INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
EMORY S. BOGARDUS, PH.D.
Professor and Head of Department of Sociology
University of Southern California
ESSENTIALS OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
ESSENTIALS OF AMERICANIZATION
A HISTORY OF SOCIAL THOUGHT
THIRD REFISED EDITION
JESSE RAY MILLER
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA PRESS
COPYRIGHT 1922, / ^ ^
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA PRESS
FIRST EDITION, 1913
SECOND EDITION, 1917
THIRD EDITION, 1922
JESSE RAY MILLER
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA PRESS
TO THE MEMORY
OF MY FATHER AND MOTHER
HENRY B. AND ELIZA M. BOGARDUS.
CHAPTER I. THE NATURE OF HUMAN GROUPS . . . 15
1. The study of group phenomena.
2. Personal behavior and group life.
3. The historical development of the human group.
CHAPTER II. GROUPS AND GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS
1. The earth as man's home.
2. Influences of soil fertility and land area.
3. Effects of mountain and ocean environments.
4. Climatic control.
CHAPTER III. GROUPS AND BIOLOGIC FACTORS .... 52
1. Heredity and variation.
2. Organic and social evolution.
3. Vitality and eugenic control.
4. Vitality and public health control.
CHAPTER IV. GROUPS AND PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS ... 75
1. Instinctive-emotional tendencies.
2. Habitual and conscious reactions.
3. Imitation and invention.
> 4. Communication and gregariousness.
CHAPTER V. GROUPS AND SOCIOLOGIC FACTORS .... 94 /
1. Social attitudes and values.
2. The social process.
3. Socialization and social control.
CHAPTER VI. THE FAMILY GROUP 112
1. The history of the family group.
2. Present status and tendencies of the family.
CHAPTER VII. THE FAMILY GROUP (continued) . . . 136
3. Housing the family.
4. Socializing the family.
CHAPTER VIII. THE PLAY GROUP 153
1. The play attitude.
2. The commercialization of play.
3. The socialization of play.
8 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
CHAPTER IX. THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 179
1. Occupational origins.
2. Labor and unionization.
3. Child labor.
CHAPTER X. THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP (continued) . . 197
4. Women in industry.
5. Dangerous occupations and unemployment.
6. Low incomes and poverty.
CHAPTER XI. THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP (continued) . . 213
7. Capital and the corporate group.
9. Social insurance and co-operative movements.
10. Industrial democracy.
-? CHAPTER XII. THE COMMUNITY GROUP 232
1. The neighborhood group.
2. The nation group.
3. The world group.
4. Community consciousness.
CHAPTER XIII. THE EDUCATIONAL GROUP .... 256
1 1. The school group.
2. The newspaper and the cinema.
3. The educational process.
CHAPTER XIV. THE RELIGIOUS GROUP 276
1. The religious attitude.
2. The social principles of Christianity.
3. Socializing religion and the church.
CHAPTER XV. RURAL AND URBAN GROUPS .... 294
1. Rural groups and problems.
2. Urban groups and problems.
CHAPTER XVI. RACIAL GROUPS 309
1. Migration -phenomena.
2. Racial conflicts.
3. Assimilation and amalgamation.
CHAPTER XVII. GROUP CONTROL 329
1. The nature of group control.
2. Control through public opinion and law.
3. Control through art.
CHAPTER XVIII. GROUP CONTROL THROUGH PERSONAL BEHAVIOR 348
1. Personal control.
2. Problems in personal control.
3. Leadership and personal control.
CHAPTER XIX. GROUP CONTROL PROBLEMS .... 366
1. Causes of anti-group conduct.
2. Apprehension and trial of offenders.
3. Punishment and reformation.
4. Juvenile delinquency.
CHAPTER XX. GROUP PROGRESS AND SOCIALIZED THINKING . 393
1. Social surveys and research.
- - 2. Social work and reform.
3. Social tele sis.
CHAPTER XXI. GROUP PROGRESS AND SOCIALIZED THINKING (cont.) 408
4. The teaching of sociology.
5. The science of sociology.
SELECTED READINGS 423
TOPICS FOR INVESTIGATION 440
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION (1913)
This syllabus is published as it is being worked out in
practice at the University of Southern California. While
not in a perfect form, it represents a beginning in what may
be an important direction.
The increasing interest in the study of society and so-
cietary problems by thinking people has created a growing
demand for social science courses in colleges and universities.
The need is not entirely for upper division and graduate
students, but also for college freshmen and sophmores and
students in normal schools.
There is need for a sociological course of study that will
give the student a broad, comprehensive outlook at the
beginning of his college career, and prepare him for and
arouse his interests in further work in social science. This
study should make it possible for him to choose his life-
activity with reference to all the activities of society and
assist him more or less permanently in keeping his life
work properly accentuated and fitted into its correct place
in the ongoing of the social process. Such a course may well
be given, not from the uncorrelated points of view of the
respective social sciences, but from a societary point of
The chief object of this book is to whet the student's
appetite for more knowledge in the field of the social sciences,
and to arouse within him early in his college life a strong
desire to go ahead systematically, with further work in each
of the social science branches.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION (1917)
Several changes will be noted in this edition. (1) The
syllabus form has been supplanted by the regular text-book
style. (2) The title has been changed to Introduction to
Sociology from Introduction to the Social Sciences. (3) In
this edition the emphasis is placed upon social progress as
affected by the various constitutent factors; in the earlier
edition the stress was placed upon the factors in social
progress: a change of emphasis is thereby to be noted. The
modification has produced more unity and more definite
concentration upon sociological data. (4) The reading refer-
ences and the suggested topics for investigation have been
revised. (5) Exercises for class discussion have been added
to each chapter. (6) The reorganization of materials has
resulted in the inclusion of four additional chapters.
The writer is convinced, after having used the first edition
for four years, that the college student will become a better
citizen and member of society because of having made a
comprehensive analysis of social progress and its constitu-
ent factors. While taking such a course, students have
experienced a fundamental change in attitudes; these have
slowly but surely changed from narrow and often shallow
conceptions to broad, deep, rational, and social beliefs. The
evidence is not simply that of word of mouth but in behavior.
PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION
Ten years have now passed since the author first began
to teach the beginning course in sociology to lower division
college and university students. He is convinced that the
freshman year in college is none too soon to introduce young
people to sociological truth; in fact, such a period is probably
belated. Youth needs sociological truth as soon as they
begin to grasp individualistic truth.
This edition, it is believed by the writer, represents a
distinct advance over the preceding editions. It treats
sociology as the scientific study of group phenomena, of the
factors controlling groups, of the different permanent forms
and laws of group life, of group control and progress. The
principle has been kept to the front throughout the treatise
that the chief justification of the existence of any group is
found in giving the persons who compose that group the
fullest and richest possibilities of developing all their poten-
tial powers. Another principle of importance has been given
a similar prominence, namely, that the chief justification of
the existence of any person is found in giving his life un-
selfishly in upbuilding the lives of other persons and groups.
EMORY S. BOGARDUS
January I, 1922
University of Southern California
THE NATURE OF HUMAN GROUPS
SOCIOLOGY is the scientific study of group phe-
nomena. These consist primarily of different types
of social groups, of group processes, of group insti-
tutions, and of the behavior of individuals in groups.
It is well therefore that this study be opened with
a consideration of the nature of social groups.
1. The Study of Group Phenomena. Every
person is a member of several social groups. More-
over, he has developed because of his group antece-
dents and connections. He cannot be understood
and he cannot even understand himself unless this
group life and process first be fathomed and ana-
lyzed. Neither can modern family life, play life, oc-
cupational life, school life, religious life, or com-
munity life in their various rural and urban, or
racial and world backgrounds be comprehended un-
less first an analysis of the nature and laws of the
social group be made.
All the groups of which a person is a member ex-
ert an unmeasured influence upon him. Their
traditions have molded his attitudes. They are con-
16 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
tinually directing a never-ending variety of influ-
ences upon him, sometimes in quiet, indirect, and
unsuspected ways, and then occasionally in brazen
fashion ; sometimes they operate helpfully, and
again with relentless destruction.
Withal, each person exercises an influence, to-
ward or untoward, upon the groups of which he is
a unit. As a result of the give-and-take processes be-
tween group and individual, between individual
and individual, and even between group and group,
personality expands or shrinks, and becomes richer
or poorer in quality. Out of the multiplicity of
social interaction, personal life and group life alike
grow rich and wholesome, or else decay.
Groups vary in type. The smallest includes only
two persons, for example, two individuals who have
met on the street for only a few minutes to con-
verse; or a courtship group of two persons. The
largest social group is the whole human race with
it numbers approximating two thousand million in-
dividuals, a group intangible and unwieldy in con-
ception and for the most part without a world group
consciousness. Again, there are face-to-face groups,
as the family group or the play group ; and in other
instances , there is the largest public where one
member rarely sees more than a fraction of his
group, for example, of his national or racial group.
Some associations are temporary, lasting only a few
minutes, as in the case of the conversational group ;
THE NATURE OF HUMAN GROUPS 17
others are relatively permanent, lasting a millen-
nium or more, for instance, the English government.
A person's generic relation to groups varies. He
is born into certain groups, such as the family,
neighborhood, race, and national groups ; the first
and third of these he can never forsake. He may
elect to join certain types of groups, such as the ed-
ucational, community, or political. He may origi-
nate a group by organizing a committee to promul-
gate a legislative measure, or to abate a neighbor-
hood nuisance ; or by founding a society to develop
a public or professional interest in art, science, or
Groups conflict. Football teams play for champ-
ionship honors; business firms compete for trade;
political parties fight bitterly; and nations on oc-
casion resort to armed warfare, using submarine
and poison gas viciously against each other. Under
the swirl of group emotion, sometimes called pa-
triotism, individuals forsake their loyalty to all in-
tra-groups, and dedicate their lives to the larger
The conflict often takes place between a large
group and a constituent association of persons. A
committee may struggle vigorously in a college class
meeting in behalf of a change in traditions. A lobby
in Congress may work year in and out in behalf of
a new measure or to support a dying tradition. Any
propaganda within a large association of people is
18 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
opposed by the inertia or the active opinion of the
whole body and also by small groups specifically
organized to combat the new doctrine. A National
Child Labor Committee, organized to protect the
welfare of children in industry, finds its activities
opposed by employers' associations, and even per-
haps by judicial decisions based on precedents that
were established decades or a century previous. An
organization of persons who are working together
in behalf of any new cause must face the opposition
of powerful bodies of people who are supporting the
Groups conflict in friendly ways. One organiza-
tion of college students vies with other groups in
selling tickets, in securing members, in soliciting
funds. Farmers compete in raising corn or thor-
oughbred cattle. Salesmen are pitted in friendly
competition against each other in securing custom-
Groups co-operate. Business firms form cham-
bers of commerce. Sororities establish a pan-Hel-
lenic. Churches of the same religious profession
create districts and dioceses. In 1789, the thirteen
American colonies federated; in 1921, over forty
nations united in a world League.
Groups overlap. A person may belong to a family,
a school, a church, and a nation group simultane-
ously without experiencing a serious conflict in loy-
alties. On the other hand certain groups are mu-
THE NATURE OF HUMAN GROUPS 19
tually exclusive. At a given time, no person is an
active member of both the Republican and Socialist
parties ; no one worships as both a Catholic and a
The study of human association may be ap-
proached from the standpoint of animal groups.
The pack of wolves, the herd of cattle, the swarm
of bees, the covey or flock of birds, the school of
fish these terms indicate a central fact of animal
life, namely, an associative nature. In all these
groups the phenomena of leadership and group con-
trol are found. The arbitrary and autocratic ac-
tivities of physically and psychically powerful lead-
ers are paralleled oftentimes by a blind obedience,
and sometimes by a degree of over-organization that
is stifling. Examples of conflict and co-operative
processes in associational life abound.
Sociology as a study of group phenomena is an
old subject. Scientific methods have been applied
to analyzing group life only within recent years,
and therefore sociology as a scientific study is a new
subject in the college curriculum. Its growth, how-
ever, is rapid; the belief is now becoming wide-
spread that no person is well educated or truly cul-
uired who is unversed in sociological principles.
The student of sociology can never get outside his'
laboratory, which is comprised of human groups.
While at work or play, and while experiencing gain
or loss, he is experimenting, consciously or other-
20 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
wise, in the sociological laboratory. By blundering
along with his eyes set chiefly on his own gain he
lives and dies, his praises unheralded or else sung
in a limited or questionable way, without returning
the talent to society which he received from society.
By attaining social culture, and by developing a
socialized behavior he may serve mankind helpfully,
and in serving develop his personality into a full-
orbed sun of the first magnitude in the societary
Social groups, personalities, social attitudes, and
social processes these are the leading sociological
data. The processes by which personalities are de-
veloped within group life these constitute the main
field of sociological study. Sociology therefore is
the study of collective and personal behavior as
evidenced in group life.
2. Personal Behavior and Group Life. Power-
ful groups are usually antecedent to the persons
who comprise them. Nearly every person has been
born into a family group with decades of traditions
behind it; into a national group with a hoary cul-
ture; and into a racial group with its pre-judgments
rooted in ancient epochs. During the earliest years
of his life, the infant is almost helpless in the face
of these traditional attitudes and judgments, with
years, decades, centuries, and oftentimes millen-
niums of momentum carrying them on. In endless
THE NATURE OF HUMAN GROUPS 21
ways, often indirect and subtle, these gigantic forces
operate upon the simple, unorganized mental opera-
tions of the mind of the infant or child.
The child, however, is not made of putty ; he early
begins to object to many environmental factors, and
his behavior takes on distinctive traits. Around
these reactions, often contrary to traditional atti-
tudes, his personal attitudes are built up. By virtue
of the unique phases of his behavior he becomes
known as possessing character, either good or bad.
In order to understand personal behavior it is
necessary to know the nature of the specific social
heritage. A person's behavior is determined in part
by the group heritage into which he has been born
and under whose influence he has been raised. Re-
move the social heritage of mechanical and electri-
cal discoveries frpm the life of Thomas A. Edison,
and the distinguished scientist could not have con-
tributed to the invention of the incandescent lamp,
the trolley car, the telephone, the talking machine,
and the motion picture film. Remove the social
heritage of knowledge concerning steam engines,
telegraph systems, and other means of communica-
tion, even language itself, from the life of E. H.
Harriman, and there would have been no "railroad
king." We are indebted in so many indirect ways
to the thought life of preceding generations and to
the preservation and transmission of this social
heritage that we can scarcely realize the extent to
22 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
which our personal behavior is governed by it.
Personal attitudes are determined also by group
stimulation. A group may possess a wonderfully
fine heritage, it may have conserved splendid cul-
tural traditions, and have become so self-satisfied
with its glorious past that it offers no encourage-
ment to any of its members to make new social con-
tributions and thus to develop human personality.
Under such a condition anyone who stirs in a way
to criticize the past may be heavily penalized, even
imprisoned. An autocratic political, economic, or
social class of people, satisfied with their current
status of power and influence, and fearful of any
change, may prevent new ideas from incubating.
Personal behavior in such an event becomes merely
On the other hand, freedom of action may be per-
mitted or even encouraged by the group. Prizes
may be offered for inventions. Personal opportuni-
ties may be group-fostered, and personal behavior
may assume an expansive and joyous freedom.
Sometimes group life is characterized by a dull
stagnation, in which group stimulation is at the zero
mark. At another time group life may be throbbing
with energy and purpose. Under such conditions,
a normal growing youth is stimulated beyond meas-
ure perhaps to lead his college mates in scholar-
ship, in athletic prowess, or in debating. Where
missionary teaching is common, young people vol-
THE NATURE OF HUMAN GROUPS 23
unteer for the foreign field. In the group where
boxing is honored above all else, the members are
desirous to become champion users of the glove. In
a business group that puts a premium upon enter-
prise, young men are stimulated to take great finan-
cial risks. In a Sierra club, the members are con-
strained to undertake new and difficult mountain-
Personal behavior is related to biological inherit-
ance. Phlegmatic or nervous behavior can often
be traced directly to the influence of racial stocks.
A strong or weak biological strain is definitely ex-
pressed in terms of personal behavior.
A Mozart or a Mendelsohn possess special in-
herited qualities. The behavior of an imbecile is
directly traceable to heredity. The percentages of
both the highly talented and the mentally deficient
are low ; the mass of a given population are charac-
terized by potential ability sufficient to guarantee to
each person a useful and honored career.
Behavior depends also on personal initiative, a
quality which may be inherited either biologically
or socially. It may arise in answer to group stim-
ulation; or it may be more or less independent of
biological heritage, social heritage, and group stim-
ulation, and represent personality in its most dis-
tinctive attitude. Personality includes more than
the sum total of its constitutent parts ; it comprises
a precious spiritual element, uniquely expressed in
24 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
every individual, and when socialized, endlessly
useful, and imperishable.
3. The Historical Development of the Hu-
man Group. Group phenomena, it has been indi-
cated, range from the behavior of two persons cas-
ually greeting one another upon the street to the
activities of the entire human race. As a back-
ground for considering the nature of common group
phenomena, the student may turn his attention to
the whole human group. A vastness of numbers, a
marvelous development from humble beginnings,
and an intricately complex array of social activities
and institutions these are some of the elemental
facts. The human group, composed of nearly 2,000,-
000,000 persons, old and young, can hardly be visu-
alized. If all these human beings were able-bodied
adults and could pass by a reviewing stand, the pro-
cession practically would be endless. If they came
in single file, one every six feet, passing by at the
rapid rate of one a second, sixty a minute, 3,600 an
hour, day and night, the procession would continue
for more than half a century.
Mankind has been on the face of the earth much
longer than scholars once thought. The most reli-
able investigators in this field state that the history
of human groups upon the earth covers a period of
The remains of primitive man have been found
THE NATURE OF HUMAN GROUPS 25
in a region extending from Java through India to
England. From this central strip of territory, early
human groups seem to have migrated far and wide.
They wandered northeast into Mongolia and ad-
joining territory, and they migrated southwest into
Africa. It appears that some of their number drifted
from Asia across the Pacific or travelled by land
to America in prehistoric times, when America was
connected by land with Asia on the west and
with Europe on the east.
Modern knowledge of prehistoric society is based
on several factors.
(1) There is the study of certain parts of the
human skeleton which have been preserved in fossil
state. The age of such remains is determined (a)
by the nature of the geological strata in which they
are imbedded, (b) by the types of the associated
fauna, and (c) by a comparative study of human
(2) There is the examination of implements of
various kinds which owe their preservation to the
almost indestructible nature of the material of
which they are composed. (3) Closely related to
the implements of flint, in the study of prehistoric
groups, are the monuments and the works of art.
(4) Further information concerning the nature of
prehistoric groups is found in the drawings upon
ancient cave walls.
The earliest period in the history of human groups
26 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
is sometimes called the Paleolithic or Old Stone
Age. At that time the use of metals was not known.
While stone was utilized mainly, other materials
such as bone, horn, shell, and wood served well in
the manufacture of tools and weapons. The im-
plements of the Paleolithic Age were all of the rud-
est type; they were neither ground nor polished;
they were simply roughly chipped. In the Paleo-
lithic period, no animals seem to have been domes-
ticated, and fire likewise was probably unknown.
Food consisted chiefly of uncooked vegetables and
the raw flesh of fish and animals.
An interesting picture of prehistoric days is given
by R. R. Marett of Oxford, who was a member of
a party that made an important discovery while
excavating in Jersey, one of the islands in the Eng-
lish Channel. A prehistoric hearth was uncovered.
There were the big stones which had propped up the
fire. There were the ashes. There were the pieces
of decayed bone, which proved to be the remains of
a woolly rhinoceros, of reindeer, of a strange ap-
pearing horse, in other words, of species of animals
which had not lived in that given region for thous-
ands of years, and which indeed have long been ex-
In the next place, the food heap yielded thirteen
human teeth a discovery which prompted the
question: Did the beasts eat the man, or the man
eat the beasts ? This prehistoric sketch is completed
THE NATURE OF HUMAN GROUPS 27
by the statement that there many coarse flint in-
struments (knives), chipped only on one side, lying
After the Paleolithic came the Neolithic, or New
Stone Age. Neolithic implements are distinctly
superior to Paleolithic, and represent skill of a high-
er order. They were made of many kinds of stone
besides flint, and were often ground to an edge that
was sometimes polished.
An important distinction between Paleolithic and
Neolithic remains is the fact that among the latter
are found pieces of crude pottery. In Neolithic
times fire was used for human purposes ; the method
of kindling it artificially had been discovered.
Cooked food supplemented raw food. The domesti-
cation of the horse, sheep, ox, goat, pig, and dog had
taken place; and helped to make civilization pos-
sible. Cattle were used to some extent as a measure
of value. Monuments indicating the nature of re-
ligious rites of primitive groups have been left by
Neolithic peoples. Fortifications and burial
mounds, especially the latter, are numerous; in
Ohio, for instance, there are many of these re-
minders of Neolithic times.
Then came the so-called Bronze Age of human
society. The discovery and use of metals mark a
definite step in human progress. It seems that cop-
per, in its native condition generally preceded its
use in a form mixed with tin or zinc. The com-
28 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
pound, bronze, was much harder and tougher, and
hence more useful. As a measure of value cattle
were supplanted by copper; and copper bars, used
as coins, were stamped with the image of the an-
imals which were once the standards of value, name-
ly, the cow, sheep, or dog.
It is believed that iron was first used about 1000
B.C., at which time the so-called Iron Age may be
said to have begun. Implements were now made of
hard and valuable metal, iron. The Iron Age, how-
ever, did not enter upon its main era until the latter
part of the nineteenth century A.D. in England,
when the use of steam power gave to the world
the factory system, made iron and steel of para-
mount importance, and created an industrial age.
During the centuries preceding historic times, the
development of tool-making was an outstanding
feature. Migration was common. Human groups
were loosely related to the soil, and thus were on the
move a great deal of the time. People worked co-
operatively ; house-building, canoe-building, fishing,
hunting were conducted by groups of people in
It has been said by O. T. Mason that whatever
one's belief concerning the manner, the place, and
the time of man's advent upon the earth, a study
of prehistoric group life shows that man was at first
a houseless, unclothed being, without experience or
skill and that through association in groups he has
THE NATURE OF HUMAN GROUPS 29
achieved his present high civilized level.
Within historic days, the chief emphasis in hu-
man society is no longer to be laid upon the ma-
terial of which human implements are made but
rather upon psychical and social phenomena. Social
attitudes and personal behavior are now vital data.
The development of constructively-minded and
wholesome personalities in and through group life
has become the central fielH of human significance,
and the main theme of sociology.
The history of any group of people generally
shows eras of marked advance and also periods of
retrogression. Human society itself, since the days
when men began to succeed in the struggle with the
higher forms of animal life for earthly control, and
extending to the present day, has progressed mar-
The illustrations of social progress are countless.
For example: Compare the loose family life of the
best peoples among primitive tribes with the highly
developed forms of love and affection that now
characterize the best type of families. Put the con-
juries of medicine men or the practices of witch-
craft alongside the achievements of Pasteur, or
Koch, or Carrell. Consider cattle or bars of iron
as media of exchange in early economic life in com-
parison with the highly organized credit sys-
tems of today. Think of the advance from govern-
ment in the hands of a despot to government under
30 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
the direction of an enlightened, democratically-
minded people. Compare ethical conduct dic-
tated by a thousand years of custom control
to ethical conduct as the outgrowth of ration-
al processes of socialized thinking. Picture the
esthetic effort of a Bushman playing upon one
string stretched across a gourd, in comparison
with the modern rendition of Beethoven's sym-
phonies. Parallel primitive methods of preserv-
ing information through laborious remembering
exertions with the twentieth century lightning-
like printing processes. Think of the animistic
superstitions of early man in the light of the highly
rational, and broadly social interpretations of the
finest current expressions of Christianity. The sim-
ple associational activities of a Fuegian are kinder-
garten in size and quality when the national and
international associative activities of a President of
the United States are made panoramic. These il-
lustrations throw light on the fact of human prog-
The development of the social group has been
deeply affected by geographic, biologic, psychologic
and sociologic factors. These conditioning ele-
ments, moreover, have been instrumental in produc-
ing a variety of group types. In this process, how-
ever, survival needs and psychic interstimulation
have been predominant. There are the family and
play groups wherein fundamental social principles
THE NATURE OF HUMAN GROUPS 31
are grasped. There is the occupational group
wherein work-a-day attitudes are produced. There
are the educational, religious, and community
groups wherein certain large universal attitudes
are fostered. There are the rural and urban, as^well
as racial, divisions of the population with their at-
tendant social attitudes. Then there are the prob-
lems of group control and progress which concern
the welfare of every member of all groups. This
book attempts to traverse the course which in this
paragraph has been staked out.
Sociology thus deals with the most practical
phases of everyday life ; it is one of the most broad-
ening and cultural of all studies. Any member of
a human group who would be well educated must
know the laws of group life, and understand thor-
oughly the nature of the~processes by which group
members develop unselfish personalities.
Sociology is not a propagandist study. Its aim is
to cyjca^e_social fa ct s ; it searches for all theTTm-
portant data on all sides of a disputed question ; and
it presents these data to the student in as unprej-
udiced a manner as possible. It strives to be in-
ductive and scientific; it is a scientific study of
group phenomena and processes as exhibited in per-
The pupil usually finds that the normal results of
studying sociology include a more social point of
view, an increasing dislike for narrow, prejudiced
32 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
attitudes, and a socializing of behavior. In a gen-
uine and fundamental sense, sociology is a primary
factor in building a just, harmonious, and co-oper-
ative personal and group life.
1. What is the purpose of questions for discussion, such
as those at the close of the chapters of this book?
2. Should students sit clam-like in class?
3. What is the derivation of the term, sociology?
4. How do human groups resemble animal groups, such as
the pack or herd?
5. How do human groups differ from animal groups?
6. To how many social groups do you belong at present?
7. In how many of these groups did you become a member
8. What choices do you make that are more influential in
your life than choosing persons with whom to asso-
9. What is a social problem?
10. What is a social institution?
11. Why have you begun the study of sociology?
12. Will this study probably make you a more useful citizen
or a more successful individual?
GROUPS AND GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS
A NATURAL approach to the study of sociology is
through geography and geology. These sciences
present the setting of the human panorama.
Through them are revealed the operation of the
fundamental processes that have been factors in
controlling the nature of associative life.
1. The Earth as Man's Home. The earth as
the home of human groups underwent a long series
of changes before man appeared thereon. The few,
crude stone implements which have been found in
the deposits belonging to the comparatively recent
glacial epochs constitute " a silent testimony to the
appearance of man."
Then came the long struggle between the earth
and human groups, and between various species of
animal life in prehistoric epochs. These contests
finally ended in human predominance and the de-
velopment of civilization. Behind all the conflicts,
however, was that "orderly and world embracing
process by which the once uninhabitable globe has
come to be man's appointed home."
34 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
In far-reaching ways, man is dependent upon the
relations which the earth holds to the remainder of
the solar system. The marvelous findings of astron-
omy have enlarged the human conception of the
universe a thousand-fold. The length of the day,
the seasons, and the years are determined by the
earth's relation to the sun. Such phenomena as the
dependable, daily rising of the sun have played a
leading part in creating man's ideas of "order" and
"permanence." The safety of sea-faring vessels is
related to the position of the stars. Latitude and
longitude, accurate maps of continents and oceans,
boundaries of estates and nations are determined
through reference to the stars. Endlessly and con-
tinuously man is dependent on and limited by the
great laws of the universe over which he has no con-
trol and the nature of which he does not fully under-
2. Influences of Soil Fertility and Land Area.
The place or location of human groups on
the earth is determined by geographic influences.
Among primitive peoples especially, the domination
of geographic conditions was marked. Early hu-
man groups developed in those sections of the earth
where food could be easily obtained. The first large
population centers arose in the valleys of the Eu-
phrates, the Ganges, the Yangtse-Kiang, and the
Nile. "The first dense massing of human popula-
pROUPS AND GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS 35
tion was in that wonderful valley, six hundred miles
long with an average breadth of seven miles, over
which every summer from immemorial time the
Nile has spread the rich black silt of the Abysinnian
hills." Today the largest aggregations of people
are located not only in the valleys that have been
mentioned, but also in the valleys of the Po, the
Seine, the Rhine, the Thames, the Hudson, and the
Human groups increase most rapidly in river
valleys. The reason for this conclusion is found in
the fertility of the soil of these valleys ; fertile soil
makes possible a cheap and large food supply. The
Amazon river valley, the most fertile in the world, is
an outstanding exception. Here, however, the rain-
fall is so excessive, nature is so flourishing, insects
and wild beasts so numerous, pathogenic bacteria
so virile that man has not been able to make his
power felt. He has been almost completely baffled
in his attempts to secure control over rampant na-
In regions where the soil is non-fertile or where
lack of rainfall has created barren, boundless, arid
plains, there population is sparse and "restless, root-
less people" are found. As Ellen C. Semple has
said, migration alone is permanent; and although
the people are constantly moving, progress stands
still. The habit of migrating on the part of prim-
itive groups does not permit the accumulation of
36 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
wealth except that which can move itself, such as
flocks and herds. The supply of clothing and uten-
sils is meagre; the use of much furniture in tents
is rare; and the opportunity to attain historical
prominence is missing.
In desert regions, only marauding groups survive,
and hence the term, robber, becomes a title of honor.
The harsh conditions of desert regions make the
Arab the hardiest and bravest of human beings. A
desert environment encourages the spirit of inde-
pendence, but checks tendencies toward political or-
ganization. The desert has been pronounced the
last part of the earth to yield to conquest by out-
side powers because of the brave, independent
spirit of the inhabitants and because of the difficulty
in overcoming the physical conditions of the en-
The harsh desert conditions have affected the
customs of the people; it is said, for example, that
an ordinary American dinner would make five or
six meals for an Arab. The opportunities for in-
dividual growth are so few that there is practically
no change in customs, mode of life, or beliefs from
generation to generation.
The so-called desert-born genius for religion may
be partly explained by the fact that the human
mind, finding little of concrete interest, develops an
impression of unity and a gravitation toward mon-
otheism in the human mind which is inclined to-
GROUPS AND GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS 37
ward reflection upon religious matters. The deserts
of Syria and Arabia have played a part in the origin
of the three leading monotheistic religions of the
world Mohammedanism, Judaism, and Christian-
The soil is the greatest natural resource of the
earth. It is a source of all life: from it, in part,
comes all food, the materials from which clothing is
made, and with which houses, cities, and transpor-
tation lines are built. The conservation of the soil
has been short-sightedly neglected. It is estimated
that in the United States alone the farms lose $500,-
000,000 in value, yearly, because the rich top-soil is
allowed to be washed off and drained into the rivers.
It is a common custom to allow the cultivators of
the soil to rob it steadily of the elements which pro-
duce large crops and not to put back into the soil
equivalent returns. Consequently worn out farms
have become numerous.
Where a conservation policy has been pursued,
the situation is different. In certain German states
that have been cultivated for 1800 years or more
and where the soil is not naturally so productive as
in the United States, the yield of wheat averages
twice as much an acre as in the latter country.
Every agricultural group has a definite obligation
regarding the conservation of the soil for the well-
being of future generations.
Inasmuch as the need for conserving not only
38 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
the soil but all natural resources is a single problem,
the situation regarding the conservation of minerals,
forests, and water power will be noted at this time.
The mineral resources of a country, such as the
United States, have been so great that they have
been treated ruthlessly. The rush of a few people,
for instance, to turn coal into money has resulted
in the waste of one-fourth to one-half of it, and at
a terrific toll in human lives and suffering. Natural
gas is a valuable fuel, limited in amount, and yet
it has been unpatriotically and recklessly burned,
especially by oil field promoters. The haste of a few
persons to convert forests into money has meant
that of all the trees which have been cut down, fully
one-half have been wasted in the forests,, either left
to decay or to be burned by forest fires.
It is estimated that in the United States alont,
there is running idly over falls and dams, more than
30,000,000 horse-power of energy. It is further es-
timated that enough power is allowed to go unused
to operate every factory, to turn every wheel, to
move every electric car and to supply every light
and power station in the country. Conservation does
not mean the locking up of natural resources nor a
hindrance to social progress in any direction, but
that individuals and corporate groups shall be re-
quired to use these resources in the light of the needs
of future generations of people.
Area, like soil fertility, and natural resources in
GROUPS AND GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS 39
general, has had a deep influence on human life.
Groups of people living in small areas differ in
thought life from those occupying large areas. Is-
lands, peninsulas, and mountain valleys have been
described as bars to expansion; on the other hand
they develop close relationships between the mem-
bers living therein. The inhabitants are handi-
capped by numerical weakness, and may be sur-
rounded by invading groups. Belgium, Holland,
and Switzerland exist as distinct nations on suffer-
ance of the large powers notwithstanding for in-
stance Belgium's defensive strength in 1914.
The people who live in small areas are likely to
be markedly individualistic, and are in danger of
overestimating their own size and importance. In
a small area, as Miss Semple states, the people tend
to measure distance with a yardstick. Plato, a
broad-minded philosopher who lived in a small-area
environment, conceived of an ideal democracy as
limiting its free citizens to 5040 heads of families,
all living within easy reach of the marketplace.
The larger the area, the more certain is the guar-
antee of group permanence, because there are more
natural resources, more occupational activities, and
more chances for personal achievement. The larger
the area under one political control, the greater the
economic and political independence. As a result
of its vast area and extensive resources, the United
States has been enabled to maintain a protective
40 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
tariff. The immense area of Russia has been called
the military ally on which she can most surely
count; the length of the road to Moscow was un-
doubtedly a leading factor in turning Napoleon's
victorious march into a debacle.
A people who occupy a large area are sooner or
later likely to have many contacts with other peo-
ples, easy access to ocean highways, and oppor-
tunities to establish many international relation-
ships. A large area gives individuals ultimately a
wide outlook on life, and nations a continental at-
Area includes location. The location of the
Phoenicians enabled them to become the middle-
men between the Orient and the Occident. The
location of Holland at the mouth of the Rhine
waterway helped that nation to maintain for several
centuries maritime supremacy of the world. The
out-of-the-way location of the Isle of Man pre-
vented the inhabitants from coming in contact with
new and progressive ideas.
3. Effects of Mountain and Ocean Environ-
ments. Mountains usually stand as majestic but
inert masses in the midst of growing civilizations.
Mountain passes alone are used. These nature-
made thoroughfares draw to themselves migration,
travel, trade, and military expeditions; they are
traversed alike by undisciplined hordes, organized
GROUPS AND GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS 41
armies, wagon trains, and transcontinental high-
Mountains are sparsely populated; a very small
percentage of the world's population lives 5000 feet
or more above sea level. Most of the civilized
groups of the world live where the altitude is be-
tween 1000 feet and 100 feet. In the high regions
the potential food supply is scarce, and in the low
regions, for example, below sea level, the health
conditions are poor.
Mountain barriers, notes Miss Semple, whose
splendid analysis is accepted in the following para-
graphs, are rarely impartial. One slope is generally
steep; and the other, gentle. On the gentler slope
is found a wide zone of food supply and habitation.
On one side of the Himalayas is the vast population
of India ; on the other, the scattered nomadic tribes
of Tibet. The western side of the Rockies feels the
warm air of the Pacific winds ; the eastern slope ex-
periences in winter the rigor of a subarctic climate,
in summer the heat of the subtropics.
High altitudes with their long winters stimulate
industries in the home. Almost everywhere native
mountain industries have reached a noticeable de-
gree of specialization. The carving of articles from
wood, the manufacture of artistic metal work in
silver and copper, the manufacture of the well-
known Kashmir shawls, and of the finest violin
strings in the world indicate the nature of mountain
42 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Maintenance of life in high altitudes is always
a struggle; the biological principle of the survival
of the fittest operates. The spirit of independence
is engendered. The conquest of mountain peoples
is always expensive, for an invader has two enemies
to fight, the rough mountain topography and the
Every aspect of the environment hinders social
integration. Political dismemberment is an inher-
ent weakness of mountain peoples ; political consol-
idation is forced upon them from without. The
Swiss Republic may be cited as the result, in part,
of threatened encroachments from outside groups.
Mountain environments produce conservatism,
for little reaches the mountain dweller from outside
peoples to stimulate him. Religion remains ortho-
dox, and antiquated customs and languages abound.
The prevailing motto is : To have and to hold. The
mountains have been described as museums of so-
Mountain dwellers are suspicious of strangers.
As instanced by feuds, mountain peoples are char-
acterized by pronounced loves and hates. When
they move to the plains and cities to live, they are
likely to be formidable competitors, because as Miss
Semple has summarized their traits, they possess
strong muscles, unjaded nerves, iron purposes and
indifference to luxury.
GROUPS AND GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS 43
A proximity to coast lines and bodies of water,
such as an ocean, arouses unique feelings within the
human mind. The "flow of stream and ebb of tide
have sooner or later, stirred the curiosity of land-
born barbarians," and the "eternal unrest of mov-
ing waters" has constituted a continual knocking
at the door of human inertia. In timid fashion, in-
voluntarily, or boldly, men have followed ocean
currents and trade winds to the ends of the earth.
The ocean has called forth inventions from the
mind of man : first, floats and rafts ; then devices
for securing displacement; and in recent decades,
floating sea monsters and submarines. The ocean
has made possible special occupations for human
beings ; thousands of people are employed as fisher-
men, and sailors, or in the navy, on ocean liners, in
the canneries, and in shipbuilding.
Unthinking people have sometimes lamented the
fact that the earth's surface is three-fourths water
and one-fourth land. Science has shown however
that human beings have survived because they could
meet the conditions of a water surface that is three
times as extensive as the land surface. The world
would have been poorer if the proportion of water
and land had been reversed. The different branches
of the human family would have resembled one an-
other more closely, and similarity of types might
have hindered development. Furthermore, it is
necessary that a large proportion of the earth's sur-
44 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
face be covered with water, in order to furnish a
rainfall sufficient for the life on the remaining por-
tion. If only one-fourth of the earth's surface were
a water surface, the remaining three-fourths would
probably be a vast desert.
A population residing near the mouths of rivers
has geographic advantages. It has opportunity to
develop inland trade and ocean commerce, and on
the other hand, it tends to become cosmopolitan.
The fertile, alluvial soil yields large returns. The
population who live at the mouths of rivers can
bottle up economically and politically the peoples
who live near the sources of these rivers.
A river and its branches is a system of communi-
cation. It connects the inhabitants of its basin with
the people "on far-off, unseen shores." A river is
a common servant of the life of the basin. Rivers
unite people; they are poor social boundaries, be-
cause the people living on either side of the main
current have similar life conditions. They tend to
think and act alike.
4. Climatic Control. Climate fixes the location
of human groups. Arctic latitudes, high altitudes,
and arid regions draw the dead-line for all life. A
certain range of temperature and of moisture is es-
sential to all those forms of life upon which human
A mean annual temperature of approximately
GROUPS AND GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS 45
fifty degrees Fahrenheit seems to be best for human
progress, and of seventy degrees is enervating, while
an average of thirty degrees gives mankind too
many obstacles to overcome. In continental United
States the mean annual temperature is fifty-three
degrees ; the greater density of population is found
where the average ranges from forty-five to fifty-
five degrees. On either side of these limits the
density of population rapidly diminishes. Less
than one-third of the inhabitants live where the an-
nual temperature is over fifty-five degrees, and only
one-hundredth of the population live where the
average temperature is seventy degrees and over.
Ellsworth Huntington estimates that an average
temperature of forty degrees in winter and of sixty-
four in summer is best for human stimulation.
Thirty to fifty inches of rainfall seem to be neces-
sary for the growth of vegetable life, upon which
domesticated animals and man live. No groups
of people of significance have developed excepting
in the Nile valley, where the rainfall is ten inches
or less a year, unless irrigation methods are used.
A hundred inches or over of rainfall give a growth
of vegetable life too luxuriant for mankind to con-
trol with ease.
Humidity, which refers to the amount of moisture
in the air in proportion to the amount which the air
at any particular temperature is capable of holding,
is another influential climatic factor in human life.
46 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
A high or low humidity is equally harmful, produc-
ing nervousness and lowering vitality. A relative
humidity from seventy to eighty per cent is the
Another important influence in human life is
climatic variability. A succession of sunshine days
or of rainy days is equally monotonous and pro-
ductive of nervousness. Human beings are partly
the products of change; and therefore, unchanging
weather conditions are irritating. Days of sunshine
alternating with days of cloudiness and rain is a
desirable climatic condition.
A combination of proper temperature, humidity,
and weather variability factors is difficult to find.
According to the map of climatic energy which Mr.
Huntington has prepared, the North Eastern, North
Central and Middle Western States of the United
States, England, Ireland, France, Northern Italy,
Czecho-Slovakia, Austria, Switzerland, Denmark,
Belgium, Holland, and southern Scandinavia lie
within the zone of most favorable climatic condi-
tions in the world. It is interesting to compare Mr.
Huntington's map of climatic energy with the map
of civilization, noticing how the latter parallels the
Climate essentially dictates what crops shall be
raised. It affects radically the size of the harvest,
and determines as a rule what herds of animals
shall be kept, whether reindeer, camels, llamas,
GROUPS AND GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS 47
horses, or cattle. It influences extensively the nature
and amount of man's food and clothing and the
type of his dwelling.
In general there is a rather close correspondence
between the climate of a region and the tempera-
ment of the individual peoples living therein. The
northern peoples of Europe are more or less ener-
getic, provident, and thoughtful rather than emo-
tional, cautious rather than impulsive. On the other
hand, the southern peoples of the sub-tropical Med-
iterranean basin are easygoing, gay, emotional, and
imaginative. In the colder habitats mankind is
more domestic than in the warmer. With the
Southerners of the Tropics, the prevailing rule is :
Easy come, easy go. They therefore feast, and then
famine; they suffer greatly in food crises. As Miss
Semple has said, a cold climate puts a steadying
hand upon the human heart and brain, and paints
life with an autumn tinge.
Tropical and temperate zones are complementary
regions of trade. The hot belt of the earth produces
numerous useful forms of life that cannot survive
in colder countries. A much shorter list of products
combined, however, with greater human activity
and efficiency, is found in the Temperate Zone.
The migration of people from cold to tropical
regions is followed by an enervation of the individ-
ual and a loss of group efficiency. These results are
partly due to debilitating heat, -and partly to easier
48 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
conditions of living. Germans for example who
colonized portions of Brazil have shown deteriora-
An excellent summary of climatic influences up-
on man has been made by Miss Semple. Human
groups first appeared in the sub-tropics, but devel-
oped to modern levels of civilization in the Temper-
ate Zone. Where they have gone into the Tropics
they have suffered arrested development. To the ex-
tent that the Tropics was man's nursery, it has kept
him a child. If the subtropics was the cradle of hu-
manity, then the temperate regions have been the
cradle of civilization. It was chiefly when human
groups pushed out into the Temperate Zone that
they progressed. In other words, the Temperate
Zone provides about enough stimuli and enough
obstacles for the maximum advance of humanity.
Although Miss Semple has exaggerated when she
declares that man is a product of the earth's sur-
face, she has brought the climatic and other geo-
graphic influences to the fore with needed and lucid
emphasis. It is partly true that the earth has
mothered man, has fed him, has set him tasks, has
directed his thoughts, and has confronted him with
difficulties that have strengthened his body and de-
veloped his mental outlook. It is quite true that
the geographic factors "in the long history of hu-
man development have been operating strongly and
operating persistently." They have been relatively
GROUPS AND GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS 49
stable forces ; they have rarely slept.
It is also true that man has been so noisy about
the way that he has conquered Nature and that
"Nature has been so silent in her persistent influ-
ence over man," that the geographic processes in
group life are frequently overlooked. An age-long
problem with which mankind has been dealing is
the struggle with the physical environment. In the
early days of the race the geographic factors dom-
inated more or less completely the advancement of
man. During the succeeding centuries there follow-
ed a world-wide powerful conflict. Today human
dependence on nature is unquestioned, but is far
less conspicuous and arbitrary than in early times.
Civilized man is not as subject to the caprices of na-
ture as in the jungle days. He is mastering many
elements in both time and space. Special progress is
characterized by a decreasing amount, relatively, of
individual attention to physical matters and by an
increasing degree of thoughtful interest in the
higher spiritual and associative phases of life. The
need for socialized attitudes cannot be overesti-
mated. Out of different geographic environments
have come different races, industries, governments,
and attitudes all combining to form "a great soci-
Man's interest in material inventions has outrun
his development of spiritual controls. He has con-
cocted gigantic engines of war and destructive gases
50 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
before he has established a world-wide community
of interests. As a result nation groups with selfish
purposes stride pompously forward with flashing
bayonets to their own destruction. All groups that
have acquired political or economic power before
mastering their anti-social impulses have perished.
The need is urgent for groups, particularly nations,
to develop systems of group and personal control
based on socialized motives before they acquire con-
trol over the physical forces of Nature.
1. At what temperature can you study best?
2. Can you work better on a cloudy day or on a clear day?
3. Is it a matter of accident that the weather is a topic of
conversation the world over?
4. Explain the statement that the Tropics is the cradle of
5. In what sense is the Temperate Zone the cradle and
school of civilization?
6. Why is the term, robber, a title of honor in the Arabian
7. Why do people who live in small areas measure life
with a yardstick?
8. How do you interpret the statement that "the eternal un-
rest of moving waters has knocked at the door of
9. Why are mountaineers conservative?
10. Why are the hates and loves of mountaineers so pro-
GROUPS AND GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS 51
11. Why are mountaineers independent in attitude?
12. How do you explain geographically the gaiety of open-
13. Explain the superstitiousness of sailors?
14. Explain the suggestibility of people who live on monot-
15. Explain the general orthodoxy of farmers.
16. Under what conditions might a large population develop
in the Amazon valley?
17. What geographic factors help to determine the location
18. What geographic factors influenced the location of the
city in which or near which you live?
19. Why have people developed their natural resources be-
fore developing socialized attitudes?
GROUPS AND BIOLOGIC FACTORS.
BIOLOGIC influences in group life, unlike the geo-
graphic factors, are subjective. They influence the
members of the group through innate, internal
mechanisms; they operate from within individuals.
There is a sense, however, in which biologic tenden-
cies are objective, namely, they have originated in
the past and often influence the individual in mech-
anistic ways. Biology is fundamental to sociol-
ogy because it introduces the student to life and
the laws of life. Associative life, particularly human
life, is a phase of all life, and subject to the same
antecedents and principles of operation. It is wise
therefore to consider certain biologic influences in
1. Heredity and Variation. No individual
chooses his heredity; he cannot change his instinct-
ive tendencies, although if he begins early enough
in life, or if his parents begin to help him from birth
or before, he may acquire control over these ten-
dencies, modify them, and even re-direct their
streams of energy. Biological heredity must be
GROUPS AND BIOLOGIC FACTORS 53
"taken cognizance of by every person. One may learn
in what ways his behavior is determined by life
forces over which he has no control, and what life
factors he may master. His stature, the color of his
eyes and hair, the shape of his nose, his physical
construction and organism, and his physical char-
acters, or characteristics, including instinctive and
temperamental predispositions are determined for
him. In fact his biological inheritance is practically
beyond his control. Only in its psychical phase
can he rise superior to it.
Characteristics, or characters, as the biologist
uses the term, seem to be transmitted by -units. The
color of the eye, for example, is a single unit char-
acter that may be inherited by either parent. Thus
the physical and psychical characters of an individ-
ual apparently are compounded units, inherited as
units from one parent or the other or from other
persons in the line of descent.
Furthermore, these unit characters are inherited
in a more or less definite ratio. If one parent has
brown eyes and comes from a pure brown-eyed
stock, and if the other parent has pure blue eyes and
comes from a similar stock, about seventy-five per
cent of the children will inherit brown eyes. Since
brown and blue are inherited in the ratio approxi-
mately of three to one, brown is called the dominant
color and blue the recessive.
In the three cases in which brown eyes are in-
54 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
herited to the one case of inheritance of blue, it is
probable that in only one case are pure brown eyes
inherited and that in the other two instances the
result is hybrid brown. The latter color is delusive ;
while the brown alone is visible, there is present a
recessive blue which can be inherited by offspring.
It is impossible to distinguish the pure brown (from
which blue cannot be inherited) from the hybrid
brown (from which the recessive blue may be in-
herited), except by observation of the offspring of
the given individual. It is therefore essential to
study at least the immediate ancestors of a person,
if one would know the type of offspring he will pro-
duce. The inheritance of unit characters and the
operation of the laws of dominance and recessive-
ness are phases of the Mendelian laws of inherit-
ance, named after Mendel, who first discovered
them while experimenting with garden peas.
It has been found upon a study of a large number
of cases that with a few exceptions, offspring devi-
ate less than their parents from the average of the
whole group there is a tendency to regress to the
group average. This law of regression partly causes
group stability of characters ; it also partly explains
why the children of geniuses rarely possess the
ability of their parents.
It appears that defects of the physical and neural
structure of the human organism may be inherited.
When the father and mother are related, they are
GROUPS AND BIOLOGIC FACTORS 55
likely to have the same weak strains, and offspring
are therefore in increased danger, perhaps twofold,
of inheriting physical and mental defects.
Human characteristics, such as poverty, delin-
quency, and old age, per se are not inherited. In
the case pf pauperism or delinquency mental de-
fectiveness may have been inherited. The inherit-
ance of feeble-mindedness and a phlegmatic tem-
perament may lead to poverty; while the inherit-
ance of feeble-mindedness and an energetic temper-
ament is likely to result in delinquency and crime.
In the case of old age, or longevity, traits or char-
acters such as high vital resistance to disease bac-
teria, and sound bodily reactions and tissues have
probably been inherited. These characteristics to-
gether with a favorable environment guarantee old
age, or a long life.
Every person is subject to the biological laws not
only of heredity but of variation. Variations from
parent types appear during the organism's period
of development. Little is yet known concerning
the cause or the operation of biological variation.
There are two types of variation: variability and
mutation. Variability refers to small fluctuations
in any and every characteristic but always center-
ing about an average or mean. Of a thousand child-
ren of given parents it is possible to determine with
a fair degree of accuracy their general distribution,
for example, as to height. It can be told before-
56 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY y
hand with a reasonable degree of accuracy how
many of the thousand children will vary three Li-
ches or more either way from the average height of
the parents taken as a group.
Mutations are abrupt changes from the average
or type of the parents to a new standard, which be-
comes a new center of variability. In the case of
variability the offspring tend to approach nearer the
group average than do the immediate parents. In
the case of mutations the offspring desert the old
group average and establish a new average ap-
proximately that of the immediate parents. The
appearance of a mutant thus indicates the begin-
ning of a new species or at least a modification of an
A person who is a born genius may be a mutant
in the biological sense. At any rate the appearance
of born geniuses is as little explained as the genesis
of biological mutants. It may be noted that born
genuises seem to be born as frequently in the hovel
as in the palace, and of poor parents as among the
2. Organic and Social Evolution. The dis-
cussion of heredity and variation has illustrated an-
other biological law, that of evolution. The adult
evolves from the child and the child from the in-
fant, and the latter from the union of two germ
cells. Complex forms of life evolve from simpler
GROUPS AND BIOLOGIC FACTORS 57
life forms. The process is baffling to science, and
accompanied by an infinite number of changes and
creations, revealing the miraculous work of nature
Evolutionary explanations account for the grossly
animal elements in human nature; they lead back
not only to animal but to mechanistic and mater-
ialistic explanations. They do not explain the con-
tinual introduction of new elements, of spiritual
creation, or of idealistic factors.
Biological evolution has revealed not only some
of the laws of heredity and variation, but has made
clear the nature of the struggle for existence and of
the law of the survival of the fittest. It has shown
how nature has often exercised a harsh and rigorous
hand, awarding the prizes of life to the physically
strongest and the psychically shrewdest.
Biological evolution also reveals the law of co-
operation. Individuals who co-operate well have
a survival advantage. Animals who co-operate
best have the best chance of survival. Group life
itself is therefore advantageous ; the "fittest to sur-
vive" may be those who co-operate well. The "fit-
test to survive" however may be the most brutal
and selfish among the lower forms of life; but an
evolution in method, from selfish contention to so-
cialized co-operation, changes the operation of the
"fittest to survive" principle.
Biological evolution is paralleled by group or so-
58 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
cial evolution. On the lowest plane, groups con-
tend with one another selfishly and destructively.
Groups with low standards seek to gain control of
other groups for selfish advantage. They are shrewd
and deceitful in dealing with one another. They
rush at each other, as two villains with murder in
As they evolve, they develop co-operative habits,
learn to respect each other's virtues, and to heed an
authority higher than each. The nation groups of
the world today are struggling toward the establish-
ment of a higher world authority, of laws of arbi-
tration, and of a world community spirit. The
group once best fit to survive was the brutal and
deceitful; the group of the future best fit to sur-
vive will be the one whose members respect the au-
thority of a large group consciousness.
3. Vitality and Eugenic Control. With the
increasing knowledge of the laws of heredity, varia-
tion, and evolution, scientists such as Burbank
have developed highly modified forms of plant and
animal life. In recent years the study of the laws of
inheritance in the human realm has produced sig-
nificant results. This new movement is known as
Eugenics, a science which was initiated in England
by Francis Galton a few decades ago. As the term
eugenics implies the science aims to work out a
program whereby every child may be well born. The
GROUPS AND BIOLOGIC FACTORS 59
science endeavors to develop the principles of hered-
ity in their application to human life.
One eugenic method is to discourage by educa-
tional and legal means the marriage of persons who
are unfit physically and mentally. The aim is to
prevent unworthy parenthood. It is planned to
segregate feeble-minded men and women by sexes
in public institutions and thus to prevent them from
reproducing their kind. It is also planned to forbid
the marriage of those persons whose health is below
a certain standard. In line with this idea some
members of the clergy have announced that they
would unite in marriage only those persons who
produced health certificates from a reputable phy-
sician. In this connection it may be added that it
is within the power of the government to raise by
degrees the standards of health demanded of those
who desire a license to marry. Thus the eugenist
hopes to secure a more healthy race of men and
A second and more constructive method is to es-
tablish in public opinion new and higher standards
concerning marriage. At present, attractions such
as wealth or titles or social positions too often de-
termine marriage. If a marriageable person is
wealthy, he is considered highly desirable irre-
spective of possible physical and moral leprosy. The
eugenist urges that a sound physique and heredity
be ranked first, and wealth, or social position sec-
60 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
ond. Wealth without health is an entirely false
Thus sound heredity, high vitality, and excellent
health are emphasized as more fundamental mar-
riage attractions than titles or other forms of social
distinction. The eugenist asks that young people
from childhood shall be trained to regard high vi-
tality and dependable health as first essentials in
an ideal man or woman. If this belief becomes
widely accepted, then it will determine even per-
sonal fancy and "falling in love." The aim is not
to eliminate falling in love, but to put it upon a new
level of vitality, heredity, and health. Thus would
the eugenist contribute to the advancement of the
Preventive eugenics is a term which has been
used to specify measures to protect parenthood
from racial poisons. Alcohol is a poison which
seems to affect the generative organs and especially
the germ cell life. By preventing alcoholism through
legislation it is possible to safeguard the nation from
a so-called racial poison. Tuberculosis is consid-
ered another racial poison. The tubercle bacilli, by
weakening the human organism in millions of cases,
indirectly are weakening and destructive in their
effects upon germ plasm strength. Venereal diseases,
such as syphilis and gonorrhea, directly attack the
female generative organs causing sterility as well as
untold suffering, and hence may be considered
GROUPS AND BIOLOGIC FACTORS 61
All factors which cut down the birth rate unduly,
undermine parenthood, or otherwise prevent the
birth and development of physically and mentally
perfect individuals are called dysgenic. These
dysgenic elements may be overcome by human un-
derstanding, prevision, and control. Through neg-
ative eugenics, positive eugenics, and preventive eu-
genics, supported by an adequate public health con-
trol, it is possible for human groups to develop their
biological or life-giving qualities, to their sturdiest,
most energetic, and richest possibilities.
4. Vitality and Public Health Control The
various forms of animal life are in continual com-
bat. The larger, more powerful, and higher devel-
oped live upon the lower forms. All feed upon plant
life ; even man secures his food from eating animals
and plants. Moreover through his superior mental
control man cultivates special forms of plant life,
and fattens certain forms of animal life for his own
The combat also operates parasitically, that is,
countless millions of simple animal or plant organ-
isms invade a higher organism and live within it,
perhaps destroying it; while other parasitic forms
of life are engaged in decomposing and putrefactive
activities.' From birth every individual must main-
tain a constant fight against the invasion into his
62 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
organism of pathogenic bacteria. Human beings
not only prey upon one another by open warfare or
gun play but also by subtle means, such as the
maintenance for profit of unhealthful and disease-
ridden tenements. They are also preyed upon by
disease-producing bacteria to such an extent that
human diseases have been described as being largely
struggles between forms of life, that is, between
human life and microscopic life.
Of those persons who are ordinarily considered
well born, a large percentage possess some defects of
bodily structure which sooner or later are mani-
fested in low vital resistance, weak lungs, weak kid-
neys, a weak digestive apparatus, a weak heart, and
the like. A person must also guard himself and be
guarded from subtle poisons, overfatigue, and phys-
ical accident. The environment is lurking with
hidden dangers to the health and vitality of indi-
viduals, and hence to group life. In this era there-
fore of the ravages of bacterial diseases, of contam-
ination by poisons, of destruction by accidents and
wars, and of inherited bodily defects, many persons
need public defense. Certain diseases, such as tuber-
culosis, malaria, typhoid fever, yellow fever are ac-
quired by the individual despite his vigilance. Some
diseases can be handled successfully only by action
on the part of the entire group, that is, by public
action. This need has led to public health control.
In our complex civilization we cannot be sure
GROUPS AND BIOLOGIC FACTORS 63
that each individual will be careful of the health of
other persons. People live so close together and in
such huddled groups in the large cities that the
sickness of one person may be easily communicated
to others. By adulterating foods one person may be
criminally careless of the health of other persons,
but since the consumers may be strangers to him or
live in distant cities, he feels no special responsibil-
ity for their health. Hence it has become necessary
for the city, state, and nation to pass laws com-
pelling people to live up to certain health standards,
not so much for their own welfare, as for the welfare
of other persons.
Public health control is based upon many factors,
but the chief is perhaps a knowledge of bacterial life.
Bacteria may be divided into three classes: those
which are helpful to human life, such as the bacteria
which causes dough to rise or cheese to ripen ; those
which cause decomposition; and those which are
The last-mentioned or pathogenic bacteria are
usually shaped like a stick, are spherical, or are
spiral. The first group are the most numerous ; they
are called bacilli. The tubercle bacilli are of this
kind. The second group, spherical in shape, are
called cocci, and are represented by the bacteria
which produce pneumonia. The third group, spiral
in form, are named spirilla, and are represented by
the bacteria which cause cholera.
64 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
In size bacteria are very small. Those which
cause anthrax are about l-8000th of an inch in
length; while those which produce influenza are
aboutl-80,000th of an inch long. A single drop of
water may contain hundreds of thousands and even
millions of bacteria. It has been estimated that in
a space occupied by a grain of sugar, 600,000,000
bacteria might be packed and each be comfortable.
Bacteria thrive best in a warm temperature. They
increase most rapidly at about the temperature of
the human body ; they are less sensitive to cold than
to heat. Almost all the harmful types of bacteria
are killed upon being exposed to a temperature of
150 degrees F. for thirty minutes, but bacteria such
as typhoid and diphtheria bacilli have been exposed
for days to the temperature of liquid air, that is,
about 390 degrees below zero F., without having
their vitality destroyed. At a low temperature bac-
teria reproduce slowly, if at all ; but at a tempera-
ture from 70 degrees to 100 degrees F., they repro-
duce very rapidly. They multiply by cell division ;
at the proper temperature certain bacteria cells di-
vide into two cells every hour. At this rate the de-
scendents of a single cell at the end of a single day
would number far above a million ; at the close of
two days, they would number 50,000,000,000,000. It
makes a difference therefore whether milk is kept
at a low temperature or allowed to stand in a warm
place, especially if it contains pathogenic bacteria.
GROUPS AND BIOLOGIC FACTORS 65
Plagues, pestilences, and epidemics are the most
striking phenomena affecting public health. In 1892,
the wealthy city of Hamburg was terrorized by a
severe cholera epidemic. More recently, Ithaca,
New York, and other cities were ravaged by typhoid
fever. Savages attributed plagues and epidemics of
disease to evil spirits, and even for civilized peoples,
epidemics have often been mysterious in origin.
They are now known, however, to be outbreaks of
disease caused by bacteria. It is not the disease,
but the parasitic microbe which is "catching." Epi-
demics may occur when the water supply, the milk
supply, or the food supply becomes contaminated
by the presence of pathogenic bacteria.
Typhoid fever epidemics are caused by the ty-
phoid bacillus, which was discovered by Koch about
1879. The bacilli are taken into the human organ-
ism usually through drinking water which has been
contaminated by sewage containing the microbes,
through drinking milk contaminated perhaps by the
dirty hands of unclean milkers, or through eating
raw oysters which have been growing in places
where city sewage has been emptied. Diphtheria
bacilli find lodgment in the throats of susceptible
persons, where they multiply and secrete meanwhile
a poisonous substance, or toxin, which circulates
through the body, causing death unless counter-
In 1880, the cause of malaria, the most important
66 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
of diseases affecting tropical peoples, was discov-
ered. In 1899, the further discovery was made that
malarial microbes are transmitted from victim to
victim through the bite of the anopheles mosquito,
in whose bodies the bacteria live a cycle of their
lives. By public action the anopheles mosquito may
be eliminated, and human beings freed from mala-
ria. Yellow fever, greatly dreaded in the Tropics,
is now attributed to a microbe that is conveyed by
the stegomyia mosquito. Only group action can
stamp out yellow fever.
In the case of smallpox and similar diseases which
are spectacular in their development and quickly
fatal, the public has safeguarded its members
through quarantine measures. In slowly develop-
ing diseases, such as tuberculosis, the public how-
ever has been woefully slow in protecting individ-
The cause of tuberculosis has been known since
1882 when the tubercle bacillus was discovered.
This bacillus may find its way into the lungs and
there multiply until its host succombs. Tubercu-
losis is no longer considered an inherited disease.
Some persons through inheritance may possess a
set of weaker membranes of the lungs or a lower
vital resistance than do other persons, and hence
more easily become victims of tuberculosis than
others. No one can develop tuberculosis unless the
bacillus gets into his organism from the outside. By
GROUPS AND BIOLOGIC FACTORS 67
destroying the bacillus it is possible to banish the
dread disease itself. Tuberculosis is now known to
be non-inheritable, curable if taken charge of in
the early stages, and preventable.
We have enough knowledge concerning causes to
crush out tuberculosis by group action, and we al-
so know the methods necessary to make this knowl-
edge effective. We have had this knowledge and
have known these methods for several years. In
spite of these truths, tuberculosis causes as many
deaths perhaps as any other disease, in fact, it prob-
ably heads the list of diseases in civilized countries.
In the United States it causes perhaps one-eighth of
all deaths of adults. A tuberculosis mortality list
of 150,000 individuals a year in the United States
is a deplorable sacrifice to an entirely preventable
disease preventable by group action.
On the average, tuberculosis leads to the death of
individuals at about thirty-five years of age, at an
age which is at the center of productive activity,
economically, of almost all persons, at an age which
cuts off on the average twenty years of productive
usefulness. The economic cost of the sickness pro-
duced annually by tuberculosis in the United States
has been estimated at $300,000,000. Furthermore,
perhaps thirty per cent of all the dependency in the
large cities of the United States is due to tubercu-
The largest number of deaths by tuberculosis oc-
68 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
curs among tenement dwellers and factory em-
ployees. The map of a city which shows the loca-
tion of the tuberculosis cases is similar in appear-
ance to a map of that city showing the inadequate
housing conditions. Houses with dark rooms and
with poorly ventilated bedrooms, furnish breeding
places for tubercle bacilli. With- the increase of
poor housing conditions, tubercle bacilli rapidly
The workers in factories and mills who are
breathing fine particles of dust are likely to suffer
laceration of the lungs, a condition which makes in-
vasion by tubercle bacilli an easy matter. Since
leaning over desks all day cramps the lungs, book-
keepers and persons similarly engaged are suscept-
ible. An indoor life and closed houses have kept
people away from bacteria-killing sunshine and in
with disease-producing microbes.
Why is a disease which is known to be prevent-
able still so prevalent? No one wishes to acquire
the disease, and yet all are in danger. The reason
for the widespread existence of tuberculosis is be-
cause the treatment of it has been left so largely to
individuals. Community action could overcome
the disease in a short time. If the United States
government were to proceed against tuberculosis in
this country in the organized way that it moved
against typhoid fever in the Canal Zone some years
ago under the direction of General William C. Gor-
GROUPS AND BIOLOGIC FACTORS 69
gas, tuberculosis would soon become unknown.
Public health control requires the fulfillment of
human needs for pure air, pure milk, pure water,
and pure food. The pure air question is an urban
problem. Mountain or sea air is purest, but the air
that is breathed in cities, especially in libraries, in
closed houses, in assembly rooms is likely to be per-
meated by pathogenic bacteria. Houses that are
built with dark rooms, that is, rooms that have no
windows opening to the outside air, are especially
From the city's chimneys, especially of factories
and the smokestacks of engines, there emanates
clouds of smoke, shadowing continuously thousands
and millions of people. To those persons living *n
urban communities where soft coal is consumed in
vast quantities, life comes to be "an existence in a
gray, blackened world." The pall of smoke covers
walls and pavements, enters houses and places of
business ; the small particles of soot penetrate the
lungs until the tissues become streaked and spotted.
The proper ventilation of houses becomes impos-
sible. Fresh air and sunshine are shut out; disease-
producing germs are shut in, and multiply rapidly.
Tubercle bacilli become impregnably established
in houses where doors and windows are kept
closed against the smoke nuisance.
Human beings have been called sun animals,
while pathogenic bacteria flourish in dirt, dust, and
70 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
darkness. Public interest and control can guaran-
tee to every pallid, weary industrial worker of the
city the boon of pure air and of the disease-killing
sunshine of heaven.
There is a close relation between the quality and
condition of milk fed to children and the death and
sickness rates. Milk being opaque may harbor
quantities of unnoticed filth and dirt. Moreover,
milk gives a home to the disease-producing bacteria
which are the immediate causes of the serious di-
gestive troubles of children, of cholera infantum, al-
so typhoid, diphtheria, and similar diseases which
attack adults as well as children. Group control may
be expressed through measures insuring cleanliness
and low temperature in the handling of the milk
supply. Upon pure milk the lives of children de-
pend ; the need for a pure milk supply especially for
the children in cities is a call to a new crusade in
behalf of child welfare.
A drinking water supply comes from surface wa-
ter and ground water. Almost all cities rely largely
on the former, which as it flows along is subject to
contamination. Numerous epidemics are likely to
result ; the typhoid fever rate in a given city is close-
ly related to the quality of public health control, es-
pecially with reference to the water supply.
Public health control includes safeguarding the
food supply. The incoming of the city's food has
been described bv Hollis Godfrey as a wonderful
GROUPS AND BIOLOGIC FACTORS 71
pageant. Wheat trains rushing from the wide hori-
zon of the West ; fishing schooners tacking up from
off the banks ; refrigerator cars hastening across the
continent, laden with the best from a thousand
herds; hightopped trucks driven by motor power,
looming in over the country roads in the freshness
of the earliest dawn ; crates filled with golden oran-
ges, with luscious peaches, with heavy-hanging
grapes, hastening cityward: all this inrushing, con-
verging evidence of nature's bounty offers a wide
breadth of thought, a feeling of greatness, a sense
of pride in this rich country in which we live.
This gorgeous picture however does not disclose
the fact that foods are exposed to destructive agen-
cies from the time that they leave their place of or-
igin to the time that they reach the table. The foes
are of tw r o kinds : natural and unnatural, the forces
of nature and the desires of greedy or ignorant men.
The natural enemies of food preservation are the
bacteria which cause decomposition; and the un-
natural ones are men who deliberately sell decom-
posed food, who use harmful preservatives, and who
resort to injurious adulteration. City venders of
fruit and other forms of food often use filthy rooms
alive with tubercle bacilli, as storerooms; they are
themselves sometimes infected with disease germs.
One of the problems in securing adequate public
health control is illustrated by the difficulties in-
volved in the passage of the Pure Food and Drugs
72 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Act in 1906 by the Congress of the United States.
At every session of Congress for ten years preced-
ing 1906 the opposition from the large manufactur-
ing interests to the pure food act was powerful
enough to defeat its passage. In fact in order to
secure its passage at all its friends had to make
serious compromises with the opposing interests.
Moreover, unscrupulous manufacturers have been
able to deceive the public, and escape punishment.
The federal law in this country applies only to
food supplies that are made in one state and shipped
into other states. The traffic in food supplies of
any state in the United States must be regulated by
each state government. Multiply the difficulties of
the nation by forty-eight, and some idea will be
gained of the problems of securing pure food. More-
over, every city has its local problems of safeguard-
ing food. The public control of this situation rests
ultimately upon group opinion. The guardians of
pure food, it may be summarized, are guardians of
The quality of life forces vary in different human
beings. Professors George Hansen and F. H. Gid-
dings have divided people into three vitality classes.
(1) Low vitality persons include those persons, as a
rule, whose birth rate and death rate are high, whose
physical and mental defectiveness is relatively high,
whose vital resistance is low, and whose knowledge
of personal and public hygiene measures is scanty.
GROUPS AND BIOLOGIC FACTORS 73
They include the poorer wage-earners in the over-
crowded districts of large cities.
(2) Medium vitality people are those whose birth
rate and death rate are both low, whose intelligence
is high, whose vital resistance has been worn down
by the countless demands of modern city life, and
whose lives are often thus prematurely cut short.
The professional classes represent this type.
(3) High vitality people are those who have been
well born, without mental and physical defects;
who have a fairly high birth rate and a low death
rate ; and who live where the environment is favor-
able. The rural land-owning classes illustrate this
Eugenic and public health control have their
best friend in education. Through education peo-
ple may learn what they can do in order to develop
themselves toward high vitality, and at the same
time guarantee a splendid physical start in life to
the next generation. The improvement of environ-
mental conditions through public health control is
necessary in order that an eugenic racial stock may
be built up, safeguarded, stimulated, and enabled to
function fully. Through eugenic and public health
procedure individuals and groups alike may grow
in stature, and in physical and mental quality.
74 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
1. In what way is heredity more important than environ-
2. How is environment more important than heredity?
3. Classify as to cause, whether primarily hereditary or
environmental: (a) race prejudice, (b) Italian in-
terest in art, (c) a child's fear of the dark, (d) Jap-
anese politeness, (e) a rosy complexion.
4. What important contribution to socio-biologic knowledge
was made by: (a) Mendel, (b) de Vries, (c) Weis-
mann, (d) Galton.
5. What is eugenics?
6. In what ways is society wasteful of its born geniuses?
7. Who suffers the more from adulterated foods, the well
nourished or the undernourished?
8. Explain: "Man is the sickest animal alive."
9. Explain the statement that although the death rate has
declined in recent years, the race is less vigorous than
10. What are the arguments for a national department of
11. What are the objections to such a department?
12. "W T hy does the United States appropriate so much more
money for the health of animals than for the health
of human beings?"
13. Is it the work of a physician to cure or to keep people
14. Explain the statement that man is an outdoor animal.
15. Why is the prevention of tuberculosis distinctly a social
16. What is meant by the term, vital statistics?
17. What obligations does your health place upon you with
reference to the health of others?
GROUPS AND PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS
THE HIGHEST PHASE of biological inheritance is
the psychical nature, especially in its social phases.
The original nature of man is comprised of complex
elements, such as instinctive-emotional tendencies.
Other psychical factors, with sociological implica-
tions, include habitual and conscious reactions, im-
itation and invention, communication and gre-
1 . Instinctive-emotional Tendencies. Every per-
son begins life with instinctive impulses, that is,
with inborn psychic tendencies biologically trans-
mitted. A specific sense impression releases a 1 defi-
nite mode of behavior, which is the same in all
members of the species.
Instinctive tendencies represent ways of acting
which have been the most successful in the past.
They result in modes of behavior that promote
either the welfare of the individual, such as the
self-preservation impulses; the continuance of the
group, such as the sex impulses ; or the welfare of
the group, such as the gregarious impulses. The
76 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
instinctive tendencies include the self-preservation,
the self-assertive, and creative responses, as well as
the inquisitive, acquisitive, and combative responses
and the sex and parental, gregarious, and play
The instinctive-emotional factors, as well as ha-
bitual and acquired reactions, may be better under-
stood if viewed in terms of "drives" and "mechan-
isms," which have been analyzed by R. S. Wood-
worth. Mechanisms are innate or acquired neural-
motor ways of responding to stimuli. Drives are
factors which release a mechanism ; they range from
external stimuli to inner motives.
All that the individual does or thinks is built up-
on instinctive mechanisms. There is a [sense in
which social institutions are super-structures, built
upon instinctive traits; the family, for example,
rests upon sex, parental, and gregarious impulses.
Inquisitiveness leads to invention and discovery ; it
is the driving force of learning ; it is a strong psy-
chological element in all pure forms of research and
advanced intellectual activity. Acquisitiveness ex-
plains psychologically many of the wealth-getting
activities of man as well as the growth of the in-
stitution of private property. The play drives and
mechanisms are basic factors in the recent develop-
ment of social institutions for meeting the recrea-
tional needs of man. Gregariousness leads to neigh-
borhood, community, and national group life. All
GROUPS AND PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS 77
the human groups which will be studied in Part II
of this book are indebted to the instinctive tenden-
cies in human nature. The family, play, occupa-
tional, school, church, and community groupings
are a result in part of instinctive-emotional drives
Closely connected with the instincts are the feel-
ings. They represent the tone of the organism,
and evaluate activities on the basis of past racial
and individual experience. The mention of a given
activity to an individual produces a pleasant feel-
ing or an unpleasant tone of consciousness, accord-
ing to the nature of the individual's experience in
Instinctive reactions are accompanied not only
by feeling tones, but also by emotional discharges.
An emotion appears to be a complex of feeling and
sensation which accompanies instinctive and other
activities. Certain emotions function in energizing
the individual, such as the emotion of anger; some
cause his personality to expand, such as the emotion
of joy; others tend to secure protection, such as
the emotion of fear; and others lead individuals
out into activities of the highest personal and group
usefulness, such as the emotion of love.
Sympathetic emotion is a powerful socializing
force. When one has sympathy for another person,
he can put himself in the other's place and obtain
the other's point of view an exercise which is es-
78 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
sential to the development of a socialized person,
and in solving many group problems, such as the
controversies between labor and capital.
A large emotional element is usually expressed
through suggestibility, a general innate tendency
which causes people to respond to other people's
feelings, ideas, and actions. Children are highly sug-
gestible; they lack knowledge and organization of
the knowledge which they possess. As a result of
their suggestibility children are subject to the di-
rection of their elders ; they acquire rapidly the tra-
ditional attitudes of their elders and their groups.
2. Habitual and Conscious Reactions. On the
basis of instinctive-feeling tendencies the individu-
al begins life, but the group environment however
presents so many new problems that the individual
is unable to cope with them instinctively. More
or less conscious attention is directed to making
necessary adjustments. Attention leads to new types
of behavior. These new expressions if repeated
several times become habitual reactions. They be-
come habits. They are modifications of instinctive
reactions or of previously formed habits. When a
problem is solved, a new way of acting has been
discovered and perhaps reduced to an habitual re-
action, and attention is free to take up the solution
of other problems.
The only reliable person is he who has established
GROUPS AND PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS 79
a number of well organized habits. The only per-
son who is honest is he who is honest by habit.
When a person raises the question whether or not
he will be honest, he cannot be trusted ; the person
who is trustworthy is he who is habitually honest.
Another illustration of the point that group struct-
ures are based upon the foundation of well formed
habits in individuals is found in the fact that mod-
ern credit associations depend upon honesty which
is habitual. As soon as mutual confidence breaks,
a financial crisis is likely to ensue. Conscious re-
actions occur thus when instinctive or habitual ten-
dencies fail to meet a new problem. An obstacle
creates a crisis ; attention is centered upon the ob-
stacle; and a new habit-organization results.
The cognitive phase of conscious reactions evalu-
ates activities with reference to the present and fu-
ture; the instinctive-feeling impulses have already
performed this service with reference to past exper-
ience. Reason is the highest phase of cognition ; it
can evaluate life factors that are present in neither
time nor space; it can often transform environ-
mental conditions ; and can lead to new and richer
levels of group life.
All the scientific inventions of the past, all the
development of the arts, all the human control over
nature are largely the product of reason. It is to
be hoped that man will in time, through reasoning,
be able to master his social and spiritual environ-
80 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
ment as he has overcome to a degree his physical
The volitional phase of conscious reactions is the
choosing element. Each organism may be consid-
ered as a more or less independent center of activity.
It is not entirely subject to its heredity or its envi-
ronment; it has the power in itself of making
choices and carrying them into action. If each or-
ganism had to respond to all stimuli which it re-
ceives, it would soon be shattered neurologically.
As a result of the choosing phase of conscious
reactions, a person is not wholly a machine. He has
a margin of freedom a margin which varies with
different persons and environments. This margin
dwindles when a person's health breaks, when pov-
erty increases, or when an atmosphere of vicious
and criminal attitudes develops. It is far more dif-
ficult for a person who has been reared in an envi-
ronment of extreme want, vice, and crime to live a
social, constructive life than it is for one who is
trained in an environment of love, good will, and
3. Imitation and Invention. Another tendency,
somewhat instinctive in character is imitation, a
process that is based on the fact that like stimuli
produce like responses, and that individuals are
equipped with similar drives and mechanisms. Im-
itations may be defined as the unconscious or con-
GROUPS AND PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS 81
scious copying primarily of the actions of other in-
dividuals ; the process may also extend to the copy-
ing of the ideas of others.
The child obtains the mass of his attitudes, ideals,
and purposes by imitating unconsciously and con-
sciously the copies that are set before him in his
family, play, neighborhood, school, religious and
other groups. So rapidly do the imitative processes
operate, that by the time the seventh or eighth
year is reached, the foundation lines of the child's
moral and social character are laid. An individual is
very imitative in the early years of life when his
stock of ideas is small and his means of criticism
It is by imitation that each generation takes up
and makes its own the traditions and customs of
the preceding generation. The imitative processes
preserve the continuity of ideas and of the social
environment. They are vital conserving factors in
In the human species there is a far greater per-
centage of custom imitation than among animals.
The offspring of animals are well equipped at birth
with instinctive ways of acting; they are thrown
upon their own resources relatively early in life.
Hence there is little chance for imitation of parents.
Unfortunately, there is a strong tendency for
ways of doing and believing to operate in the form
of custom long after their original meaning has been
82 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
forgotten, and long after their usefulness has ended.
Note the American veneration oftentimes for a com-
mon law which is at variance with current indus-
trial needs. A deference is shown on occasion for
certain traditional aspects of the law which exhibit
too great concern for the powerful individual and
too little respect for the needs of the weaker group
Custom imitation, as pointed out by Gabriel
Tarde and E. A. Ross, is favored by psychical and
social isolation. Geographic and social barriers shut
out new stimuli ; they prohibit contacts with the ad-
vanced ideas and methods of the day. In the iso-
lated sections even of civilized countries, there sur-
vive clannishness, patriarchal authority, narrow
religious dogmatism, and illiteracy.
A Chinese saying reads: I approach my elder
brother with respect, my father and mother with
veneration, my grandfather with awe. To ancestor
worship with its emphasis upon the past, the phe-
nomenal stability of China is partly to be credited.
All human groups, in fact, rely upon custom imi-
tation for stability. If it were not for custom imita-
tion, no human group would possess permanence.
Where custom imitation prevails, there is danger
from too much conservatism. Custom imitation
tends to preserve beliefs too long ; it stifles thought.
As a result of custom imitation, many persons ac-
cept beliefs uncritically.
GROUPS AND PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS 83
Then there is fashion imitation. As the former
is a borrowing from ancestors and predecessors, the
latter is a copying of contemporaries. The reading
of newspapers and magazines favors fashion imita-
tion, and on the whole creates contacts with the
present rather than with the past. In penetrating
remote districts the railroads assist in extending
new ideas and methods. Travel and migration re-
sult in attitudes of mind that favor the new as op-
posed to the old. Freedom of discussion breaks the
spell of custom imitation, and forward-looking
schools and educational systems deliver the young
from prejudices and customs that are no longer use-
ful. Reactionary school systems of course favor
traditionalism and the past.
In the United States many forces have operated
in favor of fashion. American individualism has
stimulated the immigrant to break away from Old
World traditions, and to violate the wishes of
priests, padrones, and other natural upholders of
the past. The spirit of progress in the United States
has left little room for reverence for antiquity. The
World War however left a strong reactionary cur-
rent in its wake, which indicates that the United
States is showing signs of age, even in its youth.
The main law of fashion imitation is that the
persons or ideas which are rated as superior are im-
itated by persons who are rated inferior. The cor-
ollaries naturally follow, namely, that the wealthy
84 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
are imitated by the poor, seniors by freshmen,
statesmen and politicians by citizens.
People have been classified according to their at-
titudes toward fashion. (1) There are the design-
ers and fashion-show merchants. (2) There are the
pace-setters, that is, the persons who adopt a new
fashion as soon as it is put on the market. As soon
as any fashion is somewhat widely adopted, the
pace-setter adopts a new fashion and thus the pro-
cess continues. (3 ) There are the people who adopt
a fashion promptly so as to be taken for the pace-
setters. (4) Another group are those who imitate
a new fashion somewhat belatedly and in modified
forms in order to avoid being conspicuous. (5)
There are those who never conform.
Rational imitation refers to the copying of ac-
tions and particularly of ideas which are useful. As
a high percentage of customs still serve useful pur-
poses, a large portion of custom imitation is ration-
al. Since only a small proportion of fashions are
useful, a great deal of fashion imitation is irrational.
Custom imitation, fashion imitation, and merit
imitation each prevails in respective sections of the
lives of individuals and groups. Custom imitation
obtains in matters of feeling, ritual, language;
fashion imitation rules in questions of dress and
amusements ; and merit or rational imitation con-
trols in business and science.
Out of the original nature of man there arises in-
GROUPS AND PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS 85
ventive ability. While representing a combination
of specific inherited qualities, each individual also
possesses new traits. His original nature is not
entirely a repetition of past tendencies ; he is char-
acterized by special talents, or at least by an ability
to see new relationships. This inventiveness has its
sources in human energy, physical and mental. The
concentration of energy, particularly of mental en-
ergy, for any length of time in a given direction,
gives an individual a superior advantage over his
fellows, enables him to see farther in specific di-
rections, and to discover unsuspected relationships,
which is the essence of invention.
It probably is as natural to invent as to imitate,
although the latter process is far easier. Inventing
is defying the ordinary currents of life while imi-
tating is drifting, or acting like other persons be-
cause of having been built that way. Invention is
largely a process of trial and error in seeking new
mental goals ; imitation is following established re-
Every person has inventive ability enough to be
able to contribute to group progress. This ability
is rarely developed; it is rarely stimulated to any
degree. The schools stress copying, the following
of standards, and accepting established thought. It
is often only by accident that inventive ability is
discovered, stimulated, and set at work.
The need for applying inventiveness in the spirit-
86 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
ual realms is greater than in the field of mechanical
appliances. Human mastery of the physical has
exceeded the control of the spiritual. Special talent
and genius have been applied in the field of mechan-
ical inventions until the material world has come to
control man's attention. These inventions have
made life so comfortable and have produced so
many luxuries that people have sometimes been
lulled into inertia and decay.
Special talent and genius represent a natural
concentration of inventive ability. In the original
nature of man there is often found highly focalized
expressions of artistic, mathematical, or other forms
of ability. The appearance of talent and genius in
any given individual is difficult to explain. The
biological mutant or sport appears unexpectedly.
The human genius likewise cannot be forecasted;
he is as likely to be born in the tenements as in the
mansion. Society however is wasteful of the geniuses
born of poor parents ; it needs to assist the less for-
tunate members of society in obtaining training
facilities, so that society may have full benefit of
the potential ability of its members.
4. Communication and Gregariousness. Human
beings respond similarly to like stimuli ; their psy-
chical organisms are alike in inner drives and mech-
anisms. The fact that individuals react to stimuli
in similar ways explains their common types of be-
GROUPS AND PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS 87
havior, and enables them to survive in the struggle
for existence. This common nature is the basis of
communication and gregariousness, as well as the
basis of imitative reactions.
The sentinel members of a flock of wild geese give
a warning cry which secures an automatic response
on the part of all members of the group, a response
which produces prompt flight. If this cry did not
cause a quick, automatic reaction, the group would
not long survive. In the higher animal world a set.
of cries, calls, and other symbols together with ap-
propriate mechanistic responses guarantee group
life. With human beings these symbols and gestures
result in a consciousness of meaning, language, and
the establishment of social relationships.
One primitive man struggling alone with an ugly
lion is lost, but ten men by co-operating can trap
and destroy the beast. A common means of com-
munication enables the men to work together ad-
vantageously and accomplish their purpose.
Means of communication are first set up between
parent and offspring. The human mother can rec-
ognize a half dozen different cries on the part of her
infant. From these simple sounds, language de-
velops. At maturity, the individual may have ac-
quired a vocabulary ranging from two thousand to
ten thousand words, besides a large number of dif-
ferent inflections of the voice and numerous silent
symbol forms, such as facial gestures, and gestures
88 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
of the hands, arms, shoulders and even of the body.
A symbol and an elementary consciousness of
meaning constitute human language. By means of
a well organized method of communication, human
groups may stimulate their members into well-
rounded, useful personalities ; they may also develop
complex organizations among themselves.
In its simplest form communication is character-
ized by reflex, feeling, and instinctive elements, op-
erating an elaborate set of drives and mechanisms.
The angry tone of voice produces a response of an-
gry feeling. Only in the higher fields of personal
control are individuals able to overcome these ele-
mental factors of communication, and thus prevent
themselves from shrinking to animal levels of com-
Higher animals have fostered elemental ways of
communication ; mankind has gone farther, produc-
ing alphabets and literatures. Language is not dis-
tinctly a product of the human mind, but its de-
velopment has been pushed to high levels among
human beings as a result of their elaborate group
activities and needs.
Language is a conversation of attitudes and ap-
propriate responses. It is a conversation of gestures
of the hands, shoulders, face, and vocal apparatus.
Gestures are either pantomimic, facial, or vocal :
pantomimic are gestures chiefly of the hands and
shoulders ; facial refer to the expressions about the
GROUPS AND PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS 89
eyes and mouth ; and vocal gestures include spoken
language. Each gesture stands for a whole act;
each is the -beginning of an act. As soon as its
meaning is clear and an appropriate response in the
form of another gesture is made, it is changed. Thus
communication takes place : silently, if pantomimic
and facial ; audibly, if vocal.
The development of communication by spoken
language is a fascinating field of study. Methods
of communication by writing have also undergone
marvelous changes. These were first (1) mnemonic,
or memory-aiding; some tangible object is used as
a message, or for record, between people who are
separated. (2) The pictorial stage was that in
which a picture of the object under consideration
is given; at a glance its story is revealed. (3) The
ideographic stage, as the name implies, was that
in which the pictures become representative; they
are not pictures, but symbols. (4) The phonetic
stage is that in which a sound-sign is given for
a whole word, for each syllable, or for each letter
this last development may be called a fifth (5) or
the alphabetic stage of communication.
The alphabet is built on the principle that the
sign as an eye picture suggests the sound, inde-
pendent of the meaning of the sound. It was very
long after man appeared on earth that it dawned
upon him that all the words people utter are ex-
pressed by a few sounds. It was in this discovery
90 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
that an elaborate though simple system of com-
munication became possible. When constant signs
were chosen to represent constant sounds the prog-
ress of mankind was assured. This step constituted
the invention of the alphabet, one of the momentous
triumphs of the human mind. Only thereby was
the preservation of all that is worth while in group
and personal experience made possible; only so
could educational systems develop.
Over two hundred alphabets have been invented,
but less than fifty have survived. India was the
center of alphabet manufacture. The chief alpha-
bets today are the Chinese, Arabic, and Roman.
The latter is the vehicle of the culture of Western
civilization, and is extending its influence.
As a means of making communication accurate,
numeral systems were invented. A debt of inex-
pressible magnitude is due those unknown and un-
honored individuals who first made the cipher and
the nine numerals of the Arabic system. The great-
est admiration is due him who invented the cipher,
for without it modern business transactions, trans-
portation, and many other forms of communication
would be impossible.
Communication thus originates in inarticulate
cries, and elemental symbols and meanings, in
drives and mechanisms ; it develops as a result of
group life and needs into complicated literatures.
Gregariousness is closely related to communica-
GROUPS AND PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS 91
tion ; gregarious responses are made because of sim-
ilar neurological structure and functional nature,
particularly on the feeling side. Organisms being
functionally alike respond mechanistically alike to
the same stimulus. In its simplicity gregariousness
implies none of the higher attributes of mind.
Among animals it manifests itself in a strong un-
easiness in isolation and a sense of satisfaction in
being one of a group. The classic illustration of
gregariousness is that of the ox which shows no
affection for his fellows so long as he is among them,
but when the herd becomes separated from him he
displays extreme distress until he is able to rejoin
Gregariousness is usually confirmed by habit.-
Offspring are born into a group and grow up in a
group. To live with others accentuates the strength
of the gregarious tendency and expands its man-
ifestation. Solitary punishment is regarded by
many persons as a mode of torture too cruel and
unnatural to be longer practiced. For the normal
person to be forced to be alone for any length of
time is great torture. It is true that for everyone
except a few more or less highly cultivated persons,
the primary condition for recreation is to be a mem-
ber of a crowd. For every person who goes to the
mountains for a vacation there are hundreds who
frequent the beaches where the crowds are to be
found. The normal daily recreation of the popula-
92 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
tion of the towns and smaller cities is that of walk-
ing up and down the streets where the throng is
densest. The normal recreation for rural and urban
people alike on a holiday is that of rushing to the
places where the crowds are in control.
To an extent the gregarious instinct marks off
the differences between species and races. It also
helps to determine the nature of innumerable forms
of social alliances. An individual's conduct toward
those persons whom he feels to be like himself is
instinctively and rationally different from his con-
duct toward the persons whose actions are strange.
In early times when population traditions were
small the gregarious instinct played an important
part in social evolution, because it kept people to-
gether who despite a common set of group tradi-
tions might have drifted apart and been lost. This
group life occasioned the needs for laws and group
institutions. It also provided the conditions of ag-
gregation in which alone the higher development of
social qualities became possible.
While original nature in qualities and expressions
varies, yet it has been demonstrated that there is a
common unity in human minds, irrespective of geo-
graphic, biologic, and psychologic differences. To
certain stimuli, the human mind everywhere reacts
similarly. In potential mental ability, races man-
ifest resemblances. The fact that one race has ad-
vanced further than another is no proof of its su-
GROUPS AND PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS 93
perior psychical ability ; it has probably had a more
favorable environment and has reaped the advan-
tage of cultural momentum, a point which will be
considered more at length in the chapter on Racial
Groups. From a consideration of the socio-psy-
chical nature of man we now turn to present the
1. What are the differences between instinctive and habit-
2. Why are women as a rule more sympathetic than men?
3. Do you invent much?
4. Is the potential mental ability of all races more or less
5. Why are people gregarious?
6. What is selfish sociability?
7. Why does an elderly person often talk aloud to himself?
8. What is essential in order that there may be commun-
ication between individuals?
9. Are nations gregarious?
10. What is needed for the development of complete com-
munication between all racial and national groups in
GROUPS AND SOCIOLOGIC FACTORS
SOCIOLOGIC FACTORS are those which arise out of
social situations. They are to be distinguished
from physical and geographic factors which are
purely objective. They are not the same as the bio-
logic and psychologic factors, for these are inher-
ited. They spring from the associative life, but are
psychological and even biological in origin. The so-
ciologic factors which will be presented here are first
the social attitudes and values, then the social pro-
cesses, and finally the highest social processes of all,
socialization and social control.
1. Social Attitudes and Values. An attitude is
a tendency to act, and a social attitude is a tendency
to act with reference to some phase of associative
life. Social attitudes are expressed by individuals
with reference to values or phases of the social en-
vironment toward which individuals are attracted.
The social attitudes arise from original human
nature and also in social heritage and in group
stimulation. Drives and mechanisms represent the
technique by which social attitudes are expressed.
Emotional reactions and sentiments, dispositions
GROUPS AND SOCIOLOGIC FACTORS 95
and temperaments must also be understood if one
would penetrate the psychic backgrounds of social
attitudes. The human desires, wishes, and beliefs are
also generic to social attitudes. Wishes may origi-
nate chiefly in psychological needs, but beliefs are
noticeably social in their development. A reference
to beliefs leads directly to the field of sociallieritage
and group stimulation.
A child's attitudes are determined generally by
the customary beliefs of parents, teachers, clergy,
and other representatives of group thinking. In the
social heritage are found many ideas which become
objects of value, and hence generate social attitudes.
In the religious heritage are ideas of immortality,
brotherhood of man, service, and personal contact
with God all of which are values that create atti-
tudes. In the political heritage are ideas of national
achievement and greatness which fascinate the hu-
man mind and stimulate specific attitudes.
Public opinion creates values, which in turn
arouse attitudes. Favorable opinion gives prestige;
that which opinion favors is reputable. Opinion
attracts attention to specific principles, procedures,
and persons; to the extent that it approves, whole
floods of values inundate the minds of individuals.
Only here and there a person is critical enough to
view with his full reason the values that the group
establishes through its unscientific assumptions.
Only occasionally does a person discover that the
96 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
scornful estimate of group opinion may be ex-
pressed irrationally. In the long run however pub-
lic opinion frees itself from blind emotional reflexes
and roughly represents a common sense judgment.
In a later chapter public opinion will be considered
in more detail as an agent of control in determin-
ing values and hence social attitudes.
Law may be cited here as another agency which
acts as a judge of values and hence as a creator of
attitudes ; it also will be considered in another chap-
ter in more detail as a factor in group control. Law
represents a crystallization of public opinion, and
thus is less emotional but more rigid. When it settles
upon given social procedures it is not easily
changed. Law establishes values, permanence, and
conservatism. By forceful, objective means it brings
group standards and necessities before the individu-
al's attention. By compelling the individual to
live according to rule and regulation it may in-
directly force him to develop habits of acting and
thinking built upon group needs; and hence ulti-
mately lead him to the acceptance of new attitudes.
The process is often painful and costly to both the
individual and the group, but nevertheless cannot
always be avoided. A weakness in modern penal
systems is the fact that they fail lamentably often-
times in controlling punishment so that the atti-
tudes of the anti-social member may be made more
GROUPS AND SOCIOLOGIC FACTORS 97
In times of group crisis, such as war, values and
attitudes undergo rapid modification. When the
United States entered the World War there was a
widespread lethargy regarding the necessity of send-
ing millions of soldiers to Europe. Pulpits, news-
papers, the cinema, government representatives,
four minute speakers, and others joined in whirl-
wind campaigns throughout the country, starting
widespread currents of feeling and opinion concern-
ing the necessity of making the world safe for de-
mocracy and of fighting to end war. The results
were almost miraculous. Millions of men left their
accustomed pursuits, their homes and loved ones;
they entered upon training for war ; they embarked
dauntlessly on ships sailing over submarine-in-
fested seas. They gave up temporarily, or if need
be permanently, the values of constructive peace for
the values of destructive war. Their social attitudes
shifted from earning money, following personal de-
sires, and enjoying the comforts of home to serving
the nation at the cost of life itself.
The primary social value is the group. At the '
crucial tests human beings give up their loved ones
and their own lives for the sake of the group. Un-
der the flags of the nations millions marched to
death in the World War. Self is hesitatingly if not
freely placed on the altar of the group. Group opin-
ion is almost all-powerful. Favorable group opin-
ion expands personality; unfavorable group judg-
98 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
ments constitute the severest forms of punishments.
The welfare of loved ones is another leading so-
cial value. -Ordinarily it is primary. For the sake
of members of the family group and closest friends,
an individual will face all manner of risks, even
death. For their sake the laborer struggles on day
by day in earning money for the necessities of life,
and the man of wealth furnishes them with the
finest comforts of life, the ablest physicians in case
of sickness, and all the advantages of travel if these
The cause of truth, creative effort, and achieve-
ment constitutes a set of highly rated values. In
these directions, the best years of life are spent un-
grudgingly. To the extent that these factors are
given fundamental interpretations they rank high
among social values. In short, the social values are
differentiated in many ways, too numerous to pre-
sent here, depending upon the level of civilization
which is being examined.
Group manufacture of values and individual de-
velopment of social attitudes represent the main el-
ements in the social process, which will now be ex-
amined. The social process contains in itself all
group and interacting personal phenomena; it is
the central theme of sociological study.
2. The Social Process. Upon analysis the social
process is found to be characterized by various el-
GROUPS AND SOCIOLOGIC FACTORS 99
ements, such as (1) isolation, (2) interaction, (3)
competition, (4) accommodation, (5) co-operation,
(6) assimilation, and also (7) socialization and
(8) social control. The two last mentioned pro-
cesses are so important that they will be treated in
a separate section of this chapter.
( 1 ) Isolation. The examination of any group at
work, even of a committee, shows that some indi-
viduals are not taking part, perhaps they are not
present. They are not interested; their attitudes
have led their minds in other directions. As a result
they are isolated from the active members of the
committee, and as far as the specific committee is
concerned, they are dead timber although being in
other connections very live personalities.
In a family, one member may become separated
from the rest in spirit or he may desert, and mutual
isolation result. As a consequence of the isolation
the family remains broken. Isolation is the chief
objective factor in broken up homes.
The most important cause of labor-capital con-
troversies today perhaps is isolation. Because of
isolation the laboring man does not understand the
capitalist; and for the same reason the employer
does not view his employees with unprejudiced eyes
and an understanding mind.
Isolation between races leads to race prejudices.
Racial groups have developed in different parts of
100 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
the earth and under various climatic conditions;
they have produced different cultures and types of
mental reactions. Because of lack of friendly con-
tacts, mutual isolation has resulted, and misunder-
standings, prejudices, and wars have taken place.
The significance of racial isolation will be noted
further in a later chapter.
Isolation between nations has been and is a lead-
ing cause of international disputes. Nations have
built barriers about themselves ; they have created
permanent crowd emotions of an egotistic nature.
When a peace conference is held in Paris, the na-
tions are mutually suspicious and unwilling to trust
one another, although each claiming to be honorable
and priding itself on its integrity and dependable-
Isolation is caused by lack of contact on the same
planes of sympathy and understanding. It involves
/ an inability or unwillingness to put oneself or one's
group completely in the position of the other fellow
or group, and consider problems unselfishly and in
the light of larger societary needs.
2. Interaction. The importance of interaction
has been implied in the preceding paragraphs and
also in Chapter I. It is only when social contacts
exist that progress can result. An infant could not
grow to mental maturity without social interaction.
It is in associative life that adults are produced.
GROUPS AND SOCIOLOGIC FACTORS 101
Groups likewise grow through interaction. A po-
litical party, for example, that is in supreme control
of the government, tends to become self-centered,
careless, conceited, and corrupt. A victorious nation
may become intoxicated with power, scorning to as-
sociate on democratic terms with weaker peoples,
and thereby find itself isolated and perhaps hated
by other nations.
Interaction is interstimulation. It draws out,
accelerates, and discovers unsuspected powers. It
increases mental activity, leads to comparisons of
effort and through competition brings about tests
of ability and achievement. Interaction uncovers
old problems and creates new ones ; it enlarges hu-
man horizons, sets new tasks, and electrifies persons
and groups alike.
Interaction brings customs into conflict, with the
result that the less worthy are unable long to with-
stand invidious comparisons. It forces the old to
compete with the new, the new with the new, and
also shows the need for new advances. Interaction
brings individuals and groups into co-operation.
Lifelong friendships, permanent organizations, un-
selfish world enterprises, and new racial stocks re-
sult. Interaction leads to the formation of all as-
3. Conflict. Conflict is often the primary outcome
of interaction. When strangers meet, each is
102 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
suspicious of the other ; each is on the defensive. If
either makes a false move, the other replies with an
appropriate response, and an incipient encounter is
Conflict between unequal forces means that the
weaker will be lost in the stronger. When the earth
and a meteor come together the latter is destroyed
by the former. When a powerful football team
meets a weaker untrained aggregation of players,
neither team learns any football. No contest is ex-
citing when the contenders are unequal in ability.
Conflict between equals brings out the best efforts
in both. It may end in a deadlock, but more likely
in a compromise. When two trained debaters of
equal ability meet, each is likely to surpass his past
Conflict may take the form of destructive or con-
structive competition. The opponents may struggle
surreptitiously against each other, seeking by cal-
umny and chicanery to undermine the other's rep-
utation and strength. In the neighborhood group,
families may gossip about each other to the de-
struction of each other's reputation. In the in-
dustrial world employers' associations and radical
labor organizations may exhaust the catalogue of
pernicious and subtle means of combat.
Conflict may take place between a small group
and a large group, between a minority and a ma-
jority, between a new idea and established dogma.
GROUPS AND SOCIOLOGIC FACTORS 103
When conflict waxes hot, it may degenerate into
verbal gunplay, deception, and malicious lying. Any
dying cause whether slavery, alcoholism, or czarism
resorts sooner or later to every conceivable means
On the other hand conflict and competition may
be constructive and mutually wholesome. Children
competing in games may all gain physically and
mentally. Neighborhoods may compete on "Clean
Up" days to the advantage of all concerned; they
may vie with one another in Red Cross drives not
only to their own advantage but to that of the Red
Cross and of needy people in remote parts of the
4. Accommodation. Conflicts often end in com-
promise. After struggling for a long time with
great losses and few gains each side learns to toler-
ate the other and perhaps to recede from the earlier
demands that were made upon the other. Accom-
modation is the method of toleration, arbitration,
and compromise. It is the only feasible social pro-
cess where the contending parties possess more or
less equally the same social and moral values and
where each is somewhat equally wrong.
Accommodation is the wise but not commonly
sought procedure when a minority is in the wrong.
However, it is at this point that martyrs are made.
There would probably be no martyrs if the spirit
104 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
of accommodation prevailed everywhere. It is nec-
essary that some individuals stand out unflinching-
ly against the majority or the established order, if
need be, to their death. By sacrificing all, they at-
tract attention to the wrong for which they fought
and start social currents in motion which finally
overthrow gigantic evils.
Oftentimes the representatives of long established
classes fail to accept compromise situations and go
down to ignominious and utter defeat. The princi-
ples of conduct which obtained a half century ago
for a social organization no longer suffice in a dy-
namic society. The leaders of economic, religious,
or other groups must be alert to social changes and
needs, and be willing to sacrifice privileges if need
be in order that human needs may be met. By such
accommodation they may maintain themselves in
positions of leadership indefinitely. When Bis
marck inaugurated measures of social insurance he
appeased the socialist; by such accommodation he
continued in power.
A privileged class always tends to violate the
principle of accommodation. They become react-
ionary and by so doing provoke the liberalist to be-
come radical. The result is generally revolution.
Accommodation is the method of evolution; it rep-
resents adaptation to environmental needs.
> Accommodations may be either passive or active.
Animal life is full of illustrations of passive accom-
GROUPS AND SOCIOLOGIC FACTORS 105
modation, a process which is the main element,
psychologically, in organic evolution. It is a pro-
cess in which the environment makes over the indi-
vidual. Fraternities, college student bodies, church-
es, a group of friends, and other groups may grad-
ually and even subtly change an individual, espec-
ially a young person, from a low to a high or from a
high to a low level of living. Active accommodation,
on the other hand, is a process whereby the individ-
ual transforms the environment. It is represented
for example by the social phenomena of leadership.
The person who does something better than his fel-
lows is in a position to modify the attitudes of his
(5) Co-operation. Progress moves from isolation
to co-operation. By co-operation is meant a pro-
cess whereby the respective units are consciously
aware of the place each may best fill in a specific
enterprise, and best concentrate their energies up-
on filling these places. Such co-operation is rational
Co-operation may represent a blind cog-in-the-
wheel situation. Under such conditions, individuals
not only lose their identity but also their self-con-
sciausness. They possess no creative joy in effort;
they are sacrificed to the god of organization. Over-
organization represents a deadening form of activ-
ity. In the animal world there is over-organization
106 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
as found in a hive of bees, whose individual units
represent not individuality but helpless subservience
to mechanistic principles.
Over-organization is sometimes' caused by the
formation of too many groups. Student bodies are
often over-organized ; modern city life may likewise
be over-organized, so much so that many per-
sons spend their entire time in going from com-
mittee meeting to committee meeting. Over-organ-
ization in this sense may easily mean over-med-
dling. Moreover, under any conditions over-organ-
ization means suppression of individual initiative
and the crushing of personal growth.
Co-operation involves multiplication of efforts. A
group working together may generate unbounded
enthusiasm and volitional power. There is almost
no limit to the achievements of a thoroughly co-
operating group. Co-operation constitutes morale.
It also means efficiency. By specialization of effort
with the resultant concentration of attention upon
minutiae it is possible to secure efficiency f the
highest type at the lowest cost, but, however, at the
expense of human development and creativeness.
Co-operation on the rational plane then is an
acting together, but not so completely that the in-
dividual units are slaves to the specific organization.
It produces enthusiasm, morale, efficiency, re-
doubled efforts, and at its best the highest degree
of creative effort.
GROUPS AND SOCIOLOGIC FACTORS 107
(6) Assimilation. Assimilation is the process
whereby the social attitudes of persons are united
in a co-ordinated system of thought, thus pro-
ducing a unified group, a substantial group morale,
and leading to dependable group activity and ad-
vance. It is a normal outgrowth of interaction,
constructive types of conflict, accommodation, and
co-operation. It is illustrated concretely and at
length in the chapter on Racial Groups.
Two more social processes remain to be analyzed,
namely, of socialization and social control. The
importance of these processes is so great and they
will be referred to so frequently in the remaining
chapters of this book that the immediate treatment
of the theme will be merely introductory.
3. Socialization and Social Control. A child's at-
titudes originate in narrow, circumscribed, and sel-
fish reactions; they also have their origin in gre-
garious, play, and similar tendencies. In the early
years of life the narrow and more egoistic impulses
dominate the child. In fact their inherited force
is so strong that life becomes a process of controlling
and socializing them. In a sense discipline is a sys-
tem of controlling the self-assertive forces.
The child's gregarious and group nature also as-
serts itself. For example, the child demands play-
mates. If he cannot do otherwise, he will imagine
playmates ; he will personify the material objects of
108 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
his environment and talk to them, scold them, and
While deeply grounded in inherited tendencies of
great age, the social nature and the selfish nature
are both developed in and through group life. The
need for group survival and individual survival are
causal factors. The nature of the environmental
influences controls to a large degree the develop-
ment of the social and selfish impulses, or the group
and anti-group behavior of the individual.
As a person matures, as he faces one harsh ex-
perience after another, as he sometimes loses that
which he values highly, his social nature may secure
the ascendency, or he may become embittered. By
suffering, persons learn to be sympathetic and un-
selfishly interested in the welfare of others. Provid-
ing it does not prove too overwhelming, suffering
acts as a socializing agency.
As a rule the social nature is likely to be limited
in its attitudes to a few persons, and only in general
ways to the members of large groups. With the
expansion of experience a person may come to iden-
tify himself with a corporate group, an university,
a community, or a nation. This expression often
arises out of selfish attitudes, that is, a person may
identify himself with a group in order to become a
hero, to secure election to office, or to increase his
business success. The social nature may be used
by a person selfishly.
GROUPS AND SOCIOLOGIC FACTORS 109
Moreover, the social nature of many persons ex-
presses itself toward only circumscribed groups,
while the selfish nature operates toward all larger
groups. A person can be a kind husband and fa-
ther but anti-social in dealing with employees, or
in racial matters. On the other hand some persons
are arbitrary and unjust in the family circle, toward
certain neighbors, but at the same time professing
the finest principles of Christian brotherhood.
The highest type of social nature is that in which
the social attitudes are fully developed and steadily
in control; it is one which gives unselfishly; and
that while respecting self, gives it away without ask-
ing or thinking: What am I going to gain? Social-
ization involves a genuine and unselfish identifica-
tion of one's self with the welfare of other persons,
of one's groups, and of other groups.
The most far-reaching social process is social con-
trol, a process which will be analyzed in Chapters
XVII XIX. Social control, or more specifically
group control, is the process by which groups in-
fluence their members. Social control utilizes so-
cial pressures and social stimulations. The group
usually accentuates to an extreme the use of pres-
sures of one kind or another. It represses blindly ;
it is suspicious of individual variations from the
On the other hand social control sometimes se-
cures expression through the use of rewards, honors,
110 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
and prizes. It usually stimulates individuals to act
with courage along customary lines ; it is chary with
its rewards to those whose constructive programs in-
volve the destruction of old and revered ideas and
Social control manifests itself most tangibly in
the form of group structures or social institutions.
These represent the standardizations of associative
opinion. Social institutions are products of group
and personal feeling and opinions. These social
products tend to become inflexible, rigid, and im-
perious ; they are slow to change, slower than hu-
man needs, and hence as agents of social pressure
they become tools of social repression. Undue and
prolonged institutional pressure causes a virile
group to remonstrate and leads to revolution, a
destructive and costly method of progress.
The leading social institutions today are the
home, play facilities, occupations, the school, the
church, and communities including national and in-
ternational organizations; these have each devel-
oped specific forms of group life. Wider social divi-
sions are represented by rural and urban groups,
and by racial groups. Social institutions are the
leading tangible vehicles of control; they are also
the objective, crystallized products of social atti-
tudes. They hold groups steady, sometimes too
In this chapter the leading social forces, as dis-
GROUPS AND SOCIOLOGIC FACTORS 111
tinguished from physical, biological, and socio-psy-
chological factors have been treated under the head-
ing of social attitudes and their inseparable com-
plements, the social values. The social process
has been viewed in its constitutent elements, rang-
ing from the static factor of isolation to its highest
constitutent process, socialization, and to its main
technique, social or group control. Social beings
themselves are largely the products of grouping;
they are able to mature only in group life. Our so-
ciological quest now takes us upon an analysis of
the leading human groups.
1. Analyze an attitude that you now hold, showing how it
2. Illustrate a change in attitude that you have experienced.
3. Illustrate the difference between an attitude and a value.
4. Give a new illustration of isolation.
5. Why do people co-operate?
6. Have you experienced socialization in any regard?
7. To how rnany groups do you belong, and how long
have you belonged to each?
8. In what ways have you experienced group control?
9. Illustrate social pressure.
}0. Illustrate social stimulation.
THE FAMILY GROUP
OF ALL THE human groups the family is in many
ways by far the most important. From its basic
units, the father and mother, the child receives his
physical heritage, that is, a strong or weak mental
and physical organism, a healthy or puny start in
life. From the family the child receives his social
heritage, and his earliest attitudes toward life. The
family's social, religious, political and other points
of view are likely to determine his social attitudes
for a term of years if not for life. In the family he
learns obedience and the meaning of discipline ; the
type of citizen that he will become is determined to
an extent by the training he receives at home.
When he reaches adult life, he leaves the parental
family in order to establish a family of his own. By
the processes of courtship and romantic love he
marries, having chosen thoughtlessly or thought-
fully a potential mother for the children that may
be born into the new family group. The young
woman possessing a mental and physical heritage,
and having received a social heritage and a training
from the parental family, likewise marries, having
THE FAMILY GROUP 113
chosen thoughtlessly or thoughtfully a young man
to be the father of the children that she may bear.
The two young people, the product of two differ-
ent family groups, establish through the social in-
stitution of marriage their own family group. Their
viewpoint changes, for instead of being son and
daughter sometimes remonstrating against parental
direction, they now play the part of disciplining
father and mother. Thus family groups break up,
new ones are established, and the process of per-
sonal growth and social evolution goes on.
1. The History of the Family. The student may
gain an understanding of the significance of the
family and marriage as social institutions by con-
sidering their early history and development.
Among primitive people the mother and child were
the stable units in the family group. The father
roamed, coming home irregularly, staying away for
periods of time. The helplessness of the infant com-
pelled the mother to lead a home life. The irregu-
larity of the father's habits made it necessary for
the mother to gather fruit, to plant seeds, and de-
velop a crude form of hoe-culture. The father, en-
gaged in the hunt and chase, led a more exciting
life, and came in contact with a larger variety of
In early human history the family in which the
mother rather than the father was the leading rnem-
114 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
her was common. It is known as the metronymic
family. The child took the mother's name; proper-
ty was transferred through the mother. The met-
ronymic family was well developed, for example,
among many North American Indian tribes. The
Iroquois Indians have been pronounced a typical
metronymic people, among whom the government
of the clans was to a degree in the hands of matrons
as women councilors, elected by the males of the
Where the pastoral form of life existed and where
flocks and herds were kept, the father was the chief
factor in the family. The grazing of flocks and
herds required considerable territory ; small groups
of people widely separated from each other repre-
sented the population situation. The wife and
mother was removed from the influence and author-
ity of her kindred ; the husband's power over her by
virtue of her isolation was supreme.
Under pastoral conditions, men owned and con-
trolled the flocks ; the owners of the family property
controlled in a real sense the family itself. The
children took the father' name and inherited prop-
erty through him ; the eldest living son usually suc-
ceeded to the rulers hip of the family group. Warfare
gave men increased influence over women. The
women captured in war were held as slaves and
wives by their captors. The form of the family
with rfie man at the head, possessing authority over
THE FAMILY GROUP 115
if not ownership of the wife and children, is known
as the patronymic or patriarchal family.
In early social history a method of purchasing
wives was known. The purchased wives as well as
the women captured in warfare were held as the
property of the men. In these and other ways the
patriarchal type of family life became common. At
its best it is found among the early Hebrews. The
Old Testament affords many descriptions of patri-
archal families, such as those of Abraham, Isaac,
The ancient Hebrew family is noted for the rel-
atively excellent care given the children. "Honor
thy father and thy mother; that thy days may be
long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth
thee." Such was the fundamental principle which
the Hebrew family bequeathed to the world
to the world's great gain. Because this principle is
being ignored in many modern homes, nations are
endangered and progress is throttled.
An overemphasis upon parental control leads to
ancestor worship. According to this procedure the
welfare of the living depends upon the active good
will of the departed ancestors. In order to insure
one's happiness, a man's first duty is that of rear-
ing a family that will continue the ancestral con-
trol. China's emphasis upon family stability and
ancestor worship explains in part her long life as a
116 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Ancestor worship existed among the Romans at
an early date. The early Roman family, seven
centuries B.C., was patriarchal; it maintained it-
self on the religious basis of ancestor worship. The
family life centered about the ancestral gods; the
habitation in which the family group lived was
virtually a temple, with the patriarchal head pos-
sessing the power of a god over the women and
children. The house father had almost absolute
power over all the members of the family. He
could not always act arbitrarily ; he was controlled
by what he believed was the will of the ancestors.
Property was held by the eldest living male mem-
ber of the family ; it was held in trust for the good
of the entire family. In early Roman times, this
eldest living male member or house father could
not make a will. At his death the property passed
automatically to the eldest living son.
Marriage was practically indissoluble and divorce
unknown. It is said that for five centuries after the
founding of Rome, the town had no divorces. This
Roman family life thus was characterized by great
stability. Although the family life was patriarchal
and women and children were in subjection, it
nevertheless was of a fairly high order, although
not as elevated as the Hebrew family life at its best.
The pendulum swung to the other extreme ; fam-
ily life began to decay. When this disintegration
reached its height, the fate of Rome was sealed. If
THE FAMILY GROUP 117
Rome had maintained a high type of family, her
history would undoubtedly have been entirely dif-
The decadence was caused by several factors. The
family began to lose its religious significance. When
marriage became a civil contract merely, it was
viewed too lightly. The authority of the house
father was broken. The right to make a will was es-
tablished. The father was first given the right to di-
vide his property among his children, and then to
bequeath it to whom he pleased. When the family
property was thus broken up in units, and scattered,
the family as an institution lost prestige. Women
were given the right to hold property, and in the
second century B.C. to divorce their husbands.
Marriages were made and broken at will; tem-
porary marriages were common ; sex relations were
loose ; and sexual immorality flourished.
The women of the higher social classes achieved
emancipation, and were at liberty to do as they saw
fit. They formed and dissolved marriages freely.
The personal liberty of both men and women was
extended beyond the control of their passions.
The downfall of the family group in Roman life
may be thus attributed to three main sets of causes.
(1) The decay of religious beliefs, inadequate as
they were and promulgated by narrow-minded big-
ots, was a leading factor in the disintegration of the
family. (2) The habits of vice, particularly of
118 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
sexual vice, that were common among Roman
young men and were winked at by the young
women, undermined true love and genuine family
life. (3) The changes in economic conditions,
such as the expansion of commerce and manufac-
ture, and the growth of cities tended to destroy the
social situations in which the family had been a
Christianity represented the next set of influences
that vitally affected the family as a social institu-
ion. It began promptly upon its Western invasion
to reconstruct the family life in Europe. (1) Chris-
tianity brought the support of religion to the family
again. It recognized marriage as a sacrament and
opposed the idea that marriage is simply a civil con-
tract; it ascribed to marriage a religious nature and
thus gave it stability once more.
(2) Christianity opposed divorce. When the
church came into power in Western Europe, it
brought about a change whereby divorce as a legal
institution was no longer accredited. In the place
of divorce, legal separation was recognized. The
church took a strict attitude against divorce.
(3) Christianity exalted the position of woman
and secured a new interest in the welfare of chil-
dren. For the patriarchal type of family, Christian-
ity succeeded in substituting a semi-patriarchal
form, in which the position of the husband and fa-
ther while not supreme as in the case of the Hebrew,
THE FAMILY GROUP 119
Greek, and early Roman families, exercised a con-
trol out of proportion to the importance given the
other members of the family. This type persisted in
Western civilization until the latter part of the
nineteenth century. In rebuilding the institution
of the family in the early centuries, even on semi-
patriarchal lines, Christianity performed an inesti-
mable social service.
With the Renaissance came the separation of the
church and state and the consequent weakening of
the authority of the church. Consequently, the
family again began to lose its significance as a re-
ligious institution. When marriage once more
came to be regarded by many persons solely as a
civil contract, the way was open for divorce.
By the beginning of the nineteenth century the
movement known as individualism had reached a
remarkable growth. Tnis rise of individualism was
accompanied by a decline in the part played by
authority in social life ; the patriarchal type of fam-
ily also began to decline, and the idea gradually de-
veloped that either party to the marriage vows
could break these vows according to his or her in-
Economic changes at the beginning of the nine-
teenth century seriously affected tjie status of the
family. Under the domestic system of industry
which reached its height in the eighteenth century,
the family was the industrial unit ; all manufacture
120 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
was carried on in the home, and all members of the
family group as well as the helpers worked together
The discovery of steam power, the invention of
steam-driven machinery, and the development of
the factory system all tended, however, to destroy
the economic unity of the family. The members of
the family, the men, the women, and even the boys
and girls left the home for the factory as the place
of work. With the breaking down of the economic
unity of the family, there came also a disintegration
of the social cohesion existing between the members
of the family.
Another influence affecting the family in West-
ern civilization in the last century was the enor-
mous growth of wealth. The possession of wealth
has emancipated peoples from various forms of fear,
even religious fears; it has tended to make them
feel self sufficient. In other words, the growth of
wealth has favored a lowering of moral standards
and often a looseness in marriage relations.
In the next place, the nineteenth century was
one of increasing social unrest. The family felt the
effects of this unrest, and found itself at the dawn
of the twentieth century in the midst of social
change and confusion.
It is now in place to take up the thread of discus-
sion concerning marriage in detail. Marriage is a
procedure which admits men and women to famil}
THE FAMILY GROUP 121
life, that is, to living in the socially sacred relation-
ships of husband and wife. This procedure has so-
cial approbation and may have religious approval,
in fact, may be conducted under religious auspices,.
Marriage as a social institution has had significant
In certain parts of the earth the practice of pol-
yandry exists. It is a form of marriage where one
woman has more than one husband at a given time.
It is found, for example, in Tibet, where the condi-
tions of life are harsh and where the efforts of two
or more men are needed in order that a family may
be supported. It is a relatively unsatisfactory and
rare type of marriage relationship.
Another form of marriage that has existed to a
small extent in all ages is polygyny, a situation in
which one man has several living wives. Polygyny
is closely related to the institution of slavery. Wom-
en captured in warfare became the wives and
slaves of their captors. A chieftain might purchase
a dozen women for wives, in the same manner that
he would buy any form of personal property.
Polygyny did not develop to any extent until hu-
man groups had accumulated some degree of
wealth, at least, attained sufficient degree of eco-
nomic efficiency to enable one man to support sever-
al families. Hence, even in countries where polyg-
yny is legal, as in Turkey and Egypt, only a small
proportion of the people, namely, the wealthier
122 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Polygyny is based on the lower and degraded im-
pulses of the male sex ; it exists as a sacrifice to the
development of the highest affections. It rests upon
the subjection and degradation of woman; it allows
no high regard for the feelings of woman. Under
this expression, children and aged parents suffer
grievous neglect. Polyandry and polygyny together
are often referred to under the single term, po-
lygamy, meaning etymologically, much married.
Monogamy, or the marriage of one man and one
woman, has been always and everywhere the lead-
ing type of marriage. In Western civilization, mo-
nogamy has been sanctioned by custom, religion,
and law. The social advantages of monogamy are
now well recognized ; they have been stated by va-
rious writers, and scientific observers agree on the
(1) Monogamy secures the superior care of
children. Under it, both father and mother unite
their efforts in the care of the children. A greater
and better degree of attention can be given to the
training of children by both parents under monoga-
my than under any other expression of marriage
(2) The monogamic family alone produces the
highest type of affection, of altruistic love, of un-
selfish devotion. Under polygyny, the father can-
THE FAMILY GROUP 123
not devote himself fully to his children individually
or to each of his wives because he is in reality the
head of several households ; fatherhood in the com-
plete sense rarely exists under polygyny. Isolation
is common. Under monogamy, on the other hand,
both father and mother commonly sacrifice many
selfish desires in the mutual care of children.
(3) Monogamy creates more definite and strong-
er family ties than any other form of marriage ; af-
fection between parents, between parents and chil-
dren, and between children themselves is more
wholesome. Legal relationships and blood relation-
ships are simpler, less entangled, and less frequently
the cause of permanent and annoying frictions ; the
cohesive power of the family is greater. As a result,
monogamic families tend to increase the unity and
cohesiveness of society itself.
(4) Monogamy favors not only the preservation
of the lives of the children but also of the parents.
It is only under monogamy that aged parents are
cared for to any great extent by their children. Un-
der polygyny, the wife who has grown old is likely
to be discarded for a younger woman ; she usually
ends her days in bitterness. The father also is rare-
ly cared for by the children, because the polygynous
household does not often give opportunity for close
affection between parent and children. Under mo-
nogamy parents are likely to receive the favoring
124 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
care of children; under polygyny they are often
compelled to face a friendless old age.
In brief, monogamy presents such superior op-
portunities for social interaction that it is better
fitted than any other type of marriage to produce
the most unselfish forms of love and to lay the foun-
dations for the best forms of societary life.
2. Present Status and Tendencies of the Family.
Modern industrial processes have seriously upset
the family as a social institution. In primitive
groups and until the latter part of the eighteenth
century in England the home was the center of man-
ufacture. The use of steam-driven machinery was
too expensive a process to be furthered in the family
circle. The workers were thus called out of the
home to labor in places where machinery had been
set up, that is, in factories. The modern family
scarcely manufactures anything at all ; even the im-
mediate preparation of foods is likely to disappear
from the home.
This removal of industries from the home has
been frought with danger. Parents, even mothers,
have gone out of the home, seeking employment
and means of supporting the family. The employ-
ment of married women in factories has brought
about the isolation and neglect of children, who
have roamed the streets, acquiring mischievous hab-
its and falling into delinquency.
THE FAMILY GROUP 125
As a result, much has been said recently concern-
ing pensions for mothers. It often happens that
a family with small means is suddenly left in the
world without a male wage earner. The husband
and father suffers death, or he may desert the fam-
ily. He may have no savings or life insurance, and
the wife and mother is left without financial re-
sources. In seeking work outside the home, the
mother leaves early in the morning and returns late
at night. The children must get along as best they
may without supervision except such as the older
are able to give. They are sometimes boarded out,
or again they may be turned over to an orphans'
The idea underlying the program of pensions for
mothers is that of furnishing money by the county,
the state, or both, not to some institution to take
care of the specific children, but to the mother her-
self so that she will not need to work outside the
home. In this way the mother is kept in her home
to take care of the children, and the family as far
as possible is kept intact. If the mother is uned-
ucated, she is given instruction by the agents of
the county or state. There are numerous possibili-
ties of taking advantage of such measures for in-
dividual gain; sometimes, a shiftless father is en-
couraged to desert, knowing that the county or state
will look after the family. On the whole, however,
mothers' pensions if carefully administered are so-
126 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
The present status of the family, particularly in
the United States, is unstable. Never were so many
marriages being legally dissolved as now. For many
decades the United States has held the unenviable
position of leading Europe and America in the num-
ber of divorces granted. Several years ago when a
survey was made, it was found that there were 20,-
000 more marriages legally dissolved annually in
this country than in all the rest of the Christian
civilized world combined. At that time in France
one marriage was legally dissolved to every thirty
ceremonies performed ; in Germany, only one mar-
riage was legally dissolved to every forty-four mar-
riage ceremonies performed ; in England, only one
marriage was legally dissolved to every 400 mar-
riage ceremonies performed; but in the United
States the proportion was one to twelve, and in
some of the cities the proportion was even one to
six and one to five.
A few years later another survey was made. It
showed that in 1916 there were six counties
in five states of the United States which had more
divorces than marriages. In Pawnee County, Okla-
homa, the ratio was one divorce to every .77 of a
marriage. Washoe County, Nevada, Trinity Coun-
ty, California, Rutherford County, Tennessee, Un-
ion and Clackamas Counties, Oregon, were the oth-
er communities with unenviable records. Seattle
THE FAMILY GROUP 127
outrivalled Reno as a divorce center, and Atlanta
and Savannah also challenged Reno's record. The
entire state of Nevada showed one divorce for 1.54
marriages; and Indiana, the tenth state from the
top of the list of divorce rates listed one divorce to
every 5.94 marriages.
Not only does the United States lead the world
in the number of legally dissolved marriages, but
this dissolution seems to be increasing much more
rapidly than the population, perhaps three times as
rapidly. If this tendency is maintained, it will not
be many decades before the family as a permanent
union between husband and wife will no longer be
common. If the United States should reach the
place where one-half of all marriages are dissolved
in the courts, the social conditions of such a time
will probably be no better than those in the declin-
ing days of Rome.
It appears that the rate at which marriages are
legally dissolved is higher as a rule in the cities
than in the surrounding country districts. The rate
is apparently from two to four times as high among
childless couples as among those who have children.
Parental duties and privileges are strong factors in
preventing a break in the marriage relation.
It also appears that legally dissolved marriages
are relatively most frequent among persons of no
religious profession, next most common among
Protestants, next among Jews, and least common
128 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
among Catholics. The fact that some marriages
are not dissolved is not necessarily proof, however,
that they should not be dissolved, and that vicious
family conditions do not exist. The rate at which
marriages are dissolved by law is much higher in
the United States, among native whites than among
immigrants a fact partly due to the traditional at-
titudes and the religious control by which many im-
migrants are governed.
Of all the marriages dissolved by the courts in
the United States within recent decades, approxi-
mately two-thirds have been broken at the request
of the wife. This indicates that women are becom-
ing emancipated ; they are not submitting to abuses
on the part of their husbands as they did formerly.
Another conclusion is that men are the cause for
breaking the marriage bond more frequently than
The grounds that are given in the courts for dis-
solving the marriage bond in the United States are
numerous, such as cruelty, sexual immorality,
and neglect on the part of the husband to provide
for the family. In perhaps two-thirds of the cases,
the marriage bond had been dissolved in spirit be-
fore the courts made the dissolution formal.
To an appreciable extent, the legal breaking up of
families is a symptom of more serious evils. Mar-
riage itself is being taken with an increasing lack
of seriousness ; it is losing its religious sanction and
THE FAMILY GROUP 129
being treated as any ordinary promise. In certain
classes of society, the wealthiest and the poorest,
there is a noticeable decay of the very virtues upon
which the family rests. Family life requires self-
sacrifice, chastity, and the assumption of responsi-
bility for the welfare of other individuals.
The causes of the instability of the family par-
ticularly in Western civilization may now be sum-
marized. (1) The first of the causes that may be
cited is the decay of the religious view of marriage
and the family. It is historically true that no stable
life has existed anywhere without a religious basis,
but within recent years in the United States, for
example, religious sentiments, beliefs, ideals, and
attitudes, have become increasingly disassociated
from marriage and the family. Consequently many
people unfortunately have come to regard the in-
stitutions of marriage and the family largely as a
matter of personal convenience.
(2) The second leading cause of the increasing
instability of the family may be given as the exag-
gerated spirit of individualism and self satisfaction.
This spirit leads a person to find the guide to his
actions in his own wishes, whims, or caprices; it
gives him an attitude of carelessness concerning so-
cial welfare. This spirit has expressed itself in the
phrase, I should worry ; it has tended to make all
the social institutions unstable, especially the fam-
ily, for the family rests upon attitudes of group re-
130 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
(3) The emancipation of woman has sometimes
increased family instability. The emancipation of
woman in the sense of freeing her from the hin-
drances to the best and noblest development of her
personality is entirely desirable, but this freedom
has meant some opportunities for going down as
well as many for going up. To some women it has
meant license, or licentiousness.
The Roman women, it may be remembered,
achieved complete emancipation; but that victory
did not lead to Roman progress. On the contrary,
the emancipation of woman in Rome led to her deg-
radation, and to the demoralization of Roman
family life. This result of course is not necessarily
an accompaniment of woman's emancipation ; it de-
pends in part upon woman's underlying attitude in
the matter and upon the spirit of the times. That
the woman's movement has played a part in the in-
creasing instability of the modern family is shown
by the fact that some of the influential leaders in
that movement advocated free divorce, which may
be cited as a causal factor in the rise of a careless
attitude toward marriage.
(4) The growth of modern industrialism is an-
other cause of the instability of the family. The
opening of a large number of new industrial occu-
pations to woman has rendered her to a degree eco-
nomically independent of family relationships.
THE FAMILY GROUP 131
Furthermore, this development has tended to take
many married women out of the home and into the
factory. The result has been harmful to the home ;
too many homes are simply lodging places.
Through the development of opportunities to
work in factories and stores, and increased social
interaction, many girls have failed to learn the do-
mestic arts, and to receive training in home-mak-
ing. Therefore, when they have come to the posi-
tion of wife and mother they have frequently been
totally unfitted. Through their lack of knowledge
of, and of interest in, home-making, they have made
home life unstable.
(5) The proportion of American families that
are giving up their homes for "the cheerless ex-
istence in a boarding house or hotel'' is a disturbing
fact. What does it mean, that a rapidly increasing
part of the population finds the boarding house pref-
erable to the home? It may be that the burden
of housekeeping is becoming too heavy to compen-
sate for the possession of a home. It may be asked,
however, what is to compensate for the giving up of
the home and home life by that increasing host of
young married people who are choosing a homeless
boarding house existence.
(6) The growth of tenement districts and the
rise in land rents have operated against sound fami-
ly life. It has been frequently declared that a nor-
mal home can scarcely exist in many of the tene-
132 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
merit habitations of the large cities. Where a fam-
ily of three or four members, with perhaps a male
lodger, live in a one-room habitation, a normal
family life is impossible; the social interaction
tends to lower moral standards.
(7) To the other extreme is the fact that the
high social standards of living required in certain
sections of the large cities are a cause of family in-
stability. Many persons maintain luxurious stand-
ards of living in order to gain prestige in the groups
in which they have their associates, but these
standards often are out of proportion to incomes.
The maintenance of a home where standards of
living are rising faster than incomes is often a cause
of serious domestic unhappiness.
(8) A late age of marriage is sometimes another
causal factor. In the professions it is hardly wise
for a young man to marry much earlier than the
thirties ; at any rate an independent income in the
professions is possible not much earlier than the
age of thirty. The high economic standard of liv-
ing which a young woman of wealthy parents may
set before a young man who is getting started in a
profession, leads to the postponement of marriage.
People who marry after thirty sometimes find dif-
ficulty in becoming adjusted to each other's habits ;
the maladjustments may lead to unstable marriage
THE FAMILY GROUP 133
(9) An increasing degree of knowledge of the
laws regarding divorce and an increasing laxity of
these laws have produced family instability. A few
centuries ago the law was rarely resorted to except
by the wealthy classes. Many people would not
have thought of divorce even fifty years ago ; similar
people today know the laws concerning divorce
and sometimes deliberately prepare to secure it.
The laws concerning the legal dissolution of mar-
riage are more lax in the United States than in
almost any other Christian nation. The adminis-
tration of these laws is also lax; their lack of uni-
formity is unfortunate. Although the people of
Canada and of England are similar in culture and
institutions to the people of the United States,
their divorce rate is very low, a situation which is
partly explained by the fact that the Canadian and
English laws are comparatively strict. An easy way
out of marriage is one of the causes of bad mar-
(10) Poor marriages are perhaps the chief cause
of divorces. It was this discovery which Dr. George
Elliott Howard was the first to make. Many per-
sons assume that marriage is not a serious affair.
If they make hasty choices that result in unhappi-
ness, they appeal to the divorce law. Marriage on
short acquaintance too often proves a delusion. If
given a reasonable amount of time, what is thought
to be real affection would prove to be a passing
134 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
fancy or sex passion. The marriage of a chaste
woman with a sexually immoral or diseased "gen-
tleman" causes family instability. A requirement
that a marriage license must be secured several days
before the marriage occurs would be socially ad-
Lax marriage laws rest upon a lax public opin-
ion in regard to the need of a more stable family
life. More knowledge about the means of securing
family stability, together with a wide distribution
of this knowledge would produce more wholesome
The instability of the modern family may go
from bad to worse until a nation such as the United ,
States destroys itself, even as Rome decayed ; or it
may be met by a new constructive and socialized
attitude on the part of individuals and of or-
ganized groups. The outcome may depend en-
tirely upon the attitude toward marriage and the
family that individuals and groups choose to en-
courage. The destruction or reconstruction of the
family is within human choice.
THE FAMILY GROUP 135
1. Define a good husband.
2. Explain the statement that woman has domesticated
3. Explain: "No one marries the real man."
4. Why is a marriage taken by many people with a lack of
5. What is feminism?
6. In what ways is home life in the country better than in
7. Show how "table talk" has an educational value.
8. What are the effects upon home life of moving every
9. Should every girl learn to cook?
10. Should every girl learn home-making before she goes
to work in a factory or store?
11. Which are the greater, the advantages or the disadvan-
tages of being an only child?
12. Explain the statement that the rich man's wife is often
13. "Is the attitude of the public the same toward the
man who has married money, as toward the man
who has made money"?
14. Should every young woman have a profession? Why?
15. Are women inherently better than men?
16. Should women become more masculine?
17. What are the different types of marriages?
18. What is the social function of an "engagement" period
19. Should wealthy women resent being forced "to spend
their time in the meaningless round of luncheons, teas,
bridge-parties, and stereotyped charities?"
20. How far does the welfare of society rest on the welfare
of the home?
THE FAMILY GROUP
3. HOUSING THE FAMILY. Housing conditions
exercise a degree of control over family life. Un-
derhousing, especially, hinders the maintenance of
normal moral conditions in the home, besides weak-
ening the physical morale.
The earliest family groups were very crudely
housed. Cave houses and tree houses prevailed.
The invention of the hall house, rectangular in
shape, containing one room with the fireplace in
the center, with no windows and perhaps no chim-
ney, and accommodating more than one family
represented a distinct advance. Today the variety
of houses is indeterminable; the elegance of some
is the best that wealth and artistic talent can devise.
The owners however of colonial mansions, Califor-
nia bungalows, or Swiss chalets are often unmind-
ful of the fact that for many laboring people modest
homes of their own are impossibilities.
When sixty per cent of the people of a prosperous
country such as the United States, with its three
million square miles of land, are unable to own
their own homes, and when they live their entire
THE FAMILY GROUP 137
days on other people's land, a social situation has
developed that demands earnest attention. With
land in certain congested parts of the largest cities
selling at a thousand dollars a front foot, with tene-
ments rearing their sooty heads a hundred feet high,
with a housing shortage so constant and acute that
no matter how dilapidated a building may be, some
one is willing to live in it, is it not time that hous-
ing the family should be considered a problem of
national and world welfare?
The housing problem develops when more than
one family group try to live in a dwelling scarcely
large enough for a single family. Each city in the
United States has its housing problem, namely,
how shall it house its people from a healthy and so-
cial viewpoint? Although New York City alone
in the United States has a tenement house problem,
all other large cities are tending toward tenement
Housing the family is a serious problem for an
increasing percentage of the world's population;
housing evils are everywhere developing. (1) Over-
crowding is of two types, land overcrowding and
room overcrowding. The first mentioned refers to
the overcrowding of limited areas of land with an
undue population, in such a way that a fair level of
living standards cannot be maintained. Under
specific circumstances a thousand people might
be housed satisfactorily, as in an elegant hotel;
138 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
whereas under other conditions two hundred people
might be housed unhealthily upon the same area of
land, especially they who live in shacks without
Room overcrowding refers to a situation where
too many persons are occupying a given number of
rooms, especially sleeping rooms. In many cities
the standard is a minimum amount of 400 or 500
cubic feet of air for each adult per room. Such a
standard may be entirely inadequate, for ventilation
is more important than the amount of air space.
It is also important that sunshine and light reach
into every living room, particularly sleeping rooms.
It is far better to permit a family to sleep in a room
containing only 400 cubic feet of air per adult, of
good quality and frequently renewed, than to per-
mit them to sleep in a room containing three times
that amount of air which cannot be renewed
(2) Closely related to overcrowding is the lack of
health facilities. In addition to ventilation, sun-
shine, and light, the necessary health facilities in-
clude adequate plumbing with preferably separated
facilities for each family, proper collection of gar-
bage, and fixed responsibility for the cleanliness of
those parts of the building which are used in com-
mon by several families.
It is surprising how anyone who breathes con-
tinually the foul air of the tenement can keep
THE FAMILY GROUP 139
healthy. In the "dark, damp rooms"of the poor,
the germs of disease live and multiply; sunshine
and fresh air are not there to destroy them. Ty-
phoid and other fevers are prevalent because of an
impure water supply and a lack of drainage. The
highest death rate from tuberculosis is generally
found where the proportion of overcrowded hous-
ing conditions is highest.
(3) High rent constitutes another housing evil.
It is caused in part by an extraordinary demand for
houses. As a result, people huddle together in in-
creasingly close and mean quarters. With every in-
crease in a city's population either by birth or im-
migration, the demand for housing space rises and
the rents go up.
(4) The misuse of the principle of the private
ownership of land causes unduly high rents and
housing evils. Land speculation tends to force
land prices up and to make housing conditions
harsher for the poor. Housing speculation also
produces disastrous results, for many dwellings are
"built to sell, not to house."
Prices have already reached the level in large
cities where it is impossible for the poorer people
to own their own homes, no matter how thrifty and
industrious they may be. With land selling at a
hundred or a thousand dollars or more a front foot,
and being occupied with four story or ten or twelve
story tenements, the poor man cannot hope to own
140 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
a home. Good farm land in the United States is
also reaching a price level which a young man with
only slight financial means and with a family can-
not pay for. This increasing degree of tenancy and
renting is a main cause of the marked social rest-
lessness of the time. More than 95 per cent of the
people in the tenement districts of New York City
are living in hired habitations ; other millions, par-
ticularly of the industrial classes, are homeless in
the sense of being renters and tenants, in fact over
sixty per cent of the entire population of the United
States are so situated.
(5) The taking in of lodgers is usually found
along with high rents and overcrowding. With an in-
crease in land values and in rent, a lodger may be
added to the family group, so that the increased
housing expense may be met. The moral effects of
taking in lodgers by families already living in one
or two rooms are serious.
(6) Lack of play space is the rule where habita-
tions are congested. Hallways, dark stairways,
side-alleys, and rear-alleys are the only places
about the home where millions of children may
play. (7) The tendencies to vice and crime which
accompany overcrowding, the lodger evil, and the
lack of play space are many. Dark alleys and pro-
miscuous living conditions tend to degrade children
and adults alike.
(8) In cities people are rated socially according
THE FAMILY GROUP 141
to the topographical location of their homes. Those
who do the manual work generally occupy the low-
est geographical levels. The heights and the com-
manding spots are occupied by the people with
wealth, irrespective of their services to the given
city. Between these extremes the middle classer
live. An American novelist has made much of the
point that one's social rating depends in part upon
the altitude in a city at which he is able to house
his family. As he acquires a large competence, he
moves up geographically and refuses to live down
The causes of housing evils are frequently classed
as three-fold. One of the leading causal factors of
the housing problem is the failure of the citizens
of a community to recognize housing evils as they
arise. The ignorance of many persons in cities re-
garding the housing conditions that are developing
within the city's gates is surprising. This situation
illustrates the general lack of social knowledge.
Furthermore, when bad housing conditions are rec-
ognized as arising within a community, the failure
of the citizens to take an effective interest in recti-
fying the untoward situation is a startling commen-
tary on prevailing social attitudes.
A second leading cause of poor housing, as shown
pointedly by Lawrence Veiller, is greed on the part
of landlords. For the sake of large profits on their
investments, many landlords are willing to sacrifice
142 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
the health and welfare of relatively helpless people.
Many make no repairs except under compulsion,
and care little whether tenants live or die, so long
as large financial returns are netted from property.
A third leading cause of poor housing is ignorance
on the part of poor people ignorance concerning
the nature of health, sanitation, and minimum
living standards. From one-sixth to one-half the
populations of large cities have never had the op-
portunity of learning about the recent advances
in sanitary science, household economics, and per-
sonal hygiene; they are practically excluded from
all these benefits. There are whole sections of
large urban populations which, as regards the prev-
alence of ill health and disease, and their ignorance
of the laws of health and sanitation, are still living
in the Dark Ages.
At least eight different methods of controlling
the housing of the family may be noted. (1) A
laissez faire reliance on private capital and on the
law of supply and demand for houses encourages
private building initiative but does not conserve
the needs of families for well-built homes and does
not prevent speculation in a necessity of life. (2)
The building of model tenements by individuals
sets a fine example, but does not provide adequate
housing for more than a fraction of those needing
homes. (3) Municipally owned and operated ten-
ements have been a success in Germany and Great
THE FAMILY GROUP 143
Britain. Their feasibility on a large scale in the
United States is doubtful, because municipal gov-
ernments are subject to inefficiency and "politics."
(4) The establishment of garden cities is praise-
worthy, but meets the needs of only a limited per-
centage of city people.
(5) Better sanitary and health measures for reg-
ulating the activities of private builders are neces-
sary, but they do not hinder rents from rising, and
overcrowding from becoming common. (6) If not
carried too far, the reduction of taxes on houses and
improvements and an increase of taxes on land in
cities, graduated according to the unearned incre-
ment serves to make possible better housing con-
ditions. (7) Rapid transportation at low rates gives
the working classes a chance to house themselves
well. Many people however prefer to live near their
work. Rapid transit moreover affords only tempo-
rary relief unless terminals are continually exten-
ded, and people are encouraged to move farther and
farther away from their work.
(8) Constant, persistent education of the public
concerning housing conditions is essential. In or-
der to secure adequate housing laws and proper
administration of them, public opinion must give
steady support to socially-minded legislators and
It was Ruskin who pointed out that in 6000 years
of building houses, we have not yet learned how to
144 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
house all human families. If the chief end of life
is to live helpfully, then it is a matter of prime im-
portance that all the people live in houses which
are conducive to health, safety, and morality. Ade-
quate housing is so related to proper homing that
it becomes a matter too socially vital to be left in
the field of selfish speculation; it can be handled
well only through socialized control.
4. Socializing the Family. The family in West-
ern civilization is undoubtedly at present in a tran-
sitional stage. The patriarchal family once pre-
vailed widely ; it was good for its day and age. In
recent decades the development of democratic ideas
has produced a movement for socializing the family.
The patriarchal family made the husband and fa-
ther the authority, and the wife and the mother a
subordinate; the new movement would divide the
authority between husband and wife, and establish
a richer type of co-operation.
To change the family from one in which the hus-
band exercises full control to a democratic type in
which husband and wife share the authority more
or less equally is a difficult task; the processes of
nature cannot be modified rapidly. In many family
groups, a socialized control has been established;
but in most families in Western civilization the
spirit of domestic democracy has not been recog-
nized or else it is being tried, resulting in varying
degrees of co-operation. The new family is a group
THE FAMILY GROUP 145
whose life is based not primarily on the fear and
force of authority, but on the drawing power of
mutual respect and affection ; it is one in which love
In a transition from the autocratic family group
to the new socialized type, there must result neces-
sarily much confusion and instability. Whenever
old habits are being replaced by new ones in the
life of the individual, a period of instability occurs ;
thus it is also with group life. Hence the present
instability of the family should not be viewed too
depressingly ; it need not last unduly long if every-
one will put forth effort and exercise foresight to-
ward the working out of a democratic family life.
Such a family type must be controlled by chastity
and a single and the same standard of morals for
both men and women. Sex purity is essential to a
true democracy in the family. The discussion of
sex morality has been a much avoided subject. It
has been tabooed by parents usually through prud-
ish considerations. It has been ignored by the
school, an institution from which the child should
receive the instruction which will best fit him for
wise living. It has been neglected by the church,
which has stood for public and private morality. It
has had an, open field chiefly among the gamins of
the street, and hired men on farms.
Illegal or immoral relations between the sexes
have existed in all ages. The difficulties in the way
146 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
of socially controlling the sex instinct have been
and are almost insurmountable. When uncon-
trolled the sex instinct produces sterile and diseased
men and women, preventing a normal family life
altogether. It has taken thousands of girls and
women annually as a sacrifice in the United States
alone. The virtues and bodies of girls and women
have been highly commercialized, annually return-
ing to evil-minded procurers and managers, even in
the United States, millions of dollars. The segrega-
tion of sexually depraved girls and women in dis-
tricts has been and is a flaring blotch upon civiliza-
tion, testifying that men and women have sunk
lower in the control of their passions than swine.
Sex immorality leads to serious diseases, namely,
venereal diseases, so subtle in their processes that
years after they have been pronounced cured by
competent physicians they may break forth, con-
taminating virtuous wives and helpless babes. The
busiest specialty of medicine is that concerned with
venereal diseases. Disabilities, suffering, surgical
operations, premature death follow in the wake of
these diseases, as they populate hospitals and asy-
lums with human wrecks. Perhaps the most re-
volting phase of these deep-seated infections is the
way in which many men having sown "wild oats"
in pre-marriage days are guilty of transmitting a
dangerous venereal disease to innocent wives.
Ten causes of unchastity, a leading enemy of a
THE FAMILY GROUP 147
socialized family, will be noted. (1) The love of
mammon is perhaps the chief cause ; financial gain
is placed ahead of family ideals. (2) Masculine
selfishness and uncontrolled sex desire rank a close
second as causal factors. (3) The habit of some girls
and women of excusing their brothers or sons in
being a little "wild" is another leading cause. (4)
Feminine weakness for male adulation and flattery,
for the luxuries which some men use to delude
women, and feminine looseness of morals are de-
termining factors. (5) Closely packed populations
in congested urban districts furnish breeding places
for sex immorality. (6) The countenancing of a
double standard of morals operates disastrously
against the family. A woman"who succombs once
illegally to her sex nature becomes a social outcast ;
but a man who habitually violates sex virtues and
whose evil practices are known, may remain a so-
cial lion and be received with open arms in polite
society. For this social situation women may be
more too blame than men. (7) Some men and
many women owe their initial sex debauch to the
influence of the unregulated public dance hall and
of alcoholic liquor. (8) A double standard of med-
ical regulations is also a cause. At present, cases of
smallpox must be reported to the health department
but venereal diseases which follow sex immorality
and which are as virulent as smallpox and far more
widespread, must not be reported to the public
148 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
health authorities, and furthermore, public meas-
ures cannot be taken to prevent their spread to the
innocent. (9) Poverty leads many a girl to her sex
downfall. She is enticed by the lure of expensive
clothes which her wages cannot buy, and gives in to
a quick but demoralizing means of securing the lure.
(10) A lack of adequate moral and religious char-
acter is perhaps fundamental to nearly all cases of
A socialized family rests on the principle of mu-
tual self sacrifice. A sound ethics is believed by
many persons to be sufficient for the maintenance
of domestic democracy; other persons hold that a
rational religious view, particularly such as is rep-
resented by Christianity in its socialized interpre-
tations, is more closely in harmony with the prin-
ciples of self sacrifice upon which the socialized
family must rest than any other force in the world.
A socialized family life is also a vital factor in
true religion. If a child grows up without receiving
any religious training in the family he is not likely
to develop a deep and abiding religious attitude.
The family undoubtedly gave Christianity its con-
cept of human brotherhood, derived from the part
that is played by the brother in a well directed
home. It is also probable that the religious idea
of a Divine Fatherhood did not develop until after
the family had put a meaning of genuine love into
the term, father.
THE FAMILY GROUP 149
The socialized family rests upon wise marriages.
If there were democratic marriage ideals, includ-
ing heredity, health, moral, and religious standards
of the highest order, openly proclaimed and prac-
ticed, the family would be safe. These ideals should
not favor the marriage of persons of too great differ-
ence in age, of too wide a racial difference, of per-
sons with venereal diseases, or who are mentally
defective. The requirement that a certain length of
time should elapse between the securing of the li-
cense and the marriage, and the law requiring that
a health certificate be obtained before marriage are
intended to protect society from ill-planned and
Legislation alone, however, cannot go far in so-
cializing the family. If the family is hampered by
wrong attitudes toward it, then legislation cannot
set matters right. The public should learn in what
ways the family is a socially necessary institution,
and hence is socially sacred. Marriage needs to be
viewed not as an expression of a narrowly selfish
love; and the family not as a temporary group ar-
Socializing the family is an educational process.
It is in the home itself that individuals can acquire
early and effectively the attitude that marriage and
the family are superior institutions. It is here that
the responsibilities and opportunities of fatherhood
can best be taught. Girls, and boys also, can learn
150 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
here too that motherhood represents the most im-
portant social service which a woman can perform.
The family was the first human school ; it is also
the best school. The most effective teaching is be-
ing done in and through the family. The education
of every person normally begins in the family ; the
child's most important educative period is spent in
the home. The education of the child in the prin-
ciples of health and sex hygiene can usually be given
best in the home. There is no better place than
the home in which a child may learn obedience,
discipline, and other social concepts. The family
group life has magnificent opportunities in the field
of moral training. The family may easily become
the greatest socializing institution in the world.
The main function of the family is to train chil-
dren to become worthy parents, neighbors, and citi-
zens. After thousands of years of human history
nothing superior to or as good as the family has
developed for the training of children. Marriage
and the family determine the heredity of nearly all
children; they also exercise control over the care
and upbringing of the rising generation. Although
it may be built of logs and characterized by humble
circumstances, the home may still function as the
great schoolroom of the human race.
Century after century the family has survived.
It is the mature judgment of all who have thought
upon the history of human society that the family is
THE FAMILY GROUP 151
the most important social institution. It has im-
proved with time. Its usefulness has not been sur-
passed. It is as sacred as religion. It is the master-
piece among the creations of nature, of society, and
1. Why are so many American families giving up their
homes and moving into apartments or flats?
2. Which is better for the family, the single dwelling or
3. Explain the statement that every American city has its
4. Why is there so much overcrowding in the United States
when at the same time there is so much spacious
5. Illustrate the statement: There is no room to live
6. Why are tuberculosis and crowded housing conditions
7. Why are good people who live in large apartment
houses negligent as to how the janitor of the apart-
ment building is housed?
8. Why do many poor people keep the windows closed in
9. If you were a wage-earner and your rent were suddenly
raised, would you take in lodgers or move into a
smaller number of rooms?
10. Is the percentage of people who own their homes in the
United States decreasing or increasing?
152 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
11. Why are people who "live up geographically" in any
city rated higher socially than those who "live down
12. Why do many landlords feel no responsibility for the
poor health conditions which their properties gen-
13. What is the "unearned increment," and how does it
affect the question of housing?
14. Who suffers when men speculate in land values?
15. What is a municipal lodging house, and is it necessary?
16. What percentage of a man's income should be spent
17. Explain the statement that you can kill a man, woman,
or child just as surely with a tenement as with a gun.
18. What is "zoning," and its purpose?
19. Is it true that the most successful person in the world
is he or she who helps to rear socially-minded and
THE PLAY GROUP
EVERY CHILD functions early in life as a member /
of a play group. At the age of two or three years
he has become a play group participator, associating
in play with brothers, sisters, and parents, and also
with neighborhood and other acquaintanceship
children. Childhood and adolescence are largely
play group phenomena. Moreover the play atti-
tude functions in normal human beings throughout
1. The Play Attitude. The function of the play
attitude has been interpreted variously. (1) The
Romans held that play is a natural expression of
the life-energies and should be gratified without re-
straint. The social product was uncontrolled li-
centiousness and demoralizing institutions.
(2) Early Christianity promptly reacted against
Nero's interpretation of the play attitude and swung
to the opposite extreme of urging that play be sup-
pressed. Live seriously as a preparation for the
next world, became the Augustinian dictum. Al-
cuin, the celebrated English educator of the Middle
154 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Ages, developed this theory of the function of play,
and it became dominant in Europe for many cen-
turies. This rigid form of control received expres-
sion in the Puritanic attitude toward amusements,
and prevailed in the United States until the latter
part of the nineteenth century.
It was believed that play is useless, or worse still,
it is frivolous. It should be discouraged and sup-
pressed. At best it is a relatively harmless way of
amusing children who are too young to be doing
(3) In the closing decades of the last century
several other philosophic theories of play secured
recognition. Herbert Spencer, following the sug-
gestion of Schiller, argued that play is essentially
an expression of surplus energy. When a growing
child accumulates an overflow of energy, he plays.
This theory, however, does not account for the girl,
for example, who "jumps the rope" until she falls
t The recapitulation theory, w r hich received the
attention of John Fiske, held that a child in his play
life is primarily living over rapidly the stages of
racial development. In his earlier plays he is ex-
periencing the days of savagery of the race. Then he
becomes interested in play activities which represent
the days of barbarism. When he later comes to
take part in team plays and co-operative sports,
he is said to have reached the stage of civilization
THE PLAY GROUP 155
in his play development.
In recent years play has been defined by writers,
such as Grosse, as an instinctive preparation for life.
In playing with a spool, that is, in rolling and catch-
ing a spool, a kitten is getting ready for the serious
business of catching mice. The kitten is thereby de-
veloping claw and eye co-ordinations, which will
in due time be useful in procuring food. In like
manner the plays of a lamb are a preparation for
the life of a grazing animal. The plays of a small
boy are preparing him for activities of building, con-
structing, and acquiring. The plays of a small girl
with her dolls are fitting her for motherhood. Ac-
cording to this interpretation of the function of play,
it would seem that play is "a first-class educational
Play teaches respect for law. In no other way
can a boy so fully realize for himself the value of
law as on the playground. By the same token he
learns respect for others, acquires habits of co-
operation, and sacrifices selfish ambitions for the
welfare of the group.
Play has been explained by John Dewey as those
activities which are not consciously performed for
the sake of any reward beyond themselves. They
contain their own motives. Prizes do not need to
be devised in order to get children to play; as soon
as prizes are offered, the goal in play becomes
objective and play itself becomes work.
156 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
The play impulses have been pronounced nature's
way and God's way of developing body, mind, and
character. "The Creator has purposely set the be-
ginning of life in a joyful mood." None of these
theories is entirely correct, but all contain more or
less truth. A true explanation will combine the
valid elements in all the theories, and add newly
Play is perhaps not only a preparation for life,
but also a preparation for more life. He who ceases
to maintain the play attitude, ages rapidly and dies ;
he shrinks within himself. It is an important ac-
complishment to be able to turn from a day's work
and forget the perplexities of that day's work in
play. Play has been called the sovereign re-creator
necessary especially for the adult worker. Play is
no luxury ; it is a natural method of developing self
control and a social attitude. It needs to be main-
tained throughout life.
With the development of the ideal of eight hours
for work, eight hours for leisure, and eight hours
for rest, the leisure time problem becomes a problem
of prime importance. Commercial interests have
capitalized these leisure time phenomena for pur-
poses of profit. Belatedly, the social uses of leisure
time have been receiving attention.
Play is a problem of one-third of life. The leisure
hours are becoming as important as the work hours.
Civilization, asserts Frederick C. Howe, depends
THE PLAY GROUP 157
largely on the way people use their leisure hours.
These may mean recuperation from work or the
acquisition of vicious habits, the invigoration of
body and mind, or the destruction of life itself. The
leisure hours of a hundred million people are becom-
ing as important to the nation as the hours spent at
work, or as the time spent in school by children.
The social situation regarding play in a country
such as the United States has changed in the last
century. A hundred years ago all the natural activ-
ities of life centered in the home group. They could
be expressed within the physical limits of the home
and under the direction of home control.
The modern city has changed this social situa-
tion. Formerly when boys could expend their ener-
gies upon hillside and meadow and in the barnyard
of the rural home, their activities were relatively
normal. Today in the city, when boys must play up-
on narrow streets, crowded with traffic, lined with
shops and automobile trucks, the parents are help-
less. The public must exercise a degree of wise con-
Today when a large percentage of girls who learn
to dance, do so away from home and in dancing
academies commercially established and operated
for profit, the quality of these academies becomes a
matter with which the public has every need to con-
cern itself. As Michael M. Davis, Jr. has indicated,
the individual parent is helpless before a condition
158 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
which may mean the physical and moral destruc-
tion of his child.
The modern city in giving boys and girls oppor-
tunities to earn money at an early age and then
leaving them free and often unguided in spending
their money "as they choose in the midst of vice
deliberately disguised as pleasure" is negligent. Ap-
parently, continues Jane Addams, the modern city
sees in working girls, for example, two main pos-
sibilities, both of them commercial : first, a chance
to use day by day their new and immature labor
power in its factories and shops ; and then another
chance in the evening to extract from them their
wages by catering to their love of amusement and
As a result of the play processes, so dominant and
natural, two leading types of play institutions have
developed. These social products are the result of
the commercialization and the socialization of play.
2. The Commercialization of Play. Commercial
enterprise has taken advantage of the play attitude
and turned it into dollars for the benefit of a few
amusement promoters. It has furnished amuse-
ments for every period of life, for every moral level,
and for all types of intellectual development. This
movement began in an organized way in the United
States as early as 1890.
In 1907, S. N. Patten declared that we had gone
THE PLAY GROUP 159
little further than to permit men to exploit for pri-
vate gain the human craving to be amused. "The
workman is drawn hither and thither by the uncor-
related motley devices of selfish promoters and is
often solicited by them until he has dissipated his
vigor and lowered his moral tone."
When the workman comes from "the barren in-
dustrial grind" of the day's work, where is he in-
vited most loudly to turn, if not to a great variety of
amusement institutions in which the melodramatic
and over-exciting presentations stand out foremost.
The leisure of the people, according to a report of
the Recreational Inquiry Committee of California,
has been capitalized by private individuals through-
out the country to the extent of billions of dollars.
The commercialization of the play impulses of the
people has been motivated, continues the report, by
one chief desire, not to increase the welfare of the
people, but to make money. Cheap seaside resorts
have sprung up over night, vieing with one another,
it has been observed, in enticing patrons thither by
patriotic or salacious posters and advertisements,
and in furnishing them with new sensations. The
regular frequenters of these places of amusement
are reported as getting so much excitement for a
small outlay of money, that they find the attractions
From an investigation that was made as early as
1907-1909 in Manhattan, New York City, it was
160 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
found that the commercial dance academy and the
public dance hall teach more than forty per cent of
the pupils of the grade schools to dance, and that
three-fourths of these boys and one-half of the girls,
nearly all under fourteen years of age, go with
some regularity to the commercial dancing academy
and the public dance hall to practice their skill. One
hundred of the dancing academies in Manhattan
were reaching annually not less than 100,000 paying
pupils, forty-five per cent of whom were under six-
teen years of age. Notice this statement: "Practi-
cally all the young girls among the mass of the peo-
ple pass during the period of adolescence through
the education of the dancing academies. We have
here an influence over the adolescents of New York
which is of practically universal scope."
In the academies of questionable type, represent-
ing at least one-half of the total number, the super-
vision is entirely inadequate and men and women
of immoral character are present. When alcoholic
liquor or substitutes for liquor are used, moral
downfall is certain. The late hours are also harm-
ful to both health and morals.
The dance hall differs from the academy in that
its influence is worse. The proprietors of certain
dance halls knowingly permit men and women to
corrupt others. Where liquor is sold, as it still is
in the dance halls in many countries, the effects are
destructive and vicious. The combination of sex-
THE PLAY GROUP 161
ually vulgar dancing, of drinking liquor, and of un-
musical but highly stimulating "jazz" is one which
the ordinary participant cannot withstand.
Of all play facilities, states the California recrea-
tion report, public dance halls bear the most direct
and immediate relation to the morals of their pa-
trons ; they are in many cases extremely destructive.
The gains are so overshadowed that space will not
be given to discussing them.
Of all dances, continues the California report, the
Saturday all-night dance is the most dangerous.
Young people attend these dances without a thought
of harm ; and parents permit their sons and daugh-
ters to attend without realizing the true character
of the all-night affair. The discussion so far has
indicated some of the dangers that are represented
by the dancing academy and dance hall ; it has also
shown a part of the responsibility which the city
and nation must bear in controlling the means of
recreation for youth.
Theatres may be divided roughly into at least
four classes, namely, vaudeville, burlesque, stand-
ard theatres, and motion picture theatres. In re-
gard to the vaudeville, the Manhattan report de-
clares that its most striking characteristic is simple
stupidity; that no person of moderate intelligence
can attend a dozen vaudeville performances with-
out being disgusted at their vapidity; and that
some of the acts are wholly crude, a few decidedly
162 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
clever, and the majority trite and empty. The
vaudeville is like many exciting occurrences stim-
ulating but disintegrating. It excites the onlooker
and interests him transiently; but is not likely to
recuperate or develop him. It represents hyper-
stimulus, asserts Dr. M. M. Davis, Jr., and may
lead to neurasthenia.
The burlesque was found in the Manhattan sur-
vey to be the most undesirable type of performance
given in New York City. As a type it was diagnosed
as being artistically crude and intellectually
stupid. Its appeal is based on facts of physical
prowess and on unwholesome and lewd references
to sex matters.
The standard theatre, chiefly because of the ad-
mission charged, draws only a small proportion of
the theatre going people, perhaps not more than ten
per cent. The working classes are isolated partly
because of the admission prices, and hence are not
privileged to attend the best plays.
The standard theater has offered few plays of
excellent value. There is an opportunity for the
citizens of every community to promote wholesome
and cultural plays. When young people generally
come to have a vital appreciation of worth while
drama, they will no longer be satisfied with low
and unrefined theatrical performances.
Motion picture theaters began to attract atten-
tion in the United States at the close of the last
THE PLAY GROUP 163
century. By 1900, they were becoming well known,
although the cheaper type predominated; by 1915,
the theaters producing elaborate motion pictures
were common in the large cities. At the same time
motion picture producers were combining into pow-
erful nation-wide organizations ; and the demand
for censorship had become insistent.
According to the Manhattan survey in which
1,140 school children eleven to fourteen years of
age were questioned, it was found that sixteen per
cent, a surprisingly large percentage, were attend-
ing motion picture shows daily. For the children
of the common people, the motion picture has be-
come the main amusement center. Motion pictures
have become the leading form of dramatic repre-
sentation for both children and adults in modern
A part of the great popularity of the motion
picture is to be found in the following points : ( 1 )
The fascination of not knowing what one will see,
is appealing. (2) No punctuality is required; a
person can enter and take a seat at any time and
leave at any time. (3) No special degree of in-
telligence is needed; no attitude toward anything
and no convictions on anything are necessary. No
knowledge of any language is essential ; consequent-
ly, the immigrant is reached before he understands
the language of the country. (4) A fairly good
eyesight and the admission price are all that are re-
164 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
quired. As a direct and immediate appeal to the
understanding, the motion picture is paramount.
(5) An appeal to one's love of children, of home,
of flagj of religion, of courageous action is usually
made, but this worthy trait is often more than off-
set by a tantalizing appeal to the melodramatic,
the brutalizing, or the sex impulses. (6) The family
as a group often finds it feasible to attend although
the jumbling of the wholesome and unwholesome
scenes before the eyes of uncritical children and
adolescents is deleterious.
In a Los Angeles survey of down-town motion
pictures it was found that from the standpoint of
the social value of the films shown, only fourteen
per cent could be classed as positively developmen-
tal. The remainder varied from the merely enter-
taining to the undesirable and demoralizing. A large
percentage was found to appeal directly to the feel-
ings and emotions. By being so designed, they drew
the largest audiences and hence the greatest profits.
The effects of operating motion picture shows pri-
marily for profit instead of for social welfare were
marked and frequently unfortunate.
A leading producer has said that the picture
which draws the largest audiences represents the
level of intelligence of a nine year old boy ; there-
fore, the common run of film is made on that in-
tellectual level. In the Los Angeles survey several
managers described their attempts to put on films of
THE PLAY GROUP 165
a higher educational order than the average, but
showed that as a result the size of the audience de-
creased. The public does not go to the motion
picture show to be educated but to be amused; it
does not go to reason or to think hard, but in a pas-
sive and subjective sense to play.
Because the motion picture has catered so often
to the lower elements of human nature, it has had
to face the form of control known as censorship.
The need for censorship is clear; the California
Recreational Inquiry indicated that of 1,263 films
studied, there were thirty-eight per cent which were
marked by scenes of brutality and violence. The
harmful effects of many motion pictures upon ad-
olescent minds are beyond doubt. The motion
picture also exercises such subtle effects upon the
minds of adults that it operates as a powerful psy-
chological force upon the entire nation group. The
public is hardly yet aware of this far-reaching psy-
chological form of control. If in the United States
there is an average daily attendance of literally
millions at motion picture shows, if this attendance
involves harmful influences upon adolescents and
even a general hypnotic influence upon the adult
mind, if the public is receiving but one-fifth to one-
fourth of the constructive values which it might
from the billions of dollars that are spent on this
popular form of entertainment, then it is time that
the public awoke and directed the motion picture
166 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
influence to ends more in keeping with its own wel-
The saloon, although outlawed in the United
States, is still in one form or another in many
countries the organized and legalized institution
of the liquor traffic. The use of alcoholic liquor
has been common to all peoples ; it has met various
types of human craving, ranging from the desire
for excitement to the wish to deaden one feelings,
and drown defeats and sorrows.
While the European nations under the trying
stress of the World War declared officially against
alcoholism, they tended to revert at the close of the
war to alcoholic orgies. If the use of alcoholic
liquor militates against efficiency in war, the ar-
gument is strong for the elimination of the same in
connection with the strenuous activities and con-
flicts in times of peace, for it is in these periods that
a nation grows strong or weak and lays the found-
ations for future successes or defeats.
It has been made clear by E. T. Devine in a care-
ful study that before the eighteenth amendment to
the Constitution went into effect in the United
Sates one-fourth of all cases of destitution were
fairly attributable to intemperance. Moreover, a
study of about 13,000 convicts in seventeen prisons
and reformatories in this country by the Committee
of Fifty indicated that intemperance was one of the
main causes in fifty-one per cent and the leading
THE PLAY GROUP 167
cause in thirty-one per cent of the criminal cases
studied. The reports from boards of insanity have
shown that alcoholism is a specific causal factor in
about twenty per cent of insanity cases. Before
the eighteenth amendment became effective, the
mortality reports indicated that approximately
100,000 deaths a year in the United States were due
in some specific way to the use of alcoholic liquor.
Moreover, alcoholism is now known to have a
disastrous effect upon heredity; many noticeable
cases of degeneracy in the offspring of alcoholic
parents have been observed. The use of alcoholic
liquor is becoming recognized throughout the world
as poisonous to the individual, and economically
and morally wasteful to both individuals and the
group. The saloon and its counterparts are un-
doubtedly passing as social institutions. The en-
actment of a prohibition amendment, however, does
not become effective until the habits of the people
become reconstructed. Such a process for a large
population group may take twenty or more years.
The legal control must be supported by a psycholog-
The play attitudes have been appealed to at their
most vulnerable points by persons motivated pri-
marily by profitism. This process has been skill-
fully planned out by shrewd individuals. The so-
cial products have been institutions, often flam-
boyant, harboring an atmosphere of patriotism and
168 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
subtly enticing the public, especially the young.
3. The Socialization of Play. Socially-minded
persons have led the way in creating institutions
that develop the play attitude constructively, irre-
spective of financial gain. Of the group of socialized
play activities the playground movement easily
leads. Then come the play activities which focus
in the schools, social settlements, community recrea-
tion centers, and religious organizations, such as the
Christian Associations, the Knights of Columbus,
fraternal orders, and the like.
(1) The playground movement began in the
United States about 1880; it won public attention
about 1900; and by 1910, it had secured wide recog-
nition. Within the first decade of the present cen-
tury, over $60,000,000 was expended in this country
in furthering the playground movement. There are
now thousands of playgrounds, located in the larger
cities, having paid supervision, and representing the
expenditure of millions of dollars of public money
for the purpose of making helpful play activities
possible at a nominal cost or free of charge to hud-
dled urban people.
Seven main stages in the playground movement
in this country have been clearly analyzed by Clar-
ence E. Rainwater. These are: (a) the sand garden
stage, (b) the model playground stage, (c) the
small park stage, (d) the recreation center stage,
THE PLAY GROUP 169
(e) the civic art and welfare stage, (f ) the neighbor-
hood organization stage, and (g) the community
service stage. This exhibit reveals the general trend
of an important social development.
The playground movement has tended toward an
all-year playground service ; it has taken into con-
sideration the young working boys and girls as well
as school children. It has reached into the adult
world and organized whole communities, giving
them an opportunity to decide upon the type of rec-
reation that they need, encouraging them to pro-
vide recreation for themselves at a minimum charge,
and withal and indirectly developing in them a so-
cial consciousness and a community participation
which lies at the heart of any truly democratic life.
Dr. Rainwater has summarized the nine leading
transitions in the play movement as follows: (a)
from provision for little children to that for all
ages of people; (b) from facilities operated during
the summer only, to those operated throughout the
year; (c) from outdoor equipment and activities
only, to both outdoor and indoor facilities and
events; (d) from congested urban districts to both
urban and rural communities; (e) from philan-
thropic to community support and control; (f)
from "free" play and miscellaneous events to "di-
rected" play with organized activities and corre-
lated schedules; (g) from a simple to a complex
field of activities including manual, physical, aes-
170 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
thetic, social, and civic projects; (h) from the pro-
vision of facilities to the definition of standards
for the use of leisure time; and (i) from "individ-
ual" interests to "group" and community activities.
The playground movement rests upon the prin-
ciples that the dominant interest in the life of youth
is play, not work, and that the best development
at this age comes from play rather than work. It
also represents the principle that adults need whole-
some and constructive play which will offer true
recuperation from a neurasthenic urban pace.
(2) The public school has had its playground,
but no organized play activities. Recently it has
caught a new impetus from the playground move-
ment, and consequently boards of education are
providing playground directors not only for school
days but for the holidays and vacations, when in
metropolitan districts such directors are most need-
The public school is becoming a recreation and
civic center. For educational purposes the schools
ordinarily are used less than eight hours a day,
five days in the week, and nine or ten months in the
year. They lie idle perhaps fifty per cent of the
time which they might be used. The ways in which
this time for recreation center activities could be
utilized was demonstrated in 1907 in Rochester.
New York, where the gymnasiums were opened in
the evening for the use of adults as well as children ;
THE PLAY GROUP 171
where folk dancing, music, and dramatics were en-
couraged ; and where banquets and public meetings
(3) The social settlements and institutions do-
ing similar work have usually given emphasis to
recreational needs. They have generally been lo-
cated in the heart of congested districts, and hence
have been quick to appreciate the few constructive
opportunities for play which the poorer people have
at their command. They have responded to this
need splendidly, despite the limited means at their
disposal. They have pioneered; the successful
methods which they have worked out, have some-
times been adopted by the city or district and put
into operation on a large scale by the use of public
money. They understand the needs of the masses ;
and hence are in strategic positions relative to form-
ulating a socio-recreational procedure.
(4) Public parks have afforded only a small
amount of recreation for the working people who
have needed most the advantages that parks offer.
They have been located usually in the wealthy and
well-to-do sections of the city. Park boards have
merely entered upon the heavy program before them
of improving and extending the play facilities of
publicly owned spaces.
(5) The churches are beginning to recognize that
wholesome play activities are normal social prod-
ucts. The recreation impulses are such powerful
172 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
forces for the moral good or ill of children, young
people, and adults that churches are beginning to
assume a positive attitude toward them. Some
churches have been among the chief agents in
bringing about the establishment of playgrounds
and recreation centers. While this work may be
taken over later by the school or city, the pioneer
experiments and the splendid examples that are
set are in themselves worth while. The church may
hold not only socials and similar meetings but in a
large way take the lead in making helpful provision
for the recreational life of boys and girls.
In many instances the churches have lead the bat-
tle in suppressing evil amusements. They may well
go further and assume the leadership in bringing
public opinion to the point where it will demand
that socialized provisions be made for meeting the
play attitudes of all the people.
In providing for a more extended socialization 01
play a comprehensive procedure is needed, one
which all can and will support. It includes ( 1 ) the
education of the public regarding basic considera-
tions. For example, the public should perceive
how modern industry and the city have created
home conditions for the masses that are too crowded
and ill-arranged to permit the enjoyable spend-
ing of leisure time within the home. The public
needs to perceive how commercial enterprise has
taken advantage of the play attitude, catering to
THE PLAY GROUP 173
the play impulses of every age-period in life, and
"to every grade of intellectual, artistic, and moral
development." The public needs to appreciate how
commercialized recreation in developing under a
laissez faire public policy has led often to the moral
and economic exploitation of children and to the
deterioration of adults. Recreation under modern
complex conditions can no longer be left entirely
to individual and commercial control.
Public control cannot neglect the fact that chil-
dren and adults alike require and will have amuse-
ments of some sort. Such control must not .be
merely repressive of existing evil tendencies, but
must also be constructive. Every community, rural
and urban, may well have a recreation committee
or commission to study the play needs of their re-
spective communities and see that they are whole-
somely provided for.
(2) A recreation body will find its largest work
in planning and providing for the future. If the
given community is a crowded urban district, the
duties of the recreation body will be strenuous also
with reference to meeting present needs. The sit-
uation will require adequate surveys of recreation
needs and facilities, definite correlation of available
recreative means, and constructive programs mov-
ing in many directions.
There will be a need for state recreation commis-
sions in order to correlate the work of rural and
174 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
urban recreation leaders. In fact, so great is the
scope of recreation needs that a national recreation
commission has important functions to perform in
correlating the work of state commissions and pro-
moting new methods. Recreation committees and
commissions have at their command a considerable
number of principles of procedure for the socializa-
tion of play.
(3) The development of home recreation is es-
sential. Even in comfortable homes there has arisen
a tendency for the young people to get away after
the dinner hour in order to enjoy themselves, thus
driving the iron wedge of isolation into home life.
After all, the home has perhaps the best possibilities
of becoming a socialized recreation center. Recrea-
tion responsibilities for children rest urgently upon
(4) The conservation of home yards for play pur-
poses is important. The co-operation of recreation
commissions and housing commissions may pro-
duce beneficent results in preserving not only gar-
den space but small play spaces.
(5) The provision of small playgrounds for
young children is another standard need. In Phil-
adelphia, a study of the attendance at playgrounds
showed that seventy-four per cent of the attendance
of the younger children was from homes within
three blocks, or five minutes walk, of such play-
grounds. The radius of efficiency of a playground,
THE PLAY GROUP 175
according to the Milwaukee study, was from one-
fourth to one-half a mile.
For adolescents over fourteen years of age in
cities of size, larger playfields and parks should
be provided within twenty minutes walk of any
home. Another safe rule to follow is to spend twice
as much on supervision as on any special form of
(6) The use of school grounds throughout the
year as neighborhood playgrounds under supervi-
sion is important in congested city districts. The
school property may become an excellent civic and
social center for the neighborhood.
(7) Small parks for breathing spaces, larger parks
for outings, and even mountain parks for camping
parties may well be developed before land values
(8) All philanthropic institutions need ample
play provisions, a point that Bessie D. Stoddart has
well stated: Play is needed in homes for the aged
because of the relief from dreariness which it offers.
It is needed in hospitals for the insane, because
of its curative and educational value. It is needed
in the homes for the feeble-minded, because of its
value in developing latent ability. It is needed in
homes for the care of epileptics, of the chronically
ill, and of the blind and deaf, for its cheering and
educational value. It is needed in orphanages to
create the atmosphere of the normal home and to
176 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
keep children from becoming institutionalized. It
is needed in reform schools and homes for delin-
quent children in order to develop constructive
impulses and to curb destructive ones. It is needed
in jails and penitentiaries to help reform those who
are imprisoned and re-create in them a favorable
attitude toward normal group life. In other words
provisions for useful play are needed by all persons
who are physically, mentally, or morally afflicted, as
much as by normal persons.
(9) One of the most difficult tasks is that of se-
curing proper inspection, control, and suppression
where needed, of the commercialized amusements
of the day, including dance halls and academies,
cafes, drinking-inns, the theaters, and motion-pic-
ture houses. In suppressing commercialized amuse-
ments, it is usually wise to provide adequate, con-
structive substitutes. In controlling them, it is
clear that they must be measured by standards of
true recreation rather than of deterioration.
(10) Socialized play must distinguish between
amusement and recreation. Amusement is the pas-
sive, relaxing phase of play; it is the spectator
phase. The amused person is one usually who sits
still and looks on while some one else plays or works
or overworks. Recreation on the other hand is the
active re-creative element in play; it is the con-
structive, invigorating phase.
A current tendency is to accentuate amusement
THE PLAY GROUP 177
at the expense of recreation. The emphasis may
safely be reversed. The majority of adults and
many adolescents can secure ample amusement in
real recreation; in fact, many persons obtain genu-
ine recreation through their work, providing that it
contains opportunities for creative expression. Work
which is so specialized that it contains no interest-
ing elements, and which is merely repeating the task
of making one-eighteenth of a pin all day long and
day after day and week after week, compels the
worker to look to the end of the day or week for
his recreation. Such work however is abnormal.
The stress should be placed on play as a creating
and re-creating process, and of maintaining those
forms of work which contain a large percentage of
recreative elements. Only socialized play groups
are truly helpful.
178 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
1. Distinguish between play and work.
2. What is the main function of a football game?
3. Why is making artificial flowers, work; and climbing
Mont Blanc, play?
4. If giving up tobacco is necessary for physical fitness in
preparation for football games, why is it not given
up in preparation for the strenuous activities of daily
5. Explain the statement that the parks are often too far
away from the individuals who need them.
6. W T hat is the tenement child's most common playground?
7. Explain: "Milwaukee spends a thousand years of leisure
8. Is it often true that an American's idea of a holiday is
a fatiguing journey?
9. Who is in greater need of provision for play, the chil-
dren of the poor or of the rich?
10. What are the main arguments for and against censor-
ship of motion pictures?
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP
HUMAN LIFE is focused first in the family and
play groups. In adolescence the occupational
group begins to receive attention. Play and work
are or may be closely related if not synonymous, or
they may be disjunctive. As long as a person finds
a full supply of new and interesting possibilities in
any activity, he is playing; when the center of in-
terest shifts to an end or goal outside the specific
activity, play is sublimated into work, and an occu-
pational status has been established.
As an individual develops and his horizon ex-
pands, life becomes divided into means and ends.
The attitude of considering every activity as a
means to an end becomes fixed, and living be-
comes working. The tendency is to shift the
object of interest from the activity of the mo-
ment to a more or less remote goal. Through over-
specialization modern industry has tended to rob
normal work activities of focii of interest; the
workman comes to view his day's work, not for its
creative opportunities, but as a means to an end,
which is commonly the pay check.
180 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
1. Occupational Beginnings. Among early hu-
man groups, the elemental impulse of hunger, per-
haps more than any other influence led to indus-
trial activity. Primitive people satisfied this im-
pulse by searching for food and by living upon
what they could raise. Hence they gorged and
starved, feasted and fasted, according to their skill
or luck in finding food.
As an aid in this search for food, primitive people
invented crude weapons and tools. Man the only
tool-using animal invented knives for cutting,
scrapers for abrasing, hammers for fracturing, need-
les and awls for perforating, tongs for grasping, and
so on, throughout a long list of increasingly com-
plex implements. It was a remarkable advance
when man learned how to kindle a fire, and could
use fire for cooking purposes. Another achievement
is represented by the discovery of drying foods in
the sun or before a fire, as a means of preserving
them for times of scarcity.
Man moved forward again when he learned to
domesticate animals. This domestication resulted
in giving the human race valuable assistance in its
industrial activities ; in the dog, man had an assist-
ant in the chase ; and in the ox, a beast of burden.
The digging stick, as the forerunner of hoe-cul-
ture and later of agriculture, was used to scratch
the surface of the soil for the planting of seeds. For
long centuries, doubtless, women with digging sticks
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 181
and similar crude implements managed to raise a
few herbs and roots, and thus provide against pe-
riods of famine. In the meantime, men were en-
gaged chiefly in the pursuit of the hunt and chase.
Another forward step was taken when domesti-
cated animals were kept in flocks and herds, thus
providing a stable food supply. Pastoral and no-
madic life developed. In order to secure pasturage,
it was necessary for the people to wander with the
flocks up the valleys and mountain slopes in the
summer and back again in the winter.
Along with the development of hoe-culture, ag-
riculture, and pastoral occupations, there arose the
institution of private property. Tools and weapons
were early considered to be the private property
of the maker of them. With the increase of flocks
and herds the institution of private property seems
to have become well established. Land and pas-
turage, however, were first considered group prop-
erty. Each tribe or group possessed its generally
recognized territory, throughout which it might
wander with its flocks.
The use of land as an occupational activity is
primeval and universal. Hoe-culture including the
protection of roots and tubers for future consump-
tion developed into tillage of the soil with oxen and
plough. When men turned from the hunt as a means
of livelihood to hoe-culture which was developed
first probably by women, they made application of
182 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
the technical skill which they had acquired. As a
result, hoe-culture was supplanted by crude forms
With the rise of agriculture, primitive groups
passed from the flesh diet of nomadism to a pre-
dominant use of vegetable foods. The roaming life
of hunting days and pastoral nomadism gave way
to the settled life of agriculture. With the cultiva-
tion of the soil and the accompanying vast increase
in food supply, population multiplied. Agriculture
made fixed abodes necessary, augmented popula-
tion, and led to the establishment of village com-
munities. All these changes led to the production
of new forms of wealth. The creation of wealth in
itself became an occupation.
With stationary abodes, the holding of slaves be-
came feasible. Slavery acquired an occupational
status. Under nomadism and earlier forms of
human existence the food supply was so small and
uncertain and life was so migratory that it was
usually necessary to kill captives taken in warfare.
With the rise of agricultural occupations, it was
better to enslave captives than to kill them. The
cultivation of the soil by slave labor represented at
first an advance. Slavery gradually became eco-
nomically unprofitable and was ultimately sup-
planted by free labor.
Down to the middle of the eighteenth century,
agriculture was the leading occupational activity of
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 183
mankind. The serf system of cultivating the soil
existed for centuries. Then, free labor and the wage
system were found to be more profitable. With the
Industrial Revolution and the manufacture of tools
on a large scale came new agricultural develop-
ments. The division of land into farms under in-
dependent ownership became common. The in-
crease in population and in the demand for food
tended to bring about a change from extensive to
modern intensive farming and to establish the
scientific agriculture of the twentieth century.
Current agricultural problems are numerous ; the
discussion of them will be elaborated in the chapter
on Rural and Urban Groups. It is difficult to main-
tain upon farms, for example in the United States, a
class of people who have succeeded; they move to
the cities, thus depriving rural districts of their ex-
periences, stirring attitudes, and leadership. Fur-
thermore, tenant farming is on the increase; it is
becoming more and more difficult for a young man
without means to marry, rear a family, and pay for
a farm. Young people of initiative and education
leave the farms for the city ; rural leadership is de-
pleted. The rise of land values under private own-
ership tends to bring about the concentration of
land ownership in the hands of a small percentage
of the population. Land and food may ultimately
become so precious that it will be necessary to limit
the amount of land that one person or a group of
184 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
persons may own and to limit rentals. Speculation
in land creates untold hardship for young people
who have initiative and character but who possess
no economic advantages. In its methods of social
control of land the national group may well en-
courage rather than penalize young men and
women who wish to establish homes on rural acre-
age of their own.
The home attitude of young people in the United
States is changing ; they are giving up the desire to
own their own homes and are becoming content to
live as tenants and spend their lives "in going up
and down other people's stairways." The respon-
sibility for this attitude rests, not primarily upon
the young people, but upon those who are profiting
from special economic privileges derived from the
present system of land ownership and who selfishly
refuse to sacrifice special privilege for the sake of
other people, of little children, and of national wel-
2. Labor and Unionization. According to the
earliest occupational divisions men engaged in
hunting and fighting, while women cared for the
children, did the work about the habitations, and
gave some attention to hoe-culture. Settled agri-
cultural activities crystalized and slavery developed.
Inasmuch as people who worked for wages acquired
an attitude of personal independence, they did more
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 185
work per day than slaves, or even than serfs; free
labor thus ultimately supplanted both slave and
Among primitive specializations of labor, the
activities of medicine men and priests are note-
worthy. The persons in these occupations possessed
a superior technique for controlling the minds of
their fellows. Their so-called superior knowledge
was usually a highly organized form of superstition
and magic. Nevertheless, from similar unscientific
origins nearly all the modern professions have
A profession may be distinguished from a trade
in that the latter deals primarily with material
things and transforms these useful commodities,
whereas the former deals with service and the crea-
tion of health, knowledge, happiness, better govern-
ment, and better living. The professional groups
have originated class ethics, class organizations,
and class attitudes. They have usually been al-
lied with the higher well-to-do and wealthy groups.
Often they have represented the middle class atti-
tude and served as a steady mean between the eco-
nomic extremes. Each profession has developed a
high degree of pride, and possesses a strong occu-
pational mind. This mind has produced biases,
narrowmindedness, and intolerance which are to
be charged to over-specialization and lack of special-
186 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Free labor and the wage system led to the or-
ganization of labor. The craft gilds of mediaeval
times were among the first organizations of produc-
tive forces ; these included both merchant or manu-
facturer and employee.
The rise of the factory system in the latter part
of the eighteenth century drew laborers together
under single roofs, giving them a basis for class con-
sciousness. They were drawn away from the homes
of their employers where they worked under the
domestic system of industry, and thus they lost
touch with the employer's point of view. When em-
ployer and employee lost contact with each other
under the factory system modern industrial troubles
began ; each ceased to accommodate himself to the
The application of steam as a motive force in
operating machinery revolutionized industry.
Hand-driven tools were supplanted by power-driven
machinery ; and the home as the unit of production
gave way to the factory. Although, ,the factory
system and large-scale production imply mutual
dependence, the loss of personal contact between
employer and employee has led to endless industrial
troubles. Labor began to organize for its own pro-
tection; capital likewise organized for its own ad-
vancement. Labor wished to secure control of in-
dustry ; capital wished to dominate. Two large and
powerful classes have arisen with a black gulf be-
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 187
During the nineteenth century labor unions in
the United States developed from the status of local
organizations to national trade unions, and then
into a general federation, the American Federation
of Labor. They believe in collective bargaining,
that is, that the representatives of the unions shall
meet with the representatives of the given employ-
ers, and together determine wage scales, hours of
labor, and other conditions of work.
The trade unionists use two main methods: ar-
bitration and strikes. They are usually willing to
abide by the rule of arbitration, providing they are
sure that a fair board of arbitrators has been chosen.
Reasonable trade unionists believe that broad-
minded employers and they, after friendly discus-
sion of disputed points, will agree. They prefer
the personal method of meeting employers through
representatives; they urge arbitration. They in-
sist that if capital has the right to organize, labor
has a similar right. They ask that the representa-
tives of organized labor be accorded a fair hearing
by the representatives of organized capital.
If denied what they consider a fair hearing, trade
unionists call a strike; they lay down their tools
and walk out. This method is a powerful weapon.
In recent years the strike has become a menace to
the public, for example, a general railroad strike,
paralyzing the means of transporting food and
188 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
bringing starvation to the doors of the poor. If the
public denies labor the right to strike, as seems
necessary, the public is under obligation to provide
labor with other means of obtaining justice.
The moderate trade unionist, following the an-
alysis by V. S. Yarros, is not a revolutionist; he
does not think of overthrowing the present social
and economic system. He does not object to the
wage system, nor to property being held by indi-
He asks for more pay, shorter hours, and safer
and healthier conditions of work. He will always
be making these three requests. He wants more
and more pay, for the same reason that the capi-
talist always wants more dividends. He urges short-
er and shorter hours, for he sees many people no
more worthy than himself who are not working at
all, but living luxuriously and as it seems to him at
his expense. He will always possess a desire for
better conditions of labor, because he feels that he
is entitled to a share in the advances that are being
registered by inventions and discoveries.
The moderate trade unionist has been described
as having no Utopian schemes, as dealing with im-
mediate problems, as priding himself on his reason-
ableness and practicality, as believing in private
capital if it is not used as an instrument of special
privilege, and as protesting against the prejudices,
the lack of sympathy and comprehension, and the
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 189
distrust shown by the capitalist. On the other
hand he has often created a trade union autocracy
and personified the spirit of selfishness and narrow
Sociology believes in the principle of "come, let
us reason together," and in methods of adjudicating
differences by discussing them frankly, and in a
friendly manner. It believes that labor and cap-
ital have the same right to organize, and that the
representatives of organized labor have the same
right to a fair hearing as have the representatives
of organized capital.
Sociology does not approve of the selfishness,
arbitrariness and desire for class control of either
unionists or capitalists. It does not excuse union
labor in its schemes of using dynamite; neither does
it condone organized capital in its schemes of stock-
watering, and speculating in the necessities of life.
It agrees with Abraham Lincoln who said in his
first presidential address to Congress: "Labor is
the superior of capital, and deserves much the
3. Child Labor. Every child should have regular
work to do, as well as opportunity to play. Chil-
dren however should not enter gainful occupations
for full time employment at an age which precludes
their normal development. Since the introduction
of the factory system, children have been employed
190 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
at regular work eight, ten, or twelve hours a day
while still at the beginning of their adolescence. The
industries which according to recent reports em-
ploy children at too early an age are cotton manu-
facture, silk manufacture, glass manufacture, ag-
riculture, the canneries, the sweated clothing trades,
the street trades, and mining.
The costs of child labor are heavy. ( 1 ) The effect
upon bodily growth and physical development is
serious. Child labor operates against a symmetri-
cal development of strength, vigor, and substantial
healthfulness. It generally causes a one-sided de-
velopment of the body, or the over-use of certain
muscles at the expense of others scarcely developed
at all. (2) The boy who begins work in industry
at an early age will have a total earning power
much less than that of the youth who does not begin
his working life until he is physically developed.
A boy who enters industry at twelve or fourteen
years of age suffers an early depletion of his physi-
cal powers and the shortening of the working period
(3) The boy or girl who goes to work in industry
is debarred from completing a needed education;
his educational period is cut short, and his full pow-
ers are never developed. Although occasionally a
boy overcomes the handicaps and becomes a suc-
cessful business man, it is safe to say that a large
majority of working boys and girls are kept from
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 191
successful careers because of early deprivation of
educational advantages. (4) It has been found that
delinquency is from two to four times as high
among working boys as among boys regularly at-
tending school. The working child often falls in
with the rougher type of unskilled and casual labor,
and acquires harmful information ; his companions
influence him in vicious ways. He has money to
spend, and therefore does not feel a full sense of re-
sponsibility to parental control. He comes often
from a broken home or from a home where poverty
The causes of unfavorable child labor conditions
are numerous. (1) The greed of ignorant parents is
an outstanding factor. Many parents among both
the foreign born and native born still consider their
growing children as economic assets from which
financial returns in the form of wages may be im-
mediately received. The idea once prevailed that
the larger the number of children in the family, the
larger the family income might grow as a result of
putting the children into gainful employments at
an early age. Boys on the farm have often been
taken out of school because of their capacity to
labor, but at the expense of a needed education.
(2) Although many boys and girls are employed,
even when their parents enjoy a reasonable stand-
ard of living, it is known that perhaps thirty per
cent of gainfully employed children belong to fam-
192 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
ily groups which are definitely suffering from eco-
nomic pressure. The accompanying table, prepared
from a United States government report on women
and child wage earners, shows the relation between
economic necessity and other causes :
CAUSES OF CHILD LABOR
1. Economic necessity 30.0 per cent
2. Unnecessary parental demands 27.9
3. Child's dissatisfaction with school 26.6 " "
4. Child's anxiety to work 9.8 " "
5. Other causes 5.7
(3) The child's attitude is significant. For va-
rious reasons, sometimes his own shortsightedness,
and sometimes the school's inflexibility, he becomes
dissatisfied with school life and seeks work. Many
children discontinue school despite protests of par-
ents. Boys are prone to develop a spirit of inde-
pendence and become anxious to demonstrate their
working capacity. The impulse grows because the
boy has friends who are earning money and boast-
ing about it. Few experiences thrill a boy more than
the first wages he receives.
(4) The attitude of the employer is responsible
for much child labor. His responsibility rests first
upon the fact that he willingly accepts or invites
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 193
children. By so doing he encourages the tendency
of parents and of child workers in their willingness
1;o continue the evils of child labor.
(5) The rise of the factory system with its minute
subdivision of labor has made it possible to separate
the lighter forms of labor from the more difficult,
and thus to encourage the employment of children.
Many types of work have developed, as in the cot-
ton mills and the glass factories, which require
chiefly time, and running to and fro, and hence
have been assigned to children. Again, modern im-
provements have made certain types of machines
i>b nearly automatic that boys and even girls can
operate them; thus adolescents are often substituted
(6) The public must bear a large share of the
responsibility for the existence of child labor, be-
cuuse it can eliminate much of the evil by seriously
opposing the practice. The public is thoughtlessly
willing to permit child labor for the purpose of
sv Jf-support of dependent parents and of the child ;
it does not appreciate the necessity of seeking eco-
nomic means of relief for the child or the parents.
The public does not fully recognize the ultimate
effects of premature child labor.
Child labor legislation is gaining ground. The
most advanced child labor laws in the United States
are found in the north and west, while the weakest
and least satisfactory exist in the southern and cot-
194 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
ton mill states. Several northern states, however,
have been compelled to fight bitterly for progressive
legislation, especially such states as Pennsylvania.
These laws relate either positively or negatively to
eight points, namely : (1) One of the vital consider-
ations in a child labor law is the age limit below
which gainful employment is prohibited. (2) The
physical qualifications need to be put high, in order
properly to safeguard the health of the child. (3)
Educational requirements protect the child's mental
development, outlook upon life, and usefulness as
a citizen. (4) The number of hours of labor a day
constitutes a health as well as an economic and so-
cial question. (5) Night work is unjustifiable, be-
cause of the natural abnormality. (6) It is nec-
essary to require working papers or certificates of
children between fourteen and sixteen or eighteen
years of age, as a means of protecting them against
unscrupulous employers. (7) It is vital that chil-
dren be safeguarded from hazardous occupations.
(8) The exemptions which are made in agricultural
or canning factory work may easily come to con-
stitute a rule rather than exceptions, and entail
wholesale losses upon children. (9) Legislation re-
garding street trades requires special attention be-
cause of a misinformed public attitude, which as-
sumes that a little child selling newspapers on a
dangerous street and running wild in unsuper-
vised alleys infested by older boys of a vicious
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 195
nature is representative of an ideal situation. (10)
The welfare of business and industry is being shifted
to include the welfare of adolescent and other imma-
ture employees as a primary consideration.
Children are the citizens of tomorrow; they are
entitled to a full and balanced development of all
their talents, an education inculcating the highest
principles of self-control dedicated to unselfish ser-
vice. In their occupational outlooks they are en-
titled to a set of thoroughly wholesome, creative,
and social attitudes.
196 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
1. What is labor?
2. What is an occupation?
3. Why should everyone work?
4. Should labor organize?
5. Is collective bargaining justifiable?
6. Why was there no such gulf between the laboring and
employing classes two centuries ago as exists today?
7. What are the grounds for legislating in behalf of laboring
8. What are blind alley jobs?
9. Who is the chief gainer from child labor? The chief
10. Explain: Child labor is child robbery.
11. Why does an adolescent boy have strong desires for
12. Explain: The newsboy needs your protection, not your
13. Why is the accident rate for children in industry higher
than for adults?
14. How can you personally help in solving child labor
15. What is the best test of a successful worker?
16. Make out a minimum budget for a workingman and
his family including a wife and three children.
17. Does anyone in this country earn more than the Pres-
ident and hence should he receive a larger income?
18. Should anyone be paid as much as he earns?
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP
4. Women in Industry. The rapidity with which
women have entered industry in the United States
since the close of the Civil War has been amazing.
The number of women and of girls over ten years of
age who are in gainful employments passed the ten
million mark about 1912. Women in large numbers
are working for wages in ( 1 ) the textile and cloth-
ing trades, (2) the metal trades, (3) agriculture,
(4) household employment, (5) mercantile estab-
lishments, and (6) miscellaneous employments,
such as is represented by telephone operators, cigar
makers, paper box manufacturers, and laundry
The leading problems which have arisen from
the employment of women in industry will now be
analyzed. ( 1 ) It has been demonstrated many times
that one of the saddest chapters in human history
is connected with the fact that the machine which
man invented to relieve him of labor and to produce
economic values more rapidly has led to the factory
system of labor, and that women and children are
forced to follow their work to the factory. "The
198 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
machine," continues W. I. Thomas, "which was in-
vented to save human energy and which is so great
,1 boon when the individual controls it, is a terrible
thing when it controls the individual. Power-driven,
it has almost no limit whatever to its endurance,
and it has no nerves. When, therefore, the machine
is speeded up and the girl operating it, is speeded up
to its pace, we have finally a situation in which the
machine destroys the worker."
(2) Then there is the question of long hours,
overtime, and overfatigue. Eight hours of labor for
women in industry is recognized as a long enough
day. A day longer than eight hours is likely to
cause harmful results to the physical and mental
organism of woman. When subjected to long hours
of industrial labor for years, women are likely to
become low grade mothers. Their children suffer,
and both mother and child are subjected to the
danger of nervous and physical breakdown.
The girl who goes rapidly through the routine
processes of wrapping caramels every day, or who
threads the almost invisible Tungsten filament
through a tiny hole at the rate of three every minute,
or one thousand a day, or who operates an elec-
tric sewing machine that carries ten needles sew-
ing ten seams at a speed so fast that the needles are
ten streaks of light, this girl becomes less than hu-
man, unfit to be a mother and a citizen.
Overfatigue represents the most subtle effect of
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 199
occupational activity; it affects women employed
even more seriously than it does men, and hence is
considered here rather than in the preceding
chapter. It is also a serious factor in the child
Overfatigue may be considered as the result of a
chemical process. In consequence there is danger
of producing a continual tearing down of muscle
and nerve tissues, without an adequate building up
of the same. In this way fatigue substances or tox-
ins may circulate in the blood, poisoning brain and
neural system, muscles, glands, and other organs.
The results of overfatigue are many, (a) Over-
fatigue causes industrial inefficiency. As a rule,
poorer and less work is done in the last hours of a
long day's work than in the earlier hours.
(b) Overfatigue causes industrial accidents. In
general, the liability to accidents increases with the
passing of the hours of the day. After studying a
large number of industrial accidents, the writer has
found that for 9,000 accidents which occur in the
second hour of work, 12,000 occur in the( third
hour, and approximately 15,000 in the fourth hour.
The increase of 3,000 accidents in the third hour,
and of 6,000 in the fourth hour over the number
of accidents in the second, represents in mathemat-
ical terms fairly well the extent to which fatigue
(c) Overfatigue assists the advance of disease,
200 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
especially of a contagious disease. An overworked
person is more susceptible to pneumonia, tubercu-
losis, and typhoid fever than is one whose vital
resistance is normal. With fatigue toxins in the
body, the organism is seriously, often fatally hand-
icapped in meeting the invasion of pathogenic bac-
teria. A not uncommon succession of events is,
first, overfatigue; then "colds"; then pneumonia
or tuberculosis; then, death.
(d) Overfatigue accentuates nervous diseases.
Long hours of work at a feverish pace lead to ner-
vous breakdown. Unscrupulous employers who are
abusing the principles of scientific management are
guilty of turning many of their employees into
lightning-like machines. The neural system, not
built for such a pace, breaks down after a time.
(e) Future generations will suffer from the fa-
tigue of the present generation. The children of
perennially tired parents are in danger of being
(f) Fatigue often has an untoward effect upon
the morals of working people. It increases human
susceptibility to temptation, causes a person to turn
almost anywhere for relaxation, and leads him to
neglect his own welfare and that of his family as
(3) The question of wages is significant. While
some girls can afford to work for low wages, inas-
much as their need is for "pin money," the large
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 201
percentage are supporting themselves or others.
Since the majority must compete with the girl who
works for "pin money," they are sometimes com-
pelled to accept less wages than they earn. Low
wages may lead not only to physical suffering, but
also to moral danger. Mary Van Kleeck is the au-
thority for the statement that low wages have made
thousands of girls practically defenseless.
(4) There is a comparative lack of ambition on
the part of many working girls and women to attain
high industrial efficiency or to advance above cer-
tain levels. This attitude is due partly to the "I
should worry" spirit of the times, and partly to the
expectation of marriage.
(5) To the extent that the wife and children
enter industry, the wages of the husband and father
are thereby reduced. There is much evidence to
show that the income of the male wage-earner when
working alone is as great as the combined wages of
the man himself, his wife, and the children, when
the wife and children enter into industry in com-
petition with the male wage-earner. The composite
wage of all the members of the family is not likely
to exceed the income of the male wage earner when
(6) The employment of married women in in-
dustry has serious phases. Several years ago in the
United States the number of married women gain-
fully employed passed the one million mark. To an
202 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
extent these facts mean that homes and especially
young children are neglected.
(7) Another vexatious problem is that of organ-
izing women in industry. Some decades ago, the
members of men's labor unions refused to admit
women to the unions. Today a changed attitude
exists; men's unions now try to induce women to
organize, to ask collectively for higher wages and
for better living conditions and thus not to com-
pete against men.
There are great difficulties in the matter of or-
ganizing women in industry. Large numbers
of them are only temporarily employed ; they have
simply a temporary interest in the conditions of
their work. The majority are under twenty-five
years of age ; they are not as seriously interested in
improving the conditions of their work as they
would be if they were older. Another difficulty is
that there are relatively few good leaders among
(8) The two leading methods of improving the
working conditions of women in industry are legis-
lation and education. In many countries legisla-
tion has been passed providing for shorter hours and
better wages. Such legislation is essential, not onjy
for women employees, but also for the employer
who desires efficient workers in order to protect
him against the successful underbidding of unscrup-
ulous competitors. Minimum wage legislation was
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 203
first passed in 1894 in New Zealand. It spread to
England in 1910, and then to various states in this
country. On the whole, it is working well.
The educational method of improving the condi-
tions of women in industry applies to three groups.
Employers need to be trained to a full sense of re-
sponsibility relative to the welfare of employees
and the conditions under which they work. Women
and girls should know what conditions they may
reasonably expect, and be trained to organize, even
as capital organized, in order to secure for them-
selves at least the minimum essentials of living, of
family obligations, and of industrial and public
welfare. The public in turn must have a keen sense
of what constitutes full economic and social justice.
5. Dangerous Occupations and Unemployment.
The approximate number of fatal industrial acci-
dents among wage-earners in the United States has
been about 25,000 a year for several years past. The
number of non-fatal but serious industrial accidents
involving a disability of two or more weeks has
averaged about one million a year. The most dan-
gerous general industry is that of mining ; naviga-
tion and railroad transportation are also high in
the list. There follow occupations, such as
electrical work, quarrying, lumbering, building, and
According to John B. Andrews, industry maims
204 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
more men than war ever did. H. R. Seager has
pointed out that the United States has shown a larg-
er proportion of industrial accidents on its railroads
and in its mines and factories than any other civi-
lized land. Industry, says G. L. Campbell, is doub-
ly wasteful of life and efficiency. "It may be charged
not only with the extravagance of killing and
maiming yearly thousands of workers, but it seems
to choose for its victims many persons in the prime
of manhood, normally with years of life before
them, and with obligations but partly discharged
to wives and children . . . It is evident that the
victims are usually young men, that the majority
of them have families, and that the standard of
living of these families is greatly lowered by losses
due to injuries. The tale of industrial accidents is
at best a tale of destitution, blighted hopes, and ar-
Occupational diseases are common; they consist
of those diseases which are caused directly by the
nature of the occupation in which the wage-earner
is working, such as lead poisoning, caisson disease,
or even tuberculosis. The worker himself may be
quite ignorant of such sickness-producing condi-
tions. The employer may be only slightly interested
in the welfare of the employees, and neglect to
protect them against danger. In some cases the
poisonous character of the materials used produces
diseases, for example, in the printing trades, in
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 205
plumbing, and in making phosphorous matches.
The poison seeps into the human organism day by
day, and in time becomes a main cause or a leading
secondary cause of disease. An amount of dust,
especially of coal dust or steel dust, in the air where
men work produces disease by lacerating the lungs
and making them subject to bacterial invasions.
Again, sudden changes in temperature, as is the
case with steel workers in entering and leaving the
furnace rooms, cause disease. Men who work in
caissons pass in a few minutes from normal air
pressure to air pressure three times or possibly four
times the normal, and then at the close of work re-
turn to normal air pressure again. Such experiences
day after day are disease-producing. Many occu-
pations therefore kill and maim not only by sudden
processes but also by slow, subtle ones. The related
questions of accident compensation and sickness in-
surance will be presented in the next chapter.
Unemployment for short or long periods of time
is an occupational problem. In many industries
there are rush and slack seasons. During the latter,
many workers are laid off for several weeks or given
In the mining industry, for example, the mines
are closed at least one-fifth of the time, due to
storms, accidents, breaking of machinery, and
strikes. Trade union statistics show that skilled
workers are unemployed sometimes as high as twen-
206 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
ty-five and thirty per cent of a given year.
There are two classes of the unemployed: one
class is composed of those who would work but
cannot find it; the other class is marked by a lack
of desire to work. The fluctuations in the demand
for economic goods, the changes in the seasons with
the coming of the dull periods, and similar factors
cause many thousands to be thrown out of employ-
ment annually. Then there are the persons who
do not want to work regularly or who do not want
to work at all. Many of these are wholly respon-
sible for their attitudes; others, only partly so.
Many men start out in life with a keen desire to
work and earn money, but become temporarily un-
employed, start to live from hand to mouth, and
then acquire habits of idleness and unsteadiness.
It may be said that unemployment is a national
problem; there is need for a national commission
and national policies. The government might save
large national labor projects for times of national
depression. If states or provinces, counties, and
municipalities could and would do likewise, a large
measure of unemployment would be alleviated.
Since every month of the year has its busy seasons
for some industries and its dull seasons for other
industries, a rotation might be devised for shifting
employees in the dull seasons of certain industries
to the industries which are experiencing rush orders.
Such a program involves the establishment of
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 207
free national employment bureaus. For the per-
sons whom the bureaus could not place, trade
schools could be provided, enabling the temporarily
unemployed persons to improve in skill and become
master of more than one trade. As an educational
venture the nation would find such a program eco-
nomically and patriotically worth while. No nation
can afford to have a large unemployed class remain-
ing idle. If a man refused work, or refused educa-
tional training, he should be sent to a detention
farm where he would be put to agricultural and
other work and subjected to reformatory influences.
In these ways a large percentage of the unemploy-
ment problem would be solved. Everybody would
either be working, or if out of work, would not be
lying around acquiring disintegrating habits, but
could secure school and trade training, or if
refusing the latter opportunity, would be placed
under the reforming influences of an agricultural
detention farm. Such a plan, which was first de-
veloped in England by Sidney and Beatrice Webb,
might be modified to meet conditions in other coun-
tries as well.
Another group of unemployed are the idle rich.
These constitute nationally an even graver problem
than the idle poor, because they consume heavily
and divert production into ths field of luxuries and
from the field of necessities, thus decreasing the supr
ply of the latter and increasing the prices of these
208 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
necessities. The idle rich, moreover, feel themselves
superior to the man who works for a living and thus
develop into an aristocracy of spendthrifts.
6. Poverty. A failure to engage in an occupation,
except in the case of the hereditarily rich, leads to
poverty. Adults who are unable to provide for
their own needs for a length of time represent a
state of poverty.
A classification of people into four economic
groups has been made by W. I. King. The first
group is composed of persons who own property to
the extent of $50,000, or more. If they choose, they
may live mainly on the income from their property.
The upper middle class includes the well-to-do, pos-
sessing property valued from $2,000 to $50,000. Al-
though they derive a share of their income from in-
vestments, they are also dependent upon their own
The lower middle class consists of those persons
who possess a small amount of property, valued
from $1,000 to $2,000. This amount yields them
no noticeable income, but is sufficient to help tide
them over in times of emergency. The remaining
group, the poor, possess little property, chiefly fur-
niture, clothing, and other personal belongings,
ranging in value from a few dollars to several hun-
According to this classification the rich constitute
two per cent of the population of the United States ;
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 209
the upper middle class, eighteen per cent of the pop-
ulation of the United States ; the lower middle class,
fifteen per cent; and the poor comprise a startling
percentage, namely , sixty-five per cent of the total
population. The rich two per cent possess about
sixty per cent of the wealth of the entire country;
the upper middle class, fifteen per cent of the total
wealth; and the poor, constituting sixty-five per
cent and over 65,000,000 people possess the remain-
ing five per cent of the wealth. Although Dr. King's
estimates were made some years ago the relative
percentages have not suffered material change.
The causes of poverty may be placed under three
main headings : (1) poor heredity, (2) poor habits
of the individual, and (3) an unfavorable environ-
ment. (1) A poor heredity refers to the inheritance
of subnormal physical and mental traits; for ex-
ample, a child may be born mentally defective.
(2) The second set of causes of poverty are those
which relate to the habits of the individual, (a) In
many countries intemperance enters into many
cases of low standards of living. In the days of
the saloon in the United States, about twenty per
cent of all cases of poverty were probably due to
intemperance. The passage of the eighteenth
amendment to the Constitution shifted intemper-
ance away from the classes of low economic stand-
ards, (b) Sexual vice is believed to be a more seri-
ous cause of inefficiency than intemperance, (c)
210 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
The gambling spirit ruins many a speculator, (d)
Incapacity to judge wisely, often expressed in the
form of pure blundering, keeps many wage-earners
in the poverty class. This incapacity may be due
to a lack of educational opportunity, or to a poor he-
redity, (e) Shiftlessness is another common cause;
the "I should worry" spirit of the wealthy classes
has permeated the lower economic ranks, (f) A
weak will power is a closely related individual cause
(3) The objective or environing causes are nu-
merous, (a) Changes in methods of work have
caused large numbers of laborers to be thrown out
of employment; for example, when the linotype
was introduced, numerous type-setters were dis-
placed, and were without a trade.
(b) Industrial accidents are a leading cause of
a low income. When 25,000 wage-earners are killed
annually in a country, and 1,000,000 others are
seriously injured while at work, the loss in income
to families must be high. A large amount of per-
sonal capacity is also destroyed, (c) The illness
and premature death of the wage-earner is a cause
of poverty. A definite percentage of poverty, perhaps
fifteen, is due to preventable illness or premature
death, aside from cases caused by industrial acci-
dents. Occupational diseases fall three and four
times more he.avi.ly on wage-earners than on the
professional classes, not only in the number of days
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 211
of sickness and suffering per year, but also in loss
(d) Child labor is another cause of low or insuffi-
cient wages. The youth works for less wages than
the adult. If there is competition between the boy
and the adult, the latter must work for less pay than
he would do otherwise, or lose his job. Further-
more, the boy who goes to work early may become
stunted in both body and mind; he may suffer ac-
cident ; his education is hampered ; and he is likely
to be doomed to work in the low-wage class.
1. Is the presence of women in industry to be encouraged or
2. Why do women go into industrial occupations?
3. What are the effects upon the home of the employ-
ment of women in industry?
4. Why are state factory inspectors often negligent, even
though the lives of girls and women depend upon
adequate inspection of factory conditions?
5. What are the main arguments for the eight hour day
6. What are the main arguments for a minimum wage?
7. What factors would you consider, if you were a member
of a wage board and asked to determine a minimum
wage for women in a given industry?
8. Should equal wages be paid to men and women in the
212 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
9. Make out a minimum budget for a self supporting young
woman who is employed in a department store.
10. In what ways is society responsible for industrial ac-
11. What is thrift?
12. Could an increased degree of thrift on the part of the
working classes remove their prevailing economic in-
13. Is the miser or the spendthrift the more dangerous
member of society?
14. Distinguish between poverty and pauperism.
15. Is it true that "abnormally large incomes make ab-
normally small ones"?
16. Why do some people do charity work as a kind of sport?
17. Who constitute the greater social problem, the idle rich
or the idle poor? Why?
18. Which gives the severer test of character, wealth or
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP
7. Capital and the Corporate Group. The use
of steam-driven machinery and the rise of the fac-
tory system created a demand for large units of
capital. Hence, today, business units vary greatly
in size. Modern business is conducted either (1)
by individual entrepreneurs, (2) by partnerships, or
(3) by the corporate organization in some form.
The first method is satisfactory for conducting
small enterprises ; the second is adequate where cap-
ital on a somewhat larger scale is needed; and the
corporate form is by far the most important type
of business group because of the vast power that it
represents. The leading lines of business which
have adopted the corporate form of organization are
banking, insurance, manufacture, mercantile enter-
prises, and transportation.
Corporate business units first existed independ-
ently of each other. Then there came a period of
competition, of cut-throat competition, as it was
called. When it became apparent that competition
between business units in the same field was dis-
astrous, these units began to combine into larger
214 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
groups. One of the earliest types of combination
was represented by the agreement of independent
concerns to fix prices, and hence to increase profits
by restricting competition. The next step was the
agreement of business groups to divide the field;
each enterprise contracted to limit its activity to a
particular section of the field.
A third phase was the pool, or the attempt to
restrict the output rather than the price or the field.
According to this type of agreement, each member
of the combination accepted an allotted percentage
of production. Then came the formation of
"trusts." By this method, each of the constituent
companies turned over the operation of its respec-
tive shares of the business to a board of central
trustees, and in turn received trust certificates.
Each essentially abandoned to the "trust'' the entire
operation of the given business.
The "holding corporation" developed as a com-
mon successor to the "trust." In this connection a
new central corporation was formed in order to
purchase a majority interest of the stock of indi-
vidual corporations. Each constituent corporation
was operated as a separate unit. The control rested
largely in the hands of the parent company. The
holding corporation was the "trust" in a new and
more effective form.
Then the so-called system of "community of in-
terests" developed. By this method the same group
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 215
of directors possesses a controlling voice in the man-
agement of each constituent company. It is ex-
ceedingly difficult to prevent combinations of this
type from taking place. As an alternative, strict
government control is being tried with varying suc-
cess. Government control, however, in the United
States has been inadequate to such an extent that
the public has not been enthusiastic over it. In
European countries, however, it has proved a suc-
Combinations of capital result in the elimination
of competitive costs, and permit the undertaking
of vast enterprises extending over periods of time,
with the result that the small, independent producer
generally suffers. The corporate group becomes im-
personal, and responsibility is difficult to locate.
The corporation presents a solid front to organized
labor; it makes persistent attempts to control tariff,
taxation, and social legislation. It is a powerful and
constructive factor in matters of economic advance,
but possessed of many and grave social evils. In
many countries it has ceased to be respected by the
common people, and consequently its spcial effi-
ciency has been affected.
8. Socialism. As a result of the evils which have
developed in connection with the institutions of
private property and the corporate group, the move-
ment known as socialism has attained such world-
wide prominence as to call for consideration by all
216 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
students of human society. In general, socialists
are opposed to the use of private property, as such,
to produce more private property, and they are also
hopeless of the labor union method of appealing
directly to the employer. When the latter, repre-
senting organized capital, refuses to meet the repre-
sentatives of organized labor, then socialism is ad-
vanced by many persons as the only worth while
method for meeting the needs of labor.
The socialist makes no war upon capital, as such ;
he believes in capital, providing all the returns go
to labor. Instead of having only a few individuals
reaping the returns from capital and land, he would
have both owned by the state, and managers em-
ployed by the state to operate them in the same
manner as the postal service is governmentally
owned in manv countries.
Instead of the returns from economic enterprise
being divided into four parts, namely, rent, interest,
profits, and wages, the socialist urges that all the
returns should go to labor, recognizing gradations
in labor sendee. Since land would be owned
by the state, no rent would need to be paid, and
since capital would be state owned, no interest
would be charged. Since both land and capital
woujd be used by the state for the welfare of all the
people, there need be no attempt to secure "profits."
Thus all the returns from industrial enterprise, ac-
cording to the socialist's plan, would go in one di-
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 217
rection, namely, to labor, ranging from the highest
type of superintendence and managerial labor to
unskilled labor. No one would receive an income
unless he worked ; the income would be determined
by the skill or managerial ability which the indi-
vidual showed, and by the social value of his effort.
The socialist does not believe that governmental
regulation of the gigantic private monopolies
will succeed. He contends that the monopolies
have become so powerful that they regulate govern-
ments, and even cause wars. The alternative is for
government to go all the way and take over the
large private businesses.
There are several types of socialists. The Marx-
ian socialists, like Marx, advocate an equal dis-
tribution of wealth, a phrase which is commonly
misunderstood. It does not refer to the equal dis-
tribution of property among all the people, but a
distribution primarily of income according to the
service rendered or the work accomplished. Marx
also developed the class struggle idea that the
struggle between the laboring classes and the em-
ploying classes will go from bad to worse until by
revolutiona-ry means and by sheer force of numbers
the laboring classes will come into control of gov-
ernments. State socialism involves a gradual proc-
ess, not a revolutionary cataclysm, whereby the
government will ultimately own all the large in-
dustries and the land. The Fabian socialists in
218 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
England place primary emphasis upon the intellec-
tual method of spreading socialistic concepts
rather than upon working out an organized political
movement. The Christian socialists find the basis
of their beliefs in the teachings of Jesus.
The strong and the weak points of socialism will
now be considered : ( 1 ) Justice is a strong plea of
socialism. It cannot be claimed today to control so-
ciety. The ideal of socialism is to see that everyone
is rewarded in proportion to his services, not to him-
self, but to society. Ours is a form of economic con-
trol which pays one man a million dollars annually
merely because he is the son of his father, another
man $10,000 a year for managing the father's bus-
iness, and other men $1,000 or $2,000 a year, each,
for furnishing the bulk of the labor. Socialism
makes a strong plea for a more just distribution
of wealth; it desires to eliminate special privilege.
In all sincerity it argues that the large economic
rewards should not go to the shrewd and the cun-
ning. It asserts that the big prizes should not all
go to those favored by inheritance irrespective of
their worth as members of society.
(2) Socialism asks for a more scientific organiza-
tion of the productive factors in society, and that
wasteful competition be eliminated. There are per-
haps three times as many milk wagons, horses, and
drivers today in this country as are required to
serve the people. No one would think of returning
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 219
to competitive postmen, that is, of having three or
four postmen delivering mail on a given street at
the same time and in the employment of as many
different competitive companies.
(3) Socialism would eliminate the commercial
spirit and profitism. The spirit of producing goods
for profit would be removed as it has been in the
mail service. It is argued that today goods are
manufactured primarily for profit, that is, primarily
for selling purposes rather than because of useful-
ness. Under socialism it is said that the business
of the shop-keeper will be to help the customer find
out what he really needs, whereas under capitalism
it is often to his interest to sell the customer what
he does not need or what will return the largest
(4) Current socialistic propaganda is calling at-
tention to the unjust phases of industrial and social
conditions. It fearlessly proclaims the truth about
unjust practices and engenders a critical public
The first weakness of socialism that may be men-
tioned is (1) its attempt to put into practice an eco-
nomic system long before people are trained suffi-
ciently to sustain it. It would move too rapidly ; it
overlooks needed evolutionary measures. (2) So-
cialism tends to underestimate the premium that is
placed by the present system upon thrift and energy.
Under capitalism it is the person who within limits
220 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
is confronted by the stern necessity of making his
own way who is most likely to develop strength of
character, at least an individualistic character. Un-
der socialism there would be grave danger that in-
dividuals would succumb to the tendency of relying
upon the state. The slogan might become: What
does it matter, the state will take care of me any-
way. (3) Under socialism there would still be seri-
ous danger to individual liberty. Under capitalism
when political rulers and business magnates com-
bine, the majority of the people are helpless. Un-
der socialism vast political power and absolute eco-
nomic monopoly would be in the hands of a few
persons at a time ; moreover such concentrated au-
thority would be fully legal. (4) Socialism puts
nearly all its emphasis upon a new organization of
society. It holds that if you will change the struc-
ture of the social order, you will secure the desired
improvement. It does not provide for adequate
and direct changes in personal character and in per-
sonal attitudes toward other classes of people and
society. It makes no primary effort to change the
selfish attitude which governs people so much of the
There is no question but that increasing numbers
of persons in many and various parts of the world
are coming to look with favor upon socialism. The
most thorough and unselfish students of the move-
ment, however, are clearly divided. Sociological
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 221
thought has not put its stamp of approval upon
socialism, and will not until the psychological, eco-
nomic, social, and moral objections to it have been
The era of "individualism," however, must pass.
The laissez faire policy of letting individuals oper-
ate their own business as they see fit and without
acting in accordance with social welfare must be
supplanted. Sociology does not hold that either
economic individualism or socialism will be the so-
lution of social maladjustments. It does not believe
in having all business conducted by governmental
enterprise or under individual control alone.
Public monopoly is usually slow in carrying out
projects or in initiating new movements; it may
also fall into the hands of a few individuals, work-
ing together secretly in the interests of a special
class. Private monopoly is more likely to favor the
interests of a few or a class ; it may even attempt
to dictate to governments. Both public enterprise
with its social interests and private initiative may
well be maintained, for each is needed as a stimulus
to and a check upon the other.
It now remains to speak of guild socialism, syn-
dicalism, and bolshevism. Guild socialism as the
movement that has developed in England is strug-
gling toward the organization of manufacturing es-
tablishments as industrial units with the workers in
charge and in virtual ownership. It would not in-
222 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
terfere with present governmental matters, but con-
tent itself purely as an industrial organization pro-
Guild socialism is to be distinguished from the
program of the British Labor Party which is based
upon political activity of labor. Through the exer-
cise of the right of suffrage, labor aims to secure
and maintain control of the House of Commons
and the important administrative positions. The
program also includes the principle of nationaliza-
tion of the chief industries. The method is evolu-
tionary and educational.
Syndicalism in France, paralleled in part by the
activities in the United States of the Industrial
Workers of the World, is radical. It holds that
the socialist's program is too mild, and that the
political method of securing economic control will
fail, because when socialists are elected to office
they tend to become conservative. The syndicalist
advocates "direct action,'' that is, striking directly
at profits. A part of the method is represented by
"sabotage," which originally referred to throwing
a shoe into a machine so as to stop production and
thus to bring the employer to terms. If you are
working in a freight office and asked to ship oranges
from Florida to Illinois, then change the shipping
address to some town in New Mexico. In this way
utter business confusion will result, profits will be
cut off, the consumers will protest against capital-
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 223
ism and business under capitalistic control will be
defeated ; a new economic order can be set up. The
general strike is also advocated. Let all employees
cease to labor, and capitalistic business cannot go
on it will fail, leaving the way open for syndical-
Bolshevism, representing the radical wing of
Marxian socialism, came into power in Russia in
1917. The World War had killed the Czarist army
officers, and as the men in the ranks came into
military leadership they finally swung the proleta-
riat into power in a bloodless revolution. For the
first time in the world, the propertyless classes
overthrew the propertied classes and assumed polit-
ical control in one of the largest countries of the
earth. They established a "dictatorship of the pro-
letariat," using the same autocratic methods that
they had learned under the lash of the imperialistic
forces of the czars. They represent class control
in a new form. Their success or failure depends on
the type of education which they develop, the de-
gree of democracy which they put into practice,
and the social attitudes which they achieve.
Syndicalism and bolshevism use revolutionary
weapons which are out of place in a democracy.
While their methods of control are ancient, they
represent the increasing social unrest of the times.
To denounce them feverishly and to jail their
leaders will strengthen their cause. The chief thing
224 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
needed is that the causes of economic and social
unrest be rooted out.
9. Social Insurance and Co-operative Movements.
Before proceeding to apply the principles of democ-
racy to industry, it will be well to consider certain
ameliorative movements. Social insurance refers
to the insurance of the working classes through
state action. The funds are furnished in part by
the employer, in part sometimes by the employee,
and in part sometimes by the state itself.
In the case of accident insurance or workmen's
compensation, the employer usually pays all the
costs of an accident. When a $5,000 machine in
a factory wears out, its loss is charged to the costs
of production; when a $5,000 employee suffers
death as the result of an accident while at work,
this loss is also being charged to the cost of produc-
tion, and the sum of $5,000 is paid in installments
to the widow or children, or both.
In addition to workmen's compensation for ac-
cidents, compulsory insurance against sickness and
against old age have gained considerable momen-
tum. Compulsory unemployment insurance which
was introduced into England in 1912 in two lead-
ing trades, has gained noticeable headway, but is
still in an experimental stage.
Social insurance has the merit of providing for
the industrial workers and their families in the
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 225
pecuniary crises of life. This fact gives the workers
a degree of freedom from anxiety in normal times,
increasing their happiness and efficiency. Social
insurance is sometimes considered an opening
wedge for socialism, a point that is exaggerated in
the mind of the fearful. A more serious objection
is that social insurance may undermine a full sense
of individual responsibility. In a way it would be
better to provide higher wages and to promulgate
habits of thrift, so that individual responsibility
may flourish, always of course toward socialized
Profit-sharing refers ordinarily to an agreement,
freely accepted, by which "the employee receives a
share, fixed in advance, of the profits." It is a plan
of paying to employees a share of profits in addition
to wages. It is assumed that the profits which are
shared will be created by the increased diligence
and care of the employees.
Another procedure for improving the conditions
of men in industry is "co-operation," which refers to
the efforts on the part of the working class to abolish
profits by distributing them, or surplus funds,
among those whose labor or trade has created the
surplus. Consumers' co-operation consists generally
in a union of many consumers for the purpose of
obtaining commodities at wholesale rates, of sell-
ing them at the ordinary retail rates to their own
members, and then of dividing the profits from
226 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
such sales among themselves upon some equitable
Producers' co-operation is a different system.
While the aim of consumers' co-operation is to give
the purchaser the advantage of lower costs, the
purpose of producers' co-operation is commonly
given as that of raising prices for the benefit of
laborers. Hence there exists an essential antago-
nism between consumers' and producers' co-oper-
ative activities. Associations of workmen, employ-
ing managers and acting as their own employers,
have been successful, but not with uneducated and
Some of the difficulties in connection with pro-
ducers' co-operation are a lack of sufficient capital,
endless trouble with incompetent and shiftless
members, the problem of securing and keeping an
efficient manager, the lack of grace with which
losses are borne, and an insufficient degree of in-
telligent and socialized background on the part of
the rank and file.
10. Industrial Democracy. The World War pro-
jected the concept of democracy into industrial re-
lations with a vengeance. Democracy however is
a general term under which people in Western civi-
lization place their own social attitudes ; industrial
democracy has likewise proved an unstandardized
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 227
For many years, employers were prone to confuse
welfare work with industrial democracy. The in-
troduction in a business establishment of clean
towels, baths, restaurants, rest rooms, and free
dental service illustrates welfare work. As a result
the employer is usually repaid in the form of the
increased efficiency of and improved personal re-
lations with his employees.
The American workman however is peculiarly
sensitive to anything that suggests charity. It has
been pointed out that persons who understand
workmen at all, realize that they do not want to
be subjected to the receipt of gifts and charities
which would place them under lasting servile ob-
ligation to the donors, the employers. Real welfare
work, according to C. R. Henderson, is fair wages
and shorter hours of labor. It is being urged that
the benevolent works of employers in the form of
welfare activities which at first seemed to be gra-
cious and liberal gifts, should be required by law.
Genuine industrial democracy involves three
main factors in the production of economic goods,
namely, the public, labor, and capital. The needs
and welfare of the public are primary ; the interests
of both labor and capital are secondary. Any eco-
nomic system which gives the entire management
of business to labor is unsound ; likewise capitalism
is in error when it claims that capital should dom-
228 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
It is thought by many persons that the main solu-
tion of the economic problem is to give labor repre-
sentation on boards of directors and in management
of industry. Such a plan is being tried with vary-
ing degrees of success. Capital opposes it and la-
bor is not trained for it and often does not wish
to assume so much responsibility. Labor desires
representation on shop committees which regulate
the conditions of work, hours, and even wages, but
it is not willing or able as a rule to assume financial
The joint control of industry by capital and
labor is no certain cure-all for industrial evils.
Capital and labor have showed signs of combining
against the public. Capital has profiteered and
labor has demanded abnormally high wages. In a
given corporation an increase in selling costs was
proposed recently with the understanding that one-
half of the profits that might accrue should be
turned into dividends and one-half into wages.
Capital and labor thus combined against the con-
sumer. In the matter of wages, hours of labor, and
dividends the third party to industrial enterprise
needs to have a voice and representation. A tri-
partite organization of industry is essential if all
interests vitally concerned are to have adequate
As a reaction against profiteering on the part of
capital, and labor also, a new economic phenome-
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 229
non occurred in the fall of 1919 in the United
States; a new type of strike on a large scale took
place. The buyers' strike continued for some time
as a protest against high prices. For a time both cap-
ital and labor were so engrossed in their struggle
against each other that they did not observe that
the public was "striking" against them both. The
buyers' strike demonstrates the necessity of includ-
ing the public in the management of industry.
It is claimed that industrial democracy will shift
the emphasis from rights to functions. Instead of
capital employing labor, labor will employ capital ;
instead of goods being produced for profits, business
must purge itself of profitism, as medicine, teach-
ing, the ministry have purged themselves, and goods
must be produced for use. According to these prin-
ciples, capital will be entitled to standard rates of
interest, dependent upon the amount of risk in-
volved and determined by labor-capital-consumer
agreements. Any returns above the standard rates
will be illegal. The professions have been chang-
ing from a profit to functional and standard income
bases. If business does not follow this law of socio-
economic evolution, it will probably force revolu-
tions and labor class control by the uneducated
masses upon nations.
Under industrial democracy it is claimed that
instead of as high dividends as possible being paid
and of workers being paid as low wages as they will
230 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
accept, the material component represented chiefly
by capital will be secured at as low a rate as possible
and the human element, the workers, will be paid as
much as possible. Instead of a prospective investor
in stocks and bonds asking first, what dividends
are paid, his initial inquiry will be, what service
does the corporation perform. Social welfare, after
all, will be the standard by which all classes must
measure their plans and activities. Good will and
the spirit of "Come, let us reason together," are also
basic to the operation of industrial democracy.
Nearly all other methods produce revolution and
In the three chapters ending with this one, the
occupational group in many of its aspects, processes,
products, and problems has been considered. We
now pass to a discussion of the community group.
THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 231
1. Can you name any employment in which capital pro-
duces without the aid of labor?
2. In which labor produces without the aid of capital?
3. In which both labor and capital produce, without the
aid of the consumer?
4. Is either the average capitalist or the average socialist
in a position to pass an unbiased judgment upon
5. Is socialism to be judged by its ideals or by the way
6. Does it make any difference who owns the wealth, pro-
viding it is socially administered?
7. Under socialism, what is to take the place of the present
rewards of industry as an incentive to the exertion
of the individual's best interests?
8. Explain: "Luxury at present can be enjoyed only by the
9. Can business enterprise survive if, as is the case in the
teaching profession, the element of profits were elim-
10. What is the difference between an acquisitive society
and a functional society?
THE COMMUNITY GROUP
THE COMMUNITY GROUP is here used in the sense
of a social control organization. In an elemental
way it is represented by a neighborhood. In a more
positive governmental sense, it is best illustrated by
the nation ; in its broadest meaning it refers to the
1. The Neighborhood Group. The child's play
group, which has already received consideration,
generally overlaps with the neighborhood, that is,
it contains neighborhood children. It is in this
way that the neighborhood usually comes into the
The neighborhood also contains members who are
outside the play group or even the friendship group
of the child or of the child's parents ; it includes all
persons living within a face-to-face communicative
area. In large cities the neighborhood is likely to
be a group of people characterized chiefly by the
fact that they live within a certain geographic area.
There are many types of neighborhoods, such as a
rural neighborhood, a village neighborhood, or an
THE COMMUNITY GROUP 233
immigrant neighborhood in a large city.
The neighborhood is a combination of several
family groups, and of the representatives of several
play and occupational groups. Its appeal is pri-
marily to the gregarious impulses; children and
women feel its strength more than men. Its bonds
are rarely strong, except as it supports a neighbor-
hood enterprise, such as a system of material im-
provements, an athletic team, or a "drive." It has
no specific form of group control, which is due to
lack of group aims and which explains its weak-
nesses as a group phenomenon.
Since the neighborhood is comprised of fgjnily
group^-Tvhose chief tie is geographic proximity, con-
flict and co-operation alike flourish. The neighbor-
hood feud is common, spectacular, and lasting. It
usually begins with a disagreement between two
families over a boundary line between property,
over live stock, children, or over something that a
member of one family says about a member of an-
other family. The imagination works feverishly
and imagined wrongs multiply. Gossip does its
deadly work until a whole neighborhood of families
is divided into two opposing camps.
The feud illustrates the neighborhood quarrel at
its worst ; it may run for years and generations. In
the mountain districts it may lead to murder, and
last until all the thirty-two MacGregors have been
killed and all but one of the thirty-three Mclntosh's,
234 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
leaving only one Mclntosh alive and thus demon-
strating to a disinterested world that the Mcln-
tosh's have won.
The neighborhood is rarely appreciated as a de-
mocratising agency. It is a nation in miniature; it
may create a group-consciousness which is generic
to national patriotism. It affords an opportunity,
like the public school group, for individuals of many
types of thought, cultural backgrounds, and racial
traditions to learn to co-operate and develop com-
mon viewpoints, to participate in common neigh-
borhood enterprises, and thus to develop a group
consciousness which is the essence of democracy.
A recent movement is community recreation. Ac-
cording to this procedure the people of given neigh-
borhoods organize on the basis of a common need,
that of recreation. Then, through the activities of
skilled recreation leaders and through common
participation, the people give an historical pageant,
establish a community theater, or unite in support
of a recreation center with the schoolhouse as the
common meeting place. It is possible for a neigh-
borhood even of size to furnish itself with nearly
all the recreation it needs, at a minimum of cost,
and what is far more important, to develop withal a
A neighborhood consciousness may be created
not only through community recreation but also
through other forms of common activity, for ex-
THE COMMUNITY GROUP 235
ample, a community church. Again, it is possible
to organize a neighborhood on a general welfare
basis. Such a community organization may send
its representatives to the city council in support of
needed neighborhood measures ; it may work for a
lower water rate or lower prices on milk; it may
establish its own poor relief; it may achieve a re-
markable degree of unselfish group service.
The village as a neighborhood center has not
succeeded as well in the United States as in other
countries. It has become often a dead center.
People move away from their isolated dwellings,
pass by the village, and locate in the large city. The
village is however a socially strategic unit, especial-
ly so in this country where the isolated farm dwell-
ing is so common. The village possesses all the po-
tential advantages of urban neighborhoods and af-
fords expression for the gregarious impulses of
rural people living a half mile or more from neigh-
bors. It is or may be large enough to maintain
nearly all the advantages of the city. It can still
keep clear from the hustle, the superficiality, the
soot, the squalor, and the homelessness of the large
In the United States, however, the rural people
are characterized by an unusual degree of provin-
cial independence and a lack of travel experiences
which prevents the villagers from developing into
a thriving neighborhood community. Villagers do
236 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
not have the social contacts necessary for the de-
velopment of energetic personalities ; they are sub-
jected to a degree of genuine social isolation.
In the city the neighborhood is also handicapped.
The variety in the racial composition or in occu-
pational composition is often so great as to prevent
neighborization. Occupational interests act as cen-
trifugal forces, sending the neighborhood citizens
into diverging paths with diverse aims. The auto-
mobile acts as another type of centrifugal force
that dissipates neighborhood unity.
Thus, the neighborhood fails to measure up to its
possibilities as a group organization. It lacks the
coherency of the family, play, and occupational
groups ; and as a rule shows signs of group life only
in times of crises or under compulsion.
The neighborhood is often charged with directly
fostering homelessness. Many neighborhood dwell-
ers do not know their "neighbors" at all, or only
from seeing them upon the street. The neighbor-
hood unfortunately melts away into the larger
communality, the district, township, city, or county,
instead of contributing an effective group conscious-
ness to the larger community life.
2. The Nation Group. The neighborhood group
was once the governmental or social control group.
It gradually gave way before one larger organiza-
tion after another until today the sovereign govern-
THE COMMUNITY GROUP 237
mental group is the nation. .
Government originated in the need of protec-
tion of individuals from their fellows. Those forms
of life which live in groups and subject to group
organization have an advantage over other forms.
Wild horses that have developed a group organiza-
tion are able to withstand the attacks of ferocious
animals, such as the lion or tiger. Individuals who
live under a group organization survive, while
others perish. Group organization is not only the
basis of individual development, but also of protec-
tion after individuals have reached maturity.
Primitive people lived in groups, submitting
themselves to the rules and regulations of a crude
government, especially in times of crises and danger.
In the presence of a common enemy, primitive
peoples developed a keen sense of the need of pro-
tection and responded eagerly to leadership. The
rise of fear is always a potent force in creating
group or governmental bonds. The need of de-
fensive strength leads to the recognition of the im-
portance of group union, to the giving up of indi-
vidual privileges, to the acceptance of group rules,
and to a new common life under group or political
Under the protection of group organization,
primitive people established the beginnings of oc-
cupational stability and social advance. Here also
is found the origin of private property. As a result
238 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
of group organization, early man possessed a meas-
ure of protection from the "outside," and had a
little world where ordinarily he could live at peace,
a peace which is one of the first conditions of prog-
ress. He also had a measure of protection from
enemies within the group, which led to an in-
creased unity and strength of the whole group.
The "horde" was the group organization in which
the modern state had its origin. It was a sort of
temporary oligarchy, based to an extent on respect
for those whose personal prowess enabled the group
to meet attack successfully. The horde is to be
distinguished from the clan or organization of
families, from the "household" or group organiza-
tion for economic purposes ; and from the phratry,
or group organization for social, recreation, and re-
The horde possessed three of the fundamental
elements of the modern nation state. It had (1)
the idea of the authority of the leader; (2) a notion
of law in the obedience given to the commands of
the chief, and in the customs governing the group
while fighting and hunting; and (3) a common
unity, since all members were combined for a gen-
In the tribal group, which was an advance over
the horde, the need for protection was again the
leading factor. The ties of blood relationship, as
was the case in the horde, functioned as a bond of
THE COMMUNITY GROUP 239
union. The common descent of members from a
fictitious ancestor was postulated; the ruler, or
king, was invested with the absolute authority of a
father. Religion, also, especially in the form of
ancestor worship, rendered important service in de-
veloping the habit of obedience. It enforced with
supernatural sanctions the customs including the
political ideas of the past. The tribal group, then,
was based on the need for protection, on ties of
blood relationships, and on the strength of a com-
The city-state of the Greeks and the Romans, for
example, was an outgrowth of tribal group life. The
need for protection was greater than ever; the ties
of blood relationship were still strong. Religion
was still an affair of the state and a bond of politi-
cal strength. The authority of the city-state was
greater, more regular in its exercise, and more per-
manent in its nature than that of the tribal group.
The city-state developed an elaborate machinery
for administrative purposes and created organized
protection of the weaker members.
The feudal state was no longer an enlarged fam-
ily, as was the tribal group; it was more like an
army. The government of the feudal state was a
type of a definite military institution. In theory
the king owned the whole feudal group. He par-
celled out the land to his nobles, who in turn dis-
tributed it among their subordinates. The state
240 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
was concentrated in the monarchy. The members
did not live so much for the state as for the ruler ;
personal allegiance to the king seemed to take pre-
cedence over the other factors which kept the state
The absolute monarchy was in reality an over-
grown feudal state. For many centuries the mon-
archs treated their respective states as their private
property; concessions from them were always se-
cured with difficulty. Any limitation of the au-
thority of the monarch was rarely secured except
at the cost of bloodshed. Political parties began to
develop, but of course as secret group organizations.
In Russia, for example, political parties existed
largely as secret organizations until 1917.
The next transition was to the constitutional
monarchy. The people slowly but surely obtained
certain rights from the ruler. A parliament was
created to register the will of the people. The
monarch lost his status of a superior being with
divine rights ; he became a minister to the people.
Political parties became stronger; they developed
into open organizations, representing conservative
and radical attitudes on the various questions of
interest to the state. The sovereignty of the people
as the real governing power became recognized.
In a democracy, the latest experiment in group
control, politically speaking, the office of king has
been abolished, and the sovereignty of the people
THE COMMUNITY GROUP 241
established. By means of representatives the people
and the government are welded into a close relation-
ship. Gigantic political parties develop ; there are
generally no more than two leading political parties
in the state at a given time, one representing the
conservative and the other the radical phase of
Political parties perform a definite social func-
tion. In democratic countries, the party in power
rarely initiates new programs. It generally has
more than it can do in fulfilling pre-election prom-
ises. The party not in control renders a definite
sendee in prodding up the party in power, and in
insisting that the latter live up to its promises. The
party out of power, as a rule, stands for progressive
measures and for new ideas and methods in order
to bid successfully for the suffrage of the people.
The nation state is a group of people exercising
organized control over its members and over a
specific territory. Its general forms of activity are
three-fold: (1) activity with reference to other
states, guaranteeing protection from external at-
tack or undue interference; (2) activity with refer-
ence to its citizens, guaranteeing them liberty and
security; and (3) activity in promoting construc-
tive measures for group advance.
In regard to the first function, the state carries on
an elaborate set of diplomatic and military activi-
ties, helping thus to develop a distinct national life.
242 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
The citizen expresses his indebtedness to the state
in its diplomatic and military endeavors in the
form of the sentiment of patriotism. The strength
of this sentiment becomes apparent only when some
other state assumes an aggressive or pugnacious at-
In the second place, the state defends the law-
abiding citizen, and punishes the anti-social mem-
ber. It enforces contracts between individuals,
when properly drawn; it affords damages for ac-
cidents ; it gives protection to groups of individuals
when organized in corporate bodies for business
purposes ; and it aims to protect individuals against
The punishment of individuals who commit of-
fences against other individuals or against the state
itself is a function needed for the protection of the
law-abiding citizen; it is a function which clearly
belongs to the state, because the infliction of such
punishment requires the use of an authority which
extends to all parts of the state. Hence the state
establishes an elaborate police system to catch
guilty persons, and in the person of its own attor-
neys conducts the case against them. It provides
machinery for determining justice and for punish-
ing the convicted.
In the third place, the state promotes social and
economic measures. It has taken up the coinage
of money and assumed charge of banking systems ;
THE COMMUNITY GROUP 243
it has become an extensive employer of labor; it
carries the mails ; it builds and maintains highways.
The question may be raised: How far should the
state go in the economic sphere? The answer may
be given : To the point where the socialized expres-
sion of individual initiative and creative impulses
The state is a group which needs citizens of
strong moral character, but moral character usually
cannot be created by force. The state, however,
does something in this connection, such as prevent-
ing the circulation of impure literature, and limit-
ing the sale of intoxicants.
The state and church are no longer one in all
countries. The combination creates undue concen-
tration of power, and sometimes tends to make re-
ligion perfunctory. If religious needs, however,
are vital to the development of the best type of per-
sons and citizens, then the religious phases of life
cannot be entirely neglected by the state.
3. The World Group. The succession of horde,
tribe, tribal confederacy, city-state, feudal state,
monarchical state, and democratic state has but one
"next stage," and that is world community. Christi-
anity's fundamental propositions of "brotherhood
of man" and "Fatherhood of God" are noteworthy
beginnings. These sentiments are being slowly
rationalized and put into effect.
244 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Hundreds of international organizations have
been formed in the last fifty years; these connote
progress in world community thinking. Although
these international bodies are loosely organized, al-
though they have voluntary members, and although
they have no power of enforcement of rules, they
have created world opinion and afforded some op-
portunity for co-operative international activities.
The Hague Tribunal, while helpless in a real
world crisis, served to attract the attention of the
nations for the settlement of minor disputes. It
has played the part of a meritorious world toy; it
has demonstrated the need for a more effective
world instrument of adjudication. The League to
Enforce Peace set a new world ideal clearly before
public opinion, and led by degrees to a League of
Nations, the formation of which constituted an-
other step in the direction of world community.
President Woodrow Wilson's statement before the
Chamber of Deputies in Italy on January 3, 1919,
that the need of the hour is to organize the friend-
ship of the world is still fundamentally true.
Before any League of Nations or Association of
Nations can succeed, the majority of the people in
the leading nations must learn to think in world
terms. They must establish habits of world think-
ing; they will need to think in world terms for a
period of time before world community can be es-
tablished. They will need to learn to judge the
THE COMMUNITY GROUP 245
acts of their own respective nations and of other
nations from the standpoint of world welfare. Unto
local, provincial, and national thinking there must
be added world thinking. There is an abundance
of local minds, but only a few world minds capable
of grasping the details of world problems in their
full significance. World minds can be created by
developing habits of thinking about world problems.
International law is an evidence of world com-
munity thinking, at least in an incipient form. In-
ternational law is a body of rules, generally recog-
nized by civilized states, which determine to a de-
gree the conduct of modern states in their mutual
dealings. The co-existence of large and powerful
states has made it necessary that they develop
standard rules of action in their conduct with each
In war times and similar crises the principles of
international conduct are likely to be violated.
Owing to the absence of an adequate coercive force
to compel a nation to obey, international law may
break down. The function of international law,
however, is to regulate the conduct of national
groups in all their dealings, hostile as well as pacific.
Modern international law is based on the ruling
principle that nations are units in a larger society,
and possess mutual obligations and rights. Grotius
was the leader in bringing about a recognition of the
world societary concept. The Hague Tribunal and
246 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
similar attempts at establishing an international
court have broken down because the spirit of na-
tionalism has been stronger than the spirit of world
community. When it came to the test, public opin-
ion has not been strong enough to support the ma-
chinery for solving world problems.
The League of Nations was seriously handi-
capped at the very beginning of its career, because it
was built upon so many nationally selfish concepts.
Some feared it as an organization of nations for
the promotion of an autocratic type of capitalism.
Others suspicioned it as a post-war weapon for de-
liberately furthering the welfare of certain strong
nations at the expense of weak ones. Still others
presaged that it would become a League of Western
Civilization. Even its limited power to deprive
nations of a part of their sovereignty was deplored
by nationalists everywhere.
The Washington Conference on Limitation of
Armaments was based on the principle that inde-
pendent nations should come to agreements on
world matters without giving up even a slight de-
gree of sovereignty to a world organization. The
Conference may be viewed however as a step toward
the development of a world public opinion and a
world conscience, which in turn will lead to a world
organization superior in function to nationality.
Despite the progress that is being made, the peo-
ple of the world have not yet sensed the meaning
THE COMMUNITY GROUP 247
of world community. The world has reached the
points where public opinion speaks of Western
civilization or Eastern civilization, and where the
differences between the two, not the likenesses, are
receiving the attention of hectic and spectacular per-
sons on both sides of the Pacific. The average
members of the Western social order are widely pro-
claiming the superiority of Western civilization.
They fail to study, either at all, or with unpreju-
diced minds the worthy points of Eastern develop-
ment; they see chiefly its defects. They even fail
to feel humble because of the defects of their
own societary organization. Likewise, many of the
adherents of Eastern civilization are silently and
politely feeling a sense of pity for Western chauvin-
ists. Now and then some one such as Rabindranath
Tagore, rises up and openly expresses himself, call-
ing Western society black, and dwelling upon the
superiorities of Orientalism.
From the constructive side, an excellent analysis
of Western civilization has been made by Charles
A. Ellwood, who has outlined the following attri-
butes. (1) A set of ethical and religious values was
derived from the Hebrews and early Christians. In
the former the major concept is justice; and in the
latter, love. (2) A number of philosophical and
esthetic values was contributed by the Greeks. (3)
A set of administrative and legal values, stressing
the rights of property, originated with the Romans.
248 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
(4) A set of personal liberty values was developed
by the early Teutons and given concrete modern
expression under the laissez faire doctrine of the
nineteenth century in Western Europe and the
United States. Within recent decades, additional
values have been produced by Occidentalism, name-
ly, (5) scientific methods, (6) business and indus-
trial techniques, and (7) as an antidote to economic
extremes, humanitarian values.
Eastern civilization is known for (1) its self-
sacrifice values, which to the Oriental makes Oc-
cidentalism seem synonymous with organized sel-
fishness. (2) There is a set of contemplative values
in Orientalism, culminating in mysticism. (3) In
the East, there is custom veneration, for parents,
for established ways, for the naturally and socially
stable phases of life, and for law and order. (4)
There is also a set of important conventional stand-
ards which express themselves in human courtesy
and appreciation of the finer things of life. (5)
Orientalism is esthetic, and mystically, not ration-
ally philosophic. (6) Orientalism is noted for its
sense of social solidarity, which produces a strong
sentiment of patriotism and social obligation. The
social group and its standards are the major con-
cepts and the individual, the minor. In the East the
family group is the unit, as compared with the indi-
vidual in the West. (7) The Oriental lives in gener-
alizations rather than in particularizations a prin-
THE COMMUNITY GROUP 249
ciple which is fundamental to the Oriental's other
When the positive elements in Western and East-
ern civilizations are brought together, their real an-
tagonisms are evident. We perceive the rational
versus the mystically philosophic, particularization
versus generalization, the individual over against
the family unit, facts versus concepts, individualism
versus solidarity, utility versus estheticism, action
versus contemplation, the physical versus the psy-
chical, anxiety as opposed to tranquility, and the
means of life versus the sake of living. These con-
trasts, vividly stated by Inazo Nitobe, upon reflec-
tion, provide nothing less than adequate bases for
building a world community that will be superior
to either Western or Eastern civilization.
World community is so much a matter of the
future that only a few tendencies can be noted. Ap-
parently (1) world community will be psychically
one but racially several. Mankind had a common
origin, but dispersed in various directions over the
earth. In migrating, man encountered various
physical and climatic environments, and became
differentiated into races and cultures. The cultures
are now being reunited. The process of social evo-
lution will probably produce one world civilization.
The common culture will always show marked
variations, but its unity will stand. It will also
achieve a considerable amount of racial admixture,
250 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
intermarriage, and amalgamation, but distinct
races biologically will undoubtedly remain. The
different climatic regions of the earth will continue
to function in producing dark and light skinned
races, and sunny and serious peoples.
(2) World civilization will apparently produce a
world political structure superior in strength to the
most powerful nations today, and yet jealously
guarding the needs of individual nations, both large
and small. It will be built out of the virtues of
present-day nations. It will not abolish nations,
but foster them as long as they work for the plan-
etary good. It will do away with hyper-national-
ism, provincialism, and chauvinism. It will elim-
inate the balance of power theory, the secret treaty
practice, and territorial aggrandizement schemes.
(3) World community will be democratic. No
permanent world structure can be built out of auto-
cratic principles or governments. Rulership from
the top down exclusively, bears its own seeds of
destruction in the power which it gives the few over
the many. Through autocracy, even the education
of the masses can be subverted.
Not autocracy, but aristocracy will exist with
democracy in world community. It will be, how-
ever, a democratic aristocracy, an aristocracy that
will be guided by the needs of the many, that will
not waste itself in extravagant living, that will con-
tinuallv endeavor to raise all individuals to its own
THE COMMUNITY GROUP 251
levels and thus create a democracy of social aristo-
crats, of superior men and women with unselfish
World community will be industrially democrat-
ic. Neither labor nor capital will control. One has
as its goal, wages; the other, profits. Both ends
are materialistic and low grade. Service values will
rule both capital and labor. Individuals will strive
with one another in rendering service; service will
supplant profitism and speculation. The service
standard already rules in the ministry, in the teach-
ing profession, among social workers, with judges,
and almost all physicians.
Some force, such as Christianity's dynamic of
love, is needed to put into effect the three foregoing
principles of world community. Humanitarianism,
having no goal outside itself is apt to become self-
centered, concentrated, and professional. The Chris-
tian principle of love is humanitarian, and more;
its ultimate goal is located outside and beyond hu-
manity. Thus it produces the best available ideal
and the most dynamic guiding force for world com-
4. The Citizenship Process. The process of de-
veloping socialized citizens includes measures of
creating a social consciousness in and through com-
munity participation by individuals. The problem
of creating a worthy citizenry is of foremost im-
252 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
portance in a democracy.
A sinister phase of the problem is revealed by
the general indifference of individuals in the matter
of voting and in the work of their elected represent-
atives. The multiplication of private interests in-
vites neglect of the more fundamental affairs of
government. The complexity of modern city life
is so great that the ordinary person has difficulty
in determining the truth about candidates for office.
Elihu Root has said that the people of the United
States should change their attitude toward their
government. "Too many of us have been trying
to get something out of the country and too few
of us have been trying to serve it. Offices, appro-
priations, personal or class benefits, have been too
generally the motive power that has kept the wheels
of government moving. Too many of us have for-
gotten that a government which is to preserve lib-
erty and do justice must have the heart and soul of
the people behind it not mere indifference."
Government even in most countries is still viewed
as an external "ruler" operating from above. It is
not yet considered a tool of the people by which
the people associated in pursuit of common ends
can effectively co-operate for realization of their
own aims. The problem is that of making govern-
mental machinery such a prompt and flexible in-
strument that it will drive away all distrust.
Since individuals give their attention so largely
THE COMMUNITY GROUP 253
to their private affairs and neglect political matters
so generally, "politics" has tended to become a trade
of a class of experts in the manipulation of their
fellows. Thus "politics" is smirched and results in
further aloofness from public matters by those per-
sons who are best fitted to participate.
The indifference of many leaves the direction of
political affairs in the hands of the few, who can
work in more or less irresponsible secrecy. That
a public office is a public trust is a principle most
difficult to realize.
The taxation problem creates troublesome ques-
tions. Personal property, for example, is reported to
assessors so inaccurately that the honest person who
reports all his personal property, pays more than his
share of taxes. He is confronted with the choice,
as C. R. Henderson has said, of being robbed or of
perjuring himself. The tax on personal property
leads to deception and has gone far toward making
perjury respectable among many people.
The income tax is a relatively simple method of
bringing about a more just apportionment. The
taxing of stocks and bonds at their sources instead
of taxing persons who hold them is meeting with
success. The graduated tax on land whereby the
people through their governments receive the un-
earned increment promises well. The inheritance
tax in graduated form is being extended rapidly.
Social legislation refers to legislation for the pro-
254 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
tection of men, women, and children in industry, to
factory laws, and compensation acts. At nearly
every turn these welfare measures are fought by
The United States has been peculiarly unfor-
tunate in failing to secure uniform laws on matters
of social concern. The various states pass laws,
such as child labor laws, pure food laws, and divorce
laws, without reference to the need for uniformity.
This emphasis on state's rights has prevented uni-
formity of legislation on questions of national in-
If one state has a law prohibiting child labor un-
der twelve years of age in factories and the people
of an adjoining industrial state wish to pass a four-
teen-year age limit, the manufacturers in the latter
case are handicapped in the competitive market;
thus the fourteen-year age limit suffers defeat. The
lack of uniformity with reference to divorce laws
has been notorious. The need for Federal uniform-
ity is self-evident.
National egotism is perhaps the nation group's
greatest enemy. It denies the full obligation of the
nation to the world group ; it creates chauvinism ;
it leads to wars. A world situation in which there
are fifty-five nation groups, each setting up its own
standards of right and wrong conduct, and each
passing judgment on all the other fifty-four, makes *
necessary a new world order, socialized citizenry, f
THE COMMUNITY GROUP 255
and a widespread community consciousness. The
accomplishment of these ends is the task of the
citizenship process, but the full technique of this
process remains yet to be created.
1. What is community spirit?
2. Define neighbor.
3. In what way may neighborhood consciousness be de-
4. What is a nation?
5. Define: a good citizen.
6. What is a democratic group?
7. "Are laws that are framed in the interest of certain
classes of individuals of permanent advantage to the
nation as a whole?"
8. What is patriotism?
9. What is hyper-nationalism?
10. What is world community?
11. In what ways may world friendship be developed?
12. Is world organization a next logical step in social evo-
THE EDUCATIONAL GROUP
THE FAMILY, play, occupational, and community
types of groups which have been considered in the
preceding chapters are all highly educational. In
addition there are other groups, particularly school
groups, which give specific and technical attention
to the educational process.
1. The School Group. The school group usually
begins with the kindergarten and ends with the uni-
versity and professional colleges. The kindergarten
is "more wholly social than any other grade or year"
of school life ; and hence possesses a greater appeal
to pupils than any other stage of school life. The
child's work is organized on a group basis; the
group stimulation co-ordinates so well with the play
attitude of the child that work becomes play. Ac-
tivity predominates ; the child learns almost entirely
through doing, and reacts enthusiastically to the
Then, the school group becomes organized on a
routine basis, symbolized by the checkerboard seat-
ing arrangement in the schoolroom. The learn-
THE EDUCATIONAL GROUP 257
ing processes become more difficult and intellectual
factors become segregated from the affective and
volitional elements. The children organize school
"activities" which are conducted outside school
hours, thus supplanting the "passivities" of the reg-
ular routine, while the affective elements in the
child's nature are often expressed secretly and in
In college and university life the situation that
first finds expression in the grades and the high
school becomes crystallized, and college life becomes
remote from real life. In the professional schools,
specialization begins. The young man wishes to
become a specialist as soon as possible, and get
"out into the world" where he can "make money."
Consequently, he shuns the cultural courses, de-
mands the practical, and his faculty supervisors
reluctantly submit to his desires. The practical
courses are those which train for individual pecun-
iary efficiency. Public welfare efficiency is slighted,
and education becomes partly unpatriotic, and de-
structive of the best types of human welfare. More-
over, the young man in insisting upon avoiding the
cultural is building the foundations of life upon
narrow bases; his own possibilities of personality
development are cramped if not cut short.
School groups have originated in private initia-
tive. Strong and effective institutions of higher
learning have been established as a result of the
258 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
enterprise, particularly, of religious leaders ; in fact,
nearly all the privately endowed universities and
colleges in the United States were so created.
Moreover, society has recognized the social values
in education by establishing vast public school
systems, crowned by state universities, on com-
pulsory bases. Even democracies so thrive. In
the United States the annual cost of maintaining
the public school system has long since passed the
billion dollar figure.
The development of colleges, universities, profes-
sional schools, and special foundations gives oppor-
tunities for advanced education and research work,
and increases the number of inventions. It is in
these highest phases of research that one of the
main driving forces in education becomes evident,
namely, the inquisitive tendencies. All normal hu-
man beings desire to know the answers to problems.
Curiosity can easily be aroused. In research work
the curiosity impulses express themselves unremit-
tingly in the attempts which individuals make in
searching for solutions to intricate problems, chem-
ical, mechanical, philosophical, sociological, and the
like. The child is no less inquisitive but his curi-
osity expresses itself in more personal and on the
whole superficial ways.
While education may take cognizance of the play,
curiosity, and similar attitudes, in fact, may be built
upon them, it is incomplete unless it trains pupils
THE EDUCATIONAL GROUP 259
to do some things which are uninteresting and even
unpleasant. Education based only on desires and
favorable attitudes is inadequate. Daily life con-
tains unpleasant tasks ; and hence, the child may
advantageously learn to face some disagreeable
tasks with a degree of stoicism.
The most difficult problem confronting the school
is that of teaching group and social responsibility.
For the child to learn verbatim the Constitution of
the nation does not in itself go far in the making
of good citizens. The children need to be taught
the significance of becoming good neighbors, good
fathers and mothers, and good citizens by doing
neighborly, fatherly or motherly, and citizenship
acts regularly. The teaching of this social responsi-
bility is as important as, if not more important
than, the teaching of the trades and of methods of
making a livelihood. The schools need to overcome
the failure of parents to perform intelligently their
parental duties and to create an intelligent appre-
ciation of group responsibility. The schools should
concern themselves first of all with training a new
race of parents.
Another socially important problem is that of sex
education. The ignorant and vicious perversion of
the sex impulses as manifested in illegal sex rela-
tions, false marriages, and the divorce evil consti-
tute a set of precarious conditions for human so-
ciety. Segregated talks on sex hygiene are inade-
260 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
quate. The best solution for the problem has been
found in treating sex matters naturally as phases
of the regular discussions in courses in botany and
Industrial education and vocational guidance are
enabling children to find themselves vocationally.
There is danger, however, of forgetting that the
chief value in learning a trade is that the child
may discover himself. He should have an occupa-
tion, not primarily for the purpose of earning a
living, essential as that is, but in order that he may
through his occupation develop himself to the full-
est possible personal extent and usefulness. To
teach a trade for the primary purpose of developing
individual success may prove to be anti-social. A
person who has attained high individual efficiency
but who has not learned to work well, that is, un-
selfishly, in society is dangerous.
The continuation school is performing a worthy
social function. If all boys and girls would attend
school a few hours each day throughout their ado-
lescent years, until eighteen years of age, the in-
creased capacities would more than counterbalance
the cost. Besides, society could thus exercise a
wholesome influence and guidance over thousands
of adolescents who now are thrown into an adult
environment and surrounded by full-fledged and
vicious temptations while yet immature and with
only partial control over turbulent passions.
THE EDUCATIONAL GROUP 261
The visiting teacher is a relatively new term but
one that possesses social significance of wide import.
To the multitude of homes of the poorer classes,
the visiting teacher can carry scientific knowledge
concerning the proper care of children during their
first six years of life, before the children come under
public supervision. Countless children are so hand-
icapped by lack of adequate care in their homes
that when they reach the public schools at the age
of six, "they are not in a fit condition to have public
money spent upon them." Countless others die
needlessly during the first years of life.
The visiting teacher can carry to the homes of
the less fortunate in the community a knowledge of
sanitary living conditions, of the best purchasing
methods, and of home making. Large numbers
of people are still living in darkness as far as their
knowledge of sanitation, bacteriology, and sound
health is concerned.
The visiting teacher is a boon in immigrant
neighborhoods. She can carry not only knowledge
but the American spirit into the homes of immi-
grants whose wholesome contacts with American-
ism are few. To the immigrant mother with her
slight opportunities to know American life and in-
stitutions, the visiting teacher is an angel of mercy,
inspiration, and knowledge. As an Americanization
teacher she is unsurpassed.
Another social conception in education is that
262 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
"the whole child" goes to school, and hence every
phase of the child's welfare needs to be cared for
somehow. The school is not to be considered as in-
terested simply in the expansion of the child's in-
tellect. Jatejlectual development, in other words,
cannot be considered as something wholly apart
/ from physical, moral, and even spiritual develop-
At the vital point of spiritual development, the
average public school representative is nonplussed.
The whole child is not really being schooled, for
the training of the highest spiritual nature of the
child, his religious nature, is being shunned.
The public school curriculum may well be re-
constructed. It emphasizes certain self-culture
studies, splendid as far as they go, and certain of
the sciences. The literatures and languages, in the
main, represent self-culture; the sciences help the
individual to develop control over natural resources
and stand for the development of individual success
and power. The importance of social studies and of
the social emphasis is only slightly appreciated by
many school leaders and still less by boards of ed-
I Any serious attempt, however, to use the public
1 school system as a vehicle for socialized education
1 1 must be started in the grades, because nearly four-
fifths of the children who enter the public schools
of this country do not go beyond the elementary
THE EDUCATIONAL GROUP 263
grades. Moreover social studies need to be given
a primary place in high schools and normal schools.
The training for unselfish public service is more
important than any other phase of public school
work, if the nation is to consist of public servants
rather than harbor, as now, numerous individual
This need may be met in part in changing the
school phases of education from an acquisitive to a
functional basis. Instead of emphasizing the ac-
quiring of knowledge as the alpha and omega of
education, the new tendency is to view education
as a "learning by doing" process. He who would
learn the best things, must do the best, that is, ren-
der unselfish service.
2. The Newspaper and the Cinema. Through
the medium of the public school, the possibility of
developing social ideals in the general population is
far greater than by means of newspapers and mag-
azines. This statement is based on the fact that
the public school reaches practically all the people
while they are young and in the formative periods
of life. In recent years, however, the cinema by its
type of appeal has been invading the adolescent and
childhood years. Its influence in character forma-
tion for good or ill is beginning to rival that
of the school. Newspapers and magazines will first
be considered and then the cinema as educational
264 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
While the rise of the newspaper in recent decades
has been meteoric and marvelous in many ways,
the press has not become as dignified and construc-
tive a social agency as it might have become. In ca-
tering to the masses, crowd emotion, and the eco-
nomic attitudes of advertisers, it has felt obliged to
belittle its high calling.
The newspaper, together with the telegraph, and
telephone, and other rapid means of communica-
tion, has created a wonderful degree of mass con-
sciousness. It has made a world consciousness pos-
sible; it has made Paris, London, New York, and
Peking neighbors of each other. It is a marvelous
spectacle to contemplate, namely, a hundred mil-
lion and more people, leaders in all parts of the
world, reading simultaneously about one national
and world happening after another, in each case
only a few hours after the happening took place.
Moreover, each of these readers knows that all the
others are reading about the same phenomenon at
at the same time ; he also knows in a general way
how each is responding to the message or descrip-
tion that he is reading. The newspaper, therefore,
constitutes a powerful instrument of creating pub-
lic opinion, mass consciousness, and good will or
Today a million dollars is hardly sufficient for
establishing a metropolitan newspaper of size. The
THE EDUCATIONAL GROUP 265
capitalist-owner has supplanted the editor-owner.
As a rule, the editor is no longer the owner, unless
he is a millionaire. The editor of the type of Horace
Greeley or Charles A. Dana who owns his paper
and makes it the projection of his character and per-
sonal ideals is rare. Many editors now are hired.
They are not expected by their owners to put their
own consciences and ideals into the paper.
The highest social usefulness of the newspaper
has been compromised by commercialization. The
securing of large financial returns has become a
dominant factor in the publishing of newspapers
today. Therefore, the profit standard too often
overrules the human welfare standard.
A part of this untoward situation is the fact that
a very large proportion of the total receipts in the
newspaper business are derived from the sale of ad-
vertisements. The subscriptions represent a de-
creasing percentage. Advertising yields as high
as two-thirds of the earnings of the daily news-
paper ; it may yield up to ninety per cent. The ad-
vertiser rather than the subscriber supports the
When news columns and editorials become of
less importance than the sale of advertisements, it
becomes true that the advertisers are the cen-
sors of the news and the editorials. Corporations
which are extensive advertisers are often referred
to in newspaper offices as "sacred cows"; nothing
266 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
in the news or editorial columns is printed that
would in any way offend the "sacred cows/' no mat-
ter if they be the community's leading profiteers and
exploiters. The difficulty lies in the fact that the sell-
ing of advertising is purely commercial, while the
printing of news and of editorials is a matter of de-
mocracy and education. Edward A. Ross has de-
clared that the modern metropolitan newspaper is
in danger of becoming a factor where ink and brains
are so applied to white paper as to turn out the
largest possible marketable product.
It is clear that more private newspapers are
needed which ignore the dubious influence of heavy
advertisers, and which will give the truth about po-
lice protection to vice, corporate tax-dodging, and
the non-enforcement of laws. The need for a nation-
ally endowed press has been strongly advocated by
writers such as V. S. Yarros. The need for social-
ized newspapers whether privately or publicly
owned is clear. The public however is not aware of
the true situation and does not realize the degree to
which it gets the news on many questions in a pure-
ly biased form. The newspaper owners and the
public together can bring about a new day when
public welfare will be the test of newspaper effi-
The magazine and journal have emphasized facts
and thoughtful attitudes. In indulging in muck-
raking, certain magazines have overstepped rational
THE EDUCATIONAL GROUP 267
boundaries. Magazines, like newspapers but in a
less degree, are subject to the influence of adver-
tisers, while journals of scientific character on the
other hand have rendered a larger measure of undi-
luted social service.
Another educational agency of tremendous force
is the cinema. Its rise to power has come since
1905. Its significance from the standpoint of amuse-
ment and recreation has been considered in the
chapter on the play group. As an educational
force the cinema utilizes indirect suggestion to its
fullest extreme. The direct suggestion is indescrib-
ably great, but cannot be compared with the indirect
suggestion, which by the use of many characters
moving rapidly and dramatically before the eyes
of the spectators in a thousand roles, stimulates the
spectators in countless unsuspected ways to all types
of activities. If the spectators are youthful, they
are thereby unduly subject to the indirect sugges-
tion of the film.
The use of films in schools and churches is in-
creasing. They can bring the farthermost reaches
of the earth into the schoolroom with accurate viv-
idness. They can visualize ancient history and en-
able school pupils to live over again events of his-
toric significance which occurred thousands of years
ago. They can personify the greatest religious ideals,
giving the spectator immeasurable inspiration.
The educational group, whether informal as in
268 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
the case of the home or the playground, or whether
standardized as instanced by the school, is society
at its best, that is, when it is developing. The ed-
ucational group is society rising from level to level
of intellectual power and vision. The educational
group represents discovery and invention; it also
stands for dissemination of ideas.
Education trains the whole person his feelings,
thoughts, and volitions. It gives power for hu-
man welfare or against it. An educated man may
become society's greatest enemy. Along with the
education of the intellect therefore must go develop-
ment of the social impulses and attitudes. The fang
and claw spirit of the jungle still lives powerfully in
human beings ; it can be submerged by the training
of the social tendencies of man. Only through the
educational process can habits of social initiative
and social dependability be built up in human lives.
The educational group therefore becomes the center
of associative progress. In it is crystallized forces
upon which all other human groups must depend if
they would augment endlessly their usefulness.
3. The Educational Process. Civilization is a
result of the educational process, which uses a vast
variety of tools and a marvelous technique, includ-
ing language, alphabets, systems of writing, varied
literature, newspapers, social traditions, public
opinions, and private and public systems of educa-
THE EDUCATIONAL GROUP 269
tion. The educational process in one sense begins
with the thousands of years of experience into which
the individual is born. Into these groups and per-
sonal experiences the child is born, and from them
he receives his fundamental concepts of life. Edu-
cation for the child consists in part in obtaining
the meaning of these experiences. He receives the
advantages and disadvantages of the social heritage.
Education for the child consists in part in his get-
ting the meaning of the social heritage.
The first three years, roughly speaking, of a
child's life are spent in learning muscular co-ordi-
nations and elementary meanings. The years from
three to twenty-three, or more, are considered as
the period in which the individual is to learn the
meaning of the experiences of the past thousands
of years of racial history. In this period he is to
become somewhat adapted to his physical and group
environments. On the basis of this educational
training, the individual is expected to proceed by
virtue of his initiative and make a contribution of
some kind to the world's culture. At least, he
should not be found among that "stupid procession
that never had a thought of their own."
The curiosity impulses seem to be the leading
sources of intellectual energy and effort. They pro-
duce man's speculative and scientific tendencies.
The cognitive or thinking attitude is the main in-
tellectual tool ; reason represents the highest phase
270 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
of cognition. With it, man has been able to tran-
scend physical limitations and comprehend factors
that are present in neither time nor space.
The study of the inventions that the human mind
has made is most fascinating. It is a story of the
creative effort of quick witted or deep thinking per-
sons, of sharp, vibrant minds. It is the story of
the main lines of group and personal advancement.
Through inventiveness, the human group has ad-
vanced from the dug-out to the palace, from the
skin breeches to the elaborate costume, from the un-
cooked aboriginal meal to the seven-course dinner,
from the digging-stick to the twenty-furrow steam
plow, from the carrying-stick to overland trains,
and from the gourd with a cord stretched across it,
to the modern oratorios and symphonies.
To train all individuals to imitate well and to
initiate, to follow and to lead, to obey and com-
mand, always in line with group advance, this is
the educational process. It is contingent upon a
communicating system, the nature and importance
of which have been indicated in Chapter IV. On the
basis of elemental pantomimic and facial gestures,
and an elaborate vocal language together with the
resultant literature, human groups have developed
extensive cultural backgrounds which constitute the
child's social heritage. Educationally, it is the child's
problem to learn the meaning of this group heritage,
to acquire methods of mental analysis, and to func-
THE EDUCATIONAL GROUP 271
tion as a critic, a molder, and a contributor to the
The leading elements in social heritage are the
experiences of the mind, produced through inter-
stimulation, and preserved in prose or poetic litera-
tures. Literature is the best expression of human
thought reduced to writing. Its various forms may
be considered as representative of group peculiar-
ities or individual diversities.
In early human society the first formal educators
were the priests. They compiled the tribal chron-
icles ; they were the rhapsodists who celebrated the
prowess of tribal chiefs in the presence of the wor-
shipful tribal people. Since man feels before he
reasons, and since poetry is the language of the
feelings, poetry developed before prose. Hence
sacred teachings and war songs became the first
educational source materials. Then the epic records
of the past developed and were supplemented by
the lyrical records of contemporary events.
The development of reasoning tended to deprive
poetry of its ornament and to provide man with a
simpler and more accurate educational instrument.
Prose of permanent value soon found expression in
the form of oratory, which reached a stable level in
Greece. Public speaking became a powerful edu-
cational force. During the early centuries of the
Christian Era, including the Middle Ages, no new
educational methods were produced. The invention
272 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
of the printing press in the fifteenth century made
inexpensive books possible. Invention followed in-
vention in the past two centuries until the printing
press, the telegraph, the telephone, and similar
means of communication of ideas have made edu-
cation available to all. Educational systems have
supplemented the instruments of communication so
that today education is becoming democratized.
The elements of the spiritual environment which
the child through educational processes is expected
to comprehend, possesses emotional, intellectual,
and conditional aspects. (1) Life is surrounded on
every hand by mystery, miracle, and the unknown.
That which is not known far exceeds that which is
known and understood. Through the feeling-
emotional phases of consciousness man interprets
the mysteries of life, acquires faith in God, and
stands up against the odds of life which at times
are almost overwhelming. This feeling-emotional
interpretation, when supported by reason becomes
poetry, philosophy, religion, and art. These tech-
niques are vehicles of those things which are felt to
be true, but whose truth has not been proved or
disproved. The child who early learns to perceive
the work of God, to feel inspired in the presence
of God's handiwork and to take a place as an active
unit in God's world will learn to hate ugliness, im-
perfection, meanness, littleness, and selfishness.
(2) The intellectual method, using definite proof
THE EDUCATIONAL GROUP 273
and struggling for accuracy, has been called scien-
tific. Science struggles to know the truth as exactly
as possible concerning reality. Although the known
is but a small part of the unknown, no student to-
day can hope in his education to encompass all
science. He must choose. He cannot familiarize
himself with all the scientific knowledge that has
been discovered. He can, however, learn enough
truth to free himself from superstition, to be able to
go through life with an open mind, and to get the
message of courage and hope which comes from
scientific inventions and the achievements of man-
The educational program broadly speaking, ac-
centuates both the feeling side, or literatures ; and
the reasoning side, or science. The average student
scorns one or the other, neglecting to see that a well
educated person must be familiar with the funda-
mental advances that have been made by both sets
of educational forces.
(3) The child must learn, not only to feel and
to think, but also to do. Education has generally
been weak in developing the doing process. Man-
kind, however, has been active, energetic, and even
original ; the list of his achievements is extensive
and beyond ordinary comprehension. Therefore,
the educational process, whether informal or formal,
whether operating in the family group, the play
group, the occupational group, the educational
274 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
group, or in the religious group that will be analyzed
in the next chapter, must emphasize in a balanced
way all three factors, the affective, cognitive, and
volitional, or else it will be incomplete and produce
incomplete personalities and a one-sided group life.
The educational process is an organization of the
play, inquisitive, self-assertive, and similar tenden-
cies of the individual whereby he may secure the
meaning of the social heritage and also initiate new
and socially useful ideas. It involves work as well
as play, and requires energy, vision, and social pur-
THE EDUCATIONAL GROUP 275
1. Explain: Better than time to read is time to think.
2. Why are relatively so few people engaged in doing orig-
3. Why do students "cram" for examinations?
4. What would be a better method than "cramming" for
5. Why is the better method not followed?
6. How many days should there be in the school year?
7. What is education?
8. Do you see any values in being stupid?
9. Explain: Every student should have a target.
10. Should society spend more money per capita upon
wealthy or poor children?
11. What is educational sociology?
12. What are the arguments for and against a national uni-
13. Explain: "The chances of attaining distinction are 190
times greater for the college man than for the non-
14. Under what conditions is scientific research socially
THE RELIGIOUS GROUP
AT AN EARLY age the average child begins to feel
the influence of the church group. Although its
direct activities are confined largely to one day in
seven, its processes are fundamental in their effects.
The family, play, occupational, community, and
school life of most individuals is supplemented by a
religious group life.
1. The Church Group and Religion. Religious
impulses have been and are universal. They were
common among primitive tribes and are found to-
day among civilized people everywhere. In many of
their narrow and bigoted expressions they have been
socially destructive, but in their finest and truest
expressions they have been socially helpful. In re-
cent centuries they have found expression in church
groups with elaborate rituals, costly church build-
ings, and powerful social organizations.
To comprehend the significance of the church
group it is necessary to analyze religious behavior,
which springs from impulses native to the human
mind. The universality of the religious attitude is
THE RELIGIOUS GROUP 277
due to the universality of certain human needs.
There come times in every person's life when he is
confronted with the fact that he does not know
very much after all. The most highly educated and
cultured, the wealthiest, the politically most power-
ful, as well as the poor and ignorant, are all in the
same category when it comes to placing themselves,
their achievements, and their powers alongside the
powers of the universe and the realms of the un-
known. Miracles and marvels and the unexplained
surround man at every turn. Death is the great
conundrum, and life is filled with baffling problems.
At best, it appears that human beings are but
little organisms moving hopefully for a short mo-
ment through a vast sweep of mystery, or as Charles
H. Cooley has put it, human beings are like a party
of men with lanterns trying to find their way
through a dark, immeasurable forest. To all ex-
cept the intellectually stolid or foolhardy, the per-
plexities of life sooner or later are recognized as
being too great for man to meet out of his own
resources. It is this fact which explains the perma-
nency of the religious attitude.
Religion, and later the church groups, have de-
veloped therefore out of human needs. When the
sense of need urged primitive man to attempt to
communicate with a higher Power, there religion
made its appearance. Religious attitudes have de-
veloped from both feelings and thought, leading
278 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
on one hand to faith, and on the other to intellec-
tual attempts to explain life and the universe. In
its essence religion is a conscious and co-operative
relationship with the Creator and Director of the
universe and human lives.
Religion at its best perceives human society, not
as an end in itself but as an emergency of the super-
human, Divine, and eternal. This consideration of
human life as an emergency of an Eternal Person-
ality lends greater value and an increased dignity
to human society. Through religion man sees him-
self as a functioning unit of a social group far
larger and more important than the living, visible
Primitive groups are essentially religious. In-
numerable spirits are worshipped. Man early con-
ceived the sun, the moon, the wind, the heavens as
being like himself and as guided by feelings and
motives similar to his own. Even the thunderstorm
was worshipped as a mighty being which had power
to end a drought. Some objects, called fetiches,
were worshipped not because of their intrinsic value,
charm, or power, but because a spirit or god was
supposed to reside in them. Animals were wor-
shipped ; primitive man revered them for the quality
in which they excelled. Ancestor worship was com-
The worship of innumerable spirits became bur-
densome ; hence spirits were supplanted by relative-
THE RELIGIOUS GROUP 279
ly few deities in religious beliefs. Polytheism in turn
tended to become a source of conflicts ; the deities
constituted too large a group to be efficient. Then
it seems that the deity of the leading tribe in a given
region became supreme. Here is found the begin-
nings of monotheisms and of national religions.
In early times, man's religion consisted primarily
in the religious acts which he performed rather than
in the beliefs which he held. In modern days the
emphasis is often reversed. Sacrifices were invalu-
able features of early religions. By this method
the relationships with the gods were renewed and
strengthened. Prayer was the ordinary concomi-
tant of the sacrifice ; it was the means by which the
worshipper explained the reason of his gift, urged
the deity to accept it, and asked for the help that
he expected in return. Worship thus was a social
act. It grew out of the idea of group relationships.
There were few temples, idols, and no churches
in the early human world. The worship of nature
and of natural objects did not suggest the enclosing
of a space for religious purposes. Taboo developed ;
the earthly belongings of a deity could not be
touched. Religion gave strong emphasis to the so-
cial concept of discipline.
The religion of the tribal group developed into
the religion of the nation group. Instead of partisan
tribal gods, a higher and impartial deity was con-
ceived, who belonged to and watched over all the
280 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
tribal groups. New social bonds developed. There
was no longer the tie of blood which bound the
people to their gods ; the tie became more spiritual
and more social.
The Inca religion, Confucianism, and the Isra-
elitish worship of Yahweh or Jehovah, are illustra-
tions of national group religions. With the coming
of the Hebrew prophets, religion assumed broader
aspects and finally culminated in Christianity with
its claim to be a religion fit for the world group.
In the meantime, Buddhism; and later, Moham-
medanism in Arabia developed: they also have es-
sayed to meet the world's religious needs.
In its essence Mohammedanism holds to the doc-
trine of the unity and omnipotence of Allah, and
of the responsibility of every human being to Allah.
The submissive attitude, the implicit surrender, and
entire obedience to Allah are emphasized. Allah,
however, does not inspire the worshipper with ideals
of goodness, although an influence against evil is
exerted ; he is abstract. He does not come in close
contact with people ; he seems to have no unselfish
interest in human welfare. He does not inspire
persons to strive after high individual or social
ideals ; he does not seem to be related to humanity
and cannot figure extensively in social group ad-
In Buddhism the central movement of East In-
dian religious thought culminated. Guatama, the
THE RELIGIOUS GROUP 281
founder, in his early manhood began to realize that
suffering accompanies all existence, and scorned
a life of rank and ease. In rising from a period of
contemplation this remarkable leader proclaimed
himself as Buddha, the Enlightened, the one who
beheld the true nature of things. Sorrow and evil
had lost all hold on him; he had reached emanci-
pation by the destruction of desire. Moreover, if
people are to be saved, they must do it by their own
efforts ; they cannot be relieved of any part of the
Buddhism is based on the social concept of the
equality of all individuals. All human beings are
to be paid respect; hatred is to be supplanted by
love ; life is to be filled with kindness. On the whole
however, Buddhism is not a positive social force.
The believer does not trouble himself about the
world but chiefly about his own salvation. Bud-
dhism does not aim at an ideal society, such as a
kingdom of God. It checks rather than fosters en-
terprise; it does not actively interest itself in the
advancement of civilization. It favors a dull con-
formity to rule, rather than a free cultivation of
various gifts. It does not train the affections and
the desires to virtuous and harmonious individual
and group action. It is socially depressing ; it fur-
thers isolation rather than co-operation.
It is in Christianity, which will be discussed in
the remaining sections of this chapter, that religion
282 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
finds its most social expressions, and that church
groups assume dynamic social obligations. The an-
alysis in this section hence will be carried forward
under the discussion of the social principles and
problems of Christianity.
2. The Social Principles of Christianity. The
social principles of Christianity originated in the
teachings of the Hebrew prophets and the other
founders of the Jewish religion; they received a
dynamic expression in the teachings of Jesus ; then
they lay dormant for centuries; and finally about
the year 1885 they began to be re-interpreted. For
centuries therefore the individual and social impli-
cations of Christianity remained divorced. Theology
and dogmatism built up the individual principles
of religion at the expense of the social. Jesus ap-
parently, on the other hand, made them insepa-
rable; he insisted upon the test of loving one's
neighbor as a test of loving one's God.
Within the decades since the social principles of
Jesus' teachings have been discovered, they have
been attacked by entrenched dogmatism and ta-
booed by fearful theologians. They are not to be
considered Christianity in themselves but simply
the "lost tribes" of Christian thought. When given
their due emphasis they enable Christianity to take
the lead in directing the solution of the world's
problems, such as the labor and capital problem,
THE RELIGIOUS GROUP 283
disarmament, unemployment, housing, divorce, and
taxation. Christianity could not prevent the World
War naturally enough; its social principles had
been submerged for eighteen centuries.
Christianity which started as a movement within
Judaism, proclaimed the doctrine of perfect rela-
tionships between God and man on terms of sym-
pathetic and rational understanding. Jesus showed
the way. He announced a new union of God with
man, a union in which he was the first to rejoice,
but which all persons may share with him. The
group of disciples and adherents of Jesus afterwards
came to be known as the Christian Church. It be-
came the task of Saint Paul to work out the world
wide implications of Christianity. In Christianity
it was expected that all racial differences would dis-
appear. "In Christ there is neither Jew nor Greek."
As Jesus made plain, God is the Father and hu-
man beings are his children in one large function-
ing world group. All that a person needs to do is
to perceive the truth of this statement, to enter the
circle, and begin to live socially with God and man.
Religion thus becomes the active communion of
children with their Father ; the Father and children
are to dwell together in loving behavior. Religion
is not a matter of apparatus, but a process of love.
Prayer is necessary, for the child must keep in touch
with his Father. The process hence is simple, deep,
broad, and holy.
284 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Christianity in its essence inspires a person, not
to any particular kind of acts, not to withdrawal
from the world, but to realize his own great poten-
tialities in and through group life. Its ideal of a
Kingdom of God finds expression in elemental ways
on earth. In fact the perfect society has begun in
the personalities of those who live socialized lives.
Partial socialization includes living according to
the principles of the brotherhood of man doctrine.
Complete socialization includes living according to
the principles of the brotherhood of man and of the
Fatherhood of God. Only in these two principles
can one find complete living ; nothing less is satis-
factory to the whole person.
Not only is Christianity at its highest, individual-
ly satisfying, but it is socially powerful. Christianity
identifies itself with the cause of human freedom,
and tends to unite all persons in one vast group. It
has taken the sentiments connected with the family,
the ideas of brotherhood and Fatherhood, and given
them the largest possible group application. It has
the possibilities of becoming the super-socializing
force of all times.
The kingdom of God is both a spiritual and a so-
cial ideal ; the two elements are inseparable. Those
persons are mistaken who say with a certain Scotch
minister: We are not here to make the world any
better ; we have only to pass through it on the way
to Glory. Equally mistaken are those who conceive
THE RELIGIOUS GROUP 285
of the Kingdom of God as a social ideal only, who
are simply humanitarian, who proclaim: Every
man, a well fed, housed, and cared for human being.
The Kingdom lays stress upon character, love, and
social ideals. It implies "good conditions, a perfect
environment, justice for all, wholesome dwellings,
the fair reward of labor, opportunity for men to
As a social and spiritual dynamic Christianity
has operated in three directions. It has furnished
social ideals, it has formed character, and has
evoked service. (1) It gives new ideals of life, of in-
dividual, family, and group life. It gives a new in-
terpretation to marriage and has "founded the
Christian home." It emphasizes the child as an
object for which sacrifices are to be made. It sets
up ideals that are to transform human hearts and
the world. It would create high-minded, sympa-
thetic, and progressive national groups.
(2) "Christianity has produced the highest type
of character known to man," says David Watson.
And without character in the world it may be added,
all group life would become a farce, and the world
be destroyed. Christianity lays fine emphasis on
moral qualities. At its best it moves peoples from
lives of selfishness, idleness, and vice, to lives of
sacrifice, fidelity, purity, and strenuous service.
(3) The dynamic of Christian love has operated
not only through high ideals and sturdy character,
286 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
but also through the social service which it en-
genders. It has stood for doing good, for philan-
thropic endeavors, and for self sacrificing behavior.
It has stimulated endless numbers of men and
women to accept positions of social reform and
political leadership. Nearly every philanthropic
movement in recent centuries had Christianity as
its dynamic. Countless missionary activities, full
of deeds of sacrifice, have been born of Christianity.
Scientific training added to the spiritual dynamic
of religion is an ideal equipment for social service.
But after social and economic programs have
been fully carried out, the spiritual dynamic of
religion will be as vitally useful as ever. No social
or economic program suffices to abolish sorrow, or
pain, or infirmity, or human regret, heartache, or
death. The religious dynamic therefore remains the
greatest social force of all time. It contains the
largest group idea conceivable, for it dares to in-
clude living human beings, those who have lived
well and died, those who are to live, and God all
in one almost inconceivably large group, living on
and ever proving themselves more socially useful.
3. Socializing Religion and the Church. Religion
and church life tend like all other forms of organ-
ized life to become professionalized, to become nar-
row, and to fail to adjust themselves to changing
social needs. As a result problems arise.
THE RELIGIOUS GROUP 287
( 1 ) A difficult task is that of giving all people an
appreciation of the highest attained religious con-
cepts. Underlying this problem is that of discover-
ing more religious truth, and of seeing more and
more clearly the relation of finite life to the infinite.
But if present religious truth and faith at their
purest were known, accepted, and put into practice
generally by mankind, the leading world and per-
sonal problems would be met. Economic interests,
selfish habits, and even a blinded intellectualism
keep many people in Christian lands from expe-
riencing the real meaning of religion. Low cultural
levels and narrow religious customs prevent vast
multitudes from becoming aware of the highest
(2) The tendency of religion everywhere is con-
servative. When a given practice has once been
sanctioned by religion, it has been often almost im-
possible to eliminate such practice until long after
it has ceased to serve useful purposes. In the history
of the world some of the most religious people have
been the most narrow-minded and intolerant. The
church has been one of the most conservative of
group institutions. It has tended to identify itself
with the conditions of a given age, and then to cling
to old methods long after the situation has changed.
At best in their daily living people fall below the
religious ideals which they profess. The lower im-
pulses and instinctive tendencies are so persistent
288 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
and so subtle in finding expression at unexpected
moments, that even the best representatives of
religious beliefs fail frequently.
Then there are those who profess Christianity
but who, for example, live as hypocrites. The hy-
pocrisy may be either conscious, or more or less
habitual and unconscious. It is this tendency which
harms religion immeasurably. A man who supports
the church but employs children, men, and women
at less than living wages is a concrete example. An-
other illustration is that of the lawyer who con-
ducted a Sunday school class but at the same time
for a fee was helping a client to dodge the inher-
itance tax law.
"He is an angel at home," said the chauffeur for
a business magnate, "but he is a devil in business."
Then there is the churchman in good standing who
boasted that he could always hire unskilled labor at
considerably less than the market rate. The ex-
ploited group of laborers, however, cursed him, and
also cursed the church. Men may be good husbands,
fathers, and church members, and yet bad citizens,
patriots, and employers, or employees.
Religious, church, and denominational rivalry
creates harmful impressions. It is this continual
friction, particularly among Christian religious
groups that belies the Christian's profession of
love and brotherhood. If Christians cannot make
their brotherhood principle work among themselves,
THE RELIGIOUS GROUP 289
how can they consciously ask unbelievers to accept
their doctrines ? This is a common question that is
being raised. The present sectarian divisions are
socially, economically, and ecclesiastically wasteful.
Union and co-operation need to be substituted for
sectarianism. The community church is develop-
ing to meet the emergency. It can serve not only
the religious needs of the entire community, but can
also take the leadership in re-organizing and build-
ing up the entire life of the community.
It has been one of the weaknesses of religion that
it moves people as individuals, but does not affect
them vitally in all their group relationships. The
process of saving individual souls has often failed in
saving men in all their group activities.
The social service movement in the churches, on
the other hand, was never intended to substitute
"a soup and soap salvation" for spiritual regenera-
tion ; neither was it meant to provide bait for en-
ticing the unchurched laboring man into the house
of God. Its chief concern is not with externalities,
but with getting the dynamic of God's love into all
human processes and groups. A religious commun-
ity, according to Harry F. Ward, is not necessarily
one that is full of churches, "each seeking its own
sectarian development, each cultivating its own
peculiar formulas and practices. It is rather a com-
munity which has become aware of its organic na-
ture, which has found its soul, repented of its sins,
290 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
come to conscious realization of its powers and
needs, and is co-ordinating its forces, including its
churches, in harmony with a power greater than it-
self, for the working out of its salvation."
A church is purblind, if while it is satisfied with
saving a few hundred souls, there are causes at work
crushing out the lives of thousands. While the
church is engaged in individual soul saving, "evil
gathers its corporate power, puts its hand upon
the forces of social control," and nullifies the
gains that come from evangelizing individuals.
Preach the Gospel and the rest will take care of it-
self, is a narrow creed. Any church which keeps
itself apart from other constructive human activities
"is setting itself off from God, now and forever."
It has been pointed out that the custom of ap-
pealing to individuals to seek personal salvation
first of all is to arouse their selfish interests. A per-
sonal religion that leaves an individual satisfied
with having secured the salvation of his own soul
is socially obstructive; religion must go further, if
it is to command true respect, and call individuals
to dedicate their lives in concrete service to the com-
munity. The truly successful church is not the one
that seeks primarily to build itself up, but the one
which seeks to build up the community in which
its members live and work.
The social service programs of the churches in-
clude several features. (1) They are based on the
THE RELIGIOUS GROUP 291
social principles of religion, its group character, its
social spirit, and doctrines, such as the brotherhood
of man and the Fatherhood of God. They supple-
ment, not supplant, the individual phases of reli-
gion ; they indicate whether or not the individual
is sincere and intelligent in his religious protes-
(2) Upon these social principles the churches
are organizing a service procedure, focusing in
volunteer social service procedure, and built upon
preliminary surveys of the church as a community
institution. This procedure includes both an edu-
cational and an activity program.
(3) The educational obligation involves social
service classes in the church school, divided between
study groups and training groups ; monthly young
people's programs ; missionary society programs ;
and the Sunday evening service. The principle is
slowly evolving that the morning service may be
distinctly devotional and worshipful in the estab-
lished sense; and that the evening service will be
likewise devotional and worshipful in the new sense,
namely, of considering the neighborhood, national,
and world problems involved in the injunction:
Love your neighbor as yourself. The social service
director acts as the clergyman's prime adviser rela-
tive to the attitude that the church should take on
(4) The activity obligation refers to meeting
292 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
neighborhood human needs and the building of the
neighborhood into a community of forward-looking,
forward-moving persons and homes. It refers to
sending forth leaders into the larger community,
such as the city or county, of which the church
neighborhood is an organic part. It also refers to
activities extending out through the nation group
and the world group. It includes the elimination of
causes which crush out human lives, as well as the
reclamation of wrecked lives.
Since life is neither individual nor social alone,
but both, religion is neither individual nor social,
but both; the social service attitude is not the whole
nor a disconnected adjunct, but an integral natural
phase of pure, undefiled religion. The socially-
minded persons outside church groups and the in-
dividually-minded inside church groups are neither
representative of religion at its best. The combi-
nation of these two attitudes working together with-
in the church presages a new type of religious group
that will yet transform the world.
THE RELIGIOUS GROUP 293
1. Distinguish between individual religion and social reli-
2. What is socialized religion?
3. What is social salvation?
4. What is your church doing as a social service institu-
5. In what ways may religion make a person more in-
dividual? More social?
6. Why are many religionists intolerant?
7. What forces besides religion produce high types of
8. How is Christianity the most radical social force in the
9. What is the leading social ideal which Christianity has
given to the world?
10. "Is it an advantage or disadvantage to Christianity that
it began among the working class?"
RURAL AND URBAN GROUPS
IRRESPECTIVE of membership in any of the social
groups which have been discussed in the preceding
chapters, every individual belongs either to a rural
or an urban group. Some persons have belonged to
rural groups and are now members of urban groups,
or vice versa. The division of human groups into
rural and urban is age-long and all-inclusive.
1. Rural Groups and Problems. Human groups
have been chiefly rural. Mankind began in rural
groups, developed to the level of civilization in rural
groups, and only in the last century began to shift
to concentrated urban group formations.
Primitive groups of people evolved a crude form
of village life, but dependent directly on the culti-
vation of the soil, the raising of flocks, and upon the
chase for a livelihood. These rural bases of life
remained dominant, even after the rise of military
strongholds, the establishment of permanent shrines
or places of worship, and the creation of trading
posts. In the Middle Ages when commercial centers
surrounded themselves by walls, and included con-
gested populations living by commerce and trade,
RURAL AND URBAN GROUPS 295
the rural influence was still in world control. With
the creation of an industrial population there came
the rise of the modern large city ; in the nineteenth
century, the city group began to dominate civiliza-
tion. Although today several leading nations are
chiefly subject to urban influences, the population
of the entire world is still largely rural.
The history of mankind seems to indicate that
any nation that is chiefly rural or chiefly urban is
at a disadvantage. The people in the first situation
are subject to inertia ; and in the second, to a state
of being smothered by numbers or else of being
over-stimulated. A nation somewhat equally sub-
ject to rural and urban influences is likely in the
long run to prove to be the strongest.
Rural life is of two types: congregated and iso-
lated. In almost all countries rural people live in
villages from which they go out, perhaps a con-
siderable distance, in tilling the soil that is often
divided in strips and cultivated intensely. In the
United States the isolated farm dwelling became
the rule in colonial days, and has remained such
to this day. In consequence the village as a social
group has degenerated. The isolation of the rural
dwelling and the deadened life of the village are
both socially static.
The rural mind is usually closely circumscribed.
It "measures life with a yardstick." It revolves
about a few people and their limited viewpoints.
296 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
The rural mind is essentially an undeveloped group
mind ; it has not been fully stimulated ; it flares up
occasionally in feuds ; it has strong opinions, preju-
dices, and faiths.
The rural mind is highly tinged with reactions
to nature. It includes friendships with pet animals,
and enjoyment of woodland valleys or mountain
crags and rushing streams. The spectacular dem-
onstrations of nature's powers, especially in storms,
arouse awe and also create fearful attitudes.
Rural life reflects in a large measure the life-giv-
ing and health-restoring characteristics of an out-
door existence. In contrast to the country the
cities tear down the neural organization of human
beings at a fearful rate. While city life tends to
wear out people, country life is conducive to the
preservation of energy and to long life. The rural
mind is built up on bases of sturdy strength, physi-
cal endurance, continuous physical exercises, free-
dom from nerve-destroying speed and a fast-living
night life. At its worst it is generally crude but
sincere ; it is frank and largely wholesome.
The rural group is a direct product of an active
family group emphasis. The members of a rural
family live together as a unit ; its members eat three
meals a day at the same table. The country is a
relatively safe place in which to rear children; it
does not subject childhood to many of the evils
of urban life. The family lives, works, and travels
RURAL AND URBAN GROUPS 297
together to picnics and on holiday excursions.
Country home life offers a saner training for chil-
dren than does the city; it contains more genuine
home life, and has few false attractions that draw
the children and even the adults away from the
The greater possibility of independence is an ad-
vantage of the country over the city. The farmer,
subject to sudden weather changes, destructive
frosts or storms, and losing sometimes the gains of
a year because of fruit or grain pests, or cattle
plagues, does not recognize the peculiar independ-
ence of his calling. He does not appreciate the
freedom that is represented by standing upon a
piece of land that he can call his own, and by plan-
ning his day's work, even a year's work to suit his
own ideas. He does not appreciate the freedom
from committee meetings, and from "the clatter and
clash, the rush and pandemonium of sound" in the
midst of which the city man is doomed to spend
the best part of his days.
With the development of scientific agriculture,
the farmer is becoming increasingly independent of
climatic changes and insect pests. With the in-
troduction of free mail service, the telephone, and
the automobile into rural life the farmer occupies
a superior position. His narrow individualism is
disappearing; he is becoming more and more in-
terested in the world's affairs.
298 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
While the farmer has little chance of becoming
a millionaire, he usually can make a comfortable
livelihood. He is not obliged to live upon an im-
ported food supply, as is the city man. He has
plenty of room for his dwelling; he is not forced to
live as a cave man on the sixth floor of a dingy
tenement, or to spend his savings in becoming a
slave to fashion's autocratic dictation.
The farmer has the satisfaction of being a gen-
uine predy^er of the necessities of life. He generally
becomes a representative of the middle classes ;
he rarely is an exploiter or grafter; neither does
he devote his life to financial speculation.
The long hours and hard labor of the farmer
represent the exceptional day's work, instead of the
regular routine as in the case of the steel worker,
miner, railroad employee, or even the teamster.
Moreover, he is master of his own time. The in-
troduction of labor-saving machinery has shortened
farm hours and decreased the difficulty of labor,
and increased the amount of leisure time.
The lot of the farmer's wife has usually been and
still is full of routine. Many of the conveniences
and comforts of city homes however are being in-
troduced into rural homes. With an electric motor
to operate washing machines, sewing machines, and
churns, with vacuum cleaners, with electricity and
gas for cooking, heating, and lighting purposes, the
farm may become an attractive place for the farm-
RURAL AM) URBAM GROUPS 299
wife and daughters.
Many fanners are constructing or reconstruct-
ing th^ farm dwellings ami prrmfyfa esfhetically. A
small lawn with an artistic arrangement of shrubs
and trees and of the driveways, gives rise to a large
of individual satisfaction awl gioun pride.
With the passing of the unattractive, barren and
drudgery features of the farm home, there comes a
dynamic appreciation of the deeper values of rural
The social advantages of rural fife are superior
in many respects to those of the city. They do no*
represent stilted, over-formal attitudes; they do not
lead to an enslaving night fife. Rural people are
generally frank, open, and genuine; they are rarely
The isolated farm fife and sleepy village fife it is
true lessen the social advantages of Irving in the
country. If the village in the United States could
be appreciated as a group institution and if people
instead of moving from one extreme to another,
that is, from isolation to congestion, could perceive
the advantages to be secured from pursuing a
middle course, and develop the village, they might
transform the village into a community having
many of the advantages of both rural and urban
The fanner's opportunities to develop an intel-
lectual fife have been slight. His reading centers
300 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
in the intensely practical farm journal and perhaps
the daily newspapers, although in the rural districts
of most countries the daily is unknown. The farm
life environment does not offer steady inducements
for intellectual study. Nevertheless, with the in-
creasing use of labor-saving machinery, the farmer's
intellectual life will have larger opportunities for
The rural school is undergoing transformations.
Through the consolidated school, and the rural
high school, a new day for rural life may be ex-
pected. The rural school with adequate education-
al and playground equipment, with a residence for
the principal and his family, with a teaching staff
that is somewhat continuous from year to year,
and with a community and civic center program,
will create a new type of rural life.
In many rural districts the church has been fail-
ing to meet the social situation. The salaries of
rural ministers have been ridiculously low. The
rural church has suffered from an absentee min-
istry; it cannot progress satisfactorily with non-
resident leadership. The rural minister has been
a misnomer; he has been a clergyman ministering
to a rural parish but having his eyes set upon the
more desirable city pulpit, especially if he has in-
itiative and leadership ability; or else he has been
a worn-out city preacher who has been transferred
to rural parishes to spend the closing years of his
RURAL AND URBAN GROUPS 301
ministry. A specifically trained rural religious
leadership could transform rural life and make re-
ligion a truly dynamic force.
To make matters worse there have been over-
churching and sectarian conflicts. Many small
rural groups have tried to support three or four
denominational churches. Then, there are large
numbers of unchurched rural people. Near-by city
churches with their high-salaried ministers, chorus
choirs, and well-organized church activities guided
by energetic leaders have had a magnetic influence
upon the rural people. Rural young people espec-
ially have felt this pull.
The rural church has lost a large part of the social
center function that it once exercised. Decades ago
the meeting-house was the only place for social in-
tercourse. Today with good roads, automobiles,
and interurban lines, the rural church is no longer
the only place or the chief place at which people
can meet for a social time.
The rural pastor, if properly trained, is in a
strategic leadership position. In addition to a mod-
ern religious training, he should be well versed in
sociology, that is, in a knowledge of the laws of
human nature, group life, and social processes. He
should understand the technique of making com-
munity surveys and community case histories; he
should be trained in methods for making the church
a leader among rural institutions. The rural church
302 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
requires socialization; it must treat of community
salvation as well as individual regeneration.
If the rural school, the rural church, the Grange,
and other institutions would co-operate and work
together toward dynamic community ends, they
could make the country so attractive, that the
ablest young people who now flock to the cities,
would stay and add the force of their abilities to the
process of redeeming and magnifying the rural com-
Many studies have been made of rural commun-
ity life and rural organization which show the im-
portance of scientific methods in studying rural
needs. They indicate that the ideal unit for rural so-
cial organization is an area varying from thirty to
fifty square miles, according to the section of the
country. This area may or may not coincide with
the township. In many parts of the United States,
it is represented today by the consolidated school
district. It usually contains one or more trade
centers, one or more religious centers, community
halls, and four or five neighborhoods, in each of
which there are from ten to fifty families.
The scientific study of rural group processes is
known as rural sociology. This science which has
been developing in the United States points the
way to an new era, not only for rural groups but
also for the national group in which rural people
function vitally. The two main principles of rural
RURAL AND URBAN GROUPS 303
sociology have already been presented; they are
represented by the fundamental concepts, rural
leadership and rural social organization.
2. Urban Groups and Problems. Urban groups
as common phenomena have developed in the last
century. They are the products of complex social
forces. They have often originated in trade foci
such as those located at "breaks" in transportation
lines or near the centers of agricultural or mineral
resources. Sometimes they are a product chiefly of
population momentum ; again, they have been pro-
duced by modern industrial and commercial enter-
prise. Nearly all cities have profited greatly by an
immigration of rural people whose ambitious eyes
have been caught by the flash of urban opportuni-
ties. In all cases, the city has been built up out of
the appeal which it has offered to the gregarious
In 1790 in the United States, only about three
per cent of the population lived in urban groups of
8,000 or more people. Today over one half of the
population is congregated directly under urban
group influence. In 1800, there were only five cities
in the United States which had a population of 10,-
000 or more; in 1900, a century later, there were
447 such cities. The urban and suburban popu-
lation of the United States is increasing much more
rapidly than the rural population.
304 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
The growth of urban communities, as illustrated
in the preceding paragraph, is doubtless due to a
variety of factors. (1) As it grows, the city makes
an appeal of increasing strength to the gregarious
impulses. The social contacts in cities are numerous
and compelling. The ordinary person is afforded
pleasure simply by seeing people, even if he does
not know more than two or three persons in a large
(2) The amusement and recreational facilities in
cities are influential factors. The city worker is
able to "go out" every evening. Commercialized
amusements, by specializing in making appeals in
every conceivable way to the feelings, sentiments,
play tendencies, and gainful impulses of children
and adults alike, are effective drawing factors. By
making cities their main headquarters, commercial
amusements are important factors in urbanizing
(3) The invention of machinery, the increasing
use of steam power, and the application of capital
in commercial and industrial enterprises have cre-
ated gigantic manufacturing plants. These institu-
tions possess a gregarious appeal. For the sake of
working side by side with many other persons, men
will forego the more pleasant but somewhat isolated
manner of rural work. Thus, large scale production
has furthered the growth of cities.
(4) The development in methods of transporta-
RURAL AND URBAN GROUPS 305
tion and communication, the increased desire for
communication, and the facilities which cities offer
for satisfying the desire for communication are
causal factors in urban development. The compact-
ness of cities affords an individual a countless num-
ber of daily opportunities to communicate.
(5) The city offers superior educational advan-
tages. Until recently all high schools were in cities.
The elementary schools are better equipped and
developed than in the country ; normal schools, col-
leges, and trade schools are located in cities. Prom-
inent people give lectures and addresses in urban
centers. The highest paid clergy are found in cities.
The libraries are located in cities; operas and art
exhibits are urban productions.
(6) There is better opportunity for personal ad-
vancement in cities than in rural districts. Modern
business and commerce draw young men to the
cities, offering the chance of becoming wealthy.
Educational leaders achieve high positions in cities.
In all lines the possibilities of advancement in cities
far eclipse the opportunities for power and honor
in the country.
The urban group is a loose organization of people
living compactly in a limited geographic area and
possessing a relatively high degree of intercommun-
ication. Industrial and business pursuits com-
prise the main lines of activity. Inasmuch as the
people are removed from agricultural enterprise
306 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
and from direct contact with nature, they tend to
live in an artificial, man-made world. As a result of
this emphasis they are subject to superficiality and
assume to be what they are not. Urban "so-
ciety" is noted for its wastefulness, high life, and
The urban group is developing a reputation for
"namelessness." Its citizens meet and speak with-
out knowing each other's names. One may live a
year or more in the city and not know personally
one-half the people whose homes are located in the
same city block.
Homelessness has already been mentioned as a
disturbing characteristic of cities. The boarding-
house life of the city does not permit the develop-
ment of real homes. An automobile first and a
home afterward, or perhaps never, is frequently the
urban man's slogan. To give to children a genuine
home life on the sixth floor of a flat with hallways
and flights of stairs as the only play space is almost
impossible. A husband and wife with pet bulldogs
can rent elegant quarters with ease, but not so if
they possess a family of boys. The city environ-
ment often puts a premium upon childlessness and
thus encourages its own destruction.
Class distinctions characterize the city. The
worst crooks and the highest organized forms of
religion are to be found in cities. The direst pov-
erty often exists in the shadow of the most elegant
RURAL AND URBAN GROUPS 307
mansions, while the highest creative work and
chronic unemployment are alike urban character-
The city, especially the American city, is char-
acterized by energy. Young ambitious people set
a tremendous pace both by day and night. The
stimulation and inter-stimulation are endless, but
generally on superficial planes. The pace soon ex-
ceeds the ability of the human organism to main-
tain; hence cities have been called consumers of
population. They stimulate individuals to almost
inconceivable achievements, but often at tremen-
Interdependence is pushed to a high degree in
cities. The average individual is utterly dependent
with reference to the purity of the water supply or
the milk supply. Preventable diseases mow down
whole areas of city populations. Highly organized
fire and police departments become essential, while
traffic officers are needed to keep people out of each
other's way, or from destroying one another ac-
The rural community furnishes deeply genuine
attitudes, nerve stability, an indifference to luxury,
and vast undeveloped ability ; the urban group of-
fers social stimulation and opportunities for rapid
personal advance, for significent creative efforts,
and for complex social organization. In so doing
the city however exacts a terrific toll of neural
308 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
The national group that is characterized by so-
cial prevision will safeguard its rural groups from
disintegration by providing for the training of ad-
equate rural leadership and for comprehensive ru-
ral social organization; it will endeavor to trans-
form its village groups into active intermediaries
between rural and urban life, providing through
them many of the advantages of urban life with
little of the neural wear and tear for which cities are
noted ; and it will strive to make its cities into so-
cial groups where only natural home life prevails,
where people are stimulated to do their best but
not at the expense of the lives of other persons and
where individuals are dominated only by social at-
1. In what ways is a rural population useful to a nation?
2. Why is there a dearth of leadership in rural commun-
3. What disadvantages of rural life are inherent?
4. Who need the better schools, urban or rural children?
5. In what sense are cities consumers of population?
6. Why are cities overcrowded?
7. Should a law be passed in this country permitting an
individual or a corporation to own not more than
a certain acreage of tillable land, perhaps 500 acres?
8. Should a law be passed prohibiting any further advances
9. What is a city for?
10. How might a village be made an ideal social group?
IRRESPECTIVE of membership in any of the social
groups that have already been analyzed, every per-
son is a member of a racial group or of racial groups.
He is also subject to racial traditions, prejudices,
and pride. While the human race undoubtedly had a
common origin in regions extending roughly from
the present territory of England to Java, it early
subdivided into groups which wandered in various
directions. These groups settled in and populated
the inhabitable parts of the globe. As a result of
different environmental conditions, primarily phys-
ical and climatic, and secondarily social and psy-
chical, these groups became differentiated from each/
other. With the rise of ethnology they have been
designated by different racial terms. Racial groups
are in a sense the product of migration activities,
which have never ceased, but have appeared in
various forms and have resulted in continual proc-
esses not only of making races but also of re-mak-
1. Migration phenomena. Every social group is
310 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
composed of two factors : the persons who are born
within the group ; and those who are born in some
other group, and later have migrated into the spe-
cific group. The causes of this migration vary
greatly and yet fall into a few classes.
Man has always been a wanderer upon the face
of the earth. Since earliest times he has wandered
to and fro in search of a better living. He has ever
been prone to transfer his allegiance from one group
to another; he has always been more or less dis-
satisfied with his situation at any given time ; and
has felt that if he were elsewhere he would have a
better opportunity and be happier. Civilization
seems to be made up of many persons in whom
this spirit of unrest and dissatisfaction is inherent.
In fact persons who are easily satisfied have rarely
progressed; civilization itself is a product largely
of aspiring, hopeful, energetic human attitudes. Mi-
gration is one type of activity which the human
longing for larger opportunity sometimes takes.
The leading single cause of migration is economic,
that is, the desire to make a better living. Among
primitive peoples, hunger was a primary force which
set the human race in motion. Today the immi-
grant has virtually become "a seller of labor seek-
ing a more favorable market." Since the economic
advantages of the United States, Canada, Argen-
tina, Australia, New Zealand, and Brazil have been
striking, these countries during the past century
RACIAL GROUPS 311
have been the chief immigration countries of the
world. Political oppression, religious persecution,
adventuresomeness, and the desire to join relatives
have been other causes of migration.
Migration was first characterized by aimless
wandering, as in the case of primitive tribes moving
up and down valleys in search of food for them-
selves and their flocks. It then sometimes expressed
itself as a mass wandering, in which a whole popula-
cion moved slowly from one section of the earth
to another, notably the movement of the Huns into
Europe. Migration was sometimes forced ; weaker
peoples or offending groups have been exiled or
driven out of one country and compelled to seek
refuge elsewhere. Then there came a period known
as colonization, when for three centuries or more
nations sent out officially groups of peoples as col-
onists to occupy land and set up a colonial govern-
ment in the name of the parent country. This
movement has been furthered by nations, such as
England, France, Germany, Spain, Holland, Bel-
gium, Russia, and Italy. It practically came to an
end several decades ago, but not until "immigra-
tion" had become the characteristic form of migra-
Immigration is an unofficial movement of peo-
ple, either as individuals or families, who on the
basis of their own initiative are moving from one
established country to another established country,
312 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
although usually a newer country, for the purpose of
improving their living conditions. Whenever the
economic advantages of two countries are notice-
ably unequal, population will flow to the more fa-
vored nation. When these advantages become some-
what equalized, the population movement slows up.
As the newer countries of the world have become
populated, their free lands occupied, and their
natural resources exploited, immigration as a mod-
ern phenomenon has decreased.
There are still millions of people, however, liv-
ing for example in India and other parts of Asia
in direst poverty who if they learned of civilized
America and Europe and had the means would
form a wave of immigration that would swamp
Western peoples. Consequently, legislative barriers
have been put up. These constitute another reason
for the decline in immigration.
Migration is also a phenomenon of importance
within a nation ; people are moving from the coun-
try districts to the city, and others "back to the
land." Some are migrating from one rural com-
munity to another; some from city to city or from
one part of a city to another part of the same city.
Withal, intra-migration is a complex, continual
By virtue of the fact that the person who changes
groups takes with him a set of customs different
from that in the group to which he goes, many
RACIAL GROUPS 313
problems are caused. The greater is this difference
in customs, standards of living, types of govern-
ment, personal and group viewpoints, the larger
and greater the problems engendered by the trans-
fer of people from one group to another.
The industrial problems which arise in connec-
tion with immigration begin with the need of mak-
ing economic adjustments. The immigrant often
experiences considerable difficulty for a period of
time before he finds pleasant work which pays liv-
ing wages. To the extent that the conditions under
which he works are favorable does the immigrant
learn to love the new country and desire to become
a citizen. If he is exploited or mistreated, he be-
comes suspicious and a sense of injustice rankles in
In the United States the immigrant is carrying
the burden of labor in the coal mines, the cotton
mills, the woolen mills, the clothing manufactures,
the slaughtering and meat-packing industries, the
manufacture of shoes, furniture manufactures,
leather manufactures, and the refining of sugar. In
all these activities, "the foreigner has a monopoly
of the dangerous, the dirty, and the odorous trades."
Moreover, industrial accidents are numerous, and
the brunt of them has fallen upon the immigrant
and also upon his family. In the matter of compen-
sation for injuries the immigrant, or his family, has
in many cases received almost nothing.
314 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Immigrants commonly suffer housing and health
difficulties. They usually go to live with relatives,
causing overcrowding. In the United States the
influx of immigrants for several decades has usually
been to the overcrowded sections of the population
centers. Poor health conditions accompany inade-
quate housing. The immigrant is at a great dis-
advantage in a strange country, especially if he and
his family must live where sanitation, plumbing,
ventilation, air space, and other normal health con-
ditions are not found, or exist only to a small de-
The social problems of the immigrant are also
serious. If he does not know the language of the
adopted country, he is isolated from coming in con-
tact with its culture. A great barrier naturally
exists between immigrants and natives where
neither group speaks the language of the other.
Misunderstandings thus easily arise, leading to
conflicts. The stranger, foreigner, and immigrant
are generally regarded with prejudice. This sen-
timent expresses itself in a condescending attitude,
scorn, and sometimes in open derision. The prob-
lem emerges in social situations where race conflict
or assimilation are the main phenomena. The so-
cial problems resulting from migration will be pre-
sented in the remaining sections of this chapter in
the analyses of racial conflicts, assimilation, and
RACIAL GROUPS 315
2. Racial Conflicts. Wherever racial groups
markedly different exist together, race problems
may become insuperable. They are usually caused
by physical differences, and by economic and social
competition. The first cause is racial, originating
in different climatic and biologic backgrounds. The
second cause springs up whenever leading members
of the less developed race begin to advance beyond
the less efficient persons in the more advanced race,
and when representatives of the lower race begin to
demand social equality with the higher race.
In the United States the presence of millions of
Negroes, representing a population several times as
large as the entire population of the nation when
Washington was president, has created a race fric-
tion which developed with peculiar force during
the post-slavery days and which the World War
for democracy and the post-war hysteria have
fanned into almost uncontrolled flames. The Negro
soldiers to the number of 400,000 were in the Amer-
ican Expeditionary Forces ; one-half of this number
went to France. They understood that they were
fighting for democracy. To their surprise they
found that the color line was not drawn in France
and Italy, especially among the peasant peoples
of these countries; but to their chagrin upon re-
turning to the United States the color line was
drawn tighter than when they went to Europe. This
chagrin spread among the Negroes and culminated
316 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
in a troublesome social unrest, which was countered
by a revival of Ku Klux Klan activities. This move-
ment has used fear, which rarely eliminates causes,
and which often stimulates an increased degree of
One main attitude toward the Negro situation in
the United States was ably represented by Booker
T. Washington, who urged first industrial efficiency
among the Negroes and then professional efficiency.
In social relations the races are to remain separate
as the fingers of the hand, but in other matters to
work together. By showing his worth, the Negro
will be able to undermine the prejudice against him.
The white man in turn has a definite responsi-
bility, which consists in being willing to recognize
true worth, ability, and personality wherever they
may be found, irrespective of race or color. In a
democracy such as the United States the white man
must be willing to give the Negro the vote as soon
as he is qualified. The mere fact that a person is
born in this country and has reached twenty-one
years of age is no guarantee that he is a competent
voter. An educational test would be meritorious,
providing it had to be passed by all persons alike,
Indians, Caucasians, and Negroes, and also by im-
migrants. When the Negro reaches a high educa-
tional level the birth rate of the race will probably
drop to that of the white race ; and political justice
can be rendered without creating special problems
RACIAL GROUPS 317
of insuperable difficulty.
In turn, the Negro has a special responsibility,
namely, of resting his case upon achievement rather
than upon boasting. Race friction is always caused
by the less developed race tending to flaunt its suc-
cesses before the members of the more developed
Lynching needs to be considered as a federal of-
fense. Whenever it is a local offense, to be tried in
the local courts, it is considered lightly. The use of
fear in treating the Negroes does not eliminate
causes, but increases the sense of injustice and
leads to counter moves. Intimidation represses
but does not solve social problems.
The most promising method of dealing with both
the Negro problem and the Negro's problem is
through local joint committees in every community
where the white and colored people reside. Broad-
minded representatives of both races can approach
all the problems in fairness and consider them in
the light of all the peculiar local factors. Upon
the basis of these local conferences and findings, it
will be possible to work out the methods for solving
the problems in the large, that is, for the nation.
Race prejudice can be undermined only by slow
educational processes. A great deal of race preju-
dice arises from misunderstanding, and even from
ignorance of the worth and potentialities of the
other fellow. When the Negro in rising permits his
318 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
increasing worth to speak for itself and when white
people treat the Negro without unfair prejudice,
the race problems that are now so perplexing may
Another illustration of racial conflict may be
drawn from the United States, especially from Cali-
fornia where friction between the Japanese and the
white people began to create trouble about 1907.
By their industry, frugality, and low standards of
living the Japanese were competing successfully
with white farmers. As a result of the different
color of their skin and their different type of culture,
they attracted undue attention to themselves. With
the importation of wives and the growth in the Jap-
anese birth rate, the situation attracted the atten-
tion of the newspapers, which were induced to con-
duct a thorough propaganda against Japanese im-
migrants. And then in 1913, California passed an
anti-alien land law that debarred the Japanese
from buying land, and from leasing land for longer
than three years at a time. This latter privilege
was denied the Japanese in 1920.
The problem is racial and economic. California
cannot afford to be flooded with immigrants possess-
ing low economic standards and physical and men-
tal traits markedly different from Caucasians, but
her method of treating the situation has been nar-
row visioned. She has hardly been willing to pro-
ceed except on a provincial basis; she has ignored
RACIAL GROUPS 319
the larger international aspects of the situation and
offended the proud spirit and the good will of the
In the United States the naturalization law
excludes the Japanese (and Chinese) from citizen-
ship, although admitting African and Caucasian
immigrants to this privilege. It is a mistake to
admit the representatives of any race and then to
hold them aloof by giving them no opportunity to
become naturalized and to function as citizens. It
would be desirable through educational tests to
make rather strict qualifications for voting on the
basis of personal worth and mental ability, and
then to repeal all racial naturalization restrictions.
With high worth and potentiality being required
for admission to the country ; and actual worth and
ability, for voting, all racially discriminatory im-
migration and naturalization legislation could be
rescinded. The nation would be protected and at
the same time cause its profession of justice, fair
play, and democracy to ring true in those parts of
the world where now it is counted insincere.
3. Assimilation and Amalgamation. The pres-
ence together of persons racially or mentally differ-
ent creates the problems of assimilation and amal-
gamation. Assimilation means the adoption of the
spiritual inheritance of a people, that is, of its
standards, customs, institutions, and ideals. In a
320 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
broader sense it means giving as well as becoming ;
it also involves a union of attitudes, which enables
people to think and act together.
An old theory is that the immigrant should give
up his traditions and adopt those of the country to
which he has migrated. Such a method means that
the immigrant merely shifts from one intolerant
group to another intolerant group. This procedure
is based on an exaggerated race pride, which approx-
imates group selfishness.
Another theory is that the immigrant should be
"melted" into the body politic. He should con-
tribute his cultural gifts, and lose his racial identity
in his adopted national group. This theory has
much of merit in its fundamental principles. It
however does not allow enough for racial distinc-
tions, because an immigrant cannot easily give up
all connections with his homeland, the land of his
birth, his childhood days, and the land perhaps in
which his parents still live.
The belief that an immigrant should give up and
forget as soon as possible his native language is
begotten of false local pride. The immigrant brings a
precious gift in his foreign language. A truly cul-
tured group is one in which many of whose mem-
bers are bi-linguists. Through the language that
they bring, immigrants constitute for the group to
which they migrate open gates to the cultures of
the world. It is needless to argue that an immi-
RACIAL GROUPS 321
grant should learn promptly the language of the
In the United States the assimilation process has
been receiving attention under the name of Ameri-
canization. For many years this country gave no
attention to the problem of assimilation, leaving the
whole matter to a formal type of naturalization
work. Then the melting pot figure of speech was
given the country in 1909 and the American rested
content in the belief that immigrants were being
assimilated but was not disturbed by the open fact
that in all the congested districts of all large cities
the immigrants were living in ever enlarging colo-
nies, having few contacts with Americanism except
in its lowest forms.
The World War made evident to the American
people that by virtue of their neglect, millions of
persons had been allowed to live in the country
without having any reasonable opportunity to
become Americans in spirit. Americanization of
a narrow type was undertaken with a vengeance ; it
attempted to use Prussian methods of compulsion.
Several years after the war closed an educational
type of Americanization came to prevail.
The public schools are the leading agent of assim-
ilation in the United States. Children from different
racial groups are thrown into mutual relationship
with one another and with American children. The
gradual adoption of American ways of thinking
322 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
takes place. The teaching of the English language
and of American traditions and customs also plays
an important part in the assimilating process.
The immigrant children become assimilated first,
the fathers next, and the mothers, last of all. The
fathers find their contacts with American life in the
factories, mills, and other places of work. The)
first learn American profanity ; and then, often get
their first lessons in Americanism from the curses
of the foremen and bosses. To meet an urgent need,
classes in English have been established in factories.
This industrial work is usually carried on through
public school teachers.
The immigrant mothers have least opportunity to
learn Americanism; they have almost no con-
tacts with American people and little opportunity
to learn even the English language. They live in
a world of isolation. To that end the visiting teacher,
referred to in a preceding chapter, serves as a benef-
icent friend, guide, and Americanizer.
The physical environment, American institutions,
manners, and life surround the immigrant and
serve as powerful indirect factors in bringing about
changes in manners of dress and living. Immigrant
colonies however prevent these contacts ; American
race prejudice is also a deadening factor.
A better distribution of immigrants is needed.
To move immigrants from the cities into rural dis-
tricts sounds practical in view of the fact that a
RACIAL GROUPS 323
large percentage of immigrants have come from
rural provinces of Europe, and have settled in
American cities in order to be near relatives and
friends. Why not therefore move whole groups into
rural districts? The experiment has been tried but
has succeeded only in a small degree. American
rural life is built around the American isolated farm
dwelling plan. The rural peoples of Europe do not
live in this way, but in villages, and therefore find
the isolated farm dwelling method almost unbear-
A true distribution of immigrants is not primarily
geographic in nature, but social and psychological.
In other words immigrant distribution should be
conducted so that each immigrant will have many
contacts daily or regularly with Americans who
worthily represent American ideals. Such contacts
will naturally and easily lead the immigrant into a
love of the nation that no evil force can defeat.
The trade union is another assimilating force. It
teaches the immigrant self government and to obey
officers whom he himself elects. In participating
in union meetings he often learns his first lesson
in political democracy. The union encourages the
foreigner to adopt American standards of living.
The conscientious employer is also an assimilation
factor to the extent that he treats his employees
democratically, and assists in conducting industrial
classes for his employees.
324 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Wherein lies the responsibility for the non-as-
similated immigrants in the United States ? Partly,
in the fact that immigrants have been coming in
large numbers, and partly in another fact, namely
that the native born people have given little atten-
tion to the welfare of the immigrant. Americans
have been so busy in striving for individual pecu-
niary success that they have not taken time to show
that consideration to immigrants which leads natu-
rally to Americanization.
The responsibility for non-assimilation rests
upon both immigrants and the native born. When
given a normal chance the immigrant usually
becomes assimilated without special difficulty.
Immigrants, irrespective of race, faith, or class,
should be encouraged, regardless of the faults of
their neighbors and the community. In return,
their neighbors whether native or immigrant, need
to treat them democratically. The community may
well afford to encourage the immigrant and the
native in this method of real Americanization.
In the past, the United States has placed empha-
sis upon the individual, and allowed the "masses"
to increase, to become disgruntled, and in many in-
stances, to sink to a low level. She has been busy
developing, even exploiting, her natural resources
to the advantage of the few more than to the gain
of the masses. In her haste to develop the natural
resources, the best national resources, namely, the
RACIAL GROUPS 325
good will of her masses has been strained at times to
the disintegrating point. There has been a tendency
to discount spiritual values, and especially to neglect
the immigrant forces in the land.
A new attitude of personal helpfulness toward
the immigrant is needed on the part of all Ameri-
cans. When one comes to know the history of any
race, he understands the weaknesses of that race,
feels sorry for the race, and his hatred shifts from
peoples to destructive traits. If it is true that all
races are alike at their best and their worst, thus
proving their essential unity, the exponents of
democracy may take hope.
Of primary importance is the necessity of work-
ing out an adequate and permanent assimilation
policy based on the development of American ideals.
In this connection the United States may learn
much from Canada, where a real Canadianization
procedure has been followed for years. Canadian-
ization has meant a governmental interest by Can-
ada in the welfare of her people and especially of
her immigrants far superior to the attitude of the
United States toward her immigrant peoples.
Canada has analyzed her own needs, determined
upon the kind of immigrants that she has needed,
and then sent for them to come from the United
States, England, Scotland, Ireland, and the conti-
nent of Europe. She has officially encouraged per-
sons to immigrate who would settle upon her farms,
326 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
and discouraged many types of city people from
coming. When they have arrived she has met them
at the gates, helped them to get adjusted to the new
conditions, and tried to protect them from exploi-
tation. Her immigration halls and labor exchanges
have rendered free service. By softening the harsh
conditions of adjustment, the immigrant's good will
has been won. Any country may do likewise, and
in so doing will find her immigration problems
diminishing in severity.
Closely related to assimilation is the process
known as amalgamation. This refers to the bio-
logical union of peoples and the creation of new
racial stocks. Intermarriage between races produces
amalgamation. It is a process that cannot be^forced
to a great degree and yet one that occurs naturally
when assimilation has taken place. It is a process
of the centuries, whereas assimilation is one of the
The amalgamation of races somewhat different
from each other is to be favored. The result has
usually been a race stronger than any of the parent
races. The English, Germans, and Scotch-Irish
are outstanding illustrations of amalgamated races.
The amalgamation of races widely different in type,
such as the white and yellow, or white and black,
has never taken place under normal conditions, but
ordinarily in illegal ways and under conditions of
vice. Nature apparently does not object to such
RACIAL GROUPS 327
intermixture of races but social standards forbid.
As indicated in the analysis in a preceding chapter
on community groups, it probably is well to work
toward world unity of thought and culture but not
necessarily race unity.
In summary of the several chapters on the subject^
of human groups, it may be said that every individ-
ual is born a member of a parental family, of a
racial group, of a nation group, and of either a rural
or an urban group. He may elect to establish a
family group of his own, to change his nation, or
to move from the rural to an urban group, or vice
versa, but he cannot change his parental or racial
group lineage. He early finds himself a member of
play groups, school groups, community groups, and
usually of a church group. Any of these group con-
nections may be temporary ; circumstances or per-
sonal choices may lead to changes. Moreover the
individual's group vision may change. For example,
his vision at first is limited to the family group,
then it expands through play and community group
activities; it reaches a nation group loyalty; and
then through various educational and perhaps
religious or other group processes, the individual
may acquire a world social attitude.
In all these situations the individual begins
sooner or later to examine the conditions by which
groups control him, and the ways in which he may
328 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
influence group life. Group Control thus becomes
the remaining major theme to be considered.
1. Why do people migrate?
2. Have you or your parents moved from one home to
another ? Why ?
3. Distinguish between colonization and immigration.
4. Illustrate the way in which migration causes progressive-
5. "What is the underlying reason for permitting immi-
gration to the United States?"
6. Why do immigrants tend to go to the already over-
crowded districts in large cities?
7. Distinguish between inter-migration and intra-migration.
8. What is race prejudice?
9. What is the Negro's problem in the United States?
10. Why do Americans object to the industry and frugality
of Japanese immigrants?
11. In what way is the naturalization law in the United
12. Distinguish between assimilation and Americanization.
13. What are the leading traits of an ideal American citizen?
14. What is Americanization?
15. Why is distribution of immigrants significant?
16. Why is the group life of the individual of vital impor-
THE INDIRECT and direct ways in which the atti-
tudes of a person and his sense of social values are
influenced by the groups of which he is a member
are illustrations of group control, a process to which
the attention of the student has already been
called. Sometimes this process is repressive, and
sometimes stimulative. Again, it may operate
through the use of physical force, or in subtle and
subjective fashion. The group control process is
intricately complex, and its analysis exceedingly
1. The Nature of Group Control. In one of its
simplest forms group control may be illustrated by
reference to the small child who is influenced by
the attitudes of his parents, who in turn have had
their interests largely determined by countless so-
cial forces. As the infant grows he sometimes comes
into conflict with a parent; his acquired habit of
desiring to be taken up and rocked may be denied.
For several years the child thus is subject to paren-
tal control. The parents alternate between loving
330 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
attitudes and the use of physical force in the proc-
ess of exercising control. If they allow anger to
express itself against the child, he is likely to feel
angry in return and to harbor a sense of gross in-
justice. If this process is repeated time and again,
the child who has a strong ego, will likely develop
an attitude of hatred toward his parents, and
when he grows older, will run away and openly defy
The importance of maintaining parental control
with love and firmness cannot be overestimated, for
thereby in later years social and national control
do not become serious problems. As shown in
Chapter VI the family group is better fitted than
any other for teaching the concepts of obedience,
the meaning of discipline, and for developing a con-
structive group attitude.
In the play group, children divide themselves into
leaders and followers. Children in a play group
often will obey a leader more naturally than a
parent, for there is not the disparity of viewpoint
between the leader and the other children that
there is between parent and child. In the play group
the individual will sometimes take severe punish-
ment from other children without whimpering,
whereas slight punishment from a parent may pro-
duce an outburst of uncontrolled anger.
In the school group social control is reduced to
special forms of routine. Regular hours, seating
GROUP CONTROL 331
arrangements, and lesson assignments must be ob-
served. This rigidity is necessary and yet a too
sharp contact with it turns many young adoles-
cents, especially boys, away from school life. The
play group life that the school affords is a saving
factor for countless children.
The religious group processes illustrate another
type of control, a control which finds its sanction in
a belief in the unseen God. The eye of God sees in
secret; it penetrates everywhere, even to the most
secret place of the heart and mind. Individuals
thus find themselves regulating their conduct ac-
cording to their interpretation of the wishes of God.
This extra-group control is essentially social in
The national group in particular and all groups
in general rely heavily on group opinion and law as
the two chief means of control. These factors, while
crystallized as positive elements in national life,
possess such wide ramifications that they will be
considered together in the next section. Suffice it to
say here that group control and individual initia-
tive represent the two poles of group life. Both are
essential; yet either in an extreme form can de-
stroy the force of the other, and in so doing destroy
the group itself. Both must be viewed rationally,
used altruistically, that is, group control must have
as its standard of value, personal growth ; and indi-
vidual initiative may express itself best only in line
332 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
with group welfare.
2. Control Through Public Opinion and Law. The
more important direct means by which individuals
are ruled or influenced by the groups of which they
are members include factors such as customs, ta-
boo, ritual, law, and public opinion.
(1) A large part of individual and social
conduct, both in primitive and civilized life, is based
on group approved ways of acting, common to the
specific group and well established through being
passed on from generation to generation. These
customs, or mores, represent or have represented
successful methods of doing or thinking. Hence they
have acquired prestige and are group sanctioned.
The individual is constrained to conduct himself
according to the dictates of these customs.
The older men, especially the priests and the
medicine men, among primitive peoples are the
guardians of the mores. In civilized groups, the
older men, including those in the professions, law,
teaching, the ministry, and the like, are also guard-
ians of the customary ways of acting.
The real authority behind the mores of course is
the group itself. The group includes not simply the
living visible members. The memories of those who
have departed from this life exert forceful influence.
The group voices itself in forms of approval or dis-
approval. Group approval is expressed frequently
GROUP CONTROL 333
in songs, medals, honorable mention, and parades.
Group ridicule is such a severe form of punishment
that most individuals cannot long withstand it. In
their outward behavior many persons live on higher
levels of activity than they would if they were not
continually in danger of inviting group contempt.
(2) Taboo is a unique method of enforcing a
custom; it possesses peculiar and terrible strength.
Among primitives, taboo prohibits any contact with
certain objects or persons under penalty of harm
being done by unseen beings. In order to be certain
of protecting a shrine, the chieftain may place a
taboo upon a given spot of ground. Whoever vio-
lates the taboo will be stricken to death such is the
taboo's powerful threat.
Among civilized peoples, taboo exists. It oper-
ates by restraining the impulses of individuals. Its
psychological quality is found in the fear of con-
sequences which is engendered in the mind of the
person who is thinking of pursuing a doubtful
course of behavior. It acts as a "Thou shalt not."
It is ordinarily the negative guardian of behavior.
(3) Ritual is the positive agent in increasing the
strength of custom. It operates by the formation
of habits. The charm of orderly movements, ac-
cording to Dewey and Tufts, together with the im-
pressiveness of ordered masses in processions, and
the awe of mystery all assist in stamping in the
meaning and value of the specific set of symbols or
334 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
ways of acting. Ritual secures the actual doing,
and also at the same time the formation of habits
in the lives of individuals.
The college freshman or sophomore who joins a
fraternity must submit to a set of initiation cere-
monies, that is, ritual. The ritualistic ceremonies,
partly formal and partly informal, are generally
arranged so as to humilate the individual and to
magnify the ideals and standards of the group. In
the name of group ritual, many irrational "jokes"
are perpetrated upon innocent blindfolded initiates ;
thus a worthy social institution is sometimes de-
based by its well-meaning but unthinking friends.
(4) The ideas of justice in primitive groups are
found in a body of customs, known as laws or rules
to which absolute validity is given. Justice is the
aim. The chief source of the growth of ideas of
justice and of changes in legal rules lies in the
power of the chieftain or king to decide new cases.
In higher stages of civilization, the need for a more
adequate method of legal procedure has been met
through the establishment of courts. Until recent
decades the adjudication of new and particular
cases continued to be the source of almost all the
additions to "law" ; today, however, nearly all new
expressions of law have their source in legislative
bodies, which have been founded for the purpose
of making new laws. The main force which gives
law its validity is found in group opinion.
GROUP CONTROL 335
To understand the significance of law, one should
have a knowledge of the organization, development,
and functioning of group life and processes. Legal
texts and codes always presuppose some theory of
the nature of human society. Earliest Roman law
assumed that the religious view of social organiza-
tion was inherent in ancestor worship. Later Roman
law rested on the assumption that the social order
was a matter of "contract" between independent
individuals. Through the influence of the church
during the Middle Ages, the conception of law as
a divine command dominated. Today the real
foundation of law has been discovered in the welfare
of the people. The courts in their interpretations
of law are manifesting a changing attitude; there
is less blind adherence to precedents, often anti-
quated, and more consideration of public welfare
in interpreting law.
The exercise by the state of restraint of the indi-
vidual becomes increasingly necessary in an increas-
ingly complex collective life. When people traveled
in ox carts, traffic ordinances were not needed ; but
in an age of automobiles definite laws restricting
individuals must be made and enforced in behalf
of the common welfare. The coercive character of
law is justified by the needs of controlling individ-
ual behavior in the direction of group safety and
advantage. The law hence aims to maintain cer-
tain minimum standards of social conduct which
336 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
are necessary for the safety of society. The civil
and criminal law become two main pillars which
sustain the social structure in any nation.
Law has been called the most specialized and
highly finished engine of control employed by so-
ciety. Its double function has been analyzed by
Edward A. Ross: it deals repressively with indi-
viduals with respect to certain of their aggressive
acts ; and also with them respecting their neglects,
especially with reference to contracts. In general
it is easier to prevent men from unduly interfering
with one another's activities, than it is to compel
co-operation. The law secures respect for itself
through a system of punishments. Law commonly
uses physical punishment indirectly, in that the con-
victed person is incarcerated in a cell away from his
home friends and given a very limited bodily free-
Since civil and criminal law are the main pillars
of group stability, it is the lawyer's function to help
preserve the social order. The legal profession has
been pronounced a social service profession, as
much so as teaching or the ministry. If this soci-
ological view of law is correct, then the commercial-
ized conception of the profession, namely, of having
personal service to sell to individuals and corpo-
rations who can pay for them and who use them
for individual and corporate gain irrespective of
social welfare is false. The members of the legal
GROUP CONTROL 337
profession should consider themselves social serv-
ants, rather than the salaried spokesmen of persons
or corporations who can pay.
(5) Public opinion is the force upon which law
depends for its support. It is in public opinion, in
a democracy, that law finds its sanction. Public
opinion when crystallized becomes law, either
written or unwritten.
Public opinion acts more quickly than does law.
It is a less expensive means of group control. As
Edward A. Ross has pointed out, public opinion
is less mechanical than law, and penetrates the hid-
den regions of life ; it passes judgment upon purely
private acts. It is an inexpensive means of control.
"The inexpensiveness of praise or blame is mar-
velous." Human conduct is continually condi-
tioned by the fact that public opinion will be ruth-
Public opinion, however, has defects. It is not
clear, nor precise nor codified ; it has "a short wrath
and a poor memory." It is rarely unanimous ; an
offender against society can escape the condem-
nation of public opinion by taking refuge among a
group of friends where his fault is condoned or
'even praised. If responsibility can be shifted, for
, example, when a corporation has committed an of-
fense, public opinion is confused. Public opinion
is primitive in its methods, instinctive and passion-
ate. "Its frown is capricious and its favor is fitful/'
338 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
There are other agencies of social control, such
as religious beliefs, direct and indirect suggestions,
slogans, and shibboleths. Art is a highly significant
form of social control ; hence the next section of this
chapter will be devoted to an interpretation of this
3. Control Through Art. Art finds its expres-
sion in the order, rhythm, and symmetry which in
one form or another may be observed everywhere in
the universe. It is natural that human beings
should be peculiarly susceptible to "the influence
of that which pervades and rules in the heavens
and the earth, and in the mind and body." Celes-
tial bodies move orderly and rhythmically. Sight
would not be possible if it were not for the rhyth-
mical vibrations of "ether," and sound would be
unknown were it not for the rhythmical vibrations
of air. The heart beats orderly and rhythmically.
It is not surprising, therefore, that human beings
respond to that which is orderly, symmetrical, and
hence which in general is esthetic.
Art influences people through the pattern forms
which it produces. These patterns give a setting to
all human life; they are fundamental to humai
attitudes. They express themselves through per-
sonal decoration, ornamentation, architecture,
painting, and sculpture. These arts set static pat-
terns. In the dance, song, poetry, music, and pub-
GROUP CONTROL 339
lie speech the pattern forms possess a moving dy-
namic element. In all these fields art creates an
ideal world with a peculiar drawing power for hu-
man beings. The appeal is usually made through
the feelings, and hence human beings in interpret-
ing art forms are subject to error. Art therefore
needs censorship, in order to safeguard the ordinary
individual from being controlled by false interpre-
tations of erratic devotees.
Art is a strong factor in control because of its in-
direct suggestion. Its appeal is not made on the
reasoning or rational plane and therefore does not
directly arouse argument. Art does not moralize ;
it sets examples which because of their feeling ele-
ments easily secure adoption.
The decorating of the human body represents an
original form of art control. In his everyday life,
the primitive Australian is satisfied with a few spots
on his cheeks and shoulders, but on festive occa-
sions, he extends the painting over his whole body.
Bodily decoration by painting is transitory, hence
two means of impressing designs on the body per-
...nianently have been devised: scarification for dark-
skinned peoples, and tattooing for fair-skinned
Hair dressing has been set in artistic forms.
Among primitives the hair is sometimes thickly
kneaded with red ochre and fat, while feathers,
crabs, clams, and so forth are placed in the viscous
340 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
locks. The feather has maintained its original place
in decoration throughout the ages and during all
the stages of culture. It waves on the helmet of
the civilized as well as on the headband of the prim-
itive warrior. Among both primitive and civilized
peoples birds have borne the chief expense of head-
dress ; even the Bushman's fashion of wearing birds'
heads, or even whole birds is perennially raised into
Civilization has not succeeeded in freeing itself
from control by the decorative forms which ap-
pealed to primitive groups. The development of
decoration has increased the range of materials used
and refined the technique, according to Ernst
Grosse, but it has not contributed an important new
form of personal decoration.
Architecture exercises a peculiar force on man-
kind through its pattern forms. These are (1)
buildings for protection; (2) structures for pur-
poses of transit, notably, bridges, aqueducts, and
tunnels; and (3) structures for memorial purposes %
in memorial forms for the dead and to commem- ,
orate historic events.
The chief architectural form is the dwelling iiil
its various expressions. For commercial purposes
there is the store, the factory, the warehouse, the
bank; for educational needs there is the school-**
house, college hall, library, and public hall ; for gov-
ernmental purposes there is the courthouse, prison,
GROUP CONTROL 341
fort, legislative hall, and for religious worship, the
church, the cathedral, the temple have been de-
signed. Chief of all is the dwelling for the family,
described by John Bascom, as "the orb of childhood,
the nest, the nursery, and the school of the human
callow: it is the home of manhood, its center of
exertion and enjoyment, its points of departure and
return: it is the repose of age; thither weary and
spent, man turns to lay down his burden."
Painting, supplementing the art of drawing which
was an influential factor among primitive people,
has included many phases of human life. It may
deliver the whole force of a historic event or of a
life-long biography in a moment of time; it may
give the observer at a glance an interpretation of
vast currents of affection and emotion "as they
surge on in full volume."
The power and force of painting lie in the method
of presenting fundamental truth, current and his-
torical, so as to influence countless human beings
deeply. In recent years some painters, such as
Herman Heyenbrock, have been presenting social
and industrial conditions in a way that brings im-
portant principles home to people otherwise de-
cidedly unaware of many real human needs.
Sculpture is at one and the same time the most
laborious and imperishable of art forms. Man is
the chief subject of sculpture; the human face has
been called the citadel of sculpture. Sculpture gives
342 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
expression to the highest characteristics of man-
kind, and puts them into forms more permanent
than paintings, prose, poetry, or music. When the
solemn, vital elements of human life are presented
in silent, sculptural patterns, they influence people
of all times, irrespective of race or language.
The bronze group entitled "The Mother of the
Dead" by G. S. Pietro illustrates well the social
force of sculpture. The sculptor has caught the
lonely vacant stare of the mother of the dead soldier
and the groping pathos of the little grandchild in
her arms, immortalized them in marble, and set
them above the world in imperishable form.
The dance has always had wide social signifi-
cance. The dances of primitive peoples were usu-
ually mass dances, executed ordinarily by the men
alone, with the women furnishing the musical ac-
companiment. They were used to celebrate group
victories or to arouse the courage of the group pre-
ceding any serious undertaking, especially a battle.
The dancing group felt and acted as a single or-
ganism. The event accustomed men who in their
precarious conditions of life were driven hither and
thither by different individual needs to act together
with united feelings for a single object; it was a
powerful element of control.
As the size of primitive tribes grew, the members
became too numerous to join in the mass dance.
Hence the dance began to lose its socializing power,
GROUP CONTROL 343
although it changed its form, especially that which
had a strong sex appeal. The "square" dances are
socially wholesome, but unfortunately have lost
their popularity of a century ago. The folk dances
while subject to abuses, are historically and esthet-
ically effective. The ballet dance has excellent pos-
sibilities but often degenerates into "distorted per-
versions of nature," arousing vulgar curiosity. The
"round'' dance has one leading function left to it,
that of facilitating the mutual approach of the
sexes ; it perennially stresses immoral patterns, as
in the case of the "shimmy."
Music through its influence over the feelings is
a gigantic element of control. It is a language
which speaks to all mankind ; it breaks through all
racial groups. The singing together of the members
of a group of people unites them. Choral singing
of the non-professional type is one of the highest
means of promoting a sense of brotherhood; it is
one of the most effective forms of group communion.
In a religious group music is a strong force in de-
veloping a common spirit of worship, while in mil-
itary life nothing is more stirring or provocative of
action than the martial music of a hundred-piece
band. National songs bring millions to their feet
with shouts of enthusiastic loyalty.
Poetry comes from the feelings and goes to the
feelings, hence its significance as a control instru-
ment. A single great poet or poem has helped
344 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
to shape the lives of whole generations. Through
a single work, poetry has more than once given a
specific stamp to an entire national group. Poetry
unites people, whom the interests of life separate,
by invoking the same feelings in all. By constantly
repeating its patterns, it finally produces a lasting
mood. Poetry not only unites people, it may also
elevate them, by awakening in them a more refined
and richer emotional life than that which practical
experiences have matured in them.
Poetry connects succeeding generations. Through
poetry, posterity recognizes the voices of its ances-
tors, and the joys and sorrows of those who have
gone before. Thus, people are made to feel that
they are members of one vast aggregate past and
present united and the process of socialization is
realized. Social poetry furnishes effective patterns
for socialization. Organized labor and other in-
dustrial forces are extensively using social poetry.
By setting an industrial aspiration or need to poetic
form and using it in song, whole groups develop a
common thrill and undertake tremendous tasks.
Social hymns constitute an important control
factor. They combine the force of art and religion
in behalf of an improved group life and of socialized
behavior. Religion itself in so far as it expresses
itself in social ideals is a vital phase of group con-
Social drama and fiction carry significant con-
GROUP CONTROL 345
ccpts to multitudes. The field is not yet developed,
but because of the wide reading and hearing which
fiction and drama are accorded and because of the
principle of indirect suggestion upon which they are
based, they may yet become leading forces in so-
The newspaper sets pattern opinions and espe-
cially pattern feelings for millions of persons daily.
The control while often indirect and productive of
more or less unconscious effects is increasingly far-
reaching. Since it is often based on opinions and
emotional reactions rather than verified facts its
control influence is often deleterious. The cinema
likewise is setting pattern examples of feeling and
action before millions of persons daily. Even more
than do the newspapers the cinema exerts melo-
dramatic influence. In using all the art of indirect
suggestion it is an overpowering engine of control.
The social control of public speaking lies chiefly
in its persuasiveness. To speak to an assembly
composed of people of various callings, views, and
prejudices, and unite them in common action
therein lies the social power of public speaking. To
make truth and justice, wisdom and virtue, patri-
otism and religion, holier and more socially useful
than men had even dreamed them to be this is
the control element at its best in public speaking.
Art as an agent of social control has changed
its course during the past ages. Among primitive
346 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
peoples, ornamentation pre-eminently promoted
technical skill. Poetry, the dance, and music arose
partly because they inflamed and inspired the war-
riors who were the bulwark of the group against
hostile attacks. The most powerful social influence
among primitives was vested in the dance.
It has been shown by Ernst Grosse that to the
Greeks, sculpture incorporated the social ideal- at
its highest; how in the Middle Ages, architecture
united bodies and souls in the halls of magnificent
cathedrals; how during the Renaissance, painting
spoke a language that was heeded by all the culti-
vated peoples of Europe; and how more recently
poetry and music have predominated. Still more
recently, it has seemed that the newspaper and the
cinema, in forms often far from esthetic have come
to dominate the thinking of millions.
Today art stands with science as complementary
and influential means of directing the human race.
As science through normal educational processes
has resulted in the enlargement of intellectual life,
so art has enriched the emotional life. Among
primitives, art exercised its control through group
unification. With civilized peoples art has also
occupied a leading position in elevating the spirit
of mankind. By getting into the mores and uti-
lizing custom, taboo, and ritual, and by setting new
patterns or molds for shaping public opinion and
even law, art becomes a deep-seated and often un-
GROUP CONTROL 347
suspected indirect force in determining the trend of
Art, as well as science and religion, public opinion
and law, expresses itself most forcibly through per-
sonal behavior. Control through personal behavior
as a vehicle of interpretation and through the pat-
tern-examples that are personified, constitutes our
next main theme.
1. What is group control?
2. What is a custom?
3. Name a taboo that you have felt.
4. How have you experienced the force of public opinion?
5. What is law?
6. What is social legislation?
7. Is it true that law is expensive to the poor man who is
8. Why has art been so generally depreciated in the United
9. Why was sculpture more effective among the Greeks
than earlier or since?
10. Why did architecture reach the zenith of its power in
the Middle Ages?
11. Why did painting exert a greater force in the Renais-
sance than at any other time?
12. What signs do you see of an increasing appreciation of
art in the United States ?
13. Is culture and art as practical an aim as making a living?
14. Why is art a powerful element in social control?
GROUP CONTROL THROUGH
PERSONAL CONTROL is represented chiefly by atti-
tudes, habits, and character. These depend upon
the original nature of man, social heritage, and
group stimulation. Society by stimulating the so-
cial impulses of the individual, may engender a
splendid type of personal control, or by arousing the
anti-social nature of man, destructive expressions
of personal control. Society may fail to stimulate
any of the native impulses and leave the individual
with a laissez faire, shiftless attitude toward life,
that is, may fail to develop any appreciable degree
of self respect or personal control in individuals.
Through its influence upon the attitudes which con-
trol individuals, society possesses a grave respon-
sibility. In order to understand this problem it
is necessary first to analyze personal behavior fur-
ther than has already been done.
1. Personal Control. The individual possesses
ancestral traits ; he is also characterized by qualities
that are possessed by no one else. The ancestral
GROUP CONTROL 349
traits are marvelously combined in a given person ;
it is estimated that the total population of the world
would have to be multiplied forty times before it
would occur that the lines on the tips of the fore-
finger of the right hand of two persons would be
identical. Every individual by birth is unique.
There are different degrees of uniqueness. There
are differences in degree of initiative, in the inheri-
tance of musical or mathematical ability, and also
in degree of sympathetic response. Individual in-
itiative and energy when coupled with persistence
lead to achievement and produce a type of genius.
Energy may be concentrated by nature, producing
a born genius ; or by the individual himself, result-
ing in a genius by hard work.
At any rate the individual, by virtue of his strong
ego and of his uniqueness, frequently finds himself
in conflict with the group. The small child may
fight parental control, playground control, school
control with fists and violence. Whenever the in-
dividual faces control suddenly he struggles to over-
throw it and to set up by revolution a new form of
control such as suits his personal interpretation.
When he faces control in a milder way, he may
move against it by educational means, by starting
currents of contrary opinion ; he ultimately hopes to
create a new form of control. Thus the individual
may be able actually to control the current forms of
control by setting new pattern ideas. If these find a
350 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
response widespread enough in human needs, they
will come to modify the prevailing expressions of
control. It is in this way that personal behavior
is socially dynamic.
Personal behavior is thus a force of primary im-
portance. Every individual has a sphere of in-
fluence from which move out currents of social
power. In its elemental forms, personal behavior is
non-social, egoistic, and seeking the satisfaction of
its own inherent impulses. Elemental behavior is
represented by the child who is learning from his
experiences, that is, from his experiments in making
adjustments to the environment, both physical and
social. After slamming the door shut on his finger
once, he is generally cautious thereafter. After de-
fying a firm, wise parent once, he usually comes to
see the wisdom in obedience. As he grows older
he learns to give consideration to the interests of
others. If he does not do so, he finds himself iso-
lated from friends, and so from selfish impulses he
may develop a kind of sociableness. The destruction
of articles which belong to parents or other persons
When self consciousness develops, as over against
consciousness of other persons, moral conflicts
for the individual arise with frequency, often of a
very severe nature. In the play group especially,
the individual soon learns that he must submerge
his interests at times, and gladly so, to the welfare
GROUP CONTROL 351
of others. In the case of boys, this lesson is often
not learned until the individual has received blows
from the fists of other boys.
Work itself is a character builder. The individ-
ual who becomes a successful worker, must possess
or develop the fundamental social qualities of pur-
pose, foresight, reliability, and loyalty. In modern
industry, concerted effort is necessary.
The arts and crafts, aside from their influence
as work, have a distinctly elevating and refining
effect. They give some visible or audible embodi-
ment of order or form. In conforming to this order,
the child, the primitive man, and the civilized man
are in training for that more conscious control
where order and law may oppose the impulses.
A participation in family life tends to develop
and to make habitual a high type of control, to make
life serious, to overcome selfishness, and to project
thought forward into the future. Family life tends
to arouse in the child the traits of sympathy, of
give-and-take, and of altruism. Work, participation
in family life, and related activities require that
the individual organize those habits which are the
bases of self control, instead of yielding entirely to
the impulses for pleasure.
Personal control is generally determined by group
standards as revealed in customs and public opin-
ion. To a surprising degree people live according
to the dictates of custom control. If they live up
352 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
to the level of the generally accepted moral stand-
ards of the group they feel at ease. If one's group
endorses automobile speeding, cheating in examina-
tions, midnight carousals, or lying in reporting
property to the assessor the guilty person feels no
pangs of conscience but may even boast of his anti-
social action. Nearly all the actions of average in-
dividuals have their control bases either in elemen-
tary factors, customs, or public opinion.
Each profession and institution has a code of
standards which guides the ordinary individual in
his judgments. The individual usually plays ac-
cording to the rules of the game ; or if the rules do
not seem just to him, he may grumble and not play
the game at all, allowing the unfair rules to go un-
challenged, or he may fight to change the rules by
which he is controlled. Custom and opinion mo-
rality constitute the character standards of almost
Custom and opinion are often irrational; they
may be positively injurious but be maintained in
force by an unscrupulous minority. The merely
trivial may become the group standard; the truly
worth while may be ignored. Group control often
crushes individual uniqueness.
For the sake of his own highest functioning and
also for the sake of group advance the individual
cannot always accept group control uncritically.
There is the necessity of exercising discriminating
GROUP CONTROL 353
judgment regarding current standards and ideals.
It is fortunate for any group that the more socially
advanced members keep their minds open to the
defects of existing beliefs, and that they .reflect on
their own behavior in relation to existing controls.
Certain types of group control are useful for the
age in which they originated, but normally are car-
ried over to a succeeding age, where they are no
longer sufficient because new group and personal
needs have arisen. The socially more alert members
recognize the insufficiency of ancient controls and
climb to higher levels of personal integrity and
If I control myself because I am obliged to do
so in order to succeed in a profession, I am living
on a relatively low ethical plane. If I control my-
self socially, because I wish to maintain the respect
of my group, I am still living on a low level. If I
control myself socially because of having thought
my actions through in their relation to existing
group needs, then I have attained a relatively high
ethical achievement. In the first two cases group
control regulates me; in the third illustration I
am likely to become an influence over current con-
Everyone exercises a degree of social control
over himself with reference to the standards of his
own immediate groups, the family, the school group,
the fraternity, business associates, but it is the ex-
354 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
ceptional person who controls himself socially with
reference to the needs of other groups, other nations,
the world group. It is an important accomplishment
to judge one's control of himself according to so-
cially justifiable values ; it is unique when one keeps
his mind open to defects and excellencies of his im-
mediate groups in their dealings with and attitudes
toward other groups. It is also a high calling to
reflect socially on one's own behavior in relation
to the welfare of mankind everywhere, and espec-
ially, to live up to the dictates of such reflections.
2. Problems in Personal Control. For an individ-
ual to live so that his personal behavior will meet
the test of social values, and so that he will be a
constructive force in the field of social control, in-
volves many problems. (1) Ethical dualism refers
to the fact that an individual has at least two sets
of moral standards : one he applies to himself and
his friends; the other, to those who are mere ac-
quaintances, strangers, or enemies. Nearly every-
one excuses in his own life some habits and ways
of doing which he despises when he sees them in
the lives of other persons. That which is lying when
perceived in others is mere "stretching the truth"
or a part of the truth in one's own case. What is
vicious when countenanced by the French, is justi-
fiable when practiced by the Germans, if one is a
German ; and vice versa.
GROUP CONTROL 355
Ethical dualism is in reality ethical polytheism.
A person has one standard of control for himself,
another for his nearest friends, still another for
strangers, and yet another for enemies. It is prob-
ably true that every person has a different ethical
standard for each individual with whom he comes
in contact. This status of having many standards
of control by which one measures the personalities
of different individuals creates a special problem for
the individual. He is perplexed when he attempts
to treat all persons democratically, that is, on the
same basis, and finds that he has already put each
one on a different ethical level and himself on a still
A group of 105 college students were asked by the
writer this question: Is your personal ethical
standard higher in your dealing with your instruc-
tors or with your fellow students ? Sixty-six replied
that they exercised higher standards of personal
control over themselves in dealing with their fellow
students, twenty-eight declared that they held them-
selves to a higher standard of conduct in dealing
with instructors than with their fellow students,
while eleven asserted that personally they con-
ducted themselves according to the same standard
in their relations with instructors and fellow stu-
dents. Ninety-four out of 105 students thus stated
that they conducted themselves on one moral level
toward instructors and another, generally higher,
356 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
toward their fellow students. The explanation of this
common reaction is found in the fact that there is a
more personal relationship between student and
student than between student and instructor. In
other words, there is more fellow-feeling and a
greater spirit of accommodation and co-operation
between students than between students and in-
(2) Ignorance of what are one's highest social
obligations is common. In an increasingly complex
social order it is becoming more and more difficult
for the individual to decide how to act wisely and
socially. At municipal elections it is almost impos-
sible to learn who are the better candidates. In
national presidential elections it is still more diffi-
cult, oftentimes, to know which is the best party
ticket to support, because each represents a combi-
nation of many unworthy elements along with the
(3) Inability to live up to the knowledge of the
socially best is also common. Why are not people
as social as they actually know how to be social?
Why do worthy individuals act in ways for which
they are immediately sorry? Why do not people
always do as well as they know how to do ? In other
words, why is the individual unable to control his
impulses to the degree that he resolves to do?
The answer to these questions is that man's
strong instinctive tendencies are representative in
GROUP CONTROL 357
many ways of ancient levels of action and planes
of activity which fall far below currently derived
standards. A sudden surprise or a subtle suggestion
will often snap the higher forms of self control, thus
putting the lower impulsive nature in positions ot
(4) Professional standards of control fall below
personal ethics ; they often constrain an individual
to act below his own best judgment. In medicine
a man is justly required to report cases of smallpox
to health authorities so that well people may be
safeguarded, but professional ethics and public
opinion compel the physician to keep wholly silent
concerning venereal diseases, even though such
silence may subject women to certain and terrible
The standards which control modern business
groups possess far-reaching influence. In the begin-
ning of merchant-trading, a visiting tradesman was
viewed not only as a stranger but also as an alien.
The group might do to him, or he might to it, any-
thing that either could. Such forms of control were
ethical. For example, it was considered by the
visiting tradesman to be excellent business if he
could steal some of the natives' wives and children.
In certain aspects the early law of trade was but
little removed from the law of theft. Trade group
relations at first were not controlled by the usual
standards of the family group or the local commu-
358 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
nity group. The regulations governing trade were
practically left for millenniums in the hands of
groups of traders and merchants themselves.
The possession of wealth was considered in early
days as evidence of the possession of ability, and
therefore, of virtue. No questions were asked about
the methods by which wealth had been acquired.
Shrewdness was synonymous with virtue. To the
support of the merchant came the individualistic
philosophy with the teaching that the god of the
individual is supreme, with the implication that
every individual knows best what is for his own
good, despite the fact that he is partly controlled
by highly selfish impulses that are epochs old. Hence
the average individual could easily confirm his own
idea that the pursuance of his selfish ends in almost
any possible way was justifiable and proper.
Primitive conceptions of trading still persist ; the
individualistic philosophy gathers millions of dol-
lars to its support. The standard still prevails that
an individual may promote his welfare in any way
that does not conflict with the law as enforced. It
is often not considered wrong "to get around the
Business has too often emphasized the rules : To
sell as dearly as the market will permit; and, to
pay labor as little as it can be induced to accept.
As a result of these standards, reactionary conser-
vatism and bold radicalism have clashed: in coun-
GROUP CONTROL 359
tries, such as Russia, the latter won in 1917; in
other countries the struggle goes on.
New standards of business control are develop-
ing. Business for service, is supplanting the slogan,
Business for private profit. Service, however, is be-
ing interpreted in selfish terms, that is, in the
following way: I will serve most in order to get
the most trade and largest profit. A higher stand-
ard of control for group relations, especially bus-
iness and industrial group relations, is springing up,
namely, that of the Nazarene whose life represents
the principle of serving without having personal
gains as the goal, that is, the standard of Unselfish
It is the ideal of unselfish service which is in
conflict with profitism. If the former does not win,
then the alternative is appearing in the form of rad-
ical socialism with its disrespect of established so-
cial values, its arbitrary, autocratic methods, and
its new form of class control.
(5) In an earlier chapter the ideals which con-
trol nation groups were discussed ; it was indicated
that the individual today often finds his national
patriotism in conflict with his concept of world
justice. Without relinquishing a single virtue of
nationalism as judged by the world group needs,
individuals are being forced to revise their patri-
otism standards, giving them a less selfish connota-
tion, purifying them from narrow adoration, im-
360 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
pulsive shouting, and blind subservience. They
are beginning to work toward a day when nation
groups shall treat one another according to stand-
ards of control based on world needs, and not upon
the selfish desire of chauvinists, imperialists, or in-
3. Leadership and Personal Control. Leadership
refers primarily to the traits of initiative, energy,
and persistence that are possessed by every normal
individual, as well as to the qualities of outstanding
persons in the public eye. Leadership is common
to all normal individuals. Everyone exercises some
influence over his fellows and to that extent is a
leader; his leadership ability is related to all leader-
The schools do not give sufficient training in
leadership; they stress the importance of copying.
Because school curricula and educators have em-
phasized the copying of standards and the initiating
of examples, pupils in schools have developed what
have been referred to in a preceding chapter as
"school activities,'' with opportunities to do, and to
lead. School activities imply that the ordinary
study-classroom procedure constitutes "school
passivities," with a minimum chance for initiative
and energy to be expressed along new lines. The
schools in giving attention to the intellectual side of
life, have neglected the feeling and especially the
GROUP CONTROL 361
activity phases of life with all their implications of
leadership. Training courses in leadership are
The conspicuous leader, such as a general, a well-
known poet, or a president of the United States,
possesses inherited qualities which have been stim-
ulated into achievement by the social environment
or which the individual has developed without or in
spite of environmental aid. The exceptional leader
may be explained as a product of superior inherited
ability, or of good fortune that befalls a person of
ordinary accomplishments, or of group selection
and stimulation, or of sheer initiative, energy, and
Superior heredity is rare ; it accounts for the abil-
ity of only a small percentage of well known leaders.
The highly talented person is likely to rest too much
on his inherited ability ; he may fail to conserve his
precious talents, he is apt to become a "crank," and
never develop a balanced, rounded personality.
The person who becomes a leader by good fortune
is rare. He is usually an individual of considerable
undeveloped ability and common sense. The occa-
sion stimulates him and in responding he may sur-
prise not only his friends but even himself. There
are undoubtedly countless persons who would
measure up to important leadership responsibilities,
providing responsibility should fall gradually or
even suddenly upon them.
362 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Occasionally the group selects a person for one
position after another of increasing importance. By
common sense, attention to work, and ability not
noticeably above the average, the individual moves
up from one leadership position to another.
Then there is the leader who has no more than
ordinary ability, who has few home advantages or
perhaps actual discouragement from home, who
suffers one social defeat after another, but who
drives ahead in season and out, overcoming handi-
caps, even prejudices, and hostility, and finally
reaching and succeeding in important leadership
Leadership is the counterpart of followership. To
be a good leader one must know the secret of follow-
ing well. To follow well or to lead well, one must
possess control over self. The Wisdom writer was
correct when he said that he who ruleth his spirit
is greater than he who taketh a city. Ruling one's
impulses is fundamental to becoming a successful
Self control leads to control of groups.
The leader may use his control ability for purely
selfish glorification, or he may exercise control for
no selfish purpose, giving his energy, life, and love
freely, that other people may have larger opportu-
nities to live and to be useful ; he may ask nothing
for self or for a group of privileged friends.
Group leadership originates in crises and con-
GROUP CONTROL 363
flicts, and hence is doubly significant as a force in
social control. Sometimes the situation which
produces leaders is a conflict between an individual
and his group. Such cases were common in primi-
tive days ; they are also frequent today in primary
or small groups. Other situations which produce
leaders are conflicts between groups. At all events,
he who first shows ability to cope with a highly
problematic situation becomes a leader and an out-
standing force in social control.
Leadership functions in antagonistic phases of
life, in maintaining organized group processes, and
in securing social changes. Leaders who are trying
to keep time-honored institutions intact and to up-
hold customs are in conflict with other leaders who
are trying to direct people toward new methods of
control. A group which is dominated by the leaders
of traditional methods tends to fall behind in the
march of progress ; and a group in which the leaders
favoring change are untrained, tends to go to pieces
through lack of stability.
A plurality of leadership is apparently neces-
sary; its unity is found in a balance between the
conservative and liberal forces. A plurality of
leadership may result in progress if its competitive
and stimulative processes are kept on productive
rather than destructive levels. It may seek out and
stimulate the undeveloped capacity of peoples.
The highest type of leader is a true man or
364 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
woman. Possessing views which embrace the world,
his sense of humanity is so keen that he seems one
with the common people. His moral courage knows
no bounds. He combines the endurance of the
trained warrior, the sagacity of the captain of in-
dustry, and the power of socialized attitudes guided
by reason and propelled by indomitable will power.
The greatest problem solvers are the world's greatest
leaders, because they are or will become the domi-
nating forces in social control.
GROUP CONTROL 365
1. When do we most admire goodness?
2. Is it of credit to a person to be offered a bribe?
3. Does a corporation or a labor union have a conscience?
4. Why do some honest persons feel no compunction in
cheating a railroad corporation?
5. Is the ability or the character of the individual more
important from a social viewpoint?
6. Do you agree: Whatever works is right?
7. "At what points is the moral energy of college men
and women most severely tested?"
8. When is patience not a virtue?
9. When is benevolence anti-social?
10. Illustrate graft.
11. Which of the qualities of leaders mentioned in this
chapter would you prefer to have?
12. "What qualities create a prophet?"
13. "Does the need of leadership diminish with the spread
14. Have the characteristics of leadership changed in the
history of society?
15. Why is the leader so important a factor in social control?
GROUP CONTROL PROBLEMS
PERSONAL CONTROL often breaks down. Some-
times it functions well in behalf of the individual's
selfish interests or of the interests of a group of
personal friends, but it often conflicts with the
welfare of a larger group, such as the city or nation.
Personal control based on narrow social attitudes
may easily lead to delinquency and crime. Even if
a given type of personal control does not violate a
law or ordinance it may openly or subtly weaken
moral fibre and by degrees destroy human oppor-
tunities for development. In so doing, it may not
be anti-legal, but anti-social.
1. Causes of Anti-Group Conduct. The causes of
anti-group conduct are exceedingly complex. They
are found in the physical environment, the social
environment, and the individual's reactions to his
social and physical environment.
(1) The physical environment affects personal
control through the influence of such factors as
climate, seasons, temperature, and food. A hot
climate leads to offences against persons, and a cold
GROUP CONTROL 367
climate to offences against property. The cold winter
season results in more suffering from cold and
hunger than does the summer, and ranks higher in
offences such as theft. The spring and summer are
noted for the prevalence of sex offences.
(2) The social environment affects personal con-
trol in a variety of ways. A higher ratio of crimi-
nality is found among the unmarried and divorced
than among those living a family life. This fact
may be explained by the greater temptations of the
homeless, or to another fact, namely, that the same
temper and habits which render a man unfit for
marriage and unfavorable to its restraints, may be
the same anti-social tendencies which manifest
themselves in crime.
Density of population is frequently accompanied
by a proportional increase in anti-social conduct.
The large city is the hiding place of people with a
dark record. It flaunts the allurements of wealth
and luxury in the face of poverty ; it excites envy ;
and it harbors the solicitors of vice.
Customs such as the public whipping of offenders,
torturing, and lynching provoke criminal impulses.
Severe punishments and public executions do not
repress crime but increase it by the example which
the state sets in taking life or in arousing the spirit
Poverty is a cause of crime, and so is riches, for
the very rich frequently seem to be as subject to
368 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
vice as are the very poor. Unexpected industrial
changes, especially crises and depressions, put char-
acter to unusual strains and increase the number
of law-breakers. There are many who are con-
strained to steal as was Jean Valjean, rather than
see the members of their own .families starve and
die. In a day of ostentatious display of unlimited
wealth, the poor man who is diligent and honest,
and yet whose family cannot obtain all the neces-
sities of life, sometimes concludes that "property is
There is a general conviction which is being
honestly held by multitudes that many of those who
are very rich have obtained their wealth at the cost
of the community and without returning an equiv-
alent. The workingman, pinched by need feels no
special sense of wrong in taking a small portion of
what he considers "immorally acquired wealth."
The sense of having been wronged combined with
driving hunger lead the individual to justify his
The corruption of partisan politics favors the
increase of crime. "When the unscrupulous agents
of city railways, railroads, and other powerful cor-
porations," says one authority, "control the elec-
tions of aldermen in their own interest and against
the public, crime is fostered through the very insti-
tutions of justice and law."
Suggestion causes crime. Pictures and reports of
GROUP CONTROL 369
brutal prize fights set boys to fighting in alleys and
rear yards. The film showing a spectacular robbery
starts anti-social ideas to work in the minds of
youthful spectators. Sensational accounts of bur-
glaries and trials in the ordinary newspapers, and in
the police gazettes that are handed about in pool
rooms and other gathering places of men arouse
desires that sometimes culminate in evil. "Gangs"
of boys are frequently lead into law breaking by
the "dare" of some leader.
Occupations may cause crime. Employment in
dishonest kinds of business, in gambling dens, or in
liquor establishments tends toward the formation
of evil habits. Officials are tempted to abuse
public trust in them and to be bribed. Merchants
and manufacturers are drawn into fraud, embezzle-
ment, and forgery, while laborers commit theft,
disturb public order, and make assaults.
(3) The individual's reactions to his environ-
ment bear a causal relation to anti-social conduct.
Some individuals are moral imbeciles by birth, and
are never able to distinguish between right and
wrong. Others are born mentally defective so that
at the age of eighteen, for example, they have the
mental control and inhibitions of children of per-
haps six, ten, or twelve years of age. They possess
however the physical passions of eighteen-year-old
adolescents, and in a complex environment the in-
adequately controlled physical passions lead to evil.
370 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Sexual nature is a causal factor in anti-social
conduct. There are about five times as many male
offenders as female offenders, a fact that is probably
due to the greater aggressiveness of men. As women
go into business, enter public employment, and
hold offices, their temptations increase, and their
criminal record is augmented. Moreover, women
when once guilty of sexual offences are not so easily
restored to normal personal control as are men,
partly because of the breaking down of a more
sensitive organism, of the despair which seizes them,
and because the gates to respectable social life are
closed to them, although not to men who are sim-
The individual's problems of self control vary
with his age. In his earliest years he is held unac-
countable for his acts. Young children who are
frequently tempted by hunger or compelled by their
parents to go upon the streets to pilfer often be-
come guilty of theft. In middle adolescence the
rise of the physical passions leads to fighting, to vic-
ious and immoral assaults upon persons, and to
disturbances of the public peace. The bulk of crimes
falls between the ages of twenty and forty. With
riper years crimes of cold calculation, frauds, and
bankruptcy are often committed.
Alcoholism has led to breakdowns of personal
control, to vice, and crime. Alcohol weakens "the
inhibitory power of the higher nerve centers, con-
GROUP CONTROL 371
fuses the intellect, dulls the conscience, and sets
anger and lust free without rein or bridle." Alcohol-
ism has led to brutal treatment of wives and chil-
dren, has broken down woman's finest restraints,
and debauched otherwise competent citizens. Under
the influence of liquor, persons have committed
sex offences, with high powered automobiles rode
down little children in the streets, and have com-
mitted heinous murder.
A lack of a sense of individual responsibility
causes crime. The individual in all ordinary cases
of anti-group conduct must bear a part of the
responsibility. Within limits the individual is a
choosing agency, and hence must assume a share
in the responsibility for the crime that he commits.
Every child, even of the most cultivated parents,
requires to be taught what his group obligations are,
for he will not recognize all these promptly, and
much less will he instinctively live up to their im-
plications. He needs to be trained, controlled, dis-
ciplined, and helped into the ways of social co-
operation. Even the children of refined, generous,
and self sacrificing parents are often guilty of act-
ing in intensely selfish ways. Even the noblest of
youths must learn personal control and develop
their social dispositions. Crime lurks near vigorous
youths, and sneaking vice is characteristic of those
who have been whipped into silence, resentment,
or fear. All types of adolescents need careful,
372 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
steady discipline until they can stand alone in
maturity, with the momentum of good habits to
keep them upright.
2. The Apprehension and Trial of Offenders. In
the social machinery for dealing with offenders, the
police play a leading part. The functions of the
police have long been considered those of repressing
crime. The first duty of the police is to apprehend
criminals. They are in a good position to gather
evidence, because they are continually on the watch
for crime. They fail frequently in securing evi-
dence, because many of them do not know what is
evidence. An important development in the police
agency that has come about in recent years is repre-
sented by the traffic squad, who compose an ad-
ministrative body, who do not acquire an offensively
aggressive manner, and who are more courteous
than the regular police.
The concept of police as reformers is noteworthy.
Joseph Fels has expressed the point when he said
that his idea would be to make every policeman an
extremely valuable public servant, rather than as
now, offering him so many opportunities for dete-
rioration. He would have policemen become a group
of social workers, knowing every family and home
in their respective districts, and even becoming the
neighborhood representative of the city government.
The policeman could serve notices and writs of the
GROUP CONTROL 373
courts, collect delinquent taxes, inspect street clean-
ing, see that garbage is properly handled, secure
information for the departments of health and
charities, see that all children in the district are in
school these are some of the things that policemen
might do as community workers.
The policewoman has become an integral phase
of the police agency. Nearly all cities of size have
a staff of policewomen , engaged in work which men
admittedly cannot perform as well. They are made
responsible in part for the conditions which exist
at dance halls, vaudeville theaters, and motion pic-
ture shows; they attempt to safeguard girls and
women from the downward path. The procedure,
no longer an innovation, has proved its own justi-
fication in the increasing freedom with which girls
and women appeal to the police department for
advice and protection, in the handling of special
cases where a woman's sympathy may be more
effective than a man's power, and in the care given
to young girls or women who are brought to police
Social defense has made necessary a body of pub-
lic prosecutors. The public prosecutor, or district
attorney, needs not only legal training but also
training in criminology and sociology, in order that
he may know the scientific requirements of social
defense. This knowledge should be supplemented
by first-hand experience in working in prisons with
374 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Corresponding to the system of public prosecu-
tion there is arising a system of public defense, that
is, of defense for helpless offenders or alleged offen-
ders. There is often a decided helplessness of the
defendant in a trial in the face of an organized
legal staff of trained prosecutors. These defendants
who have money can employ able counsel, in fact,
they often employ such shrewd counsel that public
prosecution is unduly hindered and nonplussed,
with the result that trials run a course of several
weeks, and guilty but powerful defendants escape
their due punishment. But when a defendant is poor
and unable to employ counsel as able as that in
the district attorney's office he is at a serious dis-
As a result of this need, interested persons have
organized themselves under the title of a Legal Aid
Society, and furnished free of charge legal assist-
ance to defendants without money, or who are im-
migrants without a knowledge of the rules and
customs of the country and who do not know the
language. In various parts of the United States
the public defender's office has been created. Ac-
cording to this plan, the state recognizing the dis-
advantage of some of its members, has established
officially a system of legal aid and advice for the
advantage of those persons who have fallen into
trouble and are unable themselves properly to pre-
GROUP CONTROL 375
sent their cases. The public defender's office rep-
resents an attempt to secure an increased degree of
social justice. The introduction of women to jury
service has been successful ; women have proved as
good jurors as men. Often women of high qualifi-
cations are available for jury service whereas men
of similar standing because of professional or sim-
ilar duties have been as a class excused.
The jury system however is under severe indict-
ment. Although its strong point is that it guaran-
tees the person under arrest a trial by his peers, yet
his peers are often highly subject to prejudices and
possessed of narrow, untrained minds. Lawyers are
continually tempted to play upon the feelings of
jurors. After the jury has entered upon its delib-
erations regarding a decision, it is subject to tht
overpowering leadership of one person, or else an
unusually obstinate individual may hold out un-
duly against the honest judgment of the other
eleven jurymen. Because of these facts, trial before
a judge is increasing in favor. In such cases the
attitude of the lawyer is likely to be sane, without
including "grandstand" plays or emotional appeals.
The person with a trained, judicial mind has
marked advantages over a jury of untrained
thinkers in the hands of an unscrupulous lawyer.
3. Punishment and Reformation. Three general
principles have been followed with reference to ad-
376 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
ministering punishment, namely: retaliation, re-
pression, and reformation.
Retaliation is the principle of giving an equiv-
alent for what has been received. If I am to return
benefits, why should I not return injuries upon the
same basis of give and take. The desire "to get
even" is one of the. deepest in human nature. An
eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, is the motto
Repression uses fear. To intimidate and to
torture is the slogan of repression. In the past both
the church and the state took upon themselves the
work of suppressing crime by measures that were
designed to intimidate would-be criminals by hid-
eous forms of torture. This idea "held humanity
in its grasp for thousand of years."
The principle of reformation as the basis for
punishment did not receive effective support until
an Italian writer, Beccaria, published his Crimes
and Punishment at Milan in 1764. His book was
the sensation of the day; it openly challenged re-
pression and with equal frankness championed
reformation. The book was translated into nearly
all modern languages; the author lived to see his
views adopted widely.
Another successful early advocate of reformation
was John Howard of England. In 1773, he was
made sheriff of Bedford and placed in charge of the
jail in which one hundred years previously John
GROUP CONTROL 377
Bunyan had written Pilgrim's Progress. _He made
a tour of the county jails of England, gathering
evidence concerning typhus fever from which the
inmates of jails died in large numbers.
During the sixteen years of his public service,
almost all at private expense, he visited nearly
every country accessible to European travellers. He
died in Russia in 1790 of the plague, while trying
to find the cause of the same dread disease. On his
tomb are these words : He took an open but unfre-
quented path to immortality. In describing his
journeying in behalf of prison inmates the poet has
Onward he moves; disease and death retire;
While murmuring demons hate they still admire.
The ideas of Baccaria and John Howard concern-
ing reformation were carried forward particularly
in the United States. William Penn, who had been
jailed in England, also became interested in pris-
ons; as a result of his influence, the Philadelphia
Society for Relieving Distressed Prisoners was or-
ganized in 1776 and became the parent of modern
American prison associations. In 1776, the Wal-
nut Street jail in Philadelphia had no discipline or
adequate care. The first time that a clergyman
attempted to conduct religious services in the yard,
the jailer as a precaution against riot and to insure
378 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
the preacher's personal safety, had a cannon
brought into the yard and had stationed beside it
a man with a lighted match.
In 1817, the Pennsylvania legislature ordered
the construction of two penitentiaries. The one in
Philadelphia was planned by Edward Haviland
and became the basis of what has since attracted
world-wide attention as the Pennsylvania system.
The penitentiary in Philadelphia has served as a
model in many countries. It has radiating wings,
with cells next the outer wall and the corridor in
the center, an arrangement which gives light in all
the cells and some sunshine in most of them. The
confining of prisoners in individual cells, isolated
from each other, was a reaction against the method
of allowing prisoners of all degrees of criminality
to associate promiscuously.
Another type of prison is represented by the
Auburn State Prison, established about 1816 in
New York. It is designed to separate prisoners by
night only. The convicts are employed during the
day in large workshops. While at labor the pris-
oners had to observe the rule of absolute silence,
which was enforced with exacting sternness, but
which violated the psychological demands of the
gregarious impulses unduly and harmfully. Silence
in itself constituted a separation of prisoners and
fundamental isolation. In 1825, the new state
prison at Sing Sing was built with convict labor,
GROUP CONTROL 379
following the Auburn rules; the achievement sur-
prised mankind, for it had not been considered
possible to use criminals in constructing a large
The Elmira Reformatory in New York received
its first prisoners in 1876; Z. R. Brockway was its
initial superintendent. The underlying principles
of the Elmira system are: (1) the prisoner can be
reformed. (2) Reformation is the right of the con-
vict and the duty of the state. (3) Every prisoner
must be individualized and given the special treat-
ment which is needed to develop him in the points
in which he is weak. He needs physical, intellectual,
or moral culture in combination, but in varying
proportions, according to the diagnosis of each case.
(4) The prisoner's reformation is always facilitated
by his own co-operation. (5) The supreme agency
for securing the desired co-operation on the pris-
oner's part is power lodged in the administration of
the prison to lengthen or shorten the duration of
the offender's term of imprisonment. (6) The most
important principle of all is that the whole process
of reformation must be educational.
The Elmira plan includes trade training. The
aim of the institution is to send no man out, who
is not prepared to do something well enough to be
independent of the temptation to lie or steal.
If the question is asked : Where does the punish-
ment enter in, the answer is : In the disciplinary
380 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
control which is unremitting and exacting. The
warden must be of the highest integrity, attain-
ments, and consecration. The Elmira plan has been
widely adopted ; it ranks as one of the best.
A new, successful development is represented by
the work of T. M. Osborne as warden of Sing Sing,
where in addition to advocating penal farms and a
real indeterminate sentence, he undertook to en-
courage the prisoners to assume responsibility for
their conduct. Under his supervision a welfare
league was formed among the prisoners. The idea
of self government among prisoners has succeeded
surprisingly well among special types of offenders,
especially adults who are first offenders. Under
certain circumstances prisoners may be allowed to
make their own rules and to punish violators. The
chief merit of these principles is that prisoners
develop the social and self governing spirit that is
needed in ordinary group life.
Several specific problems in the reformation of
offenders will now receive analysis. (1) Prison labor
was first introduced as an aid to religious ministra-
tions, but it does not necessarily produce penitence;
it proves not so much a punishment as a boon to
prisoners. The prevailing motive of prison labor
systems becomes that of training convicts morally.
Many leading forms of prison labor have devel-
oped. Under the contract system the prison author-
ities make arrangements with manufacturers to
GROUP CONTROL 381
pay a certain price a day per convict laborer fur-
nished. The convict works under the direction of
the agents of the contractor. The system ap-
proaches an indentured servant system of slavery.
The piece-price system is a modification of the
contract method. The outside contractor furnishes
the material for manufacturing goods and receives
the finished articles at an agreed price. The super-
vision of the industry is thus kept in the hands of
the prison officials.
The lease system may be mentioned, chiefly to
condemn it. Under this scheme, convicts are leased
to contractors for a fixed sum and period. The
persons so leasing the prisoners undertake to feed,
clothe, and care for prisoners and to maintain dis-
cipline. Under such circumstances, the state gives
up its function as public guardian of private rights ;
it surrenders control of its prisoners to irresponsible
parties and to personal interests. In such a situation
reformatory measures cannot be used.
Under the public or state account system the
state owns the plant, furnishes the raw materials,
and conducts the business through the prison offi-
cials. The profits if any go to the state, in order to
help pay the expenses of care.
The plan of employing convicts on public works,
such as roads, ditches, canals can be carried out
with a limited class of prisoners. But if they labor
in large numbers, experience shows that generally
382 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
they must be chained together or kept in gangs
under the supervision of armed men. The spectacle
of such gangs at work on public highways is de-
grading. The method gives the prisoners a chance,
however, to work out-of-doors.
The prison farm affords the discipline of hard
work, the advantages of outdoor employment and
contacts with nature, a wholesome relief from op-
pressive urban conditions, and the stimulus that
comes from working with living things, plants, and
animals. Municipal farms and state farms are
greatly needed as constructive means of dealing
with many types of prisoners.
(2) The indeterminate sentence provides that a
given prisoner may be sentenced, for example, for
not less than two years nor more than ten years.
Until recently it was the policy to prescribe a defi-
nite period of punishment for each crime com-
mitted. The indeterminate sentence represents the
principle that the object of imprisonment is not
punishment primarily but the reformation of the
offender and his restoration to society as soon as
he is able to lead a responsible life. To give this
principle a fair chance to operate it is necessary
that prisons be so administered that the convicts
receive a chance to demonstrate their fitness and
"to work out their salvation under reformative con-
ditions." A real indeterminate sentence is one in
which the offender is kept under reformatory con-
GROUP CONTROL 383
ditions until he develops a reasonable social attitude
toward his fellows and society. It is a worthy ideal
toward which to strive.
(3) The parole system recognizes the fact that
prisons do not offer a good opportunity for devel-
oping a normal life. Parole is now combined with
the indeterminate sentence, whereby a first offen-
der, and certain others, may be released from prison
at the end of the minimum sentence.
(4) Adult probation is a system "not for letting
people off, but for providing a definite correctional
treatment outside of prison walls." In many cases
imprisonment as a punishment carries with it life-
long disgrace and discouragement. Adult proba-
tion is intended for first offenders and violators of
municipal ordinances and minor regulations. The
man on probation makes monthly reports to the
probation officers, pays the fine against him in in-
stallments, and makes restitution in whole or in
part to the person or persons injured by him.
(5) The county jail system, such as has existed
in the United States, has been frequently charac-
terized as a relic of barbarism. Its chief advocates
are persons who are dependent upon it for salaries
It causes or intensifies physical deterioration. It
is a sad sight to behold strong men herded in a
county jail like cattle in stalls, or walking the nar-
row confines of a county jail "to relieve cramping
384 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
limbs." The jails ordinarily do not have even a
crude gymnasium in which trustworthy prisoners
can exercise weakening muscles. The physical con-
dition of the prisoners is also undermined by un-
sanitary conditions, impure air, dirty bedding, and
dark cells. Darkness, dampness, and dirt combine to
make the strong, weak, and the weak still weaker.
Nerve strength is wasted. With nothing to in-
terest and occupy the mind but reflections on the
past, many prisoners leave the jail complete neu-
The county jail has been rightly termed a school
of crime. First offenders and hardened criminals
are thrown together. Exchange of criminal plans
and possibilities is the chief diversion ; the wise and
the inexperienced teach the beginner the vicious
art of crime. The narratives of the "jail bird" im-
press the plastic mind of the youthful offender, and
lead him to new acts of crime after his release. The
jail tends to tear down rather than build up moral
character. The "criminal atmosphere" in a jail is
very serious because so many of the prisoners are
The jail system as opposed to a penal farm
system reacts sometimes as a greater punishment
upon the wife and children of the offender than
upon the offender himself. While the prisoner is
idling away a sentence of thirty days in jail and
being fed and clothed at public expense, his wife
GROUP CONTROL 385
and children are deprived of an income from the
wage-earner, and perhaps are suffering for lack of
the necessities of life.
The county jail system fails to reform; it is
merely a place for confining prisoners. It assumes
little responsibility for the physical, mental, or
moral improvement of prisoners. It is blind to its
responsibility to society, of making prisoners into
better men and women while serving their sen-
The county jail needs to be supplanted by the
penal farm. In most of the states in our country
two or four state farms of at least 500 acres each,
located in different sections of the state, represent
a minimum need. If penal farms are objected to
because of the cost, the answer can be made that a
state farm can be operated at a less actual cost than
county jails. After a thorough, unbiased study
of state penal farms, Dr. H. J. McClean has stated
that "there is not one farm colony in the United
States or foreign country under reasonably able
management that is a financial burden upon the
people. There is not one but what is operated at a
profit over the old system. The argument that a
correction farm will involve an excessive cost will
not stand the test of facts and authority." The
county jail system should be supplanted by a penal
386 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
4. Juvenile Delinquency. The facts show that
a large percentage of adult prisoners start along
criminal lines before the age of twenty-one. It is
evident that if juvenile delinquency can be dealt
with satisfactorily, the percentage of adult crim-
inals will be ultimately decreased. The problems of
delinquency are therefore far-reaching.
Until about the year 1900 in the United States,
child offenders were arrested and if unable to
furnish bail were placed in the regular cells of police
stations. If convicted, they were fined, and then
sent to the city jail or prison to "lay out" their fine
at a rate, for example, of fifty cents a day.
Then came a turning point in the treatment of
adolescent offenders; new principles were rec-
ognized. (1) The juvenile offender is being treated
as a ward of the court ; he is no longer regarded as
an accused or convicted criminal. The system of
fines has been abolished. (2) Separate courts have
been established for children's cases ; they are un-
like the regular court chambers; they resemble a
private conference room. Women acting as referees
or judges in girls' cases have been markedly suc-
(3) The system of probation has been inaugu-
rated, whereby children are returned to their homes
or to the care of responsible parties and kept there
under the supervision of probation officers. The
child is thus not treated as an isolated unit but as
GROUP CONTROL 387
a member of family and neighborhood groups. The
juvenile probation system is intended for first of-
fenders and children guilty of minor offences. It
has broken down in many instances, due to a variety
It sometimes has become customary to place on
probation adolescents who are "repeaters," that is,
who are offenders for two, three, or more times.
This practice constitutes undue leniency, which is
taken advantage of by evil-minded youths. In con-
sequence the police officers lose interest in arresting
youthful culprits who steal automobiles or burglar-
ize houses; the police from their point of view
state that it does no good to arrest boys, for in a few
days they will be at liberty again, ready to commit
new offenses. In reply the probation officers point
out that at present the alternative is the worse pro-
cedure of sending adolescent boys into city jails to
companion idly with mature criminals of the most
hardened types, and to come out anti-social and de-
praved, far more dangerous to society than under
the alternative which is practiced.
The whole method of treatment of delinquents
today centers in the juvenile court. It has recently
been urged that a large percentage of juvenile court
cases do not represent children's guilt but parental
neglect and guilt ; hence not the child but the parent
should be brought into court. Thus the domestic
relations court could handle an increasing percent-
388 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
age of the cases that now go to the children's court.
Further, it is contended that the public schools
should segregate all mentally defective adolescents
and keep them under institutional supervision
rather than allow them as at present to be released
from school supervision at fourteen or fifteen years
of age and to drift into delinquency. If the public
schools would adequately classify pupils by mental
tests and keep the mentally deficient under super-
vision, along with the incorrigibles, until such time
as they show themselves capable of self control
under urban conditions, delinquency would be cut
down perhaps thirty per cent. Thus the school
normally should assume responsibility for a per-
centage of the cases that now come into the juve-
The juvenile court however is serving useful pur-
poses, not the least of which is that it is calling at-
tention to conditions which are creating a rising
tide of delinquency. Even after children's cases in
which parents are the chief culprits are cared for in
domestic relations courts, and after the schools per-
form their full function in preventing delinquency
there will still be need for juvenile courts.
After making a study of 2,121 cases of delin-
quency the present writer suggests the following
analysis of the causes of delinquency. (1) The
broken up or unfit home is almost a constant and
ever recurring circumstance. The inadequate home
GROUP CONTROL 389
may be divided into at least seven more or less dis-
tinct types : the home broken by death ; the home
entered by prolonged illness, or chronic poverty;
the home rent by separation or divorce; the im-
migrant home in which the parents in trying to
become adjusted to American city conditions find
that they have lost control over the children; the
home in which the parents are shiftless ; the home
in which the parents are too busy with their eco-
nomic interests or club activities to give adequate
direction to the children; and the home in which
wealth and luxury have made the children irre-
sponsible group members.
(2) The second outstanding set of circumstances
connected with delinquency points to certain weak-
nesses in the public schools. The latter are expected
to teach self control in the children who come under
school supervision for eight or more years. If a
child has not acquired self control under this tute-
lage, the school has in a measure failed. What does
it profit a boy if he acquire knowledge but loses or
does not acquire personal control. The need for
segregating the mentally defective and caring for
them under school supervision as long as they do
not possess a reasonable degree of self control would
cut down the delinquency rate.
(3) General civic neglect and lack of public
supervision must be cited as a third cause. Boys
and girls are released from the public school system
390 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
at the age of fourteen or fifteen into complex social
environments. If they come from broken up homes
or homes where inadequate control prevails then
they are practically the community's wards. But
if the community provides no supervision, the result
may be delinquency. The presence of harmful
amusements operated by commercial interests is
another illustration of civic neglect of the common
welfare. Civic neglect also refers to the social in-
justice which extensively prevents poverty.
(4) The absence of a genuinely reverent religious
attitude is a fundamental cause of delinquency.
Genuine religion produces self control with refer-
ence to many of the temptations of which vice is the
promoter. An attitude which gives a balanced self
control to the individual, wholesomeness in the
family life, and a deep and unselfish social interest
helps to save boys and girls from delinquency and
tends to hold them true to sane pathways.
Throughout the discussion in this chapter as well
as in the two preceding chapters, the ever-important
although not evident question is this : How much
and what types of control shall the group exercise
over its members? If too much control obtains,
individual growth will be stifled; if too little con-
trol, some individuals will take advantage of their
fellow individuals. If control is exercised in in-
direct ways, individuals become resentful. Under
some circumstances group control unduly re-
GROUP CONTROL 391
presses certain individuals while affording others
special advantages. The question, rising always
anew, becomes this : How shall the group control its
members so that each shall have the fullest stimu-
lation and opportunity for self expression, self con-
trol, and group activity and contribution.
392 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
1. Does it ever pay to be anti-social?
2. Is it more difficult to be social or anti-social?
3. Explain the statement that "societies have the criminals
4. Why are women less criminal than men?
5. What is criminology?
6. Are there "born criminals?"
7. Write out five questions for a civil service examination
8. Explain: Labor has a reformatory influence.
9. Why is time usually necessary for the reformatory proc-
ess to take place?
10. Why does "making believe" that one has developed self
control for a length of time tend to bring about refor-
11. Distinguish between parole and probation.
12. Why does the barbaric jail system exist so extensively?
13. What is the main argument for self government student
14. Why must homes bear the chief responsibility for de-
GROUP PROGRESS THROUGH
THERE HAS BEEN a large amount of speculation
about the nature of society and social progress, in
fact, every person has his opinions which sometimes
he proclaims as final truth ; but it is only in recent
years that actual studies of social situations have
been made in an accurate, extensive, and scientific
manner. The two methods of scientific approach
in studying group phenomena that are yielding
positive results are represented by social surveys
and investigations and social psychological anal-
1. Social Surveys and Research. In the United
States, the Pittsburg Survey in 1907-1908 was the
pioneer of the current social survey movement.
Social surveys however had their origin centuries
ago. Piece-meal and isolated work in collecting
social data may be found as early perhaps as 3000
B.C. when, according to Herodotus, data were
collected concerning the population and wealth of
Egypt. William the Conqueror in England in the
middle of the eleventh century prepared the Domes-
day Book, which mentions the names of landlords,
394 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
treats of the customs of the realm, describes the
towns and cities, surveys the occupations, and gives
a census of the people together with references to
their economic and social situations.
In modern times, Frederick William I of Prussia
instituted a systematic collection of facts relating
to population, occupations, and the like. The idea
was developed further by Frederick the Great, who
was instrumental in developing a system for the
gathering of facts relative to nationality, age,
deaths, agriculture, and manufacture. In 1790 the
United States instituted the modern census, which
with the succeeding decades has become very ex-
More intensive social studies were begun with
the work of Captain John Graunt of London, who
made the first recorded analytical study in the field
of vital statistics, that is, regarding birth rates,
death rates, and sometimes marriage rates. Statis-
tical studies of vital human data have been fur-
thered greatly by the development of life insurance.
Quetelet, a Belgian astronomer and statistician, in-
cluded in his investigations certain social, moral,
as well as physical characteristics of man, and ar-
rived at conclusions which indicated that all types
of human acts, especially crime, suicides, and ac-
cidents occur with marked regularity. Ernst Engel,
in Prussia in the middle of the last century, made
social studies, such as those showing the relation of
GROUP PROGRESS 395
an increase in wages to increase in expenditures
of a family for food, clothing, rent, and other items.
In England the studies of Charles Booth, published
in the closing decade of the last century gave the
world a storehouse of social facts about the life
and labor of the people of London.
In the United States since the publication of the
results of the Pittsburg Survey in six volumes, there
have developed in nearly all enterprising communi-
ties demands for social surveys of one kind or an-
other. These have been either general or special in
character. The general survey covers all the lead-
ing social conditions in a specific city, town, or
rural district. A general survey includes social
elements, such as: housing, health, amusements
and recreation, industry, immigration, schools,
newspapers, churches, delinquency and penal in-
stitutions, and social welfare agencies.
Special social surveys are usually confined to
some one specific problem, such as housing, amuse-
ments, public health, or delinquency. It is possible
for a group of public minded citizens to conduct a
special social survey to good advantage, whereas
such a group would be unable to undertake a com-
plete general survey.
The literature on the subject of social surveys
is divided into two classes : (a) manuals, explaining
how to conduct surveys; and (b) the results of act-
ual surveys. The latter type of documents has
396 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
become extensive in scope and volume. It consti-
tutes a mine of information for sociological anal-
A social survey, which may be defined as a collect-
ing of data concerning the living conditions in
whole or part of the people of a given community,
is made for the same general purpose that a busi-
ness house takes an inventory of its affairs at stated
intervals. In the latter case the factors leading to
losses can be discovered and prevented, and factors
leading to gains can be noted and emphasized. In
much the same way a community can discover its
disintegrating factors and work out plans of pre-
vention and discover how to increase the efficiency
of the operation of its constructive factors. More
important still, upon the basis of extensive social
data, sound and far-reaching principles of social
advance can be determined.
A wise community will plan to inventory itself
not once, but at stated intervals, perhaps of three
or five years. By so doing a community can de-
termine its development tendencies and the nature
of its underlying processes. At this point the need
for community case histories is evident. A survey
refers chiefly to the present; a community case
history deals with the past as well, and diagnoses
evolutionary factors. Community case histories
would provide adequate data for creating a pro-
cedure of true community improvement.
GROUP PROGRESS 397
Social investigations and research are similar to
surveys except that they are far more intensive.
A particular problem, such as the causes of delin-
quency among adolescents, the relation of inade-
quate housing to tuberculosis, the traits of a given
immigrant people, or the analysis of some sociolog-
ical concept, illustrates the nature of social, or more
particularly, of sociological research.
The last mentioned topic also falls within the
field of social psychological approach by which it
has been possible for investigators to penetrate the
depths of the social process, and discover new prin-
ciples of group life and development of far-reaching
and ever-increasing value. This field of sociological
endeavor has already produced many concepts or
tools which enable their users to go almost any-
where in exploring the hidden recesses of social pro-
cesses. Some of these processes have been intro-
duced to the student in Chapter V ; upon the basis
of them this book has been constructed.
2. Social Work and Reform. Another method
of attack upon group phenomena is represented by
social work. Within recent years this new field of
social endeavors has been developing until it has
now achieved the rank of a profession. A report as
early as 1916 showed at that time that there were
about 4000 paid social workers in New York City
alone, 1200 of whom were men; that there were in
398 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
New York City twenty-one organizations paying
salaries of $5,000 or more a year to social workers,
and that salaries ranged up to $10,000 or more a
year to social workers.
Social work as a profession is emerging from its
period of youth, a period similar to that of the legal
profession when ambitious young men "read law"
in offices and shunned the newly organized law
schools. Schools for training social workers have
developed in recent years until now training facili-
ties may be found in nearly all the larger colleges
Social work may be divided into group and case
work. In its simpler forms social group work refers
to conducting or directing clubs and classes in so-
cial settlements, recreation centers, or school cen-
ters, where large numbers of children gather to-
gether after school hours. Then there are institu-
tions, such as children's hospitals and orphans'
homes, where children live under constant super-
vision, but who because of the standardization of
such supervision need the special leadership atten-
tion that can be given by group workers. Group
work with children who come to settlements and
other social and educational centers presents a
greater variety of opportunities and problems than
do institutional children. Social group work is of
two kinds: (1) leadership activities, and (2) in-
vestigational work, which in turn may be social
GROUP PROGRESS 399
psychological or sociological.
The person who essays to act as a leader of a
group of lively settlement boys or girls must under-
stand both the psychology of adolescence and of
leadership, and also the sociology of social settle-
ment neighborhoods. In the case of the adult
classes or groups, the group worker usually becomes
a teacher or a director of organized group activities.
After the group leader has established relation-
ships of good will and confidence with the group
members, he is in a position to make an analysis
either of their psychological traits or of their social
situations. Through the co-operation of the group
members, the leader may direct a survey of a neigh-
borhood, making it a genuine social survey and
bringing about permanent neighborhood improve-
Social case work refers to helping needy individ-
uals or families in becoming self-sustaining as far
as possible. Many families through a sudden and
serious turn of circumstances such as economic re-
verses, the desertion of the wage-earner, or death,
are thrown upon the community for aid. The case
worker renders temporary financial help and then
endeavors to get the individual or family upon a
self-sustaining basis in the best way.
Social work involves a knowledge of the group
basis of all individual life. In order to understand
thoroughly a person in need, the social worker must
400 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
know the groups and the group traditions which
have helped to develop him. One of the chief activ-
ities of the social worker is to mend broken family
groups, putting them back into society as function-
ing units as far as possible.
Social work involves making diagnosis of human
predicaments pretty much as a physican diagnoses
a case of sickness. In general the needy persons
fall into three main classes : the physically handi-
capped, such as the blind, crippled, and physicially
sick; the mentally handicapped, such as the men-
tally defective or unbalanced, and neurasthenics ;
and the socially handicapped, the largest group of
all, including the fatherless family, the neglected or
dependent child, the delinquent child, the homeless
aged, the alcoholic or drug addict, or the immi-
grant group which has not become assimilated.
The main forms of social field work give students
in sociology one of the best possible introductions
to an understanding of the problems of societary
life. The upper division or graduate student of
sociology in colleges who supplements his class-
room exercises with social field work places him-
self in a strategic position with reference to analyz-
ing what is actually taking place in human society.
Classroom discussion by itself sometimes becomes
remote from real life, but when it is conducted with
reference to actual situations that are developing
in the community or city, it takes on all the reality
GROUP PROGRESS 401
of life itself. Such opportunities for college students
are uncommon; almost all college students are
compelled to study books rather than life. Training
courses in social work, however, afford a combi-
nation of sociological discussion and social work
activity which is unusually stimulating and condu-
cive to thoughtful development.
Social reform is different from social work in
that it represents mass procedure. It uses a tool,
such as social legislation, for changing the stand-
ards of an entire city, state, or nation, rather than
the standards of families or of individuals as in case
work. Case work is individual, particularistic, and
minute in character ; social reform deals with entire
groups, using objective, compulsory methods. Social
reform rests for its success upon the support of pub-
lic opinion. It is only when a strong public opin-
ion supports a measure that it can transform a
Social reform is general, unmindful of individual
cases ; case work affords warm human contacts. By
seeing life from the standpoint of its general needs,
social reformers are able to catch the meaning of
large social needs and tendencies ; the case worker
knows life in its individual aspects and hence is an
authority whom both the social reformer and the
sociologist need to consult frequently. The social
reformer lifts his eyes to the future ; the case worker
has his eyes bent on the present, on today's partic-
402 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
ular need and opportunity. Together, hand in hand,
each may supply what the other lacks, and con-
tribute to group control a multiplied common sense.
e case worker at his best is the investigator, ren-
dering aid and also gathering social data from
which sociological principles may be drawn. The
social reformer at his best is putting into group
operation the principles which have stood the test
of sociological standards.
3. Social Telesis. Upon the basis of adequate
and well interpreted facts, any community which
is sufficiently interested to do so, may enter upon
a definite program of directing its own purposes
toward constructive ends. Social telesis refers to
the process whereby groups can accelerate their
own development through prevision. One of the*\
goals of social telesis is that of securing the com- )
plete participation of every individual in effective/
ways in the life of the group and of getting the
group to work toward the largest feasible expansion
of the lives of all the individuals in the group. There
are purposes which may be thought of as represent-
ing the main aims of a community that is governed
by the principle of social telesis ; these will now be
(1) The conservation of natural resources and
utilization of these for the benefit of all, not of a
shrewd few is an elemental aim of social telesis. To
GROUP PROGRESS 403
maintain a system of private ownership of natural
resources and yet not permit this ownership to ex-
ercise special privilege, is probably fundamental to
an ideal society.
(2) A sound physical and mental heredity is a
characteristic of the ideal society which social
telesis postulates. The degenerate offspring of
feeble-minded or alcoholic parents come into the
world with a just grievance against society; they
hold back group development. Every child, or near-
ly every one, in an ideal group life will be well born.
(3) An environment favorable to health is a
third essential in the society in which social telesis
governs. Inadequate housing, lack of sanitation,
and bacterial diseases will have no place in a per-
fected and social group. Disintegrating amusements
and the nerve-wrecking pace of urban life will be
(4) A sound family life and well controlled child-
hood are closely related and fundamental phases of
an ideal social group. Apparently nothing can take
the place of wholesome family life. Children need
to be protected from the neglect of very poor and
very rich parents the former not being able or
knowing how to care properly for children and the
latter often being too lenient and spoiling their chil-
dren with luxuries and money. Children need to
be safeguarded from exploitation by employment
for wages in the years of childhood and early ado-
404 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
lescence; they need a full-orbed chance to become
(5) A working period, marked by creative effort,
is to be coveted for both men and women. The con-
ditions of industry need to be developed in such
ways that workers shall find their greatest enjoy-
ments in life in their work and not be obliged to
watch the clock for the end of the day to come or
to look forward to the pay day, as the time when
they can begin to enjoy themselves. Industry should
be so controlled that workers will not be worn out
and thrown upon the scrap heap in middle life.
Industry and business are in process of being
organized democratically, that is, on bases which
include the representation or all three factors which
are essential to the ongoing of industrial and bus-
iness enterprises, namely, labor, capital, and the
public. The procedure makes possible the contin-
uance of the private property principle, forestalling
the necessity of revolutionary measures. Each of
the three parties in industrial and business life are
slowly becoming socialized in attitudes, that is, be-
ing willing or being forced to view its own interests
in the light of the welfare of the other two constit-
A general system of insurance against all the
contingencies which now cause dependency or sud-
den lowering of the standard of living is vital. Such
a system would include compulsory insurance
GROUP PROGRESS 405
against death, accident, sickness, and old age, but
it must not be construed as a substitute for those
measures which would guarantee the workers eco-
nomic justice and industrial democracy.
In the list of industrial essentials there should
be set forth a standard of living that includes an
income sufficient to provide the necessities of phys-
ical and mental living, such as proper nourishment,
reasonable recreation, protection from cold, heat,
rain, and snow, darkness, overcrowding, and inde-
cency. The minimum standard also includes some
of the comforts or amenities of life.
(6) Instead of a prevailing attitude of "What
can I get out of the government," a socialized atti-
tude of "What can I do for the government" is a
normal goal of social telesis. Then there is the at-
tainment of ethical or personal control standards
which involve the maintenance by the individual of
a social attitude in all his dealings with all his
(7) Social telesis aims to secure a widespread
and preponderant appreciation of music, painting,
sculpture, poetry, and the other arts. Art sets pat-
terns of rhythm, order, balance, and movement
which are essential to a well rounded personal and
(8) Another normal goal of social telesis is a sys-
tem of vocational training, industrial, commercial,
and domestic, which would train individuals first
406 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
of all for good parenthood, good citizenship, and
socialized behavior; and which would train all to
make an independent living but in productive ways,
not denying a full opportunity to any other individ-
(9) The prevention of delinquency, criminality,
pauperism, and other pathological states by scien-
tific methods is another aim of social telesis. De-
linquency and criminality could be largely over-
come by proper training in personal control through
the home, play, school, and similar group activities.
A scientific procedure could help families and in-
dividuals who are out of social adjustment to be-
come permanently efficient; poverty, except as an
occasional phenomenon, could be eliminated by so-
(10) The last condition to be mentioned as an
essential phase of social telesis is a type of religious
control which stimulates the finest development of
the Jiighest spiritual nature of human beings. As
the true spiritual self is an enlarged social self, pro-
vision must be made for the growth of broad and
deep religious influences. In an evolving human
society, the expanding, elevating, and purifying in-
fluence of religion is needed.
Social telesis or purposefulness will multiply the
usefulness of any group. It will perfect the relation-
ships between individuals, between individuals and
groups, and between groups and groups; in the
GROUP PROGRESS 407
nieantime it will set the center of individual struggle
outside the individual, thus enabling personality to
rise to its fullest possible fruition in socialized be-
1. What is the difference between a census and a social
2. How would you go about it to get a social survey
3. Contrast a social survey and a community case history.
4. What is the main value in social research?
5. What social reforms are most needed in your com-
6. What are the main values in social work as a profession?
7. How is social work related to sociology?
8. What personal qualifications must a social worker pos-
9. What similarity in method is there between social work
and practicing medicine?
10. Give a new illustration of social telesis.
11. How are social data related to social telesis?
12. How is social telesis related to social control?
GROUP PROGRESS THROUGH
4. The Teaching of Sociology. In recent years
sociology has become a teaching subject. Because
other and standard subjects stressed the principles
of individual pecuniary success out of all propor-
tion to the principles of social welfare, even making
it possible for individuals to prey upon persons less
educated and privileged, the necessity for some line
of study which should view life from the group angle
became urgent. Hence sociology has been accorded
an important place in the curricula of the schools
of higher learning. The teaching of sociology is
becoming widely diversified.
(1) There is the original territory of sociology
teaching, namely, the advanced fields of post-grad-
uate college and university work. For many decades
courses in social philosophy and general sociology
have been offered advanced classes of students;
these courses have been highly specialized and con-
ducted for advanced students, with little uniformity
regarding methods among different instructors.
(2) In recent years the number of specialized
GROUP PROGRESS 409
undergraduate college courses in sociology, such as
courses dealing with poverty, delinquency, the
family, eugenics, has increased with amazing rapid-
ity. The college is rare indeed which has no course
in sociology some offering ten, or twenty, and
even fifty or sixty courses, where sociology has
been developed thoroughly. The organization of
departments of sociology is taking place more slow-
ly, a fact which does not reflect unfavorably upon
sociology, but simply shows the conservatism of the
departments in which sociology courses arise.
(3) The teaching of an introductory course in
college sociology, generally known as sociology I,
has sometimes been made a course in anthropology,
or the study of the origin of man ; agam it fias~BeerT
a course in social economics, beginning with an eco-
nomics background ; it is given in some institutions
largely as a course injsocial problems or in social
institutions; but the mostj^cej^tendency is to
give the course a psyxhglQgicaJ^applroach and treat
it as a studyjof-the. Iaws^j0f^roug_life. Only recently
has the introductory course in sociology been given
its correct foundation in social psychology.
It is this latter type of introductory course in
sociology which is being recognized in normal
schools as being fundamental to the training of
public school teachers. The teacher needs, not
only to know her subject, her pupils, but also the
nature of the group life of which her pupils are a
410 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
product and also to know the nature of the group
life for which she is fitting her pupils to become par-
ticipating members. The teacher does not primarily
teach a child a certain subject; she teaches children
subjects so that they may succeed in group life, not
selfishly, but for the good of other persons and
human groups. Only so, can an individual succeed
in attaining his highest possibilities, and by teach-
ing only in this way can the teacher become truly
successful. Teaching is a process of fitting pupils
to become unselfish public servants, chiefly in their
occupational and professional callings and in their
daily interactions with their fellows.
(4) The high school is slowly being recognized
as a field for teaching sociology. The presence of
other studies in an already overcrowded curricu-
lum has hindered the introduction of sociology
courses, but sooner or later the need of high school
students, the majority of whom do not go to college,
for sociology courses will be recognized and met.
High school students, being at an age where individ-
uality asserts itself, are in special need of studies
with a group emphasis.
(5) Social studies are being introduced in the
grades, especially in the upper grades. The need
for social studies in the lower grades is also keen.
The teaching of them in these grades is no more
difficult than the teaching of elementary mathe-
matics or any other subject; the technique of teach-
GROUP PROGRESS 411
ing them however is not yet developed. The pre-
sentation of social ideas and group responsibility,
normally begun in the home during the first year
of the child's life, should be furthered in an organ-
ized way by the school when it is entered by the
child at the age of five or six years.
By teaching sociology, the leaven of socialized
thinking can work out and through all societary
life. In consequence, a better type of group control
can develop, social telesis can be furthered, and a
v new social, industrial, political, and religious order
5. The Science of Sociology. Sociology is one
of the latest sciences to develop. It represents, ac-
cording to Lester F. Ward, the last and highest
landing on the staircase of knowledge, or the cap
sheaf and crown of any true organization of the
sciences. Let us examine the antecedent elements
^as_a basis for stating the task of sociology.
For centuries, accurate and scientific studies have
been made of the phenomena in the inorganic, non-
living, and material world. The facts concerning
the earth as a member of the galaxy of the heavens
have been organized under the science of astron-
omy ; concerning heat, light, electricity and similar
physical forces, under the science of physics ; con-
cerning the primary elements of which material
bodies are composed, under the science of chem-
412 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
istry. All these sciences have developed on -the
basis of mathematics as the tool of accurate think-
ing, analysis, and classification.
As a result of these studies, man has been able
to make marked progress in gaining control of the
ohysical resources of the earth. He has been able
to extract metals from their ores, to increase mar-
velously the food production of the soil, to turn
iron ore into powerful machines driven by steam,
gas, or electricity, and to conquer in a limited way
both time and space.
In addition to the accurate investigations ^.which
have been made in the physical world of matter,
recent decades have witnessed profoundly far-
reaching studies of the phenomena which charac-
terize the world of l^ving_things. Upon the basis
<of known physical laws, it has been possible to
jirjply scientific methods in the field of organic activ-
ities . The phenomena concerning plant life have
been investigated in the name of botany, and con-
cerning animal life in the name of zoology. The
principles which have been established in the several
organic fields have been formulated into the general
science of biology, the science of all living things.
/The subject matter of the biological sciences is
more complex than that of the physical sciences,
(partly because it is based directly and indirectly
upon the laws of the physical universe, which the
physical sciences have not yet adequately described,
GROUP PROGRESS 413
and partly because it is composed specifically of
non-mechanical, ever-changing, and often rapid
changing, evolving, living beings. Biological knowl-
edge has enabled man to develop modified forms
of plant and animal life which are exceedingly
useful. It has given man a certain dominance over
the ills which attack living beings, especially those
which are caused by pathogenic bacteria.
During the last part of the nineteenth century,
a few scholars began to concentrate attention upon
a complex phase of living phenomena, namely, the
psychical side of life. The psychological sciences
are based directly upon biological facts and laws,
jmd indirectly upon the laws of the physical uni-
verse. Their subject matter is unusually difficult
"to" study, because it is spiritual, intangible, chang-
ing, and not easily measured by mathematical
standards. Nevertheless, specific scientific progress
has been made in the discovery of psychological
principles and in their application to educational
processes, to industrial efficiency, and to the ab-
normal and normal phases of mental life.
Still more recently, the most complex phase of \
human life, namely, human association, is being
scientifically studied. The living of human beings
in groups is the subject of the social sciences. The
study of the wealth getting and wealth using phe-
nomena of societary life is known as economics ; of
the community and governing activities, as political
414 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
science ; of the personal conduct activities, as ethics ;
of the mental training activities, as education ; and
of the attempts to meet the highest spiritual needs,
Other leading social sciences are those in the
historical group. Analytic and synthetic descrip-
tions of peoples in the past are known as the science
of ethnology; and of the origin of mankind, an-
To consider human association, however, from
the standpoint of any one phase, such as economic
activities, or political activities, gives a biased view
<of group life. Sociology, a scientific study of the
processes and laws of group life, is needed. It is
necessary to know the processes by which groups
develop and stimulate personalities to their full
fruition and by which personalities are controlled
by this fundamental knowledge, before an individ-
ual can function well in any domestic, economic,
political, educational, esthetic, religious capacity.
The new sociology is the product of three more
or less distinct lines of sociological development.
One of these historical antecedents is social philos-
ophy, which may be said to have originated with
Plato and Aristotle; to have been focalized by
Auguste Comte, the French philosopher who coined
the term, sociology, about 1838; to have been in-
troduced to America through the biological evolu-
tionism and the laissez faire doctrines of Herbert
GROUP PROGRESS 415
Spencer, whose ideas in part were vigorously cham-
pioned by W. G. Sumner, and at other points
successfully challenged by Lester F. Ward.
Another antecedent of modern sociology is found
in the concepts, charity and philanthropy. This
movement began with the ancient and simple meth-
ods of helping one's neighbor, and extends to and
includes the current organized and scientific efforts
to remove the sufferings of the masses of people
who may be living on the opposite side of the earth
from the givers. This type of social effort has
produced what is known today variously, as social
work, social reform, social technology, and some-
times! applied sociology. It concerns itself with
preventive and remedial formulae of treating count-
less forms of social maladjustments.
The third approach to modern sociology is the
latest to be developed and the most vital; it is
known as the social psychological method. Behavior
is the new center of study. Research has been
directed to animal behavior, to the behavior of
primitive peoples, and to current human behavior.
Current sociology is the product of these three
sets of contributions, social philosophy, social tech-
nology, and social psychology. The merging of these
lines of development has created a distinctive mo-
rale along the whole sociological front. Sociology
has become a tangible, dynamic, scientific study of
group phenomena and social processes with an em-
416 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
phasis upon personality, social attitudes and values,
The outstanding force which sociology studies
is personality, and the major societary process that
sociology considers is that by which personalities
are developed into fully functioning and co-opera-
tive persons as a result of being active members of
groups. The infant is born into dominant sets of
family, racial, national, and religious traditions,
and during his early years his attitudes and inter-
ests are largely determined by these traditions. On
the other hand, he possesses inner needs which
gradually become definite, causing him to react in
unique ways to the various traditions of the differ-
ent groups of which he is directly or indirectly a
member. These give-and-take processes, often as-
suming a confusing social complexity, constitute
the primary field of investigation in sociology.
The problems of human society have become in-
creasingly important in recent years. The common
people have been raising questions regarding the
meaning of social 4emocracy. The World War
created a demand for democracy before the masses
of mankind really learned the nature of democracy
or understood normal methods of securing it. The
cry, more or less blind, but nevertheless genuine,
vociferous, and planetary, for social, industrial,
political, and^rejigious democracy on the part of
"oppressed groups everywhere has aroused attention
GROUP PROGRESS 417
in a thousand new ways to the need of securing a
better knowledge of group evolution along demo-
cratic lines. '
As a result of sociological study, it is becoming
more and more feasible for human groups to direct
their own evolution. To the extent that the prin-
ciple of social telesis is understood and adopted, it
is decreasingly necessary for human societies to
grope hither and thither in the dark, to advance
and then to retrograde in alternate fashion. Social
telesis, based on sociological knowledge, will enable
all groups from the smallest to the world com-
munity to evolve steadily, always forward, and
The need for sociology is clear. At least the
possession of the sociological point of view is a
minimum essential for every member of human so-
ciety, in order that all groups may function up to
their richest possibilities. The need for a universal
study of sociology is based on several factors.
(1) Sociology offers a point of view which is
humanly superior. The sociological viewpoint is
the attitude of considering every problem of life in
the light of the welfare of society. The individual
views his personal problems in the light of the wel-
fare of all the social groups of which he is a member,
including the world group ; the group itself passes
judgment continually on itself in the light of the
needs of other social groups, again including the
418 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
The sociological attitude gives unbiased attention
to all sides of any human problem. To meet this
standard is not easy even when a person is simply
an impartial spectator and has no personal interests
involved in the situation; but when one's desires
and welfare is represented on one side or the other
of the struggle,it is exceedingly difficult to view all
phases of the situation in a purely unbiased man-
A plea for a sociological attitude is indirectly but
powerfully made by John Galsworthy in his drama
entitled Strife, where it is shown how the bitter
struggles between labor and capital are perpetuated
because neither side is broadminded enough to per-
ceive the problems arid needs of the opponent. When
each contender through suffering reaches a position
where with unbiased eyes it perceives the other's
point of view, misunderstanding is eliminated, and
conciliation and harmonious progress results. If
both the opponents in the bitter struggle between
labor and capital had had a sociological attitude,
each would have seen that employees and employers
fundamentally have nearly everything in common,
that their primary aim should be to meet the needs
of consumers as efficiently and inexpensively as
possible, and that reasoning together, arbitrating,
and arriving at conciliatory solutions are the chief
roads to mutual and hence social progress. ,
GROUP PROGRESS 419
A person with a sociological attitude would not
engage in any business which is socially non-pro-
ductive or which depends for its maintenance upon
raising the cost of living and depriving worthy per-
sons of a full chance to reach their best. If a lawyer,
he would not assist clients, for pay, to violate the
laws of the city or nation. If a citizen, he would
place his interests in his national group and its
government ahead of his own private, gainful in-
terests. A person with a sociological attitude would
put always and everywhere, in his private business
and public life the human standard of values above
the economic standard. It is only upon the basis
of the sociological attitude that human groups and
individual persons alike can move unfalteringly,
steadily, and nationally toward the ideals of highest
(2) Sociology offers permanently significant
ideas. It deals with concepts which are the largest
dependable terms known to mankind. They pertain
to the deepest processes of personal and group na-
ture; they explain all the diversified activities of
human beings. All human life in its most concrete
details can be explained and understood in terms,
such as isolation and interaction; conflict, accom-
modation, and co-operation ; attitudes, values, and
behavior; individualization and socialization.
(3) Sociology analyzes present-day social condi-
tions from the standpoint both of groups and indi-
420 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
viduals. It gives to troubled persons as effective a
key to the problems of associative life as has yet
been made. It lays bare social maladjustments, in-
dividual chicanery, and group selfishness. It de-
picts the constructive elements of social processes.
(4) Sociology balances the age-long emphasis
on self culture and self development. It is a true so-
cial culture study. When all persons are fully
versed in social culture a new heaven and a new
earth will be realized. Self development is essential,
but without the controlling influence of social cul-
ture, both groups and individuals are doomed.
(5) Sociology develops socialized personalities.
It leads to a rich and balanced expression of both
the individual and social phases of human nature.
It creates fundamental attitudes which result in so-
cialized behavior, that is, unselfish behavior in be-
half of other persons and groups.
(6) Sociology leads to the profession of teaching
the subject. As already shown in this chapter, the
field for sociology teachers is well diversified, cen-
tering in college and university work, but extending
also to normal schools, high schools, and even
through the elementary schools.
(7) Sociology leads to social work as a profes-
sion. The leader of groups and the case worker are
in increasing demand. The case worker, whether
doing personal work in the social resuscitation of
individuals or of family groups, is rendering a high
GROUP PROGRESS 421
type of service.
(8) Sociology suggests useful avocations. Every
thoughtful person gives his attention to one or more
avocations as well as to a main vocation. By so
doing his personality is enriched and his usefulness
augmented. Only a small number of persons can
be sociologists but every person can develop an
interest in a social avocation, such as child welfare
work, housing welfare, or community welfare, at
least to the extent of becoming a local authority in
his avocational field.
(9) Sociology points the way to democracy, that
is, to a condition of society where people are ruling,
each not primarily for his own gain but for the wel-
fare of other persons. Sociology overcomes narrow
prejudices, class hatred, and selfish ambition; and
stimulates every person who appreciates the mean-
ing of the fundamental sociological concepts to ren-
der to all other persons and to all groups of which
he is a member from the family group to the world
group a full measure of unselfish service.
422 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
1. Why has sociology been one of the latest sciences to
2. Why has sociology developed rapidly as a college study?
3. Why should social studies be taught in the elementary
4. \Vhy is teaching sociology more important than social
work or social reform?
5. How is a social science such as economics indebted to
6. What are the antecedents of current sociology?
7. Give a new illustration of the sociological attitude or
point of view?
8. When is it most difficult to maintain a sociological atti-
9. W T hat is greater than a socialized personality?
10. Why is sociology needed so much even in a modern
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part I, Chs.
Carver, T. N., (compiler), Sociology and Social Progress,
Chapin, F. Stuart, Social Evolution, Ch. III.
Clow, F. R., Principles of Sociology with Educational Appli-
cations, Ch. V.
Cooley, C. H., Human Nature and the Social Order, Ch. I.
Social Organization, Chs. III-V.
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. I.
Dow, G. S., Introduction to the Principles of Sociology,
Chs. I, II.
Ellwood, C. A. Sociology and Modern Social Problems
(1919 edition), Ch. L
Sociology in its Psychological Aspects, Chs, I-III.
The Social Problem, Ch. I.
Fairchild, H. P., Outline of Applied Sociology, Chs. I-XI.
Giddings, F. H., Elements of Sociology, Ch. I.
Inductive Sociology, Chs. I, II.
Readings in Descriptive and Historical Sociology,
Book I, Ch. III.
Gillette, J. M., Sociology, Ch. I.
Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Ch. I.
Kirkpatrick, E. A., Fundamentals of Sociology, Chs. I, II.
Nearing, Scott, Social Adjustment, Chs. I, II.
Park and Burgess, Introduction to the Science of Sociology,
424 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Patten, S. N., The New Basis of Civilization, Ch. I.
Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. I.
Rowe, H. K., Society: Its Origin and Development, Chs. I,
Smith, W. R., An Introduction to Educational Sociology,
Chs. I, II.
Stuckenberg, J. H. W., Sociology, Vol. I, Ch. I.
Wallas, Graham, Our Social Heritage, Chs. I, II.
The Great Society, Ch. I.
Watson, David, Social Advance, Ch. I.
Wolfe, A. B., (editor), Readings in Social Problems, Intro-
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part II, Ch. II.
Buckle, in Carver, Sociology and Social Progress, Ch. X.
Giddings, F. H., Elements of Sociology, Ch. III.
Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Ch. III.
Huntingdon, Ellsworth, Civilization and Climate.
Kelsey, Carl, The Physical Basis of Society, Ch. I.
Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. VII.
Semple, Ellen C., The Influences of the Geographic Envi-
Shaler, N. S., Man and the Earth.
Thomas, W. I., Source Book for Social Origins, Part I.
Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Ch. IX.
Bristol, L. M., Social Adaptation, Ch. IV.
Clow, F. R., Principles of Sociology with Educational Ap-
plications, Chs. XII, XIII.
SELECTED READINGS 425
Cooley, C. H., Social Process, Chs. XVIII, XIX.
Davenport, C. B., Heredity in Relation to Eugenics.
Davies, G. R., Social Environment, Chs. I-IV.
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology, (1920 edition), Ch. VI.
Doncaster, L., Heredity.
Ellwood, C. A., Sociology and Modern Social Problems
(1919 edition), Ch. II.
Galton, Francis, "Eugenics: Its Definition, Scope and Aims,"
Amer. Jour, of Sociology, X: 1-25.
Geyer, M. F., Being Well-Born.
Goddard, H. H. ; The Kallikak Family.
Godfrey, Hollis, The Health of the City.
Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Chs.
Hill, H. W., The New Public Health.
Holmes, Samuel J., The Trend of the Race.
Keller, A. G., Societal Evolution, Chs. I, II.
Kellicott, W. E., Social Direction of Human Evolution.
Kelsey, Carl, The Physical Basis of Society, Chs. V, VI.
Mangold, George, Problems of Child Welfare, Part II.
Patten, S. N., Heredity and Social Progress.
Pearson, Karl, Nature and Nurture.
Popenoe, Paul and R. H. Johnson, Applied Eugenics.
Saleeby, C. W., The Progress of Eugenics.
The Eugenic Prospect.
Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Chs. XVI,XVII.
Wolfe, A. B., (editor), Reading in Social Problems, Ch. IV.
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part III, Ch. V.
Boas, Franz, The Mind of Primitive Man.
Clow, F. R., Principles of Sociology with Educational Ap-
plications, Chs. Ill, V.
426 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. VII.
Ellwood, C. A., Sociology in its Psychological Aspects, Chs.
Sociology and Modern Social Problems (1919 edi-
tion), Ch. III.
Hobhouse, L. T., The Rational Good, Chs. I. II.
' Kirkpatrick, E. A., Fundamentals of Sociology, Ch. IV.
McDougall, William, Introduction to Social Psychology, Chs.
Park and Burgess, Introduction to the Science of Sociology,
Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. IV.
Thomas, W. I., Source Book for Social Origins, Parts II, III.
Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Chs. III-IV-V.
Trotter, W., Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War.
Wundt, William, Elements of Folk Psychology, Introduction.
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part III, Ch. II.
Bristol, L. M., Social Adaptation, Part V.
Bogardus, Emory S., A History of Social Thought, Chs.
Chapin, F. Stuart, An Introduction to the Study of Social
Evolution, Ch. IV.
Cooley, C. H., Human Nature and the Social Order, Chs.
Social Organization, Chs. I, II, XI, XVI, XVII.
Social Process, Ch. IV.
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. IX.
Giddings, F. H., Reading in Descriptive and Historical
Sociology, Book II, Part II.
SELECTED READINGS 427
Hayes, E. C., Sociology and Ethics, Ch. VII.
Park and Burgess, Introduction to the Science of Sociology.
Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Chs. IV, V, VIII,
Small, A. W., General Sociology, Ch. XIV.
Smith, W. R., An Introduction to Educational Sociology,
Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Chs. IV. V, XX.
Alder, Felix, Marriage and Divorce.
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part II. Chs.
Bosanquet, Helen, The Family.
Calhoun, A. W., A Social History of the American Family.
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. XV.
The Family in its Sociological Aspects.
Ellwood, C. A., Sociology and Modern Social Problems
(1919 edition), Chs. I V-VII.
Fairchild, H. P., Outline of Applied Sociology, Chs. XII,
Gillette, J. M., The Family and Society.
Goodsell, Willystine, The Family as a Social and Educational
Howard, George Elliott, History of Matrimonial Institu-
Kirkpatrick, E. A., Fundamentals of Sociology, Ch. XV.
Patten, S. N., The New Basis of Civilization, Ch. III.
Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. XLIX.
Todd, A. J., The Primitive Family as an Educational Agency.
428 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Thomas, W. I., Sex and Society.
Westermarck, E. A., History of Human Marriage.
Wolfe, A. B., (editor), Readings in Social Problems, Chs.
Anthony, K. S., Mothers Who Must Earn.
Bacon, A. F., Beauty for Ashes.
Barnes, E., Woman in Modern Society.
Bashore, H. B., Rural Housing.
Byington, Margaret, Homestead.
Cooley, C. H., Social Organization, Ch. XXXI.
De Forest, R. W., and L. Veiller, The Tenement House
Devine, E. T., The Family and Social Work.
Ellwood, C. A., Sociology and Modern Social Problems
Howard, George Elliott, "Bad Marriage and Quick Divorce,"
Journal of Applied Sociology, Dec. 1921, pp. 1-10.
Lichtenberger, J. P., Divorce, A Study in Social Causation.
Nearing, Scott and Nellie, Woman and Social Progress.
Richardson, B. J., The Woman Who Spends.
Riis, Jacob, The Peril and Preservation of the Home.
Ross, Edward A., Changing America, Chs. III,IV.
Saleeby, C. W., Parenthood and Race Culture.
Savage, W. G., Rural Housing.
Tarbell, Ida M., The Business of Being a Woman.
Thompson, R. E., The History of the Dwelling House and
Veiller, Lawrence, Housing Reform.
SELECTED READINGS 429
Wolfe, A. B., (editor), The Lodging House Problem in
Wood, Edith, Housing of the Unskilled Wage Earner.
Addams, Jane, The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets.
Atkinson, H. A., The Church and the People's Play.
Davis, Jr., M. M., The Exploitation of Pleasure.
Edwards, R. H., Popular Amusements.
Groos, K., The Play of Animals.
The Play of Man.
Lee, Joseph, Play in Education.
Patten, S. N., The New Basis of Civilization, Ch. VI.
Rainwater, Clarence E., The Play Movement in the United
Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. LII.
Smith, W. R., An Introduction to Educational Sociology.
Ward, E. J., The Social Center.
Brooks, J. G., Labor's Challenge to the Social Order.
The Social Unrest.
Clopper, E. N., Child Labor in the City Streets.
Commons, John R. and associates, History of Labor in the
Davis, Phillip, Street Land.
Ely, R. T., The Evolution of Industrial Society.
430 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Fairchild, H. P., Outline of Applied Sociology, Chs. IV-X.
Groat, G. G., An Introduction to the Study of Organized
Labor in America.
Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Chs.
Kelley, Florence, Modern Industry, 91-106.
Mangold, G. B., Problems of Child Welfare, Part IV.
Maclver, R. M., Labor in the Changing World.
Nearing, Scott, Social Adjustment, Chs. IV, IX, XIII.
Rae, J., Eight Hours for Work.
Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. L.
Tannenbaum, Frank, The Labor Movement.
Van Kleeck, Mary, Artificial Flower Makers.
Veblen, Thorstein, The Theory of the Leisure Class.
The Instinct of Workmanship.
Ward, H. F., The New Social Order.
Yarros, V. S., "Social Science and What Labor Wants,"
Amer. Jour, of Sociology, XVI: 308-22.
Abbott, Edith, Women in Industry.
Butler, Elizabeth, Women and the Trades.
Campbell, G. L., Industrial Accident Compensation.
Devine, E. T., Misery and its Causes.
George, Henry, Progress and Poverty.
Giddings, F. H., Democracy and Empire, Chs. VI-IX.
Gillin, John L., Poverty and Dependence.
Goldmark, Josephine, Fatigue and Efficiency.
Kelley, Florence, Modern Industry.
Oliver, Thomas, Dangerous Trades.
Diseases of Occupation.
SELECTED READINGS 431
Parmelee, Maurice, Poverty and Social Progress.
Ross, Edward A., Changing America) Ch. VI.
Rowntree, B. S., Poverty.
Solenberger, Alice, One Thousand Homeless Men.
Warner, Amos G., American Charities, third edition.
Webb, Sidney and Beatrice, The Prevention of Destitution.
Woods, R. A. and A. J. Kennedy, Young Working Girls.
Carver, T. N., (compiler), Essays in Social Justice.
Commons, J. R., Industrial Goodwill.
Cross, Ira B., Essentials of Socialism.
Giddings, F. H., Democracy and Empire, Chs. VI-IX.
Henderson, C. R., Citizens in Industry.
Hobson, J. A., The Evolution of Modern Capitalism.
King, W. L. M., Industry and Humanity.
Kirkup, Thomas, History of Socialism.
Marx, Karl, Capital.
Mecklin, J. M., An Introduction to Social Ethics, Ch. XX.
Rowntree, B. Seebohm, The Human Factor in Business.
Seager, H. R., Social Insurance.
Small, A. W., Between Eras, from Capitalism to Democracy.
Spargo, John, Applied Socialism.
Tawney, R. H., The Acquisitive Society.
Van Hise, C. R., Concentration and Control.
Veblen, Thorstein, The Theory of the Leisure Class.
Ward, H. F., The New Social Order.
Webb, Sidney and Beatrice, Industrial Democracy.
The Prevention of Destitution.
Wundt, William, Elements of Folk Psychology, Ch. IV.
432 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Addams, Jane, Democracy and Social Ethics.
Newer Ideals of Peace.
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part II, Chs.
VII, VIII; Part IV, Chs. II, IV, VI.
Bogardus, Emory S., Essentials of Americanization, Ch. IV.
Clow, F. R., Principles of Sociology with Educational Ap-
plications, Ch. X.
Cooley, C. H., Social Process, Ch. XXIII.
Social Organization, Chs. XIV, XV.
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. XVI.
Giddings, F. H., Elements of Sociology, Chs. XXI, XXII.
Democracy and Empire.
Hart, J. K., Community Organization.
Hobson, J. A., Problems of a New World, Part V.
Howe, F. C., Privilege and Democracy in America.
Maclver, R. M., Community, Book II.
Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. LIII.
Veblen, Thorstein, The Nature of Peace.
Wallas, Graham, Our Social Heritage, Ch. IX.
Williams, James M., The Foundations of Social Science, Chs.
Betts, George H., Social Principles of Education.
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part IV, Ch. IV.
Bogardus, Emory S., A History of Social Thought, Ch. XXV.
Boas, Franz, The Mind of Primitive Man.
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. XXIX.
Dutton, S. T., Social Phases of Education.
SELECTED READINGS 433
Ellwood, C. A., Sociology and Modern Social Problems (1919
edition), Ch. XVI.
Fairchild H. P., Outline of Applied Sociology, Ch. XIX.
Giddings, F. H., Democracy and Empire, Chs. XIII, XIV.
Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Chs.
King, Irving, Social Aspects of Education.
Education for Social Efficiency.
Mecklin, J. M., An Introduction to Social Ethics, Ch. XVI.
Rogers, A. K., The American Newspaper.
Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. LI.
Changing America, Chs. IV, VII.
Scott, C. A., Social Education.
Smith, W. R., An Introduction to Educational Sociology.
Snedden, David, Sociological Determination of Objectives in
Education, Ch. I.
Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Ch. XXXIII.
Wolfe, A. B., (editor), Readings in Social Problems, Chs.
Yarros, V. S., "A Neglected Opportunity and Duty in Jour-
nalism," Amer. Jour, of Sociology, XXII: 203-2 11.
Batten, S. Z., The Social Task of Christianity.
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part II, Chs.
Bogardus, Emory S., A History of Social Thought, Ch.
Capen, E. W., Sociological Progress in Mission Lands.
Chatterton-Hill, G., The Sociological Value of Christianity.
Cooley, C. H., Social Organization, Ch. XXXII.
434 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Cutting, R. F., The Church and Society.
Earp, E. E., The Social Engineer.
Gladden, Washington, Social Salvation.
Kidd, Benjamin, Social Evolution, Ch. V.
Mathews, Shailer, The Social Teachings of Jesus.
Peabody, Francis G., Jesus Christ and the Social Question.
The Social Conscience and the Religious Life.
Rauschenbusch, Walter, Christianity and the Social Crisis.
Christianizing the Social Order.
Scares, T. G., Social Institutions and Ideals of the Bible.
Taylor, Graham, Religion in Social Action.
Wallis, Louis, Sociological Study of the Bible.
Bailey, E. H., The Country Life Movement in the United
Butterfield, K. L., Chapters in Rural Progress.
Chapin, F. Stuart, An Historical Introduction to Social Econ-
omy, Chs. I, VI, XIV.
Gillette, J. M., Constructive Rural Sociology.
Harrison, S. M., Social Conditions in an American City.
Howe, F. C., The Modern City and its Problems.
Mecklin, J. M., An Introduction to Social Ethics, Ch. XXI.
Phelan, John, Readings in Rural Sociology.
Sims, N. L., The Rural Community.
Taylor, G. R., Satellite Cities.
Vogt, Paul L., Introduction to Rural Sociology.
Wilson, W. H., Evolution of the Country Community.
Zueblin, Charles, American Municipal Progress.
SELECTED READINGS 435
Abbott, Grace. The Immigrant and the Community.
Antin, Mary, The Promised Land.
Balch, Emily A., Our Slavic Fellow Citizens.
Bogardus, Emory S., Essentials of Americanization.
Brawley, Benjamin, A Social History of the American Negro.
Commons, J. R., Races and Immigrants in America.
Cooley, C. H., Social Process, Ch. XXIV.
DuBo'is, W. E. B., Darkwater.
Fairchild, H. P., Immigration.
Gulick, S. H., The American Japanese Problem.
Howard, George Elliott, "The Social Cost of Southern Race
Prejudice," Amer. Jour, of Sociology, XXII: 577-93.
Miller, Kelly, Race Adjustment.
Millis, H. A., The Japanese Problem in the United States.
Park, R. A. and H. A. Miller, Old World Traits Transplanted.
Roberts, Peter, The Problem of Americanization.
Scott, E. J. and L. B. Stowe, Booker T. Washington, Builder
of a Civilization.
Steiner, E. A., On the Trail of the Immigrant.
Tylor, E. B., Anthropology.
Wolfe, A. B., (editor), Readings in Social Problems, Books
Bascom, John, Aesthetics.
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part III, Ch. VI;
Part IV, Ch. III.
Fairchild, H. P., Outline of Applied Sociology, Ch. XVIII.
436 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Part
Sociology and Ethics, Ch. III.
Mecklin, J. M., An Introduction to Social Ethics, Ch. IX.
Park and Burgess, Introduction to the Science of Sociology,
Patrick, G. T. W., The Psychology of Social Reconstruction,
Ross, Edward A., Social Control.
Principles of Sociology, Ch. XXXIV, XXXV.
Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Chs. XXIV, XXV,
Wundt, William, Elements of Folk Psychology, Ch. I, Sect.
8; Ch. Ill, Sect. 17.
Addams, Jane, Democracy and Social Ethics.
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part II, Ch. XI.
Carver, T. N., (compiler), Essays in Social Justice.
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. XVIII.
Ellwood, C. A., The Social Problem, Ch. V.
Giddings, F. H., Democracy and Empire, Ch. II.
Hadley, A. T., Standards of Public Morality.
Hobson, J. A., Work and Wealth, Chs. I. XI, XIII.
Kirkpatrick, E. A., Fundamentals of Sociology, Ch. X.
Knowlson, T. Sharper, Originality.
Mecklin, J. M., An Introduction to Social Ethics, Ch. XIII.
Rauschenbusch, Walter, Christianizing the Social Order,
Ross, Edward A., Social Control, Chs. XXIV, XXV.
Sin and Society.
-Principles of Sociology, Ch. XLVII.
SELECTED READINGS 437
Sumner, W. G., Folkways.
Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Chs. XXVI, XXVII.
Usher, R. G., "The Ethics of Business," Atlantic Monthly,
Urwick, E. J., A Philosophy of Social Progress, Ch. VI.
Watson, David, Social Advance, Ch. III.
Wundt, William, Elements of Folk Psychology, Ch. II, Sect.
Aschaffenburg, G., Crime and its Repression.
Barnett, Mary, Young Delinquents.
Barrows, I. C., A Sunny Life.
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part V.
Breckinridge, S., and Edith Abbott, The Delinquent Child
and the Home.
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Chs. XXIII, XXV,
Eliot, T. D., The Juvenile Court and the Community.
Ellwood, C. A., Sociology and Modern Social Problems (1919
edition), Ch. XIV.
George, W. R., The Junior Republic.
Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Part
Henderson, C. R., The Cause and Cure of Crime.
Penal and Reformatory Institutions.
Lombroso, C., Crime, Its Causes and Remedies.
Osborne, T. M., Society and Prisons.
Parmelee, Maurice, Criminology.
Ross, Edward A., Sin and Society.
Wines, F. H., Punishment and Reformation (1919 edition).
438 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Attlee, C. R., The Social Worker.
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part VI.
Bogardus, Emory S., A History of Social Thought, Ch.
Burgess, E. W., "The Social Survey," Amer. Jour, of Soci-
ology, XXI: 492-500.
Cabot, Richard C., Social Work.
Carver, T. N., (compiler), Essays in Social Justice, Chs.
Chapin, F. Stuart, Field Work and Social Research.
Clow, F. R., Principles of Sociology with Educational Appli-
Devine, E. T., Social Work.
Devine, E. T., and Mary Van Kleeck, Positions in Social
Elmer, M. C., The Technique of Social Surveys.
Giddings, F. H., Inductive Sociology, Book II, Part IV.
Readings in Descriptive and Historical Sociology,
Book II, Part IV.
Kirkpatrick, E. A., Fundamentals of Sociology, Ch. XX.
Richmond, Mary, Social Diagnosis.
Steiner, J. F., Education for Social Work.
Todd, A. J., The Scientific Spirit and Social Work.
Baldwin. J. M., The Individual and Society, Ch. VII.
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part VII.
SELECTED READINGS 439
Bogardus, Emory S., A History of Social Thought, Ch.
Essentials of Social Psychology, Ch. XV.
Clow, F. R., Principles of Sociology with Educational Appli-
cations, Ch. XV.
Cooley, C. H., Social Process, Ch. XXXVIII.
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. XXII, XXX.
Ellwood, C. A., Sociology in its Psychological Aspects, Chs.
Introduction to Social Psychology, Ch. XIII.
Fairchild, H. P., Outline of Applied Sociology, Ch. XX.
Giddings, F. H., Elements of Sociology, Chs. XXIII, XXV.
Howard, George Elliott, "Sociology, its Critics and its
Fruits," Journal of Applied Sociology, April, 1922,
Kelsey, Carl, The Physical Basis of Society, Ch. XXI.
Maclver, R. M., Community, Book III.
Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Chs. XXXIII,
Urwick, E. J., A Philosophy of Social Progress.
Wallas, Graham, The Great Society.
Ward, Lester F., Pure Sociology.
TOPICS FOR INVESTIGATION
1. A description of the social life of a primitive tribe.
2. The origin and development of a given social institution.
3. An analysis of a social group (to which the writer be-
4. The contrasts between sociology and socialism.
5. The relation of anthropology to sociology.
6. The relation of history to sociology.
7. An example of social progress (full description).
1. A social study of the Kentucky mountaineers.
2. The relation of geography to sociology.
3. The effect of climate and geography on the develop-
ment of your city.
4. The geographical distribution of cities.
5. River valleys as paths of migration and trade.
6. A social comparison of Tropical peoples and Temperate
7. A comparative study of Arctic and Tropical peoples.
1. A study of the Kallikak family.
2. The history of the eugenics movement.
3. The contributions of Galton to the science of eugenics.
TOPICS FOR INVESTIGATION 441
4. The social life of earliest man.
5. The pure food movement in the United States.
6. The struggle against tuberculosis.
7. A national department of health.
8. Public health work (in your city).
1. Analysis of a given habit.
2. An analysis of the pugnacious impulses.
3. Feeble-mindedness as a social factor.
4. The social meaning of sympathy.
5. The social significance of habit.
6. A comparison of imitative and initiative behavior.
7. A comparison of custom imitation and fashion imita-
8. A case study of gregariousness.
1. Description of a specific social attitude.
2. The evolution of social attitudes in a specific person's
3. A comparison of the aristocratic attitude and the demo-
4. Analysis of a given social value.
5. A case study of social isolation.
6. The hobo as a study in social isolation.
7. A study of homesickness as a result of isolation.
8. A case study of accommodation.
9. The socialization process in a given child.
442 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
10. Problems of control in a family group.
11. An analysis of the taming process.
1. The social superiority of monogamy.
2. Woman's contributions to social progress.
3. The primitive family.
4. The Hebrew family.
5. Family life among Indian tribes.
6. Family life in American colonial days.
7. The nature of feminism.
8. The home as affected by feminism.
9. The struggle for equal suffrage in the United States.
10. Young people's attitudes toward marriage as affected
by motion picture shows.
1. Housing problems in your city.
2. Renting versus owning a home.
3. The garden city plan of housing.
4. The Octavia Hill experiments in housing.
5. Effects of apartment houses upon family life.
6. The family budget.
7. Democracy in the home.
8. The family under socialism.
9. Federal regulation of divorce.
10. The need for better marriages.
TOPICS FOR INVESTIGATION 443
1. The playgrounds in your city.
2. The playground movement in the United States.
3. The social center movement.
4. A social analysis of intercollegiate athletics.
5. Censorship of the motion picture.
6. The civic theater movement.
7. The public dance hall as a social problem.
8. Relation of playgrounds to delinquency.
9. Social uses of leisure time.
10 Community recreation.
11. A recreation program for the family.
1. The social changes caused by the Industrial Revolution.
2. The occupations of the Iroquois Indians.
3. The rise and decline of slavery as a social institution.
4. The origin of a specific occupation.
5. Factory legislation.
6. A study of the newsboy and his trade.
7. Child labor and legislation.
8. A living wage for a family of five.
1. The minimum wage for women.
2. The National Consumer's League.
3. The National Woman's Trade Union League.
4. Problems of organizing women in industry.
444 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
5. Relation of overfatigue to industrial accidents.
6. A study of a given occupational disease.
7. Waves of unemployment in the United States.
8. The Federal labor exchange.
9. Workmen's compensation.
10. Prevention of destitution.
11. The problem of the idle rich.
1. Social effects of health insurance.
2. Social effects of guild socialism.
3. Social effects of syndicalism.
4. Social effects of bolshevism.
5. Social effects of capitalism.
6. Social effects of profitism.
8. Industrial democracy.
9. A program for solving the labor-capital conflict.
1. A case study of a neighborhood.
2. The community organization movement.
3. The social organization of the Iroquois Confederacy.
4. Social concepts in the Constitution of the United
5. Social implications of the League of Nations.
6. Nationalism versus social welfare.
7. The nature of internationalism.
8. A proposed world state.
9. A description of the process of making a citizen.
TOPICS FOR INVESTIGATION 445
1. Social studies in the first grade.
2. Sociology in the high school.
3. The work of the visiting teacher.
4. The socialized recitation.
5. The endowed newspaper.
6. A social evaluation of a given newspaper.
7. Social education through motion pictures.
8. An original sociological play.
9. An original social short story.
10. An original social poem.
1. The institutional church.
2. The social service work of a given church.
3. The church as a social center.
4. A social service program for the churches.
5. The relation of sociology to Christianity.
6. Religious bases of social progress.
7. The social phases of Christianity.
8. The relation between the church and labor.
9. Christian socialism.
10. The social writings of Rauschenbusch.
11. Religious education versus revivalism as forms of social
1. The Grange as a social institution.
446 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
2. Rural leadership.
3. Rural isolation.
4. Rural social life.
5. Social phases of the rural school.
6. The rural mind.
8. A city neighborhood case history.
9. The urban mind.
10. Homelessness in cities.
11. Cities as consumers of population.
1. Social phases of migrating.
2. A local race survey.
3. Causes of race prejudice.
4. The causes of jynching.
5. Prevention of lynching.
6. The Negro's problem in the United States.
7. The Japanese in California.
8. The new American race.
9. Social phases of amalgamation.
10. Assimilation versus amalgamation.
1. Repressive group control.
2. Current forms of taboo.
3. Stimulative group control.
4. Methods of creating public opinion.
5. Public opinion versus law.
TOPICS FOR INVESTIGATION 447
6. Civic esthetics as a form of control.
7. Social hymns as forms of control.
8. Battle songs as control forces.
1. A social study of college honor systems.
2. Sources of your standards of right and wrong.
3. Ritual as a means of social control.
4. Business ethics.
5. A case study of leadership as a control element.
6. Social elements in leadership.
7. The prophet as a leader.
1. The juvenile court system.
2. Causes of delinquency among boys.
3. Causes of delinquency among girls.
4. The juvenile probation system.
5. The police as social workers.
6. The policewoman.
7. The public defender.
8. The indeterminate sentence.
9. The parole system.
10. The county jail problem.
11. The theories of Thomas Mott Osborne.
1. Analysis of the Springfield Survey.
448 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
2. The social survey movement.
3. The qualifications of a successful social worker.
4. The qualifications of a successful social reformer.
5. Social case work versus social reform.
6. A survey of a city block.
7. A survey of a rural neighborhood.
8. A community case history.
1. Methods of teaching sociology.
2. The place of sociology in education.
3. The sociological viewpoint.
4. The values in studying sociology.
5. The field of applied sociology.
6. The contributions of a given sociologist.
7. The origins of sociology.
8. Analysis of sociology journals.
9. The main tasks of sociology.
Absolute monarchy, 240.
Accommodation, 103 ff.
Addams, Jane, 158.
Alcoholism, 60, 167, 209, 370.
Alphabet, the, 89, 90.
American families, 131.
American Federation of Labor, 187.
Ancestor worship, 116.
Andrews, John B, 204.
Animal groups, 19.
Art, 338 ff. 345.
Assimilation, 107 ff, 319 ff.
Associations, 16, 52, 413.
Attitudes, 41, 153, 167, 184, 192,
Attitudes, personal, 22, 107, 390.
Attitudes, social, 94 ff.
Auburn State Prison, 378.
Behavior, personal, 20 ff.
Behavior, socialized, 20.
Biologic influences, 52 ff., 412.
Biological evolution, 56 ff.
Boarding houses, 131.
Booth, Charles, 394.
British Labor Party, 232.
Business ethics, 257 ff.
Buyers' strike, the, 229.
Campbell, G. L., 204.
Causes of child labor, 192.
Characters, biological, 53.
Child labor, 189 ff., 211, 254.
Christianity, 118, 251, 281.
Churches, 171, 276, 286.
Cinema, 263 ff.
Cities, 304 ff.
City state, 239.
Civilization, 268, 310, 340.
Class struggle, the, 217.
Classes, privileged, 104, 208 ff.
Classes, vitality, 72.
Climate, influence of, 44 ff.
College life, 257.
Commercialization, 158, 265.
Communication, 86 ff.
Community case history, 394.
Community groups, 232.
Community recreation, 234.
Community spirit, 58, 244, 394.
Comte, Auguste, 414.
Conflict, 101 ff.
Conflict between man and nature,
Conscious reactions, 97.
Conservation of natural resources,
37, 38, 402.
Conservatism, 42, 287.
Constitutional monarchy, 240.
Consumers' co-operation, 225.
Continuation schools, 260.
Control, 79, 329 ff, 348 ff.
Control, parental, 115, 330.
Control, public health, 62 ff.
Control, social, 79, 173, 329 ff.
Cooley, Charles H., 277.
Co-operation, 57, 101, 105 ff.
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Corporate business, 213.
County jail, 383 ff.
Curiosity, 258, 269.
Custom imitation, 82.
Customs, 191, 352.
Dana, Charles A., 265.
Dance hall, the, 160.
Dance, the, 342.
Davis, Jr., M. M, 157, 162.
Decadence, social 117.
Delinquency, 386 ff., 406.
Democracy, 226, 240, 250, 421.
Desert region, 36.
Devine, E. T., 166.
Dewey, John, 155.
Direct action, 222.
Distribution of immigrants, 322.
Divorce, 116 ff., 126 ff.
Double standards, 147.
Drives, psychological, 76 ff., 94 ff.
Dysgenic factors, 61.
Earth as man's home, 33.
Eastern civilization, 248.
Edison, Thomas A., 21.
Education, 73, 149, 256 ff., 267,
Ellwood, Charles A, 247.
Elmira reformatory, 379.
Ethical dualism, 354.
Eugenics, 58 ff.
Fabian socialists, 218.
Factory system, 186, 193.
Family, the, 112, 351, 403.
Fashion imitation, 83.
Fatigue, 198 ff.
Feudal state, 239.
Feuds, 42, 233.
Fiske, John, 154.
Food supply, 70.
Galton, Francis, 58.
Galsworthy, John, 418.
Genius, 56, 86.
Geographic influences, 33.
Giddings, Franklin H., 72.
God, kingdom of, 284.
Godfrey, Hollis, 70.
Gorgas, W. C., 68.
Government control, 215, 237, 252.
Greeley, Horace, 265.
Gregariousness, 76, 86 ff., 91 ff.,
Grosse, 155, 346.
Group control, 67, 97, 329 ff., 390.
Group co-operation, 18.
Group conflicts, 17.
Group heritage, 21.
Group influences, 20, 97.
Group leadership, 362.
Group organization, 237.
Group overlapping, 18.
Group permanence, 39.
Group phenomena, 15.
Group progress, 393 ff.
Group stagnation, 22.
Group stimulation, 21, 22.
Group, nature of, 15 ff.
Guild socialism, 221.
Habitual reactions, 78 ff., 91.
Hague Tribunal 244.
Hansen, George, 72.
Health, 61 ff., 314, 403.
Hebrew family, 115.
Henderson, Charles R., 227, 253.
Heredity, 52 ff.
Heritage, social, 21, 95.
High school sociology, 410.
History of human groups, 24.
History of the family, 113.
Home attitudes, 184, 306.
Home recreation, 174.
Horde, the, 238.
Housing problem, 136 ff, 314.
Howard, George Elliott, 133.
Howard, John, 376 ff.
Howe, F. C, 156.
Human association, 19.
Huntingdon, Ellsworth, 45, 46.
Jails, 377, 383.
Japanese in California, 318 ff.
Jesus, teachings of, 283.
ury system, 375.
ustice, 218, 334.
uvenile court, 387.
uvenile delinquency, 386 ff.
King, W. I., 208.
Kingdom of God, 284.
Ideas of permanence, 34.
Idle rich, 207.
Ignorance, 142, 191, 356.
Imitation, 80 ff.
Immigrant groups, 261, 311 ff.,
Immorality, sex, 145.
Income tax, 253.
Independence, 297, 307.
Indeterminate sentence, 382.
Individualism, 129, 221, 349.
Industrial accidents, 203, 240.
Industrial democracy, 226.
Industrial education, 260.
Industrial revolution, 183.
Industry, modern, 124, 130, 313,
Influence of groups, 20.
Instinctive impulses, 75 ff.
Insurance, social, 404.
Intellectual method, 272.
Interaction, 100 ff.
International law, 245.
Invention, 28, 43, 79, 85 ff., 180,
Iron age, 28.
Iroquois Indians, 114.
Isle of man, 40.
Isolation, 99 ff, 114, 295, 314.
Labor-capital conflict, the, 228.
Labor conditions, 184 ff.
Laboratory of sociology students,
Land area, influence of, 39 ff.
Land speculation, 139, 183.
Law, 96, 334 ff.
Leadership, 105, 360 ff.
League of Nations, 246.
Legal Aid Society, 374.
Legislation, 149, 193, 202.
Lincoln, Abraham, 189.
Los Angeles, 164.
Luxuries, 132. 368.
Marett, R. R., 27.
Marriage, 59, 116, 121 ff., 129 ff.
Mason, 0. T., 28.
McClean, Harry J, 385.
Mechanisms, psychological, 76, 94
Mendelian laws, 54.
Metronymic family, 114.
Middle ages, 294.
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Migration, 47, 309 ff.
Monogamy, 122 ff.
Mothers' pensions, 125.
Motion pictures, 162 ff., 263 ff.
Mountain barriers, 41.
Mountain environments, 40 ff.
Mountain industries, 41.
Mutation, 55, 56.
Nation groups, 235 ff., 331.
Nationalism, 254, 308, 356.
Neighborhood group, 232.
Neolithic age, 27.
New York City, 159, 162, 397.
Newspaper, the, 263 ff., 345.
Nitobe, Inazo, 249.
Occupational diseases, 68, 204 ff.
Ocean boundaries, 43 ff.
Old Testament, 115.
Organic evolution, 56 ff.
Original nature, 92, 108.
Osborne, T. M., 380.
Overcrowding, 137, ff.
Paleolithic Age, 26.
Parental control, 115, 330, 371.
Pathogenic bacteria, 63.
Patronymic family, 114, 44.
Patten, S. N., 158.
Pensions for mothers, 105.
Personal attitudes, 22.
Personal behavior, 20 ff., 348 ff.,
Personal control, 348 ff., 366 ff.
Personality, 16, 23, 29, 416.
Pittsburg Survey, 393.
Play attitudes, 167.
Play groups, 153 ff.
Playground movement, the, 168.
Poetry, 271, 343.
Political parties, 241.
Poverty, 148, 209, 367.
Prehistoric remains of man, 25 ff.
Prejudice, racial, 315.
Preventive eugenics, 60.
Primitive groups, 278.
Primitive man, 24.
Prison farm, 282.
Prison labor. 380 ff.
Probation, 343, 386.
Process, educational, 269, 274.
Process, the social, 98.
Profession, a, 185, 351.
Profit sharing, 225.
Progress, examples of, 29.
Psychologic factors, 75 ff.
Public defender, 374.
Public health, 60 ff.
Public opinion, 59, 95, 332 ff.
Public speaking, 345.
Punishment, 242, 375 ff.
Pure food, 72.
Racial conflicts, 315.
Racial groups, 309 if.
Rainwater, Clarence E., 168.
Rational imitation, 84.
Recreation, 103 ff.
Reformation, 380 ff.
Regression, law of, 54.
Religion, 36, 42, 239, 243.
Religious dynamic, 286, 390.
Religious groups, 276, 331.
Rent, high, 139.
River valley, 35.
Root, Elihu, 252.
Ross, Edward A., 82, 266, 336.
Rural church, 300.
Rural group, 294 ff.
Rural mind, the. 295.
Rural school, 300.
Rural sociology, 302.
Schools, 170, 321, 360.
School groups, 256.
Self consciousness, 350.
Selfish nature, 108 ff.
Semple, Ellen C., 35, 39, 41, 42, 48.
Settlements, social, 171.
Sex education, 259.
Sex immorality, 145.
Sex nature, 370.
Small areas, 39.
Sociologized behavior, 20.
Socialized education. 262.
Socialized family, 144 ff.
Socialized play, 168.
Socialized newspaper, 266.
Socialized religion, 286 ff., 292.
Social attitudes, 94 ff.
Social case work, 399.
Social control, 107 ff., 173.
Social decadence, 117.
Social evolution, 56 ff., 92.
Social groups, 15, 30.
Social heritage, 21, 271.
Social hymns, 344.
Social institutions, 110, 113.
Social insurance, 224 ff., 404.
Social integration, 42.
Social legislation, 253.
Social nature, 108.
Social principles of Christianity,
Social process, the, 98.
Social progress, 29.
Social reform, 297 ff.
Social research, 397.
Social service, 289 ff., 336.
Social settlements, 171.
Social situations, 94, 157.
Social surveys, 393, ff.
Social telesis, 402 ff.
Social values, 94 ff.
Social work, 397 ff., 420.
Socialism, 215 ff.
Socialization, 107 ff.
Sociology, definition of, 15, 19, 20,
Sociology, science of, 411.
Sociology, teaching of, 408 ff.
Soil fertility, 34 ff.
Speculation in land, 139.
Spencer, Herbert, 154, 415.
Spiritual environment, 272.
Stoddart, Bessie, 175.
Tarde, Gabriel, 82.
Teaching of sociology, 408 ff.
Temperature, annual, 45.
Temperate zone, 48.
Tenements, 131, 140.
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Thomas, W. I., 198.
Trusts, the, 214.
Tuberculosis, 60, 66.
Typhoid fever, 65.
Unemployment, 205 ff.
Union labor, 184, 187, 323.
Unselfish service, 263, 359.
United States, the, 127, 133, U6,
146, 154, 165, 201, 208, 258,
303, 315, 324, 385.
Urban groups, 303 ff.
Values, social, 94.
Van Kleeck, Mary, 201.
Variability, biological, 56.
Variation, biological, 55.
Veiller, Lawrence, 141.
Venereal disease, 60, 146.
Visiting teachers, the, 261.
Vitality, 58 ff.
Vocational guidance, 260.
Volitional activity, 80.
Ward, Harry F., 289 ff.
Ward, Lester F., 411, 415.
Washington, Booker T., 316.
Washington Conference, the 246.
Watson, David, 285.
Wealth, influence of, 120, 358.
Webb, Sidney, 207.
Welfare work, 227.
Western civilization, 129, 144, 247.
Wilson, Woodrow, 244.
Women, 117, 130.
Women in industry, 199 ff.
Woodworth, R. S., 76.
World group, the, 243.
World War, the, 83, 97, 166, 226,
Yarros, V. S., 188, 266.
Yellow fever, 66.
0- 29 1929
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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY