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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the Albany, N.Y., area. Hearings"

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t INVESTIGATioToTcOMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 



ALBANY, N. Y., AREA-Part 1 



* ^ A.-. 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-THIED CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



JULY 13 AND 14, 19r.3 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



IXCLUDIXG INDEX 





UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRIXTIXG OFFICE 
37740 WASHINGTON : 1953 



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T'Ofton Public l^i^rary 
Superintendent of Documents 

§ €T7 Ib &a 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 
BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, JR., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kunzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Russell, Chief Investigator 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon. Director of Reseat -yn 

II 



f^ 



CONTENTS 



July 13, 1953: Page 

Testimony of Patrick Walsh 2363 

July 14, 1953: 

Testimony of — 

Nicholas Campas 2417 

Jack Dayis 2440 

Morris Ziickman 2454 

Janet Scott 2455 

Sarah Kaufman 2459 

Louis Geller 2462 

Index 2466 

m 



Public Law 601, T9th Congress 

Tlie legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2cl session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and Houae of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



( (J ) ( 1 ) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is autliorized to mal^e from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of im-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda tliat is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such in- 
vestigation, together with such lecommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the cliairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83d CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 
• •***•• 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
the following standing committees: 

******* 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

RtTLE XI 

POWEBS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee vn Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make fi'om time to time, investigatiou.s of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within tlie United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and i?>) all other (luestions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purjiose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not tlie House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by sucli chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
ALBANY, N. Y., AREA— Part 1 



MONDAY, JULY 13, 1953 

United Stai'es House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee 

ON Un-American Activities, 

Alba7iy^ N. Y. 

PUBLIC hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 : 30 a. m., in courtroom No. 1 of the Federal 
Building, xYlbany, N. Y., Plon. Bernard W. Kearney (chairman of the 
subcommittee ) presiding. 

Committee members present : Eepresentatives Bernard W. Kearney 
(presiding) and Gordon H. Scherer. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; Thomas 
W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk; James A. Andrews, and Earl L. Fuoss, 
investigators; and jMrs. Rosella Purely, secretary to counsel. 

Mr. Kearney. The hearing will be in order. 

Mr. Reporter, let the record show that, acting under authority of 
the resolution establishing the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities, the chairman has set up a subcommittee for the purpose ot 
conducting hearings in the city of Albany composed of the following 
members : Hon. Bernard W. Kearney, chairman, the Honorable Gor- 
don Scherer, and the Honorable James B. Frazier, Jr., the first two of 
whom are present. Mr. Frazier will be here tomorrow afternoon. 

The committee is charged by the Congress of the United States with 
the responsibility of investigating the extent, character and objects 
of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, the diffu- 
sion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries, or of a domestic origin, 
and attacks the principles of the form of government as guaranteed 
by our Constitution and all other questions in relation thereto that will 
aid Congress in any necessary remedial legislation. 

It has been fully established by testimony before this and other 
congressional committees and before the courts of our land that the 
Communist Party of the United States is part of an international 
conspiracy, which is being used as a tool or a weapon by a foreign 
power to promote its own foreign policy and which has for its objec- 
tive the overthrow of the governments of all non-Communist coun- 
tries, resorting to the use of force and violence if necessary. This 
organization cannot live and expand within the United States except 
by the promulgation and diffusion of subversive and un-American 
propaganda designed to win adherence to its cause. 

2361 



2362 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIKS IX THE ALBAXY AREA 

The first witness in this liearin*; will testify regarding certairi 
aspects of the worldwide Coinniimist conspiracy, which should 
demonstrate wliat a serious matter it is to i)ermit individuals who are 
subject to the directives and discipline of the Communist Party to be 
placed in positions of leadership in any functional organization. 

The committee, in its course of investigation, came into possession 
of reliable information indicating Communist Party activities with- 
in the Albany area. The committee decided that this information was 
of such a character as to merit an investigation to determine its nature, 
extent, character, and objects. 

Many witnesses have appeared before this committee, sitting in 
various places throughout the United States, and have revealed their 
experiences as former Communist Party members. Such testimony 
has added immeasurably to the sum total of the knowledge, character, 
extent, and objects of Communist activities in this country. 

Witnesses from Hollywood, labor unions, the legal profession, med- 
ical profession, and other groups have made a great contribution to 
the defense of our country by disclosing to this committee facts w^ithin 
their knowledge. 

In the view of this committee, such testimony should not be held 
against an individual where it has that character of trustworthiness 
which convinces one that the witness has completely and finally ter- 
minated Communist Party membership and that such testimonj' has 
been given in all good faith. 

The committee is not concerned wdth the political beliefs or opinions 
of any witness wdio has been called before it. It is concerned only 
with the facts showing the extent, character, and objects of the Com- 
munist Party activities. 

In keeping with the long-standing policy of this committee, any 
individual or organization whose name is mentioned during the course 
of the hearings in such a manner as to adversely affect them shall have 
an opportunity to appear before the committee for the purpose of 
making a denial or explanation of any adverse references. 

I would also like at this time, before the beginning of these hear- 
ings, to make this announcement to the public : We are here at the 
discretion of the Congress of the United States, trying to discharge 
a duty and obligation that has been placed upon us. The public is 
here by permission of the committee and not by any compulsion. Any 
attempt or effort on the part of anyone to make a demonstration or 
audible comment in this hearing room, either favorably or unfavor- 
ably, toward the committee's undertaking, or to what any wntness 
may have to say, will not be countenanced by the committee. If such 
conduct shoulcl occur, the officers on duty will be requested to eject 
the offenders from the hearing room. 

Mr. Counsel, are you ready to proceed ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Call your fii-st witness. 

Mr. Taatsnner. I Avould like to call as the first witness Mr. Pat- 
rick Walsh. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Walsh, will you hold up your riglit hand, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this committee shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Walsh. I do. 

Mr. Kearney. Be seated. 



COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2363 

TESTIMONY OF PATRICK WALSH 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Walsli, will you state your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Walsh. Patrick Walsh. 

Mr. TA\^ENNER. Wlieii and where were you born ? 

Mr. Walsh. I was born in Quebec City, Canada, on March the 
17th, 1916. 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you spell your last name ? 

Mr. Walsh. W-a-1-s-h. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Walsh, it is the practice of this committee to 
explain to every witness that he has the right to be accompanied by 
counsel and he has the right to consult counsel at any time during the 
course of his testimony that he may desire to do so. It is noted you 
do not have counsel with you. Do you desire counsel? 

Mr. Walsh. No ; I do not desire counsel. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Are you a citizen of the United States, Mr. Walsh? 

Mr. Walsh. No ; I am a citizen of Canada, 

Mr. Ta\^enner. Mr. Walsh, the purpose of the committee in having 
you appear before it is to question you regarding certain aspects of the 
Communist international conspiracy with which we are informed you 
are familiar. 

I think I should state at the outset it is not the purpose of the com- 
mittee to inquire into any matter which is strictly a Canadian Govern- 
ment matter, or a Canadian matter. We are concerned only with the 
international aspects of communism. However, it is necessary, we 
feel, in order that the committee may properly understand your testi- 
mony, that 3^ou give to the committee in a general way what your back- 
ground has been in the Communist Party so that they may properly 
evaluate your testimony. So, I will ask you to give the committee a 
brief statement of your experience in the Communist Party, bearing 
in mind that we do not desire to go into matters in detail which are 
strictly Canadian matters. 

Mr. Walsh. When I was about 17 or 18 years old, I joined the 
Unemployed Youth Organization in Quebec City; and I was subse- 
quently sent to unemployment camps which we had in Canada at that 
time, which was something like your CCC camps in the United States, 
and there I met organizers of the Young Communist League, includ- 
ing Harry Binder, who then persuaded me to join the Young Com- 
munist League. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name Binder ? 

Mr. Walsh. B-i-n-d-e-r. 

And then after following courses in Marxism in Montreal, one of 
my professors being Fred Rose, who was arrested in the Canadian spy 
trials of 1946 and was tried and sentenced after being found guilty of 
having conspired to pass on highly secret information to personnel of 
the Soviet Embassy — and Fred Rose was the one who was responsible 
for having me sent as a Communist Party organizer to the mining 
districts of northwestern Quebec — more specifically in the Rouyn and 
Noranda section. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell it, please ? 

Mr. Walsh. Rouyn is spelled R-o-u-y-n, and Noranda — N-o- 
r-a-n-d-a. 



2364 COMMUNIST ACTIMTIKS IX THK ALBANY AREA 

I was in that district a<ritatin<r in the niinehehls and in the lumber 
camps for the ^Yorkers" Unity Leaiiiu', whicli was the Conniiunist 
Party oriranizatiou at that time in Canaihi, from lOoT to 1940. 

In 1040, I was ordered to enlist in the Canadian Armv so as to 
carry on revolutionary defeatism because the line of the Comnninist 
Party at that time was a<i;ainst wliat they called an im])erialist war. I 
was subsequently dishonorably discharoed from the Army alxHit 4 
months later because of subversive activities in the course of the stay 
that I was in the Army, 

My next assignment was to infiltrate at the Shipshaw powerhouse 
project, which was a top-secret Avar plant being built by the Alumi- 
num Co. of Canada and which had as its purpose 

Mr. Tavennf:r. Will you spell the name, please? 

Mr. Walsh. Shi])shaw — S-h-i-p-s-h-a-w. It is situated in northern 
Quebec, in the Lake St. John district. I believe it is the second great- 
est powerhouse in the world. 

And I went up to Shipshaw on this top assignment, and I was 
instrumental in getting about 150 top (>)mmunists who came to this 
powerhouse project and who worked for about 2 yeai's without any 
of the newspapers knowing about it or without au}^ of the public at 
large beinor made aware that such a laro^e concentration of Communists 
were woi'king at the Shipshaw powerhouse. 

I wish to state at that time that the Communist Party was declared 
illegal in Canada, in 1939. 

At the outset of the war and in 1941 the Canadian Conniiunists or- 
ganized a new party called the Labor Progressive Party, which had 
the same leaders and practically the same program. It was only modi- 
fied in the sense so as not to run afoul of the War INIeasures Act, and 
the name of the organization is more connnonly known in Canada as 
the LPP. 

Mr. Tavenneh. Do I understand, then, that the LPP carried on 
the same functions as the Communist Party of Canada carried on 
prior to the adoption of the War Measures Act ? 

Mr. Walsh. Precisely. They carried them on until the party line 
changed. When the Soviet Union was attacked by the Nazi troops — 
and that is why our methods were also changed, along Avitli the somer- 
sault in the party line, because the imperialist war had become a war 
of liberation and because the Soviet Union was attacked — we were 
told that we should all enlist in the Canadian Army; we could all 
donate our blood to the Red Cross ; and we should work overtime with- 
out asking for any pay, and we should even break strikes because 
there was no more question of making any. There was only the ques- 
tion of winning the war in order to help the Soviet Union resist the 
attack of the Nazi armies. 

I do not want to go into detail on my Shipshaw assignment because 
of the fact that in this particular instance the interests of Canada and 
the interests of the Soviet Union coincided, and for once tlie Com- 
munists were what we might term patriotic, although they had mo- 
tives of their own for so acting. 

But in 1943 I was ordered again to attempt reenlistment in the 
Canadian Armed Forces and succeeded in reenlisting and in going 
overseas; and here again I was in contact with cells of the Communist 
Partv which were very active and verv strong in the Canadian Armed 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2365 

Forces — in the Air Force, in the Navy, and in the Army — and our 
main task at that time was to carry on the agitation for tlie opening 
of a second front, which had been going on ever since 1942. 

Mr. Taat.nner. I think it would be well for you to tell the com- 
mittee the nature of the work you did in the armed services in promo- 
tion of the Communist Party line of opening the second front. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, in Great Britain, in 11)43, Conmiunist Party 
meinbei's who were in the armed forces used to meet secretly in 
London, Glasgow, Aldershot, Farnborough, and various other places 
Avhere the Canadian Army units were concentrated, and there every- 
body was urged by sucli top Counnuuists as Harry Binder, whom I 
mentioned previously, JeriT McManus, Gui Caron, Norman Neren- 
berg 

Mr. Tavkxxer. Will you spell the name, please? 

Mr. AYalsh. Gui Caron is spelled G-u-i, and Caron — C-a-r-o-n. 
Today he is the provincial leader of the LPP. 

]SIr. Ta\T5Xner. And the LPP is the organization which succeeded 
the Communist Party organization? 

Mr. Walsh. Exactly. It is the new nauie of the Communist Party. 

And at these meetings we wei'e urged to create agitation in the 
army for the opening of a second front, and we ascertained by meet- 
ing with various Australian and New Zealand Army personnel — 
naturally the same thing was being carried out by the Communists 
in all these armies, that is, to carry on the agitation to open up the 
second front because at that time the Communist Party line every- 
where was to the effect that the Eed army was being bled to death 
because it was fighting alone whereas the Allied armies were remain- 
ing idle in Great Britain and elsewhere. 

We also attended meetings of the Communist Party of Great Britain, 
which were held ])ublicly, and we also uianaged to get in on the ques- 
tion periods, Avhich followed these meetings, and here, too, Canadian 
Counnuuists and American Communists who were often in the audi- 
ence were very active in clamoring for the opening of the second 
front. 

Mr. Ta\tex^ner. Did j-ou become personally acquainted with any of 
the American members of the Armed Forces in Europe who were 
engaged in work of that character ? 

Mr. AValsh. AVell, I often met members of the Armed Forces in 
American uniform at meetings, but I do not recall specifically any 
names except "comrade^" which was the term that was used be'tweeii 
Canadian and American Communists, because at these meetings we 
were in the public eye and we came there to discuss and to guide along 
the party line. So I do not recall the names of any American Commu- 
nists who participated in these meetings. 

Now, to continue, the second front was eventually opened in 1944, 
and many of us, including myself, who had clamored so long for 
the opening of this second front — as soon as we found ourselves on 
the Continent, we began in our spare time to contact the Communist 
Parties of France and Belgium and to actively take part in various 
work w'hich French-speaking comrades could do there. 

I, myself, was ai-rested in France in August 1944, near Cannes, and 
was taken back to England for having spoken at a meeting of the 
Communist Party of France. 



2366 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ALBANY AREA 

When I returned from the army overseas, I became general organ- 
izer of the Canadian Congress of Labor, which is tlie counterpart of 
tlie CIO in the United States of America here, and my nomination to 
t hat i:)osition was arranged by the Communist Party because of the fact 
that the Communist Party at that time had considerable influence, 
liaving complete control over such CIO unions as the Fur and Leather 
Workers, the United Electrical Radio and ^Machine Workers, and the 
International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter AVorkers, which then 
formed an important sector of the Canadian Congress of Labor. 

I was general organizer for 6 months, and then I got a new assign- 
ment to resign from the Canadian Congress of Labor so that I could 
participate in a plan Avhich Communists everywhere — in Great Brit- 
ain, France, Italy, the United States of America, Canada, and other 
countries — were carrying on, that is, the infiltration of veteran 
organizations. 

I infiltrated into the Canadian Legion, which is the counterpart 
of your American Legion here, and in 1947 I was elected president 
of the United Veterans branch of Quebec City, and at the Provincial 
convention I was elected Provincial \dce president, and in that capac- 
ity carried on instructions of the Labor Progressive Party so as to 
implement as much as possible the Communist line at all meetings and 
discussions. 

However, the | Canadian] Legion took drastic steps to weed out the 
Communists and before 1 was expelled I received another assignment, 
and this assignment was to take part in the Canadian seamen's deep- 
sea strike of 1949. 

Mr. Ta\enner. Let me stop you there a moment. Did you mean to 
indicate that you were expelled b,y the Legion or that you took this 
assignment before time permitted you to be expelled? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, it was quite obvious that I had a rendezvous with 
expulsion because of the other Conniumists who had been expelled 
previously, and I was scheduled to be expelled. So the Communists 
decided that I would be assigned to other work, and at the same time — 
it was probably a coincidence— there was this question of the forth- 
coming CSU — Canadian Seamen's Union strike, where the Canadian 
Communists particularly Manted me to participate because of my 
trade-union experience and because of my knowledge of the conti- 
nental Communist Parties in Europe, and also because I could speak 
both languages, because the Canadian Seamen's Union had brought 
French-Canadian and English-Canadian seamen among their mem- 
bership. 

Mr. TavenNer. Then, you say it was at this time, before action had 
been taken to expell j'^ou from the Legion, that you got this new assign- 
ment. Who gave you that assignment ? 

Mr. Walsh. This assignment was given to me by J. B. Salsberg, 
who was and is the trade union commission director of the Labor 
Progressive Party, which is the Communist Party, and Salsberg, as 
trade union commission director, is the Communist who is responsible 
for SAvitching Communist organizers from one union to another and 
to be in control, in overall control, of all Communist-dominated 
unions like the United Electrical Workers; the Mine, Mill, and Smelt- 
er Workers; the Fur and Leather Workers; the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards, and so on and so forth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name, please ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2367 

Mr. Walsh. The Marine Cooks and Stewards? 

Mr. Tavenner. No ; I meant Salsberg. 

Mr. Walsh. S-a-1-s-b-e-r-g, and his initials are J. B. 

Mr. Taat-:nner. Will you tell the committee, please, just Avhat part 
the Canadian Seamen's* Union was expected to play in tliis strike— 
whether it was just purely a local strike or whether it was a strike 
having greater significance than that? 

Mr. Walsh. At that time I was not aware of the vastness and the 
consequences of this strike because, first of all, not having been a 
seaman I couldn't estimate exactly what consequences a strike would 
eventually bring about; but I went along and saw Salsberg. We 
had a meeting in the Communist Party office in Toronto, and at this 
meeting, among others who attended, were members of the National 
Trade Union Commission, such well-known Communists 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment . The National Trade Union Com- 
mission was what type of an organization? 

Mr. Walsh. It is a Communist trade-union section within the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then, I understand that this was not a legitimate 
trade union, but was a commission of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Walsh. Exactly: a kind of controlled commission to look after 
the organizers wdio belonged to the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, will you give us the name of that commission 
again ? 

Mr. Walsh. The trade union commission. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Walsh. Of the Labor Progressive Party. 

Mr. Ta\T2NNer. Which was the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Walsh. Which was the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of Canada? 

Mr. Walsh. That's right. 

Mr. Kearney. May I interrupt at this point, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. At this meeting were there any individuals allowed 
to be present other than members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Walsh. No ; it was a higlily secret affair and only the members 
of the Communist Party — and in this particular instance not one of 
them had less than 20 years' experience in the Communist Party, 
They were all top Communist Party organizers. 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, they were the top echelon of the 
Communist Party oi-ganizers? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; that is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, where did this meeting take place ? 

Mr. Walsh. This meeting took place in the Communist Party build- 
ing in 83 Christie Street in Toronto. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. Can you fix the date of the meeting, or the approxi- 
mate date ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, it was some time at the beginning of August 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, will you tell the committee again, please, be- 
cause I interrupted you, just what occurred at tliis meeting? 

This is the meeting, I understand, which Mr. Salsberg directed your 
attendance. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, to explain to you how the seriousness of this meet- 
ing — I will say that some of the people who attended this meeting are 



2368 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

"well kii(A\ 11 aiii()ii<^ Canadian trade unionists, are old-time Communists, 
and all of them have been expelled at one time or another from both 
the AFL and CIO for Communist activities and for faithfully fol- 
lowiiio- the Conmiunist Party line. For example, there was George 
Harris, who is the secretary-treasurer of the United Electrical Workers. 

Mr. Tavknnek. You mean who held that position at that time 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Or at the present? 

Mr. Walsh. And still holds it at this time. 

Mr.TAvENNER. Will you s))ell the name, please? 

Mr. Walsh. Harris — H-a-r-r-i-s. 

Duerr Ferguson 

Mr. Kearney. Is that of the Canadian branch or 

Mr. Walsh. That is the Canadian district. 

Mr. Kearney. Canadian district. 

Mr. Walsh. Duerr Ferguson, who was formerly the CSU vice- 
president and is now an organizer for the Fur and Leather Workers' 
Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the first name, please ? 

Mr. Walsh. Duerr — D-u-e-r-r ; Ferguson — F-e-r-g-u-s-o-n. 

At this ])oint I would like to beg the indulgence of the committee 
foi- my heavy French accent, because I am more accustomed to speak- 
ing French and I have been so long in Europe and in the French- 
.si)('akiiig part of Canada that my English might be a little difficult 
to understand. So, I don't want you to hesitate if I say something 
1 do not make clear enouoh 



"fci^ 



Mr. Taahnner. Let me suggest that you do not speak quite so 
rapidly. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; that is all right. 

Oscar Roy — Roy is R-o-y — who is a former organizer of the Inter- 
national Union of Mine, IMill, and Smelter Workers and who today 
is the official Communist LPP candidate in the Timmins constituency. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell Timmins. 

Mr. Walsh. Timmins — -T-i-m-m-i-n-s. 

Now, all these people were all old-time wheelhoi^ses of the Com- 
munist Party in Canada. As I mentioned before, all of them have 
at least 20 years of experience and membership in the Communist 
Party and in the unions that have been dominated by the Communists, 
and most of them are known for their allegiance to Moscow's orders 
rather than to their own membership's needs and requirements. 

Now, when I got into Salsberg's office, he spread out a chart of the 
Atlantic Ocean on the floor, and on this chart there were miniature 
drawings of all of the ships which were under CSU contract at that 
time. The Canadian Seamen's Union at that time had a membership 
of 10,000 and had contracts with the Great Lakes Ship Owners and 
Deep Sea Ship Owners, and on the Atlantic coast there were about 85 
ships that were under CSIT contract. 

STow, Salsberg had all the names of those ships and he also had a 
list alongside of each ship which included the complete crew. 

Now, some of these lists were typed in black, some were typed in 
red. and others were )inderlined. Those that were typed in black 
were what they called the non-Communist crew members, who were 
not sufficiently politicized to be in the party. The names that were 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANTT AREA 2369 

typed in red were members of the Marine Club, whicli is the maritime 
section of the Communist Party, or the Labor Progressive Party, and 
Salsberg told me that the underlined ones belonged to the M-Apparat. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell that, please? 

Mr. Walsh. Apparat is spelled A-p-p-a-r-a-t. 

Mr. Tavexxer. What does that term mean? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, to top Connnunists who were familiar with the 
Comintern in the days before it was dissolved and replaced by the 
Cominform, the M- Apparat was the Maritime Apparat, which was 
the worldwide international organization of top Communist agitators 
aboard ships and among the dock Avorkers. 

I am going to deal at length later on with the new organization 
Avliich has taken on a new name. So, I do not want to go into too 
much detail at this moment about the work of these Apparat agents 
on board the ships. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Witness, I nnderstand that during this whole 
period that you have testified about and about which you are going 
to testify, your primary loyalty was to the Communist Party and the 
Soviet Union and not to the Canadian Govermneiit or to the labor 
unions with which you were affiliated; is that a correct statement? 

Mr. Walsh. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavexner. Now, you were describing to the committee the 
explanation that J. B. Salsberg was making to you at the time he had 
the map of the world on the f^oor in front of you. Will you proceed, 
please, sir? 

Mr. Walsh. Salsberg explained to me that the CSU deep-sea strike 
was forthcoming and that it was the desire of the ])arty that I should 
take an active part in this strike and that I should go on a ship as 
a seaman and prepare the groundwork in the various ]:)orts of Europe 
in order to be able to be assured of the solidarity of the Avorkers who 
Avere also Communist-controlled and to carry on what we call liaison 
work with the various sectors of the maritime section of the pai'ty. 

As I pointed out before, Salsberg stressed the fact that I was French- 
speaking and they were having a little trouble with the French-Cana- 
dians who were very anti-Communist and that my presence in the 
union, both on shore and on ships, would contribute to win over the 
French-Canadian membership to follow the party line when the time 
came for a strike. 

Mr. Tavexxer. May I ask you at that point : Did I understand that 
at this meeting with Salsberg these other pei-sons whom you mentioned 
were present also ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; they were present throughout, but generally it is 
only Salsberg who spoke — and in this instance Ferguson, who was 
the CSU vice president, also had a word to say every once in a while, 
but it was Salsberg who was the main speaker; and generally — I've 
attended probably hundreds of these trade-union commission meet- 
ings and Connnunist Part-7 discipline always underlines the fact that 
directives should only be given by the trade-union commission director, 
which was and still is J. B. SalsJberg. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Well, did Mr. Salsberg describe why you had been 
chosen to perform this particular assignment in any manner other 
than what you have described ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, as I pointed out. one of the main reasons was 
because I Avas known as a Comnuinist who liad experience abroad; that 



2370 COMAIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

I had been to Europe and that I had been in touch with the Communist 
Parties in France and Belgium and Holhmd, and because — at this 
point I wish to state that I forgot to mention that after being arrested 
and sent to England I was not given a trial because the end of the 
war was approaching, and that I wasn't the only one who was arrested, 
and I was sent back to the Continent. 

Mr. ScHERi'^R. May I again interrupt, jSIr. Counsel? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir, 

Mr. ScHEREK. Your arrest on the Continent arose out of some 
speeches you made at Connnunist meetings after you arrived with the 
Army ; is that right? 

Mv. Walsh. That's correct. 

Mr. ScHERER, I would be interested to know what the agitation was 
among the French and Belgian Communists that you advocated at that 
particular time. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, at that particular time, for example, in France, 
the agitation of the Communist Party was to bring pressure upon the 
new de Gaulle government, so that the Communist Party chieftain, 
Maurice Thorez, who had deserted the French Army and had hidden 
away in Moscow during the whole war — so that he could be pardoned 
and brought back to France, and that the Communist Party could 
take over a leading part in the new French Government. 

Mr. ScHERER. These directives all came from the Soviet Union ; is 
that right? 

Mr. Walsh. All lliese directives were being funneled through by 
Connnunist Party leaders in Great Britain to the soldiers, and we on 
the continent were continually getting Connnunist propaganda from 
Canada and from Great Britain, and we knew what the Communist 
Party line Avas all the time. 

Now, when we came to France we got copies of L'Humanite, the 
organ of the P\'encli Communist Party, and also got copies of the 
Drapeau Rouge, which was the organ of the Belgian Communist 
Party. 

jNlr. SciiERER. There is no question in your mind, hoAvever, but that 
these directives originated in the Soviet Union, no matter what sources 
were used through which they were funneled to you ? 

Mr. Walsh. Ko; there was absolutely no hesitation in my mind 
because [Maurice] Thorez, the French Communist Party leader, was 
speaking every day over Moscow radio and urging the French Com- 
nmnists to agitate for his reentry into the country. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name? 

Mr. Walsh. Thorez — T-h-o-r-e-z — and his first name is Maurice — 
M-a-u-r-i-c-e. 

Mr. Kearney. You say that for your activities in this connection 
you were brought to England under arrest. Did you later receive an 
honorable discharge from the Canadian Army ? 

IMr. Walsh. I didn't get your question, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you later receive an honorable discharge from 
the ('anadian Army? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes; I was honorably discharged. That was after 
the ^ 

Mr. KpixRNEY. That was after the first discharge, which was dis- 
honorable, and you wtre allowed, when the Communists were taken in 
the army, to reenlist? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2371 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; that is correct, because the Canadian Government 
at that time was led to believe that the Communists were cooperating 
wholeheartedly in the war effort, and all Communists were allowed 
to enlist in the Canadian Army. 

Mr. Kearney. So that wdien you were finally discharged you were 
given an honorable discharge'^ 

Mr. Walsh. I was given an honorable discharge, as were hundreds 
of other Connnunists who took part in Communist agitation in the 
armed forces. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did the Communists take credit for the opening of a 
second front in Connnunist Party circles ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes; the Communists always exploit these things, even 
when they are not responsible for them. So, in this particular in- 
stance, they clamored in party organs, from Australia to Iceland and 
from Moscow^ to Toronto, that the second front was opened because 
of pressure being brought by Communists of the world for the opening 
of a second front. 

Mr. Kearney. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe j^ou were describing the reasons why you 
were assigned to this particular task in the Canadian Seamen's Union. 
Had you had any previous experience as a seaman? 

Mr. Walsh. No ; I had no experience whatsoever as a seaman, and 
I was a little reluctant to take on this assignment because I told Sals- 
berg that I didn't know the bow from the stern of a ship, and Salsberg 
laughed and told me the national secretarj^-treasurer of the union, 
T. G. McManus, had never been on a ship in his life and that I shouldn't 
worry about these things, that everything would be arranged so that 
1 wouldn't have any difficulty. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you accept the assignment when Salsberg 
requested you to accept it or were you told to accept it ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, in the Communist Party you haven't got the 
choice. When you're ordered to do something, you just do it. So, 
I did it. 

Mr. ScHERER. You mean they have no freedom in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Walsh. No; there's absolutely no democracy in the Commu- 
nist Party, especially when you get in the top echelons, and you're 
just ordered to do these things and you just do it. 

Mr. Kearney. That is a little contrary explanation to the explana- 
tion of Communist leaders throughout the world, isn't it? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes, but the facts bear it out. I don't think Comrade 
Beria was consulted about whether he was to be arrested or not. 
Mr. Tavenner. What were you told to do ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I was told that I would go to Montreal and that 
Harry Binder, whom I have mentioned previously, and whose name 
will come up quite frequently because he is one of the top Communist 
organizers in Quebec Province, and he has taken the place of Fred 
Rose. So, I wish to mention that because I will mention Mr. Binder's 
name quite often. I was told to report to Harry Binder and that 
Binder would give me further instructions and other details about 
how I should get on a ship and become a member of the Canadian 
Seamen's Union. 

37740— 53— pt. 1- — -2 



2372 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ALBANY AREA 

So, 1 repoi'ted hack to ^Montreal, and I Avent to Communist Party 
headquarters on St. Catherine Street — 254 East St. Catherine Street — 
to be exact, and there Harry Binder told me I was to ^o to Quebec City 
and tliat Ray Collette. who was tlie business agent of the Canadian 
Seamen's Union for Quebec Port, would see to it that I got on a 
ship. 

Afr. Tavexxer. Spell it. 

Ml'. Walsh. Collette, as spelled, C^-o-l-l-e-t-t-e. His first name is 
Ray, for Raymond. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Did you go to see Mr. Collette? 

Ml". AValsh. Yes: I went to see Collette. Immediately after I went 
to Montreal, I went to Quebec, and the next day I sailed out of Quebec 
for Hamburg. 

If you are interested in how I got on the ship, I think it is M'orth 
while explaining, because it shows the typical brutal fashion in whicli 
the (^nninmists carry out such assignments. 

The steamshij) Mont RoUand had left Montreal the day before. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Spell the name, please. 

Mr. Walsh. Rollfnul—R-o-l-l-a-n-d. 

It was a l(),000-ton cargo ship, and it had a stopover at Quebec 
Port, and Collette, myself, and two other CSU strong-arm men — we 
went aboard the ship and we told the galley boy to pack his belong- 
ings and to get otf the ship, and when the galley boy protested the 
strong-arm men just grabbed him, along Avith his baggage, and the 
captain wasn't consulted, or anything, and the ship sailed a few hours 
after, and I was the galley boy. 

Ml'. Tavenxer. AVell, did you perforin the duties of a galley boy 
in the various voyages of the ship? 

Mr, Walsh. No; I soon discovered that the galley boy was a job 
which you probably know is — he keeps the galley clean and peels 
potatoes, and I thought it was a very tedious job at first, the first few 
hours I got on there, but no sooner had I been on than I was told 
George Scordas — S-c-o-r-d-a-s — who was the leader of the Commu- 
nists on board the ship, that seamen on the deck would come into the 
galley every day and do the work I was supposed to do, and for 
which I was being paid, and that I should go back aft in my quarters 
and do work on the typewriter and take care of the Communist library, 
]:)repai'e for the ship's meetings which we held every week, and to 
carry on classes in Marxism. So, I soon discovered that I was a privi- 
leged passenger aboard the ship. 

Mr. Tavenner. Before you describe what you were to do in carrying 
out the mission that had been given you by Mr. Salsberg, I would like 
for you to first tell the committee whether or not this seamen's strike, 
which was being prepared for at that time, was part of an international 
conspiracy aimed at the shipping of the world. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes; I will prove later on in my testimony that this 
strike was a political strike which had no bona fide trade-union prin- 
ciples involved whatsoever and that it was being ordered by the Comin- 
form, which is the international section and which faithfully carries 
out the dictates of the Soviet Union, that this strike was being organ- 
ized with the end in view of tying up shipping in ports all over the 
world so that Marshall plan shipments would not be delivered in time 
or the cargoes would rot and at the same time it was expected to 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2373 

deal i\ crippling- blow to the Atlantic Pact which the Conimiinists were 
vio-orously opposiii*; at that time all over Europe. 

]Mr. '^A^■K.vx^■.K. Wliat was the particular function that you were to 
perforin in helpino; to prepare for what you later found to be the 
conspiracy which you have descril)ed? 

JNIr. Walsit. Well, 1 found out that my particular function was to 
contact the Connnunist dockers' unions in all the ports that my ship 
visited, and it a\ as merely to coutirm and to assure, to be assured, that 
these dockers, the unions, would ))ledge solidarity strikes wdien Ave 
would tie up the shi})s in these ports, so that shippinjr would effectively 
be paralyzed. 

So, in all the ports to which I went. 1 immediately oot in touch with 
Communist Party headquarters or with headquarters of the various 
dockers' unions, in jiorts like London, Hamburg, Antwerp, Genoa, 
ISaples, Bari, Izmir, and so on and so forth. 

Mr. Sriif:KEK. AVliat reasons did the Communist group offer to the 
rank and file of the labor unions for tying up the shipping'^ You 
didn't tell them the truth, did you ^ 

Mr. AValsii. No. AVell. as always in these things, what we said 
public!}' and what we did secretly were two different things. We had 
to tell the rank and file that negotiations were being stalled by the 
shipowners, because the shipowners were not going to play ball with 
the union, and so on and so forth : but in reality the preparations were 
going on all the time for this strike. Whether the shipowners signed 
the contract or agreed to sign the contract or not, the preparations were 
going on and we didn't bother or care about the negotiations which 
ofKcially were going on. 

^fr. Keakxey. Where did the oi'ders for this strike come from? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, the original orders came from Vassili Vavilkin, 
Avho was in complete charge of the martime — I will spell that: 
Vassili — V-a-s-s-i-1-i — his first name; and his second name is 
Vavilkin — V-a-v-i-1-k-i-n. 

Vavilkin is the Russian Communist who is today and at that time 
was in charge of the maritime a])paratus of the Cominform, and today 
he is the secretary. He is the first vice president of the World Fed- 
eration of Trade Unions' section, Avhich is known as the Seamen and 
Dockers International. 

Mr. ScHERER. He is a resident of what country? 

Mr. Walsh. He lives in or around Moscow, I believe. 

Mr. Kpurxey. You mean Moscow, Russia? 

Mr. Walsh. In the Soviet Union; that's correct. 

Mr. Ta\^x'x^er. Now, will you state to the committee, please, just 
how your connection with this strike developed and how the plan was 
finally made known to you ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I gradually got to know wdiat the plan was be- 
cause before I got on the ship Ray CoUette. whom I have mentioned 
previously and who was one of the to]) Communist leaders of Canada — 
and I would even say that he belongs to the Soviet underground be- 
cause he has been involved in sabotage — Ray Collette told me that 
aboard the ship I would meet some old-time Communists like Bob 
Pieluk. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell these names, please? 



2374 CORIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Walsh. Bob — B-o-b; second luime is Pieluk — P-i-e-1-ii-k. 
Geor<»;e Scordas — S-c-o-r-d-a-s, Mike Zanyuk — Z-a-n-y-ii-k, and 
Blackie Leonard — L-e-o-n-a-r-d. 

Now, these Communists had been engaged in tlie same type of work 
that I was to do, but they liad been handicapped by tlie fact they 
could not speak Frencli and had no experience whatever on the Conti- 
nent, whereas I had lived for some time, both in France, in Belirium, 
and in Holland, and I had knoAvn the leaders of the Communist Party 
and 1 had worked "with them and I could either speak French or I 
could understand enough Dutch to be able to get along better than the 
comrades I have previously mentioned. 

Mr. ScHERER, Where did you get your pay from during all this 
period ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, the main pay I was getting was from the shi]v 
ping companies, who were paying me as a galley boy, although I wasn't 
doing the work. 

The Canadian Seamen's Union had such a stranglehold over the 
companies that the companies could do very little about these things. 
Although the companies undoubtedly were aware that there were 
many things going on aboard their ships which had nothing to do 
with trade unionism, they could find no way of getting rid of tiie 
union. 

Mr. ScHERER. You mean you were willing to do all these things dur- 
ing the period you Avere on the ship at least, for a galley boy's compen- 
sation ? Was your fanaticism that great ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, the galley boy's compensation, with overtime, 
wdiich was always automatically accorded, amounted to about $300 a 
month, which is considered to be very high wages in Canada because 
on board ship you don't pay any board, you see. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you work overtime 

Mr. Walsh. No. 

Mr. Scherer. Or was that just a means 

Mr. Walsh. It was all arranged. 

Mr. Scherer. Of getting you extra compensation ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. Of course, the cook, for example, who was also a 
Communist, always saw to it that I got 50 or 60 hours overtime each 
trip for painting the galley, something like that, things which other 
people had done. 

Mr. Scherer. You got no additional compensation from the Com- 
munist Party during that time ? 

Mr. Walsh. No; not during that time, although there were other 
ways and means that the Communists take — for example, like I am 
a married man and I have children, and the Communists used to see 
to it that my children had sufficient clothes so my wife didn't have to 
worry about that part of the budget. 

Mr. Scherer. In other words, at least while you were a galley boy, 
the shipowners would pay for the Communist activities aboard their 
ships 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Through fraud and deceit practiced upon them. 

Mr. Walsh. They were doing it unknowingly, 

Mr. Scherer. Unknowingly, of course. 

Mr. Walsh. But that is what it boils down to. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2375 

Mr. ScHERER. I said through fraud and deceit practiced upon them. 

Mr. Tavexxer. All rifi;ht; you were describing' your activities which 
led up to your final discovery of the plan that was to be put into eifect. 

I think you stated to the committee that you were told certain 
things by Collette. I am not certain whether you completed your 
statement with regard to that or not. 

Mr, Walsh. Yes. Collette told me that the Communists on board 
would give me the names and addresses of contacts in all the ports 
wherever I went. 

Now, Collette, himself, gave me a list of names because he, himself, 
was often at sea, too, on \ arious assignments of courier work for the 
Cominform. 

These business agents were not always in their offices. Every once 
in a while one of them would take a trip for some very mysterious 
reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, were you successful in all instances in getting 
promises of assistance from the dock workers in the so-called solidarity 
strike which was to follow? 

Mr. Walsh. ^VeW, yes and no. The unions, of course, who were 
controlled by the Communists. We had no difficulty in getting their 
pledges of solidarity because they had been approached previously 
and they knew the score. They were already prepared for this, and 
we had no difficulty, of course, with Communists because all Connnu- 
nists just take their orders and there's no question about it. They 
knew the CSU strike was a strike that was supposed to be made in the 
interests of the Soviet Union in the European ports of France and 
places like Antwerp and the Italian ports. The dockers were very 
communistically inclined. They had even tossed munitions overboard. 
In Antwerp they circularized antiwar pamphlets to American seamen. 

But where we came in contact with non-Communists or anti-Com- 
munist dockers' unions, of couree, we couldn't get any headway because 
these people did not believe in political strikes for the furtherance 
of the Soviet Union and we got no headwaj^ with these unions. 

]Mr. Tavenner, Were you required to make reports of the result 
of your work in attempting to line up the dockworkers in these various 
ports ? 

Mr, Walsh. Yes ; I had to continually send to Andre Fressinet, the 
secretary general of the Dockers' and Seamens' International. I will 
spell that : Andre — first word — A-n-d-r-e ; his family name, Fressinet — 
F-r-e-s-s-i-n-e-t — and his function — he was secretary and still is secre- 
tary-treasurer, or, as they call it in France, the general secretary of 
the Seamens' and Dockei-s' International Section of the World Feder- 
ation of Trade Unions. 

Now, that's the name which is used in the abbreviation, but the real 
name — and I think for purposes of being correct — the real name is 
the International Trade Unions of Inland Waterways' Workers and 
Seamen, Fishermen and Port Workers. That is the official name that 
is known in the documents, some of which I have with me and which 
I could submit to the committee if they so desired. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, in these reports which you have mentioned, 
can you tell the committee, from your recollection of them, how many 
of these various ports that you had visited you had reported would 
act favorably in the event of a strike? 



2376 COMMUNIST ACTn'ITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Walsh. AVell, I do not want the committee at this instance to 
believe tliat it was solely due to my personal intervention that I was 
intluencino- these dockworkers to go out on strike. 1 was merely 
doing contact work, and it was merely another ]jhase of what the 
Connnunists often refer to as double checking. The dockworkers 
were checking on the seamen's union and we were checking on the 
dockworkers' unions, because we are always on the lookout for what 
we call traitors and for pe()])le who are lukewarm; and at that time 
in Europe the A. F. of L. had sent Irving Brown to combat these 
Connnunist inroads, and we were having trouble, especially in Mai'- 
seilles, France, with the anti-Communists within the dockworkers. 
So, at that time it was vei'y necessary for us to be in continual contact, 
as nuich as possible, with the dockworkers' union, so that we would 
know exactly where we could count upon a solidarity strike of the 
dockworkers. 

Now, in this respect I wish to ])oint out at this stage that, for exam- 
ple, in (xreat Britain the Transport and General Workers' Union, 
which has control over the dockworkers' section, is a very anti-Com- 
nuniist union and the leadership is a very anti-Communist one. The 
late Ernest Bevin of the British Government was the leader of this 
union, and he has always been known as an anti-Communist: but tlie 
fact is so-called rank-and-file committees had managed to gain control 
over various strategic sections situated in places where we could 
actively i:)aralyze the docks in London, for example, and this is what 
actually took pLace, as I will explain later on, so that it was very 
important to contact rank-and-file committees because we could count 
upon them to create chaos and havoc and sometimes to intimidate and 
persuade non-Communist dockworkers to follow us in this strike. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you refer to rank-and-file committees, are 
you speaking of the committees of the legitimate labor unions or the 
rank-and-file committees of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Walsii. Well, I'm referring to rank and file committees in 
legitimate trade unions, but who are composed largely or entirely of 
Communists or sympathizers. 

Mr. TA\T:N]srER. Will you proceed, please, to describe the course of 
your work which you have told us about? 

INIr. Walsh. Well, the first and the most complete picture I had of 
what was to be expected occurred when my ship was in Genoa. 

Now, for the purpose of clarification, I think it is necessary for me 
to point out that the Dockers' and Seamen's International in Paris — 
that is the World Federation of Trade Unions' main office — receives 
from all over the world the sailing schedules of all ships, because 
neai'ly all the shipping companies publish in various newspapers, 
sometimes 2 months in advance, the sailing schedides of their ships. 

Now, Communists and special i-esearch people are assigned to the 
task of seeing that all these shiiiping schedules are sent to the World 
Federation of Trade T"^nions' office. So. by this way Fressinet knew 
exactly where all the ships were and the Comnumists have been known 
to boast that they have Connnunist agitators on board nearly every 
deep-sea ship. 

So, when I came into Genoa it was no surprise that Andre Fressinet 
knew I was coming there, that the Mont Roll and was due to touch 
in Genoa, because we had touched on 6 or 7 Italian ]wrts previously. 



COMjmUNIST activities in the ALBANY AREA 2377 

and I was told to report to tlie CGIL, or to the Italian General Confed- 
eration of Labor ,which is the bio-oest trade-nnion body in Ital}' and is 
completely controlled by the Connnnnist Party, 

I was told to report to this bnildin^- — and at this stage I've explained 
to yon how I became a galley boy withont working as a galley boy. I 
think from the viewpoint of stndying Connnnnist methods and ntiliz- 
ing seamen that it would be very interesting for me to point out that 
whenever a ship touched port that the Connnnnist Party in these 
ports used to send what we called replacements. For example, if I 
were in Genoa or Turin, or wherever 1 happened to be, the Connnnnist 
Party, if they wanted me for 2 or 8 days to do work, or liaison woi'k, 
or something, would send somebody to take my place. So, the captain 
wouldn't have anything to say because somebody was taking my 
place; but this was made without the authorization or permission of 
either the shipping companies or the captain. It was done on our own 
initiative, and there was very little the captain of the ship could do 
about it. 

Now, when I got to Genoa at this ])articular time somebody came 
on board the ship and identified himself and told me that Comrade 
Walsh had to report to the office of the General Confederation of 
Italian Labor — and, being security conscious, of course, he did not 
tell me anything else. 

So, I went to this meeting, which was held in the big conference 
room, and thei'e I met all the top Communist agitators in the maritime 
section of the Cominform. 

Mr. Keaknky. Noay, at that point, Mr. Walsh, yon refer to the 
fact that at that time you met all the well-known leaders of the Com- 
inform throughout the world, did I understand you to say? 

Mr. Walsh. No; throughout Europe, with one exception. There 
was one Communist from Cuba who was present. 

Mr, Kearney. Were there any there from the United States ? 

Mr. Walsh. No ; to my knowledge, there were no Americans there 
whatsoever. 

There were about 40 people who were present, and among them — 
many I have mentioned previously, like Andre Fressinet — Marino De 
Stefano. Marino is spelled M-a-r-i-n-o ; De Stefano — D-e S-t-e-f-a-n-o, 

Mr. SciiEKEH. Well, following up on Chairman Kearney's question, 
Avas this conference that you are about to describe supposed to include 
American Communists or was it a conference confined to the European 
theater? 

Mr, Walsh. Well, it Avasn't a public conference, 

Mr. ScHEKER. I understand that. 

Mr. Walsh. It was merely a Communist get-together of top leaders ; 
and, for example, if Harry Bridges would be there, he would have been 
welcome because he was the vice president of this organization and 
his name has appeared officially — — 

Mr. Kearney. What do yon mean by that expression "Harry 
Bridges would have been Avelcome"? 

Mr. Walsh. Because at that time Harry Bridges was trying very 
hard to get a passport to come to Europe, because he was known as 
one of the top leaders of the maritime section of the Cominform, and 
because of that efforts were being made to have Harry Bridges to come 
to this meeting and to other subsequent meetings which were held in 
Marseilles and in Warsaw, 



2378 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Kearney. Do you luive any knowledge of your own as to 
whether Harry Bridges was a member of the Communist Party or not? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I haven't got any positive knowledge, but among 
seamen and dockers it was commonly acknowledged that he was a 
member of the Communist Party or, if he wasn't he was certainly 
doing everything that Communists were doing in the maritime sec- 
tion — and we could see. foi- example, in publications of the (\)mmunist 
Party, of seamen and dockers* workers' unions, that Harry Bridges 
even had articles. For exam])le, I have an article here from a French 
Communist paper of Harry Bridges, which I could submit to the com- 
mittee, and Pve seen various articles of Bridges in Italian and Hun- 
garian and German and Dutch and French papers. 

Mr. SciiEKER. There wasn't any question in the minds of those in- 
dividuals like yourself who were acting in the Communist Party that 
Hai-ry Bridges was a Communist, was there ? 

Mr. Walsh. Xo, because Pat Sullivan, the founder and the ])resi^ 
dent of the Canadian Seamen's Union, told me that Harry Bridges 
and himself and other American Communists — that they met in the 
Morrison Hotel in Chicago, I believe, and that they had decided to 
coordinate plans in Canada for the eventual taking over of longshore- 
men's unions, which were then controlled by the International Long- 
shoremen's Association. 

Mr. ScnERER. Who would take over? What do you mean? 

Mr. Walsh. Harry Bridges' outfit — the International Longshore- 
mens' and Warehousemen's Union. 

JSIr. Kearney. Proceed. 

Mr. Walsh. I am continuing to name some of the other people. 

I believe I haven't spelled De Stefano — D-e S-t-e-f-a-n-o. He is the 
leader and was the leader at that time of the Italian Seamen's Union, 
which is completely dominated and controlled by the Italian Com- 
munist Party. 

Hoiting— H-o-i-t-i-n-g, of the Dutch Seamen's Union ; 

Van Den Branden — that's three words — V-a-n D-e-n B-r-a-n-d-e-n — 
of the Antwerp Dockers' Action Committee. 

This group is an insignificant splinter group of Communist agita- 
tors because the main body of dockers in Antwerp are now very anti- 
Communist and they have refused to obey orders not to unload Ameri- 
can material, despite Communist attempts at intimidation. 

Otto Schmidt— 0-t-t-o ; Schmidt — S-c-h-m-i-d-t. He is an official 
of the Austrian Inland Transportation Workers, another Communist 
union that is affiliated with the World Federation of Trade Unions. 

Salvadore Gomez — S-a-1-v-a-d-o-r-e; and Gomez — G-o-m-e-z^of 
the underground Communist Party of Spain. G-o-m-e-z at that time 
was staying in Tangier — in the International Zone of Tangier. 

Luigi Longo — Longo is spelled L-o-n-g-o — he is a prominent leader 
of the Italian Communist Party and the former political commissar 
of the International Brigades in Spain. 

Jock Hastings — Hastings, H-a-s-t-i-n-g-s — is from the British Dock 
Workers' Rank and File Connnittee. He is a well-known Communist 
agitator in the dock section. 

And Pontikos — P-o-n-t-i-k-o-s — who claims to represent the Greek 
Maritime Federation, which is today nonexistent, except in the imagi- 
nation of a few Greek Communists in New York, one of whom I believe 
is under deportation, Kaloudis ; and in Marseilles and Cherbourg these 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2379 

Greek Communists have been either deported from various countries 
or are under open arrest in tlieir own country for (ireek activities, 
]ike sabota<^e, espionage, and so forth — revokition activities. 

And the Cuban I mentioned was Lazaro Pina — two words — 
L-a-z-a-r-o; and his family name, P-i-n-a. He is an official, or was 
an official, of the Cuban General Workers' Federation, which is affili- 
ated to the Latin Confederation of Trade Unions, of which the well- 
known Connnunist, Lombardo Toledano, is president. Toledano is 
spelled T-o-l-e-d-a-n-o. 

Now, Pina was arrested last year in Cuba as he came back from his 
secret World Federation of Trade Unions' meeting. The Cuban Gen- 
eral Workers' Federation 

Mr. Kearney. Is this the meeting at which plans were discussed 
for this worldwide shipping strike ^ 

Mr. Walsh. This w^as the first time that I actually knew the score 
as to what their intentions were. It happened during this meeting. 

Mr. Kearney. And those intentions, as I asked, for a worldwide 
shipping strike were first discussed at that time ? 

Mr. Walsh. Exactly. 

Mr. Kearney. At that meeting ? 

Mr. Walsh. Exactly. 

Mr. KJEARNEY. I would like to suggest, Mr. Counsel, that we pro- 
ceed to a discussion of those plans because I would like to take a break 
at 12 o'clock and recess until 1 : 30. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well, sir. 

Will you proceed to state what occurred at that meeting? 

Mr. Walsh. The main speaker — as you all have realized — you have 
people who speak many languages ; so, it was decided that the speeches 
would be made in Italian and in French, and Fressinet was to be the 
main speaker, and he spoke in French, and I spoke in French, and 
Longo spoke in Italian and Gomez, I believe, spoke in Spanish; but 
the main speaker was Fressinet, and then it was translated into Italian 
for the benefit of the others who could not understand French. 

Now, from what I gathered, French seemed to be the language 
wdiich was understood by all the organizers. So, I was very sure of 
what transpired during the French speech. The French speech of 
Fressinet — there w-ere no attempts at all to camouflage the reasons 
behind the coming strike. 

And in this respect I wish to point out that in France and in Italy, 
among the Communist Party, you haven't got the continual attempts 
at camouflaging intentions as you have, for example, in the United 
States here, or in Canada, wdiere the parties sometimes adopt the 
seeming underground methods; and the reason — I think the main 
reason — for that is the French Communists are so cocky in the belief 
of their strength that the French Government won't dare touch them, 
and the same thing applies to the Italian party, that they don't beat 
about the bush. They go directly to the point. It has been my per- 
sonal experience that when these people speak about sabotage, they 
mention the word "sabotage," whereas in Canada or in the United 
States I think the words are never mentioned. It's often accom- 
plished, but it's never mentioned. 

So, Fressinet's speech was to the effect that the Marshall plan to 
aid Europe or to aid the underfed populations of Europe would defeat 
the Communist Party plans in Italy and in France particularly, where 



2380 CO]VIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ALBANY AREA 

the Communists were busy ex])loitino: the discontent that was evident 
everywhere (hie to tli^ ])ostwar conditions in these countries. 

Now, Fressinet said that ori<rinally the plan had been to involve the 
National ^Maritime Union at the same time as the Canadian Seamen's 
Union, so that the strike would be more elective, but in the meantime 
Fressinet ex))lained that the National Maritime Unicm had broken 
away — that is, the leadei'ship had broken away— from the Communist 
Party and that nearly all the Connnunist leaders who had been there 
for a lonjj time had been expelled. So that they could not count on 
the National Maritime T^nion either joinino; this strike of their own 
free will or of <>'oino: on a solidarity strike; but Fressinet pointed out 
that happily the Canadian Seamen's Union was a union which was 
not a reactionary one and that it was in the hands of militant com- 
rades and that the shi])pinir tieu]) which would result in l)oth Canada 
and the European countries would eifectivcly paralyz? all the ports 
of Euro])e and would deal a cri])plinp; blow to both the Marshall plan 
and to the Atlantic Pact, because the dockers had been, of course, 
briefed and ap]>roached and ordered to sfo on strike in all the ports 
and to tie up s]ii])])ino:. which meant that it was not only the case or 
the question of tyinir up Canadian ships. It was the question of — if 
the ports were paralyzed by these ships, that the strike would spread 
and that all otlier shi])s of other nations, or of Panamanian registry, 
would then be iunnobilized and the ]Marsh all-plan cargoes would rot 
and that sailing schedules would be behind time, and so on and so 
forth, and that the Communist Party would actively exploit the result 
of this strike. 

Now, after Fressinet spoke, Longo gave an agitational speech in 
Italian, which I could see was along the same lines. Now, previous to 
this I had seen copies of For a Lasting Peace for a People's Democ- 
racy, which is the organ of the Cominform. and I could see the party 
line against the ^Marshall plan and the Atlantic Pact was merely being 
implemented in the speech given by Fressinet. 

Now, after Longo's speech, Fressinet asked me to give my opinion 
of what the strike would be from the CSU viewpoint, and I told him 
that the members of the CSU were being prepared for the coming 
strike and that we would certainly play our part and that we had a 
militant background and that we would certainly contribute our part 
in seeing to it that the strike was a success. 

Now, in referring to the strike, I was given by Fressinet at that 
meeting the assignment that I should be transferred to the Beaverhrae^ 
and that is when I foun.d out 

I am going to spell that name — Beavcrhrae — B-e-a-v-e-r-h-r-a-e. 
It is owned by the Canadian Pacific Steamships. This ship was to be 
the key ship in the forthcoming strike. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you learn that fact? 

Mr. Walsu. I learned it only at this meeting — that that was the 
ship that was chosen by Fressinet. 

]\Ir, Tavenner. Well, the plans went far enough to indicate what 
the key ship should be in this strike during the progress of this con- 
ference ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I think that it would be more precise to say that 
before this conference Fressinet had plans beforehand and he knew 
that the Beaverhrae was going to be the key ship, because undoubtedly, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2381 

and in fact, lie was in touch with Harry Popovich, who was the leader 
of the Canadian Seamen's Union. 

Popovich — P-o-p-o-v-i-c-h. He is known in Canada under the alias 
of Hairy Davis, 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, the point is that you as well as the other per- 
sons present were advised at this meeting that the Beaverbrae Avould 
be the key ship in the oncoming strike? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; yes. 

Mr, Tavenner. All right; proceed. 

Mr. Wai,sii. Now, Fiessinet told me that it would be very important 
if I should get on the Beaverbrae and that I should take part in the 
coming London dock strikes, that was from the question of experience 
and because also that I was held in high esteem by the section — by the 
maritime section of the Cominform. 

Now, I wish to stress the fact that this was not a trade-union meeting. 
This was a meeting of Communist Party agitators. 

JNIr. Tavenner. Was any matter discussed at that meeting regard- 
ing the welfare of seamen generally or any resolutions regarding a 
v.age dispute in which the seamen would be interested? 

Mr. Walsh. No ; and that is something that scandalized me at that 
time, because, although I knew Communist tactics, I didn't know they 
could be so blunt as that. There was absolutely no mention whatso- 
ever, and when I suggested to Fressinet that we arrange the agenda 
before, he told me that it was not necessary, that the main thing was 
that it was going to be against the Marshall plan and in Europe that 
we didn't have to find excuses for these things, but that in Canada that 
it was very obvious we had to convince the rank and file that it was to 
be carried out for trade-union purposes, involving trade-union 
I)rinciples. 

Mr. Scherer. Did I understand you to say that Harry Bridges was 
attempting to obtain a passport to attend this meeting? 

Mr. Walsh. To attend this meeting and subsequent meetings of the 
same people. 

Mr. Scherer. I thought that was it. 

You said this was a meeting of Communist agitators and not a union 
meeting. That is your testimony? 

Mr. Walsh, Yes ; they were purely Communist agitators, although 
most of them belonged to Communist unions, 

Mr, Scherer, Oh, I understand that. They would have to belong 
to Communist unions. 

Mr. Kearney. There were no others allowed there, other than 
members of the Communist Party, were there ? 

Mr. Walsh. No; very definitely. In fact, I forgot to mention 
that there were two Italians with Sten guns who were standing out- 
side the building in case some police happened to interfere. This 
was a very top-security meeting. 

And I don't know if the connnittee is aware of the influence of the 
Italian Communist Party in Genoa or in Milan or in northern Italy, 
but the Communists there are very strong, and I know when I went 
there in 1947 or 19f:8 that it was not an exception to see Communist 
pickets, for example, on strike walking up and doAvn. 

Mr. Scherer. The committee just doesn't want them to get that 
strong in this country, in the city of Albany. 



2382 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Walsh. They ^ve^e going around with Sten gims on their 
shoulders. 

Mr. Tavexnku. Now, I am anxious for you to recall all the circum- 
stances and all the statements that you can recall as to what plans 
were announced at that meeting and what part various persons played 
in the meeting. 

You have told us that you were directed to become a member of the 
Bearerhrae crew. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. 

Mr. Tavexxkk. That is where you stopped when we began talking 
about other matters. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes; I mentioned that. 

Now, it was explained that the nerve center of the forthcoming 
strike would be the greatest seaport in the world, the London docks, 
but that arrangements had been made in places as far off as Australia 
and New Zealand, for example, that these unions would demonstrate 
their solidarity and would go on strike and would refuse to load or 
unload ships. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. 

Mr. Chairman, I realize it is going to run considerably past 12 
o'clock to complete this testimony regarding this meeting and I 
believe that, unless you desire to go on for 20 or 30 minutes, this would 
be a good place to make a break. 

Mr. Kearney. The committee will be in recess until 1 : 30. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 05 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 1 : 30 p. m. of the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(At the hour of 1 : 32 p. m., of the same day, the hearing recon- 
vened, the following conmiittee members being present : Representa- 
tives Bernard W. Kearney (chairman of the subcommittee) and 
Gordon H. Scherer.) 

Mr. Kearney. The committee will be in order. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Walsh, how many persons spoke at this meet- 
ing in Genoa which you have described ? 

Mr. Walsh. Apart from the persons whom I have previously men- 
tioned, there were two other speakers — Lazaro Pina and Jock Hastings 
from Great Britain. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the committee a resume of anything 
they may have said that you now recall ? 

Mr. Walsh. As Lazaro Pina was the only other person coming 
from the American Continent, it was very important that he should 
stress the fact that arrangements had been made with Ferdinand 
Smith, who was the former national secretary of the National Mari- 
time Union. 

Mr. Kearney. Is that Ferdinand Smith? 

Mr. Walsh. Ferdinand Smith — S-m-i-t-h — so that east coast co- 
operation would be attempted. 

Mr. TA^^2NNER. East coast of what country? 

Mr. Walsh. The east coast of the United States, and that Pina had 
seen Smith on several occasions map out plans by rank-and-file 
committees of dock workers' unions and the National ISIaritime Union 
woud try and coordinate their work with the CSU strike. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2383 

Ml'. Tavenner. How did you learn those facts ? 

Mr. Walsh. Some people who were on the ship, like Seordas, liad 
told me that Conrad Sauras — S-a-u-r-a-s — who was the vice president, 
of the CSU had been down to the United States to meet Smith and 
to work out arrangements, and that he had also been to Cuba pre- 
viously to arrange meetings with Communists like Lazaro Pina and 
otliers who belonged to the Connnunist unions in Cul)a. 

Now, I mention this fact because later on in my testimony we will 
see that there were attempts carried out in Cuba to support this strike; 
but the main point of Pina's speecli was to assure everyone that the 
dockers on the east coast would come out in sympathy strike with the 
CSU strikers and would paralyze the various American ports. 

Mr. Tavenner. That, as I understand, was discussed at this meeting 
which you mentioned ? 

Mr. Walsh. This Avas discussed at this meeting. 

Now, the next speaker was Jock Hastings, who represented the 
dockers' rank-and-hle committee of Great Britain. Hastings pointed 
out that Jack Popovich — P-o-p-o-v-i-c-h, alias Jack Pope — P-o-p-e, 
who, incidentally, is the brother of Hariy Popovich mentioned pre- 
viously — that Popovich was to take up residence in Great Britain and, 
in coordination with the Communist Party, would see to it that all 
tlie rank-and-hle Communists within the Dockers' Union would be 
ready to actively support the forthcoming strike. 

Hastings also remarked that if this strike could last a year that 
not only would the London docks be tied up, but all the other British 
ports would be so paralyzed that it would efl'ectively paralyze both 
the Marshall plan and deal a crippling blow to the Atlantic Pact. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what plans were 
made and what preparation Avas made to put the Beaverhrae in a posi- 
tion or in a condition which would permit of the execution of these 
plans i' 

Mr. Walsh. As the Beaver-brae was the key ship — that is, the stra- 
tegic ship which avouUI give the signal for the strike — it Avas very im- 
portant that aboard this ship the Communists should have old-time 
members of the party, Avho Avould be reliable, and Avho Avould be I'eady 
to carry out their tasks, even in the face of imprisonment. 

With this end in vieAV, the Communist Party apparatus in St. John, 
New BrunsAvick, Avhere the Beaverhrae had its port of call, arranged 
to liaA^e non-Connnunist creAv members replaced by trusted Connnunist 
Party members, so that Avhen the Beaverhrae was ready for the strike 
there Avould be old-time, trusted Communist members on board the ship 
Avho would not hesitate to carry out to the full the orders to see that 
the port of London was etl'ectively paralyzed Avhen the Beaverhrae Avas 
tied up and the dockers Avent out under the prearranged plans. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that done ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes; the Beaverhrae sailed Avith the choicest selection 
of Communist agitators that ever Avere found aboard one ship. 

Mr. Taa'enner. What else Avas done in order to prepare the Beaver- 
hrae and its creAv for the impending striked 

Mr. Walsh. As I mentioned previously. Jack Pope had contacted 
the dockAvorkers" section of the party and everything Avas being pre- 
pared in London ; Communist members Avere replacing non-Commu- 
nist members aboard the Beaverhrae, and also aboard the M<>iif Rol- 



2384 COMMUXIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ALBANY AREA 

land^ wliicli was the ship I was sailing on, at least 4 or 5 persons who 
were found to he unreliahle from the Communist Party viewpoint 
were put off the >\\\\> and lejjlaced by trusted Communist organizers. 

l*revi(ms to tliat we had to have a meeting so that everything would 
be timed — that when the Beaoerhrae finally left port — that the signal 
for the strike would be sent out to ships all over the world, because 
these Canadian shij)s were not only sailing on the Atlantic, they were 
also, some of them, sailing on the Pacific. 

And I think that the very im])ortant factor which should be 
stressed here is that the Conununist plan was aimed primarily at the 
Atlantic Pact and the Marsliall ])lan shij^ments, wliich is borne out by 
the fact that on the Avest coast the CSU innnediately signed an agree- 
ment with the west coast shipowners, because the west coast shipown- 
ers were not involved at that time in carryinir vital cargo to European 
countries, but were going to Japan and China; and it is signihcant 
that when the CSU signed the separate agreement with the west coast 
shipowners that there were no wage increases granted or no improve- 
ment of working or living conditions in the contract. It was the same 
contract as before. 

So, it could be plainly seen that the strike was directly aimed at 
crippling the Atlantic shipping, but to cover up 

Mr. Kearney. Who was in control of the union on the west coast? 

Mr. Walsh. That is just what I was going to explain. 

To cover up this duplicity and this double-face dealing, the west 
coast union went through the pretext of saying they had formed an- 
other union, and that they disagreed with the policy of the east coast 
section of the union and they formed the West Coast Seamen's Union 
and signed the separate contract. 

This was a camouflage tactic in case that the rank and file on the 
east coast would get wise to the fact that a political strike was in the 
ofRng and not a strike involving basic trade-union principles. 

The West Coast Seamen's Union still continues on today as a Com- 
munist-dominated outfit and has helped Harry Bridges' union 2 
months ago in effecting the complete control of the Vancouver and 
Victoria dockworkers, who have been taken over by Harry Bridges' 
union ; and the same Communist officials who were on the west coast 
are the same Communist officials who today are in the "West Coast 
Seamen's Union, and they have been following the party line on the 
question of peace and on various other questions. They have ap- 
pealed for mercy for the Rosenbergs, and they are all known on the 
west coast as reliable Communists. 

Mr. ScHEKER. May I interrupt there and ask a question of the wit- 
ness, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Walsh, do you believe, from the information you have, that 
the Communist objective today for the infiltration of the maritime 
unions is similar to that which it was at the time you were active in 
the party ? 

Mr. Walsh, Yes, because Communist Party tactics sometimes 
change, but the objective is always the same thing — to further the aims 
of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. ScHEREu. Do you feel the menace is as great as it was at the 
time you were active? 

Mr Walsh. Well, as long as dockers' and seamen's unions are con- 
trolled by Communists, it is my experience and my opinion, and it is 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2385 

also the opinion of former leaders of the CSU who have resigned, 
that the menace still exists; and I think that there is a greater menace 
in the fact that the so-called rank-and-file committees, for example, 
in New York and Boston, within the International Longshoremen's 
Association, often follows the Communist Party line and, because 
of the underground nature of these rank-and-file committees within 
the rank-and-file union, and within the International Longshoremen's 
Association it is very hard to pin down their activities and to expose 
them as clearly as when they are out-and-out Communist-dominated 
unions who are working aboveground, like in the case of the Inter- 
national Longshoremen and Warehousemen's Union of Harry Bridges 
or the Marine Cooks and Stewards of Hugh Bryson, who make no 
bones about their Communist Party activities. 

Mr. ScHERER. I woidd like to make an observation, Mr. Chairman, 
in connection with the testimony of the witness just given: As we all 
know, there are so many people today who say that we are undulj'^ 
concerned with the menace of communism because, as they attempt 
to point out, there are so few Connnunists ; but I think we can draw 
our own conclusions from the testimony of this witness that if the 
Communist conspiracy would realize its objective and obtain complete 
control of the seamen and dockworkers' union, the commerce of the 
world could be easily sabotaged. In case of war, it is obvious they 
might control either the success or failure of such a war. 

I just w^ant to say that for the record in view of the testimony 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Walsh, it is almost inconceivable that the Cana- 
dian Seamen's Union could have been used as you have indicated 
without the active cooperation of its leaders in this Communist plan. 

Mr. Walsh. The Canadian Seamen's Union, since its very founda- 
tion, has been known to be a completely Communist-dominated union. 
In fact, the president and founder of the Canadian Seamen's Union, 
Mr. J. A. Pat Sullivan, caused one of the biggest sensations in Canada 
on March 15, 1947, when he resigned from the Canadian Seamen's 
Union and unmasked the Communist conspiracy and intrigue, not 
only among the seamen's union but among the Trade and Labor 
Congress, of which he was the secretary-treasurer. Here is the 
Montreal Star of that date, where you have Sullivan's picture and the 
story of the domination, as he puts it, that the Communist Party has 
taken full control of the Canadian Seamen's Union, and he said it 
was hopelessly dominated by the Communists. Sullivan admitted he 
had been a Communist for 20 years and had even been sent over as 
an official delegate to the foundation meeting of the World Federation 
of Trade Unions. He admitted at that time that he carried a verbal 
report of Communist activities from Tim Buck, the Canadian Com- 
munist leader, to Harry Pollitt, the British Communist leader. 

So, there should be no doubt in the minds of the committee as to 
the out-and-out Communist nature of the Canadian Seamen's Union. 

In my opinion, the Canadian Seamen's Union was the union which 
was the most strongly tinged, from the Communist viewpoint, union 
in Canada, and it was often held up as an example in countries on the 
Continent, like in France, and so on and so forth, where they used to 
point out with pride that the Canadian Seamen's Union was a very 
militant union. 



2386 co:mmunist activities in the Albany area 

Now, tlie Canadian spy trials of 1946 and subsequent revelations 
have brouirht out tliat the Canadian Seamen's Union Avas not onlv 
carrying on sabotage plans, but was also a convenient transmission 
belt for all kinds of Conniumist couriers going to and from European 
countries. A John Harkin, another of the founders of the Canadian 
Seamen's Union, lias testified that Sam Carr, who was one of the 
leaders of the espionage ring in Canada, was snmggled aboard a 
CSU ship when he escaped from Canada and went into hiding in 
the United States. 

In my personal experience I have come across at least a dozen Com- 
munists who were engaged in courier work, and that I, myself, worked 
for the Cominform, from Italy to Tangier, where I was ordered to 
bring duplicating machines to the Spanish Communist underground. 
I was ordered to do this by leaders of the Italian Communist Party, 
and it seems that it was just a natural thing to do — that people should 
be intrusted with parcels and packages, and what not, to bring from 
one Connnunist country to another. 

So, in my mind, and in the minds of the committee, there should be 
no doubt whatsoever as to the out-and-out Communist control of the 
Canadian Seamen's Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Previous to the sailing of the Beaverhrae^ was any 
other activity engaged in by you to help prepare the crew or the 
ship for this oncoming striked 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. The very important thing is that before the sail- 
ing of the Beaverhrae 2 trusted Communists by the names of Arland — 
A-r-1-a-n-d — and Joe McNeil, and later on, just previous to sailing, 
another Communist by the name of Bellfontaine — B-e-1-l-f-o-n-t- 
a-i-n-e — that is the last word, 1 word — Bellfontaine — were placed 
on board the Beaverhrae and 3 non-Conununist crew members were 
taken off. 

This is not just hearsay. I have before me a review of the British 
dock strikes which deals only with the particular aspect of the strike 
in London, but which mentions this particular case — that the British 
Government had information at the time that these Communists, prior 
to the sailing of the Beaverhrae^ had been specifically put on board 
these ships so as to strengthen the party apparatus on board the 
Beaverhrae. 

Now, in the case of McNeil, I knew him personally. He was a pa- 
trolman for the Canadian Seamen's Union in Halifax, and at the 
last moment we had directions from Harry Gulkin that he should take 
my place on the Beaverhrae and that I — plans had been changed — 
that I should remain on board the Mont RoUand and go to Italy and 
see that all Canadian ships should be tied up in Italian ports. 

Joe McNeil has been arrested a number of times for violence on 
picket lines and was also involved in penitentiary strikes back in the 
thirties which were spearheaded by the Communist Party at that time. 

ISIr. Tavenner. Now, if there is nothing else worthy of special men- 
tion regarding the preparation for the sailing of the Beaverhrae., will 
you proceed to advise the committee just liow the inception of this 
strike was maneuvered ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, we always had to contend, of course, with the 
rank and file who were non-Connniuiists and, for the sake of appear- 
ances, a mass meeting was held in St. John, New Brunswick, on March 
22, 1949, and this meeting was called by Eddie Reid — R-e-i-d — the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2387 

CSU business agent of that port and a long-time member of the Com- 
munist and the LPP party. The purpose of this meeting was to alert 
the seamen, all of whom were scheduled to go out on outgoing ships 
within the next few weeks to the impending strike. 

Prior to this meeting, we held a secret meeting, in caucus, where 
Joe McNeil, Nick Bezoski — N-i-c-k Bezoski, B-e-z-o-s-k-i, Jimmy 
Stewart — S-t-e-w-a-r-t, George Scordas, already mentioned, Buddy 
Doucet — D-o-u-c-e-t, Norman Wilson — Wilson, W-i-1-s-o-n, and the 
previously mentioned Arland and Bellfontaine, so that we could hear 
the instructions from Harry Gulkin — G-u-1-k-i-n. 

Harry G-u-1-k-i-n had been in Montreal at the time and he was sent 
down to replace Joe McNeil as patrolman and strike leader for the 
port of Halifax, and Gulkin was carrying the official party word from 
the party leadership and he told us that the strike was scheduled to 
start as soon as the Beaverhrae left port. 

Now, in the course of this meeting — this mass meeting — I was chosen 
to give the main speech because of the fact that half of the members 
were French-Canadians and I was the only one who could speak in 
both languages, and I gave them the usual pep talk and told them that 
the shipowners had shown bad faith in the negotiations and that the 
only way that we could solve the present stalemate was to have a 
showdown with the shipowners, and in typical Communist fashion 
we steamrollered through a resolution endorsing any action that the 
leadership of the CSU might take within the next few days. 

This was only to make it apparent to the leadership that we were 
interested in improving working and living conditions and that we 
were after an increase in salary. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, now, you say the strike order was to be given 
after the Beaverhrae had left port. What was the significance of that 
decision ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, the whole strike hinged on the Beaverhrae coming 
into the Royal docks in London and the crew immediately going out 
on strike and appealing to the dockworkers not to load or unload this 
ship because it was on strike. This would immediately paralyze the 
whole London dock area because it was well known that the British 
dockers, irrespective of whether they were Communists or non- Com- 
munists, had a tradition of union solidarity, and that everything had 
been arranged — that they would be hoodwinked into believing that 
this was a bona fide strike involving trade-union principles. 

So the strike signal would he also the signal for dockworkers in all 
the other British ports — Southampton, Liverpool, Leith, Swansea, 
Cardiff, and the other ports — to also go out on strike and refuse to 
load and unload Canadian ships on strike, which effectively meant that 
all other ships coming into port or waiting to come into port would be 
paralyzed until the strike was ended. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you tell the committee what occurred after 
the Beaverhrae left port? 

Mr. Walsh. After the Beaverhrae left port, the last-minute prepa- 
rations were made to assure that we had reliable Communist members 
on all other ships which were sailing, and then the strike signal was 
given by Harry Davis, and appeals were also automatically sent out to 
all the dockers' unions all over the world to pledge their support and 
their solidarity with the strike of the Canadian seamen. 

37740— 53— pt. 1 3 



2388 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. As I understand, you did not sail on the Beaverbrae 
as originally planned. Will you tell us what occurred on the ship, the 
Mont Rolland, of which you were a crew member ? 

Mr. Walsh. The original plan was that I was supposed to sail on 
the Beaverbrae^ but then it was decided that it was very important that 
we could tie up all the Italian ports because all the Italian unions 
were Communist unions, and we wanted to effectively paralyze ship- 
ping in Italy, too, because Italy was getting a lot of Marshall plan 
shipments, and it was important that we should see to it that the ships 
would all be tied up. So I left on the Mont Rolland instead of on the 
Beaverhrae. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you finally arrive in an Italian port? 

Mr. Walsh. While on our way to the port of Naples, where we were 
originally scheduled to sail and to land, the captain got a telegram 
or a cablegram from the owners of the ship, Dreyfus Bros. — they had 
a subsidiary company called the Montreal Shipping and these ships 
belonged to this company. The Dreyfus company ordered the captain 
to i^roceed to a non-Italian port, and more precisely to the port of 
Beirut in Lebanon, where it was known that the Communists had no 
power or control whatsoever over the dockworkers' union. 

This, of course, changed our plans because in this strike we couldn't 
very well mutiny at sea because we would have left ourselves open to 
a very serious charge. Not only that, the main question was to tie 
up the ships so that we would paralyze the ports and a mutiny at sea 
did not constitute a tying up of a ship. What we wanted to do was to 
create chaos and havoc in the ports. 

So, that was why the Mont Rolland did not participate in the strike 
until it came back to Montreal, and there the old crew walked out on 
strike and we tied up the ship in Montreal, and I was named the CSU 
strike chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you proceed to tell us what occurred when 
the Beaverhrae arrived in the port of London ? 

You were not an eyewitness to that because you were on the other 
ship, but what occurred in regard to the strike is historically known 
now; is it not? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; it is history, because the London dock strikes of 
1949, which were the direct consequence of the Beaverhrae and the 
Argomont^ completely paralyzing the port of London 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name of that second ship? 

Mr. Walsh, Argomont is — A-r-g-o-m-o-n-t, 

Mr. Tavenner. Inform the committee just what occurred. 

Mr. Walsh. It created quite a crisis, not only in London but in the 
whole British Empire, because London is a vital seaport and the 
London docks are supposed to be the greatest docks in the world. 
Hundreds of ships were tied up and rendered useless when these two 
ships, the Beaverhrae and the Argomont^ reached their ports and their 
crews walked out. Immediately, by a prearranged plan, all the dock 
workers of the port of London refused to work — that is, to load or 
unload cargoes, not only from these two ships, but from all the other 
ships in port, which meant that every day there were possibly hun- 
dreds of other ships that wanted to come into port and were held off; 
and this went on for months and months, with the result that hun- 
dreds of millions of dollars were lost, shipping schedules were re- 
tarded, and that the Marshall plan certainly received a serious blow. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2389 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, what other ports of Great Britain were af- 
fected in the same way that the port of London was ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, nearly all the other ports were affected where 
Canadian ships were tied up, but principally Southampton, Liver- 
pool, Leith, Swansea, and Cardiff. The dockers there walked out in 
solidarity with the Canadian Seamen's Union strike, and this also 
contributed to creating chaos in the shipping industry. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat occurred on the Continent as a result of this 
action ? 

Mr. Walsh. On the continent of Europe where, with the exception 
of Italy, the shipowners decided to cancel the shipping to Italy ; but 
in France, for example, in various ports like Marseilles, Cherbourg, 
and Le Havre, the French dockworkers, completely controlled by the 
General Confederation of Labor, which is a Communist-run organi- 
zation, immediately went out on strike in support of the Canadian 
Seamen's Union strike and tied up all these docks, which resulted in 
all the shipping facilities being paralyzed. In some places the dock- 
workers even went further and they threw some cargo overboard. 
Other cargo was watered, as we say in seagoing language, and various 
attempts were made to sabotage machinery, not only ship machinery, 
but port machinery. 

Mr. Tavenner. Whnt was the. result generally upon the ships which 
were manned by Canadian Seamen's Union crews in various parts of 
the world ? 

Mr. Walsh. The results were very far reaching, insofar as 77 ships 
were successfully tied up, immobilized. And when I say 77 ships, 

1 wish to stress the fact, something which I forgot, that Fressinet 
at the Genoa meeting prophesied that 78 ships would be tied up, and 
this was months before the actual strike took place. So, it just goes 
to show you with what precautions and with what detailed plans that 
these top Communist agitators had when they knew beforehand how 
many ships would be tied up, when even the shipowners could not 
have guessed whether they would have had 5 or 85 ships tied up. 

This showed that Fressinet was sure of the cooperation of the Com- 
munist dockworkers' unions from New Zealand to Vancouver and 
from San Francisco to London. 

Now, there were over 200 CSU seamen who were arrested in ports 
all over the world. There were at least 5 seamen killed, including 

2 in San Francisco, and there were also in Halifax and St. John 
probably 15 or 20 who were wounded as Communists tried to intimi- 
date and tried to brutalize strikers or, rather, nonstrikers who did 
not want to participate in the strike. 

Now, for example, in Cuba the crews of the Canadian Victor and 
the Federal Pioneer mutinied when the captain refused to sail into 
the port of Habana. There in the port of Habana, Lazaro Pina had 
arranged for the Cuban dockworkers to go out on strike and to effec- 
tively paralyze the Habana dock facilities. When the captain did 
not want to sail into the port, the crew attempted to intimidate the 
captain by openly creating mutiny on ship, and it got to such serious 
proportion that the Cuban Government had to send a gunboat to sub- 
due the mutineers. 

On the west coast of the United States, Harry Bridges' longshore- 
men's union cooperated in Seattle and in San Francisco entirely with 



2390 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

the Canadian Seamen's Union. Crew members of ships who happened 
to be at that time in Seattle and in San Francisco were fed by Harry 
Bridges' union and donations were being raised every day by the 
International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union. It is a 
historical fact that the Marine Cooks and Stewards also openly coop- 
erated and donated financial assistance to the Communist-led crews 
in these two ports. 

Mr. TA\^N]srER. Was any cooperation given in this strike by unions 
on the east coast in the United States, to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Walsh. To my knowledge, it was a complete fiasco on the 
east coast because, in the interval, the National Maritime Union had 
succeeded in cleaning house and getting rid of Ferdinand Smith and 
the International Longshoremen's Association, which was now known 
to be a very militant anti-Communist union, refused to support the 
CSU strike, with the exception of the ILA local in St. John, New 
Brunswick, which supported the strike for 4 months; but all the other 
locals of the ILA, including those in Montreal, in Victoria, and in 
Vancouver refused to support a strike that was so obviously a Com- 
munist and a political one and had nothing to do with trade-union 
principles. 

Mr. Kearney. On that point ,you mentioned again the name of 
Ferdinand Smith. He was relieved of his job as secretary, wasn't it, 
or secretary-treasurer ? 

Mr. AValsh. Of secretary-treasurer. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you know, of your own knowledge, whether or 
not Smith was later deported by the United States Government on 
account of his Communist activities while in this country as an alien? 

Mr, Walsh. Yes ; we often read and, in fact, we made petitions to 
the American Government not to deport Ferdinand Smith. It was 
part and parcel of a Communist plan to come to the help of Ferdinand 
Smith, and to my knowledge I believe I read in the newspapers sev- 
eral times that Ferdinand Smith had been tried, and it was found out 
that he was a Communist alien, busily engaged in Communist ac- 
tivities, and that he was subsequently deported from the United States. 

Mr. Kearney. Was he deported to Jamaica? Was that it? 

Mr. Walsh. I believe it was somewhere in the Bahamas. I am not 
sure of the exact place. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the files of our committee reflect 
that Ferdinand Smith was first arrested for deportation on February 
IC, 1948 ; that he was rearrested July 6, 1949, when bail was moved up 
to $10,000, and then was released on August 11, 1949, on furnishing 
$10,000 bail. However, this $10,000 bail bond was canceled because 
it was furnished by the Civil Eights Congress bail fund, and then 
immigration authorities succeeded in having him deported to London 
on August 15, 1951, due to the fact that he was a British citizen, born 
in Jamaica. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Walsh, going back to this strike, how long did 
that strike last? 

Mr. Walsh. This strike lasted 7 months. 

Mr. Kearney. Seven months ? 

Mr. Walsh. Approximately ; probably 6 months 31/^ weeks. 

Mr. Kearney. It practically tied up the shipping of the world; is 
that right? 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2391 

Mr. Walsh. Well, especially on the European Continent and in the 
North African ports it succeeded for a time in tying up world ship- 
ments. 

Mr. Kearney. Also on the west coast of the United States ? 

Mr. Walsh. And on the west coast of the United States, where 
there were some Atlantic ships that had sailed to Frisco and to 

Seattle. 
Mr. Kearney. I am very curious to ask you and to find out from 

you how the strike was settled. 

Mr. Walsh. Well,; you're going a little ahead of my testimony, but 
the strike was settled due to the energetic intervention of the Sea- 
farers' International Union, which was also a very anti-Communist 
union; and when the shipowners saw that the Canadian Seamen's 
Union was not acting in good faith and did not care to negotiate, but 
was carry on this strike which threatened the very existence of the 
Canadian merchant marine, it called upon the Seafarers' Interna- 
tional Union to take over and to man the ships. The Seafarers' Inter- 
national Union succeeded, despite Communist violence and intimida- 
tion, in getting Canadian crews to man the strike-bound ships. 

Now, this was not done in a day or a week, or in a month. This was 
done in a period of 6 months, because it was very difficult thing for the 
Seafarers' International Union to man the strike-bound ships because 
they had to go through picket lines of strong-arm men, who were some- 
times armed with clubs, and the Canadian Government was so alarmed 
at the violence which was being displayed by the Communist strong- 
arm squads that they had to ask the Royal Canadian Mounted Police 
to step in and to prevent seamen who wanted to sail the ships from 
being murdered, because there were about 300 people who were injured 
by these CSU strong-arm men who used to rove around the streets at 
Halifax, St. John, and Montreal, trying to intimidate the members of 
this new union. So, finally, when the Seafarers' International Union 
was able to supply crews, for example, to Australia and New Zealand 
and South Africa, and to France and Great Britain and other coun- 
tries, they were able to man the ships and the strike finally petered out 
because the Canadian Seamen's Union did not have any more contracts. 
In the meantime there were many of the seamen who had been dis- 
gusted with this political strike and rallied to the Seafarers' Inter- 
national Union — and that's how the strike was ended. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, the use of the Seafarers' Inter- 
national Union to break this strike was a contingency which the Com- 
munist Party had not prepared for? 

Mr. Walsh. Exactly. Thatis the one thing that they did not antici- 
pate. At the Genoa meeting or at another meeting in IMarseilles, 
which I will speak about later on, and which was attended by Mr. 
Goldblatt, of the Longshoremen's Union from San Francisco, at no 
time was it ever discussed that there was a possibility that another 
union would be able to intervene and man the strike-bovmd ships. This 
was not discussed because the Communists were so confident that their 
methods of violence would eventually triumph that they did not take 
that into consideration, because in previous strikes on the Great Lakes 
the Canadian Seamen's Union had always been able to win the strikes 
because of the superiority of their gangster tactics, and they thought 
that they had completely intimidated any other union from even think- 
ing of trying to compete with them. 



2392 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. And of course, the other union would have been 
powerless to intervene if it hadn't been for the government's support 
which Canada gave in the way of protection to those who were willing 
to board these ships? 

Mr. Walsh. Exactly. The Canadian Government realized this 
strike was a sabotage attempt, not only against the Merchant Marine 
of Canada but that it was a strike which had nothing to do with wage 
increases and that it could not be called a bona fide strike; and so, the 
Canadian Government was happy at the intervention of another bona 
fide trade union. 

Mr. Tavenner. And had it not been for the patriotic services of the 
rank and file of this non-Communist union, this strike would have 
been successful ? 

Mr. Walsh. Exactly. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was any effort made by this same group of Com- 
munists who planned this strike at the Genoa meeting to save the 
strike, to further its purposes, after the strike had gotten under way ? 

Mr. Walsh. At the Genoa 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; I mean the same group. 

Mr. Walsh. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the same group meet again and make any fur- 
ther plans to try to save the strike ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. In Jul}^ 1949 a specially convened meeting was 
held in Marseilles, France. 

Marseilles is the greatest seaport of France, and it was for a time 
the stronghold of the Communist Party. 

And at this stage it is significant that Louis Goldblatt — G-o-l-d- 
b-1-a-t-t — the right-hand man of Harry Bridges, and the secretary- 
treasurer of the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's 
Union, attended this meeting, along with Harry Popovich, alias Harry 
Davis. 

Mr. Tavenner. And he was the head of the Canadian Seamen's 
Union ? 

Mr. Walsh. And he was the leader of the Canadian Seamen's 
Union. 

Mr. Ta^^enner. Which was the focal point of this entire strike? 

Mr. Walsh. Exactly, because at this stage it was becoming obvious 
that it was impossible to demand that the British dockers should con- 
tinue losing their time and risking arrests and so on and so forth, and 
that something should be done to terminate the London part of the 
strike before the strike turned against the Communists. So, it was 
just a question of saving face that they decided to discuss ways and 
means of terminating partially this strike, because they were afraid 
that the London dockers would switch around and that it would de- 
feat their ends and purposes in other parts of the world where the 
strike was expected and did go on for months and months. 

Mr. Tavenner. I want to clarify this. You were not at this meet- 
ing yourself at Marseilles ? 

Mr. Walsh. No. I am referring to official documents which I have 
in my possession of this union, which I could submit to the committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. And also information from the British Govern- 
ment itself, I believe ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; and it is also substantiated by the report of the 
British Government. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2393 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I will not ask you to take the time at this 
moment to search out those docmnents, but I do want you to present 
them to the committee before your testimony is completed. 

Will you just summarize the situation as you learned it developed? 

( Representative Bernard W. Kearney left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Walsh. Well, from a study of the documents that I have before 
me and from my own personal experiences in discussing it with Harry 
Davis later on, it seems that they came to the conclusion that Harry 
Popovich, Louis Goldblatt, one Maletta — M-a-1-e-t-t-a, a well-known 
Italian Communist, and one Blankenzee — B-1-a-n-k-e-n-z-e-e, that this 
group should fly to London in an effort to make a separate agreement 
to end the London dock strikes before these strikes turned against the 
Communists. Goldblatt was not permitted to enter London and was 
deported by the British Government, but Popovich, being a British 
subject, could not be prevented and subsequently announced that the 
strikes of the Beaverhrae and the Argomont had ended, that a sep- 
arate agreement was made, but the strikes went on in all the other 
British ports. 

Now, I think I should emphasize here a point which is very import- 
ant, because it goes to show that the Communists, no matter where 
they are, that their first allegiance is to the Soviet Union. 

Wlien this dock crisis originated in Great Britain, naturally it 
seriously disturbed the economy of the old country, because the port 
of London is vitally situated and it is the very pulse of the British 
Nation. 

Now, the British Government happened to have at that time in the 
cabinet Mr. Ernest Bevin, who was the leader of the dockers' union. 
Mr. Bevin was known to be very anti- Communist, and he tried all 
kinds of ways of persuasion and diplomacy to convince the dockwork- 
ers that they were taking part in a strike which was no concern of 
theirs and that they were aiding and abetting the worldwide con- 
spiracy of the Communists to sabotage the Marshall plan. 

The dock workers refused to obey an order from the British Gov- 
ernment to go back to work. In fact, they refused to obey an order 
from the British King, His Majesty King George the Sixth, when he 
ordered them to go back to work; and the people of England and 
undoubtedly of the world were flabbergasted when Popovich came 
over from Canada and told the dock workers to go back and they 
immediately obeyed. 

So, this spotlighted the fact that the Communists considered their 
prime allegiance to a Soviet-controlled organization rather than to 
their own country. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the names of any other persons in 
attendance at the Marseilles meeting, from your study of the records ? 

Mr. Walsh. From the study of the records, about, or the same 
people who attended the Genoa meeting, or much the same, attended 
the meeting that was held in Marseilles, and about which material is 
enclosed here in pamphlets which I received from Fressinet entitled, 
"From Marseilles to Warsaw," copies of which I will submit to the 
committee. In this pamphlet it deals with the foundation in July 
1949 of the Trade Unions International of Seamen, Inland Water- 
ways' Workers, Fishermen and Port Workers of the World Federa- 



2394 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

tion of Trade Unions, and this was to give a legal name to the Mari- 
time Apparat of the Cominform, because that 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me interrupt you there a moment. 

That group, you state, was known as the Apparat? 

Mr. Walsh. The M. Apparat. 

Mr. Tavenner. M. Apparat of the Cominform ? 

Mr. Walsh. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, you have already explained the meaning of 
that, but that included the names of such persons as whom? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, as Hoiting and Fressinet, and Vavilkin and 
Van Den Branden, and Harry Bridges, because Harry Bridges was 
officially named vice president. 

Mr. Tavenner. At this meeting? 

My. Walsh. At this meeting he was officially elected as vice presi- 
dent. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of this organization, in his absence ? 

Mr. Walsh. Of this organization, in his absence, and he sent a 
cablegram regretting that he could not attend this meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I have had an investigation made 
of the records of our committee which shows that it publicly appeared 
in the press on June 24, 1949, that while awaiting trial on a Fed- 
eral charge against him, Harry Bridges applied to the Federal dis- 
trict Judge Michael J. Roche — R-o-c-h-e — at San Francisco for per- 
mission to travel to France. This permission was refused because 
Bridges was then under indictment for perjury and conspiracy in ob- 
taining United States citizenship. In his application Bridges asked 
permission to take a trip from July 10 to July 29, 1949, so that he could 
attend a world conference of maritime unions being sponsored by the 
World Federation of Trade Unions in Marseilles, July 13 and 14, 1949. 

That is the meeting to which you have referred by date, I believe? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I haven't got the exact dates, but I have in July 
1949, because in their official publication they just mention in July 
1949 a trade union international, and so on and so forth. They don't 
give the specific dates, but they give the month and the year. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have stated as a result of that meeting this 
new organization was formed, which was the successor to this group 
which had previously operated out of the Cominform; is that correct? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes; that is a correct statement, and I gave at the 
beginning of my testimony the name which they took, as the Trade 
Unions International of Seamen, Inland Waterways' Workers, Fish- 
ermen and Port Workers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you examined other publications of that 
newly formed organization to the extent where you can advise the 
committee as to what was the place or what was the location decided 
upon at the headquarters of the organization and who became mem- 
bers of the administrative committee of that organization ? 

Mr. Walsh. From a study of the documents, copies of which will 
be submitted to the committee, it becomes crystal clear that the same 
Communist agitators, or much the same, of those who were in Genoa — 
and some of them have been known to have been working for the 
Comintern — that is the official section of the Communist International 
before it was dissolved and now is known as the Cominform — that 
these same top Communist agitators, who had been working on the 
waterfront sections for the Communist Party, in ports all over the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2395 

world, are now known i)ublicly to be on the administrative committee 
of this new union. For example, Andre Fressinet, whom I have men- 
tioned previously, was appointed or nominated or elected. All of 
these words are the same in Comnnmist phraseolog;^^, because every- 
thing is decided in advance ; there is no Democratic election. He was 
named the general secretary of the new union. For example, our 
friend, Vassili Vavilkin, of the Soviet Union, in this publication is 
officially named as the vice president, and Marino De Stefano from 
Italy was also named vice president; and I will not bore the com- 
mittee with the other names, but you will have to take my word for 
it and subsequent research will bear me out on this, that all the dele- 
gates and substitutes on this commission and on the control com- 
mission are all Communist agitators, known to the police of the free 
countries of the world as people who have always faithfully carried 
out the orders the}^ received from the Soviet Union. 

And the place is also symbolical of their headquarters. It was de- 
cided at the convention the headquarters would be in Gdynia, Poland. 
That is in an Iron-Curtain country. 

Gdynia is spelled G-d-y-n-i-a. It is situated in Poland. It is a 
Polish port, and is now the headquarters of the Trade Unions Inter- 
national which I previously mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, this new trade union — so-called trade union — • 
was formed about the fourth month of this strike, was it not ? 

Mr. Walsh. Exactly, in July 1949. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know of any activity of that organization 
as such regarding the continuance or prolongation of the strike in 
face of the situation with which the strikers were being confronted due 
to the loyalty of this non-Communist Seafarers' International Union ? 

Mr. Walsh. The main idea, apart from having a separate settle- 
ment of the London strike, was to widen the strike all over the world. 
In my opinion, if Harry Bridges had been able to attend and if the 
SIU had not intervened energetically, despite the Communist attempts, 
the strike would have been widened and been much more disastrous 
than it actually was; and I think the American Government in refus- 
ing to give a passport to Harry Bridges undoubtedly was able to pre- 
vent much unrest on the west coast in so doing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I believe this is a convenient point 
for a break. 

Mr. ScHERER (presiding). The committee will stand in recess for 
10 minutes. 

("Wliereupon, at 2: 40 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 2: 50 p. m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 2:58 p. m., the following committee 
members being present: Representatives Bernard W. Kearney (chair- 
man of the subcommittee) and Gordon H. Scherer.) 

Mr. Kearney. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the description of this newly formed 
organization again ? It is a rather long name. 

Mr. Walsh. The official name that was decided upon at the Mar- 
seilles constituent conference was the Trade Unions International of 
Seamen, Inland Waterways' Workers, Fishermen and Port Workers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, did this organization become affiliated with an 
international union? 



2396 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Walsh. Yes; it immediately affiliated with the World Federa- 
tion of Trade Unions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the World Federation of Trade Unions the 
same organization with which the American Federation of Labor re- 
fused to affiliate and the same organization that the CIO left after 
having remained a member for a very short period of time ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; that is correct. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. AVliat reason was assigned by the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, if you know, as to why it would not affiliate with the 
World Federation of Trade Unions ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, the American Federation of Labor knew from 
the very start that the World Federation of Trade Unions was bound 
to be an out-and-out Communist organization because of the fact that 
in this new federation of trade unions the Russians would have a 
numerical superiority and the A. F. of L. knew, for example, that 
in Russia the trade unions are not bona fide trade unions — that is, 
trade-union officials in Russia are appointed by the Government and 
not by their membership; and that one of the basic principles on 
which trade unionism is founded — the right to strike — is denied to 
workers in the Soviet Union, and that is why the American Federation 
of Labor refused to join the World Federation of Trade Unions. 

Mr. Tavenner. And they so stated publicly, did they not? 

Mr. Walsh. They so stated publicly. 

Mr. Tamsnner. And it has just been called to my attention that the 
American Federation of Labor refused to send a delegate to the found- 
ing convention for the same reasons? 

Mr. Walsh. That's correct. 

Mr, Tavenner. What reason was assigned, if you know, by the CIO 
for leaving the World Federation of Trade Unions? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, the CIO learned the hard way, and after a while 
it became so obvious that the secretariat of the World Federation of 
Trade Unions was more interested in carrying on the work of the 
foreign policy of the Soviet Union than in real bona fide trade union- 
ism, so James B. Carey, of the CIO, announced that they were leaving 
the World Federation of Trade Unions because it was dominated by 
the Communists and that they were continually trying to implement 
the Communist Party line instead of looking after honest trade-union 
principles. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know of any fact which may have been an 
inducement or which may have led in any way, directly or indirectly, 
to the original action of the CIO in becoming affiliated with the World 
Federation of Trade Unions ? 

Mr. Walsh. According to Sir Walter Citrine, the first president 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, just a moment. Wlio was Sir Walter Citrine ? 

Mr. Walsh. He was the first president of the World Federation of 
Trade Unions, and he belonged to the British Labor Movement, and 
they were convinced at the time there was a possibility of cooperating 
with the Russian trade unionists on a friendly basis. According to 
Sir Walter Citrine, during the San Francisco conference an attempt 
was made to obtain the recognition of the World Federation of Trade 
Unions as a bona fide trade-union body representing organized workers 
from all parts of the globe and demanding the right to name repre- 
sentatives as consultants to the San Francisco conference, which was 
the founding body of the United Nations. The recognition was re- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2397 

fused. However, according to Sir Walter Citrine, and I have an 
article here that is signed by him  

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Well, just a moment. Where did you obtain that 
article ? 

Mr. Walsh. I obtained this in Paris, France. It is the first issue. 
That was only brought out in the French langiiage and it was a very 
limited circulation and it was often given to top Communist leaders. 
It is entitled "Le Movement Syndical Mondial," or its English transla- 
tion, "The World Trade Union Movement." 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Now, what is its date ? 

Mr. Walsh. Now, it states in that 

Mr. TA%nEXNER. "\'Vliat is the date of that publication ? 

Mr. Walsh. Oh, the date is 1946— April 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you proceed, please ? 

Mr. Walsh. In this article, which was the editorial of the first issue 
of this publication. Sir Walter Citrine mentions, incidentally, that 
after this refusal of the San Francisco Conference to grant them 
an official status the World Federation of Trade Unions' headquarters 
in Paris at the time. I say at the time because the World Federation 
of Trade Unions was expelled from France and their offices closed 
down by the French Government last year because it was proved they 
were carrying on Soviet activities. At the time the headquarters of 
the World Federation of Trade Unions received an unsolicited, official 
notification from the then secretary general of the San Francisco Con- 
ference, Mr. Alger Hiss, "that all correspondence that the World Fed- 
eration of Trade Unions" — and I am quoting here from the French 
translation — — 

Mr. ScHERER. What did they receive from Hiss, did you say ? 

Mr. Walsh. They received official notification from the then Secre- 
tary General of the San Francisco Conference, Mr. Alger Hiss, "that 
all correspondence" — I am quoting here from the French translation — 
"that all correspondence that the World Federation of Trade Unions 
should decide to make to this Conference on any subject whatsoever 
could be made in the form of a memorandum that will immediately 
and officially be distributed to all delegates participating in the San 
Francisco Conference." 

That is the end of the quotation of Mr. Alger Hiss' letter. 

Sir Walter Citrine continues — — 

Mr. Scherer. Wait a minute. Let's get that memorandum. Will 
you go over that again and repeat what that letter said? 

Mr. Walsh. I was referring to the fact that the United Nations had 
refused recognition to the World Federation of Trade Unions. As 
Sir Walter states, the recognition was refused. 

Mr. Scherer. It was refused by the Union Nations ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; it was refused by the United Nations. 

Mr. Scherer. On the ground that this was a Communist-inspired 
or dominated organization ? 

Mr. Walsh. As I remember, for example. Nationalist China and 
nearly all the South American countries said that they would leave 
the United Nations if such a thing occurred, because it was obvious 
that the World Federation of Trade Unions was a Soviet body, and 
they didn't want any friction ; so, they just refused recognition. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you repeat what you said about that letter that 
Hiss wrote to the Federation ? 



2398 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. I think I should point out that this was at the San 
Francisco Conference. 
Mr. Walsh (reading) : 

However — 

according to Sir Walter Citrine — 

the World Federation of Trade Unions, which had its headquarters in Paris, 
received and unsolicited, oflBcial notification from the then Secretary General of 
the San Francisco Conference, Mr. Alger Hiss — 

his name is marked in print here, in black and white — 

that all correspondence that the World Federation of Trade Unions should decide 
to make to this Conference on any subject whatsoever could be made in the form 
of a memorandum that will immediately and oflScially be distributed to all dele- 
gates participating in the Sun Francisco Conference. 

End of quotation of Mr. Hiss' letter. 

Mr. ScHERER, Mr. Counsel, to your knowledge, has the contents of 
that letter ever been made public before? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. I am confident that this is the first public 
information — certainly the first that has come to the attention of our 
committee — of this incident. 

Mr. Kearney. Do I understand that this was after the conference 
refused recognition to this federation ? 

Mr. Walsh. From what I can gather, it seems that the United 
Nations refused to recognize the World Federation of Trade Unions, 
and 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean the conference? 

Mr. Walsh. The conference. 

Mr. Tavenner. Not the United Nations? 

Mr. Walsh. I mean this is my opinion — and Mr. Alger Hiss, on 
his own initiative, then wrote the World Federation of Trade Unions 
and told them that any memorandum they would want to make that 
he would immediately and officially see to it that it was distributed 
to all delegates, and I think since it became an accomplished fact 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, after the conference 

Mr. Walsh. I think you should let me conclude this because it is 
very important. 

Mr. Kearney. Go ahead. 

Mr. Walsh. "Since then," said Sir Walter Citrine, "the World 
Federation of Trade Unions has become an accomplished fact." 

Now, without knowing at that time, because there was no question 
of Hiss being involved in any Soviet espionage in 1946 — without know- 
ing it at that time. Sir Walter Citrine gives Alger Hiss the credit for 
the official recognition of the World Federation of Trade Unions, 
because that is the actual translation. 

"Depuis Notre Federation Mondiale devint un fait accompli" — 
"Since then, the World Federation of Trade Unions has become an 
accomplished fact." 

It is noteworthy that Sir Walter Citrine, leader of the British trade- 
union movement, subsequently resigned because of the out-and-out 
control, because of the control exercised by the secretariat of the 
World Federation of Trade Unions. 

Mr. Kearney. "Wliat I am getting at, Mr. Walsh: After the con- 
ference refused recognition to the federation, according to that letter, 
the portion you read, Alger Hiss took it upon his own responsibility 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2399 

to notify the federation that they may send memorandums to him 
which would be distributed to all the delegates? 

Mr. Walsh. Exactly. ■, . a 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I am gomg to suggest that the stall 
of our committee pursue this matter further and find out whether that 
memorandum or letter is actually available, and the circumstances 
surrounding the issue. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, in my opinion, Sir Walter Citrine is a very 
respectable British gentleman and very anti-Communist. I think he 
would be willing to cooperate with your committee in determining 
to what part Hiss acted, officially or unofficially. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you this question, Mr. Walsh : Was it 
your conclusion or is it set forth in the document itself that recogni- 
tion had been refused prior to the receipt of this letter from Mr. 
Alger Hiss? 

Mr. Walsh. No ; this is marked here in black and in white, what I 
have read out. It was refused, and after that, he goes on to say — 

We received from the Secretary General * * * 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Walsh. So, I mean my conclusion — my personal opinion — is 
that Alger Hiss either got orders from the Communist apparatus or 
he either decided on his own initiative that he was going to help the 
recognized Communist body to obtain official status. 

I am going to submit this to the committee so you will have entire 
opportunity 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I am going to move that particular 
document be made a part of the record as Walsh Exhibit No. 1. 

Mr. Tavenner. And I would like, Mr. Chairman, that the direction 
contain the privilege of having it photostated and returning the 
original. 

I have discussed that with the witness prior to his appearance. 

Mr. Scherer. I will make that a part of my request. 

Mr. Kearney. It will be received. 

(The document referred to as "Walsh Exhibit No. 1" is as follows :) 

Walsh Exhibit No. 1 

(le mouvement 8yndical mondial, april 1946, p. 4) 

(Translation by Mrs. Juliette Joray of the committee staff) 

Last year, at the San Francisco Conference, we attempted to obtain real recog- 
nition for our international movement. It is true that the World Federation 
[of Trade Unions] was not oflBicially in existence at that time. But, in our pro- 
ceedings before the conference in San Francisco, we had the power to make this 
demand through the channel of the administrative committee of the World Trade 
Union Conference. The leaders of the San Francisco Conference negotiated 
with us on this basis ; indeed, recognition of the Labor World was even con- 
ceded in San Francisco. "While our demand that representatives be designated to 
sit as consultants at the San Francisco Conference was refused, we received from 
the Secretary General of that assembly (Mr. Alger Hiss) an official notification 
that all communications which we desired to present to the Conference on any 
subject whatsoever could be made in the form of a memorandum which would 
be officially and immediately distributed to all the delegations taking part in the 
Conference in San Francisco. Since then, our World Federation [of Trade 
Unions] is an accomplished fact. We cannot deny its importance as a fully 
organized institution representing more than 66i/^ million workers in 56 coun- 
tries. Inasmuch as we are an active international organization we must affirm 
our claim to an organic association with the United Nations Organization for 
Peace and Security. 



2400 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 



Patrick Walsh Exhibit No. 1 — Part 1 



MOUVEMENT 




COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 



2401 



Patrick Walsh Exhibit No. 1 — Part 2 







2402 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 



Patkick Walsh Exhibit No. 1 — Part 3 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2403 

Mr. Tavenner. It is a very rare document and one that could not be 
replaced. 

Now, do vou know of any unions within the United States which 
became affiliated with this union which was formed in Marseilles in 
July 1949? 

Mr. Walsh. According to my knowledge, and from a study of docu- 
ments which I have in my possession, the only American union — that 
is, the only union from the United States — which became officially 
affiliated was the Marine Cooks' and Stewards' Union, and the name 
of Hugh Bryson — B-r-y-s-o-n — has frequently been mentioned as 
being in continual contact with this international union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you repeat the name that you just gave us? 

Mr. Walsh. The Marine Cooks' and Stewards' Union. 

;Mr. Tavenner. The name of the individual ? 

Mr. Walsh. Hugh Bryson. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, it is important for the committee to know and 
understand the affiliation of these various unions because it is con- 
tinuously studying those matters, and that is why I have gone into as 
much detail with you as I have. 

Now, this discussion all arose as a result of the meeting in July 
1949, at which this new union, which later affiliated with the World 
Federation of Trade Unions, was formed. 

Now, will you tell the committee, please, when this strike, which you 
have so graphically described, came to an end and what brought it to 
an end ? 

Mr. Walsh. The end of the strike ocurred in October 1949 and, as 
I have explained previously, in my opinion and in the opinion of 
many of the experts who have studied this strike, it came to an end 
because the Seafarers' International Union was able to man the strike- 
bound ships and get the cooperation of the Canadian Government and 
the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in order to prevent serious harm 
done to the members of the SIU. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did you do after the termination of this 
strike? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, at the termination of this strike I was at sea 
again. I was on another ship. 

I think it is good to mention here that when the Canadian Seamen's 
Union leadership saw that the strike was doomed to failure they 
ordered all Communists to get back on board the ships by hook or 
crook, to infiltrate on the ships, to use other names, to get other identi- 
fication cards, and to try and win back the seamen and to reorganize 
the Canadian Seamen's Union. 

I received these instructions. I was the CSU strike chairman, and 
I had in my possession three different identification cards, and I was 
able to change my name, grow a moustache and get back on board the 
ship without the SIU or the Royal Canadian Mounted Police knowing 
about it until the ship was away at sea ; and this was done by hundreds 
of Communists in Halifax, Port Alfred, St. John, Quebec, and in 
Montreal, and we called it Operation Infiltration. 

Mr. Kearney. Were these all forged cards ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, they weren't exactly forged, but it was a custom — 
an old Communist custom — incidentally, for every Communist sea- 
man to have at least three identification cards, and these were obtained 

S7740— 53— pt. 1 4 



2404 COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

by simply going to the shipping master in one port, and getting a pass- 
port photo. For example, in my case, I had one with a mustache and 
without a mustache and with my hair combed on the side, and another 
cne I had glasses on. So, it was easy to arrange with the photographer 
to get them in different ways, because we had them in ditTerent ports. 
So, I imagine there were some Communists that operated on board 
ship that had five different identification cards. 

For the purpose of clarification, I will submit to the committee one 
of these identification cards so they can see how it was quite possible to 
lioodwink not only the shipowners, but the Royal Canadian Mounted 
Police. 

Now, for example, when I was challenged by an SIU patrolman, 
who asked me if I was any relation to Pat Walsh, I said, "He's my dirty 
commie cousin." So, I was able to get on board the ship because he was 
convinced I was very anti-Communist. So, I boarded the SS Mont 
Sandra — S-a-n-d-r-a — Sandra, and was on board that ship for 4 other 
months, along with 5 other top Communists. In my opinion, this goes 
to show that you can never take enough precautions and that you 
can never have too much screening because we did succeed in taking 
over the ship for a while and in winning over the crew, but the crews 
on the other ships were not successful. As we came back to our own 
ports, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the SIU threw us off 
tlie ships — first, because we had got on under false pretenses and, 
second, because the companies had signed a contract with the SIU and 
not with the Communist agitators. 

Mr. Tavenner. So that your work in attempting to infiltrate the 
new union, which had been used to break the strike, was unsuccessful ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; it was unsuccessful. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. What did you do after that? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I was sent to Toronto where I became an execu- 
tive member of the Canadian Peace Congress. 

I think the committee is aware of the tactics of the Communists. 
Communists are often nominated and elected to high positions with- 
out consulting any membership. 

So, within the next 2 months I was elected to the executive of the 
Canadian Peace Congress, which is the nationwide Communist front 
for peace activities — and when I say "peace activities," I should say 
Soviet peace, because in my 3 years of work with the Canadian Peace 
Congress, an intimate of Dr. James Endicott, it is my firm opinion 
that whenever any Communists or sympathizers speak about peace 
they mean Soviet peace, which we know is just as militaristic as any- 
thing that ever existed in histor3\ Soviet peace is exemplified by the 
invasion of Korea and the taking over of so many countries who are 
now under the domination of the Communists in Eastern Europe. 

I also became a leader of the Canadian Union of Woodworkers. I 
was the secretary-treasurer, and I was active in many other organiza- 
tions, such as the Canadian Friends of the Soviet Union, the Quebec 
Federation of Tenants, the Consumers' League, and many other titles 
too numerous to mention, but all fronts of the Communist Labor 
Progressive Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. At whose direction did you take part in those Com- 
munist-front activities ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2405 

Mr. Walsh. I was also ordered to these new positions by J. B. 
Salsberg, the Trade Union Commission director of the party. He is 
the man who decides if one day you're a seaman and the next day 
you're a tobacco worker, and the next day you're an administrative 
officer of some other union. He is the one who makes these decisions. 

Mr. Tavennek. As head of these various Communist-front organi- 
zations, or as an officer of them, did you have occasion to engage in 
correspondence with persons in similar positions in other countries? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes; I was in continual correspondence with the 
American counterparts. For example, in civil liberties, I was in 
correspondence with William Patterson of the Civil Eights Congress 
here in the United States ; and as a member of the Canadian Friends 
of the Soviet Union I was in correspondence with the American- 
Russian Institute in San Francisco. In this effect I wish to under- 
line the fact that I was one of the few trade unionists who was chosen 
by the American-Russian Institute to have tlieir names and their 
message in a so-called friendship book, which was to be issued last 
month. So, I don't want the committee to be surprised if they happen 
to get a copy of this book and see my name and my message of 
solidarity to the Soviet Union, because this was sent last year when 
I was still active. 

I have a letter here in my possession from Rose Isaak asking me to 
send a photograph so that she could include this photograph in this 
friendship stunt. 

Mr. ScHERER. Who is Rose ? 

Mr. Walsh. She's the secretary of the American-Russian Institute 
in San Francisco. It is a front for the Soviet Government in San 
Francisco. 

Mr. ScHERER, Is she a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Walsh. She is known to everyone in Canada who has been to 
San Francisco as an oldtime member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether the American-Russian In- 
stitute, of which you spoke, is the successor in the United States to the 
Friends of the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; I believe I have some paper which bears out that 
fact and, moreover, I have been getting and receiving pamphlets 
about the Soviet Union, copies of which could be submitted to this 
committee, as well as various correspondence dealing with Soviet 
publications. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, the committee has heard a great deal of evi- 
dence from time to time about the operation of these various front 
organizations in this country and how they have carried the Com- 
munist Party line and followed the dictates of the Communist Party. 
I would like to know from you, if you are in a position to state it from 
your own knowledge, as to whether the activities of organizations of 
this type are coordinated from one country to another, whether they 
get the same directives from top sources. 

Mr. Walsh. It has always been my experience, in the 18 years of 
experience I've had with Communist groups, that there is very tightly 
knit coordination, not only between, for example, American and 
Canadian Communists, but between Soviet Embassy personnel and 
the Communist Party apparatus. 

That has been proven conclusively in the Canadian spy trials, where 
Sam Carr, the national organizational secretary of the party, and 



2406 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Fred Rose, the Communist member of the Parliament, were both 
caught redhanded in the act of meeting Soviet Embassy personnel,^ 
and this was borne out in the testimony of Igor Gouzenko, G-o-u-z- 
e-n-k-o — the cipher clerk of the Soviet Embassy, who so sensationally 
ran away with files and copies of letters which definitely proved that 
Canadian Communists were actively supplying information to per- 
sonnel of the Soviet Embassy. Both Carr and Rose were found guilty 
and had every advantage of trial, but the overwhelming weight of evi- 
dence was too much against them, and they were both tried, convicted, 
and sentenced. 

Mr. Tavexner. Now, let me ask you a question which I wish you 
would answer either "Yes" or "No"' before making any further state- 
ment : Did you have any personal knowledge of any facts relating to 
the offense for which Fred Rose was tried and convicted ? 

Mr. Walsh. No. 

Mr. ScHERER. Can I interrupt just a minute? 

Did you testify at the very opening of the hearing this morning 
that it was Fred Rose who was your instructor in Marxism? 

Mr. Walsh. That's correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. How old were you at that time, Mr. Walsh ? 

Mr. Walsh. I was about 19. In 1935 I was 19. 

Mr. Scherer. Where did he instruct you in Marxism ? 

Mr. Walsh. In Montreal. 

JNIr. Scherer. How old was Rose at that time ? 

Mr. Walsh. Oh, he must have been about 30. 

Mr. Scherer. And you were about how old ? 

Mr. Walsh. I was 19. 

Mr. Scherer. Did Fred Rose have any influence on your acceptance 
of the Communist program and your later subversive activities to 
which you have testified ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes; he was the one who was mainly responsible for 
having me engage in party activities. 

Mr. Scherer. It is possible, then, for professors to have influence 
on students if they were Communists and sought to try to teach the 
Communist Party line, isn't it? 

Mr. Walsh. I think it's not only possible; I think it is a fact. I 
think it is a well-known fact that students can be influenced in politi- 
cal ideological ways by their professors. 

In Canada we have the case of Gui Caron, which I mentioned 
previously. Caron went to Sir George William College. He had no 
reason at all for having Communist ideas. He came from a very 
Avealthy family, and he fell under the influence of Prof. Stanley B. 
Ryerson, and Ryerson used to come to Quebec quite often and tell 
me, "I have a prize pupil and he's going to be somebody some day." 

And I told him — I said, "AVell, with his backgi'ound, I think you're 
going to have a hard time making a Communist out of him." 

Well, today, Gui Caron travels to and from Moscow frequently and 
is the Province leader of the Communist Party and one of the top 
leaders in the Labor Progressive Party in Quebec. 

Mr. Scherer. Such a professor over the years would have an op- 
portunity to influence adversely many young people toward the Com- 
munist Party program ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, especially if you get them young, like at my age, 
when I was 18 or 19. I was unemployed and I thought that, rightly or 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2407 

wrongly, the Communists were interested in finding a solution to the 
economic problems of that time. 

Mr. ScHERER. Such a professor would have the opportunity to in- 
fluence them to the extent even that you were influenced, to engage 
in subversive activities against the Government ? 

Mr. Walsh. Exactly; but, of course, they go about it in a very 
jDsychological way. They don't speak to you about bloody revolution 
and treason, and things like that. They keep that in the JDackground. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is a gradual process. 

Mr. Walsh. They begin by A, B, C ; before you find out, you are 
in X, Y, Z. 

Mr. ScHERER. Your testimony has been confirmed by many expert 
witnesses since I have been on this committee, since January. There 
is no question about what you say in my mind because it has been 
confirmed many times. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have told us you became a member of the 
Young Communist League in 1935 and you went on into the work of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Scherer. Let me interrupt again, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I am sorry, but just for the record at this point, be- 
fore we get too far away from it, Fred Rose has since been convicted, 
I believe you testified earlier. 

Mr. Walsh. He was convicted and sentenced and has finished his 
jail sentence. 

Mr. Scherer. For what? 

Mr. Walsh. For espionage. 

Mr. Scherer. That is all. I thought it was important to get it in 
the record. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have not said anything about your being a 
card-carrying member of the Communist Party. Were you a card- 
carrying member of the Communist Party at any time ? 

Mr. Walsh. No ; at no time did I ever have a card of either the Com- 
munist Party or the Labor Progressive Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why was that? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, for various reasons. I think the two main 
reasons were because I was always entrusted with assignments which 
were pretty dangerous, and that it's a policy of the Communists when- 
ever somebody has an assignment which is tricky and there's liable 
to be police intervention in one way or another that we shouldn't be 
burdened or handicapped with a party card. 

The more specific reason in Quebec Province, where I worked and 
operated, was because of the existence from 1940 of a law which is 
known as the padlock law, and this padlock law permits police officials 
to swoop down on Communist Party headquarters any time at all and 
seize the membership list, and so on and so forth. 

So, in Quebec Province it has been very, very hard to carry on 
Communist propaganda because of this padlock law and, conse- 
quently, it was decided that all top Communists who were working in 
the trade unions, for example, the leaders of the United Electrical, 
Radio and Machine Workers, the leaders of the International Fur and 
Leather Workers, the leaders of the International Union of Mine, 
Mill, and Smelter Workers, all of whom are old-time Communists, 
have never had party cards. 



2408 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I was very anxious for that point to be made 
clear — the fact that a card was or was not issued is not the control- 
ing factor in determining a party's membership. 

Mr. Walsh. No, because it has been proven that many so-called 
fellow travelers who claim they are onh^ fellow travelers are, in reality, 
old-time Communists who have the special privilege of being exempted 
from carrying party cards. Of course, today there is no question 
of a party card because in Canada and the United States no party 
cards have been issued since 1950, because of the undergTound nature 
of the Communist Party both in Canada and in the United States 
in opposing the Korean war. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you pay dues during any period while you were 
active in the movement ? 

Mr. Walsh. Oh, yes; I always paid dues, as well as various assess- 
ments and percentages of my salary, which varied according to the 
work I did. 

That is something that the Communist Party never forgets — seeing 
to it that we kick in as much as possible. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Counsel, I would like to interrupt there. 

I am very interested to hear that statement made by you, Mr. Walsh, 
for the simple reason that we have had various witnesses before the 
committee who have testified that their dues were nominal — for in- 
stance, a quarter a month — but they said what they were interested in 
was the assessment. 

I remember one director from Hollywood who said that he was con- 
tributing 5 percent of his salary each month to the Communist Party, 
and he was asked how much money he was making a month. He said, 
"$5,000." 

So, if that went on all over the world — and you have just stated it 
went on in Canada — they must have had certainly a financial war 
chest. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't that the director, Robert Rossen, Mr. Chairman, 
who testified he paid $40,000 to the party over a period of 10 years ? 

Mr. Tavenner. That is correct. 

Mr. Walsh. I know people in Quebec City who have been paying 
10 percent of their salaries for the last 15 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was that money used for, in a general way ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, to promote Communist Party activities, as all 
fund-raising by the party is used. It's used primarily for agitation 
and propaganda purposes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Walsh, we have discovered in some instances 
that persons who were actually devoting the majority of their time to 
organizing for the Communist Party had jobs of a responsible nature 
in certain unions; they were apparently being paid nothing by the 
Communist Party, but were receiving very substantial salaries from 
the union. Wliat comment do you have to make about that, as being 
a practice in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, the reason for that should be quite obvious. 
When the Communist Party pays money to a functionary, it is paying 
it out of its own party funds, whereas when the Communist organizer 
of the Fur and Leather Workers' Union, for example, gets a salary 
of $125 a week he is getting that salary from money which comes from 
the union's funds — and in many cases the union is composed of a 



COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2409 

majority of anti-Communist members, like in the case of the United 
Electrical Workers, where the great majority of the membership are 
anti-Communist. These people are paying huge salaries to UE or- 
ganizers, who are all Communists, which means that the Communist 
Party is always interested in union organizers getting big salaries, 
because after that the result is very interesting, because they can then 
clamp down. 

Mr. Ta\"enner. If the Communists can get their own members in 
positions of leadership in a union, it is one way of paying their salaries ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes, and at the same time it demonstrates that the anti- 
Communist members of these unions are really paying for Communist 
Party activities, whether they know it or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have with you a copy of the so-called pad- 
lock law that you referred to ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; I have a copy of the padlock law and I will sub- 
mit it to the committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee discovered in February of 1953, 
through the public press, that you had announced your resignation 
from a number of Communist organizations. Was that the time that 
you severed your participation in the Communist movement ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. When I resigned, I resigned from all Commu- 
nist organizations, and I named specifically at least 9 or 10 organi- 
zations where I held executive positions. 

Mr. Tavenner. And this occurred as late as February of 1953? 

Mr. Walsh. To be very exact, because it's been one of the greatest 
days in my life, it was on February the 27th, 1953. 

Mr. Ta^tdnner. The committee is interested to know what moti- 
vated you in taking that action. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, there were many factors which motivated me, 
but the really deciding factor was the question of the Eosenbergs. 

Mr. Kearney. Wliat do you mean by the "question of the Rosen- 
bergs?" 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I was in the Canadian Union of Woodworkers, 
and I received instructions from Uio Bosi of the World Federation 
of Trade Unions 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Spell it, please. 

Mr. Walsh. Bosi — B-o-s-i. 

Mr. Tavenner. And the first name also. 

Mr. Walsh. His first name, Uio — I-l-i-o. 

Bosi was my boss in this section to which I belonged and to which 
I had been transferred. 

The World Federation of Trade Unions has different sections. As 
you have noticed, I spoke this afternoon and this morning on the sea- 
men and dockers' section, and later I was transferred to the agricul- 
tural and forestry workers' section, and as such I was directly under 
the orders of Ilio Bosi. 

Now, I am mentioning Bosi's name because it will come out sooner 
or later that he was the main Communist responsible for the triumph 
of the popular front in Guatemala in 1950. Bosi made a secret trip 
by plane to Cuba, and from there he went to Mexico, and from Mexico 
he went to Guatemala, where he succeeded in creating, through Com- 
munist organizations, the basis of what is known today as the Arbenz 
Popular Front Government ; and this Bosi is an oldtime agent of both 



2410 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

the Comintern, wliicli was dissolved, and the present-day Cominform, 
which is the international Communist organization. 

Mr. ScHERER. Where does he live ? 

Mr. Walsh. He lives in Eome, Italy, but he is often in Moscow. 
He travels about quite frequently. 

Now, I have evidence to substantiate that, and I am going to submit 
to your connnittee letters from Bosi and also a report on his trip to 
Guatemala in 1950, as I referred to it. 

Bosi sent me this letter, knowing that I was an oldtime and trusted 
Communist, and in this letter he requested that our union, the Cana- 
dian Union of Woodworkers — that we should pass a resolution, and 
send him a copy, in favor of clemency for the Rosenbergs. 

Now, I think I will have to go back to explain, because of my status 
in the civil liberties' front organization, what I know about the Rosen- 
berg case as it relates to Canada. 

In 1051 I was on the executive board of the League for Democratic 
Rights, more commonly known in Canada as the LDR, and which is the 
counterpart of the Civil Rights Congress which you have in the United 
States and which is the Communist front in the civil liberties group. 
It is called the Civil Rights Congress, and I have been getting the 
material and letters from Patterson, and so on and so forth, for the 
past 3 years, copies of which also will be submitted to the committee. 

Now, in 1951 we held a meeting — it was in the latter part of 1951 — 
and this question of the Rosenbergs came up whether we as Canadian 
Communists, should not take up the clamor for clemency ; and William 
Cashton, C-a-s-h-t-o-n — who was formerly the leader of the Commu- 
nist League and is now an official of the Labor Progressive Party — he 
told us that the Communist Partj^ in Canada, the LPP, was going to 
keep its hands off the Rosenberg affair because of the similarity of 
the names of Julius Rosenberg and Fred Rose, whose real name, 
incidentally, is Fred Rosenberg. 

Now, after the Canadian spy trials of 1946, the Canadian Commu- 
nists were dealt a severe blow when it was revealed publicly that so 
many prominent Communists, including a member of Parliament, 
had been openly engaged in espionage against the Canadian Govern- 
ment, and there are many people who broke aw^ay from the party at 
that time because they did not want to go that far. They did not 
consider that treason was the accepted Communist Party doctrine, 
and that is why the Fred Rose case has been a very touchy one. 
Cashton explained to us in Toronto that we should just forget all 
about the Rosenberg affair. 

Now, sometime last year apparently — I haven't got the actual 
proof, but apparently — the w^orldwide campaign for clemency for the 
Rosenbergs, which was being sponsored, directed, and supported by 
Soviet agents all over the globe — and I have newspapers and publica- 
tions and pamphlets from nearly every country where the Communist 
Party has an organization, and it is no coincidence that all these ap- 
peals follow along the same pattern — it was decided that Canada 
should not be an exception and that we should join the hue and cry 
of the Rosenberg clemency campaign. 

Now, the way the League for Democratic Rights went about this is 
an illustration of communistic tactics. They sent word to Regina in 
Saskatchewan — that is in western Canada — to a Communist there that 
he should write in and suggest that people in the west were bothered 



COJVIlVrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2411 

about this Rosenberg affair and tbat, in his opinion, we should start 
a campaign in favor of the Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a person of any known record in the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, he was a member of Parliament — a Communist 
member of Parliament — and his name is William Kardash — K-a-r- 
d-a-s-h — a well-known leader of the Ukrainian Communist section of 
the party for the past 20 j^ears, and also a leader of the International 
Brigade in Spain between 1936 and 1939. 

So, Kardash wrote to the League for Democratic Rights, and we 
had the excuse that it was not something that was coming from the 
central body ; it was not a campaign that was being imposed because of 
the decision of the leadership, but that people from the west were 
anxious that we should do something about it, and in about 2 weeks we 
began to flood the country with save-the-Rosenbergs pamphlets, peti- 
tions, circulars, and what not. 

Now, I knew, from a study of the Rosenbergs' case, that, in my 
opinion, both Rosenbergs w^ere guilty and I was not surprised that 
such people had been carrying on espionage activities, because of my 
long experience with the Communist Party, and in my heart and soul 
I knew that they had had every possible chance for defending them- 
selves and that they could thank God they were living in America 
where they had the right to have a lawyer and to defend themselves 
and to enjoy the benefits of counsel, something which is denied to 
every citizen in the Soviet Union and every other country behind the 
Iron Curtain. They certainly had more chance than Comrade Beria 
is going to get, and in my heart and soul I could not endorse or have 
anything to do with something which smacked of treason. 

So, at a meeting of the Canadian Union of Woodworkers' Executive 
I publicly — this was on December the 15th, 1952 — I opposed the reso- 
lution by the president, Gerard Fortain — I will spell that — Gerard 
Fortain — G-e-r-a-r-d, Gerard ; and Fortain — F-o-r-t-a-i-n — who was a 
well-known Communist leader in Canada — I opposed his resolution 
that in the name of 100,000 bush workers, which incidentally we did 
not represent because at the very most we only had 5,000 members — 
that in the name of 100,000 French-Canadian bush workers we were 
going to request President Eisenhower to grant clemency to the Rosen- 
bergs. 

Well, I opposed the motion and I made a vigorous statement, which 
even rallied some of the Communists, and the motion was voted down ; 
but I knew from that clay on that my days were counted — that if I 
didn't move fast, they w^ould. 

So, I prepared everything, and I got as many documents and letters 
as possible, and I timed my resignation so that it would have the most 
effect against Communist Party plans in Canada. 

That was one of the factors — the question of the Rosenbergs. It 
was what we would call the straw that broke the camel's back, but 
the main reason was because Bruce Magnuson — I will spell that — 
B-r-u-c-e, Bruce; and Magnuson — M-a-g-n-u-s-o-n — who was the 
leader of the Canadian Union of Woodworkers, and a Communist of 
old-time standing, having been in ihe Communist Party for at least 
20 years, a man who was interned by the Canadian Government for 
subversive activities in 1940. He went to Russia in 1951 and on his 



2412 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

return gave us instructions — and when I say "us," I mean the Com- 
munists Avho were working in tlie Canadian Union of Woodworkers — 
there were about 40 of us old-time, hard-core Communists. He gave 
us directions and instructions that in the event of a war witli the 
Soviet Union we were to sabotage and blow up hydroelectric plants 
that were situated not very far away from lumber camps, and to that 
effect, that he would give the signal, all of our trusted Communists 
within this woodworkers' union would be sent to camps adjacent to 
hydroelectric plants. 

Now, this message was given to us by Marc Leclerc. 

I will spell that — M-a-r-c, Marc; second name, Leclerc — 
L-e-c-1-e-r-c — the former president of the Lumber and Sawmill Work- 
ers' Union, expelled by the A. F. of L. in 1951 for Communist activi- 
ties, also interned by the Canadian Government in 1939 because of 
subversive activities, and Leclerc's instructions were verbally told to 
Gerard Fortain, whom I have mentioned previously, and to myself in 
Montreal. 

Leclerc had been an organizer of the bush workers' union for tlie 
past 10 years and was very influential among the French-Canadian 
section of the Communist Party. 

Now, I wish to point out that practically all the leaders of this 
Canadian Union of Woodworkers, with the exception of Magnuson 
and Leclerc, were all former top CSU leaders. Gerard Fortain was 
the business agent in Montreal ; I was the CSU strike chairman ; and 
seven of our organizers were either patrolmen or top officials of the 
Canadian Seamen's Union. That is to say that the Communists knew 
that sabotage was nothing new to us, that we had been overseas, and 
that we had participated in the CSU strike, and that also on the 
west coast many of these organizers had sabotaged war material being 
sent to the Chiang Kai-shek Government, so that we should have no 
compunction, in their estimates, of carrying on the mere firing of for- 
ests and the blowing up of hydroelectric plants in the event of war 
with the Soviet Union. That was something to be expected of us. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Witness, may I interrupt ? 

When was the date of these instructions to blow up these hydro- 
electric plants ? 

Mr. Walsh. These instructions were given to us by Marc Leclerc 
in September of 1952. 

Mr. ScHERER. That late ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. That was previous to the meeting which was 
held. 

Now, I wish to state at this point that Marc Leclerc was an old- 
time infiltrator in the shipyards. Now, he left Bruce Magnuson and 
he went to work in the shipyards at Port Arthur to try and form 
Communist cells there. He was there for some time and he arrived 
in Montreal very secretly — nobody knew about it — to take over the 
shipyards at Vickers, which were controlled by an anti-Communist 
union. He changed his name, and he altered his appearance some- 
what — to what extent I don't know, but he went to work in the ship- 
yards at Vickers and began to create a Communist cell, which again 
was formed by old-time Communists who had been in the CSU. For 
example, I can name two of them — Scotty MacDonald and Torchy 
Torchniuk. Torchniuk is spelled — T-o-r-c-h-n-i-u-k. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2413 

Mr. ScHERER. Were any of these hydroelectric plants on or near 
the international boundary between Canada and the United States ? 

Mr. Walsh. No ; in this particular respect these hydroelectric plants 
were concentrated in the Shipshaw area, which I have mentioned 
previously this morning, in the Lake St. John district. 

I wish to point out if these plants were sabotaged it would deal a 
crippling blow to the aluminum production because the huge majority 
of the aluminum is made in Arvicla, in Canada, and if these plants 
were to blow up or be sabotaged seriously that it would deal a crip- 
pling blow to the aluminum output of the world. 

Mr. ScHERER. In which section were the forest fires to be started? 

Mr. Walsh. The forest fires were to be started in every place where 
we had Communist Party members who were reliable. 

Mr. ScHERER. Would any of those locations be near the international 
boundary ? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes; for example, in Maine, on both sides of the border, 
where we always had trusted Communist organizers, one of them who 
has been coming in and out of the States in the last 4 or 5 years, and 
his name I will submit publicly. His name is Oscar Valcourt 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell it. 

Mr. Walsh. I will spell that. Oscar — 0-s-c-a-r; and Valcourt — 
V-a-1-c-o-u-r-t. 

Mr. Tavenner. What were the circumstances under which you knew 
him as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, he was arrested as a Communist Party member 
in 1939. He was also arrested on various other occasions arising out 
of Communist-led strikes, and I've met him frequently at Communist 
Party meetings where I participated. 

Mr. Scherer. These people you have been identifying recently in 
your testimony are all Canadians, are they not? 

Mr. Walsh. They're all Canadians and they are well known to the 
police as Communists of old standing. 

Mr. Scherer. Are there any Americans that you know who acted 
in a capacity similar to these men that you have been testifying about ? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I never worked in the United States for the Com- 
munist Party because, as you can see by my 

Mr. Scherer. I understand that. I just wanted to know if by 
chance you knew of any. 

Mr. Walsh. I have no positive proof. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, the two experiences which you have told us 
about — the proposed sabotage and the directions in regard to the 
Rosenberg case — were the reasons of your breaking from the party. 

Now, prior to the time you broke with the party, had you cooperated 
with anti-Communist groups ? 

I am not asking you to state in what manner, but merely whether 
or not you had, for a period of time, cooperated with anti-Communist 
groups while you were still in the Communist movement? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; for a number of years — I should have stated this 
at the start of my testimony, but the questions were about the gi'eat 
strike — the CSU strike — for a number of years I have had no illusions 
on what communism is. I was led to believe that it was something 
which I found out subsequently was very contrary to the idealism 
that I had attached to the idea ; and when I woke up, so to speak, and 
when I finally realized to what extent that such things as treason and 



2414 COMMUlSriST activities in the ALBANY AREA 

sabotage and murder and assassination were part and parcel of the 
Communist doctrine and practice, I decided to break away from the 
Communists; but I met some people who were undercover agents 
within the Communist Party and who convinced me that I should 
continue in order to gather as much information as possible, so that 
T would be able to testify later on as to the extent and to the serious- 
ness of the menace of communism which, unfortunately, the people 
in Canada at that time did not take very seriously, and I was able 
to cooperate with various anti-Communist groups in giving them 
advance information and to put the brakes on many violent outbreaks 
and to even prevent scuttling of a ship. The Mont Rolland was 
scheduled to be scuttled and I prevented the scuttling of that ship. 

Mr. Tavenner. I v,'ill only ask the witness if you saved the scuttling 
of the ship with the risk of divulging the fact that you were at least 
lukewarm in the Communist movement. 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; I took a very great risk. In fact, I took the risk 
of being murdered by Communists; but, on the other hand, the ship 
was not scuttled. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, I think that is the perfect answer, Mr. Walsh. 
The main thing is that the ship was not scuttled. 

I suggest counsel defer any further questions on that. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am interested to know one other thing. You have 
told us, as a result of the international conspiracy which brought about 
this worldwide ship strike, that the shipowners lost many millions of 
dollars, that the Marshall plan was retarded, that a great many people 
suffered because of it in the economy of Great Britain and other places. 
I am interested to know what happened to the rank-and-file members 
of the Canadian Seamen's Union who participated in that strike and 
who were induced to become members of it, though not members of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I think that is the tragic part in the strike, that 
these Canadian seamen, who were loyal to Canada, the majority of 
them who had no Communist ideas whatsoever, by following the 
leadership of the Canadian Seamen's Union in this strike and by being 
active participants in the strike, were blacklisted for life because of 
their actions. This meant that a union which had 10,000 members that 
were sailing either on the Great Lakes or on the Atlantic Ocean or on 
the St. Lawrence Kiver, jeopardized the livelihood of all of these men 
by carrying on something which was so obviously doomed to failure ; 
but in my experiences in the Communist movement I have often 
noticed the utter and callous disregard of the Communist leaders to- 
ward the rank and file. I have noticed that not only in Canada, but in 
European countries. 

For example, in France during the great coal strike of 1948 there 
were some French miners there who were killed ; others were wounded 
and others were blacklisted for life just because the Communist Party 
wanted to carry on a political strike which had nothing to do with the 
wages or increased living conditions, or any other trade-union prin- 
ciples. The Communist leadership had this strike and the member- 
ship was hoodwinked into believing that it was a bona fide trade union 
fight and that they had to put up with hardships, and it is not only 
a question of the people involved ; it is a question of the womenfolk 
and the children. In the CSU strike it was not only the question of 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2415 

the Canadian seamen ; it was a question of the dockers of London and 
the dockers of San Francisco and Seattle, and dockers all over the 
world, who lost millions and millions of dollars in salary for something 
which was no concern of theirs whatsoever, which had nothing to do 
with trade-union principles, and these dockers, in losing that amount 
of money, of course, contributed to the hardship of their womenfolk 
and to their children. 

And, so, I think the tragic thing in political strikes that are led by 
Communists is the fact that it is the innocent people who suffer, be- 
cause no matter what the outcome of these strikes, the Communist 
leaders are always transferred to other jobs. 

Now I, myself, for example, had I been utterly cruel and callous, 
I would have just sneered and said, "Well, I don't have to worry; I'm 
sure of getting another job," which I did and which all the other 
leaders did. I give you a few examples : Harry Davis was transferred 
to the Fur and Leather Workers' Union ; Bob Nuttal was transferred 
to the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers; 
George Thibault was transferred to the Brotherhood of Canadian 
Seamen; Gerard Fortain was transferred to the Canadian Union of 
Woodworkers; Eeal Couillard was transferred to the Canadian Union 
of Woodworkers. I could go on and name you 50 or 60 other chaps, 
including Harry Gulkin, from one day to the other just were trans- 
ferred from one job to another. 

So that means the Communist leaders never have to face hardships. 
It's just the poor dupes who have blindly followed their instructions 
who are the ones who have to suffer the consequences of these political 
strikes and attempts at sabotage. 

Does that answer your question, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; it does, very fully, and satisfactorily. 

The quesion was raised as to whether or not you gave the spelling 
of Sir Walter Citrine. Will you give it to us now to be certain that 
we have it? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, you have the document itself, and it's under the 
heading of Sir Walter Citrine — C-i-t-r-i-n-e. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you agree, Mr. Walsh, that your experience 
in this tremendous conspiracy has been such as to indicate that no 
members of the Communist Party, in your judgment, should be per- 
mitted to occupy positions of leadership in any key organizations any 
place in the free world ? 

Mr. Walsh. I think it should be very elementary and it should be 
very obvious to anyone who has made a serious study of not only 
communism but of the methods of the Communists, that when Com- 
munist leaders or Communist organizers are allowed to control or to 
have a key position in any industry, that they are not only jeopardiz- 
ing the future of that industry but, by carrying out blindly and 
obediently every dictate of their Moscow overlords, they are threaten- 
ing the security of their own country. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Walsh, you have ably outlined the pattern and 
program of the Communist infiltration into certain Canadian labor 
unions. Would you say, from your experience, your knowledge of 
the Communist conspiracy, that that same or similar program of in- 
filtration was followed by the Communist Party in the labor unions 
of all non-Communist countries, including the United States ? 



2416 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Walsh. Yes; it is obvious that the same pattern is beiii<r fol- 
lowed everywhere; and I think in the United States that it is even 
more accentuated, in the sense that the party here has gone or is going 
underground, and that it is contiiuially being harassed undoubtedly 
by the Soviet Union to even greater efforts, because whenever the 
party appears to be weak it is there you have to be the most vigilant, 
because they are working day and night. There is something that 
we must admit, in all honesty, is that the Comnumist Party organizers 
really devote a lot of time and energ}- to undermining the free in- 
stitutions of the world. 

Mr. SciiEREK. Well, would you say, then, that hearings such as this 
committee is conibicting, which ex))()ses the nature arid method of this 
infiltration into labor unions, woultl be a valuable thing to enlighten- 
ing the great mass of workers who are anti-Communists, so that they 
could recognize these methods and this program when they happen 
to come in contact with them in the shop, would you not, Mr. Walsh? 
Mr. Walsh. Yes; I think it is very important to spotlight not only 
these activities, but all activities of the Communists, to prove the 
duplicity of the Communists and their two-faced methods, because no 
woi'ker who really experiences communism can now swallow the lies 
and deceits of the Communists. 

Mr. SciiERER. Actually, isn't an exposure such as we are having here 
today perhaps the greatest weapon to defeat the Communist con- 
spiracy in the cold war? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes ; 1 think that what I have said today will certainly 
help, first of all, people who are apathetic to realize the seriousness of 
the Communist menace and at the same time it will alert people to- 
the reality of the potential threat of conununism — not only in Europe, 
but in all parts of the globe. 

Mr. SciiEKER. And it isn't always numbers that count; it is organ- 
izati(m? 

Mr. Walsh. Oh, yes; definitely. There's an old saying which Com- 
nuinists continually trot out — and that is that o determined men in a 
plant can do more work from a sabotage viewpoint than 3,000 men 
who don't know what to do, or something similar. It is a French say- 
ing, which 1 am badly translating, but it goes to prove that people who 
are determined to do something and who receive instructions and 
blindly obey party orders can be counted upon to do anything. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, Mr. AValsh, as chairman of this subcommittee, 
I want to say to you that I think, from this most revealing testimony 
that you have given here today, that you have given something to 
the people of our country. I mean my own country. You, as a 
(^anadian citizen, to come here and give it to us voluntarily shows the 
universal or, shall we say, the global menace of this Connnunist 
octopus that has got its tentacles all over the world. 

I want to say to you that, in my humble opinion, you have rendered 
a great public service to the peojile of our country, and I want to ex- 
press my (hanks and the thanks of the conunittee for your coming 
here. 

Mr. Walsh. I thank you. 

Mr. Kearxey. The committee will stand in recess until 10:30 to- 
morrow moi'ning. 

(Whereupon, at 4: 20 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene- 
at 10 : 30 a. ul, Tuesday, July 14, 1953.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
ALBANY, N. Y., AREA— Part 1 



TUESDAY, JULY 14, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Albany^ New York. 
public hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 1 : 35 a. m., in courtroom No. 1 of the Federal 
Building, Albany, N. Y., Hon. Bernard W. Kearney (chairman of the 
subcommittee) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Bernard W. Kearney 
(chairman of the subcommittee) and Gordon H. Scherer. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; Thomas 
W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk; James A. Andrews and Earl L. Fuoss, in- 
vestigators ; and Mrs. Rosella Purdy, secretary to counsel. 

Mr. Kearney. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Counsel, have you your first witness ready ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to call Mr. Nicholas Campas. 

Will you come forward, please ? 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Campas, will you stand and raise your right 
hand? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give shall be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Campas. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your full name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Jones. May I interrupt just a moment, Mr. Chairman? 

I understand, from your counsel, that the witness has the right to 
refuse a broadcast of his testimony. 

Mr. Kearney. Under the rules of the committee ; yes. 

Mr. Jones. We so request. 

Mr. Kearney. And the broadcasting will be discontinued upon the 
request of the witness. 

TESTIMONY OF NICHOLAS CAMPAS, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, ABBOTT H. JONES, JR. 

Mr. Ta\tnner. Will you state your full name, please, sir ? 
Mr. Campas. Nicholas Campas. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel, Mr. Campas ? 
Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please state his name and address for 
the benefit of the record ? 

2417 



2418 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Counsel, my name is Abbott H. Jones, Jr., with 
offices for the practice of my profession at 5 Broadway, Troy, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Campas? 

Mr. Campas. November 29, 1916, Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your present occupation? 

Mr. Campas. I am the business manager for the Hotel and Restau- 
rant Employees' Union, Local 583, in Troy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside? 

Mr. Campas. 129 Fourth Street, Troy, N. Y. 

Mr. Kearney. Counsel, may I interrupt just a moment? 

In order not to disturb the witness' testimony, I wish the camera- 
men would take pictures now before the witness starts his testimony. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Campus, will you advise the committee, please, 
what your formal education training has been ? 

Mr. Campas, I went as far as the ninth grade, public schools. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your work 
record has been since 1934? 

Mr. Campas. Well, from 1934 until early 1936 I worked as a busboy 
in the city of New York. 

In the summer of 1936 I worked in a summer resort in Vermont as 
a busboy, in a hotel. 

From the fall of 1936 until the early part of 1937 I worked as a 
busboy in the city of Albany, in various restaurants. 

From 1937 until the early part of 1940 I worked as a waiter in the 
city of Albany, in various restaurants and hotels. 

From 1940 until the middle of 1945 I worked as a waiter in the city 
of Troy, in various hotels and restaurants. 

With one exception, of approximately 3 months in 1943, that I was 
in the city of New York, that I was working as a waiter. 

From 1945 until 1946, for approximately 10 months, I was the 
business agent of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Union in 
Albany. 

From 1946, in July, until the present date I have been business agent 
and business manager for the Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Union 
in Troy. 

Mr. Tavenner. And what is the number of your local union? 

Mr. Campas. 583. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has information, Mr. Campas, that 
you have had some experience in the Communist Party. Is it true 
that you have been a member of the Communist Party or affiliated 
with it or any of its organizations? 

Mr. Campas. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, when your 
affiliation with the Communist Party or any of its groups first took 
place, and where? 

Mr. Campas. Well, it first took place in the city of New York some- 
time in the early part of 1935, when I joined the Young Communist 
League. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances under which you became a member of the Young Communist 
League in New York? 

Mr. Campas. Well, at that time I was working as a busboy, as I 
stated previously, off and on. Work was not too plentiful ; conditions 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2419 

were not the best ; the hours were quite long ; the pay was quite low, 
and the Communists at that time promised that they would try to 
work and improve conditions for labor, and being interested in labor, 
because I was a worker myself, I fell for their line and I joined. 

In addition, they compared conditions in the United States with 
conditions in the Soviet Union. For example, they pointed out at 
that time there was no depression in the Soviet Union ; everybody was 
working ; there were no labor problems, while in the United States we 
had unemployment, hunger marches, and so on. 

In other words, what happened was that they painted such a rosy 
picture of what they were going to do and what they could do that I 
joined, primarily because I was interested as a worker in trying to 
better myself and to better the conditions of the workers generally. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain a member of the Young 
Communist League in the City of New York ? 

Mr. Campas. Until the early part of 1936, when I went to Vermont. 

Mr. Tavenner. During that period of time what was the chief 
interest of the Young Communist League in the city of New York? 

Mr. Campas. Well, the group that I belonged to was composed of 
people who were in various hotel and restaurant unions and the pri- 
mary work of that group was to work within these hotels and restau- 
rant unions. 

At that time there were two types of restaurant workers' unions. 
There was what is known as the leftwing Food Workers' Industrial 
Union and there was the American Federation of Labor Kestaurant 
Workers' Union, and the purpose of the Communists in the food 
workers' union was to try to get enough influence in the American 
Federation of Labor Restaurant Workers' Union so that the Food 
Workers' Industrial Union could be taken into the American Federa- 
tion of Labor and then there would be only one union and, by the same 
token, the Communists in the leftwing union would become part of 
the American Federation of Labor. 

Mr, Tavenner. Who were the leaders in the Young Communist 
League in New York — that is, the branch or the group that you were 
affiliated with? 

Mr. Campas. Well, the leader of that particular branch was a girl 
by the name of Irene Short. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know how she was employed at that time? 

Mr. Campas. She worked as a counter girl, if I recall correctly, in 
one of the cafeterias. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of all the persons who 
were members of the Young Communist League group of which you 
were a member that you can now recall ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, in addition to the one named, I remember Shir- 
ley Fields, Jim Bartlett, who was an organizer of the Young Uom- 
munist League ; Leo Gerstinheim. 

Mr. Ta\T!:nner. Will you spell that name, please? 

Mr. Campas. Gerstinheim, G-e-r-s-t-i-n-h-e-i-m. 

In addition to those, there was Artluir Barry 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name ? ' 

Mr. Campas. B-a-r-r-y; Manning Johnson. 

Mr. Tavenner. How well did you learn to know Manning Johnson? 

37740— 53— pt 1 5 



2420 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Campus. Well, lie was a member of the Communist Party and 
he was assigned to this group as sort of an overseer, being an older 
person. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Did you later learn that Manning Johnson had risen 
to a very high place in the Young Communist League and in the Com- 
munist Party in this Country ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes; I heard of it, but I didn't know it of personal 
knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. In fact, he was sent to a special school in JMoscow ? 

Mr. Campas. I heard that also. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had any occasion to be associated with 
him since your membership, since you left New York City in 1936? 

Mr. Campus. No ; not that I can recall. I think the last time I saw 
him was approximately that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think I should state for the benefit of the record 
here, although it is well known generally, that Manning Johnson 
finally broke with the Communist Party and has testified very fully 
before our committee. 

Mr. Campas. In addition to those names, I have one more name of 
the persons I met during that period. Bill Lawrence. He was a 
Communist Party organizer for the midtown area in the city of New 
York, what was known as section 2 — that's the garment area — who 
later was sent to Spain as a commissar of some sort during the civil 
war in Spain. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Was Lawrence a full-time functionary of the Com- 
munist Party at that time or did he have other employment ? 

Mr. Campas. No ; at the time I met him he was a full-time organizer 
for the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you stated in 1936 you left New York 
City, and went, for a short time, to Vermont. 

Mr. Campas. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any Communist Party experience in 
Vermont ? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you in Vermont ? 

Mr. Campas. Approximately 3 months. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Then, after leaving Vermont, I believe you came 
to Albafiy ; is that 

Mr. Campas. That's correct, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Did you affiliate with the Young Communist League 
in Albany on your arrival here ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain affiliated with the Young 
Communist League here in Albany ? 

Mr. Campas. From the fall of 1936 until approximately the end 
of 1937. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the reason for your disassociation with 
the Young Communist League in 1937? 

Mr. Campas. Well, if I remember correctly, at that time, upon the 
reaching of a certain age, the purpose of the Young Communist 
League were more or less automatically transferred into the Com- 
munist Party if they were acceptable to the party, and upon reaching 
my 21st birthday I became a member of the Communist Party. 

iSIr. Tavenner. And that took place here in Albany ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2421 

Mr. Campas, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Before proceeding to your activity within the 
Communist Party in Albany, I would like to ask you whether or not 
you can advise the committee of the activities of the Young Com- 
munist League here in Albany between 1936 and 1937 when you 
went into the Communist Party. 

Mr. Campas. Well, the group, as such, was quite small and primar- 
ily composed of the sons and daughters, relatives of Communist Party 
members and at that time 

Mr. Tavenner. At that point, can you tell the committee what 
method was used, if you know, of getting the sons and daughters of 
Communist Party members into the Young Communist League? 

Mr. Campas. Well, that I can't state from personal knowledge, not 
being the son of a Communist, but I suppose the father, or whoever 
the elder was — he more or less indoctrinated the child and, upon 
reaching the age, he brought him into the Young Commmiist League. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well, if you will proceed 

Mr. Campas. Well, the work, as I said — the group was quite small, 
and the work that they did — at the time the Spanish civil war was in 
progress and they were active in that, in attempting to lift the Neu- 
trality Act by circularizing Members of the Congress, urging them to 
repeal the Neutrality Act. 

They participated in work for boycotting Japanese goods. 

They participated in work for boycotting the shipment of militai*y 
supplies to Japan, because at that time the Japanese were fighting 
in China. 

And they were also active, to some extent, in the American Labor 
Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. There must have been leadership exerted over that 
group in order to take part in the activities you have described. Do 
you know the source of that leadership at that time ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, the source of the leadership is the Communist 
Party itself. The organizer, if that's who you mean, was a person 
named Herbert Parker. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know anything of the present whereabouts 
of Herbert Parker ? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir ; I haven't seen him since that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the committee the names of those 
that you can recall who were members of the Young Communist 
League with you in Albany ? 

Mr. Campas. I remember Arnold Dorenz. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name ? 

Mr. Campas. D-o-r-e-n-z. 

Mr. Tavenner. D-o-r-e-n-z ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. Louis Geller. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name ? 

Mr. Campas. G-e-1-l-e-r. 

And Ruth 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, just a moment. Can you give any further 
information or description of Louis Geller? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir; I haven't seen him since that time, that I 
can recall. I met him on the street some time later, but outside of 
that I don't know anything about him. 



2422 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you proceed ? 

Mr. Campas. One more person — Ruth Jennings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give any more descriptive information 
regarding her? 

Mr. Campas. Well, she was from Schenectady, and she was con- 
nected with work in organizing the American Locomotive Workers at 
the time. 

That is about all. 

Mr. Tavenner. What area was covered by the membership of the 
Young Communist League here in Albany ? 

Mr. Campas. It was Albany, the group I was in, but this particular 
girl came over from Schenectady at times. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, any further 
circumstances that you recall regarding your transition from mem- 
bership in the Young Communist League, to membership in the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, there was nothing that I could add, except what 
I have already said — more or less automatically I was transferred 
from one group into the other. 

JMr. Tavenner. When you became a member of the Communist 
Party, were you a member of a labor union ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVliat was the designation of your union? 

Mr. Campas. It was the Hotel and Eestaurant Employees' Union, 
Local 471. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time you became a member of the Communist 
Party, had the Communist Party succeeded in obtaining any extensive 
membership in that union? 

Mr. Campas. Well, not very extensive at that time. The extensive 
membership came later. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you explain to the committee all you can now 
recall relating to the group of the Communist Party that you united 
with here in Albany ? 

I believe we should start out by stating what its objectives were, as 
far as you could ascertain from your membership in it. 

Mr. Campas. Well, this particular group that I became a member 
of was composed exclusively of members of the hotel and restaurant 
union, and their objective was to get control of the union. That was 
the primary objective. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did this group of the Communist Party pro- 
ceed in its effort to get control of your local union ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, the first step — t 
of the union into the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was that? 

Mr. Campas. Jack Davis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then what followed after that? 

Mr. Campas. Well, the second step — the person who recruited Jack 
Davis into the Communist Party became an organizer for the union. 
The person at present is deceased, and the 

Mr. Tavenner. This person that you say is now deceased, what 
function did he perform in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Campas. Well, in the Communist Party he was the leader of 
that particular group that we were a part of. In other words, he did 



ley recruited the business agent 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2423 

all the leading work and it was his assignment, I presume, to get the 
business agent of the union into the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. In light of the activity of that individual, I think 
I should ask you his name. 

Mr. Campas. His name was Gus Cakoulis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name, please? 

Mr. Campas. C-a-k-o-u-l-i-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was the leader of this Communist group? 

Mr. Campas. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of your local union at the time 
you first learned he was the leader of your group of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What else was done in the effort of the Communist 
Party to gain control of your local union ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, the next step — I became the president of the 
union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did your membership in the Communist Party 
contribute to your being elected as president? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you explain to the committee, please, the basis 
for your statement? 

Mr. Campas. Well, when the question of nominations for officers 
of the union came up, the members of the Communist Party in that 
union caucused and decided as to who would be the candidate. Hav- 
ing been picked, they went out and they campaigned to see that the 
candidntes which they had picked and endorsed were sure of election. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Was it publicly known among the members of your 
union that you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Campas. I don't think so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had an effort been made to conceal the fact of mem- 
bership of those who were members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, we didn't go out and advertise it, if that's what 
you mean, but definitely there was some effort made that it was not 
to be known that the people who were in the Communist Party were 
such because I think it would have been quite unpopular. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many members did you have in your local 
union at that time ? 

Mr. Campas. Approximately 700. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee whether or not this 
Communist Party group was successful in taking over this local union 
at that time? 

Mr. Campas. Yes ; they were, because in addition to the three officers 
they are able to get a couple of their members on the executive com- 
mittee. Consequently, they had practically full control of the leader- 
ship at least. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you think was the greatest strength of the 
Communist Party numerically at any one time in your local union ? 

Mr. Campas. Not more than 10 at one time. 

Mr. Tavenner. How can it be that 10 members of the Communist 
Party could take over, so to speak, a union consisting of 700 members ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, the members of the Communist Party who were 
in the union were most active members. They worked very hard. If 



2424 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

there was anything to be done, they were the ones that went out and 
did it. The membership as a whole of the union were indifferent. 
They didn't participate actively in the union affairs. They just took 
the attitude: "Oh, well, I am a member. I pay my dues. We'll let 
George do it." The Communists didil't operate that way. They were 
the ones that did it. They were George. They did the work and, 
consequently^, they gained the confidence of these people and they were 
able to stay in leadership. 

Mr. ScHERER. The Communists in the labor union were also spe- 
cifically trained in methods of taking over the labor unions and con- 
trolling them, weren't they? 

Mr. Campas. That's true. 

Mr. ScHERER. You received special instructions ? 

Mr. Campas. That's correct, as far as I know. 

The membership of the union failed to exercise their rights — demo- 
cratic rights in coming to vote, attending meetings, and so forth — 
and, naturally, they didn't know there was such a group active in 
carrying on this work. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your testimony in that respect is quite similar to 
the testimony of another witness before this committee a year or two 
ago, Mr. Matthew Cvetic, who described to this committee how a labor 
union in the steel industry in Pittsburgh, consisting of 2,800 members, 
was taken over by a Communist group organized among them and 
that group never consisted of more than 20 individuals. 

Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Without going into details, when did you cease to 
become a member of the party? 

Mr. Campas. The early part of 1948. 

Mr. Taa'enner. In looking back over your experience in the Com- 
munist Party, what would be the most effective manner in which the 
rank and file of a union could oppose the taking over of their union 
by members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Campas. The most effective way would be for them to take an 
interest in their union, to attend their meetings, to exercise their right 
to go and vote and participate in all the activities of the union and not 
sit back and let somebody else do the job. As the honorable Congress- 
man said, they were trained to do the job. . 

Mr. Tavenner. Of course, also in the fight of the rank and file of a 
union to keep the Communists out of leadership, it is necessary for 
them to know who the members of the Communist Party are ; is that 
not true ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. And in that respect, the work of this committee is 
of such value, would you not say, to rank-and-file members of a union, 
in that it frequently discloses those who are active in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir ; and that's the reason I am here. 

Mr. Scherer. I believe, Mr. Campas, you said, in the beginning of 
your testimony, that there was some infiltration in the American Labor 
Party by the Communists, or what statement did you make with ref- 
erence to Communists connection with the American Labor Party ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2425 

Mr. Campas. I said the Young Communist League at that time did 
do some work in connection with the American Labor Party, in the 
sense that they passed out leaflets and campaign literature, and such 
as that. 

Mr. ScHERER, Was there attempt in your membership in the Com- 
munist Party to take over the American Labor Party ? 

Mr. Campas. Not at that time. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you have some questions, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

You did have experience of that character at a later time ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state what other activities this group of 
the Communist Party engaged in, in addition to its effort to take over 
your local union ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, after gaining control of the union, they pro- 
ceeded to participate in the same kind of work I mentioned earlier of 
the Young Communist League — the Japanese boycott, boycott the 
shipping of military supplies to Japan ; raising of funds for the 
Spanish relief; petitioning Congress to repeal the Neutrality Act; 
attempting to recruit some members of the union into the Communist 
Party, and raising funds for the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the source of the directives which led to 
that action ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, at most of the meetings of this group I attended 
at that time there was a — what was known as the section organizer 
present — that is, the organizer of the Communist Party — and he 
usually brought the directives to the group from the district head- 
quarters which was in New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of those who acted as 
district organizers or section organizers during the period that you 
are now speaking of? That would be from 1937 until about what 
date? 

Mr. Campas. Until the first part of 1940, April or May. 

At that time, I would say the early 1937, there was Joseph Klein. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell Klein ? 

Mr. Campas. K-1-e-i-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where Joseph Klein is now ? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you learn whether he left this country at a later 
date? 

Just answer "Yes" or "No." 

Mr. Campas. Only from hearsay, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether this person, Joe Klein, was 
known by any other name ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir ; he was known by the name of Joseph Stone, 
S-t-o-n-e. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Well, you say he was an organizer during part of 
this period? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

ISIr. Tavenner. Will you name others, please ? 

Mr. Campas. Dorothy Loeb — L-o-e-b — and also known as Dorothy 
Klein, supposedly his wife, and acted as his assistant. 

And later, for the most part from 1938 to 1940, there was Max 
Gordon , 



2426 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. TA^T.N^rER. Were all those individuals located in the city of 
Albany during the period they were section organizers or district 
organizers ? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir; Klein and Loeb were in Schenectady in 1937, 
and after they left Gordon was in xilbany. 

Mr. Tavenxer. You spoke of a section organizer. What was meant 
by the term "section" ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, if my memory serves me correctly, the State of 
New York was known as district 2 and it was divided up into sections, 
and the capital district was a section. That would be Albany, Troy, 
Schenectady, and the surrounding communities. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. Were those occasions when section meetings were 
held — that is, where representatives from the different branches were 
in attendance at a conference or meeting? 

Mr. Campas. Yes; they held what were known as section conven- 
tions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were these occasions when section meetings were 
other groups of the Communist Party which were interested in differ- 
ent objectives from that which your group was primarily interested? 

Mr. Campas. Well, there were, to my knowledge — not personal 
knowledge that I attended these meetings, but from what I under- 
stood at that time there was a State employees' group, a professional 
group, a peace group and one neighborhood group. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you stated you had not at any time at- 
tended one of the meetings of those groups ? 

Mr. Campas. Not that I can recall. 

Mr. Tai-enner. Did you attend a section meeting made up of rep- 
resentatives from those various groups? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many section meetings did you attend ? 

Mr. Campas. One that I can recall. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. When was it held and where was it held? 

Mr. Campas. It was held in the city of Albany, some time in 1938 
or early 1939. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. How many people were in attendance at that 
meeting ? 

Mr. Campas. At this moment, I would say approximately 50 to 75; 
but they were not all delegates. Some of them were just members 
of the Communist Party who came in as spectators and sat in, but 
didn't participate. I couldn't say how many actual delegates there 
were, but there were approximately 50 to 75 people in the room. 

Mr. Tavenner. '\^1io was the Communist Party organizer at that 
time? 

Mr. Campas. Max Gordon. 

Mr. Tavenner, What was the general purpose of that section 
meeting ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, at that time the Communist Party operated in 
this way : That prior to a national convention they would have sec- 
tional conventions who would elect delegates to district conventions, 
and then the district delegates would elect delegates to the national 
convention ; and the line that was going to be followed that was taken 
by the national convention was discussed beforehand in the sections 
and districts. 



COJMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2427 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall any action that was taken at that 
particular section meeting which is still in your memory ? 

Of course, it wouldn't be in your memory unless you recalled it, 
but is there anything of any particular importance that you can recall 
that occurred during that meeting^ 

Mr. Campas. No, except the reports were made of the various groups 
that were represented ; but I cannot recall any particular action that 
was taken or any particular subject that was discussed. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of the reports that were made 
from these various cells or groups of the party ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, each group reported on their activity and the 
progress they were making in carrying out the work of the Com- 
mimist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you do not recall the substance of those repoi-ts 
at this late time ? 

Mr. Campas. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Can you recall who made reports at that meeting, 
or some of them who made reports ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, the person who made the report for our group 
is the same person I mentioned earlier, who is now deceased. 

The main report was made by a woman. That was what I would 
call the keynote address, as they do in all political conventions. That 
is, someone makes the keynote address, and this woman did that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was she ? 

Mr. Campas. At that time she was known by the name of Amalia 
Pesko; now known as Crago. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is the spelling of Pesko ? 

Mr. Campas. P-e-s-k-o. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Can you recall the names of other persons who 
reported the activities of their branches or cells? 

Mr. Campas. No ; I cannot at this time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the names of some of those who were 
present and took part in this section meeting ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like for you to give the committee the names 
of those persons. 

Mr. Campas. Well, in addition to myself and this person who is 
now deceased and Pesko, there was Jack Davis, who was at that 
time the business agent of our union. 

From Gloversville, there was a Clarence Carr. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did this section include Gloversville? 

Mr. Campas. Well, as far as I know, it did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of others, if you can 
recall them ? 

Mr. Campas. John Wright. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Do you know what branch or group of the Com- 
munist Party he was from ? 

Mr. Campas. I understood he was from the State employees' group 
at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give any further identifying information 
regarding him ? 

When you say he was from the State employees' group, did that 
mean he was eniployed by the State government at that time ? 



2428 COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Campas. That's what I understood, and anything further is 
that he was active in the State and for his union. He was head of, 
what was known at that time as, State, County, and Municipal 
Workers' Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any association at any later time in 
Communist Party work with John Wright? 

Mr. Campas. Not directly, only that I saw him occasionally; and 
after seeing him at this meeting, then I knew that he was a Commu- 
nist. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right, will you proceed, please ? 

Mr. Campas. Another person present at this meeting was Charles 
Dorenz. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give any further identifying information 
regarding him ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, as far as I knew, he was a painter, member of the 
painter's union, and also a delegate to the Central Federation of Labor 
from the painters' union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. Will you proceed, please ? 

Mr. Campas. Another person present at this convention was Her- 
bert Feay. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name, please ? 

Mr. Campas. As far as I can recall, it was spelled F-e-a-y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give us further identifying information 
regarding him ? 

Mr. Campas. As far as I knew, he was a State employee, and that 
is about all I knew of him. 

Another person present at this meeting was David Rappaport. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what branch of the Communist Party 
he was a member of ? 

Mr. Campas. As far as I know, he was a member of the State em- 
ployees' branch. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give us any further identifying informa- 
tion regarding Mr. Rappaport ? 

Mr. Campas. Also active in the State, County and Municipal Work- 
ers' Union, which at that time was trying to organize the State em- 
l>loyees. 

Mr. TA^^5NNER. Are there any other members or any other persons 
whose names you can now recall who attended that section convention 
or such meeting ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes; James King — K-i-n-g. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give further identifying information re- 
garding him? 

Mr. Campas. At that time I understood he was an officer of the 
State, County and Municipal Workers' Union and that he also acted 
as an officer for a local of a cleaners' and dyers' union that was formed 
in the city. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is the name Rappaport spelled as it is pronounced ? 

Possibly you should spell it. 

Mr. Campas. R-a-p-p-a-p-o-r-t. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there an}' others who attended that conven- 
tion that you can now recall ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, the organizer. Max Gordon, of course; he was 
there ; but I cannot recall at this time the names of any other persons 
who were present. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2429 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall who were elected at this convention 
to attend the State convention of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Campas. The only one that I can remember was Max Gordon, 
the organizer. I knew he was elected, but outside of that I don't 
remember. 

Mr. Tavenner, There were others elected, but you do not recall 
who they were? 

Mr. Campas. As far as I can recall, there were two elected. He was 
one, and another; but I cannot recall at this time who the other 
person was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever attend the State convention of the 
Communist Party as a delegate? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Not having attended a State convention, I assume, 
then, you did not attend a national convention ? 

Mr. Campas. Not as a delegate. I was in New York at one time dur- 
ing the course of a national convention. I did attend — not as a dele- 
gate but as a spectator. I drove down to New York with Max Gordon. 
He was a delegate and I just drove down with him and attended the 
convention. 

Mr. Ta'stenner. Did you at any time attend a State convention of 
your union, which was the Hotel and Kestaurant Employees' Union ? 

Mr. Campas. Not at that time. 

ISIr. Tavenner. Not during the period from 1936 until 1940 ? 

Mr. Campas. That's correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend any national convention of your 
union during that period of time, between 1936 and 1940 ? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has ascertained from other witnesses 
in the past that it was the practice where any considerable strength 
had developed within a union for the Communist Party delegates to 
convention to caucus in advance of the holding of the conventions for 
the purpose of endeavoring to plan and to put over the Communist 
Party line at the particular convention. Did you ever have occasion 
to attend any fraction meetings of the Communist Party that had 
any purpose of that kind in mind? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir; I did, 2 or perhaps 3 such fraction meetings, 
which at that time were known as the National Food Fraction, which 
was composed of Communist Party members who were either mem- 
bers or officers of various restaurant and hotel unions. 

Mr. Tavenner, Were those Communist fraction meetings made up 
of representatives of all parts of the United States generally ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir, as far as I can recall, although the ones I 
attended were primarily from the eastern part of the United States. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. When did you attend the first of such fraction 
meetings ? 

Mr. CAivrpAs, In 1937 — something like that — to my knowledge. 

Mr, Tavenner, And when did you attend the second? 

Mr. Campas. I would say 1938. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you say you attended a third or not? 

Mr. Campas. Yes; I attended two fraction meetings as such, and 
one was in connection with my going to New York with Max Gordon 
to this national convention. The fraction took the occasion of the 



2430 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

national convention, at which there were a number of food workers 
present, to hold another fraction meeting, which did not have any 
connection Avith the national convention of tlie Communist Party as 
such, but they just took the occasion being these people were in the 
city all at one place. 

Air. Ta\-exni:r. Would you state the dates and the places of these 
fraction meetings which you attended? 

Mr. Campas. The nearest I can say is 1937 and 1938, and the place 
New York City. 

Mr. Ta\t;nner. Wliat was the general purpose of these fraction 
meetings ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, their purpose was to coordinate the work of the 
Communist Party members within the Hotel and Restaurant Em- 
ployees' Union. Then, they also planned the program and what action 
the Communist Party members would take at the national conventions 
of the union, such as resolutions. In other words, they planned what 
resolutions they would endorse and what resolutions they would intro- 
duce and what resolutions they would fight against. 

In addition to that, they also planned the question of which candi- 
date for office in the national convention of the union they would 
support and which they would oppose. 

In other words, that was the coordinating body of the Communist 
Party within that particular union. 

Mr. Taat.nner. Who took the leadei^ship in these fraction meetings 
that you attended ? 

Mr. Campas. Jay Rubin. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were any of the national officers of the Hotel and 
Restaurant Employees' Union members of the Communist Party at 
any time during your experience? 

Mr. Campas. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the committee, please, the names of 
all of the members of your union who attended these Communist 
Party caucuses which you have just described that you can now 
recall ? 

Mr. Campas. You mean the national ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; the national. 

Mr. Campas. In addition to Jay Rubin, there was Harry Rich — 
spelled as pronounced. 

Mr. Tavenner. And I would like, in the course of your statement 
as to the names of these persons, to have you give such identifying 
information regarding them as you are able to give. 

Mr. Campas. Well, Jay Rubin is now an officer of the Hotel and 
Club Employees' Union, Local 6, New York City. 

Harry Rich was an officer of Cooks' Union, Local 89, New York 
City. He is now out. I have no knowledge of his whereabouts. 

Another person is Sam Kramberg. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name, please. 

Mr. Campas. K-r-a-m-b-e-r-g. 

He was an officer of Cafeteria Workers' Union, Local 302, in New 
York City. He is now out and I have no knowledge of his where- 
abouts. 

Mike Obermier — 0-b-e-r-m-i-e-r. He was an officer of Local 6, 
Hotel and Club Employees' Union. He has since been deported to 
Germany, according to the newspapers. 



COMIVrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2431 

Willie Schulz — S-c-h-u-1-z. He was can officer of Waiters' Union, 
Local 219, New York City. Since that time he has been out of the 
union and I don't know where he is. 

William Albertson — A-1-b-e-r-t-s-o-n. He was an officer of Waiters' 
Union, Local 16, New York City. He is out of the union and I have 
no knowledge of his whereabouts. 

David Herman — H-e-r-m-a-n. He is now president of the Hotel 
and Club Workers, Local 6, New York City. 

Nick Lazari — L-a-z-a-r-i. He was from Pittsburgh. He was an 
officer of the Hotel and Restaurant Union there ; since has been out of 
the union. I have no knowledge of his whereabouts. 

With him was Carl Hacker— H-a-c-k-e-r. He was originally from 
Pittsburgh. At present he is an international organizer for the Hotel 
and Restaurant Employees' Union, assigned to the capital district. 

Costas Alexiou — A-1-e-x-i-o-u — an officer of the Washington Hotel 
and Restaurant Employees' Union. That is Washington, D. C. From 
what I understand he has been ousted from the union and I don't know 
of his whereabouts. 

James McNamara — M-c-N-a-m-a-r-a. He was an officer of the 
Hotel and Restaurant Workers' Union in the Washington, D. C, 
local 80. 

Mr. ScHEifER. You say he is a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr, ScHERER. Or he was a member? 

Mr. Campas. Well, he was at the time I am speaking of, between 
1937 and 1939—1937, 1938, and 1939. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is he with the United States Government at the 
present time? 

Is that the labor conciliator ? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir; he was the officer of the union. 

Mr. ScHERER. I mean presently do you know his present occupation ? 

Mr. Campas. No ; I don't know. 

Mr. ScHERER, Is that James P. McNamara ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, I don't know his middle initial. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was he at one time president of the national asso- 
ciation 

Mr. Campas. No, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Or national vice president? 

Mr. Campas. I think he was. 

Mr. Tavenner. See if you can recall any other identifying fact 
regarding him. 

Mr. Campas. Well, I don't — I haven't anything further. That's 
the only thing I remember — is the name. He was introduced to me 
by that name. That's all I remember. If I saw him today, I prob- 
ably wouldn't recognize him. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right, sir. 

Are there any others that you can now recall ? 

Mr. Campas. Ishmael Flory — F-l-o-r-y. 
_ Mr. Tavenner. Can you give us any further identifying informa- 
tion regarding him ? 

Mr. Campas. He was connected with the dining car employees. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the names of any others? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir. 



2432 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

(At this point Mr. Campas conferred with Mr. Jones.) 

Mr. Tavenner. You have stated in 1938 you were the president 
of your local union? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the committee the names of other 
members of vour union who were members of your group in the Com- 
munist Party between 1936 and 1940? 

Mr. Campas. Jack Davis, who was the business agent. 

Mike Yarman — Y-a-r-m-a-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us more identifying information 
regarding him? 

Mr. Campas. He worked as a busboy and dishwasher in the city of 
Albany, in various restaurants. 

And George Stathis. 

Mr. Tavenner. How was he employed ? 

Mr. Campas. He was working as a Avaiter; still waiting as a waiter. 

Sam Edelstein — E-d-e-1-s-t-e-i-n. He was working as a clerk and 
a kitchen worker. 

And Selma Lahne — L-a-h-n-e. She worked as a waitress. 

In addition to that, there were 5 others who are deceased. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I will not ask you the names of the deceased 
parties unless, according to your personal knowledge, they played 
an important part in the leadership of your group. 

Mr. Ca]mpas. The only person was the one I mentioned earler, 
Cakoulis. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you continue to be a member of the 
Communist Party group which was organized within your labor 
union here in Albany ? 

Mr. Campas. Until the spring of 1940. 

Mr. Tavenner. What occurred in the spring of 1940 which had any 
bearing on your leaving the Communist Party at that time? 

Mr. Campas. Well, in the spring of 1940 the union elections were 
held and the candidates that were put up by the Communist Party were 
defeated. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the result of the defeat of the Communist 
Party leadership in that election? 

Mr. Campas. Well, the result of the defeat in the union of the Com- 
munist Party's slate, so to speak, resulted in the disintegration and the 
breaking up of this group of the Communist Party within the union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there any disciplinary action taken by the Com- 
munist Party leadership arising out of that election in the union? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir; there was, because some of the members of 
the group disagreed on the question of who they were to support dur- 
ing the election and they, of course, were disciplined. I cannot recall 
the names of them now, but they were disciplined at that time for 
supporting someone other than the person the Communist Party 
designated. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of the discipline that was 
imposed ? 

Mr. Campas. As far as I can recall, 1 or perhaps 2 persons were ex- 
pelled from the Communist Party for that action. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, when a person was guilty of being 
a deviationist 



COlMMXmiST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2433 

Mr. Campas. He was disciplined. 

Mr. Tavenner. Even to the point of exercising his right to vote, he 
would be disciplined by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Campas. That's correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with any other instances in 
which the Communist Party resorted to its tactics of disciplining its 
members for being deviationists ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, in my case. I was expelled from the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Ta\'Enner. That was at a later time ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will ask you more in detail about that later. 

As a result of what occurred in 1940, you say your group of the 
Communist Party disintegrated? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you continue your membership in the party at 
that time ? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir. I lost interest in it at that time. I moved to 
Troy, and I went to work as a waiter, and I just drifted away from any 
activity concerning the Communist Party. 

Mr. Kearney. The committee will be in recess for 10 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 37 a. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 11:47 a.m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 11 : 52 a. m. ) 

Mr. Kearney. You may proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. You stated that you accompanied Mr. Max Gordon, 
Communist Party organizer of this section, on a trip to New York 
when he was a delegate to the national convention of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you fix the year ? 

Mr. Campas. Thirty-seven or 1938. That's the nearest I can fix it. 

Mr. Tavenner. You referred to the fact that a fraction meeting was 
held at that time, and that you attended it. 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did anyone else, any other person, accompany you 
or Mr. Gordon to that convention ? 

Mr. Campas. Not that I recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the caucus meeting that was held at that time, 
did you recognize any persons from this general area in attendance ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, the person I recognized at this particular work — 
it became a fraction meeting actually — was this Carl Hacker. He is 
the one that made the leading report at the fraction. He made some 
sort of a report, and I remembered him at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the substance of the report? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you do know at this fraction meeting which 
was held just prior to a convention of the Communist Party, that 
Mr. Hacker made a report ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Now, at the break in your testimony, when the re- 
cess was taken, you told the committee that you left Albany in 1940 
and took up employment in Troy, N. Y., as a waiter, and that at that 



2434 COMMXTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

time you were not connected with the Communist Party or that you 
had fallen out of the ranks of the Communist Party ? 

Well, did you later reaffiliate with the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time you went to Troy, were you personally 
aware of the existence of a Communist Party cell in Troy; that is, 
when you went there in 1940 from Albany, 

Mr. Campas. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenxek. How long was it before you became aware of the 
existence of the Communist Party unit or group in Troy ? 

Mr. Campas. 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, just what oc- 
curred — or let me ask you this before we come to that : Did you attend 
any State or national convention for vour union between 1940 and 
1947? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir; two. 

Mr. Tavenner. Two? 

Mr. Campas. Yes; one in 1941 and one in 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you take part in any Communist Party activi- 
ties at either of those conventions? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Why was that ? 

Mr. Campas. Because I was not a member of the Communist Party 
at that time. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Were you approached at either of those conventions 
to take part in any Communist Party activities ? 

Mr. CampAs. Yes; I was approached at the 1947 convention by a 
person whom I had previously met in one of the national fraction 
meetings to attend one of their meetings, and I told him at that time 
I was not a member and, therefore, I was not interested, and I did not 
attend. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the name of the individual who ap- 
proached you? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir ; Harry Rich. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the period in 1947 when that conven- 
tion was held ? 

Mr. Campas. Sir, I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you state that occurred in the 1947 convention 
or the 1941 convention ? 

Mr. Campas. Oh, the 1947 convention ; in the early part of the year. 
The convention was held in Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to the holding of that convention, when Harry 
Rich approached you, had you become identified in any way with the 
Communist Party group in Troy ? 

Mr. Campas. No, sir ; not that I can recall, because he approached 
me at the convention. He didn't approach me in Troy. 

Mr. Taa^nner. What occurred on your return from that convention 
to Troy? 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Campas. I said that upon returning from this convention I was 
approached by the attorney for the union in Troy. This attorney 
was the attorney for the union before I become business agent for the 
union in Troy. So, he approached me on the question of the Commu- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2435 

nist Party. He told me that he knew I had been a member before, 
and he invited me to come to his lioiise and attend meetings of the 
Communist Party, which I did. 

Mr. Tavemnee. Who was this person? 

Mr. Campas. His name is I. Nathan Sidman. 

Mr. Tavenner. I. Natlian Sidman? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell the last name. 

Mr. Campas. S-i-d-m-a-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a result of this conversation that he had with 
you, did you attend meetings of the Communist Party at his home? 

Mr. Campas. Yes. sir. 

Mr. .Tavenner. What was the principal objective of that group 
of the Communist Party with which you reafhliated ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, I was afliliated with them a very short while 
and, as far as I can recall, the primar}' work or subject matter that 
they discussed and worked on was the American Labor Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you describe that more fully, please? 

Mr. Campas. Well, the membership of the Communist Party in 
Troy at that time was very small, and also the membership of the 
American Labor Party, but this Sidman was a vice chairman of the 
American Labor Party and many issues that were actually Commu- 
nist Party issues were given out to the press in the name of the Ameri- 
can Labor Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me interrupt you a moment. The committee 
is not concerned with political activities of any group as such. We 
do not want to enter into the field of political discussions of any 
group. However, we are anxious to know to what extent any group 
is being influenced by the Communist Party, and by its members. 
So, in testifying regarding this matter, I would like for j^ou to keep 
that in mind and remember that what we are interested in are the 
activities and the work of the Communists within any group, includ- 
ing this particular group that we are talking about. 

Mr. Campas. Well, the only thing more I can add to that is that 
the Communists within this group actually ran the group. 

Mr. Ta^^nner, How was that accomplished? 

Mr. Kearney. Within what group? 

Mr. Campas. The American Labor Party. 

That was accomplished because of one particular person I've named. 
He was the speaker for the American Labor Party by virtue of the 
fact he was vice chairman of the Rensselaer County committee of the 
party, American Labor Party, and he was a Communist. Therefore, 
all information, statements that went out, he issued. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did the other members of the Communist 
Party take any active part as Communists in planning the work of 
the American Labor Party in that area ? 

Mr. Campas. Only in the form of discussions and planning what 
was to be done on the occasional meetings that the American Labor 
Party held, which were not too frequent; but whenever there was 
a meeting of the American Labor Party the Communists, of course, 
planned that, just like they plan anything else in any other organiza- 
tion. They meet beforehand; they plan what they are going to do, 
and they go in there and try to put it over. 

37740— 5. S—pt. 1 6 



2436 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Also, in the question of primaries, they tried and they were suc- 
cessful in getting Communists to be elected as members of the county 
committee or any other offices of the Ainerican Labor Party that they 
could. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee who composed this group 
of the Communist Party in Troy, of which you were a member? 

Mr. Campas. Well, in addition to the person I have named, there 
was Frieda Schwenkmyer — S-c-h-w-e-n-k-m-y-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. Will you give any further identify- 
ing information you can regarding her and her activities? 

Mr. Campas. She was an organizer for the Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers' Union. Later she was removed from that position by the 
union. As to her present whereabouts, I have no knowledge. 

Another person was George LaFortune. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give further identifying information re- 
garding him? 

Mr. Campas. I have no other information, except that he lived in 
Troy, or nearby, and I don't recall what type of work he did at that 
time, and I haven't seen him since 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there others ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes; there was Donald Hatchigan. The only thing 
I remember about him — I understood he was working for some clean- 
ing and dying plant. That was his trade. Wliether he was working 
at that trade at that time, I can't recollect. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the names of any other persons ? 

Mr. Campas. There's two other persons — one named Harold Klein — 
K-1-e-i-n. 

At that time, when I met him, he was the Communist Party organ- 
izer for the capital district and he came over from Schenectady at 
times when this group met in Troy. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you know where Mr. Klein is now ? 

Mr. Campas. No; I have no knowledge of his whereabouts. I 
haven't seen him since 1948. I shall bring out at a later hour how I 
met him then. 

One other person — Si Fialkoff. I don't know the exact spelling 
of the name, but the nearest I can make out is F-i-a-1-k-o-f-f . He was 
also an organizer of some kind in the Communist Party who was 
usually with Klein. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the plan of this group of the Communist Party 
include the encouragement of any of its members to take an active part 
in the American Labor Party ? 

Mr. Campas. Yes; they were interested for us to take part, which 
they did. Tliey were all registered in the American Labor Party and 
they participated in the meetings of the American Labor Party when- 
ever they were held, and they also participated in the primaries be- 
cause, as I stated previously, this American Labor Party had a small 
membership and, with a small group voting in the primaries, they were 
able to capture control of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were members of this group encouraged to seek 
political office through the medium of the American Labor Party? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. If I recall correctly, Sidman and several 
others did run for office, some office, under the label of the American 
Labor Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2437 

Mr. Tavenner. But the point I am asking is whether or not this 
group of the Communist Party sought this activity by its members? 

Mr. Campas. Oh, the only answer I can say is "Yes, sir," without — 
I can't go into too many details because, as I said, I was there only for 
a short while at that time and I don't know what they have done since 
then. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become active in the American Labor 
Party? 

Mr. Campas. Only in a limited way. I mean I attended some of 
their meetings and I was on some committee or other of the American 
Labor Party, but after that I dropped out. 

Mr. Tavenner. While a member of this Communist Party gi'oup, 
were you a candidate for political office? 

Mr. Campas. Not that I can recall. If it was, I might have been 
in the fall elections of 1937, and I can't recall at this moment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you describe to the committee any further 
activities that you are acquainted with of this Communist Party group 
in furthering its interests which you have described existed in the 
American Labor Party ? 

Mr. Campas. No ; the only activity that I can recollect is the Ameri- 
can Labor Party activity. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell us any other way in which the Com- 
munist Party group worked in order to increase their position and 
their standing in the American Labor Party ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, they tried to influence as many people as they 
could within the American Labor Party, such as enrollees to vote for 
their candidates ; but any other activity, I have no knowledge. I can't 
recollect at the moment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the Communist Party itself take any part in 
the arrangement of meetings and the bringing in of speakers under 
the auspices of the American Labor Party, for instance ? 

Mr. Campas. Well, as far as I know, there was only one such meet- 
ing, which was held some time in the first half of 1948, which was sup- 
posed to be a meeting of the American Labor Party at which Rockwell 
Kent, the artist, came to speak in behalf of the candidacy of Wallace 
for President. 

That's about the only meeting, open meeting, that I can remember. 

Mr. Ta\'Enner. Well, I just wanted to know whether or not the Com- 
munist Party as such played any part in the arrangements for the 
meeting or brought it about in any way. 

Mr. Campas. Well, I would say they did greatly contribute to- 
ward bringing the meeting about, and having this meeting, if not offi- 
cially as a Communist Party group, but the individuals who were 
Communists did the work. 

The group in Troy, the Communist Party group, was never known 
as such. No one identified himself as a Communist in Troy at tliat 
time. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain a member of the Com- 
munist Party in Troy ? 

Mr. Campas. As far as I can remember, approximately 10 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why was it that your membership was limited to 
such a short period of time ? 

Mr. Campas. Because I was expelled for failing to follow the dic- 
tates and the wishes of the Communist Party. 



2438 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Taat.nner. Will you tell the committee about that, please? 

Mr. Campas. Well, this meetino; I spoke of previously — the Wallace- 
for-President meeting, at which Rockwell Kent was the speaker, was 
advertised in the newspapers and placing my name as one of the spon- 
sors of the meeting. I did not give those people the right to put my 
name in the paper. 

Mr. Tavenxkr. Who do j^ou mean by "those people" ? 

Mr. Campas. Tlie Communists, because they were the ones who gave 
the names, as I later found out from speaking to the reporter that 
wrote the story, and he informed me he had gotten the story from Mr. 
Sidman. 

But that particular incident was only an occasion in my mind which 
I chose to break with the Communist Party, because I no longer be- 
lieved in it and had no sympathy with them whatsoever, and I chose 
that particular time to do so; and by stating publicly I was not a sup- 
porter of this meeting — this was an American Labor Party meeting I 
am speaking of now — I stated I was not a supporter of this meeting, 
and I was expelled by the Communist Party. 

But, as I said, that particular incident was only the occasion to do so. 

(At this point Mr. Campas conferred with Mr. Jones.) 

Mi\ Tavenner. Before proceeding, I would like joii to explain a 
little more clearly just what it was that brought about your expulsion. 

Mr. Campas. Well, I had not attended meetings for some time prior 
to that incident — that is, meetings of the Communist Party — and I 
had some differences of opinion with the organizer of the Communist 
Party, Klein, and this other person, Fialkoff. I realized at that time 
the program and the doctrine and the theory in the Communist Party 
was not for the best interests of wdiat I thought was right and good 
for labor and, being a union officer first, I realized that what they 
advocated was not for the best interests of labor and they were not 
the answer to what labor should have or what labor should get. They 
were only using labor to advance their own interests, their political 
interests, and at all times they were being apologists for the Soviet 
Union, of which I have no iiiterest in ; and I also found, contrary to 
what was preached by the Communist Party before that only Com- 
munists were the most active people in the union and they were the 
only ones that would do the work. I found that to be the contrary ; 
I found people who were sincere ; they were honest about their work ; 
they were interested only in the advancement of unionism without any 
political implications whatsoever, and a union that was not controlled 
by any political group was a good union. 

Now, my original reason for affiliating again with the Communist 
Party in 1947 was because primarily I was interested in the American 
Labor Party as a lobby for trade-union principles, such as minimum 
wages, better laws, and things like that ; but then I found out that it 
was nothing else but a front — at least the group in Troy was nothing 
but a front — for the Conununist Party, and at that time I discussed it 
with Klein and Fialkoff. I told them what I thought, and I told 
them I did not want any part of it, and some time later I received a 
typewritten piece of paper in an envelope, which was left at my office 
by some person unknown, advising me that, inasmuch as I had not 
follow^ed the party line, trial was held and I was expelled. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you permitted to attend your own trial ? 

Mr. Campas. I was invited to, but I didn't attend it. 



COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2439 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Since that time, have you taken part in any Com- 
munist activities of any character ? 

Mr. Camp AS. No, sir ; on the contrary, I've had occasion to offer my 
cooperation to other Federal agencies in trying to eliminate and erad- 
icate the Communist Party and comnmnism. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you expressed the desire to appear voluntarily 
before this committee to answer such questions as it proposed to ask 
you? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Therefore, you are telling this committee the break- 
ing of your Communist Party ties are final and complete? 

Mr. Campas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the investigation by the committee 
shows that the correct spelling of a name just given bv the witness is 
F-i-a-1-k-o-f-f. 

I thought I should make that correction. 

Mr. Campas. Well, I never saw his name in writings. That is wh;y 
1 didn't remember it. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Kearney. I want to express to the witness the thanks of the 
committee for coming here and testifying as he has this morning. 
He has certainly set an example to all who have been formerly con- 
nected with the Communist Party in exposing the ramifications of 
the party. 

You deserve the thanks of the committee and of the American 
people. 

Mr. Campas. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Kj:arney. The committee will recess until 1 : 30. 

(Whereupon, at 12: 15 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to recon- 
vene at 1 : 30 p. m., of the same day.) 

afternoon session 

(At the hour of 1 : 38 p. m., of the same day, the hearing reconvened, 
the following committee members being present: Representatives 
Bernard W. Kearney (chairman of the subcommittee) and Gordon 
H. Scherer.) 

Mr. Kearney. The connnittee will be in order. 

Do you have a witness, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Tavhnner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jack Davis. 

Will you come forward, please? 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Davis, will you stand and hold up your right 
hand? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Davis. I do. 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Chairman, I understand my client has the right 
to request that his testimony be not broadcast, and we so request that. 

Mr. Kearney. On the request of (Counsel and the witness, the testi- 
mony will not be broadcast. 

Mr. Jones. Thank you. 



2440 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

TESTIMONY OF JACK DAVIS, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

ABBOTT H. JONES, JR. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Davis. Jack Davis. 

Mr. TA^^i;NNEK. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Ta%'enxer. "Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. JoxES. Mr. Abbott H, Jones, Jr., 5 Broadway, Troy, X. Y. 

Mr. Tavexner. When and where were you born, Mr. Davis? 

Mr. Davis. I was born in Hartford, Conn., November 26, 1907. 

Mr. Ta\^xxer. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Davis. I am business agent for the Hotel and Restaurant Em- 
ployees' Union, Local 471, Albany. 

INIr. Tavexxer. "Wliere do you reside? 

Mr. DA\^s. 92 Hudson Avenue, Albany. 

Mr. Kearxey. I am going to ask the photographers to take their 
pictures now so that the witness will not be disturbed during his 
testimony. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you tell the committee, please, what your for- 
mal educational training has been? 

Mr. Davis. I was educated in the public schools of Hartford, 
Conn. 

Mr. Ta-v^xxer. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
record of employment has been since, say, 1935 ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, from 1935 to early 1936 I was employed as a waiter 
in hotels and restaurants around the city of Albany. 

Mr. Tavexxer. And what was your next employment? 

Mr. Davis. In 1936, in March 1936, I was elected business agent 
for the Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Union, Local 471. 

Mr. Tavexxer. How long were you business agent of that local ? 

Mr. Davis. I was business agent of that local union until about May 
1940. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Now, let me interrogate you first regarding certain 
incidents up to that date, May 1940. 

When you were a waiter, working in Albany, between 1935 and 1936, 
were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Davis. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. I understand from your testimony that you became 
business agent for your local in March 1936. 

Mr. Davis. That's right, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Were you a member of the Communist Party at that 
time ? 

Mr. Davis. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you later become a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Approximately when did you become a member? 

Mr. Davis. Well, as I recall, it was in the early summer of 1936. 

Mr. Ta\'exxer. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Davis. No, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2441 

Mr. Tavenner. I will ask you more in detail later as to the circum- 
stances under which you left the Communist Party, but for the present 
tell us approximately the time when you broke with the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Davis. Well, as far as I can recall, it was about 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances under which you became a member of the Communist Party in 
1936? 

Mr. Davis. Well, at the time, in 1936, when I became business agent 
of the union, I didn't have any experience in the particular job and I 
needed a lot of help and a fellow came along who, after I became busi- 
ness agent, joined the union and started to help out, did a lot of leg 
work, and made good suggestions, and generally became very active 
in the union; and after a while this fellow identified himself — well, 
this man is deceased ; I don't know whether 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I think in light of his activity and his promi- 
nence at that time we should ask you to give his name. 

And, incidentally, if in the course of your testimony I ask you for 
other names and if they are of persons deceased, I would rather for 
you not to mention them unless they had some very important part to 
play in the leadership of the party. 

Now, will you state, please, the circumstances under which you 
became a member of the Communist Party in 1936 ? 

Mr. Davis. The man's name is Gus Cakoulis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name ? 

Mr. Davis. C-a-k-o-u-l-i-s. 

This man became very active in the union, did a lot of work and 
made suggestions, and in a short time he identified himself as a Com- 
munist to me, as a member of the Communist Party, and I didn't 
know much about it, only what I read in the newspapers ; and he be- 
gan to discuss the question of the Communist Party and communism 
with me at great length, and in a short time he asked me to join the 
party, and later he made a luncheon appointment for me wnth a 
woman, who I understood was from Schenectady, by the name of Sadie 
Doran. 

And we had lunch together and she was introduced to me as the 
Communist Party organizer for the capital district area, and we had 
quite a talk at lunch and we spent most of the afternoon discussing the 
question of my joining the Communist Party; and I asked a lot of 
questions, and both of these people explained to me the benefits and 
the advantages that I would have in joining the party, particularly as 
how I had very little experience in the trade-union movement and 
that there were many people in the party, in the Communist Party, 
who worked with the Communist Party, who had all this experience 
and that they were in a position to advise and to assist me in my work. 

So, as a result of that, I joined the Communist Party at the time; 
but I want to say I don't recall signing any card or receiving any 
card — or I believe at the time 1 passed a 50-cent piece over. That 
was the initiation fee, and that's about the story as far as the 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, do you recall whether a name was given to 
be recorded as vour party name ? 

Mr. Davis. Ves; after the question was settled about my joining 
the party, this Doran woman brought the question up about joining 



2442 C0MMU]snsT activities in the Albany area 

the party under an assumed name, and she thought it would be best 
if I did that, and slie suggested that I pick a name, just any place, and 
as I recall it I smoked a ceitain brand of cigarettes at the time, and 
I just picked the name off the pack of cigarettes and the name hap- 
pened to be Williamson, and the name was put down as Jack William- 
son. 

Mr. Tavexxer. What reason was given by the organizer as to why 
it would be better or preferable for you to be known in the party under 
a name different from your own? 

Mr. Davis. Well, up until the time that she mentioned the question 
of an assumed name, it hadn't entered my mind that it was necessary 
to do that ; but she said in holding a key position or an important posi- 
tion in the union that it would be better if I was not identified with 
the Communist Party. So, I went along with that. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Then that was done as a matter of security? 

Mr. Davis. That's right. That's correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether this 
was the same group of the Communist Party which the witness pre- 
vious to you, Mr. Campas, described as having been organized within 
the membership of your local ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, not at the particular time I'm talking about now, 
sir. This happened later. At the time I joined the Communist 
Party there was no group within the union. 

I evidently — it seems I was the first recruit 

Mr. Tavenner. Then, if I understand it, it was the purpose of this 
group to get into your union ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, that is correct ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, would you tell the committee briefly how that 
was accomplished ? 

Mr. Davis. The understanding was that I was not to take any active 
or open position as far as being a Communist or being active in the 
Communist Party, but that this man Cakoulis was to do all the work, 
the recruiting and anything else that was necessary in that line. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to your group endeavoring to take over your 
union, will you tell me to what group of the Communist Party you 
were assigned? In other words, where were you assigned when you 
first became a member ? 

Mr. Daa^s. At first I was assigned to a group in Schenectady which 
was sort of a miscellaneous group. It was made up of various types of 
people who worked in shops, various lines of work, and the only two 
people at the time were myself and Gus Cakoulis who were members, 
that is, of this particular union. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain affiliated with that 
group ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, that was — I would say — as T recall it, about a lit- 
tle over a year or so that I was affiliated with the Schnectady group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was your attendance at meetings regular during 
that period ? 

Mr. Davis. No ; I only attended a very few meetings because I was 
very busy at my regular job, and meetings were held at times I wasn't 
able to attend, but I did attend several meetings during that period in 
Schenectady. 



COjVIMUNIST activities in the ALBANY AREA 2443 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you explain how the organization Avithin the 
Connnunist Party was first established here in Albany 'i 

Mr. Davis. Well, it came about as a result of the new organizer 
benig assigned to the capital district area. A man by the name of 
Max Gordon was sent in from New York as the new organizer for the 
Communist Party and he then set the apparatus up here at Albany 
instead of Schenectady as it had been previously; and by that time 
within the union itself there were several people who had been re- 
cruited into the Communist Party, so that at that time what was called 
a food w'orkers' branch of the Communist Party was set up within 
the union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that branch the food workers' branch of your 
union, that is the Communist Party branch of your union, successful 
in gaining leadership in your union and control of it? 

Mr. Davis. I would say it definitely was successful. It was very 
successful in doing that. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period of time that you were a member 
of this group in Albany — that is, between 1936 and 1940 — did you 
have occasion to attend what were called section meetings of the 
party ? 

Mr. Davis. As far as I can recall, I attended one section meeting 
of the party during the period of 3 or 4 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hear the testimony this morning of Mr. 
Nick Campas? 

Mr. Davis. I heard it. 

Mr. Tavenner. He described having attended a section meeting in 
Albany. Did you attend the same meeting? 

Mr. Davis. Yes: I did. 

Mr. Taa'enner. Now, will you tell us what you can recall about the 
purposes of that meeting? 

Mr. Davis. Well, it was also called the section convention. It was 
held prior to the time that a national convention was scheduled to be 
held and, as I understood it, the section convention was held and dele- 
gates were to be elected at that convention to a district convention, 
which was made up of the State, and then delegates from there were 
to be elected to the national convention. 

The purpose of the section convention was to elect these delegates 
and to get reports of the various activities of the party from the vari- 
ous branches that were connected with the section. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you, prior to that time, know of the existence 
of other branches in the Communist Party in this area besides the 
one of which you were a member? 

Mr. Davis. Well, I had heard on a number of occasions there were 
several branches of the party. 

Mr. Taa^enner. Had vou attended the meetings of any of them? 

Mr. Davis. No ; I hadn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. What terms were used to describe these other 
branches? 

Mr. Davis. Well, there was a professional branch ; there was a State 
employees' branch : there Avas a neighborhood branch — I can't remem- 
ber the name of the neighborhood, and there were others, but I can't 
recall them. 



2444 COMMUNIST activities in the ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. And, of course, your own branch- 



Mr. Davis. That's ri^ht ; the food workers' branch. 

Mr. TA\Ti:NXER. At this section meeting, did you find there were 
present persons representing these various branches ? 

Mr. Davis. I did, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the committee, please, the names of 
all the persons you can recall who were present at this section meeting? 

Mr. Davis, Well, I would like to explain at this section convention 
delegates were actually elected or sent from the various branches. In 
addition to the delegates who were sent and who came to the section 
convention, there were also spectators ; but all the spectators, of course, 
were members of the Communist Party or they wouldn't be allowed 
to come into the convention, and there were delegates from the various 
branches and various 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a delegate from your group ? 

Mr. Da\T[s. As far as I can remember ; no. I was present, but I'm 
pretty sure I was a spectator. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall who the delegates from your group 
were ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, I can recall that Gus Cakoulis was a delegate and 
that each branch had someone to report on its activities, and I can 
recall in the case of the food workers branch that Gus Cakoulis made 
the report. 

I can also recall that there was one person, a woman, who made the 
main report of the convention; and, of course, the party organizer, 
Max Gordon, reported for the professional branch because, as it was 
explained, for security reasons, the professional branch was not able 
or should not be allowed to expose themselves, so that the party organ- 
izer made the report for the professional branch. 

Mr. Tavenner. That brings to mind the testimonv of Harold Ashe 
in our hearings in California, when he described that the purpose of 
having professional cells or groups of the Communist Party was to 
keep the membership of those gi'oups highly secret, even secret from 
other rank-and-file members of the Communist Party. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

In keeping with that idea, I understand that Max Gordon on this 
occasion even made the report for the professional group rather than 
expose the members of the professional group as such. 

Mr. Davis. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at any time ascertain the identity — that is, 
of your own personal knowledge — of the membership of the profes- 
sional group? 

Mr. Davis. No, sir; except that it had been discussed among the 
party members that the group was 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, just a moment. I don't want you to state what 
somebody else told you about it. 

Mr. Davis. I see. 

As far as my own knowledge is concerned, I never knew or never 
met any member of the professional branch. 

Mr. Tavennfji. Will you proceed, please, with a description of what 
occurred at this section conference? 

Mr. Davis. Well, the main report was made by a woman, whose 
name I knew as Amalia Pesko, and then there were reports from the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2445 

party organizer and reports from the food branch ; and I can't recall 
any of the other reports, but there were a number of other branches 
which reported. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you identify for the committee persons who 
were in attendance at that meeting? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I wish you would do so, please. 

Mr. Davis. James King. 

Mr. Tavenner. In identifying these individuals, I wish you would 
tell the committee other facts which would help in the identification 
of the individuals. 

Mr. Davis. Well, I knew James King at the time to be a State 
employee and connected with the State, County, and Municipal Work- 
ers Union, which was the union that was trying to organize the State 
employees. 

George LaFortune. He was working in some plant in the area. 
I can't recall exactly where, but it was somewhere in Troy or Water- 
vliet. 

Frieda Schwenlonyer. She was an organizer for the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers' Union. 

John Wright, who I knew as a State employee at that time. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you know in what department John Wright was 
employed by the State of New York? 

Mr. Davis. No ; I can't recall that I knew that. I knew he was a 
State employee. I never inquired as to what the department was. 

David Rappaport, who I knew as a State employee. 

Herbert Feay — F-e-a-y — who I understood at the time was con- 
nected with some part of the insurance setup in the State. 

Max Gordon, who was the party organizer. 

Clarence Carr, who was an officer of the Leather Workers* Union in 
Gloversville. 

Nick Campas. 

Rena Dodd, who I understood was an employee of the State. 

Betty Laros, who I understood was an employee of the State. 

Donald Hatchigan, who, as far as I can recall, ran a dry-cleaning 
business in Troy. 

Charles Dorenz, who was employed as a painter here in the city of 
Albany. 

(Representative Gorden H. Scherer returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall who were elected at that convention 
to be delegates at the State convention of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Davis. The only one that I can recall who was elected at the 
time was Max Gordon, the party organizer. I'm sure there were 
others, but I don't recall their names. 

Mr. Tavenner. Approximately what was the date of this meeting ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, it's hard to place it exactly, but I would say, as far 
as I can recall, it was sometime in 1938. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you regular in attendance at the Communist 
Party meetings held by your own group or club ? 

Mr. Davis. No; I wasn't. I only attended them occasionally. 

Mr. Tax-enner. "\^niy was that ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, first, for what was called security reasons, on many 
occasions some of the members brought people there for the first time 



2446 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANT AREA 

and my own feeling was it would be best if I didn't attend all the meet- 
ings — only meetings where it was understood I was coming to — and, 
f urtlier, in many cases, I was not able to come to meetings. They were 
generally held in the afternoon because that was the time the people 
who work in this particular line of work were free to come to a meet- 
ing and that didn't always fit into my schedule. 

Mr. Tavexxkr. Were you ever chosen to attend a State or national 
convention of your union ? 

Mr. Davis. I was a delegate to three national conventions of my 
union. 

!Mr. Tavenxek. AVliere were those conventions held and what were 
the dates ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, the first convention was the national convention 
held in Rochester, N. Y., in 1936, and I attended the next national 
convention which was in San Francisco, in 1938, and the convention, 
the national convention, that was held in Cincinnati in 1941. 

Mr. Tavexner. Will you tell the committee, please, what the prac- 
tice was at those conventions within the Communist Party groups 
that were members or delegates to the conventions ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, I would like to just go back a little bit. At the 
time I joined the Communist Party one of the things that was im- 
pressed upon me was that there was a national gioup of people, mem- 
bers of the Communist Party, who were in the same line of work, 
and in the same field, union field, and that these people had meetings.. 
They were all oldtimei's, as it was put, and well experienced — and they 
occasionally had meetings called national fraction meetings, and that 
was one of the things that I would get a lot of help from there. So, 
I did attend some of these national fraction meetings, and during the 
1936 coiiA'ention particularly, in Rochester, and prior to the San Fran- 
cisco convention, these meetings were held and I attended some of 
those meetings. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Now, these fraction meetings were meetings of 
members of your union who were members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Davis. That's on the national level. 

Mr. Tavex^xeh. And that meant from widespread areas of the- 
United States, did it not? 

Mr. Davis. That's right. 

Mr. Tavexxer, What was the general purpose of these fraction 
meetings and caucus meetings? 

Mr. Davis. Well, it was a sort of steering committee to try to steer 
the convention, and the meetings were taken up first with reports 
from the various members, reports from what the situation was in 
their own particular areas, local areas, and after that, of course, the 
meetings w^ent into the question of resolutions to be presented and 
pushed at the convention, the type of resolutions that were to be 
opposed, particularly resolutions which would set up a bar to Com- 
munist Party membership in the union, or Communists holding office, 
or any resolutions of that kind. Those were to be opposed, and gen- 
erally resolutions that dealt with international affairs or trade-union 
affairs, and also the meetings took up the question of the election of 
officers at these conventions and who the Communists should support 
and who they should oppose, and so on. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was pai'ticularly applicable to the caucuses 
at your conventions ? 



COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2447 

Mr. Davis. Yes. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. In your fraction meetings which were held did you, 
as members of the fraction, obtain suggestions and directions from 
the Communist Party leadership as to the Communist Party line 
which was to be sponsored and taken back to your respective groups? 

Mr. Davis. To the locals? 

Mr. Tavenner. Local groups. 

Mr. Da%t:s. Oh, yes, sir ; sure. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. In other words, these fraction meetings constituted 
one source of Communist Party direction, of the business of the Com- 
munist Party in the local unions? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the names of 
all the persons that you can recall with whom you met in these frac- 
tion meetings — and I think, however, you should tell us where these 
fraction meetings met and the dates as nearly as you can ? 

Mr. Daws. Well, actually, sir, I can't remember the dates. It was 
during the period of 1936 to 1940, and most of these meetings were 
held in New York, and, of course, in Rochester. During the time 
of the convention it was held in Rochester, and I can recall going to 
one meeting in Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you able to differentiate between these meet- 
ings as to which persons you met at one meeting and which at an- 
other ? 

Mr. Davis. No, sir ; that I'm sure would be impossible. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, will you proceed to state to the committee 
the names of those persons whom you are certain you met and with 
whom you sat in these fraction meetings ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Harry Rich. 

Mr. Tavenner. And will you tell us as nearly as you can your 
recollection of the individual so as to be able to more definitely 
identify him. 

Mr. Davis. At the time he was an officer in the cooks' union in 
New York City. 

Mike Obermier. During this period he was an officer in several 
different locals in New York City. 

William Albertson. He was an officer in the waiters' union, local 
16, in New York City. 

Ishmael Flory. He was a leader in the clininer-car division of the 
national union. 

Jay Rubin. He was an officer in the hotel and club employees' 
union in New York City, and I understand that Mr. Rubin has dis- 
associated himself from the Communist Party since that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what position he holds in the union 
at this time ? 

Mr. Davis. He still holds the same position in the same union. 

And Gertrude Lane, who also held a position during that period 
in the same union, local 6, and who I understand today has disasso- 
ciated lierself from the Communist Party. 

The same is true of David Herman, who today holds a position 
of leadership in that union, local 6 of the hotel and restaurant em- 
ployees ; and I understand, sir, that he has disassociated himself from 
the Communist Party. 



2448 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

And a man by the name of Costas Alexiou, whom I can't place for 
sure. He was a leader in one of the local unions around the country. 

Carl Hacker, who today is an international organizer for the Na- 
tional Union of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees. 

Willie Schulz. He was an officer of a local union in what was called 
Yorkville, New York City. 

Paul O'Connor, who was an officer in what was called the Miscel- 
laneous Workers' Union in Boston. That's in the same industry. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have occasion to meet him at any later 
period ? 

Mr. Davis. Later T met Mr. O'Connor as a UE organizer in New 
England. 

James McNamara, who in 1938 became an international vice presi- 
dent of the union, at the 1938 convention in San Francisco. He was 
elected an international vice president. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of what union ? 

Mr. Davis. Of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees' National 
Union. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know what James McNamara is doing now ? 

Mr. Davis. No, sir ; I can't recall ever seeing him since 1941. 

Mr. ScHERER, Did you give us a middle initial on that name ? 

Mr. Davis. I'm pretty sure it's B. James B. McNamara. 

Mr. ScHERER. He was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Davis. I met with him, sir, on at least two occasions. I met with 
him in the national fraction of the Communist Party, in the union. 

Mr. ScHERER. Nobody was present except members of the Commu- 
nist Party at the fraction meetings which you describe? 

Mr. DA\^s. That's right, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. How old a man was he at the time? 

Mr. Davis. He was a very young man at the time — very young man ; 
very young fellow. 

Mr. ScHERER. In 1938, did you say that was? 

Mr. Davis. Thirty-eight. 

Mr. ScHERER. You don't know whether he is a member of the Com- 
munist Party today? 

Mr. Davis. No, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. You don't know how long he remained in the Com- 
munist Party after you knew him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Davis. No, sir. 

(Representative Bernard W. Kearney left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. ScHERER. That is all I have, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were these fraction meetings held at which 
you identified him as a member ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, you mean the actual place? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. Can you be certain of that ? 

Mr. Davis. Sometimes they were in a hotel room. 

Mr. Tavenner. No ; I meant in what city. 

Mr. Davis. Well, I'm pretty sure I can place him at one meeting in 
New York City. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know what city he was from ? 



COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2449 

Mr. Davis. Washington, D. C. He was an officer in the local union 
in that city, in Washington, D. C. He held a position of leadership in 
that local union. 

Mr. ScHERER. When was the last time you heard of Mr. McNamara ? 

Mr. Davis. The last time I saw Mr. McNamara was in 1941 at the 
Cincinnati convention when he lost out as an international vice 
president. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, I want to check as to the location of these 
various conventions. You stated one convention was Rochester, That 
was the one in 1936, and you said there was one in San Francisco in 
1938. And did you say there was one in Cincinnati in 1941 ? 

Mi\ Davis. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it at the San Francisco convention or at the 
Cincinnati convention that Mr, McNamara lost out ? 

Mr. Davis. In 1941 at the Cincinnati convention. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right, sir ; will you proceed ? 

Mr. Davis. Manning Johnson. 

Salvatore Gentilli. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give us identifying information regarding 
him? 

Mr. Davis. Salvatore Gentilli. I'm pretty sure he was an officer 
in one of the writer's unions in New York City. 

Helen Caren. She was from Toronto, Canada, and was an officer or 
leader in the local union in that city, Toronto, Canada. 

And Charles Oberkirch, who was an officer in a local union in 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you able to identify any other persons who at- 
tended these caucus meetings ? 

Mr. Davis. I believe I left Nick Campas out. He was there at one 
of the meetings at least that I attended, but I can't recall any others. 

Mr. Tavenner. Our investigation has disclosed that at one time 
while you were a member of the party, between 1936 and 1940, that 
some charge was preferred against you and you were arrested. Did 
that have anything to do with Communist Party activities on your 
part? 

Mr. Davis. Well, it did in this way, sir : It was in 1937 we had an- 
nual elections in our union, and in April 1937, to be exact, we had our 
annual election, and I was runing for reelection as business agent. 

(Representative Bernard W. Kearney returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Davis. On the afternoon before the day of the election I was 
arrested and charged with assault, and the next morning the charge 
was changed to attempted robbery, and I was refused bail and I re- 
mained in jail all of the day, all the afternoon of the election and 
election night, and the next morning I got out of jail on a writ of 
habeas corpus ; but during the time I was in jail the election went on 
and I was reelected as business agent; later on I was cleared and vindi- 
cated of all the charges that were made against me by the courts and — 
however, in the meantime, when this event took place, the Communist 
Party took advantage of the situation. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the origin of this charge? What was 
the alleged basis for it ? 

(Representative Bernard W. Kearney left the hearing room at this 
point.) 



2450 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Davis. It started from — in my opinion, it was instigated by 
some employees who were unhappy. 

(Representative Bernard W. Kearney returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Tavtenner. I am not asking you as to your opinion who did it, 
but what were the facts around which this charge was made? 

Mr. Davis. Well, there was a man who was a minor officer of the 
union who came to the office of the union to obtain a list of members, 
and it was my duty as the financial secretary to protect that list of 
members and I refused to allow him to have the list, and he grabbed 
the list and started to run with it. So, I stopped him and took the 
list away, and then, about an hour later, I was arrested for assault; 
and later the court said that in protecting the list of the union I was 
doing my duty, and the charges were thrown out. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say the Communist Party made a great deal to 
do over the incident. What do you mean by that? 

Mr. Davis. Well, at the time I was put in jail and the next day 
when I got out, the newspapers, the Communist Party, not directly 
but indirectly, through connections that they had in other unions, in 
the area, and other types of organizations, began to issue statements, 
write letters, public letters, to the Governor and the city officials, and 
send telegrams to Washington, and everythinsr else of that type, in 
order to create a big furor over the situation. Of course, it was a very 
serious situation to me, personally, and it made me feel that some 
people were trying to help me. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. In other words, that incident was exploited by the 
Communists ? 

Mr. Davis. To the nth. degree ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over how wide an area ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, there were lettei-s and telegrams that came from 
Gloversville and Amsterdam and Schenectady. Most of them came 
from those places. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the incident result in any strengthening of the 
Communist Party in this area ? 

Mr. Davis. I would say definitely it strengthened the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you continue as a member of this 
group of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Davis. Until 1940, when I ran for reelection in 1940. I was 
defeated as a candidate for business agent. 

Mr. Tavenner. And the Communist Party slate was defeated in 
the election at that time? 

Mr. Davis. That's right, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. And what effect did that have upon this organized 
group of Communists within your union ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, this group disintegrated. It fell apart and all 
the members drifted away, as war as I knew, and I, myself, drifted 
away for some time after that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you go from Albany? 

Mr. DA\^s. Well, I remained in Albany until 1942, except for a 
short time previous to that while I lived in Albany, in late 1941, I 
went to work for the United Electrical Radio and Machine Workers 
of America, which was a CIO union at the time, as a national organ- 
izer, national field organizer. 



C03VOIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2451 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you continue as an organizer for UE ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, I worked for UE, as I said, for a period of about 
3 months in 1941, and left and I came back permanently about June 
1942. 

Mr. Tavenner. And how long did you remain ? 

Mr. Davis. I remained as an organizer for the UE until about 
May 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the staff prefers not to develop testi- 
mony through this witness in public session regarding his activities 
within the UE as an organizer over the period he indicated at this 
time. We would like to take that testimony in closed session, with 
a view to making it public or making it part of a hearing in some 
future date. 

Mr. Kearney. The request is granted. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, for the reasons I mentioned, I am not going 
to ask you questions regarding your experience in the Communist 
Party while you were within UE, other than to ask you whether you 
did again affiliate with the Communist Party while you wer^ an 
organizer for UE. 

Mr. Davis. In 1942 I went to the city of Syracuse, N. Y., to work 
as an organizer, national field organizer, for the UE, and some time 
after that I reaffiliated with the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, will you tell the committee, please, the cir- 
cumstances under which you left the Communist Party ^ 

And I realize in asking you to answer that question you may have 
to make some reference to the UE, but I do not want to go into de- 
tails about your experience as an organizer for UE. 

Mr. Davis. Well, I began to drift away from the party in 194Y, and 
mainly at that time — at the time I was working in New England, 
particularly around the western Massachusetts area, Springfield, Hol- 
yoke, and so on — and there was some serious unem]:)loyment began to 
develop in that area, and I attended the meeting of the Communist 
Party and the question was brought up, and some of the party leaders 
were all excited about it, in the sense that it seemed to me very wel- 
comed what they said was a depression. We were going to have 
a depression and it seemed to me at the time they welcomed it. They 
went into the term of mass recruiting. They said, "This is our oppor- 
tunity. This may be an opportunity to recruit hundreds — yes; thou- 
sands — of people into the party" because of the unemployment that 
was developing in New England, and it seems to them that they were 
going to have a depression and it was fine because this was a real 
opportunity for the party to begin to do this mass recruiting. 

Well, that was when I really began to get concerned about the ques- 
tion of communism because I went through the first depression and 
I was a young man : I wasn't able to find work ; I had a hard time, 
and I knew what a depression was, and anybody who started to wel- 
come another depression — well, I couldn't see that. 

Later, when a number of other things developed, the beginning of 
the cold war, and particularly during the war, I saw a different pic- 
ture. I was working. I felt I was doing a real job for the war effort in 
my work with plants that were making materials for the war, and it 
was my job to settle the hundreds of grievances that fame up in order 

37740— 53— pt. 1 7 



2452 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

to prevent strikes taking place during this time; and I believed sin- 
cerely that after the war we were really going to have a good situation 
in the world, that there was going to be peace, and we were going to 
get along with everybody and everybody was going to get along with 
us. I really believed that, but I began to see that wasn't true and 
that while these people, the Communist Party, talked about that dur- 
ing the war, that after the war it was an entirel}' different picture; 
and I began to see the expansionism of Russia, the way they were 
reaching out and trying to gobble up and where they did gobble up 
other countries, and the big war machine they were building, so that 
I became gravely concerned with that particular phase of it. 

Then, the straw that broke the camel's back was when the UE lead- 
ership began to attack the CIO, and when the Communist Party 
began to develop a program to actually pull the UE out of the CIO, 
along with 10 or 11 other unions; and I really got worried about 
that, and I could see that was what was going to happen. The party 
started that and, while there was a not of opposition, even among 
some of the party people, they were all whipped in line and, finally, 
the, unions, these unions, were thrown out of the CIO. I felt that 
I had put a good share of my life, about 8 or 9 years, in that particular 
thing, in building that union, and building the CIO, and I felt it 
was all going down the drain. I then realized that the party was not 
interested in building the union to help the working people — and on 
a bread-and-butter basis is what I've always been interested in — ^liow 
much bread and butter, and how much more bread and butter can 
we get for the people who belong to the union, for the working people. 
I began to realize they were not interested in that, but only using 
the unions to further their own political ends, and that whenever 
those political ends didn't fit with the union that they were ready to 
dump the union. Well, later events show that is what happened, as 
far as that union is concerned. 

Now, I always understood — and I believe it is true — that you just 
don't resign from the Communist Party. You just don't one day 
wake up and write a letter and say, "I resign from the party." That's 
a joke. People would laugh at you. So, you've just got to get away 
from it, and it isn't easy after you are in the party for a long time. 
It becomes a habit. You just don't break the habit so easily. You 
have to do a lot of thinking about it. You have to live with yourself 
for a while. You have to think about it a lot. And, finally, you come 
to your conclusion and you just walk away from it. 

That's the way I did it. You just walk away from it. You don't 
want to talk about it any more ; and, so, you just talk to yourself about 
it and, finally — well, an opportunity like this comes along, and — well, 
I made up my mind, and here I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. You came voluntarily to the committee? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. And expressed a willingness to testify regarding 
any question they might ask you? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, after you severed your connection with the 
Communist Party, did you then obtain an office in your union? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. On June 2, I was elected iDusiness agent of 
the Hotel and Restaurant Employees' union. 

Mr. Tavenner. June 2 of what year? 



COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2453 

Mr. Davis. 1953. 

Mr. Tavenner. Aiid you hold that position now ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tayenner. Mr. Chairman, I think that concludes all I desire 
to ask the witness. 

Mr. Kj:arney. Mr. Davis, the committee, tln-ough the Chair, wants 
to thank you for your voluntary appearance before this committee. 
We hope that by your example you have set an example for others 
to do the same thing. 

With the thanks of the committee, you are excused. 

Mr. Dxivis. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. The committee will be in recess for 10 minutes. 
(Whereui^on, at 2 : 37 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 2 : 47 p. m. ) 

(The hearing reconvened at 2 : 55 p. m.) 

Mr. I^.arney. The committee will be in order. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think I should announce to the 
committee at this point Avho will next be called. I have taken them 
out of the order in which the staff had planned to present them. They 
were not expected, according to our plans, to appear until tomorrow 
or Tliursdaj^, but we learned of the fact they had employed the same 
counsel and that counsel, because of previous engagements, could not 
appear at any date later than today. Subpenas originally read for 
the appearance on yesterday and today. So, in light of this situation, 
we are calling the next three witnesses out of order. 

Mr. Morris Zuckman, will you come forward, please? 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Zuckman, do you swear that the testimony you 
are about to give shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Zuckman. I do. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you object to having your testimony broadcast? 

Mr, Zuckman. I'll abide by the committee's decision. Your Honor. 

Mr. Kearney. Now, the committee's rule is, Mr. Zuckman, if a wit- 
ness objects, the chairman will order the broadcast stopped. 

Mr. Zuckman. Well, then, I will object to it. 

Mr. Kearney. All right. 

Mr. Zuckman. Mr. Chairman, I wonder, in view of tlie fact that 
I sat here yesterday, some time yesterday, and today, and I found that 
this committee has given very courteous treatment to the witnesses who 
have preceded me  

Mr. I^arney. I will say, as chairman, the present witness will re- 
ceive the same courteous treatment. 

Mr. Zuckman. Thank you. 

Now, in view of that fact, I have a statement that I would like to 
submit to the committee and read into the record. 

Mr. Kearney. You can submit the statement, and we will look it 
over, and then if we think it is 

Mr. Zuckman. This statement will clearly state my position as to 
how I stand in connection with this so-called inquisition. 

Mr. Kearney. So-called what? 

Mr. Zuckman. Inquisition. 

Mr. Kearney. I thought I understood you. 

Mr. Scherer. I thought we were starting off with a note of courtesy. 



2454 coMjvnjNisT activities est the albant area 

TESTIMONY OF MORRIS ZUCKMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, ROYAL W. FRANCE 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please, sir? 

Mr. ZucKMAN. My name is Morris Zuckman. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Zuckman. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please state his name for the record? 

Mr. France. Royal W. France— F-r-a-n-c-e — 104 East 40th Street, 
New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. AYlien and where were you born, Mr. Zuckman ? 

Mr. Zuckman. I was born in the city of Albany, N. Y., on January 
6, 1908. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Zuckman. In the city of Albany, N. Y., at 62 Morris Street, 
Albany, N. Y- 

Mr. Tavenner, What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Zuckman. My occupation is that of an attorney and counselor 
at law. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what has been 
your formal educational training. 

Mr. Zuckman. I graduated from the public schools in Albany, the 
high school of Albany ; then I went to St. John's College, had 1 year 
of prelaw ; then to St. John's University Law School, and graduated 
from St. John's University Law School, summa cum laude. 

Mr. Ta-v^nner. What was the date of the completion of your legal 
training? 

Mr. Zuckman. I completed my legal training in June of 1931, I 
believe. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. How long have you practiced law in the city of 
Albany? 

Mr. Zuckman. I have been practicing law here from, I believe it 
was, December of 1933. 

Mr. Tavenner. Between the time of your graduation in 1931 and 
1933, how were you employed ? 

Mr. Zuckman. I served my clerkship with Caplain Aras, Esq., of 
the city of Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. INIr. Zuckman, the investigation by the committee 
discloses that you were chairman of the American Labor Party in 
Albany for a period of time, beginning in 1946 ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Zuckman. Well, my position, Mr. Tavenner, is such that I 
don't think that this committee has any right to go into my political 
associations whatever. 

Mr. Ta\t<:nner. Well, let me put it this way to you. That might be 
conditioned upon 1 or 2 facts. Having received the information 
that you were actively engaged in. that organization, we would like to 
know whether during the period that you were chairman you became 
aware of the existence of any effort on the part of the Communist 
Party to influence the conduct of your organization. We are not 
interested whatever in the party of which you may have been chair- 
man for any other purpose than to ascertain whether or not there 
were Communist Party activities which had something to do with it. 
(At this point Mr. Zuckman conferred with Mr. France.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE ALBANY AREA 2455 

Mr. ZucKMAN. On that score, Mr. Tavenner, I'll invoke the privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SciiERER. I submit the witness hasn't said lie refuses to answer 
and says, "I will invoke the privilege under the fifth amendment," 

Mr, Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

(At this point Mr. Zuckman conferred with Mr. France.) 

Mr. Zuckman. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds that 
it is a violation of the first amendment of the Constitution and on 
the grounds of the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. ScHERER. That part of the fifth amendment which says you 
can refuse to answer if you feel that your answer might tend to incrim- 
inate you; is that right? 

Mr. Zuckman. That is correct. 

Mr. Ta^tcnner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time in 1946 or 1947 and at the same time an oflicial or one holding an 
official position in the American Labor Party at Albany? 

Mr. Zuckman. Same answer as the previous answer. 

Mr, Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Zuckman. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Zuckman. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I liave no further questions. 

Will Janet Scott please come forward ? 

Mr. Kearney. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
shall the the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Miss Scott. I do. 

Mr. France. The witness says, if the photographers want to take 
pictures, she would like them to take them now. 

Mr. Kearney. That was the instruction the Chair gave the photog- 
raphers this morning. 

Mr. France. She also would like to take advantage of the commit- 
tee's ruling that there would be no broadcasting. 

Mr. Kearney. The request will be granted. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF JANET SCOTT, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 
COUNSEL, ROYAL W. FRANCE 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please ? 

Miss ScoTT. Janet Scott. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a native of Albany ? Were you born here ? 

Miss ScoTT. I was born here over 21 years ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have gotten myself in trouble before in attempting 
to be too specific on that question, but I am sure I would not have in 
your instance. 

Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Miss ScoTT. I am ; by Mr. France. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. P'rance. Eoyal W. France, 104 East 40th Street, New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation, please? 

Miss ScoTT. I'm a newspaper reporter. 



2456 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your for- 
mal educational training has consisted of?- 

Miss Scott. I was graduated from St. Agnes School in Albany and 
from AVellesley College — a B. A. degree from Wellesley. 

Mr. Tavi2nner. When did you receive your B. A. degree'^ 

Miss ScoTT. 1925. 

Mr. TavexXner. Will you advise the committee, please, what your 
record of employment has been since 1935 i 

Miss SooTi\ No ; 1925. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Well, I understand that. I am asking you since 
1935. 

]Miss ScoiT'. Oh, yes. 

I have worked for the Knickerbocker New^s — that is, for tlie I^ress 
Co. 

Mr. Ta\tlnxer. For how long a period of time? 

Miss Scott. From — well, the full time, from 1935 on; from before 
that time, as a matter of fact. It was my first job and my only job, 
full time. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's investigation discloses that you 
took a leading part and an active part in the formation of the news- 
paper guild in this area ; is that information correct ? 

Miss ScoTT. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Taa^enner. When was the newspaper guild formed in this 
locality '^ 

Miss ScoTT. Oh, it was chartered, I think, on March 10 — or, any- 
way, in March 1934 — Tri City New^spaper Guild. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held various positions in the guild since 
that time ? 

Miss ScoTi\ I've always been on the executive board or committee 
from that time on, and I have been secretary-treasurer, and for one 
term president of the guild. 

j\Ir. Tavenner. When were you president of the guild? 

Miss Scott. I reallv don't recall the date. It was during the war 
when a president went into service, and the date has escaped me. It 
was in the 1940's, as I recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it in 1946 or 1947 ? 

Miss Scott. I really don't remember. 

Mr. Taa'enner. When did you occupy the other positions tliat you 
referred to ? 

Miss Scott. Well, I've always been on the executive committee, and 
I was secretary — first, I was treasurer and then we c<msolidated the 
positions of treasurer with secretary-treasurer, and I was that, I think, 
for a period of, oh, 6 or 7 years. I could get the data, but I am sure 
your research people would have that. 

Mr. Tavenner. I know; if you could just answer it within a rea- 
sonable period 

Miss Scott. I really don't remember. I served about 6 years, as I 
remember, as secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over what general period ? 

Miss Scorr. I think from about 1936 or 1937 I was secretary- 
treasurer. 

Mr. Ta-msnner. In the course of your work in the newspaper guild, 
did you have occasion to meet members of the guild from Los Angeles ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2457 

Miss Scott. Oh, I had occasion, yes; and from all over the country 
at the guild conventions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Morgan Hull, one of 
the founders of the guild ? 

(At this point Miss Scott conferred with Mr. France.) 

Miss ScoTT. Yes ; he was an organizer for the guild, and he was at 
conventions. I mean, there's a long list of delegates — hundreds of 
them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Charles W. Judson? 

Miss ScoTT. Not that I recall, Counsel. 

I a)n bad on names for a newspaper reporter — I am sorry— and I 
face it sometimes. I don't know. 

He might have been a delegate when I was there. I am not saying 
I didn't meet the man, but I don't recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. My purpose in asking you these ciuestions is this : 
Rather extensive hearings were conducted hj tliis committee on the 
west coast and in Washington, during the course of whicli a number of 
persons testified — probably 8 or 9 — and advised the committee re- 
garding the activities of the Communist Party within the Newspaper 
Guild. Morgan Hull, to whom we referred, in addition to being an 
organizer for the guild, was very active in organizing a unit of the 
Connnunist Party within the guild. Charles Judson, who was a mem- 
ber of the guild in Los Angeles, was very active in that work. 

Did you become acquainted with Urcel Daniel ? 

(At this point Miss Scott conferred with Mr. France.) 

iliss ScoTT. Well, she was a delegate. I don't remember when. I 
think she was from one west coast city. I never knew too well whether 
she was from Los Angeles or San Francisco. We had delegates from 

all over. I j- 

_ Mr. Tavenner. You attended, then, I assume, the national conven- 
tions of the American Newspaper Guild? 

Miss ScoTT. No ; not all of them — the ones to which I was elected. 
I attended, oh, maybe four of them, or so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell me which the four were that you 
attended ? 

Miss ScoTT. I attended one in New York, which was before we lost 
our very great president, Hey wood Broun. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is the date, please, approximately ? Can you 
fix the year ? 

Miss Scott. That was before we took the radical step of joimng the 
A. F. of L. I believe it was 1935— about 1936. 

And I was at the one where we joined the CIO in St. Louis, and I 
really don't remember the dates. It's about 1937 or 1936, in rliat time. 

I was also at one in Toronto, which was the last one, I think, that' 
Heywood Broun was alive. 

Mr. Taatenner. What was the approximate date ? 

Miss Scott. Those were more or less at the same — I mean the next 
year — and I've attended one, I think, in Detroit, and also one in tiie 
Twin Cities. 

There were five, I guess, and the dates of those were in the late thir- 
ties or forties. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has been advised by a number of 
these witnesses as to the activities of the Communist Partv vrithin 



2458 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

the Newspaper Guild, and my purpose in asking you these questions is 
to ascertain from you what knowledge you had, if any, regarding 
Communist activities within the Newspaper Guild. 

What knowledge did you have of Communist Party activities, if 
any, in the Newspaper Guild? 

(At this point Miss Scott conferred with Mr. France.) 

Miss Scott. Well, I have a statement that I would like to make on 
this general subject — that is, any question which is along these 
lines 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I am sorry 

Miss Scott. Not the guild. 

JSIr. Tavenner. I will have to ask you to answer my question first. 

Miss Scott. Well, then, I would have to decline to answer the ques- 
tion on the grounds of the violation of the — invoking the first and 
the fifth and the sixth amendments. 

Mr. Kearney. The fifth amendment on the grounds it might in- 
criminate you? 

JMiss Scott. Is that the word ? 

(At this point Miss Scott conferred with Mr. France.) 

Miss Scott. Yes ; that would be substantially tlie word. 

Mr. Tam^nner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time during the years 19^3 6 and 1947 ? 

Miss Scott. I must decline to answer any question like that on the 
same grounds. 

And could I ask whether I may now please hand you my statement 
and be able to enter the statement in the record, or read it ? 

Mr. Kearney. Miss Scott, let me ask you this question : If you were 
not a member of the Communist Party, would you so state? 

Miss Scott. Congressman Kearney, I don't think anybody, any 
lawyer, would be getting to the New York State Bar examination 
today if they took that attitude about the fifth amendment. I mean, 
I think if you would let me read my statement 

Mr. Kearney. Would you mind answering my question, please. 

Miss Scott. I think I stand on the statement. The statement ex- 
plains the safeguards of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. I insist. Miss Scott, that you answer my question. 

(At this point Miss Scott conferred with Mr. France.) 

Miss Scott. I am invoking my privilege again. 

Mr. Kearney. That is the answer I expected to receive. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you aware of any organized effort of the Com- 
munist Party in Albany to infiltrate the American Labor Party in 
Albany? 

]\Iiss Scott. I stand on the amendments — invoke the same amend- 
ments — and I mean these — you know, these specific ones I mention in 
the statement — each time I say that. 

Mr. Tavenner. It will be satisfactory, I am sure, for you to say for 
the same reasons and on the same grounds. 

Miss Scott. For the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Scott. Decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend a section meeting of the Communist 
Party in Albany which was held during the year 194G or 1947? 

Miss Scott. I must decline to answer on the same grounds. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2459 

Mr, Tavenner. No ; I beg to differ with you. There is no reason 
why you must do so. 

Miss Scott. I think there is. 

Mr. Tavenner. The question is : Do you decline ? 

Miss Scott. I decline to answer it, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Miss Scott. I decline to answer on the same grounds. It is an 
invasion of my constitutional rights. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Kearney. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to call Sarah Kaufman. 

Will you come forward, please ? 

Mr. Kearney. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Kaufman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SARAH KAUFMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 
COUNSEL, ROYAL W. FRANCE 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you state your name, please ? 

Mrs. Kaufman. My name is Sarah Kaufman — K-a-u-f-m-a-n. 

Mr. Kearney. Let's ask the photographers, please, not to interrupt 
the witness while she is testifying. 

Mr. France. May I state, Mr. Chairman, this witness also would 
prefer not to have the radio broadcasting. 

Mr. Kearney. She objects to the radio broadcast? 

Mr. France. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. The request is granted, under the rules of the com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mrs. Kaufman. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. France. Eoyal W. France, 104 East 40th Street, New York 
City. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Are you a native of Albany ? 

Mrs. Kaufman. No ; I am not. 

Mr, Tavenner. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Kaufman. I was born in Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Are you a naturalized American citizen? 

Mrs. Kaufman. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you naturalized? 

Mrs. Kaufman. It's a matter of public record. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us where that record is made? 

Mrs. Kaufman. That record is in the Bronx, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. And the date, please. 

Mrs. Kaufman. It's a matter of public record, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. The witness will please answer the questions. 

(At this point Mrs. Kaufman conferred with Mr. France.) 

Mrs. Kaufman. It's approximately June 1924. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you married? 

Mrs. Kaufman. Yes ; I am. 

37740— 53— Dt. 1 8 



2460 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you naturalized under your married name? 

Mrs. Kaufman. No ; I was naturalized when I was 10 years old. 

Mr. Tavenner. And what was your name ? 

Mrs. Kautman. Sarah Schwartzman. 

Mr. Tavenner. ISIrs. Kaufman, the committee has information in- 
dicating you took part in Communist Party activities in Albany, and 
it is the desire of the committee to ask you what you know of the opera- 
tions of the Communist Party in this area. So, I would like to ask 
you whether or not, first, is it correct that you do have knowledge of 
Communist Party activities in this area ? 

Mrs. Kaufman. I refuse to answer any questions relating to my 
beliefs, associations, and affiliations, and for many reasons. Para- 
phrasing one of the great documents of our country, the Declaration 
of Independence — may I not quote the Declaration of Independence? 

Mr. Kearney. The witness will refrain from making a speech. 

Mrs. Kaufman. Well, I want to give my reasons 

Mr. Kearney. Just answer the question. 



Mrs. Kaufman. That I refuse to answer any questions 

Mr. Kearney. Just answer the questions of counsel. 

Mrs. Kaufman. With regard to my personal beliefs, affiliations, and 

associations, and I wish to invoke the fifth amendment, which says no 

witness 



Mr. Kearney. We understand what the fifth amendment says- 



Mrs. Kaufman. May be compelled to be a witness against himself. 

Mr. Kearney. And there is no need for you to go on further with 
any speech. 

Mrs. Kaufman. I should like to make it clear I say this without 
conscience of guilt. 

Mr. KJEARNEY. We want to treat the witness as we have treated all 
witnesses, with the utmost courtesy ; but we expect cooperation from 
the witness. 

Mrs. Kaufman. The witness will not cooperate with a committee of 
this nature that pries into the personal beliefs of a witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. I might say to you, Mrs. Kaufman, I have asked 
you no question regarding your personal beliefs. I am interested only 
in facts. So, I am asking you : Have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Kaufman. I refuse to answer any questions, and I invoke the 
fifth amendment. 

(At this point Mrs. Kaufman conferred with Mr. France.) 

Mr. Kearney. If you were not a member of the Communist Party, 
would you so state ? 

Mrs. Kaufman. I refuse to answer that question on the ground of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Albany ? 

Mrs. Kaufman. I've been here 15 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What part of that period have you been married? 

Mrs. I^UFMAN. All that period. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you engaged in any type of employment since 
you have been in Albany ? 

Mrs. Kaufman. Yes ; I worked on a very temporary basis for a very 
short time for the State of New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was that ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2461 

Mrs. Kaufman. 1939 and part of 1940. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of the position that you held ? 

Mrs. Kaufman. Menial. I did typing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at that 
time? 

Mr. Kaufman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1946 or 1947? 

Mrs. Kaufman. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tam^nner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1946 or 1947? 

Mrs. Kaufman. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you employed during 1946 and 1947? 

Mrs. Kaufman. I've been a housewife. 

Mr. Tavenner. During that entire period ? 

Mrs. Ivaufman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Mrs. Kaufman, have you ever received any compen- 
sation or anything of vahie from the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Kaufman. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever contributed anything to the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mrs. Kaufman. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds, and — if I could ask the kind permission and indulgence of 
this committee for 5 minutes — I would like to give my reasons for 
invoking the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you have a statement you would like to file ? 

Mrs. Kaufman. I do. 

Mr. Kearney. Will you hand it up, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Kaufman. I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Kearney. The witness may be excused. 

Mr. France. ]\Ir. Chairman, I wish to thank the committee and 
counsel for extending me the courtesy of putting these witnesses in 
out of order and in order that I might meet another engagement. 

Mr. Kearney. It has been a pleasure to accommodate you. 

Do you have a further witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Louis Geller. 

Would you come forward, please ? 

Mr. Kearney. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Geller. I do. 

Mr. CoLLOMs. My client has requested that the broadcast be turned 
ojff and, in accordance with the committee's ruling 

Mr. Kearney. Under the committee rules, the request is granted. 



2462 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ALBANY AREA 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS GELLER, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

ALBERT L. COLLOMS 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

(At this point Mr. Geller conferred with Mr. CoUoms.) 

Mr. Geller. My name is Louis Geller — G-e-1-l-e-r. 

(At this point Mr. Geller conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Tavennek. Are you accompanied by counsel? 

Mr. Geller. I am, sir. 

Mr. Tav-enner. Will counsel please state his name and address for 
the benefit of the record ? 

Mr. CoLLOMS. My name is Albert L. Colloms, 342 Madison Avenue, 
Kew York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr, Geller, the committee is anxious to know what 
information you have, if any, regarding Communist Party activities 
in this area. 

Now, Mr. Nick Campas testified here this morning and you may 
have heard his testimony. His testimony was that you were a mem- 
ber of the Young Communist League along with him, and others. My 
first question, therefore, is : Was Mr. Campas telling the truth about 
that matter ? 

Mr. Geller. I decline to answer this question, Mr. Chairman, and 
I'll tell you why. I decline to 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. 

Mr. Geller. To answer questions of this committee regarding my 
political views or associations. 

Mr. Kearney. I think that the witness and the committee will get 
along much better if the witness answers the question. If the witness 
has a statement, it may be handed up to the Chair. 

(At this point Mr. Geller conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Colloms. May we ask that the statement be included in the 
record, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Kearney. Let me have a chance to look it over first, please. 

Mr. Tavenner. I want, of course, to give you an opportunity to 
state the legal grounds, if any, that you have 

Mr. Geller. I would like 

Mr. Tavenner. For refusing to answer the question. 

Mr. Geller. May I have your permission to state my legal grounds? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; if you state your legal grouncls. 

Mr. Geller. I decline to answer the questions of this committee 
regarding my political views or associations or affiliations because I 
feel such questions violate my rights under the first amendment of 
the Bill of Rights of the Constitution which — by which all citizens are 
guaranteed the freedom of speech and peaceful association. 

Second, I decline to answer such questions because I refuse to be 
a party to this Un-Ainerican Committee's repressive action 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Now, just a minute. 

Mr. Geller. Did you give me permission to read my statement ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No ; not that kind of statement. 

Mr. Geller. Well, I am giving you my legal grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. No; that is not a legal ground. 

Mr. Geller. Do you mean to tell me the first amendment and fifth 
amendment are not legal grounds ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE ALBANT AREA 2463 

Mr. Tavenner. If you are relying- 



Mr. Kearney. We are not going to let the witness get away with 
any statement that includes the words "Un-American Committee." 
If the witness wants to designate this committee by its title, he may 
do so ; but he will not be allowed to designate it as the "Un-American 
Committee." 

Mr. Tavenner. If you are relying 

Mr. Geller. I beg your pardon. May I add 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. If you are relying upon consti- 
tutional reasons as the grounds for refusal to answer the question and 
you name the first amendment and you name the fifth amendment, 
the committee knows very well what you mean. 

Mr. Geller. That's true, but the public doesn't know what I mean. 
The public hasn't been a chance — hasn't had a chance to hear what 
the witness wants to say. 

Mr. Ta^t5nner. Well, you don't want to say anything. That's the 
trouble. You want to make a speech. 

Mr. Geller. Well, I want to say something, but you won't give me a 
chance. 

Mr. Kearney. I will say to the witness if he will answer the ques- 
tions we will let him talk here all day. 

It was requested yesterday there be no demonstrations, favorable, 
or unfavorable. 

I will say to the attorney representing this witness that this state- 
ment will not be admitted and made a part of the record for the 
reason that, all through it, it contains the words "Un-American Com- 
mittee." 

Mr. Tavenner. I understand, then, that you base your refusal to 
testify on the first and the fifth amendments? 

Mr. Geller. That is true, and the sixth. 

Mr. Tavenner. And the sixth ? 

Mr. Geller. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, were you a member of the Young Commu- 
nist League at the time that Mr. Campas testified that you were? 

Mr. Geller. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
you have already stated — the first, fifth and sixth amendments to 
the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at any time become a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Geller. I refuse to answer on the first, fifth, and sixth amend- 
ments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Kearney. If you were not a member of the Communist Party, 
would you so state ? 

Mr. Geller. I refuse to answer on the first, fifth, and sixth amend- 
ments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Geller. I refuse to answer on the above reasons — the first, 
fifth, and sixth {amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your employment? 

(At this point Mr. Geller conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Geller. I am an electrician. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the city of Albany ? 

Mr. Geller. Yes, sir. 



2464 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner, How long have you been engaged as an electrician 
in the city of Albany ? 

Mr. Geller. Approximately 5 years. 

Mr, Ta\-enner. Prior to that time, how and where were you em- 
ployed ? 

Mr. Geller. How — what period of time, may I ask ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, what was your employment immediately prior 
to the one that you just named? 

Mr. Geller. I was employed as a foreman in a motor rebuilding 
plant outside of Albany. 

Mr. Tavenner. What plant was that? 

Mr. Geller. I don't think it's necessary ; but if you insist upon it, 
I'll give it to you. I don't think you ought to bother with the people 
involved. It was A. L. Parson & Sons, Central Bridge, N. Y. 

Mr, Tavenner. Prior to that employment, what was your em- 
ployment ? 

Mr. Geller. From 1939 to 1947, I was employed in the General 
Electric Co. in Schenectady. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of your employment in Sche- 
nectady ? 

Mr. Geller. Various types of employment. 

Mr. TA^nENNER. Will you please state them ? 

Mr. Geller. I was a radio test man. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what branch or department of the plant? 

(At this point Mr. Geller conferred with Mr. CoUoms.) 

Mr. Geller. In the transmitter section of General Electric. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you working on Government projects? 

(At this point Mr. Geller conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Geller. Yps, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What type of Government projects? 

Mr. Geller. Transmitters. 

Mr. Tavenner. They were used for what purpose by the United 
States Government ? 

Mr. Geller. Aircraft ; aircraft transmitters. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
you were working on those transmitters ? 

Mr. Geller. I refuse to answer on the first, fifth, and sixth amend- 
ments of the Constitution. 

I have always been a loyal citizen of this country. I have never 
committed any act which might be construed as detrimental to the 
United States, to the Bill of Rights, to the Constitution. 

Mr. ScHERER. We haven't said you have, have we ? 

Mr. Kearney. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you aware of any Communist Party activities 
among your associates engaged in the war work which you have just 
described ? 

Mr. Geller. I refuse to answer it on the first, fifth, and sixth 
amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio was the organizer of the UE in the territory 
that you were then working in and under whom you came in the or- 
ganizational setup of the work ? 

Mr. Geller. I don't know. I don't know exactly what you mean. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you employed in that position ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE ALBANY AREA 2465 

Mr. Geller. Sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you employed in the position you 
have described in Schenectady ? 

Mr. Geller. Through the war. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know if any other employees who worked 
with you at General Electric during that time were members of the 
Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Geller. I refuse to answer it on the first, fifth, and sixth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Scherer. The fifth amendment applies to yourself, but not to 
knowledge that you might have of third parties, or other parties. 

Do you want to consult your counsel about that ? 

(At this point Mr. Geller conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Geller. If that's a question on your part, sir, I refuse to answer 
on the above grounds. If that's a statement of fact on your part, why, 
that's all it is. 

Mr. Kearney. The Chair will allow your answer to stand. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the reason for your leaving your position 
with GE? _ 

Mr. Geller. Financial. 

Mr. CoLLOMS. Explain it. 

Mr. Geller. How ? 

Mr. Colloms. Explain it. 

Mr. Geller. Well, I was making $56 a week, and $56 a week didn't 
go very far with a wife and 2 children. An opportunity presented 
itself for advancement otherwise. So I left GE. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Geller. I refuse to answer on the above reasons already stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Kjearnet. The witness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until tomorrow morning at 10 : 30, 
and all those in the audience who have been subpenaed today will 
return at that hour. 

(Whereupon, at 3 : 42 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 10 : 30 a. m., Wednesday, July 15, 1953.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 



Page 

Albertson, William 2431, 2447 

Alexiou, Costas 2431, 2448 

Aras, Caplain 2454 

Arland 2386, 2387 

Ashe, Harold 2444 

Barry, Arthur 2419 

Bartlett, Jim 2419 

Bellfontaine 2386, 2387 

Beria 2371, 2411 

Bevin, Ernest 2376, 2393 

Bezoski, Nick 2387 

Binder, Harry 2363, 2365, 2371, 2372 

Blankenzee 2393 

Bosi, Ilio 2409, 2410 

Bridges, Harry 2377, 2378, 2381, 2384, 2385, 2389, 2390, 2392, 2394, 2395 

Broun, Hey wood 2457 

Brown, Irving 2376 

Bryson, Hugh 2385, 2403 

Buck, Tim 2385 

Cakoulis, Gus 2423, 2432, 2441, 2442, 2444 

Campas, Nicholas 2417-2439 (testimony), 2443, 2445, 2449, 2462, 2463 

Caren, Helen 2449 

Carey, James B 2396 

Caron, Gui 2365, 2406 

Carr, Clarence 2445 

Carr, Sam 2386, 2405, 2406 

Cashton, William 2410 

Chiang Kai-shek 2412 

Citrine, Walter (Sir) 2396-2401, 2415 

Collette, Raymond (Ray) 2372,2373,2375 

Colloms, Albert L 2462-2465 

Coulllard, Real 2415 

Crago, Amalia (also known as Amalia Pesko) 2427 

Ovetic, Matthew 2424 

Daniel, Urcel 2457 

Davis, Harry 2387, 2415 

Davis, Harry (alias Harry Popovich) 2381,2392,2393 

Davis, Jack (CP name, Jack Williamson) 2422, 

2427,2432,2439-2453 (testimony) 

De Stefano, Marino 2377, 2378, 2395 

Dodd, Rena 2445 

Doran, Sadie 2441 

Dorenz, Arnold 2421 

Dorenz, Charles 2428, 2445 

Doucet, Buddy 2387 

Edelstein, Sam ^ 2432 

Eisenhower, President 2411 

Endicott, James 2404 

Feay, Herbert 2428, 2445 

Ferguson, Duerr 2368, 2369 

I'ialkoff, Si 2436, 2438, 2439 

Fields, Shirley 2419 

2467 



2468 INDEX 

Page 

Flory, Ishmael 2431, 2447 

J^ortain, Gerard 2411, 2412, 2415 

France, Royal W 2454-2461 

Fressinet, Andre 2375-2377, 2379-2381, 2389, 2393-2395 

Geller, Louis 2421,2461-2465 (testimony) 

Gentilli, Salvatore 2449 

Gerstinheim, Leo 2419 

Goldblatt, Louis 2391-2393 

Gomez, Salvadore 2378, 2379 

Gordon, Max 2425, 2426, 2428, 2429, 2433, 2443-2445 

Gouzenko, Igor 2406 

Gulkin, Harry 2386, 2387, 2415 

Hacker, Carl 2431, 2433, 2448 

Harkin, A. John 2386 

Harris, George 2368 

Hastings, Jock 2378, 2382, 2383 

Hatchigan, Donald 2436, 2445 

Herman, David 2431, 2447 

Hillman, Sidney 2400 

Hiss, Alger 2397-2399, 2402 

Hoiting 2378, 2394 

Hull, Morgan 2457 

Isaak, Rose 2405 

Jennings, Ruth 2422 

Johnson, Manning 2419, 2420, 2449 

Jones, Abbott H., Jr 2417-2453 

Jouhaux, Leon 2400 

Judson, Charles W 2457 

Kaloudis 2378 

Kardash, William 2411 

Kaufman, Sarah 2459-2461 (testimony) 

Kent, Rockwell 2437, 2438 

King, James 2428, 2445 

Klein 2438 

Klein, Dorothy (Mrs. Joseph Klein) (Dorothy Loeb) 2425 

Klein, Harold 2436 

Klein. Joseph 2425, 2426 

Kramberg, Sam 2430 

Kuznetsov, V. V 2400 

LaFortune, George 2436 

Lahne, Selma 2432 

Lane, Gertrude 2447 

Laros, Betty 2445 

Lawrence, Bill 2420 

Lazari, Nick 2431 

Leclerc, Marc 2412 

Leonard, Blackie 2374 

Loeb, Dorothy 2425, 2426 

Longo, Luigi 2378-2380 

MacDonald. Scotty 2412 

Magnuson, Bruce 2411, 2412 

Maletta 2393 

McManus, Jerry 2365 

McManus, T. G 2371 

McXamara, James 2431, 2448, 2449 

McNeil, Joe 2386, 23S7 

Murray, Philip 2400 

Nerenberg, N'orman 2365 

Nuttal, Bob 2415 

Oberkirch. Charles 2449 

Obermier, Mike 2430, 2447 

O'Connor, Paul 2448 

Parker, Herbert 2421 

Patterson, William 2405, 2410 

Pesko, Amalia (also known as Amalia Crago) 2427,2444 

Pieluk, Bob 2373, 2374 



INDEX 2469 

Page 

Pina, Lazaro 2379, 2382, 2383, 2389 

Pollitt, Harry 2385 

Pontikos 2378 

Pope, Jack (alias Jack Popovich) 2383 

Popovich, Harry (alias Harry Davis) 2381,2383,2392,2393 

Popovich, Jack (alias Jack Pope) 2383 

Kappaport, David 2428, 2445 

lieid, Eddie 2386 

Rich, Harry 2430, 2434 

Roche, Michael J 2394 

Rose, Fred (real name Fred Rosenberg) 2363,2371,2400,2407,2410 

Rosenberg, Ethel 2384, 2409-2411, 2413 

Rosenberg, Fred (Fred Rose) 2410 

Rosenberg, Julius 2384, 2409-2411, 2413 

Rossen, Robert 2408 

Roy, Oscar 2368 

Rubin, Jay 2430, 2447 

Ryerson, Stanley B 2406 

Saillant, Louis 2400 

Salsberg, J. B 2366-2369,2371,2372,2405 

Sauras, Conrad 2383 

Schmidt, Otto 2378 

Schulz, Willie 2431 

Schwartzman, Sarah 2460 

Schwenkmyer, Frieda 2436, 2445 

Scott, Janet 2455-2459 (testimony) 

Scordas, George 2372, 2374, 2383, 2387 

Sidman, I. Nathan 2435, 2436, 2438 

Smith, Ferdinand ^ 2382, 2390 

Stathis, George 2432 

Stewart, Jimmy 2387 

Stone, Joseph 2425 

Sullivan, J. A. (Pat) 2378,2385 

Thibault, George 2415 

Thorez, Maurice 2370 

Toledano, Vicente Lombardo 2379, 2400 

Torchniuk, Torchy 2412 

Valcourt, Oscar 2413 

Van Den, Branden 2378, 2394 

Vavilkin, Vassili 2373, 2394, 2395 

Victor 2389 

Wallace, Henry A 2437, 2438 

Walsh, Patrick 2362, 2363-2416 (testimony) 

Williamson, Jack (Communist Party name for Jack Davis) 2442 

Wilson, Norman 2387 

Wright, John 2427, 2428, 2445 

Yarnian, Mike 2432 

Zanyuk, Mike 2374 

Zuckman, Morris 2453-2455 (testimony) 

Organizations and Publications 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers' Union 2436, 2445 

American Federation of Labor 2368, 2376, 2396, 2412, 2419, 2457 

American Labor Party 2421, 

2424, 2425, 2435, 2435-2438, 2454, 2455, 2458 

American Legion 2366 

American Locomotive Workers 2422 

American Newspaper Guild 2457, 2458 

American-Russian Institute 2405 

Antwerp Dockers' Action Committee 2378 

Arbenz Popular Front Government (Guatemala) 2409 

Austrian Inland Transportation Workers 2378 

British Dock Workers 2378 

Brotherhood of Canadian Seamen 2415 

Cafeteria Workers' Union, Local 302, New York City 2430 



2470 INDEX 

Page 

Canadian Congress of Labor 2366 

Canadian Friends of the Soviet Union 2404, 2405 

Canadian Legion 2366 

Canadian Peace Congress 2404 

Canadian Seamen's Union 2366, 

2368, 2369, 2371, 2372, 2374, 2375, 2380-2392, 2403, 2412-2414 

Canadian Union of Woodworkers 2404, 2409-2412, 2415 

Central Federation of Labor 2428 

CGIL 2377 

Civil Rights Congress 2390,2405,2410 

Cominform 2373, 2375, 2377, 2380, 2386, 2394, 2410 

Comintern 2394, 2410 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 2366, 2368, 2396, 2400, 2450, 2452, 2457 

Consumers' League 2404 

Cooks' Union, Local S9, New York City 2430 

Cuban General Workers' Federation 2379 

Dockers' and Seamen's International 2375 

Dockers and Seame;is International, Paris 2376 

Drapeau Rouge (Red Flag, publication) 2370 

Dutch Seamen's Union 2378 

Federal Pioneer 2389 

Food Workers' Industrial Union 2419 

For a Lasting Peace lor a People's Democracy 2380 

Friends of the Soviet Union 2405 

Fur and Leather Workers' Union 2366, 2368, 2408, 2415 

General Confederation of Labor 2389 

Greek Maritime Federation 2378 

Hotel and Club Empioyees' Union, Local 6, New York City 2430, 2431 

Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Union (National) 2429-2431, 2448, 2452 

Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Union, Local 471, Albany, N. Y 2422, 2440 

Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Union, Local 583, Troy, N. Y 2418 

Hotel and Restaurant Workers' Union, Local 80, Washington, D. C 2431 

International Brigad.> 2378, 2411 

International Fur and Leather Workers 2407 

International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union. 2378, 2385, 2390-2392 

International Long.slioremen's Association 2378, 2385, 2390 

International Trade Unions of Inland Waterways' Workers and Seamen, 

Fishermen, and Port Workers 2375 

International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers— 2366, 2368, 2407, 2415 

Italian General Confederation of Labor 2377 

Knickerbocker News 2456 

Labor Progressive Party 2364-2367, 2369, 2387, 2404, 2406, 2410 

La Federation Syndicate Mondiale 2400, 2401, 2402 

Latin Confederation of Trade Unions 2379 

League for Democratic Rights 2410, 2411 

Leather Workers' Union, Gloversville 2445 

Le Movement Syndical Mondial (translation, The World Trade Union 

Movement) 2397, 2399, 2400 

L'Humanit'e 2370 

Lumber and Sawmill Workers' Union 2412 

Marine Cooks and Stewards 2366, 2367, 2385, 2390, 2403 

Maritime Apparat 2309, 2373, 2394 

Merchant Marine of Canada 2392 

Montreal Star 23S5 

National Maritime Union 2380,2382,2390 

National Trade Union Commission of the Labor Progressive Party 2367 

Quebec Federation of Tenants 2404 

Red Cross 2364 

Restaurant Workers' Union, AFL 2419 

Royal Canadian Mounted Police 2391, 2403, 2404 

St. John's University Law School 2454 

San Francisco Conference 2397-2399, 2402 

Seafarers' International Union 2391, 2395, 2403, 2404 

Seamen and Dockers International 2373 

Shipshaw Powerhouse Project 2364 

Sir George William College 2406 



INDEX 2471 

Page 

SS. Argomont 2388, 2393 

SS. Beaverbrae 2380-2384, 2386-2388, 2393 

SS. Mont Rolland 2372, 2376, 2386, 2388, 2393, 2414 

SS. Mont Sandra 2404 

State, County, and Municipal Workers' Union 2428, 2445 

Trade and Labor Congress 2385 

Trade Unions International 2395 

Trade Unions International of Seamen, Inland Waterways' Workers, Fish- 
ermen, and Port Workers 2393-2395 

Transport and General Workers Union (Great Britain) 2376 

Tri City Newspaper Guild 2456 

Unemployed Youth Organization, Quebec City 2363 

United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America 2366, 

2368, 2407, 2409, 2448, 2450-2452, 2464 

United Nations 2396, 2397, 2399, 2400, 2401 

United Veterans 2366 

Waiters' Union, Local 16, New York City 2431, 2447 

Waiters' Union, Local 219, New York City 2431 

Washington Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Union, District of Columbia. 2431 

Wellesley College 2456 

West Coast Seamen's Union 2384 

Workers Unity League 2364 

World Federation of Trade Unions 2373, 2375 2376, 

2378, 2379, 2385, 2393, 2394, 2396, 2397, 2399, 2400-2402, 2403, 2409 

World Trade Union Movement (Le Movement Syndical Mondial) 2397 

Young Communist League 2363, 2407, 2418-2422, 2425, 2462, 2463 

O 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
ALBANY, N. Y., AREA-Part 2 




•^-f-l-L^ f }■ I.L. -' i ^t-^ - A., y ^^ 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THD Jf^*l>nMiiit i jnij^- 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-THIKD CONGKESS 

FIRST SESSION 



JULY 15 AND 16, 1953 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
37740 WASHINGTON : 1953 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

OCT 2 11953 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDB, Illinois, Chairman 
BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, Je., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kunzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavenner^ Jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Russell, Chief Investigator 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Reaearch 

II 



CONTENTS 

Faee 

July 15, 1953: 

Testimony of — 

John Mills Davis 2473 

Elias M. Schwarzbart ._. 2503 

Arpad David Rappaport 2510 

John Wright 2515 

Irving Gold 2520 

Rena Dodd 2522 

Betty Laros 2542 

Hannah Shapiro 2527 

Harry Gordon Itskowitz 2531 

Evelyn Goldstein 2534 

July 16, 1953: 

Testimony of — 

Louis J. Lubin 2537 

Sidney Belinky. 2539 

Samuel Evens 2540 

Index 2557 

rn 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121, STANDING COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a vphole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to malie from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacl£s 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such in- 
vestigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any sxibcommittee, or by any 
(member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83d CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEa:S 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
the following standing committees: 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcolmmittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United Stiites of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the pvu-pose of any such in^'estigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



i 



4 
i 



r 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
ALBANY, N. Y., AEEA— PAKT 2 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 15, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee 

ON Un-American Activities, 

Albany, N. T. 

PUBLIC hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 : 30 a. m., in court room No. 1 of the 
Federal Building, Albany, N. Y., Hon. Bernard W. Kearney (chair- 
man of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Bernard W. Kearney 
(chairman of the subcommittee) and Gordon H. Scherer. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; Thomas 
W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk ; and James A. Andrews and Earl L. Fuoss, 
investigators. 

Mr. Kearney. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I would like to call as the first wit- 
ness Mr. John Mills Davis. 

Will you come forward, please, Mr. Davis? 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Davis, will you hold up your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Davis. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN MILLS DAVIS 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your full name, please, Mr. Davis? 

Mr. Davis. Your Honor, I would like to make a request that this 
portion of the hearing of the testimony not be broadcast. 

Mr. Kearney. Under the rules of the committee, your request is 
granted. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your full name, please, sir? 

Mr. Davis. John Mills Davis. 

Mr. Tavenner. JMr. Davis, it is the practice of the committee to 
explain to each witness that he has the right to counsel if he so 
desires, and has the right to consult counsel at any time during the 
hearing that an occasion may require. It is noted that you do not 
have counsel with you. Do you desire counsel ? 

Mr. Davis. No, sir ; I do not. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Davis? 

Mr. Davis. Chicago, 111., 1913. 

2473 



2474 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your edu- 
cational training has consisted of — that is, your formal educational 
training? 

Mr. Davis. High school; extra courses in specialized fields, and 
also some academic. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your record 
of employment has been, beginning with 1930 ? 

Mr. Daws. Well, in 1930 I was working in the department stores 
in Gimbel Bros, in New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain employed by Gimbel 
Bros, in New York? 

Mr. Davis. I was there until 1940 — maybe 1941. I left there in — 
at a short period, working for an electric company in New York, at 
which time I went to night school and took up the special information 
necessary for marine electrical work. This lasted less than a year, 
and after that I was employed as a shipyard worker, primarily in the 
Todd Shipyards in Brooklyn, as an electrician. 

Mr. Tavenner. Approximately when did your exployment begin 
and end at the Todd Shipyard Co. ? 

Mr. Da\t;s. Koughly from 1942, 1 would say, until I was drafted in 
the service in 1944. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain in the armed services ? 

Mr. DA^^:s. I remained in the armed services until 1946. 

After I came out, I worked as an aluminum worker for a while. I 
worked as an iron worker, as an electrician for a little while. 

After that, I worked here in Albany for the Communist Party, the 
State organ of the Communist Party. 

After that, I worked as a fireman, and I'm employed as a fireman 
now. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say you worked for the Communist Party here 
in the city of Albany ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have a title, or what was your exact position 
in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Davis. I was the organizer for the Communist Party in the 
Albany area, including Troy, Cbhoes, and Watervliet. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, Mr. Davis, let us go back for a moment to the 
city of New York. Did you become, first, a member of the Communist 
Party in the city of New York? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. In 1939 I was working in the department 
stores and communism and Communists began to be talked about. I 
became curious, and got hold of some Communist writings, and read 
the Daily Worker ; and from there I went to the Rand School and took 
some courses in the working class. 

And Rand School is an anti-Communist school. It is known as a 
Socialist school. 

From there, I went to a workers' school and took some further 
courses. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, when you say you went to the workers' school, 
is that a school maintained and operated by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Davis. It was at the time. I believe it's been discontinued. 

Mr. Tavenner. At that time it was a school maintained by the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2475 

Mr. Tavenner. In New York ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Proceed, please. 

Mr. Davis. After finishing these courses, I decided I wanted to join 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, let me interrupt you there a moment. How 
long did you attend this Communist Party school in New York? 

Mr. Davis. "Well, if I throw it together with the time I started 
studying, the period would cover, say, 6 months' time. The workers' 
school itself — I couldn't recall. It was part of that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell the committee who conducted the 
courses which you took in the workers' school ? 

Mr. Davis. I'm sorry, I can't remember who conducted the courses. 
They were men and women who wrote either in the Daily Worker or 
wrote Communist literature. They were Communists, publicized as 
such through the Communist press. 

Mr. Tavenner. They were open members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Davis. They were what you would call open members. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give the committee just a general idea of 
the type of instruction which you received there ? 

Mr. Davis. The instruction you receive in the Communist school 
will roughly cover studies called imperialism, studies of the Com- 
munist Party structure ; studies of the strategy and tactics. 

Mr. ScHERER. Strategy and tactics for what? 

Mr. Davis. Study of general strategy and tactics. _ I'll go into it 
more later; and, oh, studies of writings by Communists of what the 
Soviet Union had accomplished in a period of time since the Com- 
munist revolution. 

I believe this would cover the subjects I studied. If the question 
is what was taught, there were also specialized courses in breakdowns 
of any one of these subjects. However, I think in the later testi- 
mony 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, as a result of these courses which you took in 
the workers' school in New York, I understand you decided you would 
attempt to join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Davis. As I said, I became convinced I wanted to join the Com- 
munist Party because, through a study — and, of course, going along 
with the study must be a belief — though you may think at the time 
it is an understanding, it's more based on an acceptance of the things 
that are taught. 

It looks very good to become a member of the Communist Party. 
In the first place, you can picture yourself as a leader of the people, 
and as knowing more and knowing the answers to all of the national, 
local, international questions, having very complete and concise an- 
swers, where the other 99 and about 97 percent of the American people 
aren't so equipped. 

So, from this point of view, it feels good to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. ScHERER, May I interrupt just a minute? 

When you say "other people," what do you mean by that ? Future 
leadership, should the Communist conspiracy succeed? Is that in 
the background of it ? 

37740— 53— pt. 2 2 



2476 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Davis. I am not surprised, sir, you don't completely under- 
stand what leadership of the people means, because after my member- 
ship in the Communist Party I also didn't completely understand what 
it meant. It's left to you and it's broad enouoh that you can interpret 
it to make yourself feel just as big as your oAvn personality wants you 
to feel. 

If you want to make it specific, I'm afraid you'll have to take any 
specific answer from a Communist work. They'll give it to you very 
clearly what they mean by "leader of the people." 

Mr. ScHEEER. Well, we have heard a lot of witnesses and I just 
wondered what you had in mind when you said "leadership of the 
people." 

Mr. Davis. What I had in mind at the time as leadership of the 
people was by being a Communist you would be able to give to the 
people something that they didn't have and something that they would 
w\ant to have; and also another attitude that you can develop upon 
believing these works written by the Communists is that you are in a 
position where any weaknesses or any faults you find can immediately 
be turned, blamed on Avhat the Communists call the capitalist systeni. 
I mean everything bad can be blamed on the Communist system — 
pardon me — can be blamed on the capitalist system, and everything 
good that takes place, such as a worker happens to get an increase or a 
day off, why, that can be laid to the credit of the Communists, and if 
the same worker happens to lose out and maybe find himself out of a 
job, why, he can then blame that on the capitalists. 

So, it's a very pat way of living, where you find yourself sitting very 
comfortably, not feeling sorry for a worker who might be in a bad 
situation, but merely telling him it's the fault of the capitalist system. 
And these reasons put together give you a set of illusions which, if 
you believe the writings and teachings of the Communist Party, it's 
a very comfortable thing to join. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, the result is that you did become a member. 

Will you tell the committee just how you went about becoming a 
member of the party ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, I was very independent. I went to the Communist 
section headquarters and got a card for myself and filled it out and 
handed it in to the Communist section headquarters there in New York 
City. 

I was later contacted by someone from the department stores, and I 
don't recall who the individual was, and taken into the group working 
in the department stores. 

There were a number in the department stores, and the only indi- 
viduals that I can recall were William Michaelson, who held an offi- 
cial position in the union 

Mr. Tavenner. That is William Michaelson ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Helen Jacobson, who was very busy in all union work, and work 
in other organizations ; also in the Communist Party itself, 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the first name ? 

Mr. Davis. Helen. 

Mr. Tavenner. Helen Jacobson ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 



i 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2477 

There was Mary Kotick, who was also very active in a leadership 
way in the union, as well as in the Communist activities, and at that 
time in this American League for Peace and Democracy organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name, please ? 

Mr. Davis. I can spell it, but I wouldn't bet on its being a correct 
spelling. If you wish me to spell it, as I hear it, I will do that for 
you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, try to spell it as you pronounced it, if you 
are not certain of the spelling. 

Mr. Davis. It is K-o-t-i-c-k. 

And there was a William Bender, who was more on the order of a 
social leader in the union, and among the party members, social in 
the sense that he always had a good party going and was the life of 
the party, very amusing, and before I left the department stores, 
this William Bender had dropped out entirely of all union activity 
and had left the store, and the rumor was that he had also left the 
party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, I would like for you, incidentally, to men- 
tion, where any person's name has been mentioned as having been a 
member of the Communist Party, if there are any facts within your 
knowledge which would indicate that they have left the party. If 
there are any such facts within your knowledge, you should give the 
committee that information. 

Mr. Davis. Well, as I said, this William Bender was the only one 
that I remember, and the word was that he had left the party : and I 
know it was preceded by a complete drop in the activity, all affairs of 
the union and the party. 

And there were many others there in the group, in the department 
store, but I can't remember who they were. 

There was one individual — I remember a name — and I also remem- 
ber there were a couple of individuals by the same name, and I don't 
remember his first name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, if you are uncertain and there were a number 
of people by the same name in the same department store, I think you 
should not mention them. 

Now, did you use an assumed name when you became a party 
member ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, no, sir. One of my main weaknesses was, if I 
wanted to be a Communist, I didn't care too much who knew it ; and 
when I joined, I believe it was Michaelson who told me I would find 
out later why it was necessary to work under cover, but I never did 
use an assumed name. 

Mr. ScHERER. What position does Michaelson hold today, if you 
know? 

Mr. Davis. I can't say, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. What position did he hold at the time you had con- 
tact with him ? 

Mr. Davis. He was in the top leadership of the union. The title I 
don't recall. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that the same Michaelson who testified before us 
in New York, Mr. Counsel, just a few weeks ago ? 

Mr. Tavbnner. I am advised it is the same person. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am sure it is. 



2478 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. And my recollection is that Michaelson, when he 
appeared as a witness, relused to answer all material questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes ; he took the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

What was the name of the union ? 

Mr. Davis. Local 2, Retail-Wholesale Department Store Workers 
of America. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Will you give us that again, please ? 

Mr. Davis. Retail, Wliolesale and Department Store Workers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the number of the local ? 

Mr. Davis. Local 2. 

Mr. Tavenner. In New York City ? 

Mr. Davis. In New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. W^ill you tell the committee very briefly what the 
principal interests of that group of the Communist Party were and 
what work they engaged in ? 

Mr. Davis. In reference to the union, the principal interest of the 
Communist Party was to keep it well-organized and keep it strong 
and keep urging the people to bring their grievances up so they could 
be settled. It was pretty wholly the t^'pe of an influence which would 
lead the members of the department store to look toward these Com- 
munists as people primarily interested in their welfare. 

The catch in this is that somebody, beginning to be influenced by 
this attitude of the Communists w^ould immediately begin to be con- 
tacted and given doses in pamphlet, leaflet, or a meeting form of the 
propaganda that I learned at the schools. The imperialism stretched 
out and broadened to include almost anything that individual might 
develop a dislike for in his present life. They would begin to be 
influenced with propaganda stating how well off and how superior 
the workers in the Soviet Union were making out in comparison to 
themselves. 

If they really showed promise, they might be given information 
showing them how there was a Communist Party around that could 
give them an opportunity to help the members of their union, the 
way it could be shown that the Communists were helping the mem- 
bers of tlie union and the workers in the store. 

Their influence is aimed to make people sympathetic in the long 
run to the Communists as leaders and follow them in National, State, 
all issues, so that the Communists, by establishing their influence in 
the union, on a genuine basis, and genuinely attempting to help those 
workers, whose helping would result in their becoming favorable to 
the attitudes of the Communist Party. By doing this, they would be 
able to broaden their influence along the lines of the national issues, 
make these people accept what they have to say on any issue that 
might be in the forefront at the time. 

Mr. ScHEKER. Did this William Michaelson advocate the things 
you have been telling us in the last few minutes? 

Mr. Davis. William Michaelson was a leader in the union, as I 
have said, and he was a leader in the party, and he was extremely 
well educated in many lines and his influence was felt in every 
activity, 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Counsel, I have a picture here of William 
Michaelson, who testified before the committee. 

Mr. Davis. Is that the picture out of one of the New York papers ! 



COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2479 

He's got his chin covered, and I couldn't positively recognize Wil- 
liam Michaelson without his chin. 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes ; his chin is covered. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. How long did you remain a member of the group 
at Gimbel Bros. ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, maybe 6 months before I left the department 
stores. 

You see, up until this period I had been a supervisor in the depart- 
ment stores, a petty supervisor — a nice, soft job. About this time, in 
fooling around among some of the people I was supervising, it hap- 
pened one of these people got their glasses broken and this indi- 
vidual was not very favorable to the union. So I was very quickly 
removed from the position as supervisor and the comrades weren't too 
successful in replacing me, but they did put me back in the store of 
the capacity as stockman. Wliereas I remained loyal and found many 
excuses for this, I at the same time didn't like the new position too 
well. Then I left to go into this electrical manufacturing and assem- 
bling plant and take up the course — I had some electrical background — 
to brush up on electricity as it applies to marine work. 

When I finished the course, I left that place and went into defense 
production in the shipyards — and this is the answer to how long I 
was in. I was in until I went into the shipyards and then I was 
transferred. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean your membership in the Communist 
Party was transferred ? 

Mr. Davis. My membership in the Communist Party was trans- 
ferred to a shipyard local. 

Well, in the shipyards I was working 20 days, with 1 day off, work- 
ing 10 hours a day, with sometimes extra overtime, and I had very 
little time for any work, and maybe attended 1 or 2 of the meetings ; 
and I was a member — I mean I considered myself a member, and I 
was considered a member, but it's — as far as Communist activity there,^ 
I have; no knowledge of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have any recollection of the names of the 
persons that were involved in the Communist Party group in the ship- 
vards? 

Mr. Davis. I don't remember any of them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, that brings you up to the time of your induc- 
tion into the Armed Forces, doesn't it ? 

_ Mr. Davis. I was inducted into the Armed Forces and during the 
time I was there the Armed Forces sent me to school for practically 
the entire time I was in the Navy, and finished up by assigning me 
to the west coast to be shipped out with radar maintenance work and 
at that time the war ended. During this time I read when I could 
get hold of literature and Communist work, only insofar as I talked 
to other people in my line— and my way of speaking was by that time 
pretty thoroughly saturated with Communist ways of speaking. The 
Communist language, while it's written the same, it's certainly not 
the same in content or purpose as the normal American and normal 
English language, and that would constitute my Communist Party 
membership and work and until I was discharged from the Navv in 
1946. 



2480 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Then, in 1946, 1 came back and my wife was living on the East Side 
in New York. I was taken into the East Side section there in New 
York. 

Mr. Tavenner, You mean the East Side section of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Davis. It had another name. I don't remember — it was, I 
believe, on Second Street. I think it was the Henry Forbes section. 

Mr. Kearney. What was that name ? 

Mr. Davis. Henry Forbes. Hank Forbes, they would call it. He 
had been a Communist who I believe died in the Spanish civil war, 
or some place, and they named it in honor of him ; but the section — — 

Mr. Tavenner. The spelling is F-o-r-b-e-s, isn't it ? 

Mr. Davis. Correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. The reason I said that is it is a little hard to under- 
stand over the speaking system the exact pronunciation at times, and 
I merely wanted to clarify it. 

Mr. Davis. Oh, yes ; I understand now. 

Well, probably one of my biggest failings when I was in the Com- 
munist Party — I was a very good leg man and always had my mouth 
open, but my eyes and ears were pretty well shut ; and while this might 
have been some value to the Communist Party, I find it now more than 
a little embarrassing how few things I can remember in the space of 
time what I was doing, what I considered so much. 

In this Henry Forbes' section — it was a neighborhood section — 
it was very close to the Communist Party National and State head- 
quartei^ on — on, I believe, 13th or 12th Streets — and, as a result, I do 
remember the writer Mike Gold. 

See, when I try to remember these things by myself I can't. Mike 
Gold was a writer and, I mean, when I try to remember them as a 
result of thinking at this time, not indicating somebody has made me 
remember them in case it's picked up. 

Mike Gold and Carl Brodsky, another well-known insurance man, 
was a member there, and our section organizer, I believe was his title, 
Wallach. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name, please ? 

Mr. Davis. W-a-1-l-a-c-h. 

I was very active here in terms of distributions, in terms of going 
to many meetings, in terms of canvassing. 

I was even at one time a chairman of one of the branches in this 
section, but I don't recall any of the other people who worked with 
me in the section. 

Now, it takes me up until the time — it was while I was at this 
section, the East Side section, that a woman who was the section 
chairman — and I don't remember her name — asked me if I would 
consider becoming an organizer, a paid organizer for the Communist 
Party. 

Well, this looked very good to me. I liked this, because this gave 
me reason to further believe in the illusions which I had accepted, 
and to further see myself as developing as a leader of the people, and 
to maybe have a little bit of thinking done on developing some of 
these pat answers which were always ready for every issue; and I 
was very glad at the time being asked to become an organizer for the 
Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2481 

IMr. Tavenner. Can you fix the approximate date of that interview ? 

Mr. Davis. I would say it was in the fall of 1947 — sometime before 
September. 

Well that would place it as near as I can. 

Upon stating that I would like to become an organizer for the 
Communist Party, I was sent to the State headquarters on 13th Street, 
and there interviewed by George Blake, who held a position in the 
State apparatus. I think he was organizational director for the 
Borough of Manhattan, and he discussed with me my background, 
activity and education, and referred me to Robert Thompson, who was 
at the time the State chairman of the Communist Party. Thompson, 
I believe, is the man who put the final O. K. on me, and he arranged 
that I should meet Harold Klein, who was then the area organizer for 
this upstate eastern New York. 

Subsequently Harold EQein called for me at my house and took me 
up here to Albany. 

Well, no, before this, Thompson suggested and recommended that 
I take a refresher course before I take over my assignments as organ- 
izer for the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us about that refresher course? 

Mr. Davis. Now, the refresher course was conducted by leaders of 
the party whose names I recognized at the time because they were 
writers and speakers for the party, whose names I have no recollection 
of now. 

The classes were composed of a group of promising Communists 
throughout New York City, who I hadn't met before and I haven't 
met since, and who I also don't recall any of their names. 

The courses were Communist courses. They were, first, a course in 
imperialism. Well, imperialism, original imperialism, was written, 
1 think, about Germany, and since then a book covering the same data 
has been written about almost every country; and, of course, there 
have been books written on the same subject about the United States. 

The subject of imperialism is a great collection of technical data and 
technical facts. It's a collection of the organization of the particular 
country you happen to be in, in terms of who its economic and political 
leaders are. 

(Representative Bernard W. Kearney left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Daves. The importance of the course in imperialism — and it's a 
very complete course and the use of a very vital weapon in the educa- 
tion of — in this case, in the education of the American people, to the 
end of instilling a complete distrust and a complete hatred and a 
complete attitude on their part that all of their troubles are due to 
capitalism; and upon acceptance of such a course you have in your 
hands the weapon — very little variations — what I mean is : If you are 
in a union, you apply it to your union and management. If you are 
in a broader organization, such as the American League for Peace and 
Democracy, you apply it to your party and the Soviet Union, the Com- 
munist section, as against the democratic sections of the world. 
Wherever you are, it's played in such a way as to develop a complete 
distrust and a complete disrespect for your own way of life and for 
your government, for your leaders in all fields of economic, social, and 
political spheres of life. 

Mr. ScHERER. Including your religious beliefs ? 



2482 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Davis. Well, it's rather difficult to say including religious be- 
liefs. You say, if you believe the doctrine of communism, there's not 
very much need to directly do anything so dangerous as directly 
attack your religious beliefs, because in order to accept these doctrines 
of communism, you must replace your god, whoever it might be, what- 
ever it might be, with the god of the current leader of the Soviet 
Union. I mean Lenin, Stalin, probably now Malenkov, or in the 
case of this country you must begin to worship your own leader. Most 
of my time I believe it was Earl Browdcr. 

Mr. ScHERER. "Well, then, it was a sort of subtle or indirect attack 
on the religious beliefs ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, I think the religious organizations in this country 
are a major organization in all respects, and as such when I say it's 
made to make you distruot and disrespect all major organizations I 
certainly don't think it would exclude anything so tremendous in size 
and influence as the churches, so that 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know, from your experience, that the great 
religions and religious institutions of this country are considered by 
the Communists as one of the great obstacles to their successsif 

Mr. Davis. Religious institutions are considered, I think, more cor- 
rectly by the Communists as a tremendous mass organization, with 
tremendous mass influence, which must be weakened if the Commu- 
nists are going to make any advances on the economic front. 

So, while their interest in religion may be tremendous, nevertheless, 
the primary interest is in the economic organizations, because they 
must break the influence that the religion might have over them in 
order to make such a thing as imperialism, which I am referring to 
here, be accepted by an individual. 

They can't accept the complete disrespect for their own Govern- 
ment and their own ways of life if they don't at the same time accept 
it with reference to such a major portion of their life as religion, and 
I'm not speaking merely of the organized church attendance but, 
rather, of the religious feelings and the religious background of the 
American people. 

Mr. ScHERER. Then what I said is true — that religion or the re- 
ligious institutions were considered as a gi^eat obstacle to the spread 
of Communist doctrine and Communist conspiracj''? 

Mr. Davis. I believe that if you are considering religion a major 
organization, with a major influence, in this country, then it's a major 
obstacle to the Communists. 

Mr. ScHERER. Go ahead, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were speaking of the courses. 

Mr. Davis. Yes; the refresher course in reference to imperialism. 

Then there's always a course on the Soviet Union. The course on 
the Soviet Union would give you the weapon which would make the 
group which you are attempting to influence see that there is some- 
thing better because the Soviet Union, as it is taught by the Com- 
munists, is a great place, and that everybody who is there is very 
happy, and that all of the workers, especially, just love to work on 
piecework and work extra hard for the state, whereas here the piece- 
worker only works extra hard for his extra piecework bonus ; but with 
this course on the Soviet Union, you have the opposite of your course 
on imperialism, where you are taught to respect and look toward the 
Soviet Union as the great leader in world affairs. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2483 

This also is a weapon you're constantly using when you're in the 
field doing Communist Party work. You must at all times tell every- 
thing tliat you have learned in reference to the Soviet Union and 
everything that you have believed in order to have these same people 
who you teach to distrust, disrespect their own ways of life, to look 
toward another way of life, which they can put in its place. 

Another major point in such discussion is the study of the Commu- 
nist Party itself— and here is your study of the organization which is 
going to do the leading — the study of how it can be organized so that 
it can, with a minimum of influence, at the proper moment, exert a 
maximum result in terms of attaining control of the — it doesn't have 
to be nationwide control, in terms of obtaining control of a union, 
group organization, neighborhood organization, or any other organi- 
zations where they happen to have influence. 

The study of the Communist Party is the study of the group that 
is going to take away this imperialis^ii which you have been taught to 
disrespect and to dislike and to hate, and in its place to put some- 
thing which will be as good to you as the Soviet Union has allegedly 
been to its people; and, of course, you study, then, the strategy and 
tactics, which is a study of how you're going to use these people who 
aren't convinced by the Communists that the Communists are right, 
and how you can use them in their own sphere, in the attack on the 
things they have been taught to disrespect. In doing this you learn 
how to organize workers toward creating the biggest commotion in 
order to gain any settlement of the issues that happen to be particular 
to them. 

You learn how to use the groups in religion in this case, how to use 
the religious people by telling them you're not opposed to religion, that 
the Communists have nothing against religion as such, but that the 
leaders of the religion happen to be part and parcel of the imperialism. 
In this way, if you've prepared them well enough with the lessons on 
imperialism, you have a basis for their accepting their role among the 
group of people where they happen to be working in place of their 
religion; and beginning to influence them toward accepting the dic- 
tates of the Communist Party instead of the influences of their own 
religious training. 

Mr. SciiERER. They use the words "neutralize the effect of religion 
on people" ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Davis. If they can't bring them into active cooperation with 
whatever move you happen to have on at the time, they can be brought 
then into a neutralized position. 

The strategy and tactics is also, of course, telling you where you're 
going to use the various groups. If you have a little trouble in one 
section of the country, how you're going to j^ublicize that trouble in 
order to get support from other parts of the country — when you're 
going to use them, because naturally at times you want them to keep 
quiet and at times you want them — well, for example, before Browder 
was out, you wanted them all to worship Browder; but if you didn't 
get your Daily Worker early enough next morning, you were still 
worshipping Browder when you should have been worshipping the 
guy who came next to him. So, it's very important to use them at 
the right time and the right place for your objectives. 

37740— 53— pt. 2 3 



2484 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

These refresher courses covered these things, and may have covered 
other specific aspects of Communist policy; but I don't recall, because 
they're always taught. 

And then, as I said before I started all this, that I was brought up 
to the capital district by Klein, who was the eastern district organizer. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. Let me interrupt there a moment. When did you 
get out of the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Davis. In January 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. How soon after that was it that you entered into 
this plan to accept a position as organizer? 

Mr. Davis. I believe it was September of the same year. 

Mr. Tavenner. So, that would be in lO-tG ? 

Then, I understood you a while ago, I thought, to say it was in 
1947 ; and I want to make certain as to which is correct. 

Mr. Davis. I am certain it was the same year — about September 
194G. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right ; that would be 194G. 

Mr. Davis. Well, Klein brought me up here to the capital district, 
and he took me over to meet this Evelyn Goldstein, who at that time 
was the outstanding member of the party in the sense that she allowed 
herself to be more exposed than any of the other people who w^ere in 
the party at that time. 

And he introduced me to Evelyn, and the three of us discussed the 
necessity of my meeting such leaders at that time in the party as 
David Rap])aport, who was active in veterans' affairs, and Jolm 
Wright, who was active in the public workers, and Stella Gold, who 
was active in tlie American Labor Party, and also in the party itself, 
and of Morris Zuckman, who at the time was chairman of the Ameri- 
can Labor Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, just a moment. These people whose names 
you are giving us now were given to you at tliis first conference you 
liad with Evelyn Goldstein and the organizer, Harold Klein, as 
leaders whom you should get in touch with ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

You say Morris Zuckman was one of those? 

Mr. Davis. Morris Zuckman was one of those; yes, sir. 

And there was Eli Schwarzbart, who was 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name, please? 

Mr. Daves. Well, I knew him as Eli — E-l-i. I believe his full name 
was Elias, but 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. How do you spell the last name? 

Mr. Davis. I wouldn't know how to spell Schwarzbart any more 
accurately than you. 

There was Michael Dworkin and his wife Jeanette Dworkin, who 
were active in the party organization. 

And there was Gus Cakoulis, who was in the restaurant workers, 
business agent, I believe for the Albany — no; he w^asn't business 
agent — he was in the restaurant workers ; also active in the American 
Labor Party. 

And there were others ^\•ho were also mentioned, but I don't recall 
them all ; and, subsequently, one way or another, I did meet and talk 
with these various people. 



COMMXmiST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2485 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, now, after you were given the names of the 
principal persons that you should see, what did you do in order to see 
them and to contact them ? 

Mr. Davis. I met most of these people in various ways. I mean, 
I met them at homes or at meetings, other meetings. I succeeded m 
meeting them one way or another, one place or another, and we took 
steps to call a large meeting, and we made a decision in this way, of 
meeting people, to call a large meeting, including these and also the 
other active people in the party, in the area, at that time, and — well, 
specifically putting it down to a meeting, I can't tell you who were 
at this meeting. I mean, all of these and others were invited, but who 
might have been absent at the time I certainly don't remember. How- 
ever if you're interested in the meeting as such, we did discuss there, 
go over the party organization setup. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, this was a meeting of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do I understand that? 

Mr. Daves. Yes, sir ; it was a meeting of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you describe the type meeting it was a little 
more fully? 

Mr. Davis. I was new here, not known by even the people I had met, 
except that they had met me ; and, in order to become better acquainted 
with them, in terms of party activity and party organization, it was 
necessary to have a meeting where we would discuss the policy and 
the program of the Communist Party as it affected the area here, where 
I was supposed to work. 

Mr. Tavenner. And, then, this was an area meeting, not of one par- 
ticular group or cell but of persons from the entire area; is that what 
I understand you to mean? 

Mr. Davis. This was a meeting of people who would be primarily 
interested in taking part in decisions which would constitute the pro- 
gram and the policy of the party as it was carried out here, a meeting 
to discuss and arrange a program which they could take part in, work- 
ing out in the particular field where they happened to be active. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you fix the approximate time of the meeting 
and place? 

Mr. Davis. No, sir ; I can't. It was, I'd say, within 30 days after I 
came up here — certainly within the same year, 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall where the meeting was held ? 

Mr. Davis. No ; I don't. I don't recall it. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. Now, I wdll not interrupt you any fur- 
ther on that. Just tell the committee, please, what occurred at the 
meeting and all the discussions that took place that you can now recall, 
and alf^o the names of the persons who tooK part in it. 

Mr. Davis. Well, the main point of the meeting was evolved to be 
a discussion of setting up certain groups in the area, using the people 
we had to lead and to carry on the work of these groups. 

We decided first the railroad group, because the railroad in Al- 
bany is a very important, a very vital, industry and aside from Al 
Kolker, who worked in the railroad yards, we had no influence within 
the railroad section of the workers in this area. 

It was, from the national down to the local level a concentration 
point, and a point of major importance. Where there were railroad 



2486 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

workers in any number, the party must make one of its main efforts 
that of estabhshin^ its influence or broadening its influence among 
the raihoad workers ; and, so, one of tlie groups that we decided to set 
up at the meeting was a railroad group. None of the others held the 
importance of the railroad ^roup, because here was something which 
we had nothing of and which — in order to be any real influence in 
local politics,^ or run any real issues, in order to have any real influ- 
ence on affairs as they would develop in the area, we must have an 
influence among the railroad workers. 

So, the railroad group was one of those set up, and other groups. 
General policy is also to have neighborhood groups, and we set up a 
south-end group and an Arbor Hill group, and then we had 

Mr. Tavenner. AVhat do you mean by South End and Arbor Hill ? 

Mr. Davis. These are two neighborhood sections in the city of 
Albany, and we set up groups of people who didn't live in these areas 
because we didn't have very many people living in these areas, if we 
had any, and it was necessary to — I mean, as a general policy, not as a 
concentration — but as a general policy to establish some type of recog- 
nition at least in the neighborhoods ; and, so, we set up these groups 
and, in order to set them up, not have any people there, we had to 
draw on tlie members who — well, primarily, we drew on our State 
workers because the State workers were the primary body of the 
party. There were not too many people at the time who were very 
active and could be relied upon to even attempt to carry out a policy 
who were not at the same time State workers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, you say the State workers were the primary 
group of the party. Will you explain further what you mean by 
them ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, when I came here, the party was composed of a 
certain number of people. Among these people, there was a bloc of 
members who were also State workers. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is, employed by the government of the State 
of New York? 

Mr. Davis. Employed by the State of New York; yes. 

So^ this was the jnimary group that you had. So, in order to carry 
on work, whether it was in railroad or whether it was in neighbor- 
hood work, or special work, it was necessary to use this group of peo- 
ple that were here, and this in turn meant that your State workers 
were the backbone of the party in Albany at the time. Their im- 
portance not being that they were State workers, because to my 
knowledge we never had any State workers whose position as influ- 
encing the policy of State government was of any significance, but 
their iiuportance to the party was as members to spread the general 
influence of the party in terms of the speciflc groups and neighbor- 
hoods where we would want to work. 

Mr. Ta\t5Nner. And it was because of the function that the State 
employees played in the conduct of the affairs of the party here in 
Albany that you have designated them the backbone of the party? 

Mr. Davis. Because of their numbers and their activity relative to 
the activity of the non-State workers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did those persons perform the functions of 
leadership in these various Communist groups? 

Mr. Davis. Many of them did. Leadership was changed often, and 
it was changed from group to group often. I mean, if you're getting 



COMlVIUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2487 

at wliether I remember any of the State workers who were alsoleaders 
of groups at any specific time '^ I can't say tliat I do. They were the 
members who were assigned to develop the various groups and, as 
such, they — as a body, they took leadership roles in the various groups 
of the party; but insofar as which individuals among them at any 
particular time held the offices in a particular group, I have no recol- 
lection. 

Mr. Tavenner. You used the term that some of these State workers 
were transferred from one group to another. Did I understand you 
to say that ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose in transferring then from 
one group to another? 

Mr. Davis, In the first place, if one group needed more assistance 
in the work they were doing because of its role or because of its im- 
portance you would need extra people — and in order to get extra people 
you would have to take the people you had and draw them from other 
groups. 

Mr. Tavenner. What would have been the situation of the party 
here during the period you were organizer if you had not had the ben- 
efit of the services of the group you have spoken of as the State 
workers ? 

Mr. Davis. In terms of numbers to work with, the situation would be 
one of, you might call, breaking the ice ; you would have had almost 
nothing. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, without that group, you would have 
had to begin practically at the bottom in working up the organization: 
of the Connnunist Party in this area ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that what you are attempting to say? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Tavenner. "We have digressed from our original purpose here 
to state who attended this first meeting and what was the business that 
was transacted at this first meeting which you called after being here 
probably less than 30 days. 

Mr. Davis. Well, the main work of the meeting was to organize these 
groups and to set them up and lay them down where they were going 
to work. 

Mr. Scherer. I believe you said that you were instructed to meet 
Morris Zuckman because of his connection with the American Labor 
Party. Am I correct that that was your testimony a few minutes ago ? 

Mr. Davis. My testimony was that Morris Zuckman's name was 
among those I was to meet as members of the party up here. 

Mr. Scherer. In other words, members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir ; members of the Communist Party, who it was 
necessary to consult with in order to do work up here, as it was neces- 
sary to consult with these others as they were the leadership of the 
party up here at the time and acquainted with the local affairs. 

Mr. Scherer. Didn't I understand you were to meet Zuckman be- 
cause of his particular connection with the American Labor Party, be- 
cause of his influence in the American Labor Party? 

Mr. Davis. Zuckman's particular work was in the American Labor 
Party, 



2488 COIVOIUNIST activities in the ALBANY AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. That is what I understand. 

Mr. Davis. His particular work was there, but my instructions to 
meet liim was because he was a Communist Party worker in the Labor 
Party. 

Mr. ScHERER. A Communist Party worker, but a Communist Party 
worker in the American Labor Party ? 

Mr. Davis. His main work was in the American Labor Party. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, Mr. Counsel, at this time, I think, in view of 
the testimony of this witness, particularly in relation to Zuckman, 
who appeared here yesterday and refused to answer the question as 
to whether he was a Communist on the grounds his answer might 
incriminate him, I would like to read from a circular that has been 
distributed in this area by the capital district of the American Labor 
Party, with which Zuckman was identified at least at the time this 
witness came to the Albany area. It is a rather lengthy document, 
but I think some of the excerpts therefrom are worth noting in the 
record at this time : 

Right now American democracy is facing its greatest threat — the threat of the 
handful — 

referring to this committee — 

who would crush all of those who disagree with them ; the threat of the handful 
who would smear everyone who defends the rights of the people to fight for a 
better life ; the threat of McCarthyism. 

It goes on to say : 

For us in upstate New Yorlc the threat is immediate because within the next 
few days — on July 13, to be exact — the House Un-American Activities Committee 
is slated to open hearings in Albany. This committee was the forerunner of the 
all-out McCarthyite attack in this country. For 15 years now it has smeared 
everyone who dared speak out for the rights of labor, the Negro people, peace, 
and social welfare. 

This committee is headed by Harold Velde, of New York — 

He is from Illinois — 

bitter foe of organized labor, and the man who made the indecent proposal to 
destroy the religious freedom of Americans by investigating churches. 

The main target of the attack in Albany appears to be the American Labor 
Party. 

The circular goes on. 

In a sense, we of the ALP are proud that we are being singled out in this 
manner because we know that this is an indirect tribute to our fight for peace 
and the welfare of the people. 

^^'e don't believe that this attack will succeed because we see more and more 
Americans being aroused to fighting auger by the activities of the un-American 
witch hunters. Clergymen, labor leaders, cultural and political leaders — men 
and women in all walks of life — are demanding a halt to these attacks. Such 
outstanding Americans as Albert Einstein, Bishop Oxnam, Eleanor Roosevelt, 
Senator Herbert Lehman, and many others have urged that the un-Americans be 
stopped before they destroy our American heritage. 

I am just going to pose this question for those who have sat here 
in the last few days and the press — whether or not, from what you 
have seen and from what you have heard, especially from the testimony 
of Pat Walsh, the Canadian, on your first day here, these charges bear 
any semblance whatsoever of the truth. 

That is all I have to say at this time. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were telling us about this meeting that took 
place and I believe we were at the point where you were going to state 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2489 

just what occurred in the course of the meeting. You did describe 
some of the things that occurred as to the organizational pLan. I 
assume at this meeting you met all of those present personally, didn't 
you ? . 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir ; all of those present I met personally. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us at this time the names of all 
those who were present that you can now recall ? 

Mr. Davis. I mentioned some people a while back that I met when 
I first came up here. Do you w^ish me to repeat those now? 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Yes; I think you sliould give us the names of all 
who attended this initial meeting which took on the character of an 
organizational meeting. 

Mr. Davis. And then something else — I can give you the names of 
the people who were asked, as many as I can who were asked, to this 
meeting. I mean, I can't recall now whether or not there might 
have been some absent at that time, who didn't actually attend the 
meeting but who were asked because it was necessary to include them 
in the decisions of the Communist Party in the area. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. I believe you should confine your testimony on this 
point to those that you can recall who actually attended. 

Mr. Davis. Well, on this point — this happened 6 years ago, and to 
actually say that these people were there, I can't. I'll state somebody 
who might have been a most important person at the meeting, who 
might have been sick that day, and out, something I would have 
forgotten. 

In drawing up the attendance or the meeting, we wanted to include 
the people who it was necessary to include on any decisions of Com- 
munist Party activities in this area, and in this capacity we asked 
them to come to the meeting. It is not fair to me to say at this 
time definitely I will state this and these people were here, because 
any one of them at the time might have been absent, and at this time 
I might have the impression they were not absent. 

Mr. Tavenner. If you are uncertain in your mind as to who was 
present and who was not, I don't want to ask you to answer the 
question. At the same time, I do not believe it is fair to the individ- 
uals there to put it on the basis of showing they were invited to this 
meeting, because they may not have accepted. I think it means the 
same thing. 

You have already told us the names of those that you were directed 
to see by the organizational leader of the party here, Harold Klein, 
and if after this lapse of time you are uncertain as to who was present 
at this meeting and who was not, you will just not be able to answer 
the question ; but I would like you to concentrate on it and see if 
you can recall definitely and with certainty in your own mind the 
name of any person who did attend. For instance, if you can recall 
any conversation that you had on that occasion with any one indi- 
vidual, that miglit help to refresh your recollection as to whether or 
not that individual was there, of course, or any other things that oc- 
curred that might refresh your recollection. 

Mr. Davis. Usually at these meetings we had a program laid down, 
if they were any size at all. It was just about all you could do to 
run through it, take your decisions and leave; but we had, contrary 
to this usual procedure — I mean, the only individuals that were con- 



2490 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY' AREA 

stantly interested in private discussions, in meetino:s where I met 
them, were Morris Znckman and this Eli Schwarzbart. I mean, al- 
most from the time 1 came up liere, especially Eli let me know that 
I better be careful of any action I took without consultin^^ him, be- 
cause there might be some misunderstanding, and that some of the 
others who were in the party didn't go along with him in his thinking 
always; and, as a result, there might be conflict. In order to avoid 
this conflict, I should be very careful of doing anything in essence 
that he didn't approve of; and this — while I can't place such a dis- 
cussion at this particular meeting, we had such discussions. I was 
called on the phone and two of them took me out for a car ride at 
one time, to tell me how it was necessary to do things their ^^ ay, and 
which at the time I felt was contrary to the decisions that had already 
been taken locally to do otherwise. 

So, otherwise, our meetings were run pretty much with a program, 
and with looking for decisions and taking the decisions that we took, 
without any special individual discussions as to the advisabilitj'^ of 
carrying out these decisions. 

Mr. Tam^.nner. You say this conversation you had with Schwarz- 
bart, w^hich you have described took place at a meeting, but you could 
not tell whether it was this meeting or some other meeting 

Mr. DA^^s. At several meetings — I mean where we would be dis- 
cussing particular American labor policy, but also other aspects of 
party work, such as work among the Negro people, and these ques- 
tions particularly — I mean, the most outstanding one I remember is 
this automobile ride, where I was called up and two of them made 
me understand that I was working contrary to their wishes. 

Mr. Tavp:nner. Who was the other person that was involved in the 
decision that you were acting contrary to their purposes ? 

Mr. Davis. In the case of the American Labor Party, the decisions 
had been taken by the Communist leadership in the area, as a unit. 

Mr. Tavp:nner. That will become a little involved probably to ex- 
plain, and I think possibly you should wait until after the recess to go 
into that, because at this time 

Mr. Davis. On the other hand, these discussions bear an important 
part in my breaking with the Communist Party, because I mean 
until this time, along with my being in the party, I had assumed that 
the power the party was seeking was not the end, but was a means to 
an end; and in working — the objection I had to Zuckman's method 
of work — it was a method of one-man leadership, and it seemed to me 
was an issue between power for power's sake in the end itself, or power 
for this end of helping the working class, and so forth, and this dif- 
ference between us was actually that he was attacking my comfortable 
illusions and my reasons for being in the party ; and if it turned out 
that the party locally couldn't make a democratic decision on a local 
issue and have the decision carried out, w^ithout having it reversed by 
a one-num control, Avho was supposed to be. according to our lines, 
under the discipline of our party, then I had gone off somewhere. 

Mr. SciiERER. You mean that Zuckman had a different idea of 
leadership of the people than you had ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, the results of Zuckman's work resulted in one- 
man leadership and actually working actively to keep some of the other 
party members out of that leadership. 



CORIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2491 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, his idea was certainly different from the leader- 
ship you expressed earlier in your testimony. Yours was more of an 
idealism. 

Mr. Davis. Well, this was a test to me, which type of leadership in 
practice was being looked for; and, so, even though you say it's an 
involved situation, it's this particular aspect of it that does bear an 
important part because, as it developed, it came to a test of whether 
you were seeking to hold power because you wanted power, and what 
you were going to do with it was your own business and nobody could 
tell you what you were going to do about it, or whether you were seek- 
ing power to bring about something better than what you had. 

Mr. SciiERER. That is what I just said. His idea of leadership in 
the party was entirely different than your idea of leadership. 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think it would be well for us to understand what 
connection there was, if any, between your group and the Commu- 
nist Party here and the American Labor Party, as it was being con- 
ducted at that time. 

Mr. Davis. Locally, the American Labor Party at that time was 
Morris Zuckman, and the party was supposed to have full influence 
and control over his actions. The party's decisions for the American 
Labor Party at that time were of a democratic nature. They wanted 
to broaden it, because it's very important to use this democratic prin- 
ciple of broadening the base of your parties, other than the Commu- 
nist Party, because in this w^ay you draw other people in, and there's 
nothing to be lost for the Communist Party in gaining something for 
an element of the population through using the American Labor 
Party. It can only result in the party gaining influence, and what- 
ever is gained is certainly going to do the people some good, and 
certainly going to increase the Communist Party's influence among 
those people, so they can begin pushing in with their teachings of 
imperialism and their teachings of the great things the Soviet Union 
has done, and the possibility that it could happen here, and that if 
it did happen the Communists would be there to show them how 
to do it. 

It was also making them lean toward the Communists as their 
leaders, so that on a quick issue lots of people could be brought down 
to follow them. 

An example of this is when Paul Kobeson was brought to Albany 
and denied the use of Philip Livingston High School. Well, by 
working on democratic principles, where they were, in order to influ- 
ence the people, there were general, genuine changes which should take 
place in their organization. The influence was such that a body of 
people outnumbering the Comnmnist Party, and what we thought 
was the Communist Party influence, were brought together in pro- 
tests to bring Robeson to Albany to sing in tlie Livingston High 
School. 

Whether it is argued right or wrong, this was an indication of how 
you can, on a specific issue, at a certain time, arouse a tremendous 
number of people if you have gained just this little bit of control 
over them through your past work. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, if I understand it correctly, you state that 
Morris Zuckman was practically the American Labor Party at the 

37740— 53— pt. 2 4 



2492 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

time you were organizer here and that it was the purpose of the 
Communist Party to direct him as to what he should do as the head 
of that party ; am I correct in that? 

Mr. Davis. One of them ; yes, sir. That was one of the purposes. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was one of the purposes ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

(Representative Bernard W. Kearney returned to the hearing 
room at this point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, how did the Communist Party go about 
accomplishing that single purpose ? 

Mr. Davis. By calling them to a meeting and talking to them. 

But then again, when you say something like that, you go over the 
heads of the local party organization in this respect : What the 
American Labor Party, being a statewide organization, was trying to 
do at that time, as I said, was to broaden and try to influence more 
people by a narrower program — maybe leaving out some of the more 
radical proposals to bring in a larger group of people on a narrower 
program. So, it's not necessary for the local party leader really to 
direct the local American Labor Party man as to exactly what he 
should do or how he should go about it, because the policy is laid 
down and published in a statewide basis. It's only necessary that if 
items that the local organization isn't sufficiently carrying out these 
directives that are published in the Daily Worker, or even American 
Labor Party, you can read out of most of the papers that exist in the 
area. If you're not making progress, then you would call in the 
people who were active in the American Labor Party and discuss 
with them why this was not making the progress it should, and 
what changes should be made in order to make this progress. 

In reference to this situation, this was done and the decision and 
the policy on a statewide basis of broadening the base of the Ameri- 
can Labor Party was reasserted, and we were directed then by the 
State representative who at the time was here. 

Mr. Tavenner. State representative of what? 

Mr. Davis. Of the Communist Party. 

Leading the discussions was Simon Gerson. 

Mr. Tavenner. You indicated in your testimony that some diffi- 
culty arose with Mr. Zuckman regarding the conduct of the affairs 
of the American Labor Party. Were those matters discussed and 
any action taken regarding them by the Communist Party here 
locally? 

Mr. Davis. Locally, the Communist Party took a decision to re- 
move Morris Zuckman as the head of the American Labor Party. 
We found it imposible to carry this decision out, due to the fact 
that 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, now, just a moment. Will you give us a little 
more detail as to how the decision was taken to remove him as head 
of tlie American Labor Party ? 

Mr. Davis. At the meeting, where this decision was taken^ we left 
the meeting after the decision to remove him. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell us about the meeting. Who attended the 
meeting and took part in the decision ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, here again if one of those meetings when one of 
those asked may have not been at the meeting. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2493 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the name of any person who took 
part in the decision ? 

Mr. Davis. The meeting was held at Evelyn Goldstein's house, 
and Evelyn Goldstein was there, and so was her husband, Nathan 
Goldstein, who was an upholstery worker — not the attorney general. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. Was Nathan Goldstein, the husband of Evelyn 
Goldstein, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes ; he was. 

Also at the meeting — Zuckman was present at the meeting, and 
Schwarzbart was at the meeting, and also 

Mr. Tavenner. And was this a Communist Party meeting ? 

Mr. Davis. This was a Communist Party meeting ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is Mr. Zuckman's first name ? 

I want to be certain we are identifying the proper individual each 
time. 

Mr. Davis. Morris Zuckman. 

Mr. Tavenner. What decision was reached at this meeting? 

Mr. Davis. Prior to the meeting, I had a discussion with Klein 
in reference to this matter. 

Mr. Tavenner. What Klein ? 

Mr. Davis.. Harold Klein. He was the district organizer, north- 
eastern district, and he had been in complete agreement that the 
resolution, which I drew up, calling for replacing Morris Zuckman 
in the Communist Party was all right. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say replacing him in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Davis. Replacing him as the leader of the American Labor 
Party. That's what I meant to say. 

At the meeting the resolution was passed. 

After the meeting Harold Klein and myself were called to New 
York City and told that it was off, and the State apparatus had a 
great deal of respect and admiration for Mr. Zuckman. This resulted 
from a phone call, which I can't place in time, but the phone call to 
New York by Schwarzbart, to be down there in the State leadership — 
and, as a result, we were called down and told that Zuckman must 
stay, and it was accepted, though not liked too well by the member- 
ship, and Zuckman remained. 

Mr. Tavenner. The group that made the final decision was on the 
State level of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Davis. On the State level that decision was made. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell us who actually made that decision in 
New York? 

Mr. Davis. I cannot. It was handed to us by Simon Gerson, the 
State legislative director, but who took the decision I wouldn't know. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that clear, Mr. Counsel, that the decision was made 
by the Communist Party at the State level, am I correct in that ? 

Mr. Tavenner. That is what I was attempting to determine, and be 
clear upon, and I have 

Mr. Scherer. Whether Zuckman should stay as the local head of 
the American Labor Party ; is that right ? 

Mr. Davis. That's correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. And did he stay? 

Mr. Davis. He stayed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I expect this is an appropriate 
place to make a break. 



2494 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBAJSTY AREA 

Mr. Kearxey. Tlie" committee will be in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 59 a. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 12 : 04 p. m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 12 : 12 p. m., the committee member 
being present : Representative Gordon H. Scherer.) 

Mr. Scherer (presiding). The committee will be in order. 

You may proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Davis, you stated in the earlier part of your 
testimony that at the time of your organizational meeting, soon after 
your arrival in Albany, that a great deal of stress was placed upon 
work in the railroad group. Was this matter the subject of any con- 
ferences between you and the State leadership of the Communist 
Party after that meeting? 

Mr. Davis. The railroad concentration was a State and national 
policy of the party before I came up here and continued to be after 
Heft. 

The State apparatus of the party had a special railroad commission, 
with wdiose head I discussed railroad affairs in Albany. I don't re- 
call the name of this head of the railroad commission. However, he 
had thorough knowledge of the progress of work among railroad 
workers in all parts of the country. His commission published a 
monthly periodical called The Link, and this paper was a collection 
of data of work among railroad workers throughout the country. It 
was conditions of railroad workers, reprints from railroad union 
papers and, of course, editorials on the issues that the commission 
felt were facing the railroad workers. Primarily with this as our 
guide, with the discussions with the commission head and with the 
use of The Link in form of distribution, we carried on the railroad 
work. 

As I stated earlier, the only individual we had in railroad work to 
give us personal contact with the railroad workers was Al Kolker, 
and he was to head up the railroad work as it progressed. 

The work consisted of a regular distribution of the Link, as we 
received copies of it every month from the State office, a few leaflets 
which we made up on our owiiy discussing things that the Link 
touched on, survey of the railroad workers in terms of numbers and 
of affiliations, and an attempt to find issues wliich we could bring to 
them of direct concern to them, w^orking conditions. 

We worked consistently with the distributions. We also sent letters 
out to railroad union leaders in the area, with a completely negative 
response in that instance. 

I believe it's accurate to say we had, up until the time I left, made 
no ])rogress to speak of in creating any interest, much less influence, 
among the railroad workers. The distributions were received in the 
very beginning quietly, later with a mixture of dissent and quiet from 
the rest, and this situation existed through most of the distributions. 

There was never any effort made to prevent our distributing this 
material, even though it was distributed actually on railroad property. 
If they had wanted to take action directly, they could have insisted 
we get off because we were just barely on railroad property. 

I have no doubt that had our influence become established to any 
degree at all the railroad unions would have taken a more active 
attitude of opposition toward our work. 



COMIMUNIST ACTR'ITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2495 

HoAvever, the work continued as work of attemptine; to penetrate 
and make some break in the ranks of the railroad workers with our 
material. It was done consistently because of its importance in Al- 
bany. I think it's safe to say the railroad workers constitute the back- 
bone of any real influence that could be established in Albany. In- 
fluence among the railroad workers would immediately give you in- 
fluence in local politics, as well as the influence you would gain 
tlirouffh having a number of workers in an important industry. In 
numbers, and in also the type of industry, being transportation, rail- 
road workers were of such importance that the work had to be done 
as a special effort. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have a conference with the head of the rail- 
road commission of the Communist Party in New York on more than 
one occasion regarding the importance of this phase of your work 
here ? 

Mr. Davis. I had several conferences with the head of the commis- 
sion, reviewing the work we had attempted to do, and it was usually 
a recommendation to continue, watching for the break; and after a 
time he did push toward calling a meeting of railroad workers, not 
as the Communist Party, but a meeting to be called by — I believe it 
was the Railroad Unity Committee, which was the party organization 
used to influence railroad workers without doing it openly as the 
Communist Party. 

This meeting was to take place in the Railroad Hall, in uptown 
Albany, and was to be called to discuss the conditions and situations 
existing in the railroad here. A speaker was sent by the commission 
to conduct this meeting. I was not supposed to put in an appearance, 
and Kolker was supposed to be the mainspring in developing at- 
tendance for the meeting. The meeting was a little premature and 
pretty much a complete flop. I received information that a handful 
of railroad workers did show up, whose identification we couldn't even 
get for our own use because Kolker didn't show up at that meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner, Who was the speaker of the occasion ? 

Mr. Davis. I can't remember who. It was a member from the 
commission sent by the commission. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was a member of the Communist Party sent 
here by the railroad commission of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Davis. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. After you perfected your organizational plans, 
was there an established executive committee, or some other group, 
which headed the organizational Avork of tlie party in this area? 

Mr. Davis. We had a committee variously known as the city com- 
mittee, section committee or the county committee — most generally 
known, I would say, as the section committee, composed of people in 
leadership positions who were supposed to make the Communist de- 
cisions for the area. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not certain whether you have already stated 
or not for how long a period of time you were the organizer in this 
area. 

Mr. Davis. I would say just about 1 year, that is, until maybe Sep- 
teml er of 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you tell the committee, please, who were mem- 
bers of your city committee or county committee, as you may term it, 



2496 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

during the period you were the organizer for the Communist Party 
in tliis area? 

Mr. Davis. Well, that gets me back to specific people and specific 
places, but I have a list of names of people who I remember and the 
people who I remember in most cases of having meetings with, at some 
time, at some place, during my stay here, in reference to party work, 
among these people would be those who were also on the leading com- 
mittees of the party and who led the groups ; but the specific question — 
to place these people definitely at a time and at a place — is something — 
there were meetings every clay, 2, 3 meetings a day, every day and 
niglit, and there were meetings thrown together to such an extent it 
was impossible 

JNIr. Tavenner. You would not like to attempt to designate those 
who were members of your county committee during that period ; do 
I understand? 

Mr. Davis. I can some of them, yes, in terms of being members, 
not attending any specific meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; I am not speaking of any particular meeting. 
I am speaking of the position of membership on that committee. 

Mr. Davis. Well, in that case, we had Leo Shapiro. That's Leo, I 
understand, Shapiro — S-h-a-p-i-r-o, who was a leading meniber and 
whose activity was primarily in the party itself — party organizational 
work. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know how he was employed ? 

]Mr. Davis. He was a State worker. 

Mr. Scherer. Was he employed by the State of New York? 

Mr. Davis. He was employed by the State of New York. 

Mr. Scherer. In what capacity? 

Mr. Davis. I couldn't say. 

John Wright was active in the Public Workers' Union — I believe 
it Avas — CIO, and he was also a member of our leading committees. 

And David Rappaport. 

Mr. Scherer. Let's go back to John Wright. You say he was active 
in the Public Workers' Union. Was he employed by any agency of 
(xovernment? 

Mr. Davis. He was employed by the New York State. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know in what capacity he was employed? 

Mv. Davis. No. 

There was David Rappaport. His activity was mainly centered in 
the veterans' work of the American Veterans' Committee. He was 
employed by the State of New York. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know in what capacity? 

Mr. Davis. No; I do not. 

Kena Dodd, who was employed by the State of New York, and 
Betty Laros — L-a-r-o-s — also a State worker. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know in what capacity either of these two 
were employed? 

Mr. Davis. I don't know. 

]\Ir. Scherer. If you do know, will you so state so I don't have to 
aslc you a question? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. When you come to a State employee, will you desig- 
nate in what department they were employed, if you know? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2497 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me interrupt you there a moment. Were all 
these persons whose names you have oiven us up to this point mem- 
bers of this county or city committee ? 

Mr. Davis. They were all members ; yes. 

Stella Gold, who was a housewife, whose activity was centered in 
the American Labor Party. 

Sarah Kaufman, a housewife. I can't recall any particular activity. 
She was active in the American Labor Party. 

There is William Bottcher. He was active 

Mr. SciiERER. How do you spell that? 

Mr. DxWis, B-o-t-t-c-h-e-r. 

Mr. ScHERER. You were going to say he was active, and then I 
interrupted you. 

Mr. Davis. He was active in internal party affairs, organizational 
work, and he worked for the State of New York. 

Sam Evens, he was the finance secretary of the Communist Party 
in the area, and also employed by the State of New York. 

There was Morris Zuckman, who was the American Labor Party 
activity. 

Alexander Kolker, who I've already mentioned as being the rail- 
road activity. 

There's Michael Dworkin, and his wife, Jeanette. 

Mr. ScHERER. How do you spell that last name? 

Mr. Davis. D-w-o-r-k-i-n. 

Their activity was largely in the Communist Party itself, in 
organizational work. He was also active in the American Veterans' 
Committee work. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wliat did Dworkin do for a living ? 

Mr. Davis. He was employed for a time by the State of New York. 

Janet Scott, who was employed by Knickerbocker News. Her 
activity was largely in the National Association for the Advancement 
of the Colored People. 

And I think that about covers those. There were probably others 
on the body from time to time, but 

Mr. Tavexner. Let me ask you at this point a question about a 
group of Communist Party members within the Hotel and Restaurant 
Workers' Union. We have heard testimony here that there was a very 
active cell within that union, which virtually disbanded in 1940 as a 
result of a defeat in an election that was held then. In 1946 and 1947, 
when you were the organizer, did you make an effort to revive that 
group within that union ? 

Mr. Davis. One of the pieces of work which I was giA^en to do was 
in the form of 5 or 6 names of people who had been active in tlie 
restaurant workers and who had been members of the Communist 
Party, and I was directed to round them up and put the hotel and 
restaurant workers Communist Party group back in operation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who gave you those directions? 

Mr. Davis. These came from Harold Klein. First, to get hold 
of these people, I went to see Kostas Dakchoylous, who was business 
agent at that time of the Hotel and Restaurant Workers' local here 
in Albany. He gave me information concerning the finding of these 
individuals and, over a period of time, I contacted them, and we 
called meetings which were poorly attended ; but we managed to dis- 



2498 COMMUNIST ACTrVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

tribute some literature, make some financial collections, and discuss 
the revival of activity of these individuals in the Communist Party 
here. 

Now, there was George Stathis. I believe he was — well, I can't 
say for certain whether it was bartender or ^yaiter capacity — his 
employment — but, however, he was connected with the group. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did he pay dues to you as a member of that group? 

Mr. Davis. Over a period of time, as we managed to get these indi- 
viduals to meetings, they remained Conununists in the sense that they 
attended and were paid up and in good standing. 

Kostas Dakchoylous and there was a Gus Cakoulis. I can't spell 
that name. 

jNIr. Tavenner. What was the position he held at that time that 
would suffice to give identifying knowledge? 

Mr. Davis. You mean Cakoulis. 

He belonged to the Restaurant Workers Union and worked some- 
where in one of their shops that they had, and he was also active 
in the American Labor Party. 

And of the 5 or 6 that were in the group, I don't remember any of 
the others. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of the person who assisted you 
in locating the addresses of these prospective members? 

Mr. Davis. Kostas Dakchoylous, business agent. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you spell that, if you know? 

Mr. Davis. D-a-k-c-h-o-y-l-o-u-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he pay any money to you as dues in the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Davis. While we were very unsuccessful in getting him to take 
any active part, he was a paid-up member of the Communist Party, 
but we couldn't get him to take an active part. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at any time tender him a Communist Party 
card ? 

Mr. Davis. No; I did not. He wanted me to keep his card. I had 
a card made out for him, but he thought I better keep it. 

Mr. Tavenner. He didn't accept his card? 

Mr. Davis. He would not accept the card. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did he say to you when you offered to give 
him the card? 

Mr. Davis. You nnist realize in the position I was in, their leaving 
been out of activity and then just coming back, it wasn't a too impor- 
tant item with me. So I didn't push it. It can pass over very easily — 
that if he doesn't vrant the card, I can assume I will keep it and at a 
later date he will accept it. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time you offered to give him the card, did he 
pay you any money ? 

Mr. Davis. He gave me enough money to keep himself paid up in 
dues. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall now why he said he wanted you to 
keep the card, if he said anything at all about it? 

Mr. Davis. Well, I think he was cautious and he didn't want to 
have a card, as a lot of other party members also didn't want to have 
cards, but they took them. But I believe he was jnst being cautious. 
He felt if he didn't have a card he couldn't very well be called a card- 
carrying party member. 



COaiMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE ALBANY AREA 2499 

Mr. TavenNer. What I am trying to find out is just what the exact 
language was, as near as you can recall, as to what he said when 
you 

Mr. Davis. He said he didn't want the card, that I should keep 
it. He told me to keep the card for him. 

JNIr. ScHERER. Did he explain to you why he wanted you to keep the 
card ? 

Mr. Davis. He did not. I would not press such a question at that 
time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give to the committee, please, the names 
of all the persons that you have not already given to the committee 
whom you knew to be members of the Communist Party during the 
period of time that you were organizer in the city of Albany ; and, in 
doing so, give as much descriptive information about the individual 
as you can and as much explanation of their party affiliation as you 
can? 

Mr. Davis. Hannah Shapiro. 

Mr. Tavenner. And I think you should spell the name where the 
name has not been mentioned. 

Mr. Davis. Hannah Shapiro was the wife of Leo Shapiro, and was 
a housewife, active in party affairs ; also conducted a dramatic group 
on her own — no connection w^ith the party, direct organizational con- 
nection. 

Irving Gold, a State worker; you have Stella Gold — her husband, 
active mainly in interparty educational activity, insofar as he con- 
ducted a very good discussion — could lead a discussion. 

We had Evelyn Weinstein, who was brought in shortly before I 
left. I understand she didn't stay too long. While she was in, she was 
not active at all. 

There was Dr. Louis Lubin, who was a dentist, and also not active. 

Mr. ScHEKER. How do youspell the doctor's name? 

Mr. Davis. L-u-b-i-n; Louis — L-o-u-i-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell us what group of the Communist Party 
he was a member of ? 

Mr. Davis. He was a member of the professional group. 

Charles Dorenz, who was a painter — a member — not active; not 
assigned to any organization. 

Joe and his wife, Amalia, Crago — C-r-a-g-o. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was her maiden name Pesko ? 

Mr. Davis. I don't know. When I came up here, they were known 
as Cucchiara — Cucchiara, Cook for short; but the name was changed 
to Crago when I was here. The other name I don't recognize. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell her first name ? 

Mr. Davis. A-m-a-1-i-a. 

They were active in general party work. 

Louis Geller, who was employed at that time by General Electric, 
also active in the Communist Party affairs ; helped out in American 
Labor Party work. His wife, Hilda Geller. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that the witness we had on the stand here yester- 
day? 

Mr. Davis. The name is the same. 

Mr. Scherer. I mean I assume it is the same. I am asking counsel. 
Do you know ? 

37740— 53— pt. 2 5 



2500 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. All I can say is the name is the same. 

Mr. Scherer. Did he work with General Electric? 

Mr. Davis. He worked at General Electric at tliat time. 

Mr. Scherer. Didn't Geller testify he worked for General Electric? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. What did you say Geller's wife's name was ? 

Mr. Davis. Hilda Geller. 

Mr. Scherer. She was a member of the party, too ? 

Mr. Davis. She was. 

Anna Brickman, housewife, and not too active ; paid up and attended 
meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name, please ? 

Mr. Davis. B-r-i-c-k-m-a-n. 

Sidney and Harriet Belinky. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name ? 

Mr. Davis. B-e-1-i-n-k-y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give more identifying information regard- 
ing him, as to the occupation and so f orth, which may throw some light 
on his identity ? 

Mr. Davis. I believe he was connected with a laundry in Albany, and 
his wife was not working, I believe. He was generally active — no 
specific assignment. 

John Poziomek — P-o-z-i-o-m-e-k. He was a barber, not active. 

Nathan Goldstein, the husband of Evelyn Goldstein, who had the 
upholstery business in Albany, not too active. 

Robert Arnold, who worked for the United States Weather Bureau, 
He was very active in a sense of distributing leaflets. I think he was 
about the only one that distributed leaflets with me at the railroad 
3'ards. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Evelyn Goldstein by any 
other name than that which you have given ? 

Mr. Davis. Evelyn Goldstein's mother was Minnie Minsk}'^, and she 
was also a member. So, I knew her maiden name was Minsky, 

There were Harry Gordon, employed by the United States Weather 
Bureau, not too active, and his wife, who I only knew as Mike Gordon. 

There were Ralph and Flo Cohen — C-o-h-e-n — I don't know where 
he worked, and he was not active. I didn't see too much of him. 

There was Don Hatchigan, an industrial worker; lived in Troy. 

Nick Campas, business agent for tlie hotel-restaurant workers in 
Troy at that time. 

I. Nathan Sidman, who was in the leadership role in the Roy-Rens- 
slaer County American Labor Party, His specific post I don't recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with the wife of David Rap- 
paport ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Davis. I wouldn't know definitely. I mean, I wouldn't remem- 
ber her. 

Mr. Scherer. You named David Rappaport earlier in your testi- 
rnony as being a member of the city or county committee during the 
time you were organizer. 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2501 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Counsel, a little while ago I read this circular 
that has been distributed in and about the Albany area, which was 
distributed by the Capital District American Labor Party, 80 West- 
erlo Street, Albany, N. Y. 

Since that time I have been informed that the Capital District 
American Labor Party is a splinter of the American Labor Party 
here in Albany, and I wish to state that we have had reliable informa- 
tion come to the committee that David Rappaport's wife was one 
who distributed this circular in and about Albany in the last week. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated in an earlier part of your testimony 
that the persons referred to by you as the State workers were divided 
up and assigned to various groups. Was there any one group of the 
Comnumist Party to which more were assigned than another '{ 

Mr. Davis. When these people were assigned to a different group, 
they were assigned to leadership in the group. 

Therefore, making them in the other groups primarily in a leader-^ 
ship capacity; but the bulk of them were in the professional group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give me the names of any that you can 
recall who were members of the professional group, other than the 
State workers generally ? 

You have named a dentist as one. 

Mr. Davis. Well, he was a member of this professional group. 

Morris Zuclonan was a member of the profesional group. 

I think that's all. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall at this time who took the leadership 
in the professional group ? 

Mr. Davis. It was a changing leadership. You couldn't put any 
individual 

Mr. Tavenner. You have stated you left the position of organizer 
of the Communist Party, I think, in the fall of 1947. Did you con- 
tinue your membership in the Communist Party after terminating 
your position as organizer ? 

Mr. Davis. The Communist Party has a constitution, and it states 
that after so many days or weeks after you fail to be paid up in dues 
you're no longer a member. I took no steps to send any official let- 
ters of resignation because such letters would not be discontinuing 
the membership, but prolonging the membership, in my opinion. I 
wanted to break the contact; and, so 

Mr. Sciierer. Why would such letters continue rather than dis- 
continue the membership ? 

Mr. Davis. Well, specifically because I would have to write it and 
do one more thing — and mail it to New York — as a member of the 
Communist Party, whereas if I wanted to break completely and just 
leave the Communist Party, I would be, in my mind, out of it, and 
for example, after I had been out this period of time, the new organ- 
izer, whose first name I never did know, came to see me and told me 
they were going to expel me from the Communist Party, and that 
I was an enemy of the working class and, oh, he gave me the same 
type of going over that I knew they would give anybody who they 
wanted to try to urge to remain in, and said I should take some 
activity on a lower scale; and I told him that I considered myself out 
of the Communist Party and if they wanted to go ahead and expel 
me at that date, it was entirely their business. 



2502 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. About when did that conversation which you have 
just related take place? 

Mr. Davis. Before — before the end of the year. 

Mr. ScHEREK. What year ? 

Mr. Davis. 1947. 

I didn't just walk out of the party. I mean, when I came to, it was 
the year after the first disagreement between Zuckman and myself; 
and, for the second year's campaign and for the second year's work 
I insisted if I were to remain in the party that Zuckman would have 
to be removed from taking a top part in the work that was done 
around the election campaign of that year, in terms of making the 
decisions for the American Labor Party, and I made a proposition 
which was taken to the district committee, represented by Harold 
Klein, that if this could not be done I could no longer serve the working 
class. They would have to find somebody who could conform to their 
demands for conforming to Zuckman's leadership, and that I would 
drop out. This was not accepted by Klein, and I brought it to a 
section meeting of the party here, and along with it my resignation 
from the position of organizer for the party, and this was passed by 
the body. 

Mr. ScHERER. You named, I believe, two persons who were employed 
by the United States Government. I believe you said they were 
connected with the Weather Bureau. Do you know whether they are 
still employed by the Federal Government ? 

Mr. Davis. I do not ; no, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, our investigation shows they are not 
so employed at this time. 

Did you return to the Communist Party at any later date ? 

Mr. Davis. I did not ; no, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there any further comment you desire to make 
regarding the severance of your connections with the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Davis. I don't think so, sir. I have no comment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was any effort made at a later date to have you 
return to the Communist Party? 

Mr. Davis. I've already mentioned that Si ^ contacted me twice in 
such an effort. Nothing after that. 

Mr. Tavenner. A person by the name of Si ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he the organizer that succeeded you ? 

Mr. Davis. He represented himself to me as the new organizer 
for the Communist Party in this area. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you seen him in and about Albany since that 
time? 

Mr. Davis. I wouldn't recognize him. I saw him twice. He talked 
to me while he was driving me to work here in Albany. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know who the organizer is in and about 
Albany today? 

Mr. Davis. I do not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the name of the organizer has already 
been mentioned in the course of the testimony of Mr. Campas. 

Mr. Scherer. Wliat was that name? 

I have a hard time keeping track of all these names. 



1 Reference to Si Fialkoff. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2503 

Mr. Tavenner. Fialkoff. F-i-a-1-k-o-f-f is my recollection of the 
spelling. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you have any more questions, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Tav-enner. I think that is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Davis, the committee wishes to thank you for 
your excellent testimony. We think you have contributed valuable 
information to your country and, with this thanks, you are discharged 
from your subpena. 

The committee will recess until 2 : 15 p. m. today. 

(Whereupon, at 1 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene at 
2 : 15 p. m., of the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(At the hour of 2 : 18 p. m., of the same day, the proceedings were 
resumed, the following committee members being present: Repre- 
sentatives Bernard W. Kearney (chairman of the subcommittee) and 
Gordon H. Scherer.) 

Mr. Kearney. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I would like to call Mr. Elias M. 
Schwarzbart. 

Mr. Schwarzbart, will you come forward, please? 

Mr. Kearney. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about 
to give before this committee shall be the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF ELIAS M. SCHWARZBART, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, RAPHAEL H. WEISSMAN 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. Elias M. Schwarzbart. 

May I request, Mr. Chairman, that tliis broadcast mouthpiece be 
removed ? 

Mr. Kearney. Your request is granted, and there will be no 
broadcast. 

Mr. Schwarzbart. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I am, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Weissman. My name is Raphael H. Weissman — W-e-i-s-s- 
m-a-n. My office is at 185 Montague Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Schwarzbart? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I was born in New York City, February 19, 1907. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you are an attorney by profession ? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I am, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I was educated in the schools of New York City, 
graduated from Dewitt Clinton High School, in New York in 1923 ; 
received a scholarship to Cornell University, and from Cornell I went 
to Brooklyn Law School, St. John's Law School, where I received my 
degree of LL. B. I was admitted to the bar in November 1931. 



2504 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Schwarzbart, you appear here pursuant to a 
subpena served upon you, I believe ? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine this subpena, please, and state 
when and where it was served upon you, from the return appearing 
on the back ? 

Mr. Sciiwarzbart. Yes, sir. This is a second subpena. It was 
served on me on May 14 of this year by Mr. Fuoss. Mr. Andrews, I 
think, also accompanied him at that time. It was served on me in the 
senate chamber of the State capital. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the date on which it was served ? May 14, 
I believe you said. 

Mr. SC11WARZP3ART. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed on that date? 

Mr. Sciiwarzbart. I was employed in the office of the attorney 
general of the State of New York as a title attorney. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain employed in that posi- 
tion? 

Mr. Sciiwarzbart. I received my appointment there, original ap- 
pointment, in April of 1941, I believe it was, and I remained in the 
employ of the attorney general until the present time. I've resigned 
from my position. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. Did you state the time ? 

When did you resign ? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I resigned last week. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. "Wliat was the date ? 

Mr. Sciiwarzbart. I don't believe I have the date. I don't have my 
resignation with me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat day of last week ? 

Mr. Sciiwarzbart. I'm trying to recall now, sir. 

I believe it was Wednesday, last week. My resignation takes effect 
as of the end of this month. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your employment prior to your accept- 
ance of employment in April 1941 ? • 1, 

Mr. Sciiwarzbart. I was employed in the corporation counsels 

office in New York City. 

Wait a minute. I would like to correct that. It may have been the 
city housing authority, but I was employed through the corporation 
counsel's office, in the law department there, the real estate division. 

Mr. Tavenner. It may be a little easier and more simple if I ask 
you to begin, say, back in 1930 and tell us what the nature of your 
employment or the practice of your profession has been since that 

time. ^ , 

]Mr. Sciiwarzbart. Well, I'll be glad to proceed that way. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you were admitted in 1931. So, begin 
with that date, please. 

Mr. Sciiwarzbart. At that time I was employed by a title company 
in the Borough of Brooklyn, in the city of New York. 

Shortly after my admission to the bar, I left the title company, went 
into the general practice of the law, and I engaged in practice for 2 or 
3 years, I believe, approximately. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you fix the years, please « 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2505 

Mr. Sghwarzbart. Well, I believe I left the title company in 1931 
or 1932, and I engaged in the general practice of law, city of New 
York, probably — I believe until 1935. 

Mr. Taatenner. And where was your office located during that 
period of time? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. At 104 Fifth Avenue, and also at 100 Fifth 
Avenue. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you practicing alone at that period or in con- 
junction with other attorneys? 

Mr. ScHWARzBART. I practiced with 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not asking you to state with whom you prac- 
ticed. I just want to know whether you were a member of a jfirm. 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. I was a member of a firm ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the National Lawyers' 
Guild at any time during the course of the practice of your profession? 

Mr. Sghwarzbart. I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. During what period of time ? 

Mr. Sghwarzbart. Well, I would say about 1945 to the present 
time. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is your membership ? 

Mr. Sghwarzbart. That's an approximate date. 

]\lr. TA^T.NNER. Has your membership been here in the city of 
Albany during that period of time ? 

Mr. Sghwarzbart. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been active in the sense of occupying a 
position of any character in that organization ? 

Mr. Sghwarzbart. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat positions have you held ? 

Mr. Sghwarzbart. Well, I was chairman of the local chapter of 
the National Lawyers' Guild for, I believe, 2 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat years were those ? 

Mr. Sghwarzbart. I wouldn't be sure, sir, but I believe it was 
about 1949 or 1950, thereabouts. 

Mr. TA\TiNNER. Wliat other positions have you held ? 

Mr. Sghwarzbart. I'm a member of the national executive board 
of the National Lawyers' Guild. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held any other position with the national 
organization ? 

Mr. Sghwarzbart. I don't believe so, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been on the national executive 
board of the National Lawyers' Guild ? 

Mr. Sghwarzbart. Two or three years. 

Mr, Tavenner. The committee has made a rather extensive investi- 
gation in certain places, particularly in Los Angeles, into the Com- 
nist Party purposes in its work in connection with the National Law- 
yers' Guild. A group of lawyers who have testified before our com- 
mittee stated that they had been members of a group or cell of tho 
Communist Party composed exclusively of lawyers. They called it 
the professional cell. 

One of the witnesses who testified that he had been a member and 
had later withdrawn from the party was Mr. David Aaron. Mr. 
Aaron said he was given to understand that the Lawyers' Guild was 
to be made as much as possible the legal arm to speak for and repre- 



2506 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE ALBANY AREA 

sent the Communist Party. He was asked if he had been given any 
directions with regard to participation in the activities of the Lawyers* 
Guild, and he went on to describe what his activities had been, and 
stated, in the course of his testimony, that it had been decided at one 
time he should be secretary of the Los Angeles chapter— that is, 
decided by the Communist Party group, composed exclusively of 
lawyers. 

Mr. A. Marburg Yerkes was a law professor in a university in or 
close to Los Angeles, and he testified that he, too, had been a member 
of the Communist Party for a period of time, and he described his 
activities in the National Lawyers' Guild as a member of the Com- 
munist Party and the efforts the Communist Party was making 
tlirough that organization of attorneys to infiltrate the National 
Lawyers' Guild and influence its conduct or its action. 

I would like to know from you whether you have any knowledge 
of the activities of the Communist Party or any effort on the part of 
the Communist Party to infiltrate the National Lawyers' Guild, either 
on the local level here at Albany where you were a member or on 
the national level where you were a member of the executive board. 

(At this point Mr. Schwarzbart conferred with Mr. Weissman.) 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. On what ground ? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. On the grounds of the fifth amendment, in that 
I should not be required to testify against myself, sir. 

Mr. I^ARNEY. On the grounds that any answer you might give 
might tend to incriminate you, Mr. Schwarzbart? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I prefer the language of the Constitution, sir — 
the same effect. 

Mr. Kearney. You don't prefer the usual language of the usual 
witness. 

Mr. Schwarzbart. Pardon, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. You don't prefer the usual language of the usual 
witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are relying upon the fifth amendment. I want 
to ask you this question principally for the purpose of testing to some 
extent your good faith in reliance upon that reply, or upon the fifth 
amendment : You say that you were employed by the State of New 
York when this subpena was served on you on May 14, and that on 
last Wednesday you resigned from your position, the resignation to 
become effective, I believe, at the end of this month. Let me ask you 
this question : Did you at any time during the course of your employ- 
ment by the State of New York either admit or deny to your superior 
in the State government, or to any other responsible official in the 
State government, that you had been a member of the Communist 
Party at any time ? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I'll respectfully refuse to answer that question, 
sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever made application for a position with 
the Federal Government? 

Before you answer that, on what grounds do you rely for your 
refusal to answer? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. Yes, sir; the same grounds, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE ALBANY AREA 2507 

Mr. Tavenner, If you will answer my question, please. 

Mr. ScHWARzBART. I liave no recollection of such. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien you made application for your position with 
the State government of the State of New York, did you make it in 
•writing ? 

Mr. SCHWARZBART. YbS. 

Mr. Tavenner. In that statement or in any question that was asked 
you, was reference made in any way to either your membership or 
nonmembership in an organization which had for its purpose the 
overthrow of the Government of the United States? 

(At this point Mr. Schwarzbart conferred with Mr. Weissman.) 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I will refuse to answer that, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have been identified during the course of the 
testimony here today as having been a member of what was known 
as either the county committee or the city committee of the Communist 
Party in the Albany area. Did you hear that testimony by Mr. 
Davis — Mr. John Davis? 

(At this point Mr. Schwarzbart conferred with Mr. Weissman.) 

My first question is: Did you hear Mr. Davis testify to that effect? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I did hear Mr. Davis testify, but not to that 
effect, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Davis, according to my recollection of the tes- 
timony, identified you as having been a member of that committee — 
that is, the city committee or the county committee, as it was variously 
called, or section committee of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Schwarzbart. That is not my recollection of the testimony. 

Mr. Tavenner. Regardless of whether my recollection is correct or 
whether yours is, were you a member of the section committee or the 
city committee or the county committee of the Coimnunist Party in 
Albany ? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I'll refuse to answer that, sir — same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. While an employee of the government of the State 
of New York, were you at any time a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I'll refuse to answer that, sir, for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you aware of the existence of a group or cell 
of the Communist Party in the city of Albany composed principally 
of persons employed in the State government in Albany? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I'll refuse to answer that, sir — same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. It has been testified here today by Mr. John Davis 
that members of the Communist Party who were employed by the 
State government were used here in this community as leaders in the 
various groups that were established — that is, various groups of the 
Communist Party that were established here. Are you aware that 
that was true ? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I'll decline to answer, sir — same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you engage in any Communist Party activities 
in Albany in the year 1946 or 1947? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I'll decline to answer that, sir, for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend any Communist Party meeting held 
in the city of Albany in 1946 or 1947? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. Same refusal ; same reason. 



2508 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. TA\T,>rxKR. Mr. John Davis testified that a meetiiifr was held 
of the Coininunist Party members at the home of Evelyn Goldstein — 
attended by her, my recollection is also by her husband, by yourself, 
and Mr. Morris Zuckman — the purpose of which was to arrive at 
a decision as to what should be done about the continuance of Mr. 
Zuckman as head of the American Labor Part}' in the city of Albany. 
Did you attend such a meeting? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. I'll refuse to answer, sir — same reason. 

Mr. Ta-\texner. Were you consulted on the subject? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. Same answer, for the same reason, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Davis testified that it was decided at one stage 
of the difficulty arising over Mr. Zuckman's conduct of his office 
that he should be removed as head of the American Labor Party in 
the city of Albany and that, as a result of that, both he and Mr. 
Harold Klein, a Communist organizer in the district, were called 
to the city of New York and were advised that the decision was oif 
and that Mr. Zuckman should remain in his position. 

When I say "called to New York," I mean to meet with members 
of the Communist Party on the State level. I understood from his 
testimony that you had made a telephone call to the city of New 
York in regard to this matter. Did you make such a telephone call ? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. I'll refuse to answer, sir, for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Davis also testified, in the course of the morn- 
ing, that you took him aside on one occasion and that you told him 
during the period that he was organizer in this area before taking 
any action he should consult you as there might be some difference 
in opinion as to your ideas of how things might be done and that 
of others in the group. Did 3^ou have such a conversation with him ? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. I'll rcfuse to answer, sir, for the same reason. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was Mr. Davis' testimon}' that he gave before tliis 
committee this morning true or false? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. I'll rcfuse to answer that. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I request the witness be instructed 
to answer that question. He has given no reason for refusing. 

Mr. Kearney. May I ask the witness upon what grounds ? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. On the same grounds. 

Mr. Kearney. If the witness refuses to answer the question, let him 
give the grounds. 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. I'm sorry. I thought I had made it clear — 
on the same grounds, of the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. In each refusal you have given, you have intended 
to rely upon the fifth amendment as your ground for your refusal? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. Ycs, sir. 

Mr. SciiERER. I think he can say on the same grounds, if he repeats 
it each time, but you didn't in response to my question, and that 
is why I asked the chairman to instruct you to answer. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. I wanted to ask you what your intention is in the 
matter. It would present an entirely different situation if your 
intention were not expressed. 

Now, I think I should say to you, Mr. Schwarzbart, that in the 
course of our investigation here information has been received that 
you are not at this time a member of the Communist Party, Is that 
true or is it false ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2509 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. I am not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you cease to become a member? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. I'll rcfuse to answer that question, sir, for the 
same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member on the 14th day of May, when 
the subpena was served on you ? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. No, sir. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Were you a member on January 1, 1953 ? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member on January 1, 1952 ? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member on January 1, 1951 ? 

(At this point Mr. Schwarzbart conferred with Mr. Weissman.) 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I'll refuse to answer that, sir, for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Actually, you were not a member in January 1, 

1951, were you? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I'll refuse to answer that, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, wasn't it during the year 1950 
that you were expelled from the Communist Party? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I'll refuse to answer that, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was it that occurred that changed your sit- 
uation in either 1950 or 1951, as you state, which places your answer 
on a different basis as to the two periods of time ? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I'll refuse to answer that, sir, for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you attended any Communist Party meetings 
since January 1, 1951? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I'll refuse to answer that, sir, for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you attended Communist Party meetings 
since January 1, 1952 ? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have told this committee that you have not 
been a member of the Communist Party certainly since January 1, 

1952. You have refused to answer whether or not you were a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party prior to that time on the ground, you 
state, that you are afraid that if you do so it might tend to incriminate 
you. Now, actually, you are not in fear of incrimination, are you, 
Mr. Schwarzbart? 

You have heard various witnesses testify here during this hearing 
as to their prior Communist Party membership. You are not actually 
in fear of criminal prosecution, are you ? 

(At this point Mi-. Schwarzbart conferred with Mr. Weissman.) 

]\Ir. Schwarzbart. I'll refuse to answer that, sir, relying on the 
fifth amendment in good faith. 

Mr. Tavenner. You insist, then, in reliance upon that right, which 
the Constitution gives you? 

Mr. Schwarzbart. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. And if you are acting in good faith, it is a position 
that you are entitled to take. 

Mr. Schwarzbart. I believe I am, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 



2510 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALB.\XY AREA 

Mr, ScHERER. How could your admission about membership in the 
Communist Party possibly incriminate you ? 

Mr. ScHWARZBART. I'll refuse to answer that, sir, for the same 
reason. 

Mr. ScHERER. While you were employed by the State of New York, 
Mr. Schwarzbart, did you ever receive any compensation directly or 
indirectly from Communists or from the Communist Party, either as 
an attorney or otherwise ? 

(At this point Mr. Schwarzbart conferred with Mr. Weissman.) 

Mr, Schwarzbart. I'll refuse to answer that, sir, for the same 
reason. 

Mr. ScHERER, I have no further questions. 

Mr. I^ARNEY. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Schwarzbart. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner, Mr. David Rappaport. 

Mr. Kearney. Will you raise your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Rappaport. I do. 

Mr. Chairman, I — am I addressing myself to Mr. Tavenner, or 
should I address myself to the chairman ? 

Mr. Tavenner. To the chairman, 

Mr. Rappaport. Mr. Chairman, I have been subpenaed, which means 
that I have been compelled to appear before this body. I must be 
frank. I don't have the esteem for this body that I have for the Con- 
gress in general. 

Mr. Kearney. I am not interested in whether you have any esteem 
for this body or not. 

Mr. Rappaport. I think this is an outrageous proceeding. 

Mr. Kearney. The witness will take the chair. 

Mr. Rappaport. Therefore, I request that I be not compelled to par- 
ticipate in this proceeding over the radio. 

Mr. Kearney. All right. 

Mr. Rappaport. I don't wish to contribute to the misinformation 

Mr. Kearney. Your request is granted 

Mr. Rappaport. Of the people listening to it. 

Mr. Kearney (continuing). Under the rules of the committee. 

TESTIMONY OF ARPAD DAVID RAPPAPORT, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, ROBERT LEWIS 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, sir ? 
Mr. Rappaport. Arpad David Rappaport. 
Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel? 
Mr. Rappaport. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 
Mr. Lewis. The name is Robert Lewis. My office is at 104 East 
40th Street, New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Rappaport? 
Mr. Rappaport. I was born in Hungary on December 6, 1908. 
Mr. Tavenner. Are you a naturalized American citizen ? 
Mr. Rappaport. I am, sir. 



COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2511 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you naturalized? 

Mr. Rappaport. Through my mother, who married a naturalized 
citizen, who was naturalized in the southern district court on June 3, 
1900. 

Mr. Tavenner. Under what name were you naturalized ? 

Mr. Rappaport. Arpad David Rappaport. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Due to the fact you referred to your mother's hav- 
ing married another person, I didn't know just how that was handled. 

Mr. Rappaport. I should explain the subpena is in the name of 
David Rappaport, but my official name is Arpad David Rappaport. 
I have difficulties with the first name, as to spelling and pronuncia- 
tion, which has caused me a certain amount of inconvenience, and 
others as well. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, then, will you spell your first name correctly, 
please, for the record ? 

Mr. Rappaport. A-r-p-a-d. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your profession, Mr. Rappaport ? 

Mr. Rappaport. It's difficult to explain right now what my profes- 
sion and status are. Owing to the invasion of this committee into the 
city of Albany, in violation of tlie 10th amendment to the Constitu- 
tion, which provides that the State has its own responsibilities in 
judging the qualifications and merits of its employees, I was suspended 
from my position on or about July 2. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what way has this committee interfered with 
your rights of employment? 

Mr. Rappaport. In that my suspension was coincidental with my 
notification to my employers that I had been subpenaed, as I thought 
it proper that I should notify them. 

I have been working for the State of New York for about 19 years. 
During that period I was given every reason to think that I was 
a loyal and capable employee. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Did you 

Mr. Kearney. Why all this explanation, then, if you have nothing 
to fear? 

Mr. Rappaport. It's not an explanation, sir. It's a statement that 
this committee has done me considerable harm, unjustifiable harm, 
and has forced the State to cancel its attitude of approval that it has 
maintained toward me for a long time. 

Mr. Kearney. Is that by your own doings ? 

(No response.) 

Mr. Kearney. Has that been brought about by your own doings? 

Mr. Rappaport. Beg pardon? 

Mr. Kearney. I ask you, as a witness : Is that harm brought about 
by your own doings ? 

(At this point Mr. Rappaport conferred with Mr. Lewis.) 

Mr. Rappaport. Sir, I have just finished explaining that my sus- 
pension immediately followed the service of the subpena on me by that 
young man sitting there. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, during the time you were employed by the 
State of New York, when you said you were a loyal citizen, were you 
ever a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rappaport. Sir, I'm proud to live under this glorious Constitu- 
tion and, what is more, I will make full use of it for my protection 



2512 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE ALBANY AREA 

because I hope it will be the protection of 160 million — 200 million 
people in 10 years, 

Mr. Kearney. Would you mind answering the question just ad- 
dressed to you by the Congressman ? 

Mr. E.APPAP0RT. I will answer that question, sir. 

I do not consider this a legislative inquiry. I consider it what many 
others liave considered it — an inquisition. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Rappaport. That being so, I, therefore, decline to answer that 
question under the Constitution of the United States — the first article 
of the Bill of Kights, which provides for freedom of speech and 
freedom of association. Furthermore, I invoke independently and 
with it the protection in the same Constitution, which I love and 
honor, which does not compel me to be a witness against myself. I 
shall not be a witness against myself in this hearing. 

Mr. Scherer. It couldn't be that you lost your position with the 
State of New York because you were a member of the Communist 
Party, could it ? 

Mr. Rappaport. I have not yet lost my position with the State of 
New York. As I said before, I have been suspended. 

I have not resigned from my position. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. Could it be that you were suspended be- 
cause you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rappaport. Sir, you are entering a field of speculation. I leave 
speculation with you. Could it be? 

That's a question I can't answer. That's a matter of opinion ; and 
I think you have, from your point of view, an extremely well-informed 
kind of opinion. 

Mr. Tavenner. "What is your opinion 

Mr. Rappaport. Opinion? I can't even give an opinion on a ques- 
tion like that. 

Mr. Tavenner. As to whether 

Mr. Rappaport. No rational human being can answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. As to whether or not you are a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Rappx\port. What's the question ? 

(At this point Mr. Rappaport conferred with Mr. Lewis.) 

Mr. Rappaport. What is the question, please, sir? 

Restate it. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, if the witness would stop making speeches and 
listen to the question, he would probably understand it. 

Mr. Scherer. Let me ask this question. Did any official from the 
State of New York, when you were suspended, ask you whether or not 
you were a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Rappaport. No official of the State of New York asked me any- 
thing. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, if he had asked you, what would have been your 
answer? 

Mr. Rappaport. I'll make that answer when and if he asks me, in 
accordance with the law. 

]Mr. Kearney. Why were you suspended from your position in the 
State of New York? 

Mr. Rappaport. Is that a relevant question, sir? 

I would like to ask my attorney whether it is relevant to this inquiry. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2513 

Mr. KJEARNEY. Yes. 

(At this point Mr. Rappaport conferred with Mr. Lewis.) 

Mr. Rappaport. Sir, that matter will be discussed when my case 
is heard, I would like to be excused from answering it. 

Mr. Kearney. I want to insist upon an answer. 

Mr. Rappaport. Very well. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Rappaport, you started out by saying this 
committee had done you a great injustice. 

Your name was mentioned here this morning — I believe it was men- 
tioned also yesterday — in connection with the Communist Party in 
a very definite way. It has been the practice of this committee in a 
situation of that kind to subpena persons who have been mentionecl — 
not in all cases, but at least to give every individual an opportunity 
to come here and occupy the seat that you are occupying and deny that 
or explain it, if there is anything untrue about it. So, if this com- 
mittee has been unfair in any way to you, in hearing evidence relating 
to alleged Communist Party membership on your part, right now 
is the time to get it straightened out, and I want to give you that 
chance. 

Now, will you tell the committee the facts regarding your knowledge 
of Communist Party activities in Albany ? 

Mr. Rappaport. First of all, when I was subpenaed here, and when 
I arrived before you, I made it pretty plain I was out of sympathy 
with your aims. Now, I based that lack of sympathy on some very 
distinguished opinions in the matter. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not asking you anything about your sympathy 
or your feeling either for or against this committee. It is a matter 
of fact I am inquiring about. 

To be specific, let me ask you this question : You were identified by 
Mr. John Davis this morning as having been a member of the Commu- 
nist Party in the city of Albany and having been active in its work. 
Was that true or was it false ? 

Now is your opportunity to explain, 

Mr. Rappaport. I decline to be a witness against myself, in accord- 
ance with the Constitution of the United States. 

As to other matters, I have already stated my views. 

I understand this is not a court of law. I understand this is a legis- 
lative hearing, sir. 

May I make some recommendations to your body? 

Mr. Tavenner. I doubt very much if the committee would be inter- 
ested in what you would say. 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute, Mr. Tavenner. If he would answer 
those"" questions on which he took the fifth amendment, I would be 
willing to listen to his recommendations. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is what I am trying to tell him. 

Mr. Rappaport. It appears to me, sir, this committee has a very 
narrow interest. 

I don't want to boast, but I have a broader interest apparently than 
this committee has. 

Mr. Kearney. That is the opinion of some individuals, but in the 
opinion of the vast majority of the people of this country this com- 
mittee is interested in the welfare oi our country. 

Mr. Rappaport. I accept that, sir, as your opinion. 



2514 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Kearney. You were an employee of the Joint Welfare 

Is that the name of your agency f 

Mr. Rappaport. New York State Department of Social Welfare. 

Mr. Kearney. And who is your superior ? 

Mr. Rappaport. The commissioner. 

You mean the head of the department ? 

Mr. Kearney. Yes. 

Mr. Rappaport. Commissioner Robert Landsdale. 

Mr. Kearney. Did he interview you after you were served a 
subpena ? 

Mr. Rappaport. No, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Who did ? 

Mr. Rappaport. I wasn't interviewed. I simply reported to my 
immediate superior. 

Mr. Kearney. Wlio was that ? 

Mr. Rappaport. Dr. Schneider, head of the bureau of statistics. 

Mr. Kearney, At that time you reported to him, did you refuse to 
be sworn? 

Mr, Rappaport, No, sir? 

Mr, Kearney. You did not ? 

Mr. Rappaport. No, sir. 

Mr. Kj:arney. Before Dr. Huston ? 

Mr, Rappaport, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. And you said you did not. 

Mr. Rappaport, I made the statement that I had been requested 
to appear before Mr. Keniry, in the State attorney general's office, and 
Mr, Keniry, I think, is here and will bear me out ; and when he asked 
me to be sworn, I said this is the first I heard of the investigation into 
my competence — this is the first my competence was in question — and, 
therefore, I asked him if it was customary to swear in and testify to 
one's own incompetence without representation by an attorney, and 
I declined to so swear in. 

Mr. Kearney. That is what I asked you a minute ago, and you 
said you didn't. 

Mr. Rappaport. That was before Doctor — you asked me whether I 
refused — I was concealing nothing — you asked me whether I refused 
to swear in. Mr. Keniry is here. I couldn't be concealing anything. 
There are two different State officials. You asked me about Dr. 
Schneider, and then you asked me about Mr. Huston. 

Mr, Scherer. Well, he first asked you whether you refused to swear 
before a State official. Now, is Dr. Huston a State official ? 

Mr. Rappaport. Yes, sir ; he is. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, evidently you missed the chairman's question. 

Mr, Rappaport, If I missed his question, I regret it. I intend to 
answer truthfully. 

Mr. Kearney. I just want it straight for the record. At that time 
you appeared before Dr, Huston, did you refuse to be sworn? 

Mr, Rappaport, I did, for tlie reason stated. 

Mr, Kearney. All right; proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner, When did your employment with the State of New 
York begin ? 

Mr. Rappaport, It began toward the end of 1934. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the nature of your employment, or what 
has it been since 1934, in a general way ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE ALBANY AREA 2515 

Mr. Rappaport. In a general way, I was a scientific secretary in 
the division of laboratory and research. The title was principal clerk, 
laboratory. 

Then I took an open competitive examination, and someAvhere 
around the end of 1939 I was appointed junior statistician; and then 
I was promoted to other titles and, finally, I was promoted to the 
title of senior economist. 

Incidentally, my last annual service rating was superior. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time you obtained employment by the State, 
did you sign any application for your position which indicated 
whetlier or not you had ever been or were at that time a member of 
an organization Avhich had for its purpose the overthrow of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States ? 

Mr. Rappaport. What period are you referring to, sir? 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, let us make it general and say any period of 
time during your employment. 

(At this point Mr. Rappa^iort conferred with Mr. Lewis.) 

Mr. Rappaport. At this point I claim the privilege previously re- 
ferred to— that I shall not be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you state at any time to your superior, or any 
other responsible Government official, that you either had been or 
had not been a member of the Communist Party at any time ? 

Mr. Rappaport. I do not recall any such conversation. To the best 
of my knowledge, I never made such statement. 

Mr. Ta-stenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rappaport. I decline to answer on the grounds stated previ- 
ou-?ly — namely, bearing witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Rappaport. I decline for the same reason. 

Mr. Tai'enner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. SoHERER. I have no questions. 

Mr. Kearney. If there are no further questions, the witness will 
be excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. John Wright. 

Mr. Kearney. Will you hold up your right hand and be sworn? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Wright. I do. 

Mr. CoLLOMs. iSIr. Chairman, at this point, may I request that the 
broadcast instruments be turned off? 

Mr. EIearney. The request is granted. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN WRIGHT, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

ALBERT L. COLLOMS 

Mr. Taat:nner. Wliat is your name, please, sir? 
Mr. Wright. John Wright. 

Mr, Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 
Mr. Wright. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 
Mr. CoixoMS. Albert L. CoUoms — C-o-l-l-o-m-s — 342 Madison Av- 
enue, New York City. 

37740— 53— pt. 2 6 



2516 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Wright? 

Mr. Wright. I wonder if, before I begin to answer questions, I 
may have an opportunity to read a statement that I would like to 
present to the committee. 

Mr. Kj^arney. You may send the statement to the Chair here. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavexxer. When and where were you born, please, sir? 

Mr. Wright. June 20, 1900, in Brandford, England. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Are you a naturalized citizen of the United States? 

Mr. Wright. I am. 

Mr. Ta\t:xxer. When and where were you naturalized ? 

Mr. Wright. I regret that I don't have the certificate with me, but 
I was under age at the time my father was naturalized and I should 
say that, I know definitely, went back before World War I. 

Mr. Tavexxer. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Wright. I resigned my position. So, I assume I am unem- 
ployed. 

Mr. Ta\'exxer. Well, what was your position before 3'ou resigned ? 

Mr. Wright. I was a State employee. 

Mr. Ta\tixxer. What was the nature of your employment ? 

Mr. Wright. I was employed by the Division of Parole for the 
State of New York. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Wliat was the nature of your employment ? 

Mr. Wright. Well, you mean for the entire period, or for 

Mr. Tavexxer. Yes. Let's start at the beginning. When were you 
first employed by the State government ? 

Mr. Wright. I think it was August 1930, that I entered the State 
service. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Well, then, will you describe in a general way 
what your employment has been since that time ? 

Mr. Wright. With the exception of a year or two, all told, in field 
work and in institutional work, I have been employed continuously in 
the central office of the division of parole. 

Mr. Ta\t2xxer. The records of the committee show you were served 
with a subpena by Mr. James A. Andrews, investigator of this com- 
mittee, on June 15, 1953, to appear as a witness at this hearing, and 
that it was served on you at the New York State vocational institution 
on that date. 

Mr. Wright. That's right. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Is that in accordance with the facts? 

Mr. Wright. Yes. 

Mr. Tavexxer. You were, therefore, employed there at that time ? 

Mr. Wright. Yes, in that institution ; that is correct. 

Mr. Tavexxer. What was your employment prior to 1930 ? 

Mr. Wright. For part of that time — that is, subsequent to a com- 
pletion of my formal education — I was engaged in the life-insurance 
business, and for another part of it in the teaching profession. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you tell the committee, please, what your for- 
mal educational training has been? 

Mr. Wright. I have an A. B. from Hamilton College, 1921, and an 
A. ^I. from Middlebury College, 1923. 

Mr. Tavexxer. jSIr. Wright, I would like to ask you whether you 
were a member of the Communist Party on September 29, 1948. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2517 

Mr. Wright. I decline to answer that question for the following 

reasons: v • i 

( 1 ) I consider any question concerning my associations, my political 
views, or my affiliations a violation of certain rights guaranteed to me 
and all other citizens under the first amendment of the Bill of Eights 
of ouc Constitution. That is, respectively, the right of freedom of 
speech and the right of peaceful association. 

(2) I decline to answer such questions because I cannot permit 
myself to become a party to the actions of this committee which, in my 
view, violate our country's long tradition of political freedom. 

( 3 ) I decline to answer such questions independently on the grounds 
of the protection afforded me by the fifth amendment in the Bill of 
Eights, which establishes for all citizens the right not to be a witness 
against himself. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what Avork were you engaged in September of 
1948, with the State of New York? 
Where was your office at that time ? What was the address of your 

office . 

Mr. Wright. To the best of my recollection, it was 547 Broadway, 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of the building, if any, in which 
your office was located? 

Mr. Wright. I think it's called the Drislane Building. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever have an office in the Alfred E. Smith 
Building? 

Mr. Wright. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is any part of the offices of the division of parole 
located in the Alfred E. Smith Building ? 

Mr. Wright. If they are, it is not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is any other part of the State government located 
in that building ? 

Mr. Wright. In the Alfred E. Smith Building ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Wright. I understand that's a 24-story building and it's all 
occupied by city offices. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Wright. I may be mistaken, but I understand that is a fact. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall having received an invitation to a 
Communist Party meeting in September 1948 for the specific purpose 
of discussing work of a congressional committee ? 

Mr. Wright. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you what appears to be a photostatic copy 
of a letter addressed to you. Will you examine it, please, and state 
whether or not you recall having received the original of that letter? 

(At this point Mr. Wright conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Wright. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I desire to offer the letter in evidence 
and ask it be marked "John Wright Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Kearney. It will be received and marked in evidence. 
(The photostatic copy of a post card, addressed to Mr. John Wright 
and postmarked September 29, 1948, was marked and received in 
evidence as "John Wright Exhibit No. 1." 



2518 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

John Wright Exhibit No. 1 





Mr. Wright. By the way, Mr. Counselor, you referred to that as a 
letter. Actually, it occurs to me, as I read it, that is a post card — a 
Government post card. I think there ought to be a distinction be- 
tween the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2519 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, and I better draw the same distinction in my 
question. 

Did you receive the post card this appears to be a copy of ? 

Mr. Wright. I refuse to answer for the same reasons. On the same 
grounds. 

Mr. I^ARNEY. Now that we have gotten the distinction between 
the post card and the letter given, Mr. Counsel, will you proceed? 

Mr. Tavenner. I will need the letter before I proceed. 

Mr, Kearney. Post card. 

Mr. Tavenner. Post card. Excuse me. 

This post card bears the post mark "Schenectady, September 29, 
1948" and addressed "Mr. John Wright, New York State Division of 
Parole, Alfred E. Smith Building, Albany, N. Y." The message 
reads : 

The Communist Party of Schenectady calls a public meeting Wednesday eve- 
ning, 8 p. m., at 116 Wall Street. 

We desire to explain the hearings of the House Labor Committee on Commu- 
nist members of Local 301, UE. 

(At this point Mr. Wright conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 
Mr. TA^'ENNER (continuing to read) : 

A unity of civic-minded Schenectady residents and party members is necessary 
to stop this violation on your civil rights and their attempts to betray trade 
unions for the warmongers of Wall Street. 

Signed "Philip Bayer" — B-a-y-e-r. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Counsel, did you say it was with reference to 
the Labor Committee of the House ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Are you acquainted with Philip Bayer ? 

Mr. Wright. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend the meeting mentioned on this post 
card ? 

(At this point Mr. Wright conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Wright. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Kearney. Are any of those meetings well attended? 

(At this point Mr. Wright conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Wright. Were you addressing a question to me, Mr. Chairman ? 

I didn't get it. Would you mind repeating it? 

Mr. Kearney. Are any of those meetings well attended? 

Mr. Wright. Which meetings are you referring to ? 

Mr. Kearney. The one counsel just referred to. 

Mr. Wright. I'm not quite sure. He spoke of one meeting. You 
spoke of a series of meetings. 

Mr. Kearney. I am speaking of the same meeting. 

Mr. Wright. I couldn't answer that question for the same reasons. 

(At this point Mr. Wright conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Wright, you have been identified during the 
course of the hearings here as having been a State employee in Albany 
who was a member of the Communist Party, and that you were active 
in the work of the party. Were you properly and correctly identified 
as having been a member of the Communist Party in Albany ? 

Mr. Wright. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wright. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the 



2520 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Wright. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wait a minute. 

Mr. Kearney. I suggest the witness wait until counsel finishes the 
question ; then answer the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. There were indications you had decided not to an- 
swer any questions that the committee might ask you. 

Mr. Wright. That is an observation to which you are entitled. 

Mr. Tavenner. And am I correct about it ? 

Mr. Wright. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

(At this point Mr. Wright conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Wright. By the way, I turned over to counsel, which he handed 
up to the chairman, a statement which I asked permission to read, and 
I have heard no more about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you think you should be permitted to make a 
statement, when you have decidect you will not answer any questions? 

Mr. Wright. I certainly think I should be permitted to read it under 
any circumstances. 

Mr. ScHERER. I will recommend to the chairman if the gentleman 
will answer all the questions to which he has pled the fifth amendment 
that he be allowed to read the statement in full and that it be made 
a part of the record. 

Mr. Wright. Pardon me. I would say it shouldn't be conditional. 
After all, if you have the National Association of Manufacturers on 
your side, most of the press, big business, what do you have to worry 
about my reading a statement ? 

What's — really, what can I do to you ? 

Mr. Kearney. I am going to ask the officers to eject those who 
caused that demonstration. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Kearney. The witness is excused. 

Now, if some of our guests think they can turn this hearing into 
something to suit their own purpose, they are sadly mistaken. 

Call the next witness, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Irving Gold. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Gold, do you swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth,' the whole truth and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Gold. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING GOLD, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

ALBERT L. COLLOMS 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Gold. Irving Gold. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel? 

Mr. Gold. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. CoLLOMS. Albert L. Colloms, 342 Madison Avenue, New York 
City. 

May I respectfully request that the broadcast instruments be turned 
off at this time, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. The request is granted. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2521 

Mr, Tavenner. "When and where were you born, Mr. Gold ? 

Mr. Gold. I was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., 1912. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your profession or occupation? 

Mr. Gold, At the moment I'm unemployed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your for- 
mal training, educational training, has been? 

]\Ir. Gold. I went through the public schools in New York city and 
graduated from New York University in 1934, and in 1936 I received 
the master's degree from Brooklyn College, with a major in American 
history, at which time I wrote a thesis on Lincoln and the Supreme 
Court. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, will you tell the committee, please, what your 
record of employment has been since 1938 ? 

Mr. Gold. In 1938 I was employed at the New York City Civil 
Service Commission, and I remained in ih^t position until 1942, when 
I took a position with the New York State Department of Civil 
Service. 

Mr. Tavenner, And how long did you remain in that position? 

Mr. Gold. I resigned from that position effective June 30 of this 
year. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. Were you served with a subpena to appear as a 
witness before this committee? 

Mr. Gold. I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the date on which the service was made? 

Mr. Gold. As I recollect, it was June 18. 

Mr. Tavenner. June 18? 

(At this point Mr. Gold conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Tavenner. The return on your subpena shows this service was 
made on you at your office. Where was your office located? 

Mr. Gold. 39 Columbia Street, in Albany. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed at that time ? 

Mr. Gold. I was employed as an associate personnel technician in 
the State civil-service department. 

Mr. Tavenner. For the State of New York ? 

Mr. Gold. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have just stated you have resigned your posi- 
tion, the same to become effective at some future date ; do I understand, 
or some past date ? 

Mr. Gold. The resignation took effect June 30, 

Mr, Tavenner. June 30? 

Mr. Gold. That's right. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you resign? 

Mr. Gold. I believe it was June 25. 

Mr. Ta\'t;nner. Wlien did you first come to the city of Albany to 
engage in your work or in the work of your position ? 

Mr. Gold. In 1942, 1 think it was, August 15. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had you been a member of the Communist Party 
prior to your coming to Albany ? 

Mr. Gold. I decline to answer the question on the grounds follow- 
ing, I have 3 or 4 parts to my declination : 

( 1 ) This country has become great and has been my 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, let me interrupt you a minute. 



2522 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Kearney. I will ask the witness, which is his privilege, to de- 
cline to answer under the stated grounds without going into a lengthy 
tirade, 

(At this point Mr. Gold conferred with Mr. CoUoms.) 

Mr. GoiJ). I decline to answer on the grounds of the first, fifth and 
sixth amendments. 

Mr. Kearney. Thank you. 

(At this point Mr. Gold conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to your resignation from your j)osition with 
the State government, or even after your resignation, did you make 
any statement to your superior in the State Government, or any other 
responsible official, either denying or affirming past Conmiunist 
Party membership % 

Mr. Gold. I decline to answ^er the question on the same grounds 
as previously given. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have been identified, Mr. Gold, by the wit- 
ness, Mr. John Davis, as having been a member of the Communist 
Party, being one of the group that he termed the State group during 
the year 1946 and 1947 in Albany. 

(At this point Mr. Gold conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that identification of you true or was it false? 

Mr. Gold. I decline to answer the question on the same gi'ounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gold. I decline to answer the question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Kearney. If you were not a member of the Communist Party, 
w^ould you so state ? 

Mr. Gold. I decline to answer the question on the same grounds.^ 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Gold. I decline to answer the question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Kearney^. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. Rena Dodd. 

Mr. Ejearney. Hold up your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give shall 
be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Miss Dodd. I do. 

Mr. Lewis. INIr. Chairman, I also request that the radio not be on. 

Mr. Kjearney. The request is granted. 

TESTIMONY OF RENA DODD, ACCOMPANIED BY HER COUNSEL, 

ROBERT LEWIS 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 
Miss Dodd. Rena Dodd. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 
Miss Dodd. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 
Mr. Lewis. My name is Robert Lewis. My office is at 104 East 40th 
Street, New York City. 
Mr. Tavenner. Are you a native of Albany ? 
Miss Dodd. Yes ; I am. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2523 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
educational training has consisted of — that is, your formal educational 
training? 

Miss DoDD. I received my elementary and public school education 
and high school here in New York, and my B. A. from Barnard 
College. 

Mr. Tavenner. Excuse me. Will you speak a little louder and 
a little slower, please ? 

Miss DoDD. I received my public education in Lansingberg schools 
and a B. A. from Barnard College. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you receive your B. A. degree ? 

MissDoDD. 1932. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the conmiittee what your record of 
employment has been since that time ? 

Miss DoDD. Approximately 1935 through 1936 I worked for the 
Albany Hospital, and since the end of 1936 for the New York State 
Health Department, Division of Laboratories. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that employment began when? 

Miss DoDD. At the end of 1937. 

Mr. Tavenner. And were you so employed when you were served 
with a subpena to appear as a witness at this hearing ? 

Miss DoDD. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you still employed there ? 

Miss DoDD. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did your employment cease? 

Miss DoDD. July 3. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a result of your own act or that of your 
employer ? 

Miss DoDD. I resigned. 

Mr. Kearney. By request ? 

Miss DoDD. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was your resignation to be effective — at once ? 

Miss DoDD. I turned in my resignation July 3. 

As far as I know, that is the date it was effective, but I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have been identified as having been a member 
of the Communist Party in the city of Albany. You were identified 
as one of the State employees' group. Was that identification of you 
correct or was it a mistaken identity ? 

Miss DoDD. I shall have to decline to answer that question, be- 
cause, in the first place, I feel this committee is 

Mr. Kearney. I will ask the witness to direct her declination to 
the language used and never mind giving an expression of what she 
tHinks of this committee. We are not interested. 

(At this point Miss Dodd conferred with Mr. Lewis.) 

Mr. Tavenner. If you have legal grounds on which you desire to 
refuse to answer, reference to them would be quite sufficient. 

Miss DoDD. Then I would decline on the grounds that it is a breach 
of my rights of fi-eedom of speech, press, and association — first 
amendment — and also not only mine, but the American people. 

I decline on the basis that I do not have to bear witness against 
myself, which is the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, now, at the time you handed in your resigna- 
tion on July 3, did you tell your employer — that is, your superior, or 
any other responsible officer of the State government — that you never 



2524 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

had been a member of the Communist Party or that you had been a 
member of tlie Communist Party at one time? 

Miss DoDD. I decline to answer tliat for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. What reason did you assign for your resignation? 

Miss DoDD. I resigned for personal reasons. 

Mr. Kearney. Did I understand you to say you resigned for per- 
sonal reasons? 

Miss DoDD. That was the wording of my resignation ; yes. 

Mr. Kearney. But that was after you were requested to resign? 

Miss DoDD. That's right. 

Mr. Kearney. So there will be no mistake in the record, your res- 
ignation was not voluntary; it was requested? 

Miss DoDD. That's right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are yon now a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss DoDD. I refuse to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss DoDD. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Kearney. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. Betty Laros. 

Mr. Kearney. Will you hold up your right hand, please? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give shall be the 
truth, the whole truth and nothing but the t th, so help you God? 

Miss Largs. I do. 

Mr. Kearney. You don't see anything funny in taking this oath, 
do you ? 

Miss Laros. No ; the photographers 

Mr. Lewis. Mr. Chairman, may the radio in this case 

Mr. Kearney. The same request is granted, under the rules of the 
committee. . • 

TESTIMONY OF BETTY LAROS, ACCOMPANIED BY HER COUNSEL, 

ROBERT LEWIS 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please ? 

Miss Laros. Betty Laros 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Miss Laros. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Lewis. My name is Robert Lewis, with offices at 104 East 40th 
Street in the city of New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a native of the city of Albany ? 

Miss Laros. No; I am not. I was born in Grinnell, Iowa. 

Mr. Tavenner, How long have you lived in Albany ? 

Miss Laros. Seventeen years, I think. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside ? 

Miss Laros. 1026 New Scotland Road. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you and the previous witness, Rena Dodd, occu- 
py the same quarters ? 

Miss Laros. Yes; her family lived in the house with us. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2525 

Miss Laros. I <Tra ciliated from high school in Grinnell, Iowa; re- 
ceived a B. A. degree from Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa ; and took 
a year's course as a medical technologist at Nebraska University Med- 
ical School. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. When did you complete that training? 

Miss Laros. The B. A. degree in 1933; the technologist course in 
1934. 

Mr, Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, briefly, how you have 
been employed since 1934 ? 

Miss Laros. Following that, approximately a year at Lordlister 
Hospital in Omaha, and a little over a year at the University of 
Nebraska Medical School ; since that time in the divisions of laboratory 
and research at the New York State Health Department. I believe it 
was 1936 or 1937 when I came to Albany. 

]Mr. Ta-s^nner. And since 1936 or 1937 you have been employed by 
the State government ? 

Miss Laros. 1937. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then, were you employed in that position at the 
time the subpena was served on you to appear as a witness here ? 

Miss Laros. Yes. 

Mr. Ta\'en^'er. Do you recall the date when you were subpenaed to 
appear here? 

Miss Laros. I don't. I recall it was dated June 2. It was some 
time after that — probably " the 13th or 14th. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. June 11 is the date appearing on the return. 

Miss Laros. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that conform with your recollection ? 

Miss Laros. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you still employed in the same position? 

Miss Laros. No. I was asked to resign, and I resigned. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. When w:^re you asked to resign ? 

Miss Laros. July 1, I think it was. 

Mr. Kearney. That was after the subpena was served upon you ? 

Miss Laros. The subpena was on — on June 11, I believe you said. 

Mr. Taa^enner. Yes. 

Miss Laros. It was after June 11. July 2 is after June 11. 

Mr. Ta\nBnner. You have been identified as being one of a group 
of State employees who were actively engaged in the work of the 
Communist Party in the city of Albany. In fact, Mr. John Davis, 
who was the organizer for the party here, paid organizer, who came 
here from New York in the year 1946 and stayed through most of 
1947, testified that this group of State employees here was the back- 
bone of the Communist Party in this area. As a result of the testi- 
mony he has given us, we have reason to believe that you were a mem- 
ber of that group. If you would do so, you could tell us facts relating 
to the operations of that group, which would add to the sum total of 
the knowledge of the committee regarding Communist activities in 
this area. 

So, I will begin by asking you : Were you a member of that group ? 

Miss Laros. I will decline to answer that, and I would like to give 
three legal grounds, which will take me less than a minute, if I may 
be allowed to. 

Mr. Ta^tenner. Yes. 



2526 COJMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Miss Laros. My speech is not free if I am compelled to disclose 
my political views. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a minute. 

Miss Largs. I can state the grounds in 1 minute. 

Mr. Tavenner. No ; you are making a speech. 

Miss Laros. I am not making a speech. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have legal grounds to rely upon. 

Miss Laros. I decline to answer, invoking the first amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. I suggest the witness consult her comisel, who will 
give her legal grounds. 

Miss Laros. I know my legal grounds. 

Mr. Kearney. We are not going to sit here and listen to a speech. 

Miss Laros. Others have been allowed to give legal grounds. 

Mr. Kjearney. Now, we are not going to allow any speeches. 

Miss Laros. I am not making a speech. 

Mr. Kearney. Make use of your counsel. That is what he is there 
for. 

(At this point Miss Laros conferred with Mr. Lewis.) 

Miss Laros. I don't have to — I decline to answer that question, and 
I invoke the first amendment, guaranteeing freedom of speech, re- 
ligious — religion and assembly. 

I decline to answer, citing the sixth amendment, because I have no 
opportunity to cross-examine the witnesses you have produced. The 
sixth amendment, giving — includes the right to be confronted with 
one's witnesses. 

Finally, I decline to answer, citing the fifth amendment, which states 
that one cannot be compelled to be a witness against himself, and which 
implies no sense of guilt, which has been decided in the courts 

Mr. Kearney. Did you write that ? 

Miss Laros. That no inference 

Did I write this ? I certainly did write it. I certainly did write it. 

Mr. Kearney. You are having a little trouble reading your own 
writing. 

Miss Laros. It was because you wouldn't let me read it. I had to 
pick out pieces of it. 

Mr. Kearney. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you were asked to resign on or about July 1 
by some State authority, did you advise the official who spoke to you 
either tliat you had never been a member of the party, Communist 
Party, or that you had been a member of the Communist Party at one 
time? 

(At this point Miss Laros conferred with Mr. Lewis.) 

Miss Laros. I decline to answer, using the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Laros. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Laros. I decline for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Kearney. The witness is excused. 

The committee will recess for 10 minutes. 

(Wliereupon, at 3 : 45 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 3: 55 p. m.) 



COMIVrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2527 

(The hearing reconvened at 4 p. m., the following committee mem- 
ber being present : Representative Bernard W. Kearney (chairman of 
the subcommittee).) 

Mr. Kearney. The committee will be in order. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Hannah Shapiro. 

Mr. Kearney. Will you raise your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, and the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mrs. Shapiro. I do. 

Mr. CoLLOMS. May I respectfully request at this time that the broad- 
casting instruments be turned off ? 

Mr. Kearney. The objection is noted. The broadcasting will be 
discontinued, under the rules of the committee. 

TESTIMONY OF HANNAH SHAPIEO, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 
COUNSEL, ALBERT L. COLLOMS 

Mr. Tavenner. "W^iat is your name, please ? 

Mrs. Shapiro. Hannah Shapiro. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel? 

Mrs. Shapiro. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Ta^tenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. CoLLOMS. Albert L. Colloms, 342 Madison Avenue, New York 
City, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a native of the city of Albany ? 

Mrs. Shapiro. No ; I am not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Shapiro. I was born in Poland. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you come to this country ? 

Mrs. SHAPmo. 1920. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a naturalized American citizen ? 

Mrs. Shapiro. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you naturalized? 

Mrs. Shapiro. I was naturalized through my father, who was nat- 
uralized in Louisiana when he was a member of the armed services 
stationed there prior to going overseas in 1918. 

(At this point Mrs. Shapiro conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mrs. Shapiro. According to the laws of the time, I was a citizen 
2 years before I came here. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Will you tell the committee, please, briefly what your 
formal educational training has been? 

Mrs. Shapiro. I was educated in New York City — Brooklyn, to be 
exact ; a bachelor's degree from Brooklyn College ; and a master's de- 
gree from State College for Teachers this past June. 

Mr. Tavenner. What State teachers college was it in which you 
received your certificate in June? 

Mrs. Shapiro. Albany State Teachers College. 

Mr. Tavenner, Are you now a teacher ? 

Mrs. Shapiro. No; I am not teaching. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer entered the hearing room at 
this point.) 



2528 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Ta\tennek. Well, I mean by that — of course, this is the holiday 
season — in obtainin<^ your certificate to teach at this teachers' college, 
were you proposing to engage in the profession of teaching? 

Mrs. Shapiro. Yes; I was. 

Mr. Tavennek. Have you a contract for teaching at any school in 
the State? 

Mrs. Shapiro. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you apply? 

Mrs. Shapiro. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you accepted ? 

Mrs. Shapiro. I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. When? 

Mrs. Shapiro. In May of this year. 

(At this point Mrs. Shapiro conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Has that been canceled ? 

Mrs. Shapiro. Officially, no. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, what do you mean? 

Mrs. Shapiro. I mean it probably will be after this. 

Mr. Tavenner. But it has not been canceled, and you expect it to 
be as a result of your appearance here ? 

Mrs. Shapiro. That's right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, now, possibly it will not be canceled if we 
have a full explanation from you of what the situation may be about 
past Communist Party activities with which you have been identified. 
I mean by that there is testimony here that you were identified actively 
in the Communist Party here back in 1946 and 1947 — as late as that. 
That is as late as the testimony has gone. Were you a member of the 
Communist Party here at that time? 

Mrs. Shapiro. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first, fifth, and sixth amendments. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you believe that a Communist should be allowed 
to teach our children? 

(At this point Mrs. Shapiro conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mrs. Shapiro. Teach children what specifically ? 

Mr. Kearney. Well, let's answer the question first. 

Mrs. Shapiro. Well 

Mr. Kearney. Do you think that a member of the Communist 
Party should be allowed to teach our children? 

(At this point Mrs. Shapiro conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mrs. Shapiro. 1 believe that a person should be permitted to teach 
if he has the ability to teach. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, that isn't quite answering my question, is it? 
I insist that you give me a direct answer, '"Yes" or ''No." 

Mrs. Shapiro. That's a rather hard question to answer. 

JSlr. Kearney. I should say that it Avould be a very hard question 
for you to answer. 

Mrs. SiiAPnto. I think that if a Comnumist is a known Communist,, 
he should be permitted to teach. Then you know that he is teaching. 
JSIr. Kearney. I didn't hear that. 

Mrs. Shapiro. I think if a person is a known Communist, he should 
be permitted to teach, because then you know what to expect of him. 
Mv. Kearney. But then these individuals who hide behind the legal 
guaranties of the Constitution and refuse to admit their party affilia- 
tions, they should not be allowed to teach ; is that what you mean ? 



COMMXTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2529 

(At this point Mrs. Shapiro conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mrs. Shapiro. Well, it's very difficult to answer directly in this 
committee, because if one does, one is bound to get involved in all kinds 
of legal 

Mr. Kearxey. No ; if one answers the truth before this committee, 
one is given credit for answering the truth and no one is persecuted 
before this committee. What we are seeking is the truth, and we would 
like truthful answers from witnesses. 

Mrs. Shapiro. I have seen otherwise in the press. 

Mr. Kearney. You have seen otherwise in the press. 

Let me ask you this question : Before these hearings, have you ever 
attended a hearing of the House Committee on Un-American Activ- 
ities? 

Mrs. Shapiro. No. 

Mr. Kearney. Then, in other words, you don't know what transpires 
at those hearings or how they are conducted, or how the witnesses 
testify or what their answers are ? 

Mrs. Shapiro. We usually get our information from the press and 
the magazines. 

Mr. Kearney. All right; let me ask you these questions as far as 
these hearings are concerned : 

Have you seen any witness denied the opportunity to consult with 
counsel ? 

Have you heard of any witness being abused before this committee? 

Have you heard of any witness whose rights were denied before 
this committee ? 

Mrs. Shapiro. Well, they weren't permitted to make any statements. 

Mr. Kearney. You mean make any speeches. 

Mrs. Shapiro. I don't know whether you would call it speeches. I 
didn't know what they had in mind. 

Mr. Kearney. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated you refuse to answer on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment as to whether you had been a member of the 
Communist Party. Don't you think that a father or mother who has 
a child going to the school in which you are expected to teach would 
have the right to ask the question as to whether or not there is a 
teacher there who is a member of the Communist Party and subject 
to the directives and the discipline of the Communist Party ? 

Don't you think a father and mother should have that right to 
inquire and ask 

Mi-s. Shapiro. Well, I think in usual times a person's opinions, 
whether political or otherwise, are his own business. In these times, 
that isn't so ; and I think parents would probably want to know that ; 
yes. That's what I said. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you inform the school authorities when 
you applied for this teaching position whether or not you had ever 
been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Shapiro. I wasn't asked. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were not asked ? 

Mrs. Shapiro. No. 

Mr. Taat.nner. Well, I am asking you now. Were you? 

(At this point Mrs. Shapiro conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mrs. Shapiro. I refuse to answer that on the grounds stated. 



2530 COIVIJMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBAJSTY AREA 

Mr. Ta\T!;nner. Wliat school was it to which you made application 
to teach ? 

Mrs. Shapiro. Scotia High School. 
Mr. Tavenner. Located where? 
Mrs. Shapiro. In Scotia. 
Mr. Tavenner. Is that close to Albany? 
Mrs. Spiapiro. It's near Schenectady. 

Mr. Kearney. I will say for the record, Mr. Counsel, that is in the 
chairman's congressional district. It is outside of Schenectady. 
Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Albany ? 
Mrs. Shapiro. Fifteen years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party before 
coming to Albany? 

Mrs. Shapiro. I refuse to answer that question on the previous 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 
Mrs. Shapiro. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 
Mr. Kearney. Do you believe the Communist Party to be a political 
party? 

Mrs. Shapiro. Well, it is, isn't it? 

Mr. Kearney. Well, in the words of its own leaders, it is an organi- 
tion dedicated to the overthrow of our Government by force or vio- 
lence. 

Do you think that any member of such an organization should be 
allowed to teach our children ? 

(At this point Mrs. Shapiro conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mrs. Shapiro. I would like to know where that quotation is from. 

Mr. Kearney. William Z. Foster, head of the Communist Party of 

the United States 

(At this point Mrs. Shapiro conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 
Mr. Kearney. And I also believe that the Supreme Court of the 
United States said so. 

(At this point Mrs. Shapiro conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 
Mrs. Shapiro. I haven't — I don't know what Mr. Kearney means 
when he says the Supreme Court of the United States. It seems to me 
that has not been determined. 

Mr. Kearney. It has been determined by the courts of the land that 
the Communist Party of the United States is part of the international 
Communist conspiracy and controlled by the Kremlin. 

Now, with that in mind, do you think that a member of the Commu- 
nist Party should be allowed to teach our children ? 

(At this point Mrs. Shapiro conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 
Mrs. Shapiro. I'm sorry. I don't have sufficient — I think what Mr. 
Kearney has stated is more or less an opinion. It's hearsay, and I 

would rather not 

Mr. Kearney. What I stated 

Mrs. Shapiro. Make any statement. 
Mr. Kearney (continuing). To you is hearsay? 
Mrs. Shapiro. I don't remember any such thing. I don't know 
enough about the court cases that have gone through the courts to know 
what this is all about. I am sorry. 

Mr. Kearney. All right ; proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Kearney. The witness is excused. 



COM]VIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2531 

Mr. Tavenner. Harry J. Gordon. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. I do. 

Mr. CoLLOMS. May I renew my request at this time that the broad- 
cast 

Mr. Kearxey. The request is granted. 

TESTIMONY OF HAERY GORDON ITSKOWITZ, ACCOMPANIED BY 
HIS COUNSEL, ALBERT L. COLLOMS 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. The name, as it appears on the subpena that I re- 
ceived, is Harry Gordon Itskowitz. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name, please? 

Mr. Itskowitz. I-t-s-k-o-w-i-t-z. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that your correct name ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. That is the name that appears on my birth certificate. 

Mr. Tavenner. On your birth certificate ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you were subpenaed under the name of Harry 
J. Gordon? 

Mr. Itskowitz. No. My subpena reads Harry Gordon Itskowitz. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, then, that is your correct name ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you are also known by the name of Harry J. 
Gordon, are you not? 

Mr. Itskowitz. No ; that "J," is not familiar to me, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you are known as Harry Gordon ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation, Mr. Gordon ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. At present, salesman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Salesman? 

Mr. Itskowitz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you held that position ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. For about 3 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that time, how were you employed ? 

]Mr. Itskowitz. I worked as a wea\ er and carding-room operator. 
See, the title of that was machine carding tender. 

Mr. Tavenner. And prior to that how were you employed ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. I worked for the Government — United States Gov- 
ernment. 

Mr. Tavenner. For the Federal Government ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. For the Federal Government ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. I was a communicator with the Civil Aeronautics 
Administration. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you so employed ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. Well, I'll start right at the beginning with my Gov- 
ernment service. I was first hired liy the Weather Bureau in New 
York City, about 1939, for a period of about 2 years; then transferred 
to Civil Aeronautics. The first assignment was Glens Falls, N. Y. 



2532 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

I worked at the station there for about a year, and with promotion 
and transfer again to a larger station up in Maine — Millinocket, Maine, 
where I worked for 6 months, and transferred to the Albany Airport. 

Mr. Tav-enner. That would make the date of your transfer to Albany 
when? 

Mr. Itskowitz. About 1944, 1 believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you remained in that work here until 40 

Mr. Itskowitz. Seven. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you first became employed by the United 
States Government, did you file form 57, or at any subsequent time 
file form 57 ? 

(x\t this point Mr. Itskowitz conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Itskowitz. I'm not familiar with the form. I am not familiar 
with the form, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you file an application for employment? 

Mr. Itskowitz. As you very well know, before one goes into Fed- 
eral service, you do have to file application ; take examinations, which 
I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. And the application contained a question asking 
whether or not you were at that time or had ever been a member of 
an organization w^hich advocated the overthrow of the United States 
Government ? 

(At this point Mr. Itskowitz conferred with Mr. Colloms.) 

Mr. Itskowitz. Offhand, sir, I don't remember exactly how those 
applications were worded and just what questions — it's been many 
years ago now, and I'm not at all familiar with Government appli- 
cations. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, at the time you began your employment with 
the United States Government in 1939, were you a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. I refuse to answer that question on the ground that 
any answer I give would tend to incriminate me — under the fifth 
amendment. 

In recent weeks various members of this committee have said 

Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. The witness will confine his answers 

Mr. Itskowitz. I have replied, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. To the reason for refusing to answer questions. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. What was the reason for the termination of your 
employment with the Government in 1947 ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. A hearing w^as to be held, and I resigned. 

Mr. Tavenner. A hearing was to held by whom ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. I don't remember the title of that particular group 
that were going to hold a hearing, but that is the time I did resign. 

Mr. Kearney. What were you charged with? 

Mr. Itskowitz. I was not charged. 

Mr. SciiERER. What was the hearing about? 

Mr. Itskowitz. Questioning my loyalty after many years. 

Mr. SciiERER. Well, that is a charge. 

Mr. Kearney. You don't call that a charge? 

(At this point Mr. Itskowitz conferred with Mr, Colloms.) 

Mr. Kearney. I'd say it was a very serious charge to question one's 
loyalty to one's country. 

Mr. Itskowitz. The question was concerning my loyalty. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2533 

Mr. Kearney. To your country? 

Mr. Itskowitz. That was the — it wasn't a charge. 

Mr. Kearney. It was a claim ? 

Mr. Itskow^itz. It was a question ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. That is what you were to be tried on ? 

Mr. Itskow^itz. It was a question concerning my loyalty. 

Mr. Kearney. Before they had a chance to find out, you resigned? 

Mr. Itskowitz. Which was my privilege. 

Mr. Kearney. That is right. It was their privilege to try you also. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Was that question the question of whether or not 
you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. I refuse to answer that question on the ground that 
any answer I give might tend to incriminate me — under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you were identified here today by Mr. John 
Da^is, who was an organizer for the Communist Party in this area, 
as having been a member in 1946 and 1947, the very period of your 
employment by the Federal Government. 

Was his testimony true or false in identifying you as a party 
member ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Itskowitz. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Kearney. If you were not a member of the Communist Party, 
would you so state ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. I refuse to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. While you were an employee of the Federal Govern- 
ment, did you submit to any directives or discipline of the Commun- 
ist Party ^ 

Mr. Itskowitz. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you pass any information to the Communist 
Party while you were an employee of the Federal Government? 

Mr. Itsko^vitz. I did my job well, faithfully. I've had an excellent 
record in Government service. My efficiency reports were excellent. 
I always did my job, and did it good. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, will you answer the question ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 

Mr. Kearney. Were you engaged in any espionage work while you 
were working for the United States Government ? 

Mr. Itskowitz. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. KJEARNEY. By that, I mean espionage work for a foreign power 
or for the Communist Party. 

Mr. Itskowitz. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, I can now see why you were going to have a 
trial, and why certain charges were filed against you. 

Is that all, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir; I have no further questions. 

Mr. Kearney. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. Evelyn Goldstein. 



2534 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Kearney, Will you hold up your right hand? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give shall be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Goldstein. I do. 

Mr. Cou^oMs. May I repeat the same request ? 

Mr. Kearney. The same request is granted, under the ruling of 
the committee. 

TESTIMONY OF EVELYN GOLDSTEIN, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 
COUNSEL, ALBERT L. COLLOMS 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

Mrs. Goldstein. Evelyn Goldstein. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a native of Albany? 

Mrs. Goldstein, No : I was born on 52 Jefferson Street, New York 
City, 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you move to Albany? 

Mr. Goldstein. In 1940. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training was? 

Mrs. (toldstein, I went up to 21/2 years of high school. 

Mr. Tavenner. In New York City ? 

Mrs. Goldstein. Xo; I started it in Hartford, Conn. I had my 
first year of high school there after graduating from grammar school, 
and had a year and a half in Brooklyn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Excuse me. Will you tell me again when you 
came to Albany ? 

Mrs. Goldstein, In 1940. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been employed at any time since? 

Mrs. Goldstein. Yes; I am an office worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. What type of office work ? 

I am not asking you to name your employer, but what type of 
office work ? Was it with the Government ? 

Mrs. Goldstein. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it with a mercantile establishment, law office, 
or what? 

Mrs. Goldstein. I was a bookkeeper for business establishments. 

Mr. Tavenner. A business establishment. 

Were you living in Albany in 1940 and 1947? 

Mrs. Goldstein. In November of 1946 I moved to Gloversville, 
N. Y., and lived there until September of 1952. 

Mr. TA\Ti:NNER. It has been stated by Mr. John Davis that he was 
assigned to the position of a Communist Party organizer in 1946, 
and that he was brought to your home by Mr. Harold Klein, who was 
a Communist, who was a district organizer, superior in authority to 
liim, and that he received from you and Mr. Klein the names of per- 
sons whom he should contact as the principal leaders of the Commu- 
nist Party in Albany for purposes of reorganization of the party here. 
Will you tell the committee whether or not such a meeting took place 
in your home? 

Mrs. Goldstein. I decline to answer thnt question on the grounds 
that I need not bear witness against myself. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANlt' AREA 2535 

Mr. Tavenner. You were identified by IVIr. Davis as liaving' been 
a member of the section committee, sometimes referred to as the connty 
committee and other times the city committee, of the Communist 
Party in this area. Was he correct in that testimony or not^ 

Mrs. Goldstein. I decline to answer for the same reasons as pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you ever on the payroll of the Conmiunist 
Party? 

Mrs. Goldstein. I refuse to answer that for the very same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you engage in Connnunist Party activities at 
any time during 1946 or 1947 in the area of Albany? 

^Irs. Goldstein. Same declination for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Goldstein. Same declination for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Goldstein. Same answer ; same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

INIrs. Goldstein. Thank you. 

Mr. Kearney. The witness is excused. 

The witnesses who have been subpenaed will report at 10 o'clock 
tomorrow morning. Until that time, the committee will be in recess. 

(Whereupon, at 4: 30 p. m., the hearing was recessed to reconvene 
at 10 a. m., Thursday, July IG, 1953.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
ALBANY, N. Y., AREA-PAET 2 



THURSDAY, JULY 16, 1953 

United States House of RErRESENTATiVES, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Un-Amekican Activities, 

Albany^ N. Y. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 a.m., in court room No. 1 of the Federal 
Building, Albany, N. Y., Hon. Bernard W. Kearney (chairman of 
the subcommittee) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Bernard W. Kearney 
and Gordon H. Scherer. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner Jr., counsel; Thomas 
W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk; James A. Andrews, and Earl L. Fuoss, 
investigators. 

Mr. Kearney. The committee will be in order. 

Are you ready for your first witness ? 

Mr, Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

I would like to call Dr. Louis J. Lubin. 

Mr. KJEARNEY. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Lewis. Mr. Chairman, may I request the usual rule respecting 
the radio? 

Mr. KIearney. Yes; the request is granted and there will be no 
broadcasting, under the rules of the committee. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS J. LTJBIN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

ROBERT LEWIS 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 
Dr. Lubin, Louis J. Lubin. 
Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your first name ? 
Dr. Lubin. L-o-u-i-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are Dr. Louis J. Lubin, are you not ? 
Dr. Lubin. Of dentistry ; yes, sir. 
Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 
Dr. Lubin. Yes, sir ; I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 
Mr. Lewis. My name is Robert Lewis. My office is at 104 East 40th 
Street in the city of New York. 

2537 



2538 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

r^Fi. Tavi'.xxer. AYlien and where were you born. Dr. Lubin? 

Dr. LuBix. In Albany, in 1909. 

Mr. Tavenner. You state that your profession is that of dentistry ? 

Dr. Lubin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenxek. How long have you been engaged in the practice of 
dentistry in Albany ? 

Dr. Lubin. Since 1934, with the exception of the time that I spent 
in the Army. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the period of time you were in the Army ? 

Dr. Lubin. From October 1942 to March 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Dr. Lubin. I had 2 years of predental and 3 years of dentistry at 
the University of Michigan and 1 year postgraduate work in dentistry 
at the University of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you complete your educational training ? 

Dr. Lubin. In 1934. 

Mr. Tavenner. So you began immediately upon the completion of 
your preparation for dentistry, the practice of dentistry in Albany? 

Dr. Lubin. Yes, sir. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. Dr. Lubin, there has been testimony before this 
committee during this week, and there has been investigation con- 
ducted by the staff of this committee which indicates that you have 
or sliould have knowledge of the oi)erations of the Communist Party 
in this area, and I would like to call upon you to answer certain ques- 
tions regarding Communist Party activities in this area. I would 
like you to tell the committee, for instance, all that you know, if any- 
thing, regarding the plan of the Communist Party to raise money in 
this area for the purposes of the party. Do you have knowledge of 
such matters ? 

Dr. Lubin. I would like to decline to answer this question on the 
basis of the first and fifth amendment. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. You state that you would like to decline. 

Mr. Lubin. I do decline. 

Mr. Tavenner. IVIr. John Davis identified you as a member of the 
professional cell or group of the Communist Party in Albany during 
the period of 1946 and 1947. Was he telling the truth in identifying 
you as a member of that group? 

Dr. Lubin. I decline to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Dr. Lubin. I decline' to answer this question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you made any contribution of any character 
to the Communist Party? 

Dr. Lubin. I decline to answer this question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Dr. Lubin. I decline to answer this question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Kearney. The witness is excused. 
Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Sidney Belinky. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
shall be the truth, the" whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Belinky. I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2539 

TESTIMONY OF SIDNEY BELINKY, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

FRANKLIN P. GAVIN 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Belinky. Sidney Belinky. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your last name, please? 

Mr. Belinky. B-e-1-i-n-k-y. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. Are you accompanied by counsel? 

Mr. Belinky. I am, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Gavin. Franklin P. Gavin, 20^2 State Street, Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Belinky. In Albany, in March of 1920. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived in Albany all of your life? 

Mr. Belinky. I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your trade or profession ? 

IMr. Belinky. I am a laundry worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
educational training; has consisted of? 

Mr. Belinky. Well, the public school and high school. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you complete your high-school training? 

Mr. Belinky. I graduated in June of 1937. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Will you state briefly what your record of employ- 
ment has been since 1938 ? 

Mr. Belinky. Well, I've always done laundry work. 

Mr. Tavennkr, Have you been an employee of the Federal Govern- 
ment at any time? 

JMr. Belinky. No ; I have not, sir. 

Mr. Gavin. Mr. Chairman, I would like you to ask the photog- 
raphers to cease taking photographs while the witness is testifying 
and ask the radio broadcast 

Mr. Kearney. There will be no photographs taken when the wit- 
ness starts to testify, and, on your request, there will be no broadcast. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been an employee of the State of New 
York at any time? 

Mr. Belinky. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have been identified in the course of the testi- 
mony here as having been a member of the Communist Party in 
Albany during the years 1946 and 1947. I want to know first, whether 
or not that testimony is correct. If it is, then I will want to ask you 
questions regarding your knowledge of Communist Party activities 
here. So, first, will you state whether or not the identification of you 
was correct ? 

(At this point Mr. Belinky conferred with Mr. Gavin.) 

Mr. Belinky. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds that 
the testimony might incriminate — tend to incriminate or degrade me. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. I might say it has been decided by the highest court 
of the land that it would not be a sufficient legal excuse in answering 
a question to claim that to answer it might tend to degrade you. How- 
ever, you have relied upon the fifth amendment, which is recognized 
by the courts and by this committee as a proper ground for refusing 
to answer, if you are relying on it in good faith. 

Mr. Belinky, Yes ; I am relying on it in good faith. 



2540 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Beltnky. Same answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Ejearney. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to call as the next witness Mr. Samuel 
Evens. 

Will Mr. Samuel Evens come forward, please? 

JVIr. Kearney. Will you stand and hold up your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give before this com- 
mittee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mr. Evens. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL EVENS 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Evens. My name is Samuel Evens. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Evens ? 

Mr. Evens. I was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., February 15, 1908. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are 5^ou accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Evens. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is the practice of the committee to explain to every 
witness who appears before it that he has the right to counsel, if he so 
desires it, and that he has a right at any time during the course of his 
testimony to consult counsel. So, I want to make certain that you 
understood that. 

Mr. Evens. I did. 

Mr. Taa'Enner. I understand, you do not desire counsel at the 
moment ? 

Mr. Evens. Not at the moment. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation, Mr. Evens ? 

Mr. Evens. I am an examiner for the State of New York, in the 
department of taxation and finance. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been engaged in that work ? 

Mr. Evens. I started employment there February 2, 1942, and I am 
still there at present. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Evens. Public school, higli scliool, and a number of years at 
evening college. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you complete your college work ? 

Mr. Evens. To the best of my knowledge, it was sometime in June 
1932. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your rec- 
ord of employment has been since, say, the year 1938 ? 

Mr. Evens. I was employed in New York with a wholesale and 
leather finance concern prior to coming to work for the State of New 
York, and that was prior to 1938. It was sometime either '32 or 
'33 that I went to work for them, and stayed there until February 2, 
1942. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was your next employment ? 

Mr. Evens. I went to work for the State of New York on February 
2, 1942. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE ALBANY AREA 2541 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you engage in that work? 

Mr. Evens. In Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you come to Albany at that time for the first 
time ? 

Mr. E\T!:ns. That's correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain in the State employment 
in Albany ? 

Mr. Evens. Until May 1, 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. After May 1, 1948, how were you employed ? 

Mr. Evens. I was transferred to New York, where I took up my 
duties as an examiner there. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. And you have been in New York since that time ? 

Mr. E^^ENS. Since that time ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. There has been testimony before this committee 
and the investigation of the staff has also disclosed that you were a 
member of the Communist Party during the period that you were 
employed by the State of New York in the city of Albany; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Evens. That's correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you first join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Evens. In May of 1940. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was about 2 years prior to your coming to 
the city of Albany ? 

Mr. Evens. That's right, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances under which you first became a member and the group to which 
you were assigned ? 

Mr. E^^ENS. Well, I had been reading a lot about various things in 
the papers, and I used to hear the Communists talk at street corners, 
and I l3egan to read some of their literature, and I began to feel that 
they, at least, offered somewhat of a solution to some of the personal 
prohlems that were affecting me. 

I was working extremely hard at that time and was getting very 
little in the way of salary. I had a family to support, and I found 
the going very difficult and, havino; heard them at street corners and 
having read their literature, I came to the conclusion that they were 
operating in the interests of the American people. 

Therefore, one day I just decided I would like to join them, and I 
went up to some address on New Utrecht Avenue in Brooklyn, and I 
asked to join the party. I imagine after some preliminary investi- 
gation they decided to accept me. 

Mr. Tavenner. What group or unit of the Communist Party was it 
you were assigned to? 

Mr. Evens. It was a neighborhood branch. What the name was, I 
couldn't tell yovi. I don't remember at this point. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Evens. I know I definitely left the Communist Party on May 
1, 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. Which was the date that you left the city of Albany ? 

All right ; let's go back to the time you first joined the party. After 
you were assigned to a neighborhood group of the Communist Party, 
were you given any course of instruction or indoctrination into the 
work of the party ? 



2542 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Evens. They had some study gi'oups which met in private homes. 
I cannot tell you where they met, because I do not remember. The 
g7'oup that met more or less represented new recruits and tlie ideology 
of the party was gone over in a general way, and we were asked to 
give our views of questions, and that w^as the way the course was run. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall at this time the general character of 
the literature you say was given to you for study ? 

Mr. Evens. Well, there were always pamphlets being issued cover- 
ing current situations. Then there were pamphlets covering the 
classical literature put out by the Communist Party, such as Stalinism, 
Leninism, and various works they had written. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether the History of the Soviet 
Union was one? 

Mr. Evens. Well, there was one book that is known as the History 
of the CPU — Soviet Union— but I read that before I enrolled in the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did your participation in Communist Party activ- 
ities in New York have any bearing of any character upon your being 
employed in the city of Albany ? 

Mr. Eatcns. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your transfer to the city of Albany was entirely 
independent of any Communist Party membership or activity on your 
part ? 

Mr. Evens. It absolutely had no bearing. I had taken the exami- 
nation for the job some time in 1937, when I was not a member of the 
Communist Party, and I was reached for appointment on February 
2, 1942. 

Mr. Tavenner. After you were transferred to work in Albany, 
what was the first contact that you had with the Communist Party 
here ? 

Mr. E^^ENS. Well, I received the appointment on a temporary basis, 
and on April 25, 1942, I was told that the job would be given to me 
permanently. 

I believe that after that a person who is now deceased contacted 
me and asked me to come around to a meeting of the Comnmnist Party, 
and I went with him. I believe the meeting was at Italian Hall. 
I couldn't be quite certain about it. 

Mr, Tavenner. Do you recall how that individual learned of your 
Communist Party associations in New York, if he did know of it? 

Mr. Evens. Well, I can only surmise that, because, I may have been 
in contact with some people in New York and they evidently wrote 
him that I had been a member in New York, and he had this informa- 
tion, and he came to me and told me that he knew I had been a member 
and asked me if I would join the party up here. 

Mr, Tavenner. As a result of that invitation, did you join the 
Communist Party here? 

Mr. E^^:NS. I joined the Communist Party up here. 

Mr, Tavenner, That was in April 1942, 

Did you remain a member of the Communist Party in the city of 
Albany until you left here in May 1948 ? 

Mr. Evens. That's correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, in a general 
"way, the nature of the work of the Communist Party as you experi- 
enced it while you were here ? 



COMIVrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBAJSTY AREA 2543 

Mr. Evens. Well, we would generally meet some time in the Public 
Hall. During the war I believe the meetings were more public than 
private because, in general, the Communist Party was one with the 
aims of the Government prosecuting the war against Germany. So, 
there was no effort on their part, I believe, at that time to conceal 
their activities; and later on, toward the end of the war, when the 
party basically began to disagree with the Government and change 
its attitude toward the Government, in the sense that it supported 
Russia rather than the United States, it began to meet in private 
homes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were those secret meetings ? 

Mr. Evens. Well, that's hard to say because we weren't specifically 
told they were secret. That is, I believe so, but in general I would 
say that party members would be informed in one way or another. 
Of course, occasionally you might be asked to bring along somebody 
who could be trusted. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was the organizer for the Communist Party in 
this area when you first became a member? 
Mr. Evens. When I first became a member ? 

]\Ir. Tavenner. I mean when you first affiliated with the party in 
Albany. 

Mr. Evens. Oh, there was so many changes of organizers that I 
am unable to state at present who those organizers were. 

The party up here — the group — appeared to be functioning very 
badly. They couldn't attract any new membership, and whatever it 
tried fell flat. So, there was constant prodding by someone — who it 
was, I don't know — to get something done up here, and naturally any 
organizer that came up here just couldn't make any headway, and the 
result was they didn't last long enough for me to get to know them. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many Communist Party organizers were there 
during the period of your membership here, if you can recall ? 

Mr. Evens. I wouldn't be too specific about it, but there might have 
been anywhere from 5 to 10 different organizers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you remember at this time the names of any of 
them ? 

Mr. Ei-ENS. I do not, sir. They changed so rapidly. I may have 
seen them at one or two meetings, and then I didn't see them again. 
Mr. Tavenner. You state that you met at the homes of the members 
particularly after the time there seemed to be a divergence in purposes 
between the Communist Party and the policies of the United States. 
Will you state the names of the persons in wdiose homes your group 
met ? 

Mr. Evens. Various homes — Morris Zuckman's, and a number of 
others. I don't remember them all. I remember the names, but I do 
not remember just what particular homes we met in. I know — I know 
a John Davis came up here. Most of the meetings were held in his 
home. His home became the meeting place for the average — for the 
meetings that took place after he came up. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you discover during the course of j^our mem- 
bership here there were separate groups of the Communist Party 
here ? 

Mr. E^^ENS. There was a lot of talk about setting up separate groups, 
but they didn't have much success. 



2544 coMivruNisT activities in the Albany area 

There was talk about a Nob Hill group. There was talk about a 
South End group. They tried to set them up, but they didn't succeed 
very well. In other words, they might have one meeting, and they 
just couldn't get together for another 6 months. That would apply 
particularly to the South End group, but as far as I know the Nob 
Hill gi'oup was never actually in being. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend meetings of various groups that 
were here? 

Mr. Evens. Well, the group I attended — I don't know what they 
called it — that was the central group, you might say, I attended I 
would say 99 percent of the time those were the meetings I attended — 
were the central group in Albany. 

Mr. Tavenner. The central group ? 

Mr. Evens. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not recall the name of the group ? 

Mr. Evens. I don't know that it had — the name might be the Albany 
Communist Party. That would be 

Mr, Tavenner. Will you describe as nearly as you can the type of 
employment of the individuals who made up that group ? 

Mr. Evens. Well, there were State employees, housewives, profes- 
sional men, some businessmen. As far as workers were concerned, to 
my knowledge there was only one in the time I was up here — that is, 
an actual person who worked in industry — because the party never 
seemed to be able to attract that type of person into its ranks. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was that one group you spoke of in labor? 

Mr. Evens. Well, what I mean is this was one particular group and 
it met in various homes. 

Mr. Tavenner. A group has been described here as the profes- 
sional group, and the testimony was that members of professions and 
most of the members who were employed by the State belonged to it. 
Is that the group of which you were a member? 

Mr. Evens. Well, I don't know that they called it a professional 
group. It was just a general group. In other words, the member- 
ship in Albany was so few in numbers that outside of talk in splitting 
it up in groups, there was no point in having more than one group. 
What they called it, to the best of my knowledge, would be the Albany 
Communist Party. 

Mr. ScHERER. What type of profession or occupation did the people 
who belonged to this group you are describing engage in? 

Mr. Evens. A minority of this group were State employees — that 
is, from the viewpoint of numbers — but they exercised the effective 
control of the party. 

Mr. ScTiERER. Was there any other group that had a larger number 
within the party here in Albany than the State employees? 

Mr. Evens. Not particularly. They were divided. In other words, 
the number I knew, which possibly might be around 37 — about 10 or 
11 were State employees, which would indicate that the State em- 
ployees themselves were a minority; but, of course, some had their 
wives belonging to it and then the rest would consist of housewiveSy 
and 1 or 2 businessmen, a professional man — I mean about 2 or 3^ 
professional men — and so forth. Actually what happened was that, 
while the group was of a certain number, most of the meetings would 
be attended by State employees. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2545 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, they comprised the largest single group within 
the party, did they not? 

Mr. Evens. I believe that is correct, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Although they were in the minority, they composed 
the largest single group ; is that what you are trying to tell us ? 

Mr. Evens. Thafs correct, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. And they dominated the party activities here in 
Albany ? 

Mr. E\T3NS. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many employees were there in your particular 
branch of government work? 

Mr. Evens. You mean where I was employed ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Evens. Well, it varied from time to time, but I think at one 
time it reached as much as 150 people. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there any special concentration of Communist 
Party members in that group? 

Mr. Evens. No, sir ; I was the only one, plus another fellow, who 
was a member of the Communist Party. In other words, of the total, 
of the amount of people in the oihce, only two were Communists. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there any effort made by the Communist 
Party to attempt to infiltrate any particular branch of the State 
government ? 

Mr. E-^HENs. Well, outside of the ordinary union activity that went 
on, we had the United Public Workers up there, and they always 
took the position that they'd like to see the State employees gets a 
raise. So the union, or through the efforts of fellows like myself — we 
would pass out leaflets urging the employees to request raises or 
increases of pay. 

Mr, Scherer. That wasn't hard, was it ? 

Mr. Evens. What was that? 

Mr. Scherer. I said that wasn't difficult, was it? 

Mr. E^^NS. No. I mean, you could always get the State employees 
to agree to that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, the point I am asking and inquiring about is 
whether or not, in your judgment, there was any effort of the Com- 
munist Party to increase its membership among State employees 
because they were State employees, or was it because of the oppor- 
tunities that it gave for developing union work ? 

Mr. Evens. If they made any effort to infiltrate, it was through the 
union, in the sense that if you could get people to do it — join the 
union — eventually you might be able to get them to understand the 
Communist point of view ; but actually I don't believe any efforts were 
made — that is, I, personally, wouldn't inject Communist ideology in 
the office in that sense. That is, to my knowledge, I wouldn't inject 
it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; but the effort would be made through con- 
tacts by party members with the unions among the State employees? 

Mr. Evens. Through the United Public Workers. They would 
pass out these various leaflets and, of course, trying to interest the 
employees in bettering their conditions. 

Mr. Scherer. Who was the author of the leaflets ? 

Mr. Evens. Well, as far as I know, the union put it out itself, and 
just where the source of it was I'm unable to state. Of course, they 



2546 coMivruNiST activities in the Albany area 

had contacts with the New York office, and naturally they would get 
ideas, I imagine, from that source because the union was operating 
throughout the entire State. 

Mr. SciiEKER. Of course, that is a legitimate union activity. The 
question is: Did the Communist group itself dominate the unions 
here, or that union, particularly the union you are talking about? 

Mr. Evens. I would say that since most of the members were Com- 
munists that they did dominate the union here. I mean we had very 
few State employees in it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Approximately how many State employees were 
there, to your knowledge, who were members of the Communist Party 
at any one time w^hile you were here ? 

Mr. Evens. In the office were two. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not speaking of just your office. 

Mr. Evens. I would say about 9 or 10. I mean, if I were to enu- 
merate them, I would be more exact. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is the number you can recall ? 

Mr. Evens. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of all of those whom 
you can recall among the State employees who were known to you to 
be members of the Commmiist Party ? 

Mr. Evens. Am I allowed to refer to notes? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; if you desire. 

Mr. Evens. There was liena Dodd, Betty Laros, John Wright, and 
Arthur Wright, who I understand resigned later on. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, just a moment. How was Arthur Wright 
employed ? Do you recall ? 

Mr. Evens. Well, outside of what I read in the newspapers, I didn't 
know exactly. 

Mr. Tati-ennek. You have no recollection of your own as to how 
he was employed at that time ? 

Mr. Evens. No ; I knew he was employed by the State, but I didn't 
know exactly where. 

Mr. Tavenner. And how is it that you know he w^as a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ea^ens. Well, I sometimes woidd see him at Communist Party 
meetings. 

Mr. Kearney. There was no one outside of Communists allowed 
at these Connnunist Party meetings, was there ? 
• Mr. Evens. That is correct. 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, that would be a meeting of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Evens. Well, I would say, according to the way you put it, 
except on very rare occasions the attendance at the party meetings 
would be that of party members. 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, what you would call closed meetings ? 

Mr. Evens. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, do you recall that he took any part in the 
discussions at the Communist Party meetings at which you saw him ? 

Mr. Evens. Well, 1 would say Arthur Wriglit was not very active 
at these meetings. He was a quiet sort of felloAv and didn't go in 
much for discussion. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with John Wright? 
Mr. Evens. I am, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2547 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he also a member of tlie Communist Party 
group? 

Mr. Evens. He was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether there was any close rela- 
tionship between John Wright and Arthur Wright? 

Mr. Evens. I knew they were brothers. 

Mr. Kearney. But John was not the quiet type ? 

Mr. Evens. Well, I mean — that's a matter of interpretation. 

Mr. SciiERER. That is what ? 

Mr. Evens. He was considerably more active than his brother, if 
that is what you mean. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, was John Wright a State employee ? 

Mr. E\t.ns. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. I interrupted you in stating the names of those 
who were members of the Communist Party among State employees. 
Will you proceed, please? 

Mr. Evens. There was Bill Bottcher, who left the State employ. 
I don't recollect just when. 

. Mr. Ta\'enner. Let me state this to you : If during the period of 
your membership you had reason to believe that any of the pei-sons 
whose names you are now giving to the committee withdrew from the 
Communist Party, I would like for you to state so. 

Mr. Evens. Well, I stated that I'^believe that Arthur Wright with- 
drew or resigned. I once met him, and he told me he was resigning. 
That's as far as it went. I don't recollect whether I ever saw him again 
at any meetings, but I know that he did tell me he was resigning. 

Mr. Ta%'enner. Did he state the reason? 

Mr. Evens. No, sir ; he didn't give me any particular reason. 

There was Bill Bottcher. He left the State employ. Whether he 
resigned or not, I don't know. 

There was Irving Gold. 

And then there was Leon Shapiro. 

When John Davis was forced out or resigned from the Communist 
Party, Leon Shapiro got pretty mad about the whole thing and he said 
he was quitting the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did Shapiro get mad about? 

Mr. Evens. I know there was some sort of argument over whether 
Davis was to exercise leadership or not in the party, outside — of course, 
I read in the papers 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, don't state what you read in the papers. 

Mr. Evens. No ; I see. 

I didn't know exactly with whom Davis had the argument and what 
it was all about. I didn't know at that time, but I thought that he 
did have an argument with Morris Zuckman. I don't know of him 
having an argument with anybody else, and Leon Shapiro was pretty 
mad about this, and after Davis resigned said he was getting out of 
the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you at that point : Were you personally 
acquainted with Morris Zuckman ? 

Mr. Evens. I was, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have any personal knowledge of the dispute 
that arose between Da\as and Zuckman about the control of the party 
activities ? 



2548 COiVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Evens. I had no personal knowledge at that time. It was never 
told to me. I believe I asked, but nobody ever told me what it was. 
That's the impression I get now. 

Mr. Tavennek. All right, proceed. 

Mr. Evens. Do you want me to continue? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, You are now giving us the names of the per- 
sons who were State employees, who were known to you to be members 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Evens. Elias Schwarzbart. 

I don't see any others here. 

Did I mention David Rappaport? 

Mr. Tavenner. No ; you have not. Was he a member ? 

Mr. Evens. He was, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee w^hether or not he was 
active in the Communist Party affairs ? 

Mr. Evens. I would say he was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of this group of the Communist 
Party at the time you left it in May 1948 ? 

Mr. Evens. I couldn't be certain, sir, but I know he was a member 
during the time I was there. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you know David Rappaport's wife ? 

Mr. Evens. I did. 

Mr. Scherer. Was she a member of the party ? 

Mr. Evens. I'm not absolutely certain, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were the wives of any of the other persons you have 
mentioned members of the Communist Party, to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Evens. Well, I couldn't be certain, but — — 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. I don't want you to mention the 
name of any person you are not certain about. 

Mr. Evens. Well, then, I couldn't say. I couldn't say. I mean, I 
saw their wives around, but whether they were members, I couldn't 
say. 

Mr. Scherer. You say you saw them around. You mean at Com- 
munist Party meetings? 

Mr. Evens. Well, I may have been introduced to them in a casual 
way, and I wasn't quite certain whether they were members of the 
party or not. That is to the best of my memory. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have stated there were housewives who were 
members of your group of the Communist Party. Possibly if you 
would tell us who they were at this time it might help us to clear 
that up. 

Mr. Evens. There was Hannah Shapiro. 

Mr. Tavenner. Hannah Shapiro. 

Mr. Evens. Clara Davis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. Hannah Shapiro was the wife of 
Leon Shapiro? 

Mr. Evens. Of Leon Shapiro. There was Clara Davis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio was her husband? 

Mr. Evens. John Davis was her husband. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

Mr. Evens. Then there was Frances Gordon Itskowitz. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was her husband's name ? 

Mr. Evens. Harry Gordon Itskowitz. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE ALBANY AREA 2549 

Mr. Tavenneb. Do you know whether Mrs. Gordon was referred 
to by some other name or some nickname ? 

Mr. Evens. Mike. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat about Harry Gordon himself ? 

Mr. 'Evens. Well, I understood he was an employee of the Federal 
Government. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, was he a member of the Communist Party 
or not ? 

Mr. Evens. He was. 

Well, then, there was Hilda Geller — G-e-1-l-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was her husband's name ? 

Mr. Evens. Louis Geller. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Evens. He was. 

Mr, Tavenner. All right. 

Mr. Evens. There was Anna Brickman, who, incidentally, was not 
very active. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell it, please ? 

Mr. Evens. B-r-i-c-k-m-a-n. 

Mr, Ta\'enner. All right. 

Mr. Evens. There was Evelyn Goldstein. 

There was Sarah Kaufman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. Do you recall the husband of 
Evelyn Goldstein ? 

Mr. Evens. Nathan Goldstein. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Was Nathan Goldstein a member of the Conununist 
Party? 

Mr. Evens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a Government employee ? 

Mr. Evens. No ; he was an upholsterer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether or not you attended a Com- 
munist Party meeting in her home ? 

Mr. E^^ENS. I think I did. I believe I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall any other circumstances regarding 
that meeting? 

Mr. Evens. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. As to who attended ? 

Mr. E\t:ns. There was nothing unusual in any of the meetings we 
attended there, outside of the discussions that were always going on. 

There was one unusual occasion when I was introduced to John 
Davis as the new organizer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where ? 

Mr. Evens. There was one occasion I was introduced to John Davis 
as the new organizer, 

Mr, Tavenner. A\Tiere did that meeting take place ? 

Mr. Evens. At Evelyn Goldstein's house. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, if you will continue with the housewives. 

Mr. Evens. There was Sarah Kaufman. 

Then there was Harriet Belinky. I was under the impression that 
both Harriet Belinky and Sidney Belinky resigned at one time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Resigned from what? 

Mr. Evtens. From the Communist Party. 

Mr, Tavenner. You say at one time. 



2550 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES m THE ALBANY' AREA 

Mr. ES^Ns. I know they said they were resigning, and I don't 
recall seeing them around for a long time, if at all, before I left 
Albany. 

I mean, this is something I'm telling you from memory. I'm giving 
you my impressions as I go along. 

There was Flo Cohen, but 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name? 

Mr. E\T.NS. C-o-h-e-n. 

But I don't believe I saw them more than once or twice at Commu- 
nist Party meetings. 

Her husband, Ralph, was in the same category. I may have seen 
him once or twice. 

See, I couldn't pin myself down as to the number of times I saw 
these people. 

And there was one girl there who had something to do with Russian 
relief. I cannot remember her name at all. Well, she and her 
husband I assume were members of the Communist Party, but I am 
unable to remember their names. I know he worked over at the 
Jewish Center. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. If there is any uncertainty in your 
mind about their having been members of the group, don't speculate 
about it. 

Mr. Evens. There was no uncertainty in my mind they were mem- 
bers of the group, but I don't remember their names. 

As I said before, his wife had something to do with the Russian 
relief. She was active in that, and he worked as sort of a physical 
instructor over at the Jewish Center. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any other housewives who were mem- 
bers of the group you have not named ? 

Mr. Evens. I'm not certain in what category to put Amalia Cuc- 
chiara or Crago. I know that she was employed at one time either by 
the Federal or the State. So, I don't know whether to classify her 
as a housewife. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you are uncertain as to how she should be 
classified as to employment, but what about membership in the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Evens. Well, she was a member. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat is her name ? 

Mr. Evens. Amalia Cucchiara or Crago. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with her husband ? 

Mr. Evens. I was, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was his name ? 

Mr. Evens. He was known as Joe Cucchiara or Crago. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Was he a member of your Communist group or not? 

Mr. Evens. He was. 

Wait — there's another housewife — I don't know if I — there are a 
couple more there. 

Jeanette Dworkin; did I mention her? 

And Stella Gold. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wlio was the husband of Mrs. Dworkin ? 

Mr. Evens. Mike Dworkin. 

Mr. Tavenner. How was he employed ; do you know ? 

Mr. Evens. I understand he had some connection with the Federal 
Government. I wasn't quite certain just what it was. 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2551 

Mr. Tan^nner. Was he a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Evens. Yes, sir ; he was. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mentioned the name of Stella Gold. What was 
her husband's name? 

Mr. En'ens. Irving Gold. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have previously identified him in your testi- 
mony as having been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Evens. That's correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. I see you have a list before you there which you have 
testified from. Did you prepare that list of names after considering 
the whole question of membership ? 

Mr. E\^NS. That's correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there any other persons besides those that you 
have mentioned who were known to you to be members of the Com- 
munist Party in Albany ? 

Mr. Evens. Janet Scott. 

Mr. Tavenner. How was she employed? 

Mr. Evens. I understood she was a newspaperwoman. 

Mr. Evens. "Wliat was that name ? 

Mr. Evens. Janet Scott. 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you spell the first name ? 

Mr. Evens. J-a-n-e-t. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether or not she held any office or 
position in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Evens. None that I can remember. I know she was active, but 
1 don't know she held any particular office. 

Mr. Taat:nner. What was the nature of her activity, if you can 
recall ? 

Mr. Evens. I'm sorry to say I don't know sir. Outside of the fact 
she was a newspaperwoman, I didn't know what she did outside the 
party meetings that we held. She would be there, and she would at 
times be in the discussions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there others that you can identify ? 

Mr. Evens. There was John Piziomek, a barber. He was very 
active. 

There was Alexander Kolker. He was about the only one in the 
party who had any connection with industry. He worked in the rail- 
road yards, I believe. 

There was Harold Klein. He was not a member of our group 
directly, but he used to come over from Schenectady and coordinate the 
activities of the group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he an organizer for the party ? 

Mr. Evens. He was an organizer ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was a paid functionary? 

Mr. Evens. I believe so, sir. 

There was Kelly Bud Douglas. I loiow him as Bud Douglas. 

Then there was Dr. Louis Lubin. 

(Representative Bernard W. Kearney left the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. Evens. I believe I've named all of them, to the best of my 
ability. Wait a minute — there's Bob Arnold. He was over at the 
Federal and then he left. I understand he went back to Nebraska. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am sorry. I didn't understand you. Would you 
give that name again, please? 



2552 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Evens. Bob Arnold. He was also in the Federal service, but 
he left, and the last I heard was he had gone back to Nebraska. 

I've given it to you not in the order which I gave them here; it's 
conceivable I haven't mentioned someone. So —  — 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall a person by the name of William 
Winston ? 

Mr. Evens. Yes, sir ; I saw him one time. 

Mr. Tavenner. What were the circumstances ? 

Mr. Evens. This, I remember, was a meeting held in Italian Hall, 
and apparently the Communist Party of New York, to my knowledge, 
was so distressed over the lack of activity and the inability of the 
Communist Party to function here that they sent him down. I think 
it had something to do with the ousting of Earl Browder at that time, 
and he came down specifically for the purpose of getting the party to 
rally around the decisions made by the national party in New York, 
and also to try to get us to be more active, and he lectured us for about 
a half hour. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall any other occasions when function- 
aries of the Communist Party came here from New York and took part 
in your meetings ? 

Mr. Evens. Well, there was one fellow, who I believe was a clerg}^- 
man, who came to see us, and he sort of tied in religion with the Com- 
munist ideology, only he didn't quite succeed because nobody seemed 
to want to believe him. I fail to recall his name. I know that he wrote 
for the Daily Worker, and that is about all I could say about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. "\^niere was he from? 

Mr. Evens. Well, I know he lived in New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you say he came here, you mean that he 
came to Albany ? 

Mr. Evens. That's correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated that on May 1, 1948, you left the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Evens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. What were vour reasons for leaving the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Evens. Well, I began to realize that the policy of the United 
States and Russia was not in agreement, and I felt rather unquiet 
about the whole situation, because I felt that, as an American, as a 
native-born American, I had to place my country's interests first, and 
I began to have the feeling that the Communist Party was not in ac- 
cord with the same feeling I had, and I began to realize that after 
1945 Russia was forcing other countries under its domination in 
Europe to become Communist, and they did it through force and vio- 
lence; and all these things made me feel that T had to think twice 
about whether I should belong to the Communist Party or not. 

(Representative Bernard W. Kearney returned to the hearing room 
at this point. ) 

Mr. E^^NS. I began to do some reading of my own, which had abso- 
lutely no connection with the Communist Party literature, and it 
graduallv became clear to me that the Communist ideas were not 
quite as valid as I had thought them previously; and I came to the 
conclusion that our American system, which had been built up by 
individual initiative and freedom of thought, freedom of religion, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2553 

and everything contained in the Bill of Eights, and I felt this had 
done far more for America than Communist ideology ever could do. 

I also realized America had built up a marvelous industrial capacity, 
something that had never been seen in the world before, and with that 
capacity to produce America could not go wrong very far. In other 
words, it had the means by which it could produce every conceivable 
necessity that the people of this country could want. 

And with that thought in mind I be^an to realize whereas in Europe 
the Kussians were trying to industrialize their country and deny the 
people the ordinary decencies of life because of the tendency to 
rapidly industrialize, in the sense they built up far more ammunition 
than they did goods that were needed by the people for living— I felt 
that was wrong — that people were on this world in order to live and 
not to be made sacrifices for a small group. 

Of course, it's true that we had a depression in this country, and it 
was pretty tough on us, and I realized that the American people had 
taken all "that into consideration; they had learned a very valuable 
lesson from the depression, and that if it were possible they were going 
to avoid it. 

The original reason I joined the Communist Party was, as I said 
})efore — I had been working very hard, and under very difficult con- 
ditions, and I thought that from what the Communists said that they 
were trying to make conditions better for the American people in 
general. They claimed they were in the forefront of the activity to 
get us social security, unemployment insurance, minimum wage laws, 
and they claimed they had fought anti-Semitism, and so forth ; and I 
also admired the fact that — I'd rather put it this way : The war in 
Europe had broken out and Hitler was indulging in an orgy of cruelty 
that had never existed in the world before. He was murdering people, 
Jewish people especially, by the millions, and it seemed to me there 
was no effective voice raised to put a stop to it — and I realized if this 
went on that sooner or later somebody would have to unite to stop 
Hitler from gaining world domination ; and as he conquered the coun- 
tries in Europe, I realized there were only two forces in the world 
that could possibly stop him — and that was America and Russia. 

Those were the reasons I joined the party, but as I said before, I 
realized later on that there were other considerations, such as I ex- 
plained before, which led me to leave, and I haven't had any contact 
with the party since. 

Mr. ScHERER. You know today the Communist Party — the Com- 
munist conspiracy — is anti-Semitic, don't you ? 

Mr. Evens. I believe so, sir. I 

Mr. ScHERER. You were originally led to believe it was opposed to 
anti-Semitism; is that right? 

Mr. Evens. That's right. I was originally led to believe that. 

Mr. Scherer. But the party line has changed, as recent events have 
established, in that respect? 

Mr. Evens. They may have established that, but eventually their 
purpose is to do away with religion. Of course, they have a philosophy 
about it. It may sound attractive at first reading, but on close exami- 
nation you'll find out it doesn't stand up. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, that philosophy has to be somewhat attractive 
to attract people to the Soviet conspiracy or the Soviet thoughts ? 



2554 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 

Mr. Evens. Naturally; but, personally I have been brought up in 
the Jewish religion, and I feel there is no force in the world that would 
make me abandon it, because I still try to maintain certain features of 
it, such as going to the synagogue on occasion and attending synagogue 
on the high holidays and observing various things in my home that 
are a part of the Jewish faith, and such as confirming my son when he 
is 13 — when he was 13. All these things mean far more to me than 
anything that communism could teach me. 

Mr. SciiERER. In other words, while the Communist philosophy on 
the surface may appear attractive for the purpose of ensnaring peo- 
ple to the Communist ideology, nevertheless, they don't practice what 
they preach; is that what you mean? 

Mr. Evens. Well, that's the contradiction. It's got a nice wrapper, 
but underneath the contents aren't so good. 

Mr. Kearney. I understand, Mr. Evens, after you were subpenaed, 
you had a conference with Mr. Keniry, and at that time I understand 
you told him you were going to cooperate fully with the committee. 

Mr. Evens. I did, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. And you have, and I understand also that you are 
still working with the State. 

Mr. Evens. That's correct, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, it is individuals like you, who show their co- 
operation, to whom we like to show our cooperation also, and we 
certainly intend to advise your superior officers that you have cooper- 
ated to the fullest extent with this committee and we are going to do 
all in our power to see that you do keep working for the State of New 
York. 

It is an act of courage for you to come down here today, and you 
have shown by your testimony the exact contradiction of several other 
State employees who came before this committee on previous occa- 
sions and who arrogantly refused to answer any questions under their 
legal entitlements, as they said they were acting in good faith, which 
the Chair doesn't believe for 1 minute ; but I did allow them to refuse 
to answer, as I felt it was my duty. 

However, there is a great comparison between your testimony here 
today and the testimony of other State officers who resigned by request 
and who refused to cooperate in any manner. 

We think that it is the duty of all good Americans to cooperate 
with this committee because there is a criminal communistic con- 
spiracy existing in this country. The sooner the people wake up, the 
better off we are going to be as a Nation. 

Are there any further questions, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. E^^ENS. May I add something, sir? 

Mr. Kearney. Yes; you certainly can. 

Mr. Evens. I would like to say this : All those people who are mem- 
bers or have been members of the Communist Party — if they would 
turn around and attempt to reorient their ideas in connection with 
what they believe about communism, not to feel that this particular 
idea is the sole existing idea in the world that will provide the salva- 
tion, but to turn around and read things written by great men, perhaps 
even to read the Bible or to read other sources of economics, that they 
will readily begin to see that perhaps those particular Communist 
ideas they possess are not as valid as they would like to think. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ALBANY AREA 2555 

We are witnessing now in Russia a struggle for power that should 
convince any except a fanatic that the leaders are not out to operate 
in the interests of the people in their countries. They, as Time aptly 
put it — where in the United States we have free elections and you can 
turn a man out of office when you think he's no longer fit, it's very 
doubtful if you can do that in Russia except through the process of 
murder. 

If the past week and the happenings in Russia haven't convinced 
these people, then I say to them that they sooner or later are in for a 
sad disillusionment ; and I honestly feel if they will reconsider their 
stand, they will realize that they have gotten and will get far more 
out of America than they could possibly get out of a nation across 
the sea which is ruled in a dictatorial and arbitrary manner. 

Mr. Ej:arney. Thank you; 

Mr. Counsel, are there any further witnesses ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. As the chairman of this subcommittee, I would like 
to make the following statement : 

As the subcommittee of the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities completes its present hearings in the city of Albany, there 
are several matters which I feel should be called to the attention of 
the public. 

Two men occupying responsible positions in locals 471 and 583 of 
the Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Union stated to the press in 
advance of the hearings that they proposed to appear as voluntary 
witnesses and give the committee all the facts within their knowledge 
regarding their past Communist Party activities. There is nothing 
unusual about the fact that they testified freely and extensively regard- 
ing their former Communist Party membership, as this has been done 
on many other occasions by many other witnesses. However, it is 
apparent that the leadership and rank-and-file members of these 
respective locals encouraged these witnesses to take this commendable 
action. This is a clear indication to the subcommittee that these 
locals are assuming and will continue to assume their full share of 
responsibility in disclosing and eradicating the Communist conspiracy 
in our midst. 

The committee has exercised extreme care in conducting its hearings 
in such manner as not to interfere in any way with internal disputes 
within a labor union, or in controversies between management and 
labor. The committee, as often stated, is interested only in the inves- 
tigation of Communist activities of individuals who, through the 
manipulations of the Conununist Party, have seized positions of 
leadership in important segments of the social, economic, and political 
life of this country. 

The committee recognizes the complete cooperation extended by the 
Honorable Thomas E. Dewey, chief executive of the State of New 
York — and I, personally, would like to add my thanks to the Honor- 
able Patrick J. Keniry for his activities during the past week. 

The thanks of the committee and the Congress of the United States 
is given to the police and security agencies of this area. We are 
indebted to the United States marshal's office and the police depart- 
ment of Albany, without whose continuing assistance and coopera- 
tion it would have been difficult to properly conduct these hearings. 



2556 coMivruNiST activities in the Albany area 

We would also like to express our appreciation to the superintendent 
of the Federal building, and to the employees of the building, whose 
unfailing courtesy and help have facilitated the orderly conduct of 
the work of the committee. 

We appreciate the courteous hospitality of the Honorable James T. 
Foley, United States district judge of the northern district of New 
York, for permitting us to use his courtroom and other facilities. 

To the gentlemen of the press and radio, the committee extends 
its thanks for giving full, complete, and objective coverage to these 
hearings. 

We are also grateful to the many citizens of the city of Albany and 
vicinity who have communicated their expressions of confidence and 
support to this committee in the performance of a difficult task. 

The committee hearings now stand adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 20 a. m., the hearing was adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Aaron, David 2505 

Arnold, Robert 2500, 2551, 2552 

Bayer, Philip 2518, 2519 

Belinky, Harriet (Mrs. Sidney Belinky) 2500,2549 

Belinky, Sidney 2500, 2538, 2539-2540 (testimony), 2549 

Bender, William 2477 

Blake, George 2481 

Bottcher, William (BiU) 2497,2547 

Brickman, Anna 2500,2549 

Brodskv, Carl 2480 

Browder, Earl 2482, 2483, 2552 

Cakoulis, Gus 2484, 2498 

Campas, Nick 2500, 2502 

Cohen, Flo (Mrs. Ralph Cohen) 2500, 2550 

Cohen, Ralph 2500,2550 

CoUoms, Albert L 2515-2522,2527-2535 

Cook, Amalia (nee Amalia Pesko; also known as Amalia Crago; Amalia 

Cncchiara ) 2499, 2550 

Cook. Joe (also known as Joe Crago ; Joe Cucchiara) _ 2499, 2550 

Crago, Amalia (nee Amalia Pesko; also known as Amalia Cook; Amalia 

Cncchiara) 2499, 2550 

Crago, Joe (also known as Joe Cook; Joe Cucchiara) 2499,2550 

•Cucchiara, Amalia (nee Amalia Pesko ; also known as Amalia Cook ; Amalia 

Crago) 2499, 2550 

Cucchiara, Joe (also known as Joe Crago; Joe Cook) 2499, 2550 

Dakchoylous, Kostas 2497, 2498 

Davis, Clara (Mrs. John Mills Davis) 2548 

Davis, John Mills 2473-2503 (testimony), 

2507, 2508, 2513, 2522, 2525, 2533-2535, 2538, 2543, 2547-2549 

Dewey, Thomas E 2555 

Dodd, Rena 2496, 2522-2524 (testimony), 2524, 254H 

Dorenz, Charles 2499 

Douglas, Kellv Bud 2551 

Dworkin, Jeanette 2484, 2497, 2550 

Dworkin, Michael (Mike) 2484,2497,2550 

Einstein, Albert 2488 

Evens, Samuel 2497, 2540-2555 (testimony) 

FialkofE, Si 2502,2503 

Foley, James T 2556 

Forbes, Henry 2480 

Foster, William Z 2530 

Gavin, Franklin P 2539-2540 

Geller, Hilda 2499, 2500. 2549 

Geller, Louis 2499, 2.500, 2549 

Gerson, Simon 2492, 2493 

Gold, Irving 2499, 2520-2522 (testimony), 2547, 2551 

Oold, Mike 2480 

Oold, Stella (Mrs. Irving Gold) 2484,2499,2550,2551 

■Goldstein, Evelyn (nee Evelyn Minsky) 2484, 

2493, 2500, 2508, 2533, 2534^2535 (testimony) , 2.549 
«oldst«in, Nathan 2493, 2500, 2549 

2557 



2558 INDEX 

Fag* 

Gordon, Harry (also known as Harry Gordon Itskowitz) 2500. 

2531-2533 (testimony) 

Gordon, Mike 2500 

Hatchigan, Don 2500 

Huston, Dr 2514 

Itskowitz, Frances Gordon (Mike) (Mrs. Harry Gordon Itskowitz) 2548, 2549 

Itskowitz, Harry Gordon (also known as Harry Gordon) 2531- 

2533 (testimony), 2548 

Jacobson, Helen 2476 

Kaufman, Sarah 2497, 2549 

Keniry, Patrick J 2514,2554,2555 

Klein, Harold 2481, 2484, 2489, 2493, 2497, 2502, 2508, 2534, 2551 

Kolker, Alexander (Al) 2485,2494,2405,2497,2551 

Kotick, Mary 2477 

Landsdale, Robert 2514 

Laros, Betty 2496, 2524-2526 (testimony), 2546 

Lewis, Robert 2510-2515. 2522-2526, 2537-2538 

Lubin, Louis J 2499, 2537-2538 (testimony), 2551 

Michaelson, William 2476-2479 

Minsky, Minnie 2500 

Oxnam, Bishop 2488 

Pesko, Amalia 2499 

Piziomek, John 2551 

Poziomek, John 2500 

Rappaport, Arpad David 2484, 2496, 2500, 2510-2515 (testimony) , 2548 

Rappaport, Mrs. Arpad David 2501, 2548 

Robeson, Paul 2491 

Roosevelt, Eleanor 2488 

Schneider, Dr 2514 

Schwarzbart, Elias M 2484, 2490, 2493, 2503-2510 (testimony), 2548 

Scott, Janet 2497, 2551 

Shapiro, Hannah 2499,2527-2530 (testimony), 2548 

Shapiro, Leon (I^o) 2496,2499,2547,2548 

Sidman, I. Nathan 2500 

Stathis, George 2498 

Tliompson, Robert 2481 

Wallach 2480 

Walsh, Pat 2488 

Weinstein, Evelyn 2499 

Weissman, Raphael H 2503-2510 

Winston, William 2552 

Wright, Arthur 2546. 2547 

Wright, John 2484, 2496, 2515-2520 (testimony), 2546, 2547 

Yerkes, A. Marburg 2506 

Zuckman, Morris 2484, 2487, 2488, 2490-2493, 2497, 2501, 2502, 2508, 2543, 2547 

OUGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

Albany State Teachers College 2527 

American Labor Party 2484, 2487, 2488, 2490-2493, 2497, 2499, 2502, 2508 

American League for Peace and Democracy 2477, 2481 

American Veterans' Committee 2496, 2497 

Barnard College 2523 

Brooklyn College 2521, 2527 

Brooklyn Law School 2503 

Capital District American Laljcr Pariy 2501 

Civil Aeronautics Administration 2531 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 2496 

Cornell University 2503 

Daily Worker 2474, 2475, 2483, 2492, 2552 

Division of Parole for the State of New York 2516 

Gimbel Bros., New York 2474, 2479 

Hotel and Restaurant Workers' Union 2497 

Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Union, Local 471 2555 

Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Union, Local 583 2555 

Iowa State College 2525 



INDEX 2559 

Fast 

Knickerbocker News 2497 

The Link 2494 

National Association for tlie Advancement of Colored People 2497 

National Association of Manufacturers 2520 

National Lawyers' Guild 2505, 2506 

Nebraska University Medical School 2525 

New York City Civil Service Commission 2521 

New York State Health Department 2525 

New York State Department of Civil Service 2521 

New York State Department of Social Welfare 2514 

New York State Division of Parole 2519 

New York State Health Department, Division of Laboratories 2523 

New York University 2521 

Philip Livingston High School. Albany, N. Y 2491 

Public Workers' Union 2496 

Rand School 2474 

Restaurant Workei'S Union 2498 

Retail-Wholesale Department Store Workers of America, Local 2 2478 

Rov-Rensselacr County American Labor Party 2500 

St. John's Law School 2503 

Todd Shipyards, Brooklyn ^ 2474 

Supreme Court of the United States 2530 

United Electrical, Local 301 2519 

United Public Workers 2545 

United States Weather Bureau 2500 

Weather Bureau 2502 

Weather Bureau, New York City 2531 



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