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Dr. Frank E. eialsdaU 





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Ov^WU, iflSi. ey J. & Ainidv A Cb. 

CopTrlgtit Tenawai), iftS, by Williav O^ Ph-k, 


WR i^viiioH of "* P«rk'f GfLiiot*' irw begnn bj Mr. 
BrBBA>'K ill tho Kpriaf; of IMO, ftnd ^ompldUd by him 
as f^r a« t!M7 Mibjcci of ** tialLoomng/' on pAg9 161, 
wlicti tlw |»Po;;i-fti« of iho wcrk waa interrLi|>tvd bj- his 
d^aitEi. Thp riTTiMnit of t1i« Kmalnla^ jiortiuna U my 
oan irork. 

Tbe MMnUal eJmnL(^l4>iiHi» nnrt g^n^ml pUn of tJw 
hoak bav«, M» far u postiiblo, b^n rcUtino^l, but At 
Uie ntD« time laanv parU hiivcr l>^n i^tirv^ly mwritten. 
ViRch novr matter iuIJlv], h tjirgr niimhrf of n<:w ciiU 
intr<«lj>crd, «nd lli^ ^holo cr^tntise iboroit^hly rri\ised 
Hiul hnKi^bt into luirmony with ibe [frrsrnt iidrmiced 

Among tbe nuw foaUir^s dttAigned to atd th teacbing 
the attbj««t<mQU«r, arc ebc sutnitiari^a of topics, whkb, 
it it Uiwt^bt, will Iw frmnd rccy coiiT^oi^fit in »boti 

As maitv t^acliiTB prvf«r to prcpsiro their own qviM* 
tlonH on the teict* wnil mniij do not have lime w ^jx^nd 
in tii« voluHxMi of pTobIf-m<, it h«i» bm*rj ilwmfvl eiL^ 



dient to insert both the review questions nnd problems 

lit the end of the volutae, to be used or not at the dis- 
cretion of tlie instructor. 

I desire to acknowledge my obligAttons to all who 
hftTo in Rny way given me aid and ndvice in the ptvp- 
aration of this revision, and especially to Professor 
PbckhAh, of Adt^lplki Academy, lirooklyii« N. Y., ^vLo 
has kindly looked over many of the proof-slieeta, and 
furnished me with valuable suggestions. 

WoBuiN. JuLr, 1881. 



Thk rapid spread of «jcifrntifir knowlodf^, sliicI Uig 
contimmlly ivi<ft'ntng field ot \U uppHoution to tlic 
useful arU, liai'O croatfttl tM incuKWJctl deiuaiKl for new 
luid improved texMnH^ks on the vwrioun bnii;cht^N of 
Natural pHtwwii'iiV. 

or lUv iflinueiiLttry v<nk& ili;it haivo nppmin^ within 
ft few yenre, thos^of M. Gakot itAfii preeminent, not 
only Aft pf>i>u]Ar UvaiiiM, Lut i\a ihorougbly »ci^ntifi« 
r^xpo^itions of tijc principles of PtiVHice. Hi&"Trrtil^ 
ili; PliTHi<|T]i* " li*Lt not only mirt witli uiiprrrcdi^nlctl 
ftiiccMtt ici Frnoc^i but hnv Itof^i extejisWely nsed iit 
tlw |ir»fmniluiii »f thi^ Iichc ^ork* on Ph}'!i!^A tJuit 
bckvj^ bem iwued from the American pr^9i. 

In luEUitioti to tbo ** Tnuli5 tie Phy.iiqm^" vhicli in 
Intended for itie uw of Collej^oB and hifjioi- inatJtutioDe 
of lortminC' ^1' f»A?ioT hiijt rcrrntlT pibliMicd » motx' 
«Icme£iUx7 noils, nflupkd to Lfie na« of aohoob &od 
ncftdcmio*, in wtiicli bo W fjuti^fuHy prMcrrod tbo 
proinmei^t fmtiires Aiii all llio hcienllllo nccui-itL-y of 
tlw lar^ur work. It li cb^iniL-tcriT^ bv » wpll-lmZmiGCii 



ilistribittmn of wil>jprt8, a logical development <if «olen- 
til]€^ pnucipW^ jinrl it riMnni'kEiMo deuiTiesE of doriiiition 
Aiid cxpUnnlLon, In a<IilitioiL^ it la profuscLy illu^lmttKl 
with b<rautifully executed vngrtiviti^, ndmirdbJy cdlcii' 
JaUd U> convey to tlio iiimkI t>f the »iudent ii tlear 
conception of tlir [n']iK:i|ili?n unfolJtd. Tlirir complete* 
nesH attd ai.'CiiiHC'^ are i^Hcli &h Ijj 4?iiaEile like Tvaclier to 
df»pcaiw ^vitli much of thi^ tippiii-atuii uHu:dly employed 
in teaoliin^ (lie «k*i^ientJi of I'liysicAl Sei^Licc. 

Ill propririn^ lui AfTiuhcun uditiuii of thid wi^rk »n 
Ponxan PltVSRi^, it ha^ nut been the aim of tit*; 
editor to prtxlui^i! a otrict tranjdiLtion. No i^ffoil, how- 
evi;i\ liH-i hp*'ii hjMivd Ic pn-nervc llimii^lmiii, ihn *pint 
and iin'thcw.1 of the f^rigiiia) work. No L'ljiiii^'s huv« 
be^u made, except auch a3 hiive aeomed eiUcabt^ to 
hunnontKc It witb tlia «y4toni of iiiftt^iiction pui'»uvf(1 in 
tlic »Gbrx>U of our ccvLtnlrr. 

By a npL-cial ju-r;mg^mcnt ^vilh M. Oaxot, the Aiuut- 
ican publiati«r» ui« eaabli-d Lu yivvM^til /iu>iiiaiiU i^i>\Hvtt 
of all the ari^nai i-tigmviugi^. 

Kiw voKc. Jufit 1, am. 


L Flow or Liquiiw llfl 

II. Water as a Motite Tower , , - 110 

III. ilUcUi:i£8 FO4 KAlBJTiO WATUa - - - 121 


L The Ammf-nEiTK 125 


HI PCUPB AND OTHER Macuineh 142 

IV. Application to Balloo^eso ........... 162 




IL Musical SomM 182 

III- Optical Stddt of Socndh. — Mcmcal IsBTfttrHEsTB. — 

The IIduan Voice asd Eab— Tue Fhonogkapu . 197 

niAlTlCR VII. 
[IK AT. 

I. fiKVEnAL Propehtim of Heat ....,..,.. 212 


HI- Laws of Expansion ov Solidb^ LiQrri*, xnv Cases . 226 

IV. DiFFVJiioN OF Heat 235 

V^. CiiAsoEOF State of Bodies by Fusion ANi-CoNiiKLATiow 249 

VI. Vapoiizatio:*, — Elastic Force of Vapoh* - , . . . 255 
VIL CONIIENP4TION OF Gases asd Vaporr, — flpKOirir Heat, 

— Sot:rce!> op He.\t awd Cold , , 208 


IX. llTuko^ETnv-— IIaj?(,— Dew — Wikd». — 8ional iStivicB £U6 



1 Cexeral PrincipIhEb ............... S12 

II. Ueflecttos OF LiouT. — ■ .MiRBORa. ...--... an 

III. Refhactios of Light. —* I-enses 337 

IV. Decomposition op Lioht. — Colors of RoniEA . . , 359 





r^Rf J. — MAOirKtliiM, 

t KATVUtor KLKcruciTT. — GEHiLti-I'ftorEftTiuarAfAtf- 
Mi* 404 

n. TUNamWUl. M4UVKtll*H-— CCWPAMliJl , . 411) 

IJI. MbtuOex or iHPAmTmu Ujrii»i;tfttK , . - , . . . 41U 

I. Ki-vcTBiCAL Piioruntii;« . ' ....... 420 

IL l*ui<:iri.ii or bl'UCTin?* -^ ]'«L£«:TircAiL HjiciiisiRfi , ^ 433 

Itl^ EiraviviHM wim TiiK ICtDcrniL^ Mhli^iiivk .... 44a 

]V. AiaotriiBfti^] KiHrraitiirr ..,.,, 4fi!l 

IL Arrur^ii'"** or ^Ai_rA«ii.~ r^iJ^cTiitt'iTT -.>..• 4T9 

Itt. l^lUDiHHklXL PKl^l'iri.lL* 0»' Kl M Tlri.>-KA<*1ltTlBIC , - 47B 

LV- KiUTvDii4avi.-Ti-- Trmittpiirir — ^ 'L'liK Kr-K'iiiO'M'ir'^ 480 

V. btPVCTVWi' — MA»hK1i>ILtl;VTk»(^iri'^ — TllUU>K>^kLnTllJ' 
e«TI l',7 



?|<urCKT1IC« <ll- IIArTKW 


I. Phy^icfl— Physical Agents- — XAtrKAL Pniiiia- 
optir, on l*iiVBR-^, U\-aX.s nf iKo ^-tirml iimpcrtiiw of 
Ixidit^ and tif ihr cnii»(-» llmt inodif)' thcMr |it<i|>crlic9( 
witliDUt filtering Uieh conatitiition. 

Tlio priucipal ciiuscs that mtKlify lljc propciti(** of 

Tlicw c&uaei» &t^ calkd Pftyt^U^tl A^ni^ or F&rvt9, 

1. A Body b A colWtk>n of EnaUrinl pfiitickfi; 44 a 
•loiM-. or Mock or Qoorl, A body whicb !■ vaLC<»cdin0y 

3h Molecules and Atoms. — B'KtSi'b nre mAde up of 

poacrl of «til] ncnjillcr dctmrciUf called A4ami. 

A saekcole S« ih^ »cn»Ibtl p*vrtlcl« «f injUtirr llfil can nruit 1>)r 

Aa ttbem ib llie urnAll**! partjVl* ot inalKt- that oaa oalal In 

A iiK^«4^v miiy i^jDii'krt nf Iwu nr more utoiuo t^ tbo Biun« kimt 
<ifuau*v; (If It aiMj lie ntnifotr*!] of K-vtn] ntoiiiv of (liflVrvnt kiuils: 

gknehal vnof'tmriBs rty matteb. 

•mtlum i^^mbkneiit witl) Jin KtJim i-f rTiTonnc. 

■ Ati-iiL» lire ji^iu^d and h&Ltl tngcibct V " ^^'1 '^'^ nUrACtimj nllcd 

I 4. M^ag And Density. — Th« Ma^ or a bodj* IB llie 
H quanr-ity or mflU^r which It contAiikdt. 

The Di^WMTT i>t a body i* Uic degree of c-loAtneM of \Xm 

DifTc^r^ui iKhlir^, hnvlikc the miiho voJumOf ^oiitniu vrrj rhlTrTciil 
«|nnnTltli>]i ikf trkniKT ; fur ftT^implpT 71 niMr lurh nf Imiil miujilnm 
ncnrEy i'l»T*rti tiiiii* >u tiifi*th tmiTl^r hji n palijp ini^h *if water. ITio 
injWTA of hihlli's Arr itf^^pririioiirtl bi iliL-tt wrii^liti, 

Thnoe bodiea iiJ wliicli ibf ]i>itti<ilr^ nn* dviHi k>Rtrthvr OPP «»ld If* 
bii \tnixf : tiiup, plHlinnm »iHf ujcrrury mm' fifnjir IhkIiiw. 'J'luiwf hi 
H'liioh lh« |>nnicli.-4 mv ool rl^iWi tcgHhtr aw hluI t« bu ranr ; ihui, 
vtfwni unil nir nre ranr bmllrH' Tliir dchfiiii-s (if tHHtii-^ hivlriJE ihii 

5< Threo Sutes of Bodies, ^riodlnfi mny ovut in 

Solid Uflli<<9 leml t<> ii.-Ui]i u ]H'rriiAii<*iit form, bet^uau 
llicir uiolf^ciilcii arc hcM UiB^Uif r In foicf* of Atti'Jiclbti wbLcli 
Br« givali-r thnn the rn|>clknt forccji Lime nould ictid to eepA- 

Ill LfijLiiv the aUr»ctivc nml rrp>^]|iri>t foivp* are nnuly 
bAhiiiccd, Olid tluiir moloculcsiDioiv&i^GlyQrrioniionc nnotbcr. 
~ L^iii<i» liAvo no toriilchoy to tvtuin a pnrmanont form, but 
nuitnio Hi oiKV the furm of ihir oouUinhig vftm-l. 

Jn Ai;hihikii htMliun llic rqkcIk-Jil an; moiv iHivrrrful r.lian 
tht' ALti^cliiv forci-fl, ftjiil tltvir tiiolvculrn connlAittty tj^nrl t>) 
Mparutc jiml otvu|)y a grenL-r spaoi*. Atr nnd nil ^atfi nnd 
Vftpfirt ni'O i-Tnrn{il<*K nf ai^rifonn IkTHliei*. 

TljcLtiiii Fuai>i« flp|j1i«iltoliQlhKi|iii<laijdAcrLfoiTnbp(IicfL. 

MtfUj lulir* iiiuy tiiBt iiirtviyiiueiirLlit' \\in^- MhIo hi numnmu- 
ThuAi if l» Lc LMt4iJ milil thu r«^U«ui ^'mm ImIhuo* ibuao of «K 


THi: x^rmc systhm, 6 

liMtlatt, U ffuttt iaco the lifjuM vUit nod b«comc< vr^Utt tf Mill 
mon beat W ftppVicii. l)i? rojit^Ecitt foivtA pivviul uvt^ tfaow of ni- 
Inativft, uuJ it ptueus klu lite eufc vf auiMr nuil becvii^tv ^Jnam- 

6. TUo moat liniH^rtnnl ]tt\i)>i.-i'lios ^liicb eiH boilics posaoiM 
: Kxietieioii, U\ijglit. lLiip.'n(>trat»i]ily, Itj^riu. Forovily. 
lllrlslliniGy, Com[>n>«iitbl]ky> KvpnnHlUlilty, and Etn«liolly. 

7- Ektcnsian^ia Ujc pmpcrly l>>- vlrtnc of wUicI* o body 

Ti» MViipjr tfXKrf A lH4Jy iiiiJHT tkhL'» Lh(« iliiit'L i]^riiMi*ion4, Tpn^rtba 

8* EnglUh Measure^- — For lliv jHTqinHO i>r intaidHng 
Uiv ilziiiuu£tiujiH Iff UaIkt* a ^1aluUKL tinit ul' leu^j U uiwiKft. 

la En^Tiini! iiml Uii* t'ui<n1 ^Uilr^^ llu ynrtf lm> Ih«q udoptnJ lu 
the «U>^nl uiiJl, nnij H'itli Ub «|iviauiu uid imiliLpW id >n wiriiaaQ 

g. The Metric System, — 'this nt-sUm U b ;;cucnil 11*0 
ID KraiKv iNil ill iiiuil or lliL- cuiiJiJiii-'i of Eiji«(jc. 

It U ^liiplvd by w:i**[il[fi(^ MiiLri's pvi-r>««)iciv. and will 
|Wi)lM]biy ftociii comv into ^raoral ua- lUixi(ii;;]i<^ul Ibe cliilUcU 
tvoffltl. Ita 11^^ in ihc] Luitcri Suir>J Itnn bt^ou W^allxotl by 
art <>f Coti)(r«*B, 

T^ attil Iff ihU «yil4in ■■ ihr mrf^r. wh:«li i« Ili« t«it-miJUi>nih 
(■art of a^t^iittriLiluf tliot irimilLiu vi iW* <flrtL which ^mMn tlnjn^lj 
Plihfe- ll ii ifiiinl i'i <IEl-i17 iiirli***, muirly- 

lu JhitimiB fiuii riti;hi|i|c^ vn:; itj n tcufnU rntw, auii fniHi 
tbeao all Iba uifiuurM uf smi'f'jinv vtJiiijiLv, itiid wiu^ht am tliirit^. 
Tljr nmnrntLiIuni !■ fUrlviU U\nit (he C>ri«-k uid Laliu nuiiiLTali. 
TV iiirt-k prrtlie* Jcki <JU). lirVVu flUU). kilo (^fNMl). ami inyrin 
(10iOUU>, -irT i;W fur li>r iitHjfij>f<v« iin>l Ihr J^ini (irvtiiirt Java (|^)| 
fwati (|t(). "liMi (in^Ai), uf ii*<i<tk bir iW j/rVifrOM .if ihi* milt. 

10. Metric Measures of Length. — In Uu' fbllnwlng 
lablt Ibe »6%vniLl ilcnrauitiaUoniL of tliicai mcxi^irc avc ^U«dk 



in tlioir mrler, wLtIi Ut<' Kiisftiab «qiilvfUL-uu. and xLc nbbraTi- 

II Mimiiiei«T (mmj — D.UUl in. ^ ir.in037 iueb 

I 3frffr (hi.) =1. »..= yy.a? 

I ni<kAmM«r (Iliii,) = lUin, = :tD,f.7 

J llrkluuiol^r Olu>,} ^ |0l> i». = :i2tri^. I lu. 

I Kitnrii»l«r (Kih.J = IIXN) in. = It^llt. 

I M_vimrjirror <Miiu>=^ lOnOUni. ^ rJ.SIUTt^ilu 

" ^ lu tUi? Hgurc m lljc uinn^u *-U(<lc<Jknf1cr b 

i^ouiiiBPi'J Willi u wiiIp cf tudiRL \\ will bu 
bi-ti|j ttujl till' lUviiHoUr u « litlJo Um dim 4 

Wiih tli4> fu|iuirp iiii*«r finl tlin rulwi tncl^r 
M untuitUli1i»>irer<iijj4(rui-tiU fur tlM'BiWLiirut 
uf larliicQ nu&lrWuiiw, in tbo uunowvyiuwitb 
ihi) I%it|(li»L iiL«i4j>iifVA; ib« mciu JOU (lU^ 
Iwliii^ ii*od i\rf vLirfacD mmuutw, tiiifi liXIU 
(10*), fur iiJuiuw. 

TliUB, 100 e()UiirD Lnilliievt^m = ] *r]iiHn* 
rn^riiTjolL^r, vXc, JOOU rtiW uiUNm^Lfitft =^ 
[ ctiLiij ccmtiTiiAtor, «U. 

II. Measures of Capacity. — For 

•vvlfin niv ftohl li)- dry or llqtild iDuuufv, 

lli» iiitU lulnjiU-ct bt tljc tiUr^ nliicb l^a equal 

Uf one culik jL-cimcU-T. 
The d<rQoiniiiatloiiP ivra aa foU^tra. 

Balio 10. 

I MUUliTpr (ml.)™ I «uWe (^aliuNfT 

I OriUlHrr (rl.) a: 10 " 

I n<sdfil*r (dIO * inil " 

I /-iWr 0) = lOUO " " 

1 D«halltor (Dl)^ Id 

i tlckloUur (111.) = lii») 

I KiUii«r <Kl.t = I '* HMUr 



Fli. I. 


13. Weight. — A bfflly follii, when n^l !Hit4ioH«l, bcrnueifi 
It U ftllrnctc^l toKiinl iUv i'i.-iilii^ of ihv t^uKli, U'Iioil It rcftU 
ii|iufi [iiiolluT IhhK ur vipitii 1 1 14- xurfriEV* n)' ilii' 4'mi1Ii, IIh tt'iw 
(lencj to fall ie ui>t Lk*ti-o) liI, ajiil it iJiej'*^"* iluni^wartl willi 
n forcp proporlk'iioil to the ilferof tn wljirli il i* nlliacEcit. 

Hcn<'4' Wfight is \\\t' Mtasurc of lip farlfi\ vJtrafftton. T!u* 
Lt'rrii n^oi)clit U iHiEnin<jitl,v iiwr} In Uiii ]iaiili-<l iiei>»(-. liiit, idiuv 
tJic nUiDctioii of icmritali^i ih tmUx-rs-nl, a Uuti vruuld barv 
weiffbt ir pluCT^tl t^n tw- iK-ar iLy cfUifaL^o of U03' ol" the |4bnt>ta 
cu' otlit^J' bcRV4>Tt1y builifn. 

Till* ■rilti>r vrriifbr in \\it-. Kn^jlish syttc^n U tliu HvoiHfifiE>i^ poiiihl 
nf TifOn ^nlUk tn thr MHri" i*yitpiri IW miil niUt|i1iii iw iho ryivur, 

gTPAlMl dplljhy, fhit is »iT iTx' ij-iiiprTfllNiv ^if <EI,:J'^ FhlmniliHl UT 
4* Onii^ilr. 

13- Metric T«b!e of Weight.— Rmlo Ul 

" l>wS«rniii (dg,) 

" Drlmifiiilii (I)g ) 

*' lifkUf;miii (1L''> 

" KJlufimiM (Kg.) 

" QuiotttI <Q.} 

■• TtthmMn (T ) 

IXJW3 « 

JfkJXt " 
aa^l^r irtJLinTJir, 

aW74 " -* 

14. tnipenetriibiUty is tliiit prafwity tty vinni^ of whirh 
iw liiro bodies C4a occt)prtli« name plocv ai the Munc tlfnc- 
Thi« |>T<)jM>Hv Is t^lfcrirltjit, ulth<>uf-h plkt<noinonn arr oh- 
«f*n'^il vulik-li nfottlil »ei>ni tu conflict ukli it. TIji.}*. uli«it a 
pint of tilcoliol b Jnlx«d «lL|i a pint of vrat^r. Uit* vulume <if 
Iho rrMiiltinfC mixture i» kii» tl)£it a (itmi-t. Tlua ctiuifiiutiun 
oT vc^Liiikv &ri«L^ ftcra tlw partKU-i^ i>r oik« of Uio flui^t* tii0in> 
mtlng iliPiiuiHvix Uctvnvii i1ioih< of iIk* oiL^r ; but it U <\iiivc 


lliat where a pncliclo of alr^hcM **, ihcw a jiortide or wwUrr 

It Miu\ t)o sIkiith hy -ti-vpntl «iiiipli-ri|irTii<kfiitH lliiil kir ftad witVT 
iMntiol orvtiT>y iV rmnv ^pii^w ]iir«rt n lE^nn Ittrnblrr ahJ pfnu H 
ibiwuvHtil luto A x>-K^r| iif w>Llrr- Tliir UMlrr vitl lupi ^'blrraiiil fill 
the liLiiibh-r, LU*u nuo «jtil iif a gUiB lutic 
y,\iU tbt llitLiitIv ftud ihiutt the i>llicr find littii 
t1i4^ wnlvr, 'tlif U'«Ter <«nitot fill Iho ttibo 

4n lliiit iL(< nir L-an wcapp^ nuil the wnTcr wIU 
iiiinLnluil4?1/ tat wul RB ihr laXtt* Pun i Ibn* 
ripl tlirou^h 11 ooirh HtUJ iitr^tlgM tii > botU*. 
1^1 a ticiii lube |wi# thrKuirli luuilivr h^ in 
th<>«iirlc. niid iit the olhipi* ci]j| iliji tQTo a tUin- 
blw of o*Mi-r, HI e}mwii la Hg. 2. 1/ ihi-u 

onif 19 ibr UhiIt ftir wiU i;«<ut^ lu UjLbh-t itvm ilw vud vf Urn lulw 
itt iIh- tumblor. 

l-n ■£ 

ly Inertia ib iLe U-inltiicv vrbidi a balv htui to iMifilttln 
Ets i<tatt* of rf*X or moUoA, Jf ■ body id at rvM it hni no 
po«ri>r to awl \tM\f m i»oiioA, or If iL is In nioUoD it b«« no 
pr»w^r tn rhnii^* fiWu-r tbi ml* of notl<w or Dh> ilinMnloii *« 
«hkh H i» inovmiT' llrin^, if n body te ut rv^t, il nil! n>- 
tnuQ at rei^U or If in ni<»lioii. il will move on mUfonnly in a 
ttm^t lino until &rU*(l H|io«i bj *om9 for^. 

TTv f««*"(i nrhy n« ilv nmt vr tifilfcw cuvninn* m i»m« c« not* 
l«Blf 1> atnifhl lli>r«, wb^u tri in luoAbm, 1* llui Ihrj nrp ronllail* 
jtQf *iImI Dpna bjr f««rA vlAf k riunig* iWbr itifr nT mocbm, Tlmai, 
A bftU ihmwii frxMD ihu LkikA, bf«Klf« mrvlnm irith ihf^ rcviMADct «f 
tb* «hr. ti MHitliMillsr dnmi dcnaitiriAft by tbr aitMctmn of tlw 

MuMj bMlkr |ihM>«M«ift ant txpltluri hy |h« prlvipl^of i«* 
(ttk. Tnr rsminpk, Yihvn m nhwJ« In imi^iiku fevMibbnlj nimiBcvl, 
Uem «nif)nt !■ K »w tbrmni lo ikv IVivi, 1imu«r il>rj mW io kwp 
Uw AMbm wbkb Ibey bul w<t"''^- 

If h pTfiui iv*)p* '>"" * cftr U ni|4t iHuciun^ ht U KItpIj lo b* 
tbrovra tkJcnitx U> ibr i^nnhl ; ftir bU kuIm it* o<iWM4 m^ 
ckm, «htl0 blsL fiTt ur i<>i|-|««l bjr vlvihloig tkt ynionL 


POkosrrr. - iji ytstmury. 


rip. a. 

«l the ri^ht hnai, fiA rrT>nw^t«d 
hi Pt^, 3. If tinjck i-Trn1y Hiid 
CMvfolljr Ih^ rnwA will Ay »vihfi 

fldjir-r. lb llii* rxiH*ritii<tri| ttm lU- 
fTiirt **f iIh: *i*in is ih'i ifi*rMiirf' 
by Ihv itif;ht IrictHib of tlio nird, 
sad it Ihrn-funr ni^inlub UL-nrl) 
vImk il U"** firvt f>I»nsi vtt tLc 

16. Poiosity \^ lli/il iiK^vily uF a 1hhI> by vlilrh KiiamT 
«xbl Iwtnt^ii iU iij<>lt'cuk's- 

AQ bo(1iv« nro i»c>r« or li^%« ixiroiH. 

Actual cavilliv or cvlU llmt s^\x' vUiMi' ftiv i-nltoil Sfitttdff 
/W«i. Tjjc iiivUililt- h^fdn^ji lliiit M|<iirnU' :i1i Wn' lOiiUM-kilci^ 
of ft ImmIv Arc cttlJcil Ph^lfal Porta. 

The Bicl&lf. in ttliicli lu^ pum &111 Jic accu <mu hy itic am) <»f lite 
iiiiBdl jtntt^rOal niicri»n>[w,afi' Hhtiwri in U- |i4if<ritiH hy ihc flirt tVinl l>y 
j[TCftA prt**ttrT iWpmli fni\ pi*f-« inrty W mnAv to |Wi» Itirouch tbtiu. 

17. Divisibility, — All InhIk* ore cftpnbli: of bdng iti- 
vkM Ait'l «iithlivH<xl; Aiid In inAiiy cmh Ui« |iftrtfl thftt mpy 

xht iHolc^fllf* of iiiAlt^r. A wnflic frniin nf rnnniiiv ii;>|»*ni a mM- 

hilA (i ihlTtlL*n ctf ftrop*. aod >f atv ii>;|i|i'>v> «Afh rlrf>p Vi ^<niTpiii im 
|i*itkli9 of mniil[u-. vrliLoh is n lo^' r^hiii/iW, W{-< t\M faaTt itiiwlHl 
tb* jeniifi iif tf«rriiirir mit tAi iriiilitftui i>f emJc^^uIh, fach aT wliicli i* 

vataiiwi»»iihitl th«t «rvcrnl fiuuArrdsoif Thvmrfiii rwim ta n dropof 
tmtrrihflf a^lJwrw lo i)i|h pf.ini (,f n ni^lp ThfV MtTlj* ftnSfiAU 
■W mpnMiT nf uvrliimt **"J '^^n <»f i»ppjriic tipxi mcli rthrr; tkry 
lt>r«Aff>n« |inufw nrirfiiik «f Tmilii-n, rlic.>til»ii, ttin\ |tir Ifkr, lltm 
ni^iiut«> llii-iL, iiii-LHl U^ flic iMolct'iilc'fi ^liLrh (tu tci iiijikr U(i ||i»r 


Tbt< Uood of anniiiilfi ooutiau^ 'iT mhiuUi rod ujlobuiva binin&iui^ 

« MrtiiH ilttiil ; t)wM- ic\"\ni\t^ uf do wiiJill [lisl h i1ni|> *4 huniAii 

u>> lur^r itmii the homl of n tuiiUI ]itii oaiif«>ii* lit UsM 

rM>,00l> fif Llici;i, III uuiiy uiJuuil* ihi-Hr i^liiliEjirji utv MkU ttntltfir : 

in tilt hiu»k ilnT) ^r pKAmpU'. a «nglv drv^ uf bk«^ oi tha luo »f li 

piil'i lii^'ud cotilniLiti a( Ituat a iiikllluu vf lIiviil 

lb. Compressibility i» tlic |irop«Tty r^r beia^radOttd to- 
ft ftuiftllrr H|iH(* liv inv*i^iit'c, Th1« pmijorry Is a ool»equ«^e<^ 
or|K>rueily, aii^l llu- i.-ti^ii^e of Inilk miutra Tmui Itit; piirUdes 
Iviiiff broii^lit inari^'T togcllu'i l»_v llic pfv«aurc. SpOngO* 
in<lin'j-ijtibcr» oork, no'l I'-ltbr-pilli dk- cX4im[>1r-K of coin|)Tm- 
nihU- l>o«ll*'*i ; ttity tmi> I* si«isil>ly ilitiiinU]ie<I fn votuni<f by 
tikit prt*JMLin< i>r tlitr liM;jri>, (!a»v!t atv, howi<vcr, tlic Utml 
cxamijli'* of cciniprL'9.iil>li! Ixxlii^a. 

^LiiiMjf lliA HCA^ti'J' Kwy In- mliHvtl l» llijuiiiii by prrviura A^lllf■ ; 

Ui li*|ui'rtr<| bj gi'<*jH jirrauim" ami i[iU'ii»P n»l»l pumlkliinj. 

Lif^ullj HTV bul alighOjr e«iii(ik^»iibti'; but FUivrul «xperiilK«l« 
hfli-o sU'Vn iliul ibtj yii^lJ »itiue«t1iHl !<< i^ieal |nvwuTo. 

MomU nra »aiiprottibtCr M ii nhciwit hi ibf pr»i<i<n «if ttAmpiaig 

rimn. mMilin^ jijiJ tW Ukiv 

19. £xpan&tbUity b tlic |>ii>|H*rl>- hIiIoEi a txxly iKnaoaeoa 
or tncii>iutii;^ m bulk or volrnbv iii^l^r t^itniit dt^^imstanoOA. 

All IkhII(*s rv|imL<l on iH'in^ Ii^jlIlhI. 

Ciniu.-9( rximml luu^t. li<|iJiib nvxXt niul tnA\*\b IvaaU vilu:u 
]iubjc<'I<^ to Uic tvBTiiv liogrvc or hvjLi. TIk^ inoL«oiilcfl of nlr 
and tUcf^iiftoa con^laitlk ivpcl oocli <*Ui<^i. ■<> iliai thow tub* 
tmncct lifti'o fi coi^tlniial u*n<l?nri^ t» bicn'miu in VDliunCierGii 
itilltiiut tliif 1iiflu«ac« of Ijcal. 

Tbfl f >lltfwiuK expcriiiii'ut JUvBtnUv Uii* |>r<>|>iny -^it t\i^ A ttniill 
rubbor imji, D«arly fii^ny and bjitrtwd ai ib« tink urUli h >io|i-(xvI(, 
a tJowJ tji»l« tbc rwdvrr of mi Hirpuini^ Tliw hi tba ^ bn 




ptjmi»J oai fmdi iIh' it^^vfrr, mt that jt riti Inn^r (■wtT* |"ri*»«Tir(* 
till ili4 ffuUide of iJic ImfCt ^mJ Ibr nir in'Afif will cxinixl imi] fully 

Other eittuaplrv 'tf capamlliUIty x^^ill be 
gt*«a hormftCT hi llhiMmihig iliu rflbt'r* ^Z 

ao. Elasticity U ilc ])rc>|>f rtv v'liicli 
txMlk^ pcisAcittof rvcuvrhii^ Iljdr'»ri;;i 
unl tfliupv pik<1 «i/e Altt^r liArhig licc'ii 
Ptlbrr tiJUi(irvstM-fl or exU^iiiJcil. 

ft^t-H iliiror kn \\ttW (Wsi-uccf cl;V4< 
tH'ily* vot nil Div (n<iiv cr l#fU4 da'itic\ 
lor^lji-nitibfiT, \vor2\ xni^ vhnlctmnu «iv 4>xiiint>lo« or lifglitj 
i.4a»l|c iKxIirs. 1*ii11\ tti\\\ <-1-iy nrr i^vnin^ileH or ihtiw wliii'b 
lUi? oohr' »1i£bll,v tU^lk. 

irbirbooe>in|minHMl, itv Wu^lkity iciuJv i» r«tbjrc U lo iu vrlgbml 
htUki ihim pri>th:rty hat Uvij utilUnJ i» luuhing oir-bnlt* nlr-cuAb- 
bfto, «(id cVL-u Ll fuEiiknii; fAi'f[jriu£;s. If a Bptblg tt tinA W Ingulf 
iu (ibiitioir^ TcmU ta unl-ftJii ii ; ihii pnuriplr h oinj)L'>rcii iii guiUf; 
uutiua tu iTAlrlii^a, dmlkb* nuA Qtv M\r. If a ]h>J>- V nv-uml, 1r» 
vlutiriij lfluJ« to ili^twItL U, 'M ia «>rmM'i^l ml rh<> li>ti'lf-ui-j vf y\ir\i 
auil iLnjiLl l<> milHitl; ihb |iriuri(iLr, timber lIji: lUkiiiv uf AfMiwi, U 
iim4 lo inrji^hiv ibo JoHmi^u t»rf<* vT uu^ntfiiiiiii. U a iHily bo 
#&iTtck(vL iiik cLif-linij I^iliIb (<■ n'^hitv it l» ili» inijiiiml b^ii^ibt >ih in 
ihifiro by itii-ipKLiix^ ik |jL4'fa of iud^n'ribbcr. iiiut iticn niluvMJtf A lii 

\S'b vn> tlifll Utc oLiflKity <4a boily iiiay bo bniu^ht lutn |Jji)r Uy 
fuur^UTrn-iitiiKthMlf : i<y prtMurr, by^Cdvrr urbriHlmEf. by ti^Mtm 
"r twirlia^, iiliI by tftumm it t^ivUrhnut^ En U'liiLt«vi>T Any U hiay 
U* ibvrli'ixvl, it U >lu' rr^itU -T UMtbWdir -t* plntviTirni . TliiEt». 
«bM] dir JM f^>iripro>oi<»(|, iLi<< ri'|inUitiuh liolwivrk thr^ ut»l(<*LL!<4 t«uit Iib 
ri|i«iiJ il- AjCkLiiii hIu'H II >pi'iiic (■ Jf-iti, llic |i(ij1rrlrK kill ibrutit- 
1U0 ATB bIi^uti p*ii|]d(T. vlulvt itttffp ilk tb(t imiJf nf |>rwn1 tu- 
SdWr; ibi* uUf(H6i>ii* tif tht fonucr niiil ilic irpobi^im <<f lUc Uti^r 
UhH la n«lom \hf c^iriiig tn tU <viinTtttl »1>ii)>i*, 

Thv iniHl fLi><iii- l-itaSf!^ nn- kupi^; ufWrlboi*! ctunr Ii<iii|«tt4 hipvI, 
vthttlvb'm'*, imliii'fdbUT, L*»fyt tfl^4H*T ^^'^ 

ns- i lIlvilnMlv lbi< iuoIIhiJ t4 >1i»wluir itiai Korf it ^Utfsw^ 



nud h1 till- MI1I4I ituic iLiait lhi> fAt|u> -^f iiu <>U»iieit5 u «io1c*n- 
^^L _ j -^^ wUu'h m Aprvvbl a Uilii Inter fjf 

dL If Jt lull Iff L>tir> Li« Ut full 
ii|>i-» il frvDi lUITcTciJl h4^ifIhlsv U 
uitl ill mcli liiflc ntouid, !•«?• 
Iii(( JL rirriiUr iinpreHiMl AH Uiv 

Itiill fitllii fmiLi H ^nujf-Hr hvifclir 
Tilt* rJi|nTiifU'nl Jiouj. ilmi ilip 
hflU if HfiUcuni iHch um* by itie 
£i]|, iPiJit the Hniicuimg Inemwa 

till' rrl'tlliul lUTlioiJ vf llie folit' 
|iiiMtiHJ iti'tlivikloi ntiwii tl Iv tv* 

*™^ .,7' ' '**'"* l'">p*r|y 'J fllmflWkj b 

' '*■ utilUr*l ^ki (!« rtoa in a grui 

Mnri'^ty of WAyt. When « furie U Auml Una xW mnuib nf a boiije^ 
ha dad(icit> cdUBrfl It tu rxpnuil iiuJ Gil lhc< lu-rk v> ii» ru n>Uikr it 
l*ciih VkiiV'T Jiud *Jr (^iT. h i» lln' i"bnlMiy tifn'tc tluil c^^iilM^ ludln- 
njL'InT IiiJIhi lilif^l will) nii, [■> n-lKmm) wlirri llimwii tJ|wtj IhMil 
hiiliMiiim'A. fr i« rlii>i>lAATEniy nf ii\i>i-l tluu n>ii-li-n 1l i-f liv luHiviug* 
fur iii»vii]^ uiiidttDirrir. (u i^'cll n* fur- iii!<Iiij; tlit luutiaa vr«Dmaf*«« 
.fVff rough Tnul*, li n itn* itIiwiuU; iif (^n1« Omt midpni ihcw 
feoilftlitv lur ifigaHnL iiiB[rv»n?i)ii 1 1 if thf HciBliciij' njf uirthit rru- 
dm il n III MiiHp Tiir iT'iti^iiiJlliiig KJunJi 

SumniAry. — 

J'/iyanfJ AgntU or Fofttw- 

A Ho-I/. 
iVo^j/^i oNEf AInwv 

Tkrft SMTf* n/ ^oilv-'. 

Krtm$iinr — M.t|fiiJliiik- — K'^nii. 

Ti» UfincT»bif^uru^jrth. 

aBcnwt I!,— srBciprc pRopeniiG op mxttkh, 

31. Tlw tperijir (^- fA/rrtf*rfi*W*/iV praprriirt <^f rafrtteT 

depend upon cerUtiii f<ivrcH^ ivhioli ^le t^iniLtiiiiftDj acCing 

Itptwrrii {im mtAts^ivU-jt of Uiiiit^. ThtMK wliiuli c-hiijw 

iIm- inul«i?ii!i-!( lu aUrart mtt: aimllii.Trti'e utlled ^fultftilar 

Korces, l*liej' nre CoheMoii. AUbc^ioii. ami Chcmlciil 

AtRnity^ Thc^r lut otiI_v at inrtuaWA*^ iViAnnnts^ 

T^ uliiinaiU- imjIJt'lrs, wen <if tiAiA Ui^k-*^ An \i*'i l"ai.-h iTjr 
■twyhpr, but nrp k^pi in phco by iTir (^iiriiliJrMtl iiptitin cif fi>TT!M 
uf HtinuiWci Aui] n>]iiilM<>n- H^Ntt i» ^ho rc^pHk-nv futiv (hiti ipn<U 

uUr fiiftfp, kr A/rr «rtf «ji ijni*, juid. lik* tlntf'^ mpiih'^nrd, %i IntPiiil- 
Mtt ilotnnoc^ Chcmirxt nlliniif W|i;ii^ 1" Chviiilatrr. niwl uill tuA 
W cuntiirrvd bi-rr- 

92. Cohesion and Adhctlon. — C uitf;'»ti« U ihc fwts^ 

vrfiiHt UmU Uir puilicU** io]{i-tlii-r »th1 krr(H llj«-m la pU<v. 
If AMulUt Uidjr lir TimUi^a ur Jhiilnl in imy n^tf* l^f |>irT> iNiiiaul, 



Tlio xcn«r>a \i^ iliut T.hf^ in'^lfiniloe ore n<>i Wn^M il«ftr Giiou|[h lo 
nu:h tt\k\fV fitr nih^'j^km ti> ar^x. In rtiA nuv 4ir oitrtairi lirkllfv, liow- 
oviiff the |;jiirt« i»jiy ba bmrjfflii u-lililiL Ihc n»if« uf molMiulnr 
jmrimtun, b^ pTTsurr^ by pnnlnl moiling or bj iirii|i1n fvitiurl^ 

Two fiiccM of It'flJ with amoolb, frc*li[v cnl iurfufr* wiU cobrre 
Mmuuly if i»n'«*i.'il finnl/ Inpptbrr- SrviTal j^it-iv* rtf inm inay T»o 
r«rnn?d iut-i <>iir cu^iTi'iit Liiow by tlic prwrw of hyIJJiii^, in wlitch 
%\ytf juinfi wxi* voftt'ijf^l by Lut^tiiw' h<4lt n\\i\ Ibmi bkniiucml tog^ihtfr 

tl'A]iLiT<^ijf |iiin> tuJtii-nibb<>r 1}0 cui iti twi>, Jiuit (fio |.iart« bmugfil 
T<j|fi^ihni' i4(iitn, xhfy will ""iir und i^ilirn- *fnni|^ly, 

Tho foitnr of EiilbcMJon 9;U'c« value io nioitni', gbjo, aad ftB 
Iclnda or cvinrnt*. 

^OLUTKJM U clue to odlicaion. Tbuii vrliun ^ii^nr diuolvcs 
in wulor. ii U bijcaust* tbo mlUosiou bi'iwwn UiO mokculcs of 
»ugaruiiJ nat^r ta Mjxiik^^t' tliiifi ttic cobeaioiL ljuiw(*cfi tbe 
[Dolet^ul^n of&ugjir. Whr-u n Ikjiilil leiKl« lr> spivail over Uic 
aiirfuci^ of a eolU il U »iobJ to wi-l It. na wMcr \i\Kf\\ ^taHt. U 
R gutti«i« ill glolmkn it '.\o^M not vvct it, ns qiiioksilvct- iii>on 

T» ibv Itnt rAMi lUn lorM of tulho>i<iEi tKitwtm ilin w«1it JiaJ ilii 
glu»uvt'nv^riu9 t1ic fiirati of AibnloU ubicli wniilcl loiiO lo AiUn^ 
tbo trnUr ili G:1ubiil«e> lu tbo aixxjuJ ciui* Eho fvinnatioa uf iltc 
flcbub^f »1hiwi ibiii ibt foiri' iif rtbt-Hiim in tXtv tui>iiniry Is iftviitrr 

Hf ^ 

fitf : 

Fir !». 

IS. Capillarity. — Win^t a Nxly i» v^""K^^ ^^'^ <^ 
Uqiild frUtL it* u^t^abk ^r wvttinj H. as wlieii a f Lm« rod i» 



pkn^ into vintcr* it i« oWrvcO Ui&t Uio liqulij U hU^UIIj 
f In-atctl flliout Uie bodv. Ukin^ a concave form^ oa ahowa Ui 
Ki([. «. 

ir a Iwtllrtw lirtM* U u*i?d iii<ili.'nil of n rml. ilit MrjiiM wilt 
aL-H^ ri«c in Uic tuttv, wi ahowii hi y'lg. 7* 'Flic Hinallrr Hx. 
Wrc of Uh' iub«t *Uc bigtior wiU Uio liquUl n*t'» ami llie more 
o>ii(<AV^ n\ll W tu uppor varr^Kxr. A iuIh> ouu liDiKirv<ltU 
af ttn Inrii In ilUmrb>r trtll RDpport n c^^liimri of wnt«r fbur 
iiK-lfC* blgU. 

liuioul 1/ A laW tw** |3Utr« uf gUix brvmg^hi very nc»r logdhor 

liwin^ Thr nnjfW 1I10 |ilali<jk, tlv higlvr Ihf lki]iifif trill riw. Two 

wiD «ii|i|3int ■ r4>liiiiiu of wnl^r ivv<i 
inches k> hoifliit. If iho t>^<" <tf^ ^u 
ootttMl Hi UiA fiTgm oil (jir fiiJf, Kiul 

l» Kif. II, III* vniler lAka ihi* vtu^j^^of 

Whott A IuIh' w j>]iiiig*d tntv m Uijuiil 
whi'h b uuE cd|mUc] of ntHiioic >i> "^ 
v-liL'ii tliivt It itUmgt^i liitii f|iLit:k- 
MlvtfTp dir iii|aiJ b ilcpfcnn] liotb uli 
lUo «>i]Ui'lp au^ '"■ cbi* instill', tJtk'tii^ k cnivt^K ^iiifim, u «ht^ffu in 

nuii Iho Ukor* oiAvov vllt Ui llio n|ipr Mir^irw^ 

34, Applications of Capillar ity. — I1 U in iN>niMiuonw uf 

«ii|i])ly ihit tlMin» with iiimtniiullilit inatirr. Tlv filiiv* oi iha wi«k* 
Ir^rit bvtvivij ttirui a Kiifvksi vf cii|illlArj tiibcQi throagh wludi iIh: 

i>il rtAM, 

If A |Jrt<' i*f iciiiiir KftVfi il» lufftr rnJ ilippcJ in iraHr^ tTiL' vnEfr 
vill riH ihruugb Oiv i?jj>iiiiiiy iniirr«tiL<n nT thr vuunr ami fill ilhviir 
Thifl JrUa out the nir dAiI rruJcrs llw tuniLt mnrc aiJu^Tn iHau w]>rii 
pliin^wJ *y intth u'»i*^, in whli^tt ci» ll*tf 0ehiUjij4v1 ^1p TO*iit* ibi- 

If n iLtr irf (Mil 1h< 1x>al iiiFo lliv rtinn <if « ili-linLi. Jtkni the ^lukTl 

Hv- ^ 

SPKciFw I'itoi'KmiBs or MArTt:ii. 


ftnn be difrptii inla a vru^l nf iitcrvhify, llic iromr* vill hk intn 
iht loul 1>]r nifiilLiry iin'liifii, Jin-I llntvliii; ovrr Ili(< ciljfi: oril»< ten-l 
vlll ilff'i'iid ]Jim|{ thi» UixviT \ttn%-A\ niiil 4«i-jl{4i iVii^n Uift lover 
Cxin'mUy^ \\\ lh]« way llii; M-Atil in;iy Iw >]rik*ty ruifilkd of ihv 

Miiny UuSib iimy bv lir^iuii 'nrr llic cdgrvof tJir onuUdiung TTieorU 

25, AbHOrptton it tbt- jitiii^iriiiUuci 111I0 u porauit bwly^ of 
nny fmi^i^it I^hI^v. wlii^lli^^r «»Uit, liquid* ur ^iipitoiiA. 

nbi^rbinfc jfitir^^ Ifn biiniiiii; t^-unl l»r iiitn^rliKcH into n W1U 
Ijlilsi flUi'tl wilti <Tiifbi>iik' n*rl(l ii-illt'oTLHl '*vt'i- iHcpc'iHTf^ Oi* 
voltmit af the jf^is itt iliiuliiiNhvil bji Uririg iLtitiurbvd hy i\vb 

fis'C Um<^d ill own voUmK^ of the jcni, Clmrcoul ^iro alMorbft 
othrr gnvi-E in rvoti fliill j^iTiJi-r i]iiEiiili1te«. 

SiKinv^v pEnlimini iLljrii>L'li« iMiltu-^-tiL no r^Ljildly nti tu hirnL 
tlir |4nli(k^irn icH-hot. 

Thti riHilft of |>1jint> Hlntirli ttXAtt iIia irftnh tliv inaLiTibLt nnvuory Lu 
ihc Krx>wtJi of ibc otcm r^nil lifiLUdiit 

In thn anlninl vmrld. iiTm^idnb pldys «n Impiirunt pan Intht^ 
ipi^OMt*':^ luttHtion nod ^ron^fi. Animal iiHUc* aIh nWrb bi»HJ 
■iilifiniK-i^t. Firt rxai[ii>lr, ^^itrkititn mgiignl in Imndtinj; kml Ab- 
#orli thrtiuj^b 1K0 ikin jinil tiJU|:« more or lr»i>r rli» ^ibrtAnrr, whi^li 
oftrn cJvrt rlup f-* ti-ry t><*rUiim iIih>^hi«c. 

When ^Yi£^fa1>lc^ »i>«l Auiiiuil MibFlmircv< h1iMjrl> vtnlrirf ihry ^i- 
milEj ALi|:iiuMit 111 viilunir. ThJA ft^ tifjilAiu* iciiiiiy ]ilM'nuiiii<nH nf 
J«ily «bMTvaiioii- 

ir A Iah^ Hh^l i>r |iH|rfT 1h< iiii<l»t4-Hi*<l h iurnn^n-a 'm A%», and 
•l^ii coDtfnrt« v/\\vt\ dru'iL Thi# |if*']<<'ny it- r\tt\A<'\^\ bj dmu^Bt* 
mvii tn mnirb |iiitrir i>u 1i<iafi1iL Tin- |jn|irr b imdticunl, mid ttfk«r 
bchv aILwcJ 1o ngiitiuL, iu fldgc* urc f;lu(<i lA » drvtf ins- br«Lrd f 
tiu itrytnjr U bi litrrtdiiil. r^mibg «i itLiMikili siiiRu^c- U\- ilniwliig u|KktJ. 
'He MiJi« pf4>poiiy t'nUMfl llic \m\*-r d' pr*! fi»iiJ ibr ^V1||W vf 4 ivoui 
Vl|j(1l I'XpDSH] it) iifoi>4Uti.-. 

Wb(u m voiltifmii ifoulil \¥r^\\ ii |il<vti itT wunl, bu driM uDftiklr 
aiiJ iriultU^UA \\*v iitlM<r, 1'br >bli- ^\t\v\» U Jrk>d rviiinirtf^ hibI iIip 





j'n>n nf Mirditm* dun r*liu« il^r irmnl-worll nThtiiEn^ ^LmlluTv. bU-, 
inirt tMr being jklleimiI iiml vnmifthrvl, Pjiihih jitiiI viLmiBlu-H, Tij 

ft6, O*moip. — irtwo rM][iul!i of ilifTtri'nt kmt\it ure iwpa- 
tiitct! U^ ft |jc»tTTLtFt ot iiitnibrm»^-uf< pjijiiltt^-ii. i-mb linuUl vill 
l>f<pin tu pATffk lhroujj;h lh<- iiiumbniiiu uiut mi^ witli tlic oLiier. 
and nlW a ttfiit* tlivro wit) t>^ a Tnixtuio or Lmth lii|iikU on 
4^n<^h sSil^ of llrp p;ir(|i[i>iiH Thin movpirtpnr of The* l^rjuklfl U 

Ihcrc U nn ndiinl \t^in of »u1utaiioc on uno ^idc. aihI a t'lir- 

Tho i7iiTn?nt Umt ml* to pruiliu!!' mi inrn<uAi* on oiw ►id<* 
in rjJIird tneifftmott, aiid ihc upjKMiU; cuirciiE i» i-ullcil «jr* 

To 11lii«tfAin ftij« [inwm, 1«rt ft libtl- 
itt'i frMi'il nilli tiruug »>ru|i lio iW 1m 
tli« cud <.Hf q fthxm tuW, ftiitl tli^; vhirtc 
pliiceil Is A Tf^Md (if vreAcr. ob thoati b 
th« flipm. Thv vjTup »»nn txyq^n** di- 
bitcil bj iHc^ flowing h» <>f vii[<r> jitiil ihf^ 
mkiurv hin hi Ou< toIh-; at rhi> raiho 
limp A |H>r1J>>ii "f ^liri *viii[- llim-s p-iH 
iitul tntx<s) niib thn vMcr. 'thf Gi^vtan 
bi i^f tilt" w^itT if m<£M«jOi*f| p^Eji] ili<^ 
ftnirfTig niic iif tSr *]rriT^i kt fjpfuidcu^ 
SUdlnr VTMltff tX'y obuibcd bf iHiut; 

vihtr tbiuiib. 

Tho pnncipla of ofiagw w <if vi-ry 
grmi liii^HtaTtrft in iiniitui niul vi>jit«tji1i]i< 

thtov|(li Ujfi tlwun And vnu^li of dio 

ituiiiiftl IhtJ^i lite nbft^iTliri) of waicr 

Uy !3ie n.tii« iif |)UF)it. Ilir timiljilJitii Fig- W 

«rf Uit; kHp, 4iiU luikU) i^lliri iiLhI |flk'iuiiiivlui dc|Ku4 U|>Ob ihU 

SPECIFIC rRotr:nTiES of }fATTi:ii. 

17. Dialysis. — The pracLicnt Applicnlion of Lhr [)rint-ijtlc 
of oemoee in ec^ratin^ tiio oonsllUioiild i^r n Ji(^iiiil U <«llc(t 


Snlwtfliirt'H u'>iicti an* (vxpiIJi* *»f f*ir<nh(|k' vrj'WTnIs iriJJ. ^Tion In 
arjlfitiijn, roLkJUy pau through nioiubrniic* nr |>tin>ith pArtiiioue. ISirt 

Oil l^o othrr band, «iiWl»ijr<v« wliiirti du uM cryttnUitit, Uko ^IA' 
tinv« gum ntstiJi-, r-Ir.', ili> ikjI. w ntJiiUly |>ba» lliiii%'h H'fiTa. ffplirc 
por^ nrj'*itilU3!iil»Ii> mji«i maVt by ih^ii jifiK***, ^m» tciuiniFHil trt^nx tht 
tyni^ uf fa.rry}itMii. ur ihAl i-f llir 1ii>r'|-<<Hii, iilitrli c"iiLiiJiif^ ijainijijE 
iulwUu<vi Ikuit voM ullsvrwiK prv^'pnt f>r]^Albfiii<ni- 

3S. Tenacity h lh« rtii«Utnc^ whioU a liody ofTar^ I0 

force wliich temla Ut Uar Ihe parlidt'a asunder. 

Till' trit>i-iiy of 4 IhHly ujiiy 1h< i(<tri^iijiii>i1 In ponml*. Fur thla 

f^cT^on ; fU ti|ifKT i<nil 1l iltcii inmlr fatsin ii'dl 4 >l^Jl1l<'JUln U niuirlifNl 
TO lliP l<fwer end : wclK^Jt* ^^^'^ ^^'*'^^ plm'<U 10 lli*i [wa ni\Xii mplorc 

MpLiiU nrc llif^ mwi londdoui nf bo4ios, but tbi^7 riiftrr ^nlly 
frnm cjkIi other la iliiw retiiwt. Thr f»>Un*iii;j ubic tfxUJbiu xha 
Wi:n^>itji rrf|iiirtd tobrwk win^oT^JJto of an inHi hi ilumHOrr fijfnfd 
of tbe iiii^tAU iikrlkiilvd ;— 

Ir*jP , . - iW lb, 

Cof^r ....... . ;wa *' 

T^Hoinn U34 " 

ilM , 150 " 

rj-j.1 S7 '' 

It ]tAt> htth nliiAvii 1iy OiKiry iind ci>nf nm-J Vy rk|Knaicu1, Ihat 
vt iwri ryliniltfn «f cqiia] k^Ligth Rxttl rMDUiiiiiig tbt- nJnc KinouQt cif 
i<JAl*rlAl, <iufi brlfig lUklJil flwl itin fliUnr hidlovr, iho littler U ibft 

TbJa iNiirr ^idnclplt^ U aI-vi inic of cylitdm iH|uin^ to onffuit 
wr4)| hti ; ihc boU^Jw rjliiiilor i> Wilcr k<Jai>tvd to rMut a ttti»]i'ng 
ToTOP lliJin th« tfc^Eil uut of iliu wiiiif ut'i^bi, awl bmiru it u tlUA 
eudutuuft UkuJ |jilluTT CkT ^bti import uC l-uiUlhrK* art Mivio bulluW. 
Tbia pritu'ipli' ik}»i JliiIL('iiU'> iliAt Oic Units nuJ fin^li if b&rJik. ilitf 



■Tfimii nf Efmfttni ttid ocher pUinta. ItiiIi^ bnllnv, u« br<Jl mlnptc^l in 
Mcufc A winbimvtioQ nf lij^bfnma nnil ptmiL«^-ih. 

iirir*. H<^ni:4*eiLLlo*£i>niii^ulMii(r if on wiro cwif(c4 lof^cihof arn inueb 
■IriMlp'r UiHii f^bdlijs or »ilU riiila i^* Hw Mine woighl. Such cnblc* 
u« oiionMniy uatd lor »u»ptfiukai bridge* lad for iiiiir>y cihcT 

ag, Hsrdnevft In Ihv n-«iAUiiiiv wliioli u Noljk ufd^ts lo 
\K\ng sijraltlii.'O vr n(*iB i»y iiiiuUier. Tliu*s. (lit- <liuiiiojid 
ptrruUlvva bll uiber bodiM. awi I4 tb^rcfoiv liAnlvr Uiuij any 

Fiir the piirpMP of dtrlpti Timing [b« rr^liitivc hjifdnvM nf miTWfvb. 
ihff ftAltJv'mg wmU hu b<?ru aJ>?ptrd, in wbicb may saUAUwo U 
•OVtebed ky iboM aWvo it. in uitn^firirhl nnLirt — 

$(?ALK 4>r lLiJU>xiw *nr Mixi:itAiA 
I. T*lc 6. FHa»|uYr. 

^^1 ». Ciih*-4juir. a, TnpHx. 

^^H 4, Flijnr>^p«r- ^- l^Lpphiir. 

I A Imlv whi^b ntiibrr li^r^trhfn r^cir Ia umirrbfHl by Jtny fT^vnr 

I nioenU <if tbc Tdl-b' u mJ tn bo ^r the ileqr»i -f ImrJueu rcpnA- 
I HVtcd by ihal lEiiUfrml 

If It MTii£<t)VV< *•!» of Vh''n^, bill i# iU^ir m'mlobrd by Ihn tuiwt 
attr ibcivp It io ibn h-rtb-, ilii- ilfljjTWi nf tuinliiHtt h Ih^iu'wu ilie 
iw<» «4ib wbtftb ll in «(nii|«trw[, Tbn*, a picoo <4 tbo rfjRivnil 
«nipii(B«r ran 1i« irtiirhMi hy fnMKlMr^ Imi will trr^liOi « of 
«pv1tTc ; hea« ku bikfUniih ia biitw^'i-ii 3 Aiid 1i of l3ii- xnkv 

ilkfidiraiB lawi iwl be nmrnumlnl wkilx n-*l>i*ikf?4- in iihiB-^k* or 
t<ini]iTiMdot^ GbuBk dkicnoixl, nnd r>f'k-«TViital i^r'^ mu--b kmrd^r 
tltun iniTJi bruff, jihd ibr \ih\ aiid >rt ElH<y nri' b^o ra|>iibb- nf fb' 
valiUfi UunrkH Aud fnrv* i:if romprrftiion . Ihcy nrr luuri' &rtff j« 

Au vUu J or Miiilun' u( metelj tftgei^cuDy tjtLrder ib«ii iLv witft* 
mM HMaJa '/ tf ^Irb iE in cnTninund, TbLm. ffvid Miid Milvrr iir* »A 
vmll^ Afhl, io onlf-T t" LUAiii^ iLiviJi lutiil tiuiJi^iib for cotuv VfJ jt'uvlrji 
thpy kr« jJkiyoi wilb • tDftU poriiun of [■"{■ii'^f- In <mlcr lo rvadtr 
Uitfk-liu b«rd ■uooyb br ibe ouiDaJiHitun' of duumtic uWBiiWr U b 



mcjDtl being the hardi^i <>! ail bctdttis, ii «u lit |>nli>b«l «ii]}' hy 
maiUB of AtJi uwii fjuwdcfi PJrtiQciDd-iJuAt le l^u^ in4«l rffi^inrt of 

tin- p4ili»Uin|E vi:l]»l-iu4:4^ 

30i Ductility m lli** ppo|*rE_v of bcin(f Urawti oat itilo 
wli*ei hy forc4>n of ''TEleiiAlon. 

Wikx, c\iky. hud lbi< liko. nrv >o l^nBCitmi thjtt th^v flin Mkiily bo 

fin^n^ Sm'li bfiilipw nn' [JnjitK^, GtnM, nniw*, and tbp lilt* 1h*- 

«u lil^titv ilijiitiit^ tbiiL a limy l^ri fpnik niri* liTkr thfvsirb iiud vovntn 
IdIo Akbric^ Mikiiy iif l\w mvUlis hb iftait fr^iU. >iivrv. ftinJ ru|j|H:r, 
*» doeUlo a: onbDOff louipcnttanv, and anr vapablf of boii^ Jmwn 
uut into li[ki< wills b/ mvGUia oriri/vdivH^ug inTu'ljini^k 

TIlv rilluwjut! iqoIuIpi i»rr 'imiugctl in iJip <>nii<r <tf tbcir du^ity: 
piatjnttm, Bihrr, I'rcw. rp;i|>fr, jK>A/. w'ftc, fm. fctff/. 

31- Malleability in tt»* [krvi|H'ny uf Mug (lattvnnl or 
TuUpU <ml ti»l*j niii-'pU- b> ftMiVJ i>r roautircMivn- 
TljU pri>pcrty nlVii ain^«*Tiift with ihn f<<mp-mrHiT': nrry iwwt 
hnovB lliAt in^Q U lAurv luwl^ fvrfsiiil when Imi tIiau wlica ftrld. 
GuM If hIgULjr tuAUrwMr kl nrillnnry Loinpcniium, lii^ild U mlufnl 
1r> tfaiu ftliHld by bojup nilk*] <>iir Ttit^i |>lulc« by n infichiuci tiMM 
|i]iii«i] Htv irui ijf uitit Hiiiall WfUuivB* Aud Ai-Hiiu t'^inuibHl by ti»ui- 
ini>riu|E until Ihny bi>?<iijii' cxiniinoLy UuU' Tlt^'y jirr tlini ml Uff 
itgnin Ubi kiujimvh Hud tjHiLJiiifritl lH-twiiit tni'iri1pmiM«. (^Jill^^iJ friilil- 
iMoftctT'fl tbiOi^ tfy UiU pf^ofW p)1il mia; Ln nroiurlil inU» loAVoa aa 
lUn lliAt it uiiijIlI tiULr S^jOflO, pliiEPil tme upou auoilu^r. lir muke 
U| hidi bi tliir?kuciiH. ThoH U-avh Arv pinployod iu f^iLiiini* inotoiBi 
irood»i pflprr. Jitid eIiv like. SUtrr Aud «>|j|)f?r bit vrooglii iu ^ 
iamn tAADut^r mji it^I-I, 

I'hr iTiiivl iiijiibuilili< iif I'jr iiittiilh fi(^ Mut iiiwuQorlly Uin (ii<«t 
ducuJct. Lead Aud un. ^ir onunpK-, hAVp v«rj hulc dur^Uliiy. but un 
lAAllcftLkfl ti> 11 very bj^'h ilrjE>^c«b Ztoo u oinly AU^ttly iTi«Jleitbb 
whvn eoM, bitC b fma^j t<Ali»l out ml-k ibtviA nl a tPin|WTiitafE vf 
aW" or liHl* K 

T)4« niHUmbiUty f»f tIih Tfif4*li it iiol thitttmi* vhfn hjimmrrvd a* 



Uudrr the t\tl\iai^'\i\\\l (lip »rd<r is u fL>lli>wit . Gold, litttr^ tvfpVf 

Summary. — 

Cajiillffh'y in TqIhv^ 

'- UiiH'ivn Plain 



llMnlnnn T>rAlli>j^ 
■'■Jitbjiifr Foi»d«r». 

>leiBli iiKJHt 'lutiihL 




NOTION JL)C|> roltCB, 

3». MKonASicsisiliiit bmnchofPhreics which treato 
tfi lli<^ tmv-i of L'L'tst nud tEiotiMU. It uI»o UcaU of tlic 
notion of lorcow ii|u>n bodies, 

33- Rest and Motion. — A brxlv \% at ucsr wlien fl rc- 
U1&114 IIh |HrsJltriri in K|rtn-. Il U in uom^s Hlti'u It runLitiii- 
(lII.v diai]^t»i rlA (jOhitioii in epAi.v. 

A iK'*\y U al ivst wilh rv*jjci;l to aurixriLiiJing btxlit^a, wlicii 
it Kijiins tltc KniiH* ivbklivc poitilion ai\\h ri'^|iei.'C 1^ llK*m, ami 
it U in nn>tiim wlti> n'-i|HTl to Hurruuinlin^ ti1/jrt-t& nlu'u It 
ccitliniioJIv cli4iii;(-"-i il» irblivc po«»itimi ffilli it'»]>t;ct lo Uictn, 

liftnti'-f ir^r/ojif to rlislin^iiili lltL-m noni ,-l&ia/v/r Rut ftwl 

Wlu^Lin IjiiclyTVmjiim Ami cni ctiv Jerk nf n rnfivtiiiK i^i'twl or bnatr 
\\ U nt n«t wIlZi ir*i>ftl U> tic imrla i>r ili<< tv«#rl, ulEliaiifjTi it |Wr- 
Ijiki^ wilh X\\\'\i\ 111 ilii? i-iiiiiiiiiia iiMiilniL uf iIh' n-Mi-t- ^S'hrii h bwu 
»"aTk» flborjt iljc iIpoIs of a vf*iiol, he bi lu ]iiMl>>u wiifi n*|HTi I0 tW 
inrU uf iliv Vfuti^li bui hr? iim; Iw Ml r»t with r»|iivl Ui utdrru iiu 
•bun>; thitwill b« tho ciwo «h«n he tnvck ub Dut no thoTCNol 
WiU*, but Eu Ku u|>)ioh1ti.' diitvl&oji. In roik!HVjU('nir« vf Ili« ffin1i'« 

llHMiOll ■fOUDil i\9, 4Ei» mii ulw^ut thi* i"li), Ik^Hlii']' aiLIi l1t(> iiiiHl^l 
fcpflllc wbolij •iiljif fy»Ii-ni ihiimiili *|<iii-i> it iv 1m<( likrlj tliftl HUJ fufl 

34, Unitorm Motion i« Hint tii wliicli a liorly |kuw« over 
^Cqual *]jTuvi ill vrtonl llmnt- Tlitm, irw^iy jiuliil mi Uur hin 


La h's of MonON. 


ftfi^ of Ib^ f>firtTi U, hv lu rpvmlnrionT rnnirfl ATOimd \\i^ %.t\* 
viiTli a iinir>nn iiioU-»ii. 

In tbiv kind uf mc-iion tbc »p(i^e^ paAf«1 orcT in t^rc »ooonH 
oriimt i* oftllMl Ihc r^tortfy Thui, if u truiti of car* travol 
tirjir<>nti1jr nl ttii* I'^lv nf I^C iitiU'H per Ihiur. EEh vdix'ity in 
?0.ft r««t- l£i»l4^n{l ofTiikin;^ u v^ojlkI na ihc unit uf tioiv* vtc 
might adopt a inimito or iiu iioiip' In llic ^oinv tii«<^ oa before 
^Q migU fa;- Ihnt Iho wTocil}' ff IJjc ti-niii ij^ oho Uilul of a 
mUt* |icr tniniitds or tw<-iili» uillE-ft |ju- Ikhit. 

35. Varied Motion — Accclcrotcd and Retarded 

Motion- -« VaIh^I- MotiuTi^ in {\iiX in uhJL'I] II Ixxlv fHUhr> 
Kivvt unPfjuMl tpMn-K in rrjital UirK'n, If Llii? i«.j)di<L<H piLnntovcr 
in ^({Mvl Uiuvo^ooii [ricrfaain^illicuiuLonuct^F^lfrii'tfri/,- Hicb la 
Ml*' luottoQ of n lrtUi» of car* wlicn stai"liiig» or liml of u bwl) 
Idling tov&ril\ llie Mjrrixoe»of Uio ^artli^ H itit>«puw«i p:L4SC<l 
oi'Cf go oij ili^'iVMiii^t likr motioji !)• rriuf^^ii ; Midi i« Ujc 
iitotkHi of & li»in of (*fltT» wlirii (xtming lo rcit, or lUal of & 
Imly liirovn Y«TtieAll> ij|?«vanl». 

U'Iseii tlto flpncc« pa«^<l ovvi* in r^unl timf>4 an tontinuftilj 
Inmwrl nr (locjvou^l hr iIh? suin^ r|iiai>ilfy. ih^ i]iL>tio4i t4 

» body fidlinf! in a viutium i« Auii/i»rvi/y att<lfr<uoi ; tLat of a 
body >ltot rerticall^- ii]>triirdB in » vnoiuim ba utiifi^enify rt- 

$6. Lawft of Motion.-- Tito prindplo^ of Mec^hanictt 
nre all ba««il u|>ott thicw propoauuou*, Icnovu &« KevT' 
ton'* Lttv^fi of Motion- Th^ following U — 

37. Newton's Pirsl Law. — AVrf> Wj/ runfrn«« mi n 
«riM «/ rrif er o/* vmjorm wotiitn in n itrvtyfil Untr nH^$ ii ri 
tiHfti up^M hy /ocH ettmnt fvrrt. Tills U <'a1I^ Ilia Law of 
liirilbi UviMtM! it di'iH-iidN ii|Hni Lbat prt^pt^tlv rif mntti*v- 

Tbnt n taly ranuni vl tlHplf hi inotlun, :mil tJi^E iHMlk-K 4ii In 
iiiuljuti emit V* irii^ve m ttraiffht line*, luc £«iiJi llmi An vcriflcd 1>j 

It U not •» oI)<vioui tbii « fiAt« of iMulitrv i« w fuUurtLl \b ftVli^ 



nk A MM» <^ r#ft, but ft )itU« nAiiBklfTBUMi of ccTtAm facta vnU 
tlijit ihi3 i% ftT>'i tTlU^ 

lu tho am plAMv ti mii^ be obforTpd tliot irhcDWor * ncFtfrnp 
trnily is Lron^hi lo k»T. U 1j" iu «»nm(HtfTrtT of nvisUnou gif »iHiit 
kinil ; iin^l in pm|)oniua u ihc tTcJB|jiii«4' it ivrdov«d xhv moliou i* 
kiik^r coEitiiJtJL<(l' TLuF, A Wtl rolliH] nknag tlw pvund vill vivu 
bf xlf^fiAil ; if n>\k'4 v'lllt rhii vjiutv r»r<v iiji>)ii ■ ■rnonlli flfior it vill 
^o umcli fiirllii'T, kud atJII fjirlUtr if rLilli-d along n Hiioolli »Iieoi cif 
iWr W<" (►Hcmni fjrifvt thnl 11 wmiW cnnlmiic In mott on imrfbnutj 
fiFn-vvf if tUvrv u'rn» no rrairtmirv, but iti' unj >'n^ *l^^* >l "TNaW 
fi'i^Tii tliM trt<-L ilijif iZin Jm tlio nwialaaov tfa^ muro imifonn It Uw alt 
iT [fiiiitou, Miji] iho liju|*er ii cuul iuuts lu inovf- 

38. Newton's Second Law. — T\x<* ToUowing 1* Noir- 
ton'» St'<'tin<l Ijiw of T^tolioii : — 

A/viian* or a chan^t^ ofmotitm^ ("* pntftdftifuw! tti thefw/cr im* 
prf/jF'/, and it in th* diretd^H ti/ tJ»t (ttK i» te/iicft tftatjvrcri iw**, 

III onk>r to undormtaiidtlio Action of n fi>r<'<^. ItLiiiclliiiiirH P11V4 
t>i> kiiou M r \l>*poii}fofappfieotioa, \t» iftTrrlitm. rinrl U« tMlfa$ir^^ 

TIk' /jyjV*/ 0/ ajrpfktttii/u U ibc ijoiul vilicrc iJic fonw rsi'itii 

Tlio ifinftion of n fortv ifl tli*; Hup ftlnnjE which Jl ftcU. 
Tl)^ iittnmrjf uf n foivi! U eU^' ciiL'T^^ nUli nUloh it OCU. 

The iniruajiy of n fiirtv U iiii^aitiifc*] ia uaito vf wdglit ; tfina^ a 
fi'mf of fiOj' fouiidtf ti Eh« fon^n rvf^uirW U« >iiiluiT» a w«ijtM uf fifty 
|HfimtU. Tho iuiiru«ij nf » fi>Tix- may Iv rypiimirt^ by a ilut«ui:v 
Iniil (ilf uu ib Vnn nf itlrvrtiini. A«aiiiiitiifC «i>mn iirjLl uf Ifrajflll, MJ 
iwo UxxiV ofan i»c)}, ^r nf|iiV9rul i^tir iTmuil* iLU b «ct of o« litAUf 
\\\nt* Wk lljf f-tfft? c4JDiiitiii i«niml»- 

Tbc iltiqcmjrL linv uivru trpii^KoU ttio forcev uppliol 
■t llu* |ioiiit A^ nud acting ut rlgli ari^W tJ> ''Arh iritrr 
IwAnb ^nuJ Cr»|)cclkTtly. Lci \\tv fortr wlnph tftp 

frV)^!) A iitwnnb ff 

Jihil ibfti vhirl Jii-r^ 
fruiM A ID Cg'iuaI 1cm 

■ ■!! fHjiiiitl*, 



'Iffiithuf an iDfibtotlie pDUod. tholinv^lB muni bo tvo eucIjiv. 
lino J Ton^inoh Id leugLbii lo TVpn-^nt ourrMtlf Uie lelALivi- 
iatttvitr of tbo two fbrt«ft 

39* Simple and Compotifid Motion* — Sinj|>k' motjoii 

lion Ik pntihircil by tiir MiimlUuii?i>un urtliio of two or mmx' 
fi>rcc». Whtti a body is uclcd itpoii by a ningie force it will 
tUKtrt^ w n blnipbt liu« tu tiie^ ilirt'r'Uoii orUiAl Jbrcv. 

If • body fc* ot-twl ii]ion by two or more foreea Itj thi? wjiiiu* 
i1irtH.-tiiH), il will iDOvr Hilh All t)iU-UBlljk TV|/rt'?i.-iiU'L.| tt Lb^ 
iMm of Ih'J r>rcc*. If avusl ii[>un hy Iwo Ibi-ct^ in op|fOailc 
Htrvciioikt, it will movi- with lui intt^imliy n^ptTseaicd by Uto 
itiftnmft€ti Uv^ fWocM. and in tht^ diroirtion of thtt groiit<ir 

If two or inoTc Totv^ net upon a body, ncitiicr t& Ihc «unc 
ta opiMMifif <lirc<ct»&nii. but in hn&-> forming- vonx? an^lo 

til 4>Bi*h otWrn U will iiiiU ill gfueiiib uidii' to llic dirvirtioii 
uf any uoL* of llieiii. bul klU move in aoiiic iul4.Tmt<cliair ill* 
rcclion iM if ifn^*ll*■1^ \>y a ^iniElc f<>r«*. 

In flny of tb(«c c-awn Ui<-fjti^lr roitv ntiicii ivaalt« Ttom tb^ 
roinbniULliiiii nf iwc* or Kprrml ftircr* i* cnlird iIhtit HtailtanK 

The M^|uh(nU' Ibfven nrt <ttllr<l Cvmpontftt of tiir n'MilUint. 

40. Parallelogram of Forces, — In ibe tHaamiu k*L 
J^Aiii) AD xvprvwnx twu fotwa HUliii^ fti J, Uitur icnul- 
laiil will bp r(*|>nui?:nt(*(i t>\' 
/t <\ ThM i*, if t^is Jorf^i 
iifV rtpresentni in (ArnVujM 
iidf/ latatW/y Cipr lAe dijriTcnti 

Mn> ftmfltrmt in'ff A# rajire- 
tr^t^J in liirtrlhn ajttt I'n- 

This prilK-i|ilc i> C«IM IbC P-^nittf^^ratn o//o<rrfJ. 

'file oprtAtioD Df fliiiiiig the iVAulUQl w\>VTi ^Xn. covoisii*- 


ncntA are given is caLleil OumfMHiti^n fi/ Forea ; th<? rci 

^B^^ /TV *™ nitplltil ai III*' 

^^H / / A ''^ ^^^ ^^^ "^^ ^"^ 

\ \ diagonal -^ C^ Ibw 

^^ JlllU If ll>0 TVttlM- 

Viit 1^ 

am A C \h ktkiiirn. 

of Ite coiiii>oiiC[ild 
Are gkv^Dt *iv drnw tliroti^ C Ihc ttnc*ji CZJ noiT Ch^ paralk-l 
lo xhr\r t\\t\H^i]auA: thru nill iTu' hitcrtvpti*!) IJavja J Onud 
A Uhc oompononl* of Iht fijrci" A V. 

41. Example c( Composition of Forces. — A binl. in 
flyini^. rtlrikcf* ibi- iL^r viiih liotU win^Et. ad^I the XaUcv otkn m 


LAWS oy Monnw 


>whicli jinifH'U hii[i foriftTUvL Lit A K nml A ffy in 

to «4MJb otber- and CQii>p1^ii> tli;* pnr:hLlo-^>'^rain A Vi draw iiIim> 
Ihi* iti«g^>f lid /f C TNpti tnill ,i r rrprvBtfnt lUo nvattunt or 
Uk* two run^T^M. nod tliu liitil ivili iihi^c vxn^^lly n« though im* 
ptlkd bj lti« nin^b force C*J. 

4^. Example of Rctotuiion of Pofcee. — Wh^n a sail- 
htxil U fiTf>prllrd In,' !l Iht**/** nrttn^ cm ihi? quAttvr lu lin> 
MrrctiDn pa (rig, !&} we moj. b)- thi? rale lu Alt- 40, 
L?e tbc £ntcii«ity of Itio vind UkXt* tiro oomponcntet 
.^0^ in l&c direction of itio ktwl. and Uia oliier, 

rig, i& 

al riirbt ai4[lM lo U- Ihx' flr»t oocnponcat ftloii« U dlV^vc 
(n giving ft fuTfard nmilrm tn Uir lKi»t. whibt lliv wcobd 
h tttrilf destro^'^l l>y Uiu n^fiintAJicr nLkh tbv vator oflbr« 
to tb« kfvl. ADci pftrtir ^^raplovMl i« Ki*i°ff ^ Uu^ral motion 
to the boal^ 'niia lateral nioiion ta ontlpd Urvtrnf. 

43, Rctiultant of Parallel Force*, — When two forwa 
aiTC la tli^ ftHXii- dIrr<ilon. OH wlivn two borara ptdl at tb>» fiula 
OT a wfaUfcitrvo in draw n wflffon, MrtV jytuiftai it t^u/t! ro th^ 
«iMi^/l«j4vw«. Whc[i Uics iM^i ill aLTnilnirj dipv^tion, «» 
Id Ibo vm^- of a iUvajiiUi^ aaoendaig; a rlr<Tr, nbon ILc force 
of tlH» tiiic>nv ucCd lu I'K (w1 tbc bont forward «bi1<7 tho cur^ 
not acta m rutani iu progrotA^ fAijr rrju^'/imr tV i^Md/ fv £&e 

44- Composition of more than Two Forces. — If 
tnort" ilian iwu fun.vfi mi ii|mij the ^.imi* |toiiiL thr r<'»i]1lnn& 
ufaiij' two a^ay W combiiici] vfiib » cliiiU. l^ii« iv^uIIaziI »illi 
a Tourth, And 00 on. 'i*h<f laat if^mltArjt nill rfTprc«»iil the 

Summnry- — 

MnciiAyitAL I'RiJii-ii'uas, 
i^t and M'flVMi^ 


RnLftnded Mi'tUnt, 

Tbo Law of Incnk. 
XcwUmV ^v<*aEi[| Imvt. 

Pujhi iif Apiilimiitniiirf Pcmft. 

Iiili'iuity wf K'TCc- 
I>ifvctiuij Lit' F'tmn 

Sirnplt and Ojtujmtind Motion^ 

PftnJUbgrvn of Purc«' 
Compcrilloa of PiireoA. — Exftmplc*^ 
R^jaiitJlijii frf Kfiirw. — Ekninplo. 

CoinpnAitiiHi lif nMifp tlinn Tvq Potmv. 

45. Hontenium. — Tht M/Hrftuitm t*fi\ had^ it I'u ^Mtmiit^ 

It tnny nLto ttf* dollnoil d4 Iho nicaitiirv of tlic forec milh 
wliirh ft 1)ndy tnnvi'fl. 

If tlir unmr nniouni t»r fiipiv In ^rnp]i>y«>il in jiirtllng in 
caption btxlic* of fiilTci«i>t we:|;bu U is »\h4ciil Ibat U19 

jpvfttcr Ihc ir*tfjbt jF llie \iody tin' k-r^^ will he thi> iclDdly 
irii|iiiTtv(l. A foroL- Ihul yt\\\ m\Jvtr h >Hxij' of *jni7 poiinci 
vclgbL IhtDiijh A M|?ft(<«* i>r ivn feL't in a Hrron*!, n-Ul m<>T«* a 
boj)' wrigliiog tft'O puurub lliraugti caity tiJilftlJr a\mw in the 

the fvimi^ ]u t-su-h I'd*' ; ft^r if we «Li|i|>n)>o llu' l:Ji|^-r Vuly l« 
b* <livUlr(1 into lwi> i^*)iizil imrt.i nliich movt nuk hv *iOc. 
Ibc mini of tht< disldnwri ifL*!KTi1ii*if will hv vquul to the dia- 
tiCM iliroii*-?! w1iic<)) tbf IkhJj wefghiug cue t***^^^*' *^'' move 

id tltr BUIIK' tiuH-- 

Or two I'livjul inujwi» lluit whloh ra^vcn with lln.' givalcr 
vWocity hii« tii^ invAt^r inomcDtum ; of l«i> mioquid luaasco 
liAvin^ Hut I41I1UI vvilociiy. th^ hi>avior tnswi^ lin^ ihp gr^Al^r 

MoiDcnlURi <le[>riuJj«. UiviTfuiv, Upon ivoig;!!! niid ^vlucUy< 
»nd ta*}- If cflliuiaKKl t»j the roIk>wiug rolo: — 

MiuUtjtltj iJv tr*v}hf lif thf itmi'f hi/ iU w^Ofnfy 

thp nt« f»f son frill |H'r vx^itnil f 

JOX rXMl^JOOO. All*. 

It win he Kon liiflt Jtpiyirdirig l-i Vbta mI<T \toAxs cf ioitXtfrSKO 
vroigil iDAj' mmv witli grenthrccj ihotigh tht ralpof niotluii iua^ 
W rrry bI'juv Fur »x«iiip)p, tin \fvhtrg, irhrBiv tuiihon m honUy 
prrvt^JtiUr, liiaj <^tr1 a Ircriki^iiJ'^ia ctusltjiiu furcc uipun Any cb.itKl 
With whiL'ti it rinm'»* in iNinL-u-t 

A lucf inivrl iiioviiif tbmU i)|> lo ■ wh%ri hiv >t> Rrivit tun- 

tamima.Ty U- i>\iu^v n end of roprortome olhcr Hntlir rirul j^iMdinff 
•utiMAiuT Ifl^Afi^ij tW sidr* of tho tcwI and lIic irhtirf, 

Oo tbo nthrr Ijand^ a btitlj r-f \-frj tinnll vr^ij^lit (nikf innT^ Wilh 
vclodtjr »o gft«l M ^> «xrrt a cml<r l^irt« ihau a Umv body toot- 
ing iTcnrljTi Ttins, a IkiIIk l^nrd Oiiiii a giin ItW a aTiiAt#r inomffn- 
UilD ihAii a »tnup imiijy riiuct hrnrttT tliiuvii rn>iTi lUr ImiirU 

46. Collision of Bodies. — 'Hie tt-Tiii ukOiii«fiit<iiT],as now 
gvdfnlly uwd. rcrirr* only in th» fom «xv«\^^tA Sx^ *^a 


motion or tho moving body iteelf, Aiid to ita poircr Of 

mimirnllEi^ tnnl.ion to nThfr tmrlle^^ Thin dopn net i¥<]>rM«irit 
tW nUok f'irt:!rt wlui'h a moving hftdy prxlucf* ujii^iii »iiot,ht*r 

body- iiiMin irlaidi it fltriko. 

curd 10 thnt H U frpc in nioro, iZio ininujjQluiu uf tli<> buUi't \a 1nui>- 
firm] ti> tho Uovk. iiid vlir iiiuintrLLuni uT liitt block RfUr impnci 1> 
oi[im] tq lEiut nr tliv Uiilk'l bitf4^> It Htrikoi. Hot tbo fco'VD of tW 
bijLlol is iii>( q]l i<«[K-ud»l lu toiLiuf.- lUv bluck m mutitm; h pme* 
fraffi thir b]iK*k io it ^ewiUtr <tf U«u vxt^ni ucoontii^ to iiv v<^loi<it;. 

If thtf wh<ib of tbc tvTCtf with wbich n bed; mart* b expended 
ilfHin iin UntmtvHfiTi* ohtlaf^lfip it lit fiuiiil that Itt cffp(*r prodnped it 
|ir,-jMjrlin[i[il \n tli<* Afti^JY o/lA^ nrfeWJf/, 

TlLi]fl, nrippiHi* II l^nllH. tn 1ii HrtHl ^nfn hm iiiii(ioVhlilf> Munkr \ti\\\ 
A fon^ci thatruuM-ji ii w (n-nrrmlf! t<j tW ih^fiiU irf irm^ indi ; if k mEriko 
Ihc Mock with fWKV thnr rnlnclTy It will uliik liitft ll ToOf ludkom ; nr 
with iLiTc tiruc* ll)c VuWitji to the depth «l oiuc tachc«. 

47, Striking Force. — Tin' i>owrr of a iiiov-ing butlj tu 
ovvm^iii? rpiislaiii"* h c*Ucil ib atnli'nj/ or Imit^ /ores (rw 
nVd), »i)<l is proportional t4j ttit^ Hftturt tt/t^r vti^dty. 

Tl 4{>fU!nr3. ilii'Up ilt^l {w<i 1>iJi». iuaj ha\t \hi< mhjip iiiuinrntlun 
■nd At ihi} vnini* Tiirif' dilTi'i' fcrviillir in iht'ir airikiitff 1Virr«, 

Fur ?xaiHp|i-t itii imii IhiU urii;hmtf 'Hi inrimiU hud miidn|c IDD 
f^fiE p<r i44v<rnLU niid H U'liLiTid 1>aII u'lni^hini^ 5 poamt» and riiuTiiiit 
l.rtKlfrt^T («"T HH-* ihii, *' lil Lm»vtlH--wiMM--innH>eiilum (=: i.OOO), Tfar 
*LnkiUK f:>iT^ r.f The tim will of|iHl 50 X HKl' = AINJ.INNK Th^t i>f 
iho Mi^dwiU VrquAl leSX IOOn>=5,l)00,4N)n. Ilfnt^, if ioth 
wen iliitrtvu ndiniiui El iHtik itfi^AnlLf ilii* luvond u'ouM f^(H<tmt*Mii 
t\mm M fiur fin iht flni. Tbid Huhji^t Will be funbor IrcAlcd of na- 
liprlho liMfl ■! KiH^rgy. 

48. Action and Reaction — Newton's Third Law. — 
U* u»* Ib*> ttmi --TH/t*u Ui iloiiok' tin? jum^r which u. muring 
liody haA to liDpELrt imvtjoii ar forw to ttuc>llit*r I101J3 . mid tlvfi 
ivrui J^fticiimi. lo r^tprm ihr powifrwlairti Ibe bodj acto J upon 
hAfl to dt-privr Uiv aL<liD^ body of ito motion or fonw. or to 
impcLn motion in an oppokltv direction. 




Tb^ foltovinic U Ncnior'* 7'AiW LGt». whu^li cxprvMci the 
TClation or thnp (fro Toravn <^f Torcv- 

^^ruH tt»d rmflii>n art if/fr'yi e^nr/f, ftrft firr in nppoiite tfi- 

^ Reaction in Non-E1a«k Bodies.— Ui m^o Ulh 

4tf tlnj or ■■in* illi(ir U4^ti-i>Jii«tlp huIaThii^i^ Im iiiiijKTadi^J hy fimi* 
*'f riiiijil K'Uclfi, 9't IK* fa- liiiuff *iUl« 1-j ftiik" 

«o M to itnlcih iIju ^rbfr, lA-tb trill muvv 

^nrn^d, but Ijut jia W aa llic first vrould 
ban iDorod abmc. If tho ImlU >-irr of frjuol 
UVBv tbo liro vill uLciTc ti>;i(-th('r lbruiii:]i 
lutr ih» lUmnim Ihiil ihH lir^ .-ili-iir HumM 
luiv ifliTVrMi. Tbp iifX WU I'WT Uklf LiM 
iBOcnt«iU)ni hy tho rfHtiOn i^f (ho kirciiMl, 

miviant nl mtrmfinLDTii bj ilia oc^Vjn «f iFiP * 

livL Th* uiiNucDtuiii vf the roinUuttlJun vbcrcTirri: f«Puilu> llw luuc 

nftor i«npft«t m boforv. 

5<K Reaction in EUstic BoUics. — If Iwu ^iuhI ImUa 
^if aome daallc «ubftUinvt-, jm ivi^ry, be Aimilnrlj i>Wrd« nnd 
tbc mm cxpcrtmottt l^pmliM, ibe Sr*t bull will giva llw 
utiole of \\/t DHilioii lo tlHT M'coriil ajid reruhlii motiunlcKft, 
wliik- tJic wconcl Irull frill siviii/ a» fiir db Ibr llmt ntivh] 
liAT« (tunc Ituil it nu^E no rcAiAlaiico, Irt IliU cn»r, d1h>, 

for tbr Motv a^jiviiLit uf futo! 
n^quir^ t« atop Ihc firtt tHill 
Mtkl!kv0 Co givt- Jill i'<{(MI tnt^ 
I Ion to tlip ^v^^nml. 

Ella*Iniit<^ \ty (Imh^ *r\ml vlv' 
t^ ihp h&ll ff br ilrkWD out 






let Ml 

DfNni 0, iho cmct la crrdvr ; it vriU tbca eoiaOBuueftU Vu iD«X>0h 


to G «pd ftfTJTc A fvivcitfii iraoi it «Lifb vin Aatmf iit own 

But tbo lull G Hovia UMKV vriiliadt wtniB-ttbaatfittg the mt^^ 
it rrraivnl fniui /t u* F. nhd rrn-jtbip fnmn Fa murtkm «^ii4i trill 

cdva! bf vv4Ty i4iiuif iltf luilh /r^ /'. '', A, ^,ttMl] thiT Lmi tutl, A\ 
M fTMlMd; but iImtv t^ii|^ mi I4U IwjraaJ A' W *t4 upou il, K 11 lU 
flf off M Jkj fViMtt .1 ji> i/ vao dnvn ft|Hin frvQi (7- 

Tbfwe r«*Dlli vronlil bo fUktij u AaUtI if tbi* lulk w<«v pvHb«dj 
vbiitJc. la pruniAi it wBH W ruund iIiaI ilic IdI loll wil3 oui muve 
^Uit* iw Cir u Uc tli>v 4y mjvirffv, while t^ vlAto ATMsni wtD b* 
■liybtij l^nmn ft^^nanl b/ Un^ f<Tcn vf th« linl baU- 

A firw (lou^tiir uml inTi-TitfiiiiK Jloilntbiw «f ikU lair msj 
Cm caEI ihr nllriithiO t.4 llrt ^oJriil I* tho Imi^Q «ai|iWr i4 rraippbt 

ha iiiivu villi ill hi* vvi-ryHbiy nrp, 

Tb« fli^hl iif binU, Ific iiavnirj iniidoa of lh« Mravbo*!, 
nbunnd of tho turinhcv ffum iho anvil, Ift* nwoH 1/ ■ gim, 
Atornt of a fockcl. *ic ettrntuou r-jmoiplrt uT ih* Ui^^ Wtim w 
Mrike Uii^ ttbtr U'llh tlii> hnsilH il b ihi? rmrltma iif th« tablr Uuu 
hmrla llio hand ; »^ vhm ur f^*'''*^ ^"'^ *^*' i^pniadl, Ihv oarll) m 
rutllj |m>ib«il Wiiy rmiii im Thp iei-iIiiki It ii»l Mm, howawr, 
be«Mi>c (I tf iliiTuM^ iltrx'iifh w Urvv a wvt^ 


51. Reflected Motion. — Whori an chmlk body ia thrown 
a^iiftt a hari, nmoolh ^nrfhct- rractiou <«iii» it ifi r^botiiMl. 
If \l hf lirown In o lUnvthin |ior|k^tiktii-ii|aT lo Uii* wirftiw, Et 
will ivtiotitxl in ih? Mino Hin-clion : if tEin>n» oMiijudy, El 
ultl rebottnd ofil^qiiHi' In an »|i(hMftiri1 traction. 'I1i(< ilir*^ 
UoD tu wfairii liw Nxl^ H|»|ii^Kidi<«% tlir n-Hn-lln^ auffHcv U 
JWrfrHci-* uid iLai in whirli it n-boi^nili ili« Z^'ji* 

rh-yrniFVGAL asd crxtrxpktal forces. M 

'tf Rwflftfitm. 'I'Ik* an^(* iu^'fudt'^l between tho line or Ini-r 

Iff Inei^itcf^ 111*- an^ik indiidi'*! Ijctwivrj tin* Mm* or iviivi> 

7%* An^f of lUfit<liaa i« *^uuf to tha Ant/ft cf Liddanct. 
Thin U \hv XoTT of Hrf<rtfd Motion. 

In \hv lllutliHXliMj [Ivim jii fi>:r 1^ h Tvitl *Jjiit itmn A uiJI tir 
rcUf^fwl Di H Uai^k 1^> L', iniiluiift \h« ^iii^v C Si /> i^juiil tij 4 il l^- 
TLfl Uw tu;n: fl;iV4» uppUrt tvA nu\y Ut \ht lunTi^u of bmIliI WLJw* 
but tu dl forvm ffliii^li net JLi dnili^b; Uiw^ hui) ni-c' rjipjiMc of n^dw' 
llna. fi i* tvjvoE^lly tir>|hjh:ilit ka JU appUvftliuii I'j tlio law* i>f 
Unit A[|J iJtjIiT. 

53. Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces. — The C«c- 
trifu^cal Korw. »» mllnt, 1* tMJl [nii|f'Tiy n fiiinv\ liiif i* simply 
ft (n^jtfntnlinit »f hirrtiii. It b tbc n^mtiujtv wkticL u iiiDvllig 
boH3' O0GT9 to A fciivr nbicb ioiidii to tum K fh>ni iU coune. 

In ciMweLfuvitf^ or \U iiierliu* a bod>' nU^n^v t<'tki]s lo mnvo 
fD 11 MmlgliC liHt*, iiml {f wi' s-c tl mow ill u i'urvi'il line it 1* 
InrouiBV wniie ri>ri*j* U aciiii)r Uj titrii it f™iii il« |iuUi, TJiin 
deflecting forcv Iias been calkd tliu Ceiilri}jctal Force, li-cauai- 
iii dnenkr motion it tvwU to <lraw tbi- morirg l>o'l\' IowsivIh 
till' rrntrr nf llir (in-U'- 

Ef n Irsvll La wlijrlecl aUnii tlic liAnO, hf'wx^ itXoxwy^A \iy n 
ainikff, it lui» n comtiniuil ivndrncy to fl^ orf. ivLicli tJMidePty 
li real«t4<d by tbe atren^t oT tlift «fnaK : the tcncknn- to ty 
Dtf bdttt- to Uie eentriAli^H) (itn-e^ Eirirl liuL wliiWi tvti^w tttU 
teailetic)' is the centripetal rurcL-, 

TW furved pAth to wltic^ (l Entity uj»vi4i ljuit 
txr rc^riM jiv itiidp up of th<>fl tinitghi lin*'* ; 
Ai)4 if *( nn^ m^tiini ihi^ fcriirrprUil force is iI'-- 
(LtMyr^l. IhJ* triilj- will «iiDtmii<.< in 1nl1^^P il^irj^^ 
ihAt lino OTJ wtiie^i it wM (ituatfd. tbat i»i iu ii>.'rt 
pith irill ljn UTiiEr»iit 10 tifl oLI itni>, 

limkni Iu u'hlrlJ(ii;.ibi^riTLin|i«<Al Ttiftv no langor 

a^Mf &ai<l iho tiaJi iu <-/(idr4|ucui<A c^it« incrliii ittoro* <jii En u ttnil^lu 

llov viiicli b iJiDgi-nl tu thv riniL«> ha «hu^<rn In t^> 19- 


The ciiatpiim of tUo rmirifu^ farw maj br »lioTni evpnwcflt- 
Mlljr Ik)' \}i» Jiji|>iirnliui rr|ii>'H' ii1f*l in Fi^i;. 2tl- Tn mriuMH iif a Uir, 
^ 1ft hftvi^k' L(0 rmU U'Dl. up eu a« tu hftJ a vriro WliicL U eimclinj 
1k«Tw««i] tlii^di- On ttiiA \viL-4i two ivMy LmlU kiv ArTUiiJi fti aa to 
mIMc ftlirnjc t^t Hiid Lhc wlnJn bnr ir iimilr lu turn itbi>i>C aL &xU aI 

Whf a lUc l^r Ijt mtulc li> n^volvc alpuut ilic uxu, Uic WIU. kclcil opcv 
by ihu oc^riAigHl runw, aro throim Afmtnti l)u* cnJ of Hid Iat with 
on c&orgy wbub beoomcvgrviitor w the uiutiuD<if nvulvijcniicvuiftc* 
more rapid. 

iHtf 30, 

5J. Some ETFccts of the Centrifugal Force. --WUn* 

n tmhi vi un lunit tjudiI h cutvv id tIiv* rojulH lFi<^ ^vntrifiigiil fen* 
imihto tliuwUip tminulf ihc irrukt m trEtdrac/ wfaufa ia raosltd bj 

h ifl m cr>u«f<iuiMi<x cj theop n t ril aptl r-iirr. that tho mini «dhcnn^ 
•a th* tir» uf A aiprlAAf4>.iirb(Vl U tlirrhm off in «|] ilir*0tlfi(u. 

Id |h* dm*| where bor«c« iirc Jiiadc lu ImTel npkUjr nnNinJ \a • 

Ch'IHTitJyvaAL ASD VKNilift'hiAL tVHCKS. 85 

trvk (iifclu'r fhan the ifmn-lp, ikrid [i^n]/ by liotb hiTW fiml rU^r 
icrLmuic iawnnlt. >u ju lu nmkr ihc r<!4i]hani vf their nci^ht /tnil 
Ihr «^lrtfugiiL Utret^ ivqiMvlieijIiu- Ii^i tlrr piuli 

Whm > ipon^ Hlht] lAitli Wficn nuil hi^Jil liv a sUing in u-liirEtil 

ibc sp<iliJEO ilfT-* Tljla iirliHi|ilD tijv» Ikch u»vd ri>r dryiiiif doting in 
Iho lAUndrvi 

A tiry rvmorkablr dlWi uf ilit* iMMitfifiLicnl rum^ 1h :hi> ThitttaLug 
of nor«ar1b at the p^?l(4- Tliv ^rlh lamp «() iU fivlt «vvry twi'nij- 
r^iir houm, wTiieli lutAlii^i juti-n riw b? & te-NtriTutril furMr at vvtfry 
pAist cif iijt tutfiM. A1 lb* <tf^1'>r Ibt^ <«ntrlfaA:^il ionv iv cnNilMit, 

f^jv* f(*>blor l'>wnrdft ««Hi polo, where i( la icro. Tlic rt^lnfu^jU 
fim lit vii'ty pikibi b piuivUiUcQlar In tbt bxU. jjul rtia^ Ik? imihtHJ 
inio tv«i crimp^ncDls, <ttf Jirrt^lod oulv-A.rdji fn>in tho ocDlrv. nad thi> 
uUrt (vrtHuiltcuLir i<. ihii. Tlw funniT o>iji|»iinpnl Intwij* tbr 
*1l>ig^t vfUidiA*, tia'l Oitr UlU^r a^^U Tv h<vp rh« |MirtiHn up tuw&rdi 
tliv n|ii:<i(>r- It Im^ Uyij firuiii! tliai lite va^h in h -^phi-CTiEiL |1.iiTvni*0 
Vk\ \\xf ^mU^. Th(> p'tlur ■li;kriMff4ir j« Hhimi |it'<'ii1y-Kl«: mi]<-< fhnrTn 
llinillhcv^ OIih'i vuLmpmh 

|fUurU tW in llhr UkAunrc Haittuod at :h«ir 

Tli^ iiirinaiT ill whifib ih? r^^irlfti^iil 

|4ttuii-(ilAl]y by »n ft|ipjnitij> rrjirn^'ntnl 
In Fi(f. 9t> Thi* ftppimtus cunaiftl* *'f fl 
Tntkul rid Kt nktoh jt inirtJ>ia nf r^iiiitinti 
•uitf bu impttflnli m thoflc in IV' '^'- 
\\ \\w IwFT |ur1 ur l\\a t\tA fijiir «itipii 
of bnuof arq- firtnlf liHti-iiiHl HnJ bcnl inlo 

ujipt'T DPiJp am lu»tfit^[ (ii ji nri^ ^t^ich U ^'' ^1- 

ffwi tv iJMft up iLbil Jt>v'ii die rwl. WIiL-n UwixL> Is ipjirlfl tn n^vnl^i* 
npiiltf, lb* MD^rtfupnl forw punnv thtf ri»« t^ tliJo .lirtm ihi> nnj. 
Ui0 biiapt li«?ij[nc mure i^unftt, jl> aIiouvh Iu lUi.* fi^im; utjil ihc wholly 
Ibo MpfvHT«Bci> i-iT u ftdltdicii tiitit^rr. 




ThrrA U« it-nrlmrj In ia)l badln ia irrnlrr ataom iliHr ■4iiin««t 
hxltj (ktid from ihd fn«1 wp iuftr lluit the i>nr1h ajil ahrAji muililaill 

TUl principle i^iii l>c vi^rltsL^ i» vorivufl wnvt. If n r^liaikr be 

■crfngi tti« eylLudrr ulll duu^fr iia puadikin niiil rcwln nbooA jia 
PkxU prrf^ndiiTolAr li^ iu Tcni^; ihfti U^ U roitata «bout ittthorwv 

11iU ta>iJif> irmlciif y in ub*vnwil if, iiic1o*d of a ujlibdtf. w» a** a 

54- The Gyroscope (H^- 1^2) LnmiiiiMi'timt'nlUiilliJiilrTiUF 
tlK" txunpcisitioH or TOiarv inoliou»> ii <Tiiisi»U of n iliak, /"» 
xvvolvtTig iD a rtiigt C 

'Hir difih Ia tDdJi.' to mlAlc by M-inJinj; n^ 
fcinl alHiul tli(»UKi>niJil lT)<<<j ^culilrnij puEl* 
ilif{ It uC While »i nipiil mtalivii tl>c viid 
nf ihit hkim I* jiliwirl tj]]*ui th*- iHt'it. /■; 
itJBtrjui of fjtllhi^, iIh' iv^iolo UiELai \o rv-, 
rolvr npitlly lu ii ltitniiiiil;il jilutte Hhuul 
tbf vortii-Al iiU|i[i>ir1f P ^. If Ihe riD^, ^^ 

■Till rw a^Jii iinJ n>vo|\4 !» tTkr trtiiw' 

Urb mciikifj b ihc n*«iituzii beimwti the (inr <if gmvUf anil 
MArj inolioD at Ihr wIm<4I> 


Fi^ 2J 

It< bitW»ii 1» V»1tkdiy mul Weight. 
Kti1f< fur rmifJaiE Mi^iivuiuiii. 

htrikmi; F-im> ( Tib Pipn>, 



AffMh and HMUt»>ii, 

Kcwtion ID Nv-n-Eliutw Badiok 

" '- Ebvtir Mitik^ 

FAtiilliiir llliThiniiliiEU. 

Rcjt^trd Motion. 

L^bra of Lnciiicrcc anA HfH'^rlionT 

Law of Btrflofti^J Mirltiltl. 

Cmirifk^l and Crntripttai Fnra*^ 

Ciirv«] {"^ills iif n ^loviijf; HlxI^ lumkr u{> of Mnlplil lion. 

Cf&otH ■ir^^cntrirLiptl K"rr<v 
Spburoldiil S]lji|h •'tti^i' Hiiinh. 


35. Univeraa) GravitaUon, — TL« mitti i^trla k Ibroe 
'>f Altmctioii upon ftU iN^lloa ricnr il, hMidiii^ to tlruw th^m 
tctVJLT^ St* f^(»nir*. Till-* ri>rr^, <,-a\M llit- />>n^ 0/' Grmirtf, 
wlieii iinr^lhU-<J, Iiii|iHrt8 mul»im. ajvl Itii- fx>K Ih hiM to 
fjiU ; tthru r€*iAU4. il H^vc« rbc to prruuic, ivhich U calictl 

N>«plon »ho«H Ihnt Ihr fopor of ifnirftj. rw *"itli!Wl*fl at 
the *'arih's HjrftuA^ 1^ inili n pui'liailar vo^k wf » gooenO 
iltiw-iKMi ext«0<ijii(; llirou^liuut tlic uiilverBi', nwl ooDtliiiiAll> 
t4>ri4Jiit> Imlmw tvorlltfti togi'tli^T' 'J'tiijt jj^i-iktaI ^lUrnoIion he 
ralW / #»'rfr*»f frrrrrilMiotK It in miiUmlK ■'\ri1*-"| h»-tW(H*Ji 
any livo UKlii-n qhiiti<!tvr« and Jl b l,v ilrtin- nf It tlat the 
tir*ftimlv botttc* arc rrtamoil in tliHr or^tiU 


MOT/oy ASD yoncB. 

'IV U« of UnviUtioo OjmmvoW bj- >BWTt»r, imj bo itx- 

protit iJ M foliniTi : A»jf Urn* hotiita tj^tt wpttn fttrh ittkfr a mutmi 

Jir «f«lrt/v a/I&ciV ^MAufT <^rf. 

fliit flrtt pint ar iho Ua fjm l<* Xttal *vp1«laail t^ ttftlUfilM, 
Vlwu*Nott«Ub(a tfaecATtb IbcnbAvntudl Atlndion fc«l«T«a 
Aeomh aad the rionc. hot the dibm of ihc famitfMviinvchfcrKrti^ 
tbui tfwt of tfcv T«tUr tiut no |>tt«#FtM» <ff«ct k f>raiaoni npnb H 
liy UiD •itriLc. TLv nitinctiti; iutlotnoc of tltecartlL U ikol fOEifi&ttl Ut 
ubjfcu in iu imin«diAt« Ti(?mltv, b4t H fr It alM I7 tlK «uti. MoMi, and 

Iir>» af lh« auttl lbs Ul-jOtI J^ A>llt|HlUnl to b* 111 ftilk^rUut KltMiJuil 

in ItB ounuW juuimry llir^'Uk^li '•\^vt\ Tlir *uu Li^ viitur tiT Jtt 

m»Df of Utc koUr MiiiTiit. )/ d l<4rlrii Ui|1 W BOBptiidvil ivmr lb« 
|)ri>?ifkit.>u4 vlHc 'iTa n^ouritnin, ititfir mil I* niHio.^ a laAaingcif tha 
ball &vm Ibv rvrlicAl tvwnrJ» Itiv uu^ut*!!;. 

Wliui WO wy tbnt rtiv tiro IhhH*^* oxcrt upon Mich olher a 

mt^au Bim[il.r thai ir mic coiitnliLA Iwic^ n« tstiHi mnN> tut ^d 
oMi^p il* |)oivn- f>r atimdrun \^ twic« m yi-^i na tlu;oUicr; 

irns mjum ii6 oil* ti/iir^i* f:T<ni bh ilmt of lhi> Hhvr, iU potriT 

of niirHcll'>M trllL alM> bo 

The* M<r4)Md imrt of ihn 

iM'. tJiiii ilic Mtn^liiju of 

1 1 f hrxliira viirira inrm^ly lU 

rl>c bi]unri* »f Ihrir diatnjirr 

!ri»,irl, rnjjr W fiirlhvr HIm*- 

[hi' (4'iiTn" 'if .itlr-ti-tiiin. jiiiil 

<ff ihd ntmHTiivf fiirrift At 

tijc diMiiDrN^ J lfi>&i thtf p'*inT 

*^*if' *>■ 5 the four lint'j lif nuntrtlai] 

»mliT> lb* «tii^U *i|iiuni J, nifJ limra H mivivc« th? ftJL (irr^nf 

Um AltnutiuD* Tho viiWfirv ir j» fbur limn nii Iati^d bb 4, bat 

frcdVQ* CFply UiD aamri avichjuI uf m Uwrtuin ; iJuiL Isj lhi> ftltnctim 


fa vpRwl nr«r font timri iii muoh tpacv, nt tlj*l a portton of B iwjun I 

ll ii |d«iOt th«n, tlijtl M tlii> llilltAnp^f^Fl1; ^¥ iiK^rc^uc* the itXtrxr- 

ibowing All jiwrw nda. Wf a\m mv thni vbiSc thf AtlmctiAn cf 
iM« of J9^*quf«a i^ytwr limp" Im liiuti *l'r^ lE it oulj hmt lu tkr 
fpjrn JT; Irqw, lo ittci-rtiMii l]w ilrtiilniilirm i>f ■IlnrllaJi at i^ wv 

binr liinvwlugp V J uid ihtv^t liuiniurur fn>iii S: tli« uuracUciu 
of OB* of tu aqUHPH vriU Ixf onv ninth ot A'li. 

fiincp alt ivllTia sttiMl onv: HDiitlii* «v fkhimld Dnlttra.!ly *qppi>» 
IkBl uy ivFo bnJiM mi tbo «artb'it vitrfivo would toma U-gfOuT. «» 
tw» book* placed npuQ a ubic i but th& Mi^rrjor AttmctJc^ of T.h<> 
Mffith lrind« itirnii to th« ublv, and iTii* Ti^DEmllvfv llioir mutitnL 

56. Effect of Gravitation on the Planets. — It is hy 
ihr iiiAudiov i>r gravitiilion th;il tIk- |iUneL^ uav retA^neil In 
tlicir cvUu. Tbdr iimiiun iv tl» tuiuir a» if they lind bcf-n 
projected inlo *r»rtCo with ah \it\\m\i<^ nnd thon ronti'nnaUy 
dra^n ttooi tlm right Hue* alon;; nliii^i inL^rEifi Utuls lo t-nrry 
tJirm liy tli^ fttlnu-tiiin at \he mijii, TJh' gibuirU nlfii uttmr'i 
tlie »(in. but ihoir ntivuH bdiij; cxcpc^lircifl^ ^mall in cgm- 
iMTiMn with that ol' ibi* nuu, llioir (^FTvi^tfi tii dmUtrbing itv 
pottilion aTQ ix-rj^ tfiniLll Tht orbiu of the plftoeUArc ollkpstftt. 
illffbriog fml little IVum Hn^W^ 

57. The Force of Gravity Is thnt fonxr of Attmoiluu 
wlik-d Ui-- var(J) i-?tirt>* upon ull ho<l>ofc, tending to dniw tlwm 
lovArfU its ^■ont^f- 

Ah liu tuM'G KlJilril. it U unU jk ]iottioijlur cnv^ of Pnivrr* 
*a) GraviUtum, It in, there fi>rt^. vubjinrt U> llir (tamt bir, 
1h«t U. ii rdirtfj ttirtrtly tja Mr mau «/ lA« A*?^ f^W v/jvk, 
UHi/ tarfrif*^ atf tAg l^wir* n^ A« iiitr4tn/t from th« f*mt* uf /A« 

'rite ■bapRof llv milli hofl b«m thowTi by «irrfii! lu^nAiimiimi id 
U lb«( «f m vpbt^id, Ibat ii, of a vphcTio sljcTilJy flattened u^ V>sa 


»1i(Elillr <1ift^at <luUiK«« tr^mi ibr cmin, and f«ii»vt|iH^ll5 lb* Cam 
(if jfravliy vutt-M tliichil/ jit J(ir(<tvih; pUov tn llto Hirfu-tv l*i>r 
(irdinwy pui|>o*«». li<jwc^i>r. v-o uny rf^fid the canh ju b |KtfMt 
tjilicrr, Auil lljt foirc uf gmvitjf *d ruii^luut «3) avtt iu Mirfitcc. 

58. Vertical and Horizontal Lme«. ^<- A Vcvn^Ar. 
Ljm; la A Uei^' ziIlhi^' vUkli » fuiK r^lht fVrrh, All vi.*Tti«nt 
|ji)«a arv tlilvctH towajilif llic ccntiv i>r Um vaiiht T>iit for 
}>laoo« n«Ar U>geth«<r tho^' mny b« rc^nloU iHt jmndi^J. 

Jn t'i^' !24b tlnr Uiih n u dimI « iijv Vk'rlWl, bin iJ Ihf-j nro not Air 
aputa thv'ii tnnTenscatn ht Hj wnalL llmt ibvf inny Iw uiVvtt jw jvt* 
«Uvl. If| lii'U'vvifTr tliiHf dmtitum ti|>uit i» f><itii<iili'niUif, ihrj 

Fie- 94 
bff R<garM iw panHrl. A mnti vijinttinff vrvI hu 1im Int^ In a vi^ 

Iflnbv. » «l K Hr?H J?, m:ijr biitli nland ^tvrl, 4iir1 yj>l |)iHr \uvtU 
li(* |iini«T in ojmrlly 4fpp<ituiv <linvlJ->n*, I'lOii ft^-l Wintf tunml 
tnn'MtU twh ut^Hf- PoiiiU v'1ii'r« iMn fnity 1u{i|ii<o jtni Mid lii bu 

A ]|oiU£Ci7(TAL Line, or Pl^m., at ailj }t\ace i* odc whJcli 
Ift 1)«r]N;tHliouJiU' Ut a ^trticftl lb<T nt that place. The mirnKV 
oT frtiLI wat«-r u hovuoittnL. cr Urt^. For tmftll urviu ilw sur- 
Hkrp iimj' Th' n^fT^ntM m n ]Jnrii\ Neil itIh-h n br^'i* mirfaoa ia 
[^>i]iti^rc(). a* tiif otxsii. it mtui Iw rrtfortlctl M L-mvcd* OOD* 
&niiinB tu llic ({tiK-mt <iiiltiiic of Lhi> vnrUi'fi »iirr<w«. 


UlMMi th» pHnolpIo of TCtrtlc«l« Mid HoH^Eontatfi nil of oitr 
UMtmai^ntA for I^-vrltJng iiiid making iiflLrr>T]omJrnt oljhcrva- 

5^' WeiKht. — TUo H^efovn of m bwfy in dti^ to thr* force 
(>r tfinvity. itcting upon idl lu pnrtiHr**, lurt 11 mnsi not tie 
L<i'nroiuii!ml urilli llii.- r4ir<:i- c»f gin^ity. WHjjtil Ih (Jtily LIk? 
cflM of gT*>J'y *'lwn ri-MBlH* ; wli<*ii f^ratUy U imn-aistel 

At llio ttnw j>]Me Uio wrieHla cf Ixidin luv propvnirniil (o thm 
tn«MM» i»r th>4 i|UaTilUErA nf iiiniwr wliiHi ihf^ rN>iil!iiri. MV khnll 
M« htrciifU' tlml tlin nvijctkl nf IkkIiI* itinj Ui [InlvTmlin*! hy mmm 

inor* fulljr lu-mftrr 

60. Certrc of Gravity. ^TIjo (^ksthk *v (Jiiavity oTtt 
Uxt) 1% Uiut |)u«nt ibtxjti^b wlucU lUe dbrc^Iioii of ito wighl 

W<^ hAv« WMQ tiint iIm ^i<iglH of n boily U 1b« rvjnilUai of 
tJi« arili^n of j[niidiy n^n nil nflu pnnli'toii, Niivv. nhntrv^r 
limy ho tlio form of a IwiHy, or whiilfv^i' it> |io*iiim». ih- ilireo- 
tl<H« of lU wdfflit alwa^^ |muwc» throiijc^i a ^iii^Ui pf>ml. Tliiii 
jminl U thn tfrtifr* <tf gritf^ify. Huncv, in viJcmlulionB. Ihc 
nrtt^titof n tiuily tnuy bv ixmsulrTitf um (X)ik(.H'iitrhT«f<1 in 1iit< 
i;rii1rc of p-arity- 

The vrrticAl Ud^^^ic-Ii pOflncB tbroQfCti Iho centra of g;ravl^^ 

In tht ffiac i}f f'titth 4if rr^iilnr ^a^m and unif^mn denriiji iTiv 
■vtilftf nf j^RiTiljr Id ki ihA rpnifo 'if Thi' llgiJiw Thrtu thp ivntnt of 
f^iAviljr <4 A ^bcr«, ■ euTw, or n rriffiiUr nrtATinJruat li In t-^ch one 
ut thi> n-ntfR tn n ejrlindrr it k .it ihr miirc' nf tho ■!!*: Id A 

In pkioi or ihMti of im^hiinit iIiicIidhb nad drntiiy. t1ip cpnirr <'f 
CmTtt^ b M ih« ivntrr nf iI>p iiurfn?e. inr nthtt an ^hc rnkldle tif th« 
■hurl lia« vWh julri* \h« ^^him of the oppotil'' luriuM. 


of smvUy iiuiy bti fimiid In ili^r fuiluwhi^ xny : — 

}fiuifkr>iii Iho boJf by any |hiTt uF its <^igi# vo that il <tm taaw 
fmtlyi mill, hj mriirm i.if h plij^nU-Titio. jvark "n It i ti-niul IJnr Trmii 
thu point Iff flU«pc^j»LvhiL ; hjchjci lUtpijuJ it ftinn f/in? utli«r j-t'luT i<f 
1I19 «400 HiiiJ lEi^rk rill vr<r[Jcji) liiii^ ; l\w iNiliiE wliorv Itri^f Uun fu* 
ttCMot will phc'W till' i^imlni »f t^vtty. 

iSy a MjiiiUr metlnitJ Llir |ji)*Uiii]i i>f iJin ci^uirri <if fnvUy in AHj 
idIU bcidy iiiuy lo lii^tuniiJiioii ; f^r il Hill dvjiyi bo fvunij at ilic la- 
tiTsvctioii of hi; J iHTi liMtex il/ dim<Hvm. 

In souiD clui?! ihc oirDtre of gniflty if u>il U'llhin th<« «ubtftaa«c of 
Uir* IkhJj iEh'IF. us. J>jr rviimpH laa nu^', a bi>Xp ^t n auk; yvt 'us 
^^KUa vuiy bo JctoruiiuH hi |ir<>di^ly lh« niii^ way. 

61- EquiUbrlum of Heavy Bodies.^TTiP n^nfrv of 
jrmvilv Wm^ Uit' (jc-int ul vUwU Hk- wH^-Ut is uppli^'ri, U 
rollt>iti> tbut, if ilii» jtofnt {« licH fart by any flupi»rt wlut* 

Ihv \w*\y Kvill hv in u Unl^- Mririmllhrinn. 

ir fl Iwk hni liLit a eliigtc i»oinl flf «up|jort. It tiui be in 
M[ailllir[iini t'lily wIk'ii it* ivnlre ofjErftvi^' lien Kitiiewttere on 

ir n boily haa bill two |H>[iito of flufiporU K ciui he in 
equilibria III oak when iu centre of jtr.ii'i^v ^ics in n tvrtii!Ehl 

An t'mm|i1i* u iiEipvFii iii Kig, 25. vliicli n-^in-fi^riU :i inait 
slainLiii^ o[i :tlilta. To W iit ti^ititifjridtiL* iii» ct^iLtii; of 
limvity mu»t be luuteily m^-r Uw^ llnv Joiutng Uk! fvia of hn 


ir m boJj luu Uiivi^ etijrjiorU not lu h eU^iglit liiie, it will 
be 111 tv|iiltihnt]m vfUnn Jli^'' *:ftiU<- of ifravily Uo« *n n ^^itii-al 
cimim Ihroiiglj anv puiiil of liit' iriUH^k romiwl b^rjmmng 
ttinw pcitnU. All <':iMi}L(tk' U »linwn in Fig^ 2ft, vrhirh rf|in'- 
itctitst ii tJii'*-c-lriCgi'(] Inlik. TUl- iviitix- nf grarily Mns ul 
j)r, tbc UiUi? wilt bv LU L'ijUililjhum ^i^ lijn^ uh iUtt ^viUcaI 
tlircNigb Hint puiiil jHonwa Uir triiingtc Toniivil by uiUlitig Uie 

6a. Different Kinds of Equilibrium. -- Whi'ii I»odl» 
or moit' r^inLi of »i|ii.>rt, tliT« kJn.U ur tfiuilihriTim may 

I. .9iKWp ^wiViSn'um, ^ A t^xly in in Mi%fUf r^mirituu 
vrhvv, on hHnif ^li^htl^ Hi^tnrVt fium it* mflio of H-»t, It 
tt^ifb of iUctr to rctimi U> Omt "^Jiiio. 

TLU irfll iti> the csifto wtMi tinr ,viitr*- of smvin- i# towvr 
in ittf iKnilioii of rvAt li«m U Ih in imj uf ibc imA^VlXk^tVu^ v^ 


tStiuiis, for In thl» oisw Uk wclglil of the ho^y acting ai iIk 
conti'T of Kravitr t^'niU U> kco^i it in tlic^ linvrput i>o»Jlion. If 
tlt^btl}' dimturU-d ^m Ihu lo^^c-^it ifoaitiou. V\ti wviglil i^ill a<< 
to (lr*iw it bti£:k. niwl *o tviUibliHli tin- t-qiniibriuTn. 

Wo hftVff nil oniiinplf of miiblc i<t|iitlilir|imi n-jifflitfiil*!! tu Kijif*, 27 
ADii 9^ wKioli n-^iroffvnl lifmncj often met wlllj m i*ii> ftiy-Mi>t|iK. If. 

o<A'ii VM'iRht riizlil tlK^lfi Ajxl Uiltir tlw« |nifiti<tJi nhowu \n Vi^, It?. 
111^4^ Tlpium tiK holLoM' mill hj^Tit, Ami tttt' \m\lithU-A vHli IfHil nl 
lliclr lvw('f \nin BO lu tu tlih'w iLio wuiTir df xrAt'il^ vi^ry L^w. TV* 
nvuh U> tlL4L whim ihr Ag^urc U iiulfciKil, ilio ^^i^iim- of xni^ltj fat 
ruui>il> nn4 ilic u'd|;bl ActB to ruturo it. TKo tlifnrc vcltkB in »i« 
|iriiiikivi! aLitr i>f (r»t oulj jif^rf McwnJ [nrril- 
Llii>iiB> wliU'Ii ftn: Him tv tin- io'>ni* of iho- 
Iphlj. Tln' ^i^iljiiiMiioii iif thin i*rilJ*(imi U- 
ih" iviiiiv IP' Unit ifiw^ti f«>rttiv iTillultouuT Itii 

\\)n<n lUi^ ooiiiriri lit fE*'Avliy b eoo^dtmbl j i 
ln'iow i}u^ jhiinr i>f fii|i)Hiii, A Ixxt) inAy W tn 
SlnVIr (iC|i]Uibiii]iri cvi-b when ihc Ua** b very 
imntiw, TliianoL.rk u-iili iwi» p'wktt-liiii*'™ 
«tlc1th)^ in f I iniij tttH upOQ liio poiut r>F t, tm->^i^ aucJ U' in etntla , 
rH[ull^hniLm, A* Ahnwn )o ibu Ogiii^' lu ibm^'aw Uk* liv^vy liniiilJi'i; 
uf ibc knUx» trin(5 The cpQtn- *if gnvjiy iioUtv ihu jhiidI i>r sU|jjkijrt. 

Ill till' niM' iif ll'C Ivy «livuii 
ill Fi<- 30, iho bi<arf bill ut- 
t44-!ioii lin the ligun- briiiipi the 
onitK f<f gmtily lit th« ^rlmlo 
hduw Lhv |K>intfl (>f BLipfrrn It 
ifl thcrofvrt' Aiiiiifipr rKiiiitjilo iif 

-*A bot1.V b in ttitt/oM 
tf^7i'AriuM uhr-n. on )h*»ii^ 
^Ighllv lIUIiiHii-iI fVorn its 
felAtc i>r rcftt, It i1uc» UM 
Tim aa l^nd to rvtum to Uiat etat«> 

Uit (^ftitiuiitTA to Ocpnrt rroni it muiv ami inorv. 

STAmiJiy OF ntmtKS. 



pcititinn iifmi rhjuiln anv cif thr iu'lKhborinj^ p(«it"iit*- Whwi the 
htfjy b >l^hil> lUaluftictL the ncj^tit Afi* mil ottlv tc |]tiTvfiL<r iti 

A. \fiifnil Krfuiiihr\Hm^ — A tKuly Is in nrutnti r^vitihri\tin 
vrtivn. i>ii lifing i]i;-|j|)) has m> U-aJruc^^ dllirr 
lo rtrUiru to iLi foinici' ^f^xx\m% or to ikpurt fnribtf fmrn it. 

Tbb nUl be iIir «ui! «Ltu \hv vc%Hrt tff gravily bi At \\w nuiir 
1ivigr>it tp^oll At iT«t H in niif otbrr jH^licMi; for Mmutph?, in a bnU 
nvtinj^ upos 4 boriioutal u^blc, 

EjMhpJM *4 ihr thnv Liiul^ ^f ■Hjuililirium jiht j^iviii in t^ij;* 31h 
Tll# «unr .1 la hi ftfAblo «|iiili1>rliiiii, 1jivt;iiiiw liji ivitrrr of f^ivlTj" Ih 
lU H« lovrnl poMiUi> pw^f Ivii- Tbccooo i9\% in qdjiIjiU? «vjiiilJVrjuiii. 
fertlKiqgh h iiinjr |Hiui1hf J Im* Tidliiirod on itvnprx, tlvcsligbust moW' 
Vfttt wiU lEimv lLc tor uf dlii>^lii'u bcyuucl iho baw bimI t!ic mot 
wtII fiiU. TheMiQe Ch in irc-nnMl iMjrijlibriiiin, Uv^it.w, if iT iiMlJfJ 
■riNBd, ll>e tmlM nS gmvitj nitl nut be nudCHj or friwot^' 

63 Siability o\ Bodies, — Frym v!mL biw Wr-n *iiM in 
tliL' jirevv^tini? ai-licl^, W iV.IIuu^ thnt botiics will ih gtiif ral be 
iqimC aCttilc vlirii Uiflr bwH* an- Inrgfust- Kor in itHf-h cnaot, 
«**ii arti-r a (oiuklomblc iiirlinntHLon. Wnt lliw of rllrfction 
of tiio woighi will tJa» w»bm th<> ontEliial lMi*r. nnd thr 
(■r^Ebt will nd m KUim tho Ixxlj- to iu orijtifin! Mate of rest. 
lU'wx dulrs. laiii|K. (7nnr1b>«)fVk4. *nil mnnv othsr r^mllinr 
iitciiHibi, Mv^ <oii3liuc1i^l wLtIi bRoia IjiM's, Lu n^mTcr iJivni 

'IT*? IvAniiiK (uwcr <if I'is* in 1 lAt iiirliiitvl i)ia1 [t Hpfimrk 

4l>«it hi fftlJ ; >in \l <l:imJi», b««iUH :h* wrii''*! Ihrt^itj-Ti the ortilrv 
'/ lEntvitj ffaw^> irilblu lb« biuu of iIr- Hjwpi. Pi^. 32 r'\ir>-«fr«k 



Thu lowi^r Wi4A liDilt in the y*r ft\% aiul nn>kn«l iu bjriliaikciii 
fniui *iiiiH|j4l flrtlliog of lUr ttiniiiJ *«i whiui* il Wft* liortt. It iluca 
ucrt fill, Icciiii*!* tlitf I'Prtiral throiLjtli ihn wcUd ofgniifitx, 0, 

inatna ihe mac t>i lUr mjuc bujy. WItli tnf-n Aiul ADmiAb ^t9 
fmttTi'in nf the ocijir? 4if fmvitj i*hnngi'« vilh i^vorj rtiim|;e of ittW 

mn). iTlhI i1ir> iTIn>i-ilirii nf hk own wi-lclit v^ih iliiit of lililtunlpti 
bptwi<ea till (at. WhcD * uuxu i^Arrin* n vrttKht in ono 



lb* rmli« -jf |Ctii\iij rxot'il^ ovrr ilir rufio, To ntuLii iFila nWt 
tha moiv ttudlf. a Mf>i*>diiti<'r't rHm<'« i long 1>c)lp. u1loi) n ImIiiiiHtik 
pc4o, Aod when he fei.1i hiinwif tdrlinJu^ iWAnis niir tiilc, be od- 
VMIKV^ hiv polH ttfwnrdt thit ntljor sbM. ibi m in hrlnff Ihc rroinnioii 

njiA-dAOivr In 'm m rx>iitLriuitl hUlifi of tiiiAijtThT^ 0r[iritiL>tJjiiit 


l.t* of 1Tiii\»T9jl flrnitJiN'ri, 
M>Hu>n of PUdHa tu tMc 0;bit». 

Law of TpfrtmrijiJ Grovliy. 

Wfij*bi Au KTi'fl .iTOnivlif, 

T.inr r/DinviUn. 

I'iitliiati rtrC'tt,iri> of Qfniriiy id Bi^n of 'eri-m* Vomit. 

C*uirr uf GnBvli> in Stolid E^)aUil>riiiii). 


I'usMlli- t'luiliUiimn, 

StaMifff of BfMtkv. 

LhujIiI-ilhiji "f Men Diiil Amtniilf. 

64 Law& of Pallirg Bodies. — When bodletftUrt^i 
from a tXntb of rc»t full freoly in a vAoiinm, 
wilhoiil eTpeiienclnp ftiiy lei&Utiiuee^ tUey cuiiforuj li 
tliu folluwitig LvwM : — 

1. Atl bttdifit f*tU fqttaU;/ f*itl, 

faUtire proportioHtd to the fimct cteirpitj 
in fa/iirfff. 

3, T^e tpartu panted ciw cjre ;»ro-J 
poiiiontU tQ Iht tif'tans itj iho iit 
iHViijn^ in fitUinf. 

Th*y Krvl li-nv ■« ^rriti^ Lj Ihc fuUott-ii 
i-xfii'ni!i4.'uu A i^ljinp tulx.'. bix iwx luu^ 
(Mii- It5)r b c-l<i>K'>) eu »no mdf mid ni iha' 
iiihrf II liii> ki iiiiii-L-onk Jiy wliic'^t Jt r-m' 
bit flU«oil vT upcnM 4l plciituiv- A aijiall 
Imilfii lutl Ainl B fi^iuhci nrv i»ti\fduc«l 
villuii 1I1C tube, 80 l»Dg M ih« taW itr 
full uf ajr, if It Ll- Buddi-Llf invrrlLd, it 
irilJ l>p ri1>iuirv(<ii iLnl Ifio liitll n<ni>hr4 UiO 
bulUfiH ttxiun OiHii tlir ri'^lltc/. ir UMW 
lli* ajT I* ftxhduinrit \y^ iin*:ii»t <*f an ni/< 
|ritii4>. Liikl ibr tulitf »aiMonl> JQVTrtol«' 
tntl^ ihf bill imil iliM fiiiihpr xriU \w ivm 
1- fpjll lhn.'UiEh ibii lon^h i^T iW tutw ui 
li*r ftsiiift liiji^. Till* oxpcrtijioiii- bniilrtt 



'^rs'\ ■>: 

\ sliifLlt b i^THin ht light ibAH f»r bcATj UoJir-i, 
wiik tliv c«iili(i(iod ikctlon or ^invity. 

t^ aIkhIjt fnW fniMi u Knic rirr><i1> jkiiI nt Ihr cuJ of (ho firiX hp^ 
fihiJ il irilT Tiavi* HrriuirrT'l h ivruijii ii'iucily- If ^'nvhy iJwidd rltu 
rtnra Iftiutt ll>r IhhI/ w»uIiI, In ('»iMn]iic[icc iiT iU JitPrlUf coittiuuc Xv 

nhii ilib Aililiid lit iW vi<L[|fUy npi|i]lm} Jiirlnfl ihii llr^i vcinnl f>lvi'A 
UiC v«lcc(ly nt i\iV cTtJ of <vvo HOjiLrio, vtiuli » miM tliAl wUioli U 
■lUiitiinl 41 llwvfjilof iW Mm ftWiuiiL 

8a iUh> t'lc vtltjcity at ttiv rtut nf tvo KCTDds adJctl lo tlmt ■«- 
i^uirrd during lti<i IhJnl »iviroil u IH iiiuKm iIu' vHivoIiy a\ Xht" i*riil a[ 

Ii^ ihi* NLiitfi wxy IE limy 1h' hfiowii llintr Ilin Milndly UL tt(i> cuil nf llx* 
Fxwtb BHond viU bi» fi'iir tin<<» ii« jfivnE «i^ at the f-uA of (liu Gral, 

mid «r» oil. 

Ili4> «paco tliroii^b wli1<^h n (krvly will fnll. nndor The ^ii- 
lluf-noc i>r gruvily nlujic. <lui-iu^ llio llisl t^t-ctmil \h f^uiid [i,\ 
<:xpcniiio-nt to W nWnt !<!/, IVcL Its <t4rr-jyf wliKily dur- 
ing Uw flr*l necciid U tb^rcfoiv liS,"^ Isi^t iM>r wooml. 

X"V, Aff thi' U-kU Ih'jiih* t<i Ka\l fntifi n stnii* -nf tvti, (tf at th4> tc 
Vw^f lit nfn*, k fiilluWf lUuE iin vrhiciljr iiL ibn nu^ r.^r llit* (Inl M<4Vii]d 
will U jiU4 Ivico EU KVATHfpi vrWily nfurtit^ 1 but ««oou Jf or \^i Tcrl 
|»r >r(xiuil- 

I'IiIh U ibp ■Htrrivufv' «/ Prtoctl^, L d. tlir Mnuu^iC t>y whidli tltf 

miiy, l1x<> iijtiFli^iv IIL th<> curl of »icb sutn'uivi- HTr^nd nlll lir n\t- 
mt<iik4 by tho wriiM iif uvMi tmnibpr* ^, 4, 0, y, Hap 

& T6««|iin]U«*llir?(|4MillLivu|^1i ittibUlfielHxIj pnBoCf AuHn^wtrli 
naJ of iu divi:'<Titt i^*! 1 n'|)n"«*iit tim i>("iifn JMicrilml dimittr Xhv 
Mxviid. Thru. 13 <X4W^|>inK\' <4 iXn ]ict|ium] tvE-^iiiy iiluur, iJie 
b Ittn uoxl Apo^'iiJ p«u chruti^h twu «iid^ •imom, wh&k 

liiU the WUl lioBceni '4y tlmt u. thrv* iiva^m ihal uf tUo lf^ v^c^uL 



Thm ai Ih^br^DTjiDg rftbo third ttMtmdjbo hodytiATliig nex^'ttlrpd » 
ve\od%j of 4, iu iti^^rlin Alrnc nirt c/irrj it ihraofh fbur apmee^, mul 
tb« aoiidfi ^r gnL\ity iruriii^ rhiv tfrv^oiiil u-ill mU vae t^tiott Vising 

In ilto HAnii' wa^ Lf l-^ij Iw nhnWEi thut iti« »!»»««• trMveord dunog 
IIjO «it«oeciliQK >iUJiiJ:i will Lc LudlcAtctl hy |li« »vric«</ wU nuubcta 

IL will Iki Men tlut the nainbcrt of thb aeries mn; bo «bialuo<t by 
ftildli^g one Ut rocEi of tlio ttxn luiinlvrt ivprivoiJlillig the vrJuriTlo*, 

tabiuE; tiro to rrpmtti the iulll/il vrlucilf. 

4, Tlw total Mpuet* pnvatil ilirougU At tlio i>n<t of anj^ gi\4rfi 
Udk? uiu.y ifv fi^iiijii by aLlillni; llii' iiuiutii'nr wUkli il4*(iul<^ tbu 
apftce paiH^cd throit};U <Uulug caob «ucecs«ivi.' »C(<oikd ; thus, at 
tbo rnd <»f lEic: fout^b ^condi wo dn<1, b^' aiMinit iho iiiitnboi-it 
1,3, 5, T. tliiit tin.' liitiiUpiwf M» ivj>rt'ii*"hti*<l b_v i1h> tiumlM-T 16. 

It wJl bo KHm tluit lfii« FiiLii h uLH'[jyii cf\iiid \ti Xhtt aquani ot th« 
DttinLvr oT iHrctiiiilfl Jurirt^; tvbiirb ibit bmly 1« fMUiiig- 

TblsugTccflwilbtht^lblrilluwunuiliu^ UiJIc^t, ni r^f^vlAuaty fUtol. 

TUmo roifiuLl» arc showu in tlic fvltowu^s Ia1)1« : ICj'tll. * 
tbo unit offipiLcc. 















7 ^ 














From Lb« |iriiK'I|>b<H bi^iv flvvrb^i^til w^ ili>rit<^ Lli^ (bllowlii)! 
nik'w : — 

I, To ftnd Ibc vrlwity ftCfiuirod by » rBlling IwJy ptlUc 
vini of any |{ircn timr. 

EXAICI*1-R I'Witi till- vrlfnuty \^f n fj«11ln|E WhIj hi the mJ ijf tho 


^|ft. X 5= liMirL, Aua. 


$. To ttntt Ihe aptiev piuuMKl over ditmij; onj fitren A<-<-r>u(l 
of Uip il'^woenl, 

tarruptMiit t&ihe nttmber *>/ th< tttrmd. 

lourtli «<vmimI of lU liifw^'iii, 

W,4ft. X 7 = 112,1, It., Ana 

3. To llni] th« vfhulc dblauc^e trnr^rM-d 1^^ n fAllinjj Uxly 
MtUtip^ IG^/t^ Ay /A# tqu^r* of t^ ffivn nnmhtr nf utGmdf, 

iHX wrooihL 1^^ ^ ^ .„. = 5711 ft., AtHL 

65* Appartttua for verifying the La\vs of Falling 
Bo<lie». -- WJjcii liwlirs i»v allunrd to fj.ll rrv*h- from « 
litiglil, il Ltt iiol v^%y 10 coiij|>uiv. or uii-iLiurv [R^c^uriiU-lj't LUo 
SIJIIC08 dfiATriTwl diiHig ohHi mh^oijO of ttiiL>[r d«aceiLl, 
Melboils h»vc ttirrefuii; biHrii dcviwii wliicU dtmlniftli Uie 
vt^lodtj wilhoiil othorwiso chaii£i»]£ Uic thftraclcr of Iho 
motion- Thv miu^iIc^bI i>r iIical* im-ltunlti ih thai 9uloi>Ud liy 
GaULco, llif u*(^<L HiL iiidtiu^d pbm^ liAiiniig a griKivr, ilciwii 
wbicli a hoATy )iall wiw itiudi' to roll. Ily uinkin^ thfi itidi- 
iintion ^iuaU. i\\v rnEi^ of motion ^ub su rL^dacrd tliut it could 

riff e^, 

IHHC ili>? lEicliaulIua lo bi" mirli iluii n Imlf plfli*M ni r nill mnv*» iivrr 
llip f(pnr<- cd tn uor f^wnJ, [a Ihp nr^iL Hi>mil il nlll Iravrnn k 
^paur, ifri llin<r tiuien us ^^t. and In dii^ 1tlr<l »riiind n 9|mn> flvn 
tlinVM stgr«nt, iw iti \\i%* l^n^l nvmidj niiil tn 00 ii> thr* rul)'> of ike 

tcqpdi, Lt Till Im> Itriiii4 •" Ik- (b)ct«1 1<> lliAt clt^i-hlHil <|tiHni^ tlifi fin^^ 


Htnnd, nmllipliL^ b^ the «qunn> r<f tht* nijicth^r i*f t^i'tfntiA^ ; IhiiB, ir 

66, Bodies ihrawn perpend icul arty upward, — ll' 
hnfl bcrii iiliuirii Uiut n Unly HLllitig frvvlj ^ain« ij> vrkictt}- 
Jl^i fori durini; vwl* ^n'coml of ito dv*»ocut- Tli* fifttv i*r 
Itreiv^ty diinitiiehi^n ni) npir^ard iiiDtioD in Uiv ttOEiie dvgrvu that 
It intivnfiGs a dowrtwarri t notion ; beiRx- ei Xu^y Ibrovii pov> 
ptiKliciilui ly uiiwani vrill /oar in vi'liMril^ ^H fu«t Jmiiig vik^Ii 

'IliC niimli^r ol' fit^n^ntU riMmig f^h1oTl it will rt^ntihiif* tj> Tine* 
may ilirrpfnn* Ik Touml by ilh'klhig il* tiiitinl vi*WUy, or 
tliJit nilti nbicb tt nan ptDjt.<L-te<I ujinajil. by d£f. 

Kfir i-iiiiujilr, 4 binl/ ]hrii\^Ei L)|iniinl ^iiL n vi^Uwdlj iff l£|l} r«rt 
JUT KH^tiil, will t^rntinup ti> riuj ilunni; f<>ur «->>ud>^ 

Hdvlog tviiad ttiit thtir, ihi* whtilit ilEfiiAiioD U> vhU-li ihf Uxlj will 
riw b omU; MOt^niiitivl : for it U iIlc *uma tu iLc clutnuec tlirooi^ 
whiHi Ihe body wt»uIJ fall iu tlte yivm eIuic 

Kx^mpIhK. Supi^im* J4 IhKly (lirrm-u opwnrrl with a vi^Iodtf </t 
\V3 hfl JUT ^"T^iftuJ. I't xtIjuI iliMjiiici* will Jl HK' ? 

G7» Projectiles. — A huJy thrm^a intu thr air trt ruijf tmffU 

f» tvfM. f/roffrfi'ff. Sup|KJBC ii bull h fuvJ from A in the 

horixontai clirvt^tlot] A Pn If 

thp fore* of pi-Mvity di'f ool 

iM'ti, tlw Inll ttiHill imni* iinl- 

Tormly in Dte rlirvction ^^^^ 

pniwinjE cxi^r i^quii! ii|)iioi>4 in 

iM^nal llmcN, If Ihi' Imil movr^l 

fVwMi A 111 H ill «iii' jii-emiiK 

"*^ it wouM nra^'li C in ifrd »ee- 

^' otKia. /* iu lUrL*t' Mooml*. aod 

Booai, IliiT iriho IibII wer» I^i f»1I ^ru J wtihoiil any other 

fbirt« ILkii gruvllv to art i)|iwi il. ft wunlil imivi^ in h vcrtkul 

dbvciloii, And liiv »pjLcc« A A. Z jtf» ViV^ He.. d««cKbed In 




If, oow, tbf bull >»r- wlrii ii|x>ii by tkilli Ili»-.>i' Turm, U will 
bt l^iiml ftt tho cluflc *>f *arh second ut the cstmuity of Uic 

mtr tlloLloiiA : UnL Ib, at Uil* i-ntl of 1.1]i* llnl w^miid il will 1>r 
TouikI lit I. at Uie ^m1 i^r tlu? tLcxt flfcuiiO «t 2. nt Uw ciid 
of ibci tliird st J* aud 00 on. 

The curr« tliud d^wchbuU in <<all«d a jr^mimln. 

If B bftU bv ftred oUiqud/ upmnl it will inovo lu ;t nm^ ^W thf- 
mimt kind, ^ot tiir]ru^ ««(»rditig to ihc aogk i>r Hi^\iitiuu, ii» hiji'u u 
hi Viij- 3& l"hi* c"^'"*' mug* i>t luirt- 
i4>nul liiaUuni will br niiJiiuc^l ktTlIt «n 
alwAllon of -1^, nm) llu? mugit will 1w 

i#f bplov 15*. ai ni W nud ?ll^. 

Thn« f^ullA «v ttinvd onljr for 
liodi a i inivfiiig in h ^-iirumn. hi ibr . 
rmae of bodin morin^ %vrf vv^tMy / f 
through ll]|4 nir, hm h fiiitimudKilt «» ' i^ 
tilSe-batleu Iho a*iuFti <if iho eiirvo ij> *'*< * 

•urj fOriho xn^Jkfvt miLjftr xv aIk' i-biinKr>f1 Ih> u\ut\\\ \ij' bnirjui iTr4R^. 
tt. Time of s Proirctilc— A hall flrcd bniizinnially 

ifrill niir'ti ihn krri |;ioijnd fit Ibn sanie^ time nj> if jt witrc 
dropprtl ; if fired oMljiuh- uj^rraM. il will ivucb thr 4rrr>Eiikl 
in t«i(« tbo itmcr ]\>(|mrvd lo fAll IVoni lis b»}2bi'M [joiat of 
«linrai]iHK TbL^Ar* rv^iillH nrt. liDw^\^r> niodlflid \*y the rv- 
^■lataneeof theair. 

Summary. — 

W(t1i<'4lupii of Pir>V I^n. 
XJvmivfMfrvJi'M '/ V»4i'' /jjr- 
XlEttMufrvflM^ 11/ Thinl L/ur. 
rqftuJWr Xhiffm^fi'. 

Ifdlr* iiriil RjiEiiU|iln» 

(>uLll<vi'n >irtho(l 

M nifAViTATfOK. 

tkirltn ttifvurt* itjruttriL 

hi\ve Mill Kv]iinf4r«. 

Vt^^i^ of ti J'r^JwlUe- 
TimcufH rp^wiilc. 
Bung« ofs I'ruijcfiiJ*- 

65. The Pendulum. — A rt:ei>tTLr» i* n hftvy bo<1.v 
8UH.p(<iuk'<l froiii IV hohitontnl nxin nboiit tvtni^b it is trvo to 
vibnU- ThiiR, lh<» lull m, ntitiicDtloil fVom bj & Mring 
(FIgH. 39 aJitt 40). Ss n [inuliiliiin. 

Wlini tlic imtm r>f lbs toll, M, 

t» cxnclly Ih'Iow The piiini 'jf mw* 

liea^iorj, C ^ Fig, ^h U ia in c«)Ui< 

libnum, Air tii Ihnt |4i«J1iaD lli* 

ni^t»Ai at ^t*i^\i3 ia ri^*t<il Uj ihv 

Tottiion of il»' *trhig- ir lwiwrv#r, 

iliL^ ball hv JravD a»Mv ti> n f PIu' 

JOJ, h i* no lonitPT lit w^ulIibiHinH, 

fill ill tliat I**-*)!!!*!! iSp r«irTf of 

yrii\'ily "t^lB l'» ilraw i( t>*pfc to m, 

iir vihiplt \niUd H viTl nrriic kfEth 

tli4i »Ai»f- vi'Wity jit ihotitEli it linJ 

fnllon tfir<"ii:Ti ihv vi-riii'al lii^ijilil in. In mnwqnpxjrfi at '«% hrrlU 

HEiJ aoijELirnl vdiTlly. iIjii I)jiI1 iIoph nut drip m n^ ^ml inui-r* n« 

Unt'Diib ;t. lu ilcjct^uliuij fi^'iM fi lu Mr, l1^ fjrrv of gmrhj ndp 

in Ml AL*«rli>riiTJik^ Ibrvi*, hut 111 jivwiulhi^ Arviin M U* ji, it Arit ii* » 

rcrfinlii>£ fiTcTi hciJ<v tbi- biili iMi>\<n fiUiu'cr uml rtluwrr aniil h 

rmirhid ft. Tlif> (lintHiH'O »' jt vci'vUi lii> iijj;iintiLHly cr|iii1 tn m n, 

wrn* il tii>f fvT tlic rc»iMii«rc ufthc iiir, 

Thi* bnll- ImUtifc rcnr-Wil p, \* in thr uuii^ MM* fl* il »fTi» iM •; 
Hif wcifiht iij;<iiij nrt^ lo dntvir 11 titipic lo w, w[jrii^r« 1>y viiliio *if itt 
lti(t(i>t mill ii-li-dTy, U ugnm ntft M «, *iiil tt- >Hi JuJrliititHy. 

'I'U<4 hirliv-Mti] niHl ^pTwaiil iiiolliu u alW^ OBoUtttoiy/ Jtfblnn- 
A liliKlo cirimUii fWiiM n f'> ji <r Iniitj j> l>i n, in rM}M :« .Viitifif 
, CbcJIbSon, »pr I'tfrofiVH. Au oirtmiim fixmi n ti^p, iiliJ tuiili 9U£Hi4 

I IB n, )■ calliMl H />JTiFjf> OtriiiaUoiL The* Miiftlf* |» f ' » U nllnl lliu 
I ailicic of l!i<' AiHplituJf ,4 iliv 'iKillrtlKMt. 
[ III n)iiio4|i|riicC ^r iIh* rc*i«iiUC-J? of lb« mITh Uii* Vii|rlk1i]<1« 1» ram- 


l"iK^ *^ 



inranjlj ^imiDithinc, iin4 1li<i liull fiTmtiiAlly '<oinm to n^ft, ttiMi^h 
fiftm nol lill ■fkrt thi' Iii^vr nrhimii' Nmjr*, 

70- Simple and Compound Pendulunas. — A SiurLS 

|H'iii]i|^ II :iiii|jU^ iiiiLtiTiikl [Hi'tnl it} » Atiiiijf (l<<»tIUlU! of 

^urli A jirrii(|rilniii nmv rxl>1 tii ihi^nrj, aihI b lhii» ui>ii>fii1 in 
arrLnvft *\ thf lu^* M '«rkllmi»ii. but in pmrlicr It cnn nnl^ )■* 
■|vpn)ii>inii!«it lit \ty making llie hnll vrry vtM «ulI Itiu eirbg ivrj 

A CouroTVi* Pft:<ocLr>f i« any hwiiTf body which i* free 

to 04«illAtC IllXHlt 11 ]lO|-i«i>lltal IIXIH. 

]| iimj Itr i>r iiEiy firriEt, bill jti fcrrml tE f(>u^r»l9 ^r m ^cin, T 
(P1^- lUt vlilrh U rubor *^ wnrxl i>r moiAl- Th» RTrin linnlnntM 

bplow In » lU^k uf ini'tfll. J^ ffillnt iIlo lull, o^hlrb It ci n rpDltrDbif 
•hap^ that Ulc mifUiDiv oT the aJt Io ili iikufkin liu^jt br a« IJuIc » 

71. Laws of Ondiliition of ihe Pendulum. — Hiu 
OscillAtioiiii of IIlc peiiiinluio take pbct:- in no<^orilnJiL^ wltb 
llie Mloirinji bw*: — 

1, /'or peitttulitjut It/ tme^rrot feri^t/it^ Me limea vf titeiUuli^m 
proprtrltOH/it to thf tqnarf tJMt$ nflhvir tfti^fht. 

% FifT ilt* i/im^ ivji/tf/Hai, lA# limf fif utriiiittttirt ($ iadfipifin^ni 
tfftht aoift/tliidr* pruvirhit tht ampfittttlf iir tmnlL 

U. /of firnduffitnt of lAv tawt Itttififit the tintf 0/ oih'tifalioit ft 
irtJ'prnJra! of' the nature t/fiht fitattriaf* 

IriiEl}i| ^ill aII iiM-LlUrr ia llr mini* 1iiiii>. 

/tfflon mv inver$rtif at thv f^UAV-e nt^i c^/ t^e /«rrr 0/ ^ta'iHf ta 

ThMJ> bw* »N" ili-'lut^fl lr<»Mi iL i^HuriM- i>r iii'ilbciiuilUvil nvmnsu^ 
I ibronCldkl ■nttuplr itfUitdliint, 1m>1 ibi'^ urii^ Ir v<-Hlb^l ttxjvri- 
Ily by *ipjtb»jiTii- .k vi-ry jjuhU biilJ *if |»Utiiiu«i, or vll;«r bnvj 
, iu»l su»fvijiJ[Lie It Hiitj u rrry AiH.* >^k ibmul. 


r;jf.-t rrr.iTiox. 

T<> vitrify lliT- tli-Bi LuM- u ^rli -rirli « in-uilitkiii, wc hi^a lijr miklBjF 
II vihrit^'. An li then c^vmliEitf eIiv number of vibntlkHiHbti <iiip niasl^ 
Riipihiv. for ij^nmirlv. tlmt h tnnkn »cici;ly-iMit |ii-t iiihtuiv. Nonr 
irtiiLt' t1i« irirm^ four tiiiiH u long lu iNiforp, nnd t( will hf &«bJ 
tlmt tti<^ |ri*iKli)liim i»n1(t'» tnily Ihlrtj-dlx fWjlUUons jn-r in1]Mit4^ It 
\hv hiring Ih triiirt' niiiii tiiiiiiit ah Uittfi mh in thr llrti invUrncv, >| nr^tt 
W tpuriil llmf thr iP-riiIu1iiiiE riuikr* only iMniK-fmr ivt'lllnlknis art 
iiilnHTc. Ami sn oa. Jn ch*» jkr^mid raity ih;* liinf'iiif n*rilfc»ri*nr i* lirirp 
A* iTfnl. aihI tTi tho th^nl u;m' it ja tVim: iijri«A a* liprvnl n»< in tlio lir-t 
cim. Xciw, b<vflU%L> tv-M. tbTOP. *tt*., MO lh« triu*.™ fooU of lOlM', 
ainc, tiP't it fullnv'b ihnl thi^ Ijrw ib «rrifi<M. 

Til tvrify ll>r xrwiriil hw, iH thn AtiiiH< ^irQdiilijin owtHat^, Al ftni 
ll;rmii:h iin iiri'. /^ 't f Kic- 10], mul lFtf<n lliMiTclk iitif otlicrjin!. r^i \\ 
n-iU ht' ffiiuti lUiit till* riiMiTlifr i]f r^hi'iU-ilionN fH-i iiiiriuii^ ti thrurnc i& 
viiAi rn*r, llfiiri' tlir )piiv it vi^rififiL [l i« In lifi vt-HTVcl thai Uic 
U\T ilim iLoi hi>[il trnj* milru llic nrnvpn nnd r^ 4ev vc^j HmiJlr Ihftl 
i#, not TOPTC Ihftti throe nr ftnir ^£m<a. 

The jiropiTi/ of iH'nrliiloirH. ll«il iholr !Uriw ("f oarilljUlon Rft 
imlopi-iukrit of tlic uinplTluilo mF TibrntJon. i^ rli^psiinfnl bjr iJi© imib« 
iAvrfrrnrMMn'. (nan \va (■ rr^Ti U'inK pi^i^f]-Jii^ ftpittt tiauKf owflfe- 
ti<mp iirifnniu'<l in *•*]»»,} rhm'H iiir rnlW tvirhmn^L 

GauLF-o fim illiinnrr-rHi Tim TiirT thcif mniill iiv-iilnilnniL nf n 

1f Iih intJtTpft thnt \if iTHK li^l i<» Ibf^ il^vnivri hy nDiidng ibo oAril- 
UiMiiid <i n objiEidi-Licr »iiq>«tjt!f<l fruiH Uto iviUn^ of the C«lhc«lnil 

7^* Centfcii of Suspension and O^cillstiQn^— In tli« 
t^ouitHUiml iHHiiiiiliiui tlicT ni'i^lil u( Ow Hii^i-tiiilLiig'Uxl mul nf 
Ldo l-nll atv Ut \'V <\iiisKt^rod, Siiicu n bhoit |>c'i^(tiiliiiu vi- 
Krnicb iiJ'>t-o nijikLl^ tUmk n Vung on(\ it i» (^I'lin Itmt Uii» paru 
nrALT»t till* [jiiliil <ir Kiii!i|JCMhirj]i vltl tcM-1 to lilimii* 1u tho 
MlKVCtrJit time, and lli(>4^ faillii^M fi^m llinl point in tlx' ioiijEcst 
liiii?- Uiil i[\c whole uhlft tL]c>%v tn^t lijcT. aij<l co]iw4|ucntl.\' 
tlic rniJid vibrntiotii of tlit- u{>[iev jinii of iIk- [xiululuiu ara 
ivlaulvit tiy iliv »1uwur tSbiiLtiaiis ut (lie \im*!V jHirL Tliere 
ia a jMjiiiU lic>vy<'vvrt ulirrc llit nnLnral mti' of vilrinUon W 
uiJttLf^f acwl«rAU>4l uov ivunlrd, Uiv riocoturalin^ cfTcct oT 
Ui» |iaft above U-iiiji rx;i(,<llv tuit»uci*ft \ty iho i^unting 

Tifk }'K\DrLVM. 


1 l"*" 

Ui« pBirt bi'low, Thia poinl u oulknl liit rfn/rt of 

ii4T«of osdllAtU^n 1» to lki> tAk«n aj^ tt)<? 
itv lor^tli or the ppDdLtliiJii. 

73- AppHcailonaoftht Pendulum. 

Oil iiocouQl of itii^ ij^i'dii^^niaCLi uf tta 
vibntioQa, the pcnOolnm lins licrn k|>- 

vtu flr>t iisL-d foi' lUkv pu r|HiFii< in |1j5T« 

tivoponorof n i-lw'b h 99inttkcno« li 
M'lltht aininii h}- n raw] wnnm! nrottiii.! :i 
(Imrn. oinl mjmrtimi^jc » i-iilliiE h[irln^ 
nilftr lo A walcU-*i>rifig. llip^r- motoTfc 

irliMi Tti titrci iri[inrt« mnliou lu iIh' tinn»U 
Ibat muvi! rouijcl Lbi? ilUI Miiuiuimrl iIil* 
boor. U la Co imiArt uitilurmitj of inu* 
I to thte Iraiii of trtiM^work Ihftt. IIm^ 

nluturi If iifMtl. 

Kig 41 »hriu>i lhi« iti(<rfiuiiltiii liir iiii<eii>* uf 

t**l will] ihv IfAilJ Jjl*e(j liy llu- iiMthiiT ahiI 
It M\ip--A-tH-H ii<-hivki?d U^ in iLi>fli'<f, mnt, 
ijirh i* ntbirluO In \\it ^*i^ii-1iiIuti> ftnd vLbmltv 
til il. 'nirBi]rliiirIinnt«-»»HPi]«'(iiig|»((lDi«, 
•vtl l^ cnUnl imllf'tv, which I'li^ni,'!- alltfr- 
Ttly HiTh iJn' tiir-ili ^-f i?i" wppi'-wliivJ n 
rh II mjioD^r rhnl Hsul^i^ur- |i„>i1l am pa» 

cm-h rtiiiDi; Iff th*' p-ndntiiTri, 'lln- itkitfir 

UDlil imp uf the tMili iNntiM In winvjvl 

III tt« pniirt rt, whifh rtopfl tS<* ir^li-iji i/ ilic whri^l-wiirk till a 

Of uf tha iwiiJuloiii lift- Ihi^ \m\\i-t m funn Wlvfiu iln' tn-o lovlh. 

Pitf^ 41. 


ugain Am*f(<l hy iht? |4lliH 9, f^lliirg ttiitv##n two iwcb <id I^ 
orbrr iiJiv A hwujJ fnritu- tif lht< pruiJctluMi lift» ijiit ih« palUt n, 
Bufff^n «nniTi#T Untth tn pt*. tvliitn itit< wli'rl'Wiric iH «^n mtmM 
by Uw pullut VI. diid <M:t nil luilrlliiJtcEjr. Tbc^ Uuil« t>f lliv iicu4aluiD 
boJiig LHrH^lmiiiiirt*, [liit inlt'rv'nl of iiirin lirtvrvi^ii 1hi> nJUHOcuTivii f^iftt|*f> 

u<irk i* tii<|ii mijfiinH- Thi' hi** t»( f'>rir wliinh The p-nduhiin r-'f*- 

aiidltMtutiehor- Thlibmllcil tlit^Pii^lJiiijiir^ |hiwm>f llto]vtiduliuii^ 
Omag Ut oipunai-JiJ niul cuniraotioti fnoiu wtriftiionB of Lompvn^ 
tUTv^ the Icngtii 'if Thp p*»m|iiliTiii viiriM*, htiiI Hn»-trilmc» lo ih« fiist 
Iovp-, iu tlinri uf vibmlion <hkJii:f?i> In nkv rht^ke Ihu diAdji^ it 
iv>inp'ii*<,ir(*ii by -A niii>hiri«tliiii 4<f (iirtjilh- In iNunimm rliTkii rl U 
rr''liK'<il l>j hTii^Elhriiiiii; f<r jili<irieiiJnK iht irt^ixtiiliiiTi liy a mit >&tl 
Hrrow, fclii^wii Ai », Iky inoHiu of tfhicl iTu' ]onU«ilAr bnb may he 
nuoTc^ ufi m»\ ilitvm. ]□ diimuwr ibc pctiduluin «lunjcAi<« «aj 1^ 
dock U«ttt l&inr. <ir niim [ihihIu'W; ttiiK t> n^^ltflnJ by si^rtwiPfr Dp 
the nai und Bhi*tt^/iiiiiif ilic ptnJuluKi. Iii wiiit*r the (rtiiJijlijm 
o>tiimr[< mil! <hi- HtH'h L'nLiiii Ttmr ; Oilit ifi ndilli'^l 1>y iiiuutiw-Uiic 
the liut nnd Icn^t honing Ifin piii^iihiin* 

74- Compensation Pcndolums arr maAx- 

hv iii^ltk^ Iwa TLiofai- ii) K^tL'li Z( w»3' that tho 
I'XIiuiL^iiin iir<mf imrl iTowMA'^Lnl ninv be exni-tlv 
eoMtiU-r»i-Uil by the ii|iwuit] i-xpuiiitkm uf llir 
other pnrt. lhii& mnkintf the rTcctivv lou^itli 0I 
thi' |x'iwli]I(ii[i flivruys llw AAitir. 

Uiiu kI |Ii4< iiuwL (Kitu(n»n (i>nni' m ibntro hi Flc> 
4£ It if ciirij4raiditil j|> TiiIU'Iih: TIic |>iMJf1iTb]tn-niil. 
,1 li, m\i}MrU u, ^hutM Jur («ifily fiir^l viitli trnm^ryr 
riirbev-it m ihr >(n1 fniTtir^iitli. F (' IJ fC, Wh^ti 
llii^ irviLthiT i* wuf(iL» ill!' ri"l ■-»\i-\ ['rain^fit^iirk rkfwnJ 
■nil lliiiK U^eri^AM' ihi' k'EiKtli iiT th(i iH'iuLaldtn, llul Hi 
lh« piiTit« luatih«iiief«ury 10 the glAMJurrstiHimtji iluA 
Thu^, Bii llvKl hy a \hmiut mljujiiinr-nt ihr cfnnr> ft 
itvWUttKU ii itirrjisl ;i- f«r Tjpu'nul hj ihrnpnttiloli 
uf llkp HM-miry Ji" <hiAimjml hy t>ii-< riiwnijoii iif 1I10 
rod And fmu^iM'-rh^ riipdiNiHtjcii> Trf>t«'H'iJ fh<t mvtrvtt 
tif «ii»j;iriifli)a Mid iMcitbki^ifU n-tiiduing tbi> nuii^, rhtf vilirHiliiiu of 
InJiim cDUtinao iinalEcmid- 




MlH l tr fnnn uf thp cainpcUMlJug pcadolvia, the boll i> wip* 

wlju't^'] ihnt iLp ditWiivriMtl nr|nii?ii*ii *>f our |H*rt U rxacU; com- 

In the ftirrn aLuwu in fl;;- 43^ cnllcd the tcTvUrua pendulum. l)irrt 

I ur fLr<- Kii*rt Imrt f^ijuinrlriiL' 'liiwnunnl and fjiir 

lirui* Imip* I'lpiin-iirii- upwHrd- An ibc fdatirif 

I dpaHulillU; rif bnun ruiniHti'nl with mIc**] In im 

I lOOluCl, Uir Ledjrtli uf ih«- «l«t buv in ^f Uml 

^" 75- Length of the Second* Perdu- 
luin^ — Tlw IciJjith of th* pt^nJutuzii vHmit- 

mtiK^J* At iLr Mkiiu.' i^lui.'o it is tiiTunnl'li% 

but it Tari«« with tlic IfttiUidc* At Ibo 
^MOiutor It U $^i.ti:ei7 fnt-bru : at Nciv Torit, 
^K*«>^7 IdHk-^^ at S|.iixiH-f]fi-u, :i!t.2n;n 
I ^nclMv, 'iV <nii5c<3f iliU vnnntbn U the 

C plm<vu, ifuv to Uie »|jb(-rui4.liil vbufH.' of [1ii.< 

Thtf |«iiUr iltitviftrT ni itif iitrtli bnrnx twriiij- 

pii4r IS nran? tin- L-('iiEri\ niiil tttc Tiniv ar livn-^ 
! tn^l ^Tiiy H rtf»bc<'r th#iu ;it t*<<Uil4 on t>r iiiur 

ll»r f4|iaiL<ir, (^tuiw-cp-iirly, a |H-ijiliibmi ftliirh vibmt*^ ikviiikU 4l 
iIh- v^^uftl/ir, ■>■! iH'ilii: 'nrrtfil r> n Kilitmb' itF 1')° lo ^^. ii* iintr^i 
iitmii|;l5 ntIhI :i|iriii hy ifnitiiy, jhkT vibntri*ii luurr rkpiilly. In urdiT. 
|l'M«lDn% |}kU it ra4y ^^nfiiHiii l<> tii[hlt<i rKurtly o)i(i vlbrAtiwi in fwrb 
honhU lb* m|4rliiy <<r rlliriihin laiiftt In- dJinlnlfthtd by Inr.niuii^f 
tlic lMi|^b "Ttbp iioiiilotom. 
Summary. — 

T9k T'tmhtliifn. 

VibniEiiiii <rr Orif'itlhEiuTi. 

t.V#iipuiiiiil J'viiildliLiii, 

y^ *» 

roiw f{f OsnJIaHM} rtffhr' J'mduLitL 

VrriHrAli*«i of Fii>l liHU'. 
Cfntrw f/ Swiprtunmi nrvt f>M-%IUjtiim^ 


Ti^e CfriJimii IViidulum. 
'^. In Miicli l^iliUlJnL 


7fi. Work- — 'Ihv U>i'(ii uvinEas iiiwd in m«"hflnit>i meanfl 

iiw priiditrti/m etf' mtituiH rtf/iiirtti rrittitiliit-t. 

It la i>ln'lv<U that t1ii» ilrflaltuin will Applr not uotjr to iLc 
Idvhor of mrn nnH anlmaU. t^ut Lo iht! ciotion of force* ofotlw-r 
Icintb — a* ihott i.»r wiinK wntj'r, nri-l «tV4i» — «rh*n 
pU>vi<iI in iiA ftniiinn^ n^imlttTitv- 

■wutvr. fji^lir,^ in»iiT pivMirig rollout i<U-.^ eltv alt rxAinplM 
Ofwoi'k. whntf^vcTT irthj^ Iw l}icr TorrvB ^miili^y^d In tbfr TAriont 

77* M«a»iiiement of Work. — 'Hh* vork ^loup In mln- 
tnjj u «ri?j(<Ul lo A ^ivi-n jiri^il U f^-iicnklly Wkmt set n flumU 
UTil fjr ibc mo]L^tJn.'mL-itl i>[ w>>rk. 

In UtU E.-oiitjlry and in K^j^IoliI XUv uuit urirorbt commonly 
EulopU*d ^M r^ht*/'>'i'-/>r>i»jJ. 

Tbk f the fluioiiiit of wijtk ivtjoErifil to jvt>e Oiw pouml 
DIM Ibol iigmil«t Ihr ffrc^ of iLTDvity. 

The unit or Iht Motnc !<>if^ti>ni U Ih^ wi>rk roqiiircd to 




nlw on^ kilogrnm lo n hH-fbr of onr tnorrr, h Ih rtillnl a 

T>^ Itiiil 4 nitrncrirhl npn'HHtE"! for iTti^ \i'4irl< in ii ^Ivf^i cvilmi^Ti!* 

Itunv iiiiiu In iIh- v^nUvl lirluhi tu «rbii-ii ihi* Ikk]> In ri)X<^\. A 
wdfebt ikf 21} lb*. nuMif 1 fr^^it, *iT u wiffhi uf 4 ibi- nuttd 'Jl> fu/^ 

7fi. Horsc-Powcr* — It !»m hwo osttmiitH tbnt thp 

:L*t,OiH> iTonniti v«-nii^lly ihrongli r>nf> T^hk In n nitnnie ; h^no*' 
IV^V'^ittivi U u |>fi«ri'r nliidi can ixriTui'm U^kO'XJ iniil» uj 
nork ill it idI^iuU-. 

Xh^ mpiciif of slcniiw^ii^nm jnk1 ■■thi.'r iwurrtfnl mncliiim i# 

!ln. ril (i*pl iTi (Xii* iniuuw, *irSrMP/ll'» Ft* iiur ft-^rf In n mijmin 

'rW lime fcjcirrrJ f"r the work i^ h»i r-i!niiiftl |mrt nf ibo ralr^U- 
lioiL If an imj^iii>^ mil ■!» ^in,nOC) ijiiLu iif u'^rk in bjilf u minute, U 
ifi oftevbwVO'pavvBr; If it cfLd ilit ilio iLiiitr wnrh tii mir HtyrnJ, U b 
iff fixfiy hrirw-|iT'irvr- 

79- Energy W iho pawor i>r .liiii>a wort, rhat K nf over- 

oiK^* ami IEii-T\'rorp |*g3**o**r* ft (^it-iin nm*xiiil i:»f rm^rgy- 
'ITuj mimouDt of iMK^rgr ill a moa'inK body depend* upon \1a 
iT^-itfbt !ii]i1 v4<lfK-ll3 . TIh' illfi'piiiM] (ii wliifli U nirtvi»s tnak#« 
no iliEI[-n-jiiir Id \\\v i-iKiyjt Willi nhii'h it arL-i. If xix rnt'rf:^ 
ui es|i«nck<l in lifting: ilsiolf ngntriit thr Totvc of icrarity, we 
mn, if \\b wvi^bt at"! velocity fiti' known. dvU-vmine tbi- 
ainiiDiil aftbU t*iicrgy in fool-pmjrMli, or k*lof^kiu-ui('b.-ri. 

T^r Ji> lUi Vf* tiHi'o tiiTij»lv l>k finil Tliv vrrtif^l bcivht Ilt ^vliWh 
th« i;]^ti relodif irouU lift llir bu4j. At\\ \ixuiU^\j iUv vrv\^h\ \»j 
i\\¥ liKi^bt, \4A n s ibft m.iH rif a l>orly. mid r Iho wliviiy viih 
liliirK it i* iiiimiiiE. ftiuJ itB TiLC'iuy Mill liL< rt|nna«l by the funniiU 
\ n v*i thjiT it, tU oiLB^y jh ^■••]\m\ U' on/ Ati^/' if« noi* mmlHpiitd 


H'fi/fA' .*.V/J KXKHfiY. 

Bo^ Kinetic und PoienHal En^rgiri;. — To imdorsUkd 
thcftr Xvo t^pcd ofcncr^. Ut 119 coiiHuIrr xhv mM oTa keAVjr 
boHj thravrn directly upwanl into tUc nir. Ab it Ifrffioa to 
ri««, it bm ft o^rUilii hinounl or cn»r]gy clopundiri^ upon Um 
velocity with whldi )L itinve»- This Is ItN rrte'yy 0/ mtttitm. 
An it oontiiitie« to rUe, tt» velocity, ADd conMiiuustljr Ha 
QtWTffy of iii'>tioi], f!*X"iv(u*(*fl> iinTil nl tho h1jcTic«t point vrhk-U 
ll T(iflch»« It. Iiik»j 110 loiitfjT nn\ rnrr^v of iEiotinii», ILiil in 
(?riirtH<Hjiirn<'r rif lU r]c-vnUd iMit^iiiim, it liiu Uiir povftr of 
ilginjf work in ib I^U to Ihv' t^rtli &};aiti; that i». it ho^ 

EtK*F'gy <*r m*Jiliin J* palltil lin^tir *>nprg)'. 

Kut-p^ ufiji^itioii 1* uiilU-vl p-'/iVi'fWciie^Ti:)-. 

[ii llir I'piAit juM ijivrUf th« rtuiii ijrilitlWi> 1y|jr3>uf carj|rj nwutiM 
\\xn KTUUA fur ovtinr pijailiLiD of tlu* l'<4(|^- ] fnf, lu it ntPi. kiuoUe oD- 
t-r^x riiHTHUM-i', HUll ihiU'ikibl 4iic'r)(3' Iihhmkci lu iMOi-'dy iJio iwnQ 
pn^r^ortiitU] whll<- hi \ih iJiwi-dT puUiJlml cncr^j ^UvTMuM tCbi 
hUiflir ititvi|{> inrrchiHv llll \\w Lmjy cume* tn nwi in ita urifliwl 

A body iiiu) hnvu i^uvFiUJ uf [luuiiiKi himi ollivr vauH» tliau bfiii^ 
niMd t< a lififfht 

A lioff Ihni U tcnl* tUr iiikii lis |i ring o( ft w»(rh thnt » wound «Pi *< 
Any body ill wliirti ri^wnul fon-n i« i^ifiivH tpf Iiiik jiiitftit&Hj «angj. 

Summary - 


1'\if Ft^t-l'imn.L 
iXi Kilo|£ral]t'Mi.'l«r> 

MeuuTvnjf-iil >if EiK'nEX' 
Kiuvlir KiH'r^y. 
Poi«ntijil EuMvj. 


Appucxrms or pnvsirAip hum in.i» to MAi.'Ht\Ri 

9Bmo?( L— nmntAL rufMciruM. 

Si* A Machine u n contrivsincc by meant of which 
ft fore* npplind at ona puint U mnde to pruduL*^ uti 
eJtlKt at torae other point. 

Tb« &PW Applied >t c*Ilf<f Th« /lAVW, nn^l thii r>m^ to t« nv^Twtnp 
U caOol UiF iivigAii 1*1 luw)' 

tta. Motors* — The working of a maohLik(> rvqinrcs a con- 

caJkti the MiirroR. 

bf awn c< bMuM. in t^noHh kindi* el vvrb ; fhc rpnght atid trnpuitt 
1^ maXer, «i \u vtM'V'HtlW*'. Ui^ invpubr r^ utr, jm ju niud-iiLiLK; 
tll««Eafr»f ^i/TT «/ ^ffrim^ff ^ iu VAlchn; ih« tj^rmct ^fct e[ 
Dtt;»ra hhJ pun. u in skuiu «ad hot-air cngiDOL TIk hut b, 
fvrhnpa, Iho ini^l d«^(iI uf (he ircilrirt iD«ulii)TiL*d. 

8^. Object and UtUityof Machines.— T1k< i>^iJ<-H nra 
nuK-'ljirao ifi 10 Irun^mil Ur' power TumijibcHl lij' tht^ mot'^T. qikI 
to mo'lijy iu aoCioo in such a iDonutrr ^a to cauac it to prx>- 

Ill IL11 <«■>< ^4.>n ji iiuiohiui? idd Luyih^ujf tn th« pi>wor A|i|diit4i 1.1 
il; uu lIh eonttJiry» il iiLflgrl>i iiH>r^ tir low of tliU |mvtrr, uvciOiiiic 
lo like ii4l»ni iif (bv wtirk l/> bi* dmic And llic c<tTiD«>lioii oxutiuff \Mt- 

Jbm-w 1/ th» drrciiiAUDnn wtrhk-h ^iiu*<' vu tilwrptiiHi uf \tim^«v 

OKS'EffAt. pnrxrtpLFS. 

Dtt' till' mtjUiii: r-r iiur pjirt \i\m.'\i aui>ilirr> Uit viiiTur-v nf IntHb 
Udt», thd ri'VLxLiiK^i ^r 1hi> Mir, tli>< ^iiilnMiiot I'l «>m' imit lo j|iK4)itrB 
iiuil i.lir Aiuit "f tiiijilur>j< iiiiA vljU'lJdly in (Lo i»a1rrijil» uf f bJdi tW 
irfichi^io It Lvin^irut^tdl. TIjo r«»i«liiuc«» arulojs Irvcjt thtu okUdkM my 
nillriil hur^Ki Trmforttrii. Tlioy u^t otjIj uWirli iiiiu^i nf llii- |h>w«t 
bp]>lio^. but tbi-v uIko OKUiributv lo woiir out the iD&^hiao. 'Thft 
rxifllrutt ijf tltv^ Ti'Di'iiitiJcf'i in t-^ti^ in»c|iLut< m]uim a oontiiiafd 

|h'rforni iKt* iip(.*f<il ^'<.irh, Hrm^ tJw' alwurdJIj <if ii1l'rai|Tlini; lowU- 

84. General Laws of Machines. ^Thi^ iilt'tt of Wouk. 

in noL-tkiiEjU'^, im|>lice Ih^it a Uhw \^ vQn\\nuii\]y ^icrtcd^ :inil 
thiLt the point nt wbtdi it Iri ti]i|>Iied mort^ii through ft cvnaia 
Huu-e, Tliun. in ^[Uf^:lll^ !» wi'i^hi, Ihf Knrk iierfiinuwl di*- 
pvm\s ^/at ij[xt|i llii? wvi^liL rmM!cl. niiH jirfo^jr/fj/ uptHi lliv 
height through wliidi it U midod. The tjuoHfiiy ^ «pont of ■ 
Tcrt't- ill iLik^> ^iVL-iiUmolaiLU'itttUl^l lr_v th>* irit^||BilV<if Me_/0/fV. 
inultipU^Hl |i\ f/i^ diiifitjitr^ through which it m fzv^td, 'J^iIjI 

T^c irori ffl^ lAfi potpfr it <tli^fiy» f/wi/ /r> M* Wont^UklMA 
Ikni'o. ir by tlio iia<' '>f a miirhino. a ymiixT oPon^* ponid OW 

Ihiffiigh Ut Unifs Ibc dUUntrp travcrscil I*)" the freight; niitl 
Ai tlic tipnrrs nn- trnvr^nt-it in tbt^ aamc imv thv |>Qiicr oiiiiit 
m(iV4] ten tiint* (i* Tua! lid iho wi*i(;[|t. 

Th^ |Kiw<>r U nol nrev^siiril; lesH ibftli tlit^ wi-lght ; Ibr n 
niKhiiic luaj'bv HO«oi)9lrurtuiltbatii|)owQri»f ben j»oiich1a will 
be required 10 lilT 11 «r<:i^^fit ff 4:/iie |H>mui ; U\t{ \n Ikie eoeo 
the vdght n 111 movr throiigli t«^ti time*) ibo R)iftpi>, fm<t wiili 
t^n time* ihc vrJoHty of Uio |*nwrr. Mnc^Iim, UicrrJbrv, 
irtA}' 1>c UKCil it] Iwci vrajit, b/ nickittj: llic |Hiwcr more villi 
icrcftl \*l-x-ily to movi' licuvy wcif^'hta my »bi«ly. or Ij tlw 
luc of ^sn^t power to movt^ Mmitl winy^hlH votj r:i(>LUy' 

In I'itlivr uEini- Ihe folkmiii); ^rtrtiT^Ll Iuuh will tft|)|jly Ui 
uiai'hif]cr< (if Mtl ki»-1». 


1 . What it ffaintti iit I'ufrnf^Ty ^//^ret rt f^ i't timr, Vtlifcitjf* 

rOJT/w — r//f: i^ii%'Kk- 


SKLTKI-V It- — ni-UIKIlTtliy MAii'tllWX 

85. Mechanical Fowera. — The elotnentniy mnchmes 
M.W »«vt-u ill itumWi-. \i-/... i\w eord^ \hv Ur^r, Uie iu*^tinr<i 
pt^ntt ihe pu/try^ the ifhcfi aj^d lu/p. the tcrrie^ and tho 
I0«^. TlivMf Httvvn itro c^lleil m^rAanjV-ii poirrft, TIm? 

r,iflm ttire^ are simple Htnn^ntH ; thu romninitig Dne« Are 
combinnlioii^ of ifiv-Av tlii-ee. 

86. Cofds. ni]<L Haj^ih vr BiLLTif are uuit fcr tnixifimiUIiif; 
notii'JD from one point to ftooUier. m iu tin* pullvy. Chftlua 
sit- ufleu eiiiplci}ed n>r llie sjitui^ |rur|MJ4i', Jia in l\w wMlotu 

ronln. Ii ltd. nnd I'lijiiiiA vbuulij }•*> 4^ tlfXlMv iia in eiiUAur<iit with 

87. The Lever- — A T.Kvrn in lui infltiiMo Imt free lo 
Uirn ntroiit a fi?toiI ^luiuU nklktl i\it Fttirftiif}^ »iji| ikUmE U|>i>ii 
liy two r<>r(-M Khtch U-ml to turn it in oppo^lU- dfnclioiiA. 
Tbe r<in« wiildi hiIh h>< it iiiot^ir in 4-»i1Iih1 iljr Ajir^f ; ilie 
vlUcr OMT £« caITixI tlic ffViyAf, ur L^^ml- 

LvTrrs mny he I'ltlior 4tr;>i>?lil or ^'iirvixl- Thn <iifiUiiii;^n 
tvom tlin nilrnitn ti> ilir Imirt <if' <tircotiua of Uil* itoircr «ihI 
wi'Jghl srp cfitln] trvff ar/a*. 

fukram, MP >ui4 ^VA tiK< lUv Ua*^ ii 
diTl«lkkD«ltfa« |H)Wrr iQil m<l|flil, f .1 b 
tb» Ifivvr jum i-f ih^k pi>wf<r, miiJ /'JV it 
ihw Wot ftTm uf ihr' u>-1^1a. 



Fig. 4:-. 

6S. Law of the Lever, — Tht firotTuft o/ ih* ;wii**r wW. 
iipfied bif itt disfttnce /rvm tha /tdenim ii tgvai to (ke prothut »f 
iht liHifi mukipUeJ iftf iU dittance from the /Hicrtua. 

h\Aiit'LF.^^ Ju ^ Ivtft or tbv KtBt kind S fo«t 1od|; with ihc 
ir«i1ght 2 Tirt fnim i\iir txktwa & pairar tif l!) |N>iiiitb will ImUu^ 

Vn a Ifvi^r iif ilirr NN'nDd klnil, t^AtpT; \anu^ with ih« ttv^hi 2 
hat f^lTll Iho fu|i>runi, ft (Kfwcr uf ll> piiuadi vill Wadcc a wdchl 
lit 4U [h kii utU. 

In a }dvci of llto lliini kmJ (^ frtt loQ^. XTitfi lhi> pt'Wr 2 
ftwlffinn lilt fuliTUtn* a puwer of 10 iifiutidfl tvlll bjiljiiwu ■ wdghl 

89. Examples of Levers. — L^xvtH tm of ci>ritintiiU in* 

FIs 4ft 

A |i«ir of scisBore alT'^ntft nn cxampW of lliv firat clan of 
^v»r«. Tlir* fulonim unt T (Fig. 40)* the htuid fUniU1ie*Ui* 

TiO: XJlVEti. 


The commcxi tmUncr, ret to be Jc»nl)c4| in a lever of thb rloMi 
Tlic ortlioon- mjlnnofker ift m: oxnmpl* of lovi-nc of tbc 
Llir iuiui. ami llitj re«ifltat)cc U th« nut to be vio^keil. 

Tlii» <;ominoiL <T0W'bar in iimkI ns & letter of ihc Srat kjml 
«li#n It b prosi*^ dowiivflivl ovcviIlo fiilcnmt to mm a 

^ fiikiiiiHt ami tlic oUicr in lifU-d U|*var'l u> iTiiwr \\^t viu^Lu 
it bc<onio»»lttii-ororilic m^cimkI biiMl ll-V* ^M- 

Thrown ofnbiHil jirrk^cre i>flJii'-vnmil rliuoL Tile ivil of the 
oflir lo (he voter b ll« fHl'^fUHx^ ^i" ln"»J >* <^i<' |i«-^*<t, nu-i t^<; LobI, 
ornubFT the rntblant'F uf itiP watrt aMl-Ii &c Iia» (>> ovni^mu^, in ihi» 
mlilMttefr TIk' sliiyLrv fliiiplu]r<xl flir cuttiun ui^rut* U^niEtvthU 

Tile limba or Mnimnb aiv i>KainiJlo« of ]«v«re of tJic UitH 
etAM. Tbo fifcun> ifaown 
Iii^vr i1h> litinMii ai-m nct8 

Th» HipkK of tfa<r bone «i 
1^ iV fitcruin; n imnTU 
UKivli- lir, nirArTicfl Tir»r iIlih 
ftivkcl, i>l|»c [Hiutfr: nfiilil>r 
wiri^ht r/ thn liinb iiti-l vhjir- 

KiKMKyTAitr MAcmy^s. 


Itt inotlnn U ihf itvl^ht, Ttin fnm-jirm Jind fiMitil art* rnUtf^l thm«^ 
a Jifidco of rmc foot hy iho oouimL'tiitQ «>f a iiiii9c;k nf^lScd DC^r tbc 
HliriWi ut'ivhig iliruiigb lcr.«9 iTmii f>| iIimi nfTAf'r-. Tho iniJvio, th#iv- 
tuKtt oaGortfl U liii^v« tbo fi^tvo villi nUjcb ibc baml uiorcs. 

90. Weight between two Supports. — iraweigliti* 

ftl.lncUH lo n itciun or |m>Ic wliich i"o*il* u|>on two ftapjTorU. 
tliv Im^'uu nt'tH tut It lever at tiw nfccULd dona, nnd Uxe ]ut^ 
cajTieiJ Ia tillifr wi|*i»orL mu) \)v r<}iiiKl li> iK>tiMiIciiiig it a* 
tbv iKjvri'r iiml Uk' r^lhur aup|H]rt ita tltt liiknim< If Uip 
wot^liL r<iRtAon tlw intil<lloortli« boAni, it UoljvioualliatmHi 
■ii|>|Kii'l. Will trim)' hiiir tlip hiiivTpTk. ir, jifi %lkoni; in Fig;. 5^ 
the luad in oiie'Uiin.l iho U-nj^lli of tlio iK.'AJii l^gm J, tUe Mil 
l>ort J will I>euL' two-tJuula of tbc wciglit. 


91. Compound Levers. — When u smuU fm-cc b r^ 
qnircH t^ hn^Uii" n r(.vift1d.?rable wei^U, nid It U »oi cou- 
v^nlcut to use a vtry- long lever. & cuuibiitatrou of leveni or 
El oomprkiiiH Icvrr. is f-m]iVv^v1. WIimi »iioEi a «>*tcill b lii 
(■qullibriliul, the jiowtTy trmltifilird bjf Aft* ^^ntint^^ pr^dlUt &f 
lAtf altrrnnU nrmt tif lAn Frerrs^ ftimm^ttfinff fn>Kh the pover^ fi 
t^-nal (Vf the weiyhs mnitiylird fry tht catJinued piwivci ^ tiu 

A E 



Pcv vxtiiipto* tlie b/st^im rT)>T<*M'tJriHL 111 Pru. 54. fWV4*iing of 
IhiWlovor^ uf lli^ fim fltiuv, will \x't ill P<|utlibnitin vIkhi 

U ilio lonj; 4niL* Afe 6, 4, and S fn-c, uul tuiHi nf ihi> diurt ftfim 
J Cmh, tlieu I ix^tijciil M A wlU BUiiriiiu l^> (h^iiiiiU nl iJ^ 



92, The Balance. — A IUlj^kcb U ti fnArh1n(» fVir vrl^- 

nn1/uici:n are of cxiittinuaL i»^ tn oomiDrfcr nnd Iht^ artn, 
in U»i* Uburaton". iin4 In |ibi*i'TiJ rMPRn'hM 1 th<ij' »pd con- 
■tH^tiootJ^' ^itmnoiy vkriouH In Uknlr rumH -mil imMk'v of 

Ci>ll«tniCtion. Wo »4iaU oqIj fl<«criW 001^ ur \\w fornjn nbiib 
i4 fell nmmoo iim fa tlw' »<Ik>p«, 

JSmm. whlHi bi Htriijil^v ft li'^'c^of tbi^ flrtt onk^r. At Itw 

Eir^MKXTAnr MAcamES. 

AiTt^mci firoi^cU fh>ni the 9id«» of tiie b«am. nnd rc-ftta 

two aupporU at the lop of h llnu anJ iiifk^xibfe rtaiMkinl. 

Th« kii1IVM>dgiKt axle, aid i^u ^upportK c-ii vliloU tt rwU. ai? 

botli cil' liaiiti-iH-cl uU'el, and iiii-etj |io11nJioiI. In order lo luakt* 

^- Iht^ frictioT] lui ^maXX tt* |>OMit>k-. At XVw cilrcmilfcd of Ibv 

ill oiki- iif uhk'It is ]iliiri'il \\\v Uicij lo W wn^liid, mid tn 
the otb*?r tiju wvighU *A' ii'LHi vr tiruBH lo cuuulvqwivc it. 
KiniUlyt a Dccdlc projccttn^ f^xim thv IxraiUi &nd |>U)'iti|; in 
tVont of n frrucluntc?it ikhIc a. torvon to show wh^ii th^ bean 
m L?xm'lJj' htiEmiitUl. 

To ivdgh A body, ire place It m cnc of thr s^cnlopatiii, aod 
1b«u pDt wuL^litH into tlio othvr pan until lh<- ^>t*iLm bt^cotnc* 
hoHxoiiUL]. Thp w«jghu put hi the «ecotjd pu» iiKlkvAtu tbc 
wt'I^liC or tlie bod^. 

93' Requisites for a good Balance. -A good bnlancir 

OLIgbL to fiHlisfv Ihe follovitlg <i<|]illI.ioH'* : — 

1, TLt» Jcvtfr ■riDB, A n and /^w, uhLnild be exactly cquAl, 
Wchftvo MHjn, ^Q iUkuiwiiii; iliv lovn, Uuit Lc»jifiii« iiiu«( Ih; f^jual^ 

Id ordcTtbnt ibc^iv may be i^it cquUi^tiuin boiv»n thv p'lv^r fiail 
fOKftonoe wbr-u t]ki>Ar' nrp oqiml. ]| d^r lUiii* atr unL ih[iulL tlir 
vi>ij:1^|ji plftwil in <ijc walf-pnc wiU ool EmUcaC* Ihc oxnol wright 
iA tiw boJj |iUc<^ IP the otlic'i. 

2, Tbo bAl:Lncc aboiitcl Iw trittitir^ ; ItiAt iflt it should tuni 
on A vcTy aranil ilifTeiviioir of weigfat* Lii 1b^ tvo M-«le-panB. 

TI1M rNiuin>!f tbt* filmnn and hn BTippnrL« Iri V ^rry hjird nnd 
euiooih, «o OB Ui proiluN Luli' friction. By mahio^ ihe ni^pdle ItttiG, 
h Bligtil fnin thir btvtvuutat witl hr itmr** mulilT pf-r- 

3, Till' [Viitiv of gnivUy of llie Iwam and wtlIi-pmiib aboulil 
Ik- ebifhtly Ix^low tiie t-dge of tbc fuU-run;. 

If 11 vrrf ID ibc? <dgc of tht faleriiiii* the 1*taia ttnuJd not tviiic 
to ft iKiritonuil povitjoti vhon th« maW wi^ri' fi/|iiiilly Uind^, liut 
wifuld reiaalii iu iinr ]>iMitiuii irhrrv il Ul^;tft (fhjiUM tp» !« pUcni* 
If It uvrt> at»>v« ilio odj^ i>f till.' fulenim, th* Wam vimld nTniJiJu 

r9n: halamk. 

borfMiaUl if |d«ml t^\ bui if fAveIlIJ;' di-flj>r(t<4lH \i i«<uuM Tend ui 

Tbe nratvr Uic <v»ln' Lififriimy mi]ii> in iiw iil/i- nf ilii* ritlrrtiTi, 
ll» SMCD AM-umtv H \v\i\ be; bul m tbc ivjur liuiD kt miuLd luni 
uiotv slov^l;. Aud luigbt (bvillj ooioc (o luru bjo tlmvly to br of um 

It U to In? i>T>Mr>i^il iLint uNrik tbr acnlff-piiua an* bcavl!; biftd«]| 
«ti kbemuAil vrkjflu U Umvi*ii mi tbi* fuli-niniT vhlrlt cJiriAv nn 1n> 

g4i Mcihud^ of testing a Balance. — To urt* nhcibrr 
Ibo »niu^ aiv urt'q»4l loH(|rLh. l*t « IkmIv be pliif*-'! In one jtaIc^ 
|iiUK ui'l <x>uiil«rbn]HTicixl h^ v^oj^|,i>. |,|,i i[| ifip ']tb<<r; then 
cbnngp plsctrs «ilh lb* bo.1y mill ll)c weight*. If tb*- beuin 
ifRuiuH hm'UiMiml nflj-r \\\\s Hiniigr. Ilu- jliiiih nrx' uf i^juhI 
ICOf^; olhiTvriftf Uic tmlumv \^ f'lffr. 

To tvtl Ibi' wn*]li\vnc***, hnr) ihr bnt^ni^o fiml bring tho 
brAio U) ft biiiijiiiitnl |>ctnUif>n. Ujrti di-'iTod ii uligUily hy u 
cMDull force aud s« wUUiti il rrltinin »luwl_v lo Ua ftiniu-r 
piM&loti. It oiigbt lo cotDiT U> a AIM.U: ol' rv4t bj u dUcccBaion 
qT o*c«llfttk>n«. 

05. Td weifh correctly with a f&lM Balance —To 
ir*4gli a bodj' with a fkiM* Imlniitsv pfnrt* ft In oiip nmlf'-pAn 
Aiii) i^mnt4frliu]Anf^ it b}' juir brAv}* mnitrr. n« iibot or aahiK 
jibKfid In 1h4 otlicr iwi- Tlirn lake- out Ibt^ bodvoiLd ii-plniiv 
it bj' V(^lght» «Jikb «iU vxai<Mv rvvioi'* Uic L^fiiifibriuui or tbo 
b«buict>. The wet)th1ii will In* I'^nrll.v cijuiil lo IIi- vrei^'bt of 
X\w luxlj-- Tli(? ruftMHi fur tiii* intrlliuil U upp^i'eiiU 

56- The Steel-Yard. — "rtir- comimiD »ij?el-\ard raiffl in 
urlgblng Uh li>n»r of lbi> tir^t rlu^w, wbidi ili(frr» f^iriii Ihi* 
fubuiei? in liAvihg uiK'^nnl .irm^. Tiif. 54^ rr|'fr.»cntA n foim 
lit roiniJion u«r. 

Th*" |rtro» C i* tbf fiJrrnm ; \ht' miahl W U MiH|«^Mib-il fnnn 
tlb» bwtb A, ftnJ lT«v jhiwiir V U iti»vuUt> i>n Ifir^ b>Dj| Ann of ibo 
Ic^fr, wlikb i» ^pidi)Jhlnl 1u iDiJirAEc (umudd iiaJ i>uurc«. Il i« cfl* 
il^nt ib^ ■ |ioitn<t viTifitii ni /> u-lH tmljinH- lu nuini' iKiimdi >t 



r— If 

Summary. — 

AvnittTLvi]i<<r|kivcit iiTnnti 

iho hook A, Itj thU 

H iuMjiitl wi-[|;hi Ai /> Tin 

U' ju Titr lIjaUiicp A H bt 

iog wnl, haj, rtc., »ff ^jen- 

t!i<iir opftfatino df^iilv 
ii|ii4i iirindpUv alnwdyiri- 

J rifl J1U«L 


Di'tiiiiiiijci »f u Marhine, 

rtlliiy i»f Map!iiiir«. 

QD«mii]r <jf VVi^k, linw mtititAtnd- 

UciK^rul Ljiv of Wtirk. 

Tiirpc Laws tvlAii^iy lu luirn^ity uf Furcc, Velocilx. bihI 

l^ikUaptt or Spikoij^ 
Mtehanitat Amyri*. 

KU'iiii'ntnry Mulilnm, 
Tht Vord. 

Tw^iTj Weight, Fulnnim. 
Thm CUMc-Lpf IriTVi^rv. 
Law uf th4> Lpvor. 

TUutftniunu — The SntMnr*, Kai-crhohcrvi ibc 

Weight b^irmi fffv T^upporUt 
C'mipiiiiriil l^v«r 



WHiStL AS J} AXLK. 73 

\Ur\UUiU> for A ffnti] KrtljttKif. 

8i*hI» furGr(>iil VWighl*. 

©7. The Whc^l and A;slc «)j*ftisUora wheL'!. onlrucn. 

Pi^arrttHT ]i|Njn Hi» v\tc^ M 'Hie 

l-i A|>jtilo<l (ii i»n»' >>itti>*aiity of a 

nl irrH|tpMil iiroimil llir whnfl« and 

Lr' rfMtlAni« At onr I'Xtrt^miljk' of a 

■cxxttiU ci>nl ivrapficfl oroitriO t!iv uxlc 

in • cuntrftrv dirvolion. TUv tvhul^ in 

«it|)iputtc1 tMi II HUi'ldlrb* fViiiiM-t hv imiiim 

of pinolA j>ii>J(H-tiriK from llic [*ihI* i>f fig. 6T 

Tho whwl mid 4x1t' 4uU as n prrpftuiil Icvti- of Uw Qr*4 

IihI. iJif riilrnEm IvJiif^ lit iIk* «^ininuti ctiitro, uurl iht* nu'lii 

t>r Ous uliec4 OiitJ oi^k Ln-iiig rm[M-i*tiM-l> liio Hfiua of tJic 

In Fig- fi& ^'Utlir fultruin, vi PI* ihi* jioTT^riirm, mwl FBih*^ 
tif#ik^lil »nn iiT li<> Itfv-nr. Hi-iki'> lu^.-rilidg tj the 
tt» -f llir Irrrt. r X J r = W X FB. 

rvftul In |)]fi Hrrmrir(Vi'on> fif <ln' wK^wl, iitkI lfi<i 
wii^Tit IhitJiifffi n frifnnr fiji^l |a itif ritriitni<'reii(''< 

law of ■iirti'MliMi, i^io ifwtf iiii>|ti;*U((l hv ll|p i-ir- 
^otnfvrtMV of ihc wlttvl U ujuul lu lliti iTii^hl iiml- 
la|4kd l^f div rircrun^^nn vf tJ^<^ nxl^ Flj. M. 

Siuiv tbe rnd^ (jP dnii-H aiv |jni|xirLio[)]|] l^j ilir-li rlroiim- 
tlbo lav of Uic nlicci juid iCxlv niajr be fiUW \n Lno 




trfifffit mtiflrplifd h^ fht rmiiiit ttffhe rtrfr ; or tht pomrr mafrf- 
ptiai lythr €irctiitijricii<rt</ f/ft KJtttir^uok iik weight miUti^i*d 

98. The WindUss. — JlicUiMii.AttM«iiinBt«cff nniub, or 
(■l I l»y lupaut of wUieb il l« tumML 


i: crrcnJt arm, An^ a nxuiul ann, 

Ij t\ |icfrptadkRiljiT to the ftm, cKllcd 
crauib AotmRt. Th^ poirer U 

^$ ^^- the rnaotnuce lo a rupv wrnFi^od 

nmnnil rht n\i&. 'Vh*^ ninilliija In firfitnjully iiwd in mining wd^u. 

99- The Capstan is p Torm of tliv nitiilUnn m which Ihc 
ftJClA id voiliuuJ. it IB usvd i-liH'rt_von 

Bhtplviun) fir mUiii^ tho nrclior or 
ilmwiuii iUti vpmel up tu tlw- iWk. 
The hcud of Uio iiipaUu if» pitK^^tl 
with hoW, in (lach ornhkib b lovor 

mirii t-iin T?i^ik nt the- ^nmc tirikc^ Fig. oa 

100. The Differential WinJlaw. — lliiN tJifli-ni ftnm 
tbc ivuiiuoLi VkiLidlasd ID ]iuviti|[ 
AA axir loniH-'U by Iwo ilnilci*, A 
AuiL if, of (liirvreiil dlaini-lvrv. A 
Mini U iitl;iotinlli>tljel&rgvr(T^lin* 
Jor, und mapped ac^'oral ttaiM 
artiiiud it. n(^<T trbich K pAMM 
uu'h*r rt tin)vnli]f piiUn\ *"', fli»d in 
t.lifn wrJiiUM'fJ ill a nmlrary dim?- 
tinii Aroiuxl tb^ smAller cylinder. 
'Hii' |>owtT le ftpplnrd to lb* CTAOk 
nrni. Jiiid ili« rvHUta»c« 10 the 
y\^_ SI. bkK'kuniio« puLlL-y. 



TJfAiyA' ay n'jit-:h'LS, 

dpr A, itnni Uip mcir tiini> utiwimoJ ^kl thr ryliu^JiT A, nnd a.\ cai^li 
fBVoliiCton Iho ntpr U ihorT^nM ant^ liy llir diflrn^nHi In ihff nixiiin- 
fiLl(OM4 of tbo f!^ Imdm . )f thacarc uiorly tqiinl. th« wciKht unvM 
vpry nlnrlj mkI grr^E prrt-ff Iff g;aJBi'il. 

101. Train* of Wheels. —Tho j^nwer mrrwhrri hv TJi4> 
iDutof of u i-vmplex tmicUicM.- iw (ifiuaHj IrarKimitTnl thrnujjli 
* MComlon of pk-cres to Ifir "ifrKiiit; jm-jiiI, Thi-fip M»n:ji'ct- 
ing pi«>o<«i iu^< in g<'r4iid. H'hi.<cils uiiil iliU^, aot], iakvn Ur- 
p-lSrr, tJiry rorm trhat !» i-alMl a frrrin. A vhpf\ biUidi 
imijajt' motion to a mccniliii^ uii« ia <rA\ltrd the r^Vrcr ; tlml 
to wlucb rooUon ia iiu^>arU!>.1 m c&llwl Ui^/alivvrer, 

t<n. Mode of Corncciion. — There fire vurioun njuthodn 
by ineaiia of vhloLi on« ithrcl mo^' Im> tnodo to nvl apon 

j|. \wittg UlghTlr jir«AAn1 n^lniit ihp inU I ^ I >» ) 

h>nrr. ft Hip ftioiion U-tm^i-n tbc wlni-Jit V * y<^y 
IN NuEBcwflit lo impart ii rm^tion of roU- — 

Uon rrwn the fnnncr lo Uk LaII^t. ^'* ®" 

i^VUlj cpTiml Wtxh wft Icnltior^ !□ uJl quh^i tLc molicm of lh« 
fbUmrtr b b r mniniij hiih' tn Llmt of tEiv Jrhvr. us itiilionlnl hf 

6lirMi^iV. By intianA of Itanfle or hvU^. T\w hand is pn***'-* 
ftroand Ui<j ^rcumfvrvnoua of l^otfi nh(*el«. nnd wti^n tigfau 
nwd. ■ Hiflldi-DL uiiioiinl of f\'ictlon l» prvicliicvd tu lui|uLrt 
.BK>tlci& from ifae drit^fr to tlic follower, ■ 

Fl«' tt Fig fti. 


flfl Indij^t'-i) lit Kip> 61 IXi-lU nn- tnoAf (>l ImlbCT* pit^ |iftrli% * 

UiiJ tTii- likr. 'nifj AH- rht jiiTi) l^iii. ^irl lUi* itrtim^ »u wh'toh ikrf 

nm #h^LiM ItO rili|c^>ll^ r-lcviitiMl lowiird th« mtiMIn uf iJx^tr tlurkmiwk 

Innh Aft' EiiHfli' cif imiifiK* li''in[^n Dbri's, or uirv, timrlf rylkidrind^ 

dri]iri>i. fa pulloy*. wU U'hirli tl^r</ run, dwuld bo dtfV4l«d al ti« 

( 'liji^jiit jkiL- aU\' u»u1. uiid lu ih'it, TUM tbe dnunv vbuuU W 

grcovf^ iiud citbrr ii«>lohL-ii vr um^UM, ^ ui tt» Gt tth> liaki iif th* 

7V^iv%. By meflnfi oT |ii'[tj4^<^lone on tla^ drnnnl'eroncoB of 

IraPfH. in llii: tlf(rin>, Ihn irKh itf Ibr 
wIiitI .t (■ti4iiiK<'^ 'ttiih \\w Imrc* iiT ibu 
pinion f^ iitiil ihp i**ih </ Ac w^bwl 
T'B^pCr wilb ilic Wvn c/ tbfi Jiin^op J3. 
If iln? wbfd ^ If iiirntMl kn llio dirrrlltm 
iinlifliiteil l>7 ibt* (im>w, iho wJk-oI fl wlU 
H'ViJvii in II r-tiTiiniry dm^<f ti.iit, and th* 
whoL*] /' iu (be Mnw ilin.'tli<«ut A iriirrl 
whuAM ln<lb |knijpi'l fnnn lu rifvsihiifi>r< 

103. Law ol Wheel-worlc— Whnlcvrr nay bo tbe 
tnod» of coniie<^ion in a train ixT wb«cU. Ihc iftw of tliuir 

nrlb:ptl U Thi' witiii- hh lIihI of liii* <*iinit)iiiiml fpvoi'. Ilriipp. 
^r r-oatiiiwd ^jn/iJurt t^ t/ie poa-er tuid the rtittii aftht uiAnVf it 
4^ai fj> Ihr cintu'ntitti prvduti afihe Wfi^timdlArr^ntii/ift^^i 
0^ha<. For t*v.inip1ik, in tliv tmiii hbonii 111 Fi^^- 6^. bK UiC 
radlf of ihc ^xlii'i'lx /, ff, ftni.1 F. hv iv|>rvwnU''l bv the mitn. 
Iicrii 1^. t;\ (in<l ^ . udiI i1l^ nu1Ui>ri:iii'b ur Liu- tbn-t (riiiioi 
by thu Dumber 2 ; then, the power will Ix- tu tti<? wclf^ m 
«X t X ! to 12 X l2Xft, i.c-. n»Hto lift:?- or iw I t-> 144. 
Su|T}H3u- a |Hr«i<r of SO ixninitK tA hp iifii>llr<1 lo tlm flmi vb#»t : 
^0 X 116i = Wti^ X B, henc«, fTrij^ = '^ x H.'i^ -»- 8 =f 




In (y>inraon (-Inoltfl a\v\ nnxtahi-H n« h«v« fKiiiihiir trKiim|jl{^ii 
of wfh*^W*"«k ill whHi iht" vrliK-lty i#h iiicrvuHi*il »1 the os* 

TbU fort-v iH tnntrnKlnl thmii^^l] thp wlKHrl-Wfjrk vtilli illmlii- 

II n>vo)iitioii ctiK'f a lutixit^. 

104- The Pulley. —A pLXtKT IN A nhccl fh?c to tiini 
'«1oiii mt JU Axk aihI h4ivlrg a groove around it lu rvccivc u 
cnnl. Thr luk lum* lit a fhiin<' mllpit a A/rf^K 

105, Sin^El^ Fixed Pulley. — In thiv pilk-j 

wilhm it, 'J1u< rflln-t of ilic Uxv^ imWey Ih hhii- 

|j|>' to dmii^ iJiv lijnx-tioii of n force. p^g 0^. 

io6l Sinie^e Movdbic Pulley- — In tliu puUej ihd bloclt. 
'A JA movnlili'. iiiKl Hit- whcc'l UmiH nilliiit iU 

Piillvje ntv «4fUibmaliuuff iif Uw o>rd And lev^cr. 
Tn ihf' fiirvt pllltrj ijn> maj rf^irl A R pjt t* \vvvr. 
vh<iu li-vrr AmiA #.k OA And (>£, nml kvli-iti' fulcrum 
li OL In the tiuivftl)|p ]Ti]lli<y wo inny n j^jinl .1 H t» :i 

tram te J, iiiti) vhiwr Wm iinini nrr 
4 fi >»3'l -I a 

lie UW'«r liXtd |Kltl(r_^. lllitn' ll ':iA^] 

grial aiivAULi(;i' Jmvt^fl ffum Iht-li 

run*' 'J1iiaa» II iiiA[| MAUil^riit till i|i# 
^ natv htvi^y tiriirlrp ti ttit lofi ot n 

rip(<<Ji>^Tim^nn1i^»Ln I-' lift tTif *rL>l^!it 
ripUYtrrl; tmt Thix i» Tint ibr niilv 
'•*■ **^ «iliiui|jiiE<^ tpiinrri, r»f if, irti^rAd *<f 

'Ming thi^ iwtlry, h« vJiouM mrr/ ibr nillrlpt tiji u Ulylil 1/ tlntrK* ho 

FJk- ff7 

^'— 3ti** 




<0nM]d iueur Ibe ^d itionul lHt>or Lif lifting hi* ovs wipht 
iho vrfaoU HpAce. Tivt- IixkI }>nlU-y« uiny aIaii Im uW to 

107» ComblnaiioDS of Pulleys. — ^fovnM** pfili^i 
yrrR-mlly w^\^A in miiitiinalii*)! with fljtp"! [nilVj*. V\^^ 

hIio«» a comlklnntion of one flxnj wUb <kio 
iiji'VftMc luilky. U h vridcnt Ui»L Ibo 
wffgtit, W. U *tip|iork"il iijnally hy tlw Iwo 
|mrU a niid A uf iIll- t-vnl nliitb fiumnN 
ArouDil Uiir movubk- \m\ky, A^ Ilair Um 
woliilit Ibt^H-'fiJrL' iH eii|n>orMtfl by it© hootc, 
/A fliifl tho olh^T bair l*y thi- itiitl 6. irhl*'h 
piLSfirTHj^ It ihe rirtl piillf.v. /f; and since 
no poni^r i* ffni^nl Iit t3ic fi:t«Ml puUe}* the 
fioni^r. /'. muHt bv cqiiul lo Liair t1i<* iv«igfat, 
FT^ i» orilor L> [iiaiiiUln i^irjillhrtiim^ If bl 
W rv^niivi) ta rour tliir wi'i^UU 
mWitumnl force llllle^t t« »p' 

In Ib6 coinbiiiiilli>nA nf jHilli'^jt In imivt roni- 
mDii hm. tcvcrol flxf<l pnlicra art i^mlaiiK-i'l in 
one block, and on c-ifuu] uumlxir urtnovnMr ]inl- 
Wyu m nrwOior Wool*. Fig. 70 uliovr* UHh a 
cYimhinn-limi of Lwci flxinl jiallr.** in tlu' iipp<M' 
4i|cH-k. *iiid twu ijicjvfLlflv ontw ill Iht- lotitr liltwk, 
111 Mb csA^t on^ rttnliiiuciu^ corri |ia«aoi» IIii-ou^*h 
Ih^ 8ir~«1om. »rtd tbc i^nitkon of tlio vrvif^bl i« 

wrd which ^uiitain the tuwcr Uot^k, The- |K>wcr 
ajr{>Etnl ut /' id nijuinHl to bDhitiof the wdglil 
m(]]>oited liy only oik* of ili<r port4 ni a; benct' ■ vTl 
[Jiv b^btcm will \>v In vtinWiUilvmyAivuthv puwt^r 
i* i^tiftl lo ono foMrth of iho wcii{ltt, ™' * 

The foUofvinfjE U Ibt: Inw of nuvli oOmbinalionH ? 7%* tMtjpAf 
rf Htf^ //rtf ^Touvr mtifripfird ly t^ nuta^rr of part* e/ tkt tatd 
thai i¥ppQrt tk* mofaUe Uoct^ 



FollfljA air* olVqi iiMd ku oombMislioiii with oth«r iiwahAQtMl 
|ivirpi& Ci9Dni juiJ ik^nick* nxc ooDkblDiiUoikii uf uhvcl-vrofk wltU 
pulley*, «nd biv UHrd in muitic ^nt ^vtigbu. m tftonc in quMlW, 

Sumrowy. — 

Whrrimvi Arh: 

TIkO C'<ft|4|AIL, 

Thd 1hlfi>rnTk[lHl n'1mllju«. 

Mihlrf uf CcmiH'rlimi. 

It By SiinL>Et^ CuDtiifU 
i. By M«uir» 'if IIhihK 

L»ir tif IVIn'rl-wurk, 

BbirU' KUrd l>»Ll<>r, 


Ijiw tuf r^iibliMNl F'tilJcyfl. 

lo8- Tbc IncliDcJ Plane. —Thi' iiidirKnl ^ilnnp h h 
tiard plftut norfuce whkh U inclined to a horixonldl plnnv. 

Wtten ft bod^ rci^U or t horiivatal |i1iii]f. ela Tor i^xAOtpIo 
o« » lAh1e« thf^ afflim of ^^ntvlty l^tHfln^ U' thnv \t ilirvrn H 
ronpktrij' coiiiitrraii.tciil hy the rrAiittfLncr of th<^ t'lA[K\ aiul 
it rtiaaini nt n«t. It U not no, however^ wbco n hotly \m 
pkoed upon iii fncl1fi«c1 ptH»(> In iZii« oihp iJie notion of 
lpiiTit> i»A>' Iw rvsohi^l iiitu iwu iuHJiji»iiciJb<; "iip |K-rjwn- 
Uiculof to Utc pifliict ATiiJ tiic oilitr tmnLUi<] to U. Tbe action 
of tbv lirvi ^otnponent 1» oomitvmuUsI l>j' the realstoncc ol' Mt*^ 
pifruet whilat iIm wcoail coiajtonent oftUWA Um body to move 
down Ibv plani*. 

t:ij:MEyT.iHy j/jch/.v^* 

It 10 evkU-Dt lliAt Ihc nofltvr Utc \Anm Approoobcii to ft 
borixotiUl BUrfac^. the greaU-r will hv iIk^ jiorlioii of iho 
Wright sn(*l"ni1i"(I by llio siirftiiv. Lrt lli»? pljiiR' }ie«*l«valMl 
T'lvviinl rhi? |ji-ri>L'ndicrulni'. ntnl it wit! ftHpjJuit kw And Iam of 
the woiffUt. till, vUva it rL^E^chca tbo per^iohdicuJAri no put of. 

^VtmtcU'i' icmy !•»' Ihi- Ini-liiinlHiri nf tUi* [planr. the lutmi 
uf gtu\il> uiHjri A IhxIj" |"Iiu^4m1 upon it ifi rnKilvinj into turo 
ooaipotienU whirh Iiht« the «ame ratio to Moh otfaor (hat lh« 
pBrpeudicnilnr height of t.hp pLinn liwi t4> tint horixcuiijil hjuor. 




Ot ttiviu< lvr<> oom^ioncntB^ ihAt om^ ont^v tvhicb iJoiKrndft, 
upon Uitf ]M>i'pi^n(ilciJl'ii' iK'ight miiftt b« mj|i|H»rti?il by tbo 
pomjr npptkd to maiiiUiiu ilic Ifmlv in iM pOAltlon* 

ftfrhf ylime it to iV> t^rtfflA. 

JiikUil *ii nit Ui rurm Jiifrivitl aiiuli<B wlili |}u< lixii^^iiul Tim^. ]f ti 
bv vmUfTvil *<^ tlml thif plruif, RS. it tAW ulon^ jii Iho te&jiJtf ^ ^J^ 
one IK/Uud al J* will ImIaiih t\^i pcutda <m ihfr platit Uiwrni It 
and JSI If Ihi* lu*i^f, S 7", U'^ri> niilj <inc fiinrtfi of R.?, oop |«imi'| 

run WKltGE. 


t*lAA^Ii» 4ri4 lh«ir ilioIiiuilM-n it n-fimiitfil by tiM bM||hi wll^ MfVff- 
»pfti]ilh Lo ••>riir> 4tjitc-i1 tnifith. Thiia, jl itnul k HLld to liio onr Awi 
ill thirtjr, ^it ««c f'Xil iu fifty. In Oji nm of miir>iiiU ihv iiiclinatirjii 
^rxlfnl I Iii> jfntfJf . uW in (<«iiinDlMl by ihri riiiJiitii'r nttwi In xitiSc^I 
bdfiht o>rnw|it>ii(liTif( {■> « inilv in li>ii|(;th' Thiw, wv wjioaIc of » 
pmk iif fifty fi<ia» nr rl^rliiy tvft iii tlii' itilli>- 

WTimi ft tiirTUii;o ii Jmwii l»y h<>rpca <fli Jt Uvtl rw*J, tlio power i* 
ripmdf^I in oiiti'-hij^ui; A'klloii^ On a riJiirL wliii'h fin.'v oii« fool 
ill iviMMyr tt>' liotm muft IkftoM IwcntirtlxTOK' lv*Aj biui J4.'|[ ^tvt^- 
voniinic iNi* frifitiun. wliii-li v>rU<d fruin uuer iinn-nlli \a <ru^ fifUfilL iif 
the Iliad. Uu raifrouilA Ihf^ gmdo iit MiLiLini iuhJi' ht^licr tliuii <«gb1y 
frri U> dio aulc, tt riw uTuimt fijut m •uly-tU- 

1(9. The Wrdgc. — Th^ AVtfHiV: U a koIuI, tmimlt^l hy 
& nwUuigtv, ///J. <!iHim1 ttir /#)rjt ; two rrotutr^lrv^ A FaeuI 
/>/'- i«Ili'<l /^i«#- nnil two 
Irinritflofi, ^ DKaaX IfCF, 
*4lli?i| riiA. Tti^ liiii' A' F. 
la wbit'li ihr ftwH-s nwri-l. is 

'Ilii- n>n(i ^ncnil]^' i^i^<l 
k thp diiiihli* wnlgr. irprv- 
prntni ill Mg. T3- The rv- 

'^B- '^ vintncitv ill IliU^nrw avClWii ^^- ^ 

AC ri^ht Aiig^JM to Ui« o^>]ioiiiL« Sma^^ oV ihr* wtvlgc, th9 power 
b U> Uir rNilitjtiicB WM bair Uio tliiddii-Kt of tb<- wimI^ U to 

No MdRRin r^liiiuiir mii 1w moilc i<f ibt^ Umv cittiiA liy H wedgi^ 
«• ordiuAfily UKd. for Ulc fu}lu«-i]if^ rvnMiaa : — 

^. T^ puwrf U by e>nl<.T| bli-u*. iho f<in»C"f wMfih Mknncil \h* 

S> l^p»irfiu»a pcinmird tAoit lu-i lu 1i<vltv. viA ^rrmily juniti 

Uin IICl]<'Q fpf tile uv^lgv- 

3. TW frirtH>h is iiiurli fmiKT limit ttilL iLv 4rtlu.T niedumkAl 
jinvpi*. and i^ntiot lx> nn^uruli^ly iMtiiJiklnl. 

If it Vi*ni But fur llir* Ih^iiim ilti' wiil^i' wimU rvrffil nttrt i'Srty 
bXivw, Mfiil no prK4tKnl nut vuliIiI Ui iti^iU- i>f ll. 

Wfdfnftn lunl wlicn«iiiDicuiiefiT»ri#<olji'(>x*rift1 ihrnu^li 4 


vm sTrnl} npniv. norl ripf rlally fur iplitdng TnuMM of tfinod V Alio*. 

for bW'Liirig up bui|<liiL^4, und r»r ruinofC venal* in ^o<k& 

Thf^ ttl^m tif ktiimv Kata/on, diiatk, axt%, uaA dl ciUiiii( itt«tnt- 

110. The Scrcwr — The Schew u> cvonUuIlj' « comU- 
nntion of jnHLnoil pluiics. It coubAA of 4 eoUd cylinder, 
flnvetnppd liy a spiral pii>Jrc*lion olkd Ibe rJbvarf. 
Tlie two fmvH of the tUn-iul sn- nothing o>i>nfi lltati 
hiclinfcl plAtiTfi wound Anmnil tJir v,vlin4fr oT Uiv 

riii? »i:rv^- vorkt Sato n tolld. CtlM lo roMrir* 
iU (."altnl tbe fit£/. The luit itinj b« O^eil. Hue 
^^9 ^* flcrt'w tuniinK "illiin St, or Ilk« etrcir mny I* fixnii 
Ui« tiui turning (i]H)ii tl. Motion in imfiarlvtl to tlic onv c>r 
Ihe 'klher. wi the 4m«i- nitijk' (>i\ fiy ^■^s<n« of a tKtvr^, At ch^ 
pxtrvmlty of whiHi (lio jjonri' i* jipiilit^il- I(^> Jnomsmjc llir 
length of tlif k\<'i', anil <li]ninj»biiijc tbc dUuiiicc l>ciwf^n 
tho throacLE. th<* ri>rvc vivrtt'd at tli<< jioinlof rvmiUii4« ma 
be Kbuoat in<L«lltUci?lj iiinvuLHl. 

Ki^. 7S •hoim Ibe u*p irf" t 
r i|i>bj-m| Iciff iiuJ acivv lu p 
Jm*iti^ gr«<n1 prrvtnro, A is 
it?r«v^i£tbtiiril,iiud ^iLrbludc 
on wMi'b ihn f^LiTMUtir^^ ia 
pTwril it pUrfil' Tbc |»wrr 
jipjiljft) nt Ui» ond or Ui* Irv 
JIT, AcTtftf^igr tt llu- 
Uw (if mn^ian, tht lira «i* 
crtMl u JJwillfwumaiijtiMKv 

?^ w tliO circumJritww ibrcfliie'' 
vhirh X inovm la iirrjii'r ihu 

SuppuiD Ihc diatan«<* bMwvtti 

* '^'' Ifii* llmful* to li« oiiv iui^li, Mind 

Ui«t th« f'ud <4 ibf J^viT, >V, deKvibra r <inl« vf taa (bci iu rifvain- 



fvffvnf* ts trtux Xum'ivtc nnauh itirn ■lii' rHtlx iiT tht* pMWvr tti llie 

Now Ifn imm i-xi<rUt ft f<i(rr uf iiiii? iLUiiilriU |xmmi> Jit iltc i^nit »r 
Iho IcTTtf. the «rDw will advunco wnh a ft^rc of rj.WW pouiifiii, H 
(1>F duiiiuiH (tptvrron ittv tlinwb wvrc only hatf ah inrd ibr force 
todM bo doohTftI, Hi'uM it i* +vii4in]L^ tlnl, tvjth » tno4(>Tu(i> pov^r^ 
the lOFW iBij Iki TJiiuli.* W fieri 111 i.-i;vinin>iif lii«4?1iavicAl Uuve, It 
nuVt bot Ih- tiru<ifl*o. hrrvuvtr, IliJkt ibn v^rk iI'Hjv u^wli tlw lK>dy 
to bv QwnjimiM'jL nui Etvvi'[' cio-ihI iIjhI ibnii* nt tliu iv'ml uf npplk''fl- 
IbM «# Ifctf iHtPfr; on th^ (vntriFy, tl n d«r>.j> lci«- In ihli' rnwiT 
(bcTV ii a Iu9», hy (tlv-\Lm, ii( ut^rl/ ^rm' fMUflfi at Uic vhi^Jc rflcuL. 

III. Law of tbc Screw. — Set Ukiug Into ucl-ueinI 
llw cflixtA of fViftioi), Uic Iaw or the Acrrw laay be Atattnl tu 

7%« potter u fo f/« wr^Af at the ditraner Mtiirpu ft/ru atijoin- 

lia- Tbc Endless Scrc^V is n lu^r^^n ^rriirt'ii hv filtoill- 
dffr*, BO thai it c-:xi;i^ol uiom- in ihi^ 
ilitvi^kfii of ilM U-n^ili. mill »f»ikioi;c 
iikto A toothi-^ wlicvl. Wlicu thv 
•crew W liini^, it Lin]>art« motion t<' 
ttie vh^el. whlc')]^ In Izii'ii. miiy Im- 
madi! to ipovf jl train oV irhi^H-notk. 

MwbtuM uf ihU kifiil arv iiiu-il ill nv^- 
1#riug th* namlxir uf lufiui if au oxbf. bb. 
n^r iTUiiaiilr. tin; thuti «f a ^Ivniiibcxil- An 
cmltMw LTT^w in ormn^cd bq m to ttin> a« 
iBiBf liTBni u tlip tliJiAp nud b fijimef^ivtl 
wMi • InuD of ligit wh«r|.w»»rk- 'J'lio 
wlifelii bur indke*. by mt^nuaiif wtiiHi tlir* DniBlx-r uf lunn in 1115 
^T«D Ua« ua> Im rud off- Ttitii AJT-in^iniicai U cixuuuvoly UMil 
i& ^M tuA v«Mir mcicix and aIm bn Tmnou* bruichu of mauu* 

Pig. TO. 

ABonoH m. ~ at^tsTiNora to HonoH. 

113- Friction i» Itic ir^iHUncr vhicL oner bodr i^xp^ri- 
cnc«« in moviiLg ujion uiiotbt^r i^itvn tlic Ivo tHxIic* orv 
pr^jtiiiL'd t<)^'lJu']% I'Ijih I'E-^islniicu nrbn-M from in4*i|U«litlM 
in llic auTlUct-B. Ujt- tinjJL-ciiuiia ur Uio oui? »iukui^ into Uw 
i1e|m*0tf&ou« i>r Uifi 0thi'r. To ovorooicMi tho r«^i>itAncv< Uia« 
pnxiiic^^i. n fQ\-<*it tiMiiil tut nppUnl jiuEVlrbnt Uilirvuk ofT, or 
h»pnil (lown« ilm pniJi'diirK iKiiiiEtf. iir cite Ut lift iJik nioviiig 
l>wl> oTcr th(: iiii*qLiHlJtie». 

whcD one bully j« ilniivu upon aDolb^'f; tho Inirrr, wb^c oqo bitdt 
i* rvlW upon iwulhcr. ETtrrtbtng rlrw WJng ctiuiU. tkc fonm-r 
gf<ca1«r than thv bLit«^. 

114' Measuretncm of Friction. — The cDinpuKlin^ 
amount of slliling IHi^lluii for imirt} flintiviit »urfiir^?A Iiajl 

U-vu iktermiiioU by Uh: tp- 
pjimtua ahutrn I11 Mg. 77. 
Illopkfi of fJIrTprvfit m»- 
t^nahanil ofdiffcmit aiu 
ami HlmptrTfmTnrtimcfi lowl- 
liT with KcitfUti, wmxTiiiMtf 
Ui nuni- over surrtuT* of 
(IIITiLTt-ijl kiLirJ«, bv ine«iw 
of wv'iffhlfl pU<v<t in Ibr 
pui, P. By these i^xpedtii^nU Itu- fDltowiniC fbow bnvi> J^x-n 
aflCi-Tt&mwI : — 

1. Fn^ti<m I* nearly pr^pttrttvn^f f'r ffreuHTt. 

Tb««H.TDf< fijppc uTMininidtodnw JLl>ri#k octim h IxNirit, whoUior 
it TMU ':in il» ttnad Akv ur un it* «di:». 

3. Frtftian U grmtfr Ifrirrrn n-ft fnyfrrt thnn ttrml 'inn, 
4h FrUtt'^ it grtalcr Mwfcn tm/urtt iff lAc knmt mtdrtinit. 
Mom £vfirvni ^t«m •fAifftrm\ kiud^^ 


^iT t:. 


The M^uoa cif Ifbti \\\v\u inu ia ^nuicr ihiui tliHl uf imu itjKiu 

Pot lliift muim 111*' rtilrm </ milwiiy nir* Ih-hi^ ifia-lr rif slwl, thr 
1h<k» iti wKlflh Ihry r* v<iLvt< un- uumI*' »f Itkm i-fT hjxiw *A}v'T lEUttiJ. 

vrnif^ra RT* inajo t^f rpv^Uc in holci l>in>d ii* ihc l;nrdfT pr^riwu* 
iloncm Saph uBichu lat tiud tu lu "JL^ndluJ/* 

5. Fritficm VI ttimtnitAr'i by pnlMinff ft tubnf^tlity ihit tiHf~ 

i\)lialiliig namuro ficxiJn'tJtE^ (xAiiu Ihjti wouhl mich agHin^i oatIi 
Olbvr sod iaorawo frictH<[u TIip bpplirAiioii «if lubritiiiiu IIIlc uiLi, 

lt«« ftml UEXWthinjE tin* *urfana. 

'lb* pfwj* ct »oBii vf onp Hnk ilocppr mUt thf> (U'prLWniif of th« otlicr, 

"5- Advantages of Friction-— AtiJio^i^h fi-lctiou oc«i- 
■iuoi n Inu or [>ow(«r in ttio workuig ct' r[in^'hii:i(>«4 il Uha Moiae 

Imldfi ihcni In |rtw:r- ^ wink'-.' i-^iuM i^ni In- liritru if rrirlim^ iljil uot 

il^pi-ndiH ii}Hin fn^Uiiit liv lU |H<u'or tudntw ;i hr^vv tmiii nf i-jir*. 

Swuctiom vh™ pfcnt Irud* ^ro lr> h<* inrvod iJio ^otioa of tb** 
ilrlviat; vlictU upon ili« miU ia uut i^deui lo i>rmni *.li|i]iE[ji:. 
Aud thur«(:irv hnxM an pmvidv^I fnin «l>udi uud mny Ic iJ^cd 
up>u the mite irdru mtuimf, tliiu iuTfm>iiji: iLr fntrtioii «ud tnui' 

ii6. StiffncM of Cofdi. — Wlu-n n cord \^ troiiit'l u|xm 
n wli«H oraxk'. nft'rUiin iLfnoiini orioroc b roquirM lo !h*ihI 
il. The rnisiu»cT< Mliii-b Uw" lurrl lium cjtR^tn lii )icii<1iiij^ j^ 
vluBCil ftA ft hurtful ivfiidtancr- Thi« rvniiiUincv obvuld W 
obviate, u far AA poHuilil^, bj M-U-i^tiiijE buiids aekI (jorda 
vrblcb itfv aft fl^x&liLf ns i» con^Ul«>itt wUJi ilut* (utr^ii^h. 


117. Atmospheric Resistance. — Tbd iiumHap^eN «z- 
f-rts n [kr>wrrr<J nr^UUnn^ Ut the mntloi) of iKitlif-s nxrHnf 
Uirougli it. It bju been PjontL both bv tbcor^ And expcri* 
m«iit. Llut Uila ri*«iflU0C« b |itci>ortiottftl to Ite f:rMto»l <raa» 
»««t&on or llw bod^t madf !■/ « plack« pfifp«ndlcul>f to ike 
<|{r«ctk>ii of the luotkm. siul »Iao to tlu Aijuare of Ibc body's 
velocity* To obriAU^ ihU rcaiiUtDrc aa l^r ii» poa^iblr. ifar 
pivocv which bflT« 4 rA|Nd pk^Iioh thouki htkXt ft* aniim a 
^wa BCctioD AA b €>oct«i«beLi with due ttrengtb. 

Summary - 

}lt7^-}ui\on <if iht Fonv of GnTit^ ja a bvdj mvitag od au 

mgainuUm bjr U»\alilr liirtfniTl Flitni\ 
COIADIOD BoAd* adJ KuIruA^. 
TV TTa^. BnAAMD* v\ty the Fctcc fUfW kry ibc W«iitp* 
cADttot bo A<cUM«lj cvinnaUd. 
Fnuilol ApplkAlAou ti the Wcdga. 

Goaibiun] LitTr and Sfmr^ 
Lhw ^ihf ?irtr"vr- 
11n< EiidJoto dcn-«. 

MuMiLirtinciil tA Vriviiti^, 
^41 Faa* ivlAiinf la Friilxic 
AdvttntAfd* olJViotioik 

lie. Hydrostatics «nd Hydrodynamics. — The 
Mechanics of Liqui<I« Lj* clivkiecl into two UraDcheii : 
HvOttO«TATlc*i, whitili lix^U i>f the Ua'8 of equilibriiini 
of liqutilnf and Hvi> uics, ivliioli m-JiiM of ih« 
Uw8 of motion of liquiiU. 

119- Properties of Liquids* — The follointifEpropcrlic* 
arc («niaoD to all li-|uiJH : 

1. Th« iboT«cut« or liquids fu^< txtromi^l_v movable, jicld- 
ittg u> tbe ttb^teM force. 

'ri)<tr* «■ itrjr litUc TcbcAioQ ^twomu tltfl intJo<ivil<v ijf liqnidn, 
Hbcseo thcdr milinav to •Ilia Aimog amt juii>th«r. Ji in to tbU 
pribciptr tLjkt il»«; owe th«it Uuidityn 

a. Liquid* on onl^v ftliglKtly (orapramiible. 

t^uidn Art tn 9lif;hilj ccmpnwblp, lliaifnr* V-d^ liinptlirj wrfv 

Mnii4«J,liyMi A|)|ifiralu» vWli bf^ cc<n1nvoU iLat tiquUa an ftliffbliy 
rftonpTv^uililrL H^ |i>iriiiAl iTihI fur ^ pTiHtfinnnf fHmntiniifcjthM^i thu 
i«, <^ 15 ponmb OD harh *(|ilAri< iuch I'f t*irfju^, wnti-r ih rjitiiprrM*^ 
''"^ tT3*^T^^ rif !(■ urtjitlnal ^obiinrL ^Lulif aji U ihfi nr>iii[irmib111ljr 
i>f Wklcrr. i\ U orv rriln'I*** t(* iltno* Mt fifi(iprvulU<' qa mercury- 

S, Uqnldfl un poroui. cUstlc* and in»[icTic treble, like Dibcr 


■iiK Airnv U frri"^ii'il. It t* '^p^ KhLMiii by ihv TatI tlul tlirir t'sinaiiill 
MMmiL Thoir ui>|iciH^tnvbility *■ ihonn hj plungiug n voImI U^jr »ni» 
■ V0d«:T RIUiJ witiL t»|i^iJ, If tlierr ut Dv imliitiiliuQ* « tuhnan uf waUV 
wiIJ llow ovor Ihu vt'«rl JcihL 4*i|unl |j> t^Mt *»1 ihf w^liil riitrolactd. 

U|)oii tlicse thrrv |>roptfKi<M i>r liquiiln Jvjictid* Uwir prop- 
vrty of tmEi^mltting |iroH?iurL'H In ull iUn-i*tioiiH. 

120. Transmission of Prc&suvo. — Prtnciplc of 
Pascal. — l-*'t n l»->Uk* J>c flUcvl niUi ««Ui^ 4li<] <-uil«t1, an 
n-^)r(Ti-^nt«1 in V\g. 7^, If the foi'k It^ j>Ti4huI 

tiiifkculi'H ill cviktuct nilli it< tlivvt? molecvlieB 
vciLI In ihtilr Uini [>rcb« upon il^tf oi-igbUmiift 
on^Jl, iini) Hr> i>ii uiitll lh« pr W fl l g ia linilly 
tvaiiAmtiu^l t» rvcry |>obil of Uw lol^riot hut- 
Taix- of Uie bottle. 

It in »buwii by i?XF>rriincnl IhMt iti^ fimvorv tliiM 
lrotk«i»i]i<-il i*r<|niil tcithnt ap^l^ tnih«eArh; iIri 
jis tlni |tf*Hiim' n|hni «ar|j flqimn tmh of ^^c iitd'tiiT 

'»f llifl ntrk. TIju |T?wuro la Fvrr; vbvn? pprppnJbM- 

Klfl. m This priad|i]o io mllcit Ibo P/'.Wrt>Jr t./ 7>aini^ 

UnnM* il AAH HttiI ilrinniBiniti>d hy Y^l^t•^r. Vmuku In titi- «i-(vik. 
U<^IU ^f^lurr. U|H>c il (kipvivlB Uiu vhiAv t^ci.iTf <if nji1rifitAlr4F.k 

may be aljova t>r ut- 

cyliiidiT (r'lt'. ?!l) |iit>- 
vMcil Mill) » fFittnn U 

iip+irrt. iVrpoijilii^nUr 
to tfal^ pidi-t i>f lk« fCl»bo 
acT Bumll tutiabif a^tra- 
tu^ Fin th* (lylliHlir »ni{ i;Titbp n-ilb vittiv, iLnil pm« tho fdnv 
a^^ahut iha watr-r, Kud it *-i]\ nine fn>ln bII i!m* f.rifli-n* iH(uaIlj, aikl 
aiK m«frty Ihiin ihat vrhiHi it ii|>fii«ilo thm puluti, 

Ftt m 

pjiBssviiE or Lif^fws. 


lat. Pre«8UT« du« to th« Weight oi Liquids. — it 
§, c\llE>Jricn] \*'tsv\ U (lUctt TV'Uli n Ih-eivv liijiiut. lu wi-lglil 

l^iMV tiw UqiLi'l divii:led iiilu lioi-Jxoiilul layt^rri of «fuai Uiick- 
iwe, tt U (ihilti Ibai U10 ^^cwkhI lii>i»r fl'oni ili^ top 4ii[j|>oTt» 
A pmnm c'jnal i<* tin* wi<Ig|jt ff Uu- rtr*r, ilir iJiinl lft\rr 
■u^porifl A prc«mir« C(|iinJ to ih** w^iglit of tbo ec^-onil au<l 
rir^ and mi on lo tliu bottom. JK-ulm;, tke pffttun upi/n irinf 
inyrr jj( prtjpfittiaaftt t<t i>« rfp^ifA iV^fiic f/p tiji^tft $vr/tice, and i$ 

Fi« ro 

Ik conivqu^ncQ '>rilio Principle <^r I'^tcxr. ihw prfAsuro U 
IranunHI^I tat4>rully, udJ nri^ ngJiiuHl lli^ Mvh tA' rli« VL-n44 
tritb ftli equal inii'ii^St^'. Ilc-orx-n nr^y ptiri 0/ thf mr/ttct U 

turtf it lAe mrfarr ^rrtird. "Hit irfiot* fifi^ht it ttfVid fa tht 
ttUmrtJrom thtt turfitrt t*r t/te upfrer Jgtvl trfihe fiuitL 

111. Th€ Prc&surc en the BoUom ol a Vewcl, 
;BrUinjt ttOlO ttir vdjllit of B U(|L»d, i* rntJrvlv Inclrpcodr^it 

iht aliniw or tbo ri»M]. an wvll ab uflliv quantilv oT liquid 
wbleti It roniBlQ*. It ile|ietiiU onlj un the iti» of Uie mm* 



CVM prriaCfL and iU duitaikcir Imlow tb«t appftf eutfiuw of 

Tlilh prtnr1|ilA nm^' lif ili^nMQXnWl hj meant nf in appuAl 
fthowii 111 Fitc- tK). TIlv n}i}wnitrijt ixrhjki>u of % luln* «* finvdjr kl 

didTfTCDt'shnpcJ \f«cl0, ,1, Jf, C, nuiy Uo allAtbcd t> ikic u|>p<r md 
(if du* lubr. A djfV? i, rf gruunif gin** \t firU b MDbu-l with llm 
lov<?r «iiJ uf thfl I'ltv by a otJiag, vhitli u pcootcJ ot iX» upper ci- 

Ul-iiiJty Up :ITJ Hnti iirtt bji-LilirH, 

Tim vc*K"l -1 b fcfL'WtJ oil, uihl filU-il Willi wolcf TjBlH |)m> doin»- 
iTfirJ jwvwiurf "artly cjiirti-rpoUm n jfivpn vrlghl In iUv V4]«.|mi^ 
Jft when tbc upptr aarfntc oi Ulc vnicr lb mnrki-d by n nJinfai^. 
bmd, <», The nther ^-raseb, B ifliJ C, biv surwBBitrlr bctc*iJ uaij 
rktij fill^ vitti WfJtor up to the kvol* » ; if any rnoTV nwUr 1» poiirvil 
liilt* pitlu-r. \hr <l(iuin*iiTi] pn't*iin- tivrmpiricB iLi- ufi((lit, JU, baiI 

TTiU pri[iiT^|Ji* rif iinvHiiff^ «ri llif lri>ll4>m <tf vcfflti-U U mnnrtii 
ea\M the I!yiti-*'^tnUc I'voitw^r. il la mp MllnJ, If^-Aow tho wtD* 
pffiMurv inn}' It*' iil>liilnnl by u»ing 14T> itlHrrrni qnnxjiljoj nt liia 
Min« liciiiid. 

133^ Hydrostaitc Bellows. — A ffiHKl illiiMntiiiii 
iJit? prlhvi(rLi^ Uiul Xht- iuv-^t^im^ rxvitcd liv a cfJiintn 4tf wulei 
dfpcniU ii]>on iU iici^bt nnd r>oC iU mmoQDt Ifla 
wi'ij in rt Torm of nppnriiHi mllftl thr h^ho- 
Kalir UJimtt. It cuiiMbU {V\^- ^^) of tux» 

WhrQ A'oifr u pourfil into tht tuW n prvHon li 
ATCftnl u|uii thi> ui^irr ImmtiI C vliJcb will HA a 
vcifflit 11 uuiny tiiiH«f in^wler tlMtn lb« ffo«g^t 1/ 
tKh ijntl4^ in llir lubr* < a ihr ■»« of ibe b«u4 ■ 
CrT«liv ihno thp fiPWk of ft fm** BfCtiipTi i>r lb* mliVb 

By pbtclng Jinoiljrr ti^lw upuu A , ^v eu 
the pn^ion? And lifting pcwr- 

114. Latcrdl P r€« are*. — Reaction Wheel, — The 
\m«]« Iv (U'luoiuufttnl hy mcuu of Un; rencUoii wh<«L 

Ki«- HL 



Thia wbi^cl b &hovTi In t^l;;- ^^ ^t «iiis{Bts of a v^rtiool 

[Jiu4 abovo tliQ piiut tbc biti< Irrmiii&trEi la ■ cubio^i box. 

the ftc(4 of whEcb 
project fi>nr uihM, liftvitig 

re»cnt«l in the fl^ira. 

Walvr id 4Li|)[>b(.*r1 frxtlit ft 

«4*t<frti Ihriiigh tlip nii>- 
nei A When tlic wnlcr 
jl« oJmHtorl. it fliwn down 

aX \\tv ImUoiD, (bv w[it-i-l 
Uirui'd in the dirvt-^tioii 
ImluvtM by tluj urtott- 

Tfafi rmiKin nf ihit will h*- 
ipbun fn-iEi n ^>iipnlomtl(t(i «f 
nrioll fi^un^ (t h, wh^li 
[U A I*1nn Iff twti iif thr tutfq^ 
'Th« vdI^ rtf rho wnifir 
«Aiiv« ■ |irusati; upon J, 
irlilHi, irm« • i<Iihi«1 wiiulil 
be r »al; OTunlprbflfujU'i.^ I<j 
pr w a a rw iifh^ ii ; liiti u 

*< U ntit wattlvilkilnnn-(1, Imi '' '^ 

MlaErma a toiriirits .1| produrinif r^nry motion. Tho pr^BKUm la 

flj] «f Ibtftubn omupjrv l<> pnnltm' r(iiaiji.ii] in llu: uiiii< lUnviliML 

1^5- Pr«»urc Upwards. — Thut l](]ui<la «:ifrt a |*mH 
\t% Uf'wikrdii i« (IcmonHtraiCHl by f:rkonQ8 of Iho »p]>antQg 
In Fig. 83. 

Jlcvaidaktdm tobc of lEfawrV^th amm^blf <li»W» a, |tn:miid«»Aa 
la A< Ikn baitlmn nt ih^ Hiljit. I'lie 'link tu'lu^ TimIiI iluMtl; ]t|[jiiari 



\hc iTibt- by a etritig. fr, Iho who|r» Iih p1riTL|fr-J into « t«M*t of WAi'^r. 
in tltja «[Ate thi: dlikv lbuu|^h hcnTJrr chtia tlirwntrr. ilt<r» dii| UU 

to iliti bnlttHn^ >luitt-ivt|t lliftt It b 

thi' ItjU- ill n iE<rtl!<! "irrnm, tW 
iHflIc uill AfDifn- till ihf IrtIjt I« 
flllcJ lt> th? Jrvrl 'tT iKr Aiii.l no 
till* (^lUI^ 11iU jibowH lh4L ihr 
iiT>w4ir(l prnvurv b *qiuil lit lh« 

VJ'i^hT. of ft niTlllllU of «'9T<T WllfH* 
Ivvr' in tlijil <if iht' UiIh'. im-l urhof* 

nUlMiilc in tiv dJfiAiif-o Mnv ih# 

Tilt upMPfil iin-wnrr '/ Dnlib 1« 

ill njTiiu<iju^:iiv i)f ihWr biiu^nul offiirt 
ihHl llniilM nii.4i.ijn liffliicr bodli** ^^ 
IhHr aTirthWtf- Tbf* MiTne prlndjile niuM^ fliiiik :<► Wij up boAr* 
<if »11 kioJ^f iliTniiiJMhin^ lU^ irc'ijciii (f hc-nr/ on^v, andcwuhig ligfcl 

i7t5, Pascers Experimcni. — 

Thr r>'lh-iviui: <«|>fTtF<iO]jt vrnf nude 
l.y tUm.\U til l>^r. Iln Kllfil itttii 
Uii: ui4>rr hcAJ tY A ATh'iijf niiik * |ii|« 
dt ■mnU dinini'icr ninl nlnrit HAnj- 
fo^ir fci-t in Imcth, na jiK^iv-n ta Ftf. 
84. Tlic rfv%k )jnii!£ fllU-il u-jlh miM, 
IfC «tirr'.M'ftn1 iik l-iin!iiii>: U by poufUif* 

into iIlc Kaht: In ilij* fw«v ihr intv- 
flf ib# wmif illHiiti'iit jiA ilw rwAi. uc 

127. Hydraulic Press, — Tli<» |)vlr>cl|'l(* of «qu*] ^n%- 
kimv liAi 1h*(-ii njiiilitril hi tlio i-tfiiMruclkih vC « pivfis 1>> 

k>it ds. 

iriwr {■ lirmi >lil<i If, anJ Ihui R^ppm u|i a ^Jftif^.pi.i, A" TJir 
fjlIiiJpT J £jnn» U»< Wntl <4 ■ |Mi]ti|i, Uy irmtiici of whicli waHr b 

["imp it tfijffcnl tj n Ifver. O. »itfl<"}i'il i<i n h»1iJ |iU(im, u, WIuti 
1l^ p*lHi a 1« minpil. % viit'ijUiii ii rvrtAi^l l.i*laijj ii, wliifJt U filled 
I'jf w»Ur ffuui Oiv TTMi^x.iir, i*. fltucli *iiri'r» bj Luir'HTiije lint 



vutv« ffi b uj>AQ*dT And ft |Krtik<it Ar ilid vAlcr U 0i>reoJ fbrvo]^ 

blu the ItrgL' vjliiiJiT- 

lu cvu«N|(Hnh5ij of llttr pnTioi|jt<i8 ^f r^uuf prrnur^, tho fur«r 

l1iuiT[j KtforUHJ Li|kwufik ^i)^kiu!tt i\if> {ti»um C ^^ ffoct Imlng luihi- 
^Ijul by ilid uumln^r vl liun-* ilui tfic vc^ua i-f iW jiliiViB C b 

CiA ISO lUiiesAB ^crihl ns tliKtiiT n, ovtrj pound vf (irc«flUfo oa ih* 
lAllj*r vJIL pnvdOM 1^0 imLiiuUtrf iJuMUWun lh«l«niiOr TU« ftfibd 

in fianljcr uiuliiplJuJ ^^^■'^"^'■■^f ^^*^ Uftr, O, Tfte iircMUrc utncJ 
■if \hc |pn-9di, Jlf ,V. TliU upttHnI |io-»un* iiiiiy jiIai W (iMid W 

no kUiuioiiBD |K>uvr ifwy bi* rxcrUj. lu Urf *f1*j pr(4«^« wf iJiii KiimJ 

l!i<in«uiJ iMiUDiii^ 

Ttju byilnulic )■"»■ u usiiJ in i^tmipraaii(;f imln to uLulu oUVf in 

EiiVkUHHlVM (sr U^UWJi. 


The uainciuci tiibuW Uriilffv >>vit ilio Mnul Sinito nw raJMd 
friUD th* lovol of ilio vnuir in itit i'>ji cif iho |ilon by inffu* of 
pn'KK^ </ lliir i!iva'ii(itluu. The Kydr^cUc ^trm uhm niito tr^ iu 
Itttmi'lilnff tho (ifvflt Kuii?m. the hoiiriwt moYnbk ncraeicrn ovor 

Summary^ — 

Hjilrutiuiic FjiniiliUE* 
Uittml PrvMiuriv- 

Hjilmiillu Km*. 

iftB. Conditions of Equilibriam. — A tfoljd boilj U Jd 

lliv |Kiilk']t'» of Il]i^ lulji' uTt It'lJ 1ij;it'l[ier l> cuLi.'»<iuii. jii 
llquiO* %\it |>arttc1t> Jo not colirrc, ami \wk^b iv^tratiinl liiry 
woiil'l f1^>v .iM-ny nr>cl fipti^nH mt indcfnttnly^ A \iq\iU\ c^n 
W In i^rjuHilii'iitrn ouJy wl»'(i i-j-itcnlni**! Iij n \x'sw*l or ioiiir» 
tljinscfimvoJi^eit. PurtlJctmoiVi cncli imrLklr* mn»t I>o equally 
l^ri^uod iu all flitvction>, nhUlj rcv^niiTs lUai lUc Trte Mtrriu.c 
iboulil lie li>vvL liint ift,4vvr_vuli<<iv pcrpcudituJitr lo llit- foit^ 




In n^riR^ that tbt Tnr nnim< iuuf4 U levtJ, wc Mppu«r Uuu U» 

•orfiu* Hiwrt. lU «wry pviiit, bv |>K]i#ailkuktf l4 tbo rt««llAut of aU 

migiti be r\'ii>l ti-uJ toUr tvi» AfiniHdiPub, uU0 pft'yih&uljir Iv iLc 
»urftKv, Aihl the vHttn |Binllrl to U. Ttt; trnrnr wuuU W rrtiatrJ 
hy ihv iVHni'tu i>r tlri^ li<ii]lil. mill ibr Intivr, liMng amtumivtmntiA, 
wruutJ vntliKT iiifUuiif whWb u «viitnfj to iW by|K«brai« at 

t^4< Level Sijrfocc> — Hacn^irf^cv of a Utjiml la lkvul 
irtwi) kC U ffi^nwLcn' (irr^wtKliciilnr to Ui^ dtrvcUon of 
gnivit.v. Soioll Lmx-I »iirra<v« cuaLiL'lilo m'IinIjI^' nilb liofi* 
toitlal ^laiK-9. LafK< l<^vi,'l -furru^oa ftn^ cui'^vJ 00 aa to coii* 
form t9 Uio gi>iiv>ruL foiiii or Uie eorllt'A tui-ra<v- 'lUnX tlio 
Murf^Cfi of Uio nri^jui U oiirvivl (h nlionrit by iJii^ |ilii^iximi^na 

F^. 97. Aa iLc \c5-qH recede*, wc Ar^tloocfii^itoriicrUtilli 
Uietk I**!* \fmv Milt ilitapfwar. tli«ti Iwr higlHT Balk, u»m at 
IttBt tljc ciiUrc x'CBMrl Is hiHl lo view. 



■llculur to i)i<i illfvoUoa of frr^inty ; tn^tcc ist\ei[y >prul<mi.', il i** p«r~ 
p«atljr'ila/ lv thr rwJu«l k4 finviiy ^n^ the ei>uirirujr4l f'rcc ilii'i 
<ii tbii iMfllj'f nUdtliKi on JIK JLxii». \Wn> U nut r»r llif n-l]Wil^LXh1 

ixiumjijcnn* of tliiU f«'irri il U ii]]i|iH 41111] , Uuu U, lliE lua^ini irr 

TliP KCUcnU Ievi4 uf Uii^ urt-ttu rj* <:aLl<.-i] lUt fnt^ irrrJ / a Lurituu- 

1^ eomcanr vf Ibe «uilH ip ^buiit i-i|[]il iuclii^ [mv milr. adiI 
u th# M]ruin> t>f tb# ili^lmiisv 

130, Equilibrium of Liquids In Commonicating 

ooinNuni(^h: wlih i>ni^ ajn<jtb>rr. k will Ih< iil i-tfiiillbiium ii* il?i 
njipcr "nrHtf^ in all of ibc vcjam^UU m Uio rtiuni.- ti*jri£utit«l 
piano ^ 

Thj9^ prrcripk it «lvni"BilriTi<S by ^tiiiifi i>f 1li<i iipfmnilii* mpc^- 

VMBsliuf ilUEennl ihAjiM iiui nij^uolL^ iiU <if wIjl'A fiHhmuiuaftlfl 
by A tfllfC a c: rr any i^mtumi 'it wtMi ur »tbiT Uquid Uc pMUod 
inUi o«« r4 Ibe bnici-hi'< i<ni| allowoJ t*i Niti« Vo iv«t, lE viU ba 



tluu itB upptrr Kurfhcv iu all uf tlw vf«3v1> U bi the mne Iknrittmial 

131. Vessels containing Liquids of different Cen- 
tlties< — WliCD I^rjuid^f of (liriervnt itonailkoe aiv codUlim^ in 
eommunlrRtiiig v^sai^U, they wiEl tic In cqultihriiTin «heD tiic 

Fig. 80. 
Tikis |irindplf< U dcmoDAtnilcd h\ mfwir niaa uppnriLtim tlibwa in 

Hi U>pi uait miTitiiuaH'AViii^ lU Wn^mi tiy H^iimlfTT |ulii-. ](n quan- 
thy rifincmjTj W pnnfrfl liitnirrrf nf th'^ tiiln**. It vrili ciiirin ta m 1i*V#3 
In biiUi iuImv, iu<«4'r<liiiK ^ iH>? |<riuriplo ri|»1ikjuti| jb the fifrrrdinit 
utleln. If ft ijojuilttj "f wairt bt- pi>arT<] knUi ilm tnlf A. th» Invftl 
4^ tho tiifT<Tirry in Utnl IuIh- will 1>« iqimftcvJ* nfcilft it wiJ] bed^ 
¥Uvr1 in llzt- tubp Fl^ T1j« JilTrjmiM* t^f liA^r d f; oad br itfilrnniacd 
by ibc irnicJiiJiU^I »nili-* oil Itm TuIh-*. || will |*r (uuml by in w ofp' 
A t\» 4-itluifiit irr kvwi^r, a ^, t» IU,I> tlniM a> lilgh u iht 

£9^:iUDIttVM OF ugutDS. 


iniuipid i» prutW, Qilicr U^uiJa mn^ Iw ciii|jii>j^ with eLuiikr 

133. Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Liquids. - IT 
'U<|tii€l« of ilifTinviU iL'-n^illi^^, liul vliUHi rioiiot mix. W pouii^iL 
iiit^J ■ irAMrL Itjt^ will firninj^i' tlu'in* 

th* li4AVlMt L-daf- at lb« LK>ttr}iiiH iiihI 
tiw upper Aijil^o^ ftf vni^h will Ue 

liuahiff lii|iudi- uf cli]!vr\<tJt il'tiuijni, «• 

iiK-reBTft VBl^rr nUurnlnl m1)i prfAhHitm 

OubvoaU, blivhu] rh)«Iivii'4l hy jitilLitiK, 
iVuil un^lilh^ Wrt-ait ItiiiLl -m iTiitilillrr- 

tot nriiHc* ImU* «f ftk. v*x. iv'«h1, 

Villi glWL IT llw vkal bti >Jinbcii, iba 

I^umI* a|rp»Qr l» ati« 1 iiit if aLkm«d 

1^ lUihl. iWjT Krr4<]gL- tbmiwlva iu linr- 
IboialsJ Uvan, Utf^ ilmMVl ^ukJ Ml t|i<< 


Jt It ia jkcn^riUnM wiUi Kill |iniic&plD 
rifaat (vir«ia ri»rfi ad tnlTk. and nil i-kj ^ 

wafer. Tbo priiit?tplo » «f^Q «n]f>li>yQJ to H]iaJiiC« lu^iuJa vl iLETvt- 

nn iltaHij Irj llin iiiuhvb <if ilfaililllig. 

r33. The W^ater Level. — A Wifcit Lr;vi:i. 1» nn tli- 

fltnttitrnt ein|ilDymf kn ittltrminlnf llie ditft-itrtici? of lo^d 

bvtwDon tvQ pointa. It coiisii^t-f of a Ii'iI'izodIa] tuho of 

^ttrtal y| Of 3 1^1 In lengCli, U\io Xhf <-\trvmki\on of wlikfli 

tvtt> glau IiaU-ft are llM«n«J iH-qK-UilErMnr ttj ll. Tho wlioir 



In Fig- 91- A qijiuitjij of natci tlni^tl iHlbcatmioc w olbvr 
rolonng matter i^ jiitr^uci^d into odij vt ibc ulafw Uibv4, 
vliiebt flowing ihmugti Uw lior\tonU.[ tube, riMtt lo tli« iano 
level hi llie ot1it>r^ l>j^ tliir jiriikd^ile of «ijulUbrkiin of lif^niiU 
fati^miuunlcaUiig vc«»c-l«< A vbual ray dlrf <i«d mUmij; tbv 
euHUoeA of the vaU^r in Uk- Iwo glau 1ij1ht>, will t>c * lioii' 
XOnlfll linn, or n /*'«* of a^tjtnrent fei-et. 

(Ml bomuMd or lowaivd to n^^t^ «ith xUi> d^llnl Miml 

Th« JlAmiro of terel witl br IIh- fliirpn.iHV< brlirrvQ ihc hriiflit 
t/ the ]«velUnu fcttiirnmi'nl und th» ilisilriiuv^ (if l(if> Tu>ri|iinUl nutrk 
«fi the aqivuv fn-m l1)i' unMinil, 

IJ4. The Spirit LpCvcI. — IV Smuit Lkvki, wnxku of 

« tubO of fl^M tlPttl'l^A- niU'-ll **itj> JtlonbcJ. ILDll C^lflWll Ml lU 

tvro 03itr4?initi^A, Thv uiliv it» stit;}itl_v nir^'cd. luiif who'll 
|ilMW(t boruGonliill,v* IIk> hiibl-k' cF air wbioli It tyiuUina riM» 
to thrmliliUi^nfltiP npppr sld^ of the tuhew If either eoil be 
cltf|irvuf<l( tJi« Niil>^k niik» lovrxrr) th« other oud- Wbvii 
ntMl it i« ordhkiiriJy moiint^i In n iv^-oilcn QUe- 

Thk fiina 'if tnvf In uiit&h Lisnl bj ti]junii», nuprctm, Avi oibcT 



lh« BiEH^rii'ii* kiEiiHTi<1 lit Fitfhl aikKLv* Ui «Ar-b «lb«r, — nM for liori* 
900U1I nirTaii^ ihe tiihnt tut Yi-ttKul 

Tbr rnrni nf UTrt) nbown In Fig. ffS Ih HtincfaHt Id inanj htad* ol 
co4 MiiraOM F'^"J ffUBniDicat>i 

135. Springs.^ Fountains. —Rivers. — Itiathoprin* 
Arl|>lr »f <^qiul pn<s9iire« Uml mrjuc-A vrntt^r to rtat? Jh fipringu 
•mod fv[tiilArin%^ TliT- iTJitrr wltiili Tm^iU tlirrn i» i^mLLJiW In 
,lMtBm1 or artificial rvfirrvoin higlti^r tlii&i) llu? spring or pQilli- 
tuin. Tli««c rooArroiTH ouiiiimint<«u^ with U^ B^riii^ or 
lbuiilJi1n« by nnFutnl txr iirtidrml HKhriht^Wn itn-l iJn' i)]^^!!!^ 
tff Ihi* «[ilf-r it! iUl'iii ontisL's thnt in Ihtr H|>rttj^ or fuiiLiLaiii lu 
lioil Qpt or Aomctiirm ii> «Loot tii' In n Jcl, 

Til* wnU^rnt ji jpi n^nd- <ji Hue t<» iIlv lfn*T -if ilmt ni tlif tt^pt- 
*i»ir, And wmiM il«> *■> wn* it ik^E £tr tht^ rmNt^imv i>f |f>i< hJr, fhc 
frlptSciii */ tlkv WAhT Ji^nhwl thi> pipr« ntnl Um TmlMmii-r- ulTi-ml Uy 
Ihr Adlniif portbk^ aU of whirh ooiabtn* tu ivrnkir the Jf*i Ijiwit 
thiui ili« fiiuainlu-liciiili 

Tht r«ti» {irindpli] Ji^nutiMw \hf fl'fw -kf MrrHiiiA fi-i^iu thf h^clifT 
Ilk llifr IdHvr jtrtiiiinU- Tim lAfilff >if Ukrt, tfUH. niui tHv^trm in 
rtHitlbull^ fvnpijntmv (o f^rm vrtpi>r» ADd«1ol>ib- TbcMr art t>m- 
ifct—^ hi thf fhnn of rAJri. auA ihc p^nirlcflof trnirr, nrff^L l'> their 
mr» w^hu "W^k « l<'tf*r IctpL The ti'*wlpte fciuh^r lo r»nn ^roolkt, 
itid »fctoe itnilc lo rMfiii fivi*™, by irkicli tliu vaier Is ou« mtny ir^ 
b> Il» OMOQti jinil Jjth«« All <>f tlw witrr Hun rtot ilnv bjck 
iIm' iirmii iiLrKiH ifji' tiirttrf, hill v |nirtt>i> pTToUrrt" ilimii^h ihr 
xAlft Aud kCBUuiuLfct(i«i ill o4i'jl*n lif fv«l our ih|)tlu^ «u4 

136. ArtcsUn Wells un^ 4locr> volln, l^nn«d hyborring 
through rcK^lcH ahiI HtraUi of vnHoQs kindii or i^nrlh to niu^ 
m *u|)p1^v of whUt. Thi->c vivlU ntv tuiiiiciT fVtim llic proviooc 
ofArtoU, in Kionev. wtcrt- tbt-y ncn: Cr*i mcd. 

ciLT^iVf ijf the «irll», j| fl nTifl C 13 niP pqtiwI iiIrnLi i>f dny or f«)i 
wMcK ilo nnl AJbvr nf the pcri^oiljitlin of vaict, K K unit inter- 
tf^iaip ftnitiiTA uT tat»\ tn gx^vi-l. whtrli f«miirt wMvt Vi )irfK-(ni<o 
it. WhL^ii II h'.'U, /, in W«d Ji>wii I0 Mrikr titv nu1«r'bf«riu^ vti^' 
Titin, A' /Th tW |in»<iiiri» <tf tlio wni^ ill tW ilrnKtiii riiyc* il Uj» Sd a 
jet I'bv HftI I'f f>npitf]l^i In TitrMr ia DMirly iMt frrl <li?fii, lad 
In fhil hjr Wilbur n.imlh^ frnm i)k* hUlit iif riiMiiipAgnfv wlilrh su9 
iiiuth hi^lioi tliAQ FWw. The «ii|j|j1;urmiiFr from iM* wvi\ bhu- 


Hiny ArTMUn wEh l^nrr^ lifim rnjik in ^inr men ivmnTT^', 
Tlwtci 4f* ^v^^^ ie i*i. L^dii^ our of vliu-li iwu'Jio* iIh- il^ptli t\i 
drU^Ll fnt, and f>nr in rnlumbiti, H^trt. linking h ftnprh it 27?^ 


th* viblral -jutlinnl vli^cb uft«a InKc* I'Luv, whru ihv rvtHLTToir 



The «-At«' of muny Artivinn ttvll" rvntftin* Bra4l <iuiuititi« 
of mntiHiD nil ati<1 ntlurr huIiMjiiii-p* tii HEiktlun. 

SumiDJiry- <— 

r'Huii'iiriiiH "f t^iDililu [lies' 



Artnun UVlli. 


137. Principle of Archimedes. — If n bodv h mb- 
mcrgcd in m Huid. it w[1L Ix' pn*>»w<1 111 aM dirMtlom, but iM>t 

Ti> illusmir. mppoH n nnU- linrTK'nQHl lu fcnm, u nluFwa la 
Fig. D>^ The- LAicriL ^cf, a uuil 6^ will Ik> oi^oAlty |iTV«apd kd4 

iu n|ipiiHik 4in*ctiiJiiK 11m* ttirr wilt 
Ih* tnio ^^r lh<> lAlii^r lat«nil fiKifK 

■■KHtflly iiiUJtnitifi^ tfWflli ulltf^r. I'lir 
ii|i|irT Hud Uiwi-r fiic^ f und d^ «'i|] 
Iw auEi^iully pfTMfJ, tutd Ux c^poWf 
JinvilanL Hie (mat r wilt br pftwnl 
Hpwiirtlfl by A fcir«f pf|riBl to clw vmghl 
■ i^n tuhiMu uf th*- llfiuiii wliuM cnB»' 
P-.tftioD l« UiAi i>f il>ii ciib^i ftiiit wbcwa 
liritrlii Ik th« iil0UiM« nr t frtirn III* 
*urfiiM uf ihn Huiil, Tlia Tju* d wiU 
Id- |)rc»>iiLl iliiwuWAnk liy iha wnt^t 
uf It oii|i]mit <jf Ito liqajil, hArinir the uim? triiM'torti^Ei hj die 
cuW, iuid li licigljl itiual 10 tba diataaw *jf d Ui^'if t\iv sarfacu uf 
thfl Uc|inih tlifl mulriiDt of tht«# iwu firtMiTiri-i m ■» tijiw^nJ 
furtK-, t>4ULvak-tii tu i1ii< m'i^1t( uf n ii]]iiiiii< uf iIim liiiuiij t^^ujd lu 
lltHt uf lli« eubo. Thit ii|>M'jnl ])rwaiira k tlw bv^^yunf ^fhfi vT 
thi- Diiitl. 

'Hilt |irindjilp JiikI rxjilflliipd \% fn\\n\ liir Pn'/tripU ^ 
JrvAimtiii^ h ma^- tic ci:pfviM»cd bj M^iiijf tliAt «t ««&• 
vMiyptf 6vJy fo«e« a p^Hi^n 9f iU vajiAf «9aH»/ f« fAitf ^ tU 


136. A Hydrostatic Balance U t. balance having A 
book nltJir.'liv^ Ut tlifj hji/fi'r Xui-4' ur cnnli f^cwltr-piii). And no 
<KWMli]4'tM that tlip h«Ain nifty W ralnMl <ir Inwi^r^'U At 

Fu-' 06 rrpivvonifi 11 fiyflrwrtiitjt- l>aUn«'. Tli^ Rylmdrir c la AoliJ, 
Wkd flllvJ tri *11df lip lUiil ibiwn in Un* lii^llov i-^IlmlcT J< Thr 
tf^Gadtf c fDAj bo r*infiui<d in jny potitiuu by hwjlui of u «buip 

159- Cylinder and Bucket Experiment. —'Hii^ jirin- 
Hpk* of Ai:rinHKi>t% mB> Im* illiinErair^ri Hy *hnT 1* <'nIM lb* 
t^MiUr ffnJ iAifU' Rrprnmenl^ hb sIidwii iti Klg, Sfi- A 
botlov cylinder or biu-kcc. 6* of braM* b ntlairlitO to the 
)hook or out* or llit> flonTf^pruiif, ami f(»Tn it h Knt\tfm\f\ n 
ttoliti 4'}'1iniW of lii'nui, Jijut Urgi* i^noiigli r'> 1III iju' biir-kft. 
aui] iLiu lwi> are Imlnuui^il b,v wc-l^tii^ p1fti><il in tlic oiffiovlTe 
ec>Jo-|Mn. A s\a-^* v<^mc1 hn^intf Hrrn plnopiJ tienrntb Ibr 
cjUnilrr. nrutcr in jimJuiUy [KMireil into ii, until fin* oylii»lor 
In llpnMirveil> Tlu" o|)[vwilr M^iili^-piin will rk^^tviHl, «ha«rifL|,^ 




Uut the c>'Und(r is boo^td op l>y 9ome fotcv. If arc aon fill 
lii* buch^i* ^. iriib wMpr. Ibe eqiiiUbriam viD b^ iTstoTi>1, 
and tht> tvain wlD ooflie U> a l^vl^ B«r«ui«e tb« itmUt pvurvtl 
liih> Um' l>iii4u^t U 4f jmaI e<> itiat ilL«fildic«iL bj Uie oj liiM|«*r. we 
Infer Uiot till? tiuvva[i« I'tlurt n t*:uicilj i*i|ual to tbc irciight 
-«ritia dbpU^vd flutiL. 

Tfap priaripWiif AftciTiVBtiCA U BO taBtd \ n mm t it vTiu flnC 
iliKxiVf^id bjr th« QluKiioan pbjk«)f brr rtT Chut tuan*. Hf wu Jnl 
•u the diaeovcvj In ui ■a(«ip| i* dnnt a friiiJ pvrpHmicd B|>nii 
HiKPfj <^ S^ntomK bf a gnldnnhli vho hjul l«m nvfikiTTd tn nM)t«i 
A goldm ifowBt Tbe iJiitM wtf^ a porlM of iIIvct viih Uio' 
g^ikl llut m ^vcQ bnin frr makitu; ihr rfi>wiij hvt. bj innuu cf 
ihp |inunpi« iibar* ^plAinM, Alu lilVKPCb itiu abk U> tMonniii&-^ 
lb* Mict wiiual c/ tudi WHliirbl *fJB|ii*>vd, 

t^A- Floating Bodies. — Principled of Flowiuoo.— 
Whuti a lx>rlif ts filting(>i iiU'.i u liqiiril. it ki aip^ doiTDwanl 
Ijy Its jmTfifr **-igtiU itiiil ujmnnl )«' thv haayval ffltwt of "' 
Ui« Bif"!"!- Aiid, Accvittioyr lo Ibr tvUlhT iiilniHiUe* oT tbesc 
two fur<io*, Uir«c c«4c» no^ ■ht^ : — 

I. tr t||» dmnty iir ihv inupcRml bod; u tLr tnmr u ibal rf lb* 
liqual, iU wn<gbt will b« tqiwl 1o Ibr bw^jrwil »A>rt nf lb* t)*}!!*!, 
Mid h u3] rrwndii iii c>t«iEbrii«a nbfrvvtv it oty bv ;>bnil Thtt 
I* prkrumllf ib# rwv witb Uhtm. Tb^y ouloiJils ibrmMlvM hu 
Ml* iHndtiLW lb vbiHi ihtj ifiAf bftffirm lo b«v iricb«at c&vi. 

3. U ib# ^luhj (>f tbv bodf it $r»«n tbftii iLai of tbc lH{akl. 
ibi wcjght vill be ktc»Ict tIaA Ihr butijKDl dfud, nad die bttdr will 
aM t« ih* botinML Tbi» li vhftt hft^fM urbm ft Moat 4C fitcv 
«if livn « ibniUFD iu^ WAtrt- 

:L If thiv drWtv of th# bi-15 i* \m OiftD tbal nf tb« llqM, bi 
wri^bt wiU br W-K9 ibaa ibr bih-nnt f*«l, nod tbe bcj> will riw 
la ih0 uufn*. Tb« br«lj viQ iHiBiinuc io rtt» tvmfl ib» wfight 
iif ibr (fii|4imd IIf|Qbl ri^iMlj iliiti 1^ lb* budjr, when it will 
le rm. It \* th^ mbJ hf jAm', Tbia> a |iiM« r/ uy«vf frtfUl Vpul' 

Whra a Ibttitaff bi-df hhiim m mat nn « lifiuU, ib* fk$»et nf ilw 
a|ifxm«ao« «f tb« bqul V <»ll«a lb^ i>kw qf >laia«k«ih 

It mmmUmm bafpca* that a bodj wblab b VKn Aman Una a 

PAIfA'df'JiA: ox JiVBMtHUtCJi BOJ/ihS. 


lipoid toata apoa it- Thiit, ■ pitrrif^liii) vttir^r HmlH ii|iuii vmlfr. 
Tbb <uiMA fri^ru ita (>niit Wing bucEi ll;al jt dJfipluY^ ila ottq wcielil 
.4ir \r*>r when lAtJjT p«riiiiUy ii»miT*i<il- y4,t Ihc iuiij]# TWuum Inm 

J41* inu&tiAtton of the Principles of Ploution. — 
11m' priii<!ipK-» of iIoUlIidu may b^ tiliisU-alcd by on inetromt-nt 
ftliovn \n Fig- 0^ trturli^ iimkr 
TitrkiiM rnrmi. U «>1il In l\u* «1iii|w 
fti a child't loy> 

lu llir fiiriii ffliu^t'ii, il v1*ll^iflL« Tif h 
lilgt^ Ami lurrnw ijcIab vtuci, (4ir- 
pHWiilcit br » bma* c>lioiltfT, ^^ io 
Mi(4 ■ in «jr-cig;hl jiivhni tbiit umy 
W FMMii or <b|inT«vil }>j thv linuil, 
Tho vtmol U iiATtlidli iilUsA with WHti^r, 

MliHT, and *^ |ii>r»b1n »r x'""- '^'^ 
flvh i* ittochcd W ft *phcrf uf kJiw** ■"* 
ilbd mih rIt. uiil mth ■ tiniill holt, 
«, M i[» liivct Hdc. tbn.iit{b t^hioh 
«it#r pin l)i.rvr in ur xiir. ni tbo ^iMi< 
WTD 19 iW7rTQj«d ur (liiIlfEli^^c«]. 

t, M, tftlL iu ii(Ui<ltiHl Mit Ai4to 
lliA «iHfii« of Ehj* wArpf. If ilin 

I* ^(npfipwrii» ini ^irtJng Li|ton tha 
u-slCT iarrv* n pifni-n «f it into the 
glubr- Th* ii]i[Hnilii« lEim Imximm 
inucv ilniw ibiin tijir w^ili^r, iviail HJn]i«. 
Ibe olr 111 the glu^m ci|iMniU amA JHw* t1i<> wtilor oiil. wfaiMi Tt 
ri^n HohIa uq liic vnrfncr, TLr cii[irnijjcut may W r^[icAl«d at 

HS. Swirrming Bla4<ler oi Fishes. In timnr ftsbu* 
tliQiv H ■ bUOilcr llIM vltU all', tiui^ik'il (lirL^ctljk iinifor Um 
tnckboDC. Tbiii U mUnl rJit- Stciirtmitty UliiAUr. 

MThcs Uiv Ath vlihv* Ui drMviul, h wmiirrnv* thi« 1>Udd«r bf 



% tnuMuLv offiwtj and il^ni, ai tlit c|iiniivltT <if mror dnp{ju«d b \t^ 
Ihftn luitirv, the mJ^t nt eU- lUK j^nvnili' uicr ilic Ijuoyaitt vAirU 
ana the Ibh feinka^ Oa prlajjnf( (h^' oU-rU Ihfi blaililor t3i|iaDib, Ihfl 
biiDjaut «^n i>rtbc wnifr |ircvaJU irwr tZio wclgbt i>f iliv l^rli, «d4 
ll riiH«. 
143. Swimming. — Tho bumuo IhhIv In ii^litrf tlion w%Icr, 
vf>|j(inLitlv tliuu llir hih wiUnr of t1)0 uocjiil mLtl li!Uil^ Tmiirrsll; la 
H<kai whi.'ii iiiii(ji>mMl^ TIjo unlj f?u<<ii i^li^ iiiou <Ln not ivliu nslii- 

mllj 1* (lliT ill^mlEj JiT kr'i-llLII^ tllin bi<4ll irur uf WKtlT. hi Hfl tJI llfl 

|in>jivi1hni tu lli« IxHly, mHl is hj (rlioiAd ii|h>ii iIlv tniiA IbiUllU^H 
*a*y to hwp SI fcbovi* tin- nurtacv, ^^ 

ThH ^jifi-«L |"AiT^iii fur II |i<irM>i] In th^ H^.tritri wlm At^^ mijI kniw 

how to 'WiiEj, Ifl ujii^u iIjo inwk. Tho tmniciir-y i« ruim? Ojr vrntvul 

Mjiiiy kipiU t^r bliiU, M dui'ki^ ^'■i?»r ««%aft aiwI rho Uk', Hnim 
uxiunillf Ji«d willniul offVirt They on-e llU« facuUf t> A ihicli Uy#* 
of diiwii mill fiviilim wfiicli an' vury lijfliU nwl hiipvnn'Nbble bj 
WBtcr. Tln'y Th*it'lW tli*pfiirt» ki brgr inlurnci "f \i'rtt*r la pro- 
pcittiuii III tlii'if Hriuht ifiviniLE riiir lu ii«lruuK buuyaui i-Qiirl. 

Summary. — 

I'rmnplf of Arc*lilriKvl*»*. 


lly4n>*ri»TiP Rnljini^fi. 
Cyliiidi^r «inil lluckvl Ivqvrimrat- 
ElknT* Crown. 

n^Hlii-* nf ihd Airftf D^n^try lu ihe Liqi(lJ> — Bodlra 

E'ljiiir 4if FliiLatii-n, 

UliifftmtioQ <4 FlnTjirioo> 
SwifQiniim Blrt^dnr ufPUhea^ 

WliT TTtJirjy AtittiiJiN KVJin nalurall;. 



VRcniMi V. — ti-RciFio oiuvrrv or noDifis. 

144. The Specific Gravity of a IhhI/ in iU rrhtivt 
iftight; tlint is, it 15 the injiubt]- uf Uiuea tlie bmiy U 
licavior tl^au %w <;quivalcnt voluirv of aoniG other bod/ 
ulcttu u « btaiidaril. 

mlrcTi leftJ Lhnii JniiH aIuqv^ tbnu mitnl, kikI ^ im. Iti iinlirr Uv 
cAoifiATa Lhi< r*4jiiivi> wrights of diScivDt bodi», all ar« rf^^md iu u 
OominoD MBiidiviL 

■alK* ^fw* in JfTUMly M di^rrtit (riiiprintun'?. it u □aunl eo [ftke 
il Hi Ihr tcinptnitin- nf HPir Kiil>n'iihpn, i^ 4'^ Cmlignidp, vatvr 
Inog inovt dniw at il^ikl i<'iri[)rm(»tiv 

111 oHrr to Hint lUc n|Fttin(^ jfmviljr vt Any Ixidv, all Uiat 
wr hnvc Id ik> ii to Hud liow tauiiy timoti bvuvicr any k^ycu 
vdoiMof the liixly it^ tiuin an 4>rtuiivlerit vdir»o of dlatllM 
vmler nt 39^ ,V F- ThU In X\\^ mHhfhl ^f ftving llio ai>edflc 
gnifity uf »jtUt« stiA li<jiiiil«; «r hIiaU hv Wit^nfter hon U U 
poeelbi« to llx IIh* Hpc^rtltc irravity of ;iidv« find va|K>i'». 

145. Specific Gravity of Solids, -^'I'be following ai-c 
«om<^ oftlio iDeilJUiU of dvl4<i'iijInTng iJiu »i>ecllTe gmviih?H i>r 

I. ^iha fijfdnMatv^ Hnhutr^.-^VXat^^ llii- Knly In mil' of 
Ibo ftCftk^pAtm and bolAiioc it by knoirn tviight^ in chf^ oLbi^r 
I»i3. Tlicw will piw* Uii' wtfiffbl or 11*0 body in sir. Next 
friuipend Ifao boily in 11 vi<»(i} uf ilr^tJLIoil MuU-r by nK-nru of A 
tltrrad »r uirv ultadi^l to um- i>f Uil' M^atr-|mJ». :l4 nlrnvn in 
V\^. 93. nnd linUiJtv it by wcb^Ltd pbc^vd in (iir oOkt iian» 
Un ncLi>iinl of the buoyant ctli>rl of Uie *^'4ili-r, itiv wvigJit i>f 
ihp iMhh In WHli-r will N- li*t Than ihiir in air. Siiblrnrl ilm 
wcifthl of Uit: buJy ill walt-r f^i?rLi \\\x\. in air, And iJii- diflcr* 
imoe vtill be Uiv wi;i|;li( of tlit- JUpltKcd wnlcr. Uiat \n, tLc 
WC^t of A voluiiiv of wut<^r iK|L&l to thnt of tlio bodj. 

Ilnving found llio Vf*^^hX of ih^ IkxIv En air, fctirl the weight 
of Nil c(|niv:iU'ni. volmiit of wuIlt, <UvlUe ihe fofiiicr hy tlit 
Inl.Lcr. ami the rcnult «U1 be Oie s])oeific innvit:*- rcfjttircd. 

Tliiri uR'tho'l In d»m*ifiinr» briefly tUUd b Uk- roUiwinji 
rub;; Divnif t/^e ^f^ftj/hJ m air lof ih^ fmt in witttr. 

EXjUn^IA A piH3« uf iiinrtiii^ u't^ij^h* 24 gnmiiBH tn aLf «Di1 

fi4 — i&hG ^ rt.r^ S4 -^^ as = ites +, Ao». 


Th« fpcoiiie gnbvitj of ti a-JLi) lUrU iicwt^ iu vrntor uifty hv fiuitd 
bj th« fiiMowing tiipIIkkI. AUai^Ii U>h hhiw Inidy liMrf Pimi^|rli fi 
•ink it, n^iJ wc^JKh biftb logrih^^r lu aU* ftaJ itru ii; i^iitfTr ; uiil, bf 
Aiibtmrlioii, filial hi3W iiii]i<li tW «niDl>mr>H volidi Ii>»u in *'a,lrr. Huva 
Uki^ tfir liintj Kml^ [lU>M' luiil flii'l how mrivh h t«vv in ivntor. 
^(il^mi-l ttiji riiiiii tho lidu ftiv*THiiinl hy tlti^ iwn, mid Jr u^ll uivo thti 
wdjfht 4if thi^ ahUt (1i»|Jfir<<'i) by iLii li^htrr tiitj, S'oh' <livii1« the 
bmtj't WB%ht iu uLr ljy (hi* rcm^likJcr uml ir vkll j^vf tht* iji^rlfta 

I'»ff m M(t lUk Fig li>|. 

S. 1^ .WrWtfyV- ffyifiim^fr. — NiCIIOUOX'f HrDRollCTKK 
romliito of a h4>11ow cyliiifWr <ir meUl, at'>iru In Flff^ 1^, 
irelgbunl u( Ibe IfulUjiu In- a Ut'U^j hotly* </, 1<* iiinki* it flont 
rrvct* mill tcmuiiiilrik;: nbovc tiy i^ tJiiii etcm, ^. which itup- 
|iorl9 a «c«W'pfta. *t. I'ho iriAtrmiionr u bo coiietnicto<l thai 
vhrii !t plvrn «H^hl, ciiy .VH> grrihi^. In p1.ini-i) In Ihi- ]hjin. It 
nill ptiiik in rllhtillrti wnti^r to a iinti^h. r, on iht," Mom, 

'Hitf uit4h»d iif il4'lirrii4[JLiiie tlii< f-iwrlEic irrnt^ilji bv lui'nias uf diU 
■n*tr*ii>wnt t* tbn^^i io TijfK IUIdqiI 101. ^^n^ip^Ho ft ivr<nv nu^i]tr«t1 

Tfin Iihi \r> ptjit«<J In till' |>]tit vt\} vtiL'hu wIiIhI liD il uakj tii iImt 
in)Xch in tho B[<<ni, si hlumik m Ft^- lUU. Tb4>M vi>i(rlitf^ mlrtmctf^ 
from 500 ^nius. ^kvi? lh« ^figliKif ll;r Wr iu nu. Ni-^t |>1iia> ihv 
Ivir irj (hi? oup. fl, ai nbouii in Fig. 101 , uul M4d wo^^bta cttaugh I* 
luftki.' \\iv ii^fttruuLriit biuk agaii> to tKif volcli id thff rioni. TIm bM 
u'i>tgliu n'j}l ili'iioii' Ihi* huoyHnt tfViTt of the fluid, or tKc walnut of 
Hia w.iU't m«|jrju'ri'd (>/ t|jo \m. lyis'idi.- %\w iveigbl of iKr l«r Id lUr 
^y ttio wdjfbi of Ihiii 4linp]44s^1 vmut, uul thi- hmqIi will tw tJb* 
"P<^^o irniv'ii^ otrticht. 

^. Sya Flwtk\ — riiiti niiflliol is ubh^ wImtij a IhhIi- niiitfl 
In ft fttntcr of pgwder* or in line |»art>c1c« like shamL A kihaII 
Ita^jk* whrtHft t'xocl «ro&^hl lb known. 10 llrst EiUtHl wrlli ttic 
|ifrw4l<-r iinri thi* wlioln i^iin^f^illy wpJghwl. Tin* ffitiri.- woi|;ht. 
il!mlijiHlii-il liv Ui:Lt of tlir ttA^k, \* IJht wrl^jlit i>r lb« buth - 
'V\\^ Wk JM then AIM withnntc-riiDd vriKhrrl. Tbla vrvijcla, 
iJiEniiiiflEx<'il li\ lIuU ofttir Urmh, in l!io ivei|Cht of nn C<|uiv4il4-f>C 
voltimf" i1" wnli^T- l>iviclc' ilic wHghl <if thr Jxxly tiy Ihnl i-'f 
Mm njiiivaU-Dl ^oUnm' nf iratcr. :xiid Utvr t\'Hii1t villi tie llip 
^pcrific jETAvUv rMjuin-ii. 

h wFihlnil iIlciI Li iIiIh mii'IIei;*! ur til-lfmi llif Kpft^Gc (nvity 
m| ihi' 4'Ulirv coniciiu 0] llw dmlc hh uutf uiiiM, ^udodlDg Ihoalrllui 
it \tiAj cwoUm^ 

146. SpeclAc Gravity of Lfqutd^-^Tlie rolLowiug arv 
Wfiiii- i>r llir MK'llii)i1>^ or ildiTiimitn^ tLiir hpKillc gj^iitli-A nf 

liifdirlpi ; — 

K i^ FiJireHftrirn Hijtimmtlcr. — FAtii(fr:niiftn*s Hvhiioiik* 
ri^D i^iiaiaU of n i>Iaw* 1^-v'liiufcr t^alJoaU-il ot tbc Lutu^m 1»t 
a pmull ^loho tlllM wiih mrrcurj", mihI jiwividM «t toj> wilU 
a Hb^m anil it'iit^'-imr. wi nhnwti in Ki^^ 102. 1u wHglil in 
rtir«ftiny ilj'trrmimiL 

'r>i fjflr ihit h^>lniinnl4'r, tl ifa tlmt i^iinxihI into lUmLlk^l iriiu^, Hmil 
ffc^hu |}Uwt in lit' maI^t^^^ ''^^ ^^ rioks 1" lh< u^ach filoA nn \\\v 
•tern- 'ITiPw wpiflhu- inrn-nni^l ^y lh*t i^if llit Ln«tniia(nt. wiU pliri' 
ihr wtiifhl of thh AU|!iU»ii WAtor. The inMruuivnt is ncti |i|iab^i*4 
lull* ihr iiqfiM In ')1Ii<4iIciti. iifii) ui<i|j:tirj( tirt* \\n-'*>h in 1I11- ynn Till tlto 
Jiuilruii»(i>| ni;*jn aiithn t^- ihv unldi- TLm- irritflilh, widrti (^ flutt 



\'.ilnifin> ihf^AurM af>' Uio *iwi* iti bcfth uuMt Wtoli bring ih*i of i1>p 
wiJiimTKiil liiitriJint'&i ; brDce. if Vft AirUti lliP weJahl of iho din- 
j^U-od liquiH by Oiirt <rf lb(» ilJi|ilMMl wxicr. ibn i|iiotii'ut will b# llic 
np'cilic gnvitjr rtqiurvd. 

n^, las. 

It. fiif iJ^ Fftttk^ — A tMk U ronnlnic^frit h» iin tn hold n 
gtrpii wdghtof cl^MillrMl wfltfr, tay 1000 ^txi\va. This t1n»b 
in flntl nrigbrt) nbi-n cTii|itj. uinl Uivti Klirn fllk-il wilb X\\v 
HqOJd in (|Ui.-9liun. TIji^ dJfl«f%iiCv ^r Xiwae VLviillt? JD tlii^ 

wri^il ortl>^ lU]ijir3. »ni tbli^, dlvUI»d by lOfXt ^a1n8. vlll tw 

Tfio jawolW dffUinittiiiH by it* %U\ tlur fir<>riitLiii HtL>ui-t. It f^Tinbbu 
Ki lu Suil iIhi wnshl iT k Inxly aTi^q wff Luitwr iU vtituiutv Tbu> ft 
tnKw fui of leid wi-ifihH II. J& lirnr^ fti luhrh M a tpubic fixiT nf 
vntn*; but a «tiblfi ftwrl of wnWr ff<''ii:fifl lOOll fjjTn**, bcuco a mbii^ 
ClkiI (iri««(S Bvif^lu lljl^fk '>i)ii^vt> '>r ilt utI 70^' jKmiiil* 

The i^itridc grntitlrd ^f »iiiic nf llit^ Tiii4t iiiipmiAikl mtbtilAiio^ 
vv gis^u in ih»' fi-ll'kwiTtff tnlilf : -^ 



T'tWtt /ihoii^»S 'JW Sp<cijit GroHtm ^ So^itk a»d Li^idfi. 

GoU (Ktainii^} .... liKaii 

UArK»*0 I1.i» 

8ilVi'i'(oa*iJ Jtl,J7 

I™u(U.r) 7.7[l 

ziti« (ntfij .... - <i,>^> 

While MftrblQ .... 3.^ 

GioM (fUiJt) . . . ^ . ti.aa 

Ivory J. 93 

Mercury 1^00 

RQlTpburie AeM . . . . M^ 

Hltk tin 

Sn ^\'mCcr IJCQ 

DlMLUed Watn . . . , liD 

Itimlwit Winn. . . . (UV 

Olivia Oil a£ii 

SpwlUof Turpvnuno . . OlW 

Alwoluic Al<t>!flJ , , . (kJ& 

It ^nlE lifl A4«a Ihal filnlinun i» lh« b«ftvLui auM, ukI tlml tw*- 
cury U Ui«i hcA^ii^L li'iuIJ- 

147. Bcaum6'& Areometer coiiAiEitH uf n tiulh ofgkitt, 
bjxlloAted at bottom l>y a »^(<oiitl bulb coQUiiitJi^ nurnttfyi 
unci ternLinAtiiig nt top in a. n liutitr oT uiilfomi dlftuwier, mm 
vfiovvn ill Fit;. lOS. 

Whi'ii |>Iijii|:l*iI itito lir^uulx. U nrnk* 
till Uk' wdi^lil uf tbt ill»|>laced ftwl 
i-iiunla ItiAt or Uic ar«onii<U«r. In llglil 
Eliiiilx I1 ihi^FVfoTV MnkA rU'P|irr Ihuti in 
iK-av) jiice. 

Thi.' pUu of gnu! ^JhtIIl^ UcAt'Uft'a un^ 
inH^r lAUtfNIiriA-*!, It IK hLiJlM0l4iI *o lh«( 
ill iliKiEllii) i^MUT \t u'ill »iriU uy tIih ]Kiint (^ 
on llic «tnnii wlitcli 1a marked Ol A ink- 
tniv of tctlt HuiI pun- vrau-r Ift th^^a Itirnwl, 
111 th*- jin>|Hirtliin of )A uf the ronnor lo B5 
uf tlir^ ImIIi'T. iDC*j nh\A\ ihe iiutruiut^ai b 
jkliin^<l. The upper Eurfjifr tb(« mU IW 
Bleiii lit fiiiiii? fwiiit. r, vluilj u nurknl 15. 
Flir lua The iiilunHMiftl* •paw belw^n aniiilrU 

ditiiJi.<J iiilo ISniu&l |Kirt0| ■ml thv ^livibiuii 

ii CunliaQMl lUivuv^ntH nn tti« ttvm. TH* iIWiAliHIt Sq4 tttriikbATt 

mrv ui & alip ijT lAifX-T tii lIit tiiUiiiiif uf the alfin. 

Tlio tatd rif Uiu iiiMrumoDt thm jfrnilujiTcd U la oeortun iUt 

AuioDut iif mh Ln ftuf yiJutiun uf loli In water. It b plmi(«d iaii* 


the Kiluticin In ■(□T'SHttfinp and tlio numUr to wlilfh h ninlt* (iflnntw" 
the d«f;iV(? iiF MliLtDtwn cftlic Etilnticti. 

Iti-tinjnirnl^ otrMlnjrl^ cm Oil* pnnHpIr f"^v^ bnii dr'vi.icil (or 

mlth ; tih^r ftir ili:UriiiInhij( tin? ttrrnk^Li of («Ai^-hu-&[if* mjlutJdUH tfiul 

148. The Alcohclmetcf h Himilar m lU Knutniotion 
to 1I1C ar^omt'tir Jld-c i]<^crit>c(l. It U ^rurluuted tto M I0 
•bow Ukv jwrcKmCSigP ornlcotiol in any tntictiiroor nlcohol unci 

'I'hf tnHnim«ni 1» jtnt KiLWn] ^j iImlI wlicii 
|ili]iL|{«l 111 pqrP vAi*r ti w\l\ iWi vlth mmrly All 
»f iu rtcm nLoic ihc vaivj. Thf luu? of t^Hiitioii 
ki mArhcd (1^ MUturM nmlhrri fimiii^l. r>intAfri!rii; 
out, Imvi. thm, <'tr?>. prt fttil nF |iuru eUcuIm/I hiuI 
WMlft. iiid tlir initriTnciil l>i [tlimfirtl litt't tlifim iii 

3, vto, u fn tJi^ itintniiiiKriT |->rvtuiE]hlj, Itj rhb< 
<«ac ibe Dnmlwrr nin iipwnnh. h i« ncf«njiry t) 
gndmMi* li th^-lllj;hnut by itIa^ "■ thn ilWUIom 
arv MA imirvnii- 

To nw ihn hucrmumt. U U plun^nl Inui ihc* 
luixtaK ornUohol ^ad water to b« bnu^d, u><l tbc 
pflnmuigv \t n^ nlT oin the [U|M<r iieftlfl wiiliin 


Summary. — 

I^tiiliifil of fipvdflo GftTitj. 

Unhiht ]>y lly«lria«t»l!r lUlitnOfi. 

Mfthul Tty Vii-imTwKr'i HjilroinoUf, 
MfdHid by A riiiok. 


Pan ii,^Hyniioi>vt<AMir£, 

wio'r"* I — yu*ii i»r utjLim- 

149, Flow of Liquids from Orifices, — It ha* ulr^akcty 
1>ef>n ntiotrii Thai i\\y [>ri>>««iiro exeitiHl by a flmi) U |irojvr- 
tioiial to lU iV|»U*. If tlton. ir n vi^scn-'l fillifl willi waUt. 

»Jic)vrn in Fi^;^ 10& it xt eviOeui thia ihe wAii-r will flow out 
wiUi Ukt gftuU'-it n-ltJciL^v lit ibt grtaK'ftl dtrpUi Troiii Uie 

But K\\o vplocitr di>^» nol liKi'^^&He \t\ Ui« «impl« ntioof 
the dejiTh ; It U rnifni) In 1h» in pmpoeti&a iJ> th* tf/nnre n«o| 
of ihr dnpth. ThiA rTftult U in noitoiilniiar viltt llu- 1hii« iif 

Thif Kilter iMu^^i from tJao jot nt w vith a vt^locity v^ith 
vouUt cwrry \i to the same bmglit with \Me vx^t^vv Li t wprv 
it iHJl for Mcliop «rn] tlie reuntanot- i>f ihe lun 

Thi4 iclocitj Ih tbo uLinc thftt voiiM U' acquiitid bja bo(|j 
la finlHtig fifwlT tlimugh ih<> di«tanoe IVom A to «^ 

8iiMV tlic nhol« «pa«c fUnHiibrri 1>r n fblLii^; bo^v i« proportioQol 
to dw finiarc ijf UM^ tiiDr, wliilu ihi' rrloirily biimui'i In ihr iim]ilit 
nU« of thit Miifl, it fdniynvlh*! Iln^ v^^ii^ifv iiwniif«! it |T'*pi>rti<»ui*J 
Ia llifTnyiw/r n>ur uf L^fi whnlv )i|i«ri- thrtin^h whirh (he U*»i»j WK 

y . 



Wivop th« tiirftee, the wAVfT will <39fA]>« vlUi a Tdority of 3S| Tod 

A <aEv:iin U^nwh 'Kit tii lUtj olliiv dtiMtittn ihiifi Uiv iri<riir4l will 
bar* t^A M)uf< vuLi«it]r, tJtactt Um pflmaKi in vhkh Uift T«loeilJ U 

'tl« rmagc «r » h^'ntontol j(H will be gr»tcit vhcn il u hnll-WD) 
brtwtvD ilif Biirfna- Hi>rl i}lc \irvv[ I'f thv |)Juv whcrr Jl titjikis 
Tliii? tlii^ jvt tliovTi m\ n in tfji* fifiiirv hw thr gn^iittvl rirngv- JoCc 
iMiilti^* Tmin tfiflntt ■! ei[ita\ dJainuoR [ilxjvi^ and bpluv IIh? tnidrlfc 

150- Volume of Liquid Discharged^ — In t1iit>rj, tlitr 
roliKiie iJbchArncil wiU W cqiial to tlic r£*Wity iDiiltipllcd by 
Uio mroA oT tiw oriBffc. l-'or i^xnmpkr, if ir»U-r i«?%nQt with a 
Vplac'Ay of %ett fi*vl jK^r 4»r]oml. nv>iii ah ^rifk<<- fiiiving nn urt-m 
of tvo Mjiinrv icii-lini. the ^iiuitf iltFirb:Lru;vi.1 iu mi« accomi 
b cqoa) to (10 X t^) X f — 34(( cuhic indu^. 

Ttib nd« diwfi not gtro r|uii« aoeur&tr nflult^ fr>r in prwitlcw 
the Arrifjiinl diwehflnEM u i<nTi-rL|i<rnHy dtmlrtbdHvl liy ftkrlk>n, mid 
kj ibc ^itmatina vf wliAi in tvllnl tliv tvtt^ am/rdci|(i| »r conlraded 



Whau trutCT ^"wt thnwft^i a clrffulHr opening in t, Uawr vMPtl 

hitvlii^ tliiii piidi**. It riinliiv fii'Ki iKffi'rnjt iliiiiTlSoim U'Wfittiv iPia 
v{»tiiiiii; un^ fiirnitf oiinHiKuip ourmtli tl^iit i]|iiiiiii>h (br v«'k«iij,; 

wliAt ]p» (liHii iTti- iliHiiicti-r iif tfifi it}>riiiri^, tint nnuL i>f iU 
frviiiiii U iml^ xIh^ilI Lwu-lJiinljt of thnt ikl lite <'nf('<<. 

This niimiw pi^rrii^n nf th« ttrcniii In rjUM Ihi- wnn /vminvAf. 

By ftUJM??»in>; buiuWo tHbcs l>.> iho 4»rififr, tlif funnAtii>u "f Uittl 
"r(iriini(*i'q| t-f<ir> ^ ifi;iy Ih> ^reu^utc^l nod thb flow of inu<T DofQiidrT- 

151. The Flow of Liquids through Pipes. — Wh^uJ 
nakr froiu a iv»ervoLr U ^vnvtryecl to a dbiUiEicv la |iIij«&, ll 
vi'lfn-ilv or tbc (kiw is ptt ntly diminished by ^ictioD, cApcolftU;^ 
in 11^ voBo of ■inikll )'t|jefi. 

A ]ij|»c tilXI 1i>*si Itriiu; uihl udo jnrh m rfmiuelcr. Uid IvihactnlAllyJ 
irlll tLif(Fb]ir|f<: 4>nly (irir-- Tuurth m iiiiicli witier a* h in1« nf the wiiFia, 
HiJ^i <>]jii iui*h kiiifj A )it|Hi <if lit" Hiinr ii>iifCtli, lw<» mr1it> bi ilinin- 
eti*r> frill U^^hnrit^ aU>ui II vi^ lirni* ii>< murli wjii«r ii* nur nf mift 
Inoh iit ihani4t<T. 'I'bo arfii« <if ilicir Pfc-t* lu-otiuiit iK^iu^- a* tii4> 
■qrumi of llirir iliuiiitiUTf. ilir niiio rIihuM Ih-jik 4 to I, but thp vffrrt 
of &i4;lii>:i iti rvUnlir^ llii* Hot*' m intirlv ^rmlf^ lb pntpvrtuni ia. 
Kiinti |rii)i.'» lliuu in iaiy.^ iiiu'i«> 

15ft* The Flow of Rivers. — A %-onr ulight liipllantioii 
ih hiilTlr^'iiT U' 13IIIM' n tloir of iratcr, TUrt-f* incb^A to M itiilo! 
In A pnKHttli* ^liDt^riC 1-liniincl U miflliit-ut to givv u vt1o«Uj 
of ftbont ttiri't* mik<ti |mji- hour. 

TJiu ft>rm» <kf the eomrnt in riven b irmrtly *liTniti»li*d liy 
a|Aiii ibr UilUmt a^iI ijp>iii ibt- Imnkii. Hud oUui'ifEifiiLljr ihr vti 
oanvnt h m^ir the vin-TAH-nf ih(< 'b-r<jti-4i pfiri of itif> •tmun- 

Tho juaiti v1 It rtrr-bul, wlirr^ Kh^- 9\n^n^ i;io]j(Mti(Bi» ticcnri ivv 
MluiMt iiLi«mi« fillihl will) iiiAHtM tjf nich, whidi oWtrairl tba 60W 
HuJ grt^lj tltuuikiiJi ibe tt-Iucitjr ^ ^b* slivuii. 

■ 53' Water- Wheels, — Wherever waL'r U colleutt'd 
in i-iwTrvuint ur liki-» jlIkivo tlie level i.*( dm sea, it (rom- 
pnfleit 91 store of ^firmti'if ^nfrgy y^Xnt^Xu l»y il** ilown- 
uranl doiir, bevum<m kini'tie mrryy — » vrorkiM^* |Kiwer. 
f\nA povt^r M nppUed to Di^erat purjiosoH bjr mraTia of 
watrr-wLorl** Wiiter-whccls hj-c limicd (l) by tlic force 
of It cnrreat, (S) by Lhc iveigbt of lli<3 water, or {^) by 
both c^mbinod. 

154. The Undershot Wheel fe niovf*^ by tlir fnr«* of 
tli« etim^nl •trikiii^: ^igiin-*! 
Aocit-hoA/ib. ffliidj nrv nr- 
rKDi^xt wj M ttfi be mvro or 
t«M flubni^rgi.iL 

farm «f llin inil*T-wbw»l, nlil- 
udaic nrl mocT Uinn Iwnirj-^Tr 
ptf €vax <tt \\i* tiitjil nxTi^y r/ 

ll h gmumUf plju^ in n 
"mfl^wni-," A narrow, plopiog 

iraii*r frv4(i a nwvTroir it ^aiQ. 

Fi«^ 106. 

lljU Tirriti "f *h*Tl b n']tn^<Eiii>>l lu FS|r 105. 

155- The Overshot Wheel. — TIh* Cmot of waU-r- 
whMl bi called '* ovprnboi " hounuito tht- triUcr in r&o«tverr aI 
1I1V to|j flud ]ja>aM uvrr llu^ »b^«l. n% ^^luiwik In I'ljf, 1(i7, 
]l is fxiovcft pi-indtiftH)' iy \\\r nti^'ht uf ih? iruirr. vthk-Ti 
flow* into «?ll»^ i*aSM " lm-:k&u," n.irm<.'il on \h*» diviirii' 
Atph'v nf ihft whivl, nnd lilijipnl «* a* t^ wIaIti iw much 
of tbu wAtrr fta poauihU* litl Ui^y n-iicU tin- Eowov piiit of Uu< 
«tieel. whcjr tLcy iltc rmi^inl. 




dilhfrtoi] hr nnr wltb ii 
Hinj4ll Atn^riTTi wIim4i bu* 

ihii kind Btn i)ft<Tn macfr 
«f Afty fbct or mure in 


156. The Breast Wheel. — In tbo brviut whrct tbc 
wftttr is ri'mviMl infirh' at iln* Wcl of Ihi* nxi*. In ■riimt 
wherlti of ItiiH k[iiJ Itir wnU^ fli>wi« iiitii birckrlA tiuiilUr t<i 
thoeK; qT tJic aveiithot fthcc) : but irciicrully it octtf upon Hont' 
boorOtt j>luL*0 |>L*qMndioLil]ir lo tho t'ircmnfi'rtncv- imd Uic 

nuH'-niLj, or pn^wij^i* for Itit' «atrr> 
ia jiiwle l^j liL <.')um-l> lu tiu* cimiin* 
feri'iioe <^l tiu: who^l. Tbt wal«r 

lu mvi^hl. mid |uLTtl,v tjy ita 

Ki(f. KB. n-jm'wmw tlu» funn nf 
wHttT-wb^'f- lii'ite hwi funn tW 
Idi'imi U'lit^'l will irliijic itlvvtt idKtjr- 
ftvo |»ft n^JiI "f ^^*l innviitfr prtiriT if 
tlif» WAlrV' It UHH fiiniipfly tli gi*i|iftil ti><rv ImiI ix niiw tnnfitly sii|rr- 

157. The Turbine Whrcl in Dw nuwf. i^fh>ct1vp of oil 
Uic JV^riQA of wiitcr-nlifM^U. Maij\ ditToi'fTiii kit'ivUva are In 
u*c U]K'<if U]iVL< \a tliown 10 |h>r«]H:u(ivc iinil in faoiittontJjJ 
actiioii ill h'\)^. 109 unJ 110, 

THo wh«*l in xhiti lonn 1* whoJly *flb(nPf||tMl in vat<T and»nb* 
prouuTv iif a iXfiMiAttnhh ln'aJ- Tlkc wiliki nann At tin* Hnuiri' 


MAcniyss Fan BAisiXfs watek. 


tl tbvN ti>i*jij)M fmrri th« rv^nirihl |Hin iif ihr whfH'l ]>y ■ liibr. vhioh 
w «<Tl«ni)i-4 vi;rtifiiMy J<pwiiwnr(L 

A <TDlrrt1 n)i»rt. A (Kl^» 109), C"lJLriiui|ii'JLrM mnlinu In (lli- 
niHrljlwrt nbwvr. 

Th* liliftfl i» jiMirt'Uil fntiTi i(ii> nTlii'iil ]iTv»im' "f llii- uhIit Uy 

FiR' 1013 Fijc 110 

Tn auinhrr ftinn <tI tfir Tiittlui' Llir wili-r Piiim ihritii|;Tt n liiixl 
LDbo at ihc fl'tiEn, uiH, ■iii-wtcJ t>y fixi^il rur^vd ^MUlitiikid, iinjiart* 
mnii^iQ Ki ihi* tiEiVrr rHHJii^, whiiOi n>Viilv4w, Mud bt 4v>uu<<el»d with 

TTu^ li^tl furiim ^ ihu tiiilitni^ hvtjtii mul iinUtT n fbll hmul uf 
wiitor, W^* l>i*«x f'lQuJ lo atJiiBC (W-iti ojichty tft *ijthty-fi»^ porwut 
oTtlu: S^ff ii lU^ xtHloir. 

«trnos nt. — KAcmNA run iuiiti?<o v^nm. 

MuBT tif lUt* [iiadiiiie.4 in coinuion use ri>r mudiig 
water dt*]»fiicl upon th« Actioti of Uic (itmoHpKcnN miil 
will i>c (IrMriltod muli^r Ihr hcAtl of Pneuinfttica. 

>iS. AfChlmedes' Screw. — Tti? acrvw of Af<ctiiH>akK», 
lavenCed by Ihe |)hlloao[jli?r of that iiampi ]« ww of Hw ovnA 



rg- 111. 

andnnt iMHiLrivniiiTN fur nibiii^ watz-r, II wm !» w** befun- 
the Christmn «ra. antl it ii still used in lloliRnd for dnuniny 

low invuibdit. 

An hlhi^tn lu Piif, 111, h om- 

r.inn ftrvlinJ a tnhd c^UOiIM) 
wlAcli id ukiiJiB to rrrolw by 
(lETtirig thv btindk, H. If 
iiL»i>H| ut M irnr^mr iuriirfaukfu* 

fmitui-f tbc Eub«thjiT xr* brMiglii 
MiL-nivi^iily LfUit tlw tAtuft, titk 
flaiilly it win ht ilutio-grd ai tho 

159- The Chttia Pump 4.<oihUU ot a tub«, tb4> tower 
port of H-lik'h CLiu^rH tlip woll or rv#en'Mr, vHT ibe opptt part 

^.-\^-(H^>' tn llti' \t"\nl »hi."K' Ihi' wiil4*r 1h Io I»»- ilbi-ltAqertL 

Au etulLcfls vhnin |>aAH-* i>ivr n wtii.'oi al ihc u>i>^ nnil bIao 
ATOiind onotht^r rehtid jilnrrfl in Uic wntr^r ttt tlii> I>c4t0cii. 
Thin ohttiii ^jirm-v itt L*fjiia1 i|ik-lnnc(>« dnl flUh^ nhiHi flt 
r-tuiwh iiUo lliv tiflff. A^ ilir wliii'i ri'vulrt^i* tlic tlUks ir^rry 
tbcT nuUr bfforu them Into tb« tube* <iiil (km% 4ti«<4;&rs« \t 
ftt lJi« tcip- 

160. The Hydraulic Ram, — Wlivn iraCi-r ifmkT a coo- 
»1(kriit>lo hi^ncl ifi [towing thruti^li a lurij; pipe. If &L cuiv p^iot 
Ihr rtow i» Aiullrnly tto|ip4ni, tin? moTLK-otntn of ihe nrfU^r 
t^Aii*!'* [{ivtit Jind niicMrn |irrunn\ ofli'ii ><iiini'ti<i)C Ui hiirvl 
lUr? |»ipv> TbL' bjilratilii^ mm inak«> ii»c of lliifl prvwiiirt ta 
TvlAing ft porUon or tlK> vrutj.-r to n i^'Eit<.-r liei>fht^ 

'nip piii»4|iUi ofltA oom^lriKtifrn la Bhowii in Fig. IIS. 

Tht* ii>p<^> ^ , Ifttiliiifj! ffiirn t^t- n^orroir, tcmuimtM hi cba fnal 
ritlin'l'*r, Ft, wfurb '/|x-iii iipwnH niul if 6itnl vnlh & ^In, 2X 
wlilt^h U hrjiTjr i>(]iiii}fl to ^hU u h^u iIk' vtnii>r 111 ^h^> \i\\w ia viill. K*r 
tnorlntc v^r j nU-wIy. Wbcra the i^urtoil ihfoiitfb << *«iqSm vrilfioicol 
Tdodlf.h ntlam Ibn vAtvi- unit luiMi-ikly »hau itf Uitr w&it#rAC £A 



r, ft, ir^cii hL^i^U ji pitri 'if ihir ^Hlirr Lh thi'ii il&vliArimL 
Th« ur in ihu otiunbpr. G. u ^wndoiuc*! by tho *udiloii larlux, lul, 

up lfilr> lfa« amuJi tdtw, if. 

£ifma ttj Iw own Vi3t|;:ti1 ; ilin vaK'c in Ihf nlr-obotnltor cIom^^ jin<l 
Ui» wMcr iffMQ ftowing tlirvo^li A^ kod ftct^ulfiu vt^locily '.-iiuua^ 
(fl «hi4 1li0 *■>««. TlLf nrhulc cpmition it tJtui ooatinuiilly rppt^Ltcd; 
wccMWiT» portions vf «ratf!T itre Carded into the »ir-ohAmt«r, luid 

nsiliuJ of FMiiriiL^ r« *inrtll r^imniTty tif mUrr to n grnil ^itrij^bt, vht^r- 

Summary- — 

^'ivut qf Li^mttr /rum fjnfirff. 

Ttm of tiqvidt thmHijh PipnL 

J'liMF «/ k'ttrr. 

PatnitiitI Fnrtfttj 1/ ttfimriittini 0/ TFaUr. 



Water Power — Hote AppUeiL ■ 
The Underahut Wheel 
The OTCTBhot WheeL 

The tireOAt WlieeL 
The Turbine WheeL 
Methods of Baising Water. 

Archimedes' Screw, 
The Chaja Pump. 
The Ilydmilic Kam. 



SvnoK I. — thk ATidOHmKiuc. 

i€i. General Propertita of Ga»es and Vapor*> ^ 
Gasks arkd VAt^^iiS juv lii^'lily coiMpn-iuLltlif Aihl nljwUc 

Tbftlr partial«9, like those of liquid*, raovo freely, and 
LnusiBit pTCMurc in aII <lirecLiuiiH ; Lut Lboy differ from 
Itqoid't ia tJic prerdomuiaiictr c>f tbo rvpuUent forct; ex* 
ertf^l between their mnlconlcs, in conaoquonco of which 
« iBJuift of gu« ulway» tendd to oxpand. 

Tl»u foroe that «]&Gtic rtuide exert i« thU way U 

led theii' Un*i'/n* 

Tb0 (ItMlDctJon txilwora a gaa and a vajior Li nol very 
dear. Whrn a boily In tL^' ^ujwuub funn cnn Itv h-^IuoimI Id 
a h<|aid b>' cooiing, or by a mod^nito ptoMuiv, it in uaualJy 
calkvl a va^wr^ 

IL tH iiim biiivnii that all the ^nvtJi may he* ri^diif-(>d Fn tlir 
liquid fonu by great preaaiirc onil intcrtsc cold i^mMiiiHl, 

tCa, The Atmosphere. — Common Air i>o^(*8*>« »H Ulo 
mrchaaical pniiMTtirji tiial Ih'Iihi^ In pu^ a nnd vajjom. It te 

Tlw atfinoapliere ih«i AiiiTcHiiida tht- earth ia transparent. 
wUbout odor, tnd ootorl«a» «xM|»t in groal niMa«A. Uk 



mafis^A \t AKKumpn a U\w tint, nnit 1a thp rsw of itie 
culac uf the »ik^. 

U i« composed of v^jfi/en, nifro^en^ ^(irlrQnie tfhi^ tcatrry 

Tbi< pni^cJj^Nkt iTitcrriLii.-tiU «rv euygtn achI Hifrviffn, arjJ tbn^ arr 

lo »vf my ■ ujxjc purl* of ii»lr*jfcen. 

Oarlxmir tiHtl (i^mMi bin n iiiiiJI poiliuD oT tlm Atiiuvphrrp, bm 

ti U Ml otttiUuit «J^ \iTy itnpurt&nl clement, ft Is r>oniuj[idilj 

fMp^i'Utl Ifi flu' Hir hv lit* n»- 
pimiLou »f JiiiiiWis l>y tlie 
4*cmibiihliim <if runl anil olhrr 
fut\. ami by ilif Jpr^j vf »iu- 
inf^lnml \'p^iab]anLhfltAnf«L 
Thv bitriuuiT ''^ a liitsU lua 
iir rmi uitilii hitii tbc Atnwik 
jrliniT tm>Tfl ihkti Uiroo tmvof 

Oti Hi^ <>tb('r band. &II 

rHidn (br mrbcD, but nAom 
to tbr HIT Iho oEjrgan whiob 
It c-nutiilrw. It h found ibttt 

the HNjr|ily mill l(ii!« arc VCff 

nrurl^r lgilATirr<If «■> thai tb« 
j>mpnninii oT pArlinnlf^ Add hi 
ilic «iinii«phc!rc miiatn* nuily 

It ri'iiiH(ijit»> IN vi-lvain, Xa 
■bivii iirif pflfi in itwuty-ftTO 
liLiTiLlff^ *>i iht whuk ttiMttm' 


iSj. Expansive Force of Air. — Air an«1 tfat 
lUvayv tend to ouuint! a ^i>rLt«r volninti. 

Til vbiiv ihli iipDiHnji t«k« H liUibltfr or ntbbiir b;«<. fidvO itHb 
a Mi>|]-i^N?k, lui ^^l'ln1 v» Hu ]13> I'n^ft* out ntvirly «1L th<- n^r, thf-n 
dow (bi* «i<r]i-i.virk AEiil \'\»t* \iv9 Iwjl naib^r the m-iiyrr nf nil ik* 

ATyrosptiKsrc pukssvhb. 



Thi^ puin)> tht A\T i»i\ <>f lli« rrofivcTi and tli« (^MlLc fuirr 

afr iTl l!ll« (Mlf will AILIUO il 1(1 f IfrHnif- 

Td llici Mrttn mtj it may br vlii^itii tluit Hay pia m ckpiriAiblti 

164- Weight of Air. — Air, lilw oUifrr liorlk-n. Inx 

To thaw ihlii, uib* a bnlLov gl-jth^ »f gfjo^ 
liirfti with a 5Uip-oock, ■• »hnwti i^i Vlg. 114. 
Hiitmg MlUirhed U to one MiLlv-piiii of ■ drhaiio 
ImUaoTf tfonDtcrpoiMi it t>j iricigtitii pUecd in tlio 

will dtwvnd, nnd iKimc wrigjit* will hnro iii Ix* 
adM lu tk< 0/>4 haI^'P^ii b> rnt|'>rt the t.-<{iulilj- 
rioin, TTiv uTflgtiu adrird wtll iiidlcniPtlii? vrtghl 

165. Atmospheric Pressure — Since 
Uiu tluxHiihf^ro ho^ ivfif^hl it n^c^^rU n pre*- ^^ 

tfurv on ftll bor1io« ui^oti Alurfi it rnts. Tliik prenmrc do- 

If wt BTipfKHB* tlic atrnot[>hon 10 bo dirid«d imn Inycrv fjnmirol 
I0 ilir jurfiin of \ht mnh, ii U i^vldpQt lljnl nicti IjtjT i^ |rrr*««'d 
4oinj bj Itiif wcii^ht of all ibovv iL i1ci>«*» Uio higher liiyi-'n Hro 
lr*> 4!oiiJ|irtaAfd iFtAU tlim.* trrlov iticiur. ikiLig Itwi crjispnvdtil, 
thcj vKpiiDd, or bHKituu mrfjMl 'i'h« ^civti^n'^ nf tttinrt«|ih<^« 
limBUrr may W sbowu by n vaHmy nf txyt^nitKUt^t vxne uf wLi«h 
will tko vi}<1unKl tipkur, 

166- BufStine A Mcmbrarw. — A ^(lft*• cylJndcr opon at 
b<«tfc ffpdf, hti* it- np[nT -uid coVH'd by ■ pUw* of oiled »S\k of 
4 Blrrttlll^ (ji4^ilibrHiif\ *\ii'U iw ih \t*f] \>Y ^Id-bnaCrra. tied iu 
k'ir#r mid it ifmund oo u tcf fll tbo pUtc of id nir-pump, m tFiCiWD 

111 PiiE. Its. 

Tfi it! luitnni ain^tllloii. \\t mdnVm^ n ittmcsH dnvn Itf tlxo 
Wright fj (hr ■tmnjphrrp a1k>^ de. nnd iU\n prcfWHrr ib n^Wnw^J b| 
ihfl t«in*i<rt] ^ff Ibf* iiir wilhlii (bi' rylmcUT If nr^w ih<» aiT be pk- 
I9l«d rnxii iTiP TtlitiilM. llir iiti<ni1initie v^itl no li>L:igF]' W pnvHd 
11 vtihia, ttu'l will floAlly hnna wtih n tmhl rqwrt 



The rcpoit ftTiwB fi^Jin the ouddeu ruflJ* *rf (\Jr l'> SU of tbe 

Kh pii'iMi rif iMri fihi<r-E Tfibhcr br u^rii Id pl^H M like mf^fcnsr/ 
It will ho fcnilnally forivii tnmrrl u tho nlr ii ^rliiiuiud, Mid wiEl 
be ^tTDU^hod b firopnrtiaa tc tbo dcgrc» of vxhuutiuD- 

1G7* The Uasdcbjrg Hemispheres. —•TViltiifiittndtMt 

nninM fntin iKp iriiv wlirn* il uthx ijtTvnl<<l, ronmHa uf twni K4j|i-<ir 
hr-mUphTm of brniw, irliLi'h *m ffrtmnil u. aa 10 111 i-j^h utiifT wtth 
an nir Tifflit jr^inU The hi-mUpiicprt urc *hf"Wii in Fii: Uti> OatiV 
thvm b to iwpmd ihiit It can b« mu<>1ih1 ut nn Hir-pump, and b 
pronged viUk a ttAp-Mcli, bjr mwu «f w^ah * Mmmuoustloi 
wiih the mttfrnol air cau be 4}jwunl ur clin^d ftt plMfluiVt 

Tb^ toyp btini'i^hri™ iM-inu iJ-iofl-! 'nu' up-m the olhff, Ibr pfi» 
purr "f ihi* t'lli'TiiiiI jiir i^ rXHrLly nmotrrlinUEK*^ bj tliis If^nliJii td 

lri|Uli| And fu uImUcIc f«<tvciiU tlhiMu ttvui U-infc \Uaw a h|^juL 
howowT, the Jiit bo ethmnrtcd *mm wtlhio, th*> flxttmrtJ prtwapo 

I, >ud ii PK^uim a i>nHidvtvbU> I'tfcrt 
to t$KX iVir »i'|>nrA[i4ic- \Vr vliaU rtv hi'ii.Wbrr 
ttiHl tht- iK^uLlJiph^Tui :kn> prcpAiHl u<j|:i'thHr 1>^ k 

ItttKnbAf (if i<tuanf Ln^liu ia ihifir rvmiiuui rnutk 
f Th« vtpHiirTifiit vnit ili'vimM 1ij f^rn vov 
pt'SftlClCS, 4>f Mji|f>Ji.-Liinc, III- cniiHtnK^ I«m 
bfmfivphi^m iiM>rr- iltuu isii fivt In dUtiirtPr^ ftinl 
^(t hn^lnK ciLauBtcd tho nir, it b n|K>rl«f] thiit 
k m|uli»d h-T^rkl homn ii> dntv Oirni uimikr. 

168. Upward Pressure of the Air.— 
' Gvvif. likr lii|«ldk, Irnniiinit [irt'^urt* L11 all ^'^^' ''^ 

(ii^'i-Uonfc, hrnivcln' nTt*34*im* ntihe air 
la ixf rtcfl not only di>«iiwBrr]», but iip- 
irnMo. wnl Id nil ollior ilin^ctiohM. Thin 
is stiDwi) bj- ibr 4*xpi>riiin'ut with tbc 
bi'misjilnrnn* nItHi nre btlfl tc^vlAvr 
vitb IIk flainL' 
Ibroe in whal- 
(H'<-r piiflfiloii 
IIm7 inaj" k' 

Tbtf foUovrin^* f-x[>uriifki-M« illu*- 

Fill It uiin1>W ( Fin- 1 17} iritis (raii>r. 
And <4>Trv alwitlm ^vr« »f |4{irr: iti< n, 

biMn^ ih* pujor hi mm-ui wlih i^in 
««l*rt in»ift the tvuibler- On f*ni'>vMiff 
iliv faauil. If ihu viporjnifpi l» eonfully 
iiindi>, tW »nm iriU rmifirn ta iJir tiim- '^ 
blrFt liriii^ hfild llirrr by lh«> it|i-jr4>rr] 

prvnBUPC of Uiv Alr^ 

cn'oridii t4 |V|Hir smtfl Im prr^iml ibt 



«tr frmck natoHn^ lo «■ to aUuv the WAtcr Ia 4^eAp« tx the asiaf 

Fig. I]8rq>ri»iMxlc Ajekii«Bi*yliti(1firMftn(linilghll; til riiur r wtnn, 
B, to wliitfh H hr^nvy Ufiirtil in nlTiirTi*-i). T^ llii* iir brt Avhuuiilnl 

i6g, Torricellian Tube. — Measure of the Atmo^ 

ihi* HtJH*J5[>ht'n-' pxertB n fbrcv of 
l>rtHHurr; tin? inti-Jivitv of rlj»l 

Tr.ltHrrEl,T,T, b pupil of Gau- 
MCI1, jiliowoil. JJi 1ISI8, that IliLfi 
prcdsiirc nmnLintAtD ftbout ttlVcti 
jM^LindH on ea(Hi iti^ujirt^ incli of 

siirlHce. Ill lliL- Icm4 of Ihr ih*a. 

In ordf p to rtpni TnnAienxi** 
«t|irri[ri?nt. taico » glw tube nbooi 
ihrM fiwt ic length, tloaM «1 wo* 
«nd mu\ o[u*n iil l>iv nTbr-r Tiaming 
Ibe dcj«iHl i<iid ili>«i]ttar<lB. Irt It be 
flllAcI Willi rnfrriiryr Tlutii ln-hMrng 
llif lintfiir OTi?r iIk' t^|iou «(u|, IcL H 
Ih* tnvr^nl In a vrvnr] of mcnonrfp 

iLf^ fiMgrr, tlu* tTKTr'ijrir Kinka Ld the 
iiiU' untJI lli< i^ritiiiikd, ^ Jtft i« abnut 
3CI tiii^lH'it li&flif vlii^u il oornfa tJ> ■ 

111 thl» MnriLttoQf ih« mureuij f b 

DiiE^tAJntsi b^ tho pPMBarv <if tlbft lir 

U[iiTn ilic jmiAitw of iJi* (to inowy 

in iho vHMlf iniinn^ii#d UMvAng 

'^"' "* lu ibe Iaw raiilmuci) \a Art, 119: 

At Ibp >-vvl <»r 111** *<^«, tb« b«l|tht 4:»f tho tyilomii, AB,ia, k 

mnngf, nnl fur rnmi ^ liichn. ur 2| fwU 



U wv euppoM lie <irui»-«(xiii;m of the luW lo be owi pquniv inolii 
th* atniiM|ihMip prvMiirv ujxm llmt •urfarn aiunt, 1hi aiiffiriitnt tA 

uf W ODbl« hi^hH iif iiii«r*iirT l4 iv litllo ]m thftc 15 pniinili ; tic^Tico, 

fc]iixrr In eh' 

A preanire of fiftc^i^n poundjt on coi^h AqaoTA im:b is oflcn 
M on afm«j|pA0rtf, and EhiH bi-oumin a unti Tur o\prL*«dhg 
^ pre#nxr«d cif gaae« hhiI vapors. Thud, when wo »Ay, In 
aii; given catM^, tbat Ult' |Jiv»9aiv uf tiUraLiu iu a boiler i» fotir 
atioo*pherc», vv ii^tfiii il^at it oxcrt« n prcA^tiric of MxCy 
rtda OH «»ch ctjuarv iik^Ii or iiarl^ico. 


170. Pascal's Experiments. — Am aihjh RHToinficKLu'^ 
C3ipvH[iicnt was kn-iw)i ir Krjirirr. ULAini-- i'A?*t'AL umli^rtook 
to »*««r1niii by c)t|]rniii*'nl wliclhcr llic im-rc'iir)' wa* ntliiaUv 
nrlaimil fii Llip iuLp hy xhv pri^mtirp 4ir ihi' utitKpi|>lit'n-. ur bj' 
Aflxnc otiwr I'aLiiHT, 

He CAii^fr'l It fiii^hd to nprut TivKJtKreLU'A 03;[R'rLuiciil upon 

*i lop or lh« inoiiiiUiii of I'M^-dj-DoiQ^, o<iriv<lJv rvnsonliig 
UuL, iflhf^ hnight. of tlii^ imrrTirlAl (f^bimn U fliu^ to iilitiOA' 
pliL^rir prrunrc nionr, It onirht imt to br su ^^n'uL i*n ibv 
inounUin top lut at the IcvA of thr ftCb* Tbi rvHukof tb<r 
C3q>«iiniCot iihow«l tluit tlic hei^hl of tbc ci>luinL vob Ims 
riti ihf lop Of tliv inouuTatu tiimi nt Uh bqai*. 

lU i;i'xt ntt»oiie>.K thai if iiw IuIkt n4>iv ftllf^l vltii anj 
tiqmd les« duuM- tli»» i]i(>i-i'ury, tlic hcii^t of th« column 
□Liglit to l>o prnpfiTlioimMy grontvr. Couwipti^iitlv. lit nwdo 
al Kuucn. in t'Ufi. Itii- ftillnwinf^ PiKptrirMi^ntr. He t^N^k it 
lubtf, bioiilar to tint of 1 onnKCi.iJ, but ntftily fifty ftrt in 
length, tun] «n<-r UUiny; it with winv. inv<7t4*d It in n vcmh*! 
orihr AantP I1t|nlc1, 

L Pak'^L obfiL'nLxl iIl»[ Ibi' ntkiiun fdl tjiilll jt wnrt about 
hirty-flvi^ feet h\gh. ^htiu It u\m^ to tx^aU In iliie cao^ Uiv 
ipln&in wiw f!r>i]riovn tinicA a^ bii^ ni» fthcn m<roary niw 

j*sp:rMA rirs. 

iCOiidadf-T] (licit Tlie sole e^um- cf the phcrtomenon in qimtjon 

prtMurv of th(* nt] tiixr. 

*l. The Barometer,— A lUiwiis:Twt UsLftln«tiM«wnl 
fnr TELi'iiHtiHiij^ ll^t^ iiiThaiurt- <jf tb<* Air. If to TuIikkslli's 
tube nc-rt^ (ilUil n cxulv fin' mr^nATiriRjT llic 
cxHiUt Hlltlijrie i>t' lliL- uRtcuiiiil uulamn, it 

!^«\i-rul fon))h LiAvi- bwn given to Uie 
bftroiuf^ii^ri* »Q:nc pr which will be clcftcribvd 
in the foLluvriitg tirliekn. 

17a. Tlic Cbtcrn BHrometer.— t^g- 

II'' ih 111 common IMO in Kronen uiJ in Uib 


ll rniLHiHtA of » gWoi liihh, 1 1, hIhiuI 34 influv 
Kni^T cliwcil ■! lli(< l»p AuJ upon nt lL« boUooi. 
Tliit luhl< hoj A i!EHih'>(4'r of ntHiijt fitur Mnt^M of 
■u iLjcli- h u fiUiil ttitli uitTturj nitd invcm-il 
iij n Hiiicn}. 'I. wlii(<h id piinuily (iJlvd whli t>io 
Kiimi^ h^lLiL<^, (u r>v[itMrii>il In An. KIA, T>]0 m«^ 
<^tirj*>MUn In Oit^ Eubr iHl the>ica^htof themUitna 
i% Attdot l^} Ini^biUi At TliF* Ihvi'1 nf thir Krir 

T|i<- rJKirm, A,hi ^ *^r 4 inohrf in dlAnwivr. 
ariil Ir U h> A'laptfil M ilm ir)lH> ai, un In prnnt^ 
iho Air 111 fn^nvirnEF 1o tfi* rUu^i nt llit^ j^'i^'t '- 
(hiljr A (Mfi of ihc riii/^m U luwn In Uirft^arv, 
tTi*' rnnnlndrr Ittiw^ Irt hilo ih** frnin» wrbvli 
tci]vfh>rt« rhp irh<i1e inviriirnmr At iht^ i<i|> nf 
Tlir Tntttf: is a «(Milp, 0, liat-lnc il» point ■! iJir 
li'Vfl 4if ilir iriHti'iiry fin i)u* r-i«(r«-nv ^ nr^ in Ihp 
it|ilBi*itii wr)i\ ift » fcnh t^v which trt nmtMi 

A carvoj y'nve of motftl tiribnuy^ the tube 
aur] rnrrii-9 ui itidt'f. ^*hbh. in ihr plM4.< U n]j*4 
<ir liq^mvcd t« «4>rrTfj-<^iicl (o fla« T<t|i nf ibv e<^lifmii, pomt* rpifl npon 
tlir tmlf, r^ thrt fir]|:1i1 nf ifiif nilunifi. Txta lhHnii^]iiir>T.vnv iiiu> fj 


K-ti 120 



Thr (I i-iijiiIt or bi>«iii(»itj« of \hc apaIu. » nt 1b(- ■urfiw^' nf tbc 
iRvn^ury iti llir tirtiTU- Whi-u \\iv ytr^i^an njf lliv air iuciVMts • 
porltiiD of Hio inctfcDTf in the purfrrt) \t forri.<(l up 
JuUft Uio tubv, niiJ tIiL< (J |iuinl duKFiiiJA; whrii 

Hul KlUUllflKll W lll« »fbOT(4 llllt LI101TIII> til 

iu (}io tabr, tbijt rise and TaU U, for nt(a\ jruf^Mrt, 
f|iiiu iihiiiip-pnAiir W1>VEi gTVAt Brcurni^jr i* n^- 
if iiimi, Uw bult'trik of l]ii> d(it«nk u uuvtLc vf Irutlicr, 
uiJ fAJi, by ini^Ank t^f 4 »m>v, Iia niptwl nr dv- 
|tn«dcd D«tiJ the *uTfiii>c kif the riim^iry in iIhi 
rtdli-rti JuM fmu« ilii- fKiiut iif »n li«-rv |jtri fini- 
jt><tiu|C frotu Ihtf Iflj^ *f the cUUrv- TliU Un- 
(tf^mmnft, drvucd by Foimsi, u now hi gnnrriJ 


1^1 dHrnitiuF itwr height <if tho lAn>inrtrFf tba 
poiM i»< tint dJjuBt?d. ihcEi itt mir^^l |iocc la 
Alkl up iir ttriurn III! ii roinndrt vM^ tht* «urfiui« 
nTth* im'mtry in tijo t'lW, ahd ^hv Ix^it-lii ib tbtm 
rp«l «tf on the mle r Tlir hHjfhl -if vhr I]ii*p- 
BMiincler aliould iil*u be ultU^ 

Is the llMnnMtlll dnuTtliM, Ui^ »r.ilf< r iliwn 
af4 ifKtcnd UiriMUEbout l^m nl<4c< lin|flh ^f tbc 
InBtnimFBl, hiv*rii*», in iprJiTtuiy c«»t^ <<tJy fl 
Hn«n |»/ttif UirK^ftln b llrnii>d- WljOlt A Irit'Ui- 
ptfT U to li» iiMil hi M|;h Alll[od». thf^Hnlv iy iv>M' 
aapd dovmrvd* as far ht. DM-DAury. 


173* The Siplion Barometer. — Flir- 
lil rvprtAcnb a Sirnos n^it^iHRTF'tt. li 
(^ii«4if(ti fit n riitTfd Iii^m.<. tiA. bntin^ tni.' 
iiiii-^iinl bmni'hi'n, thi- nluirUrr hhp «i'lirif! u.i ^^i^ ^-^ 

a cUt«rn- In ihc loug^r timiulii thi-rc in it mtinini nboro 
Ihv ni«TCiir}'. Ircl th^T ^liortcr o\w h »ii|if>]]C'l with niT« wbicfa 
«onDi«ii1e>tc« Willi tln^ t^xtiT^ni-l ntn^ofifkh^^ro tbroiigh n hiiuD 
0|wBiat(* i- Tb«Tr ant iwti HcnW, on<- ac lUr iiii|H-r (larl «f 



eudt brunch, nnd tii front i>r i^nrli in a movAlik* Intlpx^ wtikb 
mH> Ek' ruJiti'Ll cir ilrinruu'il until ll in»mrs Ui Uir ryn> MirAiiv 
of tli£ mi-iviiry in ciidi branch^ 11,^ tnr«ns of Uictw M«kit 
Lltf' <li(ror(*U('<- of lovL*l ill Ui? Tui.1 lituiidi«^ may be mv«aitred. 
I'hiv (lini^rt^iice u the Iielght of 1I11? hnroroetrio column. 

Til proTvnt violr^l uealllntiuDA vtlnsa tbc 

two hnirirh''" <<i»iritrttiNiiftU< ihraLitj^h 
» llnf. i»lrn(<*rt pjipUbry tiibr. Th)ji 

BibiJiij of Ji buMiU'iif iilr |>rtiMraUug 
from linn Writ' T'> ihir U-^nc^r bmucJif 
vhini (lit- uiti1iuiii''m i^ ihrliiaiB. 

174. The Wheel Barom- 
eter- — TliU ip a fotiij «f tilt" 
Sti'ii'tv IURi>Mi^.7i;n 111 vvlild) t!io 
rl6« ithfl fall of tLo uK-'ruui'v iliv 
tiEjfiAtir )!_\ iIk' inoveinenlAof an 
ini1r>- moiiiiil A tzi^dualtfii circle. 
Tho iiiurjn<-M' in whbli it act« f» 
slxtwri hi Fi^. US. 

TIlC III.IlK Ll fttUwhM U> AIL nxM 
triiiah likin a |iuUfy. rAmn^oviir 
thin |tullr-y t* m fiiip wire, nt <'>ne '>n<l 
L^rvrli'ich IP iiltiidkpd nil Xmn U't-i^Ll. 
*. ivPiinli riwK «-hi>h (lie fioi^hl oT 
llir ifit'h.'iirf diiiii[ii#|)f9. luid fnllH 
nhfn lUl* h'fjjcht rrirmuw«. Al ihn 

kfcfit thn win> 14'iiu^f und piiiih^ iht- whiw^I Ur 
luTD u thf> vi^iKlitJi rlii< <itkL {aI\ 

I^T 133 hhnu-» tta irEldrunl n)rjwar«nM with 

Ii will hr uvn rlml • dii-hi rhnnpi in th« lerel of iho mncar; 
ill lhr> tub? vill (iTthliMv « i^iuhuUthIiU* Mi-nvuitml of ihn lnd^t, 

NiHiriMinUmUiig Uib iulTfliiiiu<c> tdi* fijTM vf hnranot*! ij uf llult 
vaIiki ttltcii nccuraiv ulwrvaiiuii !> iviplml The IniD wr-ji^b:, a. 

Pb. ia2. 

n ihcRhi 



sli|^ J[«D» in AiLdiiidn !■> ibc prasnrool Uiefilr» nljio.U im^Ik i<> f^u»* 

bnuch Ivmb to rivj, It mutt *>iri*nxwK' iLi- Ticcea uf wn^lit in u. kin J 
Hinvt^iiirndy wrjr niiauU ftiutignt of jirMWur* fen DOt nnmiLsi Li^ 

175. The Aneroid Bctromctcri — Tim iiciiun oT UiU 
ctintxu iuntrumcut diixurta uiM>ri llur ellfect prvcliicpij by 
atmo«|ibftic |m*«fiurc upfio at mcbkllJU \jox TivfQ wlui^ti tlio Air 

ii|i|iwiuior nirti roiiAbuctJon lire 
Bhowniii Fig. 124. 

An JncivacrH) otniCKipbfn^ pm- 
■un* truiln to forw- tliu i-oii-r in- 
vrftnJ; bat Mivv llie uttuvfl|>ti(-ric 
pn^iun: iliminiBbofl J1 is pmnnl 
otjlward by iU ovrn l'IaviIl* f-jiw, 
KkM bj a spring In ih*- inU'ritir. 
Tbo Biuv(*ait-rTtAoriln?mviT. UaiiH- 
tuittc<l tn- a <«intiin(tli'>ii of drllcAtc 
IvTBTi. oaucv «n iixleac to mow ovvr 
■ gnduniril KfmU>^ rig ii4 

BMnp twy i-ii»ily iv-trlnKlu. Ihii fonn of bj,iriTn*1rr hai Utcily -vmo 
into r>lcft»4™ i»r, rajHvWlj fiiT inr*«itnDC \\iv ljvii:?ito<if uioiinuiutt 

flMmvivnU (if tUt Ihld in^ nnw inftilf^ llinl infiy Si* ^orriffl in Ihn 
podErt llh« ft wDl«h^ nod tho^ on ut «AiAitlv<^ in iJli-H ^Itiknt^ of 
lirrvvurv tbnt llirjr will ludioU* n dum|fu oT lifbcl uf Dul uvso duu 
tkrft* nr Hour ftnt. 

176, Causes of Barometric Fluctuations. — SInou tto 

mprrqfT in X\\v hArrm^l'l^-r »k MHluiin-ti f.y tli-.* vrii^hf o4" tlw 
<v4iimu nf ulr nlKn'i> ll. i^^niigt't In Ihit nvti^il nf (|iia noliinili 

of i^r Mill prmtnoe c1i»iie(.'9 hi liiL- Lt^^lit of Utc iJicrcmiAl 

eoJuiikii. Sncli fhnn^i^'ti arr rrriiMjuitIv fotiijf r>iu Ami (x>nK>- 

t^ucjiljy Uif btromolc-r in coAimiinlly riur^tnniinj;.* 

* Ttw ainxvpbff rv vumiitiri* \\\f tnrilt llln- an Imnjouc ooc^n, orsrlf 
flftf odr* b drptb- Ii S« nrvtT «E r*<i, |jiit Hn* h> p^al cnrrrfvTii idH 



YfinAtlon by whifrh thi> ni4*rmiry miaimIa Tilfebi'»4 ki ten o^clad^iwlni^ 
rrif^ (UjJ DVfiiiirif. huiI l»wi'rt nt four mVlurk iiflrrDuuq ui;ij laaruLa^. 
ILvh; ohnufjiin iin gtritul At tho vitUHlor. wlivrv Iho THAvtbvn ■< 
aU>tit one tenth of mo mk. la Utilotlc 40^ It W 0.05 iikIi. »n<l in 
lut TIT" <->ii1^ aiMKI Irmh, 

Tliont in jklHJ nil Liiiniiiil Li*('f|iuiUtjr diiiicmU'iit on ibr •(■voD*' In 

T\xv ^*Ht(*r Hihiri^tH In tin* vrt-igltl of tilt* iLtmi>£ph^n* tttvf 
mA itt'iioiLiuiL Lull ik-|Jt'it(l \x\to\i tliAii;;!-^ i^r Uiii|r('i!iiun'- 
Whc'tj llt(? fi'in[]t'iik1inr ul »m pinct' ia «:IcTV&ti?[|, llic «ir ox- 
imtuib iihil niii'b iLiTiLl tN Inii'rnl UnMun U grviitvr Uinii UinL 
tit ill*' MiiTitiiiulin^r jilr, vht^ri \\ iViws aivnir" l'^ thp nolgkhorin^ 

is^Lctl. the air rtiiilracla nitil uit ndililionul ^iinntjtj Hows Jn 
tffm\ tliv ni-^igh^KiriJig N-git^tii^ 

Tlic Irnmim^ti^r. ilii'ii. Tnll^^ vWrv (liiri.- is Ji dilnluUon, bDil 
nH.-v vilitiv IliiT^ '\-< IX ifjutrttcl 11.111 vit llti* Mir* 

177. The Barometer aa a WcAthcr-Indicatgr. — Tbe 
liurumiTtcf ih ortcii iiillnl » f^'cut|]i-r-<:ln^-ui, miil tlu* K^lr of 
ttic inv^trtimont \n I'l'inrtun^s ihacnbcd nitlt wonU iut^iidnl to 
itidicoUi X\\i' wvatiif^r llint may bv exiKCIcd Htitn Uie to^ of 
tUi' f(-(nmn ilnncja nppoftiti' thrin Tbh* liow*vi.*r. lOfirvj,'* 
Tin iHconirl iifhtioti, f<i3 a rlinii^;? Iti iretttluT U Uol iiuUt^aliMl 
Liy Uie ii^i>/itf/r tii'i;i;lil uf IIr- morcurv at nny irlvon th&t. 

Mun.H>viT, tlK-1'V tii«^ (>tlti>r <-(»mlLlionR bt>«klc0 tho vriri^t of 
Uie nimoiipltt^ri'. nlilHi luv i\\\\w iin Irnixirtnot wi thU. Ttr ihii 
|ifvr)iotk)|] of (luf ncailirr. Tbc tcm^x^rDlun.-* Ilin Atnontil 
i^r luointurr in tho ntiaonptK^rc?. ikiiil the force ami dtrccUon 
of till- wlikI. hj^ uII to l*^' i«TiHlitc;ri!tl «« vltrmviiU i»f Cbe 

Il 1ji tru^. howcvcri tliAt diaiigca ill Ibv be«t, Ibc moUturc^ 

riioiw in ininiviwv w^vf*. W|i«n (he iTtvl vf iMW of iIhv* waw ■ ofvr 
Hilt bjiromcu^r ihv tnimiiry rtin, tnA II fMlb %a:t\\\ u ihr dritmitini 

l'Si£S (jy rUK BAltOMETtCH. 


(IT thr laovemcnU oflla- iiir. urv uJttio^l ftlway« a^t^ompanlMl. 
*n immr^ili^b^lv finlliivtiv]. Kj di;L ii)!4.'>i in lEii' hrik^fii of Ui* 
tunJinT'lvr, JIcikc lli^ rAcwi-vra it* liic hoijEtit of ihc- mrrcuriAl 
<7oLmiiM nutVt to a c^t-taiii cNtc^rit ^c rvlu><1 on Rr prvUictbg 
th«» *psih*»r. Tht* fijtlowing nilei* nn* gi'iiomllj' rvlinUe: — 
I, Tti*k riKintf of thp n^irnirj iniiWir* llir Hpprtuii-li <if fniriirnuher! 

2- A ^al naJ AUddi^i fuJI <ff Ibu tncrtMiry pn?i)ML*« 4 vutlfiiit Klunn 
of vliart dtintion- 

3. If, ilurii>g 6iir wpHihw. Ih*t iiMronry Ikllt^ rt(itiniiflP>' fur wvftrHl 
4tr«, H loTrc aijr««ni(ii) of f >ttl wmtlirr wltl fmibtibly fu]U>w I uiil, 

nnmurr irnuldnlly ri«r«. fJLJr woktlii^r ia«j be expHtoJ i>' fvllov tiad 

4. A fluc«LiAiiu|^ ftad Qnaf^nlal 9late in Ihc incrturmj otilumii iudi- 
Aim niuptrleil urnthir 

170, MenKure oF Mot^ntain Heights, — Uiii< of tlip 
wottl iTii|K>rlitijl r4Jplic:-itiir»H irf Uu^ bnrojm!lrt i^ lo iLv tiinbv 
Qix-zotnl of Lhtf htiijlit of >uy placid abovt- tUv Iv^t^l of liie vca. 

A> vc juccml jlWtc iIh: l«vtl uf tfiu rch, llir jtrvwuir iT llio ftlf 
dhninuhM, and th« baroincfpr filli Formnljii have bi>«ii il^jocod, 
kf mnLiiD of «rhirH llip ilEffi-'micr cif level b^^tvcrn any \vi*y pljicc* 
W> |j# fimrtil, nhfwi wi< lmti< iTin hf*i[;hti« of llir* mL-rruriiil oolumiu At 
Ui« IVD pLhxV' !■>«£« Uht wrfib tlio b;Lif}>«iDtiim iif ih« lur nud uitrcury 
At tikM« filnrr*. ' 

* 11« tluM rutc fur dnilintE llii- liviffht of n mnunfnln bv iTit« nv^thod 
i« railitfr iiHBplicHiiril. AllJi^iinro imi*^ Ik* mi'li- for ic^nipprtTun- mil 
f<* thp Ulkiriirof ouch •Hfiun ; »xiA mh*^ minar onrf*rli'irii» nr» to Iw 
niBb Tlw Mlri«i»H nilu- it ni^*" *»)' To^ihuntcf « o«iir1j acfl^nilofjr 
hrtchli cf nnl marc iUajl ;tiJi>D fr^jt ^ — 

Thr iibvte nit« vauma that ilic ttm[>i^nirmv rt i>iie\\ ■fulion U !tf* 
WahtW9k4h^ TliP twiijIt ■■ t»ji^> rrmnf ftm-nmio t.y N'llini: 'l i/io-tmrHitit 
ftm Ar«Tprv i|pitrr« in rha aum of irk« tvinixMialiirti ibi*\v '',1^ Tliua, 
tflh«lmp«ni1iLVii fei tl*e lu*ot tuiit^h li tRio. nhU ■[ iJu' liifilnff 45=^, l»i» 
pom b tCfi^, ttiiirli flXcKcl* Al-J bj^ IP. lli^rcf-nrr the rv«ull obtnincvl 
irS tiw rvfo tHo'tld be lni.-r«»arU bj ilip f A^^ purl vi iltf If. 



T\ic fqllowinfi tttbl-J nhow* lU* h^nf^lit of the borcrim-'lcr at 
rUOerviit dItitudoB w\]^'e abmrvatii>ik» hav^ boon iWMle: — 


Suwmllcf V»aviiu# 

1 ^J^V 


buniiitU (jf Mt Wii>hiiij£ri:iii, N li, . . 


i-'itf g( QulUi, Sunili AiuifrluA .... 

. «lMI 


SiitnTBllcf Mrjnt Bfnm* 



On Um nmnlinrnio - . 

, 3(M>tl 


nigliwt Aflisrtt hi » Buliixm ^GlAiihtr) 

1 £;,ooo 


179- Pressure on tbe Human Hody. — Tbe |i 

oil i')i-ih p*ijiiAt« incli of Utc 

on tbe wliolif IkhI_v tiie jirri* 
BarcU»<TUcjrD0U9. JTwo lake 
theaurrnwofTholiikEnnii U-aIv 
t^iLiil %ni(Hii\ Mjitan^ Incbra, 
fflilHi i» nul far Ooni Uie 
AVcmi^! in Uio cvk? if lut 
■dulT. Uii* |iK"cai;ru amottet* 
lu IJOfCOO iMJuiidi. or niVra 

If il bo uked «f br tiie bodjr 
tfl not cm«h«d h;* tli(« «nor- 
tnoiiH ]mv*A(irc« thcvanfiwr (», 
brc«iiK it ifl iiiiithnnlT d>A* 
TriSutM miT Ibu wbi>lc «ir- 
r X >', diKl f« rMUt«d N the 
<li-': '^rii 4if titr. aiid oilier 
;: itoO tibrougli 

titf hm or tbe bod^. 

Tht fpll^min^pKpcrimmt 
Fif ox ■htnrlhAtthetwqrJoflfai'lli 



hbif «onUdn *k nmi i:-v»< «^boao clBMirH; TwUt* the ATT^n^hiilirm 
|M^i«tm. [^ iliif liniul hr pm^il ^livlj ii|Kin t^p nu^mh i.if « 
|)we Cjrldo^, whoM iMfnt nrminvhiititiri v^it}i thi^ n'Lr-T>iifnpf «t 
ibuwii 111 KijC' J£B- No tiuMiLiVL-ii.LC'[jjv- uHJ U- fi'lt, ItiH ir tlif^ hir 
b« c^bvuiod trvm thortUndcT. Ibr Hi-frk <>f ih« hikml vvLll b-^ ^ircni 
ioui tli0 cjIioJtir bj ib(? i-mauir fivm viiUoul, wbli'li ij^ uo It lUifiT 
fcairtaj by tbfr prMiim- ^rflhp aij. Tlic haud ■wtUi, aQiJ ibo bliHid 
itrnd* lo flow uol Uifuui^i Iti*' |«>rf«, 

lliD ([niAtiuD iu«f b« atkmly why, whoa lb« hBOil i" \>\iux*\ u]><in 

Th* aatmr ^ Ihor* in a lliin Uv«t "I ulr Ixitwitrn U^« luiuil utxJ tho 

ailft> Wrrp itc ntr y»rrft>i:t|j' *r<"luilfr| fr-pin lioivctn iho linoJ tad 
ibo bo4yi tUi^ie vrJiild bv fi ntniD|j[ L4'uJeiu7 L^) oiLhcrL-uiH? betwwa 

TW i>piyftlbu ur CDiJpla^i la lutilkiuv, t]c}M?tu1e u|kiij itiv ]irtod- 
pk Jttl cvplmiDftL 

Summary. — 

fUdiirtiAii ti IJiiiiUU, 

<!lL^iii&rAl f\>fM)iv5iiiffQ, 
Evpnufivv Fi.irw, 


TumorUiwj ThIhv 
Thr ("Milrm Bnntinrttr. 

7^ BiirtjiiKMr (tontimi^^ 


180. Mariotte's Law. — Wh^ii b^Wm sdms of Any git8 
or va|Kjr U co]ii|»n'N5*"d, so n^ lo ocrii|»j- 11 unaAiTcr upsKie, ita 
rdosliL* fun* b iJiCL-en^L'd ; on the «gjj(rao~* "l^cn llic vdIoidt 
U incirnac^d, iU rlnj^lic force U lUroinUicd. 

Ttii- law of incrt.nftd iiml Uimiiiuliou of duilc fvTVO vav 
flret ma<U known tiy MAnitrrifc ; heiitrtT it wus cajlttl b^ IiIh 
nann'. MAHHtrtr.N I<iiw nmj' Iw tiiuim^nlwl 4Ui follow* i — 

The eJiUfif /ftrr^ ti/ tiitjf y/rm nutimisr 'tfj^it, V^AoV ttrnpem* 
run rrrfiaj» fAtf tofn?. luirrVs inifrtrff cf« Aa i^^/vintf. 

Ah & r(m>iei|iii?iirf' of IhU Lnw ll (\>l|<jv* thai, 

Jf cA# tfmfmr^Mrt rfmaimt r^atloM, tht fioiiif /brrt nvrt#l 

iSi. Mariottc'aTubc. KlAiitvrriis Ln<r ifttj W vetlfitrd 
bj T&(*a»>^ of an (ip|tMinUi». thonn fn F1^ lit> ftai lirr,«iftlkd 
Mnriattr't Tutit. ThU ttilv in uf gliUH. hmi Intn Ihc ahap« of 
n l^tlrr J. The AJiurt timiu^li h cIcd^l-vI. und Ihr K>iig on>^ 
cjpcti At tbt.' top. TUl- ttitw U alUflioU to ft svoodcn fVnmc. 
|>n>vidc<1 with ^iiiiablo s<ta]«a for m^Murin^ Ahv ttci^jhtu of 

TlriT ii]firunii<ni hflrhiff hi<rri (iljirtil Vf*rtiru1, a wjfflp.lpht ^miility 
0f incrcory b pnitml iuiu tW liiii^ ItrHmili t<« cul off rommucJaifluLi 
botxFCon ihv iwi Tif*fi«hM, M hhi'iAii tn K^, I3l. Ttic lo*rcl of Ihf 
intTCfiry in ih< ty^x. bmoohe* b lliu lArnt, nriil tha? Uwl is il thr *> 
|iii1q1 jtf |t]« twti vaU*. Th* Jiir In tho Bhun tifnnfli !■ nT tho nmr 

ASAUUyiTK'S 1,1 IT- 


Jencttj, ftnl bis ih« miii« l«yHi>a, w \h\ti «J the fftcrtM] fttmM' 

bmicAi of iJiv cube, it wilL |ifi!H» cijum (lu? aii' ta tbr jiiiiini.r brufrh^ 


Hff, li:. 

#qqAl ti> Um^ hi'i^flit *'l t^lo iMftiiMfftoil oJniTin. ju tktavtt in 
«|r viH b^ OMTprnv^it into BC,<ttK UiAtMiim ungual biilk, 

pNKunfA ncs. 

[82. The Aif-Pump. — llua uiacUbe w inventrd hv 

(il-To vtjs lUiu^irKK in ICftO. 

}i\\iuy iiii|i]uvtui4?rilj have ii]n<^ bc<oii nij4e in Its eoiutr»c 
tiuik, IjtiL Lltti i^SBtiilui] {lArXn i-rinuin Uio hriiw fw In tb« griginkl 

Kiift. 129 TvpnscntA the i-»rntr»il |i»irth i>f mia nF ifif^ t*f^ tinMTrni 
5>nTi»- It <4itiiiclB nf II glAM 4rf imi-ihI cyltuiti-r cnll^ the tukfrrl, in 
vrhidi ft peUiQ vurks. Tbr pMou liiu an ofnaln^ iStniUgti U vhk-li 

Fig, J'JS- 

Th« tMfTvl b «viTinHtt4 1>5 n mltf vith i!i<> rvufm nf ft bniMi fiUu, 
to wlijrh iJift rwriti-r, K. u fi\rvfa\\y fillpJ ^> » 1*. U iiir-i^t 
Tbn DDlmnPO fo Ujit (uh^ it niij-d wUh Ji Ainlml v^Wr, 5', ml il^r 
m4 of n mcbit nid vrhbti iwAfv ihpmicli tt>« idilon Ik^hI, Ai^d vorho 
inH ligMlft aoAvti^lifimrHoil uft find (knm with thptnorhn of ibc 
f«Uiib Thb r^il i» fin vmuicrii hj n oitcb M the tii>p that it can 
lift 1fa« v«lv« but *ligh1ly abarn 1hr>- tipMiln^ 

The fbllowlng In Its tnodc or operation : ->- 

l^vf>jH4e Uio puton to Ire nt ih« tf^tuni nf ih*- rjMnilar. Then, 
whoii K U rmkfrd. llib talin% S\ a u)irin'il> luicl tlir nif frvm th« iv- 
ctflvor, K, nuh« into ttv fjLititlvr^ Wb^u iht pkvfou U lK^w*rv4 



a«jn. th^ Whivi-, S', ^1^^^; ttiu all nlik-li li'U i:mi-»tt tbc <:>]iDitvr 
mnint pHitrn inn* Om fc*pjvi*, auci, •u Lciug NKi»|iw«pd, niwa tlw 

Ub r«b^ tlte puAun affi^t *n^(1^r p-utiun at vir -vtH piu> fn>nt 
tb« nwli^r Iqto ihv cjlinUvc, luJ llU» will W nuiuvcJ, an WroriT 

rig. IWL 

iriliiaiiiMloiibe>nticiif<Uaftjn]ociiif ilif>dir btbr rrcHvrr wlTl 
bK rvii!iiT(*d nt noh wj**rt«iiru wimke ■ and, flnMlly, Bfiftrlt *ll ib^ B*f 
mmj U* cirhuftitcil from tW<r rrecinri 

Th# Mmmn phKliirH In \hU wjiy oAn n^ivr hr pprfort, howrvpr. 
far tW pP ft OfWof exWvLiim iviii tfonlinoe onlir »> luntE ^ ^t>^ "ir 

Bow l^roiijiti t1)i^ pl|«* :u flU ihn cifllii*1«r, vh^n \\tv iiwlmi U mlvrd^ 
Fig. 19 fvipni*nU ^mr of thr l^wi ftf ihi* 4tiii|i|o tunni uf ifct 
luifvuii?ut. M* ubhle bj E« & (brcini:. iT 11<4ioij^ 




1S3. The Mercurial Gauge. — tu ordvr lo ueoAur Uip 
(IcgrMofnin-'ratticii prodai>o.t. a iEl*^* <vlmd^^, /"(R^. bifi), 
h COiiaout4^<l veUl Uif pi|>i> limvliii^ from tlii^ rr)<''4^|v'(>f. la 
thb c}'1lTirlor U n ){U«« IuTh* Iii-mL intu the Ibnii of Lhp k-iu^ 
y, (M\v Lninrll iK-iu^ i:|oic^i| at the !/:■(]> AIhI U]r OtiirT Ofirn. 

Thi' lubv iind iU d<i>tiHi braiioh filled mKh mnrcnryt and b 

Tlir lurruiiij. umirr onlmAXjr cirvuimtaDcev. in knpt tn llii> 
i;k>evii hmndi liy llm Btuio9|)itH.-ric prt^MUtv. but na Uv sir 
bflcomtt riiri!fi«i] in tiu? ti>ot'i\'t<rt Vcm teDaloQ or titv nir be- 
OODflO* lenv aiitl if'hH, aniJ fUiAlt^v lh(» mcreurr MIa In th«< Hoft«d 
bntnch uuU rie<-« Ln tbe opvn ouc The illtfvttmv of h-vr4 
betnttii thr iiui^irv b th? tnc Ur^iidic* i* duo k> Uw 
UUaloD of Lix^ rurvllt!<l air« %i\*% If Uiia JEffureDcv U lictcmilMj 
by ai««iiJ9 or t\ \^^'y\w.T ^i^alt nllJit'tKHt ii> tliv piugi*. ihr trnsloft 
run fir found, TUiih, IT iJiu diEk'r'L'nw uf Jvvc] U itrduciKl tu 
iiuv likM. tikc iL'tibioij of tlif^ air iu Uv-- receiver will bv oulj 
onc-tliirUvUi |jjxrt oi' lb» ii^iiuioti of tlic osLi^mal AtinoNiiliftiv. 

The «ip()Ui] KAiiiP^ ^ uiQclima ^nn^ti^ wiUi ibc rM«JTfv Im 
n rbflVrvnt ffny l u ana in Kig. 113 und l£^, ll I* nnl/ rifw^ 
wry tlukl it frbaiiNi li<> •» }iJ«i>hI ibat Uia Air will W 'xluaMcJ 
fram Ic u ^if; Mnn tiiuci wid Lv llu «mv dvym u frnm lbs 

1&4. Sprcngel'ft Air-Putnp- — VtKoon nwthMA havn 
Ivn rtn]kl(>ui1 for o1»UitiiUiji n iitgrr iHiTtipV-lr- vsu^irini llktn 
ouj hv \n\3\x\<-rA fiy the niMliiiury mr-piimp- C >iic of ihc mort 
cfl^cUvc tnf»tn4mcnt* for till* purponfr i« A^'^'^lH'' -fltf-'/Vinp. 
fVpri3M>uU-<1 in Fig. 130. 

To lb« fiiTiiii-U A , Ia AltnehMl n fflui liibn^ longer lh4& a 1nd»- 
pi»r tulw. It* lnwvr md mterB ific i;Iih vt^vrl, B, «wl nacW 
iKorij (o th« (■outiio- Tho U|^>«T |i«rl <i( ilii> tiiltfi linii«liM «tf «t;rt 
Mid b aniiiTCl*i] will) U10 fve^TCT ihikl in tti bn cihwivlvtL 

MfTTur^ Ui ihWivJ tiito llk# ftiiitif^l, ,4, and m it Horn j<)^d di^ 
tul*. »ir fri«ii ihc rawivur fniert M *, «vud » mrrii^l aIi^iik irilh rt- 
Thc« lubfl btlow M thai) MMl Ia bn AlliM witli t^ylicult-nof mtfvntjr 

PUMFS AXh OTHk'lt MAvrifShs. 


Tllfi mpmirv Ln Ihc b(>fU>in rii* iJip rRfi«i>l. U. pTPvt?ni8 the 
air IVofti fuuukins tf«(j£ ttiUi tfip luho. oiid ll r-uifippit whiU' iJie 

Ai tbv ^rvwwc govs 
on. Urn cjZtndpni Jtri.' 

bj HftnLkr tuji.t »UTfriU-r 
ApACvft or sir, lilt it a|>- 

a* n »ulii1 ci>1iiijiii, iii> 

Tliin imticTdtt-A IIk* coii>- 
|>lt-ljiiii of ltir< prw^MU. 

qnirvti b llml of UfUog 

rini hsn*t mio Ihe ftift- 
Di-I ittirt If. fitnit out. 

TIh- vprtnliut; U Ti-ry 
doiT, but »| |irc»lat<c * 


titj (^ Atr ninalfi* in th« 

piiArinit |i-ni(t li witur fan f 




ntvtfh iirtint \u ritnnu^} Ialinniti>ri<«, nrv cyiiiMnu'tfd od tbp 

185. Bxperlmcrcfi with the Air-Pump, —Spn-ml vx- 
lirrbmnta rv^ii^Htig thr qm- of iho Hlr-pMjii|i liavi> a]trMi3j bccti 
c1<«rt1bH. 3l(Mt nf Uirw «crt-c to ftbow Uic pfVMiire of tli« 





F!«. 131. 

Ktu^o«TiUL-rc> Fix- 1d1 flhow!! Uic «]flittic fbrc« aT ft coolliMd 
body of air. 

T>«v Utirtvn, -1 iLiifJ fC^nru «i!nnfvinl hy a tQbff irhkii to ItllH ««- 

AxUjode D<<vly |o ihv boUMn >if v1, which fa 
t^nly Hlb'd wrllli ivMer. Wbm liucU ju« 
pbced uudcr llio rccvivtr. umI tli* air vx- 
luoMul. iht- tLiAtv Kircr of lIiv jiU !■ jI 
Miuioi it U> VJ([KLaLl And tJrivv thv vatt omt 

ir Lk lifflilAl Roidlfr bo |>lnf«d ttitdm A 
cmnvor, uuit llii^ vie f'ATiHii*tiilH lift ciiihUc will ^tJ intl iilkI tlir cmuLo 
witi Kii^li, HiKivrdiA ihAt n U lkc<aTU-r tlinn the mrolic^ jui' uf Ub# 

If wi iLainuil ur bird bv [iTitwd 
Dadur iht rwjrivfT. *iuJ llie nlr 
«xh«iuii>l, it mil vlmgi;!* nul 
MKn d^ 'rUu Hpniiiicot is 
itiova in Fi|;. I3Z. 

tB6. Practii^al ISs^s of 
lliC Aii-Puiiip- — TIh' Jiumi 
bik|>ort^iit pi'nrlk-dl uf^iUcj^ 
tion of 1^ air-jximp is lo 
dimi:imhinj{ llti* iin^uiin: of 
Uk mttiutnphcnT ti» rru-llitAlc 
craikomtion of H^ni^ 

In ciri\ft i<> n>ih^ii1rtl# tha 
■jmpof ■Offiv niilhJiit <mpl(k7* 

pWcJ in (Jowd vcwIa nktlnd 

nKMin poiu, Abd Ibp lir m^ 

llic MOWQ ihnt mo an mnorcd 

by |M«mfal AAr-|itinipH dr|ri-n >i}r ^*' ^^■ 

rtcMD-Fuwin. By rt*»» iDflhip] Ih* wntrrj *Hi»* w rtpirlly fanW 

olT, and IliA nyrip bmright Ia ihr pmpfr d^iprp^ •'f Kmn-uiTMinB 

vilboifi empWylflf a -tfiEm <-r bvAi ilkLt vciuld bam tir iTImmI^ 


rift: VifyuEs^iKiL 

Tilt mnxt imicm h riii|itcj^ lu uiokin^ oc ooaceotnttics a grvM 
\-3j^lir ofiymiwniid i^xtCHt-u ihAian-uwd in toHlkiur- 

Tlip ELtr'|tani|> liu* nUti iK-rn (Vii|klo_inl for uvbrninllng t<i»g 
UiN-« tlmt urc i^xil for tnuL^iiuttiiitc k-tli-iv. inc:**fliEC«. ui\\\ 

la l^kmWii^, whfr* llu<4* 1tj|*rh «fii cxl^utlvHy uatul, tliin^ jinr 
oudiT uf |i.^ fiiL-kifnl 111 luln* ijI' In'U- TtiRf nrc uinJii muimilj 

I10 ilw IohMd, mtd txXi^A with 

of gutla<|>on<liii. iTt trhirh \Uv 
anirlc0 tt> In int^^ffUiilUU an 
|i1u*4- Tlip ftir b tlirn> #«- 

ihriMlsli lli« wh<rIo Irikiitli of 
the tnW 'Pip tiiU^ UKctI Tur 
ihk porpMo HIT «hucii i2| jnrlint 
tn fUntvci'r ; and «inic id rli^m 
lire raoro ilum tv> iiith^ tn 

187. The Cnndemxer. — 

Htr puiii[i Willi tli4i vjiKoa tv' 

vtrwd. It t* iHeil r^riHiaw 

l-n'Mfiiii^ dlr >ikJ forftiiif It 

into A «niall ifpncc. Kls- t$S 

idiowR thv cdiiatnirtion at ono 

of tJait rviEnm<>n fnmtc. At 

IIk- UHLum at Uir. \'i\m\i-\* 

r>'l liwre ii & r*Ivc» A, iHiit^ 

o|f(-iM fhiwbfrurd; &t v* tii n 

tntrrnt inV, In nn ftilmfDvlosi vnWc vlifcti npi^n* iiinani ff i« 

m M tonic i-ojij AT tr^hd, mhkh i» Kn^ni'il iijnii] |J»' \onvt \an 

or t|i« ]i«iii|>-iaml. 

WIw> ihc filMou U S fT'.'J dnwllW'd^E the ali ivil#n tlip n^tnvrr 
thniV^b tLr iiiHm% A» whfirh pratvuu i^,* MDm. Al llir U|rwd 
««rtilB* tlM3 >ir i7iiti«B ihv <7th>3(T, ihtvatfh d. .\ii Ibo i»»T««wal 

Ttii. 13a 




ISOM «D, <W t « M fl\< [nirtiona of nlr *to dmurn liiruugU n, nai tun*d 
tknngh till* taUr> ^« IteIc tlir mjtiLvur. If ahciIlvi ■:tl>w^t icwd* At 
f\ W FiMiairr4««i ttllli |1l<< t^itLnU tubo iit «, it will be oithiiuulcd of Air 
Uj iJki MinH |irtn*a. IIi-uh- ttii> lii>irumcu( may ho uxd ui tniDffiT 
tftutt fpooi «D« vcahI CO utioLh«r- 

t88. Appticationftof Condensed Air, — \n thelmprrAiHl 

<W>mcn aa ir«ll mi olri'iiTnpH aut ummI ; Uic air U-iog forcoil 
tiklo tiii^ Uilva Miincl tki0 |>iaton« iit Ibo winit ibne tbfil il U 
k-\lfcnij]»tril hk fHtiil- 

In Ujlug Oui founJaliaimof bntltECtfi and iu rariouA Mit>- 
TDArin^ o^'K^mtionn, nir U fotco<l inko inT^iv tulK'v. u[n-ii dI tLo 
[xiUikm. ivbU-h ftrv nunk in llii? wuirr wiitiv york U to Iw 
ilocie* Tht*HL> lubet an.' su umicigvrl t^iiit iiieit i.'iiii f.^iil4'i ifii'in 

prvftMire or WfinJ<--rir«.'J air- 

Il to pii«>lhh.« Ait tu^n iri rpmftin frir a Auuiililiinibb ilini\ uHUiual 
bjurjr, In nu mUtna\jhvtv ft linn- <fr fuur lliinc* tii: ordjiuiT)' dcn^tf i 
iha ndly IncNknvfqi iriric bring ■ ptiinlnl vniH of ^pjtrrjvtt^Ei m Ih^ 
ni/^ T)><i ft-ciin^ 1;iKid |ilii«! I'ulj M ihc bi^iot^iDc: nnti cod "f tEk^ 
MpMiiIiim«, 4iwi|i^^«nii|i: u'fiMi un f<f^iJi|ihniLm U •■•■riil>li«li<HJ iH^tirM'lt 
ihit tmfcjii uf iho nir id tlm urirnul I'^r Aiut tIiaI irithailf. 

i8g. Application to Tiinnclling and Mining. — One 
(»if tbr m<>«l int{HkrImit u*v% tit fitm[ii\-^vi\ nir has Ui-n m iLr 
luring; uftuniLcU Uin^ii^li mociTiLiJnA of »oItd i>hJ<. 

Tlw»cavftlM>n ofttiL* Monf. Ccnli TurinoT in tb<* Alfi«H iind 
tit tli» Hoosif.' TiiiiTiL*! in MiLvnurliiLii'lln, w\t.-* Ht't\tm[t\h^KH\ 
by armn« of ina.cbiiira driven i»y ctnu\iiti99e*\ ^ir. 

At tbp lloo**'' TuiiEioT' IJir wuii-r-jM*!*!'? c-r llic D**<Tfi*Jd 

ItlvifT. wllk'li flowii near tbi* *'a*lorn rnlrantv. wni* iifi«xl Iij 
ofiurabf w-w^rnt powrrn^l 4mit|knTutnn-|U)m|]it. trhtrli fV>n«il 
iUr. condvawtl nir Ihrtjui^ an irou pl^tc to thr point of work- 
ing in ibfi tuQEii^l. 

Htfftt U vu trmit ia drive a numlxT <tf dnliiiig'TDAcbinMi 
iby wblfb tbp mHt 'vn* |M-rf^niif<L^ TItif fuaoluiie* eooaJiled 



wciT rttlHciicJ- Mt^ji or iiii Kit tLoB* jutioitint^H triTc r^t^toiK-il 
to A Ul^elvj^ LDJii IriLiJR'wcfrk ixiitiin^ <tn wUhJh, by v^liicb ii 
codld I>B movj^fl fot'ff'fiivl riiul tmrk, 011 taWn [aM Ibi' Uiv pur- 
(i<Mti (Pig. 134). 

Whi>[i iti ijA^r thUi frnmowork waa brought up tnd GniUf liMctttii 
iicuf Ukii ' ' lii'jtiki;i^ " 1u be i-|>i<rkiU-il im. 'JIji* <lriI]ii;^-iauii(ljEim were 

|i r |M tfil HIT fiMin tli^ IniQ jilpe nafl cupiluol^ ro llm ttvml lwi«hllH-« 
hj mOhWti Hcjtililc IuIn*. II'Fv it vm> «ditnUl<il tn the rflinJont 
jillvfiMil*!; bi'frint nuA Imh^nH ific pbrf>int vhirh aiiM the JrHlv* 
drivhiff thfriii vU\i t-Ttr4ii ftim- nnci mpitlky i^jijiict tha mrli' 

Fig. TiVi Tiiprcii-ikli thr- iniij fniiH'm^li, « f4rri«^ «|tll4iur 
i^nlb iinar^i'^t. 'IV Ki-xil'h' U\i^ thown iii ifrc AjniW fWiyfttt 
nlr Vi tb* niftr?i4nf4 rmni xht Inin |ilp« Uld lUnng Uic liottom •! Ilw 


tut upcm ilA «»rfjv^> \i \t nhft Jimiugi'd sa ihAl ihiT dril] uiuv bv 
4riVDn iu Kuy ilirHtiud riir|mFiil. 

P&s IAS 

t9D> Advaniagrs in ibc Use of CoTnpre»cd Air. — 
For wwk in hmncls, rlr^p mtncfli nr»jl ntb<:r tcinlinr^ Bpnccs, 
lliora ju« ««T<Tr«l tdTttnUffH in llit- ubc or rainprvHvcf I A\ri — 

) . Tbe power liiar lie trmuMnht^d Ihroiicb * ^rrat JbVntico 

At lb* Hn<Mk<; Tiunj*r ir^PB tliv wmk wjui «Uii' ril h Jiaiafjc* **( 
nrarfj tfeis nalm fnuu tlm ninrtirtWKir^ lti»' liu* vT jui^iv mu las 

itm TtMaif, oftpr (lodn^ itA work in th«i miichukOit. ««c«pei 
uorl nrrvvH oji a fVnt Huiiplj' uf |mn- olr. luiil ilrivwi out tho 

PNKUMJ ncs. 

t.m(.yVv find ITic nnvlfiittt giiwA wbleh wmili mhprvlw anaant- 
liUu froiu tihi; blH?itlLi^. iJiv buriiliL|£ of IitUH'J^ hikI iIm b 
iiig of thr TTorknif H, 

3. In JtfL'p mint's, (tIm-tc lUt Li'ul ia i^ltvu o^iprcasrc^, Ibc 
cz|J(uisi<iri if iM-' -Mr. ri^ it i»sL<ii|>t-fi, lovorn itit toinpvrmum. 


191. Artiticuil FountoiQs, — IVatvr tiiii^ Im tonxti np- 
Hi*n/B Pounlaiii, tm^^ fvriu of vLk^li ih ftbuwii \n Kly;. 13T> 


tyfcHV- Thfi upper ^oliv w mrmocuitix] l>,r « htnu« bmn, 
<v>nft«ekd iridl the gloW bv tubM. iiji nhovtii In t\w A^iinv 

TAUBlhillltfnllfl^nT, ihi- tul^ uljif^ti fiirciLft ib'^j^r la ^itlkdruuTi, 
aftj tWnUfh lilt opcniQ^ ihu* inadc, (he qppi^r |{1>hl>c t> ncarlv filli^J 
vilh nitr. the Vw<-r rnir ^vntninrng ntr nnly, The Jf^ tultr ek llipn 
tepLfccrJ^ ftaJ kiiup ■mt<<r it poiuvJ into llit^ Wiit^ 

Th<* WitTT ill ill*' iBsatri. htilii^ lit IIh wi-i^hl, IIhwh ind* ihc li>wi>r 

hy tlir »m'»-'hmH- Tht*- Alhii cif Wftl« Irxrt* llie ]umvT ijlnlf funv* 
otl A i^rt vf the aIt id itt wlilvb. nsccndinjE l>r thi? lube «hova co 
iW H^ht of ihp dffuiv, aivnnriiljitM ia llit^ i)|j|ifr globo. The pn»> 
*iin> Q^ lk« 4ir n the iipficr ^l*>W, ni-Tirw ii|h-n idc vntcr in thnl 
p«n uf till) lopOniBiriTr, futn^t a imrt of il iiji llm>iii;li llir ^f lult, 
fflilii|£ ri«h; tLi A jrl of wAiur* Mhkli Tiiiiy be UiuJt lo pluj fpr KirnJ 
li^uirv vkli-HK rrr\)liii^ ihp Jiiitnirnrnt 

1^. Ttie Atmospheric Inkstand. — ThU roim of ink- 
MBttil 1IOM In ootTLi>ti>n DAI* illtiAtriil^ ihi^ l»i'lnt'l|ilni of ilIiiioh- 
(dieifc pftBMJJV. 

Il b iT|iniffut«l lunaJlf fiilt-il wiiti iuh in Fl^- ItiA- TIk- b*jil; 
tif iWinkvUfid b nlr (i^Ut- }i*;\t ch* Urilcm l» tt 1i]bi*ftfrKiippLyLij,hr 
i)m lak ui wuicrI, aciJ alv> fur fillitii; 
tW inlnCiiaii wli«n iiivr>-«Aty^ U ^ 
flllnl b; immfijjc H until :he iiilir< i> tfl 
tW Irtp^ v»h«ii Ih* ink ft*ii Irf iKHurril 
tn lldvmll UiH mhr. Tlii> pii^tirr 
1^ tha itUhotpfc^nT pn^vont* Iho tiik 
tram ^trvting tint Wlkcn vhr ink )iji# 
bHQ uhU till tti Ifvr] lulb b«loir p> 
wl<m? tht luli« )oiii9 rt.f niiiin \Ktfiy vi 
lh« blcttSBd, » brrUhl'' of ^ir Milcr^ niiJ ri»iikf; l>r thr Utp, iiint Lt 
ill pnvutn Ui ill tin- lulir ashi^i ■"'' ^* '■" ""^^1 ^^'^ "'^^ ^ **' 

Surnmarjr* — 


2*Ke Aif-Pimp, 

Oovrijitinii of l^ftlJar'i. 

Tti^Wrijiriim. ^ 

Miklct nf (i|4Tarv»ij> 

Pra<tirut Vaat 0/ the Air-fumy. 

M^iiijT of OjK'mtlut). 
Apjtiitrtttorui ^fCondtttJK^ .liV. 

If I SHtmnriiH:! Work 
In Tiiimplliii;^ timl Miiihig^ 
AdvanUiffea 0/ OntiftrcMifd Air, 

%, In uviLnniritnir Ph^vrr tti Grrax XH#lkntr% 

witU SUkIii Lom^ 
S, In iltiT^li^ mil Ihf NiiliMliii (>iw« ii4»hr(1 bjr 

B3aiAiii|£, l-r tiiniiifi vt WmAr Aif . ai»1 aIah 

in ftinii^liSrii; Ptin- Ait. 

ri. lit lirtfiTiEifc tbf I'fiBpifTmture of ilia 3lia*ta 
AfftJ"tfil f'tHfnUtit^- 

AtMuz/iptirfti.- Inkittatd. 

193. Water-Pump!*- — A WAriiE*Pimr isamachiTie 
for niMng whUm' fnim a lower 1» a lii^lier litvrl, grn- 
erallj- hy tl>« aid of atiitiix|>beiic pjtasun. TJiree -■*■[>• 
ftr^ie principles arc vmplnjtxt in working putnjM; the 
gnih'n*f, i\ic lifting auO tlio /orciny pniiciplea. ri>nii« 
aT« often iinmifd nvc^inling lis one or tnorc of cImsc 
principle* nrc rinp]i>y(*cj. 

tq^ The Lifting-Pump. — IV n^mmoiii lifting^pitinti 
«t>cnlio4i may Ih! iiuderetood frooi t'wft- I30< HO, »ml III. 

which rcpn»Miil M^tionii or tlii;} piim|k in dttfvFit^iit sUtL-tt of 
artioa. In all of Ha^ fi|fitrM, a U Uw Hlrrjiiri^'Vnlvt*, c tiitf 

SnpiNji^ Ltitr pivloii U* K> ul iLt' lowoflt. pobt of iU play; 
Uierv will rht^n U^ nii o^iiiUt>r|iair k^tw<>4*n lUc* prrfiAiitv of thd 
flir itilliiu thr pump aekI ihaL wUlMrit- U'tkiii f}ii^ pii^tmi i« 
ni»c>J to Uie hi£hc»l |x>tnb of it* pla>t the ali bcocath it U 


Fill. 140 

Titi. HI 

nu«A«(1, ami )Ia I^Tmhui fKrnLrtUhiHl ; tlio l4>iihtori nf Uii* air in 
th« tnddnif-pliip then forc*^ u|> llic »1fi-iiffi2-vnlvi-. anil n 
portion or H rvnyif** Into llic hitrri'l. Thr tf-n^tinn of Ih* 
nit ttt liw iit>chi(ijZ'|>ii>f tiffing T<wa th^r lltitt of thf^ «-xT»Tnal 
nluMfflplierp. a ifimntUr of wtiirr iwa in Ih** pip*', to re*tor* 
tliir <i|ttifiKn 11711' thr nvirr 04»tilirtir« {c> nac titf [Xt uri^i^U 
\nm^^^\ I >- tl^c t^rwion of tlii- utr in llu* pu[iip, id Jri^t pqnal 
to Uw Unnlon of Dip vxt^mnl nlr. WVn tlw iHjiiLlihHum it 
mttoftvl, Uic 3ilrtpfii;;-valvp ckam by tU own wri|{1iL. 





JiovCf it the puton lie JoprcMcJr ibo nir In iho bnrrrl U c«iiil«pMi4 
fbnu?* iijitn [lir pUuiii-Viiki\ uinl n |Miri)»Q nvn|m tiii<t tlxr mrniNl 

utuii>eptii;rii. tf tlrr pidlnri hv ruLUod (Lgoin, att iid<Fiti>.<nnl i^uabUi; ^ 
WHier v'JH \tv AiTLT'l tEiii> rbp pumjip aijiI nftpr (m« iir iw^i sirukra uf 

Whcu ili£ wjiUT TiMft ^\ftvti ihf hi«nn limit tif tim ptay o^ ilf 
|;j«tou. lliP Icitlor in LEV 4«<;cul vlll ji-ri ta coui^iniu Uio i«^1«r ku tiir 

The Wflirr |iiiii«ij* Hbp»vi» xUc [t\tilt'0. jii hhown in Flft. I JIK Bjp <iiiO- 
daiiiEi^ :o I'IcvitLi' AiiJ ilf]jri^»i tf^it? I'li^t^iUi tUf viatet will W rvW^ 
liiglirr UDil ]iigli4>r lu iIei; pump, IJU ut li-iigtli it will tiuw fMU iW 
Bpont, ^a ahovn iti Fiir. iil, 

A" fTik* iir;itrT ih f^i-u'iT ii> i1>o piiin|i l»y atiTn«pl;rrir |)fv<isut», It \% 
XtCixtnnry llmt l^tf l*>wf'flt lUnJt l^T (Ko plhj uf I^tc iil^bfu «l»>»ld wit 
W mort" thiTii 'M (v^\ uLiiivt ^lit (Url^ici? "f t'n* u'nKir in llio nstrroir, 
ovFD Hi tbr lov(i] viiltv H^4 'I'm pruvidfi fl^uiitfit baruiuetJic fluctUA- 

jiIilofAtilj It'kS tlmri 'U ft-n. 

IQ5. The Forcing-Pump. — Ih U;*^ Foncuro-Priir lira 
ftutrklng pi|w miiy !>«' -tUp^^nAPi willi* and ttit^ Imrrvl ploiigi 
ilirooUy ink' tlit* iv^orvoir* a* shown in Fii|s- M£ uid 143, 
a na(Jiiii|^-lij|M? niiiy In* (<ii][>]uyi-iJ, usi will Iw vx|j1kjiitd li 
^rier* Wc nliall Itr^l coiuudi^r Uic coac ici wliidi Uie Mtokini 

pip« U OElUltf-JH 

If] EhL^ t-ftAi' UiJ" p^Rton U nnliil. mul A iK^fftl plp^, /A OftUi 
Ihc JfUpffjf'jiifi*^ 1^ iiktrocluccil U*li»w llu^ level of lln' lowr^i 
poAitioii ttt llic pi^luii. ThcLf- fli'c two viUir««, both ftse^l, IIjo 
iiieppirif4>vuliv, Ai, :l« in tUc luolciii^-punip^ oiid a rdv«, ', 
o|N>u«iig iiilo 0«? Ot*livt'rj-pl[*p- 

WJicn tlic pUUiii in niLM-il Ui lltt ItlgtiTMl iKwillon, oji •bnvin 
in FiS' H:^. Uic |)rct>5Urc of tliC! almospticre oa Uio WdU-r i» 
Ui0 rescrtoir \^n\^9 open iIli? BU?cpiiiK>^'iilvi.\ Aiid Llie b*nvJ 
1a IUImJ will) vifkWT up t'^ tb^ LtoiEoiu of ihv pUton, wtwn iIh> 

jUAtoiii iJic vahvi ^* i* foroixi open, ftnd % portion of the naijcr 
io Mm biuTuI ift forc«d iulo ttio d«liv«ry-pt|M, WUeii Ui? 
plMOA reuchc* lU loimt iioxiEicn, liicr weight of Ihc wmter lu 


tli» dpllr«7- p*iw clfWK tint vftlTv, f, nnil pr^t^niA Ihn ivattr 
ill Ui« dclivcT;-»plpv fhjni rcluitLiuf{ iulu tbc barrel. 

lilifB of w»l<jr •n? fiiPOtJ inlu l^^? ildlh^'ry- |ii|hs wlii^h liujiUy eecnpc 
fnim iIli- hjM4l Hi ill" [I'll «f tti4i itdUrry'trL^h-, jih nbouri in V'ti^. l^rl. 

la 6irilitjil« iIa vuHuQg uf tlic puiLJjs ftu ftlr-vnavl Ia jfrin^nilt)' in- 
irwlucc^, u will hv ripluionl ixt .VtI. I^IQ, SoEritlintCd the M'frkiui{ 


Rf Ht, 

^ milnTJ unl&rni bj «oinMikicig two foFdn^-p'impi iti bucIi h 
riiAUiirr iV^l ibn jiliUrU of (br «□<• afCL-iuU nhlltt that uf ihv oIIjtt 

19& The Forttiiif'Pump wiih Air-Chambrr.— Tiiin 
ilidtrs IVmii Ibv aitn|>k' forcing-pump, vl^crilwd &11 AtI. I!>S, 
In bftrlnif a M»rking'p^|>^ anil nii nir-vouo). It ooikUU of ft 

^gtoo, C, nvrk^ by a \cvct. H, nnO |lN^ll^^E:>li. O. A in[H^ 
kfld* Ami Uic bollum of tfiL< burrvl* Uin>iiL;li u B|iH.-|nnir^ 


}^4t UJ 

VJilvf, F. into an wr-vesAcl, A' TIk- <Mivi^r}--|>ipr, ift^ttier* 
ili« Au-'LOiiLtiilitT at El« top, jLiid i^tl^ri<lA ik4-iu-ly Lo tli« bottom, 

Tn i.'V|il4Lii tliK uibja iif tliu pump, mi*- 

|twltJiiij f aLi'N ll \9 initeii III &u hi|{hm 
|HiaUlijD, Ht^ uir ill Iho ImnvJ U rMVttwd, 
tti4i iDiwloiL uf UuT jkii iu llw *uckius-p4|ie 
fiin?c« upoa tlio valve, Q^ And a portion oT il 
<'i>u4iF<A uibi ihr Imnrl; iLu tiutn in tl» 
fiTci^ np tLii> iiitc'ktiii;'|iijw by lTi« iDiiHitxi 
vS till? r^ttFttnJ uif ai^ujc «n tbviurfnM uf 
t>i4i vratur Lu iliii rvMrviilr u&tU ttb eqoUtfi- 
riuiM LB finHjdin-L]. vhcu llit Kiilve, (7, cltiffBH 

ir Ojii jiiHUrn lio AjpiJD drpruvid tu tta 
low^^vt liuiit, thr iiir in Qio biim4 u cua- 
drDHtl uuiil lu> Krotkiii (i<ti?{b Uuit or ill? viUfiuJ Air, vlim it 
furiMU <>p«i liio TiJvfi, J^, hikI jh puilLjTi Mciifi«« ittW> llio nir-trw*!. 

ItiV r&lw, G, nud lb« Dctixti bMOinM ihf tanin ua in ilia pani|t 
ilncnlMH] In Arl, 105, wltfi ihv l^xcv|iIji>u L>r Uir wif-TVwd, wliii-lt 
••fW li> Li«|h uji ft 0(/iiUim->fiii itrwiin tlintugh llto ^UrCTj-ptiu*. 
Thv |Juloa iMifHt iiirC lif 1w itiuro llnui ^U fivl obnTO tho mcfvulr. 
TbD ■J>aiit, I'f niny ho %l Any hf^i^ht nh*-vc K. 

igj. The Flr^.Eogtne. — A Kire-Facivc \n n tloQblv 

or oitii«r HcJii^ilif luntnid. It U ihmI, a» ilJi name impLit^i, 
fot Mttn^uiKlmii; Arcs. 

Pig. 115 iihow* A H47Li(in of llic roonliul [mrtx or x 11n>- 
epgiiUf. In UiU fiictirr, /' (^ tii tlw Wirr to trhkh iw BUAtlirtl 
thfi |>1fttoa-r(xlH Umt ifiore the pittons. m and n; if U ah nir- 
v«M«l ttttli Xwo valvofl, on« vimiiiiiii; nuttr l^oni osdi twinvl ; 
Z h thtt HnLr>ii(*'< to tJi« haw av lUitiviTy pi|i« : M uirl y uv 
rcHt» ftiuuirunu tJiu f^niiteifork or ibi.' uiJudilue. 

The twi> birrvl*! ftp* plimjc^ into n rvni-rvoir wKitrb in krfi^ 
mipplMvl i«it)i «Ht4'r. Urin nat^ Howe Into * s^miv I^Avmlli 
thL' hikrrt-ltt thmifih holi-* n>|kr«Aenl«<1 on tbo riglU mhI loll 



atUw fiipift, ami ttom Uience b forced Into Ih** nir-vi^AM-l iti 
a minmr Milir^L^ dnilnr to lliat psiflninnk ip tlic tlie kvt 
AFtic'k-. W!*<<ii tlii* wntPT Ju rorc'i-il Itna Uio flir-viTWi'l, /?» tint 
arr U si flrul 4'<Pj]i|m'--4H<-<l. afWr irhiili il ucl^i l<> il4 Wjibiou to 

Ic^^tii »^ ibftt it maj l« wiirkpd by spt't^nl men uiiug Ui^-tk<r 

ittlif thv fofr-mipnrit ou* of th« ntotl impttrl-iQi Ima^ the- npi-lii^alSiin 

19I, The Siphon. — The Sii-u^n U a Unl tiibe, M" 
volr In ftrxil*«T. ovnr mtt inffrmorlEflti- <*Wnilon, Tli'- i^lplmn 
Ibi^ iipptr partwn of a liqnkl without (li»turl>inf; tbc lower 



The ^liplioo cnni^Ute oflwo lirumibcn oruTiiH|iin| k'uvlbi. iw 
■Ik>wi) iti Yi^^ I4i>. Tba ^tioiXer oiie ia plijii|:<-i| mto Altc 
Liqulil U) Ikt i(tf!Hntfit. am] Uit^ Aon t«k«a (ilftiru tnm tiiv 

Tri L(H.- ilii- >ipliiiii, it iiitivt Amt Ini (\\]t*\ «-ith iIip l^niiL Tliii 
i^pomTlitn uiuj bo alii'^tod by upjilyiiiif thi< imnulh f^ \h*t «Kitr; rial uf 
thi; titi^Kiri, Hh(i t-^TiuuMtitJie liltf liif by Hurtirkii, <>r ll inny Iba lavivUiJ 
«iqU liLvil by pimriDt; jp dm lii^uiJi nuil nloppiut; bulb ciiJ», •iEri 

Tiff: UO 

wliii^h it in iifpun iitvrtii^J. mrr bc^ii|r taken |o njim i(4h oudl St lh« 
mmp iijiljim SoTrrlliiir* n i^irkrii^'f>^[tp U futploynl tu exhawt ill* 
Airiuid HIJ the t<i|ihon, 

Whfn ihr tinw runtrnmrrfl. It w\\\ o<tiithiiH< Etnfil l)ir liquid in llip 
lirvt rT«f>Tvr>ir fKllFi T>rb»w ihr ItvH iif ibr «n4 uribr atpIkiD. 

To undi^njUtifl llic dftioii of Uie -lipbrjii. wt Mnia| oopaiili^r 
lh« U)ff«« <vLlleil iiiU> [>^\. Tbo KuU'r is uipHt ftom df 
tDwnnlii i, hj Hip jtn^ttiiirp of llifl fttmffhjjhew on tbo A^ild In 

outer lirandiorUic )'iE>lioJk ; tlut in. t>^ tbv ^oi^bt of a ct>luKin 
of wtktor trhoMf Ut^iglit J* ob. Tbiv molioQ fa r^nndMl l>v 



1IW^T«i»iir« of Umj iitrEioit[>b«K' at A, t^^Uitr with 111* wdt|{lil 
of ibr flirul iu Ui« iaucr bruui'U : Uiul in. by ibt* vrtngUt of a 
coluniti wfitiM.- tviglil U erf- Tbi- lUlftrrpnt** of llit»*»tf forcw 
n Uu? Wf-i;;ht ^r It rohiBin cf tfiui liquul w^ot^c? hi^&^jtit b Ui« 
esiv*«of flfi ox'er rrf, nnd U is *y tln» Rctlon of tliU fi>rce 
ikat Uie Itjw J* V.i-\}1 ii|j. Tin? ^ri-alrr ihii dliri-mit-P llm 
■iota mptcl will bo ibc riow. iiti<t thn lo» tUU ditTv^n-iico ilif^ 
nlovrcr tfac hfiuid witi i-b«l[w. Wbcn thU Uin^Tmoe bucMiut!* 
icro, the daw vmar^i oltogoUior, 

Tbk tipbun i« uMiI fuT iirD\r5LDg wftter over hUla, but Cv thu 
pvrpaH iho highm jviint i^f tht^ ti]l>» •iTimilil toc t>i> hiun* llitin ibtrlj 
fcct aLcvc the Ivr^fX iif th« WAttr la itt« tvMTvuiri tliie U^ru^ about 
iIm Wigbl al wliii^h \\k* ii1tDOri|ih<ri(T |irvWLtfV •oriW mWJilu a onlmnu 

i^g. A<]hcsion of Liquids and Gases. — A rapid 
*-»fT*i»t 'tr J<'l, v\r.U<^Y nf a lEijuid t>r n gu*, l^mls Ic ^atry 
«long with It tliv miimtttidtiiK |jnrliolc'it of nir wlili^b Kdi>ero lo 
iu nod Uiiu to jj^'mlucc a jiui'tml vanium. 'Hiis princi^^le Ia 
nuMJc IIM of in nuaiij^ IJqulda tUruti^'I] UeUts. Li^t li povc-rfiil 
Jet of ateflm t>v dirvrU-d liortzonuillj' over the op«u end ofn 
lerUtnil tutw. Uie Luwvr t-mlof wlilck b ^kngi'd in Hnitr; 
tbc ttir Ihun tUr tube ia awcpt aLoo^ by tlkC ^toiLiJi, jl ^^kuuuj 
I* produced, tht* naur iUi?a. and in* in iU tum. ilrivon Ibr- 
vnrd bjr Ihtr Jet <ff ittnin. 

In Ifae «|*p4uuUi* knosvn «« (^if- 
lUnl'n lEiJivkir. ifHKif lit AU|i|t]ii*i1 
b> tbe br;4icT nf H fUAiin-«D|Cioo Uy 

« Jul vf ifiHui, vbLch kn tlm^uii 
u-lih irrui fcirw UiMrr^b h Htnall 
pitpr iiiUi |]i>i crvin* of a Nir^vr 
tub* «buoc<i<HiJ vtiTb Ok- 4ij{i|i1y 
cf wvAof- A viu'Kuiii ].u-iEijf forim^l 
ubfkcjt lb* )<t, yf%Uft t% druiin f-T- 
w»r4 ami iiin>va iirt-? ilu- In >iUi . 
Th» MiB principii- in inxl* lui- 


162 ^^^ iWHUMA Tir^. 

HqdJ ItiIo \\it nlr. a* «bowa in Fiic- Jir. Ry |f'«Mlii|t upiw ihe 
mbbi^r Ijulh * bW of air 1» luiuli;* tu l^iiii' fiviin lI JL^t, vrhh^b t* |ilAf%| 
aver t!jo irpoNing -if a iuLjc that«xiaaJ» [&(<.> ilio liqwd tii tiK> Uiiilr. 
Tfac Ujfvtf iA Ihv ^Jiud Orii ^rxliKitMa Xh* tLlr, aiiil than Uoown tlw 

UquiJ w1iii.-b HMs h\}\u the luU in fiuc ^raj or luui. 
Summary. — 


l'tlrici|>l<j IiiiXflvQil. 

M4h1i> «>f 0|H>ritIi4ii. 
With Air-roui) AFl^hedi 

MimIo of OfKTKlLilQ. 


SOO. Buoyant Effort of the Atmosphere-— h Una 
boon ^h^jwu iliul u brj^l^v pUingcnl into [i KjunI k» tuornl <i|i 

1)j- A Tor-fNe cqilul to tlie weight of l\\* <lU[i1fli-(-cl li<iiilil- TllAt 

aimiUreflirct h pri^duccrl ii|K>n a hodr m tlK* AtiooepliercT 
laay be aboirn hy mcnn* ^r ai* ia«Uiimciit colM a Aaro#0<^, 
which ia r«pnrMntad in Fig. U8< 



Tlic BAJioescort podhIhU ol' u b^uiu lik(* tbut or % boJonc^, 
ttntii one evuvmll.y or wlilrli U j^iiniienrL^ a liollow «(>h«rc 

li^fuj. TlirJif tiiv iiiml<- Xo liiUaiKT cncli nUii^r ia tbc oluios- 

If iIh* iniiinimi-iLl Ij« il«»n 
|il«cvd uuflcf tiic ivcvlvcr of 
an atr-pEJOifi nod the nir cx- 

will ilmrvtul. Till* i^llOWH 

tb^t in Lbcikirit wadbuuit-il 
up b^ a funv ^rvuU:r Miiid 

tlut«xert«il upon tho teiidf^n 
►plienr. If, now, tli^ 1on>li'(i 
»plk4.-rc be incrciucij li_v a 
wctfbt «qusl to that of n 
TtiZnme of air of lUc uniiu* 
bulk tta (be «>pprr A|)lirn< 
tlioiinuJwd bjr Uul of Ihc 
]cttil«fi «pI)or«, it viiii be 
fumu1< iJUr the air it* i^it* 
liuiL^UtlH llmt IIk' babiK'*^ lA 

that tb« buoyftui otTorL U 
t^n%] Ut thit ir^ijfht or nir 

tbe folbwuig iirindplc, cti* '^•" ***" 

tirtJj' RUAlogotu lo ihD pniicliilo i>r Anciiisiei>t» ; — 

W^n u Ani^ II plurtgtil int" w ymr, iV iV lt/€^ai u^ 6^ tt Jirrtt 
f^mi hi tit vnjA' ^/'Mv JUpla^4 ytu. 

It lh< bihiranl rffiiTl ib fitnui'^r lljnn ibr Wi-lght of the twJj, 
iJio Ultrr vin rw-: ir It n lew, tlii> hr^ty viLl fdlt; if iht^ lu-a 9,rt 
cqval. tbo IwJjr vrlU Moia U ih« nlLi]<>Bph«n? vithuul vilhcr lUu^ 

SiD<»ktr fW fiAitipl^ d«(«, Imv^oh ii if Ijifhtf r lluia the nu whkh 
UdUplws- V< «iiDlliiiUH lo rt>e UEitil It rau-Ji«o t ntnuiiii of ait 



vill rvmw In nkM And rwiiijtln fln>«ppiMl^- A Hiifi-hiiliMit ftllud vbh 

30I. The Qalloon. — A BAUJXin ia a sphtrncid ciirt4opo 
\\]\vi yiith ^vniy" j£n8 li^itor timn uk 

Thp H™t hnllcum uind* wu* AIIhI with hcatiHl »ir ftnri 
iiinokv. l\inii--<ht'il b> bliiiitng doiujt sti'ni*. jm[ir!r. luiil tbr 
like, under iJia balloon^ tlic lowc*r pftrt of frhicfa waa Wl opeu 
to ri'mvt* ttii*iii. ^Vht'Ti lllK-ii. il rose 10 ii ht^jifii of loocw 
Uinn A nillo ; hut it ^r>itik !)octmrt i-iholt^l, qnil IMI ifi th«r ««rUi, 
The use of bot-ailr balloona nas, liow^vr-r, cntlrvty g\veri vp 
OQ account of the f>cnou!4 ncoidcuU to vfhich tlic}' were Ibblc. 

Swah tiallvorie uT ibJa liitiil, i'uU'mI firr'l'HlliHrii>, arv oft<ii iiwJrf 
fttr Utrti. A •j)hi>rin4L Irufr or li^Tii |»4p(>r U rrmJi*, wllh > tUf • nf*ii- 
iuic Jbi ihv UfituiHi ADCwji vcliu'li 111'^ Bin^vhcd wiic«i Ut ibcM a 
Biviu^>> laiiimtHJ viih nloiifiiiL In fdJimf^- Thf> nkichnl balng vt 
oil lirr, the Air In lEif^ hiiill'Kiii Irocv'tiii-* hnilpU 4ud rAivAol tOJ ll>e 
wholp in l^^hi**t ihiti nil *4jiinl Imlk .tf tln^ .iTiiio»phrfi>, U'hr^ It tktm. 

103. BjftltDons of the PrcHcm Day. -^ nfttlnom hy 
which i>criM]ti4 uweiM utv. j^t tlit* |in.-3i7iit <by. giMirnttly llllcd 
with tij^Jro^i or ooilI ipu. I'tio hitrcr. ulthougb liMivier 
than thp fotmpi\ yflt by rviu^on of Itt rih«i[>ne4», nnil llw 
IXrillty wilb whiih it fan bci procuitil, U iiwinlty im-forrrd. 

Tho #<tivt.'liiirp js iruuli' "f 'ilhi r.'itili'ml hlf'tf^M 1>^ rnnittAraiQ 
vjira|«h i>ti boUi nlcU« uf ii, AnuiiHiinm liri> nfi^ii of talk an wcdf 
wj|}i n shwt orioJlA'nibbpr btiwpi-n iUpiti, 

T\m iKMkH, vr «iir, inAdo of nirkof'Work or tvluikbonVf U >b^ 
peoded by ntvxta of cordo to a pctnurk wliL'li coiniilHi'lj nivrr* thp 
vbdlfl bftl1ix>i\ nr Oiv 4-uLin^ iippfT U'llf- Tb» iictvnrk le AiiA!h^>i 
ia Mub a iiiMiiucr tut Ut diBtriliule iho raj^bi uf the cu miil ha iu«i- 
Imta AA avauly tut ]X>ui'bin. 

At the li^ji iif Ihp 1hI1ih>u U a tulre 1vp|ii i^kistJ liy a njiriit^t It 
ean h« fipt-ntr^l hy inpani <^ a iThnK tlou^uii dk tkn^Lp^h ih(i boUiMiq 
lik ihe tut -ft the MmDoui, Whou hi^ wihlii^ U^ <Ii>*Tri[iJ, hu uptVA 
ihfl vaIvi** And Alhwt A porti'dL -^f the ifu ta Motpr^. TaaMorlBln 
vfhrthcr hif h AwrDditi£ or Ti4wer>iiiliij£, rhc ju^ronABt U pmr^iM) Mt^ 

wtMn AiHCitihUft, it n«H- Kj mcaiui <jf tbr> liari^iru'li-r, lliit height It 
Mty tinitf majr W dcii'm tiiiMl, 

A Img flag 1U^ 14 tbp cor «|LI indimtc. b^ Ihr pvitiua it biko*. 
f ithrr bIxivd ut bclew, vhrTlicr iLr ImUDc^a m rising m flilUng- 

_ Tu i.-nAbli; Uic bnllixin Ui nm.\ it tnii«l dij^pliUM^ & voliiinr of 

I «lr gn*Aifr in weight iliaii iEflviriLiid aII it i-arrliA, Hbco Uic 

vol4iii3eorfiirdlei>l«co<l U le^» In «4>i^)l« tUi.' tiullooii wiU mdIc ; 

wlimi «tn>t, ll will, artier h fvw osdllntioQ*. <x>iav to re*t in 

Uut tbralum of lh<t fttiuu«|ilicrv. 

Th« uHaauiciuiTuiH ((«r n (l-iIJucjii ot ihr unijiijirj dinitnHJ'inK. ir!iEch 
dm ttifTT IhfMt pAftOQ^f hur# Uhtii ^viltj iu ri.i|l'<«ii: W yurdii tiigli, 
12 jTMtb La HtmuvUTt luul, wEh'ii it UijiiiU' fiiM, ilIhiiiI IiH) ikiIiii^ jitnlh 

*uch w thi^ rvpt< mill rur, IIM> |hmni1iu 

liAttf oliftapiA ht^e brcii mftjlc l<i ttifrrl Ih^ ror^nw <ff liallrHiii# 
In tin aHi. but mi inr a11 Imvr tuM. Tliry iifiH^ni v»o i^tFiitiivr- tt 
attrhtr, thni iho fwutanw of iho nir ii* lulSficni li> Dciitridtso nrij 
ifhiru lo pTn|«l tJirin hi lUk/ ^jdrcd dlivctiijii, w(lb n dcgnv of 
wurtk a«iuninR> 

903. Method of HUins a Balloon and making ftn 

AsCcnt'^Thv bjillturci U niW b; ruiiiu^ U l^im; or four tt^-t 
»baq^ 1b»^unil by fiiHoyi, whwi lb«» .^jl* m Mitr^niiiro*! bj tn-Minii 
tfif ■ |>i|4f AT lirfHi whiirb ii»itirrL> with h jc,ifiiiitiH''f A* tlir Imllmm 
niU v;|h cfui it if bfiU J"wij by rnfHii^nnd ithtn ufukdy lj|]4>il, iTlc 
car i» Jiiiiinhc^l, Catc hbtKibl bfl uhni oiit in llll tlii< IiaIIihjii (uni> 
plKfly. itf tbo ^iii DE|tAiidB in rwm^> and uiJr-H nn bUovoloo U 
iiuuIp fcii tbU cxpnuaioa tbi- b«tto<kn migUi l»- nipiunvl. 

To ff^laie ibf ii»an*uiDid fi'iwr, ibo rnr Lc billuU^t l^y lUtd. 
MiBUiInnl lii nnall Iv^ l^vcrjribiiic ttio^ evatI)'. tbe r'pi'* am 
dvtivh^p And Uif balbHm ri>tiiM)iU vith grwiur or b*M v4^Uvilf, a«- 

Wh«n Ihf jifrniiuirit find* thnt ho il'XiR not nivoDil fMt ori'Migh, h* 
iiirrvvH^ tb' wriLJ^iociHl ('»n: by vui|i|yjujr unv "r mrr ur Ibi^ Mnd* 
Imirn. In tlliir mannrr. In firK^ndin^Tf If ibo Vf^lnpity u tix> i^pmI, or 
if ibr IttlT-riir irmU in Ta}) b) a iltnfrrniaA |ibtcD, ihtr wd|[hi of tbe 
UaIW-Ij h iliinlnitbcd hy eniplyiTif; uidi4> of t^c und-bAgf- 

To If Ddrr the drw'PHl lert illfflrull. the nrnrtmut « prutiilpJ with 



Vfin wiu* njnm n>hiiii> Wi'i^lruil iJ-jm't nhitu hr nrinn ocir llin fiinb- 

Uj- pullliifi nji-m Til* r"\>t>. 

ao^- The U&c% of Balloons- — Itnlloona huvtf been 
nnvd ia war lo houk- t-atcut for uutknig iilnri-vnliniis wflbtn 
tbo liiit-n of iin <;iu'iiiv. nnd al^o tie « iDCnn^ cF ixmimnnlt^ 
tioij U'lwiH:it iiaHJ(«4 W^if^d And tlKwe iriltjout IIk- Uucvof 

'1110 iJioHt IfiijiorUai 
iiAcoriho hftUoon, tbuh 
fkr. hfifl htvfi iti iiiAkiti||; 
wcicniiflc DfKcrviilJoiiK 

lurunimllmi bui Ifcev 
^alliCKxl l>j tlio L-3i|H.-ri- 

ItEition, i»«q»ci&lly liy 
IIlimiii'-k. nn KnglUli 

"^^ "** hqjumf^r 5, 1K««. 

905. The ParachtitP. — A pAiuaitTni U an B|k|iant4i« 
1>5- ini'sn^ i}{ wJiir.-li mi At^ruiiaut UHiy ubaiKlou lii» Wlwo, pckI 

ill* fonn a.n<\ <Njn«lru<*iion of a parflchrtW* whwo r^cUiclwd 
from Th<" Whwin. arr«linwn in FIje- U!t. 

An- iTiJul* iif (vinU, uliirh, Lrhkjt imiliIiiUpJ. mv K:irir-1it>U lu a nuhirr 
eM, u »)ii>«ii ia the fij[Lirc. 



^^^^P Ttik' PAKAVISVTE. 

ifir ^1 

1 A hulv IB mBif« ol thv lop, m 1tii» ociEtr^, 

irhio^ii bj nibfWlii|£ ji 1 

I pnrE 4iribr njm|fmBCii air M ncH|«> diTTOtB llw iJ<v.'4'ii(. aeiiI pn-vriLU 1 

1 n»|'-ni ■■fT^IUliryiw* th^E vriijEht |<njiv ilAii|tQr<<u# bj lUi> i\kt ava|>lajt | 

1 Frrvn utidrt ib* ftlgif iff tint |Ubnu-ltiiiiT. 


1 Mr. fl^sr^ nri AniiTii-Jiii Mroniiui, *-^\* 

nU timt'H mplodrd 1 

hU bftdrxin. Blicn higli in th<^ :iir, lo aIk^w 

n'linl he i^>n.**iil<?rcil 

Ui Iw »1*«3' liio PMo* lliat tiiL- rmpcK'nt* yr\\\\ Un' network {| 

Wfiuli). nUlItT HUC'h rirCIIUl-itUlJcl'*, ftlDH 

n pHiu^-liittt- wUiuh jl 

nunlO [mH|i-nit« Ibe rali" of ^vwviit. 

___MT.i _J 

Awl «lkiw tbu ai>ronnut to ix^ucIj Uic 

.^^^t^' ■ 

oflLCtli 111 0arvti-> 

## ^^' 1 

If ffum juif oLUBP tt qipttkn iijipmcii^ 

B 1 - 1 

rnbl* lr> rffort a ilnH^dl rnxn tfir' IhINi'Ii 

L^ . 1 

itf«*ii, th" )>tknii'9)Li(*r iii^y 1h] nf llu^ irmut<^-i 

vcnkr loihv uji%lvutiir- At prrw^ut. hn^T' 




Qvor, it HMiM to he iiwd t» HfCiXiiih ihf 


piiblk b]r tbB kkiU and ojutai^ irf tlir 


Arn>0«4t, who ibn« In Umirh tiiinuilf 


inXt' vpacv id |}iu fnfl r»/t vrlictJ iHxUniciT 


tkrVHtraq hii* tu!l-ii>ii. 

V^'K H 

AH tliiut^F iMdftjii'ri^l, ii i» i:''"''>^l> 

rVi^inled U lEf^A li> otforl u iLvhcuc wtth 

3? ^^1 

tLctntlioou n* with ihc ^ninavljutr. 

^^^ ^^1 

Ib Pig. t5i> « thovn ibr buLIrKiii witTi 

^^ ^^1 

{■irac^iiU, fittBc<b«l TO (lie m^t^vTirk 1>> 

i^ ^^1 

»DM(ik ■■' n nM^l, irJiii'll jumHt nmiiil ji ' 


|ii4iry, mif ii Tixod nt thv i>t)ifr vml !'■ ili<i 

Fitf, lax ^H 

n»r Wh^^n tt>p !*<iHl Is out lln^ |iftr*<'hiirr 

il'W'riilH wiUi gwU ^^^1 

mpiHiiy: bnl Hir iut ■»<>i> >|ir<iMilii Um f^tiriit 

nta\ xhvti^ vctintj by ■ 

lu rTtilnccr. Th^ vpl-irity \% itl ini n mbM, nnil 

Ilic bi'iMtiJiaT fraE|ii*« 1 

ib^ ifr-iun-l vnthoul i»)ury. 


Sumcnjify. — 


^^^1 Awvvunf Efuri tifth^ AimOM^iitwr.. 


^^^1 U»ric>i^rci|M>. 


^^^1 Prlnt^|:itt uf ArvHijucilr*. 


^^^^^ Thi BoUoftf. 




^^^^^^H Tvj BftUiuu, 




V-jUMmrXivD of Moilrm B&JJtxjuS' 

HoiIiT of Navigation- 

I'ritiplplc thai r^ij]|}.tt(i« » |t<tJti><iu Ut rlf^ 

Ufi4^ uit<l C«rit)irQctiou> 
Kifji^iiii"Tii .-r Mr W»*», 



»06, AcoufttiCfi i« llint hmiidi of l'h^*air« wliich Trent« 
of the ]aW8 of g«DeraUoa anJ projKigatiOD of »onnd, 

307. Sound U n moilon or iritcter »pubEo of ofl^dlug Uio 

««r nitit A MMAllun |K-culiar tu that organ- 
Sound !« nuixiMl hy the ^itiTalijn of euuic Wly, airul Is 

tmnsmittL-d by dut'ccaiivt' Titmlionn lo ih*^ car- "ITic original 

t'ittmtllig IkhIv U Haul Eo fH- lonftroiri. A h(n\y whkoh traiifi- 
iiilUi houikI in i^lkil n mrdaton. Tlir prihHfkil mr<diiini of 
sound Ia titr? ntnionplK-rc ; t>ut all cJulk InxIica tmnninit 
sound, find ftr^, Tiiorpforv^. mft/'a. 


vflcUC Vj n how, ii» In # vliUn. Tir c^ninjilit. When ll>c corJ Iji 
fftim lu [wrfUliiufif rim, at '? (.^^- 1»'H>, t* ibr piwtrJon» adh, 
►rr«y jMiiil of lh» r«f*l i* Jrn'X'n fnnii ilB prd^Tlun uf rijiimiirium ; 
■ln-H U k IpI (fo, lu I'ljuiiniij riiUrt-s it to K|irlng bnrk tt' its origiiiij 
[piflltliW- III rrtuniinc to this p<»ili-m, it dwi r" iritli ■ *rk<i(y 
[Ifan oifTla It yuM n r& lo 9eht friim wliicTi it TTrlurnt ji^hiii »"Ar1y 
[fa> atfb, and to va vibmtinir liiwltwnrd vnil rimArl, utiUI, mAoi « 
ffTMi tnimbiir t4 oidllitti'mii, U jit Ii>(iiei1i rump* m rrvi. 

3o8. Sound- Waves in Air. — Mode of Propa^ion. 

— SouivL-wuv^3 uiv [itiu(iut.^''i ill till* Hir lij' lll« vibnittoci of 
fiomo Bonofoua bod}'. ^VL<■» Uw bodj^ jdww R>nt&nl* U 
strikes x\\f nil' 111 frnnt nr tt« uii<l n>ttiT(*i]iAi>K a ulniltnti whoM.* 
lliickui'^A doponclH on tlin rn|ti>]ity of ^ilinktloti; the? particles 
ofthiM vlmlmn iin[«irt Uit coiufcuanlioH U» tit"** ^jf liiu ncsi. 
and Uii-'w.* ilk turn to lliow ur the ni-!Ct. nnl xn on ; Tlie oon- 
tleiiMifum IhiH ti-iiiiKiLjitti.n1 tiulw^ui] \h cii^EihI tb(^ crjit'-ifnufJ 
yuUf, When Lia' Unlv move* l.iaclivftM. llic air in front of 
it rolli>f^^i triii |>i'Oiluocis rArofAftion in a stratum uliu«c Uiick- 
nc<)u f|p|H>ntU on thtf f:i|>i<Uty orvlhration: UiiAtraUHtH ■ tudt- 
nnti] mikvcLJH-ut tntd nMLM^rjurnti inicfArLinu iiJ tbu nexi 
stnitnici, vrliicli i-i iTtLn^itiittcit to the Eirxt, iiixl »o on ; llw 
ran-riu1ii>ri lljua t^ru|^ii£;uU!d outward b coIIliI lb** niftjUd 

Fig. Wl 

llndfl iif fl iunlil^-fi)ric- Tlic (initiS- d- u It *|i'1iiif« onln-int, n>a< 
deuHv the iiir in Tn'rit, nn<l ih^^n, rrcrdiDa, lortvt« Ivlarnl it a fttfloil 
mrruuJn- Thii.-^ I'jrh nkiiiph'lv \i]*miJOD f^c^nrmfii a aitidfij^tti^ nhit 

lUih •«|iii''*^ o, ti^ <, rf. fi*|>r"^iil ttir vrjTiih'ii>nii<in«u nn»t ll* lightrr 
lijmfnv a', b\ <'. ft, ttin rrifvEJicttuQ* ; llav wu^v- Itniicllifl wro Uio &- 
lAiicci fl ft| b 1% irif > 

Wbf<ii a hvll a mug, thv ulr areund tl is nl in mE>tkinr odJ ihva*^ 
VAvn Arr ^-ufrsinl. wliifh nvi^v uutwu^l jn I'wr/ Jlrrallm In tkc 
t>nn < if «|ihi'n' >tL»t1]». 'k* nhoim m t'i^r l.vT 

Thv ralo i»t vU»-h thr M>gu4'Vfk4-e Uiiti-lt is ilw tnboiy ^ 

souyi^- wd yt's. 


foU&d'Wavr i-tnibfinUu^L ihrvuiC^ xhv air, but the hti^iMnul pt^rlicli* 
vQ ill* fkHu>i|>r of th? mrc-Hnl [tiilAi^ : ihr ilitiiinc*' lhn>ugh whirh 

linii^ Hnil Al A rliMliiui^ fmiK fHi'li MlitT <'r|tm1 U\ u wiivr-lim^ih, Mrr 

^wrUrW jin- tifl&rl t^i Im hi ChA mrnr jihjtjir AN Xhf |»iTlirlr>«(if unj- 
vmvr thut art in thr hkido pbuc itrrouibc lurfucc i.if u >[>hi^r«, wtuili 
bt rullni % Wfirf/tant 

aog. Cofnhlndtions of Sound-Waves. — M^ny no(UHU 
muy \»: tran^mlU^d tliMij;£li ttK uir al thi^ ^ami- tmic, and in 
•oitw CAA>» tfatri! ii no jH-^rcepiil'k* iuLerfon-iK*- of UiQ »^uricl- 
■^jn^&. tn Imb^ntri^ Iff :k fNjntvH. of [riAtriiini-utH n {iriii'lMLvl 

ScBOfllmw liowttcr, .m iiiU'iuv tuutifl aiVLTv ii|i iir ktrownun ini>rc 
^fcpble OM; lbiU| lh<> tunbil hF a Jrum tnigll drmm ihut of ihc 
:iuBua vulrv. &fii[ietfif>t« fei'bli' n^uuilf, m-IijcIi lire (4H1 faint to W 
^*Hrd ftfl'|wi9^«>lj, try ili^tr ueiJuti ^m^ihiiv * >'4>rl of mumiar. Sucli 

iLr niiHt iif |]h^ mtiniiLK I'f w.-ivr^, il>r i^iKlitiic »HiU]id itf a brcrao 
tliPiri^ iJjo k-AVt* ur d TvPul, Jiiid Ibc iibli«tncl bum of • 



210. Coincidence tftd Interference of Soo 
Waves- — 'I'wv wis of Boitii'I-ivH\^t mix) lviuuiiK^ m 
In liifrcAA*^ 1.1m Inu-nftlty of tfai* nonnil, or ihvy may laterferc 
9IO iw U) iieiitralj£L< i!aL>h <itbi'r mid ptxh1iicl< HJlL'tJu\ 

Si}p|iiiaii YH Ik&vr iw<i iijtii(v;-^<'>ht, -1 sViiJ i?, which prcd 
Uayiih A|ian, m «hown in Pi^. T'^'l- Thi.- tw^n i4pr« oT nbrnii'itis 


B A 

Hjc tM. 

viit cuiiiojiltt, mill llip iiitcnaity t-f Ipjp »auii<I will In* i^AlfrllMA 
ift^iie wrn.' ^iU^.lUJl^ ilWdi: The aaiiki wvuU v^idonfljr urur il 
•h<« ilrilAni^ briwrcn il id*) B wnrv tn^ nmnlxn of wh'Aa tntv^ 

Itiit iiTijjiiiHO A Slid ^ liP b|i f>[il^ liiiir a wllv^-ll>n^h fipnrl 1l b 
rvidc-nl llihl \Uv luiiTartHMi^ urom- vf i\tt byBiriii» nf vrM\f» wtlJ tin 

ivmtiJc' H'Uh lW rj'kiii]niiuui<jB]i> "t the iitW'r tjnLrin, nni] tliF n*ftilt 
will br w(rt/i»TVHrt», lij U'hir-ii Iwtli fl^Vili^tiH <f «:iviii inll br du- 
■tfo^nl, Thu rvAijlL jb indJL-hitRl b; |}i« viLiTumLHjr i>r t&«i£iig in 
Pig. 155. 

Cniuag-firlEH nnJ Ih^-n h<->E<ling il n p|i-tr? itintiinfr' Tivmi tho «»r, 
nilliiii^ lUi? tiMMi aI 111? mmv limv Ui^iT'ii Urr thurub pnd fingrr. 
Wii Fh&ll find jwvnml p«Hl(<iL« ftb^rv ihii kttall'^^'av<lftTlcln1nJi»0uft 
Hdiitli^r adJ u(i xibiiil in Imril, «)j<l *1»> »crentl vrhtn ttio mi 
MtD(&J* «ttd tbttrc U • rviAfnmjntfit of »vinil. 


rROPAOATtoy or sovsD^ 


n I 

9tl> Bcatdn — VTlic-n iwc tumn^-rorku whjrh jlto not quHo 

prorincfxl, Imt h in'cnliur, iMilpiUiiin^rffM. wUitli m owing to 
n KTJVN of AUrniaU- n-mrt^rveiuL-iLls UUil dlariniftJons of tbo 
md, ThU (iijc^'tidiun or ?ff>uiuU witL lltr iiiu^tvilIh of com- 
ntivu vijcnou in known to miiftlciaiM bv iht^ nanic of **««, 
iumI h tht^ result of Lha coIjiclUoiiLr- nnd iutvrfWviio; uf tJiu 

S«pf»v tmtnaf Uie lurk* viTiMira Utfl liiiira In r >m.iTiii> Add tho 

VT im tiinn^ If thit wnTi« Mit at ilio muio miHucxil tho oon- 

nioiViFui wiEL otinriilr riuI hIuh ihn mrHurUinu, Lui iht*y bt^n Xa 

Ulng bnblpil iljr diljrr, imril je thr- iniiltUt? uf iJjit M^ci^iid ie will 
Vfl ■ttOUnlcJ W fiiitf iL tfAV<-]Faii;llt,A>i<i (.bi? Inv htiiiiJii vUJ Ji»|ri>y 

Al thv ritd <^ till* hM'uiid, vi'Tivfk otnj fi.rk l^iiB «fMi]>I('ti''| ith lUUlh 
vlbriLtiiH] «Dil ilto citlwr iu UHf.T, iine n^xivm h^ia faWon hfWiiul the 

uD, ami thit fijli rlfi^-l tiT 1>fiUi Hnuriiln n ;4-h<ti the tur. Wv 
vp, thnn, -fue Wl atul .-nc inurvaL i^j i-vcry i^r-atil' 
lu gpunnkl, buu Arr |iMituri.*d bj two miiihii^^t hicimU tit nt^Tlr Uie 
uu>r pilch fu^illod il lUr> fiimi* tJmv. Thf mintfT c/ AfioCf f«r Ste^ 

Br«K ATG frcf^uciklly ticord In U'C^ K>uiiii of t^bur^^h M\», jujJ \a the 

■is <B«Ui>Tfl ipf lurB* •ii(fBTL». T<>trKriph ivlmK nhftn fiiji^la (fl 

Wtft by o Birv'titt winJ, i^ixIul^l? 1»t«|ji. Tlii*»r oui T«' <*1^ktv*J l>y 

viui! 'Uti' var nevntt » <i-lc'^Fmi>lsiHiil Jind E-lnvm^ Iha <ilh«<r 

«T. ilfilic hiiiLilTanrt-ndly >'iir i-f ifip Irnrer hTiII'- h«y* nf % pSuKi 

■ttl (Iw jH^Ntnii litiK'k k^f, I1141U will U* liranl. 

BdAl* utr 4'f j;(Tml Vitliio i<i lMiiiii|f luuvimJ iibfirciipiftlA. T^ir iinitv 
TUi •ml %ty trt'ir ihu^^i'mI mtliuim'utH ^il' iJlkIiI ■litTj'mii'r- in 
o«ti bv lir^^u^hl iom uvMvii I'j luoic^ uoul tbi: U-ntv -li^ppraj. 

3ia. Sound la not propcgaccJ in n Vacyum. —^That 
Ai^ur tTi'->liiLEn 1*; Mui?o'**rirv r>r !he ImntmuitioiJ **!' sound 
EUA> hr »1ioWii b^ LUe fi>iK)wiii<^ RXiirrimfnt. 

Abvll bi ijlaced tttHkrltH- ivoeiwr of ftii air-pump, firoviilf<1 

llie iiir U cxImiiHifil, Ibv ^iTf^ki^ of ;he hammer on Ih^ lu'D 
«rr diatiucllj hi:ui<i, \iut u* U*o hij' is *'\/iuuijtixi lll« aoutid L*^ 
I ODODM raiiiu^r &ud fttiuUrr, uU ftt la»l U uomm U» be lM«rd. 

I in^ Pfir tliv oi.iti]|iloUr aucmn uf UlIi 

^^^b J stiiiiJJ hv Rii|i|"jr4iNl by nututf vub> 

^^^H I flHucc whkb d<i^ cci nibJilj tniuf.- 

^^^p I mit Mjuud' A* ^hl■wu hi Tii;. 13(i. 

P I tho appuratm ii lUjii^rrlnl hy *iLk 

I .^ffSflS. '° "^ ''"* "Uivk-wcifk ii» imiUon. [f, 

'»r giu Ih iLiliiiittrU, ifm kiiiitiBl it atni* 
hf^anl; abwitic ilmt other tloJAtc 

Haldfli A< wcU (u out, wAj innmnkt 

213. rropagation of Sound 
in Liquidt and Solids.— Suund 
i> tmnamirit^il* ud onlv bV ^;aM«, 
ImiI iOdo Itv If'tiil^la and untliht. 

n\n;\t uiulor ivaUt, and wnmU> 

ni^de H(»i]«r u'ftter artr lif*Qitt on 

*V 'i* nhuiT, A flight ?*ii]ml iubiU uL 

uiw viA of a luii^ <iok of fjinbcr i« iliMliiclly licanl l>j an 

I'ar At Uic otlu^r f^nO. rvrn wbtii il mi^lil W iiinmliMc at an 

cqvul ili*l(u»w ibrxHJ^h 1I11' ntr. 

vr\ih IL vuuncit mnj hn iliMJngtiifihtxl ■! 4 i^M lU^unrr, ThU 

timlnniTi*il by huMlrrt^ Iti lit* (^-imlnKihiti iirfUil>1f<miiimn ^allfldM 
H't iiiiiilikjc |>iir^MH.v» itiL' itouiT id i.iftoii i;uiitcJ, fu 1^' iIm' JiroeiJuii he 
■h'viU iHhfp by »vuui]i) l/HBhtiudj^d llirutigll lurgv? mBAr* cf «ufth 

ai4- Vcloctly of Sound in the Ain -^ Tbnt noiiiiil 
ucxni|»M nn approdjtbU umv in ijdmIu;; from point to poUU 




nmu vuttk^a wockI al a 4i»Ukiiuv, yt^ pvn.vlvij Liuit hU axe 
t'oUd 0ODIC lime bcfort the loLtnr] of tl^L'r l>iow irioolics ttie rar. 
Jr JL gu» IB (liM('luir^i.-d. wt- iwi' llif OcuJi b<^rorv wu Lcur tiio 
Tt'itorl. Ill liki- nruiuvr, Uit' flash of Hghliilng S« wvii Wfoiv 
WL- tciir Uji- thuiitli'f. 

lu lli^2 a uiitnber of KLk-iiLiilu iuini miiicrlouk a ncrica of 
v«y tiicv ovpci'imi'UU w* U^lvruiLno Uio vtlouil) of AouTid« 

fiu<l au^lbcr on a itlam near Vilk-Jiiir. tJic <1iMun<^ Ix-lwcai 
tbec) L<t4ug 6tf4lLT r^c-t. Atr^ai-h Btntion tvr«lvt di*r-bfinEC9 
wor« TiiAil^ flt tnu^rt iLl>i >:ir iifii miLiuiJjt : ihc dindiui^gvn ulwr* 
iiatEii^ fM-tnin'ti llut HtiiUoii* i&L jntorvaU uf ll\-<- iiimulVH* 
01>»rn'cr> placed tX t^cJi Atutioii obitifrvtfil tlio hiU'rrAia of 
limi- Uml oiajMiocI bclwoiirii 80«lii^ Uv^ I3:i^h ftn^l Ijt^ai'irig tUa 
rvportof Uio cnnfioit 8l the oThor fiUtion Tlic .iivraup-- iiiur- 

adunl velocity niu foanil lo U? 111^ fo-t [K^r twcv>Ddi ^UkLi, 
Afirr corN>tlnjf r>r icmiK-mlure, gnvo lUtfO f^t per soi-ojid 
Cor Uw Utnpcnitiirv iV K. 

Il i> >how& hy «xp«riEiaciii i^Ai U ili'> cbuiJcily of iho «ir bo in- 

<rnM*i!, tln> d'litity fTinninlng \\w Mine, llie relucJIy nf wmnfl us 
lacriMnl; .^^ ihc -^Ijuliriiy rtinniiiiiig Iho «i"if, if llx' «imjw(v bo 

huiod bf Uie mu, iu lUtiadt; ii intvli; hw wliJo iu cLuiUciiy ii nvl 
rluib^'r^ Thi' ^firlnAlf rf «i>nniJ Iv fimiLil lii liiurwuic tfiefclrj oLouS 
ODC 6«it •ptM M<WiA. ttt riioK <lri:nvi KHlirttalioll- 

TW v#4ociij I if «i>irni] In mt vU-\h\\i\>i nrj Uif^ cln»t^dzf iif ibc olf 

t'tur^f ; iha jcmitf-r ihc tUvtdiy, t(ju If^ss the t-rlDdi3r^ 'J'liln cau Ur 

7Tk« r^Jiniy ii direeiffi proporUanat lo fhe aqtmrt root afthe flu- 

ai5. Velocity of Sound in Liquids- — Sound b Uai 
UiilUxl umrt ru|ri<lt>- in \\qul%n Itmn in Air. lU vulot'ity 
water W314 ut'UKurod Uy Collauox uvi i>rcRM, In 1926. 



Xlw I jik(t of 0<»H«va. in Svitxnrkiin-l, Tuo IxHiU w«rg moond 
ar Ji iliAintin* or iienrlv niiir tnWi-* ftom rv^h nUifT. One ol 
tb^m !(iijip(>rWrl II btll of about HO pouutls wrigfal Imi 
in ihc Inkv. lu buuirD«r wa* moved b^* a l^vi^r ><i ai 

Ihni. nl lli^ lTl«Uni of drnking ttio b«l1,^ 
It L^iitU^I A HiUiU i]i]niullv of ^npowilivr. 
An ohmcrvrr in the otJicf bottt Ut^rd ttit 
ttouiid b^ UlL'anii of m, Immpct-vli^ped 
tnbe (Ptg, lft7), the lowBrmdor wbklj 
WH« covered iriUi a m^mbrsn^, and 
lunkfd in the dbiM^ti&n fVom wljicti Ifao 
sound PAmc- 

I't^ 1^7. 

four liiUM ill vq1<?viIj^ iti nir. 

9i6. Vdoctty m Solids. —Solid bo(iiGstnn»mil<iouDd 
iD'>ro ra|iUI]5 tluui g«A» or licjtiitit. Tbc v^lodty Tanc* la 
il1[T<>ri'nt 4iilklH, mv\ H grf<[iU<-<i in Oodh* aiKl bighlj' etuUc 
l>odii^. Throu^ti bUri'l Ain.' mhiikI moves nl ihe niv uf 
lA^ilii fvt% per M>con(I; tlirough aE]v«r, at 10,91X) feci p<-r 
A^L-oiiil. ^jiisi u.*ii Umpn Ihn volwily in air. 

Thiu KfUiHl UihtIa fuicr ^u iruu iIlxji in lui nuty tir Kbown bf 
plAPing the PAr Bt ODD Pxircintlr aT a L^k irriq bnr <ir iiibv, idiahi h i« 
■tnicli nil iTtp ctth«r rci*! wiili n fuiiimcr. T*n> Hands vrlU W bfAfdi 
Eh« flnt irunanntTtir^l tlimriirh Tli* ifiiii and th# tomnd (hr>dirb lh«< air. 
The Inic PDAvn Hud thr tr;]iqniy c^r s^urnl id IJi^iJiJii nail wlidt i« 
gRVUrikmn in nir b Tnuit'l hn ilii> furl ilijii tf>i<ir t-l]i«ij#iiH«. whoa 
Mum^mr witb Ihojr dnvilloi, ArP ffmiUr ihao Ui«l iif nit coi]>]«n<d 
vrSth •!■ ^rmily. 

117- RcBcctioo ol Sound. — Echoes. — WiicR Mund* 
flnvvA in Air ntntco njioo n ^.tlUi tfurfuw tbrry arr rcflt-ctc<l» or 
thmvn liHrIc ; and, na in ilic m^ of vlActip wolid bodlm. Xha 
an^\f itf n-fU'ollini h L.v)iMti Ci» (.bi? an);lf of mcriiii-niv, A w«v* 
or ■oiand fftllinff | terpen it jcninrlj' od a nail or otW flaL aur- 



fh<« rftiima in the aai»« <Lirvction to Use spot l>oim which 
it rinanatpd, And producN-^ xhi-n tat w^ku. 

A liaril nr p4>rfr<lly ainooUi 4itrrHr-4' ifi noi ncooeaiLr)' to 
MVijir ri'flvfltiMi cf h'jirihl. It ja [x^f^rlisl l^i>i)i HItTa, fkrim 
woodnl slopcii of moiinlains, fiMm iJio lurntcc of natfT* tntl 
tT#TD rrotti r^touiU. ia *ucH a wiiy at to fciitn dkUn<<t c<-faooe.. 
A HhHqi. €|tik'fc «r>i]nil \xm\ In- n-Tt^nml iw iin pi-ho fWim A' 
iIltdArKv of ilfljk'fi*^ iVeU (jut. h\ ri-|iL-ul ^|llib;ell wunlc or 
»\tfiibl«B dutiiictlVt tliv rtf llo<.-lJ [);* F<ur(Ei-.r miut W so fur dien 
t«Eit rnmi thi? sfH«k4<r ua ii> Lvqi)ir« ai tvn^t the lifUi gf a 
M^f^ond Tor Aocirwl i£> tniTH tn tt ami ri^iiini. 

It t« iinl jwiM*Jf>U' I'l |tr^m<)iii)i^i> (ir Ki Uroir dirLlJTi'-tly nwnv limn fivp 
i>yiJaL>lr« tu a 9C<^mil' 'J^lin vrJijciLy td' t^n^d iHriiit' 1^'^'^ ftwt per 
Hxvin J, iC rulJ<rw« lliMt Ktditil iFtiT^U VJn fr<<-l Lti mii^ fifth cif u w>fiiniL 
If, \hcu, au ubatocttf Iw plHinl al tZic iii»iiui«: of 100 FhU ikiuiul uill 
IP> fk El %aA rrlunt in «n<i HUti i>f h uipifnJ- At tlutt dJMhnnv \\at 
Um nflUlitp ocily M thft 'H^liu will iTMh thi: c^ar Jtftt-i ihc Knt<^(V 
U fironoitncrd- Snrb AH «*hu 1* f^fod rHmMw,v''<iftr. If <hn who 
lakfA |i||iiM fry>in «D oUUi^lc «t « dJHUOc< of CL^ fn^t, At hciir \^\> 
•jlbhlM; UmI it, ttia tch>\ it rlirtjflUihir. At ilixlhiicv* <if 3?7 f«tt, 
the rcfco i* (rMytti^r^ .- hDil ao on- 

Wh«(i *ri(iiL>i it ivHiwMd Irodi ut'^nd turfuM* fftunloil in diflorvnt 
dirc<tHni» amd at difirrpiit i]i>UncF5. mbltt/Je 9chos$ «rr |iriiduri^ ; 
tfiAt t#, II *;ngle >4iiirriil i^ tjUaMc ii mpcnfod tcv^ml ttir«»s Thei 
fiomW nT timT« \}^<^\ a piiiirlr- t»uiii] vil) kr irpvaLt^i drpvctft Dpi>n 
ibo Srimtifr Iff ryflwUHjE turf^kivk ; Th» urtiiihiT itf MllnltLi't nr vordfl 
tluU will lifi TXfiTAird ii/ttr a ^jvAker <I»"jmijiIj! uimii vLo L^i«4iinos of i( 
ili^tc rvflftfltng furfaro- 

8o<in4 b (TMloJ bjr rcpG«ti-i:l tvAtv.ikiiip. FT<H>n ami [iartitM«» 
•rr dfndniAl hy mrrint cf innrinr. Mkrrliinr. nihl Th^ 1kk»« u vhfti ihft 
bfUri-CRifouA ituuB hj Lno*njJrif niflc-ciiocj of tie MUonrat wnvf* tDiy 
d)v£nl»h th* inifiiAElv t<1\\w Mniurl 

atS^ Acoustic Clouds^ ^ It hji« {^ciilthUv Ihxh «u|j{HWod 
that fo^i mirit »jLi7w. aud huil tiit^-rtVrt- with the Lntiisi&iB- 
aaofi of sound \ hat, w^oordiug to t<<C|M:ilmonU made by Tia- 
rlalL llicj" ii««in to ha\c no •oiitihk i;>owr in olMtci^t^ 
auumi nml lii'reAiv iho coniieition lupv^^**^ ^ v^\iiX >«- 



Xv/^n n doar atniotpten nud tlii- ti-an^niif^li^n of BOQBd li 
UIsaliUxhI, ilct nliv rnuuil ibui Uil' uii' Hsmx-iJilvit «ilh ihg i» 
u^umII^ IiigLilj lio]|]0£rii<M>iiB and fuTvniUc to thcr trauAStfaskiD 

nr cl4*T)iU of vAjvtr tiiL|>M\inu« tii Btiavdi riLlltd ooMntk Hmiilk 
Th(iv(> hAnt i]<> oi'uiii^lii^ia widj uriliunt) Dli-i<acJ«, higfi, <ir bttMw 'tht 
MPUQjJ-U'av^ Hni t]t^>wlL Wk ftMi; tli<T«v cWib, u li^M fixiri unfi' 
AAry doniii, aitd \ln \uXtTtt\tj <ii ih« v^cipd is vcftkcufid l>y nfttbU4 

Th« fni>l l1i«i *ouuil u thuv larnt^ fiwk mjiy ^ipbtfu iKe wb- 
lioUB iu dintaurv M MrWuh faiiiiUtir Mkunilfi m uftcti hcwrd >t itiflb^fetlt 
tlm«ti| Mnd iNEfHviiilly wbj, at a ^ivf-u jniine, tbc aniuvJ pmdttccd hf » 
manon inuf W bmnJ ni MLHim (iImtc^ kihI uot m cith«n r^illy d^- 
timt frV'in thi> qx't- Wit mity )mv<i lU^v ti'Uoti iho AtuiOfpbrrT u 
vfTj inin^|)ikrr-ni tir ttio I'yt, bm <in Mi^tiimi uf iLe pr w ac o of wtaiifa 
ob>iMbi vrrj' Hijmquc 1o tho cur 

919- Resonance. — AVJi«D soHLdt at* nUected I>ori a 
dUUncv loo itmall to prpcluoo a dUtinrl oclio. Ibv f*Akx?t U 


It i* th? rv«niiniii«- fium dii: wjilU of a ivam i\M uiakc* U caihr 
Id flfvak in A cliMfHl nfurtirrnt ttui^ in th? iqwu air. Tit* rMonipc* 
i» in<»re clftwiy jxrvcticil irhm ihc waIIa wp dftibc. In rwon* 
whm thrrv am mri^vli. i^ortttn*, rrufff^l ruroTtrirv, hthV iK* lil:*, iW 
foaoil- WkiTu are bn-k^ up. ami Ihp rtvciaaiiiv U t)iEiiiE>iitlir<iI ^ b«t in 
ho(w« vImvv Utnr k tw> fiiniiinm iho rMmiAnA* ia MrvngibfOAiL 
llencr il i» iJiut tbe •numl ^if ^oitv*. fuHjidri^ ^^< ^ *^ >tmcl7 

MO, Refraction of Sound-— Swiml na.v be n-frad^d. 
or bput (7Ut of ii6 c<MirM-* aIkii paA^trtir fro<n one nMdtmi to 
aooUivr oftflill^it-nt ileti^itj'. Tbia ik Ktiovn in Fi^. IM. 

A U ft (TklUhllon or nilitwr Inllooii llllr\l «iih i^vriuiiiv uM 
gv. The rn^dopc U «o thin tLi^t tU? souii^-wavcs ve tnau- 
KBiUod to tlic gM inside. 

Lh ■ mtcb, r, l>r bbi^ irf«r ihia B3U-k«fi. B^ X<m r4Mf> lb* 

KTEyi^rTr OF soryD. 


Mf A frw fn% iVinn The k'la* ni /, tiniijf a i-Iab runiirl, /', bo urint 
light, *iij will til trml^ ulU^j llini •ub^ect, 

aat. TfiieriKity of Sound. — TliU itnntlly (kprnilv upon 
iheanipiitudavtihv \tbt^t\\ttt*. that ii. Ihc npacc tKrnirgfi vt'lntlt 
Uic molccukft iiio\c to antl frv»- U \'nri<-» vpr>' dourly us Uic 
H()iiarv or Uie amplltudo of vibratiorL ol' <bi» [iioboiil^v of flir. 

Tb* fnt^^rUlv nf utiinil (litHiniaUi^^i u* llie virmn? of llii- 
dtblAucc fK>m the aoiiorouH botly fuvrcavcai Ihut U. Me iV 

Ylg. iffl. 
IfTTHil^ of Mouikd tmet intvrttiy a$ the t^uiirenfihc tfittaaet /rvtn 

Tlitf LlctiAily uf ibe lilr iii(>fbfi«> hiund. In nnrtii-il air bouqiIa nrv 

ftii»Uc, wbilr lu coihltTiuod i\\r tbry iirf bjU'b'r tJuiTi hi ibi< t'tiliutj 
AllnafphcN^ Thp 4-tid iiiL^ttAi'i »i'iiW^ TIl*^ vrlfH-iiy '■{ A-iiiid la 

1Ih» JiiW'Liiiu 'if tJm vin4 MU«|itf^a viflj 9rvppcrH« tlig |irt>|iDf3li<iiii 

Tb« vtfixl ■/ ibv wiTid i» Ui iMrnrv ibv wbulo iDHn uf iiir, OMTfiug 

S'lnuil u iu*rc4:>rj iu intcnfliir wUfn thff tonnrfmR b<>dy b (n con- 
Iticl Willi, *.T rttfn tri ibe iii^^]i>ir>rlt4«Kl o/ muilhpr bofly njtnlib) of 
MtirLliitE in urii-on niib \u McYixm \\w bouqJ uf a ^ibriiiin^ oovil u 
rcitirnnvl cir )>|jvbf(lh#ti*(1 by Mrvfrhing H «iTpr >l ttm biix ^VM 



viiiliii nitit till- lirm vilmiUA iu untwiN iffllli lliir mnl. T^k HoelraTJi 
vvo^m; rn*-, -|tfn nl t^Do or botii r^xinmiilin. Tlit ■mind ijf Ibr 

sai. Inicnsiiy of Sound in Tubes. — Wljru n »un(I '» 
hitrmlly ; tvnd, L^^jijwijDvnUy, Ihe «ouiitl 18 coiivi-^ini to » 

[IlciT Will dNi' ti> cjury "ii « i^iii^-L'rvili»Ti in .\ UfU- tono lliTuugli 
ji rutfc rt ibi^ourjLt Tiwi in kuj^h. Ik- wyt ih*^ tvnoA vw imiuMniiUii 
•u wcti lliAl tfiun^ vru bill our yttj it> hvhIiI bpiti^ bMrJ, and thtX 
viu iwl tu PjH'nk ht jU^ 'riiih iiTujrtTtj^ if ii)W» U uiiLwil Ln buidn 
and tlwUing-bouvHM, fi-r iruuuiiiiltiifr iu»ii4^«« from (jiiu tt-ir/ (*> 

aaj. The Spcakine-Trumpc*. — Tbc S|«iikiJi(f-Tnji»- 

p«T>. a» iu rinnic Einplicsi irt 11 Ui) Or bnba lulx.-, conicnj to 
«bftpD« i:m|jli>>v(l lo iruiiiuiit the wA'st tu u giviii <liBtauoc. 

Tbv t^t^X LfT ibit i^fHTHkiiiij'truiiipi'i hM U.-^a oipLajiwd iy roocta- 
aive rr-lliH^liKi4 nf WMiriil-rtHViA fnirn tlii> xtnonniN riiAT'^iTfa] nf which 
lh« u coinpw4?(l< Vy virtiM* iif u-hich tfao voioc U inUii- 
rjiriDil (luly iti the liin-rUnit til ilio mW. 

Lu tUmlioii iif iu Axu). bui Ln nil ilirvcUiMi«L Tliln ooujil itidjroEe 
ibnt rN 'ITn-i kIkiuM b« ntinboiHl i-> a r«-lnff)tv«jn«Dt at iti» v<>hv by 
tbc i-ilKnlkmi <Ylhr rolunm ii| lur rAnWti<4 ID ibo tniiiipri lii uritsua 
wiih *t, ■wi'frtiUL" lMtlwi»riivrpli>tbhi miudA u ruQloncd by annoit- 

2M' The Ear-Trumpet, — The MAr-Tnimi>et U t^n- 
litoyod by |irr>r>n( wlu>t^ licufin^ » ckrvctiw. U i« eiinjitv 
tliv «prAkiii|i-inKn|K-i n-trnx^l, nttbuiii^i xivf prindpUi U Uk« 
vujiii>- It miis4»U of a v*>m*:a\ tub*!, titmrtl In !M\y ron- 
^^iilcnt direction, 40 tb^l Uic itnulkr oircnbg may enter tb<> 

rw !» «(-1k<t «iiil H-brt-uinu x\tv matu^wura. wkicit Hn' 


tho#Bf. Tha AhAfn oflbf* rar ta intrii itnl m mLllilHls U Ktrh cui to 


I^^■pll^lio(l tl]tiitraTb] by TcicJmc-Fork mi.l R.'ll, 

QfimcutoK* an^l Inlrr/m-wtiv t^f S<tn*t' Waia. 
nitiMmi'il h} !L Tui]lTijd*-K»rk, 
Sg»nJ iQcroiiM.^ by fiilncub'iiL'f uf Ivnimt- Witvrtt. 
ftoQiirl ilf^iTityiul bj lm*ffiTPHi*ftf Snuriil-Wiivch, 


I^tuuttiod bj Tuninfc-Fork. 

In ibv Air mul iu ik VAfituiki. 

In l.liiiiiU Jtuil ^1 JidL 
VthcUy of Samd m A tf. 

K»En|iI<4 III clmTtntiio iUi VoWlty- 

EffiTi if ilu^ Dtufcitj duU HUMltiiy ini its Vrlucliy. 

Thi* Liiv of It* Voliri'ity. 
Viioeity f'f Snuml m LiqttiiU. 

EfaMr>p:i fnr rtri' V''<1>jrjiy nf Siimil rhhiii^b I.HjiibU 
aikd S(>ImI> U-iii|| yfTMtrr tJi^tii tlinJii|Eb Air. 

Ecbi'im. — Hi»w fbnntJ. 

MqftJliTr Kdhiri', 

ftiMiml vnuUrl Iry titlliH-.tkiiUL 


RgfiaeUon t)f Srjittnd (omliiiiHtf)- 


Jntftuiitr^ of Sovnd. 

Lnw uf luu-iifliiy- 

aa5. A Musical Sound icmilu fVnm n Mic<W4«Ion of 

3l6« Noi&e iVHutCn rti>iii a single (mpiiLao, or rhun n kuo* 
<:«efaiuii or vibi'ALa'iDs ut Iri'%-ukr [nkrviilti. TEjiiH', <ht^ vnuAt 
<if fi whip^ tlic dUchnrifr of n ]iinXo\. tVir inttlintc of tJiiiDClcri 
Uio roni' r>r tbc wiiw* of the ocvnn. are UuttHuIc of mMJoal 
VMtu«. tind luv xi]ii]j|j i]Lii-->r-4- 

Thc HifTc-r^mi: bvtwrvn a miLHical scund luiil a n<nw oq be 
lllu«tr^itc<1 tv ^AVAi[T> WhM (Fig. l<j?')- Tiii* ocHi&i»U of 
A h^Avy iHmo ftUjijMiriing tiro w)i^J«, A aiid J^ ivblcti ftn» 
(x>nEicc-£rd hy a liniicl, D. 

Hj v\rn\i\i: ilih cthiilt, ^^, iliP ii»(iihH wliiH'l, fi, ram V nunln ta 
rrvulvir ^-UU icrc'iil m^iiLtj. If u t-anl liif liolil •|:iiiiiA the l«tbi 
wHttii Ltj ni|:ihl nimEim, 4 vrry iJirlJ) TJiutbul lunv U piuhiml, viirf; 

ihp ina!] n^M-lnuL ihr ntnl are lirMnl. 

Wo •«« llial wlrfTi tlic Iftfifl rufur vrilh anJlirt- nt Ti'T'^iK^tc;, iKiU i*. 
ILiora lh»U Ifl piT AMViiid, nj u m ftum n rmifirjurxi* ftuiiiiil, \\\v rffm 
b iDUsinl. If the 04f^ Blrikft n^iJUBl \i\* \Au-r\ kw» thau |U \t^\i 
|KT Hvdjil, I)h^ vriumtp tnjv udklf mtiII W liwinl> but uu iDUiilcsd kuu» 

Wi? hjkvr Hi Jt nn np^ininw fiir tndirotlnir the mimlHT of mrnlii- 
UokB oT iftc lii»l]^(il wIihL 'V]h* nri], Wing struck by t^nch Toutb, 
nakraui ui^^tij vibratlHiu jw it^rv ji;t' tf*'i\i. Multiply \ht' nairhor 
or rrWnlvfliB hj l>iv nuinbot of tp^th ia llio trbocl, asil vrr havo Th^* 
(utal niiJijWr uf nbmdirUB. ]>ii)-le iTtr jrr<iilucl by llit nurnbiT iit 
tfnifiili, And v^^H ibff DDinlMT of vit>nr'iMnK yn v^nnl. 

937. Pilch of Sounds. — The Pitch of ft msBicol flound 

TW fn«|^ Ihr U'hwE Mm* lKi> inrpro njiSil jkn> lEtP d1inl1ti>n« of 
U)A fdlcb, Th« Jovrr llio ivti^dl mmi. ihn mvL^rtc la the ovo. 

a^H Hu^c> — Thwip toimd* wJiU'h n*iiijll IVom vi?tv mpcl 
vltirntvkCLv arv nillini crnfi*. wlitUl iIei'H' nliirli ni't!fL- fruin Vt.'i'j 

Lilkpr aouaiU tU-pcnJ^ <iti iJio umEiUtudc ^f ilv vibmtiotia. 

339. The Siren. — Ttii? Slivn U an fuArrmnrnt <]«<fl fijr 
]mx)«dtiK muriical U>]ii:n, Jiiid at the «iioc Umv; ilcUniikaiiiK 



. «fe *• »*- ••* 

ft liibo opcnif^ into it from bf-loi*. W tlw puqicMt or ^iiii- 
tiiig ftir. Tbi? tii[>orihe [.cylinder U i*ovc-n"'l willi a >»rft« 

MTii?« of hole« itmkiijzvd in four coo- 
CTHtTic circW, cnntainlug ti. IV. IV. 

n bra^n dUh. uWi r>cifom1cil «Uli fottr 
friaries or \\o\i^, cvTivK|>cin'lin|[. in tbotr 
gt^iii-ml nrnkngi'iDeni and cHituhc^cfren 
one aiiotlivK «>\t\i llioa« iii ihc pUlr. 

n Ater-I ftxU H iimr oiilIk. p umi /v', ait 
HiiKH^lhlj b?i-t-U«*<l, y lo ft iii|i> ihr 
/ ' ' 0uaJ<vt. z. antl ;* to receive a ImuM vnp 

ttli«n ttitr inalnnmoni 1ft roiuTj- fbr imo, 

^^^^"^ Tlir prrfrirHlIiiTiM ilu not pwa prjprti- 

J^^^^^^ M[i|HH]liT illnviiiiii*, hh lli4l wlHTb air n 

^^^^^ fcra^d thruugb lie hulfs to the krvtr 

II plAtr, it olll Imi^b^ on on >l<lr i/ thr 

ho|« in tbff irp^wr |iUtr, nud thai 1>li>m' it 

^ rwiiMl Ji) n <l<-D]jiU* iTirrtT'fUK Ap il tr- 

tcItm, 1)i« hole* (d d b AT* blltniAUiEjr c^-otin:! Miil plcttnd 'lliv *ir 

eonlng InfAth^ fjUmlrr tliriHiirS the lulvr, <, lTiua vi0qi[h« iljnm^ 

ili4^ hpc«tur>r itL itv njifvr pliv- in ■ 

vufTieMitl rf puflk The poflt ociii-ii 
llirtic^h tli^v^y al fini idiI <*a4 h« 
DituutriJ, but A« ibr ilifik nrtnlr* ftuirr 

■ lid AiMra lh«y UAll* ihllr VibnllOW 

iiiiu ft nuHCft] iiul0i ih* plub uf wklvh 
]■ bif;h«T lu pmponiuD h^ 111* ilicJ— 

Tho n^/iihilaunii^ihoilbkiirb i!ti|^ 
IcfTil by innfti 1/ ibc apfiMmtaft ibvan 
ku t>. liU. Dm iW ufiNv pain of th« 


Fl«^ 1st 

Alb uf lie JUk b ADfuJksiMRw cMiiiMtinc niih n iwr ul imidinl 

ftp;, l^ii j^ Mi'ii lilt* ^r»4iiJtTnl JlAl'jilnUfl fm ihv fmnt fif 
lh« Sirvu- I'ho lii4«M« »f «M«h dial ikiv «mii<icrli>J ^Ih lltu di>ffk> 

liod* fif 1Tj« u1iivl«, and n^'iiicv Hie ruvolutiotih. Ttic >U>pa, m, 4, 
9, p, an uAtt} lo i>p^ ur cJuM i!l« <3iArrfiil Mti^of onflcfv- 

330. UeihocI of cl^trrminin^ 
the Rapidity of the Vibrations 
of « Sonorous Body. — Lvt mi' 

uf bcllovrjt. Noti< ('nivrillU m!i<^[i 
the loflie t>r l^L' Sirtn bkiiflii witU 
tb«t of X\w i?oitiidiii^ boilj. th<< 
niiiBb>?r of wlicw vlbnlloTH «ri> 
wlftli to aiiooitiLln^ Siiji[MMti> \\w 
outer wtica lu tw oiJrf(». Bi&leru ill 
nwDlwr* (dioir thvdii^h to vibL-uifi 
01M nilnut«» tbffn ivfl>l tKii* Lfac- 
dfalN liw nnnilwr of n>\x)|iii,ioi>« il 

Wi* will «uppc«» the nunitwr tn hn 
J<4Dr b"<l fer cvfTj rfT(>luri"'»ii of flic 
rfbik ll!|f-r« WIT" in |)Tiff« *if 4lr nr 
«ui»4-vaT«i ; tliorvfriT" %\\ff whole 
nwnbvr i» fimnd 1*/ inrthifjlyjn^ ' 

1410 hj \%, nfiidi )iiv«« u rv«ill «*f ^^>r- ^ 

33,04IX TbU nqmUr iil**! rtt^irt-ttm* th^ librfttlMna ■*! i}i«* ht'im<I' 
ing fcodj, Difitie ihii rwiili Vy tiO. itnrj w* u*t »|, ihe uuinUr 

MutkiU Umo* uv m uni«<^n «rhcn tho iiurjiUtr of vibmtiunt tu n 
muoJ In tl^i MrhV. 

If tbtf innar M*rlN of h<JM thoulJ tpr< njirnrilf iTir l^iat^ prtrilo^cd 
WiitiM tir AD ortavr Lpwit lliin iliat mmlc li_r tlir oiifi-r mi*-, llii- 
*)lmlkiii« bctog otter half lU inunj. JJeiimi ilw w?iA^f vf ciuy t<pht b 
Aiaod b? amhipljb^ v\\* \i]i^ijitut of llri^ ti>ur by 9 ; tf wv ^KAltU 
th«> vibMJtfiiaiiflhr<'c<£#\rr, vv i|i>l ^ octAVc, a^^^ vivu. 




931. Length of the Sound-^VAve. ^ The dfalkMD 

tUiTJUgli A^liit'li -X mjuml'wuvi' Inivi^U hi otn? vibration of llw 
Aoncjroua IhhI;- th Uig virr^i^'/^n^f A . and b^ krmwiri^ l|i« vi^k^cit^- 
of poiiiid ftir any l<<ini>crntnro Ibc lonfTtli of tl>o «oiUHi-ir» 

Snp[miD ihi> Tf<iii|h-mtnr« Uiinch »i Ij^ ^\vp h vrUfcAxjaf 1131 
prr wvuTjd flip ihc forciiKitt irave. Tb*r< nre 3W jtodcifium wji-r 
ntr^dtng I I2fj by a^, nv flml I>i4> IfDOl^ ctT Mth vati^ tn bp ■ 

-f, If iW iiuinlirr itf mim be 51*'^. t^L^ H/i«T-ku^ilj u-t-uld U* 

Thp otMIdatv plT^'Vi of H vpoTUHn'ji viiliv ii fu^nfatili>mt to li* 
Di^vo fibit^c A liitui'i ici llii^ hiv^r **Mmiljii ^J n^un-nitlK'n } in 

vmvil Lirctria in irrdinnrr onriTcranlioit iTc ftviii tf t-i 1^ fftrl^ ibiMC cJ 

ji v-ijinuii ^ I'l 4, Tlr fininmi fur j« liintr'^l ju lit nin^ nf bntn 

Summary. — 

Difforrurc bcm-oon n M>i*iml Snuml amI a Norn, 

HhIuk! iif lindiug thr Nimtltcr iif Vibmiions p«r ftctftiai 
PtlC'li uf Miitiml Aduurlf. 

JlluHtriktml l.y $«t-Art*« Wbp<L 
Iniriijkliy nr Muhic'jil SituiiiEii. 
The Sittn. 


Mcrilv tjrOiwmiiun. 

MvIIkkI i-r m'itrOlng ilu^ Vtbm[iKiii»iirii Huunitrn^ Bady^ 

Mf^liwI uf ni>iliii^- the- NiiLnljpi- nt Vibmci-^aa per S««ODd, 

UijIk-u ui Mutitil Ti'urv. 

Jtolo fitr finiliciy iJifi Octtvii tif nay Tuiit 

finrfr ^rA« Hua^n Eor tn fi^riH^ iVomif ^wn^ 
33a. Tranaverte Vibraciona of Cords. — We Imvv 
alnulj (Vfii (Art :f07) iJint nLon n Mivtdieil i>ord 1* ilmvii 
Aon ito pOAlttoi) uf ifquUlLitiLiui anit nlciuiltHi^. it tvturna U 


vtBkA rtvN^' OF cohi?a- 


ht pMitien of mt by ft «i[<>cM>ioii oT continiinl!,T <l«crciUiinE 
Coi^h (Movl in miiMnil mNlruuenU are gi^iuTmllr iDfldc or 

<irnTiit2 n bow Act<i» tliom, ab in the \kiliti ; hy drawing 
UvHa iwiflo. M hi tliv har|>: or by pifrvui^«i»n ivilJi IttiU> hain- 
.men*, ua iji IIk piayM, In ull of t1ii.'M' o»ki'i^ ilir vlbrurUuiH 
an tnmttfraat, tbnL l&, llie looTf^mvubi Ukc place pfTiwn- 
(llculArly to tbo iLirtcijUEi of tbc cord. 

Tht uumbrt pf ^jbmuon* of a ttfrttlnl ami in any ^ivan iiiTi#, 

333, Investigation of the Laws of Vibrations, — For 
MiKlytng Ihv I'ibniiiiiiiF? itr v4tnU- nii inHrniiiieul I'all^il I^k' 
iJt«Dw^flT iT[\s- ^^^) ^* i»M^<i< In iU prcuntt rorni tl ooeialMa 
Q woocfcn bj>i( nbont Toiir fcrt in IcnRlli, upon whklj ai'c 
'riiwaImI tttn 6xoil Srulf^ei!^ .1 jLiul /f. ntid k movahh* oop. ii. 
Oil Uftwf liriil^ccv. two uunls, C D anil J A AuiU-nt^d ^I'litly 
it oht* ofid itiid yLiiHMTii!; <]V4'i' pnlli'>v at Uk otiict' end. arc 
atrcloh*il by moans of nvr^litfi. P. 

T\i%i folluwinjf itn* thif bivr* ilini ^iivrni ^i) ii\iiiA«t id <i^A)n.\Vwia« 
Iff a piiid ju « diro/ ciiH# ! — 



lift knipb In* rr^ldL'cil t« <itir fi^ilf, A4 tf iL« l<^ii|Eth br n^aned to "ft* 
liiir ihff fi^tr, vf9 vidudll^ cvlnw ilio t?Q|cili t^f tbc vibniiafC poftiv*- 

iioaa I'arin iurnrifitf ai iVji dittmrirr. 

SinnlF mnl'; viWrilr tiiiii>' mjilitlv l\\ki\ I4r|;ai>n4«, Mini nmanioiDt]/ 

uiEuiy vllimiliinh aa onr^ »kf <I»n1it(T ilu^ mw, Oihvt Ih^in^ being.. 

3. TTic /wi^rrt ffiri lue tc*nj (Ac mnitf| lAtf unmhtt of rw'hntiiomf 
tijriet m th* aqnutt rool ftftfte tttl9i0». 

If A (4irJ rfodcTa h ^Ucq nuic, k iHllp If lu UiuaiifU bi> ijViuJfifpMt 

ill ptriu^oJ JDHtruicir>riU W lii(?aiiji iT 4U Ajip^uuluj fur tucrPMlng «f 
ilUiiiiiUhin||^ [](»■ r'nixiiiii Hi (i1i*pt>un.-. 

4' (^htr rhtn^t Ift'ny e^urtK tAt number of wihraliong ntnW 
invtrtrfy mi the nifunre rw* v/chr dtnsiijf. 

Dmier cnftlq rviuitr jftawr tjufi'd ibnu ib'wo nriendviuUjr. Smatl. 
bj^lii, «nJ ih-irt a>Mh, Mi^'iigty -iiv(<thwl, yi«IJ B^utf itcik** trgi^t 
<lc!ii«>, BUil luu|E ojjiLw- uul Mfuugfj tCirldjnlf /itild ^nit« dOteft- 

134* Verification of the Laws. — Hjese la«rs cu be 

If lJi« brittKi.', I), Ue niMm^ m ji* lu rvuilpi C I) n|Uik] Li taw linlf ijf 
j4 W^ ilicf Thitn iif thu liii> o..'nU will Jiftt by nu (wUtp; thftt U, 
<?/J uill tlliiair |4j[^ u f)v<i a» A B. UCD bc mmlr c^i^ id 
'•w U\\n\ "f A if. b)' imrvinjf ihp bricl|p.\ VA tljtf Ibnncr viU vlbnio 
thtti* thwn tm fju»i iw tliP UUrr, rnxl » ou, Ttila irnflcv ll»>nC 

To nrify tlic MfOnf Uvr, we rrutwr* tbr lihilpt, />, nuJ use tw 
«orI*« oua tff vh'nh U Itvyr u biT|p< m ikt vthicr. It witt !■• fevkd 
rJ>r rjiiirv fi^Jilc^l nill tllffiv by ah mUvc- Ifoav curd It tbcvrl 



T*- *mfy UiU iJkuJ U«, let Ibv lav. ci>riU Ih> Hlika^ vi4 ilfotah 
nlht^^ Tlio mr(i» will differ bj «i c^iavn. ttf rhf KfirMtiiij; Tirw in 

fix ini 

ooifr u vdao tinerca llurt m Uio otiier am?, tho b>ni]«r will vitmiA thne 
tiiBOM Cm iB ibe LaUer, tuiil au on. 

To renfj till* foaafh Uv, w« muko «■« of ft>rdH er|iial tn Vf^Df^f 
tin*, noil n^ualljr Btnrtcht^, \mX uf itiilviTUl dfriudUiH, ft Vi\l\ be 
(mad that th« U« i« voriti*d Ln ovt^f m«^ 

235, The* PciiiTuition of Nod«s, — In \\vti Sononwifff 
llw TOTfl ia BlH>rtci^«l by moani of n HioT»Mr Timljfft whkb 

of th^coM (Fig[- 16't). ftnci ilniv % bow a<To«M <?U4! h&VC<)C ^Ks 
kMD fllnll JBPC tfre uf Jtr of lite U>n4> ^v^n \v^ vUi? wVAk ^XAnq^ 


190 ACOt'SIICS. 

\\V «4n jinivT- iIidI omIi port vtbnUB by llaelf if wc p^jw * tilth 
|i4|N>r rjilvr oti (lit* ivnirti ul tjiir liiUf tho iiring, and then 4rair tin 
hvv Jh^iKA ilic I'lltfT \\a\I, ki^|iUi]|£ UiD finithct iLiciumLilit i*q Tht 
uiiddip tJ tho wIi'jIc iiirii^^, I'liu tidit- wUI W iLn/vn off ^j 
tbd viUmliuiu of ihc purl tin wlikJi U b jilacnL 

HoU thv fuHtlu-r itur thiiU ihu JiAadov frvai Iho «ul of the vnfr 
(Pin;. l<£6)i JLud pl^ici- a liliiv liJcr on Oic coa1n» of ihv Uf|;ffi ili^isiim 
Hiirl H kmI LiM(r uti thv itiiil'llc uf ('iif}i hiilf oT IfiU tltv^tiua, Ursw t^ 
Ituw iir<f itiU ffbiiTU'r hi|:iui^uU TLu^ icti riilrm vitti W lhri>wii t>f, 
but the liliia ont> will r*>mujii ; Hliim'jng l\ini thv Urerr diri^Mb 
vibratCA id ivro <i)dii1 ^nujciivt* wliivL am MfajuivJ fmui FAcb ulbrr 

f f iho fcAtbtr In: rfujufWil, tXtv fttHrv nlnui^ will <v>iiliuu« lo tibiVi^ 
in ihvsv rqiikl iLiTUkiu vi%h tha aiAt^ l^awmn ihcm. In ilw mjwt 

vibrating juin«, H'[iuriLLaL by nudn. lu fiift. il U luiptnubbj ti^ 
KJQiid tbu wbulc 4vrJ trUbiiut nt tlw unit time producuns> iu ■ 
fprfGilj<r itr Ipxh (b^^rvi>, thfi \'rT>rAliniw of lU HlI<^niJl |url«> 

>36. Mcldc's Vibrations of a String. A Minpk- de- 
vice by Mi.'l<i[> uxMl>ita lit vibrutiOTi^ of a string wLlb groat 
boAiit^ anil Jirlk-Mc^'. Oiii' I'lid uf a Fiilk Hiring U ittUcbnl lo 
a M'liw fiVkkneU U> C4IV prong i>f h Xuwiti^'tork : the oUkj 
end IB noiind ubout a ix^g buiho Oi^tuniv oit* 

T^him Lltn nrlnje liy luiulng ttur |ieg. uioU It vibnUa oa s 
whdo, wTicn tha Uw in dr»irD HnhJM tbo fork' IliD itrisg n% «ac« 
vi|Hunbi iuui Uie fonn of ■ !»|i1ndlD vhon gvaAimr tEitnd» fmani 
» U«uljfiil n|rpcunineo. Lvl lb« Mnng \t* n.'Li3i4d « liltti-t Mid nv 
hiivr luo vibniiiti^ w^iiMi^ut^ ; n\a\. 3(jU irmrf, nud vr bHvc ibrw ; 
auiJ jf Wft ri'ittiTiuii tbff pnicna, iwuiiEj* kml iiu.>rT umy tt» ublniAfd. 
The tUtlujsiTf uihIiv niLiLniHL finrly villi lltu dcJOaliail H^liunlU. 

337. LrODfltudinftl Vibr&liona. -String or ivlrrM tnay 
iklio bo iBi<l« to Tibmlc b>ikg^uifiinikllr by rubl>&np Iboro In 
ihe direction of ilwir It-rigUi wiib a Uiw or }>imx nt f^boinolft* 
Leatbi-r ixai'ItiI «itL rt>«ln> The wMnds lUii* obtolocO tuv 
of much bij£hor i>itcli Hum Uimc produced by tranavr-nul 
tvb/ntion^ 7^« a^errtfr tlu toirt ikf mort rapid tttf f^^tfiiadinai 

MMMbn# dnrf thf hi^ht/ fh* ptttA. Thi> in inHrprnflmt of the 
fora or <Uftnictcr of tik* Botiioo*, Huboncortlic wirrji of the 
ftOni>ni«-i«T vriUi r^xincrl Ic-athpr in itu? cllrc-rtioii <jf tu lenglh. 
nnd wc bnr« s lutiAiciU »uimil» Mov« Uie brid^ arj us to 
dUuk- Ihn »vire into two i--jual pnrid, nibom?or \\w hnh'o», 
and ibc iM'iav* uf Tim tthijh^ win* U jti^i^**' Hii*' Uw ItoWs 
tnic in rr^^til to i>k1s jib wcil oh wires. IT yra cban^ the 
tPtmioii ot tlir wifr. lh^ ImiKllcnliLiul TihruTiunit %rv nhMllcnril. 
A iimicu-HE IrtMninvnT 

III h1ei>iv t^ir W);itikit[l;nl 
vtlirtTloriiL hht iH'on eon- 

ihiurf l*tp n hurp in 

^^■ih.ii1r-T| rmU »f rlilTi-nfiT 

]i>riuik* (lut^l ,i[ miprMl, 

u^ \)\r,\ ihilM of lUlTi'rfiil 

(>irrlj ar^ cuUlti-J. T'ji^ 

riidi nrv nvi in ^bmihm 

by njt>Uiii( ihcni »'i[li 

|]m> f**ioril lirig«r» 

If wrc gm*p 4 lonjft 

^buv tiilx bj (If ivniiv 
villi trtic li.ii»t rth»l mb lPi(- appf-f K-ilf bruhly 
Willi 4 wrt i"J<rt*k in 1^1* irfhirr lrj»rul, llu» bmgi- 
HKlhiAl ribmlkm* ruay lir^ Mdi-'irnl li> nhitrr 
ilip fuA hvnly^x fntm lU^ hAnd into rfnfe-iiha|Ml fnhgiitvnu* k«Mni 
In Fv- Jt.7. 

r>^ IW, 

Fifi. 1*7. 

238. SympAtheiic VibvAiJonS' — \t n curuug-lWIc U 
Duulr to vibmUr. uni^thcr Ibrk o^ the tnikJ^' iiEluh nnj'wh^re in 
the vicinity niil be iJironn hiio slln^tiwia ab^u L^ Uje iiii|i^l 
t>r Uic flOQiid- wave's in tU air ; it' t)tc forkit Arc inouiikd <ki 
tv4i'ii»ni 1h»cM. tbv HCiLiiid RiU be inlcuHiflcKl by rv^onaEice 
auJ tbc t'jri'ct bi^ btrtUr. 

'ih« uoujiijboartl «jf tlic vioii» \ibrAtJ«t|t niUi tiio »tnn^, 
utiil, ill f«cl, alJ ca^ra oC ntonaiiuc on? triiny iiitLttimi of 
■jiti^tbctic ^Ibi'Htii^n. Jf a tone U ^rokni^mX \j^ Vto n^Jok 



nWT n piJino. a wiro of iho «nine pitch a* llio l6no witl rrcponrl 
tJ) iU If the pilcL tie tUuii^edi uuoUiur witc nill t\:Ti|Kfii<l- 

Itftny MEnmplM itii^ht b« bmuglit Vurwxd lo Kluiflato thi* lopw. 

*' IfTwri i'WUn fur i'$jirrip1'>, vtiih ]H'ijiIti1iiiiia nf thi< cAir>r pv^^iJ il 
vilfTDTiftii, Kii |i[]ii.hhI ai^iiunl tIiO '<iiit>*< vrM]. and if ciiir nf lliv rk^ln 
In* iifl iri'liii: xrtii iltir MthiT iiiiIh ihiT Uvlit 'ft iho iiiiivJny r-JiirK, rni|[»- 
mJlt'Hl tliri^"nh Uicf walJ, vill nci upon lU noitflibrtr Th* quifw^tel 
IvLbldlitrri, [rtincil by a unt^h lieUj vHiii|,'v tlinnugb > ti^ nthtii «fc. 
but it tvlumi to till* liitiil vf ifa <tnii£ ju»l in liim- U> rmirv ahoiLcc 
imjiulw, hy iMMliiLunm^ ^r llij^ j'nwn Hw iirifiiilM? v> mkl ilimi'- 
■rlviw K<pf(^ti0? Aft diki^ly U »rl Ilt0 iHock tfi^iriLt. It ^* by lliU tiimag 

aad tbat lh* aound of aa orsan oan briuk x fioruniUr imid<rw-|itti 

339. Vibralion of Plates. — Kig. IS« rapTM^U *' 
of rtirUl jtii|nn>rH'(l [it U>t <'4-iim>. Sprinkle MIdp flnr, dri- 
wiml oTtr il- UqU\ thr llnimb nnd flrif^ oi\ oiie e^g^ of tha 
pliil«. ftjid <lmw Uio bow li^-ljily aero** ibt o|»(>o*iU» ol^ 

Thi* bud nl uDfT b.-avn tltv rilrmtll^ |Qttc ftml pcciiiquIbIia hO 
th« niidal IruM. Tb«*Q lion vnry iu iiiiinlii-r *d^1 jKdalion A««ovd> 
hk^ 10 tlw hrm of Uiff plkln« iLeli rlimtlrLlj, Oio uMiln of cid* 
Uihm, nxi'i tb# fiuin1>vr«J «il>nti'>ii», Ely foiiehJDfi iba iribnttsg 
|iUlo tttdiffcmjl fHrjutpi, ibr ]h«Jiii>u «f \Uf miUl liitr* m»v It J/^ivw- 
roiikVd- la A^lg. IIV nmj bu wvu #uu« i;^ tluf U>-kU] fjniu* iili44hii<it 
LjT Ciller >M- 

o rKUTor^h^ — tsubhh. 

940. Ov^nonn, or Harmonfcs. — li Im^ hp<i>n «howni 

EH n «Mo, EUi'l nt tho nnnki* tim^^ in <4|nni |tAr1ii. Thi* uniDv 
rnny f* kiM of niiv tntiiiiHii^ bculv. Tcin™ c>rfiim|jlo cha-ntC' 
ter AEiiH>l. llieTrrore, bv i^heii oul tij vHirstlng iHxItea. 

Whra ih<» bo4y vibrnl^ m m whcrk, lliv idOf i>rwlucvd u cjillftl 
iKw/uwftfittnCsf. Tilt higbrr Tnnfri tfo IeioiIa hy tfir- ^ibftlioTt af 

141. QuA^ity. — Timbie* — Thi-- miiijcliiiff of Hie ortt* 
tonn wilh thiT T'uinlcuticntiii d^WniiliK-ii Uk^ ^itaJrty or cio/vc* 
r«rof Ibi* JiDiial, oMilvrl hy Uw [^nriioli, riMfrrv, 

Kk« iLd puno, lllo vi<4i*>. "T the lliilr, nm f^iviiig |lir> Minr fiib>i'L' 
■tmliiJ ponult ihM IJiey luf« au<h c1jn<<ii*nl #hani(-tvri»UiV 4^ V' 

nmVAca. The ejpcrj'ril j *?f cihv Hiutrcr rivir niu 'iJiir 1> iinJt.ubteJIy 
ilnf. in A ATTrflt inmtiirr, trt A iiiuc^ ttn^ ailiigUlig of tlit ovtitonn 



243, Musical Sca1c> — Gamut — Th^ nt no4 only dis- 

which Ih mofli flfiitr, — bitf. It ulwt sppriMTiaUw the i^latkjiu 
li^twivn 1I1C tiLJinlH'i' i:ir viWilIuuia ('cina--ii|iuiidiii^ ta earli, 
W« cAHEiot Lvci:ipnii^c nhi^ibcr fur one &oimd lt)c utimbcrvf 
vibraLioikA U prvt'ini-ly lw[>, Uir««, or four lifiww ii« p-val il« 
Tinr >nuth(!r, biil wljt-ii lh<- miiiib^r ^if vlbrstioon L-onwpooil- 
htg to tno (fuo<;ftt«U% or aimnllJiEirouv «oiiiKb ]iav(> lo citch 
oUkt ji Mimplc rfllio, these M>iin^» fudtc An AtCncAlrlo inaprcv* 
etoi>, whii.'-tk vancA niUi tlit? ivbtion bcrtwi^on th« two aounijA. 
Pmrn llii^ prlnri|)1i^ thcrt' ruHulU a icrrira oT fUHindH rbarMV 
Irrij^i'il hy nAaikm^' whl^h liu^c ibtir oHpn m Uir n«Uirvof 
our invpCuI ui^nixatitiHi atid wbkdi oi>t»tituU v'k*^ i> 
a mutirttt trttff. 

|[ixut]rt iT L^i^liL |uLir.-» «icb. Each i;rou]t iwiL»tilutH wlint t* i^jJIni 

Tbc LwMB an uaidihI i&i> rr. nvi. /tt, «uf, Ai, ai, ^'v / l>ut thpjr u* 
HM^tuMd hy U>0 lviL*r« r, A A', F, (*, >4, £, C. la ihv iM* 
beUfw If iinvyi liir e^^UUme nuuiU-r nf ^ibmiJiHui lur mdt bPlc, I 

















I 8 i A i 

If wc know ihc niimW of tibntlJons or C, ire oaa Riicl tliv 
olbcra by ntult[|>Tvir^ Ihoiir of f bj U»c fi-icUoiia pUoed oT*r 
the cttitT noto« in Uw CirKt Ubb. I^c :!.'>6 ropro«»nt tlie 
¥ibnLt.ioii!i ur C Uu'ti il^L- liiillowuit! rLiiuibvni w\\\ df-nol« the 
vlbraiiuuti fur tacti note ; — 



















Then vpt kdIIjt bnt itvirL'ii ui>Lv« in vhal U crUikJ llio diatoDic 

hlmvt^ hAV]»|- n^HtJoni tu <iw uooth^r Kimtlnr to thuM of ttui noti 

Thc rtwJu ubtoiiwd La Ihcw Ubln caa l>i; vciitiBd bf tho Sitcn 
ami ^bupjtUT. 

943. Intervals* — Ttii; mlcrvul LM^tirc4>ii uny two notos ii» 

TIm.- DUturricad tului* of biij' tnterv:il lb fuLTid by divim^ig^ 
the ttnmb^r of rihraliun^ in a gt^<ii u>ue b> Lhc tiumbomfj 
viliTAlioiK in lliAl |>r4Hi<^ing it- 

In iho 6ill»wiQ.g tal^lA : ^ 
Cwtt Dt»E, KmF, FuiC, OtftJ, XurJ?, BtoC 

V I! 8 



u lAiW. n fourth, a fph. ^e , oh n^hjA ur on octan; thai, ihi^ 
lutprval bdnrtu (?niii] KUo fAiHL nnd is Wioal i'> \ , Uie mierrni 
iSrom C li> F I* a fimrtht «nl U •'^jnal t* |; llip iriTtrvui fivim nny 
nolo to th« ittxi QOto ijf lh« MH)(i ii:imL< is an c^fore, hdJ u nlim^ 

«|i]nl 10 t. 

If) thr fihTlovlQ^F <*M(> U » •iiiriiiiiirj iif ifji? mitlin nlripa^t^ if^vi^ii, 
fbr'»fX] opUltc afthf 4irkt'>Djo KnlfTf ftfr&i^L^nl i>ei llir iiiLi^mil vtjilf ; — 

Niimr of im^-tvul . Ihl 

c.] ;i.i 4[fi 3ib etii 7ih eni 

jf< ,Vi y^ .\if La s% jjo 

I> B r O A B c 

<if vibrAli-m* ( ' I i ! J S V" ' 

^'tf'^b.i'i *^ 3W a» WU W 4*» 460 Slfi 

gndc of bUorvAl* 




144- Melody. — A nitmbt^r uf toBoa of )ik« quality, 
var^idji; mtfif or kM in |>3lcli, following on» ftuolti«f wiUi 
rrgaliirity, in cnWt^i] n rjiKlodg, 

Th« air iti a pfc«M tirimikii* In aik piiaiii|de of nioJndj. 

145. Chords. — Harmony. — Di&cord. — Wli^n two or 

mort' i(.ititii]h Till.' ^ihJiliKiH] uC 1I14.1 viAuii' iiriii\ buviii^ kgm^Jibk- 
rolntiDQb \o uiit unuUicri h« Iiavo a rtioni. 

A siiccrftfiion of chijivia in mflodioirs order oonftUlat«o 

Thr 01V. in mnxii?, kiIIi NduuiEHinirnrnt. U >ti 4-:xatn|ilit of 

Wb<ri thoactigr(H>B bill rvkuUouftcloiiotvxUUwc have f/iWo^> 

The fiiniilt'Al nuJ iHirtV jiijr<iftil>U.' iMrmrpu.v uftura wbm iho iibr«- 
tiiiTii iirfl rnunl ill huiiiIkt; itn'Ti nniK^i '/wf w^rnr*^ ni o^kh ib« 
pDinber of Tibratium comepi^diiiiq Ur out* Muad is dnobW ttttt 
fwr^poadiu^ W ibn ii[b«r; ibiii Ih^ jiflh, in wbii^h ttin iivrnT^m 
in na 9 to 1^ i tSjta //u />ifr'/^» id v-hi^h Uu* aunb^^TD nrv » 4 to 3i 
4qd fltnJif iAf f/jiWn in uhirb ilif ntiii^ it ito iiT.'^ tj> 4- 

Tbo inon* (jv>|ili>tjL tlm <tiiiic.iii;a«i« tietu«oi^ Uj(> vibnilioii«| 1^ 

Summary- — 

TritiMTtrve TOruft'ims 0/ CVinfo, 

Hiwriptioti "f thif" Son-nortor, 

LciVVe l>r VlhCAtlirTIA, 

Vc^fimlion of iho Lawv. 

PinJtij-ii *'t X<hirJi on n String; 
Vibmtioti (if thr ^trmflEnp n VTb^ltfiTtD Qt^iMBl^ 
ifONffihitJinal VthraU'imx of >fin«t ntut Jfyd^ 

Vibmi»it of Plott*. 

Kxprrlinrnt vlih Vlatv mii ^And* 
Chladni'd Xodfl] tVffuif- 

omvAL STUS^r of ior.v/>i 19J 

Ninn uf KiiCff^ 

Ufhihr liT0j£ili i>( 3ihu^» Ui ^Uc riH'b f^uiri lu 

T^babiUN) Kuril], 
A McodaJ InirrvAl. 

BBCTiOff ui- — ^oPTic'AiiiTODt ortfouHOft. — uTticAL [VBTRinieirra. 

346. Optical Stutly of SounCe. — U ba* tiwn eliowii 
in ft j*n*v(ii(iH aiiH'' *»«i"' Hip I'ihmHfinn P\f^»iTfti by a *ri»o- 
njim Ixuly c«n be umiilt^l. The ISUvti auil SaVawt's W|icc| 
avc LnAtnimcnt* tutod fVir tltU piir|iofle- 

Duritij^ the Ii*t few yetr* |fbyttci»t* ha*^e stmlic'd carefiiily 
Ihi! TibnOiJi}^ tiiutioiDt of wiiriilizi^ IkkIIi's h\ meatm uf llitf 
V3Y. uhI dure thui» Ix^n ui(Ii?(HMi()i'ikl uf llic aid oE" the eiir In 
iJoU'niiiaJiift Utv rclnIion^lii|» of «0EiiirtM. A di-at yicrson^ by 
ttiU 4iptlr{)] itif<Thoil, can Ikpromt* fikilflil In JiKlg^ng cif ttii^ 
clLAnudrr uul lAw^ of NtciiuUwai^m. 

J47. LlAsaJous' Rcpr«3cntation of Vibraitonft*— Ooo 

iIpvImyI liy M, Ijuuficr*, n Frvurh )ihvslHM, Hp aiijirbrn n 
»mnU lorTalllc mliror to oik* pi'^ng rif n liiniuc-fgrk, antJ lo 
Uit oUicr [» coiinU^rpol-w to »*eurc rcs^bfitv uf vibralJoiHi, 
A !»j" of light from n hole in e. fiitlct»nc<l fhimnoj', a fitw 
vartln ili^liknl, in iiTuJi^ (ji ntnkt* Uiih uijrn^r. nml friiin tfiU U 
la rrlUctod to fti]i>ll)4:j mirror, mrl^kh a«ud» \\ Uj ;vVi ^lOlkt^ktodi^A. 

vtMiv^r^'iit lr-n«^ thin lens U *o pl*c«<1 M to pKifoct 

Whi<U the Tvrh in nl tutt, we \mvt mt thv BCnrcn a [nirunooi pokit. 
\\iv iinu^t- iif 11)11 h'lln 1» tfa« cliliniwy ; ^hvn It «ibnil*« l)jf tuirnvr 

lu lo \e»vt- n Uno of liaJii i<n ihf trn^^Ti. If wn niTrtlo Uin furh wtiil* 
it ia vibntiogi vr(^ i;vi toaiCLU uf tbc ttrati^lit Uoe « briglit tiitiiva* 
uiie. Tlir |Ki(i)liu(i »f iJiF ]ifirtft !■ ihtiwii In Tig. J7V| *xec|it llul 

^46. Vibratory Motions at Right Angles. — K we^ 

liAi- twii l'rj|'k>^, iJiii' lirir'i/<>iiT:il niifl \\ti* ttlht'V vpiTltvl, boiil. 

providctl wjtb luirroi^ aikI iirmny:vil ^l« in Fi^- 170, «e aluDi 



If ihf v^rij™.! flifh vtlimbM, vm pm>riT» * luH»iii'iii» lino In ft' 
liuJ itireriUn ; jf lUc^ btjrlstiabJ omv vlbnlov, nl^Uo tljo rrvtioiJ lurk 
It Ml nail, iht' lii]ii1riuu» Ijuc la luirivoDliiL 

ir bolh fitriii vtbroC" nl ihr vum^j ltin«, Iba tvrn inoi'ffT>r«t« nl 
riulLl iiHtil*^ xr'iW ixrubui'' luJ pt^iducv a liiuilmHHi rartCt tliP funn *tt 

111 A ifiirn liiiiT' Hjc Ji/ri>«ik fli-iw ltii< illnvii^ni i>f llifi nj uf \\^i 

•rirW ill Titf. 1TL 

Kv 1h<' mi'\ ttt ll^^f (iniidpU'ft, tunih^-furkf «n t« dompiufd «ritk 
« iteDiLiM tjrk v]|^ ^RQlrr iiictluvn ItiHU Wuuld b« tfcc utse vilk 



>40* Ka^cid^phonC'—Thc opticnl t-in*ly of dbifttfn 
khIii v&q Ifc fiiikdr t>y invtinB or nil lippixmtUH callriLl ilii> Wt 

Iiurrt, tritb ilie aid vt uu uwl ii kmttint£<nvvdlc nilh a glAs* 
bead on tJiu mil. liriuly li: ah md; Wonl »evcml iiic1i» 

. J, 

*quarD- PIaco tJir Ivranl on n UiHc. hui\ lioIU il tfgljtly witii 

AHjjut llii.' \t\r,\\l **tfi Eninp lo ThH riFJuii 1hi' Wad wlitii MitK 

now VMttM IImi iiccillc to ^-{hrat^T Ai^^ (lie ^P^t will lie dmMii 
oiit into ft tiriUiiiiit linr wbHk will rlinii^e iatoadrclv: and 

UiQi liii" HiunitliTortili' viNriTinii;* i% slicuvii. 

350, Koenig'ft Hanometric Flames. — ^Jtlioringrnir.Hft 
IfiilrumiTiilfi h«tv lieim lyjitMnict^-il fur llki^lnU.itkg tlic ov^lnL 
mvUiod. Tilt flfi/uraruf f>f Kotsm tran»iu\\fi \\w unn^tHccAA 

4>f Uic »oiind'wavo* to gts-floraoa, iinJ thew?, by Ojcir piiU&- 

y^f hnvr. \w Fi^ 17?. n iiii-TJil aiptuU^ A^ In «i>rtiAn_ Ttii* it 

or itiln nitiWrt Fmin^llNtrly Itclnw 111^ MiTilnri, j|. It m«i tile? ai|i. 
iiiilf> Bi4|ipnrtd iin a ftlnii'l ; <>tt (Un riglit i« lti( ,)>tvi jet. below U lh« 

iTir>iiil>nuu' ; i^rt iho tfft ih ihd tub« fc^r tho fOODd-WftVM U* rvwh 
\hv mrmUrniiP. To ibl* mny lin nti-wht-d n rabbcr njfci', wliirh mn 

trroilciAU) in a 'unuitt-fij^fv or Ix coniuvtivl v jth aq orgiin pipe. 

Wh<*Ti ilifi KiiJDil-vmm mili^ ihp iiiniiLlt-|i1m> adH 1ii1k\ tho thin 
in»iiibni.Ti(j U »al vilnittog, Tho jpu. w^Ji* |uu*Ut^ tKriHif^h tho 
I'lnnpHiljnrDt At iho left. U c^iuwi] I(j vlLriOf Iji a ciJTTC9ip(itii1tnj> trnf, 
■nd thiu th« flum^ iUrir ie «hnkoii iifi nnA Jou-n, 

TIh- cbunecs ii> rh<- liiiL'ih "f iW flmiir itn? immrlf firrrqii^Mfi 
vrhffu i1 U ohppriW iljno*!!^. ItrtI u Trubr Uinn ^tiD<-r|jr TUibl* 
Iht7 iiiAj l>tt it^ci'ivff! nil ft mirrwr, JV, nhb Totir HurM. Thk Iei nad* 
to rvmlT* by tn*iiiiv cf tus* roM'U'hoi>]# atj^I it 1iHi»ilIi*- 

WIijIv dw fUiirr buni« ntfM-lily ibr^n^ jr|i|ifar« Iti tlw ttiimir, wbrn 
tuntv-l. A mnt^nuoUH hunJ «f hi;h1. I^ut tf iJk* AifKliBiifirnfAl iKfl^ i^ 
jKwmWin rhr Tiflv nn ibr Ht i>t ihv^tnuW.tbalmAjEeof ih# lbini>> 



tflhov tb» Jbm nfVMttnliHl in Fifj. 1 tX ir xhe fflinvo bo ttmnrUKt, 
ihe uukfDoTlbc Baihc lAk« tUv form tccu in Ti;;- 174^ 

MiiJif *»hKio» (/ pah tiv wht^ti wvi^nj v-andi of 
■tilfviTCI inuii4il^n cqUt iho ItiUr ntfjtillAtK-iiutly. 

«iwift«i4>li of Mimmf^ im»jCFM ff ihc AAni«i wliir^ wr »r't vn tiini^ 
hig th« mirror, ix Hiii* in iho ^t \hM thr* Emh,E^i* nf nn obj^rt 
rriMiiui on ihc nirnii IW n iJUh^ timr AA<ir Ibp f>%]i'(Tl lUrlf hna 
tv^n fTfmivM- 

yi$- lU- 

3JIp Suinged Infiimmcnt«. — All stijiiici^il iiiBlnmiHiU 
r^f muHlc ore (Tnj-itnactcd in tt(M;orJar<T with ihf prvccdinj- 
Ib*ii, ThL*^: lur ilivi'lLH* inlfi mKlrumenta wiUi_fr^rf/to*/fiA, 
&nO iivtriiinmti* vrUh t-rtriahh tijtrntU, 

To ibe Ibrmer cI:lm Ia^U^ii^ ili^r pisiiio, Wm harp. cic. Tb^y 
htivc 1 cord ri>r ^ctHt l>ot«f or ir-W an nrranccmprtt U mailf* 
HO that liv placing Ihir Ungrr ai c^i^rltiiii jiointA, um in Ihf^ 
gulLar, tht> Hiitni-* i;f>n1 niuv 1h> inndr Ut miulrr HUiitJiil m^Us 
in ftuorcb&iofi. 

T/> Uw Itttltr cUm bi:doJif; tbv vloLin, tJie liolontwU^Kotc- 
Tlwy are pn>vkt«d vitti «otri« ^r oa^riit, or oonu^UncA oC 



arts mA<lc- for reG:ulatin^ the notes, ancb u Incrvpain^ 
t«n8]on, placing th(* finp^r upon the cordi, aikI the Kko. 

givut iiicL-tj <rL' mr. but iii tliv hnmU i>r ikilfiil [i1a>L'r>i i 
(XKi^ss grciit powtTn Thi\r arc tlii; khjI of thf uii:licb 
otid il i« for thorn tluit Uk.' liuoGl jiiocvM oT muMc htivi; 

jjj, Sound from Pipes- — Wbcii ihc air in a fijH 
bultuw tu1:w* is |ruc into vitimiton. it jidib a wrancl. In i 
CAW- it U 1'hc aXr wliit^h U the aon'm^uft body* Ibc natiirc t^f 
Ihft Hourid ikp^nditig iijton tlio foi'm of ilw pipe aikCl 
mjiniuT ill ivludi Uu- vilimlJtinj^ nr \i» ccntnin^ Air An> 

To piivlurA ft voimH rrom a ptiif, iln- roiilKiru-^l air iimTti tii*i1i 
Into a «iicf<'Mi<iti i>f ri]iJd cufjJisjwtitJTi^ aad nLrcfarliniu, whkh 
»iflivtt'J hy inln^luring n purrrnt vf e\i tlirxici^h s B(irtaU<> MuvTJh 
JfMVff. Twii prilJCiphI ft>nr« rtrv ^ivm Ia thij iinnilli-^rifiv. in n*i i 
whji'rii tlii^ imrf.H n'ljiulii tiint, Aiid hi thtt ritlii'T ihon' In ji iwim 
l>tD|rD^t c^dl«Hl n nvrL 

253. Pipes w^ith fixed Muulh-picccs, — T1]b «ii 
IIxctI infnali-piecea ore oT n<*wl ur rin-tal. rvdAH^fair 
iTJiDdrionU aikI hIwaJt'm of con^irl^mt'k^ kjkgth iH>nip»f«d «41 
their orou Bcctioiv. To thU clnRK Inlong iIil< flut^, Uw mj^i 
pipe, niid thf like. Somir i>f tlir- ri>rini" ^vpti to jiijMs at 
ciaa« arcRhonit in Tiit*- 17^-173. 

fV- 17^ ni]irr»<'nt« a m-UnitLiUr pifit Mt aiHi^, ft»d E1|C. l?fi 
>Ti4tVii thd furrn of iti loiiHliiitliiuil Wf^Un, P ivpfovuts ihr lake 
tlm^iijclt trhirli Jiif III f <r<vj liiio ii. Th>^ air {M»ai tbfvu^h ■ thd^- 

ihv »iiU- iif the f>i|ir, ffiU«l the pnoii'A. The npipcr Ihinlrr, A, <jf ll 

T>i0t L*UTn<ril (if air ftimni i^mq^li ihe T#at «|r1k4« nimlttst ih# 
uppci |j|', IB TtiiiipmMd. niiiJ (7 lia rlHviJcjfy. mict* iiimi thv tuitt' 
iE(f rwm-jyf, itud i«r An Innaut iiirr«U It- Tlvi* aiop^Mga I* nnljr fur 



HU iuAiADi, fW tilt* wmppr j ie i l ^r fttjiU nn ovitki ilimugli Uic m^uih, 
HffAJn jtfTTBilting tho tirnt \t.i wtmif hiL« ihr How foinmniMd 
than ll b 4 snuuii timv iurf«t'.<fi jia lK'fi.rn^ njjiuu lu (n fDauined, 

This dintiutirtd *rDr»l juiiL r'liWBBn rif tin- citrivnt nivc* ri«c lo • 
•dAMiutan »f ribr*lio«, irbirh nn pnipnf^tn! thmigh ih< Itih'*, 
.ouu^ng 4llrmidc «nd mpid condDii«ntkoD* ildiI lutvftxliQttft which 



iH ^ • COodDUouji kMiuiI- Tilt* ^ibmlJi'ti^ Ari< rbr inrnT ntplil i« 

Fig^ J7T wiirvsi?rlft n second form of or^nn p^p^, which U 
ii>wii in dcction In Ti^. 174. This i« 1ml h niu^IIIk'^tiu^i 
Uirr p(|Hr nlrcoilv rX|>hii(in,l. Tho Ivltora ujtUcahU Uie bixwk 
p^rtA &A tn Uir pnvn'fij;: IJ;;!!^^*, 

204 ACaVSTlCS, 

Atiopcn oEifMn*|rfpt5l»lil" A iiipIi>KU iir<«Vft U^fiT-r ihdt] 1^111 nTa 

cloiHl pipe uf tlw Mmslongl^i- WEi-n & iiitrppAd ff^ri'TifM jioi^Wt 
lu fuuilAineaul aoic, iJ)c cctjiiin uf ur lAundiijdtil l>j sij^ iviAr i Lni 
the «lDRd end uiil jilwiif* be a node, bmiVK The kir fMuliclc* at llurf 
port luv [uynBarilf At vML ^Tli?o an uprb |tEpF Euumb iu ted*- 
cnmtHL ncn*, lli# AtJuhm 1* dLiiilnl Hr ■ ncHlit trt tU rvatn. Tba 
(;pe» pip« mDf calr4i^t» iT ivro *Ui|ific<l pjm* wiih aAmunon b«ic 

Tho «r))«ftnc« riT ncxln and vlbntiinj^ uffm^^U vrtthln as cffgMt 
l^po uMj Im ohowD liy luvcririff int^ l]i« iiifrc a iLla mon^oa 
■tfiirt«h*d ov«r D fmrrw, wliti loinc fiii^, ilrj^ und tprioklM 00 Ito 
#uflM«- The iKiJit of thi* fripfi lA i>f £]ji«, Bu tlial vc Oka Mo day 
buHy in if- Wlii-rt rhu Miirk ih Itt h HH^nii'Tit ii vf\\] Xnt agilated, bp\ 
nrhfTU it ifl ia n [|4><ii.' Jl will ttuimiii a\ t\->\. 

Ujp coniJniMl jrliflTigi* 111 ttjr r[?ii«U)r of ttip iilr tftkiug pUfc at iW 
nodr^ wbilf Ol a 4<r^inciil the HciiMtjruiiatHennttljcbAii^TiUiUUiaqgb 
l\\i* ¥\T ii ill 1 nUiw r»r viljmiiuii. 

Ke>:. 1713 n'|rri»'iiTJi 11)0 Tonn of Ibo muulh-pic«J ollfc« UagfolHt 
Hii^l ir vill lri> -I'l'ii iTljlI ii tifwv n Hvivi^ n^rimtilnncc U (hn pl(ifit 
iLtn^idy rxplninr't. I n l^iv Hi)t4% an nift'iiiiitf b mivtc IU Iho fiiJr <rf 
th# pi|vs whLrli i-Tiiiti|^«< Thp Imi^ti t*i lh» v^ni-^nu iif tbr oalatotM 
ur air ihfti ftr« vJHntlluir, ntirt l^fMt ditrfDiIai^a ihc pildi a^ ibc 1oii«- 
The nnvsi and Ili>w i^f Urn rrnTunt ari' rfTivt^d >>f ihii nmui^fttadM 
of the lip iif t)"* plnjcr. 

354. Reed Pipes. — Tn Itr-rir Vwt^ thr niouUi-pir<xr is 
prc^iijinl wiih jx viliroUns ItHiijnii*, cnll^ii h rcf./, bi' mtwiiH <rf 
vbich Tho iJr IH put ill libraLion. To tbit vUura h^iUmg tte 
H«rlii«l. tlie liHMlUiy, itEiil tin* libe. "nii- twtI may !)e ■*» 
nrrnrtefcl an U) K-at a^^aiiiet Llie aidcaur K\vf o[jci^Qgi oc (t 
may plar fh^Jj Ihrougli Ui« o|>en!ng In the tiib4>. 

, PilC>. I6U And 181 flhow(h'-Aimii^rtn«rLti>f ■1Tod«illh»firvtktrld- 
A filiMv <if tn'-tjil. 11, AbRjH-il ]iki> H 4]hiiinp U fttul «ldi ui rl«0te 

I'tDR^Pr 't wtiii'b fJiii r^niif-b'd'ljr rloM ibv <ipf^niE' A pom <4 
niPUiL r, wblrb may hn o|i-v*tKt nr drpjwHpd by n mtl, A, ■•m* 
lo Irn^flbtn CT iborti-n lb* vilimtir*: part 'jf 1i*r r*vi TIjh nrmniii'' 
mf«1 mnbln us t> diiiduisb ur iiHUvaw ibv mpblrty oT vlldiLtiDii ui 

MVStCAt JSSriiVMt\\7% 


itfvt in a tnrUttitiiUT Imk. A' A*, wliirli is in lurMiniiELlailiim wiih a 

ili-iiMiUMnMion, tlm uj>pFi \Hin. *4 i\w luhi-. A' A'. Iihm uIjia wiijihiw« 
UK Um wJrv to »iiu(t the lanUoii ot ihn rf^i'iL 

IWn « nmvpi of air b fiirml Ulii ihn mUt. IT .V, ihi> rrorl La Ml 

Kig. lau 

Eii:, la. 

Pkff. 181 

fHvl a^iii«i it : thf rh**l i1'*"n nvoHn by rirtm- of ila el»ttirhj» iror- 
luiUiijjE n |XTli<ffl -tf <^»iub*f»M\| flir fo cotiTT Wh' |«jw, «»ion the r^ 
hi iLCiin pn-"!*"! i^fninti thn op^nhMJ. md sjud [i?i 1^'uif n» th** cwrrrat 
^f ftJf U i*Ti»t ujk- Ii u oviJrnt iUn\ tIh" njiMHy M viKmtioo will V 
tnenawd by mmwAiig il"' T'<TiHf<iii i>f ihf^ Mt f^'m I'lc THll'fvr^ aaiL 
also hf tLatttmng tb^ ifbrairtijt fun ^if tkkc tv«<\. 



pbilf, ^, la pliHvd «<■ *> 111 {«ud luck«vnl]i iliruti^-h nn ufxuiujc ^u il 
kJiIo <ifl]juirilii%f a, ulrcTEjiLLel^clmitic juh] opiiuii^ ■ tomrumirmtli 
Irclwrcn iho tube nikd ihf air fmnt ihc btflowtfb Thn FfKnlrtl'-r, ', 
rntirrly >imLjirici ihnl thnwii tri F\^. IWauil I9L » itn* Ihr nmuqi 
inj; pana vt xhv iHTniii£i<<4ricnt 'I'hi^ rxpla»iai<<b vf U^O jicl*A «f ihu 
fi|4>riiifi i^r nH'rl ia i-niirKl; hiiitiLiT Ut llml iiln\iily dAMtLtml. 

255. Wind Instnjmenis- 

ortiunul. vihkh »r« ifimit? to 
Mountl Ky ft currtiit of air [W"op- 

l» ^omCf thff nirrcnl of uir 1* 

o|>oniiig miuk* in tho »t(le, na in 
Ujc MiTir. In nibt^rv* ttieturmil 

Ill f>tti<-ni. a iri'fl in itviU A« ill 
t]i«^ rlnnn^C In the orynn tbi^rc 
i« a colloHion of liibc«, siuiiUr U> 
lli<i*e vlionii in Kiga^ ITJi miid 
ITT. Ill Hjtut? iibtniiUL'tila. jkb 
Iht lruiii|H't ftud tlio liorn, 
itinicnl nKiiMti-pi«C« it llft^» 
iltr fEirni iliown \n Fig. 183, 
uEllmi uhith ihi- lifn uf ihc idii* 
MLniiii ^itimtc in ptnce ol' tlie 
rwA^ Tba rspiiliiy oT vpbmtictfi 
fail Iv Tf<giilni^ M w\\\. 

156, Sounding Flames. — 
H Ikon A g*fi-nAni«< it viK<io40<l In 
i. litlHt, o|trn ]|L N>lli rndf. Uur 
jKivugc of iW jdx orcT II U gcn- 
<iiillv Mifflcwiit to prDdiMxr Un 



nc<«eftBij rh^Uimicf action, tuid to onijsc^ it t'> (live cut A 
nmoloil toiie, Ffg- l^^-l fi>pn>4i>i)te «iii.'li a Uibv i\tin\y b«Id in 
|NMitkHi b^' cluiilM, vliidi urr J:MtKjii.->l Uy m^tvwh to a rtOuid. 
Bjr mntnH vt iW pni*r aJirlrr, *, '^* ^iJi**^ <*^>*f ^ li-ni^hpiinl at 

|4i'h &lb; kjBfif it, ittiil il-Jt^ pifr-h ri^ra. 

■■rat, tk* Jiiii|[tij|r iif lliE^ Hhiiu' rrmjr 1ft' iuLi'iiu|iitiJ, ■iri'suni^J Ui ertun 
mtieclji ur, wlicu vllcol, ic bctpn nfrab- 

^57* Sensitive Plsmca* — FUmcat^ir' klTt^-trxl t>,v tvotiml* 
WA^'m fVom rauAical ioiivt> oven viit^n not i-iii lu^-^j in 1j]|ii«. 

U>P vil«ttiioiiB rjf iJiE- (pn-jiffblH in uriiniiii witti iwrtsiJTi |>ut- 
MlioEU of the music :it mitiu: iiMLniiLvnUJ LXitin^tU Tlfn 
)4i«-non(i«iioa <1oc^ nut Uhi^ ptooc unlo^ lliti i^n^Bun.' 'jr^Eiui a 
MiBkrifully gr»ftl (■> te«p tlic tl»mo8 on Ihc vvTg^ ot IlAriDg. 

A loDg ttun« maj Iw »]iijr1<<ni>l and & «hi>rt oni* Ipn^ilivTictl bj 
ftriuoriiu* libmiiooA- riupiKwi wv Ii&t« « loQii^ AiTi'>ky fluujL' 4ibl a 
ah'Vt. Forkixl, jui^f brtjfltL oht^ iKith nu llii> |K>iril <>F llnrini;; naJ 
IkiIIi iipujut: flTtin a iirrj Kiriill mifitv. \i\e a |iiii'hii|*' in A tublr. 
0* aciunUiui^ a trIiLitItT IIjcxf Htnnuv^uou 1^ Iho 6imfi<{ ^ilmticin* 
U ai <A« ApFUnol. Th« Iodu daox^ Ivccoim^ fkb<in, foiketl, anil 
l)htluuit; nikI <hi< fnrkf^l, jrrng uml mhoKj^. A Hiimf mtiy be ihorU 
ODUJ tiair it* U>iii^ by alrLkiii^ twu i^orui of uruni or ir^'u v>gi?ihrr. 

35<. The Human Voice- — IV motl perfect n«l in* 
stniriiMiC U tLv LtitQuik vok«. AciyH»a the to|> uf tbc Uoi^lufju 
or wiiMlriip<^. ar© aiwldic<t Iwo clastic bnniii*. otillvil vocoi 
rAorJi; ijirotj^i tlic* ipjicy? IwHWL'ni tlii» r-horfin lh(t air pas^-fl 
in noJ uuL of i^u? iLiut^a. 

I>uhng ■[hiking api! aini^ing thr npir/- bitwi^fn tUn rhnrrU i« L«n 
tbAii iu ordjnafy tifvAlitin^. Tbv v^ticc fci iir-^iliuvil by ibe airj 
wliich, tbirm frvui liii- Iuhl-v #|]<| Kcriking nintlnit ifir c-hnnl*; miuvfi 
1bt*ui 1« Tibntiv 11iv gnutt* thv Craairtn uf the nbordA tlw J^igbcr 
ill* |iiuK' 

'ilm (BAiUi, bj ila rn«fiijiiiii*, r^Jntur^M* Uio MiinJ ^t«D VOthf 
ill* v^bnOhiif rbuJiJa 11/ <-fjoi|^iug \}m itnyi^' 'A uui V« vta^Vi 



rPNinnd i» tho rimdmnpnUl innr. <it nitjr of tliR ChivrtuaCB of tlic Tooit 

^59. The Human Far. — A j?rtti(in nf Uip rar b avmi 
enable it to caLfb llio smitij^rjkvcs. B reprewnU Ihc rrMcA'ktf^ 
lltr mmnh^/tnr r>f ihn tiftnjtriHUm, dnsc8 tW ItiVfT ^liil of It. 

Fie ISA, 
mill TMiJiiiIrJ rhumWf, A^ ^BiWtA th« nWfiAwCt J frurr it <*ficTi llrw 

TTimafcb tlmH fHiuiU tin* fl■fA~^l^y n/rrv ii^ dittriliuTitl, Fft«n llut 
tncln^nln0 of tho lyrti|ihQiiiJi t<i lliu innmbntiid L^r ll>fi VfMibuJf* a 

Imiui (if iha tyinfMnui;). ihu 4nvil, nud tfan nTlrrup ronn^Ud vill* 
ibo lurailiniDfi uf thir v<«Ubuli>- Tliti vHiruikjiiH uftho AUiitivipbvrv 
nfiikft A^iinit tbi^ TrrrnbrftDc of |]io IjrnpMiuuif «pJ ftrr «»ru)ii«trU 
itimiiicli 1I1D diniii uf bunn I0 ibi< »e«ipil inniibniWp »nd tJii>!n(fc, bf 

nil li> ilti< iltum> 4uU Uiiu U'ti* Uiu iltfuilj wiliiiu iLu kudc » Hao 
«stfvrr»l kV. 



afio. The Phonoeraph. — The PUonopniph in nn iti- 
*tnimcat, ilfivUvii by Ki»i?«JS, to rt-glrtlcr Hounil'vibrntioui* 
and to rvproUi^cc iiwin al Aj\jr Uwe when dealrcd- 

]| cvi»i«U [Tig' 1^) <■' a BimplFt umaU-titctJ iron irylioilvr, C7« 
inii«ai«il upon Jt ahat^, al uiHi rud uf wliicfa h a cmuki .V, f>r tumb^ 
il, dio vfi«|o bcioc iin|»[K>rU>] liy Twr.i inm ujtri^jbt*- In fnt»t nf tluit 

Ajciufft (Lv ftRiln uf dm U>wiir 9ud« of thii dUk, a fluo 9lfv\ juiDl, 
ruukdrtl JL[ tht> ind, is IicM by u tpnug iLit^thi-tl u- thf nui i>f tti« 
»uudj-|rii«:r. Au ludU'ruhbtr cothiun Uciwpuq the |>umt luul di^tk 
«untri>U tlw TiLrAiiotut <>f iho ■taring;. 

TIh- ryliti^ b covnr<l with a tae flprul i^rwivo miiDitEj; cvu* 
tiftuou*])' fkicn #iid to fuJ, lfii< dimrl* txsng Klxiiit ^ tif an Uit^h 
apvt- ll viirke ou h iwrvv, J *!', ibir thrrAil nl'tvliLvli i^ ihv tnuiv 


•< Uial (p(i tlui T'vljiwlftp- It tr iiint*'^ !>y ihp httii1|i\ Jf, dio innUon 

pictu EviJ lU pruHiirv B^Uit Lto tibrmJ aiti udjnMi^ by ihc ^rrvicv- 

Ir UBiMts tin irf»iao|p:np4], a Hhc^t of imCa'A U «rn|>pd 

JuiU^ ag^fntt tbi- k-fVhanH ctKl of tin* cvlinder so t^loscly, 
Uiul wlwu onv H|H'nkH itr Hiik)[« Into th^ mcjulh-pfeco. and M 
Ihe SMDe tiioi- Uliiih llie cmiik with n inil^irTn iriorlnn^ lUf 
ilM !• madv- lo vi(>riit«\ miil Uic steel |foiiit i»rvA*c* i*|foii tbe 
ttnlual in the gnxnn^, U^n\ liig upon it a ftcric» of minulc kn- 

la ordrr to n*prcKTucT? (be ivorde. the cjlIiHlcr U turned 
bbdc io tliELl ihv Htcol [>oint niny go owt tbv Inilciilalioiu 
niftde l>j' tp(<akin^ IntoUrc inoifth-pl«w. 



Ou tiinirTii; llifl cnalt a^iii. llip iNiint u lumlu to woiIl 
inilFiilul^^ii^i- ill th« giOQVa I'hU wljt ih* dink nt-Ritiii^r auJ 
vibr»tii>iiA, UriiuE ividtitjuiiiotivd iv Um vat, ii^tii'"diiu« Uit^ h>uiuL 

A fut'Dol U ^DDf-mUj^ iijcoitod iliti> tbo muoUi-pioM, in bv imtJ «• 

l6i- Energy of Sound Vibrations. — In onlertn mtk^ 
a bcK^ viUatd Tunx' inual In- a]ipliiil lu IL It Uu.'n exIiiUu 

mJttod to tA\\ev hcUi«R m iu vicmJty. 

If n Ww liii <lruu'1i iLnr^H lht< W\iv :'f ti^C S<.l]oliiclcri the (onr 

iliiu ]i|i]'Ui<J t'ttuiK^ it Lv vilinlu with ou eui-r^ wUeli U pnpor* 
ti»TJiil fv Ul<i ri^iUHrv <if Urn autpliludcr ur tb<r vibT«UL>nA. 

iiip; kt lite nniurtr uF rW j^iiWuniw in ranUfi whh ii ; ioiu? lui» 
cvav<'y]ii|j; Jiwvj iKe imor^jr inuoTi qijifk«r l}uia olbcra. 

Un liiaiufi^fork t* n?!. vHrnuiti^, auiI iho tirnn rdHQJ on n Ubl#, 
H will not vibrbic » Ionic " U wimLi if ih<-, >ivtu ha<i b<v& UU 
bwwwu till* thumb ami ftiifn^r. 

Summary. — 

Qptiaii SUti^ {if Ramdtt. 

KxpFrimoiiU with Tun hig- Pork* 
VilinLLurjr Aluliami at Kid;1ic Aiifr1«k 
LiBBi^jim^' Kj^trrv [ir^hlui^ Uj I'l^Ttiluliim. 

DtfvH|itIon if K^ifinlf^ A|i|wraiai. 

diriii^Hi IiiBUii[m«iUi 

ifiMznd ft«in Hipw. 

I^p'r wttii PiKtMl MviUb-|iH 

1t»d Pt|M. 

WI»4 luvtraHUTiita. 



The //uflidJi Kar. 
The phimi>fffaph. 



MNcTl0»c 1, — OKKSRAL i-Rrn-Kimnt nr UMr, 

162. Dcfinilioft of Hcnt- — Heat U U)« physicai 
figctit tUat produces the wnsalioM ive <!«11 warmth; tbo 
tenu A^tff U a1(jO lip^ilivd lo the t«n»Ation iueJf, 

163. Nature cl Heal. — Wu cuu n^^unl bcAt u ivi«JIim* 

ynr niTify I'j i/iafion, or r/totentlnr fin^r nt^rjiy, Thla molioil 

t-<0[iFi{Htfi i>r vcij rnpirj vibmtkmx, uj' oidlktiioiv*. of Ihi' ti>^lo- 

cu1c?4 of a niiUfltnocv, TboHC botliva mre holUul whiovc nolo- 
t^1«» vibrate n^tU Ujc grvAt««t vcUxiiy niKt tfarouigli 
griMilfHt ftiii(jl1ta(les. 

'VUg Urm coki » >i>r4l jis a ointWDinnl tarm Co ««pina rfuMOii 
nf htoi, ^J*lX mil lii? it^Hrt -iFfmor 0/ 1'. fur iio •ubiUM«U saplicBi^ 

an' jiru>u.riii>d u> l»v iu fuoliPbA) inoiaiiD At oU iSidm nod uiuler aU 

T^ifl r^Jt^tvy of DiodnQ fiiAjr bo timnaiiitltAl Ckiin iini> 1ici4y bn id* 

tuiiltci aad infiniU* ffQw^ in Ifav miim> war tlitt »jua>l e 
ihrcingh l^f* idr, tliAl Ut I1/ uxmu of iminL 

Urat, tlipci. iLiiiw It «n piuB fmn one Ifidj <■> «nol^ iv b« 
ko|H In A budjT Cor any Uinf», la » MmAinilJ> yudaJiiy.^ 

Aiikl ilrfltlidVi of wr-lght, c«|i«hl« €d pusinpf Tmn one body iv MdMiliiir 
with iTMft Tvlonij. lu partlolw rq;vl ««# uiothrr, Md tfktnAw 
cippiiH the «urvljrr ^•rtr vt <nb«dpli- Thn rnlfMira of tbU «ik' 

the Mfuoitbia of oiliL 

T))iii th^iry Tit onw g«itimill|r dii^ifvl^ in rAvnr rifthr* ad* fllrvfldj 
iciwbf irhJch ir calLfvl tho tmditSaiory, oe tfje* (bt^iry^ THi^ LiilAr 
adijnia » Lkut PvplAiulin nf ibn pbcmiinMA of hooi, Auri nl itw 
■MDO tiuo tavot 10 abow die iniijuutc nUftiov 1>oitf«eQ boa anil 

W* ahalt alw seo, furlhor oo, tbat b<'at niaif bo trunffonaM \nU' 
•iiKtrtfaihi; vhk-Ji i^ iiiK m wilMtMncv »( aJI, tnuniijr, nurJuidirul win^k- 

2G4. General Effects ol Hc«- — llvat muy mt on *i 
l»ol_y ii> Uireo wiu,»» *Jnv' [iorli->n may bo «xpQrKl«id mi pro- 
Hifliin^ till! ivarmiri fir llir httdy, fJiAl Ih» by Incrnt«tng Iho 
energy- of tnotioo of tbi- vlttiAtiiiK motecalcfl. A woucul 
potuov &vi» OB a Pcpu'Ui^iit i/owiT, cMUklenotii^ the force of 
«oheiloD ftA>l VTiitvgIng Uiu utriplSludu of Uw molDoalu vibra' 
UoiMi Tl]L» luiUr fM?iiiwi ;.'uiiHi.'4 jui liif'ivjLM^ In \hi* vubitiu^ of 
Xbt bodj', ov completely ^lera tlje rvltttivv pueiitiuci 4>r Uiu 
iDi>Icci]lcd ftod producM o (luLnp?* uf r44bU i u irhco a iiolid 
b (diuigud Into a lii^iri'ti or ^ ^Aitl or Uc|uiiJ iato ■ gi» or 

Tbcflc Urif elTucla uaty bu cbi.!«itl tiiidcr Uu: buul irf tiUenud 

Tb^ UiJrd portton t« ro^irvil to ov<Ttcoiiie< tho oxtorniil 
pmauirp nf Ow. jitrric»|i]i(-rn, wJjidi miistL Ih- fiinml ImcJc iu» 
Uut Ihe bod> may c:i|>aniJ- 

Ttiii may lie caIIiiJ ftrtrm^d «o<Ht> 

Wbcn the twiir ooola, Uio n>T<XT of oohpnion whioh wnH over- 
com* by tbe rep^lloiit forf\* nf the? hmt, ihiw ivmui^rLfi tu 
powier auid dram la|;rlJii*r thr iiitiIi>cuT<H' llt^iice we May ihnL 
beat o^iidb btxiic*. nik<l eoU nntftniA tJjcin. 

n^S' Eiponsi^n of Bodice by HcGt. — All bodioe an» 
o>[)inmle<l by ht'»U but in very ditlorvirt tivRrw*, Aa a gwi- 
nsfiA jnile, Unr iauhI exiHUiHlljtu Uidt^Jt %xv- )twm, Ui4-n llcjiiida, 
Aftd I Wily soJfila* 

lb ecAid>» irld«lt tuvu ilr^Sibbt nitum, wv Imm tfinw kimb (^ 



trpanttifm, that U, PTfwufatifii In ikfM dknnvJiinL A« ■ n«lli 
tfkel, hifxravftt ivt 'hhj HL^f tlicwi take* |^Ad» withoul llio otLor- Ai'' 
liqoiili ftiid ^^4 hAVD bo dcflnltu lunniE, UTjiaiiEikm of TtJun* b 
«loDo np|itioalil<j to them. 

^66. Expansion of Metals- — Pig. tSf mprvMnta 

niclliuJ LirftU'jwirj^ ^ui inuutuijtif: ihc Llqmu cxpwMkci ullho 
bjr infuiun nf Lkn iTtFctniinnil ffllk>d Ihp ijjk^romrfs-. A nil of in«lHl, jt, 
pawcu' thu-ufjh two HiiiftlBo wtpportN Lwiu; nuuic loM »t «u cjctrvn- 
ilj by u cbjiiji-H-ri'U', /i. nud U-iug ftvr lu exfjnnd ue ibo oUNir 
Innniljr- Tlir friT vuil nlvols nauanl llifi (Jkii vihI, <', of a Icti 
|h|i 1mi|f Hiiil» i>, ofurliUli |iUyA ill Iriinl uTn jc'^'lUHtRt jtrc 




Wboi iti< nJ b bttitcJ, bj plmi^ Bw t«DMth rl, u Aran 

ttolkiii uf Ibo indm, J?. W1i<*ii tlin nit, .1, is 4>r lU^, v^TT*'* uhvr, 
tte., ttic nmnriril itf pxpn>fi»ii varlm, ah ^ iliown by |li« ilUln^l 

Mhim. fiiT the «&ifi« nm-iMUT fif bful. rfiBri ir>n *r slnl. 

jm ffrp«T)ririit tn Titliiiiin ultvri liHitMl. A Tinir^ ^^ bt 

•!> Ilijkl II Mi, fi. |>Jl«Pi'a fndy ltir>rii-|i It «Im|I crrM, If thu bftD 


m«|pvv |}jr fiX|>oriuinj1 t> full/ ^divrn iu iJki Mi-iiriif. 

967. Unequal Expansion of Metals. — hi V\^. \m 

u^E^lfM lit Jiffcr^aC putuu ftlivnjf (heir wbglc Ivufcibi Ajnuiui: uiu 

Wtwn turli a ]>ikf b bmc^. ^^*> bniHinpuiHb inurr than \ho iniu. 
«n'l iho l^ir irorvrp. ha n'pn*«tiilud in Ki^. I'flJ, iji nirttpr t<» n*«ini- 
iMnLilr ih* itJOi)im]ilr uf Icu^Lti whivh iIieib n«alUr Wlir-i) thu hir 

funo, Iv LvtiJ M^ji Eti till; ijtJijai«ltu ilirtpctiiiii )i ii Ix- ikft4.-rwx(dv »Lib' 
jt«l«4 lo ««diO||r. The iiT3ix|qnl racpaaiioa at diffc^rvnt mctolfl U aUo 
•binni ia Ibc couipoDBhlioa pcadulaiiui* pngn 6(^ 3£^. 

Expansion of Liquidi and Caacs- — lifjclU ad*! 

pl»V bdtt^ rnurv i^kuiniltU* xhan ^iliiTa, Ihoir «^|miLaii»ii in ttx'it^ 

>p&ai^ (miiiiadiiit b « njui^w mtir. o|>i<n ai th^^ lop, nnrl All ih*> 
ffliJrii nvd a p«iTtii>a of ihc ilrrn with ■Vfriif flnl-I IlLr fikf^rmiy, «# 
iJjifvrri ill t*i^, 190. If b»t Ik* ii|>|iIjih1 U' tZir ^In1ji\ ilir Ti{|uid wlU 
ju thf' fli^ii fn>iii d lirAurl? ^, itiiiifAlitic na tarmtM- of rolamc < 



PTpannoiv of gUM aqiI vApom. A 
IjejMi uf filani U provlrktl wiilii a lonf 
t\nd tui' iLibf' Mf 1he Biiw tiiolvfidl, 
uljiiili In U'Ul Vaiee upou iu^ » 
ihowu in Fig' 1^1' An imW'X ■/ oa^ 

AuJ ft 1H.^iliiiii uf l1i« air wUdh it ouv- 
U^m U diWQ oirU ntf^n ■ ifavfk <i 
mvKWTf ie poon^d Ulo tlio fiiwicl, «l 
ir Ihit tTiAtnimnm U nllnvnl (i> oi^, tha 
ait lb lliLi bulli n^ifjtrxfl*, hihI if^fi pf«^ 
uiTit vf iim »tiii<iki]ih^n> (trivial Ihr i|ri|) 
uf iit"Evi*ry ftli'ii*! ill' IdIm' tut K'UIB 

Tins lartlruDivui hniLiii; Nvq pn-- 
pnmL In thb lajum^. if ibr biilb u h«Li 
ill tlio baud fk't a tctt iiiibDiM. ihi* ^ 

^^ raorlng Ui fb^me ij^^ [uvlilon, a* ■, If 

n^. 100. rtr igi. yi^^od c« woi, On^ uit-i t«tum t^*. 


Summary, — 

Thn iTnilitkuirr, or Watit Thntrj f/ IImu, 
Th« Eini««ian, <ir <'iikrh« I'liuorj uf UoftL 
<;<Mmf t'fif^ t^BMt 
luiiTUiil Wiirk. 

£i|iia*liin of Moljdt- 




eiCTBOit II- — TBHPEiuTtKt — Tint mtuHourrriL 

TcmpCfalUIC* — The trmpt^riMfirrr i»f u IxxLv is tUMt 

fn^tflty liiAt gives it tbc power, L> a ipvat«r or Icsa cali^nt* 
oS ixupftrliog f^JiJV'P beat U> oIIilt bfidtcs. 

By tbc Cnm f^^uy^ie brut, b ivcAiit thjit p-irlifm of licU llut la- 

Wbta ODC body gircv off Htiaibic he«t to tnoitict. the ramcr U 
muJ tik hiiYP ■ hlgbw tfiQ|M<nturu ihitti fhp tiiCkT, fir Ui bf< u'^mitrr^ 

Tlic Mn/>tf9f«lfVofii Iwdjiauat notlo fwn^juiiclcj wilh Oic ^Hjn- 
Idy vA Imtt it pouMMB ; a luuty nmy li^t^i' a hl^h tt>rii|ii'rjifi]iv aiid 
yrt hATQ a TtTf 0(Xml1L <tiukatitr of heat, « li:^ icinpFn-turo Aud it 
Urc*" vvioiint i^f hriiL QEinrility of hnnt will b^t trmiMl at ariJrr ttiv 
tn>bi«cl *4 Spedfic Hcat 

370. Tbe Thermometer. — A Tiip.HMOMETxn la aii in- 
Mruiurnli for uifUAUiiti^' tii?iii|H-ralun-a. 

Oar bodily acnBAlloQ» cannot «crve fi» a «urc guide En 
iBMsaHng Wmporatdri?. A bodf trAj «rcim tot iui<l n^M U> 
Uia teutktt pomon nt tJii> H:tmL> tini<*- ir vrc pUo^f uni^ bAn<t 
luto puUrrixci] t<T and tht tiXkvt Into njtltr ut nluut 100'^ V., 
niv]. niter aUowin;; them to ilay nwdkk U; xhia pijiition, 
plUDf|;« tiivoi ftimultanooii'ily iuUj Knivt at TO^ tJi»> liiknd fVoin 
ihv* W will Twl wnnu, hut Uie oije from the hot v«t^r will 
cxjktIciicc a Bcuttaljoii ofcoM. 

Wc lUOflt liAVi.> a more accumte tail conntnut stjuidoril fjf 
r^r^Tvnoc. ftnd tiiU i» fouiil iti Uic tburEaomelcr. 

T^ir tlimnoBivtfl' iL'|HT(i:h iL|f(i(i IH0 iTflririplc^ ibjii boiJic> F3rp«ad 
wk^ii hi^^k iiiil HriiinKt irlion cooltj ThrnTi<iiii«m h&vi? h«tk 



•ml. TIkt iaib miil « pait iff tbo tul^ on ALUJ widi uirtnitj, nul 
Ihowliuke In Jiriiif^iE^ Ut a frnriio fiu wTih^i l» ■ mkId lumiWHrti^ 
lliD <1M) ami UM vi ;lio mercury in thu lube. 

LJ )7i. Ucthod ol making a Thcrmomc* 

uiiifrknii biirv. upivt nnr eiut of irttloh a batb k 

Hkc fuuiiir] In omr^ AlW villi nirrcuj, whUl U 
Bl Anl pruTiTLlH fr'un |^l>FUniiing lni« dir 1tq]b bf 
iho muULUcc «f tHo air nbil ibr tnuZlnCM af tW* 
luta^ 'Hir- Iriilh I* Ihi-TT'lurt houLnl, <r1iuu tliB kkt 
witluD c>]cp4I44Lk luid It ivdiaix «9cb^«« in bvbUc* 
ihmiif^ti i^o iiK^rt^ary, (>n nwliiig, th» prmauf ul 
tfi>T riUriiiiT ntiituephorv f/PMv ■ c^iuDiity of tncrvnr^ 
thniiijc'T III*' l»fp iiiiii ll^K kutla Llj fifpcULlti^ ikii 
opTjmtVfii a hw ivitw, iLn |iitlE> vuit a iiOftion tif tlia 
lulu- *rn rtli^l wItIi tiiftrvnry- 

Thc irboli> m itioTk limicd lUI lliv incrt^rj LiiiU, 
lliLin [illiiii- \hv tulv, vb(>Ti lJi» r^muiJ 1» mcUnd iifl 
pimI Ihi' tijhf^ honii4.'ti(NiDy «««b^ W uu^iu ol « jr4 n{ 
Unrii- uf|!P»l bjit Uov-pl^hh On fr-'>ring^ ttw mrt- 

Oj^k Tiif, l!':i, liv^ini^ a Tikriimri afl Ihr rif^iff raj. Tl 
^^F MuL;> nrififiiita 10 gn^uoto ll, m,aA AAUwL ■ vuluUtf 

Fin- T**- 1^"^ »»"Jil<- 

373. Method of Graduation. — Tir.. ft^ia rf iki> Mm 

HAfrt U^-fKn niHl }Milf nn* aTiirtfii mfurtJNii, thnl 1^ vhm Ibwv 
ebjinf(n <i »IaE*« tnb< jtfti^' umJir 9*\iitd *li»>i«|itt«^ |im««rM» 

'Hk iwlruiiiti^ U £ntf ptuu^ Hiio » b»ib ef nH-hli^ Inr, iw 
i^v« ^p l\t' LM. ant U ftlfcmni ti» fTtnnia viiill it li»Lf» iW livi- 


•vT^tpJi i* llif^ii iRH'if^ <>» tliii nlPrn At th4 upper i^ufIjuo nf Iho inut- 
t«ry, ami tlii* ix>iu<ihiir>m \\\t- fttnin^^jitiivt. 

A «ui« itf rbullliitvu. oim Iwiii^ ijiki'ji Ui tiirLnuuti tt HjLJt f^t^Niuj bjr 

;^ «; 

Fib- 1i>l 

Tif lOfi, 

nf nn ap^tuviu* Ijkv -.hai »h>Hrii in Tiu^ jUA, Afbr lUf nvr- 




i/£ur ^1 

ff iniD A onujQ nmnW of nqjUaJ pAiU, auJ tbo i^mliuillati i* nnlliiMi^^^l 

^^ flbr>Vc Blid tH-'loW 

u firiw QiKj bo fJEvunl. Thiw dimuiaB ruj til^^H 

^^H •cmiohnl Dpou 

]i« glD» wilji A JiiUDiiniJ. or, u id u»tbiily tkiini. 

^^" thfj inuy bu in*dif in 4 t-lrip ikf inntHl, whkh U AtUcfavd to Uu) 

fmii0> lliv iJivlfliuuB unf uLtrnWrtl Aocon^ii^ In llic kiad uf maJb 


a73- Thcrmcmetric Scales. —Thtw principal Bc«le» 

Arc iiecd : th« Cfntit^ratia acaU, in t^hidi the fipvw bcCwMH 

m r 

tlio rVcf^^tng Mtirl buiJin^ puinba U dititSfd^^H 


iijio 100 t?i[uul imrU. iTdkrl f/fynrrx ; Mb^ ^^^ 



mlc^'««r>afr1ill^vL1cbtb4^ ^mjeapncc bdirxkd 



mti> ^U (^rjiJAl partH. OAJii"! dr^rn* ; Uid /Ul- 



nnhei^K xeu^^ in ivhlth tiiU Kpsuw h dlTkM 
lbIq 180 cqiml (lAitpt, n1;«o cAllrd fjirym^- 

Jti tiie ccntisnuic ftmlt^, Uic frr^cinc* ^h 
(Mjint in mnrkivt U. dud tLo d^pvoo vo ^H 
mttEif>eh>rl both iiji gim>) down. Uw romer^^^ 
rkuiiibt.-ra beiiig cou&id(M«d poai(iii>i a&d^^V 
(IceijfduU'd by lUo tigtt +, irbll»t thn Intbrr 1 

aiv (^on«jdc*r^ iKig&tiv9t and itviugnalrd bj 1 
liv- Hlgn — , Of oaiimu llii^ bailing pobil i» ^J 


ituirkcd 100°. ^H 
Tbit^ »iiji:ri + J")^ ~ Jvv and iImi la Ui*^^^| 


t a 



• a 

mnt't aind F)thr»Litii>il> UionnotflMvi la liiAaia^^^| 
lit^rivfi nuprc^vdj tibrnv mmI btlutt the Auto | 

pfcJTll. 1 


niArkM <i. And tlu' >kciilirf;-]ii>iut ^C. Tl>« ^^| 


di-giTT'^ hv^Uiw Tn%-i\n^ an- uiark«d *a la Um ^^I 


CcntiifTiulc ncolc. 

w ^ ■ 

Id KaJWDlielL's bC^W, vrtilch ift tiie OM 

1 s 5 

^inDctpnUy umm) in 1ti<? UniUd Sutn*, cbe 

i J J 

Kem point 1h biki^a .*t2" Up^oit Uie fkvvjEiii^- 


potiit. nnd the ditinion* tat lumbrred from ^^B 

K«. I«. 

ihin point buUi up and duwiu "Die boUiDg--^^^ 

|]OHit ordutiii 

^1 wAtcr ift ^H 

ran tuERMu^ttriKiL 

li> bj tho tnltiftl lvUVT« K,, 1\, K 



174. Converaion cf Centigrade and R6aumur'a De- 

n^nkl III fki>p inJ c^Tii Tcnrhn r*f n il<-^»i nti iltr^ Fsibri'iihHi »raK 
ai»l onti^>a lEv'tVitniiT'i BorJv i* <^qtiii^ to iw*- nml n i^uurl^ <>ri Kjihn'ii- 

tcM WW <m Fftl>m^1^iir» ^nil^if nuililfJy *l hy 1-3 anJ add lu tho 

Ui OfilfBklil iiiin itD FAhrtiuFii'hV riEiillff^l)- 1>v 'J^. anil l>i tlic mull 
'i|+3r,.>rM» P. 

Tlw ralw Ibr tlir nniTi^nlnn of thn tlinn; ibtrmomnErlr «fAin> mHf 
•Bibinpd rip in the foHcr^rm;; fi^rmiLliTt in w\\\f\\ V. Ci aXttl B 
DUlv rqiiiia.U'Ul Lriii]Kiiiilun<E pijiruKwd JQ i|f^f\.i9 uf tlic tlirm 
Ml«= — 

F = ii: + 3i = !(K-f a! (i» 

^^^^^. Alcohol Thermo meters. — An ,Au'*ihoi, I'iikr. 
Lh^i ultvliol, liti^il ttx\, t> tiwd in ptnc^ oftbi- tnot<]ul3-« 

«sptruipcafr «itiipiirini; \\ <|tt(riHi Ij ili'^ric ^-iiti a sTJH]ciiin3 rucn-urul 

■III yUm Molo. 

Au nbjlMif tbfrmtunrtn' in Qiotv eji>ll>' AtW ihnii 4 u^if^miilat rnf^ 
fiinu*! bviiig rv^iivn-i- Thi> bulb id hcarrJ iinfjl ti ^iniop i»f the 
lUilmwl ur is iln*i*ii 'iir, aiiiJ ilwii ihr ii|irn mJ uf llir luliT b 
\tky^Q^ tutu A vohI r.f (i]<>'ihiil, \^ i^i- An iu Oxv WA> v^f^^'^iA 






tiai' Ifto ImlN^ ir ilili» l» Luiti'-T. the vjL|x>r «| ftlnboJ vill m%^ Uio 
rviiujiiuJa Iff Uiu itJc AuJ V^ ih|r|>iii^ Ujc opL-u i^J -^l Uic lubr tail* 
lh(> uJi^jJiut uDc« iDurt-. Uio butk vilJ 1>r ooinpictd; liilrd, ivh«n 11 
ft^niu bnvuifv Cofil. Tlic iuAlniiiitut la tticD iMtcd Uko tin tiKTTni- 
Fiiil thffnnom«l«< 

376. Relative Advantft^s of Mercurial and Al- 
cohol Thermometers. — y^'t orilumTy |»tir|*i. Hit* irprrari«l 
Ui(rrTiHiuif-lr^ t* [•' til- imfrnnl, vu ho'vhjiiI uf ihu iiitiriimiljr wilh 
whiRh lJj« Wdivnr}' I'XjttudB with n uiLifunii tucroik** <:S umfirf«tBiu. 
Dm invrcuiy ouUi;caI^ al 39^ U-luw uf the Piitimalicm fotvi uid 
Whvra a \ovar Idiiftoratiirr ihAii thU is to bo obut^icd, it becomot 
ftWIutrfj nronrwrji X'- tuifrluy th*.' H|Hnt liunnoiDtlM* la |b« 
MT«rD i^M tti lUv (HiUr rtgiriiif iiai^rtfiiT; iiflrii ismg«i4lff bat ao 
ili^gm of ("uliJ I1M ji?t 1h<vij obtuiu^l iliJ^L will otUfpsl ^btvlute 

For high t4inpi<niiiJnv. uicncufy unlir in i^hjmUit vf Ixnng wd ; 
llii« li>|ijiil tl<hv not h.yH till ru&^^I litfJCfi* F,, whJal nlix-bul UiiW nl 
174* t'- Tl)# Uhrr li'juul fjiuinA tlicnfon ht U9td li> obwm 
|«ii»par»inr»& liiKhitr tbAi; t?4^ K., nof^jvi it Uenlltd upon evi>a (or 

It IB t^ bi^ ubMirvixt t^»t taiiriiiir}' Mtinot bo mli«4 iip«P Ibf Ut»- 
|iorvlun» Wtr ibaii 3^ brJov €. 00 uvouvE uf Inv^bmiii* lu iu 
iW of (twiVBCtioii b^Litw ibM Titiiir^ 

AlixAiul Iwu ■!» tbo ilJHulTnjiiacc uf Viiuf abivw in ita«clioa 
Ibjin innrcDryT un r\co*Mnt uf itji iafiirufr cvtbdiwtjng powtt^ 

377. Ruin for using a Thermometer. — Bfrlbr* nob- 
Ine tJic brijfbt of tlic iJiiMTurial ixilitmn, tbc inTnttriniirnt idioillil 
Iwaltowcil tonn)i]irv> Hie b^m^rnliin. of lb* mctliLirn in whidx 
it U plnc?[-i1. TUU. m iff^iiirnil. v\\\ n>qi)l[Y ftoiuc minatt*. 

In ilvUrmtnlnK Urn I*mfi*fMliiiv <<r 11 M«n, ibr kh«rttnrtii«4cr 
itbuaki Odt 1« bdiju Aira^iv« ibr UHilst Hal t]ii>u]d b*' frrrfy «nit- 
(■fTLi]ril» M jif 111 fikn llii> lr«njv-nktJir«T '>F tlin nlanrvphtrr. Wb«« 
biio^ ^giiiiirtl a v-jlI, cH|>iM*iii]ly nuuijift ^ull, mi vrrm '>f ■■'%vnJ Ap- 
«r«* mnj' iv^ulr, \n Ukn hhumv. if bum,' •,|[*Ji"l a WhJ? <oaiainiiii: 
■ H%^t <rr n^lJ-Htiiinc ai^rtlH.*' r^.-n i-f dUkrtal leui|irnitLirr, ■ riinilAr 

l«r aJjrtaW ix fmAy nn^M^rii in ifir nit. nl t-^infl thaUxurt* fr*»iH jifiy 

378- The Diffcrcniial Thcrmomctcra. — A DirKKK- 

nUitr. The two |>riijri|iiit 1'oiiim uf tbc lUlTc-rciitinJ tbrrnii>iu&- 
tcr arc UimroKo'd oiid Lksije'e* 

Thry An baMsJ on Uiv axpfliulun uT air, and ili^ llinvfiTm, <tf* 
|«vtBti7i> I'f lb? nimo?frbrrr, h> imNy i<ir LJivnji'-iiTt<'lr't'*t ^"^ ^^^^r *tJM- 

579, Rumiord's Di'frrcntial Thrntio meter. — Rrw» 
Field's DiFri-it£3CTuu TiiULXouKmE a iv|>i>;»«uk<d iu t'ifl;. 



It eoiMibtt vf twu bulbs or ihin ^Iam*, A and fi* oonoMlcd 
by a flno tube Ih>tii twiyi** at hghl tinnloa, u iLhown If* llio 
Itgiiiv- Tln' wholi* nppnmt.iiA is titUt'hv^d to u uuKabli? fhumr, 
wljji'li piipport^ u Kcalc immUcl U> Uic burixonUJ lirKucb ^it 
the connt^ctinf; tulw. Tlii- ot Lho Bcalti U» ftt iU nuiUJu 
p4^ut« lUid ibe gnutuAtloii U coutiiMWfl from \l in both dirvo 
titmti. Tlie Imlbrt ami a larj^psirt ofllir i^ifirxHrHng tube ftnr 
fllliN^ i*iUi air ; there i», bcrwcrrr, in th*" lulir ti inrM drop of 
Auiil whicEi »f^parato« tbv nir in Uio two caLiracnitiDtf. 

iIjc taXo vhaa the lPQi|wriLuru of th^r two biil1>i 1a Um auua. WbiB 
one <jf die bul^ u htdtcxt mcirv iluui Ibc I'ULf^r, the o^ in ll oxpaBilB 
Hiiil rlrJvtNi l1>i^ tEirl>>]c (ftWMniK th<? ^ithtT, iiDtU tb* tnuhuu of ih« ur 

I'll* *adA \f> ittvldRi by fltjH>riuiiiti liy ihi> kji] oT A tUndird n>rr- 
curUl llicrinoiikeliGr' 

a8o. LiCtHc'sDiFfermtial Ther- 
mometer — Lr^Ltk'^ UiFTi:RE.?mjiL 
Tii£KMi.iU£Tii]i n Hbown iu Fig. 198. 
Tt 4|Jin»r>i from Kuwj'owi's in bavirtg 
Uiv buIlM smiJler« ^tai in i»iit;iJ£iI|]£ * 
longer cotttitin of llqultl In the iub«- 
The w^l<>H nrr pinoivl by tbv wi<l«<a or 
iJir vrrljtr;il (inrtionH of fJiP IiiUp, ittr- 

iii|( tlivir {Hjiuiff At xhvi jiiiiMleb 
Tliviv b, tbvn, A double ncalr- TIm 
mvtbod or gnduaUng iu;d ucinit till* 
Uicrrnii^Del^r in llie s&mt* ■« tbftt cl«-i 
scribed in the bu4 Ariidc. 

]lu; tif oU iiutxuuiDuu^ AfF ibstdctlng aad 
iDfoMiriog flight [llflimuciM of tanpcn- 
^^ '^ inn. tbu Liuot iti'Iicstv and aaacnU h tb» 

lAfrmo-«lArfric^it<<, uLioH will Kt dn*cvib*d hoiMjlUw. 

28t. Pyrometer- — A l^tuKimut U im iitfiUumonl for 
meftABring bi^^r tentt^rAtuiv-* than <«ii bi^ <ib««TV«d hj 



irnportiinc pyrom^'U're ftri> tho*e or Wfpobwooh 

BBi>»jMAf(T- Tlw fontiLT iH Ebuiiijui.1 oil ihi? i1iaih;utluii 

'©f tlic \ij|iimc of day At Itijfh tcmpiTAliirc*. oitd Uio i«ttcr 

(Fiff. H7) i>A tlw principle ol' iho riqmitKUm of mtitaU. Tho 

indimtioutt ot liuni* innlrunir-iilH iiri' vt-ry mil riwl worthy, Aiici 

Ibcy luTv ijODv pubtiULuUuJh (JUt (^fuAV- 

Ttiii nnniitfi-iiii-iitji unw u»^l fur »ii!^Uiuriti|t Uio hlfhnr u^nL|>i-ni- 
tnrea iirp bucd nis iho oT|mivici(] ct' i^uou and vapon, or on Uiir 

9S>- Absolute Zero of Temperature. — Sin<rc a fpia 
ncjwiid* Tor «4urh il^gree «en11grAi.l<^ ,fg of iu volumv m U", 
U folUniH iLul ut » li:iii{x'iitlui-i? of itA^Q. iis wltiinc^ U 
doubled, find that tbc omourt 4;f c^ontrnctiou wbi-ii the Uiu* 
ponturo in reduced to — af7S' vtonld bv cquii) V> th<' imliiU 
voltiniLV The tfu^ Uiun ifoitUI Ix^ rvdiioc^d Ui a matbenukliCBi 

poilii, And ncrultl <»-iuv ki i::iUu 

iMplVOfeivr. mid tmiipvnt iirrs nvlmLirrl frnm litis iJi'iJtl JiJi- i'jUW 
nteOhilr irrtijtrr-ituffA. "J'lu* |<iii-oa( l'?mpiTiitTJft' tliHl f^AfJ Ihui ho 

I «entigrnilr braJt. <ir i^^^ itt llin-t mi iIm- FjLljr^LjlLt'U. 

Ao »bvr1ril^ ^m of boat biis novor y«C luwu rwillvt^i oxpcniikcii' 

XtklXj. Evrti if HiaKpr mi « iiu uiihuul hent, wbkh ibrrn U gTi«t 

^^Mftbiit \o fUiiiht, It i* t(ii|Mi«ibIv Iv ^rvlLcl whut wuld bo il« ttAdli- 

If ihr m(T|f]- 4>f moUr^n, wh)i'b u« <-m11 hi^iil, almubi ivhotlj^ rvaM^ 

«3KftiQ^ iu prrvcr, <u)-l the tin^li^CQlL-ii br tiTi'iLjcbt bit^i actiijil C'lnUmt, 

gilvniiiiirnft nf ■ evw nnd nnf>tpf«tnrl j^hcu'Ar'irr vntibl nndii^nblAlly 


T!h» ifTi^tfltr, jirtjitnial ft^lrl pmd<ior«i] np Wi ibf prtvrtit limc ** 

1 WP" C. or — 220* F. Tli* citvtftirt nalunil c->lil Tfroniixl in 



Summary. — 

llolttiilioTi ur Uki Ti-nn T^mprrmhm, 
Di-flciJtlim tff ^iihtblr llniil. 

U[«1inolii>n TwtwocTi 'IVri]pvintittviUKl4^tjuiiJ(jlj'of llrvt^ 
The Tf»^m*'irt€fn^ 

|)i<ilTtrtu*ii ft ^ ThuniHjindor. 

Mirlliihl iiriiinkiiiK ti Mi-^'iirJal l1ipnu<riirti*r> 
Thtmmnfilrk Stala, 

Cmtmiutj if Olio ^ca\c inU^ AniMlior> 

EttUlivv AdtuiJtii^M of H«n<uria] aud Aicuhol Ihn* 

FEmIom tjr »fjrjti n ThLrrDiurnvtur^ 
I^fferff'ittal Thmnometfra. 

^&M)fHb Zero q/' Tompatdtirt, 

3S3^ Law of Expanttion of SoHdv — Nuniftfotw lai- 
prnmcnu Imvc t>{^ui tnitk' lixklcnuiut' tb« i^icact auouDt of 
fixpaiiBion nliioh Ifixtii'i <<t|K*rictuH* by Uw lultiiUon of a ipvcn 
HVTi'Mint '>f tioM. A-* In a form^-r arllde. It will hi* roiihi.1 ivwi- 
t'l'tiinit trj (yiiiMiliT, Hi'sL A'lwtir r/j^jaitfrffn , AtJil altrrwimb. 

liueur t'Xiwnwloii i>f iliirvrvnt bodlc*, wt Uk4', fur » U-nu i>f 
coapraiM>n, itc oxpnitnlon rjcpcricncnl by n unit of Ic»j^ 

EXP AS SI ox. 


ofocli bAdv when b(*fttj*<1 Trora 33' F. to 88^ F. Thin b 

C^dhxl tJif f^f^^tnt ^ Jintar errianritfi. 

Th^ ificflli*ii?iitB of \U\car vxyaut^nn for n (irp».l mnahrr of 
Ujtiitv ncit< dctttTrnitni^l in tlic? luUvr fiirt ur Llir IoaI c«iitiiry 
by iaivoutejd mid Lai-l\ci;. 1 Lry rtvluci*'j ilit: biibaUiifr<* 
to Iw expe^iInen^?<1 upon t^^ ttn^ form of & rod or hi^r, tlt«<ii 
«q»&rd It Tor a soffivJUit Lline to llic Uait^wmiuiv of iitcltliij( 
lev, and iuca«uinM) JU cjiavI Iciistb. TJii^y next L-xixiwd tbi^ 
litf to ft tempcmturi^ of tioiltii^' Vp'iLU<r. uud Pj^uin mc<uiur«l 
iu lou^b- Th(? ifjf>rcn!«i*d li-ngiti. (k!vi(l4<d by i8u, gnvu tb^ 
iiicrvuM- in k-uj^i uf tin* wbolt Imr fwr V F, lliis n-»ult« 
divided \r\ the trzi^ih of tJic 1>nr at 3^ F<* katc iho Jinoor 
«spaii«kinorftiiDtt of lon^*and for im lnrrru*p nri<tn|wni- 
tnrp of I'* K.. Ihal U, /&* t^offfcimt afiiaitar rrpajttion. 

Tbtf fijllowiiijf arc »ijnic of Uic lutvttl rt«ulta ; — 


Oj^,^;» aflW*«4 

StMl. . . . 
GoW- . - 

0DOO0O183 CoppcT . 
(U)0000(iS| sa*cr . . 
o.oooweo6 i4Mid. . 
«),nantt)wn zinc . . , . 

From tiw aTiovc tnLlt», it Is sqoq Tin thi' wnouul of t-xpfta- 

S. Hsftantifjn r'n I fj/ujnir. ^ Tbo <«^^}irimt of *Tpan*ifM tjv 
niinM U tiie inureiQViit Trhit'ti » iijliir iiiiii, of ^iv Hub^lJtDon 
«X|>«riMK«0 vflKti \\b tpraipt-rntnrr is rutted T F. Tbh 
oooffloi^m maj Iw Joterndiii'tl uxiJ^nivntaUy* or it may bv 
ftiiind by miiUi)»1y1n)i; thi> prM41loi«ii1 of linour i*xpiitv«f(JD by 
thn**;- Tile itijpi'rfJrIiLl CKpniisioii of u **ul3d Sa, of coiir*-. 

484* Applications. — Ihv pritii^iplr tf rx|iKiuio« ^ijrlnKaa 
A mlJ iDiiilrl^r ii r^cij bruhrn wIkid ^1 Is mAiiWl^ lOXM ^^trA^Nw^ 


nvtcr' 'rh« ovpliiiuitioii U uinplo. Gins* is a ht%A eoocturtor tA 
heat, livur^* thf< w^rWr. tiecomw limini ]>; «uiiLu:t villi xht imAii- 
riioni rHitidij llmu tlic oEitat^If. jtuJ iJua »irti)(iiUi(y <T hi4liri>£ pmdvw 
An fuL-quiillly »f cittaiiAkixi tiiJit EU|r|Ljri:» ibc gtjtu. Thr tlucjnur lh« 
g1u«t thu livt M'lli lie tliu luoqaatity^ iif DE|>n&ii(>iir aaj muo^aoplJ/ 
ibr lean wlU bu iht- duugcr of rujrtLirv. lu 4 lu^^ujlic vraavl eodl 14 

Urns ;*uil UiJt littkt if nil J, iiifi|ijaliiy <jf vX[3*ittioQ Diu ajur. 

^V'lll'I] fi i?jkij>Uii is boU loi- ui^r a pooct of glw, tho a&im £« 
nAfiQ \irokc'i] ^ lilt n-ndiju U llic< uiuit* aa biifin^. 3uiiWllinn « fi^" 
piMMil lA LiTuUt^a bj AUfidciJy opuum^ a duur or wituhiiW' Thit 
in (luv U; « i^it^n-ut uT oi>1d air, wLirb, rhlllu^ ujkiu lliv miUt 
Kurbb't' <»r lilt' |[]]LWt i':iUMi<M ilti iDiv^tuilitf uf rcinifVtflifia Ihiil 
tiiHj j'riiitiicu fii|rtijji:. All ailicW vf (cIam fib»uU lir ^winb4 
from BUrMou objingu of icuiponLtunv it wo WvqJil t»vjU rif4i <i| 

Jo tbtf art of cni^invcnDjj;, it Ib linpurtunt frt tah? into •rtfonat tbt 
(■XpitnKititi jtiJiT niii1rnr(i<tu cif iI-jf* itli^uIk. In lajliig tfao tnfi cf a 
nu1r<ui(]f for i'jjk.iii|iLi^ ibn niiln t^bi/ijil tiiA bo UiJ K> UtO WDdi «<krih 

UpUx liuc, UiijfKt ))t\iiU)c<i' a f'^rrr outbcivnl irjUi^r tio bi^ri'l Uii> rnib or 
tA laxt ib^in tyfiTii tbiir Gututiin(pi^ lo omployiu^ rrmi iW in batU* 
LUC. ofTantceaicala »liould In: umtlc b> rhwa* cJ auto mnJ veiwo lo 
tltflib*ii thviti hi mLrm it^aihrr, CLnd looon tlwm ia cold iiiath>i* 
othenFiM> ibo fiitc^n of iMrjInu-t^'ni ikod tipnutiud would makfii «ftJ 
mr^rituMlIji' Josf^f Iho buiUing. Vcr/ w-noiu npddirnU limt* cw 
corml frum iJiniflilL^ iLjJb iirnoaulkpO, 

Thi> ]iriiwipk' ijf rtpinrlon juv! cmilnM^ioD uf rn"l^> bft* bfvv 
ut3bnl hi lirltiiriMir Uii> wiillit rrf a iMiibliiij; uiifi'ibrr iJii^r lltcj' ktro 
ontninoaood lu (hr(>rtniUi. A HjvlMn nf fmi tlci b f iruiod, [1—1^ 
LfafDUgb Uiu iip5>iwitu vjiIIji* dii ilii< oljimiIi* «f ublcb th«j «n aeonrvd 
by iiiiU- The lillvnMUi K>ds Irrutf.- h^alixl. lh«]t ttvpmd, tal IW 
uulfl arv H-it^wol up dear u> tbu wulU. Ou woljaie;, Ibo fbrev uf vup- 
tnutlou briii|E« tbi> wulk nt^iinn tu^Oi<T' Tb* n>viiAluin( rodi afv 
Dc^t tiv!*lnl, 4tnil ilir^ iiiiu KniAiil itji. Ou ruilji4£. « fEifibeT ««• 
tmcflon tLkc-B piaffe, ^vnJ m (4i uniJ tha trnLU nrr miomd 1a tbrlr 
proper pDWtioa. TtrU iii«lh<jd w«ia uiivCTtofallr «i^if4ojni tv lYMrt^ 
tho v«1l« Jif ■ pnril'iit uf tht^ CdDim-nitiiira dM Arte t\ 3li4i«rv >>■ 
rnri«t wbiirh hmt U^in la M-pMiur. 



Thon nro «oiTto ii)ipftT«i!t tvccpttAu to Vfu^ low rhnl h«at oxpiuktH 

Tliw oralnictiim 14 vnlj »|i|iftraul; ll dfirhw frvm 1J141 nattr wlii^h 
thff ratttftlD tM-jn^ vk|hirl>Dd And drivrik oiT, wlikh |inHlijo'« aa 
fkpp«reDt diiuioaliou cf ^xrluiae i niW thej art ihnniuishly Jr>Ml, 

ooVUivtA fxnujuiiinflir, 1>/ rcu#(4i uf tliciiiiwtl oliau;;oa au»>iig ilt 

Tbo property jun f^>l4in«d i» ovd for boiKliutE jibwirWut 1>i>4JrA> 

Tir effi-rl Uik ihf^ un? Ilfiil«l nU tUf iUi" oiilj, wliji-li *lrivi* inii tho 
WbUr fiTviO tW «hIdi atid t»utva thuin (o bend in ihni dln:«lifju. It 
in tliu priDciplo timt cauBn wvudrp itttU'lc'B lu nnrp, jmd Lhrrvfiin- 
dMnnHl« Umt ajticW of fitmilrin^ jifid wcfxJni purtn of huildioj^i be 
CflAttil wWi inbir |KkirLr>, »r viKi^Uhrf, Lii |in'vt-i]( Ihi' jiIiHifr]>EJiiEj uf 

Thn |nlnnf|ili< (if ooijinfmiMii anil iwiiintAii/ui U ofinn itTllijtful In t1i*> 
vip> A fAiiiitJui oinDifiU (■ tbti fihM^M of H-tlitijc ifm tirr <jf * 
vagDU-vlicrl. The tim bi lando a IuiIit ifiiullrr ihtiii Ujc imttir 
p wipl i tt y nf Iho woodrn pntl of tUv whctl. It u ihori h(<aloilf nnH 
plttcnl MTiucid thfl wbnl; fiu ntuJiu^, h ecpntrjurui i>u«'rrfuUf, aoil 
dnw th4 fi*]LMUi ftnnty li>t^h<*r 

985. Law of Expansion cf Liquids. — IJ^jntdn ar^ 
mu<:^ taom ei\)OkimUW than aolitjs, od 4C0txjnt of iJiclr 


The rxpaiuuon of n liqitiU id;i> 1m^ oZuu/rife ur rrlaiice. 'Xhtt 
jUwoliil* txpunsLoji ul' & lii|uiit is itn act^nU iiKrrvjUtT of vol- 
nn»; Ulf* rvlnlWe oxpKrrkioii ia tta inc-rpjuit^ oT vDlnnii? with 
tPKprrt tn Uw cfinUknhig vom«r For niunpln, in » iTior- 
nHKDclcr tli« r1»c of tlie liquid in tb« sUrm i« du(^ to Ito urU- 
tiTO cjqiaiiflion trith rtipcct U> that of ibr nlrmi Ifolh 
cqwiHl. but the' Uquid idotv mpk^ly tban Uic ^kw Tlie 
i-n|Huiljr <if Uii- buTb iii«T<-iLM'A willi nr iiK-rtroMii of hvj%U bul 
tilt f<>1itiiic yf e1» muleint.-(l nierETury iiw-ftnwa uioir rapiillj* 



Th0 ooc/TEcMvJ <i»rcpo'''ii<'* '"f A liquid u ihn cxpAwinB of a mil 

of i\i1uini\ iMmB>|iikiii!irijj; Ut tii inrrHMVof tetn|vwti^ni(>f iin*ilO([rrv- 

TikWi,'u itillj ri'fnmin' til jtiuF, th« an^i'i*'i'l ■'f "V^ihihi^ A* 

306. Maximum Density of Water. — ir vit«r b 
cooled <iown gr«j1ija|l;% JU vnloEDc cnntimiiv to cOfttnet 
initjl It romeh*?* the t^D|H*r!iturv of a^.?' F.. or ** C, wh*« 
it AlUliift lU Din^timMiii lii-iiatly. If it Ih- pttill furtbcr truM, 
It bcglod to <*xpAn(], juu) at 33^ P., or 0* C* It 1>ecoin«:e mPhI, 

Thiq ciinouif phmoiDchuii QiAf be thovfc bjaniniE* vraltrrlfacr- 
nivinetur iu nmui-otiiiii wiili a Eu^tvnrijil ihw. Ak Ihv u-tuyntarf K 

iiiin;U>h«d, th« li'^uU» (L^eivaJ is 
iht Htrnw uF bnlh tlirniHinif<fn 

iujC pnMaib««on1iDllpJ,Uk« 

miy ttiU oditiaar la fait, 
i]>c WAirr will b*sni to nm, 
Th« mnximtjin rfcnsity 
watorcui liv d^u-nulincd uon 
9UM<iirfti«ty bf'UHvUior CMiliod. 
Wr bate npmcul^xl Id K1(^. 
lflt> iL ^nM >r luviag t 

\np. and tUif otlior Itf^r llw 
I •oiioiD. laio iJksc «| jfrrtv 
ax4< tnBrrtrfll two tfacntMMn 
Fiir. W. u-n*- Tht Jur U tlllod willt 

Kfttrr. «iiil a fre^iis mixttJiv jilacrfl ftrvuiHl iIa oriiUnJ port, 
Jf tlir tVvcziiig inixtuiv rrnkjuns long oiiough tbuut tibc JoTi 
vrr Vihall luivv tbr f^jJlovciig nwultfl. 

'Ill*- 1-nrvr t1icn4jfiu-1>T hilla Iu 4^ C, vr U'-lS* F-, N>J Mftftktf nt 


ibiil fuul. Thn iip7Ki nau nC lirrt rtjuiiuiw vrrf VimU, tut irhfB 
it rwrJiHt tbr' rtvnl Erm|ir<rAliirv, H iH'jfiii* in Adl itntiL ll ulnk* u> 
Ibc frrniEif-ihjml. vihoji ilir n»ii-f jii iliv )LirtLi.4:^' fn-rfr^. TW 
mw»»n b tfilft : lu fh^ u'nu^r lii ihi' iMMjin^ trrmri i>iiiJi-r in i]i>ii- 
ai(j uiomL4*, anJ i1 £ili> tn Uic bottfimi. Thiti pnvt^u IZ"*^ "» 
uni^ aH I>if irafr-r In llto kovvrr jultI of :hr vnvl fiat rriLrltftl rlu' 
IrDiftrTuliirvvf X' 12'* b\ 

W'tH-ti (liPi |H>rlJ>iu vfihv u^Lii*r hsn 1U» li'iii]H'niiiin^, HrruUiinii in 
it c(iif>v, mitil fii'cilK* of \i-K ntv fp>fTri<N^ nhjnii, ln^tui; lljfhu-r, rM' (o 
llir *iirtU«» nnil »i>rt u^k n new HTriJuiknii. tvhioli i^uinf'j llii- Wfcirr Ui 
frrcw at lJ-;c tuHmf, tfl;U<' ihftl UffHF Um." bottom rvinaiM itt ^-3*, 

'this rJLLwiimi-ia proviy lUai wnii.T i« lieaviu ai 39,S^ ibiti at 32*, 
<iil«fi It Kintf Ij* tbv I'jwi-r futt 'T iIh* v(^**| 

TbiH up^rcut L>K<'Li}iUuJi I<? Uiv law cf C-\|>na-(iori lhuI 4(ta> 
imciluci U ^xpUmi'^ O'cim ihi> IVi. tlmi :kl ttjt* Ii'ii^|ivriil<ir<f 
ur AO.d" F. Uio i>HilIr1<'A \wg\ii i>» arningi' tliriU8i'Kv8 In m 
ntT oTflw, prep&ratorv to l"lvlny ii crviiaUun? f^irHi. hiuue 
oilier subfetODoi'd, aucrb ^ mdu-d irun. sulphur. I^bmutb. clc*., 
t^XbibAt A ^LiolliLr cx|>[\i>iioii or \X)lLimo iakjiu*f1i;il;<>l^ ]>i^-viau« 
%€i inkh\ii a uillrl cr^HtJilUm' r<inii. It U IfiU |impi?r1,v of 
cx^KXiiiliii;: nt \hr tlnie of cO'ntci'liA.ittmi limt ivni^lcih irmi mj 
vaJuAbit fl tDcLil for CiUkUiitc. Tbc cxjxmiiiciEk nf tbir irn^tAJ 
AcU to Itll tiic EDUuJd, tliuit jf^^'I^Jif Bliur|>iK'4]i atvl w^nmcy to 

tlie l1Ul{||)C. 

'Vhv U'-.i tluit wnu-r liju \if gTiiaut Ji^vtiiv jit nlH.t!'' t\ ntHMf* 
i»taforw a\ iJu lUlfjifo tUftvod of ai ifip buttoiii uf nvtrii mil Uluw, 
Wmv U not Ifrni ifd U ligblr-r Uiuii itiiLrn It wouli] uuk u> ihr 
b«>«Mii A« biBt M foruMil, or mUi^r w^M fi-rni at llic? boltom, jknU hi 
llw raltnrvgUiDB iiTibt- filobi' nnulil p«n>ii vjiiiml valirv htko luio 
mIM OMi— i^ jr^v A> EOi mill qii(<-r An< b,bi r<tTii1ti?i-ir>i 'if hnl. 
tlH> msmwv mill Huulit ili.>C potHW lJ>r* |>"itrr U.' i^xiti^rt llii-in i»f;uj|| 

In AirbntHani It U Aiiinil 1>t rxpiitiiMTiii tbiki t)ir TriM|ii-mTiiTi- 
Ijt \h* wMtf Ht tK« bri(t«m rif 't^?|> nnd fhii'iW'f'*4l lubi't r<'ii>;iiii^ 
JlwfliN tJi" ™i*n* Ti*f aI ifip imififlin ti-iKprrtriirr "i -T^i"* K, 
nltkiagk th» AUil^vfi i« fnoKn in wiii|4*r, hthI in tLiiatmrr ri^i-t tn 
7A* iir aU* F. 

]| k bKfaiMr «tiC«r bat In uijiiJiMiim dfiuh^l j h\ 'A>^ V -, ^^sm. ^ 

282 HFA T. 

b uhm nt ttiiM ti-to|ii.^nv1unr. w Ihi* vUuxLird t^Monpnrisai for ilMtf- 

inmiuff ilic n^hsiifit^ ;;nn ily of IxxIhh, 

9S7. Law of £xpaii&ion of G»s«s, — (<««>« aru ivl 
only more i-xjtHtthSMr rJi:ii] Miliiirt »hil tlrpiklH, ini% Uivy nUik 
t;K|miK| aH>tt uiillVirmlv- 

'I'hi- w/PrtVnl o/ej;tah#M« of n gii» iif thCT f*3q)Bluir)ii whit'Ji 

Uiy-Lus&AO bup|>ude<1 thai id] giuoa exiinnd ninilly for 
cqattl Increiiiontii of Win^ici'attirci ; but more r4»ot-»t invuxti- 
gtillona Ahovr ihnt llii' <«H-ltk'ir-iilA of i^vfiniiftkiii am Kligbtir 

nmnll IhnL U't uW |iraijtlcnL pi)r|K)MCA wc may rcifAnJ all gasoa 
tt» liuvin^ itiL' vjimo ctiuflif-'ivut. The value of tbc ciH<ll>ck-Ql 
uf I'XjitiiiHinn for {■^(■4 WO, 00101. nrbirb in uboiii eight Itjuee 
Uialof water. 

?8S. Appllcaiions. ^ Tlir law of oxgutiilon of jcmbm, wlwnt 
tii^Unl. Iiiu iimnj' iiiipurUiiil npplKvUcik*, pome tif wliich itiU U> 

VThrn tho air of a room ItroiTniH •mnrnxl nn<\ viiintc^) Kt llkr itiv- 
onr« i>r n immhi^r «f pTuiiiit, 11 ihjuuliIh tiuA Itfivmnv lii^hfrr Ui4K 
the oirniAl ftir ; bonot il rlsm !<■ tlio lii|> uf ilic nKnii, nad iU pUre 
i« «ir]|i|i1U<i1 hj fWwh Air frniti vtihnui. wblch finu>n tbtvngti tlw* 
Onck* of ibe fiocoa. or thr>U|;ch ftpcrtum «tiDAn>otod for ihc p^rpivr- 
Opcmln^ Ahdolil 1v miulo ut lUf* tjp|H-r pun iif llw moin u> pmtikt tb» 
EbvJ air lo campu. Six-h J« ifi# ihr.s>rj <if fwifiJafiton of ruuiu^ 

In hapf bJitUio|en» likt- ili<!Htm* itm apnTlatiint in ihf» u|>prf cnK 
Ictv* ofWn j>t|wriMMto ^rtnl incoTivnucuMt fruji tin fa<)l ani «v>mip« 
nit arlitiiipc fniuj liiiUrv- To inucdj ifalu c%U, IttV iitniiBjpk, raltril 
vmUUlvns *h'>uiil Ik ruqurtnirlol in tbc nillni;. vod camipuiidiax 
nfwnlit^ pbvoU l»t iimuiiEuil iiuir (Jiv Wll-riu i.>f tliu buildlug I* mpftly 
a tiiffiir'ii'i'l t^uitiiTity ■>' fn-*h nir li* liot-p up iht* rirpvliili><ii* 

Til" priEinplfi t'i rxj^iitMH i^Un ailritiitrkl liitiiii vhiiiiun'j^ Tha 
lii'l j^r aMviiiljt lll^4-UM^ tin' Tlitr, hn^l hl« ^lUfli in «iapp|jf!vl 1>j » rtiS' 
I ** ' JJ J" ft.-m U U-u, ttbicli kvo^i* up thv o»EtikiulMia 



fpnuvvflb Ftinuicui htt' pW'nl iu thp Uiwi^st Ti((.ir)' »f iJiir liuil^tiiig. 
nnl Bit" pTwntTwl with Air-H^liriinlH'n^, wfiich <«itiiriMJuJiiil4 ^'jll; llu* 
ritprtnl iir by ttir^ot tit nir'i%i\v^ W1ipi» iI»p nir Wmmiii bwilftT 
ill \hf aiTTbAmliiT. it ji*vr tliri'i^t^fi pipi^'f "' flufw in iIh- itvtlf.^ to 
the n|i|vr -tlnrle* 4*f t.Iii' biiSIillitift jililI In mliiillti'il li^ ur r^i'liiiW tn*m 

Ttii^ fniu-.ijiliT rif I'^piiLhUiu uf Jiir i^xpl^ujit viaoy mctci>riiliiglcjLl 
|ittflii>mi-'ru. Whpn the air m aujr l'>?alitj UvmnM hoMod hj the 
nyv <tf (ha nun, U rimfr udiI it* [fluvi" b HuptJitiil lij mliitT ait f^int 
lh» Otftgbbvriag fv^K'Ilh, ilmx jmuhiriiiji; iho |>Ui>aomemi ^T iviurU- 
Thi* nn^iilidiiiD i»( ilji.' »l(iii>f['lirrr' in llic f>riii i:<f vvludn U\Ui\r %it 
0qiiiUljH- tht' tcmtKimlUTc, awl «]*:>» liy truOBj^uftioi^ cIhuI* nmi rjpon, 
li^iiJ* !■> n^uiJIxR l)ift ilb;iH»uLiuQ of ^¥Ali-r <jver ihr nlobe. 

WLhdt ulio «rro t'> trtnr,yi* the vitinKMl Air of oJtir^, n.<[ilAdiig it 
tj ihv |ii]re ur uf thr^ uuiEliboni}E! T'l^^^^"- ^^^ <vait\\mxin^ tu lliu 
|inMrtatiun »f Mo ah'I timltfi- Wjr^J« aInj m-t i>» fn^ijicl vmbvIb 
cm fhc iitvau, llm« 1^u1l}^i^lf1lTl^ ti IIll^ fi|»u'u>I >>r o>itiiututo» atij 

Wjlki'iil w1tiiIk» uiii' ciitjt* wLPuJiL Ijiri'Eiir^ cf^lrcn of iDA^pLirm, tliQ 
c|<-ail> VTitalil ruinjun ukMliiralvu ovlt lh<i lurdliUn vhtTO Thof vrtrv 
fMnnciJ, till" giciit«r p<-niiM> uf Ukc cai\h woulJ bcoiniL- nrlJ itfiJ Jtin^n, 
iritJffuil lirvn f«r Btrmmt !■» u-Mi^r tlwin, vml ibt wholo *arlli tfould 

289. Density of Gases. — Thc^ <]pnatlv of a gtw depends 
ii|>uii tlio prvtuure lu tvliiub it U (•ubJiH.'tckil. nml Aim upon its 

]| i» fur Lliie roavjoi tliiU vtr' wloct a4 u (I'nu ofrtmiirnHum 
tlic rLmailj At «om^> |:>nr1ic>»lnr pn*^urv uiid U'oii>crfllurr. 
Ttui Htiui'fnnI pffjuuro \» tJiat nt* tho nlTi)A9|>lif-n> trhMi tJiu 
IqLrtimi'tjY flliintU nt -Iff inr^EHv, imd tbf vr.iiiiUnI t^niiiMAliirv 
JA 3:;^ F„ cjr tJiC' fn^i^nic- point of w:iki. Tt; iK-lrriiuiie 
tlic lUnwitjr oL any ^^thiT pntwtirr, vr npjily JlAKiomt's 
biw : Ui ili-ti^nTtlAe I1 nt nny otli4<r tempera I iirv. wit ^IT'.v ^^' 
cocflkictil of L'^puiDf juu. us L'Kjj]aiiK-il ill ptviMxliii^ urUc-li-H, 

f^isppnui It wnre Tpi|iiiTH bi i«<lomiiino lh« tlr?n*Lly nf air «1\qivM«» 
brtHBin"t-T iiJiJji»Tr3 mt ii«7icTi. aitil ill"- lWnn*>im^( ^Hp" V. 

?.. \W U 



<lrTieil^' tn-in^ i^uol U' 1 al th'' fltAnJnnI limip«mitir« anJ prvani 
Tim jiiivtun' lji.'rti|L£ (iti}> [uu llinil» tUi^ ttlJiuiJinJ giiruuir, tlir nif Id 
Ibv «aM» 4.v>uhi{|oiv(l M'Duld occupy mi« and » liilf U* primiLirt 
trrJmnr', ALj]i[ii*J (t^ tTir iiii[ijii-nimrv br minjiiii Hi 32'* F. Rui ih«, 

1.5 by iJO ijitir^* 0-1X12411 fur tlje t^paiutun. Tku> |irv*lucl, niUi?4 Iv 
}.y ^ivn N^r fi iv<[i]: 1 Mi|8. Thai if. ft unit of volume 41 tW 

nt xha ^Iw'U pri<uim* Jitii! lcut|ii<niuri<. ItowiW the ilmMtf 
tDvcrwIy lu t^ifl v^Lnmci wil< eluJl h4v« fiir tlio rciiu.inil 

Tl^c fUJu^tUji; tfibli; cxltlbLta tbs lioo^ty of Artujo vf the mw im-^ 
>Ai air Kr»1iig uknn il* \ stoiicUrd: — 






1 JOfifi 


}^j6nigta iv the ligliUhC kiunrn Unly , I10 ilnudly lieiug fciunwn 
And M tiatr UtDM Ins llian thai ofjiir. 

Sumncuuy. — 

T^ir qf /^j|Kiiu£iiH qf SatiJj:- 

Codlli^ictil at Imtm-at Rtpftjvijoti, 
rorfflHi'ni rif |^i|iftn*l»m In V«lamn, 
iVorAVn^ Applk^tioru oft^e Prinnplr of E^paattttU 

l\tflHrif(jl "if l-;t]i;iinilnii. 
2iejimum Ifriuifj/ 1/ ll'irlrr. 

Appaniti Em-pilrju* lu lljr I^ir of ExpHuioD 



KtmoTs ir. 

Tni-rrnin\ or (iiut. 

a^O- Methods of Diffufionn —-Tbcfri^ aro Uinw motliodit 

of dtfUsiiiJC iv^'at. "^ /f'iffii'l*on, (htrditciivn, mid Cnni'iv/tn. 
Wv sliall lind la ;iiH*llifT AitlrTv llml r^litTuhitT) of lirjit Irtti- 
riftbly tmiMfrrft heal l>oin n imXlvt bculj lo n colder nftn* 
«u A» to cool tho ti<>U#r nnd irnrtn thtt cvhld^r. Tli« ihreo 
HiHlIinih vni now Iv? iimiikiWnl \it iJip otiIpt nuni-d. 

391- Rfldiatton of Heat- — TU» crUicnMil moijiiim thftt 

fcctl^ rUstic. ll tM*ii(.-lnilf4 aII bijdii'M titiit iice^uplen the 
inti-n'iil« bi»tfr«<^ th>*ir mf>Wiilt^- Th<> boat vibrAllo^« of 
bwhec tre Ihnn ImpoilH lo thf Nun-ctiir<ting cthrr. nM bj U 

wttics tu aiv. Hrat pnjjmfjitfsl ir thijt vay i^ railed ratliaat 
Araif. A lln«< porpt^rifiioiitnr to a wnve iV^nt ii cnikd a my 

A ray ^ hcM iDdlniu* a i^irvrffnn In whlfh hf-nl b pfopjicau^ 
amI hI-hi^ vUirh U pnnliirm it* cffi-cl In n lirFmrii^fiii*oTiih ni^Huin 
linftl-mjanrif tttmiftbt |in» mfliotiti^ in r\rry dirc^iou front a Itcaicd 
haij. AvlUillt hf^t iliHti lUit im|ijiit v-»iim(h [u llit ninllutii thhl 
llBiiamiTi it, bat whvn iiilrrf^iiicd h\ n Ixdy iW lEvtlt'Cul^r vttfi^ 
fd lb« Mhrr ifl iui|vutrd lu thi.* tuitltcitlv* uf 111*' iKHij^ luJ llic jilic- 

Wltra Wit t)fviik of i-a\}Um lititti U tnwn htf'unAvrtUnj^ UjaI It U 
m4 4 vflif kind of hml. tut niitinliou Hiti«i<l(<rcd in lU tlimnnJ^ or 
bcDl JuprcU 

In arte Ui dJMingauli il fn-in lli<> [iriltniiry htial't^nf-rv; vliirti 
boAfv puiMiw. it nifty Ikt ivcjivilr^l jj4 vm^fuJVjry. iir ntduint rtirrty 
vtiiftL ir«vi>li tiifon^h -rpAM mLlIi jfrtnl vf-liurilr: a.ud wtan Thti if 
bnit, u lu* Utu »lnli'i]« Hfti ti;tric«'f-Uii by u todj. llila laidUut 
ruvivy ^^ rhaaft*^ *'^ »r>liuary hcfLl'tnc'i'fify. vljich m lam U rtiiiii^^r^l 
Ivtfit ft^njb JiJtu lotiinut riu-j|;j wWo t«nt i> gWru off by any 



39a, Laws of Radiam Heat- — Tlio radiation nf lw»l 



1. Htat it radiatifd r^tialfif in ntl dirtttiottt. 

'VhiM lav mny b» vi'txiii^i] hy fvUctng thanunmoticni M v\%a} ill*> 

2. Rttyt /if htfid nmtraiifhl lina. 

ThjH tnw iiirty Thi vLirlriml Ir^ j|Lli:>r|Hi«iikj;; n HC-mm Hnyirliirv In ft 

if B rikj pLo from uno modiiim I* ani^lhw, it U bvnl fnin tt« 
DUuniL' ; tliih iMJinliuj: U mllid fr/Vnc/km. 

•ua. Like lljfT rnjf ^r litfljl, atc rtibfKtl to&f»iu 1i;r ^ <^^^r**Si'< 
I«IUL Non^hiinLDout tnju of boot, or oWur« mf*, »• Ihiy m« 
gOQcrdl^ vaIIciI* i-Au 1«i> nff^vcli^d by n Iciia of rn4 mil b«U bt(ur»: 
nn imii ball heiLt4><.l boloM- rvtlrHv*. 

TJiv law* til rrfriit'cii lu fi-ir beat an* Itiu tAluO M fur Uilbt, wad «IS 
bu muri- fiiUy itUfjuiwod uitiltT that (iik1>)vpL 

fl. The intentity ttf r^dwnt htnl tansi iUffrtJi/ fi$ ihf IttHptt^. 

diiiaticfi to t/rhirA it it Irantmittttt. 

'i'htt fir*t jiiirt »f lUU Inw » vrnHiH^ l>y i>xpn«ing nnv rif the kulbai 
(■f ft ^tffrirvuUA] lh<'ruii.itiM*U-f Ui » Ul]u'ki.'i)i<<1 cirbieal biK. Qllcd Willi 
liol iX'nEoT, ibo oibc?r bulb bvluu jirctU'cU^ \'J n vom^d. Jf Ibn watof 
b in the Gml iOftrnw »f a ^Wva ivmyn-ntVTV, ftiiil Uii-iJ fnlU «i> ^ 
luilf <ir a thinl of ili4i1 l«nipontm<\ tbo ■lilTi-rimtiAl thomi-^aottr «itl 

filler tcmjx-ruluiv. 

Tlie M'^Hiiiil jhift i>r iIlii Iaw niiAy alea hi? vorUcd hj nnuui nf iImt 
■JilTt'fi.'uliid IhtTdicinftcr, In thU ett» the llOftlod ho4f im kept 
nlmijn nl ihu ncno Icinpcnilurv, nod f^uv bulb of Uie <iiflb|irtMMl 
Ihrninnini'iflr la pbtrvil at difft'fvnf ditiantv* frvnst H- tl vill bt tiOfei 
Ibat Ht d ili»ri1ilii ili«tnii«- l^r imiicalhiD Ivonl} a ftHinJi uf ths^rii^ftll' 
lud:«fl[Uiii, M 4 Ifiplfi Jl«l4.Tio* vnly ■ titntli, avrl •£■ ciri. 

4- Raditint heat it prupai/airti tti n rarttHm at KvStu i* ttrV. 
Hii' fwlijiTiiiu t>f liuiL frviri ibu >uil Iu cHo i^rlii pruviv ibb 

]| i;4li Iw iIiuiioiLrfnUiil kIhi Iij Ibn foll'iwbJit i'3(|vr;iiHr(kl> Ju tlit* 
• IIIam uImImi (t^ijc. !2Ull> a l!i<'rauii>(1(>r, f, bi V*loJ a^ 




twblBiii tudi & DHinutT llioliU 1iulb<HTU|»iM iho cctiiro iif the i;lolic. 
Tbo nf^umiun In ihnn HlLoil wtcli mnmirjr, Jind invnilcil oVL-r u c<u|i 
i)f mcrrur; wilh ihu «ad of ibc licck of the ^lulw unJL-r 

Kow melt trff tlio Df^k ulth a bkjir-|ii|it- hlLkivi? tho 
niteiiry^ If the glulw be* iiunkencd rn hot vrulJ<r, Iho 
■wuiijf IB Bccn At EHKv I'J riflc. Awl tbr* mm^X br dun 
lo Uw rttdiiUioa vf hi»;Lt ihroojf h the vitf uum. 

^93. Exchange of Heat b«tween Bodies. 
— Tbo j>rows« of mcrirtticm '»r hi^nl lx>t*ifi"on 
IjuiUa Is mMtmol oaiI (vn/Vnitoiu- Accordiit^ to 
Uh!^ lavr» f^ron 111 tho prixi>liiig article, Uio«c 
bulicn nhidi cu^* inoAt IusIlhJ ^vi^ oir motft b<«t ; Fif. sm 
hence lliP lioll4<KL UhIic^ oI' a ic'^^'ip l^v^ '^Tf morv IipaI 
thui lhr_v retvif*;. mtnl lli« c^uIiIvhL ou^a n-iTcrivp uion* Lhjin 
tbc5' g&vc oC Thv cMuiwqutiKv U, tliat tbi^rc in n contiiicnl 
li>Qd('ncy lownnk ^qqaJUiiUoii or t«iik|ioratun-\ If all tUu 
bottU^ fiK' uf Ih^ At4t/J0 b-»k[>rniliirf, rHi.^h wUl giw off «■ 
pmdi a« ft recelvM. aii<3 110 fUrUii?;r cbaugu uf u^m|wj>iture 
oui occur. The pmccM of rcMiiatJon, bowover, got^a oii an 

AU tlhv hoillfV Iq a CWHn» ftir ouiiiLi^lft, ti-rjj bi tyirii;« to ■ noilnnn 
tnniiBnMiirr- Wr mj, Iriul tii i«i[i)o lo h irnifnnn MTi|R>nitiin^ 
bnwis* iIiIji ff-fhititiob ba fii>vor lullj unhnul IIihJm>« nnjiriifit thii 
tfjillt AjL< rjxiviuunll}^ rMlMi';;!!!^ luut wjlh tbi- wjlIU, juhI mm llimr 
nrr >n pominiiiiknitEoii chtif'r irilh tli? oirtor air ur with cilhcr pxvn*, 
thcit t«inpef»lare 11-ill hv ioEui^iiwd tlit^rrhj, adJ mil In tnni oxcri 

394. Reflection of Radiant Heat. —When mdmnl heat 
fkllv D|wu \.\iv 4urrn4.v of 11 Ixxly. ^nmt* uT It is lU'llFt't*.^ I or 
lient fKpin Itn i'iJurK\ TIiih bi'ti'liii;^ ih i^alUxl Trflcctum^ 

Tlw iwlnl nt which tbe bouJiu;; takes pbtc ia ciUlcd f^tf 
IKrtW <»/■ incitiffnct* Tho raj Mbr* ind<lvnee la csJkd lAf 
innf'rHi rfiy ; aftor inHdmoc, it Ik <'nllvnl lAr n^Jipde^ toy, A 
IJH*' ilrafKii |H;iix^nilt(^iif»f to Ujc Burfifcoe at ti\c vi>\ft\, <*\ \wa* 



^]c-iniy in i-si]\i^\ fht ptrrpfnitiftUm: The arigW t>Otvt<*>» tlir 

Uk nujiU' lwti»oi'n Hu' ptrjieiidiruhu nad the wdtfclcil r»j i» 
r/tr ttivffh fff^JifrU'm. Tin- pluHv cr xXiv iij('irJi.-Ll ra)- atid Um 
[>i?i'[>oni11oiiUr |4 ifK- [tl^LiK^ iif iriiiJoncc: <bt> plains of lli» 
ii-f1(-cl(n) mj Auil i.hc' |ivriM^iu|iciil4Lr U Uj<? )»l4tn«T of rrlWclliJci* 

395. Lav^TK which govern ihr Rrflrction of Heat. — 
Tbr futU-nii^if iAWd, iittlimt^^l by Uuxii^\ h^vc Iwcu coiilirmct) 

fo Mf rtjtitii'nff aurjOff a! the point uf iMPi'rfnK*, 

wnli-r i« pJn^pd, /I 1* a nTH^rtiruf mirfnrr. uiiil r* it ■ itiflbrMdi*! 
UiPnn^cnttr^r. iJ f ' it a ].vr|H'iic1i<vijLnr in llit« rrtirvtibfc rai^c«^ 

ftiy i> iK'niiJUi^l I* full \i\n-h fhi: rt-Hcrt'ir, H. tht- nuiHiixUr l>'iii^ 
Inti-rYi-pii^ hy a tiTi^rn, Iijiviilij u «njiU Iiii1i> In ir, Uy ftTikUiLIf 
Amiiu;iii^ tliT (}i''rm*TiDrlcr. nod "tl'fr partoc>f the ApjunnuL \t 1045- 
bi* kIkiwh 1^^l< lliv |iUa4* .1 J9 f i* iiTtH-iiillciiLtr lo tbc rcflrritn^ unr- 



3ig6. Reflection of Hcttt from Concrave Mirrors.^ 
A Co7>ii^AT[: Mmunxt in ii [HiitHliv<l etplLOrkdl i>r imTalhilir? sur' 
fW^, ii>i)*ily or uii-'tHl, I'lUfiloyccL lo coiicoitirrilo i-njA or heat 

%i ft viiigle jKiItll. 

It i» n propoit^ or tkuch nrtirron thtil &11 ray* whEc-li brfotr 
iDcwl«lW9 ikro |>oni]l«l U> the ux\*, btv advr ivllL«c'ltoii f.i>Q- 
rMged tA % ciriffk* (loiiit. uhii'h puiiil b lhi< Jovus iif ibc 
mUmr, Coni'i'nMrly. ifttjL- rnyf pi'i^t^Til f^to Ihe fociis* Ukcy 
i^ifili W nrdc-t:tc*1 iij lincft parallel U> the ftxi>- 

*i luifl B (l'"V' y02] n'irroMtii lutrri ri-11<TUir>, Irniiti^ lh«r IU«« 
iviinriiii'iit, Auri IhfH^r miifjti^iM uini^i) |iP <^ii<l-i cpIIht Jil tin* fiiPEiL, ii| 
fiftW iwrrrtr, /|» );« |ifrirnl h ImH nf li"l ifin. ■mkI in t|i^ ^{hrti*, n, nf 

|itii«i|i1ii^ikh Tlic Iful ^vtuLlLllt^ itiHf ihf tv^U i> n-t1i?^^k'il Tiiith .1, 
jcimDM !■> ibc dinixivii hki» tif tLc< inirMf. niiil ffilliiig ij|m|i ii, u 

twfyt In iiilliiini' iW film^pti^iriTA, vvt>u whvti iUf m\rr*ir' nn- wnnd 
f»rji ilJibiiil fhiii I'Hih -'iJi' r, If ihc ixiirTi>f, ,^. nlvu« "u uspJ, (lit' 
^hts|ihLimK tfc i^irt Inllikjiiril, 

ibra vfihMi^il. 1"il srp mtin.- rliUV'rili lit cfniMnut* hihI ttiHrrliift am 
n*'! imhI «»' nrorh. 

Thf' pmpony of nmniv« mlminip tkhnvtt nvptiliMd, 
ocwniniif.' the hi'uL *-f tbe nun'a n/», l» ihk COM Ao frfprtor 
nilkvl jk ^HrpfHTj rnirrvj'. [l uuit Iri^ (ibioi>il wr ^uui hfl vtib la |iar- 
ulli'l Vj iliu rayn ^^f tin* fiii^ wL^rlif \in llic^ fiilJ ujH>n il, nr* rHkv(<>d 
|u ibtf fmriLHr whom llir^ ]rfi>iliii?i' UrM iin^Ufrh lu WL IdlLtaiQuMi' 
uiLdtaD<!0» ou firr. 

Ii b mid iljiii Anu-in»fci>£:s wu <!im>rt(^ by oirwu of iitlrro/a te 
ml ttrt' ^^ eIii' iC^mmti ■liri* in lln' !mrb<>r of ihi.> /^Hy t^t S j ntf— <■ 

ibui 220 fixii. 

Fir aoL 

397. ReHectIng Pow«f of Diffefcm Substmaces.— 
Hiow boil^ fr)ii<-li n^Tloot a Idnn' iHJitioEi or Uve tmhkntl 
htAt Are tflllcil ^oW rt /T««f 4rt f tJkoai* vhioh n<A(-vl litil Hnlc 

rvflccUns powers of (litf^rvftt WiiL^*. adopted !>> l.i^i.iiF, 
lli^ plaotxl m t^if>ico\ iSii \tox, lilM wilJi v^vr at \hc TvAtirij;* 
I'rJtit. In lV»nt or n |<amlKillf< n*lhvtor. Tliu rtiy* o( iK^iili. 
r^illjig ii|ion the n-lliH ti>i:. :ifi' rvlltH-UiiI ami Iniil U> mim' lo 
A fbt%t& At /*, bill (ii>^ inU'ri'^"f '* "^'^'^ l>lat«^ of «^onM >ul»- 


fttaiKH' b«-tW4H,«[i Uie minor uid JM rociu, tbo m>« aiv uguin 

Ufi /*i? WhJud iLh Til'-" Ucut thus ftlli't-lMi in «!it-i»inl iijHm 
'pff^i- bulb i>r ft ilifTi/ivrttLii] tbiiniioruvliTi by ihi'mib uf wUuIj 
It t* im<Ji4iiro<l- \\y inIc>rj)o*lTig \\\iiWi^ t>X <tLMV<rvni hiiI^ 
M*w>^ Li) Mn-mwi>ii* liii-ir uliiljve nrlli-itinj; |xiwer» aio 
■ k-icnniDcd. 

Ill iljiA LuuB slivvf^l llml iHiUahcft bnue iHiervtil liiu 
tiiKb<«l rfdi-<^iU:A)c |Hiv^r; nklvnr ivllocU <>ulj liun t>-uihki, Uii tiuly 

Uukpnni b^ fmuho *ln no! rptic«t htut aC nil. 

\X kM been B|j|l«J llial wlicD nuiknl Lent folU lijioij ttv luilkori vi 
a iHaly^ «iHnr>(if H h n^Hi'^'li*!!. ThriVH ix ■mnr' of it ak» IliM kt 
ftbnurWil by lljcf birtl^f hchI putuo trHusmilKtf- 

ikul Jr>r« Uu(, ii/Afrm^iwjiM- 

Urili laiiiiiMii* uuil i.'lvninT. will [ituyi din^uitli U tr^lJi itlmui Oiv r«]uu 
CiriJUr t)wt Iif^lii (liiiiitiit llitniu^ tfbM- Glui it vtrj' irLiic[mrcD|, 
iliHl ist will Itfi Li^ltt cLmugh ii nradilyi but is nut a|WLEiU> iliMljc<r* 

306. Abdorbinc Power. — hi rpii^fi U^ (k-W-nmnc tbc 
rvUlUe povrci'» orah«orplioii. [^«lii: cm|iloycd thtr ii|ipaniUlH 
dliovrnlRFJg. sot. 

Tlw counw (^f \w^\ uni! Hr' reflwlor tviii»iii1n^ iih ln-fiirL*. 

rociu of Ibi- reflc'cbn', oovrriiij; it auwH'flnivcly wild la_vur» of 
Ihe «nl;>«ttfnci! Ui U< <.-x|iorLUK'itti*>i ujioii, lu Ui^8 w»t^ bo 
«lio««i| tlifll tJio4o ftiil:i^tAiic!te4 whiub rvifloct ino«i btAt otHvirli 

Whf Ji till* bulT» wjm ItljirlnmM by niu^krv ihn lhi*riTuiinr|i^ lUtli- 
*-i,V^A \\%r crmUi^l vii«ui-c uf IoiujjitjiTtitc, ahJ tIhd voTcred with 
hvut gf liriBi It iti>liE»TnJ ibt' Uvut ihikunr. 



399. Radmting Power- --Tl*e n^DCATTK: Powioi ^r n 

Til <li^l.(Tii«nTn£: thr nvlifttin^ (^f^wfrr, L&iUE ViDpIo}^ 
Uic Appnrfttua s]i<>wii in l-'j^. iOJ. In tbi» t^ftjw. itifff^nd 
covortng the hull» of IhP lliprmomclc^ wEUi knypm tit tbo 
wibBlniRi-p l<> 1>L- i'5|icriHftnlt'd upon, br HiTrrT<l Uif itJIK;] 
bcxB of liic c-ijljic bux with i»yi'i» uf ihu [hfovut oubvC^nc**. 



Tor ri(>in»plr, lot no* &^ tv inikiT* oT tia, lot n MV*okd b* bbidct 
Pi>u3 by <iri>ik? >rr tump^bUrh, It^l a Thirl W l'^^ii^u-I V> a ]u>t* g|' 

Aicr* tvW4filji iTif rrflrclur, tho llii-n^i-iiifrli^ indU'iilr* iliJl^inil if^icn^ra 

lof. ttic Ihpnni^tinrtrr risfs, ^lio^i-liijf tfinr ibU iwc b a ifml niliiiU<; 
if till* ixippi'-rtA-*TFtl hw^* Ih» n^rt tTini'^ Tnwvtl* \ht rrflivftir, "m* 
ihi-niunnrliT U\\»t «fi'>wixu> iljut t4i|4T ia n pooTr* nuiuh^ lii*ii 
UrrL|i'tiWk ; if iIji' t;lAu-o>r4'nt] Tiifr In* tnnidt V-Wnrd* iJu' Mkvturp 
lh(< ihfTiiiuriitltfr QiHh Blill L'Hvr, iLKiiHiliiij- tlml fjUiB U a fioorT* 
T9jli«1ur ttiuTi |T£i]itT; llualJj, rf ihir t^uiLn) ruct- U lantvd IvvaMi llvr 
rrllfvtcir. lhi< tliiTtttifint<fi-r fiillt rtill luiv4>r» iiiJicvtUfr the &vl fbal liP 
^ M psm\n^ mHijiT'T IImu ^bi». 

7'«/tf UAmOMKJKH. 



LctUB fvonil, h^ t1ii« fvMirv nf pr^yirHiti^, ihnl the ndlAiliifv 
IfiHid i*iUTiit Ih Aluk A gijud uLfciCbtrr liut A had nllnciirir, it>4 thp 

Il U oHHijiiWily n;ppoh>d lliAl IiaJIm of liflplii L'JiJtrr* riulinhJ hr^T 
|i> A It** PHicfli Ihkn tiio*c i-J n JuU nnJ Airk f-jlirf, TW a.19 ili>- 
pfi'Vni bj M'-lli«Til, At Will f"f '►'■irHfif TiMir Hf fiiutd itmi m'IiIwi 

I Aiiit thTjip'I'Wk rruLmlnt the '^WMi ninnmil cfhi**!- 

30G. Modifications of the RdlcctioK Powers of 
Bo<Iie». — The pHnc*ipiil vAiik^h \\\^\ uv'MXy IIjo rvlWding 

o/tiit incitUnt ry^. naJiirr. i*f'Mr ttittrire uf/i^ai^ nm\ eirhr. 
I>I1kt thi&fTs tciuf; equal. politArd bodi<4 ore btiter r^cct^ra 

UthtT tJlSngv ^f-ltrg tijiinL f/fnA* hrniirt /rn* ^^«r rffitrtfrft 
lUkJ H^in' ujiorV/fl Men mrr dnp*^ 

OlInT tliiu;*» Ixiii;: oi|iii[« iht nffMtvr /Aa inrirffnl rny w^ 
^ipf%rvA^ thf prrwmffihir, tftr tfHH leifl tr t/it ptrrfiftn r*jttrt^ 
ffdrf rA* yrfiit^r ifof pnrfiau irAAirW. 

y%C Ru/wrr t'flitf vrr/rrr ii/ArriT sotntfitnrJi rrnHfijiri M^ rf^/Zrt^- 

mliitv Wd. it »biK>rlM tnortt fh^nT Hthh a <-ii1iir:J \tox of bi^lin^ 
wnU-r. limtj IIiciiihIi iIk' f^iitrir Itmt nrn^ rtmtU'd ^> a Uiiijj. 
Bui if a ImIj in iiuihIe^^I HJUt km[i-l»lEiek. (he auiumit uh- 
*i>rbrd U Ulo famuL-i w|iaii<^cr ma)- bt* iu moui^h^* 

].ttr1iit-«Ll(MTiI luirlirv iihuirli f'Hvt and rrfliin tii(in> liml (Tiaii ikrii- 

Midi >t tJijU frf ilir Will- iliJi III Ll>i' rv»<r nf uliwiin' tirjiE, njor ilimi 
U0I M.*m 1*1 aflV^ <W hbfc'riiTif>rv, 

WhiHhvr n ImhIj if Ji R<"nl rr*fliH'U"r. ub»iirtr»lH i^r ruljhliit. 'm 
btfr tl U lli« r^-rrriis <lcpou^ uium U|iuu llic molcFubir orndilirHi 

301- The Radiometer. — Tliwwjrwftb* of glnw nibo 
:- '205) Hllb a lniU> Mo^n In fu wbidi rvMn on & vrinKtHi 



yi«. wfi. 

injC iip intn the Intltii oii thin itniot 
ro«U u «m»ll v)L«o uonn^KUng of fi>«r 
iirnii«« I'Nt'h iicii* rnrr^Eu^ k <tink uf tnirM 
<ir piLbi wLiti^ VII one ^l^lt um] cuvtrRti 
with lump-bkck on Uia olii«r- 

pU^ii, u hiiihII iiitm vJiUmil)* ihiwii trt'tn thr 
liip (if itit Ixjlb *t> iw v> HQTroupd IW bf o' 
ilic fM|i. wliieh nMi on ibn p1%vt vUbuat 
tiouchii^; il> Thi* trtl\*>t oml uf itiii luktf v 

iLrUIML >tUl, tklHt CI^IIHClvd Wlitt BUDIC ^fM' 

raitLiH ftf vxh/iutliDK tho aif. WbtfO tliil b 
tli-ni't tli(.' IilIIi U lii'iiiM'dcally flvnlod. 

U a hf^ Iwd;- \m bnniighl vcMT 1fc« vwU' 
<i|in'Eci, (IT if ll 1w vxpopfil lo iho nnllghi, 
tliv jiniu» wtU rotJito ntm or Ifw rftfiidlj. 
Tlw rniivc fif Ibia woe fivronljr «u|qHK4 io 
kci duu (<■ thv irmbAQkiJ juiiob uf bishl* bui 
bi U unw iIhui^IjI IV Im< 4iuiiig tu btvl fad&»' 
iioiu, iiml lliv rrnrtivv Wmy <ff ih# Hiolo- 
f lUn uf lljr mrrJlnt itn iii tlin? bulk 

joa. AbsoTbins; Pow«r of G«c«.— 'HinpowrtOfUi* 
iliiri<n>iit paM* in aS*»»r^(ng W*i vnrb** irnwUr, Thm f^mplc 
giki^i-A, hulii»p*iL, *kxygi-n, nwl nilmv'^n, absorh very Ulllc, 
I>r> air mb.« b a ivn iwwjr ntworbcnt. ITk* aqwooa VA|>or 
in ibc ftUiiCMiih<<rv*, Jiowi^^. bu gT**l pow« of ftbMq^loti : 
but It ifl non tanriUi'iii in i^ vast ttt otocuro llun lawfaioo* 

»Viin«(>fthi'«oni|-iimduiv^rtlilUt Btrml oqMl} bv alaorba^: 
■Urk bt^. Bnrk u «u1|»biiruii« ftcU *ihl ftMUiuiik, U« fbrmor alttort^ 
tiiif rnvrlir f^n ilni«« m tnueh *■ dfj flJr- 

|*n Hut nblUui hm b : riL« il b nlbrtnl^ irfrvkil, h m iMai ll irf. 

1>»Urintibi^ to bp esiUfml h*n«fttr. 

In vHir iif lh«fp GkOVfi, W9 Vim ^kstifioi in trtir infrrvttKi ikht bMA 
IJkb «n* tiihm ta««kA] i« fii«rir ttbiE-i to »fh oUmt. 


303. Applications of the Preceding Principle's- — 

ton in tJifl human body 1»^ «wluUiHi7 thi> itn vUiIhu Ui-aytk tif 
trmmitiVr, aJi^ by prvTcatlTij^ uw ia|jU mduilivD tit tuthaal UfiiX in 


I^h»e MibaiATUKOi lik<3 wciollcaB amt fursi aro bod KTH4'<tur<i, luitl 

lii^iKi nnd riHUiiLr, ^krv ^ihhI ri.'ll(<rl<»nv u^fL ttii'n'fv>r«^ An' (suIUlMi* For 
kti minor rlnlhihi^- 

Sui'W b A i;irt>J n^(lK(itr, Lett ■ \^u\ iiln'tihvt nad rwiialut' fliuKx: 
tl U tiiEU ft biypr i»f *!)<]w in wItiict n<?u to |»ro[i)i:i ilir j^ljiuu* wbirU 
1% nivrn^ Snow nnit t''^', witrn rMpr«4c>il to ihc rays uf llic idD, mptl 
triji iliwlj: Vut if iL limij'^li iif Ik In**' fir il^icii' jtripji^f^lii ibiuii^li llir 
tii'iT, It itaLiwp th" LlU'T l-) mill 111 lit uvinh\'<^rttit^»], firil Ny nlimrU- 
hix t\>V Ueit of ihu HfLti, HHil tficu (nilUtLri^ H tu lliti atliPiUUiUug 
piTlicIni iif Irr ur KTUfv. 

If A lUnic U thnjwD U|H)ii ^ Orltl iiT ice. li «c«iD raiuei lb« Inn 
Arvuntl it tn indl. foniibfi u IhJu IilEm vUiuh l( niiik*, A ilvk ototh 
f^coad ii|iuri iniiw m-|j» Lri ihir »/kmii uiauuci, Kud Knin liuks uudiT ttii^ 
isiutMu -kf iSc ttm't myr 

WiMv is aKiLii^t hvat4.ll III a vinh.-] hIihh' ffiirTiuv h hhwk aaA 
iiEtjuiliflJiftil, ImtM'dO tho vm4oi jii thid bIjlUi u liott uiLbplLiI to iUit«rb 
iJkc ItfBl iwTiJfIi i» N|rtrluil Ui it. Inil uu xvjuuviuv it fK^iii i\n^ Arc, tbe 
r eools rapjtlly. 'IVi n<1:un hfiit in iiiiotdn, ihoy pIx^uII \*iy o^^n- 
bol IP denK *ad |ii>1i»tii^l ^l-»M'l^ h» [Ieimi- mm- \^—t nuiJ.iCvrB- 
ITiim^, fir lii'ilmir a.ud «i>okitj^. ixtuulL au<l blark vevh'U *I>uuIiJ Ih) 
vaafi|i>yoil, boi tv k«v tbu firlkOui ^unii. Joiibl hieiI |rtflJaI>uJ vtTSXiU 
diudll Ihi UM4t i1 ii f<>r lliiM ixiHuu Ihal 11 mUvr 1(Uj>«t in Wlt^p 
ikw Aft Mi^ivQ iiuti. Hut Jut cilwT i>i a ^•otl ouuilucior v{ buit, ilin 
huiillA ■liiiulil bn iiubAirffI by ii]l4T|Mthiri,u Iii<I4><l>ii iX %aA ibi^ vi^l 
■moo kdtt>*aDdiu4L(i|C fiUp^ii-iii^', .i« ivxry vr l^itip- 

fitCTTM^ bdag liirtanilM l** rmliiilK fitnl, HhouM tn ri>MM;li Hhd bWk* 
Sul finrjilikA*. Wijji mtr(Mli<l ti> n-llrvl. liciil iul>i thv [ihpij». fJjuuM IrV 

iiTit^ wiih «}liIii*, ikuu« achl poliilifld fluUftUUcui, Uke ^luud uirtliffb> 

304. Conduction le ttiut pro|»vTty of l>odic« by rirtiic of 

nii\ [bhIi U b4-:iU<i1 hy r»lifbKlio», ll UVUiV Vw i>t % Viyt<i\ \ic\'uv- 





])t<mlijn* tluui till? iMit* of liiij boilj Umxigli wbit^li Uw lini 
coined to fiti 

torif ; Thtmtthat ilu not Imun^il U iT-AjUy«iv f«U^ ^wi tunH/tfcAini- 

iMkKKiforu kIiuvvivI rli4l MliJ bodhm piiiww diAnVdl dt'K'MK i»f 
i>aj|lijvinjtv, ljy lututm of ou a|ipitntt43i »boni In Fls< flM. Il rva- 
■■iAiii of AD oblong VTwi*l to miitAiii vnti-r. fmm <Kit tSdf rf wUdt 
Iifcjcrta « AfBli^iii of ahotl lu^nv frif t>'rciviii|[* iWn of HilFcmit kM» 
ftf n>11d«, ti^i^ rtH rnrljiln^ in^rlilc, WiMHtr uta". Jinit Itii* likn 

]]< outfit fho JJftViml niiU willj A 1^ WAX tlut nuutil i»t)| kl 
Alioia 1411* V , rirkJ Tiiiirj filial iho vmvI wlUi bti^Jng mtrr. Vfc^ 

lUKikfT of t!ir> rrxlH tire H'iit mu'IIi-eT n4|i1i]}y. iijirm tainra mmv lisvlf . 
ftnd apitn oihciv not ai nil. Thk hJi'iA'nl UiaI thtf loiJn nvM la 
ibdr «iiii>iiii?ilThy. 

U ^ut bM<ii cTitivtL th'it innCali are Iho S«it «ml|{|^i|^ Aflrr wh&th 
r>f|iH> niitrlik-, ifuni ^xim^lthi, briokB>i vwh}. f.'Ui-w. rmlit. rtf. 

LiijDid" mil Iriiit fvai'hiiloni >T hi<Hi. ft'ipri inorc^ry, wWli t> a 
iiH'tAL Till y Eitr *m'Vi IkliI niuiJui-lojM thni KtiMmhU ASflvtpil Uul 

tlmvniliiit aII lii^tuiU*n! n>nit(ic4i>rv but ritnirin<l) tKi4t7iit«. 

Qa^H jfF Iitt4 CQ^Iiirtrin of hmt. but ob nrv^mil nf lh« rifroaB 
mcpbilltj cf thoir t«fTkJra« It U diAiull di efUbllulk (Ilc TaN by 4Invt 

Convection ih thc^ motion of ib^ poj-ttolM of iUv boi 
body cwtjintf the hv^l ^-ilh thcin. M'lu'n n lr<|ii]c! i.^ hfntMl 
ftCthp hotlom il iUu-nnilfl'H ['[imiti^im. Yin- hcntrd panidvB 
vspAAdi lujil an Uic^' lire llivii 1ij^ltli*r ilmii tin* c>oi>!i?r Dn«a 
abo\'b Ui«n, ihry rl*w U> tlx' i'»|f <»r fJn' vi«-otl lo give pl*cc 

1n Uih m.j ft double viim^nt of iiiu« 
Udcs b «t-l up, ta iiIjowd in Ibc fitf- 
ivt by tlw arn>v», ilic Ih>i oiiud rioiuK 

pruutrwt of t'trvulfltii^n go<-» uii fill a 
inilfoma U-nii)cratiLrv if* tnpni'U^il U> 
nil ofUiu tiquuL 

ttti- iNjuLMT {U-iuLm juh iIli' 1i(|IIiiI; hh, fur 
rBttD|ilOh nnk ■nwdoit- Ibrw^ pAmi^Ju 

«ril1 peruke of lEw iikuLJ'm of liirduM, 
lidB^ up in vIh> v>(>dU«i anil Ui.>>m)iliri^ 
alovi£ iUv Hftlb iif ihr ttwl ju» tiTirru-u iu 

joCi Applications of the Preccdlnc PriDciptcs. — 

v«rj iliflhniC •nwwlJoiu. Mtiliib, nlouve, bfMrkf^ ntui liu* Iikr, ft-*-! 
i^Ui vlidlta Mff^wl*, pnrl^iiiiH. Aud Itif likr^ fi*>l UMnii, The n^iAou 
"f l]iiip I^ ibM llrff frmnfr art tfci*! i>inrlini<n>» jin^i rvmlil.v Alrblnu-'l 
th« tftlnin] bnil fniii titti liiimE, hIieIj-I ihf biU'r ;iri lutil rfiuHrirtrpn. 

W4««lra li4nJfi« An* puimtiiincu fiaad to irioiallkC vi4IvJb ivkU^h in 
«ii(iulii IhuTitI Ihiiil^lA. This U livjiUHT Mvm} U i\ l«vl ruiiiturliHT 
KHil ilii<rrftrtr dor* Dot cinvr>y iW iimT t>« tW IiiulI Kur a »irriJhr 
fHI. whiH irp wtpuM li,^^i4illr niij lifiiic*! hoHy. w <iffcn iiilfi^iaf n 
'k hriMrr of w>iril[i'ii I'iMli, thv \iiUvt ^H-hm n IukI rvimliifUT 
Til jfrrwr-Tn in- in ^ujriiiirr, ur- MirMiiiut il vilh h'liii.' Wl ^m^ 



tliiK ttau tlin »on-oouiuiill(^i< «ubHUiiH' prcvAfiU th« nithUl nil cf 

Ccllnrt prijlocU!^ fMin tr«i in vltitor by a double will mitJm 
ing « Ujer *>( air. wliitli »■ a noO'iS'Ddiictuf. It i» ihe Ujre uf mn- 
AbOff uir tlijtl nitiil^n ekicibli? vinrluwn n. r|4tfk<ii| In cvdodlii,^ ^^ 
friMii 4H)r fiotJM^- 

Tlti" fi-mhi>n oif Itirili iiat\ ihv fir iiT nntmsls htv iwt «iil]r 1> ihptn- 
MilvFji licbJ Cfj^duobTtf 1>iJL (hi^ cDflrtBi? II A^mKor nr Ifb quantity tJ 
air, wliii*^ rnidi.Ti ihvtn ftn'mtiitiy lubi^iliMl !■* 1lu> Mvitlufkioii ■/ oirld- 

Thi.' l>srk (iflrw* i* i% bod o^ndiJi-Uitf luul t^twrvc* fc* pn-tfd tkrui 
fniiii tbiH irtji)rli>iiH i^rrvrU of hi>»LC in vimniof xiiil caM In wtulAT. 

Out wtu-ifii'HL nrlj^^lc* i^f clofJiii^ir utt ftiUii^i^tA vf uon oooJitpiii^] 
miltfUomf fiu^lirdini^ .1 nix-nift i-r li^w f|iuLntify of jtJr Such *rfi fnra, 
vou]l<-D 4<loth(4. nnd ihiy [ilco. It ja not ihjil llio«i mm worui iif thr"*- 
w<lr<^9v ^^tii i^Lr^y «c-n'f.i us iwu-oundLifMuri, prvvratlug this nHU|H* 'if 
am^nol ho4t froiu out bodift. 

Suirmary. — 


Tmnainwioti thmiifrh 8^<««. 
lU-Miitn llcni. — Uflycflfcnt 
' ijiw* tit RAilUnt H»r 

ncHnilkkn ofTi^nniL. 
I.n^^ll nf l^'flif^iuTi, 

"^ Ki'tlt^itTLi: }'»wi^rcf dLffL-nrnt i'ubaUMt^ 

fj^lifr'i' t-liiieTiinv'tit' 




-tSUml^kon Ulictfn Lt^ht and Ita^ianU htat 
Pnuibnt Aj/iilujtUoHa ofyrH^hng JViHdji^- 


Guar* ItLkd Conduoton of llcni. 

SBcnoor v, — €a\^OE or static \}¥ dolhim by fdahin jind 


307- Fusion. — It ^ been stntH thnt hcnt not odI.v 
piiLifipv ThhIil-s I» oxpftncL liEit Hint il mny in ti'Ttnln ciivnin- 

frlaU-i ov frnin Llic liquid to llic ga^-^i-ou^i italc. 

XVIicii A VHxtv (>u««oe Trotu ^i solirl ti> ih litiTiid statc^ H la 
eaKL to jnrff, oT/tw, *ml tbc a<A orctuui^iig ftbtU la ttiU OttM 

1f a mcltixT botly U m^fTcrcd to C00I* It f^f'Tii'tnlly beoomcs 
toliil ut tlic niimv tt^iLwnaLira at vrhidi it iitcilFtKl. Hrtt^ tbo 
ini-lting-|>oinl f* iiHUnlly Uw atniru^ nit ihc fh*rxin{;i^-[>a[nt. 

The frt«iTl^-Jh<l^t mnj tio )oftDr*?(| lit vfiTii>aK uikj*. Tfml '>! 
TLilct hiui tpcn IftWTfipil eevprjil Jpcrii^B Whtw 35° T. A ^Kfilii jiif, 
liHWV'i'i-r, will i-jiiiii' tho WiUt In frw»^, ATiil iht^ t*\n^ntnn will rn- 
tLimljr ri** to:**'- 

riixlim uhm pljicf^ nli^n th^ fWrt^ iif iintit«ionH vlikh hotU iImh 
1i4irt'irli^* iif « biijy U>it<^Oirr. i* i-mrlly 1*iiliiDC««l by tho hr^t wh«fa 
IfiUib U> H[iiiniL4^ lltrin Tho u^mponUurc a^X ^V\cAv l^aVA Vi^i^ 




^liiiMt II JifTrrvhl fnr ilifliTTnt th^liM. For fm-* 1»Jim U U lyvy 


1 Badj. 



Merc II rj , , 


lUtmmli . 


\iX . . . . 


fflil . . . 


njiuT . . 


Aiiiimnnr . . 




Zm^' . . . , 


^uJ|>Uur - - 


SJ»fer , . . 


Tin , , . 


Guid. < , . 

^ 1 

All Wdif^ nrrr mtt iih<Uc<I hy ififi miirn ^iflinil ^nin«> «r<( ilrcwr 
|to«Ml. AEiHi JL» |Jn|"'T, niifiiLhoTL'', TiiijrMi-. rtr- ^iriifiT^ htnlw* — ti4|' 
iBi IxxtW ^Kicl] Hr<-«<ni4p<M'i.t of bni uri^^ liriil ur riuilfcr — iJwajrttiivJtj 
if vnllrinntly lusiU'*^ v^tli ii jtiti^le fTwpilon. Etph ntrbnn, l1i» i 
rrrnioiory of all ktto^^tj bodic*, bu bcm brousht to « aUfc of li 

Thfl p^iMJiiii! fmm t^i* Njli<l \t iliL' lif|ijul siiLk ii crnmlh nbr«|il, 
hu< not. al^ayi^ .'^>fTtr li'idir-* ^lut^- ii4* i1r<linite inHUng '[•■■i'LiI ; (jt 
i'lnmplo, c^nee uitU irmk Er^irlujiJl;' bixv^itv nofltY And po^t iiotU tl 

300. Latent Heat of Fusion. — Bo(!i<« vUdi ran bo 
nicLtrd a1iva,vii pri^feciiT %\^v rK^mjiThnhre |ihenoiuotion that vlicn 
lh*'V sitv hp«U*il to Tin- l4>ni[>fnitiJiv ftf niRlon, ilipv <'Anri<:il X^ 
lirntiHl liny li'iKbi't tiiitif llic l^|i>ic>n in i:'Oiik|)lctv. Pur daiuph', 
if kir l>t-<exp»»3 to fRdl, it ^I'lcinii to melt at 32'' >\* and if 
more litwit Irti iifip[i*'l. the mtUttiip ii iiccclcrotL^. tDt tho Ww- 
|torfllur9 of lUo irixtim- ctr in* ami wuter ivmaliiH ut 32^ Tititil> 

All tlu^ in- U HK Itinl. 

The licnl IhjLl irt jippUcO duritifC the pnxwas of TiMion cnu.-ra 
into tbc Uidv wiltioiLt rnlftlrig Ito l4<iop«rntijn>, and U aakl t<» 
%-mi\v liiifiif. \\Wx\\\\4^ IhkI,v niuniH To Itu MiidhI Mnro, all th^ 
bti-MLciit is inj;iiNgi\<^ni'ut,iini!*>nrr more I'ccnioi'^s'n-ri/r, 

'I'hovuiiu lint lUKiJ ll»' l«riti inU»l Atvil nrjlii-ird lh«l tb" thi 
NkHiDctCf dJ Tii>t r**^«4J43 Up \\%" KfUl iJ'nf wni oticiiitfrn'tnl^ Ji 
iho pni«^ iif tiirlUjJ|£, mill mi|jl«jmn1 \hi\\ it wu* lihtiUu dvrftj 
tiKi|eru|irv|Men la a nUiD vf iQAiCttoii ; br^ii^ lh« naiua 


A<vnrd\iifi In «Imi pr<r*4*ni thmry. ihi> h€M. 1a r^Tp^nitocT la rvinffrrlng 
|i0Ci«ili«J di>fTR7 iiiit<iL ilif Luc>Nv4i]ot, Aiiil f>c.-r^inTL[u>; U;r InLtfiidf 
unirk of iiiuviD)^ ihfin miLi rn'n jfimittun*. Wlirit i\\t- licjki l» witb- 
drai4^ Olio |>olcnJjfll *D'ircj bi?<*>iric6 kii'diti, Jind tb'' kkKh'uI'.ii rrah 
htfk his'^m U* iWJr furnrr ncJidilii'Ti iviih iln' bLm>> litmr' ijw*<1 Ui *p\'' 
aiklin^ ih<'iTi, Til" lu'hl lliAt u-ui oinkUTJLCil nfjv tOHpp<«n, aa hji> 
Wm loiil, III it» urji;i)i^i] Aitrtri nf irnilMi- hmt. 

'Die rxprHflioii /f^'ffrjf itat. jiltliou^h ciot iii irtrECt accordAHOc 

Tbrnr cun he no Qi}^tT\if^ll>l^ in iU use If fvo iin4)vT«tJUid it 1u 

inrfjr I'l o i^Tn *fii/c I'n rtnWta raai'fi^ it into unttthrr ufatr tnVi- 
oyl F^anffiHff |V# Untften/fHff. 

IfwcconAUlrr M'li.iiblt litnt to lit ^<rtr^'c piu!tKu/ur enerttj/ 
(Art, Jfi3). Uii^u intvot lioai muy bt n?gtuxlvd um ^t-Wnl-W 

iiiK rapiiuHiiL If >v pnunil of )m|Tvrii?il \nv lit ItT' V. bn in^snl 
villi ■ pnnud nf vntrr at >74^ R, ihu timl of tliu ir^Urf wiU br j^ini 
■dflirimi U' mfh ihn In^. nihl Ilifr» will r>«<it]l Tun piiiiritlH nrv-nTrrnt 
»ho ivn>i'4rkIaH' *>f 34" V. IJunnir ihr itwia. .if mtitiu^, l-|^ nf 
Bal liavf btfiii j.Uv>rbn1 and lnvinn'' bti'r^ : hi'Ui-i* w i»ij ^TmT thi' 
b«At rf<\iiirM V> moil iw» nl :tf* k. in I W i ot, Jt^ v4tii^r wont, tbc 
html hi-Ht iifw^iT Hi :tr i« l-l:t\ 

TV* i*LKiriiitri]a iinioijiil of hcKt irhioh W^vnnp* hltttit wft^n iir 
mi^llA oipUlu* why h U llui Wki» itmtv^ <if !«■ mnfliu iniru.*fti-rt 
A MEuidnrmbk tiiiic uftri li.f* ti'ini^r-i^ufi^ nf The ftir \» pii*nl 
»« as* F. Cmivi*™'!^, i[n- jiniiii'Tihi ipiiinty of hmi fv^lw*! 
»t#r |tM^« li» \ii« aliili- uf iof <'ii|i1itiiie wli\ ii i» flmt iiw 
^bIowIj iu (filn'uii^ly cold «nnh(v. 'tlw nhbtqiJon „( hmt 
In I— ll la g taal fjio |iRhliiotiijn 1/ hint la fh^riuf; frml U> rf|uaiar 
ibo trDi|ii=r&tiilv irf rllruHln in |Ili> uul^hLorhmiil i^t tarf^ inMMH ol 
WtlT. Ubo UJCM mill nri-nf, 

309. Concclatiofi. — Solidification. — Regclation. — 
Any bodj U^aI «m be incltcil by tUr a^nilkivUuv \i^ VvnaX ctsm 

^ ttKA T. 

hr liirmgitt Imck to a k>1M Kljiti' Uy Uie abainuiuHi <jT V««L^ 
Thbpo^MigclVom a liquid to a ^f.*!iil Mat.' i» cAlkxl c.'"^/i*i#«». 
or 9ciidijitttti*?ti . 

Id evcrv body tlio toiniK-ntttu^* nt whii^li i^nuclnliiMi ccta- 
monoofi U gc-iu^mll^ ih(? nunn? am lIihL m wliicJi lljuHjn U^giiH. 
ThitA, irivhU-r Ih' r(H>li^L it uttll bt-);in tu coiigvuL At 32" F. i 
40(1, uoQVv-rady. if kn? lo heul4>il, it wlU bvgiti to rooH M 
3X' K. Furllkvrinoi'Ot th*) nraoiiiU of hwit given oiil, o«- n-ii- 
di^rvil H<?nAlt>1p| 111 mngtiHtiiig \n t*\Bciiy equal U> diat Atv 

Tbut iIjU io ix-olly ihc oiu« nukjr be |irov«d V/ IIms MUvlon «*- 
jwrimenu ir ^n uik* ti^u i-lvpcUi lh« lint coctAlniiig oae inonl d 
wnt^ ut 174'^ v., mid t^v Mvrjnd nnc pound At US' K,, and uxpivr 
:liviii li< ihc- jiir during n i<4tbl wfutj<r <U;, m Uuil vquid MnoanU irf 
\iVJtX hIihII i.-*>-afH3 fr^-iii IviCli JuniiiE a fi^wii liin«, wp kIuU filkd lliat 
llm tiTrii|ii*nLiiiTr ut fUf VALi-r ]|j thd En*t vifM>1 will hniiH^Ki»l«lf fall, 
wbllc thai ill lit" H^nid vrlll rvniiiiLU i«lAti<>ii4rj. 

Td thn wetiit iLUiii llic unU'.r iii lbi» Mrxiud VmmJ viD l*^1u In 
rru«»r but a* 1*111; m ihty waWr kropA Its liquid vlNle Uio kmfttniHir* 
vrilj aliiy Ai :t£\ When ihp \\un |uinldu of WMrr km frofpn. jud 
\>vturv thti ii'm|mnii(tri' Ulv. if u-i* oU^nv tho iffni|Wf2turT iu lb*- 
tinl wuL-l, rtv h^aLI find ll tu bif US", \^i: wr, ibvcvfonr, ifatfl I4S* 
of hvai lunit Inva gnt'a uut in llio ftnt vrwvl. 

Tliv vuiio jiuivuDi inust abu Imiv ivm|>ii1 (nrta the nxer la 1W 
MCcvulp lui tJi« Uinjjriinitcro U ntri chanii;t%i, hvnnmu it it Uw hMt <4 
fuidoa glvm up by ilu? wmit lu rlum^'luK littnt Icvl 

Soma llqntJi atitnul Ip* Ptinu^ta]**! hy lh« grv&tMl n>td li> winrfc w 
«l wbJccC U^tri ; MUcb jtn' aJt^'htil and <4ber- 1'u:t vtali*T mriEnkK 

tt|*| DllM«d Mid DDl ail M 17*. 

Wun nadiis h» maliNiiui dnisllr a1 <IIl;3*, atul aa tu tvoijifffv- 
lurv IB dimir^btU lirom lliu limit, ^t^ i^jJuiiw eosbnttM tv Iaoomt 
(iiiLiI tiiu^i'ljiil'm fei miripk'iod- 

\VIh*ti \X pjMnv fr>iiiL n liquid 1<i ii mlU bW*- th<- r^xpMuliM U nd- 
Jmu And imvjfrUbk-. 'Piv iiniM^iHN* piiuiT nT tlii* rtpoutiiciti l« ma 
111 tliit bijt«U(i^ *j£ wM0r-|i||>v« d«dng n rfv«(. tiig bhtiklrijt </ pUnb- 
rrrt, tttmbbn, TaMv. (<lo., la wbUb mitii but Iwii kA, ^k^ iW 
mnpntnn^ ftdb ia 7B^^ 



y\K- ^>». 

■Ttiv folk/wibg c^xF^trJincnl itlu4^trtitc» Urn cicimiiMvc forcr 
fn a *lill mope Hirikiiis "i^i^n-'r i — 

wtil) WhlCTr JUJtt di4o*l the fiiflpn Ivili: villi A w-Hnlm plrig ttnvi-b h^ 
vith u niallrt^ It xtui ^ 

tnml. When I'l" u-mUt 
r^iifr tlir |>1iiu WEUi lipw 
JocUal Ut n cfLnUiioi) of W- 
ftml hniutlFvU fni, aihI 4 
long iryTiiwW uf ur? iivic't 
fl\nn Uic hole. 

fli4V{ of i«> wnft furft'ii 

of nvctiiD^ ice lie pivfiscd n^iunt cnch othtr^ ihvy ilk- aooo 

llutn Uiu ttuWt Uyi'i JtiBt prLAsinu iuii* ^\lv «Ulv nf waVT. \Vhvii 
tbfl |ilf«** ujTi |jn«*iid*r Ih^" hvjvi *.•{ waititr a| :Ei* K- Iuia n 
Ci»Ucr bodj oil cnch >ilili\ l*hii UtrDl 1ii-h1 tiT fii^uii of l^iii InyiTr U 
ttjon tjMurhMl bihI ciLiiiduotfMl iiray. nmi iho ivaitir it n^av^ripil >ti1o 
km TliP foFTnrtti'.*n of a sooff-bjdl 4ic|>f d»1» oh iri,«olati<^piiH Itclnir n 
MBponlDiv ^ 3*^ K. Ib(i parlwlM ur tnnv nrv iLry »(j»I rk>i:i-]fitunL 
cftiiuM uikr |ttiiot< Ucuov n ouheraulmKlir-bjilI urn <'Lii<r U- ijit\*U- t.t 

310. Crystallization. — When >Hn\\^t* na*i8 sliiwly fkiTij t.l»^ 
ll^iitil b> thi) wjIuI ttlAtc, tla-ir |int1iiliL-a. Siifltcail of niTsins- 
inj thpm«lirfti m n ccoifuiKtl inuEmi^r^ lend to jfivnji tlivm- 
whuff mUi rvguLar fon»*- tUuM* roima arc culW ^TytmU, 
jitvi Vv* jirru'Wt of fnn«li»jf Ihem i* <?ilU'<l tr^tduitiuitivn. 

riiilt» of 0iu.*w. ^Liicnr t'Jintly. otam. fLi:imioti ^It. untL 
like; offer rxam|iip» of ct>-bUiIIUlxI li<»ilrtfi- "I'ho ri>rm* of 



tABV, tvr imll llirriii, juiJ llioii nJlru ihom to cpnl »l»w1y. If j 
fnrmiMl. nnd pi»)r out tho lulrncr l)i|uid Kulikbur, vo m^y vbijiin 

Ifl th'rQ lUiyif Miidil jLi thr liottirii nitd on ifkV tfidf* of tbv v<*>4ii| Iu iLir 
f.tnn <^f rrvBtAU The slowit tln' ptwnf, iho fitiW will ^ Uii; ejj>- 
IhU It u io lliit iniiiinpr Ihjil vtv rryitrAlliu* rjtiiH^giiid vithtn» isllf. 

311. Freezing MfJtnircs. — Thfl nl^Horptlon of brat 
i«hlt;h UkL'q jrlui.^- tiXwu u IkaIv iin^v"* ffoiii a totiJ lo « U(|iVil 
«tAto Uottcn utilisttfHl in Ihr inrKliKti^n ofmtcuBo cold. Tlii-* 

L^L'-ie uilvlun-i* an." llirii t:kk\WA /t^:i"S inixUr^. 

A mixttirri>f one iinit of u^mmon wiU and ttni puta of 
poiii^iioir id' fi>nr* n loiMiiM- tlvU H itw»:l for Hf^JtiiJi; crcftDB. 
Thi^ itsll !Liti1 iiM.- \\%\-v fin !4lTinUy ft^ii' I'acIj oib«r, but Ui«t 
nnnot uhitv uiiUI tti«r pun tii the ll'itiUl «Ute. In onW to 
paw to thU t»Ule tlior uUiorli a grc«t qujiiititv of irat fhiin 
Um Ddgtiborlng bollix, iiwl Uil« «»ujk« thi- littuv to fm-^. 
Itj* rooAriA nf n mStliirf of mlU anO suuir tbe Uii'fuioini^tiv ihlJ 
l>c rvducvil tvO. 

Summary. — 

Tnblr «f Kuoion Axdiffi-ruiit %>IaUM!C& 
laimt Bmt 11/ / Wio-l 

Qrif^ of it* |;h<. 

Wluit Ltirtii flmt mdlj jimcin|>Ilihctt> 

HfM invf* oat In rn—liig. 


t^tpUuAilaa iif ttL« Tmn- 

UV:710« VL»VA|ytU|24TIOS. 


31a. VaporUfttlon. — Volatile and Fixed Liquids^ — 
Wh^ii 4ii|1Wi^ril lieni, la nppllHl U^ a lii|i]iil, J1 U cinnvtri^ 
liib> A gA^ivi'tiH form Jiiid Ia mlli-fl jt rn/^fr. Thi* rliiuigo of 
vtatc from Ji liquid Ui a fcn^i^fJUd dtjito In di.'9ignatv(l by the 
gttncrftl larm raponttdion. 

If \n{H)t\tAUon TAkeit place slowly ^mX Uma tie nurfiioe, at 
ordbun' tC[u]K-ruturrh. it 14 coikd tr'tsjuffMUon : but If vApar la 
prodiHird rapidly in llio buim vtf tho litjiiid LlMTlf, the* p'ro(^«s 
in Itiniwl hnting. 

ScMni< Nf^ltiU dtv tu|i»1>k of |»ii2Mitiig dirwtly U} a Etth1<< of 
vn|H>i' niiliotit lir^ bt^comui^ liquid, lodlDU, araf^iiic, and 
<fu»ptit>riifvi 0X8Di[>li?eor liii8 cl»»^. Thi* it- vaWt^d tuUimn* 
iitfit. KvfiL iht* vnpor of li?i* ^^n Iw dF*l'^l«'<l far Ju'low the 

«rDall Uf lb«ff, u'HUry vn^v U lli<> imtui (umilmr, »h vtW » Itir 
B«l itnpifrtiiuti tm um-iJLini uf \\w tiirL wbliii \i iiliiy* In iiiauy sal- 
oral plT^iLdinoriH- 

Liqiijib ittr itlvlJctl IntA two ^Iajha, with r««|>cct tu the rrqillivn* 
with vbich Vtof ptum fmm ihi> lif^uld U> il)i> vjiptirviiii tiAtf, tit. 

Vtfifttit- liqiEiib j^rr ilnih* vUkh hatv j rjm.iird Ti-ik<Tr<nf; Tn |ikh 

almhol. AHiI i}i« likv. If « Towl of wntrr, alootioL vihvtf or dtkra- 
fann Ic Irft c^f ri4pd Ui tho nir, iK^ liioiil ici nlimly «c>nv«ftrid into 


of velMllf liqiTblia Twlong tmmem, BMnitHl HK %tikdb vda, 
amoDKat vhirh rimy io nmtmied Vffrtticf ivrpcntinr, 4fkl of Utvd- 

IxtTttiirv. flh. r<ir a-VAiiiiili', fSxh citljt^ ii!Ui' iij1>, jiatlthii llkj>. At Vi|^h 

f;nH«, Imt In t»> inir t^^iun llmt an Iw V(iu(1i'i;hU liili* Uii- ciriKi- 
iinl A>rTi cir ihn lii{[|jil- tknwt ciibf, liko Imtr-cd nil. haHaii ■•!) ^ip^- 
iiri} hi iho aLr . Iml ii iii not by i?vap*n«li4.ih» but by nliwtbiiic i^a jpM 
from the lur, ^Uil Ihvn jtwiutf lf> h *f«lid ittAl«. 

$13. Elastic Force of Vapors- — Vafwre ape genmllj 

I'liifl prckit^iiy f\My htr lUiMtfniDil fiy iiiriiQA <«f tin A]»|uiniti>i ohon 

hi Fl|f^ f2rO- It coiijUi^ <if H (ortri 
luLv, iho ilinrt 1i»ii«Ji ot uhifh U 
i'IlatiI nod Blinl with inrKUiT ^ iW 
nirrairj aho All* ft |iratkia •! ik* 
luiic bni»oh- A MUitl quMUtl; \i 
rlliiT i\ tiiln>duri-<l Inlo Itv ibcvt 

brvichf wbiv It »l lom* rioe» it> tk* 
wyi, Tf, oT thiji Imiaph At iinliiMrj 
1<'ii>]:ti:nitDrr>o, Uic pll■mL^ of th* rv- 
u-mii] Htiu<i0jibMT nrripd thrmt^l 
iht iQCMTtJty i» FufflcJoDl to ]rrrv«tit 
xht vthi^T fri>ijt fririiilii,u TH|i:r. 

]f» lii'TtTfr, the iu1>c b T^adcr4 
intit a vr»rl nf wiitpr limifnl in 1 1^. 
tbc filler will \it- c«tivrrt<-J inio v*- 
pur. nnil ti'SH iir>mpy a ivitaln pnr* 
I14VQ, ^ Zf, tif tlj(^ lubv^ hnMlttl- it 
ft^iLllilirtiitt i)i»^ pPHMim of Uu* AC- 
iii(wpSeT«, Uit£Hhr?r witli tlie tt<«£hl 
(>f fh« mfrcunfll iwlnran, vhfv* 
bcif^t in A C 

U th» tnb« I* ^'ittiitrami »bd 
«]|hw(iJ vit oirJ. ihr tapiir iif rlbcT 



■i • hqidd Jil A. If morr hmt bo Applied, it vriU ngmn be eoa-' 
TPFli>d irrv* rajur. ncrl iIh» (nrrrrtry will ri*j* m iln* limnpli, C. %t 

iFiuion '■f Uin Vaym niijfiiactJiA nith 1t<j liimjwraiEiiv- T^int prjii- 
rijilt 1>iJlIji truo t>T uJI kiiub ci VH|t(>r. 

TbA icTiidfJD iv^mrnt by iho vnpor 4)f nnlnr. or tiMn, nft^n )i*- 
CMmc* *i* ffTT^t \j bt«uu; ^cjT*d Jilt l»:i biirat lh< >tr<>n*;tt"t vaucia, aiiil 
iha« b LJin 4>ftii«f '>f frighifil Atvlilt-nt^ Tl>i' <^i]>ii- nf u-ond tTuifi. 
ping when bnrue^ in 4 C/rpln^i i^ tlm cxfqirjMc.ii tvf i1li< untor in the 
|H>T««, proving i4fii4i ft! Icuil b> mi #x|>tiia|fiii- W'b'H ii climitiiTil in 

■Irnn. »nd nplml™ with siifflplmt fnrv*- lo ihn^w the nut frtiin ilio 
firb Jlfiiiv it u thai A HTnal) jfnni^tUTT^ k« QDuaMy mmlo jo tUn k1ifill, 
wliicb pvruilu Uh' noRpL' of i\w Btoun lxhiI pn-nuits pipliisiuii. 

314' Instantaneous Evaporution in a Vacuum. — 
VipoTd TuriUkHi a|KiTt the 
■uTfidO of D lifLUiiJ ca- 

Umiion. L'ii<ler ordU 
oniy cirounutancctf, the 
(in-w«irt* of tbo nir prv* 

cipv of Taijor at ordi* 
ury lM»p«rAUin>^ liul 

pn^MfiUtv U <lLin{nUhotl 

UlcM flacc Tviih ^ivat 
nipldhv. If til'- |<rv-ft* 
Mire b cntin-ij- n^cuovL-i], 
the c\<B[)ormUon If In- 
«|AliUuiM)Mii. likn iU^ 
dnab uf i;iiii|K>wdi'r, (>h- 
irvcuUv tT Uic liqoul i-i 
vrry voUIUOh 

This firitii*!^/^ mfl/ Iw 



ItiOBtmlod bf tlUHU»«f Tli*iip|]ttmiiiAithriu-ii in T'\e ^10^ n 
vf pa*onl bnTOinhttr tulicrit 'i, A* C, /'> fllrii with iti^norj, uU 
trivi^nnl In n r-,iiknmon dnipm trf idAinirf, nn aKoth In lEm Agvn^ 
Thr whulo AppnrniiiA U fupiwriAd l>y n fnuno, i^ nLirh i« atfojctipd 
a gmiliiiitrirj »fvilt^. Tlic inimirj tnll fUinl aX the xr/kr hdiuTit m 
alt of fhr fiiLcD, - itt tik' S(n|;!lii iu .4, Wosiimvlc, 

If n U'Vt (in»]>" "t wrtT^r lit' iiUfiKlun^ luu^ \)n- Uibc, B, ihry will 
riw through the nu^r-ury in xhv X%\Wt Mi^ en irm^hiae tlir X'uraEiot 
Will \w tuHtiLiili J ciiiiviirEvil tilUr irit|Kir, Ji» in i^lwu bj thi* <lrpTtwiiL7ij 
llml uky^iiliru ill tUr okiiiin nf mtreurj. If ft HlU« nTcuhoI \k 
hitriHlfji-^l tnm ilii^ wA'f. (\ It niU. In lik« irAnnrr* lir nvaTnMl 
tnt^k V4(h>f t and n kU |irodurr a nzili i(ivau<r iItpr<«NOl) uf ibv euluuv. 
]f II tninll i^Tiitnih; <'i vi\\vt )« brnjducnl iuiii Ojq tuho* A a ■vUI 
f miff JopfiNini/u of thu morctiry will hv ubwrvrd- 

Tlili I'l^f ritnriiL f?i*t«« llinl tl»i' E>.<utiiiru (if tb« «a|w nf viIhv b 
grcaUf UiiLii Ihjit of jiL'Htholr »i^«i ^'iJ^V (/ AlrtohuJ ct^«inr thaa Uut «4 
wn]«r> tt^ (infi^riil uitvc^uiviiu'iiiT ^^ i* fDiiud llml lli<* imthai 4^ thr 
yxkY^^t of itUrr U twv^Dty -Aip-l- Tiinra M ^Tvat an UiM <rf vnocr. sial 
xLi tliiii'H hh )ifTf*Ai riH ihiiT iThIo^UiiL 

315. Limit of ttic TcnuioD of Vapor^.^lf a vtifl^ 
cleni i|T]jUititjr orAAch ortlK liquids In Ui« lui «zp«ft«invt b* 
InlrtMliirvc] fiitn ihp! hiU4. vniHir will Itniillc o«u« to G>nD< 
Atid ft portion initi irinniii in HiK H»tiilO bUlc. In lliia cmbk 
(Uc U-EiAion of the viippr already Iprmrd In wdBc-icnt lo bd- 
niin' till' tfTidriKy k^X the ]ii|TTEi:t to piit« mio n utaa^ of «vfM«. 
Ill iLi-t fhtftli* of xffliin tK> Minn- v»jK>r can Porm vUbool a 
rhaniCi* iT IvoQpmtiirT' Tbb U Uie nwv 0U|i(h»ttl in tte 
but Aftidt". 

316. Causes that accelerate Rvaporation. — IW 
•to* rvn()onilioa of vtjit^r oq tbt* BUffocv or our giote li 
M«ftl«nt«<i by nun^ vainw, aoiMr oT itbicb ar« 

1. TV^^v^vifm- — liicr»»w of Umjvrftlorc iko 
Uw Inuiun uf Ibv rat"" funnHl. mjiJ ftn^Irna^ 
Thli j*if Klj b wBJMil 111 ilii ani la ilwi ■iinyMiiiiw rf 



fruiu 1^ iu l4(r P.. [W ftir WJng oomUQuUf rerivwvd In mrr; <A} 
llie ^vpor w fjut a# I'fniir<l. 

i» Prtttun. — Uimmutiun <}f priiHuru fioiUtKlc* evitpon- 
Thva \m\e\p^ liart Iwr^n uliljjct^l hi ilii^ »LrlH f<ir iIih ironiWTitnitinn 

mtinjt n/rujH in ^ujciu n-fiKifi^. TtiA' K^Tii|H atp ji^iirvd in Ihr^i* 

3. CAuflj^ff o/JiV, — A Ainliinid chungr nf Ihr iilr in i-rm- 
tnct witii the lir]tt]<l IHcilitaIr* «va^)oniti<iTi, bv fBrrnuff otf 
lJi« vmjxir wliioh voiiid olti^twifiv aatLircLU tlic lam' in cmituct 
wlilj tti(< Ii4]iiui, auil cCcctuuUv c^hoolc ihv rommUoii of ui:Mi- 

It ■< ftir iTiiK rt>zLM<ii iliHt E^« lOTfiMt molnim of mir fl«}jlH ami 
rcAlfl diuppL-a» iJiiJrc npldlj whon ilicrv ii a brvriv Ihi^ti in calm 
wrtthiT In the arWt t^To ^irinripl^' ii fcj»]^ilir(! I>v kft-jiing ii ['urmrl 
•rf Eiir pUviDg arroafl ihr ^urfiu^ uf tho lifjiiiil In b<* r^upornltii, Lty 

4^ H^fent cf the Liquui. —\ lui-ji-L' fnirliiot? U fuvornMv t<> 
r«piii *va|hJn»tion. hy nirorvllng n groAt tiiimJipr of jminU 
(hJiu wblcb vajxir UEiti bp fMiiunt^ 

TSi* prln'-ijitif if iiTiUi*il In tbn oTTj hj rrnploylag Aalhi* nti*l 
lineHi irvA(xrrjii1rijf |wii>. Tlii» npfiliiiition b' iltti*1imted l»j iln< pf<-- 
of mahiiic 'vi^i fr^nn Hm-wjidT, Tin- njiTi^t i> )|imd ^nL in 
tin^f pun** whioh Lire very nhuiiciw, nnJ (ht^D <iv]>i>iiihI t'l lh« tnHiivDOfi 
of tlic naV mjv, wlim eIih waliu eJuwJjr rtapvrniw, LrAiiiue ibt mIi 
itt ih« fi-mt of <*rfvi4ix 

31^* EboUitiOQ. KhiauTiov, or IlotLiKo. N a ni|)ii1 
PTiponUnn. In wlilHi th^ wn|irii'**rHpeB ^n Ui** form iif *iul>- 
Ult*. Til** bulii>le» «« I^.M-riiril lu llif irilrrkFi <if Ihr* liquid. 

10 p«u into Ui« vir. 

1ft b(«lU|E r^Ptj tlir fini IxibMfa nm i!uc ro ili^i nivdl qudMJtio 

riiT air voUiiknnl in lUr tifjrijil, u1\it)t I7i;^il4 AivA Vwc \a ^Mb 

(w-y*. AfU'irt-rtiils, UA tbt' brat U kept up. ^lofiirtm uf water jir* 

L'ffc uf U'4llf Hlxn-fi l|>1'U' 

1'hc fiinimuoii 411(1 fiiii' 
rlt'tLElilJ^ i^ lh(4i> fifl4 

IniM'Ina CAUse iho «n^- 
infi TLfitiiwl in liquid* ^- 
fntt l)tf.y l>n%in *■> t>"i1' 
Wlii^i ull of Ili4k Uyvm 
licwriific ^aitiftMf Idwii'il, 
lltf> bulitrln i.rv or* loD^^ 
<'r ojodijuaedi bol rlw lu 

rtiLh A nminDtioQ thai 

Tbtf roll-^wliif- are 
Uirr luwM Uinl tr^nTrn 
\hi} plivnoutvfia of rb* 

llllilli;4l : — 

I. iMdrr |A# mw 
Fie- 311. prrtmr* Hi^ tifuid rti' 

i€n {ntQ tbuUiuan fit a f^rdtrmpar^uit. 

The tcmiicrntitnr jit vrhirh a li<|Liid MU in udk-it \XaMUm^ 
poinL WXwix \hv burom^lcr sU^niU at ^ Lticbos, lli« boUijig* 
point uf |jiin- vcaxet U '2\'l' F. : tlj« tiolling-polui of oikprb 
108 F. ; tliv h(i[|}iig-|)<itfit r>r alcohol I4 174° F.. and the tioil- 

tD)f-t}^llrlt of OttCrCUTJ If) flfiO^ F. 

2. 7'Afl jtmmre rtmaininy tit aumic <« /t'^muT oviaoJ &f Actdtd 
hiyk*r tAitntA^ boilkntr-p9ini. 

Vf>r *xair\*]i\ il" walor bf h<^t»ff to StlV^. it i^Ml ht^n In 
l)oiE. umI uo iimttvi h'^vk rjj«ji^li hnit muy In* iLjtplit^K it sill 
contmtiv to Iroil. but nill ntivr iK^i^unti- hotter L^n 913"; 
till till* npphi>i] hrftT |ui>mo4 into ttM* vH|>or ftrvl 1ieeo«n«s 
UtvtiL It tH-Lximt-'H l^t^'utn hi-rniiflf: It doc* not bcAt dtbcr 
iho iv«t«r or Uir« 4ti?iuii aIhjvc 91:^\ 

ii8. Causes that modify the BoiImg*Pcint of 
liquids* — The* pniidpnl camaL'd Umt inUutfutw the boiling' 

poilil of lii]aiiib lUV! lAu pivifiift *>/ farfiffn Mtft, lyirifl- 
riADS a/ pfftturt. Ami l/if nmnrrt t^ ikt oTMsAl iu wJu<'b iJw 
iliug u rflvcicd. 

Ftff 211 

H Brttmt^ *if Fiprttiffi fifttift. - MAlt<-r ill (H>1iition f^iMier 
miftOft th'> WlJii(f-|Kjirit of n Lifjuid. TbuK. a rtoltiljon at 
(wK lUiM not ImiJ SI) rviulily n* piirr ajiIit. It. however- Uie 

|>oilit in |i>ir«f«d. ¥A\tY itMitU-i>" ivthMthhI wtlh wdU^r 
•Is Wlln^-pofiit. H<fn<i9 M U llmt hnlling Miup in 


UiA d\m]niit\on T<r iin^HKiin* fltpivutA. il^ I^Hing-poliit- 
When the prpwur*^ i> i^rrat. iho vnjx»r- In onfcr to cvcupr. 
must luivc n lii^ tcuiiOQ. Pud tliiit rdiuiret a high trm- 

ThiB priociplr [11117 be illuBtriikd hf the flpjrivniltu aJiiMrQ la F^- 
2ll£ It r^iiiM^EFi 4if K b<*ll-ij;Tiivi, nmiTkvtrt^il v/lth mi iilr-pmn|L U^ 

hcil-glAxn* tlv> wnU'T puren tnturbiillitlon, i>t*u jii nrclimirf uwi^vm* 

ir it Ifl iliiKiniLilv T4> (iKDtiMuv i\w c'biJlitioii for aomt tui». aa 
Armii^viiji'cil iTLuM 111* tnnilr In iriimvii tlin in|ii>r us Eust lU ^innnl. 

IhcnDCTfl, tbdv ii nc* inenuao trl kiri|ii>riiti3iv 10 Iho Trrntcr, W , «A tbo 

(imtrmr5. iIh^ li^miitnuiira mutiun* 
atl; Eillt. Aiul Uie tmtcf RI115 pvr« 

Tho jiillumfocf prmvarron ihi> 
builitiii-iNnat c«U aImt he iDutt^atpi 
t;lbf>fotlnii^iig«q>MtTnr«it- Tnkr 
h tliuk (Rf , 213), atwfll l<^f yi 
ctWSler, tlp^l the* MXr Uj bikil.njf, 
Ai^it wbcu ihr Mmia U rw^iriny 
tt.\rk it X^^Mj nTid ielItti - (Iw 
tinijji, by iZb |-ii?i^urv. vil) Mati 
the boLliii^ ; p<»ur wU uulvr ottr 
h, tbp Mcnm vjll bv ovD^raanJ, 
nii-l, tlf |iff*j<irn> twtnj^ r*ii»nt«il, 
thr tHiiliiijt nUl ln-^iii RUitia, vLMk 
hi ith ti^fT) Will crAw If hot VAirr 

The brlffSf iif A tnuoat»l» ewt 
br ft|kp]UKbn«(tflf iwvrlahknl bf 
•''^*" «.bKriiiig ^^it* ^li&itiDM bMoMs 

Iha bi>lTiiii:-|H<m1 nt lIk ■imtnnl nuil jU jta bnsr, Tho hi^W wd 

rnd tlw luiMiutiiin* Iho b«« lh« pratourv imI lbi> Ixmr Iho bolK 



S, Hatnrt t>f tht IftiatL ^ Wln'ii llie iiilirrjnr of tb* \'ef«e1 
in roii^^h. tlio |n-<>|rrtintr points fonH '.■chlrc* for dcTdopin;: 

ootb. IV'itiT UmU III H lottiT ti'mpi'mlim* iti mi iron than 
p a ^IniH vrHM'I- In fixlug rJiv l>u[1iiit;-[x>ml »r llirrmutni*- 
lers. n tavtoJlic ^x^»tl nliould ^Iwovft hv tniplovcU tc» bi>iJ Uit* 
nftUf in, DO n«icvuTit i>rtlic I'uot Jiiai Tiiunlloni>1. 

319. Pspin's Digecter. — Whon iciti-r t^ hi<nt»'l ta aptm 

in rlM^t vf«Hl« boiit Ehd vatiir und lu vnjrur umy to ruu^ to tiary 
hath tumiieralunvi •■' ih«i ihr tnuAloiiuf itr i»[rijr iiukv ri-iii:h ftciend 

AKli^ Jhgetier^ »i» twlkd btvituM rAl'j> invonitj it fix ninici' 

CinmIsU of ft ihLrk Iri^cifiL* "w. 

in fitiiW br (» HTnnr pi»«:ii: 
■Ivml tu-o iMtiU filb^i with 

lllf bolKnif-f*'>il;|. To AvUlI liikEl- 

gtr ot t-tfiUmifti. itki' Jtiftnimtnt 
prtkvidiil with A ^arci;^ T»ilv«, 

^M limli^r*. Till' flsfrlj- 

fltUdv cli>*dy vi«r ail o|iriiiEijc 
.In iho imvpT, Tlib mlT* 1i 
in |>Ta(« bj a Idvvt. d5i 
iUi3 m iiwrnlilr irrli,'lil, p. fPiii- 
«Jkl of tPit* leWT it f&At4*ii<:>l al a ^^ 

lijr n Ijuci^Juiai. Uy atttxmg ihp wr!^, p. jilciig rim l^tflr, vn 
mftj Ttiiy ibf f^nv itiih vfii«h ihv tah't. u, is k«pf ja pUn. 

Wbri"ii*r Th<? Imsirrtj of rh« v«por wiiliin ihf ^^u^n v\m4K*Cttif 



llinl iiic1irhli.v ^rrHL coj[||>nw<in. If llii inhc U- ti-H \i\Hrtu liK? 
Ii'inji^rjiiun- citn ^dil^ bf< miAod ^h ^ill^^ «nd wo havK the f^Ucoain' 

Jf WHtpr btf hculod !□ n wcH-wtfced 1>oUlo» th* Muioia of iW 
vtipur will nuiilT> uiiuv tlio otrrk t» rrntii^ fmni iu pboo witb ft 
J<Hii| M|ik«i(iii, 1( ti tTii^ Ikigh t^ii4lf>» iiF c<fnnnn) v«|Hti« that ^inm 

■iTUctliifi tlifin i.if iiTi^aa muurtiilii. and uf |iraTUllog then* wlik 

proper wfoty-vulvi^ 

330h Measure of the Elaatic Force uf Vitpor. — ^ 
Dalto:* mewureil i!*l- vUaluz fotKV «f wftlcr>' rapo» at tvcrr 
l^miwratwrv, !Vom 3:^" K- n;! t/i ai:^ V. 

ItiK tiH^lh'n], linu'uvi.'r, » ^t'Jirirhi^ rii ]iiT<iiflii:tU, Kill HEaSACLT. 
wilb a mure G<>ni]>UnAli>Ll >ij'|>tin4ta(s <jliiriiti<il tmuIi* of yiwiaj 

']V^> iTKtlhodi) 1l»tv bVMi il^^rrwd fur dtfkmihiltijK ifts tMUdcA «f 
^^inHMtn v;tE«>r Htiof^ t!!^', nun 1>y Vvuwa aiuI AkAnn, bi I^QOb 
Biid ihc oTh<T l»y IU;«KAt-LT, in l^ll- 

VL'fj rufq<ll;r *iili tfat> icinponfcluri?. 

321. Latent Heat o! Vfipors. — Wbena M<inM bogiia 
to ImiiI, nJI Uh^ Ill-Hi (li:Lt j^ uil'M ei]l«n iolv tin- TH^r muJ 
hrooDie» latent- The auioiini of tliat l>(^coul<4 lut^Tii! ia 
dilToriTnt fi>r <Urr<'r('i)1 llfiuid*. It U <*nJI«i tiir latatt AmI o^ 

Wtal irn* naiil iifHuit liii* liTiii iif/n/ in the <tup r>r/fvuw 
niu^' he ro^icAlixl oon^riiinif va^'aritation, Dnjndj, U ii ft eon* 
vmiciit worri to tii»v- 

ll ifn* jJ^ii AlntiiJ iJiJiI Ihi?* Iimt (rB« nvDj i'i|>iiu1n] in 
(crritift poimtint ^ritruy ii^^Jti tlii> mnWuWf XDd jvorCfrintbg tl 
Ifilcrlor milk ot mnvia^ itiii iiUjiilk tulcr urir |mif^tiu(i». A ^nr«l«f 
■ni<>imt of pi}Unti«] pup?^ U ««iTjfi-rTc«l ii^x-'n li« mol^ooha la iht 

Urior worker pulling H|i*r1 the U^nid tik-Wuln, iho» tft th» «x- 


icmal woHe of piufabg book llio iiiliitiiv|ihi:re ti^ Ihil Iho TOfioi rttn 

WJ^^n ih« luud » wilbdfdWD, \ho mok^^la rujih bark ajfaia 
Uj rijiur fcpneicT oimdlUua, uttli a kirjiHlc vnw^y c<^ufJ t-i iIiai cm- 
[■1n^«tl ii wpwmliag Uiinn. ThQ icpt th«i wiu <wiiiuiuuJ new 

3:13. Latent Heat of Steam. — Wlicii the vorin^* of 
best is Uic HAini', ii Uki-s alxkiit b\ timos Od lon^ to cbangc 
wator iuto etcom aa lo mlM Uie siiulo qLLuitttty of wnu*r from 
Ubc f^v<rti[ig to tlie boHiikg [>oiiil, IJ*0\ Wi' find thi' |[»ti?nt 
bpAt iiT dUf»m fo b« ISOX<''i. ur 991)^ ibjit i«. it Uikv^ 
h\ UuKM u« iimdi hrat t> convert aiiy quaiitily of waU-T into 
«t4'Ain ju to niUo Uw saiae <|Liantity from :\'2^ U> "liVI". 

Thbf Qiny Ik* trriScJ bymiiiM^ 1 lb» of AlMin^it Sl'J" whh 5} lli*. 

p«riip«i]( nn br fierf^nuW by p(iltiij(( Ibii I lb- of WhliT lutu tt Unsky 
»nd cdDowlJii^ ilko fliutk by ti lulje wiili n Ix^nker fuuUiniiig tlifi 
S^ ib& Thm plw'i^ Ih-i Anhk OTVT tho »v<'^^~ '■'■'" I' ^'^ Jfliu-jct, m 
llrsi Uio MHim th^ll |irt>ih iLrikiii;!] Ilii* Itrlnt jiifd ||h* wHfcr Thif 
bil4^Qt hnit I'f ibt tuvuii in i^ivc-u out, vfhi^n jt b i?^>i]iii<[i»nd, uiul mi«r« 

333- EiEamples of Cold prcMluced by He«t becoming 
Latent- — If n frw dmpi (if eiJier bo pnurrd upon iIm* liiuiil niM 
•l|i>wnl tn «V(iponttr, a «miwlioa nf colri xriU be fclT. The i^lbiT in 

Dotnp liui^D ^yikt coUl hI^I'il ufiftljivl w ih" tmSi. iMirtin^T ibv mdia- 
Itfrr iu [iWiilifc In \\ tirtflU' iifvAinir iMmrEh ttu^ :miiiLiil l^ihii, wbii*li, 

Tb«r wjinri vind of t^LiriiniT {y. rrfrt^liiii^. biTiiiiN' U cnntiv « more 
ntphi «vnporrilJoii of tIJ4< iHirp|<in»lim>, wbir^h abrirnrte nnimaJ hmi 

«<H>1ni^*» Uuil riAEilL* from »|>riiiMiiiK thi- HtHir ^f jiii iL|iihrlirK-ut in 
mimmcr nrbv* ffcm tZip pnnoigii cif hiMi fnini n fj^mlMf^ ui h biifqtt 
fflnk-, in e»iH«qijeucQ «f the D^|»nktioTi of ihu wMcr. Por tbc 
bkD nttKMi, n pbower uf nun is i^niiTAJIy fulluwiid b/ n dimlnivliMJ 

l''a(4'r inAj be roi^)«it by puiiiug U in i>vim\a Timv^ k wn^ 

2S0 IWAT- 

lUVLiiij rBLTAf>» thnugh liic porcf, nnil in «Tapi>nilifiG: oliatnrb % 
imnino fif li<<n1 rnmi ihr ri'iuinniriu iiipiiit, Ihiu rtnljit'ln^ iu Untftfci- 

C4U niirilTHcx. 

334. Spheroidal State. — If n ni&ullk cli%k 1v bealcd 
rcd-hul. nnil u ItUk- waltr Ur Llni[jpv(l ii|K)n it. tlie lujutil docv 
nut wcC the clink, bul tokoA ilii.^ I'omi of a llaltciwl icl^lHilf* 

AtAte ^-aiiucjt K- iiiKiiitbiiird. \\i\i\ Thr wnli'i ni<4>>K-ii» ti>v Bnlit 
iLnd ffcic-Js olT iitntantly in ik oloiid of utfom. 

h-IiicTl rtcln ojt a ^>rl nf runlLiin 1i> keep il Ervm th* tu^ulllc 

TliAl llic> ir1<>1htl« i<f llcjaiJ U not In eontufl vritJi the tw»f\ u-u 

iL iu A him»MiAl {Hjuiluu ; ihra JtuiiffiTHt o|Hia II n UlUc ilAtk-f«jtufn] 

325. Congelation of Water and Mercury. -- Wben 
rvapi-ii'Alioii \h ru|rktlv iiK'iviiffor), the Ht>«»i^n^tH.>n of \xv-Ai ici 
pn>ponk>»aUy ificrcjwf'ii, jiikI a* il !• inJicn IVi>m tbt* rtr- 
roundlncc oHJc^cIa, tltcno nre Hnnc^limM rr<»jtci]. 11 bnjt b«cfi 
-LiMlt^l Uirit VAl'^r i[iA> bv iVir^iT!! miili^r Iliir rrri'iver t>t the ilr- 
|»ujiip \>y nl.i»<>H>iut; the tripiir 34 rni'UU ns Ec i« irea<Tnt«>(!- 

JJjr o|K*n;itiii)t witb i\ li^jiJid nioiv volnlilo than iratCT. ft 
greater dfgrpp of <*ol<1 U iinnlnpivl, F&v iHinn miljdiiTtnti* 
■cul. which IxiiU ul H*' l-\, 7l MillkiiMil Ji'i^T of nAd U pto- 
flaccd Ui ftVL'j&L- Tncrt.iirv* 'IIiih i» t'lFccir-l h> aurrtximliijf « 
Ui^TEdomutvr bulb if illi cotton, uiluraUnl wiUi -^vtlp{ktirk>u< fti^nl, 
nnil then placing It under n rvrplver siikI ethaii>^tlii^ ihe ulr. 

Ihot il frftiM IL A ft<v mirinttv^ If wm Itrrak tho buITi, lh« 

u foand fn Ji Bolid mHW. Illie'ii kwleii ImlitH. lo iM* fcinn ntmair 


not h« 4trMvn mit Invn KbM'rA, <ir GTnmpihl WW n fii\n x hit ir ivtnn Ah» 
>ticb* liffli Iroui nrijfliUiriQK K-iIk*, anol 8)c^^n i>ik''«ra icr a \U\n\A 

Thc lempcntiurr of a \k\\iii iri Lhr »irlLfri>lilAl aiAlc, 4S|iUiDtil in 
An. 3:£l, h nluaj^t Iwlnw it* (Hulltif-pcitni. TViU pni^trrTjr h/u 
bw& Applied by BiJnicMr in firpEiup yiatfr in a rcd-btrt i-rjciblc 

He hrjiir«I a |ita1innin dLtk l» n bright r^ilnm. nnil pUw*! • «iruil1 
^DARtitjr crfli'^uicl oijlpliurciud oriil iti Jl. Thoodd nwnmnl th« qrhc' 
riiiilfll iklAli*, AJhl ^vulT <)r4>|i^H«1 iijinii tr VTAV tniTHTitlv fftrl'ti- 

Jtj n*iiK E>1ii^'^ ajt^^f^m ^intloxi'hT, (iirti^ibl uf •itljiKimJiu^ ncl4, 

TKf Kitiliuff poiiil ^^f The |irr>iaKiiJc ia aboul — W° P. 

Summary, — 

ViiUiilr HncT FlSPd LtftUidiL 

/furCfiAidivniiii Fui^frrntuiu in a VaaMm- 

Ctiut€9 thtJt itcfrlttMfc JTro/wm/HMi, 
L T<m|ii:ralim' 

^L rhAn|Li> vf Atr. 


Ijiit* .#KbnlUPinn, 

£ VaautjiRiEi of rn4fiirv^ 

a. Ntfliitn iif Uif^ Vrascl. 

r>fUTipcbm "H'l I'w. 
Prinriplr niualratvd. 




Iti*gniiMir* Mi'lhivL 
Laimt Hail y/ Vttjfrri. 

ha ICtaI Ai^Uufi ttu tin* M'Jt><ra]c^ 

^iftaoiibd State ttf Uiptiti^. 

WaUt br i^ullr}lu^i« AciJ in ■ VnruuiD- 

Mrivirrj lijr l.^niil Kllro^n PruliiiUto iD Uia 


y^. Causes or Condeo^tioo. — T1ieC<i!^icxi4nnKor 
n (]i|ki>r is it^ I'hEinj^r fVom » itt| Kirrnis Utn lii^iiM aIaIi.-. Tim 
i:|jaii^L- i>r ?t'ttr ni^iy ar'iHt> firom chnnicai uoftofi, j;tfT4«iirtf, or 

I, Vhtmicat Jfl/*n. — TJiP ariTliKj <>f orrUJli eub«U«cr« 
for iho rnpor oT trnlrr U 8o fltrong Ui»t liicj' AbMrb H fVom 
llio nil, cvpn irlH'n llic liitu-r i« noi HutdrnU-tT : •ueb. for *x- 
Amp1c. ARp qiiH'k-liim-. puU>li. stilpTtiirip HriiT. And nuoiv 
oUim. WUvn |ilnc4xl in n rlo^^ apor?, Ihey in * tbort 
tim« olMfUnvt dl tUt* tnojfiltii« that U in il. 

S. IVtfWwrv. — If a cIomxI oK"^^'^'* ^ ^^^'=^ "'l'> v«por, And 
UiU bo o<>iiiproM«id l-y a pfstoii, u sodi m tbc *|iaoQ ocoiipM 



U 4«lijrnt^l U ulll tf^tii Uk cctKlf^TiAo, And if ttaf> 
cuntlnniM ttll rlip vapor nlll ho nuhioni] to th<» 

plftM:, And ibo ftnvKurv fitquirrd lu mi»]iloiD tbo Itc^EiofuHLOb rom^irui 

^^V A. Dtminntian ttf Tfrnpftrtiiiirr . — WUt'ii tbi* ti'mptrmttin? of 

^^Iny BpAoc in dimiui^hp^. ilit nmouul t>' vn[mr required for 

(lAluratiUD IB (iimmialaHl. AlVr \hv |K>iiit of Hiturutiou to 

n*aoh«l, any fiirlJiOT cllmrrnn.lon nf Ti*iri|wrftl,iir<' rftiiei'ft n itp- 

Slrain is m|orIt«a, but w|jr*ii nlkivwl tn #«c««pA Lnio iJj# «oIH air, 
AMiiJitiMatk>D Ukt« pLu.'«.i m titr foriLi of <livp>, wKkOi W»niv vivibUi 
Fit th* MfMi msi^n, th» TiioiAtiirfi HJUt^iiu'^l Ln thn Imi^tti In^tJinm 

I vifiililv ia cold wt^atlier. 

* In trint4^f Iho ^1iu» ff mir wiiulrrvn nfLrti l>ri«nm'«a mijiUnJ wilh 

'tr-rjiA likr dirfr. TlitA tuitf«. fji^tn (fir f^u't (Imt thr |cU«ft U C4ild« 
ihnii tho lit of tho pwuj. ixQd thn* iwu pominanlly ut \\r^\\rv ihhi- 
d'Hh-itivn \i\h*: vi^Kir ia iho in. If th? til[rr>ri?m'r uf (nii|K'iiilijrv is 

iban thflt n^lhln, tbo i1ii>r)Kit uLr** plnrc ^n the muiilc 'yf Xhc ^Ijuw, 
J tr* Tfwvl lif wiW wiihT Ih' pliHTfl ill a wnnn nmoi. n h^xXXimi of 

337. Heat developed by Condensation. — Whf^n a 
liijiivt pnAM's to II hUU itf ^^ijur. a grvBt <]iiBTititv f>f Ur'Bil U 
ftbrtorbcd frwin neigbhorinff IxhIic*, ajii.1 Iwcoiiief* )nt4>nL. 
When Ui(» TSpor I'HurnA to a hqind nutr, an v\iuil ntixiiini »f 
liirai U gtTen out uml livooniL-n I'ltpntiW of .affi'Cling otir een«c8 ; 

otlwv worda, it Itt't^Mnes teiuiblU, 

928, Heating by Steam, — Dnildin)^ nn- hrutPil Iiy 

iuiiA of nt^^aru ^oiiivjxil ri»iii a Ujikt iii llio loirrr *l0tT- 

kgU inrjii |>ipe« in Ujc iralU- The »tcaia« by iu bta.^ »m^ 



HE A r. 

bj iho lipjil girr-ti oxil i>n fv»Ti<lrnftflti*m, vrvt^ lo vum Ike 
jipnHinci)l6 Through tvhidj ft in inrulc to p«LBL To Uiia vi 
eoW* of |iijk>% nit* pluceO in the i^tHrift to tie wamt^, 

3ag> Distillation. ^UmiUATioaa j« th« pKH:<'«8 or 
MUliikg liqiiUlH iVk^ni o^oh olhpT by moBnu nf hriit- 

Tlie \iut*>l \(ibTi)i' of tkh' ]H|iik]> iit luoKt uu>iU rTit)HHxtpd. 
and il* vnpnr h then concert sictl. Tht^ Leal ?Lou1<l U? krpi 
above ihc b^iilia^-puiat uf CUo liquid tbnt ^o tri^h lo otJCMa* 

Flff 2ta. 

liiU lictoiv thnt utiU'ti in* uKli l^i l<rjiv«< Ix-hlml. Hie honi 
|>04nlor altoltnl britv^ 17 r I\. fim] ihnX uf irnt«r 2I2\ ff 
mixlurv of uk*ohol un^l watiT U' Iit^uUv] up if> tomt.* icjnpi-ni 
lUtv tMwt^-u tht-iii> limilti, l\w uks^hot uiT] nil tw vnpoiitrd, 
uliilfit iiKAl uf llit^ waU-t: «tUI ivmnlii Iwblii^n 

330. Method of DifitlUation- — An AtKirmc. or Silfl. 

I» All A]>iKirMLL>t r«^r dinllllntloti. 

'IIr- tiioftf iihLiikl r<trtii of An alonibic \t re^irviutrd In 
yig. 315. I1 in lomiMMCil or A Loikv. <l< vrttii ■ co^-cr. P. 

uqvr.FAmoy oy ua^ks. 


0« pM>o into a iybm-L S. i-itlSinl ^X^v co(vkii!<<-r, ami U thvn 

|iMsing thrnogli thf oon-lrnhTT, .^, it It'mlfc Vi n mvrV^r, ^, 
Thi^ ivndpEidwr, & u kr^iit Htll 4if l'ciIiI vrntci by nn amDgi^ 
ment fihowti ifi clicfl;;Ltiv. 

hvtti U llien A|i|>llei1> Till- iiioti' \'^Tiitilt* ^Kirtlon H uinvertod 
Into vapor, rif>r« i^l^ ll'ic doDic, and. |>AMJnf( through Mxc 
womii U cotKknvcil. unci v^cnprs in u Xt^vA^ Umn into llic 
Meiircr, i?. 

tjHw>«(-ii t7P «nd 31*^, Oic Alc<ibc<l U M'fiarati^t f^■lll ihi- ihIht in- 

bUnlfecd lA Dol parcr aaJ nill frquiro to V« iiftilM apiiDn At #M-h 
divtUliilHii} Ihtf virtngih ih iiicmivtl, 1ii:i ni^ ainouni of dlslUblitni run 
frn-lt-T il nb!->l<Jfrlr pure. 

By ibiTii)nTi<rii, jmiv unirr xnny \»' ",\\W\vH't\ frtiw* tlip luirn* cf clic 

331. Liquefaction of Gasea. — AU ur the -^u^r^ Imvi? 
btH-n liquclkd, citlLfr 1'y }^tCT^urc ftlono* or In u ^ uEubinalion 

prvfiMtte mAji' h4^ h-i<l 1>v nUllxhig ll»* IfUHiuii i>r tiit* i^aami 


Oi« fif lTi« inn«^i !iit#rMtriiiif r-inniflHof (ho )Ji|iir[irilifii nf n i:m 
k iImI of /aHH>iii<^ limit wliLrh Uokpcibtp Dot ^vtilj of l^ucfarr»un, but 
sIni <Jt ningvlHlirrii i^»r ilii* ]iiji]ka> mo vf-Tj slTuiig fylu:L<li.-[3 «ie 
lin*d l0K<thrr, iHrilk b^fi^^ LinDcti'vIlf i«f)hN|, aairl <>iiiiiiiiJiiif:dUnc 

gtgtrrrit cnrbi'iiii: airlil, »)(iAl]y iHirHftiiiiAlu af »4iilti htji) pciI ;>!»[) Hi.- 




and, Uv'mi!, imnblp 1(t i>x]i)[Ui1i iu ivtJiuuD ImcuTmn hi grrmi i!ui % 
|iorti<>Tk in o< tijJi-Eitii<ii liilt> II \u^\uii Tiirin- 'J^h» tfituiKii, lit Uio IcnipcT- 
ftiun? of 60" F., li «|tjjO to 50 *iiEu.»|>Iu?r™, or 7W ih*, on »*rti 
Himitv inrli. At lh<i imr »f Ihin jipiAVUlua U nU«iiJnl v-iUi iLuvOt 
It lijut i^timr bil'f |*i<]JMTn1 ■ti>*rhtiti', 

AikiitUiT irii>thiHl iH u dritw ibii ^iu> by a Rind«rntiiii|f-|roin|) fK«a 
l-njrniLirr nrnl In furn- it Jii['> jl n^:j4v4^r. 

Aftc-r iLi|m'/iu>(|on Kiiu ooatod, if o ot^iKAvk be 1im)cii w a» to 
nlUrw A |mri i-l thi; cuuQmi] gus iii noipr^ n pcnirni uf ihc UifiU 
uoid pn«M» t'k a alftto uf ^aprir with imnitqiw :«)TiiJitj, ami t% ilaui|| 
■«>. ;iliHi>rl>v Tmi niutli lit'iit frurn tJii* rruuuauM: |n<rvji<it :u t* frevn IL 
Til-- froii^b n^-nl ik llxn«A'Ti out Ipy thi> uwuotj* J«tl lu fliikM llkw «wr. 
It in wty »]iil<<, itii^l Xf rnlil fiJt Ui fivtuu iNr'irurj iu«I«i(llj. tt 
ovi(|Kjr&t<i0 v*Tj «|owlj, i*qJ whi'u icAlcd wifb fl vpihl tlicnAmctftr, 
tUi itiiikpcrjitLiic b fjimd to be IOti° li.luw ihefl «f FAttittxiirJrV 

If ihv mWA AcU b« mixixl witb etbtT* tt chftaf^'s ioto a 
VApoT rapidly, tinrl intjin^ cuU la lIil^ ri^tLilt- If tbv nix' 
t4iiv lie |ilriiit(1 ijiiildr lUv rL>(t.'i\TT i>r iiii uir pump, the ufapo* 
nltoii lA EUi^rL* ntpicl* and ^rcaitt-r cvld in pri>Ou(wd. 

FAKACiAy obUinnL ti Tj-mpi-nFQfi* in ihiB ttsy of ** t4fl^ F. A 
IcmpcniUK tif — aa)" K wa* obuiii^e^l by NA'tlBaCR by vvApo- 
WHlf iiniW t)i(> i>vh]iiMlAl nwHipfc n inixtiirw i>f Uinlphidi- cf «mr- 
Ikir iiit'l litfiiiil iiitnj^n pruudidr. 

Hy T»4iiir<<r^iLl AiLiI hi^mbnu nppUvtMu a)I thn |fuf«i lian* Wvii 
]ir|(icO»J, but ft detailed d»cri|>|Mii %A the Ajr[>uutuA c«im>t bo ^veu 

33X Specific Heat of Solids and Liquids. — Katpcii* 
ncnt ahon^ tbfit diiri-rviit Ufclicfl roi)nire dilTortiit unuunlB 
of liL'ftt U> okint^ thoir t4>mp«nituivii Lbronfcli Uio sum hub* 


ir«i|U;Ll wi^l£bl« of nnlrr. tniti, Aiid iiM.-n<iir\ )mvi' Ui«i iwBi 
fttaontit of bi-nt oommiAiif?nlo>l io Uirin. tlte tiirtcurv will be 
most ho-at<^1» lUt* in^ri iwifX^ itiid the wnliT leimi of ill, 
Wlien hi-nU<i3 Uj ^ oerUaii U'iii|Jt'niliHV, wnUT abftorbv ton 

Une* M much licut *« inxii urtd Uiirt>-UmM: Unwa u mticb 


Coovcncly. it Ibu mtsais qutLnlttic» of thrvr *uh»tajiccfl al 
3IS* F. An allv^t'vii ti> oool 4h>wii to tliv tviiipcnaurc! of the 
.ilimiH^lim-, Ihir nal^r itill n>i|iitiv a rniiHi Loii|ji^r Ulu« Uuui 
I'iUiof iLc iron or mciciJi;^* ami will g'tw uut uiorv btat- 

I:i vv^vf U' or'nimtA Imn^Kt wtlTi n.-niK'rt in iltfr i^ufltiniy of br«| 
Ihrv aTihifh or gt<^ <iul, WDlubf nM n 4i9iiHiml unit tl><^ nimtunt of 

I 333* Dc^Qition of SpcciBc HcAt- — Sfrerijic /kot indi- 

r *ini# VftjjA/ oj'tffttUr 1°. 

I TljiiH Hn*iiHnoi |^ mm much Ih'hi !'■ miM' n |i-iijinl (ff mi^piirj I* va 

I ll Pf^uinw in |}k< riL-<' <if ■ j^mxeiJ <if wjiVr. ilnl in, ^ "f ii unil of 

lienL U*Ufr »« My Uiui tlm tfrM'iiii' l^Ml of mi^rpiiry U ^, <ir 

Tvo principAl pkcthod^ have been cn>t>loj'0(l to uccrtuiu 
Uw relntivc iLpouifle Ui-m oT iHKlttfA: (1) 7%# meihod of mix- 
tmrt; (2) i^ mpUiag in. 

334- The Mcihod of Mixture. — In tUU iTi(*tIicril Uio 

Ijckdjr lu be t-Xpc'liLl^cuU'd U^n^li \ry litulfil Lo n I'l^rUlu li-ut|ii-rM* 
tnre, Mid Uiirn \}\iw^M into wulc^ at n lower Icmfxrntutv, 

penttjcv. Th«i>, IVcim a kHonli'dfii^ uV llio weight* ol ilic two 
Iwllm tnlx^l, Ihrlr ni-i^^nnl u'Enii-nitiiTt'S. am} tliHr minmnn 
fc»iilllni£ l««ip(-iTit4JJi-, tticir rvlativc n|H-ctCc lical« iiiu^ be 

Sf'. the l^tDpr^Fiturq <if ih<^ rMifiiro Till l>a XLi^'^, 'Ov waKr. 
th«n£frv, Lvfl j^ncil l.t5 iiniu (ifliniL 

TliiH nmribDl -if hKil, nlt»T Ih i<Vh1f*iiflv •ii%«ii*rit tn ^IJ•^ Uu* li^n* 
prmiim* if mill ihiijiid iif lEi'-miry fniiij XI>I9* Co ^°, Uuil «. 

Nr>Wt if 1-IS unilA«f hiTM niii naK |h^ timipcrittUiT of oat pouod 
iif mrtfrijry 44-^3*, It wlW Uhf 4* injiny hu1u \i% rm«e ii I* w MAS* 


335. Method by Melting Ice. — lu tlu» aK^ibod tbc 

liruuglit In n t-hiwlM^l UfuiK'nUun'i «»>' :£!£' K. nnil tb*tt 
brT>iighi into conloi^t nilli iec. Tbc amomil of io<r lodtcii 
mtiki'i IcQonu ibe quanizty ur licut ^L^'^n o^ b> Uii- buUkv is 

|tfA»^Irig flvjMi 213° U} S2'. from wliic-tl Ihf rcli^vtt Cipfcllb 

All JuMitjujcnt caIM tlic fnhiriiiitifT (Fig. sElO) is tiH^I in 
this UH^Uii>l. J/ vouULinn the- lic!UU'cl ho<1yT -' Ifao '^ lo l>c 
tcii^ltiHl, iJ \}w 4)iit1irl Tor tlir wnti*r of iho 
LEiL^ltvil k't. If.'e \vi abio ptncvtl :tl A Ia 
prtv«uL ibe b<Mkt of Ibc nir JWmn mrkiDf 
ttic ico ul *i, Thore U an fHitItt nl A' Tor 
the* naimvliM <'uin<?« llvue X\ki' W'^^Tna- 
iJon 4jf Use \vis tn A Wr cab trll Iww 
iRudi ice i» nitUeil hy Uio tUin^rettt bulicH 
\ty uciMunntc thr rcfpoctivo qnutilie* of 

H'Ut4-T thut TUQ olT 01 A 

\\ u'ili In- fr-ituH flint f^^vul ircighb of fcKtt, 

I'fllljiif: Ojc BfHv^ifit Imii 4>f WHIT HKi'y, thnt 

tnrtliD^ mny W D>t«1 14> IituI the npcdfir bc4i i>f wild* aoJ It^iiii^ 

fnnn i-tm> xEiiirtirr *vij lirdpnrljf >mi fruui \Ut fbiluwioi; ex|vrah««L 

1il«inifih- IWt thnii Ul 1I1P aDinv utJi|wrn«iin*. m; flWi° F. , llim 
lilnn IhLih (Fl^. V)T> »ii ft ^A «f •*»- Kvifly luli f(LViA ^ 
tftf lU Ivot Id Hip yfax* nuuiiiiif it in taulU 

Til? m>iJ irir« t)in>ax^ tW <li»li flnt, tfaf««r'|rporn(«t,llUB A* 
whlt«< ll^r Ii'ikI luirl l>)*inntfi ajd sloiTFr lu ihrit nAn^ Mui will 
KiniD Id ifa- »lii^ rrf Vii iiUo** vrrj itiift 

Hk ^^tt 



336, Specific Heal of Oa^cs ih 4]t-U7inirii<il Uy piias* 
irv n nirrcnl nf gnu nt n given tniifXTuliii'i- llircu(-U n s|>inil 
SliiBd ut^A' ]>tn'^i.<ri in ««aUT' Uv ijo(iii<^ tin* JrK-ronM; L>r tuoi- 
perAluw of lb» wai^r, nii-l kiionitig st\vi thi^ wi^^lht nr th« 
gn* aimI till* teiTi[ipr>ii.Lin* Ui wiiicli ili hnn Uh-h i\xj](*i1. iu ijv* 
dRc ticnt iTAn bo <-nlculnti*il by a ijrix'cai similur U» thai pvcti 
niukr the method of mucturvMu 

The %Kiiir \thiy hja lij ihi' ll'fuiJ mai^ u e^a^rr ^iirclfk hmt iljnu 
l« the tiili'l i-r ipiwnuh lliuri, f^-r lajtanns ihi- »]4i<r<ifi<* hnal vf nulvr 
itdnuUi} thnt Iff ic«i aud iiwrutiiati dnitbie llutV tf ittttiiij. 


Thr l^'TliHwiniT uMm abov tfaft ipAclfle Leut </ ■ Uu- c>r iLc tno«l 
hniiiiTtJiiK Hi]|i«rATrnf<a, imrtgr Tiang wftp m iilpd Ii7 nniiy. 

'n»* luimliMH f^pft«» the *roTB^r vcJurfl for If iiifHr«tvire» b<it4fvti 
:t!° >ui.t 1 12^ K. 


J^lwvtilf nrtt 


!l|^Urd lloii 


1 minir , , 


toMi . 

IN 1^ llAiiniun - - . . 

JW* 1 

Una ' , 


Tin -,..', 


Cn]>|i*r , , 


Uml . . . 


GuU . 





^Ipbur i . 1 > 









AtcohoT .... 
Vcnorj . , , - 



ArMkAdd. . . 





SfmiAo ItfftE, 



Vitr«g«Ei . . . . 




CUuiIjic .... 

337. Sources of Heat. — Th« pHn<;ip«l i4uut<«!» of b^t 

flrv: 'A^ i»n, chctricittf. mrnbtttti'm by (hvinUat ratuhx nation, 

prrtture and jirrciufitm^ nmljiictiifu. 

L TAtf .^ufl. — Tho win it Uh^ wy^t abtindADl source of 
htfAL We aT4! ignvrmnt or tbo cauno of h««t in tbe 0O<i'« 

It ha* Ij^n «ikmp)t(4| that thv hnkt rMMvod fran iKc asQ ^7 ti^ 
n«nti in u yvar i« vuffirlmil tu iiii'lt u Injur of ic« rtlPiiiliTiiB; ofct (lie 
antlm vI<>LK*i atiil I^HV fi^l in tliukriMt. YK "d acnTint i^T lli« gna 
dlflUrji^- iTlljr lortti fniiii ttj(> nim, Mm! It* mrniMraiiTrl^ vaaAl tia^ 
it van iTT*iT* iinlj Ihc minnliwt jHTtinn f'T ih'^ h«il wbifh llm *«a 
raduii^s m all dbvctkun*- 

2. f^ffrfrifiiff. — Th^ BiiHJffOl of hpal riUf to <4?(TtriiHiy will 
be IrvpUnl uf umkr Elit- brmi 4>r Klcdrid^\ 

3. Combunfian tuf C^*ntitvJ C-omfn nation, — CTlcirric«l ron- 

NiutJnnii Mn» ^iwnllj' MonnpsnLcd by ft ^«i^nfBgMtioQt of 
heat Wbcti tliTTtAlhf plfK^c Bloitty, tia' heat ja hiiij?prt«iabtr ; 
Uit wlicn they take ftlarr raijidlv. tJicre- in ofUii protluced itQ 
iiitciLiii« lieAt> juicl BoinciimoA 1 (krii1o|»incDt of light. 

^tmhiMiiiji ctblbliol in our ftr^^iUcv* uvl inv Iviv^ b m nmHoi 


Ikv r/thr onrbcm iiqiJ hydroi;T-n cf ih« urootl Jiod nil wilti the ox;;it«& 
i/llv >^r- T'bii ^rnxini-ii^t nf iiirh Htniw »f r>itii\lji>Hliipii iiiv vkIiT}' m* 
|i"f, OtfUitiJc lirid, wilh uaM^ miil i-ilrtlilo Jtntlmt^ (Iml !iir|*al Ht»Jn 
the fiimi fif vijkoliP^ I'duklitiiiifliin 1m a (W(*rrtjw>vitl«>n *rf *?tfTT«lii ml^ 
•Uaeto, •fivmpAitinJ by u biuiiKvitJuu uf tiLW pfixtuf.L>. Ik tlila 
rhitlifcv n(» *Ir(neDl la Imt. ■llDplj' n «1iaiign of form taLi^ pl[ic/.v 

Iti* Hhuio prr^u«ftl b co[n1»uliciii la a oiJKtarv of f;iiAMfUB and 

TtiP pn>ntH of rM^iruiinn Ua *fnv1« [»f ftUm'ftimbujnhn. In wliidi 
the rurfauD and otiicr u»iicr i>f tljL- hli^H) uiiil« with iho oiygtu of 
Uir bir^ Thia pprHf* *^ mmlnisTirn cItw riw 1" iho hem uf ifce 
b>Klj oTm^n und ojiknioU. Tlib hou: ij oaI]c<I an^mffF A^uf, 

|jnvacd vo as to mtucc? ite 
volume, tuTot is cluTclopcd. 
Uip grpAtpr tlkir (UiUKint of 
Nyil 4lrvi>Ii>|K>i). ir giu N' 
HJiUleuijr Antl violctjUy com- 
pi««Bcd (Fif;. S14>, t)io Uut 
g«nerAt(«l U suEBdert lo M't 
fin.- lu LiillnuiuiuM^ Uxlt;:«4 

IVrcuMion w a ftcuixc of 
hc&t. If A bcxly. likv n 
pbi^n of ffiPtnl* ftir f-nnm- 
pl<*, 1;c liAiuim^n^K it 41^11 
bvcooKti bet. U ia pvKXitt- 
•ion Uial ckuam Ibo beat 
wlii*n ft Ulni te tinick sigalnif 
a |jEiroc of ffteet> lo tlu^ 
CMC tiiore b A piece of Ihe 

rvd-lKit Ivy Uiv. r»1IUirm. 

5- Frirti&m. — FrioLioii ^ 
the rcaifltnnc^ n-i>lrh u-no 



iKjd.v offcrB io anotlim^ wUca ILcj ah? ruVWil toother. TTii* 
rofliBtauvTJ i« ii':oiniJ|iftDt«<l vitb a gr*«t (lov«lopni«iit of WsL 
Iq llkin way mnny utMgit trilx-K pmrnirvf fliv. Iij rpTAhtng t^ 
pTii] or onn jiictw of dry wuiKi in the Hhiily of ajioUwr. 

nidt Uic>m, In iniidiinery. th« rricAlou on a!(lc« oftct) Mi 
th(-rn 4m flri.', rH|>^d3Lll;' w!ii]<n tobriealion hus W-en fitf^Wird- 

till? Ainjumiu* doTbfd bj l^jmibili. 

A bni» liilc, nbi>fll ? it^<*" In I^S"*! «^»^ t "f >■" '<'^** >" Hkw*- 
ttr, U titntU Allrd ftilh wnt^r uwl f^r^tJ- Tiw i* aUnohoH to * 

m»k b drivDu in]i hy ibv BU^m- 

33a. Source* of CoU. — Tbc iknodpnl swiroert of i-yld 

1. /Vu49>i. ^ Wboti ■ U«lv im-LUi, il atj«Oifb» lioat ftoBt ibo 
«nm»ii4lliig WlJn. whk-ti bccomcA Uttttt lii tb« tt3dtc4 

SUMNAJtY. 27fl 

f. Vi^riteiioM. — When a llqiilH p^iMtmi to a MAti* of 

JkHii vf Uj(>C cmiscAorc^UJ lutvc U-vii <!i>n:iiLl<'n\] olrt-Ady. 
3. £rfHn»ruui p/ ^afprn — Wbcn a b»» U inmprnLicd, it 

hoBX. Hijii Ij^at arU Ui kf>r|> (h<^ pni-[,U-]<v4 Ln^Lind^V, aqiJ the 
r»rtber iiimrl Uir lartUJi^ arc UnitU tliv jcn^nLtJ' tbc Amount 
of bi'ul n^i^tiircii- 

If Ml he ctrtu^imnl Im a MuJeuncr itnJ i^Tro .\lt>««d In (WApu 

ccjij i;rucciiW bf tbr ijipaUitin;: ah, qtiicb rjaiWvi iho vhjjljt iu 
lb* AiT- TIlu f Ip4^nii>i9i1 liitiiftrntin tlie mnnni-r in wluoh clouUii &rc 
luTuitd in tlie appirr rc^ons of tb« lUmoBpbvrt. 

Summary' — 


I, Cbcttn^nJ AcUon. 

n^ Dimiuutlofi i-i I'om^ri'mturfh 


|>i>Hiiili>iii firjH f I b jutnilitm. 


M'hIt of Ojii-Tfiilun, 
/^Mf w/firttioit of Gaurt 

M«tbud uf liqui^ffiiu: C\irlirnilf At^ii On*. 

Mi>fb<h1 iif jmiibiri"^ liiliniH> Artlftrlnl CuliL 
£||iirrij(r //ra* f,f ^.li'U timl /,r^*i('V 

Kvp^niuLiiiitih uml Itln^iTntiiiiHk 

Unit .>f Vl»t. 




McthMh of iiM.i:TtuiniHif ihfSpfcijtc Heat of hadm. 

llhihliiktiiiit niiiL Riiiciliiu'ui. 
tL Mirtliod tj hlcitiitfi Ji:r. 

Mftiwd A'f rfui^ymf lUtattrif SjMt^ titoL 

^tnjtt^ Hrat </ tUtSrt- 

Tihim iftnii^Kfi HrlaUiv iSfittifie Ueai 


Ul' Lli|iLJj*. 

SovrcfB o/i/ear. 

1. Tbc Suu. 

') Ontii1*UF!lu<ii hy (.'tj^'inipml CouibiuMtuni* 

4 rpiwmn? Mu\ lVrpiu*i<m, 
S. Flirt luu, 

\. Futlim. 

2, YjiihJiiuiJLirj- 

4' lEjidmtiou. 

Htrn<i7( Vltt. — ItlCKMlf-UrAJlHtCV. 

339. Definition of Tbermo-dynsmics.— T1ift Bc1<>ncv 
irhiob tniftU of llic (Viniii-ctkitL lH-t«*fTii ht'oX mn^l Uic iur«1uuU 
c»l W(:»rk h caii |>L-rrt>riii, jtnil 'U-UTruiiiCD, hy lut-Atia i>f nii»- 

tlio <jiiMDtiiV of «ii>fb iltiac*. ill i»1t[<il 7*^/fiiu*f/jtfcmvf>«- 

340. Conservation of Energy. -* Kiiprgi\ im |)RrTfo«]a|5 
Ui'flii«U, in itif [boKTi^r (»r tloh)^ work. oiMt C4>iiiiUl« of two 


anatieaad [>otctiUnl- Ttioiv rnn tw no il^ntriiot&oti i*r 
m of entrgj'. iiJ mi> «!' its mik-J foruis, Uy aji\ iui»aii» 
ul oiir coQimaiul. 

JMililj iif oacrnj^ Noi^rt tMin l»< Jt»lai^L]-l1t"l^ Hrut, u'i> hhw 
tivjt, U Jl funii of pQPTpjr, ir |"lt "lit \<t 1-%'Mrurr m* hnti, it i^ 
■pp«c* In BoUlO 'Ahi-T r-vnii iir i*iirrgy : l>fil tlin mftrffy Uai-IF, dw 
powcv 4if dkiiu^ BurriLi liiji'l iif (ti>rk, i-f 4'\rnv>iniii|{ *Hiir kind ul 


Ili< LXHuvkA'^ainii i>r i>n<'rj£> vrhm appllnl 
ii;oi;l> i-flLkit the Mmt Lnn of Ttirriiio-(l>iiA(i>- 

M«ii> vori, Qr wort t'tttn JUtf/, ^A* ^inrrttify rt/ *mf i> ^yui>ofrnf 

$41. Mcch^nkal Equivalcm of Hclt^ — Tra* tii» 

(Flu, SiOJ. ljrui*lir«l wiih ei^'bi nU uf n-'vulvinff nnn* vciridnff 
1«r<wcvil f<^<ir *ti* vi tflfiUbnaty vjitii**. Thp vmit*. V V, Are BttTi lo 



(if ttiH i<<>nl, r. 

tUTVf wlilr^h t» uu-iLt4iiiiil Itj [tif llii^riiiidiiffier, t tl iru fnuoJ liy 
J<tCUE uJlU llii* iiuv-'liiuc l^uii xhe i^uauiiij uflit^il wLuh wuulil nw 
uUT [xjiiik] of wnrf'f I" F, i[< rxiirrly urliat vmuM W |>nAlii(<ix| U n 

tOT 1^ would, ]fr1 wulJ W nU uljUtrd* W oB|ubli? i^if fjU»e^ n 

foitl'jffun'l Ttw'ii 77* f<Mil-]hiiini|n an' ««^iJii<A)nil Vi »«»' tiiill uf 
hoiit^ rhj'iJciold acw ^kU 77-^ ruvl-|x>tJtutK the mtekomcai 
0/ htnt 

\\\ rcpcniiikj; ilic experiment *illl «l«'*f li'|i/iil*, mbJ t>y 
KtDitllfT iip|xiniti]!< tnili nn IniD paddli*-whiW nvnUtiiir Irj iir 
JOfua olkUinnl nnnjta MUiikr to \h*»c ivhjTi* Hulrr frj> iixtJ, 

343. Trans formstton of Energy. — TIi^ KTVttt Hiai 

re*dll,v traiJBf>rE»c<l. aod yrt. in iJI ltd tranafoniitUoiktf, 
qunntitv prr^f^nt rrmuiniii^ pret^iiMily U>o >aiik<. 

Wr mJi i'ii»hiiii iliih |iri"n|>lc t«»l ij I'luni^tlr*. Tin* bri)|«iia vt 

rtf Ilk4< h4inrnf^. iiTtil »\i\Af it inihiinil !<>»> U troulil lilV \l Ui 
lirlifiil fft^m wtifli U fell. 

Poaritfl mcftwry ftxm iiiip rii]* tii ftniMTijT niUM ftn inirpmiini 
Th« vMcr ftl th« tur vf n c«i<kniri tii# a Itiitir E<«n|Kitikivrr iJuiii 
thai nt lb* inp. Thr )ir*l in ihnw ivu i«MbDcn In ffnTHTiitnl by ihf 

lDj>W4iU« «4EHlnti it* nir- \Vbru A imlo i>f rvm U siiop|ml 
i»i>iioii l> chiinifnl iiiT<> bwt A f>nlH g™n|: tkroiM»b tlu' air 
WHrmrd tiy frlttluii. If llic* n^rlirq vhtfijin iAhiuIiL Iv vgdJpolj af> 
/ndui^sr lent miuM bi- drt-i'V^-rO. 





Vq haxii an cscauiiiL- L>f tbc convcnrioii gf bent into uit-- 

|juiuWo forco il abw n-ce-lT«» ftvm tl»^ hojit niovi-rt a pbtnn. 
Wp hftv^ tun' & i-hft^tk^u <;f io^'i^khlo molouutiu tnoUou tu 
iiM<> moiUiTi nl'iJir Difutf^ 

Tim hvftl jirudiitt^ In xhv bihly !■/ Ilir tHrSi^i* cUangM ijie f;>Ml 
l&ilfiiEiMa, 111 ill^jtaiW ouil ■Mluilldlkai, U i'i|>i'uM io luuMuUr 

tTbc lioit pnofj5f cilbif juabenin la KtonA itp in ci>b1 hi ilin Unn 
|>ia<*]ii1aI *ii^n!j' 
Wr inii^hl iniillijtEj cxumjikfi i;?iW-fiitik']> if Ih^fv irr«rc »p[|» fur 
tlifcllliMFiMtlnniTf tlir ]iiiririji]^- 
343' Diuip«don or Encfey---We finil ft n com^iaru- 
livi"l>- tu»y ninltCT U> corncrt mpt-linnk'nl v'-dpi^v iiU*> lit-at, 
but R« niiinor. ^-t. ill Uk' )i4'ui liut-k ngntii tntn vtork. niihitK 
{he ]ntKx<M of L<(iuvrrliu^ liml iiiUi mifc^bmikul ciTmi. tli^rv U 
fttt^Ajv A trai»rcr u( a liu'^iv quuiititif fruni u bmlv of n bij{!itT 
to one ot H low(ti' lvni|>('inLiin', wLtljt-iit aii;^ n'oric bcin); 

tmr, u Ji:iiiic uihIeiT iritrk m vfoicTTinf^ npnntjv^ puvrrr ii|v^i]i tlic 
vt<«iii ; bill a iH'ifi' T>'<rrliiii trf Ji m limtt v> fir ji-t rviiruniuii inl>i iiw- 
i^mntfl mc^r^ ir tiinnrurJ. in llfaliu^ ib^ inibcliucrf iumI b^ nilk* 

Il k claliiiril lIijiI iPfvljutij^Dl coircy 1^ cbAuiEiu^ lunm nniJ tuijiv 
lab- liitU, '(hi ifur all Uitlh't vtU, by fondiii'itiin anJ nflUtUin uf 
tbtf IkuU f^vruliitvllj m-ijtiifr lb<: t^iat^ U'iii|>niiturT. 

And ■In'tf VD vflimoi an nny work oui uf liiHt uulivn we luri* 
bo^i** of ^ilTSi'n^ut Ci^iii|>rralijrr? — ri^rhr^nl [i^mii fnnn IkiIIti ivovUW 
MklaUAcwHf — thi^rH6(v,u'b>-ri ilii< u'hiiln iinivviH* bji* rvnrliral iIm' idiiiia 
Unprvilufr* lill fornba ■•^ H^" iiiii4 mvlj^'Li util ciiifc, mitA ibn curth 
will hf n" kkiijri»r fifltiiiabb< bf mtui. All lhi< f-ui^ri?; i^ii L-nihU wiU 
Hp in tTir Fi-nTi '-f iliffi'W'l liiiil. Thia prii-<ii>lr, ^IM I>i4aif<iti*4i, 
i.f ntffn*i"ii, lA r.ucr^y- aun flrat IhAuIi^ out hy Sir Wilj^Ji 





344. The steam-Engine. — A Stj:ajii.Kv<iiv>; \a a 
bLrmtioii tyt \t\vtvH Itir iiillt^jng The rXfiftnUiw forctt of 
unil d^uvrftiti^ it into a miflnr (lowrr. 

irhJdi tho steaui i« ^vatcralvd : voivadlj', lltv c>UiKk-r, wt 
Ui(! fixponaivu 1\>r(^» tff llii* AteAiu Ih »|i|iH^L 

345. The Power of Steam. — Ij-t J B(P1^- 2iil> 

tiizlii, a-TKi Hiipp<M> II Liti^* wiiitT !■.> Iv in iIlp tuli^l 
UAitw ilii- pM'Hi. If UfM tic fci»i>Uf<l M the lii4»<.fHi. 
ur Ihi' Lufx* ^y Mivuikt uf n npirU']jvLi>p, llii* imu^ 
HiLJ 1h^ nm^cilnl lolu «tuuii, and ll>ci piM4>li *riU 
\h- iJrl%t<D to The 1-^f> vf Ih? inWr ff l)iii 1rtiB|» br 
ii^iriiivix], aud thr lubc ailuwril in oii^d, llii* ntCiMll 
nill W ciiiiJi<ikHiL> iinil tlu< ]rvwirv 'if Ihr Miimi 

ihu ■■|kimul>;i uui> Im- n-| Ji-ali;^, au Jil *u ^i iniirr^Bitdj. 
TliJH «iLin|iln ovii'trimitiit iiiVdIrM IliC frintUin<Bul 

Under xtc 4-r^linAry pmiiQrV at Ibo ftluu^ihiv*, 
^uliic inrlt iif «-*lrf ^jn |.7tiO«iil-i(? ixicli#>. iii imvl) »( oiibir fixit,^ 
uf KLonffi- 111 lh)B au4 t1u> PK]i«iii*iTif ftirtv "f !h« ilffiin i« rn i^|uiLil 
Hum Hhb lUr iirvMUrr *f iht ittiiimfiLrET, nixl it b Hid to UftVr 
flnuioH of t/^ |)f)iittdii Xn thi* vqiUUi* iiirh. If \ fiihir uirl> >*f mOvr 
i-nnnrrici) jnti< fitrajn, iimlrr » |rn^»iiro nf 1w" 4li'i4>fpHi*nvs ** 
ytpl4 biLT KjIJ jiiiUir fm']L4>« i>f Mmm, bnl llm fffi«um vtU ftuv b« JQl 
pmrnLU I** Ux' iwh- ' 

Jb gf^ Ilin ralutnci nf ttiwil y tflUal fcy « flirMi Tvilnino r/ ws- 
Uv vmnf invervty u iho iimmrr iiiidcr wlUrh ii » «e«ft*mi^, ui4 
IB nil run* tbf rmwH (if tli» Mmm \» r^Tol In Ilii» fcnann. Ii 
rvnttA nmnlHTif. m lOAy ^nv iL»i tifo r-^nvi^u-m nf n tnhU iittk 
vminr tniiB tWHin |in4QM4 h iiiimUty 'if wittk ««l|rif>iii ii> nb* 
w<4jcht (if n4»r loa Ihrmiali il L«iic1il «f <jq# f«4< 

346. Varieties of Stcam<£octDC< — ^t«ftru-<figlii« 

FIk. '2^1 



Ihp wnttti wnU-r rr|iiru«l U> tii« boLl<fr ; in the lulUrr, tbtr sit^m 
Unot corjdcbieij, hut, fiflur buviii^ nctet.! iiiwti tJic piatotti ia 
ttlowit t^lf ti^ti) tho iiir> In coa^cOAinK c'H^inrs Htcmn mny 

tJjT ior-h. iii vtiicb uusl- Uli- rugilien art lullrtL i'lV-prrsjfUrt en' 

Icoiqoa gtVDtJV Uiau 1^ |x»uDd« to tbe incli, :lii4 Uio t^ngim^n 

HIV lll«a (-Atl^il fa'jfk-jtrttvirf! mffirat. 

l%iniiitnmif! wiglwa #ir- iiu'im wmEiiniml of t\xf\. but an? hPAviir 
*ml i(wrv ooiDplcM in ih*ir wufrtrurtion. ili>U'<i> tiny lItt- crnrrdly 

liMMffOtivn^ kiU'l w|ii<ru hiol i« «hi?v|i ore ^'Rf<ri viiifiliiyf^E iim ttjil loTuicy 

Iti^ <«fiH*iiev *>t a aUttTii'vaiflnf^ b nkoiu>arc<i ia |crin« ot jl unit 
t'nUnl a KartH'jioterv, \hai b. u Itns.- whJdk t» a^puble of niaiug a 
wc^hl of 33.0IK) ixximbi tliMUKL a hi^f^bt >'f uui- i'^^^ji ii^ ooe uiiDUCc. 
Thn, III <'^i;iiJ" it^J^^ f-Aik |j«Hiinn n wink iijulvtlriU ur fiiurng 33,QU(I 
fnHiBrit thnwjji lU fiv*l la ijUl' oiictitEv ifl «»Iii Iv t»4 lui itDgia« uf 10 

34Sr. Boilers and their Appendages, — Tb* Bon.ui b 
m kMI ornicljiL jjun^'rally nf wruiij-hi iron, but lomuiiaivH of 

IWqkrv am trwAp of ririniH f>Lnp<rt. Otui of tliF viinfilMt h»n l>i« 
Ibrm of n rylJnik^ vriih roTVadoA vn^B. Surnttiinf's twn vmnllcr c*1- 

liuiu sbrilt iimI rnan^uil wtili it hj HiiititliJn |ji|>nL 'I'Ilo obj-vl nf 
thin >mii|fi'iiimT, bi til lEirTiwtc itin tii'uliiii: f-iir1;M:n, 111 Hit* iUtni\f*]i 
WlfT It** ofbniln-iii ^li-'U bn» * Lirm- Kuv fiouuiit- rhrr-iiuh it, «m' 
UlQlnif ui irtfmml ranuirD, ^oracUmnt iw^o j-mli tiuni evlni, Thn 
MbuW balliT httM a grcM uuinbcr of labn. or &rW*, inmiin^ thnogb 
tt, fbr mnnnllifntf lh<i ilntim noil hLVUd gwu from the funiiii?4<. 

'n* boUffrnn*! in ifivndAinx itrr vftrimuJj nmuii^ iu iliflHr^nt 
«i£:iui-f, Ihv- "1>J4(4 in fiH ouh Witii: W (rlitjiii rbi- e^itmUK nmnijiit*^ 
«|iBi» wjtii A |;jn-ti f^nnulitj nffurl. In Ktiili'-unry imtfini* Ihv funuvn 
U IMarilj iiUNb- '-f brU'h iir hhiii- hIIii't bud r«iii<h)ptiir nf tic«l, iwd tlin 
4iMi m ftrik Anwiff (^ at co l-riut: ihir lUmt' mll^ VuniiU*^ tt;«i«v«Snk qmAmeV 



to AHirly aurr»uudL*d by Iho wnuv in th4 1<t<ilrT. 

V\g. 2Tl n^pn'M'ntB n vitAv ilrw. HrtiL f'l^. V£.^ x i-raw. 
eectioa of a oyliiMlriuil Kiilcr irltli Utr h^\iU'ni uttAcbeit. -vudi 
M nro mcd for ^tftttonorj cn^ui^s. 

frrtlpr, uiLcl tvnii«wt<vl witli tl*u UhUt by X\i^ XuXwk, P PP. while the 
\nfi\vr ](■ imly ztUiul huLTfuU. 

Thif Duutf iif Uhi rttnijici^ C( pUy» dm^ty iif-utiiBt tbc^ brvicn^ 
iho hcitkii ^iiH> auiL *iuiiUii mr ii'tvmni unJcr tlir uiaiu rylMn 
in Iho flu^r O {Vif^. '£iJ). end ttunlLy Jii^lufgwi luti tb* •kintMy 


<hmE)|3Efi ihb tlib* tiuo, re TIiu hat h Ufiii ndl&tod lo ■ groaan 

Thc prindprtl i«fi|if<iiii«^:n uf iImt ^teIpt htv the fbllosln^ 

leftmml in tV ^^- 

Hir HlAmiM^liMlis ^, fr> Mrmntfnl jm la bo fifMrnvd bjr iKe Hun*/, 
lluf top of ihe Mhr. TW paiiUun «f iha oHnlf^MMj luUa tJbr 

hricht atthr vntrr. 

^tiU MHahrr rrrlinit^'r, vtVwU U NMD«lhlu« wnk, b Km ni «, h 



<•! ji ihJrk filhf* tii1>4\ lirnt iwin^ jil r^chl aubs'^'^t l1>^ li'V'er 
bftlog UiiJi-F thft WftUr *j»d tJjp fi]i|ir*r nut *1hi\'p. Tho WaUT <rtll 
id ni Iho miDi« Icml ia iho tnlir) lut iti The Itnili-t. 
J* iepmefit«lhc ufptj-valvc (w Art. Alft)^ 

ny ihp i»pp ftTthw oduiiBiloufjf fW'ivrtlur UilW boiler; It rniriitf* 

A, tbi« ifum-linl<<, All .i]H<Tliin> 1i; nuliirli (ho Witter rjin Itc iY<|>jiiny1 

C. Iho fliM* luiuliiiK t" <hf* fjiiiiinc^j- Th& chiniTicy » flimiillj '* 
rit Ui^'ht, vj at i»i trrnm ■ g-n^U -hTlu^SU 

348, The Manometer, — The MA>iOMETEWM>T prcjwmrc- 

I, Tor iiu>n4»rltj^ tU« li^aiua of 4t«ain Iei Uio boilt^r, it 

nol'ihotvii in thi* n^iiv. 

Tfac^ff* nnr not »ll hnbV^i iipiti Uie 

-Hiiino iirim'ipU', Simin ott nmiplv 

^^phrMi trjbTijEDfk'rs wIk-sc k»ttg l>nLnch 

^^feu|i«rD, tlw nhort 1ininv4i 0OQ»iL«iitiiig 

^rhmprly with I^l■ Tmilor. Th*- "i»'ftm 

^|k Uie tonji bmnch, and ihe hf^hor 
^^ni^ cohiinci Uie grcjitc'r Iho prc-iiADr^ 

Till* nranoiiLvkr. "hith is cnllcil 

(tanii|Zli for low prpfii^iiiX'M : but lirr 

blgh diM Ui^ li-u^Etti iir MiU* mx-Jz-H- 

rmclcr* it vcr^- inooi^Tf^nkut. 

*hi> clotfod nuuoiDtUfr in vhotrn 

Kj^. ?'J-1. rmil [lirTiTH Irom Uk* »mo 

ii|i»t di-HTihinL ill |]ii\i]j<^ jl4 ivrCU'^l 

cJootod at llto to[K It Ib ^radu- 

on tlt^' f-Hndpb c^atK-lattfd In 


l^ira itie prcB«urc iu ifa* bciHcr 1« nae 




Kiiuim uiil lh(* dwiic him uf Uiu nii Jiuit iMlnDCing uaeh iflhrr. 
^VbfD III? prf'niLiiv Imwhhw Iwhi thrw«% faoTp ft^^. ^Ino^phMiMi, tW 
lilT ill tlip rl-H'cl tiiW nill 4iEM-u]>jr cmr hhlf, 'UV^ thinl. njtr ftiiwtl^ 
Hfi^i tliv i4]>^ic* it ili'l ]ji^I<j1\'h jiDowmifV tc'ini: iiinJr f'-^ ll;u vfi^hl -S 
fill* Liitn^iry vlitrU U fiiATril u^i Iiilu thi' lul>i:, 'T^hu iu»tniKifUl 
having bct^ci ^^■'(■■'■■'^■^ il" |J|*'> iv c^ndri^r^ VVl»<u ii U dnin4 •* 

iLod lilt' Ui<i^li1 1i> u-hirli thf ivfir^utj iit'vri-U in lh^ tab* tndlNiAi 
thr (mtJiiEJ lu ;ttiLii.itt|ilirri.'Jw Any uiitj^W "f mlMUinlaDA iBftj lit 
iTintil* lu, I'tlhr'r "t fhc iwi> iiknijuincTicM JoHtfLbttL 

IV lUhilil) uf §l-ufl iulrt«to brmk. aud lo Icoc Uirlr uiLa*- 
jMivDry lij' lh(i iiion<riry fLiDgiTig lo their irdn. rvnden them 


l'b<^ dicspiieM *>f m<^t:ilMc mstnijni^i«ra fau cfiu^vd them 
hv uwrl for a ^i^ni niiinljcr of tioiliTi. Wi< Fthall mekl 

iinlv tlieoiie vi]itiBlrii(.ir<i| t 

lkiria>u3(> 'I'hc |friiidj»k 
tEiUt If vc ii\]ttK Ui0 alv 

llcaillb Mlrl rlllnlic llllfl-, Ul 

ami llion <xjiWil. 1h« p 
vrill ti-Hf] m nra-olJ It- 
cifT Qitf- itU^au, &n<1 i1*p tiilv. 
b_v ^ irluouf iln ebBlM^i1>'* «- 
MinicH iu ori^iul posltioD. 

Fl^. SSA frprm^nii mrli m 
mAtjii»nr«rf- Ott« c«4 W ibo 
iiiIh< i* fvtiJFiivrt^J vldi • plp« 
Wdiii|f I'l i)ir boUrti In ib# 
<iUiCV mid b alliU^tirrl n stm<[ un*llr, vhi«h Inrrni4 n amV- Ai lb* 
(irwirv <-f ti'wiii «ii iKp inlrrior mrijic* ingryajw, il ^rtdiaUj «■- 
cuidb. ind Uh* huid fwtula tu tbr ntiia W vf ninioQ|iliim« fjf pmanm 
WkM) lb* iPf H iBll b mncrtwd 1h(< avMh niunt 1p Us rnrmcT 



Stt-Jtedjiaiam of the Condensing Engine. — 
tig. t:re< TiMt flpiv itt only mU-iuM to illuttUnti* ihi* |^n- 

d|Ji-« of Uvt enfficK-. uHl, Tor ttu* pdrpwi^ of llluKiraijon, ilic 
|Hirt» nn* arrMii^i^ In ><"<'ll h numtirr m will 1h*aI Exbibjt Ihvin 
At II Htii«;[i.< \ivit, 
Tlir pHucJ^iAl iKirU of Uiv ccndt-iiaiiig fingin« arv the 

Th« ryfificJKT- tlnivrn 'in thr IrJt, villt ■ ponUtf) T>n^fcm hwajt. 

tiKA r 

Au lu Dppci ttpd Itnn-i Fauv, nud i« tltorebj iiiciTt4 up 4a4 J««n 
I ho «yUridi>r, 

Th« Rbvn-MA^f, fK intn vhith llin finun tru» ilk* Mler 

Tbc stKufl-mft^, mn^iHl up mkI dc'*ni l-jr iIh' rtul, m> wIikIi 

lh< iwi btitirri-[jrM*<LfC*'4^ Icoillu^ tn thu top Mui LutUan <4 tW 

Thi? edHtrT^on-pipf^ Uf cmiii^vtirig vHh the eyUii'Ur nt «, bjr idikb 

imiiHMikU thrt ini»riiiti <»f ifii- [*ii4[i>H iLi th<* «o^t^«l^-^ffl■■, X- 

laritiiM of in<>rii)ii m tin- ruuin^' 

Wlirii liii; ciuuh in III tit llll^W-l tir 1iiMt«l (nvdlj^tl tht ^tfUa h>fl 
Ui> ]>owiTr |'> iiiiitrt it. Ill Piling -rl lh>vj pnrltJi^rJVi, ««||1<!<<1 tho rfiW 

whwl, vihuh. ty Om iDoftlki. «amn Ifac jiUloii and rr^sk ^rrr tfim 
liomtB* hiul btiliga tbeui iignio utLi^tr ll^' {riJUi^r i>f Lhr tlnni- Th* 

Tb« «x«nf1'»r, €, which, curling; liUf a m»;h, pimduon % hmtkw^tA 

Iho bt*ft ttjrr, Y, o^uh* iha rod, m. i^T ilio iJii!ii]|r-^tift to ttttive wp 
«nd duwu, 

Th# «M'Krttor ;f«Hif« /^, v*trk«| hj the rv>^ /T, «rllrli 4m 
waltr ttmn o n^vrmiir, aud forrTv il ihrnui^li ijnip pl|M\ T, lum 
eumUn^ir' Thj* }n|4^ ti'iiriiuAtMig; wilhiir liit cuaJ<-n«T Is tti 
dditei? llw wain m ttw funii vl a khowf. nml vondcttvai 



TIiB obr-frbfnp, Mt tttirki^t lijr Uw mdf F, which ilmwji lt)<^ luft 
'^■1 Uin jtir liiul U miiod villi it bum lUo «MidvDM>rf nml Tuft^ 

TliD,fbfif'jHflnf , Q. \n>rkD4l by the rod, G, which <iniVf :hcT %nLlcr 
fivui ibr but B^cll an^ l-^rcis it iijUi llic iNPilrrp 

To rrplkjci ihp Af^ti-iii iif Ihp iiu^iiK', l<il Uii» |ir4ill4j[i iii lilt* pjift* 

Itnita th* opivr pnHtfcflji* o|ii'n, jnil. flnving ihrx^iigh It, apt* upon \hn 
upper hco of Ihn \y\A"U nmi dri\cs ii :i» ihv Wtoiii i»f iIjc ^j^linJpT- 
Th* BlMm bfJotf ilu* pntott laf^iuwhil'^ flow rbr>"i^h ihi> li-vor jhvh* 
BA^ aimIi Tntcriiu* the cduction-pipc ax ai u oauveysd lo Ibc t^oD- 
il>iM*rr, ttlu^> It U iMii/1(<iiA'*it- Whim th^* iibflrtii rrukrhiUi tlio lintbii» 
i-f iTir cylhtilrir^ thi> ivtviilni^ lu-lf up'-ii llit' lifiiC l<'vtr U> ij>rii the 
Iavvt *ik! rliittt T^i- ii|t|ii'r |tji*4^uLfi'. Tb** kiiiiiin ffi^rii tlin kUfliu-nhi-Mt 
EHmr d-ruv tlirimifh thv Tif\*i:r i^iht'ijc'^i hi^'t >i<'tiity UEum lb(^ t'lHtr 

«U«ni *Jh>ye iljo piiftaai Brnring dovrn xKp upper p<i4Mi;o. eutpra ihc 
aliiL-ll[in-pi|ir, itiil ij nmii^yivl tn thu oiiich*nu-T. Wbin tlip ^vinton 
natfltfo ihc l^>|> <'f the f jlindcri thi.* rrc-iitric nciiiri iK^ta looh&Dgc ihc 
^ thp pbiliii,^-r;i1rr, &111I thun itici tnoliou iiT the puLuu is 
iitiuutd iuiIHiuitaljr* 

350, The Governor- — In tonny citf^incH Ui* sapT)1y of 
rarn to th«< {'vlJniU'r ih regi.i1ftD>il by ari tt])|kHraiU4 chIIoJ tbe 
^nHvrffur, Qjiv form of tZiia cuxlIiivjuil^ ia ?ibLi\^'ii in Tit'- ttl. 

AB'um vivtiAl juii* cntkawUvl nith iho nuu^hitio niwr ita vnrk' 
IK ihiintt aijtt it^viflvMii: vrjili a it-U'citj' ffju|iuriiijiial lo tlkJit of thi> 
vndting poiut ; h'li uiilI G Z> nn. iLnm 
tufviiilt Willi ibp ax[r<. aorl Uuniu; h<.'AVy 
ti«llA, 1} nnil Jf, M thf-ir I'tirMrnif m ; thi< 
nnn» *r« ii-ttibchnl l^j biLiicv'j»ia]4 4it (^ sii-l 
F Iv iwt boA, Ch* G nntl <.' i^^ fttiU iliuw Liir» 
HTO ooaiiKei«d l>r hlfl^i-joinr* wlih thv «jil* 
nt V. TIh' •nn'i, F£ kTnl GD. inv ftlin ooo* 
aAclnl byliinir^'joml^ vft\\\ a riui:, //| wtiioh 
.fr<« Ur Alidt- iiji Jkiiil ilioiTL iFb^ jtiia, .^t /I. 
Wtura thf iui> rtv-Ure, Uif cvTiihfiuzal 
dfrt4>lt-ipA| In thk* ImIIh r-AUtM thiiRi lo 



a SAT, 

UK^ to turn aImuI iCs rulfvmti. A', mid whon (ho TOlntui^ h«ft 
PutUdcDtl; giTUli llic icvcr upL-rAloi Iti cltipf a vjilre jmd tlitii ijff |W 
tnulTvc [Kiwpr. Wlim Ifu* vHoHlj^ ti^iin diinittiahoi, Ihr baJl* »^ 
h tUu jm1». Uh' riiiif. //. riK»t mill tlir v^l^v- iv oiKryrd' Thr 
'gat«^Tii>^r inny 1](j fijIitLtal kv Kt ta M^JHi Hli^ ilmll-fthi^r tvk^itJT ■! 
t^f wtJrViua \t\nM- 

331, Action of the Eccentric. — TIjv autorntiiic diovi 

mtiit ol" ihi- *ti<lt«iii-vivlv*> liy ni(>An» of lliti c>cc<*(>lrw nwsU 
ttioro dolHllml rxi>tnnutio]i Lhin bt i^Jvon in ttji* |»n'c««li 

I'hit tfKTi^nirln {Y\\i. ±£i*) i^Aimtmn i>rA i-imnlar \afv^ 4if nitfbtl, fp v> 
MiiiirhoJ tit thf rhikr. Iff till- riiiclnc thul llA ticntrc dor* nil ouiDc>i« 
wtrh ihf mil of rrifjujiin. 

Thr 4T--i<)iuiu \» ninituiiJnl vrtth n iIu^e of luitjil whii-h dou vi 
nrbilP, bat tVillowi ilti> motlAn <if tho Mtf<<iild<', lltfTi^h^ rrr^iving 

itifitJnTi liu^U nnil fnnfi iu n WilfotiULl iljtfx'tltw. TM« 
Imiwuiuuaby ilj<'iini*, l\ l^lli*^ lunt li-vcr. rtftf, cnittiDg d liO loi 
■boui tin- jmiTil, fi, 'Hu'' muiliuii i»f ilie lrT*r miff* liiiil Icrfftr* 
ftJtcmali.-lj' lb*' tivl, fJ» irliicb ii ™>uiiMt(''t with thi» t1Liling-Ti)tr«^, 
ihu* Hii ni»v£anl *iicl dowuwaril iiurtiifu U nUi> hrtpiirt*i! >ft 

35a, The Locomotive- — Fiir. SS» irp»«nnu a wnib€i 

H liimmnilxr. \\\i' ^v\\\i-t]M\ imri* fif vliLdi nJTP tlir f >it»vriii|r . — 
TKp W(rr, ^/;, Willi \U fiu^,pp,att<\ wZ-ry^frtlff, Jf. Tl 

ilirttvO liwp T*pnrtwivfA thr* hrlptit nf t>ir walrr iu l^n' U-llfT- 

Th«/i¥-har, A, «ifunnuniaitifis tfUh lh« nttikf'bar. C. lij im 

of tW/n/*» /jp. TliH ttp-lNiK h!t» ji ili-tilJ* wall, iho mKrval 

filic-l 111*! ytnXrr nnil ^ommoniraliuff wiOi ibc W^vr. K U *h^ jmfr, 

mi'l r» 1K1 *wr frif till- tiijpii1> "rfiirl, 

7*r A^tfMTH/r, 6'6\ «i«voy* llw H^a'-'^ h**n Uit «t«itH-^ii>r In 

294 UJCAT. 

llic fttant'chat. It mnf bo climd lijr a viJvr, V, ^ih\.<*] Vy n 
isver. L. 

Tilt attaw'tioi'V iH .la vkvatnl |iurtJi.iD uf ibc boikr. Uic oUjivi vf 
whirli JH t» iiniiLit tJii> Mi>^n] b> iintvr 1]u< klr^iiii-pipiT vrilhout Acf 
ruliiiiilure uf uniter, iia niijchl tru tlii* cdtv wc^rn tlip tlnun uJicil lioiu 
a T'lVVnr \avtA- 

Thr lylutder^ ih^jn/ifon, P^ And live fii«ri]oft*rpdf| J}, oro tinuUi 10 
ihr mrn:<<]ioiidlTigpLiits«iftlittmnileii*kngcn^iie, 

Till' hlMl'pipe, h\ tiiruu^h whUK the <t«fliti b lilfivn uff tikor 
huving Acloil rjjiiin iW )ilM>int l(iniiiiiuii.4 in tbc mivir'Aiu', luul Ihu 

Thii fvirrHfWrnf^ lod, G. Uiia9udU tJ^o matiitn of thf paM^o to 
tli^ fTink-arvit hy nmiru of wKUih u nJUuy inuilrm li Impvind fla 
ihr Jrii'itii£ whct'l? of tlio fLiiMiuinlivo' 

'Thf inn-DiK-T in whjrh f^uviti nftn to iiiifVLit imjluta lu Uto {tUtofi ki 
tijr MOID ma ia tlw oa^ritv nlmuly iliiKrilkHl. 

Summary. — 

/' tifTwti- th/mtplift- 


Dt9orl|il|ini mf JcriiL-a AprmnHiu. 
M<qld of U|H»nUi'j"- 

V'.wiblo KmiIu 'if PuvipAtM^ 

The J'.itfer- c/ Amta. 

Illiihtmt^iin hy Ki|H>r||iifnL 



AiiJUrc Ami rAnr Af^pnttayn. 

UniirJf'ti'* Mnnomi^n'. 
IHmirKM ]iy Figure. 

[UuumUon iif ih*^ Prlnolpil Pxtu W 1%;"^ 

ncnoT IX. — BroROMemr. - iluv, — rtKw. — wi^iw. — 

35J, Hygromctry. — HTr-iiiiiiiKTiiY \s iho pn>cc«B of 
nwAauring lb« niTioiml or mo^diitr<* ii tlic air witb rvB|)p<^t In 
the ninuuut urci'Mai y to v^fklurale \\. 

Wb^n n iciTrn Miuu^r Iialm t.ili^ti all of Ihc vn|ior lliat it raa 
COfllalUt U i* I**"*! to U' i^tufatrtt. Vq^ cxamjjli^ ir wntor bp 
{•oiiT^ liLlo A fh.iU.Ir fllliti with dr^' ;tir. qnH Thr linllk hf> bor- 
inellcnD^r M'jititU n ^^Icitv (A~iL]H>rntU}ii ntW go on ulieU ihv U'n- 
irioD of ihf vftjior given off b ci^oal io lUr Icndcu^Ti' of Mio 
txrtHMiiing wiitcr to ]iu« inlu viijxir. u'bori it v-tll i^vtinc. In 
tbift rwie tlu* «pBoi* wiLlilii tlw txiltlt- is njilunitix]. 

a giwn npocv nill far; bIh-- I'hc tigticr ihr ItTDikfrnliirr. iKp 
gn<«tn will lifi thi- i^oniilEcy nf V4]>i)r rr<rfiiin<i] tn itAlumlri ih>' jf^ii^n 
»p«/ir; Mixl lliit Invrrr llm ti^TiijKnitan^ tlio kM ibf ijiinTilit^ rT>|UTml 
Ait faiifmilon. 

KtiJOHfl. fmpfmf«rr, c/rmaff. jujiI ilifTrmiT, ffrcrt' njiurv; bui Di>t> 
irttbtflaTiiUTi^ tli'^ nmljEtoM '<iMfii>r7i-lln(i ili«l i> tnliiiJiE jilnr^ fr««n 
[t^t*, *»■! "NHmiJ*, llif uir ill the Inwr tv^i*™* <A ^w VAOA«i- 



pliPK IK Duvnr Mliimt^'i^- Tin? n<iu(rii b, th.-itihi< Tft]>^. Uip 
AtiiMt than ihe nir at Ihc nnrfatv, rif^m ini<^ lli" hi|:li<^r fr^ioiiSi whffi 
il lj» <^riil>iiisi'<| hy ihc ^fenUT odld t'liHiliu: ibcofi Had hlh to ikc 

The iiliji^i uf li^jtT^iirK-ir)- in iiiii to ili<tPnfiEiir On* Ali«olni«> nnavu 
'•f Tnoiilurc in Ui<* niiiiiM.i^ln'fo, f»nt »lmfj|y H» flnJ imt >!» itcgfVD oC 
tkiiiaralioii, or, in oiImt wurdA, lit hamiUify, Whm (Ik- jiir u nni' 

mO; atjij HI uti- The A}j4iJ»tu am^ul <it' m»ip1utu rv(Dauuil|| Iba 
iijutiiTf Hjp aiiiiiWpliMv TJkkictit nl oiio ToinpAtimm bo BUaTalpd, v^lrt 
4kt MiDW olhn Utitjn-faHjtv U wiKtM It fui rftim HUUniUan- 

Tn vtnfiT ibr iir e* ^□t^rnllr i3tiTii|H-r thmi in «i«iin(-r, ihot^S 
|]|<? Intlcr HoufiH il ^cDrrLlJy ^iknUiirm a fniitcr abcilutc Aim-iTOt 
v»pnrth»n In ittr fiifTru*r- TIiIp E* di^p Ni iliffrn-riwi nf ltfm|ritmnf«? 
VuT lUr Mine rtaAiii] thr* nir i» iJiirii]H-r til iiif;ht Uiaii la tliif ilayiliiH 
mid A iwlil room ji Jjimprr ihati ■ ttunu dqc 


354. The Hy^oscope. — A HynRoscope h itn i 
mvul for ^llo^^'ltJ^ Lbi? Auiomit i>r uicuAiurc in the air. 

Any HuhBiMMLO i^iii>u!>K> vr nbaorUn^ molatun^ may ho 
ployud HH a hygroh<«po. A gn*a.i nuiabor i>t an)in»l^U<' MijIfflilAtkn'K. KZL[*ii n* pajirrn pnrrliiiH'nt, biilr« i^ntffut. 
ilTc c]i>ngntc(l liy nbfitrrluiiif itioi^tiirt , nud ni^ ftht^n^fic^] nln-ii 
drjctl, HDd lira Uiotvrorc Eidn^lvd lu Llit ci>uatniutiou of 

arf' ihvir(i.>ri' hh^iJ iiK iriniui!! nf ciiiloattf nibirr tiuiu fur Auy aciciuiAe 


355- '^^^ Hygrometer. ^^ A Hvi>iifmKri:» bi an inalra 
mfnx iVir iiKri'^iihiti! Lbi.^ oniouul t>f mojfltim f& tlK^ (tir, 

Sr^Xi'nl \i\wU lin\> Wni iiik'i*i>t^, |!i« auxU ImpOVtHtit of 
whiL'h nri', t. liygminr-b»rH of nhm>rpl|on ; ^. Tli*n--jKiint I1 
fromMrrsi; <S. ivct niiH iTn- UiTti ht t'nmiHoi'A. 

■|"In' AfliV h^f''m<i4r U llic lllo*l Uiictnucth^ of tllla «lUH. 
Iti linwil iiM lliL- pti*|H'L'ly ivhUdi urj^iiik MiitiMjificiea hafv 




TW Ink S»«anmlid vrili h uvrtllr, ami tiy tu 4-x|tti[i»I<iuv ainl 
«viri*clkB<M CNUM* tt m ninva or«r an qtv, Ihm inJ^cwtriitf that Uh* 

«MnC« UmI JarHeMff umutiiiv ia the nir, Tlu-y nr* fnuuttfil »» t^t1 
iniifert; it^Hj twiitnL flrIi»L'B 'M |MiV(v ofcii^Lil |mi»<<h uf uulniil- 
tag wli«n inuM jiic3 tH'ul^ii^ whi^i ilrv- 

356, Danicirs Dcw-Point Hyi^romctcr. — THic Icin- 
liormlitiy at whidi \n|>or U <if|>ci*Ju4 in thr fiirin trf <lcw i« 

Imnuir thu nmotiiit iif r>pur in ibe at]iiu<»|>lK-re by iiulicAliiig 
tlw- ili'W-|K>int. 

iuh», from which the Air ha* b»pn a*xpii?flcd l.v hpnnHl*-nil>- 

tiatfuim^ut i» Iil]iri[ witlj rth^r 
t»)iiff. Tbe hulls .^^ i^ ntiODt 
luiir fUktl with ftUvT, n\t<) i^n- 
Uiin* llir Itulb 4)f a «(iiilU IImt- 

momctvr A U raoHc of 1'lnck 
KUum, «() UiAt tlio iJc|i»ctifJon 
of 4lcw ittay Iw njon? rtibdily 

uwtJiii. juiiJfllxT uilru|j)iul iiftoii 

U- Till* tfVjii>ui»H9 fc>*iii Oii? 

iiiatZbi, rhJc l\\v btilb^ /f, i»Ji< 

ilriifcn l&v vn|XT iiT tUitr iu ^i, 

miiil raniM raplJ fvjipntnlinfifnim 

ihb inHloot i-r Ilir liiLHiii lit lie* 

hullv '-I' TFiJi u o<>'i^r>1 riiiT^Jila.k 

Air m fvqtlnrl vJili ii fji>Kh Imlow 

the Hpv<pniLi iiibl ini>i»tiirp p.!- ^'^ 2Jli» 

fvcto <>n ihr l>ulli- At ihv iuouji-ijI vf iti^iirvitj-iii llir Tir'U-lit W l)ir: 

mi?rT«ry to ^4 ^ nnted, Tlifr ftriiliikm ur «tliftr lu lU h'llb, if, in 

iIhti (JiMi'RUniii'J. IliP iririprniUiir of ^ ri»<^> aiiJ xht^ i\*-v iL»a|«- 

|Hvr*- When Ont Uki^ fl»L-i', read l!w lUti-kmAHCleT ^\i A k^jwa. 


}fKA r. 

Thi^ two rrl^ernttlriitf iF'himU uut ilitTiT mwh fmtm catdt ntWr, aiJ 
□fartr llic ait is lo icing ifilanLlod nidi ^vpur. 

357. The Wet and Dry Bulb Hygrometer. —Tte 
Instriini-nt L>on«iKl9iartvrt> Kiiiiiliir 1 lierinoiiH'ti^rv, filiunl 4X1 ■ 
HtHuii a thiifC JEF»lAfK'<< Trvm cm4 
oUicr, a« ahotvn in Vig, i^tl . Tlif 
bulb of OIK* ii coren-d Htlh fntltlio. 

hikI i* hi'jit tiiobht ti\ mi-niiA i>r i 
wkk ilipiiin^ in wM«r, Thr hnilh 
otXliv ulliiT U ko^it <try, «ikI hhH' 
cAU'h thv totnpcraluro oflh^ air. 

Thpcvapomti^jnlSntiAlEvt pI*M frum 
iIji^ ni-t briTIi h>wrni hi xtta\tntinni b^ 
low lliAl <* thr- crth*r Ttirnn'iitriUrr, 

'M}v cnntrr Otc itiHitvnor k^w-rui 
ihv mijjrii^ 'if 111* lv» llM-niao«i*4^n» 
thr Ur^ttr i» Jtv hIf. uf (lie (vnht-t it^nit 

The c«ji|fur«iiion wiH go oe Milm 
ihc Hir it fuLlj miTiiruM. 

Thin bTi»roinetf-r, vii ac^ounl <J tk* 
ftirilUlH of vhwrvnikiD It aSOnb, if 
inom irVDCTftUf n*M th*a AQj Atfiof* 

^ 358- Mists, Poss. tnd Ctoods. 

' ' ' — Mt^?, K<'Oi*, i»wl I ioi'irt «ry 

Diiuibtv ol vai>or t.-Oiid<rAio<l into dmfiA or tphIcIfi 1i}' i*ntnln^ 

bi coniBOt ultli «>klfl<r nlnilA or ihv nf;tn<w|iln"r». IIm" li-rni 

Mxtb, juid tJu- t<mb c/outi irhcii thcj am *ijstii>ntlul iu th<.- 
air. A r4>i; illITi'tA tWni n [tiut niorv in ckgn^^ thflji in ktitd, 
W^ gi^fu-rnEly rnll n icry tliirk inUl u f<ig. 
Tlw air At all liiiv« mutaba u ^^rvntti or lesa qaniitilj 


2issTS, Ff}as, Asn rrornx 


OiMT ikf iho uiiui floiniiiiJij Afinivii m' I'lidid* \n \\w ciild |;i<T]fr«tf<4t by 
BD Affvndini; tTumml of air, When tb? m bc1^^tno• t«ili>4 ^i rt- 
pHDib ao4 ABPiTeilds, atlrU M^i^ coUtliiUrtJjr lUbJRiItil to tjlllllu i[>tl^ [L;c 
prrHiin*, it Mjundff fafidlj, tutd a iiiFfe'o amouiiir-f hcul iiiUMi WinrtHni' 
Uivni- TliU itbtui|itiuii of b(ut pi-oducL** cuU lui^u^Ii in (viukiim* 
tb» VAp«v iiiln vlikuilK- Whtfn n olouil flirale icCu 11 u'AnntT etnlom 

lh«lii to ui»nJ tUcu jlDj'inq u<l». i.;oiniii^ in ^^*H!4lT^ ycith Uio 
cc4drr Ar«(a of Ihc uiuiLtti^htfr*, idc mtiisiuit i> L'-mhi^^iixL rutf* dimtU 

■nJ clwiila yihvn llir ctl^tf iHitumn uf the sky nri? dvjir. Tliu «lhi- 
<li>OMll^jn iiT wntrr <iii i!l4 piilf^ r<f cnoitiilJtiTiB iA ilw moit fnijlful 
voortij -it fiiir »lti«uiv- W^ti^ a •:M ntuJ iuei.-(fl Hiih u nunn au^l 
««4>i nmmt of ^f, ilti «<'<olmfr iirniWdt ih *)gni£it 4Ui iJig4>m^ilr 

Tro Uifont^fl hav« boon ndi'^nctyl to «xpUln the r^odon 

W>«f tlicorr. llu' jiarlk'lo» of n^air^tiuv aj? ttoflow v^ji^crt's uP 
ttfiU-r, Ulcp Fi'Mip-buhM<4, iWM with dr Ic» ilrtinc tlinn tUxt 
kIIImuI. C<it)((^j|tii'n(lv Uiu link' vojfMi-4 lloul iij thi.> ulr likv 
ftO iinn> nilm^u- ljuiicAMi:». Ac-cjjrvliiig Cu tlii.' tprfntf unit 
Ckrorltr thr^ory. the- pnHk-W (itr ^TLtn%ne\y vtnnIK at»l lluut Iti 
Ibi- air m llic fitiinc^ wn> that purtU'loA of iLtJhl jiekI i;itlicr «uj;tll 

Fug» mn4 inbtd form over tHul^u nt nuiifr nnd »i<Llin gvDiioik. 
»|]f-n tW air iil>ntY iJicin is cooler Vhnn ihr water or (<nrt|j- 

Tliojr ar« fn^iiinJl iliuig ihr ivjunt of lirm imd ijpcin iiilauii 
UliWi. 'fbrt «Bii*|i of (Zir dtfDfir fitifji thai |«rprAil iu tJj<r iit-iir^1>i^r1iaaid 
af XmiumlUml i» iliu GiilfftUi^M. TUir unlrr !>n>M|clil L> th« 
Outf ^trvttv 1* Vknnrv IIihu ttni i-f ttio cmmwiuJiu^ 'wutif Ami M 

bvriofc n^am iut^l!;. 



355, Varieties of Ct^uds> — Clmri* hari- Ixm ili>*».tl 

ftCVT-'i'iJiii;; lu lloi^^rrl, ink» \mr pn»('i[Ki1 kinU'*; mmimt. aim 

V\\X- '^'•^^' ^Tid un* fWi^nnli-il, K-nifrflivety, liy viw, UMk. tknv. 
iiud Tuui Imdd uii Uk- ^wng, 

Hcwttril OHik nij^ rbmrl mmhrtif from ttljurh mm i* ^ivn'oiliiLc. 

muilMiuitiiJ]] iifK-vrTiiI- 

Th(- ttrttn* rlciudji i^inntl nf hciriiorilii] thorfft, Th<<f ^^^^^T? ^ 
limr piititjon in Xhc uUnrviphi-rt- 'I'Li'j arc ^cfjqciiO/ fijnitr^ ■! ■iiii^ 
ai.-i niul c!iadfi]iatTLr ;il ■■iiiiri*!'. 

The (iijHu/ii>> rlijLiif) jiiir rimDilt-d iiiHuof \ha\ lobk Uko aiQiNiUllo 
f^M mil on [ho «hilii-r Thi-^ at* tinnnipr rloiift*. 

Ml nf;b>iui tir UiD *iini)ftpbm\ Thuy ait |jn»l(aUj miiuihbdI vf 

It innit not lio wi^wnl ilmi ilicvu tiur ^ikbinfiuul tunttA «i* 

RAiJi, lift'Tr, AXD ritftxr. 


font MM AnoCh<»r ptcrd f^inn iaUnii^'uito ly}rn^ 

360. RmR. - - ICUN i* 1 f^iil (jf i1iM|>H of v^Ut from llir 
AtBitx<[iliriv. Wlitu (Hrv*?ni] irArLalrs vf a tloud unite, tbc 
vpifsbt bi*curi]t?» Uh> ^K^iti to bo bU]f|>orti^) hj ihu sir, aiitt 

Wlimi H filoml Miuu ml-> n wUIit ifnitUTn 4if the iitmoppt>cn>« it 

bcvuiim Biiirr ci7tiil'ij»i<i), jiDii wv lijiiv a fiill nfmiij- Wlnt^ ri f]i.HiU 

Jnl<< A Wbnii>*r fitrnluiiif it <nitf>iti^«4. Ii*nr<i vti- oriiTi jhw 1h* Hnud* 

uf lliO ui^Tuiiiic AMtltD micWf lU' iiiAurim uT l^iv »uii» wlilch ■■>!»< Ui 

. h«it iliff "pfwr wiii-»ni of ihc ainh^phprw. 

^^^Tho qtianUlyormiii That fullu in nny roiinlr3Mp[>4-ndH ii^xm 
^^B nefgliliorlincif I In llic ocrau ur ulht^r UHtii.^* of nitlL-r. tt\nni 
^^Bo arnjii>ii, Qjhiii ftrr loiiitH-niUirE-. itml tipmi Uk prt^VAtliiijf 
I dlKtiJoii of Ita- nilHla. Aluiy.' niiu HUlri [IOlLT the vonbU tbiUi 

in ih* inti'rior; lonn? rain (a.\lt 'm i^nitwtwt ilinii hi winler: 
■lOTv nUi I^iIIh in (ropiu;! HiiuiLlen lliari in t('iM[it'ml#* uhI 
poUr diniuM ; iu)il> ntinllj. tnore mill falld iti tLioev i<<nMilH«« 
ivticff' titc prvvfiiling^ vtiKJA arr fVom tlic ocvan IhAii when 
tliaj are Ihjrn iUc uontim![it4, 

Th? fiil^ivinir luUr iiuliritUa Uir fjiimlrr xf ihrli<« i-f rnin thai 

Ai Uiptahaifpn . . . - . 
" Phria . , 
*' Iljiinnii 

*' On-Tni*iii . . . , - 
rmiii thn vr *r%' lUiii tjrr qnnnlllj uf nht ]ucreiiH* ntpiilly 4^ wr 

361. Dew and Fro^t. — Dtw ii* a i]o|xi»^itk>n of ^atrrr 
^ilu'l<?4 tliAi tnki>** |>Iacv U|irt[i tli« M>n an<i pUnU dnmig thv 

Thc true ihi-ory of dew W4» (h-^t rnUbliiUwl hy Welwu 
[ccordinj; to liirt Clicorr* ^\*^^' tv^liIU fK^tn \Uv i^arth mid 



^Kjait af int>iAtiirf> lY'^Tn tlw rieJgkihoring almta of air. Good 

TJut HinU' iif tijr flIuiin|iL<-rr iiifluturot the ninoual of iIp 
Whrm the lUr itvWrt'ii* *i«'w iv Ji3>nrnl;iii! ; u^hj tl'iu^ly, lltlk> 
no J«ir b» (unuv>L Jn LlLbaun- iLc cU'UiIp n^llfvl l«cl llic rvduli<4 

bm*o prcTcniJi thr r<>riii.ilinFi ^tl' <ic^v by ninr-W^ik; ibr itmu of bit 
m-Xl llif t<«i1h U^fuiv lUiy luivi' liim* Ui bv anilx^l ilowii lo Ih' \^\ttt 

Tlu'' fnv^iii^ (if >v4£vi iirtilitiiillj in iLc Iniiiti^'iil cluiiau \JS Imbt 
(laiu^uJ> upon liiu wiJuf pnioi[>Lv of ibc rw3iAiu>a of hftkl CnHn tba 
uirtL dunii;^ tha ni^hl. i^liAllcnv piU ajc <I«C ^^^"^ i'^ ^J^^A *<Vie 
flliHtv it Uid, aiid upAii ttio rfiraw orv placM lirBMil. lUl [kt^* vf WiUft, 
Tbc V'Uier 1o«ci il* he*! by miiatlorL, uiil n«i bdns able to nbtftv 
nn equttnlent luppl/ rmm tin- f^nh rm ni^oouni of llit jiogr eoaitart- 
ioR powrn oflh^Dtviw, its l«icifK^turT «isk« (k1v# tlicfivvflinfC|Mfat 
mill iot ]" fonn«(L ^hv -iropi iif wjUit Htiil Uu* emUnir of fhxt «eHi 
OIL the mUm of i>ar wiitdowB in vinlvr, t^n •tfloiiioi ia Ai^ 3MLJ 

'J'lii^ nc-arrr U>t idr b lo wtuniiLui. ibir muQ Aliundaot 1h tlv4»- 
iHvLl (if Ji^ir- Ucnwi bvfiirv a miu, tho dcfvcMl u vpcdnltj alvoit- 
ilnnL Sumu widbt auJ diir ItIc* l>i'iiiu cxaJt^r lliui tho Blumi^iiMP. 
nrpufltu ill miinuii^r ^'v^n*il ;vtlh uuiUtiihkT whlft tkr; a» ^J lii 
■u««L TIjc iiitairun.- lu thti cil*i^ lp couik-Ptnl fivm itr «ji. 

WiiiTK Fitu«-r Im i]utb(»x worc ih«n fhaen «leir. It ta 
ollrii HLvn til a;itiiiuii, %vA an«CA uiiilor the Mi&e aramn* 
BtiUKvif i(H niiv lUvomtik to llii' foniintiou of <lo^. In onkr 
tlutl fhwt inaj' occur, tlit* cnrth miiitl bi- niolcil bdov 32* F. 

It it i>f1i7» urJ thflt i[ fp««n? hnhinf irivu th« tMo* dhlM* 
whru it i^iinHVAlf^ bj I'litnJv Thi> i* iIit nu<*, bufl the raoi« 
ni'tliioK to tki vith thD (N-i}^\iii^. The trtio ex|>1*li«lM <if thii 
RnuirittiEb ■■ ihU . U^b('i» tbc in>hkn ^hiiu-ik it !■ grVfttl); Amilir<^ 
ftnd Ibo mdlikli'VU ft«« -ii] iv^-n- rA|>jt1ljr, uiul iif ««iin« h urwalcr Ar- 
lffv« vf (wU b ivroJan-i. Un the cvulrahr;, iiWm the hkn-u h ft^ 
■ruivd, it ]■ gcMnllj ctivi^ir : anJ the rtnuiljt «• <1jiiaE ahorv rvMwt 
Wk th« hr«i,«iHUbc h>«a they jcDii bMk to tbc (itfth U omljr or^inii 





.<if ln«uiig in cilhcr n<fa.r4]t^ i-r f^iirvlv |in-vniif<<L 

bj fft#« lIuiB otW jlijf^u*, '1'^^ pnitrfrt. (hcni fft*in fjnrt vx* oiT^r 
tl^rm with uijftlx, (vtiirlL jinTviMJ riMJiHlUiUi iir m^i^r ivflrti Wk ihe 

363. Snow ond Hail. — Sxow b Ibrmed bv tii<> fKH-iciTi;; 
or ^njwir in thi- n|»|H'r iv^on* or Hip ntrwwphpfv. uhonw ti 
f:iJU I0 Uio intjiiui] ill lUikL-;t- 

Snow >lttik 1-4 aiv luiwic «]» i»r crvriinlei, nrrflii(^-(l in sluv-like 
fitrmv. witli l|jri-L- ur iix tinkiich^i*. JiflL^n'iilly nrruEt^od. I^iit 
ulwAy>4 n'murknlJ<> fof Un»iT rt7!nli"li_v iiinl iK'&utv, Wln'n 
*iion (ill*, llj<- lf-«i|n*rA!(iri' f>f Ihi- nir i* uiiir ISt" F. If iIk- 
ttf-iftpcraturv id mncl) Ion<i. tlit^ iiiow i> Ictv* nViJinlinl. lic- 
ciLii» iIjo cunouut orva]H>r in the* nir U 1<>««- 

TW quantky of i>miw iW T-iILb in iiuy [iLjivh i* iff^ni-r.ill^r llir 
Ifn^l uf Ibp va»n. At ihe i»1v>, ftnd uu ihc snnixnila lA V\-i^^ \nomo^ 



ulu in aII Ulilurla, mo^r triraias lhp>iicli thf ^lire ywir. A»vr 
•|i)iru47lk lb(> (^{UJilur lUu irgioii if [u-rjii>tiiiil ai^w ttu^ higher miti 
higbcr ahvrty thfl \ejv\ *it l^'i oi^tui- Ju tin? Aui^v. uto4n iW t\\um- 

lUft h)vH of ilm ^iwinn ; VMiirl the iicirlli«ii PTimuiir rf K<w«5 « 
b but 3,01)0 kvi »Im>vv ihu ooerni kvcL 

IIaii. U niii]i]HJtH.-i] vf ]aj«r» of coiuj^uct ice. amngtyl ixn* 
oentrtDtiUy sbuut uia^ci of oaow. T\ut foruiAtlon of hidlatoEie^ 
bad ii«^"<»r b**h HHtl^lUftorily t'Xi>iain*><i, ptpeciAlly IJic 
tls^ of ]^omi> of llicin , 

ilnttuauppoB^bjVDinv l<^l(i Jiir-tollic fn^xhi^r/nini-i 
ihnr piiwigg Uinragh irtraUi uf oJr CQldrrr iban l^rar iu tilikU 

<HliLir> ibLijtiK«ft H ciJil rijrnput of aJr f irr«« ttt Vrif Into « 
air iiiur^h vamivr ihna tavdi nD<l lUMirly Miiatatod, tho l»u]>timi 
twla^ reituajtl bnlifw 32* F- 

363- Winda. — WiMi* arv fiirrflHU of air, mm^in^ wi 
grrnUr ^ir Um rnpUliiy. Tln*y mt gpnrtnllj naiiitfil Ittun 
quRrtc-T ith^nn* Uu->- IiIc^if : IbiiH, % wiiwl tlini Itkufru fmsi 
cast it caUi^iI Etn rji-ft-niiii). am) ao for <illvT wimbi, Wii 
Arc womctira™ timucH i't^ftn twjnK- li>«il |>«<n]tiftn1j . 'llnifl, ni' 
lini'O ir^uit-teintU, mm\tirtn%.. tinmit. :i»(| Itir* llki'^ 'Hie pn-- 
vailiiiji; iJirt-trUuntt of Uic niiul arv tlill'ctvnt m itill^rvtit ccnift* J 
trim, for rvfl^on* ttAt will K< cxitbunoj bt-ivaAcf. ^H 

364. Cau^s of Wirtds^ — Wmdt am cnuKd hy vmhA- 
tlimH of U'iTi[H^ruUitv iit the ntiik(w|jtieiv ; lL«*sr raritliiNn 
l>nKtmx- tipAu^ioiift And co»inicliui««, tfauH ili»Lurbing tbc 
vquiUbriiiin of tW ntnio4plimt. rAsUlifr cajmiiU- Tlir^o our- 
ivnl* aiv wimU- Fo'' L-^nri>|kk'. if Ihe sir >■ more bcaUt) tntt 
ontfi nxmlr} ibaii mii Uk' iic-i^b(x*nti|£ i\imitrk«. H UUilrsi 
and rUv». iU ptacv Urlni! »u|>|>1ioi| by thf: coldef nir wUdi 4inre 
in from Uie tflrroiutdlng rt>^on«^ Tb« mrphis of sir ItMm 
brmglit I* flnm% rnvr nt tfau to|» uf Itir sxviHting rtJunm. 
IIvvtt-Uk'W biacBrttut ouvibc vtaUi in ouctUtTctiuu. vhlbt 

WLS'DA 805 

At A liiffhcr etcrmtioti tlicrc U a itiiranl fiowins >n a contruy 

365. Regular, Periodic, and Variable Winds. — 
Wln<1« im* <11\ukt1 ii^to llinn' rW*i»in lUiiixtu Wisint. 

I. tttguhu Windt. — Li4-guliir winil-t im^ lIio«g wlil^^ll bluar 
Un>Uj;(iaul tbe >t'uf in Uic ^uuit iLn-rll-jii- Tliiry occur in 
tlio uc-i)E^b<>riioo^ cif Uin p'iiiaWi't <:xl*iidin2 on each tide 
olutit ^i> <U»gnKiA. Frocii llierr advujitttfic tu oommt^rco \L*>^ 
an* rnllM irmi/j^^firuk. (hi llic iiorrh lulr i.f IJir I'lirml^^r they 
Wow frcm Ihi? norUicnnt; 011 iLt noulk aide tUt'V i>tow frotn 

Tbfl ir^Jc'urliulfl nri»< fruin rufrtnU of 4Jr flowbg fn^m ilip ixJur 

tt wrtr, in>1 Ivivirnp inrlinr^l I0 rh« wr>«lviinl. ^iviu^ tiorlhciiftt 
mnd«<ai thir nurih r^ii^i m^il K<utlinuit ontv oa the eouth dJp of the 

iilar mhniilB <jf [irni-. Mipdv I^kiii i>|i|irwtEi- illn^iTlon^i- Such 
«iV IJw fnvnjinonj ttmt pKvuil ill Uk JudlJin ()*can, Muiffinif 
one half of Ifio y^ar fh>ru moiIIil^euE to i(oiitbwt<«f« iirxL \hv 

llic liortli ijf llu- (^jujui^r, Ihi.' «4*iJtliirrii jwrtmii of llie Ael- 
aUc ci>iiUDi:ia ts wnnnvv Uiac the toiitbcrn poit of Afk-Icft, 
ami Uw wimls blow Oom touUinx^t t" porthcnjtt : wticm iho 
auu Id on tlit^ wmtti Aui^' n1 tln' f^]naior. tlu* ii-vi'mn iii ihi- 

The jiMoom U A hot wiiKl Ihal blow4 fVom tJit (IcserU of 
Arriea^ It tE 1^1 In Iht* northern aitit north^LMC^m |>artj> of 
llir AlVkTii] niiilinriLl- DLirtn^ lu |>m-alcfii'p xUt* iWnnnmp- 
ler oCttn rint* lo )i«' F. In ibf^dcsirt li>U wind UtiLMnft* 
tiiifiX'uUa^ ffoni iU liont awU 'Iryn«»p TmveikTa txpotfod to 
It cover lltvir fntX'fl nitJi tyclc oli>lli»., utui lh«lr oiiiieU Um 




Tlw* Wmrofj In a lint, trfnd Mint «>]ni*tlmv4 U d-lt In llllr. 
\Vlicn it bh>vfs projiTr ri^m)i,ii» in their Iiohiw*, t^kjn|£ care iQ 
viovf vvcry '\vur uui vUuluw, Some itup]HJW Uti* to be 
coDUniiatioii ofttiij ainioijtn rrv>iii Uie Arrioan d^erU 

Tbo f<<>uf <fRf/ «v'r A^rfsM tmr wliidH iIiaC bloi* uci ili« ««•- 
t?oib;t. Durihg tluMlnj' lilt- Iniit] fiot^omofi Li^ntvit to h ht^ibH' 
dcicn^c llmii Uic mo.; mojwqM'Utly tli<< nlr rrMliitE <*Q ibr Utvl 
l^cutoiTi murv hoAcd and run^lLed tlk-in Uiut o» the wulcr: 
Iti'iK'v Lt ii?icvii<[d. ittkd tbo i^ouk-r air r'ntin Uiv w<ii Hows in lio* 
VBU'dt the- luuJ lo lake iU pltiw, i*uji*lilutiug llio t^t'6neat. 

Diirioff the al^fht tlio laaJ iwcda raorc mpiJlf th^a the wtOf amI a 

iiiu] fvic» tit innlu- vv^iv f-t ibc iwoltr ftOd dc^iiK* nJr a^iiiiri^ (t\nu t 
Und- 'l'hl» cufrnit U paUpJ iIip Irmti-htvfte^ 

3- r'<in<tA£tf IFfViii. — VitrmljU' wiu'ls ai'« lho« ivlikb bk»w 
eomeitmcw £11 one dirr^ction and tfOtUL^Uiiiod in onoUieri witbotit 
laiiv uppuH'ul lnv or c7hRn^^>- TIjc Tiu'Lli^ wo recede thiai the 
HjiifltoTiid I'vi^ioiiK. tliL- nif»r\^ vnriiibU- nn- ttu^ wiiHt« tn Uii^r 

TiU« U imdnubteiily dui^ In itx' fWi iHai ihv two p««l mrrviiu 
of nu Ibai l^»rm tliC IraJc-wiDiljL gmdiMilljr «p|in]«p]i ntih oUwf 
Id tcmpcmun^ iit u ^liiitikurv tnnv lUe cijuihUit, iinil luv thai 
nv'^hifjlj of uciiuQ that luailu thuir nifivvun^nt* in tbo tr«i|>i«U 

The riLinvMl «iiniD^ fr<»in iho }xJt* K^>w• 4^knn«r. and IhaC 
loWHnln ihc {HiIis icni^fi ivnilrr. 9" ihivt ia the Uinprnut Tunr* tlitf 
dbpftrity 'jrMnpfmturv iv not ttifiirjotill^ unni ti^ k«€|> th« f urrviiM 
(Uffltiirt, fliiil llifn'ft.iM^ Oiictv Ib n fUtiAtOUt ttihlrth-jr lo mingle AOd fai* 

I a 


366. TornEi^ocflH — A lVni\'\r>n tn n vloh^rit irhlrlwItHJi 
vtUiiclpd rn'Eth rniti, iZuifulf^r. and lightnin^^ Tboy iui» an| 
jhihm] to bi* I'nit^inl Uy t-iirn^iiU .if nlr I'nf^ciuntiTin^f nam qn- 
uU^r when luo^int; in itjlfi^ivut direction, thi-rrl^v iin|virtlnf( 
to ihv HtmtM^ht^tv II nhifliiif; motloa. Tortutdocn ofttn Imv' 
ton4uh>nM«> dUiAniH>«, ov«rl»nih>^ building nnd utivooting^ 


tn-iw : tlu-y nw AWsompKnicU witb ii tiPist* likt* liml at hi-Mvlly 
iMded cnru drivtn ov«r« sloay road. 

TwH^l^vLr? uftummto *r* rwo^ift.-J, tfrrrotnaX Ami marinr^ «• 
wrJiujr •> tKpy tstr jiJaop "t> Ifttwl nr on *nt*r, Th" hitJi-f dflfft 
|in-tnii rvbiinkjililp (jlicuuiiifna, TIk' i^iThfj f^rn^ <»r ihr niud ipliV* 
tiM v!iE4T iij tho U'tw ■>! A mi^p, wtUf'- H »4'^ri»iic1 nii)'^ funxnt in lh* 
rjiiuili UkivjnfE ■I' A|>rx duwii^jinl*- TUpm' ivm'-f iinivr !■.> luiri't rW:Li 

d»U(U Ilk itii* funi; ll^r cvlmnti 'jf ilaM U cnll^^ a irxfrw-sjwiH'^ 
When 4 wnt(-r-*poiit «trik« a aliiii it dnr* uQinMi*v jAiuflf^- 

3fi7. Velocity of Winds- — Th<^ vd-A-lu oT whkIs in 

UM^nto vU\M <trtirmtnnrtrr9* 'Dioh^ <^rriAiat Of A e|j«oloa of 
vin<lTit!1l nttnobrrt in tt imin *jf wiK'H-wiii'k. Sv mnnriM of 
ntbrtk fhi< MitJEiU-i' of rfvoLiitii>ii^ per laiiiuii- van ht: rr^w- 
tttvi. From ih* mimlwr 4>r rcvoTulioiui llic xtlocity c&n bo 

ric 'JSI rrprMOiils iWia f"nii '-f ancinuinf^ltr. ll rviiHi«U <*f fnur 

UttDUT IkTTP* [>f n^OlJ lcli|**ll. 

Th»r tuni frwlj' aIkhii a trrti- 

THs juf* #iirHn nil rmili^Hi 


wliieh art« id tnuli'.^i 4i 
Imtii of whM-wnrk. 'Thv ijuni- 
Ut of rvraluti'^H •« rv|EJ^'<^>*<f '"n 
n ilEftJ bj reinuiff rif ]hiliiti-r» con^ 

Tlie vi»Ujc]ly i>f Ifjp |-i-iiUr«t 
Irmv*, or nt^iivr, iit not more 
IbAu imp mUo piT btiur: n uiurl* 
«fmtA vind CnvtTiA nt iha raU »f 
4} ta ft viik* |N>r liuur, ik bnnk 
iriud ffO mltp* f^r hi^ur> 4 Titoi. 
|ml 4n to LCI tiijli'f pf^r ItJiiir, iuh) 
• hmrimna fium 9U w iMf uiilm |inr Imur- 



iSSp The Signal Service. — AltcmpU to prvdict tm- 
|>4>rUnt phaiifii'B in llii' nviilluT. ko lu li» ir*it" tJtiK-lv wmrtilag 
of liic iLp|jroiuHi 'jf ?(luriiiH mut L-iiijK-its, liuve Ixhh ruade lif 
dvilizTd coiiiiuuuiti«^s froiv tiuiv imm^ujonMl. Tbow tl- 
tempU, howcTcTt have of ru>cH:<^iTv Ij^au* fo a ifn^t vxUnt. 

lold III sufllolrrt vpiiMin tc nilinil of making |>n^ivtmtk>Qfi toi 
avprtlnfi Hf< ^blcncp. 

hy tn^uim cr tbc- cli?(-trie Ukgrupb tbe Slgnftl Service ^ 
thc! i^K'soiit i1u>' bxv rv'uchm^ n lilgh vtAte i>re/n'>1on<*j', ntid h 
i>r K^^nL vhIul" lo I'uinmwn- ami tigriculturv- Bj' ito aid io- 
Ull!j,-i:ni-(] of nlonnd tuid apptOAchiag ^rcatlicr-diAi^cs can be 
lr&ii#jnitl<^(.I tKim |n:»int lo in>int many lioiin* iii ndiance* 

TU>t tlio Sigtrnl :^cni(-i^ it n frirt <]f ihp iv^ amy in- 
«pliTs cminilonct? in iU work ni;ft ifinv iriiKlw^thlDi'iM b> 11* 
roportfl- Tlir i1umviii|{Ii iiE7<i-ipi;[u? *>t ibc jinn\ i.i cwriUijil U> 
tii« »iic!CC««rtLl norkiiig vi' tiiL- itui^ik of axiatlwr-otwervcn*, 
Thu* luiiHt b»\ uatla*|iiirluriUriieQibn-H. luineiiiulltr. pronpA 

'I'Lv'r<: iuii4t n]Ao be tbc power to trnforc-e thoM rcquirciuctit?. 
and Uiu con lie iHirAniUj^ vacurod in It^r nrvMy. 

KTPry TDJLn c^fthv iJ^inl wrqu ti thcrrm^lit^f iLitirDrtAl ttni prar- 
lisnl in iho lUA of iho trlo^mph niul eltcr iiistruiAcnib Ituii «ni tmt" 
pliijpii In iTVpry bmsmd <»r ih" wTi-iic. 

Thfi totflt ikitmWr i^r pi4iii>ii0(if uWrrntionA vrilhio ibo )lml|«4jf 

t« (i(|(ilppv<l vilh Ihc Ml'.'vib^ Iwlruiiionlj : ban>iaH«r, thcnvfrto^- 
Itfr, bjifTOiuticr. nrjcinofropv, jipcujiimpu^r, auil rHiij-cHiig*^ AH ilw 
mnjon* oouiiniuueoM <jnth thiP ccutml office- jil Wjtfililnj|;1«o. 

TtimubfHn'stioiUiaJcIakm tlnjlj, WatltiijiftD^i tiin^; Uii« inwm 
the rmilng of the intrtrcjmi-ni^ \>y all ihi- Ml]u.-rvfni at t]i»i«kia« laiat. 
Tliv LiiHirut»iirlB mi* rwil iu IIht i^nliT K»ri)^. 

'i'\ii* rt^HTli frvjrn ihi^ iLilFi-ri*E)t ^InilitiiM nii< Uniiivnil(«l ia fiittter V> 
tbo «viiLral <rffirt* »riil nulrjnl on »r}Lil]<T'iiiH|iv> Fmia iIh* Mudy oi 
Xhttc iiiit|» lhi> jpnil<kt>|j> vi'atluT rUriUM'*^ Ut ibv ticzl twutf-fhor 
hfiurv ur dtibir<-i]. Evrryliiiafr mutl bp Fuiiriy} mi ilio xii«p« iml 

nllJtril lo i!u* prns To; |nibtiaiikj||. hL-uj itlcf^nipIiHl Im liiilltlju rum 
1* AflbrvDt milm far tlip uh' of Fi^rtnim, Uvadi-* tciiLi; giir» Ti thi^i 
AiWlalnl Prmi for iliNlnliiiiiim llimujclmitE lhr< iiiiinlry. 

</ the ttWDtry fhvn ftnil it lirUfv^iiiiiiAlii nfilt^ inrolmljilitiin* Imi hWi 

mid ih« rawD* £ar ihe (rrulkiiooL 

When uvcto itoniJi an nfijironcliiut! tlio laktttot t1;^ Wii-Kiiu1,rau- 

twtiury ti^ob arp urdmvd at llif i:eu4ra] i.>ffiw lu Iw db|ilujv(l hl llm 
Ufc" *ad»nipiirl<iw<l*»lni[;llH' m'Tv-wKn) nw u wHniiu«* Irnnnririorn, 

V^'f fotlcr drt^iU of ihui inip^'rtaai luut laltmunK lupic iho tin* 
di-Tit ii rpfiFfTHl to 1h(< Hunuii] ivf>iirUi^-f (lit! Chii^ Signnl Officr itnil 
1v <^c'r d^.iniiDC'iitj) Tt^siKiic- on Lhr aubjvrit, vluoL ^tM be vbltuotd vu 

Surnmary. — 


The Ity^omcter^ 

llair nynmiikcicr- 

IMnpJpli* *ipnn u'h)rh it th>pnadL 

M#ihM -f Af-Ji^n. 

MrtbuJ of Afliou^ 

HKplaiuiLiiJD of iHi'jtt Tfnn*' 
riuu"^ 'if (Tiiiuil^, 



Tbn l>itk>«i'ii* mkili* IkV llrm^iri 

llluMiHtimi tit tLiD DilkTCui Kjiiiia- 

Uf^iiJIion <rr Do«r. 

IIIUH[mlir-ii» niii tlxfiljuioihttL 
Snort? AHif i/a>/^ 

FuQ^Aikni oTSnoir. 

lUiBtmrKiii by t't^'irVi 
guitttiii.y if HTUtn lit ]*Hrtri>ut PLuVk 
Ui'limlii'ii ti llhil. 

iVRniltoii OTiH tniivlnitkiiu 

ih^rjvnt CianKt fjf Wmtit, 
I. Kt^tklfiT Wiitiii-. 

TriMlc WincU Liiibimd 
'^ |*<>riiHljr W111J4- 
Tlir Uinvmiii. 
Tfm Sinn Htm. 

Laud amL ^tttt ltrvi>«*k 
3. VmiiiMc- WimU. 



Vftanrft of U'wifl*- 

Mfxk cif OprmtlfiTi- 
IV Stijna^ Serrv^- 

Signal ScrvUv « r*Tt of rh* Anojr. 



369. DcfioitioD of Optics. — (^ITICO is tluit Itraucli 
of HiyaiCA which treaia of llic j>licrkom«iiA of li^iL 

37D. Detinitjon of Lisht- — Lii^bt U iliAl jJivnitnlii^nt 
wliicb. ni-liii^ iifjon thv e>'e, phxlut'^tt Ibv »tiiaation of sii^lit 

371. Two Theories ot LiKbt>— Two itwork* liavv 
1wc» miviiTJO^iJ to fic<viunt f<uT \\w jibL'iK^uu'im of Itglitr Ulfi 
Kmiition 'JTtfory^ *iii') tbfi Vkduiatfiry w Ware 7^ff>^> 

AmmlllLf; fn llir- emhfiou ihr^'Ty^ \\^\%X rfiTiGlHtA r^f loflnllcto^H 
amnll pnrticli^ t^f inuUrr* nliut r<irl]) frv^in 1iiiiuik>u» Ikm1«iV^^| 
ivlib tmmctiBic velocity, nhioh. I'uJIiog on tlii> Rtiua of Uie | 

taustd If^ !hc vlhralions of the molecule* of tHxJtra. II i» 
Iraiiunitlcii by n tkitEhty dontic mvdium cnUt^^l iwMnni/rrvku 
tthrr. ThU nHflkiiii, whiHi iklsci trnnMnit* nfUnnt Ii^nU »3C- 

jiiIctvuIb iK'twocn tJiiur lunLnil^. Tlu.- tiinlc^:»Ur vihnlio 
of ft tumlnmiv l>ody arr iiopatt^ to tb^ aetgUtiuhiis vihvT, 
>»r1 ni¥ ]iropa|ri(t4-d Ihniiigh it Ivy r niKoewlr)!! 1^ fi|tlir 
n«i<'» ; llirw iravm, rullui^ 011 ibi^ reikia trt ihc i:jr, 
the tciiiintioa of uj;tiU 

L!ghl anJ mJianl hnl orr tfry clcavjjrrchucd l*radi iilJifTjiniif 

nU U I 

sovJivjii? or iwnr 

fuu [ll^t|<di;^l■.'J lAri-iigH \ho ojiiiLd nii><liriiri. boi ihcy diirrr from f*c)t 
ijtlic<r itt thvir wjivr^k<Ljf^ib. uud, u a 4!uiuH-i|Ui-uai?, in ibclr morln <»f 
odion on bodin*^ 

Hciil U iinHln*^-!! ti) wnviw "f j^nvktiri li-ii^ih rUmi tliow* which 

i>f litfhu 

lu Kiiini) tbo pAitJtin of lur V)bni(c to atiJ fro iu iZio iUr«ctli>o of 
|in>)U4aLLon ; iu liglit uid raJuul Irut thv (mrtjoliu of vtlicr tiWup 
111 iLiiil fr> in b Jiivftioa |.ii.'rpi.'uJiritLLr hj lUat •>( pn^jiiffulaou- Im 
»uiiiid ilie vibraiiiiui uir ^ni^'fttt/iiuj^ nr in cliv iljm^tiun •>{ tfu.* mjv; 
iu Uehl niiil nidjuiit b«)Lt tlioj ai9 ir>iv»rt^a\, nt |Htr}ihuilii'ulM to the 

Thff Jj*a *^f Imnmtnjal 'rlljmu<>tis tiuij be illatlriiU^l by a n>|W 
tn^? fwl al vnc cod ahU ]h:Li1 hy ihi: liAud dt llic iii\ivt. If tljv bm 
«md btf irnvrod njiblly b^ liiid fpo. At rigbi aDortH lo tb« n>|ic, a luo- 
oBHioa of wvm tM Till) oloog itiv ro|t% whUi.* ilic pAjticUti nf Unt 
Rififi fiin}>ly i-ibntA biurb uid ditth m ^fi-^n^niiivulmr* Vr itiii rui'Mt If 


« SlnOf- b« ^TiifTpol inU> A ftOrpKtf utill VdTfT. A HtTMpf mVM w'lll ljD 

pr^ifA^pUnl iMAwaM. wbUii thi^ jinrlioLi** *4 trtttiT •Imply dw tvnl fiUI, 
ibi-if iiH4j<m bvlitf iwrpcndlr II Inr In ihn dint>rliim iT fif<'pjiua|»>». 
Thr ■Hitnlat/nTf thriir7 iv nuw jfrnrTnllj m^rvjiirfl by jih^f^iita- 
Thit kind nf w-arc motion in [<tL<:<n^ In ¥ig. 33S- The vhll'* dula 
iniili'^'i^W nfrthnr, iinil Ihi^ tiiEUl In ri^pptUMl In fom In th^ 
dttoctiAD j1 S. Tha Jli>|juien> ^/ ^ nod t^ it an} ctlli^l vftt«<1rii^Ji#, 
Ibal \k frfiia ihe onii i>f <itu' «ami lii tint rfi-jit at tbv nert- Thi* 
dA«Un««« tfy.J'f\f<''\ »ini rf' 4* »vpm«it inupilUMof <if rilmition. 
lltcuagb lli^c tluLkoco ibc lu^fWuitt* vj «Ubn UBi^li«U UkX and 

371^ Luminous Bodies. ^ Sources of Light- — BihI 

i«« t^Bt rmll ll^lrt un' hiiFjI |o \w hitaiuo9i$: EbnnF UlaL Jin 
acrei tv liRhl ibrit*-'! from irth^'m arc nnid Iia \iv if(ii.num«bj^ 



U Ik iumiiiout IhhU , 


ilhiininAU'd bv It, 
TIh! prinftrxtl wurriH'* of li^'lil nrv tf/e iPfv, M« ii^r, 

Tlic ktltitmilc CAUHL' of ihr tuji'i ^R^t b Unkticrm. TImt *ua b 
Hinviuiidrtl hy ngnKHUi« <Tiir<i]ri]Vp^Uxl lltt^ jiholai^iAfTift wliM vp- 
ptun lit III' iu n DtaU' iff intrt^M iguilion. Ilw uualMutar vUnstiM* 
i>f tliit i<(ivrl'i|M^ itrt' tiiiiUniliTaftl^ ihv iiiiiiiMlbilr *iiiim«i iif MKlur )i|fH 
iiim] m>W itmU TIk' itl^m iini luiiiLir 1-> i\h- mUf but im i*<f\juUL t4 
iliHt i'iiomi4in« <1l«TfiKVft (Wnn ut, Uir^ »iLd UK but a mull vatrntit 
of li|;ltt titid ijout- 

ir n budy ^ye h^h^ lis inulvculcB an: thritri^ii into tibfKCloa. Mil 
whvn il4 ti'tnccntTur*' rt »(i)li<« IMNI" i-r HiOlJ'' t'., it bff in* U> b* loini- 

ntuiT nx^ 

Tlkc Hfclil ilrvflipc^ Tty f bnnico] ovziiUiinUcfD* U nmdj tjjv 10 

niBiiity lii'lMta'ii tliH oxf^rii iif llifr ftlr hdiI lliv CMfbini v^ tt» 

gttiPTiiiini/ hrai iioJ ulilmni/'ly Jiflti ii«lf- 

I *}«■>■[ -1)4 in-*j^-iiiv> 14 L^ift pr^tjH^rl^ ih^t 4u»ine iKidim lui^^ cj 
ifllE liifbt uihUt rtflni" nnnji|ii»j»>, witliiiitl Si\u ; it m rtUu <»l»*rr*rf 
tu (hiAtymff RDliTiAl uu'l i't<|tnubbr rimUi*r, Aud ict ih>iiiti miiv 

m^^rtnciij il Iho icuffv rtf K upoc:** of li^hi tJifll ricftk in iM 
tliBi irf iho #uu iiwE II uriU te InsMtHl <iriivrnifki*r. 


373< Mcdi*- — Opaque and Transparent Bodies 

A rradldtii U mill 14 bu ki<ftiMk^nn'D4 n%\i>Ji lUn tfli'vilral 
Ikin mrJ ilruvilt (>f «n iu imrUt jin- llir rttmr^ 

A Tni>^r.*Rrxr n'>i>T i* one titaX ixrinit* llf;lil lo 
Uimigh it fh.'cly: i\a glniA. dinmondji. rouk-crvMaJ, 

Whrn 1iihIjc<k (irrniiL liijbt Ui i>rua tliitmi^li tlii-in. tnit not 
audi 4jtiattlit> tkA Uj a]b>« ubjccta io be bt^iJ UhrvitiEU iJk 




thr;r ^rc called A^rm^trenif. Tlui^, 9cm|wi| horn, tfivanil 
glKjifl, i»lp(} paper, xwX iZiin imivEtlam Aid ti-nriHlncviir. 

An Ut-Aijrk lliiiiv U fitn- Hint *\m-v. luA pn-mit iighi i4> pB«« 
lUrougb iL 'iliuv. in>ii. wood* nuJ granite arv opaijiuf bocilcft. 

No iHxItofl Bw piTlVMTily ft[«n|uc ; wlion cut itito ftiifflcicdtlj 
thin l#-avi.N, lh*j jiiv »m»fv or !*'►" tmnhluppnt, 

374, Absgrption of Light. — No hiii1> u ihiM^iI^ Lraii*- 
parrnl; ill inU-tcrpl oi' ;il]9oi|] itiola^ ^r 1^^ \\s\\i\ bat auiiic 
ahfiorU mtii-'h more Iliati olbv^rs. If tight Ixr tninBijaiEtUd 
IhFougfi tin^iil itiickri'.'iiM<4 of nii>i]ia wlut>U iu lUin tM-«r« aiv 
tmh--<|iAn'iiU H r(uiLtititv i>r %liL in tLbtfurbvil. niid it olli'ii hap- 
\Kx%>i thai tho iruii^iiLitUHl li^fit id [iut of ttiillldT^ut mt4TLia]tj~ to 
prvdiace tlio ^nKniii>ii L>rM^ht. 

Thp Alujoephfrr fr^itnui |>f-HVrtljr inin»|U)r(^(ii. but It U « Vnnvm 
lact that innrh of thr liirhl '^f tIip fiin in iibwirM iu nuduDU the 
mrth. Oft in fllutwn lij llm |rmi|(*r trnMiMiir^ \\t (tit* ilanfu the higher 
f«:g»Q>i ft! oa in<iimt*ink^ In tho litj^h r'fiioiih tS tho »ti«o(i- 
phi^rr 'ihj«!ti uni minv cluuly vitu ifivi tinuvr Uir nnrtfi ; tndml, no 
grtttt u iKc «lpAm«0 v\ liskiu ia iIimo nifi^lMu, iTiat it bnvow* m- 
Mnllnf;!^ ifilTlr^Nh tujml^ iif <ljBlaurit<Fii Oprnjur brxlitv abiorb nD of 
Ihc [i^Iit iiJliti^ V|K>ti tlu^rii v-httOi i- uni n^llr-^i^l- 

<tnn« c^ Ifgttt UiJii micT I lirui. 

J75, Raya of Light. Pencils, Beams. Propo- 
gation of Light. -^ A Kjli' o» l.itnrr U ti lini^ nl<>ri^ uhlcb 
Ji)Cht ih |»r(>|HiifiAt*'i]' II ilk |iri'|jr[ii1imt«i li> tUi- uilvuihiliig 
wavc-fVont. Wbcu Eli<' MJUtcc U vt*r> <liFi1;ittt the wMitvfVvjJta 
on: nenuuhly |}buic luttj lh<' rii>v pnmllcl. 

Lvoimuii puuil, Hiirli »« Uiu tit>ii |>ruivrrlin^ fhiru n (-hniTIi- t\t 
■ biltp. 

WbMi liio r»y« ^rftrt«/^n>fl» u common point, they ftr<! mH 
t** U* dae^f^fjtt. Whoa tlu-v /wor*i«rf f^uwrrf* |i OOmOlOll ])Oinl, 
Ibtjr lUv «atil t<? Km; fonrti^rM. 



A Bfaii nv Uxx* U a ^riintl groiip of pAritlcT reyv, iUCft 

la A iKmtOfVBMitA ni«diiiiii Ijtflrf » |irMrc4gnf«d m Mfught Ihm. 

JdihH Uii> i^><i on thi> luininoiw hmly; thi^ lti[lii bt Uiiiimpltd. Tbi 
njrs i^r IikUi ihnl pda» lolo a Jnrk rucmi If a hnftll AfHirlsrv «n 
MPQ lo tiff itnigTll bj die putLelda of ttunliii^ dilit vlitiUi 1^ 

376. Visual Angle- — The nnttlc fonnrd by two tl 
dmwti ftom tb- iH^nhi' of tuc vyx- to the two cxtiriaiticn oT 

FijC- 'j:U r('|T(«;uij the vuuitl ftniflr. Th« ilin I'f thki nn^lit i3' 


Ii-nglh, fpl the niii:Tc J Ofi U Lir^vr thui,r(>^; hcorc tir np- 
inrrnt aIip iif ,1' JT Jx Tr-M iJmn ibni tl .t ff. C If hw iW «Bi 
vi*u*il aagic' lu .1' if, yH .4' il* ji ibo Ut^r. Tbo ^ifiWiJ uvtl^t ll««i 

Av^ tiiti Iriifhi'itUi ibr tvaI tb(> iif h bfirijr, — v:n inuif kn'>w lit <|i». 

lit vi>rAl taiit\r. nuil bcvnr^n^ Jiv dutaniv- wr ffta |»-«t lu a^. 

Tito appitn*iit pfai* of a \inAy nin bfr VAhnl bjr ininniiiig ur ^ 
rreulng Ibr tmul jlii^Ic In Oic futmoiW vt !■ nn bf 

377* Shtdows, — ^VtiFti lijrbt fhlbi npon wi ofwjve bodjc, 
luainii«fe u lh« rmjA arc inmswillcd in 9in\tH IIom. tb« 
nfiBcn brtiM Itw UcnIv froui wbidi tbc tif^tit U «xoIoi1hI li 

ir tkfi KHirw of llidil b« « polM, tjic Hlwkw «iU be A^qJv 
rlofitMl ; ir il be brp^r Uiui ft poiot, Uw |>f ricct nk^low vil 


b* attrroundL-d bj a rnJiil^t on* uaIUkI the penumfan. Tho 
ikrkiT Almikitt ik i^llnl lite u.m6nu 

In P>j(. 23? WD h»Vo llif» two «httiL>vr* rnTim«int<*d. bntli tlu 
liimliiouA nnd oimciiIc UhIjca bdlig tpWrto. If Ik^r liiiLiint^a ourfur, 
/J, \io Ikr^r ihiTi iTi« i>pni|ti« WLy. ibr iirnljri ml) t'^nnJunU' In n 
lifOaU " in ihc caw ol xhe shftiuv of C It will Iw ftiiiK^l H* *> 

JJiil irtlio <]piuiQd IxH^y tft Inrf CT ihnn Ihix liaiaWuA^ tlin itmbm V'ill 
hr [llvrnfcni. H* MTU In thi* Ahn<l»w or, 4- This I* nlwffiinj^'nl bj y% 

If xhe hmluoii^ tphcTv \v tit tliti fitrnn lijcii Wt ll^t' nimrjiJi-, tlll- 
uinSrm vill tv a rj^liuilt^, vitl» a iwiiuuit^rii hr a 1>raOor. 

Ttte )viitiuilirai 'i» Tmt iturk tljnii tho ujubni, l>n-n(UK^ ouTjr ii jmM 
c(f Ibv mjw fr»>in tbt* |in»iri'ju» Im^Jj *r« oul olf froo th** ^pH**** It 


378, Vetocily of Light. — I-ight movi* willt srjdi vp- 
lodtj Uiut for ulL dbUi:)i?ca on tlic t^tth it i« pnaccicoUj iu* 

ll vflfl ttiown hj BfiFMni, H I>ftM-ih AAtri'Mi^viifr. in IflTfl, 

Ui IIn; i^uflli, whicli j^ivo^ a rclccUy of l^C.OOO lolka per 

^-milioiiA on tliv irUjtgtrfi (if JiiiijU-t** Antl MNlIitr, In 
Fig. aSf*. A" ivprc#rnU (Ijc «iin. T Uk- eart\\. J Xw^Vtx-wA 



Tho rl*rkoTitMl jwnrlion of ilw figurcr bejh'omt JupiUr i 
tbo (tbiiiliiTi t.*T Itiitt plunoi (^a^i liy (Jie hue>^ It U kuowft br 
ciimiitilAUori E.haT. Jiipih^H Arat uitilllKi n^'<ilv^A nttuiil thai 
pUnot once li\ ^i Ivnxr* 28 ininntc* an^ 30 f-cconi)H, ami tj 
cntcntiff Ihe llhsL(to^v urJiifriU'T in odip#«l at cni-li iwoltition^ 
R' f'iMJiiil iliiU. »h lliE' rnrlh inutvd frutii 7^ il^v tirnmtl 
|Kffiili^ii tu Ju|iiu-r, L'JVf aiila r. Its moBt rvmiile {iinilinD. Uip 
intrrrnl bttw«<ii the ccn&Miitive «cJipAM oflhr mitdlttc ktmI- 
uiLlh' ^n-w kmf^or. %^liil^t ru aioving froin f linc-k >pim to T, 
thpAi* hitrrvflUgivn' ih^N>r. Tlw* totfll JHnnbiliori i» pa*»- 
Uig froui T' lo f \VM« found to ht iiuhtI} ICl miimtt^B, uihI Uu* 
total ncccleraiinii in ilu- ivmamlni: hM of ili« cuitti'a revojii- 
tion WM AbM> foiiml tn Ih- ICJ minnU'^. TliU wiv »eCTiqiH< d 
fhr 1^ ttiv Htft llmt Itic ojirtb wm moving nwa^ fVoan -lopH^H 

in \\te nnt rosr. aiv\ ihvtvfoTC tbf' llsAil Wl tn tmvol fmll 
mHl G»i'llirr til cwtL tt'l)|J*i- to n^n^^h Ui« oWprvtr, nhil* in 
•cmiMl rant* lh*» roT*f»ir lis|>jh*Tii\r 

Ru1I>1I:h LltcMore in&mil llml ll n4|mro4 JG} iiiiiiiitn Itpt a 

ftir i( lo pAH oTFT thi> nifli>u <>f Uuil ubit, lluri in^ oftr ft ifclTiw 
'iHjLial li* lluil iif tliv incil] fnnii UiF ^nii- 

iwcuui), a ^[«nl Omt Vi'ulJ mrri a m^ nf llflil flun-iinj llfv TOrtli 
tFight imm Ln n «iBKb< HV«nJ *4 tWv- Snmi^ &iW, luwmr, my W 
hod of lUc TrIorUf 4kf lif III fmn tbn fut thnt U vtiqU m)itiiT VHirv 
iirv «ofJ A half ecmtiihci toe «nxt oC i*i% idmA Tu^^-i f-A^i 

sxj-iiA'sny or liuuj- 


Iniipv tjf 

tn ran n tli4Uifiiif> nvfr nliirh light |ajtv^ in flj 

379. Inicnsity of Light. - Photofnciry. - The in- 

tniMlJ' of ligliT Hi llM- iiuiniint of riUtutlinTirc it. i^npurtj* l« lhi» 
i^Uanr. It in //roportivaai to t/te vjuarc tff ifit aafpliti»de of tUt 
m^r^itm ^J tlt9 rtAffr p4irHc/fi4 ; lUai i^, hh tbii lirnpEttucic In- 
cpg^a^o the 1nt«ii«Hy intr^^f.^-*, a4 iT (li>iT<'aM»ii the intoii«tt}' 

Fllf. 33a 
llCfiCC VTC fM*C lI>At %ht lullc»ta tlJU MJDV Uw ^vitU tt'^^iil 

to iu iutcnnty that ia observed for ^rATHy fKit;. ^i} nod 
«iiifH). The luw of vnrisitioti of inU-iiKit.v cnn Vw vin-ifiH. 
rqirfimeuliillj, liy intium of &11 inAUmnriit nilM a pko' 

A PlKttoURtf n U an U;i8t)'um&nt Tor compAring tli« int«tiHi- 
tlrdofdllTrn^iit LlgliiD. 

h^rveral lUfTi^iTrit kiiii'tjiiint^iiU luivr- iK^n flcvWil (or tliU 


It («n«t»t( of ^ vc-rtlcnl «rrcvii Dr^roond ^nse. A* awl » 
\«iti(;Bi aullil i'<m1, /a Aituntctl a itiort difftanoc in fimat of it. 

fciutid tttnt (be ihiiilim vhi«]t ff oAtU Dpikii A nrr rf th* iwinn IM^ 

If nap Ufilil be pliu^tj ul iXit j <li5|jiniY, 4Qd fuqr c^^Ua) IJiC^U ^ 

plnr^L'd nt iw-rrr* ilii- rfhratiw, llir fihiulowv vrUl lie nf tha MIlBn ttnl; 

fhie ie Ibe oobc <hi<wii m Lltn Htrunv II wHI rt<|uirr olncr vqwJ Uffbl* 

HI rlLri>> riiiii^ ilt^ (MHiiiiinr, vUt"!"!! Hi r»iiT imiiw ihf^ i1[«rjiap«. Mini m 

I Ilk, 111 {nWiiri' tLcHiiriii' i^HXiiCt- 'I'tLUt 4 1 |f (-riuHif I ruitfinnh llic Livr ot 

MirXfiihtn iii int*-nBiiyjirtTiJTJlij^ Ia iUp hivrrw ■niiiinT r-f the Juintuw. 

Tu ue« the i^tubnaflcr to «omporD ifac intwiorlic* wf naijr tw«i 

In. h% ihrin hr^ |i]ua<il. I; trUli III ttutrli dititanfte fVn&i B IhM lh« 

4<ut <m A nrQ uT «xactl; lh<i win* lint ; Oixii will thdv ID- 

U-iufiiJni 1a- tu fAt\\ vlhvt a^ ihu tuiuim uf llH'ir dinUan* fmpi Uv 

Summary. — 

Ikfiinfiot* 1/ Ofiiiia. 

'J'nrt Tht^irtn n/ I.iijhf- 

l'»iJulaii>ry Thpiorv. 

Tmawcfv Vilinilioiu M Ux\wt m Iknt wid UjcIil 


I.iivdniiij* 1^!<:* 
lUuiiiIimtinl Bo4jc» 


TnkfiJfnn-iii Itmlj. 
TiLiiifJii'vnl Ikulj. 
Ofuii^uu lltHty. 

itKt'LBCTtrm OF UdHT 


J^dmUwm of TrrtM. 
X itny \ff Li^hr. 

A Rnitrii I'l Khip-> 

KipUiiLiiJiiD by Figun?. 

TlluttrnTnt hy Ficon. 

]ffiBlautaii«iu» on Itr- tliiith. 

Riwmcy* Mrllitfiii by Jiipliir'A SaIcHjIm. 

LhW* tbflt fpfvprn till* Intemiiif . 



3S0- Reflection of Light. -— Whi*ri hght pMwu ob- 
JiijurU rn>rii mir iihiliitin Ui niiuLber. it i» nc^inuiiti-vl lifl^i i«o 
pvtH. on(^ of ivhich U ilrivcn Ifack fin') TvmainB in Htc firvt 
medium- ivlilh Itm otlitr [j&Aiii-a 011 nnfl 4<iit4>ra tht iu«>nil 
in^linni. 'IIjl' port dial irtflrUiii Imrk Tk kiUiJ Uj bv nJltrtttK 

IIi*flr«l]i:in iif lirtil l^ i-kfliunrd In tTic sinjt wky h* rpflvdioii of 
a iiimd- 111 eaai* '►( btftil iho m»vo-Wirtt'» ««■ »*> ftmalJ Thnt ihc mnrt 
lillflily polIft!if>il fviffw** oi** 4Nmiif»fi»liviiTy omeh, Jlrni^r only a 

rvM U JiiT£;uIaflj' ti-flckjlttl i^rtl'ilFuHMl- Tlir Jiiuimiitor It^iEil Tt4lect«0f 


■ 333 

^^ iJic uniUTUt^ thi> veruuil luudiuuJt «4jd Un pJ^ uf llur devj 

^^^^Pl IimIiI Ulh^i; on II •hofpt of pap^ u MaUfffH w dlfnafd m h 
^V^rrmili^r it lixlMr: j» all itirefti'-iit. If a n?An1ur Htrtr itcifivUr Hiivvlb 


n»J *ilijvrt5 upnn if^ iluit ilbmnijuli* f«« fo^**. and rvfiil/t* <■ 
fpllfvi murii: but tf Vc k*'^ fnrni «ill>oa| Lain & lioiuo «r iw 



381. DrfifiTtion of Trnn*. — Thr rty thnt fiillx ii|v>ii n 
'ITw puiHt wlH>n3 !lio iueiclvnt ni>" movU Un* rvUL^i'iinj* mir- 

tsr lo lli« Kdb'ctlng i^tiTliuKt nl IIje» |intrrl nf invUlfnev U 
ivIM ituT amyU tif iueidrnrt; ihii«T C /J A K nn an^t^ of 

'Hic \>}tmi: Htni piu*«« tbn>iij;ti i\w ipddunt my Aiirl lh« 
|vq)Lt)ilicii1iir hi eftllixl ilia pfattf <if iHriHrnre : Um«, Ihi^ plniitf 
llirn(i|fl[ r i> unO DA m n pUm' uf ttiftileinv, 

nJUrt*ti ray ,- UniA, /^ /f i& a rvJIifcUKi ray. 
Til*.' uriglr ilitil tli^ fi'flroK^I my uiHki*« with Ihe per|>eu*fl(!- 

iibr is rnWiti llir fvnyir r^/ ifttrt-liun ; t)4<iH* /J /> *l b ;ili aa^e 

op rrdvctiwi. 

Thi! |tUute or tbc it^llL'fii.'il my nivl the itrrriendi^Likr I0 
ojdkd the ;*/*«# //ryif^*7iVfl: tbuf.. lUr j>lunc of BD^nd DA 
» a iiUi^ ofrdk'ctiiiii. 

363. Law* of Reflection. —The folkivirg lawn nrv 
hIjowti lt_L iht>Liri « imd coiillrmnl liy i-ifH-riniL'rit: — - 

L> TVf ftfu/tei Iff im-fiifaf* *tn4 rrjifttion ti>ifteide i bolii 

apt \i9f\^n^^<:v[ar lo tiu) rvfli.'<TlUMf ^urfs^ at th« polut ■>! 

tnir vhfttwcr niuy b« tlie aLij-k- of iiioiitL*uc«. 

Th«« f^rn T41VV ;llv illiiFitvlnl <-i\ |KLi:r ■'U Cnif' 11^} mt rcipinj* 
tix-lKid; biiT IW flliiMTfiltitn U'iH mtif- i'i|iiA]ly uvU f-ir Dj^lit wllh ii 
(tir (kAUi^nk. i^ B r-rprntfnt n uiimir, jind Ici h i»j of li^fct (hu* 
93<(iijf thn Udp .1 ; tl uill W n*llor-tnl At ff in C. 

]i vill W f«4in tJifil ilio lifl-li^nt jtAi3 ttIImIisI mji lie la thv onoto 
|ilnOP Willi ifii- luTftonJic-iiUr, IFM or, in ijtlirr iffiirlt> tliat Ihu 
|ilokt« «f o«rli ft4IlVhll^ 




383. Direclion in ^vhich Objects are secti. — Whr*- 

<*j*i, wt acp tin? Ifwijf' i^sftv:tJj wlurrtT it i». Whra I»j rrlVc- 
tioD. or any oUn-;' c«ii<Wi Ihti rii>-B art! Iwni fttiTw ihv'it prixi' 
Uvi< iliiwUoii, M^ Qo lortgvr »•«■ hodtcf^ in tlieir prtfKr 
I«wiTloi»H Th<^;' n|>ppnr U> \v In tliv dlp^fUnri fh»n vtilri 
ihc m}- cotem tli« c,vc, 

Tliia a iflufrmliif \n ¥\^. til. A n^imcpU a Uxl> friFiii nlirk 

Ft- 241- 

Nt fi, >o lu to jiitiiFTnp thki ni-iv Jm^rtiiiti St C. Thtf tj4i rvc«i»« 

imMi IvtiO riluiilitjAl *ouw fni]Mtt, OL Till* (itiiioipU la nf It 

384. Mirrorjk — A MiUROk !&■ btxt) nkb n iioliflbHl ntr- 
(Wei*. tinpWc-J u> fonn Ititu^c^ of 4>hjcct^ 

Our onlinorj- ItK-tibg-d^lsuu?* nrr i\iiii|iii«nl at |ilst4>s rf 
unonili ^1h>^, iijiori the hm^k <if Miidi b ruili<i>cd n tJiin 
laj'cr of lift o"*! qmck-iilviri. 

OKiIiig nuTfkuv, And It in Ihjiu tliiH Ujat Uiv |>Hrid|m1 n-lhrtiioii 
tnktw |klnci\ Hie ::t>hi m'Iivs 1<i giti- ItH' iimftrr «iauotliue»» 
to the luniU^Jii. fi-1 vt«U EX* to fin>U<4 il fixim injiiiy onil tir- 
oUbi I'hrrv i"! liowt'Vcrii a rfflt*ctk>a rrooi Ihi* uutt^r miiDui* 

TvlUvivTb uf^MTtioDftUo tot o|>tiral purpnetctf. Hccicc il la. 
thai TclIcclPtv (br 1cl»otJEH-ri amt llio like arc i^-ncnlly iin4a 

ofatlojA, or mlxtitifii nr hiirri uvUlLh, whiHi nrttntT. of 8 hlgti 
polish. Snc^ ft mirror U cmllH a tpritUmn. 

385. Plane Mirrors* — A Pi^tii Mimutn ha mie in 
vrLii'U Ulc Tvl!cctinj( Hirikcc iii iJI/inT, 

Wo linvc nil vxmuplrr of |]|unc mirrom in th(* oittiiMry 
Jpahinjf-ftljiHM uf our bf>iL*-L'»- 'Phi* *«rrnoi» of icjll vnt4*r, 
vJiidi rrdccts nuirvuniliii^ i^bjecU, uinl Uw aurilicir trf qiiklt- 

tin iiJ 

395. Imageit formed by Plane Reflectors^ An 
1h4iiv oI .111 lOiJi'tt i> h jiiL'tiircor Tv|>iVHi'rjTvUofi of tliiit rjU 
F^^utril by a n^tlefUitp or ^v a lojiti. 

HtfT tnaiuM-r of fumtin;^ iiiia^vrt by |>l:kn<- n'fi<^<-lor0 U flliis- 
tnit«d ill pig. 24^. A (jracil of mrs coiiitn;i fVom a point iA 
rvficvUfl 4f) t4 Ui n^nr^i thif i*VV, I^FrTiii-w tlir tLrigW nf in^'l- 
dniiT mill rHli-4 lion ;irr tH|Uii1 (Alt- l^^^'^V ^>^^ ^^^ '^^ ^^"^"^^ 




Ui« BMRfr tiK<llufttK>n In tUi* mirror eJUr reOouUott Ifint \t h 

diiccil tiai.:k, »lil mvvl at u ("'[lit ua Hir biJitiid tiie rvdi*rtar :l'« 
tlic point of the object h in iVi^t of it. Non, I-ocaum* ibe 
oyo HOOD oLjut-ta in IIk- dltcc'tioii fWim Vf liich Uk- rA_\« rrAcb it 
(Alt, iIA3)h till' {Kihit H|)|Nm]^ to ht an Tiir Ix-lilml Uit^ fnirmr 
ua ll iviUi; U ijj r^Jiit vfiL The rv|jirL-vcritatbii uT liic pnioL 

Whjil XiAP Ip(V(i Mill 't|' 4h Mii;;'Lc point it irvt <'>f nU fH<kDlik Hriu'V* 
If ivK Mtippaoi |v'iii'iU "( niyif t" [irooHiit frnm rn^jr pt4ini uf iin vh~ 
jiMt, rvicl; (Kiiut HikJ hATr itfl nkvu imntfti a« for W hiod th« liidfn< «» 


387. Nature of the Images formed. — Tin? im»^ of 
OQ oJyoH ill fit^iit t>r a \A«.ii4^ iiiiirnr If. \aX^TA\}y rc\'ci*wl; 
tbst it. ttio r1j{hl. hnn>1 of a ^x^i^iri hi^v^Mnm tfai> U*ft nf tJi« 
ima^-, aiiuf Dtv left |jau<l (jf tliv |n-i><oii iko ligbt of Ilir 
liDA^^' Thb cvmrvi rn^m the fftct that tiie imo^ of curli 
point i^ lb* r&r l^'biiid llio uAirror a8 Ih^ |H>ml ia ui IVi>ut. 

Wt* Aee* ftlBOf ^nt witai Lfis Iimtii ui4. Ulttt M« inci^t n 
*rrh7, ««(/ fi^Ko/ III titf tn'rh tf^m tkhJfrL 

T\ii- iu\^ ihAt rvnch IIk^ "iipfar to come fVon) »ii imA^ 
'nrfaich 'l<it*4 not In iv^lir.y ti-xul. 'I1)c tBinjci! u oiilj ff/ipomf. 

A VtnTtui- IvMiK U in iii^ais? flmt ii|ijwrh ii> «<xbt, anil 
uliioh wijubl bt fomt^ l\v |>nnluf:iiif^' ilit dwlutnl pondU of 
TfijB bAckwnrd, liLl Ui^' mcrt in fifiinU. 

A Rkai, Iiiaok Is an Imn^ thAl »ii h« Ihmvn oa s 
*rivcii. ]i U rijirki<<l hIhtj llir rrflmU'iJ lavn t^ornvni* io 
fW^nt of ilio nilrror nn*! 011 ih^ »oinr *iil* n^ Ibr objnl. Wr 
fihtH ftooTi hAw an cxMnrklo of tliU kind of i»iii4;u iu ooticftrv 

3B8. Multiple Iinciges* — M^'Uitic mirrora, or apHu$tt, m 
Ihoy urr cnlM^ liii^hii' lnil luii.- h>tlL<rlin^ Mirfm^. form bnt m 
jangU* Ininjft^- Gin«« infrrunt han» twc ivEli<ftii)]E >urfn(i». 

of Uh: t:h>M». All iioatjxi in t\>r[be<l by cni^-U of tliiAC AurlWa. 
IjuI lliAt lonuni by tlic^ i«ltcr in tlit* iiioK' «triktn^. Emoau^c Uiu 

Thn fonualjoa of iwo inj;i^'v« l^y glass mjinim tvmli'ni 

(Art. iH4), Thf •\iiv\i\i* im»gc^, rnrmofl \i\ placing n p^inl 
■gAiavl the gljLH» uniLbli^a ua U> Judge uf IkiL^ tJiJ(JuM'>« ul' ihr 

Fig- Sifl. 
Kft rAiiJlf {t'lj. 'il'IJ W }]ljkiu<i! hftfl'coii %v<t ylitnD mirror* w\iie\\ 

th< niiffl* k> IW, there Bill ^ thrpifiirngi'vi if 6iJ', tivc imiig<»; ^nd 

'rhi> aTimbrr of iiiuif{M ia?r<>a*M ftf llta nnglM dlmlnith^, WhMi 
il bppijuiii iCTu. Ullit h. wliPli iIhi nilmrt* «.|n iwmllrl, tin* iiumW 
wiiiU W inftuilp. f>ii nc-coiml "f Old iii^rvuLTiM uuiixbor of i^itt<«lioii4 
frijiii <rtn' tiilmir Iw llw <illii.*f. Tin* 1iiia4;i'>» lii»vrvi-r- lici^»mc niorv 
uttd rni*r» lUfli iw Ui^'y rirfixlf, aiqiw oaoh ri'Jlwiit'ti inirviKTs h Ton* "f 

389, The Kaleidoscope (ItptrnK <ni iLh jirciKTty of In- 
cliiml iiiirmcn. ft iniitijilfi vT 11 Vubi* cLiiilJiiiiiii)£ uHUAUy Ihrtr 
uiinvn EtKliiivil I0 ouv uiH>tlicr €0"^, Oiic cml (ff Uic tuAw Vfc 



dovcNl !>>' ncapt^mvMcd wftb ao itportim br Um ^^'O ; 
otiitr «uvl thfih.' aiv Itvct [>1iit«iA, ono or ground and tt» 
or Hour j;1»wii tli» Ihrmnr MTig nmrr ivmnUi fWxn llM«y4 
Bi^twit-TL thivif^ liv<i phiU'd »f glRiv vtnnll invgbtar pwora of 

W^M^ 'ETC look lhniij|fli tlir^ tiihn. tidlilih^ ibr Ji^niiiniUglnm ni 
brttanb lb<^ ll^lit, thi* o1^rrE>^ mid Ihdr Iiikik'9 ur hhh atfan|c«vJ iii 

wo tuna il^ciuW.' 

390. Reflection by TraDsparcnt Bodies. — M'v bttv 
JuhL i%vvn lliul ^liu*. iiutMiTJiAUmKug ilH ImiiKi^mK'^, rt-[livt4. 
Iij-bt vuci^Il ^> f<^rrii an irn.igi:-. Tli« vune b Uic ca»c hi 
oUiet LrKik»parc<ut Ih^lIi^*, uf wJiivli uuttr tonmt tt COMpk 

\imvA wrilJi rc4|iect In 
«urfncv or ll»o «»Ur, 1 

]u«Q rvtiitei Irj ■ iHvimiiUil 

lULiriir, .VtV. AX rv<[n«i»binl b 

*^ *"' Fip- "ill Tbr imiw-, a ft. b 

vfim tn W innrritdi And n» Air bobiv iIiit inimiir u 1J19 utijivt, j4 

It tWvfl i|. 

TijC' ^5 fii«rr*<nfsj ifc* idimuuiriioii ^f refWlujii fruw |^ 
44 null vntrr 

3^t. The Hclioatat. - It U ii^fCHHar>\ in tho IMqai 
Uoa f>f niniiv of thu i>r(»|M.TU49 tif &ctit> lo linvir a b<*iini 
■iinliglit cntt^radarkt-ool rrH^m. Thb nuU be direct ■qq- 
liglil, or iLuiiVi^^bt rHIirti^l rmai a iiiii-rt>r i>1scKl ontaklc 

Jl U tpry (l«imWo. jil*o. lo Invo fbi* licM rrflcctcd bi s 
nv]nlnHl f|iTti:tIon nml f^tr anr Icngflh oT limv. To «eci 
oin- nn liiHtniiK'Dt iriilint ft l*/ia$t/tt It ff<ni4ov 




iv^r^t ih^m upon a ttocond Jnclmc^ci mJrrv-i. wLith in torn iv 
cU ItiL'm Uirouj^b nti upvrttrrc' into Uk Unrki^nLH] ro^iu. 


Ri?. 2ia 

dclAll In yajrr ami ItattiniifV Wik ifIi IJfzliI- 

DdThntr'* " An -kf 1*n*jiVtrriii "aim Epv^Hilin^-liniMfvir TDikint^<knii 

fli * iriflinjf r*»t liml vriiJ (nuMfr fn'ry iMir|wj»»- 

TbSit ipfuiniTw u of fTTMt uw in mkny ej]*rimwits n; |»hT>if*, 

nJODC hfUu^i^t U fEi'urnill/ given Uj the iatimmeni vrbrn II h^ 

dirc^k-iTDrli nrrniiff^mmi fnr tnniriiiif Iho mirrtir. fln<i pofte Jmrni^ 

39>> Ccncavc MirrorSi — A C»yCLv> Mikkoii in mr in 
*Ni<1» tJji' t\'fli'tiioii Ukea [ilnce fhHii llko 04»Bca«-v aUh oT a 


OP r res. 

'i'ho rollo<*itig d«fti>iUau£ apply equally to coiHn\-c adJ cm- 
vox nilrmrfi : — 

TIr- laMdlv jmliil of ttir mlrmr Is rallptl Iim twfAr. TIh> 
cvottv of the )i|JivT(i4 of trbich Uic mlntv rortu « |i«n, b 
mikd Ui»? tvnfn */ furvntufe. ITiu imU-fliiflv t^nii^bl l£itf 
thrivigb iJk' rrntrr* oi" nirvuinn- aiul Uic- vrrii^s b rrtlfenl IIk 
fin'Ntj'jKfl ofif, ut nimieliiLiL-^ %ini|il/ ihr arir. Any jilanr 

llii:*, .1<JV' U**ig. -ii^} iviiw'&>iila • pnnd|«il wrctivn of 
nmrHVi* iulrri>T« --I U luirriirv, Ciw cvtitn? orctirviktiUv,Ai 

r,e :iirt. 

393- Pnncipal Fotus of a Concave Mirror- — 
FoCL'J if a l^iiHt ftt whiilj iU'\iEitc'.l nixw niwi. JT Uif iwrl/ 
dcDt lAj-ft nrt pni-nllol !*> tho ii^ih. Uio foftw li <«llv<j Uiit 
ffrimeipol f^*-tt*. wt f: tiiwl tJii* ilihiititH^ f>«>fii llii* irrtPt l4kUiii 
principal forn* t* chIImI ilir |ui[«'|'aI/**«'''""*<'»^i *» W- ^i 

In tli{. 34fl, //. ^. (u><i X ire ni\-« (intvlld lo tihr ^i«^^| 
CA. CD, CIl nnil rjfiVtrpon^iMlkulnrlo tlirmirik.* o^^ 
Ibfl mirror, Vlng r^AW^ Ttw- |Vff»l]^1 r»_\^, //, 6', ai^I /„ iin> 
n^flmrtcvl %n %% l(j innki' tbr aii^W of inri^lrnrr ri|iu] to tl«Mc 
<>f rvflrt^Vm. thfll U, Cfi/fK^n^l tn Ci/>; CVOlo CVJ\ 
oto. It ran lie ^lio^TTi tliEki ihc' j>nrd|ia) foctii in om tl 
&xl4, a(x1 myl«-fi> Utiicfti iJfcr VPfUs nwl rrntti- uf rtirva* 

111 Iw on tlu* axil. 
It b to br utwi^TVcd ilfli m [imctice |}1t^ »UTfiic<7 uf a oatvtfd mlr< 
for l> only n T«cy nuxXt |i«r1 '«f thr> iitrfncw nF iti^i 4iphorf <4 which it 

pCffUoEw OMirvr Ihc tvriox vill not ht hr<-ugfai cunrUy t^t ibo 

Mine («ii*. Tito 1 naif r ratjn atw rviUwuiA iLvmvr I0 Uji; itilrrnr thm 
Ibe irnrr vnrt. TUU Inaofurarv U fiilUil ^iLcrKof flt^fa^rofi fcy 


IprtiuiDEii. rnnklnfF Tib> /Y h Umn ftf h^'hi L<'<niini^ fpiin t1>'- tnii. til 
lhl« &fm till! omcAvv fftftf'tnr n\n\ 1h< ii^->\ Ui oAltvl |L« r&yt fiji 




354. ConjugAtc Foci. — If llis- ravs uf ligbl piuj 
ri'orri bi'niC' jmnil »r tlt^ t<\U not, iiinmirlT (Lha^ta fr^rai I 
mTrror, thp^ vrlli hp limiiglit u> a IViciki nt Hinr poltii of Om 
nxU. ^-lA-mllj cllirmial TniEii F. Ttiui", Jii Fif. 21^4. tlu* ppfli* 
cil of rnvt oomin;; from Ujc point B i« hroujcht t^i a fociu 
Al A, WlWLi'n f tiin\ C. Hui tUi> ruT« cmHi^^M from ^, Uiv^ 
noiilil liuvv Wvti lihJLiglil til H fiK.-ti» Hi /f. Tbif^T' |Miinu an 
«■> irlok-d UH to itHieik-u tJjD nutiLO of rvirfv^f/^n. [Ivikc 

C03cjr^ATK Foa aPr wiy two p-iflikU 00 rvUkvl Hint a jicit- 
oil tif li^fit ciaaiiuiintr (^m vitb(*r ond U bttxi^it to a fo«aR 
ttl tJii? irtlu-r. 

TJiBlonc rVi>ni wliicti tJur Vi^\\\ ncliiAlly |>roc<«<lB b udltnl 
1 h« radiant ; tIatiA, ID I'lj;, 2i>f , // j» tb« rndaot 

TL« fullou'lii}; liiv hiJt;u< propcrtki* ^fronjugiiUT foci oTtott- 
*-JLvi- itilrrom: ^ 

If <lic m^liAut b on tin- %\\t ftnd at ilu idIUiiU; iIIjOaimv 
from tl^^ tniri'frr. thn mjr* vtill lio [iiLrnllvl a»<) Uiv vontB|>oibd 
fiiy r<>nj% I* lit P(Fijf. 34*i)- 

An the rmJiaDl Apiniiuc-hc?* i\\c tEiirmr, tbr fbccw iroode* 

jrUkO mimnt td fti C. thk- roni» b at C'tlflO. 

irttiii rn'lUnt U b(rtv<H<a C Aii-I ^t UiC l6oi» bi IwjoDd C\ 



(JifU Si, ill*' n-flrtifvl myu aix» iinrnTli'l. 

tfcp mj"s nn* rr-ilri'tj^tl u oi Ui ilhTir^i*, ^iiul <in tn^lng (^nv 
iliicvd ItnrkwnnK meet aL;j, lu lliL»fiif<c JJii? (<kuji U Itcbiiul 
l^ mirror, euiil ii «ajd lev J^^ <<fVf»uf. 
^^ Jf tbo niJiEUit ti 3it J, tlHT Tooufi o]lnoirl(ti with it- 
^B' tf III* nulUjit ift oci u wuundAry axiH, lli« |M-ijn1 of ivjn |« 
^*^mkjp* ^lut it i» !fUII itrvugia lo n fjcua vii tJial axifl* oitil the 
V raBflbl utiiL fouui eiiju> |)rujA'jti«« intirrlj' uujJu^uv Ui Uimmv 

^V 395* Formdiion of lm»ec9 by Concave RcBcctonv. -^ 
If ftn object be pUcvd iu fojnl y>t a oofusar© mirror, a |>*n- 
i»f wj-j* win |>n>c-tf«>d Oom «ach \>o^i;a Qt \ltaft lA^VyA, *\i^\v 



hIUt n^flrMion will U' Lmu^bt lu a l>>cua« eitbcr renl w »ir-J 
ti];tl. The L-ullccti^m of Tot*! Ibue fortDMl paalG« tip Um iiiMft 

Let ^ i/ {I'^g.' J^'i'f) !><■ fin ohjrct in fmhi tyf a f^oncftr^ ai^ 
ror t>i-)-otiil llir cir-ntTf ofciirTsitdrc All tlie mjs UibL dtTn^ 
T'lrm 'I wH) U^ rrflt^cUsl to ita rorjiyrcLb: focu-i, d, irbioli w <m 
the? )fi*oi>n(laO' EUUfl, .1 ^> Tbi* |>utitt omi bv fmuid by drvw- 

1.^ :^4. 

lag At iXtflJIvl Intlic iniiicijiol lisU: it n 111 |>u< nflfr rv- 
dc^ctlon tlkixMiffli F and tvt d i* nl a, the point rcc|obvd. 

Bj n tiniilji' |>ririWu W€ mil AtkI llair r«4jji4:ni4* fimit, fr, fur lh* 
p»inl, il^ 'Jf frir anj 'Jllirt p(»in( ui ihc nb)crt. The mTli^rti-n yf Cu^ 

Aflv Ihft mfloetod thy Amn ihi^ ima^, h, Uif-r eojaft frnn Uil* 
Inutfo to the <-ye, jiui ba tTii wn* a raJ i>H^- That Umi faiMge b 
rwl raay fw niiiU'Ti liy llm^iiff (1 nn % tviTH-lt iVi^. £SI); h ^U 
*W 1w M«(i f hjit iK4< rity* hy r^a*lntc invert h. 

TTiE- 4fitTvr^i>Ti f/t]i\fh thi- r-tfi ■•niuifl kftfV rrHntlrttt kmIuS lfc# 
'm$i»}Irr tUan ihi' nljiTt, 



when tlu" o1»jwi i» lit lln'^i-fjlr** iif curVHliin^, Ihi* iiii:iji^ *ill lie ll)* 
hftiiiO luio na Ihr "lijrt'l : wLrn it 1^ bptwnMi iho cvijlri' ninl ]iriii(j^iiil 
fia^rib, thi' ihiAi^r In Ur^frT; In liolh llimu IhaUuuvji wl> »kiUI tiud 
lli4^ lllUh'l? TCibl UlJil InvrTirX 

W1}rii iltc oh]ri>t i% 111 t^in firtnfi]a1 FiicMit, thci* vrlll Iff Ui> ItnugpT 

396. Virtual Images. — When ikic object i* hf twccn tlw 
liriiii-i(ihl rociitf iLTLil lb« mirror, tliu tiiia^ ift virUiol nod oruct* 
mivl Urgvr tUnu Uje ubjvct, or iiL&isuLdotl, 


riff- !)5S »1iow« tbt o<:aiirb< »f ibc i«y4 lu r-iniiinc ^ vIrlDJil auil 
t(nu,i,'r. The fiin in bciivrfU l1i4^ friiirii.uil fucii*, F^ nrnl 
Tho pciwiU fA rafN lr<ifit « jlihI t div irltoctfll t« na I9 
^pnv I'l <tlvffri(r rnhiri iK»^ viiuijil fin^i* ^ oihI A U L» imily^ Aran 
thai the inufiV U h^x^ iJiu th« cbjnl, lij ■ tnm[JuiKri oTtie 
Tiffiwl uiglcp of b^lli. 

397. Formation of Imn^cii by Convex RcRectont, — * 
III TOiiivx ojlrri^rv tbc rrJlcctbn Mikvmt [thwc from Utc cmter of 



l» sewi li'>w Imftfffs flrr Tortncvl |jy coPvt-x mlncn. The 

'iiHulicr ^JUi Ibc vli^t. 

TEii^ fornUd mjv, JJI 
tb« dlv«rs«i^* n^J^ JT J3 mwl /i A', 1Vh(m llt4«e my* <«l#T dw *j<» 

Summary- — 

l>jlFiJh»il ^Ji;]ir^ 
IfffimlioH of IWiM, 

Mjiitfnalii of nhit^b M^rtiiraftM niadftk 
J*laitf Mirmrt. 
IMi niHfiD, 

Jmapn fiirtue^ fty fium- JJi'mif*. 

Dt*JiciH>"i> '^lliE 'IV rill lmii|:b 

iltuvtntlrttt hj Tifit^. 

Fiirnintidu <^ifu» lmn«p> 
JViKlNr* of tht Jmugr* futtnnX. 

Rf^al [mage. 

rritiiitwoMirr)r»ft«^hiheaA Aiu;!^ «iihmi4i iiiImt- 



CtmMt Mirrurt, 

lineup fprmvi hy K'.\y\\<-<i\\tAi uf fori. 
Illiirttmuil 1(j Figure. 

too til' — nnriucTiox or uonr. ^ LicNsn, 

398. It lin^ «tnti<(1 iitiihr Jitjte^tioa tff Li^h^ UiHt nhrn 
It^tt |>a»i-^ obllfiurlj' Avm 4»U(^ int^itiuitt to MiotlKft it ia ctcp- 
«r«tr<l into ti\^o puHd, oiil' of whkb U drlvcQ Ijack or reUcsobed. 
ftul fviuiiin^ iu ibo lint ni*'<)iitm» nhi]<> ih<> otjiorpuftw on 
ami enten Uie sk^oikI mi\IIuin> If x\\*r M[])Htb[ii:r dmt fiinnx 
tbo0CCOndinr<1inmU opoqur-, itUfj/mor^"/, Uit, if traus|Kirrut» 
WHiiO W «biw>HKitl and uniuft trfto^imilU*'). Thir trniiAniitlcil 
ij» chongt* itirc-tt^>n nt th^ pi>lrt of inclrl&iKv. 'n*in rlinoip* 
TiT dinsoUan wvriW^d frfrrtriian. lu ninouiil dopi^utU uq Uiii 
fuitartt of tite incilb, im*! also on tbi- oblKjuity uf iDuiili^Dn^ 

If tiio ii»ciiji'tit my is |ici']Kiidi<-ulflr to tlic tcond Tnodiunii 
ll Ia m»l lii'tii from its cmiriH.-. 

Tho uuK of tbd elumgn of ihcvkrtlun I* a phaiiftn Itt Ihn f<lMlklt7 
ViJ dcmitj (if the *!^\lvx ic |JUB)Jiiir fVinii Aun lunltuu; luto iJic vUirTi 

Bihl vjairlirity <if riliir la uaTr'r nrv ililTerrkl ffVMi whnt th^j^ Mt 
ill tht' HLifKHi^h^rri *ii iIiaI lt|ikil ImvftU fUiMid«nl-l^ LjiUt in iIt 

latter luvdicJUJ difta io tbv dtan. 
TtU* rwuw ft ntjr, oa F^iiiNE Awn «lf 
inlffv^ticr, «) ben J tfHntnb ibii p*ff|vti- 
dicular 41 th< |N>iitt or idflUouavi u 
«hui»ii in Fii;. !3^ Hiov, L H fa bvM 

fixmu it«4AUr«i>anutnUk«lh« >bR«4>« 
^ A'- fti|«MLi^ frvn>irattr Ui «ir, Ibc 

Jn^l rhe roTviK of skiiit lMip|>i-ii* iBbrn 
Kghi pM«H fmm nir into «ator> 

399. Drtinition of Terras- — Tlji' ruj U'fijn? rrfVitfiioit 
tA cnlkd iLc incxiitni i-t^, tlJU!r» A J iPig. 2M] La ftn inckkii 

'I'Jif* point »t wTklrli ihp r^r U <tctvUtoil or bont U c«1U*il Ibe 

Tbc ray after ^cTiatton l> cjiI1<x1 the rtfroHtd ruy i tbwi, 
jtf JC U A rvfTACtvd m>. 

Tlu? aritrli* lliul \\\v iiiriilrnl raj" malt** wilii i}w prrpemficu- 
lar ;il IIh* i^iiut of iiinik'iiLM! in oiilleil tlnf tinpftf 0/ iiiri'i/riiH» 
and tJit- |iliui<.' uf ihU <-inf^1« ib Uk' /f/Kic 0/ inMta^t^ Tlvu*. 
/. J Jj lb mi angle <>!' hic-k<tL-ii(v, anil lliv (ibui«, L A li^^ Ihc 
plniv of lnHik'iir>o, 

Ttar aii^L' tLat ILil' fplhict»l ray imJivb wilL IIa' p«rpmdlc- 
ifWat tlie iXfiulofiuciJ^iiw i» called tbe ojvjt^ ^/ rr/rattiant 

niitf till.' ^ilnTK< c>rtllLf4 AUjjfr k^llli' fJanr iif ''•frtrtiion : Diltn. HkI 

aDglif, A' J 'T, in an an^ at rc^frneti-m, and Uu? plant? of tbla 
UiyliT b n pbitR of tvfk-jic;tkF». 



40D. Refractive Povrcr of Bodies. — In llw oaai^ or 
two nwdiH ihruiigh wliTi'h tiizhl i<« i^umin^. thai In «tiiHi lSi< 
ray maikn Uio Miudki nti^ii- nilli lliv in'qicfiilioulju is saiil Ui 
bniY Bt***^'' ri^fnuiiY« poirer tliait iIh oUtrT' 

A a ftmfrol rmk, iht tnri4wni ray. trAm f>anrii^#|^f«M^_/pMH 




?■ vtAtr vt>rdt^ tA« tinnier of tica tuhalanftM iftoi tha 

^m «iiil «art>u(i. Hn f-inml thai tfio il^amnD'l wu im-r* bi|£h!f iv- 

ConbiUtLtlct t»fNlr.^ lin infr-rriirr thjif hui unci- Uivn AiQllrmM- 1(U 

sJmtvL G-ium nrv m-I 4i> liijriilv nHfm«tivc {ii U|ui'li». bul ibrir m- 
6ho1jvvi povrr in«jr bo inrmiwJ lijr i>iin(in>9siuU| n'htcb AUj;nimi> 
ilw Ir dt'hHEU- 

401 Laws of Refraction-— WtiL-i>li^ljijj[u*o» frutnAny 
glt/rn rji'ilJmn LiiUj Anrit1ier» no iiialU'r wlint niny U- Llit? aii- 
jri* *>r im.idtno^r. il a1wav» coiiforiiift t« llu^ IWliuwiii;; Unn ; — 

1, 37i^ pltmtt 9f intttifMtre «t/t<i frfmciion t-iVTicii/t, tcjth tctnf 
pfrprndindar fit Mtf nnrjat^ ttpttnuintj %ht mtiUo^ fd tlw pt>itii »f 

Thi» <i^iL»Unt (juuQlity iit cntlnl Ujp »We^ o/'rv/VaitfioH. 
Thff ACvotK) 1m>v iiiiij Imt illiiKtrutcl by Viw <^- ^'^'1 ' 1*^ ^^' 

/ nun ttTilrr. Ji^triW n riTrli'. 
fiT/'.S. JW /Jt bcftnlncKliiil 
raj-, nml ST^hv rffmrtHil niy, 

10*0 lifkc* be tho licin of llin 
;1n of LUcUrnn idJ nTMi^- 
Ihin, nv-f vff thAW hatir Hir tin* 
•ndvi uf it'fnfi-liim wljitii iit^lit 
|'|iU4iHittfr'Mii sir iLjtj> wiiar Uu- i^a- 
i]i> |, fri-m iJf lxui»rflii»»(. TU' 
IVripEvaUBitftJicH frucliuDi will V^t "i^- 



ihe (adiotis of MtmIjah h ii^-a lij;lu j;ofv in the D|k|M«Ilc da 
tBirti ; iTiiih, fniiii vatf r tii Air It to ), lUicl frmii ^bii* lu air ]. Tl 
frMtiunt rt:|»n«i'ui \hr rtinUt* iiirU«e« <4 iv&Mtina £ar Uio !■»« 


Whui ji my poAWi fft'in iv tuctiuoi ittUj iir,y iDolim^i, lU#* ntiu 

ihi» fcin.^iif iho unj^li- itf iiiP'iilrirt'j' in ihv rini' <(f the iiigl* <tf mfr 
i> iilmyK greater Ujmi iimty, tunl it nillul l>ic ttf^nviutr ittde-j. 9f\ 
f r/Kiinn. %tt t\M\\r\^ x\\t itukJ t/f t^toetiMi fur ihr^Mn ruitljijm. 
itnU'X io j,-i.'(ii.ini]ly inj-rvtvod dociinAJlf- Tbin, lot Ich^ H is |,J09 

fur iifr:(>Tt(»]j )-37- p aidI iiu on. 

4Di< Experimental PtooTi or Refracrion. — If n 
bntiD of lijthl b« futrt^UM.<r<t UinnJcL a bolo tn h akiUt«f afs 
fUrk roons, »n<l xllov^^l to rail »jh>ti tbo MirfiKV ofv^ii.^ in ■ 
i;lni«i i-iBivl, an Mh>hii in Fqf. 2'i(l. Hip hrmlliif; of Ihr Ix-nitf 
VI U i-Rtc:r)i llie iintrr tnAy Sr lei-ft by tfcc iryr. The cuurae 
iT fl rajr In titt &ir Bu^v b« rendered tnoiv ftiip«rtBl by IQHrv 



'ifMiair Willi finer du»t or »iiioioL% u* Tor oxatuplv* Ikus nniukt* 
team icunpowior. 

L«i % |bic«i of montH; Uc \i\ut}vd ut tlic bottom of fln cinp^ 
rrui4. ait'l ibcri E^iki* ■ |H>Hiiii>ii vtirh llml till? rutti nhAll Ju«t 
Ut )iiilili-ii l"> Uii" ftiiJt of _ 

Wit vcnwi. While in 
tliU poiitioii. if volar \'C 

lJ»r mjB fh>uj Tiie cuiii 
will W r«rra<:tiHl bi> tii» to 
render it vUiblc. Tin- 
elfi'd i>I'n*f>3wtii>n In tJiis 
Hiiil slmltAr miws U t» 
lUKk*' Ihi' ttolUini of tho l^'S -■'^■ 

I^VAAcl iipfr^r Utrlicr lli^ri it in in ivalitv* i^ aliown in KJj;. i'r7^ 
403. llOQ of Uii? rlliH-'U ('f rvrnictbn wn* t^xploirii^iJ in llw 
biHt urlirlr'. Till- (idin^iliU.' tiTts niiiiimHiB n|)|>URiiliDiiii. To 

il Itilij nalrr. thr j>uttli.i]) iniiiii^nieil njtl Th: Uironn op 
t.v rcfrMili>n, wd lb* ulick will fti>|X-ur Ih-oI, nn abowu lu 

Kc'f ruction luu the iTfVcitl tu tatkff Une Xk^vcvnV'j VapUa^ 

npp«nr Jiiglivr tiian tliur ttm^ aii<I tb<>rchy caiivw Uiciu lij rw 
nnrllcir mi<] M*t InliT Uiuii Uit^^ wonlil rlo u<'n> tl*cn> po &U 

This cnii bi- PC<oti l-y iiupix^iu^ Fi^ SfiD. Tlu lijm f/ l^r «!- 

lini^ |(h iLc pyc, Tilt Tvitivulj IhhIj, 
<\ in ni.-Fik In IliD pcmftauD; ^''. TL* 

Ti I imilrpttAiid ihc Appnfvnt i^hAiipr* 

Jii fkii»dE&iiii irf biirlii'ii tfli^n rrfm'-i)4.ii 

'■^*'' ^''*- Ihc fl/j^r w ttn in f ^ diVnfion r^ 

404' Total Reflection. — Criikal Angle. — ir liuitt 

ItHH njlVntiiTC Uicnj U n limit l»*jouil wliit<i U niil nut jiomb 

j\ijtn tlK' lir^t iiTL-itiiiiii itila Ui 
Mrf>iiiL, tU Ihnl liiml li|<Ut 

l;N irf liiitf faJ] uf wAlif, Tim riy. 

t'NiW. It iiiH (tfr«fl»l iu HQVrijif, 

■ miiiffh, il U rrTrKTVol ■! <!, I«1lIu|i 
flL(< <]iffrriia«, A R^ )f tfc* ftiii 
t-l Mi'iJnMV Ih' itKnaw4t Uhi ap- 
ffU' -if MrvtifHi wtll «bo W tb- 

A Mj ibcf) mior^ |)viitt«l t*.! tliu «itrUiv of |li« vjUiT. Ttiv tiHt* 
(Ivui Hiiiilc Ln tJ^I> oMiJ li «ftllc-4 iltf oilMdf hbbIf* linro fur «u| 
grcAlPf w^l*, M l-d C thfr i>(9ii«i r>y nm mi I'Kigvr |iw« Iljnt«uch 
ibfl flare's J Jf, tftt ii louUrrtJkrti^ iin4 muHbu k ili^ lini 


Pro<n wAtCT Hi air ib^ cnixal na^l^ 
U 4e''*1^; Ann fflwB m «lr. abunt 

405- Examples of Toial 
HcUcction. — Tli« pUtTnomiin -ti 
(if U>ui ix^cctwii mny be fili<iwii 
In Vflriow W113V. If K g1a«> <i^ 
wntor witli u Apuoii In U l>o In1i] 
«UiVL-< Uiv Il-vi*L ^f iliV rye, uid 
wi! look up obUqufly nl Ibc &iij'- 
fiion of tbft water, tUo iintUr nktt- 
of Uif mirTttcMi will Mnv li^i- a |h»l- 
k^bnl niirror: tb« lo wit portion of 
tli« ftpoon will Ik' t<Jtnll3^ Kllt^lcd 
ilk it, »9»«en in Fig. •HlX. 

Ui 4 rmy cf tight (1-V *^^') '"'^ 
]irr|ivTu]i«u!<irl5 i^ion Um* fiJis .-1 C i>f 
liiv gUM prum, ,4 T it', \t will Hinn ^m Fiif .''H. 

ttii)f]i- r>f 40^ iA ilii llir r<idr, .4 D. Tlib Uijitif gnutirr tbLici tb« criti- 
f«J HTJHjUi uf ^Ui*, lilt my will be t'jtulif t<iflH4*d Ui Ibo itirc^tioD, 


TUf^ pnim T«pni«m1ti1 in 1K« figLiff* 
fiiii the funii vf a righl-ftnftTtil i9>f<«l< > 

406, Mirage IB iin utiu-Jt^>Ut'h<i 
p7iMH:(iiK^iHnj rlt*[H-tidcut mi i-xtmiinli- 
itniry rc&iictwu au\\ U>la1 iL-lk'iJliuii. FL£-Vl£. 

SoiiiL>tttn(*« A Uiyvr of ulniM^plicir next tlic curtb IwcomcK 11 
rril^Cto^r, nntl In tlut msc portlonia of UiQ «UTtL a|>twiu- lo tliu 
iniT»*llnr ilkr lakiv 3ml itond* ; *nHi npiK-iimnrrfi n:"i' ^injoiiin 
in OcMirt i-c>tm:il>^ wtMU lli>^ licul la ititttiMr. To hi:igt;U.-U 
tb«i Itliuiott* UuM att» cfti^n Mi't'ii 1vfl(^tU><i fi>jm Iho wiv^ 
tilw^^ of tJiPM? apjKiniii porvW. An rvnn^jilp of IliK I«End I* 
khowu ID Fijf. ^C^. 'i'br bi>rrt4 of lur iii\ir 1^k< tn^niid an- 
non: bcuktl limn IhiK^u^ biirhi^r up. and thcKJUiv ic^i doise. 
llw ruy< a>iDwg from Wn- top uf Uto \tw w\ 'iw \«C\.*A ^Ji« 



plnurc Are rcrVrielcd ii< tlwy ))«as thion^ tbe w\ctxmitt 

nUiio«jfUprt< uttd rtadi ibo «j« of the o4wcr\'cr at ttw Uut, 
The obsen'or roftw the ]><»ition of Uia lrer-tof> bMckwaxtlb 
along ili« (llrwllon of llic ilot»d Hnf*. wliif^h e*iifKr« the tnao 
to ftpjiear Inverted. In lib caw boiii tlic titw autt it» icaocpe 

1n«gi^ ttf diftMTrt <^oriM«T khlpiiiro •omrtiniM tetm in tho Mif 
at tPiL. ThU fvrrm ul min^o b the nvcrw uf thai juit fiTi^D- Ur«e 
lli<4 l^tffTH iftir IW wiktfr uv (liMUiv Ihm i1h«w Jibm* 

Waj, If n^ liH^lt a]«>J1|C the s'ult^ cjf « TTd-hut pdkor or » mmb (iT 
irlirinTig fliiiTtxil nt jn ntjivl « A-w fi^t ofl". w^ 111011 NC M ii ^kA 

Summary. — 

Drjimiwn </ rcrirw. 

Butn fur iliv ]i«M«go of LifEh laiv H<dk </ 1>lSemit 



IBqftni<k« (>f lh(* S«y«ni Law hf Fljpin 

IhrrrtUm in vhifh the O^cf U KTM >n Ut/ftKium. 
total Jtf/f*^-fiiyri- 

lIliiMiuml (■/ FlKunk 

£^vpfr. »/ Total Rrjtnti'm. 
\V*ilIi i^ioor nliil I'liiEiMcf- 

til Curt of Mif4if£v- 

4C7. Media with Parallel Face*. When a wiy of 
VigbU <^.4, V\^, 'i€A, fdlh ti|<.tri it im'iUutii twaEiiK^I hy plane 
fACie*> va A plaU ul (eIam, Tor r\Aiiiplr, h \h ivrnctnl towurla 
UtC pvrpcit'liriiUii' nnd pnjuaos Ihroii^li the [iTiilo ; il8 i1 cra>rrKca 
ftt /P, 11 iK rT*lVa(-U4 ju luucb f^m ihv p<<r[wriiLi<:uUr ns it vm« 
Inwnnln k (n Ui4^ flrnl n&atUiire. niul Uii* m>- rmrrjem In lli« 
'lircrlifiii. /'fi pariillvl lo -5.1, tuit t»ol in lli« ttami Mnii^^ 
inn: wlUi 11. T(K* ITO rvrnu^i'^iift 

do oot chiingir* lli« (lim-tioti of 
Uic mj-.ljulsiniplj'eJkin ll»li{:litly 
to 04KI elilcortlio otiicr llciici'. 
in liiobl&g [1irtiiit-h n wiiittuw* nv 
ilcj DfA Avv tin? iJiivclJon of ol^ 

g|«M. iin .^>i. 

^^ uni DJ7 Mfaiivr«l Ihr* [tcrpvULlifulin, tf tLo onglfia f>1 inci' 
JeiKc, Aud rr' ll»0 anf;ln tif Mnuijon. 

40S. Privms*— ^A PviHif id ft rpfhictivci ntcdiiua boundotl 


montfi. It c^nnUU »ro jikHW orfsLwM wrtli thtcx^ |iUn« fnc*», 
mrs'LiiiK ill LiuiiiLk'l lin^fl calloti fi^;^. Il iu pUi(^ od a 

hUihI W) that II ran U- «!«. 
%^Ahxt ur [|('|>nnvi^t, and U 
ftlM> te unpnblo or tviiiu 

pitrmlltl U» tbit vt^«H, 111 
mciuift oT 9k butWli aliQuii 

1lUn>H prarlucc tajxxi L^lil 
Hliidi tTHivn^tt tiino Innci 

<Vr/iJF^/fVTjMr ii£rri<Wi<fik ; 3fi|, 
(I tifiT'tiwpvtiiitm ^f tiff^ Into 

ili<^8o ifToutH AtrifltlKllU- 
lii-wiH ; but tvo thnW nt |irr«- 
<<iit. only f^rihlrh^r Uu' £tBl 

Ih' *tudio<l bm^ftft^r iitvJit 
llic Unmc tT Dirprrttotr. 

^09. Courw of Luminoue Rays in a Prism^ — Tn 

ft inism, Ut n mo (Fig. 2t;i>) rv|iiv«c-4>t 11 ise(ilt>D of « prinn 

mode I'T n iiUuc 
itlgfu. A ray of 
li^liL Am, lining 
upon the fjuv, iinr, 

i» r^l>Ai;lMl t0W«nJ» 
i^w ijeqMidkiikr, 
and iiSMnn liotiogh 
Ibc pdAfti ill Ibr lU- 
*^'fr **' ivc*io<i. « * ; ht^Fv it 

fUls upCHa Uw Acci>iid foot, no.ain) i<t nguln rrrrrulcd, \mt 



lh\K time Ihuu Llie |H'r[wi»lii'iilHr. 4intl triiai^'tiij,* iiilo Uu- n'n: 
tnkcB 1h«: ilirccliuitt ^r. Ati vyc MlimU-d ;»l c ivft.-r> tli<.' vb- 
jtt-l, /*, hackwftrtlw along Uni my, *■ fr. so thai it a])p<>niv lo b<i 
kiti]At«t;l nt r. The* tfitiil ilc-vuT^iotL itt tlii' mh^Io lH>twcc*n IM 
uii^lial ilin'ctii>n, Aa. smtt ltd lliinl [liivrtioit. rr. 

Wv f^iM fniiii iTiH nffuni> lluil iho hi^ lit liriit fmin x\v ril<i^ in 
«hir)x tfio fi-fnictku); ^MW iiivvt; thm b^ it u bviji idvjuiifl the ihit^k 
(wn uf itie iirLmii; lliir^ ikvUllun liu* llic tSbvit Ui ruftkc ttc vbjoci 
ftp|>c«r IM thoofli ihrt-wa Ui^nrdi (hut v^. 'i'liu hngl^ n m o, U 
ra\M t^L* r^rmcting illicit uf l\w jfiiaiij. 

410. Lenses, — A LtSd la u ri-rrtfLt*tJug mcdtuni, bound<<(l 
hy carvvi] mirrtttWJi, or b^v one ('urve<L 4»J one \t]Ani> Hurfuce. 

fjViiMu are uauuIU utuik' vl* ulaari, a»>1 aru buiiiidi-tL Lj' 
>(»luTrl«il fturfaci:?', or by onv t-\t]u:rWn\ Jkiiil one jiluric Mirf^ce. 
11jr fiitilnivs MG tnivlc «|ibcricaK be04iL]iw Ihcv nrv more nuilj 


4x1. Classificauon of Lcn«c». - I^am^^l an dhiOal 
ml*»*ix Hnnc^. fUvontiriK lo llio naturv nnci jKuitlon ^f Ih* 
ticHiuUijijE jiuvAit'cn* f>f*fi\iir\if of wbidi irc Hhown in Klg«- :tlfi7 

Tiw fSrKt li . i Fi ! r riTr-il in J-lff. 2fiT. nw thkJccr in iht 
Tii1(trU(* lliaij jl; iJuir vjL^ -. Tlnnii r^/iwi-jf* or Collect mv* or 
ILghK linit alV tullcit rvuFn^im/ i<'tk«r». 

The l;i»t Ihroc Arc vbinn*-r in fJio mi'Mh- thnn nt thrlr etlfp^P 

I> Thi" JmifWr'f'iniyj Irr*, .V, lionniJril Iv ti(ri> cnnVi^T mir* 



oiticnK' nud otlc cuuivcx »ijrfncc-. the concaw autfluw lM.-ii 

thn r^fijf crunrd ; I, Tlir c/ouUp-«9«tfiiw Icon. /*. I^ouodtnl ^^ 
twu ooiicuvu ■urrMCVi ; 5. Tbo ^/rmo-Mw^nv ktiit, ^. l>oiiti4(*t 
bjrmii* i>uiiOAVi- auc) oiw ijlarif xurTiiM ; 6. Tbp rnv^itnwmrv^ 
rJtft0t ^1 bouudoJ by one i;odcii^ r ntA ottt convex amftuv^ 
DOncttv^^ eurliioQ hciu^ tho nt^t curried. 

In fturlfiiig tbc tff««t vt IhoM Uo4f<«, It «ill be BitflLricQt Ur n«- 

the dju«4 X" itltiHk lliey fri'li-ii];. t1ii- f-imicr t«T|inqHDUiiu tk^ 

413. Dcflnliion of Terms. — Th^ cvtrtrw or t]i« bfymJ- 
I'ig. ^*yj. c and Care wiitic* of mrvftmre. 

ItJ Ibe \\o\\\y\f- <vnvrx laux iho ccDlr« riT c un ^ iK g of nwfa 
U cm TtiH fi|i|VAEtA liilr of ihr 1pn«; Ti) ih>< 'loE»td»-«MiaiVft W«a itif 
rvrTcnc U tW oiw, In tfir m(miK<ii« niiil (tii^ ratiCKvo^oonvvK Wn* 
ltot}| fcniro* cinr fin llit* miiim* ijdr iif iTir Ifii*. Iii Ww jiUttu-nNnm 
niul \ht plann-foaoii^c Ipn^ iho (vnttr ■■Tcwmiiur* of ikt fibuv i<T- 

wHacc ftl ItA middle poiUL 

The atralKbt Uiw Hirotinh Uicr i^cnlrm of cunnhir^ li cMk^ 
Ihft cmV of Uic IrjiH i Uiub< in t ij;. 359, A T U tbv axla. 
It is ilvmohHtmiL^I in higlier opilrs^ ilifti ihf^ro 1« ft]w«j 

Onr }Hnlll ilti I'lr ttllH of ft kuS. HK:tt tjjal Uic rvvif of l>gUl 
IKLMiiiy lliivo^b k jirtT nut ilvrblvtl \%j tiw leiM. Thb |aul 


Jn pmctic*!! it u uhioI tv miUcv Die uirfiK^ whk-b t>mind 
tl<mbJr4itHivt*i mul ili>ul'ti<-iy>ut'jiT« lens^A eqiiaJLj' i-urvd. 

Wbru tbb i« Uw ivm;, ad wu fth&Il biif>po»r In whM folkivn, 
Ibu optiual dc-ntro b un tlie ftxi^, vul ini-twnr l>ctwrpn Uji^ 
Iwonnrfncv*) ortl)0 l^nn: lliun* In Fig- !69» f> U t)ic* optu'nl 
ri'nliT* and 411} nkj'i /A A'- [uv>«hig thmiiglj IL ts tiol tlcviuLctl 

4>3- Action of Convex Lenses on Light,— Wiwn > niy 
ofliltki AJltf tipttu oQC ntrTiMT i^r ii i^i^\\^A^:-<x^^i^iT^ ku8, It ifl 
wlVaeto4eo*>n]0ltwiiuttniil. imiml^a llirough ili« t?na, bfi|fain 
iiH-fittnit Ti]vin tiw BCconil vurTni-a. mid Is tviVucl^il fh»tn IIh* 
uwimt. Tbia acVeou is I'ulitvly iiuZt-i^Jiis tu Ibul <<rA prfeai< 
Uiu dcvUtioa Wlii;^ tt>u'LtJ>ti tlic Ihiikor |>orliou in lx>lii «atft«. 
!n fact, ir WD «iij>|ki«44 pliiiitw lo bo iln«n tangvot to tb« ur- 
r^ii-' 111 ll:4f puinfA (if liicklonno nml <'inpr)^not>, (|ii>t ninj Ik> 
infArdeil ii» Ui(< Cftnr» of A pTiHiu tl^ougb Hl>i(4i tUr mj 

414. Principal F0C0&. ir w 1iL>iiiii i]f \\'^\i\- ijarUl^l to 
ihr ftiia rUU ujtoEi ■ IcDQ. It will Iw fVill-'Oloil by rrlbirtioii In 
A jiiu^c puiut. Tlib |Joiat la calltrl [Itv ynntififil /^us. ami 
114 djMAQCO from the tena U colled tbr- priMctfKii /ornf 


TLc coiirsi' of the in>v u in<llcnt«d m Fin. ^'^> ^i^ *>^ 
llt(? mjH jiniallcl lo CA' orv brvit^lit to a fvca» al K UeR 

8iB«i: iho fM^A iIjlI jiiiu tLcMQ^Ii ibo cigtf (if ■ pfihcrtcvil V«in «• 
n-ffncUril nunr Uuuj tbtuf' |«u»iUK m-tver tfac OfUCrt. ll^ojr nuiftdl \m 
braiigbt AiKUmUl; W lh« 1IBU14 ^KU«, vx^ejil in (hv caw in witHk liw 
Mt&cc ufllivlvLii i« unioll, vhF&Cinu|)ux«d villi Uiatuf llw vrivlt 
iTj|j4<iv 4if whJWi it funiii |-iiin, ThM tntturlag of tho mj^ frw ■ 
fucn) )i cnLUil tpttcHMl oh^rraHcm by rrfrudua, li u rctivJtnk fa 

jirMi-riOf' hy i-rarTing iiji ;% ymrr -if tUl* hiirfMHi tut sliicli Hght ftllf, bf 

» p(ip4>r p-nvtr w-(ih uu a/trftrc in it" ^TNirr. 

lUil Ihif mi« fritl^n ujum tho nThrr *iil^ nf th« Wcit:, Ilii>y vimU 
hnvt hcfa brnitiiElit lu n fiicTja Ajt fiV 14 ilic righiof llu L^im m /'ifti 
Ibfs IfA uT It 

415. ConjuKiitc Foci mv lui.v l«o ]uiiiLi no ribuUxl 
tIjF oxid uT A htxi Utai n |)ciid] of li^'fat cMmiug ft^m tMm 
bix>U|;lit ru (I fotiiii nt thv iilhcT, Tbiit froui ulikdt Uuf b^t 

lu Flg< $71 a p4!iid1 ^jTnLja (vuiIji^ fhrnct L b brouglit to a 
IbciM la f; bttd tbo UkIiI o:>mo f/oaa ^ U woaU Iiatv? 1rvv» 
l>ro«mbt t« ft fo«iM nt £ : A nnd I un ^KHijugnte foci. bii<1 
1I1C cuw n^tin-Hl. Z in UiL- nuIUnL 

^^1Jvtr (Lu T4uluibL u ilI Ml iiilli)llv distjuMX^ tlw mt 






Itamllcl, ftnd tb<T con^flpondtncc focus is tX F; Ms \» Ihfi 

f(»ffl\ out? OT1 Mj^h Hwlt* orTh<rk*Ti*. Uvill N' nnfflcu-nt for oar 
|iuryoM- to AuppoBi- tbe ll^ht to cc^mt* frnnt Uic ngbt, in whit^h 
CAM Ihc pnnd|>uL focu^ U on Ihe kft, al ^'^ 

Whi-Ti ilif iwlliuit ifi aD^whpTO 4>n tho ftxie at s groator rita- 
lmm« ilutn ttie prlrid|m1 Tot^itl [fittAiiw, Uu- fx>rrt'^)onr1iiig 
focu* will a.Uo t>c »t .-L eiTcuUT iIUliuk-l' froui ihu kiiia Lliaii Uio 
principal fooU ilbtAncL\ ju jitiowii in Kt^. 271. 

If tJie ncUfttit approticii lEic lucus Um oonvtjKttiding foctu 
trRI rroHe JVoni It, :ih la rtbuHii iii V\. ifT^. 

If Ui^ mdlcuit U nt Uicr j^rificii)!il Jbcal di«Unc«t Uio K- 

Fig. ?T4. 

fnu^tcd ni>v wiM be i>anno1 ; that i«, tlic oorr^iipomll ng foctis 
■til 1m* iti an infliilto tLiMdrt(«, a§ b shonn To the uj^por dln- 
ignm (Fig. 273), 

If iho mdUnt i» uHll nrarrr Ihc lent, the myn will dlTorije 
&n#rdoria£joii, afiJ «ill onlj' mi>(^t Ih^ stxii: im Mihp ^todocod 
Iwdnrank, In vhirJi tivw iiu\ l^iciu 1« mrtuitL el-c la ntiuwu in 
thi* lower dw^mm 'Fig. 27i). In Ihm iliu;^nun L U lli« 
radiaTit. a»<l > \\\v virltiul Torua. 

TliiM Tar we linve sn^posixl tlic rtkAlthUl \o \i(£ ^VxaaluA «a 



th« |>rio<r^pal AXln; ifltU on any lino Ukrougli ihfr opll<^1 eca- 
Ire not miit^h im-linni fr> t^i: axiii, ilti^ (x>nvKpni>ilin^ ftviii 
will (ic on tJtnt linf*, i^ml lJ»^ Uwa vhich rr2uUl« tho jj<i«i- 
tionaof cnnJugiLlc tK.-J, Already «<on«Ld«K-<l- trill be opplkabJe. 

Th4^ prliK-iplt'B JimL llluHtratud nn or lUc hi lb? lUttimsHlon 
of iiiiji^« f^riuod by IcMca. 

416. Formation of Iinfigf7S by Convex Lrrtscf. — 
If ixn olijt^pt Iw iflncml in fnint (if a leu*. r»ch poii>t of U 
moy hv nv^nloii lu a miliaiit aondiiig out n pencil of myv. 

Tlii^ :LA9<<:iibljLgi.' <jr t\w»v iuc't luiihi^b jp a iiit'tun; uf thu olijrrt, 
vhich iH uullcd ito im^jrr^ Vilwn tlifr object b ftt ft grttttc-r 

disUtnnt from thL< Icni llian tJit* pritkri^iat f<x^ fHatAUci*, Uir 

Tlir <*oiu'Kc of tliu myi U :«howji In Fl^. 971. The hiiN|rH 
U KaU "-1 ruay l>o titiowri l>v thrcHtln; H upon * acivec ; m> 
loi>g fi8 tho Imng'* In real II itf trnvrtorl, 44 mfty be tttxn by 
allowlDg Jt to f^ll u|ioH a aftoei)^ or h mny oihpnriM \m 
«1ioirn fkiin the fWct UiAt the nxu of each in^ncd jams 
thiuuKb Urn L>tJtioal Pcntrc ; honcc ihc nnsee of c*cli poJul ^^ 
t>u th<^ oppoittJi lido or Uio< &xif» Cn>in tlic point ^^| 

WUL rviHjj«.'t lo Oir *i3Hi iif Oir- Ima^ In Uilfl caae. it a*^^^ 
bo cither ETtrttcr <^r mnaUer ilian ttw objf'cl. When Uw ob- 
ject M furUwr iVoiii ttm Icua Uiiui ttfti(<<? Uic prindpttl foctd di^- 
Iniiciv Xhv im^gif u Kmnllrr Uian tite olifwC; whi^n Uio objtx't 
J»«t Iniu* Uiv Ton! dwt«ucc> Ihr; Imu^ Is '>r tlie aaow ^ur 



» the ohjott; vhf>n ihv ilUtsnM \* t«a» Uiaii iwLrft lTi4« 
|iiiiici|ioJ fix-Al i1l«lnii<^. nf\t\ £rx-alor tKnn tlu* frinciijat focAl 
dlMtanci7« Utc imngf: i» srcai^r limn tlic objirct. 

Thi«ci pTJEii-iijIc* lAAjr Ivr «liiiwiiriL|icriiiipiiThKy ns fvllowv;^ 
l>^ a f^invAT Una Ka pWj«d In Ji \Siirk Ufin. Aiat tia]f^v ElA prin- 

■iiliir riiTu- 1^ a rnnillp lir jitm**^! lu ^ronl of The Irn*. nnJ 4 6iT»-i»n 


WliiTi lIjh HiKi-irir-.' fif i|ii» raiidUi fmtji [)i* li^ii* U ijiih> iliJU* lunie 
thr pjiiiri|wl f'L^nl ciinunA<, tU iinfifr wi[| W ti>A llnvii i|iv ubj^'il; 
UFLi! t\f mnrr n^nipd^ tliii i^amlln thu li'u iiKl 1h> Irt Itiiu*;^ 

if ijw canJIo W mov*J tn^vnrJa the Iliu, iu Imaf^ wUI ((r*W 
InrgifT, natll. 41 twin.- Uio iirjuciiwl fiinvl ^tUi^iKt. tliu ifcui* uf tLe 
iiui^ rnul uhj«<'i will bv «i)UliI- 

iririvuMil ; 1b«| i\ H will Woudit ipmlvr ttmi l7>c trtjori, u i« nhrjivn 



fnnrtiutl Wa\ dbL[Ui4*c. i>K! liungB wJJI hf LovcnuJ, nn U «h<nrn in 
r^fiM^ *J3(i uv\ S77. 

IwownvB li'« tliJLii (Nil |?rJTH'ipj»l fiTnl liiiijibfV, lln' I<M|^ wiU in- 
CVivuy^ il wiM lKcom>» tm^-l, niiiL furllu-nu-io: it mil I*' vintM)> Th« 

tv lUf «■•» tbf Imi bwirmM what |« 4«1M > mt^ mt 
lh« ^M^o U l^uU* ; Ant ii^ tl teffinn 



4JJ. Formation o( Ima^ea by Concave Lenses- — 
diTCffVGikt> Uicac hfx^vs mnke Ui^^iii etill mote mo. 

the mdi^ntt J*' *> mnJe to dWcrc^* " iboiiph ihcy |flvirwdod fmax 
fi|if4i(1hlt* fat tho mdijtnl, /,- Til uu 1741 >cLtuiklrnl on ibo loft ot the 

From what haA hevn bai^L it U plain tlut llie iinevca 
fbrnwd f>y concflTO Ioiisgs ftro virtuul- llnj' urv *J**o vrvcl, 
n* in Fig, 379. 

'IIjc courvc of Uic rayi^ In fonnliig no Ieua^c in Ihf- v-i^- of 
■ fiouonre Ictut^ U »liowu in i*'ijc- ?6^. In tlmt flifuiv .^/f 
njproflciiU ilic ci^j^ct. A ptUL'il of my*, oouiinii from ^, i«* 
tle^Usd AO AS to djipcur lo couit; froia a« «\um\uii wv vNuMt 


Untwii frutii.-t to tti£T 0(illc«1 ei-Dlre of tht IfiM, 0- A \ietni\f 
vnnUiji fri'iiii /', lA dcvutcl *o A* to ftppcnr t/> oomo fKirn t, 
on the imo /fu, llt^ncQ «£ u Ui* fana^D of Uil« <d>jL-<-t. .-i B^ 
ftdd in. Rw wi* KM*. 9iTiiulI<-r thin llie ohjert. Wiit^ nnntfr Che 
Djiljutt t^ciilrc. Olid furUit^mivrv it ia «tcU 

41R, Burning- Glasses. — Rny* of keti arv miIiJoi-i m 
lliL- Fluuu- lawa uf rvllccu'uii urid tvfr&eliioii od raja uf lijfliL 
M'livii u bi^tuii of MiUr lL£(it fiiltjE ij|ri>ii & convex Ii-hei, Ujcm 
U not onlv a. couoentmtioti of lighl at Ibd TociM, but of Ii4*ml 

Niclt M jutf^r, diill, kfiiiHl, «ih1 lhi> hitf. Vu the f«w^ uf Urirr bfUM 
ritf of BroMM bu linni wrd i<i t»n>niR> fln ; the Inn 1u ihb omo k 

Tlklc HSfvC KiAf rfwiaU fnjm vplimciil vfWfh of ^lu* lUW with w*- 
419, Llghthousr L^nft^s. — rnrnU4ic lulrmni wc/re 



tAruEbhvd Ity Ih? influence <»f voft-fogs, and have bven anp^ 
pUnte<l bj plnnO'PoniTH !cii5i*5. In llic who of rcfle^rtoTB. 
tiiQ Iflsip iUclf (nitK o? cuti^iclonktib liglit. In Ui(^ pnnr-lpat 

gmi r^ys JVntj » pan^k-l bcani* vludi cii&blva tlic liglil 1q Ik? 

The Jjffioalty of <r4»LnictiPK Iutj^i? frlalu>'Ol>[lVt^J lrtitc», liif(pllivr 
trilh llj¥U' f^rcAt AliH<r|i(ioi; nf Ijk'e<, I>^I liiuilly u> Ilw u'lii|iilHfi itf n 


FIs 32. 

Fitf. 281 riiowi A ftoot tiow, and Fig. 1»* a iMtioTi *«- |>nifll* o( 

A Ima of thLi kJExl f<ui»Jr*of»iilono-oanvp*K'tiH,-i, alwiil n ftf<'t 

in *!uimHiT, (imriin! ivluvli «m ilUfici*nJ wvi'm) aiiinilii* Unsra* whidi 
nn* nl*» pljiTKi-t^nivflx. ami ^*hl>•P fliirv-nturc « •*» rdle«lu»''ii 'J<»1 «w* 

iqvtFin. » riimru In Fi^^. 2a2, Hir V'a^xi euiaiiai^ ftom U ifl rt*i«tod 
[ini^ ui iifim^nM Itcaiti, Ri-. ^iTf^ruUcl ray& 

JUMm lAis rvthinhiix ^jfVfnt, wvvtn\ mTL|tv« dtt4w)#«v^*^*** 

S&8 opTtrs. 

m dufw*^ Ju ^* rrBrrt rui-li Turht u nmilil ntlirnmc be ItttU ki In- 

In <i|iiU.'r k}iHl JitI Uii; |iuiiiUi ut tliii lii'iinLiiL uuijr tw itlujniialvil, a 
^yeitpm uT t|jOM It<juc« U lOftilo !'> v«vcJv« an kt rcrUi^l ftim bj iJucL' 

In flfiTiH*^aGT>p^ ■■r tfiu rrrintion, t\Q oli«pn«r M nnj pdinl viH Mr 
tliu'ho i>r 1j;^1il d.ib] ieiIitihJh iif darhmn fnlUirufE «idi uthpf ollrv- 
niiTHy. By tiiiuMy r^Kiiluunfc lb* bimltfir rif rBYtiliil»Dft to mj 

otbar. 11hw^ hLlmmtlntift alto inw Ia Ukvlkiiiubh llf|hlbnuMii Ihiui 

Th* dAetnu liiTlit In hhvI Jit llic |iif«»iil lamo tty «nin« «l4^t ta 
1il£htliE>ufri-F| l)]i t4ii-lriiMly WjTt|{ f;ci>tT«tcd by tiHglieUi-tlocuie QiA* 
cliLitim upcmLoJ b^ ulcjiiii. 

Summary. — 

* TIIiiMriVi'J bj Flj^tirt. 

MfUiilfi^ rrkfiiit r>p]itinr-rl hj T'lgntt. 
Cmm 4|/ Lumimmt Ijay^ in n IViraL 

l)«lirtlboD, and bov niul*. 

It^rtitkfn of Trmi. 

HluiftfliLkrAir hy KlpTfif*, itf Ti«vi» ni*i 
j4flK«i of Cvnvcx Lema vn tJ^hX- 

(\)inp«iriaui> Iff Ctmicx L^tjk* yr'ixh I'tttu^ 

]Mnci|iiil YiKut UlufiratcU b; I^UHh 

Sptwrinl A1j<TTntiun^ 

IllMS* n^ by L\-llcctioa <^ PiMa. 

Method* i/l^inniiif Ertl hnHfri« lltaMrsli*! by F&giv^ 

jtKcoMrtKsntoif OF ugui\ 


lUiislnitAl liy FiKiif*. 

AmhiTi^mriM T^r itlitmirmlrng th4< whole lIuriifiQ, 


4a&. Solar Spectrum. — Jr u Ixiim of ntmlj^ht imaa 
through n jHamf li. U ht>m fYoni lu i*iinr4.* Jinrl ni ihi? Aninc 
tiijir is *j'rriii| utit tnlo !i lnlllLiiiilly ool^ri-il Uiinl i-JiIUtl thi.- 
tf/or ^etfum. Tlf? Aprvo^inf; of the T%yit i« tnllpc) dt'tper' 
ii&n ; it is catisitl liy iim^junl rvrraii^bilitv of lla^ iluri'runi 

diifrrvut media. 

4lli^rwd HO M 111 fonn llii^ ckni^ntnl i^i^ciriini uh^ii ^m thd f>i-miil' 


If till- lK<aiii iif \iit;}\i vrvK uuijb»inKtf^ iti it» f lurw. it nmJiJ UJ 
iijHMi llif H^yir jit Jl, furmtUH » clivuUr tfKil «J whiUr ti|;rht Jn or^ 
lii liHviT till] mlum ilintjiitif the 'jipt-aiij^' lliFOUgh vrbich tlu- Li|;k| mliTi 
ihouJil ha very lumrw The fTfrftctiug anglo of tL« pru in fet OMafli 

Thi« Bpi^tTtiiTi 4ykiiii»U rif alni'Mt an infii^itr uumbFr f4 nyi ^4 
4ifl«li^[it liutop hui it u ci»tnuiAiy tu ouiiHiiLcr iiulj wtT^, bihI t^rw 
>.nj mIUhI f rtmiirji riiUfrh 'l'hi>Ms l» tli<- -inli^r iif )i«ftt ivfrno^hUhj, 

t/lur, ht I' ; tMdiffo, flf 1 ; nrnl iiio/rl iit n. 

If ft ru)uf<d ra? <)f vb>^ H|Hi-iiutii |hm ilin>ai[ti « l^vlt £o ■ Mmvn. 
and llicn fall on n h«i«iiU jtntni. il it dovuklofl u IwfaETr btil Itiprv ft 
DO fiLrtSi-T i^hnngv ol oolur; hcoor il^^ caitin of the »p<«<mu niv 
Mid \t* hv r^Mpif. 

TSo irjivt 'l^^uffilii ccirmpiuJiuBE to diffprvnt (\jJom] nyt Inv* 
l>{Vn iiii-jitujv<l, aitii] il it fmmil tliiil Tjt fmI rvjV thi<^' itn* dbr>iit ■■Ifi 
of fill iiirli fHi-ii, MVil Uk vj<<lri my^ iit« iimrv liuii' trhs "^^^ IM^ 
Ttitt t-Lbffr Huvt-«, iIhvIt ipulimll^ (UmiiiLfrli In Itfagtb Ircnn iho rvJ Ia 
tlio viitJil. 'rill.- iflicmnuc'UA i>f di»|XT»u<ii iudlcvto tbat Binvnct «)itiv 
jir* iDorv TtiH^Ml Uinn Inn^ imn In |HHlng lliruDf[h a fnc^iumi 
henot tbtr tH>> m thr ml cud vf ih« a^vctniu urc le»l irtarUil, wvl 
thoM at Uw TiLklrt rrid tn nittvt n-fmcril, 

OdIot In lifilit <«ir»fK»ndA ta pi^^ iu K<an<l' Tli^ «ij«n mwr lh« 
rod tnd of tht^ vprvtruin oirrrnpiinil Ut thn ^nixvt anjndi^ ftW tlUM 
uMf the viulct cQd lo thri iniw iicut* »<>ued«. Ttiv mirts 4/ tiK 
pxtrpinr vitlrt rikil »f Iho Mln-tlnin juriki* llin rrUoft Vtlh 4BaU« ih* 
tvpidiiy t'f ilj« tv^. WliUr-. th^nC^rci tJio mpfce of auilib^f ftHmb 
l» iimrljr eiarm oaIuvm. the fUgD of riribk tfuloo b mmiMj omc 

491, Rccoinpoftilion of Light- <*- That uhitr nolar li^ht 
U itnnjH'^Ni sii r^yi i-f ilirfoivnt ccloTi ciw be |)VOVpi1 in %iv- 

4>llicr iraj- Wlirii *c rccom* 
t>]iiL* iIjl- fvhjra of Uk Sfieitlnnii 
ivUitc lijcbt wfll be irprodcMTiL 
I'liin i<aa be done in miit^ni 

J-'f ^' 1. 1r It b» acbxl (Ml bv * Mt> 

COLOH oy Homfis. 

nie- 2&^ 


innwd In th« oppotito dintrtion, it will Iw rcconaiK^MM] ami 
vg| mwige aa trhltr liglit (tV- ^^f- 

rnvdium bvucriSed hf panJIvl pIxTiii fitc<«- 

3, IT ll be received on a donhlr-c«nv£*x I<mui- nn sin™!! in 
Pigi SSfii il itilL be rrcomposcH^ 
Attdl jkn Imnffif will l« fornKrl 
ftwi from cnlir, 

3. If Uif ciiHimiimfM'*! lijilii 
bo nceifcd upon & cwncuvt 
mirror (fig- :e86}, H will io 
like mfinnj*r tw rnix>mpjuii1 nnd 

4. If « drcaUr diik or <utiLboariJ bo prUnt^d fie «bown 
in Fii!, 5m7. in wolor*. U»c t*olc*i> 

iblcHMity and tiiit, ua in llit- »|ii.'l'' 

taim. it will Iw Touml. c-n tv>laiSi]i: 

til*? dittlc rapidl^v tiy a pi<'C>* <^M 

TOechnnUin Miown In Fl^ 2^7. Tiy. 2M 

tii«t tbe MptiTftle colon bknd into a etni^lc oiiv. whJch la 

a gn^Mi white. 

Tha color fttm vny weUrt pvndiu^M apon tfao «;« an lmprn«L<n) 
tlml Lwu ftir (ui *pprr<(4bLo lonjfUi f>f tliiir. fu ih" Dxprniii^nt iho 
ivfiUlon il Uk mfiid thnt dip imfiiviffnTii fmm all Uin nulain riii>vitl 
lU the ibuno lOrtaut, md Ulo e0cct i» iKo Mitne tt» thoufch iho cuLm* 
were tniTw!, 

I'hal lJ)(» unprfMaun firoilucc-l bj tifihl luljt fnr An appirf i*1t1e 
liqitflh t%T x\mt inn| Im nfimrn hj wliiiilfi^ a li^hli^l aii/<k ruand in 
A rlrelo; U wUl prKMiii iliv ■pp<nraai?fl of « <B^uiiiu<iurt clrd* «f 

4ia. Color of BoiIic». — Tlw liHtuinl culur of bodies Is 
da« 1o Die fact ibnt M>inc of tb« colored rnr« in vrliitc liifbt 
hrn nb^oitiod nhm liio h|j)il c^nt^m them. IT tJiL^ nniLbsurtiud 
portion U tranimiti<^d, tbo body iacoVjiv<\ aaA ^jnLUv^iaj<a3X\ 

fl[-KT<<l, jL in onlnitH) mid (i}itu|iK% In XnHh rutm 
t Ihat U not abfwr'MHl girr* Xhv i:Dl<*f. 
Ifti body nlwortM all tho oolora, bl iu Uufk ; If It Mf4>«<S or 
trnnfiniltA nil, \t In whtUr or coloile4«. A t>oity n)k|vAr4 rrd 
Hhi'ii it nliKirlij. till t\K c*>l<»n* cswjrf ttio ivJ, jHUrti i*licii kt 
mb«orti» aU liut ttic )-cUovFt «to. 

w ttCV'LHl, iLe iiiim uTk-vp ii« lHnni»<« Biiiil^r «rirk I'im« its Mw 
liDt It ir |tn.ilA\bl<> Il[]i| |]n> l>liiiflh tint nf rlit^ 1m«»iit» 4» id>n !■ s 
iiittuim' dii'T Ui I'fJUttitm friicir tiir ni'Yuil rni-Iri'tAJi'j^ At miria* Mid 
wiVOt, ih* ny* 44 Ihfi aiin lijii'a to in^nn n ^jml %*Aj at lh« 
atiBV«|plwr«. vltlcli jtlwjftn rai«t 4if tEiD nj* TlAffit llltf lod, 
UffJM» il la that xUc tun «(^i«an nd ^t iuueW 4tk4 

KiHMi bodtfs iTHnnnli li wlnr diiTcfdm frcim \hnt nhirh iht-jr 
tvtttvi. Thuj, gi>M iip|>A£m yellow hy reflected IJicljt audjcn^^ by 

light traiifiDJiU'ii lliniJii^h the L»f, 

433- Complementary Colors^ — Nkwtiw caUa twocobra 
miff^tfTRFfifa'^ nthvii by iT^'tr iiiixturv ihvy prodiu^u wUto. 

If oU Ihe ray» *-»r the Fi|>.'[;iruiu i-xi-tpt Uio red out-s bv ri- 
compowd hy Ik coiiv<<x LcTm, a i^Tventeb blue ool^r will rtaull; 
!i«tioo rod Ami grocniKh ihia nnr <ron]]>UinuwtJiry. In lilto 
nuuKii-r it limy bt- Kluiwn tlml rtiijs^irui bliir tliiiI orAng<< Aro^ 
GOiii|^iiKiil:it^^ 091 tire albt^ xUjlvl aiid ifTucuUl) yclJoWi AiHi| 
j«lftm and lodigo tiluv. 

4x4, Subjective Colors.— ir (I WAf^rLi|mnnbl4vckgn'i)nJ 
Iw vff^viri'il ititi*nll_v Ivr ftcnio Ituit^, (iritJ tlio m^rve <►(' LEktavo 
txyvcTh-H futJ^UHl, aiul tlii^ L')V l>t< tlu-n ilin'cU.-fl Ui a nhet'l of 
nljiU- j)n|Kr. ao Imngir of tfie wnfer will be im>cu n^xin tlin 
pa|>«r, whoAe ootor is wirj|>k'mt?nliirv lt> UiM of tht- wnTcr- 
Tbcifl, if the wftf^r la red* Ibe iiiiM^ nill bu }^t-ii : ir tlit? 
wftf^ l» ornngp. ibc im^go vltl b« blirp ; aihI ao on. 

If tbc setting sun. whWh i» rtd* be ^iowvd fbr suuit- time, 
iumI tl:cii the pyca be dirccttM) to n vrhitc waII, a trr^^ti irun^o 
of tbe ttin will l>e ficcm, nhkh vi1l Iiut for iuim« momenU, 
vben u r»d imn^c will u|i|HMr; a HTond f^rwn iiiiugo kho- 
Qocds it, Aud » on till thir ifTocl tuttrdy cewefl. 

tr *ro !i»jk f'f (muo Ehiio lit n w>Iofi'd ii|f}i^ irii a wliilt iirounil, 
no vIijlII fi:iii!ly i>h«rrv4' (Mr ihbJiH'i mirronnitod by * frinifA, whcvfr 
njtnr i) fomftTfiaoaurr h> iIjaI 'if tbo hidj ; ihuH. if a n>d vnfirr bi; 
liLuwd upon A ibprt of whllo pa|WT, llto frlnffO will 1» ifrfwn, 

ftbAiism C!Afil a\Hitt n wnl] t>y th« ruiDtf ur vetliiiK euu ato tiajfod 
Ifnwn, ihft tint r.fiTu- nm lli'ing nfi iit (hut timo- 

If "W px&iiiiao iH'viTiil pit'Tre of cTiil}i cif ihc fump <-"tMr, iKfl er* 

tntj aaUu hc\Ti^tomtc^, tbfi Lut |n<^orxumiii^'d A^^kcar of a diflorrut 

abiwlL- fruni tboM Ami v1i*vi^L 

Tjirdalt Ofpliouu itc^c plirDoniciin u fii]li>w«: ibv^yo, hylavkh^ 
aLuii^ f?id(ir> tTiM n>)H<iif<>r fur Iciuan. ft]rBLmvQU\iw,i«n^A*i^\b«h 

vnflitiTf tJ> thit <wloT, in (twl putiAHj hliiMlM lo itt fvrMfiCJiio ; 

tf{)ut ur tht r^Uru im whirli thi? iinjig> of thtt waXtir nsUs^, vtU ht^tu 
iU rinl (Mnstituoikl i-irtiiatlj rvmovnd, oik] flUL tlufl«f9n «pp«!ar «f ill* 
ciii(n|i]mn»'iitiry mlnr. (\>hir» <>f tfiU kiad ftje callxl fftCtMAtf orianv 

425. Fraunhofcr's Lines.— TLc m>W ipectrain u not 
continuoiid ; nij^i cc»rfi>ffpotwimff to oortain dcffTctft 0* 
rcfrnDLT^bility are TAnliuf? ; bonco it i« croAMil ftt iDtervila 
by (tiirW lintw, Thcfl? nrp won to hmt «dtKDtitgr> in % 
apoctnim fonncd bj passing a b«un of ^Dnliclit tbn>iiirh * 
nATTOir ftlitf imd tLcD dcfomputfing it by a priem nhoso 

i« i « I I 

«dg9a ttjn) itnmllol to thi; vlit- I1i4f prigna «boii)d be of flint 
(lltu^ uiti) tm'. fnnti diiWtf. If Lfii; olil lit: iride tJi« ociUint 
will ovitU^) duo ontiUitr, but id a pore spectmiB tbi« mul 
not bo. A piuv Bpcctnim i« obtainod ^ poAldiig tbe At 

ITie dark Mn(>« of t)ic ttnUr ftpActniiii vffn notlMd by 
WoLL^noh as early ^ 1H02. but thry ntn fltvt MudM ud 
mnppvd hy F»Ai7XiiOKiLft in H<J1 ; Tfom thot fact Ihcy i»vc 
bci!li oJM ^nMn^^orV /i'n^«. 

FiLAtTMiorEre's obfhTi n)i>;Aiij« l»<iwfCD Ere and sue bundrvd fion 
KmguUdy dinHtiul^d In [i ih^mon prMninxnT ]EiiMJhrrtfMg«4i«l 
by Uttflrr, And ibwi- »ctvi» ■» ptHiitA of «oinpnH««b to «ddeh Mlvtt 
niy b« rvfcurvil. Thi^ Lluti nimrknl d (Fig. lia^ b M iW be^olng, 
fend B ]» ti«r Th« niirJaiH of th» tkI fqwro ; C ^ ■ ivvUmulMd Um 
oav ^tie ffmatl/try tif :hr nd unA uiHi^; D'i» i>'<u«& luibq otmaeti 




J!r, in i1j« yellow iAixl /** tfi -tai /f Afv woU-inirltcd linM^ F boiUK 

Fiu^'NiK^riGit f4rimiiHl HiAf Ilni'^ 1j<iini!eu 7i»iul C ; thirty hviw&^u 
C anil /', nghty-ftinr bcluii^ri /> ami K. ^nv-nfy-jfiv Utwoi^n A^ 

and ivtiirfy Urvtrf^n fj iiml It. Ki'ckiiI nbM'rvjhrlittia hiiv^i tLii^ivuttHl 
Uio tiumbn- tl iWk Liuija till ilicj luw iww cuuiiti^ I17 iUousiuiJa. 

dnrii Uav'i^ but the llse* aio difb^niuil j ^rtanrcil in iho^Obrvnl flani, 
ud in none An th^ nfmn^'^ u In shr imlAf Bpuf^inini. Tbo 
a|iectni iif ihe nic*«i and pJuntU wliu*- lijjhl i» refliTirJ fri^at ihc win 

436. The Spectroscoi>e- — Th& Inetnnnenl iiftcd rortbrm- 


(Fig. 3ftV). Il ii>tial]>- eousi»la of thmr pv1« : m. <^Mmaior^ 
^_0; n priau, P, or a Ir/Jin of primnt ; M>d ft uUmvpt^ A, 

^B Tliir tnUMuCar U iivl ta fonn « tblu beutf «/ pB^alM njns cvmi- 

InR frm the IljifiiP, <J, of « Itiin*^ btimor, jul «iM*tott «f a iwrn^ 

iLU And k iLovl>|e'c-jiii'«>x l('nB; the dll b f>nnod ^j twu Ja«> %<i 

in«Ul Uui Mil 1"^ riif'V^al lA Anil A<oin nifti Alfccr, to h^ |ii gitv iw 

^- u»nuw an u|H»um|[ u m^y b« dcOfoJ ; thi) kcia U bcJ^iad Ibc tfiu 

^fepsil at A dkuncvi twm it fqaal to lia prinripA] fhoJ d!«aa««; buftc* 

^^ h pondvn tU" iu>* tlmt prw* iTiruugh 11 pv&UcI lo cacJi ulhrr. Tlie 

Irah f^ jirumjt ton'Oi b) Jitfpi-ru^ llir light ; it iviudMi of anj naai- 

Ihvt «ff |iriMLiA, tiHvin^ ihcir fd£r« pttralJoJ to the alit* nod h> iilacnl 

ItiHl llm llglii flluU jijiMi tlmidgh 1h*Mii hII iu nunnvtioiir Tlie 

Thu tubu, C'f fUEiLfliiiB u (^raduak^ vcn^, an [ma^of vKldi b 
UiTuWii upi>u Uir firiarn iitjd ruBvotvd iiiU> Chi- trU<»c<fw whco « Iflfi^ 
le |iliiH<i1 In fniiit if villi tittN>. The (iliHitrvi-i inti thttt meavurit te 

Thi< «iih«lmii«< whiw ]»|itviniiii vo wbh lo »MqIm b vclatilbfil 
in tW fUmi' M ^. liivt'-JMl-r thvflftmft af lJi« baracr w« «•■ ■*!» 
uw nr A Iaha oI Ujthi rrtliviii) fnjin iti0 MtaMni- 

417. SfH^ctrum Analysis. -^Explanation of Fraon- 
holcr'a Line^ — Mclob vkI tb«ir compoaml* iwpari diav* 
ftcUruttic color* to flamM : tkua. (podkim kkI iU oMopomli 
(l»pArt a yvllow color to a tiunaca bomei- ; tlie ccvntpoiuwU or 
m|ii]vr n^mWf it grwn, Uw cuiaiaaitnU of xiuc wake it psrpAp. 
and Xh*? iiiiii|iound« of nUontaa (ire it a rml cxilor. Tbn« 
oolort» are dw lo the ir^qpar* of the oorreepoftdiag 
and ara p«vuliar 10 tboa» Tipon, ir ibMa«r«^ 
eaiHloaomI vainn lie axaalfml witli iba H|««aitMnfa, Ibafr 
afec U aaffcfewaHocpaafatof brighlhanAa,aacfc 
iaitbi adtipHtdflfTMoTrrfraiVtbailT. TV 
gand poaltlnfi aT the band* tn ev«vj cm tt« |m » uU li 
hnblk. ami al«ig« *env to ilkvtily tk» b^jr 
•pfdUum. TUa i»ode of itrtriTLi i y i fin Ike pw au M a «f 

V tw «v M« MMfa W vifiriwi la *« iM» ii ikv <H 
rtaJ^Jiidkilx^ an InmA «^^*(to 





tUEuL If II iitLiipml tnubnUi ufti n>i](rkiuMv iiimi; ililTviruL lui^utn br< 
vuUlUUMlt thd AfHt^ttiiirL frl-tl ikhi'W llj« bmitfl vliamoItTliirte uf tnwh. 

UTim, ly iiiMtiu *.4 b«iiJ« ihikwu by ihf i»{iHtn>«^i>{H.% wljieh iliflurvd 
fioui lliutw uf all iLiff un-Ule prvviiiu«1j ku-wu ; aifJ ii; like Li.hUiitnr 
Mr- Crookt* rJi*n>v«rf<il Hw imu' iiiHiil 'rhjilliitiii, 

iro fir the ralniit^t pnrUiin >if Anjr nihciAiLn^ Ln iho form of In- 

in flic t|>cfti'riiii.. 

It biiA b(>f?n nhoim that an incamT^aomt Bulid f)r liquid 
ivi>» n continiioUB Hpi-c^tnini , If Nght froiii i^tJdj u muTrfi- ho 

'\Hiililiii| willl ihci H(>i^rl|irhiir]jis xh^ rCAIllflllg fhjioctn^ni Hill 

be croMoil tty fUrk lincA hmvln^f tlit- »anic }M>riJtum lUi t1i<; 

It 4|ij>cur« IhHl I't^ry Txhly irk ii »UU" <>r vrt|i*>f ii* o^imjui- U* 
Uiu clncu (if ni>!i liiuL it uJiiiUi tthvn u-inkivO tiii-iuuIcHt'ctit. 

Tho |iirinpi]Jo jiiit Glu<rJdatiH| )l/i« bix>(i nppZiod to cx]>laiit tlw ilark 
Uoi'* if t)ji^ M'tur fjirrtrriuj. |l i> t* ii^ itKiin-fl that llit budy vf lliv buu 
is nu ihouiJn?vtit t<ilid, i-r pfrhj.ti'b ii ^li>ffiti|j LtguiJ, duil ojaw- 
^tiviitly ihkl 11 nuita vliite llifhl, tl Ih furtlHT tiupixwnL tlint tbp 
bucly of ihd MDfi ia iiJtrou(iili>i1 Uy ji Ijiyi-r «>f i;nn^>iu miUlPiT w>btMii' 
tiijl vajh'r* (rf vnfiutt* lul^UiM'r**! iurliiiliii^ ijiriuy iif LUf k)'>>ttii 
iiKtoU. TIju cnvcJopCp ^t]<M llifi j>hvtitf^ttii-ru, bi'lriff at ik ivt/vr 
TrBlpcr>ltur tlmu thu wudtusj [>i lu a cmnUtiitu Tu alw^fd Hiv v^^^y 
njH th*t il woiitil iUiHirvmH if \\ vpn> iimtKftvHbt. Th« nl«orlwl 
o( i»iAm|[ r»y)i f Titi tint iWk liui-p *jf lit s^wtlruiiit W*|p IIjc aca- 
tnU iiuHint ntHttitlinl, Tho b>Ltr »|HVfri]tri wmikt W lpiEi4f<>niiiHl ioUi 
A ^jrvCvui of brUJUuI Wmb, TIicmt wimlU nirrT?EH-EiJl ^' tli' TiaikIb 
tkf a vpmnifn g^^on ^y n fljimr fhir^-td t^y mi^tAllir uji[ii>n. They 
WDuU r«iHtil^)Ep the ffK-rtrimi <if llie SK'lc^t j>Li>i<.4jipljm\ 

ftjiJ iAher nu:Uiit bftrr Ihtci liitnA tn tin *aliir Almooph?!^ 

TTtr fppcm iT Ihr fbuti tljini iTblicvti* ihut lhivi» Ihulifw nm limiUr 
in oolulitulioa W our ^gii, bm thi' uumUr nml i^^hiIii'Ii 4>f iKo dnik 
Ibn vfcuio- [hat tfa^r phoU4phvne ito tu4 c«Jiiii>ii) llw mine nkoueatii 


The scbuin, Vfam ihfj Wa b? iilMn-rivl, Km mil «Fvctr& 1ik« 
Iflinlml KUM FaMMil tttmpttettA UN thn wn luirl nMn, 

The permwnlfjfMrv. whiQ IiaMcJ Io * rvffidrnt icrupmimw b; 
miunii of rlcvtridl^, piblliit bnoili in %Mr ■pfi'inL 

ll hu \n^z tcf^ti knov^ thut (ho san to tufroVQtbd durlas ibc 
limi.' iif u inttU f'('tTpM.< lijr u grvst nunilMT i^if LrrvgiiT'ir r>Mf*'r«|itfCi| 
prirluTH<ninri«> Tiiom^ Invv Ihvh etiowD bj *p«<tniin ah^ym t* 

mixed inipon of »-4liLini aiul TAn^fWum- Th« protubomuHia* iotm 
phrt <if jLQ IrTi?Kuljit i-QvrUjp! mm-rtiniittig tliir t^atirr bodj nrtb* «n> 
viul Ijring outeiJo of iu photcvphurc. Thu Ujor oo4wdtatM w4tl 
Iiw Invu iini[R<d iht? L'limuKBiphfTre, BuJ wiiblii ji fi-v jfM a iiHtliad 
luw Wn diiHiirviirKjl fnr obiwrWiii^ lU tfpoolniin vilhont th* nrrmmfjf 
^f wmtiu^t h^r Ik luUJ t^clipw- 

438. Interference of Light — If liro vitixt^M of ti|Ebf 
move In inivh A wuy iliut thi' fiv«i of on« covnoid<« Kith ihe 
(■r<<§ti of iru* uilii>T. Biiit tlie {lofirewion or ont* wUh lh» deprtv- 
m<j[i of lilt? oUiTi, Uie fvfiultaut wUt be a mvu of tlwihlc am- 
pJiliulo of vlbr«Uon. 

Kiri whfji thi? (<rv«t of ono convflpotidi to ttM dtfprouloQ W 
xhr liihrr, liii') nvtEtmlijn! nu*b nlbvr uid tfam^ U eu llglil. 

439. Newton's Rings «re ciplalnttl on iLu nAoie iiHaH- 
\y\(*. Upon a tbt, smonth pieocnf tcloM lot the convwic mmIo of 
a \ilaafyc<iti\cx Icna tnvmg n snuill eiirvnturv bo ptae«d Mid 
,^^^^^^__^ z^i*'^ flrmljf proa^vl ^dwh, «m thovn la 

r -r^^^~, __ _ ' ""^^ ^ Fiy. "hWO, 8u]>puBe a \kku i"f liomo* 

Fig. is*i ij,^mH>u& liglit. tiwi i*, liiihl of 

color. Ifl lUotrcfl to fiLll f vrExjnilJL'ul aHjt iipou tbc uirpcr gkn : 
« portion will 1w refle^-ltfJ IWhii Ujc Lovrtr wirfhcD of tbo Irm 
ukl ft portion tk%an Uic upfior ttuifaw uf liie towi-r gloHft. 

Tlir raciln*4 wliiali 1b Tfji> |Hqm 1 if vdtiian atiUr ivo glaMfnritfait 
U a itarL flrouUr rp^il ; M > n>rliiiii ilmtftan from il, the two aeta of 
firflritrlnl wnv(«. m llitj gi.i Uij^rtLfrr lu l]i« pyts vill luTn (ha an*t nf 
oM Minciding with iho dcpf m ton <if iu>otb«r, AVd th** HTm* triU h» 
itarkiim, <ir ttierr will \ifi a Mvk rliig fennvd- A BulP fiirtha o«U 

^lf> Wl. 

color u ihtr b«Lm </ lig^l- F^nrtbrr rtill from tbc <vriEn> tba orviit» 

Hh-^ a|>lK*aranc« pn*«^>iUi:l Uj th<- vyu ^411 be A atrial of 
Hntcn, riork And hrit^lit itlUTTintrU', nn rv^pn^ai^nti^i in Fip' 'J^t- 
Ifyrllow light lie iwc^K wr shnll hnve jillemiiU'ly dnrk niirf ^-i>U 
loM niiipi ; if nil llg^lit, <Urk luid ml nrigi» : ami 
oUitT (x>lorb vrilE i^ruduoL' ttiuilat rvt>u]t9> 

ir« iHwm <pf nE>]nr iJLf'iI ip nhi^I. (Mirli ling will l-vk'' 
(ha roinn of Iho BpccTniiii. — vioIk on ihf i^iiu*f ■iIli , 
and mtou the oiitFT, in vr^tt trfthrir nfraJit^ibiliUcsi. 

Hf ttiiillTij^ tho itilj-knAW if t,ti«i la;^ tti Air l»«iw»wii 
tho ivi> |tU«*mi tbD wnvcvltn^hs liHn; bim icunniiii^l. 

The pokmi (ft flniJy (pmvinl •uffirm ilw tin*' tft i!iifrftf™n« 
Th»0 culura Am iudcpcodrxil <yf the pfiyaioil -^tm ilalion of Ihc feoilj , 
Afid dppmrd Kilfly oa thp fliK>nr» nrul ib«pr nf ihr gmoTML 

The pUj ofcolorv iip-m uioihtr-*nf'p™rl in Ino tfi fine irrooTw nr 
mna, u mHy b« nhriwii 1>; Mklni; aiit ii]i|irT*w1rin nt n film* nf it hi 
vbtie wtuc ; Ihi^ culoT* uf tlir u'liE, Uhio pr<'|uircili jlfo f^lirtly adaJi?- 
gnoa vlih thiMO of lb« tJN^hirr-jif-p^Arl fn>iii whlrb th« linprr-iutfon 
ws* ukoD. 

Thft hrillUnl mlorv orn»iifi|i4mhMn arr ilai> fo tbo InTprfnrmnn tit 
iho tvti MU uf ti\j* timl nrv rrrtlopttU froin iho alter MmJ iuQcT aur- 
fjwn of the Aim llml cctiulJUiliu ihr? babble 

Tlip ctfl"rn<if ihb [iIaU«« likfl the film f<f ^ on wat«r, rtio *plon' 
flhl «olon of the «A;itnining« of itiiOu«<l tmil. lUc irhlMm'ni dUjtlHyv uf 
fmctnrrd «npnnl»4 xad lb« lib*, lUV ■!! Jua to inurCoNiiicv af llj^bt 

430. Diffraction. ^ H'hirri ti^ht pub^cB lliu rd4^-d of 
opn^icio liocLiuH, lliu hNiiinuuH ru^\« n|'pi>&r lo betMEuij bent 
nnd lo i-nit-riht- nhmlow oflhe IxhIj. 

If u lu) uf llifhl t'tufft li.v :l vrrjt xufhll apcrturvr into a dftrk- 
oii«(l rtXfin. and an ik]>Hrii]^' Tjodv he |tinovil in it* ihc lUmdow 
Uml il c-vU will be iturroLLii'.leil vlUIi iH>]on<iJ friugCM, 

lftb« hvt^ Ihi h !uiT cir tinff nknIaJU wlTt*, 1hi^> vlll rot ^^ntj ti» 
BKltfnfir fritiiroii but akt m «f rin df Jjirk ami ooViri>d Uiun)* [u lb* 
ftti^- ^ ItM^r, irhkb oro otUod iolerinr rring<s Thpu pLcaaDQcmi 
uvtluif itptlw iulcirfcm»ftd'%hL 




i IK-Iiiiiliim. 

^^^^^P AVhitc-LciijkUib /^itil {UAm. 

^^^^_ I. II5 iHv rruiiML 

^^^^^B Hjr C"itrfti« Uirrnr. 

^^^^^f 4- l^f lUTolutiooBotTjurflxiiirl- 

^^^^^ tvpluJiAlioiit ftf the Nntiinil L'uliir nrtbilUv. 

^^^^^V Ei<ur]|>ln to iUufllfaUi < 'ifUir- 

^^^^^ BodiiH 1)114 iTHiwiriU iUtUtr dllTi^iviit friaii tTiAt wlilrk 

KtjilutiatJon orTyiiiUll. 
Moihod of pnilucin^ tlic«c LibOk 
rfte .Spfftrtitfnpf. 


X'lr Mrtnli 4)l«i«<itfrr>l ^v Xlw SfHfli 

6o4ic« <>pa'iiv ic ILij* tJbrj anil wbfo Incnndnovt- 


431. Doubl« Refraction- — Cormin cTj'ftinlMnp Atib* 
HljLiiu-H Iinv4? lilt- {xjwtT uT sejiaruUng a liTLiMiiiitUHT LtouJii iiitu 

ii«^n tJiroiigli llicm np- 

ill >u. :rj2. Thin |>hc- 

tuoiit of the Uxly, wljii^li 

Til- 'J^G, 

Fie len 

li> Jiwvtf diiT(<n*nt lipgrees of ckjiiidty In tlitrL^rt?iil dirvctionv, 

of il^ubla relnuEtiufc ^'"Hrna. lu vrynuU r^i; \h: ri^iliii«0 by ctL^ciPi^fc 

M aliowu iu tho f]|Eim<' 'Vhn |urit- 
rJiv aiT MfdirML'txiinLlly nrrAni^jt 

-^ci). imliliiAix^lftUhPniti, 4111 

rsugomcut (if tlm mdlivEiki^ llii> 
fmm>iiniJtii|E vQwr in fuJitwi^l 4I1I1 
■liffinivnt ^04:n>f« fJ *larti"rily In 
nni*'<|inriiM of tVtr iin«f|tin1 dJWti^UH**. the t™Ti*niUtiH! vmtff k 

Ithfimnu^Qa (Ff .Irtn^-ln wlYnrlltm. WhfW Uip I'liLslifit^ U lhf» p*«l- 
wt, ili« vnUciiy U ilki^ icKAtuI and tJiP rcfnwtion tii^ Uvut* nnd Ih^ 

Tlir IW11 pATtA lEito v1>icti n rAy 15 diriilrd Jo not worv M«4rrdiri^ 
(« Ihi' iBitTi*- liiir, f>ni' fi»||(iin( bolti Ihp Uw» "f rHfmfitJriti alnWy 

l^mrral thitiu,fnllii\f t*hhM i»f tlniai^ tnw* ; It k i^Uod thp nrfrflflrifi- 
KOfy rqy, Wli^^n imniiiRliiilrin l»k« plnft> in ihr Jirortkni *-f iho 
utU tliO two rnyH «ilnnUli\ ut»\ ihln dlnvlloti fif nr>'fto&fF nifrxrUfm 

fn Uiif fl\ia, tlie two np nrr m^xrl M'|qimU'(t» IT nv luru Urr ^^mr 
r..Tm-! (1-V anc*), iK* im^wr PtiJuk Vy tJ»"> f i(lrn.tnliiiaTy mj wlD to- 



Tb« dAM of bo^iea lo <rhlaK UoUnd Afta bvOongs luira 

In k]1 nyvUilii whnriho cooJccvlu orv utt gro<Dp«l olikcv iWcIm-. 
ttcitjr of Ui« oltwT ii uol tiM Mni#> ttud J"ul>Lv rpfrvtiuD ownnu kt 
wlU muA double Tvfiaciluiii but vniler will nutt <liUB aboi 
furvDM armoUcukr n(THit^m«nL 

433. PolarUAtion of Llgbt. — If a hram itt 
Uflu»HJiVtcU Uiruu^U a cr^^tnl vf Jucluiid ji^itr, ibc {jvita 11 
whioh it U <llvt(i«d liiv of oquuL inteiwity. Jf odo ortbcw 
jiurlji Tte trniifirnilL-il itinm^i h iht^i?oritT tT^^tai* tli^^ f>ArU into 
nhh-h il id di^iitii jire or uiioijiml bii^nultT. nnil Khe cle^re««f 
incqunlit) dt^jJvtitU qh Uic rc-Jiilive |Xi»U)oi»of llic crj'Bli 
llcuvo li^lkl timt bftA bo«ij liouLly rvftEurUxl (lilTcrm iVoia 
ligj)t ; it in juJariud, or, Lii oilivr volx)«. it Liu ocquirvil n* 

Thv vibrntiutH that coiuijtiKi< li|cLi nir Ifonffwrvaf; that b. 

im {ivrpi'iiiIiGubr tu iho dimrlinu uf |iri[i4^tloii. In amiqvwi 1i 

ibc vibnuiow iV\ti- tfiM)tAhi>|i1 
kn rT<-ry pwhiUl*' ilin-nimi n'riKtKli 
tfilh ilia tnw; 111 puJoriiAd Jifflit 
rnbv pUr« ill imlf iHi« (UnvikM, 
MB fltl U irtiC pUae, mUpJ 
jtlnif f(/'|icjIanfnifkJit. 
Pig, VV4, CffiaNi trpta^ Imin' Itm 

of oftua^ng tl»o*B iniM^wrw ^Ihrailfuw of unliumj l«bi iuW 

f«l> hi ntflit augUe t<i muli <)0«Tr (Fi^- SW)- 

Od« of Iho mm 1ft more rrtftnUi! llinn tJit *«btT iii i^nwinf thnmi^li 
crjsUl, aud U |frt»nJTr lif (W^WMry ray- wTiifib ha* b«n ilwinn 

433- PoUrlacd Light «nd Tourmaline^— Light U U»i 
studied by allowiifci: U U) inW |>piptniOk'ulftrly on a |>1»1p af Umi* 
nmLioc, cut imralkl U> ili" ftxb of Oi^ <-rj»tiil^ ^Uicb n pint*- 


ftUowa no vibmtionn to pout ^voopt lUoy b<- panJkt lo tJit? 

bc<lim fjill |»rriM'iniii'uliiHy on n bh> 
orul philc. niruilar to Uiu firet. If 

triLiiHniittt^d ; if tin? uxvh sltv |irr- 

pcmlbutiu' to vocli utbcr, lite beam 

U irliollj iflkrciplwl ; if the nacc* Fin OT- 

uri? oM:j[iic to t>aoh oth«i', tlus biuiDi la partially traiumittnT 

Jim\ pnitijilly iiiU-rci<|iU'(l- 

Tbl« cftn be r«nl*cr ilhistraU'd hy Fig, !(37- A wwl rti>- 
rcfi«ht two f^Linf^ nith iNu-alkl liaiSi comBpODiIing U) tbv 
pl&lti of touruiulimv /' U n 
(■4iri1lHjiinl i^j>r[VJii>L>m)lng to 
tliu tr^mverec vihr(ktirjii» of a 

Itciui be EVAdUy flivn tfint 

tlir vnrllosil ptrLliKi |iaHN?i 

U the T'<*1nrU(^I my* tlio vibmlionit boiog oil in out* pUne- 
It U evident iitto tlint it cniiiioL pD» tEirO^h tbe Liar* mt C 'm 
Ujvif |irrwiiL |HmiUinK 

That whli^lj ^larL£i>4 llglit Is c«ltud a pottxri^tt^ ami wlmt- 
orpT i« u»Oft U> (?\amLno ftolarljecil light 1b tnlkd an nnttlytvr. 
or UiC two totirnmUcii' plfttt*^ mfrttloi^. Tb*^ Itnt \a 9, poLar* 
iwr, the jiiT*itnl au niifiljxrr To Ii-hI whoLlii^r Hghl la (Xilar- 
izcd, it ifl unool ti^oliiwrvcitthKruebaiiftiiAlyMjr, And to iiotioit 
Khotbcr tbcTV be any chnjig? t>r linglitiicw a* Uto anoTyiwr U 

If th(* tnyvlliat har# |uihb<i| lhr<ni^1i n Cfyitftl i>f [inland H|MLr !>•■ 
Iralfil liy ft jilolfl iif liMLMiiiftjujr, U iii fudiiil tfiHl ihvjr iw ]4iWijic>il lU 
jiUiJrt which nro pftr|MiKlkiibr 1ij ea*h ullmr. 

Light maj bo |fi>Urlici) t> rodivlJi^ia lUiJ rrlVacLlun- Wo faar<» 
tf^tfi, w)i<^i a my «f light, ^ C, bJQi cu a ittifttfo icpanitiikir iwo 
iLiotU (Figr 1&6),iJiiit it \a vgamtoil iutif Iw^j ^Ku-Utx^iw U ^VAdn, 

Fit BOr 

CD. V rrfrw^tnl, an^ ttw nlh^r, VB, it nfMU& Wlim tbAW itr* 
imrtft nn.^ |>4T{H.'iiilJtuUr (■> CJtrli <>lliri, tli« cuiujlfd my » pi4jkri«rd 

JEk Jt pUofi fit ri|rl4 iLOgU* M 

l^hc rvlmcUaJ my in ftW po- 

For tcliu* iZilsi nnjtU^ I^M^AS'. AlAn/trtheruigte the rHtninJ 

By moAD* of liio itiicHcmuK of poTtrUc^I Iv^l itinay fcvMitiiil 

If wv |>1rtcw » tliii] >liitk iif [(^bujii npiu W- 

rtud ljjk>c cho »X« of (hi^ 

■iliM, iln'rt' will Iv ewii A 
-I ih<< i»f <«<>hirH<| ri(Jioi frui'' 
iTH^ liy a btttck rnm- If 

bWUp mi'l villi c(i\«TH of lN(' r\\\^ nr* Hiangftl luliirir eumfilniiiMklM^^ 
uor? . Kif- "i^ftl, 'J**li, n'|m'ei-Nl tliwr nvalU- 

PIr. :£W. 

434. Tho Toumn&llrie Plnc^i«. — Tlit* tM^vt mcrtbod 


lourmaliiKS t»rn witli Uic ilUlcfi, and con ha roUtd an*} U^ 
clinixl to luiich oUivr ^a uiiy ungU. 

Tito diikfl Jtrv prf >riil'i<| iu (l^c iviiirr* bWkeucd. snd niouiitrd 
In a frsiiK* <kf rrjf'iJil i^iuJitl ni wu' wni »iri uh Iu rimn a ifiruig *ihI pr«« 
fv*^^'' ibc^ tiiurnuiliiufL 

»rU on ■ polArncr, vtd th« mIIkh- wi aa uiwlj'ctr. 

4)5, Applications of Polnrijtcd Li^hl, — PoUritnlSon 
«Btbl*s UK Jft kijuw i^hi.'thi.'i- iliv^ li^lii thai <v^rtK*« I0 im Tfoai 
u >ki]lRa«iici- in ivfltt-ti-d fmui ite MJrfjK'iT. Wi» (".an ^Ec^tprnilTir 
Ibc ti|[bturUji^ tK'avrdy bulicH in tlii« way, like ihr ciooPAikd 
p1ttn«to, whkli A\:n<\ ilio i«iin'» ni>«. IVluKeation U eUm ii«e- 
ftit in anc^ttAirtiii^c iho itAiuic or i>ri,><-k)iJH ftU>rjL<« ami iu iitu%- 

Jf ft beam (/ p^'brin^l Ujifhi V (uuHod ilirvnijrU % trntnitiin <>f rjint>- 
MljpiTi ihi^ pUnr L/}iiJjLrU^NMn vvill bo riiCAlod iHWiknl* llio iiwlilt i^ 
ibruogh fruU-iugur, t-iiriirdu tli*} left ]ty Utb tnotLuri tUu ueh'iutiI 
<ff purr foigar tu *irujia <rE *vlulii-rlia caq be lU^uuitn^iL 

4^6- The Rainbow in n bHIIiftntly coloi^ trc, rorm(?t1 
b^ tfJUeii^iM tvfrfKtion^ uiid dhpfrtian of tolar lig'lit b)' rain- 

Tt La ni*rriiA»rT tn tht* EV^nunUoti of Uic bow thiU the liuii 
nhoiiU ihtno nlmii tJic drupe arr fnllLDi;, uml tUat llio vb- 
«cr\i.-r ibuufd ntd-Ti'l ^itb lii« l>iK'k lo Uio «uii, IwiwecD ttjc 
(1ni|vt and thtT htm. 

Tnu rHAir>t>ciwft anr i>rUrii oWi'vM at Iho »nind time; the 
iniK-r nnil 'jntf1it«r 'ini: h catl^l tbu pttntari/i the outer ami 

KI^, 3i>f Kbfiffx till? n^Ttntt nf thi' rnyit in tlifr f^inniUtjn of 
n mmbr-Wp It will be clifuncd Ihut in llic cnw of tbt ■«?• 
oDilur}' ljo« till* rn^B i^miiii; ri-urn .S>^ toiri-r itvo lvlHi>- 
lioTMaml tvLX) r^fltfctioua hi the Oix>]jii, i^nnd r, tf^^foiv reaching 
[III- iiye. Ill iJjL- luiuifti^' <1ro[i^, r niiil i'« Uw t«^«(^^ac(^ 9' 9" 



If^lit Is l<x»U mill Uie bow Is bH^Ui. Tlic tcauU U. IIjaI Hk 
osicr^nt iiglit ia roeolvcrl into the nCTcn prwomtio coU>» tiyr 
Nich l>ow. cnlj tlioso i>rtbo iienondAn^arv in Uio tvwnwortltt 
of til*" [irimnrj' rjn nicvniititof Uw^ kilcfilJoiul n-llrvtkMi. 


la iho pninarv lif'V, violM ocrupio* Ui« iii«i4«t >*^ Uw oMiUc 
Id tbr Ki;<jniljij>> \iiilrl Oic iHJUhJtf ftuil ml ibe jnBldt^ lb« bt tf i t -^ 
rllatr 4V>lon tuliJTi^ ilif-ir ]>ro]>fT unlcir- 

437, The HAnner In whict the nijv comn to Uh^ ej'o 
^rn ihi- fti-t i?i) (1m|M u» fimn the finiDJirv bow U sbowD hi 

ill ift hitnllnr wny oxc^ tliml 
Ulc i*j-e cnU-lm lbs ml my 
fh>iii Uie Unit <ln^ mtktl « ic>- 
lol fVoni the »«TimUi, ibc 
InlfrniMxllatf* (limpa Airmbh< 
illK tiiHr T<^»|)rrtivL' mviL 
or conrvc Uic »cvtn cln^i* 
»TC ■!«>%« tb« afivtfn of Ui« prtOkftij, 


of 1b« M4X>[idin^ tioi 



Tho oolorcfl rft3'9 from each tirop ih^l do not readi thcr eye Are 
uhown ill \h*t ]ig;iini. 

'Hki f/^ ofMriipU'F n p<itation on a linr whirh. if produrcdr |«MC« 
lhr<:>i]|£h liip nun mirl (Iih nqilm ijf Th*' ruiriln^v Hrrle, 

Th^ rtti mj4 or lhii |»rifnjir7 ImiW im llif^ iinrrfcfi- fnrm llio ilmpA 
iiinkr nil aiixLu wll^i ihf i^iiii'm uvyt< \tt A"!'"", thr Um' nij« »I0\ hikI Ui<* 
'"■ibcr jvilon 1ic1w^4m;ii ihvH. Tb^^itlfl'oTcnl ^ulun will Ud wta LnATOKif 
cuuHDuic drclc«t ilic oiiicrguuL myt lunhLn^ ilic cuDiUmi imglM Jiut 

The hiiBl«i wTiich the nija i>f tin; niwudftrjr thhV* hf* Urgr Ihim 

A» dw Miti |E(>i« UtwAnls lIui iMrJJH'u tljtr Ww fWb > vlwu jt ii Jn 
the hoTlsoD ii tVinni a wimwrclfl. 

If tltt 9ua U 1h-|i>ia iJjd huriiou anJ l^m obcurvci an ad clffVAtlmi, 
1l)V whole bour rnar bt^ Hvii. 

Thr pnmarjr Ltiw lilMppiNin if tl)« auu is tnon tEimi IS"^ abovv Lbc 
ImHcL^u ; UiV HvniJArj, \t (uvru than Sl^^ 

Simjc Ihe iwaiiivri of the miiiUjir di'in^mlfl upon tUc Oirco- 
lion of tic enn'B ruja niul tU<! ixjtdUou of Iht; obftvrvor, uo 
two prsoiie ftC'C [>N*clsely t)io earnp how, alihongh, If liicy 
■jv ii*»nr rogPlZiPi'T ilip !n)wi4 vi*rj' nrarly rfllnrMn. 

Tb« rui»1x>w* of ftiiy two •LKxtvmvc momenta arc n;>t tht 
fomc, for thf" iln>pA that form Ihctn arc conslantly succeeding 
one jLtiotiiLT iu rtL|>l<l Aac<o«s«icti- 

Wo oftcTi firr ihf riiliiin i>f i\w ntlnlii)* in llio ilcwEln>p» [n Ickliv, 
in tlip iM that islVn d<^h<> dui i^i'tirH snd bnnEhn of tio« in wmtvr. 
Thir rijlirv drnliT »f rHilibiiwii n^y h- mitu iu Llimiirfty llmt nrlnii fmni 
'utAfiiCtA^ Tho hAlufl cfL<iu urn oroand tho moon APd Kinoiiiu«i 
iLjifiiihl ttit^ »un arr »u|i|Hip»ri] Li bii iIlic Io rcAi^linut niid rofnurlJiini 
of the LgliL 

438. The Properties of the Specinim- — Tho aM-en 
rw^H i-mmiL-ntint diirLT in illiiniUuitin^ imwiT. \\\v inUUIle n*>-!t 
being thoM which puewcds ttie gi^at^t illmnihnUTii? power; 
Uwt i<« t^ mocit f>i>w«rfull,v illummiiLiii^ ruyst Ik' riiidway be- 
tween \\w heuinii^ Aikll^iL-iLvtimom^-H, »tt^f ivlv. in rh<\vi.'llow. 

If a therin<.itLiL-lt*r lie hv\i\ foL- a Uuie IwUw ^\!£^v«evV iv^»x 


heginiiing »t tlie violet, it will show an IncrtftM^ ot h^al till it 
ooinvH oiitaldo of th<j n4 ray*, whvn it i8 gruMteot. 

Tti« AClinlc rn^K nm tiioHe that pr<N)iic«> cIiciqIoaJ dttSgcA- 
If a Nl.ilp i.»r pajuT, |>n-|jnn^f1 wiUi nilmto of «llver, be planftL 
In Xhf uprctniir, it will be Ic-jut <^hnnf^ ui iltc red. and In 
poHA if ■){ toward ■ tito viok<i vud Unt i^hiLngv will incrnLftc till it 

Jii Kit-- ifF^F' vf(i tiAvit n-|irk^Mutto>l liy mt^nM of furvc* lli« rcUiIw 
Im^^niilllrja of ihn ihfM* jirrtppnl™ of tlw* ipemjDm. 

Tho myi bolour iLf rcJ c>f ihc HjicolroTTk, (t ultm-red nijm, ^id 
l}i<«u AboYHilivviulL-Uurulm-viiik-l nij'ivDnf cAlI«lrijinMbJrnfyi, ta 
diifr.JrigiiiAb llu'm Tiviii Ili<< ci^kiroiJ pvrtiouv of Uio vfvi^njjn, wiif«h me 
c&Uvd lljtf nsiCjfc iciy«- ;Slfk[ly aiicaktuu;* liuwc'ver. mr rajn arv tbl- 
ble <ir knvlfllblc ; Ll U not tho fny* ItiJil iin.> »cc») bui tho ol>jr<tB ihvj 

439, Fluorescence and Calorcsccnce- — If the iihrt- 
violet rftj'a aro permitti^ to fail mwjn c«rUiin itubiftiincv«, u 
RUlpli&Wnrc]iiin]ne, fornx^miilif, orcoiiuncin p&raflln<><itL, OiHr 
n-fi'angitiiUty is 1ow(>re'1 anil Uicy become ItimincMis. 'M% 
vbiin^L' is t-alWi\ jiii'trraffice^ ibv name havinfi bccil crlgd&iilljr 
BUggevtodbysvfkrloivofnrjorsparidiiclipnxIcc^A thcuOM. 

Tji]<laU I1ZLB »ut'CvedLHl tii raining Urn rvifhutailnHLv nf 
nltrvred rayM niid in innkins tbcni VLaibk, IJ0 broncbt 
mjB oT tlie eloctna lnni|i to a focii* E>y mcaiks of ft rtllccilor. 
and Uien sti^xHl tkic luminooR T%y9 by IntupovlDg a r«Bol 
of imk-MAlL «)iiULliilrig n M>Uttir>Q of kxliiic- He* fbuixl tint 
a pTccc of pUtHnnm foil wIiom br\iugtt into tbc fonin wa« 
hvaUxl tn U)caiic|i>tixniot.s nnd ttiuic t-mittMl li|>;^t lu %v\\ nn 
tb«at. Thin tmn^formiLlion of ihirk lu'at-ra\it to light he mTkd 
ruZorrjirnvrfl, SuuUf^bl wiU pnxbcv vifiiibr elf^lB, tut Urn: re« 
aulta arc not »•> [narkt:il- 

440. Chromatic Aberration. — The ligbt tbal falhoa a 
Icna is d4?conii>o»cd Into eolorr^ ravs of dM^ni dr^r««a 
of rcrran^bititj- Thc«c m^ mv broiij^ht to diflVmit fod 
'j,'.^:jkr iJic axUr gl^'^ii^ ^^i^ tu Ik u»\\Utvid« of v^dal fumgvji 

i, I 



iinagt' ttli^lilt; ijHlMliikct. and fringed with aJl ihf cuiura ul' 
Uic fl|xctrunn. Thw scBltcrini; of lliu colored toj« to (lllf«ront 

my*, IwLii^ low ^ct-uitcHi 
limn thi:<Jthi:^r»,iire !>rvui;ht 
III II f •oat bryiuri th*»iri 4f. 
r, iihiltf lIiv vjuli^t i»yH, 
bitjug iniir* rafmiiglljLti 
lluiu tTi« Mh«f4, An> 
bruuglit to A fiicu* wiihiii f^„ jjy^ 

Hnri r iht in<iinn^l^aTi> tsilrm nrn nUo hmiiighi ut fikd. 

441. Achromatic CombiDations* — An AciinoMAnc 
C(>Miii>ATU»N consiriU or Iwo ur iiioft lon^os ol' iliir^rvnt 
kififU f>f gliUA, ^o f-i)iistnt{ru^il Lis li> iK-LitrAtiKp ihi- f.-irrc'l of 

Thc onm^inntinn viflanJIv coiunnld of twc lenses: n conies 
K'nn mjiiltr of t-ruwn g^iun*, nuJ n toncttvo !t*n« toihIo 
■if illnt i^lrv^ ■■ ahDwn in ¥\%^ ROti, Flml glnt^ili^- 
pcivc* lit^lit more than crown *;laas. 11;ic cuiiiLiuj^- 
tion. luviDj£ iU thid&c^L pnri nt the middle, i» 
t«GvcT|tpnt. Thi} difljH'rsiiJn of lJi« I'jys by ofio of 
tli^ Ic^riBUS in nxaclly n^iitnLllzei hy a <liftpereion of 
iltpfo In lui ciiip(>Kitc wt^y, ao UtuL iIil' liiiug^ la nearly 

S^b «oinbiikJilioQi t>r |/-n»» nn> mltM ackromoHCt ^^^ ** 


DphniUi^Ti Li}i>i IlluiirniK-i; by Fi([uraL 
Cause ofl.'vublo JE*rtiM:tn.pii. 
Ohltiijary mhl EilnvnliiiBry JCafft. 



VitniiuD* of Couiuion and PolAfiicd Liflbt ibovtt hf 
Srijur^iiiiKj ^f L'ummvn Light into two 8oU ai B^lrt 
]\iIiLri:t>H] l-iglii ii»il T»iir»iaJ1n«, 

ItellEiillOTL nitd KX)il4iull<iCiarTpnni. 

[MiiHittatcd 1>j t'ueuro. 

In clplrruiLuing the I^irity uf dUfptf' 

The SainboK^ 

ttvtimiU^ and CouiUliuni *it Formutiov 

I'ljd Hmiini^r In whirh 1J»» lUfs ft««h iho Ky« «i| 

Why tKo Hiiw U rirrnUf. 

RnlnlKifl- CtAim w^n in nrwdn<|i*, T^lrlr*, t^a. 
Praprrtia trf tKc Spatrum. 

H^jit, Lmnivotiif, And Artinit*, nrCh^nituIr Raj^ 

iVibUiun* tiritviiiintd in IIm fipi.MrtnuD< 

lFtfUilvk> Inii^rikiitii* lllaatrMc^i fay t'lfcum. 
Fluoracena and CrtlomecncR 

KipUnjtiioni Uy lilxpchmpoU' 
C'AjY>nfTfi> ,1 JNTnirkcm erpkjitttd by Fiffrw. 
Adirv/iHUtc CuPtlnnaiioru crplaititd &)r Ftfiirtt 



442. Optical Instniments. — II10 prup^rtieti at inirront 
and louftCA liiuf ivl io tUo oonntructlon or n gr^Ai vurk>iy of 
InMirmneriLs, Mlilrh» 1i> liKTi-it^kng tlir IJmiU i^r ti«kin, Uuxc 
u|ivuci to our senses two new wcrUi tlint hft4 cliw rvDHLLLwd 
uiikoowii lo fis, tUc on« on account of iU mintilcncM and Uw 
otlj<^r on acooiml ofiU iiumt'«'<iiy. 

4)f Uif u|itii^! iiHLruiUL-iiis, Uic luunt usurul ttml intcrtwting 
are nticrott^o^a ami rf£»c«pfi, 

|{c>bt<1«a iUe»u a ^'At vfiiicity cr other tnflrtmionU liavu 
boon fl**vlj«*d, fiiirli nt^ tlii- mfTT^r AifiVm, Uio phfitfi-fUrtrU i»i- 
cnnrtipt^ 1|lC fi^r mijcr9S«tpe, tiici (cnt«/'a oAfcuru, and tiio 

443- Microacopca. — A Mii:wim:iii'i: b uaod for viewing 
near objcoU. 

^B 444. The Simple Microscope, or mugnifyliig-glAse, 
^^hsdiwbU uf ft doub1('-ootiv«v \vt:ii of HlioTt fooal d^atiwc!^- It 
P U ii*tinll> ML-t in a Jlrniuu ufititUl 01 i*r Uuni, nuJ litlJ in Uie 

TI10 f4ijccl U pinful KtircviL llic Lfob and iU i>riiHU|Hj fuctw. 
The Imo^c ii rrcN^tf virtua], atiiI inni^nifiHl (Kig 'J7H^. Tlio vI^uhI 
Mi^y an\iU^UsM tj Oiu imoj^o u grvntrr tlinii lliat »u1>lfiii:tl«if 1>jr iLko 
crfijovt; hcTuo tho onlHrgornml nf lh« liiiAgo- 

445. The Compound Microscope ron*i*l4 o«ontitilly 
of A douhlp-rniLTi'x Ivix^ ciillix] ihi' u^fr/-Jnu, ixvl u nuLvtiil 
Ooiiblt'-c-t^DVCX IcEw called tJic eyt^pieet, 

P[^, 3(^t> nho^ii tb« iiiGtrumi^nt iu aeutfon, and lu&kea 
known Uui tviirtt* of Hui- Tay*. 

The oltjt-t.l U> tw obwrvod ia piacnl at 4t, Urtwccn two 
ofgtjua upon a buppott- tf i^tJic ob{<:^trlcLi:4, And IIm 

r-e^)Leoe. Ttio objetti u, ttoing plv:^ i^ UUkia \»l-^<»^ ^Iim 



prind|ml focii>t of Ibc o^j«H-gUM< thi* I^ns prmlnoQta mt 

&, kfloo pUcvil Ibal its pHnriiMl 

TIhf cy>m]>ntinrt miri'OHCOfw 
t-tib thti biLU|j|e tn iii«|pibytii|E 
povrrt l>cciiu»c wilh it wo cxDjniMt 
nol tlio ohject ilAvir Uii itn pit- 
Ifliyctl iuu^rv or it- Thfs niagnl* 
fj'iiig power of n micft»cop« U 
g<»nr<nUkycX|)r(<we(TlnfAa««irrr«, If 
it niakm thr ImwlUi at tlm »:>I) 
ap[HMU- too timee a^ FCn^iLt bji 
ivnily in. It U nnkl tn nijkgnll 
100 iliiunij^lCTS. iliv dt^rCiicc tric^ 
mi^nUivi) 100^ = 10,000 UiDcik. 

r^rfiifiuiiuil uiirtUiMpcs arr nt«. 

liWO JJjiiTiiTUiftt; bai hW bjtmlacdin 

J'tji' tuiif^iryiuK ptivrr itfiroJto U| 
nil ihv I'bjvd-UiUk Thb pomr b h 
ttchahI by r«imbiinniK tw tir tkfWf^ 
tctm^, KB atMttii ill //, va Ihc ri^lil "f njc-OOG. Ttin c3i^iii«ro m 
ikbJ^pt'Kliu '-fli>ri nonijRt (if tv-iti'f in-inn trntar*, w tSa|^ lHjw«v«t, 
Ik iln^b ti-iiA. fur thr |iiir|HiM^ nf fOii]til|iii|r tlir drirci atlafaif 

The inn^[iif}LiiK L—mi' i>r llir ritiii^uml PilflrowOfift fa t^^lil 
Ihfi mngiiifyiiJi; powen of the iva g\amir%^ 

A« ilicrc a nu uuro \t^}iX on itii' ina^ificO imogv iIlUP cflt ike 
Jiwt llinlf. t)t»> <il>Jrri tiiniii Wi acnniitly llliriiiiikiiiiiit, >ij ittai th* di Aem^ j 
li^ht 111J15 W liulRci^'iit U> \i\ct\ itic rff- T« u<urr xhU* %Ue objMfi 
"Vd r/TT//«jAi;T'ar, b ilTiimtuuiliMl liy a tii\tT"c, M k^i:- ^iOfl!), 

Fig- 3W1. 



^»Tiff ntrftt« l^f lifiht upon it. Whpn iJw «lijrcl ii frpnqDr, It can bo 
illamkEuir<i \^^ 1 1riin.vluflh <\>TioMi1nr*« il>r rnvv li|v>ii itfrvin nWr*. 
The iniivvHrf)ir iji uAod li tho AltnJ; ii Uritanj to iliw^fr Iho 
Ijivi of thii Tv^i^bltf «nirU; In fvloiuotitgy, to mitiily tlip IihLlU of 
ijiinuliT iusi'ftfl ; Ju ADtlumf And incdidao. to ■IlkIj' tliv Iahv vf itni- 
iiml pTiy-irjL-gj ; In lhnntt»-t4) j1Lin>vi<f thi? «i|npcaitl-mofmLlliTr««; 
in fitinuim^, tii> Jrlcot tho tinturr of Kluff» ; aiii) «ii oq, Iu qm l« 
almrm unlvfrriiflJ, 4^Uh^^ u kh iiiBtraiTir-ni of mmrcTi or <if c<[irkttlty> 

446. Tc1cncopei». — ATrLKJWut'xbiaiicipiiai] itihtj-iimrnt 
for vivwiu^: ohj«.'i'iH nt u (li^taxkcc. 

TclcBCvpVB tOAy \j^ dli iite<i tttto tnxf douVBi nfra^'n^ telo- 

Ii; Uio firal cIaj^ a 1on«t cfillcil the f'^W-J«n#, iv t-inploj^ 
lo forca an Itnnfii' ; in thn Rcir^iid Ha^A a mirror or a|>oinili)ni 
l« omplo^'CHl ft>r thi* iwrnr piir|jrwf* : In l»nil». tN' im^^c formrd 
l» lipivnl hy n lens, or ixjnibitiatluti of It-iim^fl, caIIc^i] lh(^ cj^iy 
piece. Till? miinnt^r ur urrLtit^nn^ tIa-M- (MiDiJc^ncnl patt«, 
loicotlu?r uiili the DHtun of flio jiiuLiliury piecui emplo^'cd, 
ilptormmiNft llii." purticiilar ktnil of IrLcsf^R*. Wl> will Artt 
cstt]:4idei' iJit^ it.'ln;i.'ti]i}^ teli-HVfiL-H. 

447. The Galilean TclcscopCi riMEU.Ht from \u tUuft- 

aiijtvf'giiMu. vtU'wh t\A\i-v1* tJic rnva finm iin <fchji>rt, mill n rfl»- 
■ru^e cye-^iooff. l»jr mcAit^ t^f rliifh tlic raj* fK»m cacli |*iiil of 
th^ object Are rcnclcrvd jiandIcK aad ctt|>iibIo i>f pnxluctng 
Ouitiuct vlfllou. 

Pig, 807 «hown Ijjp rniiTw ofllir m*-* In tltc* HjiHWn Irlo- 
)hc^ri(fe> IViicJb of riy* ttxtat points of the objcn:!. .4 It, TaXiinfi 
tipnii ihc oltjcct-kns, O, Arc co^vcl'g[^d h^- it^ tnd tenl Vi 



torn A rtm\ and inverted imofce boyoiKi tbo ryc-pioer, o, Tlu 
ooncAv« <>j^plwe ii plo^d «» a^ to (nu^frwpl tbe f»y* (*o«niif 
froiu till* i^ljjui;t<gljuia> bi-uif^ bl a di«taiK« in fnnit uC Uib io- 
vortt^l iin£i0:i-ci{UAJ^it»own prinri[ra) foe*! dUimw:*;. Incoo- 
MequeDOV of iim itmui^maal, the pencil of light comwg Iron 
A Ih r^nvcr^itl 1>y llu^ olJc-in-f^lnMs, »ihI» foiling upon Qw ey^ 
pi<-Ci\ fc* diverKcil antX rrfrncUil hq eik to appmr lo Uir cvr to 
voni«^ from i. In liko luaiinvr t^iG ]x*nc>) fVom if nppvon Iv 
tbo r_vp lo coini" IVoin If. 

*V\it- nniL^r- \» iTori And vlrtDAl, And tictqjjsf^ the vimiaI n^t* 
(Art- :f76) ij»df*r vhirh thi- iinA^ ii ««Pn it firr^U^ thaa thml 
vrhir-li llu- >f1»]«t wimLJ bt hcd without llio kJ«<«0(ipOj il 

Opcra-gliuBM an fiuiply tinlilo^n tcT««copef- The Icuglli of ilai 
t«b?ftoop« in «i]imJ lA th(k (lil&nnM oT iJa* fenJ length* of tb> 
lav ^'lHn»f», Auil tlicrvfrjTv hiui th« jkdfutngt of Wing nhim ud 


44ft. The Astronomical Telescope t^onniiU t-ii«piitiiil1^ 
of ttio emivei lenaet* tile ouo. o» bdq; the olitect-lnut, Bod 
the <jtli(r, C>, tbo oyc-i^«oa. Hm olt)«ot-gbM ronm ^n m* 
iH!rte<1 iniJigo of th^ object, whkh i« \i^i*«d bjr Iha ^e^fdecc, 

Fig- 3^^^ n'pnvi>nU tiii^ iHiLinu' ttt ihr ny% In tbU Itifttnu 
tncnl. A jicncil «f ittj"* coming from *1 i» convcrgnl bjr# 
lo A ff>ou(4, a, wMIe a ;) ri»m £ la brought t^ tliv fo<:ii«, ^, 
Id UiUmaiint^r Ute li>nH, f}. Tonna ad imagv* ' ^* <^'' <ui o^Mt, 

Fig, ao& 

J /J, which imfta*-' is ttftl nml iiivniwi. HiO «3ft-p(oo*, O, fa» 
pkunL ftl fl tIJetuiKV riuui «£ n lilUe IcM tfaM lt« pHiu.-i|nl 
IbcnJ (tmltfiiiv, Tbf jJifacU unuJii^ Ctvtu Uic poliibi vuhI i uf 
ibi: ima£««i(rtlVst:tcilaoulo:^p|frarb>coinvrromUiiepoiaU 



« atit! d. The vUiuil ririglo iegr^nUr limn it wouM be in view- 
ing tho oU^t-vt without tho U'L>(^i]>r, anil 4-oTiA?i)iionily tho 
otijrct 4ji|>cArM la he umgnifi'Td. 

Td iHJH, JU in nil ulliiT tj<)i'M4^>ji<tt. |}mi rvn'plivj^ ih t^ijcililif nf liftiiiij 
liiinf'tl hi IT dniVTj i>iii, M iit»k1>]o tlio t>bj*;fvcr w uccornuiuduttf It to 
ii?tir nn ui-|] wcLmUiiit iil>jrH'lA. 

liitwr :iji iMiii'S HH pH^iUi.-, junl xLioulit ^l- Mjiljcijumii^: (An. 441)^ 

T1*t nia" I'f i^>" ini*4r"> ^Qi'iTuai'* wjth in dlsiftnm (r<«riii Ih*- fllijftrt- 
lelju*; il tih-iiiM ihncfuEu lie of n'lmU o«<ii¥rxUy. that lu Tiica] JU- 
tAQM may be ni |;;T«il ■• pomibli.*. Thp r^t-picM fboijd havo 
yrfint mntiTxItj, auil iM^nAcit^tnilj' tthort lixaL Icnglb, o» U Joca the 

To flftd ihc TM^nifjriD^ poiper *'f n tc^lfWwpc, vet divide the focal 
Iffn^h of Uie objevT-ifflitM lij iI^hl nf On- I'^O'^l'iw- 

TMi lp[r«."ii»rH^ ililliro ftiim ihii inicrii^Lmpp in ihrw rt;*ij*ct*t ibti 
obJATt-ubic* i)f th^ t^tTiT Ifl fui mnull a* pouiblr, Tnry i?iinv*i>t, Mini 
aim FkM t^l^ obj^'^'t '^ ^*^ "^Arnii^rJ vrry ntiM It, m> I^ihI ibu inuiici? 
fiimLM in imw^li IwjcrtLil ilip prindprt] r>oui, nnit grrntly mA^lAtfd' 
CoutrrtiirEillj b<ilb oljjci?t-^bi» und cy^c-frhu nuynurj. Wbemu, 
Id the tclw^npt. thf hwivpriJv Iwidir^ I^JFig Bt iiii iinrni'iiFfp ilitrtjnw, 
the Ipfidcnt MTd :ifV pnrullot, anil tb(- iinAc^ fi^nncd la tliu priixrijiAJ 
ftwin of ihPf ftbJiwi-Kljim lj> xniiillct (hun iho ohjort lt#rlf. Thft ohjivt- 
fpLuA bliot u hu been nAtcd, u on large u f^banblo, ban vcrj liulu 
fuzitciliy, and iloni uo uiagnifyb^. (hi- eyL^iden- dt^tviK ihnt. 

Tbo Um[£tb nf tho MstroDtTDieflt t«l«««pti vquuts the #hdi i>f tlic 
fiiMl li>ii|;i|iM »f tbif twd ijluaiv. 

449> The TerrcstTial Telescope tlifFf^rs froni tli^^ a»ijo* 
iioiDical U^1««copv In hnvlng two luklitionLtl lou^i, wbiuli 

tosetber coiutiltito what \» cnllc^l ad errHiHfi'p9tc€* Tbu 
object of tlie et^oting.|ii*i,<7 U to invert ilio minffp rormcd hy 
thi? object ■ti>nx, H'l ih-tl objects mnjr Tippenr vr«ct ivhcTi vlcwvd 
tUi~o(igh Ihc LelpfiCC'i'r. 



Vig, W\i hIiowb tti« counv oT tho nivft id % trrrM^rid Ul^ 
Hon|)o. A H \ti thtft ii^'Mf« o U t>Hr oA;<vf-V»». m jumI h, lao 
convex IctiMS, conMitutc Utc crei:ttng-piccc. utd O is Uk 

Tlh^ «Tt<<!tiiig-|>ioci> fft vo |>lAot<fi ibftt itae dlsUaco of ttta 

A ]w»ci1 of mya fh>]n J, f^xUlttg upon the of^Jcd'lcDSt b 
u^nvcrgc^<l Id & focUB ftl lln? iowt-r t-nd of iho imftge, /; tho 
(H^mil |)nxvoi1Lng frvini / h i^nivf-rbnl iiiUi n ^H^nm liv iJv 
icM, m, directed ubUiiuclj- upnnrda, wliidi liciim ici L-««vrrg«xl 
to A ftH^iH lit f\ If) this nuii-iiM^r nn i^nxt iiiui^. ■', iii fonix^l, 
wliich U Ibcn % icwmi Uy ihv t^vc'iik'tv, U. TUo oy*>()iotv n^ 

Uir-iu npiH^nr b> iHiiiii- fnun a &. 

The oii^b iindLr v^Uidi a ^ ia h^ch b tbo n'^iMii cvfir, acni. 
Urin^ j^reaur thiin the imgto untkrr nliiL-h -I /f woukl tic dcvtt 
wiliumi lUv uJi'6cu|>i.\ tilt ubJLrt is inA^nillt'il. 

'Mill inA^Ttif)i|ii^ jhtwi* » thr unne 4b in \hc os^Ktvumt^} ic-lr- 
h>>|>i< (trmiiiuO iW »iirfiuu£ f^l^AXs* m noA n. have ibc MJMr cua- 
vexilj ^ ihp loss of lighi, hownxr, u i;mi«r' 

Tttc IrrmtriAl telu4cu|ic u iwcd al mm «ud OQ lud for iirvinff 

llhJWl» At H (l)lUAlK^ 

450. Reflecting Telescopes. ^ A Rilli-lvxttdui Tclc- 
M»i*i( in mir In whidi thi' imngir nf 11 ctUlAiil objoct H 
ronucd l>y int-'AJiB of tk rvlti^tor ur ii|>7oulueD< irhicti iim|[c 
ill Ibon vicwcfl by nn c>'c-piof». I'be cj'O'pWcc b ritbcr % 
ftifiglc IcnA Dr n rcuntiimtton oflcnscfl. 

One of thr llt»t ti4i^ii|x'A of lUh r1i^«rr(]4iofi wis r.^iiM- 
atnioUxl by ^EwrT>J:<, iitici ttfki n the only om of Uj« kiihl 
vrbkb iro «h&ll doftcribc \n iletail. 

451. Newtomon Telescope.— Flf?' StO^howa the teti^- 
MooLur of Ni:ft-tt>v iu vvcttoft. Bad indfccai«« th« GOdrw of Utt 

i# ^ ft (ambotic minxir {skxeat ftl Uv hoUon ol « Ion; 



t4)1>c. ThiA roHcrtor UtuUto fumi n dmntl imo^ ofAii object 
ftl ih*,-' otht^r *n\d tif the lubtv Bui Ltribn? Uiv ray* n'mih the 
tniugpi tiirjr nro iitu-rcp|iu>(l lij' u jtrijim of ^liuw. m n, ko nr- 
raiixti] lUtil till? r:t)ii ciilvr it% dntt IJui? without di.'FmU<>n. 
nnd Mrikc its suu>»tl tiux s<j (ut W be toUUj ivticctod, wbidi 
cuu»« Uiv iriiriL^e to bo foriLK^J nt i/'. T£io prlAm, m », n- 
|>|juvf( lliL- hii.'liiii.'i1 iiilnrir uhi^I (n lln- utti ri>rMi uf >'i-nti.iiii:m 

through ibt midn of tliv. lrU9<ii[K^ The cye-piroe in M% uLe- 
Mx>[M.' L« mode or lwi> pluio-cxfiivci: kn!tr». ns nliowii in the 
^gitrv, the cotntiiui.'d vlKvL of whk'h is lo onuae XU^ itnix^ to 
BppfArln xlipt poiliton BAy gl\'ing a gi'ont |iower to tliv t4fl»- 

45X Hcrschd's Telescope. — Sir William ICtKACHtL, 
&f LouHoo, modified ihf Ni^>vi/iiiinii tcb4LX>p<.- by indinhis 
Uio mirror, J/, so ft* to 1hrL>w the imftfn" t'> i>no tido of llw 
tube (Fig. 3U), where it cmiid hj viev«d h^- %, ixxii^j-v^t^Aw^^ 



cy^-pkcit tbc oboervero ha^k bciof timed tomuils Ite, 

453* The Hapc Lantern U vi n|ip&rfitus fiir fbrvring 
u|>oTi u ttorvviL i-nlarffv<l imn^'Ti orot>Jt>cU palnUHl on glAM. 

Ijcwil Qf A lx>\* ill Hihiclj ft Limp U pinccii Iwforc a rrttrdor. 
,lf,' tlic Ijfljt jK rcllix^Urd ufHjiiuK-Ji«, /-^ And Uconvn^rtl >oa» 
to illiimiiiat* ttrgngly Uio pUui «f glAiW* «** «iwn wbi«b tiw 
pit'lijn* in imliitr^K Fiii&lly, % ttktDlunstuii] of Iwu knwi^ m. 

Fig SI 1 

acting « & ain[f1i^*L\fnvrx Irtw. In |»lK(.fi] m thai thi^ |>1al«, a fr. 
thall be n littli^ bcjrtiiil itt pnndpAl focos. ^t Ui» <tiBlaiicr 
llic l<'niij« piTdnoE* {a* flln>wn in Fin, 277) n mognilkd *»d 
iiiivitiil iriiJ4:e of tJie pioinfp pn!m<^l nr Iho glu*. TlW pio* 
tiiR! on tbc kIom fthouM be iun^rtcd. in oiiler ihal Its iaia^a 
iDftj apprareecct 

Tli« iii»iicr oti ibt urntn will Iff' iIm- luuni miutjiliml » iIm* p1aln*ii i^' 
J^lpInAd)m Ihi» prhiripiil fwu» of tlv> pmtHMd.tid 1*m, m^ It »iJl 
aIb bo tbo Dii>r* moit^jficil ma llie rtiUtEM^juJ ten* IftivCMM Is 

Tbv mnffnirjiiig power of the lADtorn L* Tuuiul by J^tbUax th« 


of Ibe len'i m\, fruta Uiei mnjsfi b/ Jl» dlxuncn fmm the 

454- The Polyramo iind Dissolving Views- — Tho 
PitLTiuxA coDiiiKtit of tt (loubU- niMtfii^-laiiipnu with two wit- 
ofl" Mrrrriuk Hi.viiLviaicj ViKwn un; obtuliiul dv uaIii^ Itith 
UDt«fTie> Thua, if o ]nr*lunfOf a dftyligl^t Bc«n(! 1x- pnintcti 
on oric ortho alUJc^, ami or tho same ic'«no by itioiv>Li^l]l In> 
[fAlniM on \\w oltier, Ujt llritl pk-turv la thrawik iqioii iIjct 
arrvi-Q strjDg|> iUiitiiliiatcil. tim ether one bvlng viitii\-ly e^- 
clQd«4 hy A :>crvi!n tliAi ciiU ofT t^ic «ocond Icha. By ni» 
ftrrwi^omcni o|»-nLtod t>v titc i^xbilntor. the tiglil ■« giTitluulU- 
ciiL D(r fViitii Uio nnit pirtiirv jtiid whiiitlail apon iJii- m<<iiiiii). 
th« fint ikiLing away ioBcnnibly while th« kcoh'I un )£rii<!ii- 
alljr grovrn brightorp lit tliie wuy all tbo ^flct^U iuttJtotHliaU! 
beCwe«ji AiU dajlig}]! a^d full mooulisht m&y b« obtsJa«d In 

A voleuiD, i*alin, nn^ onty RiinnnniHnd Sy a Hgbt crnnrl rif nnnk^, 
\n^j be followed b^ • plctaro of the wuuo Wuino fcii'liUK f rrib wil- 
vfnrs uf ^mnw buiI •mokv. A ilnnn mjiy Imj inadu to mecvCid a 

BKlilillfi lAUdKipC-, AIhI 90 OQ. The iUtuiuD 10 oc^Eiplcte. 

Stun Ihv brightni<«B mf thtj imn^v diiikiniBhn »■ u'p tsDlirt^ it, onr 
niiimJoatjnt; powrr muat bp rvry grcaL IuhLmJ, tbcrerarr* of C4l 

tf>r liffht- 

Tbf Hq^suvjtim llplit iA inN't* hy h'lroHg n nhrrow r3l>1riiikof lliti 
mcul t )^ 10^^** * brilliciTil nml iln^Aljui: lii^fit. 

If Aplrooof aruJaki-d llin^ In plan*.! In a H^TTiAof mlt«il hj'(Iiri|B(^Li 
buil oJcy£«n ga«w from n Uaw-pl|it, * tlvi^l ti^^ht i; iho rc»tt)l ; tliia 
b oJImI ibc mtriun liglii- 

Th« «fi9c(rM V^X i« ibfl brifibiMt of AnlfirodJ Itghta, nnil !« brMy 

455> The Photo^Electric Microscope is oonBtniciod 
i»ti lilt- MiiiH< upUc'iil |^rinH]ili» tv* Hw iiuglc lHi)U>rn. n<cc^|it 
Lhut the li^ht riuploycil is obtoincH by pn^liig nji cl«ctrto 
iiitnint bt-tw«4'ij two ukurcml ihiiiit^. 

Fig, 313 tviprMPnts kn d^Uibt the Arrangouiviilof ibis iitfttiu- 



ini>(il. Al iLc Toot i>r tbc oriporutilft H A UttMy Aw 
cmtitig ficttHt'Jty, wlilcli will Iv ilpArrU>r<t Iir-rran4*r. TV 
tlot-ini'ilj U funve>«il to Uic clmiconl |>oiutft in Uw l>oXi A 

otlwr to tLic Lower point. Tbo tK>LnU being fclighUjr Mp*- 
rntx^iK lilt c-ifult U oonipUU'rl otJv li) Uii* L-levliiHty paisaig 

AtToM Uw hilcnnl. vUdt g^viA rise to > llgTil i»f «*xtnnv 
In Uir fiffiir^. / Krpri-M^nl* ft ixmbolk Hh^tor for roBfvn-' 


TiiR xniAR Mirmsrt)PK, 

lUann ivitlor ihihIimI id ta i-ary thu ma^inr^ifi^ jk>wiii of the 

The iiin^if>i[iic p-iwi-r irf tl»w itiBUTtirivul tuny hv innJp i^lrvmHf 
rrmt, nn'l liy itiiit»M«) iia)iri;«fr4-riii'nt it ntpi^ tii tAmv Xtt a Utr^ com- 
pany ihi? winiJcr* of lilt iiticrufcuEdn :vor1d. Oiip uf lliri iiiitiit ni- 
inark^lilft oiqMTlmoni* iniulo with it Li To jJidw iho MrpnlalkHi oT tlia 
bltvjJ^ Tuili^fld of A pictrirv ud iKc didc, loC tbo lAil of a bvlfule be 
pljuriil TiMim'fi idi] |ilnU<a vf >;Ihhi imd int»Hli)i^T» Th-r>i will iLp- 
,|KBf ujKiii the 9crrei) wIjjH ra:«'Tnii iir illnLjiimiUJ miip, nil <^f vliiRtf 
Vtnwrui fli>w w'nh % nijrlil mrrtiTt, U h Lut thu blouil druitljUili^ 

Th« jibemimutM itf cryfUlILutlU-ii tin- (mfx^t-dju^ly W-J<irirrul uhni 

VJiJun|ilc, b(T jivumi ij|khli n ^ilntr irf i^ljtu, niiJ thvii iiUtuIlchI bjln 
Ibd tutnimoct, the h»t irill «AU» IhvvTLLlor to tVji]>r>nLlr>^ prtLiiluciUff 

bi(ir«ri. Thv mimifi* inim^lmklu <4 ivJuiionfl and vUguMut u'Mlt cmn 
^c sfinttn by ihui iiilcrbw<>{]C< 

Whpii Th<< rn>i^nr«titin, i^jildiim, or n1«trip liRiM l< in>d, tho Lad- 
is i?ilUil s ftcrwptimn. 
th« filUlftDWm Itic DatikM mogic t/mtcTHf lanpoHCDjift mid 

ATV glVffl. 


456. The Soloc Micfoacopc. — Wbcn tbo light of t^c 

sun in used innt*?ai|*>f Uwcl^'Hrio ligbt. tbeoppamtua U ciUM 

the Mtitar raiVfiitfripf. \T (Fig. 3U) I* %t\ intlltiifd mirror 

^birh ttjrows tlic »oUr in>^ inl<^ the Lllbe ut Ibc nilorusciapo 

^throusth ibc Icnscti. ^ and K. trbloli coTKrntnttc tb«-ir u|>oji 


TliL' L'liiUcM MTCw* A ffivct the firofcf inclmUon to 

Sununuy. — 

K(iumrTntli>rj of the tnoal LVful auJ latcraAlQB OoMi 

C(4Aif itrit^-fu- -- NAUir<T of ihe IflUfk 

Viki-iniifjitu iif lliff ImA^ *ha«ii by Pijcun^ 
ft[(iEQjfyiti(C PuwRf of iLfr lIlen»3op« taptrtwd Id DiMn- 

llltiminntLon oF the UbjivL 

Prunliul U»» of lh<^ HlciTBo(ip«* 

Tlirir TV. aitil tfir Dlf^^rvnt KIihU. 
B^raetinff r*ik«wjw*. 

ConArurtiun iiTtlir OslIlraTi Tnli^wipr, 

Fotnunliun <Hf ihi! [tnAKi^ cijilfkipiN] by F^icnn^ 
fjiHrtninlintl 4rf tllf Objiyl-Qliu* jwd Eyp-HwiP, 
MtiWl ufflijjln^tho Mafpiifyini; l't>«crorthv Tcl«ci»pA. 

Cnnsinif^inn orthv TiTmlnnl 'JVl««oOfMh 

FonriAibm nf Uju linB|[« «<plftlna4 by F^t*. 

O'IwIujhUu <jf NrwumV 

'P'ormAtii>ii vt \ht- linnffc oxpbJDvd by Figtira. 
Utraphcr* ti|)ii|jnc0 by ngurv. 
Mafm LatiUm, 

Varum* Xfffht' v^i »» thf M'*'pt I^intfm. 
PhtAa-Kinliv Mucr^intifw 




iu I'rnetwal V^luc m the Mlc:ro«cO[>lr Wotll 
/>>j7<Tml 2^amcs in<n 'o tht Lantern. 

C<m«tnjcti>ju floit Mi*ihod uf iWB^ it cJ(]JniiHx1 Uy FJ^urc. 

457> Cain«Mi Obacu/a. — Tho canncnL ulmcurn (dnrk 
ctiAinber) Im, jut ifAuame 1ii>tiojil<>^, n i^lufit'd vpiuy, ii*, for c*]c- 
uipUi* A room thni viT IWm ILe liglil. «rilli liu* i-x(v-jitii>ji of 
Uk: Iwimnoufl my* ttiftt aw itllofvetl Ui tukr Uiroa^b a nmaH 
njwrturc, luiibownjn Fjp, 315. 

Tbi? nijs |mH.vin1Iii^ fitrni itJctcrnal ohJetiA arrf nnti'-Hn^ 
Ihroogli UuA aperture form 
CO] tha BiJo *>|>|K>«itc tUo 
A]U'itiire OIL tnmf;« of thu 
nlJoH, tnvcrttyl nuti <U- 
mtn\»lic<L In ft^ec, IhiI rt- Kftj, ait. 

UiDiri^ tlic co[i)r» of Ibo ohJ«cL Tli« faivcrelon of Ihc imiici^ 
t« duo lo !lw cPOJUilrig of Ihr mya. 

criuiiiiulcly ovvr the yhoW |iitUirc, ^nil the Inio^ la nol so 
<JIftlin<,i ftA when tlio [i|>L-i'turv is biiiiiII. Hic imiifcc wHl be 
ittHlorUd if tlw itcrceii i> dui p<^qM.'tidJcuInr to Uic dirrcdon of 

Tho bitA^ friTtnnl hy a rjiinrrn i^Wfirn |HrtM>-» llit^ n'ltLMrkjil'li' 

in llio lifii, [trrn-hltM 1T In 4]itlu- ^mii]]- Ttic ^lia|ii> *'f ihi^ Uiiitfcc* in Ihfi 
9M.mtt wh<jihi/T Htv "pvajitK t"^ square, rtTUDd, Inangobir^ or obiong. 

Til tAww |1il>, kt OJ* ccnitEJrr the cur ufn lif^in uf nolar ]i|;ht en^ 
lorhfc ■ flurk rtH^tn lhri>ueh n hf>[« in n ubitlicr {Kig. 316). Walh 
rwjrtTt hi llii* HJin, thr Wi^ in iW tlmlttT is ti»l h |i<iiut ; liciwr l1iL< 
RTifcup *r mjn wbi^h ontor H fi-frn in r<-ri[if y a ^^l[|fl flhus" Uah- li lb« 
•Uti- The pruli^ingntJoJL tkf lln-BW injH iiih» xhr rrHnri ihuKp* up ftfi- 
olh«f cono pTWiilAr in ihapifi &> tlio !l»l. ntid if tlilE func be iDtf>rf«pioil 
by A tf-nni ^vqirurlituLir lo iliv lii^Ji^iuin^ ihn huk wKh iho e«tJUv 
of tht' <on, thp imn«ii fonutyl wUl be ■ eirrlc If thr r»jf> ajd lnl*r* 
r'fiW by All uliUi^ur^ ]ilanc, u in tb? Iij^uitp lln' iiiui(i;e le plllplica], 
but JL oovcf ULw tl^o fona of tb« ht^lo wUqu ^'laV ^i* vumU. 



In ooeorddDor Aith ihU [ihiiriplf> vn* (iikl ih* tUiiininiitcd 

circiiliLr 4.>r i'[[i|ilR-ikl ^Iijl|i«, In im 4i'U[«h< ol Eliv turn, wlivu Uic vi^ 
bif! ]H.»rtiun i>f iliN «mE i> i>f (T^^^tVIll »1iu|>i't iJiu iwLdtn iif li^lil all o- 
vuiBo thaofotnnil form ; xhai U, ihty on iiuget of ih« vbitio pwt «/ 

Ui« HUH. 

45S. Camera and Lens. — ff n <U>uMc-4innvp\ Wtih h^ 
phuii^i} [ei llic npritnrv And n Mcr^iMi in itic focu^ tli« U 
will bv brigUlt-T imd oioro nbiuply lieSo^d. 

Jf iKiw. babcu^tl ut tiki.- rwim. wo niiUtitute a box. w« iifaill 
h%vv IIjo onliuury ciuuorA uncil m oktUbin^ (be oqUirm of 
UniUc0|H> or biiitUitig* tail ttlito tim[ilo>iAL \a Ihe VRfiooi- 
hrnnrrh'^ of ptintograpby- II1U l»l.f«T it^e rAniitiliit«« 

Vi'\\vf\ ihv inv? of lifftit |>nMliiii IniA tl» cDineni Ibnm^ 
tfa<t JciM im rUowmI to utrike u^u n vnirror inctim^l at ui 

CjLUEBA obscuka. 


•Dgle or<5*, tlwy An* rpfti^cUyl In t.ho top cf Ihp ho?C, and \fA 
pbtk' uf ground %int^ be IrMciW tbf re trn upnghl Imago nrlll 

lliU iuAE^ CHii vcM>' OflJAily bi> Vf>pi«d tjjk' iu(«h[U of imciug* 
|iDprT bid ujKin ili^ gititf-, 

A oiJTicm ftrrBhgM m tlimwHy Vt rirrj i^oinvrnicni f!frarti<ii In 
•kftchlDf; iATulftCapc»> Jt nmynlKi bet ui»rd ne aaudrov of ninUdvtDr^nt 
iu rrpn'tniljng vCriwt MCtiw wkh uli ihrir tlfi^ tkiid ijioii<ki- TIjcIioi 
OOuUiuluj; lJi<i tnjmtr i# ifviuiriilly iiiiblr hi »Jiiii* in Oi4> Uix tu which 
Ibe i»nM 1b fitted, hu iIim ihn focin nui rpniliZy be fuurul. 

459. Portable Camera for Artlsta. — I<ui taking! Tien 
Uic csmcTA oluKDrjL itiioiilil be light »nd portahk. Tho ti(«t 
form M thnt Qlioifii in Fip. :tl7. ItContUUQfnuoTtorportnMc* 
imniot h\wk r\oth. wlLltiii iflilfb U u IjlMi^ for n'lT-mitjf llio 
Ino^.and JLtthctii|]of«hu-h ]»a hjbcU-aiHntf aptisumtklciUt 
Uial |>rorliiWff tlwoumbinMl firoi.'! of ttv tnirroran'l E^nft. Til* 
flgiira piT)J»(TUi(l upon tiie tAbl« mriy be Inoocl oot with B {ioi> 





Fill, ■^lA^thown 11i« cirurst^ of t!ic rayn in forming tlie hn^^ 
Tb<* rfl}tf oomjiig frcHu llie oljjwt, J //, faJl upon Uip cx^dtcx 
fncc otliyp InnmuKlnne rnnvi^rgpif . nnrl Iq ttii^HtuU^tliPor rMiiA 
thv plikJii- hftrn^v. r/i« wliLch U luHliifid to Uie horizon- Bc-iu^ 
totally iv[!<:cU'il from IZil- aurfu^v. m, they nmcr^ Uiruut^li Umt 
«1ifrhtly conc-uvt surrii^^e* bi'bw. luiH go to ri>nD nn liDajtis mi, 
oil Ihi* tftMt^, P. A FibtH'l of tin|icr is sproad on P to Pccglv 
tile iuiu^c!. aiLil on it tiiv oiitlliiM may be trftocol. 

Pig. eia 

460. The Photo£Tapher'ft C»mcr*.*-FiK.311l reprt^ 
M?nlA Lht? Tunn ol' cjLiaL-m iis^'d m llu^ proceu of pJtottfpuph- 
liig. It eorWvUf of R re4-ljmgLt1ur Wiy>it4>n Itox, C, to on& fn«v 
t>rtt1ut4i Sh EiUndu'il a UjIh.-, A^ lieaiiii;^ a Ivtift. ttliiiJi fi^niA 
tli« Imti^'^ 'Vbv oppti^fto face ofilir Ikix con»i4t»of a alMln^ 
liniwor, B, holdinj; n pinto nf ^pr^iird gins*, upon whicb tb^ 
Imagr, A\ U ttii-otcn. nnci liy ilravlnf^ iloiri oT«lirltn>f U in,lh« 
pictufx* Jnny Ih^ r^^iiJi-ml ilUtiiu-t upt-^n \h*s glAu> I'bc ftnat 
ft^juvtmcnt in nctline the pldtc of u\ima in the fociia hi mwle 
by mcaiiH oT tht^ pinioix A Wbcn the iinngo Is cW«rij de- 
Itn^l, Ihv ]>IaU' of gtn<ti U ii'Hinvi-il. nrd ti |>bl8 of awta] or 
ghkM iiiinKliiri'it niiidi hiia prrvitHitly l)e«ii pTcpanxl by cur- 
tain olicmii-A! prrKx-«»o« »o iw to be itcpitttiv« to t!ic actiole 
ppop^riyct ilv nan, Tli« linng^ U thMi imprint^ on tiir# 

There iirv two IdntU of photogrniihic |»ctitrefl. pamii^ and 
AyoAVv* /iviViW piclurca rk tbuM llUt Kth-vt tbelrJiglk1« 



»ud shA<1c9 in their prt>]><^r k-IaUic poffilion; negative |ii«turce 
aro those in vrhich llin iLffhti: fintt bliAH^a flit> Kvorfied In 

A ini{jiti%« picturo ii» takm iib glu* m lUr^ wnj fUvrribctl ; il u> 

cticinUirj mihct ilma ph)^!L->, itiul will u^il Ix? cvfiMilrrnl hrrp* 

461. The Eye w a colloctJon of rprraelive nieJiA. bv 
■nmnn of wbfcli «o at* mndo uqiiainUxl with <bo «sl«rnfti 
world lLirvin£li tLc wiu^t up ni^^liL 

Aa Au ir^iljaiJ ituininii'TiC ihn vyv En nnf, an fftfii^l^r 4ri|>pnWfll, 
Iboorolimlly jh'H'ivI ; il Ihl^i finltji, Ui itumc nuitl, of Rir1»«^'«l 


Thc fihApo or tho eye U nphprlcaT. wUli a i^llght pftttntwr^ 
Mic« In fVonti tbe ahtra^^ iliunii'irr of the? biiiDnn i->o b m 
little l«m Uiaa ofnc tcntlwof fln inpJi. F;^. 9^0 rcprc^f-iiU 
a noKion or an i>3V, wilb vomt' of the coverings thrown ttadt 
■O tiA lo aiiiow t,1ii< poMttluii ufUie jHirU. 

Tbf Iroui ijoii cjf Ibtf tj»; is liniltM by a ficrfectly tmi»- 
paKiit uK-mhriiJit, c, called lii-* wns^*. Tlif^rcniRiinli'rnribr 
O«t«rior cnntmg u aiiQpftqoo ivhiUr nwmbnuiv^ 5. oaIUtcI ibc 
itcltrarir <wu; Ms is a U>Ut;li, white, Pfituiur*. fibfvcift tntnn- 
bnuic. Thr cciitrn is act in the sclerotic ooat. 0^9 n wat«-lH 
gloaa 13 OL-t m it^ friLmv. 

IniEno<tiiLtvl}' beUod tbe cornoft ia a tran^fuirent rtcitd, linM 
I»Ed UH wiiUT* tMilksL (lie fUfwvrui humur^ In lltU dr«to n 
urcLiUr curUin. Ai, AtUchfl hy IXfi oiilrr cdjo lolli4-]>^:lrTo4i4 
<^iAti AHiJ ItAviiig a ftmftll circular <*prnLiif^ nt its roiddlr. 11)0 
<itrtaln U r'allin) tlxi^ iru, nml t]ic> Iiolo in lu o<mttv l« cwIM 
tlir juf/rtf, TLe 111:1 Kivi-^i-'ok^t' to the <:jv, bviug bladt, Uue, 
ffA3% cto- It is niuacular. aufl bjr llic contnclion ad(] r^J 
pan»ion of lliv ftbit?*, lln: pupil tuoy tu «ui«rgeij or dtmiiHl 
UhnI; it U Uirvngh th? piipil thai np of Ii|{ht «Btcf ibaj 
c,vi-. 1 

Birhiml the iris in a tTotil>lc-conT«x hia^t 0, cnllctl the rrf^t 
tatHm ifng s it U of tlic contfiutciioo of f;H«tie, pcTfDCtljr tnUiH 
[iftrviit, mon? curved bcliiiid ili^n In front, and U itcivwn 
ti/wonlA ilN nililillp lliAJi »t ibc vil^«- TliU kn». vr^tii tlMjJ 
«>nietLi sorvci to convcrirc thr raj't to foci iKbind it* I»ibm 
diately IwhimI Ibo eryitolline lcfi« b a noiliuin mttrrt^ fllliog 
the rviiDiiniliT of tlif i>%vEiv of tiif oy«, cJill<<>l Oii< Wlrcuau Ah- 
mf;^; it in of Uw coahintciicc orjcl1>i and pcribctJ^ traiMf>ttj* 
vut, pc:rn]iUJn;f tlic; rays to pAM throtijcU it, lliCfto kaaionj 
koep tho oy-c syiiimrtHcftl. I 

laiiBCcUftUt) behind ihv vilrcoii« humor b « llua wbJt« VM 
paiUHW of the optU Hfriv. JV, lining nedrly All of tbti idftii 
jotic<.«At ; Ihis i« colled the rrriatJ. uid i« tbc m«C of vUklB- 



Bdilncl the rctinA, nml hotwccn it nnil the ftdrt^lo cotit, is 
a flnci volvot}' cu«t>iiK t'aJ^L'd iUl^ ^fitn^ift coat, ctivvrtxH wJlh ft 
bliu'k jiifipni'iit. wliti'li Nlj?*ihtbh Ihi.* ta\h tlinl jib^s llio irtbio^ 

4fia. Th« Mechanism of Vision. — The fif,-l1o» of ihe 
«^VL- ia niiiiilju lij ItiiLt uf rtio viLiiit'ra ■j^MCtou, L-t(M.'j)L niotx.- |)u]^ 

feet: ihc ^u^iV oi>rr<']i]K>iiil?i to the hole In lbi> dhuttcri the 
mftttttinr tfMt nndntfiirfi form thn imngn, unit iti^n rt-tiua is 
rJir M'nH^n an whii'h Uir iiiiiiK<* fyills'. T^ii' tVii (i*rrr>ij«imU to 
the diaplirAj^m. wti]i:b in uii^il jn ihc imlinrir)- rAmcratij moil* 
vrttUi li*c lifiht by uuttiiig oirull tJiL- ruys t^icopc thoac vrbJch 
fall upon thp cpqUaI [lart of tho k'ns- 

Tb« iina^ oq tlus rrtliu i» iX)i-i9teJ, iB*h«vn In Fijf- HSO, fir 
Ibo njn «n>M M iti (liT ontJDAry o^Kifiru. Tbx« «uu be praT«l Ij 
Iflhiuie tha Cje t>f dU ^ic auJ itariiig uff Ibt bhi<;k <>f jl su lu Ur ucarijr 

MhujT llicotic* h»vo tofoi pro|ii:Bioj| t*.. cxpUJii why wia dt» not »•• 
Inverted iiLi4£i4 of ohjeifl^ The Cut ll;ut vc nlvmya iHrn liTiA|fr« 
on^TtHwnx to Ivp^olrtltjr intoriirpliilLfpti bytbr mimiof llio *MiiJvli'Hi 
earricd to the br^-ln by tbe ujifir ucrrr. Tbi* wdfu^ <*C touch U nl»o 
KuptWMid it iiMUt 111 drtmjjfQifiiT t^< irrnHQi««< if jH«i(hm- 

463. Distinct Vision* —The cjc otlaptii itsdrtoailTv^mit 
<1U1»nf?«« by chniL^iii^ lln> convvxiij tif lh« cnntnlUfji' Icim »»v 
innneulnr (H^iitrnrtinrj anil rcluxiiticri). Fur ilUlaiil nhjci'U 
i>ir Lcnn i« mode Icah convex, an the r&>~A arv inur^ fvudUy 
hroiieht to n for^rnt trpoti tlii^ rt^finA ; btit for near ol^Jpi-U tho 
Ion* 111 n-iulortti mort- <.'<jiji'il'X <m neoount <if tlio grwaWT rliffl- 
cully uf Keeuritig tlit IVkjii*. 

Thn eye adjuHl* ltj*clf to djiTcpftnl <leBrcpa of inlcnsily by 
TftTylngr Ibf* ^Lxi» of tlio i^iipiT. If tTie light lii too iniciiso, the 
trlxontnu^ Xtiv ]>ti]>i1 *o tlial hr«i wiu LviU-r; if loo v^ali. It 



EoAh impronion mado v^n ihii rt^thit lA*t« almiit rh olgtMfc 
■COclkd ; if Hlut a Ino liinfi llmu lhi?s th^rr ifi im dlMJucineovvf ' 
tJTi& Whon lli<* Wii|)rMiiDiin« iinft*#ft1 rinn nnnilifT wlih grenti^r rfe|i 

tlnitj* iif mm sppriif Htc liquid OiftMidi; n sdfk irbirlA! nMia4 
iilly vttih a ji|»nr1r cif flrc Bl odd cdd ^Tt« adrcJc of Ujcfctf m vnn- 
iluiiod w Art. 421^ Tho uprtki^i <>f rt c&nU^-wtuwl nvolvincvtA 

f^rcftt Tclodt J fVkanot hv dLBttn^ui»h(iil. 

464- Neeu-MghtcdncKs aod Par*»jghtfidnes9i. -^ 
MoiiA nliv tioe Ji»tiijo1I>- on]y at very alioit dbtAiipca arc nlmA 
U> l>o ntar^i^hUfi ; nnd Ui«M who CUt OD)y B09 di»llucUj Kt m 

Ni:An'3i'>iiTr.]>xKw cuciica fh>m U» ifrcat convrxitjrof the 
GomCB or <io'Biall]iiL< \vt\s^ or biHIi; itiao from loo i^tvftt an 
eiongfttioD of the eyelmll, to UiAt Un* r«t1nJt Is loo difttuiL 
Tho i»fppct i« to luiiig the rnjn U> fbd birfiirv renching the rrl 
Son, ^dngaairKlUtincttici^x to vision. ThiKHcfcctbltmcdl 
by hcilding th<r ohjcct vi^ry oJodo to Die v^e, nr Iiy cmId^ 
Uclrtt with corcMVi* l<Tiwi>9t. wttiL'-h dK'crf^ tha niy« b«1biv 
f^llin^ EiiHin iUk (-iimiia, iiud tliub ULiLbk- Lhi? iiicdin nf Dir ryp 
to bring Uii^iii 10 fod upon tho retbm. If the ejcs oiv mdikc, 
lIiL> lenacA aliouUI bo ofdilT^ivtit |xiwer, 

FAR-fiiGHTKri^U(i lit n itrfWriJuM thp r«T«r«« of nc^rtight- 
vdiLt«& It Ariflct Amn too icruit ODAnoaa iii Un? mmca fit 
c-ryftt^lllnc It^nn, or it b duo Lo the rotiim bdo? loo prmr tliv 
coriicn on m>count of thv flalnr^M of th«r wtkolo «y«hall, 
ifi&i myt of Light aT« broii^lit To roci 1ichin<1 Uin rHlDa. 
ik^rect lA rtUMxlIctl by tiaiu^ apc^ctadfa vitb ci>nvrx Imac*. 

465, Vi«oii with two Eyes. — An iniA^ of ^iTry 
Ji-rt iiL'ivod in fotnuil In (-fu^U ir-yr ; jirl lin^itn i« tint i)oil1 
but tiui|;le. 

'I'tiJM in undoubtedly owin$t to Ui« kat the evoa Ara &m^ 
TU?eted wlLh The br&ifi And with tfidi othur by m^JUia of tho 
tijjlic iivne. TliL-y &ri^ nut no much twu dkti&rt orguw m 
011c double ofgnu, lioth %ouU of which kre OAaodotnl flor 
purjjcfie of ppHbfinlng a tin^fr n«ri. 



466. The StcrcoHGopc. *^ A'jnuffottn'vj njnW nillt tiro 
eyea i» MUp|M>M:tl to civt* ua Uio iilni of rrfi>/, or romi of oIk 
Jf^tHi — a view whicii rcc^iyv^ conl^nnation frotn Ui« action of 

TJiirt Im jiTi EipnurnUin tmployeil to give to flnt pli^dinrj* the 
appc&nuKc of relief, tljat i», tbc appcftrnnoc of liuvint; three 

Wh*Ti wi> look ftt an ohjocl with both vyvn^ endi eye aeai ft 
nlj^lillr iliflVm;! portion of \t I'Iulk, If m look nl n vnuU 
oul)c, fta a die. for example. Qr>t *nth 
OEits V3X- An<J tbcn wiUi the oUi«r, th4> 
h«Ail rvutuiiiirtg ful, vru eiIlilII ob«i>rvo 
ttftt the jH*nipv(.livv of ihv t^tilw in dif* 
ibront Id tbv tvio cAai^ii. TIjib wIU be 
tliQ uioro np[)aiviit tho ooarcr Iho 

ir i)ie rube han oik^ fsccT (Urortty In 
front of the olwc^rvcr, &»d the right 
^yc ia eloecd, the other eye wltl hcc 
tho front fiiro and aUo tlio IvlVlLitud 
fiw*, Init not l)u> rigtit; if, howeviT, 
the left eye i» eWed, Oic oUicr cyn 
will eee the Ihmt fiKC imd uUo the 
rlglii-Iuunl [hoo, bm not tlio kft. 
HenL-« ve know lJiii£ the Ivftt hnivg^a 
fbrmod by llie two ejta ^nr not ahao- ^" 

Uih'Jyaiiko, It t« this dltfbtvnoo of fni&$^3 ttliicb fiiv«a the 
blen of wHef in l^ioklng at S »olU1 boily. 

If, nuw, wi'r *Mji|Mtse two pidiirwa to be miuT^ of an object, 
the otic HA it would Hppcav to the ri^liL «jx* nud the uUivr ns 
U would A|k]>i;ar t« the Irft pyc, nod then look ftt theirj wllli 
both i^yea through \vt\ttv» Uial eauBc the pietureii to coincide* 
the Impreniori la ]ia-i.-iiivlv \^^v ttum*' ru Uion^h ihv uhjt^i-l iUi'lf 
WCTO bdbrc the ej-cT>. The illusiuti in ao eompli^tc that it b 
Altnoit inapoAsible U> bulicvv that vo ore almv^y Tiewiaj^ ijifir 
turv* on fl titd vurfjioo. 


I Iff the m^'Mt M it wimlil hf mmt bj* Ute rig[ht r je lirav : A, n itirtnn 
' ibff MHM yWiut «* it wuul'l bv MfiB bj tkit lirft «7ii oJhQ*^ i m And n 

Tbtf |cn«rv w tnil n nngUi tfi >»> ptrrfr«Tlf *jrmineEH«fl|, and tbi* 
IVhK u AllUDi^l hf rtxVtliig a JoijliIt-cyMiirp« Irtu id Iwo, adJ jtWlac 
ihrn^Tit-liuTid ti;tlf brfiwv ihv 1^ C'j^ ai»if llic utbrr linV brTonf ibe 
rifbt ejfT. The pLi4art» muM be finff^ty 9zv<nUd, whicli ^ah btf 
ik>nft riiklj by mfttai of tbn pboui^rnphlf: fvrvoMk. Tbfi plrlurTtt 
pri> nioJc bj nAia^ Iwo uvuicru ladiood lu cuh aihtt la llic jvop«r 

Summary. — 


FnnnniW ^if the lina^ espbukf^ b; Pilfim-. 
IU«ijU vli^ii iTh A|vrtDrr h l^rgi^ 

When till A|«rti]rt7 b !jmiin tlic Itndgc » indcpcvdcDl ot 
It ft ."^jtpn. 

niuMrabon of ifcu fkct by Funw. 

Cat^m ami I^au. 

lu \' iJ(w in fovTDin^ Dltficcl ImoifM. 

Arti)i'» CbinErL 

iVifUbU i:«mi>n Ivr Arti>t» QluamW T^ Pifm* 

C«tirw iif lliv lUjri itf" I/ipbt UliwInilH bj PtgnrK 

Porillvff jHkd NrgfOiTo PWlnm iMncd. 
PwUiTO umd9 from ttie Xcfiiil^*^^ 

|>i<ff^f nv an Optintl InMnnn^^nL 



A«tJuKaj<nt of iho 'Eye ici Dl*i*nca 


JV STfrfOKftipf. 

lEliiATJATlMiH r>rr1i4> Prinrlpln. 
Cvii»mmli->u taptiiiui'J bj FJgurOb 



rut I- — l4AOM£TI5M 

■MTiOff t — VATcmBi!>PFt.T!rrRinTT, — oic?ffitRftMntoraimn or 



467. Nature of Elccuicity. — Th.^ n«l natatt of tiay 
ie ^liltlcult u>d«irrmSnr^ It mBiiifoKU itoolf dildfly In 
ALtrjitthsna umI n^pulAioiLH. bia It is tdso rccogntz^ by Its 
luminuue And be*Liag I'lTfcto, by lU pcnrcr la dienilcaj lie- 
oompoailiuns *^*^'^- ^^ linxK, by the violoncD of iU action. 

A[I ckulnclty htA Uu> ohmm M iiUc of |X)lAn^, or tvo- 
iilrliNhieAii, iLiul is uavf g«n4-nvtly i<<>niTHln1 in t» don |»mia10^ 
uUrmotiona- t>creral Uitronvb Imvc bci<n ndmiix^ bi rcpD4 
to its txAturc. fluiueof wliith svillbt? ctjnsidtrt^ bcrcuficr. 

\Vv uiflj' ot>nir«nleTiTlj- wiiftraw St Into tbrco diTL^ionn: 
MngiiL-tUm. «hTi-b» aftliougli Rimwriy ancribMl to s S{>vrinl 
fWcv^ia uowIiUnlilklniUi ulcclricity; Fnclkm&l Eloctrtdly ; 
ftud Djiiamic-nl Kloctncity. 

4«8. Natural find Ardftcial M&e^eu. — AWtfr^T My* 
mft4 arc ccrlAin orc« uf irutii sitd »n^ ^iTn(>r9i]|y known uodcr 
the nunc ©f loftdatoticft, 

TUc roognvt U so ciUTori ftoni Uio town of Mii|ni««U. In 
Lj-din, triwrr U was ftr*l Tiodeod by ibe Gn>ok«. It U JCDOvn 
in cbrmUtr}' ax niatnirtJi? oiUl* ufiron- It U niiw Ibnttd Iq 
eodncJi^ratilc quautiti» in ^wcdcuuidJ^orwAf, u mil «» In 
cCber couutriOA. 



AftificitU mttgnetf liro Ijara of UmiiK'rxl tXcv\, to wliloh Iho 
|i(X)[H'rtj' Lif ttu' iiiiliirn] iiiui^iiirl hrut fn^^-ii inipurbd. The 
Artiti<i[d nuignvt ik far more viduablc and powrrfiJl tluti iLo 
muinil mEt(^«ti and U ^'iMially iia«ij in pr&otiou. 

t>livl b n uiiAtiin- iif IfiJii wttii a MiiJiLI i|Qaitti1; nf oirlmn, and 

N.trd, And uifHilflu i>f n^Liutlii^ (lio niA^TiciJjEn thai iJk*/ b« 1uj|jaitc>d 
lo tl. Sud uiu^cti iiAT permanent mojjneU. 



MflgnrlJi fnaj bi> vnftiti^ ^if fwfl imn *tt imicm|K'n<rl bIctI. but they 
d& aol rvlBln tlidr iiiAf^iii^iuiiL wlion the picltiaiq owfio u rvmoYtii. 

iwi-lvp lit Uflf^ti lrirliit» ill tiiiL'll>i A> n*|irrH<(iUil \i\ FlfL :t<'t!, 33X 



Y\^^ 'JM. SoinoiinH^ Uipj hv iuJhL'> lu tbn form iiT « Umii loaf 
ucnllc, a^ kttou-u in Fig. £1^. Tbin id (U« fiirui In vitidi ihej mtv 
cuiu»trii«tcd t\T jiuiriLing wit. tIu^ rliTnitji.irj i^f ili« inftgnuie utcridiHir 
MB ID eMi>|Mknw> lit iLiiiv Wlji iWjr ivn- JL|fi> atoi ia inaay inagartic 

469. Distribution of Force In Uagneu. — Tbc 

iLm |>artH- The litliiu'liou U »lioDe^-»t «t iu 0)iU«miUe». rnm 

vbii^ti it ducri'iUdCri loMjiiUfl iU niiddlf, wbcjv it ia iL^tliing, 


TO!v Tnnj' tv Hliowit hy pliangiiijf imo frnrl of ci inngurtij 
SbftT Inio iinij niiriKH; uii ntlh^rawiiig fU Uiv filiii]^ will U- 
«ocn ikdlwrinj; la it m Imi)- tiliiiDciiU, aia abown lu Fig. S:f:f. 
If the entire bar bo rolled In the nitngfl, it will hif Ibunil ibnt 
Uii^' lulheM to ThilJi r-(Ml8. ImI mic. U* tin- iuhMIc. 

Tlic two fndu, whtTi? tl)f siUfiwllon U BtmnpciL •w ciilk^ 
p>/n. Mid thr rcntml part, (tlicn^ the attrnHinn U nolUloi;, is 
<>hD4.Hl lh« rfhnltjr. or tin* rirwfru/ Ut%f, nnJ ibo friiigbei U uJ 

Every migpH hfu mo p^fs nnil mw ihtuIdiI linr, nFlu^tbcr lb* 
uwi|fu<t t>r untiinil or ArliQ^iiil. SKiriflimnt l^r^-itln th« iwi> prltt* 
rijiaJ |Hj1n, Dji^tu Afv ollief iniiHir pulMi mlltil j«iVNffitir|r poto. \m 

HrUfir.inl munxiui thun nriiv from Inikqimllty of tfrnjn^ in %hv iln^l 

Kuppiur ivli iiHi^fji^l III )ii(Vi> bui two |mUiil 

dlwuyi Jimumiw a |NiHilii>ii vt'nU ■■ij*i |ki^i I'liriT-hig tniwarrLi thr m-rth 

To ilidTiiiie^inh IhMw^u EUc^ Ivo |>.iU« i^f ah urliliriA] lua^^iuHtr 
3- -0 


tluTU UpO iroa AHnjcn W »iAn[ UTiifunnly \ivt-e lUi> jmi>rrf lli«j irill W 
jvT'u jimiuteins l1rviuH<tviv i[i n-i^»ljir cut\i?k Hnmrjil ihHi |h»U-, h* 

470. Action biscwcen Magnets. — Tf Wi* f^nminn* thi* 
jictlmi of ttjc two polo* ui»oit '*of^ iicn, nc olwcnn thr namo 
phtii^iiU'im, — tioth wiH nltmrt orHinarr iron. It is nol M, 
boHwiT. ^hcn wo tH>]i]pniv tljc ELi:tioh or Two iiiu|.'iirl4 upon 
t'fctli oiiiiT- IfL>lli0 9unt pole of n uiaiy^vUt w*»rf\v^«'»* 


boJiuiccd on a pivot (Kij;. 3Si), wv prcMnt io waconAm An 
two |K>led or ft um{;aetit»I bur, held in the liAiut^ <re ob««rrr 
tlw CuriuiiB jtU'iiumviiu IL^il if tlio jHik-, u« or thi^ ii<h*iUvt ti 
ottrocU^ liv Ifji;' |k>Ic, /A of tbo bAi', tlie pvks A, will tic re- 
|)ctl«<l by it ; If Iho pob, «, w rcpcUod, Uie iwlc, ^, wilt be 

471, llvijov tliu folbiring law ; Xi^Jr pu^ riy^A 'rmti untilM 

47fl. Effect when a Ma^ct is broken. —Ifwc bn?ai 
witli its lwt> fh>le5 Diul noutnJ line, i^ fJiO^ii iu Fig. 32,t. If, 

t ^ 


'• * 

now. I.k*^ piL-ci'ti arofttill furUicrilirklediUie numbcrDriBflff' 
n^u will bu lijumI 10 Tlki> number of dLvlfttoDft, And so on in- 
ileHtiiLoIj-. TbiMa vccaniuJt n^iitt tljv <xiiK'lu»l(itj tlimi eufe 
luiik'L'ulc lb :i lua^Lwt KomiAdc in all lU pkcls* 

In Fik'^ ^^ Hx liiiVL- a tjiA^eun. J^^ bbuUDi^' tbir pulnri«n| mcfltw 

oulu, the tdiit* Iu|t«« rqifr- 
wutxug outf ptilti> llu* tuinli »r 
FlK. ftfl. pixiUn jkJv, »iid thv bUrk ibo 

Miulh or negation ^le. 

Thv oppotito p-iliintivi ii«t]tr&luo oach olbor it lh« o»U*, Uti 
BlniUKly iiUiiUtiBl ihnjiwtvL^a nl iIil* raJit uf Iho BngUcL 

All Uiointilo^tiU'AexkniapMiuvurunotowwidiifwil 
t»vftrdi £. 

^ ^«^^^{^{iH^«^«^N 

473. Mafrnetic and Diama^etic Bodi«a>» MaKi>f^i« 
ftiibiiUJi^vtt iLiv UuMUt ivhk'h nro Altraoli*)) t*y 11 maipMrti a> 
Iftia. hIh-K jii<.<lLL'U ami fwlmlt. liy Li!(inff vrtj imKvribl 
tiiA|cni?U pAr]i4Lt> i'mjikI Ibil nrtAiii «iih«tancc« aro ifpaUad 
by niitfiKTU* >«ir'Ii a4 bisumih, ttuUinufiy^ uu«, tin. nirroufy. 
l«ad, aDv?r, oajiprr, ^Id, aud urAvnic. Tliv«c ara calkd 



to onff niir>1licr. a* Bliown in Kig, 

Tlio f^TCftWHt Jtgrooof rc|Hifeioii in «on in bi-imiitli. nn*l 
uttrucliuti Id ir'>ri. I^til tin- rt>jiiiUinii iH^wooii llit^ iiingu^t 
aiiul btHiimth h ii(»l m> etioiig oa Uxa atlJ-u^Uc>ii bi<tiVEvti t|i« 
lunifTLi^t mill iron, 

474. Magnclism by Induction. — ir a ring of noft Injn 
b« inwKrntcd to ir mnR- 
nct, ftfl an iivjD ring, it 
convtTtJi it into n inng- 
nH~ ir A wHTJiiJ riii^ 
be |*rcBtfiil«l to tlic fir!*T, 
It la ill lik(> mAniit^r o<ii>' 

ami EHJ on for a tItijxL 
r<HiriU, etc. The mn^- 
bOt« tlm« ronninl iiiltit^rL^ 

A27. If Utr* Uur 1ii< nr'rtiovnl, tlirr Hngv <iu^<- t^i Ih< :nu;;EH<tJ(« 
the t'baiiL HiIIb to pit^vcB, tiud tlw rbfin iwimralc. Tins incxlu 
of 4^3toLtin|i tnn^c>lio phononK^an U collcil loagiKitixiii^ by 

rlii|r« ibc twu v|il>iffJU! IT ]H-lHr f[irF4a E»<ulru]iiv inrh cillK^r, uitd uu 
ihflirneUe A^Jun U oxhLblied; bat whvtt Xhtty iiro bhii[|cla ti*>uT thi> 
iiiiL|fTJt'( iJirw A-rmi^ ^fifhirulc, aihJ twb ri-i;£ Iwcciri^H n eiljiii]ic(» nud 
Ualiho pulcfl altmcl oqo auotlu^r- Ji ttmn io the f|gufi>- Tho inJiuriug 

475, The Coercive Force, — Sofl iron T>ruii^*bl lit vou* 
tAct vrlih A bur um^iicL LiL-L'ouR'd a mu^iivt iiiHt;i[it1y. uml on 
Tx'ing n>nii>vvri n^inirLK th itn nattnil condilh>n, ct^slng to lie 
A mo^Hi. With hiitiWui'i] nU^cl IJ10 iwirnu* h iJtt* fOM-: it 
tnkcH iHtnAiilcriibU' ^11^1;^ nikil r/Oiuv lUnv U> riudrr it a inApK^U 
and cjf] iiciiijf ivmovH Trom tin* Nni- it contmuc?* lo Xm n mag- 
ut^t- To t^vakt ihu EiiiL^iioIiMii iMiiiplolo in ttlv*-], \l tutiHi im 
mblml wiiti utit- tif ibi- |iu]u.-> ufA in^nvt. 

Tlii* ftirre wh^h u^rirt n ri-tUunni.' tn ibc j4<|ijkiinJijn uf ibi^ lito 
l<i.>l«ritiL-t til iiuivrLLLc b^dius "T^^L ^lW' IvnJ- tr> |>r*tit(il a hrixMJiLlAA- 
tiun ntivu 'iiit-v H-|iHr«ilc«l. Jn mlk-d thu cocrciir /uf t«> 

Summary. — 

How MjkiulivLpJ. 

JJfixv L>ivi*JikJ, 
!fiotMml ta*d Artifi/^iii MttfftuiM, 

DistnbHiinti of F'onr nn Mrttfiirtjt, 
ViAiiilij |rri>voil 1>v Kiix^nMitirL 
I'lihirLikn :i>HijrMii liy Uji^fi dtlri'iL frvriy nufKinlnL 
AciKiri -i't Mii«:li<.-i iKmugh IVhIicd ]>r»v(il ty tvEp«Ti»QiiL 

Shgwu by EK]>«it Jill tit 

Vjiur 1^ Hf^clic Attnii-ti'in ;iih| HD[iiitil>jD, 

ttliiHtmtrif liy Fi[riirr. 
l\-rjtfit'«l -^iMlixnthf illwtrvlH hf figUNL 

MifffHrlim by JHtiiij'iwtn. 
ILliolr.iEnl bi r'iuui^.'. 
EijJutuUifU -A I TiiTiK-Uiju. 

0QDCTLO9' n, — TeRHthTlUAr MltOSt 


47€< Directive Force of Mapjcls- -"Wbrii * pcmu- 
oeiit nuigoL^l IB biiUiiOLMt io that it ^•au tirm fivrlv iti n bon- 

tDlna1« illrvcUuii. nliH b ivq iirarty mfitli :lw1 suuUi. 

Fig. n^ filiown tkc nridmnirr <>( hah\i\<-t\\ii n iict^llt', and 
lUcfttM Uu nortli buuJ Aoath diivvtioa nliidi it *T"n?* 




Ifi InsUad of mounUng Ihi: needle on a {tUoi. it be al* 
iavb«d to & |>ioc<o of lAii'k ui:d pIucvjiL iu u vt::iac3 i>f waLor, mj 

lim'i^iiuUil ^AMJlUiii.ii will Cum 
itsdf al<^vvly nrouiiil uiid come 
to n^i in tlitf tfujiic? ^'fK-ml 
(llrviiitiii »tt llii»Lij^h it wi'n* 
boljinccil ou A ijnot, la tiiin 
cxiicHmcnt it will h<^ found 
Llinl tbt' iientlt yuci- in Uio 
tiii-iiJiuT] dell's iiiiL ELilvinm 
citLcr tuvTAidrt tLt^ nonh or 
«ootk- H^iuw vu ^nlV't tluLt 
tlip fnn*!* ptortiHt I ] poll till? 
iK^nllv If «lLnplj n tltreftitv 

The fbroc wbioli coum^ n tno\nblir iJinGcnvt to diroet itself 
uorrli (iml south b called iht^ itifvc-uvfjortt. 

^\{t<e \\\i: |p1iPDiiin«iiiAi iluirfSlMl uki^K |i1jbctt At all (HilnUnf Uke 
Cioth'n buHiLcf, thv OArll; ttit« '\>*-*:u ii>;iirJi^l ha ^tii ntiinruAC i»a|i^iiPtT 
littThig it* Dorlhjind unutli paW nji^rThr urinh ami miith paUftwf xXm 
CBflJtr aod A tJCUlTHl line UOAT the cqiiAlor. TIiU immviuo inik4-|irl^ 

MctSni* rf on ihif nnipL(1<-r riiii^irf^ rli^jK-tlbiMl. wuulil {ir»dmw tdi uf Uiij 
vlTvcflii nbcpriTdr \V)ii!u u'p <<oLnD 1o ti(|}lun iJm> actioo of «leotruf 
ctjfTi>ut»i, It vrill 1x4 Mf'ii Uuil Ihrir isAumbur ('X]i1uiiiUtiiiii urihtf dlirvc- 

AiuirdLUM 1^* till- Xivvi ibiit Ukr /niU* n-jtrl itnil anhkn atirnitt. t\w 
fpol«. A^ iQ the UfTUTP U rvultj tbo nouth pule, and ibo pgL«, U, the 
iLr>rt1i jnic nf iIil* uotiUd. 

Hul ill pnuiLfr* i1 it ^nfinjlir «n£t0miiry lo mU tlio end of Ibc 
'Vi^UpL |Hkint!u,L' t<kn'iiri1» iJii.' i^4.>r(b^ tht< iwif ^ jki/c. au<I the vat (TuLnt- 

477- Mi3|{iict]C Mcridia*!.— Dcclinaiion.— Vaxiaiions. 
— WliTii » huLui<x:d iuiK:]t(lic uoodlu come^t lo ik ntAW^of rt^nl, 
it poiuU 9L]t :ho iJiwof magnoUc iioTtii «iirl houUi. If n p]:LQV 
be pfta»i'<l ihrougli the nrrdlu in UiiK poidtioti aeiJ tbc crntro 



of Oil- wUi. il U L-alluil llm |iUui; uP Uii< nut^mrfiV Aimdli'i 
or simpl)' Uie magnetic incrSdiAn. 

II1U1 doiTfl not, m g^norolr cc^noidn intli the pUiko of 
b-u[< nipmliua, which in dirUTinlnHl by a plnnr jitiMlng 

plutt; otid till' nxTA of Lhr rJirLli, Tbr aiLf^to utilcJi Ibf 
nuignt^lit.^ ui<:ridiuu n-l uiy pliu^c ciuiUctt with the tnic locri^M 
of thn KAinfi pLac« b cftUiHl ih^) dKitnaCiGn fkf lAe MtteitU, In 
filiiprt* r,hv tU-iliuiitiuit of the ii««ille l8 ll8 vAririlHin frimi IriM 
norll niiH nouU^. ThU tn OifTcrcnt at dill'cin.-»1 pUora on Ihe 
««rUi, and even at tbi; wuncr pl&tM! at diffbrnnt lime*. 

^\h^.•\i ih4> iiotth vud of the nL-c<l)o point* to tbo ei^ of 
Irui-- nodli, liic (.hiUiimiiuu m snEd tn IwiniAeMnf; vkun Ui 
the vrc-«L of true uorth tbe d^tliuatioa b Bud lo be f« ri< 

Thru.- in n lini? nmning fVom iu^at CI^^vcIdimI, OUo, 10 
<1]»i'li-.tUJL^« S. (*,. iil(i[i|[ Hl^kii-h Ujc ik<4'iIIi- jH>Inl» to tlir 
Dortli \ tbiA lA milcd a Liuo of ruT ^irclinatiom 

Tht? liiu^ Mf Di> iWUniuiiin li tnvrlliug ttlowlj to the vntinml 
(L mu^ vrliii-rj vc-nAA nirry h mviisud Utv jelobo iit nhout lUOO 
Kiir aill (luiuu uf thn 1tiiit*tl SUtMi HMt nf lh» lEiir* at im ihvliadliaa 
tho dixJIau-iiuu nf ihfl Docillo !■ Iv Ifac? wmi ; fi>r »l] piJuia tv Uw 
nfh, ihpib«UrmtJimhiUki1i« fant; ilmi U, thcotirtli nml ofth« 
in iJl CMC* U loolinod toward* lit IJuo of no tUdiiMian, 

Fiir aU fioliiu la ihi* Vtilnd 8um to ihe c«bi of Uu Ikw of 
<!odItiiuioii, iho ih«lixiAlJ4b 1« alowJi- io^mung, whkU for ^ 
ta ihr «(<«( <jf it, thjf (VcvdlnnlJon » (il»wly (hvnMiuK. 

B<wU1cH thix %\ty'n I'hMX^ In difu^liiihUoii. Xht* ntMHltr q 
gMtt liiglit ihjxji^L-^. oojLiL' uf tthk-tj arv pnrlty n-gular m 
olfatts VGr>- irrvgutar. in oiir huitudi! tku north vnd of 
ii<i«<tle moviM tuvrnrd'i tbo wi?fit during th« early port of ev 
duy, ltiiT>iiglj Hii aiig]*' uf l4'i) i>r nrv-oii ininittcM, tixl 
l)U4'k u^'uin ditrhjf the UIUt [tjirt of the dav- Tliis U nUlrd 
th« flh^ririMf V'tinWtcui. In (li« i«autlirnt li^^miAphcTv tlika wotkib 
la r«x-onMxl. Th^rx^ U alui n «inall clutnffi< of «taillar efaormcter 
vlih'h inkcA lAmr rri^rj ytnu. ivIUhI tlir annua/ mriMlko^,. 



bImo daring itiiimlfT-Hfjnrnji, ilUFin^ ihe nppfiuiftrro of ihn Adtitni 
tMmaliif aoJ la fce4iDraJf wtica tlicro is ftujr «i)ilJon oliAuj(it i« (liO 
fdiq^iml rafidldQD of tliu atiii4«irburu. 

47$, The Compass- — The |>r»pcrty pofliw4j»cd br mag- 
Utttd of amviijciik^c tlit^iEu^rlvtt iii iliv miq;iu.^c lutridrun baa 
bMn ulilisHvI in tliu cicm-tiniction of Cohfaiuki- 

Fi|C- 339 TCprOK^Titt n oompaAS, It oousisU of & ixiiiil>aM- 
hox. bivhi); n pivrit nt its (vuUv, <in whic^h U jxjtg^d n iltrlk^nto 
iei^hcIil: uinntk'. Anmml Iho lirn of tJiv- l4>x ih u grmlnntiKl 
ciirte, vrlifHtu tliAifkOU-T U Etomcwlukt Lcm thun Ujc li^nj^Ui of 
Ib^ DMdlc, ADd of whirh tho pin Im thi» centra. Xbo pin b 
4>f hnrd fltffol, oArprtilly pnlnCorl; a pl(?<?i? of harii »tono ift let. 
Into Ui( nccillc, in fvhii.-li l« ft coiilcnl ho\v lu iv«t U|kiii UiG 
pivot, to 4Uminifrh llin fHctlon between the nnrrllc luiH }ta 
mrppurt^ In Ddtlitiun to tli4> f^niflii^itioti <>n tikc ftivl^^. Uic^ 
bciiunii uf tbi- ficj^ IK Tll\i(lt-Ll ijitu HixU'i-Li ^:i\un\ parta* inUi* 
i^Un^ tli(^ pvrnU af lAf OTAT/irw, 

'rbi« iiiftniintcit tiudor r'ftrtoat fcnni la lUAd fcr a fcrunt 
IjiijiuriAficu to iiio tniii'llcr u.iicj rxpluivr, lo «iy nuihjEi^ i^ it* lav 

'^D Imp ii)i<riifjn:i ia hTigwii< Tliip i« ttMM b^ aatmunf nka] UkvUtAA^ 
^Ity Uk]ii|r nliHitfvfhoTiA iirthii iiurib |niljtr «Lir, iir th# «un, uid km Ift- 
iuii:iil rjjllinl ilkc iliplufAtioiL otUiiNiHi U UKxl. TliU lurm iif euDf 

' iii'hdiiiii 1 tlk^i^ wlirii ili4.* iiivdJc fwraiM u> imt, ibo nNi4tag 

tlir biNvl 4<f lliv mvctlc tvilJ bo iht. dnliiutiuu rr^tiJivd. Ici ibn 

if tvp Miip]Hmit .V^' In hv in the tnin nbThlbUj tho dwbaaiina 

479, The Dipping Needle — Ifbieik a 8lwl m-tntle, 

^ bdng nugnt^tijcoil, it U i'i>und, AfU-r 

\ iKnng inagn«ti<4>il, to litcUao ilown- 

1^^^^^^^ KanU or U> rfj^j. Till* (tip U U^wuUa 

1^^^^^ lite tiorlh in our UtlUnic ; tb^t \»j Um 

\ J uurUi t-'iiJ of tJin nci^Uc <Up« 01 io- 

^*^ I'linoH. The; drkct urdippjikg ill tbc 

•^^^^ L'inup*3i» b n-mecRiHl by making iJ»e 

oUiLT i^nd pr tUc! Dvollc n little 

tiouvior. hy adijin^ amovntilc vrcijOflil, 

n^ It |^lc*oe or«ir« «\;un<l rouiKl U 

ui^i-fUo :iiiil <»['Able of ^iilinj; aloitg 


TofJi4>w Uio fliiji And to mt^fture 
U. the iu'lhII^' U RuHmtinl in tiio way 
i(tili(-At4-fl ill 1-i^. SAIL Tlti* iiii^lhr U 
^iirv^wmlcd on a bomonud nxi^. »o 
tliat it unr move up aihI dovu FW^IVt 
nnil the Amount of tlio dip Is ipdU 
cuU'd 1>y u gradiiaU'tl t^iit-ltr or 4|tiiiil- 
ft'c ^» ■'^■^(' '^<^ ^^P int1i<»l^ iu Ihfl 





liurt^cjti. At any jJoigc ttiL- clip will l>c Uw ffrt-utcnt pn^AJMc 
vUi^ii tJu^ ncvdlc vibral4!i« In Uic pUno of Ukq nui|caclic 

Tlii' iU|i TTinca \a piwiiijr from ^Japo tu pUM, te(ftttiiLii|r m w* 
U. Iho iM^ciUo Id ]<T[H:ui)iculAr X*' tXw liunzoiL. At tbo uumnoUc 

Artitin vimlUr I^ thid vtv^^vX by l)ie« c*r|L on Iho UvuUe i« 

fltiirtvu in Pi^- 331- Wh luiis herv llittw iKoiliiriu uf tliv ilr|?|>iug 
Urtvliv iV[fr>4vDt4«l (ijhii :i Ia; lOUgUVU A< tlkc^ rnri« t^f Uii* iit«g' 
iH't Lli4^ pvftiljijii* i4 l]w uvriDv uru lliu nutuu n» irLvu vtve tlio 


Fig ;ui 

itrrill'^ fiTl4>vh« til? LkA lUllI nuiikv pulcA attract and hkc rqxJ^ 
Sutnmary. — 

ntiJvimti*! 1.VJ ■ NiHiIto Inmtag up n PlvoC. 

llluAlmtt^ 1>j » K«^a «tliuh«p<l tt> H Pic<c of C<irk 





Ihumnt VafiaUonM c/ thf N*^lt, 
AriTHiul Variutknu of the Nfrdk* 

M(tlj<'<t <>r tlmlinif iLc True find M^e*^<^ M«Mllttfc 

■BTiax ID. — iticriioDjt ov mT'xnnim UAtatm 

480. Magnetising by Terreatrlal Induii^ion. -> To 
HAonKniTK a hodf U to frnpnrt tn It iJin propcrtin* of & Am>^ 
nei. Ihiit i», ti>iiii[MLrttoiLUie pro|j(^or«ancil«g aa^vtie 

Ttiv 4>nK fiiiT)Elniii<c4 timt c«4i b* pctiwuMMlj MifMltad 
mrv »i(<t>l ikiitl U)i< iiim|Hiui»l nxitlc uf iiunt vludi ooMlltiitM 
Uiir I'lmbtiiiir- A UxK citpabk of bans micrlhol aav bt 
c^ELVL-rtod iQU> a tuofOH^ t*y Uw irtiluctirc ialiiaPB of l^ 
eiLrUi, or iDor« r*[>l<lljk' by bving TtiM*4^l hv urattar 
or, AnsJly* by ibr a<iIo» of (^j iiAiiilcail ifkvukitj. ti 
cftw tbc oixmlMit b iMtUkUDCoaS' 

NatiinU ntfAnrCv ovo tbcii nwpkctUai to Iba tik/w octka 
of tli« nmii. vb&di polaficea tbo tnolecofaL Av BapMtte 
Bctkw of Uu* nulli in lu gnntt a* Id be naed <iin¥MiflJj to 
fonniif ATti&dttl nuvnvt*- 

To UM Uhk principle. «v |iIm« » tklA Imv of In* is iW 
naagttHic mctUi^n uhI liadiiw It 10 Um k^iMft I7 «a »^ 



equal ta titt dip. In this position th^ rflrth itcU upon \\ by 
inclkLvUon, tbo low«r «nd iRniur^liittf ^onX\\ j>olarity (^la our 

Tbti ii»giit?tif<m iliLiii iniJuL-Lxl ia oei1>^ temporary ; fbr if the 
boi be toowJ IVoiii itn }ioMilton, llio ■>|)po«iU« |n>krJtioB nuu- 
trulSzo oscli Othvr. If, hoWi^vcT, whrn lUn fmr U in poatltmi* 
il Ih.' Htruck SQiATtlj liy ft h:iinmi^r, or if il lin vjoli-nllv iwl^tt-d, 
!tLilUcf<iit coercive foft'o inD> U^ dvvcloix^l to rctolu tUc in- 
duced xDogQctiftn U^t a Liuie, 

481. Mdf^netizing by Friction. — Bare of fttool, niitl 
nuwHu* for L-ui]ii>riWH-«. aw tiKtinll;^- magn^t^i^d by rubbing 
Ui(?m wilL oUivr mag'tiuUi. Tlu^ Uinx- lui-tlicnlrt nri* vallfil Uiv 
motlioda by tinyU ttfu<k, by jej/arate touchy and by doulte 

Ti>LiAgitvtf£f- n htt^-l bar liy Wn^^friiti-A. wi< hoUl Ih^ Uidj' 
to ba lutiirnctiAr'il in one ItfiiKK tui<\ wjtli ti^c uUicrr ifu |iajit 
over it a p<itti?Tfiil bo.j- mwtriioi, iia sIiowl b Fiir, 33Si After 
K'vj^nil ropriiUoiifli ofihi* fn"CH.n?*(, nlfrayA ilk Ib^ winw dlrvo- 
tioEi, thv Bled U fouiiil ui |HHnmi ull \ht jjmix'nJf-i i>r!i mftg- 
ucCh TbcTW prt>(rL'rlii:TT uri? tljc iui>n> diimblc in pToporUoil 
to U]C ImnJiiow of llic bUvL^ 

To mft^iwcizc n slcvl tjftj br tfjtaral* tvurh, vm bHDg Uib 



t«n>oppc«it4:polcni>rttro mttgnctdori'ijod fierce iii Uw* miildlf 
of \hc tiur tu In.* iiiii{^tK't]£4Kl. auU Uk-q move U»rni f4ipulto- 

Tu lua^uvTlij&i.- a body b)' t/uuUr fvurAa we onkv* um> of tvo 
aagnctlEcd ban, Hhidi atc i>lac^ ivlili ilim v|)|JUKitr jjr.iW 
io ^n1«ct with tlin bitf ut iU mUkilc poiut^ bviuf kci»i ni a 
JLxtxl ilutfiiKw lir at pit^et* of wocsd jiUc«d bet*«ePi «■ «Jiu«rn 
lii I'ig. 39d ; tl)c oifLiibiiicd Ixmt nrc Uini ioo^tiI alu*nutdy 

FSr- m. 

la oppoAlto directions to tlic ttro vnds of llio fiar. anH Uw 
<^>effitlon )j| rv|)pntiHt KPVc-nO \\inv*^ llniTdiln^' in U]l^ mi(kll« 
of Uio liar. Cftrc miuiL ho fjUtm tu Hrj>^> (he aairc nanlirr of 
toudjvA lo cflth rnU of lUn liflr. 

Tilt! melhcKl of ]nA^iL*tuc~m|r l>y (Ijnawicfil ^LvlHcity wltl bv. 
U'entuil ol^nudt-r Xhv hi^l of KlocUknl ('un^titn. 

48a- Magnetic Battfiry. — Arinatureft. ~ A Bl*)Idcr 
cvMioVKTn, CiiimiBitiiig ottk ^i\x\f f if itm^^iirtutul Wm UI1II41I 
00 tliAt tlidr polo* or Uie oatac iiamt* taay be a^iniiJciit, ia 

&oiiroUiD«ft iLeM tiun<U(<ji nn* compo«od of »lntght but*^ 



like diat ittiown in FT^. 312. and nnmotimoH thfy arc curved 
in thu jiJiiipL* of a t]c>r»c-whtn% vi »ho»n in Fi((. 3."M- 

Mngml-t. if nlmiidum^d tii llu<iiiHi-hut, wcntlij loaic in a sliort 
liuii! mucU of t\ivlr jwiver; livncv 
it i» that armtfrairCiS nrc umploj'od. 

An ARUJkTnec ik a yAi/'W of soft 
Iron piftccd in cuntjirL viU^i Llir ixtlch 
of ADiofCMft. Tbim^ a£i in Ki^, ^iii, 

TIK" pulvi*. ftotiiig hy indu^'lion 
ij|iu4 till- iinnzLlare* I'on^k^rl ix itiU> ii 
MiglWt vrhMc pok^ arv of Ibc oppo- 
ilto kind U> thofl<- vitL vvbidi Uioy 
eottiv in contnrt- Thnii- tno polee, 
naictiiif »[Hin tlir pnlv^ of tho miig- 
Del» j4 if* prcToit the ncutmlixfttion 
of tUu two potor forcv^i nud Uuw 
gm^Mirvo lU mftgai'Lisin- Tin- ni-inn> 
tiutr b sooieUniMi iiaUeLl a iw/rci-. 

till it wpvain frnm tho tritu-ncl, wc niti. 
fmni dw nuinbar of [hiuiuIs iippUnd* 
juJ^rv of fh4 pow«r of ih-t iiuuctjvit' 

Fi« luMtiy kliidi iif itvsieutilo tnrpcrl* 
iDmit Iho hofw-iliix) fijrni li» prc^friuLlc, 
ItiaiUao the ftirLii IhuI mlai|i(ri1 Tit llir 
ii|ijiU«jltiMi of nil BfniAttiriv nr koi>|>rr' 

WUtfU tlii' lun^DtUiitu \u ilu» iVkmi tif 
l*rv ilM-jr on amugDa in i^n, acd ao unbAtum pUwd nl the f^uik, 
U0 iLgva lu Fig' n04. 


Till- povrtr of Ji Di'^i'iict \t luUle Ui be L««at4ied li; lievl or rj^|{1i 


Summftfy. — 

MrthoJjt of HAgnctinjis, 

Nituml Iii^ii(<U |iTC(hMVNl hj \h^ KanhV AcUou. 

Arlitii'ijkl MJ^cllcU I'TvilacHHl Vj* llu" Kiirtb'd A<4if>D. 

Ity f^lti^lr Tiiunlx, 
hj S<-|»:miic Toiiob. 
lij- Dimbl-'Tuudi. 
SitigntHa litittrry. 

lEUwEraiLxl hy V'tgmt^ 

KJiiGuitiuti ni)() V^e. 

Aiinituiri- jtibl Jliinn*-»^(« Mo^cit lllaittntlAl hy PEgmih 

Annaium aiiJ Bar MngtKt ilJiLftnu.^ bf tl^goitb 

PBntt.--FRtCTtD14At. VLCCTRtClTV. 

ascTiopt I. ^ Aecrnieiii r&ortvrm 

483. Diflcovcry of Electrical Properties, — About 
SOO II. c, TitAi in iif HIIpUu o^H>rvM Ihnt wlipo .ttnht^r wAa 
\igiiiXHi*Ij- nibU^I with ncH*L it aiYniirtd Uir prajK-rtj' of m£- 
tmorm); lij^bt l>cntio«, audi ttis djnAll piccc« of |)0|>er, barlw 0/ 
quilifi, Btm«r», Ab<l tb« likv. 

Thh «A« lh« ^tu>nt of ttio tcrtoirledf^ on the mihjoct nntil 
tbe cad orUie ^ivTci^nth crntorv. when William GiiAutTi ■& 
Kiijclifili phviiicitui. cnUod anew thf- nlUnlion of wriG^tlllc Bkcn 
to (be proportin ofanibcr. Ami vtiowcKl Uuit ft j^nt Diiiab«^ 
of DtlH-'f «utntiifio«», ftudi ju glcLu. ivaLii. aUk. n[l[>bur, etc.. 



flr<iiiirfvt tlii> power tit siilmcliD)j[ fight bodies, on being rublwd 
tvith wocillcii HiiUi or ciiL'!t Hkiti. 

To TnpoAt tlinui cKpcrtiftcimn^ rah ■ Tiittft oT gbwi or A nUrk ai 
mcaUiuJ'WAX vUH a \\ic\}p of woL^lbn dttli, Uwo pKHCOl them W Ll|cl'^ 
ballH, u .4hri?4)s nf ^nlil-li'iLf, lhiir>>n nf quLIUt, nr fnigin<?iitJ of pitp<^t 
ainl the Entlor will W orvnl-) ihppiMAch iiDil ndlicfotu tbf^ tinted glus 
or sivliu^-wnk. Tlii? gbkhH miLt FH^nllEiff'wnx urc thou vulil t/i Ito 

inf^itlii 14 1l]iJl<:AtCli III 

It will Xn? soon hci^- 
HfWr llmtmKii^ dudutbvr 

imt Diily ih'vi'lik|i fiTC- 
« of al1rBc4ii>u vli^Mt 
tubbotl. but ithai iluvy 

vporlu, ahiI ihi^plfly ^ 
nUTDb^r of oiher pmi'- 
ertitf, aU of wIiHi att knoim na i>1pi>TriMl |ili«iniiriiiniA, 

discvwry hi I'lH'tricily Ujiji hr^n nuilil, miil a iniilMtinlfl iif ww Uetu 
Imito Uiwd dovuhijio-i, wlJph hAvc tct^Q k wdl atudbd w U> foroi n 
vury MtrnnKv hnurh of untuivl wk'tLn*. 

*nK> tiro»k« uppUcd i\w Dwim r£«Jtff^« ti> nmh^, and hpn^r thv 
Qninii rCtdf^^ ww glniQ lu lli(i jKivi-f of HitrTu^tiiHi vihLUitiHl by 
tkkt BttbrtBiir^ 


484, Electroscope. — Electrical Pendulum. — An 

ELiu7TWi!!Vx>rK 114 !tik n|>p:LrntiiA fur bhowldg wUi-n £i bt>1y Is 

Tlie most Hiiiipb dectmscti^ie ia tbr KLMTUiCjit Ptswr** wbidi conHWU of a buiaH liiUl of tIJtr pith. ■u«titniieil 
by B liuv Bilk Uirettd, hh siKmu m Fig. .1^7. T!w IbrvaJ U 
r^lcn<.-<t lo tbe ii^iptr cuU of a xtciu i>r nivlul. vrlucb tlcm bju 
a viiipiwrt of gla84. 

To aAC4«ruuu wbetbtT ii bcJy u clocirifloi) or ucit, tb? pcmiiilan 'm 


(illai;nvi«ji ruH- \V \h-m tin- ffuiLulitr of iilrfltrioitj U Uni wi^Ul lo |iru- 
arc aomrlimw eniploywi. 

485, Two Kinds of Electricity- —That tJ»0TO Ar« iwv^ 
klmU ut rl^rUiiitj' iiijk^ U< ikliiiwiL liy E-lir nrtioii iff |jliu» Aiul 
icniiimiA IxmIlcs, fiArr bpiiiji; rubbu^^J, uprttj piUi hulk. 

ir II tube of gln^ bo rubl.w<l nilli a |>Iov<! of iilk, tuui Uii'» 
1ir<rieutaJ tu tUv ckt-tricti i}tiivl4iluiji {Fig. 337), the pilb btli 

Fig 337. Flff^SW. 

«UI at nr*t l^c atuaclod, aoti a.tu-r a »bort lime it mil »*p 1^ 
l>*lle<l, IL4 ihowii m Fig, 35«. Tho ball i« lUea obargod with 
tJw larjic kUnl of HrcUldlj sa tb.u In lliv glan« 

If navr n |>iocc of a ivriuoLru Wl>', a« BCallag-vtax, be 
rubbed ^vith flnnnol nnd brcnij^lkt it^ar tbo ?xdt«(l pilii ball. 
Uie htUer h iniinpdiau.-h' iittmtt4<id to tho foniior. In Ukm 
muiiitvr. If Hit- »'nlm;^**iL\ Im? fltnl (iri^w-iiUnl in ilii< |h<«Iii< 
luia. it will bv iLltracU^I ami x\n-n tv\tv\M. If \hrn the, K^au 
W brought iwnr ib<* (kill) bnll, ailnicLion vriJi Iw otMrrcd* 
Tbi* «Unn'a ih.nltbr nf^tifinof Hoi^crMl^r. nx c1<>velO|ip<1 In glaAa 
nin\ rt^^ln, U UilTcfvitU tiic one ix-pclling nbcR tlie Olbct 
attract A. 




Tin* ♦lOPtrtdlV <J#roIop^d til ruhl»m&( glju* wilh a pii*™ of 

rtibHnie rr»m or loaLing-wnx nith Xhc ISaiincI Liu 1}fi-u namvU 
rtMiuou$ tttdritiiy. \W imvv Udi: tJiu toi'm poaitiv^ (*) Ui 

486, The Gold'Leaf Electroscope. Wh*-u Ui.- i^ntiiiltlr 
of vJci^truutj i-h Uh> niaoll U» [iiuiiuci.- at^t^^kikili: [lUtacliiJli ujKilt 
Uiu pith boil, iiif>rc* dditat€ In^Liittat-iiU aiy aoractluioa cm- 

tuill 'if iniHEitn Auil Hi Ua 
Jdwcf I'nicruJty ill IfcVu 

in Kig- ;«). 

I'lifi rorh «ad th« 
wh>Ji> lirp <f lhr« lHictli> 

of WTil*li mid'' li/ ilU' 
•olriHg flvaliiig'WUfi id 
alci^hul- Tbrr turtualj b 
Inid on vUli & brurilip 
AiiJ M<m^ III iiiAh'- 1I111 
Iwltiv ii iH-Thii' uijii'fNm- 
itutuir Tlji> ktml ur 
VKi'Didi w ':Acn cuvU in 
<L<rtnnl «i[nnmi'Ji(A tti 
vnulur j|Um »o(i-^(>cii> 

rtfllr Un (food itrtn -i<rinJu(!Ur. Wi it iu ;*]*L 1-* <'iim!i<iifi> iii.ihItipo fruft 
llir air •<» lis U- bcfMuic tk mml*M««ir. WlntJ OTvmil wiih \uiy nwUi- 
(fiiN vtitTiUh 1hi»i irivildft it nruinviyj, 

4S7. Method of utins the GcldLctif Electroscope— 

FIK' S30. 



vJwfnttoopo Mtkt a. ir II u ri«cuifl<^ it itcti npcMi tho hmU «fti iu 
aleiD bj iaductioa, stttiMtilifE lli« cU-ctiii'llf of A cuotntfy itmatC tmt 
th« IaIL, Jm<] n-[x-]liiig Thxt i-f thi» uliimt mamt* ioin llic |eaU| kqto*, 

wUlihvnrf[i^ TliU mBlTiLini>Qt Kvory nciJkiUvt, Uiiiwiog tb« »Uglitr»i 

Ta tmi tho Awuf nf c1r«iririTy iti il iKH^y, bnnff II no»r lJi«< iu^rnj 
in«DXiuid toucLtb* bull with the lin|^r vhilc uitdf i ibo ittdcicon'tif itn: 
boJy* Thin will 4niw off lltii fLiNrirlirilj ifibo nmr-uun* whlrfi l-o* 
1>MfL j](iV[<lir|ftd l>y JiuluGtJci), iiiitl liw^o lba1 >>f n ^FEtKrjr luiiw te llal 
Ln ihn U>iiy, whkh It hrid In ihr Imll hy liLjiirlJun rnnn 1liA«k«lrittod 
Lod/. The loiiviiiwilL b^WfHillflFKt uot iKtUK ■'t'^'^vC'^l- Km^'W iIh' 
flUfp^r bo irijLivviHt iiiid tlit'ii llie tleclrifiiii VhI/, tb» i-Jwiriritj rvUiMoJ 
in ihc bnll viN sprruJ «vpr tiic ri>d, Wvu.uftd buU, naiaui«i U>f leatn 
111 JUfi^i-. Nvw,1vi&|£Lui rod Ut rubbud iviLh vUh* w ki Ui fnciilr 
jKi»iti\ii [iltiflricay, vktl ihi^ici ]ta il tr>aDh ibe ball <if tbe rtr<tnunjy*. 

If IliP b-ftiria iliviirKf uMtt'i ihr flrvtrirltj in Oinu brim Vm (*i»i' 
^XvOf tuiJ that of lb*] Uh^j la ijuf-Jrium inu oim«t4)««nUjM!B'riT?. If, 
hiiiA«vi^t ib>T tiukvt-ii »|-pRBfl] M«b fi|)iw, ^ «I«vtriril5 in tf^n* W- 
I6re wim a(i«;ulivrj ^nJ <vn«9i|uoiiUjr tbM ift ibv IvAy csponwcutul 
upt>n uvu |iuhhive. 

ThciAMallb poM, at ifao Jolt of the 1(Wf«, IsMttscvicil wiii tlir 

(CTDUml, Had n-tws Ut rrUliiVU au exorwil*-* cliArgr from ihn Ir^ir^ 

The dJr in th«f jvr w kO|>t dry bjr 4|aipklinM or Btrnx! <TtJicr Mib' 
ilauctT that nliflujle rjiiuiluto pkonl nilitii ir 

4&&, L&w of Electrical Action- — From ilir nwilu^ of 
the- lu^t^^fliii;^ cjip^riuK-'iitA. uii4 i|ph> fruta nuiuvruufl ^iiailof 
tiii«s nv bavt? Uki r<;lk>vi'iii;; taw of dvctrioftl acUon : 7W 
bitcAVt rhar^feii tPtlJi tkn ttivj/ rifftridty rtptt MtA oikfr ; two 
iad/n thar^tJ tcifh tt/iptJMtr pUrtricttits attraef mtk 4i(Arr, 


489. ConJuclQrs. — InsulatOTB-^-Cnisprvroits, or mm- 
iW/ny tuhfanai. [ut thow ntiich iicnnlt electricity to |uimi 

do not })t-nuH t-iectrieity U> ihum fhvly ittiiugli 1I»*iki. 

ElnuilUtt ImIic* muru Iiwuailf to a ufhizuI tiMU «rbFu bnnii^il 



^ Willi fhrt nitth, iir whiiH jilimil i||hi1i iiiii|»|ii^rTj< of uiHuI, 

ftltwtT^ftM nrtoJuinn fur * long liinif whrii |ilnivi| ii^mn BippiWln (if 
gli»ni mun, iiLL|p)iL)r tirwiicn niiBpfitLict) hy ailktti mrd& 

FojMi ilii^fl frtrth »•■ riinHiiili- thuT mi'liLlt, HiArruiil, »jjiJ the litre, 
pi>rmit ihr i't4><ilrt(-iiy T'i yti^t- fn^Ay iKrimifli tlivri»» *tiil^ ;;lfi'u, i'r«4ia> 
itiillitiuft I'tr. 4t|i|iHc ilH |4lHlii^f^ Ttit< lutlcr rbiM irf InklifM jrrii 
ft*)t i'liunly uni*i|uihlo of fl.nj(ii5i^uni( clotfricity, but tlioy aro ux- 
uvuioly pfHif utiiJiioUin, Whrii an i'lL<c1iifi«d hody in thurn>UDdvtl 
bjr Ti>in'«<iiidur4nr> it ia wid lij liu ifviulaf^, qnJ «uy iiuD-nnidiictltig 
»tj)>fHirt uF all I'iMti'Ellvd liiHly is tlitnTun.1 vaWv^ aa itiOMlitUrt. 

The yteal aumiuL-tui's uf vlet:trii^r,> aiv Ibi" lueUU: atlvr 
tlKi^ki; (viuu plumUi^o. wcU-calciiiutl V4irlN>ii, ai:{iX lunl ani\nt 
bolnbo^Hi WHl^^r ifitlK^r tf> Jk hqtud or vnporoiiii t'orin, the 
biitnan \Ki\y r>r aiiiiiinl IU«iii>m. vcg^Uiblo stibibirKVA, and in 

Tlic ■rorst conduclnrr", ttt IwaI non-coiKlucUira, ore n'iiiti*, 
pJTn«, liittm-nibbvr. MiU. k'^s^* |>ivdi>LJ3 el4>nca, i4{iirtU of 
lt^r|;«Titi[if'. rjiK ulr, end ^mes wlu<n [HTrfi-'FU}- ilry. 

400- Hypothesis o( Two Electrical Fluids. — Tn 
ATC^iint Ibr i^Ic'cIHcaI pln.'U'.»iiK'ija atvi-ml tUforic* hnvc bwn 
|»ropo«<Hl, The Iwo pnn<'i|Hil ont-a nr* tfu* on^ fhnd Uitorr of 
Khmiku% aihI the ru/o^Jtviif thmij of STwureH, 

Thw funnier null [lUtiiiH the rxlAij^H^ fkf mily rno i^lrctri? fluid. irhH« 
pUt»lH WO •elf-repcIloiiT. T!.j* fTujil r»l»U in nil biiAtn in Ti»ry 
l"e pniporltnn. Iti it* nuirTrid iLifo flfvorr nthtKAnw hu cuwtJj iw 
wrti '^aimtitir ; bwl when fllc<!imftl ennrrfunit ihxiit>, ii v jHjm^^H 
4'liu-itrfliir1 ir h hw h» vxnMtt4 hm iihttiml f^iiAtiiliyf «nil luyunifvjy 
iilfM-fr-lhiM if tliiTi^ in m difloi'mpy, Kiiiililpnorn h mUttd \f% ftntnitivc 
InwUi'* \\y infUiiif «lT,h lli(* piw*w". rtml 111 iwgntitT 1nv1lrii by vuppljr- 
iag iLfi dtticicnry from ftUfr*cHiiliTiir l^r^Ji™. 

irhict) i^xivt in iiik'ircttcit l>oilJo« in i-qtinl qoniitili^'ii iti u -Tab' *4 iwu' 
tnUolbnn Wbm wpar*Tf JtJiryaUinil .(U'lmllui. Ua \U? ^mrlii^lc^ 
■if f^lthcr fliiiil n>|>f>t tiFji? ufii'Tb^r. 

Tbttn tiro fluids wvfT ai fifrt lu^mc^j U* n>wiu okliI ti.e raniMM* 
fluldftj hui Biniv Tf<fvnt.]y they hhT« lr«t>i) «nLkd thepvMlHv aud dia 


neffoUte HuUa, the ntmiuA beting enWvd pAulivc nrnd Iho ndtem 
ntyntire. TbvM n^tiim wen- f*ivvu liy FlUaiKUN* Uk beHfr ta 

Quiuoci^k) Lul Di>t witU ilii' uK^uiu^ uhiciutfU/ jutcvilnl. 

I'ho tbtory i:>f .SyuMKH hu gcincr^lf bcrn prpfcfred bj jiiijvkafi* 
to tljfll of Fkamki-i>. 

Kl^t^ric-ilj, A* nuK Ktilt^il al lite bcginniM^ of Uir. rtiapkr, 
la UTirlmjbli'dl^ duv lo mulct' III ur muiion of «H>nM.' w>rt« and b 
tV<xjguU^ h} itH fiiunirvHlulkO(i4 t/T pvitLtily. W'v cap rr^vd 
1C SA ft fi*nn (if ttirrg^. JksI fva kp ivptnl Grnvtutkin, C<ilvw 
9(ioh, Chcmival Aflliiitj. Sound, Ucftt* mid Ught im on^ k> 
iQUDj fijrrno tif f^f-r^y. 

When Iho iwo pl^rtrldlie* aiv wpnrawl, the energy r*- 
<|iilnHt til eIo the work i>f jti*|uiniLi»n U omivcrt4Y) Into |HiCni1li1 
riKT^Vn hint^ the bodu's charged with of»podt< Hoctncltks at- 
trtu-t i-nrh otliCT ; tbis potcDtia! enf^rgr bccomcM kinetic wbrti 
tl»< tLvt) IjikIil^* it^ij^rf^fu'li eiu'ti otlior. W& ahall tH*4.< Airtliif or 
Utitl tliia i<Ui:lnr»l i^Jicig; cau be cuuvctte<l ijito OtJjrr forma 
of ei^vrer. BB heoU light, and chvnijc-tl »v|>mAtu)«i, 

491. Two Kinds of Electricity always produced 
by Frtction. — Wlicn^rrr nm Imdlt* nn' niMM"i! iiigv-iltivr, 
bgtb kind* of electricity :^*^- nUAjs produced at Uio uiek line 
itnd in (vjtini qiiAiLtitivH. When fcleuw U rubb«d iriUaailk, ibc 
gluM Riil iimftifL-^t |>Miiivu ciMlildty ftocl tlie feflk oegativo. 

In Hit fikllou-iiiff li«I imj fiib«tiuiw l^^^irm |caT|jv<^ »lwttlS«4 
whm rulbt^ with Bay vi ihu twdjw Mlc^-iitg, but oivM^vai; *llk 
toij of tlu>«« pTMtdlag. 

1, r*l'i-riir. 5. Cflttnn. H. StioUnf. IX CaonicitoOF. 

2. FLitmcl. 6, aik. 70. Rnln. 14. atui- javrhM. 
X Iv<«7. 7. Th« hncd. II. The ntUl*^ J5. Gna-wMU^ 
4. GIjuw. «, Wood. IS. Sii]|4iur. 

493. Electricity developed by other Caiuet th«fi 

Friction- — Kkfirli^iiy iiwy I* Jiti'ivliipftl ij [iwiiBU tttd wW*- 

v^ ill fiiti. b7 on/ fAuw [b«i iltMarlw ibf* rDdtoctiUr ■n^ng'emtDl 


WuiTM poaitivelj «luclriUt(L WIh'ii >i|iiiH% itibMi^tu 19 bn>ki'U imJ- 
dnnly m a dwk loom. a (eMo light u t'bAorrubk, whioh in ilu# lu ttiv 

uuMmK pAftitiilArty toutiiijiiuu and lu(4i<, iiihuiicnt dtTtrtod ptio- 

ThiR fjhi Wjt* iiml iUKt'Vvn>il In tliir rav^firtuui^nnlibr, n'liii^h lirat 
AftniFU an^l then icprli hoi uhoi whnn pintvd simiiTi^ thJ^iii- Th* 
dtKttkiKj proi|qc«I bj lUf iLif^thodd JLiM lurtillimc^d m Hiltiibir in jU 
arlinn tn ibM prni|rjiu.Ht 1)/ fnctif-n- Fh^rtioiiB] rlocln<!ti^ u uimiw 
1iin«» <alltsl ^'jJiWjJ ^iMtnt^ily Li-cuubo it am hr rftaini-d foTMiiiko 

tifm* «iiJ akf^'ia^i/iiiiiiottJi vt hudlca wQt b« ooiiAJdcrcd undn Djuami- 

493- Methods of electrifying Bodies. — Xon-con- 

miij be dcctriQcd ijilh^r by (YictioD, bj conlact> «r bj 

hi r>nk*r to clwirir^' n mf-Ud- it musl U» EiiJ(iiUih<il ; that h, 
U ijju^l bo Bunuuu^eJ by iiiJi:-(ui]dut-Uii^ IxkUph. dmi il mu*t 
be nibbt-d by nn inrtulfttcd body. 

Hib tDaj be vlTirctol Uxtni'unliiiv thf mrlAl npoa n ntand of gbu* 
hnj niUiiitg it vlTh 11 tinii-^i^iimliirtiir, hiiHi vi a jiiNir nf hilk. Wen 
th« ipvlal not in«i]lA(;^i tim dt^tridly wi^uLd i;u lu th« it\nli h* bvi 
»« lltfiwnKktj ftTLiI VPN tho nibbiib^ body finl ^ non -oondDrtoff U)* 
cWuicIljr woiiU |iiiu ciff iTiTiiUKh ibc boniiA anJ Ajma of iho cxpcrl' 

TIjp niplhot] of ekc^nfjinc hy r-^Dliicl drpciJtL? U|h»a the properly 
of miidttftiMlitj- Tf a i*<iriilTh'fx>r In hrim^lit in o^nliu'l wilh nu cW- 
iriliM baJy, A prfitii^n <if ttiri ilr'^Irii^ilr nf lb(^ luttr U uC man* im- 
jNtrml id^ tiiM fnrniir tjmly If rh<i luu bfrillf^t jtm ci»rtly nllkr, th* 
elDctridtf will tf oqwilly iUdiHliat<N( over bMh. If iKcj iLUF«r in «i«e 
or h) ihnfo, ihn tlivirlr-liy will mit iK'tHinnlljr dliltlbDiHl mi?f fcoth. 

Th^ m^1^^■d oTi^lp^hfyicif; bchlitn by iiKEuciioD ia viiailiir U' Ibal 
nf lUAgovlJXJiJi: IiibJu'i> bj tiiJiLcliou, iiehI viJI be (Tfjilril brii'iiArr 

494. Accumulation of BlcciiicUy on the Surface 
oS BodicB- — Ex|i«iiaivnt iiliowd tlmt wbcn n botty if^ clvcUi- 



rtPfl. lb(> Hm-'irkiij' aU K«c* lo ihc Mrfacf of Ibc body, *rtw» 
It i'ti»t[t m a iLin Invc-r, tcmliitg coniinofltly to «ncii|w. It 
nt^tiinllv U<JL<4 f»CEtp4i M w>Ofi »« it flad4 An oiitlnt dtraofl^ a 

Of Mie vftHwiw ciiwritm-'iilA iiikm^nl l-> tUfw tlil> fiurt, w^ 
flcled ojR' ilifli wjis fifsL |)ori"nnMl l'>- Cot-uwiiH Ue moumod 
A coppor sphere upuu au iuMiluting J-od of glass, u aliowii in 


Fig. 340, Tic Uirn proviili^^l Lvra Imllov tii'mij^plbrtTS abo of 
copper. whicU. wUcn put tofr^tiicr, cxaotl; AtUd tbo drvt 
«pb<^rv, norl Ui4>iie lt« iaaLiUtvd by AttitoUu^; tliom to jeUm 
handler- Mnv(n^ pUoefl lh«» ttemtftpfapn fto as U> covrr the 
BORd Aphcrc, V» hroMi^\\\ Iho nlivlt' airimraluB ui raatart wiUi 
an «lcotrtficd Imdy IlLt il tk^i fatty irbArffiyl. 

On rvini>iriii|c \\\f ai>piinittw frmn lH^ tl^nfird bnlf » ha wpmlal 
hnn^iliFm* ]Uini|^fl r> and afi^ilM to «ach fea tafn iW ili^ 



trtAAl pfudulmr, vbun |>i* f-iiinil fhni It-Ah i^nv t*1<Mirifi«l. On 
tisliiuf ihc aijIuI B|iLi<rv iu iihv ihhiiul^t, Tji- trouUl Jifoj^^r i]<> tnuv of 
plitfth'kj; in fAhtr wrd»^ W wiw |hcifocII/ pf^lnil. In uIini^ awuy 
friiTi; llir IriJffjp iu MUlcr coaling* !je biul fiMuthTnl cvtry p»rticlii <>r 
iu vlrt'iru'tt^r v^iirh prcrved Ibiit Ibt clcrlripily wtiis mliroly iip*i[i iIk* 

Aikothcr fnct vrhkrii indu^aM th<i uiii« cmLcInkiou u, tbat a boUaw 
iiud d floUcI Hphuv uf llii' Hiijc ?ijxii nuil uf XU*^ t,nnm 'unUjual vjll ins 
clmr^-^l n^Uli LiCArtly ibv t,Mnn <[imuflty <jf rloeiru^ify uhnn atit'l^ Iu 

provii tbAli ■»l«-<-lri<-il> i.% nmlicicnl Ut Un- MurrEua- cif iHufifA. A 

incULUu rina (l-'iif. 3*1) is fix<il 

upi>ii an ittsuUiUiitf «Uivl; utlacJiul 

tu IliM iH u. codictti lini>n Wg, A 

wilk Uiread |id«fVh ttii\Ki^h llii- a\h^\ 

4>r tTii< roue. 60 tLint llt<,' bai: cjirk lo 

IutuimJ iii«i(lt> out AA <i(tcn on no^j^ 

iririty. WIumi Um* hng U i'h»<^t.iifT«t 
tbc H^ctHcity U fouml to Ikt ou the 
outniiic, ftD(] if nv turn U inaJtk out 
tbu umo is inio. 

Tb#iv nro lw<j »ivptlcii« lo ibin Tolf. rifr <HI. 

A liiitl'iu ninr will imt r^mHuri dcrtrlffiiy m vA\ nit a solid one i4 
the Miner ^UDirk^r. l!^Li'i^|rioUy rnJkj hv inducol ^td Ihf^ inficr mirfaoi 
uf A biillciw Maidurtitr, it w*^ [i1juw< w^ltiiii h Mt flirtiinnl Ixitfy inKU- 

495. Tension of ElectrieHy. — Whoo clootrioity 1« H^ 

iniiuileilnt n[vin titr m]r1^j?i> r>r --1 Ihoily, ft tit^nfit to f ncnpr: wHb 
n c«rUiii fcinx.\ whkb uv immcil tlio fi-nsrwi. 

5« Infjif u Li Jim'* ijiil jijiHi n ivdairj limi^ \l 19 btrli] Tiy l^t rraiiiltturo 
fif tJie *ir, Iml if the tPti-ioii punt^ lhi» liiHll, tlid i-Urtfloiiy M^|>m 
urHli n i:ni(^]kliri£ itujh' ikiMl« britlmiit Hitlu r'Al^-ilthnrlrcfncfil^rJt, tti 
moist Mr ibu U'imuid ia cot *t gmtuiu liry iuf>lfMvua Kn&&^**^ 


Erj:rTRiaTr, ftjtfirrbi tlat ibo iL-^incilj^ it a-ntTtvi au>>^' moic by tli* fiUi W 
vacuum tbciv ia na misliiuw lo i>t« nmiputff ^Uctncitj, A»d ilu 

49G. Influence of the Fonns of Bodies. — Poorer 
of Po'mls- — "Hit (lUuiUilion ofdcrtridts v-xcr lln- rturftM^v 
of lxHli(iiclii|>ciiU» u[>uti iliL-ir furm> ITn UmIv is hplR'ncJif , liio 

Thiv pnw^-pfAikO ovmMi rrf n 4t*k M [|>li piprf ktlacdwl to tW flnl 
iif ft nxJ rif inii"1ncwfiirh iiwiitnt^ will. Taikinc thi^ rud in tbr 
hnnd, u ihmvn Iv Fig, ;st2. k In jp|f]jt^ iiiMwwlTdy Ml dlflcnml 
ptiinlfl of tlir rt«rrlnnr>l eurfim. aihI ufii^ ucli tuutMl it b priMMed 

irtJio clcx:ir^AtNl IxhI^v ii K sphere. Ui«} laiiio uaoUQtof it* 
be n»ik ; UiU «bo«s tbit Uio proor-pLuw i« r^ul^ duq^nl 



At r-vtry poTnt or tlic> *pln-"rv, nud ot>ii»i>qticntl\' it in infrrrcd 
tlmt Lht* <ll'<lnLnitiou U mijr<>nn ovpr rho wJiol«> idrfjicv. 

WIlL'U tbe bmly \» vioitgnteil Aud |H>i)tU'd> iiti ii; >'ig, 342. 
(liJTtreul result* wv obuinrd. In llib caAr ll^c proof- ijlaiiw Is 
ii^oro hl^IiJy ctini'^vU nl tin? tlinrp rni.1 or Uic tiodv thuik at any 
<tlhvT |>oint, siKJwmg n larger amocint of plircti'idty at tiw 
jwinl tlian dfcf whi'rc. 

lu gfrnr-nd, ii inaj Iw ehwwn that the |rr«ntL-r tht curvnlure gf u 
■nifjifii? at finy pnrt, Umt id, llii> iM>nn>r it iLp|]n«oh(M n poinU the 

Thin silHJws llml tiectrkll.v leaJs to uct-iuiitiUle al, or U> 

flow towanls thf* puinlo^ portionb of botjioa. 

Summary. — 

Uy 1'hhl^ iif Milrtim, lEi AirilH>r, 

Hy Dr. C^ilbofl. Ui GI^lu, Rcdio, Silk. Pt«> 

Mfiih<>i1 "f dcTalopm^ KicKirlciiy by Fnciioo i!lM*irfttfti 

I'J Fii;iJfv. 
iHuid (irihii Sjtnun 


HcIhM of ucuri^uuinff whtlhrrr & R-xty U f lAririfi«4- 

l^uwu bf ihu tlMirifinL l^^nduluni nntt iUuvtrAlirt hy 



Mittlifxl fjf lifting llko 0<>1J-Ij«nr El«T€rM«o[>C. 

Cmdttcion and hnnttat(ir». 

II««ii;|ik-ji »f Itiioi] iLTiiI p4iiir Ciiniluiinr*. 

STKiiunrii Tiiwiry ox^ilxiiml. 

Kobiiin of tl«tricilf U- Eitvigy. 

Et|w-ri|Tii<lil vitti ial4M 011(1 t^tk, 

Liil <if HiitrtUiirm thai VlU pnutQiv KlrrlHrHj b^ 

Method «/ ^Jrvlr^yiny /Jr>!lain- 

rnmlLJi-vm uiici N'lU-CciaJurtpon- 
EU-olrifyJliK tj C"Tktu?1- 

lllnptmrod by ^^^ft <^ Hmniipborc* aoJ Glob*. 
KomJiiy'* 1£j[|imniciit tllivAmi^'d I15 Fignns 

UeHtiLtkuii jt»J Kf|>]aii milium 
Ii^fhtmct 0/ tiu J^orm4 «/ Bodi^ tm rAf Ihtinhmhom ^ 
Ib the Cai« <jf u !^pt]«rfh 

nxcTson n. — vMSt:ivi£ or otftucTiosf, — tLHrtwtAj, ii«cirnfaL 

497. Induction. — If &» in^ulHtHl ixArlurtor in a nnitisl 
>Utc i« hrroighl ii«Ar an ckc^Hf1<id hof\y* liui nut »o nvmr mi to 
hn^^ n spurk pnu brtni^f-n tlii'Tn. th<* Iflttcr. ftrling upon the 
formor« £7|i.irnifi; the t4x> Iilm1# of oWtiiciti««, r«p«Utng Xh* 
uNtnr himi rxnd ntlrnriin^ the <>p|Hmi(i- kinil. ThU o]H»rsUo« 
U calti^il l^nrt-Tio^. an<l it tPiiy taki,* iiloi^ tiot only at con* 
ttid«»hle ilist«)cc<9, bill uIe» LUivtii;li iwn comJoctintf bcMfin* 
sudi M Arr, gUu, ojirl ihL- llVi^- 

The BHrtbod of ele^Ltif}iri^ lirNliea hj ii]<lut-tlon U aliova jn 

Klgf. SJ3. On thp ripht Af thfl (Jpuro in tht fwim<> fonHnctoj 
(>f au vleLtrJt-id fjiiu4iirii% wluHi, nri wo tlmll hm> h^uafUr, in 
diveed wilU posiUvtf i:lcclridl>. On Lhn li'it U a mi.>tullio 
cylinder w&tli HpZimciJ rrixK ami siT|>|xjrli^ S> u hnK^rgln**. 
Att4u-*lipd to *la lownr Hurfikcv. At intoi-vuls, aiv pair* of piUi- 
hnit (wniliiKimit. feiiji|>on<'il lij thtvHds of Rome oondiK-ting 

When liio oi,lJmlvr is ^^"^^S^^^^^^^i ^^ 

Xhc olcclticftJ niHtliiiu', 
wc i«« Uic pi til hnlU ro- 
ll*! *MHrU oth« ami di- 

i8 unc<|itAl at dlflTerent 

jKiint*, being grofttcet 

np*r UiP dtromitir-n of 

the i'-)"limirr ; inwardu 

Ujc TJittldlc of thn crlin- 

d^ Uic pitb bniltt rc'mum 

lnc;nnfAflMithomTv|wl- ^^'it- ^''' 

ling CAcli ulhiT. Wv miiicluJe liutu itiuiL' rut^bi Lbnt the r/f- 

iriat^t ftre tlrivcti tonrurda liic cxtrrmitio'H of tho cyJlndcr» 

iriilk itie central portion nHmainn iik n lu-titml TiUti-, Ihua 

thania^ pof/trify us In (hi* artifjn afn rnngn*-! on tmH iron> 

U A viifk of rffin br mbhi^iL wifli tilb umE Udki^u m-nr the pith 
bftllfl tnvriLrida ihc clfotrirAl inai^liiDr* tbcjr vr\\\ be rrpcllrd, phnving 
Il4at timi «iiil nf till* <<yliiki1i-r im iir>pMJvi<1jr rlivlnlltHr If it ]h bought 
Udiir flip pill) bjilln nl thv r^inttii' (nrrriiiiirv nf iho ryXUtA^, they ilto 
Mtnu-In], hEiipV^'hit; (liHl tliHr. nrnl irf iliti rvliinli^r U jhiMTU'rly rbviri' 
Aoi. Fjnallj'p thf I'jLi-tfirLiiii* lu t'i-> tu^«i <'n«Jji jtiv cijiinLin ijiiHrjiit/, 
hb nmy In aUl>wu bj rirmotlns clio r^llnik^r, whcEi ibcy ncmmllro 
wvh othrr- 

The piAJlIvL* tliwIri^Ujr uf tTi« ui]Lrh1ri(<, ibcii, hbnply aria to vrp- 
AndA tho \wa fiaklir HlERu-lifiiE thf« lu^iT'ilivit Ibml In ibo pwt ln>i<rt 
U, nrnl Tr|ir]]fn|f ibr |Hrfillavt< llniil l<- (hi' * <|<|*ii>i[r i-iid "/ ^br r>lindrr 
No #U«iri^tty pnuoa tr^in thi> o|4>cinti«d botly b> iltn oucr tn 4 lutaVnl 
■lAlc TrhcQ Iniliiotton Uikw pljicc. 



49S. Faraday s Theory of Icducilon. — Faradat &»- 
MimM iu bin Uit-iii) LliuL. i'[oi;UioU> |K>bluwJ hU liv mutr- 

Ocukv ul' UhIicb niiU llio mirrouudlnie i»v«litiui. 'IV 
iiK»le(>LilOH 0I' gocHl noEi-condl^oton rv«wii Uirb- f\r€> 
Ui<^lty, but tliiML*org<Mxlcgiidaclondbiotiargv ilfroiA 
(lilt- (iiuk<ouU' lo Aiiollt^r, Lt-l P {\r^' A4-4> n?|ire^ 
hLtit the i-iiil or ibv priimr coiKlacior \n Fi|[, Si-t, 
which io fhnr^-iHl ^ Jlh j>«>mUvv t^L-cUkilVi •ml S iJ»c 

©tMul ul' Xhe mimII ixuiiJuUur. Tlw ■iiliJt i:itvl»> U^ 

iMjIflriKuHJ. tl^inu ii4rii-i^inUiJori't>, lioif tt^t llii^ rvUin their vice- 
tfirillML MTliiin Jtf la n';icl>oi1f U4uff ■ nmJiuuir, tlvr^ ht n ilbirJi4r|;«» 
iHiuivci AitDmMvv iiHflDrule*^ tud'J ilie TiC|c«tiv« clcvoitilj ouUnfl* 
iht unci end jLml lliu paadiln- at tZiv t^llii-r. 

499, The EtectrophoniS. — 'IV' Hu;c-riioniuiii:» i* a 
maHklnt* 1I110 10 Voita, hy lu^.-iuh of vrliicU vrn may obtiUH 

It coo^»tM of two pieces, ^ one u ^iktc of rvbiti B|>rvai] on 

a tA(>l4- of ttdijii, mrI Uie 
oliuT % woo>l9n pl^to oov- 
rml ■villi tiD-r^L >ivt 
|>roriiii-il with an inaolat 
iiiS li^iulte of glNM. It 
U iv|>nMnU^ 1& Figi. 

Ti> use this iiiHtninkCTtt, 

iihitirKLH |iM«.» vi^ijttkiHly 

iu FiiE. 34:1. This iltf- 
1' l*-]rt i>.'gaUv«»l«ctrtdty 
F»« ^t^ in iJiit iTuhi, W* tlim 

apt)ly tUc (IU[(. Li^ldiuit U lij' ito LiUnilc. Thi; plate of rwn 



tiv# «l«ctri(<ilj' lo the Ibil on ih<i iip|>ar fncv. 

t^vniu In F1k> -Mil. t!4i? hiffKlivr rl<-mjV|1> u^H l*MlrH\fU <rEr hiin Ihfl 
b»iij\ ApiL liio liifck ffiJ U» dthrpiti wkh |H>«ii»v cloviriniy. If \\w 


ibr kTiLirkli% .in »-hi>vii m KStf- 1147. o 'iHirk will jMf% whlrh !• 
rlur ^l the iLcu^itivu i^It-Ttfuuly jJituiLifi fftiin Itiu IhhI^ X'i tbu |HullJvi^]y 

\i TI4IV WD f^niinij? to rtp^nl tbv nukiu|kQljiijrko, tnhlbiud in Figvx 

fjtf <»f niVtiiii^ tho n.Yiiii nipMN vu\\h \\iv '4it« skin, frtho iiir i« ilrji 
tlu^rvitu will mutlDUclD Ati ili-ririflftl »tAie ftir a rrr; Inn^ ll>||l^ 

500. The? ElrctncAl Mnchinr. — Tht^ Ri-tc-mfiMj. Mi- 
cuixr i% a m;^rlt(ijc Itv inoaiin of nlitch nn uollmitiHl ftiuoant 
uf dvctrit'ity uinv l>ij gc-iieml^ br friL-liikii. 

*V\\i% mafliiiiF tntit tnvnitnl iibout Inu huiulrDl f4«r* ac^ by Otto 


Hrvt niAcfamrr wjunitnjJjr a l^ill of milpbiir fixed ijp«n h wodi-D mA». 
On iiimlnit <h^ >uiUr ami n ihi unrtc Umo jtmnng aa^ %*ttnd •gui>^^^ 

Omof tho Ih-M ntnchmrji for ordinary potpoai.'v b U)p |)lalc 

Tbe jiHiK'&iml |ii^c'V of the [iiatrlimtf L« m rr'^mirar / 
glBM. in^iited u(Mjii n liorifoiital axis njirl lunit^l hy- a 
Al Uie tight of the (jiato, but «o ooeibUijcIaL u« to coil 

poi1k>n of It 3U wc" lorn llif rmnAc. an> two mAirrf, amutlk 
t^Atlirr o~JVi'nHl wltb uii Hiiiiilgani (a m\\Uiiv i>f tin. zliic, sn4 
tncrciiry) wbii;lt bj- Un^tr friction dirvi!l«|j rkrtricitv, 

Tb^ brou G}Un4fr lo front of tbo plftt^- ix cft1U*d the ;Bn'«t>f 
rMf/uK^ ; II 1« tnsiiUtiNl hy a gl*M lUodurl to |Mvt<-iiI Um 
uUrtruicily from c«caplag to thi- eaftb- Al tliv eoJ of tlic 
ccndnotor n^anvt the ptaU \n a pioor culkd « cnnb, fVovn 
tbo r>Lot Uut ft ^rcftt TiuiDb«f of projivtiitf[ tMlh Aft> p 
lu ddo nrxt llir pluti-. but nol U» toadi iU 

The iiilk Ua\i sKTvca u> l(Wp tl>r Hcctncity on the pU|».' 




Tli#> nrpnllvr* mnrtm^Un- 1^ ihii Unk»% uptirm *r. Uip rtgbl in* 
Aulai^t t>v It iiihw aUinlani. 

Vinally, all of tbc- <*iid« of Uic oylnidcri lu ihv innehiTio iiro 
wmii^flit l(kti> h)ilHTlivl Tonii:*, U) prvvfiit the Jia«i|iaCiori of 
tK-L'iricitj' flfl mukJi rm poMlbk^. 

501- Use of ihc Elccliical Machine.— Wht^n ijio 

I>lnlc fji tiimrd rftpuUji-. Xhv fH<'Uoi» of llic ruhbtrs 'k'vi^i>|iB 
ti grcuit qticintitj' lit juml^vv ^Lvi^trkity un tlitf ^lafu. hiiI tjo-^it- 
iLvu on Uio rubbcrii. wbit^ti U couvcj'td along Uu> chain lo Um 
t-artZi. aimI t-hun diBUii|H.'itrs. 

Ttio |>o»ilivc olcctrtcity ca the pkt« a<.1» I>v ii^duc-tior: oii 
thtt prime oonduolcTf nltrnctiiig lU nojU^Uvo df^lnHtv- 'i'ltia 
(t>1i«r1« on The t<.'4'(Ji f:»r thir I'utnlM, niid TiiTHlrull/f* TJir pofllThx* 
on tJn.' glm« |rhitR. Thr primi? (^unductur^ Um.i havii>^ ^Wt>ii 
up iU ikvgBtivLS rvmuma ol^Lrge*.! willi fKwitire eJcclridtj-, 

Wh^n vo vmkt Tt^K^live tlrrl^kily we con T^ko thv cliatn trut^i 
tlifi nibhtri Bbrl ptoiv It OD the (rrinii*<H)ndnrLnt. Tttc cilevtrimij Vill 
Ihuii M>llr«t on tha [iofp«1i?o ouuductor. 

If WL oi>[iduatuni arc ia^uTnti^ th?tt ia vrrj UtUc cicclricnl nnt Jf ai, 
JW th« IiPi> rliMTirKiilin hold t-uch "t\\i>r in ch(V*k< Tb« pUUi cpv«« oji 
Till rJ<<c|ri''.ity t(i thi- ^-riiiM^ rpimLui'toi-; ii imlj jU1nHit« its nv^tivt, 

503* Holu'a Electrical Mac^hioe. — IV IW-nc niA- 
etnnt^ u boAi^d on the prirtf^iple (if cttntiHuovt I'nr/uf^ion. It 
eonvivU of twti ciroubr gluu plntcu (Fig. ^Il^), aIxjuI one 
ti^nUi of on iniOi niwrL The* Ini^^ nnl^ ^. Is Hxc^d vid in* 
nijUM* but Uiv ftmnllvr uiir. A cnn lie ntndi* in rrviilv^^ wry 
iienr it* In -^ nrc tvu 0|H-ni(itfH, ur windowA, Actom thcft^ 
and jmnly rovorln^ then* on tht Imt-k of the plwlp, *it "rn 
gliii-i ivti vnniJhhii) imivrA, or tt»iiiHriitvi* witlj ii'u^nfa^//\ 
which project into the wiiidowju Ttvo mrlallk' O1111L10, /*/* . 
%m placed in (tout of Itii* nruinturi's", on the olhcr miU* of Ibo 
^|3[«, H, The^i" «i.»iitliiT HFV corhn<^ot4j<l bv iti^iilnteJ oon- 
JiKlDrn wllh lilt knotra ;f<fl« ivliich uitij' U* imiUmI liu^^o/aof 
lh« ma chine. 

Thn ditUit)i-<T b<'tw»pn Uw knolM ia rpf;tilfll4<iL hv IL^ Hbdi&g 
rod ttULchisI u> tbo knob. m. vrhicb bait n woollen lumdi«- 



Ill ni^eralfng ihr niNHiini' iiiv Lnn knolm irr Una hruugMj 
M|^lh?t ; onf of fJic annntiiri^ /. for iiuUncr* in ik^aUvi 
ohatx^J by lioldiu^ n^idaml it n pitHs^ of viilL*iiiiite, whidi IiaaI 
jirvvioutiv f-t'Lij 4<\oitv(l l^y mbKii^t; ll ou ji c^ai'M ukin : / Utom 
likIi)!Vi tMiHtiii'*^ i'lrrlricUy ul tlie fac^ of /J! next lo lU mhI 

live from tdc* ei>Bil», /*, to^p'tbci' with tbaL ol" Uio cumliKtur »chI 

/, fruiilUdkii tlie p»M00 or i-tc!Clrk-tt]r. 

VV'bvn WL* turn tbo pjat^ ^, vbick in »i>w«barx«d inth 
^HMitiiro oW-trlcitj. and bdag il o|^poiiU» ttw armfttnr#,/', 
inituPIinin s^iu Inkia pWt^ iK* pfintivi* gl>M AUnHrU ti^tf^- 

Stme time nc^livc rlcclrinly uilmin (liiwigb lliecomb, 
P', Imvin^ m poiatitdy char^c^L 

AfUr thd i»IaU« ie Iximcd n tew Bocoiidi, ibc etuftTRV* of U>fl 
kDoU« and AnnAturm are etfOTigth«ii«>d. uad th« two knobi. f> 
lieiug tbo ii^gAliTe pulp Btiil m tb<^ poritiTo, nn tlien grwIttAQj 



•^TOtKtoii A torrvnt of flpork^ ^\\\ pad4 botireen the tvY» 
bn(»b«. If w? nouneot ooe or Ok* puttn wjlU thefrtonad bj 
a chHin, the <>ih«r ciav be aaed as a iirimo oonduotor. 

TtiU uuichioc b vcrj i;^ac!i ulft^olnl ly llm TixrUlurD ^f the nil* 
Jilihuu^li xXt luwtr II wry mucii ifn^nU-r Uutii tfic |iUu< ma^irriP, the 
Imgtli of the bj>ikrk Imng TiviiHr o^ad ta tlio raJJun vf tlio ro- 

503. Carre's Dielectric Machine haj« much to rvcom- 
rnond it. It la D oomliimtiou of Uil< llolu antl Uic \Aa.Ui mo- 

tliU] the lU'Lu. Moijhturv \\\ Ibt- »iir aiTL-L-d iLalHriiL itit Aumii 
OA the |>latc, but li^Ai tl^nn the tli^lu niaclifnu- 

ikiuikv ihcav iii'rll^i^fl r>r prtxIiTcm^^ Hivlrini^^ mntiy Mhrr at- 
nji^inral* hMTf> bix<[i iU<viAi-4L Thu^ hyrtr»-titKfnf miKlihiO g4-ucr- 
rttf* rlrdrii'ily l>y cjiHiikiiK >Iviliii i-hnriiihl «ii|i n'tkU** of w^iiT To 
li*Qft Mn^i fnnri jrU Lictfti'^ipd Ui » iii^iri-lmilvr- Thy frirTiuu of 
ilifM^ lelobulcft uf iTJiivt ji^uiiJiit iTir fitirfucv uf th<f ji't« j^nt-mtn iho 


504- Precautions in using the Machine. — ATicr ib« 

prium PiniiluoUir ~a tihiririM, jf we ci'apni.- lu turn rliv ipIiiIl-. uulI chfl 
AJr ifl ilrj, aj^ich Imll ullitiihiHl t» Ihn prirni'^ fv>iii1ti^ii>r wiU ili^weiid 
BUfwljj showitii: a tl^mhuA \\i>]n-nn'it "f lli* rlivijidfy. If tlir uir 
ii- iliTtip, Ihu luifl JodM'iiiJii rujiSdl^tT thowmj^n raj'Lrl ^mi vf «]itfrri4*jly. 
tni-clrlc^il niH'iiiuriLlJt >i--lJL>nt viicimtiI ia 11 J^tuj) ilny, la tmliir tliAt 
thrj tkvtalA hv frnprAwfulT tlio ^ci4ruiocin1. na wtdl lu Iho >umtQadi0C 
Atnif»i|f1u>r», niiffbt tii 1ni jH^rfKllj ilry^ 

Only a Dcrtjuu aFrifHuiil mf «lct-Triflity puli bo rpUiiiiod nn iIjq primo 
«UDduetnr, ntU-r uhlntj. If l|;c [lUlv i> tunifilt ilii: ttcuiioa bvcouH-ji ut 
jpval that II p»onp<*« OirvMi|;h llir ivurrb ur ilnTig t\w cljwt Itgi of th« 
Ooodudor. nnil nil ihnt jb ifL^ui^iailrJ OfdliJiTm llii*ui-rrc>nli U^ he iihtk- 
pal4il' Tbp pUh bnIL iiidiAttm llmt tbf &niMmuii*riMfl litlly obnrj^ttj 
by ci»ydD|c lo n'Vr lui^l n'iri>4iiiitiK jttillutiiiT} n* t\iv jilati? 1^ turiHiL 

505, Electrical Contlcna<r.^Aii ELUftnicAt. Cujfi>fca- 
ftKit is nn np^xraiU'i crii|>l>>yiM for Uo i<^^-iirnulAlion at doo* 
trldry, I'^t) nrt' of vftdotiA J\inn«. hut nir nil funntlilljr 
compowd of ivo ciJiHluctont. s<-jKir>U'(l hv ajl ii^.nubitur 

On« of tbc flimplMt and m<wl oonvctiimt fbnntt in the L^- 
flcnjar, which will lie cIoacHIi^jI In ihe rolloviug artldi^- 

506. The I-iCytfcn Jar it mme<\ fivHn ihe oHj irliere li 
»*!Lft uivi-nlnl- III [u improiMxl form UoonsfsU of a liotUi' 
Of jni' of titfn gliWB. .n* hbcnm in F^- 850, QCuHx covcrwt on 
iU outj^idr' inrl inMiUr writU ttn-roil. A mra paving U)roQ|[la 
n t'ovi^r of vAriiislinl u'imhI (-\U-n<U in tho iDntM 4<uolJDg of tit>- 
foil, ELrid U-rmin;]t(;s ^xleniJtllj bi a apU^re of mdal caUcnt Iho 

The L«3'(1r(I jju 1» €li*^f<1 by lioMin): tfac onurr Mnttc^ put 
in Ujc hand* nrnj Mnging the b<il- 
'^^'s- Inn in etmUCt wilb llitf prlniA coft' 

^^^^^^^ (hicli^r iif iiEi rli'elritvl moriiinr. 
IL ^y^^^ '^^^'^ iHMitiit cloctricky la •ccqivh- 
^1 / IelIcO in tlio inkidor, iui<l nets by 

^M / tTkitnctJon tipon the ontrr coatUkgn 

tJvi.- f'li.^rtciiy 1)1 Uut ctMtiiig Iwlic 
c«tiv«_vc4 a«r»3 by ibo bontl tbPMi^i 
tJie body, i\fl In tJie con<t«mer» Cbe 
^*' Vio- j^o rt*rtt<* n>nirt 80 &« to &cV!Ciai«]»i« 

n Infgif ii»KntilyorjHjaiiliTr t^JL-irUk-il)' on tla- iibtideciftJH! Jbt. 

nntl of iK^ttUvc cl«x:trt«ity OH thij outoldc. 

Af\t^ llir jiir l»M Vi^ii rl|jifi;r^. if it Iw \\\\\ iii rinn hajid wIuIh tlia 
4i|hiTr t> liriiiifht if] o^iiTA't iiilh II10 bntxm, 4 (x^fAtJun will \m M 
throitjjh tljp Hmw ftrnl bodj, mllod iho cLselric iilii«ii> wmI din \v wtll 
retarti io iu nciitml ftAto^ Wh«v U !■ riodntbk to dipelt«rg« tlw Jfu 
wrLlioul tbo vli«J(. ;bc diuligugcr b in<«1. u iliowv ia Fi^^ 3U, 
Om Inll vf tb« diMhjirgct it mndt i« Icit^h ib* iiutpr (w&li>^ uid 
tlie^ other is lh«n bmnghL in (viiuict niili iJir lnilti:ri»' In tbiv caue 
th^r* te n tparh «i(iitiv4l, «nil tlio jnr n4unih \a Iu luiutnl ortjilto^. 

507. Ekctricnl Battery* — An Ki^eonnOju, BArnmr 

ConiUU of nn iv**L'mh|:iiti> of tovdeii jnr*, m> COQDM^tcd •■ to 

Ml like n ilttftic* iv>iii]rn«pr. hh vltuwn in Kig- Si^l. Hie jAn 
ftre plftonl la a box nlioae botlum ia liiicd with mHal. wbidi 



■fffTc^ to i>i>Tinpcl liicir ohUMc Mii^an:^. Their iiwEde wir- 
Jkoc« are br\jiiKtil \wlrt ^ommunicDli^n ^^~ t^inncotinK tht; 4qv- 

In bdlMrie* ikv Jnn im mnlt^ liirv*. mirl nro co^-orad wtthiii ritxt 
williout with uu-A>Ll. ili(^ ^nti^riiir Uniiitf W^ug l>roagttt iiLt'> fi 11:111m - 
ni^MtUm wHh Iho batioik of each jtr I7 n mcftAUk chhim- Upoa odv 

<if ;h#t IjiintMiK li f^juHil Mil i^lrc-iTtrnl iwrnrlftlnni. wlitrh h]ifir»l«« lh« 
«acvM fJlhe rtuhi "11 ilip innPi otct itmt ^-ti lh<^ tnwtt twrif,/^ 

Tha tntury U diiirgnl bf alUfljing i\ bar. h piriiun <]f irhlrih ti 
Vim In the G^rr, <« ehoin l# the kno1» «f nm* 
fjf ihi* Jar*, flnc! aXv to lh<* prirrn* ftindcjrtrir. 

508. Ley den Jar with Movable 
CoaiinifB* ^ Tho Un-rvll cailjiig^ or iho 

tb<: (t|>|Kt9titt^ pltHiiicitir.* jvmHv pbirHy on 
Ibt opi>odtG ftnrOiocs of Uic rIom- 1-ljr< 
SVS rC|>r«it*nlB II jnr nttli iiiovnbk* cont- 
Ingii. When tho Jnr U rhurginl It ts ivlnrvd 

The piHiii nm uhrii nparr, na ahoifTi 
in Uu' fi^ofi*. mi'l ihl" iwn cuAlfu,^ jttir Toiin*! 
1'>njDtAin liltlfi '>r itn (•li^tirir'Uj'- B<iL vhni 
tlu? |iMrt« w j>ut ii>t:^<thrr ufiLiiJ, A ffh«n;iT 

irmjU bnve ^TCTi i/ the MMLtb^ had itoi be«a 

Summary. — 

M^tlinl vi LMng it 

DoAcripttoQ vTlloluV Mnrliiit^ 
Moihixl fif uiingthc lioltr Ma«hii«. 

piowcir «oin|>and viUi Il\ii| of the Pbte fuul f|( 

TliP Uyiliv*-i^li.*^lri^ Slsirkin*. 

IlM'jL|>i< uf HhviTiulty uSUfT thd Hiifliine i« fully nl 

Dotcnptiutj of the Loyden Jut. 
HotUiiJ <>f ChargLng mhI Dbchar^nc IL 
DptfnpiioD of El'v^trinl nbttciy. 
Lrjilcii Jfvr wtJi llovnblv C«iliagv, 
£vpLaiiicdI by Ki^u*- 

tsonoM HI. — i^xpRBiHDEn Him the ctBrnao m^miyiw. 

509. Electrical Spark. Electrical Shock. — An 
'Fliir »i|)ark product lu dtecbai^ng ibc l^^^tlva >r. wvl Uif 

EiErrntcM machtsks. 


Mint'K fv\i ]t\ llie rxEK.'n[ni.'tiUTwliL'ii e1 U ilimt- vtxXli LEirhnmU, 
vrtro cIcBCtiln"'.! id iTvaTln;; ol' d«."trital txjmWiiwrs. A almi- 
Ur ^partc, but not so bnlliAnt* c^n U- itrawn Ttom the vnrnc 
wiiwUiHor (tV nn rU^rtrir mnt'lilnn nhon thi- flngor U |>roft^hivi[ 
to IL A Abode vJkl ilUi> Ih- felt, Irul not «u viol^ut Hf^ llidt 

^m tlio Jar. It U « 0bon>- prickly acncMition. 

Thir >pnrk irini fmiii llir> rom(>tua1l4>n vt tho iwit cupprUhSto ah^* 
UitfitifL TIh> pOBitnv pi^'ctricit^. n^ing nl a <iiatan» bj ipi1ui?lli>a. 
ilrivrw tlio ptisitii'^ fl-nrfifllj nf ihi- hmul t^ tIi* tnrth, ftml nltnurl* 
till? ftttfttiT* ; c<rtJs*<]Vfr|jlIy llio lxK*y of tl»* CTpwimcotCT bMtiNiPd 

Tii'Tnilri'Ij HrftrWrtl, Whon iho (fiKJuna *>f Ihn firii*ltl»i" flliTiriHiy 
/»f llir inncliinc iiftd xhr mfpUlvc flic^flcitj of ihn IhuJj i)v<*rromci xhn 
fi^iAimicp of ihi? ftir. liioy rufli Ingi'tbrr iHlli n shMji 4?rJvli flTid n 

«hiiip in nuwvttiil, i}h* 4|iarkt tHkL« « £lgui|j ouunt*, lUte ll^hutrig 
Irvm A •lonD'cIoud- 

510. The Electrical StooL — A Apark »»> I19 flrnnii 
flvm the hiiinuti Tiodj" when pmpcrlr clctrtrlAoit' I'*or Uilti 
pQ(T|>Oitu All Kleltui^al Sto-ji^^ thftt IH. hIooI inmtlatcd by 
moArfl of gla^ legn. [4 UHt^\. A |>onoii sbuidtng on 11)^ 
mIouIi ftiiil taking LcjUI of i\w ]jniiib i^indiK^tnr* ti«<!on]o«, 
vhrn the pl«tc l« IhiirhL pwili^Lly ^kctrillitl. If a m^- 
©Tid pciTMin ii'>n flrifiH[>bi to fihak*! hftnJh with tlic flf»t, a 

ftlinck will Ih^ i^X|H'rirm'crL * f^ 

unit n spBii'k till |>jlvi bi'tw ^cn i^idcL*^ n ^X 

5M. The Electrical 
Chime ia a (v^lh ration <rf 
brik tl»iit are niiulv to rins 
hv in**fim fif ^Ot^ttriral ntlrft*- 

tiuiiJt uml rf|i|]lHio[v(. 

It oauBtAta. in the CAM- 
«lH>vn in Fig. :j;.:(, of ihrv^^i 
[bclb Kni4H*fii)('iJ rn:i[a n br>i^- 
iMtrof wtxxl. m. 1V 

FH &J& 




mUli1U> nnp by n cllk E\m1 : Ihr rat<^<lh» 1x41^ nKirienv«T» I* 
nortf^l with Ihc ^Qilli by mcuJiA of B niHsiUk Htnui. IWlii 
th<> lK-llri on.- iwu balb of metal. m^Jcntli-Hl Trotn Uw bv, n, 
b}< ft conl «f titk. Tli« entire appiLrftEnM in Doncrcc1«vl with 

priTTie (timliirlmr nf.iiJ vl*?L-uicfit machine li^^ mL'an« of Uis! 

clniHficilH nad atc unmoJiuii-t/ rqirllnl, nitikiof; Sffuiul iW ittHldt 
Tvll, tfhw rtif 1 iii>«^ rhHr r1>Hrv4>, niiii Hn< fife^iin Allntrlni l» lite pi 

jiiilftlan or \\w bjiJlk horpt ap ihfi rin|{|n{ «■ In^g lut ihp {iUi« 

513- The Electrical Imace conaiAta or a litUr Ggiuv 
Ttrh&di 19 EuaLlc' to daDoc 1>y motuu of tflootric'tl oUrv^UdQ 

It ooit4l»la ofn llyhl iirmgr. 
made of v\i\vr iMth.fif Mtnic 

lurven two mfrtnlbc iil^kw, 

tti>n nilhthc prime ootHlu<-tL»r 
or \ht madiHic, tixl Uic oUirr 
v-ftb Uiv CftrUi by mviuw ul 

Wiben tlip nulla* « tviff^ 

dmriAed, «i ■<ttM*i the 
iiffPicK Th0 tani^ b 44f|p«<i 

Eind immcfiilolj fTprflrJ to th« 
Ili4«- phil^ «hrrtt h Ioh* Iu 
44Mlri«Kj, And ii iLuvin ftllnkrttJ 
til tli« Ql^pn pl^l^t *"■! 'I' "a< 

Fie aw. 


513* Tbe Effect of Points in Electrical Action. — 

rhWi u MAflMl to tivumimp tli* r«*ihl*rk'^» .if iTt« titr &nd ttr A;i^'<> 
1i> MU nmpinit furrriJl. lu An?!, rtittitlk IhuLUtii of h |Ktii»ii-(I 

TUH mrreiit mnj Ihj iv\\ hy pUit'ia^ i^c IhuhI in froDt of llu: pvlitt If 
A cWHUp'BvniP It tci'l iiPjT lhf> ptiinli il will br biimtu nvrijr ft«wi M. 
ir lliu Huw tAltri )^Li<v iu 4 diLihvDt^ ivotaii U truy Iw iliannTrttl 
1>T a fvalb^-ry jot. nf fiiiiiE Jijitil- 

Thw ciim'iil i» fifcmnl li> iJio iV|"jI»iim ■/ llir hit im Oir 
vldnrly uf tho pc^int. Tlio muLwuUi arc poUriioit j^lrr qji «liYin< 
<jiy <^|'pt>Hi« bv ihai nlib whLcb the yuXui It Fh*rg«il, wLii^h tiii1l(4 


coiniDi* Lhcinsclvft chiir|*ril villi ihc vicio kind ab thr iHnnl, art rv 
j>rlW, irul nrw '-nc^ taki? thdr pljiM«: Iictm thp rumri* 

In «\>rk'rDC jmi r]<f«rip mac^inv, nil i^^iVrla with fn-intp, b« uneiilNP 
fl»Ujirlii, »ti"HM Ih- jiviiiiM- Tb»» priimi rimJurlur wuidH Ui alwlmn 
frifin «urruiiiiili»t: vbjtvu Ihrlr nrgaiivu i^krlridlji aud Ipp rviuni tv 
lu iirutml nifiitilifiTi- 

Thfl cflci}l uf udjthborlui; lx^jt« mnj be illnnlnif i^J by briagin^ n 

■1 n rr'iLndomtili* dbtiutM firEim tbv f^fiuJnntnr, tht ptli bftJI on xhr 
jiridie rrnwlodiTt litviin I" fait T^^'wiJlJ; a Jew <if Tlc<*rdlj. 

It i« ■> frniil rirti^ «■*! ibnl tIj# putnC ilnivn KAf Ut» oJiwtrif'My fpjiv 
ihr firind^rTtrr, liitl ibl* b tti4 itiv raw: Ibc |>i>knt itbiiTfhri* Lhflw uf 


thr jif^lSvi> flcTlricU^, bat iflvr* latbo<tii>di)CtoriirgAi|Trr1crtrkilji 
vrhioEi uoiln vitli the |uj«livo b> noatmlijn^ it. 

If A amiJlo U piooc^l on a prnno conducitf, uid a inr4Al|k pobt 

^hold nenr it, ihf fIxniM vil] W lilf>wfi ku-^y fnm it. The < «r m 

Afiirt in thi« (VkM frufij (be Hiiw tif nir i^lutruv^ triiii oobUv? *4c<tn- 

irif-y, tn D^ufmlUr tho €-\ff*tnetty nf ttt* oiiulilirlcif- 

514. The Electrics] ^Vhccl iHinnUU of nrrrral :in 
bent in till.' t^nmo diivcUon. oiid nttachcl to ti kiiimJI cjip i«li 

Th'tA pivot 18 jitLnrliril Ui rlii-- primr* nmilnctcir. or F\ns* to 

metallic nupport. coDtKX 
with the <.v>julucUjf. ¥^* 

It in ft rpftTticn uLn-l, «Bil 
191 mniTtr tfi bmi Vt iltr 
cAjn^ or dcctHcity IVou 

U'htn dio pJitroT ilxi m»- 
diiuu is lumcilt tbe pnuHi cu«- 

tlnn iidt/ at Ibv potbU (wh-hk^ 
vtijr ^rrtki, Mid SnftJljr caminB 
vitli A foroe thai 
whcfi to fTToIre in 11 

Ihnl 1^ iti % difi^i'in oMIlrvj tD tliul in wkidh iJie pttBlt Afr li«M. 
Ha' iiittvl ilun licit lum la a VBoiimn, a\\]ftt thorn thai 
vMKpov frmn poiuu m a ^-ncuuin vrilbout ndBtanw- 

515, Velocity of Elcctridty. — Duration of 
Spark. — Ttjr vflcK-iiv or I'lccUicity i* immcnH, much 
^ra-aU'r tiuui ihni or Hjjhl. It Iim bvoo dotpnitiiMvl tliKt Hid 
Tckicity of Uk flvrtrlva] rllMiiui^i' tliron^ <t>|iprr nliv in 
mutv tlmn 2H8,CKK» rnilcfl per *««oiiil. 

tlio vi>1o('ity trtlpi. bftirfvur, vtlb lU iAloA>it)% aoJ IIi« 
nuilrLiui Uin>ii)(ti bIilc^i il |itUHi<9. 




fliviilr A riri-lr IciM )fl:]/-li HuU wMir 
»iifi(.-l*>ni {Vit- X7), r4.lKl tlnti collMr it 

IJcEul iniott utaif-irrn srny, if iht- rmn 

hj Ok vfMkik Friiiu Uh' IajiJ(«i j&T, il will 
r-aqipAr fi^ifrvlly nliU, dinl nvviiy Ir^fli- 
frUykl tv^iLitr will Ih (lihUurlif n'-u. 

516. The EleciricAl Egg i« 
nil r^-*iia[H^ litfht. i^rxxtjcrd by F^.UT. 

lb<? p«4au(jt ofi'lcttrii^ity tlironicli a vnciinia. 

|ik»>nl. ari?»Li)mi in Pij^r ^'JH. Tlii> ^i^uimlu-t cu^uciiis of & 

holli™- clolic or mul of uln^ifl. rt>a- 

Uiiniit^ l«rp Miioll iDC'talJir piiJirrvii 

lit 5ume dttuint^o Hpurf. T>ie n|i|w'r 

01117 umimuuirutcn witli lln^ f liiiiu 

runiltictor, and tht lower uiic wilL 

tto forth. 

tunir.4. olrdHuilJ will tacD|T« Trim \ht 

itinHiiiH* r-j ihi* "nnh ilmHitjH tin* lwi> 

HHriifttii Oii'n^ nill \v tut L'1i*lnii'lt»Ti 

mijli> in A darkiTfirJ pimi. « IriAuufiJ 
l^oUt»^?(^ll:F^(^d lic^l iriil hf mm Iw*- 

twvb iIh? CttT» Uilla, *jr tbc »lhi|w 
•howv in Ui(> tiuoro^ 

tl^;, :iIA 

517, The Etcctiical Square iTiiiMJHtA uf n stjiuiv plaU* 
of ^\n»n, ii|>ori r>tic purf^i'v <if ^hlrh & tUin nlnp of Ijn-foll U 
fh«l4iinnc1, m^iiln^ 1<nckn»:inU uw\ fomatttit nirn^iui ihi> pinto, 
Kt nhowii tij' Ihi* \Anrk llrii- in fig. :i.'^. One otid of tlib 


ftUlp of tin U tnodc to connect « ilh Uit iiHin? r^ndnctor 
Uic c^cctncal niAcbinc. and 1b« other t^ U inwJe Ui 

mitiicAU Willi Uic ^ArtJi 
a cKftki. 'n« Miiuro b ii 

Wlifii ilir pUU* i» tunHL 
i>. cnmiLl of fUrulril; finn 
i^muiEh Ui« culp iif tin friMa tb« 
mactiipa to thi.^ unh, aaJ i» 
apntk \% ^jeu imt. If, hoir<»w , 
Iho Un I* hri>k(Q nt nxxj p«iHt, 

Fjjurka at that jHiinT, whidt vrill 
Ik' hj duBV tngrthor >i la |in^ 
dac^ 1% 0aniin«(nv Mtahu ir, 
iMiw, ihi^ liu liti l7n>Uni liT « pvn- 
Hk. Atf. kriir>T M* tJirti lilt' puiuis *if (up- 
turn nn' nrr.Lf t ':i li ilr-fiTUTr A^im% ma Lhit iif a flowfrr, lijr in- 

■UiDDp, A OMiiTtiiu III. h^ht u'iiL \x wi-n ot oji^h of llw»* pafet*, Moa, 

i)>t flgura will Ajipoif OS M 

tmcivl upoD the ^Ims wHh 

Urt'' Auy kiLiil kX HjfUfu 

lEiHy b* dmuu, iir wr^rdA 

itJHjr bo mijV|c'u<pii tlir ^Iau- 

■irikluK ItL jt Jarkcncd jmoiij, 

518. H eating Power 
of Electricity- -The 
honl <li?('L-lo{K!iJ by friec 
lTldl> U HurTb-i<-ni not 
only to bdnine (l)icr, 
pmpfuvtk-r.eonl pi«.:Lni) 
fbv likc.\ Ijut ilIioIo iiivlt 
kiail Ydlalitbu? tlir ini*Lnbi, 

tlio mAiicivt of inflnin- 
tng i>th^r. It U itoqired 



into a gbfin Vftoo. Uiroii^h Lbe b(JtE<»iit E>r wliioU piuati*! * mc-FaL- 
lif win- Irniihialmg irk ii Imtluii- Tin- wiie i^ iH)mip<rtrd by 
X f^liftin wilU llic outcf «*T*ji(n; of a Lo>i.lf» Jar, WLvij itw 
droQit m conaplclod bv touching xh^ tnitt^m or lk« appiLmtUA 
wiUi IhAt of rli» Jnr, q Rpirk lu Kiviti oir uiii) hcnt fn^n^li 
(kvelo|)t^d to JiiEbirnt! lJji- i-llLtr, 

Tliia tipi'riiiHTiil piJiv^ii'-U witli ik very tiitnlL j^ir, i;r4<v<f; « liuipln 
Vptric frtitrj l}i» jiriiii^ (H>»Ji^i-Ti«r- The nxp^^rlinoDl ni>iy W tniulH 
Uitifv iuti:rv>liu|jt by xlnmiufijc U|h>u tljL< cl»Uic«J t^L^lt m\\\ biluiiltijf 
tlM MhcT wtl'i tlip liLiijrr I'lhi- >irlu»r iiwy Iw iiiUHineJ by t «|Mirk 
frvu A fik«e uf ico hi ki ii* tiitj bjtuJn 

Whfflt An fTMcriojil Ifiklti^ry b Jlfdinrg^ ibrough a Cue >n«tAl]k 
vriiTf il may bo ieipU^'^ »r vvud vuUtklicud, iic«ordiiig to tlio pQwr 
<jf the tuiXffry. 



j'llut*, K' ^ i>> Irina Either liitii^us u« i>««iru tD*y b«d«nnil ta abj 

Tn mrit ■ w^ra by «tivin?ity, wo Aitwb it ia iho ivo biocr 
Uiiifi nL i> thna couucci <fi^c uf tlie wirus. J. fur »»[n|ib<4 irld 
f^KlfirLor c^uLing of iho imUvry, nud OLiii»pl<av tlj" rin^tiJl by «uii 
Jij;( i7 iFJtlj Llur bulU^u if lou? ^>f tin* j»fc tif ibn WUi-rj, Tfak h 
i-SfrUA III ll^v iTmunfir thowri iu llid llji^urv. l)ii> n XTiiHrtiDi^ •ftafai 
ItciiiU lUAiiAKf^l \jy iihi'jiu* \t( Ik li'ifk wilL Ji i^liiiii liAinUti- At tlip 
»Lkal i>f (ufttncr. tbc urir?. if floo tnuugli, b mvlW inui glubuka* 

halo I 


\Vli#ii tho vlrr U ft Utib IdrvT, )1 titn\tif tiroxMV red-bnt abI 
f^iTn forth B bnlUant li^fht r If Ml lftf|(iT, ii b«<iin«» hmurf vifbnrt 
Wia« lotrktDous, I'iur ouJ uliurt irlnt umy bo mf'llc4 nailfr WKMr b 
iM HOtCDMlitirrHani ftlr« buHhfcrpcniiiDUti* nauri- itifl^c-nll 1oiiuik«. 

$19. Mcch»»kal Effects of Etcctrictty. — Tl>c> U*,- 



Thfw« I'fflpn* ar* ^ATi^fftTly AthililtivT by plitciiig thi> hrtdy upon 
the pUlQi Jf. <if Uw uuU'vmftl ditrbiiriEVr {V\%. <J6]), and iljtii piw- 
inif A {vhwcrfuJ dinnfn rnna a buiE^ry ihma^i tL la Ihis w«j t 
■DijiLl Mc>vU Iff wood may be torn ItJ *f1iu(n> t\t hti Jn-Tjiiif. 

rtg. **»2 rr^prr-fcnt* an Apjuimliis bj rniyiin irf n-birl. a htUf* may 
be lorn iu A (onl ljy (isitki; u dngU L<>yJcQ jir. A rjud m pUtnl ilI 
llie bip iif A ghids cyliudvr, b^DHilli whlr<h \m a virc (vciJeDilii^ fiidii 
a nmtalljc pUt«. The plaia counocta by a dicid with ih« cxKrlur 
«imitn]^ rtf the Jnr AUiTn th«r 4«n| ia a miahiiI u'tnr^ wbi<ih b irivo* 
UVcd In ibe wftaacET ahntro In lli< ftgiin>. ^'hmi \\it tjrci^it in otnri' 
pUudf by ui»fhlru> tltc npjxT nire wilb Ihp biitlnik iiriha]ji\AihiH'l( 
fbtlovftt Aiul ilio canl 10 fnaikd to Jiavo b<i(ui |iicrccd on &f fub tbmaith 
by a UHklk nr pin- 

5A0. Chemical Effects of Electricity. — Th« tlMim 

»park U cAfiuUk^ of grRnkciuij t;ljL'aiii^aI rcACtiui^a. Fur r]tJJii|iU\ 

tiutor la fi»nii(/J of <>xy|{oti niui bydrogcu gwe*i 

lU tliu v>T\r]hritii^u iif (iiJi< volijuitfuf tiju funiLvr tu 

tu'it vohjipit^i uf rfii< Ijidrr. N4>«, If tlkH« t«u 

gsacB bv iniKpd iu this pruporliou, uuc] »n (ilor- 

\Afa\ sijhirk lii> puu^M thnm^b ihf> iniirtLUTi, tfifi 

ffMm ULfftoiiUy iiullo iLod fcinn M'nlL^r, M'hr4H>^.vr, 

ibv* tO'JibiiiHlkiu fj^kos |'1rh.Hi wLlh ii IriiltJuul tEjiat^ 

uf light DnJ A loud rv|>ort. X\w rr^pnrt >H->Tjfj -ii]!- 

Iv the cjipan^rti f^jrM oTlha vnp'ir whli'Zj U ]ir«' 

iliiaod at the Tfioinont of (jiinbLTintiaa. ft 1h u^uu 

Ui«c i^nniiplM iJua ihii ctmriMl pi«t«1 rcspro- 

■eDtnl ii} F&g, m:i [h ^nn«ini^pd. 

Nitric orad i< furiued by tbc puaofiv of dcctric apariu tliiuuiEb 
inuUl air. 

&i1|3lnirottod tiyiln>^'ti, luaiDonlo, And corbanlo *cld orv <kcuui' 
IfivuHl l>y thi> J^lonrir Hjuirk 

Tho obcTTiioJ (ifirTJi 4^f rEicljiinnt dcctruijly are not ^1 potrfEfol or 
wini cm cbiwt of A} rLiLiiili--U« wblcli will Iw HifiHidorvil irnitn IbiLt 

531. Physiological Effrcts of Electricity. — The 
pBTOKJtomcAL ErrKim ^r Kttx'ncKtn orv tbc cJr«c1« HbJ<^L 




It prodtfCM on mco ui<l onioialn. Thcjr cockn«t of mi 
GODtniOttOEW, mMv>ittp&ntoii t>y n grvAt^r or ]«•« nWMWinl of 
pftlo* ■cconting Ui Uic ixiwer of Uiu t-Utlfical ui^NxnUun- 

oxpoHciouA ijnl; ifc »li/;hL itjufppu ■pni;iott i vjtii a KuiJl L«j4o 
JflirthA pall) M frit ^xiiTti-liiiig upihf* tiniMlo iIicHIhiivs ur alinaUffi; 
with a inurf' |.owr-fM jnr or ■ b&ltcrjr, lLi<* tfl)«tfk m Mt Uirou^ the 
irmv and diwtj JinJ tmty bt* »i]fflni'i]i u> itfiBliji7i> ilnuh- 

As «leolrio shwtk uiuy Thi |^v<ru 1<t n icitvil uuinW of pnvoM 
at Uiff Haiiii> tinirt. Tii UiAl ami they tuna b dinbi bj U^^ 
04cb vthor }>* iho liAnd t thoa tbc pcrwHL at on* «iQii taliM 4 Lr7<W« 
]i^ lit hli hflud: thi^ piri^riU U coinplvtnJ lij ihr pmoa ai ibi- tnhtt 
orj4 of Iho d^hiu Ipoucbiru; tbo button of Ui« jar^ whtu the Abuvli ja 
frU «liiiulUD(wu»ly tlirougbum Hic ring. NiJUJfr ailicdi)«iofnl In 
tbid inuTincrr in the prr'ii<?nc<* of i/>cie XV,, on i^Jvctria^l >l>i>fc tv an 
Ondrv ii-;;iirii'[tl ft JifTtvii huiiilml invti- 

WjEli iL Wlory, liio ibuck b*>coirinii *u powfirfiil ■* tf> wrmdtr jl 
dmt^'niuii III ativmpi nivi'ivbig Jt. Witb li kubfy of ijnly ili jjin*! 
monn i-ltn, Jl wtnild W bjuwnloiis tti rtci'W lb» Hlkoch. Wrtb tnon 
pnwt^rful biiltiirUVi, cnu^ ilu^, a[ul vtpii ■Lmngrr AD^mal* iih^ W 
killed by m ftkii^lo frliock- 

\\t «hMU find, furtJji.^ m. that dlrorrkky In lu djvoiEikul tmn h 
ubmI id 1h« tnvitmt<iit <>f didOMcL 

Summary^ — 

EMricttt fi^ark ftivl Shnrl. 
Ilu^r tlifl Spark U produceH- 
Whhn u 8hi>«V iv ovpuriouced- 
Fiknn^aioti nf lTiq Sfurk' 


Atnfmn picpUlnii] AQil ttlnitnttAl hj Flgoiv. 
J'^tfWtf r^r/Vntv in KAvAmJ Attvm^ 

Elortrvtiij 4W4piri«r fnm )^>ful0 "n Mi EifOlrififJ Btf^ 


Currvut ^imH^^ 

Ar6ob of I'dLDla fm n Plurno l]|iiiilriil4«l hj Figiiro, 

I'dbnTy (/ hirrlrntrtf. -^ I}Hrati4m fff the Npart 

VtiLucity [)m>iL>[li 0<'[i]f<'' VTinv, 

DuMiiiin iii&yiiik iHuiUuiaI by Figcnv > 

Tht B^ttieal Egg. 

rA« KUvtnfai Square, 

Mnh* nl tit UUimiuhtUtii Ou* Si|UHnt ox]iUliwil b; PLgnvt 

tllufltnifofi vitli Ifntirry ami Wirb 

Slxuvn ly the UuttiiTT ahJ td^irk, 
^lioan by ih'< lj*yilnti J^r >iui] C^mt 
OrtHwuf Effrct-f of EWfri/^fy. 

lu caitibitiln^ Oi}ik^i' Had ll]rtlm^4i hf Ibfi Eb't'ttfl 

til i]<4virjip.t«ieg c«rLniEi dunifiUHilft. 
Pkynioloiiical K£vt9 c/£Mnici/ir. 

SBCTiox IV. — ATHOHrnsnic KLBcmiCHT. 

5». Identity of Ligtitning and tl^e ElfctHc Sp^rk. 
^Thu roiu]il<*lv i'li-nl.ih ln'f.wi'i^n liiililninj!: niiil H<HlriHCj" 
wtt« ctahlinliri \»T ))rp Kiuxkuh, at J^bilnddphin, in I7A:2. 
111.* raiiHxl a ttitki-n lric«. proviiUtl with a mctatlto (loiiit, JuKt 
J^ftnv ft coming iTnin.|(>r-*u>nn. Th<^ vlrfng nf t.lio klip wns 
of liniip; altafrlKil U.' tliv hwvr viid of il wiw a ^mnXX kej'. 
and ffuitfruMl tti t\w key n^i a rtilkm oort, hy wblcb the 
kite tn'tg.hl hi' in»ulaUt1. It wiu only After the Btrioit bcxwno 
diun|) rntni tbi< QiUing min Uiul Uiv Li-rsbjwvd&lif^oif biridu^ 

doulnCvl. lie vma at lost ivn«Lnlf>d bj chitda'atgi mo <<U^ri( 

533. Atmo&phcric Electricity. — Ttw existence of Ai- 
inoe^ihcTiu (-Iccinctt) lk tn»i coitlUnfA U> domK ftk>4iv. for il 
often 4*&1f4Ii In iIh> uUiH*t|ilH.'rv wlirn 110 tnM« uf k Hnn<1 t* 
vl^bk. Ill Uiia voM tho €lcct»clt> tft|ioat1lv«. Ji is mwi 
Al>uit(lAtit in 44>i-D nikjxcvjt and al ctrnAidorahlo c^vaUodb. In 
houH-f, 111 tl>i' *jln?i'L%. ijmUT irw*. hikI in flii-llf^ml loc-«li1i(«a, 
no Uiuv uf fVii' I'ltH-'lridlv is UJM.vxi^nili'Jcr, I>uring iLtnrtna Uiv 
rlut-trtcflj of tlio iiir U b^iuellmea poutlve nnJ m^kUibcv 
nvgttlv(<. All cbiL(U nrv «uppow<t to b^ dL'^.lrilii-cl, pomr 
(ifihRiTHy xiuJ wiring ni-^ntfvnly. 

TLic t-Lt:i'Lrical ujii^LiUoiL tti' dviKln lu^^ Sc (Ji:li'rmi»rfl l>jr 
meUllic rods, liy kiU», at tjr ^iitnll tiuLtopna tbeld by a «tnnj{ 
111 tho hnml 

Thf> pti<nhr»l irttti? nf Itir atrarw^TrftV may Ihi d«tn iiiluuij kn a 
jrruftt Tikrloiy of wmvH. ttoEiicliiim Ibu kuIJ-IooI «lvclrt«Hqv b umL 
thi-Tj"Hil I if llir IjuLuhi itji'n ia 4 t<lmu »f im-rrj, mnl h fliii* an4 Mniltb 
wLiv iitULcfiixl lu ilji u|>j)L'r t»tLil. Tu llii? ^iHM'iid <iitni>.lty ■«# tit* 
iTlm ^ fiwtt^r\'A no ati^u, whri^li. Iifrng *lioi fruiu a Uiw, H>tf«^ai« 
inb> iho aiinofphon'f liiuwini; ihc aIev villi it When ilic nmtw 
h ihol ritiwilj ijpwHrf^ \\iv ilivri^-i-uTO of ihi- ^o\6 Lwtis Miodn 
IJic cviilcaRD of fnv plcclrii^ily, unci Ihi^^ niil^rif vt ibb i^EvMrifdy ii 
irautd an Hlrrnulj ntpUturfl, 

524. Causes of Atmonphcric Ekcirklty. — llie od^ 
gin of Mw dtt'ti-kit> of thr utznuH|ilii^xv U im[vTfM.-t^~ uixk<r^ 

atood- Many U rlch linvi? tnwr: tiffiii^liL forward iocxplala 

iL Tht folluwiiij: arc iri'ini^lly ftuj»|>jw.-il lo be aomc of Uii- 
OTlMtO that {^ontnlmte to iIa rJ<-vrk>pinrnt t tyu'tioii of Ui« 
air, ^raporatlon and nivdc-iwilion nT vtiU*r. TpgtruUoii, nod 

535. LiG:hlnlnE lAiiaihin^t-bcthaii Ancbrvntedelectiicd 
»piLrk> whiob IXLHV4 IwlwcoQ two diirurvritJy clifftrined douda 

<lo<>il mil Uic c«rUi. Jt in tl»e roGooibixk&tloB 






Wbon a tij 


U H-cn In \.\w loW'-r rt^ginTiK 'if lhi> nUnciijiWrrt it )\»ts a lirillmni 
vhilc tnVtyr; but in tho MuUirr ngiuns, wlifrc x)\v iiir ■« mrvtird, it 
auviintMi A viiilxl hins iMinibr |ir llml oTlUi- »-fi*rlrir ii^ (Ail. >tlO)> 

flJXtOEiHEv IlruKitiiHthin. 

Btat Ughtnri^g ij> *ij(rpt>Bcd to be the roflociiun «f tbc lii^htbtog ^ 
illAniit KtiinnA. 

526. Thunder \n the sonnd tvlilc-li follcws n fln^li orfi;;ht- 
dEii^. It U di]i> to vibrultunis tutii^vil lay ihv (LiLs^gt< r>r tbv 
fi|iArh throiigli the a[r« and tL<- d44<hiuf£ logi-llirr <>f Uic mole* 
Guliv-i of nir iu tWim^ tlic vacimoi caudcil hy tbc IJgltiiing* 

ThMiiU'i' i" mat. hoAfd IJIl All fi p] >rn''UbUr Xxnw jifcn (}k- tIfuL ia 
pffK«}vnL Thl* nT\tc* fri.nA tlio Ui^x il-jat li^lii tmvj'lw wiih Linrnfliim 
\t,-Witjr. nuuliirifE tbi? <jfi; iiii»liiijM'iii<MJiiljr', mIiiIo ttimnl Unti^cl* ibOTB 
aLuVFL/, lUiiJ rvuhtv 1)k- r-ir tmiy nhrr u )4fitjjiilf|ii int^rviiL ciT t&vnf. 
The ^laUltDO uf A vLtjiof LLumlrt iimv Ik' juc^nnnriil Iry ci^iiiJtiii^ lliu 
Dnml>f<r uf «e«uiH|« kclm^ii t^ic? ^i>h aai Iho ropon, untl ail<iwiiig 
fi^c MfubJd to a intlfr. 

Thii inT('iL«iE}' or rTin ■oiirul iliininrvhiH lu thn dikitH^M^i^ U^'piij4« 

v^itt thaflthnr; ai njrnanipr illvTAiMVf It &■ ilnll, Hud proluag«d In % 
Ihw rumble of vnTjinp Liti^Midc*. 

Tii« ntTliiii- iir ralJItig <if thun^W Ik Hifrc^rvutly mfilHin**!. Bj 
iMfOit il is pkhL Ui be ittiF M a ftufyoainti (if #tliiN'* fmm lli« di'iiile 
ib««wth, OliiTv TT<f;un] lightning. n<>i ah it ficinl'' it|tArk, bm iin 
BUCMMiuTi of tipiLrkf), ciwh t^riTif; rise lo K^JoniVr pi]>1ttfii<rnD IImI 
lv>iNrCf«l vjvih 'ith«r ti» mprilly ju Uj |intalnrr a nmillJUniiA ruiikblllig 
[siiuniL Otbtin K^LJD MiribiilEi th<i n^lliui: of lljuriilcr to ttto dgug 
i^tiurw ofthf^ UHhinLnff« llki^ A'niiul from 'lifTiinnir. jhiluN of |lii> rigfnj^ 
'putli rp»fM[t|{ thv c^ir Ui limi'^ [<r<i|Mirti(>iifiL [■> (Wir ili^lATii:^^ In 
tbJ* wnjT tbfe fi>iiTiJA from ililTirrrni jiolnu an' fiijuqhii^^l In^jjuLirly, 
giving tbo Eo iFTv^uljiritf ill U't n^uUiu^ HLmiul, 

527. EffccU of Lightning. ^ Whuu uii elvutrillvO trkmO 
pWMB Bcflr tlio ciulli. il DiU n|K>n U l-j (mlutrli-w, rrpvUiilC 


tJio eltotdclty of llic »aiat »ftmc ood atlractinjc thAt of m 
0pp0«lt>?i iinnii^. Abkooh as tlio toiuion oT Ikb tvo «lectncitM« 
Jvrrtrnrfi nn^ntrr Mimi llji- n'nisUitJw «f Hip. itiU-rn<tiif)fi >ir, » 
npiuk (>r Ilii^-tb piLuifi, an'l n Munr/rrfo/f U ^kkl to /a//, oc Uh 
U^htiiifj^ to ffrftrr. Tho Hfi^b £!Ci)^t-all5 poftMtlhMB tli«doud 
lo Uiv inrlh, hut Honietiiues th^ i«i^rMf U the ch4*. Wbvn 
Uie llgbliilng afctfiii£(, the cloiuj* aiv ikntbnlilj m^cBlivcty uiii 
the carlli |x«ttHcl,v cicclriticd, tiiiicc It hAs Uy^a nbovrti Uy 
ex[>4>ruii«nt ttmt nt tbe ortlittAry pn^Muro po*iUv4> ^.'lecuidtj 
lMU»cs Uirougli tb(^ air mon* onttlTy Uiaii ii«gatir», 

t4« Ire BtruvU* Jiut^h ii» Kjiirw, liigli lfv*Wj lotj biiililingis nutl llt« like. 

more llkolf to 1>« iilni<k tliaii biul ojeiiIuoUii^ H<'ua> ih« Jau gw nl 
laUiig irfu^v ui)(k-r a Inv uj a Uiuadcr-vLtinn. 

Thi«HF«'L'U<'rth« tbi]iLiJ«rtKill APf cxtfrmtljr vftryMHatnl irvadtfM. 
h cniftiitr« tir fraclurt-B Itiid «iDdurl4ir^ inflaino» eomiiivliilp UhSa, 
ii]i>li4 tnitr^U, ri'vt'iHo* Tlw polM of mu^vtii ami iiAcn killa inpa imiJ 
niiiiuiUi. HuiiKTiium ii (alU alowlr b lliu rumi oT « ^lubtf uf Qrv, 
ttiiil Ihi/ii ^|i]'hI« xCLth JL LKdM< IiW* 0. battt-r^ of oAtinon- ll If tkii 
furju uf li^liliLJug dtat 1» imr^l Lki;]jf lu hilUiuv Um fi|l6ci« tvhirfa 'A 
4^iat^D9 to Etnkr^- 

59S, The Return Shock 1« n violeM* smI aonctamM 

from \Uv [iliu-f wlii'rc Uii* llgliiniug Mrlktfl. 

'Hiih I >T] Mil lilt ''lion 14 (In*' |i> llm inililclire InflOfflMW rmted li^ 
filrclnlU^UIniiJ n^mWtii't hf'nf<Aih it) irhirti nrr nil itfri^lf C^MTm J 
wkh rkrlT^r^ly ruutrnr/ tit iIiki iiT llji- rW^r Knir» tf > J htl iw y 

ll»n f-Aun iu»lAUi1]r, bod all i^t\w iHidltVi i^lrrlriflnl lij Indofllan b< 
Manlly Mura to a nrutml auic^ Tie iitul.l«4mf«a ^ tAim rvtarm b 
wb4t conscltttln ti}V rrtuni nbock- 

Th« ntum fttixk mif W klb^imtf^'in anmall tmlr kj pUnni; a 
Irvini; (hig nm an rWuii^l inuirMjip In iiunhin- l^vrr} tivmiliat cIh* 
Bi*«h^ii0 fcf ■Uaflurj^Ad Vj |ilMc<in|£ iliP flfigtf u^a tU Huf kt% «qatl- 
*iin« A fliuckft wUlcb b DuLliLuii niao Uua tt>« Mum ihiodc •Ihm* 


539. Lightning- Rod &i — A LiaiiTM»o-HoL» b a rod at 
mciiiU |>]nccd ii|>oii a Ixjlklmg or »bi[j lo ptX'4«J'v«. il Cram Uitt 
cQeiH^ of lif^htuiiij^' GiLlviLrjizcii-l irtin ^r cojtpcr iA DOW gOiU^ 

A ligliliu»b^-ixhl dUcful'l fuKil ihv TuUvn-iiig CdnditinDi : — 
I. Jl ^houiiJ l>o 4>r butllck^uC isnAi to M zioi to be luclU'd 
n In lie uLit^liig tit? cliiLrge oIT- 

A «ip|Hir nxi of iulf an mch in Oiamotnr, or jin ihih orw of ihr™ 
ruiirihi of Jta lurh in "ViflUiLHiT, b lurgi? I'lmrii^li vi i<nniwi nnj 

S. They AliQCild be oCtnity. \iU:cc UxrouahonU 

it. Tbv> aUouItt tcrminaU- iu |ioinU to gtvo roa<11^r ^grow 

for ihi- rk'f.'Crk'ilv ^h»l 1^ *«>' I">'i^p l»y Inilimlon, 

4. T\w rod bliuiM l>B carried down tnto the eari^ Ull It 

mooU villi a^ixlcDQiiqciJug meUiutu»euch4«a lajerof vet 

or ntujar tMLTth. 

^tlipu nn tnrta iDedluoi oaa b? rwh«i1, » pit ahould b« du^, mmj 
oflcr tUe Iijirfrr «iid uT tli« rhI Uu 1>c«ti c*nL<d to tXiv brtUiu, il 
Hlifml-1 \iv ni<Arfy fllSwl with *intr> tC^^atl mrMliicliiT. m C(>k^ 'I'lttn will 

A rod ^v HUp|iii>4<il lo i^riLi'd n dirular ivp«cr< nbuul It. nltwv rndliu 
|i ttboot iwlpo ilio iorigtli of tkat [i>n.l4ja "t tlici rod tUat cxit^nd* B-trotfi 
titr ht^^lojC- TKi> Ufri]LnJa;;-nj<3 vtut ii]v<<Dlrc) lir PiiA^lHl-inr, wUo 
tboogbt thlkl lot pmircltvfl arUnn coinUiLn) In ilninlng off ibc el«iV 
tridi;^ bdm tli« vluud, uiil ouchliirtlng H to ih* cvibi 

HciU ^>y Siidijriu'iJ upm tJ^e *?[iftb, ni|nlliii|i[ ih" j'lrwtficiij nf itm *ilI;iii 
IHin* HH ituil !□ ihi^ i:Zuuil, Aud nltr-irliniC Uukl uf jin ujijHWJtii lumr, 
whlnh 4iermnriTat» upon thnlxHln^K litkIi-f iltr-Hontl Now. Iiy knnJn^ 

« fM^Apr <jf rlwlrirtil/ (™<n III" flftitii to iIip rlo[iil. l*hi^ iittt on!/ 
piFirfltn* ths iH.-[Tuin(jlrttJ(.ni i»r I'lis^tiidiy npwu Xht UhIj, but H tivd> 
gntd^jllly U' wfiilnAtxt llii- olrctririly <.tf t^i^ rli-ml ]tA.-]t hv"! (Ti^iA lhi» 
nid Hc4fl h & difuUf* v.ny l" pi^Tfnl ibc Wly fr-Jji Wliic *tn»fJt. 
Whon fhc f^W'tricity •^i rrcM i» mpim tUitii ilm iifcduoior Oitt dSii* 

ullATgr 1I1C llglllllJlJ^ MtLkr*< Ixil ttiP n>J HVC]V«lhciliinhAfg«t OWUl^ 

lii it* higher oundiic^iiii^ pnuM, Ain\ i)P»KvTi thf bnHd^ng. 


^^ 530. The Aurora Borealls, — n><* Anenm H a Ittmi- 

^B|>uli?i of ite CAith, AUi^l more pnrticuUfh' about tito WW or 
^^aorlhvm |>oU», whence iU nniDc, 

kAi 1^ ctfvr if twill|ikl u tUfCUiT nuti Am Ufi^l ^ppirw* la tbv 

Itylii iJiivit f'<n>i, j«b«Huic fnvii >tlliJ«r I0 jhIv i;rT«<i, aftd ifac* lf< iW 
nAi bHTllmit vblii piir^itr. TImw Rtf « nr ■n'witii ol U|^ i-vhimllj 

plhi; im«it|i', Mid ilir;r ihtn ipfvttr 14 fimn 1 frt^^in'*! </stt iin M»M » 
tll|i, Aiiil tuiM vpiMi ith^n^ vim, li b bifrtn<4 ^ktA h b Jiw to 





Summary. — 

Idtatit^ 9/ LifAirtirtir 'mJ ihf KUt:hk Spark. 

PuQLiil iij iJic CbiLhln jtml in die Atmovplirn- «bcti fn^ 
Heilipd^dtiL'fiiUiiiuir tliv LIouej'Ii;:^! OiUilUiiiu uTCluuilv 
KrliitiuLi vf tJta Aif. 

Vo^l-tllllOD , 

]t(>llii< f<f TLiciiidtT rx(iliiSxK.'il< 
Why LI^MHni^ Kifikiik 
7Ar /frf(-rn i^ftw*. 

Ki|H<rimi'ttl hjEJi Frog. 

Cundltlciu Lif a Gootl Himl. 

J^ Avftftii Bvttalm. 




Pan tU- -OTNAMtCAt. Kl.CCTfi>C1Tr. 

iinctioic J. — rnsoAMKKUL riu^civun. 

531. Gftlvani's Experiment —Jt Iia* bwn oliMinvd? 
Ihui chemionl eomHniiUuiift »re Miiirr**> of elMrOidly. tlw 
form of elcrtrioil.v lbu« ii«Tc)opcii U iliflVi^ut, but ita ittlnm 
M Uio Mdic na that proilaocd by rri(<ioa : but tnA^miKh a« iis 

of ibi |?r(K(ij(*liui]. II U rnllnl dtjnamiad ^taitrifCrf. lh^ wi>nl 
f/yioini'oa/ Wing rtcrivpd frf>m a Creek word tncanioK |Kmcr 
Th« iiamo oft^ALVAMr^M )iM Iwcti Btvco to dcctrictty «Jc^ <* 
oped hy certain oli«ii)lcftL <'OtDNtMitloiu, In honor of UaI'Vavi 
who iSr^t (l]Sonv«i^il tliU qpw vAy org^tMrntln^ It, It Ih aJso 
vttHvd Voltaic cloctridty, from Volta, ivtto ndTiled to iJio db- 
VOvorl<^fl of GaLvj^m. 

Oalvani *ifw«rvT<4l tvw d*/ t1i:ti A iliwl rniff, ttMab «■* 

wbnnflr ihi' wliiLMilrv iho lnwor«xii«Erh]fA ^jEKln* tlw bm 
of ihe wisdovn Utrv om ft ouo cf <Jc<!tnfml mAttifaUtiaa wUc^' 

Arniislied a dvw to am aT tti* 
iritifiE importuil dii 
jiiiiirni nrHWtv 

Thih ilitmiiiffrj W to Mi o- 

ju fuUdw* t lUrinff UB«4 • 6*9 
Ml Gvl iiff ib> hki4cT ImIT -r ife« 
tiOklj', ire niafif*! rt V j • v^n** 
book, t, [iMSfJ Wt»«Tq iW Wk- 
bott* Ai'il liifi wnv afciifc *^ >« 
ff«c4 M^r "T il, M ^v«« s Flf^ 

cu«r, i, is lb* kaal, >« Way *■> 

f -C 't^ MM tte boUl 1^ 




llini %OqA A« le|c« ofthn fr*^ whh llit> niliiir ciid. At wtrj c<-niiicl 

Miitttig Id imTmnl imam, wlii^h, ]Hniug fWiiii \htt> iH-rvi** xtt |}ie 
muscle*! ihfOQirh tHc mcbilB, pmliuwd \\\e tnuscuUr coiitnicUoiuu 

53a. Volta's Theory oi Contact. ^Volta i-epvatH 
till* rxpprimttit nf (vALVAh). urjd uflt-t ninth eiIikIj m1vHnri.-ii 
UicT thporj uf ct^mtnit- AccurJitig to UtU tbtfory, *bca Iwv* 
mcUUs or other dirtkimjlur Bii1)bta}jco» f^rc «{mf}1r ln'ontcNt in 
OOutiKi, ttit^ro ia ^Iwu^^ii a dccompr^ltK-n of ihfl imtuml vltv- 
trlclty of bolli ho<!(i^. rho ixwlUvr i-U-iitrkiiv t^i-ti^ tu one 
afid tbc QOgziLjiu to Uio olb(:r 

ffl^-ii hjr ifie ciintiwt of thi? opi^or liook utiJ xjnc plulo, liir BorvM 
Ami iiiiJwOrH ■ii*rvirit! Riiiiplj iL* ct^irliK-UirH. 

533. Fabroni's Cbcmicftl Theory. — Fabkom tir^t 
iQflgCfftci] tbjil tlic i-hunom^iiaof tilt' pilo (.Vri. MO) vcrc 

duo to clicimicftl nctioiin \l^ cibsorvod that einc bcoArno 
Ciiduof! in oonuu^t wiih Truterooutaininf? ludd when Joiccd 
lirlth copper, and thouf^ht \\yx\ \Xm otidiitkin wm tbe prin- 
Gi|Jal ntUA^ of ihu irlnitrm lutLinD. 

It Hrivriift DOW Ui bn ^pnfrntl^' nns^pToJ ihnT iho Sfpirnlifio ftf th# 
Olcclridll^ U CAUH^ tj (lie c<rl;Ui:| of twu i]j|Frnriit Titctikln, W tllHt 
ihv fTKUtJiiLl vTijijilj- iif i'k-riHi?ky it ki-fjl u^ by ehfimLrn) ncilaa. 

534- Current Electricity. — If » I'laU- nf jtmr. Z. «Dd 
one oroopi>i'i', C Ix' [tkc^d i)i a miikliirf.' uf »al*r and vrtftk 
fturp!iuric«i^id|t^K S*^). flLb]i|;tt oti<*inicnl diftngo Wto pl«0» 
111 \hv I'Hpcr i^f ih»' Kinc-, nnd huhMcA of hyimi^n jjoji wlU fol- 
'let'l uu its autfaci- nml i-^t^Fijn' In Ihr MiBrf^in- of ihi* Utjind. 
nt<^c>vfll:rnidi]:dl'i no^tc aivay. Coonrcttht plait^sintha 
ibmUjc ttir«- I'Lv vli«iiiioiit jirtion in luore vtolcut ; the anno 
itiiaJc!i4 ftwny inoTv r.iplrUy than l>efoTv ; a givairr nuuiDHt of 
JljdrofCii u *ct ftrc, Ijut it U disciigagod at llic itarfaec of tbt^ 
copper ioBtvud of lli^^ t\i\c^ KIrcU-ical aclU-n iu n^ff nmmliwt* 
ThU apparatus in callvrl a n'mplr po/furV f/tfmraf. or roup/*. 


l-'ijj. J(W- 

bmiifctK ^fV 'Wih otbtt hi itw dvk, 
•ntoll >fwk U pcvn 1u pM* fccCTCPD 
whMi &iun IVuin llw tMciAbiAaLlon «^ 
Lin> <i1nrrfirt(l^»^ Tbr pam^* of Oie vpaA 

Ji-n JMr. Wo US' a CH-tjlibii*! rue 
HimrKi, ftlmn^iiK iliai thv iitlava ciT Him*' 
tcnl (lci^ui|i<^iJon b coMfciiiiJilljr k«f4 up 
IP ikr ]ic|Liiil. aihl & muUtm ■Ujip'/ u' 

Shn? ill 4 en i-|i>rtnr«l maaifclariMPi 
tmvcnr t>jv a1>iJo Ivcffth cf Utt virtv whim Id oovuet, Ifao 
«lcrfric ^urrwl Ia glvnn tbeiP- 

1( ifl Qi^rt tj Iw iiu|tjni»nt thit in Tiring iV l(*tn currrtiJ mi 

<l fanv fn>i" itihjUcuK' i-' iiK-U<ciili<t il»<> iiii>1<>fu!c* iif ttM^ oonJ—t^' 
iMOlnh]^ pi.lnriifil mhI rhJ4rp;«il otL«^ h^Iiy ilif utbvr, abJ tb» A»- 
clwEieiDK I'llj* rioolhc tirev tntn iNljdMat in>>1<?vtit(iL W« mAjr ct^n- 

■iiioQfe ihr inolGCulot in lllO wltd iff m^oIl nipU »i»w«Bdi>« lu 1i> i^ii 

535^ Direction of the Current* — AlUiotigli Ibm 
two currmtd fluTring m C'pjKMiU.' vUrectioiui, the poaltlv« iumI' 
Q^AlUv, yet. lo Avolil conftifttoD, wfceiwver ili« l«vm 

]i ipUI tc ohvorrtd, in Kig, 31)6, tto lh« panlivo rarrmt 
thiiJti^h ibo Iiffui-l fnKn Uip ctun tm tbo o^pfc, noJ Abort tW iuHm* 
of lb* liqaid froin ihn mpftir 1a tbn kIdc, 1b« DC^Uvoyeiqg In Ifcv 
■fyoaitc dlfTctktt, M #i»ii-U Mure, 

Tb« lUMd that b «f inl «n |}b>in«t aimci^f bf iho 1^«U b CftlM 
lh» fqun rfi' wf > oc pofitwf* plfltc ; ibe otbet tb« <vJ^fdH<g. or gyatfnt 
pbitiv lu vii^b ■ fu*» ih# TnnnfT fi wiil la b« #4n«o-fan«ifr towwM* 
ibc Ulkt, MiJ Uto Ullrr fiKfrv-vcfoiMV Unvni^s tbe ffnuvr. 

Ih FIf. 3ftt tb« vine in #lMfiA-pn«ttfvi<, «n^ iW Hippn-, wbi#h b 
nunaj » «awl«rtgr, mI iw4 wi#J oo bf ibo liijiifidl. TUrtru-ftrf^BtWr. 
TW riMriml ft#rv jHHffttt^ h; tbb vik« of ibr ivul« k <m1UA 



$36. Action of th« Acid. —Amalgamation ol the 
Zinc. — If nTif- i* phocil In waUr, it, flrr<iinp<i«s ir, rVjrinlng 
tiuc oxictc. oiicj sitting iW. lijTJrQgc^ii (Vrc, 'V\\\% actbii (1ov« 
in>l Innl li>iiK» ^" ^^ JiiiK Ijtcoiuca ™aUO ivilba Hlm of the on - 
ido, wliidi i* inaolutJiv. Tliu ■tilpUurio dtiO, lic>wcvi)r, ecizoi Itit 
oxids of xiD<^, fliicj forinh HiilphjiU* of atluc, whk-h !?< dia&okcii 
id tbti liquid, tLurcby Ji'uving a d««r surfacv on tlie kuic. 

ClitiiiluBllj' I'urci due U uul olUickt^ bydUuto i»LiI]ihurIrf ndd udiII 
l)i« «]Mtno eunrut WguM> C mii i irt cmJ Kiuc* howcvcri le oewll) 
Jmpurr. Jiiiil iBnacd un mpIiU5' \»y ilk» aHil, hiuI (wm^^iurnOf vMlf<r 
II1P iinpifilio* in iho uii^^t Tipunll^ (<DTiiiutJn(ic i>r ir>n or Ic^blt nli«r 
mQev 'ucci^ i^urjviil^) aiiit lliLtirn'IrniL^^ilii.'cliL-iiuailiicumiiLiiclnaBti-ti 
tl>ii Kill', without A»Lllug \o ibf fi»iiiitity vf vli-fttriritj' \\\ lliv ^■Hn^r.iL 
rinp'iiL iliLiL fviHum iivfir tliH winw- T" pri.'vi<rit iHii m'ajiii-, tliK xiufi 
ill iTEilvmiifl }fii1l4*ri{'9 ih iiwuiHy JiinjiltfninittHl, ilinl in. tuIiIihI i*V9f 
nhli iiivnniry, At\t-i \\, \\»% llrmt lii<i*ii rlmLiii'il In ililiiln jii'jd 

537- Elcctrodea. — Poles. — I f wo c»l liiv wire t'oancrt- 
\si^ tlit twi' iiluu<« ill liiL' li(]inJ (Fig. JliUJ^t po*Htv» i^Wtrtciiy 
will t^nl in HiviJMiiLlftlJ]* fli tJK< riitl of tliiT miiv alLiirhi-d to tlit^ 
vupptT. or uefe'iilivH |»laU% s.{\t\ negative on tlii^ wire conntcU^d 
ivith tlio Jciiie, ox |>*>4Lttvo plihte. *l*hedc cx^dt urc ctillod ihv 
polf^H of llip bntltTj. SorHeiiiDi^fi piece* of |i1utiuifm are at* 
Uelied to Iho vimXh K^X iliA wire*:. n« iliu tirtliiiaq luelalft would 
tfufltr c^irrtniuit in laavky c-^^K^iliDcnb, 

Thrt lorni tJ«rrofir ii nc»w .ifti'Ei (iMii! iuiuml tif jnltf. J'^amm tho 

L|W0 clecUulu M lullc-ii fWfl^ '/if aivvir ; BC|>anitiiiir llieii>, ffWiAfn? 

lO^ eiKU^'. Ciirn TUUbt Ihi ixin^iH^i nut lo (ohfMuud tint |mttf« villi 

Rb« pLiliw *f the i«oup1#. Thv panlkv^ finU i* jt-iiiM t*> th» ttfignrtr* 

' jifflft'^ fliid till* fif^'iriF'^ jWif (If [bu /*o«f*i^ />Zuf<r. 

53fl, Elcclilcal PoicntiflK- The liLtcrrtic*!, r«fTtvn*t 
ia tlwt property of a body by mouia of wUieb nlw;trieliy ien*U 
lo pnaa from it uml flow lo iiiiottier liorty- 

In ftrditr lluii irntonnjiyfluw ihi-ii^ iiiinil !«* 4 lUffi^mi™ tirjfmTil*- 

tfoii l*i*L and wp tiuiIp^." p Iwj b fl-m- -f kif4t ifliou th<iv i* * fJifffrnBiiwi 

^^rttmfiomtare lov^^I ; rina wt <■* itim/ my :liiil (*» grt 4 flifw iif rlp«- 

Rrlcliy Uicrc inusilw •■lirtrn'm^^nfcWtmnl Ii-n-l, i-r, la nlhcr word*. 



j^aiflmocQ of dcrtriaJ poMUiaL KlMtnaljr, m vela m wmm 
heal, pwpw frum « bicker lu a l»iw lottJ- Tlia la ili» 
bkcniuty «« mJI paiviig ^m a lilgtMrW » lower patwtti il 
fine Hodtionitt- is tW ^ilI'jji? ctHnA* ii MO M r Jig«w> eUgirioJ 
tial*, aal 1b« |>bm"|;« cCiIv rk«ui?ity iviH« wb jwu lb* wim, 
Uw fi>niliicii>r ui Blili^ier to ibc utn? At > kr^vr putMAiftl, 
lb« pqrTOiiE, wfaith ii krfrt foolivvam hf r&vfurU «ntiMti, 

iBr«Q pii«vrf^ vUl b« tb# «iiri«qt. 

Summary. — 

W'Hj ealM DjnNiuiail. 

Whj nlli-il Onlruiw Wid VcMt-io. 

OaIihiu'h Thnffj. 

Voh*'« Theory. 

I]jii5iiat«4 Ijr ;h« Sloiple V-duk aMH«. 
ProdUDtkn (if Ili« !^|Hkrh. 
EiirUuUiun tif llw 'IVnn CmrmL 
DiraetluEi vf lh« Current tspluiieiiL 
DrfiujcAhii i>f Tef uit> 
A^^ii^'D • 4 tilt* Af hJ oh th» XiDa 
AmLileaoiBlioiL <if the Ziiicv 
Fx]iUrm(LiiTi iiflhif Ti<nn £<MfreddL 


53g, Voltak Battenes. — Wttt^ci MnvraJ voltAk «1onMml« 
or couplM lura unibxl bo tlml Uidr dT^iA m^y bv ctiia1>liHf«l, 
thn nppamtiii In t^nir^d ft i<vA<i«r or folr^atte bftUoy. TV 
iwlUvt orUiPM* arniii}(r-m4*nU wn» 6ev\uv\, hy VolTa tiinkMiir. 

540. Volu'« Theory of Contact. — Ouw 1/ ihoa vvluk 
M«h muaUiuc vf « dsk uf ai|»pDr Jioil a duL vf dnc lu aiutarXt and 



ooapU bthig Mfwmled fmru the nrrt 1»y a Uyvr of rVrfTi vwift- 
witb dilata mdpixurio tfHd, 4hich aru upon iht in<?uU and thn 
in bi fthft <UM hWiiJ^ Nii>i]Linm'<l. Thr* 44iiipl(0i At^ nil Hlhikw^iJ 
'fWOO ordCTi ttu' 'JUi^ t'f '^Atfli cuil^Jri Widic aIvtajpi «>h iW KHiUi* 
lheftirrciiffiTi(lini( Jink of mp[wr. Whrn rhfi j»lli> M o<nrtplfltiil 
will trc a liiik uf jdac at ouc f^d and a duk tif C4>j>|i«r at ilio 
uthflr, A ATtiiirclitm i» iniulo Tittwi]«'Ti Iticin bj inraEiJi i>f tlio vriraivd 
HEtd £», oQt> bviDi; nttii'zlicd lo cur'h ff thv oxlfvinc p1ut«- 

lil :W |ti]r- iibr»w» 111 Tig, iJfi? r.lH'r* we iwrltfy n(»M[»le», iJiH Of<|>|tt>r 
d&^h Winie ht lh« 1ri>lC»(ii lit' ctwb oou]j]«i ivnil ttit' xiiiR Mnt til the lup. 

Thif (ille tfh suviKint-il by a >uiuUli: fnkrL;r»i>tk. 'I1t«wi iiiiik« Are 
|]lOpl in jklxcD by hIah reds. 

The \)ih l> iidiiUttd l)f j-Luiiij|: It L>Li i;ldM i<r mna> TfiA iHvlcimt 
«l#ctn>dpT I". 04>ii('(i''lh wiLl> (liv «iit]i|iiir |>ldl4>, Anil thu iiPgtiliWt &, vith 
ibcf uur» 

54t. Constant Batteries^ — lUKcrin conjtrurtcd oa [Im 

iBdi|ilit iif tiji' V(ilUi(M-(Hi]il« li^T^ *Li1>arjintU]]y ^niifl niLt (if iMk An 

'Woouiil tjf ihii rvpid fliofi'flblt'iciedt uf ibdt mrfriit*. In ordvr t-* w*- 

euro « f^rriiiULia eurfimit iho ]]t'nnH.nciii dfp.i^ii-in nf byilniK<in un iho 

iiUMllve atcul taiuA bi? preruulvd, u tiiiA ial«TAn« wiUt tbo <umnc 



fi?i frvr. «ai act cbeiuintl)-, ibit r^vli cun bt aMvrcd. Mtiay 

liri&dpAl nam inll b« Jogftoii 
54t. SniGC*6 Battery. —l^b b * 

(if fiaiv if /T. uiffteudtnl ^1) eIjUil- Kiiljihurla ■rid, 
J, Lj rx iviiudoQb«ri ir; U'lvt^'n Ibnn ii mSm 

1'Ubblnk In ollirr LMMm* la be Jgawiinl 
tiie LjnlrugL-a !■ kppt fmiu lh« iuwiive pfaie lif 

543< Potmssium Bi-chromfttc Battery. 


ir > 

n]Hli> l4< sijIisAiiilV^I frit ll>i' nlv'T ^n^ In SiihvV Wili*FTi 
ft «liIuUl>u i>f |Kitu#lQjii bi'iOkr^fmUo be ^1 IDI* the *nl|ibutJc juU* 
4i< iJitt]] li^ro ft putft»bua M-ehroniftiif 
bttticrjr. A OLisToaifflt fcnn of iLu bii- 
tftrv irt nlhtwn Id FHje> AVk- TIia iilam ■/ 
dulion, iwo in weatBtottt atc itAiioAftTT, tb« 
liuiT fbi« between oftn be lUinrft out of 
tLt Hi1uti<ai trh«o Ihb btfNiy te not 1m hm^ 
«ud ibiu Uir ouii|iU be kr^ willmil uiy 
ftcttoB for vmIh, and <tiJE W n^dy for voric 
4l 4 uuKQeut'* iKilicc^ U ki one of tb* nay 
Tv-t Tittej-rim fijr |^<nt pusfOHft. 
Thr N*t culxn D>*d b bftuctks to 
' w^oli Ufnm (141 tbeiatMr 

[ i<^ I ,L'Er>if?(i M^frNby tb«ilftc,1>y ub 
Lii: iiiji:vu ln?<iL lhii iiil<ri arfu ihcm^rilljr 

Uri «n thi< fftHiHi pUl^ft 

IV^bflMy i-ftv of Ibfl be«i Mlotkmi ft« ibb baitary ii Uko eaUwaing i 
Oav ipiliHi uf *Atfft tAw pi>u]id (jf btnT^BVVttlo of pilftth. ftnd friAi 
biM'ftvl t*>ii plhi i-f ii(dpbiirioMil,fteMfdug1i^ tWm«f|{]r <if MiMr 





ratvd. A PMijJl «)iiAUlSl^ "t nitnc find trUM l» lh» HklnlW iif 
'«riu»Di the otiuvlmicy 'if iNr ImTlMrj^, 

544. The Mercury-Sulphate Battery. — A T^KlUn- 

lU iu tit!) Iiitl ^'f co]ih)rUirtMi' |hhUt-r, c-mi Iik n^Ait^ hr jiuiTirfViTifi; 

ra\n- 'r\ntsiaf. utkrfi ox)'^-ii fmrii ihr wiili-r, ronning^ oiirk* iif linr; 

phnrifl Rdd bihI rnn^urf. The IxltiT ainnl^inulM the unr, and elk* 
»uTp)iunc afU Jlflo^iivcfi the noo oxl^lo. 

545. Dsuiiell'A Battery. —ThkwM iho fii*i f'trni i-f di^ 

LVUEUilbat btttUiy; iu n-*|>nit U iJ^^imtanrjr vf iU hdixti i1 lA, tn all 

a niiitilv oiUfiU uf tEiU Iraltrrj- 'Micre U nu i^uur T<-»*d <>f fflAV 

iff iTorwlniaH filioJ with Ji ioluTiivi .f ni»l]»li,iEfl iif oopprr (Mijo 

[l^ttipl). ^rhicli » hcTpt luluraLvd hy suum i^rj^UkU d the sillpliutfl 

ImvxI Ht lh(4 Imllum td thf v«ftU'l, A M[>ppr cfltti^iT ix 'tiimiHrw«i 

I& thift. jjcrrtinilt^ii wL|}i luiJr*. IviH^k ihu r^tioikr in u (hiu loimiia 

iif ilDjr!i4<liii oqrlhimwafjLJ^Ifdtl wHh ililiile 

ilpburb mU> la vrJikK b |jES<^J u cyllpjj-r <*r 

When thb battery u in »:iii>n. vM^i b 
do»>inp«ed: ll*o *«ygpii g-wit to the kiwi-, 
lurauQfs OKuiu of vac, wlucli ie dueol^ by 
tho Buliihono iLTiil, E^tviiig itii!|t1i:Ltit nf viai*- 
Tho hj'iirDicrfu of iLv ttiitt^r |f'H!t« lo Ibc buI- 
phulA nf hfjipi'T, ikinl rtorL»rti|Hd4« It iii|4> n3<^- 
UJlIc c^ipiHT itml lulijlurlc AciJ: lh<i fomier a 

dt'pTAtir'l oil ihi- iNtjipf^f jiIaU', whili> Ttto LilUr tfn^ tn th# itiir to 
TtfAwx tKftl iibcibly UBcd in f»riiiiut[ utilpluLlc i>f «liic. Tbv ntull of 
^K^M ilu'iirnituHliiiiiH piiii] n^^omiwiiitliinK la M Iuitji n^i a mirwrn ^tf 
c1«trkHj. wlilcli will f^nailnaii u toitg us llk« oiitM v«h| li k«pl fUl 
fif 111'' «Kti]rat<-fl >ii]iillun tit irul|)1jal(> <rf oiiiiirf. 

546. Qfovt^'s Battery- — KJ*?. .T7I w^mHrMtt* nnfi vf tlw 

<il fftnn, 11 ]kLLn1iilTy HUl^ with Jilm^.* jiiTiihfiTJc jlc M, jinil In thk U 
pttb-'^it A ryliiKlor of line tnth a i-liB al ibp bL«{o f^r t^ic pAmn^^ of 
ihe Unulil- T\k iHUi-r vntal is iiiudc "f inrnjt» ritnlH.'UVvvn'. nud 




twil, t4i whirli ifl 4[i.u*)u*il * w^ b/ vmuw of n bndb«g- 

In tliiti roupt» tbore w » doiibte chcmicvl 
WiLUr Lb d(«vinpufTd tu tJic vutrr tnnel, giving ita^ 
oiygou 10 the rinp, ft<nitiij^ utiiJ* tit tiiv, ■l.iii.'h i« 
IuIltq vp bj tW >ul|iliitric; vcid^ jiruhirlftj^ *u)pluuv nil 

WiUvr (KiMtr* LliTt'Uffli the poroUB nil, biuI mtlinc wh 
n |inrt itf ihr ctxj'gi'tj iit ibir iiitni nriil, ilMwii^pofeH li,' 
iriinnliunng vrnt^r, nnd alM> ftinhtux nitivuB mt^Af^ 

547- BuDsen's Battery. ~ In Kimim'a Uitrrj (Fi^. 3r2) 

Khrr plfitliiDni HUi|»tif the Onrt* U rT|rl«irt4 bj h cylhutfT nf miiion. 

^L ^,1^^^^ thoMs of GrTj\ir's iMiiurj. The olMnikvd 

«^£^S Both thBM bMturin um vtry pMnrfnl 

^^B I Orovt^ tqtifry jomuMi aom* ftdtrntt- 

^Hl I Ugn oTf^ UuifMvi**, bat il« Hn« rc« b 

^^^^ 1^ much gmtrr. GmtVi bmirrr k W^f 

^^^^U^B vitrd ia 1«l«^inpUiif-. il Uiiijc » biaBci7 

Wr *W. t»ri(i,« aftj flftlH>d " l«x>-auii]'' b«ll«W 

Thr hn>n nrbdntr ritiTii llio Om^e ami Buus.-a latirriiw fntuW 
tbr4r nnplrfinrnt ptip4vlb]<^ la OAAfl* wbrnr a InrCD nantlMTr of fnlb 
Aiti iifWHwy. To jiv<»M i}inw d«ji|c(-rti(rh rumra U-«hramBU» ofpoi- 
feih b Boin«tiin» lubfihnlod fur rdtrio juud, ahJ ctroiii^ bfib* ft 
»ii)|i]mrio upM, tut thv poWiT of ihr Imiirry U llun 1i<Mn>fiL lu 
KUtnl 1oU<grnpli iifflo**, whvrt ■tn^nt iSmMioJ mtU wrr lUiol; t^ 
bi* iisrj. DiinivirB ItttU*} a fi>uud the urrst aJviiiitaifricia*. U 
*i\f Mml fitr, It will Iwpp for nkaiitlu in ftHion. 

548. Ohm's Lf«w. -— III n tfAlTjiii1<^ Nittpry tiMro mn 
tbrtv otjeol* of romiileniUon ; ih« fifctromofirt/urtr, ur i1h« 
force bjr ulikii t&0 ^kH^irkrity i4 Ml In nioiion l« Ui«r vikllAic 
clirrttitt ^o rr«tih»i«v, or tlir oi^HMilion kt U«o panagvof tlw 



it i itnil t1i6 iHl^ntiVy f>f Lhv L>k*clh(*ity, or ilf jwwrr of 
truvvming a t'oiidu(:l*>r with laurJccd *flV"<!l. Iiiu-iihity may 

pOAMM tlin>u^b a {^omlucUri in « unit of time. 

The law fulnbliflliiil t^ On« W tiprranvd w CjILjwh: Tftf in- 
Intnly f>/ fV mrrmf npiaU ifu tlKin>tnolnt /urctf dtviiM by lAt 

Tho FH^ntHimi of fl ««niliiriAr fU^iH^mln u|>fio ihrco Uiinj;! t lU t^m- 
dnctlifltj, \U rn.»»-n<!i*t'Mi, Kiii 1<u|ei.]j. Tlie Ira tlw ctunlLH^lluf^ 
|¥iir«r, Iho ((Tafttur the rwini*Qp*, a*o grrnUtr tfir? rron icctvjn, tho 
lew iht rmjfliiiDU-; nuiI ihc j;tiuti-( llii- IniLtli, lfiL'i:rv*lM llit rmUl- 

ciirrfiDl , And thr lougrr iho wiriT, iIjit iritiitrr iilmlritfli^u. 

In Hii imtiiuhry i-fll i Iimit nrv two nuJij^lAiicot - Uuil offiKvl hy tlifl 
l^uid iHiiiilurlcir UCttiyitj the tA'u pI(kii-R» ctd\ct\ U^e tnfrnidf n-vt^UTir-c, 
nnd lliHl hy the pijintiiru>n» cmtii-lc, callod tho *j-t*TnrtI rv«i«lAii««. 
The rcaisUaiN.' tif iho lu^iiiil i^jtiJuclor u *Bfllly uimtrt ihaii (hiit of 
rtijj modJ. The iliirtHjiw IpIitwti tlu* jilnirt if tJi<i ToQcjIb of tho 
liqaU cvuJoctiir, au<l ihu a^£i< «f tlit plu4i-B lltv 0:r& »f iu r^roftn- 
M*olion. Wh0D thi< iiiu>rtinl ahA i>iU'nui] n'idklAnMW ■» Mi^ujkl, wu 

Hk* imil i>f r**ittiin™ in cmUcd an *Ain- Tho rmirtBTie* of an 
oidiujir}' l>jiuj<.'l]% ci'lt tj> jiUiiJt Wf an (iliin; of n mile of uibinikr^Tie 
loli'^nipli m\A", Trurn fi>iir U> twitvrt nUw*. Ci^pfvr vin- ^ tif an 
iikHi ui dlBitkcu-r lijM a rt«i»iA)tc47 uf aWul um^ i^lim Tor tiily ^L 

54^. Quantity and Inlcnaity. — A bfiiu-rj luay de- 
velop n i«r£C^ ATDouni of fk<'IH<*ity wMh little int^n^jt^. or 
u imiUl nrnoiiiH wjlh i^rr-nt irili>r>itiJq'. Th» ji:tx*ii*lty de» 
[K'ndfi if|)or th*- tmmfi^r \it rvIU, ihi' f|iuLiUlt}^ upon lliewv™* 
f/tur/iur. If tLt r^lcriial rOi9i»tAMCC U ^ftt compornl irith 
tbe lolfrrnaU Lncrrojiinjf Uui numlxir of coIU iuld« to Uie Ijiten- 
titr ; 01 in the i-aiii^of ilio ('k^L-lric* ii^tit, «iii(X? lli<^ ciirT^ril iiiuvt 
pnia bi*twrL<Q llii- rhirtijiil {Hiiiita LlkiijU|*tL t1i<? dir^Bira^t?* tliL' 
nubtance niii»t bi? fTTval aiuI tlio numUrr of octU Aboidil tic 

To Dccurc f^rcut iDUiLniy wc cun f^nn n Umitfrjr tpf i^impltu, Bud- 
hd'i Fur tiX]iinpk\ by ^umin-Tlnu tfii> riiir ryliiuW iif one nuiTite with 


4 lniii>T7 tdkt0tt nvMaim, or lUimtUj htnerf. 

U Um ''JifTiukl K»i»tuKo b aiuU, not niM^ b |{alw4 hf JniW) 
laf th* Mnnfacr of tr\h^ m iho hilienuJ rrrkmtMr* hicnaaw b l^ 
■uu pfvqkartiatt) but Ac hm effr^rtv 4K anmttl hy bcratMuc U* 
id>e of the |^lc«, cr, ba !■ the Ilvn«rii kitLrr;, by comiiMtivf *IL 

A lottery MJ lUTiLiigiMt yiflJ* Ur;i;u 'lUBntfticBur oloHrinij, uiJ ts 
nillfd n Imlterj of iait rtsuflantt, ur quantity luirfrj, Sitr^ ft bat- 

lUi m>D wUv, ri>r ineVLUL^i-, A ri.-w Mh vt Ut^p tAv, eattaof*r4 •* 

4UtloJ abi'vo, VkFT lictu^r inr iIjih |MLqH<u lh«ti inAny Hnuil uik*. 

pur ^i<tivril uw> buUrrJi^ *^t ttmw Jiil^^UMljr nitd OJiBrdiTnibl^ qiiniw 

lilf otv Iml. Vm} gnod nm\U *rn iIh 

Uuutd Lj rrittkinf V4rr*ni| i^Uf^ ■'f tv(\t 

vr u lo hum tts nrrmnf tainit (c 

T I lit 11 J- 

iif kit iJ<iiiH-riiii Uro|vtRDC«i Im F%.37j 

55o> Frktional compAtrd wii 
Galvanic Electricity.— 'DiKfr 



»ti'n>lih' will] Uiv fhi'iinrml ailicMi m llic ii'IU» kJii*iv)w Tdf- 
Liou^ dcclriciLy d^'ciimulultd nnd iHiliachargirc) wiih iustou- 

oondu^lore wklli nioiv |>ciTioacUy tbao rrloitoiiftJ, wbtdi loakea 
jr, aisilabic fijr t4:1o^ETmi;phIiij^. 

tniMV iaTmalfy ; tlxnt uf llm liuTl^fj', (if iinuriJi'-Kft iiiurailv Imi Aliitlil 
IptVPrdljr, II i* ihe Lot^udr ciHTfty of (lie /urruci llirit ruatfUn JL lii 
)iHA tbrmgti poor cytuctnclnrt, a« t!u< h^litmii^ tlmjuglt rl^- iiiTcr- 
vt^uinc air, wliik Itic fwVLr outT^y ^f tho LnUir nnow-f^ it li^ pMA 
thripiiK^ f^^Iy (^« hiriiilli'hf tnn^n'aL iif jir, Ifiu muk'H it f'*]l'Vii Tim 
ouiiJiirtin^ wiri^ wah fiuLid u<rfiriiiry fmiii c(>»liiiriir t>&>jilltinui. 

Tr!ii>*LL nini|imi*i fftfllnnal flnrtricUy to a ciiUf iutli (if air, 
which, if eompjTiBcil wUh ■qAiiif'ni p»ver, infty be Abb? In nipiiiro 
u Trry ri^hl viirr-lifjip; Bud Tullitic rlivtnciff hi ji vnhic yjinl <if nlr, 
vrhjdk, if niil so c^n/tprnwil, nuj «3G«rt tut a t^blc ihtmufv u)Hm ihi? 
BTirl^Hvi wfikli IxilJlllf Ti. 

puillivw |hilu tjf 4 iCJihniui' Ihtlli'f/, HDil iIm* i«ihc;iijt«< i-uMilimliir li> 
the i>C0[itiiv pjit, and ihc frirtion itu tlic fikli;i bf tbu cbiinuetJ Aeli<Jti 
in i\ws amykii. 

Sammstry. — 

I'iitTmr Htttifhm. 

Tili inti>inlcil I7 FljciirvL 
C*m»tant BatiehM. 

Duiw uf ValtHu PU«. 
AitinQ i:]r Cou«1mjt B11IIM7. 

PflAttluiii Hi-climinnlv HuUny- 

DErniviri BA(1>>fy. 

Fnmi-H of C3n>vf^ii auJ Buufq'ii Dcinmrv. 



Ohm' It Ijtw. 

HutpuitTil of ibe LATi- 
Ctlfinijil xnri IiiCrniul RfMiflUimBii 
Dotltiitinri (ir the 01lui> 
t^uiiHrity viBif Itt^enntif ttf KUvlrictty. 

niiiJTli'iktixiia iifttidr DilkfruMt. 
T^ijijjiirh CiiiJiiMLri«iiti I't tin' T^m^ 


55t' Effects of the Galvanic Battery. — Tbe Rvi 
or TBK Galvamc ItArrFUY may. Tor comvciik'Ul* ufatiHly, Iw 

flf^idocl into f/4if*t')!offMiif, Araf/n^. iV/if tfjuiiyjjpvy, f^on/rii/, atHJ 
viiv/aetir^ Th^y aiir nil lUuf li> thi^ ri'mniliinattdii oT the two 
I'lin-LririLiitH. as in nuLLhiiir- lOH^lTinLj . I>«l Ihry arr Tnorv re- 
murltublc uift ntorc oiicn^vlic, U^c^uitv v( \bvk rc4ilUiuou» 

551. Physiological Effects. — T\v riir^oi,ooir*i Er* 
rccTM of ijAliAaic rli-cli L^tLy art a ^iit'ccmoa of sJiueLb |>rv- 
clucing violent inn»riiLar coiitiiictioiM, not only in birlD|f . but 
iu dviuL nniiaabt, as nliuwa m ibv cMt of QalxaxCa Hug 

If HT ivweh tut irito uf i]ti> |hiIi-9 fpf ft jpiLTftAM tMtttvy, ttU tkttk 
b Iblt, but if wr tiiko IhiIIi i-lrrtrodi* Lii uor IainK whidi hii«v W*m 
mtittem^ with ■d^uhtnl waIm- to iu<nuso Ibo oaoJuPtWilj, «t Inl 
H MOmUiW muiilof t» ■ Uiock fLifin ■ Lc/den JnT. «itli Uu» dlAt- 

Iwllor; b cibiitiaoooii- Tlw tiaury inuu Lv very pM-hn 

«ii» the iflnttiUoa urdl httrAij 1w |WKtt|4k1il0, Tho iif^&><i of th« 



The I'Sevt of i^Ttnic tlrctricit/ upi>ii tbc IfoJin gf d«id suaaIb 
uMiiin^ inollmBtitJiiUr |ii tlnw of lliv livjiijf Lcliij£^ 

553, Heating Effecn. ^ Whtrn tv ourrt'Tit of (n^lvunlo 
i-h-rtrfHlj U jjnit^rtl UiTtHi^li n t^ciKlLjcli^r, it bcix^mcn ta-nla!* 
ttiiil often to fturh a ilc*-it* lu lo [jrixkux.' Tusion or trpij vii* 
pori/atioiu WlK-ri ri powerful i'tirrenU* paivAeit llirougtiuitlre 
of vi^ry 8rinH rliftTnfT*^, It aonti Jwonnira Inrjimlpser-iir, ami 
tlieii u\\A\h ut U (li^t'1-iKtl m >a|jor, uitil bum« will) a|JenUl«l 

I'ho «&dU(T iTkv u-in hihI ttvtf loM iha cuaJiiciiiifc |Hfirrr, \\\q 

Sii«tr liuftist Wjflj 4 ufrrriiirili lijrlit, \i\m:\\ KunVf utiKu^i from tUi; 
viipiiriuiiLiin \'i 111'' iiiriiir. finlil tinnit niili il bluUh «hiTc %hi- 
Hiitbuin, wbich 10 i 11 fuel lie m ihc tnurt inttupo beat of uiirluni««t«t 
iiitflii knM HplkFriul globult* i*UZi u ilLiicliiig tifflii. OirltuQ b iho 

tml^ l>odr wIiIlJj has uut Leen fum-J li/ fr>&]vjiiii« clpdficjty, Dba- 
Klti^Ki bcmvviT, l»f psivting a rirm>iii lltriiittE'h igliijiII nHl* iif piiro 
cnrboo, BU>Ywib*ii vii ^jfttruJiiE ibr^ui bh> iihUcL ibfil iti^j^ cvuld b« beat 
luul (luuUt u* ^ilbr^rv, wbir'h iikLii'iiIix an HiippJcirk To fiuuML 

Tbr; hfnl tbu^ Ji:vrUpfi4tl in tiHwl lu 6'tiiic oilro-fetjccriiM Aod ^ft" 
pivTilfr bt;uji I'tvn iiuilr^r vhIit. Tbn ^vtiliHUti *^nlTil«iiMf b ploond 
iii i\ tiiihliv <^b*Hil vc'iM^l, itinl llirvdMh It h fiiii? |>bitiiJtiuj wlr« la cvu- 
iirrnnt at rJiWr riid wirh flic* w^mi iVu^ii n bMirry^ On umnnl tX 
tb(* fiucbcas ntiJ (>ih<r cotiJui:lKUT <jf the pUilInuui Ii iifftM^i Kn^nl rr- 

llaii flijkivc. \Vf^ nui vUow Lhal lb« bciit pRqULptil jt i>m|n>riiv>nrO t^ 
til* (VfiliiLiiiirv k rdniuijU'ni in i\w inHblm'iur by |KuviTi|£ 4 "Im^^ rur- 
rpM of utcoirxciiy ilinjuL-li n f bniu *'oiii|riih"<| itf jillorimlr bukft i.>riiLlv(T 
Ami |)Uuuti]jj ^ ili« jrljUiiLtJiii 1jf<i?uuj» ni]-1jihl» wbili' tlir jliIvit ev*- 

554. llliuninatlng Effects- — Thi» heoting < ift'fU Jim 
dcacribtd cii*' ncrnTiipEkim-il i\ltJi A iliKcufajEruivftl uf uiuiij <ir 
IvftH li^'bt L but Ui 4»liLun the raunl ImHmiit rlcr-U'ii^l ll^ljt [100- 
sllilo, ilvuHO itirLnfii ji^iuU aro vrnplo^d. Thry np[* nt flret 
plauieiJ iiL (i^iiIju'I, urK> lieiif^ i*oi)iu*c'tr<i.l nilb \\\v \to%\\.\Hc. niid 
Ihc oUtcr wiUi Ibe ucgHtivt' |>i>k- \jt a iKiwi^rfUl ifttUoiiic LnL> 


tcry. The pollute immediately become JBOftwkaceDt, 
a light »f dftcvllntf Ifrt^uess. 

Arr, <mlUiJ llip rrjfluir cnr. Tlii* |V>iiit rvcnntv*! 
Willi the |HMtlki> |H>lv itMUfl itw-A^t vhJr tllf 
ittlirr huiTTAM?! ku »ln; limiMt wo taimiii^ 
tlinl |)u/iick4 oT <ttrt«in kiir l^r 1W mtcH ]«ii 
Cfwvpurti'il rnjuj :ht foruKt Ut ifcv Inmr : diia 
<.ix]iljufi« bi>A tlur DUTTOnt niQliiiUM 1^ fmat in 
AliitiTiif tijp i£iivrv«] w)ii6t( H^onUv llivn. Hm 
lUfhnikiiLvnl jM4rlJi'l>-» are antt tniT«n4llg Ik 
arc. *uiijvlUjkr» iu uuc iUi«^^ua mmI 
in tha otlicir, Iho |ircnulinff dJfDcUmi, boi 

lljii vtiuQ U mon i»AfiifM iD k VMvmn 

;ii\- 1 Hitpc b no cvniUuuiiua m ibc TaraviHr W 
■ iiajK imnH^n^iirr ^if |mrtiii|«« a« uiniUottiid. 

In iLi- !S):ui-i>, vrLli^ti rc|>ixwul* iKc Mv h) iv 
-jirt^^Uwl F^init, tho «li*Uiiio» ImIvsm ih* |ianla 
L' rr'ieiiUioJ 1} liAtiil, but lu iJTBotkv tkb b 

rtuTv fHopT lull y nrOi.r[»].li*fj'*d by iLUMiiAtic rOj^ulAbv*. 

555' Chemical Effc^ctA. — Tli« iiKBt Ini|«Ttaiil obotQloil 
rirr^Ut iniKluceil i^y giilhTUii^' rlvtliidt) urv tiiv UcconpOMl- 
tion of dii^aiiMd cx>iujx)unOft iu KtUilioii, ftud Uie ImrupoftA- 
tlon of th<-tr d<>mf nu. 

cc» in coUud ^f(trQl^4ii. 

To iuiaI>^« woU-r wc may tmyAQy \ht ApjMUtttus ftboim in 
Fig. 376. It n^niUU tif « Kt)>" *I1>^1> *ltli s mtorleTi ItntUHn. 
Ritfbig ihnn \he bottom niv :*t^ plniinmn fim^ wliicb iVN 
IliKH^ Uia woodffn nUtuI miKl itTniLrmt^ in xho tnUrt, d awl i> 
TUciw wires aervc «» rli^cLnxIcs* 

TLfr f l« vwfcl b pMriMll/ llllnl trish vUff< Ui whkk a umII 



flTtanitiy nf inlphrinF bciJ it mM^O t., imjrraw its wnJofiiun {hiaw 
ii'f pun* wt^iiir w n viry iiiJ|nrt™L fDuduuivf, Twu unrn.w li^U* 
gliMTJL, /f ikna O, an* ftlk*il w»b <r*tor Aud iiivprtwl ovpp thv twn 
platJDum v'trv. TW tglw, m, in iLeu cuuiMvu-ti widi i]u» p<iHitiv(« 
P<iUj «f tliu Wierj?. anil (hi* fulw, ^, ft-i;h iho in."(puiv<t puit. A I'ur- 

iWiiiiIhiMiT^riii W|.«iiiB, n3 \ii ihnnti Ety biibhl<« i-f gu iiiia^ Iti (h< tvta 

oirTv*fK>ii<jhu- to iJic fK>»itivii lulc tif tho liii[u?ry, is pan oxygen, 

yiUiW Llial iu the glaut. Jt»*»p<iiidUj|i bi tli,> m'jjjaiivff ]>ii]r, b 


7ii[, s:q, 

ihfll oS ih9 oljitcD. This n:|KriirK-nt Fh«^A> tWt W4l^ la i7<>inp>w<L 
4if d1CT|na hdJ hydni^iiMi, riov^l in ilu- |irii]iE>rfMiri nf I'lut VKtimm uf 

tJiiry an- 9iai>|>fi!h<il tu be ubar^W witii iKiKUltvi? rlwlncitf, nud iIkw 

vhi-n tW vlivir i!t<« nri' j^Timirfl liiE" nJuflono 'if ruinTNifiriiU liktt 

556> Application of Electricity to Electro typings 
-— KLECTArjTiPi^u la tliv opi'i-a(ioii of i^opjln^ niHa1», wood* 
cut^i tr[>c«i auJ llic liko, f& metal. Iiy llie ol^ c>f KahtiBlc 

The Aivt «Cfi> Is tho pro|mrntiiin of « mmHrl nf tlit* object 




iifHkii tilt? uofnimr'^^ ttt wtkidt <U'|h*i»U ilie stucn-HH iiT tbe rttdl 
'i|>rratio". An imprcsBinn i>r Ihc ol^wl is Uikrti in «■!, 

pottd**rpfl gnpblUf, to iiMT**ji*o It* conftiictin^ |K>«cr, 

Ki^> 377 tJtciWB Uiu iiiellivil (f ib'iKvtliDic ibc m*tal vpvQ Uk 

Ami iJ jini nirullic rods nniimtibioiiliEit: irllh Uti' 1hi> p •it-* laf Uir 
buirry ; tK# mmM \% s%M\^TtA»^\ ttutu H10 nti, Jl. uiJ h><ii^ it kt a 
]iIa1it »r purr tMpp-r Aiftini^tiil fnmi Itir? fiid, ^j tlicvc 

Ivr^o lli*^ «l^lrv4cB immi|iiTM<i the Blj||iluite into m\ • ;■! 
Mild |irirc envi'^' 1^"' «>i1|>1ii>rir nHd jto" ^^ th* f^- , 

IC<iC« tij tbv iii'iiniiTV iitn-tniilp. tbnt lii, (*» iht iai>nU. Bn-I i« llimr 
il^MMNfL All«r nbodt 1iralir« 1iniir>« vr fbur bmn vkh f"'*'*'^ 
bjuivHrs, ihv oucIoiE i.T «m(n-r Uvuinn ihJcfc nuibfh Cd Iw un- 
moved from tb* iiionld, Ami h iliru ]in-vr*jtt « fiip-«n«lp «f iW 

nu^f, nnil l)ic Ivu nru iiuiti^l fr^ ii?L^fM nrninm lii*ll.|ii nairUt piMd 



557. Elcctro-pliitinc and Etectfo-gilding- — Tbi) pm- 

Ct%a ttf covcriu^ buJjrs wttli tliin t'outi]i;;4 oV ^oV\ or si[i«r 
U an&ICJ|OilJi to Uml of i>Li^:livjix|riii^. I'hf [tcrVat^Uoa oftlin 
)>ra(4UM eott^UU in miikinft i1k> lymlin^ nf i;olU or Kalvi*r iu»t 

a iiH^»]ljt iihl wUjiNh ooiiiiML) wtih tho HL^^dtivu pc4« of a Wtcrp, 
Iiiiim^jjit-iJj Whiu- ir Hft plMl'Xif ]MpnH dlvrr. ivhii^h is i?oi>ii<*«lnl niili 
llir pflHtivo T)i-U< [iT the iHtlitry^ The olJMt to lie ulvvrvd ua-\ tho 



iiHtw tiIaIPt 0, foDStildlc ibr c1i?«tn>il». a bHnff ih*; poriitvn one 
ic i-«1il»iuuiiMl iif tln^ (JTOflivi in «njk1ngaas to thjix io tlic |>mcillii|: 

.ip^^pb of hUct i^u^nAXj criiplo^ !« a vj^iniih' nf mIv^. whifh 

tlnHflilnl 4ill iJe|H<inl u|HHi Ihv jKiwiT <^ Uj* tntlcrj atul (iihiu tlir 
liiiirt iif uDuivnkKi- 

Tbv imnvoi of di^ln:*' trills LIE ^9 iW Mtnw nn Uul of ■ilrmng. 

iji[n>r Aiiil A |>1riic <>f colli «i a, innioml rifn illwr (idp. 

»m>1irv^i(iU id il n «]j|i of i;iiIJ ^r^m the yu^livr \vxW <^^ ^Sjf- VtNSiA^i 

Im a ilitfft t^mrn 

Summary. -- 

fifftrtr of the Galtitmit BniUff. 

Hmliug (with iiu-t*1s anil rarUm). 
UMhol ar vx|^wthiig KtiTo-gljmtitiff ftud GaafmrJrv 

llu^ Volulc Aic ^ How lic^nt<L — lltuaninl h§ 

"nto Annl>vit i-f Wnt*T, n|i|iilnrHl by F^gaifv 

iHHuitJriii nf lliv Tctwi. 
iVi-IigimtiiiTi vf llii' MmiEiL 

Pmwi l)lii8>ni«1 hj Fiftun. 

nwrT\aji ni. — nT»Ei«MrjtTiL ra»rirtA« or ELvrmMlAOif] 

5SS< Relation betwccr> Ma^^iism and Electricity. 
— It w olmentHt hL nri i'Hrl,> iHriiHl llint Llt<^ mA^rn-tk^ stmI 
elprldeai fui'uefl had ]uaii> Mk^oKoiift |>roi>«rlic«< In cadi 
Hwc likp ih-Im rviwlt '^liilc itnlike ottrort. It «ii9 ml^u o 
iwrviwl Uwt 4 utmkn of !&jttitnln|t oft»ii nn-tn*^l tln> ^h^cw 
a liMf[n«ti(! nn<i1tr, unit MtinrlinHV TO«ii|jlF4rk ttmlrojnl 
laafrn^'^' "^^^^ ^**" 'i^^** ^il^<^ iKjiitta of i1tA»failtarity< Vj 
iR'Ukiti ih iK't ininvntttii'tK iLko <:'l>r|ridtr. lhroiJ|tli oondnctonJ 
A lORtrnel <lof-ft Dill, tiki* nn rliH-lrinnT ticiily, cvtiim U> n dch< 
tral riate vrhtn tnxKj^tLl Eitlo «xkiiiinMLiicAii(>n vltb tifv farll 
Hofactinp ran only He di^vrlo|wl in aT**, wbrtm^^kctridl 
tiiAy bo (Ii>voIo|Ii^lI in otl tichti^a. 

ACTIOS' upnx A MAast:T. 


W ftffinnrd wilh r«ip(vt W the id*utiiy «f umgnolijiin ao-l phtflnvit/, 
until, in if^V.U OKlis^fK" luatk a iliwoviij iilLtrli flmmTl Ituit llitwh 

5Sg. Action of An KLectrical Current upon a Mag- 
net- — Orcu*ricu Uimxrtvrwl tin- fin-l thuL an eUt-truul L^nrn^iu 
liOA :i cliri'i^LtvL- ]Kiiii4'r uvL-r iltc mu^t-iic l;t-Aik. U-niHug til* 

TttUnilJiiu limy Wnlii'irn h^ lJion|i|iar>tmin.-pn'»CtQlm Pi|j;,379. 
If a win* Iw t»Uc*ftl fwmUH Vn^tM j.n»(Ey mvr r* miipiclw noMlt, iiihI 
iJicn « ramikt uf iilccifit'itj^ U^ jnuw^I lbr.>Oi;h II, tlie upcdlr >«U tiini 
■Ttiunri, >Dil sftft a few QVLUAll'>ni irill i^xiki- t> m« in a p4iTi.iii 
BPOttbljr ttt Hgbl nngtc* k> iho CQrmjt^ T^m U il**^ rutt uko n 
pndllon kteulfiTfly jwr|i*)]ilkaUu to itiuc tff U>t rurrvai i» b«aiiw «tf 
iho d^rveiivfi fwrop of thtf mrtli, vhicb fonbllj ^udi^ibcIa »hi>t vf 
llu> vnrn^nt. 

The dllrrclicin lunrHnln which ihir nurtb i>a4 '4 the iHVilU ailll 
tnni dipmidi upon iU' >f|fti^fia of ihii <<rtm>-ii1. If that H'lm frifOi 
Qoulb 10 tkunh. nnd HhL<i« tlu? UHilk, ihr iKPrth inrlr i>f thv Dcr4k* 
ik-viAl«a hiu-ardii the vri*a: tf ii It-iw* loirnnli the fiouiU, ajid Bhove 


lJi« n»*JK^ tbA ftonb po1« or the nfvrilo 4«ruA» tnw«r4« lh«- «■«<. 
Wlrt-ii tbc rnrmil flirvn M(r*tli«u(v4]«,tlwpb«iioinrttA«r«r»mrd> 

56O' Amp^e*s Ldiiv- — Auptiu. to wborn the dfaGcarrrji 

of tilt )fn'uU'r jK>i'l.UJii vi' trk^ilrvDiiigtwIir }i1irii<itiif<iiu In i]i 

Uowu uiJuii I1i^ ^^ni! along vrliU'h iJir i-iinvnl JliMr*, tbi< rurrmi 
{'iilt-riTi}- til XiK^ r<H;l and ^i>lii]; 'iijl al iIjp hrati- 'llii-n. if lir 
Lurii tiiA TuLV 4ilfi!i>B toivunlA tlK< iicerlle, tlic norib )kjJc will In 

561. Action of Magnets upon Curf«ntfl, and of 
Curtcnu upon Currents. — A»i-tiL£ vitaMiHlml tlip (ul> 

1- MnpiciA extr^isi' 0. dirc«iTc rutw.» upo«i curmita. 

To illu9lnit4' thin. w« IvtulI ■ o>i4>fr wirt* ini» n f imW Irvn, vaI 
l»Hiti *l'i|i li* mrmniiW. vlil^h iJioieIiI bn pmnCMl wilh ««<, lnt.» 
^iit« i^f Hfprrurf . Mw hWig th» *<1hcrp *a ebfwn in 1''^^^ 3f4tL Tb*w 

NitWf if ft b«t anA^Pi Ih* lirkiutftii niur ihln mnmi, ib^Avbiii^g ba 
Itir plfeuo vf Ul^ rwmili w^ f^ll *«« Ibr b«i^ mm uho^ thr steH 

ibr BUB* (if llic mHsnrl- 



2h The «?nrili, wTiidi ftct* like a liugf* ina^i>t upKin n maij- 
iicti<^ in,-tHlk\ rtJ.'U iJi tho A»im> mnnnor upon tuoubIiIo <.'um<nlt; 
Umt LK, i; iliri.'L'(» lln-io *o thai Uicj luv ^r^uititiilur U» llin 
tniigii€tic nirrii^L^n. 

ThbimkL) br slnfwu by ill r nij^hnnhlu^of Tii;- »*0. ITthn cutmiiu- 
uti4.tiuii witri Ehit Ii4llitfy Ipa ^iit«>fT, %ui\ llin Ikki^ bf lurttod lUI it* 
jiliauT cuiuddiv w^^lli tljr-' Lwi([UiTiio uHTJiLiaii, it will icmuu m kliJit 
pMiijiMi- If ru^w a mmmt Im fnui^il r.tiiiiugh a* w(> ■» H turn 
pIliaIjt ftnriJUiL iiw pirutf^ to lU ti> luki' n |Kv4lk4i» ai ri^jt uiivl™ t<r 
\\\v iiu'tidmn- Jl uill turn iq #ueU 4 Utn-vrtun lUhT tlur ciifnuC io 
lIlU Unau |un ikf till: !iu*rjt vih U-'W fiVIJil IU*1 licj Wnl, 

^. IXw vtift?! ^r l>4 ^ p»niUrl 
rurrmts jiLtrart i.-tKli other 
wUt'n tlio wiitviiU flow in tho 

dom or uu>ti4jn fnr Uic vln'K, 
mill n-|Ml i-ac:)i oUior wtirn tWy 
flow in opinxiik dir?';Uon&- ^^tf- ^' 

4. If n virw bo «oiW qh tvprc3GrnU<(l in V\^. flftJ, iinil tiii^u 

f, n will, ffli'-n R i'lKretit ih iA*>ifHl Ihiwigli tt, nrruig^ 
JUcir IfJ Ibc nunitlHUi lUi? n iiiiigiMilr iin^tliv 

When thtf <-or»Tiit uh« ite iIini-Hmi ■/ iln* rnritwi. |h»end« «. 



it d[rT<?ti>a lovbrd» lh« aorUi. Tha cplnl In Fig. HSI li l«d»nkaUf 
cvtJrd u M%x. WKiii ittofi Hutp^-DJod, tH^ Jttjix l>A« All Umi pm|irr- 

uu in tb<? intfrkviir thf* liHU^ If iwn #<^l^o1i^ nrr tfmnithi uc^r 
CMb hUmt, ;ih r**firrwnTnl in T\^- tlrti, IKki' f<4r» vitl Tir|ir| astl u»- 
|ih« Mtrut, n't in \\if «^w iif n nmffvrt- 


S64, Ampere's Theory of Msignctiftm. — Fmm iW 

fiirU cxplnincd Hi Ihf Iftit nttklr*. A Hflmr dnliv^l ■ thvriry of Tfu£|- 
nriifiiD' lie tfuppcofM maptctifvii i» li^ 4iu> ^> <DnTintB «f rkdnc^ljr 
flowing nmnnil th»> Qltlmnt* iihJi^nU« id a nufcun, dwnjn in Ui<> 
Mine ttimiKtn. In a 1>i"ly 1101 iTiAfEacliivd dN«» vnrvcnU arv avjK 
ivHvd ti> liiivi> tLJrcrtiiiiLM utit iinmlIrL ThofUffRaU tn ibc iMfrtDr aT 
Ibir iQ4|coct nnu[ru|ji4- n\ch uthcr, m tbvir ««]jM«rDi ptft> ofpOMi Ano 
•Jiiilhrr, JUirL r<riLH\|iH'iitLj ttir< 1>iIm| I'lb^a uf »II ibD lOimtU* in a 
ink|[THrl \% th* Hupo AS thni «4 s m4 of HtditK rofTvuU flowia^ A^-anil 
Oir lEiJitrii'-l (a Hioh ft iHrwduu OmJ if H¥ ptiirv Itw 1^ nl th* atmUi 
eiii >^ A irLdif(iiH. nii4 livok m llit Jjrcetion r-f th« aii*, ihv fvrtrM 
vlU "Him ar^iund in tbo eujiH itimlwn an ^he linnk uf * wUdi. 

rig «& 

In FV> 383 »*<■ hjvTr tho bncr cirtftHi A' nnil 5'i ^th ifcr mrike* 
uiil niMWiiUr nirrrrilH n^im^'UVil- jVuuJ >*> in» ihr nniih Abi Miolb 
cndd i.>r n injijt^t"!. ttvin«Tk ihow tvu rmb IS il liMganwU Ito 
fnntllpl niirfftni cudrriln. 

Tlib ilk'Nirj c«c]riLn» ulj lih« fhiliv r^pd Mhl MntUi# iittnH- Ff 
nnllk*- |i[iIm ATT tnu^bf w«i ffieh iithrr, tlm tb^iiV ivnvBUMi iliHr 
uJJuiniofc fidi-* win ViAvr llif mmc ^tirr^fifiBi jm4 rtwc Ivpo cnfrrHta 
hnvfai^ dia «umi d^irrilon ttirirl mch fillifr. tlK <wii pokw vill abhi 

iho idgMimi iIiIm Mill Iaw u|>piiiiiii dlrvnlliHu. *ud iho i-uln vW 




563, The GalvanomcicrH— Calvanic MuUiplicr.^A 
O ALT A]«oiu BTKR in nu ini>lniinc*nt (or mftsu^iinng l|i« Ibrco of an 
flwtnt^] mtrrrnt- In il-t iiim- ^ 

\\\rrX rucm Jl oMJiiUU of n 

SSI J with n oimiJarting win> 
]>»Ati<Ml uruMitiL it ill llu' illrco- 
tluu of it« longtb. 

Wttru n t^Lirrvut uT «luctnf Ity 

■|»raft(mnt iflJl U' uiJiL'fttni hj a rinirinn of the hmtIUs hn firm* It^ lli* 

H(LI be iDflioiUcfl by the ^ftctioiL Uiwbi>1a vhi<]h Ibu boxtii «tu1 uf Ibo 


■ itfl iai 

Tim OAl-VASk; HrLni-URK u » italranctntl^r uf (iTCfll wuiilivo- 



Kiipfii>niaKni;kac5Uiidfr, m »1inini in the figrarA. Ucukr Uip n^liti- 
dvr bagmduttloddnlpi Wii«kih«1iuihbiiircKiili'[irr«ino woauil ttrtli 
■ firtAtoumbnof iH>il«»f '^>p[>«rtriM- llipiR\r« !> iTiflii1uto<i l>/ t<4i« 
wn'rul itiiU Btlk> Th'- iwi> iuiit»^ihvwiL cvminuuratn Kiih tbii 
1)iiMNiLtf'ih'r«^>t 1H nnd n, by pimiK cd* wLiclt tlicjr iiinj 1h* mAiIfi in 
rr>nLr]iij[kii'iiU> wjtli llir< |pi)ltH uf a tdIUw ciMiplc. A iin^^^r fhuiHi 
■itppvrlii ■ ^look, Frf-m u-ltirib iH siivpt^n-lpd u Jdtoitc »llkpn mnl, t. 

wlikh IF vinilil" ill \\in HifQTc. Tliv lwi> xitritli:« vhrri v uiiiinj lluit 
vafi nuioot turn without the other, and t1i«]f |vjf4 boing itWnl to 
iip|k»»&ld iJirtclkDDB, the itclii3ti nf th« «iuth D|Ha Uiou t* miii|4nrij 
n^ulniJijKtf, Hf>niy> ttn'y am fmo u> olx-jr ih« Irut (hml 

Ttu tumljiiiiEti'ii (if u^fniW i« <AUcii on a«l«tK iiMdIe, iioJ tltf 
giUvafir>iTimi'r Jn ^\t\c\i It b ijkkI nn ttJdaf^ pabimiMMfrr, 

5G4. U9CS of the Golvanic Muhiplicf > — Tlic multiplirr 
1b UAiKJ to indit'Jiti.' l]ii« l'i-{-l<tvfti ctrrrvnls of «Joctri«4ty- By 
mcAni of 1l ItKiv*.'-"^:^ 4"^^i^>l^*1i<^<l tl"* IWl Ui«t ft current U 
cl«vr1u|jfj1 ][L wer/ vliviij1i»l ftLiioii, in the itstmbitioii of 
li(|miU, DiJil ill many oilier |ibeiioli]<:iiA« itv usinit a ffdtv* 
notit^icr Willi muny tUouft^ruls of \mt\A or wire, the tfxiiitcBev 
of elvcitic&l current* lu flnlmaJt nnd vvgeuble* maj IM 

Tci nlkow thn [?urn?ntB Jt^wlirpL-d by fhruitol wlfem, m, Ibr r>«4ni' 
pic, the tetioa «f odd* upon UH^'-ili^r lvi> fin<> i^ljitinain vir« ur Id 
tridriApd Into iUi? Liuilm, hi Jtid a> Umr rtiO uf nuii <tf ihr wtm b 
then iTippi:d idI-j » «eIhm» ^ifilitiiK Aulphnh^ ocU, mh! tho utbn if M4 
ill 4>iiilm<f. uilli H |i]<tu- iif t\xiCf wlildi bi nlxi dipped IbIo tlm ililut« 
nnil, 'J'ta-T t«ro rim^ioH wliiflh wc«a bfifotfo pifcnJkl t*Ot, kimJ wbi^h 
wi- ii(i|i)HiH< If liHi IT Fhi-^i )i]ju?i-J Id tbo iiumoFtk mciitbA, toimr' 
djAtrly tvm r-'und imd iivnnic pf^qKodicuUr la tb* nvidivii indl- 
rMtirj^ Hir hwiAumnf^Jtik iirifdiioiioii i/a rorrrfil. 

565- Magncti/mg by inc3in% of an Elcctricail Cur- 
rent* — If A mw tw vtouikI hiouu^I ft l>ar of im^i «Ofl ft 
currcut uri;lt*otrioily bo |itai«^ lltn.<U|Eh Ui* vint* it ia ftt OIK* 
ci^iiterteil into i niagnoi. Tlio mclhtxl of iiifttifng Ibo «xpvri' 




If rho ^nrrrnt '*<nu4>. iIik IrtMi hnr M i^ncc Iokih tu rnajirni-iiiim. 
Wi^ tnbj iu liki- iiuifjiirt funti .1 |H-jiMikCirii1 inA||iiot Irj tUhtiij^ n lutr iT 

Tti(< Iml' riftuvl itiHj nlui lie mHfjiii'titufl l>y |i4Mm^ tlirN>ri|jp|i \]tt* 

timflc to touch Ujv cii'rriuil c»vuriiiif of tha Jnr, nnri Ihi- nlht^r j'ml ih 
lirv'U^hL luto (fniJlArt wiUj thn biilUm uf the jju. Thct ^ftil l«hr 
i« inHikCiiHl iJK^J iTJslftDtauoontly, thus ihott-iTig thv t^vni'ttj hi^inn'-M 
tijt) vln^iri^ iE\ v( the K<LlvMLiii cunvDt lUiJ Tb«t '/ t^v Lf^jrjcn jar. 

Summary, - - 

Itfliili'm lirtttfra Mti/inrfiitm ilful I'tfHtt^tl/, 
Aclii*m ft/itH K^iHri^l i'urrtnt tj»n a J/iijtwL 
niu*tml<-il l»j Kigun?. 

) I MikKi^nft fK^rriM n Ditniivo Pitrc<^ apop {!iim-nl». 
% Tliv Kdftli »el« Likv A liuKt llagiivi tipiib M^'\iilil(f 

3^ Arliun i^rrmuU^-l Cuiivuiji u|vu nu'li hiIji^' 

4' AMkni nf ihp l^unvni upon a KcUt niijH^DdM in Cu|j» 

lUufirailcd hy Fif^ur^h 
Atftnn nr twii Scilffnniiln upim mch i»ihi*r illiwirutoit hjr 

I liLifttrotioitd. 

Lihir |ViU-» i^<]i|it am] L'lilikv jiCtnirt, ('AfrTuiix.^ bj Fj|;ujv< 

.Vell^n illu^lriiti^ l>j Fiuun^, 
Guitamit Mttiliftht'r 



566. The Elcctvo-magcict. — An KLicniU'iuoMKT U k 
tniig&«l obUdrK-tl by thf u*o ordMUioitjr- 

ElrclfU-maifQcU vc ^t-ivrivllf nmib^ vf »3JV Inw, bi-nt 'm tlv fi^nn 

tiiniibrr of n)ib i>f wifr, tinutunl tijr 
tolnf oovoTTit villi Bilk. Ife iwlrr 

uiny have vppwir* pobntifsi, the wire 
iiiUii 1ii< milrO rin ihv two IJiaW, A 
utj J ijlp in luch a wa^- tW it iht ftuu; ■ 
urt vmr oni^htHiHl awt il vvabl nut 
in tW ninf* rija^liciu; itf OKtrvinUiM 
nri* ifjr-E> rcmiiiTlRl vklL lint [kilf% iJ 

^tt- ^- lij ibU vcAj magnta iiMr W cnii- 

«trni^tn1 cif iminrntr ixiwrr. K^ |>imrrfii]. in turf, 

NfnK Fi|i>307 iqircacnlJi the incilioJc/niTAnc- 
log thp dcuils «f A mji^vt whjfli U hiU<iidM 
to ndiibit « pTAi tfvatovmnq) jhmtv, 

Thtf p1nli> TU <MijliU7l with thv iVo |KJf« It 
eaJlcd All cmrwCurtL 

Wl;«ii Uio ioMrimfal ti uf wnh Irao i\ h 
1Mgl1«1]if<1 lni>tnntniK>nijdy bit thi? |Hiia«gi* vf a 

riiM«]ilnn4^>n«l/ !»««« itt tiMffn^j-in vt thi,> 

rurrvtit l« vliipfffd. 4it BMiJteB^ Thu jin'jxrty 
liju \rem ulUix«4 Ut the c1«in>-EUAgnLnk.- trU'- 

Thn ti»<11)t Hji»lf iHVnnirA inaiEnPtivtl m «dl 
n* tliK »tn Irun. Ld fi lurr^Di ftAM thf mh 
n fu^li. u tUami In Fii;, -'i^: ■ ruj of Irm 
plaml liilnw il vrill W tlnva up l>]r tliC xrtioo 




567. The Electrical Telegraph. —An Kt-Kr-rRirjii, 
Teib^ir^pji U mi apjinrsiiiit Tor tmii«inittiiig inlx-lligt'mv 10 
A ilUuiiK^c 1jy ii]i>aiiK vf vlitlrioil ctirmitfi. HiiHMt\ tvlc- 
irrapb ift morp *\tcnE*ivtl>' iimtl ibflii uny «tb«T, and tlic priii- 
L'i|>le on vtlik'h it it o]x>rul«tl in \-ory niuiplv. 

At Ui» ■•t4fKfU frtiiTi illicit n ti-toKmEA im Jivpnlohnl 14) au tW- 
iftnJ baatry, iiuJ jii tho itntj vKptit h U lu W rr<v'ivnl U hii 
«loekr<»'iaBt;ncT. The two nro wmnortwl by a ^vi^Y■ nuifiinx lie- 
tviwn the ■[iiliciu*. Wlini ihi" rurrvnt b t mnnuttii-'l ilimn^'h 
Itic witi>, iIjc iron bocMPiDcv ini^ctiKil uud hlirucU au nnimtttrt ./ 
vrft irciUi wbirli iu lurn juit^ria tnuiiciij u> dtIiit pit'cn> by in<iiiui 

itim 1mi« tf mii^iielj>iM, ;iriil 4 KjirJTit; frinw ibn jirimituTr birk 
14> it« priiDltivc p]i»dtU]j tly i>ii(vj:wiv'i-j} lin-nkni«; jiitd ml/jriufc Um 

»eh MAiii.>u liu t^H- IfYffviwiflviiy and r«cir<p>n<; iiji(>iimltitt. 

56B. The Register- ^Orc r«nn <f tfai* nH^-iiing nppftmtUK u^ 

iiiAirnai, Ky vhict^ ulhtticxcru carmil is 1niii*rTiit1i«l, rtv nl .4, iirU 
by KnnMluQ upf lU ill iiitnatun? of Hiftinm.nt. I)«i^Vnt iW i'ktfrin^l> of 
a bfvn^ «>f>>i uwl iiJovabTfi bIhiuI mn uel*. Al lo »^ittvml<y, it, th» 
luvri I'Brrim a ;k>[|iU jr* wl/n'b iimy In* iitinlc fo |iiw» ni^ninal A trior- 
hI>1v ibp iif 1iA|Xif, A A. Wbtf^n ttic c^irrvnl dnn rJ>^r )hiia thm^igh 
iJir rliiitnf-MinK'*''V ''i* p<*int» 'i d«» Uol prm at:AJii7t iTiv pniivr; 

pu|icT. And tmon U|)Dii il cilJirr a j*yLij( I'l b liiif nnfjit <** Ifw pfcrt>« 
ffbtM, »»riiliT3(:f to the Iph^Il %A iNno during wbkrb Ibfl «Dnt<ni 1« 


'I lisilip iir|)»|ior I* hppi ka mah^at tmUbn*!} by m<«9« f^ a inn 

mifr>mjly m ihc djrofiion frnui a lo b, the nprntvir itl ib* viW 
I, bjr pnvfiag llic buitmi of the ktjt auJ iniiini»ii;iii|{ l)ir fm*- 

'-Ami inaihe I** bu rradr U|HnL ihr pa^r jil |>lm0urr. Tliu ramtkt, 

TKi' rrvivlvtjuK il'Knlml li» liij# ukiua t^ut uriUTt ant Jin itnalni- 
ini^pi ratrM thp "■ixmittr" b inn|iL<i5<ii|- U ia ■imply Ji rfgijtap 
^ilNifiil Ihf «1i|>iir pn|n-r niiJ r1i4<k-iriifk ctttcvliii^fat, TtkC iingn^a 

tKi^ iili|i f»r|in|>i-f n» il CfiLiii^ rrnin the lunUurnruf. mut n nJiiifiri oloul 
riNulj li} wrUr It (liiwn. &j im^nK «f snmiJ- iTuUk^g ih.- ri|imv 
Uii'rvlij IB inufh lr»ciiii^. 

1^]i<' fiillikii-iii^ Iji1>lf< rnnlniPH Iho i^hnnif-ii-ni nf Hon«% aJpliJiLict, 

A Ffucr nlifui cqiinl t« llio IfiuzlU <«r n ikah i* M Wvrra 
iwu Ictim, niul & Kivken ii1»Jiit tidw ilib Iragili b^wrm iwo 

jOg. Key for TransmitUoj*— Foro^wningAJwl d<»Ijaj 
(Ik- nr<'ult in the tmnanikstkiiin <»f nioMAicnt fin ai>f>AnUai 

leror, on <tw/^ t'rnl of which k u kiinh. X At T mn Iwo 
|j|ftUntiin tHniitn. unc tm iltv Icvpr uiid tbc olbcr oti iho i»eUl* 




11<* plato below. Cand D ora tbc witvi Ihitnigli whk'li Uu; 
(*urronc patftM. 

The itpcrulOTj lu rl<**< iho drrii&l 

hii^lt il»wii Mini Ufli;^ \u ftmts^x thi? 

r«rLt will ili«ii fiiH through'i 

iiii'ulllc ci.iLifjt'ctLoiJfl om M iho vins 

iJ, 1o the Dovt ilntinn. 1' 1* fl imtv- 

jililc l>mia ann tlint aliJco uuddr a lip fr* lfi« purptVO of cWtuij 

ll)r Ptmiil vrlifTi tiT* fc«*y it nut Jn ii*r- A •phii^ iin4l<>r th** Icvoi 

frum \\w hnitli- Tho kiji>it*> Y a%v\ X, nm Imlh nua-ruikiliickini to 

5;c- The Relay. — Ii U only wIk*ii ilio ACatlons ans a 
ibliorl (IWlutui:' Jipnit, gt^iKr;ill\ \v>>\ tli^iii Mfly mllM, thai ihe 
n^dvi^ig iiisiuinifMit U oik^paU-iI lUfcctl) 1>y tbi» line ^uirrnti 
In ionjE (llHtant^rii tliL* hoi^tmcA Utf* fcchlc to do lhi« ^flVx^ 
th-oly, bul liy alloi*infl IUl- inuiii current to Mitor Jin initvii- 
tniMil cTnlli'il tUi< reitry^ il la^uil t'lirrt-ial ik Kriii-musl lj> wi^rk tin? 

^^V Th« liiH>u-ir« i^U<r< M i'i(t%j;,3!i|)pVnLVpnrvO"' In lik „r.ji jukv* 

■ iit}( jit Ciif ilir ic:*>iini1. »r 3f ii W^, wAy*3uUrMi Lo tbn UtLtlEL linr- A 

I wire fiMrn A pnTiucv^t vilh (]ii> ptviTin pi-l» of n t<>akl tntl^rj nf tno 

I or tJim cvll^ A wire Truin h gvo io tlio ngtuttt cr Buuudat^vid. 

1 \^- ;/j3- 

440 ELEcrRTrrrr- 

AitHTV llw arrnmiuw, E, to toon t«ek uaJ Can& !• AuKt c/ thm 
ni>«fDf4i »t1 1" rtuijj wt^n^tK* in iia aKfrMtMiU ill* &at«ffnip4lufM 
[■/ ilic nrnnl »iJ> b j llw kty o# lb* 09*F»itT- 

11w Ui-kintnl mnOi-n ofj? k pfv^MTil bj « vpnng which to r*^- 
«< iii tbc fi4^nird n-'lii'a. (/<■:«»?. bj tkc *lirviM<ii »r rJi^ 
liu^*^. iVlton K mi>Tn IfavinnA ii bringt thd liTr«iv ^, )a ruaijtci 
irilb C^i aihI ikn* cpfifniUe (he LxaJ cirouL 

Tfm r^iMn nr atbdi!*^, alii^H I* InrToiM vrithin iMa Hrmii. h 
vTirln^ ill iicTfMclj l^io Man« vmj ilml tbo ktv dfccU tht rtUy, uti!j 
wiih ftir K***^' furw, 

571. Ligbming Arresters. — Exi^riMHC \m tkown 0m%. 
tb« vim iimf> frviri jitmrinphi^ iniQnuvis aivniniiiNto u^an Oumi^ 
n1v«* •ttflcinil <|uanlil>n vt dctrtrkitjr 1u ]■!««« Irvvbkaamc Ut ttiv 
gpvTMon of lb* Mei^iib. Tn jirvveni tnj tiijutliiiM utlna iff Lfab 
kiaJ. iLTA iinvwnwoi &• vorarltDka lued «vnnpoBo4 tt( Iwo lootbvfl 
[fima of iiu'Ul, (lie[juanl ni |Ii»I I)w twih «rv iHivLy io omtJirl. TTn 
curn^iU |ru»« iiitu tpuo uf lliMo f^^WMv whUo lb* nl\u?r {« hi minnia' 
ukniktxi vitii ilw rurtli. If, fbkin miij* Mtn(Hph*Tti'fhAii|f«vr<f4^lriHl]r 
nvcMiiKiUus Tipiin iIjg vriru or ii|^k*int(u, it b Kivf-n itf bjr ibc pLHittft 
iif ihi* ]in-icc wliirh U in couiiuUDinitioQ willi tba ranb, ud ifaoelw 
apo thus toTuidifd. 

Otbcr foruD uf li^htnitif; {irufi^rton bJtvu b«>i] itprlBinl tkfti arp 
viirtftEci nnil fSvrtir*- ]t it net itv^xmmy lVi«t Ibr tijcblMiig ttitittbl 
111' j-jirri'Ml U' tim mnb> liiJt ciulj ilh'«rtv<l fnnii lli» irliy iiiii|>nfl. 
Ah inov^Hnui^xi WAynf tufuiriB juicjo O^c l^titzitiitE, adiI ixw nf wbiHi 
cvi>rjr (p|jrnit(^r run h>j^11 liijiiM'Lf, hiiA Ui'U iHU|f|Ei**la1. \if\ a «lrr« 
Ur|;rr tbiia thM of ib« rdny mjminclT fidJ a frw ledkrv id ifugiK, 
Tnii from «iuiU inoliL cirruil blu4iiifi'Krcw of Uie rr-Uy, aihI nvl 
tu A »ui(Jl bolt^c vi vm\Dt, The trim iDUBt nut muc UipcHlicr, 
I111E ihHr it&vUiDn: fnmi riidi uiht-r ciui be tnrinl juvardli^ M 

WhUt ^ii4d^ n piinr is>i»lit'? nf i n^tii* vlBGlrUl]r» lilUv b b«t» 
Ikhual irf it |rft!Fcmii^ tbo uiAgiirtic v\t* ; bQl ntindffilimr f^pcmritji 
liy liB gmt liitMuiilr- liiken UiB alxirl WBUf-fuiiftv Tbnv dnkw 
■TO nul nil tilHilalc pruWcfb>n ; IhiI diiFing a #<TrTP t|>««4cf- 


r^lAfi ■fifiuld 1x1 cut «ff fwrn %hv injiiii lin«. Tint In aiiph a in«nv<r 

tvk iiol Up break il. 

573. The CircuU. — Iii ^Imt huH l^eeii Haiti. oiiTyniiIngle 
virr Uaa haen ti\tokQti of ^9 nmitiuK IVom ftUllon lo »tAtloii. 
Tbie U geit^nilly An iron win )»hicb p*a«u ovt-i jc^'^jih irimi- 
lAtora st1Af4io<t I0 tnll wmhIoh yvwtM^ Wticn tltc v/in-s ixra 
bid unil^r groiinfl or in vrabrr, tkcy arr invulntcd hy a uoat- 
l&g of ffiilta-pcreliii. C(jp[M;r v\\'t^ ore toimnodtj u»od la 

It iroalil M'f'iri iicvr-BMry, In nrJvr lo u)nt|j|Hc th« drtuiti tbat 4 

The Wipluyijj^'Ql -if 4 flni:'ud vilrv ir ttvoi<Jvil bjr nrm^ixlmi; tlf* Xveo 
t»n'h i>r ihfr tinglo wirp with i>ii' irtrilu Whi'U ppis cif W)rt(>r jiljiwi 
HEiU-r in offin* tiie En-uinl vritv U nltwilit'il U» Omiii. 

KtliOrp&ni Ti(« «iii*h f4i|iviiTiici)r4«, (1 »| ifr>r plaiH HTTfrnl favi iii]riar» 
aLl«Hch sUftUuu w Wii'il in h t>cr|4«idlcnbr poaition, ai jHilBcJmt 
dvptti Ai> u ^l tut JiJwftyk in c^iiitAc). vriih moisi «niih. TIio rlwiH 
b tbiw OAEnpttiriL Al Eliti «Uli4iJi wIhtp (h? nuwt,i^e U wtjl ttur 
tiiw til OAnnvfl'Tod u^ili ili^ ivM^tWd )h>Ii> <ti tli^ hatUr/, iiml ihH (rur- 
rvbl piutv* uv'.-T thi: Vif(< ill HI II ihr^>ui;li tlw earth bfeok lu tho uc|rii- 
CivD pe^. Thi* Mmplo JuFice ati'u* aol oalj half th« 0V|MrMri In 
■vntslraciSn^ «4i«, btjt ^rmtJr Inennsu* ihv pnwr tit clnliloftl 
tnnmiJMkiii. Ihf rvA»i^M'c it olTon r^^mpoivi) mth tho witc IwtUff 
pnetinilly ixithiiiE- 

Sirirtf tho phWh w I|m< iviiifriii n n -rvi^ir of T»*H[|tniJ plwtriNt; iho 
oWrir irarnr»l fixmi thi.f M'lii' 1- nillj ilLUftijmU'J wlipu iL n'luiiinuiii- 
CHTM with it- 'I'lu'fn bi tn-t iii^pjtiJ#iHl t" H* •!»)' rp»J pying* of Ihv 

mcdliLtf oniM« iro ttippli^il «il]i g»iiiii(! wifiw, ffi b« qchI AttAj in 
CAM of trouble on tin: \ii\tu 

573- Pl«n of a Way-Statior, — In Fia. 302 wc h«t«> 
rt^prvftcntf'cl o. (iLiLn of tl^n iLiatniin^ntn and conQoctians of R» 
ivnv-HtnUiMi- Ttir lim> rnli^rv nt A* ytnJurA ihrmirgh the- H|chL- 
miHE 4lT«»tcr, -V, IrarrrncA ttjc n>il of tlic ivkv, ,1A Ant] tlkcn 
pasAOft tUivuj^h Uio kv>. A', 1uk4& to Uiv ii;;litiij[iij; iinvnlcr, 
a»(1 tli^n lotJie n^xt 4tnllc^rk l>v Lho Kne. L\ Tb« dolti^d iLiwa 



represent the* Local circuit, aittt B tbu tocftl bitt^iy Ibat Ip 
clndei:! inllio t-iiviiit, U nl-^iciM^raied, IiuMdorttjv ttOciMW 

\\y tiimSiw >1'c IJDttQit. Ct lh[> Piim^ni pVM a]«i^ l!in miun Hdi* 
wl|}iiiui i^iiiiiE llir(>U|ch tliD jiiidrvmixii. The sv^ieh, ^ fiAU |>c 

1(1 f«>Rnnn lh<- Udp on titbrr ^<lo oF tbv mrtr^mcflU «rUh the 
nvih m <f- Till' In^r ci^nnmixl iHih t1i« iev^hipiI M f? oau ilmi Ur 

A plu iifH Tiniiitiiil Mmliiii MiihM Tia^* A Innfif midn luncrf. Mil 
wcitild dtopouAi^ ^vitli tliv '*ciii-^<u1t'* F't cad Ihc )ldc, X'; it nllivr 
rxf^KToU li voulil it^rw wkh tint pEwu otn m^ ^UUmi. 

574, Other Forms of Telegraphs*— OHirr «pBHv vf 
tek^mj^ihy t*vudc« Mtiivt*!! nn UH<i tn u cn^i'^i' or low ai«uk Tl^ 
ino«l in^>nlftn« cif iTtcni* 4VV Baix'4 ^1]*^^^^-^■^lf*M>i«^| *rl*|rTaH)h, ■nH 
thv firtntmc iHrirrupfiFi of Tk^CARt ilroiir-f<i aqJ Pnn-Pi. 

tn RdXH K'irfffiipli lhi<r<i l4 tm inhjsnM itvil, bai ft vnAll aI/vI 

Upon ih« FoLL uf \^ytf \\\\w bu Wrn (irrTkiiulj- «Mk*d la lmu«ja- 


iht poCnt Cotuheti th« |«pw Ihr rhi'inirul prcpkniiion h. Afvuinittikt-d. 
iind Udp imtrlu iicv left cm llic E'AI'vr, Jae Ili tbc fomuiiloii r^f Tnts* 

vlci-jiUr. jiuil b u i^iiuibliUkUuii nf HoiiAt:> aih\ UVQUhtiA vhh the 
tifipn*\m»piiT*i of i'licu'ifv 

The nr-QiUng irificnijrivijt hitA iwi-m^-r^t)ii )ti-\yi itrTMtfsif) Ukr thiM' 
of n piflJio; iipnn tljoio urc printed the twvEiljr'>i:i Ictiera >>f tbr^ 
ii1|ilifiWt) ;iiLil lwi:> |»fiurlimli(Mi |iiilu1>l H'heQ ihu o|wmk<r Ji'|'ir?«'0 
iho knjt. i^ie ^irrqil it rluml, and Uin nkifVjyEC La jLvnnlfi^ ut Ihe ^iESct 
enil itr lUv tiiiiT Uk orOiJiafjr Ivlu-CK Thin sjtaIi-ui workn liukr Ulhu 
Moiuhe'k, and (he nio^nh^^ dtHiH ni>t )in^« lolxt tniiiM^riliud. 

575- Duplex And Quftdruplcx Telcgraphyi —Pnplt-K 

fr<lr'gni|hhy nrfr-r*i ici (hut tyntem at Url^ifniflLllig by whkfa ifli'Uin^^ 
HIT >iin oltAiKviusly a<u( ][i opftriniii: <itiTrllon» on oiic npil iTin wmc 
wtrp, Ihcrehy ditubl I ii|r vhewcirktn|^ej]|ifLehy of thellruv QiiJi-lriipW 
Iiclc^m|)h5 refrrs In ihe »j9l*!m tif Telopipliiag ft-hercU j- ^»wr ntcfl- 
■i^w. tVTo In avh dlrenlr>n, may ht- «iitiitlTmM4ii]Hlj InnikmiUi^l i>Ti-r 
car ocol thn uuur «irv< Thfi luailn;^]^* lyetnn hiu Wp Mtcti- 
dnly rrnployiMl u-it^hi a r<iw ypur* hyiTii* WMli>ni Hnlon T^-lotfimprj 
C<rtr|Hhi]j, Aiji] in at rmrul \n uk Wnx^m AJnii»l ikU tlit^ priiiL^juJ 

A ilulaikil JeHTip:iuD of lh»C tyfCnuef huiM<ir«r, wodld btf bvyoud 

tlu' Ki>pi* of ih» pnnmt vntV. 

576, Submanne Cables* — SiDc« lUo hit-culion of llw 
toLi^grrt[>^i« u i.-orii ]}]«.' to nutivork of liiica bad 
li«t<iifHlJLhli^hi>dfivi-r iMJih riji«tltif*nlA, Nol 
oiriv Itaic tEKitrsniifls of iniW i^C niivs been 
htivlclit'd on U1K.I. hat »ij)i(iimrtiic niroA 
hiLve lHH*n laid, ooiiTi»>pting pliuvn iwp(U'Ati?d 
by UioLJKniuU liC tniW cif nAUr. Te]i<- 
erophic nirvM <-onner.t Knclnjjd atid lii'Und. 
En^iatKi ond Frniiye, I'miK'Oaiul Algitiw. 
¥uir>\>t^ iuhI Amenofk- 

TUk- Aihinlir r;j[»1cM (Ff^. .1^^^) cmiriU nf Fif. «M, 

(1) Ac-mlribl cioii<l<ic:lin£8tnvnd,0<oracvriicopSNr ttirvAi (3t> 


KunvuDiliog IliU an isfnUtiiifc coaI, C of guliA-pmvha : 
(S) A ]a>Yr of scvcrrki AtrandH <if UirrcH bcmp, M to protect 
ih& gDUA-jwrrJii : and < 4 ) oaUidc of aU, «igfct««ft Irxm vri ft!*, 

llcHltlfr |iiilT«ai>Qif1c*r, »n iFiitnunenl of frrircuio i#&(arji vithnul 
whleli Uic iiractlcAl tucccM uf ihc ALbolIc aUc wimU liAtv htwn 

tbftwl iriiliin m4l <iri[imUt«4ccifkj>Ar wlfij; at 4 AataM* «f • T^. 
IB 4 Kftlv «il^i £i:iii itt Lht <i'ii(fv (lud UiD gradEinlkiD Mcnifiin|{ m 
«w>h vitt- L'nil*r ibd wtfiapuint im du «|vrtmr« Uirmigb v1i>?h Um 
li^til cuiiLi'* f^uiji 4 i^jti iir Imp]> fljuuv. Mid B4llk» oa the nimjr juhI 
IB Lhcn rtrllKlal apnn ihc ttal^ Tho tfn^ if li^l u ilHlfiAed lo tha 
rigtkl IT Irft ■fcordinu t<> tlir ^rrmt, ncd thaw drAn^oM «oViv», 

577. The Firc-Alarm Telegraph. — Elecuicttj hmam 
Khit-ljk' ui»c<1 ill ni;4j)> ptnooA to l)i[lioiitc thv Iw^litj i>f Urm. 
l'li« npjMrfii'K <>m|ilavt>it U ivally ft m<NllA««tioii oT Mokm;'* 
U'U*fEii4rlu III i.nrkiiih piuU or tli« dt} or Iowa Alt MtnU 
box«9i. colled gigntU^huxtt, whi^ rirc cmnccUril witb « oeiitrai -I 
M&tion by mi^m* <»r winx. 

Whcti A Rrr trrar* lu ifac vW-Inlly of ac; 1>ji, bj (amnag m mnb 
inlhiii the box tlir oirvnil k opotic<I ±ticI aoAmt^ i>ii4 llin nunbi^r '4 
the box tlicrebj Tfk^raph^ Iv ihir criiUttT vUtkni. TI1U HuTiini b 
Miftn r«knn«.nj>4] ritti Mln bjr ivtn« •! <li!fi<mi< franU, ui vh«n t^ 
nnlrhTiiftR uu <liiij liim rrrdrn iiultrv of n 6n- ■* tU1«<1 alntf^ b« 
■iFikM, by niiuiit iif l[&r> ^Wtrii- fiirrvnl, nxt xht Mb Uk« &umb«r uf 
ihc buK ID irLvH' ii<'uM<ur]j»if>l OirfirvU, » Om tlw imwQ hnuir 

578. Electr^magT)eiic Motor. — U&ny aUMhfrta Iiat* 
lMM>n maili^« sikI wlUi pnrtLil «Lir<v«t. to Piapfaiy vWeCrr^ 
uioffnt^U^m n« n motor for the propulnlon of nutchiiMiT', but 
in flU »uct the cx|icu»c biu bc<:D ao jTrcal M to pretlikir Iba 

Pitf. ^3M raprMHili an eUfTfo-iiMfiirtT« imaehlae. D ti cooipoatd 




Imn, Pa onlj onr i>f whirli m H>ni m the nevr*" Thnr pHrrn, ti- 
irarli^l Uy 1l]<^ ^'Irrtro-mnfi^rlA, t\y, taiKJnh ttir iTi4<iijin l-v iimita 
iTn vri'rl<iiuj£'Warn> Lo h mvli. «> fixed Ml 1^ rzlnMtf of n hiHi- 
tcffiUl nrlH^^ The lAttDT hmn nn tltA il|f-wbHl, o-!ihIi rvgrubt^ 
ihc motion. FtDnIljr, tho tan\v hrW ^pportn * picn <^ mMl, m, «r 
H gnnkkT <lii»rni^T, thr* »w* of wMch n-lll br i-vp1iLtnn4 [rrttmilj, 

fmH of rrtnI'iftiTi, H. llirfi, tliMiigTi ilKWcnl rnrtnllir pinrM, Irt 
n'lirlii^H Iho arboi nml tho pLC^, #i, Kntn thft:-H< ihf ninvBt fl</«* 
nTirnuiK'lf in chi* HrfirD-mngirFli. £F ktiiI r/. TTip nHmvr In 
vliich ihid iJl'-mnto How Is rff^tnt'd \t •ili^'Vii Sn Pi^e. ttH, vIihJi 
n*prp«^t]is iL BH'Ciioii (T ilir pkf4-% «. Anil n* wmwfM\f9. rpcm (Ih- 
piiHir. fl, is II jinjirlJMii, t. tnWvA « cmi, Ithlfh rn ihc ftttirvc '<r nbr 
n<Viiliriiou limi'lii'H furi'twtrly Ivrn iwltoip, o «iii[ h\ ihAvtrmmll 
tf> thr Wct'ln^-ni^-iicfiHt Ihn f^uirmr, vrhmi- i»iirH< b iodJcntrd by ibr 
iinfr^Eithrnfl hmmH. IV f<«ttii'n-rl Hitiiu)^ In ih* figure tfcow 
dirr«Him Sn wh^«h tho pArip if itio irmfbinc kiot^. 

Tfir crim'ni ]iflK4Titf alirntJil^-tj' IoIa tlin Thyi pjiTlorii, n mWI Ik, 
ihrofr iTir<» iJu^ ^Tj|i*rn> of i^ltf^iru- irin|CtKl«. K?' aad f/- tbc f^rfir, /", 
h flml Mltmrinl, iiTid i)jrn « vimlbu fitter lU the nihfr fitifiiiiiy i4 
thr utIh^f '-f Ihr Hy-whix^l iff vttn^UfL Ninl fi> cm. Thr n^all U « 
nUitinmiUh rnUiTy luntiuti, nhid) ii Imticmttlotl I7 n dritnuf.tia«i 
III u iTHiP iif iirhcd«i JiDil ft> QD ti> Ihr (rump*, tthich ii It dntiiK^ 

Summary. — 

HrlnrjpU* i»f M'»rm*'H 

KHvffdrria Appnriilu* raplnlncd hf PijIWVb 
rh-«rriptkia nf tUt BomnW 
Mnrw'< Alf^biTifi. 

Kc'//ar Tmn^mifUitf. 

Mvllii^l aF wrirkiiic niimtfiitoil by r^rutr. 




Atiiio«plH-nr Eln.lrirjtj TAkm fivfin the ttiru b)r moanC 
Tl'j^irr jtf a Mclliod of rdicving the W&rw. 
Karlh AJ a [htrt of tho Oircuil. 

llliLHtfiilivf 1»y Piffnftf. 

KKpbkiiiitiot} nf KhcEi. 
£ktlTO-mnrfnfUt Mtittrr. 


If. MDVCrJOV* — ltAO>KTO-U.fiCT1LlL[TV. — tltUtlK^ 


S7g. Induction by Currents. — Wr Imvi* uprn tlint Lhc 
cloct.ricity of llic niJWliW iwt* upon 1>-'kIW* hy imlndion. 
TUc elrctncity or tlio hivttcry nclii in n nimHiu meiiiiicr, but 
onlj wU^'H ;hi? ciirrtubi licghi lo dow witl wIh-h vljc-y upam?. 

T<^ thutf \V», Ifikr 1w»nrTi|>ir >vjir*« om-rr^ tv'rlli lutUt iiutl hiikI 
llifdi w»lv by lidu upin & bnbtiu. Thi^n fMtcn l(i<» two «ti|* iif Uio 
iiTHtvjrv titthrtvrn Vindtm, m aDd n, uf the ^ftjTBiii>iiic(cr (Pig.S^). 
Nftxt lYitinfrt ofifl i>r»l irf t|;i- wvtiiiT witp with otio polo of n t*t\Aa 
jfnlvnuir liatt^-xj. If ibc utln^r m^ uf the SfronJ -KiTe br Ipmiicbl 
into piiiktm-t U'Rh thn tnviit'I |ml«i »f Ihi* ImTTfTy, nl ih>> inaUmt itf 



ft A ciin^nt in tlio firM wirt HimUw ^ti jw n|iT»^ ^rccUoo 1a UmI 
tfif ihi- ImiUir;. If llxp pi>niAPt tt lir|ii up, iltn Uinr iif ibtt ift4ttM4 
currrui roaiK«, m u aIiuwu ]»y iho ucciilL*-^ the ^Ima^nnrtiY nrtarm- 
liig VI SiH piit(Ji:<ii] oi mu If iliv fMirrmii nf the baVcry U 1>riikim« 

rliiTHlon, iliiiiralin^ ati tmlunul dinvcit llifviiw; in IhrMinr- <lr>n7tlr>q 
im thjtt nf iho liJtUi^rj. 

TUv buttery ciirirnt in rnllnl Uic primary, or inJmM^f i-ur- 
ivnt; tla^ other current id cftllod Uie trrsivi^ary, or in^uewJ 

rZirrd rurrctil, Imi 3f lluMtrii; \u iW <>|jj««Jir ilitvibni, Hirrrv^. 

[nJiioisI cuTTBntB »iT iOk prwduwxl when a ^nuvj ahI T>f vW, J*, 
tlirirtiiiEli wTiIrft iTm< cutrrnE in (uiwui; (Fig. SEU), Ulimugld lowHnU 
nr rwnviv«'.l frmn a tuvnti-liiry <mc, / Whcii limught tnra^ i(, |k# 
icnfyiiuiMjHHrr iuttSnid* Hci >ntv/i« runout jc /, Aud aIbd if jJjierd 
«»AA4h li, or if U]<> {nfpirtiiy i<f ih» luttn^r li« loAMwd. 

If, liowcvi^r, Uio otW, P. 1« fiMiiovitl, itr lli» prlimVjT COnMil 

5&0. Laws of Induced Currents. ^^HwHrurrmta^iB- 
I, At the intianf vAm rAr jtriwipynrrmf ftv^iki tofom^H- 



lb Mfensil^, fm Mtmrd mrrvHi, toiwrw nnrf Du>w<nbin/< U 
3t ^ jff(TB/iry paimir njtjtroaching a tonductor jiu» ri>e to an in- 
-*l ^ I f A* wwjmrnf iA( i^nmurv <urrmf onrMOi* ivr tohm ii» inlrwutit^ 

58i» Induction Coils. — An armncrniPDl for produ^ng 

m^, in rapid Mict«?*ioo, ihc drcuit uf Ibn primary, ik cnllocl 
ftll inrtucttftft if oil, 

InduooJ mrroQli Arv tlip more iKrtrprfd. Uio lonifor iJii* wirw uaj- 
jilcijrnl. Hmw In |)f>irTW U U UHimE t<> irmd d><; witm upon U>b- 
Ijjubi fifl diuAvu ill Fig. ;iMh 

Thi^ roW Bliovn in Fij*> ^106 o^nsiifla first of rylbikr of vrrrnil 
bundml Mllti'kf <^iarM< ivi|Tf km* win*. Thbi U iW ETkJiij-Inu fnil, Orrr 
it i« b Ebrr wia> mnhmj; Nrvrrnl tlioUMtiJ ^Hb. l^lioft vrlnr* mm 
apl iiiily rM\-mvt v\th Kilk, Ikul ivIao wUli an liiHiilAliniE varnlsli «| 
|{^nifiu<H At 1)h' iti^n^tAi* I'.-ft »r Tht- ttoml od wliioEi \hp w\ ntltf 
AH? IvpM 1iiBrli*f» in rvntniirllirTi with tlii' ivif piiW nf li Wli-ij, 

A Tjoufih iif IfMU wSfM U iuKTtcJ M A cfiiic ill thc priinury, cpf hmrr 
omj. The mirrrni-bfi-iikirr ffiuniAis <'f n amal] tinnntufv, m ilw^ hfi 
vf tlie fl^rt* attm^cd Vy nn W<irtrt-innpH't. Whrn Ihr firimnry 
ounmt piuuM, l\v flrinrilun.' In .iiJrni.'ini iiLiit iiimivdJjiU'ly brrahAtJie 
ourrttit. i| tTi(ii] iiijttuiilJ}' t1ic4 hnrk by inMirv of ft Off^ug* itnl min- 
9 t|>ii rJiriiiL Itjr t\ii- |>juA)i>;i: of [he currcDl tJiri>UKh ihv priiimrx 
itio bundi *iflroxi wirv« u iHfi^i'tiMiJr •nd Uolft U> tttrcD^hf-Q 



(ho imJijcuil «urn*at bj imlLicllua, TIih inlanutjri^ iht cnnvtil ta 
lliua tiTy uiiitfJ] infirMiWML 

Tbc priiuArj call b of couvo wCi w m to e«torc ■« itnoig a cur- 
rant >«ponih1** fur Trtflgninizliiu ilit* Inindi of vinn; b«t in Ukfl M^ 

ciilln within mn^ at ihc- OiiUtm of ihn |irtniAr]r ^U Aful Uii* 1iii=ipfj nf 
wjm* Till? twit milA of the daor win: nrc nW <Miaa«r1nl vltk 
triiuivn^ <i« totm itt iTtt- riglic of thr? Il^n'. and dirougli the^i m*/ Imt 
coaQivU?il wi^h otij fliiiduoLor uh«lovor, Vti Iho |iurp«c oJ ^iiia- 
Imi-riTij^- « tTirtrk, iHii lji(ii1i*rT iirv imividiij wiili wifUi haviu^ nKtallla 

B)r tho inirrmpthnifl of ihn rumrnt the diwAift pmdnned u« qoh* 

KlwtHml oum^Qti h^vo btca tmiplojed iu the Iff Muw rt rf 
Uhi diiHWM, c4p«ci&l]y (b'>«« «<mOMl«d with fh« norroi 
Tlk' itnliij^Ltmi mil aihI lua^LihloHiUrtnc uuhLoe fliu opnl Air tbia 
f>ur}HHH». KIticthckty fiati n jiowDrfii] AcUiw apna Ibv *liiinAl (>«A«ciii]r, 
Mid wbch JutiU-iuiuily aj^ptitnl poiwMci iNkDiidcnble turniiiD |Hivcr, 

5S3. Rnhmkorff S Coil. — The |incap1c ^^riDduotJ 
Iws Wii H}ip11pd Iv ftjiidirurijii]; {ii«lniittf'tilii for f^f^Jt^milpj^ huigm 
qunutJtiot of irlfctrinTtr^ TJtt» tmUurtiuu o»^lt M improval Ity 
lEnh?hkriHff U oni> i^f clif inti*l mnwkaiiUi iijLinuni-ntJt nf ibU rliM 
|[i loinc tiJ hU lATf^i^r ioiiroiDODUi }jo um ManjAa* *uij inHoa of 
vlnr In tliu luwindAfy null. In tho lor^ni idXD jrot «nib4h* a^ 
ondory wiic la about '4tW milca m Un^. 

Tht- ditr^huf^n nn uhuuIIj plaovil uii a bar over the bclieai, and 
lomv nf tlHt iii<Ht |K>w«^rfii| iiLtlruiiiiiiU nro fftpabJv of Ihmwhu; 
nfMi-kft fhiin iwrniy U> f<Jii> lurlir* Iohk. The IndiirLliKi <fid <^ii b<i 
uwilo (d |ihn1uc« mulu liinUiir 10 iEjima <J MrU^in*! doelridtj. It 
hwi libe advjKiUfTv whicJi nu i-lii«tncAl maehttur Jijia nol h»TC^ ifaai 
it ia not air««U4 bj tJt« Dtcuturp in ibc atEKMphen. 

This ooil cau bo lued tu duirgi! and dkcliorgo Lejrdpn jna. TIm 
«park* tlim T«a«inUe lightniug flatbraj uid th« »ouei>I |in*do(a4 ii 


1^ ftho«h> from tho LwiKr foH* an> tii>l(?iit and «voft ihijpiffn^. 
and (ho boat if mt inXeatc an U> mcli and bun a fine iron m« whh 
flgDudVttble brillinuoy uf bgbl wbru pbio?d brtwran lh& ^Al af IImi 

Tlw britlin-iiry aiift bnuity <4thv ^MrUla li^ht ftunilieeed liMOT 



whcD thi> iiirrvnt |iwt«« tbmugh Gmnlra'fl \iihiy»- Thtwr urc imlc4 
l^hufli iuIhw (iLlnl itiib nuvQtvt i^|hmh ur itjwaj iptiilmuni winn iwc 

rcpMrnui tbu 4<umTUl piumiuif tJiithugh a latrc of hjdmipni : l^i tlio 
buLlu tho Lf^hf it wliiu% hut id ihv niuiMVlin^ liukfl it !■ f«|- 



583. Magneto-electricity. — Wc Xw^-- ^•-••\\ Uiat & cw^ 

bar iiiUxMluCir^l into a voil <>r wiru ^l(nYili>jia a curnanl of cloc- 
trfdtr In Ulc "ahw, KJrtlddtj' iirwlncisl l>y & luagii«tUatlkM| 

If W[^ HiilHlitiiti< fhr Ihn iiHrna ry rt>H TT-piT«ikni*il In K*g. 
3i^ a jK-rniJuu-nit tuognct, urc shim i^bbuii ivsulu like Uiobu 
giteo in Aft- 61U. 




Wc c»ii |>mJiK>* llk<- «vi;o HWt if a Ivr n\ ajA imn br JiMtrted fai 

th« hftUi, Mill rinn jtmlnTA |ina«rfii1 |*<>ftn]4ii«vit iii«|£it4t bmngM ui 

dafltlnn fnmi tlio ]w<rniaiH«t mBgnni. knd fcrH«nto« an flMtiW AntrrsLJ 
In Uia bdix, f&uBiti^ the nmUs cf the 0jvjUk«n«lDr t* b* 
fbr ail hiftJiiit, If i1l'< mjij^iiiE bi ki-|H itMlovai^r, U n<anu in 
foruicr i^dvlitka* but b iSi4UvIihI bu iIlo t^rpwli^ lUrvrtkn vlifti H u 
n.'uuivcd, ThiT dlrvciioa •■T ttt cmmml duiaipM vlih ib« (nlw ijf ihr 
migMl t)iBt u? |ipcw>aLHl lo 1fc« b«r «J •«(! bvt), AAecnfinfC in 
Aii]pd:V» law. 

5S4. The Magneto-electric M»ctiln£. — Ptg. $99 itp- 
rcjKuln one forQ> of tiu.' >ii^iMifi>HJpc i /iV ffH^Aai*. 

111 rh>iit of ili« htUx or A iiowerflil Tirnic nhnf rnapiit thrra 
Is plftcvd, AS nvur as |>OK>iible witlioul loucbing, a biii uf aofl 
iron, a^ rent nl Hgltt anf^kA, ind isinm>tnKlfd vrllh colU or In- 
tqlalc<1 (x>fi|icr ttirt-*. TTkoPixlortlK'VirracoiuiCTtunili.'nivatli 
thn sUml vrtth thi' sr'Prw-4'iip nt ibe Irft imnd^ AViirn ihla 
ttni^nliin' ek mmk' it} n^vulvt-, Uir- Hud\ irmi livCDiora uijigurliu 
by iniltit^Cjon. nntl t^neratra ^k-ctricij ourreitta in 1^ ccfb of 
iDHilatod trjrr. J^lio |Hil<» fire rliiiikf£t*<l lH-itf« in ^x*vry r^vo- 
ItlHon, and tliiiv th« daivctlon of ihi> ciur^nt tkaagM IkScy Ja 
every rerolultuiu. 

S|Arki »u bii jjrndaf^ bj Ihfa nawbiat, mler ilMNinif<aBd« as4 

rut: rcLECTRiv uortr. 



ix* mpidly hti>k»i^ AtiJ «Io#oil, bUil a t«noa <•( »bo«kM will be loh b 
ji |K^rT4iii itrjLKiJirifr tl^c ImjuU^s At if* Tlir !^lLr>cLi will b« mi>re 
rnArbcd Li the bamh nru tint iiiuiiliiipil wiili dH^lh|^^ld wnttir^ 

Willkiu chTi liui fi:w jTMirv mLigtU5iv>cLcciri(^il iiiJKUiu« b>v<t 
Largely mcrMWuL iu iiijtutif>r uid |H>w«r^ By jfi4>An« nF thi4A nm- 
trK-AU«« mfdiuuionl it»rk i> l(au>f>niiixt iiiLn (^v^irTuI i^^i^itriohl 
rufTiiiU, vhich bft\P ti^'fii iilltiirvl in I'Wtro-pbilXng Ami Ttli*flr»ph- 
tnft. IhiI opcoinllf «rc they >uf<-p»fu| m ablaiuiag tb« dcctfic lifEl;L 
Wlih oro of lb«« potrvrful murLiitjM dnven by itt^iD, to etwuie 
Itglil of icuuukMc bfilliaiiej u isrodaccd, 

^5. Electric Lighting by Magneto-electricity. -*- 
[n Arl. ^M wu iM>iwid4-Tftl Hit i-lceiric light ha |*rud[it^i?il hy 
n voJtaic battery* but eiperiuticv ba,« prorcO that to nmke tbu 
Li^'lit of practical b«aent ao't at the saidc timo ooonomtoal, tho 
(■Loctrioat ^^net^' miiflt hc> dciircil JYnm djfntimo^ltt^tric na- 
chirtti. All thpM^ ixiorliiarti i^nifii^ly thi^ ^'iit'ml prlndplo 
or a rcvolNiug ftramloric, wrapped nlnMil witli ixnU of wjic^ to 
front of llic ^lolcw of a mognot, iw dc«cribvd iu tlic ortido on 

fri^luibly itir bcft nuMrhino for tbln pqqvuD Ifl Uko DriJkTb mikATi«t»' 
plcolfii? gcncrUirr, iincnipd bj CiiA]u,r--< F. Bni'^rt. i^f rVvi^tjiui), O. 
Kit iuduitrinl utv mul ilhn^i tilling lurgo n/ru Ibe BfUBli «y»Ecm <if 
"Irctri<^ IU;ht^u^ ib do Ivncrr an rxf^minciLl but \ mStUmuJ aoc 
PiiAfl. %ut\ in innn* AiEiii;&iVi>ly futupu^t Ihjtn nnj (ilh(T 

Then an two liind« i>f t^lrclnc Ejii[tiii>. i» (ii«, tbn ian&uilraariit and 
\\\v Vrihnio flff. TIlp irinAinlOHrni mm Hal* of jt »lrtp flf pUlinura, 
i^arbuD, or bamboo, [Jarcii m tlio oliru^t. wbicti bwuiie* vrliile^boi 
ulirn tbp i^iim-iit pauw, nrnl cmitii & liiilliiiiLt Jigllt. The irolttic ^fC 
niM ilvKribi'iJ in An^ 554- 

Tbfl BruvL *jilcm uam ihr vallnic nrr Iti (in-f!frrTnf(» U\ tlii^ innin- 
drwviilr n4 bviag ill(4io ^n^noitiiail ariJ pcmcrful for U^btin); »Lrc«U^ 
ha^ l>trk«i buUitiogH, innQu^iunvst bAllf. <j(c> 

Uu'QktIkxu iu tlw ar« are now, oa uccoiint uf their iiiipiiriiw*^ 
KVQDrolljr • by ynrv mrbon. B|wcjjilly prv[nutd jiud pniarrl; 
Aikd V- \xt\yyritKi* Ui«tr ^f>nJ]jn[in|f pwvr Ihcy arf v^nrUmm c<4lnJ 
wUb l>TiirtpLliilc<| ((>|ijrt'r m iuchi.^1 ^ ihb m Lliu nuc wilh tlw lirtudi 




It Ma Ihi Mfdf AUirn*<^i llui (^ \^l\\U\v^ Unto fp«c«« thu 
lilflit Eiua |frv\rd iUdfjt nm^tw. liut ft^E ilmunlir iim^ ulitn? e<E 
Ujii|>h with » AMuly, iiufl ligUl w il(«jr«il, Ibu i|ii(vliuu Lu Uul 

586, The Telephone. — Thr Tri.r:riio?rK it ah in^Uv* 
inent for lraji>;iiijttiiig tfcrund hy iii^^Aiia of «luc<nc <ntmniU. 
Fig. 400 n-firowiilq lImt fuiTQ uf tlm Bkll t4rl«ption« that h 

A'lS'iHci'it in tUo ecclion. t8 apcrmanccit maar^C't. 011 om) 
cml or which i« A coii of uoiii>cr wiror C ; tu UohX oS C lA 


Fig mo. 

thin plAtv or^R iron. ^ A cnlKxl n dU|>}trflgfEi, noil a moutb- 
p\eiCP, A. Tlic* |>r<i^lUon of tlii* tiiAf[ru>L In refWntiHv to Um 

|>1]raini3 ia a(^rt-vrc<l down in pUcc by Ihc moaUt-incce. 

Thr oixdf of the a^l JUU liTnngiiila thtf" mAgnf^i lo iIm bhxUa^- 
#crev# M iho ritfhi of llic MCtitm, adJ nro c<rnn«tfd. ooo «iili |k« 

a rduni uicc Tlw ithitniiutiito nt Ixilb «Dd« cf ilw tioo im pivMaljr 

Fiir |>rm-liciJ punKvn L n Wvl l<i l^avc Ivo tdvpboui •% mek 
HiiiriitQ, Ml OM 10 hiihl unr t^i Khi> rur uMk llpefth^g Uimiffli ih* 
<tUifr ; Lt If ril»u cttilcT to bnir u Lib a U-iv|th«Uc iLpplioJ lo 



Action of the Telephone. — Whrn n [vnon apnUu 

jigAlrm the fTuLphmgm miil c^Mtt^ ii Ui ^ihralf^ Tl>m vilrrrkilniu 
priidnoc (ha AltrraUoa in tiio mikguvliBni (if tlu? piTmiinnit moAUet, 
wliirli ln'lLi[*o« r^liwlrio <*uft(<iiU in tli« v'vtt ofiU Hlwai i*kvlrio |iuU 
onticitiBt WiTiiT trrkiiHinJIU^il Ihrtm^h iJiti Ijov-virif li> llui ilihtnul TiHiv 
iti tl}i- n'oiml 9LktUiri| <'MU>c thr Jlji|iliniiiiEj tWrn tii vl1>niUMiijii-Lly 

Tho wui^H of i\\T lluit iiiilio ttic fnr iVmn Om mukijhI vlbrnilng 
dU|>Unfpn I Wiug iwinpluEo ropnxtUDti-iiDa i^ i1iok< thai strik* tlw 

iJiD Uno'WirvT but th« |ki]U4tioii» »f li^L vl4>rtrio nunvnt- 

fcfinirwliul £h*I}Uv bill hllll Lhu diuni«urL>fticA iif tJui poraun i>|)caktug 

588. The Microphone cotialstd of a biaall battery con- 
ntcU'U M tiiL'uno uf ^^iro* wrlh fl l4*1f|»ht>rM*-ivc^iv«, and with 
\hv \\i'>\>\\tXiX%i^ iv[>n?ttont^(l in Fig. 40] . ThU appantus O0&2 
«laUi of a wrtic^l roil of rnrlnn 

of carbon ; Ihcac arc «ccorcl> fu^- 
tc^ned to nn upngbt franiworlc: 

ttip irln** TJi-iT-<wimHi l1 urlKm 

witli thn trti-ji!)unc nud baKcry 
urc ecx-n nt thtj li^fl of the C^urv, 

The B"ULi'l pt>idnr*il lijf ill*' walh- 
lii|C fif n dy (JD ihv 1>EMP-biKird, nr 
brufhing «ff the iwAc«t fcMlhpr, vt 
fdni tivldiif{ of % w«(«h, fltv maipitlipd 
I0 Huah na citcni ikdt Ihc^ mnj be 
hrwd wiih dininoitXH* imJ™ nway l»y ' **'' ^^' 

UiQ liiliMirT at llio U^Uphobfi- IT tho oirbon W Eai|prcsu(Uti1 vilh 
iiH<rvnrjr tin iiucrn|tlKiiia u ««j«L(lA>nvl m^rv ^fforiivc. Tn got ibc 
MiHxtmum c%fe\ wilh iinjr paflicnlnr kuirimmi. the puilion of Uic 
4wrlM-iii rml Miuirt IX'of'ftillyti'liuifcU'rt hv n*|Ha((^ truilt- 'I'- [»n?*pn| 
i\i\- iiitttfi'n-iJt'v iif iiit(«iJH| vjliraljiptin iIjv 1hih>-Imu<1 thvuIJ 
upon ri ciMhl&u of tFAddtuif or tiithk^ruUMT. 





589. ThertnO'Ctectricily. — IT %wo (tlfTci^nt raotibi kto 
floiiknil in|^i-Un't, hulI tbf tiw I'titt* i-uhih-i'Ii-i) hy mttvn with 
u ^nJiAn^nicUr, lh« Dri-'rllt.' by iU d^flvctaun will iiidicule tlttr 
pfcacHce i>r tl»o vlot^lric currvtl, wliL-ri Iil-«1 b* applied to 
ihi} Juuolion or ttL<< m^UU. ^Vbv>n ih« Jui>c11c>d la rooM, 
lln' iiCL'illn wUt In- i^icfli'iltn! in .111 4 4i(nMl|tMltTVrliriit. KI*V> 

tiidty Ihns dcvcJopcH i« called thtrm^r^hriitcitsf, Socti a txiqi- 
liination af mctiU» U CEtUotl n rAfm»e>^rr(ri> wupU. 

The iJoiW oi.<iiilrJ£iaii<Jii ij> n l>ar <^f bixiiuib h^Mtri^l tinOf nTntit^ 

tu thif miliinguf ; wLfu ctj]J, iZio tcvun^ Ukff place. Tbe bwinultl 
la ibo puBJLJvt Imr vtOi lifglibtc clDen-cnk^ wul Uid aniliituDj Ui« 

Thcrmo-cleciiic Pile, or Battery. — Bj xxoh 
^euliiijiE a » Limber or tltvnuo-^tectriL- j>aln 
(Fig, I'iif) wt* c'jiH fonti » f/^r-*v-</frtnV/n/f, or 

pli'fr. In UjU vay w<^ ^it & uiorr |KmprfUJ 
currviit Uinn witb a Mdjclc pair, Tlir jx>alliiii 
Fin, ^02. j,r>io, ft, tuiJ Ibo utgttUvLs A, oouoctit by wijv* 

A lArgPikuiBh«rof <hi-»^ fmir^ can bcnrmni^Hi to aeotnpoci torm 
(y\ti- -tU^), puIl pair auid Lifi^r being curcfbllj bvaUiol hg tor*, 
Ui>iJii'il p[H'r Th(> U'lijili^ iH ihfh «TiiGl«ttrd m a frVACVork c/ 

nob iviji.Ujcliigj- materuU. Such tn appanui^^ 
flq iliUi miihtirnt^ UiemMt ilHw«l«l««t drhcMl 
ihni bju f>fi<ii iIcvtamL dumn oio ta tr^Hrm. 
\\\ai ib(i hmi tntm Ihn IaIj of a Uf widklngJ 
i<vi.r rlii'Efi q-iU ■Ic0t«l tb* IWoJle iiT 

if hrnl \w njTptinl lu htrth tatrt nt tbd fAlt^ 

will umtDLlijiu *4Kih i<h4r if ilw («iit|ifn)tiini uf 
IhiU; Hidri in hrpl uJlkr, iind IMI AQitPiit ffMilto; 
tni if uQo n<bi i» vjirmc^r Uuui Uic uthf<r n rumot b )kr*H|iHvJ, Hia 
cLUTvnt i«iliuAiIutU'ibr tJifrrmocuf Uiupvncur«iviBDUiib* t^ifu- 
dto Atnv of Uic m ukipliti. 




Fi^. \'.'l. 

The iniiltipTit^r wu luoi \ty Mki-LOKi with £ti«I vnracaii in de- 
niniiMmlJH^ llir iiIl-iuhmviih *>f ni- 

dinut In-Ill. Vuf lli& puqMJiht <if -^^ ^ 

ContVEiirntlhg lliv tii^kt-niyn ujhid llu: 
pile tt CLiDD u rmplc^chl, HA npro- 
veiiUfA b Fig. 'lOI. 

S()i- Animal Elcctr icily •— 
Cortva A«hi> |Hjfqm iIlc jHjwcr ^f 

1iiip]LrTin/f Ji ihtH'k itkiL (T^iiii]hii'rH 
ill inti;(it>ilj w'nh ihut ^^r u |hiiAir- 

ealk'tl c^lcotrioiL (ULtn, thfi rix^nl 
hil*rr^tin^ i.kf wliir.'li Hut tW- I'lrcUi- 
ad 1:^*1 I'f >>uiJtli Aixi4nni« »nil lUt> 
Uirpedct, wbLuh 1» n natlvv tif lliu 

oloj in Okc IxiJy nFibi^ fiilj. MA'm;|rci ■'Ui>w<'<l llud uptirkH rotiEJ 
Irr ir1iUii4i^ fntrik tbt llifa^ unt ^ui llmt lliv ^ulvnimujiHi^r i* iiiTn^Ii'it 
wbouone oTttfl wuvw ki lifijtigbt loio couiicotiDD With tZiv Wk urilic 
Huh ikiii tl^v jjllin Willi itti AlxlumriL. Iti aU qums ihv «hock U voj- 
UUtiiryr HiJil •iirv<>«h« a mouTie \>f dtifL-DCc AgUUfl QOVtoivOv 

Summary. — 

Illijsinia] bf \hc GfLlvHnomflter, 

imliwcd Currcat* produced hy IMuuuy nnil Sccxjodnrr 

Lhwh of liiitufTfl Cum-nU. 


i'oiiftrupiion cvplatupcl tj Fif^uro. 

MuJu vf (JiJL'niiioDp 

LW in 'I'rtvtinpnl of J^iepnsn- 

Ra1j[nkorIf> CwL ^ lu J'lfvvr. 

Gojvlcr'* Tiilȣ^. 



Produced bj & Coil and HsgneU 

produced bj CoU ooutAlmug Suft Iii>n Bar and KUgnoi 

lUuvlnUd bj Figure, 

DescripUoii by Figure, 

Blodfl of Operation^ 

Power of giving Sparks and SbuckB. 

U«C8 of (h«ae Hachlnea. 
Electric LigMinff by Magtteto-detirieitsf. 

Brush System. 

LampB lunnod by tho Voluio An^ 

Lamps furiDod bj lacaudpecODL Platluuin and Carbuo. 

CuDBtruction uf Carbon Peocila. 
The TekphOM^ 

DescriptioQ by Figure. 

Huu- Used. 

E](planud{in ofiu AcdMu 
The Microphone. 

Dvacnpiion by Figure. 
Thermo- dectridtt/. 

Hovi Produeod. 

Tlionno-i'lectric Cuuple. 

Thermo-electric Pile, or Batwry.— lUuatrated by Figan& 

Ihtw the Jlallery worka, 
dnimal Etectricittf, 


T«i 1»^wk«K iku« w^i LIT41 r Hi'iiBihibvdiWi'B*^«>mtHin>«i4)ii*37B,TM 
u. riuik kUttttbiLBhUEVTuv^u^iAiiuuofwcf- iiiauaiiiuuii>«i«»,bD*j 

a, Alfe*» iMMurtPi 10 MiiUnrtaff In <m3> litf-ttpn ■liJ bo«a bw buji lMn,»dlt 

uccrrnou MCTiav, 

Morlrr ID fwt !■« HHAd 7 

tU A hnuwurt rui M hU«Di«>fi lu It howB. vtel b lb n*M*T ptf w etti te 
oMrn ' 

I1,>[kf1 •! Ih- ABv a» iDWdi W^ BblKr ; A iDnn«iilUia rtlrtW aovttaprtvB^ 
un4, H 'nUi ■ Htuclif ollmiHUD. w ira»i dUun fnu n Uhl • win iMf ibha,buJ 

•Avi vbsA ilmcf 

voKtxmt Av:> rmiicii&ri totu'Vi 
mt Ak 4n» Ml v^vbter V fatnf iB Bi— uta > *»»i^i» or Wb<>««4aM«iBift 

^Dil ban ■vkklvJ^ L'"ifi^ [iiOT«i*kihfe rtivtitior V^JI^^r*' «huixI . niaind ife* 
!■ .nnaBa m4 ■ii»m t-rw af ^jtt UlL. 

niMhfriftavwVK"'* I^T mntintf H It ^^ iwM V law tto —* «ol— ■ U» 
IhrmrT ' 

*im> wiMiiy << ■ a m oilar prr mmna ' 

l%.VFtiHiit9U>imiammmm'MiiMtniM*f<t % at i^m4 \mtmm %wM ^tf^Dm- 
[-V MMnil. ur ■ tultnrta^-ffia tHt^ajt II.MV j w l iib ■wHtg *l « ftU -^ VE 

111. If III innr ir il t i ^ ltr i i B ji iiliiiTrriT iTrT- in-lnijn 

U BlAt Ik^tgUI mwl U U rUaB4 to i-roduo* u «fTitv1 Vrna lum m 




ftt|iiMr4 h iiiLi>vjifli<>ihD>nllaihi]ilitM '«» hAl'^aBivcncD vlka ■« E»«4(T 

h4M.I i<*lrhlit<nT<>UHi<«a*tiiuehniiiT*aiUianBaijJ HD vaUTVbinlimV: bov 4u 

|i}- A LraLn ham Ivni IDhjiIu^ "44li * Hiilfivtsl/ lt^lr^| d Urifck , H U n'tkv^ 
v*L<4l(; wU Bite- «d 1f-ii'. fei VI tiikituCH |Bii il U *««l4ftU>flPA Ltttr, «>^atr«4 tb 

■it .ti]u>il< itrt iirluctL^.^Lt' iikif4 li I- ilitifnltvlttt >«■ Im m fc I ' 

UDiEJL lb tn* ik|i|)i*irfl 4ilr«f«liti, HA. n«r Mn* *n) ■Hlafi.vjmL ivfivflBf ,«a4, ^ 
bid lOuriJWL ^Lal ur iliDlriifliUllj ud dlPvcliua cf Ub r^irijatr 

tn. i^Liiil lb* rwi'Aiit -i !*■<■ tffev •^otl ^'A i^uimIiimbJ I0 fvuEvli 
ib« waa Fwl« ■< ■'<*'* "*!«**'- 

Iff. T«A BHr*« *^44l In 14 «n4 W kUrtfnmi w< kt « |n1nt i.i; hi Q« •>■» "^'Tlra.' 
into aiipnllaaiivikiiiMft|Bin^>«i1a*i DoJ u» rnsJUnilk tbvlbrwfHH 

Mil Tl»iflnlU«iorcirDeu«iBkMfi4Mrkfiliiui(U'|*l3. tH« «vuipvii«ii U T » s-^ 


JV. Wlul win UuiuOfl bod/ With 3/10 DiLUaMfw U»av4h^ ivlw* lOO 


■i|!|, Xt tm bgdM v«l|h, E«T>rt]i<t1j<4 UO ud ttO (■'■w^ » <b* •■rlk'* «f Ih* ««sb, 
wtal li tU dlftrw* »r ihdriFilctiU M lIm iwrvof %lm iwib* b^UuO b||v Wtoa ika 

41. Ilnw Ikrfmm Uh ■ulii'vevbtn' mii'i b ttlocruo'mlfhl Tit ftoiM tom^h vmtr\ 
uOTfnwi' I|m« Ck ■UtiQliu ^rUi'i niE-bca '. I 

45. U ijB«m*«DrT 1 1 uiad ItftliHir [ron iliB ««rtk liau ■< fniHl, ^ luaaa | 

4T. A Ifudj bM Utan iknw^ ilkP ilUuur \A * wlto bhA ft btlT: vtaM «» «• #1^ 


IMP, A mil ■thru t^^m^Wi TIM b«n lOiac S hm*. feavm* i«H*kAi 
tHHHl v«tr M Uw Ibito itf rpTi»»¥W>rtii J 

■WN4I1 r 

:||. At vbt> itli^iHv al4itT Uw VBrlb'i ■urtVtvUl k N47 U Ii Mi AI 

Itt. 4 •bm* ti Ihrun ivrtlnllj a fi«*H ■^■*> * rrf K«if «f fi« mmm -, <tfb> bAm Mb* 

^n- I t-*r^ M pMjPtid ap«tf4Blib IB totibit fv*w«v aT Ai|»M ifariMi IH 

31, Thn-MEkf «1i*i n-»v H-iiti * 1n«7 Ik**,* <UI (b««i Mfl «p •>«** • tiAHMtf vt 
ItO Kvl ^r "TT-WHi t Tit^.|»]>v«>*l*«tlr«f ^f^hvl* 

45. t »-«i> r»1U ihninflia ii An w# ]rV *«< j an* lb hbi(p M 4bc ikK r«i4 
bin luwa l>ia>4lvin U«t»Ml<ini«bVM nail !»!■<. 

9#^ A tflwihri^irakiHltfinull/rHwaflMtli «*mI* wa> iWciv^ !■ I^i^^' 
*« A%ft JB4fw rtllT iVtm lln "prt •Wft **■•**- ■'►V** 




4^1 II n- 1 iar « ii«L» ir.iiHBrn't i-Hvplmr* 

^V. \ -I'li^ !■ iht^-(i 'vrU^i^ 4»vii*«Alrr<riit 4 ti*l£hi*(1AKI wtun viUi « *pbaMf 
«tf U am*mrm ftf Hwivl , tvtv lfVi|| vklt II h* ii^ iktirn| T 

<:kktuv or uvuvrrr, 

4t. II i«D bDdLvi,*-^btac. niprtO«*ir.t3 atd IMpciuadiyU* —BflMiM tgi ■ tor, 

4t- TIM taocUt fif « ■vrnU'P'EMlariiin — 

Ai N^v Tort h »ini1 

" OrHPWteb - D IJW 
■mti to tb* Mitt tf A pvbduloifl *i fvto lu itbMU* ■HlT'VHiiidi T TV ttldU* talt 


41. tl0w •III lb* uibEfivf iirinOijai ^ iwo i«DiJ\il4ini tvapti* vtUH L«i|Tb> u«» 

T^lBVC|raLT» '1| IncbMB miJ iQ,V Idrfifa ' 

41. la vlukL link* mA I3f«ni>lpl> *k(t « li-iMUUaiH «bl^i>n-tl»r l4i>>( w it 1 K*1l«i*M>q > 
41f a IwrKlulinn l«" "x-lvn lf>li|F 'Mt^H Xit T^Al*rkirM Jipitfi^ « tfvMllli Itnw , hn* 

nuij ilE>fnliiifi« <|1J U ii(Ati«4ii tkp «lll^ Hirii tP ttui i^nLtuluin niPOHlaA miTUBtPr ^ 
4tt. ft liVh|slli«t<bnJ«il*lfiB W ; ufft *«<1»J, Iji-b |oii| U It r 
4T. Oh (•«dt4»n <lknt«a Anlteti »■ «daa a vprcutf ; aTtM u* ihs fivfonhnti 

4V. If tU* [tanitiiiiihi fir id^^l 1w«t1fitf trtnrtilt tM 5*9 YiHk ihwdil vpanJ h^ ol 
lu Itnaib, tna nunKouib wjiikl II Ucfwrb Otjt 

4V. tro« '■■Uf hllnfi«n>niaCBn Btn j p p r^aWO ID Wtftf K* HlPfmr* III bfUh 

A9> WLJEb Ins (bf 4i«Bi«f n»f0 . *lo4j *>ifLlqf 100 ^mitib 4J hvtlntia ^akt^lj 
*f 41-4^' ifv-'bil, **«'!• •■'tttilbtf^ PMtfpli «Ltb4 <vl«cJlj<jr HA fafir bB)it«*v«l Vta 
•p>ncr ^f iiiiiplvrk 

31. vt liil l« ibu vnrt iipiwii Lrj f^mt iKPDDik (ftu <■ nqiAnJ to nMOXi pouultlO 
1nr4Jillb ' 

f^. A k->«VkMlTt wvl^iliif 9> hifit, nMrtliif U lb* MtoT U lllllBt*A ao*Wt li" bf* 

Sa* W\M%]t lilt rur^icAitr nl uxn^iw (tul will nli« lOlpDC pttmili JVU (W tn 

S4. Ula b 111* bm-pi-nafui «i|1h ifaMtu t^m WjQVB »ciuidi 10 Btvt U 

U. rnBftlM«<<fU««nieba3fr-4lii1«a^,k*il|til<«C0O»«iMatia««>«*4 

tIJlUlltrrlUID f 

09- iB«UtijE uritn HiniifttiUiv t> bi knr. vbtfv aiH aafBJa— b* iImMi 
ftf. Ifi ft taivr i»r ihfl fim I hd*. Ilia 4iMam ef i^ lemr fran lb* fHlrfuai ■ IS ^«| 


CW ^M te fUami n tbM ov «ill i^ou UihJ of !&• «^c^ f 
M* Tbc iIIuhUi uJ ■ *fa4d l« 4| letl aiul Ibc uk t 

Till PULunr. 

UU AMI ^BM ki JHBTi Id ■!■■•■■ « ■■ M * *< Mi HiripwMi «Uk A oMwfc^ 


••. If ^ ^mul* t^ « «*«■ ■«> nnt bJr ta liLth ■««*(. *«*l *i«^ MU ■ p.iuii <4 

■HI ntR 3 li>iu UQiii tt4 * buiillp t ri*4 li^ * 


##. Iiip|A4 In Of bjdnuUH ina OhVBAqC A* jbuUd* r<1| V a 1-11 

Ii>pr'D<lUie Ttm M Iv A liKlw* ftsm ibi fb^tnuu ; rliu pnvun *!■■ kv camBd on lta« 

79. Ttt'ttuib p««Mln«ff Iba bMloiii of « f^U •! •<,4m. |b« nHoicf vMiA !■> «^ 
HUHiaft.bSChfl'^rvu; "Ml fa Ihatfir^'r thf *4A^ Iti rh#|4]]' 

11. AMI ehicIii luiiii ■ n:iiBiri «l nvRwr uvn m uuu* * ccteBi otf «mif V Mii 

f*, ^lai^LlK WfllblbTtfobLermt^f-U* Of H>Uiw- T Of b««r Oftfwt 

t^ niflUUUv vtiiEl^i nf ■ Wr k^ fNiii gpivntlmftto Lbii. 4 >tV.tBl llikh** 
tC A';1lik4»*r atX UX^wMmt^^ to JUartH 44 3 H^n 1h« , ite tp«e«4a 

tr. Iln* mafhtiBltWim >■&!■-— I onn<>cW|ff>Tll c Mia»t—.ttMlHMj 

Kit miiir fHvl vi^t^ I k pamil, 11^9 «1i>i v 


MQ. AnMWDl— ill 



^ tafl iv 4HJ b tti 



ttuiHtoT : wtaM to tb* dM«c« of tb* pkn of or%lq ■ 

fti. Uoa ovj Dbvt vlU Hvnd m*^ ia u boof * IId* hnf wUl U oka It u> |d 

»S. A tDMnc-liirk CItm nnd^tTM 1 ■■«« ta lti«lta ; bow nuj Tlbnttona pv 

4K«hd dO« IC BAhA ■ 

64. A*hDi1iBH4b«aAHGJUr,udllH<cb»libAf4la7iKO«d>; wbat |a ttaa «U- 
torn oT ibt eUff f 

H3. Tbi Atoritj of vxj'sn k mboat pHiUn UoM Uhi of h]ritn(« ; ibow tbki Uh 
TBto dlj Bf nand b bj4pi|n HfU tv b» abcub few Uibh ibU |« «nv- 


nofBRTlK:* Of VATTKti 

talk kmMrm. ^ llow a 

in>lill*r|iiM , ft iiKilvVUlu i uia1"iD, 3^ llirvtrtnq 

todha dMdxl ' rMqp nlbl*, HijiDlii. and nmnffB Iwfti*^ 
|i|Mt 4. VTbAt N* i^EEOcnl t>m|*fUi*iil h.JkM> t. 

«l«afb«0hT t4 nHhn tud man * II- Wk*l b« Ibt iMlMr avwowtf d^dljf 

»**-T^ J A. T*t«ne innikL GhudvIib Itt. Dili** >MB^> OMb* afMUft atd 

fwflvBiib faptBlDconiiir^wlbtlkiyiTr fua*Jiii'kl^,a«diMUti IV. lb«n*H)ftHBMr- 
lUnftlUriiA ol t>w, LliuhU. ml toUilx Ultc viPHUMBH IMK !>«>■ ifci^Wl^ ^ 
jiRhidiB- lluT (■ucUHirlit In Ltivucbtlukiida; * ITWl bf4kat u« mrirt ^Mk? Mt* 
Im itiho'D UiBi rtorj b iIhUf* ^rl^a flu mjuimuiA ^Ma mmmt ik* ^^ 
fa lion* pt ■! wT >rl Iv . 

HI. |ArnH(iK>lara:atrDr;A irubc ilinn 'Id, TWIh M4M)a* hA tfh^toa K^ 
iw«ir* KatfUufeiluUijb, l^MH^ie*. 4.t IvMn mtWrnflV- bpH^vtt, M. «»«« 

)4aiiiniB> ni^li —J iw^r-lili*! |*>t. ^ftrffiftlhtft Va-d A|i»aH«H, IM. Dv- 

tflftljil* ra*lHlHbia«HtiuaWf.|i lidi<ii>l>J»d* JKlWlHaaiAl*^ lln 
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fln» niBLlHitLiirj nbri f/ r«ijiiH«M»», n>« hfBbUnHHIntVfkaHvr lliTi iif MhH 
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avpucatiox or piirticAL pvivcivm to lunnvQ. 

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t««n. akvanJ* M. tjiplalfedMalB'lUH P9. t>»l*te Ih* g*v-Ua- IM, KvfliMi 
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WMt !■ tbi rmtia al fQvrf Id iht woftilT lllMfeb, Euiii|jI« IM, 

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t lit? 117. IM»UDttll&ivrliaCteFMMUAl. 

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jtEViEir iiL'£^riON& 


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(tie h} ilAbLLa nn . lEk<b(nt* tU ULIdD, 


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ntfUUkikr. MA' IIipih mii im uuf^itvi l^auaticlrlccuERui' 

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TQE nOlTlEa IKTEt TD TBI rjlOll. 

AljAorplioD, 16. 
Ai'biuaulitrontbiTiitkpDa^ 37J. 

Ai^iii'>ijaqJr-'iirTii^n, 3D 
AUlittloEi, 13 

Air, (ullipn-rl»a], 1&L 
E'ouji^niie^, nil. 

prvuurv of, 139 


»n-|gb[ of, 127, 
Alr-ifump, 143. 
AlmlinluiriFr IIJ^. 
Afu pi r' E In n cif p]ivt m- rDign^T ^i. 480, 

theory iiririBfiir[i-<iiJ, i^'2. 
Aii|lc. friUraJ, d42 

Ibrkknre und nflecUaD.39, 239, 3J3- 
Tbiul. 3ia. 
ArrtiLmcdEs |<[lttrl[»lvar 104-104 

ArTOiiKli-i,tba(iniii'*^ 114. 
AmuTiiiv, *l'^ 

ATlr-tiri«.||., lea 

bua>iDi tBfirt or, 1G2, 
Aim^Mplicrlr luknlujJ, ]!S. 
Alum, 3. 
Aurun bncmlu, lljS. 

Biilancf, GJ. 

BnLlimn, Itrl-Hi';. 

(iwiJ in oHuurini bctgblt, 13- 

Damneter, ■fall»T-tDdltfataF, I3B» 

■Lfl-I, 134. 
naniKQpe, tl^. 
UflLTerj', ckcirkEl. 440, 
Ddi^ncUr, 41^ 

TaliAk, or galTtair, 401-470 
n«»l.^ 173. 

Drklo't, h>JnnLatic-, !jO. 
UcKlir^, B<-rl|iinii, 4. 
tizMiha. la. 
c-0lh^l^D dT, '^. 
Rpneral profwrtlH of, 5. 
IT^ulJ, 4 
tlollrfs^ 39S. 
[[•tlJinit, 2»^. 
DumJne-}fluw«. ^fi- 
mlirarp, 331. 

ralrrtfVFon, 37" 
L^DiTTi, nrfhr -.^C'ri 

oFivtin, W. 
CaptUflrilj 14 

i']m\''^il4^bp<'irif ni4tliiiif , 433. 
renT»lfu]jBl Inrcr-.Tl 
rpdlrit-eUl Ti^nv, 33. 
t'lik.ini Fni:urn. l!Qr 

riou^iF, am. 

■loiivIbTk ITTl 
C<prn'l7c P>n*^ 409, 
rHprt4'j.iikn. 13 
H-kl, ^12. 

■"urmi (rf, 273 

^^^^ jyj>EX. 527 1 

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Mfcntfr hi| bodte, tXJ- ^H 

F Cndivn, Btr, IIT. 

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II l»-ii4rf , 4 

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fl^lb|Hl4l«.flf><H.2U. ^^H 

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•t maun. 311, ^^H 

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1 fr.h<n. ITtt.;, ^^H 

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I'i«4|fhta4n*«. too ^^^^1 

^^^B einrfivt tkd NiTiH*', ftMAI 

Kir*->«ilD(, ^^^1 

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fNwiuf i«ittf. Loa ^^H 

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tmu, A ^^^1 

^^^B cof^hipiij^ rrf tM 

rwoMm. |r»i, |f4. ^^H 

^^^^H pttwlopinviil irT, OI 491 

Piiiviiii»r>rt'» rtiiH.Ki, tat ^^H 

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WiSS INDEX. ^^1 

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tlirvuin »i|**. 119. ^^1 


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