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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the Newark, N.J., area. Hearings"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 
IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA— PART II 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF EEPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



MAY 18, 19, AND JULY 13, 1955 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMEMl 

UNITED STATBS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTINQ OFFICB 

WASHINGTON : 1955 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, JK., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Thomas W. Bealb, Sr., Chief Clerk 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatwes of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STA^^DING COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Uu-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) Tlie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to malie from time to time investigations of (i) ttie extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attaclss 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjournetl, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

m 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

• ••••♦• 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commence men t of each Congress 
the following standing committees : 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

• •••••• 

RULE XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

• •*•••• 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



CONTENTS 



PART I 

May 16, 1955: Testimony of— Page 

Ernst Stuart Pollock 996 

Afternoon session : 

Stephen J. Rudich 1027 

Charles Nusser 1043 

Lt. John Owens 1056 

Charles Nusser (resumed) 1058 

May 17, 1955: Testimony of — 

Lewis M. Moroze 1068 

Louis Shapiro 1076 

Lewis M. Moroze (resumed) 1079 

James B. McLeish, Sr 1087 

Afternoon session : 

James B. McLeish, Sr. (resumed) 1105 

William Santora 1115 

Archer Cole 1119 

Abraham Alan Burdick 1127 

Ted Smorodin 1137 

PART II 

May 18, 1955: Testimony of— 

Anthony DeAquino 1145 

Julius Kolovetz 1168 

Anthony DeAquino (resumed) 1176 

Afternoon session: 

Gabriel Bloksberg 1180 

Robert Galina 1184 

Emil Asher 1188 

Esther Engle Liss 1195 

John Paradise 1200 

Katlierine Hoffman 1205 

Walter S. Poleshuck 1214 

May 19, 1955: Testimony of— 

David Rocklin 1219 

Joseph Fisher 1226 

Robert Lowenstein 1270 

Afternoon session: 

Perrv Zimmerman 1283 

Estelle Laba 1289 

Solomon Golat 1292 

Harold E. Lippman 1300 

Frances Etta Ormond 1305 

Joseph F. Job 1309 

July 13, 1955: Testimony of— 

Walter Barry 1313 

Index 1 

V 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEWARK, N. J., AREA— PART II 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 18, 1955 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Newark^ N . J. 
Public Hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 9:45 a. m., pursuant to recess, in the United States Courthouse, 
Newark, N. J., Hon. Clyde Doyle, chairman, presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Clyde Doyle and 
Gordon H. Scherer. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel, and Court- 
ney E. Owens, investigator. 

Mr, Doyle. Come to order, please. 

Let the record show that the quorum of the subcommittee is present, 
Mr. Scherer, of Ohio, and Mr, Doyle, of California. 

I wish again to express appreciation to those present in the court- 
room for their cooperation in the matter of being quiet so that the wit- 
nesses can be heard and the stenotypist can record the testimony. 

For the benefit of any counsel appearing with a witness, I wish to 
state that our rules expressly limit the right of any counsel for a wit- 
ness before this committee to advising the witness of his constitutional 
rights. We do not permit a lawyer to put the words in the mouth of a 
witness and tell him what to say, as a matter of fact. 

In other words, it is the witness that we are questioning and not the 
lawyer, and we expect the lawyer's cooperation in obeying the rules 
of this committee the same as he would be expected to observe the rules 
of a court. 

I have said before that we do not expect any manifestations of either 
approval or disapproval of any witness in the chair, or his testimony. 

We received two communications, among others, which I feel should 
be read into the record. One is from the Veterans of Foreign Wars, 
Essex County Council, 66 North Seventh Street, Newark, N. J., May 
11,1955: 

Hon. Francis Walter, M. C, 

Chairman, House Vn- American Activities Committee, 

Newark, N. J. 
Sib : At the Wednesday, May 11, meeting at the Essex County Council of the 
Veterans of Foreign Wars held in Roseland, N. J., a resolution was passed welcom- 
ing you and your committee to Newark and to Essex County. It was further 

1143 



1144 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

resolved on behalf of our 43 participating posts and 5,000 members to pledge our 
aid to your aforementioned committee in any and every way that we can be of 
service. 

Sincerely, „ ^ ^^ 

Roy C. Walker, 
County Commander, Essex County Council, VFW. 

In reading that into the record I want to compliment the VFW of 
Essex County Council and say that is one of the great patriotic orders 
of our country which has made a study of the functioning of the House 
Un-American Activities Committee and from every part of the Nation 
we have received the same type of communication commending the 
committee for its work and pledging the support of the VFW. 

So I have occasion again on behalf of Francis E. Walter, the chair- 
man, unavoidably absent today and yesterday, to thank the VFW of 
Essex County for this letter. • , u -. 

I received this telegram last night. In the picket line night before 
last I saw dozens and dozens of placards being carried, on which 
among other names or slogans appeared the word of "Corsi." I 
don't know why. This telegram speaks for itself. 

New York, May 17, 4 p. m. 
Congressman Clyde Doyle, 

Robert Treat Hotel, Newark, N. J.: 

Will you please make clear to the members of your committee that I completely 
repudiate the use of my name in connection with the demonstration staged in 
Newark yesterday. My views on the McCarran-Walter law do not modify or 
lessen my vigorous opposition to communism. 

(Signed) Edward Corsl 

I also insert in the record the full text of House Kesolution 151, 
adopted by the House of Kepresentatives on March 23, 1955, which 
amends the House rules governing not only this committee, but all 
investigative committees of the House of Representatives. 

This is the amendment to the rules which requires not less than two 
committee members present and which permits a witness to be repre- 
sented by counsel who may advise his client on his constitutional 
rights. 

(H. Res. 151 follows:) 

[H. Res. 151, 84th Cong., 1st sess.] 
RESOLUTION 

Resolved, That rule XI 25 (a) of the Rules of the House of Representatives 
is amended to read : 

"25. (a) the Rules of the House are the rules of its committees so far as 
applicable, except that a motion to recess from day to day is a motion of high 
privilege in committees. Committees may adopt additional rules not inconsistent 
therewith." 

Sec. 2. Rule XI 25 is further amended by adding at the end thereof : 

"(h) Each committee may fix the number of its members to constitute a 
quorum for taking testimony and receiving evidence, which shall be not less than 
two. 

"(i) The chairman at an investigative hearing shall announce in an opening 
statement the subject of the investigation. 

"(j) A copy of the committee rules, if any, and paragraph 25 of rule XI of 
the House of Representatives shall be made available to the witness. 

"(k) Witnesses at investigative hearings may be accompanied by their own 
counsel for the purpose of advising them concerning their constitutional rights. 

"(1) The chairman may punish breaches of order and decorum, and of pro- 
fessional ethics on the part of counsel, by censure and exclusion from the hear- 
ings ; and the committe may cite the offender to the House for contempt. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1145 

"(m) If the committee determines that evidence or testimony at an investi- 
gative hearing may tend to defame, degrade, or incriminate any person, it 
shall— 

" ( 1 ) receive such evidence or testimony in executive session ; 
"(2) afford such person an opi>ortunity voluntarily to appear as a witness; 
and 

"(3) receive and dispose of requests from such person to subpena addi- 
tional witnesses, 
"(n) Except as provided in paragraph (m), the chairman shall receive and 
the committee shall dispose of requests to subpena additional witnesses. 

"(o) No evidence or testimony taken in executive session may be released or 
used in public sessions without the consent of the committee. 

"(p) In the discretion of the committee, witnesses may submit brief and 
pertinent sworn statements in writing for inclusion in the record. The commit- 
tee is the sole judge of the pertinency of testimony and evidence adduced at its 
hearing. 

"(q) Upon payment of the cost thereof, a witness may obtain a transcript 
copy of his testimony given at a public session or, if given at an executive ses- 
sion, when authorized by the committee." 

Mr. Doyle. Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

I would like to call Mr. Joseph Fisher. 

Mr. Fisher. My attorney isn't here yet. He is due at 10 o'clock. 

Mr. Tavenner. I happen to know that his counsel was here on Mon- 
day and it is quite possible that he would have had no way of knowing 
that he was to appear at 9 : 30 today though it seems that his client 
should have advised him. 

Mr. DoTLE. I ask the witness to let Mr. Tavenner know immediately 
at 10 o'clock whether or not the lawyer is here. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Anthony DeAquino. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please rise and do your solemnly swear to tell 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. DeAquino. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ANTHONY DeAftUINO 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Anthony DeAquino. D-e-A-q-u-i-n-o. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are not accompanied by counsel, Mr. 
DeAquino. It is the practice of the committee to permit witnesses to 
be accompanied by counsel. If it is decided to proceed without counsel 
and during the course of his testimony, the witness desires to have 
counsel, he has a right to consult counsel. 

Do you wish to proceed without counsel ? 

Mr. DeAquino. I do wish to proceed without counsel. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. When and where were you born, Mr. DeAquino? 

Mr. DeAquino. I was born in Orange, N. J., September 21, 1906. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your educational training? 

Mr. DeAquino. I went up to the sixth grade and from the sixth 
grade they pushed me into the seventh grade. I was there Y2 days 
and I was forced to leave school. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been active in work of labor unions? 

Mr. DeAquino. Not until I actually came to Federal. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by "Federal" ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Federal Telephone & Radio Corp., subsidiary of 
the International Telephone Corp. I came to Federal August 2, I 
believe that is the right date, 1942. 



1146 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. When you came to that company in 1942, was 
there a labor union organized within that company having negoti- 
ation rights or privileges with the company ? 

Mr. DeAquino. When I first came there with the company I 
worked a few days and I was asked by some fellow by the name of 
Donner, I don't know how to spell it, Donner or Dunner, or something 
like that, but he is no longer with the company, he left a long time 
ago. He approached me and asked me whether or not I would be 
willing to sign up with the union. At that time the United Electrical, 
Radio and Machine Workers of America was trying to organize it 
and they had it partially organized but now that I recall, to the best 
of my recollection they signed a contract. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was the contract signed ? 

Mr. DeAquino. I believe in 1942, sometime. 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1942? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time or after UE was organized in that 
company, did you hold a position or office of any character in the 
union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. I remember that there was some fracas in my de- 
partment ; I was hired to do pipefitting work. I had worked at it quite 
some years back with a gentleman — I don't like to state his name, I 
don't want it in the paper because he is clean and in business — but he 
taught me part of the trade and he asked me to come to work in Fed- 
eral. Prior to that I had been working in the Eastwood Neely Corp. 
where I wasn't making too much money. I got hired at the Federal 
and they put me to work with him. 

I went to the maintenance department consisting of all skilled crafts, 
electricians, painters, carpenters, masons, et cetera — and with that 
after working there about 3 months — after I joined the union they 
asked me whether or not I would like to represent them as a steward 
or accept a steward's job. I became steward. That is the first line 
steward, not a chief, just a steward. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did j^ou remain a steward? 

Mr. DeAquino. I remained a steward for a few years until finally 
they saw I had some qualifications, as far as starch was concerned, 
in order to help defend the fellows I represented and I recall that 
for a while there I was doing a pretty fairly good job for them, and 
they decided they would run me for chief steward. I actually ran for 
chief steward and was elected to chief steward. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the date of that ? 

Mr. DeAquino. I think I became chief steward around 1943, that 
is latter part of 1943 or maybe early part of 1944. I may be wrong 
one way or another as far as the time element is concerned, but I 
can't make it any clearer. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the number of your local ? 

Mr. DeAquino. The local number was supposed to be 447, United 
Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers of America (UE). 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held other positions in the union? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, I was sergeant-at-arms. I became sergeant- 
at-arms controlling meetings — escort people to seats and try to keep 
order. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become a member of the Communist Party 
at any time while you held one of these positions with the UE ? 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1147 

Mr. DeAquino. If you ask me that question, whether or not I be- 
came a member of the Communist Party while I was a member of 
the UE, I will say no. My first inkling was that I became a member 
of a social club or a club called the Federal Club. Does that answer 
the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the circumstances under 
which you became a member of the Federal Club ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Well, I was pretty active in the local. In stem- 
ming from a poor family, I was trying to get ahead. I thought I 
could do as good or maybe better than what my father did but it 
seems it was a failure. I was going to work with the union and 
found myself wrapped up in a situation that if I wanted to keep con- 
trol of the positions that I held and if I wanted to get ahead further 
in the local due to my background as far as being fearless in approach- 
ing foremen and defending workers, whereby something may go 
Avrong — where a foreman didn't like the way a guy combed his hair, 
that wasn't true about combing hair — but maybe because a person 
didn't actually produce enough or because they got in trouble with the 
foreman one way or another, because either off or on the job they didn't 
carry on in accordance with the classifications, we immediately filed 
grievances. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I suggest you not speak quite so rapidly and 
it will be easier on the reporter. 

Mr. DeAquino. O. K. ; thank you. 

Because of the fact that I was aggressive in the union they decided 
to actually solicit me for the Federal Club. I was approached. Do 
you want me to tell you who approached me ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. DeAquino. I was approached by Sam Verano, who happened 
to be president of the union at that time. I think it is V-e-r-a-n-o. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he president of the local union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, he was president of UE local 447. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you say he approached you ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. To become a member of the Federal Club ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What year was that ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Well, it must have been in late 1944 — No, no, wait 
a minute. I am going off. That was around 1946, late part of 1946. 
Late part of 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell the committee why you joined the Federal 
Club and what the Federal Club was as far as you knew at that time. 

Mr. DeAquino. I was ambitious. As I told you before, I wanted 
to try to get ahead so Joe Sprechman, as I thought we were pretty 
good friends and Joseph asked me to do favors, run here and there, and 
go on picket duty and I followed hiiii around like a dog and I thought 
maybe he would actually do something for me in the future, which he 
spoke with determination to do something for me. 

I am an opportunist and glad to admit it because a lot of people in 
this country or other countries are opportunists and want to get ahead. 
Sprechman, business manager of the union, and I had a little conver- 
sation as to whether or not I was able to run for president of the union 
in the next coming elections. He said to me, "I don't think you could 



1148 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

make it or get elected because of the fact that you would be badly 
beaten on account of the Federal Club is pretty strong." 

So immediately I put my head down and walked away from him. 
He said, "Don't go away sore or mad because it is a club and you just 
don't belong to it." 

I says okay. "Maybe some day I may belong to it." 

So weeks passed 

Mr. ScHERER. Up to that time had you known about the Federal 
Club and its activities ? 

Mr. DeAquino. No, sir. I didn't even know they existed. 

Mr. ScHERER. When this man told you about the Federal Club was 
that the first time you learned about it ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. And this occurred during the conversation about your 
running for president of the union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Attempting to run. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you question him at that time why the Federal 
Club, which was a club apart from the union, would have so much in- 
fluence in the election of a president of the union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. No, I didn't question him but he did leave off say- 
ing "Don't go away sore or mad, don't feel bad," he says, "Maybe there 
is a possibility that somebody will come over and approach you as to 
whether or not you could become a member of the club and maybe in 
the future you could run for the president or any other high office." 

Mr. Scherer. Didn't that seem rather peculiar to you, you being 
such an ardent conscientious union man, that you would have to join 
some outside club to get ahead in the union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. No, it didn't because it seemed to me that it was one 
of those things from time to time where just a certain group always 
was in the leadership and it seemed that this group that was always m 
the leadership was supported by the same element, I found out after- 
wards, you understand, and they were more or less active in getting 
out the vote and helping each other to get certain people elected in 
certain positions. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you mean the group that belonged to the Federal 
Club was the same group that ran the union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become a member of the Federal Club as 
a result of what you have described ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. How did you happen to become a member ? 

Mr. DeAquino. I was working in the toolroom, at that time I didn't 
have so much leisure time, like most of the stewards and chief stewards 
that had practically all day to jockey around and take care of union 
business or tried to quiet down some of the people or try to advance 
the interests of some people who completely complained all the time 
the bosses were picking on them and things of that nature. 

But I was in the toolroom and Sprechman was in the toolroom. 
Along came Sam Verano. We were good friends, emphatically bud- 
dies. I trusted Sam implicitly and knowing what a poor kid he was 
and where he came from, I trusted him and figured he was my kind. 

So in fact Sam came over and put his arm around me and Sprech- 
man had walked away, that is Joseph Sprechman walked away. I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IK THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1149 

didn't catch on to that but Sam says "Look," he says, "we organized 
a club in Federal here. How would you like to be a member?" 

I had heard Sprechman say somebody was going to approach me 
and I was waiting for the approach, mien the approach came I was 
glad too and I actually joined up in the Federal Club. Does that 
answer your question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time you became a member of the Federal 
Club did you know whether or not it was a group of the Comlnunist 
Party? 

Mr. DeAquino. Evidently I never heard the word Communist un- 
til a certain person name Joseph Sangene, and another fellow Bill 
Garrigan and also Al Licato. 

Mr. Tavenner. Repeat their full names. 

Mr. DeAquino. Joseph Sangene, Alan Licato, William Garrigan. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say those three men came to see you ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, but mainly Sangene. Sangene approached me 
and told me that there was a certain element within the organization 
that had actually grabbed control of the union lock, stock, and barrel 
and he said that he was unable to actually do a job in the manner that 
he knew best because he was at that time elected as a business agent. 
There is a difference between a business agent and a business manager. 
So I asked him, "What do you mean, Joe," being he was a Catholic 
and Italian like myself, or he stemmed from Italian extraction, I 
sympathized with him because of some of the things he told me and I 
took particular notice at times Joe was in his office certain people that 
went to Sprechman's office actually would close the door and whisper. 

I thought if we had a democratic organization such as Joe was try- 
ing to teach me the procedure of being a good Democrat or being a 
democratic organization that we are not supposed to operate behind 
locked doors. 

So evidently it seemed to me that this continued and continued until 
it really got under Joe's skin. Due to the fact that Joe was handling 
grievances and upgradings for the company and writing up classifica- 
tions he actually could not do a job that he wanted to do because every 
tune he asked for information he would get either misleading infor- 
mation or they would pass it off they had to go some place in a hurry 
and would take care of it when they come back. 

So Joe was left out in the cold. Evidently Joe said to me something 
had to be done and we had to find out what these secret meetings and 
what was taking place behind these closed doors and he started telling 
me something about communism and Communists and what it meant, 
their aims and what they were asking for. Evidently I am all ears 
on things like that and learn fast. 

I heard everything he said to me. He told me somebody had to 
get within the Communist Party to actually find out what they were 
angling for, why we couldn't get Bill Garrigan elected as president 
of the union, why we couldn't get different people elected into posi- 
tions that we wanted to and we finally found out why. 

Mr. Scherer. You say you finally found out why. Tel us what 
you found out. 

Mr. DeAquino. At that point Joe asked me to do him a great favor. 
He says to me he says, "You are the only one around here who actually 
has any guts that I can rely on and you will have to get in with them." 



1150 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

And I immediately told him, "Joe, I was approached to join the 
Federal Club." 

Joe says, "That is not the Federal Club. That will stem up to be 
the Communist Party." He says, "I am glad you got into it. What 
I want you to do is give me the low-down on what takes place and 
if they let you in on the secret meetings let me know." 

JNIr. Ta\^nner. In other words, the three men whose names you 
mentioned were not Communists ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Absolutely not Communists. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is what I want the record to be clear on. 

Mr. DeAquino. So evidently Will Garrigan is a good Catholic and 
Sangene is and I know Alan Licato is, too, and in fact Licato and I 
are still in the shop together. From there on in they started to bring 
me from house to house drinking coffee and cake and listening to a 
lot of ways that they were going to advance the interests of the workers 
and what gains they were going to make, how they were going to 
proceed, different elections in the city, this, that, and the other thing, 
all this propaganda they passed around. 

From that I was invited to attend a meeting at Park Place, Newark. 
I don't know if it is 38, 39, or 40 but it is down by the Robert Treat 
Hotel. 

At that meeting it wasn't a long meeting — a very short meeting — I 
"v^as surprised at that particular time, we were again in negotiations, 
I was surprised to hear that some of the things that were going to be 
asked in negotiation were actually coming from those meetings. I 
thought if we were a labor union that we are big enough to make our 
own proposals and our own demands without somebody else from some 
other group, outside group, telling our business manager the way he 
should function in negotiations. 

Mr. Ta\t5Nner. Were other persons who were not members of your 
union, at that meeting you are describing at Park Place? 

Mr. DeAquino. Sure. Because they come out with their strategy 
for all the local unions, not only for ours, but they tried to get these 
contracts more or less to be unified. So our local would get the same, 
could get or try to get the same as Westinghouse workers, same as 
GE, same as everything and the expiration of the contracts was sup- 
posed to be the same, too. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think you made it clear but let's see if I have it clear. 

You would go to these meetings of the Communist Party designated 
as the Federal Club at which there were Communists present who were 
not members of your union. 

Mr. DeAquino. They were Communists because they couldn't get 
into that place without being a Communist. 

Mr. ScHERER. You made that clear. But these people who were not 
members of the union sat in in developing policy and programs that 
were required to be followed by the business agents of your union ; is 
that right? 

Mr. DeAquino. That is correct. Not only sat in to formulate pol- 
icy but they also dictated it. 

Mr. Sciierer. They dictated it ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. How did this Communist group dictate the policy of the 
union to the business agents ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1151 

Mr. DeAquino. You see, Joe Sangene was never present or invited 
to these meetings. The only ones invited to these meetings that were 
out-and-out Communists was Joseph Sprechman, Sam Verano, my- 
self, and there were some girls there but I don't remember their names, 
but I do know Martha Stone was there. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Martha Stone ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, sure, she was always there. She never missed. 
I gave you some names I thought were there at the time when they ac- 
tually gave us the highlights on how to proceed. Now when we picked 
up all this stuff it was brought back to our stewards council, our ex- 
ecutive board, and of course they made believe to the membership that 
they could formulate their own demands. While the membership 
would get so hot under the collar they would actually have somebody 
like me or somebody else that actually came from there always strong 
sympathizers, ones that used to like Sprechman as much as I did when 
he was alive and followed him around while he was in the party, car- 
ried the ball for them. 

They would call them out of the shop to go down to the union office 
and Sprechman used to shut the door and he or she used to get the high- 
lights of what would take place at the membership meeting and how he 
was supposed to get up and make certain motions so that they could 
get their policy or dictations across that they picked up at the Commu- 
nist Party. Is that clear I 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Tavenner, that is one of the best statements I have 
■ever heard. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said that Mr. Sangene asked you to obtain in- 
formation as to what was going on with this group of Communists. 
Did you get a Communist Party card after you got into the party ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Oh, yes; you couldn't go there — I mean, if you 
didn't pay dues and initiation fee and get a card. 

Mr. Ta\t2nner. Do you remember the year that you received your 
Communist Party card ? 

Mr. DeAquino. It happened around late 1947 or — no, early 1947 
or very late 1946 in and around that time, the exact dates I don't know 
unless they want to produce them, it is okay with me. 

Mr. Tavenner. You agreed with the gentleman who picked you 
out that you would get into the Communist Party and find out what 
it was doing? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Scherer. "VVlio suggested it? 

Mr. DeAquino. Sangene. Garrigan didn't know and neither did 
Licato know, we kept it a secret. I told him the only one that would 
know would be Sangene and Sangene alone. If any more than one 
person knew, it would get publicity and expand all through the shop 
because if more than one person knows anything it gets around fast 
and you can't pinpoint it to who actually told who. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you obtain the assistance of any other person 
in doing this? 

Mr. DeAquino. Well, I came down to the city fathers and I told 
them that I was about to actually bring something to the surface, some- 
thing I thought that would shock the people in the State and even in 
the city. I asked them if they would give mo some cooperation on the 



1152 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

matter in the event there would be either some bloodshed or what, or 
we would have to resort to some sort of violence in order to do so. 
They said, "Look, it is hard to do. We advise you to be careful and 
advise you not to get mixed up in this because you are liable to be the 
fall guy and get hurt." 

They asked me who would be with me at the time to do these things. 
I told them there was another fellow and I who were actually going 
to do this. I was in the party pressing for recruiting purposes. They 
told me I had to recruit due to the fact I was popular in the union, 
I had gained a lot of popularity by showing a lot of aggressiveness 
and because of the fact that I tried to treat everybody right and nice. 
I wanted to be nice with everybody and that is it. So evidently popu- 
larity went a long ways and the people thought that I was a right guy. 
They still do, because if they didn't I wouldn't have been able to 
actually overthrow them because they had control of the union for 
approximately 7 years. 

They owned the union lock, stock, and barrel, and treasury; they 
did anything they wanted and how they wanted to do it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Before we come to the question of defeating the 
Communist leadership in that union, I want to find out whether you 
had any active help within the Communist Party from any one you 
selected to help you. 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, I had, he is now my foreman, and I am glad 
he is and I am glad to be working for him. His name is Julius Kolo- 
vetz. K-o-l-o-v-e-t-z. 
Mr. Tavenner. What do you usually call him ? 
Mr. DeAquino. Jule. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you get him to come into this Conmiunist 
Party group to. assist you ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes. Well, it is a long story. Jule and I had been 
knocking around a long time. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did you do to get him in the Communist 
Party group ? 

Mr. DeAquino. You don't want a long story. I recruited Jule 
into the Communist Party but before I recruited him I told him what 
we were going in for and I told him, "Don't get yourself all hog- 
washed or mixed up in the hogwash they feed you because we have to do 
a job." 

He said, "I am with you all the way." We pretended to be with 
them all the way but at the same time we were crossing them. 

I mean crossing them to the extent we were trying to put across 
our own program. We, us guys wanted to run an honest union. So 
they turned around and they highly respected us, we went along with 
some of their suggestions and motions, we even emphatically en- 
dorsed them on the floor, we even got people to vote in a block for 
them, at conventions or even executive board meetings and steward 
councils and they thought we were really heroes. 

But all in all we were piling up everything we wanted to pile up 
against them and furnishing Joe Sangene with all the information 
and then from there on in came the break. Hell broke loose. Wlien 
Sangene says to me, "I think you got enough now, you got to break." 
You want to hear about the break? 
Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 



COMMXmiST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1153 

Mr. DeAquino. O. K. The break came in late 1947 right after ne- 
gotiating the contract with the company — at which they themselves 
claimed at that time I believe we got 5 cents and 5 cents retroactive 
with a supposed-to-be-package about that big. It was magnified but 
found out it was a couple of crumbs in the basket or box. From there 
on we quieted the people down to accept it. They moved to accept it 
after we had a good strike on our hands for a while. 

Incidentally, that strike didn't come on us as the result of the nego- 
tiations. That strike was a premeditated strike where one person now 
deceased by the name of Joseph Finesock engaged himself in a bitter 
struggle with a foreman and especially the radical element we had 
employed in the machine shop of the company where most of our trou- 
ble occurred. 

This Joe Finesock got into an argument with a supervisor or fore- 
man and deliberately wrote a note or letter or statement on a piece of 
paper and on this piece of paper it had something too filthy to say, 
but anyway the supervisor was insulted because of the statement that 
was on the paper and he fired Joe Finesock. 

At that point I remember that as clear as sitting right here, nego- 
tiating committee sitting around the table brought Joe Finesock in 
and his foreman — I don't recall his name at the present time because 
so many foremen went and came with this company, supervisors, too. 
He said, "I am Joe Finesock." It happened to be at that time one 
of the company representatives wanted to know why he was firing 
him. He showed him why and turned around and he says, "Well, I 
would fire him too." 

So evidently Joe Finesock stood fired so he whispered in my ear, 
"Get the gang out of the shop and pull a strike." That started the 
strike. 

Mr. Tavennek. In other words, there was no labor issue involved 
in it. 

Mr. DeAquino. Absolutely not, just because of the fact that they 
had entered into verbal discussion or some sort of verbal argument 
some kind of argument they had had premeditated thing. Also as 
far as I am concerned, I think I found out from Joe Finesock's lips 
just before he died when I went to see him at the house. 

Mr. ScHERER. AVas Joe a member of the Communist Party '? 

Mr. DeAquino. Not that I know of but I will tell you at one time he 
felt very perturbed about it. His picture appeared in the Daily Worker 
and he felt so offended I think that that actually killed Joe. Right 
after that Joe Finesock dropped dead. Joe Finesock was a sensitive 
man. Actually I have seen a kid drop dead because a guy got into 
an argument. Some people j ust can't take shocks. 

Mr. ScHERER. People like that better not serve on this committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you state that Mr. Sangene told you he thought 
that since you had now gotten enough information, you could break 
the control of the Communist Party over your local ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes. So he told me that at the nearest or quickest 
date that I could to actually get out of it and try to make a break. He 
said, "Look for a loophole," he says, "as to how to do it." 

Well evidently it seemed to me that they moved out on Bradford 
Place. I had been attending meetings in the Communist Party pretty 
regular. I don't remember names but I met quite a few of them. Now, 

e.5388— 55 — pt. 2 -2 



1154 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

I am sorry I didn't take down some names because if I knew I was going 
to lead up to this it should be taken care of in the right manner. 

But we got there and it was a place upstairs of some fish house, some 
chop house, I don't know that community too much down on Bradford 
Place, business section, and upstairs from some fish restaurant they 
opened up a Communist Party headquarters. So it needed painting 
bad, needed decorating and needed plumbing that had to be done and 
wiring and that stuff. They were trying to solicit different people to 
actually donate their time to do it. And if necessary could even supply 
the paint. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is members of the club ? 

Mr. DeAquino. No outsiders could get into the meetings unless you 
had a card, you had to be a Communist, you could not bring a friend 
with you to show how we operate and function, what a democratic 
organization we have, and how we try to do things here to advance 
interest of the people. You had to be a card-carrying member, you had 
to be a member that had a card. Is that plain ? 

Mr. Tav-enner. Yes. 

Mr. DeAquino. Now, this is no joke and I am telling you the truth, 
I swore to tell the truth and I expect to tell the truth right down the 
line to the best of my ability or best my mind serves me, because it has 
been a long time and I have been through a lot since then. 

Somebody come up with the bright idea to hang pictures of Joe 
Stalin around and other great leaders of the Communist Party and of 
course somebody made some remarks about why not put up Roosevelt's 
picture. They says, "Yes, we will hang Roosevelt's picture." But it 
happened to be they were putting Stalin and the rest of the group up 
along a nice wall which had to be painted, but it was a little bit better 
than where they wanted to put Roosevelt's picture. I am sorry to say 
they took the audacity of saying we will put it near a partition that was 
close to the men's room. I says to them, "What is the idea of that?" 
We got into an awful wrangle over that and they decided finally to 
put up a Russian flag. 

I says, "Why not an American flag?" Somebody says "You are 

getting too cocky," and I said "To — with you and the Communist 

Party." This is where I found my cue and I broke with them. 

I say to Jule, Tony Zinna and a few boys, "Look, let's get to — out of 
here." We did. They tried to coax us to stay. One of the guys tried 
to say, "We didn't mean it that way." 

I said, "To — with you and the Communist Party." I got my gut 
full of everything they were aiming to do in the union and aiming to 
do in the State of New Jersey. 

I don't know what they were going to do in New York or any other 
place. With all that I immediately called up Sangene and told Joe 
Sangene I had broke with them and that we immediately were going to 
gear ourselves, get up a slate of officers. We did get a slate of officers. 
We did gear ourselves. I spent every dime I saved and so did Jule 
and so did other people who actually helped in order to overthrow this 
group. Sangene lent us money just before he opened up his gas 
station. 

In the meantime in the late 1947, Sangene couldn't stand it no longer 
so he actually quit the union and he opened up a gas station, Texaco 
gas, located at the junction in Elizabeth. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1155 

Sangene after being there a while happened to meet some other 
gentlemen or some business associate of liis and decided to open up a 
business in Florida. All this time Sangene and I were always in close 
contact by letter with one another because it was no easy fight, it was a 
hard fight. I was constantly under pressure day and night. I was 
under the greatest attack ; I don't think anybody else was ever slandered 
as much as I. I think they accused me of everything in this whole 
Nation. Nobody could be dirtier than I. They accused me of stealing 
the union safe. I recall a leaflet they had where I was walking, the 
safe was flying behind me. Beside that they accused me of transport- 
ing women across the State line for immoral purposes because of the 
fact that they actually wanted to disease the mind of the membership, 
especially women in the local. They wanted to make it appear in the 
local I was a professional crook. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you mean the Communist Party engaged in smear 
tactics against you? 

Mr. DeAquino. Are you insinuating right up to the present time 
they wouldn't stoop that low ? 

Mr. Scherer. I merely asked that because this committee is charged, 

you know, with being 

Mr, De Aquino. To tell you the truth, I can produce all of the leaflets 
that they put out against me and not only me but my colleagues, too, 
as well, and even beyond that. 

Mr, Scherer. What they said in those leaflets when they smeared 
3'ou certainly wasn't at all true, was it ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Well, let me say this here. I don't know if I found 
one that could tell the truth. I don't know if they know what the 
word truth actually means. I don't believe these people ever read the 
Bible. I don't believe they actually go to any church. I don't think 
they have any kind of faith except tearing hearts out of people and 
cutting them to shreds, 

Mr. Doyle. You refer to these people ; do you mean the Communist 
Party in the State of New Jersey ? 

Mr. DeAquixo. I don't know about other States, and don't care, 
but I was interested in our State. 

Mr. Doyle. I would like to supplement Mr. Scherer's question. 
On yesterday there were 2 or 3 of the men in the witness chair wlio 
said this committee was smearing people. I believe they knew that 
we knew the record showed that they were members of the Communist 
Party right when they were in the witness chair. They had the privi- 
lege of pleading tJie amendment if they could do so honestly and 
conscientiously. But do you mean that the Communist Party mem- 
bers in your local smeared you? 

Mr. DeAquino. Well, I don't know — I can produce the evidence 
of it. They not only smeared me in the local, they smeared me in the 
press, all over. The Daily Worker, especially. 

Mr. Doyle. I suppose now they will be calling you a stool pigeon. 
Mr, DeAquino, I don't care what they call me because I will tell 
jou they may call me a rat but I haven't got a tail but they have tails 
and they have plenty of tales to tell if they want to tell, because they 
are conhising the people of our country and in the State and in the 
labor unions. 

Mr. Doyle. I agree with you that is part of their dastardly pro- 
gram. Proceed. 



1156 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. After you reported to Sangene on this fight in the 
local, what means were adopted by you and your friends to see that 
you were getting an honest election ? 

Mr. DeAqtjino. You mean who conducted the election ? 
Mr. Tavenner. How did you proceed to insure an honest election ? 
Mr. DeAquino. I am proud to say we actually hired the Honest 
Ballot Association of New York and they conducted the election and 
they seen to it that these guys didn't get close to any of the machines, 
they conducted the election by machines and also the challenged bal- 
lots were conducted by ballot box. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that a private company engaged in conduct- 
ing elections ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Let me say this, that I had nothing to do with hir- 
ing them, the only thing I knew was how much it cost. 
Mr. Tavenner. How much did it cost ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Well, approximately according to the figures that 
mv boys — actually who were better tabulators than me — it cost around 
$2^,500 for the whole thing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did that amount have to be paid by those in the 
union who were working with you in this fight ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Well, it couldn't be paid by them it is a sure thing 
— because we were the ones who wanted to have an honest organiza- 
tion to conduct the election, and surely because of the fact that we 
emphatically impressed it at a membership meeting and overwhelm- 
ing^ voted on it we were able to notice then and there we had control 
and we were going to win the election. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why did you think it was necessary to employ a 
concern of that type to conduct the election ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Mr. Tavenner, I don't know whether or not I made 
it clear prior to all of this but I think, let me say this, I am sure I said 
that we could never conduct an honest election because they would 
always get into the office and we could never have any one of our own 
choice in any position whether it was steward, chief steward, political 
action chairman or what have you in the local. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that because the Communists had control of 
all the voting machinery of your local ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes. Not only did the Communists have control 
but they also had the sympathizers to do the dirty work for them, as 
well. They would elect their own judge of election, didn't know 
who he was but they thought, we thought that he was an all-right 
guy. And the first thing you know the judge of election would have 
the keys to the ballot boxes. There was no machine votes in the local. 
It was all done by boxes. 

Did you ever see one of these boxes ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yesterday we heard the testimony of three representa- 
tives of the UE state that the UE local in district 4 in Newark was 
the most democratically run union in the country. 

Do I understand that you and other members of the UE, the local 
in this district 4, had to hire a New York company which makes a 
business of conducting honest elections with their machinery, to come 
to Newark to conduct the election so that the membership of the union 
could express its own opinion without being controlled by this Com- 
munist gang? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1157 

Mr. DeAquino. I don't know what he said, but anyway if he calls 
it a democratic union maybe it is the kind of democracy they have in 
foreign nations that I don't know and maybe we don't know of but 
I do know that from the past experience 'that I had attending the 
council meetings — attending the executive board meetings, attending 
membership meetings, all the way up to State conventions and na- 
tional conventions — I know that we were always told we had to vote 
in a bloc and when you vote in a bloc you were being dictated to as to 
how to vote. Now if you vote in a bloc that means they want to get 
who they want into any office. Do you call that a democratic 
organization ? 

Mr. Doyle. I do not. 

Mr. DeAquino. That is right, because I could give you stories of 
way back when Bob Enright, Steve Moran, city commissioner at one 
time, when Kleck from Philadelphia and Block from Philadelphia, 
Pa., and numerous others opposed their ways, opposed Matles, opposed 
Fitzgerald, opposed Emspak, all the whispering in those caucus ses- 
sions and all rooms at nighttime, daytime, and trying to get all the 
delegates together to tell them to vote in a bloc. 

Or else if I told them I like Enright and I did like Enright — in fact, 
Enright was one of my right-hand men and I am not ashamed to say it. 
Steve Moran gave me a big hand. Karl Holderman gave me a big 
hand and numerous other people that I can't recall now but they 
helped me out and encouraged me. 

In fact, my biggest encourager in the fight was Bob Enright. Milton 
Weirach I forgot to mention. He helped me out a lot. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. As a result of the conduct of this election by the 
Honest Ballot Association, did you win the fight against those who 
had been in control of the union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. We not only won the fight; I am proud to say 
that we made them cry because we threw them right out of office, took 
Sprechman right out of the office. He said "Let me rest in the chair 
5 minutes" — because he was getting a heart attack. He was taking 
pills. I said "All right, rest. We don't want you to die here." He 
went. And half of them ran out. When we called the division of the 
house at the membership meeting one time for the members to decide 
whether they wanted to be on the right or left of the hall or join the 
riglit-wing faction of the fight, or left-wing faction, we overwhelm- 
ingly beat them and they jumped off the stage and ran out of there, 
ofi' the stage, and hollered "other people are rats." 

Mr. Scherer. "WHio called them rats ? 

Mr. DeAquino. They called people rats, spit at them. Called up 
wives and if I am shooting pool in Newark or out drinking beer, they 
said I was with some blond in New York City, They disturbed us at 
nights with phone calls so much my wife was a nervous wreck and still 
is a nervous wreck. 

Mr. DoYi.E. Do you mean a member of the Communist Party in your 
own union would call your wife while you were away from home and 
lie about you in order to ruin you and split your family ? 

Mr. DeAquino. We can make a joke out of this and I can go on all 
day. These people are stooping so low they will bring up the biggest 
waste we have in the ocean, they will bring it right up to the surface. 



1158 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr Doyle. I have heard of many cases of deliberately trying to 
break up families to force the men to do as those Commmiist rats ' 
wanted them to do. , • xi • /-( 

Mr Tavenner. Will you go back to the time you were m this Com- 
munist Party group and met at Communist Party headquarters and 
other places? Tell the committee the names of leaders of your union 
who were members of the Communist Party. , , , , ,, 

Mr DeAquino. Just to refresh my memory I don't know whether 
or not— I am going to tell you everything I know about them because 
I have told you everything I know up to now and if you want to know 
the names and name names, I am proud and glad to do so. ^ 

First name that I found out was Joseph Sprechman. He was busi- 
ness manager of the local, business manager of local 447, UE. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he attend these Communist Party meetings 

with you ? , , , -, 1 1 • 

Mr. DeAqtjino. He certainly did. He couldn't have been business 
manager long if he didn't. • t^ -i 

Connie Dubac and his wife. I don't know what her name is, Cath- 
erine or Kathleen or something, but I think it is that. 

Connie Dubac used to be former president of the union until he 
went in the service and when he come back the position was filled by 
somebody else by name of Flavani, I think. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that spelled D-u-b-a-c ? 

Mr. DeAqthno. Yes; and his wife. I think his wife's name is 
Katherine. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you say the other man you just mentioned was 
a member of this Cominunist group with you. 

Mr. DeAquino. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. We want to make the record clear. 

Mr. DeAquino. Don't put that down as him being a commie be- 
cause he was not. In fact, they threw him out of office. They 
brought him up on phoney charges that he engaged in some Fascist 
activity and they threw him out of office. I think, I don't know what 
the hell it was, 1 was new then and couldn't understand it very well, 
couldn't catch on why they actually threw him out but they had 
phoney charges against him and it was in the newspapers and you 
could get it from the news. 

Mr. Scherer. They called him a Fascist. 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. We were called that yesterday. We are in good 
company. 

Mr. DeAquino. I was called that, I was called other things, too. 
I am proud to be what I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have told us about Dubac being a member of 
this group. 

Mr. DeAquino. Then we honestly met another big fireball. This 
guy is named Gabe Bloksberg, Gabriel Bloksberg, and his brother, 
Big Doug or something. I don't know what his name is. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold any official position in your union? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, from to time he had a stewardship, from time 
to time he was something important, he used to do what the hell he 
pleased, he was all kinds, member of the executive board, who the hell 
knew. He was everything. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1159 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of others in your union 
who were members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Supposed to be a friend of mine, named Sam 
Verano. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he the man who first came to see you about 
joining the Federal Club ? 

Mr. DeAquino. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position did he hold in your local union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. He used to work like a dog in the machine shop 
until they made him president of the union, that is all I know. Then 
at these 'meetings I met one of the representatives of the district, I 
think he still is, Bill Santora. 

Mr. Scherer. What was that name ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Bill Santora. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was on the stand here yesterday. 

Mr. Scherer. One of the leaders of the demonstration. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. He refused to answer material questions 
relating to Communist Party activity. 

Mr. Scherer, What do you know about Santora ? 

Mr. DeAquino. I don't know much about Santora. I know he 
used to raffle off books and we had raffles at Communist Party 
headquarters. 

Mr. Scherer. Was he a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. DeAquino. He couldn't get into the thing unless he was a mem- 
ber of the party. 

Mr. Scherer. Was Santora a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Nobody could get in. They wouldn't even let you 
bring your brother down there. You couldn't get in unless you had 
a card. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer, was he the witness yesterday who, in 
answer to your question, said that he assisted in putting on the 
demonstration ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes, he is the one who took the fifth amendment and 
refused to answer when I asked him whether the funds for the pay- 
ment of the buses and placards came from the Communist Party. 

Mr. Doyle. The newspaper the morning after said about 1,200 
pickets were in the line and about 1,000 of them came from New York. 
That didn't leave very many from this immediate area, did it ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Please continue. 

Mr. DeAquino. I left off with Bill Santora. We come to a young 
lady named Helen Dobish, D-o-b-i-s-h. 

Then we come to another woman, young lady named Esther Engle, 
E-n-g-1-e. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was her position in the union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Esther worked up in the office and she was em- 
ployed in the office pretty steady. She was there the longest of any 
girl that I knew and in fact Sprechman and her were very fond of 
one another to the extent a couple of times there was some commo- 
tions as to why she was constantly being kept on while other girls 
were laid off out of the union ; in fact, there was a question of seniority 
raised. If I recall, one woman was in a little bit longer than her 
and resented the fact that she was being kept on out of seniority. Evi- 
dently they killed that and Esther got kept on. She was the stenog- 



1160 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

rapher-boolvkeeper, everything. She was recording everything. She 
used to help make up leaflets and do everything. She worked hard 
in the union, she really did. She worked hard for the union and for 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Proceed, please. Were there any others ? 

Mr, DeAquino. Joe Alfone, A-1-f-o-n-e. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of your local union ? 

Mr, DeAqtiino, Yes, sir. 

Mr, Tavenner. Did he hold any position in your local union ? 

Mr. DeAquino, If I recall, I think he was a member of the executive 
board and then he also was a steward, but first he was a steward before 
he became a member of the executive board. 

Mr, Tavenner. He was a member of the Communist Party with 
you? 

Mr, DeAquino. He sure was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know a person by the name of Elwood 
Dean? 

Mr. DeAquino. I sure do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of the Communist Party in this 
same group with you ? 

Mr, DeAquino, He sure was. 

Mr, Tavenner, Do you know what position he held with the union? 

Mr. DeAquino. I do not know but it was pretty high. He is a well- 
respected man in the party. Highly thought of too. 

Mr. Tavenner, Are there any others you can name ? 

Mr. DeAquino. You just mentioned Elwood Dean, I will mention 
Jeanette Dean, his wife, 

Mr. Tavenner. Any others ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, we had a gentleman by the name of Bob 
Galina. 

Mr. Tavenner, G-a-1-i-n-a? 

Mr, DeAquino, I think that is correct, 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of your local union? 

Mr, DeAquino. He sure was. 

Mr. Tavenner, Did he hold any office in your union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. He sure had. 

Mr, Tavenner, Wliat was that? 

Mr. DeAquino. Member of the executive board, steward, too, and I 
think he had something to do with the present newspaper, not only the 
Daily Worker but the local paper. 

Mr, Tavenner, He was a member of the Communist Party with 
you? 

Mr, DeAquino. He sure was and is. 

Mr. Tavenner. Proceed, please. 

Mr. DeAqthno. Martha Stone. 

Mr. Tavenner, Was Martha Stone employed in your union? 

Mr. DeAquino. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. She wasn't connected with the union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. No, sir. She was connected with the Communist 
Party, 

Mr. Tavenner, Was she a functionary of the Communist Party? 

Mr. DeAquino, Yes, she was one of the spearheads and leaders 
down there full time and always getting paid, too. 

Mr. DeAquino, Eddie Soshein. 



COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1161 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you spell that? 

Mr. DeAquino. I think it is S-o-s-h-e-i-n. Eddie Soshein. This 
guy played the game like a real hero, every time Sprechman would 
get in trouble on a motion on the floor this guy would wave the flag 
and I remember how he used to fool me, how he used to wave the flag 
telling everybody he was an ex-serviceman ; how he seen people's skulls 
and bodies fly to bits over there; how we were fighting Sprechman 
when we should be concentrating on how to actually have a stronger 
and better union and all that kind of stuff, to the extent that some of 
the girls who had sweethearts and husbands in the Armed Forces 
would cool their heels and start to cry and sit down and vote in favor 
of the motion when just before they would be hollering and growling 
against it. 

Soshein always waved the flag and got Sprechman — and I will go 
further. I recall we went to a house in Paterson and Eddie Soshein 
was an educator or director for a small school for kids and teen-agers 
teacliing them all the activities of the Communist tricks and things of 
that nature, because I had to bring chairs there and I had to bring a 
big moving-picture camera which is now missing from the local. That 
thing cost about $1,000 or more. 

Mr. Tavenner, Where was this school located ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Someplace in Paterson. I know the street but I 
don't know the street by name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of your local ? 

Mr. DeAquino. He was a member of our local. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold any office in your local ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Only as more or less steering people away from 
confusion, things of that nature. That is all I can remember of Eddie 
Soshein as far as that is concerned. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was a member of your group of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. DeAquino. Not a member of our Communist Party group. 
Might have been in a higher cell but he told me himself he was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. Otherwise he could not have that posi- 
tion. He also told me if 1 was interested he would see to it that I 
could get a position up in the higher brackets, too. 

Mr. Tavenner. Higher brackets in the union or higher brackets in 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Higher brackets in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Proceed, please. 

Mr. DeAquino. I saw a picture of Archer Cole in the newspaper, 
laughing. He was also a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Cole a member of your local union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. No, sir ; he was a member of the Communist Party 
where we had meetings. He sat there at many conferences that we 
had. He sat there and tried to sell us different pamphlets and books 
just like Walter Barry, Bill Santora, and numerous others. 

Mr. Tavenner. And Martha Stone ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, he was a functionary of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. DeAquino. He certainly was. 



1162 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Doyle. Is that the witness yesterday, the young man who took 
occasion to make a considerable speech and also of course pleaded the 
fifth amendment ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes ; he testified yesterday. 

Mr. Doyle. I think he was the witness I gave more than the usual 
opportunity to make a speech. 

Mr. Tavenner. He testified he was an organizer for the UE, district 
4. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. He was anxious to make a record which 
he could have reproduced and circulated among the Communists to 
show he had been a brave hero before this committee so that I thought 
I would let him do it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you see Archer Cole in the courtroom ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Sure. I thought I saw him walking in before. 
He is right in the back there. Is it all right for me to point? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 

Mr. DeAquino. Why don't you ask him to rise. 

Mr. Scherer. He was not a member of the union but was he a func- 
tionary of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tavenner. He was an organizer of the UE as he testified 
yesterday. 

Mr. Scherer. But was he a member of the Communist Party also ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Sure ; definitely. 

Mr. Scherer. An active member of the party ? 

Mr. DeAquino. He was there first, rain or shine. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mentioned the name of Walter Barry. Was 
he a member of the Communist Party in your group ? 

Mr. DeAquino. He certainly was, just like Archer Cole and the rest 
of them. In fact, he was more vicious, I think. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he in your local ? 

Mr. DeAquino. No, sir. He was a district representative and he 
worked out of the district and also the Communist Party headquarters. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say the district ? 

Mr. DeAquino. They worked out of different unions, too, different 
locals. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said he worked out of the district. Do you 
mean the district headquarters of the UE ? 

Mr. DeAquino. District 4, UE. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where Walter Barry is now ? 

Mr, DeAquino. Last I heard he was upstate in New York, but I 
understand that he smuggles himself into Toms Eiver once in a while. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long ago was it that you heard he was in New 
York? 

Mr. DeAquino. Quite some time back I heard he lost himself out 
in the country. I believe he must be with Connie Duvac upstate New 
York because Connie Duvac when he left the factory told people he 
was going to engage himself in farming. He was going to buy a big 
farm upstate New York. He may be with Connie because they were 
bosom pals. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there others who were members with you in 
that group of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Emil Asher used to be editor of the local 447 news- 
paper and also attended Communist Party meetings from time to time, 
not so much as others but he was there. I think Emil Asher more or 



COIVIAIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1163 

less functioned to babysit for his kid at that time and also do as much 
as he could to be active. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold any position in your local union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. I was surprised to hear that he was the actual editor 
for our newspaper although he was business agent or business manager 
for a local up in Paterson or Clifton, N. J. which I don't know what 
they call it, the Pneumatic Corp. of some kind but outside of that I 
haven't too much background on Asher. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did most of these persons who were paid officials of 
the UE work in the shops before they became employed by the UE ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Such as whom ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't it true that people are often elevated from the 
shops to a position in the union ? Was true in many of these instances. 

Mr. DeAquino. I will check the record. Only ones I know of that 
stemmed from the shop that I can give you a real clincher on, and 
honest one is Sam Verano. Connie Duvac from time to time did dis- 
trict work off and on and so did I suppose Bob Galina from time to 
time. They used to tell us they had to go down to the district but when 
they used to leave the shop, we used to see them with their coats and 
hats on running out and they used to say "We are going out to the 
district." 

I have another name here. I want to do this right and go whole 
hog or not do it at all. We have another gentleman named Tony 
Sinna. And that is the last of the group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of your local union ? 

Mr. DeAquino. He was a member of the union, he worked up in 
Federal Telephone & Radio Corp. He was also a member of the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold a position in your union at any time? 

Mr. DeAquino. No, he did not. No. 

Mr. Ta\"enner. Will you tell us what became of these officials after 
their defeat in the election which you described ? 

Mr. DeAquino. I found out lately that Joseph Sprechman had died 
from the stroke or heart attack. Gabe Bloksberg is no longer with the 
company. Sam Verano I understand is up in Sky Lake, N. Y. some 
place. Communist education school — summer resort for the Commu- 
nist. Bill Santora didn't come from our place. Helen Dobish actually 
became a mother and left her job. Esther Engle is no longer connected 
with our union office. Joe Alfone I believe is no longer with the com- 
pany. Our company is big and some people get laid off one depart- 
ment and they take them to another shop where they have seniority in 
the same classification. 

Bob Galina is no longer with the company because he refused to sign 
a non-Communist affidavit. Bob Galina refused to sign a non-Com- 
munist affidavit. 

The company engaged itself in some kind of secret war work and 
had to screen some of the employees and Bob Galina fought this with 
the union until the company had to discharge him or he left of his 
own accord. I wouldn't say discharged, maybe he left of his own 
accord for refusing to sign a non-Communist affidavit. 

Mr. Scherer. Some of the witnesses we had the other day did not 
find it too difficult to sign those non-Communist affidavits. They 
would resign in the morning and sign a non-Communist affidavit in 
the afternoon. 

Mr. DeAquino. It is possible, sir. 



1164 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Doyle. I think you are referring to witnesses who wouldn't 
answer the question as to whether they told the truth when signing 
the non-Communist affidavits. 

Mr. DeAquino. Tony Zinna, I understand, has a $7,500 a week job 
in the city of Newark. That is more than I make. 

Mr, Tavenner. Are you talking about a weekly or yearly salary? 

Mr. DeAquino. That is a yearly salary. Yes, supposed to be year- 
ly, if he made that much a week I would stick him up, 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been connected with the Communist 
Party in any way since you left it after assisting and working in that 
fight against Communist leadership in your own local ? 

Mr. DeAquino, I wouldn't think you would ask me that question 
because once you are a traitor to these guys and betrayed them, you are 
through. You don't naturally go with them no more unless you want 
to change your testimony or want to get killed in some way or another 
— frame you somehow — maybe while you are serving on the picket 
line you may get a shot in the head or some other damn thing. I never 
affiliated myself with them after I broke with them, I broke clean. 
Wouldn't go back with those people if it was the last thing on earth, 
I would rather get shot. 

Mr. Scherer, You were never a Communist; you joined the Com- 
munist Party to get information to help your union, is that right? 

Mr, DeAquino, That is right, Joe Sangene and I made this thing 
up mainly for Joe's sake and mainly because of the fact that Joe and 
I and Bill Garrigan and Licato, Leopoldo — and I don't remember the 
kid's name — Jule Kolovetz, Herman Tobaso, and numerous others 
we had put up a slate to run against them and we defeated them and 
wanted our own people to actually control the union. 

We wanted to control the union ourselves because we knew it wasn't 
being done right. We have seen people from time to time shoved and 
shoved under the seniority list because of the fact that were either 
members of the Communist Party or Federal Club ; they saved their 
jobs where good decent citizens had to be laid off. In many cases I 
can still prove — I think I have the records home yet on those cases — 
where some people's seniority was tampered with. 

Mr. Doyle, Do you mean the Communist Party controlled the UE 
Union, to the extent of interference and violation of union rules to 
protect and give preference to membei*s of the Communist Party over 
union members who were not members of the Communist Party? 

Mr, DeAquino, They did ; in fact, where they actually thought they 
could do it and get away with it, where they actually thought a person 
couldn't understand or where they could make them understand to suit 
their purposes or put across what they wanted to. We found many 
records, we have plenty of records of so many things that would be 
amazing and shocking to the people in the labor movement and to 
the people in the State of New Jersey. 

Mr. Doyle, The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Doyle, The committee will recess about 12 : 15 until 1 : 30 or 
thereabouts today, I stated in my opening announcement that we 
often receive the cooperation of the citizens in the locality where the 
committee is holding hearings. I have a signed communication mailed 
to me from a citizen of Newark containing very valuable information. 
Evidently some people in Newark are very anxious to clean out the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1165 

Communist conspiracy. We haven't as yet been in touch with the 
writer. 

I want to say if any of you come to the point where you are willing 
to place your Nation ahead of your own temporary inconvenience like 
the present witness, putting his country ahead of his own personal in- 
terests, the committee will be glad to cooperate with you. 

Mr. Tavenner, you may proceed. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Mr. DeAquino, do you know whether this was the 
first instance in the State of New Jersey where a local of the UE was 
able by an election to throw off the Communist control of a local ? 

Mr.'DEAguiNO. Mr. Tavenner, to the best of my ability, and I never 
heard it being done before. We were congratulated by certain officials 
of the police department and one good friend of mine, I forgot to re- 
member him, he really gave me a big helping hand too, that was Mat- 
thews, Edward Matthews I think it is, who worked for Scolani who 
was very cooperative in the matter and who asked me to get in touch 
with Tom Gallagher, a newspaper reporter, and Tom Gallagher was 
helpful to me. I think we were the first to start the fight in the UE 
on the eastern seaboard. That is, any local who started from there on 
after was actually coached and trained by us. We went out after we 
got together with the new lUE district representatives. International 
Union Electricians — don't get that wrong — that is, Milton Weirach 
and the rest of the group down there and some are not there now, but 
tliey were there then — and we carried on the fight for the difi'erent 
locals who wished to do the same as we. We started to form little 
caucuses we will say in the national union, started little caucuses in 
general election, started little caucuses of different groups of people in 
Westinghouse. That took a lot of money because you can't get people 
to come down just to hear you talk. Most of the places where we had 
these meetings were over taverns and in taverns and things of this 
nature where we could talk about these things over a glass of beer and 
some other things. 

It got to the point we struck one plant where we found some real 
gorrilias. supposed to be. FADA Kadio Corp.; we didn't get much 
assistance there but they met us with a bus load of New York workers 
who were told prior to our being there that we were going to be there 
that morning, don't know how it got out. 

Jule Kolovetz Avas with me and I think Jimmy Costello was with 
me on that trip, there were 3 or 4 of us and we went there. They 
intended to push us around. In other words, they wanted to resort 
to violence. Of course I told them that as far as that was their game, 
that was my game too. So at that point one of the chief stewards, 
T don't recall his name, he came out and knew me to be a Belleville 
boy for quite some time because my parents lived in Belleville for 
quite some time, until they were deceased. He said, "I am a member 
of the Belleville Police Department and I know you and I don't want 
you to engage yourself in any fracas or fisticuffing in front of the 
plant because you make it bad for me." 

He had this guard's job while he wasn't doing police duty. So 
evidently I didn't want to hurt him in any way so we didn't engage 
in any fisticuffing and they didn't want to engage in any fisticuffing. 
We felt the best way we could infiltrate ourselves into the plant, was 
when we found FADA Radio was hiring people and at that time 



1166 COlNIMrXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

our people were being laid off. We encouraged our people who had' 
helped us in our light to take jobs in FADA Eadio. They did and 
formed little groups and cliques and these guys started hollering blue 
Uiurder to management and some getting fired and we were taking 
them back at our place. 

It was back and forth so nobody would stay out of work until 
finally I believe they penetrated it, I don't know. I think they did 
because after that I was going to other things and that was it. 

In other words. I just couldn't take much more of it because it was 
too much night after night and had been a big fight with our local 
and my wife got sick and we had gotten a new increase in the family 
and my second child had been born with an obstructed stomach and 
that took a lot of attention and care and my wife became a nervous 
wreck and got a nervous breakdown over it ; and I had to stay home 
and assist her but I was always manufacturing and mapping out 
strategy to proceed in the daytime without actually being out of the 
house al night. 

Mr. Tavenner. You told us in connection with your wife's nervous 
breakdown that someone had telephoned her that you were in the city 
of New York with a blonde. 

Mr. DeAquino. It wouldn't be only a blonde, it would be with any 
woman; they would manufacture some darned story. 

Mr. Tavenner. On the night that telephone report was made to her. 
did your wife telephone someone for help to find you ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, she called up Jule. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that your friend Jule Kolovetz with whom- 
you were working ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, she called him up and I think Jule told her not 
to worry that I was — that everything was okay; I wasn't out with 
any other woman and I was nowhere in New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. In fact, you were with Kolovetz at the time? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes, I was right next to Jule. I even told her — 
I said if you want me to talk, I will talk to you over the phone. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions except after a witness such as Mr. 
DeAquino I feel that I should comment. 

Mr. DeAquino, I know that you are the most effective witness that 
I have listened to since I have been a member of this committee during 
the past 3 years. There is no question that you are a fine American, 
no question that you are a credit to the union movement in this coun- 
tiy. I wish there were more people like you. 

I think the members of this committee more than most people can 
appreciate the abuse and the smears that you took in your fight to rid 
your union of the Communist influence. I think we can appreciate the 
treatment that your family received. We know something of the Com- 
munist tactics in that respect. We have had a little experience our- 
selves because to some extent we are engaged in the same fight that you 
were. 

I am at a loss for words to express the appreciation of the commit- 
tee and Congress for the splendid service that you have 7'endered toi 
your country. If there were more individuals like yoii I don't think 
we would need a Committee on Un-American Activities in the Con- 
gress of the United States. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1167 

My only regret is that there are many fine people in organizations 
in this country who are taken in by some of the propaganda that ema- 
nates from the Commnnist conspiracy in their attitude toward the 
problem and toward the investigations that we are conducting and 
toward the job that we are trying to do, namely, to acquaint the Ameri- 
can people with some of the things that you have told us today, and 
how this conspiracy operates, so that people may know and may rec- 
ognize it when they see it work in the shop or in the school or in any 
activity of American life. I congratulate you and thank 3'Ou for your 
testimony. 

Mr. Doyle. As chairman of this subcommittee, Mr. DeAquino, I 
want very briefly to supplement what my distinguished colleague from 
Ohio said ; I use his words as my own without repeating them. I know 
that several members of the UE including some district representatives 
are present in the courtroom, and some of you pleaded the fiftli 
amendment. I would think that every member of the UE in the court- 
room who heard this testimony — assuming you didn't know the truth 
before — you know it now. 

I am going to do this, Mr. Tavenner, and Mr. Scherer : if there are 
any paid officials or representatives of the UE present who want to 
take the witness stand and deny anything this witness has said, we will 
give you the opportunity. 

You talk about the right of opportunity to contradict and disprove. 
I will give to you members of the Communist Party who yesterday 
pleaded the fifth amendment, officials of the UE, the opportunity to- 
day to take the stand and deny under oath any of the statements of 
this witness. 

I think you people who are not in the UE and are American citizens 
have heard enough from this American of Italian ancestry to make 
your blood boil. Yesterday these UE officials stated that the UE was 
the most democratically controlled union in the country. Then you 
hear this witness and others under oath show how the UE right in this 
district has for years been controlled by this bunch of Communist con- 
spirators who place the Communist Party objectives ahead of the best 
interests of the UE union for the purpose of controlling it for Soviet 
purposes and totalitarian leadership. 

Mr. DeAquino, I want to again thank you and wish you and your 
fine family well. I know Mrs. DeAquino is very happy that you are 
okay, and we will report your great contribution to all of our fellow 
members on the committee and in Congress. The testimony you have 
given today will be printed, as will all the hearings, and will be avail- 
able for public use. 

Mr. DeAquino. Is that all? 

Mr. Tavenxer. That is all. You are excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Jules Kolovetz. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please stand and raise your right hand? Do 
you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the trutli, so help you God ? 

Mr. KoLovETz. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Take a chair, pleas& 



1168 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

TESTIMONY OF JULIUS KOLOVETZ 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir i 

Mr. KoLovETz. Julius Kolovetz. K-o-l-o-v-e-t-z. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Kolovetz, it is the practice of the committee to 
advise all witnesses that they are entitled to counsel. Do you desire 
counsel ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. Xo, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee when and where you 
were born ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. Cleveland, Ohio, April 7, 1913. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you live in the area of Newark ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in New Jersey ^ 

Mr. Kolovetz. Forty years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee what your educational 
training has been. 

Mr. Kolovetz. Grammar school and graduated from Brunswick 
High School, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the UE? 

Mr. Kolovetz. I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over what period of time ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. From March 1943 up to July or August 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where and how were you employed when you first 
became a member of the UE ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. As a millwright at Federal Telephone & Radio Cor}). 

Mr. Tavenner. At which plant ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. I was employed at the Orton Street plant. 

Mr. Tavenner. While employed there you became a member of the 
UE. Did you at any time hold a position within the UE ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. Steward and executive board member, both. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over what period of time were you a steward ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. I think it was in 1945. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. One year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you became a member of the executive board ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you serve as a member of the execu- 
tive board ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. About 3 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Around 1948 or 1949 ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. Yes ; just before that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the executive board until 
you left that union ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. No, I was purged. I wasn't allowed to run any more| 
because I opposed them. 

Mr. Tavenner. I do not want to repeat any more than necessary thaj 
testimony of the former witness, but were you associated with Mr. 
De Aquino in activities within your local ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. Just about everything he did. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the number of the local ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. UE 447, United Electrical, Radio and Machinoj 
Workers of America. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1169 

Mr. Tavenner, Did you go into the Communist Party at his request 
to do a particular thing ? 

j\lr. KoLOVETZ. I did, sir. 

J\Ir. Tavenner. What was your reason for going into the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. KoLO\TETz. Well, my one big reason was we were trying to do 
a job for 5 or 6 years, more or less we never had an accounting for 
funds, that was No. 1. We figured everything was being railroaded 
through in the local. You could never attend a decent meeting. If 
you got up and opposed the officials, you were more or less browbeat 
all the time. Well, one thing I had against them — we always had a 
dollar assessment for nonattendance of meetings. We would have a 
rough time of getting a quorum together which amounted to 250 
people out of an employment on an average over those years of roughly, 
r would judge 50,000 members. But as far as the dollar assessment 
there was never an accounting for that. A^Hiere the money went 
nobody knew. We all had good ideas where it was going but none of 
Lis were aware — were able to put our hands on anything concrete. 

Year after year we put up people to oppose these officers on the 
opposition slate. We would get terrific beatings, they would have 
;heir own judge of elections, their own trustees. You couldn't — you 
^ould never win an election up until the year we hired the Honest 
Ballot Association. 

The movement started back, I think in the latter part of 1946 where 
I few of us boys got together. But to get back to my story, Joe Sangene 
lappened to be business agent at that time and every night after work 
here would be meetings held in a secret chamber where Sangene was 
excluded. Sangene was a very good friend of ours. Well, we got 
:ogether one evening, in fact it was at my house, most of these caucuses 
vvere held at my house. We decided to do something about it. The 
)nly way we could do anything about it was to have somebody on the 
nside. Tony happened to be on the inside. He was bringing us 
nformation week after week and finally started worming my way in 
I little bit, being a good friend of Tony's, he was very weiriiked by 
he business manager, Joe Sprechman ; he is now dead. 

We figured two of us in there can get the proper information that 
ve need to start a campaign. So we finally got the data and I was 
ihe one to be picked on to expose them. 

I exposed them in our paper. We attended a meeting. That same 
nonth we attended a meeting at the Wide- Awake Hall. I was called 
'verything. I was at that time sergeant-at-arms. I didn't say a thing 
uitil after the meeting broke up and Gabe Bloksberg came by the 
loor. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was that ? 

Mr. KoLovETz. Gabe Bloksberg came by the door after the meeting 
vas adjourned. I called him and I says "Now you call me now what 
on called me inside." 

IVIr. Tavenner. Did he do it ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. Yes, him and about 30 friends jumped me. But 
hey were a little sorry and it was over. So they threatened me. In 
act, I carried a gun for over a year without a permit. They threatened 
ne, they threatened Tony and believe me I don't think any of them 
?ot any guts man to man. In a mob, yes, anybody has got a lot of 

C5388— 55— pt. 2 3 



1170 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

guts, but they jumped me that night. We held caucuses, that was 
before election, before we really put on our campaign, that was the ; 
break. So we started having caucuses. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that in 1948 ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. Yes, it was in 1948. I don't know the month. Early 
part of 1948, I would say fourth or fifth month, somewhere around 
there or so. 

We held caucuses. One night at my house we were having a meeting 
and Tony's wife calls up, she was crying, and hysterical. I said what 
is the matter. She says "I just got a phone call Tony is in some hotel 
room with some blond and this person is going to pick me up to take 
me down there." 

I says "That is good. I ought to be with him." Tony was alongside 
of me. "It so happens Tony is right here," I said. "Do you want to 
talk to him?" 

He picked up the phone and talked to his wife. That kind of settled 
things down. We told her to pay no attention to calls. Because if 
they called my wife she would say God bless him, he will come home 
when he is hungry. His wife is a little different. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell the committee about the methods used by the 
Communist members in this group with which you and De Aquino 
were associated. Where were these meetings of the Communist Party 
held? 

Mr. KoLOVETZ. I have attended meetings at Brantford Place, I 
don't know the number, I think it was 50, second floor. Communist 
Party headquarters anyway. 

And they moved, I attended 4 or 5 meetings up there and they 
moved from there I think it was No. 8 Park Place. I never attended 
a meeting at Park Place but I know they moved. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did people who were not members of your local 
attend these Communist Party meetings at Communist Party head- 
quarters ? 

Mr. KoLOVETZ. Yes ; that is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did functionaries of the Communist Party attend 
these meetings with your union members ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. What occurred at these Communist Party meet- 
ings that you attended ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. The biggest part of the meetings was taken up to 
get members in, get more members. They would have a quota, one 
month it would be set for 10 and the next month for maybe 30. Out 
of that they would grab maybe 2 or 3 for the whole quota. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether your local's funds were used 
at any time for Communist purposes; that is, outside of your own 
local affairs ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. When I was on the executive board I know time and 
again at the Walt Whitman school. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is that? 

Mr, Kolovetz. Walt Whitman school. I don't know whether it 
is a Communist school or not, I don't know — but funds were donated 
for that. For the Daily Worker, funds for that. We have also 
given funds to a summer camp at Sky Lake. I have never been up j 
there. I don't even know where it is. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWAKK, N. J., AREA 1171 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether that camp was conducted by 
your local of the UE as distinguished from the Communist Party? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. It was a camp that was run by the UE. As far as 
I know. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say funds were paid for the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. KoLO\'ETz. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did it happen that you used the local's funds 
to pay the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz, Well, there was so much — I remember quite a few 
instances $50 and $75 sent there to the Daily Worker. I don't know 
whether it was for subscriptions or advertisements but we used to get 
quite a few of them, a nice bundle of them anyway. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you in return get any large number of copies 
of the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. Yes, sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was done with them ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. Well, a few of us would have the job of getting into 
the plant an hour early and throw them on everybody's workbench, 
distribute them throughout the plant. Some people read them, others 
threw them away. Then during our campaign when we were fighting 
these birds we used to get a bundle of papers and there would be cer- 
tain people picked, some to distribute papers at Westinghouse, some 
to go to General Electric, early in the morning — and if you don't think 
it is humiliating to stand on the corner handing out Daily Workers 
and having people throw them back at you and cursing at you — we had 
to get their confidence. That was one of the ways and we had to do 
it. A few of us were very embarrassed but we did it. It took us a 
long time. I can say one thing that our local has done a wonderful 
job to get rid of them here in the East. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a result of the information that you and Mr. 
DeAquino secured, was a successful fight conducted within your union 
to get rid of the officers in your local who were members of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. That is true, it helped, I will say that. We had an 
awful lot of gullible people in the shop. At meetings a certain party 
would get up and say "I have been a member of the Communist Party 
for 35 years, but I am doing a job for you people. I have done this 
for you or done that for you." People went for that. He did — he 
did do a job. But in the meantime he was also doing a job on us. 
Helped us on one hand and took it off us with the other. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you withdraw from the Communist Party at 
the same time that you began this fight against the Communist lead- 
ership in your local ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. No doubt about that? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. We withdrew before that, about a month before 
that to get our groundwork set up. There was no doubt there. We 
took lots of abuse, slander, threats. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were some of the officials of your local union 
who were members of this group of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. Well, one was Joe Sprechman. He is now dead. Pie 
is self -admitted. Another one, he was not an officer but he admitted 
he belonged to the party for 18 years, Gabe Bloksberg. Connie Du- 
bac. He was president of the Federal Club, which was a cell. Helen 



1172 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Dobish, she was I guess you would call her secretary or treasurer. She 
collected dues at the meetings. 

Robert Galina was a secretary. He would write out the letters of 
when meetings were being held and where. Martha Stone, Elwood 
Dean. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Martha Stone in your local union ? 

Mr. KoLo-v^ETZ. Oh, no- 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she a member of this club of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. KoLovETZ. Yes ; she chaired the meetings lots of times. Elwood 
Dean's wife, Jeanette Dean. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Archer Cole ? 

Mr. KoLOVETZ. Well, the only way I was acquainted, I have seen 
him attend meetings. They were district meetings. I was a district 
delegate and we used to hold meetings during the day. I don't know 
offhand the number but it was on Haley Street. He attended meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. What kind of meetings were these ? 

Mr. KoLOVETZ. They were district meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of what ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. UE, district 4. 

I don't know whether you would call them Communist meetings or 
not, but an awful lot of them were there. It was what we can do to 
disrupt this and what we can do at the next place to disrupt that. One 
thing after another. It was always a company that the fight was 
waged against. I remember in 1947 it was— when a company locked 
us out because of their dirty tactics, instead of negotiating they made 
people wear signs all through the plant. For that reason 

Mr. Tavenner. Who made the workmen wear signs ? 

Mr. KoLOVETZ. The business manager at that time, Joe Sprechman, 
told us to put on signs and carry them, all kinds of digs against the 
company and the company didn't approve of wearing signs while you 
are working or pasting them on walls, union propaganda. 

We were asked to remove the signs and those that did not were sent 
home. They finally sent enough of them home to cripple the plant. 
And the company closed us out, unless we would sit down and negoti- 
ate decently without wearing signs. 

Finally it was a 7-week lockout and finally they sat down and 
negotiated and it was I think about 48 hours later everything was all 
settled. 

Mr. Doyle. What group decided to have the workmen wear the 
signs while they were on the job ? 

Mr. IvoLOVETz. I guess it come down, I don't know whether it come 
down from the executive board or just from the business management: 
and president. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you remember if that matter was discussed m thei 
Federal Club by the Communist Party members of the union ? 

Mr. KoLOVETZ. I don't remember that. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions except to repeat briefly what I 
said to the previous witness that I think you are to be congratulated 
on the fight you made within the union to eliminate Communist domi- 
nation of that union. You are a credit to your country and a credit 
to the union. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1173 

You engaged in the figlit at a time when I know that it was difficult 
to do so and the pressures against you were great at a time when you 
didn't have too much help. The committee appreciates your testimony 
and cooperation. 

Mr. DoTLE. I want to supplement Mr. Scherer's remarks by adopt- 
ing them as my own and as chairman to thank you. 

I want to ask one question : Was the Communist Party cell at the 
plant in control of union affairs of local 447, UE at the time that you 
instigated this free election? 

Mr. KoLO\TETZ. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I notice you say that very positively. Now was there 
another date later when the Communist Party regained control of 
the union at that plant ? 

Mr. KoLOVETZ. Well, after the elections there was no doubt about it ; 
they left like drowning rats. 

Mr. Doyle. So far as you know did the Communist Party group 
ever regain control of that particular union ? 

Mr. KoLOVETZ. Never. 

Mr. Doyle. I want to ask you this question, and I have never talked 
with you in my life, we have never even shaken hands ? 

Mr. KoLO^^:TZ. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. You are well qualified to answer this question and to 
express an opinion because of your experience both as a union member 
and as a Communist Party functionary, even though you were a phony 
Communist for a patriotic purpose. As you learned them, are the 
objectives of communism and the Communist Party and the objectives 
of organized labor one and the same thing ? 

Mr. Kolox'etz. No ; I would say no. 

Mr. Doyle. You would say not ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. No, they are not. 

Mr, Doyle. Could an American workman be a loyal union member 
and at the same time follow the dictates of the Communist Party in 
America ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. You mean could he be ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Kolovetz. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you mean he could not be a loyal union member and 
at the same time be a Communist Party member ? 

Mr. KoLO\TETz. No, sir. 

Mr.D^OYLE. Why not? 

Mr. Kolovetz. Well, for one thing a good union member looks out 
for all the workers and not just for a few. And a good union will 
also have a treasurer, which we never had. Where the money went 
nobody knows. I know that there are lots of good unions around and 
if you look at their treasury they have quite a bit of money. You 
take an average of 5,000 people at a dollar and a half per member over 
a period of 7 years, this is over $6,000 per month and over a period of 
7 years. 

Mr. DoYLE. Do you mean you could not get an accounting of that 
money ? 

Mr. Kolovetz. No. 

Plus your dollar assessment for nonattendance every meeting which 
amounted to — the largest crowd I remember was during the negotia- 
tions, we had 1,200 or 1,300 people at a union meeting and that was 



1174 COIMMUNTIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

exceptional. It was a very large crowd. Like I said before, we had 
quite a problem of getting a quorum because the bigger the crowd the 
less chance they have of running the meeting. 

Mr. Doyle. I remember you said that 250 members out of 5,000 
members was about the most you could get. 

Mr. KoLOVETz. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. With the evidence that we have had before us, of the 
complete domination of this local by the Communist Party, reasonable 
minds could come to only one conclusion, that these funds which dis- 
appeared were used as in other cases we know about for support of 
the Communist Party unknown of course to the rank and file of the 
members. 

That is one of the objectives of this committee. To point out to 
rank and file members of these very few unions that have been Com- 
munist dominated ; rank and file members who are loyal Americans, 
what has happened to the contributions they have made and how their 
own union is being used by a few members of the Communist conspir- 
acy who had been able to gain control of these unions. For instance, 
the other day we tried to point this out to the people who were contrib- 
uting to the Civil Rights Congress because they were misinformed 
or misled as to the purposes of the Civil Rights Congress. 

Many people were giving funds, where they otherwise wouldn't give 
funds to the support of the Civil Rights Congress. They didn't know 
that the Civil Rights Congress and the Communist Party were almost 
synonymous and that those funds, some of which came from union 
members also, were being used to support the Communist Party and 
support bail funds for individuals who were not only Communists 
but who had been charged with violating the laws of this country. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you hear your friend, Mr. DeAquino, testify? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. I heard the latter part of it. 

Mr. Doyle. I wrote down here his exact words of a brief statement. 
He said they owned the union, referring to the Communist Party, 
"They owned the union lock, stock, and barrel and did anything 
they wanted." 

Is that a true statement of the condition of the UE local 447 at the 
time you and Mr. DeAquino went into the Communist Party as phony 
Communists in order to uncover their conspiracy and totalitarian con- 
trol of the union for their own despicable Communist Party purposes ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. It is very true. 

Mr. Doyle. That is very true ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I assume, sir, that you will be called a stoolpigeon by 
some of the men that are in the room today. Yesterday I noticed some 
of them described a friendly witness who testified to help their country 
as a stoolpigeon. You also will be called a stoolpigeon. Of course 
you are used to that. 

Mr. KoLOVETz. I have been called worse than that. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, so have I, by this same gang. That is O. K. with 
me. 

Have you been paid or offered any money or any inducement to come 
here on your own time to testify ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Why didn't you bring a lawyer with you ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1175 

Mr. KoLOVETz. I don't need one. Wliat do I need a lawyer for? I 
am not ashamed of anything I did. I don't have to have anybody 
defend anything I did. 

Mr. Doyle. I have never talked with you and do not know what 
your answer will be of course, but because my boy fought for it I am 
also interested in knowing if there was an American flag in the Com- 
munist Party headquarters. 

]Mr. KoLovETz. Never. 

Mr. DoTLE. Never ? 

Mr. KoLovETz. I have never seen one. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. DeAquino testified that they put up a Russian flag 
in the Communist Party headquarters. Did you see that same Russian 
flag in Communist Party headquarters ? 

Mr. KoLOvETZ, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Here in Newark ? 

Mr. KoLO^^TZ. I also saw a picture of President Roosevelt hanging 
near the latrine. I have seen Lenin's and Stalin's picture at head- 
quarters hanging right in the meeting room. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, the picture of Stalin of Russia was 
given the favorite place in the Communist Party headquarters. 

Mr. Kolovetz. Over our President. 

Mr. Doyle. And the picture of that great American, Franklin D. 
Roosevelt was put as close as it could be to the gentlemen's latrine ? 

Mr. KoLOVETz. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. That is in keeping with the Communist Party philos- 
ophy because I heard and you heard one of their present UE leaders 
typify this Government as a tyranny yesterday. 

I want to thank you, too, sir, and wish you and wish your family well 
and extend you the congratulations and appreciation of all of the 
House of Representatives because I know that when we report your 
cooperation they would also like to thank you if they could. I do it in 
their behalf. 

The witness is excused. 

(Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Ta\t:nxer. Mr. Chairman, may I recall Mr. DeAquino for 1 or 2 
questions ? 

Mr. Doyle. While Mr. DeAquino is coming. I want to renew the 
same offer and invitation I made when Mr. DeAquino left the stand, 
and while he was in the courtroom. I again renew my offer to you 
UE leaders, former UE leaders or any one present in the courtroom if 
you want to take the stand and deny under oath the testimony of 
either of these two gentlemen and submit to questioning by the com- 
mittee, rise and give us your name. In fact, we will stay in during the 
noon hour to hear you. We won't even go to lunch, so that you will not 
lose time. 

Mr. ScHERER. Under the rules of the committee anyone who wants 
to dispute any testimony given before this committee or any one who 
feels he has been harmed has the right to come before this committee, 
and ask for an opportunity to explain, deny, or affirm any testimony 
given. Of all of the thousands of identifications made by witnesses 
before this committee how many have taken advantage of these pro- 
visions in the rules or such offers as made by Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe maybe 1 or 2. 



1176 e'OMMuisriST activities in the Newark, n. j., area 

Mr. ScHERER. I would say 3 or 4 and I know 1 or 2 have been sent 
to the Department of Justice for determination as to perjury. 

TESTIMONY OF ANTHONY DeAQUINO— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. DeAquino, can you recall any instances when 
money belonging to the local union was used for Communist Party 
things which it was endeavoring to get your union to use ? 

Mr. DeAquino. I am glad you brought it up because evidently a 
lot of people don't understand some of the ways that they actually 
take up the collections. 

As I said before, most of these donations and collections supposed 
to be taken up for any specific person they desired to do so for, were 
actually taken up, first it was brought up in the party. Like, for 
instance I will give you a real highlight of what I mean. 

For instance, the trouble that Eisler — his first name was Gerhardt. 
I think in the party they resent it very much because the United 
States Government was chasing after him whereby he — I don't know, 
he sneaked out of the country somehow — I know he wasn't deported. 
But whatever that was, something happened to that effect. They 
drew a big rally in Newark and from the Communist Party they actu- 
ally endeavored to get as much money as possible to actually furnish 
him, furnish counsel for him and everything else and things of that 
nature. 

Does that answer your question ? 

Lots — if it was first any collection that was supposed to be taken 
for any specific purpose whatsoever and any of the ones that were 
actually drafted up from the Communist Party were for people who 
had some Conmiunist affiliation or some way or another had been or 
still are Commies. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were the collections taken by the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. DeAquino. It would come to stewards council and executive 
board of the union and from there would be to the membership where 
these guys would ballyhoo this thing up that poor Eisler was going to 
get killed in this country, that more or less the people in this country 
were dragging him all over the streets and he had to have all kinds oi 
funds to protect him, a place to live, something to eat, give him money 
to live on. They created hysteria on everything that had to be done — 
on anything to be done to help any Communist cause. 

Mr. Tavenner. When the matter was taken to the rank and file 
members were they asked to contribute individually, take it out of their 
own pocket? 

Mr. DeAquino. Sure, a lot of them was asked individually and thej 
would go to the executive board and ask for a special donation that 
would come out of the union funds. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is what I wanted to find out. Was money paid 
out of the union funds also for that purpose ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Definitely. Money was paid out of that union fund 
for a lot of things. I would like to say this: In conjunction with 
Gerhardt Eisler I recall another instance. 

A gentleman by the name of Marzani got in trouble with the United 
States Government and they poured a lot of money into that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1177 

Mr, Tavenner. Who put a lot of money into that ? 

Mr. DeAquino. The Communist Party played that up big — they 
actually got people to donate money right from within the Commu- 
nist Party down into the rank and "file member of each UE local. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wasn't Marzani one of the Communists who infil- 
trated Government agencies ? 

Mr. Tavenner. He was tried on the charge of perjury and con- 
victed. 

Mr. Scherer. He was convicted because he denied he had been a 
member of the Communist Party while a Government employee. So 
Communist infiltration not only takes place in the labor unions but 
also in the Government. 

Mr. Taa-enner. Were any of the union funds used for that particu- 
lar purpose ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Well, as I said before, they would come before the 
executive board and make a special plea for additional $200 for that 
purpose or $300 or $500 or $600 or any amount of dollars. In other 
words, in order to find out more about that I imagine I would have 
to get certain records to find out whether or not whatever I am tell- 
ing you is the truth. 

But I do know for a positive fact they would make a plea before 
the stewards council, the membership for Eisler or Marzani and they 
did it for the Trenton Six. In fact, the Trenton Six practically bank- 
rupted the union members. The guys were getting so used to the 
Trenton Six when they saw one of us trying to collect money for 
them some of the people resented it so much they refused to give after 
that. 

Mr. Tavenner. IMembers of the union paying the money out of their 
own pockets is one thing. They had a right to do that. We would like 
to know if money was taken from the treasury of the local's fund 
for causes of that kind ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Let me say this, Mr. Tavenner. None of us had 
access to the union treasury. Even after and more or less in any 
treasury I don't care what organization you belong to unless it is 
an honestly run organization by honest-to-goodness people, where 
there is money in the treasury, for any sum of money when they 
actually tabulate the report of expenses and things of that nature, 
they have in it so many miscellaneous uses without anybody asking as 
to what miscellaneous cost was. 

You understand what I mean and how much those miscellaneous 
uses actually amount to by item. They could jack up the miscella- 
neous cost to any amount and could divide it and give some to Marzani, 
some to Eisler, some to the Communist Party and some to anybody 
because we weren't there every minute of the day. 

If they had been honest with the people instead of telling them the 
awful things they do say, and the way they slander the people and the 
way they do a character assassination job on the people, don't you think 
they would actually stoop down to dig into the pot of gold to fill their 
own needs? They certainly would. 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. I want to be sure that the record is clear. Do you 
personally know that the union funds were used for such purposes ? 

Mr. DeAquino. Yes. They were used. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the basis for your knowledge? How do 
you know ? 



1178 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. DeAquino. The reason for it is this : I know for a positive fact 
where there is some statements that can actually prove where a good 
deal of the union treasury went to. I know that I sat in many execu- 
tive board meetings where they made appeals to the executive board 
to be recommended to the membership to allow the officers of the 
union and the financial treasurer to actually make an additional dona- 
tion to the Eisler committee or to the Kuschner committee or to the 
Marzani committee and right down the line, but they wouldn't — 
once I asked that question and they told me, "Sit down, we will talk 
to you later about this." I asked them why they couldn't take up some 
benefit or collection for Marzani shop by shop, or Cardinal Mind- 
szenty, held a captive in Russia because of the fact they claimed he was 
for sabotage purposes or spying. They told me they don't engage in 
religious stuff like that, that Catholic faith would take care of him and 
he soon would be free. 

He didn't get free until just lately, I think if he ain't dead. They 
wouldn't help everybody. They only helped the people they wanted 
to help. And you have to come from the Communist Party or be a 
strong sympathizer to get anything from them. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated you have information which would sub- 
stantiate what you have told us about use of local funds for Commu- 
nist purposes. Is that information in the form of checks ? 

Mr. DeAqtjino. Yes, we have some 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the staff the information as to where 
those checks are ? 

Mr. DeAquino. I sure will, 

Mr. Tavenner. Not in the open session. 

Mr. DeAquino. You don't want to know now ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No. Will you make that information available to 
the staff? 

Mr. DeAquino. I will make it available to anybody, I guess that 
would be the thing we mostly need in order to substantiate what I say. 

Mr, Doyle. Have you been offered, promised, or paid any money 
to testify before this committee ? 

Mr. DeAquino. No. This is a fight between me and them for years. 
Nobody could buy this junk. This has to come to a real showdown. 

Mr, Doyle. Thank you. 

The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock this afternoon. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 30 p. m. the committee was recessed, to recon- 
vene at 2 p. m. the same day.) 

Atternoon Session, May 18, 1955 

Mr. Doyle. Let the committee be in order, and let the record show 
that a quorum of the subcommittee is present. Representative Scherer 
of Ohio, and Representative Doyle of California, chairman. 

This noon there was handed to me a copy of the American Bar 
Journal for April 1955, volume 41, No. 4, and beginning on page 307, 
is a very interesting treatise by John F. O'Connor of the New York 
bar, and the subject is the "Fifth Amendment, Should a Good Friend 
Be Abused ? " I will not have time to read it all. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1179 

However, I want to read several pertinent paragraphs beginning 
at page 307 : 

The right to claim the privilege against self-incrimination in the course of 
congressional investigations as well as in judicial proceedings is sanctioned by 
long usage and direct decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Its pres- 
ervation should not be jeopardized either by permitting its assertion by those 
who claim it under admittedly false pretenses or by permitting those who right- 
fully use it to deny the obvious consequences of their acts. It is doubtful 
whether the privilege against self-incrimination has ever been so much more 
abused as it is currently by those who assert it under oath that to state whether 
or not they are Communist would tend to incriminate them, and yet the demand 
that the public accept their statements not under oath that they are not Com- 
munists. 

A very practical problem is raised as to whether such abuse is not encouraged 
by those who would accept such inconsistent statements permitting those who 
make them to retain positions for which it is generally recognized that Com- 
munists or perjurers are not qualified. 

Somewhere not in the center of the controversy over this problem lies the 
question of whether under the Smith Act and the Internal Security Act of 1950 
membership in the Communist Party is or is not an incriminating factor. If, 
as the Smith Act provides, it is a criminal act to advocate the overthrow by uncon- 
stitutional means of the Government of the United States, why is it not a crime 
per se and the Internal Security Act says it is not, to be an officer or a member 
of a pai-ty which the Subversive Activities Control Board has found to advocate 
such overthrow? 

That is all I will take time to read. I thought it would be pertinent 
to put it into the record for the guidance of Congress and also for the 
information of members of the bar who are here in the court room. 

May I again remind members of the bar who appear with their 
witnesses this afternoon our rules prohibit any counsel for a witness 
putting words in the mouth of the witness. It limits the right of 
counsel to appear with his client before this committee and to advise 
him of his constitutional rights. 

I hope that it will not be necessary for the Chair to hear any lawyer 
this afternoon or tomorrow advising his client except on the question of 
the client's constitutional rights. It is very embarrassing sometimes 
to find a lawyer putting the very testimony in the mouth of his client, 
and naturally as a lawyer I dislike very much to say that I have heard 
what the lawyer is telling his client, which violates the rules of the 
committee, and yet we sit so close to the witness table here that we can 
hear almost everything that is said. 

I am telling the lawyers in the room that because we don't want to 
hear what you tell your client. But we do ask you to strictly observe 
the rules of the committee. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, before I call the first witness I would 
like to make a statement at this time for the benefit of the record and 
the committee. 

The witness, Mr. Anthony DeAquino, who was on the witness stand 
just before the close of the morning session, identified a person by the 
name of Anthony Zinna, Z-i-n-n-a, as having been a member of this 
same group of the Communist Party of which he was a member while 
a member of local 447 of the UE. He made reference to the fact that 
Mr. Zinna was currently employed in some department of the city 
government as an employee. I think the only fair thing is to state as a 
matter of public record at this time that since the staff has been work- 



1180 COAOIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

ing on this case in this investigation here in this area, it has had occa- 
sion to confer several times with Mr. Zinna. 

Mr. Zinna has cooperated fully ^yith the members of this staff. He 
has corroborated some of the testimony that has already been given 
here before this committee. He has admitted former Communist Party 
membership and described to the staff that he got out of the Communist 
Party just a very short time after the election in 1948 which has been 
referred to here in evidence. 

I thought in Mr. Zinna's behalf it should be made known as promptly 
as possible that he has fully cooperated with the committee in this 
investigation. 

JNIr. DoTLE. Thank you, Mr. Tavenner. It is just like you to always 
try to be eminently fair in protecting the good reputation of any per- 
son. Are you ready to call your first witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to call Mr. Gabriel Bloksberg. Will you 
come forward, please, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Please rise, sir, and be sworn. Do you solemnly swear 
to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Bloksberg. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF GABEIEL BLOKSBERG, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
WILLIAM ROSSMOOEE 

Mr. TA^^NNER. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. Gabriel Bloksberg. B-1-o-k-s-b-e-r-g. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. Will 
counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. William Rossmoore, 60 Park Place, Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Doyle, may I say something since I am the first lawyer to appear 
here after the last witness ? I was rather shocked 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. If you have any communication regard- 
ing the rights of your client as you see them, hand them to us and 
you know the rules of the committee require that. You also should 
know that of course the rules of the committee do not permit counsel 
to address the committee. We don't have time for it. 

Mr. RossMOORE. The last witness cast aspersions on all members of 
the bar when he said 

Mr. Doyle. That is an argument and I am not going to take the 
time of tlie committee. He can stand on his own feet and the com- 
mittee takes into consideration the weight of the testimony and all 
those things and the ethical bar needs no defense. So just proceed 
with your questions. 

Mr. RossMOORE. May I ask this, sir ? 

Mr. Doyle. Ask what ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Does your statement at the beginning of this hear- 
ing mean that the recommendation of the New Jersey State Bar Asso- 
ciation and the American Bar Association with respect to right of 
counsel is not being followed by this committee ? 

Mr. Doyle. That is a question that you can ask us outside of the 
hearings of the committee. We are here. You can get access to it 
and it has nothing to do with the questioning of your client by our 
counsel. 



COMMUAHST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1181 

Mr. RossMOORE. It affects my right as counsel. 

Mr. ScHERER. I know the purpose of this. Will you yield ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. He has a copy of the rules of this committee and 
if he hasn't got them he is negligent in not obtaining it. 

Mr, EosSiMOORE. I have a copy of the rules. 

Mr. Scherer. You know how closely those rules do follow the 
recommendations of the American Bar Association and the recom- 
mendations of the New Jersey State Bar Association. There is no 
excuse for your outburst. Let's proceed. 

Mr. Eossmoore. It is not an outburst, sir, it is a question. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. Newburgh, N. Y., July 28, 1909. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. 350 Belmont Avenue, Newark. 

Mr. Taatenxer. How long have you lived in Newark, N. J. ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. About 40 years, a few months more or less. 

Mr. Tavexner. During that period of time have you resided for any 
extended period in other States ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. What do you call extended periods ? 

Mr. Tavenxer. Say a month. 

Mr. Bloksberg. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. IVhat States ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. New York State. 

Mr. Tavenner. Any other States ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. Well, I was in the Army for 3 years or so and I 
hved for about a year and a half in Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma. 

Mr. Tavenner. What period were you in the Army ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. 1941 to— Wait a minute— 1942 to 1946, somewhere 
around there. I don't remember the exact dates. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat time in 1946 was it that you got out of the 
Army? 

Mr. Bloksberg. It either was the end, November or December of 
1945 or else the beginning of— I think it was the end of 1945. I think 
that would be correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you got out of the Army in 1945 about the end 
of the year, or early in 1946, where did you take up your residence ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. In Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. In Newark. ^Yhnt was your employment when 
you took up your residence in Newark after you got out of the Army ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. I got a job in Federal Telephone & Eadio Corp. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the local union in that plant ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. After I got the job I joined the union. I have done 
that m every job I have been on. I have been in several jobs and sev- 
eral unions, including independents, AFL, CIO, bottling workers, I 
have been in many unions and I have held many jobs, very rarely been 
out of work, I am an industrious worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. We are glad that you have been an industrious 
worker. Have you used your efforts in the Communist Party in any 
way in addition to your industrious work in the union ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. You are making an assertion and I resent your 
assertion. You see, I want to raise a question here. I want to point 
out that this committee had admitted Mr. Doyle, the Chairman, has 
admitted that you are a lawyer, a very experienced and capable lawyer, 



1182 COlVOVtUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

been on this committee for many years, Mr, Doyle himself pleads to 
have been a very capable lawyer and he says the same for Mr. Scherer. 
You guys have got me on a spot. 

Mr. DoTLE. Just a minute. 

Mr. Bloksberg. I want to make a point. 

Mr. Doyle. You will observe the rules of this committee. 

Mr. Bloksberg. I think that is the rule. 

Mr. Doyle. A question has been asked you and we are not going to 
permit you to 

Mr. Bloksberg. There is an assertion, not a question, an assertion 
been made and I want to point out on a point of order that 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute, Mr. Bloksberg. You are not going to 
control this forum and you might as well understand that now. 
_ Mr. Bloksberg. In other words, this is a forum and therefore your 
side is the only one has a right to speak. I have no right. 

Mr. Doyle. You have a right to speak when it is in accordance with 
the rules. 

Mr. Bloksberg. If it is a forum, I want my rights, want no asper- 
sions cast at me and want to make a point myself. 

Mr. Doyle. You can make a point when it is sharp enough and 
proper to make it. 

Mr. Bloksberg. At this point it is very sharp. 

Mr. Doyle. You cannot make a speech for the Communist Party. 

Mr. Bloksberg. You are making another assertion and you have — 
I have sat through this committee yesterday. You know I was here. 
I was here, yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you here ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. I was, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the course of his testimony, Mr. DeAquino 
identified you as a person known to him to have been a member of the 
Communist Party between the time in 1947 and 1948 when you were 
employed at the Federal Telephone & Kadio Corp. Was his statement 
true or false ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. I took a note of what that witness said and at one 
point when he was asked was he ever an officer of that local union 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer my question ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. I will answer the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will give you every opportunity to explain after 
you have answered my question. 

Mr. Bloksberg. He said he had ambitions, he had a family to take 
care of and he saw positions 

Mr. Tavenner. His answer is not responsive to the question. 

Mr. Bloksberg. Yes, it is. 

Mr. Doyle. It is not. You can answer that ;7es or no. 

Mr. Bloksberg. He said "I am an opportunist and not afraid to ad- 
mit it." You know what an opportunist is. He will do anything to 
improve himself by use of funds or anything else. On that basis I 
want to consult with my lawyer with regard to the question you have 
just asked. 

Mr. Doyle. As to your constitutional rights. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Let the record show that the witness is consulting 
with his lawyer and smiling. 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1183 

Mr. Bloksberg. Based on the fact that this witness himself stated 
tliat he was an opportunist it would seem to me that to answer that 
question would place me in jeopardy of persecution and prosecution, 
and I therefore claim the right and the privilege under the fifth 
amendment to reserve the right to answer that question. 
Mr. Doyle. Do you answer it or do you not ? 

Mr. Bloksberg. I said I reserve the right not to answer the question. 
Mr. Scherer. He has not properl;^ invoked the fifth amendment. 
Mr. Doyle. Let the record speak just whatever he said. Let the 
record stand. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. I suggest if there is any question about that that 
you direct the witness to answer so the record will be fully clear. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question Mr. Tavenner asked 
you. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Bloksberg. Did you ask that ? 
Mr. Doyle. I directed you to answer the question. 
Mr. Bloksberg. I repeat again that under the privilege granted 
me under the fifth amendment I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with a person by the name of 
Julius Kolovetz ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Bloksberg. Will you state the question ? 
Mr. Tavenner. Eead it, please. 
(The reporter read from his notes as requested. ) 
Mr. Bloksberg. Same answer for the same reasons to the previous 
question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you present in this hearing room this morning 
at the time that Mr. Julius Kolovetz was testifying ? 
Mr. Bloksberg. I was present. 
Mr. Tavenner. You were present ? 
Mr. Bloksberg. Right. 
Mr. TA^^:NNER. Did you hear his testimony ? 
Mr. Bloksberg. Yes, I heard his testimony. 

Mr. Tavenner. He identified you also as a person known to him 
to have been a member of the same Communist Party group of which 
he was a member between 1947 and 1948. 
Mr. Bloksberg. You see, sir, there have been witnesses before this 

committee at various times, some of whom have already told 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. 

Mr. Bloksberg. And they laid in testimony and I, because of the 
setup in this committee, cannot place my own freedom in jeopardy 
on the basis of anyone's opinions. 

Mr. Doyle. Let me say this to you : If you continue to undertake 
to slur this committee we will have you forcibly ejected from the court- 
room. 

Mr. Bloksberg. I am not slurring. 
Mr. Doyle. Yes, you are. 

Mr. Bloksberg. It is based on my own information. 
Mr. Doyle. You have to observe the rules of this committee or we 
will treat you accordmgly under the rules of the committee. You 
might as well understand that. This is the last time I will warn you. 
Mr. Bloksberg. I understand the one sidedness of the committee. 



1184 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N, J., AREA 

Mr, Doyle. You understand we are here as a congressional com- 
mittee and are not going to sit here and take your bunk and your slurs. 

Mr. Bloksberg. You make speeches all day long, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. We know. 

Mr. Bloksberg. And your speeches are slurs and bunk, too, and 
I am in no position to combat them. You are placing me in a strait- 
jacket. 

Mr. Doyle. You can be a dignified person, or try to. 

Mr. Scherer. I move that the witness be ejected from the court- 
room by the United States marshal for continuing to act as he has. 

Mr. Doyle. It is so ordered. 

(The witness was escorted from the hearing room by a United 
States marshal.) 

Mr. Doyle. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Robert Galina. 

Mr. Scherer. I might say I am going to recommend that this sub- 
committee recommend to the full committee that the witness be cited 
for contempt of Congress. 

Mr. Doyle. I will join you in the recommendation. 

Will you please rise and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God '( 

Mr. Galina. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT GALINA, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
WILLIAM ROSSMOORE 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mr. Galina. Eobert Galina. G-a-1-i-n-a. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Galina. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is he the same counsel who appeared for the former 
witness ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Galina, when and where were you born? 

Mr. Galina. Newark,N. J., June9,1914. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, briefly, what your 
formal educational training has been. 

Mr. Galina. I completed both grade and high schools in Newark, 
and I attended New York University for 2 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you complete your work at New York 
University ? 

Mr. Galina. I didn't complete my work. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you finish your work there ? 

Mr. Galina. It must have been June 1, 1934, to the best of my 
recollection. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you then return to Newark for employment? 

Mr. Galina. NYU had an extension in Newark at the time and 
that is the place I attended. I think it was on Academy Street. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present employment or profession ? 

Mr. Galina. I have no profession, sir. I am a worker. 
Mr. Tavenner. In what work are you engaged ? 



COMMinsnST activities in the NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1185 

Mr. Galina. I am driving a wholesale dry-cleaning truck right now. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your em- 
ployment has been since 1945 ? 

Mr. Galina. I was in the Army in 1945, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What period of time did you serve in the Army? 

Mr. Galina. I think I went in around October 1943 and got out 
around 30 months later, sometime around 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. In March 1946. How did you become employed 
on your release from the Army ? 

Mr. Galina. I heard there was a job-training program down at 
Federal Telephone & Radio Corp. and I tried to get placed on the 
apprentice program for tool and die maker, which is a highly skilled 
thing to carry me through life wath almost a profession, a good trade. 
They didn't have that open for anybody that just walked in; I had no 
seniority in the place, but they had an on-the-job training program 
for telephone apparatus adjusters or apparatus workers and I signed 
up for that under the GI bill of rights. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain with that company? 

Mr. Galina. Well, I was there some 8 years, I guess. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you leave employment there ? 

Mr. Galina. Around February 1, 1954, about a year and a half ago^ 
I guess, somewhere about that. 

Mr. Tavenner. During that period of employment were you a mem- 
ber of the union which had bargaining rights with that company ? 

Mr. Galina. After 30 days it was mandatory that a person — al- 
though I would have joined whether it was mandatory or not. 

INlr. Tavenner. Was the witness who preceded you also a member 
of that union ? 

Mr. Galina. As far as I know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he work at the same plant with you ? 

Mr. Galina. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you well acquainted with him ? 

Mr. Galina. How do you mean that, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew him ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Galina. Eepeat the question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I asked you if you knew the preceding witness? 

Mr. Galina. As a result of our employment there, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. By any reason, regardless of how you happened to 
know him ; did you know him ? 

Mr. Galina. It is very difficult to answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner, It is ? 

Mr. Galina. I know him now. I worked with him. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you known him ? 

Mr. Galina. I imagine since we worked there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Worked at the Federal Telephone & Radio Corp. ? 

Mr. Galina. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive any appointment or were you 
elected to any office of the union while there ? 

Mr. Galina. Well, I was a steward several years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you later become a member of the executive 
board ? 

65388— 55— pt. 2 i 



1186 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Galina. I don't know. Of the UE, you are speaking of now ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Galina. I was a member of the executive board of the UE, too, 
later on. 

Mr. Tavenner. We are asking about the period prior to 1948. 

Mr. Galina. I was never elected a member of the executive board 
that I know of. 

Mr. Tavenner. But were you a member of that board ? 

Mr. Galina. If I was it was by strength of the fact that I was 
chairman of the PAC committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position did Mr. Bloksberg hold in your local 
union ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Galina. As far as I know the only thing he held there was a 
stewardship, line stewardship, that I had. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether he was on the executive 
board too ? 

Mr. Galina. I don't think he ever was, no, sir ; not that I know of. 
Let me put it that way. I know he never ran for executive board. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you and Mr. Bloksberg associated in any other 
organization besides your union ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Galina. It seems to me that this committee is now getting into 
grounds which it has no right to get into and I am going to invoke my 
rights under the Constitution and the first amendment and fifth 
amendment — that part of the amendment which reads a witness cannot 
be compelled to testify against himself. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you read counsel's question, Mr. Keporter. 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I am going to ask that you direct the 
witness to answer the question. 

Mr. DoTLE. I so direct, Witness. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Galina. I give the same answer exactly. I refuse to testify 
under the first amendment and fifth amendment privilege which pre- 
vents a witness from being forced to testify against himself, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. In other words, I understand that you feel it might 
incriminate you ? 

Mr. Galina. My words, are, I think I have — do you have a copy 
of the fifth amendment (addressing his counsel) ? 

Mr. Scherer. Will you wait until I finish my question? I under- 
stand by your answer that you feel that it would incriminate you if 
you answered Mr. Tavenner's question by telling us whether or not 
you were associated with Mr. Bloksberg in another organization? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Galina. You can understand, I can't prevent you from under- 
standing or drawing any conclusion you want, but I invoke the privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment, which states a witness cannot be com- 
pelled to testify against himself. 

Mr. Scherer. Without asking you in what organization you may 
have been associated with Mr. Bloksberg, I ask you this question: 
Were you associated with Mr. Bloksberg in any organization other 
than the one which you have told us about ? 

Mr. Galina. Isn't that the same question, sir ? 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1187 

Mr. ScHERER. If it is the same, will you answer it ? 

Mr. Galina. I decline for the same reasons. Is that adequate 
grounds ? I still use the first and fifth amendments' privilege which 
states a witness cannot be compelled to testify against himself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct the witness to 
answer the question as to whether or not he was associated in any 
organization with Mr. Bloksberg other than the one he told us about. 

Mr. DoTLE. I so direct you, Mr. AVitness. 

Mr. Galina. Shall I repeat the answer or shall I just say same 
answer ? 

Mr. DoYLE. Whatever answer you have. 

Mr. Galina. It is the same answer. I invoke my constitutional 
rights under the first and fifth amendments and that portion of the 
fifth amendment which states that a witness cannot be compelled to 
testify against himself. 

Mr. ScHERER. In a criminal case. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Mr. Chairman, I want to ask this witness a ques- 
tion about Mr. Bloksberg, but if Mr. Bloksberg is not going to be 
permitted to come back to answer it, I don't want to ask it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let us hear what it is. 

(Conference with committee members and staff.) 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period that you were steward of local 
447, were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Galina. Again you are trying to invade my personal associa- 
tions and beliefs and again I invoke the privilege under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to 1948 did you have any knowledge of 
membership of other officials of local 447 in the Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Galina. No matter how many ways this committee frames 
questions as to my personal beliefs and personal associations, I will 
not answer and I will invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Were you required at any time during your con- 
nection with the UE to file a non-Communist affidavit under the pro- 
visions of the Taft-Hartley Act ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Galina. No ; I never was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at anv time refuse to sign such petition? 

Mr. Galina. Taft-Hkrtley? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Galina. I was never required so there was no question of 
refusal. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you terminate your employment ? 

Mr. Galina. As I said, somewhere around February 1, 1954. 

Mr. Tavenner. 1954? 

Mr. Galina. Somewhere around there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Galina. I think it would be well if the committee wouldn't 
waste time on questions of this sort, wasting taxpayers' money. 

Mr. Doyle. Go ahead and answer the question. We do not intend 
to have you make a Communist speech here. Just answer the question. 

Mr. Galina. It is not a Communist speech. I invoke my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 



1188 coMJMxnsriST activities in the newark, n. j., area 

Mr. Doyle. That is your privilege if you are doing it honestly and 
conscientiously. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. No further questions. You are excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Galina. What do I do with this ? 

Mr. Doyle. You can get your witness fee here at the desk. 

Mr. Galina. That is what I want. 

Mr. Doyle. I know you want it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Emil Asher. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please rise. Do you solemnly swear to tell 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Asher. I do, sir. 

Mr, Doyle. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF EMIL ASHEE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, HARRY 

SACHER 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

Mr. Asher. Emil Asher. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Would 
counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Sacher. Harry Sacher, 342 Madison Avenue, New York 17, 
N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Asher? 

Mr. Asher. Born in Paterson, N. J., on June 4, 1915. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, briefly what your edu- 
cational training has been ? 

Mr. Asher. My educational training has been grade school and 3 
years of high school. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Asher. No, sir. I had a physical disability. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your em- 
ployment has been since 1945 ? 

Mr. Asher. Well, during the period of 1945 until 1947, I believe, I 
functioned in the capacity of a UE organizer and also as a business 
agent for a UE local 423 in the Passaic County area. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a union organizer ? 

Mr. Asher. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that the same as a field organizer ? 

Mr. Asher. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what union were you working at that time ? 

Mr. Asher. The United Electrical, Kadio and Machine Workers of 
America. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wlien did your employment by the UE begin ? 

Mr. Asher. Well, I would say on or around 1943. I don't think I 
could pinpoint the actual month. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is satisfactory. How long did it continue ? 

Zvlr. Asher. I would say until the — will you just repeat it again? 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did your employment as a field organizer 
continue ? You said it began in 1943. 

Mr. Asher. That is correct. I think somewhere in 1946. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1189 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that within the area of district 4 of the UE ? 

Mr. AsiiER. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. To what locals were you assigned while field or- 
:ganizer within UE district 4 ? 

Mr. AsHER. Well, from time to time we would go into different local 
unions based upon the particular problems. I couldn't offhand recall 
the exact local unions but I know they were 418, 423, I think that is 
about all, sir, 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever work in any capacity with local 447 ? 

Mr. AsHER. I believe I was a member of their local union. 

Mr. Tavenner. During what period were you a member of that 
union ? 

Mr. AsHER. Again I would have to say about the period. It seems 
to me that it was in the year of 1946 and possibly running into the 
•early part of 1947. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Did you hold a position of any kind while you were 
a member of local union 447 ? 

Mr. AsHER. I don't recall holding any official position within that 
local union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hold any official position in the UE while 
you were a member of local 447 ? 

Mr. AsHER. Yes, sir. I was a field organizer at that period. 

Mr. Tavenner. That brings you up to 1947. Did you hold any 
official position in the UE after 1947 ? 

Mr. AsHER. I just want to correct the record a moment, sir. I think 
it was in 1946 that I was a member of the 447 local and I think during 
the period of 1947 I then became the business agent of local 423, which 
was an amalgamated local. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. How long did you serve in that capacity ? 

Mr. Asher. I would say a little over a year. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment in the UE ? 

Mr. AsHER. I terminated my employment at that point. 

Mr. Tavenner. What employment did you obtain at that time? 

Mr. Asiier. I went into the shop, I clon't recall the name of it, 
irankly, I know it was a subsidiary of the Koppers Coke. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what area ? 

Mr. Asiier. Berkeley Heights, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain employed there ? 

Mr. Asiier. About 6 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVliat was your next employment ? 

Mr. Asher. May I consult with counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Asher. Well, at this point, sir, I would like to invoke my con- 
stitutional rights and decline to answer that question because I refuse 
to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, in order to be accurate about the dates. You 
stated you left that employment after a period of 6 months. What 
was the date you left that employment of about 6 months and took 
up the employment you now refuse to tell us about ? 

Mr. Asher. Well, I know it was some time in 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1948? 

Mr. Asher. That is right. 



1190 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Ta-v^enner. Was it after the election held in local 447 in 1948 
that you took up this new employment ? 

Mr. AsHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the result of the election in local 44Y in 1948 
have anything to do with your change of occupations ? 

Mr, AsHER. The local union election had nothing to do with it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you living after you took your new 
employment in 1948 ? 

Mr. AsHER. I was living in Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you continue to reside in Newark, 
N. J.? 

Mr. AsHER. Until June 1951. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed during the period 1948 
to June 1951 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. AsHER. Well, I again want to invoke my privilege under the 
Constitution and decline to answer this question. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed after June 1951? 

Mr. AsHER. I think around August of 1951 I sought employment,, 
and achieved it in a textile plant. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where ? 

Mr. AsHER. The Eclipse Piece Die Works. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where is that plant located ? 

Mr. AsHER. Passaic, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain employed there ? 

Mr. Asher. I am at the present moment still employed there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the UE ? 

Mr. Asher. No, sir. I haven't been from the point when I left it, 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1946 you were a member of local 447. Were 
you acquainted at that time with Elwood Dean ? 

The witness conferred with his counsel) 

Mr. Asher. I want to state, sir, that I have been a worker all of 
my life, I started work when I was 8 years of age, and one of the first 
principles which I was taught when I went into a plant 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. You can answer that "Yes" or "No" 
and save your time and ours, or claim your privilege if that is what 
you feel you conscientiously and honestly can do. 

Mr. Asher. The only thing is I feel it does require a bit of explana- 
tion. 

Mr. DoTLE. It does not require any explanation. If you claim the 
privilege honestly and conscientiously that is your constitutional priv- 
ilege, but the question calls for "Yes" or "No." 

Mr. Asher. Can I also state I sat here this morning 

Mr. Doyle. Answer the question and I will give you an opportunity 
to explain your answer. 

Mr. Asher. All right. I decline to answer the question for the 
same reasons which I previously gave. Can I now state 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. I think possibly you misunderstand my statement, but 
you didn't answer the question "Yes" or "No." You relied upon your 
constitutional privilege and refused to answer. Now, I don't want to 
mislead you in any way. I didn't intend to but if you considered your 
pleading of the amendment as an answer, we don't so consider it. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1191 

Mr. AsHER. Can I have the question rephrased ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Elwood Dean in 1946? 

Mr. Asher. Well, I decline to answer the question, based upon my 
constitutional rights of the fifth amendment, and do not want to be a 
witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not he was a candidate 
for office of freeholder on the Communist Party ticket in 1946 ? 

Mr. Asher. Well, again I want to state that I decline to answer the 
question. I certainly feel that on this score I am not going to answer 
any of the questions of the committee. 

Mr. ScHERER. I suppose the witness intended to invoke the fifth 
amendment, but he did not invoke it so I will ask the chairman to 
direct him to answer the question. 

Mr. Sacher. Do you want to waste time just having this rigmarole ? 

Mr. DoTLE. It is no waste of time. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am protecting your client. 

Mr. Sacher. He is protected if you don't direct him to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I was just getting ready to direct him, sir. 

Mr. Sacher. It is obvious the man intends to invoke his privilege. 

Mr. Doyle. That is why we are courteous enough to remind him. 

Mr. Sacher. He runs no risk if you do not order him to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is not the law. 

Mr. Sacher. I will come and take lessons from you. 

Mr. Doyle. If you intended to invoke your constitutional privilege, 
I didn't hear you do it in answer to the last question. Will you read 
the witness' answer, please, to help him ? 

Mr. Sacher. I don't think you need take that time. I shall suggest 
what he shall say if that will please you. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Asher. I decline to answer the question based upon my rights 
under the Constitution that I will not be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with the fact that Mr. Dean 
was also a candidate for office, namely, position of county clerk on the 
Communist Party ticket in 1950 ? 

Mr. Asher. Again I want to state I have no intention informing 
the committee as to who my associates are, as to what my political 
beliefs are. 

Mr. Doyle. We are not asking you that question, sir. We are ask- 
ing the question whether or not you were aware Elwood Dean was a 
candidate on the Communist Party ticket for a certain office, not 
whether you are associated with him. 

Mr. Asher. I again decline to answer that question based upon the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Louis Malinow who was 
candidate for the position of freeholder on the Communist Party 
ticket in 1951 ? 

Mr. Asher. I again decline for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you engage in any activity for the support of 
Mr. Dean and Mr. Malinow by signing nominating petitions ? I hand 
you a photostatic copy of the three petitions and ask whether or not 
you can identify your name as a signatory. You may explain first 
the one of — — 

Mr. Sacher. He has examined all three. 



1192 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. AsHER. I again decline to answer the questions for the same 
reasons. 

Mr. Doyle. I didn't observe you looking at the petition at all, sir. 
You may not want to but the petitions are before you. Do you want 
to look at them before you answer ? 

Mr. Tavenner. May I change my questions? Will you examine 
the petition for 1946 and state whether or not the name appearing on 
line 2 near the top of the page is your name ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Asher. I decline to answer, sir, for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the second petition of 1950 and 
state whether or not the name appearing on the first line is your 
signature ? 

Mr. AsHER. I again decline to answer the question for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the petition of 1952 and state 
whether or not the name appearing on line 14 is your signature. 

Mr. Asiier. Again I wish to state that I decline to answer that 
question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. I oifer the documents in evidence and ask that they 
be marked Asher Exhibits Nos. 1, 2, and 3, respectively^ for identifica- 
tion purposes only and to be made part of the committee files. 

Mr. Doyle. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period that you held an official posi- 
tion with the UE, did you engage in any activities for the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Asher. I again decline to answer that question for the same 
reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee any facts within your 
knowledge as to whether or not the Communist Party either did or 
did not attempt to exercise direction and influence upon local 447 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Asher. I must again, sir, decline to answer that question for 
the same reasons which I previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever attended a Communist Party meet- 
ing at Communist Party headquarters in Newark ? 

Mr. Asher. Well, I think the committee is now delving again into 
my political opinions and my political thinking and it seems to me 
that based upon the Constitution of the United States under the first 
amendment, I certainly have the right of association or opinions and 
I also further want to decline to answer the question on the basis which 
I stated previously under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. in view of the witness' answer, for the record may I 
say that the Communist Party is not a political party as we know 
political parties in this country ; by the courts and by an act of Con- 
gress it has been designated as a criminal conspiracy dedicated to 
the overthrowing of this Government by force and violence and that 
it is as much a conspiracy as any covered by other criminal statutes 
on the books today. We are not delving into anybody's political be- 
liefs when we ask them about their association or participation in 
this criminal conspiracy. 

Mr. Sacher. May 1 ask you if you think it is a criminal con- 
spiracy 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1193 

Mr. Doyle. You know the rule of this committee and I am not going 
to permit you to violate it. 

Mr. Sacher. I don't wish to violate it. I asked if I may. 

Mr. Doyle. No. 

Mr. Sacher. I wish in telling me I may not, I wish you would do 
it politely, bearing in mind I am a member of the bar and asked for 
permission. 

Mr. Doyle. I am surprised that you should openly violate the rules 
of the committee by asking if you can make a statement when you 
know it is not permitted under the rules. 

Mr. Sacher. May I not ask you whether I may make one? You 
mean this is so unchangeable that one may not even ask you ? 

Mr. Doyle. You were seated in this room when I told you the rights 
of counsel before this committee. You heard me. I saw you look at me 
and smile. You are deliberately violating the rule of the committee. 
Please discontinue. 

Mr. Sacher. When I ask you a question I don't violate it. If you 
tell me I may not, I may not and I shall desist. 

Mr. Doyle. I told you before the session began you couldn't. I 
laid down your jurisdiction, and that is to advise 3'our client of his 
constitutional rights. 

Mr. Sacher. You mean a lawyer may not even ask you a question — 
during the hearing that he may not ask you a question ? 

Mr. Doyle. You know I have to rule against you. Wliy do you 
persist ? Why don't you practice ethically before this comniittee and 
stop violating its rules ? 

Mr. Sacher. I yield to nobody on ethical practice. 

Mr. Doyle. You are in deliberate violation of the rules. 

Mr. Sacher, It is not so. 

Mr. Doyle. It is so. 

Mr. Tavexner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1948? 

Mr. Asher. I again want to state, sir, that no matter how many 
times you are going to ask these types of questions you are going to 
get the same kind of an answer. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party now? 

Mr. AsiiER. I would like to state that from some of the remarks 
w^hich were made it certainly indicates that the committee has made 
up its mind insofar as some of the political questions which 

Mr. DoYLE. Will you please answer the question. 

Mr. Asher. I am, sir, getting to it. 

Mr. Doyle. Don't get around it that way. Just answer the question. 
You can claim your privilege if you believe you honestly, conscien- 
tiously can. 

Mr. Asher. I think a reply is more than just a yes or no answer. It 
seems to me that — I would like to also state, sir, that it seems as though 
there is an attempt being made to just get the same question in another 
form and to get the same answers. 

Mr. Doyle. You answer it the way you feel you honestly, frankly, 
conscientiously can, but we don't have time for you to make a speech 
even of 3 or 4 minutes. 

Mr. Asher. Can I have the privilege of one moment of explaining 
myself on this point ? 



1194 COMIMITNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. The position of the committee is that if you answer the 
question, Witness, we will give you all the time in the world to make an 
explanation, but when you refuse to answer the question you have no 
right to make an explanation because you don't answer the question. 
When you invoke the fifth amendment and refuse to answer, you are not 
answering the question, you just decline. 

If you answer yes or no, that is, answering the question of counsel, 
we will sit here until 5 o'clock and let you make an explanation of that 
answer, but you can't make an explanation of an answer you don't 
give. That is the position of the committee ; and it is sound. What was 
the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliether or not he is a member of the Communist 
Party at this time. 

Mr. ScHERER. If you answer that question we will sit here as long 
as you want and listen to any explanation that you want to give. But 
when you refuse to answer the question you certainly don't have the 
right to explain what you don't answer. That is the position of this 
committee and some people don't understand it, and it is a sound posi- 
tion that is taken in the courts also. 

Mr. AsHER. I decline to answer the question for the same reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. DoTLE. Any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 

Anthony DeAquino testified this morning before this committee and 
identified you as a member of the Communist Party and gave other 
testimony insofar as you were concerned. We want to give you the 
opportunity either to affirm or deny that testimony, or explain it in 
any way you see fit. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. AsHER. I just want to state, sir, that the committee has already 
come to certain conclusions insofar as the opinions of the previous wit- 
ness, and therefore it is no point for me to answer the question. I there- 
fore decline for the same reasons previously given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, if that is his reason for declining to 
answer, I would suggest that you direct him to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I do direct you to answer the question if that is your 
reason. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Asher. I decline to answer because I don't want to be a witness 
against myself, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Was DeAquino telling the truth when he said you 
were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. AsHER. I was in no position, sir, to question him or cross- 
examine him. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand, but you have your opportunity now to 
answer simply whether DeAquino was telling the truth when he identi- 
fied you as a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Asher. I decline to answer the question for the same reasons 
previously given because I don't think this is an opportunity. 

Mr. Scherer. Because what ? 

Mr. AsHER. I don't think it is an opportunity here. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, then I ask that you direct the witness 
to answer, because the reason he gave is not a reason for declining to 
answer under the fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1195 

Mr. Doyle, I make the direction that you answer the question. 

Mr. AsHER. I decline to answer the question for the same reasons 
previously given under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is all. 

Mr. Tavenner. That will be all. 

( Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 

Esther Engle. 

Mrs. Liss. Before I am sworn, I would like to make two requests : 
First that the photographers refrain from taking pictures of me. _ I 
have noticed that during the hearings although it is a rule that while 
a witness is testifying that they should refrain from doing so, I notice 
that they are proceeding to do so while I am talking and I would 
appreciate it if the court would direct them to stop. 

Mr. DoTLE. Congress believes strongly in freedom of the press and 
they are here as such, and they, however, agreed not to take your 
picture or the picture of any other witness during testimony. I have 
noticed that they have observed that arrangement very nicely. But 
of course they are free to take your picture as a witness in a public 
meeting and gathering. Wliat is your other request ? 

Mrs. Liss. I feel that the committee does have some semijudicial 
powers here to direct photographers to refrain from doing this and 
I was hoping it would invoke these powers. I won't hold up the 
hearing. 

Mr. Doyle. We are not going to direct the American press not to 
take a picture of a person appearing in any public gathering in this 
country. When you are under testimony that is different. They do 
not do it under such conditions. Wliat is your other point ? 

Mrs. Liss. I would respectfully move this committee quash the 
subpena served upon me 

Mr. Doyle. If you have a motion, hand it to us and we will con- 
sider it. 

Mrs. Liss. It is three sentences — on the ground that it does not state 
with particularity the scope, purpose, and subject matter of the pro- 
posed interrogation to which I am to be subjected. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course under the law it isn't required that the sub- 
pena state that. Under the rules of the committee it requires the 
chairman to make an opening statement and that opening statement 
was made. Now, are you ready to be sworn and proceed ? 

Mrs. Liss. Yes ; though I would like it in the record that I am being 
sworn 

Mr. Doyle. Everything you said went into the record. 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Liss. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ESTHER ENGLE LISS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ESTHER STRUM FRANKEL 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please. 

Mrs. Liss. Esther Engle Liss. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mrs. Liss. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify herself? 



1196 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mrs. Frankel. I am Esther Strum Frankel of 262 Main Street in 
Paterson, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you subpenaed under the name of Esther 
Engle. 

Mrs. Liss. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that your name now ? 

Mrs. Liss. My name is Esther Liss. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell it, please. 

Mrs. Liss. L-i-s-s= 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been married ? 

Mrs. Liss. Before I go into answering any of the other questions, 
I would just like another point of clarification. I was summoned 
here to testify in connection with LTn- American Activities and I 
would like a definition by counsel or committee on precisely what 
they mean. I want to know what questions I will answer will fall 
into this scope. 

Mr. ScHERER. Proceed with the questions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question, please? 

Mrs. Liss. Well, the reason that I am raising this 

(The witness conferred Avith her counsel.) 

Mrs. Liss. The reason I am raising this is 1 want to make sure that 
a simple question such as where I was born or who I married and 
other ])ersonal questions are within the scope of this committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. I didn't ask you the name of your husband, but I 
want some identifying information regarding you and as to the names 
used by you during different periods. Once again I ask you to answer 
the question. 

Mrs. Liss. Eepeat the question, please. 

Mr. Tavenner. Read it, please. 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) 

Mrs. Liss. I just would like the record to show that I object to this 
type of questioning but in order not to delay the hearings I will answer 
the question. I have been married for a little over 3 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you used any name other than Esther Engle 
and your present married name ? 

Mrs. Liss. No, I have not. 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you tell the committee, please, where you were 
born ? 

Mrs. Liss. I was born in Paterson. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside? 

Mrs. Liss. In Paterson. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Paterson ? 

Mrs. Liss. All my life. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mrs. Liss. I have gone through public schools ; grade schools, high 
school. That is it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee what employment you 
have had since 1945 ? 

Mrs. Liss. I would decline to answer this question on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment, since I feel that a witness does not have to 
testify against himself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time been employed by the UE ? 
Or a local of the UE. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1197 

Mrs. Liss, Again I am declining to answer that question on the same 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed 
to answer. 

Mr. DoTLE. I instruct you to answer, Witness. I believe it is a fair 
question for the purpose of identity. 

Mrs. Liss. I again decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr, ScHERER. Wliat was the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. The question was whether she at any time had been 
employed by the UE or one of its locals ; and she refused to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. And used the fifth amendment for that? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. I instructed her to answer. 
(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. I think that the witness should be told that it is the 
opinion of the committee if she refuses to answer that question she is 
clearly in contempt. That is the opinion of the committee. I think 
the witness should know that. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is fair that it be explained to her if that is your 
view. 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, it is the opinion of the committee, and we 
may be wrong, but if you refuse to answer the question as to whether 
you were a member of the UE or an officer of the UE, you are clearly 
in contempt. How could that possibly incriminate you ? 

Mrs. Liss. I would like to consult with my attorney. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Liss. I would like to withdraw my last answer and answer the 
question in relation to — the answer to that question is, "Yes." 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wlien were you employed by the UE ? 

Mrs. Liss. Approximately between 1944 and 1948. I am not posi- 
tive, you know, about the exact months, but it is approximately in 
that period. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been employed by the UE or any local of 
the UE or any district headquarters of the UE at any other time than 
between the years of 1944 and 1948 ? 

Mrs. Liss. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the nature of your employment between 
1944 and 1948 ? 

Mrs. Liss. I was an office worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what office ? 

Mrs. Liss. In the office of local 447. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Who was the president of UE local 447 during th^t 
period of time ? 

Mrs. Liss. I would decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment and my privileges thereunder. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of your duties as office worker ? 

Mrs. Liss. As office worker, I took dictation, answered the telephone, 
typed. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Were you the secretary or the stenographer for the 
president of the local ? 

Mrs. Liss. I took dictation and directives from any one of the offi- 
cials of the local, including the stewards and chief stewards and any 
one in the local that had any kind of authority, you might say. 



1198 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in a position to have very intimate knowl- 
edge about the workings of the headquarters of your particular local ? 
Mrs. Liss. I had intimate knowledge insofar as my own job was con- 
cerned and the duties I had to perform. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the course of the performance of your duties did 
you have occasion to meet with stewards or other officials of your union 
in Communist Party meetings ? 

Mrs. Ltss. I would decline to answer that question on the groimds of 
the fifth amendment on the basis that I will not testify against myself. 
Mr. Tavenner. According to the testimony of Lieutenant Owens, 
which was given on the first day of these hearings, you admitted him ta 
the premises of 38-40 Park Place in Newark in order that he might 
execute a search warrant which he had in his possession. Do you re- 
call that occasion ? 

Mrs. Liss. I would refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was shown in evidence that 38 Park Place was the 
headquarters of the Communist Party and that you were there. Will 
you tell the committee what your position was in the Communist Party 
and what your reason was for being there ? 

Mrs. Liss. I again decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
January 18, 1951 at the time of the execution of that search warrant? 
Mrs. Liss. I would again decline to answer that question on the 
same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the time you were working for the UE between 1944 and 1948 '^ 
Mrs. Liss. I would again decline to answer on the same grounds.. 
Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 
Mrs. Liss. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 
Mr. ScHERER. No questions. 
Mr. DoYLE. No questions. 
Mrs. Liss. Am I excused ? 
Mr. Doyle. Yes, you are excused. 
(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Doyle. I think the committee had better recess for 4 or 5- 
minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Tavenner and Mr. Scherer, before we proceed I 
have a letter here dated March 4, 1955, from the United States District 
Court, Chicago, in the matter of United States against Claude Light- 
foot, case No. 54 CR 462. This letter came to me in answer to my re- 
quest for a copy of the remarks by the judge in that case and I want 
to read a couple of paragraphs from the judge's opinion here which I 
think are very appropriate, especially in view of the nature of the 
testimony of some of these witnesses and the criticisms of the com- 
mittee by some of the witnesses. 

Decision of Judge Philip L. Sullivan, United States District Court, Chicago, 
in the Lightfoot case : 

I have been keenly aware that this is not an ordinary criminal case ; through- 
out the trial, I have been sensitive to the justice of defendant's contention 
that it would be difficult to secure a fair verdict on this issue ; and I have been 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J,, AREA 1199 

aware that many of us tend to discard our normal thinking and reactions when 
we hear the word "communism." For these reasons, I wish to make an ex- 
haustive study of the evidence submitted, with a view to using my power under 
rule 29 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure to direct a judgment of 
acquittal if it should appear that the verdict of the jury was not supported 
by evidence from which a reasonable mind could conclude guilt beyond a rea- 
sonable doubt. 

This study has convinced me that the verdict of the jury was supported by 
the required evidence. * * * 

I wish to state this decision by this distinguished federal judge 
following a jury trial was made within the last 7 or 8 months. So it 
is current. I read it particularly at this time on the question of 
whether or not the record and history of the Communist Party in 
the United States is one of advocating use of force and violence, sub- 
versive conduct toward established government. 

The defendant was indicted under section 2 of the Smith Act (title 18 
U. S. C. A. sec. 2385) which provides : 

"Whoever organizes or helps or attempts to organize any society, group or 
assembly of persons who teach, advocate, or encourage the overthrow or de- 
struction of any such government by force or violence ; or becomes or is a member 
of, or affiliates with, any such society, group or assembly of persons knowing 
the purposes thereof * * *." 

The indictment charges that from on or about July 25, 1945, and continuously 
thereafter, up to and including the date of the indictment (May 14, 1954), the 
Communist Party was a society of persons advocating the overthrow of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States by force and violence as speedily as circumstances 
would permit ; and that the defendant was a member of that organization during 
the same period, knowing these purposes, and intending to bring about such over- 
throw by force and violence as speedily as circumstances would permit. 

That defendant was a member of the Communist Party was admitted by him- 
self as well as by his counsel, and established by formal proof. 

The evidence of the Government tending to prove the "advocacy" of the party 
falls into several categories. First: There was evidence tending to show that: 
The party has "secret" members ; in schools conducted by it, training was uni- 
form and according to an established pattern ; it is a highly organized group, 
built on well-defined administrative levels and maintaining discipline within its 
ranks. This evidence was of course significant as showing the deviation of the 
Communist Party from normal political parties, and an interference may fairly 
be drawn from it that significant reasons for the deviation exist. 

Second : There was evidence to show its teachings and beliefs. This evidence 
established that the Communist Party is a political party "basing itself on the 
principles of scientific socialism, Marxism-Leninism." To prove the meaning 
of this term, there have been introduced a number of extracts from the books 
which have been described as the "classics" of the Marxism-Leninism. A few of 
these works, on which it was testified the Communist Party relies, are : Com- 
munist Manifesto ; Stalin, Foundations of Leninism ; Lenin, Left Wing Commu- 
nism, An Infantile Disorder ; Stalin, Problems of Leninism. 

The extracts show that from a stated belief in the principles of Marxism- 
Leninism, a reasonable mind could conclude beyond a reasonable doubt a corre- 
sponding belief in the use of force and violence for the overthrow of the Govern- 
ment of the United States. In fact, many courts have apparently so construed 
them. 

I find that, considering the documentary evidence, plus the testimony of the 
witnesses, there was evidence from which a reasonable mind could conclude be- 
yond a reasonable doubt that the Communist Party was, during the indictment 
period, one which advocated the overthrow of the Government by force and 
violence as speedily as circumstances would permit. 

Having found upon ample evidence that the advocacy of the party was of the 
use of force and violence for the purposes described, the jury could hardly have 
found that the defendant did not have knowledge of this advocacy. Considering 
his writings in evidence, which call for a dedication to Marxism-Leninism, and 
all the testimony of all the witnesses, I find that there was evidence from which 
a reasonable mind could conclude beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant 
knew that the Communist Party advocated the overthrow of the Government 
of the United States by force and violence, and that he tended to bring about 
such overthrow by force and violence. 



1200 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

I wish to just make this observation for the record, and for the in- 
formation of those present. I think I am accnrate. If I am in error 
in any part of this statement, Mr. Tavenner, I wish you would correct 
me. 

As near as I have read the record my recollection is that in every one 
of the 8 or 10 Federal court jury cases in this country in the last 3 or 4 
years where the defendants have been prosecuted for alleged violation 
of the Smith Act, the cases having been tried before American juries, 
every American jury in each of these Federal cases has found the de- 
fendants guilty under the Smith Act. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I believe one or two people have been 
acquitted who were being tried with a number of other persons. Just 
now I do not recall their names or in which court that occurred. 

Mr. DoYEE. Then I stand corrected. I do not have the written 
record in front of me. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think it was comparatively recent. 

Mr. Doyle. I wish to make this further observation, that those 
Federal court cases have occurred in different geographical corners of 
our country and it should be significant that American jurymen and 
women, not alone Federal judges, but Americans all acting as jurymen 
and women have found their fellow citizens guilty in each of these 
several Federal cases. 

Let's proceed, Mr. Tavenner, if you are ready. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. John Paradise, will you come forward, please ? 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please rise and raise your right hand and be 
sworn. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Paradise. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Be seated, please. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN PAEADISE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
MOETON STAVIS 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Paradise. John Paradise. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 
Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Stavis. Morton Stavis, 744 Broad Street, Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Paradise ? 

Mr. Paradise. I was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1912. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please what your formal 
educational training has been ? 

Mr. Paradise. Grade-school graduate, high-school graduate, and a 
university gradute. 

Mr. Tavenner. What university did you graduate from ? 

Mr. Paradise. New York University. 

Mr. Tavenner. What date? 

Mr. Paradise. 1935. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you employed in 1935 ? 

Mr. Paradise. I was employed by the Works Progress Adminis- 
tration. 

Mr. Tavenner. For a period of how many years ? 

Mr. Paradise. Approximately 5 years, 4 or 5 years. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1201 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. In what capacity? I mean by that were you em- 
ployed in an administrative capacity ? 

Mr. Paradise. Part of that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^^^lat was the nature of that employment ? 

Mr. Paradise. I was employed as a field supervisor. 

Mr. Tavexner. In what area ? 

Mr. Paradise. In New York City, 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed then in 19^0 ? 

Mr, Paradise. In 1940 1 was self-employed, 

Mr. Tavenner, In what type of business ? 

Mr. Paradise. I directed a school for newly arrived emigrees from 
Fascist Germany and Fascist Italy, 

Mr. Tavenner, How long did you continue in that work ? 

Mr. Paradise. For 3 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of the school ? 

Mr. Paradise. West Side School for Adults, 

Mr. Tavenner. After the completion of that work over a period 
of 3 years, how did you become employed? That brings you up to 
about 1943. 

Mr, Paradise. It was 1942. 

Mr, Tavenner. What was your next employment ? 

Mr. Paradise. I was employed by the United Electrical, Radio and 
Machine Workers of America, 

Mr, Tavenner. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Paradise. I was employed as a field organizer, 

Mr. Tavenner, Had you had any experience in union organizing 
prior to your employment ? 

Mr, Paradise, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was it ? 

Mr, Paradise, I was active in the WPA union, 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of the union ? 

Mr. Paradise. As far as I can recollect there were a number of 
unions, a number of different projects at that time, and I was em- 
ployed on a number of projects and there were a number of unions. 
They were all WPA unions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were they all locals in the same union ? 

Mr, Paradise, As far as I can recollect, that may be true. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^^^lat was the name of the overall union ? 

Mr. Paradise. My best recollection, sir, is that it would be some- 
where around the name of the WPA union. I don't know, sir, wheth- 
er all of these locals were affiliated or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what area was vour first work as a field organizer 
oftheUE? 

Mr. Paradise. In Brooklyn. X. Y. 

Mr, Tavenner, How long did you continue working in Brooklyn ? 

Mr. Paradise. I would say approximately about 6 or 7 months, 

Mr, Tavenner. In what year ? 

Mr. Paradise, From late 1942 until some time early in 1943. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you then assigned to some other tenitory? 

Mr, Paradise. Yes. sir, 

Mr, Tavenner, What was the territory? 

Mr. Paradise. New Jersey. 

65388 — 5a — pt. 2 — —5 



1202 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your first assignment in New Jersey 'i 

Mr. Paradise. Elizabeth, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you go back to New York again after that first 
assignment at Elizabeth, N, J, ? 

Mr. Paradise. You mean in order ? 

Mr. Tavenne;r. Suppose you just tell us what your assignments 
were. 

Mr. Paradise. I worked in Elizabeth, N. J., for approximately 1 
year. And then I w^orked in western Pennsylvania antl West Virginia 
for approximately 1 year. 

Mr. Tavenner. One year at each place, or between the two ? 

Mr. Paradise. Between the two. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you work in Pennsylvania and in West 
Virginia ? 

Mr. Paradise. I covered a traveling assignment that took me 
through western Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were your headquarters in Pennsylvania ? 

Mr. Paradise. There were various headquarters. 

Mr. Tavenner. State the headquarters to which you were assigned 
and out of which you worked. 

Mr. Paradise. There w as one headquarters in Erie, Pa. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you assigned to work out of it ? 

Mr. Paradise. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Give us the others, please. 

Mr. Paradise. I worked in Du Bois, Pa. I Avorked in Kane, Pa. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the office of the district headquarters located 
in Kane, Pa. ? 

Mr. Paradise. No, I worked in that area, too. 

Mr. Tavenner. What district was it 'i 

Mr. Par^^dise. District 6. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were the headquarters for district 6? 

Mr. Paradise. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mr. Taa'enner. Who was the president of district 6 at that time ? 

Mr. Paradise. As far as I remember, I think his name was Michael J. 
Fitzpatrick. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your assignment in West Virginia? 

Mr. Paradise. Organizing. 

Mr. Tax-enner. In what district ? 

Mr. Paradise. Same district. 

Mr. Tavenner. That continued for a year. Wliat was your next 
assignment in the UE ? 

Mr. Paradise. I returned to district 4. 

Mr. Tavenner. In New Jersey or in Brooklyn ? 

Mr. Paradise. In New Jersey. 

Mr. Tavenner. Plow long did you remain in New Jersey at that 
time? 

Mr, Paradise. Approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that bring you up to about 1946 ? 

Mr. Paradise. No, sir. 

Mr. Taat<:nner. Up to about w hat time w ould that bring you ? 

Mr. Paradise. You mean from 1946 on, those 3 years ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I meant did tlie 3 years end at about 1946 or shortly 
before that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1203 

Mr. Paradise. Well, the 3 years began in about 1945, I believe. 

Mr. TAVTiNNER. Then what was your next assignment ? 

Mr. Par.\dise. My next assignment was working in district 4 in 
New Jersey, as I said. 

Mr. Tavenker. After the 3-year period? 

Mr. Paradise. No. I am sorry, I am slightly confused at this point. 

Mr. Tavenner. After completion of that 3-year period assignment 
that you just spoke of in New Jersey, where were you assigned? 

Mr, Paradise. To New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. That began at what time ? 

Mr. Paradise. Approximately 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. And continued how long ? 

Mr. Paradise. Continued for approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you then return to the State of New Jersey? 

Mr. Paradise. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. T\liere did you go ? 

Mr. Paradise. I continued to work in the State of New York out- 
side of New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period did you continue to work 
there ? 

Mr. Paradise. Approximately about 1 year. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of your employment ? 

Mr. Paradise. Working for the United Electrical, Radio and Ma- 
chine Workers of America. 

Mr. Tavenner. As field organizer ? 

Mr. Paradise. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. So that makes 1 year at that time in New York City. 
Wliat was your next assignment ? 

Mr. Paradise. Back to New Jersey. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would that be in 1952 ? 

Mr. Paradise. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your assignment in New Jersey? 

Mr. Paradise. I had a roving assignment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Out of what point ? 

Mr. Paradise. Out of Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is in district 4. Over what area were you re- 
quired to travel ? 

Mr. PabAdise. Anywhere within the bounds of the outer limits of 
district 4 in Jersey. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you currentlv employed as a field organizer of 
UE? 

Mr. Paradise, No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did your employment continue after that 
assignment ? 

Mr. Paradise. Until December 1954. 

Mr. Tavenner. How are you now employed ? 

Mr. Paradise. I am employed as an advertising salesman. 

Mr, Tavenner, Where do you reside ? 

Mr, Paradise. In Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr, Tavenner. During the period you were an organizer for th© 
UE and working in district 4, did you have any official connection with: 
the Communist Party of the State of New Jersey ? 

Mr, Paradise, I must decline to answer based on my privilege under 
the fifth amendment. 



1204 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party of 
Kings County, N. Y., during any of the period of time that you were 
a field organizer for UE ? 

Mr. Paradise. I must decline to answer based upon my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 
Mr. Paradise. I consider that this question is an invasion of the 
constitutional liberties of free Americans and is a denial of the basic 
constitutional rights of free Americans and I refuse to answer under 
my privilege under the fifth amendment. And I state that this com- 
mittee is violating these concepts. 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. You have answered the question and 
j-ou have pleaded the amendment. We have no time for more speeches. 
Mr. Paradise. I am not making a speech. 

Mr. Doyle. You have answered and pleaded your constitutional 
privilege and if you are doing it honestly and conscientiously that is 
your privilege. 

Mr, Paradise. I answer honestly, and I think others do without 
being questioned about that. 

Mr. Doyle. Sometimes they do and sometimes we know they don't. 
I know this plea of the fifth amendment is reserved to all Americans. 
Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Paradise, you are a person of very wide experi- 
ence in organizational work in the UE. From your testimony you 
have served in Brooklyn, you have served in various areas within the 
State of New Jersey, you have served over a great part of Pennsyl- 
vania, over a part of West Virginia, you have gone back to New York 
City, you have come back to the State of New Jersey. I don't kno)v 
of any one who would be in a better position to give this committee 
facts regarding Communist Party infiltration into the leadership of 
UE than you are. 

If you don't know of any such activities, then it would be a very 
significant thing with the wide experience you have had, and if you 
do know of it, it would be of great value to this committee if you would 
give such facts as are within your knowledge. Will you tell the com- 
mittee whether or not you have observed activity of the Communist 
Party within the leadership of UE ? 

Mr. Paradise. I consider that this question is a violation of my 
constitutional rights and I refuse to answer the question based on 
my privilege under the fifth amendment and the first amendment as 
a witch-hunting question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 
Mr. Doyle. Any questions ? 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact. Witness, that during the time that 
you had all of these assignments you were a member of the Communist 
Party and that you were primarily interested in serving the Com- 
munist Party rather than the United Electrical Workers Union? 

Mr. Paradise. I consider that a gross violation of my rights and an 
inference which you have no right to make and I invoke my privilege 
under the fifth amendment not to answer that question. 

Mr. Scherer. If my inference as you call it, is wrong, will you 
state that it is wrong ? Am I wrong in making that inference ^ 

Mr. Paradise. I refuse to answer the question based on my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1205 

Mr. ScHERER. Then I can only assiune that I am right in making 
the inference because you have an opportunity to state tliat that infer- 
ence you say I have no right to make is wrong. You have full oppor- 
tunity now. 

Mr. Paradise. Your committee has violated the rights of thousands 
of people in this country and I will not be a party to helping you 
to violate my rights. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that the only reason you are refusing to answer my 
question, because you 

Mr. Paradise. I am relying on the United States Constitution and 
I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment very happily to op- 
pose your persecution of people. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you have a brother ? 

Mr. Paradise. Do I have a brother ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes, do you have a brother ? 

Mr. Paradise. Can vou tell me what the purpose of that question 
is? 

Mr. Scherer. I am afraid I don't have to tell you the purpose of 
the question. I just want to know if you have a brother. 

Mr. Paradise. I have a brother. 

Mr. Scherer. What is his name? 

Mr. Paradise. I have brothers. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you have a brother who lives in Cincinnati? 

Mr. Paradise. INIay I know the purpose of that question? 

Mr. Scherer. Xo. I am just asking you to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Paradise. I know, Mr. Congressman, that you as a local poli- 
tician in Cincinnati would like to have an axe to grind against peo- 
ple who oppose you and oppose your record in the witch hunt and 
I won't give you that right. I have a brother who is an honest man, 
makes a living honestly and his name is James Paradise. I am very 
proud of him. 

Mr. Scherer. That is all I wanted to know. I have no further 
questions. 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 
( Wliereupon the witness was excused. ) 

Mr. James Paradise. I am James Paradise. I would like to be 
called now. Let's have a continuous interrogation here. I am James 
Paradise of Cincinnati. Have you any questions of me, sir ? 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Marshal,! have no questions to ask the gentle- 
man. 

Mr. James Paradise. I didn't think you would. 

Mr. Doyle. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Katherine Hoffman. 

Mr. Doyle. Please rise. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Miss Hoffman. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

TESTIMONY OF KATHERINE HOEFMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, MORTON STAVIS 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please ? 

Miss Hoffman. Katherine Hoffman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record. 



1206 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Stavis. Morton Stavis, 744 Broad Street, Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born ? 

Miss Hoffman. I was born in Russia. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the date of your birth ? 

Miss Hoffman. October 1, 1904. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wlien did you first come to this country ? 

Miss Hoffman. 1906. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are 3'ou a naturalized American citizen ? 

Miss Hoffman. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you naturalized ? 

Miss Hoffman. I don't recollect the date. I can j^ive you the area, 
if that will be all right. Some time between, I don't know, between 
1926 and 1927, somewhere around there maybe 1928. Must have been 
sifter 1926, probably 1927 or 1928. 

Mr. Tavenner. In wdiat court ? 

Miss Hoffman. It was in Connecticut. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where ? 

Miss Hoffman. Hartford. 

Mr. Tavenner. Hartford, Conn.? 

Miss Hoffman. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you naturalized under your present name? 

Miss Hoffman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Miss Hoffman. Grammar school and high school, graduate. 

Mr. Ta\"enner. Do you now live in Newark ? 

Miss Hoffman. East Orange. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in East Orange ? 

Miss Hoffman. Close to 2 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that where did you live ? 

Miss Hoffman. In Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you live in Newark ? 

Miss Hoffman. I believe with one interruption of about a year and 
a half I have lived continuously in Newark from 1938 to approxi- 
mately 2 years ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live during that year and a half 
"when you say you were absent from Newark ? 

Miss Hoffman. I was sick and part of the time I was in Florida 
recuperating and part of the time in Massachusetts recuperating. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat has been your occupation during the period 
you have lived in Newark ? 

Miss Hoffman. It is a long question. I was an officeworker hired 
by what was then called the Committee for Industrial Organization, 
which was not the official CIO that was set up nationally, but was set 
lip for this area to organize the unorganized on an industrial basis and 
it was composed of a number of independent unions, some of the unions 
which had set up organizing committees like textile workers organiz- 
ing committee, rubber workers organizing committee, steelworkers 
organizing committee, and some AFL unions, including the United 
Electrical Workers Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you employed in that capacity? 

Miss Hoffman. Well, I became a double capacity because on the 
opening of the office the then Governor Hoffman (no relation) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK. N. J., AREA 1207 

announced to the press that he was j^oinji to drive the Reds out and 
there would be no organization of sitdown strikes in New Jersey. 

They gave the office address and we weren't set up yet to handle the 
question of actual organization, but lie gave them 81 Academy Street, 
and the first thing I knew was everybody and his uncle was down, we 
are on strike, and what do I do next^ That was my dual capacity. 
I learned I could organize and I began organizing and negotiating 
contracts and winning some demands so far as the workers were con- 
cerned, and in all kincls of industries. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say you went in to organizational work? 

Miss Hoffman. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that in connection with a union ( 

Miss Hoffman. It was in connection with the Committee for In- 
dustrial Organization and I organized it, started the organization of 
workers, for instance in congoleum in either Harrison or Kearney I 
started with the first group that wanted organizing and then the union 
in the field as it began to go they would send the official organizer in 
and he took over from there. I did not organize for any specific union. 
I was employed by the committee as a whole. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you work as an organizer in that 
capacity for the CIO ? 

Miss Hoffman. As I told you before, it was dual capacity because 
I was officeworker as well as the other. 

I continued in that capacity. I think the CIO finally set up regional 
offices, I continued in that regional office setup working for the national 
CIO, and then I just don't remember dates, probably 1939, and then I 
went to work, then it was the same people, but set up an official State 
CIO organization. And I went to work for the State CIO organization 
as an officeworker, and I no longer did any organizing work after that 
and, of course, was always a member of the office workers union. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. How long did you continue to work for the CIO in 
that capacity ? 

INIiss Hoffman. I worked for the State CIO, you will have to bear 
with me so far as time is concerned. Time seems to have got together a 
little bit, it is so long ago, but I worked for the State CIO; may have 
been a year, 2 years, I am not sure; and I didn't feel that tlie work of 
an officeworker was what I wanted to do and I was able to apply for 
and get the job of administrative assistant to the Greater Newark CIO 
Council, which was the local council. The State council encompassed 
the State, the Greater Newark Council encompassed the Essex and 
West Hudson area. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did that begin in about 1940 or 1941 ? 

Miss Hoffman. 1941, 1 believe ; I am not sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you continue to work in that capacity ? 

Miss Hoffman. Then I became an official delegate from my union to 
the council and I was elected an officer to the council ; no longer hired. 
I was elected secretary-treasurer of the Greater Newark Council and I 
continued in that capacity taking on added duties, I believe, when PAC 
was formed, and became the cliairman of the Essex- West Hudson pact. 
Wlien PAC, CIO Political Action Committee was formed, that is when 
I became active in it. It may be 1942 or 1943, somewhere around there. 

The reason I was elected to that particular office was because in the 
process of the work as secretary-treasurer of the Greater Newark CIO 
Council, we had occasion, the council as such had occasion in conjunc- 



1208 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

tion with a number of AFL unions to band together to form, I don't 
remember the name of the committee, but it was an official AFL-CIO 
committee, to defeat Hartley. That was the project we embarked on. 
I believe that our first campaign in the primaries 

Mr. Tavenner. I didn't mean to ask you to give us a history of the 
campaigns. It is your employment I wanted. 

Miss Hoffman. That was my employment. I just wanted to show 
you whv I was elected chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. I don't want to cut you off on anything regarding 
your employment. 

Miss Hoffman. That was my employment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Proceed. 

Miss Hoffman. We almost defeated him by 42 votes in the primary 
that year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Continue with your employment. 

Miss Hoffman. We learned as we went along and in 1943 we par- 
ticipated in the election campaign. In 1944 it was the peak. I say 
that is the peak because I found that we were able to organize our 
entire membership, all of the CIO unions, in this area in conjunction 
then with the official committee of the Essex Trades Council, AFL. 
We were, there were cochairmen, I was the one representing CIO, and 
we did a job in Essex County that got national commendation. We 
did something that no one said was possible. We cut the normal 
Republican majority of fifty-odd thousand in Essex County to 4,800 
and we elected Roosevelt because New Jersey went RooseA^elt as a 
result of that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your employment then continued with the CIO up 
to what time ? 

Miss Hoffman. As a result of these works I put myself whole- 
heartedly in them, and I remember one meeting I attended I was 
introduced as the workhorse of the CIO. I was quite offended. I 
didn't realize Avhat I had put into the campaign but after that in 1945 
I had a breakdown, was gone for the summer, came back in time for 
election campaign in 1946, the same thing, I finally broke down com- 
pletely and was out. I have never recovered my health so therefore 
I have never been in this type of activity again. 

I continued for the year or year and a half, whatever the period 
was that I was gone, I was sick, the doctors told me I should never 
come back or do this work. I tried it anyway, I came back in 1948 
and was again — I don't think I was elected because I came back in the 
middle of a term. It was a resignation and I was made, appointed 
executive secretary of the Greater Newark CIO Council, and I con- 
tinued until the council, we will say some time the end of 1948, the 
council was dissolved and in effect I helped dissolve the council, a 
new council was set up and I was a member of a committee that 
helped to write the new constitution, participated in the election of 
officers, but I did not run for office. That was 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said you left the CIO about that time. 

Miss Hoffman. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment ? 

Miss Hoffman. I was unemployed. 

Mr. Tavenner. You had no other employment ? 

Miss Hoffman. Yes; I did. I was still trying to get back into the 
political field and I think, I am not sure about this, but it probably 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1209 

was about 2 months or maybe less tliaii that that I worked for the 
Proo:ressive Party in one of their campaigns in 1949. 

Mr. Tavennkr. Is there any other employment you can think of ? 

Miss Hoffman. Yes. In Novembei* of 1949 I became the adminis- 
trative assistant to the trustees of the UE health and group insurance 
fund and I am still employed in that capacity. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were your headquarters? 

Miss Hoffman. Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the district office ? 

Miss Hoffman. The fund rents office space in the district office; 
yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you employed by the UE ^ 

Miss Hoffman. I have never been employed by the UE. I am em- 
ployed by the UE health and group insurance fund. That is com- 
pletely autonomous and separate from the union. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Well, you certainly have been active. 

Miss Hoffman. I tried hard. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have information that you were active in other 
matters in which you had a perfect right to be active without criticism. 
This committee was sponsoring a bill which it conceived to be very 
important, put in many j^ears of work on it. That bill finally went 
over to the United States Senate and the United States Senate con- 
ducted public hearings on it. Many people were invited to express 
their opinions on it, both before this committee and before the Senate 
Committee. 

I have before me the record of the Senate hearings which shows 
that you protested — it is entitled, "Protest Statement" from Kath- 
erine Hoffman, executive secretary of the Greater Newark CIO Coun- 
cil. This is when you were a member of the council. And that was 
made a part of the record just as other statements were. 

There is one statement you made which I am going to quote as a 
basis for questions I want to ask you. I quote this paragraph : 

In onr unions there are Communists. We have found them among our most 
active worlvers. Their personal political convictions are their own business. 
This bill would see the rest of us jailed or intimidated and prevented from con- 
tinuing our work for an ever-increasing standard of living, for securing racial 
equality, actual civil rights, in securing the right to vote for all and to continue 
to support or oppose legislation and legislators. 

From that statement of yours with reference to Communists in your 
union being among your most active workers, I want to ask you what 
is your basis for the knowledge that Communists are "among the most 
active workers" in your unions? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Hoffman. What is that — I would like to see the statement, if 
I may. 

Mr. Tavenner. I thought I had explained it fully. 

Miss Hoffman. You didn't say in conjunction with what. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. I will explain it more fully and T will give it to you 
to see, if vou like. I explained that the Senate of the United States — 
that is, the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate of the United 
States — conducted hearings on a bill which had its origin before this 
committee to determine whether it was a proper bill to pass and 
whether it should be passed in the form as presented. Many people 
appeared before that commitee as they did before this committee tak- 
ing positions for and positions against the passage of the bill. 



1210 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Before the Senate Committee we find in the printed record a pro- 
test statement from Katherine Hoffman, executive secretary of the 
Greater Newark CIO Council, and this was in 1948 and you have ad- 
vised us that in 1948 you were executive secretary of the Greater 
Newark CIO CounciL 

That is whit this document is. Now I will read again to you this 
statement that is the basis for my question. Your statement printed 
in the report of the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate says 
this (quoting you) : 

In our unions there are Communists. We have found them among our most 
active workers. 

Now I asked you what the basis is for your statement that you have 
found Communists among the most active workers in your unions. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Hoffman. May I see the statement, please ^ 

Mr, Tan'enner. I have underscored what I have just read. 

Miss Hoffman. Thank you. I see that this is a letter in conjunc- 
tion with the Mundt-Nixon bill which was defeated at that time be- 
cause people were less afraid than they are today. 

Mr, Tavenner. Maybe it is a question of their not having been quite 
as aware as they are today. 

Miss Hoffman. And that the New Jersey Governor's Committee on 
Civil Liberties also stated "The rights of free speech will not long en- 
dure if exceptions to its enjoyment may be raised on the current un- 
popularity of a minority group." 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the witness is evading my question 
and not answering it. 

Miss Hoffman. I shall answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you do so ^ 

Miss Hoffman, I shall be very glad to answer that by saying that 
I decline to answer and assert my privilege with regard to it. 

Mr. Doyle. May I interrupt, because I haven't seen that. In other 
words, you, Miss Hoffman — you and your counsel took four and a half 
minutes. 

Miss Hoffman, I am sorry, 

Mr, Doyle, You are welcome to that time or any more, but I wanted 
the record to show I couldn't help but notice you took four and a half 
minutes to read it and confer with your counsel. I wanted the record 
to show you did have time and opportunity to read it. 

As I understand it, you made a public declaration before the Senate 
Judiciary Committee of the United States Senate in 1948 in your offi- 
cial capacity as executive secretary of the Greater Newark CIO Coun- 
cil, which was printed by the United States Senate Committee on the 
Judiciary, to the effect that you had Communists in your unions, very 
active Communists. You told the people of the world because you 
made that public declaration and this booklet was published by the 
taxpayers of the United States. Because we pay the bill, all of the 
taxpayers. You helped pay for the publishing of your own statement 
if you paid taxes. 

Now do I understand that you declared in 1948 publicly to the 
Senate that there were active Communists in your unions. You 
wouldn't have said it if you didn't know who they were. I assume 
you wouldn't have made that declaration if you weren't worried about 
it or at least had knowledge about it and now you are claiming the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N, J., AREA 1211 

privilege instead of helping this committee to find out the extent of 
infiltration of Communists in the then unions. 

That is how I interpret your statement. I would assume that you 
as a former paid seci-etary of the CIO would come into this committee 
and help this congressional committee. Were you here the other day 
when I read the statement of Walter Reuther ? 

Miss Hoffman. No. 

Mr. Doyle, Well, I will just read this sentence from Walter Reu- 
ther. I read his whole statement yesterday : 

However, we in UAW-CIO sincerely urge every witness called before the 
House Uu-American Activities Committee that if it is at all possible to do so to 
avoid using the fifth amendment. 

Miss Hoffman. At the same time he protects every one from being 
fired off the job for using the fifth amendment, as a union leader should. 

Mr. Doyle. You are welcome to take his statement and read it. But 
I am very frank to say that I have always understood since CIO had 
a showdown with communism in labor unions that you people who 
had been paid employees by CIO during that period could be looked 
to to help the United States Congress further in our investigations 
to clean out subversives. I am disappointed that I may find myself in 
error. 

Miss Hoffman. Since 1938 we have been constantly hounded and 
called Reds at every single turn and we have — CIO have fought back 
and fought back and Phil Murray said over and over again that the 
harassment had to cease, that it interfered with legitimate union func- 
tions and there has absolutely been no question whatsoever. 

The only reasons that any time in my experience in which I was 
directly affected the question of Red came in when we were organiz- 
ing, the cry of Red came in when PAC, as a matter of fact I once got 
a message sent by some politicians saying, "Tell that woman to stop 
it or she is going to be sorry." 

There were all kinds of threats and all kinds of things going on. 
We continued and we could only continue because the people whoiii 
we represented told us to go ahead. This was what they wanted us 
to do. 

Mr. Doyle. I know, Miss Hoffman, but here is a committee of 
your own United States Congress charged with a public statute. Pub- 
lic Law 601, we are operating under that statute, with which you are 
very familial-, and in which our official duty, that of Mr. Scherer and 
I today here, yesterday, and tomorrow, is to investigate its extent and 
character and methods used by the Communist Party in and around 
Newark. That is why we are here and you know it. 

I am frank to say as one American citizen to another that I would 
expect of you in the official position and the official position you have 
now with the UE to help your own 

Miss Hoffman. I have no official position with the UE. 

Mr. Doyle. You are paid by the fund, union funds. 

Miss Hoffman. It is separate. 

Mr. Doyle. Relief funds, pension funds, welfare funds of the UE. 

Miss Hoffman. It is separate. It has nothing to do with the union. 

Mr. Doyle. It is one and the same effort in the community to help 
union labor. 

Miss Hoffman. That it is. 



1212 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IK THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Doyle. But I would expect, very frankly, that you, having 
made that public declaration in the United States Senate, wouldn't 
refuse to help the United States Congress know the methods and who 
used those methods. 

Miss Hoffman. I read the papers Monday and I tell you I am going 
to stand on my privileges. 

]\Ir. ScHERER. Did you appear before the Senate and make the state- 
ment as appears there? 

Miss Hoffman. It was a letter sent in. I did not appear. 

Mr. ScHERER. You sent the letter ? 

Miss Hoffman. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was what that you said in the letter true ? 

Miss Hoffman. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. You mean you won't tell us now whether what 
you 

Miss Hoffman. Come on, Congressman, I decline to answer on the 
same grounds. I have been here all day and I just don't want that. 

Mr, ScHERER. All I am asking you is whether what you said to tho 
Senate of the United States in a letter was true or untrue. 

Miss Hoffman. I must decline on the same grounds that I stated 
before. 

Mr. ScHERER. I get more confused all the time. 

Mr. DoYLE. I don't, Mr. Scherer. I don't get more confused. It 
appears more and more crystal clear to me the extent of the Commu- 
nist conspiracy. 

Miss Hoffman. I resent that. I don't think that was right. 

Mr. Doyle. I am not referring to you personally unless it fits, but 
I am saying the extent of the Communist conspiracy appears more 
and more crystal clear to me. I am not charging you with being a 
Communist at the present time, but if you are you know better than 
anyone else. I don't pull any punches. I let them liit where they 
belong. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell me whether you at any time taught in 
the Walt Whitman School on Broad Street in Newark ? 

(The witness consulted with her counsel.) 

Miss Hoffman. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is an activity you didn't tell us about a while 
ago when you were going into such great detail. 

Miss Hoffman. You asked me about my employment. I gave you 
all my employment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Don't you consider teaching in that school employ- 
ment ; you are making that distinction ? 

ISIiss Hoffman. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. That is, the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not sure you have given us now a full account 
of your employment. Did you also become active in an organized 
group of the Communist Party ? 

Miss HoFFiMAN. I decline to answer any such questions on the same 
grounds as I stated before. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time that you wrote this protest to the United States Senate 

Miss Hoffman. Same answer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1213 

Mr. Tavenner. When you said that Communists were among the 
most active workers in your union ? Were you one of the most active 
workers who was a Communist ? 

Miss Hoffman. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the period of time you were working for the UE ? 

Miss Hoffman. I have never worked for UE, but I decline to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have stated that you worked in connection with 
an insurance fund for the UE and that you were not actually paid by 
the UE. 

Miss Hoffman. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. During that period of time that you were acting in 
that capacity in connection with the insurance fund, did you attend 
Communist Partv meetings composed in the main of members of the 
UE? 

Miss Hoffman. Same answer as before on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Hoffman. Same answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. ScHEKER. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. In view of your question to the witness as to whether or 
not she taught school at Walt Whitman School in Newark, N, J., I 
refer to pages 161 and 1G2 of the Guide to Subversive Organizations 
printed by this committee in 1951, and I see in the consolidated list of 
organizations previouslv designated as in Executive (3rder No. 9835 
by letters of November 24, 1947, May 27, 1948, April 21, 1949, July 20, 
1949, September 26, 1949, August 24, 1950, September 1950, according 
to the classifications of section 3, part 3 of the Executive order, that 
there is listed by the Attorney General of the United States of America 
as Communist, the Walt Whitman School of Social Science, Newark, 
N. J. as being one of the list. 

I would say. Miss Hoffman, that the United States Congress is cer- 
tainly interested in what the American children are being taught in 
any school and so are you, I am sure. 

Miss HofFjVian. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. Now can you not help us to this extent? What was the 
curriculum at this Walt Whitman School when you taught there, as we 
believe you did? 

Miss Hoffman. I have answered that question, that I would decline. 

Mr. Doyle. You were asked whether or not you taught there. 

Miss Hoffman. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. I am asking you maybe tlie same question in another 
way. 

Miss Hoffman. After you said it was on the subversive list I decline 
to answer on the same grounds I did before, sir. 

Ml-. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. I hope you have a change of heart before too long. 
You are in a position to hel]> youi- own country very much. Maybe 
you are so far aAvay from those activities now that you could afford 
to do it without being personally embarrassed. 

I have no other questions. You are excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 



1214 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Walter Poleshuck. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 
Mr. Poleshuck. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WALTEK S. POLESHUCK, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, HOWARD A. GOLDBERGER 

Mr. Tavexner. What is your name, please ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. Walter S. Poleshuck. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. I am, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner, Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Goldberger. Howard A. Goldberger, 744 Broad Street, Newark, 
N.J. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. I was born in Newark, N. J., January 26, 1923. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. I graduated from West Side High School in 1940 
in Newark, N. J., where I got the Bamberger award for citizenship 
and thereupon I attended the University of Pennsylvania for a period 
of 21/2 years, when I enlisted in the United States Army and I received, 
after having been discharged from the Army, a degree in absentia 
from the University of Pennsylvania, even though I had not com- 
pleted all my courses, which was the policy of the university at that 
time. After that I took 1 or 2 odd courses here and there, 1 at NYU 
night school. That is it. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you return from service in the Army ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. It was early in 1943, probably around March. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what employ- 
ment you accepted after your return from the United States Army? 

Mr. Poleshuck. I was hired as a junior accountant at $25 a week 
by the firm of Puder & Puder in Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you continue in that employment ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. I worked for them a period of less than a year, 
I believe, something like 9 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. As a junior accountant at the firm of J. H. Cohen 
& Co., also in Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you continue in that capacity ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. I continued in that capacity for a period of ap- 
proximately a year and 2 or 3 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you just take it from there and bring your 
employment up to recent date ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. At that time I determined 2 years of accounting 
was enough for my stomach and I went into work for my father, who 
owned a store in Newark, a liquor store, and delicatessen store, and I 
stayed with him for I think about 2 years — what year are we up to 
now— for approximately 2 years. At that time my father and I were 
getting along very well in the family relationship but not in a business 
relationship — I determined that the retail business was not for me and 
I was hired as a sort of small-time office manager for a firm also in 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N, J., AREA 1215 

Newark known as Sunglass Industries, where I was in charge of 3 or 
4 women and I did the bookkeeping in the office. I was employed there 
for a period of approximately a year, at which point I together with 
my wife came to the decision that office work just was not for me and 
I couldn't stand it any more, and since I had already tried the retail 
business and I didn't like that either that I would then proceed to look 
for a job elsewhere, which I proceeded to do. 

I was hired in the Lincoln -Mercury plant of the Ford Manufacturing 
Co. in Metuchen, N. J. where I lasted 1 week. Couldn't take the job. 
That wasn't for me. It was a job known as the duckpond in which 
if you got behind you wound up working on your knees in water and 
I was working on my knees in water for a week, so I left. 

After that within approximately a week after that I was hired at 
the Singer Manufacturing Co. at Elizabeth, I believe the actual date 
is November 1, 1948, and I have been there ever since. 

Mr. Tavenner. During your employment since 1948 at Singer have 
you been a member of a union having bargaining rights with that 
company ? 

Mr. PoLESHUCK. I have been a member of two unions having bar- 
gaining rights. I joined the United Electrical Workers, which was 
the bargaining agent at the Singer Manufacturing Co. within a couple 
of months after having been hired. I don't remember exactly how 
long. And when the International Union of Electrical Workers, the 
lUE gained bargaining rights, I joined that also within a very short 
period of time. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you join the lUE ? 

Mr. PoLESHucK. Within a couple, of weeks after the final bargain- 
ing unit election between UE and lUE, which was some time in the 
fall of 1950, 1 believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period you were affiliated with the UE 
did you hold any position such as steward or organizer ? 

Mr. PoLESHucK. I was sergeant-at-arms. That was the only posi- 
tion I ever held with UE, elected position. 

Mr. Tavenner. After you became a member of the lUE, have you 
held any positions ? 

Mr. PoLLsiiucK. I am at present an executive board member, chief 
department steward of the third largest department, one of the editors 
of the local newspaper, member of the five-man plant grievance com- 
mittee, member of the Political Action Committee, Civil Eights Com- 
mittee, delegate to the Union County CIO Council. That is about all 
I can think of at the moment. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. During the period of time that you have held those 
positions in lUE, have you been a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. PoLESHUCK. I, with a sense of duty and obligation to my coun- 
try, exercise my rights as they were meant to be exercised under the 
Constitution of the United States to protect the innocent and I refuse 
to answer that question or any other similar question on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment that provides me with the right not to be a 
witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party dur- 
ing the period of time that you were sergeant at arms of the UE ? 

Mr. PoLESHUCK. I refuse to answer that question on exactly the 
same grounds as before. 



1216 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. In leaving the UE and in joining the lUE were 
you asked at any time by those responsible for your selection to the 
important positions you now hold whether or not you were a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. PoLESHucK. That one I will need legal advice on. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. PoLESHucK. Would you mind repeating it because I am not too 
clear on it. I thought maybe he got it. 

Mr, Tavenner. Eead it, please. 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested. ) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. PoLESHucK. Would you answer whether or not you are refer- 
ring to elected offices, appointed offices or what kind of offices in the 
union ? 

Mr. Tavenner. If that is troubling you, let's take the appointive 
offices. 

Mr. PoLESHucK. Appointive offices. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would there be a difference in your answer? 

Mr. PoLESHUCK. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let's take it piece by piece. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. PoLESHucK. Well, I was elected to practically every 

Mr. Tavenner. My question related to aj^pointive office. 

Mr. PoLESHucK. I don't know of any appointive office I have. I 
belong to certain committees which are not elected committees but 
which any member of the local has a right to belong to. As far as 
appointive offices, I don't believe I have any. I wasn't appointed any- 
thing by anyone. I was elected to certain offices. 

Mr. Tavenner. It seemed to me that from the executive board that 
you were a member of, that you had been appointed by that executive 
board to certain committees. That is what I understood you to say. 

Mr. PoLESiiucK. No, it doesn't work that way in our local. Our 
local is a sufficiently democratic one that any member of our local, the 
entire 5,000 membership, has a right to be active on any committee 
without appointment or approval by anyone. So that there is not 
appointive offices that I know of. But as far as the other question 
is concerned, the only way I know how to answer that is that the 
thousands of people who voted for me and who elected me were satisfied 
in their own minds based on many things which I said, but to the 
particular question which you asked me here it seems I have again 
no alternative but to refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment that I will not be a witness against myself, and I would 
like to add again that I am using this as I think it was intended to be 
used by our forefathers. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated that the rank and file members of your 
union were satisfied because of the statements that you made. Did 
you represent in the course of your election that you were not a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party? Is that the sort 'of representation to 
which you were referring? 

Mr. Polesiiuck. As any member of the bar in this country is much 

more aware than I am, I must answer that question precisely as I have 

the others. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1217 

Mr. PoLESHUCK. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Poleshuck, my interest in young people of course 
is similar to yours. 

Mr. Poleshuck. I have three sons, if that is what you mean. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, stay as close to them as you can because you never 
know how long you will have them. 

Mr. Poleshuck. I intend to. 

Mr. Doyle. Rut am I in error tliat at one time you were the director 
of the youth club or group here in Newark ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Poleshuck. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. I haven't said anytliing about the Communist Party. 

Mr. Poleshuck. Mr. Congressman, you are as aware as I am that 
you are probably asking something which will lead to something else. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Poleshuck. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment and rights granted me thereunder. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I am frank to say that of course our information 
is that you were chairman of the youth club of the Communist Party 
in Newark and I was going to ask you a sincere question whether or 
not that is true, and what the program of the youth club of the Com- 
munist Party was at the time that you were chairman of the group. 
Would that incriminate you in some way ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. Is tliat a question that you are asking me — will 
that incriminate me ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Poleshuck. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth. 

Mr. Doyle. Very well. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. The witness is excused. 

(Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Poleshuck. I would like to state I have done my duty to my 
country in not cooperating with this committee. 

Mr. Doyle. Evidently we are not wrong on the information we 
had about j^ou. 

Mr. Poleshuck. You can infer anything you wish, Mr. Congress- 
man, and I am sure you will. 

]\Ir. Doyle. You take care of those three sons. You are lucky to 
have them. 

Mr. Poleshuck. I have all intentions of so doing, Mr. Congressman. 

Mr. Doyle. Before the committee recesses until tomorrow morning 
at 9:30, I feel this is the place where we should not overlook our 
privilege and pleasure of putting into the record our appreciation 
and thanks to specific public officials and groups who have helped 
us arrange for these meetings. 

First is the distinguished Judge William Smith, Federal judge; 
Bailiff Edward Connolly; distinguished Judge Meany; Michael Kel- 
lei-, assistant clerk of the court; Joseph Job, ULited States marshal; 

65388— 55— pt. 2 6 



1218 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

George Parozza, chief deputy United States marshal; Augustus F. 
Horn, chief Held deputy United States marshal ; Chief of Police Don- 
ald Grover; Capt. Richard Clement, police department, Toms Kiver, 
N. J. ; Harold Friend, Ernest J. Gyarnati, William T. Kelly, Clinton 
J. Longstreet, Franklin F. Loprete, Leo A. Mault, Nicholas J. Meola, 
Stanley C. Miller, and Joseph E. Sojka. 

These gentlemen will pardon me if I have not correctly pronounced 
their names. These are most helpful deputy marshals and officers and 
they have helped as public officials. 

I want the record at this time to show that we appreciate the coopera- 
tion of the press, photographers thereof, reporters thereof, in helping 
to keep the hearing room so quiet. 

Is there any other business before this session of the committee, Mr. 
Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. James Paradise. Did you have a piece of unfinished business ? 

Mr. Dotle. We are going to leave the record as it is in the matter 
about which you spoke. 

Mr. James Paradise. Are you going to allow that malicious piece 
of name dropping to remain in the record, and malicious name drop- 
ping is all it was, and Mr. Scherer knows it. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will stand in recess until tomorrow morn- 
ing at 9 : 30. 

(Whereupon, at 5 : 20 p. m. the committee was recessed, to reconvene 
at 9 : 30 a. m. the following day, Thursday, May 19, 1955.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEWARK, N. J., AREA— PART II 



THURSDAY, MAY 19, 1955 

Unii'ed States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Newark^ N. J. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 9 : 30 a. m. pursuant to recess, in the United States Court House, 
Newark, N. J., Hon. Francis E. Walter, chairman of the full com- 
mittee, presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter, 
Clyde Doyle, and Gordon H. Scherer. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel, and Court- 
ney E. Owens, investigator. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Tavenner, have you a witness ? 

Mr. TxUENNER. Mr. David Rocklin, will you come forward, please? 

The Chairman. Will you stand up and hold up your right hand. 
Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Rocklin. I do. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF DAVID EOCKLIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HARRY SACHER 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please. 

Mr. Rocklin. David Rocklin. R-o-c-k-l-i-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Will 
counsel please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Sacher. Harry Sacher, 342 JSIadison Avenue, New York 17. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and were were you born, Mr. Rocklin? 

Mr. Rocklin. Poland, October 4, 1899. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you first come to this country ? 

Mr. Rocklin. 1908. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you resided in the United States constantly 
since that time ? 

Mr. Rocklin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have not been out of the continental United 
States since you first arrived ? 

1219 



1220 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. RocKLiN. I have taken trips to Mexico and Canada, pleasure 
trips. 

Mr. Tavenxer. But to no other countries ? 
Mr. RocKLix. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. RocKLiN. Public school and 2 years of high school, in New 
York. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Where do you now reside ? 
Mr. RocKLix. In Newark. 

Mr. Tavenxer. How long have you lived in Newark ? 
Mr. RocKLix. Since 1930. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you tell the committee, please, what your em- 
ployment has been in Newark since 1940 'i 
Mr. RocKLiN. Self-employed to 1951. 
Mr. Tavexner. A¥hat was that employment ? 
Mr. RocKLiN. Optician. 
Mr. Tavexner. That is until 1951 ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. RocKLix. From 1951 to 1953, 1 decline to answer. 
Mr. Scherer. What was the question ? 
Mr. Tavexxer. What was his employment record. 
The Chairmax, Why do you refuse to answer ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RoCKLix. I decline to be a witness against myself under the 
fifth amendment. 

The Chairmax. By that am I to understand you to mean that if 
you did answer the question you might subject yourself to a criminal 
prosecution ? 

Mr. RocKLix. I didn't say that. 

The Chairman. I know what you said, but I am asking you if that 
is what you meant. 

Mr. RocKLiN. I refuse to be a witness against myself, that part of 
the Constitution that gives me that right. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your employment since 1953 ? 
Mr. RocKLiN. 1953 I still worked as an optician in Paterson. 
Mr. Tavexner. Are you still engaged in that business in Paterson ? 
Mr. RocKLiN. Not in Paterson, I now work in Newark. 
Mr. Tavenxer. When did you transfer your business from Pater- 
son to Newark ? 

Mr. RocKLiN. In February 1955. 
Mr. Tavexxer. Is it the same business ? 

Mr. RocKLix. It is not my business. I am an optician and I work 
for somebody. 

Mr. Tavenxer. It was your business, wasn't it ? 
Mr. RocKLix. Up to 1951. Then I sought employment. 
Mr. Tavexxer. Will you tell us, please, what vour address was 
in 1950? 

Mr. RocKLiN. 525 Elizabeth Avenue, Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you living in 1949 ? 

Mr. RocKLiN. Same address. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that your ])resent address ? 

Mr. RocKLiN. No. sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Where did vou reside in 1948 ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1221 

Mr. KocKLiN. 525 Elizabeth Avenue. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present address? 

Mr. RocKLiN. 109 Hillside Avenue, Newark. 

Mr. Tavexner. Mr. Rocklin, there was introduced in evidence dur- 
ing the course of the testimony of Mr. Moroze a copy of a certificate 
of deposit. I hand you a similar copy. Your name as treasurer 
appears on this certificate of deposit, wliich is entitled "Bail Fund of 
the Civil Rights Congress of New Jersey.'" 

Will you examine it, please, and state whether or not in 1949, the 
date of that certificate, you were the treasurer of the Civil Rights 
Congi'ess ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rocklin. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds, 
same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the certificate again and state 
whether or not you see a list of four names of persons who were trus- 
tees of the bail fund ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

^Ir. Rocklin. I decline to to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. You decline to answer whether you see it on the 
document ? 

Mr. Rocklin. I see it on there. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Is your name 1 of the 4 appearing as trustees? 

Mr. Rocklin. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. For the record I would like to say that David 
Rocklin's name does appear as one of the trustees of the bail fund. 

Mr. Doyle. I am sure, Mr. Tavenner, I heard the witness say that 
he did see his name on there. 

Mr. Sacher. The witness did not so state. 

Mr. Doyle. If there is any question about it, let's have the record 
read. You may not have heard him say that, but I am quite sure 
I heard him say it. I request that the stenographer read the record 
so there will be no question about what the witness said. 

Mr. Tavenner. I asked if he saAv four names. I am confident my 
question was if he saw the names of four ]ieople. I had not asked 
him at that time who the four were. 

Mr. D0YI.E. I think he volunteered he saw his name there. 

Mr. Sacher. That is not so. 

'\U\ D0YI.E. I think the record will so show. 

Mr. Tavenner. One provision of the bail fund certificate of deposit 
is that the trustees of the bail fund shall have sole authority under the 
regulations and resolutions adopted by the board of trustees to deter- 
mine for whom bail shall be posted. I would like to ask you whether 
you participated in decisions to determine for whom the bail should 
be posted, under the bail fund of the Civil Rights Congress of New 
Jersey. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rocklin. I decline to answer on the same grounds and for the 
same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, how much 
money was raised for bail-fund purposes by the use of certificates of 
deposit similar to the one I exhibited to you ? 

Mr. Rocklin. I decline to answer for the same grounds and same 



1222 COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK,. N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not the proceeds of any 
of these certificates of deposit were used as bail for defendants under 
the Smith Act in States other than the State of New Jersey. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLiN. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
and for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether there 
has been any occasion when the bail funds of the Civil Rights Congress 
were used for a person who was not a member of the Communist Party 
or whose case was not being supported by the representations to the 
Civil Rights Congress by the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLiN. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
and for the same reasons. 

Mr. ScHERER. The fact, is, Witness, isn't it, that none of these funds 
were used for any purpose other than for the defense of Communists 
and Communist causes ? Isn't that a fact ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLiN. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. If my statement were untrue, would you tell us ? 

Mr. RocKLiN. I decline to answer that also on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have referred during the course of these hear- 
ings to various nominating petitions for candidates on the Communist 
Party ticket in the State of New Jersey, one for instance was for the 
election of Louis Malinow as freeholder on March 6, 1951. I hand 
you the document and ask you whether or not you were the notary 
before whom this petition was notarized. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLiN. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Mr. Malinow ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLiN. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1951 was he a functionary of the Communist 
Party in Newark ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLiN. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Were you acquainted with El wood M. Dean? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLiN, I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether Elwood M. Dean was a fimc- 
tionary of the Communist Party in Newark, N. J. ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLiN. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have heretofore referred to a Communist Party 
nominating petition for Elwood M. Dean for the office of county 
clerk, bearing date of March 9, 1950. 

I would like for you to examine item 111 and also the notary certifi- 
cate and state whether or not you recognize your name, both as a 
petitioner and as a notary. 

Mr. RocKLiN. I decline' to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the name appearing as item 111 
and state whether or not you see an address appearing after the name ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1223 

Mr. KocKLiN. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

The Chairman. Do I understand you, Mr. Tavenner, to ask whether 
or not his signature appeared and he took his own affidavit? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; his own affidavit appears. 

The Chairman. AVere you a notary in the State of New Jersey? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IvocKLiN. I decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Why do you decline to answer it ? 

Mr. RocKLiN. I answered it to my best ability. 

The Chairman. Did you ever have a commission as notary public 
in the State of New Jersey ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKEiN. I did. 

The Chairman. What is the date of the commission ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLiN. I don't recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you read the address appearing after the name 
on item 111, please? 

Mr. Sacher. You mean out loud ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLiN. I decline to read that. 

The Chairman. Just a minute, Mr. Sacher. I heard you say to 
your client, "Don't answer that question." 

Mr. Sacher. I didn't say that. I said, "You decline to answer it." 
That is what I said. 

The Chairman. You are here to advise this witness as to his con- 
stitutional rights. 

Mr. Sacher. That is what I did. 

The Chairman. You are telling him what to say. There is a big 
difference. 

Mr. Tavenner, I think you ought to have the Veteran's Administra- 
tion compare the signature on this affidavit with the application for 
the notary public certificate and in that way you can determine very 
quickly whether or not it is the same person because he has admitted 
he did apply. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to read into evidence item 111 on this peti- 
tion. The name is David Rocklin, residence 525 Elizabeth Avenue, 
Newark, N. J. You testified a few moments ago that your address 
was 525 Elizabeth Avenue in 1950, did you not ? 

Mr. Rocklin. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Frank Chandler? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rocklin. I decline to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Frank Chandler was a candidate for election on 
the Communist Party ticket to State assembly, according to his peti- 
tion, bearing date of March 10, 1940. I will ask you to examine the 
notary's statement and state whether or not your name appears as a 
notary on that petition. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rocklin. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer whether he acted as a notary. 



1224 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

The Chairman. I direct the witness to answer the question of 
whether or not he acted as a notary on this petition. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLiN. I decline to answer that on the same t^rounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to read into the record the following state- 
ment: 

Sworn and subscribed to before me at Newark, N. J. this 10th day of March 
1949, David Rocklin— 

and then under it is stamped — 

David Rocklin, notary public of New Jersey, my commission expires May 20, 1953. 

Are you a notary public at this time ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KocKLiN. No, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is this another petition where he notarized his own 
signature ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. Item 220 carries the name as one of the peti- 
tioners. I will read item 220 : 

David Rocklin, 525 Elizabeth Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

I think I should explain, however, that the form in which these 
petitions were filed consisted of a list of signatures and an affidavit. 
The affidavit is not made by those who signed, but is made by those who 
circulated the petition. So he did not actually take his own acknow- 
ledgment. I would, however, like to read the names of the affiants. 
Referring to this petition they are Louis Malinow, Bei-tha Bloksberg, 
El wood M. Dean, Mrs. Gaetana Mahan, Martha Stone Asher, being 
duly sworn upon their respective oaths, say they are signers of the 
petition hereto annexed and are legal voters of the county of Essex, 
that the said petition is made in good faith that the affiants saw all the 
signatures made thereto. 

Do you know whether or not those who appeared before you as 
affiants were all members of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. EocKLiN. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

The Chairman. As I understand it, the affidavits of those five 
people were taken by a man by the name of David Rocklin. Isn't 
that it ? 

Mr, Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. "VVliy do you think you would be subjected to crimi- 
nal prosecution if you answered the question of whether or not you 
took affidavits of these people, the affidavit being tliat they circulated 
a petition ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rocklin. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted tliat the name of the last affiant is Martha 
Stone Asher. Was Martha Stone the organizer of the Comnnmist 
Party in Newark, N. J., in 1949 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rocklin. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know wliether or not Martha Stone married 
Emil Asher, the witness who appeared before the committee yesterday ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rocklin. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1225 

Mr. Tavexxer. At the date of these various petitions which I hand 
you, in 1949, 1950, 1951, were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. RocKLix. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Ta\^xxer. In October 1949 at tlie time your name appears as 
treasurer on the certificate of deposit of the bail fund of the Civil 
Rights Congress of Xew Jersey, were you a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. EocKLix. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Ta\t3xner. Have you ever made application for a passport ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLiN. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavexner. Are 3^ou acquainted with a person named Nathan 
Gregory Silvermaster ? 

Mr. KocKLix. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Ta\texxer. Are you noAv a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. RocKLix. I decline to answer that on the same gromids. 

Mr. Tax-exxer. I have no f ui-ther questions. 

Tlie Chairmax. Mr. Doyle, do you have any questions ? 

Mr. Doyle. Were you employed in the State of NeAv Jersey :Prom 
1951 to 1953 or any part thereof ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. RocKLix. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Doyle. Were you employed in any defense industry or manu- 
facturing establishment wliich had defense contracts during the years 
1951 to 1953? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. RocKLiN. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. In what State were you employed in 1951 ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. RocKLix. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Doyle. If you were not employed in a defense plant or industry 
in 1951, 1952 or 1953. where were you employed ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLix. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. I request that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question in view 
of the fact you said you were not employed in a defense plant. 

Mr. RocKLix. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, did I understand you to say you were not 
born in the United States ? 

Mr. RocKLix. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. Where were you born ? 

Mr. RocKLix. Poland. 

Mr. Scherer. Where were you naturalized ? 

Mr. RocKLix. In 1927 in New York City. 

Mr. Scherer. On your own application ? 

Mr. RocKLix. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you filed your application for naturalization ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RocKLix. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. That is all. 

The Chairman. I have no questions. 



1226 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. I would like to make this observation. Again this 
is one of those cases like we had the other day where I feel that the 
testimony of this witness should be referred to the Department of 
Justice to see whether or not there could be proceedings for de- 
naturalization. 

The Chairman. It is indeed unfortunate that you will not coop- 
erate with this committee, because we are certain that you could give 
us some very valuable information, information that would be very 
beneficial to those fine hard working patriotic citizens who are un- 
knowingly contributing to things that are not American, and we were 
hoping that you would be able and would be willing to cooperate with 
the committee. 

The witness is excused. 

("Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 

Call your next witness, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Joseph Fisher. 

Mr. DoTT.E. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the while truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Fisher. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH FISHER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HARRY SACHER 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please. 

Mr. Fisher. Mr. Chairman, before we begin I would like a point 
of information. 

The Chairman. You were called as a witna=:s. 

Mr. Fisher. As a witness I would like to know before whom I am 
appearing. The usual procedure of this committee has been to an- 
nounce before whom the witnesses are sitting. I would like to know 
whether the person who is chairing the committee today is Representa- 
tive Walter, the author of the Walter-McCarran Act. 

The Chairman. I am very proud to say I am that same gentleman. 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please. 

Mr. Fisher. Joseph Fisher. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by the same counsel 
who appeared for the preceding witness. 

Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Fisher ? 

Mr. Fisher. June 21, 1951, in New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Fisher. Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Newark ? 

Mr. Fisher. About 2 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that time where did you live ? 

Mr. Fisher. Jersey City. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you a resident of Jersey City ? 

Mr, Fisher. Approximately 13 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Continuously? 

Mr. Fisher, One small break, about a year or so when my family 
moved to Brooklyn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you move to Brooklyn too ? 

Mr. Fisher. My family did. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1227 

Mr. Tavenner. You said, "My family moved to Brooklyn." Di<l 
you move to Brooklyn ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. FisiiER. You mean did I personally move with my family to 
Brooklyn? 

Mr. Ta\'exxer. Didn't you so understand? That was my question. 

Mr. Fisher. I myself did not move to Brooklyn with my family. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Where did you move to ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Fisher. I want to decline to answer that question on the basis 
1 want to invoke the privileije of the fifth amendment. 

The CiiAiRMAx. You say yon want to, do you ? 

Mr. FisiiER. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHEREK. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question as to where he moved. How can it possibly in- 
criminate him ? 

The Chairmax. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Fisher. I decline to answer that on the same sjrounds. 

The Chairmax^. Do you decline on the grounds that if j^ou answer 
the question of what your residence was at that time you might be sub- 
jected to a criminal prosecution? 

Mr. Fisher. That is what you said, Mr. Chairman. I did not say 
that. 

The Chairman. That is the natural inference. I will not argue it. 

Mr. Tavexxer. \Yhat year did your family move to Brooklyn? 

Mr. Fisher. 1951. 

Mr. Tavexxer. When did they return to Jersey City ? 

Mr. Fisher. They didn't return to Jersey City. They returned to 
Newark. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Where did you reside on January 1, 1952? 

Mr. Fisher. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds, 
same reason. 

Mr. Tavexxer. AVliere did you reside July 1, 1952? 

Mr. Fisher. I decline to ansv/er that on the same grounds, same 
reason. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Where did you revside January 1, 1953 ? 

Mr. Fisher. Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the date of your arrival in Newark, N. J., 
to take up your residence in 1953 ? 

Mr. Fisher. About that time, the time previously mentioned, I don't 
remember the exact date. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period of time in which you have refused 
to tell us the place of your residence, were you out of the continental 
boundaries of the United States? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fisher. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Where were you? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fisher, I decline to answer on the same grounds, same reason. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you engaged in any illegal activity during that 
time, since you refuse to tell us? 

Mv. Fisher. I object, sir, to that inference, and I decline to answer 
on the same grounds, same reason. 

Mr. Sciierer. That is the only inference I can draw. 



1228 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, X. J., AREA 

Mr. Fisher. I want to make it clear that my declination does not in- 
dicate that type of inference. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me the November 18, 1948, issue of the 
Daily Worker and I find there an article entitled "Sid Stein Gets New 
Communist Party Post." In the course of the article it is stated : 

Stein has resigned his post as chairman of the New Jersey State Committee of 
the Communist Party. The New Jersey State Committee has elected Martha 
Stone, State chairman, Joe Fisher as State labor secretary and Alice Enberg; 
as State educational director. 

If you were the State labor secretary of the Communist Party in 
New Jersey, you should be in a position to give this committee impor- 
tant information relating to the activities of the Communist Party 
within the field of labor in the State of New Jersey at that time. My 
first question to you is : Was the November 18, 1948, issue of the Daily 
Worker correct in stating that you had been made labor secretary of 
the Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fisher. I decline to answer that; same grounds, same reason. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has received evidence during the 
course of this hearing of efforts made by the Communist Party to build 
the organization of the Communist Party within labor organizations. 
The staff of the committee has obtained what appears to be a mimeo- 
graphed letter or possibly it may be an original typed letter, the head- 
ing of which is, "A Big Occasion for Hudson County." 

It is signed by typewriter "Sincerely, Joseph Fisher." 

I desire to read the letter in evidence and ask whether or not you 
wull identify it as having been issued or authorized to be issued by you. 

Dear Comrades : The night of February 28 is a gala event for the Hudson 
County Communist Party. On this night at 8 p. m. at the YWCA on Fairmount 
and Bergen Avenues, in Jersey City, Comrade John W. Williamson, national 
secretary of the Communist Party, will speak on the lessons of the strike struggles 
and the role of the Communist Party. This is the first time that a member of 
our leading committee will speak in our town. The purpose of the meeting is to 
spur the party-building drive in Hudson. The meeting is sponsored by the indus- 
trial clubs in our organization. 

Every one of our comrades who is working in industry, AFL, CIO, or RR. 
must be there, but that will not be enough. It is essential that each one of our 
new recruits be there and that every one of us brings a potential recruit to the 
meeting. Each one of us knows someone who, with a little extra information 
about our party, will join. Who will be able to do a better job than .John 
Williamson? There is only one point on the agenda and that is the talk by 
Comrade Johnny and there will be a question-and-answer period. 

Nothing is more import. Be there. 
Sincerely, 

Joe FrsHER. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. My question was whether or not you can identify 
that as a letter issued by you or authorized to be issued by you. 

Mr. Fisher. I would like to answer that question in two ways, sir: 
No. 1, I would like to make it clear to the committee that my life and 
my activities have been a matter of public record of which I am very 
proud. I would like to make it clear that I consider even the reading 
of this document a violation of my rights under the first amendment 
of the Constitution of the United States and as a result of the fact that 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1229 

this committee is invading this right, and as a result of the fact that this 
committee very well knows, as it is evident what my general thinking 
is, it is, in my opinion, that this committee is asking needless questions 
in order to entrap me into revealing my associations, to identify and 
incriminate in the minds of this committee innocent people, and to 

The Chairman. You are so proud of your activities, why don't you 
answer it ? 

Mr. Fisher. I am invoking mj^ rights under the fifth amendment, 
which implies no guilt but rather my responsibility as an American 
citizen to protect my friends and not to be made a stool pigeon by this 
committee. I am therefore impelled, and furthermore, impelled to in- 
voke my rights under the Constitution of the United States. That is 
my attitude on any type of question of this type. 

The Chairman. As I understand it, you take the position that to 
answer the question of whether or not you wrote a letter might subject 
you to a criminal prosecution. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Fisher. I have already answered. I am answering this under 
the grounds that I don't want to be a witness against myself under the 
fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. You have stated that you were very proud of your 
activities and I congratulate you on your feeling of pride. 

Xow may I ask you to help this committee in its unpleasant task? 

Mr. Fisher. It is my responsibility not to help but to expose this 
committee to the American people, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The American people know all about this commit- 
tee. As a matter of fact, at the last 

Mr. Fisher. They do not know this committee. 

The Chairman. Just a minute. When funds were voted for this 
committee there wasn't one single vote in the House against it. not one 
Republican or Democrat voted against the continuation of the work 
this committee is obliged to do. You have just boasted about your 
activities. Did you write that letter asking people to come to that 
meeting held at the YWCA ? 

Mr. Fisher. I am again declining to answer; same grounds, same 
reason, 

Mr. Tavenner. It is the information of the committee that there was 
a meeting of the State connnittee of the Communist Party in New Jer- 
sey on July 27 and 28, 1946. Did you attend that meeting? 

Mr. Fisher. Did you get that information from the secret witness, 
sir? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question ? 

Mr. Fisher. Well. I would like to know very much, sir, because ac- 
cording to my information Congressman Walter in front of the Judi- 
ciary Committee stated he would even use the evidence of Nazis if 
necessary, and I would like to be confronted if possible by a possible 
Nazi in order to cross-examine him. 

The Chairman. You have been misinformed and you know you 
have. 

Mr. Fisher. I have here an article, Mr. Walter, which quotes you as 
answering that way before the Senate Judiciary Committee under 
question of admitting refugees into this country, and you said if neces- 
sary, if it is the only thing you can do, you would use Nazi documents 
in order to process refugees into this country. 



1230 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES Ds THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

The Chairman. That is not tlie fact. I have been very deeply con- 
cerned less more people like you come to the United States. 

Mr. TA^^3NNER. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness be di- 
rected to answer the question. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Fisher. I decline to answer the question on the same grounds^ 
same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the staff of the committee has been 
successful in the last few days in acquiring some documents which I 
now have before me. One of these documents is the report of Sid 
Stein, State chairman of the Communist Party, and it is entitled "Pro- 
ceedings of the State Committee Meeting Held on July 27 and 28, 
1946," containing (1) excerpts from all reports; (2) proposals. I 
would like to introduce this document in evidence and ask that it be 
marked "Committee (Fisher) Exhibit No. 1," and that it be incorpo- 
rated in the transcript of the record. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will only refer to certain headings in this report 
for lack of time to go further into it, and to make reference to 1 or 2 
other matters. 

The hrst part of the document is the report by Sid Stein, State 
chairman. In that there is a section on building the Communist 
Party. There is also embodied in the report a report by Lawrence 
Mahan, State secretary, entitled "Party Building and Press Report 
to the State Committee Meeting,'" 

On page 3 of this latter report I find the following : 

In New Jersey we have started — 

the word "started" is underscored — 

to make some headway in our basic industries but tlie weakness nationally in 
building the party in UE, steel, auto, ship, appeared in New Jersey as well. 
Although our general goal was 72.2 perrent completed, we only recruited about 
44 percent of the basic industrial workers we had planned to bring in during the 
drive. A particular weakness showed up in AFT/ recruiting. We only recruited 
47 workers from all AFL unions in the whole State. The results are as follows : 

Then appears a table containing the names of the industrial cells, 
the number of members in each of those cells at the beginning of the 
drive, the goal that they had set for themselves, and the numbers re- 
cruited up to the date of this compilation. I would like to read into 
the record the names of those industrial cells as they existed at the 
time of this report. 

The Chairman. Are they located in any way ? Do you know where 
they are? 

Mr. Tavenner. It is statewide, they are statewide industrial clubs. 
[Reading:] 

Electrical and radio, membeis at start of drive l^i, goal 200; auto, members at 
start of drive 60. goal 90; shipyard, 89, 80; steel and aluminum, 48,70, meaning the 
goal is 70 ; AFL, 193, goal 7.5 ; textile 26, goal 20 ; rubber 19, goal 20 ; chemical 
42, goal 50 ; railroad 12, goal 50 ; longshore 9 ; fur 26 : mine, mill, and smelter 20 ; 
cannery 18; furniture 14. 

without any reference to the goal they had set for themselves. 
Also the statement : 
r)uring the drive we formed 16 new clubs. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1231 

The Chairman. Does it state where the}' were located? 

Mr. Tavenner. No. It says 12 were shop clubs, 3 were youth clubs, 
and 1 was an industrial club. 

The Chairman. Maybe Mr. Fisher could tell us where the clubs 
are located. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where these new clubs were located, 
Mr. Fisher? 

Mr, Fisher. I would refuse to answer that on the same grounds, 
same reasons, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. There is another example of the help you could 
be to this committee. 

Mr. Fisher. In my opinion that is another example of what Mr. 
Corsi said "Walterism is worse than McCarthyism," and on the same 
grounds, same reasons, I would refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. In this document also appears a report, Wliite 
Chauvinism, presented by Charles Nusser. For the benefit of the 
chairman who was not present, Charles Nusser was a witness before 
the committee on the first day and was shown to be a functionary of 
the Communist Party. 

Next is a report entitled, "The Ideological Struggle," a condensation 
of the report delivered at State committee meeting by E. M. Dean. 

Next is a report entitled "Building the Party in the AFL.'' 

Next is a report on the press by Gay Mahan. 

Then there is a section dealing with proposals of a general character. 

(The exhibit referred to is as follows :) 



1232 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK. N. J., AREA 



COMJflTTEE (Fi.SHER) EXHIBIT NO. 1 

PROCSSDIMGS Or 

TrJP 

STATS COMyV\ITT££ vWSSTlMG 



HELD OM 

JULY 27- AMD 2 6..;] 946 

COMTAIMJMG 

'J.rXCnRPT.S PROM ALL REPORTS 
2. PROPOSALS 

uopna #7 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1233 

REPORT B Y SID STEIN , STATE CHAIRMAN 

It is my task hore to r eport on the proceedings and decisions of tha 
Hational Conmlttee meeting Just concluded. 

The Economic Struggles 

The first round ended in a rout of the employers and their agents 
including the Truman Administration. Every major strike was won. The attempt 
of the Bourgeoisie to insure its v/ortime rate of profit on the basis of keeping 
wages at the status quo in the face of a rise in the cost of living was largely 
repelled. Faced with a string of victories on the part of labor, the Truman 
Administration picked the Railroad T;orkers for a new experiment in open 
GoTornment strikebreaking, While it temporarily succeeded in beating back 

the Railroad workers, its' major objective of shackling the labor movement was 
thwarted by an aroused united labor movement and progressive forces. The 
Truman bill was blockedj Truman was forced to Veto the Case Bill; The miners 
went on to -nin a decisive victory in the wake of the aroused public opinion 
against Strike-breaking governmont attonyts. And the National Maritime Union 
faced with threats of the use of the Nauy, , nevertheless, went on the win 
the most splendid victory by forging tho greatest unity every achieved in the 
Maritime Industry — including the support of tho Marino workers of other lands 
affiliated with theW.F,TfU. as vroll as large s ections of AFL Maritime workers, 
as well as an offer of support from the Railroad workers. Hov/evor, as far back 
as our last plenuai in FobruCvry, our Party foresav; that the battle was not over 

and indeed at the very morrov; of thestrike victories, the drive for price 
increases developed in full force. The resistance of the workers and people 
to tho scuttling of O.P.A. has forced the price gougers and their represontatives 
to retreat, maneuver and cover-up. But the net result is an OPA Bill which will 

legalize the wiping out of the l^y increase. 

Clearly comrades we are faced with a double task. Giving leadership to 
the struggles of the workers against the encroachments of the Bourgeosie, 
drawing lessons from the struggle — arousing a socialist consciousness on the 
basis of these struggles — bringing the advanced workers/nto the Communist Party 
in the process. 

The trade unions must now prepare to roopen negotiations for wage increases 
and broaden the peoples fight against price increases. 



1234 COMlvrUNIST activities in the NEWARK. N. J., AREA 



Tho Struggle for Peace 

As we all knew, aftor several failures the recent meeting of foreign 
ministers in Paris succeeded in arriving at agrcomonts on a munber of important 
questions. This development was made posr.iblo by the f irm petioo policy of the 
Soviet Union backed by the increased power of tho jieopios forces in the liberated 
oo«T)tries and by tho rosistanoo to Monopoly Capital' s onslaught upon tho wxkors 
^ioh developed hero az hone. However, it vroii] d bo tho worst type of rightist 
error for us to imagine that the world situation has now become serene and calm. 
The Drivo towards world domination by the Anglo-Saxon block is continuing with 
undiminished fury. The danger of Imperialist aggression is real. Tho call for 
Atoniio war against the peoples Governments and especially tho Soviet Union is 
boinf; repeated in the columns of our major newspapers in these States as well 
as by such notorious imperialists as Bullitt, Virgil Jordan, and the Taft- 

Vandenborg-Koovor- Dulles crowd. Nor is the Truman Administration weakening in 
its application of the "Get Tough With Russia" war policy. It has constantly 
stepped up the tempo of its war drivo inaccordance with the demands of the 
extreme war mongers rfio intoxicated by the Atom Bomb are driving for early 
military aggression. The drive T;ov;ards war as we have already seen is insep- 
arably bound up with an intensive drive against the living standards of the 

working class and people, against the most elementary democratic aspirations 
and needs of the Negro people and against the most fundtanental democratic rights 
of all the Aneirioan poople. 

We must concentrate our fire against the use of American troops to foster 
civil war in China. We must make full use of the recent appeal of Madam 
Sun-Yut-San, and demand the immediate removal of Anerican troops and equipment 
from China. Demand a halt totho shipments of war and all other materials to 
the Kuomintang forces. Likewise we must energetically proceed with the orga- 
nisation of tJie broadest forces in our State totring into life tlie Call of 
the WFfU for an all-out, campaign to break relations with Franco Spain. We 
must demand the removal of American forces from the Philippines and the nulli- 
fication of the Bel] Bill which ties the Phillipines to the chariot of American 
Imperialism. We must expose the proposed "InterAmerican Military Arrangement*^ 
as a none too subtle design for the militarization of a mhole continent for the 
aggressive use of American Imperialism, 

Tho key to success in this dtruggle is the welding of tho broadest labor- 
progressive coalition. This coalition con be built broad and speedily if we 

base it upon the demand for a return to the Roosevelt policies of unity with 
the Soviet Union for the carrying out of the ^alta and Potsdam agreements. 

This fight must be conducted flexibly to include all those vino are willizig to 
fight for one;^^nother of these' demands, and whether thej' are more permanent 

■or only transitory allies. 

The Coming Elections 

Our National Ccanmittee has characterized the Republican Party as the 
main Party of Monopoly reaction. It characterized the Truman Adminstretion as 
earring out zealously the Imperialist program of Monopoly Capital and knifing 
the Roosevelt dcwjestio policy — although it is still subject to mass pressure and 
hesitates when the people take the initiative. It has token note of the fact 
that within the Democratic Party there are various groupings. There are those 
eepeoially in the leadership of the Machines who are moving towards unity with. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK. N. J., AREA 1235 



the Republicans — Some viho support t.ie reactionary program of Truman but would 
like to tal:e the labor veto along with "Ihem, and finally some vino are disturbed 
by the scuttling of the Roosovlt foreign and dimestic policy and see the hond- 
•writing of defeat on the Vfoll unless they ambraco and fight for the program 
idilch under Roosevelt mobilized the people in the previous electoral victories. 

Our National Committee concluded that the labor movement and our ovm 
party nu5t not allow themselves to bo passive and wait upon the development o f 
a third party, that it must actively engage in the 1946 electoral struggle. 

The other da>' at the special session of the State legislature. Minority 
Leader, Vogel, publicly condemned the reactionary Democrats who lined up to 
destroy OPA. This is a very imprrtant sign that possibilities do exist for 
getting at least some of the Democratic candidates to differentiate themselves 

from their reactionary colleagues. The strength of the mass movement demanding 
that differentiation will in most cases doterrdne the degree to which this will 
be brought about. The slovmcss we are exhibiting in this direction has very 

practical results in tho sense that it holds back the development of the noo9»- 
sory coalition for the defeat of reactionary Republicans and holds back building 
of political organizations in these congressional districts. 

In the electoral struggle we must constantly realize that it is our task 
to T/in every possible force within the Democratic Party for the Roosevelt pro- 
gram and that in our State especially we must leave no stone unturned to make 
possible tho giving cf qualified support in the Senatorial and a number cf 
Congressional races to Democrats v/ho can be classed in the category of supporters 
of the Roosevelt program in the main, although they will not measure up fully 
as open fighters against the Truman Administration and tho Hague Machine. 

In the labor movement we must be ever mindful of the fact that our central 
task is tc unite the labor movement around the program of the CIO as the very 
foundation for the forward movomont of the whole labor and peoples movement. 
This dees not :nean unity at all costs, false unity which is based upon keeping 
quiet, going along with policies vmich help the monopolies. 

Building tho Communist Party 

One year has passed since our National Convention. Tho policies adopted 
atthe Convention have nov/ gone through the severe tost of a yoar of struggle, 
A year in which our whole organization as well as our basic course had to be 
reshaped. Brooking with the revisionist theory of class collaboration, cf 
tailing after the American Bougooisie, our Partj' faced the task of cnce more 
assuming tho role of a Uarxist vanguard giving leadership in tho struggle 
against the inevitable drive of monopoly capital towards greater exploitation 
of the working class and people, tov;ards further .oppression of the Negro people. 
With tho results we have obtained so far in galvanizing the necessary broad 
opposition to tho plans of American Monopoly capital, we can say that wo have 
made headway in this direction. This is so because we have very definitely 
assumed a vanguard role in exposing tho predatory character of American 
imperialism. Wo were the first amongst the Communists in the world to denounce 
the rcle of American Imperialism in China end the liberated Cfcuntriea of Europe, 
•^ich is as it should be since it is our special responsiblility to fight 
"our own" imperialism. Wo correctly estimated the road taken by tho Truman 
Administration and forcefully and consistently took tho lead in tearing from 
this Administration tho mantle of Hcoaovelt in vahioh it attempted to wrap itself. 



1236 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 



ffe have taken the lead in raising before the working-class and the people the 
need and the new posaibiHties that now exist for the building a third pec^s 
Party in tho United States. VEthin cur cvm Party we have once more raised tne 
banner of struggle against Tftiite Chauvinism and taken the first forward steps 
in beginning to re~arouso in our leading cadres and membeis the thirst for 
^irxist knowledge for tho s tudy of basic IJarxist principles in concert with 
and as a ruide to tho porformanco of our Conmunist duties in tho Class struggle. 
The character of the meetings our National Connittoe have shown that we have 
made headway in breaking with "one man leadership" and substituted for it the 
leadership of the collective of the Party Committee. This has become possible 
because of the new freedom r€ disoussionttiich prevails in our Party Committees 
and organizations. 

During the discussion on Revisionism we learned some very valuable lessons 
on the importance of self-criticism to a Commxinist organisation, nevertheless, 
we must soy that even in Its easiest form- -that is the method of evaluation of 
loading personnel, wo liavo fallen far short. Although wo have spoken about it 
we have only discussed the work of the members of the Secretariat and then 
only in a meeting of the Secretariat. In order that we net merely talk aboit 
it but really do something to overcome this shortcoming we propose that the 
Secretariat bring the evaluation of its members to the next meeting of the 
Board. And that all tho Board and State Committe members bring self-critical 
evaluations of their work to the Secretariat for discussion and presentation 
to the State Board and the subsequent meeting of tne State Committee. 

The other glaring weakness is in the realm of collective leadership. 
It is true that we have made some progress, but in the main it has been in oi r 
most central and concentrated bodies, in our State Secretariat and County 
Socrotoriats, However, in our State and County Boards and Committoos and 
especially in tho functioning of our Commissions and special Committees for 
specific tasks, v;e fall veiry far short from operating on the basis of real 
collective leadership. We must say that in our State Board we have had too often 
the experience of comrades being ill-prepared to take part in the discussion 
of in^jortont issues thereby minimizing considerably the contributions they are 
capable of making to tho collective leadership of tho State, This has resulted 
at times in q lack of clarity especially as related to the in^tjrtont questions 
of tactics. 

From this criticism the State Secretariat and Chairman are not excluded 
on the contrary, the Secretariat bears a great responsibility to find ways of 
mnking it possible for all Board members as ;oll as those »dio attend Board 
neetlags and are not Board manbors to make their maximum contribution and grow 
as over more effootive Party lenders. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1237 

P»ETY BUILDirG AND PRESS REPORT TO THE STATE COMMITTEE UEETINS— .TUI.Y ?7th & 28th, 

By Lawrence Mahan, State Secretary. 

The New Jersey Communist Party has just concluded a Party Building Drive 
for 750 new members, Of that number, 542 Communist recruits were brought into 
the Party during the period from March 15th to Independence Day. This represents 
a 72.2JJ achievement of the estimated goal. Nationally, during the same period, 
the Communist Party recruited 15,000 new members, or about 75f, of the 20,000 
originally proposed. % 

Among the recruits are shop v;orkers from practically every New Jersey industry, 
a large percentage of Negroes, maaj' veterans of the recent war against fascism, 
and young people vJio aro fighting the v;ar plans of American monopoly today. 
They came into the Party at a time when attacks on Com.-urd.st3, and all others 
vrfio oppose the arrogant rule of Big Business, wore becoming sharper by the hour. 

Profiteer Androv; Hay saw the Coamnnists, and the forces they organise, as an 
accusing finger pointed at the monopolies v;ith which he had mado lucrative deals. 
As a rosult ho demanded that no more commissions be given to Communists in the 
armed forces. Attorney Gonoral Tom Clark saw the Communists as on obstacle to 
continued lynch rule in the South. Accordingly, he launched an anti-Communist 
crusado on the Hitler model, vjhilo permitting a whitev/nsh of KKK terror in 
Columbia, Tennessee. 

In NowJorsey "labor" politicians, like luoyor Murphy of Newark, had begun to 
Red-bait in the hope of catching some votes from the Catholics, whom he wrongly 
supposed to be blinded by a reactionary hysteria. 

But the workers, the Negro people, the Roosevelt progressives in the same 
period were more and more losing faith in those big business politicians, and 
learning by personal experience the real reason why such misleadors used the 
JIazi tactic of an Anti-Communist crusade. Those, who in January still hoped ■ 
that President Truman t.tis on a temporary leave of absence fl-om what remained of 
the New Doal Coalition, had been rudely shaken by the hard facts of Truman 
Babro-rattling and war provocation, Truman strike-breaking, and cynical abandon- 
ment of FEPC and OPA by the whole Administration, 

As for the Republicans, not even a VR-lkie had made his appearance. The 
Now Jersey Republican gang in Congress, v/hich quietly knifed the people during 
the Roosovolt years, had begun to showitsolf more openly, J. Parnell Thomas, 
a senior member of Rankin's Thought Control Committco, demanded a Republican 
majority in November so that there might bo "Bigger and hotter Red-baiting", and 
bogged to bo quoted on this translation of Goebbcls. Fred Hartley, tireless 
worker for the Clothing Manufacturer's Association, became the most militant 
loador of the "Kill OPA" crowd. At dinners, given by wealthy manufacturers, 
he used the some hysterical oratory for -vAich he had bocomo famous \«*iilo trying 
to step the war against Hitler with the help of the Ajnarioa Firnters. Robert 
Koan, wealthy Livingston Banker and part-time Congressman, bluntly told a 
labor delegation that he didn't like such people, and visits to him were a 
woste of time. 

Even the former progressive Democrats, Norton and Hart, changed course with 
that of the machine. Althou^Mary Norton was too sick to make a fight in 
Congress for the people, she v/as quite well enough to leave the shelter of the 
Hospital to welcome the Polish fascist. General Bor, or to tell the CIO how 
much damage it had done in fighting for an 18^ wage increase. Hague, who had 
fought the Now Deal os openly es he dorod, now relaxed end took off the mask. 



1238 COM]MUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 



nder sfich conditions the people of N«w Jersey, and of the ^olo oountiy, 
have become critical of old alliances, and have bef^un to look for a reliable 
moons of making a fight against monopoly. The peqie havo begun to soo the 
trvBnature of monopoly capital. They have begun to see that the sane kind 
of monopolists who financed Hitler ore now slugging themtround on Aaorlmn 
picket lines. The same monopolies t*io wept for "the publlo* during strikes for 
decent v/agos, laugh at the public when it somes time to renew OPA. Under such 
conditions the people wore bijund to become mora receptive to the anti-monopoly 
Communist Party, The very attacks of big business and the Red-baiting of their 
well-paid politicians, convinced many workers thatlho Communist organisation 
must bo an effective fighter against their own enemies. 

These new members are far more than a niimerioal addition to the organization. 
They have brought spirit, enthusiasm, and fresh confidence, Ihey have. often 
bean deoisivo in building a new club or bracing up an established one. 

They are not the wealthy nor the elite. They are workers from New Jersey 
factories, mills and railroads, vhite collar and professional people, housewives 
and farmers. They are the advanced guard of thosewho do all the work in our 
state. Amongst theso people, who are the real backbone of our society, certain 
groups showed a particular understanding of the need for a strong Communist 
Party, The Negro peoplo, as a result of their double oppression, are in a 
forward position politically . The Recruiting Drive reflects this in the fact 
that 51^ of the now msnbors are Negroes, a high compliment to the Party, for 
an orgonization Tshich is trusted and joined by tho Negro people must be a reol 
fighter for equality and democraoy. This 51/J of Negro recruits compares very 
well vdth the National average of 33^. 

Another group of fighters, particularly in need of a strong Communist ?arty, 
ore tho veterans of the War against Fascism, Because not enough veterans wero 
sought out and acquainted with Commtmist program, only about 14^? of the recruits 
are Vets of World War II. And the youth of New Jersey, for viiich imperialism 
has plannod only a military career, wero not recruited in any whore near tho 
number which the conditions made possible. At the beginning of the Drive we had 
only 152 members out of 2000 under 25 years of age. Composition today unknown. 

Our recruiting in this period was not limited by any lack of possibiiitlfte, 
but only by our ovm lack of success in getting active forces in the clubs and 
shops to plan and carry through the patient and continuous effort needed to 
recruit new members in the right way, 

We've all decided that a working-class political Party needs a large majority 
of industrial workers. At the beginning of the year our Party had 50^ of its 
members working in industry. During the Recruiting Drive 68.7^ of those wh6 
come in were industrial workers. Of these, 39.4^ wore from basic industry, and 
29,3^ from light industry. This brought the industrial composition of the whola 
organization up to about 5i%. A further indication of this direction was the 
fact that only 6% of our recent recruits wero housewives as against 25^ housow 
wives in tho Party on Januory 1st. However, tho concentration on industrial 
recruits become somewhat diffused during the Drive, and the necessary forces 
and organization to see it through in life were not provided. 

We hod a policy of emphasis rather than a policy of concentration. If ira 
hod been able to organize our owi comrades in UE, Ship, Awto, Steel, and AFL for 
an all-out drive, the concentration results would havo boon much bettor. If 
our own trade union comrades hod come forward more skillfully and militantly 
JS CPEN COMMUNISTS, the fine work they did on the picket lines would have led 
more naturally to ^arty Building, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1239 



In New «^ersey we havo started to mako some he£\dway in our basic induatrios, 
but tho weakness nationally in building the Ptnrty Jn UE, Steol, Auto, Ship 
^poarodin Now Jersey as well. Although our general goal was 72.2^ ooD5)lotocl, 
we only recruited about 44/? of tho basic industrial workers wo had planned to 
bring in during the Drivo. A particular weakness showad up in AFL Recruiting, 
^o only recruited 47 workers from all AFL uniore in the iiholo State, 



The Results are as : 


follows: 

Mofabers at 






Approi. 




start of Drive 


Goal 


Recruited 


% inc. 


Electrical i Radio 


156 


200 


50 


33?5 


Auto 


60 


90 


21 


33 


Shipyard 


89 


80 


15 


16?? 


S.teol and Aluminum 


48 


70 


13 


28 


AFL 


193 


75 


47 


25 


Textile 


26 


20 


6 


25 


Rubber 


19 


20 


2 


10 


Chomical 


42 


SO 


12 


30 


Railroad 


12 


50 


3 


25 


Longshore 


9 




2 




Pur 


26 




28 


106^ 


Mine, Mill, & Smoltz 


Br 20 




13 


65 


Cannery 


18 




11 


56 


Furniture 


14 




7 


50 


Packinghouse 






22 





Organized concentration work with careful check back must become the rule 
in our recruiting. Cur best forces must bo assigned to concentration shops to 
build tho Party. Vie must build a Communist fortress in overy basic industry. 

Tho Party nationally is planning for a real mass Party, — is planning in 
numbers ,— 5000 Communists in tho South, and 10000 recruits during the coming 
election campaign. This will moan 600 or 700 recruits ft-om Now Jersey during 
tho election c ampaign. It will mean completing our concentration goals, and 
especially important, it will mean bringing in 125 AFL workers in tho next two 
months. 

During the Drive we formed 16 new clubs, 

(a) 12 shop clubs 

(b) 3 Youth Clubs 

(c) 1 Industrial Club 

In addition many clubs wore consolidated and brought into functioning 
status again. 

The Party Building Erive, while giving us some splendid now forces, 
suffered froqi two basic wcaknessosi First» tho number of comrades doing the 
actual work of recruiting was for too small. And, secondly, the members recruited 
have by no moans been really "brought in" as yot. You have scon by the Progress 
Report that only 167 of the 544 recruits have actually had new members training. 
These figures demand some quick action on our part, and although now members 
classes are the most desirable form of integration we'll have to find tho means 
for all members to got our concentration pamphlets, to be drawn into club dis- 
oussions, and to be treated as our friends on a social scale. 



1240 COMMI^NIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

-4- 

COreOLIDATIOM 

At tho oonoluBloR of the Peu*ty Building Drive, our State Board decided to 
launch a drive to conBolidate <ind tighten up our Wiolo organization. The 
Drive was slatod to last from July 1st to July Slst. Its' objectivei 
DDES . ATTHJD&NCE, AND ACTIVITY . 

While there has been an improvement in dues payments, w» still have a 
Tiays to go to con^lete our goal of lOOJ? paid through June meniberBhip. 

Those counties ^rtiich have kept q check shawa rise in attendance in spite 
of the vacation months. 

But it is in activity that we showthe greatest ia^rovement. There is some 
ijQOstlon as to ■rtiethcrthis is a conscious part of the Drive, however, 

We've established a real tradition of opening every session of the Legis- 
lature with a Communist demonatration. The pictures the papers usod to carry 
of some phoney politician holding a gavel have given way to picket signs and 
AYD'ors in beurrels. 

We were a factor in the strikes. When a Communist candidate goes to a 
strike meeting of Kielps Dodge workers, he is sure, not only of reception, ~ 
but of a real greeting. 

Our comrades showod a splendid spirit toward our press by writing, editing, 
photographing, typing up, and eblivering 55,000 copies of a special Hew Jersey 
Edition of the Daily Worker. And they and other New Jersey workers made the 
news by their own struggles, to boot. If anyone doebts this he'll find the 
some pictures of a Communist organized anti-rent raise demonstration on the 
front pages of the Daily Worker and the Newark Star-Ledger.. And vti&a. we get 
in the. Star-Ledger, — that IS news. It's true that not enough of this work has 
been sustained and followed up, but our Party is moving,, and moving in the 
right direction. 

This enormously increased activity just described has given us a serious 
financial problem. Activity is wonderful, but it requires a lot of funds. 
Recognizing this we launched a Fund Drive for $32,000 » on May lat. By July 4th 
wo had raised aout $22,000, — noro money and raised foster than wo*d evor been 
able to do before. But since July 4th we've only raised $2,000 more» This is 
more serious than some comrades may imagine, and can havo only one effect* 
ctjrtallment of political activity later in the year,— unless we do somothing 
about it pretty quickly. 



One of tho comrades yesterday reported that Essex County distributed 
2,500 copies of the Daily Worker from the back of a jaep. These papers went out 
80 quickly because the people were worried about price control, and because our 
Communist newspaper reported, agitated and organized on the issue of price control. 
The people reached eagerly for copies of the Party press. And its worthwilo 
to find out ^y in such a crisis they turn to tho Daily Worker (■mhaa we bring 
it tb them.) 

First of all, there is a growing disillusionment with the oonmercial 
press. In his excellent panqphlet "The Free Press ", George Marion shows how 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1241 



monopoly has made a ventiloquists ' s dummy out of on American press wiiidi 
was once capable of some fjno cni/cxdlng. Ho soj'Sj "Thoro is, in effect, only 
one toerioon newspaper, or let us soy three or four .papers which arc parts of 
one pattern. Your paper and mine print exactly the somo news, the same pictures, 
the sEune columnists, the same features ranging from comics through recipes, and 
often the same canned editorials supplied by the Newspaper Enterprise Association. 

The monopoly press has posed for a long time (as the bourgeois state has 
tried to pose), as apart from vicious struggle, as an objective reporter of 
facts. Actually it is very much a part _of the fight, and is vehemently on 
the big business side of the fray. It is a huge monopoly itself, and has 
become a sort of super-govornnent, which prints what it likes and suppresses 
what it likes, with an arbitrary power, the field of public expression 
unequalled since the days of Louis XIV. There are not "many" newspapers in 
America. There are only a few chains, and three large monopoly news services 
Yiiich feed all of the opinion from overseas. 

Like all other monopolios, the Press monopoly is attempting to get bases 
in the liberated countries, no only for propaganda reasons, but for the exten- 
sion of its lucrative swindling of more millinns of people. 

It sends missionaries like Brooks Atkinson to Moscow, and then, with the 
label of authenticity established, prints war incitements under his by-line. 
The articles by Atkinson open a new ora for American monopoly propaganda, "^sy 
make no more pretense to truth or logic than the rontings of Dr. Goobbels. 

In such surroundings cur Communist press has a gigantic job to do, ^a 
George Marion points out the whole labor movement has been unable to support 
a single labor doily. Our Cormunist D^ily Worker is tho only v;orking class 
daily in the east. It must answer ar.d attack the concepts of tho monopoly 
press. It must reflect the life of tho people. It must become our daily 
polemic against oapitalisn. 



1242 COMMUNIST ACTWITIES DST THE NEWARK. N. J., AREA 

" VT H I T P CHAUVINISM" 

Eoport by Charles Nussor, N.J. Educational Director. 

Last Friday, 4 Negroes wore lynched in Georgia. Just last week a Negro 
veteran - tho only Negro who voted in the town of Ruppert, Georgia - was shot, 
a few days after Talmadgo's olection by a minority vote. You tCre familiar 
with the Tennessee and tho Freeport oases, and the increased attacks against the 
Negro people both in the South and tho North, and the Jim-Crow discrimination 
in hiring, in restaurants and public places. This increased terror c gainst 
tho Nogro people is not accidental. It is a pert, a necessary part of Jimerican 
Imperialism's drive to reaction and war, IVhite chauvinism todty is not only an 
anti-v;orking class ideology, nurterod carefully and. deliberately spread through- 
out the Nation and amongst the people and the workingclass by all the means 
at tho disposal of the bourgeoisie, but it is even more than that. Vlhite 
Chauvinism is a main weapon of Fascism . 

White chauvinism, we know comrades, is any act, attitude or expression, 
it can bo made consciously or unconsciously, that is based on tho concept of 
white superiority. VJhite chauvinism can manifest itsolf in many forms. It 
can bo open or hidden and is sometimes expressed in a very subtle manner, and 
is therefore more difficult to fight, to root out, to destroy. Tho concealed 
forms of white chauvinism are more dangerous because they are not so readily 
seen and recognized unless we ore constantly on tho alert, unless we are 
extremely sensitive, unless we are consistently conscious of the necessity to 
wage an unrelenting struggle against every form of white chauvinism vdiereever 
and however it may show itself. White chauvinism may bo expressed in many 
.different ways. He may express it in our relations with Negro comrades, or 
conversely in our lack of relations, 

^n fighting white chauvinism wo must first of all begin at home with 
ourselves. We are Communists. We live in a capitalist society surrounded by 
all the stinking bourgeois ideological rotteness that such a system breeds. 
We are and have been influenced by our environment. There must be a constant 
fight not only to be on the alert against the outcropping of such poisonous 
ideology but a consistent effort to completely root out this rottenness 
altogether. 

VHhen workers join our Party they do not suddenly become Marxists overnight. 
But by joining Our Party, a comrade does signify his intention and desire of 
casting off certain basic concepts of bourgeois thinking. \Tlhite chauvinism is 
one of those concepts that we reject by signing c Party application card. 
The holding of white c hauvinistic, concepts or ideas are incompatible with 
nanbership in the Communist Par^ 

Most of the comrades here havo been in the Party for some tima, and will 
remomher that one of the first things that you learned when you joined the Party 
was the necessity of constant strupgle agr.inst white chauvinism. There were no 
special campaigns or drives on this question — there vjcs one continuous campaign 
that went on all the time. It is absolutely necesary that tre do the same todejr-- 
starting nowi 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1243 



Concretely, how do ire fight whito oheuvinlsmt First in the Party itself 
we must intensify our educational work on this question. We must, if nocessory, 
hold public trials, or open meetings or discussion on a particular case of white 
ohairvinism which will dramatize vividly to our jnembsra and to the \rorkers the 
criminal nature of <his alien, anti-workingclass iodeology. 

The struggle against trtiite chauvinism is a struggle in the interest of 
the T^ole working class. It is a struggle to unify the working class, to 
strengthen the workingolcss in its struggle against imperialist reaction. The 
struggle against whito chauvinism is a praotiogl struggle. It must be coupled 
with a practical fight to remove the conditions under which the bourgeoisie 
oppresses the Negro people. )Vhen the Greenville Club in Hudson County conducts 
a fight to force stores on Jackson Avenue to hire Negro workers that is part 
of the struggle against viiiite chauvinism. TOien a club, however, says there are 
no Negroes working in our shop, or lii-ing in our neighborhood, therefore, there 
is no problem for us, — that is not fighting v/hita ohauviniam rogar-dlessof how 
many "theoretical" discussion are held in such a club. 

The struggle against white chauvinism must be linked with the struggle 
for jobs fcr Negroes, fight for FEPC, for the right to vote, to hold office, 
8it on juri»fl, and against discrimination, 

Our Tiiite comrades have a special duty to take the leadership in this 
fight. 

Such an ideological and political struggle against vdiite chauvinism will 
earn us even greater hatred of the bourgeoisie and their lackeys but it will 
certainly win us the honored respect of fell progressives and the Negro peoploo 



(See Proposals in attached Supplement of Proposals,) 



1244 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

THE IDEOLOGICAL S TRUGGLE 

A Condensation of the Report delivered at State Committee l^etiag by E.M. Dean 

In this period of the rehabilitation of our Party, it is more than ever 
aeceseary for ub to turn to the theory of Marxism-Leninism in order that we 
eradicate every remaining expression of Browder revisionism within our ovm orga- 
nitations and attack it wherever it appears in the labor moveiaent of the country. 

Our first major consideration ought to be a serious study of the role of 
the Communist Party in oonten^jorary world history, recognizing as the starting 
point that the ^arty is the Conscious vanguard of the working class. It is the 
organised detachment, the general staff of the most progressive elements in our 
eodety. Our Party must be the living expression of the proper oombination of 
theory and practice, exemplified from the neighborhoods and shops through the 
highest bodies of our organization. 

Marxism-Leninism is the only world theory that withstands the test of time. 
This is true not because Communists are prophets but because Communist theory is 
born out of life itself, and being a guide to action, is applied to the experi- 
ences of life. 

We are now in the first phases of a new era in the atuggles of the American 
people. The experiences of the war have made many groups less susceptible to 
the old forms of bourgoois dyoeption. For example; the Soviet Union has proved 
itself in battle and taken its place among the big powers, the moaning of 
imperialism has become more clear to the people, the role of monopolies in 
profiteering is better understood, faith in the Bourgeoisie has been shaken. In 
light of these things the reactionaries have revised their propaganda. They 
present the United States os anti-imperialist, the Soviet Union as "red" imperi- 
alism, the trade unions as monopolies, and thus seek to win a mass base as a 
result of the fact that the new concepts and tendencies of the people have not 
yet crystallized. 

The need for a serious study of political economy, in order to oon^jlotely 
expose the monopolists and the falseness of their theories of wages and prices, 
showing the real source of profits and hov; these ideas of theirs implement 
the practices of imperialism, and -drive the world to war. In all these respects 
we must show the role of the Soviet Union as the chan^jion of peace and the 
example of socialism. 

The Negro question and the struggle against anti-Semitism must receive 
major atten t ion particularly in view of thelAtest attacks upon the Negro people 
lAich are calculated by the bourgeoisie to disarm the people in the canpaigns 
for progress. The Negro question must be presented as a national question. 
The "moral" viOw must be exposed as a weapon of the ruling class aimed at 
weakening the struggles for Negro liberation. 

Special attention must also be paid to exposing the role of the Trotskyites 
and Social Democrats, the former as the vanguard of the counter-revolutionary 
bourgeoisie and the latter as the agents of the bourgeoisie. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, X. J.. AREA 1245 



Evory Party organization should ro-oxonino its oducotional proeossoe and 
roshapo thorn to confonn to tho now tasks prosontod on tho idoologioal front* 
Many of tho conrados rocruitod during tho Browdor poriod have hod no genuine 
Marjcist training, Bosidos tho general Icck of educational facilities in the 
Party organizations there are two froquont tendencies oxprosSEd in efforts to 
alter tho situation. Current ovonts oro often discussed in isolation from tho 
activities of tho Party clubs, and thooreti-cal discussions are hold without 
applying then to the work of the organization. Evory class or pduoational 
should bo related to the actual daily work of tho club. Our discussions must 
not bo "aoadonic''. Every action planned by a olub should be acoomijanicd by a 
planned political and educational discussion. This places upon tho 01ub 
loadorship tho responsibility to think out in advance what Uarxist-Lcninist 
theories ociybo associated vdth each item on on agenda. In this way our com- 
rades will bo equipped with tho required political undorstanding to facilitate 
tho acconfilishmcnt of his tasks. 

In addition to now members classes and regular olub cducationals organizod 
olossos in tho History of tho CPSU, the National Question and Political Econony 
aro rooonnended. The success of our ideological strugclos will be ncasurod by 
the quickness to which our olubs respond to tho daily problcns of the workers 
in tho shops and noighborhoods. 



pwft #7 



1246 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 
BUILDING THE PARTY I N THE A F L 

The "Progress Report" shows that, despite haphazard work on the part 
of our AFL forces, the possibilities for recruiting are excellent. The AFL 
achieved 63?J of its goal of 75. It must be emphasized that »the new member a 
brought in wore not recruited as the result of an efficient campaign. In 
many oases CIO members and comrades in neighborhood groups brought irj a 
recruit — and later discovered that he belonged to the AFL. 

With planned recruiting, end with effective organization among our own 
AFL membership, it is clear that there ia a tremendous field for work. 

There are rumblings within the AFL. The Wage Adjustment Board, frankly- 
designed to keep wages down, has aroused deep resentment. There is a ferment 
against leadership of various internationals. In the State, if and when 
Joe Fay leaves the picture, the Marciante machine will be greatly weakened. 
There will be a struggle for power. It is up to the progressives to utilize 
the situation. 

The State AFL Commission has been attempting to weld together AFL forces 
throughout the State, vdth not too noteworthy success. It has met with fair 
regularity, although attendance left much to bo desired. It issued a monthly 
bulletin which served at least to keep AFL work in the minds of the comrades. 

The Coranission has tried to have AFL clubs set up in various counties. 
Due to the lack of attention given thia in the past, and with a certain defeatism. 
existing in AFL work, setting up of such clubs was not accomplished except in 
Uercer, where beginnings were made. It is oloof that much msre emphasis will 
have to be given to AFL work, lilhen we started, many county organizers ^id not 
even know how many AFL members they hod. 

There are signs that progressives aro scattered througho'it tho state. 
However, each tends to feel isolated, and there is not tho toamflork necessary. 
One effective rallying-point maybe the booklet on Peter J, MoGuire, a far- 
sighted founder of the MFL, member of tho First International, 'and organizer 
of tho Carpenters' Union, The Camden CLU has issued an important booklet on 
his life and achievements which should receive wide publicity. 

We have had evidence in Mercer that recruiting of rank-and-file AFL 
members pays off in divideads rather than absolution with leaders. Tho 
response'; of new Negro members, with their enthusiasm, has helped. 

To break, one and for all, with haphazard work in the AFL, the following 
recommendations were approved. that aro listed ia the supplement of proposals. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1247 

B E P R T ON P R E a S B Y GAY M A HA N 

The press itself is nothing more thtin the propaganda machine of the 
monopolists which tries to dominate our lives economically end politically 
and influence our policies. It is the capitalist press that -^diips up this 
lynch spirit against the trade union movemaat. It is the press thpt influences 
millions of people, millions of people who belong to the working class, but 
#10 are not yet fully awakened to the fact that this press peddles only ideas 
of the eneny. 

The ruling class ovms its own press and tries through this propaganda 
instrunent to control the linking of the country. We have only one daily 
paper in the East, only one paper that is different from all the others. The 
Daily Worker is the only labor daily that we havo. The Ifiily Worker stands out. 
Imagine this paper challenging the nonop<% press that ccr.es out in tens of 
nillions of copies each day. The Daily Worker speaks out as the voice of the 
working people and as a synbol of progress. The Daily Viforker not only speaks 
out, but is a collective organizer, Tha capitalist prose has developed a now 
breed of anti-labor, acti-Connimist "experts". We must counteract it by a 
new opproaoh to our press. The Doily Worker is the official spokesman of 
the Communist Party. Daily, it is bocoaing more and more a fighting crusader, 
with consistency in carrying out oanpaipis. 

Wo must fight for a proper approach to the paper on the part of our 
membership. As John Williamson said at t ho National Committee meeting, "While 
the paper has been supported there is something missing in terms rt love. for 
the paper as expressed for the 'People's Vforld' and the ♦Froiholt.' . In these 
popors there is a closer relation with the members and trade unionists." 

Once we have convinced our membore and they feel this love for our paper, 
and view it as our vanguard weapon, it will make it much easier for us to build 
a mass oiroulction in this state. They will want to participate in going out 
and renlly hiilding its circulation in the shops, trade unions, mass organiza- 
tions and communities, 

In coc^arision with other largo Districts, t he circulation of The Worker 
in New Jersey is good. But we can hardly be sotisfied with this. The tremen- 
dous possibilities that exist for really building up our circulation should 
inspire each and every Coramunist to go out and do a job. We must all become 
conscious of our press and utilize it in everything we do. VIo've got to make 
sure that our press shows up at everyone of our mass demonstrations. It must 
be utilized in our day-to-day work, regardless of where wo work or -vrfiat we do. 

IXiring the months of Juno, July, and August we ha-79 a total of 730 Worker 
expirations. Of these only 177 havo been renewed todate. Let us stop and 
think Tihat 730 Worker readers neon. Let us not look at it in terms only of 
circulation. The 730 Worker subs expiring these months aro 730 people, workers 
from shops, trade unions, mass organizations, neigliborhood. They ore farmers, 
professionals, white collar workers, 730 people t*io havo been reading our 
press for a period of six months, a year, or evoii longer. 730 people who heiro 
been brought closer to our Party, 730 people who have beoone class-conscious, 
who are ready to do a job, 730 potential roorui'-.s tq the Ccmmunist Party. 
And even more, 730 class-conscious vjorkers each influencing from 5 to 10 or 
more of other workers. This is a tremendous thing, Wb cannot neglect tliese 
Worker readers. Every step must be taken to gucrantee thatttiese aro renewed. 



1248 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

-2- 

The Nefw Jersey Conmunist Party put out its first full dross nowspapor. Wo 

can all be proud of tho voryrwoll ,job done. The rosponso by our owi comrades 

and the workers was vory good. 5£,000 oopics-7;cro distributed to workers In 

key oonoontration shops throughout tho state and in concentration ooimaunitios. 

We now have an undertaking -vdiioh we feel will certainly bo welcomod by every 
mcnbor of our Party. Jini thatis, thatcveryTOOk we will have one page in 
The Worker devoted to New Jersey nows. \fo will have one person 7;ho will work 
on gathering material for this page. Howovcr, if wo are to really nakc this 
par.o representative of Nev; Jersey .vcj nust have tho full cooperation of every 
leading raenber of our Party. Everyone nust feel himself a reporter and send 
in as much material as ho can father. 

We are very happy about a ^Icv; Jersey page, ffe feel that it will serve 
a two-fold purposej first, our roaders will bo better acquainted with the news 
of Now Jersey, v/hioh they will not got from tho capital ist press, and secondly, 
it con and must serve as an impot'ur. for really building tho circulation of 
The Worker hero in Now Jersey, 

If wo carry out tho proposals and make our press an anti-nonopoly 
instrument used by every Communis-:, r, t every Communist action, we'll begin to 
fulfill tho role of leadership vhi'ih our Party mus': fulfill as tho vanguard 
of the -.vorking class. 



;PROP06A15 ARE CONTAINED IN ATTACHED SUPPLBJEMT OF PROPOSAIS MADE 
AT THE STATE COlHaTTE MEETING.) 



COMMTINIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1249 



PROPOSALS 



-pt. 2- 



1250 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Proposals Based on Report by Sid Stein 

Conducting the Boonomlo Struggles in New Jersey 

It T^at the State issue a leaflet designed to draw the lessohs of the Struggle 
in 60,000 copies for mass distribution and afi a guide to our agitation and 
propaganda *ork in organizing the immediate Btnlggles* 

2. That we dii"ect all ^arty orgailizations and Communists to initiate and 
participate in the organization of Consumer-Labor Committees in shops and 
neighborhoods add on City-wide scale to fight against price increases — By 
boycotts of decontrolled products — Buyers Strikes — Picket lines, ^d that we 
especially concentrate on unifying the broadest coaliton behind these struggles, 
especially Aft and CIO unity. 

3» That special attention be given to the Struggle in Concentrated Negro 
oonmunitles yhere the profiteering orgy is at its worst. 

4. Demand a special session of Congress and the State ^gislature to enact real 
price control, 

5. Encourage the holding of city-wide meetings and conferences to discuss 
the fight for price control and wage increases looking towards united action 
of labor in the coming strike struggles, 

6. Prepare the Party ideologically and organizationally for the coming strike 
struggles — including the adoption of shop concentration — Establishing firm 
ties withthe workersin these shops so that we will be better prepared for the 
next round. 

7. Sale of 3500 copies of the new Foster pamphlet on the Tasks of the Trade 
Union Movement, 

Electoral Struggle in New Jersey 

1. All-out campaign to make the August conference of labor and progressives 

a broad gathering of the type of a coalition we want to build and insuring its 
content. Comrade Fields to be place in responsibility for leading this work, 

2, Immediate steps to mobilize pressure on Brunner to take a stand on a 
Roosevelt platform thereby making it possible for labor and progressives to give 
support. Comrade Sam to be assigned by the State Committeo to lead in 
carrying out this task. 



4, County and Club organizations and Communists in mass work are colled upon 
to intensify efforts at developing agreement on progran with Candidates that 
can be supported. Organize County and City Conferences for the building 
organizations in speoifio conmunities. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1251 



6, Organize the farty Election Machinery now ,.—- Mass distribution of the 
State throw-Qway — county leaflets on local candidates — street comer and 
shop gate meetings, 

e. Prepare now for the holding of large indoor rallies colled by the broadest 
possible committees for the Communist candidates as the opening gun for the 
moat intensive Coimnunist Election Campaign. These meetings end the preparation 
for them to be the occasion for getting every possible mass figure. Party end 
Uon-Party, to come out in support of the Communist Gubernatorial Candidate. 

6* That our candidates issue statements in their names on all issues. 

7. Material to be distributed at_ meetings. 

8« That our Campaign managers work for endorsements by trade union leaders, 
Megro and progressive leaders, 

9, That our Party candidates moke eppearanoes at local Onion meetings, 

10. That we start gathering lists of watchers. 

11, Communist candidates to lead deto^tlons to local legislators. 



Conducting the Struggle for Peace 

J. The Call of the World Federation of Trade Unions with the participation 
of the CIO makes the demand for the breaking of relations with Franco Spain a 
broad starting point as well as a most urgent task in the struggle against 
Anerican imperialism and its drive towards war. Initiating the broadest move- 
ment on this issue and skillfully and deliberately expose all other concrete 
manifestations of this' Drive in the processof this struggle. 

(a) G«t Resolutions and Statements from all Local unions. Central Labor 
bodies and other mass orgonitations. 

(b) Circulate Stato-wide Round Robin letter to be published as Ad's 

in newspapers which would involve all leading liberal and progressive 
as well as labor forces, 

(o) Organize State delegations to the State Department in Washington. 

(d) Organize State or Newark Council Sponsored picket line in front 
of the Spanish Consulate in Now York, 

(o) Build Vn.n The Peace Conferences in every county as a result of these 
actions, (Special emphasis on building it in Newark as the base for 
a State Conference to set up a state-wide organization.) 
(leading trade unionists) 

(f) Proposed that three oomrados^be put in charge with leading and 
guiding through of this program in the mass movement, also that 
additional comrades bo placed on this committee, — a trade unionist 
from a shop, a leader in another mass organization and a member of 
the Secretariat, 



1252 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

-5- 

(g) All Partj' organizations nnd members are callod rpon to organize 

eotlons of demonstrative and agitational character end to participate 
Svaiy in helping to initiate and carry through actions in the mass 
movement ; 

(h) Popularize the ^peal to the United Sntions made by tiie National 

Negro Congress as an exoellent platform for the further exposure of 
the hjipoorisy of Anerioon IfflperialiEn, to heighten the level ot the 
struggle for Negro rights as a National question and to build 
organizationally the National Negro Congress; 



LITERATURE 

Literature is a builder of Communist Consoiousnossi 

li That the. September "PolitJeal Affairs" Tifiiioh carries the only report of the 
National Commlttoo Meeting be circulated to all activos in our Stab, and that 
copies be ordered at once, 

21 That we pledge t o circulate S,500 of Foster's pajuphlet "The Tasks of 
Organized Labor Today." 

3. That the Counties set up Agitational and Propaganda committees to hold 
Conferenoos during the first two weeks in Septainb€r> 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE XEWARK, N. J., AREA 1253 

PR0P06AIS as PARTY BUILDiyS 

1. That we do our concentration recruiting on a shop by shop baais with the 
objective of a concentration shop club in every plant so selected. 

2. That the State Comnittee to cpll on the Party memberBhip to take steps 
to carry out the recoircnendation of the National Office to recruit 125 AFL 
workers in the next 2 months. That we consider the possibility of putting a 
person on full-time to carry out this AFL Drive. 

3. That the State Committee calls on the ^arty menvership to fulfill the 
concentration goals set at the beginning of the Drive. 

4. That we recruit 600 new members during our work in the November election 
Campaign. 

5. That we enter 1947 with a registered membership of 3,000. In preparation 
for this, every county study carefully and carry out some form of integration 
for every new member. 

6. That we revive the tradition of open Communist work, and take pride in our 
membership in the finest organization in America. 

7. That the best forms of recruiting be continuedt 

(a) Each County bo responsible for at least one discussion group of 
contacts. 

(b) That the lists of subscribers to our press be used as a source of 
recruits. 

8. That v;e make our plans around the recruitment of those groups most naturally 
allied to the working class. 

(a) We continue and improve our recruiting in the Negro Community. 

(b) We set a goal of 300 young Communist members DOING 11DRK in youth 
organizations by January Ist, 

(c) We set some concrete goals and specific place to recruit veterans, 
and follow-up our plans, 

9. That every County build at least one youth club. 

10. That new itiembers Conferences be held in the next month. 

(a) One speaker to give outlook 

(h) Social affair to follow 

(o) Hecruiter to be resonsible for attendance, 

11. That the State Training School in August be used to train new leadership 

12. That a letter of greeting bo sent to all new members by Sid Stoin. 

13. That a letter of greeting be s ent to all new members by Sid Stjin. 

14. That the Textile Industry be considered for State concentration and our 
present concentrations in Ship and steel be reconsidered in the lifht of the 
post-war sise cf these industries. 



1254 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

COKSOLIDATION 

1. That every county make a concentration on building dues payments, using 
the methods reoonimended, and agreed upon by the county organizers. This to 
be considered the special concern of the county Org Secretaries. 

2. That attendance be inproved by making our club meetingsmore attractive. 
This moans a carefully planned educational at every meeting, and the stream* 
lining of organizational points by division of work in the club, and use of 
the groups to carry out the necessary leg-wcrk. 

3. That we develop a functioning group «ysteni by training g-oup captains to be 
political leaders of small Party units. It is to be understood that these 
units ore to meet separately, and devote their "main attention" to the actual 
oorrying out of Party activities. 

4. That attention be given to continuous activity, and that the counties aiake 
sure that each club is consciously concentrating on a long-term project. 

5. That we improve the discipline of our organization, using the world-wide 
tradition of our Party for sacrifice and devotion. 

6« That we equip ourselves in the first place for political leadership of the 
•working class in New >Jersoy, by constant searching and education. Since, this 
can only bo done if we stucfy and exchange the results of our stucfying on a 
regular basis, that we make the Wednesday morning discussion group an assignment 
for the leading comrades involved. For tho most part, those who have been 
assigned to this discussion group got no other form of Marxist education, and 
have vory irregular contact with the Party organization. Those of us who have 
m^de this discussion group a regular part of our Party work find that it is just 
as necossary to us as regular State Board meetings. We propose that the 
comrades assigned to this group, be responsible to attend regularly enough to 
mako tho group effective, 

> 7. That we fight our way out of the present method of routing most of the 
work through the same few county leaders, by really building our departmohta. 
and Commissions. 

8, That a State-wide meeting of all Club Presidents be held to exoliange 
experiences so for in tho Consolidation Drive, and to lay plans for a 
succosful windup by September Ist. Tho ochodKiLad date of this meeting is 
Saturday, August 17th, lOjOO A.Ii. at 516 Clinton AvBnue, Newark, New "Jersey. 

Ftr>]D mivE 

1. That we finish the Fund Drive by September 1st, and give the first guarantee 
ourselves by dupliooting whatever contribution we have alrea(^made and spreading 
this action to all active members. 

2. That we correct a weakness of the Fund Drive by turning confidently to oup 
industrial meoibers aid sympathizers for fincnciil support to the i'arty. 

3. That each county follow up the mailing of the Sjeoial Edition of the 
Daily Worker with an appeal for funds. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1255' 

I desire also to introduce in evidence a paper entitled "Party Or- 
ganization," which was acquired by the same means by the staff, and 
ask that it be marked "Committee (Fisher) Exhibit 2," and that it be 
incorporated in the transcript of the record. 

The Chairmax. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. This is a detailed report on party organization. 
I shall read the preface to it. 

The following is a draft in outline form of a manual on organization. We 
plan to put out this manual to teach our members HOW to do the job. So far 
it is only a draft. With tb.e suggestions and experience of the comrades in clubs 
and groups throughout the State, it will appear as our collective job. 

How soon and how well that job will be done depends on what we all give to it. 

Use it in clubs and groups — in planning education, in discussing dues, in work- 
ing out the group setup. Then let us know where it was helpful and where it 
fell short. 

This outline should go to all clubs of the party. 

(The exhibit referred to is as follows :) 

Committee (Fisher) Exhibit No. 2 

FA R T Y OR G A M I ?• A T ) OM 

( HOW TO DO IT ) 

The following is a draft, in outline form, of a manual on 
organization. V<© plan to put out this manual to teach our 
menbers HOW to do the job. So far its only a draft. Vnith 
the suggestions end experience of the Comrades in Clubs and 
groups throughout the State, it will appear as our collective 
job. 

How soon and how well that job will be done depends on v*iat 
we all give to it. 

Use it in Clubs and groups - in planning education, in dis- 
cussing dues, in working out the group set-up. Then let us 
know where it was helpful and where it fell short. 

This outline should go to all clubs of the Party . 



1256 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J.. AREA 



Concept of . Manberthlp 
He nuat fight to make following section of our Constitution li-rf.ng roalityi 

trtiole 3, SCO. 2 - Constitution C. P, , U. S. A- 

'iiny person - vrho ooo.opts tho eics, princip?.cs ,ind jrogroD of the 
Party fs dc-torninod by its Constitution end convention, who ho? da 
nus^ershiti in and .JTEHr; C/JB ;..7rr! I);o3 , i^O IS i'lTX^ra on ochO.f 
of *-ho Party, who KEAIB THE t-iPJlY i-R"cJi= .i1;D LITFiJ JJl^E AliD iaT^ DDE 
EEJULiUiLY, shall be considered r. racmocr''. ■ 

1» This concept of aonbership inoludcsi- "'cttondanoo at Club moctin(T8,' 

a) Group systen oa;; help solve problam of inactive mcmbors. 

i,. Ty use of Buddy systein vid+hin groups, i. o., an 
activ9 CDjiri':c nuat bo risponalbld for ono ino-tive Comrade, 
Suit Tislv; Con.-cdo .and hova discussions on curiuT.; and 
political isruas. t;u:it bring Conroda press ard Pi-rty literature. 
L'ust 00 pcrsrnally ra''po;-si';le to l.rir.i; inoot'.vo Comrade to 
neati'.-;i;,s, aIq in pclitiool irvilopDent of Conrado. To become 
pa.-'; o:;' social lif, oi" C^-r-r-do^ 

2- Groups must meet on repular nights with plonr.ed agendas. 
However, -jrhcro possible deo-f.lons cf meeting night and place 
should bo decided by entire [Toup; 

b) Club HreTutives must assume authority in solving nenbership problems, 

1. lu oiE'js ivheie Con'-.-dos who h:ive bcon in Party for long 
perioJs r.f timo end hrv3 grDira iaT, for cne ror.son or another, in 
thjir Tarty responsibility, club executives must oail these Comrades 
in rnJ hove full discussions with then on iJieir full responsibility. 

2. Clubs must assist Co:ni-cdos :ji overcoming obstacles to 
activity^ givo assistance in personal problems, 

3. Clubs nust develop fuller educnticnel projrcr., 

4. Club agendas must be well planned and nlivo, dealing with 
issues of the day. 

5. Executive Board mcnbors as groups captains nust rally 
membership for club meetings. 

o) Responsibility of Club membership director. 

1. Club r-embership director must knavi club memborship. Know 
who has pertoncl proble-ns which prevur.t f artioipation in activity^ 
should call th'.se problens to tho attention of club and attempt to 
assist Comvado irt ovorcoming them, 

2. Itoora spociol problems arise in int9j;rating Comrcdes, 
Club msmber-sUr. director must beccrao involved, even to point of 
going with group oapcuin to visit Comrare, 

3. Club membership director, should regularly (preferably on 
weekly basis) discuss with group captains nnd got reports on 
attendance and dues, 

4. Must havo constant contrct with section, or County member- 
ship director, to meet on manbcrship problems, duos, drives etc, 

d) Now members of Party must be mr.de acquainted iTith their rospon- 
sibilitios when they join, 

1. Vory ofton new Comrade Joins on one issue or another and 
wo fail to bring full program of Party to tho new Comrr.do. 

2, Hew members classes to bo run on pemonont basis and all 
new recruits must attend before being attached to club. 

3, A Buddy should bo assigned to new Comrade to bo rosponsiblo 
to seo thot nc\-t Comrade attends classes aid later attends uee',ingB. 

4. Uomtersbip director responsible for checking on att':ndn c3 
at new members classes. 

5, Nd« member to bo interviewed by County monborship 
department during period attending class. 

6. Ire oust strictly adhere to deals Ion that new aosber must 
* attsnd olub seeting to be voted on end receive meabarshlp card* 



COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1257 

page I. 
80 as to befln witli undcrEtanding thot Club mooting is necBSBity. 
2. "Activity In Behalf Of The ?crty" 

a) Find th'j Dcti\ity, for Rhich oooh member is politically ond 
personally ready. 

1, issignnents should be mr.do on q realistie bnsis, taking 
int.-> consideration abilitj' of Comroce, political development, tine 
available, level cf undorctar.dir^ and nature of work, etc. 

2. Clubs nuEt booonc living organs with plan; od progrrxis based 
on their particular neighborhood, shop or nass or-oniiction 
concentration. 

3. This mist be done by ocroful exaainotion end survey of exist- 
inr situation. For oxrjnple c olub operating; in a orov;ded slun 

area nust firjit actively for the needs of the people to relieve their 
living conditions. In the process of the struggle to draw in all of 
the club membership in some phase of this octivity. 

4, Tihere problems exist such os husband unablo to carry on 
Party activity becr.use of opposition of wife, wo must :.iako every 
effort to win over and recruit the wife, "iihere a housewife is 
unable to get out because of snoll children, club shruld assist 
by setting up a sitters fund, or hcve older Comrade who caniot 
be active because cf health, sit with children nnd wherever 
possible arranfe r.ectings in such c Comrades hone. 

b. Vihen Ccnrados visit inactive Ccmrcdes they should bring with 
them in addition to the Vrcrkor, two pieces of current literature, 
one for the Conrad© and one for a shop mate, friend er norghbcr. 
perhaps on the next visit it can be suf^estcd that the Conrcde 
canvoss two or throe of his noin;hborE on the \allr.cc c-jno;ign or 
some current issue. Experience has proven thr.t cnec a Conrr.de be- 
comes involved, obstacles to activity disappear. 

S. •Reading Of The Forty press ,jid Literature" 

q) "IVithout a revolutionary theory there con be no revolutionary nove- 
nent" Lenin 

b) Constant propaganda of capitalist press and radio can only be count- 
eracted by our press and literature, 

0) Many of our nenbers fall prey to the red scare as a result of the 
constant barrage of big business, and in some cases almost concede 
illegality. 

1. Every Party member must al least read the Iriorker and nil active 
Comrades must reed the Daily, this will beat gucrontee that our 
Comrades fully understand issues and hew to combat then. 

2. Clubs must organize group study circles ond classes based on 
Party literature and articles in the press. For example a club 
involved in Jewish work oculd very veil have used the bnsis for a 
discussi n in the club the r ecent editorial on tho6;a/*.ng of Count 
Bernodotte. Or all clubs cculJ very well hold a discussion on 
Chorter 8, of Foundations of Leninism to aid in fully understond- 
Inge the role of our Party today. 

3. It should be regular practice for oil Comrades to carry with 
then a copy cf the press wien they visit end ncio all attoripts to 
guarantee that the Ccnrado will regularly get rnd rerd our Press. 

4. "Poyment Of Dues Regularly" 

a) V.e must strive to establish a eonsci'^usness agmonrst cur members of 
the need of r egulor dues payments. 

b) Too oi'ten in the past dues hcs boon glossed over aai in some cases 
pra'>t^'«l''y no ottenticn at all 'irs bcc-n pcid to itj w-.th the exceptimn 
of i-ei'5r,dr. rt control or rocistrction. 

e) Dies in edlition to being a source of income to the Porty, is also 
ou- monthly ploagi nf continued d'n-otion and loyalty to the Party. 

d) iill Jlubr and por'ic- 1-u-lv eV. mmbirsliJp dl.-octcrs must take steps 
to guarantee thr.t this mora;, and r!n.-rcicl Puojc.-'' aS a rej^ulcr pro-.ess. 
Methods such as a special point on Ciub agendas, setting up of s.iecal 
tables for dues, cheoKinp dues payments periodloelly etc., should be 
used. In addition dues must bo one of the points raised when visiting. 



1258 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

S* Onr best and only guarantee thct we osn curb ^e.t&reat of feBolon and mar 
itkick wo face today 1« byt 

a) TJnifylnc and ootlvltln^: our entire Party. 

b) A keen g'^sp of Herxist theory. 

By taking ocrrect end nscese^ry atepr, tc grarantee that we aooosqiliah thaaa 
tao tasks. «« also take Bteps to gunranteo p»aoo and secrarlty nir tba Aaarlaao 
people. 

6« At our State Convention we voted to have a three month testing period of oup 
membership. This three nonth period will be during Deoomber, January and 
February, also cur period of registration. 

Based upon our Party Constitution our tasl: is» 

a) To see that all moiibors attend meetings. 
That all menbers carry on some ootivity. 
That our meabora road our Party Press and Litaratura» 
That our moabers pay duos regularly. 

The extent to which me build the groups, carry out our program, draw our mombera 
Into activity will guarantee the Eueoess of this testing period. ,ie have five 
months to do the Job and it con be dons* 



■1, Basic need for Groups grows out of need to form closer bonds nlth the peopt* 
of iimerica. 

1, Relatively small i'erty working in large mass organisations, 
a) Vie therefore need compact working units, 

2. Vtorking in midst of politically backward T(orkers. 

a) 1(0 need highly organized core to load. 

b) These some small units used oven where larger Parties give 
possibilities for locsor fornis of viork. 

it Often our Clubs arc not "connectod* with shop or community. 

a) Group gives possibility of working as part 3f specific portion 
of people where r-ood is greatest. 

4. Special conditions of present-day repression clmod to Isolate ua 
from people. 

a) Group is foru with grootost maneuver ability to overcome 
isolation, — bo aoceptod by tho people. 

II. In addition to tho political roasons tho Group has great organltctionol ad- 
vontages. 

1. Uobility for quick changes of today. 

2. Contact mth moro nembors on a better level. 

3. Security of Party bost guarantood by Group, 

4. New forces will develop faster ^ere leadership needs are not as 
rigorousi 

5. Viermth of relation between reprosentativo of Party leadership 
(Group Captain) and outernost Comrades, 

6. Edudotion mill renoh more Conracies on the informal level above 
wJiion rauiy aro at first unprepared to go, 

7. Mass work ot the Party can be given more detailed ottention in 
small grouj s. 

a) •Volunteorinj" less of an effort. 

8. •''Rvdry Peraber a i.'or!:er in some mass organltotion* possible through 
orgir.izutional for^i of tho Group, 

9. The Group is orgoEisptional form to plant us in tho many places 
necossary for our party to become a Ui&i) PARTY, 

"XUt The Group as a Party unit. 

1, So far mostly a convonionco for dues collection, 

a) Some Or oup s "functional* 

b) ill- Groups must bo "functional *. 

2* Groups must have -^ roason for axistenoo, 

a) Can ho organized to work in a concentration workingolass, or 
impcrcf^G pL-?.iti,cal aron. 

b) Con bo Oi-^onizou tn wcrl: in a mrss orgsBlJ.tQtlon. 

-, ?rogve3:-ivu Party vork bost orgaiiisod <.hrour;h Oroup. 
, '(Jll cTPoto a cintor of rosponsilili*!". 
o) Shop Clu3t thca'-el'fca should hnve uor.o >i-oijj iho^acteristloa. 
, Net exceed 10 - IZ. 

Z» Groups will feel themselves part of eoalltloa la Base orgenl«ati«ni 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1259 



or neighborho .cl, — .ill fool thoir o»in entity. 

a) Help prevent liquidati.m tendenoies, 

. Grnups can ',ive device f-r viorkinf »dthing bourgools lad organlM- 

tinns, 

. Groups working in moss organizations r.ot linitod to this work cdooa. 
e) AlBc hove other ,z»m«l Pt-rty funotions. 

b) Advantage lies in Conrrc'eB being able to diaouss oommon probXama 
regulr.rly. 

o) Gives i-nrty regular chcok end point for guidance. 



IT. JOB NO-.V 
1. 



Over eone hesitancy -- over come "force of habit" —build at onoo, 

a) Hesitanoy due to fo«r of "lack of leadership". 

b) Kff'jrent kin', of leadershir needed - not so highly developed, 
o) Convince Club loaders Group is not "anothor job" - but a 

solution to methods of getting present jobs done. 

Train leadership. 

a) Cnurses being planned. 

, Convontion discussions, - playing up topics related to 

specific Group WDrk, 
, Study cf 10 l.jirxist Classes, 
. Knew - now conferences 3n leaflets, Street naotiags, 

canvassing. 

b) Study and ooL.bina those methods aa needed* 
o) Use Buddy systen in Groups, 

d) Every Group captain tc train a new loader. 

Start at the beginning, 

a) Deed not have full-fledged Group or Group Captcin at firat. 

, Need perspactive,- 

b) Viork at first vdthin Club under supervision of Club ESceo. -— 

, Group C^taiBB to work with sane group of people. 
o) Start out by Tisitini;, —- — — jotting acquainted, having 
political discusEiono, sollin; press and literoture, giving 
miniiaun polltioal oasljiinents, 

d) Lead naturally to oellin- t gethor the r est of the Group, 

e) Final step - rerulcrity f rieetin,:, — separate from the Club. 

• Group projeoli to be wjrkod cut. 

• Hosponsibility of Groups to be established. 

• Groups education to be started. 

, Jiiss work of Group discussed and checked. 
. ill Party oanpaigns handled throu!;h Orov^;, 



V, The Club and Groupi 
Bcanple I- 



1. Club of 25 

a) Eneo. of 6 

2, Exec, members - Group Capatains (except oholrman) 

a) Group ncabers chosen for use or adaptability tc oaDoeatretloa 
project of Group • 

b) Oar 3 as to composition —include Conj-ades at voring levale of 

devolopnent, 

3, Four Groups organized on, e. g., 
• Progressive party 
. H.0 

. Congressional election district, 
. Consumers' Organisation. 
. — or support to a concentration shop. 

i. Groups in various phases of development. 

a) Some meet alternate weeks, some just visit, 

5. All responsible to Exec, for reports (by Group Coptaina). 

6, Groupsi— Cultivate reserves of Party — Build the Party HWt 

a) Sell Press 

, *Vlsit every subscriber onoe a month" 
, Visit loss active members, 

b) Discuss and leam from work in siass organisation or naigtibo»> 
hood. 



1260 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK. N. J., AIUOA 



a) Bays onn sduoationol progron 

d) DiBtrlbuts leoflett, end otuivesc, 

o) Collect dues and finanoee, 

f) Uobllize for central compelg^s. 

g) Run recruiting ola88eB, parties. Do these olonc or with another 
group, or Gs e whole olub. 

7, Tiork to be coordinated ot &ceo. moctlng by olub orgonitor. 

a) Club organizer to get brief weekly check on activity of group fret 

group captoin, 

b) In Szeo. discussions of oompolgns Group coptcin to glvo oxpcrlonc 
of his Group, or report difficulties ond got help, 

o) Organitor to cultivate habit of noting good oxporionoos r.nd method 

in Groups, rjid got Group onptolns to dothe snne. 
d) ^1 conpt-igns to bo pltnnod by Exco, with ooneidorctlon for pro- 
ject of each Group. 

• For oxonplo --leaflet distribution- 
Group helping shop club gets quantity needed for shop gc.te. 
Group working under speoifil diffloultioa gets help on horj 
to distribute leaflet, etc. 
o) One Group mcy toko mrln burden of pnrtlculr.r compalgu if its pro- 
ject nckes this prootlcal, 
f) Education, press, literature handled through Group captains by 
club department heads at Exoc. meetings, 

e* Club to discuss how to involve all Groups in cnmpcigne, 

flaUGmS 

Tl Rrootion method of work. 

a) Discuss oiily mess org problems; hove no Party cduoationj not 
involved in Party compaigns. 

Z, Lock of plonnsd politiool end oduca'iionol work, 

a) Tackle only details, and use Group os a Jiiroy Hieelns distribu- 
tion center. 



i. Prevent by giving Grcup type ci party life described, 
forty luiit. 



FOIOE AMD METHOIS OF CCMMUSIST EDUCAIIOH 

1. Marxist Dioory --what it is — its importance. 

A* Theory —The gonercliied oxpcricacos of tho morklngclcss movonont iii all 
Countries, 

1, Hot incidental or exceptional but the gonerollied exporionoes, 
2t Uorxist theory is o s cience , based on the generalized oxperioncos in 
all eountriea, r nd therefore applicable to all Countries, 

3, Theory must be linked with prcctioo. This is c basic Jiarxist 

4, But prootico without c. revolutionary theory is aimless, hecdlois 
end gropes in the dork, 

B. liiat theory does ( if connected with practice), 

). It gives confidence to tl->o novouent. It gives a scientific u nder 
standing of our immediato and long range objectives, nnd the in- 
evitability of tho victory of the morklngcloss movement, 'ihen 
theory grips masses of people it can beoomo the greotest fcroo in. 
the lobor movement, 

2« It gives us the power to understand the connection and Int roonnoction 
botwccn events — come of vtiioh may seem to be widely sepftrrtod or 
disconnected, 

5, liarxist theory helps us tc..ciEcom how and in -nhct direction classes 
are moving now, and in the imnodiato future. This is of groot im- 
portanoo to the vanguard Party of the workiiigclrsE , in working out 
its strategy and tactics, end in fighting for the imnodiato intoreets 
of the movement, 

V Our theory is alwcys a qvlde tc action - not a dogmntlc or ncchonioal 
pronouoomont. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1261 

poge 6. 

C Th9 Task of Our Thaory — tl.erj -ire .11 kinds of theories —bourgeois and 
worlcingoloss, good and bed (tor one olfss or the cthor) scientific and 
unscientific. Our theory is c eoionoe thot has specific tasks to oocomp- 
lloh In the Intgrasts of the workingclcas 'nd the exploited peoples. Our 
theory is o class pcienoc, 

1. It is the task of our theory tn net only understr.nd the world, 
but help ohon°:e it. 

2. Unlike bourgeois theory, it is the tj.sk of our theory to revecl and 
expose ell the ontneicnirms and oontrrdictions and exploitntion in 
modorn scoiety. Sourgcuis theories try to cover up, to mitigote 
these ontngonis-ns rjid contradictions. This is tho difference between 

revclutionr.ry ^.nd reootioncry theory. 

3. Our theory trr-cos the evolution of these ontr.gnnisi.is end controdict- 
lons. It shows thoy -rose, how they developed, it shows their trc.r.si- 
tory neture, r.nd the inevitoblity of their trcnsformrtion into enothf 
form. 

4. This undorsttmding enables the Conmunist Party to fullfill its main 
reason for existence. That la to load the workingoloss in struggle 
to put an end to every kind of exploitetion for all time. 

Lenint "The role of the vanguard con be fulfilled only by a Party 
thot is guided by an advanced theory". 

Communist Education 

X, Communist education con bo divided into two main ports — inner Party 

education and mass education. These are not soparr.ted but are Intimately 
connected. Just as the whole outlock of the Party is a mass outlook so 
our attitude toward education nust be a mess outlook. Vie study Marxism, 
organiie olecses, schools, etc. not for oonderaic reasons, but in order 
that we can nore effectively conduct the mass ideological struggle to win 
tho workingolass and the people to a scientific understanding of what is 
taking place, sind on tho basis cf this understanding r.ovc ncsscs cf people 
into action. 

B. Forma of Inner Party Education. 

1. Through the basic unit of the Party —the club neeting. Ef.lf of 
each club electing (first half of the :ne.',ting) should bo dev-Aed to 
o politicol - educctio.iol discussion. It should start with present 
day politics. It should net be noroly a "current events "discussion, 
but should provide q basic undorst.Tr.ding by ncking clear tho underly- 
ing theory involved. It should bo relatod to the problems and the 
work of the club, end should lead to acti-Tity on the port of the 
club. Exanples of whet can be dlsoussedi C'-nvrntion reporJts, plenum 
reports, Dt.ily 'vVorkor articles and editoriols, particular questions 
that are agltotin; tho people. Political Affairs articles, etc. All dis- 
cussions should bo related to the State, the County and the work of 
the Club. 

2. Croups offer a.i opportunity fir the obove kind at education on 

a racre informal basis —even rn re closely and specifically tied up 
with the practical problems faced by the Conrodes, 

3. The Press - Reading of our press is one of the main methods of 
lifting the political attd theoretical level cf our neoborship. Party 
leadership on all levels must al leas t _ read the Drily Worker 
every day. illl monbors must ct least" read the week-end t«orker. 
Articles and adiiorials should be used os a bnsis for club education- 
al discussions. Each club mooting should begin with a sh^rt discuss- 
ion on a Worker article or story. 

4a Club classes —held separata from club meeting, for studj' "f basic 
Marxism as pert of Party's general ideological campaigns. Based on 
outlines ond miterial specifically worked cut such r.s "Marxist Ltudy 
Series #1", and tho shortly ti bo issued "Series #-2", 10 classics -f 
Ufirxisa. Loadin; Coiarodes in ths County assigned tc tecch. 

8. Speci»,l schools or classes — On County and State basis,- evening 
and weekend - special subjects taught ccotrding tc ne ;ds of the 
County, Students to cor-prisa spoci'.l sections of tho r.onberchip 
such Party leaders (on various levels ) trc^e unionists, youth, etc. 

6. Self Study — a basic r;e»kod of CcM-runist education for which there 
is nc substitute. 3vcry Pr.rty nmbor nust study. 

7, Full tine schools — Kore full time schoils needed tc develop cadres. 
Comrades selected because of their dcmcnstrated capabilities ond 



1262 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

pfge 7. 

poB6lbllitie£, for there intfcr.sive training. Full time schools give students 
rounded out therretiof.l training ty ir.rons of cIosb room lectures, discussion, 
questions one moling reports. Tv,e conduct rf cur full time soho'ls egoin 
emphasiios the difference betwscn Coiniuunist ond bourgeois cduoction. Our 
schools unlike bcurgecis sjhcols viork collectively to rtiiso the level of the 
entire school withi the more cidvcmced students helping to develop the lees ed- 
Temced. 

III. liees Eduootlcn 

ik» The Press — our one single best r.-.ethod of mess education. Heedere of our 
Press heve consistent contact ivith liarxist ideology, 

B, MfiES Meetings — More mass ticrjtings needed —around historic nctionri and 
international dotes. Organized in the neighborhc^ds on specific neighbor- 
hood issues. This is an ';stnblish3d institution thr.t has a damonstr'-.tive 
eharnoter besides furnishinj an opportunity for mass eduof.tion. 

C. Literature --not used sufficiently cr in o planned nonner i;i Party canpnigns, 
or by clubs on specific issues that will help the club solve problcns. a 
Party pcr^ihlet remains with the person ?nd con be educgtinc: hin when v.e are 
not octually in personal contact with hin, 

0. Forums end dobctts —an old form of spreading our idoclogy and at ssme time 
polomicizing egninrt wrong iaccs rifrht on the sfjne platform with those who 
advocate r-on-workingclcss idoclogy. Ilct used sufficiently, lie should iesue 
chellangoc '. rd arrtngc such tiebtter. Has the added advantage of reaching 
larger masses because -f i-.ore interest stimulated by a uebato. 

Sm LoafletB — one of the established methods of getting our nossofe to the 
people. Must issur: ri^re leaflets on a club or local scale dealing -Jiith 
specific issues pnd tlie Party position on then. "Know Ho"v Classes" to 
be crg;.nizod in ell Cuuntles on how to get out a leaflet — dealing with 
content, makeup, fnrT. how to type a stencil, mimeograph the leaflet, etc, 
thus equipping our clubs with the ability to get -ut club leaflets, 

F, Street and Shop Gote Meetings — 

in old Aracrioon form that eiicbles us to speak foce tn free with the workere 
whore they work, or the people in the oonrTiunity where they live. Develops 
speakers, ability to answer questicns, think quickly etc. Brings the Party 
beforo the people. l,pcoicl mcttricl to be isrued for the clubs on the 
mechanics of exactly ho-.v to organize a Street corner noeting, 

0. Radio — Limited because of finances but must be issued as nuch as possible. 
Radio programs should be monitored In each County, Danandc for free time 
officially requested to answer attacks on Party, The advantages of this 
medium ere obvious — wide audience rnd ranch people we night net ordinarilly 
reach by other methods. 

H. Visual aids such as film strips, IJore interesting then Just a speech or 
lecture. For both mass and inner l^arty education. Lost Counties have 
film strip .nr.chinos. Should bo used in all Clubs end al all kint^s of 
meetings. 

IV. Conolusion — Our Party is a dlllerent kind of a political Party than any 
other. It is guided by ■vnd bosoc' cr. o science. Wc wont to give this soientir 
fio underctanc;ing, on all quosti'ns, t<^ ^ur cwn nofflbors, anC to the workers 
end the people in order t- drav,' ma.'ses of people into aotivity. The objectives 
of our education is to mike people sec thin-s ns they are, as thoy exist, who 
and what is responsible f.r these things, and to convince masses cf people to 
struggle to ohoge their, in their cwn interests. This is the very rbjective of 
defending the reactionary order of things, tf c-voring up the oontro^iotioas 

of present society with all kinds of unscientific explanations designed to 
prevent the people frum strucgling in their own interests to better their 
conditions. To do this it is neootsory to use popular language, forms and 
nethods, but it must net v.eter down our scientific ojncapt. first the science 
nust bo mastered then the popular f->niis of, and r.athnds of getting it across 
worked out. 



jnhfTfnriHHrtfTiftf 



ttopwa/? 
Issued by State Org. Bore 



COMMUNIST ACTRITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1263 

Mr. Fisher, I hand you this rlocninent and ask you if you have ever 
seen it before ? 

Mr. Fisher. I see some very interest in o; questions in this document, 
sir, but I have to decline to answer that question for the same grounds^ 
same reasons. 

The Chairman, You are not compelled. You say, "I have to." Do 
you decline to answer ? 

Mr. Fisher. I am compelled, sir. 

The CiiAiRMAX. Do you decline ? 

Mr. Fisher. I do decline for the same grounds, same reasons. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. On page 2 of this document I will read item 3,. 
or parts of it. The item is entitled "Reading of the Party Press and 
Literature." The first statement is in quotations : 

Without a revolutionary tlieory there can be no revolutionary movement — 
Lenin. 

Is that one of the interesting questions that you referred to a moment 
ago that you saAv in this document ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fisher. I decline to answer, same grounds, same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Included under this article is this paragraph: 

Clubs must organize group study circles and classes based on party literature 
and articles in tlie press oi- all clubs could well hold a discussion on chapter 8,. 
of Foundations of Leninism, to aid in fully understanding the role of our party 
today. 

Under the title of, "Groups", appears this : 

Basic need for groups grows out of need to form closer bond with the people of 
America. 

Then the article proceeds to state why the Communist Party groups 
should be small : 

(1) Relatively small party working in large mass organizations. (2) Work- 
ing in midst of politically backward workers, (a) We need highly organized 
core to lead. (&) These small units used even where larger parties give possi- 
bilities for looser forms of work. 

In addition to the political reasons the group has great organiza- 
tional advantages. 

1. Mobility for quick changes of today. 

2. Security of party best guaranteed by group. 

3. New forces will develop faster where leadership needs are not as rigorous. 
Can be organized to work in a concentration working class or important political 
area. Not exceed 10 to 12. 

I think that means membership of the group not to exceed 10 to 12. 

"Progressive Party work best organized through group," not exceed- 
ing 10 to 12. "The job outlined to be accomplished at the moment is 
divided into a number of subdivisions." 

I will refer only to training leadership : 

(a) Courses being planned, convention discussions, playing up topics related 
to specific group work, study of 10 Marxist classics, know-how conferences on 
leaflets, street meetings, canvassing. (&) Study and combine those methods 
as needed, (c) Use buddy system in groups, (d) Every group captain to 
train a new leader. 

Mr. Doyle. May I interrupt? Mr. Tavenner, I haven't heard you 
read yet, and I want to be sure you do read where this outline of study 



1264 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J.. AREA 

or program lists anything about studying the United States Constitu- 
tion. Will you please call my attention to that ^ 

Mr. Taa-exxek. Here is a title under which such a suggestion should 
appear, if at all, in this document. It is entitled ''Forms and Methods 
of Communist Education." 

Mr. DoYi.K. They are studying Leninism according to that outline. 

Mr. Tavenner (reading). I. Marxist theory, what it is, its importance, (a) 
Theory, the generalized experiences of the working class movement in all 
countries. Theory must be linked with practice. This is a basic Marxist. 

That is item 3. 

4. But practice without a revolutionary theory is aimless, headless, and 
gropes in the dark. 

There is no mention in the document of the matter you referred 
to, Mr. Doyle. There is a subject entitled "Communist Education." 

Communist education can be divided into two main parts, inner party educa- 
tion and mass education. 

That gives a general idea of the document, those various subjects 
are developed at greater length. I believe that is all I need to refer 
to now with regard to that document. 

I have also another document entitled "Organizational Letter," 
which I will offer in evidence and ask that it be marked "Committee 
(Fisher) Exhibit No. 3" and that it be incorporated in the transcri[)t 
of the record. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

(The exhibit referred to is as follows :) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N, J., AREA 1265 
Committee (Fisher) Exhibit No. 3 

organizational letter 
:radio broadcasts 

"F(r ged out of the people's war ha« ocne a weapon ae 
ia^rtant as plane and gun, food and factory. The 
olassroojns end public forum, the book and pamphlet, 
the radio and town meeting have becone war weapons, 
as sharp and deoisi-ve as bullets in the struggle 
against fasoism, Ihese critical times have emphasiied 
the need for education as one of the foundation stones 
for building a peaceful world of democratic nations" • 
C Jefferson School) 

ai line with the decisions of our National Convention to reach largpr 
masses of people with the significance of Teheran dnd the general 
polloies of our Association, the S^jate Qsnmittee has arranged a 
seriBB of 'Wday morning broadcasts over Station W P A T (930 on 
your dial) at 10»30 A.M. 

The following is a list of the topics for the first five weeks i — 

Sunday, Sept 24 - UNOED STATES FOREIGN POLICY 

Speaker - William Nonnan, State President C P A 

Sunday, flat 1 - RECWIVERSION - STEPS TO SECURITY AND EMH.0YMENT 

Sunday, Oct 8 - LABOR mD EMPLOYER RELATIONS NOW ^D IN THE POST WAR 

Sunday, Oct 16- THE NEGRO PEOPLE AND NATIONAL UNITY 

Sunday, Oct 22 - THE POLISH PEOPLE AND UNITED STATES UNDY 

These broadcasts should be heerdnot only by every member of our iiesooiation 
but by the friends, relatives and shop mates of each member. 

Each club should arrange Sunday morning breakfasts at the home of members 
to which friends should be invited, Organiie discussions around the topic 
cf the broadcasts and make appeals Ibr membership into the Association. 
Don't leave the orgonitation of these listening parties to chance; con- 
centrate for the first broadcasts on people with mass contacts. Put 
special attention into this and we shall easily realise a large increase 
in recruiting. 



New Jersey Labor School - With the beginning of the 1*11 term only two 
weeks away, registration on the part off our members in the 
School has only reached a total of 15 students as of today. 
ThlB JB a sad eonnentary on the importance we place in the whole question 
of education d our membership, W6 have an unusual opportunity here in 
Newark la having a school at our disposal equal in calibre to schools 
eetabllBhed only in the largest oitJea Of the country. To neglect to teks 
advantage of this opportunity would be ahamsful. We suggest that you 



65388— 55— pt. 2- 



1266 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Page No 2 
Immediately I — 

1 - Draw up a list of at least 30 members cf jiour club whosi you feel 

should attend one of the classes offered at the eehool, 

2 - Make sure that eaoh one of these nemes ifl assigned to one msBiber 

of your olvb exacutiy e and that they get in touch with the member* 
urging their attendejioe. Make out the registration card for the 
desired class linnediately and get it down to the eohool* 

3 - Send to the ''ovmty office by Friday, the liet of people whom you 

want to see take the olasees and the number of registrations by 
then, 

4 - Die cuss with your trade unionists ard members of mass organizations 

hi?w they can bring others from their shops and organieations to 
the classes* 

5 - Pay some attention to the kinds of classes that our members are taking 

giving them advice as to those that they will derive most benefit fron. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1267 

Pago No, 3 

FUND DRIVE - ^he State Conmittee ha» agreed to extend the time of the 
^'und Drive until October Sleto Actually, for almost all 
the olube and for the individual members, it meqne starting 
the drive all over apaix)., siroe with but a few exoeptione 
there has been absolutely no activity on the fund drive. The State has put 
out a new, beautif\il collection book^ T'hich Eho-ld be picked up by the 
clubs before •'■veBdayc "e sugge'st that you read tho important message 
contained in this leaflet "A CRUCHL- TASK" at jtiur next nesting and make 
plans to re-organize your drire in the club- Concentrate narticularly 
on getting our members to raise money from their friend 3, So far in the 
drive, we have done an excellent job of oolleoting money from our own 
members, but our greatest weakness has been that i has remained an inner- 
club drive, A few suggestions on the drive 

1 - <iet this new collection book into the hands of every member 

2 - Discuss with him ways and means of raising moneys either through direct 

contributions from friends or through arranging small house gatherings. 
If the memlDer can't arrange for a hoi«e gathering by himself, get two 
or three together to run one, 

3 - If no big event has yet been arranged by the club aea whole, organise 

one immediately, 

4 - ^iaouss the drive at your next club meeting (this week) , bringing out 

some of the things for which money raised in our campaign s used* for 
education, such as the radio broadcasts, for literature distribution^ 
for printing of special leaflets, for distribution of Xhe VVorksr 
occasionally in front of shop gates on special occasions. Don't 
take for granted that our members know what this money is for,. 

We list below the figures on money raised so far in the drive (as of last week) 

CLUE GOAL MONEY RAEEI) 



Third "ard 


1800,00 


1291,50 


Clinton Hill 


2200,00 


1300,00 


John Brown 


1800.00 


899.85 


Ironbound 


1000,00 


655000 


West Side 


1000,00 


617,10 


Orange 


800,00 


249,10 


Seventh Ward 


100.00 




Ralph Fox 


350,00 


135,40 


County 


2550,00 


612,75 




11,600,00 









Divide the balance that you must still raise in order to fulfill your quota 
by three and make sure that you meet the fcllowing tiae schedule si 
October 2nd, October 16th and October 3l8t, 

Mr, Tavenner, I refer to page 3 of this document where the ques- 
tion of fund drive is discussed. The document then lists certain 
groups of the Communist Party and shows what the goal of each 
group was, the amount to be raised, and the amount that had been 
raised at the date^of the report. The total goal of 9 clubs was $11,600, 
of which $5,761.70 had been raised as of the time of this report. 

It is interesting to look at these club names and the goals because 
it gives some indication of the relative strength of those groups. I 
would like to read those clubs. These are not industrial clubs as it 
will appear here. 

Third ward, goal, $1,800; money raised, $1,291.50. Clinton Hill, 
goal, $2,200 ; money raised $1,300. John Brown, goal, $1,800 ; money 
raised, $899.85. Iron Bound, goal, $1,000 ; money raised, $655. West 



1268 COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA j 

Side, goal, $1,000 ; money raised, $617.10. Orange, $800 goal ; money 
raised, $249.10. 

Seventh ward, $100 goal, no money raised. Kalph Fox, which has 
been ascertained by investigation of the staff to be the teachers group 
of the Communist Party, $350, as a goal and amount raised, $136.40 
County, $2,550 for the goal and amount raised, $612.75. 

The Chairman. I think Mr. Tavenner, it is appropriate at this 
point to state that the West Side Club referred to above is not tlie 
West Side Democratic Club. I would like to make a part of the record 
of the committee files a letter from the president of the West Side 
Democratic Club. He is a very fine citizen. 

(Letter filed in committee records.) 

Mr. Ta\^nner. I might say, Mr. Chairman, we have been met with 
this problem at many different places, particularly in industry where a 
Communist Party club was given the name of the factory in which the 
club was organized, and it has caused considerable confusion in the 
past because people didn't understand it. 

I tried to explain yesterday that this was a geographical designation 
of Communist Party clubs. I desire at this time to offer 2 other sheets 
which were obtained with these, and ask that they be marked "Com- 
mittee (Fisher) Exhibits 4 and 5," respectively, for identification 
purposes only and to be made a part of the committee files. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Fisher, what is your present employment? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fisher. I decline to answer that on the same grounds, same rea- 
sons which I have explained before, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a functionary of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Fisher. That is another way of asking the same question. 
Same answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you serve in the military forces of the United 
States? 

Mr. Fisher. I did not, sir. I was physically unable to. 

Mr. Doyle. Were you so classified ? 

Mr. Fisher. Yes, sir. Are you trying to discredit me, sir ? 

The Chairman. No. 

Mr. Fisher. Yes, sir ; I was classified 4-F. 

Mr. Sacher. I have a one-page statement I would like to leave with 
the committee. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Sacher. I am willing to submit to cross-examination on it be- 
cause I intend to give it to the press so that if you wish to cross-examine 
me I am ready to submit myself to cross-examination, which you dont 
extend to those whom you — that is a fact, you don't permit us to 
cross-examine other people so I am offering, however, to submit myself 
to your cross-examination. 

The Chairman. We know you too well, Mr. Sacher. We wouldn't 
dignify you by asking you a question. 

Mr. Sacher. You won't ? You had better read that first. 

Mr. Fisher. Is that the usual procedure of this committee? 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1269 

The Chairman, Any further questions, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr, Tavenner, No, sir. 

The Chairman, The witness is excused and the committee will stand 
in recess for 10 minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

The Chairman, The committee will be in order. 

At the outset I think Mr. Doyle should read a telegram that he just 
received, 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

YONKERS, N. Y. 
Congressman Clyde Doyle, 

Neica7% N. J. : 
Rank and file members of UE, local 419, employees of the Eastern Metal 
Products Corp., in Tuckalioe, N. Y., commend you and your associates of the 
House Un-American Activities Committee. We unfortunately are members under 
the jurisdiction of district 4, UE, and feel it is a disgrace to the American labor 
movement to have a Communist-dominated leadership. Communism in any 
organization is a sore that can eventually eat away American ideals. In reading 
the newspapers we sympathize with the task before you for we, too, the member- 
ship, have been under pressure of name-calling when we took a position against 
Communist and communism. Good luck and Godspeed in your task. 

Rank and File Members, UE, Local 419. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, during the recess a statement was 
handed to me, signed by, I estimate, somewhere between a hundred and 
two hundred persons. Local 428, on May 3, passed a resolution 
condemning the activities of this committee. This statement signed 
by the number of persons I have indicated is of similar import to the 
telegram just read by Congressman Doyle. This statement reads as 
follows : 

Congress of the United States, House of Representatives, Un-American Activities 
Committee. 
Gentlemen : We the undersigned production employees of the Sonotone Corp. at 
Elmsport and White Plains plants do hereby protest and signify that we are not 
in agreement with the motion made by United Radio Electrical and Machine 
Workers of America. Local 428 at a recent meeting May 3, 1955, condemning the 
good efforts of your committee, especially the investigation of some of our officers. 
This motion was to be in the form of a report to you and was passed by less than 
30 members attending this meeting out of a total of approximately SOO members. 
Due to present conditions beyond our control we voice our protest in this petition. 

The Chairman. It will be made part of the record. I believe Mr. 
Trueba wants to make a statement. Is he here ? 

Mr. Trueba. I am. I am making tliis statement on behalf of all the 
members of local 461, lUE, CIO, at the Singer Manufacturing Co., in 
order to clarify unfair reflections on our union which Walter Pole- 
shuck's testimony and statement may have cast yesterday. 

One. The executive board of our local denied him representation by the union 
attorney after he said he would plead the fifth amendment, even though our 
national lUE-CIO office told him to testify fully. 

Two. The executive board of our local directed Walter Polieshuck to answer 
all questions of the House Un-American Activities Committee. 

Three. Walter Poleshuck in concluding his testimony asked to insert in the 
record the statement tO' the effect 'T would like to state that I think I have 
done uiy duty to my country by refusing to cooperate with this committee." 

As president of local 461, lUE-CIO, and on behalf of the membership who are 
loyal Americans, I wish to .say that his statement does not reflect in any way 
the attitude and convictions of our members. 

Four. I know I speak for the workers of the Singer Manufacturing Co. when 
I say that while we may differ with some of the procedures of the committee, we 



1270 COMMXTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

clearly support the aims of this committee and any other oflBcial committee of 
the Congress of the United States in trying to bring out the menace and aims 
of the Communist Party toward the United States and its loyal citizens. As 
loyal Americans we will obey the laws and Congress of the United States. We 
will fight to defend our country against communism and we as a union will take 
appropriate action against any of our members who may try to do otherwise. 

I thank the committee for the opportunity of inserting this in the record and 
to say that the oflBcers and members of local 461, district, national lUE-CIO 
wholeheartedly support the aims of this congressional committee. 

Samuel Trueba, 
President, Local 461, lUE-ClO. 

The Chairman. This does not surprise me, Mr. Trueba. Your 
splendid organization has contributed much in the efforts that labor 
is making to put its own house in order and I wish you a lot of luck 
in continuing with this work. 

Mr. Trueba. We will continue to do so. 

The Chairman. You may proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. EolDert Lowenstein, will you come forward, 
please. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please. Do you 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Lowenstein. I do, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Be seated, please. 

TESTIMONY OF EOBERT LOWENSTEIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
JOHN 0. BIGELOW 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please. 

Mr. Lowenstein. Robert Lowenstein. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Lowenstein. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. BiGELOW. John O. Bigelow, 744 Broad Street, Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien and where were your born, Mr. Lowenstein? 

Mr. Lowenstein. Born in Newark, N. J., July 13, 1907. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in Newark? 

Mr. Lowenstein. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee,, please, in what pro- 
fession you are engaged? 

Mr. Lowenstein. I am a teacher, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee briefly what your 
educational training has been for your profession ? 

Mr. Lo^vENSTEiN. Yes, sir. Subsequent to graduation from the 
Newark public schools, after an interval of a year after graduation 
from high school, I attended Rutgers College as it was then known i 
from 1924 to 1928. The following year I attended the University of 
Pennsylvania, and with an interval of again 1 year, I then attended 
Johns Hopkins TJniversity, resident there from 1930 to 1933, and 
received my final degree from it in 1934, and since then I have taken 
varied educational courses that I thought would contribute to my 
improvement as a teacher, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was your degree in education? 

Mr. Lowenstein. No, sir ; it was in Romance languages. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us the year in which you received j 
your degree from Johns Hopkins ? 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1271 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. Yes, sir; it was 1934 and the degree was Ph. D. 
Mr. Tavenner. Have you engaged in the teaching profession since 
the completion of your studies ? 

Mr. LowENSTEiisr. Yes, sir; but for the interval that I was in the 
Army. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat period were you in the Army ? 
Mr. LowENSTEiN. From November 1942 to November 1945. 
Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
employment in the teaching profession has been ? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I have been a foreign language teacher, sir. 
Mr. Tavenner. I meant where and what dates. 
Mr. LowENSTEiN. I see. When I was a graduate student at Johns 
Hopkins I did some undergraduate teaching there. Subsequent to 
leaving Baltimore and receiving my first regular teaching job in 
the Central High School of Trenton, JST. J., I taught foreign languages 
for 2 years. 

Subsequent to that I came to Newark and have been teaching in 
the Newark public schools, foreign languages, since 1935. 

Mr. Tavenner. In your early teaching experience, didn't you teach 
abroad ? 
Mr. Lowenstein. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You didn't tell us that. If you did, I didn't catch it. 
Mr. Lowenstein. It wasn't employment, really, sir. It was an 
exchange arrangement. I was an English assistant at a boys' normal 
school in southern France. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is part of your record of employment in teach- 
ing. How long were you teaching in France ? 
Mr. Lowenstein. One year, sir. 

Mr, Ta^tgnner. During the period in which you have been a teacher 
in Newark, have you been identified with the American Federation 
of Teachers organization ? 
Mr. Lowenstein. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you first become affiliated with the 
organization ? 

Mr. Lowenstein. I don't remember, sir. I could give it approxi- 
mately. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, approximation is sufficient. 
Mr. Lowenstein. 1937, approximately. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has that membership continued until the present 
time? 

Mr. Lowenstein. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held any official position in the organi- 
zation ? 

Mr. Lowenstein. Locally ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Both locally and statewide and nationwide if the 
facts justify it. 
Mr. Lowenstein. Yes, sir; I have. 
Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat were they, please? 

Mr. Lowenstein. Executive board member of the local, and for a 
brief period, I believe I was president of the local, a very short time. 
Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us when you were on the executive 
board, the year approximately ? 

Mr. Lowenstein. I dare say 1939 and on uj), I think after the war 
I became a vice president, one of the vice presidents of the local, and 



1272 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

about 2 years ago we instituted the position of executive vice president 
because the task of the president was so onerous and enormous in an 
organization that operates with vohnitary help ahnost exchisively. 

1 served in that capacity of the executive vice president for the past 

2 years. 

On the State level, sir, I have been on the editorial board of the 
official organ of the State Federation of Teachers known as the New 
Jersey Teacher, I am currently the editor of our resumed State pub- 
lication, the New Jersey Teacher. 

I have served my local as a delegate to perhaps too many national 
conventions of our national organization for me to recall exactly how 
many. 

Mr. Tavenner. Too many? What do you mean by that? Do you 
regret your having attended the meetings? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I never regret having attended meetings sir, but 
very often I regret what I might otherwise have done with the time 
I put in on them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there anything that occurred at those meetings- 
which occasions you to say that you regretted that you attended too> 
many. 

Mr. Lowenstein. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend the conventions held in Detroit in 
1940 or 1941 ? 

Mr. Lowenstein. I am fairly sure that I did, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was the time I believe at which there was a 
great disturbance within the parent organization, the national organi- 
zation of the American Federation of Teachers because of Communist 
infiltration into the locals in Philadelphia and the city of New York,, 
and those delegations were not seated at that convention, isn't that 
true? 

Mr. Lowenstein. I tliink that is correct, sir. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Did your statement that you attended too many 
conventions have anything to do with that dispute or that fight within 
the American Federation of Teachers ? 

Mr. Lowenstein. No. To be perfectly candid, sir, what prompted 
the interjection of that phrase "perhaps too many" is a feeling that I 
just wish I gave myself more time for some of the other things that 
I would like to do. 

Mr. Tavenner. You gave a great deal of time to the American Fed- 
eration of Teachers, didn't you ? 

Mr. Lowenstein. I am quite devoted to it, sir. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Mr. Chairman, the committee has received evidence 
from time to time about the interest of the Communist Party in the 
American Federation of Teachers. There are two witnesses I have 
in mind who gave a great deal of testimony on that subject. It would 
be vei-y expensive and I think unnecessary to reproduce that testimony 
here, but I believe in questioning this witness and to have a thorough 
understanding and background in what we are talking about and 
what we desire to learn, it would be well for me to review briefly the 
testimony of those two witnesses. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. It will take a little time and I apologize for that. 

I want to refer first to the testimony of Dr. Eobert Gorham Davis, 
before this committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1273 

Are you acquainted with that testimony 'I Have you read it '^ 

Mr. LowEXSTEiN. I don't believe I liave. 

The Chairman. Do you know Dr. Davis ? 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. BIGEL0W^ Coukl you identify him a little more? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. Dr. Davis was a professor at Harvard 
University. He taught at otlier places, too, and I possibly should re- 
fresh my recollection about the places at which he taught. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. He taught at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute from 
1930 to 1933, was assistant at Harvard from 1933 to 1934. He was P.n 
instructor at Harvard from 1934 to 1940, and a faculty instruct^- at 
Harvard from 1940 to 1943. Then he went to Smith as a visiting 
lecturer and was made an associate professor there in 1945 and a full 
professor in 1952. Does that identify him to you ? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I would have to answer that this way, sir : There 
are so many people whom I have encountered whom I may have known, 
whom I may know and may not have a clear recollection of that I feel 
it would be wisest and safest for me to refuse to answer the question, 
sir. 

The Chairman. Instead of refusing to answer the question, if you 
are not certain why don't you just say, "I don't believe I know him," or, 
"I don't know," or "I don't remember," but why do you say that it 
would be safer to plead the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. I^wENSTEiN. Because I don't want to engage in that area of 
discussion, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me set you at ease. Dr. Davis made no mention 
of you in his testimony. 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. That possibility did not occur to me, sir. I sim- 
ply expressed my view about answering as to my knowledge of this 
individual. 

The Chairman. Wliy don't you say, "I don't remember"? Why 
do you say "I refuse to answer on the grounds that it might incrimi- 



nate me" ? 
(The wi 
Mr. LowENS-rEiN. Sir, I will stand on the answer I have already 



(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

th 



given. 

The Chairman. I might say for your information that Professor 
Davis too felt he had spent too much time in this organization, only 
he did something about it. 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I will ask you if you will be good enough to 
remember I did not say I spent too much time in this organization. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Dr. Davis testified that while at Harvard Uni- 
versity he became a member of the Communist Party and remained a 
member for several years, that after getting into the party and under- 
standing fully its objectives, he got out of the Communist Party. 

He testified freely before this committee explaining tliose facts, 
his reasons for getting out of the Communist Party, and he gave the 
<iommittee information regarding what he considered to be the objec- 
tives of the Communist Party at Harvard University in the group 
that he belonged to, and as a basis for our understanding of the ques- 
tions, I want to tell you the substance of his testimony. 



1274 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

There was read to Dr. Davis a quotation from Lenin which is as 
follows : 

Today the chief task of those members of the teaching profession who have 
taken their stand with the International and the Soviet Government is to work 
for the creation of a wider and as nearly as possible an all-embracing teachers' 
union. 

Then continuing to quote from Lenin : 

Your union should now become a broad teachers' trade union embracing vast 
numbers of teachers, a union which will resolutely take up its stand on the 
Soviet platform and the struggle for socialism by means of a dictatorship of 
the proletariat. 



I asked Dr. Davis a question : 

Are you aware of those purposes and of that thinking of the Communist 
Party? 

To which Dr. Davis replied that he was. 
Then I asked him this question : 

What activity did your group engage in which might be said to have carried 
out the policy as expressed by Lenin of assisting in the organization of teachers 
trade union movement which would be adaptable to the purposes of the Soviet 
Union? 

To which Dr. Davis replied : 

We worked very hard to build up the teachers union in Harvard and to 
build up teachers unions generally, and we did this with a comparatively clear 
conscience because our objectives, our immediate objectives were to improve 
teaching conditions, raise salaries, and so on, but also obviously we wished 
teachers to take the same position that we took on public questions. We usually 
discussed before a meeting what policies we would urge at the meeting and 
whenever there were elections we would decide — 

"we" meaning those of his Communist group — 

in advance what candidates we would propose to support. 

Dr. Davis advised the committee that that was the chief objective 
of the Communist Party group of which he was a member, namely, 
to get control of the teachers union for Communist Party purposes. 

Dr. Davis further testified that in his judgment a person who was 
a dedicated member of the Communist Party and subject to its direc- 
tives was not a free agent. 

I questioned Dr. I)avis about the book, Toward Soviet America, 
written by William Z. Foster, printed in 1932 relating to the subject 
of education. 

This is what William Foster wrote : 

Among the elementary measures the American-Soviet Government will adopt 
to further the cultural revolution are the following: schools, colleges, and uni- 
versities will be coordinated and grouped under the national department of edu- 
cation and its State and local branches, the studies will be revolutionizod, being 
cleaned of religious, patriotic, and other features of the bourgeois ideology, stu- 
dents will be taught on the basis of Marxian dialectic materialism, international- 
ism, and the general ethics of the new socialist society. Present obsolete meth- 
ods of teaching will be superseded by a scientific pedagogy, religious schools 
will be abolished. 

I asked the doctor : 

Do you recall having read or having that passage brought to your attention 
while you were a member of the Communist Party? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1275 

Dr. Davis said : 

No. This is the pattern, however, that has been followed in Communist coun- 
tries as one could assume now and assume then it would be followed if the 
Communist government came into power in the United States, but the Com- 
munist line shifted somewhat in the latter 1930's. That was the period when 
Browder's slogan, "Communism is 20th century Americanism," was being used 
and again the Communists were reluctant to offend those they might bring into 
the broad united front and they used a somewhat subtler approach. 

Are you acquainted with William Z. Foster's book, Toward Soviet 
America ? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I decline to answer that question, sir. I think 
it seeks to make me a witness against myself, contrary to the fifth 
amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Doyle. You mean because you read a book ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I think my answer is adequate, sir; I trust. 

The Chairman. You feel if you admit you had seen this book, read 
it and studied it, you might be subjected to a criminal prosecution? 
This is the United States, you know. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I will stand on my answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I called to Dr. Davis' attention another book of 
mpre recent vintage entitled "The Schools and the People's Front," by 
Richard Frank. Richard Frank was a member of the education com- 
mission of the Young Communist League. This book was published 
in May 1937 on the subject of this particular point. This is what he 
had to say : 

The task of the Communist Party must be first and foremost to arouse the 
teachers to class consciousness and to organize them into the American Federa- 
tion of Teachers, which is the main current of the American labor movement. 
In the effort to organize the teachers every care must be taken to bring together 
in united front actions all existing teacher organizations, and special attention 
must be paid to secure such action within the American Association of Uni- 
versity Professors, the National Education Association, and the guild. 

Our party members in these organizations must work actively toward this 
end. 

My question was : 

Did your experience in the Communist Party at that time indicate to you that 
the Communist Party members in those organizations were working to that 
extent? 

Dr. Davis replied : 

Certainly. 

Then he further stated : 

AAUP, as you remember, was not active at Harvard. The energies there were 
thrown entirely in the teachers union but what you just read was consistent with 
my experience of what occurred in the teachers union. 

I believe that is all that I shall call to the committee's attention and 
to your attention with regard to the testimony of that witness, except 
to make it plain for the benefit of the record here that Dr. Davis with- 
drew entirely from the Communist Party and he has done everything 
he can since that time to oppose it. 

We had at our hearings in Columbus, Ohio, in 1953, Dr. Bella V. 
Dodd, of New York City. 

The Chairman. Isn't Dr. Dodd a lawyer ? 



1276 COMMUNIST ACTrV'ITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavexner. Dr. Dodd is a lawyer at this time; yes, sir, since she 
severed her ties with the Communist Party. 

Mr. ScHERER. At one time she was a teacher ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

The CiiAiRMAX. She testified at Columbus, did she not ? 

Mr. Taa^nner. Columbus and also at Philadelphia. 

Dr. Bella V. Dodd was an organizer for the American Federation of 
Teachers and became its legislative representative in the State of New 
York between the period of 1938 and 1943. In her testimony before 
this committee she said as early as 1932 she had been active in a posi- 
tive way with the Communists and the Communist Party, although she 
was not at that time a member of the Communist Party. 

She testified before this committee that she did not become a member 
of the Communist Party until 1943. After that time she became one 
-of the most influential open members of the Communist Party in this 
country until she left the Communist Party entirely and broke with it 
in 1948. 

The Chairman. Do you know Dr. Dodd ? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I don't care, sir, to discuss any of my personal 
relations, possible or impossible. 

The Chairman. You may not care to but I am asking you the ques- 
tion : Do you know Dr. Dodd ? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I decline to answer that question, sir, respectfully. 

The Chairman. On Avhat groimds ? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I don't want to be a witness against myself, sir. 

The Chairman. How could you possibly be a witness against your- 
self bv answering that simple little question of whether or not you 
know Dr. Bella Dodd? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. Really, sir, my answer is adequate, is it not ? 

The Chairman. Do you decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that the answer might incriminate you ? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I beg your pardon, sir, as I stated it, sir, I do not 
wish to be a witness against myself. 

The Chairman. Is that not just exactly what you mean, that to an- 
swer the question might subject you to a criminal prosecution ? Is that 
not what you mean ? 

Mr. Lowenstein. Mr. Walter, without any desire to appear the least 
bit arrogant, I am usually capable of expressing precisely wliat I in- 
tend and I think I have done it adequately. 

The Chairman. You mav be riglit in that ; yes, Now do you know 
Dr. Bella Dodd? 

Mr. Lowenstein. I believe I have answered that question, sir. 

The Chairman, Let's hear your answer. Do you know her ? 

Mr. Lowenstein. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dr. Dodd held many important positions in the 
Communist Party, a member of the State committee of the Communist 
Party in New York from 1944 to 1948. 

A member of the National Committee of the Communist Party for 
the same period, and she was State secretariat for the State of New 
York. 

She was a member at one time or another of many of the most im- 
portant commissions of the Communist Party, including women's com- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1277 

mission, labor commission, youtli commission and tlie legislative com- 
mission. 

In the course of her testimony she said that the Communist Party 
was very keen about organizing teachers, professors, educators, in- 
tellectuals, because these are the molders of public opinion, and these 
are the people who make the shift in public opinion for the country. 

Teachers groups, she testified and, for instance, other groups like 
doctors, law}^ers, scientists, what you will, had their own separate 
organization and teachers particularly, since they were large in num- 
ber, had to worry about the question of security and losing their jobs, 
and they would be organized by themselves in certain periods of the 
party history. [Eeacling :] 

During tbe periods of extreme united front movement— teachers were to join 
in street branches under different names and to merge themselves with house- 
wives and others, but most of the time that I knew the party the teachers had 
their own special organization with just teachers. They never went to party 
headquarters, never went anywhere near where the party might be identified 
by meetings, were organized and held in out-of-the-way places in private 
homes. 

The rest of her testimony is extremely interesting and might be of 
value, but it takes considerable time ancl I know the time of the com- 
mittee is limited. She made it plain in her testimony that not all 
groups of the teachers union by any means were Communist. She 
talked about the eli'ort and the purpose of the Connnunist Party in 
endeavoring to get control in the teachers union and I am sure the posi- 
tion the committee has taken on ninnerous occasions is not one of re- 
flection on the national organization of the teachers union. Many or- 
ganizations have been the object of Communist Party attack. That 
doesn't necessarily mean that they have had substantial success. 

Mr. ScHERER. Don't you think you should say that the National 
Federation of Teachers acted timely and expelled certain locals that 
were Communist dominated in the 1941 convention ? 

_Mr. Tavenner. That is exactly what I propose to refer to. They 
did actually expel from the national union the entire locals of the 
city of Philadel])hia, city of New York, and some other areas and 
cleansed itself of the certain amount of success that the Communist 
Party had achieved. 

The committee in various parts of the country has inquired into this 
matter. In Harvard, as shown by the testimony of Dr. Davis, in Los 
Angeles as shown by the testimony of several of the teaching profes- 
sion there who told us of the efforts of the Communist Party and tho 
great fight the Communist Party made to get control of the teachers 
union, also in Philadelphia. 

The connnittee has heard nothing about that subject in the State of 
New Jei'sey. 

Now, from your testimony you were a very active person in the 
American Federation of Teachers, holding various positions and 
attending numerous conventions. You are in a position to know to 
what extent the Communist Party made an effort to get control of the 
organization in the State of New Jersey, their success or failure, and 
the methods used by the Communist Party in attempting to achieve 
those purposes. 

That is introductory to the questions I want to ask you. I think 
you can see the purpose of it. 



1278 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Were you aware of the existence in the city of Newark of an organ- 
ization of the Communist Party limited chiefly to members of the 
teaching profession ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. Mr. Counsel, you gave a long introduction to that 
question, a long background, and I would like to give a brief introduc- 
tion to my reply. 

Basically that it seems to me in my observation and experience of 
our country in the past 10 years that the investigations of the type that 
goes into the beliefs, the ideas, the associations of the people 

The Chairman. Just a minute, we are not asking you about your 
beliefs. We are asking you whether or not you were aware of the 
existence of a Communist cell of people, is that right ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir; and this is the second time during this 
hearing that reference has been made to inquiries into what a man's 
opinion or thoughts are. I have asked no question, I am asking no 
question now about your personal beliefs. 

I am not interested in your personal beliefs. I am interested only 
in what you know about activities and of any activities, any things 
that you did; what you believed and why you did tliem I am not 
interested in. 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I was going to conclude that I decline to answer 
that question for the reasons previously given, sir. 

The Chairman. You have declined to answer the question whether 
or not you were aware of the existence of such a cell. Were you your- 
self a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I decline to answer that question, sir, for tlie 
same reasons. 

The Chairman. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lowenstein. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. DoYLE. On what grounds ? 

Mr. Lowenstein. I will not be a witness against myself, sir. I 
think this is the area of opinion, too, opinion and association, sir. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Mr. Chairman, when the staff realized that it was 
going to get into this investigation here, it prepared to ask Mrs. Bella 
Dodd questions relating to activities in this immediate area to see 
to what extent they did follow activities in New York and Phila- 
delphia. 

The Chairman. Without going into what she might have said, I 
should think that the information you received from her would enable 
you to ask some relevant questions. Just proceed with the questioning 
without going into what Mrs. Dodd testified to. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I approach the chairman a moment? 
(Discussion of committee members and staff off the record.) 

Mr. Tavenner. You have refused to answer questions as to whether 
or not you were acquainted with Bella Dodd. Let me ask you whether 
or not you have ever attended fraction meetings of the Communist 
Party in the city of New York. 

Mr. Lowenstein. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Taat<:nner. Mr. Chairman, may I be permitted to read at this 
time testimony which the conunittee has obtained from Dr. Dodd 
regarding fraction meetings in the State of New York and their 
purposes, and give the witness the opportunity to explain anything 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1279 

that she has to say regarding him, either by way of denial or explana- 
tion ? 

The Chairman. Yes; go ahead. 

Mr. Ta\'enxer. I think it sets up the whole picture of activities in 
this area. May I say that we were unable to get Dr. Dodd at an earlier 
time and last night this executive testimony was taken: 

May IS, 1955, House Committee Un-American Activities, Suite 712, Robert 
Treat Hotel, Newark, N. J. 

]\Ir. Doyle. Let the subcommittee come to order and the record show that 
Representative Scberer of Ohio and Representative Doyle of California are 
present and our counsel, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I would like to call as a witness at this time 
Dr. Bella V. Dodd. 

Mr. Doyle. Doctor, may I ask you to be sworn again. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Dr. Dodd. I do. 

Testimony of Bella V. Dodd. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Will you state your name, please. 

Dr. Dodd. Bella V. Dodd. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you live? 

Dr. Dodd. 150 East 27th Street, New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dr. Dodd, you have appeared l)efore this committee as a 
witness at Columbus, Ohio, and also at Philadelphia, Pa. You have given this 
committee many useful facts regarding the objectives of the Communist Party 
in the field in which you were extremely interested, that of education. That 
testimony has been printed and filed with the committee reports in the Congress. 
In the course of that testimony you stated frankly your own experiences in the 
Communist Party and especially the facts and circumstances which led to your 
breaking with the Communist Party and the fight you have made subsequently 
against the evils of communism. It is not my purpose now to ask you to repeat 
any of that testimony. 

The committee's purpose in calling you at this time is to ask you whether or 
not you knew as a member of the Communist Party an individual by the name 
of Robert Lowenstein. 

Dr. Dodd. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee where he was from. 

Dr. Dodd. I knew a Robert Lowenstein, a teacher, from Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circumstances under 
which you knew him. 

Dr. Dodd. Robert Lowenstein was an official leader of the Teachers Union of 
Newark, N. J., and I met him on numerous occasions both in my capacity as a 
leader of the Communist group within the Teachers Union and as a leader of the 
union itself. It was my function to call together various Communist Party 
members of the Teachers Union in the eastern region of the United States, gen- 
erally in preparation for conventions of the American Federation of Teachers, 
or in preparation for executive council meetings of the American Federation of 
Teacher."?. 

The purpose of calling together the Communist members of these Teachers 
Union locals was to get together on a clarification of the Communist Party ob- 
jectives, to be followed within the convention meetings and the preparation of 
appropriate resolutions to be pushed either at convention meetings or the mid- 
year executive council meetings. These meetings of the leadership group of the 
Communist fraction of the American Federation of Teachers, which were held 
generally in New York City, often included representatives of locals from Trenton, 
Newark, the New York locals, Massachusetts locals, sometimes Cleveland and 
soniPtiniPs Chicago representatives. 

Generally they were held in the spring of the year. May or June, in preparation 
for the convention of the American Federation of Teachers, which were held 
in the summer. At those meetings there generally was representative of the 
labor division of the Communist Party, sometimes Roy Hudson, Rose Wortis, 
.sometimes .Tack Stachel, and they would set down the Communist Party's ob- 
jectives for the teachers. The teachers then discussed how to utilize the different 
divisions, for we recognized that some could go further in pushing Communist 



1280 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Party policies because they had their own locals more securely in hand ; whereas, 
certain of the other locals such as Newark and Trenton locals, caution would 
be advised and they would not be expected to push the more drastic resolutions. 

Mr. ScHEEER. When you say "resolutions," do you mean resolutions adopted 
or suggested by the Communist group? 

Dr. DoDD. Yes ; that would be resolutions which the Communist Party pro- 
posed to have the Teachers Union member introduce into American Federation 
of Teachers conventions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were the.<5e meetings usually held in New York City? 

Dr. DoDD. They were held usually in people's homes. For instance, we held 
meetings in Celia Lewis' home or Rose Russell's home and my own home. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did I understand you to state that Mr. Robert Lowenstein met 
with these Communist fraction meetings on occasions? 

Dr. DoDD. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Scherer. Of course, only members of the Communist Party were admitted 
to such meetings? 

Dr. DoDD. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Robert Lowenstein participate in different discussions 
at those meetings of the Communist fraction or groups in the Teachers Union? 

Dr. DoDD. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it his duty as a member of the Communist fraction group 
to bring back to his local group of the Communist Party in Newark the decisions, 
which had been reached beyond the fraction level? 

Dr. DoDD. It certainly was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he on any occasion report back to a Communist Party 
fraction meeting the progi-ess that had been or was being made? 

Mr. DODD. Well, I assume that he reported it back because the decisions, 
made were carried out by the delegates from this local and the other Jersey 
locals generally at the conventions of the American Federation of Teachers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dr. Dodd, in your testimony at Philadelphia you described 
graphically the fight which was conducted when an effort was being made by 
the parent organization of the American Federation of Teachers to oust from 
its membership those locals in which the Communist Party had been successful 
in taking over. 

Do you recall what the situation was in the State of New Jersey at the time 
that terrific fight occurred within the parent organization of the American 
Federation of Teachers? 

Dr. DoDD. Well, the New .Jersey locals liad been cautioned not to take the 
extreme position on those issues which caused the break, and the Communist 
Party was very happy to have the New Jersey locals remain within the Ameri- 
can Federation of Teachers because those locals were known to be sympa- 
thetic and worked closely with the ousted locals particularly those of New 
York and Philadelphia. I might add that the Communist Party leadership in 
the American Federation of Teachers of New Jersey, by following this policy, 
was able to establish its leadership over the entire State teachers association, 
and I knew that the Communist Party leadership was the sparkplug for inte- 
grating the American Federation of Teachers in New Jersey with the State 
teachers association in New Jersey. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee whether or not Mr. Robert Lowen- 
stein played any part in the accomplishment of that objective? 

Dr. Dodd. Mr. Robert Lowenstein was regarded as the most important mem- 
ber of the Communist group in this activity, although the technical leadership 
was given to the Communist Party member who became the State chairman of 
the American Federation of Teachers. 1 think also she became chairman of 
the State federation of teachers, and I think she also became chairman of 
the S.itv te:u-hc:s a.^sociation, although I am not sure of that. That was Miss 
Addie Weber. She was the official person, although Mr. Robert Lowenstein 
was the effective instrument, the person who did the organizing. 

Mr. Scherer. Was Addie Weber a member of the Comraxinist Party? 

Dr. Dodd. Yes: she was. 

Mr. Tavenner. What part of New Jersey was she from? 

Dr. Dodd. Trenton, I think. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee whether or not Mr. Robert Lowen- 
stein was in frequent attendance at the fraction meetings of the Communist 
Party in New York which you have just described? 

r>r. Dodd. Mr. Lowenstein was the individual who came to any meeting held 
by the top committee of the Communists in the American Federation of Teachers, 
Avhen held in New York. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1281 

Mr. Tavenner. After the Philadelphia and New York locals of the American 
Federation of Teachers were ousted by the parent organization, did the lead- 
ing Communists in New York locals continue to give assistance and guidance 
to the New Jersey locals which were able to remain a part of the American 
Federation of Teachers? 

Dr. DoDD. Yes ; we did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall when the upheaval took place in the f<irm of 
the ouster of the Philadelphia and New York locals from the American Fed- 
eration of Teachers? 

Dr. DoDD. Well, I think, I am not certain whether it is 1940 or 1941, I do not 
know that all the locals, the New York and New Jersey locals, went to the con- 
vention in 194<1 and 1941. 

I am not certain whether the New York locals were seated at the 1941 con- 
vention. There was a convention of the American Federation of Teachers held 
in Detroit at that time in which the New York and Philadelphia locals were 
not seated and the New Jersey locals were seated and at which time the Com- 
munist leadership in the ousted locals and the Communists in those locals 
which remained in the American Federation of Teachers met behind closed 
doors to decide on jwlicy. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the convention city? 

Dr. DoDD. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the convention? 

Dr. DoDD. Yes ; and Robert Lowenstein was one of the leaders of the New 
Jersey locals. 

Mr. Tavenner. At that convention? 

Dr. DouD. At that convention, and at Communist meetings held there. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period of time after that convention was held 
was it that you were acquainted with Communist Party activities in the Teachers 
Union in New Jersey ? 

Dr. DoDD. Well, I continued my interest in the Teachers Unions only through 
the spring of 1944 at which time I gave up my leadership in the Teachers Union 
movement and become an oi)en leader of the Communist Party, but I retained 
an interest in teachers throughout my stay with the Communist Party until 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Dr. Dodd, and you are excused with thanks of the 
committee. 

If there is nothing further, the subcommittee will stand adjourned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Lowenstein, is there any statement or any 
matter related by Dr. Dodd in her testimony which you consider not 
true? 

Mr. Lowenstein. I decline to answer that question. You are asking 
me what I consider, and I feel it is an area of belief and opinion and 
I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let us put the question in a different way, if that 
is what is troubling you. 

Mr. Lowenstein. I will make it a little easier, sir, by telling you that 
1 will refuse, I will decline to answer questions of that and allied 
nature. 

The Chairman. Let's have the question first. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you any explanation that you desire to make of 
her testimony insofar as it refers to you? 

Mr. I^wENSTEiN. I decline to answer that, sir, under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Did you attend fraction meetings of the Communist 
Party leadership in New York City attended by Dr. Dodd? 

Mr, IxjwENSTEiN. I will decline to answer that one, sir, for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you engage in or attend a meeting in Detroit 
at the time of the national convention of the American Federation of 

05388— 55— pt. 2 10 



1282 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Teachers composed of Communist Party members of locals that still 
remained a part of the parent organization ? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Ta\tsnner. Mr. Chairman, quite apparently the witness is not 
willing to give any information under any circumstances that I can 
conceive of presenting to him. 

The Chairman. This is indeed very disappointing, because we 
hoped that a man of your education and understanding would be 
willing to do what Dr. Dodd did, and what these other people who 
made mistakes did. They came forward and helped this committee 
and I am sure that as a result of the testimony adduced at other hear- 
ings these people have made a great contribution to the security of 
America and we had hoped you would do that. 

I would like to ask you whether or not you are a member of the 
National Federation for Constitutional Liberties. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I must decline to answer that question, sir. 

The Chairman. You are not compelled to. Do you ? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I feel impelled to and so I do, sir. 

The Chairman. It is not what you feel. Do you decline? 

Mr. Lo\vENSTEiN. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

The Chairman. Are you a member of the Citizens Committee for 
Harry Bridges? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

Mr. DoYLE. I am not clear as to what your present professional 
employment is. 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. I am a schoolteacher, sir. 

Mr. DoYLE. Here in Newark? 

Mr. LowENSTEiN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. In a public school? 

Mr. LOWENSTEIN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. How in God's name can you be a free agent to give 
education on the highest level and still be a member of the Communist 
Party, which dictates to you what to teach ? How can you be in a pub- 
lic classroom as a member of the Communist Party and expect the 
taxpayers to be paying you to teach public education when you are 
bound by your oath to the Communist Party to teach the Soviet line ? 

I say that because for years I was a member of the California State 
Board of Education and I know you cannot be a free teacher and 
teach the American schoolchildren loyalty to their own country be- 
cause under your damnable Communist oath you are obligated to teach 
the Soviet line wherever you can. 

Why don't you get out of that party and reverse your track? 

The Chairman. Anything further? 

Mr. Tavenner. I have nothing further. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

The committee will stand in recess, to meet at 1 : 45. 

(Wliereupon, at 12: 20 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 1 : 45 p. m. the same day.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1283 

Afternoon Session, May 19, 1955 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Tavenner, call your next witness. 

Mr. Ta%^nner. I would like to call Mr. Perry Zimmerman, please. 
Will you come forward, INlr. Zimmerman. 

The Ch.urman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I do. 

May I make a request of the press ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Zimmerman. In all respect to the gentlemen of the press and 
those who are photographing me at the present time, since it is my 
duty in the discharge of my position as teacher in elementary schools 
of the city of Newark, I request that the newspapers whom you rep- 
resent do not publish my picture on the basis that it would be dis- 
turbing to security and the well-being of the students with whom 
I come in contact. Thank you. 

TESTIMONY OF PERRY ZIMMERMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
RICHARD F. GREEN 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please, sir. 

Mr. Zimmerman. Perry Zimmerman. P-e-r-r-y Z-i-m-m-e-r-m-a-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 
^Yl\\ counsel please identify himself for the records 

Mr. Green. Richard F. Green, G-r-e-e-n. 7 West Grand Street, 
Elizabeth. 

Mr. Tavennek. ^\nien and where were you born, Mr. Zimmer- 
man ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I was born October 2, 1916, in the city of Pat- 
erson, N, J. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I reside in the city of Newark. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. What is your occupation or profession? 

Mr. Zimmerman. My occupation and my profession, a teacher. 
I work for the Newark Board of Education. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere are you engaged in teaching ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. In the city of Newark, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what school ? 

Mr. ZiMisiERMAN. Dayton Street School. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, how long 
you have been engaged in the teaching profession ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I have been employed as a teacher in the teach- 
ing profession approximately 8 or 9 j^ears. 

If I may have a moment, I will give you the exact number 
of years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just take your time. 

Mr. Zimmerman. At the end of this year I shall have completed 
9 years of teaching. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has that entire period been spent in teaching in 
Newark ? 



1284 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Zimmerman. No, sir ; it has not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you beoin at the beginning of the 9-year period 
and tell us when and where you have tauglit ? 

Mr. Zimmerman, To the nearest dates that I can establish, I taught 
in Newton, N. J. for 2 vears from September 1937 to June of 1939. 
I taught in North Caldwell from September of 1939 to June of 1940. 
I taught in Essex Fells September of 1910 to June 1941. I taught 
in Verona from September 1941 to June 1942. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Zimmerman. I cannot establish exactly whether it was in 1950 
or 1951 that I taught in Berkeley Heights, N. J. 
Mr. Tavenner. How long did you teach there ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. One year. For the past 3 years I have been em- 
ployed by the the Newark Board of Education. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, briefly what 
your formal educational training has been for your profession. 

Mr. Zimmerman. As nearly as I can recall, I was graduated from 
Bernard's High School, Bernardsville, N. J., June 1934. I entered 
New Jersey Teachers College at Newark in September 1934. In June 
of 1937 I was graduated with a 3-year certificate by New^ Jersey State 
Teachers College at New-ark. 

In June of 1941 I think, I am not sure, I received my bachelor of 
science degree from New Jersey State Teachers College in Newark. 
In 1942 or 1943, 1 don't know exactly at the ]3resent time, I matricu- 
lated at New York University for a master's degree in education. 
I pursued their 2-year courses. Shortly thereafter, as I say, I do 
not know exactly whether it was 1942 or 1943 I matriculated at Brook- 
lyn Polytechnic Institute and took w^ork in the civil engineering cur- 
riculum until some time in the middle of 1946. To the best of my 
recollection, what I have said is true. I might be off on 1 or 2 dates. 
Mr. Tavenner. Did you follow the engineering profession after the 
completion of your technical training? 
Mr. Zimmerman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where and under what circumstances? 
Mr. Zimmerman. While I was studying at Brooklyn Polytechnic 
Institute I worked for the Pollock Manufacturing Co. in Arlington, 
N. J. Excuse me, sir. There is one company for wdiom I w-orked 
before. I worked for the M. W. Kellogg Co., New- York City. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Hoav long did you work for the M. W. Kellogg Co. ? 
Mr. Zimmerman. I think I worked there for approximately 2 years, 
some time in 1941 to some time in 1943. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of your position there ? 
Mr. Zimmerman. The nature of my position at the M. W, Kellogg 
Co. was to estimate the amount of steel required in the structural or 
in the construction of oil refineries. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is virtually the work of a civil engineer, 
isn't it? -^ ^ ' 

Mr. Zimmerman. It is one branch of the work of a civil engineer. 
Mr. Tavenner. Then what was your next employment ? 
Mr. Zimmerman. Subsequent to my work at M. W. Kellogg Co. 
I was employed by Pollock Manufacturing Co. at Arlington, N. J. 
Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of your employment there? 
Mr. Zimmerman. The nature of my employment there was to design 
machine tools. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1285 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you employed by that company? 

Mr. Zimmerman. Again I am not exactly sure of dates, but I thmk 
it was approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you work at any other engineering or manu- 
iacturing locations? • ^ • 

Mr. Zimmerman. Yes, sir ; I worked at the General Electric Co. m 
:Bloomfield as a draftsman, assigned to an engineer to develop new 
air conditioning, home air-conditioning units. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you so employed ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. Again, sir, I do not have a good memory for dates, 
and I must say approximately a year or a year and a half. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any other employment other than 
that of teaching? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I worked for the Ketchan Iron Works, Shaw 
Avenue, either Irvington or Newark. _ I ani not exactly sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period did you work there ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I think that was approximately 8 or 10 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have other employment then before you 
again took up your profession of teaching ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. Sir, I cannot remember any at the moment. It 
IS possible that I might but under the stress of this situation it escapes 
me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then, approximately, you were out of the teaching 
;prof ession from about 1942 to 1948, were you not ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I would say it is slightly longer than that 

Mr. Tavenner. During that period from 1942 to 1948 when you 
worked at these various plants, did you have occasion to become a 
member of any union having bargaining rights at those plants ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. No, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. You were not a member of any union then ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. If I understand your question correctly, sir, you 
are asking me if at any time during this period I was eligible to become 
a member of a union. 

The Chairman. He didn't ask you if you were eligible. He asked 
you if you were a member of the union during that period. 

Mr. Zimmerman. I respectfully, sir, decline to answer your question 
as I have outlined in my statement which I have submitted to you. 

The Chairman. Why do you refuse to answer the question? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I decline respectfully, sir, to answer your question 
on the same grounds. 

The Chairman. What grounds? 

Mr. Zimmerman. On the grounds of any answer which I might give 
might tend at some future date to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do I understand you to believe that to be a mem- 
ber of a labor union might subject you to prosecution for a crime ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I decline to answer your question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Zimmerman. I decline, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the pei'iod that you were employed or at 
any time during the period that you were employed at these various 
plants between 1942 and 1948 were you a member of any group or cell 
of the Communist Party composed principally of employees in the 
plant in which you were working? 



1286 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA • 

Mr. Zimmerman. Sir, I decline respectfully to answer your ques- 
tion on the grounds that I have already mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period that you were actively engaged 
in the teaching profession in the city of Newark, were you aware of 
the existence of a group of the Communist Party composed principally 
of members of the teaching profession in the Newark area ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I decline, sir, to answer your question, respect- 
fully, on the grounds that I have already stated. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time while engaged in teaching in the public schools of Newark? 

Mr. Zimmerman. Sir, again I decline to answer your question on 
the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you or are you a member of the teachers union? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Zimmerman. Sir, I respectfully refuse again to answer your 
question. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask, Mr. Chairman, that you direct the witness to 
answer the question whether he is a member of the teachers union. 

The Chairman. Yes, answer that question. 

Mr. Zimmerman. I decline, sir, to answer your question on the 
grounds that I have already stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Like the chairman. Witness, it is just impossible for 
me to see how answering the question as to whether you are a member 
of the teachers union would incriminate you. That is the only basis 
on which you can refuse to answer the question. 

The Chairman. Did you attend a meeting last week of schoolteach- 
ers in this area ? 

]Mr. Zimmerman. I decline, sir, to answer your question on the 
grounds which I have already stated. 

The Chairman. As a matter of fact, wasn't there a meeting last 
week of the schoolteachers of this area, some of them at least, at 
which a lawyer instructed all of the people there who were subpenaed 
as witnesses to refuse to answer any questions that might be asked 
by this committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Zimmerman. As I wrote in the statement which your counsel 
has 

The Chairman. I don't know about any statement. I am asking 
you a question. Will you answer the question ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I respectfully refuse, sir, to answer your ques- 
tion. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question as to whether 
or not you attended this meeting. 

Mr. Zimmerman. On the grounds which I stated, I again refuse 
to answer your question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Zimmerman, back in the heyday of the strength 
of the Communist Party within the American Federation of Teachers 
there was never any contention by anyone who knew the facts that 
there was any tremendously large numlDer of Communist Party mem- 
bers within the American Federation of Teachers. Possibly I can 
find the testimony of Dr. Dodd, who was one of the organizers of the 
teachers union, as to what those figures were, but my recollection is it 
was far less than 1 percent. After that time large locals in populace 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1287 

areas of the country were expelled from that union which is an affiliate 
of the American Federation of Labor. I think it grossly unfair to all 
of the loyal members of that organization for you to indicate that 
there might be something of a criminal nature by reason of your 
membership in it which is the only inference to be drawn from your 
refusal to answer. 

Now in the light of that, let me ask you again : Were you a member 
of the American Federation of Teachers ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I respectfully decline, sir, to answer your ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I respectfully refuse, sir, to answer your question 
on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. DoTLE. Did you serve in the American military forces at any 
time? 

Mr. Zimmerman. No, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. Doyle. Why didn't you ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. My draft board decided otherwise until 7 days 
before V-J Day, when I was sent my greetings. I was never called. 
I would have been willing to go and happy to perform a service. 

Mr. DoTLE. That is all right. Let me say to you what I said briefly 
to other people. Why don't you get out of the gang, the Communist 
gang if you are in it ? Why don't you cut yourself loose so you are a 
free agent under our American system instead of being dictated to 
by the Soviet outfit ? 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

Mr. Scherer. I just have this observation, Mr. Chairman: It is my 
feeling that the witness in refusing to answer whether he is a member 
of the teachers union is clearly in contempt and I think the witness 
knowing that that is the feeling of this committee might want to re- 
consider his refusal to answer that question in the light of what I have 
said. So I am just going to ask the witness again : Are you a member 
of the teachers union ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Zimmerman. As I mentioned, sir, in my statement, this goes into 
the question of associations. Therefore, I feel that I must respectfully 
again decline to answer your question. 

Mr. Scherer. You leave us with no alternative. We must follow 
the law, too, and I will have no alternative when this committee meets 
in executive session but to recommend that you be cited for contempt 
because there is contempt clearly, at least in my opinion. I thought 
we would at least give him the benefit of our thinking on that. 

The Chairman. Are you or have you been a member of and active in 
the United Office and Professional Workers of America Union ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. Again, sir, I must decline to answer your question 
on the same grounds. 

The Chairman. Do you decline to answer it? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I do decline to answer your question. 

Mr. DoYi.E. I could not help but notice when you requested that the 
free press, American press, not publish your picture the reason you 
gave was that it might disturb the students in the classes in which you 
are an instructor in Newark, N. J. 



1288 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Zimmerman. I will stand by that reason, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. In what way would it disturb them ? You volunteered 
that it Avould disturb them. 

Mr. Zimmerman. I would like to volunteer to the Congressman the 
fact that the students in our city look to their teachers with pride. 

The Chairman. I wonder how proud they will be when they pick 
up tomorrow's paper. 

Mr. Zimmerman. The teachers in our city enjoy love and respect 
of their students- 
Mr. DoYXE. Would it disturb them to find you were a member of 
the secret outfit not revealed to the board of education known as the 
Communist Party in America? 

Mr. Zimmerman. Is that a question, sir? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, that would disturb them, wouldn't it. 

Mr. Zimmerman. I respectfully decline to answer your question. 

Mr. Doyle. Why don't you come clean, help your United States and 
board of education to ferret out the Communist conspiracy ? You are 
being paid by the taxpayers of the country and yet pledging allegiance 
according to our records, to a Soviet conspiracy to undermine our con- 
stitutional form of government. You know as well as I do that is the 
oath 3^ou have to take. It is absolutely inconsistent for you to be in an 
American classroom and member of the Communist Party in my book. 

Mr. Ta\t2nner. Mr, Chairman, may I resume my questioning? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does the State of New Jersey by law require the 
filing of a statement with the board of education in the form of an 
affidavit of loyalty? 

Mr. Zimmerman. My information is, sir, I think that is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you file such an affidavit ? 

Mr. Zimmerman, Excuse me, sir, I wish to consult with my counsel. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Zimmerman, I did so file, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have a photostatic copy of what purports to be 
such an affidavit. Will you examine it, please, and state whether or 
not the signature at the bottom of it is your signature ? The signa- 
ture is on the second page. 

Mr. Zimmerman. Sir, I subscribe to what is on that. 

Mr, Tavi^nner. Is that your signature? That was my question. 

Mr. Zimmerman, That is correct. 

Mr, Tavenner. Paragraph 3 of the affidavit reads as follows : 

Have you at any time organized or helped to organize or cause to be organ- 
ized or became a member of any society or group of persons which teaches or 
taught or advocates or advocated that the Government of the United States 
of America or of any State or political subdivision thereof should be overthrown, 
overturned, or changed by force, violence or any other unlawful means? 

To which the answer is written in in ink, "No." 

Was that a truthful statement ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Does the Communist Party advocate the overthrow 
of the Government of tlie United States by unlawful means? 

Mr. Zimmerman. Again I must respectfully decline to answer your 
question, sir, 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you aware of the decisions of the highest courts 
of this land liolding that the Communist Party of the United States 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1289 

does teach and has taught and advocated the overthrow of the United 
States of America by force and violence if necessary ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. Sir, I am not a lawyer. I do not know of many 
decisions of the Supreme Court. I am a teacher and an artist. I will 
stand for any public act w^hich I have committed. There is nothing of 
which I am ashamed and I resent this line of questioning. Therefore, 
I am declining to answer your question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you refuse to state whether or not you knew 
that that was the decision and is the decision of the Supreme Court 
of the United States ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. Sir, I have no basis for stating, I do not know. 

Mr, Tavenner. Then you said you refused to answer the question. 
Now you say you do not know. Which of your two answers is the one 
you desire to rely upon ? 

Mr. Zimmerman. I must at this point invoke my constitutional 
privilege. I said before I am not a lawyer. 

Mr. ScHERER. May I make this observation : That it is not only the 
Supreme Court that said that but the law of this Nation now is as 
stated by the Congress that the Communist Party in this country is 
not a political party as we know them, but it is a criminal conspiracy 
dedicated to the overthrow of this Government by force and violence. 

So you not only have decisions of the highest courts of the land to 
that effect but we have had it enacted as part of the Federal law of the 
land. 

Mr. Tavenner, I have no further questions, sir. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

(IVhereupon the witness was excused,) 

Call your next witness, 

Mr. Tavenner. Estelle Laba. 

Mr. DoTLE. Will you raise your right hand, please. Do you swear 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Miss Laba, I do, 

TESTIMONY OF ESTELLE LABA, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ADRIAN M. UNGER 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please. 

Miss Laba. Estelle Laba. E-s-t-e-1-l-e L-a-b-a. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 
Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Unger. Adrian M. Unger, U-n-g-e-r. 1180 Raymond Boule- 
vard, Newark, 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a native of Newark ? 

Miss Laba. I was born in New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in New York City ? 

Miss Laba. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you live ? 

Miss Laba. Milburn, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. How far is that from the city of Newark ? 

Miss Laba, Approximately 7 miles, 

Mr, Taa'enner. How long have you lived in the State of New Jersey ? 



1290 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Miss Laba. Since approximately 1923. 

Mr. Tav ENNER. What is your profession ? 

Miss Laba. I am a laboratory teacher. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you describe it a little more fully? What 
type of laboratory work ? Chemistry, physics ? 

Miss Laba. I am a laboratory teacher of biology. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where ? 

Miss Laba. Central High School, Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been so employed ? 

Miss Laba. Since September 1953. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that time where did you teach, if any 
place ? 

Miss Laba. I was at East Side High School from September 1951 
until June of 1953. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that time were you teaching ? 

Miss Laba. I was at Central Evening High School for 51/2 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that in the city of Newark ? 

Miss Laba. Right. 

Mr. Tavenner. That would put it back to about 

Miss Laba. 1946. In February of 1946, for the record, I was ap- 
pointed to Barringer Evening High School, and the school was closed 
and shifted over to Central Evening School. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any teaching experience prior to 
that time ? 

Miss Laba. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where? 

Miss Laba. At Central High School again from November or De- 
cember of 1943 until May, I believe, of 1945. I was in the chemistry 
laboratory at Central High School. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that your first teaching experience ? 

Miss Laba. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you go ahead to the beginning ? 

Miss Laba. Prior to that I was employed as a substitute teacher, 
first on a day-to-day basis, from 1935, September 1935 until February 
of 1939, I believe — one moment — until I believe February 1939, yes. 
That is my complete experience in the Newark school system. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have a position between February 1939 
and 1943? 

Miss Laba. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was it ? 

Miss Laba. Between those dates I worked at Beth-Israel Hospital, 
201 Lyons Avenue, on a research grant from the Blood Transfusion 
Veterans Association of New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time been a member of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Teachers during the period that you have been 
actively engaged in teaching ? 

(The witness consulted with her counsel.) 

Miss Laba. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer, Mr. 
XDhairman. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1291 

Miss Laba. I have answered, sir. I decline to answer on my con- 
stitutional grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have any knowledge of the existence of a 
group of Communist Party members in the vicinity of Newark com- 
posed principally of teachers ? 

Miss Laba. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you aware of any efforts made by any group 
of the Communist Party in Newark to gain control or otherwise in- 
fluence the American Federation of Teachers Union in Newark? 

Miss Laba. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

(The witness conferred with her counseL) 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time been a member of a club or 
group of the Communist Party in the city of Newark ? 

Miss Laba. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you a member of any teachers' union ? 

Miss Laba. Of any teachers group, did you say ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Union. 

Miss Laba. I decline to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Laba. I decline. 

Mr. Sgherer. Were you in the room before when I told the other 
witness how I felt about his faihire to answer the question with respect 
to membership in a teachers' union ? 

Miss Laba. I am sorry, I can not answer that. 

Mr. Scherer. Are you refusing to answer whether you were in the 
room and heard that question ? 

Miss Laba. I am sorry, sir, I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Scherer. You are plainly in contempt in refusing to answer 
that question. How could that possibly incriminate yovi, if I asked 
you whether you were in the room and heard my comments to the 
previous witness? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Laba. I am sorry. 

The Chairman. If you are in contempt this sheet of paper that your 
lawyer has there is going to be largely responsible for it. 

Miss Laba. I was present when the question was asked, when your 
statement was made. 

Mr. Scherer. Then you understand now at least how I feel about 
the possibilities of a contempt citation for refusal to answer the ques- 
tion as to present membership in a teachers' union. 

Miss Laba. I believe so. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

("VVliereupon the witness was excused.) 

Call your next witness, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Solomon Golat. 

Mr. Doyle. Let the record show a request was made that no pictures 
be taken before the witness testifies. 



1292 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. DoTLE. Will you raise your right hand, please. Do you sol- 
emnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. GoLAT. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SOLOMON GOLAT, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR H. MILES AND LEONARD B. BOUDIN 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please ? _ 

Mr, BouDiN. Congressman Walter, there are two motions in writing 
which were filed with the committee. I don't know if you have seen 
them. They were sent to your attention here. 

The Chairman. I have seen them. 

Mr. BouDiN. Can we have a ruling on them ? 

The Chairman. Counsel should know this is the wrong forum ini 
which to raise the question which is raised by this motion, so we will 
not be rule on it one way or the other. 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please. 

Mr. GoLAT. My name is Solomon Golat. At this point, Mr. Chair- 
man, I should like at this time to ask that the motion and the supple- 
mental motions which were filed in my behalf by my counsel be read 
into the record, since they contain 

The Chairman. They are not going into the record. You may be 
seated, please, and we will proceed with the hearing in an orderly 
fashion. This is not the forum in which to raise this question. As 
a member of the bar, at least you should know that this is the wrong 
l^lace in which to raise this question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Golat. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many ? 

Mr. Golat. By two. 

Mr. Tavenner, Will both counsel please identify themselves for the 
record. 

Mr. Miles, Victor H, Miles, 10 Commerce Court, New York, 

Mr, BouDiN, Leonard B. Boudin, 25 Broad Street, New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Golat ? 

Mr. GoLAT, I was born in Norwich, Conn., St. Patrick's Day, 1908. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr, Golat, Lawyer. 

Mr. Tavenner, Where do you reside ? 

Mr, Golat, In Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. Plow long have you lived in the State of New Jersey ? 

Mr. Golat. To the best of my recollection, approximately 45 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been engaged in the practice of 
law in the State of New Jersey ? 

Mr. Golat. I believe approximately 24 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, briefly, what 
your educational training has been for your profession ? 

Mr. Golat. I was educated in the public and high schools of the 
city of Newark and received a further education leading to a bachelor 
of laws in what is now Rutgers University. 

Ml-, Tavenner. When did you complete your training there ? 

Mr. Golat. To the best of my recollection it was in 1929. 



COMTiIUNrST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1293 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Golat, I hand you a photostatic copy of a letter 
headed, "Civil Eights Congress of New Jersey" under date of May 17, 
1948, and I see on the margin the name of the general counsel. Will 
you examine that, please, and verify whether or not you were the 
general counsel of that organization at that date. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Golat. What was the last question, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. My question was that I requested you to examine 
the document and state whether or not you were general counsel of 
that organization on the date indicated. 

Mr. GoLAT. To the best of my recollection I was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had you been general counsel for that organization 
prior to that date? 

Mr. Golat. To the best of my recollection I was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been general counsel of the Civil 
IRights Congress of New Jersey ? 

Mr. Golat. Not in my opinion. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by that ? 

Mr. Golat. Well, I may on occasion have represented that organ- 
ization as an attorney. I never considered myself as general counsel 
for that organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you aware of the fact that the Civil Rights 
■Congress of New Jersey under its letterhead represented that you were 
'its general counsel? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BouDiN. Can I see that, please ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Golat. I have no present recollection. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had you seen the letterhead of the Civil Rights 
Congress bearing your name as general counsel at any time prior to 
today? 

Mr. Golat. I don't recall seeing it in that designation. That is my 
present recollection. This letterhead which you are showing me is 
dated 1948. That is the best answer I can give you. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated a moment aso that you do not consider 
yourself general counsel. Is that a qualification of the fact as to 
whether or not you were actually the general counsel ? 

Mr. Golat. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me put it this way: You indicated some doubt 
by stating that you did not consider yourself general counsel of the 
Civil Rights Congress. Wliat do you mean by that ? 

Mr. Golat. You are asking me the question and you are asking me 
for my opinion. In my judgment I was not general counsel for the 
'Civil Rights Congress in what the terminology connotes. 

The Chairman. Did you ever receive a retainer as general counsel 
from this organization? 

Mr. Golat. Not to the best of my recollection, no. 

The Chairman, In what matter did vou appear for this organiza- 
tion? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Golat. Mr. Chairman, May I ask in what way that particular 
• question is relevant to this inquiry ? 

The Chairman. No, you just answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



1294 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. GoLAT. It was my understanding that this committee did not 
intend to inquire into the matter of relationship between an attorney 
and client. 

The Chairman. We are not inquiring into those matters. You 
appeared for this organization. If you appeared for it and received a 
fee for it there is no reason why you shouldn't tell us in what matters 
you appeared for it. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. GoLAT. Mr, Chairman, reserving my right to note my objection 
to that question as not within the province of this committee and with- 
in the province of its jurisdiction, I can only say now that not having 
my office files with me and not anticipating that I was going to be 
asked when and where I represented as an attorney an organization, 
I am unable to state now just on what occasions I did represent the 
Civil Eights Congress. 

The Chairman. Can you tell us approximately how many times you 
represented them ? 

Mr. GoLAT. I cannot say without my records. I represented them, 
I should say, on a number of occasions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Golat, do you deny you received a retainer at 
any time as general counsel for this organization ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. GoLAT. The best answer I can give to that is that I don't deny 
it because I don't recall what, if any, retainer I received not having 
my office records here, and not recalling now specifically on what occa- 
sions I appeared for that organization. As I say, I am not prepared 
here and I was not given notice that this would be the subject of the 
inquiry. I inquired through my counsel as to what you were investi- 
gating about as far as I was concerned over a week ago but we were not 
accorded the courtesy of a reply in that connection. 

Mr. Tavenner. Since the very first day of this hearing the com- 
mittee has been inquiring into certain acts on the part of the Civil 
Rights Congress of New Jersey. Mr. Moroze, the former assistant 
treasurer of that organization, and Mr. David Eocklin, the president, 
testified and during the course of their testimony certain documents 
prepared by that organization were introduced in evidence. Were you 
unaware that the committee was investigating those matters ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I fail to see how a question of legal 
advice could be involved in the answer to a question of that kind. 

Mr. GoLAT. What was the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Read the question. 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you want the matters restated, or do you recall 
them from my question ? 

Mr. Golat. I recall some of the items you mentioned. Frankly ,^ 
I don't know particularly what items your committee was investigat- 
ing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean to tell the comniittee that you have 
not read the papers to determine what the committee was investigat- 
ing with regard to the Civil Rights Congress of New Jersey through 
the witnesses, Moroze and others ? 

Mr. Golat. I read the paper but the papers did not give me any in- 
formation as to what was disclosed by those witnesses. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1295 

The Chairman. For the very obvious reason that they pleaded the 
fifth amendment. 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Boudin, you have appeared in these matters be- 
fore and I think you know the rules of this committee better than most 
lawyers. 

Mr. BouDiN. I follow them better than most lawyers. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have been observing you. 

Mr. BouDiN. I hope you have not been listening. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have. 

Mr. Boudin. I request that you cease to listen. 

Mr. ScHERER. I just want counsel to comply with the rule. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Golat, have you any knowledge concerning the 
publication on January 13, 1951, by the Civil Rights Congress of a 
throwaway sheet which included in it an exact copy of a statement 
issued by the Communist Party of the city of Newark? 

Mr. GoLAT. I don't know what leaflet you are referring to. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Then if the witness did not hear the testimony and 
is not familiar with the subject, I will have to send for the exhibit 
that was introduced which we have at the hotel. I will do that and 
recall the witness when I get it. 

So I would like to ask the witness to step aside for the moment. 

The Chairman. Maybe that won't be necessary. 

Did you participate in the preparation of any throwaway circular 
that the Civil Rights Congress distributed locally? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

The Chairman. I will withdraw the question. Go ahead. 

Mr. Tavenner. We had the file of Mr. Moroze here and I have the 
documents. Will you exhibit it to the witness, please ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. GoLAT. My best recollection is that there was some litigation 
in the courts of this State with respect to some leaflet but I don't re- 
call whether this is the one or not. 

The Chairman. Read the question of Mr. Tavenner. 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) 

Mr. Golat. I have answered to the effect that I have no recollec- 
tion of this particular leaflet, I don't recall it, but that there was some 
leaflet in litigation and I don't think this was the one, to the best of 
my recollection. 

Mr. Tavenner. Possibly I can refresh the witness' recollection. A 
search warrant was executed on 38 Park Place, Newark, N. J., on 
January 18, 1951, at which-time the throwaway sheet entitled, "Life 
or Death, It Is Your Choice," was found in Communist Party head- 
quarters, at the time that Mr. Charles Nusser was there and" Esther 
Engle, and Louis Malinow. There was also found and seized by the 
officers at that time a statement in writing by Mr. Nusser in which he 
said that he had prepared that Communist JParty document and that 
the Civil Rights Congress reprinted it and made additional comments 
of its own and that the document issued by the Civil Rights Congress 
was released on the day of his release from jail. 

The records disclose that on that day the day of its release, the three 
persons, Charles Nusser, Esther Engle, and Louis Malinow, were 



1296 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

afforded bond with you as the attorney, the bond being a thousand 
dollars each, and that Lewis Moroze, of the Civil Rights Congress, 
posted the bond in cash. 

Does that refresh your recollection of the occurrence? 

Mr. GoLAT. It does not refresh my recollection as to this particular 
leaflet that you are talking about. I recall some litigation, but you 
are asking me and I believe the previous question was directed to a 
specitic leaflet and I cannot say whether that leaflet is the one or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether on the day of the release of 
the three persons that you represented the Civil Rights Congress clid 
make a release including a throwaway also published, which had prior 
to that time been published by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. GoLAT. My only recollection of that particular piece of litiga- 
tion, at the present moment, is that the cases involving those individ- 
uals were dismissed by the courts on the ground that it was found, 
that there was no legal basis for prosecution, the particular distribu- 
tion and the instance involved being entirely legal. 

Mr. Tavenner. You remember that very accurately. Do you 
remember also that the Civil Rights Congress posted bond for $1,000 
for each of those defendants ? 

Mr. GoLAT. I don't presently recall who posted bond and under 
what circumstances. I had nothing to do personally with the posting 
of bond. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
January 18, 1951? 

Mr. GoLAT. I am afraid, Mr. Tavenner, that I don't fully compre- 
hend the exact and precise meaning of the terms that you are using in 
the question — ''member," ''Communist Party" — as you used them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me clarify it for you if you are in doubt. Were 
you a member of a group or club of the Communist Party in the city 
of Newark ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

]\Ir. GoLAT. I must respectfully decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. You are not under any compulsion. You said you 
must decline. Do you decline ? 

Mr. GoLAT. I believe this subpena places me under a certain amount 
of compulsion. 

The Chairman. You said that you must decline. 

Mr. GoLAT. I consider it my duty to exercise my right to decline 
and to state my reasons, and in that respect 

The Chairman. Do you decline ? 

Mr. GoLAT. Duty compels me to do that. In that sense it is a 
"must." 

The Chairman. Do you decline to answer the question? 

Mr. GoLAT. Yes ; and I would like to state the reasons. To save the 
time of the committee and to avoid unnecessary repetition I would 
like to state these gi'ounds to serve 

The Chairman. We are not interested in the grounds. 

Mr. GoLAT. Statement of reasons. 

The Chairman. That is enough. You have declined to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Golat. I would like an opportunity to state for the record ■ 

The Chairman. We haven't the time to listen to you reading that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1297 

Mr. GoLAT. Do I understand you will not permit me to state the 
grounds and reasons for my refusal ? 

The Chairman. You have stated the reasons. You said you declined 
to answer the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't he state on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment ? 

Mr. GoLAT. I didn't say anything yet. 

The Chairman. He did not. 

Mr. Tavenner. He is entitled to state any legal grounds upon which 
he refuses to answer, not the reasons and arguments. 

The Chairman. What are the grounds for your refusal ? 

Mr. GoLAT, AVhat is the difference between reasons and grounds? 

The Chairman. You know the difference. 

Mr. GoLAT. I want to state for the record the reasons and grounds. 

The Chairman. We are not concerned with the reasons. That is 
argument. What are the grounds for your refusal to answer ? 

5lr. GoLAT. I should like these grounds, to save time, also, Mr. 
Chairman, to apply to any questions directed to me in the same line 
and general area of my associations and beliefs and my connection 
or alleged connection with any organization or association deemed or 
designated by this or any other organization or agency of the United 
States as subversive. 

The Chairman. By agency of the United States do you include the 
Supreme Court and the Congress, both of which have defined com- 
munism and have held it is illegal ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Golat. Without arguing the matter, Mr. Chairman, I should 
like to state the grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, in light of the witness' statement, 
I would like for the record to show that no question has been asked 
regarding his opinions or his associations. And the only questions 
that have been asked him are regarding his acts and his conduct, and 
what knowledge he had of the acts and conduct of other people, and 
1 propose to ask no such questions. 

The Chairman. To bring this matter to a head, are you a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. GoLAT. The other question I gather is withdrawn ? 

The Chairman. Yes. We will withdraw the other question. 

Mr. GoLAT. I must refuse to answer that question on the following 
grounds. 

The Chairman. Don't say "must," because you are not under any 
compulsion at all. Do you decline to answer the question ? 

Mr. GoLAT. I do, Mr. Chairman, if you don't like my way of 
stating it. 

The Chairman. Give us the grounds. 

Mr. GoLAT. I consider that the question violates my privilege under 
the fifth amendment to the Constitution, which provides that no person 
shall be required to be a witness against himself. 

Tlie Chairman. "In any criminal matter," you have neglected to 
state. 

Mr. GoLAT. Are you stating my reasons? 

The Chairman. I am telling you what the constitutional provision 
is. You have stated part of it. 

65388— 55— pt. 2 — —11 



1298 COMMUlSriST activities in the NEWARK, N, J., AREA 

Mr. GoLAT. I would like an opportunity without interruption to 
state my grounds. 

The Chairman. Go ahead, I am just keeping the record straight. 

Mr. GoLAT. I think I have the right to state my grounds in my own 
language, and without restrictions by the chairman. By this I wish 
to clearly understand that I do not regard myself as having com- 
mitted an}' wrong, since the privilege as stated in the fifth amendment 
is designed as a safeguard for the innocent and no adverse inference 
of any sort may be drawn from the assertion of this privilege. In 
this connection I call to your attention the decisions of the Federal 
courts. 

The Chairman. Let's skip those. We are well acquainted with 
them. 

Mr. Golat. I merely offered to make them a part of the record. 

The Chairman. You need not bother. We know those decisions. 
Skip the authorities and go on with your reasons. 

Mr. Golat. I should like as a second ground to state that I consider 
the proceedings and the question violate the due process provision of 
the fifth amendment and the other clauses of the Constitution grant- 
ing the right to a fair trial and a fair hearing. 

The Chairman. You are not being tried for anything. This is no 
trial. 

Mr. Golat. I am stating the grounds, sir. 

Particularly in light of the refusal of the committee to abide by 
the recommendations which the Bar Association of the State of New 
Jersey and I believe of the Federal Bar Association, stated by reso- 
lution as constituting the minimum standards for a fair hearing in an 
investigation of the Congress of the United States. 

I should like also to refuse to answer on the further ground that 
these provisions violate the due process provision of the fifth amend- 
ment in that the questions propounded and particularly this question, 
is characterized by a vagueness of terminology and lack of standards 
and by a failure to observe all of the elements of due process required 
of what is in essence a fair trial since the committee at the outset by 
the placing of this question creates an inference or tries to create an 
inference or charges or assigns certain innuendos of fault to a wit- 
ness, and then undertakes to pass upon its innuendo and tries to make 
an adjudication upon it; and the proceedings are violative of due 
process in that all of the normal safeguards of due process such as 
confrontation of witnesses, right to cross-examine, the right to trial 
by jury, and genuine representation by counsel — I am not now talk- 
ing about counsel who sit by and can say nothing — genuine repre- 
sentation of counsel is not accorded. 

I refuse to answer the question on the further ground that I con- 
sider the committee's investigation to be in violation of the constitu- 
tional doctrine of separation of owners in that the committee is not 
engaging in the exercise of legislative powers under article III of the 
Constitution of the United States, but is seeking to exercise judicial 
power exclusively granted to the courts under article III of that 
Constitution. 

I refuse to answer for the further reason, on the further ground 
that the committee inquiry here and the question directed to me is in 
violation of my rights under the first amendment to the Constitution 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1299 

of the United States which guarantees to all Americans the right to 
freedom of speech, belief, the press, assembly, and to petition the Gov- 
ernment for a redress of grievances. 

I refuse to answer the question for the further ground or on the 
further ground that this committee's action in subpenaing me and 
conducting an inquiry here is in violation of the fourth amendment 
as constituting an unreasonable search and seizure. 

I refuse to answer the question on the further ground that this 
action of the committee in asking questions of this sort and a line of 
questions of this type and the action of the committee in this proceed- 
ing is in violation of the eighth amendment to the Constitution of 
the United States in that it imposes a punishment upon a witness that 
is far more severe than could be imposed in any criminal proceedings 
and does so without the benefit of trial or due process of any sort. 

It destroys the representation and the livelihood of the witness in 
advance by taint, by smear, by publication, without responsibility 
attached to this body to safeguard the witness. 

In the contention of today's affairs the injury to which I have 
referred as directed by this committee's action constitutes cruel and 
unusual punishment, particularly because of the absence of compliance 
with the sixth amendment and the absence of any valid legislative 
purpose under article 1. 

I refuse to answer the question on the further ground that this 
committee's action violates my rights under the 9th and 10 amend- 
ments of the Constitution which provide respectively that the enumera- 
tion in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to 
deny or disparage others retained by the people and the powers not 
delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited to 
it by the States are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people. 

I refuse to answer on the further grounds that these proceedings 
violate due process and are lacking in fairness in that as of May 16, 
1955, the date of commencement of public hearings, public utterances 
were made b}^ members of this committee containing statements derog- 
atory to certain members of the professions in the Xewark area which 
may reflect upon and injure the reputation and standing of myself, 
such statements by the committee being purportedly based upon testi- 
mony of anonymous informants at a secret hearing held at a date, a 
time and place which have never been revealed to this witness, the 
said utterances by the members of this committee, being the first 
publicity released by this committee, received widespread publication 
in the press and served the purpose of abrogating any concept of 
fairness at the outset. 

I object to answering this question and object to any similar ques- 
tion — withdraw that — I refuse to answer this question, rather, and any 
question of similar import on the further ground that this question and 
the action of this committee here today constitutes an invasion of and 
interference with the attorney-client relationship* and in that respect 
injuries not alone the attorney, but the client and instills upon the bar 
of this State an atmosphere, a pall of fear, a fear that is engendered 
by the possibility of any attorney representing a cause of the type you 
have suggested might be similarly stigmatized as you are attempting 
to stigmatize me here today. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Golat, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 



1300 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. GoLAT. Same answer and the same reason and I trust, Mr. 
Chairman, I need not repeat these. 

The CHAiRMA>r. You need not repeat them. 

Mr. Tavenner. I liave no further questions. 

The Chairman. 1 would like to call your attention to the fact, to 
clarify the record, that the criticism, if that it be, of the New Jersey 
State Bar Association, is without foundation because in the five sug- 
gestions they make with respect to princijDles, each one is incorporated 
in a rule of this committee. 

~\Ve will recess for 10 minutes. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

(Brief recess.) 

The Chairman. During the recess one of the school teachers handed 
me a statement signed jointly by a number of people which states: 

We, the undersigned, as citizens and teachers, feel we owe it to the people 
of Newark to state our position on the present hearing being conducted by the 
House Un-American Activities Committee. 

We recognize the riglit of congressional committees to conduct investigations of 
any field of endeavor whatsoever as a means of strengthening our Federal Gov- 
ernment and protecting it from those who would subvert it. Granting all rights 
and titles to all citizens we nevertheless believe that those who in these perilous 
times seek refuge in the fifth amendment, particularly teachers, deserve only 
repudiation by their colleagues and by their employers. 

I trust that the people in this community will not get the impression 
that the fine school district and school system is filled wdth subversives. 
That is far from the fact. From these hearings I hope that such infer- 
ence is not drawn, because we have every reason to believe that the 
citizens of Newark are blessed with one of the finest school systems in 
this republic. 

Call your next witness. 

]\'Ir. Tavenner. Dr. Harold Lippman. 

Mr. BouDiN. I make the same request with respect to photographs 
that I made before, that no photographs be taken prior to the witness 
taking the stand. 

The Chairman. This is of course something we can't control. After 
the hearing gets under way we wdll not permit photographs to be taken 
because it might disturb the witness. It would be disconcerting. How- 
ever, the press has certain privileges and we are not going to deprive 
them of those privileges, as you well Imow. 

Mr Doyle. Will you raise your right hand. Do you swear that the 
testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Dr. Lippman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HAROLD E. LIPPMAN, M. D., ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LEONARD B. BOUDIN 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please. 

Dr. Lippman. Harold E. Lippman, M. D, 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Would 
counsel please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. BouDiN. Leonard B. Boudin, B-o-u-d-i-n, 25 Broad Street, New 
York. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born. Dr. Lippman ? 

Dr. Lippman. Born in Newark, N. J., December 20, 1915. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1301 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a resident of Newark ? 

Dr. LippMAisr. I have been a resident of Newark and closely environ- 
ing towns, Maplewood, Irvington — for my complete, what shall I say, 
life to date except for periods when I have been out of town studying 
and things like that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a medical doctor ? 

Dr. LippMAsr. I am a medical doctor. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been engaged in the practice 
of medicine in Newark ? 

Dr. LippMAN. I have been in the practice of medicine — I was licensed 
in 1941, I believe, possibly 1942, at which time I entered the Army. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you serve in the Army ? 

Dr. LippMAN. I served in the Army 314 to 4 years. Do you want 
my Army career ? I will state my complete history. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. In doing so will you please state the date when you 
returned from the Army. 

Dr. LippMAN. Suppose we start at the beginning and I will give 
you educational background. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do it your way, just so you give dates. 

Dr. LippMAN. I will give dates to the best of my ability. I may 
be wrong occasionally but not much. 

I was educated in the schools of Newark, N. J., graduated from the 
West Side High School in Newark, I attended New York Universitjr 
from which I graduated in 1937 and being honored by election to Phi 
Beta Kappa Society, Theta Lambda Sigma Society, the Honorary Bio- 
logical Society, Phi Upsilon, Honorary Mathematics Society, Cadu- 
cean Society and Honorary Premedical Society. 

After graduation with honors I attended Howard University Medi- 
cal School. 

The Chairman. In Washington ? 

Dr. LippMAN. In Washington, D. C. That is right, sir, where I 
graduated in 1941 with honors after being elected to the honorary 
medical society, Kappa Pi. Yes, sir; Howard is a Negro university 
in Washington. 

The Chairman. Who asked you that ? 

Dr. LippMAN. I heard you commenting on it. 

Mr. Doyle. You are absolutely mistaken. Mr. Walter made the 
remark, "with honors" and I said, "with honors." You repeated, 
^'with honors." Nothing was said about Negroes. 

Dr. LiPPMAN. I am sorry. 

I interned at St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Elizabeth, N. J. from 
1941 to 1942. In 1942 I volunteered to the Army where I was a bat- 
talion surgeon with a tank battalion attached to the First Division 
on D-day. We were the initial assault wave invading Nazi Europe. 

For my services in Europe I was awarded five battle stars for the 
campaigns of Normandy, northern France, the Ardennes, the Rhine- 
land in Germany, and I was decorated for extraordinary meritorious 
duty specifically for taking care of wounded under gunfire with the 
Bronze Service Medal. 

I returned from Europe in 1945, my terminal leave expired in the 
beginning of 1946, at which time I opened an office at my present 
address where I have been engaged in the practice of general medicine. 
I have been practicing general medicine associated with several hos- 

65388 — 55 — pt. 2 12 



1302 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

pitals in this city and various clinics where I donate my services for 
the indigent. 

Mr. Tavenner. Since when have yon been practicing ? 

Dr. LippMAN. Since I was associated with the clinics, you want ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; the date you began the pi'actice of medicine 
here. 

Dr. LipPMAN. I told you since 1946, after I got out of the Army. 
I am sorry, sir. Associated with clinics furnishing free care to 
indigents and in my spare time I have been interested in the problem 
of the basic research and problems of cancer in old age, in which I 
believe I have made some headway. I think that brings us about up 
to date except I have had a little education in law in the last month. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have there been any other organizations in whicli 
you have also taken an interest ? 

Dr. LippMAN. I am a member of the American Medical Association, 
the National Medical Association, I have been a member of the Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, I am a member of the Federa- 
tion of American Scientists. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Most of those groups are groups for which only 
members of the medical profession are eligible; isn't that true? 

Dr. Lippman. Except for the AAS and the FAS, which are scientific 
organizations. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of any other group in the 
city of Newark limited in membership to those engaged in the practice 
of medicine ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Dr. Lippman. I don't quite get your question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you also been a member of a group of the 
Communist Party in the city of Newark, composed of members of 
the medical profession ? 

Dr. Lippman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer your question on 
the following grounds : This committee to my — I am not a lawyer and 
I hope you will forgive me if I perhaps 

The Chairman. I thought you did have a legal education. 

Dr. Lippman. One month, sir, and I wouldn't pretend to pass any 
law bar. I feel that this committee's investigation is basically in 
violation of the entire Constitution of the LTnited States and the Bill 
of Rights and I will enlarge on this. 

The Chairman. The Supreme Court has already passed on that. 
You are not correct there. Your legal training is lacking in that 
regard. Let's go to another reason. 

Dr. Lippman. I have read many opinions of the Supreme Court and 
I know there are many of the items in regard to each one of these bills 
of rights which they have not passed on and they are very ambiguous 
on other questions regarding the Bill of Rights. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Mr. Chairman, one of the members of the commit- 
tee told me that he will have to leave in a very short period of time, 
and although I don't like to do anything in the way of suggesting 
cutting off a witness in his answers, yet actually all he is entitled to,^ 
I believe, assert any legal reasons rather than to make reasoned argu- 
ments. 

Dr. Lippman. Sir, I did not start the argument. The chairman 

The Chairman. We started it by bringing you here. We brought 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1303 

you here because we were reliably informed you were the chairman 
of the doctors' cell of the Communist Party in Newark. 

Dr. LippMAN. I did not say that. There is one question on the floor 
at a time. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you a question : Are you now a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. LippMAN. Are you withdrawing all other questions ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Dr. LippMAN. Are you withdrawing the question of the argument 
here? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Dr. LippMAN. I have tackled very difficult problems in my time. 
The problem I am tackling now, not this one specifically in court 

The Chairman. Will you answer this question? Are 3^ou a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, Doctor ? 

Dr. LippMAN. Will you please give me a chance to talk ? 

The Chairman. I am asking you a question. Are you a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Dr. LippMAN. I refuse — all other questions are withdrawn ? 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Dr. Lippman. Then I must decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that the every existence of this committee is a violation of 
the fundamental doctrine of separation of powers upon which our 
democracy is based, it is a violation so profound that it menaces all 
our freedom, it can only deliver us into a military dictatorship. I have 
analyzed this very profoundly and this is my measured contention. 

My objection is that you are seeking to exercise the judicial power 
exclusively granted to the courts under article III of the Constitution 
of the United States ; furthermore, that the committee's inquiry is in 
violation of the witness' rights under the first amendment to the Con- 
stitution which guarantees freedom of speech, freedom of the press 

The Chairman. Just say the first amendment. We know what it 
contains. We are lawyers and you are a doctor. Give us reasons. 

Dr. Lippman. In bringing me here, sir, you are exercising judicial 
function in front of the people of Newark and I believe it is their right 
to know my reasons and these are my reasons and I shall give them. 

Mr. ScHERER. The people in Newark want to know one thing : Are 
you a Communist today or are you not? That is all the people in 
Newark want to know. 

The Chairman. They do not care why you refuse to answer the 
question. 

Dr. Lippman. The committee's inquiry is in violation of the first 
amendment, freedom of speech, belief, press, assembly, and the right 
to petition the Government for redress of grievances. 

The committee's action is in violation of amendment 4 to the 
Constitution in that the subpena and inquiry constitute an unreason- 
able search and seizure, an iuA^asion of privacy, as Justice Brandeis 
pointed out when he stated 

The Chairman. Give us the reasons why you refuse to answer. 

Dr. Lippman. Insistence on the right to be let alone as a funda- 
mental American right 

The Chairman. Answer the question and don't give us an argument, 
don't read the stuff your lawyer prepared and handed you. Give us 
the reasons. 



1304 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Dr. LippMAN. Sir, I find that you are only objecting when I ad lib, 
not when I read the stuff. I will go on. 

The committee's action is in violation of the sixth amendment to the 
Constitution, which provides that in all criminal prosecutions the 
accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by jury 

The Chairman. You are not being tried for anything. 

Dr. LippMAN. And to be informed of the nature and cause and the 
accusation and to be confronted with the witnesses against him and 
have the assistance of counsel for the defense. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Dr. LippMAN. The hearings of this conmiittee, past and present, con- 
stitute public trial of the witness in the course of which he is denied 
any knowledge of the accusation against him. He is denied trial by 
jury, he is denied the right of confrontation of witnesses whom he has 
no opportunity to examine, and the effective — and I repeat effective — 
participation of counsel in his defense. 

The Chairman. You are not being charged with anything. You 
are being merely asked a simple question. Are you a Communist ? 

Dr. Lippman. I am answering that simple question, sir. It has been 
my training in a very fundamental branch of medical' research that 
some of the simplest questions can have the most involved answers if 
they are to be answered truthfully. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is right. It is demonstrated. 

Dr. Lippman. That is correct. The action of the committee is in 
violation of the eighth amendment to the Constitution which pro- 
vides that no cruel or unjust punishment shall be inflicted. It is estab- 
lished that the committee hearings have the purpose and effect of in- 
juring the reputation and livelihood of the witness subpenaed to attend 
the hearings. 

In the context of today's affairs such injury constitutes cruel and 
unjust punishment particularly because of the absence of compliance 
with the fifth amendment and with the first amendment. 

The committee's action violates further the rights under the ninth 
and tenth amendments to the Constitution which state that enumer- 
ation in the Constitution of certain rights shall not disparage or deny 
others retained by the people. 

Powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor 
prohibited to it by the States are reserved to the States, respectively, 
or to the people. 

And lastly, I would like to impress upon the court — I beg your 
pardon — the congressional investigation that no person shall be de- 
prived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law and this 
is a very vital section of the fifth amendment to the Bill of Rights, 
which is often ignored, the deprivation of life, liberty, or property, 
and I am in this instance being deprived of property, without due 
process of law — again without due process of law. 

And furthermore that no witness shall be compelled in any crimi- 
nal case to be a witness against himself. 

The Chairman. This isn't a criminal case within the meaning of 
the Constitution, is it? 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. D0YX.E. No questions. 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 



COMIklUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1305 

The Chairman. You are excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Frances Ormond. 

Mrs. Ormond. I respectfully move this committee to quash the sub- 
pena served upon me and returnable here today on the ground it does 
not state with particularity the scope, purpose and subject matter of 
the proposed interrogation to which I am to be subjected. 

The Chairman. This is not the forum in which to raise that ques- 
tion. 

Mrs. Ormond. I am not now testifying as a witness. I am contest- 
ing the jurisdiction of this committee. This is in the nature of a special 
appearance. 

The Chairman. You have been subpenaed to testify. Will you 
raise your right hand ? This is not the forum in which to raise these 
questions. 

Mrs. Ormoxd. I will raise my right hand, but nonetheless I have to 
protect my legal rights and still insist that the subpena is not in proper 
form. I want the record to show that I waive none of my legal rights 
by being sworn. 

The Chairman. You are not waiving any of your legal rights. For 
your information, these subpenas have been tested in the courts and 
found to be valid. 

Mrs. Ormond. I would like that put in the record. 

The Chairman. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
will be truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mrs. Ormond. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. FRANCES ORMOND, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, ESTHER STRUM FRANKEL 

Mr. Ta\tenner. What is your name, please ? 

Mrs. Ormond. Mrs. Frances Ormond. 

Mr. Tav'enner. What is your middle name ? 

Mrs. Ormond. Etta, E-t-t-a. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noticed you are accompanied by counsel. Will 
counsel please identify herself for the record. 

Miss Fr.\nkel. I am Esther Strum Frankel, S-t-r-u-m F-r-a-n-k-e-1, 
262 Main Street, Paterson, N. J. 

Mrs. Ormond. Before I state anything else I would like to thank 
the members of the bar association who have come here as a watchdog 
committee and who have shown their concern for the protection of the 
rights of the witnesses here. I would also like to state that I have read 
the procedures which they advocate being used by this committee and 
I would like to know whether this committee is prepared to allow my 
counsel to cross-examine the witnesses. 

The Chairman. She can cross-examine you because you will be the 
only witness. 

Mrs. Ormond. I read the statement of the New Jersey bar and they 
did suggest that counsel have that right. Are you prepared to give 
them that right ? 

The Chairman. Your counsel can cross-examine you. Is that what 
you want ? You will be the only witness. Let's start on that. Are 
you a member of the Communist Party ? 



1306 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

lyfrs. Ormoxd. You force me and I would like to say I want to use 
the protection of the fifth amendment not to act as a witness against 
myself. 

The Chairman-. Now, then, I ask your counsel : Do you care to cross- 
examine the witness ? 

Miss Fraxkel. If the chairman please, the right of cross-examina- 
tion is designed for the purpose of cross-examining those who are the 
accusers. 

The Chairman. There are no accusers here. This is a congressional 
inquiry. This lady is not charged with any offense. This is not a trial. 
A congressional inquiry is being conducted. This is in no sense of the 
word a trial and there are no witnesses against this witness at all. We 
are merely asking this lady some questions. Go ahead, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you presently a resident of Newark, N. J. ? 

Mrs. Ormond. No ; I reside in Maplewoocl, but before I go further in 
order to help me answer these questions, I would like a clarification and 
a definition of what is meant by "un-American activities," a specific 
definition of that term. So that I will know. 

The Chairman. It is defined in the resolution creating this com- 
mittee and it is very well known. It is a work of art. 

It mentions activities which are in derogation of our form of govern- 
ment. 

Mrs. Ormond. In derogation of ? 

The Chairman. Yes ; that is right. 

Mrs. Ormond. That means in criticism of. 

The Chairman. No ; it doesn't mean criticism. You know what it 
means. 

Mrs. Ormond. I am not aware. Could you explain that word be 
cause unless I know 

The Chairman. We won't explain anything. 

Mrs. Ormond. How can I answer unless I know what is being talked 
about ? 

The Chairman. There is no question asked. How can you answer 
without a question ? 

]Mrs. Ormond. I would like the record to show my previous objection 
to not being answered specifically on what is meant by "un-American." 
I asked and I was not answered, and it makes it very difficult for me to 
continue. I am not a lawyer and all of vou are, and that makes it 
very difficult for me to talk to yon. 

Mr. Tavenner. How far is Maplewood from the city of Newark ? 

Mrs. Ormond. It is a suburb of Newark. I don't know how far. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Newark or its vicinity ? 

Mrs. Ormond. All my life. 

Mr. Ta^t^nner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been? 

Mrs. Ormond. Yes ; I would like to very much. I graduated from 
the Irvington High School. I won a prize from the Kiwanis Club, a 
dictionary which my son prizes very much. Then I went to college, to 
Newark tjniversity, which is now Eutgers University. First year I 
went to the New Jersey College for Women and then went to Newark 
University, graduated from the Newark University with a bachelor 
of arts degree and with honors. I was a member of the honorary 
society there. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1307 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you get your work at Newark Univer- 
sity? 

Mrs. Ormond. 1!)37. I majored in psychology and sociology, then 
went to New York University Graduate School of Education, went 
there about a year and took courses in personnel work and after that 
time in about — you want my education — then recently in about the 
last 2 years I have been taking graduate courses at Battle Street School 
of nursery education and I am trying to finish my master's degree. 
I am almost completing it. 

Mr. Tavenner, When did you take your work at Newark Univer- 
sity? 

Mrs. Ormond. I graduated in 1937, to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then I understand you went to New York Univer- 
sity. 

Mrs. Ormond. That is right, to take a graduate course there. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you take that graduate course ? 

Mrs. Ormond. I am not very good on dates, but to the best of my 
ability I think it was about somewhere around 1938. In that period. 
I took it in the evening. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Did you take that graduate course very soon after 
you finished your course at Newark University ? 

Mrs. Ormond. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. After you returned from New York University did 
you engage in any employment ? 

Mrs. Ormond. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. "V^Hiat was the nature of the employment ? 

Mrs. Ormond, I became a personnel interviewer in the United States 
Employment Service. And I worked there for 4 years until about 
1942. At that time my son was born and I stopped working. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. You have not held employment since that time? 

Mrs. Ormond. No, I had a son and then a daughter and I stayed 
home and did the job of housewife and mother, that is employment, 
self-employed. And then I decided that I was very much interested 
in nursery-school teaching, I worked as a nursery-school teacher 
for about 4 months in a private nursery school then in 1951 about 
then I took a job which I am still holding as a nursery-school teacher 
in the Irvington Y Nursery school, one of the best nursery schools in 
the State. I have recently been promoted in my job. I was a 
nursery-school teacher until January this year and I have just been 
promoted to the post of director or head teacher of the nursery school. 

Mr. Tavenner. "V\Tiat was your address in Newark or in Maple- 
wood? 

Mrs. Ormond. At what time ? 

]\Ir. Ta\t:nner. During the period of time that you were working 
in the United States Employment Service, 

Mrs. Ormond. I lived at 9 22d Street in Irvington. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was your later address ? 

Mrs. Ormond. This is really ridiculous. You know I can't remem- 
ber. This is a very upsetting experience for someone and I really 
can't remember. It is not with any intent not to be helpful. I will 
think of it in a minute. I only lived there a year. I was just married 
and I guess I was more interested in being married than in the address. 
I am sorry, I just can't remember the name. 



1308 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J,, AREA 

Mr. Ta\^nner. What is your address now ? 

Mrs. Ormond. I live at 20 Overlook Terrace, Maplewood. Is there 
anything subversive about where I live or where I don't live that you 
ask me these questions ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Not at all. Have you ever lived on Pomona Avenue ? 

Mrs. Ormond. Yes. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Wlien did you live there ? 

Mrs. Ormond. I lived for about a year, let's see, I am sorry. I didn't 
get the dates on this, didn't know you would ask me this. I should 
have known, dates are not my forte. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you employed during the time you were living 
on Pomona Avenue ? 

Mrs. Ormond. No, I was a housewife at the time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you remember the street address ? 

Mrs. Ormond. Yes. Pomona Avenue. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. What number ? 

Mrs. Ormond. 107. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did j^ou hold a position in any group or club of 
the Communist Party while you were a resident at the address you 
have just given us, 107 Pomona Avenue ? 

Mrs. Ormond. I agree with Judge Vanderbilt, who said it is a solemn 
duty of all citizens to protect the Constitution and therefore I am 
happy to use my right on the fifth amendment not to act as a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
the time you were employed by the United States Employment 
Service ? 

Mrs. Ormond. Same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party now? 

Mrs. Ormond. Are you trying to force me to act as a witness against 
myself ? 

The Chairman. We are trying to get some information. 

Mrs. Ormond. I am trying to protect my constitutional rights and 
therefore I decline to answer under the protection of the fifth amend- 
ment, which states that 

The Chairman. Never mind, we know what it says. 

Mrs. Ormond. — that no person shall be forced to act as a witness 
against himself. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Do you have another witness, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. I will call the marshal. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give 
shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Job. I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1309 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH F. JOB 

Mr. Tavenner. "What is your name, please ? 

Mr. Job. Joseph F. Job, J-o-b. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you hold an official position with the United 
States Government ? 

Mr. Job. I do. I am the United States marshal for the district of 
New Jersey. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you United States marshal for this district 
on April 20, 1955? 

Mr. Job. I was, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the proper designation of this Federal 
district ? 

Mr. Job. What is the proper designation ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Job. Entire State of New Jersey. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have jurisdiction, then, as United States 
marshal, as far as your duties are concerned over the entire State? 

Mr. Job. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive a subpena issued by this committee 
for Walter Barry? 

Mr. Job. I did, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you receive it? 

Mr. Job. On or about the 20th of April 1955. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you able to effect service of that subpena on 
Mr. Barry ? 

Mr. Job. I was not. 

]VIr. Ta\'enner. Will you tell the committee, please, what effort you 
made to execute that subpena ? 

Mr. Job. I will, sir. On April 25 I designated Deputy Ernest Gyar- 
nati to make service at 11 Murray Street, Newark, N. J., which is one 
of the addresses we thought we might find this individual Walter 
Barry. That was unsuccessful. 

April 27, 1955, I designated Deputy Joseph Sojka to proceed to an 
address of the alleged residence of Walter Barry at Old Freehold 
Road in Toms River. Attempt was made there and the individual 
was not served because he could not find him. 

On April 28, 1955, an attempt was made at 1402 Huntington Ter- 
race, Newark, N. J., former residence of Walter Barry, and service 
was not executed. 

On May 7 I designated my Chief Field Deputy Gus Horn, who pro- 
ceeded to Old Freehold Road, Toms River, N. J., and with the assist- 
ance of Captain Clement and Chief Donald Grover of the Toms River 
police, tried to make attempt of service at that residence, and we were 
unsuccessful. 

Again on May 7, 9 and 1 : 30, I designated Deputy William Kelly, 
who proceeded to 799 Broadway, New York City, where we had rea- 
son to believe we might effect service. This is headquarters of a Com- 
munist magazine, alleged Communist magazine, March of Labor, and 
we were unsuccessful in making service at that place. 

Mr. Tavenner. Excuse me a moment. He was connected editorially 
with the March of Labor, was he not ? 

Mr. Job. Yes. 



1310 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. He was, according to testimony before our commit- 
tee. 

Mr. Job. He was, sir. 

On May 13, I again designated Deputy Chief Sojka to try and 
make attempt at 1402 Huntington Terrace, which was his former home 
and present home of his in-laws, and we were unsuccessful in making 
service. 

On Tuesday, May 10, I along with my Chief Field Deputy Gus 
Horn and Deputy Leo Mault, again made an attempt at Old Freehold 
Road in Toms River, spent approximately 6 to 7 hours in and around 
the vicinity of Toms River interrogating individuals and trying to 
get some information on this individual Walter Barry. We were un- 
successful in locating him. 

We did find out that from time to time on very few occasions in 
the past couple of years he had been at Toms River. And he had been 
at Toms River as recently as about a month ago, 5 weeks ago. 

Then again on May 12 I proceeded down to Toms River with Chief 
Field Deputy Gus Horn and Deputy Nicholas Meola and we had rea- 
son to believe at that time that Walter Barry might appear at Toms 
River. We again spent approximately 5 hours in and around Toms 
River area, about an hour and a half at Lake wood bus station and 
were unable to make service. 

On Saturday, May 14, and on Sunday, May 15, this past weekend, 
I spent a number of hours personally in and around Toms River and 
I was unable to make service. 

On these two services on May 14 and 15 I was again assisted b}' 
Capt. Richard Clement of the Toms River Police. All in all, we made 
approximately 12 attempts and at no time were we able to apprehend 
this individual to make service upon him. 

Mr. Tavenker. During these various efforts that you made to effect 
service, did you have occasion to make known to members of his family 
that he was wanted for service of process ? 

Mr. Job. Yes, I believe that on Saturday, May 7, our chief field 
doeputy, Gus Horn, made this fact known to his wife, Mrs. Marion 
Barry," at Old Freehold Road. And Thursday, May 12, at about 
7 : 30 in the evening I personally spoke again with Mrs. Marion 
Barry, the wife of Walter Barry, and informed her that I represented 
the Justice Department and that I was very much interested in serving 
a subpena on her husband, and I told her I would appreciate it very 
much if he should either call or come to his home, which she claimed 
he hadn't been at in over a month, to please get in touch with me and 
I left my phone number, the number of the office here, which is 
Mitchell 2-2020, and I also left the phone number of the Toms River 
Police and said I would appreciate very much if jou try to expedite 
this service for us. She said if he does come around she will be happy 
to do that. That is Thursday, May 12. 

On Saturday, May 14 I again did the same thing, to no avail. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive information at any time that he 
had been in this vicinity since the time you first attempted to serve the 
subpena ? 

Mr. Job. No, we did not, sir. I don't believe that he was in that 
vicinity any time from the date we were in receipt of the subpena until 
the present day ; not to our knowledge. We had the place under sur- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1311 

veillance of individuals who have been cooperating with the United 
States marshals office in helping us to apprehend this individual and 
we unfortunately were not able to serve him. 

Mr. Tavenner. I don't think I have experienced any incident in 
which a greater effort was put forth to locate a witness than was by 
this officer. 

The Chairman. Are yon sure you are subpenaing him under the 
right name ? 

Mr. Job. We were familiar with his other name, Congressman 
Walter. 

The Chairman. I do not think that is material. 

Mr. Job. I don't think it is, either. 

Mr. 1'a\t:nner. The reason that I wanted the record to show the 
facts is that the subcommittee may desire to report to the full com- 
mittee the facts relating to this matter, with the idea of having Con- 
gress pass a resolution for a warrant for his arrest and his being 
brought before this committee. 

The Chairman. I think the groundwork has been laid for that. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have nothing further. 

The Chairman. With the testimony of the marshal, the meeting 
will adjourn for the time being. Those witnesses who have been sub- 
penaed and have not been called will be notified when and where they 
are required to appear. 

I wish at this time to thank the local officials, particularly Judge 
Smith and the marshals, for their assistance to this committee in the 
performance of its very disagreeable duty, a duty imposed upon it by 
the Congress of the United States. 

I say it is unpleasant advisedly. 

With that the committee will adjourn. 

(T^^iereupon, at 4: 30 p. m., Thursday, May 19, 1955, the committee 
was recessed subject to the call of the Chair. ) 

(At the request of Congressman Doyle, the following letter is made 
a part of this record.) 



1312 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

LOCAL UNION, NO. 349 



United Bret&crhoed of Carpenters and Jetnnn 

==:^^==^= of America ^=^^=^=== 



ORANGE. NEW JERSEY 



OAVIO I. WALTER 

Recording 5«cretarv 

160 Linden Av« 



May IS, 1955. 



Repreeontative Francis E. Walter 
House Un-Amarloan Activities Committee. 
Federal Building 
Newark, N.J. 

House Un-American Activities Committee 

Gentlemen; 

The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America has been 
avare of the program of the Communists to infiltrate and destroy the Unions 
of this country, and was the first to take steps to combat this action. 

Quite a few years afgo the Constitution of thd Brotherhood of Carpenters 
was changed, so as to>&eep the Commiinists out of our Union. A member joining 
this Local Union or «Hiy other Local Union of the Brotherhood must swear before 
the members pre senf"^ 'That he is not a Communist, will not now or ever give 
aid, siqjport or comfort to any organization that tends to disrupt or cause 
disention among our members. Before an applicant talces the oath of membership 
he is informed in the presence of the memb^Mhip, 'That we do not consider 
the Communist Party a political party bu^^n organization that advocates the 
violent overthrow of our Government'. 

We take pride in our ability to clean our own house and keep it clean, 
whenever and wherever these Coamunlst pinks and punks let themselves become 
known, steps are taken to get rid of them, hampered as we are by a provision 
of the Taft-Hartly Act that prohibits the ;faions from expelling a member for 
any reason other than non payment of dues. 

We believe the quickest way to stop their activites in our schools and 
unions, 1b to smoke them out into the open and keep a light on their activ- 
ities. We also believe that a list of all known Communists and their cohorts 
should be published for all to see. It would be a great help to all true 
Americans, who believe our schools and unions should be fumigated to get rid 
of these parasites at once. 

We ask that yo\u" Committee publish this list and perhaps shock some of 
those who believe 'it cant happen here' into taking the proper action. 

May we wish your Committee continued success in your great work. 

Respectfully yours, 

David Walter R.S. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEWARK, N. J., AREA— PART II 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 13, 1955 

United States House or Representatives, 

SuBCo:\i5nTTEE or the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

W ashing ton^ D. C. 

PUBLIC hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 : 45 a. m., in the Caucus Room, Old House Office 
Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman), presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter 
(chairman), Clyde Doyle, and James B. Frazier, Jr. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

The subcommittee, consisting of Messrs. Velde, Doyle, Frazier, and 
Walter, will hear the witnesses. 

The committee was unable to serve a subpena on Walter Barry at 
the time it was hearing evidence relating to the publication March 
of Labor, and it was likewise unable to serve a subpena on this indi- 
vidual at the time of the Newark hearings. As to this witness, Walter 
Barry, the hearing will be a continuation of the hearings heretofore 
conducted relating to March of Labor and the hearing heretofore con- 
ducted at Newark, N. J. 

Another witness will be called for the purpose of obtaining in- 
formation believed to be within his knowledge relating to Communist 
Party activities in Colorado, Ohio, and possibly other places. 

Mr. Tavenner, call your first witness. 

Mr, TA^^NNER. Mr. Walter Barry. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please, Mr. Barry. 

Do you swear the testimony you will give will be the truth, the 
wliole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Barry. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WALTER BARRY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ROBERT LEWIS 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Barry. Walter Barry. However, perhaps the committee is 
aware — if not, I have had other names in the past which I should in- 
form you of. 

Mr! Tavenner. But before doing so, I would like counsel aocom- 
panying you to identify himself for tlie record. 

1313 



1314 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Lewis. My name is Eobert Lewis, L-e-w-i-s; offices at 615 
Columbus Avenue, New York City. 

Mr. Barry. As a youth I organized the Twilight Baseball League 
of 8 teams. During the course of that period there was a movie 
called Private Izzie Murphy in which George Jessel appeared. For 
various reasons the boys' league nicknamed me Izzie Murphy on that 
basis. That is one name which has been attached to me during the 
period of my adulthood. 

My original name my parents gave me was Israel Eisenshtat, 
E-i-s-e-n-s-h-t-a-t. The reason for the change to Walter Barry was 
that I found it difficult because of biased and prejudiced people in in- 
dustry to get a job with that name, and therefore I legally changed 
that name the latter part of the 1930's. At the present time my legal 
name is Walter Barry. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you used any other name ? 

Mr. Barry. Based on some of the testimony of some of the coopera- 
tive witnesses' fantasies — only a few weeks ago in Newark one of the 
witnesses underwrote or fingered a man and swore he was dead. He 
is as alive as you and I. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the answer is not responsive to the 
question. 

Mr. Barry. Let me finish. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Barry. I can't determine what some psychopath who comes 
as a witness 

The Chairman. Never mind calling loyal Americans psychopaths. 

Mr. Barry. I merely give you an indication, a man under oath swore 
a man was dead when he wasn't. 

The Chairman. He is a loyal American devoted to the preservation 
of the Government that you would destroy. 

Mr. Barry. Personally, you have no right to say that. 

The Chairman. I am assuming the right. 

Mr. Barry. You have no right to do that on the basis of anything 
that you have before you. 

The Chairman. Repeat the question, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Barry. Just a moment. I think the Congressman has no right 
prior to any hearing or in a court of law to charge me with un-Ameri- 
can activity. I wish you would withdraw that. 

The Chairman. We will hear more about this in a few minutes. 

Mr. Tavenner. My question was whether or not you have used any 
names other than those you have mentioned. 

Mr. Barry. It appears that the committee insists that I testify 
against myself, and therefore I will use the first and fifth amendments. 

The Chairman. Do you refuse to answer the question whether or 
not you have used any other names ? 

Mr. Barry. I have asserted the privilege, as I have informed you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever used the name Walter Wishnefsky? 

Mr. Barry. I give you the same answer. T assert the privilege. 

The Chairman. Do you refuse to answer because of the provisions 
of the first and fifth amendments ? 

Mr. Barry. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Barry ? 

Mr. Barry. I was born in New York City in 1912. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1315 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your for- 
mal educational training has been ? 

Mr, Barry. Yes. I went through high school. 

Mr. Tavenxer. What is your profession or occupation ? 

Mr. Barry. I have had a few. I have worked in shops, I have 
worked in stores. 

Mr. Tavexner. I mean your occupation at the present time. 

jVIr. Barry. Labor organizer, writer. 

Mr. Tavexner. How are you presently employed as a labor or- 
ganizer? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barry. Up until 1950, I was employed by the United Elec- 
trical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America 

Mr. Tavexxer. Let me interrupt you, please. You said up until 
1950. Will you give us the date you began working at the UE ? 

Mr. Barry. About 1938 to 1950. Prior to that I worked for the CIO. 

Mr. Tavexxer. "\^Tiat was the nature of your employment during 
the period 1938-50? 

Mr. Barry. I was field organizer and international representative. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you please tell us, please, what period you 
were a field organizer ancl where you were assigned ? 

Mr. Barry. I was field organizer between about 1938 and 1941, 
assigned to New Jersey. 

Mr. Tavexxer. That is in what district ? 

Mr. Barry. District 4. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Then in 1941 you became 

Mr. Barry. International representative. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Where were you assigned to work ? 

Mr. Barry. Michigan. 

Mr. Tavexxer. That would be from 1941 until what date ? 

Mr. Barry. 1942. 

Mr. Tavexxer. "^Miere did your next assignment as international 
representative take you ? 

Mr. Barry. Xew Jerse5^ 

Mr. Tavexxer. How long were you there ? 

Mr. Barry. Until about 1948. 

Mr. Tavexxer. 1942 to 1948. Then you were still an international 
representative for the additional period of 2 years. Where were you 
located during that 2-year period ? 

Mr. Barry. I then went to Connecticut and worked out of the na- 
tional office, and then went back to Jersey. 

Mr. Tavexxer. During what period of time were you in Con- 
necticut ? 

Mr. Barry. I think it was the early part of 1948. 

Mr. Tavexxer. You were in Connecticut just part of 1 year? 

Mr. Barry. Yes, part of 1 year. I wasn't there very long. 

Mr. Ta\t:xxer. ^iTiat was your next assignment? 

Mr. Barry. I worked for the national office for a while. The na- 
tional office of the union in New York. 

Mr. Tavexxer. In what capacity? 

Mr. Barry. International representative. 

Mr. Tavexxer. That was from 1948 until what time? 

Mr. Barry. Until 1949. 



1316 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next assignment? 

Mr. Barry. New Jersey. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you still an international representative? 

Mr. Barry. Eight. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you there? 

Mr. Barry. Until 1950 or 1951. 1 am not sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. 1949 until 1950 or 1951. I understood that you are 
still an international representative of the UE. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I thought that was the inference of your answer a 
few minutes ago. 

Mr. Barry. No, it wasn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am incorrect. Then how are you employed now as 
a labor organizer? 

Mr. Barry. I have other employers. 

Mr. Tavenner. I understood you to say your present employment is 
that of field organizer. 

Mr. Barry. I did not say that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you serve as a field organizer of UE at any time 
after 1950 or 1951? 

Mr. Barry. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any affiliation or connection with the 
UE after 1951? 

(The witness conferred wnth his counsel.) 

Mr. Barry. Yes. 

Mr. Tan-enner. Will you tell us what your connection with the UE 
was? 

Mr. Barry. I was a member. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hold anv position of any character after 
1951? 

Mr. Barry. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. 'Wliat was the reason for your leaving the position 
of international representative in 1950 or 1951? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barry. To take other employment. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was that employment? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barry. At this time, because of certain attacks initiated by this 
committee, I make use of my privilege under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long did you remain emploj^ed in this 
character of work which you will not describe for us ? 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you still employed in the same character of 
work, whatever that may be ? 

Mr. Barry. I assert the ]:)rivilege of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present employment ? 

Mr. Barry. I assert the privilege of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me tlie August issue, 1951, of March 
of Labor, and I see there a letter addressed to the readers. In the 
course of the article there appears blocked out a photograph with the 
name "Barry" under it. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1317 

Will you examine it, please, and state whether that is a photograph 
of you ? 

(Witness examined document.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barry. I assert the privilege. . nn^-u 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you refuse to answer, relying upon the htth 
amendment as the reason for doing so ? 

Mr. Barry. Yes. ,11 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I would like to read this letter or 
this statement in evidence, please, which was in behalf of the man- 
agement of March of Labor. 

Dear Reader : It is with a great deal of pleasure that we make this announce- 
ment Walter Barry has accepted the post of associate editor of your magazine. 
In recent years Barrv has been UE's international representative in New York 
and New .Jersey Walter is among the most respected progressive labor leaders 
in the East He brings with him a wealth of experience in organizing campaigns 
and strike struggles. ^ We are grateful to UE President Fitzgerald for granting 
Brother Barry an indefinite leave of absence so he can devote his time, energy, 
and experience to MOL. 
Then I find on the same page this statement : 

March of Labor, published monthly at 799 Broadway, New York 3, N. Y., 
Spring 7-6480, bv March of Labor. Inc. Editor, John Steuben. Associate Edi- 
tor, Walter Barry. Art Editor, Charles Keller. 

Isn't it a fact, Mr. Barry, that you did obtain a leave of absence 
from your position with the UE and became associate editor of March 
of Labor in July or August 1951 ? 

Mr. Barry. 1 assert the privilege. 

Mr. TAM3NNER. Do you refuse to answer ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Barry. I decline to answer because I do not wish to testify 
against myself, and therefore I assert the privilege. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. I have before me the April 1954 issue of March of 
Labor. Investigation by the staff has reflected that on this date the 
name of Walter Barry was dropped as associate editor of this publi- 
cation. On that date I read from the publication. "March of Labor, 
editor, John Steuben," without any reference to there being an asso- 
ciate editor. 

Did you cease being an associate editor of this magazine in April 
1954? 

Mr. Barry. It has been evident by former testimony to this com- 
mittee that this committee has a design of attacking organizations 
and periodicals contrary to the Constitution of the United States, 
which allows for freedom of press and assembly, and also to smear 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Barry. I therefore am again forced to 

The Chairman. Don't make a speech. 

Mr. Barry (continuing). Decline to answer and to assert the privi- 
lege of both the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your employment in May 1954 ? 

Mr, Barry, I decline to answer, utilizing the privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you continue in any employment with March 
of Labor after April 1954 ? 

Mr. Barry, I decline to answer, using the privilege. 

65388— 53— pt. 2 13 



1318 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you the September 1951 issue of March of 
Labor, and direct your attention to page 5, where there appears an 
article entitled "Labor's Crying Need," by Walter Barry MOL as- 
sociate editor. Will you examine the article, please, and state whether 
or not you made that contribution to March of Labor ? 

(Witness examined document.) 

Mr. Barry. I decline to answer, using the privilege of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavexner. I address your attention to the December 1951 issue 
of March of Labor, with special reference to page 15, where there 
appears an article entitled, "Regrouping for Victory," by Walter 
Barry. I will ask you whether or not you wrote that article as a 
contribution to the magazine, 

(Witness examined document.) 

Mr. Barry. I decline to answer, asserting the privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. I address your attention to the February 1952 issue 
of March of Labor, at page 25, where there appears an article entitled 
"Wall Street Jitters," by Walter Barry, and I will ask you whether 
or not you wrote that article appearing on that page. 

(Witness examined document.) 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with IMr. John Steuben, 
S-t-e-u-b-e-n, managing editor of March of Labor ? 

Mr. Barry. I decline to answer, asserting and using the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Were you acquainted with Mr. Len De Caux, D-e 
C-a-u-x, associate editor ? 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. A number of persons within the field of labor made 
contributions to March of Labor. One of those was Wyndham Mor- 
timer. W-y-n-d-h-a-m M-o-r-t-i-m-e-r, who previously has been iden- 
tified by testimony before this committee as a memJber of the Com- 
munist Party. His articles appeared in April 1951, May 1951, June 
1951, July 1951, August 1951, September 1951, and April 1952, issues. 

Will you tell the committee, please, the circumstances under which 
those contributions, or any of them, were detained by this magazine? 

Mr. Barry. It appears to me that this committee is going beyond its 
constitutional provinces. It is going into the question of freedom of 
the press. 

The Chairman. Just a minute. Answer the question. 

Mr. Barry. The Supreme Court decision 

The Chairman. You don't have to make speeches. You are not 
making any impression on us. We have heard this before. 

Mr. Barry. I am not trying to make an impression. 

The Chairman. Yes ; you are. 

Mr. Barry. I am being forced to testify against myself. I want to 
record here that a Supreme Court decision fixed certain limitations on 
this committee. 

The Chairman. We know what that decision says. 

Mr. Barry. You are going beyond it. Therefore, because of this 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 



COIVIIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1319 

Mr. Barry. Of the committee's going beyond its province, I am 
therefore declining to answer the question and assert the privilege. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Many persons identitied before this committee as 
members of the Communist Party have made a number of contributions 
to March of Labor. They include such persons as Ernest DeMaio, 
D-e-M-a-i-o, James Durkin, Abe Feinglass, F-e-i-n-g-1-a-s-s, Alfred 
Hirsch, H-i-r-s-c-h, Clinton E. Jencks, J-e-n-c-k-s, David Jenkins, 
J-e-n-k-i-n-s, Joe Kress, K-r-e-s-s, Ed Lock, and others. 

Will you tell the committee, please, if you know, what means were 
used to obtain contributions to this magazine by persons who were 
members of the Communist Party '? 

Mr. Barky. It is a tricky question. I assert the privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Barry. I decline to answer for the reasons I gave. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you play any part in securing contributions 
from any of the persons I named to the magazine March of Labor ? 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you told us that from about 1941 up until 
1950 or 1951, you were an international representative of the UE. As 
an international representative, was it the practice in your organiza- 
tion to have various field organizers assigned to you ? 

Mr. Barry. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Normally, how many field organizers came under 
your supervision ? 

Mr. Barry. It varied between 5 and 20 or more in some campaigns. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any choice in the selection of those in- 
dividuals who were to be assigned to you ? 

Mr. Barry. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you also have the authority as an international 
representative to employ clerical help ^ 

Mr. Barry. Very rarely. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by that ? 

Mr. Barry. As an international representative, I was assigned to 
a district. The district president did the employing of clerical help. 
On occasion, on some campaigns where we had an individual office, 
I might have employed an individual office worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you make recommendations to the district pres- 
ident for employment of clerical help ? 

Mr. Barry. Rarely. I might have. 

Mr. Taatenner. Were you at any time a member of the general 
executive board of the international union ? 

Mr. Barry. No ; never. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Did you meet with them ? 

Mr. Barry. I might have been at some enlarged meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether a person by the name of 
Thomas F. Delaney was a member of such a board ? 

Mr. Barry. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the approximate date that he was a 
member of the general executive board of the national organization 
oftheUE? 

Mr. Barry. A few years ago. I don't remember the exact date. 

Mr. Tavenner, It was during the period of time when you were an 
international representative ; was it not ? 



1320 CO]VIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Barry. I think so. I am not sure. 

Mr. Ta\t]nner. He testified before this committee that it was in 
1948 or 1949. Would that square pretty well with your recollection? 

Mr. Barry. That I was an international representative? Yes, sir, 

Mr. Tavenner. He also testified he was a member of the executive 
board at that time ? 

Mr. Barry. Well, yon are telling me that. If he was, then I was 
international representative at that time. 

Mr. Ta\tenist:r. Mr. Thomas F. Delaney testified before this com- 
mittee at Philadelphia in 1952. He told the committee that he became 
a member of the Communist Party in 1939, and that he left tlie Com- 
munist Party in May of 1952. He explained to the committee the 
circumstances under which he became a member and left the Commu- 
nist Party. 

He described a practice which he said existed, that while a member 
of this general executive board of the national organization of the UE, 
he received instructions from the Communist Party as to the action 
which he should take as a member of that board on matters in which 
the Communist Party was interested. His exact testimony on that 
subject is as follows : 

I asked him whether or not he had conversations with Ernest DeMaio 
and Grant Oakes regarding the Communist Party or its objectives. 
Mr. Delaney's reply was : 

Not as Communists. I had conversations with them about the policy of the 
UB which was at times the same policy as the Communist Party, so that it was 
difficult to differentiate the policies. 

Then this question was asked : 

Did you discover during your activity as a member of the national executive 
committee that the Communist Party line was being fostered upon the board? 

Mr. Delaney's reply was : 

Yes, sir ; I did. 

Then this question was asked : 

Well, how did you come to a realization that that was true and what were the 
circumstances? 

Mr. Delaney replied : 

Well, just prior to a meeting which usually was called quarterly in New York 
City, I would be contacted by a member of the Communist Party and told that 
certain things the Communist Party hoped to attain and have passed by the Gen- 
eral executive board, so that these policies were then introduced at the board 
meeting and very often were passed. 

I then asked Mr. Delaney : 

Who gave you that information? Who passed the Communist Party line down 
to you? 

His reply was : 

Well, sometimes it would be Joe Kuzma who was trade-union secretary of the 
eastern Pennsylvania District here before I left for New York, and other times 
it was Walter Barry, who was an international representative of the UE. 

Mr. Barry, the committee is anxious to ascertain all the information 
it can obtain regarding the method used by the Communist Party in 
fostering its line upon the organization in which you held a very im- 
portant position. If you had any part in it yourself, we want to know 
what part you played in it; so will you tell the committee, please. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1321 

whether or not you did play any part in discussing with board mem- 
bers — and by board members I am referring to the general executive 
board of the international union — what the desires and wishes of the 
Communist Party were ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barry. Counsel and committee, I think it is a presumption on 
your part in the course of your question to indicate that I am or was 
a member of the Communist Party. 

The Chairman. Are you? 

Mr. Barry. Let me finish. 

The Cpiairman". No. We do not want any speech. I asked you a 
question. Are you going to answer the question ? 

Mr. Barry. I will. You brought me here. You are asking me 
questions. Let me answer them in my own time and kind. 

The Chairman. No, you are not going to make a speech. 

Mr. Barry. Are you going to force me to answer something against 
my will 

The Chairman. No. 

Mr. Barry. And testify against myself ? Let me answer the ques- 
tion. He put a question to me. You put another. Let me answer it 
in time. I will answer your question after I get through with his. 

It is a rather involved question he asked me, and I am answering 
it. May I answer his question, or are you disregarding it? 

The Chairman. We will withdraw the question and ask this 
question. 

Mr. Barry. Will you also withdraw the inference which he had in 
his question ? 

The Chair:man. We will withdraw everything and start afresh. 
Did you ever attempt to indicate what the Communist Party line was 
to the people mentioned by Mr. Tavenner and attempt to have them 
adopt it ? 

Mr. Barry. I don't know what you mean by the Communist Party 
line, Congressman. You are making a broad assertion without any 
basis in the development of any meeting. 

The Chairman. Let's develop it this way. What was the date, 
Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Ta\ti:nner. In 1948 or 1949. 

The Chairman. In 1948 or 1949, were you a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Barry. I expected that question. It is the old routine. 

The Chairman. Yes. Were you ? 

Mr. Barry. I will answer it. I have some idea what this committee 
has set out to do and what you, Congressman Walter, as a person many 
years ago set out to do, because many years ago in your very con- 
gressional area, I was responsible in part for the organization of a 
plant by the name of Ingersoll-Rand where the wages were very low 
and the conditions were very bad. 

You came out and said that the CIO should not be in that area; 
that our union should not organize that shop, and you would do what 
you could about it. 

The Chairman. No, I did not say anything of the kind. 

At that time they were organized by members of the Communist 
Party from New York City, and you were one of them. 



1322 COI^II^IUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Barry. You also dubbed that organization as Communist and 
the CIO as Communist. 

The Chairman. Were you a member of the Communist Party dur- 
ing that period 'I 

Mr. Barry. Because of this background, I therefore am forced, be- 
cause of my innocence, to invoke my constitutional rights and use the 
amendment, the first amendment, 

Mr. Tav-exxer. Were you a member of the Commimist Party when 
you endeavored to organize Ingersoll-Kand as you have just 
mentioned ? 

j\Ir. Barry. I am proud of my record in helping to organize Inger- 
soll-Kand and the conditions which they have attained, making them 
one of the best paying shops in that area, in spite of Congressman 
Walter and others. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Will you answer the question ? 

Mr. Barry. I answer in the same way that I did before. 

The Chairman. Do you know Ernest Moyer ? 

Mr. Barry. I assert the privilege. Stool pigeons and informers 
paid for and whose testimony has time and again been proved to be 

The Chairman. Ernest Moyer was an organizer for the CIO. He 
is the man who organized Ingersoll-Rand. 

Mr. Barry. There are many Ernest Moyers. I don't know which 
one you are speaking of. 

The Chairman. The one who was engaged with you in organizing 
the Ingersoll-Rand plant. 

Mr. Barry. I assert the privilege. 

The Chairman. Do you know Joseph Kuzma ? 

Mr. Barry. I assert the privilege. 

The Chairman. Is it not a fact that the first contract executed by 
the Ingersoll-Eand Co. was negotiated by two men who have been 
convicted under the Smith Act ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barry. I don't know. 

The Chairman. Who negotiated the first contract witli Ingersoll- 
Rand? 

Mr. Barry. I don't recall. 

The Chairman, Go ahead, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become acquainted with an employee of the 
UE at New Jersey by the name of Kitty Heck, H-e-c-k ? 

Mr. Barry. I assert the privilege. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. According to notes I took from your testimony as 
you gave it, you were employed in New Jersey tDetween 1942 and 
1948. I am correct in that, am 1 not ? 

Mr. Barry. It might have been 1947 or 1948. It was pretty near 
1948. It might vary a month or 2 or 3, in that period. 

Mr. Tavenner, Wliere did you live in New Jersey during that period 
of time? 

Mr. Barry. At various places. I don't recall all the addresses. You 
mean the city? I would sav Newark all the time, except for 

Mr. Tavenner. Did vou'live the entire period of time in Newark, 
N. J.? 

Mr. Barry. Yes. except when I traveled on campaigns, or some- 
thing like that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1323 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live in Newark ? 

Mr. Barry. I had various addresses, Abbotsford Avenue, Hunting- 
ton Terrace, High Street. 

Mr. Ta\t;nner. What was your address at Huntington Terrace ? 

Mr. Barry. 140 and 142. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your address at Abbotsford Avenue ? 

Mr. Barry. I don't recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was your address 39 Abbotsford ? 

Mr. Barry. It sounds like it. I am not sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1946, did 3'ou sign a Communist Party election 
petition? I hand a photostatic copy of it to you, and refer to item 
84 for the purpose of refreshing your recollection. 

(Document shown to witness.) 

Mr. Barry. I assert the privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does the signature appearing in item 84 appear to 
be your signature ? 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is the address given following the name "Walter 
Barry" in item 84, namely, 39 Abbotsford Avenue, Newark, N. J., 
your address. 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. The name appearing on the following line, 85, is 
J. McLeish, 17 William Street, Newark, N. J. Were you acquainted 
with J. McLeish ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barry. Yes. He was my district president. 

INIr. TA^^:NNER. Were you present when the name "J. McLeish" 
was signed to this petition which name appears right after yours? 

Mr. Barry. I assert the privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. So you refuse to testify ? 

Mr. Barry. I decline to answer because I am not going to testify 
against myself. I therefore assert the privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was J. McLeish known to j'ou to be a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. One of the persons who signed the petition as affiant 
and who obtained the signatures was Martha Stone. Were you 
acquainted with Martha Stone ? 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Item 2 of the signatures on the second page is 
Charles Nusser, 7 Vincent Court, Newark, N. J. Were you acquainted 
with Charles Nusser ? 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Nusser was called as a witness 
in Newark, N. J., and refused to testify. 

On another page, item 2, is Emil Asher. Were you acquainted with 
Emil Asher? 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavtenner. Item 28 is Anthony DeAquino. Were you ac- 
quainted with Anthony DeAquino ? 

Mr Barry. The same answer. 



1324 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. De Aquino testified before the committee, Mr. 
Chairman, at Newark. He told the committee the circumstances un- 
der which he went into the Communist Party and the circumstances 
under which he left. My recollection is that he become a member for 
the purpose of obtainino; information which could be used against 
the Communist Party, and which was, and it resulted in breaking the 
hold of the Communist Party on his local. 

Item 7 on another page is Fannie Tushnet, T-u-s-h-n-e-t, Maple- 
wood, N. J. Were you acquainted with Fannie Tushnet ? 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

Mr. TA^^<:NNER. Item 68 on another page is John Paradise, whose 
address is given as Brooklyn, N. Y. Were you acquainted with John 
Paradise? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barry. You mean John Paradise who was on the UE staff? 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1946, John Paradise had an address of 466 85th 
Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. Does that help to identify him ? 

Mr. Barry. No. I wondered if he was the one who worked as an 
organizer for the UE. 

Mr. Tavenner. Item 14 on another page is Kate Heck. Were you 
acquainted with Kate Heck ? 

Mr. Barry. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer this document in evidence, Mr. 
Chairman, and ask that it be marked "Barry Exhibit No. 1," for 
identification purposes only, and to be made a part of the committee 
files. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Barry. Due to the fact that this committee has gone beyond its 
province time and again, including its chairman, Mr. Walter, naming 
people, smearing people — I have here a comment in the Washington 
Post today where it seems that other people feel similarly, "Editorial 
Denounced by Representative Walter" — it appears to me the same 
thing is going on here, and therefore I have to use my constitutional 
riglits, the assertion of the first and fifth amendments. 

The Chairman. You, too, are disturbed because Communists are 
being deported, are you not? 

Mr. Barry. According to the newspaper account, your answer is 
wrong. The man takes issue with you on it. He says you were attempt- 
ing to intimidate him and coerce him by statements which have no 
basis in fact. I kind of agree with him. 

The Chairman. Of course you agree with him. 

Tell me this : Wasn't the contract at the Ingersoll-Eand Co. nego- 
tiated by Emspak and Matles ? 

Mr. Barry. I am not sure, but I think you are mistaken. 

The Chairman. Did they negotiate the second contract? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

The Chairman. As a matter of fact, they signed the contract. 

Mr. Barry. I don't know. 

The Chairman. Did they negotiate any contract ? 

Mr. Barry. I don't know. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1325 

The Chairman. Do you know both Emspak and Matles ? 

Mr. Barry. Eight. 

The Chairman. Emspak was candidate for a political office, was 
he not, in New York ? 

Mr. Barry. Not that I know. 

The Chairman. Was Matles a candidate for a political office? 

Mr. Barry. Not that I know. If they were, I don't see any purpose 
of the discussion. They have a right to run for office in this country. 
It is a political right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
at any time ? 

Mr. Barry. The same answer as before, utilization of my rights 
under the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Barry, I asked you a question regarding John 
Paradise. You asked me if it was the John Paradise who was an 
organizer for the UE. I have obtained the testimony of John Para- 
dise at the Newark hearings of this committee on May 18, 1955. Mr. 
Paradise testified that he was an organizer for the UE. 

Mr. Barry. That is the one I knew. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. This sums up pretty well his experience as an organ- 
izer. I put the question this way : 

Mr. Paradise, you are a person of very wide experience in organizational work 
in the UE. From your testimony here you have served in Brooklyn, you have 
served in various areas within the State of New Jersey, you have served over a 
great part of Pennsylvania, over a part of "West Virginia, you have gone back to 
New York City, you have come back to the State of New Jersey. I don't know 
of anyone who would be in a better position to give this committee facts regard- 
ing Communist Party infiltration into the leadership of the UE than you are. 

Now if you don't know of any such activities, then it would be a very significant 
thing with such wide experience as you have had, and if you do know of it, it 
would be of great value to this committee if you would give such facts as are 
within your knowledge. Will you tell the committee whether or not you have 
observed activity of the Communist Party within the leadership of the UE? 

Mr. Paradise's reply was : 

I consider that this question is a violation of my constitutional rights and I 
refuse to answer the question based on my privilege under the fifth amendment 
and the first amendment as a witch-hunting question. 

That testimony identifies Mr. Paradise to you, doesn't it? 

Mr. Barry. That doesn't, but if you tell me he is the UE organ- 
izer 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, he has said he was the UE organizer. 

Mr. Barry. I know such a Paradise. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Barry. I assert the privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner, Do you refuse to answer? 

Mr. Barry. I decline to answer, and I substantially take similar 
reasons that he has given. I think he has commonsense. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, you take the same position that he 
does. You will not give this committee any facts within your knowl- 
edge regarding communism? Is that the part of his statement that 
you are now adopting? 

Mr. Barry. I now independently answer that based on the history 
of this committee ever since its inception, which has been used to casti- 



1326 COMlVniNIST activities in the NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

gate and harm labor, the fact that all kinds of labor leaders, church 
leaders, educators, and political people have said that this committee 
has as its purpose hurting labor, and attempting to force conformity 
upon people irrespective of their views; yes, I take use of my consti- 
tutional rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I at this point say this : I think your 
statement is fallacious and not true. It is not according to fact. The 
fact is that we are charged under Public Law 601 with investigating 
the extent to which your labor union or any other labor union has 
been or is infiltrated by the Communist conspiracy. 

I was at the Newark, N. J., hearings and I definitely recall that the 
evidence there, beyond contradiction, was that the UE union, at least 
at the time we received the testimony about it, was full of Communist 
Party domination and control. 

I just could not sit quiet and hear you make the statement you made 
which is full of fallacious and false statements, not based on fact. I 
just want to make it clear that I, as a member of this committee, and 
I am sure the committee itself, am not interested in harming any union. 

We are interested in harming and destroying, if we can, the Com- 
munist Party control of unions or the infiltration of them by the Com- 
munist Party. 

The Chairman. Are there any further questions ? 

Mr. Barry. May I respond to the Congressman for a moment ? 

The Chairman. No. 

The witness is excused. 

(Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 

(Whereupon, at 11:45 a. m., the hearing was adjourned.) 

(Testimony of v,'itnesses on May 16 and 17, 1955, printed in part I 
of this series.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Alexander, Frank 1052 

Alfone, Joe 1160, 1163 

Ames, Jacob (also known as Jack Ames) 1074, 1077, 1079 

Aslier, Emil 1162,1163,1188-1195 (testimony), 1323 

Asher, Martha Stone. (See Stone, Martha.) 

Barry, Marion (Mrs. Walter Barry) 1310 

Barry, "Walter (born Israel Eisenshtat ; also known as Walter Wishnef- 

sky) 1008, 1021, 1032, 1161, 1162, 1309, 1310, 1313-1.326 (testimony) 

Bigelow, John O 1270 

Bloksberg, Bertha 1224 

Bloksberg, Big Dong 1158 

Bloksberg Gabriel 1020, 

1158, 1163, 1169, 1171, 1180-1184 (testimony), 1186, 1187 

Bokay, Tony 1018 

Boudin, Leonard B 1292, 1295, 1300 

Brandt, Neil 998, 1000, 1002, 1003 1018 

Browder, Earl 1036 

Burdick, Abraham Alan_ 1016, 1017, 1021-1024, 1026, 1034, 1127-1136 (testimony) 

Carpenter, Ethel 1017, 1117 

Chandler, Frank 1018, 1054, 1223 

Charney, George Blake 1050 

Cole, Archer (born Archer Cohen) 1034, 

1035, 1116, 1119-1126 (testimony), 1161, 1162 

Conrad, Helen , 1019, 1054 

Conroy, James Joseph 1108 

Corsi, Edward 1144, 1231 

Costello, Jimmy 1165 

Davis, Lena 1003 

Davis, Robert Gorham 1272-1275, 1277 

Dean, Elwood M 10.54, 1105, 1160, 1172, 1190, 1191, 1222, 1224, 1231, 1244 

Dean, Jeanette (Mrs. Elwood M. Dean) 1160, 1172 

DeAquino, Anthony 1145- 

1167 (testimony), 1170, 1174, 1175, 1179, 1182, 1194, 1323. 1324 

DeCaux, Len 1318 

Delaney, Thomas F 1320 

DeMaio. Ernest 1.319, 1.320 

Dixon, Robert 1031 

Dobish. Helen 1159, 1163, 1172 

Dodd, Bella V 1275-1282 (testimony), 1286 

Dubac, Connie 1158, 1162, 1163, 1171 

Dubac, Katherine 1158 

Duclos, Jacques 1037 

Durkin, James 1319 

p]isenshtat, Israel. (See Barry, Walter.) 

Eisler, Gerhart 1010, 1176, 1177 

Emspak, Julius 1324, 1325 

Enberg, Alice 1228 

Engle. Esther. (See Liss, Esther Engle.) 

Enright, Robert 1157 

Feinglass. Abe 1319 

Felsen, Milton 1117 

Fields 1250 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Finestock, Joe 1153 

Fisher, Joseph 1145, 1226-1268 (testimony) 

Fitzgerald, Albert J 1021, 1157, 1317 

Fitzpatrick, Michael J 1202 

Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley 1050, 1052 

Foster, William Z 1274, 1275 

Fox, Ralph 1268 

Frank, Richard 1275 

Frankel, Esther Strum 1195, 1196, 1305 

Gallagher, Tom 1165 

Galina, Robert 1160, 1163, 1172, 1184-1188 (testimony) 

Garrigan, William 1149, 1150, 1164 

Gerson, Simon W 1050, 1052 

Golat, Solomon 1292-1300 (testimony) 

Goldberger, Ploward A 1214 

Gorman, John 1031, 1032 

Green, Richard F 1283 

Greenburg, Paul H 1075, 1076, 1087 

Hartle. Barbara 1060, 1062 

Heck, Katherine 1012, 1091-1093, 1322, 1324 

Hirseh, Alfred 1319 

Hoffman, Katherine 1019, 1020, 1205-1213 (testimony) 

Holderman, Karl 1157 

Hollinsshed, Bernel 1018 

Hood, Otis 1050 

Hudson, Roy 1279 

Jencks, Clinton E 1319 

Jenkins, David 1319 

Job, Joseph F 1309-1311 (testimony) 

Johnson, Arnold 1050 

Karlin, Jacob S 1138, 1139 

Keller, Charles 1317 

Klein, Robert 1004, 1005 

Kolovetz, Julius 1152, 1164, 1166, 1168-1175 (testimony), 1183 

Kress, Joe 1319 

Kuzma, Joe 1320, 1322 

Laba, Estelle 1289-1291 (testimony) 

Lannon, Albert F 1050 

Lew, Herbert M 1049 

Lewis, Celia 1280 

Lewis, Robert 1313. 

Lieato. Alan 1149-1151, 1164 

Lightfoot, Claude — 1052, 1198, 1199 

Lightfoot, Geraldine (Mrs. Claude Lightfoot) 1052 

Lippman, Harold E 1300-1304 (testimony) 

Liss, Esther Engle (also known as Esther Engle) 1057^ 

1060, 1070, 1159, 1163, 1195-1198 (testimony), 1295 

Lock. Ed 1319 

Lowenstein, Robert 1270-1282 (testimony) 

Lustig, James 1104, 1131 

Mahan, Mrs. Gaetana 1224 

Mahan, Gay 1231, 1247 

Mahan, Lawrence 1230 

Malinow, Louis 1019, 

1023, 1057, 1058, 1060, 1070, 1128, 1191, 1222, 1224, 1295 

Marion, George 1240, 1241 

Marzani, Carl 1176-1178 

Matthews, Edward IK^S 

Matles, James J 1089, 1090, 1131, 1157, 1324, 1325 

McLeish, James B. Sr 1012, 1013, 1021, 1087-1113 (testimony), 1323 

McNeil, Allan 1040 

Meth, Theodore Sager 10G8, 1079 

Miles, Victor H 1292 

Mindszenty, Cardinal 1178 



INDEX ill 

Pag« 

Moore, James 1031, 1034 

Moran, Steve 1157 

Moroze, Lewis 1049,1060,1067,1068-1075) testimony), 

1076, 1077, 1079-1086 (testimony), 1100, 1221, 1294-1296 

Mortimer, Wyndham 1318 

Moyer, Ernest 1322 

Nabried, Thomas 1050 

Nelson, Steve 1050 

Newell, Charles 1040 

Norman, William 1265 

Nusser, Charles 1043-1056 (testimony), 1057, 

1058-1063 (testimony), 1070, 1081, 1082, 1231, 1242, 1295, 1323 

Nydes, Jules 1002 

Oakes, Grant 1320 

O'Connor, John F 1178 

Ormoud, Frances Etta 1305-1308 (testimony) 

Owens, John 1056-1058 (testimony), 1059, 1060, 1066, 1198 

Paradise, James 1205, 1218 

Paradise, John 1200-1205 (testimony), 1324, 1325 

Perlin 1104 

Perone, John 1005, 1016, 1017 

Perry, Pettis 1050-1052 

Poleshuck, Walter S 1214-1217 (testimony), 1269 

Pollock, Ernst Stuart 996-1026 (testimony) ; 

1037, 1091, 1092, 1124-1128, 1133, 1134, 1136 

Reuther, Walter 1133 

Rocklin, David 1083, 1086, 1219-1225 (testimony) ; 1294 

Rooney 1112, 1113 

Rossmoore, William 1180, 1181, 1184 

Rubicz, Steve 1001 

Rudich, Stephen J 1027-1042 (testimony), 1091, 1117 

Russell, Rose 1280 

Sacher, Harry 1043, 1044, 1047, 1188, 1191-1193, 1219, 1221, 1223, 1226, 1268 

Sangene, Joseph 1149-1156, 1164, 1169 

San Giovanni, Dominick 1117 

Santora, William 1034, 1035, 1115-1119 (testimony), 1159, 1161, 1163 

Sartiski, Jack 1040 

Schneiderman, William 1050 

Scribner, David 1114, 1115, 1119, 1137 

Sentner, William 1052 

Shapiro, Louis 1076-1079 (testimony) 

Silvermaster, Nathan, Gregory 1225 

Smith, Frederick 1031 

Smorodin, Ted 1137-1142 (testimony) 

Soshein, Eddie 1160, 1161 

Sprechman, Joseph 1147-1149. 1151, 1157-1159, 1161, 1163, 1169, 1171, 1172 

Stachel, Jack 1034, 1279 

Stavis, Morton 1087, 1097, 1102, 1105, 1113, 1114, 1127, 1133, 1134, 1200, 1205 

Stein, Sid 1228, 1230, 1233, 1250 

Steuben, John 1008, 1317, 1318 

Stone, Martha 1019, 

1029, 1033, 1057, 1065, 1066, 1160, 1161, 1172, 1224, 1228, 1323 

Sun, Yut-San 1234 

Taylor, Edward 1072 

Trachtenberg, Alexander 1050 

Trueba. Samuel 1269, 1270 

Tushnet, Fannie 1324 

Unger, Adrian M 1289 

Verano, Sam 1147-1149, 1151, 1159, 1163 

Walker, Roy C 1144 

Walter. David L 1312 

Watt, George 1050 

Weber, Addie 1280 

Weirach, Milton 1157, 1165 

Wellman, Saul 1052 



iv . DsDEX 

Fag* 
White, David 1049 

Williamson. Jolin W 1034, 1228, 1247 

Winston, Henry 1034 

Wishnefsky, Walter. (See Barry, Walter.) 

Wood, William G 996 

Wortis, Rose 1279 

Yoiuiff. Ruth 1032-1034 

Zick, Jack 1017, 1018 

Zimmerman, Perry 1288-1289 (testimony) 

Zinna, Anthony 1154, 1179. 1180 

Orgaj^izations 

American Association of University Professors 1275 

American Civil Liberties Union 1049 

American Federation of Labor 1239, 1287 

New Jersey 1230, 1231, 1246, 1253 

Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, 

United, CIO 1133 

Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of, AFL 1312 

Local 349 (Orange, N. J.) 1312 

Civil Rights Congress 1011, 1059, 1060, 1080, 1126, 1174 

New Jersey 1056, 

1061. 1069-1071, 1077, 1083, 1085. 1086, 1221, 1293, 1294, 1296 

Committee for Industrial Organization (Newark, N. J., area) 1206, 1207 

Communist Party, U. S. A. : 

National Election Campaign Committee 1050, 1052 

New Jersey 1048, 

1049, 1056, 1057, 1065, 1128. 1222, 1228-1232, 1237, 1248 

State Committee 1228-1232, 1237, 1244, 1248, 1253 

New Jersey : 

Bloomfield. Tom Mooney Club 1029-1032,1034 

Hudson County (N. J.) Communist Party 1228 

Newark 1029, 1033, 1055, 1128 

Clinton Hill Club 1267 

County Club 1267 

Doctor's Club 993 

Federal Club 1147-1150, 1164, 1171, 1172 

Iron Bound Club 993, 1027, 1267 

John Brown Club 1267 

Olgin Club 993 

Orange Club 993, 1267, 1268 

Professional Section Club 993 

Ralph Fox Club (Teachers' group) 1267,1268 

Seventh Ward Club 1267, 1268 

Teachers' Chib 993 

Third Ward Club 993, 1267 

West Side Club 993, 1027, 1267, 1268 

Youth Club 993 

State Training School 12.53 

. New York State Committee 1276 

Pennsylvania. Philadelphia. RCA Cell 1138 

Communist Political Association, U. S. A 1003. 1030 

New Jersey 1265 

Congress of Industrial Organizations, Political Action Committee 1186, 1307 

Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America. United 998, 

1020, 1028, 1034, 1038. 1040, 1055, 1086. 1087, 1093, 1095, 1112, 
1115, 1118. 1127, 1140. 1146, 1162, 1168, 1173, 1186, 1188, 1197, 
1201, 1215, 1239, 1269, 1315, 1320, 1325. 

Seventh International Convention, 1941, Camden 1093, 1095, 1112 

District 4 998 1020 1028. 1087, 1098, 1115. 1120, 

1156, 1162, 1168, 1172, 1189, 1202, 1203. 1206, 1215, 1269, 1315 

District 6 1039, 1040, 1202 

District 7 1040 

Health and Group Insurance Fund 1209, 1211 



INDEX 



Electrical, Radio, auci Machine Workers of America, United— Continued Page 

Local 410 (Bloomfleld, N. J.) 1032 

Local 419 1269 

Local 423 (Passaic County area, New Jersey) _~_ iiss 1189 



Local 428_ 



1269 



Local 437 " ~_ 

Local 447 "_"_! _"T' 1146 

1147, 1158, 1162, 1168, 1173, 1174, 1179, 1187, 1189, 1192 1197 



Local 120- ___ -,-,-,r> 

Local 1225 "I— Illllllliri" 1127 

Electrical Workers, International Union of (lUE) I_ _ io20 

Fur and Leather Workers' Union, International, CIO '_ ^ ' 1054' 1055 

Greater Newark CIO Council (New Jersey) 1907-1910 

Honest Ballot Association ^ "~1lV iTrq 

International Workers Order _~_ _~__~_~~7_V__ 19?q 

Labor Youth League ~ -.rwfft if\a% 

Lenin School I" "fllJs" 1139 1141 

Machinists, International Association of, AFL I [ __'_' ' 1132 

Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, International Union of (New Jersey^ 1239 

National Education Association ~~ 197^ 

National Negro Congress I ~ -.qIo 

National Negro Labor Council ~__I l^j^^. 

New Jersey Labor School -.ofi^ 

People's Rights Party I ~ ~ ^f^Qi inoo 

Progressive Party 1209 1^59 1963 

Red International of Labor Unions I-7iy__t _ __ 1132 

Steel and Metal Workers' Industrial League I__I ~__~ __ 1132 

Teachers, American Federation of, AFL !_____ 1271 

Mo o 1 T^ ^ XT • ..T ^^^^' 1275-1277, i279~128l7i286,'"i287, 1291 

Newark Teachers Union (New Jersey) I979 1291 

Teachers, New Jersey Federation of, AFL 1 979' ipsa 

Trade Union Unity League ~_ ~ZZZZIZZI_ tiS 

Union County CIO Council (New Jersey) 191^ 

United States, Government of : ~ 

United States Employment Service 1307 

Works Progress Administration Z _Z I^OO 1901 

Veterans of Foreign Wars, Essex Council (New Jersey) Z__ II43' 1144 

Walt Whitman School of Social Science (Newark) ___ 1170 1919' i9iq 

West Side School for Adults (New York) ___'_ ZZZZ_____Z 1201 

World Federation of Trade Unions I934 1951 

Young Communist League logs' 1975 

Publications 
American Bar Journal ■, j^^g 

Daily Worker r_ZZ~io07,"l047,~1170,"ll71,"l228, 1247 

m ±iact -j^QQ- ^Q^g 

Snm?S;ir::"/;/r"-:::- ioo7,-i56i,-iiss, isk^wis 

New Jersey Teacher ~ ~"~ -[itL 

People's World Z__Z_ _ 1947 

Political Affairs " Z_~__ZZZZZ~ZZ~~Z"ZZZZZ~~ 1259 

Schools and the People's Front, The "l._~ Z__Z~_Z___ ~ 1275 

Tasks of Organized Labor Today, The ZZ Z___ Z ~ 19r,9 

Toward Soviet America "~ ^0^4 

o 



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