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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the Rocky Mountain area. Hearings"

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11 1 1 1 iililii! 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA— PART 2 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



MAY 17 AND 18, 1956 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 




i^ARVARD COLLEGE LIBRAR*J 

DEPOSITED BY THE 

-UNITED SUTES GOVERmEHU 

>lti6 29 1956 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
79079 WASHINGTON : 1956 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Cfiairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, lUinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHBRER, Ohio 

Richard Arens, Director 
n 



CONTENTS 



Part 1 
May 15, 1956: 

Testimony of— P''^® 

Norman C. Pixler 4075 

Philip Reno 4081 

Dwight Spencer 4088 

Donald D. Plumb 4098 

Afternoon session: 

Arlyne Plumb (Mrs. Donald D. Plumb) 4105 

Edward J. Scheunemann 4117 

Bellarmino Joe Duran 4125 

May 16, 1956: 

Testimony of — 

Bellarmino Joe Duran (resumed) 4145 

Virgil Akeson 4150 

Anthony Morton 4157 

Graham Dolan 4169 

Afternoon session: 

R. (Ray) C. Moorehead 4179 

Bernard W. Stern 4188 

Harold C. Sanderson 4194 

Eunice Dolan (Mrs. Graham Dolan) 4200 



Part 2 

May 17, 1956: 

Testimony of — 

Morris Wright 4205 

Alfredo C. Montoya 4214 

Rudolph B. Cookl 4229 

Afternoon session: 

Harold Page Martin 4237 

Harold Meier 4248 

Richard Aspinwall 4253 

Irying Blau 4260 

May 18, 1956: 

Testimony of — 

Arnold Berkens 4266 

Dayid Bramhall 4267 

Shirley Bramhall ( Mrs. Dayid Bramhall) 4273 

Martha Correa 4278 

Kenneth N. Kripke 4283 

Alfonso Sena 4286 

Fred Trujillo 4287 

Eugene Deikman 4288 

Morris Judd 4291 

David Eakins 4293 

Ann Eakins (Mrs. David Eakins) 4295 

Jesus Bernardino Sauceda 4297 

Judith Sauceda (Mrs. Jesus Bernardino Sauceda) 4298 

Richard Demming 4298 

Index I 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress (1946), chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

:^ ***** * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWEKS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a vphole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attaclis the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpo.se of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 
* * ^ * * * ^ 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
the following standing committees : 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

RlTLE XI 
POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attaclis the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is autliorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or lias adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA— PART 2 



THURSDAY, MAY 17, 1956 

United States Holse or Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Denver^ Colo. 

PUBLIC hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Uii-Americun Activities re- 
convened, pursuant to recess, at 10 a. m., in the courtroom of the 
United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit, Post OfKcc Building, 
Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Francis E. Walter, of 
Pennsylvania ; and Harold H. Yelde, of Illinois. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director; Courtney E. 
Owens, and W. Jackson Jones, investigators. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Morris Wright. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please, and swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, die wliole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God i 

Mr. ^^^RIGHT. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MORRIS WRIGHT; ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

NATHAN WITT 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Wright. My name is Morris Wright. Address is Post Office 
Box 08, Bayard. X. ]\[ex. I am business agent of the local union of 
tlie International T'nion of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers. Local 
890. 

Mr. Arens. In passiuir, give us the area of local 890, please. 

Mr. Wright. It has membership in four industrial properties in 
Grant County, N. Mex., and lias one in Luna County, Xew ]\Iex. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you ? 

Mr. Wright. Right. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Wright. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself. 

4205 



4206 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Witt. Nathan Witt, Post Office Box 156, New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Akens. Mr. Wright, \Yhere and when were you born ? 

Mr, Wright. I was born in Oklahoma in 1908. 

Mr. Witt. Excuse me, Mr. Arens. Can we have the picture taking 
over with ? 

The Chairman. Yes. Under the rules of the committee, photo- 
graphs may be taken prior to the time the witness starts testifying, 
and after that no pictures may be taken. It is disconcerting to the 
witness and also to the committee. 

Mr. Witt. We have no objection, since we have interrupted, if the 
photogi^apher doesn't have all the pictures he wants maybe he can 
get them out of the way now. He is trying to make a living. 

Mr. Arens. Now, if you please, Mr. Wright, a word about your 
early education prior to the time that you became self sufficient. 

Mr. Wright. I attended public schools in the suburbs of Chicago 
and in Newton, Mass. I attended Carlton College and the University 
of Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. When did you conclude your work at the University of 
Chicago V 

Mr. Wright. I tliink it was 1929. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a degree there ? 

Mr. Wright. No. I attended college for 5 years. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us your first employment after you com- 
pleted your w^ork at Chicago University. 

Mr. Wright. I worked for a short time in a toothpaste factory in 
Highand Park, 111. Do you want me to continue with that ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, if you please. Just give us a brief chronological 
sketch of your employments. 

Mr. Wright. My next job was with the Billings Polytechnic In- 
stitute, Billings, Mont. 

Mr. Arens. Was that a teaching institution? 

Mr. Wright. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you teach there ? 

Mr. Wright. No, it was an institution that also runs industries 
where students can earn a living as they are attending school. My 
job was — the title was assistant to the president. I was principally 
concerned with running these industries. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us who the president was. 

Mr. Wright. His name was Ernest T. Eaton. 

Mr. Arens. What year or years w' as it that you were identified with 
that institution ? Your best recollection. 

Mr. Wright. I think I started there early in 1930 and was there 
about a year and a half. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Your next occupation or employment'^ 

Mr. Wright. I worked for the next 3 years, I think it was, on farms 
and ranches in Montana. 

Mr. Arens. Did you own or operate the farms or ranches or 
just 

Mr. Wright. No. 

Mr. Arens. Work for other people ? 

Mr. Wright. I was employed. 

Mr. Arens. What was your next employment? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4207 

Mr. Wright. My next employment was in Chicago, 111. with the 
La Salle Extension University, in the correspondence business. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall when you commenced with LaSalle? 

Mr. Wright. I think that was in 1934. 

Mr. Ari:ns. In what capacity did you serve? 

Mr. Wright. At the beoinning I was classified as an instructor, 
liandling correspondence lessons that came in. Then I was given an 
assignment to organize the resident school there, a business school 
leacliing the stenotypists- — the machine which is being used here — 
and typing. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged with the LaSalle Institu- 
tion in Chicago? 

Mr. Wright. Until 1938. 

Mr. Arexs. Was your disassociation from the LaSalle Institution 
voluntary? 

Mr. Wright. Yes, it was. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us now your next employment. 

Mr. Wright. My next employment was with the Peoples Press. 

Mr. Arens. First of all, tell us when that employment coimnenced. 

Mr. Wright. At the same time that I left the last job, it was in the 
spring of 1938, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. Can you identify Peoples Press for us ? 

Mr. Wr'Ght. It was a chain of labor newspapers, labor and com- 
munity newspapers. 

Mr. Arens. Who ran Peoples Press ? 

Mr. Wright. Mr. Frank Palmer. 

Mr. Arens. Can you identify him for us ? 

Mr. Wright. No, I can't identify him further than that. 

Mr. Arens. Was he president of the corporation that owned Peoples 
Press ? 

Mr. Wright. That I don't know. He was the executive editor. 

Mr. Arens. How many papers did Peoples Press have ? 

Mr. Wright. I think there were 56 editions at one time. 

Mr. Arens. Were there 56 separate areas in which it circulated ? Is 
that what you mean ? 

Mr. Wright. Some of the editions were edited on behalf of local 
and international unions, and others were community editions. 

Mr. Arens. What was the total circulation of Peoples Press? 

Mr. Wright. I can't recall. 

Mr. Arens. What is your best estimate as to what was the total 
circulation of Peoples Press? 

jSIr. Wright. I have no basis for an estimate. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity were you identified with Peoples 
Press ? 

Mr. Wright. As reporter and rewrite man at the beginning. Later 
I was editor of certain editions — various editions. 

Mr. Arens. Is Peoples Press currently in publication? 

Mr. Wright. No, it is not. 

Mr. Arens. When did it go out of business ? 

Mr. Wright. It went out of business — I think it was late in 1938 
at the time that the CIO News began publication. It took over various 
editions. 

Mr. Arens. Does Peoples Press have a successor entity or organi- 
zation ? 



4208 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Wright. I don't think so, not that I know of. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you with Peoples Press ? 

Mr. Wright. Not quite a year. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment ? 

Mr. Wright. ]My next employment was with the Townsend Na- 
tional Weekly published by the Townsend old-age pension organiza- 
tion. 

]Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Wright. The same as in the last job, general editorial work. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you associated with that publication^ 

Mr. Wright. I think it was about a year ? 

Mr. Arexs. Your next occupation? 

Mr. Wright. The next job was as editor of the Wisconsin edition 
of the CIO News. 

Mr. Arexs. When did that employment begin? 

Mr. Wright. In 1940. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you living ? 

Mr. Wright. In Milwaukee. 

Mr. Arens. Did I understand you to say you were the editor ? 

Mr. Wright. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. ^Yho was your superior? 

Mr. Wright. Well, I was working under the direction of the execu- 
tive board of the Wisconsin Industi-ial Union Council. Mr. Walter 
Burke was the man I reported to. He was secretary of that council. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you serve as editor of the Wisconsin CIO 
News ? 

Mr. Wright. From a year and a half until JNIarch 1942. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, your next employment, please 

Mr. Wright. My next employment was as assistant editor of the 
publication of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter 
Workers, 

Mr. Arens. What was the name of it then? 

Mr. Wright. At the time that I was hired there it was the Mine, 
Mill, and Smelter Workers edition of the CIO News. 

Mr. Arens. At that time was Mine-Mill identified with the CIO ? 

Mr. Wright. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Who was the editor at that time ? 

Mr. Wright. Graham Dolan. 

Mr. xVrens. Where was the office ; where were you employed ? 

Mr. Wright. It was in Denver, and that is where I was enxployed. 

Mr. Arens. Did you report to or were you responsible to Graliam 
Dolan? 

Mr. Wright. Yes; he was my immediate superior. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him prior to the time that you assumed 
your job as assistant editor? 

Mr. Wright. Yes. I knew him as a member of the Newspaper 
Guild in Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. You knew him back when you were with the Peoples 
Press, in 1938 ; is that right ? 

Mr. Wright. I can't recall knowing him at that time. 

Mr. Arens. Was he instrumental in engaging you with the Mine- 
Mill organization? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4209 

Mr. Wright. I made :i formal application to the executive board. 

Mr. Arexs. I understand, but was he instrumental in procuring 
your employment or assisting you in procuring your employment? 

Mr. Wright. Well. I wrote to him at the time that I learned of his 
appointment to that job, and I told him I would like to work in the 
West and if he ever knew of an opening in Colorado or some State 
in this area I would like to know about it. 

Mr. xVrens. Tell us your next assignment within Mine-Mill. We 
have gone now to 1942 according to the chronology. 

Mr. Wright. At the time that Graham Dolan joined the Xavy in 
1044, 1 became editor of the paper. 

Mr. Arexs. How long were you editor of the paper? 

]\Ir. Wright. I'^ntil November of 1955. 

Mr. Arexs. "Wliat happened then? 

Mr. Wright. I resigned to take my present position. 

Mr. Arexs. During the time that you were editor of the Mine-Mill 
paper did the format of the paper change; that is, the name of it? 

i\Ir. Wright. The name changed from "The Union" to "The Mine- 
Mill Union." 

Mr. Arexs. T^Hiat was the circulation of the paper when you were 
last editor? 

Mr. Wright. Tlie circulation was about 80,000 up until the time 
that the Canadian section of the union began publication of a separate 
paper. So we discontinued sending the paper to the Canadian mem- 
bership, and the circulation dropped to about 50,000, 

Mr. Arexs, Are the editorials and articles of the Canadian paper 
and of the American paper interchangeable? 

Mr. Wright. Sometimes material from one paper is reprinted in 
the other. 

Mr. Arexs. Is the editorial policy the same, under the same 
guidance ? 

Mr, Wright. Not completely the same, because the Canadian sec- 
tion of the union has its own executive board. 

Mr, Arexs. Yesterday I believe we had a little explanation of the 
relationship between the two organizations. What is your present 
job? 

Mr. Wright. My present job is business agent for Local 890 of the 
Mine, jMill, and Smelter Workers. 

Mr. Arexs. You have occupied that post since 1955 ? 

Mr. Wright. December, 

Mr. Arex'S. Who is your immediate superior? 

Mr. Wright. Mr. Juan Chacon, J-u-a-n C-h-a-c-o-n. 

^Ir. Arexs. In the course of your work as editor of the Mine-Mill 
l)aper, did you have occasion to promote the motion-picture film. Salt 
of the Earth ? 

Mr. Wright. I wrote a good deal of material about it. 

Mr. Arexs, Did you have aiwthing to do with the actual produc- 
tion of the film? 

Mr. Wright. No, sir. I wish I had, but I didn't. 
Mr. Arexs. Was it promoted by the Mine-Mill organization? 
Mr. Wright. I don't think it would be accurate to say it was pro- 
moted by the Mine-Mill. 

Mr. Arexs. It was endorsed or commended by Mine-Mill; is that 
correct ? 



4210 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Wright. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Though the Mine-Mill publications ? 

Mr. Witt. Mr. Arens, will you take my ans\Yer to that? I think 
it will save a little time. 

Mr. Arens. I think I would prefer to have his response. 

The Chairman. I think it was largely financed, wasn't it? 

Mr. Witt. That is the problem. 1 will be glad to explain it. 

The Chairman. Yes ; I would like to have it for the record. 

Mr. Arens. Did it have financing from Mine-Mill ? 

Mr. Wright. It had no financing at all from Mine-Mill. 

Mr. Arens. What participation did Mine-Mill as an organization 
have in the production, distribution, promotion, or publicity of the 
Salt of the Earth films? 

Mr. Wright. The international union had no participation beyond 
agreeing to formal arrangement as cosponsors of the film. The local 
union with which I am connected now was the one that participated 
in making the film. Their contribution was that some of their mem- 
bers acted in the film. 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt here to be sure this record is clear. 
Although you have asserted, JNIr. Wright, that the international did 
not finance or promote the film, do I understand you correctly that the 
local with which you are currently identified did so promote the film? 

Mr. Wright. It did not in any wa3' help finance the film. 

Mr. Arens. ^^Hiat did the local do toward the production? 

Mr. Wright. The local cooperated in the preparation of the script 
by holding meetings at which the drafts of the script while it was 
in preparation were read. Since the story was based pretty largely 
on a strike which had taken place there, the people who had been in- 
volved in that strike heard the script and made their criticisms and 
comments so as to bring it into line with the actual reality of the 
strike. 

Mr. Arens. With whom did the local cooperate? You say it co- 
operated. With whom did it cooperate ? 

Mr. Wright. With the people who were preparing to make the 
film. 

Mr. Arens. Who were they ? 

Mr. Wright. "Vyell, they are organized as Independent Produc- 
tions, Inc. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us who are the leaders of Independent 
Productions, Inc., the principal people in it ? 

Mr. Wright. The people that I knew were Herbert Biberman, 
Michael Wilson, who wrote the script, Paul Jarrico. B-i-b-e-r-m-a-n, 
W-i-1-s-o-n. 

Mr. Arens. Paul Jarrico, you say ? 

Mr. Wright. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. He was the producer ? 

Mr. Wright. Yes. J-a-r-r-i-c-o. 

Mr. Arens. Did Mine-Mill or did any of the individual officers of 
IMine-Mill have anything to do with the'immigration problems of cue 
of the actresses in the film whose name was Rosaura, last name 
R-e-v-u-a-1-t-a-s ? 

Mr. Wright. That isn't the correct spelling. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell it correctly, then ? 

Mr. Wright. You used an "'a" in place of an "e." 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4211 

Mr, Arexs. Could 3'ou spell the actress' name for the record ? 

Mr. Arens. Would you give your spellino; again, please ? 

Mr. Arens. Rosaura R-o-s-a-u-r-a. The last name, R-e-v-u-a-1-t-a-s. 

Mr. "Wright. It should be e-1-t-a-s. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. What did you or what did any of the 
officers of Mine-]\lill have to do with the immigration problems of this 
actress ? 

Mr. Wright. To my knowledge, nothing. 

Mr. Arens. Did you as editor of the Mine-Mill publication run 
articles respecting her problems and defend her ? 

Mr. Wright. I think we did. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not she was a Communist ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wright. I have no information on that. 

Mr. Arexs. Thank you, sir. 

How manv of the cast of Salt of the Earth were members of local 
890of Mine-lMiir^ 

Mr. Wright. I couldn't say offhand. There were several hundred 
people who were filmed in some of the scenes. 

Mr. Arens. Were most of the cast from the standpoint of just num- 
bers of people in Mine-Mill ? 

jNIr. Wright. Yes. 

The Chairman. The Princpal roles were played by professional 
actors and actresses ? Is that correct ? 

jNIr. Wright. Not entirely. The male lead was played by a mem- 
ber of the local union there. 

Mr. Arens. Who was he ? 

Mr. Wright. Juan Chacon; the man I mentioned a few minutes 
ago. 

]\Ir. Arens. Do you know whether or not the man whom you ]ust 
mentioned, Juan Chacon, was a Communist? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wright. I decline to answer that question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did Mine-Mill take credit for the production of the 
film? Did Mine-Mill assert in articles by you that this full-length 
film story had been made by Mine-Mill ? 

Mr. Wright. As I remember it, we said we cosponsored it. That 
was the fact. 

Mr. VeI;DE. You said that Juan Chacon — is that the name?— 
who played the lead in the theater is a nonprofessional actor ? 

Mr. Wright. That is right. 

Mr. Velde. Had he had any experience at all in acting? 

Mr. Wright. No. He had training prior to the time that the film- 
ing of the picture began. 

Mr. Velde. What kind of training? 

Mr. Wright. Training as an actor by the people, by the director of 
the film. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know wdiere Salt of the Earth has played? 

Mr. Wr ght. I couldn't answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. That is beyond your scope of knowledge ? 

]\Ir. Wright. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Has it been, however, circulated pretty well over the 
Nation ? 



4212 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr, Wright. I don't think so. 

Mr. Arens. Has it been played on a free basis to the various locals 
of the organization ? 

Mr. Wright. To most of them. 

Mr. Arens. Has it been on loan to other organizations or groups? 

Mr. Wright. I think a fee has been charged for it. 

Mr. Arens. Do A'Ou know who actually has had charge of the 
distribution of the film, Salt of the Earth ? 

Mr. Wright. I had charge of it at one time. This was on 16 mm. 
As far as the 35 nun. distribution I had nothing to do with that. 

Mr. Arens. On the 16 mm. distribution which you had charge of, 
what did you do ? Where did you play it !' 

Mr. Wright. Mostly we furnished it to our — we had one copy of 
it and sent it around to various local unions which wanted to show it. 

Mr. Arens. Local unions of what organization ? 

Mr. Wright. Mostly of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers. 

Mr. Arens. What other organizations received the film? 

Mr. Wright. There are too many for me to attempt to name them. 

Mr. Arens. Enumerate some of the principal ones. 

Did United Electrical, Radio, and ^Machine Workers of America 
receive them ? 

Mr. Wright. UE was one of the organizations. 

Mr. Arens. Did Distributing, Processing, and Office Workers of 
America receive them ? 

Mr. Wright. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Did Harry Bridges' boys receive them ? 

Mr. Wright. Who is Harry Bridges' boys ? 

Mr. Arens. The longshoremen. 

Mr. Wright. I don't recall its being shown there, but I couldn't 
say positively. I know a number of congregations of the Quaker 
Church have shown it. 

Mr. Arens. Were you instrumental in promoting the display of 
the film to the members of the Quaker Church, and the congregations 
of the Quaker Church ? 

Mr. Wright. No; I just arranged for them to get a copy of the 
film when they wrote and asked for it. 

Mr. Arens. How many times was it displayed to various congre- 
gations ? How many congregations ? 

Mr. Wright. I couldn't give you a figure on that. 

Mr. Arens. When was the film actually finished, ready for re- 
lease. What was the date of it ? 

Mr. Wright. I don't know the exact date. 

Mr. Arens. Was it in 1955? What year? That is what I really 
meant. 

Mr. Wright. I believe the film was made in 1953. 

Mr. Arens. When was it actually distributed throughout the 
country ? 

Mr. Wright. I think it was about February or March of 1954 that 
it was completed. 

Mr. Arens. What are your duties as business agent? Give us a 
brief summary of your duties. 

Mr. Wright. Principally to meet with representatives of the com- 
panies with which the local union has contracts and settling grievances. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4213 

Mr. Arens. Are you regarded technically as an official, so as to be 
within the purview of the non-Conununist affidavit 

Mr, Wright. Xo ; I am not an elected official. 

Mr. Arens. Yon are an appointive employee ? 

Mr. Wright. I am an employee. 

Mr. ARf:Ns. AVho actually appointed you? 

]\Ir. Wright. I was appointed by vote of the executive board of 
the local union, and followino; that by vote of three membership 
meetings. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Wright, would you look over to the right, at this 
gentleman in the blue suit seated here? Would he please stand. 
Will you tell us whether or not you have ever seen him before? 

Mr.' Wright. I will take my privilege under the fifth amendment 
on that. 

Mr. Arens. The gentleman standing there is Mr. Bellarmino 
Duran, who testified under oath a day or so ago before this com- 
mittee that while he was an undercover agent in the Communist con- 
spiracy serving his government and reporting to the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation he, to a certainty, knew you as a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Wright. He also said here that I was responsible for socialist 
content in Salt of the Earth. It so happens there is no socialist 
content. 

Mr. Arens. I assume you take issue with him on that. His inter- 
pretation of what you did on Salt of the Earth was in error, is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Wright. He had no basis for interpretation. He knew noth- 
ing about it. 

Mr. Arens. Did he have any basis for asserting that you were a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wright. I will take the fifth amendment on that. 

The Chairman. By that you mean you refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Wright. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee whether or not Mr. Duran was telling the truth with respect to 
your Communist Party affiliations, you would be supplying informa- 
tion which might be used against you in a ci'iminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Wright. I don't think I have to explain my reason for taking 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. I am not asking you to explain your reason. I am only 
asking you whether or not you honestly apprehend that the answer to 
that principal question might give information which could be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding. 

Mr. Wright. I refuse to answer that on the same basis. 

Mr. Arexs. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness be ordered 
and directed to answer. 

The Chairman'. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Wright. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions of this witness at this 
time. 

Mr. Velde. I have just one question. 

As a person being in charge of the i-elease of the Salt of the Earth 
film, can you tell me whether it had any foreign outlets i 



4214 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Wright. I have read in the press that it has been shown in 
foreign countries. 

Mr. Velde. Didn't you have anything- to do vith that ? 

Mr. Wright. I have had nothing to do ^yith the distribution of the 
film aside from one 16 mm. copy which I helped to get around to our 
various local unions. I would be very happy to arrange a showing of 
Salt of the Earth for the members of this committee if you would like 
to see it. 

Mr. Velde. We have access to it, of course. I am just interested in 
finding out how wide a distribution it had. It is a pro- Communist 
film. There is no question about it. You know that as well as I do. 

The Chairman. I saw the copy that the FBI had. 

Mr. Arens. If you want to accommodate the committee I might 
suggest you could accommodate the committee by telling us the names 
of the Communists who participated in the production of the film and 
the script and the distribution of this film. Would you care to do 
that? 

Mr. Wright. Is that a serious question ? 

The Chairman. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Velde. Certainly it is. 

Mr. Wright. I Avill take the fifth amendment on that. 

The Chairman. Who was in charge of the distribution of the film ? 

Mr. Wright. There was a corporation set up called IPC, dis- 
tributors. 

The Chairman. What does that mean ? 

Mr. Wright. Independent Productions Corp. was the name of the 
company which produced the film, and then they set up Independent 
Productions Corp. as distributors. 

The Chairman. Under the laws of what State was the organization 
incorporated ? 

Mr. Wright. I don't know that. 

The Chairman. It was a corporation ? 

Mr. Wright. I don't know that, either. 

Mr. Witt. Would you take my answer on that, Mr. Walter? It 
was set up under the laws of tlie State of California. 

The Chairman. No further questions. 

The witness is excused from further testimony under the subpena. 

Mr. Arens. Alfredo Montoya, M-o-n-t-o-y-a. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please? Do you 
swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Montoya. I do. 

The Chairman. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF ALFEEDO C. MONTOYA ; ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

NATHAN WITT 

Mr. Arens. Please identify your self by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Montoya. My name is Alfredo C. JNIontoya. My address is 
Post Office Box 382, El Paso, Tex. I am business agent of the El 
Paso mine-mill locals in El Paso, Tex. 

Mr. Arens. What locals please? 

Mr. Montoya. Locals 501, 509, and 903. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4215 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today, Mr, Montoya, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American iVctivities? 

]Mr, MoNTOYA. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel identify himself, please. 

Mr. Witt. Nathan Witt, Post Office Box 156, New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA, Albuquerque, N. Mex. 

Mr. Arens. When ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. The 18th of February 1921. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us a word, if you please, about your education. 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I attended the primary schools in central New Mex- 
ico. I completed high school in Silver City, N. JSIex. I completed 
about 3 years of college. 

Mr. Arens. A\^iere did you attend college? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. At the University of New Mexico. 

Mr. Arens. When did you discontinue your studies with the Uni- 
versity of New Mexico ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. About the first time I went with my first employment 
I think it was about either the latter part of 1943 or the early part of 
1944, sometime thereabouts. 

Mr. Arens. Your first employment, please. 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I worked for the Government. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Montoya. As a farm labor supervisor. 

Mr. Arens. In what agency ? 

Mr. Montoya. At the time I was first employed by a wartime agency 
called the War Food Administration. 

Mr. Arens. 'Wliere ? 

Mr. Montoya. I started here in Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. What was your job ? 

INIr. Montoya. I believe at that time my title was farm labor super- 
visor. 

Mr. Arens. What were your duties ? 

Mr. Montoya. My duties were to assist in the importation of Mexi- 
can labor, in the transportation to the farm-labor camps, in housing, 
medical attention, relations with their employers, farmers, farmers' 
associations. 

Mr. Arens. Did you so cause Mexican labor to be imported and 
made available to the planters and growers in the area ? 

Mr. ISIoNTOYA. No. No; this was handled by another division of 
the agency. 

Mr. Arens. Then I don't quite understand what your specific duties 
were. 

Mr. MoNTOYA. For example, the first assignment I got was at Fort 
Logan, Colo., where they had a farm-labor camp. I was assigned to 
that camp and my duties were to assist, for example, in handling prob- 
lems which arose between the employees and 

Mr. Arens. Who was your immediate supervisor in the War Food 
Administration ? 

79079—56 — pt. 2 2 



4216 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. ]\JoNTOYA, I don't recall his name. My immediate supervisor 
■was a district farm labor supervisor, and I don't recall his name. 

Mr. Arexs. I don't c[uite understand why it would be called the War 
Food Administration in 1934. 

Mr. MoNTOYA. No ; not 1934 ; 1944. 

Mr. Arens. 1944. When did you graduate from the University of 
New Mexico ? 

]Mr. MoNTOYA. I didn't graduate. 

Mr. Arens. AA^ien did you complete your studies there? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. As I said, about the same time that I took this job. 

Mr. Arexs. About 1943 or 1944 ? 

Mr. MoxTOYA. Thereabouts ; that is right. 

Mr. Arexs. I just had the wrong date down here. 

ITow long did vou occupy this job with the War Food Administra- 
tion ? 

Mr. MoxTOYA. The War Food Administration either went out of 
existence or was dissolved some time in 1945 or thereabouts, and as I 
recall the farm labor importation program was then transferred to 
some other department in the Department of Agriculture. I stayed 
with the Department until December of 1947. 

Mr. Arexs. In what capacity did you serve under the Department 
of Agriculture ^ 

Mr. MoxTOYA. I was promoted from farm labor supervisor to dis- 
trict labor supervisor. That was the title that I had when the pro- 
gram went out of existence. 

Mr. Arexs, What district did you have? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I was first assigned a district in Grand Junction, 
Colo. Then I was assigned to another district in eastern Oregon. 
Then after that I was assigned to a district in the State of Utah. 

Mr. Arexs. I take it a district is less in geographical area than a 
State, then; is that correct? 

Mr. MoxTOYA. For example, in Colorado and Oregon it was limited 
to a certain area, but in the State of Utah, although I still had the 
same title I covered camps all over the State. 

Mr. Arexs. You had, I take it, substantially the same duties and 
obligations as district supervisor as you had previously in a lower 
eclielon in the work ; is that correct? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. That is right, with the one exception that I was 
responsible for labor supervisors under my direction. 

Mr. Arexs. How many labor supervisors were there under your 
direction? 

Mr. MoxTOYA. I think in the State of Utah there might have been 2, 
possibly 3. I don't remember exactly. 

Mr. Arexs. Substantially the same number in the other States in 
which you had districts ? 

]Mr. 'Montoya. I didn't have any others under me in other States. 
Mr. Arens. Were you responsible for these people's employment 
or were they just employed and assigned to you ? 
Mr. MoxTOYA. They were just assigned to me. 
Mr. Arens. A'^Tiat occasioned your disassociation from this 
program ? 

]\Ir. MoxTOYA. The program went out of existence in December of 
1947, and I was terminated. 



COMMXJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4217 

Ml-. Arens. Then what did you do, beginning in December of ID-lT ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I went back to Albuquerque, N. ISIex. 

Mr. Arens. What did yon do there? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I enrolled at the University of New Mexico. 

Mr. Arexs. In wliat type of work did you engage? 

Mr. MoNtova, 1 attended. 1 was a student. 

Mr. Arens. What courses did you take '. What were you pursuing? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. My major is what they call inter-American affairs. 

Mr. Arens. Inter- American ali'airs? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. Inter- American affairs. 

Mr. Arens. Did you complete the course ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you there ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I think I was there about a semester. 

Mr. Arens. How were you sustained financially during that period ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. JSIy wife and I had both been employed by the Gov- 
ernment, and we had saved some money. 

Mr. Arens. You didn't complete the course, is that correct ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA, No, I didn't. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. What did you do next? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. You mean employment? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

JNIr. jMoNTOYA. The next job I had was as manager of a stoi-e in 
northern New Mexico. 

Mr. Arens. What type of store? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. A small general goods store. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you have that employment ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I was on that job for maybe about 5 or 6 months. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir; then where did you go? 

]Mr. JMoNTOYA. Then my next employment was in Los Angeles, 
Calif., where I worked first in the construction trades as a laborer, 
and I worked at that for 5 or 6 months. Then I worked in the i)ack- 
inghouse industry. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity, just as a worker? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I i)artly worked on the shapeup as a swamper, as a 
truck driver, as a meat lugger, as they call them. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about your next employment, please. 

Mr. MoNTOYA. Then my next employment on a part-time basis was 
as a translator. 

Mr. Arens. For whom ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. For a newsj^aper. 

Mr. Arens. What newspaper? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. The Spanish page of the Mine-Mill Union. 

Mr. Arens. Was that your first employment wath Mine-Mill? 

Mr. JNIontoya. It was part-time employment, yes. 

Mr. Arens. When did that occur ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. This occurred, I believe the early part of 1953. 

Mr. Arens. Where Avas that em[)loymeut i 

Mr. MoNTOYA. Here in Denver. 

Mr. Arens. How did you hap])en to get that jol)? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I applied for the job through the editor. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know the editor ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Who was he? 



4218 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. MoNTOYA. Mr. Wright. 

Mr, Aeens. How long had you known him ? 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I had known him for a number of years. I don't 
recall the exact number. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us where you first made his acquaintance- 
ship? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I really don't recall where I fii*st met him. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us the nature of your acquaintanceship 
with him ? Was it social or business or what was its nature ? 

Mr. ]\IoNTOYA. It was social. I am from Grant County, N. Hex., 
where the union has a local, and I believe at some time or another I 
met him socially. 

Mr. Arens. Was that the exclusive nature of vour acquaintanceship 
with Mr. Wright? 

Mr. MoxTOYA. I don't understand that. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Does that completely encompass the relationship which 
you had with ]\Ir. Wright before you became a translator in 1053 with 
the Mine-Mill paper? 

]\Ir. Witt. Will you give us half a minute so I can try out our sound 
system here. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I decline to answer that question on the basis of my 
privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. When did you first know Mr. Wright? 

Mr. Wright. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. How many years prior to 1953 was it that you knew 
him ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA, I really don't recall. No; it was a number of years. 

Mr. x\rens. How long were you employed as translator for this 
paper, Mine-Mill Union, beginning in 1953 ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. About a year. It was a part-time job. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have some other employment on the side ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I will respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the basis of tlie reason previously stated. 

]\Ir. Arexs. AMien was it that you began the employment concern- 
ing which you decline to comment? 

Was that concurrently with your employment as a translator? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I decline to answer that for the previously stated 
reason. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive remuneration or compensation for this 
employment concerning which you decline to comment? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNTOYA . I decline for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you serve as a translator ? 

Mr. Montoya. About a year. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened? 

Mr. Montoya. Then I was appointed as an international repre- 
sentative of the Mine, Mill. 

Mr. Arens. That was about 1954, international representative? 

Mr. Montoya. Some time in the spring of 1954. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY jMOUXTAIN AREA 4219 

Mr. Arens. "\Yliat was your duty or responsibility ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I was first assigned to Leadville, Colo., Gilman, I 
believe. 

Mr. Arens. What were your duties? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. The duties were the routine duties of an inter- 
national representative, to represent the union at orievances, to assist 
the local officers in the administration of the local union affairs. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you sign a Taft-Hartley affidavit at any time? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in the course of your duties as international 
representative perform any function other than the functions which 
you have just recounted to us? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNTOYA. The only other thing that I was involved in was we 
were having a representation election in Gilman at the time and I 
assisted in that. That is the extent of my duties. 

Mr. Arens. A little while ago when we were talking about your 
employment beginning in 1953, Mr. Montoya, you told us about your 
employment as a translator and then invoked the fifth amendment 
with reference to some other employments. How long did this other 
employment concerning which you have invoked the fifth amendment 
endure ; how long did it last ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to answer that on the basis of the privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did this employment concerning which you have in- 
voked the' fifth amendment endure into 1954? 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to answer that for the previously stated 
reason. 

Mr. Arens. Does it endure at the present time ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Montoya. The answer to that is no. 

Mr. Arens. Did it endure last year ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to answer that for the previously stated 
reason. 

Mr. Arens. Were you, in January of 1956, engaged in this em- 
ployment concerning which you have invoked the privilege of the 
fifth amendment not to testify ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to answer that for the previous stated 
reason. 

Mr. Arens. Were you, in January of 1956 engaged in this em- 
ployment concerning which you have invoked the privilege of the 
fifth amendment? 

Mr. Montoya. I also respectfully decline to answer that for the 
previously stated reason. 

Mr. Arens. Were you engaged in the employment, concerning which 
you have invoked the fifth amendment, yesterday ^ 

Mr. Montoya. I also decline to answer that for the previously 
stated reason. 

Mr. Arens. Are you engaged in this employment concerning which 
you invoke the fifth amendment now, at the present time ? 

Mr. Montoya. As I answered that before, the answer is no. 



4220 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNT >VIN AREA 

The Chairman. "Will you resume that employment tomorrow ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoisTTOYA. No. 

IVIr. Arens. How many members are there in the locals which you 
currently represent as business agent? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. Between 1,600 and 1,700. 

Mr. Arens. When did you become the business agent of these locals 
as distinct from your job as an international representative which you 
said you started in 1954 ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. In November of last year. 

Mr. Arens. Were you an international representative of the Mine, 
Mill and Smelter Workers up until November of last year? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. Up until about August. 

Mr. Arens. "V^^iat happened between August and November? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I continued assisting the locals. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. In assisting them in the usual work that I have been 
doing. 

Mr. Arens. Why did you no longer carry the title of international 
representative there ? 

ISIr. MoNTOYA. There was a reduction in force in the international 
union and I was reduced from the staff. 

Mr. Arens. But you were carried on the payroll, is that correct? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. No. 

Mr. Arens. How did you sustain jourself during those several 
months ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. Well, there was a gap in between there of about 2 
weeks during which the locals covered about 2 weeks of the month 
and the other was on my own. I received no compensation for 2 
weeks. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. INIontoya, have you l)een president of the National 
Association of Mexican-Americans ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I decline to answer that on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are not ashamed of any affiliation you may have 
had with such an uplift organization as the National Association of 
Mexican- Americans, are you? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I decline to answer that for the previously stated 
reason. 

Mr. Arens. I lay befoi-e you now, Mr. Montoya, a document, the 
Communist Daily People's World, Tuesday. October 25, 1949, page 3, 
in which there is an article entitled ''125 Delegates Hail Step in Fight 
Against Bias." I am going to mark this document "Montoya Ex- 
hibit No. 1." 

The Mexican-American National Association was firmly established in this 
community today following a founding convention that drew 125 delegates from 
trade unions and fraternal groups in many parts of California. 

The date line is Los Angeles. 

Alfredo Montoya, national president of the organization, termed the well 
attended convention and the rapid jrrowth of ANMA throughout the Southwest 
"a tremendous step forward for the Mexican-American people." 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4221 

I lay this article before you now, Mr. Montoya, and ask you if you 
are the person alluded to in that article and identified as the national 
president of the organization. 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I decline to answer that on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you mean to tell this committee that if you truth- 
fully responded to the question as to whether or not you are the person 
who was president of this organization, you would be supplying in- 
formation which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. jNToxtoya. 1 decline to answer that for the i)reviously stated 
reason. 

Mr. Arexs. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question, Mr. 
Montoya. 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I respectfully decline to answer that on the basis of 
my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. ]\Iontoya, I lay before you a photograph which 
appears in that article, identified as Alfredo Montoya and I ask if you 
will identify that photograph as that of yourself. 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to answer that for the previously stated 
reason. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you identified that 
photograph as one being of yourself, you would be supplying informa- 
tion which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to answer that on the previously stated 
reason. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer this question. 

The Chairman. You are diiected to answer the question. That is 
a public paper, Mr. Montoya. 

Mr. Montoya. I respectfully decline to answ-er that for the pre- 
viously stated reason. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this docu- 
ment, ''Montoya Exhibit No. 1'", be incorporated by reference in this 
record to be retained in the committee files. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. May I see it please ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Montoya, have you participated in conferences on 
civil rights in Los Angeles in the course qf the last few years? 
(The witness conferred watli his counsel.) 

]\[r. Montoya. I decline to answer that on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a document which is a photostatic copy 
of the Daily People's World of Thursday, April 6, 1950, and invite 
your attention to an article — 

L. A. conference called on civil rights. A call to a conference and convention 
initiated by the Civil Rights Congress and sponsored by more than 80 leading 
trade unionists, writers, ministers, lawyers, and oflBcers of organizations, was 
mailed today to 2,000 organizations and individuals — 

and so forth. 

Included in the list of the sponsors of this conference is a person 
identified here as Alfredo Montoya, national president, Mexican- 
American National Association. I ask you to look at that article, if 
you will do so, sir, and tell us whether or not you are the person iden- 



4222 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

tified in that article as one of the sponsors of this conference on civil 
rights. 

Mr. MoNTOTA. I decline to answer that on the basis of the previously 
stated reason. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfuly suggest that this docu- 
ment be marked "Montoya Exhibit No. 2", and be incorporated by 
reference in this record to be retained in the committee files. May the 
record also show at this time that the Civil Rights Congress has been 
repeatedly cited as subversive and Communist. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been identified with the American Com- 
mittee for Protection of Foreign Born ? 

]\Ir. Montoya. I decline to answer that on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. How many of the people who were imported into this 
country in this farm labor program did you actually come in contact 
with when you were with the Federal Government in this supervisory 
capacity ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Montoya. I wouldn't know the exact number, but there were 
thousands. 

Mr. Arens. How many thousand would you say you actually worked 
witli during the course of several years from 1944 until 1947 and 1948? 

]\Ir. Montoya. I don't think I could give you 

Mr. Arens. Well, did you work with as many as, say, ten or fifteen 
thousand ? 

Mr. Montoya. I don't know. I could just pull a figure out of the 
air. 

Mr. Arens. How many were imported under this program ; do you 
recall ? 

Mr. IVIoNTOYA. Xo, I don't, 

Mr. Arens. "Would it be as many as a half million ? 

Mr. Montoya. I really wouldn't know. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the McCarran Act ; do you recall ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Witt. Perhaps counsel can identify that a little more closely. 

Mr. Arens. I just wondered if he had a recollection as to what act 
it was he was talking about when he and others attacked the act 
which, in this photostatic copy of an article appearing in the Daily 
People's World of December 21, 1950, is identified as the McCarran 
Act. There are really two McCarran Acts. One which carries the 
name of the ISIcCarran Act, with some other sponsor, is the Internal 
Security Act, and then there is the Immigration and Nationality Act, 
which was cosponsored by Senator ^IcCarran and by Representative 
Walter. I wondered which one you had in mind. Perhaps you could 
help us. 

Mr. Witt. Counsel hasn't shown the witness the exhibit. 

Mr. Arens. I will do that if the witness would like to see the exhibit, 
and tell us which act he has in mind. Look at that article, Mr, Mon- 
toya, and tell us which of these laws you were attacking ? 

Let the record show the above-mentioned document will be marked 
"Montoya Exhibit No. 3." 

Mr. Montoya, I decline to answer that question on the basis of my 
previously stated gromids. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4223 

Mr. Arens. Didn't the article help yoii refresh your recollection as 
to which act it was counsel was talking about ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I decline to answer that for the previously stated 
reason. 

Mr. Arens. There is a picture in this Daily People's World, Mon- 
toya exhibit No. 3, of a person identified as Alfredo C. INIontoya, who 
is giving a warning to all people that "the Government under the law 
is going to deport thousands of Mexicans without due process of law 
and in complete violation of the Constitution, said Montoya," 

Was it you who said that? 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to answer that for the previously stated 
reason. 

Mr. Arens. If you were this person who was making all of these 
assertions here in defense of innocent people who might be illegally 
and unconstitutionally deprived of their rights, you certainly wouldn't 
want to deny that assertion before this committee, would you? 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to answer that for the previously stated 
reason. 

Mr. Arens. You made a statement on this before the Los Angeles 
Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, did you not? 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to answer that for the previously stated 
reason. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this docu- 
ment, which has been marked "Montoya Exhibit No. 3," be incorpo- 
rated by reference in this record and retained in the committee files. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell this committee what the Smith Act is ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Montoya. All I know is that it is the law of the land. 

IMr. Arens. Do you know what it is ? 

Mr. Montoya. I am really not too familiar with it. 

Mr. Arens. It appears that back in 1951 you had a better compre- 
hension of what the Smith Act is. I lay before j^ou now a document 
which is a reproduction of the Daily People's World for Tuesday, 
November 6, 1951, calling for repeal of the Smith Act as a law that 
is designed to destroy trade unions and a law that is out to have mass 
deportations and deprive people of their rights and make victims of 
innocent citizens and all that sort of thing. The key speaker was a 
man by the name of Alfredo Montoya who orated on this subject. I 
lay that document before you now and see if you can help this com- 
mittee and help your (jovernment by telling us whether you are that 
individual identified as Alfredo Montoya who was telling the people of 
tlie West all alxnit the Fascist laws that were passed destroying human 
rights and liberties, laws which only, incidentally, were designed to 
destroy the Comnumistic conspiracy in this country. Tell us whether 
or not you are that Alfredo Montoya. 

Mr. Witt. Shouldn't counsel break that question down a bit ? 

Mr. Arens. I think he gets the point, Mr. Witt, as I think you do. 

Would you tell us whether or not you are the Alfredo Montoya re- 
ferred to in this article ? 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to answer that on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. I was hoping when you were making that explana- 
tion that you would remind the people that no one can be deported 



4224 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

without a hearing, after which there can be an appeal to the Board of 
Immigration Appeals, and from there to the court; and that is the 
Supreme Court of the United States. If they still feel that their 
riofhts have been violated, they have access to the courts on a writ of 
habeas corpus. 

Mr. Arens. And the Supreme Court of the United States has tested 
this act and found it sound and constitutional in every respect. 

The Chairmax. I just wanted to clarify the atmosphere because 
there has been a campaign of misrepresentation that I am afraid a few 
of the gullible may have believed. 

Mr. Areks. You haven't been part of this campaign that the Con- 
gressman is speaking of to ensnare the unwary against the Smith Act, 
the Internal Security Act, and the McCarraii-Walter Act, have you, 
Mr. Montoya ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Witt. Mr. Chairman, I don't see how a lay witness can possibly 
answer a question like that. 

The CiiAiR^EAx. I think that is correct, and I wish you would stop 
talking about the McCarran-Walter Act. It is the "Walter-McCarran 
Act. The McCarran Act was never reported out of the committee. 

Mr. Witt. We give you all the credit for it, Mr. Walter. Don't 
worry about that. 

The Chairmax. I am very happy to receive it from this source. 

Mr. Witt. I know you are. 

Mr. Arexs. May this document. Daily People's World, November 6, 
1951, be marked "Montoya Exhibit No. 4," and be incorporated by 
reference in this record to be retained in the committee files. 

The Chairmax. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the citations 
of the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born be in- 
corporated in the printed record at this point. 

The Chairmax. It is so ordered. 

(The citations referred to above follow :) 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, released 
June 1, 19-',8, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "One of the oldest auxiliaries of the Communist Party in the United States." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, March 29, 19fiff, 
p. 155; also cited in Report, June 25, 19Jf2, p. IS.) 

3. "Among the Communist-front organizations for racial agitation" which also 

serve as "money-collecting media" and "as special political organizing cen- 
ters for the racial minority they pretend to champion." "Works closely 
with the International Labor Defense, legal arm of the Communist Party, 
in defense of foreign-born Communists and sympathizers." 
{California Committee on Un-American Activities, Reports, 194", V- ^^ > 
1948, p. 113.) 

Mr. Arexs. Now, Mr. Montoya, I lay before you still another docu- 
ment marked "Montoya Exhibit No. 5," which is a photostatic copy 
of the Daily People's' World, December 26, 1951, containing an ad- 
vertisement respecting a celebration to be held at North Star Auditor- 
ium, the Chanukah, C-h-a-n-u-k-a-h, celebration — I can't quite pro- 
nounce that, and perhaps you will help us — at which one of the orators 
was a person identified here as Alfredo Montoya. Can you tell us 
about that meeting? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4225 

Mr. AViTT. I think that is Chanuk.ih, the Jewish holiday wliicli prob- 
ably counsel is referring to. 

Mr. xVrens. Is that what it is ? 

Mr. AViTT. I would think so, Mr. Arens. Shall I look at it and 
tell you ( 

The Chairsian. The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

( Brief recess. ) 

(Members of the committee present: Representatives Walter and 

Velde.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. Proceed, Mr. 
Arens. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, in the course of the identification of 
this exhibit, especially in view of counsel's comment of the celebration 
being a religious one, I invite specifically the attention of the witness 
to the notation in the exhibit that this session is under the auspices of 
the Jewish People's Fraternal Order, which, as the record will show, 
has been repeatedly cited as a branch of the Communist conspiracy. 

Mr. Montoya, look at the exhibit, please, and tell us whether or not 
that prompts your recollection as to any celebration in which you par- 
ticipated on the occasion indicated in the exhibit. 

Mr. MoxTOYA. I decline to answer that on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that "Montoya 
Exhibit No. 5'' be incorporated by reference in this record, and re- 
tained in the connnittee files. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

yiv. Arens. Mr. Montoya, you have not only been a great humani- 
tarian working among the Mexican nationals, but j'ou have also been 
a strong advocate of peace, have you not, a partisan of peace in your 
career? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Montoya. I believe in peace, and my answer to that question 
is "Yes.'' 

Mr. Arens. "What have you done in pursuit of your l)elief in peace ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Montoya. I have si)oken in favor of peace and advocated peace. 

^Ir. Arens. You have done that in sucli commendable fashion I 
would like to call your attention to an exhibit in connection w-ith one 
of your orations on this subject, which w^e are marking "Montoya Ex- 
hibit Xo. 6."' It is a reproduction of an article in the Daily People's 
AVorld, of December 10, 1951, entitled "Progressive Party Opens 
Peace Campaign for 1952.*' 

Among the speakers for peace is a person whose picture appears, 
Alfredo ^lontoya. Tell this connnittee and the American people 
whether or not you are the person who was there as a peace partisan. 

Mr. Wi'iT. Perhaps we can save a minute. Will you direct his 
attention to where the name is mentioned. 

Mr. Arens. The ])hotograph. His name is under it there. 

(The Avitness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ]MoNTOYA. I decline to answer that on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. Since when is it a crime to advocate peace? 



4226 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Witt. Mr. Chairman, if you will look at that exhibit I think 
you will understand why the witness in the light of his previous answer 
has refused to answ-er. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of your public service, Mr. Montoya, you 
have not only been a partisan of peace and the uplift of the community 
but you have also been against w-itch hunts, have you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNTOTA. Yes, I have been against witch hunts. 

Mr. Arens. And you have been a firm foe of the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities, have you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I have been. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a document marked "Montoya Exhibit 
No. 7," and ask you if you are the same Montoya who was urging 
folks, as recounted in this article in the Daily People's World of 
Friday, September 26, 1952, to combat the probers, to speak out and 
stand up and combat the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties. Are you the same person who is identified in that document as 
one of the public figures who is determined to destroy the witch-hunt- 
ing House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Montoya, Yes. 

My. Arens. You are the same person who is identified here, is that 
correct. 

Mr. Montoya. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr, Chairman, that this docu- 
ment be incorporated by reference in this record and retained in 
the committee files. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Arens. Also, Mr. Montoya, you have been active in the confer- 
ence of the National Negro Labor Council, have you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to ans^Yer that for the previously stated 
reason, 

Mr. Arens, I lay before you now a document which is a photo- 
static copy of page 2 of the Daily People's World of January 25, 
1952, in which an Alfredo Montoya's photograph appears — a striking 
likeness to your own — as a guest speaker at a NLC meeting. The 
article says: 

"Alfredo Montoya, president of the Mexicnn-American Association, ANMA, 
will be one of the suest speakers at the regional conference of the National Negro 
Labor Council this weekend." 

I lay that before you now and ask you if you will stand up and tell 
this committee whether or not you are the person wdio is identified 
there as Alfredo Montoya. 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to answer that on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, this document be 
marked "Montoya Exhibit No. 8" and incorporated by reference in 
this record to be retained in the committee files. 

The Chairman, It is so ordered. 

Mr, Arens. You have not only participated in all these movements 
w^e have been describing, ]Vii\ Montoya, you have also been what we 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4227 

might call a progressive, have you not, in your activities? Have you 
been what you might characterize as a progressive in your public 
service? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNTOTA. I guess I have been generally known as a progressive. 

Mr. Arexs. I would like to lay before you a document which is 
a photostatic copy of a letterhead of the Young Progressives of 
America, in which among the vice chairmen appears a person whose 
name is Alfredo Montoya, of New Mexico, and I ask you if that is 
the type of progressive activity in which you have been engaged dur- 
ing your career of public service. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Witt. Mr. Arens, we have a bit of a difficulty with the form 
of the question. The witness is prepared to answer this 

Mr. Arens. Is he the person identified ? 

Mr. "Witt. That is different. You asked about the types of activity. 
He is prepared to answer this question. 

Mr. Arens. All right. Are you the person whose name appears on 
tliis letterhead as one of the vice chairmen of the Young Progressives 
of America ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. The answer is "Yes.*' 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, tliat this docu- 
ment be marked "Montoya Exhibit No. 9" and be incorporated by 
reference in the record to be retained in the committee files. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Montoya, do you recall a couple of years ago your 
local there in El Paso w-as calling for international trade with Red 
China? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Witt. Also there is a little difficulty with the form of that. 
He wasn't the business agent for the local at that time, and there is 
more than one local. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall whether or not the locals of the Mine- 
Mill at El Paso back in 1954, in January of 1954, called for resump- 
tion of the United States trade with Soviet Russian and Red China? 

Mr. Montoya. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. If you don't recall, that is satisfactory. 

I am going to ask you to look at a man over here. Mr. Duran, will 
you please stand up. Look him in the face. Tell us whether or not 
you have ever seen him before. 

IMr. Montoya. I decline to answer that on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. This man, Bellarmino Duran, took an oath and testi- 
fied before this committee that he knew you as a member of the Com- 
munist conspiracy or Communist Party. Was he lying or was he 
telling the truth? 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to answer that for the previously stated 
reason. 

IMr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Montoya. I decline to answer that for the previously stated 
reason. 

Mr. Arens. Are you currently under Communist Party discipline? 

Mr. JMoNTOYA. I decline to answer that for the previously stated 
reason. 



4228 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever publicly or to the members of the Inter- 
national Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers denied being a 
member of the Communist conspiracy? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoxTOTA. As far as I can recall, no. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever confessed to them that you were a mem- 
ber of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. MoNTOYA. I decline to answer that on the basis of the previously 
stated reason. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that concludes the interroga- 
tion of this witness by the staff. 

The Chairman. Mr. Montoya, you are located now at El Paso ? 

Mr. Montoya. Yes ; I am. 

The Chairman. And connected with what local? 

Mr. Montoya. I am actually emploj^ed by three locals. 

The Chairman. How many locals are there? 

Mr. Montoya. Three locals. 

The Chairman. What are they ? 

Mr. Montoya. Locals 501, 903, and 509. 

The Chair]\ian. They are all the locals that are in El Paso? 

Mr. Montoya. That "is right. 

The Chairman. Can yan give us the names of the officials in those 
locals ? 

Mr. Montoya. I will try to remember. The executive })oard of each 
or just the presidents ? 

The Chairman. Xo ; the executive board of each of the three. 

Mr. Montoya, I will try to remember them. 

Tlie Chairman. To the best of your recollection. 

Mr. Montoya. In local 509 the president is Juan Aranda, Jr., 
A-r-a-n-d-a; the vice president is George Escalante, E-s-c-a-1-a-n-t-e; 
the financial secretary is Carlos Becerra. B-e-c-e-r-r-a ; the recording 
secretary is Jesus Rodriguez, R-o-d-r-i-g-u-e-z. That is the executive 
group. 

The Chairman. Now the next local. 

Mr. Montoya. Local 903. The president is Fred Molina, M-o- 
1-i-n-a ; vice president — I believe the name is George Jasso, J-a-s-s-o ; 
financial secretary, Salvador, S-a-1-v-a-d-o-r, Castillo, C-a-s-t-i-I-l-o; 
the recording secretary is a Mr. Morales. I don't recall his first name 
at the time. M-o-r-a-l-e-s. 

The executive officei-s of local 501 are : President, Lorenzo France 
Ware, W-a-r-e; the vice president is Gilbert Maldonado, M-a-1-d-o- 
n-a-d-o; the financial secretary is — I believe they just had a change 
in financial secretary a few days ago and I don't recall the name of the 
new financial secretary, but the incumbent was — rather, the last one 
was Manuel Arizpe, A-r-i-z-p-e; the recording secretary is Emmet 
Johnson. 

That constitutes the executive officers of the locals. 

The Chairman. How many of these people live in Mexico? 

Mr. Montoya. I don't really know. To my knowledge I believe 
they live in El Paso, but I am not certain. 

The Chairman. All right. Thank you. 

The witness is excused from further attendance at this hearing. 

Mr. Witt. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Call the next witness. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4229 

Mr. Arexs. Mr, Rudolph Cook, please. 

The Chair3Lvn. Will you raise your right hand ? Do you swear the 
testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Cook. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RUDOLPH B. COOK; ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CLIFFORD W. MILLS 

^Ir. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Cook. Rudolph B. Cook, BoOl Dexter Street, Denver. 

I am an employee of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and 
Smelter Workers. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Cook. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Cook. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindlv identif}^ himself ? 

Mr. Mills. Clifford W. Mills, 302 Majestic Building, Denver. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity do you serve with the Mine-Mill 
organization ? 

Mr. Cook. I am in the supply department, handling supplies, ship- 
ping, in the mailing room, mimeographing. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed by Mine-Mill ? 

Mr. Cook. Since they moved their headquarters from Chicago, I 
believe. I believe it was 1951. 

Mr. Arens. Have you since 1051 been continuously engaged in this 
type of work ? 

Mr. Cook. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. For Mine-Mill ? 

Mr. Cook. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment innnediately prior to the 
employment Avhich 3'ou presently occupy ? 

Mr. Cook. I worked in a broom factory. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Mr. Cook. In Denver. 

Mr. Arens. Have you lived here most of your life ? 

Mr. Cook. I have lived here 35 years. 

Mr. Arens. How did you get your job with Mine-Mill ? 

Mr. C(WK. Most of my experience in recent years has been in union 
work, which brought me in contact with members of that union and 
officers of that union. 

Mr. Arens. What is this experience in union work which vou have 
had? 

Mr. Cook. It goes back. I have been a member since 1934. 

Mr. Arens. Of Mine-Mill? 

Mr. Cook. No, of different unions. 

Mr. Arens. Trace your employment since you became an adult, if 
you don't mind, Mr. Cook. Just in brief resume form as you probably 
nave heard others give us. Tell us first of all where were you born. 

Mr. CooK. I was born in Arkansas, Buffalo, Ark. 



4230 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Arexs. a word about 3'our education. 

Mr. Cook. I went to school in Arkansas and the last place I went to 
school was in Joplin, Mo. 

Mr. Arexs. Where ? 

Mr. Cook. Joplin, Mo. 

Mr. Arens. What school in Joplin, Mo. ? 

Mr. Cook. Jackson, I think it was the name of the grade school, 
eighth grade. 

Mr. Arens. Trace very briefly and succinctly j'our employment 
record. 

Mr. Cook. We came to Denver in about 1921, and the first 4 or 5 
years I didn't have any real steady work, odd jobs around. I played 
ball a little. I worked at various jobs, moving company, furniture 
house, cleaning establishment, and odd jobs up until about I would say 
1926, when I went up in the mountains for a couple of years with a 
nursery. Then in 1928 I went to work for the Denver Rio Grande 
Railroad. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Cook. As a laborer first and then almost immediately as a 
helper, machinist's helper, and then very soon, ^'ery shortly, as a ma- 
chinist apprentice or helper apprentice and welder. My employment 
there covered approximately from about 1928 to 1939. 

Somewhere in the early days of that, about the middle of that em- 
ployment I became a member of the union and active in union work. 

Mr. Arens. What union was that? 

Mr. Cook. The machinists union. 

Mr. Arens. Then in 1939 what happened ? 

Mr. Cook. In 1939 I went to work as business agent for the ma- 
chinists union. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us the specific name of the union? The 
exact title. 

Mr. Cook. It was District 86 of the International Association of 
Machinists. At that time it covered only machinists who were em- 
ployed in contract shops, outside the railroad industry, and auto 
mechanics. Then later it was expanded to cover other locals in Denver 
and out in the State. 

Mr, Arens, How long did you serve in that capacity with this dis- 
trict 86? 

Mr. Cook. About 5 years. 

Mr. Arens. That gets up to about 1944, doesn't it ? 

Mr. Cook. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do in 1944 ? 

Mr. Cook. In 1944 I went to work for the War Manpower Com- 
mission. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you if your disassociation from District 86 
of the Machinists organization was wholly voluntary ? 

Mr. Cook. Well, it was an elected job, and I wasn't reelected. 

Mr. Arens. In 1944 then you went to work for the Federal Govern- 
ment, in what capacity? 

Mr. Cook, With the War Manpower Commission in the State of 
Colorado, 

Mr. Arex'S, In what capacity did you work? 

Mr, Cook, I don't remember the exact title at the beginning, but the 
primary job was labor-relations consultant, a sort of liaison job be- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4231 

tween the labor movement and the War Manpower Commission which 
had charge of employment offices, as you recall. 

Mr. Arens. Did you b^- any chance know Xorman Pixler? 

Mr. Cook. I knew him when I worked for the machinists. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him when you worked at the "War Man- 
power Commission? 

Mr. Cook. I don't think so. I don't remember whether he was with 
the War Labor Board at that time or not. I remember cases that I 
handled in the War Labor Board. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Philip Reno ? 

Mr. Cook. Not at that time. 

Mr. Arens. You met him later ? 

Mr. Cook. In view of certain circumstances I would assume that I 
would like to exercise my privilege under the provisions of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Philip Reno ? 

The Chairman. Just a moment. And for that reason you decline 
to answer the question ? 

Mr. Cook. That is right ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Philip Reno back in 1944? Wlien I 
asked you that question a few moments ago you said something a little 
later. I didn't quite understand what you said. 

Mr. Cook. I can't recall any specific time knowing him. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you with the War Manpower Com- 
mission? 

Mr. Cook. I believe about a year and a half, about the middle of 
1945, 1 think. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Then what happened ? 

Mr. Cook. I resigned from the War Manpower Commission to re- 
sume employment with the trade-union movement and became the 
secretary of the Denver Trades and Labor Assembly, which is the 
city federation of the A. F. of L. 

Mr. Arens. Was your resignation completely voluntary ? 

Mr. Cook. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you occupy that post as secretary of the 
Denver Trade and Labor Assembly ? 

Mr. Cook. I think about a year and a half there. 

Mr. Arens. Was that an elective post ? 

Mr. Cook. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You were elected secretary ? 

Mr. Cook. Yes; I was first appointed by the executive board in 
order to complete an unfinished term, and then elected. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Tell us what happened next. 

Mr. Cook. Subsequent to that I became a local representative for 
the combination of two unions, the State, County, and Municipal 
Employees Union 

Mr. Arens. Was that the union that subsequently merged to become 
the United Public Workers under Abram Flaxer ? 

Mr. Cook. No ; this is the A. F. of L. 

Mr. Arens. This is the competing union; is that correct? 

Mr. Cook. I guess that is so. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

79079— 56— pt. 2 3 



4232 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Cook. It is the A. F. of L., of which Earl Danner is president. 

Mr. Arens. What year was it that you became secretary of this 
State, County, and Municipal Employees organization ? 

Mr. Cook. That must have been 1946. 

Mr. Arens. You had two jobs. Wliat was the other one ? 

Mr. Cook. This was a shared job between the two organizations, the 
State, County, and Municipal Employees Union and the Office 
Employees Union. 

Mr. Arens. Were they two separate organizations? 

Mr. Cook. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. You were secretary of both ? 

Mr. Cook. I wasn't secretary. I was just an employed representa- 
tive. About the same as a business agent. 

Mr. Aeens. How long did you continue in that relationship ? 

Mr. Cook. A little more than a year, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. That gets us up to 1947 or 1948 ; does it not ? 

Mr. Cook. Yes; in 1947 I was elected as a delegate to rewrite the 
charter for the city and county of Denver, and somewhere in that 
period, either during that period or immediately afterward, I severed 
connections with the two organizations. 

Mr. Arens. Was it completely a voluntary severance ? 

Mr. Cook. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. When you were elected a delegate to rewrite the charter 
of the city of Denver was that a full-time job ? 

Mr. Cook. Not completely. It is something like the legislation was, 
for 90 days. 

Mr. Arens. How long did that last ? 

Mr. Cook. Ninety days, with an opportunity to do some of your 
union work before and after the sessions. 

Mr. Arens. How many people besides yourself participated in re- 
writing the charter for Denver? 

Mr. Cook. Tw^enty-one altogether. 

Mr. Arens. You were one of the 21 ? 

Mr. Cook. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Was the charter rewritten ? 

Mr. Cook. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You participated in that process ? 

Mr. Cook. That is right. But it was subsequently failed of adopt- 
tion by the people. Our job was to rewrite it and then refer it to 
the people. 

Mr. Arens. I understand. 

Mr. Cook. They voted it down. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened after you completed this work on 
the charter or the proposed charter ? 

Mr. Cook. I might say that as a result of my work with the State, 
county, and municipal employees and political contacts during that 
time, I became acquainted with the then new administration that was 
elected. Consequently, when this charter convention report was over 
and my other job was terminated, I then applied for employment with 
the city and county of Denver. 

Mr. Arens. Did you procure that employment? 

Mr. Cook. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4233 

Mr. Cook. I worked in the assessor's office for some time and in 
the bicycle bureau for some time. 

Mr. Arexs. That would be about 1948 or 1949? 
Mr. Cook. About the middle of 1948, 1 guess. 
Mr. Arens. Then what liappeued after that 'i 

Mr. Cook. Then I went to work for the Progi-essive Party. That 
was the campaign year. 

Mr. Arexs. Excuse me just a moment, please. AVas your disassocia- 
tion from the city administration completely involuntary ? 
Mr. Cook. Involuntary 'I 
Mr. Arens. Completely voluntary ? 
Mr. Cook. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You weren't fired. You just had a better opportunity, 
you thought, economically. 
Mr. Cook. That is right. 

jNIr. Arens. You then went to work for the Progressive Party? 
Mr. Cook. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall when you began that ? 
Mr. Cook. I don't recall the exact time or the month. 
Mr. Arens. Would it be perhaps in 1949 ? 

Mr. Cook. No; this was before the election. The election was in 
1948. 

Mr. Arens. It would be some time, then, in the middle of 1948. 
Would that be your best recollection 'I 
Mr. Cook. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did vou serve in the Progressive 
Party? 

Mr. Cook. It was a sort of coordinating job. I think I was the 
secretary, maybe executive secretary. 
Mr. Arens. Who employed you? 

Mr. Cook. It was just a general agreement of the executive board. 
Mr. Arens. Who was on the executive board who had this general 
agreement to employ you ? 

Mr. Cook. Visiting here yesterday I have tried to recall some of 
the people who were on it at that time and for the life of me I can't. 
I I'emember, I think, Mr. Rinn was chairman. 
Mr. Arens. Do J'Ou remember his full name ? 
Mr. Cook. Mike Rinn. 
Mr. Arens. How does he spell it ? 
Mr. Cook. R-i-n-n. 

Mr. Arens. He was, you think, chairman of the executive board? 
Mr. Cook. Yes. He was chairman. 

Mr. Ajiens. Did you know him prior to the time that you assumed 
this job with the Progressive Party ? 

Mr. Cook. I had been on the board myself and I had known him 
to that extent. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you serve with the Progressive Party as 
secretary or executive secretary? 
Mr. Cook. It wasn't very long. 
Mr. Arens. Just through the campaign? 

Mr. Cook. Shortly after the campaign. I would say at the maxi- 
mimi the first of the year or maybe less than that. 



4234 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Aeens. How many people in official capacity were identified 
with the Progressive Party in the Denver area where you served as 
executive secretary ? 

Mr. Mills. What do you mean by official capacity ? 

Mr. Arens. How many people besides yourself were either an offi- 
cial or an employee of the party here ? 

Mr. Cook. Paid employees '? 

Mr. Arexs. First of all, how many paid employees. 

Mr. Cook. As far as I know, I was the only one. 

Mr. Arens. How mam^ officials of the party were here ? 

Mr. Cook. I think it was just about the normal type of organization 
with a chairman and vice chairman and secretary and a number of 
members of the board. As I say, I just don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have precinct workers ? 

Mr. Mills. May I inquire are you talking about the national or- 
ganization or the State and local organization 'i 

Mr. Arens. I am talking about the organization by which he was 
employed. Were there workers with credentials ? 

Mr. Cook. Mine was primarily the State organization. Most of the 
precinct work and that type of thing was under a separate city 
organization. 

JNIr. Arens. Tell ns now what you did after you completed this 
assignment with the Progressive Party. 

JNIr. Cook. I went to work in a broom factory. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr, Cook. Because of my machinist experience I helped to set up 
quite a bit of machinery. They were converting from a sort of hand 
operation to mechanized operation, and I helped to set up the 
machinery. I worked in that capacity for a while, and then later 
became supervisor in charge of the plant. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you with the broom factory ? 

Mr. Cook. Up until the time I went with the International Union 
of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers. 

Mr. Arens. You began there when, again, please, sir? In 1951? 

Mr. Cook. 1951. 

Mr. Arens. '\A'1io procured your job with mine-mill for you? 

Mr. Cook. Well, as I say. I had known many of these people, and 
the previous 3'ear I believe they had a convention here and I had met 
some of them and learned that later either by convention action or 
whatever authorized it, thej had agreed to move back to Denver. 
Since I was not in too good health, and this job was pretty rough, 
and also the possibility that I might make more money, I applied to 
the office manager, I believe it was. 

Mr. Arens. Were some of these people whom you knew in mine-mill 
also active in the Progressive Party ? 

Mr. Cook. They weren't here at that time. They were in Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been active in the Colorado Legislative 
Council? 
Mr. Cook. Wliat ? I don't recall the name. 

Mr. Arens. Have you also been known by the name of Rudy Cook? 
Do people call vou Rudy ? 

Mr. Cook. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. For the purpose of refreshing your recollection I lay 
before you a document which I shall mark, for identification only, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4235 

"Cook Exhibit No. 1." It is a photostatic copy of a newspaper item 
respecting the formation of an organization known as the Colorado 
Legislative Council. In the course of this article appears the fol- 
lowing : 

Heading the organization is Leslie Morlan, of the Leadville, Colo., mine group ; 
Charles McKenna, international representative lor the Colorado Mine, Mill, and 
Smelter Workers Union ; Rudy Cook, former Vi^allace party official, and several 
others. 

Would you glance at that article, please, Mr. Cook, and see if it 
refreshes your recollection as to any participation you may have had 
in the organization alluded to in the article ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Does that refresh your recollection, Mr. Cook? 

Mr. Mills. Give us just a second, please. 

Mr. CooK. In view of the content of this article, I must decline to 
answer on the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. What is there about the article that causes you to have 
this apprehension? 

Mr. Cook. I decline to answer the question, sir, under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

]\Ir. Arens. Were you a member of the Colorado Legislative 
Council ? 

Mr. Cook. I decline to answer that, sir, under the privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly fear if you told this committee whether 
or not you were a member of the Colorado Legislative Council you 
w^ould be supplying information which might be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Cook. I decline to answer that question under the privilege. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer that question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Cook. I decline respectfully, sir, under the provisions of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Cook, look over here to your left. Will you please 
stand up, Mr. Duran? Look this man in the face, please, sir, and 
tell us whether you have ever seen him before. 

Mr. Cook. I have seen his picture. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you see his his picture ? 

Mr. Cook. Under the heading of Government stool pigeon in the 
paper. 

The Chairman. You never saw that in the paper at all. 

Mr. Cook. That is my interpretation. 

The Chairman. You would be very proud if somebody would put 
that title on your name if you had done what this man has done. 

;Mr. Arens. Perhaps you saw his picture in the mine-mill paper? 
Is that where you mean ? 

Mr. Cook. I saw it in the paper yesterday. 

Mr. Arens. What paper was it ? 

Mr. Cook. The Post, Denver Post. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see "stool pigeon" under his name ? 

Mr. Cook. Maybe I 

The Chairman. Did you see "stool pigeon" ? 

Mr. Cook. No. 

The Chairman. You know you are under oath, don't you ? 



4236 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Cook. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Wlien you said you saw his name with "stool 
pigeon" under it, you knew you were lying, didn't you ? 

Mr. Cook. I think maybe the word was "informer." 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Cook. I may have used the wrong name. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only place you have seen this gentleman's 
picture ? 

Mr. Cook. I decline to answer the question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you regard him as a stool pigeon ? 

Mr. Cook. I decline to answer the question on the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. This man served his country for several years as an 
undercover agent in the Communist conspiracy, which is designed to 
overthrow this Government by force and violence, designed to create 
political subversion in this Nation, designed to poison the minds of 
the people with a treacherous philosophy of life. In the course of 
that service he testified under oath before this committee that he 
knew you as a member of that treacherous conspiracy and as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. Look this man in the face now in front 
of these people before this committee and tell us whether or not he 
was lying or telling the truth. 

Mr. Cook. I would say that the matter of his lying is strictly be- 
tween him and the good Lord. 

Mr. Arens. Is that your answer to my question ? 

Mr. Cook. As far as the question, I will answer it by declining to 
answer it on the basis of my privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Was he lying when he said under oath before Almighty 
God that he knew you as a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Cook. I decline to answer the question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment to the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cook. I decline to answer that question under the same privi- 
lege. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a member and operator of this treach- 
erous conspiracy ? 

Mr. Cook. I decline to answer the question under my privilege 
under the United States Constitution, the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you gave a truthful 
answer as to whether or not you have ever seen this man before, Mr. 
Duran, you would be supplying information which might be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Cook. Could you put that in workingman's language? 

Mr. Arens. Let's just start over again. Have you ever seen this 
man, Mr. Duran, before ? 

Mr. Cook. I decline to answer the question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment to the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. Cook. I decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel if you told this committee now, under oath, 
whether or not you have ever seen Mr. Duran before in person, that 
you would be supplying information which might be used against 
you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Cook. I decline to answer the question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4237 

Mr. Arens. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer that question. 

The Chairi^ian. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Cook. I respectfully decline, sir, as is my privilege under the 
fifth amendment to the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

Mr. Velde. No questions. 

The Chairman. You are excused from further attendance under 
the subpena. 

The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12 o'clock noon, the committee was recessed until 
2 p. m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, MAY 17, 1956 

(Members of the committee present : Representative Walter.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Harold Page Martin. 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath to 
you, ]Mr. Martin, 

The Chairman. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Martin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HAROLD PAGE MARTIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence and occupa- 
tion. 

Mr. Martin. My name is Harold Page Martin. I live in Pueblo, 
Colo. I am employed by the Colorado Fuel and Iron Corp. 

Mr, Arens. Where were you born, Mr. Martin ? 

Mr. Martin. I was born in Boulder, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. JM4RTIN. July 20, 1923. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, a brief sketch of your early life 
up until the time j-ou became self-sufficient, a word about your educa- 
tion, please, first, 

Mr. INIartin, I attended grade school, junior high, and high school 
in Boulder, Colo. I attended 2 years at the University of Colorado. 
I spent 3 years in the armed services in the Army. Following that I 
attended -i more years under the GI bill of rights at the University of 
Colorado. Upon receiving my master's degree in 1949 I went into 
education. 

Mr. Arens. Then what did you do after you received your master's 
degree in 1949 ? 

Mr. Martin. I taught school for 5 years, high school in different 
parts of the country. 



4238 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mv. Arens. All ri2:ht, sir, for how long did you do that? 

Mr. Martin. For 5 years. 

Mr. Arens. Then what did you do ? 

Mr. Martin. My last teaching job was in Pueblo County High 
School, Pueblo, Colo. Upon leaving there I took my present employ- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Martin, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Martin. Yes; I have. 

Mr. Arens. Will you tell us first of all when you joined the Com- 
munist Party, just the date? 

Mr. Martin. I joined the Young Communist League in June of 
1942. 

Mr. Arens. Then when did your association with the Communist 
Party end ? 

Mr. Martin. In the late winter of 1949. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, if you please, the circumstances surrounding 
your joining of the Young Communist League in 1942. Where was 
that and how did you happen to join it ? 

Mr. Martin. In my last year of high school, Boulder High School, 
I became interested in the general subject of socialism, and read a 
number of books on the subject. At the same time I became acquainted 
with several other people, several of them high school students, and 
others students at the university, who were interested in the same sub- 
ject, and who I became aware at a later date were already members of 
the Young Communist League. 

Through association with these individuals over a period of about a 
year and in discussions with them I finally determined to join the 
Young Communist League myself. I was invited to do so, as I said, in 
June of 1942. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us the branch of the Young Communist 
League with which you were identified? 

Mr. Martin. That was a branch at the University of Colorado, 1 
believe it was named the Allen Merrick Branch. 

Mr. Arens. Did you hold any post in that organization? 

Mr. Martin. No ; I did not. At one time I signed a letter to the 
Silver and Gold, the student newspaper, signing my name as chairman 
of the branch of the Young Communist League. However, this was 
done because the actual chairman at that time was an individual who 
the group felt should not reveal himself. I was not actually chairman 
at that time. 

Mr. Arens. AVill you give us the names of other persons who were 
known by you to have been members of the Young Communist League? 

Mr. INIartin. At the time I was a member of the Young Communist 
League I recall some of the most active members to have been Richard 
Aspinwall, Glen Fisher, Kurt Benster. 

Mr, Arens. B-e-n-s-t-e-r? 

Mr. ML^rtin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And Kurt is K-u-r-t ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. And Kenneth Mundt. 

Mr. Arens. M-u-n-d-t? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. Fay Berman, Jean Harbeit. 

Mr. Arens. Jean what ? 

Mr. JMartin. Harbert, H-a-r-b-e-r-t. 



coMLiinsriST activities in the rocky mountain area 4239 

Mr. Arexs. Is that a man or a woman ? 

Mr. JVIartix. That is a woman. Gene Gartinkel. 

Mr. Arens. Eugene Garfinkel? 

Mr. Martin. Eugene, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were these the principal people in the Young Commu- 
nist League when you were a member ? 

Mr. ]\Iartin. Those are all that I can recall at present who were 
members then. 

Mr. Arens. Were there also branches of the Young Communist 
League at other schools in this area to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Martin. During the time that I was in the league I was not 
aware of other branches in the area, no. 

Mr. Arens. Or was there a cutout system or security system which 
precluded you from knowing about other schools? 

Mr. Martin. No, not particularly. 

Mr. Arens. That was back in 1942? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. I think it's likely that there were not branches at 
other schools at that particular time. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us what the Young Communist League did 
when you were a member, some of its activities ? 

Mr. Martin. Its activities were mainly in the form of education 
and discussion. That was during the war, of course. As I recall, the 
main activity of a political nature was in working publicly on the 
campus for the idea of aid to the Soviet Union and friendship with 
Russia, aid to Russia campaign, opening the second front, that type 
of activity. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you in the Young Communist League? 

Mr. JNIartin. From June of 1942 until March of 1943, when I went 
into the Army. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you in the xlrmy ? 

Mr. Martin. 3 years. 

Mr. Arens. Then upon your return from the Army what did you 
do from the standpoint of Communist Party activities? 

Mr. Martin. Shortly, a few months after returning from the Army, 
I joined the local branch of the Communist Party. During that time 
the Young Communist League had been dissolved. It was no longer 
in existence. 

Mr. Arens. What local branch did you join? 

Mr. Martin. I was first assigned to a group known as the Town 
Branch. 

Mr. Arens. Where ? 

Mr. Martin. In the Boulder community, near and around the Uni- 
versity of Colorado. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us the names of the principal people who 
were active in the Town Branch of the Communist Party at Boulder, 
Colo.? 

Mr. Martin. As I recall, the branch was small at that time. The 
members who I recall are Mrs. Florence Dittmer 

Mr. Arens. D-i-t-t-m-e-r? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. Sally Folawn. 
Mr. Arens. F-o-l-a-w-n? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. James Boratgis. 

Mr. Arens. Spell "Boratgis." 

Mr. Martin. B-o-r-a-t-g-i-s. JoeScherrer. 



4240 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Arens. Spell "Sclicrrer." 

Mr. Martin, te-c-h-e-r-r-e-r, I believe. 

( Representative Velde entered the hearing room. ) 

Mr. Arens. Was there a Marjorie Zeiger also connected with that 
branch ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes ; Marjorie Zeiger I believe the name was. 

Mr. Arens. Z-e-i-g-e-r % 

Mr. Martin. I believe it is Z-e-i-g-e-r. 

Mr. Arens. What were your assignments? What did you do in 
the town branch of the Communist Party of Boulder, Colo. ? 

Mr. Martin. I was only in the Town Branch a very short time. The 
main activity of the Town Branch at that time, as it was with most of 
the other branches, was the sponsorship and spreading of a publica- 
tion, a newspaper, known as Challenge. Members of the group took 
the newspaper Challenge and went around the community of Boulder 
door to door, especially in the student sections, and also to outlying 
communities such as Louisville, Lafayette, Coal Camp, and even up 
around the northern part of the State, Greeley. That is the only 
major activity that I recall during the time that I was in that branch. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have knowledge of the existence of other 
branches of the Communist Party in Boulder A\hile you were a member 
of the Town Branch ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes ; I d i d . 

Mr. Arens. What other brandies were in existence to your 
knowledge ? 

Mr. Martin. There were three branches in Boulder at that time. 
The Town Branch, the Student Branch, and a group known as the 
Graduate Branch. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know who were in the other two branches ? 

Mr. Martin. I did not at that time. I became aware of it at a later 
date. 

Mr. Arens. Were you at any time a member of either the Student 
or the Graduate Branch? 

Mr. AL^RTiN. I was never a member of the Graduate Branch. Very 
shortly after joining the party I was transferred to the Student Branch 
and I was a member of that branch from that time until leaving the 
party in 1949. 

Mr. Arens. Who else was in the Student Branch of the Communist 
Party besides yourself? 

Mr. Martin. The membershii) of the Student Branch was constantly 
changing as new students appeared and others left school. There 
was a constant liux. Among those who were most active during that 
period were Jerry and Judy Goodman, Leonard Perlmutter, Gene 
Deikman, Joseph Scherrer. 

Mr. Arens. Is that Eugene Deikman ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. Stan Smith, David Bramhall, Shirley Bramhall. 

Mr. Arens. Plusband and wife? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. Eileen Sasajima. 

Mr. Arens. Spell that, please. 

Mr. Martin. S-a-s-a-j-i-m-a, I believe. 

Kenneth Kripke. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell "Kripke" ? 

Mr. Martin. K-r-i-p-k-e, I think. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4241 

Mr. Arens. These are people known by you to have been members 
of the Communist Party in this brancli ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, in tlie Student Branch over a period of time. 
There are a good many others. The Student Jiranch averaged in 
membership between I would say uO and 50 during months of that 
period, with the group continually changing. 

Mr. Akexs. That is the Student Branch just within one section of 
the Boulder area ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, the Student Branch. 

Mr. Arens. At Boulder. 

Mr. Martin. Yes. I am afraid it would take me a considerable 
amount of time to recall all of them. 

Mr. Arens. Have you covered the principal people in the Student 
Branch? 

Mr. IMartin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have occasion during the course of your mem- 
bership in the Communist Party to ascertain the personnel of the State 
board of the party ? 

Mr. ]\Iartin. Yes, I did. I was elected to the State board. 

Mr. Arens. "Wlien? 

Mr. Martin. At the convention of the Communist Party in 1948, 
in the summer of 1948, held in Denver. 

Mr. Arens. AAHio were the other members of the State board of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Martin. The other members were Arthur Bary, the chairman, 
Patricia Blau, Harold Zepelin, Tracy Rogers, Charles Gwynn. 

Mr. Arens. Would you spell that last name for us so we are sure 
we have that accurately ? 

Mr. Martin. G-w-y-n-n, I think. 

Mr. Arens. His first name? 

Mr. Martin. Charles. 

Mr. Arens. Was Eobert Trujillo on that board too? 

Mr. ]S£4rtin. He was a member of the State board previously. I 
don't believe he was following these elections. There was one other 
member from Denver whose name I am trying to recall. I can't think 
of his name. 

INIr. Arens. Did you ever hold a post on a Youth Commission of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. First of all, tell us what the Youth Commission of the 
Communist Party was and what it did. 

Mr. Martin. The Youth Commission was a commission authorized 
by the State board, made up of representatives of the party who were 
primarily engaged in youth work, either youth groups in the commu- 
nity or in college groups, which would meet and following under the 
direction of the State board would carry out the policy of the board in 
laying definite plans in designing projects for the youth groups to 
carry through. 

Mr. Arens. Who else was on the Youth Commission when you were 
on it? 

Mr. JVIartin. Harold Zepelin was chairman of the Youth Com- 
mission. Other members were Jerry Goodman and myself, and 
Arnold Berkens of the University of Denver, a girl whose name 1 
can't recall, Larry Small representing youth work for the party in the 
Denver community. 



4242 communtist activities in the rocky mountain area 

Others attended from time to time, but I believe that was the regu- 
lar membership. 

Mr. Akens. Do you have a recollection of a State convention of the 
Communist Party held in 1947 in Denver at the home of Edward 
Bronstein ? 

Mr. Martix. Yes, I have. I was thinking it was in 1948, the sum- 
mer of 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Wliether it was in the summer ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes ; I recall the State convention. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us who were the principal participants in 
the State convention of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Martin. The convention was chaired by Arthur Bary as the 
district organizer of the party. The national committee of the Com- 
munist Party was represented by Sid Stein, who gave what might be 
termed the keynote address. There was a large attendance at the 
convention. Almost all those delegates were active in party leader- 
ship. 

Mr. Arens. What was the line of the Communist Party announced 
at that State convention from the standpoint of concentrating mem- 
bers in basic industry ? 

Mr. Martin. The party at that time was developing the line of 
what was known as the concentration policy; that is, concentrating 
party members in areas in certain basic industries. 

Mr. Arens. "VVliy? 

Mr. Martin. There was a feeling that by concentrating the party 
forces and party members and party energies in a certain few large 
industries where the larger number of workers would be present, that 
party propaganda would be more successful and the recruiting and 
general building of the party would be carried on more effectively. 

Mr. Arens. "VVliat did the party do from the standpoint of causing 
the students to find themselves in basic industries or to locate them- 
selves in basic industry? 

Mr. Martin. The party leadership locally felt at that time following 
out the line of concentrating party members in industry that all 
students who could be persuaded to do so and who were considered 
sufficiently politically developed and able to do so, should leave school 
and go into industry of some kind or other. 

Mr. Arens. Were they required to do so ? 

Mr. Martin. They were not exactly required, but those students who 
the party felt had the capability and had sufficient training and 
indoctrination really to be effective as party organizers in industry 
were very strongly urged to do so, so strongly that it was practically 
a requirement. 

Mr. Arens. What were some of the activities of the young Com- 
munists under the direction of the Youth Commission of the Com- 
munist Party ? T^^iat did they do ? 

Mr, Martin. The main goal, of course, of the youth groups within 
the Communist Party, as of the whole party, was building the party 
itself. In order to do this it was necessary to come into contact with 
as many young people as possible. In order to carry out this plan 
it was necessary to find young people in large groups, either in organi- 
zations which were already existing in which young people were 
active or else by starting organizations which would draw the interest 
of young people. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4243 

Mr. Arens. "WHiat did the party do from the standpoint of trying 
to capture or in capturing existing organizations? 

Mr. Martin. The party branch, as for example the Student Branch, 
would discuss various organizations and if it was decided to enter 
an organization certain party members would be assigned permanently 
to that organization. They would attend the meetings of the organi- 
zation legally. The party branch would meet and decide ahead of 
time what part they were to take in that organization, what role 
they were to play, and at each branch meeting the party members 
assigned to the organization would report on recent meetings, the 
success of their activities, particularly as to other young people they 
had come in contact with, possible recruits they had met, and the 
general success of their activity. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know members of the graduate group in this 
cell that you were telling us about a little while ago? 

Mr. Martin. Yes; I did. As chairman of the party at Boulder I 
became aware of the entire membership. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the principal members of the Graduate Branch. 

Mr. IMartin. The graduate group was always a small one. Prin- 
cipally their members were Dr. Irving Goodman and his wife. 

Mr. Arens. Identify him further, please, sir. 

;Mr. ]\L\RTiN. He was a professor in the chemistry department of 
the university. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know where he is now ? 

jNIr. Martin. I am not sure. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have another name ? 

Mr. Martin. Morris Judcl and his wife. 

Mr. Arens. Identify him, please. 

Mr. Martin. He was an instructor in the department of philosophy. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know where he is now ? 

Mr. Martin. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Was he a Communist ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes ; he was. 

jNIr. Arens. "Who was the gentleman whose name you gave just prior 
to Dr. Judd ? Was he a Communist ? 

Mr. ]Martin. Yes ; he was. 

Mr. Velde. May I ask how you know that he was a Communist ? 

]Mr. Martin. At the time of which I speak I held the position of 
chairman of the Boulder Section Committee ; in other words, chairman 
of the entire party in Boulder, at which time the collection of dues, 
keeping track of the entire membership of all the branches in the area, 
was my responsibility. While it is true that the membership of one 
branch was carefully guarded from another during this time for 
security reasons, I was one of the few people who would be aware at 
this time of the entire membership. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us some names of other principal people 
who were members of the Graduate Branch of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Martin. I believe Jack Fox and his wife, Ruth, were members 
of the graduate group at that time. 

Mr. Arens. Could you identify them further for us? 

Mr. Martin. Jack Fox was an assistant in the chemistry department. 

i\Ir, Arens. Do you know where he is now ? 

Mr. jNLa.rtin. No ; I do not. 



4244 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Arens. Was he to your certain knowledge a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes ; he was. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any others whose names you can recount to us ? 

Mr. Martin. Kenneth Mundt and his wife. 

Mr. Arens. Identify him further for us, please, sir. 

Mr. JVIartin. His wife held a position in the library at the university. 

Mr. Arens. Is she there now ? 

Mr. Martin. I don't know. Kenneth Mundt was not directly 
connected with the university faculty. 

Mr. Arens, All right, sir, are there any others whose names occur 
to you ? 

Mr. Martin. Those are all that I recall in that branch. 

Mr. Arens. What organizations did the party create as distinct 
from the organizations that they moved into to try to capture or con- 
trol or direct ; among youth I am speaking of, of course ? 

Mr. Martin. The party created the organization known as AYD 
or American Youth for Democracy. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that created so far as you know? 

Mr. Martin. As far as I know it was a decision of the national 
committee. 

Mr. Arens. I mean, was there a cliapter at the University of 
Colorado? 

Mr. Martin. Yes; there was. It was decided upon by the State 
board and carried out by the Youth Commission that AYD chapters 
should be established at Boulder and at Denver University if possible, 
and also in the Denver community. 

Mr. Arens. And was tliat done? 

Mr. Martin. Yes ; it was. 

Mr. Arens. What was the membei-ship of the AYD at the Uni- 
versity of Colorado ? 

Mr. Martin. Oh, I would guess at one time maybe about 75. 

Mr. Arens. Not all 75 were members of the Communist Party, were 
they? 

Mr. Martin. No ; certainly not. 

Mr. Arens. How many of the 75 would you say were members of 
the party ? 

Mr. Martin. I would say varying between perhaps 25 and 30. 

Mr. Arens. Were there AYD chapters elsewhere in the State to 
your knowledge besides the University of Colorado ? 

Mr. Martin. There was one in the community of Denver and there 
was an attempt to establish one at Denver University. It was never 
officially sanctioned, but I believe it did meet off the campus as a sort 
of unofficial group. 

JNIr. Arens. What was the total membership of AYD in the State 
to your knowledge? 

Mr. Martin. I am afraid I couldn't give an estimate. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other organizations that the Communist 
Party created for youth, youth groups? 

Mr. Martin. The pai'ty played a very major role in the creation of 
the Young Progressives, the youth or younger generation of the Pro- 
gressive Party. I wouldn't say the party created the group, but it 
was one of the major factors. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Communist Party control the group ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4245 

Mr. Martin. Locally, yes; it did. 

Mr. Arexs. How many Avere in the group ? 

Mr. ]\L\RTiN. The group started originally at the university 
at Boulder as the Students for Wallace Club, and that group was 
started locally by the Communist Party. Later it affiliated with the 
Progressive Party and became the Young Progressives. At the high 
point of the party campaign in the sununer of 1948 and early fall, 
it may have had a couple of hundred membership. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Martin, you were ideologically identified with the 
party, were you not ? 

Mr. ]NL\RTix. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Arexs. You were a true Communist, were you not, that is, a 
conscientious member of the Jjarty, were you not :? 

Mr. Martix. That is true. 

Mr. Arens. You eventually broke with the party, did you not ? 

Mr. JSL^RTiN. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arexs. Tell us first of all what makes a Communist? Why did 
you join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Martix. That is a difficult question. People join the party 
for many reasons. One certainly was a kind of intellectual curiosity 
and a genuine desire to do something about the many things that 
are troubling us in the world today. Partly it was a social contact. 
The way I was recruited into the party was the way almost everyone 
else was recruited, following a regular policy of every party member 
getting to know other people personally, working with them, talking 
with them, discussing things with them, convincing them through per- 
sonal contact. 

Mr. Arexs. Is communism a disease of the heart or of the head in 
your judgment? 

Mr. Martin. I believe it is a disease of the head. 

Mr. Arexs. Why? 

]Mr. ]\L\RTiN. I think that the heart is in the right place, there 
is a desire to do something about the ills of the world. It is a mistaken 
path, a kind of intellectual egotism, I believe. The idea that a small 
group can hold the key to the answer to the whole thing within a small 
formula. 

Mr. Arexs. It is based on a materialistic philosophy of life? 

Mr. ]Martix\ Yes ; it is. 

Mr. Arexs. To what extent does the Communist Party use as a 
facade for its operations the great humanitarian issues such as peace, 
bi-otherliood. and that sort of thing ? 

Mr. Martix. The Communist Party uses every issue imaginable, 
large, or small, that tliey feel will appeal to people at a particular time, 
that will draw people forward. The party always desires to have 
people in groups, the larger the groups the better, because in these 
groups they can reach tliem, influence them, work with them, recruit 
them, or at least mold them to their own ends. 

Mr. Arexs. What caused you to break with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Martix. More than anything else the concept the party calls 
and refers to as democratic centralism. The concept of strict, abso- 
lute authoritarianism. It is something that the beginning recruit in 
the party does not see very clearly. It does not manifest itself so 
clearly within the branches throughout tJie membership of the party 
as a whole. 



4246 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

As one climbs higher in the party into higher and higher levels of 
activity it becomes more and more pronomiced until it becomes clear 
that as you get up to the highest levels, the dedicated Communist, 
the genuine bolshevik, regards himself and is regarded by the party 
simply as an instrument for carrying out party decisions and party 
activities, with any other considerations, personal or otherwise, en- 
tirely subjected. 

Mr. Akens. The party as you said masquerades behind a facade of 
great humanitarian principles and ideologies. To what extent does 
the party itself practice the respect for human personality of the in- 
dividual comrade? 

Mr. Martin. I would say very little within its own organization. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Communist Party have any effect on your par- 
ticular personal life ? Do you have any illustrations from your own 
experiences in the party ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes ; I have. At the time I left the party at a time 
when they were carrying out this concentration policy to the fullest 
possible extent, students with a great deal of talent and ability and 
intellect were being taken from school and sent into industries or sent 
out as truck drivers or mill workers or workers in the mines. I saw 
families broken up, homes uprooted, party members sent here and 
there, to different parts of the country on a moment's notice. 

In my ow^n personal case I would say the deciding factor was a per- 
sonal situation. My wife developed a very serious illness. At that 
time I had a great deal of party responsibility. I was a member of 
the State board, chairman of the Boulder Section Committee. I re- 
quested from the State board that I be relieved of a great many of 
my duties in order to meet the situation, that is, my wife's illness. It 
was suggested to me in no uncertain terms that a real party member 
cannot allow such personal considerations to interfere with his party 
work and party assignments. 

In a situation of that kind it would be much better to leave the 
personal situation, get out of it, in other words, get a divorce, leave any 
considerations of wife or children or family or other personal con- 
siderations, in order to continue to carry out my party functions. 

This to me brought home more clearly than anything else, I think, 
the example of other things I could see going on throughout the party 
on a higher level all the time, namely, that the higher level party func- 
tionary is in reality and is expected by the party to be simply a tool, 
an instrument of party policy, party decisions. He may be told to 
travel here, to travel there, to live in this place, to work in that place. 
He has no personal life whatsoever. I could not see continuing in an 
organization of that kind, much less seeing an organization of that 
kind controlling the country. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your experience, does the Communist 
Party of the United States seek to overthrow the Government of this 
country by force and violence? 

Mr. Martin. I believe very sincerely that it does ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Communist Party of the United States allied 
with the international Communist conspiratorial apparatus? 

Mr. Martin. Yes; it is. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the relationship ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN" THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4247 

Mr. Martin. There is no direct tieup, official tieup at the present 
time between the American Communist Party and those of other 
countries. 

Mr. Arens. You mean technically? 

Mr. Martin. Technically, yes. However, it is taught from the 
very beginning in Communist education that Communists have a bond 
throughout the world, particularly an allegiance to the Soviet Union 
as the founder of communism. One of the primary requirements of a 
Communist is to be prepared to defend the Soviet Union at all times. 
This was taught in the Student Branch. We were prepared at all meet- 
ings or lectures or classrooms and were expected to stand up and de- 
fend the Soviet Union at any time it was attacked. 

]Mr. Arens. What does communism do to the human soul, the hu- 
man personality? 

Mr. M\RTiN. I would say that it more or less imprisons it in a little 
box, so that any one w^ho falls into that type of thinking is imprisoned 
intellectually. He is almost unable to see outside or to see any normal 
or objective viewpoint. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other observations you would like to 
make, for this committee, Mr. Martin? Any items of information 
that you feel are important to be brought to the attention of the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities and by it to the American 
people, on the basis of your rather limited and yet somewhat extensive 
experience in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Martin. I can think of nothing in particular. I would like 
just to point out the extreme danger which has always existed and 
exists even at the present time, the danger of a very small group of 
people so thoroughly integrated and working together so completely 
and in complete secrecy within what in other respects may be a com- 
pletely good, wholesome American organization. 

Mr. Arens. We have in this country the equivalent of an excess 
of a whole division of foreign controlled conspirators, do we not ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. I have seen examples over and over again of 
organizations taken over, controlled completely by a very small num- 
ber of people, with such a situation remaining completely unknown 
to the average membership. I feel that is a very dangerous situation 
to exist. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that concludes the staff inter- 
rogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

Mr. Velde. I have nothing in particular to ask, except that since I 
have been here and listened to your testimony, it is evident that you 
are a very capable and intelligent witness, and I think you have the 
situation well in hand. I was going to elaborate a little on the question 
which our very good counsel asked you about, the danger in numbers 
of the Communist Party, as to the danger of their strength other than 
numbers. 

Could you elaborate a little more on that ? I don't Imow whether you 
understand what I mean or not. Mr. Hoover of the FBI reported 
that there were less than, I believe. 22,000 Communists in the country 
today, whereas a few years ago we had more than 100,000 Communists. 
Do you think that the reduction in quantity in this country is a good 
omen as far as our progress in fighting Communists is concerned, or 

79079 — 56 — pt. 2 4 



4248 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

do you feel that the increase in the quality of the Communists is a bad 
omen ? 

Mr. Martin. I feel it is a good omen, but I think that the strength 
of the party has never lain in its numbers and in quantity, but in two 
things — in the fact that it works absolutely as a unit under absolute 
discipline, and that it works in absolute secrecy. 

Three people within an organization who know exactly what they 
are going to do and who is going to do it, and who are unknown to 
everyone else, can control that organization. 

I feel that is where the danger lies, and not so much in the numbers. 

Mr. Velde. Did you get any idea while you were in the Communist 
Party that the party line was being distributed to the United States 
Communist Party through the New York Daily Worker or the Daily 
People's World?' 

Mr. Martin. Both these newspapers were regarded as official organs 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Velde. Of course, you were taught to abide by and believe in 
anything that those newspapers' put out, I suppose. 

Mr. Martin. Yes; that is true. Every member was expected to 
read the Worker and to buy it if possible, and to sell it to everyone he 
could, if possible. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have any other information as to how party line 
was distributed to American Communists from Soviet Russia? 

Mr. Martin. No; I have no direct information on that point. 

Mr. Velde. I personally want to thank you for your very fine tes- 
timony. I appreciate the fact that you have done the American people 
a great service, and we are very proud of your testimony here. 

The Chairman. I. too, want to congratulate you. It always has 
been a very distressing thing to me ever since I have found myself in 
this position, to see how few Americans liave the courage to do what 
you have done. It is not an easy thing to do. It is lots easier to 
invoke the fifth amendment. But you have made a great contribution 
to the preservation of the very document that most of the witnesses 
who have appeared here have taken refuge behind. 

I think the American people as a whole recognize that and feel a debt 
of gratitude to you. You are discharged from further attendance 
under the subpena. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Harold Meier, M-e-i-e-r. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please. Do you 
swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Meier. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HAROLD MEIER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CHARLES D. MONTEORT 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Meier. My name is Harold Meier. I live in Boulder, Colo. I 
am presently occupied on a part-time basis at the University of 
Colorado. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity? 



COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4249 

Mr. Meier. I work at the group process laboratory in the psychol- 
ogy department. 

Mr. xVrens. Are you an employee of the University of Colorado? 

Mr. Meier. That is right. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you appearing today, Mr. Meier, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities? 

Mr. Meier. That is right. 

Mr. Akens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mv. Meier. I am. 

Mr. Arexs. Will counsel kindly identify himself ? 

Mr. MoxTFORT. Charles D. Montfort, attorney at law, 611 E. & C. 
Building, Denver, Colo, 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Meier, where were you born and when ? 

Mr. Meier. I was born in De Kalb County, 111., July 28, 1926. 

Mr. Arexs. A word, please, sir, about your education. 

Mr. Meier. I attended several grammar schools in De Kalb County, 
111., also 3 years of high school in 2 high schools in that same county. 
I quit high school after the third year and on the day after I became 
17 years of age I enlisted in the United States Navy, in 1943. 

I served 4 years, including combat duty in the Pacific in the United 
States Navy. I was discharged July 20, 1947. 

Mr. Arexs. All right, continue from there, if you please, sir, in the 
chronology of your life. What did you do then? 

Mr. Meier. After being honorably discharged from the Navy I 
took advantage of the GI bill of rights and I enrolled in the Northern 
Illinois State Teachers College in De Kalb County, and I attended 
that college for I think 2 years, after which time I transferred to the 
University of Colorado where I completed my undergraduate educa- 
tion and received a bachelor of arts degree in August of 1951. 

I then entered graduate school at that same university. Through 
the remainder of 1951, 1952 — incidentally, I was not a professor any- 
where during those years — 1953 and 1954 and up to June 1955 when I 
received my master of arts degree. 

The CiiAiRMAx. What is the size of the student body at the Uni- 
versity of Colorado ? 

Mr. Meier. Olihand I would guess around between seven and eight 
thousand. 

Mr. Arexs. You received your master's degree in 1955 ? 

Mr. Meier. That is right. 

Mr. Arexs. In what subjects? 

Mr. Meier. In sociology. 

Mr. Arexs. What month in 1955 did you receive your degree? 

Mr. Meier. June. 

Mr. Arexs. About a year ago ? 

Mr. Meier. Yes, about a year ago. 

Mr. Arex^s. "\^^iat have you done in the last year? 

]Mr. Meier. My plans were uncertain after graduation as to whether 
I could go on to graduate school or find permanent work or employ- 
ment. I have been vacillating between those ever since, so I haven't 
had any regular job since that time. I have had some casual employ- 
ment. Do you want me to list the casual employments? 



4250 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Arens. I was under the impression that you said you were 
teaching at the University of Colorado. Am I in error in inter- 
preting your testimony ? 

Mr. Meier. I said nothing about teaching. 

Mr. Arens. What do you do at the University of Colorado? 

Mr. Meier. I work in the group process laboratory in the Psychol- 
ogy Department. What I do there is to assist in conducting social 
psychological experiments and tabulate data and various kinds of 
clerical work around the laboratory office. 

Mr. Arens. You receive pay for that from the university? 

Mr. Meier. I work on an hourly basis. I receive pay. 

Mr. Arens. Who is your immediate superior? 

Mr. Meier. My immediate superior is Prof. Jack Gibb. 

Mr. Arens. How do j^ou spell that, please? 

Mr. Meier. G-i-b-b. 

Mr. Arens. Is he the person who actually engaged you? 

Mr. Meier, Not exactly, because I was hired while he was on a 
trip, so I was actually hired by his secretary, a Mrs. Helen Alexander. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us just a word, not a scientific exposi- 
tion, but a w^ord about these experiments which you are conducting. 

Mr. Meier. They have to do with experiments on group percep- 
tion. You get people together in small groups and test their percep- 
tion of various kinds of situations, test their reactions to various kinds 
of stimuli. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Meier. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Meier. I have several reasons why, and I wish to state them. 
In the first place, the law under which this committee's activities are 
authorized is in clear violation of the first amendment. 

Mr. Arens. What amendment is that? 

Mr. Meier. The amendment that says that Congress shall make no 
law abridging freedom of speech. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel that by this committee's interrogating citi- 
zens with respect to knowledge they may have of a conspiracy in this 
country it is violating the first amendment to the Constitution? 

Mr. Meier. As I understand it, the law which authorized this com- 
mittee authorized it to investigate propaganda, and propaganda is the 
press and speech. Therefore, I regard it as in clear violation of the 
first amendment. 

The Chairman. You don't agree with the Supreme Court, then; 
do you ? 

Mr. Meier. I am not legally equipped to answer that. 

The Chairman. That is obvious. Proceed, 

Mr, Meier. The second reason 

Mr. Arens. You are reading all this from some notes you made 
there ? 

Mr. Meier. I have some notes. I am not reading it. 

Mr. Arens. You may place those notes before you, please. Who 
prepared the notes from which you are now reciting? 

Mr. Meier. I prepared them. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed. 

Mr. Meier. I am not reciting from these notes. These are re- 
minders. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4251 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Meier Also, in view of the first amendment, I don't believe that 
you have the right to ask questions concerning associations, assem- 
blies, and political beliefs, and I decline to answer on those grounds. 

The third ground on which I decline to answer is that this commit- 
tee did not provide me with any advance information at all specifying 
|:he purpose, subject, and scope of the hearing or inquiry for which 
my testimony was commanded. 

Mr. Akens. You had a pretty good idea what we were going to ask 
you about ; did you not ; really ? 

Mr. Meier. 1 was not informed, and therefore I don't believe you 
have the right to inquire into my private affairs on that ground. 

Another ground is that I have been attending these hearings the 
last few days and it has come to my attention that I have been put 
in the position of an accused person, and in view of that and in view of 
the fact that the committee does not respect due process, which I regard 
as elementary fair play, I decline to answer on those grounds. 

The fifth ground is, consistent with the position of innocence, I can- 
not be compelled to be a witness against myself. 

The Chairman. You are not charged with anything. This is not 
a trial. You are not under indictment. We are conducting an in- 
quiry in accordance with instructions given to this committee by the 
Congress of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of an organization designed to 
destroy the Constitution of the United States ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Meier. I decline to answer that on the grounds that I have 
already given. 

Mr. Arens. I understood you to say something about your innocence 
a moment ago. Are you innocent of membership in a conspiratorial 
apparatus? 

(The w^itness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Meier. You put words in my mouth, in the first place. 

Mr. Arens. Just answer that question. Ai-e you innocent of mem- 
bership in a conspiratorial apparatus ? 

Mr. Meier. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Duran, will you stand up, please. 

Mr. Meier, so there can be no question in your case of the faintest 
suspicion of faceless informers, as sometimes is alleged, would you 
look at the face of the gentleman standing to my right there in the 
blue suit, Mr. Bellarmino Duran, and tell us whether you know that 
man? 

(The wntness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNTFORT. Mr. Chairman, may we at this time have the oppor- 
tunity of cross-examining Mr. Duran ? 

The Chairman. This is not a trial. This is a congressional in- 
quiry. We are merely asking the witness the question if he ever has 
seen this man before. 

Mr. MoNTFORT. Yes, sir ; I appreciate that. 

The Chairman. You advise your client. Go ahead, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Will you answer the question ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Meier. I decline to answer on the grounds that I have already 
given. 



4252 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Arens. This man standing here took oath before this committee 
and laid himself open to any })ossible criminal action against him- 
self if he lied, and told this conmiittee that he knew yon as a member 
of the Communist Party. We are giving yon an opportunity to look 
him in the eye and deny it. Was he lying or was he telling the truth 
when he said he knew you as a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Meier. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. When were you served with your subpena, do you 
recall ? 

Mr. Meier. I don't remember the exact date oflfhand. 

Mr. Arens. It has been some few weeks ago ; has it not ? 

Mr. Meier. Approximately three, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. Since you have been served with this subpena did you 
have any conversation with any of the officials of the school ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Meier. Will 3'ou specify what kind of conversations you are 
talking about ? 

Mr. Arens. Conversations respecting your proposed appearance 
here. I am sorry. I meant to be more specific. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Meier. I did have a conversation with my employer at the 
university. Professor Gibb. 

Mr. Arens. What was the essence of that conversation ? 

Mr. Meier. The essence of the conversation was that I informed 
him of the subpena and I informed him that, although I had not yet 
had advice of counsel, I probably would stand on my constitutional 
rights and that if this should in any way embarrass him I would be 
willing to disassociate myself voluntarily. 

Mr. Arens. Will you tell me, did you tell him whether or not you 
have been a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Meier. That didn't come up in the conversation. 

Mr. Arens. Do you propose to tell him whether or not you have been 
a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Meier. Would you restate that question? 

Mr. Arens. Do you propose to tell him whether or not you have 
been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. ]\Ieier. I have no intentions on that question right now. 

Mr. Arens. You recognize of course that when you are released 
here from your subpena you are also released from your oath. If you 
have any further conversation with the superintendent of your activ- 
ities you will not then be under an oath. 

We have no further questions of this witness, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. No questions. 

The Chairman. There are no questions. The witness is discharged 
from further attendance at this hearing. 

We will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Call 3'our next witness. 

(Members of the committee present: Kepresentatives Walter and 
Velde.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIfIS IX THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4253 

Mr. Akens, Mr. Arnold Berkens, please. 

Mr. Irvixg Blau. He is phoning his lawyer who hasn't yet arrived. 

Mr. Arens. Then I suggest, Mr. Chairman, in view of that situa- 
tion we take another witness and then we can come back to him. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Richard Aspinwall. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please. Do you 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Aspinwall. I do. 

Mr. Alperstein. Mr. Chairman, may I request that the photog- 
rapher be instructed concerning the committee rules. 

The Chairman. He knows the rules, and he will abide by them, I 
am sure. 

TESTIMONY OF RICHAED ASPINWALL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ARNOLD ALPERSTEIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Aspinwall. Richard Aspinwall, address 5837 "West 29th Ave- 
nue, Denver 14. I am with Armour Co. as a laborer. 

Mr. Arens. Are 3^011 appearing today in response to a subpena 
^\ Inch was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. AspiNw^ALL. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. AspiNw^ALL. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself ? 

Mr. Alperstein. Arnold Alperstein, A-1-p-e-r-s-t-e-i-n, 7580 West 
16th, Lakewood, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when ^\•ere you born, Mr. Aspinwall? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Vermillion, S. Dak., November 24, 1919. 

]Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, sir, about your early life, your 
education particularly. 

Mr. Aspinwall. Educated principally in the public schools in 
Boulder, Colo., approximately S years at the University of Colorado. 

Mr. Ajiens. What years were you at the University of Colorado? 

Mr. Aspinwall. From 1939 through 1943. 

Mr. Arens. Did you graduate from the University of Colorado ? 

Mr. AspiNW' ALL. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did your period of education there terminate in 1943 ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Yes, that is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any further education at any other in- 
stitution ? 

Mr. Aspinw^all. Not at a — I wouldn't consider it an educational 
institution. I took some training from the maritime service during 
the war. 

Mr. Arens. When did that commence ? 

Mr. Aspinavall. It commenced in November 1953. 

Mr. Arens. Was that your first significant activity after you left 
the university in 1943 ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. I don't understand what you mean. 



4254 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any job or do anything of any conse- 
quence 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Yes. Before I left the university I worked at 
Montgomery Ward in Denver. 

Mr. Arens. You were in the maritime service ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Were you drafted ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. No. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere did you serve ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. You mean where did I take my training ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I took my training at one of their bases on Cata- 
lina Island, and then from there I went to their radio training school 
in Boston. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you serve in the maritime service ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. All told, from 1943 until 1946, August. 

Mr. Arens. I am not familiar with the setup in the maritime serv- 
ice. Did you receive an honorable discharge ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. No ; the maritime service during the war was op- 
erated very much like it is now or before the war. It was operated by 
a civilian agency under the direction of the Government, I guess you 
would say. 

Mr. Arens. Am I correct in my impression that you were a radio 
operator ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And did you operate radio on vessels or on land ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. On board ship. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you operate radio ? 

Mr. AspiNALL. All over the world. I saw service in the North 
Atlantic and the South Pacific. 

Mr. Arens. Then what did you do after you were disassociated 
from the maritime service ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. After I got out of the maritime service I took a 
job with the University of California. 

Mr. Arens. What job was that and when, please, sir ? 

Mr. AspiNALL. I find at times it is difficult to remember some of 
these dates. 

Mr. Arens. Approximately^ how long was it after you left the mari- 
time service ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. A few months. 

Mr. Arens. It must have been, then, in 1946 or early 1947. 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Late 1946 or early 1947 ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. The University of California ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do there? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I was employed as a draftsman. 

Mr. Arens. By the university itself ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. For what purpose ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. They were operating a research laboratory. 

Mr. Arens. What kind of a research laboratory ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Radio propagation. 

Mr. Arens.. I didn't get that. 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Radio propagation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4255 

Mr. Arens. "What is radio propagation ? 

Mr, AspiNWALL. The study of various types of radios, antennas, 
and associated equipment. 

Mr. Arens. Was that in any sense connected with any of the mili- 
tary of the Government ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Yes. It was operated for the Navy, I believe. The 
university operated it for the Navy. I don't really understand all 
the implications. Like they have been operating or had been oper- 
ating the atomic research. Certain universities — -— 

Mr. Arens. Does this University of California unit by which you 
were employed have what Ave might call a defense contract with the 
United States Navy ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Was the work that you were doing of a classified nature ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. No, not that t know of. 

Mr. Arens. Was the operation itself of a defense nature producing 
information for the Navy to use for defense purposes? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I would judge probably it was. 

Mr. Arens. How did you happen to get that job? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I applied for it. 

Mr. Arens. How did you know it was open ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. That I can't recall. Either I saw it in the news- 
paper or- 



Mr. Arens. Did you know any person at the University of Cali- 
fornia who suggested the job to you ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. No. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you employed there ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Again I can only give you approximate figures, 
but about 3 months. 

Mr. Arens. I am not acquainted with the geogi^aphy out here in the 
Far West. Where is the University of California? 

Mr. Aspinwall. In Berkeley, Calif. 

Mr. Arens. Was your disassociation from the University of Cali- 
fornia voluntary or involuntary ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. I don't understand. 

Mr. Arens. Were you fired or did you quit? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Yes, I was let off. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliy? 

Mr. Aspinwall. The director of that lab said that I was not passed 
by the security regulations or something. 

Mr. Arens. Who was this director who told you that? 

Mr. Aspinwall. I don't remember his name. 

Mr. Arens. Did you remonstrate with him on it and assert that you 
were a good loyal American and you ought to have a right to work 
on defense matters? 

Mr. Aspinwall. No. It wasn't of keen interest to me to stay on 
that job. My wife was sick. We were planning at that time to come 
back to Denver. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. We did come back to Denver. I took a job with 
the Stearns-Roger Engineering firm here in Denver. 

Mr. Arens. In what type of engineering work is Stearns-Roger en- 
gaged in? 



4256 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I don't know the complete scope of it. The work 
that I did. was concerned with steampower electric installations. 

Mr. Arens. Does Stearns-Roger have any contracts in the nature 
of defense work ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I couldn't answer that. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did you work for Stearns-Roger ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. As a draftsman. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you maintain that employment ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. From 1948 to about 1950, early 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. I was let off due to their lack of contracts, lack of 
work. I took a job with Gates Rubber Co. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did you work at Gates Rubber Co. ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. As a draftsman. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you have that employment ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Approximately 4 or 5 months. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. I resigned from Gates and took a job with a con- 
struction firm. 

Mr. Arens. Was your resignation voluntary ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. With what construction firm did you take a job ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Rhodes Construction Co. 

Mr. Arens. In what cai^acity did you serve with Rhodes Construc- 
tion Co.? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Draftsman. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you serve there ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Until late 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. The business ran out of work and I was laid off. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat was your next employment ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Armour & Co. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity were you employed and when did 
you begin ? 

Mr. AspinwaijL. In December 1950. Capacity was laborer and then 
finally got a job as a machine operator. 

Mr. Arens. Is that what you are doing now ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What type of machine do you operate ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. At present I am not operating it because the com- 
pany has ceased utilizing that particular machine, so I am not any 
longer working with that machine. I am I guess you would say a 
laborer now. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to a labor organization ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Yes. 

Mr. Akens. What labor organization is that? 

Mr. Aspinwall. The Packinghouse Workers. 

Mr. Arens. Do you hold any post in the Packinghouse Workers ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever held any post in a labor organization ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Do you mean an elective post ? 

Mr. Arens. Any official position of any kind, character, or 
description ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4257 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I have never been elected to any post in a union. At 

one time I was asked to fill in an unexpired term for trustee. 

Mr. Arens. What group was that ? 

Mr. AsPiNWALL. The local packinghouse workers local. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a shop steward ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Do you mean for how long ? 

Mr. Arens. First of all, when were you shop steward, and then what 
period of time ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I think I became shop steward in 1951 and con- 
tinued so until they dispensed with the particular operation which I 
previously mentioned in about 1954. 

Mr. Arens. All while you were at Armour ? 

Mr, AspiNWALL. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. To revert in the sequence of events here in your life back 
to your days at the University of Colorado, will you tell us what extra- 
curricular activities you were engaged in at the University of Colorado 
besides your regular studies? 

Mr. ASPINWALL. I think I recall being on the — helping the stage 
work of the Little Theater. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Little Theater? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Well, I helped out on the stage. I wasn't a part 
of the acting talent. 

Mr. Arens. What other activities did you engage in of an extracur- 
ricular variety ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Would you explain what you mean by extra-cur- 
ricular? 

Mr. Arens. You are doing fine. You told us about your activity in 
this Little Theater group. What other little groups, if any, were you 
active in, or big groups, or any kind of groups. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I was a member of a social fraternity. I don't 
know whether you consider that extracurricular activity. 

Mr. Arens. What was the name of the social fraternity ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Beta. 

Mr. Arens. Phi Beta Kappa ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Not Phi Beta Kappa, No. 

Mr. Arens. Was it the Beta social fraternity ? 

Mr. ASPINWALL. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. In what other groups or organizations did you engage 
in any extracurricular activities? 

Mr. AspiNWALL . That is the extent of my extracurricular activities 
that I can recall. 

Mr. Arens. You have no recollection of any other group or organi- 
zation with which you were identified while you were at the University 
of Colorado, is that correct? 

Mr. AsPiNWALL. Not that I can recall. 

Mr. xVrens. Now can you tell us of some of the groups or organiza- 
tions you have been active in the State since your college days ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Fairly recently I have been interested in working 
with the Democratic Party. 
Mr. Arens. Do you hold any posts in the Democratic Party ? 



4258 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Yes. At present I have been designated as a com- 
mitteeman. 

Mr. Arens. In what area? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. In Denver County. 

Mr. Arens. Is that an elective post or appointive post? 

Mr. AsPiNWALL. I was designated, appointed. 

Mr. Arens. By whom ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I presume by the central cornmittee. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any other organization ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Yes, the church. 

Mr. Arens. Any other organization ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I already mentioned the union. That is all. 

Mr. Arens. Do any organizations you belong to, of any particular 
consequence, come to your mind since your days at the University 
of Colorado other than those you have recounted here — the Demo- 
cratic Party, the church, the Little Theater group, and the social 
fraternity? 

Mr. Aspinwall. None that I can recall. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know a person by the name of Harold Page 
Martin? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Aspinwall. I would like to refuse to answer the question on the 
basis that the fifth amendment of the United States Constitution does 
not require me to testify against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know a person by the name of Bellarmino 
Duran ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. I refuse to answer that, again on the same grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Martin, I wonder if you would stand up, if you 
are present in the courtroom. Look at this man to my right here, 
Mr. Harold Page Martin, and tell us whether or not you have ever 
seen him before ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. I am sorry, I must refuse again to answer your ques- 
tion on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Martin just a little while ago took oath and testi- 
fied before this committee that he knew you in another little organiza- 
tion that you apparently have forgotten about. Was he lying or was 
he telling the truth ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Again I must respectfully invoke my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You really didn't forget about that organization when 
I was talking to you a little while ago, did you ? You knew all the time 
that you were a member of the Communist Party, did you not? 

Mr. Aspinwall. Again I must respectfully invoke my privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bellarmino Duran, would you kindly stand up? 

Do you know this man here, Mr. Aspinwall ? Have you ever seen him 
before ? 

Mr. Aspinwall. The fifth amendment of the United States Con- 
stitution gives me the right to refuse to testify against myself and I 
so do in the case of this question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
the truth as to whether or not you know or have known Plarold Page 
Martin or Bellarmino Duran you w^ould be supplying information 
which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4259 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I refuse to answer your question again on pre- 
viously stated grounds. 

Mr. Arens. You understand the question I have just aiked you as 
to whether or not you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee whether or not you know Bellarmino Duran or Harold Page 
Martin, you would be supplying information whicli could be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I can only again reiterate what I said before. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr, Chairman, that this record 
show the witness be ordered and directed to answer that last principal 
question. 

The CHAiR]\rAX. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Mr. Chairman, under the same grounds as J pre- 
viously stated, I cannot testif}^ 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

I\Ir. AspiNWALL. Again under the protection of the fifth j^mendment 
v.'hich provides me the right to refuse to testify against myself, I 
cannot answer that question. 

Mr. Ah'ENS. Tell us some of the youth activities you have been en- 
gaged in. According to' prior testimony you apparently had an 
interest in youth and youth activities. What are some of the voutli 
activities you have been engaged in in this State, for the uplift and 
betterment of the youth ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I would like to be advised of any prior testimony 
relating to youth activities. 

Mr. Arens. You just tell me from your own recollection now. You 
recall being a member of this theater guild and pulling the curtains 
on that. You remember your social activities in the college back in 
1939 to 1943. Just tell us some of the youth activities of any variety 
in which you have been engaged in in this State. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I can't recall any others that I haven't previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall any activities you might have engaged in 
Avith a statewide youth commission ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Has this organization previously been mentioned 
here in an unfavorable way ? 

Mr. Arens. You tell me. Let's not fence with each other. Have 
you been a member of the youtli work of the Communist conspiracy 
in this country and in this State? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Under my right given me by the United States 
Constitution, the fifth amendment, I cannot answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of an organization dedi- 
cated to the destruction of this Constitution which vou are talking 
about? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Again I must invoke my privilege on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mv. Arens. Were you here when ]\Ir. Harold Page Martin was 
testifying ? Were you here in the courtroom when he was testifying? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. 1 was. 

Mr, Arens, Did you hear him testify about his disillusionment 
about the Communist Party ? Did you hear that ? 



4260 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr, AspiNWALL. I would like to know how that is relevant to 

Mr. Arens. Just answer the question. Did you hear him testify 
about his disillusionment with the Conmiunist Party ? 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Have you gone through any similar process of dis- 
illusionment with the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. AspiNWALL. Again I have to invoke my privilege. 

Mr. Arens. If this committee should, in the exercise of its discretion 
and judgment, cause proceedings to be instituted which would grant 
you immunity from criminal prosecution would you testify and give 
information to this committee respecting the Communist conspiracy in 
this area? "Would you accept that immunity and would you so 
testify ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. AspiNWALL. I am sorry, I again invoke my rights under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, that concludes the staff interrogation of 
this witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

Mr. Velde. No questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. Has Mr. Arnold Berkens returned to the hearing room ? 

Mr. Arnold Berkens. ]\Iy attorney is supposed to be here within 5 
minutes. Heistangled with another legal hassle. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Berkens, may I ask you if you will just stand by. 
We called your name before. We will take another witness and then 
we will call you. 

Mr. Irving Blau, please. 

The Chairman. Mr. Blau, will you raise your right hand, please. 
Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Blau. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING BLAU, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
MARILYN MEADOFF 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Blau. Irving Blau, 4305 Sheridan Boulevard, construction 
worker. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Blau, are you appearing today in response to a 
subpena which was served upon 3^011 b}'^ the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. Blau. Yes, sir ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Blau. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify herself. 

Miss Meadoff. Yes. Marilyn Meadoff, M-e-a-d-o-f-f, 538 Equi- 
table Building, Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. For the purpose of further identification, Mr. Blau, 
are you the husband of Patricia Blau ? 

Mr. Blau. Yes, sir; I am very proud to say that I am. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4261 

Mr. Arens. Wliere and when were you born ? 

Mr. Blau. I was born August 24, 1914, in Yonkers, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. A word, please, sir, about your education. 

Mr. Blau. I attended grammer schools, public schools, in Yonkers, 
N. Y., high school in Yonkers, N. Y. I attended Fordham College in 
New York City, and Brooklyn Law School of St. Lawrence College in 
New York. 

Mr. Arens. Did you graduate from law school ? 

Mr. Blau. Yes, sir; I graduated and was admitted to the practice 
of law in 1939 in the State of New York. 

Mr. Arens. Are you still a member in good standing of the Bar of 
theStateof New York? 

Mr. Blau. To the best of my knowledge I am. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Then please pick up the sequence of 
events in your life and tell us the first employment you had after you 
completed your formal education. 

Mr. Blau. After my graduation and admission to the bar, I sat in 
my own law office for about a year and a half 

Mr. Arens. Wliere was that, please, sir ? 

Mr. Blau. Yonkers, N. Y. • 20 South Broadway, Yonkers, N. Y. — 
attempting to build a practice. I then entered the United States 
Army Air Force and spent 5 years and 4 months as an enlisted man 
and an officer. I was an enlisted man for 2 years. I was then sent 
to officers' candidate school at Miami Beach, Fla. 

Mr. Arens. AVould you pardon the interruption. I didn't get those 
dates. When was it you went into the service ? 

Mr. Blau. I went into the Army approximately 1942. Approxi- 
mately 2 years thereafter I went to Officers' Candidate School of the 
Air Force, the Administrative Air Force School in Miami Beach, 
Fla. That was approximately May 1944. In my last term at the 
officers' candidate school I was cho^n for the honor corps of the 
school. Students were picked on the basis of — well, the instructors 
apparently thought that those members were maybe a little bit more 
outstanding than the others. I then served as an administrative officer 
in the United States Army Air Force for 3 years and 4 months. I was 
promoted from second lieutenant to first lieutenant. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you serve ? 

Mr. Blau. I served in the American Theater of Operations, Bangor, 
Maine, and Colorado Springs. At that time the 15th Air Force was 
in Colorado Springs. Upon discharge from the Army, the Army 
promoted me from the first lieutenant grade to captain under the pre- 
vailing Army regulations for those who had sufficiently high effi- 
ciency index. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Just continue, if you please. 

Mr. Blau. After discharge from the Army as an officer and after 
my terminal leave, under conditions which for an officer are equivalent 
to an honorable discharge — what an honorable discharge would be for 
an enlisted man — I went to work for a short period of time. My 
second job after a short period of time was with the Gates Rubber Co. 

Mr. Arens. What date did that employment begin, Mr. Blau? 
Wliat is your best recollection — the approximate date? 

Mr. Blau. Some time late in 1947. At the Gates Rubber Co. I 
worked approximately 5 months. 

Mr. Arens. Where was the Gates Rubber Co. ? 



4262 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Blau. In Denver, Colo. I worked there approximately 5 
months. I was discharged from the Gates Rubber Co. 

Mr. Arens. May I inquire, if you don't mind — how did you happen 
to come to Denver? You were living in New York. 

Mr. Blau. No; my last station with the Army was in Colorado 
Springs, which is approximately 70 miles south of Denver. 

Mr. Arens. I see. 

Then after your discharge you came over to Denver ? 

]Mr. Blau. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed. 

Mr. Blau. M}- next major job, as I remember it, was selling insur- 
ance. I worked for an insurance company, a Colorado company, the 
Professional & Businessmen's Life & Casualty Co., with home offices 
in Tabor Building, Denver, Colo. I worked there approximately 2 
years. I decided that I didn't want to be an insurance man, and quit. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vlien was that, do you recall ? 

Mr. Blau. I think some time around 1949 or 1950. I am not exactly 
sure of the date. I went to work in construction. Ever since then I 
have done construction work. When I might run out of that type 
of work I would sell or do anything to make an honest living, which 
I have attempted to do since then. 

Mr. Arens. What do you presently do in construction ? 

Mr. Blau. My present job is operating a 95-pound jackhammer. 

Mr. Arens. Are you identified with a labor organization? 

Mr. Blau. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What labor organization ? 

Mr. Blau. Local 720 of the Laborers' and Hod Carriers Union. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any post or office in the union ? 

Mr. Blau. No, sir. 

Mr, Arens. Have you ever had any post in the Hod Carriers', Build- 
ing and Common Laborers' Union ? 

Mr. Blau. Not in the laborers' and hod carriers. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know a person by the name of Bellarmino 
Duran ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Blau. I decline to answer that based on the fifth amendment, 
which states that I shall not be required to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel that if you told this committee whether or 
not you knew Duran and gave a truthful answer pursuant to your 
oath, you would be supplying information which could be used against 
you or might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Blau. The fifth amendment says nothing about information 
being used against me in a criminal proceeding. 

The Chairman. Yes ; it does. 

Mr. Blau. It says I need not be compelled. With due respect to 
the chairman of the committee, I had occasion to refer to the Bill of 
Rights last night 

The Chairman. Never mind. Go ahead and ask the next question. 

Mr. Blau (continuing). Wliich says a person will not be com- 
pelled to be a witness against himself. That is the basis on which I 
decline to answer. 

The Chairman. It is no wonder you are not practicing law if that 
is the basis on which you are proceeding. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4263 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suj^oest, jNIr. Chairman, that the wit- 
ness be ordered and directed to answer that question as to his appre- 
hensions which cause him to invoke the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Blau. The fifth amendment says I need not he compelled to 
be a witness against myself and I decline to answer the question on 
that basis. 

Mr. Arens. The record is clear you have been directed to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Blau. I understand. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Duran, would you kindly stand u])? Did you ever 
see this man before? 

Mr. Blau. I decline to answer the question on the sanie basis. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bellarmino Duran, this man standing here, tes- 
tified under oath before this committee that he knew you as a member 
of the Communist Party. Was he lying or was he telling the truth? 

Mr. Blau. I decline to answer the question for the same reason, the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. xVre you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Blau. I decline to answer the question on the basis of the fifth 
amendment and also becanse of the fact that I don't have to make 
explanations regarding my political beliefs. I think the first amend- 
ment of the Constitution says that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel that membership in the Communist Party 
is only a question of political belief ? 

Mr. Blau. I think membership in the Communist Party might very 
well be a question of political belief. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel that a Communist is only a person who 
entertains certain political philosophy? 

Mr. Blau. I know what my political philosophies are and I am 
satisfied with them and I don't feel I have to explain to this committee 
or to you. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel you are under any obligation to furnish 
information to your Government, if you possess it, respecting a con- 
spiracy designed to overthrow this Government?^ 

Mr. Blau. Would you please repeat that question? 

Mr. Arens. You have told us that you don't feel you are under any 
obligation to tell this committee anything about any political philos- 
ophy you may have in connection with what might be called the Com- 
munist Party. So I am now, since you opened that door, asking you 
this questior. Do you feel you are under any obligation to furnish 
your government any information which you may possess respecting a 
conspiracy to overthrow this Government ? 

Mr. Blau. I will tell you this : I think I have sufficiently demon- 
strated my loyaltv to the Government of the United States and I am 
perfectly 'satisfied that the things in which I believe are for the best 
interests of the people of the United States. 

Mr. Velde. W}\en do you consider that you displayed your loyalty 
to the United States? ' * *• 

Mr. Blau. I think in my service to my country m the Army Air 
Force for 5 vears. 

Mr. Velde. Since that time. At the present time do you consider 
yourself to be a loyal patriotic citizen? 

79079 — 56— pt. 2 5 



4264 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Blau. Yes, sir ; I do. 

Mr. Arens. What do you base that on? You are refusing to 
answer these questions about your Communist connections. 

Mr. Blau. My rights and my defense of the Bill of Rights of the 
Constitution. I feel in this I am being a good American. 

Mr. Velde. Are you a member of the bar of the State of New York ? 

Mr. Blau. Am I a member? 

Mr. Velde. Of the bar association, 

Mr. Blau. Yes, sir; I am. 

Mr. Velde. Which one? 

Mr. Blau. The bar association — do you mean the organization to 
which all lawyers in the State belong, or are you referring 

Mr. Velde. There are two different ones, as I recall it. 

Mr. Blau. You are referring to voluntary organization of lawyers ? 

Mr. Velde. The New^ York State Bar Association and then 

The Chairman. The bar association of the city of New York. 

Mr. Blau. No. sir; I never practiced in the city of New York. My 
practice was in the city of Yonkers, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. You are a member in good standing, I take it, of the 
bar of the State of New York? 

Mr. Blau. Yes, sir ; I am. 

Mr. Velde. I was talking about the bar association. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of an organization dedicated to the 
destruction of the Constitution of the United States ? 

JNIr. Blau. On the basis of the fifth amendment and the first amend- 
ment I decline to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, we have no further questions of this 
witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused from further attendance. 

There was another witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Arnold Berkens, has your counsel shown up yet? 

Mr. Berkens. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have some way of prompting him to come now ? 

Mr. Berkens. I tried it once. I can try again. 

The Chairman. Do you have anyone else ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Berkens is the last witness we had under subpena 
for today. We have a number subpenaed for tomorrow', but it is very 
doubtful that they would be here. 

The Chairman. Let's catch up by convening tomorrow morning 
at 9 : 30. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, may I respectfully suggest this record 
show that Mr. Berkens will be continued under his subpena until 
tomorrow morning at 9 : 30. 

The Chairman. All right. 

The committee is in recess until 9 : 30 tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 3 : 55 p. m. the committee was recessed, to reconvene 
at 9 : 30 a. m., the following day, Friday, May 18, 1955.) 



INVESTIGATION OF C03IMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
ROCKY 3I0UNTAIN AREA— PART 2 



FRIDAY, MAY 18, 1956 

United States House of Repkesextatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Com^iit-j-ee on Un-American Activities, 

Denver^ Colo. 

rUBLIC IIEARIXG 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities re- 
convened, pursuant to recess, at 9 : 50 a. m., in the courtroom of the 
United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit, Post Office Building, 
Hon. Francis E.Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present : Eepresentative Francis E. "Walter, 
of Pennsylvania ; and Harold H. Yelde. of Illinois. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director; Courtney E. 
Owens, and W. Jackson Jones, investigators. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Call your first witness. 

Mr. Arens. Arnold Berkens. 

Mr. Berkens. I wish to make one thing clear here. I have been 
issued a defective subpena, and I don't believe that I am the person 
that you wanted. 

(There was a conference at the bench betAveen counsel for the wit- 
ness and the committee chairman.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you Arnold Berkens ? 

Mr. Berkens. Yes, that is my name. 

Mr. Arens. Will you please remain standing and raise j-our right 
hand and be sworn. 

Mr. Berkens. No, I want to make this matter clear first. I have 
a defective subpena. It is not issued to me. 

The Chairman. Take a look at the subpena. 

Mr. Arens. What do you think is defective about it? 

Mr. Berkens. My name. 

Mr. Arens. What is defective about it ? 

Mr. Berkens. It is not spelled right. It is not my name. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell your name ? 

Mr. Berkens. My name is spelled B-e-r-k-e-n-s. 

Mr. Arens. This subpena was served upon you, however. 

Mr. Berkens. It was served to me. That is why I am here. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
instructed to raise his right hand and be sworn. 

4266 



4266 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

The Chairman. Eaise your right hand. Do you swear the testi- 
mony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr, Berkens. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF AENOLD BEEKENS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
WENDELL A. PETEES 

Mr. Akens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Berkens. My name is Arnold Berkens; occupation, salesman; 
self-employed. My residence is 165 South Cherokee. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you ? 

Mr. Berkens. It was served to me. 

Mr. Arens. Are you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Berkens. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself. 

Mr. Peters. Wendell A. Peters, 2130 Downing Street, Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Berkens, please tell us where and when you were 
born. 

Mr. Berkens. Denver, Colo., October 4, 1917. 

Mr. Arens. Giveus just a word about your education. 

Mr. Berkens. I finished a graduate of West Denver High School 
in 1935. I went to the University of Denver in 1946, graduated there 
in 1949. 

(Kepresentative Walter left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, about your employment since 
you graduated. 

Mr. Berkens. Before answering this, I have been entirely a self- 
employed salesman. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Berkens. Innumerable and various. 

Mr. i\-RENS. Give us an illustration of some of them. 

Mr. Berkens. I choose not to. 

Mr. Arens. You are instructed to do so. 

Mr. Berkens. I feel that any further identification might tend to 
inform your defective subpena. Therefore, I choose not to answer 
those questions, and I see no relation between them and any possible 
purpose you may have here. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Velde (presiding). You are so ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Berkens. I decline to answer that question on the ground of 
the fifth amendment, not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Berkens. Am I now a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Aeens. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Berkens. I decline to answer that question on the grounds both 
of the first amendment granting to every one the right of affiliations 
and political beliefs, and also on the previously stated fifth. I also 
suggest that this committee has no power to ask such questions under 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4267 

the Constitution at all. Article o, section 1, of the Constitution 
grants to the judiciary that type of right, if it belongs to any one, and, 
as a matter of fact, the first amendment refuses to grant that kind of 
power of inquiry even to the judiciary. 

Mr. Arens. Harold Page Martin yesterday took an oath before this 
committee and testified in public session that while he was a member of 
the Communist Party he knew you as a member of the Communist 
Party. Was he lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Mr. Bekkens. I did not hear his testimony. 

Mr. Arens. Was he lying or was he telling the truth when he said 
that you were a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr, Berkens. Well, a stool pigeon is incapable of telling the truth. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you deny that he was telling the truth when he 
identified you as a member of the Comnnuiist Party? 

Mr. Berkexs. I simpl}^ affirm that a stool pigeon doesn't know how 
to tell the truth. 

Mr. Arens. JSIr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer this last principal question. 

]Mr. Velde (presiding). You are so directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Berkens. I refuse to answer that question on previously stated 
ground, including both the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions of this witness, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Velde (presiding). The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. David Bramhall. 

Mr. Jones. Does lie waive his expenses? 

Mr. Peters. No. 

Mr. Jones. He will have to sign the voucher. 

Mr. INIoNTFORT. If the cameras do come in we would jirefer not to 
have photographs taken during the testimony. Yesterday I dicln't 
notice that they were photographing during the entii'e testimony of 
the witness I was representing. 

Mr. Velde. Where do you see any photographers ? 

Mr. MoNTFORT. They are not here at this time, apparently, but we 
would like to have it understood. 

Mr. Velde. All right. 

Mr. Arens. The chairman has already announced that. 

Mr. Velde. Raise your right hand. Do you swear the testimony 
you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Bramhall. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DAVID BEAMHALL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CHARLES D. MONTFORT 

]\Ir. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Bramhall. My name is David Bramhall. I live in Denver, 
Colo. My occupation is route salesman. 

Mr. Arens. HoW' long have you been so employed ? 

Mr. Bramilvll. In that type of job for almost a year. 



4268 coMMinvTiST activities in the rocky mountain area 

Mr. Arexs. Are you appearing today in response to a siibpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Bramhall. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Bramhall. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel identify himself ? 

Mr. MoNTFORT. Charles D. Montfort, attorney at law, 611 E. & C. 
]3uilding, Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bramhall, you are tlie husband of Shirley Bram- 
hall? 

Mr. Bramhall. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere and when were you born ? 

Mr. Bramhall. I was born in Boulder, Colo., June 4, 1926. 

Mr. Arens. A word, please, sir, about your education. 

Mr. Bramhall. I went to tlie public schools in Boulder and high 
school in Boulder. I attended the University of Colorado from 1943 
until 1947, at which time I got a Bachelor of Arts degree. I was for 
one semester at Cornell University. 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete your work at Cornell ? 

Mr. Brajnihall. In February 1948. 

Mr. Arens. What degree did you receive? 

Mr. Bramhall. No degree. 

Mr. Arens. What degrees do you hold from school ? 

Mr. Bramhall. Just Bachelor of Arts at Colorado. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, please, a brief chronological sketch of the 
employment which you have had since you completed your formal 
education. 

Mr. Bramhall. I left Cornell in February 1948. From February 
1948 until the end of October 1948 I worked delivering wholesale auto 
parts in New York City, then returned to Colorado, after being 
away for a year and a half, in late November or early December 1948. 
And from about March 1949 to August 1950 I worked as a stockman in 
a chemical supply house. 

From September 1950 until November 1951, I worked for Cudahy 
Packing Co. From early 1952 until June 1955, I worked to learn 
I)hmibing supplies, and since June 1955 I have been a route salesman. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your various occupations which 
you have been describing, have you been a member of a labor organ- 
ization? 

Mr. Bramhall. Yes; I have. 

Mr. Arens. Have you held any post in a labor organization ? 

Mr. Bramhall. No. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Duran, will you kindly stand? Mr. Bramhall, 
would you please look at this g^entleman to my right and to your 
left and tell us whether or not you have ever laiown him before? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Montfort. Again, Mr. Chairman, I earnestly request that we 
be allowed to cross-examine this witness. 

Mr. Velde (presiding). Of course you know that isn't permitted 
before this investigative committee. 

Mr. Montfort. It hasn't been permitted heretofore, sir, and yet it 
seems to me — 

Mr. Velde. Your request is denied. 



COMMUjS'IST activities IX THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4269 

Mr. Bramhall. I decline to answer that question. I was brought 
up to believe that an American could not be forced by the Government 
or by any one else to disclose his political or reli2;ious beliefs and asso- 
ciations or his friendships. I think it is not only the rioht of a citizen 
but his duty to refuse to be a part of any infrino-oment on his liberties 
which we have won over a lonf^ period. Therefore, I decline on the 
grounds of the first amendment. 

Second, although this is not a trial technically, my reputation and 
my livelihood are in jeopardy here, and since I am being denied due 
process in this hearing, I decline under the section of the fifth amend- 
ment which guarantees due process. 

Mr. Arexs. "Without in any sense making any reference to any belief 
you may have held, any association or any activity 3'ou have ever had — 
would counsel be informed tliat under the rules of the committee coun- 
sel's duties and responsibilities are exclusively to advise his client with 
respect to liis constitutional rights. 

Mr. MoxTFORT. May the witness be allowed to finish his answer? 

Mr. Arens. Without any reference to any association, any thought, 
any concept, any mental activity you have ever had in your life, tell 
this committee whether or not you have ever been part and parcel of 
the Communist conspiracy in this country. 

Mr. Bramhall. Just a moment, sir. I didn't finish the answer to 
the previous cjuestion. May I finish the answer I was giving? 

Mr. Arexs. Go ahead. 

Mr. Braatiiall. In addition to the section of the fifth amendment 
which guarantees due process, I also decline under the other section 
of the fifth amendment which prevents my being forced to be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. Arexs. In what type of proceeding ? 

Mr. Bramhall. I believe I ought to talk to my counsel. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bra3ihall. I wonder if you could clarify that question. 

Mr. Arexs. In what type of proceeding is it that 3' ou do not feel 
you want to give information against yourself? 

Mr. MoxTFORT. Would you like me to answer that? 

Mr. Arexs. No. Counsel had better refer again to the rules of this 
committee, that your sole function here is to advise your client with 
reference to his constitutional rights. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Br-vmhall. I don't know what type of proceeding you are re- 
ferring to. 

Mr. Arexs. Xow, without any reference at all to any thoughts you 
may have entertained in your mind, any association you may have 
ever had, any belief you have ever entertained, tell this committee, 
the people of this community, pursuant to your oath, whether or not 
you have been active in the Communist conspiracy in this country. 

(The Avitness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bramhall. I believe there is a contradiction in your question. 
I don't see how that question could be answered without a reference 
to beliefs or associations, but I will state that I decline to answer it for 
the reasons previously given. 

]Mr. Velde. I would like to know just what reasons you have given 
for your refusal to answer. You started out bv mentioninir the due- 



4270 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

process section of the fifth aniendnient. Tlieii the next time you men- 
tioned the incriminating section. 

Mr. JSIoNTFORT. Are you asking me, sir ? 

Mr. Velde. No ; I am not asking you ; of course not. Your duties 
liave been defined. 

Mr. jMoNTroKT. T thought you addressed that to counseL 

Mr. Velde. Just what are you relying on in refusing to answer this 
question ? 

Mr. Bramhall. Sir, I believe there are several bases on ^Yhich I 
have to rely. I think the Constitution protects citizens against undue 
invasion of their liberties under several amendments. I cited first of 
all and piimarily the first amendment, which provides the guaranty 
of free speech, assembly, religious beliefs, and so forth. 

Secondly 

Mr. Velde. What this committee is interested in is what section of 
the fifth amendment, which you know, as I am sure your attorney has 
advised you, is the only ground on which you can refuse to answer. 
What section of the fifth amendment are you depending upon ? 

Mr. Bramhall. I was coming to that, sir. 

Mr. Velde. Let's come to it. 

Mr. Bramjiall. Under two sections of the fifth amendment. First, 
the section which refers to the guaranty of due process and, second, 
the section which protects a man from being a witness against himself. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Were you chairman of a meeting back in 1953 to mourn 
the ]3assing of the Rosenbergs ? 

Mr. Bramhall. Sir, that ob^aously 

( The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Bramhall. Again I invoke the privileges pieviously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I have marked this document, which is a photostatic 
copy of an article in tlie Denver Post, of June 23, 1953, "David 
Bramhall Exhibit No. 1."' I lay it before you and invite your atten- 
tion specifically to tlie following language : 

Neither the speaker, the presiding officer, nor any memher of the aiidience 
would identify himself, but many were recognized. Chairman of the meeting 
was David Bramhall, also a former Progressive Party leader. 

I lay that exhibit before yoii and ask you if that refreshes your 
lecollection or if you can tell us whether or not you are the David 
Bramhall who is alluded to in that article. 

Mr. Bramil\ll. For the reasons previously stated, sir, I decline to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, David Bramhall 
exhibit No. 1 be incor])orated by reference in the record and retained 
in tlie committee files. 

Mr. Velde. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Arens. With Avhom have you discussed your proposed appear- 
iinc(> liei-e todjiy besides with your attorney and your wife? 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bi{Amhall. Sir, that again refers to my speech and, as I previ- 
ously stated, I decline to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and-the two sections of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
the truth as to with whom you have discussed your appearance here 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4271 

today besides your attorney and your spouse, you would be supplying 
information which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding^ 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bra^siiiall. Sir, tlie Supreme Court has stated that the fifth 
amendment protects tlie innocent as well as the guilty. I decline to 
answer that question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you innocent of any part in a conspiracy against 
this comitry ? 

Mr. Bramiiali.. I will decline to answer that question on the grounds 
I have previously stated. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you honestly apprehend if you gave a truthful 
answer to that question you would be supplying information which 
could be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Bramhall. That being the same question, again I decline to 
answer once more on the same grounds. 

^Ir. Arexs. I suggest, ]Mr. Chairman, the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer that last principal question. 

]Mr. Yelde. You are ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Bramhall. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds 
I have stated. 

Mr. Arexs. You were served with a subpena to appear before this 
committee on the 12th day of April 19r)G, were you not? 

Mr. Bramhall. I can't remember the exact date. It was a Thursday, 
})i-obably about that time. 

Mr. Arexs. I put it to you as a fact that, since you were served a 
subpena to appear before this committee, you and the other conirades 
in the community formed a little party caucus of comrades, on the 
bearing which we have been conducting in this vicinity and in this 
connnunity in the course of the last few days. 

Mr. Bramhall. Is that a question? 

Mr. Arexs. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bramhall. I didn't understand it as a question. 

ISIr. Arexs. I put it to you as a fact and ask 3'ou to affirm or deny 
what I have just said as a fact, that since you receivecl your subpena 
you and the other comrades of this community created a party caucus 
m which you decided you would bring in and cause to be developed 
in this community a sentiment against tliese hearings and against 
the members of this committee and that you had a concerted campaign 
of that character. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Br^vmhall. It seems clear, sir, that I decline to answer such a 
(question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you honestlj^ apprehend if you ga^-e a truthful 
answer to that question yon would be supplying information which 
could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Bramhall. I must decline to answer that question on the 
grounds I have given several times. 

jNlr. Arexs. You and the other comrades in this caucus I have been 
talking about decided you would bring in, rope in, the do-gooders and 
the dupes and dopes that you could, to front for the Communist con- 
spiracy in this area against this committee and against these hearings. 
Is that not a fact ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



4272 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ROCKY MOUIsTTAIN AREA 

Mr. Bramhall. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and the two sections of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a document which is the original. I 
will mark it ''David Bramhall Exhibit No. 2." It is an article appear- 
ing in the Denver Post, Friday, May 11, 1956, Fair Treatment Urged 
at Un-American Hearing, an article in which a number of items are 
listed, and signed by a number of people in this community — legisla- 
tors, ministers, members of the medical profession, lawyers, business 
and professional leaders, and others, calling upon the committee to 
have fair treatment toward witnesses in this query. 

I ask you whether or not you were instrumental in whole or in part 
in causing the circulation of that open letter to be made in this com- 
munity in advance of the appearance here of the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

( Representative Walter returned to the hearing room. ) 

Mr. Bramhall. Sir, since this committee had scheduled its appear- 
ance and since I was one of those subpenaecl, certainly to that extent 
I imagine you could say that I was in part responsible, that is, there 
must have been people who knew me who had something to do with 
that. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have knowledge of the circulation of the open 
letter alluded to in "this article marked "David Bramhall Exhibit No. 
2"? 

Mr. ^loNTFORT. Mr. Counsel, would you please step back so I can 
confer with my client ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Bramhall. Sir, I saw the petition as it appeared in the news- 
paper. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have knowledge of the circulation of that peti- 
tion or open letter prior to the time that you saw it in the newspaper? 

(T]ie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bra3ihall. Xo, sir ; I never saw that petition until it appeared 
in the paper. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have knowledge of the circulation of the open 
letter prior to the time that you saw the actual document produced in 
the paper? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bramhall. I had heard that a petition was being circulated. 

Mr. Arens. "\"\Tio told you a petition was being circulated? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bramhall. To the best of my recollection it was my wife who 
told me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate in a caucus of the Communists in 
this community after you received your subpena, in which caucus it 
was decided that an open letter or petition against this committee 
would be circulated and signatures enlisted from any one who could 
be induced to sign it ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bramhall. Mr. Chairman, I decline to answer that question 
on the grounds of the first and the two sections of the fifth amend- 
ment I have mentioned. 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions of this witness at this 
time, Mr. Chairman. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4273 

The CiiAiRMAisr. The witness is excused from further attendance 
under the subpena. 

Mr. Arens. Shirley BramhalL 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please? Do you 
swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Bramhall. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP SHIRLEY BEAMHALL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
WILLIAM B. MILLER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. Bramhall. My name is Shirley Bramhall. My maiden name 
was Shirley "Wellinger, and close friends have called me Billie since 
I was about 16 years old. My residence is Denver, Colo., and I am a 
housewife raising two children at the present time. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-Am.erican 
Activities ? 

Mrs. Bramhall. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Bramhall. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. "Will counsel identify himself. 

Mr. Miller. William B. Miller, of the Denver, Colo., bar. 

Mr. xVrens. Give us, if you please, Mrs. Bramhall, just a brief 
sketch of your early life, your education, where you were born. 

]\Irs. Bramhall. I was born in New York City on December 8, 1926. 
I went to the public schools in New York City, graduated from 
Hunter High School in January of 1943, after which I attended 
Hunter College until June of 1946, I believe, and then went to the 
University of Colorado, from which I received a Bachelor of Arts in 
August of 1947. 

]\Ir. Arens. Did that complete your formal education? 

Mrs. Bramhall. Yes, it did. 

Mr. Arens. Then would you kindly tell us any occupation in which 
you were engaged since 1947 ? 

Mrs. Bramhall. After graduating from Hunter College I returned 
to New York City and worked for Macy's Department Store from 
September to just after Christmas of 1947. Following that there 
were two short employments at the Victor Metals Co. in New York 
City and at the J. C. Footwear Co., New York City, which took me 
through the fall of 1948. In December of 1948 we returned to Colo- 
rado and since then on the whole I have been a housewife and raising 
my family, although there have been some short jobs to supplement 
the family income. Would you like me to relate them? 

Mr. Arens. No, I don't believe that will be necessary. They were 
inconsequential jobs? 

Mrs. Brj^mhall. The only one of any length was with a truck line 
in 1953 and 1954. 

Mr. Arens. When you were at the University of Colorado with 
what organizations were you affiliated ? 



4274 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mrs. Bramhall. Could you be more specific ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Were you affiliated with the Labor Youth League 
while attending the University of Colorado ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Bramhall. I am going to refuse to answer that question, Mr. 
Arens. I would like to state my grounds. I have a very deep respect 
for our Government and the Bill of Rights, and I have a great desire 
for my children to grow up and enjoy the same privileges that chil- 
dren in this country have enjoyed for many years. This means to 
me that I have a responsibility not to answer questions concerning my 
association or lack of association, politics, religion, or friendships, and 
I will not betray this here today as I have not in the past. Therefore, 
I refuse to answer that question under the first amendment to the 
Constitution. 

In addition, I have been sitting here all week listening to the hear- 
ings. Accusations have been made against me. My reputation has 
been attacked. Although I understand that this is not a trial, I feel 
that I am on trial here, without benefit of due process. I have no 
right to cross-examine my attackers. Although I wrote a letter to this 
committee in accordance with rule IX of your proceedings that I have 
the right to make a statement prior to tlie hearings provided that it is 
relevant and germane to the subject of the hearings, asking for that 
subject, I received no answer and feel improperly prepared. There- 
fore, I refuse to answer under the due process clause of the fifth 
amendment. 

Further, I will not -be a witness against myself under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. In view of your professed respect for the Bill of Rights, 
may I ask you if you have ever been identified with an organization 
which to your knowledge was dedicated to the destruction of the Con- 
stitution of the United States, including the Bill of Rights? 

Mrs. Bramhall. Under my respect for the' Bill of Rights I again 
refuse to answer that question on the same three grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I assume that you are referring to the testimony of Mr. 
Bellarmino Duran when you said your reputation has been attacked, 
and I am going to ask him if he will please stand up now. Mr. Duran 
testified under oath before this committee that he knew you as one of 
the top-flight members of the Communist Party in the United States. 

I assume that you regard that as an attack on your reputation, as 
I certainly would if such a charge were made against me, I am 
going to give you an opportunity to deny it while you are under oath 
here, deny it publicly, so all can hear that you deny that you were a 
member of this conspiracy. 

Mrs. Bramhall. Do you want me to look him in the eye? 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Duran lying or telling the truth when he said 
he knew you as a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Bramhall. I will be glad to look Mr, Duran in the eye and 
refuse to answer the question on the same three grounds. 

His eyes turned away first. 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Duran lying or telling the truth when he said 
you were a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mrs. Bramhall. I claim my privilege, as stated before. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
the truth as to whether or not Mr. Duran was telling the truth, you 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4275 

would be supplying information which could be used against you in a 
criminal proceeding ? 

Mrs. Bramhall. The fifth amendment, as has been stated by the 
Supreme Court, is a protection to the innocent as well as the guilty, 
and I refuse to answer that question on the same three grounds. 

Mr. AitENS. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the last principal question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. Bramhall. I must decline, sir. 

The Chairman. You are not under any compulsion. 

Mrs. Bramhall. I choose to decline, sir, mider the first and fifth 
amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. After you received your subpena to appear before this 
committee, did you and others have a caucus to decide what was going 
to be done about this hearing ? 

Mrs. Bramhall. I decline to answer that question on the same three 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny the 
fact that after you received your subpena to appear here you ancl the 
other comrades of tlie area had a caucus in which you decided you 
would have a concerted campaign to discredit the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities in these hearings. Is that the truth, or is 
that a false allegation? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Bramhall. That is the same question as you asked before? 

INIr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Bramhall. As I said, I decline to answer that question on the 
same three grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Kachael Allen ? 

Mrs. Bramhall. Yes; I know Mrs. Allen. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what Mrs. Allen did at your direction respecting 
the solicitation of signatures to an open letter. 

Mrs. Bramhall. Mrs. Allen is a friend whom I have been associated 
with in the Democratic Party for a few years on and off through vari- 
ous campaigns. That is all that I can tell you about her. 

Mrs. Arens. Did you and Mrs. Allen work together in causing to 
be affixed to an open letter signatures of people in this community 
respecting these hearings and respecting the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Bramhall. No. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact that within the course of a few days prior to the open session 
of this committee Rachael Allen had a telephone conversation with you 
in which she reported to you that, pursuant to your directions and in- 
structions, she was successful in causing to be affixed to this open let- 
ter the names of certain people in this community. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Miller. Would you repeat the principal question? 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly read the pending question, Mr. 
Reporter. 

(Question read by the reporter.) 

Mrs. Bramhall. I deny that. 



4276 COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Akens. Have you had telephone conversations or conversations 
at all in the course of the last 2 or 3 weeks with Rachael Allen respect- 
ing an open letter which was circulated in this community condemning 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Bramhall. It may be that in the course of harmless telephone 
conversations regarding children, neighbors, et cetera, that this may 
have come up and she may have mentioned it to me. Believe me, I 
give no orders to my friends. 

Mr. Arens. She may have mentioned what to you ? 

Mrs. Bramhall. The fact that such a thing was taking place. 

Mr. Arens. When do you have a recollection of tliis conversation 
which 

Mrs. Bramhall. I have no specific recollection. 

Mr. Arens. When did 3'ou last have a conversation with Rachael 
Allen? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Bramhall. I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. You don't know Rachael Allen as a member of the 
Communist Party, do you? 

Mrs. Bramhall. Certainly not. 

Mr. Arens. There lias been no suggestion here, Mr. Chairman, in 
this interrogation that this staff has information that Rachael Allen 
is a member of the Communist Party. I think the record should be 
absolutely clear on that. 

In the course of the last month how many conversations have you 
had with Rachael Allen? 

Mrs. Bramhall. I have no idea ; 2 or o, possibly. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever made known to Rachael Allen your mem- 
bership in the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

]\Irs. Bramhall. I choose to refuse to answer that on the ground 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever denied to Rachael Allen that you were 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Bramhall. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what you did after you received your subpena, 
from the standpoint of conversation or activities repecting the ap- 
pearance here of the House Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mrs. Bramhall. I don't understand the question. What do you 
mean, what I did ? 

Mr. Arens. With whom have you discussed your proposed appear- 
ance here today besides your attorney and your husband ? 

Mrs. BRiVMHALL. I refusc to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you discussed your appearance here today with 
people who were known by 3'ou to be members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Bramhall. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you an original document which has been 
already identified in this record as "David Bramhall Exhibit No. 2", 
an article appearing in the Denver Post of Friday, May 11, 1956, 
respecting an open letter to this committee, wliich is, according to the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ROCKY IMOUNTAIN AREA 4277 

article, signed by a number of people in this connniinity. I ask you 
to glance at that article and tell this committee whether or not you 
had any knowledge or information respecting the circulation of that 
open letter after you received your subpena. 

Mrs. Bramhall. I already told you that it was mentioned in a 
telephone conversation. 

Mr. Arens. AMiat teleplione conversation i 

Mrs. Br^vmhall. It was probably mentioned in a telephone con- 
versation with Mrs. Allen. 

Mr, Arexs. Who did tlie mentioniuir in this telephone conversa- 
tion? 

Mrs. Bramhaijl. I already told you she did. 

jNIr, Arens. She mentioned it. Did you meet in a caucus of some 
people in the Denver area, out of which caucus came a concerted plan, 
includin<? the circulation of a letter ? 

Mrs. Bramhall. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arexs. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that after you received your subpena you and otlier comrades 
in the Communist Party in this area had a caucus at which it was 
decided that there would be an attempted smear of the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities; that you caused to be circulated 
this open letter and that you caused to be made representations to cer- 
tain people in this community against the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities. Is that true or is that false ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Miller. That is quite a speech, Mr. Chairman. Go ahead and 
answer. 

Mrs. Bramhall. You attribute a great deal more power to me than 
I ever dreamed I had. 

Mr. Arexs. If that is not true, deny it under oath before this com- 
mittee. 

Mrs. Br-vmhall. Would you mind not interrupting me I It is very 
difficult to make this appearance anyway. I refuse to answer the 
question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you honestly apprehend if you gave a truthful 
answer to that last principal question you would be supplying infor- 
mation which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

jNIrs. Bramhall. As I said before, the fifth amendment is used by 
both the innocent and the guilty and I refuse to answer that question 
under the first and fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arexs. xVre you innocent of the allegations which I made to 
you in the last principal question ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Miller. Will the reporter repeat the last one ? We are a little 
bit lost. That was more of a speech than a question, Mr. Counsel. 
Will 3'ou repeat the last principal question ? 

The CHAmMAX. You advise your client and I will criticize the 
committee counsel. 

Mr. Miller. All right. 

(The reporter read from his notes, as follows: 

Mr. Aeens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, 
that after you received your subpena you and other comrades in the Communist 
Party in this area had a caucus at which it was decided that there would be an 



4278 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

attempted smear of the House Committee on Un-American Activities ; that you 
caused to be circulated tliis open letter and that you caused to be made 
representations to certain people in this community against the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities. Is that true or is it false? 

Mrs. Bramhall. I claim my privilege mider the amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, we have no further questions of this 
witness at this time. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, David Bram- 
hall exhibit No. 2 be incorporated by reference in this record and 
retained in the hies of the committee. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Arens. Martha Correa, please. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please? Do you 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Miss Correa. Yes, I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MARTHA CORREA; ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MARVIN DANSKY 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Miss Correa. INIy name is Martha Correa. I live at 2416 West 
36th Avenue. My occupation — various occupations — labor many 
times, and I am trained to do general office work also. I have worked 
in both labor and office work. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you presently employed ? 

Miss Correa. Mr. Arens, I would like to request that I not reveal 
where I am presently employed for the reason that a few days after I 
received the subpena from this committee I was fired from one job, and 
it seems to me that perhaps my employer must have felt that merely 
receiving the subpena from this committee places me on a blacklist. I 
need my job. I don't earn very much as it is. I do not wish to be 
fired from my present job. 

Mr. Arens. You mean you have acquired new employment since the 
time you received your subpena? 

Miss Correa. That is correct ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Un-American Activities 
Committee ? 

Miss Correa. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. When this employer fired you did he have a conversa- 
tion with you as to whether oi- not you might be a member of the 
Communist conspiracy ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

The Chairman. I think the record should show that the witness is 
accompanied by counsel. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. Counsel. Let us interject that, if 
you please. You are accompanied by counsel? 

Miss Correa. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel identif v himself ? 

Mr. Dansky. Marvin, M-a-r-v-i-n, Dansky, D-a-n-s-k-y, 511 Uni- 
versity Building, Denver, Colo. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4279 

Miss CoRREA. I will give you my past employment if you wish. 

Mr. Arens. Would you proceed to answer the question which is 
oustanding. 

(The witness conferred with lier counsel.) 

Mr. Dansky. May we respectfully request to have the question 
read back? 

Mr. Arexs. You protested here that you did not want to reveal the 
name of your employer or place of employment because you were 
fired from your last employment after you received your subpena. I 
therefore ask you the question as to whether or not you revealed to 
the employer who fired you information respecting Communist Party 
membership. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss CoRREA. ]\Ir. Arens, I wish to decline to answer that question 
on the ground that I do not wish to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you ever been a member of the Colorado Com- 
mittee To Protect Civil Liberties? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss CoRREA. Mr. Arens, I believe that question comes under the 
protection of the first amendment and the right of people to assemble 
and freedom of speech, and I wish to decline to answer that question 
on the grounds of the first amendment and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
whether or not you were a member of the Colorado Committee To 
Protect Civil Liberties you would be supplying information which 
could be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Correa. Mr. Arens, I wish to refuse to answer that question, 
as I have the same objections to that question as I did to the previous 
question. 

The Chairmax. Just a moment. You say "I wish to." By that 
you mean "I do" ? 

Miss Correa. I do. I invoke my privilege. 

Mr. Arexs. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that last principal question. 

The Chairmax. Yes ; you are directed to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Correa. Mr. Walter, I refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arexs. I lay before you now a document which I have marked 
"Correa Exhibit No. 1," which is a photostatic copy of an article 
appearing in the Denver Post, November 9, 1954, in which a person 
by the name of Martha Correa is identified as chairman of a Colorado 
Committee To Protect Civil Liberties. I ask you to take a glance 
at that article, please, and tell us whether or not you are the person 
alluded to in that article as chairman of the Colorado Committee To 
Protect Civil Liberties. 

(The witness conferred with her comisel.) 

Miss Correa. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds 
as I previously stated. 

Mr. Arexs. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman Correa exhibit 
No. 1 be mcorporated by reference in the record and retained in the 
committee files. 

The Chairmax. It is so ordered. 

79079—56 — pt. 2 6 



4280 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Arens. Miss Correa, would you look over to your left and my 
right to the gentleman in the blue suit, Mr. Duran, who is standing, 
and tell this committee whether or not you have ever seen him before. 

Miss CoRREA. Mr. Chairman, I would like to look him in the eye, 
as you tell other people that. 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; look him in the eye and tell this committee whether 
or not you have ever seen him before. 

Miss CoRREA. Permit me to say that I feel he is a disgrace to the 
j)eople and therefore I must decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. He testilied under oath before this committee that he 
knew you as a Communist when he was an undercover agent serving 
his country for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Do you care 
to remove that disgraceful epithet from your name by denying it now 
under oath. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss CoRREA. Mr. Arens, let me say perhaps you misunderstood me. 
I stated that I felt he was a disgrace to my people. 

The Chairman. What do you mean by "my people" ? 

Miss CoRREA. The JNIexican and Spanish people of Denver in my 
community. 

The Chairman. He may be what you say, but he is certainly not 
that with respect to the American people. 

Miss Correa. The Mexican people are American people, Mr. Walter. 
They are Americans, and I resent that. I am an American, Mr. Walter. 

The Chairman. I thought so. 

Miss Correa. Well, you didn't say that. 

The Chairman. You are the one who raised the question. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Arens. Will you answer the principal question ? 

Miss Correa. I didn't get to finish when Mr. Walter asked another 
question. 

As I said, I said he was a disgrace to my people and I felt that, 
and that therefore I must refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Won't you stand up here like a redblooded American 
and deny before this committee, if it is a fact, that you have never 
been a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Correa. To my knowledge I have always learned that all 
Americans have red blood. I don't know. I may not have been 
taught that in school, and so forth. I wish to decline to answer that 
question. I think it is an invasion of the secrecy of the ballot and I 
intend to cast my ballot in November. Therefore I wish to refuse to 
answer that question on the grounds of the amendments. 

If I may, I believe I recall yesterday hearing Mr. Walter, after 
conmiending the Government witness Martin, refer to other people as 
taking refuge behind amendments. 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Miss Correa. I would like to say, Mr. Walter, that in claiming the 
privilege of these amendments I do not take refuge behind them. I 
would like to state that I was taught in the Denver public schools to 
respect, uphold, and always to defend the United States Constitution 
and its Bill of Rights. 



COMMUNIST ACTU'ITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4281 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of a conspiracy which is dedi- 
cated to the destruction of the Constitution of the United States, 
including the Bill of Rights ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Daxsky. "Would you read back that question, please ? 

Mr. Arens. I will repeat it. Have you been a member of a con- 
spiracy which is dedicated to the destruction of the Constitution of 
the United States, including the Bill of Rights ? 

(The witness conferred with her comisel.) 

Miss CoRREA. Mr. Arens, I decline to answer that question on all 
the previous grounds I have stated. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a document which I have marked 
"Correa Exhibit No. 2,'" which contains an advertisement appearing 
in the Communist Daily Worker of New York ]\Ionday, February 22, 
1954. The advertisement is respecting a rally for Ben Davis. This 
rally is under the auspices of a delegation, including a number of 
people. Speakers at the rally are as follows : 

William Patterson, Louise Jeffers, James Ford, and a person iden- 
tified here as Martha Correa. 

I ask you to take a glance at that advertisement and tell this com- 
mittee whether or not you are the Martha Correa who spoke at the 
rally alluded to in this advertisement. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

]\Ir. Dansky. Will counsel point out where the name appears ? 

(Mr. Arens indicating on document.) 

Mr. Dansky. Thank you. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Correa. Mr. Arens, I decline to answer that question on all the 
grounds previously stated, under constitutional guaranties. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this exhibit 
marked "Correa Exhibit No. 2" be incorporated by reference in this 
record and retained in the committee files. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

]Mr. Arens. Since you received your subpena to appear before this 
committee did you have a conversation with persons other than with 
counsel respecting a course of action to be taken with reference to 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities and with reference 
to these hearings ? 

Miss Correa. I did discuss my subpena with many of my friends, 
many people. 

]Mr. Arens. Did you discuss it in a little meeting of your friends, 
a little caucus, we might call it ? 

]Miss Correa. Would you be more specific as to what you have refer- 
ence to ? 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that after you received your subpena you and the other com- 
rades of this area had a caucus in which it was decided that every 
effort would be made to discredit this committee, including causing 
the open letter to be circulated, representations being made to other 
persons to discredit this committee in these hearings. If that is not a 
fact as I have asserted it, deny it while you are under oath. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Correa. May I see the open letter, Mr. Arens, that you are 
referring to ? 



4282 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Arens. Yes. I am now laying before you David Bramhall 
exhibit No. 2. 

Mr. Dansky. This is a newspaper ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Arens. It is identified in the record, Counsel. You have prac- 
ticed law long enough to know tliat. 

Mr. Dansky. It is not a letter. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss CoRREA. May we take a moment, please. 

The Chairman.. Surely. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Correa. Would you specifically repeat that question ? 

Mr. Arens. You have taken 5 minutes to confer with your counsel. 

Miss Correa. I do have the right to confer with counsel, don't I? 

Mr. Arens. Can the reporter find the question ? 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested, as follows : 

Mr. Akens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, 
that after you received your subpena you and the other comrades of this area 
had a caucus in which it was decided that every effort would be made to discredit 
this committee, including; causing tlie open letter to he cii'culated, representations 
being made to other persons to discredit this committee in these hearings. If 
that is not a fact as I have asserted it, deny it while you are under oath. 

Miss Correa. I would like to try to answer that question and I will 
give my grounds. It seems to me 

Mr. Arens. If you are going to decline to answer, decline to answer. 
If you start to answer the question, you are going to be obliged by this 
committee to give a full, complete, and truthful answer. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Correa. I decline to answer on the grounds of the privilege of 
the fifth amendment. I think that this is an attack against the civic 
community leaders, in my community. If you have come to Denver 
to attack them, I do not think that is correct. They are expressing — 
I see nothing about saying anything about discredit. I would feel 
that any discredit would only be brought upon the committee by itself 
and by no one else. 

Mr. Arens. To your knowledge did the Conununist conspiracy in 
this community instigate the circulation of this open letter? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

iliss Correa. I wish to decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of the first amendment, that the people have the right to pro- 
test, freedom of speech, and I feel that in that article they were 
expressing that freedom of speech as to their caution to this com- 
mittee to be fair play and suggestions that they have made to this 
committee. 

I also decline to answer the question on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
truthfully whether or not you have knowledge respecting the instiga- 
tion by the Communist conspiracy of the open letter and other devices 
in this community in the course of the last 2 or 3 weeks to discredit 
this committee, you would be supplying information which could be 
used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Miss Correa. It is a very long question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



COMlVnjNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOIINTAIN AREA 4283 

Miss CoRREA. That is a very long question. I will give you a very 
short answer, though. I refuse to answer on all the grounds I have 
previously invoked. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that last question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

]\Iiss CoRREA. I choose J Mr. Walter, to refuse to answer that ques- 
tion on the previous consitutional guaranties that I have stated. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the interrogation by the staff of this witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused from further attendance 
under the subpena, and the committee will take a recess of 5 minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Call your next witness. 

(Committee members present: Representatives Walter and Velde.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kenneth Kripke, K-r-i-p-k-e, please. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand ? Do you swear the 
testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Kripke. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF KENNETH N. KRIPKE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

CLIFPORD W. MILLS 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Kripke. My name is Kenneth N. Kripke, my address 2700 
South Forest, here in Denver. My occupation is attorney at law. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Acti- 
vities ? 

Mr. I^iPKE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Kripke. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel will kindly identify himself. 

Mr. Mills. Clifford W. Mills, 302 Majestic Building, Denver, 
attorney at law. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kripke, give us, if you please, a word about your 
personal background prior to the time that you began the practice of 
law. "WHiere did you go to school, where were you born and so forth. 

Mr. Kripke. I was born in Ohio in 1920. I attended the Ohio State 
University 1937 through 1941. I worked for a short time and then 
when war was declared I volunteered for the United States Army. I 
served for more than 4 years in the Army. Twenty-six months of 
that time was overseas. 

After I completed my service I attended the University of Colorado 
Law School. I graduated from the University of Colorado Law- 
School in 1948. I was admitted to practice in the State of Colorado in 
1949, early in 1949, and I have been practicing law in Denver ever 
since. I was in general practice until about 1953, and then I began to 
specialize in personal injury law. 



4284 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Arens. "V\^iile you were at the University of Colorado would 
you tell us whether or not you were president of the Colorado Students 
for Wallace? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kripke. Mr. Arens, could you tell me if that group has been 
identified as a subversive or Communist-front organization before this 
committee ? 

Mr. Arens. I don't believe it has. 

Mr. Kripke. Yes, I think it was. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now, Mr. Kripke, a photostatic copy of 
a newspaper article appearing April 12, 1955, entitled "Law^yer Ac- 
cused as C. U. Communist." I have marked it "Kripke Exhibit No. 1," 
and I should like to read part of it to you : 

A Denver attorney was named in Federal court late Monday afternoon as a 
Communist at the University of Colorado 7 years ago, but the lawyer denied the 
testimony. The lawyer, Kenneth N. Kripke, president of the Wallace for Presi- 
dent Student Group at CU in 1948, denied that he was ever a member of the 
Communist Party or that he had ever attended a Communist meeting. 

I would like you to glance at that article and see if that refreshes 
your recollection as to whether or not you are the Kenneth N. Kripke 
who made the statement attributed to you in that article. 

Mr. Kripke. I must refuse to answer that question on the ground 
of the fifth amendment of the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Did you actually make a statement to the press in re- 
sponse to queries respecting the testimony in the court given back in 
April of 1955 by Harold Page Martin ? 

Mr. Kripke. I must refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

The Chairman. When you say "I must," you mean "I do," of course ? 

Mr. Kripke. I feel that 1 must, Mr. Walter, because of the 

The Chairman. But do you ? 

Mr. Kripke. Because of this committee hearing. 

The Chairman. Do you refuse to answer ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kripke. Mr. Chairman, I am not impugning on the committee 
that they are forcing me to do this, but I feel that because of the 
matters about which Mr. Arens is questioning that I personally must 
take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Kripke. I refuse to answer that question. I refuse to answer 
that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you lionestly apprehend that if you told tliis com- 
mittee whether or not you are the same person Avho was alluded to in 
this newspaper article as denying Communist Party membei-ship you 
w^ould be supplying information which could be used against you in a 
criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Kripke. Mr. Chairman, under the circumstances of this commit- 
tee hearing I don't think it is necessary for me to explain the reasons 
wliy I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. We are not asking for an explanation. We are only 
asking whether or not you honestly apprehend, actually fear, if you 
would give us a truthful answer to that principal question you would 
be supplying information w^hich might be used against you in a crimi- 
nal proceeding. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOTJNTAIN AREA 4285 

Mr. Kripke. Again I say, Mr. Chairman, I must invoke the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, ^Ir. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

The CiiAiRMAx. You are directed to answer. 

Mr Kripke. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. You weren't under oath when you told the newspaper 
reporter, "No ; I am not a Communist," were you ? 

Mr. Kripke. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this docu- 
ment which I have marked ''Kripke Exhibit No. 1" be incorporated by 
reference in the record and retained in the committee files. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Arexs. Harold Page Martin testified under oath before this 
committee that he Imew you as a member of the Commmiist Party. 
"Was he lying or telling the truth ? 

Mr. Kripke. The same answer. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Duran, would you remain standing there, please ? 

Did you ever see this gentleman to my right in the blue suit whom I 
have just called Mr. Duran ? 

Mr. Kripke. The same answer. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Duran took an oath before this committee and tes- 
tified that he knew you as a member of the Communist Party. AYas 
]\Ir. Duran lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Mr. Kripke. The same answer, jNlr. Arens. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you intend after you are released from your sub- 
pena and released from the pains and penalties of possible perjury to 
go out in this community and say, "Of course, I am not a Communist. 
I have never been a Communist," and reaffirm what you said to the 
paper, "but I wasn't going to tell that witch-hunting House Un-Amer- 
ican Activities Committee I am not a Communist'' ? Do you intend to 
do that? 

Mr. Kripke. I haven't any present intention on that, INIr. Arens. 
Frankly, I haven't made up my mind as to that. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you identified with the Committee for Peaceful Al- 
ternatives to the Atlantic Pact ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kripke. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of a document 
which I haved marked "Kripke Exhibit No. 2" and entitled "Commit- 
tee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact," containing a peti- 
tion or statement by a number of folks, under date of December 14, 
1949. Appended to this petition or statement are the names of a num- 
ber of persons, including the name of Kenneth N. Kripke, executive 
secretary, Colorado Progressive Party, Denver. I lay that before you 
and ask you if 3'Ou are the Kenneth N. Kripke alluded to in that 
document. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

INIr. Kripke. I decline to answer under the privileges afforded me by 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, this document 
marked "Kripke Exhibit No. 2'' be incorporated by reference in the 
record and retained in the committee files. 



4286 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

The staff will have no more questions at this time of this witness. 

May I respectfully suggest the record include the citations of the 
Committee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact appearing in 
the Guide to Subversive Organizations. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. The witness is excused from fur- 
ther attendance under the subpena. 

(The citations referred to above follow:) 

Committee for Peaceful Alteenativks to the Atlan tk.; Pact 

1. Cited as an organization which was formed as a result of the Conference for 
Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact, and which was located, 
according to a letterhead of September 16, 1950, at 30 North Dearborn 
Street, Chicago 2, 111. ; and to further the cause of "Communists in the 
United States'" doing "their part in the Moscow campaign." 

(Congressional Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
No. 378, on the Communist ''Peace'' Offensive, April 25, 1951, original 
date, April 1, 1951, p. 5//.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Alfonso Sena, please. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand and swear that 
the testimony you are about to give will be the trutli, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Sena. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ALFONSO SENA, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
JAMES W. WILSON 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Sena. My name is Alfonso Sena. I work at the Gates Rubber 
Co. 

Mr. Arens. I didn't get that, please, sir. 

Mr. Sena. I work at Gates Rubber Co. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity? 

Mr. Sena. I am a cutter operator. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born? 

Mr. Sena. Trinidad, Colo., in 1913. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel today ? 

Mr. Sena. Yes. ' 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindlv identifv himself? 

Mr. Wilson. James W. Wilson, attorney at law, 611 E. & C. Build- 
ing, Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. Give us if you please, sir, a brief sketch of your educa- 
tional background. 

Mr. Sena. I haven't any. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon? 

Mr. Sena. I have none. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the various jobs you have held since you became 
an adult or self-sufficient. 

Mr. Sena. During the })eriod that I was young there was a depres- 
sion going on and jobs were hard to get. I done odd jobs here and 
there until I was inducted into the Army. I served from October 
in 1942 until September in 1945. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Go ahead. 

Mr. Sena. Since I was discharged I was employed by the Gates 
Rubber Co. and I have been there for over 10 years. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ROCKY MOtTNTAIN AREA 4287 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Coniiiiunist Party? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sena. I refuse to answer that question on the ground of the 
fifth amendment to tlie Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Sena — is it S-e-e-n-a or S-e-n-a ? 

Mr. Sena. S-e-n-a. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Sena, Mr. Bellarmino Duran testified under oath 
before this committee a few days ago to the eti'ect tliat while he was an 
undercover agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the Com- 
munist Party lie knew you as a member of the Communist Party. 
Was Mr. Duran lying, or was he telling the truth? 

Mr. Sena. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Sena, if this committee should cause to be insti- 
tuted procedings whereby you would be innnune from criminal prose- 
cution based on any information you would give to the committee 
would you then testify before the committee and give us the informa- 
tion 3^ou may have in response to questions which we would propose 
to you. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sena. I refuse to answer the question ; I invoke the privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been contacted by members of the Com- 
munist Party since you were under subpena to appear here ? 

jSIr. Sena. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

JNIr. Arens. Do you presently fear the Communist Party, fear any 
people known by j^ou to be Communists ? 

INfr. Sena. Would you state that again ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently fear any people known by you to be 
Communists ? 

Mr. Sena. Do I fear? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

(The Avitness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sena. I will take the fifth on that. 

Mr. Arens. We liave no further (juestions of this witness, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fred Trujillo. 

The Chairman. Will you stand? Do you swear the testimony 
you are about to give will be the truth, (he whole truth, and nothing biil 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Tru.tillo. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FRED TRUJILLO, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
OMAR E. GARWOOD 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

ISIr. Trujillo. My name is Fred Trujillo, born and raised in Colo- 
rado. I live at 4305 Sheridan, Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation, please ? 

Mr. Trujillo. I am a laborer. 

Mr. Arens. Where do you work ? 

Mr. Trujillo. On construction. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Trujillo. Here in Denver. 



4288 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Arens. Wliat firm ? 

Mr. Tkujillo. The Hutcheson Contractors. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so employed ? 

Mr. Trujillo. About a year and 3 months. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented today b}^ counsel in this proceed- 
ing? 

Mr. Trujillo. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel will kindly identify himself. 

Mr. Garwood. My name is Omar E. Garwood; Omar like Omar 
Kliayyam. I am a Denver attorney of some 50 years' standing here. 
My office is in the Denver Club Building, 600 Denver Club Building. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Trujillo. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

]Mr. Trujillo. I decline to answer that on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. A couple of days ago Mr. Bellarmino Duran testified 
before this committee under oath in open session that while he was 
an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the 
Communist conspiracy in tliis country he knew you as a member of the 
Communist Party? Was IMr. Duran Iving, or was he telling the 
truth? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Trujillo. I decline to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. No further questions of this witness. 

The Chairman. The ^vitness is excused. 

Call tlie next witness, please. 

Mr. xVrens. Mr. Deikman, D-e-i-k-m-a-n. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please? Do you 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the ti'uth, so help you God? 

Mr. Deikman. I do. 

Mr. Sherman. Mr. Chairman, may we ask a ban on photographs? 

The Chairman. I don't know why you make that request when it is 
quite obvious that there are no photographei's here. 

Mr. Sher:man. I did see a photographer here recently. 

TESTIMONY OF EUGENE DEIKMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL. 
EDWAED H. SHERMAN 

Mr. xVrens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Deikman. Eugene Deikman. I am an attorney. I reside in 
EnglcAvood, Colo. I have offices in the Ernest & Crammer Building 
in Denver. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today, Mr. Deikman, in response to 
a subpena served upon you bj' the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Mr. Deikman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Deikman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel identify himself. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOTTNTAIN AREA 4289 

Mr. Sherman. Edward H. Sherman, Mile High Center Building, 
Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, about your place of birth and 
education. 

Mr. DEiK:NrAN. I was born in Denver, Colo. I was educated in 
Pueblo, Colo., in the primary schools. I went to the University of 
Colorado in 1946 and graduated there with an LL. B. in 1952. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been practicing law here since that time ? 

Mr. Deikman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Commimist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Deikman. In the first place, I want to make it very clear to 
you, Mr. Arens and Chairman Walter, that I do not fear to divulge 
anything before a proper committee having a legitimate purpose re- 
specting my activities, associations, or anything that I have ever done. 
However, I feel that this committee is improperly investigating my 
private affairs. The resolution which empowers this committee to 
investigate into Un-American activities is Public Law 601. This law, 
as I interpret it, is so broad in its nature as to violate the first amend- 
ment of the Constitution. It does this because it says that the investi- 
gation is un-American propaganda. This term "propaganda" 

Mr. Yelde. I object to a continuation of this witness' testimony 
if it is to be a lecture. We have had these lectures from time to time 
ever since this committee was formed. We know all about the type 
of man that he is. We don't have to be informed about the 

Mr. Deikman. You do know, Mr. Yelde 

Mr. Yelde. Responsibility of this committee by you. 

The Chairman. Just a minute. 

Mr. Deikman. Are you withdrawing the question ? 

The Chair]man. This is not the proper forum in which to raise the 
questions that you are raising. If you decline to answer the question, 
saj'' so. This is not the place to attack the validity of the statute di- 
recting this committee. That is the province of the courts. 

Mr. Deikman. As an eminent attorney, Mr. Walter, I think you are 
aware of the fact that a person must state at the time he refuses to 
answer a question his legitimate reasons for so refusing. 

The Chairman. That is right. Go ahead. 

Mr. Deikman. That is what I am in the process of doing. I want 
to make myself clear on this. 

Mr. Yelde. You can do it without giving us a lecture on our re- 
sponsibility. 

Mr. Deikman. No ; Mr. Yelde, I know that you receive lectures on 
this and it is not my intention 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Deikman. TNHiich question am I answering ? 

The Chairman. "\Miatever question you think yon are answering. 
Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. The outstanding question is, are 3^ou a member of the 
Community Part}^ ? 

Mr. Deikman. All right. I will continue to answer that question. 

I feel that the word "propaganda" as used in your resolution is one 
that is so broad as not merely to limit itself to certain areas of in- 
vestigation that Congress has a legitimate right to restrain itself 
to, such as the advocacy of the overthrow of the Government hj force 



4290 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

and violence, but the word "propaganda" is a word which means in 
essence free speech and therefore I refuse on the basis of the resoki- 
tion which empowers this committee to answer the question. 

I further refuse because I believe that you don't have any real in- 
terest in my private affairs. There isn't anything of significance to 
this committee concerning my private affairs. There is nothing upon 
which you can legislate. ^Moreover, you haven't told me what you 
are interested in regard to my private affairs. I think that my pri- 
vate affairs are as immune from an unreasonable investigation as a 
person's goods are from an unreasonable search. 

I further refuse to answer this question on the basis that this ques- 
tion carries an inference of infamy in it, and I agree with Professor 
Franklin that the amendment to the Constitution referring to infamy 
was designed specifically to exclude legislative groups from inquiring 
into people's private aff'airs and from infaming them. 

Further, I refuse to answer under the 6th, 9th, and 10th amendments, 
and I have no intention of being a witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Are you invoking the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Deikman. You are a lawyer, Mr. Arens. I suppose you know 
which amendment I am referring to. 

The Chairman. Yes ; but 3^ou didn't refer to it. 

Mr. Deikman. Well " 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, if you gave a truthful 
answer to this last principal question outstanding on this record you 
would be supplying information which might be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Deikman. My answer to that is that what I honestly apprehend 
is that the privilege against beiug compelled to be a witness against 
oneself is a privilege which carries no inferences regarding it. As a 
lawyer, you know that. I tell you that I have asserted by constitutional 
privileges in good faith. I will not be entrapped by devious questions 
as to inferences relating to my use of the constitutional guarantee. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Harold Page Martin, under oath before this com- 
mittee, testified that he, while a member of the Communist Party, 
knew you as a member of the Communist Party. Was Mr. Martin 
lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Mr. Deikman. That is asking the same question you previously 
rendered in a different way, and I urge all the bases for refusing that 
I have previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. ]Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused from further attendance 
under the subpena. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Morris Judd, please come forward. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please? Do you 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Judd. I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY IMOUNTAIN AREA 4291 

TESTIMONY OF MORKIS JUDD, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
EDWARD H. SHERMAN 

Mr. Shermax. Mr. Aiens, I appear on behalf of Mr. Jiidd. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. JuDD. Morris Jiidd, Greeley, Colo., bookkeeper. 

Mr. Arexs. Are yon appearing today, Mr. Judd, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon yon by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities? 

Mr. Judd. I am. 

Mr. Arens. And are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Judd. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kind)}' identify himself. 

Mr. SiiER]MAx. Edward II. Sherman, attorney at law in Denver, 
Colo., with address at the Mile High Center. 

Mr. Arexs. Where and when were you born, Mr. Judd? 

Mr. Judd. I was born in Denver, Colo., October 6, 1916. 

Mr. Arexs. Tell us, if you will, please, a word about your education. 

Mr. Judd. Denver public schools, through high school. University 
of Colorado with an A. B. degree in 1938, graduate study at Columbia 
University in philosophy in 1938 to 1941. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you receive a degree from Columbia in 1941? 

Mr. Judd. No, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Did that complete your formal education? 

]\Ir. Judd. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Now give us if you please, sir, a sketch of your employ- 
ment since you completed your formal education. 

Mr. Judd. The Department of Agriculture in 1941, June of 1941 to 
January 1943. 

Mr. Arexs. In what unit of the Department of Agriculture? 

Mr. Judd. Agricultural Adjustment Administration. 

Mr. Arexs. "Wliere? 

Mr. Judd, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arexs. Your next employment ? 

Mr. Judd. In the service during the war, 1943-46. 

Mr. Arexs. Your next employment ? 

Mr. Judd. I owned a book store in Boulder, Colo., from 1946 to 
February of 1950. 

Mr. Arexs. "Wliat is the name of the book store ? 

Mr. Judd. Judd Book and Record Shop. 

Mr. Arexs. Your next employment? 

Mr. Judd. In the fall of 1949 I taught at the University of Colorado. 

Mr. xVrexs. "\^niat did 3'ou teach ? 

Mr. Judd. Philosophy. 

Mr. Arexs. For how long did you teach? 

Mr. Judd. Until June of 1952.^ 

Mr. Arexs. And your next employment? 

Mr. Judd. ]\Iy present position in Greeley, Colo. 

Mr. Arexs. Was your disassociation from Colorado University 
voluntary ? 



4292 COMMUNIST activities in the rocky moxjntain area 

Mr. JuDD. What precisely do you have in mind ? 

Mr. Arens. Were you fired or did you resign ? 

Mr. JuDD. May I consult with counsel ? 

The Chairman. Surely. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. JuDD. "Wliat do 3' ou mean by being fired, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. I think you know what I am talking about. Were you 
discharged involuntarily? You are a man of education. Were you 
fired or did you resign ? 

Mr. JuDD. As a matter of fact, I did neither. 

Mr. Arens. What did occur? 

Mr. JuDD. My contract was not renewed. 

Mr. Arens. Was your disassociation then voluntary or involuntary? 

Mr. JuDD. When a person's contract isn't renewed, it seems to me to 
be irrelevant to ask that question. 

Mv. Arens. All right, sir; we will pass that by then. Were you 
interrogated by the university president respecting possible Com- 
munist connections just prior to the time that your contract was not 
renewed ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. JuDD. As a student of philosophy I have come to accept the 
basic democratic principles embodied in the Constitution of the 
United States, and in particular those rights guaranteed citizens by 
the Bill of Rights, and I believe that such questions are an invasion 
of my privacy, my beliefs, and of everything that I hold decent. I 
therefore decline to answer that question and do so on the basis of the 
principles that I believe are embodied in the first amendment to the 
Constitution, the fourth amendment to the Constitution, the fifth 
amendment to the Constitution, the sixth amendment to the Consti- 
tution and tenth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Does your basic philosophy of life preclude you from 
membership in a conspiracy designed to destroy the Constitution of 
the United States ? 

Mr. JuDD. Sir, this question has to do wath beliefs and therefore I 
will not answer it. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a document marked for identification 
as "Judd Exhibit No. 1." It is a photostatic copy of an article from 
the Denver Post of March 25, 1952. I should like to read you part 
of it. 

CiNiL Liberties Uxion Launches Judd Probe 

The Colorado branch of the American Civil Liberties Union Saturday launched 
an investigation of the dismissal of Morris A. Judd, University of Colorado 
philosophy instructor, to determine whether Judd's academic freedom or freedom 
of speech have been violated. Judd, whose two-semester contract was not re- 
newed because of what university officials said was his failure to make sufficient 
academic progress, told the Denver Post he had been quizzed by Dr. Robert 
Stearns, university president, regarding possible Communist connections and that 
he had denied such connections. 

Take a glance at the article, if you will, please, sir, and tell us 
whether or not you are the person alluded to in that article as the 
one who denied Communist Party connections. 

Mr, Judd. Again I shall decline to answer that question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did your philosophic motivation break down when 
you were talking to the reporter for the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4293 

Mr. JuDD. Would you like to discuss pliilosox^hy sometime, Mr. 
Arens ? 

Mr. Akens. Did your philosophic motivation break down when you 
were talking with the reporter for the Denver Post and were not under 
oath and denied Communist Party membership ? 

Mr. JuDD. Would you like to discuss my philosophy some time, Mr. 
Arens ? 

Mr. Arexs. Would you answer the question, please, sir? 

Mr. JuDD. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Harold Page Martin took an oath before this committee 
and testified that while he was a member of the Communist Party 
he knew 3'ou as a member of the Communist Party. Was he lying 
or was he telling the truth? 

Mr. JuDD. I have no idea what Mr. Martin said to this committee. 

Mr. Arens. I just told you. He said he knew you as a member of 
the Communist Party. Was he lying or telling the truth ? 

Mr. JuDD. I decline to answer that question on the same gromids. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. David Eakins. 

The Chairman. AVill you raise your right hand? Do you swear 
(he testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Eakins. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF DAVID EAKINS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HAERY K. NIER, JR. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Eakins. My name is David Eakins. I would like to make this 
very clear because a stoolpigeon called me "Eekins" and my name is 
properly pronounced Eakins. My friends know that. 

Mj occupation is a sheep butcher. My residence is Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. xA.re you appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Mr. Eakins. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Eakins. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself ? 

Mr. NiER. Harry K. Nier, Majestic Building, Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Eakins, a stoolpigeon is one who testifies falsely 
or gives false information. Isn't that right ? 

Mr. Eakins. A stoolpigeon is any man who is paid for testimony and 
spies on his neighbors and his friends and relatives. 

Mr. Arens. Are you asserting that any witness appearing before 
this committee in the last several days has been paid by this com- 
mittee for giving false information ? 

Mr. Eakins. This witness was paid for his testimony. 

Mr. Arens. Did he give false information to your knowledge? 



4294 COMAILTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Eakins. Stoolpigeoiis always give false information. Tra- 
ditionally they give false information. 

Mr. Arens. Then I take it you assert that the witness who identified 
you as a member of the Connnunist Party gave false information to 
this committee, is that correct ? 

Mr. Eakins. I am not answering that question because it is none 
of your business. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness on 
that ground be directed to answer the question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Nier. We are going to have a little consultation, if you don't 
mind. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Eakins. Would you repeat that question, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Read the question to him, please, Mr. Reporter. 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Eakins. I would like to decline to answer that question on the 
following grounds : I said first of all it is none of your business because 
the Constitution specifically states that there shall be no abridgement 
of the freedom of speech or press or the right of people peaceably to 
assemble. I believe that with all my heart. I always have. 

Further, you are violatino- this: This is an unconstitutional com- 
mittee in the first place. The basis for its existence is unconstitutional . 
The real purpose for its existence is doubly unconstitutional. To ask 
such a question is unconstitutional because it violates article 1 of the 
Bill of Rights. Further, it violates article 5 in which it says a person 
shall not be compelled to be a witness against himself nor shall he be 
deprived of due process of law. 

You are asking me about this stoolpigeon, and yet you w^on't let my 
counsel cross-examine this man. I don't have the right to confront my 
witness, in other words. 

Finally, article 8 says nor shall cruel and unusual punishment be 
inflicted upon citizens. This committee is inflicting cruel and unusual 
])unishment by the very fact that it's issuing subpenas, and you know 
this full well. One witness up here testified she had lost a job already 
simply by receiving the subpena. This is one of the purposes for your 
asking where people live and where they work and what their activi- 
ties are. 

On these grounds I refuse to answer this question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Eakins, we are going to give you an opportunity to 
be confronted by Mr. Duran. Is Mr. Duran here ? 

Please remain standing, Mr. Duran. This gentleman here testified 
under oath that he knew you as a member of the Communist Party. 
Look at him and tell this committee whether or not this man was lying 
or whether he was telling the truth. 

Mr. Eakins. Mr. Arens, your theatrics do not take the place of 
due process of law. Let my lawyer cross-examine that stoolpigeon. 

The Chairman. You have used that term enough. In your eyes 
and in the eyes of your sort he may be 

Mr. Eakins. What do you mean by that? 

The Chairman. This sort of person 

Mr. Eakins. You have characterized me, and I would like to 
know 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4295 

The Chairman. But the greatest majority, the vast majority of the 
American people regard liim as being a great American. 

Mr. Eakins. I do not regard him as sucli. 

The Chairman. Tliat is tlie point. It doesn't make any difference. 
Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Communist Party now? 

Mr. Eakins. I give you the same answer tliat I gave to the other 
question and on the same grounds, that it is none of your business and 
for the reasons tliat I have already stated. It is none of your busi- 
ness if I am or am not, if I am a vegetarian, Socialist, Kepublican, 
or Democrat, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of a conspiracy ? 

Mr. Eakins. I have answered that question. It is the same question, 
and I give you the same answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you regard the characterization of the Communist 
Party as a conspiracy an accurate characterization ? 

Mr. Eakins. What I think about the Communist Party is none 
of your business, and I give the same answer and the same grounds 
for refusing to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact that you are presently one of the leading Communist Party 
operatives in the Rocky Mountain area. 

Mr. Eakins. That is a cute question and it is the same question and 
you get the same answer. You are condemning me. You are accusing 
me and punishing me before the committee by asking questions like 
that and you know it. You know exactly what your answer is going 
to be and what your question deserves. 

Mr. Arens. Do you want to stand up under oath and deny it ? 

Mr. Eakins. I have given you my answer and I don't care how yon 
phrase the question or what tricky ways you put it, you are going to 
get exactly the same response from me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Cliairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Jones. I assume your witness doesn't want to be paid for his 
appearance. 

Mr. NiKR. Sure he does. 

Mr. AiiENs. Ann Eakins, please. 

The Chair]man. Will you raise your right hand, please? Do you 
swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Ann Eakins. I do. 

Mr. NiER. I am entering my appearance for Mrs. Eakins. 

TESTIMONY OF ANN EAKINS (MES. DAVID EAKINS); ACCOM- 
PANIED BY COUNSEL, HARRY K. NIER, JR. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. Eakins. My name is Ann Eakins, I live in Denver, Colo. I 
am a meatpacker. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today, Mrs. Eakins, in response to 

79079—56 — pt. 2 7 



4296 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mrs. Eakins. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mrs. Eakins. I am. _ 

Mr. Akens. Will counsel kindly identify himself ? 

Mr. NiER, Harry Nier, Majestic Building, Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. Are you the wife of David Eakins who just appeared 
before the committee ? 

Mrs. Eakins. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Eakins. Mr. Arens, I would like to tell you now that I con- 
sider that an infringement upon my constitutional rights, my freedom 
of speech and association. I also consider that an infringement upon 
my rights under the fifth amendment of the Constitution, and I will 
not answer that question or any like it. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of a conspiracy designed to overthrow 
the Government of the United States by force and violence ? 

Mrs. Eakins. I thought I made mySelf clear. That is the same 
kind of question and I will not answer it. 

Mr. Arens. I take it j^ou regard the question with the same con- 
notation ? 

Mrs. Eakins. I decline to answer that because I don't believe I have 
to answer it under the constitutional rights I liave under the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Eakins, a person by the name of Bellarmino 
Duran, who served his country patriotically for several yeare as a 
member of the Communist conspiracy reporting to the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, testified under oath before this committee a 
couple of days ago that while he was in the Communist Party at the 
behest of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, he knew you as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. Was he Iving or was he telling the 
truth? 

Mrs. Eakins. Mr. Arens, that is also the same kind of question and 
I decline to answer that. The fifth amendment is for the protection 
of the innocent as well as the guilty and I give j^ou the same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Are you innocent of membership in a conspiracy to 
destroy the Government of the United States ? 

Mrs. Eakins. I am using my rights under the Constitution and that 
is what I will do. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this wit- 
ness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. Jesus Bernardino Sauceda, S-a-u-c-e-d-a, please. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please? Do you 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Sauceda. I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4297 

TESTIMONY OF JESUS BEENARDINO SATJCEDA; ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, NORMAN E. COBB 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by mime, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Sauceda. My name is Jesus Bernardino, B-e-r-n-a-r-d-i-n-o, 
Sauceda. I live at 537 25th Street, and I am a packinghouse worker. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel today ? 

Mr. Sauceda, Yes. 

]\Ir. Arens, Will counsel kindly identify himself? 

Mr. Cobb. My name is Norman E. Cobb, an attorney at law, I have 
offices at 110 West IStli Avenue. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a siibpena which 
was served upon you bv the House Connnittee on Un-American Activi- 
ties ? 

Mr. Sauceda. I am, 

Mr, Arens. Where were you born? 

Mr. Sauceda. I was born in Monterrey, Mexico. 

Mr. Akens. When? 

Mr. Sauceda. :\Iay -20, 1924. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States? 

Mr. Sauceda. It was either 1027 or 1928, on February 12, at the age 
of approximately 3 or 4. I don't remember exactly. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a naturalized citizen? 

Mr. Saucj:da. I am. 

Mr. Arens. When were you naturalized? 

Mr. Sauceda. November'^1 of 1943. 

Mr, Arens. Are you a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Sauceda. I am advised that I am not required to give testimony 
against myself and therefore I decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Arkns. ]Mr. Sauceda, will you look to my right, at the gentleman 
who will be coming up here, and tell us whether or not you know him — 
Mr. Bellarmino Duran. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sauceda. I give exactly the same answer, Mr. ^^^llter, on that 
question. 

Mv. Arens. This man was an agent of the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation and served his country for some j-ears in the Communist 
conspiracy and reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. He 
testified under oath before this committee that he knew you as a mem- 
ber of the Conmiunist Party. Was he lying or was he telling the 
ti-uth ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sauceda. I served my country, too, my adopted country, in the 
service of the United States Army. I was a member of a combat 
unit in the infantry, as a rifleman, and I was wounded on December 25, 
1944, at tlie Battle of the Bulge, so I have no regard comparing 
i-ecords of service, and I again Avish to decline to answer the question 
on exactly the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you the husband of Judith Sauceda ? 

Mr. Sauceda. I am. 

Mr, Arens. I have no further questions of this witness, Mr. Chair- 
man. 



4298 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

The Cpiatrman. You are excused. 

Mr. Akens. Judith Sauceda, please. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please? Do you 
swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Sauceda. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JUDITH SAUCEDA (MES. JESUS BERNARDINO 

SAUCEDA) 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Sauceda. My name is Judith Sauceda, and I live at 537 25th 
Street, and I am a factory worker. 

Mr. Arens. Have j^ou ever been known by any name other than 
Judith Sauceda? 

Mrs. Sauceda. I have been known as Judy since I was a little child, 
of course. That is my nickname. 

Mr. Arens. Are you currently chairman of the West Side Fairplay 
Committee ? 

(The witness confererd with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sauceda. I am advised that I do not have to give testimony 
against nu'self and on the grounds I decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Yes ; j^ou are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. Sauceda. On the same grounds I decline to answer the ques- 
tion, Mr. Walter. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Sauceda. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Bellarmino Duran testified under oath before this 
committee a couple of days ago that lie knew you as a member of the 
Communist Party. Was he lying or was he telling the truth? 

Mrs. Sauceda. I am advised that I do not have to answer that 
question on the grounds that I do not have to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, no further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr, Arens. Richard Demming, please. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please, and swear 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Demming. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RICHARD DEMMING; ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MARILYN MEADOFF 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Demming. My name is Richard Demming. I live in Denver, 
Colo. I am a packinghouse worker. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4299 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr, Demmixg. Yes, sir, 

Mr, Arens, Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Demming. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel identify herself? 

Miss Meadoff. JNIarilyn Meadoff, 438 Equitable Building, Denver, 
Colo. 

Mr. Arens. iNIr. Demming, where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Demming. I was born in New London, Wis., on June 25, 1923. 

Mr, Arens. A word, please, sir, about your education. 

Mr. Demming. I received my education in Wisconsin and New 
York. 

Mr. Arens. AVliat schools did you attend ? 

Mr. Demming. I attended the Lincohi Public School in New London, 
Wis. I attended the Washington High School in New London, Wis. 
I attended the University of Wisconsin at Madison, Wis. I attended 
Cornell University at Ithaca, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. What year did you complete your work at the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin ? 

Mr. Demming. In 1947. 

Mr. Arens. What year did you complete your formal education in 
its entirety ? 

Mr. Demming. 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a degreed 

Mr. Demming. I received a bachelor of arts from the University of 
Wisconsin. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Demming. I did a year of graduate work at Ithaca, but I did not 
receive any further degrees. 

Mr. Arens. What was your graduate work ? 

Mr. Demming. It was at the New York State School of Industrial 
and Labor Relations. It was in labor economics. 

Mr. x\rens. What year did you complete that course? 

Mr. Demming. I left Ithaca, N. Y., in 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, please, a brief chronological sketch of your 
employment since you left Ithaca, in 1948. 

Mr. Demming. I worked for the International Typographical 
Union. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Demming. In Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien ? 

Mr. Demming. From 1948 until 1949. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Demming. I was doing research work for them. 

Mr. Arens. 'NA^io was your immediate superior? 

Mr. Demming. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment, then, please? 

Mr. Demming. My next employment was at Cudahy Packing Co., 
Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity? 

Mr. Demming. Laborer. 

Mr. Arens. When did that employment begin ? 



4300 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Mr. Demming. In May of 1949, in June of 1949, May or June. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you been continuously employed with that com- 
pany since then ? 

Mr. Demmixg. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. I lay before you, Mr. Demming, a photostatic copy of 
an article appearing in the Rocky Mountain News, May 5, 1955, in 
which a statement is attributed to a person by the name of Richard 
Denmiing- denying that he had ever been a member of the Communist 
Party, let alone having a position of leadership, in response, the article 
indicates, to testimony or statements of an undercover agent of the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Would you kindly take a glance at 
that article and tell us whether or not you are the person who made the 
statements attributed to Richard Demming in denial of Communist 
Party membership ^ 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Demmix'^g. I decline to answer tliat question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Bellarmino Duran testified under oath before this 
committee that he knew you as a member of the Communist Party 
when he was an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion. Now while you are under oath would you tell us whether or not 
Mr. Duran was h'ing when he so identified you as a member of that 
party ? 

Mr. Demmix'G. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United States 
which I uphold. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you ever been a member of an organization which 
is dedicated to the destruction of the Constitution of the United 
States ^ 

Mr. Demmixg. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United States, 
which I uphold. 

Mr. Arex^s. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this article 
be marked ''Demming Exhibit No. 1," incorporated by reference in the 
record and retained in the committee files. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Arex'S. Have you ever taken a loyalty oath? 

Mr. Demmixg. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United States, 
which I fervently uphold. 

Mr. Arex^s. I lay before you a })hotostatic copy of an article appear- 
ing in the local press regarding the refusal of certain tenants to sign 
loyalty oaths required of tenants in public housing projects. It states 
in effect that you or a person known as Richard L. Demming protested 
the signing of such a loyalty oath. Kindly glance at that article, if 
you please, sir, and tell us whether or not you are the person who 
protested the signing of the loyalty oath. 

Mr. Demmixg I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arex^s. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this article 
be marked "Demming Exhibit No. 2," incorporated by reference in 
this record and retained in the committee files. 

The Chairmax. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 4301 

Mr. Demmixg. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United States 
wliich I upliold. 

Mr. Akexs. Mr. Chairman we have no further questions of this 
witness. 

The Chairmax. The witness is excused. 

The Congress of the United States, of which this connnittee is an 
arm, extends its thanks to the United States marshal, Tom C. Kimball, 
and his deputies, to the United States attorney, Donald Kelley and 
his staff, to ]Mr. Pierce who assisted in maintaining order, and to the 
witnesses who have cooperated with this committee in giving the 
valuable information which we have received. 

This concludes the hearings at this time, but in concluding the hear- 
ings now, I liope that the impression is not created that the committee 
is convinced that we have looked at all of the ramifications of the 
Communist conspiracy in this particular area. There will be a con- 
tinuing investigation of this area as well as other areas of the United 
States and, if in the judgment of the committee it is necessary to hold 
public hearings again, either here or in Washington, that course will 
be pursued. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Chairman, I want to concur in everything that you 
have said. As a member of the Republican Part}^, I want to say that I 
am very liappy to be in the liome city of our famous and very gracious 
First Lady of the Land, Mamie Eisenhower, and also the home city 
of our fine colleague, Byron Rogers. 

I feel that our counsel, Mr. Arens, has done an excellent job and in 
questioning the various witnesses, has shown the great ability that a 
good lawyer should have. 

Also I want to compliment the investigators who have been here, 
Mr. Owens and Mr. Jones. I know they have made a very^ fine back- 
ground investigation and developed the evidence in an estimable 
fashion. 

I do hope that I will be able to come back to this fair city of Denver 
some time in the future. 

The committee is adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 08 p. m., Friday, May 18, 1956, the committee 
was recessed subject to call.) 

X 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Akeson, Virgil... 4137-4139, 4146, 4147, 4150-4157 (testimony) 

Alexander _ 4130, 4131 

Alexander, Helen 4250 

Allen, Rachael 4275-4277 

Alperstein, Arnold 4253 

Alvarez, Ysidro 4134, 4140 

Alverez, Ida (Mrs. Larry Alverez) 4134 

Alverez, Larry 4134 

Apodaca, Julius 4128 

Aranda, Juan, Jr 4228 

Arizpe, Manuel 4228 

Artie 4184 

Aspinwall, Dorothy 4135 

Aspinwall, Richard 4138, 4238, 4253-4260 (testimony) 

Bard wall, Katherine 4149 

Barker, James 4163 

Bary, Anna 4128, 

4130, 4132, 4133, 4135, 4138, 4139, 4141, 4142, 4146, 4147, 4149 

Bary, Art 4130-4133, 4135, 4138-4141, 4146, 4149, 4241, 4242 

Becerra, Carlos 4228 

Bell, Rufus 4180, 4181, 4183 

Benster, Kurt 4238 

' 4141,' 4241^ 4253'^ '4"2'6074264,'4265,' 4266-4267"('tcstimony) 

Berman, Kay 4238 

Besson, Flora 4133 

Biberman, Herbert 42 10 

Bina, Charles 4076 

Blau, Irving 4123, 4139, 4260-4264 (testimonv) 

Blau, Patricia (Mrs. Irving Blau) 4241, 4260 

Boratgis, James 4239 

Bramhall, David 4123, 4126, 4139, 4240, 4267-4273 (testimony) 

Bramhall, Patricia 4149 

Bramhall, Shirley (Mrs. David Bramhall, nee Billie Wellinger) 4123, 

4132, 4135, 4139, 4149, 4240, 4268, 4273-4278 (testimonv) 

Breitenstein, Jean S. (Hon.) 4173, 4190, 4197, 4201 

Brenner, Harry 4191 

Bridges, Harry 42 12 

Bronstein, EdVard 4242 

Budenz, Louis 4176 

Burke, Walter 4208 

Carlin, Robert 4192 

Castillo, Salvador 4228 

Chacon, Juan 4209, 4211 

Church, E. D 4153 

Clark, John 4177, 4189 

Clavton, Eugene 4113 

Clute, Susie 4133 

Cook, Rudolph 4139, 4229-4237 (testimonv) 

Cooper, Harry 4121, 4191 

Correa, Betty 4149 

Correa, Martha (Mrs. Harold Zepelin) 4124, 

4129, 4132-4134, 4138, 41S9, 4146-4149, 4278-4283 (testimony) 
Correa, Tim 4133, 4135, 4146 



II INDEX 

Page 

Craig, Vince 4149 

Cunningham, Duke 4180, 4183 

Danner7 Earl 4232 

Dansky, Marvin 4278 

Davis, Ben 4281 

Doikman, Eugene 4240, 4288-4290 (testimony) 

Deitrich, Bill 4137-4139 

Demming, Richard 4135, 4139-4141, 4146, 4298-4301 (testimony) 

Diamond, Bertram 4121 

DiSanti, Joseph 41 30 

Dittmer, Florence 4239 

Dolan. Eunice (Mrs. Graham Dolan) 4200-4203 (testimony) 

Dolan, Graham 4122, 4154, 4157, 4167-4178 (testimonv), 4208, 4209 

Donaldson, Glenn 1_ 4084, 4095 

Donner. Frank 4121 

Douglas, Leonard 4192 

Duran, Bellarmino Joe (also known as Steve, Jose Komero, and Gamboa)- 4125- 

4150 (testimonv), 4141, 4155, 4191, 4213, 4227, 4235, 4236, 4251, 

4258, 4262, 4263, 4268, 4274, 4280, 4285, 4287, 4288, 4294, 4296- 

4298, 4300. 

Duran, Mrs. Bellarmino 4135 

Dutch, John 4183 

Eakins, Ann (Mrs. David Eakins) 4135, 4140, 4295-4297 (testimony) 

Eakins, David 4135, 4140, 4293-4295 (testimonv), 4296 

Earl, Glenn 4101, 4102, 4104, 4112 

Eaton, Ernest T 4206 

Eckert, Kenneth 4173, 4190, 4197 

Edwards, Dan 4192 

Escalante, George 4228 

Fellow, Charles (Chuck) 4180,4183 

Fink, Jack 4146 

Fisher, Glen 4238 

Flaxer, Abram_. 4231 

Flores, Art 4130, 4140 

Folawm, Sally 4239 

Ford, James 4281 

Forrest, Jim 4183 

Fortson, Warren 4146, 4147 

Fox, Jack 4243 

Fox, Ruth (Mrs. Jack Fox) 4243 

Francis, George 4081, 4088 

Fuchs, Herbert 4074, 4079, 4085, 4090, 4091, 

4094, 4099, 4100, 4103, 4104, 4108, 4116, 4119-4121, 4190, 4191 

Funn, Dorothy 4 155 

Gaitlev, Bill 4186, 4187 

Garfinkel, Eugene 4239 

Garwood, Omar E 4287 

Gibb, Jack 4250, 4252 

Gladstone, William 4138, 4139, 4146 

Goldberg, Al 4139 

Gonzales, Gus 4171 

Gonzales, Joey 4149 

Goodman, Irving 4243 

Goodman, Mrs. Irving 4243 

Goodman, Jerry 4240, 4241 

Goodman, Judy. 4240 

Graham, Charles 4079, 4080, 4084 

Graham, Freda (Mrs. Morris Graham) 4183 

Graham, Morris 4182, 4183, 4185 

Green, Abner 4136 

Gwynn, Charles 4241 

Hagler, Margaret 4101, 4113 

Hancock, Herschel 4187 

Harbert, Jean 4238 

Hart 4184 

Henderson, Donald 4179 



INDEX in 

Page 

Heuser, Frederick 4200, 4201 

Hilliard, Albert 4148 

Hoover, J. Edgar 4247 

Hornbeiii, Philip 4098, 4105, 4117 

Howard, Asbury 4177 

Jackson 4133 

Jarrico, Paul 4210 

Jasso, George 4228 

Jeffers, fjouise 4281 

Jeiicks, Clinton E 4199 

Jensen, Vernon H 4079, 4080 

Johnson, Emmet 4228 

Johnson, Lewis 4182, 4183 

Jvidd, Morris 4243, 4291-4293 (testimony) 

Judd, Mrs. Morris 4243 

Kaplan, Samuel 4127 

Kenny, Robert W 4119 

King,' Edward 4079,4084 

Kleiubord, Paul 4133, 4148 

Kripke, Kenneth N 4143, 4146, 4149, 4240, 4283-4286 (testimony) 

Krug, Jacob H 4120 

Kurasch, Lillian (Mrs. Martin Kurasch) 4093, 4110 

Kurasch, Martin 4078, 4079, 4093, 4097, 4101, 4102, 4110, 4114, 4119 

Larson, Orville 4177 

LaVallee, Lawrence Raymond 4078, 4086, 4094, 4102, 4111 

Leaphart (Charles W.) 4079 

Leai-y, James 4171, 4192 

Lopez, Phillipe 4128, 4129 

Lopez, Mrs. Phillipe 4128 

Loumis, Mrs. John 4149 

Lvnn, Frances Flores 4130, 4132, 4134 

Maldonado, Gilbert 4228 

Manowskv, John 4192 

Markward, Marv 4155 

Martin, Harold Page 4237-4248 (testimony), 

4258, 4259, 4267, 4280, 4284, 4285, 4290, 4293 

Martinez, Juan 4127, 4128, 4136 

Mason, William 4192 

Matchett, Gerald 4078, 4085, 4086, 4094, 4097, 4102, 4103, 4110, 4112 

Matchett, Margaret (Mrs. Gerald Matchett) 4094, 4102, 4111 

McKenna, Charles 4235 

McLucas, John 4113 

McLucas, Marv (Mrs. John McLucas) 4113 

McMullen, Edward 4135 

McMurphv (Murphy) John 4077 

Meadoff, .Marilvn 4260, 4298 

Meier, Harold_' 4138, 4139, 4248-4252 (testimony) 

Mendelowitz, Mary 4113 

Menin, Samuel 4143 

Miller, William B 4273 

Mills, Clifford W 4229, 4283 

Molina, Fred 4228 

Montfort, Charles D 4248, 4267 

Montoya, Alfredo 4129-4132, 4138, 4139, 4147, 4214-4228 (testimony) 

Montoya, Zipriano 4134 

Montoya, Mrs. Zipriano 4134 

Moorehead, Ray C 4179-4188 (testimony) 

Morales.- 4228 

Mor eau , Alberto 4133 

Morlan, Leslie 4235 

Morton, Anthony 4137, 4138, 4140, 4146, 4147, 4149, 4157-4268 (testimony) 

Morton, Miriam (Mrs. Anthony Morton) 4159 

Moton, Perkin 4184 

Mundt, Kenneth 4238, 4244 

Mundt, Mrs. Kenneth 4244 

Munz 4134 

Nier, Harry K., Jr 4293,4295 



iV INDEX 

Page 

Palmer, Frank 4207 

Patterson, William 4281 

Patton, Jimmy 4180, 4181, 4183 

Patton, Mrs. Jimmy 4183 

Perlmutter , Leonard 4240 

Perry, Pettis 4136 

Peters, Wendell A 4157, 4266 

Pezzali, Albert 4168, 4172, 4173, 4177, 4189, 4193. 4203 

Pixler, Norman C 4075-4081 (testimony), 4083, 4084, 4090, 4231 

Plumb, Arlvne (Mrs. Donald Plumb) 4094, 4105-4116 (testimony), 4118 

Plumb, Donald 4094, 4098-4105 (testimony), 4107, 4118 

Porter, John W 4093, 4097, 4101, 4109, 4114, 4120 

Porter, Margaret Bennett (Mrs. John W. Porter) 4093, 4109, 4120 

Powers, Chase 4192 

Price, Ralph 4078, 4086, 4100, 4101, 4103. 4104, 4108, 4116 

Quadron, Ralph 4134 

Ram irez , Mariana 4148 

Rasmussen, Ralph 4153, 4192 

Rein, David 4120 

Reno, Philip 4076-4079. 

4081-4088 (testimony), 4093, 4097, 4101-4104. 4108, 4109, 4114, 

4118, 4121, 4124, 4231. 

Revueltas, Rosaura 4210, 4211 

Rhine, Jessica 4152 

Riemer , Mortimer 41 20 

Rinn, Mike 4233 

Riskin, Benjamin 4152. 4153 

Robinson, Reid 4192 

Robison, Joseph 4119, 4120 

Rodriguez 41 84 

Rodriguez, Antonio 4133 

Rodriguez, Jesus 4228 

Rogers, Jane 4128, 4148 

Rogers, Tracv 424 1 

Rose, Beverly 4146 

Rose, Mike 4146 

Rosenberg, Allan 4119 

Sanderson! Harold C 4154, 4157, 4194-4199 (testimony) 

Sandler, Woodrow 4120 

Sasajima, Eileen 4240 

Sauceda, Jesus Bernardino 4135, 4138, 4140, 4147, 4297-4298 (testimony) 

Sauceda, Judith (Mrs. Jesus Bernardino Sauceda) 4135, 

4140, 4147, 4297, 4298 (testimony) 

Scherrer, Joe 4141, 4146, 4239, 4240 

Scherrer, Maia James 4132, 4133, 4141, 4142, 4146, 4147 

Scheunemann, Cecelia (Mrs. Edward Scheunemann) 4093, 4110, 4117 

Scheunemann, Edward 4093, 

4097, 4110, 4114-4116, 4117-4125 (testimony), 4176 

Sells, Newell 4135. 4146 

Selly, Joseph 4171 

Sena, Alfonso 4129, 4132, 4135. 4140, 4146, 4147, 4286-4287 (testimony) 

Sena, Rose 4132, 4135, 4146. 4147 

Sherman. Edward H 4288, 4291 

Slater, Clarence 4135 

Small, Larry 4241 

Smith, Stan 4240 

Spencer, D wight 4076, 

4077, 4079, 4080, 4086, 4088-4097 (testimony), 4100, 4101, 4106, 

4107, 4111, 4112, 4114-4116, 4118. 

Spencer, Mary (Mrs. Dwight Spencer) 4077, 4094. 4101, 4115 

Stearn, Joe 4184 

Stearns. Robert 4292 

Stein, Sid 4242 

Stern, Bernard W 4138, 4148, 4154, 4156, 4188-4194 (testimony), 4197 

Stern, Janet 4132, 4148 

Strada, Augustine 4134 



INDEX V 

Page 

Taylor, William 4130, 4131 

Torres, Lorenzo 41 36 

Torres, Mrs. Lorenzo 4135 

Travis, Maurice 4123, 4153, 4157, 4177, 4199 

Trujillo, Fred (Alfredo) 4127, 4135, 4141, 4146, 4287-4288 (testimony) 

Trujillo, Julie Blau (Mrs. Fred Trujillo) 4135 

Trujillo, Robert 4126, 4128, 4133, 4241 

Turner, Dick 4180, 4181 

Turner, Herbert 4184 

Valdez, Donald 4101, 4113 

Verdu, Angelo I 4192 

Vigil, Vincent 4149 

Ware, Lorenzo France 4228 

Wellinger, Billie. (See Bramhall, Shirlej-.) 

Wevand, Ruth 1 4120 

Williams, Robert C 4103, 4113 

Wilson, Carl 4182 

Wilson, Homer 4192 

Wilson, Jamos W 4200, 4286 

Wilson, Michael 4210 

Witt, Nathan.^ 4119, 4122, 4124, 4150-4157, 4167-4178, 4188-4194, 4205, 4214 

Wright, Morris 4132, 4138, 4147, 4148, 4205-4214 (testimony), 4218 

Zeiger, Marjorie 4240 

Zapelin, Harold 4127, 4129, 4139, 4140, 4146, 4147, 4241 

Organizations 

Abraham Lincoln Book Store 4185 

American Civil Liberties Union: 

Colorado Branch 4292 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 4224 

AmeriL^an Youth for Democracy, Colorado: 

Denver University Chapter 4244 

University of Colorado Chapter 4244 

B & E Chicken Inn (Denver) 4148 

Civil Rights Congress 4221, 4222 

Colorado Committee to Protect Civil Liberties 4279 

Colorado Legislative Council 4234. 4235 

Colorado Mexican Commission of the Communist Part}'. (See Commu- 
nist Party, Colorado.) 

Committee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact 4285, 4286 

Communist Partv, ISA: 

National Committee 4131, 4141, 4242 

National Education Commission 4133 

National Mexican Commission 4120, 4131, 4141 

Arizona 41 86 

Phoenix 4183, 4187 

Benjamin Davis Club 4184 

Jefferson Davis Club 4183, 4184 

Joe Hill Club 4183, 4187 

Mike Quinn Club 4183, 4184 

Thomas Jefferson Club 4184 

West Side Club 4184 

State Board 4182 

Colorado 4133, 4136, 4146 

Boulder: 

Graduate Branch 4240, 4243 

Section Committee 4243 

Student Branch 4240, 4241, 4247 

Town Branch 4239, 4240 

Convention, 1947 4242 

Convention, 1950 4146 

Denver 4147 

East Side Mexican Branch 4148 

West Side Jewish Section 4139 

West Side Mexican Branch 4127-4130, 4135, 4141, 4149 

Educational Commission 4146 

Labor Commission 4146 



VI INDEX 

Communist Party, USA — Continued 

Colorado — Continued Page 

Mexican Commission 4131, 4146 

Mexican Section 4148 

Negro Commission 4138, 4149 

State Board 4241, 4244 

State Committee 4147 

Women's Commission 4146 

Youth Commission 4146, 4241, 4242, 4244 

New York: 

State Committee _, 4164 

Denver Police Department 4147 

Denver Trades and Labor Ass^^mbly 423 1 

Distributive Processing and Office Workers of America 4181 

Farm Credit Administration. {See U. S. Government.) 

Fed-^ral S'>curity Agency, Public Health Service. {See U. S. Government.) 

Food, Tobacco, Agricultural, and Allied Workers Union of America 4187 

Local 78 1 4179-4181 

Ind'^p^nd^nt Productions Corporation 4210, 4214 

International Association of Machinists. {See Machinists, International 
Association of.) 

International Labor Defense 4224 

Jewish People's Fraternal Ord°r 4225 

Labor Youth Leagu-^, University of Colorado Chapter 4274 

League of Women Shoppers 4110 

Machinists, International Association of: 

District 86 4280 

Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, International Union of 4123, 

4134, 4152, 4153, 4157, 4171, 4172, 4177, 4178, 4186, 4189, 4192, 
4194, 4196-4198, 4209-4212, 4218, 4220, 4234. 

Local 251 4195 

Local 501 4214, 4228 

Local 509 4214,4228 

Local 890 4148, 4205, •i211 

local 903 4214,4228 

National Office 4 195 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Denver 4165 

National Association of Mexican-Americans (ANMA) 4129-4132, 

4138, 4139, 4145, 4147, 4220, 4221, 4226 
National Committee of the Commimist Party. {See Communist Party.) 

National Institute of Health ____". 4099 

National Labor Relations Board. {See U. S. Government.) 

National Mexican Cadre School (Los Angeles) 4133, 4134, 4148 

National War Labor Board, Denver, Colo. {See U. S. Government.) 
National Youth Administration. {See U. S. Government.) 
Negro Commission. {See ComniTuiist Party. Colorado.) 

Office Employees, International Union of, AF'L 4232 

Office of Price Administration (OPA). {See U. S. Government. 1 

Progressive Partv, Colorado 42-i:5, 4285 

Denver I 4126, 4233, 4234 

Rocky Mountain Comicil for Social Action. {See Social Action Council.) 

Rocky Mountain Foundation for a Free Press -'175, 4176 

Social Action Council ''082, 4108 

Social Security Board. {See U. S. Government.) 

State, Countyj and Municipal Employees, American Federation of, AFL. ■:231, 4232 

Students for Wallace Club. {See Jniversity of Colorado.) 

United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America 4212 

United States Government: 

Agriculture, Department of 4216, 4291 

Farm Credit Administration 4081 

Federal Security Agency, Public Health Service 4099 

Labor Department 4188 

National Labor Relations Board 4090, 

4098, 4117, 4119, 4156, 4170, 4178, 4189, 4191 

National War Labor Board, Denver, Colo 4076-4080, 

4082, 4084, 4086, 4087, 4089, 4090, 4093, 4098, 4107, 4112 

National Youth Administration 4075-4077. 4089, 4097, 4106 

Office of Price Administration 4106, 4107, 4117, 4118 



INDEX vn 

United States Government— Continued Page 

Post Office Department 4151 

Social Security Board 4081, 4082 

Treasury Department 4151 

Wage Stabilization Board 4089, 4095 

War Department 4151 

War Food Administration 4215, 4216 

War Manpower Commission 4230, 4231 

Works Progress Administration 4077 

United States Housing Authority 4117 

University of California 4245, 4255 

Univrrsitv of Colorado 4248-4250, 4291, 4292 

Stud-nts for Wallace Club 4245, 4284 

UTE Ranch 4132, 4133, 4148 

Wage Stabilization Board. (See U. S. Government.) 

AVar Food Administration. (See U. S. Government.) ^ 

War Manpower Commission. (See U. S. Government.) 

Washington Committee for Democratic Action 4120, 4121 

West Side Fair Play Committee 4147, 4148, 4298 

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom 4201, 4202 

Works Progress Administration. (See U. S. Government.) 

Young Communist League: 

Colorado 4239 

Allen Merrick Branch at University of Colorado 4238, 4239 

New York County 4162, 4163 

Young Democrats, Colorado 4110, 4123 

Young Progressives of America 4227, 4244, 4245 

Publications 

Challenge (magazine) 4122, 4174, 4176, 4200 

Chicago Tribune 4169, 4170 

CIO News (newspaper) : 

Mine, ]\Iill and Smelter Workers edition 4171, 4208 

Wisconsin edition 4208 

March of Labor 4175 

Mine-Mill Union, The 4157, 4169, 4172, 4209, 4217, 4218 

Peoples Press 4207 

Salt of the Earth (movie) 4148, 4209, 4211-4214 

Union, The 4171. 4209 

o 



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