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Compounds of Carbon; 









Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1885, by 

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Chemistry I 



J. S. Cushing & Co., Printers, 115 High Street, Boston. 


rpiUS book is intended for those who are beginning the subject. 
For this reason, special care has been taken to select for 
treatment such compounds as best serve to make clear the 
fundamental principles. General relations as illustrated by special 
cases are discussed rather more fully than is customary in books 
of the same size ; and, on the other hand, the number of com- 
pounds taken up is smaller than usual. The author has endeav- 
ored to avoid dogmatism, and to lead the student, through a 
careful study of the facts, to see for himself the reasons for 
adopting the prevalent views in regard to the structure of the 
compounds of carbon. Whenever a new formula is presented, 
the reasons for using it are given so that it may afterward be 
used intelligently. It is believed that the book is adapted to 
the needs of all students of chemistry, whether they intend 
to 'follow the pure science, or to deal with it in its applica- 
tions to the arts, medicine, etc. It is difficult to see how, 
without some such general introductory study, the technical 
chemist and the student of medicine can comprehend what is 
usually put before them under the heads of "Applied Organic 
Chemistry " and " Medical Chemistry." 

Without some direct contact with the compounds considered, 
it is difficult to get a clear idea regarding them and their 
changes. A course of properly selected experiments, illustrating 
the methods used in preparing the principal classes of com- 
pounds, and the fundamental reactions involved in their trans- 
formations, wonderfully facilitates the study. The attempt has 


been made to give directions for such a course. More than 
eighty experiments which could be performed in any chemical 
laboratory are described ; and it is hoped that the plan may 
meet with approval. The time required to perform a fair pro- 
portion of these experiments is not great; and the results in the 
direction of enlarging the student's knowledge of chemical phe- 
nomena, will, it is firmly believed, furnish a full compensation 
for the time spent. 

The order in which the topics are taken up will be found to 
differ somewhat from that commonly adopted. The object in view 
was, however, not to find a new method, but to find one which 
would bring out as clearly as possible the beauty and simplicity 
of the relations which exist between the different classes of car- 
bon compounds. The reasons for the method used are given in 
the body of the book. 




Sources of compounds. — Purification of the compounds. — Deter- 
mination of the boiling-point. — Determination of the melting- 
point. — Analysis. — Formula. — Structural formula. — General 
principles of classification of the compounds of carbon ... 1 


Methane and Ethane. — Homologous Series. 

Methane. — Ethane 20 


Halogen Derivatives of Methane and Ethane. 

Substitution. — Chloroform. — Iodoform. — Di - chlor - ethanes. — 
Isomerism 26 


Oxygen Derivatives of Methane and Ethane. 

Alcohols. — Methyl alcohol. — Ethyl alcohol. — Fermentation. — 
Ethers. — Ethyl ether. — Mixed ethers. — Aldehydes. — For- 
mic aldehyde. — Acetic aldehyde. — Paraldehyde. — Metalde- 
hyde. — Chloral. — Acids. — Formic acid. — Acetic acid. — 
Ethereal salts. — Ketones. — Acetone 34 


Sulphur Derivatives of Methane and Ethane. 


Mercaptans. — Sulphur ethers. — Sulphouic acids 74 


Nitrogen Derivatives of Methane and Ethane. 

Cyanogen. — Hydrocyanic acid. — Cyauides. — Cyauuric acid. — 
Sulpho-cyanic acid. — Cyauides. — Isocyanides or carbamines. 
— Cyariates and isocyanates. — Sulpho-cyanates. — Isosulpho- 
cyanates or mustard oils. — Substituted ammonias. — Hydra- 
zine compounds. — Nitro-compounds. — Nitroso- and isonitro- 
so-compounds 79 


Derivatives of Methane and Ethane containing Phos- 
phorus, Arsenic, etc. 

Phosphorus compouucls. — Arsenic compounds. — Zinc ethyl. — 
Sodium-ethyl. — Retrospect 103 


The Hydrocarbons of the Marsh-Gas Series, or Paraffins. 

Petroleum. — Synthesis of paraffins. — Isomerism among the paraf- 
fins. — Hexanes 108 


Oxygen Derivatives of the Higher Members of the 
Paraffin Series. 

Alcohols. — Normal propyl alcohol. — Secondary propyl alcohol. — 
Secondary alcohols. — Butyl alcohols. — Pentyl alcohols. — 
Aldehydes. — Acids. — Fatty acids. — Propionic acid. — Bu- 



tyric acids. — Valeric acids. — Palmitic acid. — Stearic acid. 

— Soaps. — Polyacid alcohols and polybasic acids. — Di-acid 
alcohols. — Ethylene alcohol or glycol. — Bibasic acids. — 
Oxalic acid. — Malonic acid. — Succinic acids. — Pyrotartaric 
acid. — Tri-acicl alcohols. — Glycerin. — Ethereal salts of gly- 
cerin. — Fats. — Tri-basic acids. — Tetr-acid alcohols. — Pent- 
acid alcohols. — Hex-acid alcohols 120 


Mixed Compounds. — Derivatives of the Paraffins. 

Hydroxy-acicls. — Carbonic acid. — Gly colic acid. — Lactic acids. 

— Hydroxy-acicls, C n H 2n 04. — Glyceric acid. — Hydroxy-acids, 
C n H 2n -205. — Tartronic acid. — Malic acid. — Hydroxy-acids, 
C n H2n 20g- — Mesoxalic acid. — Tartaric acid. — Racemic acid. 

— Inactive tartaric acid. — Hydroxy-acids, C n H2n-40r. — Citric 
acid. — Hydroxy-acids, C n H2 n -208. — Saccharic acid. — Mucic 
acid 155 


Carbohydrate s . 

The glucose group. — Dextrose. — Levulose. — Galactose. — The 
cane sugar group. — Cane sugar. — Sugar of milk. — Maltose. 

— The cellulose group. — Cellulose. — Gun cotton. — Paper. — 
Starch. — Dextrin. — Gums 177 


Mixed Compounds containing" Nitrogen. 

Amido-acids. — Amido-formic acid. — Glycocoll. — Sarcosine. — 
Amido-propionic acids. — Leucine. — Amido-sulphonic acids. 

— Taurine. — Cyan-amides. — Guanidine. — Creatine. — Urea 
or carbamide and derivatives. — Substituted ureas. — Para- 
banic acid. — Oxaluric acid. — Barbituric acid. — Sulpho urea. 



— Uric acid. — Xanthine. — Theobromine. — Caffeine. — Guan- 
ine. — Retrospect 190 


Unsaturated Carbon Compounds. — Distinction between 
Saturated and Unsaturated Compounds. 

Ethylene and its derivatives. — Ethylene. — Alcohols, C n H 2n O. 

— Allyl alcohol. — Allyl mustard oil. — Acrolein. — Acids, 
C n H 2n -202. — Acrylic acid. — Crotonic acid. — Oleic acid. — 
Polybasic acids of the ethylene group. — Acids, C 2 H 2 (C0 2 H) 2 . 

— Acids, C 5 H 6 4 . — Aconitic acid. — Acetylene and its deriva- 
tives. — Acetylene. — Propargyl alcohol. — Acids, CnH 2 n-40 2 . 

— Propiolic acid. — Tetrolic acid. — Sorbic acid. — Leinole'ic 
acid. — Valylene. — Dipropargyl 208 


The Benzene Series of Hydrocarbons. —Aromatic 

Benzene. — Toluene. — Xylenes. — Ethyl-benzene. — Mesityleue. — 
Pseudocumene. — Cymene 230 


Derivatives of the Hydrocarbons, C n H 2n -G, of the 
Benzene Series. 

Halogen derivatives of beuzene. — Bibrom-benzene. — Halogen 
derivatives of toluene. — Halogen derivatives of the higher 
members of the benzene series. — Nitro compounds of beuzene 
and toluene. — Mono-nitro-benzene. — Dinitro-benzene. — Nitro- 
toluenes. — Amido compounds of benzene, etc. — Aniline. — 
Toluidiues. — Diazo compounds of benzene. — Sulphonic acids 
of benzene. — Phenols, or hydroxyl derivatives of benzene, etc. 

— tyfon-acid phenols. — Phenol. — Tri-iritro-phenol. — Phenyl 
mercaptan. — Cresols. — Thymol. — Di-acid phenols. — Pyro- 



catechin. — Resorcin. — Styphnic acid. — Hydroquinone. — 
Orcia. — Tri-acid phenols. — Pyrogallol. — Alcohols of the 
benzene series. — Benzyl alcohol. — Aldehydes of the benzene 
series. — Oil of bitter almonds. — Cuminic aldehyde. — Acids 
of the benzene series. — Monobasic acids, C n H 2n _802. — Ben- 
zoic acid. — Substitution products of benzoic acid. — Isatine. 

— Hippuric acid. — Toluic acids. — a-Toluic acid. — Oxinclol. 

— Mesitylenic acid. — Hydro-cinnamic acid. — Hyclro-carbo- 
styril. — Bibasic acids, C n H 2n -io04. — Phthalic acid. — Iso- 
phthalic acid. — Terephthalic acid. — Hexabasic acid. — Mel- 
litic acid. — Phe*nol-acids, or Hydroxy-acids of the benzene 
series. — Salicylic acid. — Oxybenzoic acid. — Para-oxybenzoic 
acid. — Anisic acid. — Di-hydroxy-benzoic acids, C 7 H 6 4 . — 
Protocatechuic acid. — Vanillic acid. — Vanillin. — Tri-hy- 
droxy-benzoic acids, C 7 H 6 5 . — Gallic acid. — Tannic acid. — 
Ketones and allied derivatives of the benzene series. — Qui- 
nones. — Pyridine bases. — Pyridine. — Terpenes. — Camphor. 252 


Di-phenyl-methane, Tri -phenyl -methane, Tetra-phenyl- 
methane, and their Derivatives. 

Tri-phenyl-methane. — Aniline dyes. — Para-rosaniline. — Rosani- 
line. — Phthale'ins. — Phenol-phthale'ins. — Fluorescein. — Eosin. 313 


Hydrocarbons, C n H2n-8, and Derivatives. 

Styrene. — Styryl alcohol. — Cinnamic acid. — Coumarin . . . 323 


Phenyl-acetylene and Derivatives. 

Phenyl-acetylene. — Phenyl-propiolic acid. — Ortho-nitro-phenyl- 
propiolic acid. — Indigo and allied compounds. — Indigo-blue. 

— Indigo-white 328 



Hydrocarbons containing- two Benzene Residues in 
Direct Combination. 


Diphenyl. — Naphthalene. — Quinoline and analogous compounds. 333 


Hydrocarbons containing two Benzene Residues in 
Indirect Combination. 

Anthracene. — Anthraquinone. — Alizarin. — Purpurin. — Phenan- 
threne 34G 


Glucosides. — Alkaloids, etc. 

Aesculin. — Amygdalin. — Tannins. — Helicin. — Indican. — My- 
ronic acid. — Salicin. — Saponin. — Alkaloids. — Quinine. — 
Cinchonine. — Cocaine. — Nicotine. — Morphine. — Narcotine. 
— Piperine. — Piperidine. — Strychnine 352 

Index 357 






In studying the compounds of carbon, we cannot fail to 
be struck by their large number, and by the ease with which 
they undergo change when subjected to various influences. 
Mainly on account of the large number, though partly on 
account of peculiarities in their chemical conduct, it is custom- 
ary to consider these compounds by themselves. At first, 
General Chemistry was divided into Inorganic and Organic 
Chemistry, as it was believed that there were fundamental 
differences between the compounds included under the two 
heads. Those compounds which form the mineral portion of 
the earth were treated under the first head, while those which 
were found ready formed in the organs of plants or animals 
were the subject of organic chemistry- It was believed that, 
as the organic compounds are elaborated under the influence of 
the life process, there must be something about them which 
distinguishes them from the inorganic compounds in whose for- 
mation the life process has no part. Gradually, however, this 
idea has been abandoned ; for, one by one, the compounds 
which are found in plants and animals have been made in the 
chemical laboratory, and without the aid of the life process. 
The first instance of the preparation of an organic compound 
b}' an artificial method was that of urea. This substance 
was obtained b} r Wohler in 1828 from ammonium cyanate. 
When a water solution of the latter is allowed to evaporate, nrea 


is deposited. Up to the time of Wohler's discovery, the 
formation of urea, like that of other organic compounds, was 
thought to be intimately and necessarily connected with life ; 
but it was thus shown that it could be formed without the inter- 
vention of life. Afterward, it was shown that potassium 
cyanide can be made by passing nitrogen over a heated mixture 
of carbon and potassium carbonate ; and, as potassium cyanate 
can be made from the cyanide by oxidation, it follows that 
urea can be made from the elements. Finally, in 1856, Berthe- 
lot succeeded in making potassium formate by passing carbon 
monoxide over heated potassium hydroxide ; and in making 
acetylene, a compound, the composition of which is represented 
by the formula C 2 H 2 , by passing electric sparks between elec- 
trodes of carbon in an atmosphere of hydrogen. Since that 
time, every year has witnessed the artificial preparation, b} T 
purely chemical means, of compounds of carbon which are found 
in the organs of plants and animals. 

It hence appears that the formation of the compounds of 
carbon is not dependent upon the life process ; that they are 
simply chemical compounds governed by the same laws that 
govern other chemical compounds ; and the name, Organic 
Chemistry, signifying, as it does, that the compounds included 
under it are necessarily related to organisms, is misleading. 
Organic chemistry is nothing but the Chemistry of the Com- 
pounds of Carbon. It is not a science independent of inorganic 
chemistry, but is just as much a part of chemistiy as the chem- 
istry of the compounds of sodium, or of the compounds of 
silicon, etc. 

The name Chemistry of the Compounds of Carbon has been 
objected to as being too broad. Strictly speaking, this title 
includes the carbonates, and it is customary to treat of these 
widely distributed substances under the head of Inorganic 
Chemistry. Most books on Inorganic Chemistry also deal with 
some of the simpler compounds of carbon, such as the oxides, 
cyanogen, marsh gas, etc. 


This objection is of weight only us far as the carbonates 
are concerned, and it does not appear strong enough to make 
the introduction of a new name necessary. It should be men- 
tioned, however, that the name Chemistry of the Hydrocarbons 
and their Derivatives has recently been suggested. The exact 
significance of this name will appear when the compounds with 
which we shall have to deal come up for consideration. 

Sources of compounds. — "The compounds of carbon are, 
for the most part, made in the laboratory ; but in preparing 
them we usually start with a few fundamental compounds 
which are formed by natural processes. A large number, such 
as the sugars, starch, cellulose, and the alkaloids, of which 
morphine, quinine, and nicotine are examples, occur ready 
formed in plants, but always mixed with other substances. 
Others, such as urea, uric acid, albumin, etc., occur in animal 
organisms. Petroleum, which has been formed in Nature by 
processes intimately connected with those which give rise to the 
formation of coal, contains a large number of compounds con- 
sisting of only carbon and hydrogen ; and these compounds 
serve as the starting-points in the preparation of a large number 
of derivatives. When coal is heated for the purpose of manu- 
facturing illuminating gas, a very complex mixture of liquid 
and solid products is obtained as a by-product, known as coal 
tar. This substance yields some of the most valued compounds 
of carbon. A larger number of the compounds of carbon are 
obtained from this than from any other one source. When 
bones are heated in the manufacture of bone-black, an oil 
known as bone oil is obtained. Of late, this has proved to 
be the source of a large number of interesting compounds. 
In the preparation of charcoal by heating wood, the liquid pro- 
ducts are sometimes condensed, and they form the source of 
several important compounds, among which may be mentioned 
wood spirits or methyl alcohol, acetone, and pyroligneous or 
acetic acid. 


Finally, we are dependent upon the process known as fer- 
mentation for a number of the most important compounds of 
carbon. Fermentation, as will be shown, is a general term, 
signifying any process in which a change in the composition of 
a body is effected by means of minute animal or vegetable 
organisms. The best known example of fermentation is that 
of sugar, which gives rise to the formation of ordinary alcohol. 
Alcohol in turn serves as the starting-point for the preparation 
of a large number of compounds. 

Purification of the compounds. — Before the natural 
compounds of carbon can be studied chemically, they must, of 
course, be freed from foreign substances ; and before the con- 
stituents of the complex mixtures, petroleum, coal tar, and bone 
oil can be studied, they must be separated and purified. The 
processes of separation and purification are, in many cases, 
extremely difficult. If the substance is a solid, different 
methods may be used according to the nature of the substance. 
Crystallization is more frequently made use of than any other 
process. This is well illustrated, on the large scale, in the 
refining of sugar, which consists, essentially, in dissolving the 
sugar in water, filtering through bone-black, which absorbs 
coloring matter, and then evaporating down to crystallization. 
When two or more substances are found together, they may, in 
many cases, be separated hy what is called fractional crystalliza- 
tion. This consists in evaporating the solution until, on cool- 
ing, a comparatively small part of the substance is deposited. 
This deposit is filtered off, and the solution further evaporated ; 
when a second deposit is obtained, and so on to the end. The 
successive deposits thus obtained are then recrystallized, each 
separately, until, finally, the deposits are found to be homo- 

The chief solvents used arc water, alcohol, ether, benzine, 
and bisulphide of carbon ; alcohol being the most generally 


In the case of liquids, the process of distillation is used. 
The apparatus commonly used is illustrated in Fig. 1. 

The only part of the apparatus which requires any expla- 
nation is the tube A. This is known as the distilling tube.' 
It is simply a straight glass 
tube, about lG cm long and 12 to 
14 mm in diameter, to which is 
attached a smaller branch some- 
what inclined downward. The 
object of the tube is to accom- 
modate a thermometer B, which 
is so fixed by means of a cork, 
that it is in the centre of the 
larger tube, and its bulb directly 
opposite the opening of the 
smaller branch. 

For small quantities of liquids, 
the distilling flask is much used. This is a long-necked, round 


flask, with a branch tube fitted directly into the neck, as shown 
in Fig. 2. In this apparatus, the thermometer is fitted into 
the neck of the flask in the same relation to the exit tube as in 
the larger apparatus. 

For the separation of liquids of different boiling-points, the 
process of fractional or partial distillation is much used. When 
a mixture of two or more liquids of different boiling-points is 
boiled, it will be noticed that the boiling-point gradually rises 
from that of the lowest boiling substance to that of the highest. 
Thus, ordinary alcohol boils at 78°, and water at 100°. If the 
two be mixed, and the mixture distilled, it will be found that it 
begins to boil at 78°, but that very little passes over at this 
temperature. Gradually, as the distillation proceeds, the tem- 
perature indicated by the thermometer becomes higher and 
higher, until at last 100° is reached, when all distils over. Now 
the distillates obtained at the different temperatures differ from 
each other in composition. Those obtained at the lower tem- 
peratures are richer in alcohol than those obtained at the higher 
temperatures, but none of them contains pure alcohol or pure 
water. In order to separate the two, therefore, we must pro- 
ceed as follows : A number of clean, dry flasks are prepared for 
collecting the distillates. The boiling is begun, and the point 
at which the first drops of the distillate appear in the receiver is 
noted. That which passes over while the mercury rises through 
a certain number of degrees (3, 5, or 10, according to the char- 
acter of the mixture) is collected in the first flask. The receiver 
is then changed, without interruption of the boiling, and that 
which passes over while the mercury rises through another 
interval equal to the first is collected in the second flask. The 
receiver is again changed, and a third distillate collected ; and 
so on, until the liquid has all been distilled over. It has thus 
been separated into a number of fractions, each of which has 
passed over at different temperatures. In the case of alcohol 
and water, for example, we might have collected distillates from 
78° to 83°, from 83° to 88°, from 88° to 93°, from 93° to 98°, 


from 98° to 100°. Now a clean distilling flask is taken, and 
into it introduced the first fraction. This is distilled until the 
thermometer marks the upper limit of the original first fraction, 
the new distillate being collected in the flask which contained the 
first fraction. When this upper limit is reached, the boiliug is 
stopped. It will be found that there is some of the liquid left 
iu the distilling flask. That is to say, assuming that in the first 
distillation the first fraction was collected between 78° and 83°, 
on boiling this fraction the second time it will not all come over 
between these points ; when 83° is reached some will be left in 
the flask. The second fraction is now poured into the distilling 
flask through a funnel tube, and the boiling is again started. 
Of the second fraction, a portion will pass over below the point 
at which it began to boil when first distilled. Collect in the 
proper flask, and continue the boiling until the thermometer 
marks the highest point of the fraction last introduced, changing 
the receiver whenever the indications of the thermometer require 
it. Now stop the boiling, and pour in fraction No. 3, and so 
on until all the fractions have been subjected to a second distil- 
lation. On examining the new fractions, it will be found that 
the liquid tends to accumulate in the neighborhood of certain 
points corresponding to the boiling-points of the constituents of 
the mixture. The distilling flask is now cleaned, and the whole 
process repeated. A further separation is thus effected. By 
continuing the distillation in this way, pure substances maj T , in 
most cases, eventually be obtained. That the fractions are 
pure may be known b} T the fact that the boiling-points remain 
constant. In some cases perfect separation cannot be effected 
by means of fractional distillation ; as, for example, in the 
case of alcohol and water. But still it is valuable, even in 
such cases, as it enables us to purify the substances, at least 

The best examples of distillation carried on on the large scale 
are those of alcohol and petroleum. Probably the best example 
of fractional distillation is that of the light oil obtained from 
coal tar. 


Experiment 1. Mix equal parts (about half a litre of each) of alco- 
hol and water. Distil through four or five times, and notice the 
changes in the quantities obtained in the different fractions. 

Determination of the boiling-point. — In dealing with 
liquids, it often is extremely difficult to tell whether they are 
pure or not. The first and most important physical property 
which is utilized for this purpose is the boiling temperature, 
commonly called the boiling-point. This is determined by 
meaus of an apparatus, such as is described above as used for 
distilling. The temperature noted on the thermometer when 
the liquid is boiling is the boiling-point. When great accuracy 
is required, the point observed directly must be corrected, in 
consequence of the expansion of the glass and the cooling of 
that part of the column of mercury which is not in the vapor. 
Full directions for making these corrections may be found in 
larger books. A constant boiling-point is characteristic of a 
pure chemical compound. 

Determination of the melting-point. — Just as the boil- 
ing-point is a very characteristic property of liquid bodies, so 
the melting-point is an equally characteristic property of many 
solid bodies. If a substance begins to melt at a certain tem- 
perature, and does not melt completely at that temperature, it 
is, in all probability, impure. By means of the melting-point 
minute quantities of impurities, which might readily escape 
detection by r other means, are often found. In dealing with the 
compounds of carbon, determinations of melting-points are very 
frequently made. In general, only those compounds which have 
constant melting-points are to be regarded as pure. The deter- 
mination is made as follows : Small tubes are prepared by 
heating a piece of ordinary soft glass tubing of 4 ram to 5 min 
diameter, and drawing it out. If the parts are drawn apart 
about 12 cm to 15 crn , two small tubes may be made from the 
narrowed portion by melting together in the middle, and then 
filing off each piece where it begins to grow wider near the 


large tube. These small tubes must have thin walls, and be 
of such internal diameter that an ordinary pin can be intro- 
duced into them. A small quantity of the substance to be 
tested is placed in one of the tubes, enough to make a minute 
column of about 5 mm in height. The tube containing the 
substance is fastened to a thermometer by means of a small 
rubber band cut from a piece of rubber tubing. The band is 
placed near the upper part of the tube, and the lower part of 
the tube, containing the substance, is placed against the bulb 
of the thermometer. Now a beaker glass of about 100 cc 
capacity is filled with pure paraffin, and the latter melted. 
When it is in liquid condition, the thermometer, with the tube 
and substance, is introduced 
into it, and the heating con- 
tinued with the aid of a 
small flame until the sub- 
stance melts. The instant it 
melts the temperature indi- 
cated by the thermometer 
is noted. This is the melt- 
ing-point required. It is 
necessary, however, to cor- 
rect the observed point in 
the same way as in the case 
of the boiling-point. Some- 
times, instead of paraffin, 
concentrated sulphuric acid 
is used in the bath ; but, for 
obvious reasons, the paraf- 
fin is to be preferred. For 
substances which melt below 
80°, the temperature at which ordinary paraffin is liquid, 
water should be used. 

Experiment 2. Determine the melting-points of a few substances, 
such as urea and tartaric acid. If they do not melt at definite points, 
recrystallize them until they do. Note the melting-points observed. 

Fig. 3. 


and see how well they agree with those stated in the book. The 
arrangement of the apparatus above described is shown in Fig. 3. To 
secure a uniform temperature of the bath, it should be gently stirred 
with a glass rod during the experiment. The mercury of the ther- 
mometer should rise slowly. 

Analysis. — Having purified the compounds, the next step 
is to determine their composition. A comparatively small num- 
ber of the compounds ordinarily met with consist of carbon and 
hydrogen only ; the largest number consist of these two elements 
together with oxygen ; many contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, 
and nitrogen. But, in the derivatives of the fundamental com- 
pounds, all other elements may occur. Thus the hydrogen may 
be partly or wholly displaced by chlorine, bromine, or iodine, as 
in the so-called substitution-products ; and any metal may occur 
in the salts of the acids of carbon. The estimation of carbon 
and hydrogen is the principal problem in the analysis of the 
compounds of carbon. This is effected by what is known as 
the combustion process. A known weight of the substance is 
completely oxidized, the carbon being thus converted into car- 
bon dioxide, and the hydrogen into water. These two products 
are collected, the carbon dioxide in a solution of potassium 
hydroxide, the water in calcium chloride, and weighed. From 
the weights of the products the weights of carbon and hydrogen 
are calculated. Oxygen, if present, is not estimated directly, 
but by difference, i.e., the amounts of carbon and hydrogen found 
are added together, and the sum subtracted from the weight of 
the original substance. The difference represents the weight 
of the oxygen. 

A detailed description of the apparatus and of the method of 
procedure need not be given here, as it can be found in any 
book on analytical chemistry. A brief description, however, 
may not be out of place. The combustion is effected in a hard 
glass tube which is heated by means of a gas furnace con- 
structed for the purpose. Ordinarily, the substance is placed 
in a narrow porcelain or platinum vessel, called a boat, which is 
introduced into the tube with granulated copper oxide. The 


tube is then connected with (1) a u-tube filled with calcium 
chloride ; (2) a set of bulbs containing a solution of potassium 
hydroxide, and constructed so as to secure thorough contact of 
the passing gases with the solution ; and (3) a small U-tube 
filled with solid potassium hydroxide. After the combustion is 
completed, a current of pure dry oxygen is passed through the 
tube ; and, finally, air is passed until the oxygen is displaced. 
The method at present used was introduced by Liebig. It 
has contributed very greatly to a thorough understanding of 
the compounds of carbon. 

Two methods are in common use for the estimation of nitrogen 
in carbon compounds. The first is known as the absolute method. 
This consists in oxidizing the substance by means of copper 
oxide ; then decomposing, by means of highly-heated metallic 
copper, any oxides of nitrogen which may have been formed, 
and collecting the nitrogen. The volume of the nitrogen thus 
obtained is measured, and its weight easily calculated. The 
chief difficulty in this method consists in removing the gases 
contained in the apparatus before the combustion is made. To 
do this, the simplest way is to use a mercury air-pump. Several 
simple forms of the pump have been devised for this purpose, 
and some of them work admirably. Having exhausted all the 
air, the combustion is made by heating the tube containing the 
substance and copper oxide and a layer of copper foil ; and, 
finally, the gases are exhausted at the end of the operation. 
The only three gases which can be present, assuming that the 
substance contained nothing but carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and 
nitrogen, are carbon dioxide, water vapor, and free nitrogen. 
The water vapor is, of course, condensed, and the carbon dioxide 
is absorbed by passing the gases through a solution of potassium 
hydroxide, leaving the nitrogen thus alone. 

The second method for the estimation of nitrogen consists in 
heating the substance with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and 
quicklime, called soda-lime. The nitrogen is thus converted 
into ammonia, which is collected in a known quantit}' of dilute 


hydrochloric or sulphuric acid. After the operation, the amount 
of acid remaining unneutralized is determined by titration ; and 
from this the amount of ammonia formed can be calculated ; 
and from this, in turn, the amount of nitrogen. This method 
is not applicable to all compounds, because the nitrogen of some 
compounds is not converted into ammonia under the circum- 
stances mentioned. 

As regards the estimation of other constituents of carbon 
compounds, it need only be said that in most cases it is neces- 
sary to get rid of the carbon and hydrogen by some oxidizing 
process before the estimation can be made. Thus, in estimating 
sulphur, it is common to fuse the substance with potassium 
nitrate and hydroxide, when the carbon and hydrogen are 
oxidized, and the sulphur is left in the form of potassium sul- 
phate, and may be estimated in the usual way. 

Formula. — The deduction of the formula of a compound 
from the results of the analysis involves two steps. The first 
is a matter of simple calculation. It is assumed that the 
students who use this book are already familiar with the method 
of calculating the formula from the analytical results ; but an 
example will, nevertheless, be given. Suppose that the analysis 
has shown that the substance contains 52.18 per cent carbon, 
13.04 per cent hydrogen, and 34.78 per cent oxygen. To get 
the atomic proportions, divide the figures representing the per- 
centages of the elements by the corresponding atomic weights. 
We have thus : — 

Per At w< . Proportionate 

Centage. A1, >v ' No. of Atoms. 

C 52.18 
II 13.04 
O 34.78 

12 = 4.35 - 2 

1 = 13.04 - 6 

1G = 2.17 - 1 

That is to say, accepting the atomic weights, 12 for carbon and 
1G for oxygen, the simplest figures representing the number of 
atoms of the three elements in the compound are 2 for carbon, 


6 for hydrogen, and 1 for oxygen. According to this, the 
simplest formula which can be assigned to a substance giving 
the above results on analysis is C 2 H c O. But the formula 
C 4 H 12 2 is equally in accordance with the analytical results, and 
we can only decide between the two by determining the molecular 
weight. This, as is known, is done by determining the specific 
gravity of the substance in the form of vapor. This operation 
is of the greatest importance. It is assumed that the student, 
who has already studied the elements of inorganic chemistry, is 
familiar with it, and with the exact connection which exists 
between it and the molecular weights of compounds. A few 
statements in regard to the connection will, however, be made 
here, in order to recall its chief points, and to impress upon the 
mind of the student its fundamental importance. 

Every chemical formula is intended to represent the molecule 
of a compound and the composition of the molecule. Our 
conception of the molecule is based almost exclusively on 
Avogaclro's hypothesis, according to which equal volumes of all 
gases contain the same number of molecules. Hence, by com- 
paring equal volumes of bodies in the form of gas or vapor, we 
get figures which bear to each other the same relations as the 
weights of the molecules. The figures called the specific gravi- 
ties express the relations between the weights of equal volumes. 
In the case of gases, air is taken as the standard, and the 
weights of other gases are compared with this standard. Thus, if 
we say that the specific gravity of a gas is 0.918, we mean that 
if we call the weight of any volume of air 1, that of the same 
volume of the other gas measured under the same conditions of 
temperature and pressure is 0.918. If we assign to any com- 
pound a certain molecular weight, the molecular weights of other 
gaseous compounds can be determined without difficulty. We 
must, therefore, first select some substance, the molecule of 
which may be used as the standard. Hydrochloric acid is 
commonly taken, because hydrogen and chlorine unite with 
each other in only one proportion, and there is good evidence 


in favor of the view that it represents the simplest kind of 
combination, viz., that of one atom of one element with one of 
another. Hydrogen and chlorine are present in the compound 
in the proportion of 1 part of hydrogen to 35.4 parts of chlorine ; 
hence the simplest molecular weight which can be assigned to 
the compound, the atomic weight of hydrogen being 1, is 3G.4. 
The molecular weight of this standard molecule is, therefore, 
taken to be 36.4, and we have now simply to compare the 
weights of other gases with that of hydrochloric acid in order 
to know their molecular weights. Thus, to illustrate by means 
of the body whose atomic relations we found by analysis to be 
represented by the formulas C 2 H 6 0, C 4 H 12 2 , etc., if this body 
be converted into vapor and its specific gravity determined, it 
might be found to be 1.6. The relation between the molecular 
weight of any body and its specific gravity is expressed by the 

M = d x 28.88, 

in which M is the molecular weight, aud d the specific gravity 
of the substance in the form of gas or vapor. As d is 1.6 in 
the case under consideration, we have 

M (the unknown molecular weight) = 1.6 X 28.88 = 46.2. 

If the formula of the compound is C 2 H G 0, the molecular weight, 
being the sum of the weights of the constituent atoms, is 

2 X 12 -f 6 x 1 + 10 = 46, 

which agrees with the figure deduced from the specific gravi ^. ^M 
It therefore follows that the formula C 2 H 6 is correct. ^^ ^^ 

There are some other methods which may be used in deter- 
mining the molecular weight of a compound. Among these 
may be mentioned the analysis of salts. To illustrate this, 
take the case of acetic acid. Analysis shows us that it must be 
represented by one of the formulas CH 2 0, C 2 H 4 2 , Call^CX, etc. 
If we make the silver salt, we find that its analysis leads us to 
the formula C 2 IIn0 2 Ag, and not CHOAg, and we hence conclude 
that the molecular formula of acetic acid is C 2 H 4 2 . 


The methods for determining the specific gravity of vapors 
are assumed to have been described in the course in inorganic 
chemistry, which the student should have followed before begin- 
ning the study of the compounds of carbon. 

Structural formula. —The formulas C 2 H 6 0, C 2 H 4 2 , C 3 H 8 , 
etc., tell us simply the composition of the three bodies repre- 
sented, and tell us also the relative weights of their molecules. 
In studying the chemical conduct of these bodies, their decom- 
position, and the modes of preparing them, we become familiar 
with many facts which it is desirable to represent by means of 
the formulas. Thus, for example, but one of the four parts of 
hydrogen represented in the formula of acetic acid, C 2 H 4 2 , can 
be replaced by metals. It plainly differs from the three remain- 
ing parts, and it is natural to conclude that it is held in the 
molecule in some way differently from the other three. We may, 
therefore, write the formula C 2 H 3 2 .H, which is intended to call 
attention to the difference. By further study of acetic acid, we 
find that that particular hydrogen, which gives to it its acid 
properties, and which, in the above formula, is written by itself, 
is intimately associated with oxygen. It may be removed with 
oxygen by very simple reactions, and the place of both taken 
by one atom of some other element ; as, for example, chlorine. 
Thus, when acetic acid is treated with phosphorus trichloride, 
PC1 3 , it is converted into acetyl chloride, C 2 H 3 0C1, according to 
this equation : — 

3 C 2 H 4 2 + PCI3 = 3 C 2 H 3 0C1 -f P0 3 H 3 . 

e result of the action is the direct replacement of one atom 
of hydrogen a^nd one atom of oxygen in acetic acid by one atom 
of chlorine, a fact which certainly points to an intimate connec- 
tion between the hydrogen and oxygen in the acid. Further, 
when acetyl chloride is brought in contact with water, acetic 
acid is regenerated, hydrogen and oxygen from the water enter- 
ing into the place occupied by the chlorine, as represented in 
this equation : — 

C 2 H 3 0C1 + H 2 = C 2 H 4 2 + HC1. 


From facts of this kind the conclusion is drawn that in acetic 
acid hydrogen and oxygen are connected; or, as it is said, linked 
together ; and this conclusion is represented in chemical lan- 
guage by the formula C 2 H 3 O.OH, which may serve as a simple 
illustration of what are called structural or constitutional for- 
mulas. In all compounds the attempt is made, by means of a 
thorough study of their chemical conduct, to trace out the 
connections existing between the constituent atoms. AVhen 
this can be done for all the atoms contained in a molecule, the 
structure or constitution of the molecule or of the compound is 
said to be determined. The structural formulas which have 
been determined by proper methods have proved of much value 
in dealing with chemical reactions, as they enable the chemist 
who understands the language in which they are written to see 
relations which might easily escape his attention without their 
aid. In order to understand them, however, the student must 
have a knowledge of the reactions upon which the}' are based ; 
and he is warned not to accept an}' chemical formula unless he 
can see the reasons for accepting it. He should accustom him- 
self to ask the question, upon ichat facts is it based? whenever 
a formula is presented for the first time. If he does this con- 
scientiously he will soon be able to use the language intelli- 
gently, and the beaut}' of the relations which exist between the 
large number of compounds of carbon will be revealed to him. 
If he does not, his mind will soon be in a hopeless muddle, 
and what he learns will be of little value to him. For the 
beginner, this piece of advice is of vital importance : Study 
ivith great care the reactions of compounds; study the methods of 
making them, and the decompositions which they undergo. The 
formulas are but the condensed expressions of the conclusions 
which are drawn from the reactions. 

General principle of classification of the compounds 
of carbon. — In considering the elements and compounds in- 
cluded under the head of Inorganic Chemistry, the fundamental 


substances are, of course, the elements. The properties of the 
elements enable us to separate them, for study, into a number 
of groups ; as, for example, the chlorine group, including 
bromine, iodine, and fluorine ; the oxygen group, in which 
are included sulphur, selenium, and tellurium. To recall the 
method generally adopted, we may take the chlorine group. 
In studying the members of this group, there is found great 
similarity in their properties. Their hydrogen compounds next 
present themselves, and here the same similarity is met with. 
Then, in turn, the oxygen and the oxygen and hydrogen com- 
pounds are considered, and again the resemblances in properties 
between the corresponding compounds of chlorine, bromine, and 
iodine are met with. We thus have groups of elements, and 
of the derivatives of these elements : as, — 

Br0 8 H 

IO3H, etc. 

Of course, the chlorine group is quite distinct from the oxygen 
group and from all other groups ; and each member of the 
chlorine group is, at least so far as we know, quite independent 
of the other members. We cannot make a bromine compound 
from a chlorine compound, or a chlorine compound from a 
bromine compound without directly replacing the one element 
by the other. 

Now, when we come to study the compounds of carbon, we 
shall find that the same general principle of classification is 
made use of ; only, in consequence of the peculiarities of the 
compounds, the system can be carried out much more perfectly ; 
the members of the same group can be transformed one into 
the other, and it is also in our power to pass from one group to 
another by means of comparatively simple reactions. 

The simplest compounds of carbon are those which contain 
only hydrogen and carbon, or the hydrocarbons. All the other 
compounds may be regarded as derivatives of the hydrocarbons. 








To begin -with, there are several groups or series of hydrocar- 
bons, which correspond somewhat to the different groups of 
elements. The members of one and the same series of hydro- 
carbons resemble each other more closely than the members of 
one and the same series of elements. Although we have indica- 
tions of the existence of more than ten series of these hydrocar- 
bons, only three or four of the series are at all well known, and 
of these, but two include more than two or three members which 
will need to be considered in this book. 

Starting with any series of hydrocarbons, several classes of 
derivatives may be obtained by treating the fundamental com- 
pounds with different reagents. The chief classes of these 
derivatives are : (1) those containing halogens ; (2) those con- 
taining oxygen, among which are the acids, alcohols, ethers, etc.; 
(3) those containing sulphur ; and (4) those containing nitro- 
gen. Corresponding to every hydrocarbon, then, we may expect 
to find representatives of these different classes of derivatives. 
But the relations existing between any hydrocarbon and its 
derivatives are the same as those existing between any other 
hydrocarbon and its derivatives. Hence, if we knoiv what 
derivatives one lrydrocarbon can yield, we know what deriva- 
tives we may expect to find in the case of every other hydro- 
carbon. The student who, for the first time, undertakes the 
study of carbon chemistry, is very apt to feel overwhelmed by 
the enormous number of compounds described in the book or by 
the lecturer. This large number is really not a serious matter. 
No one is expected to become acquainted with every compound. 
A great many of these need only be referred to for the purpose 
of indicating the extent to which the series to which they belong 
have been developed. In general, the members of any series 
so closely resemble one another, that, if we understand the 
simpler members, we have a fair knowledge of the more com- 
plicated members. 

It is proposed, in this treatise, to consider only the more 
important compounds and the more important reactions, the 


object being rather to give a clear, general notion of the subject, 
than detailed information regarding particular compounds. 
Should the student desire more specific information concerning 
the properties of any of the compounds mentioned, he can 
easily find it in some larger book. It will, however, hardly 
be profitable for him, at the outset, to burden his mind with 
details. He may thereby sacrifice the general view, which it 
is so important that he should gain as quickly as possible. 

The plan which will be followed is briefly this : Of the first 
series of hydrocarbons two members will be considered. Then 
the derivatives of these two will be taken up. These deriva- 
tives will serve admirably as representatives of the correspond- 
ing derivatives of other hydrocarbons of the same series, and of 
other series. Their characteristics, and their relations to the 
hydrocarbons will be dwelt upon, as well as their relations to 
each other. Thus, by a comparatively close study of two hydro- 
carbons and their derivatives, we may acquire a knowledge of 
the principal classes of the compounds of carbon. After these 
typical derivatives have been considered, the entire series of 
hydrocarbons will be taken up briefly, only such facts being 
dealt with at all fully as are not illustrated by the first two 

After the first series has been studied in this way, and a clear 
idea of the relations between the various classes has been 
obtained, a second series will be taken up and treated in a 
similar way, and so on. But, as already stated, but few of 
the series require very much attention at the beginning. The 
first series which will be used for the purpose of illustrating the 
general principles is one of the two most important series, and 
of the only two that need be considered at all fully at present. 



If we were to study all the hydrocarbons known, and were 
then to arrange them in groups according to their properties, 
we would find that a large number of them resemble marsh gas 
in their general conduct. Some of the points of resemblance 
are these : They are very stable, resisting with marked power 
the action of most reagents ; and nothing can be added to them 
directly, — if any change takes place in them, hydrogen is first 
given up. On arranging these substances according to the 
number of carbon atoms contained in them, we have a remark- 
able series, the first six members of which, together with their 
formulas, are included in the subjoined table : — 

Methane (or Marsh Gas) CH 4 . 

Ethane . . . ^ C 2 H 6 . 

Propane C 3 H 8 . 

Butane C 4 H 10 . 

Pentane QH 12 . 

Hexane C 6 H 14 . 

On examining the formulas given, we see that the difference in 
composition between any two consecutive members is represented 
by CH 2 . Thus, adding the factor CH 2 to marsh gas, CII 4 , we 
get ethane, C 2 H 6 ; adding again this same factor, we get C 3 H 8 , 
and so on, in each successive step. Any series of this kind, in 
which the successive members increase in complexity by the 
factor CH 2 , is called a homologous series. 

Just as the members of a homologous series of hydrocarbons 


differ from each other by the factor CH 2 , or some multiple of it, 
so also the members of any class of derivatives of these hydro- 
carbons differ from each other in the same way, and form 
homologous series. Thus, running parallel to the hydrocarbons 
mentioned above, we have two homologous series of oxygen 
derivatives, as indicated below : — 

CH 4 - CH 4 - CH 2 2 . 
C 2 H G — C 2 H 6 — C 2 H 4 2 . 
C 3 H 8 — C 3 H 8 — C 3 H 6 2 . 
C 4 H 10 — C 4 H 10 O — C 4 H 8 2 . 
C 5 H 12 - C 5 H 12 - C 5 H 10 O 2 . 
CgHh — C G H 14 — C 6 H 12 2 . 

The relation observed between the members of the homologous 
series mentioned is by no means a peculiarity of the marsh gas 
series of hydrocarbons and of their derivatives, but is observed 
in connection with all other series of hydrocarbons and their 

Strictly speaking, there is perhaps no analogy for this re- 
markable fact among the elements and their compounds, yet 
facts which suggest analogy are known. Consider, for example, 
the chlorine series. We have 

Chlorine, with the atomic weight, 35.4 
Bromine, " " " 80. 

Iodine, " " " 127. 

As is well known, the difference between the atomic weights of 
chlorine and bromine is approximately equal to the difference 
between those of bromine and iodine. In other words, there is 
a regular increase in complexity as we pass from chlorine to 
iodine. Or, at least, there is a regular increase in the atomic 
weights of these similar elements, just as there is a regular 
increase in the molecular weights of the similar members of a 
homologous series. While, however, a satisfactory hypothesis 


has been offered to account for the latter fact, and experi- 
mental evidence is strongly in favor of the hypothesis, no satis- 
factory explanation of the former has been offered ; or rather 
no satisfactory experimental evidence has been furnished in 
favor of the various hypotheses which from time to time have 
been pat forward to account for the similarity between members 
of the same group of elements. 

The view at present held in regard to the nature of homology 
is founded, primarily, upon the idea that carbon is quadrivalent. 
If carbon is quadrivalent, it will readily be seen that the com- 
pound, marsh gas, CH 4 , is saturated ; that is, the molecule 
cannot take up anything without losing hydrogen. In order, 
therefore, that we may get a compound containing two atoms 
of carbon in the molecule, some of the hydrogen must first be 
given up. With our present views, we cannot conceive of union 
taking place directly between the molecules CH 4 and CH 4 , but 
we can conceive of union taking place between the molecules 
CH 3 and CH 3 , to form a molecule C 2 H 6 , which in turn is satu- 
rated. Representing graphically what is believed to take 
place, we have, first, marsh gas, which we may represent thus, 


H — C — H. If this loses one atom of hvdrogen, we have the 


H I 

unsaturated molecule H — C — , which is capable of uniting with 


another molecule of the same kind to form the more complex 

H H 

I I 
molecule H — C — C — H, or C 2 H 6 , which is believed to express 
I I 

the relation existing between marsh gas, CH 4 , and ethane, C 2 H 6 , 
or between any two adjoining members of a homologous series. 
The evidence in favor of this view will be presented when the 
reactions are considered by means of which the hydrocar- 
bons are made. The explanation offered, and now generally 


accepted, involves the idea that carbon atoms have the power 
of uniting with each other. And, as the explanation for the 
relation between the first and second members is, in principle, 
the same as for the relation between the second and third, the 
third and fourth, etc., it follows that this power of carbon atoms 
to unite with each other is very extensive. It is to the power 
which carbon possesses of forming homologous series, or to the 
power of the atoms of carbon to unite with each other, that we 
owe the large number of compounds of this element. 

Methane (marsh gas, fire damp), CH 4 . — This hydro- 
carbon is found rising from pools of stagnant water in marshy 
districts. If a bottle be filled with water and inverted with a 
funnel in its neck in such a pool, some of the gas may be col- 
lected by holding the funnel over the bubbles rising from the 
bottom. It is also found in large quantities mixed with air, in 
coal mines, and sometimes issues from the earth, in company 
with other gases, in the neighborhood of petroleum wells. 

It may be prepared by passing a mixture of carbon bisulphide 
and hydrogen sulphide or water vapor over ignited metals, as 
indicated in the following equations : — 

CS 2 + 2 H 2 S + 8 Cu = CH 4 + 4 Cu 2 S, 
and CS 2 + 2 II 2 + 6 Cu = CH 4 + 2 Cu 2 S + 2 CuO. 

These methods are of special interest for the reason that they 
indicate the possibility of making marsh gas from the elements ; 
carbon bisulphide, hydrogen sulphide, and water all being made 
readily from the elements. 

It is formed, as its occurrence in marshes indicates, by the 
decomposition of organic matter under water. In pure con- 
dition it is made most readily by mixing 2 parts sodium acetate, 
2 parts potassium hydroxide, and 3 parts quicklime, and heat- 
ing the mixture. Writing sodium instead of potassium hydrox- 
ide, the action which takes place is represented thus : — 

NaCJIA + NaOH = CH 4 -f- Na 2 C0 3 . 


It will be shown hereafter that most acids of carbon break up 
in a similar way, yielding a hydrocarbon and a carbonate. 

Properties. Marsh gas is colorless and inodorous. It is 
slightly soluble in water, but not so much so as to prevent its 
collection over water. It burns. Its mixture with air is explo- 
sive. It is this mixture which is the cause of the explosions 
which so frequently take place in coal mines. 

Experiment 3. Make marsh gas from sodium acetate. Collect 
over water. Burn some as it escapes from a jet. Mix a little with 
seven to eight times its volume of air iu a wide-mouthed cylinder of 
not more than 150 to 200 cc capacity. Explode by applying a lighted 

Reagents, in general, do not act readily upon marsh gas. 
Chlorine in diffused daylight gradually replaces the hydrogen, 
forming a series of compounds which will be considered under 
the head of the halogen derivatives of methane. The simplest 
of them has the composition represented by the formula CH 3 C1, 
and is known as chlor -methane or methyl chloride. 

Ethane, C 2 H 6 . — Ethane rises from the earth from some of 
the gas wells in the regions in which petroleum occurs. It is 
also found dissolved in crude petroleum. 

It can be made from methane by introducing a halogen and 
making a compound like chlor-methane, CH 3 C1. As the corre- 
sponding iodine derivative is less volatile, it is used. This iodo- 
methane, CH 3 I, is treated with zinc or sodium in some neutral 
medium, as, for example, anhydrous ether. The reaction which 
takes place is represented thus : — 

CH 3 I + CH3I + 2 Na = C 2 H 6 -f 2 Nal. 

This method of building up more complex from simpler hydro- 
carbons has been used extensively ; and it is well calculated 
to show the relations between the substances formed and the 
simpler ones from which they are made. 

An operation of the kind involved in the above-mentioned 


preparation of ethane is called a synthesis. The essential feature 
of the synthesis is the formation of a more complex body from 
simpler ones. Our knowledge of the structure of the compounds 
of carbon is largely dependent upon the use of various methods 
of synthesis. For example, in the case under consideration, the 
synthesis gives us at once a clear view of the relations between 
ethane and methane, and also suggests that homology may be 
due to similar relations between the successive members of the 
series, — a view which is fully confirmed by the synthetical prep- 
aration of the higher members. A similar method of synthesis 
has been used in the preparation of tetrathionic acid from 
sodium thiosulphate. The action is represented thus : — 

Na 2 SA} + I NaSA > + 2Na I. 

Na,SA i ' NaS A 

Two raol. sodium Sodium tetra- 

thiosulphate. thionate. 



Substitution. — When methane and chlorine are brought 
together in diffused daylight, action takes place gradually ; 
hydrochloric acid gas is given off, and one or more products 
are obtained, according to the length of time the action con- 
tinues. The products have been studied carefn'lv, and four 
have been isolated. The composition of these products is repre- 
sented by the formulas CH 3 C1, CH 2 C1 2 , CHC1 3 , and CC1 4 . We 
see thus that the action of chlorine consists in replacing, step 
by step, the hydrogen of the hydrocarbon. The action is repre- 
sented by the four equations : — 

(1) CH 4 + Cl 2 = CH3CI + HC1; 

(2) CH3CI + Cl 2 = CH 2 C1 2 + HC1 ; 

(3) CH 2 C1 2 + Cl 2 = CHCI3 + HC1 ; 

(4) CHCI3 + Cl 2 = CC1 4 + HCL 

This replacement of hydrogen by chlorine is an example of 
what is known as substitution. We shall find that most hydro- 
carbons are very susceptible to the influence of the halogens 
and a number of other reagents, such as nitric acid, sulphuric 
acid, etc., and that thus a large number of derivatives may be 
made, differing from the hydrocarbons in that they contain one 
or more halogen atoms or complex groups in the place of the 
same number of hydrogen atoms. It must be borne in mind 
that the mere fact that chlorine, in acting upon marsh gas, 
replaces an equivalent quantity of hydrogen, does not prove that 


the chlorine in the product occupies the same place that the 
replaced hydrogen did. Nevertheless, a careful study of all 
the facts regarding the products thus formed has led to the 
belief that the substituting atom or residue does occupy the 
same place, or bear the same relation to the carbon atom as 
the hydrogen did. 

The name substitution-products properly includes all products 
made from the hydrocarbons, or from other carbon compounds, 
by the substitution process. The principal ones are those 
formed by the action of the halogens, or the halogen substitution- 
products ; those formed by the action of nitric acid, or the nitro- 
substitution-products ; and those formed by the action of sulphuric 
acid, or the sulphonic acids. The last are, however, not com- 
monl}' spoken of as substitution-products. 

Chlor-methane, methyl chloride, CH 3 C1. 

Brom-methane, methyl bromide, CH 3 Br. 

Iodo-methane, methyl iodide, CH 3 I. 

The chlorine and bromine products can be made by treating 
methane with the corresponding element. They can be most 
easily made by treating methyl alcohol with the corresponding 
hydrogen acids : — 

CH 4 + HC1 = CH3CI + H 2 0. 

Methyl alcohol. Chlor-methane. 

Di-iodo-methane, methylene iodide, CH 2 I 2 . — This sub- 
stance is the principal halogen derivative of methane containing 
two halogen atoms. It is made from iodoform or tri-iodo- 
methane, CHI 3 , by treating with hydrCo^i«Da>cid, which latter 
acts simply as a reducing agent : — 

CHI 3 + H 2 = CH 2 I 2 + IH. 

As will be seen, this is a case of reverse substitution; in other 
words, the action is the opposite of that described above as 
substitution. Methylene iodide is a liquid which boils at 180°, 
and has the specific gravity 3.342. 


Chloroform, CHC1 3 . -\ The best known and most exten- 
Bromoform, CHB 3 . > sively used of these three derivatives 
Iodoform, CHI 3 . J is chloroform or tri-chlor-methane. It 
is made b}- treating ordinary alcohol with " bleaching powder." 
The action is deep-seated, involving at least three different 
stages. It will be referred to more fully under the head of 
chloral (which see). Chloroform is a heavy liquid of specific 
gravity 1.52G. It has an ethereal odor, and a somewhat sweet 
taste. It is scarcely soluble in water. It boils at G2°. It is 
one of the most valuable anaesthetics, though there is some 
danger attending its use. 

Experiment 4. Mix 430* good bleaching powder and H litres water 
in a good sized flask. Add 100 cc alcohol (88 to 89 per cent), and 100s 
quicklime, and distil iu a water bath. A mixture of alcohol, water, 
and chloroform collects in the receiver. Add milk of lime and calcium 
chloride. Remove the chloroform by means of a pipette. 

Iodoform, which is used quite extensively in surgery, is made 
by bringing together alcohol, an alkali, and iodine. It is a 
solid substance, soluble in alcohol and ether, but insoluble in 
water. It crystallizes in delicate, six-sided, yellow plates. 
Melting-point, 119°. 

Experiment 5. Dissolve 20s crystallized sodium carbonate in 100* 
water. Pour 10s alcohol into the solution, and, after heating to G0° to 
80°, add gradually 10« iodine. The iodoform separates from the solu- 

Tetra-chlor-methane, CC1 4 , is made by treating carbon bisul- 
phide with chlorine, and by treating chloroform with iodine 
chloride, IC1. 

Equivalence of the hydrogen atoms in methane. Having thus 
seen that the hydrogen atoms of methane can easily be replaced, 
an interesting question suggests itself as to whether these hydro- 
gen atoms all bear the same relation to the carbon atom. We 
accept the conclusion that the carbon atom is quadrivalent, 


and that each of the four hydrogen atoms is in combination 


with it, as indicated in the formula (4)H-C — H(2). Do the 

atoms numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4 bear the same relation to the 
carbon or not? If they do not, then, on replacing H (1) by 
chlorine, the product should be different from that obtained by 
replacing H (2), H (3), or H (4) ; or, it should be possible 
to make more than one variety of chlor-methane and of similar 
products. This subject is an extremely difficult one to deal 
with. We can only say that, although chlor-methane has been 
made in several ways, the product obtained is always the 
same one ; and the same is true of all other substitution-pro- 
ducts of methane. Hence, ice have no reason ivhatever for 
believing that there are any differences between the hydrogen 
atoms of methane. We therefore conclude that they all bear the 
same relation to the carbon atom. 

This conclusion is of fundamental importance in dealing with 
the higher members of the methane series, and, indeed, in deal- 
ing with all carbon compounds, as will be seen later. 

Chlor-ethane, ethyl chloride, C 2 H 5 C1. 

Brorn-ethane, ethyl bromide, C,H 5 Br. 

Iodo-ethane, ethyl iodide, G,H 5 I. 

These substances are all liquids having pleasant ethereal odors. 
The first boils at 12°, the second at 38.8°, and the third at 72°. 
They are most readily made from alcohol, by treating with the 
corresponding hydrogen acids. In the case of the bromide and 
iodide, it is simpler to treat the alcohol with red phosphorus 
and the halogen. The action is similar to that involved in 
making hydrobromic acid b}* treating water with red phosphorus 
and bromine,. It will be shown that alcohol is a hydroxide, 
in which hydroxyl (OH) is in combination with the group C 2 H 5 , 
called ethyl, as represented in the formula C 2 H 5 .OH. When 



bromine is brought in contact with red phosphorus, the tribro- 
mide, PBr 3 , is formed, and this acts upon the alcohol thus : — 

C 2 H 5 .OH Br"! 

C 2 H 5 .OH + Br I P = 3 C 2 H 5 Br + P(OH) 3 . 

C 2 H 5 .OH Br J 

When water is used instead of alcohol, the bromine appears in 
combination with hydrogen as hydrobromic acid. 

Experiment 6. Arrange an apparatus as represented in Fig. 4. 
In the flask place 10s red phosphorus and 60s absolute alcohol. Put 
60s bromine in the glass-stoppered funnel, and, by means of 'the stop- 

Fig. 4. 

cock, let the bromine enter the flask very slowly, drop by drop. After 
allowing the mixture to stand for two or three hours, gently heat the 
water-bath, and the brom-ethane will distil over. Place the distillate in 
a glass-stoppered cylinder, and shake it first with water to which some 
caustic soda has been added, and then two or three times with water 
alone. Separate the water from the brom-ethane either by means of a 
pipette 1 or a separating funnel. Add two or three pieces of fused 

1 A good pipette for separating two liquids of different specific gravities may be easily 
made as follows: Select a piece of glass tubing about 1.5 to 2 om internal diameter, and a 


calcium chloride the size of a small marble, and let stand for a few 
hours. Then pour off into a clean, dry distilling bulb, and distil, noting 
the boiling-point. 

Among the many halogen substitution-products of ethane 
containing more than one halogen atom, only two will be men- 
tioned. These are the two cli-cl dor -ethanes, both of which are 
represented by the formula C 2 H 4 C1 2 . The existence of these 
two substances, having the same composition but entirety differ- 
ent properties, affords a good example of what is known as 

Isomerism. — One of the most striking and interesting facts 
with which we become familiar in studying carbon compounds, 
is the frequent occurrence of two, and often more, substances 
containing the same elements in the same proportions by weight. 
Bodies which bear this relation to each other are said to be 

Isomerism is of two kinds : (1) Bodies may have the same 
per centage composition and the same molecular weights. Such 
bodies are said to be metameHc. The di-chlor-ethanes, C 2 H 4 C1 2 , 
for example, are metameric. (2) Bodies which have the same 
per centage composition but different molecular weights are said 
to be polymeric. Acetylene, C 2 H 2 , benzene, C 6 H 6 , and styrene, 
C 8 H 8 , are polymeric. 

second that will fit snugly into it, so that it can be moved up and down without difficulty. 
Draw out the larger tube, and fit to it a tube of about 6 mm diameter and 16 cm long. 
Then draw out this last tube to a small opening. Close the smaller of the two large tubes 
by melting it together. Finally, put this tube into the largest one, and draw over the two 
a broad piece of thick rubber tubing, which will close the opening between the two, and 
at the same time permit the upward and downward movement of the smaller tube. The 
pipette has the form represented in Fig. 5. 

Fig. 5. 

The dimensions may be varied, but the following will be found convenient : length of 
widest tube about 16 to 20 om ; total length of inner tube, or piston, about 25 to 30 cm . In- 
stead of drawing the large tube out and fitting the smaller tube to it, the union may be 
made by means of a cork. 


The cause of isomerism is undoubtedly to be found in the 
different relations which the parts of isomeric compounds bear 
to each other. Our structural formulas, which show the relations 
between the parts of compounds which have been traced out by 
a study of the chemical conduct of these compounds, give us an 
insight into the causes of isomerism. To illustrate, let us take 
the two di-chlor-ethanes. One of these is made by treating 
ethane, the other b}- treating ethylene, C 2 H 4 , with chlorine. 
In the first case the action is substitution ; in the second, the 
chlorine is added directly to ethylene, thus, — 

C,H 4 + Cl 2 = C 2 H 4 C1 2 . 

The product from ethylene is called ethylene chloride; that from 
ethane, ethylidene chloride: It will be shown that ethylene is to 

CII 2 

be represented by the formula I ; that is, that in it two hydro- 

CH 2 

gen atoms are in combination with each of the carbon atoms. 

Now, if chlorine is brought in contact with this substance, we 

would naturally expect each of the carbon atoms to take up one 

atom of chlorine, and thus to become saturated, as represented 

in the equation, — 

CH 2 CI CH 2 C1 

I + = I 

CH 2 CI CH 2 C1. 

Chlorine is taken up, and it is believed that the ethylene 
chloride obtained has the structure represented in the formula 

CH 2 C1 

I , the distinctive feature of which is that each of the chlorine 

CH 2 C1 

atoms is in combination with a different carbon atom. 

We, however, can conceive of another possibility ; viz., that 
the chlorine atoms are both in combination with the same 

carbon atom, as represented in the formula | , and we 

CH 3 

would be inclined to the view that this represents the structure 


of ethylidene chloride. Fortunately we have experimental evi- 
dence to support this view. It will be shown that aldehyde 

has the formula | . When aldehyde is treated with phos- 

CH 3 
phorus pentachloride, two chlorine atoms take the place of the 
oxygen. A product which must be represented by the formula 

CHC1 2 

I is formed, and this is identical with ethylidene chloride. 

CH 3 

Thus it will be seen that the difference between the two iso- 
meric compounds, ethylene chloride and ethylidene chloride, 
may be said to depend upon the fact that in the former the 
two chlorine atoms are in combination with different carbon 
atoms, while in the latter both are in combination with the same 
carbon atom. 

General characteristics of the halogen derivatives of methane 
and ethane. The one characteristic to which it is desirable 
that special attention should be called is the firmness with which 
the halogens are held in the compounds. Chlorine, in combina- 
tion with a metal in the form of a soluble compound, can always 
be removed by addition of silver nitrate. It cannot easily be 
so removed when present in substitution products of the hydro- 
carbons. If silver nitrate be added to a solution of chlor- 
methane, CH 3 C1, no precipitate is formed. On the other hand, 
when chlor-methane is heated with a silver compound, the chlorine 
is removed. Sodium and zinc have the power of extracting the 
chlorine, bromine, etc., from halogen derivatives, and this fact 
is taken advantage of in the synthesis of many hydrocarbons. 
(See "Ethane," p. 24.) 



There are several classes of oxygen derivatives of the hydro- 
carbons. Among them are the important bodies known as 
alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, and acids. Each of these classes 
will be taken up in turn. 

1. Alcohols. 

Among the most important oxj'gen derivatives are the alco- 
hols, of which methyl alcohol, or wood spirits, and ethyl alcohol, 
or spirits of wine, are the best known examples. As far as 
composition is concerned, these bodies bear very simple relations 
to the two hydrocarbons, methane and ethane. These rela- 
tions are indicated by the formulas, — 

Hydrocarbons. Alcohols. 

CH 4 CH 4 

C 2 H 6 C 2 H 6 0. 

The alcohol contains one atom of oxygen more than the corre- 
sponding hydrocarbon. In order to understand the chemical 
nature of alcohols, it will be best to study with some care the 
reactions of one ; and we may take for this purpose the simplest 
one of the series, viz., methyl alcohol. 

Methyl alcohol, CH 4 0. — This alcohol is known also as 
wood spirits. It is found in nature in combination in the oil 
of wintergreen. It is formed, together with many other sub- 
stances, in the dry distillation of wood. It is hence contained 
in crude pyroligneous acid or wood vinegar. Wood is distilled 
in large quantities for various purposes ; chiefly however, for 


making charcoal. In some charcoal factories the distillate is 
collected and utilized. Wood is distilled also for the purpose 
of making vinegar, or pure acetic acid. 

It is not an easy matter to get pure methj'l alcohol from crude 
wood spirits. Fractional distillation alone will not answer ; 
though, if the mixture be distilled for some time, and the impure 
alcohol thus obtained then converted into some crystalline deriv- 
ative, the latter can be purified and then decomposed in such 
a wa} T as to yield the alcohol in pure condition. 

Methyl alcohol is a liquid which boils at 66.7°, and has the 
specific gravity 0.8142 at 0°. It closely resembles ordinary 
alcohol in all its properties. It burns with a non-luminous 
flame. When taken into the system it intoxicates, hi concen- 
trated form it is poisonous. It is an excellent solvent for fats, 
oils, resins, etc., and is extensively used for this purpose. 

1. Action of hydrochloric, hydrobromic, and other acids on 
methyl alcohol. The action of a few acids is represented by 
the following equations : — 

CH 4 + HBr = CH 3 Br + H 2 ; 
CH 4 + HC1 = CH 3 C1 4- H 2 ; 
CH 4 -|- HN0 3 = CH 3 N0 3 + H 2 ; 

2 CH 4 + H 2 S0 4 = (CH 3 ) 2 S0 4 + 2H 2 0. 

The action is plainly suggestive of that of metallic hydroxides 
or bases. In each case the acid is neutralized and water is 
formed, just as the acid would be neutralized by potassium 

2. Action of phosphorus trichloride. When phosphorus tri- 
chloride acts on methyl alcohol, the products are chlor-methane 
and phosphorous acid : — 

3 CH 4 + PC1 3 = 3 CH 3 C1 + P(OH) 3 . 

Here an atom of oxygen and an atom of hydrogen are together 
replaced by one atom of chlorine, the reaction being like that 
which takes place between water and phosphorus trichloride : — 

3 H 2 + PC1 3 = 3 HC1 + P(OH) 3 . 


This fact would lead us to suspect that there is some resem- 
blance between the alcohol and water. 

3. Action of potassium and sodium. When potassium is 
brought in contact with pure methyl alcohol, hydrogen is given 
off, and a compound containing potassium is formed : — 

CH 4 + K = CH3KO + H. 

Further treatment of this compound with potassium causes no 
further evolution of hydrogen, so that plainly one of the four 
hydrogen atoms contained in methyl alcohol differs from the 
other three. 

The resemblance between methyl alcohol and metallic hy- 
droxides ; the replacement of hydrogen and oxygen by chlorine ; 
and the resemblance between the alcohol and water ; and, 
finally, the replacement of one, and onl\- one, hydrogen atom 
by potassium, lead to the conclusion that the alcohol contains 
hydrogen and oxygen in combination, and that the characteristic 
reactions are due to the presence of the group called hydroxyl 
(OJ3). The analogy between the alcohol, a metallic hydroxide, 
and water, is shown by these formulas: alcohol, CH 3 .OH; 
hydroxide, K.OH ; water H.OH. Thus water appears as the 
type of both the hydroxide and the alcohol, and they may be 
regarded as derived from water by replacing one hydrogen atom 
by the group CH 3 , in the case of the alcohol, and the metal 
potassium in the case of the hydroxide. Or, on the other hand, 
methyl alcohol may be regarded as marsh gas in which one of 
the hydrogen atoms is replaced by hydroxyl. This is the view 
which is universally held. 

To test the correctness of the view, w r e may try to make 
methyl alcohol in some wa} r that will show us of what parts it is 
made up. Thus, we might start with marsh gas, and introduce 
a halogen, as bromine. Now, if we bring brom-ethane to- 
gether with a metallic hydroxide, the bromine and the metal 
may unite, leaving the hydroxyl and the group CH 3 , which may 
unite also, as indicated in the equation 

CH 3 Br + MOH = CH 3 .OH + MBr. 


If methyl alcohol could be made in this way, we should have 
very clear proof of the correctness of the view expressed in the 
formula CH 3 .OH. While no reaction of this kind has been used 
in the preparation of methyl alcohol, so many alcohols have been 
made in this way that the proof is overwhelming. 

The reactions above considered show that the part of methyl 
alcohol which corresponds to the metal in the hydroxide is the 
group CH 3 . This it is which enters into the acids in place of 
their hydrogen, and this remains unchanged when potassium 
acts upon the alcohol. It has received the name methyl. Hence 
we have the names methyl alcohol, methyl bromide, methyl 
ether, etc. A group which, like methyl, appears in a number 
of compounds is called a radical, or residue. These names are 
intended simply to designate that part of a carbon compound 
which remains unchanged when the compound is subjected to 
various transforming influences. 

The two most characteristic reactions of methyl alcohol are : 
(1) its power to form salt-like, neutral bodies when treated 
with acids ; and (2) its power to form an acid when oxidized. 

The neutral bodies formed with acids correspond to the salts 
of metals, only they contain the radical, or residue, methyl, 
CH 3 , in the place of metals. They are called compound ethers 
or ethereal salts. 

The acid formed by oxidation has the composition expressed 
by the formula CH 2 2 . It differs from the alcohol by contain- 
ing one atom of oxygen more and two atoms of hydrogen less. 
It will be shown that this acid is the first of an important series 
of acids, known as the fatty acids, each of which bears the same 
relation to a hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon 
atoms that this simplest acid bears to marsh gas. 

Ethyl alcohol, C 2 H 5 .OH. — This is the best known sub- 
stance belonging to the class of alcohols. It is known also by 
the names spirits of wine and ordinary alcohol. It occurs in 
small quantities widely distributed in nature. 


The one method of preparation upon which we are dependent 
for alcohol is the fermentation of sugar. 

Fermentation. — Whenever a plant juice which contains 
sugar is left exposed to the air, it gradually undergoes a change 
by which it loses its sweet taste. Usually the change consists 
in a breaking up of the sugar into carbon dioxide and alcohol. 
The equation 

C 6 H I2 6 = 2 C 2 H 6 + 2 C0 2 , 

Sugar. Alcohol. 

apiMraimatery expresses what takes place in the process which 
is known as alcoholic fermentation. It. has been shown that 
fermentation is caused by the presence of small organized 
bodies, either animal or vegetable. These bodies, which are 
known as ferments, are of different kinds, and cause different 
kinds of fermentation with different products. Among the kinds 
of fermentation the following may be specially mentioned : — 

1. Alcoholic or vinous fermentation. This is caused by a 
vegetable ferment which is contained in ordinary yeast. The 
ferment consists of small, round cells arranged in chains. The 
products of its action are alcohol and sugar. 

2. Lactic acid fermentation. This is due to a vegetable 
ferment which is contained in sour milk. It has the power of 
transforming sugar into lactic acid. 

3. Acetic acid fermentation. This is due to a peculiar vege- 
table ferment which acts upon alcohol, transforming it into 
acetic acid. 

The germs of the various ferments are in the air ; and, when- 
ever they find favorable conditions, they develop and produce 
their characteristic effects. They will not develop in a solution 
of pure sugar. The variety of sugar which is fermentable, and 
which is the one from which alcohol is obtained, is not an 
ordinar}' cane sugar, but one known as grape sugar ; or, more 
commonly, glucose. In order that the ferments may grow, there 


must be present in the solution, beside the sugar, substances 
which contain nitrogen. These, as well as the sugar, are con- 
tained in the juices pressed out from fruits, and hence these 
juices readily undergo fermentation. 

In the manufacture of alcohol a solution containing either 
starch or sugar is first prepared from the residue of wine presses, 
or from some kind of grain or potatoes. In case the solution 
contains grape sugar, this undergoes fermentation directly when 
the ferment is added. If the substance in solution is cane 
sugar or starch, this is first changed by the ferment into 
grape sugar, and the fermentation then takes place as in the 
first case. 

Experiment 7. Dissolve 40 to 50s commercial grape sugar in 2 to 
3 litres of water in a good-sized flask. Connect the flask by means of 
a bent tube with a cylinder containing clear lime water. Protect the 
latter from the air by means of a tube containing caustic potash. Now 
add to the solution of grape sugar a little brewer's yeast ; close the 
connections, and allow to stand. Soon an evolution of gas will begin, 
and, as this passes through the lime water, a precipitate of calcium 
carbonate will be formed. After the action is over, place the flask in 
a water-bath; connect with a condenser, and distil over 100 cc of the 
liquid. Examine this for alcohol. 

A good way to detect alcohol is this: Warm the solution to be 
tested; add a small piece of iodine and then caustic potash until the 
color is destroyed. On cooling, a yellow crystalline powder of iodo- 
form is deposited. 

To obtain alcohol from fermented liquids, they must be dis- 
tilled. The ordinary alcohol contains water, and a mixture of 
other alcohols called fusel oil. The latter can be removed 
partly by distillation, and the last portions can be gotten rid of 
by filtering through charcoal. The water cannot be removed 
completely by distillation, though a product containing about 
93 per cent of alcohol may be obtained. 

Absolute alcohol is ordinary alcohol from which the water has 
been removed to a considerable extent by means of quicklime. 
As a rule absolute alcohol contains about 5 per cent of water. 


By continued treatment with lime the quantity of water may be 
reduced to one-half a per cent, and this small quantity may be 
removed by treatment with metallic sodium. 

Experiment 8. Prepare absolute alcohol from ordinary strong 
alcohol. For this purpose a good-sized flask is one-half to two-thirds 
filled with quicklime broken iuto small lumps. The alcohol is poured 
upon the lime, and allowed to stand at least twenty-four hours, when 
it is distilled off on a water-bath. If the alcohol used contains con- 
siderable water, it is necessary to repeat the treatment with lime. 

Pure ethyl alcohol has a peculiar, pleasant odor. It is 
claimed, however, that perfectly anhydrous alcohol has no 
odor. It remains liquid at very low temperatures, but has 
recently been converted into a solid at a temperature of —130.5°. 
It boils at 78.3°. It burns with a non-luminous flame, which 
does not leave a deposit of soot on substances placed in it. It 
may hence be used for heating purposes in chemical labora- 
tories. When mixed with air its vapor explodes when a flame is 
applied. Its effects upon the human system are well known. 
It intoxicates when taken in dilute form, while in large doses it 
is poisonous. It lowers the temperature of the body from 0.5° 
to 2° when taken internally, although the sensation of warmth 
is experienced. 

Alcohol is the principal solvent for substances of organic 
origin. It is hence extensivelj- used in the arts, as in the manu- 
facture of varnishes, perfumes, and tinctures of drugs. 

The many beverages which are in use depend for their effi- 
ciency upon the presence of alcohol in greater or smaller quantity. 
The milder forms of beer contain from 2 to 3 per cent ; light 
wines, such as claret, about 8 per cent ; while whiskey, brandy, 
rum, and other distilled liquors sometimes contain as much as GO 
to 75 per cent. These distilled liquors are nothing but ordinary 
alcohol with water and small quantities of substances obtained 
from the fruit or grain used in their preparation, or obtained by 
standing in barrels made of oak wood. The different flavors 
are due to the small quantities of these substances. 


Chemical conduct of ethyl alcohol. All that was said in regard 
to the chemical conduct of methyl alcohol applies to ethyl 
alcohol. The action of acids, of phosphorus trichloride, of 
the alkali metals, and of oxidizing agents is the same as in the 
case of methyl alcohol, only the products formed contain the 
radical, ethyl, C 2 H 5 , instead of methyl. 

Note for Student. — The student is advised to write the equa- 
tious representing the action of hydrochloric, hydrobromic, and nitric 
acicls ; of phosphorus trichloride ; and of potassium, upon ethyl alcohol. 
What is the composition of the acid formed by oxidation of ordinary 

2. Ethers. 

As has been shown, when an alcohol is treated with potas- 
sium or sodium, compounds are formed having the for- 

CH 3 ONa, CH3OK, C 2 H 5 OK, C 2 H 5 ONa. 

If one of these be treated with a mono-halogen derivative of 
a hydrocarbon, as, for example, iodo-methane, CH 3 I, reaction 
takes place thus : — 

CH 3 ONa + CH3I = C 2 H 6 -f Nal. 

The reaction leaves very little room for doubt in regard to 
the structure of the compound C 2 H 6 0. It must be represented 

by the formula CH 3 - O - CH 3 , or ^ Hs > G, or (CH 3 ) 2 0. 

CH 3 

Comparing it with methyl alcohol, we see that it is obtained 

from the alcohol by replacing the hydrogen of the hydroxyl by 

methyl, CH 3 . Just as the alcohol is analogous to the hydroxide 

KOH, so the new compound is analogous to the oxide K 2 0. 

It is the representative of a class of bodies known as ethers, 

which are analogous to the oxides of the metals. Our ordinary 

ether is the chief representative of the class. 

While the reaction above mentioned serves admirably to show 

the relations between the alcohols and ethers, it is not the one 


that is made use of in their preparation. This consists in treat- 
ing the alcohols with sulphuric acid, and distilling. 

Ethyl ether, C 4 H 10 O = (0 2 H 5 ) 2 O. — This is the substance 
commonly known simply as ether, or sulphuric ether. The latter 
name was originally given to it because sulphuric acid is used 
in its manufacture, and plainly not because any sulphur is con- 
tained in it. 

Theoretically, the simplest way to make ether from alcohol 
is to make the sodium compound of alcohol, C 2 H 5 ONa, and to I 
heat this with brom- or iodo-ethane thus : — 

C 2 II 5 ONa + C 2 II 5 I = (QH 5 ) 2 + Nal. 

Practically, however, ether may be made much more readily, 
and it is made on the large scale by mixing sulphuric acid and 
alcohol in certain proportions, and then distilling the mixture 
as described below. Two distinct reactions are involved in this 
process. First, when alcohol and sulphuric acid are brought 
together, half the hydrogen of the acid is replaced by ethyl 
thus : — 

C 2 H 5 OH + ^ > SO, = ° 2 ^ 5 > SO, + H 2 0. 

The product thus formed is called ethyl- sulphuric acid. 

Experiment 9. Slowly pour 20 to 30 cc concentrated sulphuric acid 
into about the same volume of alcohol of 80 to 90 per cent. Stir 
thoroughly, and dilute with a litre of water. In an evaporating dish 
add powdered barium carbonate until the liquid is neutral. Filter, 
and examine the clear filtrate for barium. Its presence shows that a 
soluble barium salt has been formed. This is barium ethyl-sulphate, 
Ba(C 2 H 5 SOJ a . 

When ethyl-sulphuric acid is heated with alcohol, ether is 
formed, and sulphuric acid is regenerated thus : — 

c 2 h 5 oii + c ^ > so 4 = c 2 n 5 > + uso ^ 



The ether thus formed distils over ; and, if alcohol be admitted 
to the sulphuric acid, ethyl-sulphuric acid will again be formed, 
and with excess of alcohol it will yield ether. The actual 
method of procedure is described in 

Experiment 10. Arrange an apparatus as shown in Fig. 6. In 
the flask put a mixture of 2002 alcohol, and 3G0S ordinary concen- 
trated sulphuric acid. It is better to mix them in another vessel, 
and allow the mixture to stand for some time until it is thoroughly 


Fig. 6. 

cooled down ; and then to pour off from the precipitated lead sulphate as 
completely as possible. Now heat until the thermometer indicates the 
temperature 140°. At this point the mixture boils, and ether begins to 
pass over. As soon as this is noticed, open the stop-cock of the vessel 
A, and let a slow stream of alcohol pass into the distilling flask through 
the tube B, which must reach beneath the surface of the mixture. 
Regulate this stream so that the temperature remains as near 140° as 
possible. In this way the operation can be kept up for a considerable 
time, the alcohol admitted to the flask passing out as ether, and being 
collected together with some alcohol in the receiver. After about a 
half litre to a litre of distillate has been collected, stop the operation. 
The mixture in the distilling flask may be kept in a stoppered bottle 
and used again when needed. Pour the distillate into a glass-stoppered 


cylinder, and add water. The ether will rise to the top, forming a 
distinct layer, and may be removed by means of a pipette or separating 
funnel. It should be shaken in this way a few times with water; then 
treated with a little calcium chloride; and, after standing, poured off 
into a dry flask, and distilled on a water-bath. 

N.B. Never boil ether over a free flame ; and, in working with it, 
always carefully avoid the neighborhood of flames. In boiling it on a 
water-bath, do not heat the water to boiling. 

Ether is a colorless, mobile liquid of a peculiar odor and 
taste. It boils at 34.9°. (Hence the necessity for the pre- 
cautions mentioned above.) Its specific gravity is 0.73G at 0°. 
(What evidence have you had that it is lighter than water?) 
It is very inflammable. 

Experiment 11. Put a few cubic centimetres of ether in a small 
evaporating dish, and apply a flame. 

When its vapor is mixed with air, the mixture is extremely 
explosive. Ether is somewhat soluble in water, and water is 
also somewhat, though less, soluble in ether ; so that when the 
two are shaken together the volume of the ether becomes 
smaller, even though every precaution is taken to avoid evapor- 
ation. Ether mixes witli alcohol in all proportions. It is a 
good solvent for resins, fats, alkaloids, and many other classes 
of carbon compounds. 

It is an excellent anaesthetic, and is used extensively in this 
capacity. In consequence of its rapid evaporation, it is used 
to produce cold, as in the manufacture of ice. So, also, when 
brought against the skin in the form of spray, the cold produced 
is so great as to cause insensibility. 

Experiment 12. In a thin glass test-tube put 5 CC water. Introduce 
the tube into a small beaker containing some ether. Force air through 
the ether by means of a bellows. The water will be frozen. 

Chemical conduct of ether. If we were dependent upon the 
decompositions and general reactions of ether for our knowledge 
of its structure, we would be left in grave doubt as to the rela- 


tions existing between it and alcohol. Its decompositions are 
mostly deep-seated, and not easily explained. Fortunately, as 
we have seen, its synthesis from sodium ethylate, C 2 H 5 ONa, and 
iodo-ethane, C 2 II 5 I, leaves us in no doubt regarding its structure. 
The simplest decompositions are these : — 

Heated with water and a small quantity of sulphuric acid to 
150°, it is converted into alcohol : — 

?u >° + 2> = 2C 2 H 5 OH. 

Treated with hydriodic acid at a low temperature, alcohol 
and iodo-ethane are formed : — 

C 2 H 5>Q + H C2Hs0H + C2HsL 

Mixed ethers. — Just as ordinary or ethyl alcohol 3'ields 
ethyl ether, so methyl alcohol yields methyl ether, (CH 3 ) 2 0. 
By modifying the method, a mixed ether, methyl-ethyl ether, 

> O, may be obtained. This is formed by treating sodium 

C 2 H 5 

CH 3 

methylate with iodo-ethane, or by treating sodium ethylate with 
iodo-methane : — 

CH 3 ONa + C 2 H 5 I = °*?* > + Nal ; 
CH 3 

C 2 H 5 ONa -f CH 3 I == ^ 5 > O + NaT. 
CH 3 

It is formed also by distilling methyl alcohol with ethyl-sul- 
phuric acid, or ethyl alcohol with methyl-sulphuric acid : — 

C ^ 3 >0 + C ^ 5 >S0 4 = °*?« >0 + H 2 S0 4 ; 
° 2 ^ 5 > O + C ^ 3 > S0 4 = C ^ 5 > O + H 2 S0 4 . 

XI xi ^113 

Methyl ether and methyl-ethyl ether are very similar to ordinary 


3. Aldehydes. 

It has been stated above that when methyl and ethyl alcohols 
are oxidized, they are converted into acids having the formulas 
CH 2 2 and C 2 H 4 2 , respectively. By proper precautions, prod- 
ucts can be obtained intermediate between the alcohols and 
acids, and differing from them in composition in that they 
contain two atoms of hydrogen less than the corresponding 
alcohols. These products are called aldehydes, from alcohol 
dehydrogenatum, from the fact that they must be regarded as 
alcohols from which hydrogen has been abstracted. The rela- 
tions in composition between the hydrocarbons, alcohols, and 
aldehydes are shown by these formulas : — 




CH 4 

CH 4 

CH 2 

C 2 H 6 

C 2 H 6 

C 2 H 4 




Methyl aldehyde, formic aldehyde, CH^O. — This is 
made by gentle oxidation of methyl alcohol, as by passing the 
vapor of the alcohol with air over a heated platinum spiral. It 
is a very volatile liquid, which, up to the present, has not been 
prepared in pure condition. 

In order to gain a clear insight into the nature of the alde- 
hydes, it will be best to study the best-known representative of 
the class, which is ethyl aldehyde. 

Ethyl aldehyde, acetic aldehyde, C^O. — The name 
ethyl aldehyde is intended to recall the connection between the 
substance and ethyl alcohol ; while the name acetic aldehyde is 
given to it because, by further oxidation, it is converted into 
acetic acid. The latter is perhaps the better name, as the alde- 
hyde really does not contain ethyl, C 2 H 5 , as is evident from its 
molecular formula. 

Acetic aldehyde is formed whenever alcohol is brought in 



contact with an oxidizing mixture ; as, for example, potassium 
bichromate and dilute sulphuric acid. 

Experiment 13. Dissolve a little potassium bichromate in water, 
and add sulphuric acid. Now add a few cubic centimetres of alco- 
hol, and notice the odor which is that of aldehyde. Notice, also, 
the change of color of the solution, showing the reduction of the 

As aldehyde is a very volatile liquid, it is difficult to collect it. 
In preparing it, it is therefore better to pass it into some liquid 
which will absorb it, and then afterwards separate it by some 
appropriate method. A good method is that described below. 

Experiment 14. Arrange an apparatus as shown in Fig. 7. Put 
120« granulated potassium bichromate in the flask A, which must have 
a capacity of 1} to 2 litres. Make a mixture of IGOs concentrated sul- 

Fig. 7. 

phuric acid, 480° water, and 120= alcohol. Cool the mixture down to 
the ordinary temperature, and then pour it slowly through the funnel- 
tube B into the flask containing the potassium bichromate. Mean- 


while keep the flask in cold water in the water-bath. The cylinders C 
and D are about half filled with ordinary ether, each one containing 
about 200 cc ether, and placed in the large vessel F, which contains ice 

Usually, when the alcohol, water, and sulphuric acid are poured upon 
the bichromate, the action begins without application of heat. At times 
it takes place rapidly, so that the liquid should always be added slowly. 
The aldehyde which is thus formed, together with some alcohol and 
water vapor, passes into the condenser-tube, where the greater part of 
the alcohol and water is condensed and returned to the flask, while 
the aldehyde, being much more volatile, passes into the ether and is 
there absorbed. After the action is over, the distilling vessel and con- 
denser are removed, and, at E, connection is made with an apparatus 
furnishing dry ammonia gas. The gas is passed into the cold ethereal 
solution of aldehyde to the point of saturation. A beautifully crystal- 
lized compound of aldehyde and ammonia, known as aldehyde-ammonia, 
is deposited. The ether is poured oft', and the crystals placed on filter- 
paper. They gradually undergo change in the air, becoming yellow, 
and acquiring a peculiar odor. If the crystals are placed in a flask and 
treated with dilute sulphuric acid, pure aldehyde passes over, and may 
be condensed by ice-cold water. 

In the process of purification of ordinary alcohol it is filtered 
through charcoal. It is thus parti}' oxidized to aldehyde ; and, 
when it is afterwards distilled, the first portions which pass 
over contain aldehyde, which is obtained on the large scale by 
repeated distillation of these " first runnings." 

Aldehyde is a colorless liquid, boiling at 21°. It mixes with 
water and alcohol in all proportions. Its odor is marked and 

From the chemical stand-point, the most characteristic prop- 
erty of aldehyde is its power to unite directly with other sub- 
stances. It unites with ox3*gen to form acetic acid ; with 
hydrogen to form alcohol; with ammonia to form aldehyde- 
ammonia, C 2 H 4 O.NH 3 ; with hydrocyanic acid to form alde- 
hyde hydrocyanide, C 2 H 4 O.HCN ; with the acid sulphites of 
the alkalies forming compounds represented by the formulas 
C 2 H 4 O.HKS0 3 and C.JI 4 O.HNaS0 3 ; and with other substances. 
Indeed, if left to itself, it readily changes into polymeric modi- 


fications, uniting with itself to form more complex bodies, 
paraldehyde and metaldehyde. 

Paraldehyde, C 6 Hi>0 3 . — This is formed by adding a few 
drops of concentrated sulphuric acid to aldehyde, which causes 
the liquid to become hot. On cooling to 0°, the paraldehyde 
solidifies in crystalline form. It melts at 10.5°. It dissolves 
in eight times its own volume of water. Boils at 124°. When 
distilled with dilute sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, etc., it is 
converted into aldehyde. The specific gravity of its vapor has 
been found to be 4.583. This leads to the molecular weight 
132.4, and consequently to the formula C 6 H 12 3 . It is called a 
polymeric modification of aldehyde. The cause of the peculiar 
action, and the structure of the product are not known. 

Metaldehyde, (C,,H 4 0)x. — Metaldehyde is formed in much 
the same way as paraldehyde, only a low temperature (below 
0°) is most favorable for its formation. It crystallizes in needles, 
which are insoluble in water, and but slightly soluble in alcohol, 
chloroform, and ether in the cold, though more readily at a 
slightly elevated temperature. When heated to 112° to 115° it 
is converted into aldehyde. Hence its vapor density cannot be 
determined, and its molecular weight is unknown. It has the 
same composition as aldehyde and paraldelryde, but it is prob- 
ably more complex than the latter ; that is, its molecule is 
probably made up of a larger number than three molecules of 
aldehyde. Distilled with dilute sulphuric acid, etc., it is easily 
converted into aldehyde. 

In consequence of the tendency of aldehyde to unite with 
oxygen, it is a strong reducing agent. When added to an 
ammoniacal solution of silver nitrate, metallic silver is deposited 
on the walls of the vessel in the form of a brilliant mirror. 

Experiment 15. To a weak aqueous solution of aldehyde, or of 
aldehyde-ammonia, iu a test-tube, add a few drops of ammonia and of 
a solution of silver nitrate. Warm gently ; and, when the deposit on 


the walls of the tube begins to appear, stop heating. A brilliant mirror 
of metallic silver will appear. This method is used in the manufac- 
ture of mirrors. What becomes of the aldehyde? 

Chemical transformations of aldehyde. As aldehyde is pro- 
duced from alcohol by oxidation, so alcohol can be formed 
from aldehyde b} T reduction : — 

C 2 H c O + O = C 2 H 4 + HX> ; 

C 2 H 4 + H 2 = C 2 H 6 0. 

By oxidation aldehyde is converted into an acid of the formula 
C 2 H 4 2 , which is acetic acid ; and, by reduction, acetic acid is 
converted into aldel^de : — 

C 2 H 4 + O = C,H A ; 

C 2 H 4 2 + II 2 = C 2 H 4 0. 

Treated with phosphorus pentachloride, aldehyde yields ethyl- 
idene chloride, C 2 H 4 C1 2 (which see) . This reaction is of special 
interest and importance, as it helps us to understand the relation 
between aldehyde and alcohol. Alcohol, as has been shown, 
is the hydroxide of ethyl, C 2 II 5 .OH. When oxidized it loses 
two atoms of hydrogen. Is the hydrogen of the hydroxy] 
one of the two which are given off? If so, what readjustment 
of the oxygen takes place? Such are the questions which we 
have a right to ask. 

To understand the action of phosphorus pentachloride on 
aldehyde, it will be necessary to consider briefly the action of 
this reagent in general upon compounds containing oxygen. 
When it is brought in contact with water, the first change is 
represented by the equation 

H,0 + PC1 5 = POCl 3 + 2 HC1. 

Next, the oxichloride, POCl 3 , is acted upon thus : — 

3 H 2 + POCl 3 = PO(OH) 3 + 3 IIC1. 

Or, expressing both changes in one equation, we have : — 

4 H 2 + PC1 5 = PO(OII) 3 + 5 HC1. 


The phosphorus pentachloride gives up its chlorine and takes 
up oxygen, or oxygen and hydrogen, in its place. This is the 
general tendency of the chlorides of phosphorus. 

Now, when a chloride of phosphorus is brought together with 
an alcohol, the oxygen is replaced by chlorine, two atoms of 
the latter for one of the former, thus : — 

C 2 H 5 .OH + PC1 5 = C 2 H 5 C1.C1H + POCl 3 . 

But as hydroxyl, — O — II, is univalent, its place cannot be 
taken by two atoms of chlorine and one of hydrogen, and the 
two chlorine atoms have not the power of linking the hydrogen 
to the ethyl. Hydrochloric acid is given off, and a compound is 
formed, which may be regarded as alcohol in which one chlorine 
atom takes the place of the hydroxyl. This is the kind of 
action which takes place whenever a chloride of phosphorus acts 
upon a compound containing hydroxyl ; and we hence make use 
of the reaction for determining whether hydroxyl is or is not 
present in a compound. 

When aldehyde is treated with phosphorus pentachloride, the 
action is entirely different from that just described. Instead of 
a hydrogen and an oxygen atom being replaced by one chlo- 
rine, the oxygen atom alone is replaced by two chlorine atoms: — 

C 2 H 4 + PC1 5 = C 2 H 4 C1 2 + POCI3. 

If the explanation above offered of the action of phosphorus 
pentachloride on alcohol is correct, it follows that aldehyde is 
not a hydroxyl compound. We can readily understand why the 
oxygen atom should be replaced by two chlorine atoms, if it 
is in combination only with carbon as in carbon monoxide, CO. 
There is an essential difference between this kind of combina- 
tion and that which we have in hydroxyl as C — O — H. In 
the latter condition the oxygen serves to connect carbon with 
hydrogen ; in the former it is in combination only with the 
carbon, and, presumably, the force which holds it can also hold 
two atoms of chlorine or of any other univalent element with 


which it can unite. So that, if oxygen be in a compound in 
the carbon monoxide condition, we would expect it to be re- 
placed by two atoms of chlorine when the compound is treated 
with phosphorus pentachloride. Let R.CO represent any such 
compound ; then we would have : — 

RCO + PC1 5 = R.CC1 2 + POCl 3 ; 

while, when oxygen is present in the hydroxyl condition, we 
have : — 

R.C-0-H + PC1 5 = R.CC1 + POCI3 + HC1. 

Just as the latter reaction is used to detect the presence of 
hydroxyl oxygen, so the former is used to detect oxygen in the 
other condition, which is commonly known as the carbonyl con- 

In terms of the valence Irypothesis, it is said that in the 
hydroxyl compounds oxygen is in combination with carbon with 
one of its affinities, and with hydrogen with the other, while in 
the carbonyl compounds it is in combination with carbon with 
both its affinities as represented thus, C= O. 

According to the above reasoning aldehyde is a carbonyl 
compound, or it contains the group CO. The simplest alde- 
hyde must therefore be represented bv the formula H 2 C = O. 


Its homologue, acetic aldehyde, is CH 3 .C — H. The peculiar prop- 
erties of aldehyde are believed to be due to the presence of this 

group, C — H, which is called the aldehyde group. We do not 

know that the double line in the formula conveys any correct 

idea in regard to the relation between the carbon and oxygen. 

All that we know is that these two elements do occur in two 

different relations to each other, and the formulas C — O — H 

and C = O recall these relations. They are expressions of facts 

established by experiment. Our notions in regard to these 

relations are largely dependent upon the reactions with the 

chlorides of phosphorus referred to above. 


Chloral, trichloraldehyde, CCl 3 .CHO. — When chlorine 
acts directly upon aldehyde, complicated reactions take place 
which need not be considered here. If, however, water and 
calcium carbonate are present, substitution takes place, and 
trichloraldehyde is formed. When alcohol is treated with 
chlorine, a double action takes place : 1st. The alcohol is 
changed to aldehyde thus : — 

CH 3 .CH 2 OH + Cl 2 = CH3.COH + 2 HC1. 

Then the chlorine acts upon the aldehyde, replacing the three 
hydrogens of the methyl, forming trichloraldehyde : — 

CH3.COH -f- 6 CI = CCI3.COH -f- 3 HC1. 

In realit}^ the aldehyde first formed acts upon the alcohol, 
forming an intermediate product which is acted upon by the 
chlorine. The chlorine product thus formed breaks up, forming 
chloral. The essential features of the reaction, however, are 
stated in the above equations. Trichloraldehyde is the sub- 
stance commonly known as chloral. It is simply the tri-chlo- 
rine substitution product of aldehyde. It has all the general 
properties of aldehyde, and the conclusion is therefore justified 


that it contains the aldehyde group — CH. 

Chloral is a colorless liquid, which boils at 94°, and has the 

specific gravity 1.5. 

Note for Student. — Give the formulas of compounds formed 
when chloral is brought together with ammonia, hydrocyanic acid, and 
the acid sulphites of the alkalies. What is the formula of the acid 
formed by its oxidation? The answer is given in the statement that 
the general chemical conduct of chloral is the same as that of aldehyde. 

When chloral and water are brought together, they unite to 
form a crystallized compound, chloral hydrate, C 2 HC1 3 + H 2 0, 
which is easily soluble in water, and crystallizes from the solu- 
tion in beautiful, colorless, monoclinic prisms. It melts at 46°. 


Taken internally in doses of from 1.5 to 5 g , it produces sleep. 
In larger doses it acts as an anaesthetic. 

When treated with an alkali, chloral and chloral hydrate 
break up, yielding chloroform and formic acid : — 


Chloral. Chloroform. Potassium 


This reaction, taken together with those which give chloral 
from alcohol, enables us to understand the reaction which is 
used in making chloroform and iodoform. 

Note for Student. — How is chloroform made? How may the 
method be explained? Answer the same questions for iodoform. The 
bleaching powder used in preparing chloroform furnishes chlorine. Is 
an alkali present? 

4. Acids. 

When methyl and ethyl alcohols are oxidized, they are con- 
verted first into aldehydes, and then the aldehydes take up 
oxygen and are converted into acids. The relations in compo- 
sition between the hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, and acids 
are shown in the subjoined table : — 





CH 4 

CH 4 

CH 2 

CH 2 2 

C 2 H 6 

C 2 H 6 

C 2 H 4 

C 2 HA 





The two acids whose formulas are here given are the well- 
known substances, formic and acetic acids. 

Formic acid, CH 2 2 . — This acid occurs in nature in red 
ants, in stinging nettles, in the shoots of some of the varieties 
of pine, and elsewhere. 

It may be prepared by distilling red ants, but is best prepared 
by heating oxalic acid with glycerin. Oxalic acid has the 


composition represented by the formula C 2 H 2 4 . When heated 
in glycerin, the effect is to break it up into carbon dioxide and 
formic acid : — 

C 2 HA = C0 2 -f CH 2 2 . 

The formic acid distils over, and may be condensed. 

™T p T? ent 1G : Iuto a flask of 500 10 G00cc ca P acit ^ p«t 200 to 

300 anhydrous glycerin, and then add 30 to 40* crystallized oxalic 
. acid. Connect the flask with a condenser, and insert a thermometer 
through the cork so that the bulb is below the surface of the -lycerin 
Heat gently. When the temperature reaches 75° to 90°, carbon dioxide 
will be given off. Dilute formic acid then distils over. When the 
evolution of carbon dioxide stops, add another portion of crystallized 
oxalic acid, and heat again. This operation may be repeated a num- 
ber of times without renewing the glycerin; but, when about 100* of 
oxalic acid have been decomposed, enough formic acid for the purpose 
will have been formed. Dilute the distillate to about half a litre and 
while gently warming it in an evaporating dish, add freshly precipi- 
tated and washed copper, oxide in small quantities until no more is 

rZtl ; ;-f u ien mte n'. and GVaPOrate thG S ° 1UtiOU to crystallization. 
The beautifully crystallized salt thus obtained is copper formate. 

The formation of formic acid by oxidation of methyl alcohol 
and by treatment of chloral with an alkali, has already been 
mentioned. The following methods are of special interest : - 

(1) By the action of carbon monoxide upon potassium hy- 
droxide : — J 

CO + KOH = H.C0 2 K. 

This method may be used for the preparation of formic acid on 
the large scale. Soda-lime acts as well as potassium hydroxide 
(2) By the action of metallic potassium upon moist carbon 
dioxide (carbonic acid) : — 

2 C0 2 + K 2 + H 2 = HC0 2 K + HC0 3 K, 
or 2 C0 3 H 2 + K 2 = HC0 2 K + HC0 3 K + H 2 0. 


(3) By treatment of a solution of ammonium carbonate with 
sodium amalgam : — 

C0 8 (NH 4 ) 2 + 211 = HC0 2 (NH 4 ) + H 2 + NH 3 , 
and HC0 2 (NH 4 ) + NaOH = HC0 2 Na + NH 3 + H 2 0. 

According to these last two methods formic acid appears as a 
reduction product of carbonic acid formed by the abstraction of 
one atom of ox}*gen : — 

H 2 C0 3 = H 2 C0 2 + O. 

It is extremely important to bear this fact in mind, as- it is of 
great assistance in enabling us to understand the relation exist- 
ing between the two acids, and between them and all other acids 
of carbon. It will be shown that all the acids of carbon may 
be regarded as derivatives of either formic acid or carbonic 

(4) When hydrocyanic acid is left in. the presence of an acid 
or an alkali, it breaks up, forming ammonia and formic acid. 
The reaction may be represented thus : — 

HCN + 2 H 2 = H 2 C0 2 + NII 3 . 

Of course, if an acid is present, the ammonium salt of the acid is 
formed ; and, if an alkali is present, the formate of this alkali is 
formed. A reaction similar to this is used very extensively in the 
preparation of the acids of carbon, as will be shown. 

Anhydrous formic acid may be made by dehydrating either 
the copper or lead salt, and passing dry hydrogen sulphide over 
the salt placed in a heated tube. The acid distils over, and 
may be obtained perfectly pure by placing a little of the anhy- 
drous salt in it and redistilling. 

It is a colorless liquid which boils at 99.9°. It has a pene- 
trating odor. Dropped on the skin, it causes extreme pain, and 
produces blisters. Its specific gravity at 0° is 1.22. When 
cooled down it solidifies to a mass of crystals which melt at 8.6°. 


Concentrated sulphuric acid decomposes it into carbon mon- 
oxide and water : — 

H 2 C0 2 = CO + H 2 0. 

It is easily oxidized to carbonic acid. Hence it acts as a 
reducing agent. Heated with the oxides of mercury or silver, 
they are reduced to the metallic condition : — 

HgO '+ H 2 C0 2 = Hg + H 2 + C0 2 . 

Like other acids, formic acid yields a large number of salts with 
bases, and ethereal salts or compound ethers with the alcohols. 
These derivatives need not be considered here. The salts are 
all soluble in water, and some of them, as the lead, copper, and 
barium salts, crystallize very well. Some of the compound 
ethers will be mentioned when these substances are considered 
as a class. 

Acetic acid, C 2 H 4 2 . % — The two methods by which acetic 
acid is exclusively made are, — 

(1) By the oxidation of alcohol ; and 

(2) By the distillation of wood. 

When pure alcohol is exposed to the air it undergoes no 
change. If, however, some platinum black be placed in it, 
oxidation takes place and acetic acid is formed. So also if 
fermented liquors which contain nitrogenous substances be 
exposed to the air, oxidation takes place, and the liquor becomes 
sour in consequence of the formation of acetic acid. A great 
deal of acetic acid is made by exposing poor wine to the action 
of the air. The product is known as wine vinegar. The for- 
mation of vinegar has been shown to be due to the presence of 
a microscopic organism (Mycoderma aceti) commonly known as 
" mother-of -vinegar." This serves in some way to convey the 
oxygen from the air to the alcohol. The " quick- vinegar 
process," much used in the manufacture of vinegar, consists in 
allowing weak spirits of wine to pass slowly through barrels 


filled with beech shavings which have become covered with 
Mycoderma aceti. The presence of the organism is secured by 
first pouring strong vinegar into the barrels, and allowing it to 
stand for one or two days in contact with the shavings. 

When wood is distilled, a very complex mixture passes over, 
one of the constituents being acetic acid. By keeping the tem- 
perature down comparatively low, the amount of acetic acid 
obtained is increased. The distillate is neutralized with soda 
ash, and the solution of crude sodium acetate thus obtained 
evaporated to dryness. It is then treated with sulphuric acid, 
and distilled, when acetic acid passes over. 

Besides the two methods mentioned, there are two others 
which may be used for making acetic acid. One of them is a 
modification of a method referred to under formic acid, and, 
from the scientific stand-point, both are of great interest. 
They are, — 

(1) By treating carbon dioxide with a compound known 
as sodium-methyl^ which may be regarded as marsh gas, in 
which one hydrogen is replaced by sodium as shown in the 
formula CH 3 Na. 

C0 2 + CH 3 Na = CH 3 .C0 2 Na. 

(2) By treating methyl cyanide, CH 3 CN, with an acid or an 

alkali : — 

CH 3 CN + 2 H 2 = CH 3 .C0 2 H + NH 3 . 

This reaction is analogous to that involved in the formation 
of formic acid from hydrocyanic acid (see p. 56). 

Whether the acid is made from alcohol or from wood, it must 
be purified. For this purpose it is passed through charcoal and 
distilled. It still contains water, from which it cannot be 
completely separated by distillation. When cooled down to a 
sufficiently low temperature it solidifies, and the water may 
then partly be poured off. By repeating the freezing, and 
distilling a few times, perfectly pure, anhydrous acetic acid 
may be obtained. 


Experiment 17. Make pure acetic acid from the commercial sub- 
stance. First distil in fractions until a portion is obtained that boils 
between 110° and 119°. Put the vessel containing this in ice. The 
liquid will solidify almost completely. Pour off the little liquid which 
remains, and distil. 

Acetic acid is a clear, colorless liquid, which boils at 119°. 
It has a very penetrating, pleasant, acid odor, and a sharp acid 
taste. The pure substance acts upon the skin like formic acid, 
causing pain and raising blisters. It solidifies when cooled down, 
and the crystals melt at 16.7°. The pure acid which is solid at 
temperatures below 1G° is known as glacial acetic acid. Its speci- 
fic gravity is 1.08 at 0°. It mixes with water in all proportions. 

Acetic acid is extensively used, chiefly in the dilute, impure 
form known as vinegar. Formic acid would answer perhaps as 
well. It is used in calico printing in the form of iron and alu- 
minium salts. With iron it gives hydrogen, which is needed in 
the manufacture of certain compounds used in making dyes, as, 
for example, aniline. It is an excellent solvent for many 
organic substances, and is therefore frequently used in sci- 
entific researches. 

Derivatives of acetic acid. Acetic acid yields a very large 
number of derivatives. They may be considered briefly under 
two heads : ( 1 ) Those which are formed in consequence of the 
acid properties and which necessitate a loss of the acid proper- 
ties, as the salts, ethereal salts, etc. ; and (2) those in which 
the acid properties remain unchanged. 

Salts of acetic acid. The acetates of the alkalies were the 
first compounds of carbon ever prepared. The potassium and 
sodium salts are used in the chemical laboratory. Both crystal- 
lize, the sodium salt particularly well and easily. 

Lead acetate, (C 2 H 3 2 )2Pb. This salt, which is commonly 
known as sugar of lead, is made on the large scale by dissolv- 
ing lead oxide in acetic acid. It crystallizes well, and is solu- 
ble in 1.5 parts of water at ordinary temperatures. Commer- 
cial sugar of lead frequently contains an excess of lead oxide in 


the form of basic salts. A solution of such a mixture becomes 
turbid when allowed to stand in the air, or gives a precipitate 
when dissolved in ordinary spring water, in consequence of the 
formation of lead carbonate. 

Copper acetate, (C 2 H 3 2 )2Cu. This salt may be made by 
dissolving copper hydroxide or carbonate in acetic acid. It 
crystallizes in dark-blue, transparent prisms. A basic acetate, 
formed by the action of acetic acid on copper in the air, is 
known as verdigris. 

Copper aceto-arsenite, 3 CuAs 2 4 -f- (C 2 H 3 2 ) 2 Cu. This double 
salt is formed by boiling verdigris and arsenic trioxide together 
in water. It has a fine bright-green color, and is used as a 
coloring matter. It is the chief constituent of emerald green, 
or Schweinfurt's green. 

Iron forms two distinct salts with acetic acid, the ferrous 
salt, (C 2 H 3 2 ) 2 Fe -f 4 H 2 0, and the ferric salt, (C 2 H 3 2 ) 6 Fe 2 . 
The latter is formed when sodium acetate is added to an acidi- 
fied solution of a ferric salt. At first the solution becomes 
deep-red in color ; but, on boiling, all the iron is precipitated 
as a basic salt. Hence this salt is used for the purpose of sep- 
arating iron from manganese in analytical operations. 

Experiment 18. To a dilute solution of ferric chloride, contained 
in a small flask, add a little sulphuric acid and a solution of sodium 
acetate. Boil the red solution, and the basic iron salt is precipitated, 
leaving the solution colorless. Filter, and examine the filtrate for iron. 

The ethereal salts will be mentioned briefly when this class 
of bodies is considered. The principal one is ethyl acetate or 
acetic ether, which is formed from acetic acid and ordinary alco- 
hol. When a mixture of these two substances is treated with 
sulphuric acid, the ether is formed and may be recognized by 
its pleasant odor. This fact is taken advantage of for the 
detection of acetic acid. 

Experiment 19. To a mixture of about equal parts of acetic acid 
and alcohol, in a test-tube, add a little concentrated sulphuric acid, and 
notice the odor. It is that of ethyl acetate or acetic ether. 

KSo} ^ - 


Acetic anhydride or acetyl oxide, C^HeOs. — This sub- 
stance, which bears to acetic acid the relation of an anhydride, 
is made by abstracting water from the acid. 

2 C 2 H 4 2 = C 4 H 6 3 + H 2 0. 

Like other acids, acetic acid contains Irydroxyl, as will be 
shown below. We may hence represent the acid thus : 
C9H3O.OH. The part C 2 H 3 is kpown as acetyl. Now when 
water is abstracted from the acid, the change takes place as rep- 
resented in this equation : — 

C 2 H 3 O.OH ) 
C 2 H 3 O.OH j v 2 ii 3 \ 

Hence, according to this, acetic anhydride appears as the oxide 
of acetyl, while the acid itself is the hydroxide. 

Acetic anhydride is a colorless liquid which boils at 138°. 
With water it gives acetic acid. 

Acetyl chloride, C 2 H 3 OCl. ~\ Just as alcohol, when 
Acetyl bromide, C 2 H 3 OBr. >■ treated with phosphorus tri- 
Acetyl iodide, C 2 H 3 OI. ) chloride, yields a chloride of 
ethyl, so acetic acid, when treated with the same reagent, yields 
acetyl chloride. The character of the reaction is the same in 
both cases. It consists in the replacement of hydroxyl by 

3 C 2 H 3 O.OH + PCI3 = 3 C 2 H 3 0C1 -f P(OH) 3 . 

Acetyl chloride. 

Experiment 20. Arrange a dry distilling flask, with condenser and 
dry receiver, under a hood or out of doors. Bring together 9 parts 
(say 1808) strong acetic acid and 6 parts (say 120e) phosphorus tri- 
chloride. Slightly heat the mixture on the water-bath, when acetyl 
chloride will distil over. Collect in a dry bottle. 

Acetyl chloride is a colorless liquid which boils at 55°. 
Water acts upon it very readily, acetic and hydrochloric acids 
being formed : — 

C 2 H 3 0C1 + H 2 = C 2 H 3 O.OH + HC1. 


In this case the chlorine is replaced by hydroxyl. As the sub- 
stance is volatile, it fumes in contact with the air in consequence 
of the formation of hydrochloric acid. It must be kept in 
tightly-stoppered bottles. In handling it, care must be taken 
not to bring it near the nose, as its odor is very suffocating, and 
it attacks the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose, produc- 
ing coughing and other bad results. 

Acetyl chloride is a valuable reagent much used in the exam- 
ination of compounds of carbon. Its value depends upon its 
action towards alcohols. When it is brought together with an 
alcohol, as, for example, methyl alcohol, hydrochloric acid is 
evolved, and the acetyl group takes the place of the hydrogen 
of the alcoholic hydroxyl : — 

CH3.OH + C 2 H 3 0C1 = CH 3 .O.C 2 H 3 + HC1. 

The product is an ethereal salt, methyl acetate. This kind of 
action takes place whenever an alcohol is treated with acetyl 
chloride. Hence if, on treating a body with acetyl chloride, its 
composition is changed, showing that hydrogen is replaced by 
acetyl, we are justified in concluding that the body contains 
alcoholic hydroxyl. The bromide and iodide resemble the 
chloride very closely. 

Experiment 21. Treat a few cubic centimetres of absolute alcohol 
with acetyl chloride. Notice the evolution of hydrochloric acid and 
the odor of ethyl acetate. 

Substitution-products of acetic acid. These bear the same 
relation to acetic acid that the substitution-products of marsh 
gas bear to marsh gas. They are formed by the simple sub- 
stitution of a halogen, etc., for lrydrogen. Only three of the 
four hydrogen atoms of acetic acid are capable of direct 
replacement. The fourth is the one to which the acid prop- 
erties are due. Hence the substitution-products are acid. The 
best known of these products are the chlor-acetic acids which 
are made by treating the acid with chlorine. They are 


mono-chlor- acetic, di-chlor- acetic, and tri - chlor - acetic acids. 
Their formation is represented by the following equations : — 

C 2 H 3 O.OH + Cl 2 = C 2 H 2 C10.0H + HC1 ; 
C 2 H 2 C10.0H + Cl 2 = C 2 HCl 2 O.OH + HC1 ; 
C 2 HCl 2 O.OH + Cl 2 = C 2 Cl 3 O.OH + HC1. 

When treated with nascent hydrogen they are converted 
back into acetic acid. They yield salts, ethereal salts, anhy- 
drides, etc., just the same as acetic acid itself. 

Theory in regai*d to the relations between the acids, alcohols, 
aldehydes, and hydrocarbons. The reactions and methods of 
formation of acetic acid enable us to form a clear conception in 
regard to the relation of its constituents. In the first place 
the presence of hydroxyl is shown by the reaction with phos- 
phorus trichloride. We hence have C 2 H 3 O.OH as the formula 
representing this idea. But several questions still remain to be 
answered. There is another oxygen atom to be accounted for ; 
and the relations between the hydroxyl and this oxygen must 
be determined if possible. The fact that this second oxygen 
is not readily replaced by chlorine indicates that it is not 
present as hydroxyl, and all methods of testing for hydroxyl 
fail to show its presence in acetyl chloride. Hence we may 
conclude that the second oxygen atom is present as carbonyl 

CO. This leads us to the formula H — C — O — H for the simplest 

acid, or formic acid. Accordingly, formic acid appears as 

carbonic acid, which we commonly represent by the formula 

= C ^ , in which one hydroxyl has been reduced to hydrogen. 

We have already seen that this reduction can be accomplished 
without difficulty. Many other arguments might be brought 
forward in favor of the view that the above formulas express 
the relations between formic and carbonic acids. Now, as 
acetic acid is the homologue of formic acid, we have every 


reason to believe that it differs from the latter in that it con- 
tains methyl in place of the hydrogen, which is in direct com- 
bination with carbon. It must hence be represented by the 

11 •PIT 

formula CH 3 .C - OH or CO ( 3 . The common constituent of 

x OH 

the two acids, is the group C — O — H or — CO.OH, which is gener- 
ally known as carboxyl. Acetic acid is closely related not only 
to formic but to carbonic acid. It may be regarded as carbonic 

acid, CO v 5 in which one hydroxyl is replaced by the radical 

methyl. In a similar way we shall see that all organic acids 
may be regarded as derived either from formic acid or from 
carbonic acid. 

Representing now the simplest hydrocarbon, alcohol, alde- 
hyde, and acid, by the structural formulas deduced from the 
facts, we have 

O (O 

Ci H C\ OH. 

r H 




l H 

• : 




sh gas. 

Methyl alcohol 



Formic acid. 

Concerning the mechanism of the changes caused by oxida- 
tion, but little can be determined b}' experiment. We may 
regard methyl alcohol as the first and simplest product of 
oxidation of marsh gas. Starting with methyl alcohol, we 
might expect the next change to consist in the introduction 

r OH 

of another oxygen atom, giving a body c J 0H . But it ap- 

L H 

pears to be a law that, except under certain peculiar conditions, 

one carbon atom cannot hold two hydroxy Is in combination, 


and that, if such a body is formed, it loses the elements of 
( OH 

water; thus, C j H = c J h+H 2 0. The result would be the 

l H l H 

aldehyde. This kind of change is illustrated in the formation 
of carbon dioxide from the salts of carbonic acid. Instead of 

getting the acid CO < , which we would naturally expect, we 

get this minus water : — 

CO<^ = C0 2 + H 2 0. 

Now, when the aldehyde is oxidized, another oxygen atom is 
introduced, and the substance thus produced is an acid, or the 
hydroxyl hydrogen can be replaced by metals, and has in general 
the characteristics of acid hydrogen. As soon as we have car- 
bon in combination with oxygen as carbonyl, and also with 
hydroxyl, the substance containing the combination is an acid. 

If, finally, the acid C ) OH be oxidized, it is probable that the 


same change takes place as when the alcohol is oxidized. That 

is to say, the hydrogen is probably replaced by hydroxyl, when 
a compound containing two hyclroxyls in combination with one 
carbon atom would be the result. This would be ordinary car- 
bonic acid. But this breaks' up into water and carbon dioxide, 
which, as we know, are the products of oxidation of formic 

All the many representatives^of the great classes of carbon 
compounds known as the alcohols, aldehydes, and acids are 
closely related to the three fundamental substances, methyl 
alcohol, formic aldehyde, and formic acid. Replace one of 

the hydrogen atoms of methyl alcohol by a radical, and we get a 

r OH 

new alcohol, which may be represented by the formula C \ H • 

I E 
So also a similar replacement of a hydrogen atom in formic 



aldehyde gives another aldehyde, C-j II ; and, finally, as we have 

seen, the acids of carbon may be represented by the formulas 

C \ OH or R.CO.OH, or CO < R , which show their relations to 

In OH' 

formic and carbonic acids. Hereafter, in writing the formulas 
of members of the three great classes, the structure will be repre- 
sented by writing the hydroxy 1 group Oil, the aldehyde group 
CHO, and the carboxyl group CO. OH or C0 2 II, separately 
from the rest of the formula. 

5. Ethereal Salts or Compound Ethers. 

Whenever an acid acts upon an alcohol, the acid is neutralized 
either wholly or partly, and a product analogous to the salt-- is 
formed. Thus nitric acid and ethyl alcohol give ethyl nitrate : — 

C 2 H 5 .OH + HN0 3 = C,,H 5 .N0 3 + H 2 0, 

just as nitric acid and potassium hydroxide give potassium 
nitrate. It has been pointed out that the radicals, methyl, CH 3 , 
and ethyl, C 2 II 5 , take the part of metals in the ethereal salts. 
We may thus get a series of methyl and ethyl salts with the 
various acids. 

As regards the preparation of these compounds, it should be 
remarked that the action between an alcohol and an acid does 
not take place as readily as that between an acid and a metallic 
hydroxide. Only a few of the strongest acids act directly 
without aid. Such, for example, are nitric and sulphuric acids. 
though even the latter is not completely neutralized by action 
upon alcohols, as has already been seen in the preparation of 

O H 

ethyl-sulphuric ajcid, 2 5 > S0 4 , for the purpose of making ether. 

Plainly ethyl-sulphuric acid is an acid ethereal salt, analogous 
to acid potassium sulphate. Both are still acid, though both 
are likewise salts. 


The methods which may be used for preparing ethereal salts 
are the following : — 

(1) Treatment of an acid with an alcohol. This is capable 
of only very limited application, as in the case of a few of the 
strongest acids. 

(2) Treatment of the chloride of an acid with alcohol. This 
has been illustrated by the action of acetyl chloride, CII 3 O.Cl, 
upon methyl alcohol (see p. G2) : — 

C 2 H 3 0C1 + HO.CH3 = C 2 H 3 O.OCH 3 + IIC1, 
or CH 3 .COCl + IIO.CH3 = CII 3 .COOCII, 5 + IIC1. 

(3) Treatment of the silver salt of an acid with a halogen 
substitution-product of a hydrocarbon. For example, ethyl 
acetate may be made by treating silver acetate with brom- 
ethane : — 

CH 3 .COOAg + C 2 H 5 Br = CH 3 .COOC 2 H 5 + Agl. 

This reaction is well adapted to showing the relation between 
the salt and the ethereal salt, and leaves no room for doubt that 
the two are strictly analogous. 

(4) Treatment of a mixture of an alcohol and an acid with 
dry hydrochloric acid gas or strong sulphuric acid. The forma- 
tion of ethyl acetate b}' this method was illustrated in Experi- 
ment 19, p. 60. The sulphuric acid facilitates the action by 
uniting with the alcohol to form ethyl-sulphuric acid, which with 
the acid gives the ethereal salt : — 

° 2 :? 5 >S0 4 + CH 3 .COOH = CH 3 .COOC 2 H 5 + H 2 S0 4 . 

The action of the hydrochloric acid is not understood. It is 
possible that it acts upon the acids forming the chloride, and 
that this then acts upon the alcohol, forming the ethereal 
salt : — 

CH 3 .COOH + HC1 = CH 3 .COCl + H 2 ; 

CH 3 .COCl + C 2 H 5 OH = CH 3 .COOC 2 H 5 + HC1. 


Among the more important ethereal salts of methyl and ethyl 
alcohols, the following may be mentioned : — 


Methyl-sulphuric acid, jJ > S0 4 , formed by mixing 

methyl alcohol and sulphuric acid. The acid itself, as well as 
its salts, is very easily soluble in water. 

Ethyl nitrate, 2 H 5 NO 3 , formed by treating alcohol with 
nitric acid. Unless precautions are taken in mixing these 
reagents, complete decomposition of the alcohol will take place, 
and the action will be accompanied by a violent explosion. 

Ethyl-sulphuric acid, 2 TT ° > S0 4 . Made in the same way 

as the methyl compound. The acid and its salts are easily sol- 
uble in water. When boiled with water it is decomposed, 
yielding alcohol and sulphuric acid : — 

° 2 ^ 5 > S0 4 + H 2 = H 2 S0 4 + C 2 H 5 OH. 

Ethyl sulphate, (C 2 H 5 ) 2 S0 4 , is made by passing the vapor 
of sulphur trioxide into well-cooled ether : — 

(C 2 H 5 ) 2 + S0 3 = (C 2 H 5 ) 2 S0 4 . 

Phosphoric acid yields ethyl phosphate, (C 2 H 5 ) 3 P0 4 , di-ethyl-phos- 
phoric acid, (C 2 H 5 ) 2 HP0 4 , and ethyl-phosphoric acid, C 2 H 5 H 2 P0 4 . 

There also are similar derivatives of arsenic, boric, silicic, and 
other mineral acids. 

Of the ethereal salts which the two alcohols form with formic 
and acetic acids, methyl and ethyl acetates are the best known. 
The methods of preparing them have already been considered. 
They are both liquids having pleasant odors. This is indeed a 
characteristic of man}' of the volatile ethereal salts of the acids 
of carbon, and many of the odors of fruits and flowers are due 
to the presence of one or another of these compounds. Many 


of them also are used for flavoring purposes instead of the 
natural substances. 

Experiment 22. Make a mixture of 15 parts (150s) of ordinary 
concentrated sulphuric acid and 6 parts (60s) absolute alcohol. Add 
to it 10 parts (100s) sodium acetate. Distil from a flask. Redistil 
the distillate. The ethyl acetate thus formed boils at 77°. What 
reactions take place in this case? 

Decomposition of ethereal salts. Salts of most metals are 
decomposed when treated with an alkaline hydroxide, as caustic 
soda or caustic potash, the result being a salt of the alkali and 
the hydroxide of the replaced metal, as seen in the case of 
copper sulphate and sodium lvydroxide : — 

CuS0 4 + 2 NaOH = Cu(OH) 2 + 2 Na 2 S0 4 . 

So also the ethereal salts are decomposed when treated with the 
alkalies, though, as a rule, not as readily as salts. It is usually 
necessary to boil the ethereal salt with the alkali when decom- 
position takes place, the radical, like the metal, appearing in 
the form of the hydroxide or alcohol, and the alkali metal taking 
its place. Thus, when ethyl sulphate is treated with a solution 
of caustic potash, this reaction takes place : — 

(C 2 H 5 ) 2 S0 4 + 2 KOH = K 2 S0 4 -f 2 C 2 H 5 .OH ; 

and when ethyl acetate is treated with caustic soda, we have this 
reaction : — 

CH 3 .COOC 2 H 5 + NaOH = CH 3 .COONa + C 2 H 5 OH. 

Experiment 23. In a 500 cc flask put 200 cc water, 50" solid 
caustic potash, and 20 cc ethyl acetate. Connect with an inverted con- 
denser, arranged as shown in Fig. 8. Boil gently for half an hour. 
Now connect the condenser with the flask for distilling, and again boil. 
Examine the distillate for alcohol. Acidify the contents of the flask 
with sulphuric acid, and again distil. What passes over? 

All ethereal salts are decomposed by boiling with the caustic 
alkalies. As this decomposition is best known on the large scale 
in the preparation of soaps, it is commonly called saponification. 



As will be shown, the fats are ethereal salts, and soap-making 
consists in decomposing these fats by means of the alkalies. 
Hence, generally, to saponify any ethereal salt means to decom- 
pose it by means of an alkali into the corresponding alcohol and 
the alkali salt of the acid contained in it. 


6. Ketones or Acetones. 

When an acetate is distilled, a liquid passes over which has 
the composition C 3 H 6 0, and a carbonate remains behind. The 
reaction has been carefully studied, and has been shown to take 
place in accordance with the following equation : — 


> Ca = C 3 H a O + CaC0 3 

The substance C 3 H 6 is known as acetone. It is the best 
known representative of a class of bodies which are sometimes 
called acetones, but more commonly ketones. 

Acetone, 3 H 6 O. — This substance has long been known as 
a product of the distillation of acetates, as above stated. It is 
contained in large quantities in the product obtained in the 


distillation of wood, and may be separated from the mixture 
after the removal of the acetic acid. 

It may be purified by shaking a mixture containing it with a 
concentrated solution of mono-sodium sulphite. It unites with 
the salt, forming a compound analogous to that formed with 
aldehyde. The double compound may be separated, and when 
distilled with the addition of potassium carbonate acetone passes 

Acetone is a colorless liquid having a penetrating pleasant 
ethereal odor. It boils at 56.3°. It is a good solvent for many 
carbon compounds, such as resins, fats, etc. 

On studying the conduct of acetone, it soon becomes evident 
that it more closely resembles the aldehydes than an} r other 
bodies thus far considered. It is plainly not an acid nor an 
alcohol. It acts entirely different from either. It is not an 
ethereal salt, for on boiling with an alkali it does not yield an 
alcohol nor the salt of an acid. On the other hand, it unites 
with the acid sulphites like the aldehydes. Further, when 
treated with phosphorus pentachloride its oxygen is replaced by 
two chlorine atoms thus : — 

C 3 H 6 + PC1 5 = C 3 H 6 C1 2 + POCl 3 ; 

and when treated with nascent hydrogen, it is converted into a 
substance having alcoholic properties. These facts lead us to 
the conclusion that the substance contains carbonyl, CO, as the 
aldehydes do, and we thus have the formula, C 2 H 6 CO. The 
formation from calcium acetate leads further to the belief that 
the group C 4 H 6 really consists of two methyls, as the simplest 
interpretation of the reaction is represented thus : — 

CHlcOO> Ca = S >CO + CaC °=- 

According to this, acetone is a compound of two methyl groups 
and carbonyl, or it is carbon monoxide whose two available 
affinities have been satisfied by two methyl groups. 


We may test the correctness of this view by means of synthe- 
ses. If it is correct, it will be seen that acetone is closely 
related to acet}-l chloride. It is acetyl chloride in which the 
chlorine has been replaced b}- methyl : — 

CH3.CO.Cl CH3.CO.CH3. 

Acetyl chloride. Acetone. 

Now, when acetyl chloride is treated with zinc methyl, Zn(CH 3 ) 2 , 
it yields acetone according to this equation : — 

2 CH3.COCI + Zn(CH 3 ) 2 = 2 CH 3 .CO.CH 3 + ZnCL, 

Farther, acetone may be made by treating carbon monoxide 
with sodium methyl, a direct addition of two methyl groups to 
carbon monoxide being thus effected. The relation between 
acetone and ordinary acetic aldehyde is like that of an ethereal 
salt to its acid ; that is, acetone is aldehyde, CH 3 .COH, in 
which the hydrogen has been replaced by methyl, CH 3 .CO.CH 3 . 

Like the aldehydes, the acetone has the power of taking up 
other substances, such as the acid sulphites, ammonia, hydro- 
cyanic acid, hydrogen, etc. This power is in some way con- 
nected with the relation of the oxygen to the carbon, which is 
the same in both compounds. Nevertheless, this condition of 
the oxygen does not always carry with it the same power as 
seen in the case of the acids which also contain carbonyl. 

By reduction with nascent hydrogen, acetone yields an alco- 
hol of the formula C 3 H 8 0, known as secondary propyl alcohol, 
which when oxidized yields acetone. In other words, the rela- 
tion between this alcohol and acetone is much the same as that 
between ethyl alcohol and acetic aldehyde. But while the alde- 
hyde by further oxidation yields acetic acid b} T simply taking 
up one atom of oxygen, acetone is decomposed by oxidizing 
agents, and yields acetic and carbonic acids. Towards oxidiz- 
ing agents, then, acetones (for it will be shown that other 
acetones conduct themselves in the same way) act entirely 
differently from the aldehydes. The alcohol above mentioned 


as related to acetone is the simplest representative of a class of 
alcohols differing in some respects from the substances com- 
monly called alcohols. 

We have thus considered the most important representatives 
of six classes of oxygen derivatives of the hydrocarbons, and, 
by a study of their chemical conduct and the methods available 
for their preparation, have formed views in regard to the rela- 
tions between them. In our ordinary language we may express 
these relations briefly thus : The alcohols are the hydroxyl 
derivatives of the hydrocarbons or the hydroxides of certain 
groups called radicals; the ethers are the oxides of these same 
radicals ; the aldehydes are compounds consisting of carbonyl, 
hydrogen, and a radical ; the acids are compounds of carbonyl, 
hydroxyl, and a radical, or, better, they are carbonic acid in 
which hydrogen and oxygen, or hydroxyl, have been replaced 
by a radical ; the ethereal salts are compounds like ordinary 
metallic salts, only they contain a radical in the place of the 
metal ; and, finally, the ketones are aldehydes in which the 
distinctively aldehyde hydrogen has been replaced by a radical, 
or they are compounds consisting of carbonyl and two radicals. 

These ideas are expressed in formulas thus, R being any 
univalent radical like methyl, CH 3 , or ethyl, C 2 H 5 : — 

Alcohol . 

. . R-O-H. 

Ether . . . 

. . R-O-R. 

Aldehyde . . 

. . R_c-H. 


Acid . . . 

. . k_C-0-H. 


Ethereal salt 

. . Ac-O-R (in 

R (in which Ac — O— H is sup- 
posed to represent any monobasic acid) . 

Ketone .... R-C— R. 




1. Mercaptans. 

The simplest derivatives of methane and ethane containing 
sulphur are the so-called mercaptans or sulphur alcohols. They 
may be made by a method similar to one described under the 
head of Alcohols. When a mono-halogen derivative of a hydro- 
carbon, as brom -methane, CH 3 Br, is treated with the hydroxide 
of a metal, as silver hydroxide, AgOH, an alcohol is formed : — 

CH 3 Br + AgOH = CH 3 OH + AgBr. 

So, also, when a similar halogen derivative is treated with a 
hydrosulphide instead of a hydroxide, a compound is obtained 
which we may regard as an alcohol in which the oxygen has 
been replaced by sulphur : — 

CH 3 Br + KSH = CH 3 SH + KBr. 

The compound is called a mercaptan. 

Ethyl-mercaptan, C 2 H 5 . SH. — This substance may be pre- 
pared by treating iodo-ethane, C 2 H 5 I, with an alcoholic solu- 
tion of potassium hydrosulphide, KSH ; also by distilling a 
mixture of the concentrated solutions of potassium ethylsul- 
phate and potassium hydrosulphide : — 

C ^ 5 > SO, -|- KSH = K 2 S0 4 + C 2 H 5 SH. 

It is a liquid of an extremely disagreeable odor; it boils at 37° , 
and is difficultly soluble in water. 


The name "mercaptan" was given to it on account of its 
action towards mercmy. It readily forms a compound in which 
mercury takes the place of hydrogen, (C 2 H 5 S) 2 Hg. The name 
refers to its power of seizing mercury (mercurius and captans) . 
It forms many other well-characterized metallic derivatives like 
this mercury compound. 

When the sodium compound of mercaptan is exposed to the 
air, it takes up oxygen. So, also, when mercaptan itself is 
treated with nitric acid, it is oxidized, the product having the 
formula C 2 H 5 . S0 3 H. It will thus be seen that, though in com- 
position mercaptan is analogous to alcohol, towards oxidizing 
agents it conducts itself quite differently. In the case of alco- 
hol two atoms of hydrogen are replaced by one of oxygen. In 
the case of mercaptan three atoms of oxygen are added directly 
to the molecule. It will be shown that this new acid, which is 
called ethyl- sulphonic acid, bears to sulphuric acid a relation 
similar to that which acetic acid bears to carbonic acid ; and 
that it bears to sulphurous acid a relation similar to that which 
acetic acid bears to formic acid. 

When treated with phosphorus pentachloride it yields a chlo- 
ride, C 2 H 5 .S0 2 C1 ; and, when this is treated with nascent hydro- 
gen (zinc and hydrochloric acid) , it is reduced to mercaptan : — 

C 2 H 5 .S0 2 C1 + 6H = C 2 H 6 .SH + HC1 + 2 H 2 0. 

2. Sulphur Ethers. 

There are compounds known similar to the ethers, containing 
sulphur in the place of the oxygen of the ethers. Such are 
methyl-sulphide, (CH 3 ) 2 S, and ethyl-sulphide, (C 2 H 5 ) 2 S. These" 
are made by treating brom- or iodo-methane or ethane with 
potassium sulphide : — 

2 C 2 H 5 I + K 2 S = (C 2 H 5 ) 2 S -J- EX 

They are liquids of very disagreeable odors. 


3. Sulphonic Acids. 

It was stated above, that when mercaptan is oxidized it is 
converted into an acid of the formula C 2 H 5 .S0 3 H, or ethyl-sul- 
phonic acid. This is the representative of a large class of 
bodies which are commonly made by treating carbon compounds 
with sulphuric acid. These sulphonic acids can best be studied 
in connection with another series of hydrocarbons. Under the 
head of Benzene (which see) it will be shown that, when this 
hydrocarbon is treated with sulphuric acid, a reaction takes 
place which may be represented thus : — 

Oft, + ho >S ° 2 = H0 5>S ° 2 + H2 °- 

Benzene. Benzene-sulphonic acid. 

The sulphonic acid thus obtained may be made also by oxi- 
dizing the corresponding mercaptan or Irydrosulphide, C 6 H 5 . SH. 
Accordingly, the sulphonic acid appears to be sulphuric acid in 
which a hydroxyl has been replaced by the radical C 6 H 5 . Rea- 
soning by analogy, which, fortunately, is supported by other 
arguments, we may conclude that ethyl-sulphonic acid formed 
from ethyl-mercaptan bears a similar relation to sulphuric acid, 

C H 
and corresponds to the formula * 5 >S0 2 . So, also, methyl- 

sulphonic acid obtained by oxidation of methyl-mercaptan 

should be represented by the formula 3 >S0 2 or CH 3 .S0 2 OH. 

Its relation to sulphuric acid is the same as that of acetic acid to 
carbonic acid. 

Another method by which the sulphonic acids may be prepared 
consists in treating a sulphite with a halogen substitution-product. 
Thus ethyl-sulphonic acid may be prepared from potassium sul- 
phite and iodo-ethane : — 

C 2 H 6 I + f r > S0 3 = C &* > S0 3 + KI, 

Iv Jv 

or C 2 H 5 I + K ^ > S0 2 = C ^ 5 > S0 2 + KI. 



According to this reaction the sulphuric acids would appear to 
be identical with the ethereal salts of sulphurous acid, but they 
do not conduct themselves like ethereal salts. The difference 
is particularly noticeable in connection with the stability, the 
sulphonic acids as a class being much more stable than the 
ethereal salts as a class. At present it would be somewhat 
premature to discuss fully the question as to their relations. 
Whatever we may call them, they are closely related to sulphu- 
rous acid, and are derived from it by replacement of hydro- 
gen by a radical, just as acetic acid may be regarded as derived 
from formic acid by replacement of hydrogen by a radical. 
These relations may be represented by the following form- 
ulas : — 

Carbonic acid, CO < 

Formic acid, CO < 

Acetic acid, 

Any carbonic 


CO < CHs . 

Sulphuric acid, 

Sulphurous acid, 

S0 2 < 

S0 2 < 



Methyl-sulphonic acid, S0 2 < 

An}' sulphonic acid, S0 2 < 


CH 3 


The difference between a sulphonic acid and an ethereal salt of 
sulphuric acid should be specially noticed. Compare for this 


2 * > S0 2 , and ethyl-sulphonic 

purpose ethyl-sulphuric acid, 

1 H 

acid, * 5 > S0 2 . Both are monobasic acids, and both contain 

ethyl, but there is a difference of one atom of oxygen in their 
composition. The reactions of the substances are such as to 
lead to the conclusion that in ethyl-sulphonic acid the ethyl 
group is directly connected with the sulphur ; whereas, that in 
ethyl-sulphuric acid the connection is established by means of 
oxygen. The strongest argument in favor of this view is 
perhaps that which is founded on the formation of the sulphonic 
acids b}* oxidation of the hydrosulphides or mercaptans. It 


can hardly be doubted that in ethyl mercaptan the sulphur is in 
direct combination with the ethyl ; or, to go still farther, that 
it is in combination with carbon as represented in the formula 

H 3 C — C — S — H. Now, by oxidation of mercaptan, three atoms 

of oxygen are added, and the simplest view we can take of the 
reaction is that the sulphur is left undisturbed in its relations to 
ethyl, but that it has taken up the oxygen, as represented in the 
formula C 2 H 5 — S0 2 .OH. As has been shown, the oxygen can 
be removed again by nascent hydrogen, and the result is mer- 
captan. The study of the sul phonic acids in their relations to 
sulphuric and sulphurous acids has been of considerable assist- 
ance in enabling chemists to form conceptions in regard to the 
relations of the constituents of the two latter. The view which 
is forced upon us by a consideration of the reactions described 
above is that sulphurous acid differs from sulphuric acid in 
containing a hydrogen atom in place of hydroxyl, as represented 

in the formulas S0 2 < and S0 2 < ; and, further, that in 

sulphurous acid one hydrogen is in combination with sulphur 
and the other with oxygen. 



The simplest compounds of carbon containing nitrogen are 
cyanogen and hydrocyanic acid. Strictly speaking, neither can 
be regarded as a derivative of a hydrocarbon, unless indeed we 
consider hydrocyanic acid as marsh gas, in which three hydro- 



gen atoms have been replaced by one nitrogen : C -j and 

is lH 

C < . That, however, is a mere matter of words, as there is 
( H 

nothing in the conduct of either substance, or in the methods of 
formation of hydrocyanic acid, that would lead us to suspect 
any relation between them. Though cyanogen and hydrocyanic 
acid are therefore not to be considered as derivatives of the 
hydrocarbons, they form the starting-point for the preparation 
of so many important compounds that they and their simpler 
derivatives must receive some consideration at this stage. 

Cyanogen, (CN) 2 . — All organic compounds which contain 
nitrogen give sodium cyanide when ignited with sodium. So, 
also, potassium cyanide is formed when charcoal containing 
nitrogen is heated with potassium carbonate. Cyanogen itself 
is most readily made by heating mercuric cyanide, Hg(CN) 2 . 
The decomposition which takes place is, in the main, like the 
simple decomposition of mercuric oxide in preparing oxygen : — 

Hg(CN) 2 =Hg + (CN) 2 ; 
HgO = Hg + O. 



But, in heating mercuric cyanide, a black solid substance, para- 
cyanogen, is formed, and remains behind in the retort. It has 
the same composition as cyanogen, and is therefore a polymeric 

Cyanogen is a colorless gas of a penetrating odor. It burns 
with a blue flame, from which fact it receives its name (*vavos, 
blue) . It is easily soluble in water and alcohol, and it must 
therefore be collected over mercury. It is extremely poisonous. 

In aqueous solution, cyanogen soon undergoes change, and a 
brown amorphous body is deposited. In the solution are found 
hydrocyanic acid, oxalic acid, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. 
A little dilute acid prevents this decomposition. 

Hydrocyanic acid, HCN. — This acid, which is com- 
monly known by the name of prussic acid, occurs in nature 
in amygdalin, in combination with other substances, in bitter 
almonds, the leaves of the cherry, laurel, etc. It is prepared 
by decomposing metallic cyanides with hydrochloric acid, as 
represented in the equation : — 

KCN + HC1 = KC1 + HCN. 
It may also be made by treating chloroform with ammonia : — 

CHC1 3 + NH 3 = HCN + 3 HC1, 
or CHC1 8 + 5 NH 3 = NH 4 .CN + 3 NH 4 C1. 

It is a volatile liquid, boiling at 2G.5°, which solidifies at — 15°. 
It has a very characteristic odor, suggesting bitter almonds. It 
is extremely p>oisonous. It dissolves in water in all proportions, 
and it is such a solution which is known as prussic acid. Pure 
hydrocyanic acid is very unstable. By standing, a brown body 
is deposited. By boiling with alkalies or acids, it is converted 
into formic acid and ammonia (see p. 5G). 

IPvdrocyanic acid may be detected by the fact that when its 
solution is saturated with caustic potash, and a solution contain- 
ing a ferrous and a ferric salt added, a precipitate of Prussian 


blue is formed ; or, by adding yellow ammonium sulphide to its 
solution, evaporating off the excess of ammonium sulphide, and 
then adding a drop of solution of ferric chloride. If hydrocy- 
anic acid was present, the solution turns a deep blood red. 

Cyanides. — Hydrocyanic, like hydrochloric acid, forms a 
series of salts. They are called the cyanides. Only the cyan- 
ides of the alkali metals are soluble in water. The cyanides 
of the heavy metals have a marked tendency to form double 
cyanides, and those double cyanides which contain an alkali 
metal are soluble in water. Hence, the precipitates formed by 
potassium cyanide, in solutions containing the heavy metals, are 
dissolved by excess of the cyanide. 

Among the best known double cyanides are the two salts, 
potassium ferrocyanide and potassium ferricyanide. The former 
is commonly known as yelloiv prussiate of potash, and the latter 
as red prussiate of 'potash. 

Potassium ferrocyanide, 4 KCN.Fe(CN) 2 + 3 H,0. — 
This salt is made on the large scale by melting together, in iron 
vessels, refuse animal substances (i.e., organic matter contain- 
ing nitrogen) with potassium carbonate and iron. The mass is 
treated with water, and the salt which is thus extracted puri- 
fied by crystallization. 

It crystallizes in large 3-ellow crystals, and is soluble in about 
four parts of water at 15°. 

When ignited, it breaks up according to this equation : — 

4 KCN.Fe(CN) 2 = 4 KCN + FeC 2 + N 2 . 

This decomposition is made use of for the purpose of preparing 
potassium cyanide. As, however, a portion of the cyanogen is 
lost in this way, potassium carbonate is generally added, when 
the reactiou represented by the following equation takes 
place : — 

4 KCN. Fe(CN) 2 + K 2 C0 3 = 5 KCN + KCNO + C0 2 + Fe. 


The potassium cyanide made in this way always necessarily con- 
tains potassium cyanate, KCNO. 

Experiment 24. 1 Make a mixture of 8 parts (160S) dehydrated 
potassium ferrocyanide and 3 parts (G(X) dry potassium carbouate. 
Fuse in an iron crucible, at a low red heat, until a specimen taken 
out and placed on a stone is white when solid. Then pour out on a 
flat, smooth stone, and afterwards break up and put in a dry bottle. 

When treated with dilute sulphuric acid, the ferrocyanide 
yields hydrocyanic acid thus : — 

2 [4 KCN.Fe(CN) 2 ] + 3 H 2 S0 4 

= 6 HCN + 2 [KCN.Fe(CN) 2 ] + 3 K 2 S0 4 . 

This reaction is the one actually made use of for the prepara- 
tion of hydrocyanic acid. 

Potassium ferrocyanide is the starting-point for the prepara- 
tion of all compounds containing cj^anogen. 

K 2 

Potassium ferricyanide, 3 KCN.Fe(CN) 3 - — This salt, 
known as red prussiate of potash, is prepared by oxidizing the 
ferrocyanide. The oxidation is effected most readily by means 
of chlorine. 

Experiment 25. Pass chlorine into a solution of potassium ferro- 
cyanide until the solution ceases to give a precipitate with ferric chlo- 
ride. Then evaporate to crystallization. 

Other oxidizing agents, such as bromine, potassium perman- 
ganate, lead peroxide, etc., effect the same transformation. 
The essential part of the change is that of the ferrous cyanide, 
Fe(CN) 2 , in the ferrocyanide, to ferric cyanide, Fe(CN) 3 , which 
is in the ferricyanide. Potassium ferricyanide is easily soluble 
in water, and crystallizes from its concentrated solutions in 
large, dark-red crystals belonging to the rhombic system. 

In alkaline solutions it is an excellent oxidizing agent. 

1 Experiments 24 and 26 may be postponed until urea is considered, when they may 
be combined with the artificial preparation of urea. 


Reducing agents, such as hydrogen sulphide, sodium thio- 
sulphate (hyposulphite), etc., convert it into the yellow salt. 

Prussian blue, TurnbulVs blue, soluble Prussian blue, and 
Berlin green are complex cyanides of iron represented by the 


4Fe(CN) 3 .3Fe(CN) 2 , 

3Fe(CN),.2Fe(CN) 3 , 

KCN.Fe(CN) 3 .Fe(CN) 2 , 

and Fe 3 (CN) 8 -f- 4H 2 0, respectively. 

For a full account of the many compounds of the metals and 
cyanogen, the student is referred to larger works. 

Cyanogen chlorides. — When chlorine is allowed to act 
upon cyanides or dilute hydrocyanic acid, a volatile liquid is 
formed which has the composition represented by the formula 
CNC1. It boils at 15.5°, and its vapor acts upon the eyes, 
causing tears. It is known as liquid cyanogen chloride to dis- 
tinguish it from solid cyanogen chloride. The latter has the 
formula (CN) 3 C1 3 , and is formed by treating anhydrous hydro- 
cyanic acid with chlorine in direct sunlight. The liquid variety 
is partially transformed into the solid when kept in sealed 

Similar compounds of cyanogen with bromine and iodine are 

Cyanic acid, CONH. — When a cyanide of an alkali is 
treated with an oxidizing agent, it takes up oxygen and is con- 
verted into a cyanate : — 

CNK + O = CONK. 

Experiment 26. 1 Heat a mixture of 8 parts (160?) dehydrated 
potassium ferrocyanide, and 3 parts (GO k) dry potassium carbonate in an 
iron crucible. When the transformation into the cyanide is complete 
(see Ex. 24, p. 82), take the crucible out of the furnace ; and, after it 

See Note, p. 82. 


has cooled down somewhat, but while the mass is still liquid, add 
gradually 15 parts (300s) red lead, stirring during the operation. Put 
the crucible again in the furnace for a little while ; allow the reduced 
lead to settle, and then pour out the contents on a smooth stone. After 
the mass is cold, break up and extract the cyanate with alcohol (of 86 
per cent). 

Cyanic acid cannot be separated from its salts, as it breaks 
up with water into ammonia and carbon dioxide : — 

CONH + H 2 = NH 3 + C0 2 . 

The potassium salt is easily soluble in water, but is easily 
decomposed by it, yielding ammonia and potassium carbon- 
ate : — 

CONK + 2 H,0 = KIIC0 3 + NH 3 . 

The most interesting salt of cyanic acid is ammonium cyanate, 
CON.NH 4 . It may be made by adding ammonium sulphate to 
a solution of the potassium salt. It is easily soluble in water ; 
but, if allowed to stand in solution, or if its solution be heated, 
it is completely transformed into urea, which is isomeric with it. 
The interest connected with this transformation was referred to 
in the introductory chapter (p. 1). It will be considered more 
fully under the head of urea. 

Cyanuric acid, C 3 N 3 H 3 03. — This acid bears a relation to 
cyanic acid similar to that which solid cyanogen chloride, 
(CN) 3 C1 3 , bears to the liquid variety. It is made by treating 
the solid chloride with water, and also by heating urea. It is 
a crystallized substance. 

Sulpho-cyanic acid, CNSH. — Just as the cj'anides of the 
alkalies take up oxj-gen and are converted into cyanates, so also 
they take up sulphur and are converted into sulpho-cyanates : — 

CNK + S = CNSK. 



Experiment 27. Melt together in an iron crucible 17 parts (85e) 
dry potassium carbonate and 32 parts (160?) sulphur, and then add 46 
parts (230=) powdered dehydrated potassium ferrocyanide. Keep the 
mass at a low red heat until the ferrocyanide is destroyed. After 
cooling, extract with water, neutralize the filtered solution with sul- 
phuric acid, evaporate, and separate from potassium sulphate by means 
of alcohol. 

Potassium sulpho-cyanate crystallizes in long striated prisms 
without water of crystallization. It is deliquescent. When 
dissolved in water the temperature sinks markedly. When 100 
parts of water of 10.8° are mixed with 150 parts of the salt, the 
temperature sinks to —23.7°. By evaporation of the solution, 
the salt can be recovered. 

Experiment 28. Dissolve some potassium sulpho-cyanate in water, 
and note the temperature before and after introducing the salt. 

Ammonium sulpho-cyanate, CNS..NH 4 . This salt is most 
easily prepared by treating carbon bisulphide with a solution of 
ammonia in dilute alcohol : — 

CS 2 + 4 NH 8 = CNS.NH 4 -f (NH 4 ) 2 S. 

Experiment 29. Mix 240 cc strong aqueous ammonia, 240 cc alcohol, 
and 60s carbon bisulphide. Allow the mixture to stand for one or 
more days. Then distil down to one-third of the original volume, and 
filter while still hot the solution left in the flask. On cooling, ammo- 
nium sulpho-cyanate will crystallize out. 

The salt crystallizes in plates. It melts at 147° (try it), 
and at 170° it is transformed into the isomeric substance known 
as sulpho-urea. (Analogy to transformation of ammonium 

Having thus considered some of the more important simpler 
cyanogen compounds, we may now return to the nitrogen deriv- 
atives of the hydrocarbons. For convenience, these may be 
divided into three classes : — 

(1) Those ivhich are related to cyanogen; 

(2) Those which are related to ammonia; 

(3) Those which are related to nitric acid. 



Methyl cyanide, CH 3 .CN. — This compound is formed by 
distilling a mixture of potassium methyl-sulphate and potas- 
sium cyanide : — 

°^ 3 >S0 4 + KCN = K 2 S0 4 + CH 3 CN. 

It is a liquid boiling at 82°. 

According to the method of preparation, it must be regarded 
as an ethereal salt of hydrocyanic acid, containing methyl in the 
place of the potassium of the potassium salt. 

Ethyl cyanide, C 2 H 5 .CN. — Formed like the methyl com- 
pound. Also by heating chlor-ethane with potassium cya- 
nide : — 

C 2 H 5 C1 + KCN = C 2 H 5 .CN + KC1. 

It is a liquid boiling at 98°. 

The two most characteristic reactions of these cyanides are 
(1) that which is effected bj' caustic alkalies, and (2) that 
effected by nascent hydrogen. 

When methyl cyanide is treated with caustic potash, it 3-ields 
acetic acid and ammonia : — 

CH 3 .CN + H 2 + KOH = CH3.CO0K + NH 3 . 

This reaction is strictly analogous to that which takes place 
with hydrocyanic acid yielding formic acid (see p. 56). In 
the same way ethyl cyanide yields an acid of the formula 
C 3 H 6 2 (or C 2 H 5 .C0 2 H). Thus, by making a cyanide, we have 
it in our power to make an acid containing the same number of 
carbon atoms. 

This reaction, therefore, enables us to pass from an alcohol 
to an acid containing one atom of carbon more than the abohol 
contains. It has been of great service in the study of the com- 
pounds of carbon. 


Note for Student. — Show how, by starting with methyl-alcohol, 
acetic acid may be made by passing through the cyanide. 

There are two ways in which we maj* consider the cyanogen 
group linked to methyl in methyl cyanide; viz., either by the 
carbon atom, as represented in the formula H 3 C — C— N, or 
by the nitrogen atom, as represented thus, H 3 C— N— C. The 
ease with which the nitrogen is separated from the compound, 
leaving the two carbon atoms together, as shown in the reaction 
with caustic potash, naturally leads to the conclusion that the 
former view is the correct one. If it is correct, it would appear 
to follow that in potassium cyanide the potassium is in combi- 
nation with carbon as represented in the formula K— C— N, 
and further that in hydrocyanic acid the hydrogen is in combi- 
nation with carbon, as shown thus, H — C— N. 

In consequence of the close relation existing between the 
cyanides and the acids, the former are frequently spoken of as 
the nitrites of the acids. Thus methyl cyanide, which is con- 
verted into acetic acid by boiling with caustic potash, is called 
the nitrile of acetic acid, or aceto-nitrile. In the same way 
hydrocyanic acid itself may be regarded as the nitrile of formic 
acid, or formo-nitrile. 

When methyl cyanide is treated with nascent hydrogen, it is 
converted into a substance which closely resembles ammonia, 
and is known as ethyl-amine. It will be shown to bear to 

(C 2 H 5 
ammonia the relation indicated by the formula N ) H ; i.e., it 

(H # 
is ammonia in which one hydrogen has been replaced by ethyl. 

The reaction may be represented by the equation : — 

H 3 C-C-N + 4 H = H 3 C-H 2 C-NH 2 1 or N j h )• 

This transformation strengthens the conclusion already reached, 
that the two carbon atoms in methyl c}^anide are directly united. 
If this were not the case, it is difficult to see how a compound 


containing ethyl in which the two carbon atoms are unquestion- 
ably united, coulcl be formed so easily from it. 

Just as methyl cyanide yields ethyl-amine when treated with 
nascent hydrogen, so hydrocyanic acid yields methyl-amine 

( CH 3 

N)H : — 

<h ( fCH,\ 

H-C-N -f 4H = H 3 C-NH 2 or N |h l 

The amines, or substituted ammonias, will be considered more 
full}' hereafter. 


If, in making an ethereal salt of hydrocyanic from a salt, the 
silver salt be used, a compound is obtained having the same 
composition as the cyanide, but differing very markedly from 
it. The substance thus obtained is called an isocyanide or car- 

Ethyl isocyanide or ethyl carbamine, C 2 H 5 .NC.— This 
compound is obtained when silver cyanide and iodo-ethane are 
heated together : — 

C 2 H 5 I + AgNC = C 2 H 5 NC + Agl. 

It is also formed when chloroform and ethyl-amine (see above) 
are brought together : — 

CHCI3 + n] h * = C 2 H 5 NC + 3HC1. 

It is a liquid boiling at 79°. It is characterized by an unbear- 
able, indescribable odor. The methyl compound obtained by 
the same method boils at 58° to 59°, but otherwise has proper- 
ties almost identical with those of ethyl isocyanide. 


The reactions of these substances are quite different from 
those of the cyanides. They are decomposed only with great 
difficulty by the caustic alkalies ; but, when brought together 
with hydrochloric acid, the}' undergo an interesting change, 
which may be represented by the following equation for the 
methyl compound : — 

CH 3 .NC + 2H 2 = CH 3 -NH 2 + H.C0 2 H. 

Methyl-amine. Formic acid. 

This reaction indicates that in the isocyanides the cyanogen 
group is united to the radical by means of nitrogen, as repre- 
sented by the formula H 3 C — N — C. Hence it is, in all proba- 
bility, that when they undergo decomposition the nitrogen 
remains in combination with the radical, while the carbon of 
the cyanogen group passes out of the compound. The conduct 
of ethyl isocyanide is represented by the equation : — 

C 2 H 5 .NC + 2H 2 = C 2 H 5 -NH 2 + H.C0 2 H. 

The reactions of the cyanides and of the isocyanides, and 
the conclusions drawn from them, admirably illustrate the 
methods used in determining the structure of compounds of 
carbon ; and they are specially valuable, as the connection 
between the facts and the conclusions, as expressed in the 
formulas, can be traced so clearly. 

The fact, that the silver salt of hydrocyanic acid yields iso- 
cyanides, while the potassium and other salts yield cyanides with 
the halogen derivatives of the hydrocarbons, leads us to suspect 
that in silver cyanide the metal may be in combination with 
nitrogen and not with carbon. There are other facts known 
which indicate a tendency on the part of silver to unite with 
nitrogen in carbon compounds. It would lead too far to discuss 
this subject here. 

It seems possible that isomeric salts of cyanogen may be dis- 
covered corresponding to the cyanides of the radicals and to the 
isocyanides. There is no fact known which makes the exist- 


ence of two potassium cyanides and two silver cyanides seem 
improbable. The two series of salts would be derivatives 
of hydroc3 T anic acid, H — C— N, and isohydrocyanic acid, 

Experiment 30. The odor of the isocyanides, as has been stated, 
is extremely disagreeable, and in concentrated form it is unbearable. 
A vivid impression in regard to this property may be produced by the 
following experiment. In a test-tube bring together a little chloroform, 
aniline, and alcoholic potash. The reaction takes place at once. It is 
better to perform the experiment out-of-doors, and in such a place that 
the tube with its contents can be thrown away without molesting any 
one. The aniline used is a substituted ammonia analogous to methyl- 
amine, containing the radical C 6 H 5 in place of methyl. The isocyanide 

Cyanates and Isocyanates. 

There are two series of compounds bearing to cyanic acid 
much the same relation as that which the cyanides and isocyan- 
ides bear to hydrocyanic acid. 

In the cyanates, which are made by passing cyanogen chloride 
into the alcohols (CH 3 OH + CNC1 = CH 3 OCN + HC1) , the radi- 
cal is believed to be united to the cyanogen group by means of 
oxygen, as represented in the formula CH 3 — O — CN. 

In the isocyanates (first called cyanates) , on the other hand, 
the radical is believed to be united to the cyanogen by means 
of nitrogen, as represented thus, CH 3 — N— CO. The isocyan- 
ates are made by distilling potassium cyanate with the potassium 
salt of methyl- or ethyl-sulphuric acid. They may be made also 
by bringing together the iodides of radicals, as iodo-methane 
and silver cyanate. They are very volatile substances, which 
have penetrating and suffocating odors. 

One of the principal reactions of the cyanates is that which 
they undergo with caustic alkalies, hydrochloric acid, etc. The} 7 
yield cyanic acid, and a compound containing the radical which 
they contained. 


The isocyanates readily yield substituted ammonias, just as 
the isocyanides do : — 

C 2 H 5 -N-CO + H 2 = C 2 H 5 .NH 2 + C0 2 ; 
CH 3 -N-CO + H 2 = CH 3 .NH 2 + C0 2 . 

The views held in regard to the structure of the cyanates and 
isocyanates are based upon these reactions, which, as will be 
observed, are very similar to those more fully considered in 
discussing the difference between the cyanides and isocyanides. 

The existence of two cyanic acids, and of two series of salts 
derived from them, seems probable. 


The ethereal salts of sulphocyanic acid are easily made by 
distilling potassium sulphocyanate and the potassium salt of 
methyl- or ethyl-sulphuric acid : — 

C ^ 3 >S0 4 + KSCN = CH 3 SCN + K 2 S0 4 . 

The ethyl compound, which is very similar to the methyl com- 
pound, is a liquid boiling at 146°. 

When boiled with nitric acid, it is oxidized to ethyl-sulphonic 
acid. Now, it has been shown above (see p. 77), that in ethyl- 
sulphonic acid the ethyl in all probability is in combination with 
the sulphur. It hence follows that, in the sulphocyanates 
obtained from potassium sulphocyanate, the radical is also 
in combination with sulphur, as indicated in the formula, 
C 2 H 5 — S — CN. This view is supported by the fact that ethyl 
sulpho-cyanate readily yields ethyl sulphide as a product of 


A number of compounds are known isomeric with the sulpho- 
cyanates. The best-known member of the class is ordinary 
mustard-oil. Hence they have been called mustard-oils, and 


they are known most frequently by this name. The mustard- 
oils are made by means of a series of somewhat complicated 
reactions, which it is rather difficult to interpret without a com- 
parison with some similar reactions which take place between 
simpler substances. 

When dry ammonia and dry carbon dioxide act upon each 
other, so-called anhydrous ammonium carbonate is formed. This 


is really the ammonium salt of carbamic acid, CO < on 2 . Its 
formation is represented thus : — 

C0 2 + 2NH 3 = CO<^. 

Now, remembering that carbon bisulphide is similar to carbon 
dioxide, and that ethyl-amine is similar to ammonia, we can 
readily understand the reaction which takes place when these 
two substances are brought together : — 

CS 2 + 2 NH 2 C 2 H 5 = CS < NHC 2 H 5 

S(NH 3 C 2 H 5 ) 

The product formed is the ethyl- ammonium salt of the acid 

NTTC" 1 tt 

CS < 2 5 , which maybe called ethyl- sulpho-carbamic acid. 

"When the ethyl- ammonium salt is treated with silver nitrate, the 

NTTC 1 tt 

corresponding silver salt, CS < 2 5 , is precipitated. And 

finally, when this salt is distilled, it breaks up, yielding ethyl 
mustard-oil, silver sulphide, and hydrogen sulphide : — 

2CS< NHCsH5 = SC-NC 2 H 5 + H 2 S + AgS. 

Ethyl mustard-oil is an oily liquid which does not mix with 
water. It has a very penetrating odor, and acts upon the 
mucous membranes of the eyes and nose in the same way as 
ordinary oil of mustard. The properties of the two are so much 
alike that one could be substituted for the other. 


Some of the arguments have been stated which lead to the 
view that in the sulpho-cyanates the radical is in combination 
with sulphur. Having once accepted this view, we would 
naturally suspect that in the mustard-oils the radical is in com- 
bination with nitrogen, and the question arises whether the 
reactions of these bodies are of such a character as to justify 
this suspicion? They certainly are. In the first place, when 
heated with water or with hydrochloric acid, ethyl mustard-oil is 
decomposed, yielding ethyl-amine, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen 
sulphide : — 

SC-NC 2 H 5 + 2 H 2 = C 2 H 5 .NH 2 + H 2 S + C0 2 . 

And, in the second place, nascent hydrogen converts it into 
ethyl-amine and formic thioaldehyde (i.e., formic aldehyde in 
which the oxygen has been replaced by sulphur) : — 

SC-NC 2 H 5 + 4H = C 2 H 5 .NH 2 + H 2 CS. 

Thus, as will be seen, the tendency of the sulpho-cyanates is to 
yield sulphides of the radicals like ethyl sulphide, (C 2 H 5 ) 2 S ; 
the tendency of the iso-sulpho-cyanates is to yield substituted 
ammonias, like ethyl-amine NH 2 .C 2 H 5 . These facts point to 
the relations expressed in the formulas, R — S— CN for the 
sulpho-cyanates, and R— N— CS for the iso-sulpho-cyanates or 

In reviewing now the compounds of the hydrocarbons which 
are related to cyanogen, we sec that there are two isomeric 
series of these, the names and general formulas of which are 
given below : — 

Cyanides, R—C—N . . . Isocyanides or \ ^ ^ „ 

Carbamines, i 

Cyanates, R— O — CN . . . Isocyanates, R — N— CO. 

Sulpho-cyanates, R — S — CN . Iso-sulpho-cyan- 
ates or Mus- ) 
tard oils, 


Note for Student. — Study these compounds until the exact con- 
nection between the formulas and the facts above stated is clearly 

Substituted Ammonias. 

When brom-ethane or any similar substitution-product is 
treated with ammonia, the reactions represented by the follow- 
ing equations take place step by step : — 

C 2 H 5 Br + NH 3 = NH 2 (C 2 H 5 ) . HBr ; 

C 2 H 5 Br + NH 2 (C 2 H 5 ) = NH(C 2 H 5 ) 2 . HBr ; 
C 2 H 5 Br + NH(C 2 H 5 ) 2 = N(C 2 H 5 ) 3 .HBr ; 

C 2 H 5 Br + N(C 2 H 5 ) 3 = N(C 2 H 5 ) 4 Br. 

The first three products are salts of hydrobromic acid, and 
bodies which in all their properties very closely resemble 
ammonia. When these salts are distilled with potassium 
hydroxide they are decomposed, just as ammonium bromide 
would be. Only instead of getting ammonia and potassium 
bromide, we get the compounds ethyl-am me, NH 2 .C 2 H 5 , di-ethyl- 
amine, NH(C 2 H 5 ) 2 , and tri-ethyl-amine, N(C 2 H 5 ) 3 . These 
substances may be regarded as derived from ammonia by the 
replacement of one, two, and three of the hydrogen atoms 
respectively by ethyl. The last product of the series of reac- 
tions represented above may be regarded as ammonium bromide, 
NH 4 Br, in which all four hydrogen atoms are replaced by ethyl 

The decomposition by potassium hydroxide of the first two 
salts is represented thus : — 

NH 2 (C 2 H 5 ).HBr + KOH = NH 2 (C 2 H 5 ) + KBr + II 2 ; 
NH(C 2 H 5 ) 2 .HBr + KOH = NH(C 2 H 5 ) 2 + KBr + H 2 0. 

Methyl-amine, NH 2 .CH 3 . — This compound may be pre- 
pared by treating iodo-methane with ammonia : — 

CH 3 I + NH 3 = NH 2 CH 3 .HI. /;">- 


It was first made by treating methyl isocyanate, CH 3 — N — CO, 
with caustic potash : — 

CH3-N-CO + H 2 = NH 2 .CH 3 + C0 2 . 

It has been stated that it is formed by treating hydrocyanic 
acid with nascent hydrogen : — 

HCN + 4H = NH 2 .CH 3 . 

It occurs in nature in herring brine, and is one of the products 
of the distillation of animal matter as well as of wood. It is 
now prepared on the large scale from certain waste products 
obtained in the refining of beet sugar (see Tri-methyl-amine) . 

Methyl-amine is a gas not easily condensed to a liquid. It 
smells like ammonia. It is, like ammonia, extremely easily 
soluble in water, 1 volume of water at 12.5° taking up 1150 
volumes of the gas. This solution acts almost exactly like a 
solution of ammonia in water. It is strongly alkaline. It pre- 
cipitates the metallic hydroxides, but, unlike ammonia, it does 
not redissolve precipitated hydroxides of nickel, cobalt, and 
cadmium when added in excess. Further, aluminium hydrox- 
ide dissolves in methyl-amine, but not in ammonia. 

Methyl-amine forms salts with acids in the same way that 
ammonia does ; that is, by direct addition. The action towards 
nitric and sulphuric acids takes place in accordance with the 
following equations : — 

NH 2 CH 3 + HN0 3 = NH 3 CH 3 .N0 3 ; 
2 NH 2 CH 3 + H 2 S0 4 = (NH 3 CH 3 ) 2 S0 4 . 

These salts are called methyl-ammonium nitrate and methyl- 
ammonium sulphate respectively. 

Di-methyl-amine, NH(CH 3 ) 2 . — This is formed by heating 
iodo-methane with alcoholic ammonia : — 

2CH 3 I + 2NH 3 = NH(CH 3 ) 2 .HI + NH 4 I. 


It is formed, together with methyl-amine, as a product of the 
distillation of wood. 

It is a gas which condenses to a liquid at +8°. Its proper- 
ties are much like those of methyl-amine. 

Tri-methyl-amine, N(CH 3 ) 3 . — Tri-methyl-amine is formed 
as one of the products of the treatment of iodo-methanc with 
ammonia. It occurs widely distributed in nature, as in the 
blossoms of the hawthorn, the wild cherry, and the pear. It 
is contained in herring brine, and is a common product of the 
decomposition of organic substances which contain nitrogen. Ifc 
is now obtained in large quantities from the so-called ' ' vin- 
asses." These are the waste liquids obtained in the refining of 
beet sugar. When the " vinasses " are evaporated to dryness, 
tri-methyl-amine is given off among the volatile products. It is 
collected as the hydrochloric acid salt, N (CHg^.HCl, which, 
when heated to 2G0°, yields ammonia, tri-methyl-amine, and 
chlor-m ethane : — 

3 N(CH 3 ) 3 .HC1 = 2 N(CH 3 ) 3 + NH 3 + 3 CH 3 C1. 

The chlor-methane is utilized for the purpose of producing low 

Tri-methyl-amine is a liquid boiling at 9° to 10° .• It has a 
strong ammoniacal and fishy odor. It is very soluble in water 
and alcohol, and is a strong base. It is used in the prepara- 
tion of potassium carbonate, by the Solvay process. In making 
sodium carbonate from the chloride by this method, acid ammo- 
nium carbonate is brought together with the chloride. Tims 
mono-sodium carbonate is precipitated, and ammonium chloride 
is left in solution. But mono-potassium carbonate and ammo- 
nium chloride are about equally soluble, so that potassium car- 
bonate cannot be prepared in the same way. On the other 
hand, if tri-methyl-amine be substituted for ammonia, the sepa- 
ration can be effected, inasmuch as tri-methyl-ammonium chlo- 
ride is more soluble than ammonium chloride. 


Note for Student. — Write the equations representing the reac- 
tions involved in making potassium carbonate from potassium chloride 
by means of tri-meth}d-amine. 

The ethyl-amines are very much like the methyl compounds, 
and hence need not be specially described. 

When tri-ethyl-amine is brought together with, iodo-ethane, 
the two unite, forming the compound tetra-ethyl-ammonium 
iodide, N(C 2 H 5 ) 4 I, which is ammonium iodide, in which all four 
hydrogen atoms have been replaced by ethyl groups. If silver 
oxide be added to the aqueous solution of the iodide, silver 
iodide is precipitated, and by evaporation of the liquid crystals 
of tetra-ethyl-ammonium hydroxide, N(CJI 5 ) 4 OH, are obtained. 
This is plainly the hypothetical ammonium hydroxide, in which 
the four ammonium hydrogens have been replaced by ethyl. 
Its solution acts almost like caustic potash. It is very caustic, 
attracts carbon dioxide from the air, saponifies (see p. 70) 
ethereal salts, and gives the same precipitates as caustic potash. 
The reactions of the substituted ammonias above described 
make it certain that these bodies are very closely related to 
ammonia. The methods of formation also point clearl}* to the 
same conclusion. This relation is best expressed by the form- 
ulas above given. 

Another method for the formation of substituted ammonias 
in which but one radical is present, as ethyl-amine, NH 2 .C 2 H 5 , 
or in general NH 2 . R, consists in treating with nascent hydro- 
gen compounds known as nitro compounds, which are substitu- 
tion-products containing the group (N0 2 ) in the place of 
hydrogen. Thus, for example, when nitro-methane, CH 3 .N0 2 
(which see) , is treated with hydrogen, the reaction which takes 
place is represented thus : — 

CH 3 .N0 2 -f- 6H = CH 3 .NH 2 -f- 2 H 2 0. 

In connection with another series, it will be shown that this 
reaction is a most important one, from the practical as well as 
the scientific stand-point. It may be said in anticipation that 


the manufacture of aniline, and consequently of all the many 
valuable dye-stuffs related to aniline, is based upon this reac- 

Just as we may look upon ethyl-amine and the related bodies, 
as ammonia, in which one hydrogen atom is replaced by ethyl, 
so also we may regard them, and with equal right, as marsh 
gas, in which hydrogen has been replaced by the group or resi- 
due NH 2 . Owing to the frequency of the occurrence of this 
group in carbon compounds, and for the sake of simplifying the 
nomenclature, the group has been called the amide or amido 
group, and the bodies containing it amido -compounds. Thus 
the compounds NH 2 . C 2 H 5 may be called either ethyl-amine or 
amido -ethane, etc. 

Similarly, those bodies which contain two hydrocarbon resi- 
dues, as di-ethyl-amine, NH(C 2 H 5 ) 2 , are called imido-compounds, 
and the group NH the imide or imido group. Substituted 
ammonias containing one hydrocarbon residue are called pri- 
mary ammonia bases. Those containing two residues, as di- 
ethyl-amine, NH(C 2 H 5 ) 2 , are known as secondary ammonia 
bases, and those containing three residues, as tri-ethyl-amine, 
N(CH 3 ) 3 , are called tertiary ammonia bases. 

Among the most important of the reactions of amido-com- 
pounds or primary bases is that which takes place when they 
are treated with nitrous acid. Take ethyl-amine as an illustra- 
tion. In order to understand what takes place when this 
compound is treated with nitrous acid, it is necessary to keep 
in mind the fact that the compound itself is a modified ammo- 
nia, and hence we may expect that its reactions will be but 
modifications of those which take place with ammonia. Tims 
with nitrous acid ammonia unites directly to form ammonium 
nitrate : — 

NH 3 + HN0 2 = NH 4 .N0 2 . 

So also ethyl-amine forms ethyl-ammonium nitrate : — 

NH 2 .C 2 H 5 + HN0 2 = NH 3 (C 2 H 5 ).N0 2 . 


Now we know that ammonium nitrate breaks up readily into 
free nitrogen and water : — 

NH 4 .N0 2 = N 2 + H 2 + H 2 0. 

So also ethyl-ammonium nitrate breaks up into free nitrogen, 
water, and alcohol : — 

NH 3 (C 2 H 5 )N0 2 = N 2 + H 2 + C 2 H 5 .OH. 

The two reactions are strictly analogous. As in the second case 
we start with a substituted ammonia, we get as a product a 
substituted water or alcohol. 

This reaction has been used very extensivel}' in the prepara- 
tion of bodies containing hydroxyl. For ordinary alcohol, as 
is clear, it is not a convenient method of preparation ; but it 
will be shown that there are hydroxides for the preparation of 
which it is by far the most convenient method. The essential 
character of the transformation effected b}* it will be best under- 
stood by comparing the formulas of the amide and the alcohol. 
We have ethyl-amine, C 2 H 5 .NH 2 , and from it we get alcohol, 
C 2 H 5 . OH. Thus we see that the transformation consists in 
replacing the amido-group by hydroxyl. 

Hydrazine Compounds. 

Of late a class of bodies has been studied, the members of 
which bear the same relation to the hypothetical body, N 2 H 4 
(or H 2 N — NH 2 ) , that the substituted ammonias bear to ammo- 
nia. The reactions by which they are prepared are somewhat 
complicated, and they do not play an important part in the 
study of carbon compounds. A mere mention of their exist- 
ence will therefore suffice for our present purpose. 


Reference has already been made to a class of bodies con- 
taining the group N0 2 , and known as nitro-compounds. They 
are most readily made by treating the hydrocarbons with nitric 


acid. This method, however, is not applicable to the hydro- 
carbons methane and ethane and their homologues, as these may 
be treated with nitric acid without undergoing change. The 
hydrocarbon benzene, C 6 H 6 , is acted upon very easily by nitric 
acid, when the reaction represented by the folio wing equation 
takes place : — 

C 6 H 6 + HO.N0 2 = C 6 H 5 .N0 2 + H 2 0. 

The action is like that which takes place between sulphuric 
acid and benzene, which gives the sulphonic acid C 6 H 5 .S0 2 OH 

C 1 IT- 

or * °>S0 2 . (Seep. 76.) In each case a hydroxyl of the 

acid is replaced by the simple residue of the hydrocarbon. Th* 
product in the case of the bibasic acid, sulphuric acid, is itsel 
still acid, while the product in the case of the monobasic nitric 
acid, is not an acid. 

The nitro-derivatives of methane have been made by a reac- 
tion which we would expect to yield ethereal salts of nitrous 
acid ; namely, by treating iodo-methane or ethane with silver 
nitrite : — — 

CH 3 I + AgN0 2 = CH 3 N0 2 + Agl. 

The compound CH 3 .N0 2 , which is known as nitro-methane, 
does not conduct itself like the ethereal salts of nitrous acid. 
The latter are unstable bodies, while the former is stable. 

Note for Student. — Compare the reaction just referred to with 
that which takes place between silver cyanide and iodo-methane ; and 
that which takes place between iodo-ethane and potassium sulphite. 
What analogy is there to the former and to the latter? 

It has alread}' been stated that the nitro-derivatives are con- 
verted b} T nascent hydrogen into the corresponding amido- 
derivatives (see p. 97). 

Note for Student. — Write the equations representing the reac- 
tions necessary to convert methyl alcohol into methyl-amine by means 
of the nitro-componnd. 


Nitroform, CH(N0 2 ) 3 , as the formula indicates, is the tri- 
nitro-derivative of methane, or tri-nitro-me thane. It is con- 
verted into tetra-nitro-methane, C(N0 2 ) 4 , when treated with a 
mixture of concentrated sulphuric and fuming nitric acids. 

Nitro-chloroform, C(N0 2 )C1 3 , called also chlorpicrin and 
nitro-trichlormethane, is formed by distilling methyl or ethyl 
alcohol with common salt, saltpetre, and sulphuric acid. It is 
formed from a number of more complicated nitro-compounds, 
by distilling them with bleaching lime or hydrochloric acid and 
potassium chlorate. 

Nitroso- and Isonitroso- Compounds. 

When a compound containing the group CH is treated with 
nitrous acid, a reaction takes place, which is represented thus : — 

R.CH + HO. NO = R.C.NO + H 2 0. 

The product R.C.NO, which is derived from the original sub' 
stance by the substitution of the group NO for a hydrogen 
atom, is called a nitroso-compound. By oxidation the nitroso- 
compounds are converted into nitro-compounds, and by reduc- 
tion they yield the same products as the corresponding nitro- 

The isonitroso-compounds are isomeric with the nitroso-com- 
pounds. They are formed whenever acetones or aldehydes are 
treated with hydroxylamine, NH 2 .OH. Assuming that the 
latter substance is really a hydroxyl derivative of ammonia, the 
reaction may be represented thus : — 

CH 3 CH 3 

I I 

CO + H 2 N.OH = C-N-OH + H 2 0. 

I I 

CH 3 CH 3 

The hydrogen of the hydroxyl has acid properties. The iso- 
nitroso-compounds are readily broken up, 3'ielding, as one of 
the products, hydroxylamine. 


Fulminic acid, C 2 N20 2 H 2| according to recent investiga- 
tions, appears to be an isonitroso-compound, and for that 
reason finds appropriate mention in this place. The principal 
compound of fulminic acid, is the mercury salt, C 2 N 2 2 Hg, 
commonly known as fulminating mercury. It is prepared by 
dissolving mercury in strong nitric acid, and adding alcohol to 
the solution. It is extremely explosive. Mixed with potassium 
nitrate it is used for filling percussion-caps. 

When fulminating mercury is treated with concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid, it yields hydroxylamine as one of the products of 
decomposition. This is regarded as evidence that fulminic acid 
is an isonitroso-compound. As will be seen, fulminic acid is 
isomeric with cyanic and cyanuric acids (see pp. 83 and 84) . 



Phosphorus compounds.— Corresponding to the amines or 
substituted ammonias are the phosphines, which, as the name 
implies, are related to phosphine, PH 3 . Methyl-phosphine, 
PH 2 .CH 3 , di-methyl-phosphine, PH(CH 3 ) 2 , and tri-methyl- 
phosphine, P(CH 3 ) 3 , may be taken as examples. 

These substances, like the corresponding amines, form salts 
with acids, though not as readily. The hydroxide, tetra-ethyl- 
phosphoniam hydroxide, P(C 2 H 5 ) 4 .OH, is a very strong base, 
though not as strong as the corresponding nitrogen derivative. 

The phosphines have one marked property which distin- 
guishes them from the amines, and that is their power to take 
up oxygen and form acids. Thus, ethyl-phosphine, PH 2 .C 2 H 5 , 
when treated with nitric acid, is converted into methyl-pJios- 
phinic acid, PO(C 2 H 5 ) (OH) 2 , a bibasi'c acid, bearing to phos- 
phoric acid the same relation that the sulphonic acids bear to 
sulphuric acid. 

Note for Student. — What is the relation? What other class of 
acids bears the same relation to carbonic acid? 

Di-ethyl-phosphine, PH(C 2 H 5 ) 2 , yields di-etliyl-pliosphinic acid, 
PO(C 2 H 5 ) 2 .OH, when oxidized. 

These compounds are not commonly met with, and do not 
play a very important part in the study of the compounds of 

Arsenic compounds. — The most characteristic carbon 
compound containing arsenic is that which is known as cacodyl, 


a name given to it on account of its extremely disagreeable 
odor (from kcxkioS^s, stinking) . It is prepared by distilling a mix- 
ture of potassium acetate and arsenic trioxide. The reactions 
which take place are very complicated, and many products are 
formed. Chief among the products is cacodyl oxide : — 

4 CH 3 .C0 2 K + As 2 3 = [(CH 3 ) 2 As] 2 + 2 K 2 C0 3 + 2 C0 2 . 

When treated with hydrochloric acid, the oxide is converted 
into the chloride (CH 3 ) 2 AsCl; and, when the chloride is treated 
with zinc, cacodyl itself is produced. Its analysis and the 
determination of its molecular weight lead to the formula 
As 2 C 4 H 12 , which in all probability should be represented thus : 

32 s \ . Cacodyl appears thus as a compound analogous 

to the hjdrazines referred to above. (See p. 99.) 

Note for Student. — In what does the analogy consist? 

Many derivatives of cacodyl have been made, but their study 
would hardly be profitable to the beginner. 

By treating the chlorides of silicon, boron, and many of the 
metals with zinc ethyl, Zn(C 2 H 5 ) 2 , many similar ethyl deriva- 
tives have been made. 

Zinc ethyl itself is made by treating iodo-ethane, C 2 H 5 I, 
with zinc alone or with zinc sodium : — 

ZnNa 2 + 2 C 2 H 5 I = Zn(C 2 H 5 ) 2 + 2 Nal. 

It is a liquid boiling at 118°. It takes fire in the air, and burns 
with a white flame. 

Sodium-ethyl, C 2 H 5 Na, may be obtained in combination 
with zinc ethyl by treating the latter with sodium. Both these 
compounds have been used to a considerable extent in the syn- 
thesis of carbon compounds, particularly the more complex 
hydrocarbons, and they will be frequently referred to in the 
following pages. 


Note for Student. — What is formed when sodium methyl and 
carbon dioxide are allowed to act upon each other? 

Many of the derivatives, like the above, are volatile liquids. 
Such, for example, are mercury ethyl, Hg(C 2 H 5 ) 2 , aluminium 
ethyl, A1(C 2 H 5 ) 3 , tin tetrethyl, Sn(C 2 H 5 ) 4 , and silicon tetrethyl, 
Si(C 2 H 5 ) 4 . The study of these compounds has been of assist- 
ance in enabling chemists to determine the atomic weights of 
some of the elements which do not form simple volatile 


In the introductory chapter (p. 19) these words were used in 
describing the plan to be followed: "Of the first series of 
hydrocarbons two members will be considered. Then the de- 
rivatives of these two will be taken up. These derivatives will 
serve admirably as representatives of the corresponding deriva- 
tives of other hydrocarbons of the same series and of other 
series. Their characteristics and their relations to the hydro- 
carbons will be dwelt upon, as well as their relations to each 
other. Thus, by a comparatively close study of two hydro- 
carbons and their derivatives, we may acquire a knowledge of 
the principal classes of the compounds of carbon. After these 
typical derivatives have been considered, the entire series of 
hydrocarbons will be taken up briefly, only such facts being 
dealt with at all fully as are not illustrated by the first two 
members. ** 

In accordance with the plan thus sketched we have thus far 
considered the principal derivatives of the two hydrocarbons, 
methane and ethane, so far as these derivatives represent dis- 
tinct classes of compounds. These derivatives were classified 
first into (1) those containing halogens; (2) those containing 
ox}'gen ; (3) those containing sulphur ; and (4) those contain- 
ing nitrogen. On examining each of these classes more closely, 
we found that the halogen derivatives, such as chlor-methane, 
brom-ethane, etc., bear very simple relations to each other. 


We found that under the head of oxygen derivatives, the most 
important and most distinctly characteristic derivatives of 
hydro-carbons are met with ; as, the alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, 
acids, ethereal salts, and ketones. The sulphur derivatives, 
some of which closety resemble the oxygen derivatives, include 
the sulphur alcohols or mercaptans, sulphur ethers, and sulphonic 

On beginning the consideration of the nitrogen derivatives 
we found it desirable first to take up certain derivatives con- 
taining the cyanogen group, among which are cyanogen, hydro- 
cyanic acid, cyanic acid, and sulphocyanic acid. Many interest- 
ing carbon compounds are closely related to these fundamental 
compounds. Such, for example, are the cyanides and carba- 
mines, the cyanates and isocyanates, the suJpho-cyanates and 
iso-sulpho-cyanates or mustard-oils. Following the compounds 
related to cyanogen, we took up the interesting compounds 
which are related to ammonia, the substituted ammonias or 
amines. Then came the nitro-derivatives ; and, finally, the 
compounds of the hydrocarbon residues or radicals with metals. 

It is of the greatest importance that the student should 
master the preceding portion of this book. If lie studies care- 
fully the reactions which have been considered, and which are 
statements in chemical language which tell us the conduct of 
the various classes of derivatives, and if he performs the ex- 
periments which have been described, lie will have a lair general 
knowledge of the kinds of relations which are met with in con- 
nection with the compounds of carbon through the whole Held. 
As stated in the Introduction: " If we know what derivatives 
one hydrocarbon can yield, we know what derivatives we may 
expect to find in the case of every other hydrocarbon." 

The more the student practises the use of the equations thus 
far given, the better he will be prepared to follow the remain- 
ing portions of the book. Indeed, it may be said that, if he 
thoroughly understands what has gone before, what follows will 
appear extremely simple. Whereas, if he has failed at any 


point to catch the exact meaning, if he has failed to see the 
connection, he had better go back and faithfully review, or he 
will soon find his mind hopelessly muddled, and relations which 
are as clear as day will be concealed from him. 

A very excellent practice is to trace connections between the 
different classes of compounds, and show how to pass from one 
to the other. Thus, for example, (1) show by what reactions 
it is possible to pass from marsh gas to acetic acid. (2) How 
can we pass from ordinary alcohol to ethylidene chloride, 
CH 3 .CHC1 2 ? (3) What reactions would enable us to make 
methyl-amine from its elements? (4) How may acetone be 
made from methyl-amine? (.">) What reactions are necessary in 
order to make ordinary ether from ethyl-amiue? etc., etc. It 
is well in this sort of practice to select what appear to be the 
least closely -related compounds, and to show then how we may 
pass from one to the other. Be sure to select representatives 
of all the classes hitherto mentioned, and to bring in all the 
important reactions. 



The existence of the homologous series of Irydrocarbons be- 
ginning with methane and ethane was spoken of before its first 
two members were considered. A general idea of the extent 
of the series, and of the names used to designate the members, 
may be gained from the following table : — 



Hydrocarbons , 

^nH 2n + 2' 


Methane .... CH 4 

. . gas. 

Ethane . 

C 2 H 6 

. . gas. 


C 3 H 8 

. . gas. 

Butane . 

• C 4 H 10 . 

. . 1°. 


• C 5 H 12 . 

. 38°. 


• C 6 H 14 . 

. 70°. 


. C 7 H 16 . . 

. 98.4°. 

Octane . 

C 8 H 18 . 

. 125°. 


C 9 H 20 

. 148°. 

Dodecane . 


. 202°. 


L' 1(; rl32 . 

. 278°. 

The explanation of the remarkable relation in composition 
existing between these members, a relation to which the name 
homology is given, has already been referred to (p. 22). The 
number of hydrogen atoms contained in a member of this series 


bears a constant relation to the number of carbon atoms, as 
expressed in the general formula C n H 2n + 2 . On examining the 
column headed " Boiling-Point" it will be seen that, as we pass 
upward in the series, the boiling-point becomes higher and higher. 
The first three members are gases at ordinary temperatures, while 
the highest boils at 278°. The elevation in the boiling-point is 
to some extent regular, as will be observed. The difference 
between butane, C 4 H 10 , and pentane, C 5 H 12 , is 38 — 1 = 37° ; 
that between pentane and the next member is 70 — 38 = 32° ; 
between hexane and heptane it is 98.4 — 70 = 28.4° ; between 
heptane and octane, 125 — 98.4 = 26.6° ; and, finally, between 
octane and nonane the difference is 148— 125 = 23°. Thus it 
will be seen that the elevation in boiling-point caused by the 
addition of CH 2 decreases as we pass upward in the series. 
Other relations have been pointed out, but it would be prema- 
ture to discuss them here. 

The chief natural source of the paraffins is petroleum ; but 
although this substance, which occurs in such enormous quanti- 
ties in nature, undoubtedly contains a number of the members 
of the paraffin series, it is an extremely difficult matter to 
isolate them from the mixture. Prolonged fractional distilla- 
tion is not sufficient for the purpose. If, however, some of the 
purest products which can thus be obtained be treated with 
concentrated sulphuric acid, and afterwards with concentrated 
nitric acid, and then washed and redistilled, they may be 
obtained in pure condition. 

Petroleum. — Petroleum occurs in enormous quantities in 
several places. Among the most important localities are 
Pennsylvania, the Crimea, the Caucasus, Persia, Burmah, 
China, etc. In some places it issues constantly from the earth. 
Usually it is necessary to bore for it. When one of the cavi- 
ties in which it is contained is punctured, the oil is forced out 
of a pipe inserted into the opening in a jet, in consequence of 
the pressure exerted upon it by the gaseous constituents. As 


first obtained, it is usually a dark, yellowish-green liquid, with 
an unpleasant odor. It varies in appearance according to the 
place in which it is found. American petroleum contains the 
lowest members of the paraffin series ; and when the oil is 
exposed to the air the gases are given off. 

Refining of petroleum. To render petroleum fit for use in 
lamps, it is necessary that the volatile portions should be 
removed, as they form explosive mixtures with air, just as 
marsh gas does. It is also necessary to remove the higher 
boiling portions, because they are semi-solid, and would clog 
the wicks of the lamps. The crude oil is therefore subjected to 
distillation, and only those parts which have a certain specific 
gravhVy or boil between certain points are used for illuminating 
purposes, under the name of kerosene. Besides being distilled, 
the oil must further be treated with concentrated sulphuric 
acid, which removes a number of undesirable substances, and 
afterwards with an alkali, and then with water. All these 
processes taken together constitute what is called the refining 
of petroleum. In the distillation, the lighter products are 
usually divided into several parts, according to the specific 
gravity or boiling-point. Thus we have the products cymogene, 
rhigolene, gasoline, naphtha, and benzine, all of which are 
lighter than kerosene. It must be distinctly understood that 
none of the substances here mentioned are pure chemical sub- 
stances. The names are commercial names, each of which 
applies to a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. From the 
heavier products, that is, those that boil at higher tempera- 
tures than the highest limit for kerosene, paraffin, which is a 
mixture of the highest members of this series, is made. 

Owing to the danger attendant upon the use of improperly 
refined petroleum, laws have been enacted relating to the 
properties which the kerosene exposed for sale must have. 
These laws, which differ somewhat in different countries and 
different parts of the same country, relate mostly to what is 
called the jwshing -point. This is the temperature to which the 



oil must be heated before it takes fire when a flame is applied 
to it. The legal flashing-point in many parts of the United 
States is 38°. Various forms of apparatus have been de- 
vised for the purpose of making the determination of the 
flashing-point as accurately as possible. Among them the fol- 
lowing commends itself by its simplicity : 
The cylinder A is 2 to 3 cm in diameter and 
10 to 12 cm long. Just within the wooden 
cork the bent tube contracts to a small 
orifice. At d it is connected by rubber- 
tubing with a source of compressed air 
(hand-bellows or gas holder) , the flow of 
which can be controlled by the pinch-cock. 
A, is about one-third filled with kerosene, 
and secured in a clamp, so that it plunges in 
a water-bath to the level of the oil. Air is 
now passed through deb, and e so adjusted that about 0.5 cm 
foam is kept on the surface of the oil. From degree to degree 
the test is made by bringing a small flame for an instant to the 
mouth of A. At the flashing-point the vapor ignites, and the 
bluish flame runs down to the surface of the oil. 

Experiment 31. Make an apparatus like the above, and determine 
the flashing-points of two or three specimens of kerosene which may 
be available. 

Synthesis of the paraffins. — Although the paraffins do 
occur in nature, and some of them may be obtained in pure con- 
dition from natural sources, we are dependent upon synthetical 
operations performed in the laboratory for our knowledge of 
the series and the relations existing between them. 

We have already seen how ethane may be prepared from 
methane by treating methyl iodide with zinc or sodium, as repre- 
sented in this equation : — 

CH 3 I + CH3I + 2Na= C 2 H 6 + 2 Na3£ 


This method has been extensively used in the building up of 
higher members of the series. Thus from ethane we ma}* make 
ethyl iodide, and by treating this with sodium get butane 
C 4 H ]0 : — 

C 2 H 5 I + C 2 H 5 I + 2Na = C 4 H 10 + 2 NaBt*. T. 

But we may get the intermediate member, propane, C 3 H 8 , by 
mixing methyl iodide and ethyl iodide and treating the mixture 
with sodium : — 

CH 3 I + C 2 H 5 I + 2 Na = CH 3 .C 2 H 5 4 2 Nal. 

B} T applying this method, it is plain that a large number of the 
members of the paraffin series might be made. 

Another method consists in treating the zinc compounds of 
the radicals, like zinc ethyl, Zn(C 2 H 5 ) 2 , with the iodides of rad- 
icals. Thus zinc methyl and methyl iodide give ethane ; zinc 
ethyl and ethyl iodide give butane ; zinc ethyl and methyl 
iodide give propane, etc. : — 

Zn(CH 3 ) 2 + 2CH3I = 2C 2 H 6 + Znl 2 ; 
Zn(C 2 H 5 ) 2 4 2 C 2 H 5 I = 2 C 4 Hio + Znl 2 ; 
Zn(C 2 H 5 ) 2 + 2 CH3I = 2 C 3 H 8 + ZnL, 

Paraffins may be made by replacing the halogen in a substitu- 
tion-product by hydrogen. This may be effected by nascent 
hydrogen or b}' hydriodic acid : — 

C 4 H 9 I 4- 2 H = C 4 H 10 + HI. 

Finall}', the paraffins may be made by heating the acids of the 
formic acid series with an alkali. This has been illustrated by 
the preparation of marsh gas from acetic acid by beating with 
lime and caustic potash. The reaction ma} T be written thus : — 

CH 3 .C0 2 K 4 KOH = CH 4 4 C0 3 K 2 . 

The products are a hydrocarbon and a carbonate. 


Isomerism among the paraffins. — It has already been 
stated that the evidence is almost conclusive that each of the 
four hydrogen atoms of marsh gas bears the same relation to the 
carbon, and hence we believe that, as regards the nature of the 
product, it makes no difference which hydrogen atom is replaced 
by a given atom or radical. According to this, as ethane is the 
methyl derivative of marsh gas, it makes no difference which of 
the hydrogen atoms of marsh gas is replaced by the metlryl, the 
product must always be the same, or there is but one ethane 

possible according to the theory. This is represented by the 

H H 

I I 
formula, H — C — C — H, or H 3 C — CH 3 . In ethane, as well as in 

I I 

H H 
methane, all the hydrogen atoms bear the same relation to 
the molecule, and it should make no difference which one is 
replaced by methyl. But propane is regarded as derived from 
ethane by the substitution of methyl for hydrogen ; and, as it 
makes no difference which hydrogen is replaced, there is but 
one propane possible. Only one has ever been discovered, and 
this must be represented thus : — 

H H H 

I I I 
H - C - C - C - H, or CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 3 . 

I I I 
H H H 

Now, continuing the process of substitution of methyl for hydro- 
gen, it appears that the theory indicates the possibilit}' of the 
existence of two compounds of the formula C 4 H 10 . One of 
these should be obtained b} r replacing by methyl one of the three 
hydrogens of either methyl group of propane. It is represented 
by the formula : — 

H H H H 
I I I I 
H-C-C-C-C-H, or H 3 C.CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 3 . 

I I I I 
H H H H 


The other should be obtained by replacing by methyl one of the 
two hydrogens of the group CH 2 contained in propane. This 
would give a hydrocarbon of the formula : — 

H H H CH 3 


H - C - C - C - H, or CH 3 - CH - CH 3 . 
I I I 
H C H 

H H H 

The theory then indicates the existence of two butanes. How 
about the facts? Two, and only two butanes have been discov- 
ered. The first, which occurs in American petroleum, has been 
made synthetically by treating ethyl iodide with zinc : — 

2CH3.CHJ + Zn = CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 3 + ZnL. 

The method of synthesis clearly shows which of the two possi- 
ble isomerides the product is. It is known as normal butane. 
It is a gas which can be condensed to a liquid at +1°. 

The second, or isobutane, is made from an alcohol which 
will be shown to have the structure represented by the formula 

CH 3 - C - OH (see Tertiary Butyl Alcohol, p. 124) , by replacing 

CH 3 
the hydroxyl by hydrogen. It is a gas which becomes liquid 
at -17°. 

The differences between the two butanes are observed princi- 
pally in their derivatives. 

Applying the same method of consideration to the next 
member of the series, how many isomeric varieties of pentane, 
C : H 12 , may we expect to iiud? The question resolves itself into 
a determination of the number of kinds of hydrogen atoms con- 
tained in the two butanes, or the number of relations to the 
molecule represented among the hydrogen atoms of the butanes. 


We can make this determination best by examining the struc- 
tural formulas. Take first normal butane : — 

H H H H 

I I I I 


I I I I 


In this there are plainly two different relations represented ; 
viz., that of each of the six hydrogens in the two methyl groups, 
and that of each of the four hydrogens of the two CH, groups. 
The two possible methyl derivatives of a hydrocarbon of this 
formula are therefore to be represented thus : — 

H 3 C.CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 3 , (1) 

and H 3 C.CH 2 .CII<^ 3 . (2) 

CH 3 

Now, taking isobutane, HC — CII,, we see that it consists of 

three methyl groups, giving nine hydrogen atoms of the same 
kind, and one CH group, the hydrogen of which bears a dif- 
ferent relation to the molecule from that which the other nine 
do. There are therefore two possible methyl derivatives of 
isobutane which must be represented thus : — 

CH 3 CH 3 

I I 

HC - CH 2 .CH 3 (3), and HC - C - CH 3 . (4) 

I I 

CH 3 CH 3 

We have, therefore, apparently four pentanes. But on compar- 
ing formulas (2) and (3) , it will be seen that, though written a 
little differently, they really represent one and the same com- 
pound. Thus the number of pentanes, the existence of which 
is indicated by the theory, is three, and these are represented 


by formulas (1), (2), and (4). They are all known. The 
first is called normal pentane, the second iso-pentane or 
di-methyl-ethyl-methane, and the third tetra-methyl-me- 

It would lead too far to discuss all the methods of prepara- 
tion and the properties of these lrydrocarbons. It will be seen 
that the methods of preparation show what the structure of a 
Irydrocarbon is. Di-methyl-ethyl-methane is made from an 
alcohol which can be shown to have the formula 

™ 3 >CH.CH 2 .CH 2 OH, 
CH 3 

by replacing the Ivydroxyl by hydrogen. Hence its structure is 
that represented above by formulas (2) and (3). 

Tetra-methyl-methane is made by starting with acetone. 
Acetone has been shown to consist of carbonyl in combina- 
tion with two methyl groups, as represented in the formula 
CHo— CO— CH 3 . It has also been shown that, by treating 
acetone with phosphorus pentachloride, the oxygen is replaced 
by chlorine, giving a compound of the formula CH 3 — CC1 2 — CH 3 . 
Now, by treating this chloride with zinc-methyl, the chlorine is 
replaced by methyl thus : — 

CH 3 

CH 3 -CC1 2 -CH 3 -f Zn(CH 3 )o = CH 3 -C-CH 3 + ZnCl 2 . 


The product is tetra-methyl-methane, and the synthesis thus 
effected shows at once what the structure of the product is. 

Hexanes. — The student will now be prepared to apply the 
theory to the determination of the number of hexanes possible. 
He will find that there are five. The theory is, in this case as in 
the preceding, in perfect accordance with the facts. There are 
five and only five hexanes known. Only the names and formu- 
las of these will be given here : — 


l. Normal hexane, CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 8 . 

2. Iso-hexane, CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH < " 

CH 3 
CH 3 

3. Methyl-di-ethyl-methane, CH 3 .CH,< ^ 2 *™ s . 

4. Tetra-methyl-ethane, ^>HC-CH<^ 3 . 

H 3 C tH 3 

CH 3 


5. Tri-methyl-ethyl-methane, H 3 C-C-CH 2 .CH 3 . 

CH 3 

Passing upward, we find that nine heptanes are possible 
according to the theory, while but four have thus far been 
discovered ; and that, while theory indicates the possibility of 
the discovery of eighteen hydrocarbons of the formula C 8 H 18 , but 
three are known. The theoretical number of isomeric varieties 
of the highest members of the series is very great, but our 
knowledge in regard to these highest members is very limited, 
and it is impossible to say whether the theoiy will ever be 
confirmed by facts. It may be that there is some law limiting 
the number of complicated hydrocarbons. It is, however, idle 
to speculate upon the subject at present. It is well for us to 
keep in mind that a thorough knowledge of a few of the simplest 
members of the series is all that is necessary for the present. 

On examining the formulas used to express the structure of 
the hydrocarbons, we find that they may be divided into three 
classes : — 

(1) Those in which there is no carbon atom in combination 
with more than two others ; as, — 

Propane .... CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 3 ; 
Normal butane . . CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 3 ; 
Normal pentane . CH 3 .CH. 2 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 3 ; 
and Normal hexane . . CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 3 . 


(2) Those in which there is at least one carbon atom in 
combination with three others; as, — 

Isobutane . . . . CH,.CH< C 


Isopentane . . . CH 3 .CH 2 .CH < CUs ; 


Isohexane .... CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 2 < CH3 ; 

and Tetra-methyl-ethane, H3C > CH - CH < CK \ 

H 3 C CH 3 

(3) Those in which there is at least one carbon atom in 
combination with four others; as, — 


CH 3 



CF 3 

— C — CH 3 ; 
CH 3 

CH 3 

Tri- methyl- ethyl- 


C 2 H 5 - 

-C-CH 3 . 


The members of the first class are called normal jiaraffins; 
those of the second class, iso-paraffins ; and those of the third 
class, neo-paraffins. 

Only the members of the same class are strictly comparable 
with each other. Thus it has been found that the boiling-points 
of the normal hydrocarbons bear simple relations to each other, 
and that the same is true of the iso-paraffins ; but, on compar- 
ing the boiling-points and other physical properties of normal 
paraffins with those of the iso- or neo-paraffins, no such simple 
relations are observed. 


Regarding the names of the paraffins, the simplest nomen- 
clature in use is that according to which the hydrocarbons are 
all regarded as derivatives of methane. Thus we get the 

fC 2 H 5 

| TT 

name ethyl-methane for propane, C -j „ ; tri-methyl -methane 
(CH 3 I H r CH 3 

CH i CH 

for isobutane, C -j pn 3 ; tetra-methyl-methane, C -j r "\ etc. 

H ^ CH 



We are now to take up the derivatives of the higher mem- 
bers of the paraffin series, just as we took up the derivatives of 
methane and ethane. Not much need be said in regard to the 
halogen derivatives. A few of them will be mentioned in con- 
nection with the corresponding alcohols. The chief substances 
which will require attention are the alcohols and acids. 

1. Alcohols. 

Normal propyl alcohol, C 3 H T .OH. — When sugar under- 
goes fermentation, a little propyl alcohol is always formed, and 
is contained in the " fusel oil." From this it may be separated 
by treating those portions which boil between 85° and 110° 
with phosphorus and bromine. The bromides of the alcohols 
present are thus formed (what is the reaction ?) , and these are 
separated by fractional distillation. The bromide correspond- 
ing to propyl alcohol is then converted into the alcohol (how 
may this be done ?) . 

It is a colorless liquid with a pleasant odor. It boils at 97.4° 
(compare with the boiling-points of methyl and ethyl alcohol) . 
It conducts itself almost exactly like the two first members of 
the series. By oxidation it is converted into an aldehyde, 
C 3 H G 0, and an acid, C 3 H O 2 , which bear to it the same relations 
that acetic aldehyde and acetic acid bear to ethyl alcohol. 

Secondary propyl or isopropyl alcohol, C 3 H 7 .OH. — 
The reasons for regarding the alcohols as hydroxyl derivatives 


of the hydrocarbons have been given pretty fully. As the six 
hydrogen atoms of ethane are all of the same kind, but one 
ethyl alcohol appears to be possible ami only one is known. 
But just as there are two butanes or methyl derivatives of pro- 
pane, so there are two hydroxyl derivatives of propane ; or, in 
other words, two propyl alcohols. The first is the one obtained 
from " fusel oil," the other is the one called secondary propyl 
alcohol. This has already been referred to under the head of 
Acetone (see p. 72), where it was stated that acetone is con- 
verted into secondary propyl alcohol by nascent hydrogen. 
We are, in fact, dependent upon this method for the prepara- 
tion of the alcohol. 

It is, like ordinary propyl alcohol, a colorless liquid. It 
boils at 85°. While all its reactions show that it is a hydroxide, 
under the influence of oxidizing agents it conducts itself quite 
differently from the alcohols thus far considered. It is con- 
verted first into acetone, C 3 H 6 0, which is isomeric with the 
aldehyde obtained from ordinary propyl alcohol ; by further 
oxidation, it however does not yield an acid of the formula 
C 3 H 6 2 , as we would expect it to, but breaks down, yielding- 
two simpler acids; viz., formic acid, CH 2 2 , and acetic acid, 

Secondary alcohols. — Secondary propyl alcohol is the 
simplest representative of a class of alcohols which are known 
as secondary alcohols. They are made by treating the ketones 
with nascent rrydrogen, and are easily distinguished from other 
alcohols by their conduct towards oxidizing agents. They 
yield acetones containing the same number of carbon atoms, 
and then break down, yielding acids containing a smaller num- 
ber of carbon atoms. 

Is there anything in the structure of these secondary alcohols 
to suggest an explanation of their conduct? Secondary pro- 
pyl alcohol is made from acetone by treating with nascent 
hydrogen. Acetone contains two methyl groups and carbonyl, 


as represented by the formula CH 3 — CO — CH 3 . The sim- 
plest change that we can imagine as taking place in this com- 
pound under the influence of hydrogen is that represented in 
the following equation : — 

CH3-CO-CH3 + Ho = CH3-CH.OH-CH3. 

The very close connection existing between acetone and second- 
ary propyl alcohol, and the fact that there are two methyl 
groups in acetone, make it appear probable that there are also 
two methyl groups in secondary propyl alcohol, as represented 
in the above equation. On. the other hand, the easy transfor- 
mation of primary propyl alcohol into propionic acid, which can 
be shown to contain ethyl, shows that in the alcohol ethyl is 
present. Therefore, we may conclude that the difference 
between primary and secondary propyl alcohol is that the 
former is an ethyl derivative and the latter a di-methyl deriva- 
tive of methyl alcohol, as represented by the formulas : — 

CH.2 "CH3 




CH 3 
CH 3 

Ethyl methyl alcohol or Dimethyl methyl alco- 

ordinary propyl al- hoi or secondary 

cohol. ' propyl alcohol. 

Primaiy propyl alcohol is methyl alcohol in which one hydrogen 
is replaced by a radical, while secondary propyl alcohol is 
methyl alcohol in which two hydrogens are replaced by radicals. 
An examination of all secondary alcohols known shows that 
the above statement may be made in regard to all of them. 
They must be regarded as derived from methyl alcohol by the 
replacement of two hydrogen atoms by radicals. The alcohols 
of the first class, like methyl, ethyl, and ordinary propyl alco- 
hols, which are derived from methyl alcohol by the replacement 
of one hydrogen by a radical, are called primary alcohols. 
Another way of stating the difference between primary and 


secondary alcohols is this : Primary alcohols contain the group 
CH 2 OH ; secondary alcohols contain the group CHOH. These 
statements, as will be seen, are corollaries of the first ones. 

A primary alcohol, when oxidized, yields aldehyde and an 
acid containing the same number of carbon atoms as the 
alcohol does. 

A secondary alcohol, when oxidized, yields an acetone, and 
then an acid or acids containing a smaller number of carbon 

Recalling what was said regarding the nature of the changes 
involved in passing from an alcohol to the corresponding alde- 
hyde and acid, we see that the formation of the acid is impossi- 
ble in the case of a secondary alcohol. In the case of a 
primary alcohol, we have : — 


[h f R r R 

11 C \ H C i OH. 

H 1 1 

Alcohol. Aldehyde. Acid. 

In the case of the secondary alcohol, we have : — 

r R 

l OH l ° 

Secondary alcohol. Ketone. 

Further introduction of oxygen cannot take place without a 
breaking clown of the compound. It will be seen that the 
formulas used to express the structure of the compounds are 
remarkably in accordance with the facts. 

Butyl alcohols, C4H9.OH. — Theoretically, there are two 
possible hydroxyl derivatives of each of the two butanes, 
making four butyl alcohols in all. They are all known. Two 
are primary alcohols. 


1. Normal butyl alcohol, CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 2 .OH. 

2. Isobutyl alcohol, ^ H3 > CH.CH 2 OH. 

The third is a derivative of normal butane, and is a secondary 

3. Secondary butyl alcohol, CH 3 .CH 2 .CH < 0H . This 

GH 3 

alcohol is prepared by treating ethyl-methyl ketone with nascent 
hydrogen : — 

CH 3 .CH 2 -CO-CH 3 + H 2 = CH 3 .CH 2 .CH < 0H . 

CH 3 

(Compare this with the reaction for making secondary propyl 
alcohol.) CH 3 

4. Tertiary butyl alcohol, CH 3 -C-OH. The fourth butyl 

CH 3 
alcohol has properties which distinguish it from the primary and 
secondary alcohols. AVhen oxidized it yields neither an alde- 
hyde nor an acetone, but breaks down at once, yielding acids con- 
taining a smaller number of certain atoms. Assuming that every 
primary alcohol contains the group CH 2 OH, and that every sec- 
ondary alcohol contains the group CHOH, it follows that the two 
primary butyl alcohols and secondary butyl alcohol must have 

the formulas above assigned to them ; and it follows further, that 

the fourth butyl alcohol must have the formula CH 3 — C — OH ? 

CH 3 

as this represents the only other arrangement of the constituents 
possible, according to our theory. This formula represents a 
condition which does uot exist in either the primary or second- 
ary alcohols. It is methyl alcohol in which all the hydrogen 
atoms, except that in the hydroxyl, are replaced by methyl 
groups, and it contains the group C— (OH). Such an alcohol 
is known as a tertiary alcohol, and the one under consideration 


is called tertiary butyl alcohol. It is the simplest derivative of 
a class of which but few members are known. 

Tertiary butyl alcohol is made by a complicated reaction 
which cannot easily be interpreted; viz., by treating acetyl 
chloride, CH 3 .COCl, with zinc methyl, Zn(CH 3 ) 2 . These two 
substances unite, forming a crystallized compound ; and, when 
this is treated with water, it breaks up, yielding several products, 
among which is tertiary butyl alcohol. By taking other acid 
chlorides, and the zinc compounds of other radicals, other 
tertiary alcohols may be obtained. 

Characteristics of the three Classes of Alcohols. To recapitu- 
late briefly, we find, in studying the hydroxyl derivatives of the 
hydrocarbons, that they can be divided into three classes, ac- 
cording to their conduct towards oxidizing agents. 

To what was said above regarding the conduct of primary 
and secondary alcohols we can now add : Tertiary alcohols 
yield neither aldehydes nor acetones, but break down at once, 
yielding simpler acids. 

The general formulas representing these three kinds of alco- 
hols are : — 

f R 
and C<{j? 



Note for Student. — Show how the formula for the tertiary alco- 
hols is in accordance with the fact that these alcohols do not yield 
aldehydes nor ketones. 

Pentyl alcohols, C 5 H 9 . OH. — These alcohols are the hy- 
droxyl derivatives of the pentanes. Eight are possible, and 
seven of these are known. Only two of them need be con- 
sidered here. These are the so-called amyl alcohols. 


Inactive amyl alcohol, ^ H " > CH - CH, - CH 2 OH. — 

This alcohol, together with at least one other of the same 
composition, forms the chief part of the fusel oil obtained in 
the fermentation of sugar. By fractional distillation of fusel 
oil ordinary commercial amyl alcohol is obtained, as a colorless 
liquid, having a penetrating odor, and boiling at 131° to 132°. 
This can be separated by other methods into two isomeric 
alcohols, one of which is inactive amyl alcohol and the other 
active amyl alcohol. The names refer to the behavior of the 
substances towards polarized light, the former having no action 
upon it, the latter turning the plane of polarization 1 to the left. 
When oxidized, inactive amyl alcohol yields an acid contain- 
ing the same number of carbon atoms, and is, therefore, a 
primary alcohol. The acid has been made by simple reac- 
tions which show that it must be represented by the formula 

™3>CH.CH 2 .C0 2 H. Therefore, the alcohol has the structure 

CH 3 pjr 

represented by the formula ^ 3 > CH.CH 2 .CH 2 OH. 

Active amyl alcohol, CH,.CH,.CH < ^ QH . — This, as 

has been stated, is obtained, together with the inactive alcohol, 
from fusel oil. Not enough is known about it to enable us to 
say with certainty whether the above formula represents its 
structure or not. It is a primary alcohol as represented. 

The remaining members of the series will not be considered, 
though a list of some of the more important ones is given 
below. As regards the naming of the alcohols, it is best to 
refer them to methyl alcohol, just as the hydrocarbons are 
referred to marsh gas. For this purpose methyl alcohol is 
called carbinol, and we then get such names as methyl-carbinol, 
di-ethyl-carbinol, etc.. which convey at once an accurate idea 

1 This is not the proper place to explain exactly what is meant by these expressions. 
To the student of physics they convey definite meanings. To one who has not studied 
phy6ice they are meaningless. 



concerning the structure of the substances. A few illustrations 
will suffice. Take the alcohols considered above : — 

Ethyl alcohol is methyl-carbinol, 

Primary propyl alcohol is ethyl-carbinol^ 

Secondary propyl alcohol is di-m ethyl- \ 
carbinol, ) 

Tertiary butyl alcohol is tri-methyl-carbinol , C 

CH 2 .CH< 

CH 3 

Inactive amyl alcohol is isobutyl-carbinol, C 1 H 


„ OH, etc., etc., 
a name given to it on account of the presence in it of the iso- 

butyl group CH 2 .CH < CR 3 . 

The following table will give an imperfect idea of the extent 
to which the series of alcohols derived from the paraffins is 
developed. There are eight hexyl alcohols and four heptyl 
alcohols known. Of most of the higher members but one 
variety is known. They are not important, except in so far 
as they indicate the possibility of the discovery of other 


Series C n H 2n + 1 .OH. 

Methyl alcohol CH...OH. 

Ethyl " C 2 H 5 .OH. 

Propyl " C 3 H 7 .OH. 

Butyl " C 4 H 9 .OH. 

Pentyl " C 5 H„.OH. 

Hexyl « C 6 H 13 .OH. 

Heptyl " C 7 H 15 .OH. 

Octyl " C 8 H 17 .OH. 

Nonyl " C 9 H 19 .OH. 

Cetvl " C^Hgg.OH. 

Ceryl " C^H^.OH. 

Myricyl " C3oH 61 .OH. 

2. Aldehydes. 

In general, it follows from what has been said concerning 
the properties of primary alcohols, that there should be an 
aldehyde corresponding to every primary alcohol. Many of these 
have been prepared. They resemble ordinary acetic aldehyde so 
closely that it is unnecessary to take them up individually. If 
we know the structure of the alcohol from which an aldehyde is 
formed by oxidation, we also know the structure of the aldehyde. 

Besides the one method for the preparation of aldehydes 
which has been mentioned, viz., the oxidation of primary 
alcohols, there is one other which should be specially noticed. 
It consists in distilling a mixture of a formate and a salt of 
some other acid. Thus, if a mixture of an acetate and a 
formate be distilled, acetic aldehyde is formed as represented 
by the equation : — 




This method has been used to a considerable extent in making 
the higher members of the series. 

Experiment 32. Mix about equal weights of dry potassium form- 
ate and dry sodium acetate. Distil from a small flask. Collect some 
of the distillate in water, and prove that aldehyde is formed. 

3. Acids. 

Formic and acetic acids are the first two members of an 
homologous series of similar acids, generally called the fatty 
acids, on account of the fact that several of them occur in large 
quantities in the natural fats. The names and formulas of 
some of the principal members arc given in the following 
table. The reasons for representing the acids as compounds 
containing the carboxyl group, C0 2 H, have been given, and 
need not here be restated : — 

Series C n H 2n + 1 .C0 2 H, or C n H 2n 2 . 

Formic acid H.C0 2 H. 

Acetic " CH 3 .C0 2 H. 

Propionic " C 2 H 5 .C0 2 H. 

Butyric « . . C 3 H 7 .C0 2 H. 

Valeric " C 4 H 9 .C0 2 H. 

Caproic or 

C 5 H u .C0 2 H. 

Hexoic acids ) 

ffinanthylicorj C 6 H IV C0 2 H. 

Heptoic acids ) 

Caprylic or \ „ „ ,,„ „ 

Octoic acids I C 7 H 15 .C0 2 H. 

Pelargonicor j C 8 H 17 .C0 2 H. 

Nonoic acids j 

Capric acid C 9 H 19 .C0 2 H. 


Laurie acid C n H23.C0 2 H. 

Myristic " C 13 U^.COM. 

Palmitic " C 15 H 3I .CO,II. 

Margaric " ( ^H^COoH. 

Stearic " C ]7 H„.C0 2 H. 

Arachidic " Cj.jH33.CO2H. 

Behenic " C a H«.CO a H. 

Hyenic " C, 4 H 4 , .C(UI. 

Cerotic " ( L „Il,.CO,H. 

Melissic k> . C»H A .COsH. 

Although, as will be seen, a large number of fatty acids are 
known, most of them included in the list are at present merely 
curiosities, and need not be studied specially. Not more than 
six in addition to formic and acetic acids will require attention. 

Propionic acid, C 3 H O.(C,H^.CO,H)- — Propionic acid is 
formed in small quantity by the distillation of wood, and by the 
fermentation of various organic bodies, particularly calcium 
lactate and tartrate. It is prepared most readily by treating 
ethyl cyanide (propio-nitrile) with caustic potash : — 

C 2 H 5 .CN + KOII + HX> = C,H 5 .C0 2 K + NH 3 . 

Other methods for preparing it are the following : — 

(1) By reducing lactic acid with hydriodic acid. (This will 
be explained under the head of Lactic Acid, which see.) 

(2) By the action of carbon dioxide upon sodium ethylate : — 

CO, + NaC,II 5 = C,II,.( <>,Na. 

It is a colorless liquid with a penetrating odor somewhat re- 
sembling that of acetic acid. It boils at 140°. (Compare with 
boiling-points of formic and acetic acids.) 


It yields a large number of derivatives corresponding to 
those obtained from acetic acid. 

Note for Student. — What is propionyl chloride? and how can i( 
be prepared? It is analogous to acetyl chloride. 

The simple substitution-products of propionic acid present an 
interesting and instructive case of isomerism. It is found that 
there are two chlor-propionic acids, two brom-propionic acids, 
etc. Those products which are obtained by direct treatment of 
propionic acid with substituting agents are called a-products, 
and the isomeric substances /^-products. Thus we have a-cldor- 
propionic and a-brom-^propionic acid, made by treating propionic 
acid with chlorine and bromine ; and /S-chtor-jwopionic acid and 
fi-brom-propionic acid, made by indirect methods. The differ- 
ence between these two series of derivatives is due to different 
relations between the constituents. Our usual method of repre- 
sentation indicates the possibility of the existence of two iso- 
meric chlor-propionic acids, and of similar mono-substitution 
products of propionic acid. The acid is represented thus : — 

OH.3 .LHo .C0 2 H. 

Now, if chlorine should enter into the compound, as represented 
by the formula CH 2 C1 .CK 2 .C0 2 H, (1) we would have one of 
the chlor-propionic acids ; while, if it should enter as indicated 
in the formula CH 3 .CHC1.C0 2 H, (2) we would have the iso- 
meric product. We have thus two chlor-propionic acids actu- 
ally known, and our theory gives us two formulas. How can 
we tell which of the formulas represents a-chlor-propionic acid, 
and which the /?-acid? We can tell only by carefully consider- 
ing all the reactions and methods of formation of both com- 
pounds. The best evidence is furnished b}' a study of the lactic 
acids, which will be shown to be mono-substitution products of 
propionic acid. It will be shown that a-chlor-propionic acid 
can be transformed into a lactic acid the structure of which is 
represented by the formula CH 3 .CH(OH).C0 2 H, and that, by 


replacing the hydroxy 1 of this lactic acid by chlorine, a-chlor- 
propionic acid is formed. It therefore follows that formula (2) 
above given is that of a-chlor-propionic acid, and formula (1) 
that of /?-chlor-propionic acid. Further, any mono-substitution 
product of propionic acid which can be made directly from 
a-chlor-propionic acid, or converted directly into this acid, is an 
a-product, and has the general formula 

CH 3 .CHX.C0 2 H; 

and, similarly, the /^-products have the general formula 

CH 2 X.CH 2 .C0 2 H, 
in which X represents any univalent atom or group. 

Butyric acids, C 1 HA>(Q ! H 7 .CCXH). 

Normal butyric acid, CH 3 .CH 2 .CII 2 .C0 2 H. AVhen butter is 
boiled with caustic potash, the potassium salts of butyric acid and 
of some of the higher members of the series are found in the solu- 
tion at the end of the operation. Butter, like other fats, belongs 
to the class of bodies known as ethereal salts : and these, as we 
have seen, when boiled with the alkalies are decomposed, yielding 
alcohol and alkali salts of acids (saponification) . In the case of 
butter and of nearly all other fats, the alcohol formed is glycerin. 
Butyric acid occurs also in many other fats besides butter. 

It is made most readily by fermentation of sugar by what is 
known as the butyric acid ferment. This ferment probably is 
contained in putrid cheese. Hence, to make the acid, sugar 
and tartaric acid are dissolved in water, and, after a time, 
certain quantities of putrid cheese and sour milk are added, 
and also some powdered chalk. At first the sugar is converted 
into glucose : — 

doHooOn + H 2 = 2 C 6 H 12 6 . 

Cane sugar. Glucose. 

The glucose breaks up, yielding lactic acid, C 3 H 6 3 : — 
C 6 H 12 6 = 2 C 3 H 6 3 . 

Glucose. Lactic acid. 


And, finally, the lactic acid is converted into butyric acid : — 
2C 3 H 6 3 = CH 8 2 + CO a + 2H 2 . 

Other methods for the preparation of butyric acid are : — 

(1) By oxidation of normal butyl alcohol ; and 

(2) By treating normal propyl cyanide, CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 2 CN, 
with caustic potash. 

The acid is a liquid having an acid, rancid odor, like that of 
rancid butter. It boils at 163°. (Compare with the preceding- 
acids.) Like the lower members of the series it mixes with 
water in all proportions. 

Ethyl bulyrate, C 3 H 7 .C0 2 C 2 H 5 , has a pleasant odor resembling 
that of pineapples. It is used under the name of essence of 

Isobutyric acid, r^ :! > CH.CO-H. — From the two propyl 

alcohols the two chlorides, propyl chloride, CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 2 C1. 

and isopropyl chloride, 3 > CHC1, can be made, and from 

these the corresponding cyanides, — 

Propyl cyanide CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 2 CN, 

and Isopropyl cyanide . . . . 3 > CHCN. 

CH 3 

By boiling with caustic potash, the former is converted into 
normal butyric acid, as stated above ; while the latter yields 


isobutyric acid, 3 >CH.C0 2 H. This acid may be prepared 


also by oxidizing isobutyl alcohol, 3 > CH.CH 2 OH. It is 

CH 3 

found in nature in the carob bean. 

-Isobutyric acid is a liquid which boils at 154°. Its odor is 
less unpleasant than that of the normal acid. 

Valeric acids, CsH^OaCCJIg.COaH). — Four carboxyl de- 
rivatives of the butanes are possible. Four acids of the 
formula C 5 H 10 O 2 are known. 


Inactive or ordinary valeric acid, q H 3 > CH.CH 2 .C0 2 H. 

— This acid is made by oxidizing inactive amyl alcohol. It 
may also be made (and this reaction reveals the structure of 


the acid) by starting with isobutvl alcohol, 3 >CH.CH 2 OH, 

CH 3 

converting this first into the chloride and then into the cyanide, 

and, finally, transforming the cyanide, which is 3 > CH.CH 2 CN, 

CH 3 

into the acid. It occurs in valerian root, whence its name. It 
is an unpleasant smelling liquid, boiling at 175°. It requires 
thirty parts of water for solution. 

Amyl valerate, C 4 H 9 . C0 2 C 6 H 12 , has the odor of apples, and is 
used under the name of essence of apples. 

Active valeric acid, ^^ > CH.CH 2 .CH 3 . — This acid 

OU 2 ±± 

is prepared by oxidation of active amyl alcohol. Although the 
alcohol turns the plane of polarization to the left, the acid 
turns it to the right. The alcohol is said to be lasvo-rotatory ', 
and the acid dextro-rotatory. 

The higher acids of the series are, for the most part, found 
in various fats. They are difficultly soluble in water. The 
highest members are solids. The two best known, because 
occurring in largest quantity, are palmitic and stearic acids. 
These are contained in combination with the alcohol, glycerin, in 
all the common fats. The fats will be treated of under the 
head of Glycerin. 

Palmitic acid, C 15 H3i.C0 2 H, may be made by saponifying 
man}- fats, but especially palm-oil, from which it is obtained 
mixed with only one other acid. 

It crystallizes in needles which melt at 62°. 

Stearic acid, C 17 H 35 .C0 2 H, is the acid contained in that 
particular fat known as stearin. The so-called "stearin can- 

soaps. 135 

dies " are really made of a mixture of palmitic and stearic 
acids, and from them stearic acid can be separated in pure form 
by long-continued fractional crystallization from ether and 

It crystallizes from alcohol in needles or laminae which melt 
at 69°. 

Soaps. — In speaking of the decompositions of ethereal salts 
by boiling with alkalies, it was stated that this process is 
called saponification because it is best exemplified in the manu- 
facture of soaps from fats. The fats are themselves rather 
complicated ethereal salts. When they are boiled with an 
alkali, as caustic soda, the alcohol is liberated, and the alkali 
salts of the acids are formed. These salts are the soaps. They 
are in solution after the process of saponification is completed, 
and may be separated by adding a solution of common salt, in 
which they are insoluble. 

Experiment 33. In an iron pot boil half a pound of lard with a 
solution of caustic soda for two hours. After cooling, add a strong- 
solution of sodium chloride. The soap will separate and rise to the 
top of the solution, where it will finally solidify. Dissolve some of 
the soap thus obtained in water, and filter. Add hydrochloric acid, 
when the free fatty acids, mainly palmitic and stearic acids, will 
separate as solids, which will rise to the top. The hydrochloric acid 
simply decomposes the sodium palmitate and stearate, giving free 
palmitic and stearic acids and sodium chlorides : — 

C 15 H 31 .C0 2 Na + HC1 = C 15 H 31 .C0 2 H + NaCl, 
Sodium Palmitate. Palmitic Acid. 

and C 17 H 35 .C0 2 Na + HC1 = C 17 H 35 .C0 2 H + NaCI. 

Sodium Stearate. Stearic Acid. 

The remaining derivatives of the higher members of the 
paraffin series include the ethers, ketones, ethereal salts, 
mercaptans, sulphur ethers, sulphonic acids, cyanides and 
isocyanides, cyanates and isocyanates, sulpho-cyanates and 


iso-sulpho-cyanates, substituted ammonias and analogous com- 
pounds, metal derivatives, and nitro-derivatives. 

A great many substances belonging to these classes, and 
containing residues of the higher hydrocarbons, have been pre- 
pared and studied ; but, in the main, they so closely resemble 
the simpler substances which have alreadj* been described that 
we would gain nothing by taking them up here individually. 
The student, however, is earnestly advised to apply the princi- 
ples discussed in the first part of the book to a few other cases. 
Thus, let him take propane and butane, and, not only write the • 
formulas of the derivatives which may be obtained from them, 
but, above all, write the equations representing the action in- 
volved in their preparation, and the transformations of which 
they are capable. 


1. Di-acid Alcohols. 

The alcohols thus far considered are of the simplest kind. 
They correspond to the simplest metallic hydroxides, as potas- 
sium hydroxide, KOH. Just as these simplest metallic hydrox- 
ides are called mon-acid bases, so the simplest alcohols are 
called mon-acid alcohols, 1 expressions which are suggested by 
the term mono-basic acid. But, as is well known, there are 
metallic hydroxides, like calcium hydroxide, Ca(OII) 2 , barium 
hydroxide, Ba(OH) 2 , etc., which contain two hydroxyls, and 
are hence known as di-acid bases; and so, too, there are di-acid 
alcohols which bear to the mon-acid alcohols the same relation 
that the di-acid bases bear to the mon-acid bases. Only one 
alcohol of this kind, derived from the paraffin hydrocarbons, is 
well known. 

Ethylene alcohol or glycol, 2 H 6 O,[C,H. 1 ( OH),]. — Glycol 
is made by starting with ethylene, a hydrocarbon of the formula 

1 The expression monatomic alcohols is used by some writers, but, as it is confusing, 
it is gradually giving way to the more rational expression above used. 


C 2 H 4 . When this is brought together with bromine, the two 
unite directly, forming ethylene bromide, C 2 H 4 Br 2 . By replacing 
the two bromine atoms by hydroxyl, ethylene alcohol or glycol 
is formed. 

It is a colorless, inodorous, somewhat oily liquid, which boils 
at 197.5°. It has a sweetish taste, and is hence called glycol 
(from yAuKos, siveei). Hence, further, the other alcohols of 
this series are also called glycols. 

The derivatives of ethylene alcohol are not as numerous as 
those of the better known members of the methyl alcohol series, 
but those which are known are of the same general character. 
The reactions of the alcohol are the same as those of the mon- 
acid alcohols, but it presents more possibilities. In most cases 
in which a mon-acid alcohol yields one derivative, ethylene 
alcohol yields two. Thus, with sodium, the two compounds, 

sodium glycol, C 2 H 4 < , and di-sodium glycol, C 2 H 4 < , 

can be formed ; from these, by treating with ethyl iodide, the 

00 H 
two ethers, ethyl-glycol ether, C 2 H 4 < 2 5 , and di-ethyl-glycol 

Of"! H 

ether, C 2 H 4 < n 2 5 , are made. By treatment with hydro- 

5 CI 

chloric acid, the chloride, C 2 H 4 < , known as ethylene chlor- 

hydrine is formed ; and this, by treatment with phosphorus tri- 
chloride, may be converted into ethylene chloride, C 2 H 4 C1 2 , etc. 
Its conduct towards acids is like that of a cli-acid base. It 
forms neutral and alcoholic salts, of which the acetates may 
serve as examples. Thus we have the 

Mono-acetate, C 2 H 4 < OC 2 H 30 
4 OH 

and the Di-acetate, C 2 H 4 < OC 2 H 3° . 

' OC 2 H 3 

the former still containing alcoholic hydroxyl and corresponding 
to a basic salt ; the latter being a neutral compound. 


Under the head of Acetyl Chloride (see p. 62) the action 
of acetyl chloride upon organic compounds containing oxygen 
was spoken of as affording a convenient method of determining 
whether a given substance is an alcohol or not. It is plain 
that, as the reaction which takes place between a mon-acid 
alcohol and acetyl chloride, and which is represented by the 

R.OH + C 2 H 3 0C1 = R.OC0H3O + HC1, 

is due to the presence of alcoholic hydroxyl, the reaction must 
be repeated for every alcoholic hydroxyl contained in the com- 
pound ; or, at least, this result would be expected. As a 
matter of fact the reaction is thus repeated for ever}' alcoholic 
hydroxyl present. Hence, by treating an oxygen derivative 
with acetyl chloride, we can not only determine whether the 
derivative is an alcohol or not, but also, if it is an alcohol, 
whether it is mon-acid or di-acid, etc. Thus, suppose we 
treat ethylene alcohol with acetyl chloride. This reaction takes 
place, — 

C 2 H 4 (OH) 2 + 2 C 2 H 3 0C1 = C 2 H 4 < °^* 3 ° + 2 HC1 ; 

and a body, which analysis shows to have the composition repre- 
sented by the formula 

is formed. Such a body could only be formed by the introduc- 
tion of two acetyl groups into the alcohol, and we therefore 
conclude that the original substance is a di-acid alcohol. 

There are two ways in which the structure of a compound 
of the formula CH(OH) 2 maybe represented. They are, — 

CH 2 (OH) 
(1) I , in which each hydroxyl is represented in combi- 

CH 2 (OH) CII(OH) 2 

nation with a different carbon atom ; and (2)1 , in which 

CH 3 
both hydroxyls are represented in combination with the same 


carbon atom. The question at once suggests itself, to which of 

these formulas does ethylene alcohol correspond? To answer 

this question, we must recall what was said regarding the two 

dichlor-ethanes, known as ethylene chloride and ethylidene chloride. 

The former of these corresponds to the formula CH 2 C1.CH 2 C1, 

while the latter, which is formed from aldehyde b}* replacing the 

carbonyl oxygen by two chlorine atoms, is represented by the 

formula CHC1 2 .CH 3 . When the chlorine atoms of ethylene 

chloride are replaced by hydroxyl, ethylene alcohol is produced. 

CH 2 (OH) 
Hence, the alcohol has the formula I , or each of the 

CH 2 (OH) 

hydroxyls is in combination with a different carbon atom. 

All attempts to make the isomeric di-acid alcohol correspond- 
ing to ettrylidene chloride, and having both hydroxyls in combi- 
nation with the same carbon atom, as represented in the formula 
CH(OH 2 ) 

I , have failed. Instead of getting ethylidene alcohol, 

CH 3 

aldehyde is generally obtained. Aldehyde is ethylidene alcohol 
minus water : — 


I = I + H 2 0. 

CH 3 CH 3 

It is believed that one carbon atom cannot, under ordinary 
circumstances, hold in combination more than one hydroxyl 
group. If this is true, then ethylidene alcohol cannot be pre- 

pared any more than our hypothetical carbonic acid, CO < , 


can be. So, too, the simplest di-acid alcohol conceivable, 

viz., methylene alcohol, CH 2 (OH) 2 , cannot exist, but would 

break up, if formed at all, into water and formic aldehyde : — 

CH 2 (OH) 2 = H 2 + H.CHO. 

(See discussion regarding the transformation of alcohol into 
aldehyde, pp. G4-66.) 


Ethyl alcohol, as was pointed out, may be regarded either as 
ethane in which one hydrogen is replaced by hydroxyl, or as 
water in which one hydrogen is replaced by the radical C 2 H 5 , or 
ethyl. Ethyl, like all the radicals contained in the mon-acid 
alcohols, is univalent. It is ethane less one atom of hydrogen, 
just as methyl is methane less one atom of hydrogen. Each 
has the power of uniting with one atom of hydrogen, or another 
univalent element, or of taking the place of one atom of 

If we take away two atoms of hydrogen from methane and 
ethane, we have left the residues or radicals CH 2 and C 2 H 4 . 
These can unite with two atoms of hydrogen, or take the place 
of two atoms of hydrogen, and they are hence called bivalent 

Just as ethylene alcohol may be regarded as ethane in which 
two hydrogen atoms are replaced by hydroxyls, so it may be 
regarded as water in which the bivalent radical ethylene re- 
places two hydrogens belonging to two different molecules of 
water : — 

0< l o< H 

0<H °<H 2H< 

Two molecules water. Ethylene alcohol. 

The higher members of the series of di-acid alcohols will not 
be considered here. 

2. Bib asic Acids. 

Just as there are di-acid alcohols derived from the paraffins, 
so there are bibasic acids which may also be regarded as deriva- 
tives of the paraffins. We have seen that the simplest acids, 
the monobasic fatty acids, are closely related to formic and 
carbonic acids ; that they may be regarded as derived from the 
latter by replacement of a hytlroxyl by a radical, or as derived 


from the paraffins by the introduction of the group carboxyl, 
COJI. The conditions existing in this group are essential to 
the acid properties. If two carboxyls be introduced into marsh 
gas, we would have a substance of the formula CH 2 (COaH) 2 , 
and this is a bibasic acid. It contains two acid hydrogens, and 
is capable of forming two series of salts, the acid and neutral 
salts, like other bibasic acids. It ma}' be regarded also as 
derived from two molecules of carbonic acid by the replacement 
of two hydroxyls by the bivalent radical CH 2 : — 

CO < ?? _ ^ on 


CH 2 


Two molecules rarbonic acid. Bibasic acid. 

The general methods of preparation available for the building 
up of the series of bibasic acids are modifications of those used 
in making the monobasic acids. They are : — 

1. Oxidation of di-acid primary alcohols. Just as a mon- 
acid primary alcohol, R.CH 2 OH, yields by oxidation a mono- 
basic acid, so a di-acid primary alcohol, R"(CH 2 OH) 2 , yields a 
bibasic acid, R"(C0 2 H) 2 . 

2. Treatment of the dicyanides, R"(CN) 2 , with caustic alkalies. 

3. Oxidation of the so-called hydroxy-acids or alcohol acids. 

These are compounds which are at the same time alcohol and 

acid ; as, for example, hydroxy-acetic acid, which is acetic acid 

in which one of the hydrogen atoms of the hydrocarbon residue, 

methyl, has been replaced by hydroxyl, as represented in the 

CH 2 OH 
formula I . When this is oxidized, the alcoholic portion, 

C0 2 H 

CH 2 OH, is converted into carboxyl, and a bibasic acid is formed. 

4. From the cyanogen derivatives of the monobasic acids, 

such as cyan-acetic acid, CH 2 < ' , by the transformation of 

the cyanogen group into carboxyl. 


Bl BASIC ACIDS, C n H 2 _ 2 04. 


acid . . 





















(C0 2 H) 2 . 

CH 2 (C0 2 H) 2 . 

C 2 H 4 (C0 2 H) 2 . 

C 3 H 6 (C0 2 H) 2 . 

C 4 H 8 (C0 2 H) 2 . 
CoH 10 (CO 2 H) 2 . 
C 6 H 12 (C0 2 H) 2 . 

^7^14 (C0 2 H) 2 . 

C 8 H 16 (C0 2 H) 2 . 

Q)H 18 (C0 2 H) 2 . 
C I5 H3o(C0 2 H) 2 . 

Of the many acids included in this list only four or five can 
be said to be well known. We may confine our attention to the 
first four members. 

Oxalic acid, 2 H 2 O 4 [(CO 2 H) 2 ]. — In one sense, according to 
the accepted definition, oxalic acid is not a member of the series 
with which we are dealing, as it is not derived from a hydro- 
carbon by replacement of hydrogen by carboxyl ; nor is it 
derived from two molecules of carbonic acid by replacement of 
two hydroxyls by a bivalent radical. Still it is in other respects 
so closely allied to the members of the series, and has so many 
things in common with the other members, that it would be a 
mere act of pedantiy to consider it in any other connection. 

Oxalic acid occurs veiy widely distributed in Nature ; as in 
certain plants of the oxalis varieties, in the form of the acid 
potassium salt ; as calcium salt in many plants ; in urinary 
calculi ; and as the ammonium salt in guano. 

It is formed by the action of nitric acid upon many organic 


substances, particularly the different varieties of sugar and the 
so-called carbohydrates, such as starch, cellulose, etc. 

Experiment 34. In a good-sized flask ponr half a litre of ordinary 
concentrated nitric acid (of specific gravity 1.245) upou 100s of sugar. 
Heat gently until the reaction begins. Then withdraw the flame, when 
the oxidation will proceed with some violence, and accompanied by a 
copious evolution of red fumes. Let it cool, when oxalic acid will 
crystallize out. Ponr off the mother liquor and evaporate somewhat, 
when more oxalic acid will crystallize out. Recrystallize from water 
the acid thus obtained, and with the pure substance perform such ex- 
periments as will exhibit its properties. For example, (1) Heat a 
specimen at 100°, and notice loss of water; (2) Heat some in a small 
flask with sulphuric acid, and prove that both oxides of carbon are 

On the large scale, oxalic acid is made by heating wood 
shavings or saAv-dust with caustic potash and caustic soda to 
240° to 250°. The mass is extracted with water, and the solu- 
tion evaporated to crystallization, when sodium oxalate is de- 

Other methods, which are interesting from a purely scientific 
stand-point, are the following : — 

1. The spontaneous transformation of an aqueous solution of 
cyanogen : — 

CN C0 2 H 

| + 4 H 2 = | -f 2 NH 3 ; 

CN C0 2 H 

CN C0 2 (NH 4 ) 

or, really, | + 4 H 2 = | 

CN C0 2 (NH 4 )' 

2. Treatment of carbon dioxide with sodium : — 

2 C0 2 + 2 Na = C 2 4 Na 2 . 

3. Heating sodium formate : — 

2H.C0 2 Na = C 2 4 Na 2 + 2 H. 
Oxalic acid crystallizes from water in monoclinic prisms con- 



taining two molecules of water (C 2 H 2 4 -f 2 H 2 0) . It loses 
this water at 100°. It sublimes without decomposition at 150° 
to 160°, but, if heated higher, it breaks up into carbon monox- 
ide, carbon dioxide, and formic acid : — 

2 C 2 H 2 4 = 2 C0 2 + CO/ + HC0 2 H + H 2 0. 

Sulphuric acid decomposes it into carbon monoxide, carbon 
dioxide, and water. Heated with glycerin to 100°, Carbon 
dioxide and formic acid are formed (see Formic Acid) : — 

C 2 H 2 4 = C0 2 + H.C0 2 H. 

It is an excellent reducing agent, and is used as a standardizer 
in preparing solutions of potassium permanganate. 

Experiment 35. Try the action of a solution of potassium per- 
manganate on a solution of oxalic acid. Why is it best to have the 
solution of the permanganate acid? 

Oxalic acid is an active poison. It is used in calico printing. 

Salts of oxalic acid. Like all bibasic acids, oxalic acid forms 
acid and neutral salts with metals. All the salts are insoluble 
except those containing the alkalies. Among those most com- 
mon are the acid potassium salt, C 2 4 HK, which is found in the 
sorrels or plants of the oxalis variet}' ; the ammonium salt, 
C 2 4 (NH 4 ) 2 , of which some urinary calculi are formed ; and 
calcium oxalate, C 2 4 Ca, which, being insoluble in water and 
acetic acid, is used as a means of detecting calcium in the 
presence of magnesium. 

Malonic acid, 3 H 4 O 4 [= CHj(C0 2 H)J.— This acid was first 
made by oxidation of malic acid (which see),, and is hence 
called malonic acid. It can best be made by starting with 
acetic acid. The necessary steps are: (1) making chlor-acetic 
acid ; (2) transforming chlor-acetic acid into cyan-acetic acid ; 
(3) heating cyan-acetic acid with an alkali. 

Note for Student. — Write the equations representing the three 
steps mentioned. 


It is a solid which crystallizes in laminae. It breaks up at a 
temperature above 132°, which is its melting-point, into carbon 
dioxide and acetic acid : — 

CH 2 <^ 2 ^ = CH 3 .C0 2 H + C0 2 . 


Note for Student. — What simple method for the preparation of 
marsh gas and other paraffins is this reaction analogous to? 

Succinic acids, C 4 H 6 4 [= C 2 H 4 (C0 2 H),]. — Considering 
these acids as derived from ethane by replacing two hydrogens 
with carboxyl, we see that there may be two corresponding to 
ethylene and ethylidene chlorides. Two are actually known. 
One is the well-known succinic acid ; the other is called iso- 
suctinic acid. 

CH 2 .CO,H 
Succinic acid, Ethylene succinic acid, I . — 

CH,.C0 2 H 

This acid occurs in amber (hence its name, from Lat. succinum, 
amber) ; in some varieties of lignite ; in many plants ; and in 
the animal organism, as in the urine of the horse, goat, and 
rabbit. . /■ 

It is formed under many circumstances, especially by oxida- 
tion of fats with nitric acid, by fermentation of calcium malate, 
and, in small quantity, in the alcoholic fermentation of sugar. 
Among the methods for its preparation are : — 

CH 2 .CN 

1. Treatment of ethylene cyanide, | , with a caustic 
alkali:— CH 2 .CN 

CH 2 CN CH 2 .C(XK 

| + 2 KOH + 2 H 2 = | +2 NH 3 . 

CH 2 CN CH 2 .C0 2 K 

2. Similarly, by treatment of /?-cyan-propionic acid with an 
alkali. (What is /3-cyan-propionic acid?) 

3. Reduction of tartaric and malic acids by means of 


hydriodic acid. These well-known acids will be shown to be 
closely related to succinic acid, and the reaction here mentioned 
will be explained. The methods actually used in the prepara- 
tion of succinic acid are: (1) the distillation of amber, and 
(2) the fermentation of calcium malate. 

The acid crystallizes in monoclinic prisms, which melt at 
180° (try it). It boils at 235°, at the same time giving off 
water, and being converted into the anhydride : — 

C 2 H 4 <51P2 H = C 2H 4 <^>0 + H 2 0. 

Among the salts ferric succinate, C4H4O4. Fe(OH), is of 
special interest, as it is entirely insoluble in water, and may 
therefore be used for the purpose of separating iron from 
aluminium quantitatively. 

Experiment 36. Make a neutral solution of ammonium succiu- 
ate by neutralizing an aqueous solution of the acid, and boiling off all 
excess of ammonia. Add some of this solution to a solution known to 
contain aluminium and iron in the ferric state. A brown-red precipi- 
tate will be formed. Filter and wash, and examine the nitrate for iron. 

CH(CO,H) 2 
Isosuccinic acid, Ethylidene succinic acid, I 

CH 3 
This acid is made by treating a-cyan-propionic acid with an 

alkali. (What is a-cyan-propionic acid?) 

Isosuccinic acid forms crystals which melt at 130°. Heated 

to 150° it breaks up into propionic acid and carbon dioxide : — 

CH(C0 2 H) 2 CHo.C0 2 H 
I = I +H 2 0. 

CH 3 CH 3 

Isosuccinic acid. Propionic acid. 

Note for Student. — Notice carefully the difference between the 
two succinic acids, as shown by their conduct when heated. What is 
the difference? 

Acids of the formula C,H 8 4 [= CHJCO.H),]. — Four 
acids of the formula C 5 H 8 4 are known, only one of which, 
however, need be considered here. This is, — 


Pyrotartartic acid, I . — As the name mdi- 

CH,.C0 2 H 

cates, this acid is made by heating tartaric acid. The reactions 

which take place are complicated, and cannot well be represented 

by equations. The reactions which point to the above formula 

are also comparatively complicated, and their discussion at this 

time would tend only to confuse the student. 

Tri-acid Alcohols. 

The existence of mon-acid alcohols corresponding to the 
mon-acid bases, like potassium hydroxide, and of di-acid alco- 
hols corresponding to the di-acid bases, like calcium hydroxide, 
suggests the possible existence of tri-acid alcohols correspond- 
ing to tri-acid bases, like ferric hydroxide. There is only one 
alcohol of this kind derived from the paraffin hydrocarbons that 
is at all well known. This is the common substance glycerin. 

Glycerin, C £ H s 3 . — As has been stated repeatedly, glycerin 
occurs very widely distributed as the alcoholic or basic constit- 
uent of the fats. The acids with which it is in combination are 
mostly members of the fatty acid series, though one, viz., oleic 
acid, which is found frequently, is a member of another series. 
Besides oleic acid, the two acids most frequently met with in 
fats are palmitic and stearic acids. When a fat is saponified 
with caustic potash, it yields free glycerin and the potassium 
salts of the acids. The reactions in the case of the glycerin 
compounds of palmitic and stearic acids are these : — 


rOH HO.OC.C 15 H 31 r O .CO .C^H^ 

C 3 H 5 ] OH + HO.OC.C 15 H 31 = C 3 H 5 ] O.CO.C 15 H 3l + 3 H 2 0. 
(.OH HO.OC.C^H^ (,O.CO.C 15 H 31 

Glycerin. Palmitic acid. ffl^ggta!** 


r OH HO.OCdrHas f 0.00.0^ 

C 3 H 5 ] OH + HO.OC.C^H^ = C 3 hJ O.OC.C^H^ + 3 H 2 0. 
(OH HO.OC.C 17 H 35 (O.OCXVH35 

Glycerin. Stearic Acid. (Hycerin ^tearate, " 


rO.OC.C 15 H 31 
C 3 H 5 ] O.OC.C 15 H 31 + 3KOH = C 3 H 5 (OH) 3 + 3 C 15 H 31 . C0 2 K. 

(. O.OC.C15H01 Glycerin. Potassium palmitate. 


rO.OC.C 17 H ffl 

C 3 H 5 ] O.OC.C^ + 3KOH = C 3 H 5 (OH) 3 + 8 C 17 H M . C0 2 K. 

(. O.OC.C17H0K Glycerin. Potassium stearate. 


The fats are also decomposed by superheated steam, yielding 
free glycerin and the free acids, and this method is used on the 
large scale, a little lime being added to facilitate the process. 
Lead oxide decomposes fats yielding a mixture of glycerin and 
the lead salts of the acids. The mixture is known in medicine 
as " lead plaster." 

Glycerin is formed in small quantity by the alcoholic fermen- 
tation of sugar. 

It has been made synthetically from propylene chloride, 
C 3 H 6 C1 2 . The necessary steps are : (1) treatment with chlorine, 
giving C 3 H 5 CL> ; (2) treatment of the tri-chlorine derivative 
with water, thus replacing the three chlorine atoms by hydroxyl. 

Glycerin is a thick colorless liquid, with a sweetish taste 
(compare with glycol). It mixes with alcohol and water in all 
proportions. It attracts moisture from the air. At low tem- 
peratures it solidifies, forming deliquescent crystals which melt 
at 17°. Under diminished pressure it can be distilled; but, if 
heated to its boiling-point under the ordinary atmospheric pres- 
sure it undergoes decomposition. It is volatile with water 


Experiment 37. Heat a little glycerin in a dry vessel, and try to 
boil it. What evidence have you that it undergoes decomposition? 
Put 20 cc to 30 cc glycerin in 400 cc to 500 cc water in a flask j connect with 
a condenser, and boil. Prove that glycerin passes over with the water 

The reactions of glycerin all clearly lead to the conclusion 
that it is a tri-acid alcohol. 

(1) The three hydroxyl groups can be replaced successively 
by chlorine, giving the compounds, — 

Chlorhydrin, C 3 H 5 j /q H \ 5 
Dichlorhydrin, C 3 H 5 \ qX ; 

and Tri chlorhydrin, C 3 H 5 C1 3 , 

which last compound is propane in which three hydrogen atoms 

are replaced by chlorine, or trichlorpropane. 

(2) It forms three classes of ethereal salts containing one, 
two, and three acid residues respectively. For example, with 
acetyl chloride these reactions take place : — 

(OH rO.C 2 H 3 

1. c 3 h 5 ] oh + c 2 h 3 0.c1 = c 3 h 5 ] oh + hc1. 

(oh (oh 

rOH rOC 2 H 3 

2. c 3 h 5 ] oh + 2 c 2 h 3 0c1 = c 3 h 5 ] oc 2 h 3 + hc1. 

(oh (oh 

rOH rOC 2 H 3 

3. C 3 hJ OH + 3C 2 H,0C1 = C 3 H.J OC 2 H 3 + HC1. 
. ■ (OH (0C 2 H 3 

In regard to the relations of the hydroxyl groups to the parts 
of the radical C 3 H 5 , we have very little experimental evidence, 
though it appears highly probable that each hydroxyl. is in 
combination with a different carbon atom as represented in the 

formula CHOH . 



In the first place, we have seen above that compounds con- 
taining two hydroxyls in combination with the same carbon 
are not readily formed, if they are formed at all, and we have 
had some reason for concluding that this kind of combination 
is impossible. It would follow from this that the simplest tri- 
acid alcohol must contain at least three atoms of carbon, just 
as the simplest di-acid alcohol must contain at least two atoms 
of carbon. We have seen that the simplest tri-acicl alcohol 
known does contain three atoms of carbon. 

CH 2 OH 

Further, if the formula of glycerin is CHOH , it contains two 

CH 2 OH 
primary alcohol groups, CH 2 OH, and we have seen that this 
group is converted into carboxyl under the influence of oxidiz- 
ing agents. Therefore, we would expeot by oxidizing glycerin 

C0 2 H C0 2 H 

I I 

to get products of the formulas, CHOH , and CHOH. Suchprod- 

CH 2 OH C0 2 H 

ucts actually are obtained, the first being glyceric acid (which 
see) , and the second tartronic acid (which see) . 

Just as ethyl alcohol is regarded as water in which one 

hydrogen is replaced by the univalent radical C 2 H 5 , as 2 5 > ; 

and glycol is regarded as water in which two hydrogen atoms 
of two molecules of water are replaced by the bivalent radical 

H >0 
C 2 H 4 , as C 2 H 4 r_ • so also glycerin may be regarded as water 

H >u 

in which three hydrogen atoms of three molecules are replaced 

by the trivalent radical C 3 H 5 , thus : — 




C 3 H 5 ] OH, 



Three molecules water. 


BUTTER. 151 

Ethereal salts of glycerin. — Among the important 
ethereal salts of glycerin are the nitrates. Two of these are 

rO.N0 2 
known ; viz., the mono-nitrate, C 3 H 5 -I OH , and the tri-nitrate, 

C 3 H 5 (ON0 2 ) 3 , the latter being the chief constituent of nitro- 
glycerin. Nitro-glycerin is prepared by treating glycerin with 
a mixture of concentrated sulphuric and nitric acids. It is a 
pale yellow oil which is insoluble in water. At —20° it 
crystallizes in long needles. It explodes very violently by 
concussion. It may be burned in an open vessel, but if heated 
above 250° it explodes. Dynamite is infusorial earth impreg- 
nated with nitro-glycerin. Nitro-glycerin is the active constitu- 
ent of a number of explosives. 

Fats. — The relation of the fats to glycerin has already been 
stated. Here it will be necessary only to mention the composi- 
tion and characteristics of some of the more common fats. 

Most fats are mixtures of the three neutral ethereal salts 
which glycerin forms with palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids, 
and which are known by the names palmitin, stearin, and ole'in. 
Ole'in is liquid, and the other two fats are solids, stearin having 
the higher melting-point. Therefore, the larger the proportion 
of ole'in contained in a fat the softer it is, while the greater the 
proportion of stearin the higher its melting-point. Among the 
fats which are particularly rich in stearin may be mentioned 
mutton tallow, beef tallow, and lard. Human fat and palm oil 
are particularly rich in palmitin. Sperm oil and cod-liver oil 
are rich in ole'in. 

Butter consists of ethereal salts of glycerin and the follow- 
ing acids : myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids, which are not 
volatile, and butyric, caproi'c, caprylic, and capric acids, which 
are volatile with water vapors. All the acids mentioned are 
members of the fatty acid series. Some of these acids are 
soluble and some are insoluble in water. The percentage of 


insoluble fatty acids contained in butter has been found to be 
88 per cent. As the proportion of insoluble fatty acids con- 
tained in artificial butters, such as the so-called oleo-margarin, 
is greater than that contained in butter, it is not a difficult 
matter to distinguish between the two by determining the 
amount of these acids contained in them. 

Tri-basic Acids. 

There is but one acid to be considered under this head. lVJLl 


Tri-carballylic acid, C 3 H 5 (C0 2 H) 3 . — This acid may be 
made from trichlorlvydrin, C 3 H 5 C1 3 (which see), by replacing 
the chlorine by cyanogen, and heating the tricyanhydrine thus 
obtained with an alkali. It may be made also by treating 
aconitic acid (which see) with nascent hydrogen. 

It crystallizes from water in rhombic prisms which melt at 
157° to 158°. 

Tetr-acid Alcohols. 

Erythrite, C 4 H 10 O. 4 [= C,Hg(OH)J. — This substance occurs 
in one of the algae (Protococcus vulgaris) and in several lichens. 
It crystallizes from water in quadratic prisms. It has a very 
sweet taste. The fact that the simplest tetr-acid alcohol con- 
tains four atoms of carbon should be noted specially. 

There is no tetra-basic acid derived from the hydrocarbons of 
the paraffin series. 

Pent- acid Alcohols. 

Outy one substance need be considered under this head, and 
even this one is rare. It is, — 

Quercite, C (; H 7 (OH) 5 . — Quercite is formed in acorns. It 
crystallizes in prisms from its solutions in water. 


No penta-basic acid belonging to this series is known. 

Hex- acid Alcohols. 

There are two isomeric hex-acid alcohols known. Both are 
derived from hexane, and have the composition represented by 
the formula C G H 8 (OH) c . It will be noticed that these hex-add 
alcohols contain six carbon atoms each. 

Mannite, C G H s (OH) G . — Mannite is widely distributed in 
the vegetable kingdom. It occurs most abundantly in manna, 1 
which is the partly dried sap of the manna-ash {Fraxinus 
ornus) . It is obtained from incisions in the bark of the tree. 

Mannite is formed in the lactic acid fermentation of sugar. 
It is formed also by the action of nascent hydrogen on glucose 
and cellulose, or on inverted cane sugar. This indicates a close 
relationship between the sugars and mannite. Mannite crystal- 
lizes in needles, or rhombic prisms, which are easily soluble in 
water and in alcohol. It has a sweet taste. 

Nitric acid converts mannite into saccharic acid (which see). 
When boiled with concentrated hydriodic acid, it is converted 
into secondary hexyl iodide, C 6 H 13 I. 

Mannite hexa-nitrate (nitro-mannite), C 6 H 8 (O.N0 2 ) 6 , is 
formed by treating mannite with a mixture of concentrated 
sulphuric and nitric acids. It is a solid substance and is very 
explosive. (Analogy with nitro-glycerin.) 

Mannite hex-acetate, C 6 K 8 (O.C 2 H 3 0) 6 , is formed by treat- 
ing mannite with acetic anhydride. Its formation, as well as 
that of the hexa-nitrate, shows that mannite is a hex-acid alcohol. 
For the purpose of making the acetates, acetic anhydride is 
sometimes used instead of acetyl chloride. In some cases in 

1 The manna of the Scriptures was obtained from the branches of Tammarix yallica. 
It contained no mannite, but a substance of similar properties. 


which the latter will not work, the former answers very well. 
Hence acetic anhydride has come into use as a reagent, which 
enables us to decide whether a substance under examination is 
or is not an alcohol ; and, if it is, to which class (whether 
mon-acid, di-acid, tri-acid, etc.) it belongs. 

Dulcite, C G H 3 (OH) 6 . — This occurs in a kind of manna 
obtained in Madagascar, the source of which, however, is 
unknown. It is formed by treating sugar of milk or galactose 
with nascent hydrogen (compare with mannite in this respect) . 

Dulcite crystallizes in monoclinic prisms ; easily soluble in 
water and in alcohol. 

Nitric acid oxidizes dulcite, forming mucic acid (which see), 
isomeric with saccharic acid, which is formed from mannite. 
Like mannite, when boiled with hydriodic acid it yields second- 
ary hexyl iodide, C 6 H 13 I. With acetic anhydride it yields dulcite 
hex-acetate, C 6 H 8 (O.C 2 H 3 0) 6 . 

There are no liexa-basic acids known belonging to this series. 

Neither alcohols nor acids are known containing more than 
six alcoholic or acid groups. We have, therefore, completed 
an account of the alcohols, acids, aldehydes, ethers, etc., derived 
from the paraffin series of hydrocarbons. But we are not yet 
prepared to pass on to the next series of hydrocarbons. The 
compounds which up to this time have been considered belong 
to distinct classes. Each one, with very few exceptions, is 
either an alcohol or an acid, an aldehyde or a ketone, etc. 
The few exceptions referred to are the acid ethereal salts, such 

riTT A 

as ethyl- sulphuric acid, 2 jj > S0 2 , which may be regarded as 
both ethereal salt and acid at the same time, and the alcoholic 
ethereal salts, corresponding to basic salts ; such, for example, 

as glycerin mon-acetate, C 3 H 5 j / gv 3 j which may be regarded as 
ethereal salt and alcohol at the same time. Such compounds 
may be called mixed compounds. 



Under this head are included such compounds as belong at 
the same time to two or more of the chief classes already con- 
sidered. Thus, there are substances which are at the same 
time alcohols and acids. There are others which are at the 
same time alcohols and aldehydes, alcohols and ketones, acids 
and ketones, etc. Fortunately, for our purpose, the number 
of compounds of this kind actually known is comparatively 
small, though among them are many of the most important 
natural compounds of carbon. The first class which presents 
itself is that of the alcohol acids or acid alcohols; that is, sub- 
stances which combine within themselves the properties of both 
alcohol and acid. The} r are commonly called oxy -acids or 
hydroxy -acids. 

Hydroxy-acids, C n H 2n 3 . 

These acids may be regarded either as monobasic acids into 
which one alcoholic hydroxyl has been introduced, or as mon- 
acid alcohols into which one carboxyl has been introduced. As 
their acid properties are more prominent than the alcoholic 
properties, they are commonly referred to the acids. Running 
parallel, then, to the series of fatty acids, we may look for a 
series of hydroxy-acids, each of which differs from the corres- 
ponding fatty acid by one atom of oxygen, or by containing one 
hydroxyl in the place of one hydrogen, thus : — 


Fatty acids. 


Formic acid . 

H.C0 2 H 

HO.C0 2 H. 

Acetic acid . . 

. CH 3 .C0 2 H 

CH„< 0H 
' C0 2 H 

Propionic acid . 


C,H 4 < 0H 
C0 2 H 



The first member of the series, which by analogy would be 
called hydroxy -formic acid, is nothing but our ordinary hypo- 
thetical carbonic acid. Although its relation to formic acid is 
the same as that of the next member of the series to acetic 
acid, it certainly has no properties in common with the alcohols ; 
but, owing to its peculiar structure, it is a bibasic acid which 
the other members of the series are not. Nevertheless, it may 
be referred to here for the sake of a few of its derivatives, 
which are somewhat allied to those of the hydroxy-acids proper. 

Carbonic acid, H,C0 3 [cO<q??Y— It is believed that 

this body exists in solutions of carbon dioxide in water. All 
that is known about it is that it is a feeble bibasic acid, and 
breaks up into water and carbon dioxide whenever it is set free 
from its salts. We have seen that this instability is generally 
met with in compounds containing two hydroxyls in combina- 
tion with one carbon atom. 

Among the derivatives of carbonic acid which may be re- 
ferred to at this time are the ethereal salts. These may be 
made : — 

1. By treating silver carbonate, CO<^ s , with the iodides 
of alcohol radicals ; as, for example, — 

CO < 0Ag + 2 CoH 5 I = CO < OC2H5 + 2 Agl. 
OAg " 5 OC 2 II 5 S 

2. By treating the alcohols with carbonyl chloride, COCl 2 : — 

COCl 2 + 2 C 2 H 5 OH = CO(OC 2 H 5 ) 2 + 2 HC1. 



Ethyl chlor-carbonate, CO < zr~ „ . — This compound 
is made by treating alcohol with carbonyl chloride : — 

COCl 2 + C 2 H 5 OH = CO < ^ TT + HCL 

OL 2 H 5 

It may be regarded as the ethyl salt of mono-chlor-formic 
acid, Cl.COOH ; and, properly speaking, should be called ethyl 
cJilor- for -mate. 

Carbon bisulphide acts very much like carbon dioxide towards 
alkalies and alcohols, and thus a number of ether acids and 
ethereal salts containing sulphur may be made. Thus, when 
carbon bisulphide is added to a solution of caustic potash in 

Ap IT 

alcohol, a potassium salt of the formula CS < 2 5 is formed. 

This is called potassium xanthogenate. The free xanthogenic 
acid is very unstable, breaking up into alcohol and carbon 
bisulphide. The formation of the salt is represented by the 
following equation : — 

CS 2 + KOH 4- C 2 H 5 OH = CS < ®?& s + H 2 0. 


A similar salt made from ordinary amyl alcohol has been used 
for the purpose of destroying phylloxera, the insect, which is so 
destructive to grape-vines, particularly in the wine districts of 

General methods for the preparation of hydroxy-acids. The 
methods available for making the hydroxy-acids are modifica- 
tions of those used for making alcohols and acids. 

Starting from a mon-acid alcohol, we may make a hydroxy - 
acid b}' the same methods which we used in making an acid 
from a hydrocarbon. Suppose, for example, that we are to 
make acetic acid from marsh gas. The reactions which we 
make use of are : (1) the preparation of a halogen derivative ; 
(2) conversion of the halogen derivative into the cyanogen 


derivative ; and (3) conversion of the cyanogen derivative 
into the acid. We describe the results of these operations by 
saying that we have introduced carboxyl. By similar opera- 
tions we may introduce carboxyl into methyl alcohol, and the 
product is hydroxy-acetic acid. 

It is, however, generally better to start from an acid and in- 
troduce hydroxyl. This may be done in several ways : — 

1. By treatiug a halogen derivative of an acid with water or 
silver hydroxide : — 

CH2 <C0 2 H +HHO = CH2 <C0 2 H + HBl - 

Brom-acetic acid. 

2. By treating an amido derivative of an acid with nitrous 
acid (see page 98) : — 

CH ^<n^ 2 xT + HN0 * = CH *<^tt + N * + H2 °* 
L/U 2 -tl LAJ 2 H 

Amido-acetic acid. 

3. By treating a sulphonic-acid derivative of an acid with 
caustic potash : — 

CH 2 < ^ H + KOH = CH 2 <??_ + KHS0 3 . 

Sulpho-acetic acid. 

The first two of these reactions have been described and men- 
tioned as affording methods for the introduction of hydroxyl 
into hydrocarbons. It will be seen that the only difference 
between the reactions used in making alcohols and those used 
in making hydroxy-acids is that in one case we start from the 
hydrocarbons, while in the other we start from the acids. 

Glycolic acid, hydroxy-acetic acid, oxy-acetic acid, 

C,H 4 3 ( = CH 2 < «?„ V — Glycolic acid is found in nature in 
V CO2H/ 

unripe grapes, and in the leaves of the wild grape (Ampelopsis 

hederacea) . 


It may be made from glycocoll, which is amido-acetic acid 
(see reaction 2, above), from brom- or chlor-acetic acid and 
water (see reaction 1 , above) , by the oxidation of glycol : — 

CH 2 OH C0 2 H 

| +0=| + H,0. 

CH 2 OH CH 2 OH 

Glycol. Glycolic acid. 

This consists in transforming one of the primary alcohol groups, 
CH 2 OH, contained in glycol into carboxyl. (What would be 
formed b}^ conversion of both the primary alcohol groups of 
glycol into carboxyl ?) It ma} r also be made by careful oxida- 
tion of ethyl alcohol with nitric acid. For this purpose a 
mixture of alcohol and nitric acid is allowed to stand until no 
further action takes place. 

Glycolic acid forms crystals which are easily soluble in water, 
alcohol, and ether. 

As an acid, glycolic acid forms a series of salts with metals, 
and ethereal salts with alcohol radicals. The latter, of which 
ethyl glycolate may be taken as an example, may be made by 
means of one of the reactions usually employed for making 
ethereal salts ; for example, by treating silver glycolate with 
ethyl iodide : — 

C0 2 Ag C0 2 C 2 H 5 

In this reaction, as well as in the formation of salts of glycolic 
acid, the alcoholic hydroxyl remains unchanged. 

As an alcohol, glycolic acid forms ethers of which ethyl- 

OC 1 H 
glycolic acid, CH 2 < ~ *"\ may serve as an example. It will be 
C0 2 H 

seen that this is isomeric with ethyl glycolate. But while the 
latter has alcoholic properties, the former has acid properties. 
Ethyl glycolate is a liquid which boils at 160°. Ethyl-glycolic 
acid is a liquid which boils at 206° to 207°. Finally, as an 
alcohol, glycolic acid forms ethereal salts, of which acetyl- 
gly colic acid may serve as an example. This is glycolic acid 


in which the hydrogen of the hydroxy 1 is replaced by acetyl, 

o r h o 
CH 2 < ' 2 3 , bearing, as will be seen, the same relation to 
C0 2 H 

gly colic acid and acetic acid that ethyl acetate, C 2 H 5 .O.C 2 H 3 0, 
bears to alcohol and acetic acid. 

Glycolic acid and the other acids of the same series lose 
water when heated, and yield peculiar anhydrides. The product 
obtained from glycolic acid is known as glycolide. It has 
neither acid nor alcoholic properties, and is, therefore, be- 
lieved to be derived from glycolic acid as represented in this 
equation : — q 

CH *<SoH = CH2< i + HA 


Glycolide is insoluble in cold water. When boiled for a long 
time with water, it is converted into glycolic acid. 

Lactic acids, hydroxy-propionic acids, oxy-propionic 

acids, C 3 H 6 3 f= ^H^coh)' "~ Iu s P eakin S of propionic 
acid, it was pointed out that two series of substitution-products of 
the acid are known, which are designated as the a- and /^-series. 
Accordingly we would expect to find two hydroxy-propionic 
acids, the a- and the /?-acid. Two lactic acids have been 
known for a long time. One of these is ordinary lactic acid ; 
the other a variety which is found in flesh, and hence called 
sarco-lactic acid. But, strange to say, a thorough investigation 
of these two acids has proved that both must be represented by 
the same structural formula, as both conduct themselves in 
exactly the same way towards reagents. And, further, one 
other hydroxy-propionic acid is certainly known, and even a 
fourth has been described. The facts then are these : three, 
and probably four, acids are known, all of which are hydroxy- 
propionic acids. Our theory enables us to foretell the existence 
of only two. Before discussing this discrepancy let us briefly 
consider the acids themselves. 


1. Lactic acid, inactive ethylidene-lactic acid, a-hy- 

droxy-propionic acid, CH 3 .CH < co H . — The chief method 

for making lactic acid consists in the fermentation of sugar 
by the lactic-acid ferment. This process has already been 
described under the head of Butyric Acid. It is carried out 
best by dissolving cane sugar and a little tartaric acid in 
water ; then adding putrid cheese, milk, and zinc carbonate. 
The object of the zinc carbonate is to prevent the solution 
from becoming acid, as the presence of free acid is fatal to the 
ferment. The sugar is converted first into glucose, C 6 H 12 6 ; 
and this then breaks up into lactic acid : — 

C 6 H 12 6 = 2 C 3 H 6 3 . 

It will be remembered that by continued action of the ferment 
on the lactic acid, butyric acid is formed (see Butyric Acid). 
Lactic acid may be made also by fermentation of sugar of 
milk, and is hence contained in sour milk ; by boiling a-chlor- 
propionic acid with alkalies, — 

CH - CH <C0 2 H + KOH = CH3< C? 2 H + KC1; 

and by treating alanine (a-amido-propionic acid) with nitrous 
acid, — 

CH 3 .CH < ™ 2 + HN0 2 = CH 3 .CH < ^ + N 2 + H 2 0. 
L'U 2 xl L/U 2 H 

Lactic acid is a thick liquid which mixes with water and 
with alcohol in all proportions. 

Treated with hydriodic acid, it is reduced to propionic acid. 
Treated with hydrobromic acid, it yields a-brom-propionic acid. 

2. Sarco-lactic acid, active ethylidene-lactic acid, 

CH 3 .CH < X-Ttt* — This acid occurs in the liquids expressed 

from meat. It is therefore contained in "extract of meat," 

and may be obtained most readily from this source. 


Its properties are, for the most part, like those of inactive 
lactic acid, and its conduct towards reagents is in all respects 
the same. Its salts are somewhat more easily soluble than 
those of ordinary inactive lactic acid. The chief difference 
between the two is observed in the action towards polarized 
light. Active lactic acid turns the plane of polarization to the 
light. It is dextro-rotatory. Its salts are all lsevo-rotatory. 
On the other hand, neither inactive lactic acid nor its salts 
exert any action upon polarized light. 1 

3. Hydracrylic acid, ) CH-OH 

P-Hydroxy-propionic acid, J CH, .C0 2 H 

Hydracrylic acid is made by boiling /2-iodo-propionic acid with 
water or silver oxide and water : — 

CH 2 I CH 9 .0H 

I -f HHO =| + HI. 

CH 2 .C0 2 H CH 2 .C0 2 H 

CH 2 
It is made also by starting with ethylene, I . When this 

CII 2 

hydrocarbon is treated with hypochlorous acid, HOC1, it is con- 

CH 2 C1 
verted into ethylene-chlorhydrine, I (which see), which 

CH 2 OH 

may be made by treating ethylene alcohol with hydrochloric 

acid : — 

CH 2 OH CH 2 C1 

| + HC1 = | + H 2 0. 

CH 2 OH CH 2 OH 

By replacing the chlorine with cyanogen, and boiling the cyan- 

CH 2 OH 
hydrine, I , thus obtained, with an alkali, hydracrylic acid 

CH 2 CN 
is obtained. 

These reactions clearly show that hydracrylic acid is an 
ethylene compound, and, as it is made from /?-iodo-propionic 

1 See active and inactive amyl alcohols, p. 126. 


acid by replacing the iodine with hydroxyl, it follows further 
that the /^substitution-products of propionic acid are ethylene 
products, and that the a-products are ethylidene products (sec 
p. 131). 

Hydracrylic acid is a syrup. Its salts differ markedly from 
those of the inactive and active lactic acids. When treated, it 
loses water and is transformed into acrylic acid, CH 2 .CH.C0 2 H 
(which see). 

The difference in conduct between ethylidene-lactic acid and 
ethylene-lactic acid, when heated, is interesting and suggestive. 
When ethylidene-lactic acid is heated, both its acid and alco- 
holic properties are destroyed, both the alcoholic and acid 
hydroxy Is taking part in the reaction. Whereas, when ethyl- 
ene-lactic acid is heated, only the alcoholic properties are 
destroyed, the carboxyl remaining intact. 

4. Ethylene-lactic acid. — A fourth hydroxy -propionic 
acid, called ethylene-lactic acid, has been described as occur- 
ring in meat. There appears, however, to be some little doubt 
in regard to its existence. 

Without reference to the fourth doubtful lactic acid, the fact 
remains that there are more hydroxy-propionic acids known 
than our theory can account for. Other cases of this kind are 
known, and one very marked and especially interesting one 
will be referred to when tartaric acid is considered. It will be 
shown that just as there is an active and an inactive lactic acid, 
so there is an active and an inactive tartaric acid, which con- 
duct themselves in the same way towards reagents, and must 
hence be represented by the same structural formula. 

Apparently we have here to deal with a new kind of isome- 
rism. Bodies may conduct themselves chemically in exactly 
the same way, and }*et differ in some of their physical proper- 
ties, as in their action towards polarized light. To distinguish 
this kind of isomerism from ordinary chemical isomerism it is 
called physical isomerism. 


An ingenious hypothesis has been put forward by way of 
explanation of that particular kind of physical isomerism which 
shows itself in the action of compounds upon polarized light. 
It must be remembered that our ordinary formulas have nothing 
whatever to do with the relations of the atoms and groups in 
space. They indicate chemical relations which are discovered 
by a study of chemical reactions. At present, it is hazardous 
to indulge in speculations regarding the relations of the parts 
in space, and, while the hypothesis which is to be explained 
briefly is ingenious and interesting, the student should be careful 
not to be carried away by it. He should remember that it is 
only a thought. 

Let us suppose that in a carbon compound one carbon atom 
is situated at the centre of a tetrahedron, and that the four 
atoms or groups which it holds in combination are at the angles 
of the tetrahedron as represented in Fig. 10. 

If these groups are all different in kind, and only in this 
case, it is possible to arrange them in two ways with reference 
to the carbon atom. The difference between the two arrange- 

Fig. 11. 

ments is that which is observed between either one and its 
reflection in a mirror. Imperfectly the second arrangement of 
the figure above represented is shown in Fig. 11. 

A carbon atom, in combination with four different kinds of 
atoms or groups, is called an asymmetrical carbon atom. 
Whenever, therefore, a compound contains an asymmetrical 

HYDROXY-ACIDS, C n H 2n 4 . 165 

carbon atom, there are two possible arrangements of its parts 
in space which correspond to the two complementary tetra- 
hedrons, viz., the right-handed and the left-handed tetrahedron. 
In ethylidene lactic acid there is an asymmetrical carbon atom, 
as shown by the ordinary formula, which may be written thus : 
CH 3 - C - OH, the central carbon atom appearing in combination 

C0 2 H 
with (1) hydrogen, (2) hydroxyl, (3) carboxyl, and (4) methyl. 
Hence, according to the hypothesis just stated, there ought to 
be two possible arrangements of the parts of a compound 
containing this group, one corresponding to the right-handed 
tetrahedron, the other to the left-handed tetrahedron. Both 
would be ethylidene-lactic acids. Thus we have at least a 
plausible explanation of the existence of two ethylidene-lactic 

Note for Student. — Has active amyl alcohol an asymmetrical 
carbon atom ? 

There are several hydroxy -butyric and valeric acids known, 
but they need not be considered here. 

Hydroxy- acids, C n H 2n 4 . 

The acids just considered may be called monohydroxy-mono- 
basic acids. Similarly, there are dihyclroxy -monobasic acids, 
which may be regarded as derived from the monohydroxy-acids 
by the introduction of a second hydroxyl. Thus, if into lactic 


acid, CH 3 .CH<_ TT 2 , a second hvdroxvl be introduced, the 

CH 2 .OH 

product would have the formula CH.OH. This is the best 

C0 2 H 

known dihydroxy -monobasic acid of the paraffin series. 


/ CH 2 OHx 

Glyceric acid, C 3 H 6 oj = CHOH . — This acid has been 

V 0O 2 H / 
referred to as the first product of the oxidation of glycerin. It 
is prepared by allowing glycerin and nitric acid to stand together 
at the ordinary temperature for some time, and then heating on 
the water-bath. It may be. made also by treating one of the 
chlor-lactic acids with water. 

Note for Student. — Explain this reaction. 

Glyceric acid is a thick. syrup which mixes with water and 
alcohol. When treated with very concentrated hydriodic acid, 
it is converted into /?-iodo-propionic acid. This conversion 
involves two reactions : — 

CH 9 0H CH 2 I 

I I 

(1) CHOH + HI = CHOH + H 2 0, and 

I I 

C0 2 H C0 2 H 

CH 2 I CH 2 I 

, I I 

(2) CHOH + 2 HI = CH 2 + H 2 + 21. 

I I 

C0 2 H C0 2 H 

Hydroxy-acids, C n H 2n _ 2 5 . 

The acids included under this head are monohydroxy -dibasic 
acids. They bear the same relation to the dibasic acids of the 
oxalic acid series that the simplest hydroxy-acids bear to the 
members of the formic acid series. The principal members of 
this series, and the only ones which will be considered, are 
tartronic acid and malic acid. 


Tartronic acid, C 3 H 4 5 (=CH(OH)< qqh)' ~~ ™ S add 
is prepared by an indirect method from tartaric acid. It may 
be made, — 

(1) By boiling brom-malonic acid with silver oxide and 
water : — 

CHBr< jgg + Ag0H = CH(0H) < CO,H + AgBr . 

(2) By treating brom-cyan-acetic acid with caustic potash : — 
CHBr<^ TT +2KOH + H 2 

= CH(OH) <gjg + NHs + KBr 

Tartronic acid is a solid which crystallizes in prismatic crystals. 
It is easily soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. It melts at 
145°. At 155° it gives off carbon dioxide and water, and is 
converted into glycolide (which see) : — 

(i) ch ( oh)<co : h = CH2< oH h + c02 

Grlycolic acid. 

OH ° 

(2) CH 2 <"* =CH 2 < I +H 2 0. 

LU 2 H co 


Note for Student. — Compare reaction (1) with that which takes 
place when iso-succinic acid is heated, and note the analogy. 

Hydroxy-succinic acids, C 4 H 6 5 (=C 2 H 3 (OH)<^ 2 ^y — 

Three hydroxy-succinic acids have been described, the principal 
one being ordinary malic acid. 

/ CH(OH).C0 2 H\ 
Malic acid, C 4 H 6 5 = 1 . — This acid is very 

V 0H 2 .CO 2 H / 
widely distributed in the vegetable kingdom, as in the berries 
of the mountain ash, in apples, cherries, etc. 

It is best prepared from the berries of the mountain ash 


which have not quite reached ripeness. The berries are pressed 
and boiled with milk of lime. The acid passes into solution as 
the calcium salt, and this is purified by crystallization. 

It may be made also by treating aspartic acid, which is amido- 

succinic acid, C 2 H 3 (NH 2 ) < „ *„, with nitrous acid, and by treat- 

C0 2 H 

ing tartaric acid with hydriodic acid. This latter reaction will 

be explained when tartaric acid is considered. Tartaric and 

malic acids are closely related to each other, and both are 

related to succinic acid, as will appear from the reactions. 

Malic acid is a solid substance which crystallizes with diffi- 
culty. It is very easily soluble in water and in alcohol. Its 
solutions turn the plane of polarization to the right or to the left, 
according to the concentration. 

When heated it loses water and yields either fumaric or 
maleic acid (which see) , according to the temperature. These 
acids are isomeric, and both are represented by the formula 


C 2 H 2 < n *„. The reaction mentioned is represented by the 
following equation : — 

C 2 H 3 (OH)<™J = C 2 H 2 <gg + HA 

,,„„„ . , Fumaric or 

MalIc acid - maleic acid. 

Note for Student. — Compare this reaction with that which takes 
place when hydracrylic is heated, aud note the analogy. 

When treated with hydriodic acid, malic acid is reduced to 
succinic acid. 

Note for Student. — Compare this reaction with the conduct of 
lactic and glyceric acids when treated with hydriodic acid. 

Treated with hydrobromic acid, malic acid is converted into 
mono-brom-succinic acid. 

The reactions just described show clearly that malic acid is 
hydroxy-succinic acid. Nevertheless, if hydroxy-succinic acid 
be made by treating brom-succinic acid with silver oxide and 


water, the product is not identical with ordinary malic acid, 
though the two resemble each other very closely. The acid 
thus obtained is — 

Inactive malic acid, C,Hj(OH) < ^Z 2 S- — Inactive malic 

acid may be made not only by the method first mentioned, but 
by several others, which indicate that the relation between it 
and succinic acid is that expressed in the formula given. It, 
like ordinary malic acid, is unquestionably a hydroxy-succinic 
acid, and both are derived from ordinary succinic acid. 

Other reactions for the preparation of inactive malic acid 
are, — 

( 1 ) By treating dichlor-propionic acid with potassium cyanide , 
and boiling the product with caustic potash : — 

CH 2 C1.CHC1.C0 2 H + KCN 
= I +KC1; 


CH 2 CN 

and | + 2 KOH + H 2 

CHC1.C0 2 H 

CEU.C0 2 K 
= | + KC1 + NH 3 . 

CH(OH).C0 2 H 

(2) By heating fumaric acid with water : — 

| : c ^<ss +H2 °= cA( ° H)< S:S ;and • 

(3) By reduction of racemic acid with hydriodic acid. Ra- 
cemic acid has the same composition as tartaric acid. The 
latter, when treated with hydriodic acid, yields active malic 

The properties of inactive malic acid are very much like 
those of active malic acid. As regards their chemical conduct 


they are almost identical. The principal difference between 
them is observed in their conduct towards polarized light. 
They present a new case of physical isomerism of the same 
kind as that referred to in connection with the lactic acids 
(which see). The same hypothesis may be applied to this 
case, for malic acid contains an asymmetrical carbon atom, as 
will be seen by writing the formula in this waj 7 : — 

C0 2 H-C-OH. 
' I 
CH 2 .C0 2 H 

Hydroxy- acids , C n H 2 n _ 2 O fi . 

These are di-hydroxy -dibasic acids. The chief members of 
the group are mesoxalic acid and the different modifications 
of tartaric acid. 

Mesoxalic acid, C 3 H 4 o/= C(OH) 2 < qoh-)' ~~ ™ S add 
is obtained by indirect and rather complicated reactions from 
uric acid (which see). It has been made also by boiling di- 
brom-malonic acid with baryta-water. 

Note for Student. — Explain this reaction. 

The acid forms deliquescent needles. When boiled it loses 
carbon dioxide and water, and glyoxylic acid, which is an alde- 
hyde and acid related to oxalic acid, is formed : — 

C(OH) 2 <^= | +C0 2 + H 2 0. 

UU2hL C0 2 H 

GTyoxylic acid. 

This acid affords an example of a very rare condition; viz., 
the existence of a compound in which two hydroxyls are in 
combination with one and the same carbon atom. 


Di-hydroxy-succinic acids, C 4 H 6 OJ = C 2 H 2 (OH) 2 < cjo 2 h 

CH(OH).C0 2 H 
Tartaric acid, I . — Ordinary tartaric acid 

occurs very widely distributed in fruits, sometimes free, some- 
times in the form of the potassium or calcium salt ; as, for 
example, in grapes, berries of the mountain ash, potatoes, 
cucumbers, etc., etc. 

It may be made by the following methods : — 

(1) By oxidizing sugar' of milk with nitric acid ; 

(2) Also by oxidizing cane sugar, starch, glucose, and other 
similar substances. 

Tartaric acid is prepared from "tartar," which is impure 
acid potassium tartrate. When grape juice ferments this salt 
is deposited. It is purified b} 7 crystallization, converted into 
the calcium salt by treating it with chalk, and the calcium salt 
then decomposed by means of sulphuric acid. 

The acid crystallizes in large monoclinic prisms, which are 
easily soluble in water and alcohol. It melts at 135°. Its 
solution turns the plane of polarization to the right. 

Treated with hydriodic acid, tartaric acid yields first malic 
acid and then ordinary succinic acid : — 

(1) C 2 H 2 (OH) 2 <^J + 2HI 

= C 2 H 3 (OH)< ^ + H 2 + I 2 ; 

Malic acid. 

(2) C 2 H 3 (OH) <£0 2 H + 2HI 

-WjgJ+IW + t 

Succinic acid. 

While malic acid is mono-hydroxy-succinic acid, ordinary 
tartaric acid appears to be di-hydroxj^-succinic acid. But, just 


as we found that the malic acid prepared from mono-brom-suc- 
cinic acid is optically inactive, and therefore different from 
natural, active malic acid, so too it has been found that the 
tartaric acid prepared from di-brom-succinic acid is optically 
inactive, and therefore different from ordinary tartaric acid. 
The relations between the natural and the artificial acids will 
be considered more fully below. 

Tartrates. Among the salts the following may be mentioned 
specially : — 

Mono-potassium tartrate, KH.C 4 H 4 6 . This is the chief 
constituent of tartar. In pure form, as used in medicine, it is 
known under the name of cream of tartar. 

Sodium-potassium tartrate, KNa.C 4 H 4 6 + 4 H 2 0. This 
salt crystallizes very beautifully. It is known as Rochelle salt 
or Seignette salt. 

Calcium tartrate, Ca.C 4 H 4 6 -f 4 H 2 0. This salt occurs in 
senna leaves and in grapes. It forms a crystalline powder or 
rhombic octahedrons. 

Potassium -antimonyl tartrate, K ( SbO ) . C 4 H 4 6 -f £H 2 0. 
This is known as tartar emetic. It is prepared by digesting 
antimonic oxide with mono-potassium tartrate. It crystallizes 
in rhombic octahedrons. It loses its water of crystallization at 
100°, and at 200 to 220° is converted into an antimony potas- 
sium salt of the formula KSb.C 4 H 2 6 . 

2. Racemic acid, C 4 H 6 6 + H 2 0. — Racemic acid occurs, 
together with tartaric acid, in many kinds of grapes, and, on 
recrystallizing the crude tartar, acid potassium racemate, being 
more soluble than the tartrate, remains in the mother liquors. 
Racemic acid is formed by boiling ordinary tartaric acid with 
water, or with hydrochloric acid. If tartaric acid be heated 
with water in sealed tubes at 175°, it is almost completely 
transformed into racemic acid. It is formed further by oxida- 
tion of dulcite, mannite, cane sugar, gum, etc., with nitric 
acid. It, together with a third variety of tartaric acid, known as 


inactive tartaric acid, is formed when bibrom- succinic acid is 
treated with silver oxide and water. 

Racemic acid differs from tartaric acid in many ways. It 
crystallizes differently, and contains water of crystallization. 
It is less soluble than tartaric acid. It produces precipitates 
in solutions of lime salts, while tartaric acid does not. Racemic 
acid is optically inactive, while tartaric acid is dextro-rotatory. 
On the other hand, racemic and tartaric acids conduct them- 
selves towards most reagents exactly alike. 

Thus far the relations between racemic and tartaric acids 
appear very much like those which are observed between active 
and inactive lactic acids and between active and inactive malic 
acids. But there remains to be described an extremely inter- 
esting experiment, which throws new light upon the relations 
between tartaric and racemic acids. 

When a solution of ammonium-sodium racemate, 

(NH 4 )Na.C 4 H 4 6 , 

is allowed to evaporate spontaneously, beautiful large crystals 
are deposited. On examining these carefully, they are found 
to be of two kinds. On the crystals of one kind certain hemi- 
hedral faces are developed, while on the crystals of the other 
kind the complementary hemihedral faces are developed ; so 
that if a crystal of one kind is placed in front of a mirror, 
its reflection will represent the arrangement of the hemihedral 
faces met with on a crystal of the other kind. The crystals 
may be separated into right-handed, or those which have the 
right-handed hemihedral faces, and left-handed, or those which 
have the left-handed hemihedral faces. 

On separating the acid from the right-handed crystals it is 
found to be ordinary dextro-rotatory tartaric acid; while the 
acid from the left-handed crystals is an isomeric substance 
called Icevo-rotatory tartaric acid. When these two varieties 
of tartaric acid are brought together in solution, they unite, the 
action being attended by an elevation of temperature, and the 
result is racemic acid. 


We see thus that the inactive racemic acid consists of two 
optically active bodies in combination, one of which, ordinary 
tartaric acid, is dextro-rotatory, and the other laevo-rotatory. 

Inactive malic acid has been split up into two active vari- 
eties, one of which is dextro-rotatory and the other laevo- 
rotatory. And it is not improbable that inactive lactic acid 
may be split ifp in a similar way. 

Inactive tartaric acid is very similar to racemic acid. It 
is formed together with racemic acid by treating dibrom-suc- 
cinic acid with silver oxide and water. Nothing is known 
regarding the relation of this substance to the other tartaric 

Hydroxy-acids, C n H 2n _ 4 7 . 

These are mono-hydroxy-tribasic acids. Citric acid is the 
only one known. 

> ( C0 2 H x 

Citric acid, C (; H 8 7 + H,0[ = C 3 H 4 ( OH) ] CO, H). — Citric 

\ < C0 2 H^ 

acid, like malic and tartaric acids, is very widely distributed in 

nature in many varieties of fruit, especially in lemons, in which 
it occurs in the free condition. It is found in currants, whortle- 
berries, raspberries, gooseberries, etc., etc. 

It is prepared from lemon juice. This is allowed to ferment 
and is then treated with lime. The lime salt is thus obtained 
in the form of a precipitate, is collected, and decomposed with 
sulphuric acid. 100 parts of lemons yield 5|- parts of the acid. 

Citric acid crystallizes in rhombic prisms which are very easily 
soluble in water. The crystallized acid melts at 100°, the 
anhydrous at 153° to 154°. Heated to 175° it loses water and 
yields aconitic acid (which see) : — 

rC0 2 H rC0 2 H 

C 3 H 4 (OH) ] C0 2 H = C 3 H 3 ] C0 2 H + H 2 0. 
(C0 2 H (C0 2 H 

Aconitic acid. 


Note for Student. — Compare with formation of acrylic from 
hydracrylic acid ; and of male'ic and f umaric acids from malic acid. 

Aconitic acid takes np hydrogen, and is transformed into tri- 
carballylic acid (which see) . Thus a clear connection between 
tricarballylic acid and citric acid is traced, the latter appearing 
as hydroxy- tricarballylic acid. Citric acid, however, has not 
been made artificially. 

When subjected to dry distillation, citric acid loses both water 

and carbon dioxide, and yields citraconic acid, C 3 H 4 < 2 , 

(which see) ; if heated with water or dilute sulphuric acid to 

CO w 

160° it yields itaconic acid, C 3 H 4 < ,, *_, (which see). 

co 2 H 

C0 9 H 

( UU 2 rl 
C 3 H 4 (OH) j C0 2 H = C 3 H 4 1 C° 2 ^ + H 2 + C 2 0. 

Citraconic or ita- 
conic acid. 

Note for Student. — What relation, as far as composition is 

r co h 
concerned, do these two acids of the formula C 3 H 4 j 2 bear to 

f umaric and male'ic acids? By distillation of what acid are the two 
latter formed? 

Citrates. A few of the salts of citric acid are mentioned : — 

Mono-potassium citrate, KH 2 .C 6 H 5 7 -}- 2 H 2 ; 

Di-potassium citrate, K 2 H .C 6 H 5 7 ; 

Tri-potassium citrate, K 3 .C 6 H 5 7 + H 2 0. All these potas- 
sium salts are easily soluble in water. They are made by 
mixing citric acid and potassium carbonate in the right pro- 

Calcium citrate, Ca 3 (C 6 H 5 7 ) 2 -f- 4 H 2 0. This salt is formed 
by mixing a citrate of an alkali with calcium chloride. It is 
more easily soluble in cold than in hot water ; hence boiling 
causes a precipitate in dilute solutions. 

Magnesium citrate, Mg 3 (C 6 H 5 7 ) 2 -f- 14H 2 0. This may be 
made by dissolving magnesia in citric acid. It is used in 


Hydroxy-acids, C n H 2n _ 2 8 . 

There are two acids to be considered under this head. They 
are isomeric, and both are tetra-hydroxy-dibasic. 

Saccharic acid, C 6 H 10 o/= C 4 H 4 (OH) 4 <^ 2 [|).- Saccharic 

acid is formed by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or sugar 
of milk with nitric acid. 

To prepare it, it is best to treat ordinary sugar with dilute 
nitric acid. Oxalic acid is formed at the same time. 

It is an amorphous mass, which becomes solid only with 
difficulty. When treated with hydr iodic acid it is converted 
into adipic acid, a member of the oxalic acid series (see table, 
page 142) : — 

C 4 H 4 (OH) 4 < ^ 2 JJ + 8 HI = C 4 H 8 < jjjjj + 4 H 2 + 8 I. 

Saccharic acid. Adipic acid . 

Note for Student. — What relations exist between hexane, raau- 
nite, adipic acid, and saccharic acid? 

Mucic acid, C 6 H 1( a(= C + H t (OH) t < qqh)' "~ MudC add 
is formed by oxidizing sugar of milk, the gums, or dulcite, with 
nitric acid. 

It is best prepared by boiling sugar of milk with ordinary 
nitric acid. Oxalic and tartaric acids are formed at the same 

It is a crystalline powder which is very difficultly soluble in 
cold water. Hydriodic acid converts it into adipic acid (see 
above, under Saccharic Acid) . 



Among the mixed compounds, or compounds which belong at 
the same time to more than one of the fundamental classes of 
carbon compounds, are the important bodies called carbohy- 
drates. This name was originally given to them because the 
hydrogen and oxygen which enter into their composition are 
always present in the proportion to form water, as shown in the 
formulas for dextrose, C 6 H 12 6 , starch, C 6 H 10 O 5 , etc. All the 
compounds belonging to the class of carbohydrates are more or 
less intimately related to the hex-acid alcohols, as mannite and 
dulcite, C 6 H 8 (OH) 6 . According to their composition, they fall 
naturally into three groups. These are : — 

1. The glucose group of the formula C 6 H 12 6 . 

The principal members of this group are dextrose or grape 
sugar, levulose or fruit sugar, and galactose. 

2. The cane sugar group of the formula C^H^On- 

The principal members are cane sugar, sugar of milk, and 

3. The cellulose group of the formula (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) x . 

The principal members are cellulose, starch, gum, and dextrin. 

The Glucose Group, C 6 H 12 6 . 

Dextrose, glucose, grape sugar, C 6 H 12 6 . — Dextrose 
occurs very widely distributed in the vegetable kingdom, par- 
ticularly in sweet fruits, in which it is found together with an 
equivalent quantity of levulose. It is found in honey together 
with cane sugar and some levulose. It occurs, further, in the 
blood, in the liver, and in the urine ; and, in the disease called 


Diabetes mellitus the quantity contained in the urine is largely 
increased, reaching as much as 8 to 10 per cent. 

Dextrose is formed from several of the carbohydrates of the 
formulas C 12 H 22 O n and C G H 10 O 5 , by boiling with dilute mineral 
acids, or by the action of ferments. The formation from cane 
sugar takes place according to this equation, equivalent quanti- 
ties of dextrose and levulose being formed : — 

C 12 H 22 O n + H 2 = C 6 H 12 6 + C 6 H 12 6 . 

Cane sugar. Dextrose. Levulose. 

Starch, cellulose, and dextrin yield dextrose according to this 
equation : — 

C 6 H 10 O 5 + H 2 = C 6 H 12 6 . 

Finally, dextrose occurs in nature, in combination with a 
number of carbon compounds, in the so-called glucosides. These 
break up easily when treated with dilute mineral acids or fer- 
ments, and yield dextrose as one of the products (see Glucos- 
ides). Examples of the glucosides are amygdalin, aesculin, 
quercitrin, etc. 

Dextrose is prepared on the large scale from corn starch in 
the United States, and from potato starch in Germany. The 
transformation is usually effected by boiling with dilute sul- 
phuric acid, though oxalic acid is used to some extent, and phos- 
phoric acid has also been used. The excess of acid is removed 
by treating the solutions with chalk, and filtering. The filtered 
solutions are evaporated down either to a syrupy consistency, 
and sent into the market under the names "glucose," "mixing 
syrup," etc., or to dryness, the solid product being known in com- 
merce as "grape sugar." By evaporating the solutions down 
to such a concentration that the}- contain from 12 to 15 per 
cent of dextrose, crystals are formed which closely resemble 
those of cane sugar. They consist of anhydrous grape sugar. 
Their formation is facilitated by adding a little of the crystal- 
lized substance to the concentrated solutions. 

If in the treatment of starch with sulphuric acid the trans- 


formation is not complete, and this is usually the case, the 
product is a mixture of dextrose, maltose, and dextrin. The 
longer the action continues, the larger the percentage of 

Dextrose crystallizes from concentrated solutions, usually in 
crystalline masses consisting of minute six-sided plates. The 
mass, as seen in commercial " granulated grape sugar," looks 
very much like granulated sugar. It crystallizes from alcohol 
in mono- clinic crystals. It is sweet, but not as sweet as cane 
sugar. According to the latest estimations, the sweetness of 
dextrose is to that of cane sugar as 3 to 5. Its solutions turn 
the plane of polarization to the right. 

Dextrose is easily oxidized, reducing the salts of silver and 
copper. When treated with nascent hydrogen, it yields, among 
other products, mannite and hexyl alcohol. Under the influence 
of yeast it ferments, yielding mainly alcohol and carbon dioxide. 
Putrid cheese transforms it first into lactic acid and then into 
butyric acid by the so-called lactic acid fermentation. 

Dextrose forms compounds with metals and salts. Among 
the better known compounds of this kind are those mentioned 
below : — 

Sodium dextrose .... C 6 H n 6 . Na ; 

Sodium chloride dextrose . 2 C 6 H 12 6 . NaCl -f- H 2 ; 

also, C 6 H 12 6 .NaCl + i H 2 0, and C 6 H 12 6 .2 NaCl. These 
compounds, with sodium chloride, crystallize well, and can be 
easily obtained in pure condition. 

Cupric oxide dextrose . . C 6 H 12 6 . 5 CuO. 

By treatment with acetic anhydride^ dextrose yields a product 
containing five acetyl groups, pent-acetyl-dextrose, 

C 6 H 7 (C 2 H 3 0)A- 

Note for Student. — What does the formation of this compound 


It is often important to know the quantity of dextrose con- 
tained in a given liquid ; as, for example, in the*urine in a case 
of suspected diabetes. For the purpose of making the estima- 
tion, advantage is taken of the action of dextrose towards an 
alkaline solution of copper sulphate. The solution commonly 
used is that known as Fehling's solution. It is prepared by 
dissolving 34.G4 g crystallized pure copper sulphate in water, 
adding a solution of 200 g potassium sodium tartrate, and 600 g 
to 700 g caustic soda of the specific gravity 1.12, and diluting 
so that the whole makes one litre. 

Experiment 38. Make half the quantity of Fehling's solution 
above mentioned, and put in a bottle with a glass stopper. In a test- 
tube boil about 10 cc of this solution, and then add a few drops of a 
dilute solution of glucose. Continue to boil, and add a little more of 
the glucose solution ; and so on, until, on removing the tube from the 
lamp, a dark-red uniform-looking precipitate settles, leaving the liquid 
above it perfectly clear and colorless. This precipitate is cuprous 
oxide. By taking proper precautions, the exact amount of dextrose 
present in a solution may be estimated iu this way. 

Regarding the relation between mannite and dextrose we have 
not much positive knowledge. The fact that dextrose so readily 
reduces metallic salts, and is converted into mannite by reduc- 
tion, has led to the belief that it is an aldehyde of mannite, as 

CH 2 OH 
represented by the formula (CHOH) 4 , the corresponding alcohol 

CH 2 OH- con 
or mannite being (CIIOH) 4 . While dextrose is converted into 

CH 2 OH 
mannite by reduction, mannite is not converted into dextrose 
by oxidation. Both substances are converted into saccharic 
acid by oxidizing agents, the relations between the three sub- 
stances being shown by the formulas 


CH 2 OH CH.,OH C0 2 H 

I I I 

(CHOH) 4 (CHOH) 4 (CHOH) 4 . 

I I I 

CH 2 OH COH C0 2 H 

Mannite. Dextrose. Saccharic acid. 

Levulose (fruit sugar), C 6 H 12 O fi . — As has been stated, 
levulose occurs together with dextrose, and in equivalent quanti- 
ties, in fruits ; and is formed by the action of dilute mineral 
acids, or ferments on cane sugar, this last breaking up accord- 
ing to the equation, — 

C^H^On + H 2 = C 6 II 12 0<j -f- C G H ]2 6 . 

Cane sugar. Dextrose. Levulose. 

As cane sugar is found in unripe fruits, it is probable that 
the change represented by the above equation takes place in the 
process of ripening. 

Levulose does not solidify, but forms a thick syrup. It is 
about as sweet as cane sugar. It turns the plane of polarization 
to the left. 

Note for Student. — What other substances already considered 
bear to each other the same relations as dextrose and levulose? 

It acts towards Fehling's solution the same as dextrose. By 
nascent hydrogen it is reduced to mannite ; and by oxidizing 
agents it is converted into saccharic acid. 

The same arguments which lead to the belief, that dextrose 
bears to mannite the relation of an aldehyde to an alcohol, 
lead also to the conclusion that levulose bears the same 
relation to mannite. At present we do not know what is 
the cause of the isomerism of dextrose and levulose. Though 
the same hypothesis that was explained in connection with 
the two lactic acids may be applied also in (his case, as 
the formula representing dextrose and levulose as aldehydes 


of mannite show that each contains an asymmetrical carbon, 
thus : — 


CH . OH 
(CHOH) 2 
CH 2 OH 

Galactose, C fi H 12 O ti . — This substance is formed together 
with dextrose when either sugar of milk or gum arabic is boiled 
with dilute sulphuric acid. 

It crystallizes in large rhombic prisms, which melt at 130° ; 
is easily soluble in hot water, but much less so in cold water ; 
less sweet than cane sugar ; turns the plane of polarization to 
the left ; conducts itself in some respects like dextrose. It 
reduces Fehling's solution ; gives mucic acid with nitric acid, 
and dulcite with sodium amalgam. It does not ferment with 

The Cane-sugar Group, C^H^On. 

Cane sugar, C 12 H 22 O u . — This well-known variety of sugar 
occurs very widely distributed in nature, in sugar cane, sorghum, 
the Java palm, the sugar maple, beets, madder root, coffee, 
walnuts, hazel nuts, sweet and bitter almonds ; in the blossoms 
of many plants ; in honey, etc., etc. 

It is obtained mainly from the sugar cane and from beets. 
In either case the processes of extraction and refining are largely 
mechanical. When sugar cane is used, this is macerated with 
water to dissolve the sugar. Thus a dark-colored solution is 
obtained. This is evaporated, and then passe/1 through filters 
of bone-black which remove the coloring matter. The clear 
solution is ttien evaporated to some extent; and, finally, in 
large vessels called "vacuum pans," from which the air is 


partly exhausted, so that the boiling takes place at a lower 
temperature than would be required under the ordinary pres- 
sure of the atmosphere. The mixture of crystals and mother 
liquors obtained from the "vacuum pans" is freed from the 
liquid by being brought into the "centrifugals." These are 
funnel-shaped sieves which are revolved very rapidly, the liquid 
being thus thrown by centrifugal force through the openings 
of the sieve, while the crystals remain behind and are thus 
nearly dried. The final drying is effected by placing the crys- 
tals in a warm room. 

When beets are used the process is essentially the same, 
though there are some differences in the details. 

The mother liquors which are obtained from the "centrif- 
ugals " are further evaporated, and yield lower grades of sugar ; 
and, finally, a syrup is obtained which does not crystallize. 
This is molasses. Molasses is sometimes brought into the 
market as such ; sometimes, particularly when obtained from 
beet sugar, it is allowed to ferment for the purpose of making 
alcohol. The spent wash, or waste liquor, " vinasse," is now 
evaporated to dryness and calcined for the purpose of getting 
the alkaline salts contained in the residues. The products of 
distillation are collected, and from them are separated methyl 
alcohol^ritl tri-methyl-amine (see p. ^6). * 

Sugar crystallizes from water in well-formed, large mono- 
clinic prisms. It is dextro-rotatory. *When heated to 210° to 
220°, cane sugar loses water, and is converted into the substance 
called caramel, which is more or less brown in color, according 
to the duration of the heating and the temperature reached^ 
Boiled with dilute acids, cane sugar is split into equal parts 
of dextrose and levulose, as has been stated. The mixture of 
the two is called invert-sugar. The process is called inversion. 
It takes place, to some extent, when impure sugar is allowed 
to stand. Hence invert-sugar is contained in the brown sugars 
found in the market. Ye asfr gr adu ally transforms cane sugar 
into dextrose and levulose, %^B th(flPtlien undergo fermenta- 
tion. Cane suga^'itself does nQ f#Went. 


Experiment 39. Arrange two pieces of apparatus as in Exp. 7. 
In one put 40s to 50s grape sugar and a certain quantity of yeast, as* 
in Exp. 7; in the other put the same amount of cane sugar and of 
yeast. Notice the difference. 

Cane sugar does not reduce an alkaline solution of copper 

Experiment 40. Prepare a dilute solution of cane sugar by dis- 
solving is to 2s in 200 cc water. Test this with Folding's solution, 
as in Exp. 38. Now add to the sugar solution 10 drops concentrated 
hydrochloric acid, and heat for half an hour on the water-bath at 
100°; exactly neutralize the acid with a dilute solution of sodium 
carbonate, and test with Folding's solution. 

Oxidizing agents readily convert cane sugar iuto oxalic acid 
(see Exp. 34) and saccharic acid. 

Like dextrose, cane sugar forms compounds with metals, 
metallic oxides, and salts. Among these the following may 
be mentioned : — 

Sodium sucrate .... C 12 H 2 iO n . Na, 
Sodium-chloride sucrate .. . C^H^Ou . NaCl, 

Calcium sucrate .... C^HaoOn-Ca, 

and Lime sucrate C^H^On- 2 CaO. 

• • * 4 

These derivatives are not sweet. 

An oct-acetate of the* formula C 1 oH 14 (C 2 H 3 0) 8 O n has been 
made by treating sugar with sodium acetate and acetic anhy- 
dride. * 

Though cane sugar readily breaks up into dextrose and levu- 
lose, no one has succeeded as yet in effecting the union of these 
two substances to form cane sugar. The character of the 
relation between it and the two glucoses is not understood. 

Sugar of milk, lactose, doHioOn + H.O. — This sugar 
occurs in the milk of all mammal^ It is obtained in the manu- 
facture of cheese. The^fceiJBfceparaUtt from the milk l>f 





means of rennet. The sugar of milk remains in solution, is 
separated by evaporation, and purified by recrystallization. It 
crystallizes in rhombic crystals. That which comes into the 
market has been crystallized on strings or wood splinters. It 
lias a slightly sweet taste ; is much less soluble in water than 
cane sugar, and is dextro-rotatory. It reduces Fehling's solu- 
tion. Oxidized with nitric acid, it yields mucic and saccharic 
acids. Nascent hydrogen converts sugar of milk into mannite, 
dulcite, and other substances. Like dextrose and cane sugar, 
it forms compounds with bases, dissolving lime, baryta, lead 
oxide, etc. 

Sugar of milk ferments under certain circumstances, and 
breaks up into alcohol and lactic acid. The souring of milk 
is a result of this fermentation. The lactic acid formed coagu- 
lates the casein ; hence the thickening. 

Maltose, C^H^On. — This carbohydrate is formed by the 
action of malt on starch. Malt, which is made by steeping 
barley in water until it germinates, and then drying it, contains 
a substance called diastase, which has the power of effecting 
changes similar to some of those effected by the ferments. 
Thus, it acts upon starch, and converts it into dextrin and 
maltose : — 

3 C 6 H 10 O 5 + H 2 = C 12 H 22 t) n + C 6 H 10 O 5 . 

Starch. Maltose. Dextrin. 

Maltose is also formed by the action of dilute sulphuric acid 
upon starch, and is hence contained in commerciaLglucoses. 
By further treatment with sulphuric acid it is converted into 
dextrose. Maltose crystallizes in fine needles ; is dextro-rota- 
tory ; reduces Fehling's solution, and ferments with yeast. 

The Cellulose Group, C 6 H 10 O 5 . 

Cellulose, CgH 10 O 5 . — Cellulose forms, as it were, the ground 
work of all vegetable tissues. ^ It presents different appearances 
and different properties, according to the source from which it 


is obtained ; but these differences arc due to substances with 
which the cellulose is mixed ; and when the}' are removed, the 
cellulose left behind is the same thing, no matter what its source 
may have been. The coarse wood of trees, as well as the ten- 
der shoots of the most delicate plants, all contain cellulose as 
an essential constituent. It forms the membrane of the cells. 
Cotton-wool, hemp, and flax consist almost wholly of cellulose. 
For the preparation of cellulose, either Swedish filter-paper 
or cotton- wool may be taken. 

Experiment 41. Treat some cotton-wool successively with ether, 
alcohol, water, a caustic alkali, and, finally, a dilute acid. Then wash 
with water. 

Cellulose is amorphous ; insoluble in all ordinary solvents ; 
soluble in an ammoniacal solution of cupric oxide. 

Experiment 42. Add some ammonium chloride to a solution of 
copper sulphate; precipitate with caustic soda; filter, and carefully 
wash. Dissolve the cupric hydroxide thus obtained in ammonia. The 
solution is known as Schweizer's reagent. It will dissolve cellulose. 
Try it with some of the cellulose obtained in Exp. 41. 

Cellulose dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid. If the 
solution be diluted and boiled, the cellulose is converted into 
dextrin and dextrose. It will thus be seen that rags, which 
consist largely of cellulose, paper, and wood, might be used 
for the preparation of dextrose or glucose, and consequently 
of alcohol. 

Gun cotton, pyroxylin, nitro-cellulose. — Cellulose has 
some of the properties of alcohols ; among them the power to 
form ethereal salts with acids. Thus, when treated with nitric 
acid, it forms several nitrates, just as glycerin forms the nitrates 
known as nitro-glycerin (which see). 

Treated for a short time with sulphuric and nitric acids, 
cellulose is converted into the lower nitrates, particularly the 

STARCH. 187 

tetra- and penta-nitrates. A solution of these in a mixture of 
ether and alcohol is known as collodion solution, which is much 
used in photography. When poured upon any surface, such as 
glass, the ether and alcohol rapidly evaporate, leaving a thin 
coating of the nitrates which were in solution. 

When treated for twenty-four hours at 10° with a mixture 
of nitric and sulphuric acids, cellulose yields the hexa-nitrate 
C 12 H 14 4 (O.N0 2 )6? which is used as an explosive under the 
name of gun cotton. It is used chiefly for blasting. 

An intimate mixture of gun cotton and camphor has come 
into extensive use under the name of celluloid. As it is plastic 
at a slightly elevated temperature, it can easily be moulded into 
any desired shape. When it cools it hardens. 

Paper. — Paper in its man}' forms consists mainly 9 cellu- 
lose. The essential features in the manufacture oilpaper are, 
first, the disintegration of the substances used. This is effected 
partly mechanically, and partly by boiling with caustic soda. 
Then it is converted into pulp by means of knives placed on 
rollers. The pulp, with the necessary quantity of water, is 
then passed between rollers. Chiefly rags of cotton or linen 
are used in the manufacture of paper ; wood and straw are 
also used. 

Starch, C 6 Hi O 5 . — Starch is found everywhere in the vege- 
table kingdom in large quantity, particularly in all kinds of 
grain, as maize, wheat, etc. ; in tubers, as the potato, arrow- 
root, etc. ; in fruits, as chestnuts, acorns, etc. 

In the United States starch is manufactured mainly from 
maize ; in Europe, from potatoes. 

The processes involved in the manufacture of starch are 
mostly mechanical. The maize is first treated with warm 
water ; the softened grain is then ground between stones, a 
stream of water running continuously into the mill. The thin 
paste which is carried away is brought upon sieves of silk bolt- 


ing-cloth, which are kept in constant motion. The starch passes 
through with the water as a milky fluid. This is allowed to 
settle when the water is drawn off. The starch is next treated 
with water containing a little alkali (caustic soda, or sodium 
carbonate), the object of which is to dissolve gluten, oil, etc. 
The mixture is now brought into shallow, long wooden runs, 
where the starch is deposited, the alkaline water running off. 
Finally, the starch is washed with water, and dried at a low 

Starch has a granular structure, the grains as seen under the 
microscope haviug a series of concentric markings, of which the 
nucleus appears to be at one side. 

Starch in its usual condition is insoluble in water. If ground 
with cold water, it is partly dissolved. If heated with water, 
the md^branes of the starch-cells are broken, and the contents 
form a partial solution. On cooling, it forms a transparent 
jelly called starch paste. 

With iodine, starch paste gives a deep blue color ; with bro- 
mine, a yellow color. 

Experiment 43. Make some starch paste thus : Put a few grams 
of starch 1 in an evaporating dish ; pour enough cold water upon it to 
cover it; grind it under the water with a pestle, and then pour 200 cc to 
300 cc hot water upon it. When this is cool, add a few drops to a litre 
of water, and then add a few drops of potassium iodide. As long as 
the iodine is in combination with the potassium no change of color 
takes place ; but if the iodine be set free by the addition of a drop or 
two of chlorine water, or of strong nitric acid, the entire liquid turns 
a beautiful dark blue. The cause of this color is the formation of a 
very unstable compound of starch and iodine. The color is easily 
destroyed by a slight excess of chlorine water (try it in a test-tube) ; 
by alkalies (try it) ; by sulphurous acid (try it) ; by hydrogen sulphide 
(try it) ; etc. It is also destroyed by heating. (Heat some of the 
solution in a test-tube, and let it stand.) The color reappears on 

1 The purest form of starch to be found in the market is that made from arrow-root. 
Ordinary starch contains other substances which sometimes interfere with the reactions. 

GUMS. 189 

Experiment 44. Use some of the starch paste in studying the 
effect of bromine upon it. Use dilute solutions. The bromine must 
be in the free condition. 

It has been stated that starch is converted into dextrin, mal- 
tose, and dextrose by dilute acids and ferments ; and that 
diastase converts it into maltose and dextrin. 

Experiment 45. Add 20 cc concentrated hydrochloric acid to 200 cc 
of the starch paste already made, and heat for two hours on the water- 
bath, connecting the flask with an inverted condenser (see Fig. 8). 
Then examine with Fehling's solution. Test, also, some of the original 
starch paste with Fehling's solution. 

Dextrin, C 6 H 10 O 5 . — Dextrin, as has been stated, is formed 
by treating starch with dilute acids or diastase. It is converted 
by further treatment with acids into dextrose. The substance 
ordinarily called dextrin has been shown to be a mixture of 
several isomeric substances which resemble each other very 
closely. The mixture is an uncr}'stallizable solid. It is 
strongly dextro-rotatory ; gives a red color with iodine, and 
does not reduce Fehling's solution. It is used extensively as 
a substitute for gum. 

Gums. — Under this head are included a number of sub- 
stances which occur in nature. One of the best known is gum 
arable, which is obtained in Senegambia from the bark of trees 
belonging to the Acacia variety. Its formula, like that of cane 
sugar, is C 12 H 22 O u . Other gums are wood gum, obtained from 
the birch, ash, beech, etc. ; bassorin, the chief constituent of 
gum tragacanth, etc. 

Our knowledge of the chemistry of these gums is very limited. 


In speaking of the preparation of bibasic acids from mono- 
basic acids, reference was made to cyan-acetic and the two 
cyan-propionic acids. These are nothing but simple cyanogen 
substitution-products analogous to chlor-acetic and the two 
chlor-propionic acids. They are made by treating the chlorine 
products with potassium cjanide. They have been useful 
chiefly in the preparation of bibasic acids, as described in con- 
nection with malonic and the two succinic acids. It will there- 
fore not be necessary to consider them individually here. 

Note for Student. — How may malonic be made from acetic acid ; 
and the two succinic acids from propionic acid ? Give the equations. 

The chief substances to be considered under the head of 
mixed, comjioicnds containing nitrogen are the amido-acids and 
the acid amides. As will be seen, both these classes of sub- 
stances are of special interest, as they represent forms of com- 
bination which are favorite ones in nature, especially in the 
animal kingdom, some of the most important substances found 
in the animal body, such as urea, uric acid, glycocoll, etc., 
belonging to one or both the classes. 


The relation of an amido-acid to the simple acid is, as the 
name implies, the same as that of an amido derivative of a 
hydrocarbon to the hydrocarbon. That is to say, it may be 
regarded as the acid in which a hydrogen is replaced by the 
amido group, NH 2 . Thus, amido-acetic acid is represented 



by the formula CH 2 < 2 ; while amido-me thane, or methyl- 

amine is represented thus, CH 3 . NH 2 . The reasons for regard- 
ing methyl-amine as a substituted ammonia, as represented, 
have been stated. The formula is based upon the reactions 
of the substance ; that is, upon its chemical conduct and the 
methods used in its preparation. The same arguments might 
be advanced in favor of the view that the amido-acids are 
substituted ammonias, and, at the same time, acids. The 
simplest method for their preparation consists in treating 
halogen derivatives of the acids with ammonia ; thus amido- 
acetic acid may be made by treating brom-acetic acid with 
ammonia : — 

J CH *<C0 2 H + 2NH * = CH2< C0 2 H + 2NH < Br - 

Note for Student. — Compare this reaction with that made use 
of for making methyl-amine. 

Amido-formic acid, carbamic acid, I . — This acid 


is not known in the free condition. Its ammonium salt, 

NH 2 

I , is formed when carbon dioxide and ammonia are 

C0 2 NH 4 

brought together : — 

NH 2 
C0 2 + 2 NH 3 = C0 2 NH 4 . 

The other carbamates may be prepared from the ammonium 
salt. They are decomposed, yielding carbonates and ammonia. 
Thus, when potassium carbamate is warmed in water solution, 
decomposition takes place, as represented in the equation, — 

NH 2 .C0 2 K + H 2 = NH 3 + HKC0 3 . 

The ethereal salts of carbamic acid are readily made by 


treating the ethereal salts of chlor-formic acid (see p. 157) 
with ammonia : — 

CI NH 2 

I I 

C0 2 C 2 H 5 + 2 NH 3 = C0 2 C 2 H 5 + 2 NH 4 C1. 

Amido-formic acid cannot be taken as a fair representative 
of the amido-acids, any more than carbonic acid can be taken 
as a fair representative of the hydroxy-acids. 

Glycocoll, glycine, > Q / M|_ Jn J 

amido-acetic acid, ) V GO.H/ 

bile are contained two complicated acids, which are known as 
glycocholic and taurocholic acids. When glycocholic acid is 
boiled with hydrochloric acid, it breaks up, yielding cholic acid 
and glycocoll. In the urine of horses is found an acid known 
as hippnric acid. When this is boiled with hydrochloric acid, 
it breaks up into benzoic acid and glycocoll. 

When uric acid is treated with hydriodic acid, glycocoll is 
one of the products. Further, glycocoll is formed when glue 
is boiled with baryta water or dilute sulphuric acid. Its forma- 
tion from brom-acetic acid and ammonia, mentioned above, gives 
the clearest indication in regard to its relation to acetic acid. 

Amido-acetic acid has both acid and basic properties. It 
unites with acids, forming weak salts ; and it acts upon bases, 
giving salts with metals, — the amido-acetates. It also unites 
with salts, forming double compounds. 

Examples of the compounds with acids are the 

Hydrochloride .... CH 2 < 2 ' , 


and the Nitrate CH 2 < - 3 ; 

C0 2 H 

of the salts with metals, 

Zinc amklo-acetate . , Zn(C 2 H 4 N0 2 ) 2 + H 2 0. 
and Copper amido-acetate . Cu(CVH 4 X0 2 ) 2 + H 2 ; 


of the compounds with salts, the double salt of 

Copper nitrate j Cu(NOs)2 . Cu (C 2 H 1 N0 2 ) 2 + 2 H 2 0. 

and Copper amido-acetate, ) 

Treated with nitrous acid, glycocoll is converted into hydroxy- 
acetic acid. 

Note for Student. — Write the equation representing the reaction 
which takes place when glycocoll is treated with nitrous acid. 

Sarcosine, methyl-glycocoll, C:,H 7 N0 2 f= CH 2 < co H 3 J. 

If brom-acetic acid be treated with methyl-amine instead of 
with ammonia, a reaction takes place similar to that which takes 
place with ammonia, the product being methyl glycocoll or sarco- 
sine : — 

P H 2 < ^ rr + 2 NH 3 = CH * < mn + NH * Br ' and 

CH 2 < ^ h + 2 CH 8 .NH 2 = CH 2 < £q ^ ^ + NH 3 (CH 8 )Br. 


Sarcosine is a product of the decomposition of creatine, which 
is found in meat, and of caffeine, which is a constituent of coffee 
and tea. It is obtained from creatine and caffeine by boiling 
them with baryta water. 

Its properties are much like those of glycocoll. 

Amido-propionic acids, C 3 H 7 NO,. — These acids bear to 
propionic acid relations similar to that which amido-acetic acid 
bears to acetic acid. There are two, corresponding to a- and 
/?-chlor-propionic acids, from which they are made. They are 
not found in nature. Their properties are much like those of 

Note for Student. — What substances would be formed by treat- 
ing the two amido-propionic acids with nitrous acids? 

Among the amido derivatives of the higher members of the 


fatty acid series, that of caproic acid should be specially men- 

Leucine, a-amido-caproic acid, 

CHxaNOa [=CH 3 . CH 2 . CH 2 . CH 2 . CH(NH 2 ) . C0 2 H ] . 
Leucine is found very widely distributed in the animal kingdom, 
as in the spleen, pancreas, and brain. It has been found also 
in the vegetable kingdom in a few plants. It is produced by 
the decomposition of substances containing albumin or gelatin. 
It has been made by treating a-brom-caproic acid with ammonia. 

Amido-sulphonic Acids. 
Just as there are amido derivatives of the carbonic acids, 
so, too, there may be amido derivatives of the sulphonic acids. 
Only one of these need be considered. 

Amfdo-lsethionic acid, / ° 2 H 7 NS0 3 (= C 2 H 4 < N ^ ). 
Taurine is found in combination with cholic acid in taurocholic 
acid, in ox bile and the bile of many animals, as well as in 

other animal liquids. It has been made synthetically from 

isethionic acid, C 2 H t < , by treating the acid successively 


with phosphorus pentachloride and ammonia : — 
CA< SoH + 2PCl5 " CA< S0 2 C1 + 2P ° Cl3 + 2HC ' ; 

Isethionic acid. Chlor-ethyl-sulpbo-chloride. 

CA <S0 2 C1 +H '° = CA< S0 2 OH +HC1; 

Chlor-ethyl-sulphonic acid. 

° * < SO.OH + 2 NH * = CA < Sh + NH < CL 


Taurine crystallizes in large tetragonal prisms. It is a very 
stable substance, and can be boiled with concentrated acids with- 
out decomposition. With nitrous acids it yields isethionic acid. 

It unites with bases forming salts. 


The only amido-bibasic acid which need be considered is 
amido-succinic acid. 

Aspartic acid, j C j^ 0i L (WOW < ^ 

Amido-succmic acid, J \ OU 2 H 

Aspartic acid occurs in pumpkin seeds, and is frequently 
met with as a product of boiling various natural compounds 
with dilute acids. Thus, for example, it is formed when casein 
and albumin are treated in this wa} r . It is formed also when 
asparagine (which see) is boiled with acids or alkalies. 

Aspartic acid crystallizes. It turns the plane of polarization, 
under some circumstances to the right, under others to the left. 

Treated with nitrous acids it yields malic acid. 

Acid Amides. 

When the ammonium salt of acetic acid is heated, it gives off 
water, and a body distils over which is known as acetamide. 
The reaction which takes place is represented by the following- 
equation : — 

CH 3 .COONH 4 = CH 3 .CONH 2 + H 2 0. 

The substance obtained has neither acid nor basic properties. 
An examination of the ammonium salts of other acids shows 
that the reaction is a general one, and we thus may get a class 
of neutral bodies, known as the acid amides. 

As no one of the acid amides of the fatty acid series is of 
special importance, a few words of a general character in regard 
to the class will suffice. 

Besides the reaction above referred to for making the acid 
amides, there are two others of general application. One con- 
sists in treating an ethereal salt of an acid with ammonia ; 
thus, when ethyl acetate is treated with ammonia, this reaction 
takes place : — 

CH 3 .C0 2 C 2 H 5 + NH 3 = CH 3 .CONH 2 + C 2 H 6 0. 


The other reaction consists in treating the acid chlorides with ' 
ammonia. Thus, to get acetamide, we may treat acetyl chloride 
(see p. 61) with ammonia : — 

CH3.COCI + 2NH 3 = CH 3 .CONH 2 + NH4CL 

This last reaction is perhaps used most frequently. It shows 
the relation which exists between acetic acid and acetamide. 
For acetyl chloride is made from acetic acid by treatment with 
phosphorus trichloride, and is, therefore, as has been pointed 
out, to be regarded as acetic acid in which the hydroxyl is 
replaced by chlorine. Now, by treatment with ammonia the 
same reaction takes place as that which we have had to deal 
with in the preparation of amido-acids, the chlorine is replaced 
by the amido group. Therefore, acetamide is acetic acid in 
which the hydroxyl is replaced by the amido group, as shown 
in the formulas : — 

O . O 

I I 

CH3.C-OH CH 3 -C-NH 2 . 

Acetic acid. Acetamide. 

As the acid hydrogen of the acid is replaced, the amide is not 
an acid. On the other hand, the basic properties of the am- 
monia are destroyed by the presence of the acid residue as a 
part of its composition. This latter fact may be stated in 
another wa}* ; viz., when an ammonia residue is in combination 
with carbon, which in turn is in combination with oxygen, its 
basic properties are destroyed. 

The amides are converted into ammonia and a salt when 
boiled with strong bases : — 

CH3.CONH, + KOH = CH3CO0K + NH 3 . 

They are converted into cyanides by treatment with phos- 
phorus pentoxicle P 2 5 : — 

CH3.CONH, = CH 3 .CN -f HoO. 

As the substance obtained in this way is identical with methyl 



cyanide, which is formed by treating methyl-sulphuric acid with 
potassium cyanide, the reaction furnishes additional evidence 
in favor of the conclusion already reached ; viz., that in the 
cyanides the carbon and not the nitrogen of the cyanogen 
group is in combination with the hydrocarbon residue, as repre- 
sented in the formula CH 3 — C — N. 

As acetamide is made 03* treating ammonia with the chloride 
of acetic acid, so, by treating ammonia with the chloride of airy 
acid, the corresponding amide may be made. So, also, by treat- 
ing ammonia with acid chlorides, or by treating acid amides with 
strong acids, more complicated compounds may be obtained. 

C 2 H 3 
9 H,0, 

Of these di-acetamicle, NHK J 8 *.-., and 

v. C,H..O 



may serve as examples. The relations of these substances to 
ammonia and to acetic acid are shown by the formulas, ordinary 
or mon-acetamide being NH 2 . C 2 H 3 or CH 3 . CO . NH 2 . 

ifej^^j ggg 

Fig. 12. 

Experiment 46. Arrange an apparatus as shown in Fig. 12. In 
flask A put 150? oxalic acid (dehydrated at 100°) and 100^ absolute 
alcohol ; and, in flask B, 100s absolute alcohol. Heat the bath D to 
100° ; and then heat the alcohol in flask B to boiling, and continue to 


pass the vapor from flask B into the mixture in flask A, meanwhile 
allowing the temperature of the oil-bath to rise to 125°-130°. A 
mixture of alcohol and ethyl oxalate will distil over. To some of this 
mixture in a flask add concentrated aqueous ammonia, and shake. 
Insoluble oxamide is formed and is thrown down as a white powder. 
What reactions have taken place? Write the equations. Filter off ; 
the oxamide, and wash it with water. See whether it conducts itself 
like an acid. Has it an acid reaction? Boil with caustic potash (not 
too much), and notice whether ammonia is given off. Why does it 
dissolve? How can the oxalic acid be extracted from the solution? 

When the amide of a poly-basic acid is boiled with ammonia, 
and under some other circumstances, partial decomposition 
takes place, and a substance is formed which is both amide and 
acid. Thus, in the case of oxamide, the product is oxamic 

C0 2 H 
acid, | . This acid forms well-characterized salts and 

other derivatives, such as are obtained from acids in general. 

There is one acid of this kind which is a well-known natural 

substance. It has already been referred to in connection with 

aspartic acid, which is closely related to it. It is 

Asparagine, amido-succinamic acid, 

C 4 H 8 N 2 0, + HX>( = C 2 H 3 (NH 2 ) < ^0^)' ~~ As P ara g ine is 
found in a great many plants, as in asparagus, liquorice, beets, 
peas, beans, vetches, etc. It may be made by treating 111011- 
ethyl amido-succinate with ammonia. 

Note for Student. — What reaction takes place? Write the equa- 

Asparagine forms large rhombic crystals, difficultly soluble 
in cold water, more easily in hot water. When boiled with 
acids or alkalies, it is converted into aspartic acid and ammonia. 

Note for Student. — Notice that only the amido group of the 
amide is driven out of the compound by this treatment. The other 
amido group which is contained in the hydrocarbon portion of the 
compound is not disturbed. 

Nitrous acid converts asparagine into malic acid. 


Cyan-amides, CN 2 H 4 . — In speaking of cyanic acid, the 
existence of two chlorides of cyanogen was mentioned : one 
a liquid, having the formula CNC1 ; the other a solid, of the 
formula C 3 N 3 C1 3 . When the former is treated with ammonia, 
it is converted into an amide, CN . NH 2 , which bears to cyanic 
acid, NC.OH, the relation of an amide. Like the other 
simple compounds of cyanogen, cyan-amide readily undergoes 
change. When simply kept unmolested, it is converted into 
di-cyan-diamide, C 2 N 4 H 4 ; while, when heated to 150°, a violent 
reaction takes place, and tri-cyan-triamide, C 3 N 6 H 6 , is formed. 
Whether or not the formulas given really express the true 
molecular weights of the products is not known. It can only 
be said that the changes involve no change in per centage 
composition, and therefore are cases of polymerisation. The 
formation of the compounds is particularly interesting, as illus- 
trating the tendency on the part of the simpler cyanides to 
undergo change under very slight provocation. 

Guanidine, CN 3 H 5 . — This substance, which is closely 
related to cyan-amide, is formed by the oxidation of guanine 
(which see) , and this in turn is obtained from guano. It may 
be made also by treating cyanogen iodide with ammonia : — 

CNI -f- 2NH 3 = CN 3 H 5 .HI, 
the product being the hydriodic-acid salt of guanidine. As 
will be seen, guanidine is cyan-amide plus ammonia : — 
CN . NH 2 + NH 3 = CN 3 H 5 . 

It is a strongly alkaline base. Boiled with dilute sulphuric 
acid or baryta water, it yields urea and ammonia : — 

CN 3 H 5 + H 2 = CON 2 H 4 + NH 3 . 

Guanidine. Urea. 

Creatine, C 4 H 9 N 3 0.j. — This substance is found in the 
muscles of all animals. It is closely related to guanidine and 


also to sarcosine (see p. 193). It has been made synthetically 
by bringing cyan-amide and sarcosine together. The reaction 
which takes place is analogous to that made use of for the 
preparation of guanidine. The analogy is shown by the two 
equations, — 

CN . NH 2 + NH 3 = CN 3 H 5 , 


or (CN 2 H 3 .NH 2 ), 

and CN . NH 2 + N j CH 3 = CN 2 H 3 . N j J?» 

(_ CH 2 .C0 2 H < ' :Uine l ^Mg.^Ujjii, 


or C 4 H 9 N r () 2 . 

Urea, or carbamide and derivatives. — Closely related 
to the nitrogen compounds just considered is urea, or the 
amide of carbonic acid. Its importance and certain peculiari- 
ties distinguish it from the other acid amides, and it is there- 
fore considered by itself. 

Urea is found in the urine and blood of all mammals, and 
particularly in the urine of carnivorous animals. Human 
urine contains from 2 to 3 per cent ; the quantity given off by 
an adult man in 24 hours being about 30 g . Urea ma}' be made 
by the following methods : — 

(1) By treating carbonyl chloride with ammonia : — 

COCl 2 + 2 NH 3 = CON 2 H 4 + 2 HC1. 

What is the analogous reaction for the preparation of acetamide? 

(2) By heating ammonium carbamate : — 

C0 < ^Stt =■ CON 2 H 4 + H 2 0. 
ONH 4 

What is the analogous reaction for preparing oxamide? 

(3) By treating ethyl carbonate with ammonia : — 

C0 < ™ t! 5 + 2 NH 3 = CON 2 H 4 + 2 C 2 H c O. 

UL 2 rl 5 

UREA. 201 

(4) By the addition of water to cyan-amide : — 

CN . NH 2 + H 2 = CON 2 H 4 . 

(5) Ify evaporation of ammonium cyanate in aqueous solu- 
tion : — 

CN(ONH,) = CON 2 H 4 . 

This reaction is of special interest, for the reason that it 
afforded the first example of the formation, by artificial methods 
from inorganic substances, of an organic compound found in 
the animal body (see p. 1). 

Urea is most readily obtained from urine. 

Experiment 47. Evaporate four or five litres fresh urine to a thin, 
syrupy consistence. After cooling add ordinary concentrated nitric 
acid, when crystals of urea nitrate are obtained. Filter, wash, and 
recrystallize from moderately concentrated nitric acid. When the 
crystals of urea nitrate are white, dissolve again in water, and add 
finely-powdered barium carbonate. The nitric acid forms barium 
nitrate, and the urea is left in free condition. Evaporate to dryness, 
and from the residue extract the urea with strong alcohol. 

Experiment 48. Make potassium cyanate as directed in Experi- 
ments 24, p. 82, and 26, p. 83. To the cold solution of the cyanate add 
a solution of ammonium sulphate containing as much of the salt as 
there was used of potassium ferrocyanide in the preparation of the 
cyanate. Evaporate to a small volume, and allow to cool. Potassium 
sulphate will crystallize out. Filter this off, and evaporate to dryness. 
Extract with alcohol. The urea will crystallize from the alcoholic 
solution when it is brought to the proper concentration. Give all the 
reactions involved in passing- from potassium ferrocyanide to urea. 
Compare the urea made artificially with that made from urine. 

Urea crystallizes from alcohol in large quadratic prisms, 
which melt at 132°. 

Experiment 49. Determine the melting-points of both the natural 
and artificial specimens of urea. 

Urea is easily soluble in water and alcohol. Heated with water 


in a sealed tube to 100°, it breaks up into carbon dioxide 
and ammonia : — 

CON 2 H 4 + H 2 = C0 2 + 2 NH 3 . 

The same decomposition of the urea takes place spontaneously 
when urine is allowed to stand. Hence the odor of ammonia 
is always noticed in the neighborhood of urinals which are not 
kept thoroughly clean. 

Sodium hypochlorite or hypobromite decomposes urea into 
carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water : — 

CON 2 H 4 + 3 NaOCl = Na 2 C0 3 + NaCl + N 2 + H 2 + 2 HC1. 

Experiment 50. To a solution of 20*? sodium hydroxide in 100 cc 
water add about 5 CC bromine, and shake well. Make a solution of urea 
in water, and add to the solution of the hypobromite. An evolution 
of gas will be noticed, showing that the urea is decomposed. 

Nitrous acid acts in the same way : — 

CON 2 H 4 + 2 HN0 2 = C0 2 + N 4 + 3 H 2 0. 

When heated, urea loses ammonia, and yields first biuret , 
and finally cyanuric acid (see p. 84) : — 

2CO(NH 2 ) 2 = C 2 H 5 N 3 2 + NH 3 ; 


3 CO(NH 2 ) 2 = C 3 H 3 3 N 3 + 3 NH 3 . 

Cyanuric acid. 

Urea unites with acids, bases, and salts. The hydrogen of 
the amido groups may be replaced by acid or alcohol radicals, 


giving compounds of which acetyl wea, CO < ' 2 3 , and 

NHC H 2 

ethyl urea, CO < ^ TTr 2 5 , are examples. 

Among the compounds with acids, the following may be 
mentioned : urea hydrochloride, CH 4 N 2 . HO ; urea nitrate, 
CH 4 N 2 O.HN0 3 ; and urea phosphate, CH 4 N 2 . H 3 P0 4 . With 
metals it forms such compounds as that with mercuric oxide, 
HgO.CH 4 N 2 ; with silver, CH 2 N,0. Ag 2 , etc. With salts it forms 
such compounds as HgCl 2 .C 2 H 4 N 2 0, HgO.CH 4 N 2 O.HN0 3 , etc. 


Substituted ureas, — that is, those derivatives of urea which 
contain hydrocarbon residues in place of one or all the hydrogen 
atoms, — may be made from the cy a nates of substituted ammo- 
nias. The fundamental reaction is the spontaneous transforma- 
tion of ammonium cyanate into urea : — 

CN.ONH 4 = CO(NH„) 2 . 

In the same way, cyanates of substituted ammonias are trans- 
formed into substituted ureas : — 

CN .ONH 3 .C,H, = CO < NHC 2 H 5 . 

NH 2 

CN.0NH,(C 2 H 5 ) 2 = CO< N ( C 'A)2 etc . 
" NH 2 

The urea derivatives which contain acid radicals are made by 
treating urea with the acid chlorides : — 

C0 <Sw + C 2 H 3 0C1 = CO <NH.C 2 H 3 + HQ 

Acetyl urea. 

Note for Student. — In what sense is acetyl urea analogous to 

There are several derivatives of urea and radicals of bibasic 
acids, as oxalic and malonic acids, which are of special interest, 
as the}^ are closely related to uric acid ; and their formation from 
this acid has thrown much needed light upon the inner nature of 
the acid. 

Parabanic acid, -» _, __ _, _ ( CO.NH 

^ _ _ ' V C3H0N0O;} = I > CO). —Parabanic 

Oxalylurea, J V CO.NH / 

acid is formed by boiling uric acid with strong nitric acid and 

other oxidizing agents, and by treating a mixture of urea and 

oxalic acid with phosphorus trichloride : — 

C 2 H 2 4 + CO(NH 2 ) = C 3 H 2 N 2 3 + 2 H 2 0. 


It acts like an acid. Its salts readily pass over into salts of 
oxaluric acid (which see). Treated with alkalies it breaks up 
into urea and oxalic acid. As will be seen, parabanic acid is 

CO.NH 2 
analogous to oxamide, | , the urea acting the part of the 

two amido groups. CO.NH, 

/ CO.OH x 

Oxaluric acid, C 3 H 4 N 2 OA= CO.HN.CO.NhJ, bears to 
parabanic acid the same relation that oxamic acid bears to 
oxamide. It occurs in the form of the ammonium salt in small 
quantity in human urine. 

Barbituric acid, malonyl urea, 

C,H 4 N 2 3 + 2 H,of = CH„ < 59^S > CO V — Barbituric 
\ OO.NJbl / 

acid, like parabanic acid, is a product obtained from uric acid. 

It has been made artificially by treating a mixture of malonic 

acid and urea with phosphorus oxichloride : — 

CH 2 < C00H + CO < NH * = CH 3 < C0 - NH > CO + 2 Bfi. 
2 COOH NH 3 " CO. NH 

Treated with an alkali, barbituric acid breaks up into malonic 
acid and urea. 

The relation of the acid to malonic acid and urea is the same 
as that of parabanic acid to oxalic acid and urea. 

Sulpho urea, CS(NH,) 2 . — This substance is formed by 
heating ammonium sulpho-cyanate, the reaction which takes 
place being analogous to that by which urea is formed from 
ammonium cyanate : — 

CNSNH 4 = CS(NH 2 ) 2 . 

A number of derivatives of sulpho urea have been made. 
They resemble those obtained from urea. 


Uric acid, C 5 H 4 N 4 3 . — Uric acid occurs in human urine, 
in certain urinary calculi, in the urine of carnivorous animals, 
and of birds. The excrement of serpents consists almost 
entirely of ammonium urate. It has been made by heating 
together amido-acetic acid and urea. 

Uric acid is best prepared either from serpents' excrement or 

It forms a crystalline powder, which is almost insoluble in 
water. It is a monobasic acid, though weak compounds with the 
alkali metals may be made which contain two atoms of metal 
in the molecule. 

Uric acid has been the subject of a large number of inter- 
esting investigations, and many derivatives have been obtained 
from it. It would only tend to confusion to give an account of 
many of these derivatives here. Hence only a few of the trans- 
formations which have been effected, and which give an insight 
into the nature of the acid, will be mentioned. 

1. By heating uric acid, ammonia, hydrocyanic acid and urea 
are formed. 

2. Heated with hydriodic acid, it yields carbon dioxide, ammo- 
nia, and glycine : — 

C 5 H 4 N 4 3 + 5 H 2 = 3 C0 2 + 3 NH 3 + C 2 H 5 N0 2 . 

3. Oxidizing agents convert uric acid either into allanto'in, 
a complicated substance of the formula C 4 H 6 N 4 3 , or alloxan, 
C 4 H 2 N 2 4 , which is closely related to parabanic acid, or oxalyl 
urea (see p. 203), and barbituric acid, or malonyl urea (see 
p. 204). 

Xanthine, C 5 H 4 N 4 2> is found in some rare urinary calculi 
and in several animal liquids. It is formed by the action of 
nitrous acid on guanine, C 5 H 5 N 5 : — 

C 5 H 5 N 5 + HN0 2 = C 5 H 4 N 4 2 + H 2 + N 2 . 

This reaction shows that guanine is an amido derivative, and 


that xanthine is the corresponding lrydroxyl compound. (Why 
does this follow?) 

Theobromine , c ^ ^ ^(OH^N.OJ, is a 

Dimethyl-xanthine, > 
substance found in chocolate prepared from the seed of the 
cacao tree. It has been made by treating the lead compound 
of xanthine with methyl iodide. 

Caffeine, theine, trimethyl-xanthine, 

C 8 H.oN 4 2 + H 2 0[=aH(CH 3 ) y N 4 2 + H 2 0], is the active 
constituent of coffee and tea. It has been made from theo- 
bromine by the introduction of a third methyl group. 

Thus, as will be seen, a close connection is established 
between the active constituents of coffee, tea, and chocolate on 
the one hand, and xanthine and guanine on the other. 

Guanine, C,H,N,0[-C,H :t (NH,)N 4 OJ, is found principally 
in guano, from which it is prepared. Nitrous acid converts it 
into xanthine. Oxidizing agents convert it into guanidine, 
CN,H 5 (seep. 199). 


Before passing on to the next division of our subject, it will 
be well to pause and consider briefly what we have learned 
thus far. 

In the first place, all the compounds which we have considered 
may be regarded as derived from the marsh-gas lrydrocarbons 
or paraffins. 

By replacing the hydrogen atoms of these hydrocarbons with 
chlorine, bromine, or iodine, we get (1) the substitution-product* 
of the hydrocarbons. 

By introducing lrydroxyl into a hydrocarbon in place of 
hydrogen, we get the bodies called (2) alcohols, of which 


there are three classes : (a) the primary, (b) the secondary, 
and (c) the tertiary alcohols. 

By oxidizing primary alcohols we get (3) aldehydes. 

By oxidizing secondary alcohols we get (4) ketones. 

By oxidizing alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones, we get (5) 

Acids and alcohols act upon each other, forming (6) ethereal 
salts, and alcohols can be converted into (7) ethers. 

Corresponding to the oxygen derivatives, we met with com- 
pounds containing sulphur, as (8) the sulphur alcohols, or 
mercaptans; (9) the sulphur ethers; and (10) the sulphonic 

Next, we found compounds containing nitrogen. Under this 
head we considered cyanogen, and the allied compounds hydro- 
cyanic, cyanic, and sulpho-cyanic acids. Allied to these we 
found (11) the cyanides, and (12) the isocyanides ; (13) the 
cyanates, and (14) the isocyanates; (15) the sulpho-cyanates, 
and (16) the iso-sulpho-cyanates or mustard oils. 

Finally, we found (17) compounds containing metals in combi- 
nation with radicals. 

Representatives of these various classes of compounds were 
considered, and the relations between them pointed out. 

We found poly -acid alcohols and poly -basic acids. 

Under the head of mixed compounds were found compounds 
which belong at the same time to two or more of the funda- 
mental classes, as the hydroxy -acids, the carbo-hydrates, and 
the amido-acids. A consideration of the amido-acids and 
the acid amides brought us naturally to the consideration of 
urea and its derivatives, and of uric acid and its derivatives. 

We turn now to a new class of compounds, known as unsatu- 
rated compounds. 



All the compounds thus far considered are generally called 
saturated compounds. This is certainly an appropriate name 
as far as the hydrocarbons themselves and some of the classes 
of their derivatives are concerned. The expression "saturated" 
is intended to signify that the compounds have no power to unite 
directly with other compounds or elements. Thus marsh gas 
cannot be made to unite directly with anything. Bromine, for 
example, must first displace hydrogen before it can enter into 
combination with the compound 

CH 4 + Br 2 = CH 3 Br + HBr. 

The compound is saturated. 

On the other hand, a compound which can take up elements 
or other compounds directly is called unsaturated. Thus, phos- 
phorus trichloride is unsaturated, for it has the power to take 
up two chlorine atoms thus : — 

PC1 3 + Cl 2 = PC1 5 . 

Ammonia is unsaturated, for it can take up other elements : — 

NH 3 + HC1 = NH 4 C1. 


The condition of unsaturation is met with among carbon 
compounds in several forms : — 

First. The aldehydes act like unsaturated compounds, as 
shown in their power to take up ammonia, hydrocyanic acid, 
and other substances. 

Second. The ketones always act like unsaturated com- 
pounds, though their power in this way is less marked than that 
of the aldehydes. 

Third. The substituted ammonias are unsaturated, in the 
same sense in which ammonia itself is unsaturated. 

Fourth. The cyanides take up hydrogen directly, and are 
therefore unsaturated also. 

In the substituted ammonias, and probabl} T in the cyanides, 
the unsaturation is due to the same cause as that in ammonia. 
In them the nitrogen is trivalent. In contact with certain 
substances it becomes quinquivalent, and saturates itself. 

In the aldehydes and ketones, carbon is in combination with 
oxygen in the carbonyl condition. When they unite with 
hydrogen and some compounds, such as hydrocyanic acid, the 
relation between the carbon and oxygen is probably changed, 
the latter being in the hydroxyl condition. The changes are 
usually represented by formulas such as the following : — 

CH 3 .C ^ jj 4- H 2 = CH 3 .C ^jj 5 

OH 3 CHj 

C = O + HCN = C C 
I I 

CH, CHc 


In the carbonyl group the oxygen is represented as held by 
two bonds by the carbon atom, while in the hydroxyl condition 
it is represented as held by one bond. The signs may be used 
if care is taken to avoid a too literal interpretation of them. 
There are undoubtedly two relations which carbon and oxygen 


bear to each other in carbon compounds. These relations may 
be called the hydroxyl relation, represented by the sign C — 0— , 
and the carbonyl relation, represented by the sign C = O. 

Fifth. There is a fifth kind of unsaturation, dependent upon 
differences in the relations between carbon atoms, and it is this 
kind which is ordinarily meant when unsaturated carbon com- 
pounds are spoken of. 

The kind of relation between the carbon atoms in all the 
saturated hydrocarbons is, so far as we know, the same as that 
which exists between the two carbon atoms of ethane, and 

H H 

which is represented by the formula H — C— C — H. This 

I I 
H H 

formula signifies simply that the two carbon atoms are held 
together bj- the forces which in marsh gas enabled each carbon 
atom to hold one hydrogen atom. Abstracting one hydrogen 
atom from marsh gas, union is effected between the carbon 
atoms. What would result if two hydrogen atoms were to be 
abstracted, and union between the carbons then effected? 
Theoretically we should get a compound made up of two groups 
CH 2 , thus CH 2 .CH 2 , and presumably the relation between the 
carbon atoms in this compound would be different from the 
relation between the carbon atoms in ethane. Without push- 
ing these speculations farther, it may be said that there is a 
well-known hydrocarbon which differs markedly from ethane, 
having the formula C 2 H 4 , and showing the property of unsatu- 
ration very clearly. This is olefiant gas or ethylene. It is the 
first of a homologous series of hydrocarbons, only a very few of 
which, however, are well known. These hydrocarbons yield 
derivatives like the paraffins ; though of these, as well as of the 
hydrocarbons, very few are known as compared with the number 
of the paraffin derivatives. Only a few of them are of much 



Hydrocarbons, C n H 2n . 

The principal hydrocarbons of this series are included in the 
subjoined table : — 

Ethylene C 2 H 4 . 

Propylene C 3 H (; . 

Butylene C 4 H S . 

Amylene C 5 H 10 . 

Hexylene C 6 H 12 . 

Heptylene C:H 14 . 

The members are homologous with ethylene. They bear to 
the paraffins a very simple relation, each one containing two 
atoms of hydrogen less than the paraffin with the same number 
of carbon atoms. 

Ethylene, defiant gas, C,H 4 (= CH 2 .CH,). — This gas is 
formed when many organic substances are subjected to dry 
distillation. The two principal reactions which yield it are : — 

(1) The action of an alcoholic solution of potassium hydrox- 
ide on ethyl chloride, bromide, or iodide : — 

C 2 H 5 Br + KOH = C 2 H 4 + KBr + H 2 0. 

This is the most important reaction for the preparation of the 
unsaturated compounds of the ethylene series. It is applicable 
not only to the hydrocarbons but to bodies belonging to 
other classes. By means of it we have it in our power to pass 
from any saturated compound to the corresponding unsaturated 
compound of the ethylene series. Thus we pass from ethane, 
C 2 H 6 , to ethylene, C 2 H 4 , by first introducing bromine, and then 
abstracting hydrobromic acid from the mono-bromine substitu- 
tion-product. Similarly, by treatment with alcoholic potash of 


the mono-bromine substitution-products of other compounds, 
the corresponding unsaturated compounds may be made. 

(2) The action of sulphuric acid and other delrydration 
agents upon alcohol : — 

C 2 H 5 .OH = C 2 H 4 -f H 2 0. 

Experiment 51. In a flask of 2 1 to 3i capacity put a mixture of 
258 alcohol and 150s ordinary concentrated sulphuric acid. Heat to 
160° to 170°, and add gradually through a funnel tube about 500 cc of a 
mixture of 1 part of alcohol aud 2 parts of concentrated sulphuric acid. 
Pass the gas through three wash bottles contaiuing, in order, sulphuric 
acid, caustic soda, and sulphuric acid. Then pass it into bromine 
contained in a cylinder, provided with a cork with two holes. If the 
cylinder has a diameter of about 5 cm , let the layer of bromine be about 
5 cm to 7 cm thick. Upon it pour a somewhat thicker layer of water. 
Place the cylinder in a vessel containing cold water. Pass the gas 
into the bromine until it is completely decolorized. 

Ethylene is a colorless gas which may be condensed to a 
liquid. It burns with a luminous flame. With oxygen it forms 
an explosive mixture. Its most characteristic property is its 
power to unite directly ivith other substances, particularly with 
the halogens and their hydrogen acids. Thus it unites with 
chlorine and bromine, and with hydriodic and hydrobromic 
acids : — 

C 2 H 4 + Cl 2 = C 2 H 4 C1 2 ; 

C 2 H 4 + Br 2 = C 2 H 4 Br 2 ; 

C 2 H 4 + HBr = C 2 H 5 Br ; 

C 2 H 4 + HI = C 2 H 5 I. 

The products formed with chlorine and bromine are called 
ethylene chloride and ethylene bromide. They have been 
mentioned under the head of halogen derivatives of the paraf- 
fins. They are isomeric with ethylidene chloride and ethylidene 
bromide, which are formed by substitution of two hydrogens 
of ethane with chlorine or bromine. 


Note. — The addition of bromine to ethylene is illustrated by the 
experiment last performed, in which ethylene bromide is formed. To 
purify the product, put a little dilute caustic soda in the cyliuder, and 
shake. Remove the upper layer of water, and repeat the washing with 
dilute caustic soda. Then wash with water two or three times, each 
time removing the water with the aid of the pipette described on p. 31. 
Fiually, put the oil in a flask, add a few pieces of granulated calcium 
chloride, and allow to stand. Pour off into a dry distilling-bulb, and 
distil, noting the temperature. 

A question which we may fairly ask concerning the structure 
of ethylene is this : Does it consist of two groups CH 2 , or of 
a methyl group, CH 3 , and CH ? Is it to be represented by the 
formula CH 2 .CH 2 or CH 3 .CH? Perhaps the clearest answer 
to this question is found in the fact that the chloride formed by 
addition of chlorine to ethylene, and that formed by replacing 
the oxygen in aldehyde by chlorine, are not identical. All 
evidence is in favor of the view that aldehyde is correctly 

represented by the formula CH 3 .Cg. Hence, as has been 

pointed out, the chloride obtained from it must be represented 
thus, CH 3 .CHC1 2 . Hence, further, it appears highly probable 
that the isomeric chloride obtained from ethylene must be 
represented thus, CH 2 C1.CH 2 C1. Now, as this substance is 
formed by direct addition of chlorine to ethylene, ethylene has 

CH2 CH 3 

the formula I , and not I 

CH 2 CH 

As regards the relations between the two carbon atoms of 

ethylene we know nothing, save that it is probably different 

from that which exists between the carbon atoms of ethane. 

CH 2 

It is usually represented by the sign = ; thus, 11 . We must 

CH 2 
necessarily leave the question open as to the relation between 
the carbon atoms in ethylene. If the above sign is used, it 
should serve mainly as an indication of the kind of unsaturation 
met with in ethylene, the compound in whose formula it is 
written having the power to take up two atoms of bromine, a 
molecule of hydrobromic acid, etc. 


The homologues of ethylene bear the same relation to it that 
the homologues of ethane bear to this hydrocarbon. Propylene 

CH.CH 3 
is methyl-ethylene, I , just as propane is methyl-ethane, 

CH 2 .CH 3 CH 2 CH.CH 3 C(CH 3 ) 

I . Butylene is dimethyl-ethylene, I , or I 

CH 3 CH.C 2 H 5 CH.CH 3 CH 2 

or ethyl-ethylene, I . That is to say, in other words, 

CH 2 

in the hydrocarbons of the ethylene series the ethylene condi- 
tion between carbon atoms occurs only once. 

The higher members of the series need not be considered. 

Alcohols, C n H 2n O. 

These alcohols bear to the ethylene hydrocarbons the same 
relation that the alcohols of the methyl alcohol series bear to 
the paraffins. Only one is well known. This is the second 
member corresponding to propylene. 

Allyl alcohol, C 3 H (i O(= CH 2 .CH.CH 2 OH). — This alcohol 
is formed in several ways from glycerin. 

1. By introducing two chlorine atoms into glycerin in the 
place of two hydroxyls, thus getting dichlorhydrin, C 3 H 5 C1 2 .0H : 

CH 2 OH CH 2 C1 

CHOH + 2S = CHC1 + 2 H 2 ; 

CH 2 OH CH 2 OH 

and treating the dichlorhydrin with sodium, which extracts the 
chlorine : — 

CH 2 C1 CEL 

I I 

CHC1 + 2 Na = CH +2 NaCl. 

I I 



2. By treating glycerin with the iodide of phosphorus. This 
gives allyl iodide, C 3 H 5 I. By treating the iodide with silver 
hydroxide it is converted into the alcohol. 

3. Most readily by treating glycerin with oxalic acid, as in 
the preparation of formic acid. The mixture is heated to 220° 
to 230°, when allyl alcohol passes over. 

It is manufactured in this way on the large scale for the pur- 
pose of making artificial oil of mustard. The reactions involved 
are quite complicated. 

Allyl alcohol is a liquid boiling between 90° and 100°. It 
has a penetrating odor. 

Nascent hydrogen, from zinc and hydrochloric acid, converts 
it partially into propyl alcohol : — 

C 3 H 5 .OH + H 2 = C 3 H 7 .OH. 

The relation between allyl alcohol and propyl alcohol is the 
same as that between ethylene and ethane. 

Allyl alcohol, like ethylene, unites directly with bromine, 
hydrobromic acid, etc., the products being substitution-products 
of propyl alcohol : — 

C 3 H 5 .OH + HBr = C 3 H 6 Br.OH, 

Monobrom-propyl alcohol. 

C 3 H 5 .OH + 2 Br = C 3 H 5 Br 2 .OH. 

Dibrom-propyl alcohol. 

Allyl compounds. — Among the derivatives of allyl alco- 
hol which are of special interest is allyl sulphide, (C 3 H 5 ) 2 S, 
which is the chief constituent of the oil of garlic. It may be 
made artificially by treating allyl iodide with potassium sul- 
phide : — 

2C 3 H 5 I + K 2 S = (C 3 H 5 ) 2 S + 2KI. 

It is an oily liquid of a disagreeable odor. 

Allyl mustard oil, SCN.C 3 H 5 . — Under the head of 
Sulpho-cyanates mention was made of a series of isomeric 
bodies called isosulpho-cyanates or mustard oils. The sulpho- 


cyanates of the alcohol radicals are made from potassium 

sulpho-cyanate. Thus, methyl sulpho-cyanate is made by 

mixing together potassium methyl-sulphate and potassium 
sulpho-cyanate, and distilling: — 

NCSK + 5? 8 1 S0 2 = K 2 S0 4 + NCSCH 3 . 

The mustard oils, on the other hand, are made b}' a compli- 
cated reaction from carbon bisulphide and substituted anfmonias. 
The conduct of the sulpho-cyanates led us to the conclusion 
that they must be represented by the formula NC — SR, while 
that of the isosulpho-cyanates or mustard oils led to the for- 
mula SC — NR, as representing their structure. Allyl mustard 
oil is the chief representative of the class of bodies known 
as mustard oils. It occurs as a glucoside (see p. 178) in 
mustard seed. From the glucoside it is formed by fermenta- 
tion. It is formed by treating allyl iodide with potassium 
sulpho-cyanate. We would naturally expect this reaction to 
yield allyl sulpho-cyanate, but the compound actually obtained 
does not conduct itself like the sulpho-cyanates. 

Allyl mustard oil is a liquid, boiling at 150.7°, and having a 
penetrating odor. 

With zinc and hydrochloric acid it is converted into allyl- 
amine, NH 2 .C 3 H 5 , hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide. This 
reaction indicates that in allyl mustard oil the radical allyl is in 
combination with the nitrogen and not with the sulphur. 

Note for Student. — What change do the mustard oils in general 
undergo when treated with nascent hydrogen? What change do the 
sulpho-cyanates undergo under the same circumstances? 

Acrolein, acrylic aldehyde, QsH^CK^ C 2 H 3 .COH). — Acro- 
lein may be made by careful oxidation of allyl alcohol. It is 
formed by the dry distillation of glycerin which breaks up into 
water and acrolein : — 

C 3 H 8 3 = C 3 H 4 + 2 HX>. 

acids, C n H 2n _ 2 2 . 217 

It is, hence, formed also by heating the ordinary fats, the 
peculiar penetrating odor noticed when fatty substances are 
heated to a sufficiently high temperature being due to the forma- 
tion of acrolein. It is prepared best by heating glycerin with 
acid potassium sulphate. 

Experiment 52. In a test-tube mix anhydrous glycerin (1 part) 
and acid potassium sulphate (2 parts), and heat the mixture. Pass 
the vapois through a bent tube iuto water contained in another test- 
tube. Notice the odor. Try the effect on a dilute solution of nitrate 
of silver. What is the meaning of this reaction? 

Acrolein is a volatile liquid which boils at 52.4°. It has an 
extremely penetrating odor, and its vapor acts violently upon 
the eyes, causing the secretion of tears. 

Acrolein takes up oxygen from the air, and is converted into 
the corresponding acid, acrylic acid, C 3 H 4 2 (which see). 

It takes up hydrogen, and is thus converted into allyl alcohol. 

It takes up hydrochloric acid, and is converted into /3-chlor- 
propionic aldehyde : — 

C 2 H 3 .COH + HC1 = CH 2 C1.CH 2 .C0H. 

/3-chlor-propionic aldehyde. 

The first two reactions are characteristic of aldehydes in 
general ; the last one is characteristic of unsaturated compounds 
belonging to the ethylene group. Acrolein, like ordinary alde- 
hyde, forms polymeric modifications, which can easily be recon- 
verted into acrolein. 

It unites with ammonia forming acrole'in-ammonia, and with 
other substances in much the same way as ordinary aldehyde 

Acids, C n H 2n _ 2 2 . 

Running parallel to the ethylene series of hydrocarbons, and 
bearing the same relation to it that the fatty acid series bears 
to the paraffins, is a series of acids of which the first member 
is acrylic acid, C n H 2n _ 2 2 . Several members of the series are 



known. The principal members are named in the subjoined 
table : — 


Acids, C n H 2n2 2 . 

Acrylic acid C 3 H 4 2 . 








C 4 H 6 2 - 
C 5 H 8 2 . 
^eHio0 2 . 
C 7 H 12 2 . 
^isH 28 2 . 

^16^i3o0 2 . 
^18il340 2 . 
vy 22 Xl4 2 \J 2 . 

Of most of the higher members of the series several isomeric 
modifications are known. Only a few of these acids will be 
considered here. 

Acrylic acid, C 3 H 4 2 (= 0H 2 .CH.CO 2 H). — This acid has 
already been mentioned in connection with hydracrylic acid, 
which, when heated, breaks up into acrylic acid and water : — 

CH 2 .OH.CH 2 .C0 2 H = CH 2 .CH.C0 2 H + H 2 0. 

Hydracrylic acid. Acrylic acid. 

Note for Student. — This reaction is analogous to that which 
takes place when ordinary alcohol is converted into ethylene. In what 
does the analogy consist? What acid is isomeric with hydracrylic 
acid? How does it conduct itself when heated? Compare the trans- 
formation of hydracrylic acid into acrylic acid with that of malic into 
male'ic and fumaric acids, and with that of citric into aconitic acid. 

Acrylic acid may be made by careful oxidation of acrolein 
with silver oxide. The relations between propylene, C 3 H 6 , 


allyl alcohol, C 3 H 5 .OH, acrolein, C 2 H 3 .COH, and acrylic acid, 
C 2 H 3 .C0 2 H, are the same as those between any hydrocarbon of 
the paraffin series, and the corresponding primary alcohol, 
aldehyde, and acid. 

Acrylic acid may be made further by treating /?-iodo-propi- 
onic acid with alcoholic potash : — 

CH 2 I .CH 2 .C0 2 H = CH 2 .CH .C0 2 H + HI. 

Note for Student. — Compare this reaction with that by which 
ethylene is made from ethyl bromide. 

Acrylic acid is a liquid having a pungent odor. It boils at 
140°, and solidifies at a low temperature. 

Nascent hydrogen converts it into propionic acid. Hydri- 
odic acid unites directly with it, forming /3-iodo-propionic acid. 

Note for Student. — What are the analogous reactions with allyl 
alcohol and acrolein? 

Many derivatives of acrylic acid have been studied, but they 
need not be taken up here. 

Crotonic acid, 4 H 6 O 2 . — Crotonic acid is made from allyl 
cyanide, the reactions involved being represented by the 
following equations : — 

C 3 H 5 I + KCN = C 3 H 5 .CN -f KI ; 

Allyl iodide. Allyl cyanide. 

C 3 H 5 .CN + 2H 2 = C 3 H 5 C0 2 H -f- NH 3 . 

Crotonic acid. 

It may be made also by distilling /2-lrydroxy-butyric acid, 
CH 3 .CH(OH).CH 2 .C0 2 H, when a reaction takes place similar 
to that involved in the preparation of acrylic from hydracylic 
acid. Further, it may be made by treating a-brom-butyric acid 
with alcoholic potash. 

Oleic acid, Ci 8 H3 4 2 . — This acid was spoken of in con- 
nection with the fats, it being one of the three acids found 


most frequently in combination with glycerin. Olei'n, or 
glyceryl tri-oleate, is the liquid fat, and is the chief constituent 
of the fatty oils, such as olive oil, whale oil, etc. It is con- 
tained also in almost all ordinary fats. In the preparation of 
stearic acid for the manufacture of candles, the olei'n is pressed 
out of the fats. To prepare the acid, olei'n is saponified, and 
the soap then decomposed with hydrochloric acid. 

Note for Student. — Give the equations representing the reac- 
tions involved in passing from olei'n, or gryceryl tri-oleate, to oleic acid. 

Oleic acid is a crystallized substance which melts at a low 
temperature (14°). It unites with bromine, forming bibrom- 
ole'ic acid. Hydriodic acid converts it into stearic acid : — 

CisH^Oo + H 2 = C^HgeCV 

Oleic acid. Stearic acid. 

Polybasic Acids of the Ethylene Group. 

There are a few bibasic acids which bear to the ethylene 
hydrocarbons the same relations that the members of the oxalic 
acid series bear to the paraffins. They ma}' be regarded as 
derived from the hydrocarbons by the introduction of two 
carboxyl groups. 

Acids, C 2 H 2 (C0 2 H) 2 . — There are two acids of this formula, 
both of which have been mentioned. They are fumaric and 
male'ic acids, which are formed bv the distillation of malic acid. 

Note for Student. — What is the reaction? 

Fumaric acid may also be made by treating brom-succinic 
acid, I " , with alcoholic potash. 

CH 2 .C0 2 H 

Note for Student. — What is the reaction? 

Both fumaric and maleic acids are converted into succinic 


acid by nascent hydrogen, and into brom-succinic acid by 

hydrobromic acid. The character of the isomerism of these 

two acids is not understood. Their eas}' transformation into 

succinic acid and brom-succinic acid shows that the formula 

CH.C0 2 H 

I applies to both of them. 

CH.C0 2 H 

Acids, C 3 H 6 O t . — There are three acids of this formula, all 
of which are obtained, either directly or indirectly, from citric 
acid. They are known as itaconic, citraconic, and mesaconic 
acids. They bear the same relation to pyrotartaric acid, 

C 3 H 6 < n X 2 TT' thatfumaric and malei'c acids bear to succinic acid. 

All are converted into pyrotartaric acid by treatment with 
nascent hydrogen. 

Aconitic acid, [C 6 H 6 6 (= C 3 H : i(C0 2 H) .-,)]. — Aconitic acid is 
the only tri-basic acid of this group that need be mentioned. 
As has been stated, it is formed when citric acid is heated to 
175°. It is found in nature in aconite root, and in the sap of 
sugar-cane and of the beet. 

Nascent hydrogen converts it into tri-carballylic acid, 
C 3 H 5 (C0 2 H) 3 . 

Acetylene and its Derivatives. 

The principal reactions by means of which we are enabled to 
pass from a hydrocarbon of the paraffin series to the corre- 
sponding hydrocarbon of the ethylene series consists in intro- 
ducing a halogen into the paraffin, and then treating the 
mono-halogen substitution-product with alcoholic potash : — 

C 2 H 5 Br = C 2 H 4 + HBr. 

The effect of these two reactions is the abstraction of two 
hydrogen atoms from the paraffin. The following questions 
therefore suggest themselves : — 

Suppose a bibrom substitution-product of a paraffin be heated 


with alcoholic potash ; will the effect be that represented by 
the equation 

C 2 H 4 Br 2 = C,H 2 + 2HBr? 

And, further, suppose a mono-substitution product of an 
ethylene hydrocarbon be treated with alcoholic potash ; will the 
effect be that represented by the equation 

C 2 H 3 Br = C 2 H 2 + HBr? 

If so, it is plain that we have it in our power to make a new 
series of hydrocarbons, the members of which shall bear to the 
ethylene hydrocarbons the same relation that the latter bear to 
the paraffins. The general formula of this series would be 
C n H 2n _ 2 j that of the ethylene series being C^H^, and that of the 
paraffin series, C n H 2n+2 . 

A few members of the hydrocarbon series, C n H 2n _ 2 , are 
known, though only one is well known, and only this one need 
be considered. 

Acetylene, G.H 2 . — Acetylene is formed by direct combina- 
tion of hydrogen and carbon when a current of hydrogen is 
passed between carbon poles, which are incandescent in conse- 
quence of the passage of an electric current ; when alcohol, 
ether, and other organic substances are passed through a tube 
heated to redness ; when coal gas and some other substances 
are burned in an insufficient supply of air ; and when ethylene 
bromide is treated with alcoholic potash : — 

C 2 H 4 Br 2 = C,H 2 + 2 HBr. 

It may be prepared most conveniently by the incomplete com- 
bustion of coal gas. 

Experiment 53. — Light a Bunsen burner at the base, and turu it 
down so that the flame is small. The condition is the same as that 
observed when a burner "strikes back." The odor noticed, which is 
familiar to every one who has worked in a chemical laboratory, is 
that of acetylene, which is mixed with the products given off from 



the burner. To collect the gas, arrange an apparatus as shown in 
Fig. 13. Place the glass funnel over the burner, from which acety- 
lene is given off. In B put a strong solution of ammoniacal cuprous 
chloride prepared as follows : Make a saturated solution of 1 part 
common salt and 2} parts crystallized copper sulphate. Saturate with 
sulphur dioxide. Filter, and wash with acetic acid. Dissolve the 
white cuprous chloride in ammonia. 

Fig. 13. 

Connect the apparatus at C with some kind of aspirator (suction- 
pump, a gasometer filled with water, etc.), and draw the gases slowly 
through the solution. The acetylene will be absorbed by the copper 
solution, and a precipitate formed (see Exp. 54). 

Acetylene is a gas of an unpleasant odor. It burns with a 
luminous, sooty flame. 

When heated to a sufficiently high temperature, it is con- 
verted into the polymeric substances, benzene, C 6 H 6 , and sty- 
rene, C 8 H 8 . It unites with hydrogen to form ethylene and 


ethane. It unites with nitrogen, under the influence of the 
sparks from an induction coil, forming hydrocyanic acid : — 

C 2 H 2 -f 2 N = 2 HCN. 

Acetylene forms some curious compounds with metals and 
metallic oxides. Among them may be mentioned the copper 
compound obtained in Exp. 53. This has the composition, 
C 2 H 2 .Cu 2 0, being a compound of acetylene and cuprous oxide. 
It is a reddish-brown substance which is insoluble in water. 
When dry, it explodes violently at 120°. Hydrochloric acid 
decomposes it, acetylene being evolved. 

Experiment 54. Filter off the precipitate obtained iu Exp. 53, 
and wash it until the wash-water runs through colorless. Bring the 
precipitate, together with a little water, into a flask furnished with a 
funnel-tube and a delivery-tube. Slowly add concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid, and notice the evolutiou of gas. Collect some of it 
in a small cylinder over water, and burn it. 

Acetylene unites with bromine, forming the compound 
C 2 H.jBr4j tetra-brom-e thane. It unites with hydrobromic and 
hydriodic acids, forming substitution-products of the satu- 
rated hydrocarbons : — 

C 2 H 2 + 2 HI = C 2 H 4 I 2 . 

Most of the higher members of the acetylene series of hydro- 
carbons bear to acetylene the same relation that the higher mem- 
bers of the ethylene series bear to ethylene. The first one is 

C.CH 3 

Allylene or methyl-acetylene j ; 

the second is 


Ethyl-acetylene I , 



or Dimethyl-acetylene I 

C.CH 3 


It should be noticed in this connection that there is a hydro- 
carbon of the formula C 4 H 6 , which, strictly speaking, is not 
a homologue of acetylene, though it is very closely allied to 

CH = CH 2 
dimethyl-acetylene. It has the formula I 

CH = CH 2 

The homologues of acetylene may be divided into two 
classes : — 

1. Those which are obtained from acetylene by the replace- 
ment of one or both the hydrogen atoms by saturated radicals, 
such as methyl, ethyl, etc. These may be called the true homo- 
logues. They all retain the condition peculiar to acetylene. 

2. Those in which the ethylene condition occurs twice, as in 
the hydrocarbons of the formulas 

CH = CH 2 C(CH») a 

I , || , etc. 

OH = OH2 = 0x12 

These may be called (Methylene derivatives. 

We know nothing regarding the relation between the carbon 
atoms in acetylene. It is commonly represented by three lines 

( = ),or three dots ( : ). Thus, acetylene is written III or CHjCH. 

Like the sign for the ethylene condition, it should not be inter- 
preted too literally. It is best to regard it as the sign of a 
condition best illustrated in acetylene, and which may therefore 
be called the acetylene condition. We recognize this condition in 
a compound by the power of the compound to take up four atoms 
of a halogen, or two molecules of hydrobromic acid and similar 
acids; though, as we have seen, these reactions are not distinc- 
tive for the acetylene condition, for the reason that the diethy- 
lene compounds have the same power. 

Propargyl alcohol, C 3 HX>. — This alcohol is mentioned 
merely as an example of alcohols which are derived from the 
acetylene hydrocarbons. It is the hydroxyl derivative of 


allylene, or methyl-acetylene. It is made by treating broni- 
allyl alcohol, C 3 H 4 Br.OH, with alcoholic potash : — 

C 3 H 4 Br.OH = C3H3.OH 4- HBr. 

Acids, C n H, n _ 4 2 . 

These acids are the carboxyl derivatives of the acetylene 
hydrocarbons, and hence differ from the members of the 
acrylic acid series by two atoms of Irydrogen each, and from 
the members of the fatt}' acid series by four atoms of hydro- 
gen each. 

/ CH \ 
Propiolic acid, C 3 H 2 2 = I . — This acid is not 

\ C.C0 2 H/ 
known, but its bromine and chlorine substitution-products, 
brom-propiolic and chlor-propiolic acids are known. Chlor- 
propiolic acid is obtained by treating dichlor-acrylic acid with 
baryta water : — 

C 2 H 3 C1 2 .C0 2 H = C 2 H.C0 2 H + 2 HC1. 

/ C.CH, \ 
Tetrolic acid, C 4 H 4 0,( = I 1, is obtained by treating 

\ C.CO_.H' 
/?-chlor-crotonic acid with caustic potash : — 


I = I + HC1. 

CH.C0 2 H C.C0 2 H 

Sorbic acid, C G H 8 2 (= C 5 H 7 .CO,H). — This acid occurs in 
the unripe berries of the mountain ash. It takes up hydrogen 
and yields hydrosorbic acid, a member of the acrylic acid series 
(see table, p. 218). It also takes up bromine, the final product 
of the action being an acid of the formula C 5 H 7 Br 4 .C0 2 H. With 
hydrobromic acid it forms dibrom-caproic acid : — 

C 5 H 7 .C0 2 H + 2 HBr = C 5 H 9 Br 2 .CO,H. 

Dibrom-caproic acid. 


Leinole'ic acid, C 16 H, 8 2 (= C 15 H 27 .C0 2 H). — This acid occurs 
in the form of an ethereal salt of glycerin in linseed oil. It may 
be obtained from linseed oil by saponification. It is an oily 
liquid, one of the most marked properties of which is its power 
to take up oxygen from the air, being thus transformed into a 
solid substance. Linseed oil itself has this property of harden- 
ing or drying. It is the principal substance belonging to the 
class of drying oils. The oil is used extensively as a constituent 
of varnishes and of oil paints. 

Valylene, C 5 H 6 . — We have thus far had to deal with three 
series of hydrocarbons of the general formulas C n H 2ll + 2 , C n H 2n , 
and C n H 2n _ 2 . We naturally inquire whether there is a series of 
the general formula C n H 2n _ 4 . A few members of the series have 
been prepared by abstracting hydrogen from certain of the acety- 
lene hydrocarbons by the action of alcoholic potash on the bro- 
mine derivatives. Thus, valylene, C 5 H 6 , has been made by 
treating valerylene bromide, C 5 H 8 Br 2 , with alcoholic potash : — 

C 5 H 8 Br 2 = C 5 H 6 + 2 HBr. 

It is a liquid. Its most characteristic property is its power to 
unite with bromine to form the saturated compound C 5 H 6 Br 6 . 

Dipropargyl, C 6 H 6 . — Dipropargyl is obtained from the 
compound dibrom-diallyl, C 6 H 8 Br 2 , by boiling with alcoholic 
caustic potash : — 

C 6 H 8 Br 2 = C 6 H 6 + 2 HBr. 

It unites very readily with bromine, forming, as the final 
product of the action, the compound C 6 H(;Br 8 , which is an 
octo-bromine substitution-product of hexane, C 6 H 14 . 

The unsaturated hydrocarbons and their derivatives thus far 
considered are obtained by simple reactions from the saturated 


compounds, and they all have the power to take up readily 
bromine, hydrobromic acid, etc., and thus to pass back to the 
saturated condition. Whatever the real nature of the relation 
between the carbon atoms in all these unsaturated hydrocarbons 
may be, it certainly is easily changed to the condition which 
exists in the saturated compounds. There are several hydro- 
carbons, however, which are unsaturated but which are not 
easily converted into derivatives of the saturated hydrocar- 
bons. Although under some circumstances the}' with diffi- 
culty unite directly with the halogens, they do not take up 
enough to convert them into derivatives of the paraffins ; and 
the products which are formed are unstable, easily giving up 
the halogen atoms with which the}' united. The simplest 
hydrocarbon of this new kind is the well-known benzene, 
which is isomeric with dipropargyl. Before proceeding to 
the consideration of benzene and its derivatives, it will be 
well to inquire whether the abstraction of hydrogen by the 
reaction chiefly used can be pushed further than it has thus 
far been pushed. Can we, in other words, by means of this 
reaction get hydrocarbons of the formula C n H 2n _ 8 which have 
the power to unite directly with ten atoms of bromine? Such 
hydrocarbons have not been prepared. Hydrocarbons of the 
formula C n H 2n _ 8 are known; but they are not made from the 
paraffins by abstracting hydrogen, and they are not converted 
into substitution-products of the paraffins by the addition of 
halogens and halogen acids. The compounds which have 
been considered fall under five general heads, according to the 
formulas of the hydrocarbons. These heads are, — 

1. Hydrocarbons, C n H 2n + 2 , the paraffins and their derivatives. 

2. Hydrocarbons, C n H 2n , or olefins and their derivatives. 

3. Hydrocarbons, C n H 2n 2 , or the acetylene hydrocarbon? a*A 

their derivatives. 

4. Hydrocarbons, C n H 2n _ 4 , and their derivatives. 

5. Hydi'ocarbons, C n H s 


This classification, while strictly correct, is misleading, inas- 
much as it conveys no idea in regard to the relative importance 
of the compounds of the different classes. As we have seen, 
the only compounds whose treatment required much time are 
those of the first class. These compounds stand out promi- 
nently, and are distinguished by the frequency of their occur- 
rence and their great number. The compounds of the second 
class are much less numerously represented, and but a small 
number of them are familiar substances. While a few sub- 
stances belonging to the third class are known, our knowledge 
in regard to the class is much more limited than even that 
of the second class. Finally, as regards the fourth and fifth 
classes, the few representatives of them that are known are at 
present scientific curiosities. Thus, after we leave the paraffin 
derivatives, our knowledge dwindles away very rapidly when 
we pass to the following classes, until it ends with a single 
compound in the fifth class. 

We pass now to the consideration of a new group, the impor- 
tance and number of whose members entitle it to be placed side 
by side with the group of paraffin derivatives. 



The fundamental substance of this group is benzene, C 6 H , 
which bears to the group the same relation that marsh gas 
bears to the group of paraffin derivatives. Benzene, together 
with some of its homologues, is a product of the distillation of 
bituminous coal, and is, therefore, contained in coal tar. As 
coal tar is the raw material from which all benzene derivatives 
are obtained, it will be well briefly to consider the conditions 
of its formation and the method of obtaining pure hydrocarbons 
from it. 

Coal tar is a thick, black, tarry liquid, which is obtained in 
the manufacture of illuminating gas from bituminous coal. 
The coal is heated in retorts, and all the products passed 
through a series of tubes called condensers. These are kept 
cool, and in them the liquid and volatile solid products are con- 
densed, forming together the coal tar. It is an extremely com- 
plex mixture, from which a great many substances have been 
obtained. Among those most readily obtained from it are the 
hydrocarbons of the benzene series, as well as the hydrocarbons 
naphthalene and anthracene, both of which are important sub- 

When the tar is heated, of course the most volatile liquids 
pass over first. These are collected in vessels containing water. 
The first portions of the distillate float on water, and constitute 
what is called the light oil. After a time hydrocarbons and 
other substances of greater specific gravity than the light oil 


pass over. These portions sink under water, and constitute the 
heavy oil. 

The light oil is treated with caustic soda, which removes 
phenol (carbolic acid) and similar substances, and with 
sulphuric acid, which removes certain basic compounds. The 
residue is then subjected to fractional distillation, by which 
means the first two members of the series can be obtained in 
very nearly pure condition. As these hydrocarbons form the 
basis of a number of important industries, they are separated 
from coal tar on the large scale. 

The principal members of the series are named in the table 

HYDROCARBONS, C n H 2n _ c . 
Benzene Series. 

Benzene C 6 H 6 . 

Toluene C 7 H 8 . 

Xylene . C 8 H 10 . 

Mesitylene } p -u- 

Pseudocumene 3 



Hexa-methyl benzene C 12 H 18 . 

Benzene, C 6 H 6 . — Benzene is prepared, as above described, 
from the light oil obtained from coal tar. It is also prepared 
by treating benzoic acid with lime, when the acid breaks up 
into carbon dioxide and benzene : — 

C 7 H 6 2 = C 6 H 6 + C0 2 . 

Note for Student. — What is the analogous method for the 
preparation of marsh gas? 

Benzene has been made further by simply heating acetylene : 
3 CoHo = C fi H fi . 


To purify the hydrocarbon obtained by fractional distillation 
from light oil, it is cooled down to a low temperature, and that 
which does not solidify is poured off. The crystals are pressed 
in the cold between layers of bibulous paper, and are then very 
nearly pure benzene. This may be further purified by treat- 
ment with sulphuric acid, which removes a small quantity of a 
substance containing sulphur, and known as thiophene. Per- 
fectly pure benzene is obtained by distilling pure benzoic acid 
with lime. 

Experiment 55. Mix intimately 50s benzoic acid and 100£ quick- 
lime, and distil from a flask connected with a condenser. See that the 
materials and apparatus are dry. Add a little calcium chloride to the 
distillate ; and, after it has stood for an hour or two, redistil it from 
an appropriate sized distilling-bulb, noting the temperature at wliich it 
boils. Put the redistilled hydrocarbon in a test-tube, and surround it 
with a freezing mixture. 

Experiment 56. — In most places where there are gas-works it will 
not be difficult to get a quantity of light oil. The separation of some 
of this into benzene and toluene, and the purification of the two hydro- 
carbons, is the best possible introduction to a study of the aromatic 
compounds. The benzene and toluene thus obtained may be used in the 
preparation of a number of typical derivatives according to methods 
which will be described. In f ractioning the light oil, it will be observed 
that there is a tendency to an accumulation of the distillates in the 
parts boiling near 80° (the boiliug-point of benzene) and 110° (the boil- 
ing-point of toluene). The final purification of the benzene should be 
effected by freezing and pressing, as described above. The toluene 
should be distilled until by redistillation its boiling-point is not changed. 

Benzene is a colorless liquid which boils at 80.5°. It has a 
peculiar, pleasant odor. Several of the homologues of benzene 
have a similar odor. Hence the name aromatic compounds was 
given to them originally, and it is still in general use. Benzene 
is lighter than water, its specific gravity being 0.899 at 0°. It 
burns with a bright, luminous flame. 

Experiment 57.— Pour a layer of benzene on water in a small 
evaporating-dish. Set fire to it. 


At 0° benzene solidifies, forming rhombic prisms. It is an 
excellent solvent for oily and resinous substances. 1 

Chemical conduct of benzene, and hypothesis regarding its 
structure. In the light of the knowledge we have already 
gained in studying hydrocarbons which contain a smaller pro- 
portion of hydrogen than the paraffins do, we would naturally 
expect to find that benzene can easily be converted into a 
derivative of hexane. We would naturally expect to find 
that it unites with bromine, just as dipropargyl does, to 
form an octo-brom-hexane thus, — 

C 6 H 6 + Br 8 = C 6 H G Br 8 ; 
with hydrobromic acid to form tetra-brom-hexane thus, — 

C 6 H 6 + 4HBr = C 6 H 10 Br 4 ; 
and probably with hydrogen to form hexane, — 

C^IIe + 8 H = C 6 H 14 . 

But none of these reactions takes place. Hydrobromic acid, 
which acts so readily on all the unsaturated compounds hitherto 
considered, does not act at all upon benzene. Bromine acts 
readily enough, but the action which usually takes place is 
like that which takes place with the saturated paraffins. It is 
substitution, and not addition. Thus, bromine forms mono- 
brom-benzene, C 6 H 5 Br, under ordinary circumstances. If, 
however, the action takes place in the direct sunlight, a prod- 
uct is formed which has the formula C 6 H 6 Br 6 , known as 
benzene hexabromide, and to this no more bromine can be 
added. Further, benzene hexabromide is an unstable com- 
pound, — much less stable than benzene. When heated, it 
breaks up, partly according to the equation 

C 6 H 6 Br 6 = C 6 H 3 Br 3 + 3 HBr, 

1 Benzene, the chemical individual of the definite formula C 6 H 6 , must not be con- 
founded with " benzine," the commercial substance obtained in the refining of petro- 
leum (see p. 110). 


the chief product being a substitution-product of benzene, — 
tri-brom-benzene, C 6 H 3 Br 3 . 

Treated with hydriodic acid, benzene takes up six atoms of 
lrrdrogen, and yields a hydrocarbon, CgH^, which, however, does 
not act like a member of the ethylene series, as it appears to 
have no power to take up bromine, etc., and shows a marked 
tendency to pass back into benzene, particularly under the influ- 
ence of oxidizing agents. 

The facts mentioned show clearly that benzene differs in some 
way fundamentally from all the hydrocarbons which have been 
considered. But these facts are not sufficient to enable us to 
form a hypothesis in regard to its structure. On studying the 
many substitution-products of benzene, however, we soon become 
acquainted with facts of a different order and of the highest im- 

It will be remembered that our theory in regard to the rela- 
tions of the paraffins to each other is based upon the fact, that 
only one mono-substitution product of marsh gas can be obtained 
with any given substituting agent. There is but one chlor- 
methane, but one brom-methane, etc. This fact leads us to 
believe that each hydrogen atom of marsh gas bears the same 
relation to the carbon atom, or that marsh gas is a symmetrical 
compound. A similar conclusion has been reached in regard to 
benzene ; and it is based upon a most exhaustive study of the 
substitution-products. Notwithstanding almost innumerable 
efforts to prepare isomeric mono-substitution products of ben- 
zene, no such isomeric substances have been prepared. There 
is but one mono-brom-benzene, but one mono-chlor-benzene, 
etc., etc. Further, mono-brom-benzene has been prepared by 
replacing the six hydrogen atoms of benzene successively by 
bromine ; and the product has been found to be the same, no 
matter which hydrogen was replaced. As this fact is of funda- 
mental importance, it will be well to consider how it is possible 
to replace the six hydrogens successively, and to know that in 
each case a different hydrogen atom is replaced. While it would 


lead us too far to consider this subject in detail, the principle 
nmlft use of can be made clear in a few words : — 

We have a compound, the formula of which is C 6 H 6 . Write 

12 3 4 5 6 

it thus, C 6 HHHHHH, numbering the hydrogen symbols to facil- 
itate reference to them. The problem is to replace, say H, by 


bromine ; in a second case, to replace H by bromine ; in a 


third, H, etc ; and to compare the six mono-brom-benzenes thus 
obtained. Suppose we treat benzene with bromine. We get 
a mono-brom-benzene, and we know that one of the hydrogen 
atoms is replaced by bromine, bat of course we cannot tell 
which one. We may assume that it is any one of the six 
represented in the above formula. For the sake of the argu- 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

ment, call it H. Our compound is therefore C 6 BrHHHHH. 
Now treat this compound with something else which has the 
power to replace the hydrogen, say nitric acid. A second 
hydrogen atom is replaced by the nitro group N0 2 . Again, 
we do not know which one of the hydrogen atoms is replaced 
in this operation, but we do know that it is a different one 
from that which ivas replaced by the bromine in the first 


operation. Call it H. We have, therefore, the compound 

3 4 5 6 

C 6 Br(N0 2 )HHHH. By treating this compound with nascent 

Irydrogen, two reactions take place, the chief one for our 

present purpose being the replacement of the bromine by 

hydrogen. In other words, H is put back into the com- 

1 3 4 5 6 

pound again, and we have C 6 H(N0 2 )HHHH. By means 
of two reactions which will be considered a little later it is 
a simple matter to replace the nitro group by bromine. This 

1 3 4 5 6 

done, we have the compound C 6 HBrHHHH, or a mono-brom- 
benzene, in which the bromine certainly replaces a different 
hydrogen atom from that replaced b}* direct substitution. The 
two products are, however, identical. The above explanation 
will serve to make the principle clear which is involved in the 


study of the relations which the hydrogen atoms contained in 
benzene bear to the molecule. The principle has been applied 
successfully to all the hydrogen atoms, and, as already stated, 
the result is the proof that all of these hydrogen atoms bear 
the same relation to the* molecule. 

Thus far we have formed no conception in regard to the rela- 
tions existing between the constituents of benzene. Can we, 
on the basis of the facts above stated, form any satisfactoiy 
conception in regard to these relations? How can we imagine 
six carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms arranged so that all 
the latter shall bear the same relation to the molecule ? The 
simplest conception is that each carbon is in combination with 
one hydrogen, and that the six carbon atoms are arranged in 
the form of a ring, and not, as in the paraffins, in the form of 
an open chain, or a chain with branches. Using our ordinary 
method of representation, this conception is symbolized in the 

or, as the curved lines have no special significance, the expres- 
sion becomes jj 


I I 




This symbol, then, is the expression of a thought which is 
suggested by a study of the chemical conduct of benzene. 


Before we can accept it as probable, it must first be tested by 
all the facts known to us. If it is not in accordance with all of 
them, if it suggests possibilities which are not realized, then it 
must be discarded, and we must form some other conception in 
regard to the structure of benzene. 

In the first place, then, does it account for the addition 
products, benzene hexabromide, hexa-hydro-beuzene, etc. ? The 
formula represents each carbon atom as trivalent, and we would 
expect, therefore, that each one could take up an additional 
univalent atom, forming, in the case of bromine, a compound 
of the formula jjt> 

BrHC / x CHBr 
BrHC x /CHBr 

x cr 


in which each carbon atom is acting as a quadrivalent atom. 
Unless the ring form of combination between the carbon atoms 
is broken up, it is impossible for the compound to take up more 
bromine. Hence, the last product of the addition of bromine 
to benzene should be benzene hexabromide ; and, in the same 
way, the last product of the addition of hydrogen should be 
hexa-hydro-benzene, as it is. The facts and the hypothesis are 
in harmony. 

Again, we may inquire : Of how many isomeric bi-substitu- 
tion products of benzene does the hypothesis suggest the exist- 
ence ? Numbering the hydrogens in the formula, we have : — 


(6)HC X X CH(2) 

I I 

(5)HC X /CH(3) 

x cr 


The hydrogens (1) and (2), (2) and (3), (3) and (4), (4) and 


(5), (5) and (6), and (6) and (1), bear the same relations to 
each other ; and, according to the formula, whether we replace 
(1) and (2), or (2) and (3), or (3) and (4), or any other of 
the above-named pairs, the product ought to be the same. We 
would get a compound of which the following is the general 
expression, in which X represents any substituting atom or 
group : — x 


I I 


x cr 


Formula I. 

Iii the second place, the hydrogens (1) and (3), (2) and 
(4), (3) and (5), (4) and (6), (5) and (1), and (6) and (2) 
bear to each other the same relation, but a different relation 
from that which the above pairs do. Replacing any sucli pair, 
we would have a second compound, which is represented by 
the general formula 



I I 

x cr 


Formula II. 

Finally, there is a third kind of relation, which is that between 
hydrogens (1) and (4), (2) and (5), and (3) and (6) ; and, by 
replacing such a pair, we should get a compound represented 
by the general formula „ 

/ C \ 

I I 


x c 7 


Formula III. 


The hypothesis suggests no other possibilities. We see thus 
that the hypothesis indicates the existence of three, and onty 
three, classes of bi-snbstitution products of benzene. There 
ought to be three, and only three, bi-chlor-benzenes ; three, 
and only three, bi-brom-benzenes, etc. 

The bi-substitution products have been studied very exhaust- 
ively for the purpose of determining definitely whether the 
conclusion above reached is in accordance with the facts ; and 
it may be said at once, that every fact thus far discovered is in 
harmony with the hypothesis. Three well-marked classes of 
isomeric bi-substitution products of benzene are known, and 
only three ; and many representatives of the three classes have 
been studied carefully. There are many other facts of less 
importance known which furnish arguments in favor of the ben- 
zene hypothesis expressed in the formula above discussed, but 
this is not the place to consider them. Let it suffice, for the 
present, to recognize that the hypothesis is in accordance with 
the most important facts known to us. 

There is one point which has not been touched upon, and 
that is the relation of the carbon atoms to each other. In 
regard to this, as well as to the relation between the carbon 
atoms in ethylene and acetylene, we know nothing. The 
formula is commonly written thus : — 




HC s\ y CH 

X C 

which indicates that the carbon atoms are joined together 
alternately by simple and by double bonds. This formula, 
however, expresses something about which we know nothing, 
and concerning which it is difficult, at present, to form any 
conception. The simple formula 




/ C \ 



x c 7 



leaves the question as to the relation between the carbon atoms 
entirely open, as it is in fact. 

The benzene hypothesis has thus been considered pretty fully 
for the reasons, that it has played an extremely important part 
in the study of the benzene derivatives, that its use serves 
greatly to simplify the study of these derivatives, and that in 
most text-books, whether elementary or advanced, the hypothesis 
is merely stated, while the student is left to find out for himself 
its meaning, and this he generally fails to do. We may now 
return to a study of the facts upon which the hypothesis is 
founded, and of which the formula is the symbolic expression. 

Toluene, C 7 H.,(= C 6 H 5 .CH 3 ). — Toluene was known before 
it was obtained from coal tar, as it is formed by the dry distilla- 
tion of Tolu balsam, whence its name. Its relation to benzene 
is shown by its synthesis from brom-benzene and methyl 
iodide : — 

C 6 H 5 Br + CH 3 I -f Na 2 = C 6 H 5 .CH 3 -f NaBr + Nal. 

Note for Student. — Compare this reactiou with that used in the 
synthesis of ethane from methane, of propane from ethane and 
methane, etc. 

According to this synthesis, toluene appears as methyl-benzene, 
or benzene in which one hydrogen is replaced by methyl ; or as 
phenyl-m ethane, or methane in which one hydrogen atom is re- 
placed by the radical phenyl, C 6 H 5 , which bears the same 
relation to benzene that methyl bears to marsh gas. 


Toluene is a colorless liquid which boils at 110°; has the 
specific gravity 0.8824 at 0° ; and has a pleasant aromatic 

It is very susceptible to the action of reagents yielding a large 
number of substitution-products, some of the most important 
of which will be considered farther on. 

But one toluene or methyl-benzene has ever been discovered. 

Towards oxidizing agents its conduct is peculiar and interest- 
ing. The methyl is oxidized, while the phenyl remains intact. 
The product is a well-known acid, benzoic acid, which, as we 
have seen, breaks up readily into carbon dioxide and benzene. 
It has the composition C 7 H 6 2 , and is the carboxyl derivative 
of benzene, C 6 H 5 .C0 2 H. The oxidation of toluene is repre- 
sented by the equation 

C 6 H 5 .CH 3 + 3 O = C 6 H 5 .C0 2 H + H 2 0. 

Xylenes, C 8 H 10 [= C 6 H 4 (OH 3 ) 2 ]. — That portion of light oil 
which boils at about 140° was originally called xylene. It 
was afterwards found that this coal-tar xylene consists of 
three isomeric hydrocarbons. As the boiling-points of these 
three substances lie quite near together, it is impossible to 
separate them by means of fractional distillation. By treat- 
ment with sulphuric acid, however, they may be separated, 
and thus obtained in pure condition. They are known as 
or tho -xylene, meta-xylene, and para-xylene. 

Ortho-xylene resembles benzene and toluene in its general 
properties, but boils at 142° to 143°. 

Meta-xylene boils at 139.8°. 

Para-xylene boils at 136° to 137°. 

These hydrocarbons have also been obtained from toluene by 


means of the reaction made use of for the purpose of converting 
benzene into toluene : — 

C 6 H 4 <^ H3 + CH 3 I + 2 Na = C 6 H 4 <^ 3 +NaBr + Nal. 
Br CH 3 

This shows that they are all methyl-toluenes. There are 
three mono-brom-toluenes, known as ortho-, meta-, and para- 
brom-toluene. For the preparation of ortho-xylene, ortho- 
brom-toluene is used ; meta-brom-toluene yields meta-xylene, 
and para-brom-toluene yields para-xylene. 

Ortho- and meta-xylene have also been obtained from certain 
acids, which bear to them the same relation that benzoic acid 
bears to benzene : — 

(CH 3 
C 6 HJ CH 3 = C 6 H 3 (CH 3 ) 2 + C0 2 . 
(_C0 2 H 

The reaction b} r which meta-xylene is formed from mesitylenic 
acid is of special importance, as will be pointed out. 

By oxidation, the xylenes undergo changes like that which is 
illustrated in the formation of benzoic acid from toluene, and 
which consists in the transformation of methyl into carboxyl. 

The first change gives acids of the formula C 6 H 4 < 3 , one 

C0 2 H 

corresponding to each xylene. By further oxidation, these 
three monobasic acids are converted into bibasic acids of the 

formula C 6 H 4 < C0 2 H . Thus, we have the three reactions, all 

of the same kind : — 

(1 ) C 6 H 5 . CH 3 +30 = C 6 H 5 . C0 2 H + H 2 ; 

»Qft<jg +80-qa<J5 h +"h» 8 

and (3) C 6 H 4 < ™* + 3 O = C 6 H 4 < jjg + H 2 0. 



The three monobasic acids of the formula C 6 H 4 < C q J h are 

known as ortho-toluic, meta-toluic, and para-toluic acids re- 
spectively ; and the three bibasic acids obtained from them 
are known as ortho-johthcblic, meta-plitlialic, and para-phthalic 
acids. Starting thus from the three brom- toluenes, we get, 
first, three xylenes, then three toluic acids, and finally three 
phthalic acids. In each case, we distinguish between the 
three isomeric compounds by the prefixes ortho, meta, and 
para. In a similar wa}", all bi-substitution products of ben- 
zene are designated. We therefore have three series into 
which all bi-substitution products of benzene can be arranged ; 
and these are known as the Ortho-series, the Meta-series, and 
the Para-series. In arranging them in this way, we may 
select any prominent bi-substitution product, and call it an 
ortho compound; and then call one of its isomerides a meta 
compound, and the other a para compound. Having thus a 
representative of each of the three classes, the remainder of 
the problem consists in determining for each bi-substitution 
product, by means of appropriate reactions, into which one 
of the three representatives it can be transformed. If from 
a given compound we get the representative of the ortho 
series, we conclude that the compound belongs to the ortho 
series ; if we get the representative of the meta series, we 
conclude that the compound is a meta compound ; and if we 
get the representative of the para series, we conclude that 
the compound is a para compound. As representatives, we 
may select either the three xylenes or the three phthalic 
acids. Now, to repeat, any bi-substitution product of ben- 
zene which can be converted into ortho-xylene or into ortho- 
phthalic acid is regarded as an ortho compound, etc. 

This classification of the bi-substitution products of benzene 
into the ortho, meta, and para series, by means of chemical 
transformations, is entirely independent of any hypothesis re- 


garding the nature of benzene. We may now ask, however, 
which one of the three general expressions given above (see 
formulas I., II., and III., p. 238) represents the relation of the 
groups in the ortho compounds, which one the relation in the 
meta compounds, and which one the relation in the para com- 
pounds. If we can answer these questions for any three 
isomeric bi-substitution products, the answer for the rest will 
follow. To reduce the problem to simple terms, therefore, 
let us take the three xylenes. We have three xylenes and 
three formulas : how can we determine which particular form- 
ula to assign to each xylene ? 

As may be imagined, this determination is by no means a 
simple matter ; and it has been the occasion of a great man}- 
investigations. Theoretically, the simplest method available 
consists in carefully studying the substitution-products of each 
xylene, to discover how many varieties of mono-substitution 
products can be obtained from each. The formulas are : — 

CH3 ^U3 ^Hs 

C C C 

(4)HC / X C.CH 3 (4)HC / X CH(1) (4)HC / " X CH(1) 


(3)IIC X / CH(1) (3)HC N / CCH 3 (3)HC X /CH(2) 

O O L/ 

H H prr 

(2) (2) C " 3 

Formula I. Formula II. Formula III. 

Each of the four unreplaced benzene hydrogens of the xylene 
of formula III. bears the same relation to the molecule. It 
therefore should make no difference which one is replaced, the 
product ought to be the same. This should not be true of 
the xylenes represented by formulas I. and II. That xylene, 
whose structure is represented b\' formula III., ought therefore 
to yield but one kind of mono-substitution product. On study- 
ing the xylenes, we find the one which boils at 13G° to 137°. 


called para-xylene, yields but oue kind of mono-substitution 
products ; that is, we can get from it only one mono-brom- 
xylene ; only one mono-nitro-xylene, etc. We therefore con- 
clude that para-xylene is represented by formula III. above ; 
and, further, that formula III., on p. 238, is the general ex- 
pression for all para compounds. 

Examining formula I., on the preceding page, in the same 
way. we see that 11(1) and H(4) bear the same relation to the 
molecule ; and that H(3) and H(2) also bear the same relation 
to the molecule, though different from that of H(l) and H(4). 
Two chlor-xylenes of the formulas 

CH 3 CH 3 


I I and I I 


x c c 


ought to be obtainable from the xylene of formula I. 

In the same way three mono-substitution products might be 
obtainable from the xylene of formula III. The method, the 
principle of which is thus indicated briefly, while theoretically 
simple enough, is very difficult in its application, except in the 
case of the para compounds. Other methods have therefore 
been used, and these will be considered under mesitylene and 
naphthalene. It may be said, in anticipation, that the result 
of all observations point to formula I. for ortho-xylene ; to 
formula II. for meta-xylene, and to formula III. for para- 

Ethyl-benzene, C*H 10 (= C, 5 H 5 .C,H>). — This hydrocarbon is 
isomeric with the xylenes, but differs from them in that it con- 
tains an ethyl group in the place of one hydrogen of benzene, 


instead of two methyl groups in the place of two hydrogens of 

It is made by treating a mixture of brom-benzene and ethyl 
bromide with sodium : — 

C 6 H 5 Br + C 2 H 5 Br -f 2 Na = C 6 H 5 .C 2 H 5 + 2 NaBr. 

Its conduct towards oxidizing agents distinguishes it from the 
xylenes. It yields benzoic acid, just as toluene does. In this 
case, as in that of toluene, the paraffin radical is converted into 
carboxyl. It has been found that no matter what this radical 
may be, it is, under the same circumstances, converted into car- 
boxyl. Thus, the conversions indicated below take place : — 

C 6 H 5 .CH 3 gives C (i H 5 .C0 2 H. 

C 6 H 5 .C 2 H 5 " C 6 H 5 .C0 2 H. 

C 6 H 5 .C 3 H 7 « C 6 H 5 .C0 2 H. 

C 6 H 5 .C,H n " C G H 5 .C0 2 H. 

pu x CH 3 u pu . C0 2 H 

CcH, < jg '< C C H, < £°g, etc., etc. 

Mesitylene, C 9 H 12 [=C 6 H3(CH 3 )3]. — Mesitylene is contained 
in small quantity in light oil, and may be obtained in pure con- 
dition from this source. It is most readily prepared by treating 
acetone with sulphuric acid : — 

3 C 3 H 6 = C 9 U U + 3 H 2 0. 

It is a liquid resembling the lower members of the series in its 
general properties. It boils at 1G3°. 

Its conduct towards oxidizing agents shows that it is a tri- 
methyl-benzene. When boiled with dilute nitric acid, it yields 
mesitylenic acid, C 9 H 10 O 2 , and uvitic acid, C 9 H 8 4 ; and, by 



further oxidation with chromic acid, trimesitic acid, C 9 H 6 6 , is 
formed. By distillation with lime, mesitylenic acid yields meta- 
xylene and carbon dioxide ; uvitic acid yields toluene and car- 
bon dioxide ; and trimesitic acid yields benzene and carbon 
dioxide. The formation and decomposition of the acids may 
be represented by the equations following : — 

rCH 3 
+ 30 = CeH 8 JCH a + H 2 0; 
lC0 2 H 

Mesitylenic acid. 

( CH 8 
+ 30 = C«H 3 ] C0 2 H + H 2 ; 

6 H 3 (CH 3 ) 3 


rcH 3 

C 6 H 3 JCH 3 
^C0 2 H 

Mesitylenic acid. Uvitic acid. 

f CH 3 i C0 2 H 

C 6 H 3 j C0 2 H +30 = C 6 H 3 ] C0 2 H + H 2 ; 
VC0 2 H 

Uvitic acid. 

rCH 3 
C 6 H 3 ■< CH 3 
IC0 2 H 

Mesitylenic acid. 

(CH 3 
C 6 HJC0 2 H 
(C0 2 H 

Uvitic acid. 

rC0 2 H 

C 6 H 3 ]C0 2 H 

(.C0 2 H 

Trimesitic acid. 

IC0 2 H 

Trimesitic acid. 

= c 6 H 4 {g; : + co 2 


= C 6 H 5 .CH 3 + 2C0 2 ; 


= C 6 H 6 + 3 C0 2 


These transformations show clearly that mesitylene is tri- 
methyl -benzene, but they do not show in what relation the 
methyl groups stand to each other. 

An ingenious speculation in regard to this relation is based 
upon the fact that mesitylene is formed from acetone. It 


appears probable that each of the three molecules of acetone 
taking part in the reaction, 

3 C 3 H c O = C 9 H 12 + 3 H 2 0, 

undergoes the same change. As the product contains three 
methyl groups, the simplest assumption that can be made is 
that each acetone molecule gives up water as represented 
thus : — 

CH3-CO-CH3 = CH3-C-CH + H 2 0. 


We thus have three residues, CH 3 — C — CH, and these unite 
to form trimethyl benzene. The only way in which the union 
can be represented, assuming that all three act in the same 
way, is this : — 

CH 3 

/ C \ 
HC 7 X CH 

H3C . C \ / C . CH3 


According to this reasoning, mesitylene is a symmetrical com- 
pound, — that is to say, each of the three methyl groups bears 
the same relation to the molecule ; and the same is true of each 
of the three benzene-hydrogen atoms. 

This view has been tested by replacing the three hydrogen 
atoms successively by bromine ; and it has been found that 
the view is confirmed, as but one mono-bromine substitution- 
product of mesitylene has ever been obtained. Accepting the 
formula above given for mesitylene, an important conclusion 
follows regarding the nature of meta-xylene. For we have 
seen that, by oxidizing mesitylene, we get, as the first product, 
mesitylenic acid, — which is mesitylene, one of whose methyls 
has been converted into carboxyl. As all the methyl groups 


bear the same relation to the molecule, it makes no difference 
which one is oxidized. The acid has the formula 

CH 3 

I I 

CC^H.Cx /C.CH 3 


Now, by distilling this acid with lime, carbon dioxide is given 
off, and meta-xylene is produced. 

As the change consists in removing the carboxyl, and replac- 
ing it by hydrogen, it follows that meta-xylene must be repre- 
sented by the formula 

CH 3 


I I 

HC\ /C.CH3 

X C / 

and consequently that, in all meta compounds, the two substi- 
tuting atoms or groups bear to each other the relation which the 
two methyl groups bear to each other in this formula for meta- 

Pseudocumene, C 9 H 12 [> C 6 H 3 (OH 3 )8]. — This hydrocarbon, 
which is isomeric with mesitylene, occurs in coal-tar oil, from 
which it can be made in pure condition. Its properties are 
similar to those of the lower members of the series. It boils 
at 169.8°. 

Pseudocumene has been made synthetically from brom-para- 
xylene and methyl iodide, and also from brom-meta-xylene and 


methyl iodide. How this is possible, will be understood by an 
examination of the formulas below : — 

CH 3 CH 3 

HC 7 X CH HC 7 X CH 


HC X .CBr HC\ /C.CH 3 

CH ^ r 

Brom-para- X |lene. Brom-meta-xylene. 

Replacing the bromine by methyl, in either of the compounds 
represented, the product would have the formula 

- CIL 


I I ^ 

HC\ /C.CH3 

x cr 

CH 3 

which is that of pseudocumene. 

Cymene, | C ]0 H J C H 4 < CH3 ). 

Para-methyl-propyl-benzene, / \ ° 4 C ;J H 7 /' 

This hydrocarbon is of special importance and interest, on 
account of its close connection with two well-known groups 
of natural substances, — the groups of which camphor and oil 
of turpentine are the best-known representatives. It occurs in 
the oil of caraway and the oil of thyme. The terpenes, which 
are hydrocarbons of the formula C 10 H 16 , and of which oil of 
turpentine is the best known, easily give up two hydrogen 
atoms and yield cymene. Probably the simplest wa} T to pre- 
pare cymene is to treat camphor with phosphorus pentasul- 
phide, zinc chloride, or phosphorus pentoxide. 

It is a liquid of a pleasant odor. It boils at 175°. 

CYMENE. 251 

It has been made synthetically from para-brom-toluene and 
propyl bromide : — 

C 6 H 4 <^ H 3 + C 3 H 7 Br + 2 Na 

= C 6 H *<n^ + 2NaBr > 

which clearly shows its relation to benzene. As the final 
product of its oxidation, it yields para-phthalic (terephthalic) 
acid : — 

see p. 246. 

(W<!g! gives <W<gg; 



Recalling what we learned under the head of Derivatives of 
the Paraffins, we naturally look for representatives of all the 
classes of compounds there met with. The derivatives of the 
paraffins were classified into : — 

1. Halogen derivatives. 

2. Oxygen derivatives, including the Alcohols, Aldehydes, 

Acids, etc. 

3. Sulphur derivatives, including the Mercaptans, Sulphonic 

Acids, etc. 

4. Nitrogen derivatives, including Cyanides, Amines, Nitro com- 

pounds, etc. 

5. Metallic derivatives. 

The derivatives of the benzene hydrocarbons may be classi- 
fied in the same way, but a change in the order of consideration 
will be somewhat more convenient in this connection, owing to 
many points of analogy which exist between the halogen sub- 
stitution-products, the nitro compounds, and the sulphonic 
acids. All of these three classes of derivatives of the benzene 
hydrocarbons are made by direct treatment of the hydrocarbons 
with the substituting agents, and in some respects resemble 
each other, so that they will be considered in connection. As 
the amido derivatives of this series are made almost exclusively 
from the nitro compounds by reduction, they will be considered 
in connection with the nitro compounds ; and, further, by treat- 
ment of the amido compounds with nitrous acid, a new class 


of nitrogen derivatives, known as diazo compounds, not met 
with in connection with the paraffins, is formed. These will 
be considered after the amido compounds. 

After these classes have been considered, we shall take up in 
turn the oxygen derivatives, which include the phenols or simple 
hydroxyl derivatives of the hydrocarbons, the alcohols, alde- 
hydes, acids, and ketones ; and, finally, the hydroxy -acids, 
which are strictly analogous to the hydroxy-acids of the paraffin 

We have thus the following classes : — 

1. Halogen derivatives. 5. jSulphonic acids. 9. Acids. 

2. Nitro compounds. 6. Phenols. 10. Ketones (and 

3. Amido compounds. 7. Alcohols. Quinones) . 

4. Diazo compounds. 8. Aldehydes. 11. Hydroxy-acids. 

The relations of most of these classes to the hydrocarbons 
are the same as those of the corresponding derivatives of the 
paraffin series to the paraffins ; and the general methods of 
preparation, as well as the reactions, are the same. Hence, 
most of the knowledge acquired in the first part of the book 
may be applied to the series now under consideration. 

An enormous number of derivatives of the benzene hydrocar- 
bons have been prepared and studied ; but we need study only 
very few in order to acquire a general knowledge of them. In 
the following a few of the more important representatives of 
each class will be studied, mainly with the object of illustrating 
general facts and general relations. 

Halogen Derivatives of Benzene. 

Ver} r little need be said in regard to these derivatives. By 
direct action of bromine or chlorine upon benzene the hydrogen 
atoms are replaced one after another, until, as the final products, 
hexa-chlor -benzene, C 6 C1 C , and hexa-brom-benzene, C 6 Br 6 , are ob- 
tained. It has already been stated that, when the action takes 


place in direct sunlight, addition-products, C 6 H 6 C1 6 and C G H 6 Br 6 , 
are formed. Benzene hexachloride, C 6 H G C1 6 , is formed also 
when chlorine is conducted into boiling benzene. The addition- 
products are readily decomposed, yielding tri-substitution prod- 
ucts of benzene and halogen acid : — 

C 6 H 6 Br 6 = C 6 H 3 Br 3 + 3 HBr. 

The substitution-products are very stable. They are, as a 
rule, formed more easily than the halogen derivatives of the 
paraffins, and, as a rule, they do not give up the halogens as 
readily. Thus, while it is possible in the paraffin derivatives 
to replace chlorine and bromine by hydroxyl, the amido group, 
etc., these replacements cannot easily be effected in the benzene 
derivatives. The halogens . can be removed by sodium, as 
shown in the synthesis of hydrocarbons : — 

C 6 H 5 Br + CH 3 I + 2 Na 
= C 6 H 5 .CH 3 -f NaBr 4- Nal, etc., etc. 

They may also be removed by nascent lrydrogen, the hydro- 
carbons being regenerated : — 

C 6 H 5 C1 2 + 4 H = C 6 H« + 2 HC1. 

This kind of reverse substitution is not, however, effected 

Perhaps the best known of the bi-substitution products of the 
class under consideration is 

Bibrom-benzene, C (i H 4 Br.j, which is one of the products of 
the direct treatment of benzene with bromine. This being a 
bi-substitution product of benzene, it follows, from what has 
been said in regard to isomerism in this group, that three 
isomeric varieties of the substance ought to be obtainable ; and 
the interesting question suggests itself : which one of the 
three possible bibrom-benzenes is formed by direct treatment of 
benzene with bromine ? The answer to the question is equally 


interesting. The main product of the action is para-bibrom- 
benzene, while there is always formed in much smaller quantity 
some of the ortho product. The reason why these products 
are obtained, and not the meta compound, is unknown ; nor 
has any plausible hypothesis been suggested to account for the 

In studying the substitution-products of benzene, one of the 
first problems which present themselves is the determination 
of the relations which the substituting atoms or groups bear 
to each other. The determination is made, as has been 
stated, by transforming the compounds into others, the rela- 
tions of whose groups are known. Thus, to illustrate, when 
benzene is treated under the proper conditions with bromine, 
two bibrom-benzenes are formed. Without investigation, we, 
of course, cannot tell to which series these compounds belong. 
But, by treating that product which is formed in larger quantity 
with methyl iodide and sodium, we get para-xylene. In other 
words, by replacing the two bromine atoms of the bibrom- 
benzene by methyl groups, we get a compound which we know 
belongs to the para series ; and, therefore, we have determined 
that the bromine product is a para compound. In the follow- 
ing the chief reactions made use of for effecting the trans- 
formations of the derivatives will be discussed. 

Halogen Derivatives of Toluene. 

As toluene is made up of a residue of marsh gas, methyl, CH 3 , 
and a residue of benzene, phenyl, C 6 H 5 , it might naturally be 
expected that it would yield two classes of substitution-prod- 
ucts : viz., (1) Those in which the substituting atom or group 
replaces one or more hydrogen atoms of the phenyl group ; 
and (2) those in which the substitution takes place in the 
methyl. Representatives of both these classes are well known. 
In general, when boiling toluene is treated with chlorine or 
bromine, products of the second class are obtained ; while, 


when treated in the cold, products of the first class are ob- 
tained. Thus, we have the two parallel series of chlorine 

derivatives : — 

I. H. 

C 6 H 4 C1.CH 3 . C C H 5 .CII 2 C1. 

C 6 H 3 C1 2 .CH 3 . C 6 H. 5 .CHC1 2 . 

C 6 H 2 C1 3 .CH 3 . C 6 Ii,.CCL. 

When a member of the first class is oxidized, the methyl is 
changed, and the rest of the compound remains unchanged, 
as in the case of toluene. Thus, the first substance of class I. 
yields the product C 6 H 4 C1.C0 2 H ; the second, C 6 H 3 C1 2 .C0 2 H, 
etc. These products are substituted benzoic acids. On the 
other hand, all the members of the second class yield the same 
product that toluene does; viz., benzoic acid. Hence, by 
treatment with oxidizing agents, it is easy to distinguish between 
the members of the two classes. Further, the halogen atoms 
contained in the methyl are not as firmly held in combination 
as those in the phenyl. When, for example, the compound 
C G H 5 .CHC1 2 . which is called benzol chloride, is treated with 
water, both chlorine atoms are replaced by oxygen, the product 
being the aldehyde C 6 H 5 .CHO. which, as we shall see, is the 
familiar substance, oil of bitter almonds. When, however, the 
isomeric di-cJdor-toluene C 6 H 3 C1 2 .CH 3 is heated with water, no 
change takes place. 

Regarding those simple substitution-products of toluene which 
contain one halogen atom in the phenyl, such as mono-brom- 
toluene, C 6 H 4 Br .CH 3 , we see that they are bi-substitution prod- 
ucts of benzene, and hence capable of existing in three isomeric 
varieties, ortho. meta. and para. The products formed by 
direct treatment of toluene with chlorine or bromine are mixtures 
consisting mostly of the para compound, together with a much 
smaller quantity of the ortho compound. 

The determination of the series to which one of these products 
belongs may be made by replacing the halogen by methyl, and 


thus getting the corresponding xylene. The main product of 
the action of bromine on toluene is thus converted into para- 
xylene, and is therefore para-brom- toluene. 

Halogen Derivatives oe the Higher Members of 
the Benzene Series. 

Concerning the halogen derivatives of xylene, it need only be 
said that the only one of the three xylenes from which pure 
products can easily be obtained is para-xylene. When this is 
treated with bromine it yields but one niono-brom-xylene. The 
significance of this fact has been discussed above. The mono- 
substitution products obtained from the other xylenes are 
mixtures which it is very difficult, and in some cases impos- 
sible, to separate into their constituents. Mesitylene and 
pseudocumene, though both are tri-methyl-benzenes, conduct 
themselves quite differently towards bromine, — the former yield- 
ing only one mono-bromine product ; the latter, a mixture of 

Nitro Compounds of Benzene and Toluene. 

In speaking of nitro compounds in connection with the paraf- 
fin derivatives (see p. 100), it was stated that they are obtained 
much more readily from the benzene hydrocarbons than from 
the paraffins. But few nitro derivatives of the paraffins are 
known. As will be remembered, they cannot be prepared by 
treating the paraffins with nitric acid, but must be made by 
circuitous reactions, the principal one being the treatment of 
the halogen derivatives with silver nitrite : — 

C 2 H 5 Br + AgN0 2 = C 2 H 5 (N0 2 ) + AgBr. 


The preparation of a nitro derivative of a hydrocarbon of 
the benzene series is a simple matter. It is only necessary to 
bring the hydrocarbon in contact with strong nitric acid, when 
reaction takes place, and one or more hydrogen atoms of the 


hydrocarbon are replaced by the nitro group N0 2 , as illustrated 
in the equations, — 

C 6 H 6 + HN0 3 = C 6 H 5 . N0 2 + H 2 ; 

C 6 H 5 . N0 2 + HNO3 = C 6 H 4 (N0 2 ) 2 + H 2 ; 

C 6 H 5 . CH 3 + HNO3 = C C H 4 < ^° 2 + H 2 ; 

LH 3 

Lii 3 LH 3 

The nitro compounds thus obtained are not acids, nor are 
they ethereal salts of nitrous acid, as the formulas might lead 
us to suppose. The most rational view held in regard to them 
is, that they are formed from nitric acid by the replacement of 
hydroxyl by benzene radicals, as indicated thus : — 

C 6 H 5 !H + "hOJ.NO* = C 6 H 5 N0 2 + H 2 0. 

Mono-nitro-benzene, 6 H 5 .NO 2 . — This substance is made 
by treating benzene with concentrated nitric acid, or with a 
mixture of ordinary concentrated nitric and sulphuric acids. 
In the latter case, the sulphuric acid facilitates the reaction, 
probably by preventing the dilution of the nitric acid by the 
water necessarily formed. 

Experiment 58. Make a mixture of 150 cc ordinary concentrated 
sulphuric acid, and 75 cc ordinary concentrated nitric acid. Let it cool 
to the ordinary temperature. Put the vessel containing it in water, 
and add about 15 cc to 20 cc benzene, a few drops at a time, waiting each 
time until the reaction is complete. Shake well until the benzene is 
dissolved; then pour slowly into about a litre of cold water. A yellow 
oil will sink to the bottom. This is nitro-benzene. Pour off the acid 
and water; wash two or three times with water ; separate the water 
by means of a pipette, and dry by adding a little granulated calcium 
chloride. After standing for some time, pour off from the calcium 
chloride, and distil from a proper sized distilling-bulb, noting the 
boiling temperature. 

Nitro-benzene is a liquid which boils at 205°. and has the 


specific gravity 1.2. Its odor is like that of the oil of bitter 
almonds, and it is hence used in many cases instead of the 
latter. It is known as the essence of mirbane. It is manufac- 
tured on the large scale, and used principally in the preparation 
of aniline. 

Dinitro-benzene, C fi H 4 (NO,h. — This is a product of the 
further action of nitric acid on benzene, or on nitro-benzene. 

Experiment 59. Make a mixture of 50 cc concentrated sulphuric 
acid, and 50 cc fuming nitric acid. Without cooling add very slowly 
about 10 cc benzene from a pipette with a fine opening. After the 
action is over, boil the mixture for a short time ; then pour into about 
half a litre of water. Filter off the solid substance thus precipitated, 
press it between layers of filter-paper, and crystallize from alcohol. 

Dinitro-benzene crystallizes in long, fine needles, or thin, 
rhombic plates. Melting-point, 89.9°. 

By means of two reactions, which will be considered under 
the head of Diazo Compounds, it is a simple matter to replace 
the two nitro groups by bromine, thus converting dinitro-ben- 
zene into bibrom-benzene. When the latter is converted into 
xylene, the product is meta-xylene. Hence, ordinary dinitro- 
benzene is a meta compound. 

Nitro-toluenes, C 6 H 4 (N0 2 ).CH3. — When toluene is treated 
with strong nitric acid, substitution always takes place in the 
phenyl. The chief mono-nitro-toluene is a para compound ; 
while, at the same time, a little of the isomeric ortho compound 
is obtained. 

Note for Student. — What mono-bromine products are formed 
by direct treatment of toluene with bromine ? Given a mono-nitro- 
toluene. How is it possible to determine whether it belongs to the 
ortho, the meta, or the para series? 

By treatment with nascent hydrogen, the nitro-toluenes are 
converted into the corresponding amido compounds, called 
Toluidines (which see) . 


Amido Compounds of Benzene, etc. 

The amido derivatives of the paraffins are made, for the most 
part, by treating the halogen derivatives with ammonia : — 

C 2 H 5 Br + NH 3 = C 2 H 5 .NH 2 + HBr. 

In speaking of these derivatives, however, attention was called 
to the fact that they may be also made by treating nitro com- 
pounds with nascent hydrogen. The latter method is one of 
great importance in the benzene series. It is used exclusively 
in the preparation of the amido derivatives of the benzene 
hydrocarbons. Several of these derivatives are well known, 
the simplest and best known being amido -benzene or aniline. 

Aniline, C 6 H 7 N(= C G H 5 .NH,). — Aniline was first obtained 
from indigo by distillation. Anil is the Portuguese and French 
name of the indigo plant, and it is from this that the name 
aniline is derived. Aniline is found in coal tar and in bone oil, 
a product of the distillation of bones. It is prepared b}' re- 
duction of nitro-benzene with nascent hydrogen. On the large 
scale the hydrogen is obtained from hydrochloric acid and iron. 
For laboratory purposes tin and hydrochloric acid are perhaps 
best. Other reducing agents, such as an ammoniacal solution 
of ammonium sulphide, hydriodic acid, etc., also effect the 
change, which is represented by the following equation : — 

C 6 H 5 .N0 2 + 6H = C 6 H 3 .NH 2 + 2H 2 0. 

Experiment 60. Dissolve the nitro-benzene obtained in Exp. 58 
in alcoholic ammonia, and saturate the solution with hydrogen sul- 
phide, keeping- it slightly warm. On the water-bath distil off the excess 
of ammonium sulphide and some of the alcohol. To the residue add 
dilute hydrochloric acid. This will dissolve the auiline, but leave 
any unchanged nitro-benzene undissolved. Separate the latter. Evapo- 
rate to dryness ; mix with a little lime, and distil from a dry vessel. 
Aniline will pass over. 

Aniline is a colorless liquid which rapidly becomes colored in 

TOLtflDINES. 261 

the air. It boils at 184.5°. It solidifies at a low temperature ; 
is easily soluble in alcohol, but slightly soluble in water. The 
solution in water has only a very slight alkaline reaction. 

Experiment 61. To an aqueous solution of a little of the aniliue 
obtained in Exp. GO, in a test-tube, acid a filtered solution of bleach- 
ing powder (calcium hypochlorite). A beautiful purple color is pro- 

To a solution of aniline in concentrated sulphuric acid add a few 
drops of an aqueous solution of potassium bichromate. A blue color 
is produced. 

Aniline bears to benzene the same relation that ethyl-amine 
or amido-ethane bears to ethane. It is a substituted ammonia, 
and, like other bodies of the same class, it unites directly with 
acids, forming salts. Thus, with hydrochloric, nitric, and 
sulphuric acids the action takes place as represented below : — 

C 6 H 5 . NH 2 + HC1 = (C 6 H 5 . NH 8 ) CI ; 
C 6 H 5 .NH 2 + HN0 3 = (C 6 H 5 .NH#N0 3 ; 
C 6 H 5 . NH 2 + H 2 S0 4 = C G H 5 . NH 3 HS0 4 . 

The formation of aniline hydrochloride was illustrated in 
Exp. 60, as was also the decomposition of an aniline salt by 
a caustic alkali : — 

2 (C 6 H 5 . NH 3 )C1 + Ca(OH) 2 = 2 C 6 H 5 . NH 2 -f 2 H 2 + CaCl 2 . 

Among the most interesting changes whiflrcan be effected in 
aniline is that which takes place when it is treated with nitrous 
acid (see Diazo Compounds, below). 

Note for Student. — What change is usually effected in amido 
compounds by treating them with nitrous acid? 

Toluidines, amido-toluenes, C 6 Hi < ^? 2 . — The tolui- 
dines, of which there are three corresponding to the three nitro- 
toluenes, are made from the latter in me same way that aniline 
is made from nitro-benzene. As para-nitro-toluene is the best 


known of the three nitro-toluenes, so para-toluidine is the best 
known of the three toluidines. 

The properties of the toluidines are much like those of aniline. 

Treated with various oxidizing agents, a mixture of aniline 
and the toluidines is converted into a compound known as 
rosaniline. This is the mother substance of the large group of 
bodies known as the aniline dyes ^Klosaniline and its deriva- 
tives, the aniline dyes, will be considered under Tri-phenyl- 
methane (which see) . 

By nitrous acid the toluidines are transformed in the same 
way that aniline is (see Diazo Compounds). 

The xylidines bear to the three xylenes the same relation 
that aniline bears to benzene. It is not a simple mattej 
any one of them in pure condition. 

Diazo Compounds of Benzene, etc.' 


tiT U> got 

The usual actfen of nitrous acid on amido compounds is 
represented by the equation, — 

R.NH 2 + HN0 2 = R.OH + H,0 + N f . 

When an amido derivative of a hydrocarbon of the benzene 
series is treated with^ritrqus acid, and certain precautions are 
taken, a product is obtained which contains two nitrogen 
atoms, and whicj^ is, therefore, called a diazo compound. 
Thus, in the case of aniline sulphate, the action is represented 
by the equation,^ 

C 6 H 5 NH 2 .H 2 90 4 -f HNO, = C G H 5 N 2 .HS0 4 + 2 H 2 0. 

Aniline sulphate. Diazo-benzene sulphate. 

So, also, with the nitrate we have, — 

C 6 H 5 NH 2 .HN0 3 + HN0 2 = C 6 H 5 N 2 .NO a + 2 H 2 0. 

Aniline nitrate. Diazo-benzene nitrate. 


From these salts the diazo-benzene itself can he set free by 
means of acetic acid. It has been found to have the formula 



C c H 5 N 2 (OH). This compound is, however, very unstable, and 
is at once decomposed. 

Experiment 62. Arrange an apparatus as shown in Fig. 14. In 
flask A put some coarsely-powdered arsenic trioxide (about 100s) , and 
through the funnel-tube pour 40 cc to 50 cc ordinary nitric acid of specific 
gravity 1.35. B is an empty cylinder surrounded by water. (7 and D 
are small flasks of about 100 cc capacity, in each of which is brought 
10 cc to 15 cc aniline, and about 50 cc nitric acid of specific gravity 1.2. 

Fig. 14. 

They are kept in ice water. Pass a current of the oxides of nitrogen 
until the material in the flasks dissolves. Add to the solution about 
an equal volume of alcohol previously cooled to 0°, and then a little cold 
ether. If the operation has been carried out properly, a copious pre- 
cipitate of crystals of diazo-benzene nitrate is formed. Filter off with 
the aid of a suction-pump, and, without delay, proceed to study the 
properties of the compound. 

(a) Dissolve a little in water of the ordinary temperature, and allow 


the solution to stand. Decomposition, indicated by change of color, 
will take place. 

(b) Boil a little with water in a test-tube, and notice the odor of 
phenol or carbolic acid. 

(c) Boil a few grams with alcohol in a test-tube, and notice the odor 
of aldehyde. Add water, and notice the light, colorless oil at the top 
of the liquid, which has the odor of benzene. 

(d) Boil some with hydrochloric acid. Chlor-benzene is formed, 
which sinks to the bottom when water is added. 

In all these experiments a gas is evolved which cau be shown to be 
nitrogen. Collect some, and show that it does not support combustion 

(e) Place a very little of the compound, dried by pressing in filter- 
paper, on an anvil, Aaf^trike it sharply with a hammer. It explodes. 

The above experiment berve to indicate the instability of 
diazo-benzene niiraxe\ 1MI same instability is characteristic 
of all diazo compounds, and it is the ease with which they 
undergo a variety of changes that makes them so valuable. 
The principal changes are: 

1. That illustrated ttT "Exp. 02 (6), which is brought about 
by boiling with water. The actiou is represented thus : — 

C 6 H 5 N 2 .N0 3 + H 2 = C 6 H 5 .OH + N 2 + HN0 3 . 


2. That illustrated in Exp. 62 (c), which is effected by boil- 
ing with alcohol : — 

C 6 H 5 N 2 .N0 3 + C 2 H G = C C II C + C,H 4 + N 2 + HN0 3 . 


3. That effected by hydrochloric acid as illustrated in Exp. 
62 (d) : — 

C 6 H 5 N,.NO, 4- HC1 = C C H 5 C1 + N a + UNO,. 


Changes similar to the last are effected, by hydrobromic aM 
hydriodic acids, the chief products being brom-benzene and 
iodo-benzene respectively. 

From the above it follows that, if we have a compound con- 
taining a nitro group, we can. by making the diazo compound. 



transform it ( 1 ) into the corresponding hydroxyl derivative ; 
(2) into the corresponding chlorine, bromine, or iodine deriva- 
tive ; or, (3) we can eliminate the nitro group, and replace it 
by hydrogen. These reactions involving the use of the diazo 
compounds have been used very extensively in the investigation 
of the substitution-products of the benzene series. 

Note for Student. — How can the relation of the groups in cli- 
nitro-benzene be determined by using the diazo reactions? 

As regards the relation of diazo-benzene to benzene, it seems 
clear, from the reactions abqye considered, that in it the phenyl 
group C 6 H 3 is present, and that this is in combination with two 
nitrogen atoms. In the compounds, the two atoms of nitrogen 
form the connecting link between the phenyl group and the 
other constituent, as expressed in the formulas 

C 6 H 5 -N 2 -N0 3 , 
C 6 H 5 -N 2 -OK, 
C 6 H 5 -N 2 -Br, etc. 

The decompositions all indicate the correctness of this view. 
How the nitrogen atoms are united, we do not know. 

Sulphonic Acids of Benzene, etc. 

The methods of preparation of the sulphonic acids, and the 
relations of these acids to the hydrocarbons, were considered 
pretty fully, in connection with the paraffins. Jjthree general 
methods for their preparation were given. These are : — 

1. Oxidation of the mercaptans ; thus, ethyl-sulphonic acid 
is formed by oxidation of ethyl-mercaptan, — 

C 2 H 5 .SH + 3 = C 2 H 5 .S0 3 H. 

2. Treatment of a halogen substitution-product with a sul- 
phite, — 

C 2 H 5 Br + Na 2 S0 3 = C 2 H 5 .S0 3 Na + NaBr. 


3. Treatment of a hydrocarbon with sulphuric acid. This 
method is not applicable to the paraffins, but is the one used 
almost exclusively in the case of the benzene hydrocarbons. 
Benzene-sulphonic acid is formed thus : — 

C 6 H 6 + H 2 S0 4 = C 6 H 5 .S0 3 H + H 2 0. 

Toluene-sulphonic acid is formed thus : — 

C 6 H 5 .CH 3 + H 2 S0 4 = C 6 H 4 <^ 3 + H 2 0. 

The reasons for regarding the sulphonic acids as sulphuric 
acid in which hydroxyl is replaced by radicals, were given on 
p. 76 ; and the student is advised to re-read carefully what 
is there said. 

Benzene-sulphonic acid, C 6 H SO 3 [= S^F 5 } S0 2 Y — This 

acid is made most readily by treating benzene with ordinary 
concentrated sulphuric acid. 

Experiment 63. In a flask bring together about 50 cc benzene and 
100 cc concentrated sulphuric acid (ordinary). Connect with an inverted 
condenser (see Fig. 8, p. 70), and boil for several hours, until the 
greater part of the benzene has passed into solution. Pour the con- 
tents of the flask into a large evaporating dish of at least 8 1 to 10 1 
capacity, containing 4 1 to 5 1 water. Heat gently, and add gradually, 
stirring meanwhile, finely-powdered chalk, until the solution has become 
neutral. PassJhrough a muslin filter attached to a wooden frame, and 
wash thoroughly with hot water. Afterwards refilter the filtrate 
through a paper filter. Evaporate to quite a small volume (say 500 cc 
to 700 cc ), and filter from gypsum. In solution there is now the calcium 
salt of the sulphonic acid. Acid just enough of a solution of potassium 
carbonate to precipitate exactly the calcium ; filter off from the calcium 
carbonate, and evaporate to dryness, finally, on the water-bath. To 
prevent caking it is necessary to stir the thick, syrupy mass. When it 
is nearly dry, it is best to powder it, and complete the drying at 100° to 
120° in an air-bath. The potassium salt may be used for a number oi 


Experiment 64. In a dry evaporating dish mix 158 to 20s potas- 
sium benzene-sulphonate and an equal weight of phosphorus penta- 
chloride, by means of a dry pestle. The mass becomes semi-liquid and 
hot, and hydrochloric is given off, in consequence of the action of the 
moisture of the air in the chlorides of phosphorus. Hence, the experi- 
ment should be performed under a hood or out of doors. The reaction 
which takes place is represented by the equation, — 

C 6 H 5 . S0 2 ONa + PCI- = C 6 H 5 . S0 2 C1 + P0C1 3 + NaCl. 

After the action is over, and the mass cooled down to the ordinary 
temperature, add about a litre of cold water. Everything will dissolve 
except the sulphon-chloride, C 6 H 5 .S0 2 C1, which will remain as a heavy 
oil at the bottom of the vessel. Pour off the greater part of the water, 
and acid 30s to 40s solid ammonium carbonate. The chloride is thus 
converted into the corresponding sulphon-amicle, thus : — 

C 6 H 5 . S0 2 C1 + 2 NH 3 = C 6 H 5 . S0 2 NH 2 + NH 4 C1. 

After cooling, filter off the sulphon-amicle; wash well with cold water, 
and crystallize from water. The product crystallizes in needles, fusing 
at 153°. 

Note for Student. — Refer back to what was said regarding the 
acid chlorides and acid amides, paying particular attention to the 
general methods of preparation and their decompositions. 

Experiment 65. Mix 20s potassium cyanide with an equal weight 
of dry potassium benzene-sulphonate, and distil from a small retort. 
The distillate is impure phenyl cyanide, C 6 H 5 .CN : — 

°KO > S ° 2 + KCN = CeH5 ,CN + K,2S ° 3 * 

Put the phenyl cyanide in a flask of 600 cc to 700 cc capacity, and add 
300 cc of a moderately strong solution of potassium hydroxide in water. 
Connect with an inverted condenser, and boil for two or three hours. 
What is given off? Test with the nose the gases at the upper end of 
the conclenser-tube. After cooling, dilute with about an equal volume 
of wafer, and acidify with hydrochloric acid. A solid substance is 
precipitated. Filter off, wash, and crystallize from water. It is 
benzoic acid. The reaction with caustic potash is represented thus : — 

C 6 H 5 .CN + H 2 + KOH = C 6 H 5 .C0 2 K + NH 3 . 
Benzene-sulphonic acid itself is a very easily soluble sub- 


stance. It is a strong acid, and yields a series of salts and 
other derivatives. 

When fused with potassium hydroxide, benzene-sulphonic 
acid is converted into phenol (Exp. 66, p. 270) : — 

C G H 5 .S0 3 K + KOH = C 6 H 5 .OH + K,80 3 . 

By further treatment of benzene with fuming sulphuric acid 
a benzene-disulphonic acid is formed. This is capable of the 
same transformations as the mono-sulphonic acid. 

Note for Student. — By what reaction could benzene-disulphonic 
acid be transformedinto the corresponding dicarbouic acid, C G H 4 (C0 2 H) 2 ? 
Suppose the product obtained were mcta-phthalic acid, what conclusion 
could be drawn with reference to the relation of the two sulpho groups, 
SO s H, in the disulphonic acid? 

Phenols, or IIydroxtl Derivatives of Benzene, etc. 

The hydroxy 1 derivatives of the paraffins are called alcohols. 
As will be remembered they are of three kinds, each of which 
is characterized by certain properties. We have : — 

1. Primary alcohols of which ordinary ethyl alcohol is the 
commonest example, and which, when oxidized, yield aldehydes 
and then acids containing the same number of carbon atoms. 

2. Secondary alcohols, which by oxidation yield acetones and 
then acids containing a smaller number of carbon atoms. 

3. Tertiary alcohols, which by oxidation yield neither alde- 
hydes nor acetones, but break down at once, yielding acids 
with a smaller number of carbon atoms. 

The primary alcohols were shown to correspond to the 

(h* [b 

formula C i TT ; the secondarv to C i ; and the tertiary to 

C -j ; or. in other words, the primary alcohols contain the 

group Clio. OH; the secondary, the group CH.OH; and the 

tertiary, the group COIL 


Now, the simplest hydroxyl derivative of the members of 
the benzene series is phenol, C 6 H 5 .OH, or benzene in which one 
hydrogen is replaced by hydroxyl. Representing this com- 
pound in terms of the accepted benzene hypothesis, we have 

the formula 



I I 


x cr 


According to this, phenol appears to be allied to the tertiary 
alcohols, as it contains the group C.OH, and not CH 2 OH nor 
CH .OH. We shall see that, in fact, phenol conducts itself 
towards oxidizing agents like the tertiary alcohols. 

All compounds which contain hydroxyl in the place of the 
benzene-hydrogen atoms of benzene and its homologues are 
called phenols. As in the case of alcohols, there are phenols 
containing one Irydroxyl, or mon-acid phenols ; those containing 
two hydrox3*ls, or di-acid phenols ; those containing three hy- 
droxyls, or tri-acid phenols, etc. Some of these are familiar 

Mon-acid Phenols. 

Phenol, carbolic acid, C 6 H e O(= C 6 H 5 OH). — Phenol is 
found in nature in small quantities in the urine. It is formed 
by the distillation of wood, coal, and bones. Hence, it is a 
constituent of coal tar, and from this it is prepared. For this 
purpose the heavy oil (see p. 231) is treated with an alkali 
which dissolves the phenol. From the solution it is precipitated 
by hydrochloric acid. It is purified by distillation. 

Phenol may also be made by converting nitro-benzene into 
aniline ; then into diazo-benzene, and boiling this with water 
(see Exp. 62 (b)) ; and by melting benzene-sulphonic acid 
with potassium hydroxide. 


Experiment G6. In a silver (or iron) crucible, or evaporating 
dish, melt 40» to 50s potassium hydroxide, after adding a few cubic 
centimetres of water. Now add gradually 10s nnel}'-po\vdered potas- 
sium benzene-sulphouate, obtained in Exp. G3, stirring constantly with 
a silver (or iron) spatula. Do not heat to a very high temperature. 
After the mass has been kept in a state of fusion for one-quarter to 
one-half an hour, let it cool. Dissolve in 200 cc to 2jO cc water, and 
acidify with hydrochloric acid. Notice the odor of the gases given 
off. What gas do you detect? When the liquid has cooled down, 
extract with ether in a glass-stoppered cylinder. From the ether 
extract distil the ether on a water-bath. The residue is impure phenol, 
which may be detected by the following reactions, for which a solution 
in water should be prepared : — 

(a) A few drops of ferric chloride solution gives a beautiful violet 

(6) Add one-fourth volume of ammonia, and then a few drops of 
a dilute solution of bleaching powder. A blue color is produced. 

(c) Bromine water gives a yellowish-white precipitate of tri-brom- 

The reaction which takes place in melting potassium hydrox- 
ide and potassium benzene-sulphouate together is represented 
by the equation, — 

C c H 5 .S0 3 K + KOH = C«H 5 .OH + K 2 80 3 . 

It effects the replacement of the sulpho group, S0 3 II, by 
hydroxy 1. 

Phenol, when pure, crystallizes in beautiful colorless rhombic 
needles. The presence of a little water prevents it from solidi- 
fying. It has a peculiar, penetrating odor : boils at 180° : is 
difficultly soluble in water (1 part in 15 parts water at ordinary 
temperature) ; mixes with alcohol and ether in all proportions ; 
aud is poisonous. 

Phenol forms compounds with several metals. Among these 
may be mentioned the following : — 

Potassium phenolate, ( ,11, .OK. made by dissolving potassium 
in phenol, and by treating phenol with caustic potash. 

Barium phenolate, (CJI^O^Ba + 2 ILO, made by dissolving 
phenol in baryta water. 


Lead oxide phenol, C 6 H 6 O.PbO, made by dissolving lead 
oxide in phenol. 

It also forms ethers, of which the methyl and diphenyl ethers 
may serve as examples : — 

Methyl-phenyl ether, C 7 H s of = ^ 5 > oY — This sub- 
stance, also called anisol, is obtained from anisic acid and from 
oil of winter-green by boiling with baryta water. It is made 
also by treating potassium phenolate, C 6 H 5 OK, with methyl 
iodide : — r 

C 6 H 5 OK + CH 3 I = ^ 5 >0 -f KI. 

It is a liquid of a pleasant odor. 

Note for Student. — Compare this substance with ordinary ether. 
What method analogous to that above mentioned may be used in the 
preparation of ordinary ether? 

Diphenyl ether, C 12 H 10 of= q 6 ^> oY — This bears to 

phenol the same relation that ordinary ether bears to alcohol. 

With acids, phenol, like the alcohols, yields ethereal salts in 
which the phenyl group, C 6 H 5 , takes the place of a metal. 
Among the compounds of this class which phenol forms with 
organic acids, the following may be mentioned : — 

Phenyl acetate, C 8 H 8 0,(= CH 3 .C0 2 .C 6 H 5 ). — This is formed 

by treating phenol with acetyl chloride. 

Note for Student. — What use is acetyl chloride put to as a re- 
agent in organic chemistry? Explain its use. What conclusion may 
be drawn from the fact that acetyl chloride acts upon phenol, replacing 
one hydrogen by acetyl, C 2 H 3 0? 

Substitution-products of phenol. Phenol is very susceptible 
to the action of various reagents, and a large number of substi- 
tution-products have been made from it. 

The ease with which bromine acts upon it was illustrated in 



Exp. 66(c). It was shown that, by the addition of bromine 

water to the water solution of phenol, tri-brom -phenol is formed. 

Dilute nitric acid acts upon phenol, yielding two mono-nitro- 

phenols, C 6 H 4 | 2 , one of which has been shown to belong to 

the ortho series, the other to the para series. 

Experiment 67. Add 20s phenol to a mixture of 80 cc water and 
40 cc ordinary concentrated nitric acid (sp. gr. 1.34). Stir, aud, after a 
time, pour off the dilute acid from the oil. Wash with water, and then 
put it into a flask, with about a litre of water, arranged as shown in 
Fig. 15. Flask A holds nothing but water; while the oil, together with 

Fig. 15. 

water, are in B. From A a current of steam i- passed into B, which 
is heated by means of a lamp. Yellow crystals pass over and appear 
in the receiver, while a non-volatile substance remains behind in flask 
B. The volatile substance is ortho-nitro-phenol ; the non-volatile is 

Tri-nitro-phenol, picric acid, C^H^N^CM = 0»Hj { 
This is formed very easily by the action of strong nitric acid on 

Experiment 68. Dissolve 10» to 15s phenol in weak nitric- acid. 
and to this solution slowly add some strong nitric acid. Afterward 


dilate with water; filter off the picric acicl, and wash. Dissolve 
in dilute potassium carbonate solution, and evaporate to crystalliza- 

Picric acid forms yellow crystals, has a very bitter taste, 
is poisonous, decomposes with explosion when heated rapidly. 
It dyes wool and silk yellow. 

Note for Student. — Is there any analogy between tri-nitro- 
phenol and tri-nitro-glycerin? What is the essential difference be- 
tween them? 

One of the most interesting properties of tri-nitro-phenol is 
its power to form salts. It acts like a strong acid. It will 
thus be seen, that, while the substance C 6 H 5 .OH has only very 
slight acid properties, the same substance, with three of its' 
hydrogens replaced by nitro groups, C 6 H 2 (N0 2 ) 3 .OH, has 
strong acid properties. In the salts, which have the general 
formula C 6 H 2 (N0 2 ) 3 .OM, the metals replace the hydrogen of 
the hydroxyl. Among them may be mentioned the potassium 
salt which was obtained in Exp. 68 ; this explodes when heated 
and when struck. Ammonium picrate, C 6 H 2 (N0 2 ) 3 .ONH 4 , is 
used as a constituent of explosives. 

Phenyl meroapton | C 6 H,SH).-This bears 

Phenyl hydrosulphide, J 
the same relation to phenol that mercaptan bears to alcohol. 
It may be made by reducing benzene-sulphonic acid. This 
reduction is effected by first making the sulphon-chloride, 
C 6 H 5 .S0 2 C1, (Exp. 64), and then treating this with nascent 

Note for Student. — What is the effect of oxidizing the mercap- 

It may be made, also, by treating phenol with phosphorus 
pentasulphide, the effect of this reagent being to replace oxy- 
gen by sulphur. 


Note for Student. — What analogy is there between the action of 
phosphorus peutachloride and of phosphorus pentasulphide on com- 
pounds containing oxygen? 

Phenyl mercaptan is a liquid, with a very disagreeable 
odor. With mercuric oxide it forms a crystallized com- 
pound, (C 6 H 5 S) 2 Hg. 

Cresols, C 7 H 8 Of = C 6 H 4 < q-tt)- — There are three cresols, 

or hydroxyl derivatives of toluene, of the formula C 6 H 4 < 3 . 

They are all found in coal tar, and the tars from pine and beech 
wood. AYhen mixed together, it is difficult to separate them. 
To obtain them in pure condition, it is therefore best to make 
them from the three toluidines, or from the three sul phonic acids 
of toluene. 

Note for Student. — Give the equations representing the reactions 
involved in passing from the three toluidines to the cresols, and from 
the three toluene-sulphonic acids to the cresols. 

The cresols resemble phenol very closely. 

Creosote is a mixture of chemical compounds contained in 
wood tar. It contains the cresols. Coal-tar creosote consists 
largely of phenol. 

Thymol, propyl-meta-cresol, C 10 H u O(= C 6 hJ OHO") J. 

V 1 C 3 H 7 (p)/ 

This phenol is contained in oil of thyme, together with cvmene. 

It forms large monoclinic crystals, which melt at 50°. It has a 
pleasant odor, like that of the oil of thyme. Treated with phos- 

1 Formulas of this kind serve very well to indicate the relations of the groups and 
atoms contained in benzene derivatives. This one, for example, indicates that the 
hydroxyl is in the meta position (m) to methyl; while the propyl is in the para 
position to methyl (/>). For bi-substitution products, 6iich formulas ma\ aim 

be used. Thus, the three toluidines may be represented by CVH4 < 3 

C 6 H 4 < CH * , and C, ; H 4 <™3 . NH > ( °> 

NH 2 (,«) NHj(p) 


phorus pentoxide, it yields nieta-cresol ; while, when treated 
with phosphorus pentasulphide, it yields cyraene. These two 
reactions indicate that the groups contained in thymol bear to 
each other the relations indicated by the formula giyen above. 
It is one of the two theoretically possible hydroxy 1 derivatives. 
The other one, carvacrol, has the hydroxyl in the ortho position 
relatively to methyl. It has been made from the corresponding 
cymene-sulphonic acid ; is found in nature in the ethereal oil 
of Origanum hirtum; and may be made from carvol, or the oil 
of caraway. 

Di-acid Phenols. 
The three theoretically possible di-hydroxyl benzenes, 


C 6 H 4 < are all well known. 

Pyrocatechin, 1 /_ OH 

Ortho-di-hydroxy-benzene, / 6 ^ \ 6 4 OH(o) 
This substance is a frequent product of the dry distillation of 
natural substances, — as of catechu, morintannic acid, etc., — 
and of the melting of resins with caustic potash. It may be 
made by melting ortho-iodo-phenol or ortho-phenol-sulphonic 
acid with caustic potash. It forms crystals, which melt at 
104°. It is easily soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. 

The dilute solution in water gives with ferric chloride a 
dark-green color, which becomes violet on the addition of a 
little sodium carbonate. 

Resorcin, > c -^q/ q H < OH V 

Meta-di-hydroxy-benzene, > 6 \ 6 i OH(iw)/ 

Resorcin is formed by the melting of a number of resins with 

caustic potash, as of galbanum, sagapenum, asafcetida, etc. 

It is made, also, by melting meta-iodo-phenol or meta-benzene- 

disulphonic acid with caustic potash. 

It crystallizes from water, usually in thick rhombic prisms. 

Melting-point. 110°. 


With ferric chloride, the water solution gives a dark purple 
color. Heated for a few minutes with phthalic acid in a test- 
tube, a yellowish-red mass is formed. AVhen this is added 
to dilute caustic soda, a wonderfully fluorescent solution is 
obtained. The explanation of this reaction will be given 
under the head of Tri-phenyl-methane, when the phthaleins 
will be considered. 

Resorcin is used largely in the manufacture of certain dyes, 
and is therefore manufactured on the large scale. 

Tri-nitro- resorcin, 1 _ ^ XT _ / ~ „ r (N0 2 ) 3 

Styphnic acid, t W^l" °» H t (OH,^ ~ ™ S 
compound is formed by the action of nitric acid on resorcin, 
and on those resins which, give resorcin when treated with 
caustic potash. It closely resembles picric acid. Heated 
with bromine and acetic acid, it yields the substance known 
as brompicrin, which has the formula C(N0 2 )Br 8 . 

Hydroquinone, ■) c H q f c H < OH \ 

Para-di-hydroxy-benzene, / 2 V OH(p)/ 

Ilydroquinono is formed by the dry distillation of quinic acid, 
by reduction of quinone (which see), by the action of chromic 
acid on aniline, by melting para-iodo- phenol, etc. 

It is a crystallized substance which melts at 169° ; easily 
soluble in alcohol, ether, and hot water. 

Oxidizing agents, such as ferric chloride, chlorine, etc., con- 
vert it into quinone. 

It would lead us too far to consider here the reactions which 
have been made use of for the purpose of determining to which 
series each of the three di-hydroxy-benzenes belongs. The 
principle involved, however, is simple. Either these substances 
must be converted, directly or indirectly, into others, in regard 
to the relation of whose groups we have evidence ; or sub- 
stances, the relation of whose groups is known, must be con- 


verted into the di-hydroxy -benzenes. The reactions made use 
of for effecting the conversions are mainly those which have 
already been considered; viz., the formation of amido com- 
pounds from nitro compounds by reduction ; the formation of 
diazo compounds from amido compounds ; the formation of 
(1) hydroxyl derivatives, (2) chlorine, bromine, or iodine de- 
rivatives, from the diazo compounds ; and the formation of 
hydroxyl derivatives from sulphonic acids. 

SJydrosy-toluene, 1 C *»°> (= ** { SJ " n "" 

are three dye-stuffs, known as archil, cudbear, and litmus, which 
are made from different lichens by exposing them in powdered 
condition in ammoniacal solution to the action of air. They 
are treated with decomposing urine, from which the ammonia 
is obtained. Archil contains a substance called orcein, which 
may be made from orcin by treating it with ammonia. Orcin 
is contained in several lichens. It is formed, also, by melting 
aloes with caustic potash, and by melting chlor-toluene-sulpho- 
nic acid with caustic potash. The last reaction shows that 
orcin is a di-hydroxy-toluene. 

Orcin crystallizes in large, colorless, monoclinic prisms. 
Turns red in the air. Ferric chloride turns the aqueous 
solution deep violet. 

Treated with ammonia in moist air, it is converted into 
orcein, C 7 H 7 N0 3 , a substance which dissolves in alkalies, 
forming beautiful red solutions. 

Orcin is manufactured on the large scale, and then con- 
verted into orcein, which is used as a dye. 

Tri-acid Phenols. 
Pyrogallol, pyrogallic acid 

Tri-hydroxy-benzene, > C ^°^- 03.(OH)J. 

Pyrogallic acid is formed by dry distillation of gallic acid, the 


reaction being analogous to that by which benzene is produced 
by distillation of benzoic acid : — 

C 6 H 5 .C0 2 H = C G H G + C0 2 ; 

Benzoic acid. Benzene. 

C * H 4 S" = C 6 H *(° H )3 + C0 2 . 

I CU 2 H Pyrogallol. 

Gallic acid. 

It is formed also when one of the chlor-phenol-sulphonic acids 
is melted with caustic potash : — 

r OH r OH 

C 6 H 3 ) CI + *°* = C 6 H, ' OH + KC1 + K 2 S0 3 . 

(so 3 k KOH (oh 

Potassium chlor-phenol- Pyrogallol. 


It crystallizes in laminae or needles ; melts at 115° ; is easily 
soluble in water, ether, and alcohol. In alkaline solution it 
absorbs oxygen rapidly and becomes brown. On account of 
this power to absorb oxygen it is used in gas analysis. It is 

With a solution containing a ferrous and a ferric salt it gives 
a blue color. 

Most of the phenols give color reactions with ferric chloride, 
and most of them change color in the air. These changes in 
color are undoubtedly due to the action of oxygen upon them. 
Towards oxidizing agents they are all unstable, most of them 
breaking down readily and yielding as the chief product of 
oxidation, carbon dioxide. In general, the larger the number 
of hydroxyl groups contained in a phenol the less stable it is. 
We shall see that these same statements hold good for the 
hydroxy-acids of the benzene group, of which gallic acid and 
salicylic acid are examples. 

Alcohols of the Benzene Series. 

The phenols are those hydroxyl derivatives of the benzene 
hydrocarbons, which contain the hydroxyl in the place of one 
or more of the six benzene hydrogens. But just as there are 


two classes of halogen substitution-products of toluene, in one 
of which the substitution has taken place in the benzene 
residue, and in the other in the marsh-gas residue, as indicated 
in the two formulas, — 

C 6 H 4 C1.CH 3 and C 6 H 5 .CH 2 C1, 

so, also, there are two classes of hydroxyl derivatives: (1) the 
phenols, and (2) those in which the hydroxyl is in the marsh- 
gas residue. The simplest example of the second class corre- 
sponds to the formula, C 6 H 5 .CH 2 .OH. It is isomeric with the 
cresols, C 6 H 4 .OH.CH 3 , and has entirely different properties. 
While the cresols are the true homologues of phenol, the new 
substance is really methyl alcohol in which one of the hydrogens 
of the methyl has been replaced by phenyl, C 6 H 5 . It may 

fC 6 H 5 

I u 
be represented by the formula, C { „ , when its analogy to 

r CH 3 L oh 

ethyl alcohol, CM , is at once apparent. 


Benzyl alcohol, C 7 H s O(= C 6 H 5 .CH 2 OH). — Benzyl alcohol 

or phenyl carbinol is found in nature in the balsams of Peru 
and Tolu, and in storax. In these substances it is, for the 
most part, in combination with benzoic or cinnamic acid. It is 
made by treating the oil of bitter almonds, which is the corre- 
sponding aldehyde, with nascent hydrogen : — 

C,H 5 .CHO + H 2 = C 6 H 5 .CH 2 .OH. 

Oil of bitter almonds. Benzyl alcohol. 

It is also made by replacing the chlorine in benzyl chloride, 
C 6 H 5 .CH 2 C1, by hydroxyl, just as methyl alcohol is made from 
methyl chloride by a similar replacement. In the case of 
benzyl chloride it may be effected even by boiling for a long 
time with water : — 

C C H 5 .CH 2 C1 + H 2 = C 6 H 5 .CH 2 OH + HC1. 


Benzyl alcohol is a liquid with a pleasant odor. It boils at 

Note for Student. — Notice the great difference between the boil- 
ing-point of methyl alcohol and phenyl-methyl alcohol. 

Oxidizing agents convert the alcohol, first, into the oil of 
bitter almonds or benzoic aldehyde, and finally into benzoic 
acid. The relations between the three substances are like 
those between any primary alcohol and the corresponding alde- 
hyde and acid, as shown by the formulas, — 

C 7 H 8 0, C 7 II () 0, C 7 HA, 

or C G H 5 .CH 2 OH ; or C G H 5 .CHO ; or C ti H 3 .C0 2 H. 

Benzyl alcohol. Benzoic aldehyde. Benzoic acid. 

Hydriodic acid converts benzyl alcohol into toluene : — 
C G H 5 .CH 2 OH + 2 HI = C G H 5 .CH 3 + H 2 + 2 1. 

Benzyl alcohol conducts itself, in most respects, like the 
primary alcohols of the methyl alcohol series. A large number 
of its derivatives have been made and studied. Among them 
are ethereal salts, of which benzyl acetate, CH 3 .CO.OC 7 H^ and 
benzyl nitrate, N0 2 .OC 7 H 5 , may serve as examples; ethers, of 
which the methyl ether, CeHg.CE^.O.CHg, and the phenyl ether, 
C 6 H 5 .CH 2 .OC c H 5 , are good examples ; and substitution-products ^ 
of which chlor-benzyl alcohol, C G H 4 C1.CH 2 0H, and nitro-benzyl 
alcohol, C 6 H 4 (N0 2 ).CH s OH, are examples. 

These substitution-products are not made by direct treatment 
of the alcohol with the substituting agents, but by starting from 
the corresponding substituted toluene. Thus, chlor-benzyl 
alcohol is made from chlor- toluene, C 6 H.,(. i.CIIj, by first con- 
verting this into chlor-benzyl chloride, C G II 4 C1.CII 2 C1, and then 
replacing the chlorine of the group CTI.C1 by hydroxyl. By 
oxidation the substituted benzyl alcohols yield the correspond- 
ing substituted benzoic acids : — 

C G H 4 C1.CH 2 0H + 2 = (VJI.Cl.CCUI + H 2 0. 

Chlor-benzoic acid. 

C c H 4 (N0 2 ).CH 2 OH + 2 = CeH 4 (N0 2 )CO,H + H 2 0. 

Nitro-benzoic acid. 


Very few of the alcohols analogous to benzyl alcohol have 
been prepared. Plainly, the homologies may be of two kinds : 

1. Those which are phenyl derivatives of the alcohols of the 
methyl alcohol series. Of this class, phenyl-ethyl alcohol, 
C 6 H 5 .CH 2 .CH 2 OH, the isomeric substance C G H 5 .CH .OH. CH 3 , 
and phenyl-propyl alcohol, C G H 5 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 2 OH, are ex- 
amples. Phenyl-propyl alcohol is of special interest on 
account of its connection with cinnamic acid (which see), 
which has come into prominence since it has been shown to be 
closely related to the interesting bodies of the indigo group. 
It occurs in storax in the form of an ethereal salt, which will 
be spoken of more fully under the head of Cinnamic Acid. 

2. Those which are derivatives of xylene, mesitylene, etc., 
in the same sense as benzyl alcohol is a derivative of toluene. 
The following belong to this class : — 

Tolyl carbinol .... C 6 H 4 < CH3 , 

4 CH 2 OH' 

and Cumin vl alcohol . . . . C G H 4 < CH2 ° H , 

C 8 H 7 Q>)' 

which is made from cuminol, an aldehyde found in the oil of 
carawa} T . 

Aldehydes of the Benzene Series. 

The aldehydes of this group are closely related to the alco- 
hols just considered. The simplest one is the oil of bitter 
almonds, or benzoic aldehyde, C 7 H 6 0. 

Oil of bitter almonds, ^ „ __ _. , „ __ ^^^ „, . , 
^ . , , , _ VC T H 0(=C 6 H 5 .CHO).— Thissub- 

Benzoic aldehyde, > 

stance occurs in combination in amygdalin, which is found in 

bitter almonds, laurel leaves, cherry kernels, etc. Amygdalin 

belongs to the class of bodies known as glucosides, which break 

up into a glucose and other substances. Amygdalin itself, 

under the influence of emulsin, which occurs with it in the 


plants, breaks up into benzoic aldehyde, hydrocyanic acid, and 
dextrose : — 

C 2 ,IL : XO u + 2 H,,0 = C 7 H G + CNH + 2 CJSLjfii. 

Amygdalin. Benzoic aldehyde. Dextrose. 

Benzoic aldehyde may be made : 

1 . By oxidizing benzyl alcohol : — 

C 6 H 5 .CH 2 OH + O = C 6 H 5 .CHO + H 2 0. 

2. By distilling a mixture of calcium benzoate and calcium 
formate : — 


"h.coom= cacho + m ^- 

3. By treating benzoyl chloride, the chloride of benzoic acid, 
with nascent hydrogen : — 

CV,H 5 .C0C1 + H 2 = (VII.CHO + HC1. 

4. By treating benzal chloride with water or mercuric oxide : — 

C 6 H 5 .CHC1 2 + H 2 = C 6 H 5 .CHO + 2 HC1. 

Note for Student. — Refer to the general methods for the prepara- 
tion of aldehydes. Which of the above reactions are used for the 
preparation of aldehydes in general? Which of the reactions throw 
light upon the nature of aldehydes, and their relation to alcohols? 

Benzoic aldehyde is prepared either from bitter almonds, 
which yield about 1.5 to 2 per cent; or from benzal chloride, 
according to reaction 1. above given. The latter method is 
employed in the artificial preparation of indigo. 

Benzoic aldehyde 1 is a liquid having a pleasant characteristic 
odor. It boils at 179°; is difficultly soluble in water; is not 

It unites with oxygen to form benzoic acid : with hydrogen 
to form benzyl alcohol ; with hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, 
ammonium sulphide, alcohols, acid-, anhydrides, and ketones. 
In short, its powers of combination with other substances are 

MONOBASIC ACIDS, C n H 2n _ 8 2 . 283 

almost unlimited. Hence, a very large number of derivatives 
are known. 

= CcHi < ~ TT 

This aldehyde occurs in oil of caraway, from which it is made. 
It is a liquid with the odor of the oil of caraway. Its reactions 
are like those of benzoic aldehyde. 

Acids of the Benzene Series. 

The simplest of these acids has been referred to repeatedly. 
It is benzoic acid, which bears to benzene the same relation 
that acetic acid bears to marsh gas. It is the carboxyl deriva- 
tive of benzene. The homologous acids are the carboxyl 
derivatives of the homologous hydrocarbons. We shall find 
mono-basic, bi-basic, tri-basic, and even hexa-basic acids, 
though the number of acids actually known is small. 

Monobasic Acids, C n H 2n _ 8 2 . 

Benzoic acid, C 7 H O,(= C 6 H 5 .C0 2 H). — Benzoic acid occurs 
in gum benzoin, in the balsams of Peru and Tolu, and in 
combination with amido-acetic acid or glycin in the urine of 
herbivorous animals. It ma}' be made in many ways, the most 
important of which are stated below : — 

1 . By oxidation of benzyl alcohol or any alcohol which is a 
phenyl derivative of an alcohol of the methyl alcohol series. 
The common condition in all these alcohols is the presence of 
the difficultly oxidizable residue, C 6 H 5 , in combination with an 
easily oxidizable residue of an alcohol of the marsh-gas series : — 

C 6 H 5 .CH 2 OH gives C G H 5 .C0 2 H ; 

C 6 H 5 .CH 2 .CH 2 OH » C 6 H 5 .C0 2 H ; 

C 6 H 5 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 2 OH » C 6 H 5 .C0 2 H, etc. 


2. By oxidation of benzoic aldehyde, and the aldehydes of 
the other alcohols referred to in the preceding paragraph. 

3. By oxidation of all benzene hydrocarbons which contain 
but one residue of the marsh-gas series. Attention has already 
been called to this fact (see p. 246). 

4. By treating cyan-benzene (phenyl cyanide, benzo-nitrile) 
with a caustic alkali (see Exp. G5, p. 2G7) : — 

C 6 H 5 CN + KOH + H 2 = C G H 5 .C0 2 K + NH 3 . 

5. By treating benzene with carbonyl chloride in the presence 
of aluminium chloride : — 

C 6 H 6 + COCL, = C G H 5 .COCl + HC1 ; 

C 6 H 5 .C0C1 + H,,0 = C 6 H 5 .C0 2 H + HC1. 

A reaction similar to this is of extensive application iu the 
preparation of some hydrocarbons. It will be spoken of more 
fully under the head of Tri-phenyl-methane. 

G. By treating benzene with carbon dioxide in the presence 
of aluminium chloride : — 

C 6 IV+ C0 2 = C H 5 .CO 2 H. 

This and the preceding methods are of special interest from the 
scientific stand-point, for the reason that they clearly show the 
relation which exists between benzoic acid, on the one hand, 
and benzene and carbonic acid, on the other. 

Note for Student. — Which of the methods above given are of 
general application for the preparation of the acids of carbon? 

Benzoic acid is prepared on the large scale : ( 1 ) from gum 
benzoin by sublimation ; (2) from the urine of horses and 
cows by treating the hippuric acid with hydrochloric acid ; 
(3) from toluene, best, by converting it into benzyl chloride. 
and oxidizing this with dilute nitric acid. 

Experiment 69. If the material is obtainable, evaporate a quantity 
of the urine of horses or cows to about one-half or one-third its vol- 


ume. Add hydrochloric acid. On cooling, hippnric acid will be 
deposited. Recrystallize this several times from dilute nitric acid. 
Boil the hippnric acid for about a quarter of an hour with ordinary 
concentrated hydrochloric acid. By this means the hippuric acid is 
decomposed, yielding glycin (amido-acetic acid) and beuzoic acid : — 

C 9 H 9 N0 3 + H 2 - C 7 H 6 2 + CH 2 <^ 
Hippuric acid. Benzoic acid UU 2 il 


Benzoic acid forms lustrous laminae or needles, which melt 
at 121°. 

Experiment 70. Compare the melting-points of the two speci- 
mens of benzoic acid which have been made : (1) from phenyl 
cyanide (Exp. 65), and (2) from urine. If they are not the same, 
recrystallize the specimens from water until the melting-points are 
not changed by further crystallization. Those specimens which are 
least pure may be purified by recrystallizing them from dilute nitric 

The acid is comparatively easily soluble in hot water, but 
difficultly soluble in cold water. It is volatile with water 

Experiment 71. Put some in a one-litre flask, with about 700 cc to 
800 cc water. Connect with a concleuser, and boil down to about 200 cc . 
Neutralize the distillate with ammonia, and evaporate down to a small 
volume. Acidify, when benzoic acid will be thrown clown. 

Its vapor acts upon the mucous membrane of the respiratory 
passages, producing coughing. 
It sublimes very easily. 

Experiment 72. Put some dry benzoic acid in a small, dry crystal- 
lizing dish, and put the dish in a sand-bath. Over the mouth of the 
dish put a paper cone made from filter-paper, arranged as shown in 
Fig. 16. Heat with a small flame. The benzoic acid will be deposited 
on the paper in beautiful lustrous needles. 

Or another form of apparatus, which is useful for subliming small 
quantities of substance, consists, essentially, of two watch-glasses 
which are of exactly the same size. The edges of the glasses are 
ground to secure a good joint when they are brought together. In 



using this apparatus, put the substance to be sublimed in one of the 
glasses ; stretch a round piece of filter-paper over it, and then place 
the other glass upon it. Clamp the glasses together by means of a 
thin brass clamp. Now put the glasses on a sand-bath, and warm 

Fig. 16. 

gently, when the substance will slowly pass through the paper and 
appear in crystals in the upper watch-glass. It is well to keep a small 
pad of moist filter-paper on the upper glass during the operation. 

When heated with lime, benzoic acid breaks up into benzene 
and carbon dioxide (see Exp. 55) : — 

C 7 H G 2 = C G H (! + CO,, 

With sodium amalgam, it yields benzyl alcohol and other reduc- 
tion-products. With hydriodic acid, it yields toluene, and then 
hydrogen addition-products of toluene. 

A great many derivatives of benzoic acid are known. 


Nearly all its salts are soluble in water. 
The ethereal salts may be made by any of the general 
methods already described. 

Note for Student. — What are the general methods for the prepa- 
ration of ethereal salts? 

Experiment 73. Dissolve 40s benzoic acid in 150 cc absolute alco- 
hol. Pass dry hydrochloric acicl gas into the solution, keeping the 
latter cool by surrounding it with water. When the solution is 
saturated with hydrochloric acid, connect the flask with an inverted 
condenser, and warm gently on a water-bath for half an hour. Now 
add three or four volumes of water, when ethyl benzoate will separate 
as an oil. Wash with water and a little sodium carbonate ; and, finally, 

Benzoyl chloride, C 6 H 5 .COCl, and bromide, C 6 H 5 .COBr, 
are made from benzoic acid in the same way that acetyl chlo- 
ride is made from acetic acid. They are more stable than the 
corresponding compounds of the fatty acids, but in general 
undergo the same kinds of change. 

Benzoyl cyanide, C 6 H 5 .CO.CN, is made by distilling mer- 
curic cyanide and benzyl chloride : — 

2 C 6 H 5 .C0C1 + Hg(CN) 2 = 2 C 6 H 5 .COCN + HgCl 2 . 

The C3 T anogen can be converted into carboxyl, and thus an 
acid of the formula C 6 H 5 .CO.C0 2 H obtained. This is known 
as benzoyl-formic acid. It is of interest, for the reason that 
one of its derivatives is also a derivative of indigo (see 
Isatine) . 

Substitution-Products of Benzoic Acid. 

Benzoic acid readily yields substitution-products when treated 
with the halogens, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid. The products 
obtained by direct substitution mostly belong to the meta series. 
Thus, when chlorine acts upon benzoic acid, the main product 
is meta-chlor-benzoic acid; nitric acid gives mainly meta-nitro- 


benzoic acid ; and sulphuric acid gives mainly meta-sulplw-ben- 
zoic acid. 

Note for Student. — Compare this witb the result of the direct 
action of the same reagents on toluene. What are the first products 
of the action of nitric and sulphuric acids on toluene? 

Substituted benzoic acids may be made, also, by oxidizing 
the corresponding substituted toluenes. Thus, chlor-toluene 
gives chlor-benzoic acid ; nitro-toluene gives nitro-benzoic-acid, 
ptc « 

C 6 H 4 C1 . CH 3 gives QftCl . C0 2 H ; 

C 6 H 4 (N0 2 )CH 3 « C 6 H 4 (N0 2 )C0 2 H. 

The three nitro-benzoic acids and the corresponding amido- 
benzoic acids may serve as examples of the mono-substitution 

Ortho-nitro-benzoic acid, C : H 5 No/= C H 4 <S.°; H 

V JNO,(o) 

Ortho-nitro-benzoic acid is formed, together with a large quan- 
tity of the meta acid and some of the para acid, by treating 
benzoic acid with nitric acid, by oxidizing ortho-nitro-toluene 
with potassium permanganate, and by oxidizing ortho-nitro- 
cinnamic acid. It crystallizes in needles, melts at 147°, and 
has an intensely sweet taste. 


Meta-nitro-benzoic acid, C, ; H, < , T ~- is the chief prod- 

uct of the action of nitric acid on benzoic acid. It crystallizes 
in laminae, or plates, and melts at 140° to 141°. 

Para-nitro-benzoic acid, C.Ht < NO J ' ■ is prepared best 

by oxidizing para-nitro- toluene. It crystallizes in lamina 1 , 
melts at 238°, and is much less easily soluble in water than 
the ortho and meta acids. 

The determination of the series to which these three acids 


belong is effected by transforming them into the amido-acids ; 
and these, through the diazo compounds, into the corresponding 

hydroxy-acids of the formula C 6 H 4 < co H . 

Note for Student. — Give the equations representing the action 
involved in passing from toluene to ortho-hydroxy-benzoic acid (sali- 
cylic acid) by the method above referred to. 

In a similar way, lines of connection can be established 
between the three hydroxy-acids and the chlor-, brom-, and 
iodo-benzoic acids. 

Note for Student. — What are the reactions? 

The three hydroxy-acids, on the other hand, have been made 
by methods which connect them directly with the three bibasic 

acids of benzene, C 6 H 4 < C q 2 h , which, in turn, have been made 

from the three xylenes. 

Ortho-amido-benzoic acid, ^ n ^ ( C0 2 H 

Antnranilic acid, ) \ NH 2 (o) 

This acid is made by reducing ortho-nitro-benzoic acid with 
tin and hydrochloric acid, and by boiling indigo with caustic 
potash. It has already been stated that indigo yields aniline. 
Now, as ortho-amido-benzoic acid is also obtained, and this 
breaks up easily into aniline and carbon dioxide, 

C 6 H 4 <^ 2 h = C 6 H 5 .NH 2 + C0 2 , 

it seems probable that the aniline is a secondary product. - 

Isatine, C 8 H 5 No/= C 6 H 4 <^.°^C.Oh). — Isatine is ob- 
tained by the oxidation of indigo, and from ortho-amido- 
benzoic acid as follows : — 

The amido-acid is converted into the chloride, the chloride 
into the cyanide, and this into the corresponding carboxyl 


derivative, which is the ortho-amido derivative of benzoyl- 
formic acid. The ortho-amido -benzoyl-formic acid thus ob- 
tained loses water, and is converted into isatine. The changes 
are represented by these equations : — 

(l)QH 4 <COOH +pcl5 = tW<^ o) +HCl + POCW 

Ortho-amido-benzoic acid. Ortho-amido-benzoyl 




(3) c »<2S?.j + 2H *° = CA< S5T + xH > ; 

formic acid. 

(4) C 6 H 4 <^JJ° H = C 6 H 4 <^° > C .OH + ILO. 


The formula given for isatine represents it as an anhy- 
dride of ortho-amido-benzoyl-formie acid, the water which is 
given off being supposed to be formed by a union of the 
two hydrogens of the amido group and an oxygen of ear- 
bonyl. The formation of anhydrides of aromatic acids is 
a characteristic of ortho compounds. Neither the meta nor 
para compounds give up water. We shall find that this fact is 
illustrated in the case of the bibasic acids, the only one which 


yields an anhydride being ortho-phthalic acid. C ti H 4 < roOH / k i 
which gives phthalic anhydride, C # H 4 < r , n >0. This ready 
formation of anhydrides from ortho compounds, taken together 
with the fact that the meta and para compounds do not yield 
anhydrides, lias been regarded as an argument in favor of the 
view that in the ortho compounds the two substituting groups 
are actually nearer together than in the meta and para com- 

The relation of isatine to indigo will be considered briefly 
under the head of Indigo. 


Meta- and Para-amido-benzoic acids are made from the 
corresponding nitro acids by redaction. 

Hippuric acid, benzoyl-amido-acetic acid, 

9 H 9 NO 3 (= 6 H 5 .CONH.CH 2 CO 2 H). 
Hippuric acid, as has already been seen (Exp. 69), occurs in 
the urine of herbivorous animals, as the cow, horse, camel, and 
sheep. Some hippuric acid is found in human urine under 
ordinary circumstances. If benzoic acid be taken with the 
food, it appears as hippuric acid in the urine, while derivatives 
of benzoic acid appear as derivatives of hippuric acid. 

Hippuric acid can be made synthetically from benzoic acid 
and acetic acid : 

1. By heating glycine with benzoic acid to 160° : — 

C 6 H 5 .COJOH! + ' Ii|IIN >CH 2 = CH,< NH ' CO * C6H5 + HX>. 
! ! II0 2 C " C0 2 H 

Hippuric acid. * 

2. By heating benzamide with chlor-acetic acid : — 

C 6 H 5 .CO. NHH + ^ > CH 2 = C ^ 5,C °^ > CH 2 + HC1. 

HO2C H(J 2 Cy 

Hippuric acid. 

3. By heating glycine with benzoyl chloride : — 
CH 2 <^™ + C1.0C.C 6 H 5 = CH 2 <^; T CaCcH5 + HC1. 

Hippuric acid crystallizes from water in long, rhombic prisms. 

It is decomposed into benzoic acid and glycine by boiling 
with alkalies, and more readily by boiling with strong acids 
(Exp. 69) : — 

CH2< COH C7H5 ° + H2 ° = CH2< COH + C6H5 ' C ° 2lL 

Note for Student. — What relation does hippuric acid bear to 
benzamide? What is the effect of boiling acid amides with alkalies? 
Write the equation for the decomposition of benzamide, and compare 
it with that for the decomposition of hippuric acid. 


Toluic acids, C 8 H 8 2 . — There are four acids of this formula 
known ; viz. ; the three carboxyl derivatives of toluene in which 
the carboxyl takes the place of benzene hydrogen atoms, 

C 6 H 4 < 3 , and an acid obtained from toluene by replacing a 


hydrogen of the methyl by carboxyl, thus, C 6 H 5 .CH 2 .C0 2 H. 


Ortho-, meta-, and para-toluic acids, C 6 H 4 < 3 , are made 

by oxidizing the corresponding xylenes with nitric acid : — 

C 6 H 4 < ™« + 3 O = C 6 H 4 < ^ sH + H 2 0. 
LH 3 Lli 3 

They, as well as their derivatives, of which many are known, 
have been studied carefully. The substituted toluic acids may 
be made either by treating the acids with strong reagents or 
by oxidizing substituted xylenes : — 

C H 3 (NO 2 ) < ™* + 3 O = C H 3 (NO 2 ) < ^ H + H 2 0. 

C1I 3 ^a! 3 

Nitro-xylene. Nitro-toluic acid. 

a-Toluic acid, 

, CH.O..(= C (i H 5 .CH,CO.,H). — Just 
Pnenyl-acetic acid, 

as benzoic acid may be regarded as phenyl-formic acid, so 

a-toluic acid may be regarded as phenyl-acetic acid. It is 

obtained from mandelic acid, which is formed when amygdalin 

is treated with hydrochloric acid. It is prepared from toluene 

by converting this into benzyl chloride, from which the cyanide 

is made by boiling with potassium cyanide. The cyanide is 

then treated with an alkali, and yields the acid : — 

C C H 5 .CH 3 + Cl 2 = C 6 H 5 .CH 2 C1 + HC1 ; 

Boiling toluene. Benzyl cbloride. 

C G H 5 .CH 2 C1 + KCN = C G II,.CIL,CX + KC1 ; 

Benzyl cyanide. 

C 6 H 5 .CH 2 CN + 2II 2 = C c II 5 .CIL.C0 2 H + NH 3 . 

a-Toluic acid. 

The acid crystallizes in thin laminae ; melts at 76.5°. 


Note for Student. — "What would you expect a-toluic acid to yield 
when oxidized? (See p. 246.) What would you expect it to yield 
when distilled with lime? What would you expect the three toluic 


acids, C 6 H 4 < 3 , to yield by oxidation, and when distilled with lime? 
C0 2 H 

(See p. 243.) 

Oxindol, C 8 H 7 Nof=C G H 4 <^ 2 >CoV — Oxindol is ob- 
tained by reduction of isatine (see p. 289) ; and also from 
ortho-amido-a-toluic acid by loss of water, in the same way 
that isatine is formed from ortho-amido-benzoyl-formic acid. 
When a-toluic acid is treated with nitric acid, the para- and 
ortho-nitro acids are formed. The latter is reduced by 
means of tin and hydrochloric acid, when oxindol is at once 
obtained : — 

CeH< < n5 2 (S°° H = ° A < NH > C ° + HA 

Ortho-amido-a-toluic acid. Oxindol. 

Mesitylenic acid, C 9 H 10 O 2 ( = C 6 H 3 j ra iJ ]. — This acid 

has already been referred to as the first product of oxidation 
of mesitylene. It is the only monobasic acid which has been 
obtained from mesitylene ; and, according to the accepted 
hypothesis, it is the only one possible. By distillation with 
lime, it yields meta-xylene. 

Note for Student. — Of what special significance is the formation 
of meta-xylene from mesitylenic acid? 

Hydro-cinnamic acid , aaM= .Bi.CH 2 .CH,.CO,H). 

Phenyl-propionic acid, J 
Hydro-cinnamic or phenyl-propionic acid is obtained by treat- 
ing cinnamic acid with nascent hydrogen : — 

C 6 H 5 .CH.CH.C0 2 H + H 2 = C 6 H 5 .CH 2 .CH 2 .C0 2 H. 

Cinnamic acid, Hydro-cinnamic acid, 

Phenyl-acrylic acid. Phenyl-propionic acid. 


It is also made by starting from ethyl-benzene, C 6 H 6 .C 2 H S , and 
using the same reactions that are necessary to transform toluene 
into a-toluic acid (see p. 292). It is a product of the decay 
of several animal substances, such as albumin, fibrin, brain, etc. 
It crystallizes from water, in long needles, which melt at 47°. 
It yields benzoic acid when oxidized. 

Ortho-amido-hydro- 1 ~ ^ CH,.CH,.C0 2 H ^ . ., 
• -, ^C C H 4 <- KTTT - ' . — This acid 

cmnamic acid, i NH 2 (o) 

is prepared from hydro-cinnamic acid in the same way that 

ortho-amido-a-toluic acid is made from a-toluic acid. It is 

not obtained in the free state ; but, like the ortho-amido 

derivatives of benzoyl-formic and of a-toluic acids, it- loses 

water, and forms the anhydride, 

C H 

Hydro-carbostyril, C^H^-jJ l ^C. OH. — Hydro- carbo- 

styril is made by treating ortho-nitro-hydro-cinnamic acid with tin 
and hydrochloric acid. It is a solid which crystallizes in prisms, 
melting at 1G0°. It is interesting chiefly for the reason that it 
is closely related to the important compound quinoline (which 
see). When treated with phosphorus pentachloride, hydro- 
carbostyril is converted into di-chlor-quinoline. The signifi- 
cance of this reaction will be spoken of hereafter. 

Bib asic Acids, C n H 2u _ 10 O 4 . 

The simplest acids of this group are the three phthalic acids, 
which are the di-carboxyl derivatives of benzene, belonging to 
the ortho, meta, and para series. 

Phthalic acid, i PTTA / ~ ,-,. COH^ ™ fl ,. 

Ortho-phthalic acid, } C ^°{ = GA< COjH )— PWhahc 

acid was the first of the three acids of this composition dis- 
covered; and, as it was obtained from naphthalene, it was 
named phthalic acid. In addition to its formation from 


naphthalene may be mentioned that from alizarin and pur- 

purin ; and from ortho-toluic acid, C 6 H 4 < C q 3 H ( ) 5 by oxida- 
tion with potassium permanganate. 

Experiment 74. Mix 40s naphthalene and 80s potassium chlorate, 
and add this mixture gradually to 400s ordinary concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid. Naphthalene tetra-chloride, C 10 H 8 .C1 4 , is formed in this 
reaction. Wash with water. Gradually add 400s ordinary concen- 
trated nitric acicl (sp. gr. 1.45), and boil in a flask connected with an 
inverted condenser. When all is dissolved, evaporate the nitric acid; 
and, Anally, distil the residue. Phthalic anhydride passes over. Re- 
crystallize from water. This will be used for other experiments. 

Phthalic acid forms rhombic crystals, which melt at 213° or 
lower, according to circumstances, as, when heated, it breaks 
up gradually, even below the melting-point, into water and the 
anhydride which melts at 128°. Distilled with lime, it yields 
benzene ; though, by selecting the right proportions, benzoic 
acid may be obtained : — 

(1) C 6 H 4 < g°^ = C 6 H 6 + 2 C0 2 ; 

(2) C 6 H 4 < ™& = C 6 H 5 . C0 2 H + C0 2 . 

Phthalic acid is decomposed b} T chromic acid, yielding only 
carbon dioxide and water. Hence, ortho-xylene, when treated 
with chromic acid, does not yield phthalic acid. By boiling 
ortho-xylene with nitric acid, however, it yields ortho-toluic 


acid, C 6 H 4 < co 3 H(o) , and this may be oxidized to phthalic 
acid by treatment with potassium permanganate. 


Phthalic anhydride, C 6 H 4 < p > O, is formed by heat- 
ing phthalic acid. It forms long needles, which melt at 128°. 
Treated with phenols, it forms the compounds known as phtlia- 
leins (which see) . 


Isophthalic acid, ) _ TT ^ CO.H . , , , 

tut 4. i, + u t -^ I °6H 4 < r , n Vr / ,, is formed by oxi- 

Meta-pntnalic acid, ) ou 2 ±i(»o' ^ 

dizing either meta-xylene or meta-toluic acid with chromic 
acid ; by distilling meta-benzene-disulphonic acid with potas- 
sium cyanide, and boiling the resulting dicyanide with an 

Note for Student. — Write the equations representing the action 
involved in passing from meta-benzene-clisulphonic acid to isophthalic 
acid. Into which dihydroxy-benzene is this same disulphonic acid 
converted by melting it with caustic potash? 

The acid is formed, further, by treating meta-sulpho-benzoic 
acid with sodium formate : — 

<W< S§£-) + H - c ° 2Na = ^SSw + HNaS0 °- 

Potassium sulpho- Potassium iso- 

benzoate. phthalate. 

This reaction is of importance, for the reason that the same 
sulpho-benzoic acid, which is thus converted into isophthalic 
acid, can be converted also into one of the three hydroxy- 
benzoic acids ; and thus connection is established between 
the latter and isophthalic acid and meta-xylene. 

Isophthalic acid crystallizes in fine needles from water. It 
melts above 300°, and is not converted into an anhydride. 

Terephthalic acid, ) ~ T , ^CO.H ™ .,, .. ., 

Para-phthalic acid, } ° A < OOJE*,)— Terephttahe acid 

is formed by oxidation of the oil of turpentine, 1 cyrnene, para- 
xylene, and para-tolnic acid ; by heating a mixture of potassium 
para-sulpho-benzoate and sodium formate : — 

w< Sk(p) + H - C0 < Na = <»<!£&« + HX:iSOi ' 

Potassium para- Potassium tere- 

sulpho-benzoate. phthalate. 

1 The prefix tere is derived from the Latin terebinth/nut, turpentine. 



Para-sulpho-benzoic acid is converted into one of the three 
hydroxy-benzoic acids by caustic potash. In the para as well 
as the meta series, the lines of connection indicated below have 
been established : — 

C C H 4 < 

C0 2 H 

C C H 4 < 

C0 2 H 


CrIl4< cn, 


< C0 2 II 
^ < C0 2 H * 

C G H 4 < qjj <:r 

CeH4< C0 2 H 

C 6 H 4 < 

S0 3 H 

Terephthalic acid is a solid which is practically insoluble in 
water. It sublimes without melting and, like isophthalic acid, 
yields no anhydride. 

Hex ab asic Acid. 

Mellitio acid, C 12 H O 12 [= C (i (C0 2 H) 6 ]. — This acid occurs 
in nature in the form of the aluminium salt, as the mineral 
honey-stone or mellite. The mineral is rare, and is found in 
beds of lignite. Mellitic acid has been made by direct oxida- 
tion of carbon with potassium permanganate, and by oxidation 
of hexa-methyl-benzene, C G (CH 3 ) 6 . By ignition with soda-lime 
it is converted into benzene and carbon dioxide : — 

C c (C0 2 H) G = C G H 6 + 6 C0 2 . 

Phenol -acids, or Hydroxy- acids of the Benzene Series. 

It will be remembered that the alcohol acids or hydroxy- 
acicls of the paraffin series form an important class, including 
such compounds as gly colic, lactic, malic, tartaric, and citric 
acids. The peculiarity of these compounds is their double 
character. They are at the same time alcohols and acids, 
though the acid properties are more prominent than the alco- 


holic. The hydroxy-acids of the benzene series bear the same 
relations to the benzene hydrocarbons that the hydroxy-acids 
already considered bear to the paraffins. The simplest are 
those which contain one hydroxyl and one carboxyl in benzene, 


having the formula C 6 II 4 < . 


Salicylic acid, \ OH _ S V li 

Ortho-hydroxy-benzoic acid, > b * CO,,H(o)' 
acid is found in the form of an ethereal salt of methyl, in the 
oil of wintergreen, prepared from the blossoms of Gaultheria 
procumbens . It is formed in a number of ways, among which 
the following should be specially mentioned : — 

1. By converting ortho-amido-benzoic acid into the diazo 
compound, and boiling with water. 

Note for Student. — Give the equations representing the re- 

2. B3- melting ortho-sulpho-benzoic acid with caustic potash. 
Note for Student. — Write the equation. 

3. By passing carbon dioxide over sodium phenolate heated 
to 180°: — 

2 C C H 5 .ONa + C0 2 = C C H 4 < \ ™* + C 6 H 5 OH. 

4. By heating phenol with tetra-chlor-methane and alcoholic 
potash : — 

C 6 H 5 .OH + CC1 4 + 6 KOII = C H 4 < °* + KC1 + 4 H 2 0. 

5. By saponifying the methyl salicylate found in the oil of 
wintergreen : — 

^ < COX'H 3 + K ° H " ° A < c" K + CH *° H - 



Experiment 75. Boil 30 cc to 40 cc oil of Avintergreen with moder- 
ately strong caustic potash in a flask connected with an inverted con- 
denser. When it is dissolved, acidify with hydrochloric acid. Filter 
off the salicylic acid which separates, and recrystallize from water. 

Experiment 76. Dissolve 50e to 60s phenol in the equivalent quan- 
tity of caustic soda. Evaporate to dryness. Powder, and put the salt 
in two or three small, flat-bottom flasks. Connect these with each 
other, and pass dry carbon dioxide through them. For the purpose of 
heating them, it is best to place them in an air-bath. Heat at first to 

Fig. 17. 

100°, and then gradually let the temperature rise to 180°. Finally, heat 
to 220° to 250°. After cooling, dissolve the mass in not too much 
water, and add hydrochloric acid. Salicylic acid will separate. Re- 
crystallize from water, with the addition of bone-black. 

Experiment 77. Make a solution of 40° phenol and 80s sodium 
hydroxide in 120 cc to H0 CC water. Add gradually 60s chloroform, 
constantly shaking the mixture. The solution changes color, and 
becomes, finally, deep red. The flask should be arranged as shown 
in Fig. 17, to prevent loss of chloroform in consequence of the spon- 


taneous elevation of temperature. After all the chloroform is used 
up, and the action is over, boil for half an hour. Add dilute hydro- 
chloric or sulphuric acid until the solution has an acid reaction. A 
thick, red-colored oil will be thrown down. Boil by passing steam 
through the liquid, as in Exp. 67. A light-colored oil will pass over. 
This is the aldehyde of salicylic acid, together with some unacted-upon 
phenol. Dissolve in ether, and shake this with an aqueous solution 
of mono-sodium sulphite, when the aldehyde unites with the sulphite. 
Separate the ether solution of phenol from the lower water solution, 
and acidify the latter with hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, when sali- 
cylic aldehyde is thrown down as an oil. Put the oil in a silver (or 
iron) basin with 208 to 30s caustic potash and a little water, and keep 
the mass in fusion for an hour or two. By this means the aldehyde is 
oxidized to the acid. Finally, dissolve the mass in water, acidify, and 
filter off the salicylic acid which separates. 

The action of chloroform on phenol in the presence of caustic 
soda is analogous to that of tetra-chlor-methane. It is repre- 
sented in this way : — 

C 6 H 5 .ONa + 3 NaOH + CHC1 3 

= QH, < 9JJ* + 3 Nad + 2 H 2 0. 
C 11(J 

This reaction is of general application to phenols, and affords 
a very convenient method for the preparation of the phenol- 

Salicylic acid crystallizes from hot water in fine needles. It 
melts at 155° to 156°. 

When heated, it breaks up into phenol and carbon dioxide : — 


CcH^^ = CA.OH + C0 2 . 

With ferric chloride, its aqueous solution gives a character- 
istic dark violet-blue color. Free salicylic acid is antiseptic, 
preventing decay and fermentation. It is therefore used for 
preserving organic substances. 

Salicylic acid forms salts of the general formula ^G lI 4< ro M » 
and, with the alkalies, compounds, in which both the phenol hy- 


drogen and the acid hydrogen are replaced by metals, as 
C 6 H *< n " Salts of the latter order, which contain the 

metals of the alkaline earths, are decomposed by carbon 
dioxide. Salicylic acid forms ethereal salts of the general 

formula C 6 H 4 < _,_. _, of which methyl salicylate, C 6 H 4 < nr . n , 

C(J 2 K L/U 2 U±1 3 

is the best-known example. It forms, also, ether-acids of the 

general formula C 6 H 4 < ; and, finally, compounds of the 

C0 2 H 

general formula C 6 H 4 < . 

A very large number of substitution-products and other 
derivatives of salicylic acid have been studied ; but they need 
not be considered here. 

That salicylic acid belongs to the ortho series, follows from 
the following facts : — 

Ortho-toluene-sulphonic acid has been converted into ortho- 
sulpho-benzoic acid, and this into salicylic acid. Further, the 
same toluene-sulphonic acid has been converted into ortho-toluic 
acid, which, by oxidation, yields phthalic acid. 

Ortho-toluene-sulphonic Ortho-eulpho-benzoic 


+ KOH = C 6 H 4 <°°<f + K 2 S0 3 ; 


Potassium salicylate. 

+ KCN = C 6 H 4 < gja^ + K 2 S0 3 ; 
+ 2 H 2 = C 6 H 4 <^ (o)+N H 3 ; 

Ortho-toluic acid. 

(5) C ^<coh(o) + S0 = CA< co£o, + H ^ a 

Phthalic acid. 



r „ .C0 2 K 


C6H<< S0 3 K(o) 


CcH4< CN 


Salicylid, C 7 H 4 o/= CJI, < I (?) ), is a substance obtained 

from salicylic acid b}' the abstraction of water. This ability to 
form anhydrides is in some way connected with the ortho rela- 
tion, as the two isomeric hydroxy-acids do not yield anhydrides. 

Note for Student. — Compare the three phthalic acids in this 

C 6 H t <^ TT .—This 

Oxybenzoic acid, \ C H < OH 

Meta-hydroxy-benzoic acid, / 6 4 CO,H(m)' 
acid is made from meta-amido-beuzoic and meta-sulpho-benzoic 
acid by the usual reactions. 

It crystallizes from water in needles united to form wart-like 
lookiug masses. It gives no color with ferric chloride. Its 
connection with meta-phthalic (isophthalic) acid and meta-xylene 
is effected by means of the transformations tabulated on p. 297 ; 
that is to say, the same sulpho-benzoic acid which, by melting 
with caustic potash, yields oxybenzoic acid, b}' melting with 
sodium formate, yields isophthalic acid. Therefore oxybenzoic 
acid is a meta compound. 

Para-oxybenzoic acid, i OH -p 

Para-hydroxy-benzoic acid, / ^ CO,H(;>)' 

oxybenzoic acid is formed from the corresponding amido and 
sulpho-benzoic acids ; by treating various resins with caustic 
potash ; from anisic acid (which see), by heating with hydriodifl 
acid ; by heating potassium phenolate in a current of carbon 

Note for Student. — Notice the fact that, while sodium phenolate, 
when heated in a current of carbon dioxide, yields salicylic acid, 
potassium phenolate, under the same circumstances, yields para-oxy- 
benzoic acid. 

Its aldehyde is formed, together with salic} T lic aldehyde, by 
treating phenol with chloroform and caustic soda (see Exp. 77). 


The reasons for considering para-oxybenzoic acid as a mem- 
ber of the para series are similar to those which show that 
oxybenzoic acid is a meta compound. The same sulpho-benzoic 
acid which yields para-oxybenzoic acid, also yields terephthalic 

Anisic acid, } C H, < OCH3 ■ — Anisic 

Para-methoxy-benzoic 1 acid, i 6 * C0 2 H(^) 

acid is formed by the oxidation of anethol, C 6 H 4 < „ 3 , a 

C 3 H 5 

phenol ether contained in anise oil. It is made by heating 
para-oxybenzoic acid with caustic potash and methyl iodide. 
As the formula indicates, it is the methyl ether of para-oxy- 
benzoic acid. 


Protocatechuic acid, C 6 H 3 { L, „, is a frequent product 
of the fusion of organic substances with caustic potash. Thus, 
the following substances, among others, yield it : oil of cloves, 
piperic acid, catechin, gum benzoin, asafcetida, vanillin, etc. 
It is made from sulpho-oxybenzoic acid, and from sulpho-para- 
oxybenzoic acids by fusing with caustic potash. 

Note for Student. — What analogy is there between the fact that 
protocatechuic acicl is formed from sulpho-oxybenzoic acid and from 
sulpho-para-oxybenzoic acid, and the fact that pseudocumene is formed 
from brom-meta-xylene and from brom-para-xylene? What conclusion 
may be drawn regarding the relations of the two hydroxyl groups, and 
the carboxyl in protocatechuic acid? 

By distillation with lime, protocatechuic acid breaks up into 
pyrocatechin and carbon dioxide : — 

C 6 H 3 ]0H =C G H 3 JX!! + C0 2 . 

V, KjKJ 2 tl Pyrocatechin. 

1 Methoxy is derived from methoxyl, the name given to the ether group, OCH 3 . In 
a similar way OC 2 H is called ethoxyl ; OC G U 5 , phenoxyl, etc. 


rOCH 3 

Vanillic acid, C 6 H, \ OH , is formed by oxidation of 
vanillin, which is the corresponding aldehyde. It is the mono- 
methyl ether of protocatechnic acid. 

/ f OCH 3 \ 

Vanillin, C b H^Oj = CJI-A OH J, occurs in nature, as a 

crystalline coating, on the fruit of the vanilla. It is made 


artificially by treating the ether, C 6 H 4 < 3 , with chloroform 
and caustic soda. 


Gallic acid, C 7 H ( A,f = ^EJ™). — Gallic acid occurs 

in sumach, and in Chinese tea, and 111:111 v other plants. It is 
formed by boiling tannin or tannic acid with sulphuric acid ; by 
melting brom-protocatechuic acid with caustic potash : — 

C 6 hJ (OH) 2 + KOH = c«hJ 5°wt 3 + KBr - 


Brom-protocatechuic Gallic acid. 


It is best prepared from gall nuts by fermentation of the 
tannin contained in them. 

Gallic acid is easily soluble in water. Its solution gives, 
with a little ferric chloride, a blue-black precipitate, which 
dissolves in excess of ferric chloride, forming a dark green 
solution. It readily reduces metallic salts \w solution. When 
heated, it yields pyrogallol (pyrogallic acid) and carbon di- 

C G H 2 { g?g 8 " C 6 H 3 (OH), + CO,. 

Tannic acid, tannin, CH^O,. — This substance occurs 
in gall nuts, from which it is extracted in large quantities. It 

is an amorphous powder. It is markedly astringent in its action 


on the mucous membranes. It is soluble in water, the solution 
giving, with ferric chloride, a dark blue-black color. Tannin is 
used extensively in medicine, in dyeing, and in the manufacture 
of ink. Its relation to gallic acid is indicated by the following 
equation:- 2 C;HA = C I4 H 10 O 9 + H 2 0. 

Gallic acid. Tannin. 

Ketones and allied Derivatives of the Benzene Series. 

The ketones of the benzene series are strictly analogous to 
those of the paraffin series, and they are made in the same way. 
Acetone is made by distilling calcium acetate : — 

CHa-COfd^J _ CH 3>C0 

CH 3 ;COO ! CH 3 

' Acetone. 

So, also, benzophenone or diphenyl ketone is made by distill- 
ing calcium benzoate : — 

Qft.COJO c 
C 6 H 5 fCOO 

C 6 H 5>C0 + CaC03 . 


Further, by distilling mixtures of the salts of two fatty acids, 
mixed ketones are obtained : — 

CH 3 .COJOMJ = CH 3 > CQ M2COs 

c 2 hJc6omi c 2 h 5 

1 ' Ethyl-methyl 


And, similarly, mixed ketones containing one residue of a 
benzene hydrocarbon and one of a paraffin ; or, two different 
residues of benzene hydrocarbons may be obtained thus : — 

ft v C 6 H 5 .COOM _ C 6 H 5 > co + m CO • 

() CH..COOM - C h 3 >CO+M2C ° 3 ' 

Phenyl-methyl ketone, 

C 6 H 5 .COOM p „ 

(2) rH .CH 3 =^ 5 >CO + M 2 C0 3 . 


The individual ketones need not be considered. 



The quinones are peculiar bodies which in some ways are 
allied to the ketones. The simplest example of the class, and 
the one best known, is called quinone. Its formula is C G H 4 2 , 
and it therefore appears to be benzene in which two hydrogen 
atoms are replaced by two oxygen atoms. All quinones bear 
this relation to the hydrocarbons, of which they may be regarded 
as derivatives. 

Quinone, C^H^O,, is formed by the oxidation of quinic acid, 
hydroquinone, para-diamido-benzene, and some other benzene 
derivatives in which two substituting groups occupy the pan 
position relatively to each other. 

It forms long, yellow prisms ; sublimes in golden-yellow 

Hydriodic acid reduces quinone to hydroquinone : — 

C 6 HA + 2 HI = C t; II,(OH) 2 +21. 

The easy transformation of hydroquinone into quinone, and 
the opposite transformation of quinone into hydroquinone. as 
well as the formation of quinone from other para compounds, 
force us to the conclusion that the oxygen atoms in quinone 
are in the para position relatively to each other. Quinone 
appears, therefore, as a substance containing two carbonyl 
groups which are united by means of hydrocarbon residues, 
as indicated in the formula, — 


/ C \ 
p/\ HC CH 

C 2 H 2 <XX>C 2 H 2 or | 

co HC X y CH 


A substance of this kind may be called a cU-ketone, and may 
be regarded as derived from a dibasic acid in the same way that 


a simple ketone is derived from a monobasic acid. Thus, the 

calcium salt of an acid of the formula C\H, < ^^ TT ought, ac- 

cording to this view, to yield quinone by distillation : — 
COO ~ 

^ < !^_ > __ C J 


C 2 H 2 <qq> C 2 H 2 4- 2 CaCO s . 

Several quinones have been studied. Under the head of 
Anthracene, we shall meet with an important one called anthra- 
quinone, which has been made by such reactions as prove it to 
be a di-ketone in the sense in which this expression is explained 

Pyridine Bases, C n H 2n _ 5 N. 

In the manufacture of bone-black, bones are subjected to dry 
distillation, when an oil passes over which is known as bone oil. 
This oil is a complex mixture of substances, several of which 
have, however, been isolated. Among the pure substances 
which have been obtained from bone oil may be mentioned 
pyridine, picoline, lutidine, and collidine. All these compounds 
contain nitrogen ; and. starting with pyridine, they form a 
homologous series : — 


Pyridine C 5 H 5 N. 

Picoline C 6 H 7 X. 

Lutidine C 7 H 9 N. 

Collidine ....... C 8 H U N. 

Pyridine, C 5 H 5 N. — Besides being formed in the distillation 
of bones, pyridine has recently been made in several ways. 
some of which enable us to form a conception in regard to 
its relations to other substances which have been considered. 
Great interest in the substance and its derivatives has been 


aroused By the observation that several of the alkaloids which 
occur in nature, s^ch as quinine, cinchonine, nicotine, etc., 
when oxidized, yield acids containiug nitrogen, which bear to 
pyridine the same relations that benzoic, phthalic acids, etc., 
bear to benzene. Thus, by oxidizing nicotine, nicotinic acid is 
obtained. This has the formula C c H s N0 2 ; and, when distilled 
with lime, it breaks up into pyridine and carbon dioxide : — 

C c H 5 N0 2 = QH,N + C0 2 . 

Nicotinic acid. Pyridine. 

This naturally leads to the conclusion that nicotinic acid is 
pyridine-carbonic acid, C 5 H 4 N.C0 2 H, which bears to pyridine 
the same relation that benzoic acid bears to benzene, acetic 
acid to marsh gas, etc. 

Pyridine is formed : — 

1. By treating iso-amyl nitrate with phosphorus pentoxide : — 

C 5 H n .N0 3 = C 5 H 5 N + 3H 2 0. 

2. By conducting acetylene and hydrocyanic acid together 
through a tube heated to redness : — 

2 C 2 H 2 -f- HCN = C 5 H 5 N. 

It is a liquid with a peculiar, sharp, characteristic odor. It 
boils at 116.7°. 

It unites with acids forming salts. 

It has been suggested that pyridine is related to benzene ; 
and that it may be regarded as the hydrocarbon in which one 
of the six CH groups is replaced by a nitrogen atom, as repre- 
sented in the formulas 






1 1 


HC / X CH 

1 1 


x c x 

HC\ /CH 




This view has suggested various Hues of investigation. Thus, 
if the above formula really represents the relations between 
benzene and pyridine, it is clear that the existence of three 
isomeric mono-substitution products of pyridine ought to be 
possible. Thus, there should be three methyl-pyridines or 
picolines, three pyridine-carbonic acids, etc. The three pico- 
lines should correspond to the formulas 

H H CH 3 

/ C x / C x C 

HC X X CH HC 7 X C.CH 3 HC 7 X CH 



Ortho-picoline. Meta-picoline. Para-picoline. 

All three picolines are known; and, by oxidation, they are 
converted into the three pyridine-carbonic acids, C 5 H 4 N.C0 2 H ; 
and these, when distilled with lime, yield pyridine and carbon 

The pyridine bases unite with two, four, or six atoms of 
hydrogen. The addition-products thus formed are believed 
to exist in the alkaloids. 

Piperidine. C 5 H n N, a base found in piperine, a constituent 
of pepper, has been shown to be hexa-hydro-pyridine. 

Nicotine is probably of similar structure. 

Valuable results may be expected from the further investiga- 
tion of pyridine and its derivatives. 

Terpenes, C 10 H 16 . 

In nature, particularly in the coniferous plants, occur several 
isomeric hydrocarbons, which are known by the common name 
terpene. These substances are very susceptible to the action 
of reagents, and hence undergo many changes. One of the 
most common changes is polymerisation. Thus, when a terpene 
is heated in a sealed tube, or is shaken with concentrated sul- 


phuric acid, or with boron fluoride and other substances, it is 
converted into polymeric modifications of the formulas C 15 II 24 
and C 20 Ho 2 . The terpenes unite with hydrochloric and hydro- 
bromic acids, forming compounds, C 10 H 16 .HC1 and C 10 H 16 .2 HC1. 

Oil of turpentine, terebenthene, Ci H 16 . — This oil is 
obtained by distilling turpentine, a resinous substance which 
exudes from incisions in the bark of various species of the 
pine, larch, fir, etc., especially from the pine. The oil consists 
largely of a hydrocarbon, C 10 H 16 . The oils obtained from dif- 
ferent species of trees differ somewhat in their properties. 

Among the more interesting chemical transformations of oil 
of turpentine, the following may be mentioned : It absorbs 
oxygen from the air ; dilute nitric acid oxidizes it readily, con- 
verting it into acetic, propionic, butyric, oxalic, para-toluic, 
terephthalic acids and some other acids ; bromine and iodine 
convert it into cymene. 

Oil of turpentine is used in the manufacture of varnishes on 
account of its solvent power for resins. It is also used in 

The reactions above enumerated indicate clearly that there 
is a close relation between cymene and oil of turpentine. This 
is shown by the fact that it is so readily converted into cymene, 
and that it yields para-toluic and terephthalic acids by oxida- 
tion. It has therefore been suggested that oil of turpentine is 
a hydrogen addition-product of cymene, of the formula 

CH 3 


CeH«<^„\ , or | | 

C 3 H 7 (P) 

H a C \ / CH 

< H ; 

We know nothing in regard to the causes of the isomerism of 
the different terpenes. 


It should be observed that the above formula furnishes no 
explanation of the fact that oil of turpentine acts like an un- 
saturated compound. 

Terpene hydrochloride, | c HC1 _ When ochlor . c 

Artificial camphor, > 
acid gas is conducted into oil of turpentine, a curious solid 
known as artificial camphor is formed. It looks like ordinary 
camphor, and has a very similar odor. When heated alone, or 
with bases, it gives off hydrochloric acid, and a terpene different 
from the oil of turpentine is formed. 


Borneol, Borneo camphor, C 10 H 18 O. — Borneo camphor 
is a substance found in cavities in a tree (Dryobalanops cam- 
phor a) which grows in Borneo, Sumatra, etc. It may be made 
by treating ordinary camphor with sodium : — 

2 C 10 H 16 O + 2 Na = C 10 H 17 ONa + C 10 H 15 ONa. 

Ordinary Sodium compound Sodium compound 

camphor. of borneol. of ordinary 


The relation between the two kinds of camphor is shown better 
by the equation : — 

Ci H 16 O + H 2 = C 10 H 18 O. 

Ordinary Borneol. 


Camphor, laurinol, C 10 H 1G O — This is the substance ordi- 
narily called camphor. It is obtained in China and Japan from 
different species of the genus camphor a of the laurus family, by 
distilling the finely-cut wood with water vapor. It is purified 
by sublimation. 

Camphor forms hexagonal crystals ; melts at 1 75°, and boils 
at 204°. It is only slightly soluble in water ; easily soluble in 

Boiled with iodine, hydriodic acid gas is given off and cymene 


is formed. Phosphorus pentoxide decomposes camphor into 
cymene and water : — 

CioH 16 = C 10 H 14 + H 2 0. 

Camphor. Cymene. 

The same decomposition is effected by heating camphor with 
concentrated hydrochloric acid to 170°. It will be seen that, 
as far as the composition is concerned, the difference between 
a terpene and camphor is one atom of oxygen : — 

CioH 16 . C 10 H 16 O. 

Terpene. Camphor. 

The relation between the substances is undoubtedly a close 
one, as is shown by the formation of cymene from both. It is 
stated that a substance closely resembling camphor has been 
made by oxidizing the terpene known as camphene, which is 
formed by shaking oil of turpentine with sulphuric acid. 





As we have seen, toluene may be regarded either as methyl- 
benzene or phenyl-methane. Of course, according to all that 
is known regarding similar substances, the two views are identi- 
cal. Regarding it, for our present purpose, as phenyl-methane, 

C 6 H 5 


we may write its formula thus : c 


This suggests the possibility of the existence of such sub- 
stances as 

C C H 5 

Di-phenyl-methane . . . ' . . . . C \ ^ ctl5 , 


C 6 H 5 
Tri-phenyl-methane C -l ^ 6 ^ 5 , 

c 6 h; 

C 6 H 5 

and Tetra-phenyl-methane C < 6 . 

1 C r ,H 5 

C C H 5 

All these hydrocarbons are known, and the derivatives of 
tri-phenyl-methane are of special interest and importance. 
There is one reaction by means of which these hydrocarbons 


can be made very readily. It has also been used for the synthe- 
sis of many other hydrocarbons. It depends upon the remark- 
able fact that, when a hydrocarbon is brought together with 
a compound containing chlorine, and aluminium chloride then 
added, hydrochloric acid is evolved, and union of the two 
substances is effected, the aluminium chloride not entering into 
the composition of the product. Thus, when benzene and 
benzyl chloride, C G H 5 .CH 2 C1, are brought together under ordi- 
nary circumstances, no action takes place ; but, if some solid 
aluminium chloride be added, reaction takes place in the sense 
of the following equation : — 

C 6 H 5 .CH 2 C1 + C C H G = C 6 H 5 .CH. 2 .C G H 5 + HC1, 


and di-phenyl-methane is formed. 

Similarly, when chloroform and benzene are brought together 
in the presence of aluminium chloride, tri-phenyl-methane is 
formed according to this equation : — 

CHCl^ + 3 C ti II G = CH(C (i H,) 3 + 3 HC1. 


Another method by which these hydrocarbons can be made, 
consists in heating a chloride -and a hydrocarbon together in the 
presence of zinc dust. Thus, benzyl chloride and benzene give 
di-phenyl-methane when boiled with zinc dust ; and benzal 
chloride, C G H 5 .CHC1 2 , and benzene give tri-phenyl-methane: — 

C G H 5 .CHC1 2 + 2 C G H G = CH(C G H 5 ) 3 + 2 HC1. 

Only tri-phenyl-methane will be considered. 

Tri-phenyl-methane, OuH M [= CH(C«H 5 ) 3 1. — This hy- 
drocarbon may be made, as above described, from benzyl 
chloride and benzene, and from chloroform and benzene. It 
mav be made also from benzal chloride and mercury diphenyl, 
Hg(C G H 5 ) 2 :- 

C G H 5 .CHCL "+ Hg(C G H 5 ) 2 = CH(C G H,) 3 + HgCL. 


It forms lustrous, thin laminae, which melt at 92°. It is 
insoluble in water ; easily soluble in ether and chloroform. It 
is crystallized best from alcohol. 

Towards reagents it is very stable. Thus, ordinary concen- 
trated sulphuric acid does not act upon it. r C 6 H 5 


Oxidizing agents convert it into tri-phenyl-carbinol, C ' 


That the oxidation-product is really tri-phenyl-carbinol appears 
probable, from the fact that whenever aromatic liydrocarbons 
which contain paraffin residues are oxidized, the paraffin resi- 
dues are first attacked, while, as a rule, the benzene residue is 
unactetl upon. 

Trinitro-triphenyl- | Ci8 h 13 (N0 2 ) 3 [= CH(C 6 H,N0 2 ) s ], is 
formed by treating tri-phenyl-me thane with nitric acid ; and 
also by treating a mixture of nitro-benzene and chloroform 
with aluminium chloride : — 

CHCI3 + 3C 6 H 5 .N0 2 = CH(C 6 H 4 .N0 2 ) 3 + 3 HC1. 

This reaction shows that in the tri-nitro product one nitro group 
is contained in each benzene residue. 

Triamido-triphenyl-methane, para-leucaniline, 

C 19 H 13 (NH 2 ) 3 [= CHlCeH, . NH. 2 y . 
The tri-amido compound is made by reduction of the tri-nitro 
compound, and also by reduction of para-rosaniline. It is 
converted into para-rosaniline by oxidation. 

Aniline Dyes. 

The well-known substances included under the head of Ani- 
line Dyes are more or less simple derivatives of the two 
compounds called rosaniline and para-rosaniline. 

When mixtures of aniline and toluidine are heated together 
with different oxidizing agents, such as arsenic acid, stannic 


chloride, mercuric chloride, etc., several substances are formed, 
the principal of which are the two above named. Para-rosani- 
line, C 19 II 17 N 3 , is formed from para-toluidine and aniline, accord- 
ing to the equation, — 

2 C ? H 7 N + C 7 H ? N + 30 = C»H 17 N a + 3 H 2 0. 

Aniline. Toluidine. Para-rosaniline. 

Rosaniline, C2oH 19 N 3 , is formed in a similar way : — 
C 6 H 7 N + 2 C 7 H 9 N + 30 = C^Ng + 3 H 2 0. 

Aniline. Toluidine. Rosaniline. 

The composition and modes of formation of the two sub- 
stances show that rosaniline is a homologue of para-rosaniline, 
the relation between the two substances being represented by 
the formulas C 10 H 17 N 3 and C 10 H J6 (CTI>)N 3 . 

By treating para-rosaniline with a reducing agent, it is con- 
verted into para-leucaniline, which has been shown to be tri- 
amido-triphenyl-methane : — r C IT NH 

C 19 H 17 N 3 + H 2 = C 10 H 10 nJ = C \ ^JE' 1 

Para-rosani- Para-leuc- \ ^c"i • iN "2 / 

line. aniline. \ ^ TT 

We see thus that para-rosaniline and rosaniline, which are 
the fundamental compounds of the group of aniline dyes, are 
derivatives of the hydrocarbon tri-phenyl-methane. 

Para-rosaniline, C ly H I7 N 3 . — The formation of this sub- 
stance by oxidation of para-leucaniline and of a mixture of 
toluidine and aniline was mentioned above. It is probably 
one of the constituents of the commercial dye known as fach- 
sine. The relation between para-rosaniline and para-leucaniline 
is probably expressed by the following formulas : — 

rc 6 H 4 .xii 2 rc G ii 4 .Nii, 

CI \ C 6 H 5 CH J C C H 4 .NH 2 C(OH) \ C II 4 .XII, 

Para-leucaniline. Triamido-triphenyl- 


]G H 4 . 

[ > 

carbinol. Para-ro6aniline. 


According to this, para-rosaniline is an anhydride of triamido- 
tripheiryl-carbinol, somewhat of the same order as oxindol, which 
is an anhydride of ortho-amido-a-toluic acid (see p. 293) : — 

pw CH 2 .CO.OH r rr .CH 2 m CH CH 2 .CO 
CeH4< NH 2 ' C A< NH >C0 ' 01 C6H4< NH-' ' 

Ortho-amido-a-toluic acid. Oxindol. 

Rosaniline, C 2 oH 19 N3. — This is the principal constituent of 
commercial fuchsine. It is formed by oxidizing a mixture of 
aniline and toluidine : — 

C 6 H 7 N + 2 C 7 H 9 N +30 = C^^ + 3 H 2 0. 

Experiment 78. In a dry test-tube put a little dry mercuric 
chloride and a few drops of commercial aniline. Heat over a small 
flame. Dissolve the product in alcohol, with the addition of a little 
hydrochloric or acetic acicl. The beautiful color of the solution is 
clue to the presence of the hydrochloride or acetate of rosaniline. 

On the large scale, the oxidizing agent used is arsenic acid. 
Care is taken to remove all arsenic acid from the product, but 
it is nevertheless sometimes found in the products obtained in 
the market. Rosaniline crystallizes in needles or plates. It is 
very slightly soluble in water ; more readily soluble in alcohol. 
It forms three series of salts with monobasic acids. With hy- 
drochloric acid it forms the salts CgoH^Ng.HCl and C 20 H 19 N 3 .3 HC1. 
The former is the substance known a& fuchsine, though some of 
the fuchsine met with in the market is the acetate of rosaniline, 
C^HigNg.CoH^. Fuchsine and the other salts of rosaniline 
dye wool and silk directly. For dyeing cotton cloth, however, 
a mordant is necessary. 

Dyeing. Animal fibres, in general, are colored directly by 
dyes ; that is to sa} 7 , they have the power of forming with the 
dyes stable compounds which adhere to the fibres. This is not 
true of vegetable fibres, as cotton cloth and linen. Hence, in 
order to dye the latter, something must be added of such a 
character that, with the dye, it forms a compound which adheres 
to the fibres. Substances which act in this way are called 

DI-rilEN YL-M ET H A X E. ETC . 

Is. Among the sol b1 - - 1 as mordants are alu- 
minium AG late, and some salts of tin. 

Experiment 70. ilute solution of picric acid by dis 

_ - *:er. Iu a portion of it suspend a few 

'.ate yarn or flannel. The woollen material will be strongly 
died yellow. Iu another portion suspend a piece of ordinary cotton 
cloth. And in a third portiou introduce a piece of cotton cloth which 
1 in aluminium acetate and afterwards partly dried. 
The aluminium acetate may be made by treating a solution of - _ 
of lead with enough of a solution of alum to precipitate the lead, and 
then filtering off the lead sulphate. The unprepared cotton cloth, 
when removed from the picric acid solutiou and washed, will be found 
to be only slightly colored : whereas, that piece which was soaked in 
the mordant will be found to be strongly dyed. Similar experiments 
may be made with f uchsiue. 

Among the simpler aniline dyes are the following: — 
II ' *s V '■ This is either the hydrochloric acid or 

tri-methyl-ro^aniline. It is made by heating 
her a salt ot rosaniline, methyl iodide, methyl alcohol, and 
can- sh. 

/ 3 the iodide of penta-methyl-rosaniline. 

A is tri-phenyl-rosanilini v II ( II X . which is 

formed by heating salts aline with an f aniline. 

PllTHAL! \-. 

In speaking of phthalie anhydride, it was stated that when 
s sube - th phenols, phthalelns are formed; 

and. i dng of resorcin, a markedly fluorescent body was 

mentioned as being formed when phthalie acid and resorcin are 
heated together. 

Phenol-phthalem, C. H..O,. — This substance is formed by 
treating a mixture of phenol and phthalie anyhdride with sul- 
phur: lehydrating agent : — 

. H/>+ Clio =cja ..». + HO. 

Phenol. Pht": ::ol- 

anhydride. pbthalei'n. 


The fused mass is dissolved in caustic soda, and the phenol- 
phthalein precipitated by the addition of an acid. It forms a 
granular crystalline powder. Its solution in alkalies is red or 
violet, according to the thickness of the layer. Acids destroy 
the color. Hence it is used as an indicator in alkalimetry as a 
substitute for litmus. 

Phenol-phtlialei'n , like rosaniline, is a derivative of tri-phenyl- 
methane, as has been shown by the following somewhat compli- 
cated reactions : — 

The chloride of phthalic acid, or phthalyl chloride, C 8 H 4 2 C1 2 , 
when treated with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride, 
gives up its two atoms of chlorine, and in their place takes up 
two phenyl groups, thus : — 

C 6 H 4 2 C1 2 + 2C 6 H 6 = C 8 H 4 2 (C c H 5 ) 2 + 2 HC1. 

Phthalyl chloride. Diphenyl-phthalide. 

The substance thus formed is known as diphenyl-phthalide. 
Its conduct towards water and bases is such as to show that it 
is the anhydride of an acid : — 

C 8 HA(C 6 H 5 ) 2 + H 2 = C 8 *HA(C 6 H 5 ) 2 

C0 2 H 
(QH 5 ) 2 

or C 7 H 5 | 

When this acid is reduced by means of zinc dust it loses 
oxygen : — 

C r H 5 0J C0 > H = C T H 5 j C0 < H +0. 
' 1(C 6 H 5 ) 2 ' '\(C& S )J 

And, finally, when the last product is distilled with baryta, it 
loses carbon dioxide and yields tri-pbenyl-methane : — 

c A i C ,° l ;?, = CH I C 6 H, + C0 2 . 

(C 6 H 5 ) 2 [^ 

We have thus passed from phthalic anhydride to tri-phenyl- 


methane, and the reactions just referred to are in all probability 
correctly represented by the following formulas and equations: — 
C 6 H 5 r C 6 H 5 

C 6 H 4 .CO + - _ L 1 CA.OOfl. 

O ^OH 

? of tr 

C 6 H 

Diphenyl-phthalide, or an- Tripbenyl-carbinol- 

bydride of triphenyl-car- carbonic acid, 

binol-carbonic acid. 

r QH-, 
C«H 5 _ c I CA + o. 

QH 4 .C0 2 H " J C^.CO.H 

OH ^H 

carbohic acid. 

C 6 H 5 c 

C 6 H4-C0 2 H I C 6 H, 

H ^H 


Now, by making dinitro-diphenyl-phtfaalide, reducing it. and 
boiling the diazo compound with water, the product is phenol- 
phthalein. Hence, the latter compound appears to be the di- 
hydroxy derivative of diphenyl-phthalide : — 

C 6 H 5 II 4 .XH 2 rC 6 H 4 .OH 

j C,jH 5 pi C',;II 4 .N1I q\ C 6 H 4 .OH 

C H,.CO 1 C 6 H 4 .CO '|C c H,.CO' 

o — i t-o — ' *-o 1 


The formula for phenol-phthalefh may also be written thus : — 
C G H 4 .OH c C H 4 CQ 
( 1I 4 .0H O 

the curious arrangement of the carbonyl group being simply the 
sign of the anhydride condition between carboxyl and hydrozyl, 

of which the simplest expression is 

OH ° 

R < uti = R < I + HO. 
COOH ' • 


Note for Student. — Although the reactions above briefly de- 
scribed may at first sight appear to be difficult to comprehend, they 
are in reality simple enough. The student is earnestly recommended 
not to slight them on account of the long names and complex formulas 
involved. They afford an excellent example of the methods upon 
which we rely for determining the nature of complex substances. 
Notice that all appears dark until the well-known substance tri-phenyl- 
methane is obtained, which suggests that all the substances are deriva- 
tives of this fundamental hydrocarbon; and how easily, when this 
conception has once been formed, the interpretation of all the reactions 

Among the other phthaleins which deserve special mention is 
that which is formed with resorcin. 

Fluorescein, resorcin-phthalein, C 2 oH 12 5 . — This beau- 
tiful substance is formed by simply heating together resorcin 
and phthalic anhydride : — 

2 C 6 H 4 (OH) 2 + C 8 H 4 3 = CzPuOs + 2 H 2 0. 

Its solutions in alkalies are wonderfully fluorescent. The sub- 
stance, which is sold under the name " uranin" for the purpose 
of exhibiting the phenomenon of fluorescence, is an alkaline salt 
of fluorescein. 

The reaction which takes place between resorcin and phthalic 
anhydride, when fluorescein is formed, is of the same kind as 
that which takes place between phenol and the anhydride to 
form phenol-phthalein. "We would therefore expect to find that 
fluorescein is expressed by the formula 



< CA ( OH 
C 6 H,.CO 

,0 — ' 


which shows its analogy to phenol-phthalei'n, 

C 6 H 4 .OH 

C 6 H,.OH 
C 6 H 4 .CO 

O ' 

It is found, however, that in reality fluorescein corresponds to 
the above formula less one molecule of water ; and it is believed 
that the water is given off as represented thus : — 


I C 6 H, ° 
C-{ 8 lOH = C lt ,H,A- 
C H 4 .CO 

U — ' 


Eosin, tetra-brom-fluorescein, C 1! ,H 8 Br 4 05, is formed by 
treating fluorescein with bromine. Its dilute solutions have an 
exquisite, delicate pink color which suggests a color often seen 
in the sky at the dawn of day. Hence the name eosin, from 
^(os, dawn. It is fluorescent, and is used as a dye. 


The hydrocarbons thus far considered are of three classes. 
They are : (1) paraffins, or saturated hydrocarbons of the 
marsh-gas series ; (2) unsaturated hydrocarbons related to 
the paraffins ; and (3) hydrocarbons which contain residues 
of the saturated paraffins and of benzene. 

We now pass to a brief consideration of a hydrocarbon which 
is made up of a residue of benzene and of an unsaturated par- 
affin. It bears to ethylene the same relation that toluene bears 
to marsh gas ; that is to say, it is phenyl-ethylene. 

Styrene, phenyl-ethylene, C 8 H 8 (= C 6 H 5 .CH.CH 2 ). — This 
hydrocarbon is contained in liquid storax, — a fragrant, hone}'- 
like substance which exudes from various plants, as the liquid- 
amber. It is formed by distilling cinnamic acid with lime : — 

C 9 H 8 2 = C 8 H 8 + C0 2 . 

Note for Student. — What does this reaction suggest with regard 
to the relation between cinnamic acid and styrene? 

It»is also formed from phenyl -ethane, C 6 H 5 .C 2 H 5 , in the same 
way that ethylene is formed from ethane : — 

| C 2 H 6 -f Br 2 = C 2 H 5 Br + HBr 

t C 2 H 5 Br + KOH = C 2 H 4 + KBr + H 2 ' 

C 6 H 5 . C 2 H 5 + Br 2 = C 6 H 5 . C 2 H 4 Br + HBr ; 
C 6 H 5 .C 2 H 4 Br + KOH = C 6 H 5 .C 2 H 3 + KBr + H 2 0. 



Its formation by heating acetylene was mentioned on p. 

223 : 

4 C 2 H 2 == CgHg. 

Note for Student. — What other polymeric product is obtained 
by heating acetylene? 

Styrene is a liquid of an aromatic odor ; boils at 144° to 
144.5°; insoluble in water; miscible with ether and alcohol in 
all proportions. 

When heated alone up to 300°, or even when allowed to stand 
at ordinary temperatures, it is converted into a polymeric modi- 
fication, called meta-styrene, which is a solid. This same change 
is readily effected by several reagents, such as iodine and con- 
centrated sulphuric acid. Styrene unites directly with chlorine 
and bromine in the same way that ethylene does (see p. 212) : — 

C 6 H 5 .C 2 H 3 + Br 2 = C G H 5 .C 2 H 3 Br 2 . 

Chromic acid and other oxidizing agents convert styrene into 
benzoic acid (see remarks, p. 246). Some higher members of 
this series have been prepared, such as phenyl-propylene, phenyl- 
butylene, etc. ; but at present they are not of sufficient import- 
ance to make their consideration necessary. 

Styrene is closely related to cinnamic acid, from which the 
interesting and important compounds of the indigo group are 

Styryl alcohol, C 9 H 10 O(= C 6 H5.CH.CH .CHX>H). — This 
alcohol occurs in nature in the form of an ethereal salt of cin- 
namic acid in liquid storax, and also in balsam of Peru. It 
forms long, thin needles, which melt at 33°. It boils at 
250°. It takes up hydrogen, and yields phenyl-propyl alcohol, 
C 6 H 5 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 2 OH (see p. 281) : — 

C 6 H 5 .CH.CH.CH 2 OH + H 2 = C 6 H 5 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 2 OH. 

By treatment with hydriodic acid it yields allyl-benzene 
(phenyl-propylene), C C H 5 .CH.CH.CH 3 , and toluene. 


When oxidized with platinum black it is converted into the 
corresponding aldehyde, cinnamic aldehyde ; and, by further 
oxidation, into cinnamic acid. The relations between the three 
substances are the familiar ones of a primary alcohol, and the 
corresponding aldehyde and acid : — 

C 6 H 5 .CH .CH .CH 2 OH. C 6 H 5 .CH .CH .CHO. 

Styryl alcohol. Cinnamic aldehyde. 

C 6 H 5 .CH.CH.C0 2 H. 

Cinnamic acid. 

These compounds are simply the phenyl derivatives of allyl 
alcohol, acrolein, and acrylic acid : — 

CH 2 .CH .CH 2 OH. CH 2 .CH .CHO. CH 2 .CH .C0 2 H. 

Allyl alcohol. Acrolein or Acrylic acid, 

acrylic aldehyde. 

Cinnamic acid, tc^^OA.OH.CH.OO^). 

Phenyl-acrylic acid, > 
Cinnamic acid is found in liquid storax, partly in the free con- 
dition, and partly in the form of an ethereal salt in combination 
with styryl alcohol, as styryl cinnamate, in the balsams of Tolu 
and Peru. It may be made synthetically : — 

1 . By heating together benzoic aldehyde and acetyl chloride : — 

C c H 5 .COH + CH3.COCI = C 6 H 5 .C 2 H 2 .C0 2 H + HC1. 

This reaction will be better understood by writing it in two 
equations : — 

(1) C 6 H 5 .CH!0| + CiH 2 !H.COCl= C 6 H 5 .CH.CH.COCl-f H 2 0; 

Cinnamyl chloride. 

(2) C 6 H 5 .CH.CH.C0C1 + H 2 = C 6 H 5 .CH.CH.C0 2 H + HC1. 

Cinnamyl chloride. 

The kind of action represented in equation (1) is not un- 
common. We have already met with it in the formation of 
mesitylene from acetone (see p. 248) , in which case two hydro- 
gens from each of three methyl groups unite with an oxygen 


atom from each of the three carbonyl groups. The product 
is called a condensation-product, and the action is known as 

2. By heating together benzoic aldehyde and acetic anhy- 
dride : — 

C 6 H 5 .COH + (C 2 H 3 0) 2 = C 6 H 5 .C 2 H 2 .C0 2 H + C 2 H 4 2 - 

It is probable that the action between benzoic aldehyde and 
acetic anhydride is of the same kind as that between the alde- 
hyde and acetyl chloride. 

3. By treating benzal chloride with sodium acetate : — 

C 6 H 5 .CHJCr 2 j +C!H 2 ;H.C0 2 Na = C 6 H 5 .CH.CH.C0 2 Na + 2HC1. 
C G H 5 .CH.CH.C0 2 Na + HC1 = C C H5.CH.CH.C0 2 H + NaCl. 

The acid is now manufactured on the large scale by this last 

Cinnamic acid is a solid which crystallizes in monoclinic 
prisms. It melts at 133°, and boils at 300° to 304°. It is 
easily broken up into styrene and carbon dioxide : — 

C 6 H 5 .CH.CH.C0 2 H = C G H 5 .CH.CH 2 + C0 2 . 

Oxidizing agents convert it first into benzoic aldehyde and 
then into benzoic acid. Nascent hydrogen converts it into 
hydro-cinnamic or phenyl-propionic acid, C H 5 .CH 2 .CTI 2 .CO 2 H 
(p. 293). It unites with hydrochloric, hydrobroinic, and hydri- 
odic acids : — 

C c H 5 .C 2 H 2 .C0 2 H + HC1 = CV,H 5 .C 2 II ;) C1.C0 2 H. 



Treated with substituting agents, such as nitric acid, etc., it 
yields substitution-products in which the entering atoms or 
groups are contained in the benzene residue, in the ortho and 
para positions relatively to the acrylic acid residue, CoIL.COoII. 
Bromine yields the addition-product C II 5 .C 2 ILBr,.CO 2 H. 


Nitro-cinnamic acids, C 6 Hi | 2 Q 2 ' 2 . — The ortho- 

and para-acids are formed by dissolving cinnainic acid in nitric 

Note for Student. — What are the products when toluene is 
treated with nitric acid? When benzoic acid is treated in the same 
way? To which case is the above analogous? 

Amido-cinnamic acids, C 6 H 4 { 2 2 ' 2 . — These acids 

are formed by treating the nitro-acids with reducing agents. 
The ortho-acid loses water when set free from its salts, and 

C H 
forms the anhydride carbostyril, C 6 H 4 < 2 2 ^ C.OH, analogous 

to hydro-carbostyril (p. 294). 

Ooumarin, C 9 H 6 o/=C 6 H 4 {q 2 ;^ \ is a compound found 

in Tonka beans, and in some other plant-substances. It has 
been made synthetically from salieylic aldehyde and acetic anhy- 
dride, just as cinnamic acid is made from benzoic aldehyde and 
acetic anhydride. The first product of this action is probably 

C a it COOIT 

ortho-Uydroxy-cinnamic acid, or coumaric acid, C 6 H 4 < 2 2 ' , 

which then loses water, yielding the anhydride or coumarin. 
Coumarin has a pleasant odor, like that of vanillin, and is used 
for flavoring. Treated with bases, it yields salts of coumaric 


Phenyl-acetylene, acetenyl-benzene, G H 5 .C.CH, bears 
to acetylene the same relation that styrene, or phenyl-ethylene, 
bears to ethylene. It is made from styrene in the same way 
that acetylene is made from ethylene : — 

(1) C 2 H 4 +Br 2 = C 2 H 4 Br 2 ; 

(2) C 2 H 4 Br 2 + 2 KOH = C 2 H 2 + 2 KBr + 2 H 2 0. 

C 6 H 5 .C 2 H 3 + Br a = C 6 H 5 .C 2 H 3 Br 2 ; 
C 6 H 5 .C 2 H 3 Br 2 + 2 KOH = C 6 H 5 .C 2 H + 2 KBr + 2H 2 0. 


It is a liquid which boils at 139° to 140°. It unites directly with 
four atoms of bromine, forms metallic derivatives, and, in gen- 
eral, conducts itself like acetylene (which see). 

Phenyl-propiolic acid, C,Hg0 2 (= C G H 5 .C.C.C0 2 H).— This 

acid is a carboxyl derivative of phenyl-acetylene, bearing to it 
the same relation that cinnamic acid bears to phenyl-ethylene. 
It is made from cinnamic acid, by treating brom-cinnamic acid, 
C c H 5 .C 2 HBr.C0 2 H, with alcoholic potash : — 

C c H 5 .C 2 HBr.C0 2 H = C c H 5 .C 2 .C0 2 H + HBr. 

It forms long needles, which melt at 13G° to 137°. When 
heated with water, it breaks up into carbon dioxide and 
phenyl-acetylene . 

Ortho-nitro-phenyl-propiolic acid, C (i H 4 1 N q a , is 

made from ortho-nitro-cinnamic acid, in the same way that 
phenyl-propiolic acid is made from cinnamic acid (see pre- 


ceding paragraph). It is of special interest, for the reason 
that it can easily be transformed into indigo. The trans- 
formation is most readily effected by boiling it with alkalies 
and grape sugar, or some other mild reducing-agent. The 
reaction is represented by the following equation : — 

2 C 6 H 4 i ^^ + H 4 = C 16 H 10 N 2 O 2 + 2 C0 2 + 2 H 2 0. 

<- N0 2 (o) Indig0> 

propiolic acid. 

The acid is at present manufactured on the large scale, for 
the purpose of making indigo. 

Indigo and Allied Compounds. 

In several plants, Indigofera tinctoria, Isatis tinctoria, etc., 
there occurs a glucoside called indican, which, under the influ- 
ence of dilute mineral acids and certain ferments, breaks up, 
yielding indigo-blue and a substance resembling the glucoses. 
The indigo of commerce is prepared in the East and West 
Indies, in South America, Egypt, and other warm countries. 
At the proper stage the plants are cut off down to the ground, 
put in a large tank, and covered with water. Fermentation 
takes place, the indican breaking up and yielding indigo, as 
above stated. The liquid becomes green, and then blue. 
When the fermentation is finished, the liquid is drawn off 
into a second tank. This liquid contains the coloring-matter 
in solution. In contact with the air it is oxidized, forming 
indigo, which, being insoluble, is thrown down. In order to 
facilitate the precipitation of the indigo, the liquid is thoroughly 
stirred. Finally, the liquid is drawn off, the precipitated indigo 
pressed and dried, and then sent into the market. 

The substance prepared as above has a dark-blue color. It 
contains other coloring-matters besides indigo-blue. Its value 
depends upon the amount of the definite compound, indigo- blue, 
which it contains. 


Indigo-blue, indigotin, O 16 H I0 N 2 O 2 . — Indigo-blue is ob- 
tained from commercial indigo by reducing it to indigo- white, 
and then exposing the clear colorless solution to the air, when 
indigo-blue is precipitated. 

Experiment 80. Into a test-tube put a small quantity of powdered 
indigo ; add fine zinc filings or zinc dust and caustic soda. When the 
mixture is heated the indigo forms a colorless solution. When this 
result has been reached, pour some of the solution into a small evapo- 
rating-dish. Contact with the air colors it blue. 

Indigo-blue may be made artificially by a number of methods, 
among which the two following are the principal ones : — 

1. By boiling ortho-nitro-phenyl-propiolic acid (which see) 
with an alkali and grape sugar : — 

2 C 6 H * { xtA 00 ' 11 + 4 H = C 16 H 10 N 2 O 2 + 2 H 2 + 2 C0 2 . 
lN0 2 (o) 

2. By heating isatine (which see) with phosphorus trichlo- 
ride, phosphorus and acetyl chloride. 

Without going into the mechanism of these reactions, we see 
that there are two general ways of obtaining indigo artificially. 
The first starts from cinnamic acid, which is successively con- 
verted into ortho-nitro-cinnamic acid and ortho-nitro-phenyl-' 
propiolic acid ; the second starts from benzoic acid, which is 
converted into ortho-nitro- and ortho-amido-benzoic acids. The 
latter is then converted successively into the chloride, cyanide, 
and corresponding acid, the anhydride of which is isatine. For 
fuller details of the reactions involved in the formation of ortho- 
nitro-phenyl-propiolic acid, see p. 328 ; and for similar details 
in regard to isatine, see p. 289. As has been stated, indigo is 
now manufactured on the large scale by the first of the two 
methods above given. ^ 

Indi^o-blue crystallizes from aniline in dark-blue crvstals. 
It sublimes in rhombic crystals. Its vapor has a purple-red 
color. It is insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether ; soluble in 
aniline and chloroform. Oxidizing agents convert it into isa- 


tine (which see). Heated with solid caustic potash, it yields 
carbon dioxide and aniline ; boiled with a solution of caustic 
potash and finely-powdered black oxide of manganese, it is 
converted into ortho-amido-benzoic acid (anthranilic acid) (see 
p. 289). 

A great many compounds related to indigo have been made, 
of late years, incidentally to the study of its chemical conduct. 
The synthesis of indigo has been effected, as a result of this 
study. The work undertaken was suggested by the few funda- 
mental facts, above stated, that indigo when decomposed readily 
yields aniline and ortho-amido-benzoic acid. The question 
which investigators have endeavored to answer is, What rela- 
tions do indigo-blue and the compounds allied to it bear to 
ortho-amido-benzoic acid? Although, as far as indigo-blue is 
concerned, this has proved to be a difficult question, to which a 
definite answer is still lacking, as far as some of the simpler 
derivatives are concerned it has been answered. Two of these, 
oxindol and isatine, have been considered in connection with 
the simpler compounds, to which they are most closely related. 
A few others will here be mentioned. 

Indigo-white, Ci 6 H 12 N 2 2 , is formed by reduction of indigo- 
blue, as above described. Its solutions rapidly turn blue in the 
air, in consequence of the formation of indigo-blue. 

When indigo is oxidized with nitric acid, isatine, C 8 H 5 N0 2 , 
is formed : - Qjgjg^ + q 2 = 2 C 8 H 5 N0 2 . 

When isatine is treated with sodium amalgam, it takes up 
hydrogen, and yields dioxindol, C 8 H 7 N0 2 : — 

C 8 H 5 N0 2 + H 2 = C 8 H 7 N0 2 . 

Isatine. Dioxindol. 

B3 7 further reduction, dioxindol loses an atom of oxygen, yield- 
ing oxindol, C 8 H 7 NO : — 

C 8 H 7 N0 2 + H 2 = C h H 7 NO + H 2 0. 

Dioxindol. Oxindol. 


The relations between oxindol and isatine cannot readily be 
made clear without a careful study of some very complex re- 

It would also lead too far and be unprofitable to discuss here 
the constitution of indigo-blue itself. Suffice it to say, that 
it has been shown to consist of a doubled group very similar 
to that of oxindol. 



Just as the marsh-gas residue, methyl, CH 3 , unites with methyl 

CH 3 
to form ethane, I , so the benzene residue, phenyl, C 6 H 5 , 

CH S Ce H 5 

unites with phenyl to form the hydrocarbon, diphenyl, I , and 

C 6 H 5 

similar residues of toluene, and the higher members of the series 
unite in a similar way to form homologues of diphenyl. 

Diphenyl, C 12 H ]0 (= C 6 H 5 .C 6 H 5 ). — This hydrocarbon is made 
by treating brom- benzene with sodium : — 

2 C 6 H 5 Br + 2 Na = C^ w + 2 NaBr ; 

and by conducting benzene through a tube heated to redness : — 

2 C 6 H 6 = C^Hxo -f- H 2 . 

It forms large, lustrous plates. It melts at 70.5°, and boils 
at 254°. It is easily soluble in hot alcohol and ether. 

Diphenyl is an extremely stable substance. It resists the 

action of ordinary oxidizing agents, but with strong ones it 

yields benzoic acid. A large number of derivatives of diphenyl 

have been studied. A curious one, known as carbazol, occurs 

in coal tar. This has been shown to be a substituted ammonia 

containing a residue of diphenyl. It is properly designated by 

the name diphenyl-imide, and is represented by the formula 

C 6 H 4 

I >NH. It has been made synthetically by passing the vapor 

of diphenyl amine, NH \ 6 5 , through a red-hot tube, a reaction 
( C G H 5 


taking place which is analogous to that mentioned above as 
taking place when benzene is treated in the same way, the 
product in the latter case being diphenyl. 

Naphthalene, C 10 H S . — While the relations of diphenyl to 
benzene are clearly shown by its simple synthesis from brom- 
benzene, the relations of naphthalene to benzene have been 
discovered through a careful study of its chemical conduct. 
The facts can be best interpreted by assuming that the molecule 
of naphthalene is formed by the union of two benzene residues 
in such a way that they have two carbon atoms in common, as 
represented in the formulas 


I I I and 


How this conception was formed will be shown below, after 
the properties and the reactions of naphthalene shall have been 

Naphthalene is a frequent product of the heating of organic 
substances. Thus, it is formed by passing the vapors of alco- 
hol, ether, acetic acid, volatile oils, petroleum, benzene, toluene, 
etc., through red-hot tubes ; and, also, by treating ethylene and 
acetylene in the same way. It is therefore found in coal tar, 
and is sometimes found in gas-pipes used for gas made by 
heating naphtha, gasoline, etc., to high temperatures. It has 
been made synthetically by conducting phenyl-butylene bromide 
over highly -heated lime : — 

C 6 H 5 .C 4 H 7 Br 2 = C 4 H 4 .C 2 .C 4 H 4 + H 2 + 2 HBr ; 
and by conducting isobutyl-benzene over lead oxide : — 
C 6 H 5 .C 4 H 9 + 3 = C 4 H 4 .C 2 .C 4 H 4 + 3 HA). 

Neither of these reactions, however, is of much assistance 


HC/ X C 

1 1 


1 1 
HC X /C 

x c 7 


\ / CH 

x c x 



in enabling us to form a conception in regard to the nature of 

Naphthalene is prepared on the large scale from those por- 
tions of coal tar which boil between 180° to 220°. This material 
is treated with caustic soda, and then with sulphuric acid, and 
distilled with water vapor. 

It forms colorless, lustrous, monoclinic plates. It melts at 
79.2°, and boils at 216.6°. It has a pleasant odor; is volatile 
with water vapor, and sublimes readily. It is soluble in water ; 
easily soluble in boiling alcohol, from which it may be crystal- 
lized. Oxidizing agents convert it into phthalic acid (see 
Exp. 74). 

The ease with which naphthalene yields phthalic acid, sug- 
gests that the hydrocarbon is probably a di-derivative of benzene 
containing two hydrocarbon residues ; such, for example, as is 

/ n rr 

represented by the formula C 6 H 4 \ 2 2 . Such a substance, how- 

( C 2 H 2 

ever, contains unsaturated paraffin residues, and hence ought 
readily to take up bromine, hydrobromic acid, etc. Bromine 
and chlorine are indeed taken up easily, but the products thus 
obtained act rather like the addition-products of benzene than 
the addition-products of the unsaturated paraffins. They break 
up readily, and yield stable substitution-products of naphtha- 
lene ; and, further, the first product of the action of bromine 
on naphthalene is not an addition-product, but mono-brom- 
naphthalene, C 10 H 7 Br, a fact which shows that substitution takes 
place more easily with naphthalene than addition. We have 
seen that a hydrocarbon containing a benzene residue and an 
unsaturated paraffin residue, as, for example, styrene or phenyl- 
ethylene, C G H 5 .C 2 H 3 , and phenyl-acetylene, C 6 H 5 .C 2 H, when 
treated with bromine or hydrobromic acid, takes them up as 
readily as ethylene and acetylene, and this action takes place 
before substitution. According to this, naphthalene ought to 
take up bromine with avidity before substitution of its hydrogen 
takes place. 


f C H 
The formula C 6 H 4 < 2 2 and similar ones being thus rendered 
LC 2 H 2 

extremely improbable, the next thought that suggests itself is 
that the two groups C 2 H 2 may be united, as represented in the 

formula C 6 H 4 ) I . Assuming, further, that the two groups 

( CH.CH 

are united to two carbon atoms of the benzene residue which 
are in the ortho relation to each other, we may write this same 
formula thus : — 



I I I 


x cr 


or, what is the same thing, — 









This formula represents naphthalene as made up of two 
benzene residues united in such a way that the}' have two 
carbon atoms in common. This, as has been stated, repre- 
sents the trypothesis at present held in regard to the nature of 

As regards the assumption that the two residues are united 
through carbon atoms which are in the ortho position relatively 
to each other, it should be said that this assumption is made 
because phthalic acid is the product of oxidation ; and the facts 
already considered have shown us that terephthalic acid must 
be represented by the formula 


C0 2 H 

UC / X CH 

I I 

C0 2 H 

and isophthalic acid by 

C0 2 H 

HC X /CC0 2 H 


and hence, in terms of the accepted hypothesis, the third pos- 
sible formula must be given to phthalic acid ; viz., — 


HC X X C.C0 2 H 

I I 

HC X /C.C0 2 H 

x c x 


Are there any facts besides the few above mentioned which 
make the hypothesis appear probable ? 

There is an ingenious and interesting line of reasoning which 
appears to show that the fundamental notion involved in the 
above formula for naphthalene is true. This fundamental notion 
is that the hydrocarbon consists of two benzene residues which 
have two carbon atoms in common. The facts which lead to 
this conclusion are the following : — 

"When nitro-naphthalene is oxidized it yields nitro-phthalic 
acid. This shows that the nitro group is contained in a 
benzene residue ; and we may represent it by the formula 


( C 1 H 
C 6 H 3 .N0 2 j 2 2 , the oxidation taking place as indicated thus : — 

C 6 H 3 . N0 2 1 ^ 2 + 90= C 6 H 3 . N0 2 j ^ + H 2 + 2 C0 2 . 

By reducing this same nitro-naphthalene, amido-naphthalene 
is obtained ; and, when this is oxidized, phthalic acid is 
formed : — 

C 6 H 4 1 ^H • NH 2 + 9 Q = CeHi j C0 2 H + 2 C Q 2 + HN o 3< 

These two reactions show (1) that the part of nitro-naphtha- 
lene in which the nitro group is situated is a benzene residue ; 
(2) that there is another benzene residue in the compound into 
which the nitro group has not entered. 

It has been noticed, also, that by oxidation of a naphthalene- 
sulphonic acid, both sulpho-phthalic and phthalic acid itself are 

It follows, from these facts, that naphthalene is made up of 
two benzene residues, and the only way in which a hydrocarbon 
of the formula C 10 H 8 can be thus made up, is by having two 
carbon atoms common to the two residues, as represented in 
the formula already given. It cannot be made up thus : — 

nor thus 



HC 7 "^CH 7 X CH 


HC X /Cs. 


HC 7 X CH 




HC X y CH 

X C X 


C x 

for neither of these formulas expresses the fundamental idea of 


the presence of two benzene residues in the same molecule. 
The only formula which expresses this idea in terms of the 
commonly accepted hypothesis for benzene is 





i i 

HC \ / 

1 1 

H H 

The proof just given for this formula is independent of any 
notions regarding the ortho, meta, and para relations in 
benzene. As phthalic acid is the product of oxidation, it 
follows that the carboxyl groups in the acid must bear to each 
other the relation expressed by the formula 


HC X x C-C0 2 H 

I I 

HC X /C-C0 2 H 


and, therefore, that in all ortho compounds the substituting 
groups bear this same relation to each other. Hence, by start- 
ing with the notion that the above formula represents phthalic 
acid, — and to this notion, it must be remembered, we are led 
independently of any facts connected with the formation of the 
acid from naphthalene, — the accepted formula of naphthalene 
follows naturally. And, on the other hand, we are led, by a 
study of naphthalene itself, to the accepted formula, and from 
this the above formula for phthalic acid follows. 

Derivatives of Naphthalene. 

An interesting fact which has been discovered by a study of 
the mono-substitution products of naphthalene is this, — that 
two, and only two, varieties are known. There is an a- and 


a /?-chlor-naphthalene, an a- and a /3-brom-naphthalene, etc., 
etc. This fact is quite in harmony with the views held 
regarding the constitution of naphthalene, as will readily be 
seen b}' examining the formula somewhat more in detail. 
We see that there are two, and only two, kinds of relations 
which the hydrogen atoms bear to the molecule; all those 
marked with an a being of one kind, and all those marked 
with a p being of another kind : — 

aH aH 


I I I 

/?HC X ,Cv /CH/3 

x <y c 

aH aH 

Here, again, a problem presents itself like that which was 
considered in connection with the bi-substitution products of 
benzene. Our theory gave us three formulas, and three com- 
pounds are known. The problem was, to determine which 
formula to assign to each compound. Here we have two 
formulas for two brom-naphthalenes and other mono-substi- 
tution products of naphthalene, and we actually have two 
compounds ; and the question arises, which of the two 
formulas must we assign to a given compound? The 
method adopted is simple, and can be explained in a few 
words. That nitro derivative of naphthalene which is known 
as a-nitro-naplithalcne yields nitro-phthalic acid by oxida- 
tion ; and the relation of the nitro group to the carboxvl 
groups, in this acid, has been determined. It is expressed 

by the formula 
J NO, 


I I 

HC X /C-C0 2 H 

x cr 


Formula I. 


while the formula of the other nitro-phthalic acid is 


N0 2 C x x C-C0 2 H 
I I 


x cr 


Formula II. 

As a-nitro-naphthalene yields the acid of formula I., it fol- 
lows that in it the uitro group must occupy the position of one 
of the hydrogen atoms marked a in the above formula for naph- 
thalene. Those substitution-products of naphthalene which 
belong to the same series as a-nitro-naphthalene are called a 
derivatives. In the fS compounds the substituting group or 
atom must occupy the place of one of the hydrogen atoms 
marked ft. 

Among the derivatives of naphthalene are the following : — 

Naphthoic acid, Oi H 7 .CO 2 H, which bears to naphthalene 
the same relation that benzoic acid bears to benzene. 

a-Naphthol, Ci H 7 .OH. — This compound is made from naph- 
thalene in the same way that phenol is made from benzene : — 

1. By treating a-naphthyl-amine, C 10 H 7 .NH 2 , with nitrous 

Note for Student. — Write the equations. 

2. By melting a-naphthalene-sulphonic acid with caustic 

Note for Student. — Write the equation. 

a-Naphthol is a solid which melts at 96°. It has an odor 
somewhat resembling that of phenol. Its general chemical 
conduct is much like that of phenol. Toward oxidizing 
agents, however, its action is peculiar. Thus, when boiled 


with potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid, a di-chlorine 
substitution-product is formed ; and at the same time a 
second oxygen atom enters, and the product has the char- 
acteristics of the quinones (which see). It is di-chlor- 
naphtho-quinone. It will be remembered that ordinary 
quinone is formed by the oxidation of hydro-quiuone, a di- 
hydroxyl derivative. 

Some of the substitution-products of naphthol are used as 
dyes ; as, for example, dinitro-naphthol, C 10 H 5 (NO 2 ) 2 OH, 
which is known as Martins' s Yellow; dinitro-najihthol- 
sidphonic acid, C 10 H 4 (NO 2 )2(^O 3 H).OH, the potassium salt 
of which, K 2 C 10 H 4 N 2 SO 8 , is known as Naphthol Yelloiv S. 
With diazo compounds, naphthol has a remarkable power of 
combination ; and a great many derivatives containing resi- 
dues of diazo compounds, and of naphthol or its substitution- 
products, have been made, and some of them have found 
application as dyes. The simplest compound of this kind is 
formed by bringing together naphthol and diazo-benzene 
nitrate : — 
C 10 H 7 .OH + C G H 5 -N 2 -N0 3 = C ln ll, J ^ CeH ' + HN0 3 . 

It is called najrfithol-diazo-benzene. The dye known as Poir- 
rier's Orange II. is a sulphonic acid of naphthol-diazo-benzene, 
and is probably formed by treating diazo-benzene-sulphonic acid 
with naphthol. 

Naphthoquinone, C 10 H 6 O 2 . — This compound is obtained 
by oxidizing naphthalene with chromic acid ; also by oxidiz- 
ing a-amido-a-naphthol and other di-substitution products of 
naphthalene in which the two substituting groups arc in the 
para position relatively to each other. It bears to naphthalene 
the same relation that ordinary quinone bears to benzene ; that 
is, it is naphthalene in which two hydrogen atoms are replaced 
by two oxygen atoms. 

It forms yellow needles, which melt at 125°. Like ordinary 


quinone, it is volatile with water vapor. Hydriodic acid con- 
verts it into hydro -naplitho-quinone : — 

C 10 H 6 O 2 -f H 2 = C 10 H 6 (OH) 2 . 

Note for Student. — Compare with the action of reducing agents 
on ordinary quinone. 

Di-hydroxy-naphtho-quinone, C 10 H t |L , is a dye 

known by the name naphthazarin, on account of its resem- 
blance to alizarin (which see) . 

Two homologues of naphthalene — methyl- and ethyl-naph- 
thalene — have been prepared. /3-Methyl-naphthalene has been 
found in coal tar. 


It has been stated, that, by distilling quinine and cinchonine 
with caustic potash, pyridine and some of its homologues are 
obtained. At the same time a base belonging to another series 
is formed, together with some of its homologues. This base is 
known as quinoline, to suggest its formation from quinine. It 
has the composition expressed by the formula C 9 H 7 N. The next 
two homologues of quinoline are lepidine, C 10 H 9 N, and dispo- 
line, CnHnN. Three bases, isomeric with the three named, 
have been found in coal tar. These are known as leucoline, 
iridoline, and cryptidine. We thus have the two series : — 


Quinoline . . . CgH 7 N . . . Leucoline. 
Lepidine . . . C 10 H 9 N . . . Iridoline. 
Dispoline . . . C n H n N . . . Cryptidine. 

Quinoline, C 9 H 7 N. — Quinoline is formed by the distillation 
of quinine, cinchonine, or strychnine, with caustic potash. It 
is formed from certain derivatives of benzene. 


1. By passing allyl-aniline over heated lead-oxide : — 

C 6 H 5 .NH.C 3 H 5 = C 9 H 7 N + 4H. 

2. By heating together glycerin, aniline, and nitro-benzene : — 

(1) C 6 H 5 .N0 2 + C 8 H 8 8 = C 9 H 7 N + 3 H 2 + 2 ; 

(2) C G H 5 NH 2 + C 3 H 8 3 = C 9 H 7 N + 3H 2 + H 2 ; 

(3) 2 C 6 H 5 NH 2 -f C 6 H 5 N0 2 + 3C 3 H 8 3 = SC^N + 11 H 2 0. 

3. From chlor-quinoline : — 

C 9 H 6 C1N + 2 H = C 9 H 7 N + HC1. 

The last method is the most suggestive, as it leads to a defi- 
nite view in regard to the relation between quinoline and ben- 
zene. Chlor-quinoline is made by treating carbostyril with 
phosphorus pentachloride. Carbostyril is the anhydride of 

ortho-amido-cinnamic acid, C 6 H 4 < 2 2 ^ C.OH, which ma}' also 

be written thus : — 

H H 




C\ /COH 

The phosphorus pentachloride probably substitutes chlorine 
for the hydroxyl, forming chlor-quinoline. According to this, 
quinoline itself should be represented by the formula 

H H 

HC X X C 7 X CH 

I I I 

HC \. / C v • CH 

X C X 1ST 

Quinoline is thus regarded as formed from the union of a 


residue of benzene and a residue of pyridine, in the same way 
that naphthalene is believed to be formed from two residues of 
benzene. The formula suggests the existence of two isomeric 
quinolines, in one of which the nitrogen is in the a position, as 
represented in the above formula, while in the other it is in 
the (3 position. The bases from the alkaloids belong to the 
a series ; those from coal tar belong to the /? series. 

Quinoline is a liquid which boils at 237°. Potassium perman- 
ganate converts it partially into cinchomeronic acid, C 7 H 5 N0 4 . 
This is a pyridine-dicarbonic acid, C 5 IIoN(C0 2 H) 2 . The for- 
mation of this acid is analogous to that of phthalic acid formed 
by oxidizing naphthalene. 

Quinoline readily takes up hydrogen, forming liydro-quinoline, 
C 9 H 9 N, and tetra-hydro-qidnoline, C 9 H n N. These, as well as 
the hydrogen addition-products of pyridine, are believed to exist 
in the alkaloids. Tetra-hydro-quinoliue has been found in the 
crude quinoline obtained by distilling cinchonine with caustic 

Many derivatives of quinoline have been made. Substitution- 
products are obtained by treating nitro-products of substituted 
benzene with glycerin and aniline. 

A sulphonic acid is obtained by treatment of quinoline with 
sulphuric acid. From this, hydroxy-quinoline, C 9 H G (OH)N, has 
been obtained. Hydroxy-quinoline, like quinoline itself, takes up 
hydrogen, forming tetra-hydro-hydroxy-qidnoline, C 9 H 10 .OH.N. 
Finally, by treating this compound with methyl iodide, methyl 
is introduced, and a product obtained which is called Iiydro- 
methoxy -quinoline : — 

C 9 H n ON -f CH 3 I = doHisNO + HI. 

This substance resembles quinine, and its hydrochloric acid 
salt is used in medicine to some extent as a substitute for 
quinine. The salt is known as Imirine. 



Diphenyl and naphthalene have been shown to consist of two 
benzene residues in direct combination. Diphenyl-methane is 
an example of a hydrocarbon consisting of two benzene resi- 
dues in indirect combination, C G H 5 . CH 2 . C C H 5 . As diphenyl- 
methane is closely related to toluene, it was considered in 
connection with the hydrocarbons of the benzene series. 
There are some hydrocarbons which have been shown to 
consist of two benzene residues united by means of resi- 
dues of unsaturated paraffins. The most important of these 
is the well-known anthracene. 

Anthracene, C,,H 10 . — Anthracene is formed under condi- 
tions similar to those which give rise to the formation of 
naphthalene, especially by heating organic substances to a 
high temperature, and is hence found in coal tar. 

It has been made synthetically from benzene derivatives 
by a number of methods : — 

1. By passing benzyl-toluene, C 6 H 5 . CH 2 . C 6 H 4 . CH 3 , over 
heated lead oxide : — 

C 14 H 14 + 20 = C 14 H 10 + 2 H 2 0. 

2. By heating benzyl-phenol with phosphorus pentoxide : — 
2C c H 5 .CH 2 .C c H 4 (OH) = C 14 H 10 + C C H + C G H 5 (OH) + H 2 0. 

3. By heating ortho-brom-benzyl bromide with sodium : — 

2 C G H 4 { ™* r + 4 Na = C 14 H 10 + 4 NaBr + 2 H ; 

(. Br(o) 


= C (i H 4 1 ™ | C 6 H 4 + 4 NaBr + 2 H. 

Anthracene is prepared in large quantity from those portions 
of coal tar which boil between 340° and 360°. The distillate 
is redistilled, and that which remains in the retort after the 
temperature has reached 350° is crystallized from xylene. It 
is then crystallized from alcohol, and finally sublimed. It is 
difficult to get it in perfectly pure condition. The color may 
be removed by dissolving the substance in benzene, and expos- 
ing it to direct sunlight. It forms laminae, or monoclinic plates, 
which are fluorescent. It melts at 213°, and boils above 360°. 

Anthracene takes up hydrogen, forming di-hydro-anthracene, 
C 14 H 12 , and hexa-hydro-anthracene, C 14 H 16 . It takes up bromine 
and chlorine, forming first addition-products, and then substi- 

Oxidizing agents convert anthracene into anthra-quinone, 
C 14 H 8 2 , just as they convert naphthalene into naphtha- 

The formation of anthracene from ortho-brom -benzyl-bro- 
mide (see above) furnishes strong proof in favor of the view 
that anthracene consists of two groups, C 6 H 4 , united by the 
group C 2 H 2 ; thus, C 6 H 4 . C 2 H 2 . C 6 H 4 . It hence appears as a 
diphenylene 1 derivative of ethane, C 2 H 2 (C 6 H 4 ) 2 , analogous to 
diphenyl-ethane, C 2 H 4 (C 6 H 5 ) 2 . This conception may also be 
expressed thus : — 

H H 

HC X ^-CH-cy X CH 


H H 

This is the formula commonly accepted for anthracene. It is 

1 Phenylene = C 6 H 4 . 


in harmony with a large number of facts, and has been an 
efficient aid in investigations on anthracene and its derivatives. 

Anthraquinone, C M H 8 2 ( = CJIi < qq> CgHi )' — Antnra " 
quinone is formed by direct oxidation of anthracene : — 
C 14 H 10 + 3 = C 14 H 8 2 + H 2 0. 

The simplest synthesis of anthraquinone that has been ef- 
fected consists in distilling calcium phthalate. It is believed 
that the reaction which takes place is analogous to that which 
takes place when the calcium salt of a monobasic acid is distilled. 
As is well known, in the latter case a ketone containing one 
carbonyl group is formed ; and it is believed that the product 
formed in the distillation of calcium phthalate contains two 
carbonyl groups, and that it is a representative of a class of 
bodies which may be called diketones. The subject of diketones 
was briefly discussed under the head of Quinones (which see). 
The equation representing the formation of anthraquinone from 
calcium phthalate is here given : — 

CcH 4 {£vn> Ca ! 

(. CO;0 no 

C6l Mfcoo >Ca i 

1 1 

Experiment 81. Dissolve 10s commercial anthracene in 50 cc to 
75 cc glacial acetic acid. Add 20s powdered potassium bichromate. 
Boil until the solution is dark green, and then add water. Anthra- 
quinone is precipitated. Filter off, wash, dry, and sublime. 

Anthraquinone forms rhombic crystals. It sublimes in yellow 
needles ; is insoluble in water, but slightly soluble in alcohol 
and ether. It is an extremely stable compound, resisting the 
action of alcoholic potash and oxidizing agents. Melted with 
solid potassium hydroxide, it yields benzoic acid : — 

C 14 H 8 2 + 2 KOII = 2 C 7 H 5 2 K ; 

C 6 H 4 <^>C G II 4 + 2KOH = 2C II 5 .COOK. 


Reducing agents convert it successively into oxanthranol, 
C 14 H 10 O 2 , anthranol, C 14 H 10 O, and antJiracene, C 14 H 10 . These 
changes may be represented thus : — . 

C e H 4 < jg > C 8 H 4 + H 2 = C 6 H 4 < jg < 0H > > C C H 4 ; 


C 6 H 4 < ^ (0H) >C 6 H 4 + H 2 = C e H 4 < | >C 6 H 4 + H 2 0; 

cu CH 


C 6 H 4 < ^ ( ° H) > C A + H 2 = C 6 H 4 < l > C 6 H 4 + H 2 0. 

When heated with zinc dust, it yields anthracene. A great 
many derivatives of anthraquinone have been made. Among 
the best known are the hydroxyl derivatives, some of which 
are much-prized dyes which are manufactured in great quan- 

The hydroxyl derivatives of anthraquinone may be made by 
melting either the bromine derivatives or the sulphonic acids 
with caustic potash. 

Alizarin, ^ 

Di-hydroxy-anthraquinone, i Cl4H8a[= ChHsO^OH),]. 
Alizarin is the well-known dye which is obtained from madder 
root. The substance found in the root is ruberythric acid, a 
glucoside of the formula C^H^On. When this is treated with 
dilute acids or alkalies or ferments, it is decomposed, yielding 
alizarin and a glucose : — 

CaoH^Ou = C 14 H 8 4 + CyH^Oo -f- H 2 0. 

Alizarin. Glucose. 

It is formed by melting dichlor- or dibrom-anthraquinone or 
anthraquinone-disulphonic acid with caustic potash : — 

C 14 H G 2 (S0 3 K) 2 + 2KOH = C 14 H 3 2 (OH) 2 + 2 K 2 S0 3 . 

Alizarin is now manufactured from anthracene on the large scale, 


and large tracts of land which were formerly used for culti- 
vating madder are now used for other purposes. 

Experiment 82. Dissolve 20k anthraquinone in a small quan- 
tity of fuming sulphuric acid, heating gradually to 1G0°. Dissolve the 
product in a litre of water. Neutralize with finely-powdered chalk; 
filter. Precipitate with a solution of sodium carbonate ; filter ; and 
finally evaporate to dryness. The salt thus obtained is impure sodium 
anthraquinone-disulphonate. In a silver (or iron) crucible melt this for 
half an hour, with potassium hydroxide, at a temperature not above 
270°. The formation of alizarin, during the melting of the salt with 
caustic potash, is shown by the dark-purple color of the mass. When 
a little of this is dissolved in water, it should form a beautiful purple- 
red solution. Continue the melting until the mass acts in this way. 
Dissolve the mass in I 1 to l 1 water, and acidify. Alizarin is thrown 
down in brown amorphous Hakes. Filter off, dry, and sublime between 

Alizarin forms red needles, which melt at 289° to 290°. It 
dissolves in alkalies, forming dark purple-red solutions. When 
heated with zinc dust, it yields anthracene. It was this reaction 
which gave the first clue to the nature of alizarin, and led, soon 
after, to its synthesis. 

Some compounds, isomeric with alizarin, and also derived 
from anthracene, are known. 

l nr l n T' «. ■ [0 U H.O» = [0 H H.O,<OHW. 

Tri-hydroxy-anthraqumone, » 

Purpurin is contained in madder root, and is therefore found 
in madder alizarin. It may be made by melting alizarin-sul- 
phonic acid with caustic potash, and also by melting tri-brom- 
anthraquinone with caustic potash. 

Anthrapurpurin, isopurpurin, C u H 3 0,(OH) 3 , is found in 

artificial alizarin. 

Phenanthrene, CnH,,,, which is isomeric witli anthracene, is 
also found in the higher boiling parts of coal tar. The chemical 


conduct of this hydrocarbon has led to the conclusion that it 
consists of two benzene residues directly united, as in diphenyl, 
C 6 H 5 — C 6 H 5 ; and that a further connection between the benzene 
residues is established through a group — CH = CH — , thus 
giving as the expression of the structure the formula 

C 6 H 4 — C 6 H 4 
I I • 

CH = CH 



Under the head of the sugars, reference was made (see p. 
178) to a class of bodies called glycosides, which occur in 
nature in the vegetable kingdom. These bodies break up 
under the influence of dilute acids or ferments into sugar and 
other bodies. Thus, salicin breaks up, according to the equa- 

ti0n C 6 H 4 (OH) CH 2 (OC 6 H n 5 ) + H 2 

= C 6 H 12 6 + C 6 H 4 (OH)CH 2 OH 

Dextrose. -Salicylic alcohol. 

into dextrose and salicylic alcohol, the alcohol corresponding 
to salicylic acid. Some of the more important glucosides are 
mentioned below. 

Aesculin, C 15 H 16 9 +1} H. 2 0, occurs in the bark of the 
horse-chestnut tree (Aesculus Hippocastanum) . It breaks up 
into dextrose and aesculetin : — 

C 15 H 10 O + H 2 = C c H 12 6 + C 9 H 6 4 . 

Aesculin. Dextrose. Aesculetin. 

Its water solution shows blue fluorescence. 

Amygdalin, C, H, 7 NO U + 3 H,0, occurs particularly in bit- 
ter almonds ; also, in the kernels of apples, pears, peaches, 
plums, cherries, etc. With emulsin, which is an aqueous 
extract of almonds, amygdalin is broken up in benzoic alde- 
hyde, hydrocyanic acid, and dextrose : — 

C^NOu + 2 H 2 = C 7 H Q + CNH + 2 CcH M O fl . 

Tannins. — Under this head are included a large number of 
substances, some of which are glucosides. They all give either 


a blue or a green color with ferric salts. They have a bitter, 
astringent taste ; are precipitated by solutions of gelatin ; pre- 
cipitate solutions of metals, and absorb oxygen in alkaline 
solution. They also unite with animal membranes, forming 
compounds which resist the putrefactive forces, thus tanning 
them, or converting them into leather. Reference has already 
been made to gallo- tannic acid, which breaks up into gallic acid 
and glucose. 

Helicin, C i: sH 1G 7 + f H 2 0, is formed by the oxidation of 
salicin (which see) . It has also been made artificially by mix- 
ing an alcoholic solution of acetochlorhydrose with the potassium 
compound of salicylic aldehyde : — 

C 6 H 7 C10 5 (C 2 H 3 0) 4 + C 7 H 5 2 K + 4 C 2 H G 
= C 13 H 10 O 7 + KC1 + 4C 2 H 5 .C 2 H 3 2 . 

Acetochlorhydrose is formed by heating dextrose with an 
excess of acetyl chloride. 

Helicin breaks up into dextrose and salicylic aldehyde. 

Indican, C, G H 31 N0 12 , occurs in woad. It yields, among 
other products, dextrose and indigo blue : — 

C 26 H 31 N0 17 + 2 H 2 = 3 C 6 H 10 O 6 + C 8 H 5 NO. 

Indigo blue. 

Myronic acid, Ci Hij,NS 2 Oio, is found in the form of the 
potassium salt in black mustard seed. When treated with 
myrosin, which is contained in the aqueous extract of white 
mustard seed, potassium myronate is converted into dextrose, 
allyl mustard oil, and potassium bisulphate : — 

C 10 H 18 NS 2 O 10 K = CgH^Oe + C 3 H 5 .NCS + KHS0 4 . 

Salicin, 1 oH 1 «O 7 , occurs in willow bark, and in the bark and 
leaves of poplars. Its decomposition into salicylic aldehyde 
and dextrose has been referred to (see preceding page) . 


Saponin, C 32 H 54 18 , is found in soap root (Saponaria offici- 
nalis). Its water solution forms a lather like that formed by 
soap. This property is frequently utilized for the purpose of 
giving to " soda water" the appearance of effervescence. 


The alkaloids are compounds occurring in plants, frequently 
constituting those parts of the plants which are most active 
when taken into the animal body. They are hence sometimes 
called the active principles of the plants. Many of these sub- 
stances are used in medicine. As regards their chemical char- 
acter, they are basic in the sense that ammonia is basic ; they 
contain nitrogen, and form salts, just as ammonia does, i.e., by 
direct addition to the acids. These and other facts lead to the 
belief that the alkaloids are related to ammonia — that they are 
substituted ammonias. Recently it has been shown that several 
of the alkaloids are related to pyridine (see p. 307) and quino- 
line (see p. 343) . Only a few of the more important alkaloids 
need be mentioned here. 

Alkaloids of Peruvian Bark. 

Quinine, C 2C H, 4 N 2 2 + 3 H 2 0. — This valuable substance is 
obtained from the outer bark of the Cinchona varieties. "When 
oxidized, it yields derivatives of pyridine. In view of the 
interest connected with quinine, the discovery of its relation to 
pyridine and quinoline has led to a large number of investiga- 
tions on the derivatives of these two bases, and it is probable 
that before long it will be possible to make quinine synthetically 
in the laboratory. 

The salts of quinine are formed by direct addition of the base 
to the acids. Thus, we have 

Quinine hydrochloride . C^H^NA . HC1 ; 
Quinine nitrate .... CaoH^NgOg . IIN0 3 ; 
Quinine sulphate . . . C^H 24 N 2 2 . H 2 S0 4 , etc., etc. 


Oinchonine, C 19 H 22 N 2 0, cinchonidine, Ci9H 22 N 2 0, and 

other bases occur with quinine in Peruvian bark. 

Cocaine, C 17 H 21 N04, is found in cocoa leaves (Erythroxylon 
coca). Very little is known regarding its chemical nature. Its 
hydrochloric acid salt, C 17 H 21 N0 4 .HC1, has recently come into 
prominence in medicine, owing to the fact that a small quantity 
of its solution placed upon the eye causes insensibility to pain. 

Nicotine, C 20 H H N 2 , occurs in tobacco leaves in combination 
with malic acid. Potassium permanganate converts it into 
nicotinic acid, which is one of the possible pyridine-monocar- 
bonic acids. 

Alkaloids of Opium. 

Opium is the evaporated sap which flows from incisions in 
the capsules of the white poppy (Papaver somniferum) , before 
they are ripe. The two principal alkaloids contained in opium 
are morphine and narcotine. 

Morphine, C 17 H 19 N0 3 + H 2 0, is a crystallizable solid which 
is difficultly soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. When de- 
composed, it yields pyridine, trimethyl- amine, and phenanthrene, 
together with other products. 

Narcotine, C 22 H 23 N0 7 , has been shown to contain three 
methyl groups, which are split off, as methyl chloride, when 
the substance is heated with hydrochloric acid. 

Piperine, Ci 7 H 19 N0 3 , is contained in black pepper. When 
treated with alcoholic potash, it breaks up into piperidine and 
piperic acid : — 

C 17 H 19 N0 3 + H 2 = C 5 H n N -f- C 12 H 10 O 4 . 

Piperidine. Piperic acid. 


Piperidine, C 5 H n N, which, as just stated, is formed by the 
decomposition of piperine, has been made synthetically by treat- 
ing piperidine with nascent lrydrogen : — 

C 5 H 5 N + 6 H = C 5 H U N. 

Pyridine. Piperidine. 

It may therefore be called hexa-hydropyridine (see p. 309) . 

Strychnine, C 21 H, ,N 2 2 , and brucine, C 23 H 26 N 2 04 + 4 ELO, 
are two alkaloids which occur in nux vomica. 

In the animal body occur a large number of complicated sub- 
stances, the study of which, at this stage, would hardly be 
profitable. Thus, there are the albumins, caseins, and fibrin ; 
the coloring-matters of the blood, oxyhamaglobin, hamaglobin, 
etc. It may be said that, notwithstanding the importance of 
these substances, our knowledge of their chemistry is quite 

The study of the composition of animal substances, such 
as milk, urine, etc., and of the relations of the chemical sub- 
stances occurring in the body to the processes of life, is the 
object of physiological chemistry. Without a good knowledge 
of the general chemistry of the compounds of carbon, however, 
the subjects treated under the head of Physiological Chemistry 
cannot be understood. 


Page 165. After ninth Hue from bottom, insert : — 

We have seen that the sulphonie acids and carbonic acids are 
analogous ; that, for example, methyl-sulphonic acid, CH 3 .S0 3 H, 
is analogous to methyl-carbonic or acetic acid, CH 3 .C(XH. 
Now, just as the hydroxy-acids above considered are derived 
from the carbonic acids by the introduction of hydroxyl, so we 
can imagine a series of hydroxy-acids derived in a similar way 
from the sulphonie acids. Only one such acid is well known, 
and it alone need be considered. It is — 

Isethionic acid, C 2 H 4 < „£„, also known as hydroxy - 

ethyl- sulphonie acid. In composition it is analogous to the 
hydroxy-propionic acids. It is prepared by passing sulphur 
trioxide into well-cooled alcohol or ether. 




Acetamide, 195. 
Acetates, 59. 
Acetic acid, 57. 
Acetic aldehyde, 46. 
Acetic anhydride, 61. 
Acetone, 70. 
Acetophenone, 305. 
Acetyl chloride, 61. 
Acetylene, 222. 
Acid, Acetic, 57. 

Aconitic, 221. 

Acrylic, 218. 

Adipic, 142. 

Alpha-toluic, 292. 

Amido-acetic, 192. 

Amido-benzoic, 289. 

Amido-caproic, 194. 

Amido-cinnamic, 327. 

Amido-formic, 191. 

Amido-isethionic, 194. 

Amido-succinic, 195. 

Angelic, 218. 

Anisic, 303. 

Aspartic, 195. 

Azelaic, 142. 

Barbituric, 204. 

Behenic, 130. 

Benzoic, 283. 

Brassylic, 142. 

Brom-propionic, 131. 

Butyric, 132. 

Capric, 129. 

Caproic, 129. 

Caprylic, 129. 

Acid, Carbamic, 191. 
Carbolic, 269. 
Carbonic, 156. 
Cerotic, 130. 
Chlor-acetic, 63. 
Chlor-propionic, 131. 
Cimic, 218. 
Cinnamic, 325. 
Citraconic, 221. 
Citric, 174. 
Crotonic, 219. 
Cyan-acetic, 141. 
Cyanic, 83. 
Cyan uric, 84. 
Dibrom-succinic, 172. 
Di-chlor-acetic, 63. 
Erucic, 218. 
Ethylene-lactic, 163. 
Ethylidene-lactic, 161. 
Fermentation lactic, 

Formic, 54. 
Fulmiuic, 102. 
Fumaric, 220. 
Gallic, 304. 
Glyceric, 166. 
Glycocholic, 158. 
Glycolic, 158. 
Glyoxylic, 170. 
Heptoic, 129. 
Hippuric, 291. 
Hydracrylic, 162. 
Hydro-cinnamic, 293. 
Hydrocyanic, 80. 
Hydrosorbic, 218. 
Hydroxy-succinic, 167. 

Acid, Hyenic, 130. 
Hypogaeic, 218. 
Isethionic, 357. 
Isobutyric, 133. 
Isophthalic, 296. 
Isosuccinic, 146. 
Itaconic, 221. 
Lactic, 160. 
Laurie, 130. 
Leinole'ic, 227. 
Male'ic, 220. 
Malic, 167. 
Malonic, 142, 144. 
Margaric, 130. 
Melissic, 130. 
Mellitic, 297. 
Mesaconic, 221. 
Mesitylenic, 293. 
Mesoxalic, 170. 
Mucic, 176. 
Myristic, 130. 
Naphthoic, 341. 
Nitro-benzoic, 288. 
Nitro-cinnamic, 327. 
Nitro - phenyl- propio- 

lic, 328. 
Nonoic, 129. 
Octoic, 129. 
Oleic, 219. 
Oxalic, 142. 
Oxaluric, 204. 
Oxybenzoic, 302. 
Palmitic, 134. 
Parabanic, 203. 




Acid, Pelargonic, 129. 

Phenyl-acetic, 292. 

Phenyl-propiolic, 328. 

Phthalic, 295. 

Picric. 272. 

Pimelic, 142. 

Piperic, 355. 

Propiolic, 226. 

Propionic, 131. 

Protocatechuic, 303. 

Prussic, 80. 

Pyrogallic, 277. 

Pyrotartaric, 142, 147. 

Racemic, 172. 

Roccellic, 142. 

Saccharic, 170. 

Salicylic, 298. 

Sarcolactic, 161. 

Sebacic, 142. 

Sorbic, 226. 

Stearic, 134. 

Styphnic, 276. 

Suberic, 142. 

Succinic, 142, 144. 

Sulpho-cyanic, 84. 

Tannic, 304. 

Tartaric, 171. 

Tartronic, 167. 

TaurocholiC; 194. 

Teracrylic, 218. 

Terephthalic, 296. 

Tetrolic, 226. 

Tolnic, 292. 

Tri-carballylic, 152. 

Tri-chlor-acetic, 63. 

Trimesitic, 246. 

Uric, 205. 

Uvitic, 246. 

Vanillic, 304. 

Valeric, 133. 
Aconitic acid, 221. 
Acrolein, 216. 
Acrylic acid, 218. 

aldehyde, 216. 
Adipic acid, 142. 
Aesculin, 352. 

Alcohols, 34. 

Di-acid, 136. 

Hex-acid, 153. 

Primary, 122. 

Secondary, 121. 

Tertiary, 124. 

Tetr-acid, 152. 

Tri-acid, 147. 
Aldehyde ammonia, 48. 
Aldehydes, 46, 128. 
Alizarin, 349. 
Alkaloids, 354.- 
Allanto'in, 205. 
Alloxan, 205. 
Ally] alcohol. 214. 


mustard oil, 215. 

sulphide, 215. 
Alpha-toluic acid, 292. 
Amido-acetic acid, 192 
Amido-acids, 190. 
Amido-benzene, 260. 
Amido-benzoic acids, 289. 
Amido - cinnamic acids, 

Amido-formic acid, 191, 
Amido-toluenes, 261. 
Amygdalin. 352. 
Amyl alcohols, 126. 
Amylene, 211. 
Angelic acid, 218. 
Aniline, 2(50. 

dyes, 315. 
Anisic acid, 303. 
Anthracene, 346. 
Anthranilic acid, 289. 
Anthrapurpurin, 350. 
Anthraqninone, 348. 

acids, 349. 
Arachidic acid, 130. 
Arsenic-methyl com- 
pounds, 104. 
Asparagine, 198. 
Aspartic acid, 195. 
Azelaic acid, 142. 


Barbituric acid, 204. 
Behenic acid, 130. 
Benzal chloride. 256. 
Benzaldehyde, 281. 
Benzene, 231. 

Dinitro, 259. 

Hexa-chlor, 253. 

hexachloride, 254. 
Benzene-sulphonic acid, 

Benzine, 110. 
Benzoic acid, 283. 

Amido-, 289. 

Hydroxy-, 298. 

aldehyde, 281. 
Benzophenone, 305. 
Benzojtf chloride, 287. 
Benzyl alcohol, 279, 
• cyanide, 287. 
Bibrom-benzene, 254. 
Bitter-almond oil, 281 
Biuret, 202. 
Boiling-point, 8. 
Borneo camphor, 311- 
Borneol, 311. 
Brassylic acid, 142. 
Brom-ethane, 29. 
Brom-methane, 27. 
Bromoform, 28. 
Brom-propionic acid, 131. 
Brucine, 356. 
Butane, 20, 108, 114. 
Butter, 151. 
Butyl alcohols, 123. 
Butylene, 211. 
Butyric acid, 132. 


Cacodyl, 103. 

compounds, 104. 
Caffeine, 206. 
Camphor, 311. 

Artificial, 311. 
Cane sugar, 182. 



Capric acid, 129. 
Caproic acid, 129. 
Caprylic acid, 129. 
Caramel, 183. 
Carbamic acid, 191. 
Carbamide, 200- 
Carbamines, 88. 
Carbohydrates, 177. 
Carbolic acid, 269 
Casein, 356. 
Cellulose, 185. 
Cerotic acid, 130. 
Chlor-acetic acid, 63. 
Chloral, 53. 

hydrate, 53. 
Chlor-ethane, 29. 
Chlorhydrin, 149- 
Chlor-methane, 27. 
Chloroform, 28. 
Chlor-propionic acid, 131. 
Cholic acid, 194. 
Cimicic acid, 218. 
Cinchonidine, 355. 
Cinchonine, 355. 
Ciuuamic acid, 325. 

Amido-, 327. 

Nitro-, 327. 
Citric acid, 174. 
Coal tar, 230. 
Cocaine, 355. 
Collidine, 307. 
Coumarin, 327. 
Creatine, 199. 
Creatinine, 200. 
Cresols, 274. 
Crotonic acid, 219. 
Cuminic aldehyde, 283. 
Cuminol, 283. 
Cuminyl alcohol, 281. 
Cyan-acetic acid, 141. 
Cyan-amides, 199. 
Cyanates, 90. 
Cyanic acid, 83. 
Cyanides, 86. 
Cyanogen, 79. 

chlorides, 83. 

Cyanuric acid, 84. 
Cymene, 250. 
Cymogene, 110. 

Dextrin, 189. 

Dextrose, 177. 

Di-acetamide, 197. 

Diazo-benzene com- 
pounds, 262. 

Di-chlor-acetic acid, 63. 

Dichlorhydrin, 149. 

Di-cyan-diamide, 199. 

Di-methyl-amine, 95. 

Di-methyl-benzene, 241. 

Di-methyl-carbinol, 127. 


Di-methyl-ketone, 70. 


Di-methyl-xanthine, 206. 

Dinitro-benzene, 259. 

Dioxindol, 331. 

Diphenyl, 333. 

Di-phenyl-methane, 313. 

Diphenyl ether, 271. 

Dipropargyl, 227. 

Dodecane, 108. 

Dulcite, 154. 

Durene, 231. 

Dynamite, 151. 


Eosin, $22. 
Erucic acid, 218. 
Erythrite, 152. 
Ethane, 20, 24. 
Ether, 42. 
Ethereal salts, 66. 
Ethers, Formation of, 41. 
Ethers, Compound, 66. 

Mixed, 45. 
Ethyl acetate, 68. 

alcohol, 37. 

aldehyde, 46. 

Ethyl bromide, 29. 

carbamine, 88. 

carbinol, 127. 

chloride, 29. 

cyanide, 86. 
Ethylene, 211. 

chloride, 32. 

cyanide, 145. 

glycol, 136. 

lactic acid, 164. 
Ethyl ether, 42. 
Ethylidene chloride, 32, 

Ethyl iodide, 29. 

isocyanide, 88. 

isosulphocyanate, 92. 

mercaptan, 74. 

methyl ether, -±5. 

mustard oil, 92. 

nitrate, 68. 

phosphate, 68. 

phosphoric acid, 68. 

sulphate, 68. 

sulphuric acid, 42, 68. 


Fats, 151. 

Fatty acids, 129. 

Fehling's solution, 180. 

Fermentation, 38. 
Alcoholic. 38. * 
Lactic acid, 38. 

Ferments, 38. 

Ferricyanogen com- 
pounds, 82. 

Ferrocyanogen com- 
pounds, 81. 

Flashing-point, 110. 

Fluorescein, 321. 

Formic acid, 54. 
aldehyde, 46. 

Formula, constitutional, 

Formula, Determination 
of, 12. 

Fruit sugar, 181. 



Fuchsine, 317. 
Fulminates, 102. 
Fulminic acid, 102. 
Fumaric acid, 220. 


Galactose, 182. 
Gallic acid, 304. 
Gasoline, 110. 
Glucose, 177. 
Glucosides, 352. 
Glyceric acid, 166. 
Glycerin, 147. 
Glycine, 158, 192. 
Glycocholic acid, 158. 
Glycocoll, 192. 
Glycolic acid, 158. 
Glycols, 136. 
Glyoxylic acid, 170. 
Grape sugar, 177. 
Guanidine, 199. 
Guanine, 206. 
Gums, 189. 
Gun cotton, 186. 

Hecdecane, 108. 
Helicin, 353. 
Heptanes, 108. 
Heptyl alcohols, 128. 
Heptoic acid, 129. 
Hexanes, 20, 108, 116. 
Hexyl alcohols, 128. 
Hexylene, 211. 
Hippuric acid, 291. 
Homology, 20, 108. 
Hydracrylic acid, 162. 
Hydrazines, 99. 
Hydro-carbostyril, 294. 
Hydro-cinnamic acid, 293. 
Hydrocyanic acid, 80. 
Hydroquinone, 276. 
Hydrosorbic acid, 218. 
Hydroxy fatty acids, 155. 
Hydroxy succinic acids, 

Hyenic acid, 130. 
Hypogaeic acid, 218. 

Indican, 353. 
Indigo, 329. 
Indigo-blue, 330. 
Indigo-white, 331. 
Inversion, 183. 
Invert sugar, 183. 
Iodo-ethane, 29. 
Iodo-methane, 27. 
Iodoform, 28. 
Isatine, 289. 
Isethionic acid, 357. 
Isobutane, 114. 
Isobutyl alcohol, 124. 
Isobutyric acid, 133. 
Isocyanates, 90. 
Isocyanides, 88. 
Isohexane, 117. 
Isomerism, 31. 

Physical, 163. 
Isonitroso compounds, 

Isopentane, 116. 
Isophthalic acid, 296. 
Isopropyl alcohol, 120. 
Isopurpurin, 350. 
Isosuccinic acid, 146. 
Iso-sulpho-cyantes, 91. 
Itacouic acid, 221. 

K. , 

Kerosene, 110. 
Ketones, 70. 

Lactic acids, 160. 
Lactose, 184. 
Laurie acid, 130. 
Laurinol, 311. 
Leucine, VM. 
Levulose, 181. 
Lutidine, 307. 


Male'ic acid, 220. 
Malic acid, 167. 
Malonic acid, 142, 144. 
Malonyl urea, 204. 
Maltose, 185. 
Mannite, 153. 
Margaric acid, 130. 
Marsh gas, 20, 23. 
Melissic acid, 130. 
Mellitic acid, 297. 
Melting-points, 8. 
Mercaptans, 74. 
Mercury ethyl, 105. 

fulminate, 102. 
Mesaconic acid, 221. 
Mesitylene, 246. 
Mesitylenic acid, 293. 
Mesoxalic acid, 170. 
Metaldehyde, 49. 
Metamerism, 31. 
Methane, 20, 23. 
Methyl alcohol, 34. 

aldehyde, 46. 

amine, 94. 

bromide, 27. 

chloride, 27. 

cyanide, 86. 

iodide, 27. 
Methyl-phenyl ether, 271. 
Methyl-phosphine, 103. 
Methyl-phosphinic acid, 

Methyl-sulphuric acid, 68. 
Methylene iodide, 27. 
Milk sugar, 184. 
Morphine, 355. 
Mucic acid, 176. 
Mustard-oils, 91. 
Myron ic acid, 353. 
My rosin, 353. 


Naphtha, 110. 
Naphthalene. 334. 



Naphthols, 341. 
Naphthoquinone, 342. 
Narcotine, 355. 
Nicotine, 309, 355, 
Nitriles, 87. 
Nitro-benzene, 258. 
Nitro-benzoic acids, 288. 
Nitro-cellulose, 186. 
Nitro-chloroform, 101. 
Nitro-cinnamic acids, 

Nitroform, 101. 
Nitrogen, Estimation, 11. 
Nitro-glycerin, 151. 
Nitro-methane, 100. 
Nitroso-compounds, 101. 
Nitro-toluenes, 259. 
Nonane, 108. 


Octane, 108. 
Octyl alcohol, 128. 
Oils, Drying, 227. 
Olefiant gas, 211. 
Ole'ic acid, 219. 
Ole'in, 151. 
Opium bases, 355. 
Orcein, 277. 
Orcin, 277. 
Oxalates, 144. 
Oxalic acid, 142. 
Oxaluric acid, 204. 
Oxalyl urea, 203. 
Oxindol, 293. 
Oxybenzoic acid, 302. 


Palmitic acid, 134. 
Palmitin, 151. 
Paper, 187. 
Parabanic acid, 203. 
Para-cyanogen, 80. 
Paraffin, 110. 
Paraffins, 108. 
Paraldehyde, 49. 

Para - oxybenzoic acid, 

Para-rosaniline, 316. 
Para - oxybenzoic acid , 

Pentanes, 20, 108, 116. 
Pentyl alcohols, 125. 
Petroleum, 109. 
Phenanthrene, 350. 
Phenol, 269. 

Nitro, 272. 

phthalein, 318. 

Tri-nitro, 272. 
Phenyl acetate, 271. 
Phenylacetic acid, 292. 
Phenyl-acetylene, 328. 
Phenyl-acrylic acid, 325. 
Phenyl-amine, 200. 
Phenyl-ethyl alcohol, 281. 
Phenyl-mercaptan, 273. 
Phenyl-propyl alcohol, 

Phosphines, 103. 
Phthaleins, 318. 
Phthalic acid, 294. 

anhydride, 295. 
Picoline, 307. 
Picric acid, 272. 
Pimelic acid, 142. 
Piperic acid, 355. 
Piperidine, 309, 356. 
Piperine, 355. 
Polymerism, 31. 
Primary alcohols, 122. 
Propane, 20. 
Propargyl alcohol, 225. 
Propionic acid, 130. 
Propyl alcohol, 120. 
Propylene, 211. 
Protocatechuic acid, 303. 
Prussic acid, 80. 
Pseudocumene, 249. 
Purpurin, 350. 
Pyridine, 307. 
Pyrocatechin, 275. 
Pyrogallic acid, 277. 

Pyrogallol, 277. 
Pyrotartaric acid, 142, 

Pyroxylin, 186. 


Quercite, 152. 
Quinine, 354. 
Quinoline, 343. 
Quinone, 306. 

Racemic acid, 172. 
Resorcin, 275. 
Resorcin-phthalein, 321. 
Rhigolene, 110. 
Roccellic acid, 142. 
Rosaniline, 317. 

Saccharic acid, 176. 
Salicin, 353. 
Salicylic acid, 298. 
Salicylic aldehyde, 300. 
Salicylid, 302. 
Saponification, 69. 
Saponin, 354. 
Sarcosine, 193. 
Sebacic acid, 142. 
Secondary alcohols, 121. 
Soaps, 135. 
Sodium ethyl, 104. 
Sorbic acid, 226. 
Starch, 187. 
Stearic acid, 134. 
Stearin, 151. 
Strychnine, 356. 
Styphuric acid, 276. 
Styrene, 323. 
Styryl alcohol, 324. 
Suberic acid, 142. 
Substitution, 26. 
Succinic acid, 142, 144. 

anhydride, 146. 
Sugar of milk, 184. 



Sulphocyanie acid, 84. 
Sulpho-cyanates, 91. 
Sulphonie acids, 70. 
Sulpho urea, 204. 
Sulphur ethers. 75. 


Tannic acid, 301. 
Tannin, 304. 

Tartaric acid, 171. 
Tartronic acid, 167. 
Taurine, 191 
Taurocholic acid, 104. 
Terehenthene, 310 
Terephthalic acid, 20G 
Terpenes, 300. 
Tertiary alcohols, 1J4. 
Tertiary hutyl alcohol. 

Tetra-chlor-metli i 
Tetra - methyl - methane, 

Theiine, 20a 
Theobromine, 200. 

Thymol. 274. 

Tolu balsam. 240. 

Toluene, 240. 
Amido, 201. 
! Toluic acids, 202. 
i Toluidines. 201. 

Tolyl carbinol, 281. 
I Tri-acetamide, 197. 

Tri-brom-phenol, 272. 

Tri-carballylic acid. 152 

Tri-chlor-aeetic acid. I '■',. 

Trichlorhydrin, 14'J. 

Trimesitic acid. . 

Tri-methyl-amiiic. ;«;. 

Tri-methyl-carbinol. 127. 



Tri-nitro-methane, 104. 

Tri-nitro -phenol. 273. 



Turpentine, 310. 

Unsaturated compounds, 

Urea. 200. 
Uric acid, 2C5. 
Uvitic acid. 246. 

Valeric acids, 133. 
Valylene, 227. 

Vanillic acid, 304. 
Vanillin, 304. 


Wood spirits, 34. 


Xanthine. 2- 5 
Xanthogenic acid, 157. 

I 241. 
Xylidines, 2 


Zinc ethyl, 104. 


Science QD 253 . R37 
Remsen, I ra , 1846-1927. 

A oVt n h. POductlon to the et "*y 

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