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Full text of "Investigation of the award by the Fund for the Republic, inc., Plymouth Meeting, Pa. Hearing"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF THE AWARD BY 
THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

(PLYMOUTH MEETING, PA.) 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

COMMIITEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIYES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JULY IS, 1956 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
83005 WASHINGTON : 1956 

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 
FRANCIS B. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VBLDE, lUInois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, JR., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERBR, Ohio 

RiCHABD Abbns, Director 
U 



CONTENTS 



July 18, 1956 : Testimony of — Page 

Maureen Black Ogden 5457 

Afternoon Session : 

Isaac J. Sheppard 5484 

Henry Hemsley 5494 

Judge George C. Corson 5503 

Emily Livezey Crawford 5510 

Lillian Tapley (Mrs. Paul Tapley) 5514 

Index i 

nz 



r Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

i 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress (1946), chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121, STANDING COMMITTEES 

****** 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
****** 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attaciJS 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerlv of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress : 
******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWEES AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diifusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in; 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to thei 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American' 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times- 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, hasi 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any; 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person' 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



mi 



INVESTIGATION OF THE AWARD BY THE FUND FOR 
THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

(Plymouth Meeting, Pa.) 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 18, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activties, 

Philadel'phia^ Pa. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, in District Court Room No. 5, United States Court- 
house, Philadelphia, Pa., Hon. Francis E. Walter, chairman, pre- 
siding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter, 
of Pennsylvania, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, director, W. Jackson Jones, 
K. Baarslag, Richard S. Weil, and Mrs, Dolores Scotti. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

The committee wishes to examine another aspect in connection with 
the activity of the Fund for the Republic, whose largess in this instance 
has reached into the Philadelphia area. The committee wishes to 
know more about the factors which prompted the Fund for the Repub- 
lic to consider the retention of a Communist, a defense of "democratic 
principles" worth $5,000 of its tax-exempt money. 

The Communists and their dupes will undoubtedly try to distort our 
inc^uiry into appearing as an interference with the great freedom of 
religion. I want to emphasize at this time that the committee is not 
interested in inquiring into any of the activities of a religious organi- 
zation. Our sole concern is with the seemingly dubious ventures of 
the Fund for the Republic, Inc. 

Call your witness, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Maureen Black, please come forward. 

Kindly remain standing while the chairman administers an oath. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mrs. Ogden. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MES. MAUREEN BLACK OGDEN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, BETHUEL M. WEBSTER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation, 

5457 



5458 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mrs, Ogden. Maureen Black Ogden — I have gotten married since 
you issued the subpena — 59 Lakeview Avenue, Shorthills, N. Y., re- 
searcher for the Fund for the Republic. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena by 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself. 

Mr. Webster. My name is Bethuel M. Webster. I am a lawyer, a 
member of the New York bar. I am counsel to the Fund for the 
Republic. I am also counsel to Mrs. Ogden. 

Just a minute, please. You asked me to identify myself. 

Mr. Arens. To identify yourself ; yes. 

Mr. Webster. I am also counsel to Mrs. William E. Stevenson, a 
director of the Fund for the Republic, who is here, has come here 
from Mexico City, for the purpose of telling the facts about the 
Plymouth Meeting Award. 

I request, Mr. Chairman, an opportunity for her to be heard. 

The Chairman. We will hear Mrs. Stevenson in due course, but it 
doesn't fit into the program arranged for today. I understand that 
the House of Representatives will vote tomorrow on a very important 
bill, and Mr. Scherer and I are both anxious to be recorded. So these 
hearings will be terminated this afternoon and we will give Mrs. 
Stevenson, as I told you, I think on three occasions, an opportunity 
to be heard. 

Mr. Webster. Mr. Chairman, I want to apologize for raising my 
voice a moment ago. It is not my habit to raise my voice. I did so 
only because there was a good deal of noise in the room. 

Mrs. Stevenson is a responsible person. She is the director 

The Chairman. I don't doubt that for a moment. 

Mr. Webster. I want to explain in connection with my representa- 
tion of Mrs. Ogden that Mrs. Ogden is a respected and valued 
employee 

The Chairman. You don't have to explain. 

Mr. Webster. But she is not 

The Chairman. No lawyer ever explains representing a client. 

Mr. Webster. The board of the Fund made this award, Mr. Chair- 
man, and I respectfully implore you to hear Mrs. Stevenson today. 

The Chairman. No; we will be unable to hear her today because 
it doesn't fit into the program, Mr. Webster. We are going to conduct 
this according to our plans, and that does not fit into the plans. 

Mr. Webster. Mr. Chairman, as you know, we have repeatedly 
asked for an opportunity, an equal opportunity, to be heard. 

The Chairman. And I have told you repeatedly, and I told direc- 
tors of the Fund repeatedly, that they are going to be heard. 

Mr. Webster. But j^ou have only called 

The Chairman. We are conducting this inquiry our way. 

Mr. Webster. I understand that you are, sir ; but I implore you to 
give the witnesses for the Fund for the Republic, the board and the 
officers, an opportunity to be heard. 

The Chairman. I will be delighted to, and I am sure that some of 
them have already talked to me about being heard, and we are talking 
about arrangements for them. 



AWARD BY THE FT'XI) F01{ THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5459 

Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arkxs. Mrs. Ogdeii, you are an employee of the Fund for the 
Republic. That is clear on this record ; is it not ? 

Mrs. Ogden. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. The subpena which was served npon you is a subpena 
duces tecum, as we say in the law, requiring you to produce certain 
documents. Do you have in your custod}' and control the documents 
which were referred to in the subpena? 

Mrs. Ogden. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Where are those documents? 

Mr. "Webster. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. You advise your client, ]Mr. Webster. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us where those documents are, those referred 
to in the subpena. 

Mr. Webster. As far as you know, I have them. 

Mrs. Ogden. I believe Mr. Webster has them because I have no 
leofal responsibility for them. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have those documents at the time the subpena 
was served upon you? 

Mrs. Ogden. No, I don't have any control of the documents. 

Mr. Webster. Mr. Chairman, I must explain 

The Chairman. Mr. Webster, please sit down. 

Mr. Webster. INIr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Will you please sit down ? 

Mr. Webster. I have the documents here, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Let Mr. Arens conduct this examination. 

Mr. Webster. Mrs. Ogden is not the secretary of the Fund for the 
Republic. She is not an officer of the Fund for the Republic. 

The Chairman. We will develop all that. Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Webster. I have not only given Mr, Arens all the information 
he has asked for— I have now produced the documents. 

The Chairman. All right, fine. 

Mr. Webster. ]Mrs. Ogden is not in possession of the documents, 
Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Please give them to her. 

Mr. Arens. If you will kindly restrain yourself I will interrogate 
the witness. 

Mr. Websit-r. She is not authorized to deal with these documents for 
the Fund for the Republic. 

Mr. Arens. ]Mrs. Ogden, did you yourself prepare certain of these 
documents which are referred to in the subpena duces tecum ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I prepared a report after a trip down to Plymouth 
Meeting and examining other documents ; that is right. 

Mr. Arens. To wliom did you submit those documents? 

Mrs. Ogden. I submitted my report to David F. Freeman, who was 
then secretary of the Fund for the Republic. 

Mr. Webster. Mr. Chairman, may I submit a cop}'' of the re])ort 
that Mr. Arens just asked about. 

The Chairman. No ; we wall get around to that. 

Mr. Arens. We Avill develop that in due course, Mr. Webster. 
Kindly restrain yourself. 

Mr. Webster. Mr. Arens, I hope I am restrained. 

83005—56 2 



5460 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

* 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Ogden, what other documents did you have in your 
custody and control other than the report which you prepared ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I saw Mr. Sprogell's memorandum. I was given Mr. 
Sprogell's memorandum and told to read it and go down to Plymouth 
Meeting and check the veracity of it, which I did. 

Mr. Webster. Mr. Arens, I am sure you don't mind _ 

The Chairman. Mr. Webster, in a court of law, if I did what you 
are doing here now, I would be fined for contempt of court. Now 
please sit down. 

Mr. Webster. In a court of law, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. You have been in the practice of the law long 
enough to know just exactly proper courtroom deportment. 

Mr. Webster. This is not a courtroom. 

The Chairman. I know that. 

Mr. Webster. I regret to say this is not a courtroom. The documents 
referred to were submitted to you weeks ago. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Ogden, would you kindly tell the committee 
whether or not you have caused to be transmitted to your counsel any 
of the documents which were in your custody and control and alluded 
to in the subpena ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I don't have to transmit them because they never were 
in my custody and control, because, as I understand it, when I sub- 
mitted the report to Mr. Freeman it then became a Fund document, 
and I am not the secretary of the Fund for the Republic. 

The Chairman. Does your counsel to your knowledge have in his 
possession this morning the documents called for in the subpena 
duces tecum ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Yes. 

The Chairman. Will counsel kindly produce the documents ? 

Mr. Webster. Mr. Chairman, as counsel for the Fund, I produce the 
papers called for in the subpena duces tecum served on Mrs. Ogden. 

The Chairman. I think the record will show that without your 
stating it. 

Mr. Webster. It won't do any harm to say it again. 

The Chairman. I know. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. 

How do you spell your name, Mrs. Ogden ? 

Mrs. Ogden. 0-g-d-e-n. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, a brief sketch of your educational 
background. 

Mrs. Ogden. I was graduated from Kent Place School in Summit, 
N. J., in 1946, from Smith College with a bachelor of arts in 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us of your employment record since com- 
pletion of your formal education. 

Mrs. Ogden. I started working at the Ford Foundation in either 
January or February of 1951. I went to work for the Fund for the 
Republic May 1, 1953, on a 1-year leave of absence from the Ford 
Foundation and in 1954 I assumed that my employment with the 
Fund for the Republic became permanent. 

Mr. Arens. Were you assigned to investigate the facts surrounding 
the emj)loyment of Mary Knowles as a librarian in the William Jeanes 
Memorial Library at Plymouth Meeting, Pa. ? 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5461 

Mrs. Ogden. No; I wasn't supposed to investigate the facts con- 
cerning her employment. I was supposed to investigate the story as 
presented in Harry Sprogell's memorandum of — what is the date, 
Mr. Webster? I think we received it in April of 1955. There isn't 
any date on it. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you, please, the document entitled "Memo- 
randum: Plymouth Monthly Meeting," and ask you if that is the 
Sprogell memorandum or document to which you have just alluded. 

Mr. Webster. We have a copy of that. 

Mrs. Ogden. Yes ; it certainly seems to be. 

Mr. Webster. Just a moment. I just want to be sure. There are 
some pencil notes, Mr. Chairman, on this and I just want to know 
whether or not Mr. Arens has asked Mrs. Ogden to identify those notes 
as well as the typewritten document. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Webster. May I ask if the notes 

Mrs. OoDEK. I don't believe those are my notes. Those are not my 
handwriting. 

INIr. Webster. The witness says those are not her notes, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

]\Ir. Arens. Will you kindly tell the committee just what were your 
specific instructions ? 

]Mrs. Ogden. I was given this memorandum by Mr. Sprogell 

Mr. Arens. Pardon the interruption. WTien was that, please ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I guess it was the last week of April of 1955, because 
I went to Plymouth Meeting on May 2, 1955. I was told to go down 
to Plymouth Meeting and to check this memorandum and see that it 
correctly stated the case. 

Mr. Arens. To check whether or not the memorandum, the Sprogell 
memorandum, we will call it, correctly stated the facts ? 

JNIrs. Ogden. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this Sprogell 
memorandum, which has been identified by Mrs. Ogden, be marked 
"Ogden Exhibit No. 1" and incorporated in the record. 

The Chairman. Mark it and incorporate it in its entirety in the 
body of this record. 

Ogden Exhibit No. 1 

Speogell Memokandum : Plymouth Monthly Meeting 

Plymouth Monthly Meeting, located at Plymouth Meeting, Pa., is one of the 
con.stituent bodies of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of Friends commonly called 
Quakers. The Meeting is in a situation of a conspicuous target of public criticism 
and of potential serious financial embarrassment because it has taken and main- 
tained a position likely to encourage civil liberty. 

Some 20 years ago the Meeting was the recipient of a bequest of considerable 
size to establish and maintain a free public library. With part of the money a 
small library building was erected on the Meeting grounds ; an endowment was 
created with the remainder. The care of the library was entrusted to a com- 
mittee of members appointed annually by the Meeting. 

During the late years of the depression the endowment fund shrank substan- 
tially and it became necessary to find other annual funds if the library was to be 
preserved. This was done in two ways : An organization known as Friends of 
the Jeanes Library (the benefactor had been named Jeanes) was formed and 
funds were obtained by annual appropriation from Plymouth Township (the local 
governmental unit) and Whitemarsh Township adjoining. Each of these con- 
tributed $500 annually and the School Districts of Plymouth and Whitemarsh 



5462 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Townships each contributed $200 annually. As a condition to obtaining public 
funds two representatives designated by the Supervisors of Plymouth Township 
were added to the committee. 

In 1953 the Library Committee, seeking a temporary librarian because of illness 
of its permanent employee, received an application from Mary Knowles, a fully 
qualified librarian. Mrs. Knowles had been a .secretary at the Samuel Adams 
School in the suburbs of Boston from 1945 to 1947. She had then taken employ- 
ment as librarian in a Massachusetts commimity. While she was employed there 
Herbert Philbrick gave testimony concerning her before the Jenner Committee. 
It is generally assumed that he testified that she had been a member of the Com- 
munist Party while at the Samuel Adams School. The governing body of the 
Library where Mrs. Knowles was employed asked the Jenuer Committee to call 
her before it to "clear her name," but when she was summoned to a public hearing 
she declined answering questions, pleading the Fifth Amendment. She also 
declined a loyalty oath which was required of her by Massachusetts law. She 
was thereupon fired, it is believed in about 1952, and was unable to obtain employ- 
ment elsewhere because she disclosed these facts frankly to all prospective 
employers. 

When she applied to the Meeting, disclosing these facts as was her custom, 
the Meeting conducted a careful investigation into her conduct since 1947, 
obtained from her a written statement that she had not been a member of any 
subversive organization since 1947 (she also gave this statement later in no- 
tarized form), found that she was a fully qualified librarian whose conduct had 
been irreproachable since 1947, concluded that such a person should not be 
denied the opportunity of rehabilitation, and hired her. Her employment has 
since been made permanent. 

Ever since that time the Meeting has been the object of repeated onslaughts 
by a small deternained group in the community whose object is to compel the 
Meeting to dismiss Mrs. Knowles. One of the public representatives on the 
committee first tendered Mrs. Knowles a Pennsylvania loyalty oath which she 
declined and then arranged to have discontinued the contribution by the 
Plymouth Supervisors. The Whitemarsh appropriation due in July 1954, was 
paid before the unroar began l)ut it is expected will not be renewed. The 
School Directors of Plymovith and Whitemarsh Townships have withdrawn all 
school children from using the library (classes have visited the library in the 
past for instruction in the use of reference works) and it is supposed will not 
renew their contributions. The estimated annual loss from these sources will 
be $1,400. 

An energetic member of the community has formed a de facto organization 
called "Americans Alerted" and has deluged the community with press releases, 
mimeographed mailing pieces, sultscriptions to Facts Forum and the American 
Mercury, reprints from those magazines and private letters in great volume. She 
has arranged to have the American Legion and the DAR pass resolutions re- 
questing the removal of the librarian. She has presented petitions to the Meet- 
ing asking that the librarian t.e removed. She has urged members of the 
community to dissociate themselves from Friends of the .Teanes Library Associa- 
tion in order to put economic pressure upon the Meeting. Her latest attack 
upon the problem is to attempt to persuade the community that the librarian's 
incumbency is not the choice of the Meeting itself but of certain willful mem- 
bers of the Library Committee who are assertedly forcing their will upon the 
other members — in short the present form of her effort is to disunite the Meeting 
itself. 

Actually, the circulation of the library has increased largely but there has 
been some falling oft of contributions and the Meeting and its committee are 
.somewhat at a h^ss to know how the operation of the library is to be continued. 
Neither is it entirely certain at the moment whether the issue of the librarian's 
continuing is fully settled. There are some members of the Meeting who have 
supported the Committee's stand on principle but if this stand should cause the 
closing of the library because of shortage of funds it is conceivable that these 
members might take the position that the principles involved in keeping the 
library open to the public were more important than the principles involved in 
rehabilitating an individual suspected by .some in the community. 

A file of the newspaper articles, mimeographed releases and letters to the 
editor which have appeared can be made available for inspection. The Meet- 
ing has defended its position clearly and with dignity taking the stand that the 
librarian is entitled to be judged on her loyalty by her actions and present 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5463 

dc'clarutious and nut by past association nor by any specific test such as an 
elaborate loyalty oath. The attaclis upon this position have become steadily 
more intemperate and are being directed more and more at the Meeting itself 
and at certain of its members. 

Mr. Arens. Were you given any specific instruction in addition to 
tlie instruction you liave just stated, that you were to check on the 
accuracy of the facts portrayed in Ogden Exhibit No. 1 ? 

Mrs. Ogdex. Specific instructions from whom ? You mean someone 
in the Fund^ 

Mr. Arexs. Who gave you your instructions in the Fund ? 

Mrs. Ogden. David Freeman. 

Mr. Arens. Was he your immediate superior in the Fund ? 

Mrs. Ogden. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What position did he occupy ? 

Mrs. Ogden. He was then the secretary of the Fund. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell the committee, in your own words, what 
you did after you received your instructions from the Fund. 

Mrs. Ogdex. In addition to the instructions from Mr. Freeman he 
had received a letter from Mr. M. Albert Linton, who is a director of 
the Fund for the Republic, chairman of the board of the Provident 
Mutual Life Insurance, suggesting that when someone went down 
to Plymouth Meeting to check on this memorandum, they speak to 
John Archibald, Irvin Poley, of the Germantown Friends School, 
and Fred.Gloeckner. So I called up Mr. Poley and he said I should 
certainly see John Archibald who was tlie Clerk of the ^Meeting. He 
said — I believe it was he who said — ''Don't bother to go see Mr. Gloeck- 
ner because he would only tell you the side of the library committee 
more enthusiastically than most." He said to see a Mr. Evans in a 
law firm in Philadelphia because one of his associates had made an im- 
partial study of the case, and this associate was Mr. Philip Bregy; 
only it developed he had not made the impartial study. 

Mr. Arens. How many days ? 

Mrs. Ogden. He hadn't made any. 

Mr. Arens. How many days '? 

Mr. Webster. Did you get that correction ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Before I went down 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. You go right ahead. 

Mrs. Ogden. I also talked to Richard Bennett, of the community 
relations program of the American Friends Service Committee. I 
believe he lives near Plymouth Meeting. He told me what he knew 
of the situation. I also spoke to Frank Loescher, who attends the 
Friends meeting at the city of Radnor, Pa., because he was a consultant 
to the Fund for the Republic. However, he didn't have anything fur- 
ther to add to the memorandum of Mr, Sprogell. 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt to clear the record? Are these con- 
versations you are recounting noAv, conversations which transpired 
prior to the time that you actually ari-ived ? 

Mrs. Ogdex. Prior to my going to Plymouth Meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mrs. Ogdex. So when I went down first to Philadelphia on INIon- 
day. May 2, 1955, 1 spoke to ^Iv. l^i-egy, who was the one who was sup- 
posed to have made an impartial study but had not made any study at 
all, and he told me that he knew people on both sides of the dispute 
but that he had written a letter to the library committee to say he was 



5464 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

thoroughly in agreement with their stand and that 9 out of 10 people 
in Plymouth Meeting felt as he did. 

Then after I left Mr. Bregy's office I went to see Mr. Sprogell be- 
cause he was the author of the memorandum. He is a Philadelphia 
lawyer. After that I went out to Plymouth Meeting, and I spoke for 
several hours with Mrs. Mary Chappie, who is one of the members of 
the library committee. 

Mr. Arens. You have now arrived at Plymouth Meeting. 

Mrs. Ogden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt for a moment the sequence of your 
recitation. How much time did you spend in the Plymouth Meeting 
area in the course of your investigation ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I actually spent 1 day. However, when I left Plymouth 
Meeting I took with me a complete file which the library committee 
had, which contained all the mimeographed statements that had been 
sent out to the community by Alerted Americans, Mrs. Corson's group. 
It contained all the newspaper articles, specifically a series I think of 
five articles in the Conshohocken Recorder which contained interviews 
with people who were against Mrs. Knowles' being retained as the 
librarian. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in the course of your investigation at Plymouth 
Meeting, have access to the minvites of the library committee ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I believe — no, not all the minutes. I believe that they 
gave me the minutes pertinent to Mrs. Knowles' employment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have access to the minutes of the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting itself, as distinguished from the library committee? 

Mrs. Ogden. No. As I just said, I don't know. I don't believe I 
ever saw all those minutes. I was just interested in seeing the excerpts 
of the minutes which concerned Mrs. Knowles and the library commit- 
tee's stand on her employment. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us with whom you actually conferred, or inter- 
viewed during your investigation. 

Mrs. Ogden. You mean in Plymouth Meeting ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Ogden. I actually talked for several hours to Mrs. Mary 
Chappie, who is a member of the library committee, Mrs. Lillian 
Tapley, who is the chairman of the library committee, Mr. John 
Archibald, the clerk, I talked for a couple of minutes to Mrs. Knowles. 
I spoke to Miss Ambler. I called up Mrs. Corson because I wanted to 
make an appointment with her. She said she couldn't see me that day. 
I believe she said she couldn't see me the next day. She couldn't see 
me for several days, she said. So I asked her if she wanted to make a 
statement about her position, and she said that her organization, 
Alerted Americans, which had approximately 30 people in it 

Mr. Arens. This is Mrs. Corson speaking ? 

Mrs. Ogden. This is Mrs. Corson. 

Had no desire to persecute Mrs. Knowles but she was a security risk 
as defined by President Eisenhower and that she was in a position 

Mr. Webster. I don't believe the chairman is hearing this. 

Mrs. Ogden. And that she was in a position to do harm if she wanted 
to, in a sensitive position to do harm if she wished to. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see Dr. Gloeckner ? Did you talk to her? 

Mrs. Ogden. No, I didn't. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, ENC. 5465 

Fred Gloeckner, I believe is her husband and is the one suggested 
by Mr. Linton, 

Mr. Arens. Did you speak to any one, by telephone other than with 
Mrs. Corson, who was hostile to Mrs. I&iowles ? 

Mrs. Ogden. No. I asked Mrs. Corson who I should see to represent 
her case. I asked her if I should see Mrs. Cooper — I think her name is 
Mrs. Cooper — who I understood was Mrs. Corson's lieutenant. But 
she said no ; she said see Mrs. Sawyer, who was the ex-librarian. 

Mr. Arens. Did 3'ou see or was there displayed to you the letter from 
Isaac Sheppard in which he resigned from the library committee after 
33 years' service? 

Mrs. Ogden. I don't remember whether I saw that letter or not, 
because 

Mr. Arens. Did you ascertain the number of people who were op- 
posed to Mary Knowles' retention ? 

Mrs. Ogden. You mean in the library ? 

Mr. Arens. In your investigation did you ascertain the proportion- 
ate number of people at Plymouth INIeeting who were opposed to Mary 
Knowles ? 

Mrs. Ogden. When you say "Plymouth Meeting," do you mean 
Plymouth jMonthly Meeting or Plymouth Meeting, the community? 

Mr. Arens. Either one or both. Let's take them both. 

Mr. Webster. Is your question the proportion or the number ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you ascertain the number or proportion of people at 
Plymouth Monthly Meeting who had evidenced a disapproval of the 
retention of Mary Knowles as librarian? 

Mrs. Ogden. I knew that there were some people in the Monthly 
Meeting of the Society of Friends, and I gathered from my talks with 
Mrs. Chappie and Mrs. Tapley that it was about half a dozen, or 10, 
or 12 people. 

Mr. Arens. As a matter of fact, over 22 people at the Pl5^mouth 
Monthly Meeting had signed a petition protesting the retention of 
Mary Knowles. Isn't that correct ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Well, I think here we were talking about active mem- 
bers. You see, there is a great difference between people who come to 
regular meetings and those who are members of the Meeting and might 
not even live in Plymouth Meeting any more, who sign petitions, as I 
understand it. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ascertain that a petition with 600 names had 
been submitted, of which 22 were members of the Plymouth Monthly 
Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends, protesting the retention 
of Mary Knowles ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I believe that I read in the mimeographed statement 
of Mrs. Corson's that she had collected a petition in the community of 
approximately 458 names. I don"t know that it said how many mem- 
bers of Plymouth Monthly Meeting, Quaker group, were on that 
petition. 

Mr. Arens. Among these newspaper articles which I understood 
you to say you took back with you in the course of your investigation, 
did you take back with you the article of the Conshohocken — I may not: 
be pronouncing that correctly — Recorder of March 31, 1955 — 

Mr. Webster. The chairman will help you pronounce that. 

Mr. Arens. In which there is set forth an article entitled "463 Sign 
Petition Urging Replacement of Librarian." 



5466 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 



Mrs. Ogden. That is probably where I got 

Mr. Arens. I lay this article before the witness. I ask if you actu- 
ally took that newspaper article back with you. 

Mr. Webster. You don't mind my looking at it, too ; do you ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I assume that this is 

Mr. Webster. Examine it. 

Mrs. Ogden. I will tell you first, Mr. Arens, that this material that I 
had was extremely voluminous, and it took me more than a day to read 
through it. I haven't read through it since May of 1955 : 

The Chairman. May I interrupt at this point. You said you ex- 
amined the pertinent minutes of the meeting. What do you mean by 
the pertinent minutes '( 

Mr. Ogden. I don't think I said pertinent minutes. I think I 
said 

The Chairman. I wrote it down. 

Mrs. Ogden. I said pertinent excerpts from the minutes which the 
library committee gave me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you take back with you the newspaper article 
from the Conshohocken Recorder of March 31, 1955, entitled "463 
Sign Petitions Urging Replacement of Librarian"? Did you take 
that back with j^ou '( 

Mr. Webster. Mr. Chairman, I want to be sure the record is right 
on this. She said she saw pertinent extracts of the minutes relating 
only to the case of Mrs. Knowles. 

The Chairman. Right. That is what this connnittee attempted to 
subpena, and then we were charged with attempting to violate some 
provision of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. AYould you kindly tell us whether or not you actually 
took back with you and reported to the Fund for the Republic, among 
those newspaper clippings that you took, that ai'ticle indicating that 
463 had signed a petition urging the replacemejit of Mary Knowles 
in the library ^ 

Mrs. Ogden. Shall I read it over 'I 

Mr. Arens. If you have a recollection of it, tell us. If 3'ou don't 
have a recollection of it, I would appreciate your just saying you 
don't have a recollection. 

Mrs. Ogden. As I answered a question, a few questions back^I said 
I tliought it was around 460 people that Mrs. Corson had on her peti- 
tion from the community of Plymouth Meeting, so I assume that I 
either got it from the article which is headlined that way or else 
I got it from n mimeogi-aphed statement of Mrs. Corson's. 

Mr. Arens. Did you take back with you the article from the Ambler 
Gazette of March 31, 1955, "468 Ask Library Committee to Discharge 
Mrs. Knowles as William Jeanes Librarian'' ? Did you take that back 
with you? 

Mrs. Ogden. I just can't be sure about these articles, Mr. Arens. I 
mean, there were so many. 

Mr. Arens. I can ap])reciate you might luive difficulty recollect- 
ing the particular article, but do you recall that you took back articles 
of this nature^ 

Mrs. Ogden. Yes ; surely. Of course. 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you another article from this same 
publication, the Conshohocken Recorder of Thursday, December 23, 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5467 

in which the headline reads : "Sheppard Brothers and Henry Hemsley 
Reiterate Their Specific lleasons for liesigning as Friends Library 
Officials." 

Did you take back articles from the newspapers indicating the 
resignation of those gentlemen from the library committee and the 
recitation of their reasons ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I am not sure about this specific article, but I know 
I was aware of why they resigned and that they had resigned and 
what their stands were. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell the committee, if you please, those you 
interviewed in the area who were hostile to the retention of Mary 
Knowles as librarian besides the person with whom you talked on 
the telephone, namely, Mrs. Corson. 

Mrs. Ogden. As I said, in my conversation with Mrs. Corson she 
didn't want me to see Mrs. Cooper, if that is that woman's name, and 
I believe it is. She suggested that I see Mrs. Sawyer. I felt from 
Mrs. Sawyer I would get an opinion and that I was interested in 
getting the facts. My thought when I left Plymouth Meeting at 
the end of being there 1 day was that I would go back to the Funcl for 
the Republic and read all the material that I was taking with me, 
the complete file, and if I had any further questions I would come 
back to Plymouth Meeting to ask them of the proper persons or else, 
if the officers had any questions of me, they would direct me to come 
back. 

Mr. Arens. All of those you interviewed in the Plymouth Meeting 
area, with the exception of Mrs. Corson, were favorable to the retention 
of Mary Knowles in the library ; were they not ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Ogden. The answer to that is "Yes." However, in my judg- 
ment I obtained all the facts I needed to verify Mr. Sprogell's memo- 
randum, which was my job in going to Plymouth Meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have suggested to you the possibility of inter- 
viewing Isaac Sheppard ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Who do you think — I mean who 

Mr. Arens. Isaac Sheppard, who is a lifelong member of the 
Plymouth Meeting, a leading citizen of the community. 

Mrs. Ogden. I know who he is. Who are you inferring should 
have suggested that I see him ? 

Mr. Arens. I was wondering if it was suggested to you in view of 
the investigation that you made, suggested by anyone, that you go see 
Isaac Sheppard, one of the prominent members of the community, 
because he might shed some illuminating light on the Mary Knowles 
matter. 

Mrs. Ogden. No ; I don't recall anyone telling me that. However, 
in my report I state Mr. Sheppard's position and his resignation from 
the library committee. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ascertain that most of the people in the 
Plymouth Monthly Meeting who registered their views were in opposi- 
tion to the retention of Mary Knowles in the library? Did you 
register that in your report ? I haven't, of course, had an opportunity 
to see your report because your counsel just now produced it. 

(The witness conferred witli her counsel.) 

Mrs. Ogden. Are you talking 

83005— 5G 3 



5468 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, ESTC. 

Mr. Webster. By the way, facts are stated on page 4 of this report, 
if the chairman wishes to follow it. 

Mrs. Ogden. Could you repeat the question, please ? 

Mr. Arens. When you made your own report, which you submitted 
to the Fund for the Republic checking on the accuracy of the Sprogell 
memorandum, identified as Ogden Exhibit No. 1, did you in that report 
tell the Fund for the Republic that most of the people in the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting who registered an opinion on the retention of Mary 
Knowles were opposed to the retention of Mary Knowles as librarian ? 

Mrs. Ogden. No. I said that there were some people who were 
against it, but it is not my knowledge to this day that most of the 
people were. 

Mr. Arens. It is your position as of this day that most of the 
people in the Plymouth Monthly Meeting who registered a view on 
the retention of Mary Knowles were favorable to the retention of 
Mary Knowles. Is that correct ? 

Mrs. Ogden. In October of 1954, the October 19 meeting, the mem- 
bers present at that meeting unanimously agreed with the library 
committee's employment of Mrs. Knowles, no opposition, and made 
her permanent. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the temporary employment ? 

Mrs. Ogden. That is permanent employment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you report that? Is that part of the report you 
made to the Fund for the Republic ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I want this record to be absolutely clear on this. Is it 
your position now and was it your position in the submission of your 
report that most of the folks in the Plymouth Monthly Meeting, who 
registered a view on the retention of Mary Knowles, were favorable 
to the retention of Mary Knowles in a permanent capacity? 

Mr. Webster. Just to be fair about it 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question, Mrs. Ogden? 

Mr. Webster, May I ask, Mr. Chairman, if he is referring to the 
meeting of the congregation or the parish or is he referring to the 
community ? 

The Chairman. The question is very clear. 

Mr. Webster. Some of these questions relate to the community. 

Mr. Arens. To the congregation. 

Mrs. Ogden. How do you mean people who registered an opinion ? 
Do you mean actually in writing, wrote a letter, or spoke to people? 

Mr. Arens. Tell us in your own words. I may be confusing you 
here. I don't intend to, I assure you. What did you say to the Fund 
for the Republic as to the attitude or position of the people in the 
congregation toward the retention of Mary Knowles as librarian? 
In essence what did you say to the Fund for the Republic ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I said that the Meeting had taken unanimous action 
to make her employment permanent in October of 1954, and that it 
was my knowledge that tne majority of the Meeting when I went 
there in May of 1955 was still in favor of the movement of Mrs, 
Knowles, that there was some dissent but that it was certainly very 
much in the minority. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5469 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a document entitled "Citizens for Phil- 
brick, Plymouth Meeting, Pa.," dated February 15, 1955, beginning 
at least in this respect : 

Accompanying this letter are tlie signatures of 243 patriotic Americans who 
request that you replace the present librarian at the Jeanes Library. 

addressed To The Society of Friends, Plymouth Meeting, Pa., sub- 
mitted by Mrs. Philip L. Corson. I ask you now, if you please, 
whether or not you took that document or the information from that 
document back to the Fund for the Eepublic. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Ogden. Of course when I wrote my report I said that there 
weren't 245. I said 468 or whatever the number was. Again this 
is a question of the community itself and not the Meeting. 

Mr. xVrens. Did you know, that that particular petition containing 
243 names was presented to the Plymouth Monthly Meeting of the 
Religious Society of Friends by Judge George C. Corson ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Ogden. Mrs. Corson sent out an awful lot of papers that looked 
very similar to that. 

Mr. Arens. Did you report to the Fund for the Republic either by 
taking back a sample copy of this petition or by giving an oral or 
written report respecting this petition which was presented to the 
Society of Friends Plymouth Meeting by Judge Corson ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I don't know that the Meeting as such has ever actually 
received a petition from Mrs. Corson. I think it is a question that you 
should ask the chairman of the library committee or the clerk of the 
Meeting. 

Mr. Arens- In the course of your investigation did you learn 
whether or not 

]\Irs. Ogden. I know Mrs. Corson has sent stories to the newspapers 
and she sent out these mimeographed statements, but whether she 
actually presented that at the Meeting I think is a different thing. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ascertain in the course of this investigation 
which you made for this Fund for the Republic whether or not this 
petition was filed or presented to the Plymouth Meeting ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Webster. Would you mind reframing that question? I am 
sorry I interfered. 

Mrs. Ogden- No, I didn't ascertain that, but furthermore, Mrs. 
Corson is not a member of the Meeting. 

Mr. Arens. I ask you if you sent back to the Fund for the Republic 
the essence of this language which appears in the petition : 

In other ways, too, Mrs. Knowles does harm. Longtime friendships are being 
strained and shattered as neighbors fight each other over her rights and beliefs. 
To promote domestic harmony, some husbands and wives who disagree have 
even found it necessary to make a pact with each other not to discuss the matter. 

Did you report that type of allegation in this petition back to the 
Fund for the Republic in the report which you made of your investi- 
gation ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Well, I did not use Mrs. Corson's phraseologv there. 

Certainly my report said there was some dissent within the Meeting 
and talk about the petition in the community itself. However, I also 



5470 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

asked various j^eople that I talked to whether they thought an award 
from the Fund would make the situation more bitter, and everyone 
said "No." 

Mr. Arens. Did you talk to the people who were opposed to the 
retention of Mary Knowles and pose that question to them ? 

(The witness conferred with her counseL) 

Mrs. Ogden. No ; I didn't. 

Tlie Chairman. May I ask a question ? 

Mrs. Ogden. However, most of these people w^ere not in the Meet- 
ing. 

The Chairman. You say that you did report that there was dissent 
in the Meeting ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Yes. 

The Chairman. How do you reconcile that with your former testi- 
mony that the people in the Meeting were unanimously in favor of it ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Well, apparentl}^ the peo])le who were dissenting in 
May of 1955, did not attend the Monthly Meeting for business in 
October of 1954, where it was discussed and furthermore a special 
notice of meeting was sent out concerning the meeting. 

Mr. Arens. We might just as well clear the record on the point at 
this time. It is a fact, is it not, that Mary Knowles was never em- 
ployed, either temporarily or permanently, by the Plymouth Monthly 
Meeting ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Ogden. I couldn't say that for sure, but as far as I know her 
employment was made permaneiit September 1 of 1954 by the library 
committee and this action was co.nfirmed by the Meeting itself in 
October. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Plymouth Monthly Meeting, on the basis of 
your investigation, employ Mary Knowles at any time ? 

Mr. Webster. Isn't that a technical question? 

The Chairman. Do you know ? 

Mrs. Ogden. As I just said, I understood that the library conunit- 
teo employed her and that her employment was confirmed by the 
Meeting. 

Mr. Arens. 'Wliat is the relationship, if you please, ma'am, between 
the library committee and the Plymouth Monthly Meeting ? 

Mr. Webster. If 3^011 know. 

Mrs. Ogden. I believe that the library was left by William Jeanes 
to the two trustees who were to be elected by the Meeting and that 
its policies were to be directed by the library committee itself. 

Mr. Arens. The Plymouth Monthly Meeting designates, does it not, 
two members to serve as trustees on the library committee? Isn't 
that correct ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. By and large, the library committee is autonomous, is 
it not ? It makes its own decisions. 

Mrs. Ogden. Yes ; except that it is elected by the Meeting. 

Mr. Arens. I have here a copy of an original document, addressed to 
the Society of Friends, Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania, April 19, 
1955 (reading) : 

Five hundred and sixty-one local residents have novp signed letters asking you to 
remove the present Jeanes librarian * * * These 561 persons signed these re- 
quests in the quiet of their own homes where no one influenced their decisions in 
-any way. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5471 

1 will skip a sentence or so because it is not pertinent to the point. 
Mr. Webster. Could I have a copy to follow ? 

Mr. Arens. You may look at it right here with me in case I impinge 
in any way upon her constitutional rights. 
Mr. Webster. I am not suggesting that. 
Mr. Arens (reading) : 

Many of the 561 are long-time friends and neighbors of yours. Surely they 
deserve more Christian love and consideration from you than one lone 5th 
Amendment User who has deliberately gone out of her way to create and foster 
this bitter strife and dissension among us. 

Now I ask you, if you took back to the Fund for the Republic that 
document, or if you took back the essence of the information contained 
in that document after you made your investigation, over the course 
of 1 day? 

Mrs. Ogden. I don't know whether I did or not. Furthermore, Mr. 
Arens, the date on this is April 19. I think it is possible that this 
might not have been included, Mr. Ai'ens ? 

Mr. Webster. Do you want the answer ? 

Mrs. Ogden". Are you listening to my answer ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, ma'am. 

Mr. Webster. The answer thus far is 

Mr. Arens. I hear the witness, counsel. 

Mrs. Ogden. Since this is dated April 19, toward the end of April, 
I don't know whether this would have been included in the file that 
was given to me by the library committee or not. 

Mr. Arens. So you don't know whether or not you took that infor- 
mation back to tlie Fund for the Republic 

Mrs. Ogden. I don't know whether I did. 

Mr. Arens. As a result of your 1-day investigation ? 

Mrs. Ogden. But I still want to tell you that there were certainly 
many statements that Mrs. Corson sent out either on blue or yellow 
or pink paper like that, all saying practically the same thing. 

Mr. Arens. How did you ascertain tliat the Plymouth Monthly 
Meeting confirmed the retention of Mary Knowles or the employment 
of Mary Knowles as librarian? How did you ascertain that fact? 

Mrs. Ogden. From excerpts from the minutes of October 1954. 

Mr. Arens. The minutes of what ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Plymouth Monthly Meeting. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you actually see the minutes? Did they show 
them to you ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I believe they took out excerpts and sent them to 
me or gave them to me when I went back to the Fund to read them. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you examine the original minutes ? 

Mrs. Ogden. No, I didn't see the original. 

Mr. Scherer. They gave you copies of the minutes or those parts 
of the minutes that referred to the controversy ? 

Mrs. Ogden. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. They were given to you freely, were they not ? 

M)-s. Ogden. Well, yes. 

Ml-. Scherer. Xobody suggested that you didn't have a right to 
them ? 

Mrs. Ogden. No. I didn't subpena them. 

Mr. Scherer. You were a private agency asking for the minutes, 
were you not ? 



5472 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mrs. Ogden. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is so different when the Congress of the United 
States asks for them. We can't see them. 

Mr. Webster. It certainly is. 

The Chairman. Were these the minutes of the library committee ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Of the Meeting. 

Mr. Scherer. It depends on who wants to read the minutes, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in the course of your study and investigation 
of 1 day in this area ascertain that the congregation has what they 
call, or what I would call from an outsider characterizing it, a policy 
of unanimity, namely, that basic decisions will not be arrived at unless 
there is a unanimity of opinion ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I don't believe that I understood it quite that way, 
not being a Quaker myself. I don't believe that I understood how 
unanimous the action did have to be. 

Mr. Arens. Did you deal with that issue at all in your report to the 
Fund for the Republic respecting the actions of the Plymouth Monthly 
Meeting, that by the policy of the congregation vital decisions, if 
not all decisions, have to be on the basis of unanimity ? Did you make 
any reference to that at all in your report to the Fund for the Republic ? 

Mrs. Ogden, No, I didn't, because I don't believe there was any 
occasion in my report to refer to that. What I was supposed to do 
was check Mr. Sprogell's memorandum. I wasn't sup])osed to write 
about the policy of the Meeting or how they conducted their meetings 
and that sort of thing. 

Mr. Arens. In his memorandum — and I will not burden the record 
at the moment with a complete recitation of it — did Mr. Sprogell 
allude to or were you advised by the Fund in oral conversation that 
there was considerable dissension in the Plymouth Monthly Meeting 
group over the retention of Mary Knowles as librarian ? 

Mrs. Ogden. Not considerable. 

Mr. Arens. Were you advised in the report of Mr. Sprogell or by 
oral conversation that the decisions of the Plymouth Monthly Meet- 
ing, pursuant to the policy of the congregation, must be on the basis 
of unanimity ? 

Mrs. Ogden. No, I don't believe complete unanimity ; I knew there 
was supposed to be substantial agreement, but exactly what that meant 
in numbers I never knew. 

Mr. Arens. You never ascertained that ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I never ascertained it. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a document entitled "My Suggestions 
on the Jeanes Library Controversy, Proposed by Edith C. Shoemaker 
at Plymouth Friends Meeting April 1955," and ask you whether or 
not you took back to the Fund for the Republic either that document 
or a copy of that document or the essence of the information in that 
document. 

Mrs. Ogden. I do believe that I say this. I referred to it in my 
report by saying that Mrs. Chappie and Mrs. Tapley were disturbed — 
I will read what I said here. O. K. ? 

Mr. Arens. While you are reading that — excuse me. Counsel — 
may I see this document. 

Mr. Webster. Just read that whole paragraph. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5473 

Mrs. Ogdex. I will read the whole paragraph here. This comes 
under my heading "The Stand of Plymouth Monthly Meeting." 

Mr. Webster. Can you hear this, Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mrs. Ogden. This is talking about people of the library committee. 
I said : 

These people are essentially conservative. It is their deep religious convic- 
tions and not wild-eyed idealism that has persuaded them to retain Mrs. Knowles 
as librarian 

Mr. Webster. May she finish ? 

Mr. Arens. Will the counsel wait a minute. 

Are you alluding there to the Plymouth Monthly Meeting or to the 
library committee ? 

]Mrs. Ogdex. I am talking about the library committee. 

Mr. Arens. This exhibit which I have just laid before you pertains 
to the Plymouth Monthly Meeting. 

Mr. Webster. But this refers 

Mrs. Ogden. This is my report and just in the previous paragraph 
I describe the people I talked to on the library committee. 

Mr. Arens. Would you address yourself to the question at issue? 

Mrs. Ogden. This is what I am saying right here. I don't want to 
read it out of context. 

Mr. Arens. All right. 

Mrs. Ogden. Talking about the library people — 

They are greatly disturbed by the inability of some of the members of the 
Meeting to agree with their acceptance of Mrs. Knowles. The Quakers' de- 
sire for peace — to be true Friends — and their opposition to loyalty oaths, are in 
direct conflict. 

The leaders of the Meeting are currently thinking of asking other Friends to 
visit Plymouth Monthly Meetings to lend their spiritual strength. Mrs. Chap- 
pie hopes that the rift within the Meeting can be healed with as much under- 
standing and as little loss as possible. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly address yourself to the questions at 
issue, namely 

Mr. Webster. Mr. Arens, is that a fair characterization ? 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest counsel be advised that under the 
rules of the committee your sole and exclusive function is to advise 
your client. 

Now I ask you whether or not you told the Fund for the Republic 
of the protest which was made by Mrs. Shoemaker on the Jeanes 
Library controversy entitled "My Suggestion" etc. dated April 1955. 

Mrs. Ogden. I didn't call Mrs. Shoemaker. I didn't quote her 
name as such. I said : 

They are greatly disturbed by the inability of some members of the committee 
to agree with their acceptance of Mrs. Knowles. 

Mr. Arens. How extensive did you find public criticism to be of 
the employment and retention of Mary Knowles ? 

Mrs. Ogden. You mean in Plymouth Meeting ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, let's take it that way. Let's take Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting first. 

Mrs. Ogden. I didn't make a poll of the members of the Meeting, 
if that is what you are suggesting. 



5474 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mr. Arens. As a matter of fact, you only talked to 1 person who 
was opposed to Mary Knowles and that was 1 person by telephone, 
isn't that true ? 

Mrs. Ogden. That is true except I saw the statements of the other 
people in the newspapers and in the file that I have. 

Mr. Arens. Now could you tell the committee your appraisal as to 
how extensive public criticism was of the retention of Mary Knowles? 
What was your appraisal of the extent of the public criticism on the 
retention of Mary Knowles ? 

Mrs. Ogden. What do you mean by public? Do you mean this 
community ? 

Mr. Arens. I mean only which is alluded to in the report which you 
were either to confirm or investigate. 

Mrs. Ogden. From what Mrs. Corson said I gathered that she had 
the names of 468 people who were opposed to Mrs. Knowles. How- 
ever, the only people whose opinions really matter are the people in 
the Meeting, 

Mr. Arens. How many people in the Meeting did you interview 
who were opposed to the retention of Mary Knowles ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I didn't interview any of the people. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I invite your attention to the assertion in the 
so-called Sprogell memorandum which we have identified as "Ogden 
Exhibit No. 1" of your testimony 

Mr. Webster. I want to keep this straight. Is the Sprogell re- 
port No. 1 or is Mrs. Ogden's report No. 1 ? 

Mr. Arens. which memorandum we have identified as Ogden 

Exhibit No. 1, during your testimony in which Mr. Sprogell says 

Mr. Webster. What page, please, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Reading from page 2 — apparently, I assume from the 
context, referring to the Monthly Meeting : 

the Meeting conducted a careful investigation into ber conduct since 1947. 

Did you make an investigation yourself to ascertain whether or not 
this assertion contained in the Sprogell memorandum was true ? 

Mr. Webster. Would you mind reading the rest of it ? The question 
isn't really intelligible, Mr. Arens, I submit. 

Mr. Arens. Does the witness understand that I am alluding to the 
Sprogell memorandum in which Mr. Sprogell says that the Meeting 
conducted a careful investigation into Mrs. Knowles' conduct. Now, 
I am asking you as to whether or not you made an ascertainment as to 
whether the Plymouth Monthly Meeting did make a careful investiga- 
tion into Mrs. Knowles' conduct since 1947. 

Mrs. Ogden. While I am not absolutely positive, I believe that I say 
the statement that they presented to the Monthly Meeting concerning 
their employment of Mrs. Knowdes, saying they had made this inves- 
tigation. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ascertain whether or not a careful investi- 
gation 

Mr. Scherer. Pardon me. You say a statement. "Where did you 
get this statement that they presented to you ? 

Mrs. Ogden. From the library committee. 

Mr. Scherer. From the library committee ? The Meeting presented 
it to the library committee ? 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5475 

Mrs. Ogdex. No; tluit the library conimittee had presented to the 
Meeting concerning their employment of Mrs. Knowles. 

Mr. AiiENs. Did you, during your l-day investigation, inquire as to 
whether or not in this investigation of Mary Knowles' conchict 

Mrs. Ogdex. I didn't say it was a 1-day investigation. 

Mr. Arens. There was an inquiry as to ]Mary Knowles' conduct 
before a Senate committee ? 

Mrs. Ogdex. Could you repeat that one, sir? 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Sprogell in his memorandum says that there was a 
careful investigation conducted by the Plymouth ISIonthly Meeting 
with reference to Mrs. Knowles' conduct since 1947. I am now asking 
you, in view of the fact that you were to check on these facts, whether 
or not you ascertained if this investigation included an inquiry as to 
Mary Knowles' conduct before a Senate committee. Did you ask any- 
one here if they made an inquiry into Mary Knowles' conduct before 
the Senate committee? 

Mrs. Ogdex. May I have a minute here to look. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Arexs. In the event you may be a little confused by the 
question, I am only asking you whether or not when you were in the 
Plymouth Meeting area you made an inquiry to ascertain the nature 
of the investigation wdiich Mr. Sprogell said had been made by the 
Plymouth Monthly Meeting concerning Mary Knowles' conduct. 

Mrs. Ogdex. I just saw the statement that they had given to the 
Meeting saying they had made this investigation. 

Mr. Arexs. Who had made the investigation ? 

ISIrs. Ogdex. The members of the library committee. 

Mr. Arexs. And did you ascertain w^hether or not it was a careful 
investigation, and whether or not it was an investigation which encom- 
passed the attitude and conduct of Mrs. Knowles before the Senate 
committee ? 

I^Irs. Ogdex. I didn't go into the details of their investigation but 
I assume if they were satisfied and the members of the Meeting were 
satisfied with their investigation 

Mr. Webster. Wliich meeting are you talking about? 

Mr. Arexs. Counsel will have to be advised again your sole and 
exclusive function is to advise your client. 

The Chairmax. Have you answered the question ? 

Mrs. Ogdex^. I said that I had not determined the methods or the 
details of the investigation of the library committee, but I assumed, 
since these people who were upstanding citizens in their communities 
had made this investigation to the best of their conscience and that 
the Monthly Meeting had accepted their findings, that it was a bona 
fide investigation. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question ? 

Did you know at the time you were making this investigation that 
Mrs. Knowles had appeared before the Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee of the Senate of the United States ? 

Mrs. Ogdex. In 1953 ? 

Mr. SciiERER. When were you making this investigation ? 

Mrs. Ogdex. Wlien was that? It was in May 1953, that she ap- 
peared before the Jenner committee ; M^asn't it ? 

83005—56 4 



5476 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mr. Arens. She appeared before you came to this area. You knew 
that. 

Mrs. Ogden. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. In May 1953. That is the public record. I have the 
testimony here. 

Mrs. Ogden. I believe that is here in Mr. Sprogell's memorandum. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you know at that time, then, that she had ap- 
peared before the Senate committee? 

Mrs. Ogden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. There is confusion on this record which I think ought 
to be cleared at this point. Mr. Sprogell in his report says the Meet- 
ing conducted a careful investigation into her conduct since 1947. 
You found no evidence that the Meeting had conducted a careful in- 
vestigation into her conduct, did you ? The investigate on that you were 
alluding to was the interrogation of Mrs. Knowles by the library com- 
mittee ; isn't that correct ? 

Mrs. Ogden. To the best of my recollection it was the library com- 
mittee that conducted the investigation but, after all, the library com- 
mittee is elected by the Meeting and they are acting as their repre- 
sentatives. 

Mr. Arens. Then Mr. Sprogell was at least, let us say, in slight 
error when he said that the Meeting had conducted the investigation ; 
is that correct ? 

Mr. Webster. Mr, Chairman, is that a fair question ? 

The Chairman. I think the record speaks for itself. 

Mr. ScHERER. I want to come back for just a minute to my question. 
You knew when you made this investigation that Mrs. Knowles had 
testified before a committee of the Senate of the United States; did 
you not ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I believe I read that in Mr. Sprogell's memorandum ; 
yes. The first page. 

Mr. ScHERER. When you read that, did you get a copy of her testi- 
mony before the 

Mrs. Ogden. No ; because I wasn't investigating Mrs. Knowles. I 
was simply verifying this memorandum. 

Mr. ScHERER. You didn't think it was necessary in the verification 
of a memorandvim which purported to investigate the whole circum- 
stances surrounding Mrs. Knowles' retention, to take a look for yourself 
at the report of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee? You 
didn't even read that testimony ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I didn't think it was my business to investigate Mrs. 
Knowles' past. It was my business to investigate 

Mr. ScHERER, No, but you were investigating a report which re- 
ferred to a so-called impartial investigation of this woman, were you 
not ? That is what you were doing? 

Mrs. Ogden. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. How could you make such an investigation unless 
you read what I would consider at least a very, very important public 
document in determining your report to the Fund for the Republic; 
namely, her testimony before the Senate of the United States. 

Did you know that she had invoked the fifth amendment ? 

Mr, Webster. It tells in here, Mr. Congressman, that she 

Mr. ScHERER. I am just asking the witness what she did. You ad- 
vise her as to her constitutional rights. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5477 

Mrs. Ogden. I understand, as it says here in Mr. Sprogell's mem- 
orandum, that she invoked the fifth amendment in 1953 before the 
Jenner committee. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. All I wanted to know is whether or not 
you yourself read her testimony as a result of the information you ac- 
quired from reading the Sprogell memorandum. 

Mrs. Ogden. No; I didn't, because I wasn't concerned with Mrs. 
Knowles' past. 

INIr. ScHERER. Therefore, you did not discuss this matter with any of 
the stati' of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee; did you? 

Mrs. Ogdex. No. I was simply supposed to find out what was go- 
ing on in Plymouth Monthly Meeting. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you not think that the staff of the Senate Internal 
Security Subcommittee might have as much information or pertinent 
information, at least as much as the Meeting had, whose minutes you 
did investigate ? 

Air. Webster. Mr. Scherer, that is pretty speculative. 

Mr. Scherer. I am asking the witness. Didn't it occur to you, 
even if you didn't read the testimony that was available, that you 
might go and discuss the matter with the staff of the Senate Internal 
Security Subcommittee or any member of that committee? 

Mr. Webster. May I refer to the memorandum a minute Mr. 
Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. No. I am asking the witness some questions. 

Mr. Webster. I want to point out it contains the facts that she was 
asked to investigate in the memorandum. I can hand that up to you, 
sir. 

The Chairman. Instructions to her? Is that what the memo is? 

Mr. Webster. No. The memorandum of Mr. Sprogell is the mem- 
orandum which she has testified she was 

The Chairman. Is it a memorandum given to her with instructions 
as to what to inquire into ? 

Mr. Webster. No. 

Mr. Scherer. It is the memorandum that she was to investigate and 
determine whether or not that memorandum was correct. That mem- 
orandum, as I understand, contains — I have never seen it but from 
listening to the testimony — contains an allegation that this woman did 
appear before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, and did 
testify, and did invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Webster. Mr. Scherer, may I ask you just to take a moment 
and read it? 

The Chairman. Yes, I will. 

Mr. Scherer. I don't wish to read it at this point. I understand 
from the testimony that it does contain such an allegation. I am 
merely asking this witness if that report, about which she was to de- 
termine the truth or falsity, contained such an allegation. 

]Mr. Webster. I am handing you my copy, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. And whether or not this witness, with that informa- 
tion before her, didn't see fit at least to read tlie record of this woman's 
testimony before the committee or whether or not she didn't even go 
to talk to some member of the staff or some member of the committee 
of the Senate, who certainly knew more about this situation, perhaps, 
than the Friends Meeting. 



5478 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mrs. Ogden. I understood I was to go to Plymouth Meeting to find 
out what the situation was there at the present. I didn't understand 
that I was to find out what Mrs. Knowles had said before a Senate 
committee or to investigate her past. The library committee had done 
that themselves. 

Mr. SciiERER. But, Madam, you just said that you were to investi- 
gate the truth or falsity of the Sprogell memorandum, w^liich contains 
certain allegations. 

Mrs. Ogden. Concerning the events in Plymouth Meeting. 

The Chairman. Let me read the pertinent section of the memoran- 
dum furnished you which you were to investigate. 

In 1953 the Library Committee, seelcing a temporary librarian because of 
illness of its permanent employee, received an application from Mary Knowles, a 
fully qualified librarian. Mrs. Knowles had been a secretary at the Samuel 
Adams School in the suburbs of Boston from 1945 to 1947. She had then taken 
employment as librarian in a Massachusetts community. While she was em- 
ployed there Herbert Philbrick gave testimony concerning her before the Jenner 
Committee. It is generally assumed that he testified that she had been a member 
of the Communist Party while at the Samuel Adams School. 

Did you investigate this assumption, or weren't you concerned 
about that? 

Mrs. Ogdex. I understood "generally assumed"— that it is phrased 
that way because it was an executive hearing. 

The Chairman. Executive hearing ? Here is the printed hearing. 
It is a public document. It is United States Government Printing 
Office document. 

Mrs. Ogden. Has it been released since the library committee made 
its investigation ? 

The Chairman. This is a public document. 

Mrs. Ogden. Has it always been one ? 

The Chairman. From the time it was printed. I suppose 20 min- 
utes after the hearing was closed it was in the hands of the printer. 

It is generally assumed that she testified. Didn't you make inquiry 
into the facts or into the statement in order to determine whether or 
not it was correct ? 

Mrs. Ogden. That was not what I was supposed to do in Plymoutli 
Meeting. 

The Chairman. The fact of the matter is, neither you nor the Fund 
for the Republic was concerned with whether or not she had ever been 
a Communist? 

Mrs. Ogden. I can't speak for the Fund for the Republic. You 
will have to ask their officers. 

Mr. Arens. Also in the Sprogell report I see the following para- 
graph : 

Ever since that time the Meeting has been the object of repeated onslaughts by 
a small determined group in the community whose object is to compel the Meeting 
to dismiss Mrs. Knowles. 

Did you investigate as to whether or not the opposition to Mrs. 
Knowles' retention as librarian came from a small group or what 

Mrs. Ogden. Mrs. Corson told me on tlie telephone that the number 
of her group of Alerted Americans was 30 at that point. 

Mr. Arens. Did you take back to the Fund for the Republic these 
accounts of hundreds of people signing petitions protesting the reten- 
tion of Mary Knowles ? 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5479 

Mi'S. Ogden. Are you talking about active members of the position ? 
Tliere is a difference between active people working to oust 

Mr. Arens. Mr. SprogelFs report says, "a small determined group 
in the community" is opposing Mary Knowles. 

Mrs. Ogden. That means actively working, which was the Alerted 
Americans. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you report to the Fund for the Kepublic in effect 
that the opposition to Mary Knowles in the community was a small 
group ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I said it was small. I also told the number who had 
signed petitions. 

Mr. Arens. Did you report to the Fund for the Republic that only 
28 of the total membership of 108 in 1955 are on the record at a Ply- 
mouth Monthly Meeting as approving the retention of Mary Knowles? 
Did you report that fact to the Fund for the Republic in your report? 

Mrs. Ogden. No. 

Mr. Arens. Was it a fact ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Did you undertake to ascertain what the facts were with 
reference to the number of members of Plymouth INIonthly Meeting 
who were on record as approving the retention of Mary Knowles ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I didn't make a numerical count of the pro and con 
in the Meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make any investigation to ascertain the situa- 
tion with reference to the librarian who was the predecessor to Mary 
Knowles ? Her name slips my mind at the moment. 

Mrs. Ogden. Mrs. Sawyer. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make an investigation to ascertain what had 
happened to Mrs. Sawyer? 

Mrs. Ogden. I understood that she had fallen down and broken her 
hip and had become incapacitated and that Mrs. Ivnowles was em- 
ployed temporarily as librarian. 

Mr. Arens. And then Mrs. Sawyer resumed her occupation? 

Mrs. Ogden. Mrs. Sawyer got better and came back. I also under- 
stand that Mrs. Sawyer was either at or beyond the age of retirement 
and had been talking about retiring for several years. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ascertain any information respecting allega- 
tions that Mrs. Sawyer, notwithstanding her long years of service, was 
in effect being forced out of her job as librarian by the pro-Mary 
KJnowles faction? Did you make any ascertainment on that issue? 

Mr. Webster. Mr. Chairman, is that a fair question? May I ask 
you just in the interest of fairness 

The Chairman. Let us withdraw the question and let me ask a 
question. 

Did you know that when Mrs. Knowles testified before the Senate 
Internal Security Subcommittee it was because of a request made 

Mrs. Ogden. When was this, Mr. Walter ? 

The Chairman. The only time she appeared, the only time she 
testified. 

(Representative Scherer left the hearing room.) 

Mrs. Ogden. You mean in 1953 ? 

The Chairman. Yes. This was Thursday, September 15, 1955, 

Mrs. Ogden. Excuse me, Mr. Walter. What is the exact date of 
that? 



5480 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

The Chairman. September 15, 1955. 

Mrs. Ogden. That is after the Fund award was made, and that is 
after my report. 

Mr. Akens. The record shows that Mrs. Knowles appeared before 
the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, I believe, on 3 occasions, 
at least 1 or 2 of which were before the award was made and before 
your investigation. There is no question about that. 

Mrs. Ogden. Is that the same report you were referring to before, 
Mr. Walter? 

The Chairman. I think it is, yes. 

Mr. Webster. May I ask, Mr. Walter, if that is not the report of 
1955 that relates to Mrs. Knowles' most recent Senate appearance long 
after the award was made ? 

The Chairman. This is part 14. 

Mrs. Ogden. That is after the award was made and after my report. 

Mr. Arens. It was after Mrs. Knowles had appeared before the 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and long before you made 
your investigations, isn't that correct? You know, of course. 

Mrs. Ogden. In May of 1953, that is right. 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee 

The Chairman. Let's get the record straight. I was mistaken. 
Thursday, May 21, 1953. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell this committee whether or not in the course 
of your investigation of the Mary Knowles controversy you learned 
that there was also in the controversy the issue as to the reasons why 
Mrs. Sawyer was going to leave her job. 

Mrs. Ogden. I assume she was going to leave it because she was 
either, as I said, at the age of retirement or beyond and wasn't fully 
recovered from her accident. 

Mr. Arens. Were you advised or did you learn from any of your 
interview's that the charges were brought that Mrs. Sawyer was being 
forced out of her job ? 

Mr. Webster. Mr. Chairman, that is the same question. 

Mr. Arens. It is not the same question. 

Mr. Chairman, this witness has been testifying all day what she 
learned from interviews. I am only asking whether she learned 

Mrs. Ogden. No, I never learned that Mrs. Sawyer was being 
forced out of her job. 

Mr. Arens. That is the answer to the question. 

Did you report to the Fund for the Republic on the basis of j'our 
investigation as to the number of the members of the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting who resigned from the Meeting in protest against 
the retention of Mary Knowles? Did you report that to the Fund for 
the Republic? 

Mrs. Ogden. "N^Hien did they resign ? 

Mr. Arens. I just ask you whether or not you ascertained that fact 
and reported it to the Fund for the Republic, that members of the 
Plymouth Monthly Meeting resigned in protest. 

Mrs. Ogden. Oh. Well, 1 laiow that INIr. Sheppard resigned. 

Mr. Webster. Was that the reason? 

Mrs. Ogden. I don't know if that was quite the reason. I have 
heard another reason given. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know and did you report to the Fund for the 
Republic that in the aggregate 884 persons in the general community 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, LNC. 5481 

of the Jeanes Librar}^ signed petitions asking that Mary Knowles 
be dismissed? 

Mr. Werster. 800 different persons? 

]Mr. Arens. 884 different persons. 

Mr. Webster. Or 800 signatures? 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly let us conduct the hearing. 

Mrs. OoDEN. As I told you before — can I answer this question? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, please. 

Mrs. Ogden. As I told you before, the latest information I had \Yas 
the report from Mrs. Corson, either her mimeographed statement of 
a newspaper story, saying that she had the petitions of 468 people. 

Mr. Arens. Did you not report that there were 884 persons who 
had signed various petitions in the aggregate protesting the reten- 
tion of JMary Knowles? 

Mrs. Ogden. I never saw such a statement. Was there such a state- 
ment in existence in May, May 2, 1955? 

Mr. W^EBSTER. May I ask Mr. Arens if he is reading from a paper 
we can use to refresh Mrs. Ogden's recollection. 

The Chairman. If she does not know, the answer is "I do not re- 
member.'" 

Mr. Arens. What is the date on which you completed your in- 
vestigation? 

]\Ir. Webster. The question implies that Mr. Arens has some special 
information. 

The Chairman. There is no such implication. Let Mr. Arens ask 
the question. 

(Representative Scherer returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, would you tell us the date on which you com- 
pleted your investigation and made your report? 

Mrs. Ogden. The date of my report is May 9, 1955. 

Mr. Arens. Did you subsequently learn after you had submitted 
your report that one of the members of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting 
had sent a letter under date of March 6, 1956, to Robert Hutchins, of 
the Fund for the Republic, stating in effect that the Plymouth jNIonthly 
Meeting did not deserve the proposed award since the majority were 
opposed to Mary Knowles and that the Meeting had not accepted the 
award and that it was being held in escrow and that if the Fund had 
properly investigated the facts it would have ascertained that the 
majority was in opposition and the award unjustified for the purpose 
stated in the presentation speech ? 

Mr. Webster. May I ask Mr. Arens for the date of that letter ? 

Mr. Arens. March 1956. Did you know that, Mrs. Ogden ? 

Mrs. Ogden. And the person by whom it was written. March 1956. 

Mr. Arens. By Carroll Corson. 

Mrs. Ogden. However, Mr. Arens, let me say at this moment that 
the minutes of the meeting reflect that in June of 1955 when the JMeet- 
ing was told of the award that was going to be made by the Fund for 
the Republic they were given a description of the work of the Fund, 
they were told by the directors of the Fund, and no one raised any 
objection. The only question asked was by Carroll Corson, who asked 
if any money was involved. 

Mr. SciiERER. Did you see those minutes? Did you yourself see 
those minutes or have excerpts given to you ? 



5482 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mrs. Ogden. I have seen excerpts and I have been told by Mrs. 
Chappie, of the library committee, that this is what happened. 

Mr. SciiERER. They wouldn't give our investigator any information, 
w^ouldn't let her see the minutes or records or anything else. 

Mr. Webster. Unlike the Fund for the Republic, which gave com- 
plete information. 

Mr. Arens, Now, may I ask you this : Has the award actually been 
accepted by the Plymouth Monthly INIeeting ? 

Mrs. Ogden. No ; it is being held in escrow. But may I say some- 
thing further. May I say that in March of this year there was a yearly 
meeting, I believe the 276th yearly meeting, at which 500 delegates 
of 93 Meetings unanimously upheld the decision of the Civil Liberties 
Committee in providing a legal defense fund for Mrs. Knowles, and 
that at that meeting there were people from Plymouth Monthly Meet- 
ing and I believe also that Carroll Corson was there then and he didn't 
raise any objections. I think these people w^ho object should object in 
the meeting. 

Mr. Arens. May I read you this letter addressed to Robert M. 
Hutchins, president of the Fund for the Republic, under date of March 
6, 1956, and ask you whether or not in your judgment on the basis of 
your investigation this recites the facts. Counsel, kindly restrain your- 
self while I address the question to the witness. 

Dear Dr. Hutchins : Through my association at Haverford College with Gil- 
bert White I have gained the impression that you are a very understanding person. 

Last year when the Fund for the Republic gave the Plymouth Monthly Meeting 
a check for .$5,000 for their courageoiis stand, unfortunately I was in Europe. 
This gift was never brought before the Monthly Meeting before it was pre- 
sented 

Mrs. Ogden. He was at a Monthly Meeting in June, however, where 
they were told the Meeting was to receive an award, and Carroll Corson 
was there. 

Mr. Arens (continuing reading) : 

as I attended the meeting in June. At the time the award was made, a majority 
of the adult nieml)ers, after the Jenner committee reports had been made 
known, requested that Mrs. Knowles be dismissed. 

Was that an accurate representation of the facts? 
Mrs. Ogden. What does it say, after the award was made a 
majority? 

Mr. Arens (reads) : 

At the time the award was made, a majority of the adult members, after 
the Jenner committee reports had been made known, requested that Mrs. 
Knowles be dismissed. 

Mrs. Ogden. Can I ask you a question first, Mr. Arens? I was 
called here today, wasn't I, in connection with a report I wrote? 

Mr. Arens. I am only asking you whether you know this is a fact. 

Mrs. Ogden. This is something that occurred after I wrote the re- 
port. 

Mr. Arens. If you do not know just say "I do not Imow," and that 
will end that inquiry. 

Mr. Webster. The occurrence as such occurred afterwards. 

Mr. iVRENS. I understand. 

Mrs. Ogden. No ; I don't know that to be a fact. 



AWARD BY THE FITND FOR THE REPUBLIC, ESTC. 5483 

Mr. Akens. May I read more of the lan<ruao-e of this letter, some 
of which pertains to matters which transpired prior to the time you 
made your investigation, 

Mr. Webs ILK. May I have a copy of the letter ? 

Mr. Arens (readin<T) : 

Last year I was chairman of tlie Finance Committee and I could liave simply 
mailed the check back, which was cashed by an overzealous convinced Friend 
without the permission of the Treasurer or by myself. 

The Treasurer refused to accept the check and unfortunately the bank did 
cash it. Not wanting to create further publicity, I did not send the money back, 
but asked the Meeting what they wanted to do with it. Finally it was decided 
to put it in escrow. The money now lies there, bearing no interest, serving no 
useful I urp'ose, and since it takes unanimity t<i take such a move when such 
a minute is passed, I would suggest you ask the Meeting to either accept it or 
send it back so that it can he put to some useful purpose. 

ir is extremely unfortunate that your committee did not really investigate the 
facts, and it has widened the split and made the Meeting most ineffectual. I 
think you can realize by accepting this gift that Mary Knowles would liave a life 
position and. frankly, it will never he accepted. It is quite possible that the 
Meeting may finally come to some decision on Mary Knowles, but as long as this 
gift hangs over it, it is impossible. 

I regret very much the unfortunate publicity. 

and so forth, 

Mr, Webster. May we see it ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir, 

Mrs. Ogdex. First, I would like to comment that I don't see how 
Mr. Corson could have sent the money back as chairman of the finance 
committee. If it took an action of the Meeting to accept the money, 
it seems to me it would take an action of the entire Meeting unani- 
mously to send it back, 

Mr. Arens. Did you report to the Fund for the Republic that 
because of Mary KnoAvles' employment in the library there had been 
withdrawn from the library fund contributions from the township, 
from the community chest, from the school board, and that the school 
board forbade the teachers to bring the children to the library ? Did 
you report all that to the Fund for the Republic ? 

Mrs. Ogden. I did. Yes, 

Mr. Arens, Mr, Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Off the record. 

(Off the record,) 

Mr. Arens. Is Mr. Sheppard here, please ? Could you kindly step 
forward just a minute, Mr. Sheppard? You were scheduled to be 
the next witness. The hour now being 12 : 30, the committee is disposed 
to recess, and we wonder if you could conA'eniently return at 2 o'clock ? 

Mr. Sheppard. Yes ; that is all right. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

( Wliereupon, at 12 : 30 p. m., the committee was recessed, to recon- 
vene at 2 p. m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, WEDNESDAY, JULY 18, 1956 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 
Call your next witness, Mr, Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Isaac Sheppard, kindly come forward. Remain 
standing, please. 

8.3005 — 56 5 



5484 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole trutli, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. SHErPARD. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ISAAC J. SHEPPARD 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. -, ,^ 

Mr. Sheppard. My name is Isaac J. Sheppard. My residence is 
15531 Sandy Hill Road, Norristown, Pa. My occupation is president 
of the Peerless Paper Mills. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Sheppard, are you a member of the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting ? 

Mr. Sheppard. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly describe what is the Plymouth Monthly 

Meeting. 

Mr. Sheppard. It is the Religious Society of Friends and I am a 
birthright member. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly indicate just in passing what is a 
birthright member of the Society of Friends ? 

Mr. Sheppard. It is one whose father and mother were members of 
the Society of Friends when the person was born. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been identified with the William Jeanes 
Memorial Library ? 

Mr. Sheppard. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us in what capacity you have been identified 
with that library? 

Mr. Sheppard. The bequest for the library under the will of Mary 
R. Miller became available in 1926. I was appointed to the library 
committee at that time and served as chairman until 1933, at which 
time the library was opened and I was treasurer of the library from 
1933 until September 1, 1954. 

Mr. Arens. What happened at that time? I don't mean all the 
facts, but what occasioned your disassociation from the treasurer- 
ship in 1954? _ . 

Mr. Sheppard. The primary reason was the decision of the library 
committee to employ Mary Knowles on a permanent basis. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you this: Did you resign at that time? 
That is what I want the record to reflect at this time; how you 
happened to become disassociated. 

Mr. Sheppard. I registered a protest vote and resigned at that time 
to become effective September 1, 1954. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us, if you will, please, sir, the relationship 
between the library committee and the Plymouth Monthly Meeting. 

Mr. Sheppard. The Plymouth Monthly Meeting appoints the trust- 
ees who have charge of the endowment fund, and they also appoint the 
library committee who run and operate the library. 

Mr. Arens. Is the library committee wliat we might characterize 
as autonomous? Can it make decisions independently of contirmalion 
or rejection by the Plymouth Monthly Meeting? 

Mr. Sheppard. Yes, they can. 

Mr. Arens. Does it customarily make its decisions on a basife of 
autonomy ? 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5485 

Mr. Sheppard. Yes, they do. 

Mr. Arens. Before we proceed further, did the Plymouth Monthly 
Meeting :xt any time hire Mary Knowles ^ 

Mr. Sheppard. Xo. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Plymouth Monthly Meeting at any time con- 
firm by formal action the hiring of Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I have no direct knowledge of that. 

Mr. Arens. Did tlie Plymouth Moiithly Meeting at any time ac- 
cept an award from the Fund for the Republic? 

]Mr. Sheppard. I understand the award was not accepted but is 
hekl in escrow. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Sheppard, did tiie young lady who appeared this 
morning, whose maiden name was Maureen Black and whose married 
name, according to the record, is Maureen Black Ogden, at any time 
during the course of her appearance in the Plymouth Meeting area 
interview you ? 

Mr. Sheppard. No. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us just a word about your public service. I appre- 
ciate normal modesty in a person talking about his career of public 
service, but could you just allude to some of the offices and posts you 
have held in this community in addition to your long tenure of treas- 
urership of the library committee? 

Mr. Sheppard. I have had several civic activities over the period of 
the years. I was Secretary of the Commissioners of Plymouth Town- 
ship from 1921 until 1953, a period of 32 years. I am presently on 
the Zoning Board of the township. I am presently on the Board of 
Health, serving as secretary, and have been since 1925. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been identified as a director of a bank in the 
community? 

Mr. Sheppard. I am a director of the People's National Bank of 
Norristown. 

Mr. Arens. In 1955 did you receive any public recognition of your 
service to the community? 

Mr. Sheppard. I received I guess you would call it an outstanding 
citizen award from the Plymouth-Whitemarsh Junior Chamber of 
Commerce. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Sheppard, is tliere an American Legion post which 
is named in honor of your son who sacrificed his life for this country? 

Mr. Sheppard. The Casey Sheppard Post is named partially in 
honor of my son, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now woidd you kindly tell us in your own w^ords the 
events which transpired leading up to the temporary engagement of 
Mary Knowles by the library committee? 

Mi\ Sheppard. In the summer of 1953 the then present librarian, 
Edith Sawyer, was injured while she was on vacation, which required 
her hospitalization. The library tried to get along for a few weeks 
with the emloyment of many substitutes to take her place on a part- 
time basis. The committee decided that they needed to employ some- 
one as a substitute until Mrs. Sawyer was restored to health and could 
return as librarian. In October 1953, Mary Knowles appeared before 
the library committee and told of her qualifications. She also told 
of her connection with the Samuel Adams School, stating that she 
served as secretary to the head of the school, that she had been called 



5486 AWARD BY thp: fund for the republic, inc. 

before a Senate investigating committee and had refused to testify 
because she feared she would intimidate some of her friends. 

Mr. Arens. ]\Iay I interpose this question at this place, please, Mr. 
Sheppard. 

Mr. Webster. Did you mean ''incriminate"? 

Mr. SheppxSlrd. Yes, incriminate. 

Air. Arens. Will counsel kindly restrain himself so we can proceed 
in orderly fashion. 

Who on the library committee was charged with the responsibility 
of engaging a librarian to temporarily replace Mrs. Sawyer? 

Mr. Sheppard. I think we were all charged with the responsibility. 
Lillian Tapley was the one who made the investigation, and I believe 
it was at her instigation that Mary Knowles appeared before the com- 
mittee for the temporary position. 

Mr. Arens. Was there at that time in October of 1953 any opposi- 
tion registered within the library committee itself to the hiring on a 
temporary basis of Mary Knowles? 

Mr. Sheppard. No, there was not. 

Mr. Arens. After the engagement of Mary Knowles on the tempo- 
rary basis was that action by the library committee at any time con- 
firmed by the Plymouth Monthly Meeting ? 

3.1r. Sheppard. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. While the regular librarian, Mrs. Sawyer, was home 
convalescing, did you have any occasion to discuss witli her the security 
of her position as soon as she had completely recovered her health? 

Mr. Sheppard. Mrs. Sawyer was in the hospital at the time Mary 
Knowles was engaged on a temporary basis, and she became somewhat 
disturbed by a rumor that Mrs. Knowles was going to be employed 
permanently and she would be out of a position. I assured her that 
that was not my understanding, that it was my understanding that 
Mary Knowles was only employed temporarily until such time as 
Mrs. Sawyer would be able to return and take over the activities of 
librarian again. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, please, who is Judge Corson ? 

Mr. Sheppard. He is judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Mont- 
gomery County. 

Mr. Arens. What relationship or identity does he have with respect 
to the Plymouth Monthly Meeting? 

Mr. Sheppard. I feel that Judge Corson is a rather pi-ominent mem- 
ber of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Did you take up with Judge Corson tlie issue as to 
whetlier or not Mrs. Sawyer would be reengaged by the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting as soon as she had recovered her health ? 

Mr. Sheppard, I became somewhat concerned by the attitude of 
certain other members of the library committee wlio wanted to retain 
Mary Knowles on a permanent basis, and I went to Judge Corson and 
explained the sitruition and explained what I knew at that time about 
Mary Knowles' background. 

Mr. Arens. Was the matter taken up in the Plymouth Monthly 
Meeting as to whether or not Mrs. Sawyer would be reinstated in her 
job as librarian as soon as she had recovered her health? 

Mr. Sheppard. I believe it was, because Mrs, Sawyer Avas subse- 
quently reinstated. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5487 

Mr. Arens. How long was Mrs. Sawyer out with her pliysical ini- 
pairment, a broken hip, 1 believe it was stated? 

Mr. Sheppard. She was out from her vacation period in August 
until, I believe, around the early part of April 1954 although I have a 
letter from her physician which is dated January 25, 11)54, stating 
that — 

Mrs. Sawyer is now quite well and able to resume her duties as librarian be- 
ginning on a half-time schedule immediately. 

Mr. Arens. In any event, in approximately April of 1054, it is your 
testimony, is it not, sir, that Mrs. Sawyer resumed her duties and re- 
sponsibilities and I take it assumed the pay of librarian again? 

Mr. SiiEPPARD. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. How long did Mrs. Sawyer then maintain her status as 
librarian after she had returned to the library in April ? 

Mr. Sheppard. Until September 1, 1954. 

Mr, Arens. In the interval between the time Mrs. Sawyer returned 
in April 1954 until the time of her departure, to your observation did 
anything transpire with reference to her status in the library? 

Mr. Sheppard. The library committee drew up what I felt was a 
very unfair contract or agreement for Mrs. Sawyer to sign and abide 
by, laying down certain rules, regulations, and so forth, as to how she 
should conduct the library, the specific hours that she should be there, 
and so forth, to which I objected because the library had been open for 
more than 20 years and no librarian had ever been subject to any such 
contract before. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall whether or not Mrs. Sawyer was under 
suggestion by any member of the library committee as to what she was 
to say if anyone inquired respecting Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I was told by Mrs. Sawyer that she was informed 
by a member of the library committee that if anyone asked if Mary 
Knowles was a Communist she should say "No." 

Mr. Arens. To your knowledge what did Mrs. Sawyer say in re- 
sponse to that direction ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I believe Mrs. Sawyer answered that she did not 
know one way or the other and she couldn't answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. To your knowledge could you tell us where Mary 
Knowles was, where did she go or what did she do, after Mrs. Sawyer 
returned to her job in April of 1954? 

Mr. Sheppard. I haven't the slightest idea, 

Mr. Arens. Do you know why Mrs. Sawyer resigned ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I feel that it was prompted primarily by the unkind 
action of certain members of the library committee. Mrs. Sawyer had 
never intimated the thought of resignation before she returned as 
librarian about April 1, 

Mr. Arens. After Mrs. Sawyer resigned, what happened from the 
standpoint of producing a librarian for the library committee? 

Mr. Sheppard. The library committee had knowledge that Mrs. 
Sawyer was going to retire on September 1, and Mrs. Tapley, I 
believe, was charged with the responsibility of inserting certain ad- 
vertisements, I believe, in the American Library Journal, or some 
library publication, in other words, a help-wanted ad, and received 
some applications as a result of that advertising. 



5488 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mr. Arens. Please go ahead with the theme of your narrative. Was 
a librarian procured, and if so, who? 

Mr. Sheppard. At a meeting — I don't recall whether it was the 
latter part of July or early August — Mrs. Tapley presented the ap- 
plications that she had received to the library committee. They were 
not acceptable to any of us by reason of inexperience, salary demands, 
and they were all rejected. Mrs. Tapley then informed me that they 
had decided, meaning of course, the four other members of the library 
committee who were then present — they had decided anyway to em- 
ploy Mary Knowles on a permanent basis. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, if yon please, sir, how many members were 
there of the library committee on this date. This was in July of 1954 ; 
was it not? 

Mr. Sheppard. Yes. I believe there were eight members at that 
time. 

Mr. Arens. How many were in attendance at the meeting where 
it was announced that Mrs. Knowles would be reemployed on a 
permanent basis ? 

Mr. Sheppard. There were five. 

Mr. Arens. Who were the three who were not present ? 

Mr. Sheppard. The three who were not present were Henry 
Hemsley, Lewis Sheppard 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. Is he your brother ? 

Mr. Sheppard. He is my brother. They were representatives of the 
Commissioners of Plymouth Township. Under the laws of the State 
of Pennsylvania it is a legal necessity for a municipality making 
appropriations to a library to be represented by at least two members 
of the board on the committee. The other member who vras not present 
was Mrs. Browning. 

Mr. Arens. B-r-o-w-n-i-n-g ? 

Mr. Sheppard. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What was your attitude toward the employment of 
Mary Knowles on a permanent basis ? 

Mr. Sheppard. My attitude was in opposition to it. 

Mr. Arens. What was the attitude of Mr. Hemsley, if you know, 
toward the employment of Mrs. Knowles on a permanent basis? 

Mr. Sheppard. Mr. Hemsley was not present at the meeting. 

Mr. Arens. I understand, but do you know what his attitude was 
toward the employment of Mary Knowles on a permanent basis ? 

Mr. Sheppard. His attitude was in opposition to the employment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know what the attitude of the other Mr. Shep- 
pard was toward the employment of Mary Knowles on a permanent 
basis ? 

Mr. Sheppard. His attitude was also in opposition. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know what the attitude was of Mrs. Browning 
toward the employment of Mary Knowles on a permanent basis? 

Mr. Sheppard. Only by hearsay, I understand that she was opposed. 

Mr. Arens. Then of the 8 members of the library committee, is it 
your judgment that 4 were opposed to the employment of Mary 
Knowles on a permanent basis and 4 were in agreement to the employ- 
ment of Mary Knowles on a permanent basis ? 

Mr. Sheppard. Yes ; that is right. 

Mr. Arens. I will have to ask you in a rather informal way to ex- 
plain a rule to me tliat I didn't know a thing about until just the 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5489 

recent past when I began studying this matter. Is there a rule of 
unanimity which operates within tlie Society of Friends whereby 
major decisions are not arrived at unless there is unanimous agree- 
ment on the decision ? 

Mr. Sheppard. Yes ; there is. 

Mr. Arens. That governs, I take it— if I am delving into a matter of 
sacred design that you would rather not answer, say so — I take it that 
would govern a proposition such as the hiring of an individual ; would 
it not? 

Mr. Sheppard. It should. 

Mr. Arens. Does the rule of unanimity apply in the Plymoutli 
Monthly Meeting ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I understand that it does. 

Mr. Arens. Does the rule of unanimity or policy or practice of 
unanimity apply in the library committee ? 

Mr. Sheppard. It did not in this case. 

Mr. Arens. Does it otherwise apply, or did it otherwise apply? 

Mr. Sheppard. It always had heretofore. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do after you received the announcement 
from Mrs. Tapley that Mary Knowles was to be employed on a perma- 
nent basis? 

Mr. Sheppard. I announced my opposition and I also announced 
that under the circumstances I would be forced to resign as a trustee 
of the Mary R. Miller Fund and as a member of the library committee 
to be effective September 1, 1954, the reason for the delay being that 
I wanted my books audited before I turned them over to my successor. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ask that your opposition to the employment 
of Mary Knowles on a permanent basis be recorded in the minutes of 
the library committee ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Was that opposition to your knowledge so recorded? 

Mr. Sheppard. I have no knowledge whether it was or not. 

Mr. Arens. How long had you been on the library committee ? 

Mr. Sheppard. From about 1027 to 195-1 — 27 years. 

Mr. Arens. During those 27 years, did you ever see the rule of 
unanimity or the policy of unanimity violated in the library com- 
mittee i 

Mr. Sheppard. No; because all of our decisions were reached in a 
unanimous manner. I mean there w^as no opposition. They were 
minor things. Shall we buy certain books? Shall we do this or 
that? There was never any occasion for what you might call a split 
vote. 

Mr. Arens. I have asked you this question in another form before, 
but I want the record absolutely to reflect without any possible doubt 
what your answer would be to tliis question : Was either the temporaiy 
or the pei-manent hiring of Mary Knowles ever placed before the 
members of the Plymoutli Monthly Meeting for their approval, to 
your knowledge ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I have no knowledge of that. 

Mr. Arens. Maj I ask you this : Do you have knowledge respecting 
(lie submission of the pei-manent or temporary hiring, as the case may 
be, of Mary Knowles before tlie Plymouth Monthly Meeting? 

Mr. Sheppard. I understand that after the action taken by the 
library committee at this last meeting that I attended, which was 



5490 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

either late July or early August 1954, the matter was placed before 
the Plymouth Monthly Meeting in October 1954. I have no direct 
knowledge of that. 

Mr. Arens. Is your information that when the matter was dis- 
cussed within the Plymouth Monthly Meeting that a majority of the 
members of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting registered an opposition 
to the employment of Mary Knowles on a permanent basis? 

Mr. Sheppard. I have no knowledge of that. I did not attend the 
meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Have you at any time registered within the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting— and here again I suggest to you that if I intrude 
at any place on a matter of secrecy or sanctity within your religious 
activities, just please say so and we will get away from that area — 
but have you registered your opposition to the employment of Mary 
Knowles on a permanent basis at any time within the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I have not attended any of the Plymouth Monthly 
Meetings at which this question arose. Furthermore, the question of 
the employment of the librarian, to my knowledge, had never come 
up before the Plymouth Monthly Meeting before. We had been func- 
tioning for twenty-odd years. We had employed two librarians before 
that without the sanction of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Did you on July 2, 1955, Mr. Sheppard, address a letter 
to the treasurer of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting, Mr. Frank J. C. 
Jones, with respect to the question of depositing the award money 
which was made by the Fund for the Republic ? 

Mr. Sheppard. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. I should like, if I may, please, sir, to lay before you 
what I understand is a copy of that letter and ask you if that is a 
true and correct copy of the letter which you sent under that date. 

Mr. Sheppard ( after examinin^j document ) . Yes ; that is. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Plymouth Monthly Meeting at any time to your 
knowledge accept the award which was made to it by the Fund for 
the Republic ? 

Mr. Sheppard. No, not to my knowledge ; they have not. 

Mr. Arens. May I rea^d, Mr. Chairman, the letter which tliis gen- 
tleman has identified as the one he directed under date of July 2, 1955, 
to Mr. Jones. Who is Mr. Frank J. C. Jones ? 

Mr. Shet'pard. He is the treasurer of the Plymouth Monthly 
Meeting. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

I am writing to urgently request that the depositing of the check for $5,000 
which is to he presented to the Plymouth Monthly Meeting by the so-called 
Fund for the Republic (what Republic I do not know) be withheld until this 
"gift" is either approved or rejected by the Monthly Meeting. 

What an insult to loyal American citizens the acceptance of this money 
would be. 

Should the Monthly Meeting or library be rewarded because a minority of the 
members of the Meeting uphold the employment of a person of questionable 
loyalty, one who has by the sworn testimony of Herbert Philbrick been a 
member of a Communist "cell" ; one who has hidden behind the fifth amendment 
and refused to testify regarding her affiliations with the Communist Party; 
one who has refused to sign a simple oath of loyalty to our country ; and one who, 
when questioned by a member of the library committee regarding possible 
present connections with the Communist Party or other subversive organizations, 
refused to answer before the committee, stating that she would never divulge 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5491 

either her political or religious aflaiiation? I for oue want no further con- 
nection with the Plymouth Meeting Society of Friends, and I am confident there 
are many members of the Meeting who feel likewise. Is the policy of the Monthly 
Meeting to continue to be dictated by the will of a small minority? Is the policy 
of Friends to take action only after unanimous agreement to be voided, as it was 
on the Jeanes Library Committee? 

I am reminded of Romans, chapter 16, the 17tb and 18th verses, which reads : 
"Now I beseech you, Brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences 
contrary to the doctrine which Ye have learned ; and avoid them. For they 
that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly ; and by good 
words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple." I am one of the 
simple, but am not deceived. 

Did you receive a reply from Mr. Jones in response to that letter 
which I have just read urging him not to accept or to take within his 
custody the check from the Fund for the Eepublic ? 

Mr. SHErpARD. No; I did not receive a reply from Mr. Jones. I 
talked to Mr. Jones after having written that letter and he informed 
me that the check had been taken out of his hands and deposited by, 
let's say, an overzealous member of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting. 

Mr. Webster. Let's say by you. 

Mr. Aeens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this person 
be admonished to contain himself so as not to disrupt the orderly 
proceeding of this hearing. 

The Chairman. This sort of conduct does not deceive anybody. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Sheppard, may I ask you, on the basis of your 
extensive contacts within the community, are you in a position to 
express to the committee today the general sentiment of the majority 
of the members of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting with reference to 
the retaining of Mary Knowles on a permanent basis in the library ? 

Mr. Sheppard. From my observation I think the overwhelming 
majority of the residents of the community are opposed to the hiring 
and continuing of Mary Knowles as librarian. 

Mr. Arens. In your judgment, on the basis of your extensive experi- 
ence and contact in the community with reference to the community 
itself, what is the general sentiment of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting 
members themselves ? 

Mr. Sheppard. The only persons who have expressed themselves 
favorably toward the continued employment of Mary Knowles have 
been certain members of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting. Everyone 
else to whom I have talked — I do not bring the subject up to them, 
they bring it up to me — has been outstandingly opposed to IMary 
Knowles. 

Mr. Arens. "VVliat is the official attitude of the township with respect 
to the retention of Mary Knowles on a permanent basis in the Plymouth 
community ? 

Mr. Sheppard. The townships withdrew their annual appropriation 
to the library, both Plymouth and Whitemarsh Townships, both 
Plymouth and Whitemarsh School Boards, and the Conshohocken 
Community Chest. 

Mr. Arens. ^Yhs^t is the official attitude of the Community Chest 
toward the retention on a permanent basis of Mary Knowles? 

Mr. Sheppard. I think the fact that they withdrew their appropri- 
ation expresses their opinion. 



83005- 



5492 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mr. Arens. What is the official attitude of the school board toward 
the retention of Mary Knowles as a permanent librarian ? 

Mr. Sheppard. The school board has, I believe, expressed their 
opinion by forbidding the teachers to take classes to the Jeanes Library 
for library instruction, and so forth. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your extensive experience and as a person 
who has been an outstanding civic leader in the Plymouth Meeting 
area, I ask you what is your opinion and your judgment as to the effect 
within the Plymouth Monthly Meeting group of the award which was 
tendered to the Plymouth Monthly Meeting by the Fund for the Re- 
public, without solicitation ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I think it has caused considerable dissension among 
the members of the Plymouth Meeting Society of Friends, I think 
the Meeting is pretty well split on the issue. The award is in escrow. 
If the present attitude continues, I think it will remain in escrow for 
years and years and years. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether it was brought to the attention of 
the young lady who made the investigation in behalf of the Fund 
for the Republic that some 800 people in the community of Plymouth 
Meeting, eight-hundred-odd people — I don't have the exact number 
now, I had it this morning — were protesting the retention of Mary 
Knowles as librarian ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I have no knowledge of that. 

Mr. Arens. You know, of course, do you not, that such protests 
were lodged ? 

Mr. Sheppard. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Arens. But you don't know whether or not the fact of the lodg- 
ing of those protests was brought to the attention of the Fund ? 

Mr. Sheppard. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that only 28 of the total membership of 
108 in 1955 of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting were on record as 
approving the retention of Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I didn't know that exact number ; no- 

Mr. Arens. Is that approximately correct so far as your recollec- 
tion? 

Mr. Sheppard. I think that it would be approximately correct. 

Mr. Arens. That out of 108 in the Plymouth Monthly Meeting only 
28 are on record as approving the retention of Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I think that would be a])proximately correct. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat has this award of the Fund for the Republic done 
for this spirit of unanimity and this policy of unanimity which I 
understood has been the prevalent attitude and practice in the Ply- 
mouth Monthly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I think temporarily at least it has destroyed it. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information that the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting made an investigation, a thorough investigation of 
Mary Knowles as, I say parenthetically, was reported in the report 
of the gentleman from the Fund for the Republic ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I have no information about any investigation made 
of Mary Knowles except Mary Knowles' own statement to the library 
committee. 

Mr. Arens. Were you present when Mary Knowles was interro- 
gated by the library committee itself ? 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5493 

Mr. Sheppard. I was present when she was interrogated for the 
position of temporary or substitute librarian. 

Mr. Akens. Were you present when she was interrogated with re- 
sjDect to possible permanent employment? 

Mr. Sheppard, No, I was not. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Slieppard, I have asked you, as is quite obvious, a 
considerable number of questions here. I want to ask if there are any 
other items of information pertaining to the subject matter under 
scrutiny by this committee which you would like to bring to the atten- 
tion of the committee and recite for this record. 

Mr. Sheppard. There is only one thing, Mr. Arens. I have heard 
the minutes of the library committee read for twenty-seven-odd years, 
and to my recollection there has never been anything of a purely reli- 
gious nature in those minutes. That has been strictly library business. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this con- 
cludes the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman". In view of the fact that it has been very generally 
known that this contribution, if that is what it is, was not accepted, 
the thing I can't understand is why the Fund has not requested that 
it be returned. Has there ever been any request made to return this 
money which is not being used ? 

Mr. Sheppard. I don't know, Mr. Walter, 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

Mr. ScHERER. I liave no questions. 

Mr. Webster. May I ask a few questions ? 

The Chairman. The witness is excused, 

Mr, Webster. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a few questions? 

The Chairman. No, You have interrupted us quite enough. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman 

Mr, Webster. In view of the witness' very distressing exposure 
today 

The Chairman, You will have your opportunity, 

Mr. Webster. I should like an opportunity 

The Chairman. You will have your opportunity, 

Mr, Sgherer. Mr. Webster, one member of this committee at least 
feels that you have been in contempt of this committee. You have 
interrupted without right. You have so interrupted on four different 
occasions and have been admonished by the chairman of this com- 
mittee. You are an eminent member of the bar. You know the rules 
of the committee. And your conduct has certainly been contemptuous. 

The Chairman. It is quite familiar, 

Mr, Webster, May I answer that ? 

The Chairman. The committee is in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Brief recess,) 

The Chairman, Call your next witness. 

(Members of the committee present: Representatives Walter and 
Scherer,) 

Mr. Arens, Mr, Henry Hemsley, please come forward. 

The Chairman, Mr. Hemsley? 

Do you swear or affirm that the testimony you are about to give is 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth ? 

Mr. Hemsley. I do. 



5494 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

TESTIMONY OF HENRY HEMSLEY 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify yourself, if you please, sir, by 
name, residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Hemsley. Henry Hemsley, 513 Plymouth Road, Plymouth 
Township, Pa. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hemsley, do you hold any public office? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. I am at the present time a commissioner, chair- 
man of the Board of Commissioners of Plymouth Township. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you occupied that post ? 

Mr. Hemsley. I have been chairman of the board since 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the library committee of the 
William Jeanes Memorial Library? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the library committee by virtue 
of your office as a commissioner of Plymouth Township? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes, sir ; by the appropriation of money the board 
appointed two of us commissioners. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a member of the library committee ? 

Mr. Hemsley. No, I am not. 

Mr. Arens. When did your service to the library committee ter- 
minate ? 

Mr. Hemsley. I think it would be our action of November 15, 1954, 
that the board of commissioners withheld appropriation from the 
library until further notice, therefore terminating my trusteeship 
as a trustee. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us how long you were on the library 
committee ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Approximately I think it was the third year. We 
made 2 years' appropriation, and the third year in November of 1954 
it was withheld. 

Mr, Arens. How long have you personally, as a citizen of the 
Plymouth community, maintained an interest in the library and under- 
taken to promote its welfare? 

Mr. Hemsley. I w^oulcl say it goes back 10 or 12 years. At one time 
I was cochairman on the community chest and at that time I got very 
much interested in the library, its financial support. 

Mr. Arens. Prior to the fall of 1954, the period in which I under- 
stood you to say you resigned from the library, could you tell the com- 
mittee what outside contributions or funds were received by the 
library? 

Mr. Hemsley. The community chest. At one time I think the 
appropriation was in the neighborhood of $500. 

Mr. Arens. Per year? 

Mr. Hemsley. For a given year. The school board I understand 
appropriated approximately $100 from both Plymouth and White- 
marsh Townships. Whitemarsh matched our fund of $500 which 
was given by the board of commissioners. It being a joint commu- 
nity library, I had spoken to several and I think our friend Isaac 
Sheppard had some influence too, as to getting Wliitemarsh to do 
likewise, appropriating $500 annually. 

Mr. Arens. Are those funds and is that support presently being 
contributed toward the library by these sources which you have just 
enumerated ? 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5495 

Mr. Hemslet. No, not one of them. 

Mr. Arens. What occasioned the fact that this support is no longer 
being contributed to the library ? 

Mr, Hemsley. The fact of Mrs. Mary Ejiowles was basically the 
reason for withdrawing the appropriation. 

Mr, Arens. To your knowledge did the Plymouth School Board 
take any action toward instructing the teachers in any manner per- 
taining to the library? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. They have forbidden 

Mr. Arens, What action was taken there ? 

Mr, Hemsley, The school board I understand, with only one dis- 
senting vote, at the following meeting which we held — a public meet- 
ing at which we heard the library committee — the board of commis- 
sioners I am now referring to of Plymouth Township, October 11, 
1954, we held a public hearing and Mrs. Chappie was the spokes- 
man for the library committee. We held a lengthy discussion, and 
one of the school board members who happened to be present at the 
board of commissioners asked if he could stay. I said, "Yes, you 
would be most welcome," that any one was welcome to stay at our 
hearings. The following night, which would be September 13, no — 
I think it was, but let me check my minutes. The hearing was October 
11, so October 12, 1954, the school board had a meeting and Dr. Kirk- 
patrick, who is a member of that school board, brought it to the at- 
tention of the school board and at that meeting the school board 
withheld its appropriation and also forbade its teachers and the chil- 
dren to use the library under the guidance of the teachers, 

Mr, Arens. As a former member of the library committee can you 
tell us whether or not the library committee in its meetings met on a 
fixed day each month or did it, on the other hand, meet just occasion- 
ally upon call and upon notice? 

Mr. Hemsley. I know for a fact that when Mrs. Sawyer was li- 
brarian we always received a card about a week prior to the meeting, 
but after Mrs. Sawyer's illness and during her temporary miemploy- 
ment, while she was ill, sometimes Mrs. Tapley, who was chairman 
of the committee, would imdertake to call us for a special meeting, 

Mr. Arens. Did you personally receive any notice of a meeting, 
Mr. Hemsley, of the library committee for the purpose of engaging 
a substitute librarian after Mrs, Sawyer injured herself in her fall? 

Mr. Hj:msley. At one trustee meeting after Mrs. Sawyer fell and 
broke her hip, it was brought up that we were to advertise in the local 
guild to hire a librarian, but the meeting was set for that following 
Thursday. I think it was the third Thursday in the month. It was 
either the second or third. But I was not present when Mrs, Knowles 
was hired. 

Mr. Arens. You are speaking of temporary hiring? 

Mr. Hemsley. That is right, the temporary hiring of Mrs. Knowles. 

Mr. Arens. When Mrs. Knowles was hired on a permanent basis 
did you in advance of that event receive a notice? 

Mr. HJEMSLEY. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whetlier or not Lewis Sheppard, one of 
your board members, received a notice? 

Mr. Hemsley. He told me himself he had not received any notice 
of that meeting. 



5496 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mr. Akbns. Had you, prior to that time, registered your views in 
opposition to the permanent hiring of Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Quite frequently. 

Mr. Arens. Had Lewis Sheppard registered his opposition prior 
to the meeting? 

Mr. HJEMSLEY. At one meeting of the trustees I attended, yes; he 
was opposed to it. 

Mr. Arens. Did you and Mr. Sheppard customarily receive notices 
of the meetings scheduled to be held, except in this instance? 

Mr. Hemsley. Except in this instance. I can speak for myself. 
Mr. Sheppard I couldn't speak for, other than the fact that he did 
verify, when I asked him if he received notice and he said he had not. 

Mr. Arens. Under what circumstances and how did you first hear 
or gain knowledge that Mary Knowles had been hired permanently 
by the library board or library committee ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Through Mr. Isaac Sheppard, who is a member of 
the board, at my place of business. 

Mr. Arens. Before we proceed further in the chronology of events 
concerning which I should like to interrogate you, if you please, sir, do 
you have knowledge respecting the treatment accorded Mrs. Sawyer 
after she had resumed her permanent position as librarian ? 

Mr. Hemsley. After her illness, you mean ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes; I do. 

Mr. Arens. Can you, just in your own words, recount to this com- 
mittee the treatment, if you know, which was accorded Mrs. Sawyer 
after she resumed her permanent employment as librarian? 

Mr. Hemsley. All indications — particularly Ray Riday who was 
a member of the library committee — drew up a set of rules and regula- 
tions in regard to governing Mrs. Sawyer's return, the things they 
should do and the things that she shouldn't do. I said, "I think it is 
very unusual and unfair after 14 years of service that we have to put 
things in writing." 

He said, "Henry, we would like to replace Mrs. Sawyer when her 
contract expires as of September 19 — " I may be wrong in these dates, 
1953 or 1954, when her annual contract expired. 

I said, "Then, in other words, you are planning on replacing Mrs. 
Sawyer?" He said, "Yes. Until we do we want the library run the 
way it has when Mrs. Knowles had it temporarily." 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your service on the library com- 
mittee, do you care to give an appraisal of the efficiency and compe- 
tency of Mrs. Sawyer as a librarian? 

Mr. Hemsley. I think she did a wonderful job after all these 
years, but as we progress we all know there are new methods and 
ideas. I think we all had in mind that some day Mrs. Sawyer would 
retire, but generally speaking for myself, I didn't hope to have part of 
pushing her out. 

Mr. Arens. In your judgment, was she pushed out? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was she pushed out by those people on the library com- 
mittee who were instrumental in engaging Mary Knowles as the 
librarian ? 

Mr. Hemsley. I think some tactics were used that aren't commonly 
engaged in, in everyday form of life. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5497 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend a library committee meeting following 
the one in which Mary Knowles was engaged permanently? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when was this meeting held ? 

Mr. Hemsley. The meeting was held in the home of Mrs. Tapley 
on Plymouth Road. The time — I think if I can explain myself, it 
was my whole desire to keep all undue publicity — the public from 
realizing any past of Mrs. Knowles because I did sit when she was 
temporarily hired at some of the meetings at the library and Mrs. 
Knowles was a very efficient liljrarian. That I will verify. But I did 
not know of her Communist activities or background of her past until 
Mr. Isaac Sheppard brought my attention to it after she had been 
rehired permanently. At that meeting at Mrs. Tapley's which was 
prior to October 11, 1954 — I think it was in the early fall and I 
know the place was Mrs. Tapley's — but exactly the month, the date, 
I can't verify because I have no minutes of that particular meeting. 
But I could name you the committee who were present at the meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Just tell us in essence w^hat happened at this meeting 
which followed the meeting in which Mary Knowles was employed 
permanently. 

Mr. Hemsley. She opened the meeting and Mrs. Knowles was pres- 
ent. I said, "Mrs. Knowles, there are a few questions I would like 
to ask and I hope you don't think that I am being too personal or 
dominating." I said, "We are just a small community trying to help 
the library." 

I said, "Unfortunately, I happen to be a commissioner and there is 
a question of a loyalty oath involved." I said, "Perhaps, maybe, we 
could overlook it. It has been brought to my attention that in the 
past you were a member of the Communist Party." To that she made 
no reply. Then following that I said, "Mrs. Knowles, are you now a 
member of the Communist Party?" To which I received no reply. 

It sort of — well, to break it a little bit, to try to make the woman 
at ease, I took it for gi-anted she was a Christian woman, being the 
Friends Society engaged her and Mrs. Tapley on whom I relied for 
quite a number of years. I asked her, "Are you a Christian woman?" 
and at that Mrs. Knowles said her political, her religious life was 
none of my business or anyone else's. 

At that she picked up her folder and left the room. 

Mr. Arens. Did you thereafter call to the attention of the Ply- 
mouth Township commissioners the events which had transpired up 
to this point ? 

Mr. Hemsley. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what happened insofar as action was concerned 
by the Plymouth Township commissioners. 

Mr. Hemsley. After our public hearing on October 11, it was on 
September 13 that we had a lengthy discussion in regard to Mrs. 
Knowles. One of the commissioners in particular was Ray Brodwick, 
who now has left the township — he sort of impressed on me that 
maybe this woman was unduly accused. Therefore we secured this 
copy of the Jenner committee — 

Mr. Arens. That is the Senate committee ? 

Mr. Hemsley. The committee that investigated Mrs. Knowles. I 
understand some members of the library committee had that report, 
although I had never seen it, when they temporarily hired Mrs. 



5498 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Knowles. So after the discussion at the board of commissioners, Ray 
B rod wick felt more time should be allowed to get the overall picture 
so the commissioners did not unjustly accuse this woman of her past. 

So no action was taken. There was open discussion. There was 
no action taken until our November meeting, November 15, 1954. On 
the motion of myself to the board of commissioners, which Lew Shep- 
pard, a fellow trustee, seconded, it was the unanimous decision that 
we withhold the appropriation from the library committee. 

Mr. Aeens. Now may I ask you to explain in your own words — I 
have also asked this question of Mr. Sheppard, but I want to have 
the record clear on your judgment— did the Plymouth Monthly Meet- 
ing at any time employ Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hemsley. To my knowledge ; no. 

In fact, I was always under the impression that the library was a 
separate function from the Monthly Meeting. 

Mr. Arens. That is the next question I was going to ask you. Was 
the library committee separate, what we lawyers would call 
autonomous ? 

Mr. Hemsley. I never knew — in the 3 years I was trustee — of any 
question that was ever raised about the Friends Meeting. 

Mr. Arens. How many people were on the library committee when 
Mary Knowles was hired ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Eight of us. 

Mr. Arens. How many were for the hiring of Mary Knowles on 
a permanent basis? 

Mr. Hemsley. To my knowledge I can't recall other than the fact 
that I know the ones who were not present. I have never seen the 
minutes nor heard the minutes read at a meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know tliat of the eight, your brother was 
opposed to the hiring of Mary Knowles ? Was Lewis Sheppard op- 
posed to hiring Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes; because we had a meeting and when I asked 
Mrs. Knowles if she had ever had any Communist connections. Lew 
Sheppard was present at that meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know that Lew Sheppard's brother was op- 
posed to the hiring of Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know that Mrs. Browning was opposed to the 
hiring of Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you, of course, were opposed to the hiring of 
Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Then hiring of Mary Knowles was by four people; is 
that correct? 

Mr. Hemsley. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And it is an abstract that the Plymouth Meeting did 
not hire Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hemsley. As far as my knowledge they never hired her. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Plymouth Monthly Meeting to your knowledge 
ever confirm the hiring of Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hemsley. No. 

Mr. Arens. You are a member of the Society of Friends ? 

Mr. Hemsley. No ; I am not. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5499 

Mr. Arens. You are not a member of the Society of Friends ? 

Mr. Hemsley. No; I have very high regard for them. 

Mr. Arens. I understand. You are not a member of the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting, then? 

Mr. Hemsley. No; I am a member of the Cold Point Baptist 
Church. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your background and experience in this 
community, would you care to express to this committee what the pre- 
vailing sentiment was in May of 1955 with respect to the hiring on a 
permanent basis of Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hebisley. Any people I had any contact with seemed to raise 
the question as to why a controversial issue in a small conmnniity — if 
there was any question on a person's reference she was to be hired. 
There seemed to be a question outside the meeting — I am not talking 
about the Friends Society; I am talking about a public in general — as 
to why you hire someone whose character M'as in question to be put in 
public trust. 

Mr. Arens. After the action that you have described by the counnis- 
sioners did anyone on behalf of the library committee request a hear- 
ing for the connnittee ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was that hearing held ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us in your own words, if you know, what happened. 

Mr. Hemsley. Mrs. Chappie was the spokesman for the group. All 
of us, I think, were under the impression that Mrs. Chappie was com- 
ing with the library committee to state their side, their views as to why 
they hired Mrs. Knowles. But to our surprise there were approximate- 
ly 30 or 40 people who attended this meeting. So we adjourned the 
meeting and held it in the large outside auditorium. 

Mr. Arens. When did the Plymouth Township Commissioners vote 
to withdraw their contribution to the library? November 15, 1954, 
was it not? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the essence of the resolution which was 
passed by the Plymouth Township Commissioners as to why they were 
withdrawing their support of the library ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. Basically it was due to the librarian failing to 
answer certain questions and also failing to sign a loyalty oath, that 
the appropriation was withheld. It was a unanimous vote of the five 
commissioners. 

Mr. Arens. Now I want to allude to language which already has 
been identified in the record from a document which we call by label 
the Sprogell memorandum, "Ogden Exhibit No. 1," that "the Meet- 
ing," the Plymouth Monthly Meeting, "conducted a careful investiga- 
tion into her" — I use parentheses (Mary Knowles) — "conduct since 

To your knowledge, did the Plymouth Monthly Meeting conduct a 
careful investigation as to Mary Knowles' conduct since 1947? 

Mr. Hemsley. Only what you hear in the papers and radio ; I had 
no personal contact with anyone. 

Mr. Arens. The Sprogell memorandum, Ogden Exhibit No. 1, also 
says on page 2 that the opposition to Mary Knowles' engagement on a 



5500 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

permanent basis was by a small, determined group in the community. 
In your judgment, was the opposition by a small, determined group, 
or was the proportion a little bit different? 

Mr. Hemsley. To my way of thinking and fi-om the public opinion, 
I think it was a rather broad issue. 

Mr. Arens. Are you conversant with a resolution which was passed 
by the Casey-Sheppard Post 895, of the American Legion, of Plym- 
outh Township respecting Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes ; I saw a copy. I had a copy of that shown to me. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now, if you please, sir, a resolution and 
ask you if that is the resolution which was passed by this post of the 
American Legion. 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes ; this is the resolution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall approximately when that was passed ? 

Mr. Hemsley. I think it was shortly after the action of the board of 
commissioners. 

Mr. Arens. Does this resolution vigorously oppose the engagement 
of Mary Knowles 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes ; it does. 

Mr. Arens. Until such time as the matter of her loyalty to our 
country has been cleared up by the proper authorities. 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was this resolution a matter of public property at the 
time that the representative of the Fund for the Republic came into 
this community to investigate whether or not the Sprogell report was 
true? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. That resolution, if I remember correctly, was 
published in the local newspaper. 

Mr. Arens. Do you also have information, sir, respecting the action 
taken by the Valley Forge Chapter of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution with respect to this matter ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes ; I had a copy of that sent to me in the mail. 

Mr. Arens. TYhat was the essence of the position and announcement 
of the Daughters of the American Revolution on that matter ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Almost identically the same as the Casey-Sheppard 
Post. They were opposed. 

Mr. Arens. Was that a matter of public property ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was that available prior to the time that the young lady 
from the Fund arrived to make this study to check on the accuracy or 
truthfulness of the Sprogell memorandum ? 

Mr. Hemsley. I think is was, sir. 

Mr. Arens. After the action of the township committee which you 
have described, did any member of the library committee invite you 
to meet with the committee to enlist your aid for the restoration of 
the township's contribution ? 

Mr. PIemsley. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What happened ? 

Mr. Hemsley. I think it was on a Sunday afternoon I was invited 
to attend a meeting at the library of some- members of the commit- 
tee — it is a little vague in my mind — at the time for the purpose, after 
the meeting progressed — I thought it was a regular committee meeting 
of the library, but if I recall, Mrs. Tapley was there. Miss Ambler, 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5501 

there was a lawyer. I don't know whether his name was Sprogell. 
There were quite a few people. While the meeting was in progress I 
got the impression that they were soliciting, trying to get me more 
or less to endorse JNIrs. Knowles. I think Lew Sheppard was there, 
because Lew brought out the fact that if Mrs. Knowles signed a loyalty 
oath, he would be satisfied. I was maybe a little more in opposi- 
tion to it. 

Mr. Arens. May I intervene with this question : By the loyalty oath 
do you mean the Pennsylvania loyalty oath ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes, sir; the Pennsylvania loyalty oath which all 
public officials are supposed to sign. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that under the laws of Pennsylvania ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. 

Mr. AiiENS. She declined to sign that ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you address a question to Mary Knowles at that 
session ? 

Mr. Hemsley. I can't recall now whether Mary Knowles was even 
at that session, I don't think Mary Knowles was at that session. 

Mr. Arens. Did you thereafter address a question to Mary Knowles 
respecting whether or not she was a Communist ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Oh, yes; at Mrs. Tapley's home, at a trustee meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us where and when that meeting took place. You 
said Mrs. Tapley's home. Now tell us when. 

Mr. Hemsley. It was some time in the early fall, prior to the meeting 
when Mrs. Chappie attended — the commissioners — for a public 
hearing. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at that session address a question to Mary 
Knowdes ? 

Mr. He^isley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat was the question you addressed to her? 

Mr. Hemsley. I asked her if she had been a former member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. What was the response she made ? 

Mr. Hemsley. No reply. 

Mr. Arens. Did you address any other question to her? 

Mr. Hemsley. I asked Mrs. Knowles if she was now a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. And what reply did she give you ? 

Ml". Hemsley. I received no answer. 

Mr. Arens. Did you address any other questions to her ? 

Mr. PIemsley. Yes. I asked Mrs. Knowles — I said, "Apparently 
we seem to be very dominating. Perhaps if I could ]^hrase something 
that if you are a Christian Avoman then we would be lesser Christians 
if we didn't su])port you regardless of your ]:)ast. If you are willing 
to help yourself, then per]ia))s we can help you now." 

Mr. Arens. Your attitude was one, I take it, if I am not mistaken 
in construing it, of one of seeking to rehabilitate a person who may 
liave l)een enmeshed in the Communist conspii'acy ? 

Mr. Heijisley. Rather than a persecutor. 

Mr. Arens. The connnittee does that all the time, I advise you, 
ti-ying to rehabilitate people. 

Ml-. Hemsley. In our own wny Ave Avere trying to help the woman, 
not to persecute her in au}^ way, shape, or form. 



5502 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened ? 

Mr. Hemsley. At that Mrs. Knowles stated that her political and 
religious life was her own personal affairs and therefore picked up her 
folder and left the room. The only time I ever heard religion brought 
into the question of the library in all the time I served on it was at 
the same meeting at Mrs. Tapley's home when the question was raised 
about the Stars and Stripes, I think an Army magazine, being on 
display in the library. Miss Ambler I think raised the question. 

Mr. Arens. Did you or any member of your family receive any 
communications in a threatening vein because of your opposition to 
the retention of Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes; I received two anonymous letters. They were 
not signed. > 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the vein of those, if you please, sir. 

Mr. Hemsley. More or less felt that I was using my position to 
persecute an innocent woman and what right did I have to question 
her background when she was already proven by the library committee 
to be very adequate. Neither letter was signed. I did receive them 
through the mail and received several phone calls which were anony- 
mous likewise. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the size of the community serviced by this 
library ? 

]Mr. Hemsley. You mean the area involved ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. How many people would you say would be patrons 
of the library? 

Mr. Hemsley. Three or four thousand. 

Mr. Arens. Of this 3,000 or 4,000, how many to your knowledge have 
actually signed petitions protesting the retention on a permanent basis 
of Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hemsley. The last report I had from Mrs. Philip Corson was 
approximately between 800 or 850. 

Mr. Arens. How many to your knowledge have registered them- 
selves in favor of the retention of Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hemsley. That I have no matter of record. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vliat is your judgment as to the general opinion and 
feeling within the community, as you see it, and not through your 
work and through your associations, with reference to the retention 
on a permanent basis of Mary Knowles ? 

Mr. Hemsley. You want my own personal feelings ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Hemsley. I think it is very detrimental to the community to 
divide a community of such long standing. To be honest, I have heard 
quite a few say "let your conscience be your guide." To me I cannot see 
Mrs. Knowles putting a value on a librarian job, regardless of the 
amount of money involved, that would divide a community of such 
old traditions and standings, to separate families and people, and let 
no one fool you, it is divided. 

No job to me, in my own personal opinion, regardless of the amount 
of money involved, is justifiable to split a community. 

Mr. Arens. What has been the effect of this whole proceeding upon 
Mrs. Sawyer, who served the library so faithfully for so many years? 

Mr. Hemsley. I imagine it would be a very trying ordeal after serv- 
ing a number of years in a community, giving your best, and then at 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5503 

the last moment through accident to have a committee, one or more of 
that committee, to indicate they would like for you to quit. Although 
perhaps there is no written record of it, Mrs. Sawyer did phone me and 
express that she had been called on by various members of the com- 
mittee who thought she should quit and get out for the good of the 
library. 

Mr. Arens. Was that during her illness? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes; while she was in bed. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that concludes the staff interroga- 
tion of this witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

Mr. Scherer. Just one. 

Did any one representing the Fund for the Republic, when it was 
making its investigation of this controversy in your connnunity, con- 
tact you? 

Mr. IIesfsley. Xo, sir. 

Mr. Sciierek. Did you receive a questionnaire from the Fund for 
the Republic to fill out? Were you sent a questionnaire by the Fund 
for the Republic? 

Mr. Hemsley. No, I received none. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. Does this library committee keep minutes of its 
meetings? 

Mr. Hemsley. Yes. sir ; for the last — while I was on up until — even 
when Mrs. Sawyer was on she more or less gave a written report, but 
I never actually received a copy, which is customary. In the Lions 
Club and various other associations if you are a member of the board 
or a member of the executive committee you receive a copy of the min- 
utes. I never received any, although some were read by Miss Ambler. 
I never actually received a copy or have known it to be a fact of minutes 
kept at the trustees meetings. 

The Chairman. Was there anything of a religious nature in the 
minutes of the library committee ? 

Mr. Hemsley. I never heard the question of religion brought up in 
all the time I was trustee, until the hiring of Mrs. Knowles and then 
relio;ion became very prominent. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Hemsley. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Arens, 

Mr. Arens. Judge George C. Corson, kindly come forward. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please. Do you 
affirm that the evidence you give will be the truth, the wliole truth, and 
nothing but the trutli, so help you God ? 

Judge Corson. I do so affirm. 

TESTIMONY OF JUDGE GEORGE C. CORSON 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Judge (/ORSON. Let me say first that I have a very bad throat. I will 
do the best I can, but I have had some trouble. 

George C. Corson, Butler Pike and Plymouth Road, Cold Point, Pa. 
Post office, Plymouth Meeting. I live between Cold Point Baptist 
Church on the hill and the Plvmouth INIeeting on the other end of the 



5504 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

street. And I am a judge by occupation, profession, whatever it 
may be. 

Mr. Arens. Just in passing, in which court do you preside ? 

Judge Corson. The Court of Common Pleas of the 38th Judicial 
District of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Arens. Judge, are you a birthright Quaker as was the gentle- 
man who preceded you at the stand a little while ago ? 

Judge Corson. A fourth generation birthright Quaker and my son 
is a fifth generation birthright Quaker. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting? 

Judge Corson. I have been since birth. 

Mr. Arens. Have all four generations of your family been members 
of the Plymoutli Monthly Meeting? 

Judge Corson. On both sides. 

Mr. Arens. Judge, do you recall having a conversation with Mr. 
Isaac Sheppard in February of 1954 respecting the desire of certain 
members of the library committee to replace Mrs. Sawyer, the regular 
librarian who had been temporarily incapacitated ? 

Judge Corson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us, in your own words, what transpired in 
that regard ? 

Judge Corson. Well, I can't tell exactly what happened with regard 
to that, except that Mr. Sheppard was so worried that he wanted me 
to suggest to the Monthly Meeting at its next meeting that the Meeting 
surrender any connection with the library and turn it over to the 
Orphans Court of Montgomery County to let the Orphans Court ap- 
point trustees and take any stigma that might be attached to Commu- 
nist associations and things of that kind. 

Mr. Arens. Did tlie Plymouth Monthly Meeting concern itself 
about that time with the question as to whether or not Mrs. Sawyer 
should be reengaged on a permanent basis ? 

Judge Corson. There was a meeting and at that meeting there was 
considerable discussion. 

Mr. Arens. What was the consensus of opinion of the members of 
the Meeting ? I say to you now, Judge, as I said to the other gentle- 
men : If I, in any sense, intrude on anything of a religious nature or 
anything Vvdiich is in the confidence of your denomination, just decline 
to speak ud on that point and we will proceed on something else. 

Judge Corson. I stated to the Meeting that I felt that, in any event, 
Mrs. Sawyer should be allowed to serve out the term of her contract 
which ended for that year in September, I believe, 1954. That was 
finally agreed to. 

Mr.. Arens. That was the consensus of opinion of the Meeting? 

Judge Corson, Yes ; so found by the clerk. 

Mr. Arens. Judge, can you, in your words, as a lawyer express in 
succinct form the relationship between the Plymouth Monthly Meet- 
ing and the library committee from the standpoint of autonomy of the 
committee? 

Judge Corson. They are absolutely distinct. The library was cre- 
ated under the will of Mary Miller — she Avas named Miller when she 
died, the widow of William Jeanes. She left $80,000 to build a li- 
brary and the balance to be for endowment, preferably to be built 
upon the grounds of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting. This was done, 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5505 

and also in the deed of trust or the will, as it was, it was provided 
certain rights in Plymouth Meeting to appoint members of the com- 
mittee having charge of tlie administration and operation of the 
library. That is the only connection of the Meeting. The Meeting 
does not under the will have the power to hire or fire anyone. 

Mr. Akens. Did the Plymouth Monthly ISleeting — this is the same 
question I asked you that I have asked other witnesses — you are a 
lawyer and a judge and I think your testimony on this point would be 
of importance on this record— did the Plymouth Monthly Meeting at 
any time hire ^lary Knowles ? 

Judge CoKsox. Not only it did not, but it could not under any con- 
sideration have done so. They could not spend the Meeting's money 
to take the iplace of money that is provided under the will of Mary 
Jeanes Miller. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Plymouth Monthly Meeting at any time con- 
firm the employment of Mary Knowles ? 

Judge CoRSox. There was a lot of discussion, but I would never 
know what the minutes would show. I remember on one occasion 
somebody suggested 2 for and 2 against Mary Knowles ba appointed as 
a committee to investigate. When the clerk read the minutes it was, 
it had been suggested that 2 people who believe in Friends' principles 
and 2 people who do not believe in Friends' principles be appointed 
as the committee. That was the change made after the suggestion. 
So I couldn't tell what the minutes would say. 

Mr. Arexs. a reward, as you know, Judge, or a gift of $5,000 was 
directed to the Plymouth Monthly Meeting by the Fund for the Re- 
public. You know that, do you not ? 

Judge CoRsox. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Did the Plymouth Monthly Meeting, which you say 
never hired Mary Knowles, never confirmed the hiring of Mary 
Knowles, ever accept the award which was directed to it by the Fund 
for the Republic ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you say "reward" ? 

Mr. Arexs. xiward. If I said "reward" that was a slip of the 
tongue. 

Judge CoRsox. It never has been so accepted, although there have 
been many very bitter battles over such question. I might say also 
that it was said in one letter written by Carroll Corson that one mem- 
ber of the Meeting had taken the check from Frank Jones and cashed 
it. That is not, I believe, true. The member of the Meeting in ques- 
tion received the check from somebody and, rather than turn it over to 
the treasurer, he took it to the Conshohocken Bsuik and endorsed it 
for deposit to the credit of the treasurer of Plymouth Meeting. That 
is the way it got into the Meeting's account, and the treasurer knew 
nothing about it. 

Mr. Arens. In the so-called Sprogell memorandum, which is marked 
"Ogden Exhibit jSTo. 1" of this particular record, it is stated that the 
Plymouth ISIonthly Meeting made a careful investigation into Mary 
Knowles' conduct since 1947. Is that true ? 

Judge Corsox. The Meeting as such never did so, and the only sug- 
gestion that it should do so was the appointment of a committee of 
four, two of which were to be for and two against, which was ignored 
and nothing happened. 



5506 AWARD BY THE FtTND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mr. Arens. This so-called Sprogell memorandum, Ogden Exhibit 
No. 1, likewise says that the opposition or, as they say here, the on- 
slaught against the retention of Mary Knowles comes from a small 
determined group in the community. Is that a true statement or is it 
false? 

Judge Corson. It came from within the Meeting from one of the 
leaders of the Meeting, the person who has spoken and been the spirit- 
ual leader for many, many years, Mrs. Shoemaker, and many others 
in the Meeting. At one time there were 61 members, I understand, out 
of 108 who petitioned for her removal. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us that last statistic again ? 

Judge Corson. 61 out of 108 members. 

Mr. Arens. 61 out of 108 members of the Plymouth Monthly Meet- 
ing petitioned for the removal of Mary Knowles ; is that correct ? 

Judge Corson. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. How many of the remaining members have expressed 
themselves in any kind of petition on the subject matter? 

Judge CoRSON. None that I know of in a petition. They certainly 
expressed themselves loud and long. 

Mr. Arens. Are a majority of the members of the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting opposed to the retention of Mary Knowles? 

Judge CoRsoN. In my opinion, absolutely. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I lay before you a document entitled "My 
Suggestions on the Jeanes Library Controversy," proposed by Edith 
C. Shoemaker. This was alluded to this morning during the testimony 
of Mrs. Ogden. Have you ever seen that document before? 

Judge CoRsoN. I have not only seen it, but I heard it read to the 
Meeting at the time it was read by Mrs. Shoemaker. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Shoemaker in that document voices strenuous op- 
position to the retention of Mary Knowles, does she not ? 

Judge Corson. There is no question about that. 

Mr. Arens. What is Mrs. Shoemaker's general station or general 
position within the community of the Society of Friends? 

Judge Corson. Up to the time this happened she was the most 
respected member of Plymouth Monthly Meeting of Friends. She 
was leader of the council, the s])iritual council of ministers and elders 
of the Meeting. She has since resigned, I believe, from that as a result 
of the treatment she has received since this award of the Fund for 
the Kepubiic. 

Mr. Arens. Judge, do you recall presenting a circular letter of 
February 15, 1955, with two-hundred-and- forty-odd, 242 or 248, sig- 
natures requesting that Mary Knowles be replaced ? 

Judge Corson. I presented a petition, and I believe there were that 
many names upon it. It was handed to me immediately before I went 
into the meeting by someone. I have forgotten whom. It was given 
to the clerk and it was summarily stated that it would be turned over 
to the library committee for consideration and that was the last heard 
of it. 

Mr. Arens. In passing, may I ask whether or not you were ever in- 
terviewed by a representative of the Fund for the Republic prior to the 
time that the award was tendered to Plymouth Monthly Meeting 

Judge Corson. I never heard of the award. 

Mr. Arens. For retaining Mary Knowles, which it didn't do ? 

Judge Corson. I never heard of the award until I saw it in the 
papers that there was a meeting to be held to accept it. But there was 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5507 

a statement here that the Meeting was told of the award, but what they 
were told was this, that they were being considered for an award. 

Mr. Arens. And was the reason for it explained 'i 

Judge Corson. No. It may have been. Maybe Mrs. Tapley can 
tell. But at the time they said we were being considered 1 feel sure the 
award had been made. But they were afraid to bring it up at this time 
because — well, I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Judge, may I invite your attention si)eciiically to this 
exhibit which I am now laying before you allegedly, according to the 
face of the exhibit, bearing the signatures of 248 people requesting that 
Mary Knowles be removed. Did you read that petition to the Plym- 
outh Monthly Meeting!; 

Judge Corson. 1 did, with a list of names. 

Mr. Arens. Did this ])etition have appended to it the names of 248 
people who were protesting!' 

Judge Corson. I did not count the names, but that was the state- 
ment that was made and there was no question raised about the 
number by anyone. 

Mr. Arens. Judge, in April of 1955 did your cousin, Martha Sher- 
ron, circulate a petition on the Mary Knowles matter? 

.Fudge Corson. I am not sure as to that, whether that was the one 
that had the 61 names on it or not. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now, if you please, sir, another exhibit 
Avhich purports on its face to be a petition calling for the removal of 
Mary Knowles from her post as permanent librarian, and ask you 
whether or not that refreshes your recollection. 

Judge Corson. That is true, there were many — these were being 
})resented to the Meeting at every meeting. 

Mr. Arens. There was a series of these ? 

Judge Corson. There was a series, with additional names, addi- 
tional petitions. 

Mr. Arens. Were there any petitions pi-esented to the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting, any at all, to your knowledge, calling on the Monthly 
Meeting to confirm the appointment of Mary Knowles or to take a 
stand to retain Mary Knowles? 

Judge Corson. None whatever that I have ever heard of. 

Mr. Arens. Then is it true that all of the petitions which were 
presented to the Plymouth Monthly meeting to your knowledge were 
])etitions opposing the retention of Mary Knowles? 

Judge Corson. That is true. 

Mr. Arens. How many members of the Plymouth Monthly Meet- 
ing, to your knowledge, ex]3ressed themselves in any mode as being 
in favor of the retention of Mary Knowles? 

Judge Corson. That is impossible to say because there have been 
diU'erent people expressing those thoughts at different meetings. 

Mr. Arens. What is the consensus of opinion among the members of 
the Plymouth Monthly Meeting as to the retention of Mary Knowles? 

Judge Corson. Well, in my belief the majority of the Meeting are 
very much against her retention and have been, and also very niuch 
against the acceptance of the award. However, if the Fund had given 
the award to the committee as such, the Meeting would not have any 
jjower whatever to refuse it. The Meeting could not have prevented 
its beiiig accepted by the conmiittee for the library. 



5508 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mr. Arens. That is because the committee is autonomous isn't that 
correct? 

Judge Corson. Yes, as a contribution to the library, but the Meeting 
objects to being stigmatized by such an award. 

Mr. Arens. It is a fact, Judge — May I summarize the situation 
and correct me at any point where I may be wrong — it is a fact that 
the library committee, four members of which hired Mary Knowles, 
is not the recipient of the award from the Fund for the Republic ? 

Judge Corson. That is true. They are not. 

Mr. Arens. It is a fact, is it not, Judge, that the Plymouth Monthly 
Meeting to which the Fund for the Republic directed its check for 
$5,000 didn't hire Mary Knowles and didn't confirm the hiring of 
Mary Knowles ? 

Judge Corson. And has no control over her. Absolutely they can- 
not force the committee to hire or fii-e. They can only recommend at 
the best. 

Mr. Arens. Is it your judg-ment that the direction of this check by 
the Fund for the Republic does stigmatize the good people in the 
Plymouth Monthly Meeting ? 

Judge Corson. That is exactly the feeling. 

Mr. Arens. Is it further your opinion— I am just summarizing 
here and if I deviate one iota from the truth you stop me, is it further 
your opinion that the majority, overwhelming majority of the people 
in the Plymouth Monthly Meeting are opposed to the retention of 
Mary Knowles 'i 

Judge Corson. If we could get rid of the $5,000 Fund for the Re- 
public money, I think maybe we all would fall on each other's necks 
and say "Let's forget it all and let the woman stay." But it is the 
$5,000 that holds everything up because everybody says, "What did 
you ever do to get a Communist $5,000? Everybody is stigmatized. 
Are you all Conmiunists?" Unfortunately, it is drawing people who 
come to the Meeting who are rather different from people who have 
been accustomed to coming. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now, if you please, sir, a document 
and ask you if you can identify that document. 

Judge Corson. I can. 

Mr. Arens. Describe that document for this record. 

Judge Corson. It is a letter that I wrote to the Committee of the 
Overseers and the Ministry and Council of Plymouth Meeting to be 
held on May 10. 

Mr. Arens. Judge, without our taking time at this instant to com- 
pletely read all of the letter, you being a lawyer could give a fair 
summary I am sure of the essence of that letter. Would you kindly 
do so? 

Mr. Webster. May we have a copy ? 

Judge Corson. I wanted to make my position so clear on com- 
munism that I wrote this letter so it could be made a part of the 
record as to how I stood at least. I said: "The really sad part, of 
course, in the whole matter is the fact that the employment of a for- 
mer Communist has besmirched our Meeting as communistic and cre- 
ated such a division, not only in the neighborhood but among the 
members of the Meeting itself, that it may cause a more or less com- 
plete breakup of Plymouth Meeting. Is it worthwhile that the Meet- 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5509 

ing should be ruined merely in a martyrdom crusade and complex of 
the library committee to support a so-called civil right that does not 
and never has existed ?" 

Mr. xVrexs. Judge, are you conversant with the contents of a letter 
sent to the president of the Fund by Carroll Corson requesting the 
Fund please to withdraw its $5,000 check? 

Judge Corson. Yes; I am. I think that is the letter where he 
said that it has been cashed — I tliink he meant deposited — by the 
member whose name has not been mentioned. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien the meetings of the Monthly Meeting were re- 
sumed in September of 1955, did you attend and offer any proposal 
which in your judgment, was for the good of the Meeting? 

Judge Corson. I proposed at that time that perhaps we could get 
along with ]\Irs. Knowles if we were convinced that she was no longer 
a Communist, but I felt that we should adopt a minute and I would 
be satisfied to ^o along with Mrs. Knowles if we would adopt a minute 
that this Meeting takes the position that it is against communism and 
the Communist conspiracy. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me, Judge. 

Judge Corson. There was laughter from the benches to the left, 
and I mean to the left, [Laughter.] 

Mr. Arens. What has been the effect in your judgment on the 
community, not the Plymouth Monthly Meeting, but the conmiunity, 
by this check for $5,000 being sent by the Fund for the Eepublic to 
the Plymouth Monthly Meeting? T^Hiat has been the effect on this 
community, Plymouth Meeting community? 

Judge Corson. I think the community would survive but the Meet- 
ing I doubt. I don't know what is going to happen to the Meeting. 
I haven't been to the Meeting for 7 months, the last 7 months. I have 
lost a period of happiness. 

Mr. x\rens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this con- 
cludes the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairjian. Judge Corson, are you acquainted with the minutes 
of Plymouth Meeting? 

Judge Corson. I was clerk for 2 years, several years ago. 

The Chairman. Do they contain anything of a religious nature? 

Judge Corson. The only thing in the minutes that might refer 
to something of a religious nature is that after a period of silence 
the meeting concluded. Certainly the Friends worship is in silence, 
exce]>t when someone is moved to speak. So I suppose the reference 
to silence might be a reference to a method of worship, but I don't 
think there is any secret about it that it would harm the committee 
to know about. 

The Chairman. Are you acquainted with the minutes maintained 
by the library committee? 

Judge Corson. I am not. 

The Chairman. The preceding witness I think was on that com- 
mittee, and I think he was the secretary of it, testified that there was 
nothing of a religious nature in those minutes. 

Judge Corson. I wouldn't know why there would be. 

Tlie Chairman. The only reason why I bring this up is because 
in advance of the testimony a person subpenaed as a witness made 
the statement that we were violating some sort of privilege with 



5510 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

respect to religion, and I assure you that those of us on this commit- 
tee who are lawyers know just exactly what the limits are and have 
never knowingly or otherwise violated any of the rights people have 
under the Constitution in that respect. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, Judge. 

Mrs. Emily Crawford, will you kindly come forward ? 

The Chairman. Do you affirm that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mrs. Crawford. I do so affirm. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. EMILY LIVEZEY CRAWFORD 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occupa- 
tion. 

Mrs. Crawford. My name is Emily Livezey Crawford, 1415 Mark- 
ley Street, Norristown, Pa. I am a housewife. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a birthright Quaker? 

Mrs. Crawford. I am. 

Mr. Arens. For how many generations has your family be«n a 
birthright Quaker? 

Mrs. Crawford. Four to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been a member of the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting ? 

Mrs. Crawford. Sixty -two years last week. 

Mr. Arens. Have any of your forebears been members of the 
Plymouth Monthly Meeting ? 

Mrs. Crawford. All of them. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of any other Quaker Meetings ? 

Mrs. Crawford. No. 

Mr. Arens. How far do you live from the place of assembly of the 
Plymouth Meeting ? 

Mrs. Crawford. Four miles. I live in Norristown. 

But I do not drive. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have difficulty getting to the meetings? 

Mrs. Crawford. At the time my mother and I moved from Plymouth 
Meeting it was difficult, so she and I, living across from the Norris- 
town Meeting, naturally attended that regularly as a matter of con- 
venience. 

Mr. Arens. But you were not a member of the Norristown Meet- 
ing? 

Mrs. Crawford. Never. 

Mr. Arens. You have continuously been a member of the Plymouth 
Meeting? 

Mrs, Crawford. I have. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of the last few years have you been at 
least in occasional attendance at the Plymouth Monthly Meetings ? 

Mrs. CRi^^wFORD. Occasionally. 

Mr. Arens. Do you Imow a lady by the name of Edith Shoemaker? 

Mrs. Crawford, Very well. 

Mr, Arens. Kindly identify her, please, 

Mrs. Crawford. Edith Shoemaker is the most beloved Friend that 
I have ever heard of. She has been a minister in the Friends Meeting, 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5511 

at Plymouth Meeting;, for years. Every one loves her and respects 

her. 

Mr. ^Vrens. Has she been in conversation with yon respecting her 
efforts to restore peace and unity within the Plymouth Monthly Meet- 
ing religious groups ? 

Mrs. Crawford. Yes, on many occasions. 

Mr. Arexs. Did she enlist your services and good offices to further 
this noble objective? 

Mrs. (vRAWFORD. I offered my services. 

Mr. Arens. Then did you attend the meetings more regularly of 
the Plymouth ^Meeting even at your own inconvenience? 

Mrs. Crawford. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Were you present when Mrs. Lillian Tapley, chair- 
man of the library committee, read her yearly report at the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting? 

Mrs. Crawford. I was there when she read her yearly report in May 
1955 and again May 1956. I don't know which you are alluding to. 

Mr. Arens. Did she in either of those reports, particularly the one 
in May 1956, make any reference to Mary Knowles in the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting? 

Mrs. Crawford. No, her report was a very glowing one, that the 
library circulation had increased, the membership had increased 
amazingly. I got to my feet and remarked "Well, couldn't some of 
that be due to the increase in the population, because new com- 
munities are going up all around our beloved Meeting?" 

Mr. Arens. Was any reference made at any time in the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting by Mrs. Tapley to an investigation conducted by the 
library committee of Mary Iviiowles ? 

Mrs. Crawford. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. AVhat did she say ? 

Mrs. Cr.\wford. After her report at the May meeting, 1955, she had 
several papers there and she said that the library committee had in- 
vestigated Mary Knowles before they hired her as a permanent li- 
brarian, that Mary Knowles told them at an interview that she had 
been called to Washington and questioned. 

Mr. Arens. Did she at any time recite to the Plymouth Monthly 
Meeting that of the 8 members of the library committee only 4 were 
in favor of the employment of Mary Knowles ? 

Mrs, Crawford. Never in my hearing. 

Mr. Arens. Plow did you receive knowledge of the award or the 
check which was being directed to the Plymouth Monthly Meeting by 
the Fund for the Republic ? 

Mrs. CRAWFftRD. By the press. My husband brought me home a 
Philadelphia paper, and it was in large headlines. That was my first 
knowledge. 

Mr. Arkxs. Did you take any action relative to tlie acceptance of 
the award by the Plymouth Monthly Meeting ? 

Mrs. Crawford. Not until Jul}' 2. 

Mr. Arens. What happened then ? 

Mrs. Crawford. I called John Archibald, our then clerk of the 
Monthly Meeting, on the phone at his home Saturday, July 2, 1955. 
I asked him about the presentation of this $5,000 award, and I said, 
"John, this cannot be accepted. It has not been brought up before 
our Monthly Meeting." 



5512 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

He questioned it, I said, "But, Jolin, our Monthly Meeting has to 
act on this award before it can be accepted. Having no Monthly 
Meeting in the month of July or August regularly, he then consented 
to say that it would be acted upon at our September Monthly Meet- 
ing, 1955. 

Mr. Arens. Was it ever acted on by the Plymouth Monthly Meeting 
from the standpoint of accepting the award ? 

Mrs. Crawford. It came up at our Monthly Meeting in September, 
just as he promised. 

Mr. Arens. Was it accepted ? 

Mrs. Crawford. No. 

Mr, Arens. What happened? 

Mrs. Crawford. There was a great controversy over it, pro and con. 
Our respected Judge Corson got up and said — and I agree with what 
he just told us — that he did not approve. A great many of our 
Meeting felt the same way about it. They felt it should be sent back. 
Carroll Corson, who wrote that letter, got to his feet and said the 
trustees have just had a meeting and they had agreed to send it back. 
But there was just a turmoil in the Meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever request an opportunity to inspect the 
minutes of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting ? 

Mrs. Crawford, I did, 

Mr. Arens. Were you accorded that privilege ? 

Mrs. Crawford. I was. At that time it was the privilege of any 
member of a Friends Meeting at any time to consult the records of any 
meeting. 

Mr. Arens. What did you find in the minutes with reference to the 
resignation of Isaac Sheppard i 

Mrs. Crawford. Only in the October minutes of 1954 it was briefly 
announced that Isaac Sheppard had resigned as treasurer and member 
of the William Jeanes Library Committee, and it had been accepted 
with regret. 

Mr, Arens, Was there any statement in there as to the reason ? 

Mrs, Crawford. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you find recorded any place in the minutes Judge 
Corson's presentation of a petition requesting the removal of Mary 
Knowles ? 

Mrs. Crawford. That he handed to the Monthly Meeting? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Crawford. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see any reference in those minutes to petitions 
presented by Martha Sherron? 

Mrs. Craavford. No, 

Mr. Arens. Was Mrs. Shoemaker's plea in April of 1955 for the 
restoration of unanimity in the Meeting by replacing Mary Knowles 
recorded in the minutes ? 

Mrs. Crawford. It was very briefly mentioned. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see in the minutes any record of Mrs. Shoe- 
maker's presentation of petitions requesting that Mary Knowles be 
replaced ? 

Mrs. Crawford. No. 

That should have been in the September minutes, 1955. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5513 

Mr. Ajrens. Did you see in the minutes any reference to Judge Cor- 
son's proposal that the Meeting go on record as opposed to Com- 
munists ? 

Mrs. Crawford. No, only — may I tell this or am I taking too much 
time ? 

]Mr. Arexs. You go right ahead please. 

Mrs. Crawford. That came up at the September Monthly Meeting, 
as he has just told you. Feeling that there was a possibility that 
that would be omitted from the minutes like lots of other things that 
came up in our meeting, I particularly listened to the reading of our 
September minutes at the October meeting. There was no mention 
of that. So I got to my feet when they asked if there should be any 
corrections to the minutes. 

Mr. Arens. Who makes the minutes ? Who keeps the minutes of the 
Meeting ? 

Mrs. Crawford. The clerk. 

Mr. Arens. "WHio is he or she ? 

Mrs. Crawford. In 1955 it was John Archibald. At present it is 
Dr. Louise Gloeckner. 

Mr. Arens. What has been the attitude of each of those two with 
respect to the retention of Mary Knowles ? 

Mrs. Crawford. John Archibald was a member of the library com- 
mittee up until the first of this year. 

Mr. Arens. What was his position on Mary Ejiowles ? 

Mrs. Crawford. Definitely for her. 

Mr. Scherer. Wliat was his position on accepting the award from 
the Fund for the Republic ? 

Mrs. Crawford. I think it was their plan to accept it if it hadn't 
been called to their attention that it could not be accepted without 
first coming before our Monthly Meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Did you find recorded in these minutes any mention at 
all of the protests to the hiring of Mary Knowles, the petitions de- 
manding that slie be removed or replaced ? 

Mrs. Crawford. I did not consult the minutes of every month 
from 1953, but, Mr. Arens, the minutes that I just hurriedly glanced 
through had no mention of Mary Knowles in it. 

Mr. Arens. Since the tender of this $5,000 check to the Plymouth 
Monthly Meeting by the Fund for the Republic for the hiring, which 
it did not do, of Mary Knowles, can you tell us, have any of the mem- 
bers of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting resigned ? 

Mrs. Crawford. Definitely. 

Mr. Arens. About how many, to your certain knowledge, have re- 
signed after this check from the Fund for the Republic was sent to the 
Plymouth Monthly Meeting for hiring Mary Knowles, which it did 
not do? 

Mrs. Cr^^wford. One family of five ; another family whose resigna- 
tion yet has not been read— it has been presented — of four. Then 
there have been 5 individuals. 

Mr. Arens. Incidentally, do you have knowledge as to how many 
people have resigned from the library committee, of the eight, or 
do you know ? 

Mrs. Cr\wford. Oh, yes. Isaac Sheppard, who is a member of the 
Meeting. Helen Browning resigned. Henry Hemsley and Lewis 
Sheppard, who represented the township. 



5514 AWAKD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mr. Arens. Then half of the library committee have resigned; 
is that correct ? 

Mrs. Crawford. Yes, but John Archibald, somewhere along the 
line before I attended the Monthly Meetings regularly, became a 
member. 

Mr. Arens. Then do you think it is quite fair and honest to char- 
acterize the opposition to Mary Knowles in this community as a small, 
determined group or would you say that the opposition to the reten- 
tion of Mary Knowles was not from a small, determined group? 

Mrs. Crawford. You mean from the Meeting or the community ? 

Mr. Arens. From the community. 

Mrs. Crawford. Well, of course I am living in Norristown. I am 
not conversant with the community. But I do know that up to date 
Mrs. Corson has had over 884 signed petitions. 

Mr. Arens. In the community? 

Mrs. Crawford. And our Meeting is included. The members of 
our Meeting are included. 

Mr. Arens. Plow many petitions have been signed urging the reten- 
tion of Mary Knowles? 

Mrs. Crawford. I personally have received four from the mem- 
bers of our Monthly Meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Four who want to retain Mary Knowles and eight- 
hundred-ancl-some-odd who do not want to retain her, is that correct? 

Mrs. Crawtford. Well, I can only speak for those who actually sent 
me letters or signed a slip that they wanted her retained, and there 
were four. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. You are excused, Mrs. Crawford, with the thanks 
of the committee. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Lillian Tapley, would you kindly come forward ? 

The Chairman. Do you swear or affirm the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Tapley. I do so affirm. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. LILLIAN TAPLEY, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, HARRY E. SPROGELL 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify yourself, if you please, by 
name, residence, and occupation? 

Mrs. Tapley. I am Lillian Tapley, Mrs. Paul Tapley, 134 Plymouth 
Road, Plymouth Meeting, combination of housewife and business- 
woman. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Tapley, are you or have you been connex^ted with 
the William Jeanes Memorial Library of Plymouth Meeting? 

Mrs. Tapley. I have. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon, counsel. I apologize ; I should have 
recognized you. 

You are represented today by counsel ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself ? 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5515 

Mr. Sprogell. Harry E. Sprogell. May I address the Chair, Mr. 
Walter? 

The Chairman. No. You may advise your client. 

Mrs. Tapley. May I ask something? May I make a statement 
before we go on ? 

The ChairjMax. Just answer the questions, please. If you have 
any statement, under the rules of this committee you may submit 
it to the committee and we will examine it and if we find it germane 
we will make it a part of the record. 

Mr. Sprogell. That was done, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. x\rens. Will you kindly tell us what connection you have had 
with the William Jeanes Memorial Library at Plymouth Meeting? 

Mrs. Tapley. Mr. Walter, this statement was made and delivered 
to the chairman — you are chairman, I believe — of the committee 
yesterday, and, therefore, I ask that I may read it. 

The Chairman. Was it delivered to me or to the Philadelphia 
newspapers ? 

Mrs. Tapley. I believe to Mr. Leo Lilly, Clerk of the Court, for 
delivery to you. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, in fairness I should say that there has 
been directed to my attention in the course of the last 24 hours, 
perhaps the last 48 hours, a statement which was submitted by Mrs. 
Tapley, but in view of the press of these hearings I haven't had a 
chance to read the statement. I undei-stand it is right here. 

The Chairman. It may be made a part of the record. 

Mr. Arens. Here is the statement, Mr. Chairman. It is a mimeo- 
graphed statement of considerable length. 

Mrs. Tapley, There are also documents which accompany it, and I 
wish that they also may be made part of the record. 

Mr. Arens. They will be submitted for the record, as the chairman 
has said. 

Perhaps, Mrs. Tapley, we can start at the beginning of where 
we left off. What is and what has been your connection with the 
William Jeanes Memorial Library ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Could I interrupt again? I want to make it clear, 
has the chairman granted my request that this be made a part of 
the record, the statement and the documents ? ^ 

Mr. Arens. That is a matter for determination of the committee. 

The Chairman. I did, and so did Mr. Ai-ens. 

Mrs. Tapley. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Arens. Now let's start all over again, if you please, so this 
record is clear. Perhaps you have answered the question, but let us 
have it again so we have the proper sequence here. What is and has 
been your connection with the William Jeanes Memorial Library at 
Plymouth Meeting ? 

Mrs. Tapley. I was appointed to the library committee sometime 
in the early forties, I think 1941. I was made chairman of the com- 
mittee in 1952, 1 believe. 

Mr. Arens. Have you seii'ed continuously since then as chairman 
of the committee? 

Mrs. Tapley. Since then, yes. 



1 The statpmont and documonts submitted by Mrs. Tapley, as "Tapley Exhibit No. 1," 
appear on pp. 5524-5536. 



5516 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mr. Arens. Are you chairman of the committee at the present 
time? 

Mrs. Tapley. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you also a member of the Plymouth Monthly 
Meeting ? 

Mrs. Tapley. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you also one of the trustees appointed by the 
Plymouth Monthly Meeting, in addition to being the chairman of the 
library committee ? 

Mrs. Tapley. I am. 

Mr. Arens. As trustee, what are your functions, in addition to your 
service as chairman of the library committee? 

Mrs. Tapley. My present function is to be a part signer of checks 
and to oversee or help oversee what takes place in our Meeting and to 
keep an eye alert for things that go on in our library, just as the rest 
of the committee do. We are all on an equal basis, except for the 
signing of checks. 

Mr. Arens. There are two trustees ; are there not? 

Mrs. Tapley. At the present. That is not indicated in the will. 

Mr. Arens. Who is the other trustee, please ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Ray Eiday. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been a trustee, in addition to being 
chairman of the library committee? 

Mrs. Tapley. I think about 1952 also. 

Mr. Arens. Are you conversant with the fact that Isaac Sheppard 
resigned from the library committee in September of 1954? 

Mrs. Tapley. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Is it true that Mr. Sheppard was treasurer of the com- 
mittee for approximately thirty-some years? 

Mrs. Tapley. Yes; he was. 

Mr. Arens. How many people resigned from the library committee 
in 1954? 

Mrs. Tapley, Well, that is a matter that I might say this way: 
That we had a committee. 

Mr. Arens. Of how many members ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Wliich ostensibly included Mrs. Browning and also 
Isaac Sheppard and his brother, Lew, and Henry Hemsley, but Isaac 
and Henry were never appointed by the Meeting. They existed 
purely in an honorary capacity which Isaac Sheppard assured us 
they would do when we accepted the money from the commissioners. 

Mr. Arens. How many members were there on the library com- 
mittee ? 

Mrs. Tapley. I beg your pardon. Did I say Isaac ? I meant Lewis 
Sheppard was an honorary member. 

Mr. Arens. How many members were there on the library com- 
mittee in 1954? 

Mrs. Tapley. I think there were eight. 

Mr. Arens. How many resigned from the library committee in 
1954? 

Mrs. Tapley. If we assumed that Lew and Henry were only hon- 
orary members, just the one resigned and that is Mrs. Browning. 

Mr. Arens. Did Henry Hemsley resign from the library com- 
mittee even though it was from an honorary status ? 

Mrs. Tapley. He didn't come to meetings any more. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5517 

Mr. Arens. Did I^wis Sheppard disassociate himself from the 
library committee in 1954? 

Mrs. Tapley. He did not come to meetings any more. 

Mr. Arens. Did Mrs. Browning disassociate herself from the li- 
brary committee? 

Mrs. Tapley. Not on that account, I believe. She told me when 
I called her — I used to call the members of the committee when meet- 
ings were arranged and necessary, either regular or special to advise 
them, and she told me that her husband was in a business that she 
really couldn't leave home at night 

Mr. Arens. Did she then disassociate herself ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Yes. She was not able to come very much and she 
finally didn't come at all. 

Mr. Arens. And Mr. Isaac Sheppard disassociated himself? 

Mrs. Tapley. He definitely resigned. 

Mr. Arens. Which means that of the 8 members on the board, 4 in 
1954 disassociated themselves for some reason or other; is that 
correct ? 

Mrs. Tapley. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Of those four persons who disassociated themselves 
in 1954, how many were opposed to the engagement on a permanent 
basis of Mary Knowles? 

Mrs. Tapley. Definitely Isaac Sheppard and Henry Hemsley and 
Lew Sheppard. Mrs. Browning never expressed herself in too lengthy 
a manner. She is a nice, quiet, unassuming person. 

Mr. xVrens. These four people who disassociated themselves from 
the board were replaced with others ; is that correct ? 

Mrs. Tapley. No ; our board exists now with the remaining members 
of the committee. 

Mr. Arens. Then there are now four members of the board ? 

Mrs. Tapley. There are five, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. Then someone must have been added because there 
were only 8 and 4 disassociated themselves. 

Mrs. Tapley. Yes ; one was added. 

Mr. Arens. Who was that ? 

Mrs. Tapley. That was Mrs. Charles Chappie, Mrs. Mary Chappie. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in the course of your chairmanship of the 
library committee undertake to conduct an investigation with respect 
to one Mary Knowles ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Yes ; we did. 

Mr. Arens. Just tell us now what you did toward conducting that 
investigation. 

Mrs. Tapley. We knew of the background of Mary Knowles from 
what she had told us. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? I didn't hear that. 

Mrs. Tapley. We knew in a sense of her background. She told us 
that she had appeared before a congressional committee and that she 
could not from that time on answer questions about that particular 
thing since she had refused to answer a congressional committee. We 
asked her if she was a Communist and she said no, she definitely was 
not. 

Since we are in the Friends Society we don't use oaths. The truth 
is sufficient. 

Mr. Arens. I understand. 



5518 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mrs. Tapley. Then she gave us the names of her former employers, 
or an employer I should say, in the Norwood Library to whom we 
wrote. She wrote us a letter— I don't want to use the word "fulsome" 
but it was a very fine letter regarding everything that Mary Knowles 
had ever done in her 5 years' experience. 

Mr. Arens. When you say "we," was this investigation you are 
talking about participated in by all of the library committee or by a 
subcommittee of the library committee ? 

Mrs. Tapley. It was participated in by four of the members, the 
others not being too interested. 

Mr. Arens. Of the four members of the library committee who con- 
ducted this investigation, how many were of the persuasion that Mary 
Knowles should be engaged permanently ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Could I change that a bit. It might have been five 
members. I think Mrs. Chappie was on the board then when we were 
personally investigating Mrs. Knowles. I am a little vague on that. 
At any rate, will you repeat that question ? I didn't quite get it. 

Mr. Arens. In view of the fact that there was a change in your 
answer there, I will disregard the question for a moment. Did you 
solicit information from the United States Senate Internal Secu- 
rity Subcommittee ? 

Mrs. Tapley. We heard about that and we did have copies of it; 
yes ; very definitely. 

Mr. Arens. Did you write to the United States Senate Internal Se- 
curity Subcommittee, as you wrote to her former employers and solicit 
from them information respecting Mary Knowles ? 

Mrs. Tapley. One of our committee interviewed a member of the 
FBI, talked with him, and we were 

Mr. Arens. You didn't answer my question. Did you solicit infor- 
mation from the United States Senate Internal Security Subcommittee 
before which Mary Knowles was interrogated ? 

Mrs. Tapley. No ; we had the newspaper reports. 

Mr. Arens. Did it not cross your mind that that might be a good 
source of information since you solicited information from the nu- 
merous employers or the people who knew about her past employment ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, could we have order, please ? 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Before you proceed, when you interrogated this lady for prospec- 
tive employment, did you ask her about her employment at the Samuel 
Adams School in Boston ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Yes ; we did. 

The Chairman. What was her reply about that ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Her reply was that as she had been interrogated by 
a congressional committee and used the fifth amendment her counsel 
had told her she could not answer anything about her life prior to 
that time. 

The Chairman. You were inquiring into her qualifications? She 
told you that she was employed by the Samuel Adams School? 

Mrs. Tapley. Yes ; that is correct. 

The Chairman. Didn't you know that the Samuel Adams School 
was an adjunct of the Communist Party in Boston ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Only that she told me that. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC. INC. 5519 

The Chairman. It is a matter of public record. 

Mrs. Tapley. I am sorry. 

The Ch AiKMAN. And she told you that ? 

Mrs. Taplky. She told me that, that it was put on the subversive list. 

The Chairman. She told you that she was employed by this ad- 
junct of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Tapley. That is ri^ht. No ; she said nothing about the Com- 
munist I*arty. She said she was secretary for the Snmuel Adams 
School. 

Mr. xVrens. At the time of your interrogation or at any time did 
you ascertain that the Samuel Adams School was an adjunct of the 
Communist conspiracy ? 

Mrs. Tapley. I read it in the newspaper. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know it as of the time you interrogated her ? 

Mrs. Tapley. No; I did not. 

Mr. Arens. ^^Hien did you read it in the newspaper or acquire the 
knowledge. 

Mrs. Tapley. I can't tell you that. 

Mr. Arens. AVas that subsequent to the engagement of Mary 
Knowles or prior to the engagement '^ 

Mrs. Tapley. It was prior to her permanent engagement, subsequent 
to her tempoi-ary engagement. 

Mr. Arens. Did you interrogate her as to whether or not when she 
was before the Senate committee she declined to tell the Senate com- 
mittee about other persons known by her to have been members of the 
Communist conspiracy ? 

Mrs. Tapley. We read the testimony. 

Mr. Arens. Did you interrogate her about that ? 

Mrs. Tapeey. No ; I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Was this interrogation M'hich you conducted of Mary 
Knowles in the presence of the entire membersliip of the library com- 
mittee ? 

Mrs. Tapley. The first was just she and I alone when she divulged 
to me, without being asked, that she thought possibly we might not be 
interested in her employment on account of this background. 

Mr. Apjens. How did you first know of Mary Knowles ? How did 
you first make contact with her ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Our librarian, Mrs. Sawyer, had this accident and, as 
has been said before, we got along until October with various substi- 
tutes, and in October we just discovered or found that the substitutes 
were not able to continue. Tliey had children. They had jobs. They 
had this and that. They just could not continue. So we had to look 
around for someone to take the job. I called various schools. I called 
Drexel Library School and I called the University of Pennsylvania 
Library; I called the Freeley Library and I believe the Mercantile 
Library — everybody that I could think of that would help me. I could 
get no one there that we were able to engage. One of them told me 
that I might call this Mr. Beatty at the library of the College of 
Physicians, and I did. He told me that he had a couple of people in 
his files who might do. He gave me two names I think and I called and 
they were both completely impossible. I mean they were older and 
couldn't come over for some reason. So I called him again. I said, 
"Have you any idea who I can get?" 



5520 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

He said, "Well, I have another woman in my files and she sounded 
very good to me. Her ability seems to be just about the best. Why 
don't you go and see her ?" 

That is how I found Mary Knowles. 

Mr. Arens. Did you correspond with her and invite lier to come to 
see you or did you call ? 

Mrs. Tapley. No ; I telephoned her and made an appointment and 
went over to see her and within 5 minutes of my arrival she told me 
of her background, that much of her background. 

Mr. Arens. Did she tell you that she had been a member of the 
Communist conspiracy ? 

Mrs. Tapley. She did not. 

Mr. Arens. When was the next interview that you or any one to 
your knowledge connected with the library conunittee had with Mary 
Knowles ? 

Mrs. Tapley. I went to our library committee and told them that 
we had contacted or I had contacted a possible librarian but there 
was a doubt because she had told me she had used the fifth amendment, 
and what did they think. They said, "Well, we might interview 
her." I had her come over and they interviewed her and they de- 
cided to employ her. 

Mr. Arens. Inviting your attention to the proposition of the perma- 
nent employment of Mary Knowles, that is, before she was perma- 
nently employed, did you request information from the United States 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee before which she was inter- 
rogated with respect to her background and activities ? 

Mrs. Tapley. No ; we did not. We read the reports. 

Mr. Arens. Who read the reports ? 

Mrs. Tapley. I think most of the committee read them, 

Mr. Arens. Was she interrogated by the committee members prior 
to the time that she was engaged permanently ? 

Mrs. Tapley. No more than we had already done. We had abso- 
lutely fine references about her from everyone who had employed her 
outside of the Samuel Adams School whom, of course, we didn't 
contact. 

Mr. Scherer. You say you had fine references from everyone ? 

Mrs. Tapley. When I say everyone, the references that came from 
the Norwood School included references from the schools where she 
had worked before for many years. 

Mr. Scherer. You received replies as a result of the inquiries you 
had sent out ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Written inquiries that we sent out to these specific 
people. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you send out those inquiries about the time you 
read the report of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee ? 

Mrs. Tapley. This was in October of 1953. No, wait a minute. Yes, 
October 1953. 

Mr. Scherer. You did not write or contact the Senate Internal Se- 
curity Subcommittee ? 

Mrs. Tapley. We did not. 

Mr. Scherer. To ask for whatever information they might have ? 

Mrs. Tapley. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have the information that she had been dis- 
charged from the Norwood Library ? 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5521 

Mrs. Tapley. We did. She told us. 

Mr. Ari:xs. Does the rule of unanimity or the policy of unanimity 
prevail in the library committee as it does, so we have been told, in the 
Plymouth Monthly Meeting ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Not to the extent it does in the Monthly Meeting. 
Certainly we always agree on policies. 

Mr. Akens. Did you cause to be sent to each member of the library 
committee a notification of the meeting in which Mary Knowles was 
to be engaged permanently ? 

Mrs. Tapley. I believe so. That is hard for me to remember. I 
used to do the calling myself in those days, until, of course, when 
Mary Knowles took over permanently ; she sends out all notices. But 
1 think up to that time I did the telephoning. 

Mr. Arens. Did you call the two Sheppards? 

Mrs. Tapley. I called Mr. Isaac Sheppard, but Mr. Isaac Shep])ard 
had told me in the beginning that I was not ever to bother to call Lewis 
Sheppard because he would always see that he was advised. I called 
Henry Hemsley continually at his place of business. He has a gaso- 
line operator place and I called and left messages for him always when 
we were having a meeting. I did it mostly by telephone because I was 
very busy and it was easier to do it that way. 

Mr. ScHEREK. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question ? 

The Chairmax. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. ^Mrs. Tapley, when did you first learn that the Fund 
for the Republic was going to make an award as a result of the library 
board meeting retaining Mary Knowles? 

Mrs. Tapley. It was either April or May. 

Mr. Scherer. Of what year ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Of last year. 

Mr. Scherer. How did you learn about that? 

Mrs. Tapley. My fellow committee member, Mrs. Chappie, called 
me and said that she had heard that we were possibly to be sent this 
award if we were considered properly. 

Mr. Scherer. Was that before any public announcement ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Oh, heavens, yes. 

Mr. Scherer. How long before any public announcement? 

Mrs. Tapley. This was either April or May. Then after that, I 
think in May, early May, she called me again and said that she had 
had word that Miss Maureen Black was coming to make an investiga- 
tion and could I be present to help answer the questions. 

Mr. Scherer. So you had knowledge of a possible award before Miss 
Black came ? 

Mrs. Tapley. No. Well, just the very few words that I had intro- 
duced the subject. 

]Mr. Scherer. Do you know with whom Mrs. Chappie had her con- 
tact in the Fund for the Republic ? 

Mrs. Tapley. I don't know. I think it was Mr. Sprogell w^ho told 
Mrs. Chappie. That is all I can tell you. I knew nothing about it. 
To me it just sounded like a very lovely fairytale. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. who told Mrs. Chappie? 

Mrs. Tapley. Mr. Sprogell. 

Mr. Sprogell. I. 

Mr. Scherer. Who is Mr. Sprogell? Is he connected with your 
church ? 



5522 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Mrs. Tapley. He is a member of the Society of Friends ; yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know who contacted him originally ? 

Mrs. Tapley. We heard afterward, but not until after the award 
was made. We were always curious. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Tapley. Then it is only a matter of gossip and not a matter 
of my knowledge, so I don't think I should say it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did Mr. Sprogell tell you who contacted him? 

Mrs. Tapley. No; he did not. I just asked him should I tell who 
I heard in a gossipy way, but I don't think I should repeat what I 
don't know to Ibe actually the case. 

Mr. Scherer. That is the thing this committee would like to know. 
At least this member of the committee would like to know more than 
anything else. How was this contact made by the Fund ? What was 
the purpose behind it? 

Mr. Sprogell. I will be happy to testify, Congressman. 

Mr. Sgiierer. I am asking the witness. 

Mrs. Tapley. I heard, but I don't know officially. It is like so 
many other things you hate to repeat, I hate to repeat gossip, some- 
thing that doesn't come to me as I believe it should. 

Mr. Scherer. How many weeks was it before the investigator for 
the Fund appeared in the community that you heard this rumor that 
an award would be made ? 

Mrs. Tapley. It was possibly 2 weeks, maybe not even that long. 
It is a little hard to tell, you know, when you are trying to think 
back. 

Mr. Scherer. With how many representatives of the Fund did you 
personally have conversations? 

Mr. Tapley. At any time ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 

Mrs. Tapley. Well, on the first occasion just with Miss Black to 
whom we gave all our records, both pro and con, both anti and for. 
She had everything. We concealed nothing about the horrible attacks 
which were being made on us. 

Mr. Scherer. You mean by other members of the congregation? 

Mrs. Tapley. And the DAR and the Veterans of Foreign Wars. 
She had all the information. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you give her excerpts from the minutes of your 
meetings ? 

Mrs. Tapley. That I am not at all sure of. We only gave her 
information, as I remember. We might have given her 

Mr. Scherer. Were you here this morning when she testified ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Scherer. She testified she was given excerpts from the minutes 
dealing with this subject. 

Mrs. Tapley. That is correct. So we must perhaps have copied our 
decision and given that to her. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you talk to the investigator on that particular 
day that she came to the community for the purpose of making that 
investigation ? 

Mrs. Tapley. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. How long did you talk with her? 

Mrs. Tapley. For a matter of possibly 3 hours. 



AWARD BY THK FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5523 

Mr. ScHEKER. Have you ever seen her since i 

Mrs. Tapley. Yes ; I saw her when the award w^is made. 

jNIr. SciiEiiER. That was a formal presentation of the award? 

Mrs. Tapley. That is correct. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you discuss with anyone else from the Fund for 
the Republic the giving of this award and the reasons for it? 

Mrs. Tapij:y. Xo; 1 did not. As I say, until the award was made 
to me it was just a fa iry tale in the sky. 

Mr. SciiEREK. It is a fairytale to this committee, too. 

Mrs. Tapley. I know, but it is a wonderful fairytale, and I must tell 
you tliat at that time I did not know who the Fund for the Kepublic 
were, so you can see how very stupid I was. 

Mr. ScuEREK. The only conversation Avhicli you have ever had, as 
I understand it, directly with any representative of the Fund for the 
Republic, is your ;>-hour conversation witli the investigator when she 
came to your comnuniity, and then you luippened to see her again when 
the award was made ( 

Mrs. Tapley. Xo; I saw lier on two other occasions. I saw her the 
night before the award was made when she came over to make it. 

Mr. ScHERER. That was after the award was already decided upon ? 

Mrs. Tapley. And I met 

Mr. SciiERER. Did you have any conversation with her at that time 
as to wliy the Fund for the Republic Avas doing this ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Xo. 

The Chairmax. "Were }()u subpenaed to bring the minutes of the 
library committee ? 

Mrs. Tapley. I was. 

The Chairmax. Did you announce to the press on yesterday that 
you were not going to comply with the subpena because 

Mrs. Tapley. ^ly statement from my counsel so announced, be- 
cause we had a special meeting of our Plymouth Friends Meeting, and 
they did not feel it would be a proper thing to do, that it was rather a 
violation of the first amendment. 

The CiiAiRMAX. In view of the fact that there is nothing of a re- 
ligious nature in these minutes, 1 am surprised, to say the least. 

Mrs. Tapley. You say, Mr. Walter 

The Chairman. I am only rei)eating it because of what the mom- 
bei's of the committee have testified to. 

Mrs. Tapley. They coinpletely overlook, I think, the fact of the 
spiritual values of our minutes. 

Mr. Scherer. You had no hesitancy, however, in giving to an in- 
vestigator of the Fund for the Republic, about which you knew very 
little, excerpts from those minutes, though, did you ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Well, that was a request for information. 

The ("mairmax. That is what this subpena was. 

Mrs. Tapley. That is a completely dilierent thing, a command and 
a request. 

The Ckairmax. I will tell you how it is different. This happens to 
be a committee of the Congress of the United States 

Mrs. Tapley. I understand that. 

Tlie Chainnan (continuing) . Charged with doing a very unpleasant 
task. 

Mrs. Taplky. I can see that. 



5524 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

The Chairman. That is a very mild statement, I assure you. The 
other people who looked at the records have no responsibilities at all. 
You had no obligation whatsoever but you were perfectly willing to 
show them the record, but when a committee of the Congress of this 
Kepublic asks you, then you invoke a section of the Constitution of the 
United States. 

Mrs. Tapley. You are wrong, Mr. Walter. I did not refuse. The 
Meeting refused. I am merely their servant. 

The Chairman. I thought the Meeting has nothing to do with the 
library committee. 

Mrs. Tapley. Yes; it has. Every committee functions under the 
care of the Meeting— the school committee, the property committee, the 
library committee. 

The Chairman. I do not want to argue with you. I will accept 
what you say. 

Mrs. Tapley. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arens, is there anything further ? 

Mr. ScHERER. May I ask one further question? 

The Chairman. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Is your counsel a member of the community and of 
the church? 

Mrs. Tapley. He is a member of the Friends Meeting but not our 
Friends Meeting or our locality. 

Mr. Scherer. He was the one who brought to you originally the 
information ? 

Mrs. Tapley. Not to me. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, to your group. 

Mrs. Tapley. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. The fact that the Fund for the Kepublic had inter- 
ested themselves in this project? 

Mrs. Tapley. I think so. 

Mr. Scherer. That is all. 

The Chairman. That will be all. 

The committee wishes to thank the judge who so generously per- 
mitted us to use the courtroom and the court officials who have co- 
operated, as well as the press, for the very good coverage of this 
hearing. 

The hearing is adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 4 : 35 p. m., Wednesday, July 18, 1956, the commit- 
tee was recessed subject to the call of the Chair.) 

Tapley Exhibit No. 1 

Statement of Mrs. Luxian P. Tapley 

(Filed with Un-American Activities Committee, 9 a. m., July 17, 1956) 

An inquiry into why the Fund For The Republic should have made an award 
to Plymouth Monthly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends necessarily 
raises the question why the Meeting should have employed Mrs. Mary Knowles 
in a library under its care. The award was made for that action. . 

All the actions of Plymouth Monthly Meeting and of the Library Committee 
which conducts a part of the Meeting's affairs have been intended to express 
Christian beliefs of the Religious Society of Friends. A question concerning those 
actions is an inquiry into those beliefs and their practice. 

The considerations which inspired the Meeting's conduct have been stated in 
materials made public by the Library Committee in the past: A letter to the 
Commissioners of Plymouth Township dated September 22, 1954; a report of 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5525 

the Library Committee prepared in October, 1954; and a letter to the Ambler 
Gazette dated March 7, 1955. 

The position of the Religious Society of Friends is evidenced by advices 
prepared by a called meeting of Friends at Scattergood School in Iowa on the 
2d to 4th of 4th Month 1954 ; a statement concerning civil liberties adopted by the 
Abington Quarterly Meeting of Friends held 5th Month 7tli, 1953 ; a statement 
on civil liberties issued by the Representative Meeting of Philadelphia Yearly 
Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends on 4th Month 20th, 1956; and a 
statement on civil liberties adopted by the Philadelphia Yearly Meetings on 
March 27, 1954. 

I ask that a copy of each of these documents be made a part of the transcript 
and printed in the record of these hearings. 

Mrs. LnxiAN P. Tapley. 

[From Norrlstown Times Herald, September 24, 1954] 

Open Letter on Libkaky Fund Sent Plymouth Commissioners 

In response to the action of the Plymouth Township Commissioners to defer 
a $500 appropriation for the William Jeanes Memorial Library, Plymouth Meet- 
ing, the following letter was received by the Times Herald: 

September 22, 1954. 
Open Letter to the Commissioners of Plymouth Toivnship: 

We, of the Library Committee of the Jeanes Memorial Library, feel that an 
explanation of our responsibilities and policies would be helpful to you in 
arriving at a decision as to whether or not you will continue your appropriation. 
In the original bequest for the library, it is stated that the library shall be 
operated as a free or public library under the care of trusteees appointed by 
Plymouth Monthly IMeeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), on 
the grounds of the Meeting or on land purchased for the purpose by the Meet- 
ing. It has been so operated since 1933, for 2 years in a rented building and 
since then in a building constructed for the purpose on the grounds of the 
Friends Meeting. The Committee consists of the appointed trustees and three 
other members of the Religious Society of Friends. On this appointed Com- 
mittee rests the administration of the library, the employment of those who 
work there, the purchase of books, the raising and guardianship of funds, the 
services to the schools, etc. In recent years the income from invested funds has 
been inadequate to meet the increased costs. You, the AVhitemarsh Supervisors, 
and the Conshohocken Community Chest, have been a very great help to us in 
continuing this public service. Certainly, as the appropriators of public funds, 
you are entitled to know our policies and to receive a copy of our budget and 
report. 

Ynur question as to the employment of Mrs. Mary Knowles as stated in the 
Norristown Times Herald, Tuesday, September 14, is a matter of policy and we 
welcome this opportunity to make known our position in this matter. 

First, we should like to point out that we share with you a strong conviction 
that no subversive person should be employed in any role of service to the public, 
and that we have made every effort to arrive at the facts — so that our policJes 
might be based on reality rather than prejudice and fancy. 

You may have heard that Mrs. Knowles invoked the Fifth Amendment when 
called to Washington by the Senate Judiciary Committee. She was called in 
connection with the investigation of an adult school in Boston. Mrs. Knowles 
informed the full Jeanes Library Committee of the investigation and her role in 
it when she was first interviewed as a substitute by us in October 1953. At that 
time she was acrented as a substitute and served ably, and with the full sup- 
port of the Committee, until the return of the regular librarian in April of 1954. 
Before employing her as the regular librarian, September 1 of this year, the 
Jeanes Library Committee completely satisfied itself as to her loyalty. Mrs. 
Knowles has at all times cooperated fully with our Committee in such things as 
obtaining Government-issued transcripts of the Judiciary Committee's proceed- 
ings, etc. Her qualifications as a librarian are excellent, particularly in the area 
of services to the children of our community, and the Library Committee feels that 
it is indeed fortunate in obtaining so experienced, well recommended, and able 
a person. 

We are aware of the fact that to have accepted someone else, perhaps less 
qualified but politically unquestioned, for the position would have presented fewer 



5526 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

problems, but it is a matter of deep couvictioii with us tliat to do so would have 
been an evasion of both responsibility and justice. 

The following condensed quote from the Friends Committee on National Legis- 
lation perhaps expresses more clearly our position than we could ourselves : 

"We regard the preservation of civil liberties as an integral part of our common 
responsibility as citizens. Moreover, we hold that individual liberty is precious 
in a free society, and that it should not be sacrificed (without due process of law) . 
Our law presupposes certain basic rights of each person : the right to confront 
and cross-examine an accuser ; the right to legal counsel ; the assumption of inno- 
cence before the hnv until proven guilty ; protection from guilt by association in 
the absence of proof of individual guilt ; freedom to differ from the majority ; 
and protection for the privacy of one's homes and one's conversation unless au- 
thorized by a particular warrant. These rights are today being violated by irre- 
sponsible accusations * * * and are being threatened by hysteria and prejudice. 
We condemn treason or spying or any disloyal act. At the same time we highly 
value free thought, free speech, and free association. We feel these latter to be 
essential to the elimination of error or wavering loyalty." 

That a person as well qualified as Mrs. Knowles for the position of librarian 
should be denied her rightful role in the conmiunity for reasons no better than 
rumor, suspicion, prejudice, or fear would be to us, and we hope to you, a mis- 
carriage of the basic ideals on which democracy is founded. 

On the basis of evidence we have at hand we will continue to regard Mrs. 
Knowles as a loyal, concerned, and conscientious citizen. 

The Library Committee would like to take this opportunity to thank the Com- 
missioners for their support in the past, and to hope that their relationship to 
the Library may again be a satisfying one. 

(Signed) Mary R. Chapple 

( For the Library Committee ) . 
Mrs. Paul Tapley, Trustee. 
Mr. Ray Riday, Trustee. 
Miss Alice Ambler. 
Mr. John Archibald. 
Mrs. Charles Chapple. 



Report of the Library Committee 
(October 1954) 

Most of you are familiar with Mrs. Knowles' professional qualifications. 
Briefly they are as follows : 

Beginning as a page, during her high school years in the Watertown, Mass. 
Library she worked there 15 years, becoming successively general assistant, 
Children's Librarian at their East Branch ; and finally head of the Children's 
Department of the Watertown Library system which consists of a main library 
and four branches. This service dated from the year 1923 to 193S. 

While she was at college and again during the early years of her role as a 
wife and mother she worked part time at the Bates College Library- 
Taking up full-time employment again in 1945 she was a member of the ofl5ce 
personnel of the Samuel Adams School for Social Science for 2% years. From 
there she went, as librarian, in 1948 to the Morrill Memorial Library in Nor- 
wood, Mass., where she served for a period of nearly 5 years. 

While at the Morrill Library (1948—53) she represented the library on the 
Norwood Board of the Boston Family Service Society. She was secretary- 
treasuier for 2 of these years of the Round Table of Librarians for Young 
Adults — a statewide organization affiliated with the Massachusetts State Library 
Association, and the American Librai-y Association. 

Mrs. Knowles was awarded a certificate on the basis of examination for pro- 
fessional competency as a librarian by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

From Norwood she came to Philadelphia and was referred to us by the 
librarian at the College of Physicians. Beginning in October of last year she 
was employed by us as a substitute during the illness of our regular librarian 
and served ably from October of 1953 to April 1954. Upon the retirement of our 
regular librarian, Mrs. Sawyer, on September 1st of this year, Mrs. Knowles 
was asked to fill the vacancy. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5527 

Appointment as librarian and retention after appointment require not only 
professional competence but involve the aflBrmative obligation of being diligent 
and loyal in citizenship. 

Ordinarily this latter question vrould not come up in seeking a librarian for 
the Jeanes Library — but Mrs. Knowles' very honest and direct statements to 
us when she was first interviewed, to the effect that she had been accused of past 
membership in the Communist Party and that she holds a conviction, as ;i loyal 
American, that to take a required oath is not a meaningful demonstration of 
good citizenshiii — places upon the committee employing her the need to estab- 
lish beyond doubt her qualifications. 

We are satisfied that Mrs. Knowles meets the requirements of citizenship, 
professional competence, and character — and that having fully met these 
standards is entitled to the confidence and protection of the Committee. 

We have read the testimony of Herbert Philbrick, a worker in the Cambridge 
Youth Council, who volunteered his services to the FBI as an undercover agent 
in the Boston area. He named in his report many people associated with the 
Samuel Adams School for Social Sciences. Among them were Dr. Harley of 
Simmons University and Professor Struik of MIT. In the records of the Velde 
Committee (of the House) and the .Jeuner Committee (of the Senate) we found 
no one connected with the school who had not availed themselves of the pro- 
tection of the Fifth Ampudiiient. 

The Association of American Universities issued a statement pertinent to these 
hearings and though Dr. Harley was listed as Director of the School (during INIrs. 
Knowles' employment there) and Dr Struik was listed as a member of the 
faculty — both were retained by Simmons and MIT, respectively — and are at 
present so employed. 

In connection with this hearing we note that Senator Welker stated in open 
session that "once yoia open up the subject matter you are not permitted to call 
a stopping point in your testimony (by invoking the Fifth Amendment)." 

This ruling led many of those who had not invoked the Fifth Amendment into a 
position of having to name associates — understandably a thing some of them 
were reluctant to do. Whether this influenced Mrs. Knowles' decision we can- 
not state as a fact. We believe it did. 

Philbrick's testimony to tlie Senate Judiciary Committee was given in 19.53, 
between 5 and 6 years after Mrs. Knowles had left the Samuel Adams School 
to become librarian at the Morrill Memorial Library at Norwood. In his testi- 
mony to the House Un-American Activities Committee in 19.jl he did not men- 
tion Mrs. Knowles; in 1953 he said, in executive session, that she had been a 
party member in about 194.5-47. 

As to loyalty oaths, Herbert Philbrick offered the following testimony to 
the Senate Judiciary Committee on April 7, 1953 (Mary Knowles appeared 
May 21, 1953) : 

"When the question came up in Massachusetts about the teachers' oath law 
* * * Communist Party members publicly, of course, carried on a great cam- 
paign against the teachers' oath law, saying this was going to kill academic 
freedom * * * but inside cell meetings they were told to sign the oath and, in 
fact, to be the first to sign the oath, and that is actually what happened" (p. 765, 
pt. 7). 

"I think the evidence will prove that the Communist Party members did, in 
fact, follow those instructions and that everyone of them signed the oath 
because the oath meant nothing to them" (p. 765, pt. 7 "Subversive Influences in 
the Education Process," Committee on the Judiciary). 

The following are statements from letters in our files of people who were 
thoroughly familiar with Mrs. Knowles' immediate background and who, of 
course, knew her personally. 

I. To Miss Ambler (Secretary of the Jeanes Library Committee) from Henry 
J. Cadbury, Chairman of the American Friends Service Committee and Professor 
Emeritus of Theology at Harvard University, October 1953 : 

"I think there is every reason for you to expect the best of Mrs. Mary Knowles. 
Her alertness, her easy approach to people, her skill in librarianship * * * 
make her a i)erson too good not to be well employed." 

"Edna Phillips who has worked intimately with her has never detected any 
hint of dishonesty or even secrecy in all other matters. If you escape the 
bogey of a distant past and her use of the Fifth Amendment (my guess is that 
she was defending others rather than herself) you will have secured I think a 
very competent worker," 



5528 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

II. To Miss Ambler from Edna Phillips, Librarian at Morrill Memorial 
Library, Norwood, Mass., October 1953: 

"During nearly 5 years (1948-53) Mrs. Knowles' record with us was excel- 
lent. ( I heard of her through the Massachusetts Division of Library Extension, 
and had high commendation of her from her former chief, the Librarian of the 
Watertown, Mass., Public Library.) 

"I have found her, in her life and work with us, very intelligent, well-read, 
capable, and unusually considerate of others — both our readers and her fellow 
staff members. She is gifted in her work with young people and has a fine 
sense of humor * * * i can heartily recommend her for the position you men- 
tion." 

III. To Miss Ambler from Hannah Severns, Librarian, Moorestown Free 
Library, Moorestown, N. J., May 4, 1954 : 

"It is with real disappointment and regret that I feel I would like to write 
you of the decision of our Library Board in regard to the nonappointment of 
Mary Knowles. 

"In fairness to each individual member, I feel the Board has given deep con- 
sideration to the problem involved. None of us, with the exception of one 
member, feels satisfied with the decision, I am sure. 

"Mary Knowles is coming out tonight * * * and I feel after talking with 
her last Sunday that her understanding and acceptance of our decision is 
another evidence of her rare spirit and magnanimity. I am still hoping that 
some library will be big enough to recognize the outstanding qualifications of 
Mary Knowles, and that we ourselves may some day be big enough and fortunate 
enough to have such a person as Mary Knowles as a member of our staff." 

Although the taking of a loyalty oath is not required of our librarian, either 
by the Committee or by the State of Pennsylvania — Mary Knowles made the 
following statement as to her personal convictions pertaining to such an oath; 
and although the Library Committee does not necessarily share her views on 
this we defend her right to such a conviction : 

"I have been aware of the need to offer prospective employers some degree 
of assurance as to my present status, in fact I have felt it necessary to do so. 
If you will recall, in October when I first met with the Committee, I told them 
that since leaving the Samuel Adams School I have had no connection formal 
or otherwise, with any so-called leftwing or "subversive" organization, and that 
I do indeed uphold the Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of 
Independence. When I met with you last week I again offered this. I would 
like to submit to the Committee, in writing, the same statement, voluntarily and 
freely given. 

"On the matter of loyalty to the United States, I believe it is one of the 
responsibilities of a mature citizen to be actively aware of and engaged in 
the demonstration of such loyalty at all times. I think the imposition of a 
loyalty oath robs a citizen of such responsibility, and weakens the need for 
active participation on the part of the individual. 

"Further, I find that conscientiously and consistently I cannot sign an oath 
which I believe to be at variance with the very documents I do uphold, the 
Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. I am also extremely reluct- 
ant to be a means of introducing to an institution, and thereby extending the 
scope of, a measure, namely the Loyalty Oath, which does not apply under State 
laws to that institution, whether or not such a procedure would be used only in 
this instance. 

"I do want to express to the Committee my appreciation of their understand- 
ing and their willingness to explore the possibilities in this situation ; and of 
their warm support and confidence in my work during the past 3 months. I 
feel privileged to have had the opportunity to work with the Committee, 
and have had great pleasure in becoming acquainted with people in the 
community and in the thought that I may have been able to be of some service 
to them." 

Enclosed in that letter was the following statement : 

"I believe firmly in the United States of America and in the documents upon 
which it is founded, the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the 
United States, and do support, obey and defend them. I do also support the con- 
stitution of the State of Pennsylvania. 

"Since leaving the Samuel Adams School I have had no connection, formal or 
otherwise, with any so-called leftwing or 'subversive' organization" (February 
8,1954). 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5529 

For the further assurance of the Library Committee, she also made a notarized 
statement as follows : 

"Mary Knowles, being duly sworn according to law deposes and says that she 
is not a Communist or a member of any subversive organization." 

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 

County of Delaware. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 22d day of September 1954. 

C. I. Parks, Notary Public. 

In summary, the issues with which the Committee has been confronted and the 
conclusions which it has reached are these : 

1. Should an accusation of past membership in the Communist Party be dis- 
qualification for employment? We think it should not. An individual is entitled 
to be judged by what he is now, not by what he has been in the past. If accusa- 
tions of past membership in the Party make existence diflScult, persons will be 
discouraged from leaving the Party ; we prefer that they be encouraged to leave. 

2. Is it a disqualification for employment if a loyalty oath is declined? We 
think not. A loyalty oath is a fixed form, a doubtful means at best of ascertain- 
ing loyalty, and there are some who find it impossible for conscientious reasons 
to take such an oath. We respect the right of a person to hold such a view whether 
we agree with it or not. The pertinent evidence must be weighed; the form of 
the evidence is immaterial. 

3. Should a plea of the Fifth Amendment give rise to unfavorable inferences? 
We think not. The Fifth Amendment reflects the great principle that every man 
is innocent until proved guilty ; it states the constitutional right of every citizen 
not to give evidence which might incriminate him. If from his silence an unfav- 
orable inference is drawn — that is, if one assumes from that fact that he is 
guilty — the spirit of the amendment is violated just as much as if he were com- 
pelled to answer. The Fifth Amendment presupposes, and we know, that there 
are valid reasons for an innocent person's declining to give evidence ; we think it 
a mistake to assume in any case that an answer is declined for a bad reason. 

In employing Mrs. Knowles we have recognized that a careful inquiry into her 
present views would be wise. We have made that inquiry. It has seemed proper 
to us that she should be judged for what she is, not for what she may have been. 
In estimating her we have tried to set aside vague suspicion and to apply fair 
standards rather than arbitrary tests. In our view Mrs. Knowles meets those 
standards beyond question. 

As small a pinpoint as Plymouth Meeting is on the map of these United States, 
and as minute an issue as this appears to be in the overall support of Democracy 
itself * * * your Library Committee feels it to be an opportunity to demonstrate 
the faith of this community in the validity of a Democracy in which individual 
freedom and the general welfare are safe from violation, infringement and exploi- 
tation. 

We are deeply disturbed at the increasing encroachments on the freedom and 
integrity of the individual by irresponsible accusations, by pressures for conform- 
ity in thinking, by charges of guilt by association, rather than the presumption of 
innocence. All of these have their origin in fear and insecurity. Such practices 
strike at the root of American political philosophy. 

"There is a line — sometimes difficult to identify but always a vital demarca 
tion — between punishing for individual acts of subversion and punishing for adher- 
ence to political sentiments. Up to now, the American machinery for justice has 
operated on the premise that an individual can and should be punished for com- 
mitting specific wrongs, but not solely for holding an opinion that is heretical to 
our concept of democracy. Stealing State secrets, conspiring to advocate the 
forceful overthrow of Government or encouraging sabotage are included in the 
category of specific, punishable wrongs. Indicating an interest in Marxist philos- 
ophy or holding a membership card in the Communist Party have not been so 
included" (Time Magazine, September 27, 1954, quoting from the Providence 
Journal-Bulletin). 

Submitted by the Library Committee, William Jeanes Memorial Library, 
Plymouth Monthly Meeting of Friends. 



5530 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

Public Statement of the Library Committee of Plymouth Monthly 

Meeting 

March 7, 1955. 
To the Editor of the AmUer Gazette, Mr. William E. Straslmrg: 

Dear Mr. Stkasburg: You have asked the Committee of the William Jeanes 
Library to restate its beliefs and policies on employing Mrs. Mary Knowles. 
The Committee feels a great responsibility to all our neighbors who live in 
and around our community and who use and enjoy the William Jeanes Library. 

There are involved in this appointment principles which we hold most precious 
as members of the Religious Society of Friends, as well as citizens of the United 
States. 

Before we employed Mrs. Knowles we discussed her background, beliefs and 
associations, with her and investigated them fully by other means. We were 
aware of her use of the Fifth Amendment. We were aware of an accusation of 
past association with the Communist Party. These things sharpened our 
inquiry. Despite that we found Mrs. Knowles thoroughly competent and were 
fully satisfied as to her trustworthiness and loyalty to her country. If at any 
time evidence is presented to the contrary, Mrs. Knowles is here working every 
day in Plymouth Meeting and is avilable to the already informed officials. 

There has arisen no question about her ability. We have never had a better 
library service. Other issues with which we have been confronted are these : 

Should an accusation of association with the Communist Party 8 years ago be 
disqualification for employment? We think it should not. Certainly, in a 
Christian and democratic nation, the individual has a right to be judged on 
the merits of his particular case. If he is a person of evident character and 
there is nothing to indicate any recent association with the Communist Party, 
it would be a denial of the very ideals on which our form of government is 
founded, to so disqualify him. 

Is it a disqualification for employment if a loyalty oath is declined? Loyalty 
is a fact which goes beyond any particular form of words. The State does 
not require a loalty oath of Mrs. Knowles. As Friends we have not, and shall not 
require an oath of her, believing that truth is no stronger under oath. 

Should a plea of the Fifth Amendment give rise to unfavorable inferences? 
We think not. The right to be silent (Fifth Amendment) is equal to the right of 
free speech, free press and freedom of religion (First Amendment) . These rights 
must be respected for all persons or they are endangered for each of us. 

Finally it is suggested that one who does not cooperate with a Congressional 
Committee should be penalized by exclusion from employment in his chosen 
field. But, when silence is the exercise of a constitutional right, to penalize 
that silence would jeopardize that constitutional right. We think it impossible, 
in the name of the defense of democracy to penalize in any way the exercise 
of rights guaranteed by our Constitution. Such rights, however unpopular, 
must be available without penalty to all, or they will mean nothing to any of 
us. 

Few persons today are in a situation more uncomfortable than one accused, 
rightly or not, of association with the Communist Party. However casual the 
connection, whatever the motive, no matter what he may do to purge himself, he 
remains, for many suspect. No situation requires more Christian forbearance 
and understanding. These we have tried to employ. 

The Library Committee would like to express its gratitude to the community 
for the intelligent consideration, good will and faith extended us in this matter. 
That we have not made ourselves understood everywhere is inevitable, but from 
these principles we cannot in conscience turn aside. 

The Library Committee of the William Jeanes Memorial Library 
(Plymouth Meeting, Pa.) : 

Mrs. Paul Tapley, Chairman. 

Mr. John Archibald. 

Miss Alice AitBLER. 

Mrs. Charles Chappel. (sic) 

Mr. Ray Riday. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5531 

A Statement Concerning Civil Liberties 

Adopted By The Abington Quarterly Meetings Of Friends Held Fifth Month 7, 
1953. 

During the past 300 years the Religious Society of Friends (commonly called 
Quakers) has frequently felt called upon to give expression to ideas and to 
perform acts that have gone counter to prevailing opinion. These meetings, 
composed of some 2,300 Friends in northern Philadelphia and lower Mont- 
gomery and Bucks Counties, find themselves at this time impelled to make public 
protest against a practice and an attitude that are coming to be acceptable to 
more and more of our fellovp citizens. The practice we refer to is the attempt 
to investigate and to test loyalty by various State and Federal bodies. The 
attitude is the commonly held belief that such testing is a necessary part of our 
fight against Communism. 

Though we are aware that in so doing we lay ourselves open to a charge of 
being impractical and unrealistic, yet we affirm that perfect love does indeed 
cast out fear and that only through the power of love can trust and understand- 
ing be fostered between neighbors, as between governments. Further, it seems 
to us clear that loyalty can never be enforced. Only when our institutions, 
through their integrity to their highest ideals and through honest practice of 
their principles shall have deserved it, will they obtain the loyalty of freemen. 

We see a need — and find it difficult to understand why others do not see this 
need so clearly — for all men to be allowed to speak what they conceive to be 
the truth, even when we abhor the purpose and meaning of such expression. 
We regret the tendency, which seems to be growing, to set neighbor against 
neighbor because of differences of opinion. Such differences, it is clear to us, 
are the lifeblood of our communities, and they should be freely and fearlessly 
expressed. 

As Friends, we attempt to practice our belief that "There is that of God in 
every man." As citizens of the United States we are strongly attached to our 
belief that honest opinions honestly arrived at must be heard. We are deeply 
troubled by the growing threats to these beliefs. 

Thomas L. Knight, 
Thomas S. Ambler, 

Clerks. 
Coulter Street Meeting House 
47 W. Coulter Street 
Germantown, Philadelphia 



-5532 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 



A QUERY AND ADVICES 

ADDRESSED TO ERIENDS 
ON CIVIL LIBERTIES 

• Prcpaed by a called meeting of Friends at ScalUrgood 
School in \owa on the 2nd to 4th of Fourth Month, 1954. 

"I BELIEVED THAT LI BERTY TAS THE NATURAL RIGHT OF ALL MEN EQUALLY." - John Waolman 

'If THEY KEEP TO TRUTH. THEY CAN NEITHER TAKE ANY OATHS NOR PUT ANY OATHS TO ANYONE." - 
George Fox 

"HE THAT FEARS UNTRUTH NEED NOT SWEAR, BECAUSE HE WILL NOT LIE... AND HE THAT DOTH NOT FEAR 
UNTRUTH, WHAT IS HIS OATH WORTH'" - Williarn Peru, 

"WE UTTERLY DENY ALL OUTWARD WARS AND STRIFE, AND FIGHTINGS WITH OUTWARD WEAPONS, FOR ANY 
END, OR UNDER ANY PRETENCE WHATEVER; THIS IS OUR TESTIMONY TO THE WHOLE WORLD. 

"THAT SPIRIT OF CHRIST BY WHICH WE ARE GUIDED, IS NOT CHANGEABLE, SO AS ONCE TO COMMAND US FROM 
A THING AS EVIL, AND AGAIN TO MOVE US UNTO IT. 

"FOR THIS WE CAN SAY TO ALL THE WORLD, WE HAVE WRONGED NO MAN'S PERSON OR POSSESSION^ WE HAVE 
USED NO FORCE NOR VIOLENCE AGAINST ANY MAN, WE HAVE BEEN FOUND IN NO PLOTS, NOR GUILTY OF SEDITION, 
WHEN WE HAVE BEEN WRONGED, WE HAVE NOT SOUGHT TO REVENGE OURSELVES. WE HAVE NOT MADE RESISTANCE 
AGAINST AUTHORITY; BUT WHEREIN WE COULD NOT OBEY FOR CONSCIENCE-SAKE. WE HAVE SUFFERED... AND THE 
CAUSE OF ALL THIS OUR SUFFERING. IS NOT FOR ANY EVIL. BUT FOR THE THINGS RELATING TO THE WORSHIP OF 
OUR GOD. AND IN OBEDIENCE TO HIS REQUIRINGS OF US. -A Declaration from the people called Quakers presented to 

Charles U, upon the 21st day o/ Eleventh Morah. 1660, 

RELIGIOUS FAITH AND CIVIL LIBERTIES 



From its beginnings 300 years ago the Religious 
Society of Friends has opposed the use of force or 
violence between individuals or nations. Because we 
believe in conciliation, based on respect and love for 
all peoples, it is equally impossible for us to advocate 
the overthrow of any government by force and violence, 
or to support the war-making effort of any government. 
Our belief in that of God in every man, and in the 
essential sacredness of the individual, is unalterably 
opposed to the totalitarian way of life and its resul- 
tant totalitarian state. 



Moreovei, our nation is 


"this nation 


under God' 


and V 


»e reaffirm o 


ur unshaken con 


vice 


ion that ou 


highes 


t allegiance 


s to God. If there 


is a conflic 


"we o 


ight to obey G 


od rathe 


r than men 






Am 


erican democ 


acy wa 


s foundec 


or 


a deep re 


ligious 


faith in the 


ultimate 


worth of 


nan 


a faith tha 


man ha 


s rights and r 


esponsi 


bilities gi 


ven 


by God; tha 


free a 


en will seek 


truth 


ind right 


and 


will choose 


them 


laiher than e 


ror; th< 


t men ne 


ed 


not fear "tc 


follow 


truth whereve 


r It may 


lead, nor 


to 


olerate erro 



SO long as reason is left free to combat it". The 
founders believed that a government whose power to 
interfere with personal liberty is limited, is safer and 
better than one which prescribes conformity to any 
orthodox doctrine. We affirm our agreement with these 
principles. 

Today in a time of great social and political ten- 
sioD many Americans are losing touch with the ideals 
and sources of strength upon which this 
rests. In response to the fears and hates of wa 
fear even of their own weapons of war, they are lo 
faith in man and his relation to God; they are lo 
faith in the power of ideas freely arrived at to 
and displace error. They are losing touch with 
needs and aspirations of people in most of the re 
the world. Indeed, in their fear of Co 
are losing faith in democracy. 



Civil liberties are founded on God's gift to man of 
the ability to sc'irch for truth and the freedom to act 
on what truth he finds. This freedom can only be fully 
expressed in the social group and it should be to 
maintain the conditions most favorable to man's ex- 
ercise of his God-given rights that governments exist. 
A government which carries out this responsibility 
well is, as William Penn said, "a part of religion it- 
self, a thing sacred in its institutions and end." 

If we remember that God and not the state is the 
source of the truth men seek, then any attempt on the 
part of government to determine what men may or may 
not believe, may or may not say, will be recognized 
as a pervision of the government's function. 

The threat of Communism has caused us to forget 
these eternal truths. Yet. Communism jeopardizes our 
way of life not so much by its political and economic 
theories as by those totalitarian practices which de- 
stroy moral fiber, erase human conscience and abolish 
human freedom. A democratic government which 

attempts to protect itself aga 
ing totalitarian measures is i 



des 



t Con 

reby 

at it 


fears, 
threat 


m by adopt- 
bing to the 
No amount 
of war can 


n the freedom and in- 


spon 
think 


ible a 
ng, by 


charges of 



they 



of international tension, inti 
justify measures which are ui 
Increasing encroachment; 
legrity of the individual by 
by pressures for conformity 

guilt by association, by insistence on assertions of 
loyalty, and by the assumption of guilt, rather than the 
presumption of innocence, all have their origin in fear 
and insecurity, growing in large part out of the threat 
of war and of Communism and out of the emphasis on 
military strength and military secrecy. These are 
essential features of totalitarianism. They create an 
image of the state as the source of all truth and the 
object of unqualified loyalty. This is Idolatry, and 
strikes at the root of both American political philo- 
sophy and of basic Quaker principle. 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 



5533 



A QUERY 

Do Friends and Friends' meeiinQS seek faithfully to uphold our civil and religious 
iibertie^. not only for ourselves but for all men? 

ADVICES TO FRIENDS 

In the light of these, our ancient Truths, Friends are advised: 



X, To reaffirm their faith in the living God whose spirit 
works in the hearts of ail men and to recognize that 
God *orks to preserve the rights and liberties of men 
• s He works through them; and also to examine once 
more the underlying principles of our democracy. 

2. Since the fear of controversy often impedes us in 
the pursuit of truth, Friends are advised to welcome 
coocroversy when it arises from differing opinions 
honestly held. We should aim to develop a corporate 
witness on freedom which will match the clarity of our 
other testimonies. Through the creative use of con- 
troversy we can discover new truth, 

3- Friends are urged to be alert to dangers inherent in 
censorship, and in conditions which would limit the 
freedom of teachers to discuss current problems, and 
in movements which would seek to enforce a narrow 
orthodoxy of thought and expression. 

Since freedom of expression has no meaning unless 
there is a place where people can express their views, 
Friends are specifically encouraged to provide fa- 
cilities for the serious discussion of important, con- 
troversial issues in an atmosphere of creative goodwill. 

4. The influence of each individual in the local com- 
munity is of great importance. Monthly Meetings 

should encourage members to be alert and faithful in 
their witness to Truth, providing for group action when 
indicated. Yearly Meetings or national committees on 
civil liberties, peace or other matters can never suc- 
ceed unless the ground is prepared in the home com- 
munities. It is hoped that Friends' publications 
and organizations will give special attention to pro* 
blems of civil liberties during the critical period ahead. 

5. Friends should continue their efforts: 

To secure equal treatment for all conscientious 
objectors to military service, whether on religious or 
other grounds; 

lo change the law and the regulations to provide 
mote favorable treatment for those with conscientious 
scruples against registration for compulsory military 
service; 

To seek redress in the courts for violation of these 
rights by government in order to establish more firmly 
the legal rights of conscience and to curb abuses in 
the administration of these laws. 

Friends generally should support individuals who 
have suffered loss of their livelihood by acting under 
conscience in resisting conscription, or in opposing 
loyalty oaths, or for seeking to uphold basic civil 
and religious liberties. 

6. Friends should deal with Communists, individuals 
accused of Communism, or persons rejected by 

society for other reasons, as human beings. Without 
embracing false philosophies or condoning any error. 
Friends should still regard all people as children of 
God. If in prison they should be visited; and where 
there is need, arrangements made for their families. 

7. In the face of increasing pressure toward conformity 
• a exemplified in non*disloyalty oaths. Friends 

should re-examine their traditional testimony against 



oaths which test loyalty by words instead of deeds, 
intensify fear and suspicion, and imply guilt unless 
innocence is proven, not to mention implying a double 
standard of truth. True loyalty and allegiance can be 
attained only by conviction, not by coercion. In the 
words of the Five Years Meeting of Friends in 1945. 

allegiance is to God and if this conflicts with any 
convulsion by the state we serve our country best by 
remaining true to our higher loyalty." 

8. Friends are encouraged to exercise the responsi- 
bility of citizenship by examining carefully specific 

national issues affecting civil liberties and civil rights 
and by taking action as appropriate. ^e view with 
apprehension: the lack of protection of individual 
rights in some Congressional Committee procedures; 
the current proposals to permit wiretapping; the 
operation of the Federal Loyalty-Security program; the 
investigation of beliefs and associations by the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation; and the limitations 
placed on the issuance of passports and visas with 
adverse effect, among other things, on the holding of 
scientific and religious conferences in this country, 
as well as the free travel of American citizens abroad. 
We encourage programs of education and legislation to 
remove racial and religious discrimination and to 
guarantee equal opportunities and rights to all citi- 
zens. We advocate support of the International De- 
claration of Human Rights. 

9. In making statements to investigating officers and 
agencies, friends should be especially careful for 

the reputation of others, speaking only the objective 
facts known to them, and guarding against misquo- 
tation by making statements in writing where possible. 

10. Finally, Friends are reminded that the loss of 
civil liberties is an inevitable consequence of 



the 



olenc 



the 



curity. They have, therefore, an inescapable re- 

sponsibility to work unceasingly for the elimination of 
war through the establishment of a just economic and 
political order, disarmament and the creation of true 
world 



WITH A PROFOUND SENSE OF HUMILI FY THAT WE HAVE 
FALLEN SO FAR SHORT OF THE IDEAL REVEALED IN 
THE LIGHT GIVEN UNTO US. AND WITH A CORRESPOND- 
ING SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY TO OUR FELLOW WEN 
WE CALL ON ALL FRIENDS TO JOIN WITH US IN THE 
PURSUIT OF THESE GOALS. 



<A conference on Civil Libert! 
Friends World Committee, at the 
Yearly Meeting. 57 Friends were 
20 Yearly Meetings, The Ameri 
Committee, the Friends Committc 
lation, the Friends World Committ 
Association. This statement wg 
all Friends.) 



s was called by the 
uggestion of Pacific 
present representing 
an Friends Service 
- on National Legis- 
e, and the Lake Erie 
I issued by them to 



F.CN.L. - I5m - April. 19^4 



Copies are available free from: 

"FRIENDS WORLD COMMITTEE= 

American Section and Fellowship Council 

20 South Twelfth Street 

Philadelphia 7. PennsyUania 



5534 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

STATEMENT ON CIVIL LIBERTIES ADOPTED BY THE 
PHILADELPHIA YEARLY MEETINGS, 3/27, 1954 

The Religious Society of Friends arose in days of conflict and persecution three 
hundred years ago. Today the complex problems of national security and the preservation 
of individual liberty present an issue of vital concern to all of us. Our belief in the 
infinite worth of the individual human being and in "that of God in every man" carries 
with it a corresponding responsibility to society as a whole. 

We are deeply disturbed at the increasing encroachments on the freedom and 
integrity of the individual by irresponsible accusations, by pressures for conformity in 
thinking, by charges of guilt by association, by insistence on assertions of loyalty, and 
by the assumption of guilt, rather than the presumption of innocence. All of these have 
their origin in fear and insecurity. Such practices strike at the root of both American 
political philosophy and Friends' basic concept of man's relationship to God. 

We must reaffirm our belief in man's integrity; we must reawaken in our fellow 
men a real faith in their spiritual nature. We appeal to all men to build with Divine 
Guidance a democracy in which individual freedom and the general welfare are safe 
from violation, infringement and exploitation. 



A Statement on Civil Liberties Issued by the Representative Meeting of 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Fkiends 

To the Monthly Meetings: 

The Representative Meeting, which was originally constituted as a Meeting 
for Sufferings to help Friends and others who were suffering from persecution 
by protecting their legal rights, appealing to authorities and promoting remedial 
legislation is again concerned with the protection of civil liberties. Since civil 
liberties have been a primary concern of the Society of Friends from its beginning 
we believe it is useful for us to review from time to time our testimony on this 
subject, especially at present when our thinking requires clarification because we 
are confronted with this old issue in a new and more threatening form. 

One aspect of this concern as presented to us today is not new. Friends have 
throughout their history been concerned with upholding the civil rights of the 
Negro as a human being entitled to the same privileges and opportunities as 
other races. Our position on this question is clear and needs no further clarifica- 
tion at this time though some will want to bring about a quicli change for the 
better through the enforcement of law and others will favor more gradual 
changes as being more likely to succeed. 

Our book of Faith and Practice (1955) quoting from a statement adopted in 
1934 by both Philadelphia Yearly Meetings, states (p. 38) "that very individual 
of every race and nation is of supreme worth ; that love is the highest law of life, 
and that evil is to be overcome, not by further evil, but by good.* * * AVe believe 
in those principles, not as mere ideals for some future time, but as part of the 
eternal moral order and as a way of life to be lived here and now. * * * We 
affirm the supremacy of conscience. We recognize the privileges and obligations 
of citizenship ; but we reject as false that philosophy which sets the state above 
the moral law and demands from the individual unquestioning obedience to 
every state command. On the contrary we assert that every individual, while 
owing loyalty to the state, owes a more binding loyalty to a higher authority — the 
authority of God and conscience." 

In accordance with these principles we are concerned by the threat to civil 
liberties today due to the fear caused by the rise of Communism as a world power. 
In order to check the growth of Communism, methods have been used which 
endanger our freedom and create in our country an atmosphere of suspicion 
and mistrust. As Friends we strongly oppose Communism because, for one 
reason, it uses these same methods to produce uniformity of thought and action. 
A beginning has been made in the use of these methods in America which may 
be an entering wedge to a much greater effort. 

Friends in the past have made great sacrifices on behalf of civil and religious 
liberty, especially during the early years of Quaker history when governments 
both in England and America sought to produce unif(n-mity by the suppression 
of minorities. As Friends were the most radical of these minorities they 
aroused the most opposition and the most persecution. Friends suffered severely 
because of their disobedience to a law prohibiting attendance at a Friends 



AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 5535 

meeting, because of their refusal to pay tithes to the established church, and 
because of their refusal to take an oath. This oath included a statement of 
belief aimed primarily at Catholics. In this respect, it was similar to the loyalty 
oath today directed against Communists. Because of this refusal Friends were 
sometimes confused with those against whom the oath was directed just as they 
are today. Friends objected to the oath not only because of Christ's conunand 
against swearing but also because of its futility, its temptation to dishonesty, 
and its recognition of a double standard of truth. In the Ameri( an Revolutionary 
and Civil AVars, Friends refused to take the test oaths alth )ugh affirmation 
instesid of swearing was allowed. In their refusal to submit to conscription for 
military service they held to their principle that they must obey God leather than 
man. Friends when brought before the courts did not hesitate to take advantage 
of every possible means provided by law for their protection. This included in 
a number of cases the exercise of the legal right to refuse to answer questions 
which might incriminate them, a right much older than the Fifth Amendment. 

The Society of Friends played an important part in the long struggle for 
religious and civil liberty. For example, the philosopher. Whitehead, writes, 
•'The apostles of modern tolerance, insofar as it exists, are Erasmus, the Quakers, 
and John Locke." (Adventures of Ideas, p. 63.) The Charter granted by Penn 
to Pennsylvania declared "no person or persons * * * shall be in any case 
molested or prejudiced in his or their person or estate because of his or their 
conscientious persuasion or practice." 

In carrying forward this concern for civil liberty today we should remain 
faithful to our past inheritance. The following I'ights are among those which 
should be defended and extended : 

(1) Every man has a right to believe whatever he thinks is true. The Con- 
stitution guarantees freedom of belief and freedom of conscience. A man should 
not be convicted because of his beliefs but only because of illegal actions. Mem- 
bership in an organization of any kind should not determine guilt. AVe do not 
recognize guilt by association. 

(2) The right to employment should be based solely on fitness for the job 
and not on past beliefs, actions, or associations. Men can and do change quite 
radically and this possibility should always be taken into consideration. 

(3) The exercise of the privilege against self-incrimination, as allowed by 
the Fifth Amendment, is no evidence of guilt. Witnesses, whether guilty or 
not guilty of a crime, may exercise this privilege in order to avoid being con- 
victed of contempt of Congress when they refuse to answer certain questions 
before Congressional investigating committees. Accordingly, the right to em- 
ployment should not be abridged simply because of an appeal to the Fifth Amend- 
ment. This position was recently taken by the American Association of Uni- 
versity Professors, and also by the Supreme Court of the United States in the 
Harry Slochower case on Fourth month 9, 1956. 

(4) Friends should uphold those who cannot conscientiously testify to the 
political beliefs and associations of others. 

(5) Persons who have not been convicted of any guilty action or who may 
even be guilty only of being liberal or internationally minded or who may, 
quite innocently, have been associated with groups or persons suspected of 
being subversive, sometimes suffer severe hardship because of vague suspicions 
that they are sympathetic with Communism. While public opinion in this respect 
appears to be improving we must continually remain alert and do whatever Is 
possible to create in our country a feeling of mutual trust and confidence without 
which successful democracy is impossible. 

Because of the nature of our method of opposing Communism we may be 
unfairly accused of being passive and inactive in the struggle for personal 
freedom and the recognition of the supreme value of the individual as compared 
with that of the state. But as Paul says, "The weapons of our warfare are 
not carnal." We believe that falsehood can be fought only with truth, that 
hatred can be vanquished only by love, and that evil can be overcome only by 
good. The use of force whether under law or in war is not, as history shows, 
successful in the conflict with ideas. 

It is pointed out by those in favor of what is sometimes called "the free-enter- 
prise system" that it is only in an atmosphere of freedom that new and creative 
ideas can develop. A society dominated by the fear of being different from 
generally accepted beliefs and standards of behavior is a dead, static society. 
Friends have frequently dared to be unconventional and so have become pioneers 
in many social reforms. The pressure exerted in America today toward mass- 



5536 AWARD BY THE FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

mindedness and conformity must be resisted by those who remain faithful to 
our American ideal of civil liberty, a religious inheritance which found its first 
great expression in Penn's Holy Experiment. For the Society of Friends thi» 
Ideal is based on our conviction that in every man there is a divine Source of 
Truth. 
Fourth month 20, 1956. 



INDEX 



Individuai,s 

Page- 
Ambler, Alice 5464, 5500, 5502, 5503, 5526-5528, 5530 

Ambler, Thomas L 5531 

Archibald, John 5463, 5464, 5511, 5513, 5514, 5526, 5530 

Beatty 5519 

Bennett, Richard 5463 

Black, Maureen. ( See Ogden, Maureen. ) 

Bregy, Philip 5463, 5464^ 

Brodwick, Ray 5498 

Browning, Helen 5488, 5498, 5513, 5516, 5517 

Cadbury, Henry J 5527 

Chappie, Mary (Mrs. Charles Chappie) 5464, 

5465, 5472, 5473, 5482, 5495, 5499, 5517, 5518, 5521, 5526, 5530- 

Cooper, Mrs 5465, 546T 

Corson, Carroll 5481-5483, 5505, .5509, 5512" 

Corson, George C 5469, 5486, 5503-5510 (testimony), 5512, 55ia 

Corson, Mrs. Philip L 5464-5467, 5469, 5471, 5474, 5478, 5481, 5502, 5514 

Crawford, Emily Livezey 5510-5514 (testimony) 

Evans 5463 

Freeman, David F 5459, 5460, 5463 

Gloeckner, Fred 5463, 5465. 

Gloeckner, Louise (Mrs. Fred Gloeckner) 5464,5513 

Harley (Harrison) 552T 

Hemsley, Henry 5467, 5488, 549^5503 ( testimony ), 5513, 5516, 5517, 5521 

Hutchins, Robert 5481, 5482" 

Jeanes, William 5470, 5504 

Jones, Frank J. C 5490, 5491, 5505- 

Kirkpatrick (Dr.) 5495 

Knight, Thomas L 5531 

Knowles, Mary 5460, 5462,. 

5464-5492, 5495-5503, 5505-5509, 5511-5514, 5517-5521, 5524-5530- 

Linton, M. Albert 5463, 5465 

Loescher, Frank 5463 

Miller, Mary R. (Mrs. William Jeanes) 5484,5504,5505- 

Ogden, Maureen (nee Black) 5457-5483 (testimony), 5485, 5506, 5521, 5522 

Parks C. I _ _ _ _ 5.529' 

Philbr'ick, Herbert'l _Jl_JlJlVrJlJl~~_~__~~Jl_'l~__~Jl~l__~ 5462, 5478, 5490, 5527 

Phillips, Edna 5527, 5528- 

Foley, Irvin 546a 

Riday, Ray 5496, 5516, 5526, 5530 

Sawyer, Edith 5465, 5467^ 

5479, 5480, 5485-5487, 5495, 5496, 5503, 5504, 5519, 5520, 5526 

Severns, Hannah 5528 

Sheppard, Isaac I 5465, .5467, 5480, 5484- 

5493 (testimony) , 5496, 5497, 5504, 5512, 5513, 5516, 5517, 5521 

Sheppard, Lewis 5488, 5495, 5496, 5498, 5501, .5513, 5.516, 5517 

Sherron, Martha ^ 5507, 5512 

Shoemaker, Edith C 5472, .5473, 5506, 5510, 5512 

Sprogell, Harry E 5460, 5461, .5463, 5464, 

5467, 5468, 5472, .5474-5479, 5499, 5500, 5505, 5506, 5.521, 5-522 

Stevenson, Mrs. William E 54.58 

Strasburg, William E 5530 

Struik (Dirk Jung) 5527 

i 



li INDEX 

Page 

Taplev, Lillian P. (Mrs. Paul Tapley) 5404, 54G5, 5472. 5480-5489, 5495, 5497, 

5500-5502, 5507, 5511, 5514-5524 (testimony), 5524-5536 (statement) 

Webster, Bethiiel M 5457 

White, Gilbert 5482 

Organizations 

Americans Alerted 5462, 5464, 5479 

American Friends Service Committee. ( See Religious Society of Friends. ) 

American Legion (Casey-Sheppard Post 895) 5485,5500 

Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) 5522 

Valley Forge Chapter 5500 

Ford Foundation 5460 

Friends Committee on National Legislation. {See Religious Society of 
Friends, Committee on National Legislation.) 

Friends of the Jeanes Library Association 5461, 5462 

Friends World Committee. (.S'ee Religious Society of Friends.) 

Fund for the Republic, Inc 5457-5536 

Germantown Friends School 5463 

Jenner Committee. (See United States Government, Senate Internal 
Security Subcommittee. ) 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 5527 

Moorestown Free Library 5528 

Morrill Memorial Library (Norwood, Mass.) 5518,5520,5526,5528 

Norwood Library. ( See Morrill Memorial Library. ) 

Plymouth Monthly Meeting. {See Religious Society of Friends.) 

Religious Society of Friends 5484, 5489, 5531 

Abington Quarterly Meeting of Friends 5525, 5531 

American Friends Service Committee 5463, 5527, 5533 

Committee on National Legislation 5526, 5533 

Friends World Committee 5533 

Lake Erie Association 5533 

Pacific Yearly Meeting 5533 

Philadelphia Yearly Meeting 5461, 5525, 5534 

Plymouth Monthly Meeting 5457-5536 

Samuel Adams School 5462, 5478, 5485, 5518-5520, 5526, 5527 

Simmons University 5527 

United States Government, Senate Internal Security Subcommittee 5462, 

5475-5477, 5480, 5518 

"Veterans of Foreign Wars 5522 

William Jeanes Memorial Library 5460, 

5484, 5491, 5492, 5498, 5499, 5515, 5525 

Library Committee 5462, 5464, 5467, 5470, 5473-5475, 

5478, 5484-5401, 5494-5500, 5503, 5507, 5508, 5511-5521, 5524-5530 

Publications 

Ambler Gazette__^ 5466, 5525, 5530 

Conshohocken Recorder 5464-5466 

Norristown Times Herald 5525 

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