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Professor and Head of Department of Sociology 
University of Southern California 

Author of 








COPYRIGHT 1922, / ^ ^ 











1. The study of group phenomena. 

2. Personal behavior and group life. 

3. The historical development of the human group. 


1. The earth as man's home. 

2. Influences of soil fertility and land area. 

3. Effects of mountain and ocean environments. 

4. Climatic control. 


1. Heredity and variation. 

2. Organic and social evolution. 

3. Vitality and eugenic control. 

4. Vitality and public health control. 


1. Instinctive-emotional tendencies. 

2. Habitual and conscious reactions. 

3. Imitation and invention. 

> 4. Communication and gregariousness. 


1. Social attitudes and values. 

2. The social process. 

3. Socialization and social control. 


1. The history of the family group. 

2. Present status and tendencies of the family. 

CHAPTER VII. THE FAMILY GROUP (continued) . . . 136 

3. Housing the family. 

4. Socializing the family. 


1. The play attitude. 

2. The commercialization of play. 

3. The socialization of play. 



1. Occupational origins. 

2. Labor and unionization. 

3. Child labor. 


4. Women in industry. 

5. Dangerous occupations and unemployment. 

6. Low incomes and poverty. 


7. Capital and the corporate group. 

8. Socialism. 

9. Social insurance and co-operative movements. 
10. Industrial democracy. 


1. The neighborhood group. 

2. The nation group. 

3. The world group. 

4. Community consciousness. 


1 1. The school group. 

2. The newspaper and the cinema. 

3. The educational process. 


1. The religious attitude. 

2. The social principles of Christianity. 

3. Socializing religion and the church. 


1. Rural groups and problems. 

2. Urban groups and problems. 


1. Migration -phenomena. 

2. Racial conflicts. 

3. Assimilation and amalgamation. 


1. The nature of group control. 

2. Control through public opinion and law. 

3. Control through art. 



1. Personal control. 

2. Problems in personal control. 

3. Leadership and personal control. 


1. Causes of anti-group conduct. 

2. Apprehension and trial of offenders. 

3. Punishment and reformation. 

4. Juvenile delinquency. 


1. Social surveys and research. 
- - 2. Social work and reform. 

3. Social tele sis. 


4. The teaching of sociology. 

5. The science of sociology. 



INDEX 449 



This syllabus is published as it is being worked out in 
practice at the University of Southern California. While 
not in a perfect form, it represents a beginning in what may 
be an important direction. 

The increasing interest in the study of society and so- 
cietary problems by thinking people has created a growing 
demand for social science courses in colleges and universities. 
The need is not entirely for upper division and graduate 
students, but also for college freshmen and sophmores and 
students in normal schools. 

There is need for a sociological course of study that will 
give the student a broad, comprehensive outlook at the 
beginning of his college career, and prepare him for and 
arouse his interests in further work in social science. This 
study should make it possible for him to choose his life- 
activity with reference to all the activities of society and 
assist him more or less permanently in keeping his life 
work properly accentuated and fitted into its correct place 
in the ongoing of the social process. Such a course may well 
be given, not from the uncorrelated points of view of the 
respective social sciences, but from a societary point of 

The chief object of this book is to whet the student's 
appetite for more knowledge in the field of the social sciences, 
and to arouse within him early in his college life a strong 
desire to go ahead systematically, with further work in each 
of the social science branches. 



Several changes will be noted in this edition. (1) The 
syllabus form has been supplanted by the regular text-book 
style. (2) The title has been changed to Introduction to 
Sociology from Introduction to the Social Sciences. (3) In 
this edition the emphasis is placed upon social progress as 
affected by the various constitutent factors; in the earlier 
edition the stress was placed upon the factors in social 
progress: a change of emphasis is thereby to be noted. The 
modification has produced more unity and more definite 
concentration upon sociological data. (4) The reading refer- 
ences and the suggested topics for investigation have been 
revised. (5) Exercises for class discussion have been added 
to each chapter. (6) The reorganization of materials has 
resulted in the inclusion of four additional chapters. 

The writer is convinced, after having used the first edition 
for four years, that the college student will become a better 
citizen and member of society because of having made a 
comprehensive analysis of social progress and its constitu- 
ent factors. While taking such a course, students have 
experienced a fundamental change in attitudes; these have 
slowly but surely changed from narrow and often shallow 
conceptions to broad, deep, rational, and social beliefs. The 
evidence is not simply that of word of mouth but in behavior. 


Ten years have now passed since the author first began 
to teach the beginning course in sociology to lower division 
college and university students. He is convinced that the 
freshman year in college is none too soon to introduce young 
people to sociological truth; in fact, such a period is probably 
belated. Youth needs sociological truth as soon as they 
begin to grasp individualistic truth. 

This edition, it is believed by the writer, represents a 
distinct advance over the preceding editions. It treats 
sociology as the scientific study of group phenomena, of the 
factors controlling groups, of the different permanent forms 
and laws of group life, of group control and progress. The 
principle has been kept to the front throughout the treatise 
that the chief justification of the existence of any group is 
found in giving the persons who compose that group the 
fullest and richest possibilities of developing all their poten- 
tial powers. Another principle of importance has been given 
a similar prominence, namely, that the chief justification of 
the existence of any person is found in giving his life un- 
selfishly in upbuilding the lives of other persons and groups. 


January I, 1922 

University of Southern California 

Los Angeles 


SOCIOLOGY is the scientific study of group phe- 
nomena. These consist primarily of different types 
of social groups, of group processes, of group insti- 
tutions, and of the behavior of individuals in groups. 
It is well therefore that this study be opened with 
a consideration of the nature of social groups. 

1. The Study of Group Phenomena. Every 
person is a member of several social groups. More- 
over, he has developed because of his group antece- 
dents and connections. He cannot be understood 
and he cannot even understand himself unless this 
group life and process first be fathomed and ana- 
lyzed. Neither can modern family life, play life, oc- 
cupational life, school life, religious life, or com- 
munity life in their various rural and urban, or 
racial and world backgrounds be comprehended un- 
less first an analysis of the nature and laws of the 
social group be made. 

All the groups of which a person is a member ex- 
ert an unmeasured influence upon him. Their 
traditions have molded his attitudes. They are con- 


tinually directing a never-ending variety of influ- 
ences upon him, sometimes in quiet, indirect, and 
unsuspected ways, and then occasionally in brazen 
fashion ; sometimes they operate helpfully, and 
again with relentless destruction. 

Withal, each person exercises an influence, to- 
ward or untoward, upon the groups of which he is 
a unit. As a result of the give-and-take processes be- 
tween group and individual, between individual 
and individual, and even between group and group, 
personality expands or shrinks, and becomes richer 
or poorer in quality. Out of the multiplicity of 
social interaction, personal life and group life alike 
grow rich and wholesome, or else decay. 

Groups vary in type. The smallest includes only 
two persons, for example, two individuals who have 
met on the street for only a few minutes to con- 
verse; or a courtship group of two persons. The 
largest social group is the whole human race with 
it numbers approximating two thousand million in- 
dividuals, a group intangible and unwieldy in con- 
ception and for the most part without a world group 
consciousness. Again, there are face-to-face groups, 
as the family group or the play group ; and in other 
instances , there is the largest public where one 
member rarely sees more than a fraction of his 
group, for example, of his national or racial group. 
Some associations are temporary, lasting only a few 
minutes, as in the case of the conversational group ; 


others are relatively permanent, lasting a millen- 
nium or more, for instance, the English government. 

A person's generic relation to groups varies. He 
is born into certain groups, such as the family, 
neighborhood, race, and national groups ; the first 
and third of these he can never forsake. He may 
elect to join certain types of groups, such as the ed- 
ucational, community, or political. He may origi- 
nate a group by organizing a committee to promul- 
gate a legislative measure, or to abate a neighbor- 
hood nuisance ; or by founding a society to develop 
a public or professional interest in art, science, or 

Groups conflict. Football teams play for champ- 
ionship honors; business firms compete for trade; 
political parties fight bitterly; and nations on oc- 
casion resort to armed warfare, using submarine 
and poison gas viciously against each other. Under 
the swirl of group emotion, sometimes called pa- 
triotism, individuals forsake their loyalty to all in- 
tra-groups, and dedicate their lives to the larger 
group service. 

The conflict often takes place between a large 
group and a constituent association of persons. A 
committee may struggle vigorously in a college class 
meeting in behalf of a change in traditions. A lobby 
in Congress may work year in and out in behalf of 
a new measure or to support a dying tradition. Any 
propaganda within a large association of people is 


opposed by the inertia or the active opinion of the 
whole body and also by small groups specifically 
organized to combat the new doctrine. A National 
Child Labor Committee, organized to protect the 
welfare of children in industry, finds its activities 
opposed by employers' associations, and even per- 
haps by judicial decisions based on precedents that 
were established decades or a century previous. An 
organization of persons who are working together 
in behalf of any new cause must face the opposition 
of powerful bodies of people who are supporting the 
established order. 

Groups conflict in friendly ways. One organiza- 
tion of college students vies with other groups in 
selling tickets, in securing members, in soliciting 
funds. Farmers compete in raising corn or thor- 
oughbred cattle. Salesmen are pitted in friendly 
competition against each other in securing custom- 

Groups co-operate. Business firms form cham- 
bers of commerce. Sororities establish a pan-Hel- 
lenic. Churches of the same religious profession 
create districts and dioceses. In 1789, the thirteen 
American colonies federated; in 1921, over forty 
nations united in a world League. 

Groups overlap. A person may belong to a family, 
a school, a church, and a nation group simultane- 
ously without experiencing a serious conflict in loy- 
alties. On the other hand certain groups are mu- 


tually exclusive. At a given time, no person is an 
active member of both the Republican and Socialist 
parties ; no one worships as both a Catholic and a 

The study of human association may be ap- 
proached from the standpoint of animal groups. 
The pack of wolves, the herd of cattle, the swarm 
of bees, the covey or flock of birds, the school of 
fish these terms indicate a central fact of animal 
life, namely, an associative nature. In all these 
groups the phenomena of leadership and group con- 
trol are found. The arbitrary and autocratic ac- 
tivities of physically and psychically powerful lead- 
ers are paralleled oftentimes by a blind obedience, 
and sometimes by a degree of over-organization that 
is stifling. Examples of conflict and co-operative 
processes in associational life abound. 

Sociology as a study of group phenomena is an 
old subject. Scientific methods have been applied 
to analyzing group life only within recent years, 
and therefore sociology as a scientific study is a new 
subject in the college curriculum. Its growth, how- 
ever, is rapid; the belief is now becoming wide- 
spread that no person is well educated or truly cul- 
uired who is unversed in sociological principles. 

The student of sociology can never get outside his' 
laboratory, which is comprised of human groups. 
While at work or play, and while experiencing gain 
or loss, he is experimenting, consciously or other- 


wise, in the sociological laboratory. By blundering 
along with his eyes set chiefly on his own gain he 
lives and dies, his praises unheralded or else sung 
in a limited or questionable way, without returning 
the talent to society which he received from society. 
By attaining social culture, and by developing a 
socialized behavior he may serve mankind helpfully, 
and in serving develop his personality into a full- 
orbed sun of the first magnitude in the societary 

Social groups, personalities, social attitudes, and 
social processes these are the leading sociological 
data. The processes by which personalities are de- 
veloped within group life these constitute the main 
field of sociological study. Sociology therefore is 
the study of collective and personal behavior as 
evidenced in group life. 

2. Personal Behavior and Group Life. Power- 
ful groups are usually antecedent to the persons 
who comprise them. Nearly every person has been 
born into a family group with decades of traditions 
behind it; into a national group with a hoary cul- 
ture; and into a racial group with its pre-judgments 
rooted in ancient epochs. During the earliest years 
of his life, the infant is almost helpless in the face 
of these traditional attitudes and judgments, with 
years, decades, centuries, and oftentimes millen- 
niums of momentum carrying them on. In endless 


ways, often indirect and subtle, these gigantic forces 
operate upon the simple, unorganized mental opera- 
tions of the mind of the infant or child. 

The child, however, is not made of putty ; he early 
begins to object to many environmental factors, and 
his behavior takes on distinctive traits. Around 
these reactions, often contrary to traditional atti- 
tudes, his personal attitudes are built up. By virtue 
of the unique phases of his behavior he becomes 
known as possessing character, either good or bad. 

In order to understand personal behavior it is 
necessary to know the nature of the specific social 
heritage. A person's behavior is determined in part 
by the group heritage into which he has been born 
and under whose influence he has been raised. Re- 
move the social heritage of mechanical and electri- 
cal discoveries frpm the life of Thomas A. Edison, 
and the distinguished scientist could not have con- 
tributed to the invention of the incandescent lamp, 
the trolley car, the telephone, the talking machine, 
and the motion picture film. Remove the social 
heritage of knowledge concerning steam engines, 
telegraph systems, and other means of communica- 
tion, even language itself, from the life of E. H. 
Harriman, and there would have been no "railroad 
king." We are indebted in so many indirect ways 
to the thought life of preceding generations and to 
the preservation and transmission of this social 
heritage that we can scarcely realize the extent to 


which our personal behavior is governed by it. 

Personal attitudes are determined also by group 
stimulation. A group may possess a wonderfully 
fine heritage, it may have conserved splendid cul- 
tural traditions, and have become so self-satisfied 
with its glorious past that it offers no encourage- 
ment to any of its members to make new social con- 
tributions and thus to develop human personality. 
Under such a condition anyone who stirs in a way 
to criticize the past may be heavily penalized, even 
imprisoned. An autocratic political, economic, or 
social class of people, satisfied with their current 
status of power and influence, and fearful of any 
change, may prevent new ideas from incubating. 
Personal behavior in such an event becomes merely 
group imitation. 

On the other hand, freedom of action may be per- 
mitted or even encouraged by the group. Prizes 
may be offered for inventions. Personal opportuni- 
ties may be group-fostered, and personal behavior 
may assume an expansive and joyous freedom. 

Sometimes group life is characterized by a dull 
stagnation, in which group stimulation is at the zero 
mark. At another time group life may be throbbing 
with energy and purpose. Under such conditions, 
a normal growing youth is stimulated beyond meas- 
ure perhaps to lead his college mates in scholar- 
ship, in athletic prowess, or in debating. Where 
missionary teaching is common, young people vol- 


unteer for the foreign field. In the group where 
boxing is honored above all else, the members are 
desirous to become champion users of the glove. In 
a business group that puts a premium upon enter- 
prise, young men are stimulated to take great finan- 
cial risks. In a Sierra club, the members are con- 
strained to undertake new and difficult mountain- 
climbing feats. 

Personal behavior is related to biological inherit- 
ance. Phlegmatic or nervous behavior can often 
be traced directly to the influence of racial stocks. 
A strong or weak biological strain is definitely ex- 
pressed in terms of personal behavior. 

A Mozart or a Mendelsohn possess special in- 
herited qualities. The behavior of an imbecile is 
directly traceable to heredity. The percentages of 
both the highly talented and the mentally deficient 
are low ; the mass of a given population are charac- 
terized by potential ability sufficient to guarantee to 
each person a useful and honored career. 

Behavior depends also on personal initiative, a 
quality which may be inherited either biologically 
or socially. It may arise in answer to group stim- 
ulation; or it may be more or less independent of 
biological heritage, social heritage, and group stim- 
ulation, and represent personality in its most dis- 
tinctive attitude. Personality includes more than 
the sum total of its constitutent parts ; it comprises 
a precious spiritual element, uniquely expressed in 


every individual, and when socialized, endlessly 
useful, and imperishable. 

3. The Historical Development of the Hu- 
man Group. Group phenomena, it has been indi- 
cated, range from the behavior of two persons cas- 
ually greeting one another upon the street to the 
activities of the entire human race. As a back- 
ground for considering the nature of common group 
phenomena, the student may turn his attention to 
the whole human group. A vastness of numbers, a 
marvelous development from humble beginnings, 
and an intricately complex array of social activities 
and institutions these are some of the elemental 
facts. The human group, composed of nearly 2,000,- 
000,000 persons, old and young, can hardly be visu- 
alized. If all these human beings were able-bodied 
adults and could pass by a reviewing stand, the pro- 
cession practically would be endless. If they came 
in single file, one every six feet, passing by at the 
rapid rate of one a second, sixty a minute, 3,600 an 
hour, day and night, the procession would continue 
for more than half a century. 

Mankind has been on the face of the earth much 
longer than scholars once thought. The most reli- 
able investigators in this field state that the history 
of human groups upon the earth covers a period of 
great length. 

The remains of primitive man have been found 


in a region extending from Java through India to 
England. From this central strip of territory, early 
human groups seem to have migrated far and wide. 
They wandered northeast into Mongolia and ad- 
joining territory, and they migrated southwest into 
Africa. It appears that some of their number drifted 
from Asia across the Pacific or travelled by land 
to America in prehistoric times, when America was 
connected by land with Asia on the west and 
with Europe on the east. 

Modern knowledge of prehistoric society is based 
on several factors. 

(1) There is the study of certain parts of the 
human skeleton which have been preserved in fossil 
state. The age of such remains is determined (a) 
by the nature of the geological strata in which they 
are imbedded, (b) by the types of the associated 
fauna, and (c) by a comparative study of human 

(2) There is the examination of implements of 
various kinds which owe their preservation to the 
almost indestructible nature of the material of 
which they are composed. (3) Closely related to 
the implements of flint, in the study of prehistoric 
groups, are the monuments and the works of art. 
(4) Further information concerning the nature of 
prehistoric groups is found in the drawings upon 
ancient cave walls. 

The earliest period in the history of human groups 


is sometimes called the Paleolithic or Old Stone 
Age. At that time the use of metals was not known. 
While stone was utilized mainly, other materials 
such as bone, horn, shell, and wood served well in 
the manufacture of tools and weapons. The im- 
plements of the Paleolithic Age were all of the rud- 
est type; they were neither ground nor polished; 
they were simply roughly chipped. In the Paleo- 
lithic period, no animals seem to have been domes- 
ticated, and fire likewise was probably unknown. 
Food consisted chiefly of uncooked vegetables and 
the raw flesh of fish and animals. 

An interesting picture of prehistoric days is given 
by R. R. Marett of Oxford, who was a member of 
a party that made an important discovery while 
excavating in Jersey, one of the islands in the Eng- 
lish Channel. A prehistoric hearth was uncovered. 
There were the big stones which had propped up the 
fire. There were the ashes. There were the pieces 
of decayed bone, which proved to be the remains of 
a woolly rhinoceros, of reindeer, of a strange ap- 
pearing horse, in other words, of species of animals 
which had not lived in that given region for thous- 
ands of years, and which indeed have long been ex- 

In the next place, the food heap yielded thirteen 
human teeth a discovery which prompted the 
question: Did the beasts eat the man, or the man 
eat the beasts ? This prehistoric sketch is completed 


by the statement that there many coarse flint in- 
struments (knives), chipped only on one side, lying 

After the Paleolithic came the Neolithic, or New 
Stone Age. Neolithic implements are distinctly 
superior to Paleolithic, and represent skill of a high- 
er order. They were made of many kinds of stone 
besides flint, and were often ground to an edge that 
was sometimes polished. 

An important distinction between Paleolithic and 
Neolithic remains is the fact that among the latter 
are found pieces of crude pottery. In Neolithic 
times fire was used for human purposes ; the method 
of kindling it artificially had been discovered. 
Cooked food supplemented raw food. The domesti- 
cation of the horse, sheep, ox, goat, pig, and dog had 
taken place; and helped to make civilization pos- 
sible. Cattle were used to some extent as a measure 
of value. Monuments indicating the nature of re- 
ligious rites of primitive groups have been left by 
Neolithic peoples. Fortifications and burial 
mounds, especially the latter, are numerous; in 
Ohio, for instance, there are many of these re- 
minders of Neolithic times. 

Then came the so-called Bronze Age of human 
society. The discovery and use of metals mark a 
definite step in human progress. It seems that cop- 
per, in its native condition generally preceded its 
use in a form mixed with tin or zinc. The com- 


pound, bronze, was much harder and tougher, and 
hence more useful. As a measure of value cattle 
were supplanted by copper; and copper bars, used 
as coins, were stamped with the image of the an- 
imals which were once the standards of value, name- 
ly, the cow, sheep, or dog. 

It is believed that iron was first used about 1000 
B.C., at which time the so-called Iron Age may be 
said to have begun. Implements were now made of 
hard and valuable metal, iron. The Iron Age, how- 
ever, did not enter upon its main era until the latter 
part of the nineteenth century A.D. in England, 
when the use of steam power gave to the world 
the factory system, made iron and steel of para- 
mount importance, and created an industrial age. 

During the centuries preceding historic times, the 
development of tool-making was an outstanding 
feature. Migration was common. Human groups 
were loosely related to the soil, and thus were on the 
move a great deal of the time. People worked co- 
operatively ; house-building, canoe-building, fishing, 
hunting were conducted by groups of people in 
communistic fashion. 

It has been said by O. T. Mason that whatever 
one's belief concerning the manner, the place, and 
the time of man's advent upon the earth, a study 
of prehistoric group life shows that man was at first 
a houseless, unclothed being, without experience or 
skill and that through association in groups he has 


achieved his present high civilized level. 

Within historic days, the chief emphasis in hu- 
man society is no longer to be laid upon the ma- 
terial of which human implements are made but 
rather upon psychical and social phenomena. Social 
attitudes and personal behavior are now vital data. 
The development of constructively-minded and 
wholesome personalities in and through group life 
has become the central fielH of human significance, 
and the main theme of sociology. 

The history of any group of people generally 
shows eras of marked advance and also periods of 
retrogression. Human society itself, since the days 
when men began to succeed in the struggle with the 
higher forms of animal life for earthly control, and 
extending to the present day, has progressed mar- 

The illustrations of social progress are countless. 
For example: Compare the loose family life of the 
best peoples among primitive tribes with the highly 
developed forms of love and affection that now 
characterize the best type of families. Put the con- 
juries of medicine men or the practices of witch- 
craft alongside the achievements of Pasteur, or 
Koch, or Carrell. Consider cattle or bars of iron 
as media of exchange in early economic life in com- 
parison with the highly organized credit sys- 
tems of today. Think of the advance from govern- 
ment in the hands of a despot to government under 


the direction of an enlightened, democratically- 
minded people. Compare ethical conduct dic- 
tated by a thousand years of custom control 
to ethical conduct as the outgrowth of ration- 
al processes of socialized thinking. Picture the 
esthetic effort of a Bushman playing upon one 
string stretched across a gourd, in comparison 
with the modern rendition of Beethoven's sym- 
phonies. Parallel primitive methods of preserv- 
ing information through laborious remembering 
exertions with the twentieth century lightning- 
like printing processes. Think of the animistic 
superstitions of early man in the light of the highly 
rational, and broadly social interpretations of the 
finest current expressions of Christianity. The sim- 
ple associational activities of a Fuegian are kinder- 
garten in size and quality when the national and 
international associative activities of a President of 
the United States are made panoramic. These il- 
lustrations throw light on the fact of human prog- 

The development of the social group has been 
deeply affected by geographic, biologic, psychologic 
and sociologic factors. These conditioning ele- 
ments, moreover, have been instrumental in produc- 
ing a variety of group types. In this process, how- 
ever, survival needs and psychic interstimulation 
have been predominant. There are the family and 
play groups wherein fundamental social principles 


are grasped. There is the occupational group 
wherein work-a-day attitudes are produced. There 
are the educational, religious, and community 
groups wherein certain large universal attitudes 
are fostered. There are the rural and urban, as^well 
as racial, divisions of the population with their at- 
tendant social attitudes. Then there are the prob- 
lems of group control and progress which concern 
the welfare of every member of all groups. This 
book attempts to traverse the course which in this 
paragraph has been staked out. 

Sociology thus deals with the most practical 
phases of everyday life ; it is one of the most broad- 
ening and cultural of all studies. Any member of 
a human group who would be well educated must 
know the laws of group life, and understand thor- 
oughly the nature of the~processes by which group 
members develop unselfish personalities. 

Sociology is not a propagandist study. Its aim is 
to cyjca^e_social fa ct s ; it searches for all theTTm- 
portant data on all sides of a disputed question ; and 
it presents these data to the student in as unprej- 
udiced a manner as possible. It strives to be in- 
ductive and scientific; it is a scientific study of 
group phenomena and processes as exhibited in per- 
sonal behavior. 

The pupil usually finds that the normal results of 
studying sociology include a more social point of 
view, an increasing dislike for narrow, prejudiced 


attitudes, and a socializing of behavior. In a gen- 
uine and fundamental sense, sociology is a primary 
factor in building a just, harmonious, and co-oper- 
ative personal and group life. 


1. What is the purpose of questions for discussion, such 

as those at the close of the chapters of this book? 

2. Should students sit clam-like in class? 

3. What is the derivation of the term, sociology? 

4. How do human groups resemble animal groups, such as 

the pack or herd? 

5. How do human groups differ from animal groups? 

6. To how many social groups do you belong at present? 

7. In how many of these groups did you become a member 

by choice? 

8. What choices do you make that are more influential in 

your life than choosing persons with whom to asso- 
ciate ? 

9. What is a social problem? 

10. What is a social institution? 

11. Why have you begun the study of sociology? 

12. Will this study probably make you a more useful citizen 

or a more successful individual? 


A NATURAL approach to the study of sociology is 
through geography and geology. These sciences 
present the setting of the human panorama. 
Through them are revealed the operation of the 
fundamental processes that have been factors in 
controlling the nature of associative life. 

1. The Earth as Man's Home. The earth as 
the home of human groups underwent a long series 
of changes before man appeared thereon. The few, 
crude stone implements which have been found in 
the deposits belonging to the comparatively recent 
glacial epochs constitute " a silent testimony to the 
appearance of man." 

Then came the long struggle between the earth 
and human groups, and between various species of 
animal life in prehistoric epochs. These contests 
finally ended in human predominance and the de- 
velopment of civilization. Behind all the conflicts, 
however, was that "orderly and world embracing 
process by which the once uninhabitable globe has 
come to be man's appointed home." 


In far-reaching ways, man is dependent upon the 
relations which the earth holds to the remainder of 
the solar system. The marvelous findings of astron- 
omy have enlarged the human conception of the 
universe a thousand-fold. The length of the day, 
the seasons, and the years are determined by the 
earth's relation to the sun. Such phenomena as the 
dependable, daily rising of the sun have played a 
leading part in creating man's ideas of "order" and 
"permanence." The safety of sea-faring vessels is 
related to the position of the stars. Latitude and 
longitude, accurate maps of continents and oceans, 
boundaries of estates and nations are determined 
through reference to the stars. Endlessly and con- 
tinuously man is dependent on and limited by the 
great laws of the universe over which he has no con- 
trol and the nature of which he does not fully under- 

2. Influences of Soil Fertility and Land Area. 
The place or location of human groups on 
the earth is determined by geographic influences. 
Among primitive peoples especially, the domination 
of geographic conditions was marked. Early hu- 
man groups developed in those sections of the earth 
where food could be easily obtained. The first large 
population centers arose in the valleys of the Eu- 
phrates, the Ganges, the Yangtse-Kiang, and the 
Nile. "The first dense massing of human popula- 


tion was in that wonderful valley, six hundred miles 
long with an average breadth of seven miles, over 
which every summer from immemorial time the 
Nile has spread the rich black silt of the Abysinnian 
hills." Today the largest aggregations of people 
are located not only in the valleys that have been 
mentioned, but also in the valleys of the Po, the 
Seine, the Rhine, the Thames, the Hudson, and the 

Human groups increase most rapidly in river 
valleys. The reason for this conclusion is found in 
the fertility of the soil of these valleys ; fertile soil 
makes possible a cheap and large food supply. The 
Amazon river valley, the most fertile in the world, is 
an outstanding exception. Here, however, the rain- 
fall is so excessive, nature is so flourishing, insects 
and wild beasts so numerous, pathogenic bacteria 
so virile that man has not been able to make his 
power felt. He has been almost completely baffled 
in his attempts to secure control over rampant na- 

In regions where the soil is non-fertile or where 
lack of rainfall has created barren, boundless, arid 
plains, there population is sparse and "restless, root- 
less people" are found. As Ellen C. Semple has 
said, migration alone is permanent; and although 
the people are constantly moving, progress stands 
still. The habit of migrating on the part of prim- 
itive groups does not permit the accumulation of 


wealth except that which can move itself, such as 
flocks and herds. The supply of clothing and uten- 
sils is meagre; the use of much furniture in tents 
is rare; and the opportunity to attain historical 
prominence is missing. 

In desert regions, only marauding groups survive, 
and hence the term, robber, becomes a title of honor. 
The harsh conditions of desert regions make the 
Arab the hardiest and bravest of human beings. A 
desert environment encourages the spirit of inde- 
pendence, but checks tendencies toward political or- 
ganization. The desert has been pronounced the 
last part of the earth to yield to conquest by out- 
side powers because of the brave, independent 
spirit of the inhabitants and because of the difficulty 
in overcoming the physical conditions of the en- 

The harsh desert conditions have affected the 
customs of the people; it is said, for example, that 
an ordinary American dinner would make five or 
six meals for an Arab. The opportunities for in- 
dividual growth are so few that there is practically 
no change in customs, mode of life, or beliefs from 
generation to generation. 

The so-called desert-born genius for religion may 
be partly explained by the fact that the human 
mind, finding little of concrete interest, develops an 
impression of unity and a gravitation toward mon- 
otheism in the human mind which is inclined to- 


ward reflection upon religious matters. The deserts 
of Syria and Arabia have played a part in the origin 
of the three leading monotheistic religions of the 
world Mohammedanism, Judaism, and Christian- 

The soil is the greatest natural resource of the 
earth. It is a source of all life: from it, in part, 
comes all food, the materials from which clothing is 
made, and with which houses, cities, and transpor- 
tation lines are built. The conservation of the soil 
has been short-sightedly neglected. It is estimated 
that in the United States alone the farms lose $500,- 
000,000 in value, yearly, because the rich top-soil is 
allowed to be washed off and drained into the rivers. 
It is a common custom to allow the cultivators of 
the soil to rob it steadily of the elements which pro- 
duce large crops and not to put back into the soil 
equivalent returns. Consequently worn out farms 
have become numerous. 

Where a conservation policy has been pursued, 
the situation is different. In certain German states 
that have been cultivated for 1800 years or more 
and where the soil is not naturally so productive as 
in the United States, the yield of wheat averages 
twice as much an acre as in the latter country. 
Every agricultural group has a definite obligation 
regarding the conservation of the soil for the well- 
being of future generations. 

Inasmuch as the need for conserving not only 


the soil but all natural resources is a single problem, 
the situation regarding the conservation of minerals, 
forests, and water power will be noted at this time. 
The mineral resources of a country, such as the 
United States, have been so great that they have 
been treated ruthlessly. The rush of a few people, 
for instance, to turn coal into money has resulted 
in the waste of one-fourth to one-half of it, and at 
a terrific toll in human lives and suffering. Natural 
gas is a valuable fuel, limited in amount, and yet 
it has been unpatriotically and recklessly burned, 
especially by oil field promoters. The haste of a few 
persons to convert forests into money has meant 
that of all the trees which have been cut down, fully 
one-half have been wasted in the forests,, either left 
to decay or to be burned by forest fires. 

It is estimated that in the United States alont, 
there is running idly over falls and dams, more than 
30,000,000 horse-power of energy. It is further es- 
timated that enough power is allowed to go unused 
to operate every factory, to turn every wheel, to 
move every electric car and to supply every light 
and power station in the country. Conservation does 
not mean the locking up of natural resources nor a 
hindrance to social progress in any direction, but 
that individuals and corporate groups shall be re- 
quired to use these resources in the light of the needs 
of future generations of people. 

Area, like soil fertility, and natural resources in 


general, has had a deep influence on human life. 
Groups of people living in small areas differ in 
thought life from those occupying large areas. Is- 
lands, peninsulas, and mountain valleys have been 
described as bars to expansion; on the other hand 
they develop close relationships between the mem- 
bers living therein. The inhabitants are handi- 
capped by numerical weakness, and may be sur- 
rounded by invading groups. Belgium, Holland, 
and Switzerland exist as distinct nations on suffer- 
ance of the large powers notwithstanding for in- 
stance Belgium's defensive strength in 1914. 

The people who live in small areas are likely to 
be markedly individualistic, and are in danger of 
overestimating their own size and importance. In 
a small area, as Miss Semple states, the people tend 
to measure distance with a yardstick. Plato, a 
broad-minded philosopher who lived in a small-area 
environment, conceived of an ideal democracy as 
limiting its free citizens to 5040 heads of families, 
all living within easy reach of the marketplace. 

The larger the area, the more certain is the guar- 
antee of group permanence, because there are more 
natural resources, more occupational activities, and 
more chances for personal achievement. The larger 
the area under one political control, the greater the 
economic and political independence. As a result 
of its vast area and extensive resources, the United 
States has been enabled to maintain a protective 


tariff. The immense area of Russia has been called 
the military ally on which she can most surely 
count; the length of the road to Moscow was un- 
doubtedly a leading factor in turning Napoleon's 
victorious march into a debacle. 

A people who occupy a large area are sooner or 
later likely to have many contacts with other peo- 
ples, easy access to ocean highways, and oppor- 
tunities to establish many international relation- 
ships. A large area gives individuals ultimately a 
wide outlook on life, and nations a continental at- 

Area includes location. The location of the 
Phoenicians enabled them to become the middle- 
men between the Orient and the Occident. The 
location of Holland at the mouth of the Rhine 
waterway helped that nation to maintain for several 
centuries maritime supremacy of the world. The 
out-of-the-way location of the Isle of Man pre- 
vented the inhabitants from coming in contact with 
new and progressive ideas. 

3. Effects of Mountain and Ocean Environ- 
ments. Mountains usually stand as majestic but 
inert masses in the midst of growing civilizations. 
Mountain passes alone are used. These nature- 
made thoroughfares draw to themselves migration, 
travel, trade, and military expeditions; they are 
traversed alike by undisciplined hordes, organized 


armies, wagon trains, and transcontinental high- 

Mountains are sparsely populated; a very small 
percentage of the world's population lives 5000 feet 
or more above sea level. Most of the civilized 
groups of the world live where the altitude is be- 
tween 1000 feet and 100 feet. In the high regions 
the potential food supply is scarce, and in the low 
regions, for example, below sea level, the health 
conditions are poor. 

Mountain barriers, notes Miss Semple, whose 
splendid analysis is accepted in the following para- 
graphs, are rarely impartial. One slope is generally 
steep; and the other, gentle. On the gentler slope 
is found a wide zone of food supply and habitation. 
On one side of the Himalayas is the vast population 
of India ; on the other, the scattered nomadic tribes 
of Tibet. The western side of the Rockies feels the 
warm air of the Pacific winds ; the eastern slope ex- 
periences in winter the rigor of a subarctic climate, 
in summer the heat of the subtropics. 

High altitudes with their long winters stimulate 
industries in the home. Almost everywhere native 
mountain industries have reached a noticeable de- 
gree of specialization. The carving of articles from 
wood, the manufacture of artistic metal work in 
silver and copper, the manufacture of the well- 
known Kashmir shawls, and of the finest violin 
strings in the world indicate the nature of mountain 



Maintenance of life in high altitudes is always 
a struggle; the biological principle of the survival 
of the fittest operates. The spirit of independence 
is engendered. The conquest of mountain peoples 
is always expensive, for an invader has two enemies 
to fight, the rough mountain topography and the 
armed foe. 

Every aspect of the environment hinders social 
integration. Political dismemberment is an inher- 
ent weakness of mountain peoples ; political consol- 
idation is forced upon them from without. The 
Swiss Republic may be cited as the result, in part, 
of threatened encroachments from outside groups. 

Mountain environments produce conservatism, 
for little reaches the mountain dweller from outside 
peoples to stimulate him. Religion remains ortho- 
dox, and antiquated customs and languages abound. 
The prevailing motto is : To have and to hold. The 
mountains have been described as museums of so- 
cial antiquity. 

Mountain dwellers are suspicious of strangers. 
As instanced by feuds, mountain peoples are char- 
acterized by pronounced loves and hates. When 
they move to the plains and cities to live, they are 
likely to be formidable competitors, because as Miss 
Semple has summarized their traits, they possess 
strong muscles, unjaded nerves, iron purposes and 
indifference to luxury. 


A proximity to coast lines and bodies of water, 
such as an ocean, arouses unique feelings within the 
human mind. The "flow of stream and ebb of tide 
have sooner or later, stirred the curiosity of land- 
born barbarians," and the "eternal unrest of mov- 
ing waters" has constituted a continual knocking 
at the door of human inertia. In timid fashion, in- 
voluntarily, or boldly, men have followed ocean 
currents and trade winds to the ends of the earth. 

The ocean has called forth inventions from the 
mind of man : first, floats and rafts ; then devices 
for securing displacement; and in recent decades, 
floating sea monsters and submarines. The ocean 
has made possible special occupations for human 
beings ; thousands of people are employed as fisher- 
men, and sailors, or in the navy, on ocean liners, in 
the canneries, and in shipbuilding. 

Unthinking people have sometimes lamented the 
fact that the earth's surface is three-fourths water 
and one-fourth land. Science has shown however 
that human beings have survived because they could 
meet the conditions of a water surface that is three 
times as extensive as the land surface. The world 
would have been poorer if the proportion of water 
and land had been reversed. The different branches 
of the human family would have resembled one an- 
other more closely, and similarity of types might 
have hindered development. Furthermore, it is 
necessary that a large proportion of the earth's sur- 


face be covered with water, in order to furnish a 
rainfall sufficient for the life on the remaining por- 
tion. If only one-fourth of the earth's surface were 
a water surface, the remaining three-fourths would 
probably be a vast desert. 

A population residing near the mouths of rivers 
has geographic advantages. It has opportunity to 
develop inland trade and ocean commerce, and on 
the other hand, it tends to become cosmopolitan. 
The fertile, alluvial soil yields large returns. The 
population who live at the mouths of rivers can 
bottle up economically and politically the peoples 
who live near the sources of these rivers. 

A river and its branches is a system of communi- 
cation. It connects the inhabitants of its basin with 
the people "on far-off, unseen shores." A river is 
a common servant of the life of the basin. Rivers 
unite people; they are poor social boundaries, be- 
cause the people living on either side of the main 
current have similar life conditions. They tend to 
think and act alike. 

4. Climatic Control. Climate fixes the location 
of human groups. Arctic latitudes, high altitudes, 
and arid regions draw the dead-line for all life. A 
certain range of temperature and of moisture is es- 
sential to all those forms of life upon which human 
existence depends. 

A mean annual temperature of approximately 


fifty degrees Fahrenheit seems to be best for human 
progress, and of seventy degrees is enervating, while 
an average of thirty degrees gives mankind too 
many obstacles to overcome. In continental United 
States the mean annual temperature is fifty-three 
degrees ; the greater density of population is found 
where the average ranges from forty-five to fifty- 
five degrees. On either side of these limits the 
density of population rapidly diminishes. Less 
than one-third of the inhabitants live where the an- 
nual temperature is over fifty-five degrees, and only 
one-hundredth of the population live where the 
average temperature is seventy degrees and over. 
Ellsworth Huntington estimates that an average 
temperature of forty degrees in winter and of sixty- 
four in summer is best for human stimulation. 

Thirty to fifty inches of rainfall seem to be neces- 
sary for the growth of vegetable life, upon which 
domesticated animals and man live. No groups 
of people of significance have developed excepting 
in the Nile valley, where the rainfall is ten inches 
or less a year, unless irrigation methods are used. 
A hundred inches or over of rainfall give a growth 
of vegetable life too luxuriant for mankind to con- 
trol with ease. 

Humidity, which refers to the amount of moisture 
in the air in proportion to the amount which the air 
at any particular temperature is capable of holding, 
is another influential climatic factor in human life. 


A high or low humidity is equally harmful, produc- 
ing nervousness and lowering vitality. A relative 
humidity from seventy to eighty per cent is the 
most favorable. 

Another important influence in human life is 
climatic variability. A succession of sunshine days 
or of rainy days is equally monotonous and pro- 
ductive of nervousness. Human beings are partly 
the products of change; and therefore, unchanging 
weather conditions are irritating. Days of sunshine 
alternating with days of cloudiness and rain is a 
desirable climatic condition. 

A combination of proper temperature, humidity, 
and weather variability factors is difficult to find. 
According to the map of climatic energy which Mr. 
Huntington has prepared, the North Eastern, North 
Central and Middle Western States of the United 
States, England, Ireland, France, Northern Italy, 
Czecho-Slovakia, Austria, Switzerland, Denmark, 
Belgium, Holland, and southern Scandinavia lie 
within the zone of most favorable climatic condi- 
tions in the world. It is interesting to compare Mr. 
Huntington's map of climatic energy with the map 
of civilization, noticing how the latter parallels the 

Climate essentially dictates what crops shall be 
raised. It affects radically the size of the harvest, 
and determines as a rule what herds of animals 
shall be kept, whether reindeer, camels, llamas, 


horses, or cattle. It influences extensively the nature 
and amount of man's food and clothing and the 
type of his dwelling. 

In general there is a rather close correspondence 
between the climate of a region and the tempera- 
ment of the individual peoples living therein. The 
northern peoples of Europe are more or less ener- 
getic, provident, and thoughtful rather than emo- 
tional, cautious rather than impulsive. On the other 
hand, the southern peoples of the sub-tropical Med- 
iterranean basin are easygoing, gay, emotional, and 
imaginative. In the colder habitats mankind is 
more domestic than in the warmer. With the 
Southerners of the Tropics, the prevailing rule is : 
Easy come, easy go. They therefore feast, and then 
famine; they suffer greatly in food crises. As Miss 
Semple has said, a cold climate puts a steadying 
hand upon the human heart and brain, and paints 
life with an autumn tinge. 

Tropical and temperate zones are complementary 
regions of trade. The hot belt of the earth produces 
numerous useful forms of life that cannot survive 
in colder countries. A much shorter list of products 
combined, however, with greater human activity 
and efficiency, is found in the Temperate Zone. 

The migration of people from cold to tropical 
regions is followed by an enervation of the individ- 
ual and a loss of group efficiency. These results are 
partly due to debilitating heat, -and partly to easier 


conditions of living. Germans for example who 
colonized portions of Brazil have shown deteriora- 

An excellent summary of climatic influences up- 
on man has been made by Miss Semple. Human 
groups first appeared in the sub-tropics, but devel- 
oped to modern levels of civilization in the Temper- 
ate Zone. Where they have gone into the Tropics 
they have suffered arrested development. To the ex- 
tent that the Tropics was man's nursery, it has kept 
him a child. If the subtropics was the cradle of hu- 
manity, then the temperate regions have been the 
cradle of civilization. It was chiefly when human 
groups pushed out into the Temperate Zone that 
they progressed. In other words, the Temperate 
Zone provides about enough stimuli and enough 
obstacles for the maximum advance of humanity. 

Although Miss Semple has exaggerated when she 
declares that man is a product of the earth's sur- 
face, she has brought the climatic and other geo- 
graphic influences to the fore with needed and lucid 
emphasis. It is partly true that the earth has 
mothered man, has fed him, has set him tasks, has 
directed his thoughts, and has confronted him with 
difficulties that have strengthened his body and de- 
veloped his mental outlook. It is quite true that 
the geographic factors "in the long history of hu- 
man development have been operating strongly and 
operating persistently." They have been relatively 


stable forces ; they have rarely slept. 

It is also true that man has been so noisy about 
the way that he has conquered Nature and that 
"Nature has been so silent in her persistent influ- 
ence over man," that the geographic processes in 
group life are frequently overlooked. An age-long 
problem with which mankind has been dealing is 
the struggle with the physical environment. In the 
early days of the race the geographic factors dom- 
inated more or less completely the advancement of 
man. During the succeeding centuries there follow- 
ed a world-wide powerful conflict. Today human 
dependence on nature is unquestioned, but is far 
less conspicuous and arbitrary than in early times. 
Civilized man is not as subject to the caprices of na- 
ture as in the jungle days. He is mastering many 
elements in both time and space. Special progress is 
characterized by a decreasing amount, relatively, of 
individual attention to physical matters and by an 
increasing degree of thoughtful interest in the 
higher spiritual and associative phases of life. The 
need for socialized attitudes cannot be overesti- 
mated. Out of different geographic environments 
have come different races, industries, governments, 
and attitudes all combining to form "a great soci- 
ological puzzle." 

Man's interest in material inventions has outrun 
his development of spiritual controls. He has con- 
cocted gigantic engines of war and destructive gases 


before he has established a world-wide community 
of interests. As a result nation groups with selfish 
purposes stride pompously forward with flashing 
bayonets to their own destruction. All groups that 
have acquired political or economic power before 
mastering their anti-social impulses have perished. 
The need is urgent for groups, particularly nations, 
to develop systems of group and personal control 
based on socialized motives before they acquire con- 
trol over the physical forces of Nature. 


1. At what temperature can you study best? 

2. Can you work better on a cloudy day or on a clear day? 

3. Is it a matter of accident that the weather is a topic of 

conversation the world over? 

4. Explain the statement that the Tropics is the cradle of 


5. In what sense is the Temperate Zone the cradle and 

school of civilization? 

6. Why is the term, robber, a title of honor in the Arabian 

deserts ? 

7. Why do people who live in small areas measure life 

with a yardstick? 

8. How do you interpret the statement that "the eternal un- 

rest of moving waters has knocked at the door of 
human inertia"? 

9. Why are mountaineers conservative? 

10. Why are the hates and loves of mountaineers so pro- 
nounced ? 


11. Why are mountaineers independent in attitude? 

12. How do you explain geographically the gaiety of open- 

air peoples? 

13. Explain the superstitiousness of sailors? 

14. Explain the suggestibility of people who live on monot- 

onous plains. 

15. Explain the general orthodoxy of farmers. 

16. Under what conditions might a large population develop 

in the Amazon valley? 

17. What geographic factors help to determine the location 

of cities? 

18. What geographic factors influenced the location of the 

city in which or near which you live? 

19. Why have people developed their natural resources be- 

fore developing socialized attitudes? 


BIOLOGIC influences in group life, unlike the geo- 
graphic factors, are subjective. They influence the 
members of the group through innate, internal 
mechanisms; they operate from within individuals. 
There is a sense, however, in which biologic tenden- 
cies are objective, namely, they have originated in 
the past and often influence the individual in mech- 
anistic ways. Biology is fundamental to sociol- 
ogy because it introduces the student to life and 
the laws of life. Associative life, particularly human 
life, is a phase of all life, and subject to the same 
antecedents and principles of operation. It is wise 
therefore to consider certain biologic influences in 
group life. 

1. Heredity and Variation. No individual 
chooses his heredity; he cannot change his instinct- 
ive tendencies, although if he begins early enough 
in life, or if his parents begin to help him from birth 
or before, he may acquire control over these ten- 
dencies, modify them, and even re-direct their 
streams of energy. Biological heredity must be 


"taken cognizance of by every person. One may learn 
in what ways his behavior is determined by life 
forces over which he has no control, and what life 
factors he may master. His stature, the color of his 
eyes and hair, the shape of his nose, his physical 
construction and organism, and his physical char- 
acters, or characteristics, including instinctive and 
temperamental predispositions are determined for 
him. In fact his biological inheritance is practically 
beyond his control. Only in its psychical phase 
can he rise superior to it. 

Characteristics, or characters, as the biologist 
uses the term, seem to be transmitted by -units. The 
color of the eye, for example, is a single unit char- 
acter that may be inherited by either parent. Thus 
the physical and psychical characters of an individ- 
ual apparently are compounded units, inherited as 
units from one parent or the other or from other 
persons in the line of descent. 

Furthermore, these unit characters are inherited 
in a more or less definite ratio. If one parent has 
brown eyes and comes from a pure brown-eyed 
stock, and if the other parent has pure blue eyes and 
comes from a similar stock, about seventy-five per 
cent of the children will inherit brown eyes. Since 
brown and blue are inherited in the ratio approxi- 
mately of three to one, brown is called the dominant 
color and blue the recessive. 

In the three cases in which brown eyes are in- 


herited to the one case of inheritance of blue, it is 
probable that in only one case are pure brown eyes 
inherited and that in the other two instances the 
result is hybrid brown. The latter color is delusive ; 
while the brown alone is visible, there is present a 
recessive blue which can be inherited by offspring. 
It is impossible to distinguish the pure brown (from 
which blue cannot be inherited) from the hybrid 
brown (from which the recessive blue may be in- 
herited), except by observation of the offspring of 
the given individual. It is therefore essential to 
study at least the immediate ancestors of a person, 
if one would know the type of offspring he will pro- 
duce. The inheritance of unit characters and the 
operation of the laws of dominance and recessive- 
ness are phases of the Mendelian laws of inherit- 
ance, named after Mendel, who first discovered 
them while experimenting with garden peas. 

It has been found upon a study of a large number 
of cases that with a few exceptions, offspring devi- 
ate less than their parents from the average of the 
whole group there is a tendency to regress to the 
group average. This law of regression partly causes 
group stability of characters ; it also partly explains 
why the children of geniuses rarely possess the 
ability of their parents. 

It appears that defects of the physical and neural 
structure of the human organism may be inherited. 
When the father and mother are related, they are 


likely to have the same weak strains, and offspring 
are therefore in increased danger, perhaps twofold, 
of inheriting physical and mental defects. 

Human characteristics, such as poverty, delin- 
quency, and old age, per se are not inherited. In 
the case pf pauperism or delinquency mental de- 
fectiveness may have been inherited. The inherit- 
ance of feeble-mindedness and a phlegmatic tem- 
perament may lead to poverty; while the inherit- 
ance of feeble-mindedness and an energetic temper- 
ament is likely to result in delinquency and crime. 
In the case of old age, or longevity, traits or char- 
acters such as high vital resistance to disease bac- 
teria, and sound bodily reactions and tissues have 
probably been inherited. These characteristics to- 
gether with a favorable environment guarantee old 
age, or a long life. 

Every person is subject to the biological laws not 
only of heredity but of variation. Variations from 
parent types appear during the organism's period 
of development. Little is yet known concerning 
the cause or the operation of biological variation. 
There are two types of variation: variability and 
mutation. Variability refers to small fluctuations 
in any and every characteristic but always center- 
ing about an average or mean. Of a thousand child- 
ren of given parents it is possible to determine with 
a fair degree of accuracy their general distribution, 
for example, as to height. It can be told before- 


hand with a reasonable degree of accuracy how 
many of the thousand children will vary three Li- 
ches or more either way from the average height of 
the parents taken as a group. 

Mutations are abrupt changes from the average 
or type of the parents to a new standard, which be- 
comes a new center of variability. In the case of 
variability the offspring tend to approach nearer the 
group average than do the immediate parents. In 
the case of mutations the offspring desert the old 
group average and establish a new average ap- 
proximately that of the immediate parents. The 
appearance of a mutant thus indicates the begin- 
ning of a new species or at least a modification of an 
old species. 

A person who is a born genius may be a mutant 
in the biological sense. At any rate the appearance 
of born geniuses is as little explained as the genesis 
of biological mutants. It may be noted that born 
genuises seem to be born as frequently in the hovel 
as in the palace, and of poor parents as among the 

2. Organic and Social Evolution. The dis- 
cussion of heredity and variation has illustrated an- 
other biological law, that of evolution. The adult 
evolves from the child and the child from the in- 
fant, and the latter from the union of two germ 
cells. Complex forms of life evolve from simpler 


life forms. The process is baffling to science, and 
accompanied by an infinite number of changes and 
creations, revealing the miraculous work of nature 
and God. 

Evolutionary explanations account for the grossly 
animal elements in human nature; they lead back 
not only to animal but to mechanistic and mater- 
ialistic explanations. They do not explain the con- 
tinual introduction of new elements, of spiritual 
creation, or of idealistic factors. 

Biological evolution has revealed not only some 
of the laws of heredity and variation, but has made 
clear the nature of the struggle for existence and of 
the law of the survival of the fittest. It has shown 
how nature has often exercised a harsh and rigorous 
hand, awarding the prizes of life to the physically 
strongest and the psychically shrewdest. 

Biological evolution also reveals the law of co- 
operation. Individuals who co-operate well have 
a survival advantage. Animals who co-operate 
best have the best chance of survival. Group life 
itself is therefore advantageous ; the "fittest to sur- 
vive" may be those who co-operate well. The "fit- 
test to survive" however may be the most brutal 
and selfish among the lower forms of life; but an 
evolution in method, from selfish contention to so- 
cialized co-operation, changes the operation of the 
"fittest to survive" principle. 

Biological evolution is paralleled by group or so- 


cial evolution. On the lowest plane, groups con- 
tend with one another selfishly and destructively. 
Groups with low standards seek to gain control of 
other groups for selfish advantage. They are shrewd 
and deceitful in dealing with one another. They 
rush at each other, as two villains with murder in 
their eyes. 

As they evolve, they develop co-operative habits, 
learn to respect each other's virtues, and to heed an 
authority higher than each. The nation groups of 
the world today are struggling toward the establish- 
ment of a higher world authority, of laws of arbi- 
tration, and of a world community spirit. The 
group once best fit to survive was the brutal and 
deceitful; the group of the future best fit to sur- 
vive will be the one whose members respect the au- 
thority of a large group consciousness. 

3. Vitality and Eugenic Control. With the 
increasing knowledge of the laws of heredity, varia- 
tion, and evolution, scientists such as Burbank 
have developed highly modified forms of plant and 
animal life. In recent years the study of the laws of 
inheritance in the human realm has produced sig- 
nificant results. This new movement is known as 
Eugenics, a science which was initiated in England 
by Francis Galton a few decades ago. As the term 
eugenics implies the science aims to work out a 
program whereby every child may be well born. The 


science endeavors to develop the principles of hered- 
ity in their application to human life. 

One eugenic method is to discourage by educa- 
tional and legal means the marriage of persons who 
are unfit physically and mentally. The aim is to 
prevent unworthy parenthood. It is planned to 
segregate feeble-minded men and women by sexes 
in public institutions and thus to prevent them from 
reproducing their kind. It is also planned to forbid 
the marriage of those persons whose health is below 
a certain standard. In line with this idea some 
members of the clergy have announced that they 
would unite in marriage only those persons who 
produced health certificates from a reputable phy- 
sician. In this connection it may be added that it 
is within the power of the government to raise by 
degrees the standards of health demanded of those 
who desire a license to marry. Thus the eugenist 
hopes to secure a more healthy race of men and 

A second and more constructive method is to es- 
tablish in public opinion new and higher standards 
concerning marriage. At present, attractions such 
as wealth or titles or social positions too often de- 
termine marriage. If a marriageable person is 
wealthy, he is considered highly desirable irre- 
spective of possible physical and moral leprosy. The 
eugenist urges that a sound physique and heredity 
be ranked first, and wealth, or social position sec- 


ond. Wealth without health is an entirely false 
marriage attraction. 

Thus sound heredity, high vitality, and excellent 
health are emphasized as more fundamental mar- 
riage attractions than titles or other forms of social 
distinction. The eugenist asks that young people 
from childhood shall be trained to regard high vi- 
tality and dependable health as first essentials in 
an ideal man or woman. If this belief becomes 
widely accepted, then it will determine even per- 
sonal fancy and "falling in love." The aim is not 
to eliminate falling in love, but to put it upon a new 
level of vitality, heredity, and health. Thus would 
the eugenist contribute to the advancement of the 
human race. 

Preventive eugenics is a term which has been 
used to specify measures to protect parenthood 
from racial poisons. Alcohol is a poison which 
seems to affect the generative organs and especially 
the germ cell life. By preventing alcoholism through 
legislation it is possible to safeguard the nation from 
a so-called racial poison. Tuberculosis is consid- 
ered another racial poison. The tubercle bacilli, by 
weakening the human organism in millions of cases, 
indirectly are weakening and destructive in their 
effects upon germ plasm strength. Venereal diseases, 
such as syphilis and gonorrhea, directly attack the 
female generative organs causing sterility as well as 
untold suffering, and hence may be considered 


racially disastrous. 

All factors which cut down the birth rate unduly, 
undermine parenthood, or otherwise prevent the 
birth and development of physically and mentally 
perfect individuals are called dysgenic. These 
dysgenic elements may be overcome by human un- 
derstanding, prevision, and control. Through neg- 
ative eugenics, positive eugenics, and preventive eu- 
genics, supported by an adequate public health con- 
trol, it is possible for human groups to develop their 
biological or life-giving qualities, to their sturdiest, 
most energetic, and richest possibilities. 

4. Vitality and Public Health Control The 
various forms of animal life are in continual com- 
bat. The larger, more powerful, and higher devel- 
oped live upon the lower forms. All feed upon plant 
life ; even man secures his food from eating animals 
and plants. Moreover through his superior mental 
control man cultivates special forms of plant life, 
and fattens certain forms of animal life for his own 
survival purposes. 

The combat also operates parasitically, that is, 
countless millions of simple animal or plant organ- 
isms invade a higher organism and live within it, 
perhaps destroying it; while other parasitic forms 
of life are engaged in decomposing and putrefactive 
activities.' From birth every individual must main- 
tain a constant fight against the invasion into his 


organism of pathogenic bacteria. Human beings 
not only prey upon one another by open warfare or 
gun play but also by subtle means, such as the 
maintenance for profit of unhealthful and disease- 
ridden tenements. They are also preyed upon by 
disease-producing bacteria to such an extent that 
human diseases have been described as being largely 
struggles between forms of life, that is, between 
human life and microscopic life. 

Of those persons who are ordinarily considered 
well born, a large percentage possess some defects of 
bodily structure which sooner or later are mani- 
fested in low vital resistance, weak lungs, weak kid- 
neys, a weak digestive apparatus, a weak heart, and 
the like. A person must also guard himself and be 
guarded from subtle poisons, overfatigue, and phys- 
ical accident. The environment is lurking with 
hidden dangers to the health and vitality of indi- 
viduals, and hence to group life. In this era there- 
fore of the ravages of bacterial diseases, of contam- 
ination by poisons, of destruction by accidents and 
wars, and of inherited bodily defects, many persons 
need public defense. Certain diseases, such as tuber- 
culosis, malaria, typhoid fever, yellow fever are ac- 
quired by the individual despite his vigilance. Some 
diseases can be handled successfully only by action 
on the part of the entire group, that is, by public 
action. This need has led to public health control. 

In our complex civilization we cannot be sure 


that each individual will be careful of the health of 
other persons. People live so close together and in 
such huddled groups in the large cities that the 
sickness of one person may be easily communicated 
to others. By adulterating foods one person may be 
criminally careless of the health of other persons, 
but since the consumers may be strangers to him or 
live in distant cities, he feels no special responsibil- 
ity for their health. Hence it has become necessary 
for the city, state, and nation to pass laws com- 
pelling people to live up to certain health standards, 
not so much for their own welfare, as for the welfare 
of other persons. 

Public health control is based upon many factors, 
but the chief is perhaps a knowledge of bacterial life. 
Bacteria may be divided into three classes: those 
which are helpful to human life, such as the bacteria 
which causes dough to rise or cheese to ripen ; those 
which cause decomposition; and those which are 

The last-mentioned or pathogenic bacteria are 
usually shaped like a stick, are spherical, or are 
spiral. The first group are the most numerous ; they 
are called bacilli. The tubercle bacilli are of this 
kind. The second group, spherical in shape, are 
called cocci, and are represented by the bacteria 
which produce pneumonia. The third group, spiral 
in form, are named spirilla, and are represented by 
the bacteria which cause cholera. 


In size bacteria are very small. Those which 
cause anthrax are about l-8000th of an inch in 
length; while those which produce influenza are 
aboutl-80,000th of an inch long. A single drop of 
water may contain hundreds of thousands and even 
millions of bacteria. It has been estimated that in 
a space occupied by a grain of sugar, 600,000,000 
bacteria might be packed and each be comfortable. 

Bacteria thrive best in a warm temperature. They 
increase most rapidly at about the temperature of 
the human body ; they are less sensitive to cold than 
to heat. Almost all the harmful types of bacteria 
are killed upon being exposed to a temperature of 
150 degrees F. for thirty minutes, but bacteria such 
as typhoid and diphtheria bacilli have been exposed 
for days to the temperature of liquid air, that is, 
about 390 degrees below zero F., without having 
their vitality destroyed. At a low temperature bac- 
teria reproduce slowly, if at all ; but at a tempera- 
ture from 70 degrees to 100 degrees F., they repro- 
duce very rapidly. They multiply by cell division ; 
at the proper temperature certain bacteria cells di- 
vide into two cells every hour. At this rate the de- 
scendents of a single cell at the end of a single day 
would number far above a million ; at the close of 
two days, they would number 50,000,000,000,000. It 
makes a difference therefore whether milk is kept 
at a low temperature or allowed to stand in a warm 
place, especially if it contains pathogenic bacteria. 


Plagues, pestilences, and epidemics are the most 
striking phenomena affecting public health. In 1892, 
the wealthy city of Hamburg was terrorized by a 
severe cholera epidemic. More recently, Ithaca, 
New York, and other cities were ravaged by typhoid 
fever. Savages attributed plagues and epidemics of 
disease to evil spirits, and even for civilized peoples, 
epidemics have often been mysterious in origin. 
They are now known, however, to be outbreaks of 
disease caused by bacteria. It is not the disease, 
but the parasitic microbe which is "catching." Epi- 
demics may occur when the water supply, the milk 
supply, or the food supply becomes contaminated 
by the presence of pathogenic bacteria. 

Typhoid fever epidemics are caused by the ty- 
phoid bacillus, which was discovered by Koch about 
1879. The bacilli are taken into the human organ- 
ism usually through drinking water which has been 
contaminated by sewage containing the microbes, 
through drinking milk contaminated perhaps by the 
dirty hands of unclean milkers, or through eating 
raw oysters which have been growing in places 
where city sewage has been emptied. Diphtheria 
bacilli find lodgment in the throats of susceptible 
persons, where they multiply and secrete meanwhile 
a poisonous substance, or toxin, which circulates 
through the body, causing death unless counter- 

In 1880, the cause of malaria, the most important 


of diseases affecting tropical peoples, was discov- 
ered. In 1899, the further discovery was made that 
malarial microbes are transmitted from victim to 
victim through the bite of the anopheles mosquito, 
in whose bodies the bacteria live a cycle of their 
lives. By public action the anopheles mosquito may 
be eliminated, and human beings freed from mala- 
ria. Yellow fever, greatly dreaded in the Tropics, 
is now attributed to a microbe that is conveyed by 
the stegomyia mosquito. Only group action can 
stamp out yellow fever. 

In the case of smallpox and similar diseases which 
are spectacular in their development and quickly 
fatal, the public has safeguarded its members 
through quarantine measures. In slowly develop- 
ing diseases, such as tuberculosis, the public how- 
ever has been woefully slow in protecting individ- 

The cause of tuberculosis has been known since 
1882 when the tubercle bacillus was discovered. 
This bacillus may find its way into the lungs and 
there multiply until its host succombs. Tubercu- 
losis is no longer considered an inherited disease. 
Some persons through inheritance may possess a 
set of weaker membranes of the lungs or a lower 
vital resistance than do other persons, and hence 
more easily become victims of tuberculosis than 
others. No one can develop tuberculosis unless the 
bacillus gets into his organism from the outside. By 


destroying the bacillus it is possible to banish the 
dread disease itself. Tuberculosis is now known to 
be non-inheritable, curable if taken charge of in 
the early stages, and preventable. 

We have enough knowledge concerning causes to 
crush out tuberculosis by group action, and we al- 
so know the methods necessary to make this knowl- 
edge effective. We have had this knowledge and 
have known these methods for several years. In 
spite of these truths, tuberculosis causes as many 
deaths perhaps as any other disease, in fact, it prob- 
ably heads the list of diseases in civilized countries. 
In the United States it causes perhaps one-eighth of 
all deaths of adults. A tuberculosis mortality list 
of 150,000 individuals a year in the United States 
is a deplorable sacrifice to an entirely preventable 
disease preventable by group action. 

On the average, tuberculosis leads to the death of 
individuals at about thirty-five years of age, at an 
age which is at the center of productive activity, 
economically, of almost all persons, at an age which 
cuts off on the average twenty years of productive 
usefulness. The economic cost of the sickness pro- 
duced annually by tuberculosis in the United States 
has been estimated at $300,000,000. Furthermore, 
perhaps thirty per cent of all the dependency in the 
large cities of the United States is due to tubercu- 

The largest number of deaths by tuberculosis oc- 


curs among tenement dwellers and factory em- 
ployees. The map of a city which shows the loca- 
tion of the tuberculosis cases is similar in appear- 
ance to a map of that city showing the inadequate 
housing conditions. Houses with dark rooms and 
with poorly ventilated bedrooms, furnish breeding 
places for tubercle bacilli. With- the increase of 
poor housing conditions, tubercle bacilli rapidly 

The workers in factories and mills who are 
breathing fine particles of dust are likely to suffer 
laceration of the lungs, a condition which makes in- 
vasion by tubercle bacilli an easy matter. Since 
leaning over desks all day cramps the lungs, book- 
keepers and persons similarly engaged are suscept- 
ible. An indoor life and closed houses have kept 
people away from bacteria-killing sunshine and in 
with disease-producing microbes. 

Why is a disease which is known to be prevent- 
able still so prevalent? No one wishes to acquire 
the disease, and yet all are in danger. The reason 
for the widespread existence of tuberculosis is be- 
cause the treatment of it has been left so largely to 
individuals. Community action could overcome 
the disease in a short time. If the United States 
government were to proceed against tuberculosis in 
this country in the organized way that it moved 
against typhoid fever in the Canal Zone some years 
ago under the direction of General William C. Gor- 


gas, tuberculosis would soon become unknown. 

Public health control requires the fulfillment of 
human needs for pure air, pure milk, pure water, 
and pure food. The pure air question is an urban 
problem. Mountain or sea air is purest, but the air 
that is breathed in cities, especially in libraries, in 
closed houses, in assembly rooms is likely to be per- 
meated by pathogenic bacteria. Houses that are 
built with dark rooms, that is, rooms that have no 
windows opening to the outside air, are especially 

From the city's chimneys, especially of factories 
and the smokestacks of engines, there emanates 
clouds of smoke, shadowing continuously thousands 
and millions of people. To those persons living *n 
urban communities where soft coal is consumed in 
vast quantities, life comes to be "an existence in a 
gray, blackened world." The pall of smoke covers 
walls and pavements, enters houses and places of 
business ; the small particles of soot penetrate the 
lungs until the tissues become streaked and spotted. 
The proper ventilation of houses becomes impos- 
sible. Fresh air and sunshine are shut out; disease- 
producing germs are shut in, and multiply rapidly. 
Tubercle bacilli become impregnably established 
in houses where doors and windows are kept 
closed against the smoke nuisance. 

Human beings have been called sun animals, 
while pathogenic bacteria flourish in dirt, dust, and 


darkness. Public interest and control can guaran- 
tee to every pallid, weary industrial worker of the 
city the boon of pure air and of the disease-killing 
sunshine of heaven. 

There is a close relation between the quality and 
condition of milk fed to children and the death and 
sickness rates. Milk being opaque may harbor 
quantities of unnoticed filth and dirt. Moreover, 
milk gives a home to the disease-producing bacteria 
which are the immediate causes of the serious di- 
gestive troubles of children, of cholera infantum, al- 
so typhoid, diphtheria, and similar diseases which 
attack adults as well as children. Group control may 
be expressed through measures insuring cleanliness 
and low temperature in the handling of the milk 
supply. Upon pure milk the lives of children de- 
pend ; the need for a pure milk supply especially for 
the children in cities is a call to a new crusade in 
behalf of child welfare. 

A drinking water supply comes from surface wa- 
ter and ground water. Almost all cities rely largely 
on the former, which as it flows along is subject to 
contamination. Numerous epidemics are likely to 
result ; the typhoid fever rate in a given city is close- 
ly related to the quality of public health control, es- 
pecially with reference to the water supply. 

Public health control includes safeguarding the 
food supply. The incoming of the city's food has 
been described bv Hollis Godfrey as a wonderful 


pageant. Wheat trains rushing from the wide hori- 
zon of the West ; fishing schooners tacking up from 
off the banks ; refrigerator cars hastening across the 
continent, laden with the best from a thousand 
herds; hightopped trucks driven by motor power, 
looming in over the country roads in the freshness 
of the earliest dawn ; crates filled with golden oran- 
ges, with luscious peaches, with heavy-hanging 
grapes, hastening cityward: all this inrushing, con- 
verging evidence of nature's bounty offers a wide 
breadth of thought, a feeling of greatness, a sense 
of pride in this rich country in which we live. 

This gorgeous picture however does not disclose 
the fact that foods are exposed to destructive agen- 
cies from the time that they leave their place of or- 
igin to the time that they reach the table. The foes 
are of tw r o kinds : natural and unnatural, the forces 
of nature and the desires of greedy or ignorant men. 
The natural enemies of food preservation are the 
bacteria which cause decomposition; and the un- 
natural ones are men who deliberately sell decom- 
posed food, who use harmful preservatives, and who 
resort to injurious adulteration. City venders of 
fruit and other forms of food often use filthy rooms 
alive with tubercle bacilli, as storerooms; they are 
themselves sometimes infected with disease germs. 

One of the problems in securing adequate public 
health control is illustrated by the difficulties in- 
volved in the passage of the Pure Food and Drugs 


Act in 1906 by the Congress of the United States. 
At every session of Congress for ten years preced- 
ing 1906 the opposition from the large manufactur- 
ing interests to the pure food act was powerful 
enough to defeat its passage. In fact in order to 
secure its passage at all its friends had to make 
serious compromises with the opposing interests. 
Moreover, unscrupulous manufacturers have been 
able to deceive the public, and escape punishment. 

The federal law in this country applies only to 
food supplies that are made in one state and shipped 
into other states. The traffic in food supplies of 
any state in the United States must be regulated by 
each state government. Multiply the difficulties of 
the nation by forty-eight, and some idea will be 
gained of the problems of securing pure food. More- 
over, every city has its local problems of safeguard- 
ing food. The public control of this situation rests 
ultimately upon group opinion. The guardians of 
pure food, it may be summarized, are guardians of 
human life. 

The quality of life forces vary in different human 
beings. Professors George Hansen and F. H. Gid- 
dings have divided people into three vitality classes. 
(1) Low vitality persons include those persons, as a 
rule, whose birth rate and death rate are high, whose 
physical and mental defectiveness is relatively high, 
whose vital resistance is low, and whose knowledge 
of personal and public hygiene measures is scanty. 


They include the poorer wage-earners in the over- 
crowded districts of large cities. 

(2) Medium vitality people are those whose birth 
rate and death rate are both low, whose intelligence 
is high, whose vital resistance has been worn down 
by the countless demands of modern city life, and 
whose lives are often thus prematurely cut short. 
The professional classes represent this type. 

(3) High vitality people are those who have been 
well born, without mental and physical defects; 
who have a fairly high birth rate and a low death 
rate ; and who live where the environment is favor- 
able. The rural land-owning classes illustrate this 

Eugenic and public health control have their 
best friend in education. Through education peo- 
ple may learn what they can do in order to develop 
themselves toward high vitality, and at the same 
time guarantee a splendid physical start in life to 
the next generation. The improvement of environ- 
mental conditions through public health control is 
necessary in order that an eugenic racial stock may 
be built up, safeguarded, stimulated, and enabled to 
function fully. Through eugenic and public health 
procedure individuals and groups alike may grow 
in stature, and in physical and mental quality. 



1. In what way is heredity more important than environ- 

ment ? 

2. How is environment more important than heredity? 

3. Classify as to cause, whether primarily hereditary or 

environmental: (a) race prejudice, (b) Italian in- 
terest in art, (c) a child's fear of the dark, (d) Jap- 
anese politeness, (e) a rosy complexion. 

4. What important contribution to socio-biologic knowledge 

was made by: (a) Mendel, (b) de Vries, (c) Weis- 
mann, (d) Galton. 

5. What is eugenics? 

6. In what ways is society wasteful of its born geniuses? 

7. Who suffers the more from adulterated foods, the well 

nourished or the undernourished? 

8. Explain: "Man is the sickest animal alive." 

9. Explain the statement that although the death rate has 

declined in recent years, the race is less vigorous than 

10. What are the arguments for a national department of 


11. What are the objections to such a department? 

12. "W T hy does the United States appropriate so much more 

money for the health of animals than for the health 
of human beings?" 

13. Is it the work of a physician to cure or to keep people 


14. Explain the statement that man is an outdoor animal. 

15. Why is the prevention of tuberculosis distinctly a social 


16. What is meant by the term, vital statistics? 

17. What obligations does your health place upon you with 

reference to the health of others? 


THE HIGHEST PHASE of biological inheritance is 
the psychical nature, especially in its social phases. 
The original nature of man is comprised of complex 
elements, such as instinctive-emotional tendencies. 
Other psychical factors, with sociological implica- 
tions, include habitual and conscious reactions, im- 
itation and invention, communication and gre- 

1 . Instinctive-emotional Tendencies. Every per- 
son begins life with instinctive impulses, that is, 
with inborn psychic tendencies biologically trans- 
mitted. A specific sense impression releases a 1 defi- 
nite mode of behavior, which is the same in all 
members of the species. 

Instinctive tendencies represent ways of acting 
which have been the most successful in the past. 
They result in modes of behavior that promote 
either the welfare of the individual, such as the 
self-preservation impulses; the continuance of the 
group, such as the sex impulses ; or the welfare of 
the group, such as the gregarious impulses. The 


instinctive tendencies include the self-preservation, 
the self-assertive, and creative responses, as well as 
the inquisitive, acquisitive, and combative responses 
and the sex and parental, gregarious, and play 

The instinctive-emotional factors, as well as ha- 
bitual and acquired reactions, may be better under- 
stood if viewed in terms of "drives" and "mechan- 
isms," which have been analyzed by R. S. Wood- 
worth. Mechanisms are innate or acquired neural- 
motor ways of responding to stimuli. Drives are 
factors which release a mechanism ; they range from 
external stimuli to inner motives. 

All that the individual does or thinks is built up- 
on instinctive mechanisms. There is a [sense in 
which social institutions are super-structures, built 
upon instinctive traits; the family, for example, 
rests upon sex, parental, and gregarious impulses. 
Inquisitiveness leads to invention and discovery ; it 
is the driving force of learning ; it is a strong psy- 
chological element in all pure forms of research and 
advanced intellectual activity. Acquisitiveness ex- 
plains psychologically many of the wealth-getting 
activities of man as well as the growth of the in- 
stitution of private property. The play drives and 
mechanisms are basic factors in the recent develop- 
ment of social institutions for meeting the recrea- 
tional needs of man. Gregariousness leads to neigh- 
borhood, community, and national group life. All 


the human groups which will be studied in Part II 
of this book are indebted to the instinctive tenden- 
cies in human nature. The family, play, occupa- 
tional, school, church, and community groupings 
are a result in part of instinctive-emotional drives 
and mechanisms. 

Closely connected with the instincts are the feel- 
ings. They represent the tone of the organism, 
and evaluate activities on the basis of past racial 
and individual experience. The mention of a given 
activity to an individual produces a pleasant feel- 
ing or an unpleasant tone of consciousness, accord- 
ing to the nature of the individual's experience in 
that particular. 

Instinctive reactions are accompanied not only 
by feeling tones, but also by emotional discharges. 
An emotion appears to be a complex of feeling and 
sensation which accompanies instinctive and other 
activities. Certain emotions function in energizing 
the individual, such as the emotion of anger; some 
cause his personality to expand, such as the emotion 
of joy; others tend to secure protection, such as 
the emotion of fear; and others lead individuals 
out into activities of the highest personal and group 
usefulness, such as the emotion of love. 

Sympathetic emotion is a powerful socializing 
force. When one has sympathy for another person, 
he can put himself in the other's place and obtain 
the other's point of view an exercise which is es- 


sential to the development of a socialized person, 
and in solving many group problems, such as the 
controversies between labor and capital. 

A large emotional element is usually expressed 
through suggestibility, a general innate tendency 
which causes people to respond to other people's 
feelings, ideas, and actions. Children are highly sug- 
gestible; they lack knowledge and organization of 
the knowledge which they possess. As a result of 
their suggestibility children are subject to the di- 
rection of their elders ; they acquire rapidly the tra- 
ditional attitudes of their elders and their groups. 

2. Habitual and Conscious Reactions. On the 
basis of instinctive-feeling tendencies the individu- 
al begins life, but the group environment however 
presents so many new problems that the individual 
is unable to cope with them instinctively. More 
or less conscious attention is directed to making 
necessary adjustments. Attention leads to new types 
of behavior. These new expressions if repeated 
several times become habitual reactions. They be- 
come habits. They are modifications of instinctive 
reactions or of previously formed habits. When a 
problem is solved, a new way of acting has been 
discovered and perhaps reduced to an habitual re- 
action, and attention is free to take up the solution 
of other problems. 

The only reliable person is he who has established 


a number of well organized habits. The only per- 
son who is honest is he who is honest by habit. 
When a person raises the question whether or not 
he will be honest, he cannot be trusted ; the person 
who is trustworthy is he who is habitually honest. 
Another illustration of the point that group struct- 
ures are based upon the foundation of well formed 
habits in individuals is found in the fact that mod- 
ern credit associations depend upon honesty which 
is habitual. As soon as mutual confidence breaks, 
a financial crisis is likely to ensue. Conscious re- 
actions occur thus when instinctive or habitual ten- 
dencies fail to meet a new problem. An obstacle 
creates a crisis ; attention is centered upon the ob- 
stacle; and a new habit-organization results. 

The cognitive phase of conscious reactions evalu- 
ates activities with reference to the present and fu- 
ture; the instinctive-feeling impulses have already 
performed this service with reference to past exper- 
ience. Reason is the highest phase of cognition ; it 
can evaluate life factors that are present in neither 
time nor space; it can often transform environ- 
mental conditions ; and can lead to new and richer 
levels of group life. 

All the scientific inventions of the past, all the 
development of the arts, all the human control over 
nature are largely the product of reason. It is to 
be hoped that man will in time, through reasoning, 
be able to master his social and spiritual environ- 


ment as he has overcome to a degree his physical 

The volitional phase of conscious reactions is the 
choosing element. Each organism may be consid- 
ered as a more or less independent center of activity. 
It is not entirely subject to its heredity or its envi- 
ronment; it has the power in itself of making 
choices and carrying them into action. If each or- 
ganism had to respond to all stimuli which it re- 
ceives, it would soon be shattered neurologically. 

As a result of the choosing phase of conscious 
reactions, a person is not wholly a machine. He has 
a margin of freedom a margin which varies with 
different persons and environments. This margin 
dwindles when a person's health breaks, when pov- 
erty increases, or when an atmosphere of vicious 
and criminal attitudes develops. It is far more dif- 
ficult for a person who has been reared in an envi- 
ronment of extreme want, vice, and crime to live a 
social, constructive life than it is for one who is 
trained in an environment of love, good will, and 
group interest. 

3. Imitation and Invention. Another tendency, 
somewhat instinctive in character is imitation, a 
process that is based on the fact that like stimuli 
produce like responses, and that individuals are 
equipped with similar drives and mechanisms. Im- 
itations may be defined as the unconscious or con- 


scious copying primarily of the actions of other in- 
dividuals ; the process may also extend to the copy- 
ing of the ideas of others. 

The child obtains the mass of his attitudes, ideals, 
and purposes by imitating unconsciously and con- 
sciously the copies that are set before him in his 
family, play, neighborhood, school, religious and 
other groups. So rapidly do the imitative processes 
operate, that by the time the seventh or eighth 
year is reached, the foundation lines of the child's 
moral and social character are laid. An individual is 
very imitative in the early years of life when his 
stock of ideas is small and his means of criticism 
are scanty. 

It is by imitation that each generation takes up 
and makes its own the traditions and customs of 
the preceding generation. The imitative processes 
preserve the continuity of ideas and of the social 
environment. They are vital conserving factors in 
group life. 

In the human species there is a far greater per- 
centage of custom imitation than among animals. 
The offspring of animals are well equipped at birth 
with instinctive ways of acting; they are thrown 
upon their own resources relatively early in life. 
Hence there is little chance for imitation of parents. 

Unfortunately, there is a strong tendency for 
ways of doing and believing to operate in the form 
of custom long after their original meaning has been 


forgotten, and long after their usefulness has ended. 
Note the American veneration oftentimes for a com- 
mon law which is at variance with current indus- 
trial needs. A deference is shown on occasion for 
certain traditional aspects of the law which exhibit 
too great concern for the powerful individual and 
too little respect for the needs of the weaker group 

Custom imitation, as pointed out by Gabriel 
Tarde and E. A. Ross, is favored by psychical and 
social isolation. Geographic and social barriers shut 
out new stimuli ; they prohibit contacts with the ad- 
vanced ideas and methods of the day. In the iso- 
lated sections even of civilized countries, there sur- 
vive clannishness, patriarchal authority, narrow 
religious dogmatism, and illiteracy. 

A Chinese saying reads: I approach my elder 
brother with respect, my father and mother with 
veneration, my grandfather with awe. To ancestor 
worship with its emphasis upon the past, the phe- 
nomenal stability of China is partly to be credited. 
All human groups, in fact, rely upon custom imi- 
tation for stability. If it were not for custom imita- 
tion, no human group would possess permanence. 
Where custom imitation prevails, there is danger 
from too much conservatism. Custom imitation 
tends to preserve beliefs too long ; it stifles thought. 
As a result of custom imitation, many persons ac- 
cept beliefs uncritically. 


Then there is fashion imitation. As the former 
is a borrowing from ancestors and predecessors, the 
latter is a copying of contemporaries. The reading 
of newspapers and magazines favors fashion imita- 
tion, and on the whole creates contacts with the 
present rather than with the past. In penetrating 
remote districts the railroads assist in extending 
new ideas and methods. Travel and migration re- 
sult in attitudes of mind that favor the new as op- 
posed to the old. Freedom of discussion breaks the 
spell of custom imitation, and forward-looking 
schools and educational systems deliver the young 
from prejudices and customs that are no longer use- 
ful. Reactionary school systems of course favor 
traditionalism and the past. 

In the United States many forces have operated 
in favor of fashion. American individualism has 
stimulated the immigrant to break away from Old 
World traditions, and to violate the wishes of 
priests, padrones, and other natural upholders of 
the past. The spirit of progress in the United States 
has left little room for reverence for antiquity. The 
World War however left a strong reactionary cur- 
rent in its wake, which indicates that the United 
States is showing signs of age, even in its youth. 

The main law of fashion imitation is that the 
persons or ideas which are rated as superior are im- 
itated by persons who are rated inferior. The cor- 
ollaries naturally follow, namely, that the wealthy 


are imitated by the poor, seniors by freshmen, 
statesmen and politicians by citizens. 

People have been classified according to their at- 
titudes toward fashion. (1) There are the design- 
ers and fashion-show merchants. (2) There are the 
pace-setters, that is, the persons who adopt a new 
fashion as soon as it is put on the market. As soon 
as any fashion is somewhat widely adopted, the 
pace-setter adopts a new fashion and thus the pro- 
cess continues. (3 ) There are the people who adopt 
a fashion promptly so as to be taken for the pace- 
setters. (4) Another group are those who imitate 
a new fashion somewhat belatedly and in modified 
forms in order to avoid being conspicuous. (5) 
There are those who never conform. 

Rational imitation refers to the copying of ac- 
tions and particularly of ideas which are useful. As 
a high percentage of customs still serve useful pur- 
poses, a large portion of custom imitation is ration- 
al. Since only a small proportion of fashions are 
useful, a great deal of fashion imitation is irrational. 

Custom imitation, fashion imitation, and merit 
imitation each prevails in respective sections of the 
lives of individuals and groups. Custom imitation 
obtains in matters of feeling, ritual, language; 
fashion imitation rules in questions of dress and 
amusements ; and merit or rational imitation con- 
trols in business and science. 

Out of the original nature of man there arises in- 


ventive ability. While representing a combination 
of specific inherited qualities, each individual also 
possesses new traits. His original nature is not 
entirely a repetition of past tendencies ; he is char- 
acterized by special talents, or at least by an ability 
to see new relationships. This inventiveness has its 
sources in human energy, physical and mental. The 
concentration of energy, particularly of mental en- 
ergy, for any length of time in a given direction, 
gives an individual a superior advantage over his 
fellows, enables him to see farther in specific di- 
rections, and to discover unsuspected relationships, 
which is the essence of invention. 

It probably is as natural to invent as to imitate, 
although the latter process is far easier. Inventing 
is defying the ordinary currents of life while imi- 
tating is drifting, or acting like other persons be- 
cause of having been built that way. Invention is 
largely a process of trial and error in seeking new 
mental goals ; imitation is following established re- 

Every person has inventive ability enough to be 
able to contribute to group progress. This ability 
is rarely developed; it is rarely stimulated to any 
degree. The schools stress copying, the following 
of standards, and accepting established thought. It 
is often only by accident that inventive ability is 
discovered, stimulated, and set at work. 

The need for applying inventiveness in the spirit- 


ual realms is greater than in the field of mechanical 
appliances. Human mastery of the physical has 
exceeded the control of the spiritual. Special talent 
and genius have been applied in the field of mechan- 
ical inventions until the material world has come to 
control man's attention. These inventions have 
made life so comfortable and have produced so 
many luxuries that people have sometimes been 
lulled into inertia and decay. 

Special talent and genius represent a natural 
concentration of inventive ability. In the original 
nature of man there is often found highly focalized 
expressions of artistic, mathematical, or other forms 
of ability. The appearance of talent and genius in 
any given individual is difficult to explain. The 
biological mutant or sport appears unexpectedly. 
The human genius likewise cannot be forecasted; 
he is as likely to be born in the tenements as in the 
mansion. Society however is wasteful of the geniuses 
born of poor parents ; it needs to assist the less for- 
tunate members of society in obtaining training 
facilities, so that society may have full benefit of 
the potential ability of its members. 

4. Communication and Gregariousness. Human 
beings respond similarly to like stimuli ; their psy- 
chical organisms are alike in inner drives and mech- 
anisms. The fact that individuals react to stimuli 
in similar ways explains their common types of be- 


havior, and enables them to survive in the struggle 
for existence. This common nature is the basis of 
communication and gregariousness, as well as the 
basis of imitative reactions. 

The sentinel members of a flock of wild geese give 
a warning cry which secures an automatic response 
on the part of all members of the group, a response 
which produces prompt flight. If this cry did not 
cause a quick, automatic reaction, the group would 
not long survive. In the higher animal world a set. 
of cries, calls, and other symbols together with ap- 
propriate mechanistic responses guarantee group 
life. With human beings these symbols and gestures 
result in a consciousness of meaning, language, and 
the establishment of social relationships. 

One primitive man struggling alone with an ugly 
lion is lost, but ten men by co-operating can trap 
and destroy the beast. A common means of com- 
munication enables the men to work together ad- 
vantageously and accomplish their purpose. 

Means of communication are first set up between 
parent and offspring. The human mother can rec- 
ognize a half dozen different cries on the part of her 
infant. From these simple sounds, language de- 
velops. At maturity, the individual may have ac- 
quired a vocabulary ranging from two thousand to 
ten thousand words, besides a large number of dif- 
ferent inflections of the voice and numerous silent 
symbol forms, such as facial gestures, and gestures 


of the hands, arms, shoulders and even of the body. 
A symbol and an elementary consciousness of 
meaning constitute human language. By means of 
a well organized method of communication, human 
groups may stimulate their members into well- 
rounded, useful personalities ; they may also develop 
complex organizations among themselves. 

In its simplest form communication is character- 
ized by reflex, feeling, and instinctive elements, op- 
erating an elaborate set of drives and mechanisms. 
The angry tone of voice produces a response of an- 
gry feeling. Only in the higher fields of personal 
control are individuals able to overcome these ele- 
mental factors of communication, and thus prevent 
themselves from shrinking to animal levels of com- 
municative behavior. 

Higher animals have fostered elemental ways of 
communication ; mankind has gone farther, produc- 
ing alphabets and literatures. Language is not dis- 
tinctly a product of the human mind, but its de- 
velopment has been pushed to high levels among 
human beings as a result of their elaborate group 
activities and needs. 

Language is a conversation of attitudes and ap- 
propriate responses. It is a conversation of gestures 
of the hands, shoulders, face, and vocal apparatus. 
Gestures are either pantomimic, facial, or vocal : 
pantomimic are gestures chiefly of the hands and 
shoulders ; facial refer to the expressions about the 


eyes and mouth ; and vocal gestures include spoken 
language. Each gesture stands for a whole act; 
each is the -beginning of an act. As soon as its 
meaning is clear and an appropriate response in the 
form of another gesture is made, it is changed. Thus 
communication takes place : silently, if pantomimic 
and facial ; audibly, if vocal. 

The development of communication by spoken 
language is a fascinating field of study. Methods 
of communication by writing have also undergone 
marvelous changes. These were first (1) mnemonic, 
or memory-aiding; some tangible object is used as 
a message, or for record, between people who are 
separated. (2) The pictorial stage was that in 
which a picture of the object under consideration 
is given; at a glance its story is revealed. (3) The 
ideographic stage, as the name implies, was that 
in which the pictures become representative; they 
are not pictures, but symbols. (4) The phonetic 
stage is that in which a sound-sign is given for 
a whole word, for each syllable, or for each letter 
this last development may be called a fifth (5) or 
the alphabetic stage of communication. 

The alphabet is built on the principle that the 
sign as an eye picture suggests the sound, inde- 
pendent of the meaning of the sound. It was very 
long after man appeared on earth that it dawned 
upon him that all the words people utter are ex- 
pressed by a few sounds. It was in this discovery 


that an elaborate though simple system of com- 
munication became possible. When constant signs 
were chosen to represent constant sounds the prog- 
ress of mankind was assured. This step constituted 
the invention of the alphabet, one of the momentous 
triumphs of the human mind. Only thereby was 
the preservation of all that is worth while in group 
and personal experience made possible; only so 
could educational systems develop. 

Over two hundred alphabets have been invented, 
but less than fifty have survived. India was the 
center of alphabet manufacture. The chief alpha- 
bets today are the Chinese, Arabic, and Roman. 
The latter is the vehicle of the culture of Western 
civilization, and is extending its influence. 

As a means of making communication accurate, 
numeral systems were invented. A debt of inex- 
pressible magnitude is due those unknown and un- 
honored individuals who first made the cipher and 
the nine numerals of the Arabic system. The great- 
est admiration is due him who invented the cipher, 
for without it modern business transactions, trans- 
portation, and many other forms of communication 
would be impossible. 

Communication thus originates in inarticulate 
cries, and elemental symbols and meanings, in 
drives and mechanisms ; it develops as a result of 
group life and needs into complicated literatures. 

Gregariousness is closely related to communica- 


tion ; gregarious responses are made because of sim- 
ilar neurological structure and functional nature, 
particularly on the feeling side. Organisms being 
functionally alike respond mechanistically alike to 
the same stimulus. In its simplicity gregariousness 
implies none of the higher attributes of mind. 
Among animals it manifests itself in a strong un- 
easiness in isolation and a sense of satisfaction in 
being one of a group. The classic illustration of 
gregariousness is that of the ox which shows no 
affection for his fellows so long as he is among them, 
but when the herd becomes separated from him he 
displays extreme distress until he is able to rejoin 
the group. 

Gregariousness is usually confirmed by habit.- 
Offspring are born into a group and grow up in a 
group. To live with others accentuates the strength 
of the gregarious tendency and expands its man- 
ifestation. Solitary punishment is regarded by 
many persons as a mode of torture too cruel and 
unnatural to be longer practiced. For the normal 
person to be forced to be alone for any length of 
time is great torture. It is true that for everyone 
except a few more or less highly cultivated persons, 
the primary condition for recreation is to be a mem- 
ber of a crowd. For every person who goes to the 
mountains for a vacation there are hundreds who 
frequent the beaches where the crowds are to be 
found. The normal daily recreation of the popula- 


tion of the towns and smaller cities is that of walk- 
ing up and down the streets where the throng is 
densest. The normal recreation for rural and urban 
people alike on a holiday is that of rushing to the 
places where the crowds are in control. 

To an extent the gregarious instinct marks off 
the differences between species and races. It also 
helps to determine the nature of innumerable forms 
of social alliances. An individual's conduct toward 
those persons whom he feels to be like himself is 
instinctively and rationally different from his con- 
duct toward the persons whose actions are strange. 

In early times when population traditions were 
small the gregarious instinct played an important 
part in social evolution, because it kept people to- 
gether who despite a common set of group tradi- 
tions might have drifted apart and been lost. This 
group life occasioned the needs for laws and group 
institutions. It also provided the conditions of ag- 
gregation in which alone the higher development of 
social qualities became possible. 

While original nature in qualities and expressions 
varies, yet it has been demonstrated that there is a 
common unity in human minds, irrespective of geo- 
graphic, biologic, and psychologic differences. To 
certain stimuli, the human mind everywhere reacts 
similarly. In potential mental ability, races man- 
ifest resemblances. The fact that one race has ad- 
vanced further than another is no proof of its su- 


perior psychical ability ; it has probably had a more 
favorable environment and has reaped the advan- 
tage of cultural momentum, a point which will be 
considered more at length in the chapter on Racial 
Groups. From a consideration of the socio-psy- 
chical nature of man we now turn to present the 
Sociologic Factors. 


1. What are the differences between instinctive and habit- 

ual reactions? 

2. Why are women as a rule more sympathetic than men? 

3. Do you invent much? 

4. Is the potential mental ability of all races more or less 

equal ? 

5. Why are people gregarious? 

6. What is selfish sociability? 

7. Why does an elderly person often talk aloud to himself? 

8. What is essential in order that there may be commun- 

ication between individuals? 

9. Are nations gregarious? 

10. What is needed for the development of complete com- 
munication between all racial and national groups in 
the world? 


SOCIOLOGIC FACTORS are those which arise out of 
social situations. They are to be distinguished 
from physical and geographic factors which are 
purely objective. They are not the same as the bio- 
logic and psychologic factors, for these are inher- 
ited. They spring from the associative life, but are 
psychological and even biological in origin. The so- 
ciologic factors which will be presented here are first 
the social attitudes and values, then the social pro- 
cesses, and finally the highest social processes of all, 
socialization and social control. 

1. Social Attitudes and Values. An attitude is 
a tendency to act, and a social attitude is a tendency 
to act with reference to some phase of associative 
life. Social attitudes are expressed by individuals 
with reference to values or phases of the social en- 
vironment toward which individuals are attracted. 

The social attitudes arise from original human 
nature and also in social heritage and in group 
stimulation. Drives and mechanisms represent the 
technique by which social attitudes are expressed. 
Emotional reactions and sentiments, dispositions 


and temperaments must also be understood if one 
would penetrate the psychic backgrounds of social 
attitudes. The human desires, wishes, and beliefs are 
also generic to social attitudes. Wishes may origi- 
nate chiefly in psychological needs, but beliefs are 
noticeably social in their development. A reference 
to beliefs leads directly to the field of sociallieritage 
and group stimulation. 

A child's attitudes are determined generally by 
the customary beliefs of parents, teachers, clergy, 
and other representatives of group thinking. In the 
social heritage are found many ideas which become 
objects of value, and hence generate social attitudes. 
In the religious heritage are ideas of immortality, 
brotherhood of man, service, and personal contact 
with God all of which are values that create atti- 
tudes. In the political heritage are ideas of national 
achievement and greatness which fascinate the hu- 
man mind and stimulate specific attitudes. 

Public opinion creates values, which in turn 
arouse attitudes. Favorable opinion gives prestige; 
that which opinion favors is reputable. Opinion 
attracts attention to specific principles, procedures, 
and persons; to the extent that it approves, whole 
floods of values inundate the minds of individuals. 
Only here and there a person is critical enough to 
view with his full reason the values that the group 
establishes through its unscientific assumptions. 
Only occasionally does a person discover that the 


scornful estimate of group opinion may be ex- 
pressed irrationally. In the long run however pub- 
lic opinion frees itself from blind emotional reflexes 
and roughly represents a common sense judgment. 
In a later chapter public opinion will be considered 
in more detail as an agent of control in determin- 
ing values and hence social attitudes. 

Law may be cited here as another agency which 
acts as a judge of values and hence as a creator of 
attitudes ; it also will be considered in another chap- 
ter in more detail as a factor in group control. Law 
represents a crystallization of public opinion, and 
thus is less emotional but more rigid. When it settles 
upon given social procedures it is not easily 
changed. Law establishes values, permanence, and 
conservatism. By forceful, objective means it brings 
group standards and necessities before the individu- 
al's attention. By compelling the individual to 
live according to rule and regulation it may in- 
directly force him to develop habits of acting and 
thinking built upon group needs; and hence ulti- 
mately lead him to the acceptance of new attitudes. 
The process is often painful and costly to both the 
individual and the group, but nevertheless cannot 
always be avoided. A weakness in modern penal 
systems is the fact that they fail lamentably often- 
times in controlling punishment so that the atti- 
tudes of the anti-social member may be made more 
socially welcome. 


In times of group crisis, such as war, values and 
attitudes undergo rapid modification. When the 
United States entered the World War there was a 
widespread lethargy regarding the necessity of send- 
ing millions of soldiers to Europe. Pulpits, news- 
papers, the cinema, government representatives, 
four minute speakers, and others joined in whirl- 
wind campaigns throughout the country, starting 
widespread currents of feeling and opinion concern- 
ing the necessity of making the world safe for de- 
mocracy and of fighting to end war. The results 
were almost miraculous. Millions of men left their 
accustomed pursuits, their homes and loved ones; 
they entered upon training for war ; they embarked 
dauntlessly on ships sailing over submarine-in- 
fested seas. They gave up temporarily, or if need 
be permanently, the values of constructive peace for 
the values of destructive war. Their social attitudes 
shifted from earning money, following personal de- 
sires, and enjoying the comforts of home to serving 
the nation at the cost of life itself. 

The primary social value is the group. At the ' 
crucial tests human beings give up their loved ones 
and their own lives for the sake of the group. Un- 
der the flags of the nations millions marched to 
death in the World War. Self is hesitatingly if not 
freely placed on the altar of the group. Group opin- 
ion is almost all-powerful. Favorable group opin- 
ion expands personality; unfavorable group judg- 


ments constitute the severest forms of punishments. 

The welfare of loved ones is another leading so- 
cial value. -Ordinarily it is primary. For the sake 
of members of the family group and closest friends, 
an individual will face all manner of risks, even 
death. For their sake the laborer struggles on day 
by day in earning money for the necessities of life, 
and the man of wealth furnishes them with the 
finest comforts of life, the ablest physicians in case 
of sickness, and all the advantages of travel if these 
will please. 

The cause of truth, creative effort, and achieve- 
ment constitutes a set of highly rated values. In 
these directions, the best years of life are spent un- 
grudgingly. To the extent that these factors are 
given fundamental interpretations they rank high 
among social values. In short, the social values are 
differentiated in many ways, too numerous to pre- 
sent here, depending upon the level of civilization 
which is being examined. 

Group manufacture of values and individual de- 
velopment of social attitudes represent the main el- 
ements in the social process, which will now be ex- 
amined. The social process contains in itself all 
group and interacting personal phenomena; it is 
the central theme of sociological study. 

2. The Social Process. Upon analysis the social 
process is found to be characterized by various el- 


ements, such as (1) isolation, (2) interaction, (3) 
competition, (4) accommodation, (5) co-operation, 
(6) assimilation, and also (7) socialization and 
(8) social control. The two last mentioned pro- 
cesses are so important that they will be treated in 
a separate section of this chapter. 

( 1 ) Isolation. The examination of any group at 
work, even of a committee, shows that some indi- 
viduals are not taking part, perhaps they are not 
present. They are not interested; their attitudes 
have led their minds in other directions. As a result 
they are isolated from the active members of the 
committee, and as far as the specific committee is 
concerned, they are dead timber although being in 
other connections very live personalities. 

In a family, one member may become separated 
from the rest in spirit or he may desert, and mutual 
isolation result. As a consequence of the isolation 
the family remains broken. Isolation is the chief 
objective factor in broken up homes. 

The most important cause of labor-capital con- 
troversies today perhaps is isolation. Because of 
isolation the laboring man does not understand the 
capitalist; and for the same reason the employer 
does not view his employees with unprejudiced eyes 
and an understanding mind. 

Isolation between races leads to race prejudices. 
Racial groups have developed in different parts of 


the earth and under various climatic conditions; 
they have produced different cultures and types of 
mental reactions. Because of lack of friendly con- 
tacts, mutual isolation has resulted, and misunder- 
standings, prejudices, and wars have taken place. 
The significance of racial isolation will be noted 
further in a later chapter. 

Isolation between nations has been and is a lead- 
ing cause of international disputes. Nations have 
built barriers about themselves ; they have created 
permanent crowd emotions of an egotistic nature. 
When a peace conference is held in Paris, the na- 
tions are mutually suspicious and unwilling to trust 
one another, although each claiming to be honorable 
and priding itself on its integrity and dependable- 

Isolation is caused by lack of contact on the same 
planes of sympathy and understanding. It involves 
/ an inability or unwillingness to put oneself or one's 
group completely in the position of the other fellow 
or group, and consider problems unselfishly and in 
the light of larger societary needs. 


2. Interaction. The importance of interaction 
has been implied in the preceding paragraphs and 
also in Chapter I. It is only when social contacts 
exist that progress can result. An infant could not 
grow to mental maturity without social interaction. 
It is in associative life that adults are produced. 


Groups likewise grow through interaction. A po- 
litical party, for example, that is in supreme control 
of the government, tends to become self-centered, 
careless, conceited, and corrupt. A victorious nation 
may become intoxicated with power, scorning to as- 
sociate on democratic terms with weaker peoples, 
and thereby find itself isolated and perhaps hated 
by other nations. 


Interaction is interstimulation. It draws out, 
accelerates, and discovers unsuspected powers. It 
increases mental activity, leads to comparisons of 
effort and through competition brings about tests 
of ability and achievement. Interaction uncovers 
old problems and creates new ones ; it enlarges hu- 
man horizons, sets new tasks, and electrifies persons 
and groups alike. 

Interaction brings customs into conflict, with the 
result that the less worthy are unable long to with- 
stand invidious comparisons. It forces the old to 
compete with the new, the new with the new, and 
also shows the need for new advances. Interaction 
brings individuals and groups into co-operation. 
Lifelong friendships, permanent organizations, un- 
selfish world enterprises, and new racial stocks re- 
sult. Interaction leads to the formation of all as- 
sociative undertakings. 

3. Conflict. Conflict is often the primary outcome 
of interaction. When strangers meet, each is 


suspicious of the other ; each is on the defensive. If 
either makes a false move, the other replies with an 
appropriate response, and an incipient encounter is 
under way. 

Conflict between unequal forces means that the 
weaker will be lost in the stronger. When the earth 
and a meteor come together the latter is destroyed 
by the former. When a powerful football team 
meets a weaker untrained aggregation of players, 
neither team learns any football. No contest is ex- 
citing when the contenders are unequal in ability. 

Conflict between equals brings out the best efforts 
in both. It may end in a deadlock, but more likely 
in a compromise. When two trained debaters of 
equal ability meet, each is likely to surpass his past 

Conflict may take the form of destructive or con- 
structive competition. The opponents may struggle 
surreptitiously against each other, seeking by cal- 
umny and chicanery to undermine the other's rep- 
utation and strength. In the neighborhood group, 
families may gossip about each other to the de- 
struction of each other's reputation. In the in- 
dustrial world employers' associations and radical 
labor organizations may exhaust the catalogue of 
pernicious and subtle means of combat. 

Conflict may take place between a small group 
and a large group, between a minority and a ma- 
jority, between a new idea and established dogma. 


When conflict waxes hot, it may degenerate into 
verbal gunplay, deception, and malicious lying. Any 
dying cause whether slavery, alcoholism, or czarism 
resorts sooner or later to every conceivable means 
of misrepresentation. 

On the other hand conflict and competition may 
be constructive and mutually wholesome. Children 
competing in games may all gain physically and 
mentally. Neighborhoods may compete on "Clean 
Up" days to the advantage of all concerned; they 
may vie with one another in Red Cross drives not 
only to their own advantage but to that of the Red 
Cross and of needy people in remote parts of the 

4. Accommodation. Conflicts often end in com- 
promise. After struggling for a long time with 
great losses and few gains each side learns to toler- 
ate the other and perhaps to recede from the earlier 
demands that were made upon the other. Accom- 
modation is the method of toleration, arbitration, 
and compromise. It is the only feasible social pro- 
cess where the contending parties possess more or 
less equally the same social and moral values and 
where each is somewhat equally wrong. 

Accommodation is the wise but not commonly 
sought procedure when a minority is in the wrong. 
However, it is at this point that martyrs are made. 
There would probably be no martyrs if the spirit 


of accommodation prevailed everywhere. It is nec- 
essary that some individuals stand out unflinching- 
ly against the majority or the established order, if 
need be, to their death. By sacrificing all, they at- 
tract attention to the wrong for which they fought 
and start social currents in motion which finally 
overthrow gigantic evils. 

Oftentimes the representatives of long established 
classes fail to accept compromise situations and go 
down to ignominious and utter defeat. The princi- 
ples of conduct which obtained a half century ago 
for a social organization no longer suffice in a dy- 
namic society. The leaders of economic, religious, 
or other groups must be alert to social changes and 
needs, and be willing to sacrifice privileges if need 
be in order that human needs may be met. By such 
accommodation they may maintain themselves in 
positions of leadership indefinitely. When Bis 
marck inaugurated measures of social insurance he 
appeased the socialist; by such accommodation he 
continued in power. 

A privileged class always tends to violate the 
principle of accommodation. They become react- 
ionary and by so doing provoke the liberalist to be- 
come radical. The result is generally revolution. 
Accommodation is the method of evolution; it rep- 
resents adaptation to environmental needs. 
> Accommodations may be either passive or active. 
Animal life is full of illustrations of passive accom- 


modation, a process which is the main element, 
psychologically, in organic evolution. It is a pro- 
cess in which the environment makes over the indi- 
vidual. Fraternities, college student bodies, church- 
es, a group of friends, and other groups may grad- 
ually and even subtly change an individual, espec- 
ially a young person, from a low to a high or from a 
high to a low level of living. Active accommodation, 
on the other hand, is a process whereby the individ- 
ual transforms the environment. It is represented 
for example by the social phenomena of leadership. 
The person who does something better than his fel- 
lows is in a position to modify the attitudes of his 

(5) Co-operation. Progress moves from isolation 
to co-operation. By co-operation is meant a pro- 
cess whereby the respective units are consciously 
aware of the place each may best fill in a specific 
enterprise, and best concentrate their energies up- 
on filling these places. Such co-operation is rational 
and social. 

Co-operation may represent a blind cog-in-the- 
wheel situation. Under such conditions, individuals 
not only lose their identity but also their self-con- 
sciausness. They possess no creative joy in effort; 
they are sacrificed to the god of organization. Over- 
organization represents a deadening form of activ- 
ity. In the animal world there is over-organization 


as found in a hive of bees, whose individual units 
represent not individuality but helpless subservience 
to mechanistic principles. 

Over-organization is sometimes' caused by the 
formation of too many groups. Student bodies are 
often over-organized ; modern city life may likewise 
be over-organized, so much so that many per- 
sons spend their entire time in going from com- 
mittee meeting to committee meeting. Over-organ- 
ization in this sense may easily mean over-med- 
dling. Moreover, under any conditions over-organ- 
ization means suppression of individual initiative 
and the crushing of personal growth. 

Co-operation involves multiplication of efforts. A 
group working together may generate unbounded 
enthusiasm and volitional power. There is almost 
no limit to the achievements of a thoroughly co- 
operating group. Co-operation constitutes morale. 
It also means efficiency. By specialization of effort 
with the resultant concentration of attention upon 
minutiae it is possible to secure efficiency f the 
highest type at the lowest cost, but, however, at the 
expense of human development and creativeness. 

Co-operation on the rational plane then is an 
acting together, but not so completely that the in- 
dividual units are slaves to the specific organization. 
It produces enthusiasm, morale, efficiency, re- 
doubled efforts, and at its best the highest degree 
of creative effort. 


(6) Assimilation. Assimilation is the process 
whereby the social attitudes of persons are united 
in a co-ordinated system of thought, thus pro- 
ducing a unified group, a substantial group morale, 
and leading to dependable group activity and ad- 
vance. It is a normal outgrowth of interaction, 
constructive types of conflict, accommodation, and 
co-operation. It is illustrated concretely and at 
length in the chapter on Racial Groups. 

Two more social processes remain to be analyzed, 
namely, of socialization and social control. The 
importance of these processes is so great and they 
will be referred to so frequently in the remaining 
chapters of this book that the immediate treatment 
of the theme will be merely introductory. 

3. Socialization and Social Control. A child's at- 
titudes originate in narrow, circumscribed, and sel- 
fish reactions; they also have their origin in gre- 
garious, play, and similar tendencies. In the early 
years of life the narrow and more egoistic impulses 
dominate the child. In fact their inherited force 
is so strong that life becomes a process of controlling 
and socializing them. In a sense discipline is a sys- 
tem of controlling the self-assertive forces. 

The child's gregarious and group nature also as- 
serts itself. For example, the child demands play- 
mates. If he cannot do otherwise, he will imagine 
playmates ; he will personify the material objects of 


his environment and talk to them, scold them, and 
love them. 

While deeply grounded in inherited tendencies of 
great age, the social nature and the selfish nature 
are both developed in and through group life. The 
need for group survival and individual survival are 
causal factors. The nature of the environmental 
influences controls to a large degree the develop- 
ment of the social and selfish impulses, or the group 
and anti-group behavior of the individual. 

As a person matures, as he faces one harsh ex- 
perience after another, as he sometimes loses that 
which he values highly, his social nature may secure 
the ascendency, or he may become embittered. By 
suffering, persons learn to be sympathetic and un- 
selfishly interested in the welfare of others. Provid- 
ing it does not prove too overwhelming, suffering 
acts as a socializing agency. 

As a rule the social nature is likely to be limited 
in its attitudes to a few persons, and only in general 
ways to the members of large groups. With the 
expansion of experience a person may come to iden- 
tify himself with a corporate group, an university, 
a community, or a nation. This expression often 
arises out of selfish attitudes, that is, a person may 
identify himself with a group in order to become a 
hero, to secure election to office, or to increase his 
business success. The social nature may be used 
by a person selfishly. 


Moreover, the social nature of many persons ex- 
presses itself toward only circumscribed groups, 
while the selfish nature operates toward all larger 
groups. A person can be a kind husband and fa- 
ther but anti-social in dealing with employees, or 
in racial matters. On the other hand some persons 
are arbitrary and unjust in the family circle, toward 
certain neighbors, but at the same time professing 
the finest principles of Christian brotherhood. 

The highest type of social nature is that in which 
the social attitudes are fully developed and steadily 
in control; it is one which gives unselfishly; and 
that while respecting self, gives it away without ask- 
ing or thinking: What am I going to gain? Social- 
ization involves a genuine and unselfish identifica- 
tion of one's self with the welfare of other persons, 
of one's groups, and of other groups. 

The most far-reaching social process is social con- 
trol, a process which will be analyzed in Chapters 
XVII XIX. Social control, or more specifically 
group control, is the process by which groups in- 
fluence their members. Social control utilizes so- 
cial pressures and social stimulations. The group 
usually accentuates to an extreme the use of pres- 
sures of one kind or another. It represses blindly ; 
it is suspicious of individual variations from the 
established order. 

On the other hand social control sometimes se- 
cures expression through the use of rewards, honors, 


and prizes. It usually stimulates individuals to act 
with courage along customary lines ; it is chary with 
its rewards to those whose constructive programs in- 
volve the destruction of old and revered ideas and 

Social control manifests itself most tangibly in 
the form of group structures or social institutions. 
These represent the standardizations of associative 
opinion. Social institutions are products of group 
and personal feeling and opinions. These social 
products tend to become inflexible, rigid, and im- 
perious ; they are slow to change, slower than hu- 
man needs, and hence as agents of social pressure 
they become tools of social repression. Undue and 
prolonged institutional pressure causes a virile 
group to remonstrate and leads to revolution, a 
destructive and costly method of progress. 

The leading social institutions today are the 
home, play facilities, occupations, the school, the 
church, and communities including national and in- 
ternational organizations; these have each devel- 
oped specific forms of group life. Wider social divi- 
sions are represented by rural and urban groups, 
and by racial groups. Social institutions are the 
leading tangible vehicles of control; they are also 
the objective, crystallized products of social atti- 
tudes. They hold groups steady, sometimes too 

In this chapter the leading social forces, as dis- 


tinguished from physical, biological, and socio-psy- 
chological factors have been treated under the head- 
ing of social attitudes and their inseparable com- 
plements, the social values. The social process 
has been viewed in its constitutent elements, rang- 
ing from the static factor of isolation to its highest 
constitutent process, socialization, and to its main 
technique, social or group control. Social beings 
themselves are largely the products of grouping; 
they are able to mature only in group life. Our so- 
ciological quest now takes us upon an analysis of 
the leading human groups. 


1. Analyze an attitude that you now hold, showing how it 


2. Illustrate a change in attitude that you have experienced. 

3. Illustrate the difference between an attitude and a value. 

4. Give a new illustration of isolation. 

5. Why do people co-operate? 

6. Have you experienced socialization in any regard? 

7. To how rnany groups do you belong, and how long 

have you belonged to each? 

8. In what ways have you experienced group control? 

9. Illustrate social pressure. 
}0. Illustrate social stimulation. 


OF ALL THE human groups the family is in many 
ways by far the most important. From its basic 
units, the father and mother, the child receives his 
physical heritage, that is, a strong or weak mental 
and physical organism, a healthy or puny start in 
life. From the family the child receives his social 
heritage, and his earliest attitudes toward life. The 
family's social, religious, political and other points 
of view are likely to determine his social attitudes 
for a term of years if not for life. In the family he 
learns obedience and the meaning of discipline ; the 
type of citizen that he will become is determined to 
an extent by the training he receives at home. 

When he reaches adult life, he leaves the parental 
family in order to establish a family of his own. By 
the processes of courtship and romantic love he 
marries, having chosen thoughtlessly or thought- 
fully a potential mother for the children that may 
be born into the new family group. The young 
woman possessing a mental and physical heritage, 
and having received a social heritage and a training 
from the parental family, likewise marries, having 


chosen thoughtlessly or thoughtfully a young man 
to be the father of the children that she may bear. 

The two young people, the product of two differ- 
ent family groups, establish through the social in- 
stitution of marriage their own family group. Their 
viewpoint changes, for instead of being son and 
daughter sometimes remonstrating against parental 
direction, they now play the part of disciplining 
father and mother. Thus family groups break up, 
new ones are established, and the process of per- 
sonal growth and social evolution goes on. 

1. The History of the Family. The student may 
gain an understanding of the significance of the 
family and marriage as social institutions by con- 
sidering their early history and development. 
Among primitive people the mother and child were 
the stable units in the family group. The father 
roamed, coming home irregularly, staying away for 
periods of time. The helplessness of the infant com- 
pelled the mother to lead a home life. The irregu- 
larity of the father's habits made it necessary for 
the mother to gather fruit, to plant seeds, and de- 
velop a crude form of hoe-culture. The father, en- 
gaged in the hunt and chase, led a more exciting 
life, and came in contact with a larger variety of 

In early human history the family in which the 
mother rather than the father was the leading rnem- 


her was common. It is known as the metronymic 
family. The child took the mother's name; proper- 
ty was transferred through the mother. The met- 
ronymic family was well developed, for example, 
among many North American Indian tribes. The 
Iroquois Indians have been pronounced a typical 
metronymic people, among whom the government 
of the clans was to a degree in the hands of matrons 
as women councilors, elected by the males of the 
given clans. 

Where the pastoral form of life existed and where 
flocks and herds were kept, the father was the chief 
factor in the family. The grazing of flocks and 
herds required considerable territory ; small groups 
of people widely separated from each other repre- 
sented the population situation. The wife and 
mother was removed from the influence and author- 
ity of her kindred ; the husband's power over her by 
virtue of her isolation was supreme. 

Under pastoral conditions, men owned and con- 
trolled the flocks ; the owners of the family property 
controlled in a real sense the family itself. The 
children took the father' name and inherited prop- 
erty through him ; the eldest living son usually suc- 
ceeded to the rulers hip of the family group. Warfare 
gave men increased influence over women. The 
women captured in war were held as slaves and 
wives by their captors. The form of the family 
with rfie man at the head, possessing authority over 


if not ownership of the wife and children, is known 
as the patronymic or patriarchal family. 

In early social history a method of purchasing 
wives was known. The purchased wives as well as 
the women captured in warfare were held as the 
property of the men. In these and other ways the 
patriarchal type of family life became common. At 
its best it is found among the early Hebrews. The 
Old Testament affords many descriptions of patri- 
archal families, such as those of Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob. 

The ancient Hebrew family is noted for the rel- 
atively excellent care given the children. "Honor 
thy father and thy mother; that thy days may be 
long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth 
thee." Such was the fundamental principle which 
the Hebrew family bequeathed to the world 
to the world's great gain. Because this principle is 
being ignored in many modern homes, nations are 
endangered and progress is throttled. 

An overemphasis upon parental control leads to 
ancestor worship. According to this procedure the 
welfare of the living depends upon the active good 
will of the departed ancestors. In order to insure 
one's happiness, a man's first duty is that of rear- 
ing a family that will continue the ancestral con- 
trol. China's emphasis upon family stability and 
ancestor worship explains in part her long life as a 


Ancestor worship existed among the Romans at 
an early date. The early Roman family, seven 
centuries B.C., was patriarchal; it maintained it- 
self on the religious basis of ancestor worship. The 
family life centered about the ancestral gods; the 
habitation in which the family group lived was 
virtually a temple, with the patriarchal head pos- 
sessing the power of a god over the women and 
children. The house father had almost absolute 
power over all the members of the family. He 
could not always act arbitrarily ; he was controlled 
by what he believed was the will of the ancestors. 

Property was held by the eldest living male mem- 
ber of the family ; it was held in trust for the good 
of the entire family. In early Roman times, this 
eldest living male member or house father could 
not make a will. At his death the property passed 
automatically to the eldest living son. 

Marriage was practically indissoluble and divorce 
unknown. It is said that for five centuries after the 
founding of Rome, the town had no divorces. This 
Roman family life thus was characterized by great 
stability. Although the family life was patriarchal 
and women and children were in subjection, it 
nevertheless was of a fairly high order, although 
not as elevated as the Hebrew family life at its best. 

The pendulum swung to the other extreme ; fam- 
ily life began to decay. When this disintegration 
reached its height, the fate of Rome was sealed. If 


Rome had maintained a high type of family, her 
history would undoubtedly have been entirely dif- 

The decadence was caused by several factors. The 
family began to lose its religious significance. When 
marriage became a civil contract merely, it was 
viewed too lightly. The authority of the house 
father was broken. The right to make a will was es- 
tablished. The father was first given the right to di- 
vide his property among his children, and then to 
bequeath it to whom he pleased. When the family 
property was thus broken up in units, and scattered, 
the family as an institution lost prestige. Women 
were given the right to hold property, and in the 
second century B.C. to divorce their husbands. 
Marriages were made and broken at will; tem- 
porary marriages were common ; sex relations were 
loose ; and sexual immorality flourished. 

The women of the higher social classes achieved 
emancipation, and were at liberty to do as they saw 
fit. They formed and dissolved marriages freely. 
The personal liberty of both men and women was 
extended beyond the control of their passions. 

The downfall of the family group in Roman life 
may be thus attributed to three main sets of causes. 
(1) The decay of religious beliefs, inadequate as 
they were and promulgated by narrow-minded big- 
ots, was a leading factor in the disintegration of the 
family. (2) The habits of vice, particularly of 


sexual vice, that were common among Roman 
young men and were winked at by the young 
women, undermined true love and genuine family 
life. (3) The changes in economic conditions, 
such as the expansion of commerce and manufac- 
ture, and the growth of cities tended to destroy the 
social situations in which the family had been a 
fundamental unit. 

Christianity represented the next set of influences 
that vitally affected the family as a social institu- 
ion. It began promptly upon its Western invasion 
to reconstruct the family life in Europe. (1) Chris- 
tianity brought the support of religion to the family 
again. It recognized marriage as a sacrament and 
opposed the idea that marriage is simply a civil con- 
tract; it ascribed to marriage a religious nature and 
thus gave it stability once more. 

(2) Christianity opposed divorce. When the 
church came into power in Western Europe, it 
brought about a change whereby divorce as a legal 
institution was no longer accredited. In the place 
of divorce, legal separation was recognized. The 
church took a strict attitude against divorce. 

(3) Christianity exalted the position of woman 
and secured a new interest in the welfare of chil- 
dren. For the patriarchal type of family, Christian- 
ity succeeded in substituting a semi-patriarchal 
form, in which the position of the husband and fa- 
ther while not supreme as in the case of the Hebrew, 


Greek, and early Roman families, exercised a con- 
trol out of proportion to the importance given the 
other members of the family. This type persisted in 
Western civilization until the latter part of the 
nineteenth century. In rebuilding the institution 
of the family in the early centuries, even on semi- 
patriarchal lines, Christianity performed an inesti- 
mable social service. 

With the Renaissance came the separation of the 
church and state and the consequent weakening of 
the authority of the church. Consequently, the 
family again began to lose its significance as a re- 
ligious institution. When marriage once more 
came to be regarded by many persons solely as a 
civil contract, the way was open for divorce. 

By the beginning of the nineteenth century the 
movement known as individualism had reached a 
remarkable growth. Tnis rise of individualism was 
accompanied by a decline in the part played by 
authority in social life ; the patriarchal type of fam- 
ily also began to decline, and the idea gradually de- 
veloped that either party to the marriage vows 
could break these vows according to his or her in- 
dividual desires. 

Economic changes at the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century seriously affected tjie status of the 
family. Under the domestic system of industry 
which reached its height in the eighteenth century, 
the family was the industrial unit ; all manufacture 


was carried on in the home, and all members of the 
family group as well as the helpers worked together 

The discovery of steam power, the invention of 
steam-driven machinery, and the development of 
the factory system all tended, however, to destroy 
the economic unity of the family. The members of 
the family, the men, the women, and even the boys 
and girls left the home for the factory as the place 
of work. With the breaking down of the economic 
unity of the family, there came also a disintegration 
of the social cohesion existing between the members 
of the family. 

Another influence affecting the family in West- 
ern civilization in the last century was the enor- 
mous growth of wealth. The possession of wealth 
has emancipated peoples from various forms of fear, 
even religious fears; it has tended to make them 
feel self sufficient. In other words, the growth of 
wealth has favored a lowering of moral standards 
and often a looseness in marriage relations. 

In the next place, the nineteenth century was 
one of increasing social unrest. The family felt the 
effects of this unrest, and found itself at the dawn 
of the twentieth century in the midst of social 
change and confusion. 

It is now in place to take up the thread of discus- 
sion concerning marriage in detail. Marriage is a 
procedure which admits men and women to famil} 


life, that is, to living in the socially sacred relation- 
ships of husband and wife. This procedure has so- 
cial approbation and may have religious approval, 
in fact, may be conducted under religious auspices,. 
Marriage as a social institution has had significant 

In certain parts of the earth the practice of pol- 
yandry exists. It is a form of marriage where one 
woman has more than one husband at a given time. 
It is found, for example, in Tibet, where the condi- 
tions of life are harsh and where the efforts of two 
or more men are needed in order that a family may 
be supported. It is a relatively unsatisfactory and 
rare type of marriage relationship. 

Another form of marriage that has existed to a 
small extent in all ages is polygyny, a situation in 
which one man has several living wives. Polygyny 
is closely related to the institution of slavery. Wom- 
en captured in warfare became the wives and 
slaves of their captors. A chieftain might purchase 
a dozen women for wives, in the same manner that 
he would buy any form of personal property. 

Polygyny did not develop to any extent until hu- 
man groups had accumulated some degree of 
wealth, at least, attained sufficient degree of eco- 
nomic efficiency to enable one man to support sever- 
al families. Hence, even in countries where polyg- 
yny is legal, as in Turkey and Egypt, only a small 
proportion of the people, namely, the wealthier 


practice it. 

Polygyny is based on the lower and degraded im- 
pulses of the male sex ; it exists as a sacrifice to the 
development of the highest affections. It rests upon 
the subjection and degradation of woman; it allows 
no high regard for the feelings of woman. Under 
this expression, children and aged parents suffer 
grievous neglect. Polyandry and polygyny together 
are often referred to under the single term, po- 
lygamy, meaning etymologically, much married. 

Monogamy, or the marriage of one man and one 
woman, has been always and everywhere the lead- 
ing type of marriage. In Western civilization, mo- 
nogamy has been sanctioned by custom, religion, 
and law. The social advantages of monogamy are 
now well recognized ; they have been stated by va- 
rious writers, and scientific observers agree on the 
following points. 

(1) Monogamy secures the superior care of 
children. Under it, both father and mother unite 
their efforts in the care of the children. A greater 
and better degree of attention can be given to the 
training of children by both parents under monoga- 
my than under any other expression of marriage 

(2) The monogamic family alone produces the 
highest type of affection, of altruistic love, of un- 
selfish devotion. Under polygyny, the father can- 


not devote himself fully to his children individually 
or to each of his wives because he is in reality the 
head of several households ; fatherhood in the com- 
plete sense rarely exists under polygyny. Isolation 
is common. Under monogamy, on the other hand, 
both father and mother commonly sacrifice many 
selfish desires in the mutual care of children. 

(3) Monogamy creates more definite and strong- 
er family ties than any other form of marriage ; af- 
fection between parents, between parents and chil- 
dren, and between children themselves is more 
wholesome. Legal relationships and blood relation- 
ships are simpler, less entangled, and less frequently 
the cause of permanent and annoying frictions ; the 
cohesive power of the family is greater. As a result, 
monogamic families tend to increase the unity and 
cohesiveness of society itself. 

(4) Monogamy favors not only the preservation 
of the lives of the children but also of the parents. 
It is only under monogamy that aged parents are 
cared for to any great extent by their children. Un- 
der polygyny, the wife who has grown old is likely 
to be discarded for a younger woman ; she usually 
ends her days in bitterness. The father also is rare- 
ly cared for by the children, because the polygynous 
household does not often give opportunity for close 
affection between parent and children. Under mo- 
nogamy parents are likely to receive the favoring 


care of children; under polygyny they are often 
compelled to face a friendless old age. 

In brief, monogamy presents such superior op- 
portunities for social interaction that it is better 
fitted than any other type of marriage to produce 
the most unselfish forms of love and to lay the foun- 
dations for the best forms of societary life. 

2. Present Status and Tendencies of the Family. 
Modern industrial processes have seriously upset 
the family as a social institution. In primitive 
groups and until the latter part of the eighteenth 
century in England the home was the center of man- 
ufacture. The use of steam-driven machinery was 
too expensive a process to be furthered in the family 
circle. The workers were thus called out of the 
home to labor in places where machinery had been 
set up, that is, in factories. The modern family 
scarcely manufactures anything at all ; even the im- 
mediate preparation of foods is likely to disappear 
from the home. 

This removal of industries from the home has 
been frought with danger. Parents, even mothers, 
have gone out of the home, seeking employment 
and means of supporting the family. The employ- 
ment of married women in factories has brought 
about the isolation and neglect of children, who 
have roamed the streets, acquiring mischievous hab- 
its and falling into delinquency. 


As a result, much has been said recently concern- 
ing pensions for mothers. It often happens that 
a family with small means is suddenly left in the 
world without a male wage earner. The husband 
and father suffers death, or he may desert the fam- 
ily. He may have no savings or life insurance, and 
the wife and mother is left without financial re- 
sources. In seeking work outside the home, the 
mother leaves early in the morning and returns late 
at night. The children must get along as best they 
may without supervision except such as the older 
are able to give. They are sometimes boarded out, 
or again they may be turned over to an orphans' 

The idea underlying the program of pensions for 
mothers is that of furnishing money by the county, 
the state, or both, not to some institution to take 
care of the specific children, but to the mother her- 
self so that she will not need to work outside the 
home. In this way the mother is kept in her home 
to take care of the children, and the family as far 
as possible is kept intact. If the mother is uned- 
ucated, she is given instruction by the agents of 
the county or state. There are numerous possibili- 
ties of taking advantage of such measures for in- 
dividual gain; sometimes, a shiftless father is en- 
couraged to desert, knowing that the county or state 
will look after the family. On the whole, however, 
mothers' pensions if carefully administered are so- 


cially wise. 

The present status of the family, particularly in 
the United States, is unstable. Never were so many 
marriages being legally dissolved as now. For many 
decades the United States has held the unenviable 
position of leading Europe and America in the num- 
ber of divorces granted. Several years ago when a 
survey was made, it was found that there were 20,- 
000 more marriages legally dissolved annually in 
this country than in all the rest of the Christian 
civilized world combined. At that time in France 
one marriage was legally dissolved to every thirty 
ceremonies performed ; in Germany, only one mar- 
riage was legally dissolved to every forty-four mar- 
riage ceremonies performed ; in England, only one 
marriage was legally dissolved to every 400 mar- 
riage ceremonies performed; but in the United 
States the proportion was one to twelve, and in 
some of the cities the proportion was even one to 
six and one to five. 

A few years later another survey was made. It 
showed that in 1916 there were six counties 
in five states of the United States which had more 
divorces than marriages. In Pawnee County, Okla- 
homa, the ratio was one divorce to every .77 of a 
marriage. Washoe County, Nevada, Trinity Coun- 
ty, California, Rutherford County, Tennessee, Un- 
ion and Clackamas Counties, Oregon, were the oth- 
er communities with unenviable records. Seattle 


outrivalled Reno as a divorce center, and Atlanta 
and Savannah also challenged Reno's record. The 
entire state of Nevada showed one divorce for 1.54 
marriages; and Indiana, the tenth state from the 
top of the list of divorce rates listed one divorce to 
every 5.94 marriages. 

Not only does the United States lead the world 
in the number of legally dissolved marriages, but 
this dissolution seems to be increasing much more 
rapidly than the population, perhaps three times as 
rapidly. If this tendency is maintained, it will not 
be many decades before the family as a permanent 
union between husband and wife will no longer be 
common. If the United States should reach the 
place where one-half of all marriages are dissolved 
in the courts, the social conditions of such a time 
will probably be no better than those in the declin- 
ing days of Rome. 

It appears that the rate at which marriages are 
legally dissolved is higher as a rule in the cities 
than in the surrounding country districts. The rate 
is apparently from two to four times as high among 
childless couples as among those who have children. 
Parental duties and privileges are strong factors in 
preventing a break in the marriage relation. 

It also appears that legally dissolved marriages 
are relatively most frequent among persons of no 
religious profession, next most common among 
Protestants, next among Jews, and least common 


among Catholics. The fact that some marriages 
are not dissolved is not necessarily proof, however, 
that they should not be dissolved, and that vicious 
family conditions do not exist. The rate at which 
marriages are dissolved by law is much higher in 
the United States, among native whites than among 
immigrants a fact partly due to the traditional at- 
titudes and the religious control by which many im- 
migrants are governed. 

Of all the marriages dissolved by the courts in 
the United States within recent decades, approxi- 
mately two-thirds have been broken at the request 
of the wife. This indicates that women are becom- 
ing emancipated ; they are not submitting to abuses 
on the part of their husbands as they did formerly. 
Another conclusion is that men are the cause for 
breaking the marriage bond more frequently than 
are women. 

The grounds that are given in the courts for dis- 
solving the marriage bond in the United States are 
numerous, such as cruelty, sexual immorality, 
and neglect on the part of the husband to provide 
for the family. In perhaps two-thirds of the cases, 
the marriage bond had been dissolved in spirit be- 
fore the courts made the dissolution formal. 

To an appreciable extent, the legal breaking up of 
families is a symptom of more serious evils. Mar- 
riage itself is being taken with an increasing lack 
of seriousness ; it is losing its religious sanction and 


being treated as any ordinary promise. In certain 
classes of society, the wealthiest and the poorest, 
there is a noticeable decay of the very virtues upon 
which the family rests. Family life requires self- 
sacrifice, chastity, and the assumption of responsi- 
bility for the welfare of other individuals. 

The causes of the instability of the family par- 
ticularly in Western civilization may now be sum- 
marized. (1) The first of the causes that may be 
cited is the decay of the religious view of marriage 
and the family. It is historically true that no stable 
life has existed anywhere without a religious basis, 
but within recent years in the United States, for 
example, religious sentiments, beliefs, ideals, and 
attitudes, have become increasingly disassociated 
from marriage and the family. Consequently many 
people unfortunately have come to regard the in- 
stitutions of marriage and the family largely as a 
matter of personal convenience. 

(2) The second leading cause of the increasing 
instability of the family may be given as the exag- 
gerated spirit of individualism and self satisfaction. 
This spirit leads a person to find the guide to his 
actions in his own wishes, whims, or caprices; it 
gives him an attitude of carelessness concerning so- 
cial welfare. This spirit has expressed itself in the 
phrase, I should worry ; it has tended to make all 
the social institutions unstable, especially the fam- 
ily, for the family rests upon attitudes of group re- 



(3) The emancipation of woman has sometimes 
increased family instability. The emancipation of 
woman in the sense of freeing her from the hin- 
drances to the best and noblest development of her 
personality is entirely desirable, but this freedom 
has meant some opportunities for going down as 
well as many for going up. To some women it has 
meant license, or licentiousness. 

The Roman women, it may be remembered, 
achieved complete emancipation; but that victory 
did not lead to Roman progress. On the contrary, 
the emancipation of woman in Rome led to her deg- 
radation, and to the demoralization of Roman 
family life. This result of course is not necessarily 
an accompaniment of woman's emancipation ; it de- 
pends in part upon woman's underlying attitude in 
the matter and upon the spirit of the times. That 
the woman's movement has played a part in the in- 
creasing instability of the modern family is shown 
by the fact that some of the influential leaders in 
that movement advocated free divorce, which may 
be cited as a causal factor in the rise of a careless 
attitude toward marriage. 

(4) The growth of modern industrialism is an- 
other cause of the instability of the family. The 
opening of a large number of new industrial occu- 
pations to woman has rendered her to a degree eco- 
nomically independent of family relationships. 


Furthermore, this development has tended to take 
many married women out of the home and into the 
factory. The result has been harmful to the home ; 
too many homes are simply lodging places. 

Through the development of opportunities to 
work in factories and stores, and increased social 
interaction, many girls have failed to learn the do- 
mestic arts, and to receive training in home-mak- 
ing. Therefore, when they have come to the posi- 
tion of wife and mother they have frequently been 
totally unfitted. Through their lack of knowledge 
of, and of interest in, home-making, they have made 
home life unstable. 

(5) The proportion of American families that 
are giving up their homes for "the cheerless ex- 
istence in a boarding house or hotel'' is a disturbing 
fact. What does it mean, that a rapidly increasing 
part of the population finds the boarding house pref- 
erable to the home? It may be that the burden 
of housekeeping is becoming too heavy to compen- 
sate for the possession of a home. It may be asked, 
however, what is to compensate for the giving up of 
the home and home life by that increasing host of 
young married people who are choosing a homeless 
boarding house existence. 

(6) The growth of tenement districts and the 
rise in land rents have operated against sound fami- 
ly life. It has been frequently declared that a nor- 
mal home can scarcely exist in many of the tene- 


merit habitations of the large cities. Where a fam- 
ily of three or four members, with perhaps a male 
lodger, live in a one-room habitation, a normal 
family life is impossible; the social interaction 
tends to lower moral standards. 

(7) To the other extreme is the fact that the 
high social standards of living required in certain 
sections of the large cities are a cause of family in- 
stability. Many persons maintain luxurious stand- 
ards of living in order to gain prestige in the groups 
in which they have their associates, but these 
standards often are out of proportion to incomes. 
The maintenance of a home where standards of 
living are rising faster than incomes is often a cause 
of serious domestic unhappiness. 

(8) A late age of marriage is sometimes another 
causal factor. In the professions it is hardly wise 
for a young man to marry much earlier than the 
thirties ; at any rate an independent income in the 
professions is possible not much earlier than the 
age of thirty. The high economic standard of liv- 
ing which a young woman of wealthy parents may 
set before a young man who is getting started in a 
profession, leads to the postponement of marriage. 
People who marry after thirty sometimes find dif- 
ficulty in becoming adjusted to each other's habits ; 
the maladjustments may lead to unstable marriage 


(9) An increasing degree of knowledge of the 
laws regarding divorce and an increasing laxity of 
these laws have produced family instability. A few 
centuries ago the law was rarely resorted to except 
by the wealthy classes. Many people would not 
have thought of divorce even fifty years ago ; similar 
people today know the laws concerning divorce 
and sometimes deliberately prepare to secure it. 

The laws concerning the legal dissolution of mar- 
riage are more lax in the United States than in 
almost any other Christian nation. The adminis- 
tration of these laws is also lax; their lack of uni- 
formity is unfortunate. Although the people of 
Canada and of England are similar in culture and 
institutions to the people of the United States, 
their divorce rate is very low, a situation which is 
partly explained by the fact that the Canadian and 
English laws are comparatively strict. An easy way 
out of marriage is one of the causes of bad mar- 

(10) Poor marriages are perhaps the chief cause 
of divorces. It was this discovery which Dr. George 
Elliott Howard was the first to make. Many per- 
sons assume that marriage is not a serious affair. 
If they make hasty choices that result in unhappi- 
ness, they appeal to the divorce law. Marriage on 
short acquaintance too often proves a delusion. If 
given a reasonable amount of time, what is thought 
to be real affection would prove to be a passing 


fancy or sex passion. The marriage of a chaste 
woman with a sexually immoral or diseased "gen- 
tleman" causes family instability. A requirement 
that a marriage license must be secured several days 
before the marriage occurs would be socially ad- 

Lax marriage laws rest upon a lax public opin- 
ion in regard to the need of a more stable family 
life. More knowledge about the means of securing 
family stability, together with a wide distribution 
of this knowledge would produce more wholesome 

The instability of the modern family may go 
from bad to worse until a nation such as the United , 
States destroys itself, even as Rome decayed ; or it 
may be met by a new constructive and socialized 
attitude on the part of individuals and of or- 
ganized groups. The outcome may depend en- 
tirely upon the attitude toward marriage and the 
family that individuals and groups choose to en- 
courage. The destruction or reconstruction of the 
family is within human choice. 



1. Define a good husband. 

2. Explain the statement that woman has domesticated 


3. Explain: "No one marries the real man." 

4. Why is a marriage taken by many people with a lack of 


5. What is feminism? 

6. In what ways is home life in the country better than in 

the city? 

7. Show how "table talk" has an educational value. 

8. What are the effects upon home life of moving every 


9. Should every girl learn to cook? 

10. Should every girl learn home-making before she goes 

to work in a factory or store? 

11. Which are the greater, the advantages or the disadvan- 

tages of being an only child? 

12. Explain the statement that the rich man's wife is often 

a parasite? 

13. "Is the attitude of the public the same toward the 

man who has married money, as toward the man 
who has made money"? 

14. Should every young woman have a profession? Why? 

15. Are women inherently better than men? 

16. Should women become more masculine? 

17. What are the different types of marriages? 

18. What is the social function of an "engagement" period 

before marriage? 

19. Should wealthy women resent being forced "to spend 

their time in the meaningless round of luncheons, teas, 
bridge-parties, and stereotyped charities?" 

20. How far does the welfare of society rest on the welfare 

of the home? 




3. HOUSING THE FAMILY. Housing conditions 
exercise a degree of control over family life. Un- 
derhousing, especially, hinders the maintenance of 
normal moral conditions in the home, besides weak- 
ening the physical morale. 

The earliest family groups were very crudely 
housed. Cave houses and tree houses prevailed. 
The invention of the hall house, rectangular in 
shape, containing one room with the fireplace in 
the center, with no windows and perhaps no chim- 
ney, and accommodating more than one family 
represented a distinct advance. Today the variety 
of houses is indeterminable; the elegance of some 
is the best that wealth and artistic talent can devise. 
The owners however of colonial mansions, Califor- 
nia bungalows, or Swiss chalets are often unmind- 
ful of the fact that for many laboring people modest 
homes of their own are impossibilities. 

When sixty per cent of the people of a prosperous 
country such as the United States, with its three 
million square miles of land, are unable to own 
their own homes, and when they live their entire 


days on other people's land, a social situation has 
developed that demands earnest attention. With 
land in certain congested parts of the largest cities 
selling at a thousand dollars a front foot, with tene- 
ments rearing their sooty heads a hundred feet high, 
with a housing shortage so constant and acute that 
no matter how dilapidated a building may be, some 
one is willing to live in it, is it not time that hous- 
ing the family should be considered a problem of 
national and world welfare? 

The housing problem develops when more than 
one family group try to live in a dwelling scarcely 
large enough for a single family. Each city in the 
United States has its housing problem, namely, 
how shall it house its people from a healthy and so- 
cial viewpoint? Although New York City alone 
in the United States has a tenement house problem, 
all other large cities are tending toward tenement 
house conditions. 

Housing the family is a serious problem for an 
increasing percentage of the world's population; 
housing evils are everywhere developing. (1) Over- 
crowding is of two types, land overcrowding and 
room overcrowding. The first mentioned refers to 
the overcrowding of limited areas of land with an 
undue population, in such a way that a fair level of 
living standards cannot be maintained. Under 
specific circumstances a thousand people might 
be housed satisfactorily, as in an elegant hotel; 


whereas under other conditions two hundred people 
might be housed unhealthily upon the same area of 
land, especially they who live in shacks without 
sanitary control. 

Room overcrowding refers to a situation where 
too many persons are occupying a given number of 
rooms, especially sleeping rooms. In many cities 
the standard is a minimum amount of 400 or 500 
cubic feet of air for each adult per room. Such a 
standard may be entirely inadequate, for ventilation 
is more important than the amount of air space. 
It is also important that sunshine and light reach 
into every living room, particularly sleeping rooms. 
It is far better to permit a family to sleep in a room 
containing only 400 cubic feet of air per adult, of 
good quality and frequently renewed, than to per- 
mit them to sleep in a room containing three times 
that amount of air which cannot be renewed 
through ventilation. 

(2) Closely related to overcrowding is the lack of 
health facilities. In addition to ventilation, sun- 
shine, and light, the necessary health facilities in- 
clude adequate plumbing with preferably separated 
facilities for each family, proper collection of gar- 
bage, and fixed responsibility for the cleanliness of 
those parts of the building which are used in com- 
mon by several families. 

It is surprising how anyone who breathes con- 
tinually the foul air of the tenement can keep 


healthy. In the "dark, damp rooms"of the poor, 
the germs of disease live and multiply; sunshine 
and fresh air are not there to destroy them. Ty- 
phoid and other fevers are prevalent because of an 
impure water supply and a lack of drainage. The 
highest death rate from tuberculosis is generally 
found where the proportion of overcrowded hous- 
ing conditions is highest. 

(3) High rent constitutes another housing evil. 
It is caused in part by an extraordinary demand for 
houses. As a result, people huddle together in in- 
creasingly close and mean quarters. With every in- 
crease in a city's population either by birth or im- 
migration, the demand for housing space rises and 
the rents go up. 

(4) The misuse of the principle of the private 
ownership of land causes unduly high rents and 
housing evils. Land speculation tends to force 
land prices up and to make housing conditions 
harsher for the poor. Housing speculation also 
produces disastrous results, for many dwellings are 
"built to sell, not to house." 

Prices have already reached the level in large 
cities where it is impossible for the poorer people 
to own their own homes, no matter how thrifty and 
industrious they may be. With land selling at a 
hundred or a thousand dollars or more a front foot, 
and being occupied with four story or ten or twelve 
story tenements, the poor man cannot hope to own 


a home. Good farm land in the United States is 
also reaching a price level which a young man with 
only slight financial means and with a family can- 
not pay for. This increasing degree of tenancy and 
renting is a main cause of the marked social rest- 
lessness of the time. More than 95 per cent of the 
people in the tenement districts of New York City 
are living in hired habitations ; other millions, par- 
ticularly of the industrial classes, are homeless in 
the sense of being renters and tenants, in fact over 
sixty per cent of the entire population of the United 
States are so situated. 

(5) The taking in of lodgers is usually found 
along with high rents and overcrowding. With an in- 
crease in land values and in rent, a lodger may be 
added to the family group, so that the increased 
housing expense may be met. The moral effects of 
taking in lodgers by families already living in one 
or two rooms are serious. 

(6) Lack of play space is the rule where habita- 
tions are congested. Hallways, dark stairways, 
side-alleys, and rear-alleys are the only places 
about the home where millions of children may 
play. (7) The tendencies to vice and crime which 
accompany overcrowding, the lodger evil, and the 
lack of play space are many. Dark alleys and pro- 
miscuous living conditions tend to degrade children 
and adults alike. 

(8) In cities people are rated socially according 


to the topographical location of their homes. Those 
who do the manual work generally occupy the low- 
est geographical levels. The heights and the com- 
manding spots are occupied by the people with 
wealth, irrespective of their services to the given 
city. Between these extremes the middle classer 
live. An American novelist has made much of the 
point that one's social rating depends in part upon 
the altitude in a city at which he is able to house 
his family. As he acquires a large competence, he 
moves up geographically and refuses to live down 

The causes of housing evils are frequently classed 
as three-fold. One of the leading causal factors of 
the housing problem is the failure of the citizens 
of a community to recognize housing evils as they 
arise. The ignorance of many persons in cities re- 
garding the housing conditions that are developing 
within the city's gates is surprising. This situation 
illustrates the general lack of social knowledge. 
Furthermore, when bad housing conditions are rec- 
ognized as arising within a community, the failure 
of the citizens to take an effective interest in recti- 
fying the untoward situation is a startling commen- 
tary on prevailing social attitudes. 

A second leading cause of poor housing, as shown 
pointedly by Lawrence Veiller, is greed on the part 
of landlords. For the sake of large profits on their 
investments, many landlords are willing to sacrifice 


the health and welfare of relatively helpless people. 
Many make no repairs except under compulsion, 
and care little whether tenants live or die, so long 
as large financial returns are netted from property. 

A third leading cause of poor housing is ignorance 
on the part of poor people ignorance concerning 
the nature of health, sanitation, and minimum 
living standards. From one-sixth to one-half the 
populations of large cities have never had the op- 
portunity of learning about the recent advances 
in sanitary science, household economics, and per- 
sonal hygiene; they are practically excluded from 
all these benefits. There are whole sections of 
large urban populations which, as regards the prev- 
alence of ill health and disease, and their ignorance 
of the laws of health and sanitation, are still living 
in the Dark Ages. 

At least eight different methods of controlling 
the housing of the family may be noted. (1) A 
laissez faire reliance on private capital and on the 
law of supply and demand for houses encourages 
private building initiative but does not conserve 
the needs of families for well-built homes and does 
not prevent speculation in a necessity of life. (2) 
The building of model tenements by individuals 
sets a fine example, but does not provide adequate 
housing for more than a fraction of those needing 
homes. (3) Municipally owned and operated ten- 
ements have been a success in Germany and Great 


Britain. Their feasibility on a large scale in the 
United States is doubtful, because municipal gov- 
ernments are subject to inefficiency and "politics." 
(4) The establishment of garden cities is praise- 
worthy, but meets the needs of only a limited per- 
centage of city people. 

(5) Better sanitary and health measures for reg- 
ulating the activities of private builders are neces- 
sary, but they do not hinder rents from rising, and 
overcrowding from becoming common. (6) If not 
carried too far, the reduction of taxes on houses and 
improvements and an increase of taxes on land in 
cities, graduated according to the unearned incre- 
ment serves to make possible better housing con- 
ditions. (7) Rapid transportation at low rates gives 
the working classes a chance to house themselves 
well. Many people however prefer to live near their 
work. Rapid transit moreover affords only tempo- 
rary relief unless terminals are continually exten- 
ded, and people are encouraged to move farther and 
farther away from their work. 

(8) Constant, persistent education of the public 
concerning housing conditions is essential. In or- 
der to secure adequate housing laws and proper 
administration of them, public opinion must give 
steady support to socially-minded legislators and 

It was Ruskin who pointed out that in 6000 years 
of building houses, we have not yet learned how to 


house all human families. If the chief end of life 
is to live helpfully, then it is a matter of prime im- 
portance that all the people live in houses which 
are conducive to health, safety, and morality. Ade- 
quate housing is so related to proper homing that 
it becomes a matter too socially vital to be left in 
the field of selfish speculation; it can be handled 
well only through socialized control. 

4. Socializing the Family. The family in West- 
ern civilization is undoubtedly at present in a tran- 
sitional stage. The patriarchal family once pre- 
vailed widely ; it was good for its day and age. In 
recent decades the development of democratic ideas 
has produced a movement for socializing the family. 
The patriarchal family made the husband and fa- 
ther the authority, and the wife and the mother a 
subordinate; the new movement would divide the 
authority between husband and wife, and establish 
a richer type of co-operation. 

To change the family from one in which the hus- 
band exercises full control to a democratic type in 
which husband and wife share the authority more 
or less equally is a difficult task; the processes of 
nature cannot be modified rapidly. In many family 
groups, a socialized control has been established; 
but in most families in Western civilization the 
spirit of domestic democracy has not been recog- 
nized or else it is being tried, resulting in varying 
degrees of co-operation. The new family is a group 


whose life is based not primarily on the fear and 
force of authority, but on the drawing power of 
mutual respect and affection ; it is one in which love 
alone controls. 

In a transition from the autocratic family group 
to the new socialized type, there must result neces- 
sarily much confusion and instability. Whenever 
old habits are being replaced by new ones in the 
life of the individual, a period of instability occurs ; 
thus it is also with group life. Hence the present 
instability of the family should not be viewed too 
depressingly ; it need not last unduly long if every- 
one will put forth effort and exercise foresight to- 
ward the working out of a democratic family life. 

Such a family type must be controlled by chastity 
and a single and the same standard of morals for 
both men and women. Sex purity is essential to a 
true democracy in the family. The discussion of 
sex morality has been a much avoided subject. It 
has been tabooed by parents usually through prud- 
ish considerations. It has been ignored by the 
school, an institution from which the child should 
receive the instruction which will best fit him for 
wise living. It has been neglected by the church, 
which has stood for public and private morality. It 
has had an, open field chiefly among the gamins of 
the street, and hired men on farms. 

Illegal or immoral relations between the sexes 
have existed in all ages. The difficulties in the way 


of socially controlling the sex instinct have been 
and are almost insurmountable. When uncon- 
trolled the sex instinct produces sterile and diseased 
men and women, preventing a normal family life 
altogether. It has taken thousands of girls and 
women annually as a sacrifice in the United States 
alone. The virtues and bodies of girls and women 
have been highly commercialized, annually return- 
ing to evil-minded procurers and managers, even in 
the United States, millions of dollars. The segrega- 
tion of sexually depraved girls and women in dis- 
tricts has been and is a flaring blotch upon civiliza- 
tion, testifying that men and women have sunk 
lower in the control of their passions than swine. 

Sex immorality leads to serious diseases, namely, 
venereal diseases, so subtle in their processes that 
years after they have been pronounced cured by 
competent physicians they may break forth, con- 
taminating virtuous wives and helpless babes. The 
busiest specialty of medicine is that concerned with 
venereal diseases. Disabilities, suffering, surgical 
operations, premature death follow in the wake of 
these diseases, as they populate hospitals and asy- 
lums with human wrecks. Perhaps the most re- 
volting phase of these deep-seated infections is the 
way in which many men having sown "wild oats" 
in pre-marriage days are guilty of transmitting a 
dangerous venereal disease to innocent wives. 

Ten causes of unchastity, a leading enemy of a 


socialized family, will be noted. (1) The love of 
mammon is perhaps the chief cause ; financial gain 
is placed ahead of family ideals. (2) Masculine 
selfishness and uncontrolled sex desire rank a close 
second as causal factors. (3) The habit of some girls 
and women of excusing their brothers or sons in 
being a little "wild" is another leading cause. (4) 
Feminine weakness for male adulation and flattery, 
for the luxuries which some men use to delude 
women, and feminine looseness of morals are de- 
termining factors. (5) Closely packed populations 
in congested urban districts furnish breeding places 
for sex immorality. (6) The countenancing of a 
double standard of morals operates disastrously 
against the family. A woman"who succombs once 
illegally to her sex nature becomes a social outcast ; 
but a man who habitually violates sex virtues and 
whose evil practices are known, may remain a so- 
cial lion and be received with open arms in polite 
society. For this social situation women may be 
more too blame than men. (7) Some men and 
many women owe their initial sex debauch to the 
influence of the unregulated public dance hall and 
of alcoholic liquor. (8) A double standard of med- 
ical regulations is also a cause. At present, cases of 
smallpox must be reported to the health department 
but venereal diseases which follow sex immorality 
and which are as virulent as smallpox and far more 
widespread, must not be reported to the public 


health authorities, and furthermore, public meas- 
ures cannot be taken to prevent their spread to the 
innocent. (9) Poverty leads many a girl to her sex 
downfall. She is enticed by the lure of expensive 
clothes which her wages cannot buy, and gives in to 
a quick but demoralizing means of securing the lure. 
(10) A lack of adequate moral and religious char- 
acter is perhaps fundamental to nearly all cases of 
sex depravity. 

A socialized family rests on the principle of mu- 
tual self sacrifice. A sound ethics is believed by 
many persons to be sufficient for the maintenance 
of domestic democracy; other persons hold that a 
rational religious view, particularly such as is rep- 
resented by Christianity in its socialized interpre- 
tations, is more closely in harmony with the prin- 
ciples of self sacrifice upon which the socialized 
family must rest than any other force in the world. 

A socialized family life is also a vital factor in 
true religion. If a child grows up without receiving 
any religious training in the family he is not likely 
to develop a deep and abiding religious attitude. 
The family undoubtedly gave Christianity its con- 
cept of human brotherhood, derived from the part 
that is played by the brother in a well directed 
home. It is also probable that the religious idea 
of a Divine Fatherhood did not develop until after 
the family had put a meaning of genuine love into 
the term, father. 


The socialized family rests upon wise marriages. 
If there were democratic marriage ideals, includ- 
ing heredity, health, moral, and religious standards 
of the highest order, openly proclaimed and prac- 
ticed, the family would be safe. These ideals should 
not favor the marriage of persons of too great differ- 
ence in age, of too wide a racial difference, of per- 
sons with venereal diseases, or who are mentally 
defective. The requirement that a certain length of 
time should elapse between the securing of the li- 
cense and the marriage, and the law requiring that 
a health certificate be obtained before marriage are 
intended to protect society from ill-planned and 
hasty marriages. 

Legislation alone, however, cannot go far in so- 
cializing the family. If the family is hampered by 
wrong attitudes toward it, then legislation cannot 
set matters right. The public should learn in what 
ways the family is a socially necessary institution, 
and hence is socially sacred. Marriage needs to be 
viewed not as an expression of a narrowly selfish 
love; and the family not as a temporary group ar- 

Socializing the family is an educational process. 
It is in the home itself that individuals can acquire 
early and effectively the attitude that marriage and 
the family are superior institutions. It is here that 
the responsibilities and opportunities of fatherhood 
can best be taught. Girls, and boys also, can learn 


here too that motherhood represents the most im- 
portant social service which a woman can perform. 

The family was the first human school ; it is also 
the best school. The most effective teaching is be- 
ing done in and through the family. The education 
of every person normally begins in the family ; the 
child's most important educative period is spent in 
the home. The education of the child in the prin- 
ciples of health and sex hygiene can usually be given 
best in the home. There is no better place than 
the home in which a child may learn obedience, 
discipline, and other social concepts. The family 
group life has magnificent opportunities in the field 
of moral training. The family may easily become 
the greatest socializing institution in the world. 

The main function of the family is to train chil- 
dren to become worthy parents, neighbors, and citi- 
zens. After thousands of years of human history 
nothing superior to or as good as the family has 
developed for the training of children. Marriage 
and the family determine the heredity of nearly all 
children; they also exercise control over the care 
and upbringing of the rising generation. Although 
it may be built of logs and characterized by humble 
circumstances, the home may still function as the 
great schoolroom of the human race. 

Century after century the family has survived. 
It is the mature judgment of all who have thought 
upon the history of human society that the family is 


the most important social institution. It has im- 
proved with time. Its usefulness has not been sur- 
passed. It is as sacred as religion. It is the master- 
piece among the creations of nature, of society, and 
of God. 


1. Why are so many American families giving up their 

homes and moving into apartments or flats? 

2. Which is better for the family, the single dwelling or 

the flat? 

3. Explain the statement that every American city has its 

housing problem. 

4. Why is there so much overcrowding in the United States 

when at the same time there is so much spacious 
territory ? 

5. Illustrate the statement: There is no room to live 


6. Why are tuberculosis and crowded housing conditions 

found together? 

7. Why are good people who live in large apartment 

houses negligent as to how the janitor of the apart- 
ment building is housed? 

8. Why do many poor people keep the windows closed in 

sleeping rooms? 

9. If you were a wage-earner and your rent were suddenly 

raised, would you take in lodgers or move into a 
smaller number of rooms? 

10. Is the percentage of people who own their homes in the 
United States decreasing or increasing? 


11. Why are people who "live up geographically" in any 

city rated higher socially than those who "live down 

12. Why do many landlords feel no responsibility for the 

poor health conditions which their properties gen- 

13. What is the "unearned increment," and how does it 

affect the question of housing? 

14. Who suffers when men speculate in land values? 

15. What is a municipal lodging house, and is it necessary? 

16. What percentage of a man's income should be spent 

for rent? 

17. Explain the statement that you can kill a man, woman, 

or child just as surely with a tenement as with a gun. 

18. What is "zoning," and its purpose? 

19. Is it true that the most successful person in the world 

is he or she who helps to rear socially-minded and 
socially-behaving children? 


EVERY CHILD functions early in life as a member / 
of a play group. At the age of two or three years 
he has become a play group participator, associating 
in play with brothers, sisters, and parents, and also 
with neighborhood and other acquaintanceship 
children. Childhood and adolescence are largely 
play group phenomena. Moreover the play atti- 
tude functions in normal human beings throughout 

1. The Play Attitude. The function of the play 
attitude has been interpreted variously. (1) The 
Romans held that play is a natural expression of 
the life-energies and should be gratified without re- 
straint. The social product was uncontrolled li- 
centiousness and demoralizing institutions. 

(2) Early Christianity promptly reacted against 
Nero's interpretation of the play attitude and swung 
to the opposite extreme of urging that play be sup- 
pressed. Live seriously as a preparation for the 
next world, became the Augustinian dictum. Al- 
cuin, the celebrated English educator of the Middle 


Ages, developed this theory of the function of play, 
and it became dominant in Europe for many cen- 
turies. This rigid form of control received expres- 
sion in the Puritanic attitude toward amusements, 
and prevailed in the United States until the latter 
part of the nineteenth century. 

It was believed that play is useless, or worse still, 
it is frivolous. It should be discouraged and sup- 
pressed. At best it is a relatively harmless way of 
amusing children who are too young to be doing 
anything useful. 

(3) In the closing decades of the last century 
several other philosophic theories of play secured 
recognition. Herbert Spencer, following the sug- 
gestion of Schiller, argued that play is essentially 
an expression of surplus energy. When a growing 
child accumulates an overflow of energy, he plays. 
This theory, however, does not account for the girl, 
for example, who "jumps the rope" until she falls 
from exhaustion. 

t The recapitulation theory, w r hich received the 
attention of John Fiske, held that a child in his play 
life is primarily living over rapidly the stages of 
racial development. In his earlier plays he is ex- 
periencing the days of savagery of the race. Then he 
becomes interested in play activities which represent 
the days of barbarism. When he later comes to 
take part in team plays and co-operative sports, 
he is said to have reached the stage of civilization 


in his play development. 

In recent years play has been defined by writers, 
such as Grosse, as an instinctive preparation for life. 
In playing with a spool, that is, in rolling and catch- 
ing a spool, a kitten is getting ready for the serious 
business of catching mice. The kitten is thereby de- 
veloping claw and eye co-ordinations, which will 
in due time be useful in procuring food. In like 
manner the plays of a lamb are a preparation for 
the life of a grazing animal. The plays of a small 
boy are preparing him for activities of building, con- 
structing, and acquiring. The plays of a small girl 
with her dolls are fitting her for motherhood. Ac- 
cording to this interpretation of the function of play, 
it would seem that play is "a first-class educational 

Play teaches respect for law. In no other way 
can a boy so fully realize for himself the value of 
law as on the playground. By the same token he 
learns respect for others, acquires habits of co- 
operation, and sacrifices selfish ambitions for the 
welfare of the group. 

Play has been explained by John Dewey as those 
activities which are not consciously performed for 
the sake of any reward beyond themselves. They 
contain their own motives. Prizes do not need to 
be devised in order to get children to play; as soon 
as prizes are offered, the goal in play becomes 
objective and play itself becomes work. 


The play impulses have been pronounced nature's 
way and God's way of developing body, mind, and 
character. "The Creator has purposely set the be- 
ginning of life in a joyful mood." None of these 
theories is entirely correct, but all contain more or 
less truth. A true explanation will combine the 
valid elements in all the theories, and add newly 
discovered factors. 

Play is perhaps not only a preparation for life, 
but also a preparation for more life. He who ceases 
to maintain the play attitude, ages rapidly and dies ; 
he shrinks within himself. It is an important ac- 
complishment to be able to turn from a day's work 
and forget the perplexities of that day's work in 
play. Play has been called the sovereign re-creator 
necessary especially for the adult worker. Play is 
no luxury ; it is a natural method of developing self 
control and a social attitude. It needs to be main- 
tained throughout life. 

With the development of the ideal of eight hours 
for work, eight hours for leisure, and eight hours 
for rest, the leisure time problem becomes a problem 
of prime importance. Commercial interests have 
capitalized these leisure time phenomena for pur- 
poses of profit. Belatedly, the social uses of leisure 
time have been receiving attention. 

Play is a problem of one-third of life. The leisure 
hours are becoming as important as the work hours. 
Civilization, asserts Frederick C. Howe, depends 


largely on the way people use their leisure hours. 
These may mean recuperation from work or the 
acquisition of vicious habits, the invigoration of 
body and mind, or the destruction of life itself. The 
leisure hours of a hundred million people are becom- 
ing as important to the nation as the hours spent at 
work, or as the time spent in school by children. 

The social situation regarding play in a country 
such as the United States has changed in the last 
century. A hundred years ago all the natural activ- 
ities of life centered in the home group. They could 
be expressed within the physical limits of the home 
and under the direction of home control. 

The modern city has changed this social situa- 
tion. Formerly when boys could expend their ener- 
gies upon hillside and meadow and in the barnyard 
of the rural home, their activities were relatively 
normal. Today in the city, when boys must play up- 
on narrow streets, crowded with traffic, lined with 
shops and automobile trucks, the parents are help- 
less. The public must exercise a degree of wise con- 

Today when a large percentage of girls who learn 
to dance, do so away from home and in dancing 
academies commercially established and operated 
for profit, the quality of these academies becomes a 
matter with which the public has every need to con- 
cern itself. As Michael M. Davis, Jr. has indicated, 
the individual parent is helpless before a condition 


which may mean the physical and moral destruc- 
tion of his child. 

The modern city in giving boys and girls oppor- 
tunities to earn money at an early age and then 
leaving them free and often unguided in spending 
their money "as they choose in the midst of vice 
deliberately disguised as pleasure" is negligent. Ap- 
parently, continues Jane Addams, the modern city 
sees in working girls, for example, two main pos- 
sibilities, both of them commercial : first, a chance 
to use day by day their new and immature labor 
power in its factories and shops ; and then another 
chance in the evening to extract from them their 
wages by catering to their love of amusement and 

As a result of the play processes, so dominant and 
natural, two leading types of play institutions have 
developed. These social products are the result of 
the commercialization and the socialization of play. 

2. The Commercialization of Play. Commercial 
enterprise has taken advantage of the play attitude 
and turned it into dollars for the benefit of a few 
amusement promoters. It has furnished amuse- 
ments for every period of life, for every moral level, 
and for all types of intellectual development. This 
movement began in an organized way in the United 
States as early as 1890. 

In 1907, S. N. Patten declared that we had gone 


little further than to permit men to exploit for pri- 
vate gain the human craving to be amused. "The 
workman is drawn hither and thither by the uncor- 
related motley devices of selfish promoters and is 
often solicited by them until he has dissipated his 
vigor and lowered his moral tone." 

When the workman comes from "the barren in- 
dustrial grind" of the day's work, where is he in- 
vited most loudly to turn, if not to a great variety of 
amusement institutions in which the melodramatic 
and over-exciting presentations stand out foremost. 
The leisure of the people, according to a report of 
the Recreational Inquiry Committee of California, 
has been capitalized by private individuals through- 
out the country to the extent of billions of dollars. 
The commercialization of the play impulses of the 
people has been motivated, continues the report, by 
one chief desire, not to increase the welfare of the 
people, but to make money. Cheap seaside resorts 
have sprung up over night, vieing with one another, 
it has been observed, in enticing patrons thither by 
patriotic or salacious posters and advertisements, 
and in furnishing them with new sensations. The 
regular frequenters of these places of amusement 
are reported as getting so much excitement for a 
small outlay of money, that they find the attractions 

From an investigation that was made as early as 
1907-1909 in Manhattan, New York City, it was 


found that the commercial dance academy and the 
public dance hall teach more than forty per cent of 
the pupils of the grade schools to dance, and that 
three-fourths of these boys and one-half of the girls, 
nearly all under fourteen years of age, go with 
some regularity to the commercial dancing academy 
and the public dance hall to practice their skill. One 
hundred of the dancing academies in Manhattan 
were reaching annually not less than 100,000 paying 
pupils, forty-five per cent of whom were under six- 
teen years of age. Notice this statement: "Practi- 
cally all the young girls among the mass of the peo- 
ple pass during the period of adolescence through 
the education of the dancing academies. We have 
here an influence over the adolescents of New York 
which is of practically universal scope." 

In the academies of questionable type, represent- 
ing at least one-half of the total number, the super- 
vision is entirely inadequate and men and women 
of immoral character are present. When alcoholic 
liquor or substitutes for liquor are used, moral 
downfall is certain. The late hours are also harm- 
ful to both health and morals. 

The dance hall differs from the academy in that 
its influence is worse. The proprietors of certain 
dance halls knowingly permit men and women to 
corrupt others. Where liquor is sold, as it still is 
in the dance halls in many countries, the effects are 
destructive and vicious. The combination of sex- 


ually vulgar dancing, of drinking liquor, and of un- 
musical but highly stimulating "jazz" is one which 
the ordinary participant cannot withstand. 

Of all play facilities, states the California recrea- 
tion report, public dance halls bear the most direct 
and immediate relation to the morals of their pa- 
trons ; they are in many cases extremely destructive. 
The gains are so overshadowed that space will not 
be given to discussing them. 

Of all dances, continues the California report, the 
Saturday all-night dance is the most dangerous. 
Young people attend these dances without a thought 
of harm ; and parents permit their sons and daugh- 
ters to attend without realizing the true character 
of the all-night affair. The discussion so far has 
indicated some of the dangers that are represented 
by the dancing academy and dance hall ; it has also 
shown a part of the responsibility which the city 
and nation must bear in controlling the means of 
recreation for youth. 

Theatres may be divided roughly into at least 
four classes, namely, vaudeville, burlesque, stand- 
ard theatres, and motion picture theatres. In re- 
gard to the vaudeville, the Manhattan report de- 
clares that its most striking characteristic is simple 
stupidity; that no person of moderate intelligence 
can attend a dozen vaudeville performances with- 
out being disgusted at their vapidity; and that 
some of the acts are wholly crude, a few decidedly 


clever, and the majority trite and empty. The 
vaudeville is like many exciting occurrences stim- 
ulating but disintegrating. It excites the onlooker 
and interests him transiently; but is not likely to 
recuperate or develop him. It represents hyper- 
stimulus, asserts Dr. M. M. Davis, Jr., and may 
lead to neurasthenia. 

The burlesque was found in the Manhattan sur- 
vey to be the most undesirable type of performance 
given in New York City. As a type it was diagnosed 
as being artistically crude and intellectually 
stupid. Its appeal is based on facts of physical 
prowess and on unwholesome and lewd references 
to sex matters. 

The standard theatre, chiefly because of the ad- 
mission charged, draws only a small proportion of 
the theatre going people, perhaps not more than ten 
per cent. The working classes are isolated partly 
because of the admission prices, and hence are not 
privileged to attend the best plays. 

The standard theater has offered few plays of 
excellent value. There is an opportunity for the 
citizens of every community to promote wholesome 
and cultural plays. When young people generally 
come to have a vital appreciation of worth while 
drama, they will no longer be satisfied with low 
and unrefined theatrical performances. 

Motion picture theaters began to attract atten- 
tion in the United States at the close of the last 


century. By 1900, they were becoming well known, 
although the cheaper type predominated; by 1915, 
the theaters producing elaborate motion pictures 
were common in the large cities. At the same time 
motion picture producers were combining into pow- 
erful nation-wide organizations ; and the demand 
for censorship had become insistent. 

According to the Manhattan survey in which 
1,140 school children eleven to fourteen years of 
age were questioned, it was found that sixteen per 
cent, a surprisingly large percentage, were attend- 
ing motion picture shows daily. For the children 
of the common people, the motion picture has be- 
come the main amusement center. Motion pictures 
have become the leading form of dramatic repre- 
sentation for both children and adults in modern 

A part of the great popularity of the motion 
picture is to be found in the following points : ( 1 ) 
The fascination of not knowing what one will see, 
is appealing. (2) No punctuality is required; a 
person can enter and take a seat at any time and 
leave at any time. (3) No special degree of in- 
telligence is needed; no attitude toward anything 
and no convictions on anything are necessary. No 
knowledge of any language is essential ; consequent- 
ly, the immigrant is reached before he understands 
the language of the country. (4) A fairly good 
eyesight and the admission price are all that are re- 


quired. As a direct and immediate appeal to the 
understanding, the motion picture is paramount. 
(5) An appeal to one's love of children, of home, 
of flagj of religion, of courageous action is usually 
made, but this worthy trait is often more than off- 
set by a tantalizing appeal to the melodramatic, 
the brutalizing, or the sex impulses. (6) The family 
as a group often finds it feasible to attend although 
the jumbling of the wholesome and unwholesome 
scenes before the eyes of uncritical children and 
adolescents is deleterious. 

In a Los Angeles survey of down-town motion 
pictures it was found that from the standpoint of 
the social value of the films shown, only fourteen 
per cent could be classed as positively developmen- 
tal. The remainder varied from the merely enter- 
taining to the undesirable and demoralizing. A large 
percentage was found to appeal directly to the feel- 
ings and emotions. By being so designed, they drew 
the largest audiences and hence the greatest profits. 
The effects of operating motion picture shows pri- 
marily for profit instead of for social welfare were 
marked and frequently unfortunate. 

A leading producer has said that the picture 
which draws the largest audiences represents the 
level of intelligence of a nine year old boy ; there- 
fore, the common run of film is made on that in- 
tellectual level. In the Los Angeles survey several 
managers described their attempts to put on films of 


a higher educational order than the average, but 
showed that as a result the size of the audience de- 
creased. The public does not go to the motion 
picture show to be educated but to be amused; it 
does not go to reason or to think hard, but in a pas- 
sive and subjective sense to play. 

Because the motion picture has catered so often 
to the lower elements of human nature, it has had 
to face the form of control known as censorship. 
The need for censorship is clear; the California 
Recreational Inquiry indicated that of 1,263 films 
studied, there were thirty-eight per cent which were 
marked by scenes of brutality and violence. The 
harmful effects of many motion pictures upon ad- 
olescent minds are beyond doubt. The motion 
picture also exercises such subtle effects upon the 
minds of adults that it operates as a powerful psy- 
chological force upon the entire nation group. The 
public is hardly yet aware of this far-reaching psy- 
chological form of control. If in the United States 
there is an average daily attendance of literally 
millions at motion picture shows, if this attendance 
involves harmful influences upon adolescents and 
even a general hypnotic influence upon the adult 
mind, if the public is receiving but one-fifth to one- 
fourth of the constructive values which it might 
from the billions of dollars that are spent on this 
popular form of entertainment, then it is time that 
the public awoke and directed the motion picture 


influence to ends more in keeping with its own wel- 

The saloon, although outlawed in the United 
States, is still in one form or another in many 
countries the organized and legalized institution 
of the liquor traffic. The use of alcoholic liquor 
has been common to all peoples ; it has met various 
types of human craving, ranging from the desire 
for excitement to the wish to deaden one feelings, 
and drown defeats and sorrows. 

While the European nations under the trying 
stress of the World War declared officially against 
alcoholism, they tended to revert at the close of the 
war to alcoholic orgies. If the use of alcoholic 
liquor militates against efficiency in war, the ar- 
gument is strong for the elimination of the same in 
connection with the strenuous activities and con- 
flicts in times of peace, for it is in these periods that 
a nation grows strong or weak and lays the found- 
ations for future successes or defeats. 

It has been made clear by E. T. Devine in a care- 
ful study that before the eighteenth amendment to 
the Constitution went into effect in the United 
Sates one-fourth of all cases of destitution were 
fairly attributable to intemperance. Moreover, a 
study of about 13,000 convicts in seventeen prisons 
and reformatories in this country by the Committee 
of Fifty indicated that intemperance was one of the 
main causes in fifty-one per cent and the leading 


cause in thirty-one per cent of the criminal cases 
studied. The reports from boards of insanity have 
shown that alcoholism is a specific causal factor in 
about twenty per cent of insanity cases. Before 
the eighteenth amendment became effective, the 
mortality reports indicated that approximately 
100,000 deaths a year in the United States were due 
in some specific way to the use of alcoholic liquor. 

Moreover, alcoholism is now known to have a 
disastrous effect upon heredity; many noticeable 
cases of degeneracy in the offspring of alcoholic 
parents have been observed. The use of alcoholic 
liquor is becoming recognized throughout the world 
as poisonous to the individual, and economically 
and morally wasteful to both individuals and the 
group. The saloon and its counterparts are un- 
doubtedly passing as social institutions. The en- 
actment of a prohibition amendment, however, does 
not become effective until the habits of the people 
become reconstructed. Such a process for a large 
population group may take twenty or more years. 
The legal control must be supported by a psycholog- 
ical control. 

The play attitudes have been appealed to at their 
most vulnerable points by persons motivated pri- 
marily by profitism. This process has been skill- 
fully planned out by shrewd individuals. The so- 
cial products have been institutions, often flam- 
boyant, harboring an atmosphere of patriotism and 


subtly enticing the public, especially the young. 

3. The Socialization of Play. Socially-minded 
persons have led the way in creating institutions 
that develop the play attitude constructively, irre- 
spective of financial gain. Of the group of socialized 
play activities the playground movement easily 
leads. Then come the play activities which focus 
in the schools, social settlements, community recrea- 
tion centers, and religious organizations, such as the 
Christian Associations, the Knights of Columbus, 
fraternal orders, and the like. 

(1) The playground movement began in the 
United States about 1880; it won public attention 
about 1900; and by 1910, it had secured wide recog- 
nition. Within the first decade of the present cen- 
tury, over $60,000,000 was expended in this country 
in furthering the playground movement. There are 
now thousands of playgrounds, located in the larger 
cities, having paid supervision, and representing the 
expenditure of millions of dollars of public money 
for the purpose of making helpful play activities 
possible at a nominal cost or free of charge to hud- 
dled urban people. 

Seven main stages in the playground movement 
in this country have been clearly analyzed by Clar- 
ence E. Rainwater. These are: (a) the sand garden 
stage, (b) the model playground stage, (c) the 
small park stage, (d) the recreation center stage, 


(e) the civic art and welfare stage, (f ) the neighbor- 
hood organization stage, and (g) the community 
service stage. This exhibit reveals the general trend 
of an important social development. 

The playground movement has tended toward an 
all-year playground service ; it has taken into con- 
sideration the young working boys and girls as well 
as school children. It has reached into the adult 
world and organized whole communities, giving 
them an opportunity to decide upon the type of rec- 
reation that they need, encouraging them to pro- 
vide recreation for themselves at a minimum charge, 
and withal and indirectly developing in them a so- 
cial consciousness and a community participation 
which lies at the heart of any truly democratic life. 

Dr. Rainwater has summarized the nine leading 
transitions in the play movement as follows: (a) 
from provision for little children to that for all 
ages of people; (b) from facilities operated during 
the summer only, to those operated throughout the 
year; (c) from outdoor equipment and activities 
only, to both outdoor and indoor facilities and 
events; (d) from congested urban districts to both 
urban and rural communities; (e) from philan- 
thropic to community support and control; (f) 
from "free" play and miscellaneous events to "di- 
rected" play with organized activities and corre- 
lated schedules; (g) from a simple to a complex 
field of activities including manual, physical, aes- 


thetic, social, and civic projects; (h) from the pro- 
vision of facilities to the definition of standards 
for the use of leisure time; and (i) from "individ- 
ual" interests to "group" and community activities. 

The playground movement rests upon the prin- 
ciples that the dominant interest in the life of youth 
is play, not work, and that the best development 
at this age comes from play rather than work. It 
also represents the principle that adults need whole- 
some and constructive play which will offer true 
recuperation from a neurasthenic urban pace. 

(2) The public school has had its playground, 
but no organized play activities. Recently it has 
caught a new impetus from the playground move- 
ment, and consequently boards of education are 
providing playground directors not only for school 
days but for the holidays and vacations, when in 
metropolitan districts such directors are most need- 

The public school is becoming a recreation and 
civic center. For educational purposes the schools 
ordinarily are used less than eight hours a day, 
five days in the week, and nine or ten months in the 
year. They lie idle perhaps fifty per cent of the 
time which they might be used. The ways in which 
this time for recreation center activities could be 
utilized was demonstrated in 1907 in Rochester. 
New York, where the gymnasiums were opened in 
the evening for the use of adults as well as children ; 


where folk dancing, music, and dramatics were en- 
couraged ; and where banquets and public meetings 
became common. 

(3) The social settlements and institutions do- 
ing similar work have usually given emphasis to 
recreational needs. They have generally been lo- 
cated in the heart of congested districts, and hence 
have been quick to appreciate the few constructive 
opportunities for play which the poorer people have 
at their command. They have responded to this 
need splendidly, despite the limited means at their 
disposal. They have pioneered; the successful 
methods which they have worked out, have some- 
times been adopted by the city or district and put 
into operation on a large scale by the use of public 
money. They understand the needs of the masses ; 
and hence are in strategic positions relative to form- 
ulating a socio-recreational procedure. 

(4) Public parks have afforded only a small 
amount of recreation for the working people who 
have needed most the advantages that parks offer. 
They have been located usually in the wealthy and 
well-to-do sections of the city. Park boards have 
merely entered upon the heavy program before them 
of improving and extending the play facilities of 
publicly owned spaces. 

(5) The churches are beginning to recognize that 
wholesome play activities are normal social prod- 
ucts. The recreation impulses are such powerful 


forces for the moral good or ill of children, young 
people, and adults that churches are beginning to 
assume a positive attitude toward them. Some 
churches have been among the chief agents in 
bringing about the establishment of playgrounds 
and recreation centers. While this work may be 
taken over later by the school or city, the pioneer 
experiments and the splendid examples that are 
set are in themselves worth while. The church may 
hold not only socials and similar meetings but in a 
large way take the lead in making helpful provision 
for the recreational life of boys and girls. 

In many instances the churches have lead the bat- 
tle in suppressing evil amusements. They may well 
go further and assume the leadership in bringing 
public opinion to the point where it will demand 
that socialized provisions be made for meeting the 
play attitudes of all the people. 

In providing for a more extended socialization 01 
play a comprehensive procedure is needed, one 
which all can and will support. It includes ( 1 ) the 
education of the public regarding basic considera- 
tions. For example, the public should perceive 
how modern industry and the city have created 
home conditions for the masses that are too crowded 
and ill-arranged to permit the enjoyable spend- 
ing of leisure time within the home. The public 
needs to perceive how commercial enterprise has 
taken advantage of the play attitude, catering to 


the play impulses of every age-period in life, and 
"to every grade of intellectual, artistic, and moral 
development." The public needs to appreciate how 
commercialized recreation in developing under a 
laissez faire public policy has led often to the moral 
and economic exploitation of children and to the 
deterioration of adults. Recreation under modern 
complex conditions can no longer be left entirely 
to individual and commercial control. 

Public control cannot neglect the fact that chil- 
dren and adults alike require and will have amuse- 
ments of some sort. Such control must not .be 
merely repressive of existing evil tendencies, but 
must also be constructive. Every community, rural 
and urban, may well have a recreation committee 
or commission to study the play needs of their re- 
spective communities and see that they are whole- 
somely provided for. 

(2) A recreation body will find its largest work 
in planning and providing for the future. If the 
given community is a crowded urban district, the 
duties of the recreation body will be strenuous also 
with reference to meeting present needs. The sit- 
uation will require adequate surveys of recreation 
needs and facilities, definite correlation of available 
recreative means, and constructive programs mov- 
ing in many directions. 

There will be a need for state recreation commis- 
sions in order to correlate the work of rural and 


urban recreation leaders. In fact, so great is the 
scope of recreation needs that a national recreation 
commission has important functions to perform in 
correlating the work of state commissions and pro- 
moting new methods. Recreation committees and 
commissions have at their command a considerable 
number of principles of procedure for the socializa- 
tion of play. 

(3) The development of home recreation is es- 
sential. Even in comfortable homes there has arisen 
a tendency for the young people to get away after 
the dinner hour in order to enjoy themselves, thus 
driving the iron wedge of isolation into home life. 
After all, the home has perhaps the best possibilities 
of becoming a socialized recreation center. Recrea- 
tion responsibilities for children rest urgently upon 

(4) The conservation of home yards for play pur- 
poses is important. The co-operation of recreation 
commissions and housing commissions may pro- 
duce beneficent results in preserving not only gar- 
den space but small play spaces. 

(5) The provision of small playgrounds for 
young children is another standard need. In Phil- 
adelphia, a study of the attendance at playgrounds 
showed that seventy-four per cent of the attendance 
of the younger children was from homes within 
three blocks, or five minutes walk, of such play- 
grounds. The radius of efficiency of a playground, 


according to the Milwaukee study, was from one- 
fourth to one-half a mile. 

For adolescents over fourteen years of age in 
cities of size, larger playfields and parks should 
be provided within twenty minutes walk of any 
home. Another safe rule to follow is to spend twice 
as much on supervision as on any special form of 

(6) The use of school grounds throughout the 
year as neighborhood playgrounds under supervi- 
sion is important in congested city districts. The 
school property may become an excellent civic and 
social center for the neighborhood. 

(7) Small parks for breathing spaces, larger parks 
for outings, and even mountain parks for camping 
parties may well be developed before land values 
become prohibitive. 

(8) All philanthropic institutions need ample 
play provisions, a point that Bessie D. Stoddart has 
well stated: Play is needed in homes for the aged 
because of the relief from dreariness which it offers. 
It is needed in hospitals for the insane, because 
of its curative and educational value. It is needed 
in the homes for the feeble-minded, because of its 
value in developing latent ability. It is needed in 
homes for the care of epileptics, of the chronically 
ill, and of the blind and deaf, for its cheering and 
educational value. It is needed in orphanages to 
create the atmosphere of the normal home and to 


keep children from becoming institutionalized. It 
is needed in reform schools and homes for delin- 
quent children in order to develop constructive 
impulses and to curb destructive ones. It is needed 
in jails and penitentiaries to help reform those who 
are imprisoned and re-create in them a favorable 
attitude toward normal group life. In other words 
provisions for useful play are needed by all persons 
who are physically, mentally, or morally afflicted, as 
much as by normal persons. 

(9) One of the most difficult tasks is that of se- 
curing proper inspection, control, and suppression 
where needed, of the commercialized amusements 
of the day, including dance halls and academies, 
cafes, drinking-inns, the theaters, and motion-pic- 
ture houses. In suppressing commercialized amuse- 
ments, it is usually wise to provide adequate, con- 
structive substitutes. In controlling them, it is 
clear that they must be measured by standards of 
true recreation rather than of deterioration. 

(10) Socialized play must distinguish between 
amusement and recreation. Amusement is the pas- 
sive, relaxing phase of play; it is the spectator 
phase. The amused person is one usually who sits 
still and looks on while some one else plays or works 
or overworks. Recreation on the other hand is the 
active re-creative element in play; it is the con- 
structive, invigorating phase. 

A current tendency is to accentuate amusement 


at the expense of recreation. The emphasis may 
safely be reversed. The majority of adults and 
many adolescents can secure ample amusement in 
real recreation; in fact, many persons obtain genu- 
ine recreation through their work, providing that it 
contains opportunities for creative expression. Work 
which is so specialized that it contains no interest- 
ing elements, and which is merely repeating the task 
of making one-eighteenth of a pin all day long and 
day after day and week after week, compels the 
worker to look to the end of the day or week for 
his recreation. Such work however is abnormal. 
The stress should be placed on play as a creating 
and re-creating process, and of maintaining those 
forms of work which contain a large percentage of 
recreative elements. Only socialized play groups 
are truly helpful. 



1. Distinguish between play and work. 

2. What is the main function of a football game? 

3. Why is making artificial flowers, work; and climbing 

Mont Blanc, play? 

4. If giving up tobacco is necessary for physical fitness in 

preparation for football games, why is it not given 
up in preparation for the strenuous activities of daily 

5. Explain the statement that the parks are often too far 

away from the individuals who need them. 

6. W T hat is the tenement child's most common playground? 

7. Explain: "Milwaukee spends a thousand years of leisure 

each week." 

8. Is it often true that an American's idea of a holiday is 

a fatiguing journey? 

9. Who is in greater need of provision for play, the chil- 

dren of the poor or of the rich? 

10. What are the main arguments for and against censor- 
ship of motion pictures? 


HUMAN LIFE is focused first in the family and 
play groups. In adolescence the occupational 
group begins to receive attention. Play and work 
are or may be closely related if not synonymous, or 
they may be disjunctive. As long as a person finds 
a full supply of new and interesting possibilities in 
any activity, he is playing; when the center of in- 
terest shifts to an end or goal outside the specific 
activity, play is sublimated into work, and an occu- 
pational status has been established. 

As an individual develops and his horizon ex- 
pands, life becomes divided into means and ends. 
The attitude of considering every activity as a 
means to an end becomes fixed, and living be- 
comes working. The tendency is to shift the 
object of interest from the activity of the mo- 
ment to a more or less remote goal. Through over- 
specialization modern industry has tended to rob 
normal work activities of focii of interest; the 
workman comes to view his day's work, not for its 
creative opportunities, but as a means to an end, 
which is commonly the pay check. 



1. Occupational Beginnings. Among early hu- 
man groups, the elemental impulse of hunger, per- 
haps more than any other influence led to indus- 
trial activity. Primitive people satisfied this im- 
pulse by searching for food and by living upon 
what they could raise. Hence they gorged and 
starved, feasted and fasted, according to their skill 
or luck in finding food. 

As an aid in this search for food, primitive people 
invented crude weapons and tools. Man the only 
tool-using animal invented knives for cutting, 
scrapers for abrasing, hammers for fracturing, need- 
les and awls for perforating, tongs for grasping, and 
so on, throughout a long list of increasingly com- 
plex implements. It was a remarkable advance 
when man learned how to kindle a fire, and could 
use fire for cooking purposes. Another achievement 
is represented by the discovery of drying foods in 
the sun or before a fire, as a means of preserving 
them for times of scarcity. 

Man moved forward again when he learned to 
domesticate animals. This domestication resulted 
in giving the human race valuable assistance in its 
industrial activities ; in the dog, man had an assist- 
ant in the chase ; and in the ox, a beast of burden. 

The digging stick, as the forerunner of hoe-cul- 
ture and later of agriculture, was used to scratch 
the surface of the soil for the planting of seeds. For 
long centuries, doubtless, women with digging sticks 


and similar crude implements managed to raise a 
few herbs and roots, and thus provide against pe- 
riods of famine. In the meantime, men were en- 
gaged chiefly in the pursuit of the hunt and chase. 

Another forward step was taken when domesti- 
cated animals were kept in flocks and herds, thus 
providing a stable food supply. Pastoral and no- 
madic life developed. In order to secure pasturage, 
it was necessary for the people to wander with the 
flocks up the valleys and mountain slopes in the 
summer and back again in the winter. 

Along with the development of hoe-culture, ag- 
riculture, and pastoral occupations, there arose the 
institution of private property. Tools and weapons 
were early considered to be the private property 
of the maker of them. With the increase of flocks 
and herds the institution of private property seems 
to have become well established. Land and pas- 
turage, however, were first considered group prop- 
erty. Each tribe or group possessed its generally 
recognized territory, throughout which it might 
wander with its flocks. 

The use of land as an occupational activity is 
primeval and universal. Hoe-culture including the 
protection of roots and tubers for future consump- 
tion developed into tillage of the soil with oxen and 
plough. When men turned from the hunt as a means 
of livelihood to hoe-culture which was developed 
first probably by women, they made application of 


the technical skill which they had acquired. As a 
result, hoe-culture was supplanted by crude forms 
of agriculture. 

With the rise of agriculture, primitive groups 
passed from the flesh diet of nomadism to a pre- 
dominant use of vegetable foods. The roaming life 
of hunting days and pastoral nomadism gave way 
to the settled life of agriculture. With the cultiva- 
tion of the soil and the accompanying vast increase 
in food supply, population multiplied. Agriculture 
made fixed abodes necessary, augmented popula- 
tion, and led to the establishment of village com- 
munities. All these changes led to the production 
of new forms of wealth. The creation of wealth in 
itself became an occupation. 

With stationary abodes, the holding of slaves be- 
came feasible. Slavery acquired an occupational 
status. Under nomadism and earlier forms of 
human existence the food supply was so small and 
uncertain and life was so migratory that it was 
usually necessary to kill captives taken in warfare. 
With the rise of agricultural occupations, it was 
better to enslave captives than to kill them. The 
cultivation of the soil by slave labor represented at 
first an advance. Slavery gradually became eco- 
nomically unprofitable and was ultimately sup- 
planted by free labor. 

Down to the middle of the eighteenth century, 
agriculture was the leading occupational activity of 


mankind. The serf system of cultivating the soil 
existed for centuries. Then, free labor and the wage 
system were found to be more profitable. With the 
Industrial Revolution and the manufacture of tools 
on a large scale came new agricultural develop- 
ments. The division of land into farms under in- 
dependent ownership became common. The in- 
crease in population and in the demand for food 
tended to bring about a change from extensive to 
modern intensive farming and to establish the 
scientific agriculture of the twentieth century. 

Current agricultural problems are numerous ; the 
discussion of them will be elaborated in the chapter 
on Rural and Urban Groups. It is difficult to main- 
tain upon farms, for example in the United States, a 
class of people who have succeeded; they move to 
the cities, thus depriving rural districts of their ex- 
periences, stirring attitudes, and leadership. Fur- 
thermore, tenant farming is on the increase; it is 
becoming more and more difficult for a young man 
without means to marry, rear a family, and pay for 
a farm. Young people of initiative and education 
leave the farms for the city ; rural leadership is de- 
pleted. The rise of land values under private own- 
ership tends to bring about the concentration of 
land ownership in the hands of a small percentage 
of the population. Land and food may ultimately 
become so precious that it will be necessary to limit 
the amount of land that one person or a group of 


persons may own and to limit rentals. Speculation 
in land creates untold hardship for young people 
who have initiative and character but who possess 
no economic advantages. In its methods of social 
control of land the national group may well en- 
courage rather than penalize young men and 
women who wish to establish homes on rural acre- 
age of their own. 

The home attitude of young people in the United 
States is changing ; they are giving up the desire to 
own their own homes and are becoming content to 
live as tenants and spend their lives "in going up 
and down other people's stairways." The respon- 
sibility for this attitude rests, not primarily upon 
the young people, but upon those who are profiting 
from special economic privileges derived from the 
present system of land ownership and who selfishly 
refuse to sacrifice special privilege for the sake of 
other people, of little children, and of national wel- 

2. Labor and Unionization. According to the 
earliest occupational divisions men engaged in 
hunting and fighting, while women cared for the 
children, did the work about the habitations, and 
gave some attention to hoe-culture. Settled agri- 
cultural activities crystalized and slavery developed. 
Inasmuch as people who worked for wages acquired 
an attitude of personal independence, they did more 


work per day than slaves, or even than serfs; free 
labor thus ultimately supplanted both slave and 
serf labor. 

Among primitive specializations of labor, the 
activities of medicine men and priests are note- 
worthy. The persons in these occupations possessed 
a superior technique for controlling the minds of 
their fellows. Their so-called superior knowledge 
was usually a highly organized form of superstition 
and magic. Nevertheless, from similar unscientific 
origins nearly all the modern professions have 

A profession may be distinguished from a trade 
in that the latter deals primarily with material 
things and transforms these useful commodities, 
whereas the former deals with service and the crea- 
tion of health, knowledge, happiness, better govern- 
ment, and better living. The professional groups 
have originated class ethics, class organizations, 
and class attitudes. They have usually been al- 
lied with the higher well-to-do and wealthy groups. 
Often they have represented the middle class atti- 
tude and served as a steady mean between the eco- 
nomic extremes. Each profession has developed a 
high degree of pride, and possesses a strong occu- 
pational mind. This mind has produced biases, 
narrowmindedness, and intolerance which are to 
be charged to over-specialization and lack of special- 


Free labor and the wage system led to the or- 
ganization of labor. The craft gilds of mediaeval 
times were among the first organizations of produc- 
tive forces ; these included both merchant or manu- 
facturer and employee. 

The rise of the factory system in the latter part 
of the eighteenth century drew laborers together 
under single roofs, giving them a basis for class con- 
sciousness. They were drawn away from the homes 
of their employers where they worked under the 
domestic system of industry, and thus they lost 
touch with the employer's point of view. When em- 
ployer and employee lost contact with each other 
under the factory system modern industrial troubles 
began ; each ceased to accommodate himself to the 
other's situation. 

The application of steam as a motive force in 
operating machinery revolutionized industry. 
Hand-driven tools were supplanted by power-driven 
machinery ; and the home as the unit of production 
gave way to the factory. Although, ,the factory 
system and large-scale production imply mutual 
dependence, the loss of personal contact between 
employer and employee has led to endless industrial 
troubles. Labor began to organize for its own pro- 
tection; capital likewise organized for its own ad- 
vancement. Labor wished to secure control of in- 
dustry ; capital wished to dominate. Two large and 
powerful classes have arisen with a black gulf be- 


tween them. 

During the nineteenth century labor unions in 
the United States developed from the status of local 
organizations to national trade unions, and then 
into a general federation, the American Federation 
of Labor. They believe in collective bargaining, 
that is, that the representatives of the unions shall 
meet with the representatives of the given employ- 
ers, and together determine wage scales, hours of 
labor, and other conditions of work. 

The trade unionists use two main methods: ar- 
bitration and strikes. They are usually willing to 
abide by the rule of arbitration, providing they are 
sure that a fair board of arbitrators has been chosen. 
Reasonable trade unionists believe that broad- 
minded employers and they, after friendly discus- 
sion of disputed points, will agree. They prefer 
the personal method of meeting employers through 
representatives; they urge arbitration. They in- 
sist that if capital has the right to organize, labor 
has a similar right. They ask that the representa- 
tives of organized labor be accorded a fair hearing 
by the representatives of organized capital. 

If denied what they consider a fair hearing, trade 
unionists call a strike; they lay down their tools 
and walk out. This method is a powerful weapon. 
In recent years the strike has become a menace to 
the public, for example, a general railroad strike, 
paralyzing the means of transporting food and 


bringing starvation to the doors of the poor. If the 
public denies labor the right to strike, as seems 
necessary, the public is under obligation to provide 
labor with other means of obtaining justice. 

The moderate trade unionist, following the an- 
alysis by V. S. Yarros, is not a revolutionist; he 
does not think of overthrowing the present social 
and economic system. He does not object to the 
wage system, nor to property being held by indi- 

He asks for more pay, shorter hours, and safer 
and healthier conditions of work. He will always 
be making these three requests. He wants more 
and more pay, for the same reason that the capi- 
talist always wants more dividends. He urges short- 
er and shorter hours, for he sees many people no 
more worthy than himself who are not working at 
all, but living luxuriously and as it seems to him at 
his expense. He will always possess a desire for 
better conditions of labor, because he feels that he 
is entitled to a share in the advances that are being 
registered by inventions and discoveries. 

The moderate trade unionist has been described 
as having no Utopian schemes, as dealing with im- 
mediate problems, as priding himself on his reason- 
ableness and practicality, as believing in private 
capital if it is not used as an instrument of special 
privilege, and as protesting against the prejudices, 
the lack of sympathy and comprehension, and the 


distrust shown by the capitalist. On the other 
hand he has often created a trade union autocracy 
and personified the spirit of selfishness and narrow 
class control. 

Sociology believes in the principle of "come, let 
us reason together," and in methods of adjudicating 
differences by discussing them frankly, and in a 
friendly manner. It believes that labor and cap- 
ital have the same right to organize, and that the 
representatives of organized labor have the same 
right to a fair hearing as have the representatives 
of organized capital. 

Sociology does not approve of the selfishness, 
arbitrariness and desire for class control of either 
unionists or capitalists. It does not excuse union 
labor in its schemes of using dynamite; neither does 
it condone organized capital in its schemes of stock- 
watering, and speculating in the necessities of life. 
It agrees with Abraham Lincoln who said in his 
first presidential address to Congress: "Labor is 
the superior of capital, and deserves much the 
higher consideration." 

3. Child Labor. Every child should have regular 
work to do, as well as opportunity to play. Chil- 
dren however should not enter gainful occupations 
for full time employment at an age which precludes 
their normal development. Since the introduction 
of the factory system, children have been employed 


at regular work eight, ten, or twelve hours a day 
while still at the beginning of their adolescence. The 
industries which according to recent reports em- 
ploy children at too early an age are cotton manu- 
facture, silk manufacture, glass manufacture, ag- 
riculture, the canneries, the sweated clothing trades, 
the street trades, and mining. 

The costs of child labor are heavy. ( 1 ) The effect 
upon bodily growth and physical development is 
serious. Child labor operates against a symmetri- 
cal development of strength, vigor, and substantial 
healthfulness. It generally causes a one-sided de- 
velopment of the body, or the over-use of certain 
muscles at the expense of others scarcely developed 
at all. (2) The boy who begins work in industry 
at an early age will have a total earning power 
much less than that of the youth who does not begin 
his working life until he is physically developed. 
A boy who enters industry at twelve or fourteen 
years of age suffers an early depletion of his physi- 
cal powers and the shortening of the working period 
of life. 

(3) The boy or girl who goes to work in industry 
is debarred from completing a needed education; 
his educational period is cut short, and his full pow- 
ers are never developed. Although occasionally a 
boy overcomes the handicaps and becomes a suc- 
cessful business man, it is safe to say that a large 
majority of working boys and girls are kept from 


successful careers because of early deprivation of 
educational advantages. (4) It has been found that 
delinquency is from two to four times as high 
among working boys as among boys regularly at- 
tending school. The working child often falls in 
with the rougher type of unskilled and casual labor, 
and acquires harmful information ; his companions 
influence him in vicious ways. He has money to 
spend, and therefore does not feel a full sense of re- 
sponsibility to parental control. He comes often 
from a broken home or from a home where poverty 

The causes of unfavorable child labor conditions 
are numerous. (1) The greed of ignorant parents is 
an outstanding factor. Many parents among both 
the foreign born and native born still consider their 
growing children as economic assets from which 
financial returns in the form of wages may be im- 
mediately received. The idea once prevailed that 
the larger the number of children in the family, the 
larger the family income might grow as a result of 
putting the children into gainful employments at 
an early age. Boys on the farm have often been 
taken out of school because of their capacity to 
labor, but at the expense of a needed education. 

(2) Although many boys and girls are employed, 
even when their parents enjoy a reasonable stand- 
ard of living, it is known that perhaps thirty per 
cent of gainfully employed children belong to fam- 


ily groups which are definitely suffering from eco- 
nomic pressure. The accompanying table, prepared 
from a United States government report on women 
and child wage earners, shows the relation between 
economic necessity and other causes : 


1. Economic necessity 30.0 per cent 

2. Unnecessary parental demands 27.9 

3. Child's dissatisfaction with school 26.6 " " 

4. Child's anxiety to work 9.8 " " 

5. Other causes 5.7 

(3) The child's attitude is significant. For va- 
rious reasons, sometimes his own shortsightedness, 
and sometimes the school's inflexibility, he becomes 
dissatisfied with school life and seeks work. Many 
children discontinue school despite protests of par- 
ents. Boys are prone to develop a spirit of inde- 
pendence and become anxious to demonstrate their 
working capacity. The impulse grows because the 
boy has friends who are earning money and boast- 
ing about it. Few experiences thrill a boy more than 
the first wages he receives. 

(4) The attitude of the employer is responsible 
for much child labor. His responsibility rests first 
upon the fact that he willingly accepts or invites 


children. By so doing he encourages the tendency 
of parents and of child workers in their willingness 
1;o continue the evils of child labor. 

(5) The rise of the factory system with its minute 
subdivision of labor has made it possible to separate 
the lighter forms of labor from the more difficult, 
and thus to encourage the employment of children. 
Many types of work have developed, as in the cot- 
ton mills and the glass factories, which require 
chiefly time, and running to and fro, and hence 
have been assigned to children. Again, modern im- 
provements have made certain types of machines 
i>b nearly automatic that boys and even girls can 
operate them; thus adolescents are often substituted 
for adults. 

(6) The public must bear a large share of the 
responsibility for the existence of child labor, be- 
cuuse it can eliminate much of the evil by seriously 
opposing the practice. The public is thoughtlessly 
willing to permit child labor for the purpose of 
sv Jf-support of dependent parents and of the child ; 
it does not appreciate the necessity of seeking eco- 
nomic means of relief for the child or the parents. 
The public does not fully recognize the ultimate 
effects of premature child labor. 

Child labor legislation is gaining ground. The 
most advanced child labor laws in the United States 
are found in the north and west, while the weakest 
and least satisfactory exist in the southern and cot- 


ton mill states. Several northern states, however, 
have been compelled to fight bitterly for progressive 
legislation, especially such states as Pennsylvania. 
These laws relate either positively or negatively to 
eight points, namely : (1) One of the vital consider- 
ations in a child labor law is the age limit below 
which gainful employment is prohibited. (2) The 
physical qualifications need to be put high, in order 
properly to safeguard the health of the child. (3) 
Educational requirements protect the child's mental 
development, outlook upon life, and usefulness as 
a citizen. (4) The number of hours of labor a day 
constitutes a health as well as an economic and so- 
cial question. (5) Night work is unjustifiable, be- 
cause of the natural abnormality. (6) It is nec- 
essary to require working papers or certificates of 
children between fourteen and sixteen or eighteen 
years of age, as a means of protecting them against 
unscrupulous employers. (7) It is vital that chil- 
dren be safeguarded from hazardous occupations. 
(8) The exemptions which are made in agricultural 
or canning factory work may easily come to con- 
stitute a rule rather than exceptions, and entail 
wholesale losses upon children. (9) Legislation re- 
garding street trades requires special attention be- 
cause of a misinformed public attitude, which as- 
sumes that a little child selling newspapers on a 
dangerous street and running wild in unsuper- 
vised alleys infested by older boys of a vicious 


nature is representative of an ideal situation. (10) 
The welfare of business and industry is being shifted 
to include the welfare of adolescent and other imma- 
ture employees as a primary consideration. 

Children are the citizens of tomorrow; they are 
entitled to a full and balanced development of all 
their talents, an education inculcating the highest 
principles of self-control dedicated to unselfish ser- 
vice. In their occupational outlooks they are en- 
titled to a set of thoroughly wholesome, creative, 
and social attitudes. 



1. What is labor? 

2. What is an occupation? 

3. Why should everyone work? 

4. Should labor organize? 

5. Is collective bargaining justifiable? 

6. Why was there no such gulf between the laboring and 

employing classes two centuries ago as exists today? 

7. What are the grounds for legislating in behalf of laboring 


8. What are blind alley jobs? 

9. Who is the chief gainer from child labor? The chief 


10. Explain: Child labor is child robbery. 

11. Why does an adolescent boy have strong desires for 

earning money? 

12. Explain: The newsboy needs your protection, not your 


13. Why is the accident rate for children in industry higher 

than for adults? 

14. How can you personally help in solving child labor 

problems ? 

15. What is the best test of a successful worker? 

16. Make out a minimum budget for a workingman and 

his family including a wife and three children. 

17. Does anyone in this country earn more than the Pres- 

ident and hence should he receive a larger income? 

18. Should anyone be paid as much as he earns? 




4. Women in Industry. The rapidity with which 
women have entered industry in the United States 
since the close of the Civil War has been amazing. 
The number of women and of girls over ten years of 
age who are in gainful employments passed the ten 
million mark about 1912. Women in large numbers 
are working for wages in ( 1 ) the textile and cloth- 
ing trades, (2) the metal trades, (3) agriculture, 
(4) household employment, (5) mercantile estab- 
lishments, and (6) miscellaneous employments, 
such as is represented by telephone operators, cigar 
makers, paper box manufacturers, and laundry 

The leading problems which have arisen from 
the employment of women in industry will now be 
analyzed. ( 1 ) It has been demonstrated many times 
that one of the saddest chapters in human history 
is connected with the fact that the machine which 
man invented to relieve him of labor and to produce 
economic values more rapidly has led to the factory 
system of labor, and that women and children are 
forced to follow their work to the factory. "The 


machine," continues W. I. Thomas, "which was in- 
vented to save human energy and which is so great 
,1 boon when the individual controls it, is a terrible 
thing when it controls the individual. Power-driven, 
it has almost no limit whatever to its endurance, 
and it has no nerves. When, therefore, the machine 
is speeded up and the girl operating it, is speeded up 
to its pace, we have finally a situation in which the 
machine destroys the worker." 

(2) Then there is the question of long hours, 
overtime, and overfatigue. Eight hours of labor for 
women in industry is recognized as a long enough 
day. A day longer than eight hours is likely to 
cause harmful results to the physical and mental 
organism of woman. When subjected to long hours 
of industrial labor for years, women are likely to 
become low grade mothers. Their children suffer, 
and both mother and child are subjected to the 
danger of nervous and physical breakdown. 

The girl who goes rapidly through the routine 
processes of wrapping caramels every day, or who 
threads the almost invisible Tungsten filament 
through a tiny hole at the rate of three every minute, 
or one thousand a day, or who operates an elec- 
tric sewing machine that carries ten needles sew- 
ing ten seams at a speed so fast that the needles are 
ten streaks of light, this girl becomes less than hu- 
man, unfit to be a mother and a citizen. 

Overfatigue represents the most subtle effect of 


occupational activity; it affects women employed 
even more seriously than it does men, and hence is 
considered here rather than in the preceding 
chapter. It is also a serious factor in the child 
labor situation. 

Overfatigue may be considered as the result of a 
chemical process. In consequence there is danger 
of producing a continual tearing down of muscle 
and nerve tissues, without an adequate building up 
of the same. In this way fatigue substances or tox- 
ins may circulate in the blood, poisoning brain and 
neural system, muscles, glands, and other organs. 

The results of overfatigue are many, (a) Over- 
fatigue causes industrial inefficiency. As a rule, 
poorer and less work is done in the last hours of a 
long day's work than in the earlier hours. 

(b) Overfatigue causes industrial accidents. In 
general, the liability to accidents increases with the 
passing of the hours of the day. After studying a 
large number of industrial accidents, the writer has 
found that for 9,000 accidents which occur in the 
second hour of work, 12,000 occur in the( third 
hour, and approximately 15,000 in the fourth hour. 
The increase of 3,000 accidents in the third hour, 
and of 6,000 in the fourth hour over the number 
of accidents in the second, represents in mathemat- 
ical terms fairly well the extent to which fatigue 
causes accidents. 

(c) Overfatigue assists the advance of disease, 


especially of a contagious disease. An overworked 
person is more susceptible to pneumonia, tubercu- 
losis, and typhoid fever than is one whose vital 
resistance is normal. With fatigue toxins in the 
body, the organism is seriously, often fatally hand- 
icapped in meeting the invasion of pathogenic bac- 
teria. A not uncommon succession of events is, 
first, overfatigue; then "colds"; then pneumonia 
or tuberculosis; then, death. 

(d) Overfatigue accentuates nervous diseases. 
Long hours of work at a feverish pace lead to ner- 
vous breakdown. Unscrupulous employers who are 
abusing the principles of scientific management are 
guilty of turning many of their employees into 
lightning-like machines. The neural system, not 
built for such a pace, breaks down after a time. 

(e) Future generations will suffer from the fa- 
tigue of the present generation. The children of 
perennially tired parents are in danger of being 
physical weaklings. 

(f) Fatigue often has an untoward effect upon 
the morals of working people. It increases human 
susceptibility to temptation, causes a person to turn 
almost anywhere for relaxation, and leads him to 
neglect his own welfare and that of his family as 

(3) The question of wages is significant. While 
some girls can afford to work for low wages, inas- 
much as their need is for "pin money," the large 


percentage are supporting themselves or others. 
Since the majority must compete with the girl who 
works for "pin money," they are sometimes com- 
pelled to accept less wages than they earn. Low 
wages may lead not only to physical suffering, but 
also to moral danger. Mary Van Kleeck is the au- 
thority for the statement that low wages have made 
thousands of girls practically defenseless. 

(4) There is a comparative lack of ambition on 
the part of many working girls and women to attain 
high industrial efficiency or to advance above cer- 
tain levels. This attitude is due partly to the "I 
should worry" spirit of the times, and partly to the 
expectation of marriage. 

(5) To the extent that the wife and children 
enter industry, the wages of the husband and father 
are thereby reduced. There is much evidence to 
show that the income of the male wage-earner when 
working alone is as great as the combined wages of 
the man himself, his wife, and the children, when 
the wife and children enter into industry in com- 
petition with the male wage-earner. The composite 
wage of all the members of the family is not likely 
to exceed the income of the male wage earner when 
einployed alone. 

(6) The employment of married women in in- 
dustry has serious phases. Several years ago in the 
United States the number of married women gain- 
fully employed passed the one million mark. To an 


extent these facts mean that homes and especially 
young children are neglected. 

(7) Another vexatious problem is that of organ- 
izing women in industry. Some decades ago, the 
members of men's labor unions refused to admit 
women to the unions. Today a changed attitude 
exists; men's unions now try to induce women to 
organize, to ask collectively for higher wages and 
for better living conditions and thus not to com- 
pete against men. 

There are great difficulties in the matter of or- 
ganizing women in industry. Large numbers 
of them are only temporarily employed ; they have 
simply a temporary interest in the conditions of 
their work. The majority are under twenty-five 
years of age ; they are not as seriously interested in 
improving the conditions of their work as they 
would be if they were older. Another difficulty is 
that there are relatively few good leaders among 
women wage-earners. 

(8) The two leading methods of improving the 
working conditions of women in industry are legis- 
lation and education. In many countries legisla- 
tion has been passed providing for shorter hours and 
better wages. Such legislation is essential, not onjy 
for women employees, but also for the employer 
who desires efficient workers in order to protect 
him against the successful underbidding of unscrup- 
ulous competitors. Minimum wage legislation was 


first passed in 1894 in New Zealand. It spread to 
England in 1910, and then to various states in this 
country. On the whole, it is working well. 

The educational method of improving the condi- 
tions of women in industry applies to three groups. 
Employers need to be trained to a full sense of re- 
sponsibility relative to the welfare of employees 
and the conditions under which they work. Women 
and girls should know what conditions they may 
reasonably expect, and be trained to organize, even 
as capital organized, in order to secure for them- 
selves at least the minimum essentials of living, of 
family obligations, and of industrial and public 
welfare. The public in turn must have a keen sense 
of what constitutes full economic and social justice. 

5. Dangerous Occupations and Unemployment. 
The approximate number of fatal industrial acci- 
dents among wage-earners in the United States has 
been about 25,000 a year for several years past. The 
number of non-fatal but serious industrial accidents 
involving a disability of two or more weeks has 
averaged about one million a year. The most dan- 
gerous general industry is that of mining ; naviga- 
tion and railroad transportation are also high in 
the list. There follow occupations, such as 
electrical work, quarrying, lumbering, building, and 

According to John B. Andrews, industry maims 


more men than war ever did. H. R. Seager has 
pointed out that the United States has shown a larg- 
er proportion of industrial accidents on its railroads 
and in its mines and factories than any other civi- 
lized land. Industry, says G. L. Campbell, is doub- 
ly wasteful of life and efficiency. "It may be charged 
not only with the extravagance of killing and 
maiming yearly thousands of workers, but it seems 
to choose for its victims many persons in the prime 
of manhood, normally with years of life before 
them, and with obligations but partly discharged 
to wives and children . . . It is evident that the 
victims are usually young men, that the majority 
of them have families, and that the standard of 
living of these families is greatly lowered by losses 
due to injuries. The tale of industrial accidents is 
at best a tale of destitution, blighted hopes, and ar- 
rested development." 

Occupational diseases are common; they consist 
of those diseases which are caused directly by the 
nature of the occupation in which the wage-earner 
is working, such as lead poisoning, caisson disease, 
or even tuberculosis. The worker himself may be 
quite ignorant of such sickness-producing condi- 
tions. The employer may be only slightly interested 
in the welfare of the employees, and neglect to 
protect them against danger. In some cases the 
poisonous character of the materials used produces 
diseases, for example, in the printing trades, in 


plumbing, and in making phosphorous matches. 
The poison seeps into the human organism day by 
day, and in time becomes a main cause or a leading 
secondary cause of disease. An amount of dust, 
especially of coal dust or steel dust, in the air where 
men work produces disease by lacerating the lungs 
and making them subject to bacterial invasions. 

Again, sudden changes in temperature, as is the 
case with steel workers in entering and leaving the 
furnace rooms, cause disease. Men who work in 
caissons pass in a few minutes from normal air 
pressure to air pressure three times or possibly four 
times the normal, and then at the close of work re- 
turn to normal air pressure again. Such experiences 
day after day are disease-producing. Many occu- 
pations therefore kill and maim not only by sudden 
processes but also by slow, subtle ones. The related 
questions of accident compensation and sickness in- 
surance will be presented in the next chapter. 

Unemployment for short or long periods of time 
is an occupational problem. In many industries 
there are rush and slack seasons. During the latter, 
many workers are laid off for several weeks or given 
part-time work. 

In the mining industry, for example, the mines 
are closed at least one-fifth of the time, due to 
storms, accidents, breaking of machinery, and 
strikes. Trade union statistics show that skilled 
workers are unemployed sometimes as high as twen- 


ty-five and thirty per cent of a given year. 

There are two classes of the unemployed: one 
class is composed of those who would work but 
cannot find it; the other class is marked by a lack 
of desire to work. The fluctuations in the demand 
for economic goods, the changes in the seasons with 
the coming of the dull periods, and similar factors 
cause many thousands to be thrown out of employ- 
ment annually. Then there are the persons who 
do not want to work regularly or who do not want 
to work at all. Many of these are wholly respon- 
sible for their attitudes; others, only partly so. 
Many men start out in life with a keen desire to 
work and earn money, but become temporarily un- 
employed, start to live from hand to mouth, and 
then acquire habits of idleness and unsteadiness. 

It may be said that unemployment is a national 
problem; there is need for a national commission 
and national policies. The government might save 
large national labor projects for times of national 
depression. If states or provinces, counties, and 
municipalities could and would do likewise, a large 
measure of unemployment would be alleviated. 
Since every month of the year has its busy seasons 
for some industries and its dull seasons for other 
industries, a rotation might be devised for shifting 
employees in the dull seasons of certain industries 
to the industries which are experiencing rush orders. 

Such a program involves the establishment of 


free national employment bureaus. For the per- 
sons whom the bureaus could not place, trade 
schools could be provided, enabling the temporarily 
unemployed persons to improve in skill and become 
master of more than one trade. As an educational 
venture the nation would find such a program eco- 
nomically and patriotically worth while. No nation 
can afford to have a large unemployed class remain- 
ing idle. If a man refused work, or refused educa- 
tional training, he should be sent to a detention 
farm where he would be put to agricultural and 
other work and subjected to reformatory influences. 

In these ways a large percentage of the unemploy- 
ment problem would be solved. Everybody would 
either be working, or if out of work, would not be 
lying around acquiring disintegrating habits, but 
could secure school and trade training, or if 
refusing the latter opportunity, would be placed 
under the reforming influences of an agricultural 
detention farm. Such a plan, which was first de- 
veloped in England by Sidney and Beatrice Webb, 
might be modified to meet conditions in other coun- 
tries as well. 

Another group of unemployed are the idle rich. 
These constitute nationally an even graver problem 
than the idle poor, because they consume heavily 
and divert production into ths field of luxuries and 
from the field of necessities, thus decreasing the supr 
ply of the latter and increasing the prices of these 


necessities. The idle rich, moreover, feel themselves 
superior to the man who works for a living and thus 
develop into an aristocracy of spendthrifts. 

6. Poverty. A failure to engage in an occupation, 
except in the case of the hereditarily rich, leads to 
poverty. Adults who are unable to provide for 
their own needs for a length of time represent a 
state of poverty. 

A classification of people into four economic 
groups has been made by W. I. King. The first 
group is composed of persons who own property to 
the extent of $50,000, or more. If they choose, they 
may live mainly on the income from their property. 
The upper middle class includes the well-to-do, pos- 
sessing property valued from $2,000 to $50,000. Al- 
though they derive a share of their income from in- 
vestments, they are also dependent upon their own 

The lower middle class consists of those persons 
who possess a small amount of property, valued 
from $1,000 to $2,000. This amount yields them 
no noticeable income, but is sufficient to help tide 
them over in times of emergency. The remaining 
group, the poor, possess little property, chiefly fur- 
niture, clothing, and other personal belongings, 
ranging in value from a few dollars to several hun- 
dred dollars. 

According to this classification the rich constitute 
two per cent of the population of the United States ; 


the upper middle class, eighteen per cent of the pop- 
ulation of the United States ; the lower middle class, 
fifteen per cent; and the poor comprise a startling 
percentage, namely , sixty-five per cent of the total 
population. The rich two per cent possess about 
sixty per cent of the wealth of the entire country; 
the upper middle class, fifteen per cent of the total 
wealth; and the poor, constituting sixty-five per 
cent and over 65,000,000 people possess the remain- 
ing five per cent of the wealth. Although Dr. King's 
estimates were made some years ago the relative 
percentages have not suffered material change. 

The causes of poverty may be placed under three 
main headings : (1) poor heredity, (2) poor habits 
of the individual, and (3) an unfavorable environ- 
ment. (1) A poor heredity refers to the inheritance 
of subnormal physical and mental traits; for ex- 
ample, a child may be born mentally defective. 

(2) The second set of causes of poverty are those 
which relate to the habits of the individual, (a) In 
many countries intemperance enters into many 
cases of low standards of living. In the days of 
the saloon in the United States, about twenty per 
cent of all cases of poverty were probably due to 
intemperance. The passage of the eighteenth 
amendment to the Constitution shifted intemper- 
ance away from the classes of low economic stand- 
ards, (b) Sexual vice is believed to be a more seri- 
ous cause of inefficiency than intemperance, (c) 


The gambling spirit ruins many a speculator, (d) 
Incapacity to judge wisely, often expressed in the 
form of pure blundering, keeps many wage-earners 
in the poverty class. This incapacity may be due 
to a lack of educational opportunity, or to a poor he- 
redity, (e) Shiftlessness is another common cause; 
the "I should worry" spirit of the wealthy classes 
has permeated the lower economic ranks, (f) A 
weak will power is a closely related individual cause 
of poverty. 

(3) The objective or environing causes are nu- 
merous, (a) Changes in methods of work have 
caused large numbers of laborers to be thrown out 
of employment; for example, when the linotype 
was introduced, numerous type-setters were dis- 
placed, and were without a trade. 

(b) Industrial accidents are a leading cause of 
a low income. When 25,000 wage-earners are killed 
annually in a country, and 1,000,000 others are 
seriously injured while at work, the loss in income 
to families must be high. A large amount of per- 
sonal capacity is also destroyed, (c) The illness 
and premature death of the wage-earner is a cause 
of poverty. A definite percentage of poverty, perhaps 
fifteen, is due to preventable illness or premature 
death, aside from cases caused by industrial acci- 
dents. Occupational diseases fall three and four 
times more on wage-earners than on the 
professional classes, not only in the number of days 


of sickness and suffering per year, but also in loss 
of income. 

(d) Child labor is another cause of low or insuffi- 
cient wages. The youth works for less wages than 
the adult. If there is competition between the boy 
and the adult, the latter must work for less pay than 
he would do otherwise, or lose his job. Further- 
more, the boy who goes to work early may become 
stunted in both body and mind; he may suffer ac- 
cident ; his education is hampered ; and he is likely 
to be doomed to work in the low-wage class. 


1. Is the presence of women in industry to be encouraged or 


2. Why do women go into industrial occupations? 

3. What are the effects upon the home of the employ- 

ment of women in industry? 

4. Why are state factory inspectors often negligent, even 

though the lives of girls and women depend upon 
adequate inspection of factory conditions? 

5. What are the main arguments for the eight hour day 

for women? 

6. What are the main arguments for a minimum wage? 

7. What factors would you consider, if you were a member 

of a wage board and asked to determine a minimum 
wage for women in a given industry? 

8. Should equal wages be paid to men and women in the 

same occupation? 


9. Make out a minimum budget for a self supporting young 
woman who is employed in a department store. 

10. In what ways is society responsible for industrial ac- 

cidents ? 

11. What is thrift? 

12. Could an increased degree of thrift on the part of the 

working classes remove their prevailing economic in- 

13. Is the miser or the spendthrift the more dangerous 

member of society? 

14. Distinguish between poverty and pauperism. 

15. Is it true that "abnormally large incomes make ab- 

normally small ones"? 

16. Why do some people do charity work as a kind of sport? 

17. Who constitute the greater social problem, the idle rich 

or the idle poor? Why? 

18. Which gives the severer test of character, wealth or 

poverty ? 




7. Capital and the Corporate Group. The use 
of steam-driven machinery and the rise of the fac- 
tory system created a demand for large units of 
capital. Hence, today, business units vary greatly 
in size. Modern business is conducted either (1) 
by individual entrepreneurs, (2) by partnerships, or 
(3) by the corporate organization in some form. 
The first method is satisfactory for conducting 
small enterprises ; the second is adequate where cap- 
ital on a somewhat larger scale is needed; and the 
corporate form is by far the most important type 
of business group because of the vast power that it 
represents. The leading lines of business which 
have adopted the corporate form of organization are 
banking, insurance, manufacture, mercantile enter- 
prises, and transportation. 

Corporate business units first existed independ- 
ently of each other. Then there came a period of 
competition, of cut-throat competition, as it was 
called. When it became apparent that competition 
between business units in the same field was dis- 
astrous, these units began to combine into larger 


groups. One of the earliest types of combination 
was represented by the agreement of independent 
concerns to fix prices, and hence to increase profits 
by restricting competition. The next step was the 
agreement of business groups to divide the field; 
each enterprise contracted to limit its activity to a 
particular section of the field. 

A third phase was the pool, or the attempt to 
restrict the output rather than the price or the field. 
According to this type of agreement, each member 
of the combination accepted an allotted percentage 
of production. Then came the formation of 
"trusts." By this method, each of the constituent 
companies turned over the operation of its respec- 
tive shares of the business to a board of central 
trustees, and in turn received trust certificates. 
Each essentially abandoned to the "trust'' the entire 
operation of the given business. 

The "holding corporation" developed as a com- 
mon successor to the "trust." In this connection a 
new central corporation was formed in order to 
purchase a majority interest of the stock of indi- 
vidual corporations. Each constituent corporation 
was operated as a separate unit. The control rested 
largely in the hands of the parent company. The 
holding corporation was the "trust" in a new and 
more effective form. 

Then the so-called system of "community of in- 
terests" developed. By this method the same group 


of directors possesses a controlling voice in the man- 
agement of each constituent company. It is ex- 
ceedingly difficult to prevent combinations of this 
type from taking place. As an alternative, strict 
government control is being tried with varying suc- 
cess. Government control, however, in the United 
States has been inadequate to such an extent that 
the public has not been enthusiastic over it. In 
European countries, however, it has proved a suc- 

Combinations of capital result in the elimination 
of competitive costs, and permit the undertaking 
of vast enterprises extending over periods of time, 
with the result that the small, independent producer 
generally suffers. The corporate group becomes im- 
personal, and responsibility is difficult to locate. 
The corporation presents a solid front to organized 
labor; it makes persistent attempts to control tariff, 
taxation, and social legislation. It is a powerful and 
constructive factor in matters of economic advance, 
but possessed of many and grave social evils. In 
many countries it has ceased to be respected by the 
common people, and consequently its spcial effi- 
ciency has been affected. 

8. Socialism. As a result of the evils which have 
developed in connection with the institutions of 
private property and the corporate group, the move- 
ment known as socialism has attained such world- 
wide prominence as to call for consideration by all 


students of human society. In general, socialists 
are opposed to the use of private property, as such, 
to produce more private property, and they are also 
hopeless of the labor union method of appealing 
directly to the employer. When the latter, repre- 
senting organized capital, refuses to meet the repre- 
sentatives of organized labor, then socialism is ad- 
vanced by many persons as the only worth while 
method for meeting the needs of labor. 

The socialist makes no war upon capital, as such ; 
he believes in capital, providing all the returns go 
to labor. Instead of having only a few individuals 
reaping the returns from capital and land, he would 
have both owned by the state, and managers em- 
ployed by the state to operate them in the same 
manner as the postal service is governmentally 
owned in manv countries. 


Instead of the returns from economic enterprise 
being divided into four parts, namely, rent, interest, 
profits, and wages, the socialist urges that all the 
returns should go to labor, recognizing gradations 
in labor sendee. Since land would be owned 
by the state, no rent would need to be paid, and 
since capital would be state owned, no interest 
would be charged. Since both land and capital 
woujd be used by the state for the welfare of all the 
people, there need be no attempt to secure "profits." 
Thus all the returns from industrial enterprise, ac- 
cording to the socialist's plan, would go in one di- 


rection, namely, to labor, ranging from the highest 
type of superintendence and managerial labor to 
unskilled labor. No one would receive an income 
unless he worked ; the income would be determined 
by the skill or managerial ability which the indi- 
vidual showed, and by the social value of his effort. 

The socialist does not believe that governmental 
regulation of the gigantic private monopolies 
will succeed. He contends that the monopolies 
have become so powerful that they regulate govern- 
ments, and even cause wars. The alternative is for 
government to go all the way and take over the 
large private businesses. 

There are several types of socialists. The Marx- 
ian socialists, like Marx, advocate an equal dis- 
tribution of wealth, a phrase which is commonly 
misunderstood. It does not refer to the equal dis- 
tribution of property among all the people, but a 
distribution primarily of income according to the 
service rendered or the work accomplished. Marx 
also developed the class struggle idea that the 
struggle between the laboring classes and the em- 
ploying classes will go from bad to worse until by 
revolutiona-ry means and by sheer force of numbers 
the laboring classes will come into control of gov- 
ernments. State socialism involves a gradual proc- 
ess, not a revolutionary cataclysm, whereby the 
government will ultimately own all the large in- 
dustries and the land. The Fabian socialists in 


England place primary emphasis upon the intellec- 
tual method of spreading socialistic concepts 
rather than upon working out an organized political 
movement. The Christian socialists find the basis 
of their beliefs in the teachings of Jesus. 

The strong and the weak points of socialism will 
now be considered : ( 1 ) Justice is a strong plea of 
socialism. It cannot be claimed today to control so- 
ciety. The ideal of socialism is to see that everyone 
is rewarded in proportion to his services, not to him- 
self, but to society. Ours is a form of economic con- 
trol which pays one man a million dollars annually 
merely because he is the son of his father, another 
man $10,000 a year for managing the father's bus- 
iness, and other men $1,000 or $2,000 a year, each, 
for furnishing the bulk of the labor. Socialism 
makes a strong plea for a more just distribution 
of wealth; it desires to eliminate special privilege. 
In all sincerity it argues that the large economic 
rewards should not go to the shrewd and the cun- 
ning. It asserts that the big prizes should not all 
go to those favored by inheritance irrespective of 
their worth as members of society. 

(2) Socialism asks for a more scientific organiza- 
tion of the productive factors in society, and that 
wasteful competition be eliminated. There are per- 
haps three times as many milk wagons, horses, and 
drivers today in this country as are required to 
serve the people. No one would think of returning 


to competitive postmen, that is, of having three or 
four postmen delivering mail on a given street at 
the same time and in the employment of as many 
different competitive companies. 

(3) Socialism would eliminate the commercial 
spirit and profitism. The spirit of producing goods 
for profit would be removed as it has been in the 
mail service. It is argued that today goods are 
manufactured primarily for profit, that is, primarily 
for selling purposes rather than because of useful- 
ness. Under socialism it is said that the business 
of the shop-keeper will be to help the customer find 
out what he really needs, whereas under capitalism 
it is often to his interest to sell the customer what 
he does not need or what will return the largest 

(4) Current socialistic propaganda is calling at- 
tention to the unjust phases of industrial and social 
conditions. It fearlessly proclaims the truth about 
unjust practices and engenders a critical public 

The first weakness of socialism that may be men- 
tioned is (1) its attempt to put into practice an eco- 
nomic system long before people are trained suffi- 
ciently to sustain it. It would move too rapidly ; it 
overlooks needed evolutionary measures. (2) So- 
cialism tends to underestimate the premium that is 
placed by the present system upon thrift and energy. 
Under capitalism it is the person who within limits 


is confronted by the stern necessity of making his 
own way who is most likely to develop strength of 
character, at least an individualistic character. Un- 
der socialism there would be grave danger that in- 
dividuals would succumb to the tendency of relying 
upon the state. The slogan might become: What 
does it matter, the state will take care of me any- 
way. (3) Under socialism there would still be seri- 
ous danger to individual liberty. Under capitalism 
when political rulers and business magnates com- 
bine, the majority of the people are helpless. Un- 
der socialism vast political power and absolute eco- 
nomic monopoly would be in the hands of a few 
persons at a time ; moreover such concentrated au- 
thority would be fully legal. (4) Socialism puts 
nearly all its emphasis upon a new organization of 
society. It holds that if you will change the struc- 
ture of the social order, you will secure the desired 
improvement. It does not provide for adequate 
and direct changes in personal character and in per- 
sonal attitudes toward other classes of people and 
society. It makes no primary effort to change the 
selfish attitude which governs people so much of the 

There is no question but that increasing numbers 
of persons in many and various parts of the world 
are coming to look with favor upon socialism. The 
most thorough and unselfish students of the move- 
ment, however, are clearly divided. Sociological 


thought has not put its stamp of approval upon 
socialism, and will not until the psychological, eco- 
nomic, social, and moral objections to it have been 
met successfully. 

The era of "individualism," however, must pass. 
The laissez faire policy of letting individuals oper- 
ate their own business as they see fit and without 
acting in accordance with social welfare must be 
supplanted. Sociology does not hold that either 
economic individualism or socialism will be the so- 
lution of social maladjustments. It does not believe 
in having all business conducted by governmental 
enterprise or under individual control alone. 

Public monopoly is usually slow in carrying out 
projects or in initiating new movements; it may 
also fall into the hands of a few individuals, work- 
ing together secretly in the interests of a special 
class. Private monopoly is more likely to favor the 
interests of a few or a class ; it may even attempt 
to dictate to governments. Both public enterprise 
with its social interests and private initiative may 
well be maintained, for each is needed as a stimulus 
to and a check upon the other. 

It now remains to speak of guild socialism, syn- 
dicalism, and bolshevism. Guild socialism as the 
movement that has developed in England is strug- 
gling toward the organization of manufacturing es- 
tablishments as industrial units with the workers in 
charge and in virtual ownership. It would not in- 


terfere with present governmental matters, but con- 
tent itself purely as an industrial organization pro- 

Guild socialism is to be distinguished from the 
program of the British Labor Party which is based 
upon political activity of labor. Through the exer- 
cise of the right of suffrage, labor aims to secure 
and maintain control of the House of Commons 
and the important administrative positions. The 
program also includes the principle of nationaliza- 
tion of the chief industries. The method is evolu- 
tionary and educational. 

Syndicalism in France, paralleled in part by the 
activities in the United States of the Industrial 
Workers of the World, is radical. It holds that 
the socialist's program is too mild, and that the 
political method of securing economic control will 
fail, because when socialists are elected to office 
they tend to become conservative. The syndicalist 
advocates "direct action,'' that is, striking directly 
at profits. A part of the method is represented by 
"sabotage," which originally referred to throwing 
a shoe into a machine so as to stop production and 
thus to bring the employer to terms. If you are 
working in a freight office and asked to ship oranges 
from Florida to Illinois, then change the shipping 
address to some town in New Mexico. In this way 
utter business confusion will result, profits will be 
cut off, the consumers will protest against capital- 


ism and business under capitalistic control will be 
defeated ; a new economic order can be set up. The 
general strike is also advocated. Let all employees 
cease to labor, and capitalistic business cannot go 
on it will fail, leaving the way open for syndical- 

Bolshevism, representing the radical wing of 
Marxian socialism, came into power in Russia in 
1917. The World War had killed the Czarist army 
officers, and as the men in the ranks came into 
military leadership they finally swung the proleta- 
riat into power in a bloodless revolution. For the 
first time in the world, the propertyless classes 
overthrew the propertied classes and assumed polit- 
ical control in one of the largest countries of the 
earth. They established a "dictatorship of the pro- 
letariat," using the same autocratic methods that 
they had learned under the lash of the imperialistic 
forces of the czars. They represent class control 
in a new form. Their success or failure depends on 
the type of education which they develop, the de- 
gree of democracy which they put into practice, 
and the social attitudes which they achieve. 

Syndicalism and bolshevism use revolutionary 
weapons which are out of place in a democracy. 
While their methods of control are ancient, they 
represent the increasing social unrest of the times. 
To denounce them feverishly and to jail their 
leaders will strengthen their cause. The chief thing 


needed is that the causes of economic and social 
unrest be rooted out. 

9. Social Insurance and Co-operative Movements. 
Before proceeding to apply the principles of democ- 
racy to industry, it will be well to consider certain 
ameliorative movements. Social insurance refers 
to the insurance of the working classes through 
state action. The funds are furnished in part by 
the employer, in part sometimes by the employee, 
and in part sometimes by the state itself. 

In the case of accident insurance or workmen's 
compensation, the employer usually pays all the 
costs of an accident. When a $5,000 machine in 
a factory wears out, its loss is charged to the costs 
of production; when a $5,000 employee suffers 
death as the result of an accident while at work, 
this loss is also being charged to the cost of produc- 
tion, and the sum of $5,000 is paid in installments 
to the widow or children, or both. 

In addition to workmen's compensation for ac- 
cidents, compulsory insurance against sickness and 
against old age have gained considerable momen- 
tum. Compulsory unemployment insurance which 
was introduced into England in 1912 in two lead- 
ing trades, has gained noticeable headway, but is 
still in an experimental stage. 

Social insurance has the merit of providing for 
the industrial workers and their families in the 


pecuniary crises of life. This fact gives the workers 
a degree of freedom from anxiety in normal times, 
increasing their happiness and efficiency. Social 
insurance is sometimes considered an opening 
wedge for socialism, a point that is exaggerated in 
the mind of the fearful. A more serious objection 
is that social insurance may undermine a full sense 
of individual responsibility. In a way it would be 
better to provide higher wages and to promulgate 
habits of thrift, so that individual responsibility 
may flourish, always of course toward socialized 

Profit-sharing refers ordinarily to an agreement, 
freely accepted, by which "the employee receives a 
share, fixed in advance, of the profits." It is a plan 
of paying to employees a share of profits in addition 
to wages. It is assumed that the profits which are 
shared will be created by the increased diligence 
and care of the employees. 

Another procedure for improving the conditions 
of men in industry is "co-operation," which refers to 
the efforts on the part of the working class to abolish 
profits by distributing them, or surplus funds, 
among those whose labor or trade has created the 
surplus. Consumers' co-operation consists generally 
in a union of many consumers for the purpose of 
obtaining commodities at wholesale rates, of sell- 
ing them at the ordinary retail rates to their own 
members, and then of dividing the profits from 


such sales among themselves upon some equitable 

Producers' co-operation is a different system. 
While the aim of consumers' co-operation is to give 
the purchaser the advantage of lower costs, the 
purpose of producers' co-operation is commonly 
given as that of raising prices for the benefit of 
laborers. Hence there exists an essential antago- 
nism between consumers' and producers' co-oper- 
ative activities. Associations of workmen, employ- 
ing managers and acting as their own employers, 
have been successful, but not with uneducated and 
untrained people. 

Some of the difficulties in connection with pro- 
ducers' co-operation are a lack of sufficient capital, 
endless trouble with incompetent and shiftless 
members, the problem of securing and keeping an 
efficient manager, the lack of grace with which 
losses are borne, and an insufficient degree of in- 
telligent and socialized background on the part of 
the rank and file. 

10. Industrial Democracy. The World War pro- 
jected the concept of democracy into industrial re- 
lations with a vengeance. Democracy however is 
a general term under which people in Western civi- 
lization place their own social attitudes ; industrial 
democracy has likewise proved an unstandardized 


For many years, employers were prone to confuse 
welfare work with industrial democracy. The in- 
troduction in a business establishment of clean 
towels, baths, restaurants, rest rooms, and free 
dental service illustrates welfare work. As a result 
the employer is usually repaid in the form of the 
increased efficiency of and improved personal re- 
lations with his employees. 

The American workman however is peculiarly 
sensitive to anything that suggests charity. It has 
been pointed out that persons who understand 
workmen at all, realize that they do not want to 
be subjected to the receipt of gifts and charities 
which would place them under lasting servile ob- 
ligation to the donors, the employers. Real welfare 
work, according to C. R. Henderson, is fair wages 
and shorter hours of labor. It is being urged that 
the benevolent works of employers in the form of 
welfare activities which at first seemed to be gra- 
cious and liberal gifts, should be required by law. 

Genuine industrial democracy involves three 
main factors in the production of economic goods, 
namely, the public, labor, and capital. The needs 
and welfare of the public are primary ; the interests 
of both labor and capital are secondary. Any eco- 
nomic system which gives the entire management 
of business to labor is unsound ; likewise capitalism 
is in error when it claims that capital should dom- 


It is thought by many persons that the main solu- 
tion of the economic problem is to give labor repre- 
sentation on boards of directors and in management 
of industry. Such a plan is being tried with vary- 
ing degrees of success. Capital opposes it and la- 
bor is not trained for it and often does not wish 
to assume so much responsibility. Labor desires 
representation on shop committees which regulate 
the conditions of work, hours, and even wages, but 
it is not willing or able as a rule to assume financial 

The joint control of industry by capital and 
labor is no certain cure-all for industrial evils. 
Capital and labor have showed signs of combining 
against the public. Capital has profiteered and 
labor has demanded abnormally high wages. In a 
given corporation an increase in selling costs was 
proposed recently with the understanding that one- 
half of the profits that might accrue should be 
turned into dividends and one-half into wages. 
Capital and labor thus combined against the con- 
sumer. In the matter of wages, hours of labor, and 
dividends the third party to industrial enterprise 
needs to have a voice and representation. A tri- 
partite organization of industry is essential if all 
interests vitally concerned are to have adequate 

As a reaction against profiteering on the part of 
capital, and labor also, a new economic phenome- 


non occurred in the fall of 1919 in the United 
States; a new type of strike on a large scale took 
place. The buyers' strike continued for some time 
as a protest against high prices. For a time both cap- 
ital and labor were so engrossed in their struggle 
against each other that they did not observe that 
the public was "striking" against them both. The 
buyers' strike demonstrates the necessity of includ- 
ing the public in the management of industry. 

It is claimed that industrial democracy will shift 
the emphasis from rights to functions. Instead of 
capital employing labor, labor will employ capital ; 
instead of goods being produced for profits, business 
must purge itself of profitism, as medicine, teach- 
ing, the ministry have purged themselves, and goods 
must be produced for use. According to these prin- 
ciples, capital will be entitled to standard rates of 
interest, dependent upon the amount of risk in- 
volved and determined by labor-capital-consumer 
agreements. Any returns above the standard rates 
will be illegal. The professions have been chang- 
ing from a profit to functional and standard income 
bases. If business does not follow this law of socio- 
economic evolution, it will probably force revolu- 
tions and labor class control by the uneducated 
masses upon nations. 

Under industrial democracy it is claimed that 
instead of as high dividends as possible being paid 
and of workers being paid as low wages as they will 


accept, the material component represented chiefly 
by capital will be secured at as low a rate as possible 
and the human element, the workers, will be paid as 
much as possible. Instead of a prospective investor 
in stocks and bonds asking first, what dividends 
are paid, his initial inquiry will be, what service 
does the corporation perform. Social welfare, after 
all, will be the standard by which all classes must 
measure their plans and activities. Good will and 
the spirit of "Come, let us reason together," are also 
basic to the operation of industrial democracy. 
Nearly all other methods produce revolution and 

In the three chapters ending with this one, the 
occupational group in many of its aspects, processes, 
products, and problems has been considered. We 
now pass to a discussion of the community group. 



1. Can you name any employment in which capital pro- 

duces without the aid of labor? 

2. In which labor produces without the aid of capital? 

3. In which both labor and capital produce, without the 

aid of the consumer? 

4. Is either the average capitalist or the average socialist 

in a position to pass an unbiased judgment upon 

5. Is socialism to be judged by its ideals or by the way 

it works? 

6. Does it make any difference who owns the wealth, pro- 

viding it is socially administered? 

7. Under socialism, what is to take the place of the present 

rewards of industry as an incentive to the exertion 
of the individual's best interests? 

8. Explain: "Luxury at present can be enjoyed only by the 


9. Can business enterprise survive if, as is the case in the 

teaching profession, the element of profits were elim- 
inated ? 

10. What is the difference between an acquisitive society 
and a functional society? 


THE COMMUNITY GROUP is here used in the sense 
of a social control organization. In an elemental 
way it is represented by a neighborhood. In a more 
positive governmental sense, it is best illustrated by 
the nation ; in its broadest meaning it refers to the 
world group. 

1. The Neighborhood Group. The child's play 
group, which has already received consideration, 
generally overlaps with the neighborhood, that is, 
it contains neighborhood children. It is in this 
way that the neighborhood usually comes into the 
child's consciousness. 

The neighborhood also contains members who are 
outside the play group or even the friendship group 
of the child or of the child's parents ; it includes all 
persons living within a face-to-face communicative 
area. In large cities the neighborhood is likely to 
be a group of people characterized chiefly by the 
fact that they live within a certain geographic area. 
There are many types of neighborhoods, such as a 
rural neighborhood, a village neighborhood, or an 


immigrant neighborhood in a large city. 

The neighborhood is a combination of several 
family groups, and of the representatives of several 
play and occupational groups. Its appeal is pri- 
marily to the gregarious impulses; children and 
women feel its strength more than men. Its bonds 
are rarely strong, except as it supports a neighbor- 
hood enterprise, such as a system of material im- 
provements, an athletic team, or a "drive." It has 
no specific form of group control, which is due to 
lack of group aims and which explains its weak- 
nesses as a group phenomenon. 

Since the neighborhood is comprised of fgjnily 
group^-Tvhose chief tie is geographic proximity, con- 
flict and co-operation alike flourish. The neighbor- 
hood feud is common, spectacular, and lasting. It 
usually begins with a disagreement between two 
families over a boundary line between property, 
over live stock, children, or over something that a 
member of one family says about a member of an- 
other family. The imagination works feverishly 
and imagined wrongs multiply. Gossip does its 
deadly work until a whole neighborhood of families 
is divided into two opposing camps. 

The feud illustrates the neighborhood quarrel at 
its worst ; it may run for years and generations. In 
the mountain districts it may lead to murder, and 
last until all the thirty-two MacGregors have been 
killed and all but one of the thirty-three Mclntosh's, 


leaving only one Mclntosh alive and thus demon- 
strating to a disinterested world that the Mcln- 
tosh's have won. 

The neighborhood is rarely appreciated as a de- 
mocratising agency. It is a nation in miniature; it 
may create a group-consciousness which is generic 
to national patriotism. It affords an opportunity, 
like the public school group, for individuals of many 
types of thought, cultural backgrounds, and racial 
traditions to learn to co-operate and develop com- 
mon viewpoints, to participate in common neigh- 
borhood enterprises, and thus to develop a group 
consciousness which is the essence of democracy. 

A recent movement is community recreation. Ac- 
cording to this procedure the people of given neigh- 
borhoods organize on the basis of a common need, 
that of recreation. Then, through the activities of 
skilled recreation leaders and through common 
participation, the people give an historical pageant, 
establish a community theater, or unite in support 
of a recreation center with the schoolhouse as the 
common meeting place. It is possible for a neigh- 
borhood even of size to furnish itself with nearly 
all the recreation it needs, at a minimum of cost, 
and what is far more important, to develop withal a 
group consciousness. 

A neighborhood consciousness may be created 
not only through community recreation but also 
through other forms of common activity, for ex- 


ample, a community church. Again, it is possible 
to organize a neighborhood on a general welfare 
basis. Such a community organization may send 
its representatives to the city council in support of 
needed neighborhood measures ; it may work for a 
lower water rate or lower prices on milk; it may 
establish its own poor relief; it may achieve a re- 
markable degree of unselfish group service. 

The village as a neighborhood center has not 
succeeded as well in the United States as in other 
countries. It has become often a dead center. 
People move away from their isolated dwellings, 
pass by the village, and locate in the large city. The 
village is however a socially strategic unit, especial- 
ly so in this country where the isolated farm dwell- 
ing is so common. The village possesses all the po- 
tential advantages of urban neighborhoods and af- 
fords expression for the gregarious impulses of 
rural people living a half mile or more from neigh- 
bors. It is or may be large enough to maintain 
nearly all the advantages of the city. It can still 
keep clear from the hustle, the superficiality, the 
soot, the squalor, and the homelessness of the large 

In the United States, however, the rural people 
are characterized by an unusual degree of provin- 
cial independence and a lack of travel experiences 
which prevents the villagers from developing into 
a thriving neighborhood community. Villagers do 


not have the social contacts necessary for the de- 
velopment of energetic personalities ; they are sub- 
jected to a degree of genuine social isolation. 

In the city the neighborhood is also handicapped. 
The variety in the racial composition or in occu- 
pational composition is often so great as to prevent 
neighborization. Occupational interests act as cen- 
trifugal forces, sending the neighborhood citizens 
into diverging paths with diverse aims. The auto- 
mobile acts as another type of centrifugal force 
that dissipates neighborhood unity. 

Thus, the neighborhood fails to measure up to its 
possibilities as a group organization. It lacks the 
coherency of the family, play, and occupational 
groups ; and as a rule shows signs of group life only 
in times of crises or under compulsion. 

The neighborhood is often charged with directly 
fostering homelessness. Many neighborhood dwell- 
ers do not know their "neighbors" at all, or only 
from seeing them upon the street. The neighbor- 
hood unfortunately melts away into the larger 
communality, the district, township, city, or county, 
instead of contributing an effective group conscious- 
ness to the larger community life. 

2. The Nation Group. The neighborhood group 
was once the governmental or social control group. 
It gradually gave way before one larger organiza- 
tion after another until today the sovereign govern- 


mental group is the nation. . 

Government originated in the need of protec- 
tion of individuals from their fellows. Those forms 
of life which live in groups and subject to group 
organization have an advantage over other forms. 
Wild horses that have developed a group organiza- 
tion are able to withstand the attacks of ferocious 
animals, such as the lion or tiger. Individuals who 
live under a group organization survive, while 
others perish. Group organization is not only the 
basis of individual development, but also of protec- 
tion after individuals have reached maturity. 

Primitive people lived in groups, submitting 
themselves to the rules and regulations of a crude 
government, especially in times of crises and danger. 
In the presence of a common enemy, primitive 
peoples developed a keen sense of the need of pro- 
tection and responded eagerly to leadership. The 
rise of fear is always a potent force in creating 
group or governmental bonds. The need of de- 
fensive strength leads to the recognition of the im- 
portance of group union, to the giving up of indi- 
vidual privileges, to the acceptance of group rules, 
and to a new common life under group or political 

Under the protection of group organization, 
primitive people established the beginnings of oc- 
cupational stability and social advance. Here also 
is found the origin of private property. As a result 


of group organization, early man possessed a meas- 
ure of protection from the "outside," and had a 
little world where ordinarily he could live at peace, 
a peace which is one of the first conditions of prog- 
ress. He also had a measure of protection from 
enemies within the group, which led to an in- 
creased unity and strength of the whole group. 

The "horde" was the group organization in which 
the modern state had its origin. It was a sort of 
temporary oligarchy, based to an extent on respect 
for those whose personal prowess enabled the group 
to meet attack successfully. The horde is to be 
distinguished from the clan or organization of 
families, from the "household" or group organiza- 
tion for economic purposes ; and from the phratry, 
or group organization for social, recreation, and re- 
ligious ends. 

The horde possessed three of the fundamental 
elements of the modern nation state. It had (1) 
the idea of the authority of the leader; (2) a notion 
of law in the obedience given to the commands of 
the chief, and in the customs governing the group 
while fighting and hunting; and (3) a common 
unity, since all members were combined for a gen- 
eral purpose. 

In the tribal group, which was an advance over 
the horde, the need for protection was again the 
leading factor. The ties of blood relationship, as 
was the case in the horde, functioned as a bond of 


union. The common descent of members from a 
fictitious ancestor was postulated; the ruler, or 
king, was invested with the absolute authority of a 
father. Religion, also, especially in the form of 
ancestor worship, rendered important service in de- 
veloping the habit of obedience. It enforced with 
supernatural sanctions the customs including the 
political ideas of the past. The tribal group, then, 
was based on the need for protection, on ties of 
blood relationships, and on the strength of a com- 
mon religion. 

The city-state of the Greeks and the Romans, for 
example, was an outgrowth of tribal group life. The 
need for protection was greater than ever; the ties 
of blood relationship were still strong. Religion 
was still an affair of the state and a bond of politi- 
cal strength. The authority of the city-state was 
greater, more regular in its exercise, and more per- 
manent in its nature than that of the tribal group. 
The city-state developed an elaborate machinery 
for administrative purposes and created organized 
protection of the weaker members. 

The feudal state was no longer an enlarged fam- 
ily, as was the tribal group; it was more like an 
army. The government of the feudal state was a 
type of a definite military institution. In theory 
the king owned the whole feudal group. He par- 
celled out the land to his nobles, who in turn dis- 
tributed it among their subordinates. The state 


was concentrated in the monarchy. The members 
did not live so much for the state as for the ruler ; 
personal allegiance to the king seemed to take pre- 
cedence over the other factors which kept the state 

The absolute monarchy was in reality an over- 
grown feudal state. For many centuries the mon- 
archs treated their respective states as their private 
property; concessions from them were always se- 
cured with difficulty. Any limitation of the au- 
thority of the monarch was rarely secured except 
at the cost of bloodshed. Political parties began to 
develop, but of course as secret group organizations. 
In Russia, for example, political parties existed 
largely as secret organizations until 1917. 

The next transition was to the constitutional 
monarchy. The people slowly but surely obtained 
certain rights from the ruler. A parliament was 
created to register the will of the people. The 
monarch lost his status of a superior being with 
divine rights ; he became a minister to the people. 
Political parties became stronger; they developed 
into open organizations, representing conservative 
and radical attitudes on the various questions of 
interest to the state. The sovereignty of the people 
as the real governing power became recognized. 

In a democracy, the latest experiment in group 
control, politically speaking, the office of king has 
been abolished, and the sovereignty of the people 


established. By means of representatives the people 
and the government are welded into a close relation- 
ship. Gigantic political parties develop ; there are 
generally no more than two leading political parties 
in the state at a given time, one representing the 
conservative and the other the radical phase of 
specific issues. 

Political parties perform a definite social func- 
tion. In democratic countries, the party in power 
rarely initiates new programs. It generally has 
more than it can do in fulfilling pre-election prom- 
ises. The party not in control renders a definite 
sendee in prodding up the party in power, and in 
insisting that the latter live up to its promises. The 
party out of power, as a rule, stands for progressive 
measures and for new ideas and methods in order 
to bid successfully for the suffrage of the people. 

The nation state is a group of people exercising 
organized control over its members and over a 
specific territory. Its general forms of activity are 
three-fold: (1) activity with reference to other 
states, guaranteeing protection from external at- 
tack or undue interference; (2) activity with refer- 
ence to its citizens, guaranteeing them liberty and 
security; and (3) activity in promoting construc- 
tive measures for group advance. 

In regard to the first function, the state carries on 
an elaborate set of diplomatic and military activi- 
ties, helping thus to develop a distinct national life. 


The citizen expresses his indebtedness to the state 
in its diplomatic and military endeavors in the 
form of the sentiment of patriotism. The strength 
of this sentiment becomes apparent only when some 
other state assumes an aggressive or pugnacious at- 

In the second place, the state defends the law- 
abiding citizen, and punishes the anti-social mem- 
ber. It enforces contracts between individuals, 
when properly drawn; it affords damages for ac- 
cidents ; it gives protection to groups of individuals 
when organized in corporate bodies for business 
purposes ; and it aims to protect individuals against 

The punishment of individuals who commit of- 
fences against other individuals or against the state 
itself is a function needed for the protection of the 
law-abiding citizen; it is a function which clearly 
belongs to the state, because the infliction of such 
punishment requires the use of an authority which 
extends to all parts of the state. Hence the state 
establishes an elaborate police system to catch 
guilty persons, and in the person of its own attor- 
neys conducts the case against them. It provides 
machinery for determining justice and for punish- 
ing the convicted. 

In the third place, the state promotes social and 
economic measures. It has taken up the coinage 
of money and assumed charge of banking systems ; 


it has become an extensive employer of labor; it 
carries the mails ; it builds and maintains highways. 
The question may be raised: How far should the 
state go in the economic sphere? The answer may 
be given : To the point where the socialized expres- 
sion of individual initiative and creative impulses 
is hindered. 

The state is a group which needs citizens of 
strong moral character, but moral character usually 
cannot be created by force. The state, however, 
does something in this connection, such as prevent- 
ing the circulation of impure literature, and limit- 
ing the sale of intoxicants. 

The state and church are no longer one in all 
countries. The combination creates undue concen- 
tration of power, and sometimes tends to make re- 
ligion perfunctory. If religious needs, however, 
are vital to the development of the best type of per- 
sons and citizens, then the religious phases of life 
cannot be entirely neglected by the state. 

3. The World Group. The succession of horde, 
tribe, tribal confederacy, city-state, feudal state, 
monarchical state, and democratic state has but one 
"next stage," and that is world community. Christi- 
anity's fundamental propositions of "brotherhood 
of man" and "Fatherhood of God" are noteworthy 
beginnings. These sentiments are being slowly 
rationalized and put into effect. 


Hundreds of international organizations have 
been formed in the last fifty years; these connote 
progress in world community thinking. Although 
these international bodies are loosely organized, al- 
though they have voluntary members, and although 
they have no power of enforcement of rules, they 
have created world opinion and afforded some op- 
portunity for co-operative international activities. 

The Hague Tribunal, while helpless in a real 
world crisis, served to attract the attention of the 
nations for the settlement of minor disputes. It 
has played the part of a meritorious world toy; it 
has demonstrated the need for a more effective 
world instrument of adjudication. The League to 
Enforce Peace set a new world ideal clearly before 
public opinion, and led by degrees to a League of 
Nations, the formation of which constituted an- 
other step in the direction of world community. 
President Woodrow Wilson's statement before the 
Chamber of Deputies in Italy on January 3, 1919, 
that the need of the hour is to organize the friend- 
ship of the world is still fundamentally true. 

Before any League of Nations or Association of 
Nations can succeed, the majority of the people in 
the leading nations must learn to think in world 
terms. They must establish habits of world think- 
ing; they will need to think in world terms for a 
period of time before world community can be es- 
tablished. They will need to learn to judge the 


acts of their own respective nations and of other 
nations from the standpoint of world welfare. Unto 
local, provincial, and national thinking there must 
be added world thinking. There is an abundance 
of local minds, but only a few world minds capable 
of grasping the details of world problems in their 
full significance. World minds can be created by 
developing habits of thinking about world problems. 

International law is an evidence of world com- 
munity thinking, at least in an incipient form. In- 
ternational law is a body of rules, generally recog- 
nized by civilized states, which determine to a de- 
gree the conduct of modern states in their mutual 
dealings. The co-existence of large and powerful 
states has made it necessary that they develop 
standard rules of action in their conduct with each 

In war times and similar crises the principles of 
international conduct are likely to be violated. 
Owing to the absence of an adequate coercive force 
to compel a nation to obey, international law may 
break down. The function of international law, 
however, is to regulate the conduct of national 
groups in all their dealings, hostile as well as pacific. 
Modern international law is based on the ruling 
principle that nations are units in a larger society, 
and possess mutual obligations and rights. Grotius 
was the leader in bringing about a recognition of the 
world societary concept. The Hague Tribunal and 


similar attempts at establishing an international 
court have broken down because the spirit of na- 
tionalism has been stronger than the spirit of world 
community. When it came to the test, public opin- 
ion has not been strong enough to support the ma- 
chinery for solving world problems. 

The League of Nations was seriously handi- 
capped at the very beginning of its career, because it 
was built upon so many nationally selfish concepts. 
Some feared it as an organization of nations for 
the promotion of an autocratic type of capitalism. 
Others suspicioned it as a post-war weapon for de- 
liberately furthering the welfare of certain strong 
nations at the expense of weak ones. Still others 
presaged that it would become a League of Western 
Civilization. Even its limited power to deprive 
nations of a part of their sovereignty was deplored 
by nationalists everywhere. 

The Washington Conference on Limitation of 
Armaments was based on the principle that inde- 
pendent nations should come to agreements on 
world matters without giving up even a slight de- 
gree of sovereignty to a world organization. The 
Conference may be viewed however as a step toward 
the development of a world public opinion and a 
world conscience, which in turn will lead to a world 
organization superior in function to nationality. 

Despite the progress that is being made, the peo- 
ple of the world have not yet sensed the meaning 


of world community. The world has reached the 
points where public opinion speaks of Western 
civilization or Eastern civilization, and where the 
differences between the two, not the likenesses, are 
receiving the attention of hectic and spectacular per- 
sons on both sides of the Pacific. The average 
members of the Western social order are widely pro- 
claiming the superiority of Western civilization. 
They fail to study, either at all, or with unpreju- 
diced minds the worthy points of Eastern develop- 
ment; they see chiefly its defects. They even fail 
to feel humble because of the defects of their 
own societary organization. Likewise, many of the 
adherents of Eastern civilization are silently and 
politely feeling a sense of pity for Western chauvin- 
ists. Now and then some one such as Rabindranath 
Tagore, rises up and openly expresses himself, call- 
ing Western society black, and dwelling upon the 
superiorities of Orientalism. 

From the constructive side, an excellent analysis 
of Western civilization has been made by Charles 
A. Ellwood, who has outlined the following attri- 
butes. (1) A set of ethical and religious values was 
derived from the Hebrews and early Christians. In 
the former the major concept is justice; and in the 
latter, love. (2) A number of philosophical and 
esthetic values was contributed by the Greeks. (3) 
A set of administrative and legal values, stressing 
the rights of property, originated with the Romans. 


(4) A set of personal liberty values was developed 
by the early Teutons and given concrete modern 
expression under the laissez faire doctrine of the 
nineteenth century in Western Europe and the 
United States. Within recent decades, additional 
values have been produced by Occidentalism, name- 
ly, (5) scientific methods, (6) business and indus- 
trial techniques, and (7) as an antidote to economic 
extremes, humanitarian values. 

Eastern civilization is known for (1) its self- 
sacrifice values, which to the Oriental makes Oc- 
cidentalism seem synonymous with organized sel- 
fishness. (2) There is a set of contemplative values 
in Orientalism, culminating in mysticism. (3) In 
the East, there is custom veneration, for parents, 
for established ways, for the naturally and socially 
stable phases of life, and for law and order. (4) 
There is also a set of important conventional stand- 
ards which express themselves in human courtesy 
and appreciation of the finer things of life. (5) 
Orientalism is esthetic, and mystically, not ration- 
ally philosophic. (6) Orientalism is noted for its 
sense of social solidarity, which produces a strong 
sentiment of patriotism and social obligation. The 
social group and its standards are the major con- 
cepts and the individual, the minor. In the East the 
family group is the unit, as compared with the indi- 
vidual in the West. (7) The Oriental lives in gener- 
alizations rather than in particularizations a prin- 


ciple which is fundamental to the Oriental's other 

When the positive elements in Western and East- 
ern civilizations are brought together, their real an- 
tagonisms are evident. We perceive the rational 
versus the mystically philosophic, particularization 
versus generalization, the individual over against 
the family unit, facts versus concepts, individualism 
versus solidarity, utility versus estheticism, action 
versus contemplation, the physical versus the psy- 
chical, anxiety as opposed to tranquility, and the 
means of life versus the sake of living. These con- 
trasts, vividly stated by Inazo Nitobe, upon reflec- 
tion, provide nothing less than adequate bases for 
building a world community that will be superior 
to either Western or Eastern civilization. 

World community is so much a matter of the 
future that only a few tendencies can be noted. Ap- 
parently (1) world community will be psychically 
one but racially several. Mankind had a common 
origin, but dispersed in various directions over the 
earth. In migrating, man encountered various 
physical and climatic environments, and became 
differentiated into races and cultures. The cultures 
are now being reunited. The process of social evo- 
lution will probably produce one world civilization. 
The common culture will always show marked 
variations, but its unity will stand. It will also 
achieve a considerable amount of racial admixture, 


intermarriage, and amalgamation, but distinct 
races biologically will undoubtedly remain. The 
different climatic regions of the earth will continue 
to function in producing dark and light skinned 
races, and sunny and serious peoples. 

(2) World civilization will apparently produce a 
world political structure superior in strength to the 
most powerful nations today, and yet jealously 
guarding the needs of individual nations, both large 
and small. It will be built out of the virtues of 
present-day nations. It will not abolish nations, 
but foster them as long as they work for the plan- 
etary good. It will do away with hyper-national- 
ism, provincialism, and chauvinism. It will elim- 
inate the balance of power theory, the secret treaty 
practice, and territorial aggrandizement schemes. 

(3) World community will be democratic. No 
permanent world structure can be built out of auto- 
cratic principles or governments. Rulership from 
the top down exclusively, bears its own seeds of 
destruction in the power which it gives the few over 
the many. Through autocracy, even the education 
of the masses can be subverted. 

Not autocracy, but aristocracy will exist with 
democracy in world community. It will be, how- 
ever, a democratic aristocracy, an aristocracy that 
will be guided by the needs of the many, that will 
not waste itself in extravagant living, that will con- 
tinuallv endeavor to raise all individuals to its own 


levels and thus create a democracy of social aristo- 
crats, of superior men and women with unselfish 
super-social aims. 

World community will be industrially democrat- 
ic. Neither labor nor capital will control. One has 
as its goal, wages; the other, profits. Both ends 
are materialistic and low grade. Service values will 
rule both capital and labor. Individuals will strive 
with one another in rendering service; service will 
supplant profitism and speculation. The service 
standard already rules in the ministry, in the teach- 
ing profession, among social workers, with judges, 
and almost all physicians. 

Some force, such as Christianity's dynamic of 
love, is needed to put into effect the three foregoing 
principles of world community. Humanitarianism, 
having no goal outside itself is apt to become self- 
centered, concentrated, and professional. The Chris- 
tian principle of love is humanitarian, and more; 
its ultimate goal is located outside and beyond hu- 
manity. Thus it produces the best available ideal 
and the most dynamic guiding force for world com- 

4. The Citizenship Process. The process of de- 
veloping socialized citizens includes measures of 
creating a social consciousness in and through com- 
munity participation by individuals. The problem 
of creating a worthy citizenry is of foremost im- 


portance in a democracy. 

A sinister phase of the problem is revealed by 
the general indifference of individuals in the matter 
of voting and in the work of their elected represent- 
atives. The multiplication of private interests in- 
vites neglect of the more fundamental affairs of 
government. The complexity of modern city life 
is so great that the ordinary person has difficulty 
in determining the truth about candidates for office. 
Elihu Root has said that the people of the United 
States should change their attitude toward their 
government. "Too many of us have been trying 
to get something out of the country and too few 
of us have been trying to serve it. Offices, appro- 
priations, personal or class benefits, have been too 
generally the motive power that has kept the wheels 
of government moving. Too many of us have for- 
gotten that a government which is to preserve lib- 
erty and do justice must have the heart and soul of 
the people behind it not mere indifference." 

Government even in most countries is still viewed 
as an external "ruler" operating from above. It is 
not yet considered a tool of the people by which 
the people associated in pursuit of common ends 
can effectively co-operate for realization of their 
own aims. The problem is that of making govern- 
mental machinery such a prompt and flexible in- 
strument that it will drive away all distrust. 

Since individuals give their attention so largely 


to their private affairs and neglect political matters 
so generally, "politics" has tended to become a trade 
of a class of experts in the manipulation of their 
fellows. Thus "politics" is smirched and results in 
further aloofness from public matters by those per- 
sons who are best fitted to participate. 

The indifference of many leaves the direction of 
political affairs in the hands of the few, who can 
work in more or less irresponsible secrecy. That 
a public office is a public trust is a principle most 
difficult to realize. 

The taxation problem creates troublesome ques- 
tions. Personal property, for example, is reported to 
assessors so inaccurately that the honest person who 
reports all his personal property, pays more than his 
share of taxes. He is confronted with the choice, 
as C. R. Henderson has said, of being robbed or of 
perjuring himself. The tax on personal property 
leads to deception and has gone far toward making 
perjury respectable among many people. 

The income tax is a relatively simple method of 
bringing about a more just apportionment. The 
taxing of stocks and bonds at their sources instead 
of taxing persons who hold them is meeting with 
success. The graduated tax on land whereby the 
people through their governments receive the un- 
earned increment promises well. The inheritance 
tax in graduated form is being extended rapidly. 

Social legislation refers to legislation for the pro- 


tection of men, women, and children in industry, to 
factory laws, and compensation acts. At nearly 
every turn these welfare measures are fought by 
large corporations. 

The United States has been peculiarly unfor- 
tunate in failing to secure uniform laws on matters 
of social concern. The various states pass laws, 
such as child labor laws, pure food laws, and divorce 
laws, without reference to the need for uniformity. 
This emphasis on state's rights has prevented uni- 
formity of legislation on questions of national in- 

If one state has a law prohibiting child labor un- 
der twelve years of age in factories and the people 
of an adjoining industrial state wish to pass a four- 
teen-year age limit, the manufacturers in the latter 
case are handicapped in the competitive market; 
thus the fourteen-year age limit suffers defeat. The 
lack of uniformity with reference to divorce laws 
has been notorious. The need for Federal uniform- 
ity is self-evident. 

National egotism is perhaps the nation group's 
greatest enemy. It denies the full obligation of the 
nation to the world group ; it creates chauvinism ; 
it leads to wars. A world situation in which there 
are fifty-five nation groups, each setting up its own 
standards of right and wrong conduct, and each 
passing judgment on all the other fifty-four, makes * 
necessary a new world order, socialized citizenry, f 


and a widespread community consciousness. The 
accomplishment of these ends is the task of the 
citizenship process, but the full technique of this 
process remains yet to be created. 


1. What is community spirit? 

2. Define neighbor. 

3. In what way may neighborhood consciousness be de- 

veloped ? 

4. What is a nation? 

5. Define: a good citizen. 

6. What is a democratic group? 

7. "Are laws that are framed in the interest of certain 

classes of individuals of permanent advantage to the 
nation as a whole?" 

8. What is patriotism? 

9. What is hyper-nationalism? 

10. What is world community? 

11. In what ways may world friendship be developed? 

12. Is world organization a next logical step in social evo- 



THE FAMILY, play, occupational, and community 
types of groups which have been considered in the 
preceding chapters are all highly educational. In 
addition there are other groups, particularly school 
groups, which give specific and technical attention 
to the educational process. 

1. The School Group. The school group usually 
begins with the kindergarten and ends with the uni- 
versity and professional colleges. The kindergarten 
is "more wholly social than any other grade or year" 
of school life ; and hence possesses a greater appeal 
to pupils than any other stage of school life. The 
child's work is organized on a group basis; the 
group stimulation co-ordinates so well with the play 
attitude of the child that work becomes play. Ac- 
tivity predominates ; the child learns almost entirely 
through doing, and reacts enthusiastically to the 

Then, the school group becomes organized on a 
routine basis, symbolized by the checkerboard seat- 
ing arrangement in the schoolroom. The learn- 


ing processes become more difficult and intellectual 
factors become segregated from the affective and 
volitional elements. The children organize school 
"activities" which are conducted outside school 
hours, thus supplanting the "passivities" of the reg- 
ular routine, while the affective elements in the 
child's nature are often expressed secretly and in 
unorganized ways. 

In college and university life the situation that 
first finds expression in the grades and the high 
school becomes crystallized, and college life becomes 
remote from real life. In the professional schools, 
specialization begins. The young man wishes to 
become a specialist as soon as possible, and get 
"out into the world" where he can "make money." 
Consequently, he shuns the cultural courses, de- 
mands the practical, and his faculty supervisors 
reluctantly submit to his desires. The practical 
courses are those which train for individual pecun- 
iary efficiency. Public welfare efficiency is slighted, 
and education becomes partly unpatriotic, and de- 
structive of the best types of human welfare. More- 
over, the young man in insisting upon avoiding the 
cultural is building the foundations of life upon 
narrow bases; his own possibilities of personality 
development are cramped if not cut short. 

School groups have originated in private initia- 
tive. Strong and effective institutions of higher 
learning have been established as a result of the 


enterprise, particularly, of religious leaders ; in fact, 
nearly all the privately endowed universities and 
colleges in the United States were so created. 

Moreover, society has recognized the social values 
in education by establishing vast public school 
systems, crowned by state universities, on com- 
pulsory bases. Even democracies so thrive. In 
the United States the annual cost of maintaining 
the public school system has long since passed the 
billion dollar figure. 

The development of colleges, universities, profes- 
sional schools, and special foundations gives oppor- 
tunities for advanced education and research work, 
and increases the number of inventions. It is in 
these highest phases of research that one of the 
main driving forces in education becomes evident, 
namely, the inquisitive tendencies. All normal hu- 
man beings desire to know the answers to problems. 
Curiosity can easily be aroused. In research work 
the curiosity impulses express themselves unremit- 
tingly in the attempts which individuals make in 
searching for solutions to intricate problems, chem- 
ical, mechanical, philosophical, sociological, and the 
like. The child is no less inquisitive but his curi- 
osity expresses itself in more personal and on the 
whole superficial ways. 

While education may take cognizance of the play, 
curiosity, and similar attitudes, in fact, may be built 
upon them, it is incomplete unless it trains pupils 


to do some things which are uninteresting and even 
unpleasant. Education based only on desires and 
favorable attitudes is inadequate. Daily life con- 
tains unpleasant tasks ; and hence, the child may 
advantageously learn to face some disagreeable 
tasks with a degree of stoicism. 

The most difficult problem confronting the school 
is that of teaching group and social responsibility. 
For the child to learn verbatim the Constitution of 
the nation does not in itself go far in the making 
of good citizens. The children need to be taught 
the significance of becoming good neighbors, good 
fathers and mothers, and good citizens by doing 
neighborly, fatherly or motherly, and citizenship 
acts regularly. The teaching of this social responsi- 
bility is as important as, if not more important 
than, the teaching of the trades and of methods of 
making a livelihood. The schools need to overcome 
the failure of parents to perform intelligently their 
parental duties and to create an intelligent appre- 
ciation of group responsibility. The schools should 
concern themselves first of all with training a new 
race of parents. 

Another socially important problem is that of sex 
education. The ignorant and vicious perversion of 
the sex impulses as manifested in illegal sex rela- 
tions, false marriages, and the divorce evil consti- 
tute a set of precarious conditions for human so- 
ciety. Segregated talks on sex hygiene are inade- 


quate. The best solution for the problem has been 
found in treating sex matters naturally as phases 
of the regular discussions in courses in botany and 

Industrial education and vocational guidance are 
enabling children to find themselves vocationally. 
There is danger, however, of forgetting that the 
chief value in learning a trade is that the child 
may discover himself. He should have an occupa- 
tion, not primarily for the purpose of earning a 
living, essential as that is, but in order that he may 
through his occupation develop himself to the full- 
est possible personal extent and usefulness. To 
teach a trade for the primary purpose of developing 
individual success may prove to be anti-social. A 
person who has attained high individual efficiency 
but who has not learned to work well, that is, un- 
selfishly, in society is dangerous. 

The continuation school is performing a worthy 
social function. If all boys and girls would attend 
school a few hours each day throughout their ado- 
lescent years, until eighteen years of age, the in- 
creased capacities would more than counterbalance 
the cost. Besides, society could thus exercise a 
wholesome influence and guidance over thousands 
of adolescents who now are thrown into an adult 
environment and surrounded by full-fledged and 
vicious temptations while yet immature and with 
only partial control over turbulent passions. 


The visiting teacher is a relatively new term but 
one that possesses social significance of wide import. 
To the multitude of homes of the poorer classes, 
the visiting teacher can carry scientific knowledge 
concerning the proper care of children during their 
first six years of life, before the children come under 
public supervision. Countless children are so hand- 
icapped by lack of adequate care in their homes 
that when they reach the public schools at the age 
of six, "they are not in a fit condition to have public 
money spent upon them." Countless others die 
needlessly during the first years of life. 

The visiting teacher can carry to the homes of 
the less fortunate in the community a knowledge of 
sanitary living conditions, of the best purchasing 
methods, and of home making. Large numbers 
of people are still living in darkness as far as their 
knowledge of sanitation, bacteriology, and sound 
health is concerned. 

The visiting teacher is a boon in immigrant 
neighborhoods. She can carry not only knowledge 
but the American spirit into the homes of immi- 
grants whose wholesome contacts with American- 
ism are few. To the immigrant mother with her 
slight opportunities to know American life and in- 
stitutions, the visiting teacher is an angel of mercy, 
inspiration, and knowledge. As an Americanization 
teacher she is unsurpassed. 

Another social conception in education is that 


"the whole child" goes to school, and hence every 
phase of the child's welfare needs to be cared for 
somehow. The school is not to be considered as in- 
terested simply in the expansion of the child's in- 
tellect. Jatejlectual development, in other words, 
cannot be considered as something wholly apart 
/ from physical, moral, and even spiritual develop- 

At the vital point of spiritual development, the 
average public school representative is nonplussed. 
The whole child is not really being schooled, for 
the training of the highest spiritual nature of the 
child, his religious nature, is being shunned. 

The public school curriculum may well be re- 
constructed. It emphasizes certain self-culture 
studies, splendid as far as they go, and certain of 
the sciences. The literatures and languages, in the 
main, represent self-culture; the sciences help the 
individual to develop control over natural resources 
and stand for the development of individual success 
and power. The importance of social studies and of 
the social emphasis is only slightly appreciated by 
many school leaders and still less by boards of ed- 

I Any serious attempt, however, to use the public 
1 school system as a vehicle for socialized education 
1 1 must be started in the grades, because nearly four- 
fifths of the children who enter the public schools 
of this country do not go beyond the elementary 


grades. Moreover social studies need to be given 
a primary place in high schools and normal schools. 
The training for unselfish public service is more 
important than any other phase of public school 
work, if the nation is to consist of public servants 
rather than harbor, as now, numerous individual 

This need may be met in part in changing the 
school phases of education from an acquisitive to a 
functional basis. Instead of emphasizing the ac- 
quiring of knowledge as the alpha and omega of 
education, the new tendency is to view education 
as a "learning by doing" process. He who would 
learn the best things, must do the best, that is, ren- 
der unselfish service. 

2. The Newspaper and the Cinema. Through 
the medium of the public school, the possibility of 
developing social ideals in the general population is 
far greater than by means of newspapers and mag- 
azines. This statement is based on the fact that 
the public school reaches practically all the people 
while they are young and in the formative periods 
of life. In recent years, however, the cinema by its 
type of appeal has been invading the adolescent and 
childhood years. Its influence in character forma- 
tion for good or ill is beginning to rival that 
of the school. Newspapers and magazines will first 
be considered and then the cinema as educational 



While the rise of the newspaper in recent decades 
has been meteoric and marvelous in many ways, 
the press has not become as dignified and construc- 
tive a social agency as it might have become. In ca- 
tering to the masses, crowd emotion, and the eco- 
nomic attitudes of advertisers, it has felt obliged to 
belittle its high calling. 

The newspaper, together with the telegraph, and 
telephone, and other rapid means of communica- 
tion, has created a wonderful degree of mass con- 
sciousness. It has made a world consciousness pos- 
sible; it has made Paris, London, New York, and 
Peking neighbors of each other. It is a marvelous 
spectacle to contemplate, namely, a hundred mil- 
lion and more people, leaders in all parts of the 
world, reading simultaneously about one national 
and world happening after another, in each case 
only a few hours after the happening took place. 
Moreover, each of these readers knows that all the 
others are reading about the same phenomenon at 
at the same time ; he also knows in a general way 
how each is responding to the message or descrip- 
tion that he is reading. The newspaper, therefore, 
constitutes a powerful instrument of creating pub- 
lic opinion, mass consciousness, and good will or 
ill will. 

Today a million dollars is hardly sufficient for 
establishing a metropolitan newspaper of size. The 


capitalist-owner has supplanted the editor-owner. 
As a rule, the editor is no longer the owner, unless 
he is a millionaire. The editor of the type of Horace 
Greeley or Charles A. Dana who owns his paper 
and makes it the projection of his character and per- 
sonal ideals is rare. Many editors now are hired. 
They are not expected by their owners to put their 
own consciences and ideals into the paper. 

The highest social usefulness of the newspaper 
has been compromised by commercialization. The 
securing of large financial returns has become a 
dominant factor in the publishing of newspapers 
today. Therefore, the profit standard too often 
overrules the human welfare standard. 

A part of this untoward situation is the fact that 
a very large proportion of the total receipts in the 
newspaper business are derived from the sale of ad- 
vertisements. The subscriptions represent a de- 
creasing percentage. Advertising yields as high 
as two-thirds of the earnings of the daily news- 
paper ; it may yield up to ninety per cent. The ad- 
vertiser rather than the subscriber supports the 

When news columns and editorials become of 
less importance than the sale of advertisements, it 
becomes true that the advertisers are the cen- 
sors of the news and the editorials. Corporations 
which are extensive advertisers are often referred 
to in newspaper offices as "sacred cows"; nothing 


in the news or editorial columns is printed that 
would in any way offend the "sacred cows/' no mat- 
ter if they be the community's leading profiteers and 
exploiters. The difficulty lies in the fact that the sell- 
ing of advertising is purely commercial, while the 
printing of news and of editorials is a matter of de- 
mocracy and education. Edward A. Ross has de- 
clared that the modern metropolitan newspaper is 
in danger of becoming a factor where ink and brains 
are so applied to white paper as to turn out the 
largest possible marketable product. 

It is clear that more private newspapers are 
needed which ignore the dubious influence of heavy 
advertisers, and which will give the truth about po- 
lice protection to vice, corporate tax-dodging, and 
the non-enforcement of laws. The need for a nation- 
ally endowed press has been strongly advocated by 
writers such as V. S. Yarros. The need for social- 
ized newspapers whether privately or publicly 
owned is clear. The public however is not aware of 
the true situation and does not realize the degree to 
which it gets the news on many questions in a pure- 
ly biased form. The newspaper owners and the 
public together can bring about a new day when 
public welfare will be the test of newspaper effi- 

The magazine and journal have emphasized facts 
and thoughtful attitudes. In indulging in muck- 
raking, certain magazines have overstepped rational 


boundaries. Magazines, like newspapers but in a 
less degree, are subject to the influence of adver- 
tisers, while journals of scientific character on the 
other hand have rendered a larger measure of undi- 
luted social service. 

Another educational agency of tremendous force 
is the cinema. Its rise to power has come since 
1905. Its significance from the standpoint of amuse- 
ment and recreation has been considered in the 
chapter on the play group. As an educational 
force the cinema utilizes indirect suggestion to its 
fullest extreme. The direct suggestion is indescrib- 
ably great, but cannot be compared with the indirect 
suggestion, which by the use of many characters 
moving rapidly and dramatically before the eyes 
of the spectators in a thousand roles, stimulates the 
spectators in countless unsuspected ways to all types 
of activities. If the spectators are youthful, they 
are thereby unduly subject to the indirect sugges- 
tion of the film. 

The use of films in schools and churches is in- 
creasing. They can bring the farthermost reaches 
of the earth into the schoolroom with accurate viv- 
idness. They can visualize ancient history and en- 
able school pupils to live over again events of his- 
toric significance which occurred thousands of years 
ago. They can personify the greatest religious ideals, 
giving the spectator immeasurable inspiration. 

The educational group, whether informal as in 


the case of the home or the playground, or whether 
standardized as instanced by the school, is society 
at its best, that is, when it is developing. The ed- 
ucational group is society rising from level to level 
of intellectual power and vision. The educational 
group represents discovery and invention; it also 
stands for dissemination of ideas. 

Education trains the whole person his feelings, 
thoughts, and volitions. It gives power for hu- 
man welfare or against it. An educated man may 
become society's greatest enemy. Along with the 
education of the intellect therefore must go develop- 
ment of the social impulses and attitudes. The fang 
and claw spirit of the jungle still lives powerfully in 
human beings ; it can be submerged by the training 
of the social tendencies of man. Only through the 
educational process can habits of social initiative 
and social dependability be built up in human lives. 
The educational group therefore becomes the center 
of associative progress. In it is crystallized forces 
upon which all other human groups must depend if 
they would augment endlessly their usefulness. 

3. The Educational Process. Civilization is a 
result of the educational process, which uses a vast 
variety of tools and a marvelous technique, includ- 
ing language, alphabets, systems of writing, varied 
literature, newspapers, social traditions, public 
opinions, and private and public systems of educa- 


tion. The educational process in one sense begins 
with the thousands of years of experience into which 
the individual is born. Into these groups and per- 
sonal experiences the child is born, and from them 
he receives his fundamental concepts of life. Edu- 
cation for the child consists in part in obtaining 
the meaning of these experiences. He receives the 
advantages and disadvantages of the social heritage. 
Education for the child consists in part in his get- 
ting the meaning of the social heritage. 

The first three years, roughly speaking, of a 
child's life are spent in learning muscular co-ordi- 
nations and elementary meanings. The years from 
three to twenty-three, or more, are considered as 
the period in which the individual is to learn the 
meaning of the experiences of the past thousands 
of years of racial history. In this period he is to 
become somewhat adapted to his physical and group 
environments. On the basis of this educational 
training, the individual is expected to proceed by 
virtue of his initiative and make a contribution of 
some kind to the world's culture. At least, he 
should not be found among that "stupid procession 
that never had a thought of their own." 

The curiosity impulses seem to be the leading 
sources of intellectual energy and effort. They pro- 
duce man's speculative and scientific tendencies. 
The cognitive or thinking attitude is the main in- 
tellectual tool ; reason represents the highest phase 


of cognition. With it, man has been able to tran- 
scend physical limitations and comprehend factors 
that are present in neither time nor space. 

The study of the inventions that the human mind 
has made is most fascinating. It is a story of the 
creative effort of quick witted or deep thinking per- 
sons, of sharp, vibrant minds. It is the story of 
the main lines of group and personal advancement. 
Through inventiveness, the human group has ad- 
vanced from the dug-out to the palace, from the 
skin breeches to the elaborate costume, from the un- 
cooked aboriginal meal to the seven-course dinner, 
from the digging-stick to the twenty-furrow steam 
plow, from the carrying-stick to overland trains, 
and from the gourd with a cord stretched across it, 
to the modern oratorios and symphonies. 

To train all individuals to imitate well and to 
initiate, to follow and to lead, to obey and com- 
mand, always in line with group advance, this is 
the educational process. It is contingent upon a 
communicating system, the nature and importance 
of which have been indicated in Chapter IV. On the 
basis of elemental pantomimic and facial gestures, 
and an elaborate vocal language together with the 
resultant literature, human groups have developed 
extensive cultural backgrounds which constitute the 
child's social heritage. Educationally, it is the child's 
problem to learn the meaning of this group heritage, 
to acquire methods of mental analysis, and to func- 


tion as a critic, a molder, and a contributor to the 
social heritage. 

The leading elements in social heritage are the 
experiences of the mind, produced through inter- 
stimulation, and preserved in prose or poetic litera- 
tures. Literature is the best expression of human 
thought reduced to writing. Its various forms may 
be considered as representative of group peculiar- 
ities or individual diversities. 

In early human society the first formal educators 
were the priests. They compiled the tribal chron- 
icles ; they were the rhapsodists who celebrated the 
prowess of tribal chiefs in the presence of the wor- 
shipful tribal people. Since man feels before he 
reasons, and since poetry is the language of the 
feelings, poetry developed before prose. Hence 
sacred teachings and war songs became the first 
educational source materials. Then the epic records 
of the past developed and were supplemented by 
the lyrical records of contemporary events. 

The development of reasoning tended to deprive 
poetry of its ornament and to provide man with a 
simpler and more accurate educational instrument. 
Prose of permanent value soon found expression in 
the form of oratory, which reached a stable level in 
Greece. Public speaking became a powerful edu- 
cational force. During the early centuries of the 
Christian Era, including the Middle Ages, no new 
educational methods were produced. The invention 


of the printing press in the fifteenth century made 
inexpensive books possible. Invention followed in- 
vention in the past two centuries until the printing 
press, the telegraph, the telephone, and similar 
means of communication of ideas have made edu- 
cation available to all. Educational systems have 
supplemented the instruments of communication so 
that today education is becoming democratized. 

The elements of the spiritual environment which 
the child through educational processes is expected 
to comprehend, possesses emotional, intellectual, 
and conditional aspects. (1) Life is surrounded on 
every hand by mystery, miracle, and the unknown. 
That which is not known far exceeds that which is 
known and understood. Through the feeling- 
emotional phases of consciousness man interprets 
the mysteries of life, acquires faith in God, and 
stands up against the odds of life which at times 
are almost overwhelming. This feeling-emotional 
interpretation, when supported by reason becomes 
poetry, philosophy, religion, and art. These tech- 
niques are vehicles of those things which are felt to 
be true, but whose truth has not been proved or 
disproved. The child who early learns to perceive 
the work of God, to feel inspired in the presence 
of God's handiwork and to take a place as an active 
unit in God's world will learn to hate ugliness, im- 
perfection, meanness, littleness, and selfishness. 

(2) The intellectual method, using definite proof 


and struggling for accuracy, has been called scien- 
tific. Science struggles to know the truth as exactly 
as possible concerning reality. Although the known 
is but a small part of the unknown, no student to- 
day can hope in his education to encompass all 
science. He must choose. He cannot familiarize 
himself with all the scientific knowledge that has 
been discovered. He can, however, learn enough 
truth to free himself from superstition, to be able to 
go through life with an open mind, and to get the 
message of courage and hope which comes from 
scientific inventions and the achievements of man- 

The educational program broadly speaking, ac- 
centuates both the feeling side, or literatures ; and 
the reasoning side, or science. The average student 
scorns one or the other, neglecting to see that a well 
educated person must be familiar with the funda- 
mental advances that have been made by both sets 
of educational forces. 

(3) The child must learn, not only to feel and 
to think, but also to do. Education has generally 
been weak in developing the doing process. Man- 
kind, however, has been active, energetic, and even 
original ; the list of his achievements is extensive 
and beyond ordinary comprehension. Therefore, 
the educational process, whether informal or formal, 
whether operating in the family group, the play 
group, the occupational group, the educational 


group, or in the religious group that will be analyzed 
in the next chapter, must emphasize in a balanced 
way all three factors, the affective, cognitive, and 
volitional, or else it will be incomplete and produce 
incomplete personalities and a one-sided group life. 
The educational process is an organization of the 
play, inquisitive, self-assertive, and similar tenden- 
cies of the individual whereby he may secure the 
meaning of the social heritage and also initiate new 
and socially useful ideas. It involves work as well 
as play, and requires energy, vision, and social pur- 



1. Explain: Better than time to read is time to think. 

2. Why are relatively so few people engaged in doing orig- 

inal thinking? 

3. Why do students "cram" for examinations? 

4. What would be a better method than "cramming" for 

examinations ? 

5. Why is the better method not followed? 

6. How many days should there be in the school year? 

7. What is education? 

8. Do you see any values in being stupid? 

9. Explain: Every student should have a target. 

10. Should society spend more money per capita upon 

wealthy or poor children? 

11. What is educational sociology? 

12. What are the arguments for and against a national uni- 


13. Explain: "The chances of attaining distinction are 190 

times greater for the college man than for the non- 
college man." 

14. Under what conditions is scientific research socially 



AT AN EARLY age the average child begins to feel 
the influence of the church group. Although its 
direct activities are confined largely to one day in 
seven, its processes are fundamental in their effects. 
The family, play, occupational, community, and 
school life of most individuals is supplemented by a 
religious group life. 

1. The Church Group and Religion. Religious 
impulses have been and are universal. They were 
common among primitive tribes and are found to- 
day among civilized people everywhere. In many of 
their narrow and bigoted expressions they have been 
socially destructive, but in their finest and truest 
expressions they have been socially helpful. In re- 
cent centuries they have found expression in church 
groups with elaborate rituals, costly church build- 
ings, and powerful social organizations. 

To comprehend the significance of the church 
group it is necessary to analyze religious behavior, 
which springs from impulses native to the human 
mind. The universality of the religious attitude is 


due to the universality of certain human needs. 
There come times in every person's life when he is 
confronted with the fact that he does not know 
very much after all. The most highly educated and 
cultured, the wealthiest, the politically most power- 
ful, as well as the poor and ignorant, are all in the 
same category when it comes to placing themselves, 
their achievements, and their powers alongside the 
powers of the universe and the realms of the un- 
known. Miracles and marvels and the unexplained 
surround man at every turn. Death is the great 
conundrum, and life is filled with baffling problems. 

At best, it appears that human beings are but 
little organisms moving hopefully for a short mo- 
ment through a vast sweep of mystery, or as Charles 
H. Cooley has put it, human beings are like a party 
of men with lanterns trying to find their way 
through a dark, immeasurable forest. To all ex- 
cept the intellectually stolid or foolhardy, the per- 
plexities of life sooner or later are recognized as 
being too great for man to meet out of his own 
resources. It is this fact which explains the perma- 
nency of the religious attitude. 

Religion, and later the church groups, have de- 
veloped therefore out of human needs. When the 
sense of need urged primitive man to attempt to 
communicate with a higher Power, there religion 
made its appearance. Religious attitudes have de- 
veloped from both feelings and thought, leading 


on one hand to faith, and on the other to intellec- 
tual attempts to explain life and the universe. In 
its essence religion is a conscious and co-operative 
relationship with the Creator and Director of the 
universe and human lives. 

Religion at its best perceives human society, not 
as an end in itself but as an emergency of the super- 
human, Divine, and eternal. This consideration of 
human life as an emergency of an Eternal Person- 
ality lends greater value and an increased dignity 
to human society. Through religion man sees him- 
self as a functioning unit of a social group far 
larger and more important than the living, visible 
human groups. 

Primitive groups are essentially religious. In- 
numerable spirits are worshipped. Man early con- 
ceived the sun, the moon, the wind, the heavens as 
being like himself and as guided by feelings and 
motives similar to his own. Even the thunderstorm 
was worshipped as a mighty being which had power 
to end a drought. Some objects, called fetiches, 
were worshipped not because of their intrinsic value, 
charm, or power, but because a spirit or god was 
supposed to reside in them. Animals were wor- 
shipped ; primitive man revered them for the quality 
in which they excelled. Ancestor worship was com- 

The worship of innumerable spirits became bur- 
densome ; hence spirits were supplanted by relative- 


ly few deities in religious beliefs. Polytheism in turn 
tended to become a source of conflicts ; the deities 
constituted too large a group to be efficient. Then 
it seems that the deity of the leading tribe in a given 
region became supreme. Here is found the begin- 
nings of monotheisms and of national religions. 

In early times, man's religion consisted primarily 
in the religious acts which he performed rather than 
in the beliefs which he held. In modern days the 
emphasis is often reversed. Sacrifices were invalu- 
able features of early religions. By this method 
the relationships with the gods were renewed and 
strengthened. Prayer was the ordinary concomi- 
tant of the sacrifice ; it was the means by which the 
worshipper explained the reason of his gift, urged 
the deity to accept it, and asked for the help that 
he expected in return. Worship thus was a social 
act. It grew out of the idea of group relationships. 

There were few temples, idols, and no churches 
in the early human world. The worship of nature 
and of natural objects did not suggest the enclosing 
of a space for religious purposes. Taboo developed ; 
the earthly belongings of a deity could not be 
touched. Religion gave strong emphasis to the so- 
cial concept of discipline. 

The religion of the tribal group developed into 
the religion of the nation group. Instead of partisan 
tribal gods, a higher and impartial deity was con- 
ceived, who belonged to and watched over all the 


tribal groups. New social bonds developed. There 
was no longer the tie of blood which bound the 
people to their gods ; the tie became more spiritual 
and more social. 

The Inca religion, Confucianism, and the Isra- 
elitish worship of Yahweh or Jehovah, are illustra- 
tions of national group religions. With the coming 
of the Hebrew prophets, religion assumed broader 
aspects and finally culminated in Christianity with 
its claim to be a religion fit for the world group. 
In the meantime, Buddhism; and later, Moham- 
medanism in Arabia developed: they also have es- 
sayed to meet the world's religious needs. 

In its essence Mohammedanism holds to the doc- 
trine of the unity and omnipotence of Allah, and 
of the responsibility of every human being to Allah. 
The submissive attitude, the implicit surrender, and 
entire obedience to Allah are emphasized. Allah, 
however, does not inspire the worshipper with ideals 
of goodness, although an influence against evil is 
exerted ; he is abstract. He does not come in close 
contact with people ; he seems to have no unselfish 
interest in human welfare. He does not inspire 
persons to strive after high individual or social 
ideals ; he does not seem to be related to humanity 
and cannot figure extensively in social group ad- 

In Buddhism the central movement of East In- 
dian religious thought culminated. Guatama, the 


founder, in his early manhood began to realize that 
suffering accompanies all existence, and scorned 
a life of rank and ease. In rising from a period of 
contemplation this remarkable leader proclaimed 
himself as Buddha, the Enlightened, the one who 
beheld the true nature of things. Sorrow and evil 
had lost all hold on him; he had reached emanci- 
pation by the destruction of desire. Moreover, if 
people are to be saved, they must do it by their own 
efforts ; they cannot be relieved of any part of the 

Buddhism is based on the social concept of the 
equality of all individuals. All human beings are 
to be paid respect; hatred is to be supplanted by 
love ; life is to be filled with kindness. On the whole 
however, Buddhism is not a positive social force. 
The believer does not trouble himself about the 
world but chiefly about his own salvation. Bud- 
dhism does not aim at an ideal society, such as a 
kingdom of God. It checks rather than fosters en- 
terprise; it does not actively interest itself in the 
advancement of civilization. It favors a dull con- 
formity to rule, rather than a free cultivation of 
various gifts. It does not train the affections and 
the desires to virtuous and harmonious individual 
and group action. It is socially depressing ; it fur- 
thers isolation rather than co-operation. 

It is in Christianity, which will be discussed in 
the remaining sections of this chapter, that religion 


finds its most social expressions, and that church 
groups assume dynamic social obligations. The an- 
alysis in this section hence will be carried forward 
under the discussion of the social principles and 
problems of Christianity. 

2. The Social Principles of Christianity. The 
social principles of Christianity originated in the 
teachings of the Hebrew prophets and the other 
founders of the Jewish religion; they received a 
dynamic expression in the teachings of Jesus ; then 
they lay dormant for centuries; and finally about 
the year 1885 they began to be re-interpreted. For 
centuries therefore the individual and social impli- 
cations of Christianity remained divorced. Theology 
and dogmatism built up the individual principles 
of religion at the expense of the social. Jesus ap- 
parently, on the other hand, made them insepa- 
rable; he insisted upon the test of loving one's 
neighbor as a test of loving one's God. 

Within the decades since the social principles of 
Jesus' teachings have been discovered, they have 
been attacked by entrenched dogmatism and ta- 
booed by fearful theologians. They are not to be 
considered Christianity in themselves but simply 
the "lost tribes" of Christian thought. When given 
their due emphasis they enable Christianity to take 
the lead in directing the solution of the world's 
problems, such as the labor and capital problem, 


disarmament, unemployment, housing, divorce, and 
taxation. Christianity could not prevent the World 
War naturally enough; its social principles had 
been submerged for eighteen centuries. 

Christianity which started as a movement within 
Judaism, proclaimed the doctrine of perfect rela- 
tionships between God and man on terms of sym- 
pathetic and rational understanding. Jesus showed 
the way. He announced a new union of God with 
man, a union in which he was the first to rejoice, 
but which all persons may share with him. The 
group of disciples and adherents of Jesus afterwards 
came to be known as the Christian Church. It be- 
came the task of Saint Paul to work out the world 
wide implications of Christianity. In Christianity 
it was expected that all racial differences would dis- 
appear. "In Christ there is neither Jew nor Greek." 

As Jesus made plain, God is the Father and hu- 
man beings are his children in one large function- 
ing world group. All that a person needs to do is 
to perceive the truth of this statement, to enter the 
circle, and begin to live socially with God and man. 
Religion thus becomes the active communion of 
children with their Father ; the Father and children 
are to dwell together in loving behavior. Religion 
is not a matter of apparatus, but a process of love. 
Prayer is necessary, for the child must keep in touch 
with his Father. The process hence is simple, deep, 
broad, and holy. 


Christianity in its essence inspires a person, not 
to any particular kind of acts, not to withdrawal 
from the world, but to realize his own great poten- 
tialities in and through group life. Its ideal of a 
Kingdom of God finds expression in elemental ways 
on earth. In fact the perfect society has begun in 
the personalities of those who live socialized lives. 
Partial socialization includes living according to 
the principles of the brotherhood of man doctrine. 
Complete socialization includes living according to 
the principles of the brotherhood of man and of the 
Fatherhood of God. Only in these two principles 
can one find complete living ; nothing less is satis- 
factory to the whole person. 

Not only is Christianity at its highest, individual- 
ly satisfying, but it is socially powerful. Christianity 
identifies itself with the cause of human freedom, 
and tends to unite all persons in one vast group. It 
has taken the sentiments connected with the family, 
the ideas of brotherhood and Fatherhood, and given 
them the largest possible group application. It has 
the possibilities of becoming the super-socializing 
force of all times. 

The kingdom of God is both a spiritual and a so- 
cial ideal ; the two elements are inseparable. Those 
persons are mistaken who say with a certain Scotch 
minister: We are not here to make the world any 
better ; we have only to pass through it on the way 
to Glory. Equally mistaken are those who conceive 


of the Kingdom of God as a social ideal only, who 
are simply humanitarian, who proclaim: Every 
man, a well fed, housed, and cared for human being. 
The Kingdom lays stress upon character, love, and 
social ideals. It implies "good conditions, a perfect 
environment, justice for all, wholesome dwellings, 
the fair reward of labor, opportunity for men to 
realize themselves." 

As a social and spiritual dynamic Christianity 
has operated in three directions. It has furnished 
social ideals, it has formed character, and has 
evoked service. (1) It gives new ideals of life, of in- 
dividual, family, and group life. It gives a new in- 
terpretation to marriage and has "founded the 
Christian home." It emphasizes the child as an 
object for which sacrifices are to be made. It sets 
up ideals that are to transform human hearts and 
the world. It would create high-minded, sympa- 
thetic, and progressive national groups. 

(2) "Christianity has produced the highest type 
of character known to man," says David Watson. 
And without character in the world it may be added, 
all group life would become a farce, and the world 
be destroyed. Christianity lays fine emphasis on 
moral qualities. At its best it moves peoples from 
lives of selfishness, idleness, and vice, to lives of 
sacrifice, fidelity, purity, and strenuous service. 

(3) The dynamic of Christian love has operated 
not only through high ideals and sturdy character, 


but also through the social service which it en- 
genders. It has stood for doing good, for philan- 
thropic endeavors, and for self sacrificing behavior. 
It has stimulated endless numbers of men and 
women to accept positions of social reform and 
political leadership. Nearly every philanthropic 
movement in recent centuries had Christianity as 
its dynamic. Countless missionary activities, full 
of deeds of sacrifice, have been born of Christianity. 
Scientific training added to the spiritual dynamic 
of religion is an ideal equipment for social service. 
But after social and economic programs have 
been fully carried out, the spiritual dynamic of 
religion will be as vitally useful as ever. No social 
or economic program suffices to abolish sorrow, or 
pain, or infirmity, or human regret, heartache, or 
death. The religious dynamic therefore remains the 
greatest social force of all time. It contains the 
largest group idea conceivable, for it dares to in- 
clude living human beings, those who have lived 
well and died, those who are to live, and God all 
in one almost inconceivably large group, living on 
and ever proving themselves more socially useful. 

3. Socializing Religion and the Church. Religion 
and church life tend like all other forms of organ- 
ized life to become professionalized, to become nar- 
row, and to fail to adjust themselves to changing 
social needs. As a result problems arise. 


( 1 ) A difficult task is that of giving all people an 
appreciation of the highest attained religious con- 
cepts. Underlying this problem is that of discover- 
ing more religious truth, and of seeing more and 
more clearly the relation of finite life to the infinite. 
But if present religious truth and faith at their 
purest were known, accepted, and put into practice 
generally by mankind, the leading world and per- 
sonal problems would be met. Economic interests, 
selfish habits, and even a blinded intellectualism 
keep many people in Christian lands from expe- 
riencing the real meaning of religion. Low cultural 
levels and narrow religious customs prevent vast 
multitudes from becoming aware of the highest 
religious values. 

(2) The tendency of religion everywhere is con- 
servative. When a given practice has once been 
sanctioned by religion, it has been often almost im- 
possible to eliminate such practice until long after 
it has ceased to serve useful purposes. In the history 
of the world some of the most religious people have 
been the most narrow-minded and intolerant. The 
church has been one of the most conservative of 
group institutions. It has tended to identify itself 
with the conditions of a given age, and then to cling 
to old methods long after the situation has changed. 

At best in their daily living people fall below the 
religious ideals which they profess. The lower im- 
pulses and instinctive tendencies are so persistent 


and so subtle in finding expression at unexpected 
moments, that even the best representatives of 
religious beliefs fail frequently. 

Then there are those who profess Christianity 
but who, for example, live as hypocrites. The hy- 
pocrisy may be either conscious, or more or less 
habitual and unconscious. It is this tendency which 
harms religion immeasurably. A man who supports 
the church but employs children, men, and women 
at less than living wages is a concrete example. An- 
other illustration is that of the lawyer who con- 
ducted a Sunday school class but at the same time 
for a fee was helping a client to dodge the inher- 
itance tax law. 

"He is an angel at home," said the chauffeur for 
a business magnate, "but he is a devil in business." 
Then there is the churchman in good standing who 
boasted that he could always hire unskilled labor at 
considerably less than the market rate. The ex- 
ploited group of laborers, however, cursed him, and 
also cursed the church. Men may be good husbands, 
fathers, and church members, and yet bad citizens, 
patriots, and employers, or employees. 

Religious, church, and denominational rivalry 
creates harmful impressions. It is this continual 
friction, particularly among Christian religious 
groups that belies the Christian's profession of 
love and brotherhood. If Christians cannot make 
their brotherhood principle work among themselves, 


how can they consciously ask unbelievers to accept 
their doctrines ? This is a common question that is 
being raised. The present sectarian divisions are 
socially, economically, and ecclesiastically wasteful. 
Union and co-operation need to be substituted for 
sectarianism. The community church is develop- 
ing to meet the emergency. It can serve not only 
the religious needs of the entire community, but can 
also take the leadership in re-organizing and build- 
ing up the entire life of the community. 

It has been one of the weaknesses of religion that 
it moves people as individuals, but does not affect 
them vitally in all their group relationships. The 
process of saving individual souls has often failed in 
saving men in all their group activities. 

The social service movement in the churches, on 
the other hand, was never intended to substitute 
"a soup and soap salvation" for spiritual regenera- 
tion ; neither was it meant to provide bait for en- 
ticing the unchurched laboring man into the house 
of God. Its chief concern is not with externalities, 
but with getting the dynamic of God's love into all 
human processes and groups. A religious commun- 
ity, according to Harry F. Ward, is not necessarily 
one that is full of churches, "each seeking its own 
sectarian development, each cultivating its own 
peculiar formulas and practices. It is rather a com- 
munity which has become aware of its organic na- 
ture, which has found its soul, repented of its sins, 


come to conscious realization of its powers and 
needs, and is co-ordinating its forces, including its 
churches, in harmony with a power greater than it- 
self, for the working out of its salvation." 

A church is purblind, if while it is satisfied with 
saving a few hundred souls, there are causes at work 
crushing out the lives of thousands. While the 
church is engaged in individual soul saving, "evil 
gathers its corporate power, puts its hand upon 
the forces of social control," and nullifies the 
gains that come from evangelizing individuals. 
Preach the Gospel and the rest will take care of it- 
self, is a narrow creed. Any church which keeps 
itself apart from other constructive human activities 
"is setting itself off from God, now and forever." 

It has been pointed out that the custom of ap- 
pealing to individuals to seek personal salvation 
first of all is to arouse their selfish interests. A per- 
sonal religion that leaves an individual satisfied 
with having secured the salvation of his own soul 
is socially obstructive; religion must go further, if 
it is to command true respect, and call individuals 
to dedicate their lives in concrete service to the com- 
munity. The truly successful church is not the one 
that seeks primarily to build itself up, but the one 
which seeks to build up the community in which 
its members live and work. 

The social service programs of the churches in- 
clude several features. (1) They are based on the 


social principles of religion, its group character, its 
social spirit, and doctrines, such as the brotherhood 
of man and the Fatherhood of God. They supple- 
ment, not supplant, the individual phases of reli- 
gion ; they indicate whether or not the individual 
is sincere and intelligent in his religious protes- 

(2) Upon these social principles the churches 
are organizing a service procedure, focusing in 
volunteer social service procedure, and built upon 
preliminary surveys of the church as a community 
institution. This procedure includes both an edu- 
cational and an activity program. 

(3) The educational obligation involves social 
service classes in the church school, divided between 
study groups and training groups ; monthly young 
people's programs ; missionary society programs ; 
and the Sunday evening service. The principle is 
slowly evolving that the morning service may be 
distinctly devotional and worshipful in the estab- 
lished sense; and that the evening service will be 
likewise devotional and worshipful in the new sense, 
namely, of considering the neighborhood, national, 
and world problems involved in the injunction: 
Love your neighbor as yourself. The social service 
director acts as the clergyman's prime adviser rela- 
tive to the attitude that the church should take on 
public questions. 

(4) The activity obligation refers to meeting 


neighborhood human needs and the building of the 
neighborhood into a community of forward-looking, 
forward-moving persons and homes. It refers to 
sending forth leaders into the larger community, 
such as the city or county, of which the church 
neighborhood is an organic part. It also refers to 
activities extending out through the nation group 
and the world group. It includes the elimination of 
causes which crush out human lives, as well as the 
reclamation of wrecked lives. 

Since life is neither individual nor social alone, 
but both, religion is neither individual nor social, 
but both; the social service attitude is not the whole 
nor a disconnected adjunct, but an integral natural 
phase of pure, undefiled religion. The socially- 
minded persons outside church groups and the in- 
dividually-minded inside church groups are neither 
representative of religion at its best. The combi- 
nation of these two attitudes working together with- 
in the church presages a new type of religious group 
that will yet transform the world. 



1. Distinguish between individual religion and social reli- 


2. What is socialized religion? 

3. What is social salvation? 

4. What is your church doing as a social service institu- 


5. In what ways may religion make a person more in- 

dividual? More social? 

6. Why are many religionists intolerant? 

7. What forces besides religion produce high types of 


8. How is Christianity the most radical social force in the 

world ? 

9. What is the leading social ideal which Christianity has 

given to the world? 

10. "Is it an advantage or disadvantage to Christianity that 
it began among the working class?" 


IRRESPECTIVE of membership in any of the social 
groups which have been discussed in the preceding 
chapters, every individual belongs either to a rural 
or an urban group. Some persons have belonged to 
rural groups and are now members of urban groups, 
or vice versa. The division of human groups into 
rural and urban is age-long and all-inclusive. 

1. Rural Groups and Problems. Human groups 
have been chiefly rural. Mankind began in rural 
groups, developed to the level of civilization in rural 
groups, and only in the last century began to shift 
to concentrated urban group formations. 

Primitive groups of people evolved a crude form 
of village life, but dependent directly on the culti- 
vation of the soil, the raising of flocks, and upon the 
chase for a livelihood. These rural bases of life 
remained dominant, even after the rise of military 
strongholds, the establishment of permanent shrines 
or places of worship, and the creation of trading 
posts. In the Middle Ages when commercial centers 
surrounded themselves by walls, and included con- 
gested populations living by commerce and trade, 


the rural influence was still in world control. With 
the creation of an industrial population there came 
the rise of the modern large city ; in the nineteenth 
century, the city group began to dominate civiliza- 
tion. Although today several leading nations are 
chiefly subject to urban influences, the population 
of the entire world is still largely rural. 

The history of mankind seems to indicate that 
any nation that is chiefly rural or chiefly urban is 
at a disadvantage. The people in the first situation 
are subject to inertia ; and in the second, to a state 
of being smothered by numbers or else of being 
over-stimulated. A nation somewhat equally sub- 
ject to rural and urban influences is likely in the 
long run to prove to be the strongest. 

Rural life is of two types: congregated and iso- 
lated. In almost all countries rural people live in 
villages from which they go out, perhaps a con- 
siderable distance, in tilling the soil that is often 
divided in strips and cultivated intensely. In the 
United States the isolated farm dwelling became 
the rule in colonial days, and has remained such 
to this day. In consequence the village as a social 
group has degenerated. The isolation of the rural 
dwelling and the deadened life of the village are 
both socially static. 

The rural mind is usually closely circumscribed. 
It "measures life with a yardstick." It revolves 
about a few people and their limited viewpoints. 


The rural mind is essentially an undeveloped group 
mind ; it has not been fully stimulated ; it flares up 
occasionally in feuds ; it has strong opinions, preju- 
dices, and faiths. 

The rural mind is highly tinged with reactions 
to nature. It includes friendships with pet animals, 
and enjoyment of woodland valleys or mountain 
crags and rushing streams. The spectacular dem- 
onstrations of nature's powers, especially in storms, 
arouse awe and also create fearful attitudes. 

Rural life reflects in a large measure the life-giv- 
ing and health-restoring characteristics of an out- 
door existence. In contrast to the country the 
cities tear down the neural organization of human 
beings at a fearful rate. While city life tends to 
wear out people, country life is conducive to the 
preservation of energy and to long life. The rural 
mind is built up on bases of sturdy strength, physi- 
cal endurance, continuous physical exercises, free- 
dom from nerve-destroying speed and a fast-living 
night life. At its worst it is generally crude but 
sincere ; it is frank and largely wholesome. 

The rural group is a direct product of an active 
family group emphasis. The members of a rural 
family live together as a unit ; its members eat three 
meals a day at the same table. The country is a 
relatively safe place in which to rear children; it 
does not subject childhood to many of the evils 
of urban life. The family lives, works, and travels 


together to picnics and on holiday excursions. 
Country home life offers a saner training for chil- 
dren than does the city; it contains more genuine 
home life, and has few false attractions that draw 
the children and even the adults away from the 

The greater possibility of independence is an ad- 
vantage of the country over the city. The farmer, 
subject to sudden weather changes, destructive 
frosts or storms, and losing sometimes the gains of 
a year because of fruit or grain pests, or cattle 
plagues, does not recognize the peculiar independ- 
ence of his calling. He does not appreciate the 
freedom that is represented by standing upon a 
piece of land that he can call his own, and by plan- 
ning his day's work, even a year's work to suit his 
own ideas. He does not appreciate the freedom 
from committee meetings, and from "the clatter and 
clash, the rush and pandemonium of sound" in the 
midst of which the city man is doomed to spend 
the best part of his days. 

With the development of scientific agriculture, 
the farmer is becoming increasingly independent of 
climatic changes and insect pests. With the in- 
troduction of free mail service, the telephone, and 
the automobile into rural life the farmer occupies 
a superior position. His narrow individualism is 
disappearing; he is becoming more and more in- 
terested in the world's affairs. 


While the farmer has little chance of becoming 
a millionaire, he usually can make a comfortable 
livelihood. He is not obliged to live upon an im- 
ported food supply, as is the city man. He has 
plenty of room for his dwelling; he is not forced to 
live as a cave man on the sixth floor of a dingy 
tenement, or to spend his savings in becoming a 
slave to fashion's autocratic dictation. 

The farmer has the satisfaction of being a gen- 
uine predy^er of the necessities of life. He generally 
becomes a representative of the middle classes ; 
he rarely is an exploiter or grafter; neither does 
he devote his life to financial speculation. 

The long hours and hard labor of the farmer 
represent the exceptional day's work, instead of the 
regular routine as in the case of the steel worker, 
miner, railroad employee, or even the teamster. 
Moreover, he is master of his own time. The in- 
troduction of labor-saving machinery has shortened 
farm hours and decreased the difficulty of labor, 
and increased the amount of leisure time. 

The lot of the farmer's wife has usually been and 
still is full of routine. Many of the conveniences 
and comforts of city homes however are being in- 
troduced into rural homes. With an electric motor 
to operate washing machines, sewing machines, and 
churns, with vacuum cleaners, with electricity and 
gas for cooking, heating, and lighting purposes, the 
farm may become an attractive place for the farm- 


wife and daughters. 
Many fanners are constructing or reconstruct- 
ing th^ farm dwellings ami prrmfyfa esfhetically. A 
small lawn with an artistic arrangement of shrubs 
and trees and of the driveways, gives rise to a large 
of individual satisfaction awl gioun pride. 

With the passing of the unattractive, barren and 
drudgery features of the farm home, there comes a 
dynamic appreciation of the deeper values of rural 

The social advantages of rural fife are superior 
in many respects to those of the city. They do no* 
represent stilted, over-formal attitudes; they do not 
lead to an enslaving night fife. Rural people are 
generally frank, open, and genuine; they are rarely 


The isolated farm fife and sleepy village fife it is 
true lessen the social advantages of Irving in the 
country. If the village in the United States could 
be appreciated as a group institution and if people 
instead of moving from one extreme to another, 
that is, from isolation to congestion, could perceive 
the advantages to be secured from pursuing a 
middle course, and develop the village, they might 
transform the village into a community having 
many of the advantages of both rural and urban 

The fanner's opportunities to develop an intel- 
lectual fife have been slight. His reading centers 


in the intensely practical farm journal and perhaps 
the daily newspapers, although in the rural districts 
of most countries the daily is unknown. The farm 
life environment does not offer steady inducements 
for intellectual study. Nevertheless, with the in- 
creasing use of labor-saving machinery, the farmer's 
intellectual life will have larger opportunities for 

The rural school is undergoing transformations. 
Through the consolidated school, and the rural 
high school, a new day for rural life may be ex- 
pected. The rural school with adequate education- 
al and playground equipment, with a residence for 
the principal and his family, with a teaching staff 
that is somewhat continuous from year to year, 
and with a community and civic center program, 
will create a new type of rural life. 

In many rural districts the church has been fail- 
ing to meet the social situation. The salaries of 
rural ministers have been ridiculously low. The 
rural church has suffered from an absentee min- 
istry; it cannot progress satisfactorily with non- 
resident leadership. The rural minister has been 
a misnomer; he has been a clergyman ministering 
to a rural parish but having his eyes set upon the 
more desirable city pulpit, especially if he has in- 
itiative and leadership ability; or else he has been 
a worn-out city preacher who has been transferred 
to rural parishes to spend the closing years of his 


ministry. A specifically trained rural religious 
leadership could transform rural life and make re- 
ligion a truly dynamic force. 

To make matters worse there have been over- 
churching and sectarian conflicts. Many small 
rural groups have tried to support three or four 
denominational churches. Then, there are large 
numbers of unchurched rural people. Near-by city 
churches with their high-salaried ministers, chorus 
choirs, and well-organized church activities guided 
by energetic leaders have had a magnetic influence 
upon the rural people. Rural young people espec- 
ially have felt this pull. 

The rural church has lost a large part of the social 
center function that it once exercised. Decades ago 
the meeting-house was the only place for social in- 
tercourse. Today with good roads, automobiles, 
and interurban lines, the rural church is no longer 
the only place or the chief place at which people 
can meet for a social time. 

The rural pastor, if properly trained, is in a 
strategic leadership position. In addition to a mod- 
ern religious training, he should be well versed in 
sociology, that is, in a knowledge of the laws of 
human nature, group life, and social processes. He 
should understand the technique of making com- 
munity surveys and community case histories; he 
should be trained in methods for making the church 
a leader among rural institutions. The rural church 


requires socialization; it must treat of community 
salvation as well as individual regeneration. 

If the rural school, the rural church, the Grange, 
and other institutions would co-operate and work 
together toward dynamic community ends, they 
could make the country so attractive, that the 
ablest young people who now flock to the cities, 
would stay and add the force of their abilities to the 
process of redeeming and magnifying the rural com- 

Many studies have been made of rural commun- 
ity life and rural organization which show the im- 
portance of scientific methods in studying rural 
needs. They indicate that the ideal unit for rural so- 
cial organization is an area varying from thirty to 
fifty square miles, according to the section of the 
country. This area may or may not coincide with 
the township. In many parts of the United States, 
it is represented today by the consolidated school 
district. It usually contains one or more trade 
centers, one or more religious centers, community 
halls, and four or five neighborhoods, in each of 
which there are from ten to fifty families. 

The scientific study of rural group processes is 
known as rural sociology. This science which has 
been developing in the United States points the 
way to an new era, not only for rural groups but 
also for the national group in which rural people 
function vitally. The two main principles of rural 


sociology have already been presented; they are 
represented by the fundamental concepts, rural 
leadership and rural social organization. 

2. Urban Groups and Problems. Urban groups 
as common phenomena have developed in the last 
century. They are the products of complex social 
forces. They have often originated in trade foci 
such as those located at "breaks" in transportation 
lines or near the centers of agricultural or mineral 
resources. Sometimes they are a product chiefly of 
population momentum ; again, they have been pro- 
duced by modern industrial and commercial enter- 
prise. Nearly all cities have profited greatly by an 
immigration of rural people whose ambitious eyes 
have been caught by the flash of urban opportuni- 
ties. In all cases, the city has been built up out of 
the appeal which it has offered to the gregarious 

In 1790 in the United States, only about three 
per cent of the population lived in urban groups of 
8,000 or more people. Today over one half of the 
population is congregated directly under urban 
group influence. In 1800, there were only five cities 
in the United States which had a population of 10,- 
000 or more; in 1900, a century later, there were 
447 such cities. The urban and suburban popu- 
lation of the United States is increasing much more 
rapidly than the rural population. 


The growth of urban communities, as illustrated 
in the preceding paragraph, is doubtless due to a 
variety of factors. (1) As it grows, the city makes 
an appeal of increasing strength to the gregarious 
impulses. The social contacts in cities are numerous 
and compelling. The ordinary person is afforded 
pleasure simply by seeing people, even if he does 
not know more than two or three persons in a large 

(2) The amusement and recreational facilities in 
cities are influential factors. The city worker is 
able to "go out" every evening. Commercialized 
amusements, by specializing in making appeals in 
every conceivable way to the feelings, sentiments, 
play tendencies, and gainful impulses of children 
and adults alike, are effective drawing factors. By 
making cities their main headquarters, commercial 
amusements are important factors in urbanizing 

(3) The invention of machinery, the increasing 
use of steam power, and the application of capital 
in commercial and industrial enterprises have cre- 
ated gigantic manufacturing plants. These institu- 
tions possess a gregarious appeal. For the sake of 
working side by side with many other persons, men 
will forego the more pleasant but somewhat isolated 
manner of rural work. Thus, large scale production 
has furthered the growth of cities. 

(4) The development in methods of transporta- 


tion and communication, the increased desire for 
communication, and the facilities which cities offer 
for satisfying the desire for communication are 
causal factors in urban development. The compact- 
ness of cities affords an individual a countless num- 
ber of daily opportunities to communicate. 

(5) The city offers superior educational advan- 
tages. Until recently all high schools were in cities. 
The elementary schools are better equipped and 
developed than in the country ; normal schools, col- 
leges, and trade schools are located in cities. Prom- 
inent people give lectures and addresses in urban 
centers. The highest paid clergy are found in cities. 
The libraries are located in cities; operas and art 
exhibits are urban productions. 

(6) There is better opportunity for personal ad- 
vancement in cities than in rural districts. Modern 
business and commerce draw young men to the 
cities, offering the chance of becoming wealthy. 
Educational leaders achieve high positions in cities. 
In all lines the possibilities of advancement in cities 
far eclipse the opportunities for power and honor 
in the country. 

The urban group is a loose organization of people 
living compactly in a limited geographic area and 
possessing a relatively high degree of intercommun- 
ication. Industrial and business pursuits com- 
prise the main lines of activity. Inasmuch as the 
people are removed from agricultural enterprise 


and from direct contact with nature, they tend to 
live in an artificial, man-made world. As a result of 
this emphasis they are subject to superficiality and 
assume to be what they are not. Urban "so- 
ciety" is noted for its wastefulness, high life, and 

The urban group is developing a reputation for 
"namelessness." Its citizens meet and speak with- 
out knowing each other's names. One may live a 
year or more in the city and not know personally 
one-half the people whose homes are located in the 
same city block. 

Homelessness has already been mentioned as a 
disturbing characteristic of cities. The boarding- 
house life of the city does not permit the develop- 
ment of real homes. An automobile first and a 
home afterward, or perhaps never, is frequently the 
urban man's slogan. To give to children a genuine 
home life on the sixth floor of a flat with hallways 
and flights of stairs as the only play space is almost 
impossible. A husband and wife with pet bulldogs 
can rent elegant quarters with ease, but not so if 
they possess a family of boys. The city environ- 
ment often puts a premium upon childlessness and 
thus encourages its own destruction. 

Class distinctions characterize the city. The 
worst crooks and the highest organized forms of 
religion are to be found in cities. The direst pov- 
erty often exists in the shadow of the most elegant 


mansions, while the highest creative work and 
chronic unemployment are alike urban character- 

The city, especially the American city, is char- 
acterized by energy. Young ambitious people set 
a tremendous pace both by day and night. The 
stimulation and inter-stimulation are endless, but 
generally on superficial planes. The pace soon ex- 
ceeds the ability of the human organism to main- 
tain; hence cities have been called consumers of 
population. They stimulate individuals to almost 
inconceivable achievements, but often at tremen- 
dous sacrifice. 

Interdependence is pushed to a high degree in 
cities. The average individual is utterly dependent 
with reference to the purity of the water supply or 
the milk supply. Preventable diseases mow down 
whole areas of city populations. Highly organized 
fire and police departments become essential, while 
traffic officers are needed to keep people out of each 
other's way, or from destroying one another ac- 

The rural community furnishes deeply genuine 
attitudes, nerve stability, an indifference to luxury, 
and vast undeveloped ability ; the urban group of- 
fers social stimulation and opportunities for rapid 
personal advance, for significent creative efforts, 
and for complex social organization. In so doing 
the city however exacts a terrific toll of neural 



The national group that is characterized by so- 
cial prevision will safeguard its rural groups from 
disintegration by providing for the training of ad- 
equate rural leadership and for comprehensive ru- 
ral social organization; it will endeavor to trans- 
form its village groups into active intermediaries 
between rural and urban life, providing through 
them many of the advantages of urban life with 
little of the neural wear and tear for which cities are 
noted ; and it will strive to make its cities into so- 
cial groups where only natural home life prevails, 
where people are stimulated to do their best but 
not at the expense of the lives of other persons and 
where individuals are dominated only by social at- 


1. In what ways is a rural population useful to a nation? 

2. Why is there a dearth of leadership in rural commun- 


3. What disadvantages of rural life are inherent? 

4. Who need the better schools, urban or rural children? 

5. In what sense are cities consumers of population? 

6. Why are cities overcrowded? 

7. Should a law be passed in this country permitting an 

individual or a corporation to own not more than 
a certain acreage of tillable land, perhaps 500 acres? 

8. Should a law be passed prohibiting any further advances 

in rent? 

9. What is a city for? 

10. How might a village be made an ideal social group? 


IRRESPECTIVE of membership in any of the social 
groups that have already been analyzed, every per- 
son is a member of a racial group or of racial groups. 
He is also subject to racial traditions, prejudices, 
and pride. While the human race undoubtedly had a 
common origin in regions extending roughly from 
the present territory of England to Java, it early 
subdivided into groups which wandered in various 
directions. These groups settled in and populated 
the inhabitable parts of the globe. As a result of 
different environmental conditions, primarily phys- 
ical and climatic, and secondarily social and psy- 
chical, these groups became differentiated from each/ 
other. With the rise of ethnology they have been 
designated by different racial terms. Racial groups 
are in a sense the product of migration activities, 
which have never ceased, but have appeared in 
various forms and have resulted in continual proc- 
esses not only of making races but also of re-mak- 
ing races. 

1. Migration phenomena. Every social group is 


composed of two factors : the persons who are born 
within the group ; and those who are born in some 
other group, and later have migrated into the spe- 
cific group. The causes of this migration vary 
greatly and yet fall into a few classes. 

Man has always been a wanderer upon the face 
of the earth. Since earliest times he has wandered 
to and fro in search of a better living. He has ever 
been prone to transfer his allegiance from one group 
to another; he has always been more or less dis- 
satisfied with his situation at any given time ; and 
has felt that if he were elsewhere he would have a 
better opportunity and be happier. Civilization 
seems to be made up of many persons in whom 
this spirit of unrest and dissatisfaction is inherent. 
In fact persons who are easily satisfied have rarely 
progressed; civilization itself is a product largely 
of aspiring, hopeful, energetic human attitudes. Mi- 
gration is one type of activity which the human 
longing for larger opportunity sometimes takes. 

The leading single cause of migration is economic, 
that is, the desire to make a better living. Among 
primitive peoples, hunger was a primary force which 
set the human race in motion. Today the immi- 
grant has virtually become "a seller of labor seek- 
ing a more favorable market." Since the economic 
advantages of the United States, Canada, Argen- 
tina, Australia, New Zealand, and Brazil have been 
striking, these countries during the past century 


have been the chief immigration countries of the 
world. Political oppression, religious persecution, 
adventuresomeness, and the desire to join relatives 
have been other causes of migration. 

Migration was first characterized by aimless 
wandering, as in the case of primitive tribes moving 
up and down valleys in search of food for them- 
selves and their flocks. It then sometimes expressed 
itself as a mass wandering, in which a whole popula- 
cion moved slowly from one section of the earth 
to another, notably the movement of the Huns into 
Europe. Migration was sometimes forced ; weaker 
peoples or offending groups have been exiled or 
driven out of one country and compelled to seek 
refuge elsewhere. Then there came a period known 
as colonization, when for three centuries or more 
nations sent out officially groups of peoples as col- 
onists to occupy land and set up a colonial govern- 
ment in the name of the parent country. This 
movement has been furthered by nations, such as 
England, France, Germany, Spain, Holland, Bel- 
gium, Russia, and Italy. It practically came to an 
end several decades ago, but not until "immigra- 
tion" had become the characteristic form of migra- 

Immigration is an unofficial movement of peo- 
ple, either as individuals or families, who on the 
basis of their own initiative are moving from one 
established country to another established country, 


although usually a newer country, for the purpose of 
improving their living conditions. Whenever the 
economic advantages of two countries are notice- 
ably unequal, population will flow to the more fa- 
vored nation. When these advantages become some- 
what equalized, the population movement slows up. 
As the newer countries of the world have become 
populated, their free lands occupied, and their 
natural resources exploited, immigration as a mod- 
ern phenomenon has decreased. 

There are still millions of people, however, liv- 
ing for example in India and other parts of Asia 
in direst poverty who if they learned of civilized 
America and Europe and had the means would 
form a wave of immigration that would swamp 
Western peoples. Consequently, legislative barriers 
have been put up. These constitute another reason 
for the decline in immigration. 

Migration is also a phenomenon of importance 
within a nation ; people are moving from the coun- 
try districts to the city, and others "back to the 
land." Some are migrating from one rural com- 
munity to another; some from city to city or from 
one part of a city to another part of the same city. 
Withal, intra-migration is a complex, continual 

By virtue of the fact that the person who changes 
groups takes with him a set of customs different 
from that in the group to which he goes, many 


problems are caused. The greater is this difference 
in customs, standards of living, types of govern- 
ment, personal and group viewpoints, the larger 
and greater the problems engendered by the trans- 
fer of people from one group to another. 

The industrial problems which arise in connec- 
tion with immigration begin with the need of mak- 
ing economic adjustments. The immigrant often 
experiences considerable difficulty for a period of 
time before he finds pleasant work which pays liv- 
ing wages. To the extent that the conditions under 
which he works are favorable does the immigrant 
learn to love the new country and desire to become 
a citizen. If he is exploited or mistreated, he be- 
comes suspicious and a sense of injustice rankles in 
his mind. 

In the United States the immigrant is carrying 
the burden of labor in the coal mines, the cotton 
mills, the woolen mills, the clothing manufactures, 
the slaughtering and meat-packing industries, the 
manufacture of shoes, furniture manufactures, 
leather manufactures, and the refining of sugar. In 
all these activities, "the foreigner has a monopoly 
of the dangerous, the dirty, and the odorous trades." 
Moreover, industrial accidents are numerous, and 
the brunt of them has fallen upon the immigrant 
and also upon his family. In the matter of compen- 
sation for injuries the immigrant, or his family, has 
in many cases received almost nothing. 


Immigrants commonly suffer housing and health 
difficulties. They usually go to live with relatives, 
causing overcrowding. In the United States the 
influx of immigrants for several decades has usually 
been to the overcrowded sections of the population 
centers. Poor health conditions accompany inade- 
quate housing. The immigrant is at a great dis- 
advantage in a strange country, especially if he and 
his family must live where sanitation, plumbing, 
ventilation, air space, and other normal health con- 
ditions are not found, or exist only to a small de- 

The social problems of the immigrant are also 
serious. If he does not know the language of the 
adopted country, he is isolated from coming in con- 
tact with its culture. A great barrier naturally 
exists between immigrants and natives where 
neither group speaks the language of the other. 
Misunderstandings thus easily arise, leading to 
conflicts. The stranger, foreigner, and immigrant 
are generally regarded with prejudice. This sen- 
timent expresses itself in a condescending attitude, 
scorn, and sometimes in open derision. The prob- 
lem emerges in social situations where race conflict 
or assimilation are the main phenomena. The so- 
cial problems resulting from migration will be pre- 
sented in the remaining sections of this chapter in 
the analyses of racial conflicts, assimilation, and 


2. Racial Conflicts. Wherever racial groups 
markedly different exist together, race problems 
may become insuperable. They are usually caused 
by physical differences, and by economic and social 
competition. The first cause is racial, originating 
in different climatic and biologic backgrounds. The 
second cause springs up whenever leading members 
of the less developed race begin to advance beyond 
the less efficient persons in the more advanced race, 
and when representatives of the lower race begin to 
demand social equality with the higher race. 

In the United States the presence of millions of 
Negroes, representing a population several times as 
large as the entire population of the nation when 
Washington was president, has created a race fric- 
tion which developed with peculiar force during 
the post-slavery days and which the World War 
for democracy and the post-war hysteria have 
fanned into almost uncontrolled flames. The Negro 
soldiers to the number of 400,000 were in the Amer- 
ican Expeditionary Forces ; one-half of this number 
went to France. They understood that they were 
fighting for democracy. To their surprise they 
found that the color line was not drawn in France 
and Italy, especially among the peasant peoples 
of these countries; but to their chagrin upon re- 
turning to the United States the color line was 
drawn tighter than when they went to Europe. This 
chagrin spread among the Negroes and culminated 


in a troublesome social unrest, which was countered 
by a revival of Ku Klux Klan activities. This move- 
ment has used fear, which rarely eliminates causes, 
and which often stimulates an increased degree of 
race friction. 

One main attitude toward the Negro situation in 
the United States was ably represented by Booker 
T. Washington, who urged first industrial efficiency 
among the Negroes and then professional efficiency. 
In social relations the races are to remain separate 
as the fingers of the hand, but in other matters to 
work together. By showing his worth, the Negro 
will be able to undermine the prejudice against him. 

The white man in turn has a definite responsi- 
bility, which consists in being willing to recognize 
true worth, ability, and personality wherever they 
may be found, irrespective of race or color. In a 
democracy such as the United States the white man 
must be willing to give the Negro the vote as soon 
as he is qualified. The mere fact that a person is 
born in this country and has reached twenty-one 
years of age is no guarantee that he is a competent 
voter. An educational test would be meritorious, 
providing it had to be passed by all persons alike, 
Indians, Caucasians, and Negroes, and also by im- 
migrants. When the Negro reaches a high educa- 
tional level the birth rate of the race will probably 
drop to that of the white race ; and political justice 
can be rendered without creating special problems 


of insuperable difficulty. 

In turn, the Negro has a special responsibility, 
namely, of resting his case upon achievement rather 
than upon boasting. Race friction is always caused 
by the less developed race tending to flaunt its suc- 
cesses before the members of the more developed 

Lynching needs to be considered as a federal of- 
fense. Whenever it is a local offense, to be tried in 
the local courts, it is considered lightly. The use of 
fear in treating the Negroes does not eliminate 
causes, but increases the sense of injustice and 
leads to counter moves. Intimidation represses 
but does not solve social problems. 

The most promising method of dealing with both 
the Negro problem and the Negro's problem is 
through local joint committees in every community 
where the white and colored people reside. Broad- 
minded representatives of both races can approach 
all the problems in fairness and consider them in 
the light of all the peculiar local factors. Upon 
the basis of these local conferences and findings, it 
will be possible to work out the methods for solving 
the problems in the large, that is, for the nation. 

Race prejudice can be undermined only by slow 
educational processes. A great deal of race preju- 
dice arises from misunderstanding, and even from 
ignorance of the worth and potentialities of the 
other fellow. When the Negro in rising permits his 


increasing worth to speak for itself and when white 
people treat the Negro without unfair prejudice, 
the race problems that are now so perplexing may 
be solved. 

Another illustration of racial conflict may be 
drawn from the United States, especially from Cali- 
fornia where friction between the Japanese and the 
white people began to create trouble about 1907. 
By their industry, frugality, and low standards of 
living the Japanese were competing successfully 
with white farmers. As a result of the different 
color of their skin and their different type of culture, 
they attracted undue attention to themselves. With 
the importation of wives and the growth in the Jap- 
anese birth rate, the situation attracted the atten- 
tion of the newspapers, which were induced to con- 
duct a thorough propaganda against Japanese im- 
migrants. And then in 1913, California passed an 
anti-alien land law that debarred the Japanese 
from buying land, and from leasing land for longer 
than three years at a time. This latter privilege 
was denied the Japanese in 1920. 

The problem is racial and economic. California 
cannot afford to be flooded with immigrants possess- 
ing low economic standards and physical and men- 
tal traits markedly different from Caucasians, but 
her method of treating the situation has been nar- 
row visioned. She has hardly been willing to pro- 
ceed except on a provincial basis; she has ignored 


the larger international aspects of the situation and 
offended the proud spirit and the good will of the 

In the United States the naturalization law 
excludes the Japanese (and Chinese) from citizen- 
ship, although admitting African and Caucasian 
immigrants to this privilege. It is a mistake to 
admit the representatives of any race and then to 
hold them aloof by giving them no opportunity to 
become naturalized and to function as citizens. It 
would be desirable through educational tests to 
make rather strict qualifications for voting on the 
basis of personal worth and mental ability, and 
then to repeal all racial naturalization restrictions. 
With high worth and potentiality being required 
for admission to the country ; and actual worth and 
ability, for voting, all racially discriminatory im- 
migration and naturalization legislation could be 
rescinded. The nation would be protected and at 
the same time cause its profession of justice, fair 
play, and democracy to ring true in those parts of 
the world where now it is counted insincere. 

3. Assimilation and Amalgamation. The pres- 
ence together of persons racially or mentally differ- 
ent creates the problems of assimilation and amal- 
gamation. Assimilation means the adoption of the 
spiritual inheritance of a people, that is, of its 
standards, customs, institutions, and ideals. In a 


broader sense it means giving as well as becoming ; 
it also involves a union of attitudes, which enables 
people to think and act together. 

An old theory is that the immigrant should give 
up his traditions and adopt those of the country to 
which he has migrated. Such a method means that 
the immigrant merely shifts from one intolerant 
group to another intolerant group. This procedure 
is based on an exaggerated race pride, which approx- 
imates group selfishness. 

Another theory is that the immigrant should be 
"melted" into the body politic. He should con- 
tribute his cultural gifts, and lose his racial identity 
in his adopted national group. This theory has 
much of merit in its fundamental principles. It 
however does not allow enough for racial distinc- 
tions, because an immigrant cannot easily give up 
all connections with his homeland, the land of his 
birth, his childhood days, and the land perhaps in 
which his parents still live. 

The belief that an immigrant should give up and 
forget as soon as possible his native language is 
begotten of false local pride. The immigrant brings a 
precious gift in his foreign language. A truly cul- 
tured group is one in which many of whose mem- 
bers are bi-linguists. Through the language that 
they bring, immigrants constitute for the group to 
which they migrate open gates to the cultures of 
the world. It is needless to argue that an immi- 


grant should learn promptly the language of the 
adopted group. 

In the United States the assimilation process has 
been receiving attention under the name of Ameri- 
canization. For many years this country gave no 
attention to the problem of assimilation, leaving the 
whole matter to a formal type of naturalization 
work. Then the melting pot figure of speech was 
given the country in 1909 and the American rested 
content in the belief that immigrants were being 
assimilated but was not disturbed by the open fact 
that in all the congested districts of all large cities 
the immigrants were living in ever enlarging colo- 
nies, having few contacts with Americanism except 
in its lowest forms. 

The World War made evident to the American 
people that by virtue of their neglect, millions of 
persons had been allowed to live in the country 
without having any reasonable opportunity to 
become Americans in spirit. Americanization of 
a narrow type was undertaken with a vengeance ; it 
attempted to use Prussian methods of compulsion. 
Several years after the war closed an educational 
type of Americanization came to prevail. 

The public schools are the leading agent of assim- 
ilation in the United States. Children from different 
racial groups are thrown into mutual relationship 
with one another and with American children. The 
gradual adoption of American ways of thinking 


takes place. The teaching of the English language 
and of American traditions and customs also plays 
an important part in the assimilating process. 

The immigrant children become assimilated first, 
the fathers next, and the mothers, last of all. The 
fathers find their contacts with American life in the 
factories, mills, and other places of work. The) 
first learn American profanity ; and then, often get 
their first lessons in Americanism from the curses 
of the foremen and bosses. To meet an urgent need, 
classes in English have been established in factories. 
This industrial work is usually carried on through 
public school teachers. 

The immigrant mothers have least opportunity to 
learn Americanism; they have almost no con- 
tacts with American people and little opportunity 
to learn even the English language. They live in 
a world of isolation. To that end the visiting teacher, 
referred to in a preceding chapter, serves as a benef- 
icent friend, guide, and Americanizer. 

The physical environment, American institutions, 
manners, and life surround the immigrant and 
serve as powerful indirect factors in bringing about 
changes in manners of dress and living. Immigrant 
colonies however prevent these contacts ; American 
race prejudice is also a deadening factor. 

A better distribution of immigrants is needed. 
To move immigrants from the cities into rural dis- 
tricts sounds practical in view of the fact that a 


large percentage of immigrants have come from 
rural provinces of Europe, and have settled in 
American cities in order to be near relatives and 
friends. Why not therefore move whole groups into 
rural districts? The experiment has been tried but 
has succeeded only in a small degree. American 
rural life is built around the American isolated farm 
dwelling plan. The rural peoples of Europe do not 
live in this way, but in villages, and therefore find 
the isolated farm dwelling method almost unbear- 

A true distribution of immigrants is not primarily 
geographic in nature, but social and psychological. 
In other words immigrant distribution should be 
conducted so that each immigrant will have many 
contacts daily or regularly with Americans who 
worthily represent American ideals. Such contacts 
will naturally and easily lead the immigrant into a 
love of the nation that no evil force can defeat. 

The trade union is another assimilating force. It 
teaches the immigrant self government and to obey 
officers whom he himself elects. In participating 
in union meetings he often learns his first lesson 
in political democracy. The union encourages the 
foreigner to adopt American standards of living. 
The conscientious employer is also an assimilation 
factor to the extent that he treats his employees 
democratically, and assists in conducting industrial 
classes for his employees. 


Wherein lies the responsibility for the non-as- 
similated immigrants in the United States ? Partly, 
in the fact that immigrants have been coming in 
large numbers, and partly in another fact, namely 
that the native born people have given little atten- 
tion to the welfare of the immigrant. Americans 
have been so busy in striving for individual pecu- 
niary success that they have not taken time to show 
that consideration to immigrants which leads natu- 
rally to Americanization. 

The responsibility for non-assimilation rests 
upon both immigrants and the native born. When 
given a normal chance the immigrant usually 
becomes assimilated without special difficulty. 
Immigrants, irrespective of race, faith, or class, 
should be encouraged, regardless of the faults of 
their neighbors and the community. In return, 
their neighbors whether native or immigrant, need 
to treat them democratically. The community may 
well afford to encourage the immigrant and the 
native in this method of real Americanization. 

In the past, the United States has placed empha- 
sis upon the individual, and allowed the "masses" 
to increase, to become disgruntled, and in many in- 
stances, to sink to a low level. She has been busy 
developing, even exploiting, her natural resources 
to the advantage of the few more than to the gain 
of the masses. In her haste to develop the natural 
resources, the best national resources, namely, the 


good will of her masses has been strained at times to 
the disintegrating point. There has been a tendency 
to discount spiritual values, and especially to neglect 
the immigrant forces in the land. 

A new attitude of personal helpfulness toward 
the immigrant is needed on the part of all Ameri- 
cans. When one comes to know the history of any 
race, he understands the weaknesses of that race, 
feels sorry for the race, and his hatred shifts from 
peoples to destructive traits. If it is true that all 
races are alike at their best and their worst, thus 
proving their essential unity, the exponents of 
democracy may take hope. 

Of primary importance is the necessity of work- 
ing out an adequate and permanent assimilation 
policy based on the development of American ideals. 
In this connection the United States may learn 
much from Canada, where a real Canadianization 
procedure has been followed for years. Canadian- 
ization has meant a governmental interest by Can- 
ada in the welfare of her people and especially of 
her immigrants far superior to the attitude of the 
United States toward her immigrant peoples. 
Canada has analyzed her own needs, determined 
upon the kind of immigrants that she has needed, 
and then sent for them to come from the United 
States, England, Scotland, Ireland, and the conti- 
nent of Europe. She has officially encouraged per- 
sons to immigrate who would settle upon her farms, 


and discouraged many types of city people from 
coming. When they have arrived she has met them 
at the gates, helped them to get adjusted to the new 
conditions, and tried to protect them from exploi- 
tation. Her immigration halls and labor exchanges 
have rendered free service. By softening the harsh 
conditions of adjustment, the immigrant's good will 
has been won. Any country may do likewise, and 
in so doing will find her immigration problems 
diminishing in severity. 

Closely related to assimilation is the process 
known as amalgamation. This refers to the bio- 
logical union of peoples and the creation of new 
racial stocks. Intermarriage between races produces 
amalgamation. It is a process that cannot be^forced 
to a great degree and yet one that occurs naturally 
when assimilation has taken place. It is a process 
of the centuries, whereas assimilation is one of the 

The amalgamation of races somewhat different 
from each other is to be favored. The result has 
usually been a race stronger than any of the parent 
races. The English, Germans, and Scotch-Irish 
are outstanding illustrations of amalgamated races. 
The amalgamation of races widely different in type, 
such as the white and yellow, or white and black, 
has never taken place under normal conditions, but 
ordinarily in illegal ways and under conditions of 
vice. Nature apparently does not object to such 


intermixture of races but social standards forbid. 
As indicated in the analysis in a preceding chapter 
on community groups, it probably is well to work 
toward world unity of thought and culture but not 
necessarily race unity. 

In summary of the several chapters on the subject^ 
of human groups, it may be said that every individ- 
ual is born a member of a parental family, of a 
racial group, of a nation group, and of either a rural 
or an urban group. He may elect to establish a 
family group of his own, to change his nation, or 
to move from the rural to an urban group, or vice 
versa, but he cannot change his parental or racial 
group lineage. He early finds himself a member of 
play groups, school groups, community groups, and 
usually of a church group. Any of these group con- 
nections may be temporary ; circumstances or per- 
sonal choices may lead to changes. Moreover the 
individual's group vision may change. For example, 
his vision at first is limited to the family group, 
then it expands through play and community group 
activities; it reaches a nation group loyalty; and 
then through various educational and perhaps 
religious or other group processes, the individual 
may acquire a world social attitude. 

In all these situations the individual begins 
sooner or later to examine the conditions by which 
groups control him, and the ways in which he may 


influence group life. Group Control thus becomes 
the remaining major theme to be considered. 


1. Why do people migrate? 

2. Have you or your parents moved from one home to 

another ? Why ? 

3. Distinguish between colonization and immigration. 

4. Illustrate the way in which migration causes progressive- 


5. "What is the underlying reason for permitting immi- 

gration to the United States?" 

6. Why do immigrants tend to go to the already over- 

crowded districts in large cities? 

7. Distinguish between inter-migration and intra-migration. 

8. What is race prejudice? 

9. What is the Negro's problem in the United States? 

10. Why do Americans object to the industry and frugality 

of Japanese immigrants? 

11. In what way is the naturalization law in the United 

States defective? 

12. Distinguish between assimilation and Americanization. 

13. What are the leading traits of an ideal American citizen? 

14. What is Americanization? 

15. Why is distribution of immigrants significant? 

16. Why is the group life of the individual of vital impor- 



THE INDIRECT and direct ways in which the atti- 
tudes of a person and his sense of social values are 
influenced by the groups of which he is a member 
are illustrations of group control, a process to which 
the attention of the student has already been 
called. Sometimes this process is repressive, and 
sometimes stimulative. Again, it may operate 
through the use of physical force, or in subtle and 
subjective fashion. The group control process is 
intricately complex, and its analysis exceedingly 

1. The Nature of Group Control. In one of its 
simplest forms group control may be illustrated by 
reference to the small child who is influenced by 
the attitudes of his parents, who in turn have had 
their interests largely determined by countless so- 
cial forces. As the infant grows he sometimes comes 
into conflict with a parent; his acquired habit of 
desiring to be taken up and rocked may be denied. 
For several years the child thus is subject to paren- 
tal control. The parents alternate between loving 


attitudes and the use of physical force in the proc- 
ess of exercising control. If they allow anger to 
express itself against the child, he is likely to feel 
angry in return and to harbor a sense of gross in- 
justice. If this process is repeated time and again, 
the child who has a strong ego, will likely develop 
an attitude of hatred toward his parents, and 
when he grows older, will run away and openly defy 
parental control. 

The importance of maintaining parental control 
with love and firmness cannot be overestimated, for 
thereby in later years social and national control 
do not become serious problems. As shown in 
Chapter VI the family group is better fitted than 
any other for teaching the concepts of obedience, 
the meaning of discipline, and for developing a con- 
structive group attitude. 

In the play group, children divide themselves into 
leaders and followers. Children in a play group 
often will obey a leader more naturally than a 
parent, for there is not the disparity of viewpoint 
between the leader and the other children that 
there is between parent and child. In the play group 
the individual will sometimes take severe punish- 
ment from other children without whimpering, 
whereas slight punishment from a parent may pro- 
duce an outburst of uncontrolled anger. 

In the school group social control is reduced to 
special forms of routine. Regular hours, seating 


arrangements, and lesson assignments must be ob- 
served. This rigidity is necessary and yet a too 
sharp contact with it turns many young adoles- 
cents, especially boys, away from school life. The 
play group life that the school affords is a saving 
factor for countless children. 

The religious group processes illustrate another 
type of control, a control which finds its sanction in 
a belief in the unseen God. The eye of God sees in 
secret; it penetrates everywhere, even to the most 
secret place of the heart and mind. Individuals 
thus find themselves regulating their conduct ac- 
cording to their interpretation of the wishes of God. 
This extra-group control is essentially social in 

The national group in particular and all groups 
in general rely heavily on group opinion and law as 
the two chief means of control. These factors, while 
crystallized as positive elements in national life, 
possess such wide ramifications that they will be 
considered together in the next section. Suffice it to 
say here that group control and individual initia- 
tive represent the two poles of group life. Both are 
essential; yet either in an extreme form can de- 
stroy the force of the other, and in so doing destroy 
the group itself. Both must be viewed rationally, 
used altruistically, that is, group control must have 
as its standard of value, personal growth ; and indi- 
vidual initiative may express itself best only in line 


with group welfare. 

2. Control Through Public Opinion and Law. The 
more important direct means by which individuals 
are ruled or influenced by the groups of which they 
are members include factors such as customs, ta- 
boo, ritual, law, and public opinion. 

(1) A large part of individual and social 
conduct, both in primitive and civilized life, is based 
on group approved ways of acting, common to the 
specific group and well established through being 
passed on from generation to generation. These 
customs, or mores, represent or have represented 
successful methods of doing or thinking. Hence they 
have acquired prestige and are group sanctioned. 
The individual is constrained to conduct himself 
according to the dictates of these customs. 

The older men, especially the priests and the 
medicine men, among primitive peoples are the 
guardians of the mores. In civilized groups, the 
older men, including those in the professions, law, 
teaching, the ministry, and the like, are also guard- 
ians of the customary ways of acting. 

The real authority behind the mores of course is 
the group itself. The group includes not simply the 
living visible members. The memories of those who 
have departed from this life exert forceful influence. 
The group voices itself in forms of approval or dis- 
approval. Group approval is expressed frequently 


in songs, medals, honorable mention, and parades. 
Group ridicule is such a severe form of punishment 
that most individuals cannot long withstand it. In 
their outward behavior many persons live on higher 
levels of activity than they would if they were not 
continually in danger of inviting group contempt. 

(2) Taboo is a unique method of enforcing a 
custom; it possesses peculiar and terrible strength. 
Among primitives, taboo prohibits any contact with 
certain objects or persons under penalty of harm 
being done by unseen beings. In order to be certain 
of protecting a shrine, the chieftain may place a 
taboo upon a given spot of ground. Whoever vio- 
lates the taboo will be stricken to death such is the 
taboo's powerful threat. 

Among civilized peoples, taboo exists. It oper- 
ates by restraining the impulses of individuals. Its 
psychological quality is found in the fear of con- 
sequences which is engendered in the mind of the 
person who is thinking of pursuing a doubtful 
course of behavior. It acts as a "Thou shalt not." 
It is ordinarily the negative guardian of behavior. 

(3) Ritual is the positive agent in increasing the 
strength of custom. It operates by the formation 
of habits. The charm of orderly movements, ac- 
cording to Dewey and Tufts, together with the im- 
pressiveness of ordered masses in processions, and 
the awe of mystery all assist in stamping in the 
meaning and value of the specific set of symbols or 


ways of acting. Ritual secures the actual doing, 
and also at the same time the formation of habits 
in the lives of individuals. 

The college freshman or sophomore who joins a 
fraternity must submit to a set of initiation cere- 
monies, that is, ritual. The ritualistic ceremonies, 
partly formal and partly informal, are generally 
arranged so as to humilate the individual and to 
magnify the ideals and standards of the group. In 
the name of group ritual, many irrational "jokes" 
are perpetrated upon innocent blindfolded initiates ; 
thus a worthy social institution is sometimes de- 
based by its well-meaning but unthinking friends. 

(4) The ideas of justice in primitive groups are 
found in a body of customs, known as laws or rules 
to which absolute validity is given. Justice is the 
aim. The chief source of the growth of ideas of 
justice and of changes in legal rules lies in the 
power of the chieftain or king to decide new cases. 
In higher stages of civilization, the need for a more 
adequate method of legal procedure has been met 
through the establishment of courts. Until recent 
decades the adjudication of new and particular 
cases continued to be the source of almost all the 
additions to "law" ; today, however, nearly all new 
expressions of law have their source in legislative 
bodies, which have been founded for the purpose 
of making new laws. The main force which gives 
law its validity is found in group opinion. 


To understand the significance of law, one should 
have a knowledge of the organization, development, 
and functioning of group life and processes. Legal 
texts and codes always presuppose some theory of 
the nature of human society. Earliest Roman law 
assumed that the religious view of social organiza- 
tion was inherent in ancestor worship. Later Roman 
law rested on the assumption that the social order 
was a matter of "contract" between independent 
individuals. Through the influence of the church 
during the Middle Ages, the conception of law as 
a divine command dominated. Today the real 
foundation of law has been discovered in the welfare 
of the people. The courts in their interpretations 
of law are manifesting a changing attitude; there 
is less blind adherence to precedents, often anti- 
quated, and more consideration of public welfare 
in interpreting law. 

The exercise by the state of restraint of the indi- 
vidual becomes increasingly necessary in an increas- 
ingly complex collective life. When people traveled 
in ox carts, traffic ordinances were not needed ; but 
in an age of automobiles definite laws restricting 
individuals must be made and enforced in behalf 
of the common welfare. The coercive character of 
law is justified by the needs of controlling individ- 
ual behavior in the direction of group safety and 
advantage. The law hence aims to maintain cer- 
tain minimum standards of social conduct which 


are necessary for the safety of society. The civil 
and criminal law become two main pillars which 
sustain the social structure in any nation. 

Law has been called the most specialized and 
highly finished engine of control employed by so- 
ciety. Its double function has been analyzed by 
Edward A. Ross: it deals repressively with indi- 
viduals with respect to certain of their aggressive 
acts ; and also with them respecting their neglects, 
especially with reference to contracts. In general 
it is easier to prevent men from unduly interfering 
with one another's activities, than it is to compel 
co-operation. The law secures respect for itself 
through a system of punishments. Law commonly 
uses physical punishment indirectly, in that the con- 
victed person is incarcerated in a cell away from his 
home friends and given a very limited bodily free- 

Since civil and criminal law are the main pillars 
of group stability, it is the lawyer's function to help 
preserve the social order. The legal profession has 
been pronounced a social service profession, as 
much so as teaching or the ministry. If this soci- 
ological view of law is correct, then the commercial- 
ized conception of the profession, namely, of having 
personal service to sell to individuals and corpo- 
rations who can pay for them and who use them 
for individual and corporate gain irrespective of 
social welfare is false. The members of the legal 


profession should consider themselves social serv- 
ants, rather than the salaried spokesmen of persons 
or corporations who can pay. 

(5) Public opinion is the force upon which law 
depends for its support. It is in public opinion, in 
a democracy, that law finds its sanction. Public 
opinion when crystallized becomes law, either 
written or unwritten. 

Public opinion acts more quickly than does law. 
It is a less expensive means of group control. As 
Edward A. Ross has pointed out, public opinion 
is less mechanical than law, and penetrates the hid- 
den regions of life ; it passes judgment upon purely 
private acts. It is an inexpensive means of control. 
"The inexpensiveness of praise or blame is mar- 
velous." Human conduct is continually condi- 
tioned by the fact that public opinion will be ruth- 
lessly expressed. 

Public opinion, however, has defects. It is not 
clear, nor precise nor codified ; it has "a short wrath 
and a poor memory." It is rarely unanimous ; an 
offender against society can escape the condem- 
nation of public opinion by taking refuge among a 
group of friends where his fault is condoned or 
'even praised. If responsibility can be shifted, for 
, example, when a corporation has committed an of- 
fense, public opinion is confused. Public opinion 
is primitive in its methods, instinctive and passion- 
ate. "Its frown is capricious and its favor is fitful/' 


There are other agencies of social control, such 
as religious beliefs, direct and indirect suggestions, 
slogans, and shibboleths. Art is a highly significant 
form of social control ; hence the next section of this 
chapter will be devoted to an interpretation of this 

3. Control Through Art. Art finds its expres- 
sion in the order, rhythm, and symmetry which in 
one form or another may be observed everywhere in 
the universe. It is natural that human beings 
should be peculiarly susceptible to "the influence 
of that which pervades and rules in the heavens 
and the earth, and in the mind and body." Celes- 
tial bodies move orderly and rhythmically. Sight 
would not be possible if it were not for the rhyth- 
mical vibrations of "ether," and sound would be 
unknown were it not for the rhythmical vibrations 
of air. The heart beats orderly and rhythmically. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that human beings 
respond to that which is orderly, symmetrical, and 
hence which in general is esthetic. 

Art influences people through the pattern forms 
which it produces. These patterns give a setting to 
all human life; they are fundamental to humai 
attitudes. They express themselves through per- 
sonal decoration, ornamentation, architecture, 
painting, and sculpture. These arts set static pat- 
terns. In the dance, song, poetry, music, and pub- 


lie speech the pattern forms possess a moving dy- 
namic element. In all these fields art creates an 
ideal world with a peculiar drawing power for hu- 
man beings. The appeal is usually made through 
the feelings, and hence human beings in interpret- 
ing art forms are subject to error. Art therefore 
needs censorship, in order to safeguard the ordinary 
individual from being controlled by false interpre- 
tations of erratic devotees. 

Art is a strong factor in control because of its in- 
direct suggestion. Its appeal is not made on the 
reasoning or rational plane and therefore does not 
directly arouse argument. Art does not moralize ; 
it sets examples which because of their feeling ele- 
ments easily secure adoption. 

The decorating of the human body represents an 
original form of art control. In his everyday life, 
the primitive Australian is satisfied with a few spots 
on his cheeks and shoulders, but on festive occa- 
sions, he extends the painting over his whole body. 
Bodily decoration by painting is transitory, hence 
two means of impressing designs on the body per- 
...nianently have been devised: scarification for dark- 
skinned peoples, and tattooing for fair-skinned 

Hair dressing has been set in artistic forms. 
Among primitives the hair is sometimes thickly 
kneaded with red ochre and fat, while feathers, 
crabs, clams, and so forth are placed in the viscous 


locks. The feather has maintained its original place 
in decoration throughout the ages and during all 
the stages of culture. It waves on the helmet of 
the civilized as well as on the headband of the prim- 
itive warrior. Among both primitive and civilized 
peoples birds have borne the chief expense of head- 
dress ; even the Bushman's fashion of wearing birds' 
heads, or even whole birds is perennially raised into 
group honor. 

Civilization has not succeeeded in freeing itself 
from control by the decorative forms which ap- 
pealed to primitive groups. The development of 
decoration has increased the range of materials used 
and refined the technique, according to Ernst 
Grosse, but it has not contributed an important new 
form of personal decoration. 

Architecture exercises a peculiar force on man- 
kind through its pattern forms. These are (1) 
buildings for protection; (2) structures for pur- 
poses of transit, notably, bridges, aqueducts, and 
tunnels; and (3) structures for memorial purposes % 
in memorial forms for the dead and to commem- , 
orate historic events. 

The chief architectural form is the dwelling iiil 
its various expressions. For commercial purposes 
there is the store, the factory, the warehouse, the 
bank; for educational needs there is the school-** 
house, college hall, library, and public hall ; for gov- 
ernmental purposes there is the courthouse, prison, 


fort, legislative hall, and for religious worship, the 
church, the cathedral, the temple have been de- 
signed. Chief of all is the dwelling for the family, 
described by John Bascom, as "the orb of childhood, 
the nest, the nursery, and the school of the human 
callow: it is the home of manhood, its center of 
exertion and enjoyment, its points of departure and 
return: it is the repose of age; thither weary and 
spent, man turns to lay down his burden." 

Painting, supplementing the art of drawing which 
was an influential factor among primitive people, 
has included many phases of human life. It may 
deliver the whole force of a historic event or of a 
life-long biography in a moment of time; it may 
give the observer at a glance an interpretation of 
vast currents of affection and emotion "as they 
surge on in full volume." 

The power and force of painting lie in the method 
of presenting fundamental truth, current and his- 
torical, so as to influence countless human beings 
deeply. In recent years some painters, such as 
Herman Heyenbrock, have been presenting social 
and industrial conditions in a way that brings im- 
portant principles home to people otherwise de- 
cidedly unaware of many real human needs. 

Sculpture is at one and the same time the most 
laborious and imperishable of art forms. Man is 
the chief subject of sculpture; the human face has 
been called the citadel of sculpture. Sculpture gives 


expression to the highest characteristics of man- 
kind, and puts them into forms more permanent 
than paintings, prose, poetry, or music. When the 
solemn, vital elements of human life are presented 
in silent, sculptural patterns, they influence people 
of all times, irrespective of race or language. 

The bronze group entitled "The Mother of the 
Dead" by G. S. Pietro illustrates well the social 
force of sculpture. The sculptor has caught the 
lonely vacant stare of the mother of the dead soldier 
and the groping pathos of the little grandchild in 
her arms, immortalized them in marble, and set 
them above the world in imperishable form. 

The dance has always had wide social signifi- 
cance. The dances of primitive peoples were usu- 
ually mass dances, executed ordinarily by the men 
alone, with the women furnishing the musical ac- 
companiment. They were used to celebrate group 
victories or to arouse the courage of the group pre- 
ceding any serious undertaking, especially a battle. 
The dancing group felt and acted as a single or- 
ganism. The event accustomed men who in their 
precarious conditions of life were driven hither and 
thither by different individual needs to act together 
with united feelings for a single object; it was a 
powerful element of control. 

As the size of primitive tribes grew, the members 
became too numerous to join in the mass dance. 
Hence the dance began to lose its socializing power, 


although it changed its form, especially that which 
had a strong sex appeal. The "square" dances are 
socially wholesome, but unfortunately have lost 
their popularity of a century ago. The folk dances 
while subject to abuses, are historically and esthet- 
ically effective. The ballet dance has excellent pos- 
sibilities but often degenerates into "distorted per- 
versions of nature," arousing vulgar curiosity. The 
"round'' dance has one leading function left to it, 
that of facilitating the mutual approach of the 
sexes ; it perennially stresses immoral patterns, as 
in the case of the "shimmy." 

Music through its influence over the feelings is 
a gigantic element of control. It is a language 
which speaks to all mankind ; it breaks through all 
racial groups. The singing together of the members 
of a group of people unites them. Choral singing 
of the non-professional type is one of the highest 
means of promoting a sense of brotherhood; it is 
one of the most effective forms of group communion. 
In a religious group music is a strong force in de- 
veloping a common spirit of worship, while in mil- 
itary life nothing is more stirring or provocative of 
action than the martial music of a hundred-piece 
band. National songs bring millions to their feet 
with shouts of enthusiastic loyalty. 

Poetry comes from the feelings and goes to the 
feelings, hence its significance as a control instru- 
ment. A single great poet or poem has helped 


to shape the lives of whole generations. Through 
a single work, poetry has more than once given a 
specific stamp to an entire national group. Poetry 
unites people, whom the interests of life separate, 
by invoking the same feelings in all. By constantly 
repeating its patterns, it finally produces a lasting 
mood. Poetry not only unites people, it may also 
elevate them, by awakening in them a more refined 
and richer emotional life than that which practical 
experiences have matured in them. 

Poetry connects succeeding generations. Through 
poetry, posterity recognizes the voices of its ances- 
tors, and the joys and sorrows of those who have 
gone before. Thus, people are made to feel that 
they are members of one vast aggregate past and 
present united and the process of socialization is 
realized. Social poetry furnishes effective patterns 
for socialization. Organized labor and other in- 
dustrial forces are extensively using social poetry. 
By setting an industrial aspiration or need to poetic 
form and using it in song, whole groups develop a 
common thrill and undertake tremendous tasks. 

Social hymns constitute an important control 
factor. They combine the force of art and religion 
in behalf of an improved group life and of socialized 
behavior. Religion itself in so far as it expresses 
itself in social ideals is a vital phase of group con- 

Social drama and fiction carry significant con- 


ccpts to multitudes. The field is not yet developed, 
but because of the wide reading and hearing which 
fiction and drama are accorded and because of the 
principle of indirect suggestion upon which they are 
based, they may yet become leading forces in so- 
cial control. 

The newspaper sets pattern opinions and espe- 
cially pattern feelings for millions of persons daily. 
The control while often indirect and productive of 
more or less unconscious effects is increasingly far- 
reaching. Since it is often based on opinions and 
emotional reactions rather than verified facts its 
control influence is often deleterious. The cinema 
likewise is setting pattern examples of feeling and 
action before millions of persons daily. Even more 
than do the newspapers the cinema exerts melo- 
dramatic influence. In using all the art of indirect 
suggestion it is an overpowering engine of control. 

The social control of public speaking lies chiefly 
in its persuasiveness. To speak to an assembly 
composed of people of various callings, views, and 
prejudices, and unite them in common action 
therein lies the social power of public speaking. To 
make truth and justice, wisdom and virtue, patri- 
otism and religion, holier and more socially useful 
than men had even dreamed them to be this is 
the control element at its best in public speaking. 

Art as an agent of social control has changed 
its course during the past ages. Among primitive 


peoples, ornamentation pre-eminently promoted 
technical skill. Poetry, the dance, and music arose 
partly because they inflamed and inspired the war- 
riors who were the bulwark of the group against 
hostile attacks. The most powerful social influence 
among primitives was vested in the dance. 

It has been shown by Ernst Grosse that to the 
Greeks, sculpture incorporated the social ideal- at 
its highest; how in the Middle Ages, architecture 
united bodies and souls in the halls of magnificent 
cathedrals; how during the Renaissance, painting 
spoke a language that was heeded by all the culti- 
vated peoples of Europe; and how more recently 
poetry and music have predominated. Still more 
recently, it has seemed that the newspaper and the 
cinema, in forms often far from esthetic have come 
to dominate the thinking of millions. 

Today art stands with science as complementary 
and influential means of directing the human race. 
As science through normal educational processes 
has resulted in the enlargement of intellectual life, 
so art has enriched the emotional life. Among 
primitives, art exercised its control through group 
unification. With civilized peoples art has also 
occupied a leading position in elevating the spirit 
of mankind. By getting into the mores and uti- 
lizing custom, taboo, and ritual, and by setting new 
patterns or molds for shaping public opinion and 
even law, art becomes a deep-seated and often un- 


suspected indirect force in determining the trend of 
social evolution. 

Art, as well as science and religion, public opinion 
and law, expresses itself most forcibly through per- 
sonal behavior. Control through personal behavior 
as a vehicle of interpretation and through the pat- 
tern-examples that are personified, constitutes our 
next main theme. 


1. What is group control? 

2. What is a custom? 

3. Name a taboo that you have felt. 

4. How have you experienced the force of public opinion? 

5. What is law? 

6. What is social legislation? 

7. Is it true that law is expensive to the poor man who is 

seeking justice? 

8. Why has art been so generally depreciated in the United 


9. Why was sculpture more effective among the Greeks 

than earlier or since? 

10. Why did architecture reach the zenith of its power in 

the Middle Ages? 

11. Why did painting exert a greater force in the Renais- 

sance than at any other time? 

12. What signs do you see of an increasing appreciation of 

art in the United States ? 

13. Is culture and art as practical an aim as making a living? 

14. Why is art a powerful element in social control? 



PERSONAL CONTROL is represented chiefly by atti- 
tudes, habits, and character. These depend upon 
the original nature of man, social heritage, and 
group stimulation. Society by stimulating the so- 
cial impulses of the individual, may engender a 
splendid type of personal control, or by arousing the 
anti-social nature of man, destructive expressions 
of personal control. Society may fail to stimulate 
any of the native impulses and leave the individual 
with a laissez faire, shiftless attitude toward life, 
that is, may fail to develop any appreciable degree 
of self respect or personal control in individuals. 
Through its influence upon the attitudes which con- 
trol individuals, society possesses a grave respon- 
sibility. In order to understand this problem it 
is necessary first to analyze personal behavior fur- 
ther than has already been done. 

1. Personal Control. The individual possesses 
ancestral traits ; he is also characterized by qualities 
that are possessed by no one else. The ancestral 


traits are marvelously combined in a given person ; 
it is estimated that the total population of the world 
would have to be multiplied forty times before it 
would occur that the lines on the tips of the fore- 
finger of the right hand of two persons would be 
identical. Every individual by birth is unique. 

There are different degrees of uniqueness. There 
are differences in degree of initiative, in the inheri- 
tance of musical or mathematical ability, and also 
in degree of sympathetic response. Individual in- 
itiative and energy when coupled with persistence 
lead to achievement and produce a type of genius. 
Energy may be concentrated by nature, producing 
a born genius ; or by the individual himself, result- 
ing in a genius by hard work. 

At any rate the individual, by virtue of his strong 
ego and of his uniqueness, frequently finds himself 
in conflict with the group. The small child may 
fight parental control, playground control, school 
control with fists and violence. Whenever the in- 
dividual faces control suddenly he struggles to over- 
throw it and to set up by revolution a new form of 
control such as suits his personal interpretation. 

When he faces control in a milder way, he may 
move against it by educational means, by starting 
currents of contrary opinion ; he ultimately hopes to 
create a new form of control. Thus the individual 
may be able actually to control the current forms of 
control by setting new pattern ideas. If these find a 


response widespread enough in human needs, they 
will come to modify the prevailing expressions of 
control. It is in this way that personal behavior 
is socially dynamic. 

Personal behavior is thus a force of primary im- 
portance. Every individual has a sphere of in- 
fluence from which move out currents of social 
power. In its elemental forms, personal behavior is 
non-social, egoistic, and seeking the satisfaction of 
its own inherent impulses. Elemental behavior is 
represented by the child who is learning from his 
experiences, that is, from his experiments in making 
adjustments to the environment, both physical and 
social. After slamming the door shut on his finger 
once, he is generally cautious thereafter. After de- 
fying a firm, wise parent once, he usually comes to 
see the wisdom in obedience. As he grows older 
he learns to give consideration to the interests of 
others. If he does not do so, he finds himself iso- 
lated from friends, and so from selfish impulses he 
may develop a kind of sociableness. The destruction 
of articles which belong to parents or other persons 
brings punishment. 

When self consciousness develops, as over against 
consciousness of other persons, moral conflicts 
for the individual arise with frequency, often of a 
very severe nature. In the play group especially, 
the individual soon learns that he must submerge 
his interests at times, and gladly so, to the welfare 


of others. In the case of boys, this lesson is often 
not learned until the individual has received blows 
from the fists of other boys. 

Work itself is a character builder. The individ- 
ual who becomes a successful worker, must possess 
or develop the fundamental social qualities of pur- 
pose, foresight, reliability, and loyalty. In modern 
industry, concerted effort is necessary. 

The arts and crafts, aside from their influence 
as work, have a distinctly elevating and refining 
effect. They give some visible or audible embodi- 
ment of order or form. In conforming to this order, 
the child, the primitive man, and the civilized man 
are in training for that more conscious control 
where order and law may oppose the impulses. 

A participation in family life tends to develop 
and to make habitual a high type of control, to make 
life serious, to overcome selfishness, and to project 
thought forward into the future. Family life tends 
to arouse in the child the traits of sympathy, of 
give-and-take, and of altruism. Work, participation 
in family life, and related activities require that 
the individual organize those habits which are the 
bases of self control, instead of yielding entirely to 
the impulses for pleasure. 

Personal control is generally determined by group 
standards as revealed in customs and public opin- 
ion. To a surprising degree people live according 
to the dictates of custom control. If they live up 


to the level of the generally accepted moral stand- 
ards of the group they feel at ease. If one's group 
endorses automobile speeding, cheating in examina- 
tions, midnight carousals, or lying in reporting 
property to the assessor the guilty person feels no 
pangs of conscience but may even boast of his anti- 
social action. Nearly all the actions of average in- 
dividuals have their control bases either in elemen- 
tary factors, customs, or public opinion. 

Each profession and institution has a code of 
standards which guides the ordinary individual in 
his judgments. The individual usually plays ac- 
cording to the rules of the game ; or if the rules do 
not seem just to him, he may grumble and not play 
the game at all, allowing the unfair rules to go un- 
challenged, or he may fight to change the rules by 
which he is controlled. Custom and opinion mo- 
rality constitute the character standards of almost 
all people. 

Custom and opinion are often irrational; they 
may be positively injurious but be maintained in 
force by an unscrupulous minority. The merely 
trivial may become the group standard; the truly 
worth while may be ignored. Group control often 
crushes individual uniqueness. 

For the sake of his own highest functioning and 
also for the sake of group advance the individual 
cannot always accept group control uncritically. 
There is the necessity of exercising discriminating 


judgment regarding current standards and ideals. 
It is fortunate for any group that the more socially 
advanced members keep their minds open to the 
defects of existing beliefs, and that they .reflect on 
their own behavior in relation to existing controls. 

Certain types of group control are useful for the 
age in which they originated, but normally are car- 
ried over to a succeeding age, where they are no 
longer sufficient because new group and personal 
needs have arisen. The socially more alert members 
recognize the insufficiency of ancient controls and 
climb to higher levels of personal integrity and 

If I control myself because I am obliged to do 
so in order to succeed in a profession, I am living 
on a relatively low ethical plane. If I control my- 
self socially, because I wish to maintain the respect 
of my group, I am still living on a low level. If I 
control myself socially because of having thought 
my actions through in their relation to existing 
group needs, then I have attained a relatively high 
ethical achievement. In the first two cases group 
control regulates me; in the third illustration I 
am likely to become an influence over current con- 

Everyone exercises a degree of social control 
over himself with reference to the standards of his 
own immediate groups, the family, the school group, 
the fraternity, business associates, but it is the ex- 


ceptional person who controls himself socially with 
reference to the needs of other groups, other nations, 
the world group. It is an important accomplishment 
to judge one's control of himself according to so- 
cially justifiable values ; it is unique when one keeps 
his mind open to defects and excellencies of his im- 
mediate groups in their dealings with and attitudes 
toward other groups. It is also a high calling to 
reflect socially on one's own behavior in relation 
to the welfare of mankind everywhere, and espec- 
ially, to live up to the dictates of such reflections. 

2. Problems in Personal Control. For an individ- 
ual to live so that his personal behavior will meet 
the test of social values, and so that he will be a 
constructive force in the field of social control, in- 
volves many problems. (1) Ethical dualism refers 
to the fact that an individual has at least two sets 
of moral standards : one he applies to himself and 
his friends; the other, to those who are mere ac- 
quaintances, strangers, or enemies. Nearly every- 
one excuses in his own life some habits and ways 
of doing which he despises when he sees them in 
the lives of other persons. That which is lying when 
perceived in others is mere "stretching the truth" 
or a part of the truth in one's own case. What is 
vicious when countenanced by the French, is justi- 
fiable when practiced by the Germans, if one is a 
German ; and vice versa. 


Ethical dualism is in reality ethical polytheism. 
A person has one standard of control for himself, 
another for his nearest friends, still another for 
strangers, and yet another for enemies. It is prob- 
ably true that every person has a different ethical 
standard for each individual with whom he comes 
in contact. This status of having many standards 
of control by which one measures the personalities 
of different individuals creates a special problem for 
the individual. He is perplexed when he attempts 
to treat all persons democratically, that is, on the 
same basis, and finds that he has already put each 
one on a different ethical level and himself on a still 
different plane. 

A group of 105 college students were asked by the 
writer this question: Is your personal ethical 
standard higher in your dealing with your instruc- 
tors or with your fellow students ? Sixty-six replied 
that they exercised higher standards of personal 
control over themselves in dealing with their fellow 
students, twenty-eight declared that they held them- 
selves to a higher standard of conduct in dealing 
with instructors than with their fellow students, 
while eleven asserted that personally they con- 
ducted themselves according to the same standard 
in their relations with instructors and fellow stu- 
dents. Ninety-four out of 105 students thus stated 
that they conducted themselves on one moral level 
toward instructors and another, generally higher, 


toward their fellow students. The explanation of this 
common reaction is found in the fact that there is a 
more personal relationship between student and 
student than between student and instructor. In 
other words, there is more fellow-feeling and a 
greater spirit of accommodation and co-operation 
between students than between students and in- 

(2) Ignorance of what are one's highest social 
obligations is common. In an increasingly complex 
social order it is becoming more and more difficult 
for the individual to decide how to act wisely and 
socially. At municipal elections it is almost impos- 
sible to learn who are the better candidates. In 
national presidential elections it is still more diffi- 
cult, oftentimes, to know which is the best party 
ticket to support, because each represents a combi- 
nation of many unworthy elements along with the 

(3) Inability to live up to the knowledge of the 
socially best is also common. Why are not people 
as social as they actually know how to be social? 
Why do worthy individuals act in ways for which 
they are immediately sorry? Why do not people 
always do as well as they know how to do ? In other 
words, why is the individual unable to control his 
impulses to the degree that he resolves to do? 

The answer to these questions is that man's 
strong instinctive tendencies are representative in 


many ways of ancient levels of action and planes 
of activity which fall far below currently derived 
standards. A sudden surprise or a subtle suggestion 
will often snap the higher forms of self control, thus 
putting the lower impulsive nature in positions ot 

(4) Professional standards of control fall below 
personal ethics ; they often constrain an individual 
to act below his own best judgment. In medicine 
a man is justly required to report cases of smallpox 
to health authorities so that well people may be 
safeguarded, but professional ethics and public 
opinion compel the physician to keep wholly silent 
concerning venereal diseases, even though such 
silence may subject women to certain and terrible 

The standards which control modern business 
groups possess far-reaching influence. In the begin- 
ning of merchant-trading, a visiting tradesman was 
viewed not only as a stranger but also as an alien. 
The group might do to him, or he might to it, any- 
thing that either could. Such forms of control were 
ethical. For example, it was considered by the 
visiting tradesman to be excellent business if he 
could steal some of the natives' wives and children. 
In certain aspects the early law of trade was but 
little removed from the law of theft. Trade group 
relations at first were not controlled by the usual 
standards of the family group or the local commu- 


nity group. The regulations governing trade were 
practically left for millenniums in the hands of 
groups of traders and merchants themselves. 

The possession of wealth was considered in early 
days as evidence of the possession of ability, and 
therefore, of virtue. No questions were asked about 
the methods by which wealth had been acquired. 
Shrewdness was synonymous with virtue. To the 
support of the merchant came the individualistic 
philosophy with the teaching that the god of the 
individual is supreme, with the implication that 
every individual knows best what is for his own 
good, despite the fact that he is partly controlled 
by highly selfish impulses that are epochs old. Hence 
the average individual could easily confirm his own 
idea that the pursuance of his selfish ends in almost 
any possible way was justifiable and proper. 

Primitive conceptions of trading still persist ; the 
individualistic philosophy gathers millions of dol- 
lars to its support. The standard still prevails that 
an individual may promote his welfare in any way 
that does not conflict with the law as enforced. It 
is often not considered wrong "to get around the 

Business has too often emphasized the rules : To 
sell as dearly as the market will permit; and, to 
pay labor as little as it can be induced to accept. 
As a result of these standards, reactionary conser- 
vatism and bold radicalism have clashed: in coun- 


tries, such as Russia, the latter won in 1917; in 
other countries the struggle goes on. 

New standards of business control are develop- 
ing. Business for service, is supplanting the slogan, 
Business for private profit. Service, however, is be- 
ing interpreted in selfish terms, that is, in the 
following way: I will serve most in order to get 
the most trade and largest profit. A higher stand- 
ard of control for group relations, especially bus- 
iness and industrial group relations, is springing up, 
namely, that of the Nazarene whose life represents 
the principle of serving without having personal 
gains as the goal, that is, the standard of Unselfish 

It is the ideal of unselfish service which is in 
conflict with profitism. If the former does not win, 
then the alternative is appearing in the form of rad- 
ical socialism with its disrespect of established so- 
cial values, its arbitrary, autocratic methods, and 
its new form of class control. 

(5) In an earlier chapter the ideals which con- 
trol nation groups were discussed ; it was indicated 
that the individual today often finds his national 
patriotism in conflict with his concept of world 
justice. Without relinquishing a single virtue of 
nationalism as judged by the world group needs, 
individuals are being forced to revise their patri- 
otism standards, giving them a less selfish connota- 
tion, purifying them from narrow adoration, im- 


pulsive shouting, and blind subservience. They 
are beginning to work toward a day when nation 
groups shall treat one another according to stand- 
ards of control based on world needs, and not upon 
the selfish desire of chauvinists, imperialists, or in- 
dustrial profiteers. 

3. Leadership and Personal Control. Leadership 
refers primarily to the traits of initiative, energy, 
and persistence that are possessed by every normal 
individual, as well as to the qualities of outstanding 
persons in the public eye. Leadership is common 
to all normal individuals. Everyone exercises some 
influence over his fellows and to that extent is a 
leader; his leadership ability is related to all leader- 
ship ability. 

The schools do not give sufficient training in 
leadership; they stress the importance of copying. 
Because school curricula and educators have em- 
phasized the copying of standards and the initiating 
of examples, pupils in schools have developed what 
have been referred to in a preceding chapter as 
"school activities,'' with opportunities to do, and to 
lead. School activities imply that the ordinary 
study-classroom procedure constitutes "school 
passivities," with a minimum chance for initiative 
and energy to be expressed along new lines. The 
schools in giving attention to the intellectual side of 
life, have neglected the feeling and especially the 


activity phases of life with all their implications of 
leadership. Training courses in leadership are 

The conspicuous leader, such as a general, a well- 
known poet, or a president of the United States, 
possesses inherited qualities which have been stim- 
ulated into achievement by the social environment 
or which the individual has developed without or in 
spite of environmental aid. The exceptional leader 
may be explained as a product of superior inherited 
ability, or of good fortune that befalls a person of 
ordinary accomplishments, or of group selection 
and stimulation, or of sheer initiative, energy, and 

Superior heredity is rare ; it accounts for the abil- 
ity of only a small percentage of well known leaders. 
The highly talented person is likely to rest too much 
on his inherited ability ; he may fail to conserve his 
precious talents, he is apt to become a "crank," and 
never develop a balanced, rounded personality. 

The person who becomes a leader by good fortune 
is rare. He is usually an individual of considerable 
undeveloped ability and common sense. The occa- 
sion stimulates him and in responding he may sur- 
prise not only his friends but even himself. There 
are undoubtedly countless persons who would 
measure up to important leadership responsibilities, 
providing responsibility should fall gradually or 
even suddenly upon them. 


Occasionally the group selects a person for one 
position after another of increasing importance. By 
common sense, attention to work, and ability not 
noticeably above the average, the individual moves 
up from one leadership position to another. 

Then there is the leader who has no more than 
ordinary ability, who has few home advantages or 
perhaps actual discouragement from home, who 
suffers one social defeat after another, but who 
drives ahead in season and out, overcoming handi- 
caps, even prejudices, and hostility, and finally 
reaching and succeeding in important leadership 

Leadership is the counterpart of followership. To 
be a good leader one must know the secret of follow- 
ing well. To follow well or to lead well, one must 
possess control over self. The Wisdom writer was 
correct when he said that he who ruleth his spirit 
is greater than he who taketh a city. Ruling one's 
impulses is fundamental to becoming a successful 
group leader. 

Self control leads to control of groups. 

The leader may use his control ability for purely 
selfish glorification, or he may exercise control for 
no selfish purpose, giving his energy, life, and love 
freely, that other people may have larger opportu- 
nities to live and to be useful ; he may ask nothing 
for self or for a group of privileged friends. 

Group leadership originates in crises and con- 


flicts, and hence is doubly significant as a force in 
social control. Sometimes the situation which 
produces leaders is a conflict between an individual 
and his group. Such cases were common in primi- 
tive days ; they are also frequent today in primary 
or small groups. Other situations which produce 
leaders are conflicts between groups. At all events, 
he who first shows ability to cope with a highly 
problematic situation becomes a leader and an out- 
standing force in social control. 

Leadership functions in antagonistic phases of 
life, in maintaining organized group processes, and 
in securing social changes. Leaders who are trying 
to keep time-honored institutions intact and to up- 
hold customs are in conflict with other leaders who 
are trying to direct people toward new methods of 
control. A group which is dominated by the leaders 
of traditional methods tends to fall behind in the 
march of progress ; and a group in which the leaders 
favoring change are untrained, tends to go to pieces 
through lack of stability. 

A plurality of leadership is apparently neces- 
sary; its unity is found in a balance between the 
conservative and liberal forces. A plurality of 
leadership may result in progress if its competitive 
and stimulative processes are kept on productive 
rather than destructive levels. It may seek out and 
stimulate the undeveloped capacity of peoples. 

The highest type of leader is a true man or 


woman. Possessing views which embrace the world, 
his sense of humanity is so keen that he seems one 
with the common people. His moral courage knows 
no bounds. He combines the endurance of the 
trained warrior, the sagacity of the captain of in- 
dustry, and the power of socialized attitudes guided 
by reason and propelled by indomitable will power. 
The greatest problem solvers are the world's greatest 
leaders, because they are or will become the domi- 
nating forces in social control. 



1. When do we most admire goodness? 

2. Is it of credit to a person to be offered a bribe? 

3. Does a corporation or a labor union have a conscience? 

4. Why do some honest persons feel no compunction in 

cheating a railroad corporation? 

5. Is the ability or the character of the individual more 

important from a social viewpoint? 

6. Do you agree: Whatever works is right? 

7. "At what points is the moral energy of college men 

and women most severely tested?" 

8. When is patience not a virtue? 

9. When is benevolence anti-social? 

10. Illustrate graft. 

11. Which of the qualities of leaders mentioned in this 

chapter would you prefer to have? 

12. "What qualities create a prophet?" 

13. "Does the need of leadership diminish with the spread 

of democracy?" 

14. Have the characteristics of leadership changed in the 

history of society? 

15. Why is the leader so important a factor in social control? 


PERSONAL CONTROL often breaks down. Some- 
times it functions well in behalf of the individual's 
selfish interests or of the interests of a group of 
personal friends, but it often conflicts with the 
welfare of a larger group, such as the city or nation. 
Personal control based on narrow social attitudes 
may easily lead to delinquency and crime. Even if 
a given type of personal control does not violate a 
law or ordinance it may openly or subtly weaken 
moral fibre and by degrees destroy human oppor- 
tunities for development. In so doing, it may not 
be anti-legal, but anti-social. 

1. Causes of Anti-Group Conduct. The causes of 
anti-group conduct are exceedingly complex. They 
are found in the physical environment, the social 
environment, and the individual's reactions to his 
social and physical environment. 

(1) The physical environment affects personal 
control through the influence of such factors as 
climate, seasons, temperature, and food. A hot 
climate leads to offences against persons, and a cold 


climate to offences against property. The cold winter 
season results in more suffering from cold and 
hunger than does the summer, and ranks higher in 
offences such as theft. The spring and summer are 
noted for the prevalence of sex offences. 

(2) The social environment affects personal con- 
trol in a variety of ways. A higher ratio of crimi- 
nality is found among the unmarried and divorced 
than among those living a family life. This fact 
may be explained by the greater temptations of the 
homeless, or to another fact, namely, that the same 
temper and habits which render a man unfit for 
marriage and unfavorable to its restraints, may be 
the same anti-social tendencies which manifest 
themselves in crime. 

Density of population is frequently accompanied 
by a proportional increase in anti-social conduct. 
The large city is the hiding place of people with a 
dark record. It flaunts the allurements of wealth 
and luxury in the face of poverty ; it excites envy ; 
and it harbors the solicitors of vice. 

Customs such as the public whipping of offenders, 
torturing, and lynching provoke criminal impulses. 
Severe punishments and public executions do not 
repress crime but increase it by the example which 
the state sets in taking life or in arousing the spirit 
of revenge. 

Poverty is a cause of crime, and so is riches, for 
the very rich frequently seem to be as subject to 


vice as are the very poor. Unexpected industrial 
changes, especially crises and depressions, put char- 
acter to unusual strains and increase the number 
of law-breakers. There are many who are con- 
strained to steal as was Jean Valjean, rather than 
see the members of their own .families starve and 
die. In a day of ostentatious display of unlimited 
wealth, the poor man who is diligent and honest, 
and yet whose family cannot obtain all the neces- 
sities of life, sometimes concludes that "property is 

There is a general conviction which is being 
honestly held by multitudes that many of those who 
are very rich have obtained their wealth at the cost 
of the community and without returning an equiv- 
alent. The workingman, pinched by need feels no 
special sense of wrong in taking a small portion of 
what he considers "immorally acquired wealth." 
The sense of having been wronged combined with 
driving hunger lead the individual to justify his 

The corruption of partisan politics favors the 
increase of crime. "When the unscrupulous agents 
of city railways, railroads, and other powerful cor- 
porations," says one authority, "control the elec- 
tions of aldermen in their own interest and against 
the public, crime is fostered through the very insti- 
tutions of justice and law." 

Suggestion causes crime. Pictures and reports of 


brutal prize fights set boys to fighting in alleys and 
rear yards. The film showing a spectacular robbery 
starts anti-social ideas to work in the minds of 
youthful spectators. Sensational accounts of bur- 
glaries and trials in the ordinary newspapers, and in 
the police gazettes that are handed about in pool 
rooms and other gathering places of men arouse 
desires that sometimes culminate in evil. "Gangs" 
of boys are frequently lead into law breaking by 
the "dare" of some leader. 

Occupations may cause crime. Employment in 
dishonest kinds of business, in gambling dens, or in 
liquor establishments tends toward the formation 
of evil habits. Officials are tempted to abuse 
public trust in them and to be bribed. Merchants 
and manufacturers are drawn into fraud, embezzle- 
ment, and forgery, while laborers commit theft, 
disturb public order, and make assaults. 

(3) The individual's reactions to his environ- 
ment bear a causal relation to anti-social conduct. 
Some individuals are moral imbeciles by birth, and 
are never able to distinguish between right and 
wrong. Others are born mentally defective so that 
at the age of eighteen, for example, they have the 
mental control and inhibitions of children of per- 
haps six, ten, or twelve years of age. They possess 
however the physical passions of eighteen-year-old 
adolescents, and in a complex environment the in- 
adequately controlled physical passions lead to evil. 


Sexual nature is a causal factor in anti-social 
conduct. There are about five times as many male 
offenders as female offenders, a fact that is probably 
due to the greater aggressiveness of men. As women 
go into business, enter public employment, and 
hold offices, their temptations increase, and their 
criminal record is augmented. Moreover, women 
when once guilty of sexual offences are not so easily 
restored to normal personal control as are men, 
partly because of the breaking down of a more 
sensitive organism, of the despair which seizes them, 
and because the gates to respectable social life are 
closed to them, although not to men who are sim- 
ilar offenders. 

The individual's problems of self control vary 
with his age. In his earliest years he is held unac- 
countable for his acts. Young children who are 
frequently tempted by hunger or compelled by their 
parents to go upon the streets to pilfer often be- 
come guilty of theft. In middle adolescence the 
rise of the physical passions leads to fighting, to vic- 
ious and immoral assaults upon persons, and to 
disturbances of the public peace. The bulk of crimes 
falls between the ages of twenty and forty. With 
riper years crimes of cold calculation, frauds, and 
bankruptcy are often committed. 

Alcoholism has led to breakdowns of personal 
control, to vice, and crime. Alcohol weakens "the 
inhibitory power of the higher nerve centers, con- 


fuses the intellect, dulls the conscience, and sets 
anger and lust free without rein or bridle." Alcohol- 
ism has led to brutal treatment of wives and chil- 
dren, has broken down woman's finest restraints, 
and debauched otherwise competent citizens. Under 
the influence of liquor, persons have committed 
sex offences, with high powered automobiles rode 
down little children in the streets, and have com- 
mitted heinous murder. 

A lack of a sense of individual responsibility 
causes crime. The individual in all ordinary cases 
of anti-group conduct must bear a part of the 
responsibility. Within limits the individual is a 
choosing agency, and hence must assume a share 
in the responsibility for the crime that he commits. 

Every child, even of the most cultivated parents, 
requires to be taught what his group obligations are, 
for he will not recognize all these promptly, and 
much less will he instinctively live up to their im- 
plications. He needs to be trained, controlled, dis- 
ciplined, and helped into the ways of social co- 
operation. Even the children of refined, generous, 
and self sacrificing parents are often guilty of act- 
ing in intensely selfish ways. Even the noblest of 
youths must learn personal control and develop 
their social dispositions. Crime lurks near vigorous 
youths, and sneaking vice is characteristic of those 
who have been whipped into silence, resentment, 
or fear. All types of adolescents need careful, 


steady discipline until they can stand alone in 
maturity, with the momentum of good habits to 
keep them upright. 

2. The Apprehension and Trial of Offenders. In 
the social machinery for dealing with offenders, the 
police play a leading part. The functions of the 
police have long been considered those of repressing 
crime. The first duty of the police is to apprehend 
criminals. They are in a good position to gather 
evidence, because they are continually on the watch 
for crime. They fail frequently in securing evi- 
dence, because many of them do not know what is 
evidence. An important development in the police 
agency that has come about in recent years is repre- 
sented by the traffic squad, who compose an ad- 
ministrative body, who do not acquire an offensively 
aggressive manner, and who are more courteous 
than the regular police. 

The concept of police as reformers is noteworthy. 
Joseph Fels has expressed the point when he said 
that his idea would be to make every policeman an 
extremely valuable public servant, rather than as 
now, offering him so many opportunities for dete- 
rioration. He would have policemen become a group 
of social workers, knowing every family and home 
in their respective districts, and even becoming the 
neighborhood representative of the city government. 
The policeman could serve notices and writs of the 


courts, collect delinquent taxes, inspect street clean- 
ing, see that garbage is properly handled, secure 
information for the departments of health and 
charities, see that all children in the district are in 
school these are some of the things that policemen 
might do as community workers. 

The policewoman has become an integral phase 
of the police agency. Nearly all cities of size have 
a staff of policewomen , engaged in work which men 
admittedly cannot perform as well. They are made 
responsible in part for the conditions which exist 
at dance halls, vaudeville theaters, and motion pic- 
ture shows; they attempt to safeguard girls and 
women from the downward path. The procedure, 
no longer an innovation, has proved its own justi- 
fication in the increasing freedom with which girls 
and women appeal to the police department for 
advice and protection, in the handling of special 
cases where a woman's sympathy may be more 
effective than a man's power, and in the care given 
to young girls or women who are brought to police 

Social defense has made necessary a body of pub- 
lic prosecutors. The public prosecutor, or district 
attorney, needs not only legal training but also 
training in criminology and sociology, in order that 
he may know the scientific requirements of social 
defense. This knowledge should be supplemented 
by first-hand experience in working in prisons with 



Corresponding to the system of public prosecu- 
tion there is arising a system of public defense, that 
is, of defense for helpless offenders or alleged offen- 
ders. There is often a decided helplessness of the 
defendant in a trial in the face of an organized 
legal staff of trained prosecutors. These defendants 
who have money can employ able counsel, in fact, 
they often employ such shrewd counsel that public 
prosecution is unduly hindered and nonplussed, 
with the result that trials run a course of several 
weeks, and guilty but powerful defendants escape 
their due punishment. But when a defendant is poor 
and unable to employ counsel as able as that in 
the district attorney's office he is at a serious dis- 

As a result of this need, interested persons have 
organized themselves under the title of a Legal Aid 
Society, and furnished free of charge legal assist- 
ance to defendants without money, or who are im- 
migrants without a knowledge of the rules and 
customs of the country and who do not know the 
language. In various parts of the United States 
the public defender's office has been created. Ac- 
cording to this plan, the state recognizing the dis- 
advantage of some of its members, has established 
officially a system of legal aid and advice for the 
advantage of those persons who have fallen into 
trouble and are unable themselves properly to pre- 


sent their cases. The public defender's office rep- 
resents an attempt to secure an increased degree of 
social justice. The introduction of women to jury 
service has been successful ; women have proved as 
good jurors as men. Often women of high qualifi- 
cations are available for jury service whereas men 
of similar standing because of professional or sim- 
ilar duties have been as a class excused. 

The jury system however is under severe indict- 
ment. Although its strong point is that it guaran- 
tees the person under arrest a trial by his peers, yet 
his peers are often highly subject to prejudices and 
possessed of narrow, untrained minds. Lawyers are 
continually tempted to play upon the feelings of 
jurors. After the jury has entered upon its delib- 
erations regarding a decision, it is subject to tht 
overpowering leadership of one person, or else an 
unusually obstinate individual may hold out un- 
duly against the honest judgment of the other 
eleven jurymen. Because of these facts, trial before 
a judge is increasing in favor. In such cases the 
attitude of the lawyer is likely to be sane, without 
including "grandstand" plays or emotional appeals. 
The person with a trained, judicial mind has 
marked advantages over a jury of untrained 
thinkers in the hands of an unscrupulous lawyer. 

3. Punishment and Reformation. Three general 
principles have been followed with reference to ad- 


ministering punishment, namely: retaliation, re- 
pression, and reformation. 

Retaliation is the principle of giving an equiv- 
alent for what has been received. If I am to return 
benefits, why should I not return injuries upon the 
same basis of give and take. The desire "to get 
even" is one of the. deepest in human nature. An 
eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, is the motto 
of retaliation. 

Repression uses fear. To intimidate and to 
torture is the slogan of repression. In the past both 
the church and the state took upon themselves the 
work of suppressing crime by measures that were 
designed to intimidate would-be criminals by hid- 
eous forms of torture. This idea "held humanity 
in its grasp for thousand of years." 

The principle of reformation as the basis for 
punishment did not receive effective support until 
an Italian writer, Beccaria, published his Crimes 
and Punishment at Milan in 1764. His book was 
the sensation of the day; it openly challenged re- 
pression and with equal frankness championed 
reformation. The book was translated into nearly 
all modern languages; the author lived to see his 
views adopted widely. 

Another successful early advocate of reformation 
was John Howard of England. In 1773, he was 
made sheriff of Bedford and placed in charge of the 
jail in which one hundred years previously John 


Bunyan had written Pilgrim's Progress. _He made 
a tour of the county jails of England, gathering 
evidence concerning typhus fever from which the 
inmates of jails died in large numbers. 

During the sixteen years of his public service, 
almost all at private expense, he visited nearly 
every country accessible to European travellers. He 
died in Russia in 1790 of the plague, while trying 
to find the cause of the same dread disease. On his 
tomb are these words : He took an open but unfre- 
quented path to immortality. In describing his 
journeying in behalf of prison inmates the poet has 

Onward he moves; disease and death retire; 
While murmuring demons hate they still admire. 

The ideas of Baccaria and John Howard concern- 
ing reformation were carried forward particularly 
in the United States. William Penn, who had been 
jailed in England, also became interested in pris- 
ons; as a result of his influence, the Philadelphia 
Society for Relieving Distressed Prisoners was or- 
ganized in 1776 and became the parent of modern 
American prison associations. In 1776, the Wal- 
nut Street jail in Philadelphia had no discipline or 
adequate care. The first time that a clergyman 
attempted to conduct religious services in the yard, 
the jailer as a precaution against riot and to insure 


the preacher's personal safety, had a cannon 
brought into the yard and had stationed beside it 
a man with a lighted match. 

In 1817, the Pennsylvania legislature ordered 
the construction of two penitentiaries. The one in 
Philadelphia was planned by Edward Haviland 
and became the basis of what has since attracted 
world-wide attention as the Pennsylvania system. 
The penitentiary in Philadelphia has served as a 
model in many countries. It has radiating wings, 
with cells next the outer wall and the corridor in 
the center, an arrangement which gives light in all 
the cells and some sunshine in most of them. The 
confining of prisoners in individual cells, isolated 
from each other, was a reaction against the method 
of allowing prisoners of all degrees of criminality 
to associate promiscuously. 

Another type of prison is represented by the 
Auburn State Prison, established about 1816 in 
New York. It is designed to separate prisoners by 
night only. The convicts are employed during the 
day in large workshops. While at labor the pris- 
oners had to observe the rule of absolute silence, 
which was enforced with exacting sternness, but 
which violated the psychological demands of the 
gregarious impulses unduly and harmfully. Silence 
in itself constituted a separation of prisoners and 
fundamental isolation. In 1825, the new state 
prison at Sing Sing was built with convict labor, 


following the Auburn rules; the achievement sur- 
prised mankind, for it had not been considered 
possible to use criminals in constructing a large 
public building. 

The Elmira Reformatory in New York received 
its first prisoners in 1876; Z. R. Brockway was its 
initial superintendent. The underlying principles 
of the Elmira system are: (1) the prisoner can be 
reformed. (2) Reformation is the right of the con- 
vict and the duty of the state. (3) Every prisoner 
must be individualized and given the special treat- 
ment which is needed to develop him in the points 
in which he is weak. He needs physical, intellectual, 
or moral culture in combination, but in varying 
proportions, according to the diagnosis of each case. 
(4) The prisoner's reformation is always facilitated 
by his own co-operation. (5) The supreme agency 
for securing the desired co-operation on the pris- 
oner's part is power lodged in the administration of 
the prison to lengthen or shorten the duration of 
the offender's term of imprisonment. (6) The most 
important principle of all is that the whole process 
of reformation must be educational. 

The Elmira plan includes trade training. The 
aim of the institution is to send no man out, who 
is not prepared to do something well enough to be 
independent of the temptation to lie or steal. 
If the question is asked : Where does the punish- 
ment enter in, the answer is : In the disciplinary 


control which is unremitting and exacting. The 
warden must be of the highest integrity, attain- 
ments, and consecration. The Elmira plan has been 
widely adopted ; it ranks as one of the best. 

A new, successful development is represented by 
the work of T. M. Osborne as warden of Sing Sing, 
where in addition to advocating penal farms and a 
real indeterminate sentence, he undertook to en- 
courage the prisoners to assume responsibility for 
their conduct. Under his supervision a welfare 
league was formed among the prisoners. The idea 
of self government among prisoners has succeeded 
surprisingly well among special types of offenders, 
especially adults who are first offenders. Under 
certain circumstances prisoners may be allowed to 
make their own rules and to punish violators. The 
chief merit of these principles is that prisoners 
develop the social and self governing spirit that is 
needed in ordinary group life. 

Several specific problems in the reformation of 
offenders will now receive analysis. (1) Prison labor 
was first introduced as an aid to religious ministra- 
tions, but it does not necessarily produce penitence; 
it proves not so much a punishment as a boon to 
prisoners. The prevailing motive of prison labor 
systems becomes that of training convicts morally. 

Many leading forms of prison labor have devel- 
oped. Under the contract system the prison author- 
ities make arrangements with manufacturers to 


pay a certain price a day per convict laborer fur- 
nished. The convict works under the direction of 
the agents of the contractor. The system ap- 
proaches an indentured servant system of slavery. 

The piece-price system is a modification of the 
contract method. The outside contractor furnishes 
the material for manufacturing goods and receives 
the finished articles at an agreed price. The super- 
vision of the industry is thus kept in the hands of 
the prison officials. 

The lease system may be mentioned, chiefly to 
condemn it. Under this scheme, convicts are leased 
to contractors for a fixed sum and period. The 
persons so leasing the prisoners undertake to feed, 
clothe, and care for prisoners and to maintain dis- 
cipline. Under such circumstances, the state gives 
up its function as public guardian of private rights ; 
it surrenders control of its prisoners to irresponsible 
parties and to personal interests. In such a situation 
reformatory measures cannot be used. 

Under the public or state account system the 
state owns the plant, furnishes the raw materials, 
and conducts the business through the prison offi- 
cials. The profits if any go to the state, in order to 
help pay the expenses of care. 

The plan of employing convicts on public works, 
such as roads, ditches, canals can be carried out 
with a limited class of prisoners. But if they labor 
in large numbers, experience shows that generally 


they must be chained together or kept in gangs 
under the supervision of armed men. The spectacle 
of such gangs at work on public highways is de- 
grading. The method gives the prisoners a chance, 
however, to work out-of-doors. 

The prison farm affords the discipline of hard 
work, the advantages of outdoor employment and 
contacts with nature, a wholesome relief from op- 
pressive urban conditions, and the stimulus that 
comes from working with living things, plants, and 
animals. Municipal farms and state farms are 
greatly needed as constructive means of dealing 
with many types of prisoners. 

(2) The indeterminate sentence provides that a 
given prisoner may be sentenced, for example, for 
not less than two years nor more than ten years. 
Until recently it was the policy to prescribe a defi- 
nite period of punishment for each crime com- 
mitted. The indeterminate sentence represents the 
principle that the object of imprisonment is not 
punishment primarily but the reformation of the 
offender and his restoration to society as soon as 
he is able to lead a responsible life. To give this 
principle a fair chance to operate it is necessary 
that prisons be so administered that the convicts 
receive a chance to demonstrate their fitness and 
"to work out their salvation under reformative con- 
ditions." A real indeterminate sentence is one in 
which the offender is kept under reformatory con- 


ditions until he develops a reasonable social attitude 
toward his fellows and society. It is a worthy ideal 
toward which to strive. 

(3) The parole system recognizes the fact that 
prisons do not offer a good opportunity for devel- 
oping a normal life. Parole is now combined with 
the indeterminate sentence, whereby a first offen- 
der, and certain others, may be released from prison 
at the end of the minimum sentence. 

(4) Adult probation is a system "not for letting 
people off, but for providing a definite correctional 
treatment outside of prison walls." In many cases 
imprisonment as a punishment carries with it life- 
long disgrace and discouragement. Adult proba- 
tion is intended for first offenders and violators of 
municipal ordinances and minor regulations. The 
man on probation makes monthly reports to the 
probation officers, pays the fine against him in in- 
stallments, and makes restitution in whole or in 
part to the person or persons injured by him. 

(5) The county jail system, such as has existed 
in the United States, has been frequently charac- 
terized as a relic of barbarism. Its chief advocates 
are persons who are dependent upon it for salaries 
or fees. 

It causes or intensifies physical deterioration. It 
is a sad sight to behold strong men herded in a 
county jail like cattle in stalls, or walking the nar- 
row confines of a county jail "to relieve cramping 


limbs." The jails ordinarily do not have even a 
crude gymnasium in which trustworthy prisoners 
can exercise weakening muscles. The physical con- 
dition of the prisoners is also undermined by un- 
sanitary conditions, impure air, dirty bedding, and 
dark cells. Darkness, dampness, and dirt combine to 
make the strong, weak, and the weak still weaker. 

Nerve strength is wasted. With nothing to in- 
terest and occupy the mind but reflections on the 
past, many prisoners leave the jail complete neu- 

The county jail has been rightly termed a school 
of crime. First offenders and hardened criminals 
are thrown together. Exchange of criminal plans 
and possibilities is the chief diversion ; the wise and 
the inexperienced teach the beginner the vicious 
art of crime. The narratives of the "jail bird" im- 
press the plastic mind of the youthful offender, and 
lead him to new acts of crime after his release. The 
jail tends to tear down rather than build up moral 
character. The "criminal atmosphere" in a jail is 
very serious because so many of the prisoners are 
comparatively young. 

The jail system as opposed to a penal farm 
system reacts sometimes as a greater punishment 
upon the wife and children of the offender than 
upon the offender himself. While the prisoner is 
idling away a sentence of thirty days in jail and 
being fed and clothed at public expense, his wife 


and children are deprived of an income from the 
wage-earner, and perhaps are suffering for lack of 
the necessities of life. 

The county jail system fails to reform; it is 
merely a place for confining prisoners. It assumes 
little responsibility for the physical, mental, or 
moral improvement of prisoners. It is blind to its 
responsibility to society, of making prisoners into 
better men and women while serving their sen- 

The county jail needs to be supplanted by the 
penal farm. In most of the states in our country 
two or four state farms of at least 500 acres each, 
located in different sections of the state, represent 
a minimum need. If penal farms are objected to 
because of the cost, the answer can be made that a 
state farm can be operated at a less actual cost than 
county jails. After a thorough, unbiased study 
of state penal farms, Dr. H. J. McClean has stated 
that "there is not one farm colony in the United 
States or foreign country under reasonably able 
management that is a financial burden upon the 
people. There is not one but what is operated at a 
profit over the old system. The argument that a 
correction farm will involve an excessive cost will 
not stand the test of facts and authority." The 
county jail system should be supplanted by a penal 
farm system. 


4. Juvenile Delinquency. The facts show that 
a large percentage of adult prisoners start along 
criminal lines before the age of twenty-one. It is 
evident that if juvenile delinquency can be dealt 
with satisfactorily, the percentage of adult crim- 
inals will be ultimately decreased. The problems of 
delinquency are therefore far-reaching. 

Until about the year 1900 in the United States, 
child offenders were arrested and if unable to 
furnish bail were placed in the regular cells of police 
stations. If convicted, they were fined, and then 
sent to the city jail or prison to "lay out" their fine 
at a rate, for example, of fifty cents a day. 

Then came a turning point in the treatment of 
adolescent offenders; new principles were rec- 
ognized. (1) The juvenile offender is being treated 
as a ward of the court ; he is no longer regarded as 
an accused or convicted criminal. The system of 
fines has been abolished. (2) Separate courts have 
been established for children's cases ; they are un- 
like the regular court chambers; they resemble a 
private conference room. Women acting as referees 
or judges in girls' cases have been markedly suc- 

(3) The system of probation has been inaugu- 
rated, whereby children are returned to their homes 
or to the care of responsible parties and kept there 
under the supervision of probation officers. The 
child is thus not treated as an isolated unit but as 


a member of family and neighborhood groups. The 
juvenile probation system is intended for first of- 
fenders and children guilty of minor offences. It 
has broken down in many instances, due to a variety 
of circumstances. 

It sometimes has become customary to place on 
probation adolescents who are "repeaters," that is, 
who are offenders for two, three, or more times. 
This practice constitutes undue leniency, which is 
taken advantage of by evil-minded youths. In con- 
sequence the police officers lose interest in arresting 
youthful culprits who steal automobiles or burglar- 
ize houses; the police from their point of view 
state that it does no good to arrest boys, for in a few 
days they will be at liberty again, ready to commit 
new offenses. In reply the probation officers point 
out that at present the alternative is the worse pro- 
cedure of sending adolescent boys into city jails to 
companion idly with mature criminals of the most 
hardened types, and to come out anti-social and de- 
praved, far more dangerous to society than under 
the alternative which is practiced. 

The whole method of treatment of delinquents 
today centers in the juvenile court. It has recently 
been urged that a large percentage of juvenile court 
cases do not represent children's guilt but parental 
neglect and guilt ; hence not the child but the parent 
should be brought into court. Thus the domestic 
relations court could handle an increasing percent- 


age of the cases that now go to the children's court. 

Further, it is contended that the public schools 
should segregate all mentally defective adolescents 
and keep them under institutional supervision 
rather than allow them as at present to be released 
from school supervision at fourteen or fifteen years 
of age and to drift into delinquency. If the public 
schools would adequately classify pupils by mental 
tests and keep the mentally deficient under super- 
vision, along with the incorrigibles, until such time 
as they show themselves capable of self control 
under urban conditions, delinquency would be cut 
down perhaps thirty per cent. Thus the school 
normally should assume responsibility for a per- 
centage of the cases that now come into the juve- 
nile court. 

The juvenile court however is serving useful pur- 
poses, not the least of which is that it is calling at- 
tention to conditions which are creating a rising 
tide of delinquency. Even after children's cases in 
which parents are the chief culprits are cared for in 
domestic relations courts, and after the schools per- 
form their full function in preventing delinquency 
there will still be need for juvenile courts. 

After making a study of 2,121 cases of delin- 
quency the present writer suggests the following 
analysis of the causes of delinquency. (1) The 
broken up or unfit home is almost a constant and 
ever recurring circumstance. The inadequate home 


may be divided into at least seven more or less dis- 
tinct types : the home broken by death ; the home 
entered by prolonged illness, or chronic poverty; 
the home rent by separation or divorce; the im- 
migrant home in which the parents in trying to 
become adjusted to American city conditions find 
that they have lost control over the children; the 
home in which the parents are shiftless ; the home 
in which the parents are too busy with their eco- 
nomic interests or club activities to give adequate 
direction to the children; and the home in which 
wealth and luxury have made the children irre- 
sponsible group members. 

(2) The second outstanding set of circumstances 
connected with delinquency points to certain weak- 
nesses in the public schools. The latter are expected 
to teach self control in the children who come under 
school supervision for eight or more years. If a 
child has not acquired self control under this tute- 
lage, the school has in a measure failed. What does 
it profit a boy if he acquire knowledge but loses or 
does not acquire personal control. The need for 
segregating the mentally defective and caring for 
them under school supervision as long as they do 
not possess a reasonable degree of self control would 
cut down the delinquency rate. 

(3) General civic neglect and lack of public 
supervision must be cited as a third cause. Boys 
and girls are released from the public school system 


at the age of fourteen or fifteen into complex social 
environments. If they come from broken up homes 
or homes where inadequate control prevails then 
they are practically the community's wards. But 
if the community provides no supervision, the result 
may be delinquency. The presence of harmful 
amusements operated by commercial interests is 
another illustration of civic neglect of the common 
welfare. Civic neglect also refers to the social in- 
justice which extensively prevents poverty. 

(4) The absence of a genuinely reverent religious 
attitude is a fundamental cause of delinquency. 
Genuine religion produces self control with refer- 
ence to many of the temptations of which vice is the 
promoter. An attitude which gives a balanced self 
control to the individual, wholesomeness in the 
family life, and a deep and unselfish social interest 
helps to save boys and girls from delinquency and 
tends to hold them true to sane pathways. 

Throughout the discussion in this chapter as well 
as in the two preceding chapters, the ever-important 
although not evident question is this : How much 
and what types of control shall the group exercise 
over its members? If too much control obtains, 
individual growth will be stifled; if too little con- 
trol, some individuals will take advantage of their 
fellow individuals. If control is exercised in in- 
direct ways, individuals become resentful. Under 
some circumstances group control unduly re- 


presses certain individuals while affording others 
special advantages. The question, rising always 
anew, becomes this : How shall the group control its 
members so that each shall have the fullest stimu- 
lation and opportunity for self expression, self con- 
trol, and group activity and contribution. 



1. Does it ever pay to be anti-social? 

2. Is it more difficult to be social or anti-social? 

3. Explain the statement that "societies have the criminals 

they deserve." 

4. Why are women less criminal than men? 

5. What is criminology? 

6. Are there "born criminals?" 

7. Write out five questions for a civil service examination 

for policemen. 

8. Explain: Labor has a reformatory influence. 

9. Why is time usually necessary for the reformatory proc- 

ess to take place? 

10. Why does "making believe" that one has developed self 

control for a length of time tend to bring about refor- 
mation ? 

11. Distinguish between parole and probation. 

12. Why does the barbaric jail system exist so extensively? 

13. What is the main argument for self government student 

organizations ? 

14. Why must homes bear the chief responsibility for de- 




THERE HAS BEEN a large amount of speculation 
about the nature of society and social progress, in 
fact, every person has his opinions which sometimes 
he proclaims as final truth ; but it is only in recent 
years that actual studies of social situations have 
been made in an accurate, extensive, and scientific 
manner. The two methods of scientific approach 
in studying group phenomena that are yielding 
positive results are represented by social surveys 
and investigations and social psychological anal- 

1. Social Surveys and Research. In the United 
States, the Pittsburg Survey in 1907-1908 was the 
pioneer of the current social survey movement. 
Social surveys however had their origin centuries 
ago. Piece-meal and isolated work in collecting 
social data may be found as early perhaps as 3000 
B.C. when, according to Herodotus, data were 
collected concerning the population and wealth of 
Egypt. William the Conqueror in England in the 
middle of the eleventh century prepared the Domes- 
day Book, which mentions the names of landlords, 


treats of the customs of the realm, describes the 
towns and cities, surveys the occupations, and gives 
a census of the people together with references to 
their economic and social situations. 

In modern times, Frederick William I of Prussia 
instituted a systematic collection of facts relating 
to population, occupations, and the like. The idea 
was developed further by Frederick the Great, who 
was instrumental in developing a system for the 
gathering of facts relative to nationality, age, 
deaths, agriculture, and manufacture. In 1790 the 
United States instituted the modern census, which 
with the succeeding decades has become very ex- 

More intensive social studies were begun with 
the work of Captain John Graunt of London, who 
made the first recorded analytical study in the field 
of vital statistics, that is, regarding birth rates, 
death rates, and sometimes marriage rates. Statis- 
tical studies of vital human data have been fur- 
thered greatly by the development of life insurance. 
Quetelet, a Belgian astronomer and statistician, in- 
cluded in his investigations certain social, moral, 
as well as physical characteristics of man, and ar- 
rived at conclusions which indicated that all types 
of human acts, especially crime, suicides, and ac- 
cidents occur with marked regularity. Ernst Engel, 
in Prussia in the middle of the last century, made 
social studies, such as those showing the relation of 


an increase in wages to increase in expenditures 
of a family for food, clothing, rent, and other items. 
In England the studies of Charles Booth, published 
in the closing decade of the last century gave the 
world a storehouse of social facts about the life 
and labor of the people of London. 

In the United States since the publication of the 
results of the Pittsburg Survey in six volumes, there 
have developed in nearly all enterprising communi- 
ties demands for social surveys of one kind or an- 
other. These have been either general or special in 
character. The general survey covers all the lead- 
ing social conditions in a specific city, town, or 
rural district. A general survey includes social 
elements, such as: housing, health, amusements 
and recreation, industry, immigration, schools, 
newspapers, churches, delinquency and penal in- 
stitutions, and social welfare agencies. 

Special social surveys are usually confined to 
some one specific problem, such as housing, amuse- 
ments, public health, or delinquency. It is possible 
for a group of public minded citizens to conduct a 
special social survey to good advantage, whereas 
such a group would be unable to undertake a com- 
plete general survey. 

The literature on the subject of social surveys 
is divided into two classes : (a) manuals, explaining 
how to conduct surveys; and (b) the results of act- 
ual surveys. The latter type of documents has 


become extensive in scope and volume. It consti- 
tutes a mine of information for sociological anal- 

A social survey, which may be defined as a collect- 
ing of data concerning the living conditions in 
whole or part of the people of a given community, 
is made for the same general purpose that a busi- 
ness house takes an inventory of its affairs at stated 
intervals. In the latter case the factors leading to 
losses can be discovered and prevented, and factors 
leading to gains can be noted and emphasized. In 
much the same way a community can discover its 
disintegrating factors and work out plans of pre- 
vention and discover how to increase the efficiency 
of the operation of its constructive factors. More 
important still, upon the basis of extensive social 
data, sound and far-reaching principles of social 
advance can be determined. 

A wise community will plan to inventory itself 
not once, but at stated intervals, perhaps of three 
or five years. By so doing a community can de- 
termine its development tendencies and the nature 
of its underlying processes. At this point the need 
for community case histories is evident. A survey 
refers chiefly to the present; a community case 
history deals with the past as well, and diagnoses 
evolutionary factors. Community case histories 
would provide adequate data for creating a pro- 
cedure of true community improvement. 


Social investigations and research are similar to 
surveys except that they are far more intensive. 
A particular problem, such as the causes of delin- 
quency among adolescents, the relation of inade- 
quate housing to tuberculosis, the traits of a given 
immigrant people, or the analysis of some sociolog- 
ical concept, illustrates the nature of social, or more 
particularly, of sociological research. 

The last mentioned topic also falls within the 
field of social psychological approach by which it 
has been possible for investigators to penetrate the 
depths of the social process, and discover new prin- 
ciples of group life and development of far-reaching 
and ever-increasing value. This field of sociological 
endeavor has already produced many concepts or 
tools which enable their users to go almost any- 
where in exploring the hidden recesses of social pro- 
cesses. Some of these processes have been intro- 
duced to the student in Chapter V ; upon the basis 
of them this book has been constructed. 

2. Social Work and Reform. Another method 
of attack upon group phenomena is represented by 
social work. Within recent years this new field of 
social endeavors has been developing until it has 
now achieved the rank of a profession. A report as 
early as 1916 showed at that time that there were 
about 4000 paid social workers in New York City 
alone, 1200 of whom were men; that there were in 


New York City twenty-one organizations paying 
salaries of $5,000 or more a year to social workers, 
and that salaries ranged up to $10,000 or more a 
year to social workers. 

Social work as a profession is emerging from its 
period of youth, a period similar to that of the legal 
profession when ambitious young men "read law" 
in offices and shunned the newly organized law 
schools. Schools for training social workers have 
developed in recent years until now training facili- 
ties may be found in nearly all the larger colleges 
and universities. 

Social work may be divided into group and case 
work. In its simpler forms social group work refers 
to conducting or directing clubs and classes in so- 
cial settlements, recreation centers, or school cen- 
ters, where large numbers of children gather to- 
gether after school hours. Then there are institu- 
tions, such as children's hospitals and orphans' 
homes, where children live under constant super- 
vision, but who because of the standardization of 
such supervision need the special leadership atten- 
tion that can be given by group workers. Group 
work with children who come to settlements and 
other social and educational centers presents a 
greater variety of opportunities and problems than 
do institutional children. Social group work is of 
two kinds: (1) leadership activities, and (2) in- 
vestigational work, which in turn may be social 


psychological or sociological. 

The person who essays to act as a leader of a 
group of lively settlement boys or girls must under- 
stand both the psychology of adolescence and of 
leadership, and also the sociology of social settle- 
ment neighborhoods. In the case of the adult 
classes or groups, the group worker usually becomes 
a teacher or a director of organized group activities. 

After the group leader has established relation- 
ships of good will and confidence with the group 
members, he is in a position to make an analysis 
either of their psychological traits or of their social 
situations. Through the co-operation of the group 
members, the leader may direct a survey of a neigh- 
borhood, making it a genuine social survey and 
bringing about permanent neighborhood improve- 

Social case work refers to helping needy individ- 
uals or families in becoming self-sustaining as far 
as possible. Many families through a sudden and 
serious turn of circumstances such as economic re- 
verses, the desertion of the wage-earner, or death, 
are thrown upon the community for aid. The case 
worker renders temporary financial help and then 
endeavors to get the individual or family upon a 
self-sustaining basis in the best way. 

Social work involves a knowledge of the group 
basis of all individual life. In order to understand 
thoroughly a person in need, the social worker must 


know the groups and the group traditions which 
have helped to develop him. One of the chief activ- 
ities of the social worker is to mend broken family 
groups, putting them back into society as function- 
ing units as far as possible. 

Social work involves making diagnosis of human 
predicaments pretty much as a physican diagnoses 
a case of sickness. In general the needy persons 
fall into three main classes : the physically handi- 
capped, such as the blind, crippled, and physicially 
sick; the mentally handicapped, such as the men- 
tally defective or unbalanced, and neurasthenics ; 
and the socially handicapped, the largest group of 
all, including the fatherless family, the neglected or 
dependent child, the delinquent child, the homeless 
aged, the alcoholic or drug addict, or the immi- 
grant group which has not become assimilated. 

The main forms of social field work give students 
in sociology one of the best possible introductions 
to an understanding of the problems of societary 
life. The upper division or graduate student of 
sociology in colleges who supplements his class- 
room exercises with social field work places him- 
self in a strategic position with reference to analyz- 
ing what is actually taking place in human society. 
Classroom discussion by itself sometimes becomes 
remote from real life, but when it is conducted with 
reference to actual situations that are developing 
in the community or city, it takes on all the reality 


of life itself. Such opportunities for college students 
are uncommon; almost all college students are 
compelled to study books rather than life. Training 
courses in social work, however, afford a combi- 
nation of sociological discussion and social work 
activity which is unusually stimulating and condu- 
cive to thoughtful development. 

Social reform is different from social work in 
that it represents mass procedure. It uses a tool, 
such as social legislation, for changing the stand- 
ards of an entire city, state, or nation, rather than 
the standards of families or of individuals as in case 
work. Case work is individual, particularistic, and 
minute in character ; social reform deals with entire 
groups, using objective, compulsory methods. Social 
reform rests for its success upon the support of pub- 
lic opinion. It is only when a strong public opin- 
ion supports a measure that it can transform a 
whole group. 

Social reform is general, unmindful of individual 
cases ; case work affords warm human contacts. By 
seeing life from the standpoint of its general needs, 
social reformers are able to catch the meaning of 
large social needs and tendencies ; the case worker 
knows life in its individual aspects and hence is an 
authority whom both the social reformer and the 
sociologist need to consult frequently. The social 
reformer lifts his eyes to the future ; the case worker 
has his eyes bent on the present, on today's partic- 


ular need and opportunity. Together, hand in hand, 
each may supply what the other lacks, and con- 
tribute to group control a multiplied common sense. 
e case worker at his best is the investigator, ren- 
dering aid and also gathering social data from 
which sociological principles may be drawn. The 
social reformer at his best is putting into group 
operation the principles which have stood the test 
of sociological standards. 

3. Social Telesis. Upon the basis of adequate 
and well interpreted facts, any community which 
is sufficiently interested to do so, may enter upon 
a definite program of directing its own purposes 
toward constructive ends. Social telesis refers to 
the process whereby groups can accelerate their 
own development through prevision. One of the*\ 
goals of social telesis is that of securing the com- ) 
plete participation of every individual in effective/ 
ways in the life of the group and of getting the 
group to work toward the largest feasible expansion 
of the lives of all the individuals in the group. There 
are purposes which may be thought of as represent- 
ing the main aims of a community that is governed 
by the principle of social telesis ; these will now be 

(1) The conservation of natural resources and 
utilization of these for the benefit of all, not of a 
shrewd few is an elemental aim of social telesis. To 


maintain a system of private ownership of natural 
resources and yet not permit this ownership to ex- 
ercise special privilege, is probably fundamental to 
an ideal society. 

(2) A sound physical and mental heredity is a 
characteristic of the ideal society which social 
telesis postulates. The degenerate offspring of 
feeble-minded or alcoholic parents come into the 
world with a just grievance against society; they 
hold back group development. Every child, or near- 
ly every one, in an ideal group life will be well born. 

(3) An environment favorable to health is a 
third essential in the society in which social telesis 
governs. Inadequate housing, lack of sanitation, 
and bacterial diseases will have no place in a per- 
fected and social group. Disintegrating amusements 
and the nerve-wrecking pace of urban life will be 

(4) A sound family life and well controlled child- 
hood are closely related and fundamental phases of 
an ideal social group. Apparently nothing can take 
the place of wholesome family life. Children need 
to be protected from the neglect of very poor and 
very rich parents the former not being able or 
knowing how to care properly for children and the 
latter often being too lenient and spoiling their chil- 
dren with luxuries and money. Children need to 
be safeguarded from exploitation by employment 
for wages in the years of childhood and early ado- 


lescence; they need a full-orbed chance to become 
socially educated. 

(5) A working period, marked by creative effort, 
is to be coveted for both men and women. The con- 
ditions of industry need to be developed in such 
ways that workers shall find their greatest enjoy- 
ments in life in their work and not be obliged to 
watch the clock for the end of the day to come or 
to look forward to the pay day, as the time when 
they can begin to enjoy themselves. Industry should 
be so controlled that workers will not be worn out 
and thrown upon the scrap heap in middle life. 

Industry and business are in process of being 
organized democratically, that is, on bases which 
include the representation or all three factors which 
are essential to the ongoing of industrial and bus- 
iness enterprises, namely, labor, capital, and the 
public. The procedure makes possible the contin- 
uance of the private property principle, forestalling 
the necessity of revolutionary measures. Each of 
the three parties in industrial and business life are 
slowly becoming socialized in attitudes, that is, be- 
ing willing or being forced to view its own interests 
in the light of the welfare of the other two constit- 

A general system of insurance against all the 
contingencies which now cause dependency or sud- 
den lowering of the standard of living is vital. Such 
a system would include compulsory insurance 


against death, accident, sickness, and old age, but 
it must not be construed as a substitute for those 
measures which would guarantee the workers eco- 
nomic justice and industrial democracy. 

In the list of industrial essentials there should 
be set forth a standard of living that includes an 
income sufficient to provide the necessities of phys- 
ical and mental living, such as proper nourishment, 
reasonable recreation, protection from cold, heat, 
rain, and snow, darkness, overcrowding, and inde- 
cency. The minimum standard also includes some 
of the comforts or amenities of life. 

(6) Instead of a prevailing attitude of "What 
can I get out of the government," a socialized atti- 
tude of "What can I do for the government" is a 
normal goal of social telesis. Then there is the at- 
tainment of ethical or personal control standards 
which involve the maintenance by the individual of 
a social attitude in all his dealings with all his 

(7) Social telesis aims to secure a widespread 
and preponderant appreciation of music, painting, 
sculpture, poetry, and the other arts. Art sets pat- 
terns of rhythm, order, balance, and movement 
which are essential to a well rounded personal and 
group life. 

(8) Another normal goal of social telesis is a sys- 
tem of vocational training, industrial, commercial, 
and domestic, which would train individuals first 


of all for good parenthood, good citizenship, and 
socialized behavior; and which would train all to 
make an independent living but in productive ways, 
not denying a full opportunity to any other individ- 

(9) The prevention of delinquency, criminality, 
pauperism, and other pathological states by scien- 
tific methods is another aim of social telesis. De- 
linquency and criminality could be largely over- 
come by proper training in personal control through 
the home, play, school, and similar group activities. 
A scientific procedure could help families and in- 
dividuals who are out of social adjustment to be- 
come permanently efficient; poverty, except as an 
occasional phenomenon, could be eliminated by so- 
cial telesis. 

(10) The last condition to be mentioned as an 
essential phase of social telesis is a type of religious 
control which stimulates the finest development of 
the Jiighest spiritual nature of human beings. As 
the true spiritual self is an enlarged social self, pro- 
vision must be made for the growth of broad and 
deep religious influences. In an evolving human 
society, the expanding, elevating, and purifying in- 
fluence of religion is needed. 

Social telesis or purposefulness will multiply the 
usefulness of any group. It will perfect the relation- 
ships between individuals, between individuals and 
groups, and between groups and groups; in the 


nieantime it will set the center of individual struggle 
outside the individual, thus enabling personality to 
rise to its fullest possible fruition in socialized be- 


1. What is the difference between a census and a social 


2. How would you go about it to get a social survey 


3. Contrast a social survey and a community case history. 

4. What is the main value in social research? 

5. What social reforms are most needed in your com- 


6. What are the main values in social work as a profession? 

7. How is social work related to sociology? 

8. What personal qualifications must a social worker pos- 

sess? . 

9. What similarity in method is there between social work 

and practicing medicine? 

10. Give a new illustration of social telesis. 

11. How are social data related to social telesis? 

12. How is social telesis related to social control? 



( continued) 

4. The Teaching of Sociology. In recent years 
sociology has become a teaching subject. Because 
other and standard subjects stressed the principles 
of individual pecuniary success out of all propor- 
tion to the principles of social welfare, even making 
it possible for individuals to prey upon persons less 
educated and privileged, the necessity for some line 
of study which should view life from the group angle 
became urgent. Hence sociology has been accorded 
an important place in the curricula of the schools 
of higher learning. The teaching of sociology is 
becoming widely diversified. 

(1) There is the original territory of sociology 
teaching, namely, the advanced fields of post-grad- 
uate college and university work. For many decades 
courses in social philosophy and general sociology 
have been offered advanced classes of students; 
these courses have been highly specialized and con- 
ducted for advanced students, with little uniformity 
regarding methods among different instructors. 

(2) In recent years the number of specialized 


undergraduate college courses in sociology, such as 
courses dealing with poverty, delinquency, the 
family, eugenics, has increased with amazing rapid- 
ity. The college is rare indeed which has no course 
in sociology some offering ten, or twenty, and 
even fifty or sixty courses, where sociology has 
been developed thoroughly. The organization of 
departments of sociology is taking place more slow- 
ly, a fact which does not reflect unfavorably upon 
sociology, but simply shows the conservatism of the 
departments in which sociology courses arise. 

(3) The teaching of an introductory course in 
college sociology, generally known as sociology I, 
has sometimes been made a course in anthropology, 
or the study of the origin of man ; agam it fias~BeerT 
a course in social economics, beginning with an eco- 
nomics background ; it is given in some institutions 
largely as a course injsocial problems or in social 
institutions; but the mostj^cej^tendency is to 
give the course a psyxhglQgicaJ^applroach and treat 
it as a studyjof-the. Iaws^j0f^roug_life. Only recently 
has the introductory course in sociology been given 
its correct foundation in social psychology. 

It is this latter type of introductory course in 
sociology which is being recognized in normal 
schools as being fundamental to the training of 
public school teachers. The teacher needs, not 
only to know her subject, her pupils, but also the 
nature of the group life of which her pupils are a 


product and also to know the nature of the group 
life for which she is fitting her pupils to become par- 
ticipating members. The teacher does not primarily 
teach a child a certain subject; she teaches children 
subjects so that they may succeed in group life, not 
selfishly, but for the good of other persons and 
human groups. Only so, can an individual succeed 
in attaining his highest possibilities, and by teach- 
ing only in this way can the teacher become truly 
successful. Teaching is a process of fitting pupils 
to become unselfish public servants, chiefly in their 
occupational and professional callings and in their 
daily interactions with their fellows. 

(4) The high school is slowly being recognized 
as a field for teaching sociology. The presence of 
other studies in an already overcrowded curricu- 
lum has hindered the introduction of sociology 
courses, but sooner or later the need of high school 
students, the majority of whom do not go to college, 
for sociology courses will be recognized and met. 
High school students, being at an age where individ- 
uality asserts itself, are in special need of studies 
with a group emphasis. 

(5) Social studies are being introduced in the 
grades, especially in the upper grades. The need 
for social studies in the lower grades is also keen. 
The teaching of them in these grades is no more 
difficult than the teaching of elementary mathe- 
matics or any other subject; the technique of teach- 


ing them however is not yet developed. The pre- 
sentation of social ideas and group responsibility, 
normally begun in the home during the first year 
of the child's life, should be furthered in an organ- 
ized way by the school when it is entered by the 
child at the age of five or six years. 

By teaching sociology, the leaven of socialized 
thinking can work out and through all societary 
life. In consequence, a better type of group control 
can develop, social telesis can be furthered, and a 
v new social, industrial, political, and religious order 
isan evolve. 

5. The Science of Sociology. Sociology is one 
of the latest sciences to develop. It represents, ac- 
cording to Lester F. Ward, the last and highest 
landing on the staircase of knowledge, or the cap 
sheaf and crown of any true organization of the 
sciences. Let us examine the antecedent elements 
^as_a basis for stating the task of sociology. 

For centuries, accurate and scientific studies have 
been made of the phenomena in the inorganic, non- 
living, and material world. The facts concerning 
the earth as a member of the galaxy of the heavens 
have been organized under the science of astron- 
omy ; concerning heat, light, electricity and similar 
physical forces, under the science of physics ; con- 
cerning the primary elements of which material 
bodies are composed, under the science of chem- 


istry. All these sciences have developed on -the 
basis of mathematics as the tool of accurate think- 
ing, analysis, and classification. 

As a result of these studies, man has been able 
to make marked progress in gaining control of the 
ohysical resources of the earth. He has been able 
to extract metals from their ores, to increase mar- 
velously the food production of the soil, to turn 
iron ore into powerful machines driven by steam, 
gas, or electricity, and to conquer in a limited way 
both time and space. 

In addition to the accurate investigations ^.which 
have been made in the physical world of matter, 
recent decades have witnessed profoundly far- 
reaching studies of the phenomena which charac- 
terize the world of l^ving_things. Upon the basis 
<of known physical laws, it has been possible to 
jirjply scientific methods in the field of organic activ- 
ities . The phenomena concerning plant life have 
been investigated in the name of botany, and con- 
cerning animal life in the name of zoology. The 
principles which have been established in the several 
organic fields have been formulated into the general 
science of biology, the science of all living things. 
/The subject matter of the biological sciences is 
more complex than that of the physical sciences, 

(partly because it is based directly and indirectly 
upon the laws of the physical universe, which the 
physical sciences have not yet adequately described, 


and partly because it is composed specifically of 
non-mechanical, ever-changing, and often rapid 
changing, evolving, living beings. Biological knowl- 
edge has enabled man to develop modified forms 
of plant and animal life which are exceedingly 
useful. It has given man a certain dominance over 
the ills which attack living beings, especially those 
which are caused by pathogenic bacteria. 

During the last part of the nineteenth century, 
a few scholars began to concentrate attention upon 
a complex phase of living phenomena, namely, the 
psychical side of life. The psychological sciences 
are based directly upon biological facts and laws, 
jmd indirectly upon the laws of the physical uni- 
verse. Their subject matter is unusually difficult 
"to" study, because it is spiritual, intangible, chang- 
ing, and not easily measured by mathematical 
standards. Nevertheless, specific scientific progress 
has been made in the discovery of psychological 
principles and in their application to educational 
processes, to industrial efficiency, and to the ab- 
normal and normal phases of mental life. 

Still more recently, the most complex phase of \ 
human life, namely, human association, is being 
scientifically studied. The living of human beings 
in groups is the subject of the social sciences. The 
study of the wealth getting and wealth using phe- 
nomena of societary life is known as economics ; of 
the community and governing activities, as political 


science ; of the personal conduct activities, as ethics ; 
of the mental training activities, as education ; and 
of the attempts to meet the highest spiritual needs, 
as religion. 

Other leading social sciences are those in the 
historical group. Analytic and synthetic descrip- 
tions of peoples in the past are known as the science 
of ethnology; and of the origin of mankind, an- 

To consider human association, however, from 
the standpoint of any one phase, such as economic 
activities, or political activities, gives a biased view 

<of group life. Sociology, a scientific study of the 
processes and laws of group life, is needed. It is 
necessary to know the processes by which groups 
develop and stimulate personalities to their full 
fruition and by which personalities are controlled 
by this fundamental knowledge, before an individ- 
ual can function well in any domestic, economic, 
political, educational, esthetic, religious capacity. 

The new sociology is the product of three more 
or less distinct lines of sociological development. 
One of these historical antecedents is social philos- 
ophy, which may be said to have originated with 
Plato and Aristotle; to have been focalized by 
Auguste Comte, the French philosopher who coined 
the term, sociology, about 1838; to have been in- 
troduced to America through the biological evolu- 
tionism and the laissez faire doctrines of Herbert 


Spencer, whose ideas in part were vigorously cham- 
pioned by W. G. Sumner, and at other points 
successfully challenged by Lester F. Ward. 

Another antecedent of modern sociology is found 
in the concepts, charity and philanthropy. This 
movement began with the ancient and simple meth- 
ods of helping one's neighbor, and extends to and 
includes the current organized and scientific efforts 
to remove the sufferings of the masses of people 
who may be living on the opposite side of the earth 
from the givers. This type of social effort has 
produced what is known today variously, as social 
work, social reform, social technology, and some- 
times! applied sociology. It concerns itself with 
preventive and remedial formulae of treating count- 
less forms of social maladjustments. 

The third approach to modern sociology is the 
latest to be developed and the most vital; it is 
known as the social psychological method. Behavior 
is the new center of study. Research has been 
directed to animal behavior, to the behavior of 
primitive peoples, and to current human behavior. 

Current sociology is the product of these three 
sets of contributions, social philosophy, social tech- 
nology, and social psychology. The merging of these 
lines of development has created a distinctive mo- 
rale along the whole sociological front. Sociology 
has become a tangible, dynamic, scientific study of 
group phenomena and social processes with an em- 


phasis upon personality, social attitudes and values, 
and behavior. 

The outstanding force which sociology studies 
is personality, and the major societary process that 
sociology considers is that by which personalities 
are developed into fully functioning and co-opera- 
tive persons as a result of being active members of 
groups. The infant is born into dominant sets of 
family, racial, national, and religious traditions, 
and during his early years his attitudes and inter- 
ests are largely determined by these traditions. On 
the other hand, he possesses inner needs which 
gradually become definite, causing him to react in 
unique ways to the various traditions of the differ- 
ent groups of which he is directly or indirectly a 
member. These give-and-take processes, often as- 
suming a confusing social complexity, constitute 
the primary field of investigation in sociology. 

The problems of human society have become in- 
creasingly important in recent years. The common 
people have been raising questions regarding the 
meaning of social 4emocracy. The World War 
created a demand for democracy before the masses 
of mankind really learned the nature of democracy 
or understood normal methods of securing it. The 
cry, more or less blind, but nevertheless genuine, 
vociferous, and planetary, for social, industrial, 
political, and^rejigious democracy on the part of 
"oppressed groups everywhere has aroused attention 


in a thousand new ways to the need of securing a 
better knowledge of group evolution along demo- 
cratic lines. ' 

As a result of sociological study, it is becoming 
more and more feasible for human groups to direct 
their own evolution. To the extent that the prin- 
ciple of social telesis is understood and adopted, it 
is decreasingly necessary for human societies to 
grope hither and thither in the dark, to advance 
and then to retrograde in alternate fashion. Social 
telesis, based on sociological knowledge, will enable 
all groups from the smallest to the world com- 
munity to evolve steadily, always forward, and 

The need for sociology is clear. At least the 
possession of the sociological point of view is a 
minimum essential for every member of human so- 
ciety, in order that all groups may function up to 
their richest possibilities. The need for a universal 
study of sociology is based on several factors. 

(1) Sociology offers a point of view which is 
humanly superior. The sociological viewpoint is 
the attitude of considering every problem of life in 
the light of the welfare of society. The individual 
views his personal problems in the light of the wel- 
fare of all the social groups of which he is a member, 
including the world group ; the group itself passes 
judgment continually on itself in the light of the 
needs of other social groups, again including the 


world community. 

The sociological attitude gives unbiased attention 
to all sides of any human problem. To meet this 
standard is not easy even when a person is simply 
an impartial spectator and has no personal interests 
involved in the situation; but when one's desires 
and welfare is represented on one side or the other 
of the struggle,it is exceedingly difficult to view all 
phases of the situation in a purely unbiased man- 

A plea for a sociological attitude is indirectly but 
powerfully made by John Galsworthy in his drama 
entitled Strife, where it is shown how the bitter 
struggles between labor and capital are perpetuated 
because neither side is broadminded enough to per- 
ceive the problems arid needs of the opponent. When 
each contender through suffering reaches a position 
where with unbiased eyes it perceives the other's 
point of view, misunderstanding is eliminated, and 
conciliation and harmonious progress results. If 
both the opponents in the bitter struggle between 
labor and capital had had a sociological attitude, 
each would have seen that employees and employers 
fundamentally have nearly everything in common, 
that their primary aim should be to meet the needs 
of consumers as efficiently and inexpensively as 
possible, and that reasoning together, arbitrating, 
and arriving at conciliatory solutions are the chief 
roads to mutual and hence social progress. , 


A person with a sociological attitude would not 
engage in any business which is socially non-pro- 
ductive or which depends for its maintenance upon 
raising the cost of living and depriving worthy per- 
sons of a full chance to reach their best. If a lawyer, 
he would not assist clients, for pay, to violate the 
laws of the city or nation. If a citizen, he would 
place his interests in his national group and its 
government ahead of his own private, gainful in- 
terests. A person with a sociological attitude would 
put always and everywhere, in his private business 
and public life the human standard of values above 
the economic standard. It is only upon the basis 
of the sociological attitude that human groups and 
individual persons alike can move unfalteringly, 
steadily, and nationally toward the ideals of highest 

(2) Sociology offers permanently significant 
ideas. It deals with concepts which are the largest 
dependable terms known to mankind. They pertain 
to the deepest processes of personal and group na- 
ture; they explain all the diversified activities of 
human beings. All human life in its most concrete 
details can be explained and understood in terms, 
such as isolation and interaction; conflict, accom- 
modation, and co-operation ; attitudes, values, and 
behavior; individualization and socialization. 

(3) Sociology analyzes present-day social condi- 
tions from the standpoint both of groups and indi- 


viduals. It gives to troubled persons as effective a 
key to the problems of associative life as has yet 
been made. It lays bare social maladjustments, in- 
dividual chicanery, and group selfishness. It de- 
picts the constructive elements of social processes. 

(4) Sociology balances the age-long emphasis 
on self culture and self development. It is a true so- 
cial culture study. When all persons are fully 
versed in social culture a new heaven and a new 
earth will be realized. Self development is essential, 
but without the controlling influence of social cul- 
ture, both groups and individuals are doomed. 

(5) Sociology develops socialized personalities. 
It leads to a rich and balanced expression of both 
the individual and social phases of human nature. 
It creates fundamental attitudes which result in so- 
cialized behavior, that is, unselfish behavior in be- 
half of other persons and groups. 

(6) Sociology leads to the profession of teaching 
the subject. As already shown in this chapter, the 
field for sociology teachers is well diversified, cen- 
tering in college and university work, but extending 
also to normal schools, high schools, and even 
through the elementary schools. 

(7) Sociology leads to social work as a profes- 
sion. The leader of groups and the case worker are 
in increasing demand. The case worker, whether 
doing personal work in the social resuscitation of 
individuals or of family groups, is rendering a high 


type of service. 

(8) Sociology suggests useful avocations. Every 
thoughtful person gives his attention to one or more 
avocations as well as to a main vocation. By so 
doing his personality is enriched and his usefulness 
augmented. Only a small number of persons can 
be sociologists but every person can develop an 
interest in a social avocation, such as child welfare 
work, housing welfare, or community welfare, at 
least to the extent of becoming a local authority in 
his avocational field. 

(9) Sociology points the way to democracy, that 
is, to a condition of society where people are ruling, 
each not primarily for his own gain but for the wel- 
fare of other persons. Sociology overcomes narrow 
prejudices, class hatred, and selfish ambition; and 
stimulates every person who appreciates the mean- 
ing of the fundamental sociological concepts to ren- 
der to all other persons and to all groups of which 
he is a member from the family group to the world 
group a full measure of unselfish service. 



1. Why has sociology been one of the latest sciences to 

develop ? 

2. Why has sociology developed rapidly as a college study? 

3. Why should social studies be taught in the elementary 


4. \Vhy is teaching sociology more important than social 

work or social reform? 

5. How is a social science such as economics indebted to 


6. What are the antecedents of current sociology? 

7. Give a new illustration of the sociological attitude or 

point of view? 

8. When is it most difficult to maintain a sociological atti- 


9. W T hat is greater than a socialized personality? 

10. Why is sociology needed so much even in a modern 
Christian civilization? 


Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part I, Chs. 

Carver, T. N., (compiler), Sociology and Social Progress, 


Chapin, F. Stuart, Social Evolution, Ch. III. 
Clow, F. R., Principles of Sociology with Educational Appli- 
cations, Ch. V. 
Cooley, C. H., Human Nature and the Social Order, Ch. I. 

Social Organization, Chs. III-V. 

Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. I. 

Dow, G. S., Introduction to the Principles of Sociology, 

Chs. I, II. 

Ellwood, C. A. Sociology and Modern Social Problems 
(1919 edition), Ch. L 

Sociology in its Psychological Aspects, Chs, I-III. 

The Social Problem, Ch. I. 

Fairchild, H. P., Outline of Applied Sociology, Chs. I-XI. 
Giddings, F. H., Elements of Sociology, Ch. I. 

Inductive Sociology, Chs. I, II. 

Readings in Descriptive and Historical Sociology, 

Book I, Ch. III. 
Gillette, J. M., Sociology, Ch. I. 

Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Ch. I. 
Kirkpatrick, E. A., Fundamentals of Sociology, Chs. I, II. 
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Park and Burgess, Introduction to the Science of Sociology, 
Ch. III. 


Patten, S. N., The New Basis of Civilization, Ch. I. 

Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. I. 

Rowe, H. K., Society: Its Origin and Development, Chs. I, 

Smith, W. R., An Introduction to Educational Sociology, 
Chs. I, II. 

Stuckenberg, J. H. W., Sociology, Vol. I, Ch. I. 

Wallas, Graham, Our Social Heritage, Chs. I, II. 
The Great Society, Ch. I. 

Watson, David, Social Advance, Ch. I. 

Wolfe, A. B., (editor), Readings in Social Problems, Intro- 


Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part II, Ch. II. 
Buckle, in Carver, Sociology and Social Progress, Ch. X. 
Giddings, F. H., Elements of Sociology, Ch. III. 
Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Ch. III. 
Huntingdon, Ellsworth, Civilization and Climate. 
Kelsey, Carl, The Physical Basis of Society, Ch. I. 
Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. VII. 
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Shaler, N. S., Man and the Earth. 
Thomas, W. I., Source Book for Social Origins, Part I. 
Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Ch. IX. 


Bristol, L. M., Social Adaptation, Ch. IV. 
Clow, F. R., Principles of Sociology with Educational Ap- 
plications, Chs. XII, XIII. 


Cooley, C. H., Social Process, Chs. XVIII, XIX. 

Davenport, C. B., Heredity in Relation to Eugenics. 

Davies, G. R., Social Environment, Chs. I-IV. 

Dealey, J. Q., Sociology, (1920 edition), Ch. VI. 

Doncaster, L., Heredity. 

Ellwood, C. A., Sociology and Modern Social Problems 

(1919 edition), Ch. II. 
Galton, Francis, "Eugenics: Its Definition, Scope and Aims," 

Amer. Jour, of Sociology, X: 1-25. 
Geyer, M. F., Being Well-Born. 
Goddard, H. H. ; The Kallikak Family. 
Godfrey, Hollis, The Health of the City. 
Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Chs. 


Hill, H. W., The New Public Health. 
Holmes, Samuel J., The Trend of the Race. 
Keller, A. G., Societal Evolution, Chs. I, II. 
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Kelsey, Carl, The Physical Basis of Society, Chs. V, VI. 
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Patten, S. N., Heredity and Social Progress. 
Pearson, Karl, Nature and Nurture. 
Popenoe, Paul and R. H. Johnson, Applied Eugenics. 
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The Eugenic Prospect. 

Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Chs. XVI,XVII. 
Wolfe, A. B., (editor), Reading in Social Problems, Ch. IV. 


Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part III, Ch. V. 
Boas, Franz, The Mind of Primitive Man. 
Clow, F. R., Principles of Sociology with Educational Ap- 
plications, Chs. Ill, V. 


Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. VII. 

Ellwood, C. A., Sociology in its Psychological Aspects, Chs. 


Sociology and Modern Social Problems (1919 edi- 
tion), Ch. III. 

Hobhouse, L. T., The Rational Good, Chs. I. II. 
' Kirkpatrick, E. A., Fundamentals of Sociology, Ch. IV. 

McDougall, William, Introduction to Social Psychology, Chs. 

Park and Burgess, Introduction to the Science of Sociology, 
pp. 108-125. 

Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. IV. 

Thomas, W. I., Source Book for Social Origins, Parts II, III. 

Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Chs. III-IV-V. 

Trotter, W., Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War. 

Wundt, William, Elements of Folk Psychology, Introduction. 


Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part III, Ch. II. 

Bristol, L. M., Social Adaptation, Part V. 

Bogardus, Emory S., A History of Social Thought, Chs. 

Chapin, F. Stuart, An Introduction to the Study of Social 

Evolution, Ch. IV. 
Cooley, C. H., Human Nature and the Social Order, Chs. 


Social Organization, Chs. I, II, XI, XVI, XVII. 

Social Process, Ch. IV. 
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. IX. 
Giddings, F. H., Reading in Descriptive and Historical 

Sociology, Book II, Part II. 


Hayes, E. C., Sociology and Ethics, Ch. VII. 

Park and Burgess, Introduction to the Science of Sociology. 

Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Chs. IV, V, VIII, 

IX, X. 

Small, A. W., General Sociology, Ch. XIV. 
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Ch. III. 
Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Chs. IV. V, XX. 


Alder, Felix, Marriage and Divorce. 

Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part II. Chs. 

Bosanquet, Helen, The Family. 

Calhoun, A. W., A Social History of the American Family. 

Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. XV. 
The Family in its Sociological Aspects. 

Ellwood, C. A., Sociology and Modern Social Problems 
(1919 edition), Chs. I V-VII. 

Fairchild, H. P., Outline of Applied Sociology, Chs. XII, 

Gillette, J. M., The Family and Society. 

Goodsell, Willystine, The Family as a Social and Educational 

Howard, George Elliott, History of Matrimonial Institu- 

Kirkpatrick, E. A., Fundamentals of Sociology, Ch. XV. 

Patten, S. N., The New Basis of Civilization, Ch. III. 

Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. XLIX. 

Todd, A. J., The Primitive Family as an Educational Agency. 


Thomas, W. I., Sex and Society. 
Westermarck, E. A., History of Human Marriage. 
Wolfe, A. B., (editor), Readings in Social Problems, Chs. 


Anthony, K. S., Mothers Who Must Earn. 

Bacon, A. F., Beauty for Ashes. 

Barnes, E., Woman in Modern Society. 

Bashore, H. B., Rural Housing. 

Byington, Margaret, Homestead. 

Cooley, C. H., Social Organization, Ch. XXXI. 

De Forest, R. W., and L. Veiller, The Tenement House 


Devine, E. T., The Family and Social Work. 
Ellwood, C. A., Sociology and Modern Social Problems 

(1919 edition). 
Howard, George Elliott, "Bad Marriage and Quick Divorce," 

Journal of Applied Sociology, Dec. 1921, pp. 1-10. 
Lichtenberger, J. P., Divorce, A Study in Social Causation. 
Nearing, Scott and Nellie, Woman and Social Progress. 
Richardson, B. J., The Woman Who Spends. 
Riis, Jacob, The Peril and Preservation of the Home. 
Ross, Edward A., Changing America, Chs. III,IV. 
Saleeby, C. W., Parenthood and Race Culture. 
Savage, W. G., Rural Housing. 
Tarbell, Ida M., The Business of Being a Woman. 
Thompson, R. E., The History of the Dwelling House and 

its Future. 
Veiller, Lawrence, Housing Reform. 


Wolfe, A. B., (editor), The Lodging House Problem in 

Wood, Edith, Housing of the Unskilled Wage Earner. 


Addams, Jane, The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets. 
Atkinson, H. A., The Church and the People's Play. 
Davis, Jr., M. M., The Exploitation of Pleasure. 
Edwards, R. H., Popular Amusements. 
Groos, K., The Play of Animals. 

The Play of Man. 
Lee, Joseph, Play in Education. 

Patten, S. N., The New Basis of Civilization, Ch. VI. 
Rainwater, Clarence E., The Play Movement in the United 


Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. LII. 
Smith, W. R., An Introduction to Educational Sociology. 
Ward, E. J., The Social Center. 


Brooks, J. G., Labor's Challenge to the Social Order. 

The Social Unrest. 

Clopper, E. N., Child Labor in the City Streets. 
Commons, John R. and associates, History of Labor in the 

United States. 
Davis, Phillip, Street Land. 
Ely, R. T., The Evolution of Industrial Society. 


Fairchild, H. P., Outline of Applied Sociology, Chs. IV-X. 
Groat, G. G., An Introduction to the Study of Organized 

Labor in America. 
Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Chs. 


Kelley, Florence, Modern Industry, 91-106. 
Mangold, G. B., Problems of Child Welfare, Part IV. 
Maclver, R. M., Labor in the Changing World. 
Nearing, Scott, Social Adjustment, Chs. IV, IX, XIII. 
Rae, J., Eight Hours for Work. 
Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. L. 
Tannenbaum, Frank, The Labor Movement. 
Van Kleeck, Mary, Artificial Flower Makers. 
Veblen, Thorstein, The Theory of the Leisure Class. 

The Instinct of Workmanship. 

Ward, H. F., The New Social Order. 

Yarros, V. S., "Social Science and What Labor Wants," 

Amer. Jour, of Sociology, XVI: 308-22. 


Abbott, Edith, Women in Industry. 
Butler, Elizabeth, Women and the Trades. 
Campbell, G. L., Industrial Accident Compensation. 
Devine, E. T., Misery and its Causes. 
George, Henry, Progress and Poverty. 
Giddings, F. H., Democracy and Empire, Chs. VI-IX. 
Gillin, John L., Poverty and Dependence. 
Goldmark, Josephine, Fatigue and Efficiency. 
Kelley, Florence, Modern Industry. 
Oliver, Thomas, Dangerous Trades. 
Diseases of Occupation. 


Parmelee, Maurice, Poverty and Social Progress. 

Ross, Edward A., Changing America) Ch. VI. 

Rowntree, B. S., Poverty. 

Solenberger, Alice, One Thousand Homeless Men. 

Warner, Amos G., American Charities, third edition. 

Webb, Sidney and Beatrice, The Prevention of Destitution. 

Woods, R. A. and A. J. Kennedy, Young Working Girls. 


Carver, T. N., (compiler), Essays in Social Justice. 
Commons, J. R., Industrial Goodwill. 

Industrial Government. 

Cross, Ira B., Essentials of Socialism. 

Giddings, F. H., Democracy and Empire, Chs. VI-IX. 

Henderson, C. R., Citizens in Industry. 

Hobson, J. A., The Evolution of Modern Capitalism. 

King, W. L. M., Industry and Humanity. 

Kirkup, Thomas, History of Socialism. 

Marx, Karl, Capital. 

Mecklin, J. M., An Introduction to Social Ethics, Ch. XX. 

Rowntree, B. Seebohm, The Human Factor in Business. 

Seager, H. R., Social Insurance. 

Small, A. W., Between Eras, from Capitalism to Democracy. 

Spargo, John, Applied Socialism. 

Tawney, R. H., The Acquisitive Society. 

Van Hise, C. R., Concentration and Control. 

Veblen, Thorstein, The Theory of the Leisure Class. 

Ward, H. F., The New Social Order. 

Webb, Sidney and Beatrice, Industrial Democracy. 

The Prevention of Destitution. 

Wundt, William, Elements of Folk Psychology, Ch. IV. 



Addams, Jane, Democracy and Social Ethics. 

Newer Ideals of Peace. 

Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part II, Chs. 

VII, VIII; Part IV, Chs. II, IV, VI. 

Bogardus, Emory S., Essentials of Americanization, Ch. IV. 
Clow, F. R., Principles of Sociology with Educational Ap- 
plications, Ch. X. 
Cooley, C. H., Social Process, Ch. XXIII. 

Social Organization, Chs. XIV, XV. 

Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. XVI. 
Giddings, F. H., Elements of Sociology, Chs. XXI, XXII. 

Democracy and Empire. 

Hart, J. K., Community Organization. 
Hobson, J. A., Problems of a New World, Part V. 
Howe, F. C., Privilege and Democracy in America. 
Maclver, R. M., Community, Book II. 
Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. LIII. 
Veblen, Thorstein, The Nature of Peace. 
Wallas, Graham, Our Social Heritage, Ch. IX. 
Williams, James M., The Foundations of Social Science, Chs. 


Betts, George H., Social Principles of Education. 
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part IV, Ch. IV. 
Bogardus, Emory S., A History of Social Thought, Ch. XXV. 
Boas, Franz, The Mind of Primitive Man. 
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. XXIX. 
Dutton, S. T., Social Phases of Education. 


Ellwood, C. A., Sociology and Modern Social Problems (1919 
edition), Ch. XVI. 

Fairchild H. P., Outline of Applied Sociology, Ch. XIX. 

Giddings, F. H., Democracy and Empire, Chs. XIII, XIV. 

Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Chs. 

King, Irving, Social Aspects of Education. 
Education for Social Efficiency. 

Mecklin, J. M., An Introduction to Social Ethics, Ch. XVI. 

Rogers, A. K., The American Newspaper. 

Ross, Edward A., Principles of Sociology, Ch. LI. 
Changing America, Chs. IV, VII. 

Scott, C. A., Social Education. 

Smith, W. R., An Introduction to Educational Sociology. 

Snedden, David, Sociological Determination of Objectives in 
Education, Ch. I. 

Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Ch. XXXIII. 

Wolfe, A. B., (editor), Readings in Social Problems, Chs. 

Yarros, V. S., "A Neglected Opportunity and Duty in Jour- 
nalism," Amer. Jour, of Sociology, XXII: 203-2 11. 


Batten, S. Z., The Social Task of Christianity. 

Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part II, Chs. 

Bogardus, Emory S., A History of Social Thought, Ch. 


Capen, E. W., Sociological Progress in Mission Lands. 
Chatterton-Hill, G., The Sociological Value of Christianity. 
Cooley, C. H., Social Organization, Ch. XXXII. 


Cutting, R. F., The Church and Society. 

Earp, E. E., The Social Engineer. 

Gladden, Washington, Social Salvation. 

Kidd, Benjamin, Social Evolution, Ch. V. 

Mathews, Shailer, The Social Teachings of Jesus. 

Peabody, Francis G., Jesus Christ and the Social Question. 

The Social Conscience and the Religious Life. 

Rauschenbusch, Walter, Christianity and the Social Crisis. 

Christianizing the Social Order. 

Scares, T. G., Social Institutions and Ideals of the Bible. 
Taylor, Graham, Religion in Social Action. 
Wallis, Louis, Sociological Study of the Bible. 


Bailey, E. H., The Country Life Movement in the United 

Butterfield, K. L., Chapters in Rural Progress. 

Chapin, F. Stuart, An Historical Introduction to Social Econ- 
omy, Chs. I, VI, XIV. 

Gillette, J. M., Constructive Rural Sociology. 

Harrison, S. M., Social Conditions in an American City. 

Howe, F. C., The Modern City and its Problems. 

Mecklin, J. M., An Introduction to Social Ethics, Ch. XXI. 

Phelan, John, Readings in Rural Sociology. 

Sims, N. L., The Rural Community. 

Taylor, G. R., Satellite Cities. 

Vogt, Paul L., Introduction to Rural Sociology. 

Wilson, W. H., Evolution of the Country Community. 

Zueblin, Charles, American Municipal Progress. 



Abbott, Grace. The Immigrant and the Community. 

Antin, Mary, The Promised Land. 

Balch, Emily A., Our Slavic Fellow Citizens. 

Bogardus, Emory S., Essentials of Americanization. 

Brawley, Benjamin, A Social History of the American Negro. 

Commons, J. R., Races and Immigrants in America. 

Cooley, C. H., Social Process, Ch. XXIV. 

DuBo'is, W. E. B., Darkwater. 

Fairchild, H. P., Immigration. 

Gulick, S. H., The American Japanese Problem. 

Howard, George Elliott, "The Social Cost of Southern Race 

Prejudice," Amer. Jour, of Sociology, XXII: 577-93. 
Miller, Kelly, Race Adjustment. 

Millis, H. A., The Japanese Problem in the United States. 
Park, R. A. and H. A. Miller, Old World Traits Transplanted. 
Roberts, Peter, The Problem of Americanization. 
Scott, E. J. and L. B. Stowe, Booker T. Washington, Builder 

of a Civilization. 

Steiner, E. A., On the Trail of the Immigrant. 
Tylor, E. B., Anthropology. 
Wolfe, A. B., (editor), Readings in Social Problems, Books 

II, V. 


Bascom, John, Aesthetics. 

Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part III, Ch. VI; 

Part IV, Ch. III. 
Fairchild, H. P., Outline of Applied Sociology, Ch. XVIII. 


Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Part 


Sociology and Ethics, Ch. III. 

Mecklin, J. M., An Introduction to Social Ethics, Ch. IX. 
Park and Burgess, Introduction to the Science of Sociology, 

Ch. XII. 
Patrick, G. T. W., The Psychology of Social Reconstruction, 

Ch. VII. 
Ross, Edward A., Social Control. 

Principles of Sociology, Ch. XXXIV, XXXV. 
Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Chs. XXIV, XXV, 

Wundt, William, Elements of Folk Psychology, Ch. I, Sect. 

8; Ch. Ill, Sect. 17. 


Addams, Jane, Democracy and Social Ethics. 

Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part II, Ch. XI. 

Carver, T. N., (compiler), Essays in Social Justice. 

Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. XVIII. 

Ellwood, C. A., The Social Problem, Ch. V. 

Giddings, F. H., Democracy and Empire, Ch. II. 

Hadley, A. T., Standards of Public Morality. 

Hobson, J. A., Work and Wealth, Chs. I. XI, XIII. 

Kirkpatrick, E. A., Fundamentals of Sociology, Ch. X. 

Knowlson, T. Sharper, Originality. 

Mecklin, J. M., An Introduction to Social Ethics, Ch. XIII. 

Rauschenbusch, Walter, Christianizing the Social Order, 

Part IV. 
Ross, Edward A., Social Control, Chs. XXIV, XXV. 

Sin and Society. 

-Principles of Sociology, Ch. XLVII. 


Sumner, W. G., Folkways. 

Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Chs. XXVI, XXVII. 

Usher, R. G., "The Ethics of Business," Atlantic Monthly, 


Urwick, E. J., A Philosophy of Social Progress, Ch. VI. 
Watson, David, Social Advance, Ch. III. 
Wundt, William, Elements of Folk Psychology, Ch. II, Sect. 



Aschaffenburg, G., Crime and its Repression. 

Barnett, Mary, Young Delinquents. 

Barrows, I. C., A Sunny Life. 

Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part V. 

Breckinridge, S., and Edith Abbott, The Delinquent Child 

and the Home. 
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Chs. XXIII, XXV, 


Eliot, T. D., The Juvenile Court and the Community. 
Ellwood, C. A., Sociology and Modern Social Problems (1919 

edition), Ch. XIV. 
George, W. R., The Junior Republic. 
Hayes, E. C., Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Part 

Henderson, C. R., The Cause and Cure of Crime. 

Penal and Reformatory Institutions. 

Lombroso, C., Crime, Its Causes and Remedies. 

Osborne, T. M., Society and Prisons. 

Parmelee, Maurice, Criminology. 

Ross, Edward A., Sin and Society. 

Wines, F. H., Punishment and Reformation (1919 edition). 



Attlee, C. R., The Social Worker. 

Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part VI. 

Bogardus, Emory S., A History of Social Thought, Ch. 

Burgess, E. W., "The Social Survey," Amer. Jour, of Soci- 
ology, XXI: 492-500. 

Cabot, Richard C., Social Work. 

Carver, T. N., (compiler), Essays in Social Justice, Chs. 

Chapin, F. Stuart, Field Work and Social Research. 

Clow, F. R., Principles of Sociology with Educational Appli- 

Devine, E. T., Social Work. 

Devine, E. T., and Mary Van Kleeck, Positions in Social 

Elmer, M. C., The Technique of Social Surveys. 

Giddings, F. H., Inductive Sociology, Book II, Part IV. 

Readings in Descriptive and Historical Sociology, 

Book II, Part IV. 

Kirkpatrick, E. A., Fundamentals of Sociology, Ch. XX. 

Richmond, Mary, Social Diagnosis. 

Steiner, J. F., Education for Social Work. 

Todd, A. J., The Scientific Spirit and Social Work. 


Baldwin. J. M., The Individual and Society, Ch. VII. 
Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, Part VII. 


Bogardus, Emory S., A History of Social Thought, Ch. 


Essentials of Social Psychology, Ch. XV. 

Clow, F. R., Principles of Sociology with Educational Appli- 
cations, Ch. XV. 

Cooley, C. H., Social Process, Ch. XXXVIII. 
Dealey, J. Q., Sociology (1920 edition), Ch. XXII, XXX. 
Ellwood, C. A., Sociology in its Psychological Aspects, Chs. 


Introduction to Social Psychology, Ch. XIII. 

Fairchild, H. P., Outline of Applied Sociology, Ch. XX. 
Giddings, F. H., Elements of Sociology, Chs. XXIII, XXV. 
Howard, George Elliott, "Sociology, its Critics and its 

Fruits," Journal of Applied Sociology, April, 1922, 

pp. 1-14. 

Kelsey, Carl, The Physical Basis of Society, Ch. XXI. 
Maclver, R. M., Community, Book III. 
Todd, A. J., Theories of Social Progress, Chs. XXXIII, 


Urwick, E. J., A Philosophy of Social Progress. 
Wallas, Graham, The Great Society. 
Ward, Lester F., Pure Sociology. 
Applied Sociology. 


1. A description of the social life of a primitive tribe. 

2. The origin and development of a given social institution. 

3. An analysis of a social group (to which the writer be- 


4. The contrasts between sociology and socialism. 

5. The relation of anthropology to sociology. 

6. The relation of history to sociology. 

7. An example of social progress (full description). 


1. A social study of the Kentucky mountaineers. 

2. The relation of geography to sociology. 

3. The effect of climate and geography on the develop- 

ment of your city. 

4. The geographical distribution of cities. 

5. River valleys as paths of migration and trade. 

6. A social comparison of Tropical peoples and Temperate 


7. A comparative study of Arctic and Tropical peoples. 


1. A study of the Kallikak family. 

2. The history of the eugenics movement. 

3. The contributions of Galton to the science of eugenics. 


4. The social life of earliest man. 

5. The pure food movement in the United States. 

6. The struggle against tuberculosis. 

7. A national department of health. 

8. Public health work (in your city). 


1. Analysis of a given habit. 

2. An analysis of the pugnacious impulses. 

3. Feeble-mindedness as a social factor. 

4. The social meaning of sympathy. 

5. The social significance of habit. 

6. A comparison of imitative and initiative behavior. 

7. A comparison of custom imitation and fashion imita- 


8. A case study of gregariousness. 


1. Description of a specific social attitude. 

2. The evolution of social attitudes in a specific person's 


3. A comparison of the aristocratic attitude and the demo- 

cratic attitude. 

4. Analysis of a given social value. 

5. A case study of social isolation. 

6. The hobo as a study in social isolation. 

7. A study of homesickness as a result of isolation. 

8. A case study of accommodation. 

9. The socialization process in a given child. 


10. Problems of control in a family group. 

11. An analysis of the taming process. 


1. The social superiority of monogamy. 

2. Woman's contributions to social progress. 

3. The primitive family. 

4. The Hebrew family. 

5. Family life among Indian tribes. 

6. Family life in American colonial days. 

7. The nature of feminism. 

8. The home as affected by feminism. 

9. The struggle for equal suffrage in the United States. 
10. Young people's attitudes toward marriage as affected 

by motion picture shows. 


1. Housing problems in your city. 

2. Renting versus owning a home. 

3. The garden city plan of housing. 

4. The Octavia Hill experiments in housing. 

5. Effects of apartment houses upon family life. 

6. The family budget. 

7. Democracy in the home. 

8. The family under socialism. 

9. Federal regulation of divorce. 
10. The need for better marriages. 



1. The playgrounds in your city. 

2. The playground movement in the United States. 

3. The social center movement. 

4. A social analysis of intercollegiate athletics. 

5. Censorship of the motion picture. 

6. The civic theater movement. 

7. The public dance hall as a social problem. 

8. Relation of playgrounds to delinquency. 

9. Social uses of leisure time. 
10 Community recreation. 

11. A recreation program for the family. 


1. The social changes caused by the Industrial Revolution. 

2. The occupations of the Iroquois Indians. 

3. The rise and decline of slavery as a social institution. 

4. The origin of a specific occupation. 

5. Factory legislation. 

6. A study of the newsboy and his trade. 

7. Child labor and legislation. 

8. A living wage for a family of five. 


1. The minimum wage for women. 

2. The National Consumer's League. 

3. The National Woman's Trade Union League. 

4. Problems of organizing women in industry. 


5. Relation of overfatigue to industrial accidents. 

6. A study of a given occupational disease. 

7. Waves of unemployment in the United States. 

8. The Federal labor exchange. 

9. Workmen's compensation. 

10. Prevention of destitution. 

11. The problem of the idle rich. 


1. Social effects of health insurance. 

2. Social effects of guild socialism. 

3. Social effects of syndicalism. 

4. Social effects of bolshevism. 

5. Social effects of capitalism. 

6. Social effects of profitism. 

7. Profiteering. 

8. Industrial democracy. 

9. A program for solving the labor-capital conflict. 


1. A case study of a neighborhood. 

2. The community organization movement. 

3. The social organization of the Iroquois Confederacy. 

4. Social concepts in the Constitution of the United 


5. Social implications of the League of Nations. 

6. Nationalism versus social welfare. 

7. The nature of internationalism. 

8. A proposed world state. 

9. A description of the process of making a citizen. 



1. Social studies in the first grade. 

2. Sociology in the high school. 

3. The work of the visiting teacher. 

4. The socialized recitation. 

5. The endowed newspaper. 

6. A social evaluation of a given newspaper. 

7. Social education through motion pictures. 

8. An original sociological play. 

9. An original social short story. 
10. An original social poem. 


1. The institutional church. 

2. The social service work of a given church. 

3. The church as a social center. 

4. A social service program for the churches. 

5. The relation of sociology to Christianity. 

6. Religious bases of social progress. 

7. The social phases of Christianity. 

8. The relation between the church and labor. 

9. Christian socialism. 

10. The social writings of Rauschenbusch. 

11. Religious education versus revivalism as forms of social 


1. The Grange as a social institution. 


2. Rural leadership. 

3. Rural isolation. 

4. Rural social life. 

5. Social phases of the rural school. 

6. The rural mind. 

7. Urbanization. 

8. A city neighborhood case history. 

9. The urban mind. 

10. Homelessness in cities. 

11. Cities as consumers of population. 


1. Social phases of migrating. 

2. A local race survey. 

3. Causes of race prejudice. 

4. The causes of jynching. 

5. Prevention of lynching. 

6. The Negro's problem in the United States. 

7. The Japanese in California. 

8. The new American race. 

9. Social phases of amalgamation. 
10. Assimilation versus amalgamation. 


1. Repressive group control. 

2. Current forms of taboo. 

3. Stimulative group control. 

4. Methods of creating public opinion. 

5. Public opinion versus law. 


6. Civic esthetics as a form of control. 

7. Social hymns as forms of control. 

8. Battle songs as control forces. 


1. A social study of college honor systems. 

2. Sources of your standards of right and wrong. 

3. Ritual as a means of social control. 

4. Business ethics. 

5. A case study of leadership as a control element. 

6. Social elements in leadership. 

7. The prophet as a leader. 


1. The juvenile court system. 

2. Causes of delinquency among boys. 

3. Causes of delinquency among girls. 

4. The juvenile probation system. 

5. The police as social workers. 

6. The policewoman. 

7. The public defender. 

8. The indeterminate sentence. 

9. The parole system. 

10. The county jail problem. 

11. The theories of Thomas Mott Osborne. 


1. Analysis of the Springfield Survey. 


2. The social survey movement. 

3. The qualifications of a successful social worker. 

4. The qualifications of a successful social reformer. 

5. Social case work versus social reform. 

6. A survey of a city block. 

7. A survey of a rural neighborhood. 

8. A community case history. 


1. Methods of teaching sociology. 

2. The place of sociology in education. 

3. The sociological viewpoint. 

4. The values in studying sociology. 

5. The field of applied sociology. 

6. The contributions of a given sociologist. 

7. The origins of sociology. 

8. Analysis of sociology journals. 

9. The main tasks of sociology. 


Absolute monarchy, 240. 

Accommodation, 103 ff. 

Acquisitiveness, 76. 

Adaptation, 104. 

Addams, Jane, 158. 

Agriculture, 182. 

Alcoholism, 60, 167, 209, 370. 

Alphabet, the, 89, 90. 

Amalgamation, 319. 

Americanization, 261. 

American families, 131. 

American Federation of Labor, 187. 

Amusements, 176. 

Ancestor worship, 116. 

Andrews, John B, 204. 

Animal groups, 19. 

Architecture, 340. 

Aristocracy, 251. 

Art, 338 ff. 345. 

Assimilation, 107 ff, 319 ff. 

Associations, 16, 52, 413. 

Attitudes, 41, 153, 167, 184, 192, 

Attitudes, personal, 22, 107, 390. 
Attitudes, social, 94 ff. 
Auburn State Prison, 378. 

Bacteria, 63. 
Beccaria, 376. 
Behavior, personal, 20 ff. 
Behavior, socialized, 20. 
Biologic influences, 52 ff., 412. 
Biological evolution, 56 ff. 
Bismarck, 104. 
Boarding houses, 131. 
Bolshevism, 223. 
Booth, Charles, 394. 
British Labor Party, 232. 
Brotherhood, 109. 
Buddhism, 280. 
Business ethics, 257 ff. 
Buyers' strike, the, 229. 

Campbell, G. L., 204. 
Canadianization, 325. 
Capital, 213. 

Causes of child labor, 192. 
Characters, biological, 53. 
Child labor, 189 ff., 211, 254. 
Christianity, 118, 251, 281. 
Churches, 171, 276, 286. 
Cinema, 263 ff. 
Cities, 304 ff. 
Citizenship, 251. 
City state, 239. 
Civilization, 268, 310, 340. 
Class struggle, the, 217. 
Classes, privileged, 104, 208 ff. 
Classes, vitality, 72. 
Climate, influence of, 44 ff. 
Coercion, 335. 
College life, 257. 
Commercialization, 158, 265. 
Communication, 86 ff. 
Community case history, 394. 
Community groups, 232. 
Community recreation, 234. 
Community spirit, 58, 244, 394. 
Competition, 102. 
Comte, Auguste, 414. 
Conflict, 101 ff. 
Conflict between man and nature, 


Conscious reactions, 97. 
Conservation of natural resources, 

37, 38, 402. 
Conservatism, 42, 287. 
Constitutional monarchy, 240. 
Consumers' co-operation, 225. 
Continuation schools, 260. 
Control, 79, 329 ff, 348 ff. 
Control, parental, 115, 330. 
Control, public health, 62 ff. 
Control, social, 79, 173, 329 ff. 
Cooley, Charles H., 277. 
Co-operation, 57, 101, 105 ff. 



Corporate business, 213. 
County jail, 383 ff. 
Courtship, 112. 
Crime, 140. 
Crises, 332. 
Curiosity, 258, 269. 
Custom imitation, 82. 
Customs, 191, 352. 


Dana, Charles A., 265. 

Dance hall, the, 160. 

Dance, the, 342. 

Davis, Jr., M. M, 157, 162. 

Decadence, social 117. 

Delinquency, 386 ff., 406. 

Democracy, 226, 240, 250, 421. 

Desert region, 36. 

Devine, E. T., 166. 

Dewey, John, 155. 

Direct action, 222. 

Distribution of immigrants, 322. 

Divorce, 116 ff., 126 ff. 

Double standards, 147. 

Drives, psychological, 76 ff., 94 ff. 

Dysgenic factors, 61. 


Earth as man's home, 33. 
Eastern civilization, 248. 
Edison, Thomas A., 21. 
Education, 73, 149, 256 ff., 267, 

268, 272. 

Ellwood, Charles A, 247. 
Elmira reformatory, 379. 
Emotions, 77. 
Engels, 394. 
Epidemics, 65. 
Ethical dualism, 354. 
Eugenics, 58 ff. 


Fabian socialists, 218. 
Factory system, 186, 193. 
Family, the, 112, 351, 403. 
Fashion imitation, 83. 
Fatigue, 198 ff. 
Feeble-mindedness, 59. 

Feelings, 77. 
Feudal state, 239. 
Feuds, 42, 233. 
Fiske, John, 154. 
Followership, 362. 
Food supply, 70. 

Galton, Francis, 58. 
Galsworthy, John, 418. 
Genius, 56, 86. 
Gesture, 88. 

Geographic influences, 33. 
Giddings, Franklin H., 72. 
God, kingdom of, 284. 
Godfrey, Hollis, 70. 
Gorgas, W. C., 68. 
Government control, 215, 237, 252. 
Greeley, Horace, 265. 
Gregariousness, 76, 86 ff., 91 ff., 


Grosse, 155, 346. 
Grotius, 245. 

Group control, 67, 97, 329 ff., 390. 
Group co-operation, 18. 
Group conflicts, 17. 
Group heritage, 21. 
Group influences, 20, 97. 
Group leadership, 362. 
Group organization, 237. 
Group overlapping, 18. 
Group permanence, 39. 
Group phenomena, 15. 
Group progress, 393 ff. 
Group stagnation, 22. 
Group stimulation, 21, 22. 
Group, nature of, 15 ff. 
Guild socialism, 221. 


Habitual reactions, 78 ff., 91. 
Hague Tribunal 244. 
Hansen, George, 72. 
Health, 61 ff., 314, 403. 
Hebrew family, 115. 
Henderson, Charles R., 227, 253. 
Heredity, 52 ff. 
Heritage, social, 21, 95. 
High school sociology, 410. 


History of human groups, 24. 

History of the family, 113. 

Hoe-culture, 181. 

Holland, 40. 

Home attitudes, 184, 306. 

Home recreation, 174. 

Horde, the, 238. 

Housing problem, 136 ff, 314. 

Howard, George Elliott, 133. 

Howard, John, 376 ff. 

Howe, F. C, 156. 

Human association, 19. 

Humanitarianism, 251. 

Humidity, 45. 

Huntingdon, Ellsworth, 45, 46. 

Hypocrisy, 288. 

Jails, 377, 383. 

Japanese in California, 318 ff. 
Jesus, teachings of, 283. 
Judaism, 283. 

ury system, 375. 

ustice, 218, 334. 

uvenile court, 387. 

uvenile delinquency, 386 ff. 

King, W. I., 208. 
Kingdom of God, 284. 

Ideas of permanence, 34. 

Idle rich, 207. 

Ignorance, 142, 191, 356. 

Imitation, 80 ff. 

Immigrant groups, 261, 311 ff., 

319 ff. 

Immorality, sex, 145. 
Income tax, 253. 
Independence, 297, 307. 
Indeterminate sentence, 382. 
Individualism, 129, 221, 349. 
Industrial accidents, 203, 240. 
Industrial democracy, 226. 
Industrial education, 260. 
Industrial revolution, 183. 
Industry, modern, 124, 130, 313, 


Influence of groups, 20. 
Instinctive impulses, 75 ff. 
Insurance, social, 404. 
Intellectual method, 272. 
Intemperance, 209. 
Interaction, 100 ff. 
International law, 245. 
Invention, 28, 43, 79, 85 ff., 180, 


Iron age, 28. 
Iroquois Indians, 114. 
Isle of man, 40. 
Isolation, 99 ff, 114, 295, 314. 

Labor-capital conflict, the, 228. 
Labor conditions, 184 ff. 
Laboratory of sociology students, 


Land area, influence of, 39 ff. 
Land speculation, 139, 183. 
Language, 88. 
Law, 96, 334 ff. 
Leadership, 105, 360 ff. 
League of Nations, 246. 
Legal Aid Society, 374. 
Legislation, 149, 193, 202. 
Lincoln, Abraham, 189. 
Lodgers, 140. 
Los Angeles, 164. 
Love, 284. 
Luxuries, 132. 368. 
Lynching, 317. 


Malaria, 66. 

Marett, R. R., 27. 

Marriage, 59, 116, 121 ff., 129 ff. 

Marxianism, 217. 

Mason, 0. T., 28. 

McClean, Harry J, 385. 

Mechanisms, psychological, 76, 94 

ff. ' 

Mendelian laws, 54. 
Merit, 84. 

Metronymic family, 114. 
Middle ages, 294. 



Migration, 47, 309 ff. 

Milk supply,70. 

Mohammedanism, 278. 

Monarchy, 240. 

Monogamy, 122 ff. 

Monopoly, 221. 

Mores, 332. 

Mothers' pensions, 125. 

Motion pictures, 162 ff., 263 ff. 

Mountain barriers, 41. 

Mountain environments, 40 ff. 

Mountain industries, 41. 

Music, 343. 

Mutation, 55, 56. 


Nation groups, 235 ff., 331. 
Nationalism, 254, 308, 356. 
Naturalization, 319. 
Negroes, 315. 
Neighborhood group, 232. 
Neolithic age, 27. 
Neurasthenia, 200. 
New York City, 159, 162, 397. 
Newspaper, the, 263 ff., 345. 
Nitobe, Inazo, 249. 

Occupational diseases, 68, 204 ff. 
Ocean boundaries, 43 ff. 
Offenders, 372. 
Old Testament, 115. 
Opinion, 352. 
Organic evolution, 56 ff. 
Organization, 105. 
Orientalism, 248. 
Original nature, 92, 108. 
Osborne, T. M., 380. 
Overcrowding, 137, ff. 
Over-organization, 106. 

Painting, 341. 
Paleolithic Age, 26. 
Parental control, 115, 330, 371. 
Parks, 171. 

Parole, 383. 

Pathogenic bacteria, 63. 

Patronymic family, 114, 44. 

Patten, S. N., 158. 

Pensions for mothers, 105. 

Personal attitudes, 22. 

Personal behavior, 20 ff., 348 ff., 


Personal control, 348 ff., 366 ff. 
Personality, 16, 23, 29, 416. 
Pittsburg Survey, 393. 
Plato, 39. 

Play attitudes, 167. 
Play groups, 153 ff. 
Playground movement, the, 168. 
Poetry, 271, 343. 
Policemen, 372. 
Policewomen, 373. 
Political parties, 241. 
Polyandry, 121. 
Polygyny, 121. 
Polytheism, 279. 
Pooling, 214. 
Population, 367. 
Poverty, 148, 209, 367. 
Prayer, 279. 

Prehistoric remains of man, 25 ff. 
Prejudice, racial, 315. 
Preventive eugenics, 60. 
Primitive groups, 278. 
Primitive man, 24. 
Prison farm, 282. 
Prison labor. 380 ff. 
Probation, 343, 386. 
Process, educational, 269, 274. 
Process, the social, 98. 
Producers' co-operation, 
Profession, a, 185, 351. 
Profit sharing, 225. 
Profiteering, 228. 
Profitism, 219. 
Progress, examples of, 29. 
Property, 116. 
Prose, 271. 

Psychologic factors, 75 ff. 
Public defender, 374. 
Public health, 60 ff. 
Public opinion, 59, 95, 332 ff. 
Public speaking, 345. 
Punishment, 242, 375 ff. 
Pure food, 72. 



Racial conflicts, 315. 

Racial groups, 309 if. 

Rainfall, 45. 

Rainwater, Clarence E., 168. 

Rational imitation, 84. 

Recreation, 103 ff. 

Reform, 372. 

Reformation, 380 ff. 

Regression, law of, 54. 

Religion, 36, 42, 239, 243. 

Religious dynamic, 286, 390. 

Religious groups, 276, 331. 

Rent, high, 139. 

Renaissance, 119. 

Retaliation, 376. 

Ritual, 333. 

Rivers, 43. 

River valley, 35. 

Root, Elihu, 252. 

Ross, Edward A., 82, 266, 336. 

Rural church, 300. 

Rural group, 294 ff. 

Rural mind, the. 295. 

Rural school, 300. 

Rural sociology, 302. 

Ruskin, 143. 

Russia, 40. 

Sabotage, 222. 

Schools, 170, 321, 360. 

School groups, 256. 

Sculpture, 341. 

Self consciousness, 350. 

Selfish nature, 108 ff. 

Semple, Ellen C., 35, 39, 41, 42, 48. 

Service, 263. 

Settlements, social, 171. 

Sex education, 259. 

Sex immorality, 145. 

Sex nature, 370. 

Slavery, 182. 

Small areas, 39. 

Sociologized behavior, 20. 

Socialized education. 262. 

Socialized family, 144 ff. 

Socialized play, 168. 

Socialized newspaper, 266. 

Socialized religion, 286 ff., 292. 

Social attitudes, 94 ff. 

Social case work, 399. 

Social control, 107 ff., 173. 

Social decadence, 117. 

Social evolution, 56 ff., 92. 

Social groups, 15, 30. 

Social heritage, 21, 271. 

Social hymns, 344. 

Social institutions, 110, 113. 

Social insurance, 224 ff., 404. 

Social integration, 42. 

Social legislation, 253. 

Social nature, 108. 

Social principles of Christianity, 


Social process, the, 98. 
Social progress, 29. 
Social reform, 297 ff. 
Social research, 397. 
Social service, 289 ff., 336. 
Social settlements, 171. 
Social situations, 94, 157. 
Social surveys, 393, ff. 
Social telesis, 402 ff. 
Social values, 94 ff. 
Social work, 397 ff., 420. 
Socialism, 215 ff. 
Socialization, 107 ff. 
Sociology, definition of, 15, 19, 20, 


Sociology, science of, 411. 
Sociology, teaching of, 408 ff. 
Soil fertility, 34 ff. 
Speculation in land, 139. 
Spencer, Herbert, 154, 415. 
Spiritual environment, 272. 
Stoddart, Bessie, 175. 
Suggestion, 268. 
Syndicalism, 222. 

Taboo, 333. 
Tagore, 247. 
Tarde, Gabriel, 82. 
Taxation, 253. 

Teaching of sociology, 408 ff. 
Temperature, annual, 45. 
Temperate zone, 48. 
Tenements, 131, 140. 



Theaters, 161. 
Thomas, W. I., 198. 
Traditions, 92. 
Transportation, 143. 
Tropics, 48. 
Trusts, the, 214. 
Tuberculosis, 60, 66. 
Typhoid fever, 65. 


Unchastity, 146. 
Unemployment, 205 ff. 
Union labor, 184, 187, 323. 
Unselfish service, 263, 359. 
United States, the, 127, 133, U6, 

146, 154, 165, 201, 208, 258, 

303, 315, 324, 385. 
Urban groups, 303 ff. 

Values, social, 94. 
Van Kleeck, Mary, 201. 
Variability, biological, 56. 
Variation, biological, 55. 
Veiller, Lawrence, 141. 
Venereal disease, 60, 146. 
Village,' 235. 

Visiting teachers, the, 261. 
Vitality, 58 ff. 
Vocational guidance, 260. 
Volitional activity, 80. 


Ward, Harry F., 289 ff. 

Ward, Lester F., 411, 415. 

Washington, Booker T., 316. 

Washington Conference, the 246. 

Watson, David, 285. 

Wealth, influence of, 120, 358. 

Webb, Sidney, 207. 

Welfare work, 227. 

Western civilization, 129, 144, 247. 

Wilson, Woodrow, 244. 

Women, 117, 130. 

Women in industry, 199 ff. 

Woodworth, R. S., 76. 

World group, the, 243. 

World War, the, 83, 97, 166, 226, 

321, 416. 
Work, 351. 

Yarros, V. S., 188, 266. 
Yellow fever, 66. 


>. ft. 

0- 29 1929 

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