


360 


i8 


Madanti 


karuna 




pa J (major-third from 

gat;)^ 


375 


19 


Rohini 




ayata 


dhat^ 


384 


20 


Ramya 


madhya 




dha 4, (shuddh) 


400 


21 


Ugra 




dipta 


dhajj 


405 


22 


Kshobhini 


madhya 




ni \ (shuddh) 


426S 



* These notes are no longer in use. 

In the columns headed Class-names are collected the 
names regarding which the remark is made : " It is said that 
this classification is based upon the effects which the srutis 
are supposed to produce." They may be translated : " mridu," 
soft ; " madhya," intermediate, that is to say, intermediate 
between soft and pathetic ; " karuna," pathetic ; " dipta," 
brilliant ; " ayata," stretched. The notes have been divided 
into original svaras and later additions on the following 
principles: (i) It is assumed that the term "ayata" was 
primarily applied to a note for which no fret was in use, and 



7^ INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 



which was therefore obtained in the manner familiar to anyone 
acquainted with Indian methods — that is, stretching the wire to 
one side. The whole of the ayata class are therefore rejected. 
(2) The notes of the Gandhara Grama, and of the Kaishiki 
scale, and those used in Grama-Sadharan, are likewise regarded 
as later accretions to the Hindu musical system. (3) The 
" madhya " notes go in pairs, thus — 



dha^ 




ma|j 
ma'R 



It is possible that shadj tuning (which, although not con- 
sidered orthodox by Sarangdev, may have been invented 
centuries before his time), may have introduced the ri b and 
ma t], and that they may have been named " madhya " on the 
analogy of ni "fcj. At the present day, the first fret on the 
open wires sa and ma gives ri b and ma b, respectively. The 

intervals — ^ and — —^ are not the same : the same fret with 
sa ma "jj 

the help of a slant or a curve is made to do service for both, 

the sa and ma wires lying side by side. Of the six notes 

given in the diagram, it seems reasonable to retain ni "J;j, 

dha ^, sa, and ma % The choice is based on the assumption 

that dhaivat tuning was the original system. 

The notes which the above considerations lead one to 

regard as the earliest foundation of the Hindu musical system 

fall naturally into two scales : — 



i 



i^g^^ 



f 



^^^ 



l ^__CJ. 



:t 









\4 






t«i 



The reader will notice that the Class-names, so far as 
these scales are concerned, may be truly said to denote " the 
effect which the srutis are supposed to produce." The pro- 
priety of the classification would be made still more apparent 
by the addition of a drone in dha + . These scales apparently 
take one back to a very remote period in the history of the 
Aryan race. The Class-names may even be earlier than the 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS 79 

solfa names, shadj, rishabh, etc. ; they are at any rate older than 
the name Gandhara. As regards the derivation of the solfa 
names : — (i) Nishad is generally connected with the Sanskrit 
root which means " to sit" ; it may be looked upon as a kind 
of final or tonic. (2) Shadj is " born of the sixth," that is, 
developed at an interval of six srutis from dhaivat. 
(3) Madhyam is the "middle" note, as near as may be, in 
the second of the two scales given ; similarly ma 4.. is the 
middle note of the first scale. (4) Pancham is the "fifth" 
note of the second scale. (5) The derivation of dhaivat, 
rishabh, gandhara is more open to controversy. The first 
scale is the same as the archaic scale of Olympus, well-known 
to Greek scholars ; the second is one of which traces are to 
be found in the remains of all known bygone civilizations (see 
Carl Engel's " Music of the most Ancient Nations "). The 
first appears to contain the germ of the Karnatic system, 
which Madras scholars attribute to Narada, while the second 
is undoubtedly the forerunner of the Shadj Grama and the 
musical system which forms the basis of the treatises of 
Bharata and Sarangdev. 

These conclusions, it may be mentioned parenthetically, 
run counter to the hypothesis of the develop- a rival 

ment of scales from " clusters of quarter-tones." hypothesis. 
Regarding them as rival theories, one's judgment between 
them should be based on evidence rather than authority, 
because no theorist, however remote the age in which he 
lived, was privileged to witness the actual evolution of any 
musical scale. Writers who deal with the subject of modes 
generally regard them as built up individually from tetra- 
chords, and it is a favourite theory that the earliest tetrachord 
was evolved from a cluster of quarter-tones or semitones, 
followed by a leap to the note a fourth above the starting 
point. In course of time, the theory runs, the cluster became 
reduced to two notes a semitone apart, leaving a scale of the 
same form as that of Olympus. The wide intervals between 
the second and third and fifth and sixth degrees of the scales 
were then bridged over in various ways, leaving a scale con- 
sisting of two similar tetrachords. To the historian of Karnatic 
music may be left the solution of the question as to what sup- 
port the theory derives from what is known of the chromatic 



8o INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

scales of India. As regards the Grama scales the writer is of 
opinion that the evidence so far is entirely adverse. The 
subject, however, can hardly be said to be ripe for discussion 
until the question of tonality in Indian music has been 
thoroughly investigated. As stated in an earlier chapter, 
correct intonation must form the groundwork of such an 
inquiry, and it is with intonation alone that this volume pro- 
fesses to deal. This much may here be said respecting 
tonality, that the degree of tonality, which is indispensable to 
the tempered scales of Europe, is not to be looked for in dia- 
lectical scales built up from natural intervals. The tonality 
of an Indian Raga may be said to be determined by the 
factors enumerated by Bharata and Sarangdev, to wit, the 
Vadi and Samvadi, the Ansha Svara (prevailing note), 
the initial, medial and final (Graha Svara, Apanyas and 
Nyas). 

The consequences of the triumph of shadj tuning over its 

_ , rival have been discussed. There is no hint 

Errors of 

Sarangdev's in Kalinath s commentary on the Ratnakar, 
successors. published two centuries later, regarding the 

progress made by shadj tuning. No addition was made to 
the literature of Hindustani music until Parijat's time (the 
seventeenth century). Meanwhile, two treatises had appeared 
in the South, the Svaramela Kalanidhi of Rama Amatya, of 
about 1550, and the Raga Vibodh of Somnath, of 1609. 
These two writers made collections of the Ragas of Southern 
India. Their tuning was in shadj. They knew of the Rat- 
nakar, and looked upon it as a work of great authority, but 
they appear to have been entirely ignorant of the fact that it 
was based upon a different system of tuning from their own. 
They accepted Sarangdev's theories, and assumed without 
hesitation that his shuddh notes were the same as their own. 
What their own were is clear, first from the Raga Mukhari, 
which takes the shuddh notes, and secondly from modern 
treatises, such as that of Mr. A. M. C. Mudliar. In tempered 
notation he represents the " shuddh " scale as follows : — 

~f' I I l~i — I — 7".~^^^l^^^^=^^^=l 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS 



8i 



He states that the double-flat notes are "as near as 
possible" D and A natural. The scale may possibly be 
either of the following ; it needs verifying : — 



^E^^S^ 



i^:z^4?25^^ 



=T 



t^BE^J?^?EE=E 



te-?2- 



— 1==3 



sa ri ga ma pa dha ni sa. sa ri ga ma pa dha ri si. 

How this collection of notes came to be regarded as 
" shuddh " is an interesting problem. Counting up the 
srutis from " ni," the author of Raga Vibodh said his sa was 
on the fourth, the ri on the seventh, the ga on the ninth, and 
so on, copying from Ratnakar, and never imagining that they 
had another scale in Hindustan. It is obvious that a de- 
plorable confusion of names was bound to ensue, especially 
when, in due course, an incursion was made into the region of 
" vikrits." Rima Amatya, copying the chyut svaras of Grama 
Sidhiran, spoke of " chyut madhyam ga," " chyut pancham 
ma," and " chyut shadj ni." Somnath contracted these names 
to mridu ma, mridu pa, mridu sa. The actual notes called by 
these names appear to have been the antara ga of Ratnakar 
(ga h), ma tivra, and the kakali ni (ni b). Somnath describes 
the two following scales, regarding the identity of which there 
is no doubt whatever, in these terms : — 

I. Raga Todi (the Hindustani Bahiravi). 



Somnath's notes. 


ri 

shuddh. 


sadharan. 


ma, pa 
shuddh. 


dha 
shuddh. 


ni 
kaishik. 


Actual notes with ) 
accidentals / 


rif 


gat? ' 


ma \ pa 


dha^ 


nil? 


2. Sri Raga ( 


the Hindustani Kafi). 






Somnath's notes. 


ri 
tivra. 


sadharan. 


ma, pa 
shuddh. 


dha 
tivra. 


ni 

kaishik. 


Actual notes with \ 
accidentals J 


" + 


ga'k 


ma \, pa 


dha 4, 


ni'k 



No further proof of the disorder introduced into Indian 

G 



82 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

musical terminology by these authors need be adduced. This 

state of affairs has unhappily prevailed up to the present 

day. When Parijat was written, shadj tuning prevailed. 

The author showed more perspicacity than the Karnatic 

writers, appropriating the shuddh notes of the Ratnakar to 

the Kafi scale, and designating the Madras " shuddh " notes 

" purva," but no scientific terminology could be expected of 

any writer who adhered to Sarangdev's system. Nowadays, 

among the practical musicians of Western India, the Sangit 

Ratnakar is looked upon as belonging to a bygone age 

although no one is able to say what it is which makes its 

theories inapplicable to modern practice. Professional 

musicians have constructed their own systems ; needless to 

say, they differ widely one from another. 

A considerable amount of space in the earlier chapters of 

_. ,.,., e this book has been devoted to the Indian 
The utility of i ■ i • j . 

the Indian harmonmm. The reader may be mclmed to 

harmonium. ^^^ what useful purpose such an instrument 

is likely to serve. The tempered harmonium is at present 
enjoying a great and increasing popularity. It is employed 
either to furnish a pedal sa and pa as drone accompaniment, 
or to follow the voice in a varying degree of approximation 
in a kind of discordant scramble. For the drone, Moore's 
harmonium gives more scope in pitch, and far better results, 
as the fifths are in tune. The latter kind of accompaniment 
has nothing to recommend it according to Western taste; 
whatever virtue it may appear to possess may be obtained 
with the addition of accuracy from Moore's harmonium, but 
subject to a certain limitation with respect to key. There are 
possibilities in the way of harmony, but for the present the 
great object which the inventors have in view is to educate 
public taste and preserve the Indian scales. For the class- 
room the instrument should prove indispensable, and amateurs, 
who can afford to purchase an instrument, will find it of great 
service in enlarging their acquaintance with the Indian 
Ragas. The value of the instrument for scientific research 
cannot be overestimated ; without its help it is no exaggera- 
tion to say that the tabulation and systematic classification 
of the Ragas is likely to remain impossible of achieve- 
ment. 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS S3 

In the method recommended for such an inquiry, as 
already stated, the first step would be to classify Suggestions as 
the Ragas according to the scales they employ, JJJjn^of'tlS^^'^^ 
in groups arranged so as to distinguish the Ragas. 
important features of Indian intonation. The main groups 
will be (i) Grama scales, (2) Chromatic scales, (3) Irregular 
scales, (4) Mixed scales. Until a comprehensive list of Ragas 
with their scales and distinguishing characteristics is made, 
one can only throw out rough suggestions as to the sub- 
heads into which each group should be divided. With regard 
to the Grama scales, the author is not in favour of the system 
adopted by European writers in treating of similar dialectical 
scales, nor is the method familiar or likely to be acceptable 
to Indian musicians. The system alluded to is that of dis- 
secting scales into tetrachords (i.e. groups of four notes) and 
naming modes after their Greek prototypes. This method is 
not really in accordance with any natural process in the 
evolution of scales, and in some cases is calculated to mislead 
one as to the origin of Indian scales. Neither does it suffi- 
ciently accentuate differences of intonation, which are the life 
and soul of music. The method may serve some purpose in 
further classification of the Ragas included under each sub- 
head. But at present one cannot do better than follow the 
principles adopted by Mr. Bhatkhande in his "Hindustani 
Sangitachi Paddhati." Mr. Bhatkhande takes the scales of 
certain Ragas as typical " thats " or " arrays " of notes, and 
allows a certain amount of latitude in respect of chromatic 
change among the scales assembled under each "that." His 
"thats" are (i) Kalyan, (2) Bilaval, (3) Khamaj, (4) Kafi, 
(5) Asavari, (6) Bahiravi, (7) Bhairava, (8) Todi, (9) Purvi, 
(10) Marva. Under the first head he includes such scales 
as Yaman, and scales which, like Kalyan itself, take two 
madhyams, tivra and komal. Under the second he includes 
some scales with the high sixth, and some which take two 
nishads, komal or kaishik and tivra. With a little more 
attention to correct intonation, his classification will be the 
most convenient, and is likely to prove the most acceptable 
to the Indian musician. The following are suggested as 
typical Grama scales : the black notes show what chromatic 
changes are permissible. Each type, speaking generally, 



84 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 

includes scales which (i) in part use the secondary notes in 
preference to the corresponding primary ones, or (2) in whole 
or in part make use of both primary and secondary as 
alternatives, or (3) use the primary notes exclusively. The 
primary notes are given first, and the corresponding secondary 
notes are placed immediately after them. The word "primary" 
is intended to convey the sense of original, and " secondary " 
that of altered, or " vikrit," to use the ancient term.^ 



Shadj Grama. 
I. The Kalyan or Bihag type. II. The Kafi type. 



ig gjgg^ggS^^BdsJd^^^gg 



W 



III. The Dhani type. 



IV. The Khamaj type. 



-§^^^^^^S^^^^^ 



V. The Bilaval type. 



Madhyam Grama. 

VI. The Bahiravi type. 



i^^ggg l ^i^g^gSl 




VII. The Asavari type. 

It is necessary to add the following explanations. 

Types IV. and V., and types VI. and VII., to a certain 
extent, overlap ; it will never be doubtful, however, in practice 
to which group any particular scale belongs. The main 
difference between these kindred groups is one of tonality. 
No scale resembling types VI. or VII., which includes dhab 
and ni t) without the occasional use of ni b, should be included 
under those types. Such scales should be put in one of the 
groups of Chromatic Scales. An interesting scale which 
makes use of all the nine notes comprised in Scale VII. is 

» In European music, the same sort of distinction is expressed by the words 
"diatonic" and "chromatic." These terms, however, are not altogetlier 
appropriate here. 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS 85 

that of Raga Lachari. Some singers restrict the name 
" Asavari" to the Riga, which takes the septimal notes ri ^ 
and dha u, and call the scale comprising the primary notes 
of VII. Jivanpuri. Others call the septimal Raga '* Ramkali 
Asavari." The latter variety should be classed among the 
Irregular Ragas. 

The following grouping is suggested for the Chromatic 
Scales : — 

Chromatic Genus. 
VIII. The Bhairava type. IX. The Deshi Todi or Kandratype. 




t=± 



:t==:t: 



The Purvi type. XI. The Multani type. 

Irregular scales will include such divergent types as 
Yaraan-Kalyan and Marva. Until a list of them is prepared, 
it is impossible to put forward any definite plan for their 
classification. It may be possible to regard them as off- 
.shoots of the typical Grama-scales, or Chromatic Scales. 
Raga-scales, which are obviously compounded of two or more 
dissimilar types, will come under the head of Mixed Scales. 
The number of Ragas possessing mixed scales will be found 
to be considerable. 

The above suggestions are meant to be of a tentative 
nature. A fuller acquaintance with the Indian Ragas than 
the author possesses may reveal defects in the grouping 
suggested, or lead to the formation of other groups. The 
main object of the above classification is to accentuate such 
differences as those between dha t] and dha +» ri D and ri •}., ga b 
and ga "^, and so on. To exemplify this feature of the proposed 
method, the scales of Bhup and Deshkar may be quoted. 
They are as follows : — 

Bhup. Deshkar. 



j^: 



^^^E^E^^^Ejg 



86 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF INDIAN MUSIC 



How to adapt 
Western keyed 
instruments to 
Indian music. 



They will be included, the former under Group V. and the 
latter under Group II. 

The last subject which the writer proposes to discuss is 
the feasibility of adapting Western keyed 
instruments, such as the instruments used in 
military bands, for the performance of Indian 
airs in correct intonation. The prevalent 
impression appears to be that it is impossible to render 
more than one or two Ragas in just tuning if one is confined 
to twelve notes in the octave. Those who take a fancy to 
European instruments argue therefrom that one is driven to 
have recourse to the tempered scale. The following typical 
scales have been drawn up in order to correct this mis- 
apprehension, and to show that the twelve notes of the 
European octave may be so tuned as to give a very great 
scope for the performance of Indian airs. It must be under- 
stood that purely instrumental music is contemplated where 
the question of pitch is not an essential consideration. 



Tuning. 



i 






:^g=y 



The notation is that followed throughout this volume. 
The naturals are in just tuning in key C ; B ^ is a fourth 
above F ; G b is a major third beiow B ^, and the remaining 
flats are obtained from G b by an ascending series of fifths. 
The concords available are — 




The following typical scales may be correctly rendered : — 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS 

I. (Kalyan or Bihag.) II. (Kafi.) 



87 




T 



T^=^ 



^-f^ 



gE^a^^^^ 



:^g^=g: 



t=it 



1 — r- 



1 

III. (Dhani.) 
^_r 1 1 1_ 



(Deshkar.) 



i 



--^=^ 



:^ — ^— P- 



-.2-:^-. 



l^ 



r=s2 



IV. (Khamaj.) 



V. (Bilaval.) 



SE^i^^^ 



I^Z^ill^ 



:?2: 



:^==^: 



-■^-=^ 



(Bhup.) 



I 
VI. (Bahiravi.) 



i 



^^=^2=^: 



I 



f 



:^: 



:^=2^: 



:?2: 



3Eg5^3^EEp^ 



:?^. 



VII. (Asavari.) 



VIII. (Bhairava.) 



IX. (Kandra.) 




^-^^ 



^E§Efe:^_E&^^: 



^^-T^-^P 



^z^^_^^=^ 



^^=^5=^ 



X. (Purvi and Vasant.) ^ 



^«i^^ggg^^i^j£gig 



XI. (Multini.) 



Irregular: (Marva.) 



~l- 



^S=?2=^: 



^,^s-t^- 



SE^Ee=e: 



t: 



:^=?^ 



r 



It would not be impossible to obtain a complete band of 
instruments tuned in the manner indicated. The drone is 
shown in the same way as in previous chapters ; four sets of 
instruments of percussion would seem to be required. As 
regards pitch, it would probably be found convenient to 
substitute E b for F. 

Indian music opens up a new world to the student of 
harmony. Where every chord is a little out of tune, as in 
equal temperament, the harshest discords may be tolerated ; 
in just tuning, common chords are so pure that their admixture 
with the simplest discords must be managed with care and 
restraint. 

' Vasant takes both mas ; Purvi takes ma □ only. 



^ 


Q 


2; 


^s 


ti] 


w 




tiJ 


u 


K/l 


W 


3 


Kn 


CL, 


b 


>—t 


S 


O 


Q 




en 

< 






> 


P-. 






Ph 


Q 




< 


< 






O) 


S 






o 




H 


c; 




13 






Di 






Cfi 






^ 






<i 






1— 1 






Q 






^ 






t-H 






w 






K 






H 











<§^ 




n c 1 




00 










=2-«^ 










2 -a 
































CO J 
















OS- 


OS. 


8^ 










rT 






vo H 


























ON ^ 

■<*■ S3 


00 es 


00^ 

O rt 






~a 




.„ 1 1 1 










I 








1 


1= 










1 ■' 1 




N_C. 




























00. 2 







<D O 



'b > 



pq 



•^ 2 .s 

>-. tn o f3 
►^ .S 



•^ ^ 



o, 


^ 


S 

CI 


-o 




m 


« 43 


r£3 


*-* 



.S.° 
^ S 
^5 



U) 



PJ 



" o 

-s § 

V rj 

° N 

.„00 



APPENDIX B 



THE INDIAN HARMONIUM 

The keyboard of the Indian harmonium is constructed as 
follows : — 




The white keys consist of sa and pa shuddh and the rest tivra. 
The five black notes are : ri komal, ga sadharan, ma kaishik, dha 
komal, ni kaishik. The notation sign for all the white notes is t^ and 
for all the black notes t?. The remaining srutis are sounded by 
pressing upon brass studs. The front studs marked " m " are the 
madhya notes ri and dha (+). The stud marked " tj" is for atikomal 
madhyam ( [r) in pancham key {i.e. for voices which find pa a more 
convenient starting point than sa). The middle row of studs includes 
the notes which are one sruti less than the black notes. They are 
marked " ak " in the case of the septimal notes atikomal ri and dha, 
and '* k " in the case of komal ga, ma, and ni. The principal one, 
ma komal, is for convenience placed in advance of the others. The 
signs for them are ]^ and '^ respectively. The back row of studs 
consist of the tartivra notes ga, ma, ni. They are marked " tt," and 
their sign is .+. 

The harmonium is tuned from pa, the octave above the middle C 
of the great staff. The method of tuning will be clear from the 



APPENDIX B 



91 



following chords which give an harmonious combined sound without 
sensible beats. Beats consist of a periodical increase and decrease 
in the volume of sound. When notes which should form harmony 
are not in tune, beats are heard ; the further the notes are from true 
concord, the quicker the beats, until they become so rapid that the 
mind, unable to follow them, receives the sensation of roughness or 
harshness. When the notes are very near to their correct pitch, 
beats may become so slow that what is heard is a roughness recurring 
at regular intervals of time. The reader who has access to an Indian 
harmonium may study the question of beats by sounding together ri 
tivra and ri madhya, first in the lowest octave and then in each 
succeeding octave. He will notice that a discordant interval in one 
octave gives exactly double the number of beats which the same 
interval gives in the octave below. If he plays the nearest equivalents 
to the concords here shown on a tempered harmonium, he will find 
that, with the exception of the octave, all intervals give beats more 
or less rapid. 



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The " pitch C " is the C an octave above the middle C. This 
note is tuned from a tuning fork to 522 vibrations a second. This is 
the London Philharmonic pitch as settled in the year 1896, and for 
all practical purposes the French diapason normale at a temperature 
of 60° Fahrenheit. Thus^ the sa of the madhya octave (man's voice) 
is of 174 vibrations. 

Three of the scales given in the text are graphically shown below 
as played on the Indian harmonium. To assist the beginner, the 
best method of fingering is shown by figures, i stands for the thumb, 
5 for the little finger, and the other numbers for the remaining fingers 
in order. 



92 



APPENDIX B 



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The scope afforded by the Indian harmonium for demonstrating 
the nature of the harmonic series is clear from the following. The 
terms of the series given above each of the generators are numbered. 



APPENDIX B 



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APPENDIX C 



TRANSPOSITION ON THE INDIAN HARMONIUM 

(i) The Yaman Scale. 






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(2) The Bilaval Scale. 



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(3) The Bahiravi Scale. 



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95 



(4) The Bhairava Scale. 



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(5) The Kafi Scale. 



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(6) The Marva Scale. 



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(a) This note is approximate only. 

* The Raga Yaman-Kalyan makes use of the Septimal 4th (ma [^). In this 
key the exact note is given by the F stud marked (xj). 

(I)) The progressions bracketed are the septimal ones to which the scale 
approximates. See p. 31. 

Note. — The resources of the instrument for transposing would 
be enormously increased if the key marked XJ were tuned one sruti 
higher than shadj, the key which it pierces. It would then be 
"kaishik ma" in key pancham instead of " atikomal ma" as at 
present. The Raga Yaman-Kalyan which takes two ma's, tivra and 



96 APPENDIX C 

atikomal, could be rendered in two keys, namely dha [? and ga l7. 
At present it can only be correctly rendered in one (dhat? being 
taken as shadj). This change in tuning is easily effected. The 
instrument would thereby lose something in the way of harmonic 
possibilities. 



APPENDIX D 

SArigaais of Jatis and Grama-Ragas discussed in the Text, These 
are taken from Ratnakar. A dot means a note in the low octave, 
a dash one in the high octave. 

Shadj-Kaishiki (8), 

sa sa ma' pa* ga ri ma ga ma ma 

ma ma ma ma sa* sa* sa* sa* 

dha dha pa pa dha dha ri ri ma 

ri ri ni* ni' ni* ni* ni* ni* 

dha dha pa dha ni ma ma pa pa 

dha dha pa dha ni dha dha pa pa 

sa sa sa sa sa sa sa sa 

dha dha pa dha dha ni dha dha dha 

sa sa sa ri ga sa ri ga dha dha 

ma ,dha pa pa dha dha ni ni 

ri ri ga sa sa* sa* sa* ga* 

dha* ri" sa* ri" sa* ri" ri* sa* sa* sa* 

sa sa ri ri sa ri ri sa sa sa 

ma ma ma ma ni dha pa dha ma ma 

ni ni pa pa ma pa pa ma pa dha n ga 

ga ga ga ga ga ga ga ga 

Shadjodichyava (9). 



sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


ma* 


ma- 


ga- 


ga- 


ga 


ma 


pa 


ma 


ga 


ma 


ma 


dha 


sa 
dha 


sa 
ni 


ma 

sa 


sa 


pa • 
dha 


pa 
ni 


ni 
pa 


dha 
ma 


ga' 


sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


ga* 


dha 


dha 


pa 


dha 


pa 


ni 


dha 


dha 


sa 
ni 


ga- 
dha 


ga* 
pa 


ga" 

dha 


ga* 
pa 


ga- 
dha 


sa 
dha 


sa 
dha 


sa' 


sa' 


ma 


ga 


pa 


pa 


ni 


dha 


dha 


ni 


sa' 


sa' 


dha 


ni 


pa 


ma 


ga-' 


sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


ga- 


dha 


dha 


pa 


dha 


ma' 


ma' 


ma' 


ma' 



H 



98 APPENDIX D 

Kaishiki (13), 



pa 


dha ni 


pa 


dha ni 


ga 


ga 


ga 


ga 


pa 


pa 


ma 


ni dha 


ni dha 


pa 


pa 


pa 


dha 


ni 


sa' 


sa 


ri 


ri 


ri 


ri 


sa 


sa 


sa 


ri 


ga 


ma 


ma 


ma 


ma* 


dha- 


ni* 


dha* 


ma" 


dha- 


ma* 


pa* 


ga 


ri 


sa 


dha ni 


ri 


ri 


ri 


ri 


ga 


ri 


sa 


sa 


dha 


dha 


ma 


ma 


ga 


ga 


ga 


ma 


ma 


ni, dha, ni 


ni 


ni 


ga 


ga 


ni 


ni 


sa 


ga 


ga 


ga 


ga' 


ga 


ni' 


ni' 


ni' dha' 


pa 


pa' 


pa, 


ma' 


pa' 


ma' 


Pi^' 


pa' 


pa' 


ma' 


ma 


sa' 


ma 


ga' 


ni dha ni 


ni 


ni' 


ma' 


ga' 



Grama-Raga Shuddh-Sadharit (i). 



sa 
dha 


sa 
dha 


dha 
ni 


ni 
ni 


pa 
ri' 


pa 
ri* 


ri 

dha 


pa 
ma 


pa 
dha 


pa 
sa 


dha 
sa 


ni 

sa 


dha 


dha 


sa 


dha 


sa 


ri 


ri 

dha 


ga 
ma 


pa 
dha 


pa 
ma 


pa 

sa 


pa 
sa 


pa 


dha 


ni dha 


pa 


ma 


pa 



Shuddh-Shadava (ig). 



Takka (23). 



ni 


dha 


Pf 


sa 


ni 


sa 


si 


ga 


ri 


ga 


ri 


sa 


ma* 


ma* 


ga- 


pa 
sa 


ma 

si 


ga 
ri 


ga 


ri 


ga 



pa pa 

pa pa 

pa ma 

sa sa 

ga sa 

pa pa 



ma* 


ma* 


dha* 


dha* 


sa 


dha 


ni 


pa 


dha 


ni* 


ma* 


ma* 


ma' 


ri 


ma* 


ri 


dha* 


ni* 


sa* 


sa* 


ga 


riga 


dha 


dha 


sa 


dha 


sa 


ma ga 


ma* 


ma* 


ma' 


ma' 


ma ga 


ri 


S? 


ma 


ma 


ma 


pa ma 


ga 


ri 


ga 


sa* 


sa* 


ma* 


ma* 


ma* 


ma* 


ni 


dha* 


ni 


dha* 


sa* 


sa* 


sa* 


sa 


ga 


ri 


ri 


ga 


ma* 


ma' 


ma' 


ma* 



sa 


sa 


dha 


dha 


ma 


ma 


ma 


ma 


s4 


sa ni 


dha 


sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


ga 


ga 


sa 


ma 


ga 


ma 


dha 


sa 


ni dha 


fa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


dha 


ni 


sa 


ga 


ma 


dha 


ma 


ga 


sa 


sa 


dha 


ni 


sa ni 


dha 


dha 


dha 


sa 


sa 


pa 


ni 


ma 


ga 


ma 


gf 


ga 


ga 


dha 


ni 


sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 



Revagupta (26). 

pa ni 

ri 

ri 

sa 

ga' pa pa ni dha 

ri 

ni 

ma ga 



ma 


ga 


ri 


ni 


sa 


ni 


pa 


pa 


ni 


ga 
sa 


ri 

ni 


sa 
sa 


ma 


ma 


ma 



APPENDIX D 99 

Gandhara-Pancham (27). 



sa 


ni 


sa 


ga 


sa 


ga 


ga 


ga 


ma 


pa 


ma 


pa 


ga 


ga 


ga 


ga 


ga 


pa 


sa 


ga 


ga 


ga 


ga 


gani 


ni 


pa 


ma 


pa ma 


ga 


ga 


ga 


ga ^ 


ga 


ga 


ga 


ga ni 


ni 


ni 


ni 


ni sa 


ni 


pa 


ma 


pa ma 


ga 


ga 


ga 


ga 


ma 


pa 


s^ 


ga 


ga 


ga 


ma 


gani 


ni 


pa 


ma 


pa ma 


ga 


ga 


ga 


ga 



KUKUEH (28). 



dha 


dha 


S3 


sa 


dha 


dha 


ri 


ri 


dha 


dha 


dha 


dha 


pa 


dha 


pa 


ma 


ri 


ri 


ma 


ma 


pa 


dha 


pa 


ma 


pa 


dha 


pa 


ma 


ma 


ma 


ma 


ma 


ri 


ri 


ma 


ma 


dha 


dha 


pa 


ma 


pa 


ma 


pa 


pa 


dha 


dha 


pa 


ma 


pa 


dha 


pa 


ma 


sa 


ri 


sa 


ri 


ga 


sa 


pa 


pa 


pa 


pa 


pa 


pa 



Shuddh-Pancham (30). 



sS' 


sa- 


sa- 


sa- 


n' 


ri' 


ga' 


sa- 


ma 


2? 


pa ma 


ga 


ri' 


ri' 


ri' 


ri' 


ma* 


sa- 


sa' 


sa- 


ri' 


ri' 


ga- 


sa- 


ma 


ga- 


pa ma 


ga 


ri' 


ri' 


ri' 


ri' 


ri' 


ri- 


ma' 


ma* 


pa 


pa 


dha 


ma 


ma 


dha 


sa* 


sa' 


ni 


dha 


pa 


pa 


dha- 


ni' 


ri' 


ma' 


ri' 


ma- 


pa 


pa 


dha 


ma* 


dha 


ni' 


pa 


pa 


pa 


pa 



Takka-Kaishik (31). 



dha 


dha 


dha 


dha 


dha 


ma 


pa 


pa 


dha 


dha 


ri 


ga 


sa' 


sa' 


ri 


ga 


dha- 


dha- 


ma" 


dha 


dha' 


dha' 


dha' 


dha 


ma* 


dha- 


ma' 


dha' 


dha- 


dha' 


dha- 


dha' 


dha- 


dha- 


sa' 


sa' 


ga 


ri 


ma 


ma 


ri 


ri 


ma 


ma 


dha 


ri 


ma 


ma 


dha 


dha 


dha 


dha 


dha 


dha 


dha 


sa 


dha 


pa" 


ma 


dha 


dha 


dha 


dha 


dha 



APPENDIX E 



O »- CM CO 



1088 /I 200 




1200 



1088 /1200 



APPENDIX E loi 

The table shows at a glance the twenty-two srutis of Ratnakar, 
and how they were used in the Gramas and Jatis. The octave is 
shown divided into twenty-two equal parts in order to expose 
graphically the fallacy of Bharata's theories. Shadji is first given 
with the " shuddh svaras " (pure notes) and then as usually played 
from ri with Grama-Sadharan, In the Kaishik scale, ri, ga, dha, ni 
are a hair's breadth (one sruti or 22 cents) higher. That scale also is 
shown as played from ri. Gandhari and Naishadi were played by 
lowering the speaking-wire by a semitone, the former actually starting 
from ri and the latter from dhaivat, although the frets used were 
those of ga and ni respectively. The Gandhara-Grama is shown, 
first from ga sadharan as laid down in Ratnakar, and secondly as 
played from ri. The sign g distinguishes the " Graha Svara " or 
initial note. The object of arranging the Jatis, etc., so as to begin 
from ri or dha was to obtain the appropriate drone on the tambura, 
which was tuned in ancient times to those notes. Naishadi and 
Dhaivati may also have been played from ri like the others using the 
scale noted by Bharata in which dha is komal, and the rest of the 
svaras shuddh, and in the case of Naishadi lowering the speaking- 
wire a semitone. 

The fallacy underlying the theory of the equality of the srutis is 
demonstrated by the numbers given. They are calculated on the 
basis that a one-sruti interval is 22 cents, two srutis 112, three srutis 
182, and four srutis 204. The 3 sruti interval of the Gandhara 
Grama is 134 as explained in the text. It will be seen that the 
ancient system required 25 srutis, and not 22, three of them being 
confounded with their neighbours. 



INDEX AND GLOSSARY 

Cents. A means of measuring intervals, 34. 
Deval. Mr. Deval's researches, 6. 

Drone. Indian music is played with a drone or pedal accompaniment. The 
" tambura " is the stringed instrument used for the purpose to accompany the 
voice. Latterly, theatrical companies have introduced the practice of hold- 
ing down two notes on the harmonium. Solo instruments have " chanterelle " 
strings, which add a drone to the melody, 3, 47, 63, 73. 
Grama. The material from which scales and modes are obtained. The chief 
element of its connotation was a certain order of intervals. Fixity of pitch 
of the notes forming the intervals was originally another element. See pages 
2, 22, so, 56, 72. 
Grama-Raga, 3, 63, 72. 

Harmonium, the Indian, 7, 10, 20, 82, and Appendices B, C. 
Instruments, tuning of keyed, to adapt them to Indian Music, 86. 
Jati, the nearest equivalent to the European " Mode," 3, 23, 53, 61 ; Shuddh 

Jatis, 23, 61 ; Vikrit Jatis, 61, 71. 
Kaishik, 9, 54, 60. 
Modes, the Church, 61. 

A Murchhana was a Scale beginning with the lowest note permissible in any given 
melody-type and ending on the note on octave above. The scale of a Jati 
is best rendered by taking the "Graha-Svara " as the starting-point. In the 
author's opinion the " Graha-svara " (initial note of a composition) formed 
part of the drone. The difference between the Authentic and Plagal Modes of 
Europe (page 62) would, in Indian phraseology, be partly explained by the 
difference of Murchhana. See pages 3, 51, 58. The modern Indian method 
is to sing all scales from shadj as a starting-point. The word Murchhana 
has fallen into disuse and is frequently misunderstood. 
Notation, Chapters II and III ; Accidental, 43 ; the Great Staff, 16 ; Piano- 
forte Score, 19 ; Indian Measures, 41 ; embellishments, 45, 
Pitch of Indian Music, 20, 55. 
Raga. Explained, 3. Various modern Hindustani Ragas are mentioned on 

pages 11-14, 24-32, 84-87. 
Raga-Vibodh, 80. 
Sadharan, 55-59. 

Saptaks, the three. Music written for any voice is confined to three octaves or 
"saptaks," the "tar saptak " (the highest octave), the "madhya saptak " 
(the middle octave), the " mandra saptak " (the lowest octave), 16. 
Scale. Explained, 21 ; earliest scales, 78 ; Sampurna, Shadava, Odava, 30, 51 ; 
the tempered scale, 33-36 ; the Madras shuddh scale, 81 ; Grama scales, 29 ; 
Chromatic scales, 30. 



I04 INDEX AND GLOSSARY 

Septimal intervals, 13, 19, 31-33. 

Shuddh and Vikrit, 5, 54, 61. 

Sound, theory of, 15-18 ; upper partial tones, 16, 18, Appendix B ; beats, 91. 

Srutis, the twenty-two, 5, 6, 53, Appendix E. The srutis are primarily the 
intervals into which the octave is divided by the sum-total of the notes in 
use. The ancients held the erroneous opinion that these intervals were 
equal. Their system was, however, a convenient one for distinguishing 
between the major-tone (four srutis), the minor-tone (three srutis), and 
semitone (two srutis). By an interval of "one sruti," they understood the 
" comma " (fl), 24. 

Svara. A note of a scale, or more properly a " tone," 15 ; names of the Indian 
"svaras," 2. 

Svaramela Kalanidhi, 80. 

Tan, 59. 

Text-books, confusion of existing, 48, 74, 81. 

Tuning, ancient method of, 47, 63-72. 
Vadi, Samvadi, 49, 55, 63. 



THE END 



PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, LONDON AND BECCLES. 



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Clements, Ernest 

Introduction to the study of Indian musi 



ML 33a .C6 

Clemen-ts, Ernest., 1673- 

Introduc-tion t.Q -the st.udy of 
Indian music 







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