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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the Baltimore, Md., area. Hearings"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 





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3 

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GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN 
THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA— PART 2 



HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIYES 



EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGKESS 

FIRST SESSION 



MAY 9, 1957 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
INCLUDING INDEX 




•^f\ -^ 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
92360 WASHINGTON : 1957 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVFRNMfwt 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee GORDON H. SCHERER, Obio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Director 
II 



CONTENTS 



PART I 

Paga 

Synopsis vii 

May 7, 1957: Testimony of— 

Cliflford C. Miller, Jr 89-4 

Afternoon session: 

Aaron Ostrofsky 925 

Irying Spector 930 

William H. Wood 940 

Lev}' Williamson 943 

Joseph P. Henderson 946 

Benjamin M. Fino 949 

May 8, 1957: Testimony of — 

Sirlvka Tuomi Lee (Mrs. Robert Lee) 957 

Irene Barkaga 965 

Fred Hallengren 973 

George A. Meyers 977 

Irving Kandel 982 

Afternoon session: 

Irving Kandel (resumed) 989 

William S. Johnson 991 

Jeanette Fino (Mrs. Benjamin M. Fino) 997 

Mary Roberts 1004 

PART 2 

May 9, 1957: Testimony of— 

Abraham Kotelchuck 1011 

Charles M. Craig, Sr 1023 

Abraham Kotelchuck (resumed) 1023 

Charles M. Craig, Sr. (resumed) 1024 

Milton Seif 1034 

Otto Yerrell 1041 

Afternoon session: 

Milton Bates 1047 

Claire Friedman Round 1057 

Elsie Winter 1060 

Herbert Nichol 1062 

Marcella Halper Avnet 1070 

Harold Buchman 1080 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent re- 
ports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch 
of the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 

II ***** * 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 

♦ •**»** 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcom- 
mittee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United 
States, (2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-Ameri- 
can propaganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin 
and attaclis the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our 
Constitution, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid 
Congress in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to liold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness of 
the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
BALTIMORE, MD., AREA— PART 2 



THURSDAY, MAY 9, 1957 

United States House of Hepresentatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Baltimore^ Md. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 a. m., in room 556, Federal Building, 
Baltimore, Md., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman of the subcommit- 
tee) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, and Robert J. Mcintosh, of Michigan. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director; George C. Wil- 
liams and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Afens. Mr. Chairman, may the record show that the chairman 
of the full committee, the Honorable Francis Walter, was obliged to 
leave because of previous commitments and that the present chair- 
man, who is a member of this subcommittee, is the Honorable Edwin 
E. Willis, of Louisiana. 

Mr. Willis. Thank you. Will you call your first witness. 

Mr. Arens. The first witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Abraham Kotelchuck. Will you kindly come forward ? 

Mr. RoMBRo. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Kotelchuck requests that he not 
be televised during the hearing of his testimony. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kotelchuck, will you kindly remain standing while 
the chairman administers the oath to you ? 

Mr. Willis. Will you raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ABRAHAM KOTELCHUCK, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, EICHAED H. BOMBEO 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Kotelchuck. My name is Kotelchuck, Abraham Kotelchuck, 
2734 Reisterstown, Baltimore 15, Md. 

1011 



1012 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Will you please spell your name for us, Mr. Kotel- 
chuck, so that we have it accurately in the record. 

Mr. KoTELCHucK. K-o-t-e-l-c-h-u-c-k. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena served 
upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUcK. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I am. 

Mr, Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on this 
record ? 

Mr. EoMBRO. Richard H. Rombro, Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Arens. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I was born January 18, 1911, in Poland. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. In 1921. 

Mr. Arens. Were you admitted for permanent residence at that 
time ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen by naturalization or derivation? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. By derivation. 

Mr. Arens. Now, give us, if you please, a brief sketch of your 
education. 

Mr. Kotelchuck. Grammar school, high school, college. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere did you go to college ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. New York University, Columbia University. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat degrees did you receive ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. Bachelor of arts. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive any degree from Columbia ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I did not complete my work there. I had 1 
year of graduate work in physics at Columbia. 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete your formal education? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I believe that was the extent of my formal edu- 
cation. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat was the year? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. 1935. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly tell us the first principal employment 
you had after you completed your formal education in 1935? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I will do that by roughly giving you my gen- 
eral principal employments and then going back to whatever period 
you want. That might be more helpful. 

During the war and shortly for a period thereafter, I was em- 
ployed in my profession as a physicist. 

Before the war my work was mostly as a clerk. 

In the recent period I worked in various fields, primarily in tele- 
vision repair and skilled work. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us your first employment in the 
engineering physicist field, please ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I worked for the Navy in 1942^3. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere was that, please, sir ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I was actually stationed in Baltimore, Md. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1013 

Mr. Arens. Were you part of the enlisted, personnel, or were you a 
civilian employee? 

Mr, KoTELCHucK. I was a civilian professional employee. 

Mr. Arens. In what particular plant did you work ? 

Mr. KoTELCHucK. I worked out of one of the shipyards. I think 
it was Bethlehem Steel, Key Highway. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did you work ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I was responsible for work in the outfitting, 
testing, checking of vessels for antimine protection. 

Mr. Arens. Did you during the course of your employment with 
the Navy in 1942 and 1943, have access to confidential or restricted 
information ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of the confidential or restricted 
information to which you had access ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. The work itself. 

Mr. Arens. You mean because of the various devices which were 
affixed to the vessels, protective devices ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. For which I had responsibility; yes. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your employment with the United 
States Navy from 1942 to 1943, were you at any time a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I refuse to answer that question on the ground 
that any answer I might ^ive might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr, Arens. Will you kmdly develop for us on this record whether 
or not, at any time during your service with the United States Navy, 
from 1942 to 1943, you caused to be transmitted, or participated in the 
transmission of, any information of a confidential, restricted nature 
to any person not authorized to receive the same ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I most definitely did not give any information 
to any unauthorized pei*son. 

Mr, Arens. Were you under Communist Party discipline during 
the course of your period of employment with the United States Navyl 

Mr, Kotelchuck, I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated, 

Mr, Arens, What caused your disassociation from the Navy? 

Mr, Kotelchuck, Voluntai-y action on my own part with the 
consent of my employers, 

Mr. Arens, '\Miat was vour next employment and where, please, 
sir? 

Mr, Kotelchuck, I worked for the Army at the Aberdeen Proving 
Ground, at the Ballistics Eesearch Laboratory. 

Mr. Arens, Would you give us the dates of your employment at 
Aberdeen ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. 1943-1946, 

Mr. Arens, And in what capacity? 

Mr, Kotelchuck. As a physicist, 

Mr, Arens, "\^niat was the nature of your work ? 

Mr. Kotelchuk. Well, mostly working on timing devices, accurate 
timing devices for measurement. 

Mr. Arens. Was the work in which you were engaged of a confi- 
dential, restricted nature? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. It was. 

92360— 57— pt. 2 2 



1014 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your employment at the Aberdeen 
Proving Ground for the United States Army, were you a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Ajrens. Was your employment at the Aberdeen Proving 
Ground, to your knowledge, procured or facilitated by any person 
known by you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK, I am sure it wasn't. 

Mr. Arens. Was your employment at the Aberdeen Proving 
Ground procured by you at the direction of any person known by you 
to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. No. 

Mr. Arens. What caused your disassociation from the Aberdeen 
Proving Ground employment ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. Sir, will you please repeat the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Strike the question because I have one which precedes it. 

I lay before you now, Mr. Kotelchuck, a photostatic reproduction of 
a Declaration of Appointee for employment with the tlnited States 
Government, the form of the United States Civil Service Commission. 
It is dated June 21, 1943, bearing the signature of Abraham Kotel- 
chuck. 

In this particular document we find a question, question No. 18: 

Are you a member of any Communist or German Bund organization, or any 
political party or organization which advocates the overthrow of our constitu- 
tional form of government in the United States, or do you have membership in 
or any affiliation with any group, association, or organization which advocates, 
or lends support to any organization or movement advocating, the overthrow of 

our constitutional form of government in the United States? (Yes or no.) 

If so, name the organization and give complete details on sheet to be attached 
hereto. 

I observe in this form the w^ord "No" after the principal question. 

I see also an affidavit that this particular document was subscribed 
and sworn to and it bears the signature of yourself, Abraham Kotel- 
chuck. 

Will you kindly look at that document while you are under oath and 
be good enough to accommodate this Communitte on Un-American 
Activities by verifying the authenticity of that document as a repro- 
duction of the original, and also verify the authenticity of the repro- 
duction of your signature ? 

Would you kindly answer the question ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kotelchuck. Now, what was your question, whether I signed 
this? 

Mr. Arens. First of all, is that a true and correct reproduction 
of your signature to which I have just invited your attention? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. That appears to be my signature. 

Mr. Arens. Did you sign the original of that document? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. If that is my signature and it appears to be, I 
signed it. 

Mr. Arens. Did you affix or cause to be affixed this word "No," in 
response to the question in reference to any membership by yourself in 
a subversive organization? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1015 

Mr. KoTELcirucK. The exact nature of how I signed it, when I 
signed it, or whether or not this is a true copy, is a complicated matter 
and I believe that I will refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
that an answer I may give under these circumstances might incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Arens. As of the time you signed this document on June 21, 
1943, were you a member of a Communist organization ? 

Mr. KoTELCHucK. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell the Federal Govermnent, when you sub- 
scribed to this under oath, the truth with respect to your status in rela- 
tion to the organizations alluded to in question 18 ? 

Mr. KoTELCHucK. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
stated. 

Mr. WiLUS. During that period of time we were in the throes 
of a deadly war. Do you think that this was a proper question, or 
do you not think this was a proper question to ask of any person 
offering himself in the service of the United States involving restricted 
and secret matters? 

Mr. KOTELCHUCK. My work record at the time 

Mr. Willis. I am not speaking about you particularly. Do you not 
think this was a vitally essential form to be filled out and a very 
vital question, the answer to which the Federal Government was 
entitled? Do you not think that was a proper question for the 
Federal Government to ask of you and all other persons, particularly 
during that time ? 

Mr. KoTELCHucK. The question asked at that time and the question 
asked now are under circumstances entirely different and, therefore, 
a question that is answered now has to be in the context of the cir- 
cumstances and political and legal situation under which we were 
existing. 

Under these circumstances existing right now, I feel that an answer 
I give about something I did in good faith at another period may 
under the circumstances tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Willis. Of course, that is not my question at all. My ques- 
tion is : Do you not think that it was a proper question for the Federal 
Government to ask you and all other people offering their services, 
particularly in restricted areas? 

Do you not think it was a proper question to ask at that time ? And 
I am not asking you to say whether you signed this or did not sign 
it, or whether you answered "Yes" or "No." 

I am asking you as of that time. 

ISIr. KoTELCHUCK, I will answer that question. I have no doubt 
in my mind that I considered myself, and I believe I was considered, 
a loyal citizen carrying out his duties at the time of war in a manner 
to the best interests of our country, and I am sure I did not at that 
time, I am speaking only about that time — I am not implying that it 
was different after or before — but I am sure that I acted in a manner 
to the best interest of our country and I was not in any way disloyal 
in any sense of the word and that as to the sense of the question, I am 
not a lawyer. I don't know. I don't know what my legal frame of 
mind was at the time. 



1016 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

But as I understood it, understand it now, and probably understood 
it then, the (Question asked of a loyal citizen, do I have any ideas of 
overthrowing the Government by force and violence 

Mr. Akens. It does not say that. It asks you whether or not you 
were a member of the Communist Party. You knew as of 1913 whether 
or not you were a member of the Communist Party, did you not ? 

Mr. koTELCHUCK. I am answering the question placed by the chair- 
man. I think I am answering in substance that the sense of that 
question 

Mr, Willis. That is not my question at all. I am not asking you 
to go into your own conscience or your own answers at that time. 
I am asking you : Do you not think that that was a proper question 
to ask everyone ? 

Mr. KoTELCHucK. It was a proper question to ask about the loyalty 
and intentions of a citizen, and I have no reason to doubt my own 
loyalty at the time and I answered it correctly, whatever my answer 
was. My only reservation on answering the questions specitically 

Mr. Willis. You say you answered it correctly ? 

Mr. KoTELCiiucK. I am answering correctly to the extent that I 
have no doubt that my work and intentions were loyal and that I am 
not a lawyer 

Mr. Arens. Did you answer correctly when you wrote the word 
"No" in response to the question: "Are you a member of the Com- 
munist Party ?" Did you answer that truthfully ? 

Mr. KoTELOHUCK. I have answered that question. 

Mr. Arens. Please answer it again so the record will be clear. 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. The record will show that I said under the 
circmnstances I refused to answer the question on the grounds that 
it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this docu- 
ment be appropriately marked and incorporated by reference in 
the record. 

Mr. Willis. It will l)e so marked and so incorporated. 

(Document marked "Kotelchuck Exhibit No. 1", and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. \VTiile you were working at the Aberdeen Proving 
Ground, who were some of your colleagues, your fellow employees? 
Do you have some whose names particularly stand out in your 
recollection? 

Mr. Koitslohuck:. I have no names that particularly stand out in 
my recollection. 

Mr. Arens. Let me suggest a few to see if they miglit refresh your 
recollection. 

Ir\'ing Spector. Does that name stand out in your mind? Did 
you know him while you were working at the Aberdeen Proving 
Ground ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. How about Harry Spector ? Does his name stand out ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Phil Weiss. Does his name ring a bell in your 
recollection? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1017 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I refuse to answer that question on the ground 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. How about R. (Rheabel) J. Mendelsehn? Does her 
name prompt any recollection of a friendship or association? 

Mr. KoTELCHucK. I refuse to answer that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. The fact is that you and they together were dismissed 
from Aberdeen Proving Ground on security grounds ; is that not true ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. My work was terminated involuntarily during 
that period. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean by involuntarily ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. It is a matter of public record 

Mr. Arens. Then if it is a matter of public record, tell us what 
are the facts. Why were you fired from Aberdeen Proving 
Ground? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I would appreciate if you would let me finish 
the question. 

My employment was terminated as a matter of public record under 
section 808, Public Law 808. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us now for the purpose of comparison for this 
record, w^ere you fired on security grounds ? 

Mr. KoiT.LCHUCK. I am not familiar with the wording or intents of 
the law, but you can put whatever interpretation you wIsIl 

Mr. Arens. Tell us in your own words. You know whether or not 
you were fired on security grounds. 

I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, so that this record is abso- 
lutely clear, that the witness be ordered and directed to answer the 
question whether or not he was fired from Aberdeen Proving Ground 
on security grounds. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I think the wording of Public Law 808 to the best 
of my knowledge — I don't remember the exact wording — was that if 
it is in the best — well, in the best interest of the United States Govern- 
ment, it permits the Government to terminate an employee without 
stating cause or reason why. 

Mr. Arens. Were some of your friends, irrespective of their names 
at the moment, likewise disassociated from employment at Aberdeen 
Proving Ground at the same time you were? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us your next employment after your disasso- 
ciation from Aberdeen Proving Ground. 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I worked as an instructor in television and elec- 
tronics. 

Mr. Arens. Where, please, sir? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. At a local private school, in Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. And the name of the school ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. Kew York Technical Institute. 

Mr. Arens. Were you an employee of tlie scliool ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I was. 

Mr. Arens. Were you also an official of the school ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. No. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you so engaged there? 



1018 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. 1946-19, 1 believe. 

Mr. Arens. ^Y[\i^t occasioned the termination of your association 
with this television school? 

Mr. KoTELCHTJCK. I believe in the normal course of employer- 
employee relation, I wouldn't know specifically — well, I want to re- 
phrase that. I don't remember the exact circumstances. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Will you kindly tell us about your next 
emplo^^ment? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I taught at another school. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere? 

Mr. Kotelchxick. In Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. The name of the school, please, sir ? 

Mr. KoTELCirucK. I think it is a popular name, it was ACRI, which 
stands for Air Conditioning Refrigeration Institute. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you teach there ? 

Mr. KOTELCHUCK. About a year. 

Mr. Arens. That gets us up to about the year 1950. 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. That is about right. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us about your next employment, sir. 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I worked in the television industry as a bench- 
man, fixing television. 

Mr. Abens. How long were you engaged in that activity ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. About a year. 

Mr. Arens. Then j^our next employment, please, sir ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. My next significant employment was with the 
Maryland Bolt & Nut Co. as an unskilled worker. 

Mr. Arens. Did you file an application at the Maryland Bolt & Nut 
Co., a formal application, do you recall? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I presume I did. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Maryland Bolt & Nut Co. a subsidiary or an affili- 
ate of the American Chain & Cable Co. ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. It could well be. 

Mr. Arens. In the application that you filed for this job at the 
Maryland Bolt & Nut Co., which is an affiliate of the American Chain 
& Cable Co., did you tell them about your employment at the Aber- 
deen Proving Ground ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I wouldn't remember whether I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell them about your education ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I don't remember what I put down. I put down 
whatever was necessary to help me get the job. 

Mr. Arens. You didn't omit any facts in order to help yourself 
get the job, did you ? 

Would you kindly answer that question ? Do you have a recollec- 
tion of omitting rather significant facts in order to help yourself get 
the job? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. This was an application for an unskilled job, and 
I answered the questions j)ertinent to that thing to the best of my 
knowledge, 

Mr. Arens. I would like to lay before you now a photostatic copy 
of the application for that job on the form of the American Chain & 
Cable Co., Inc., March 10, 1953, bearing your signature. 

I invite your attention to the entire document, but specifically, if 
you please, sir, to the previous employment. Look at that application 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1019 

and see if it refreshes your recollection as to whether or not you told 
the American Chain & Cable Co. about your employment at Aberdeen 
Proving Ground. Does that appear on the application? Do you see 
that on the application? 

Mr. KoTELCHucK. Will you repeat your question, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Does your previous employment at Aberdeen 
Proving Ground appear on that application ? 

Mr. KoTELCHucK. There is room there for just a few — there is just 
a small space for your employment. I did not put down my total 
employment since the time I started working. 

Mr. Arens. You did not have room for it; is that correct, or was 
it an oversight ? 

Mr. KoTELCHucK. I see no significance in that question. I filed, I 
mean I answered that as was necessary there in order to get the job. 

Mr. Arens. On the schools attended, I see here in the application, 
although there are two blank spaces left where you could fill in more 
schools had you been disposed to do so, that you terminated the extent 
of your formal education with high school, according to this particular 
form. 

Look and see if that refreshes your recollection. Does your perusal 
of that form refresh your recollection as to just why you did not 
enlighten your prospctive employer with respect to your entire 
educational attainments? 

Mr. KoTELCHucK. Well, I was badly in need of a job at that time. 
I was not able to get a job in my profession. I answered the questions 
in order to get the job and I don't think that in applying for an 
unskilled job, which I needed badly to support myself, it would help 
me to get the job if I told them I was a college graduate. 

(Document marked "Kotelchuck Exhibit No. 2" follows:) 



1020 COIMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 
KOTELCHUCK EXHIBIT No. 2 



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92360— 57— pt. 2- 



1022 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arexs. Was your employment -with this particular company 
suggested to you by any person known by you to be a member of the 
Communist Party 'i 

jNIr. KoTELCHucK. It was suggested to me by tlie fact that I was 
unemploj'ed and needed a job. 

]Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question. Was it suggested by any 
person known by you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

jNlr. KoTELCHucK. Of course not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know what the term "colonization"' means in any 
parlance that is familiar in any experience you have had in your life? 

Mr. KoTELGHucK. Certainly. Colonize backward areas of the pop- 
ulation. 

Mr. Arens. Now that you have given us that bit of information 
from your experience, tell us in what other context the word "coloni- 
zation"' is used on the basis of your experience and background. 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I don't know what you are referring to. 

Mr. Arens. You know what a colonizer for the Communist Party in 
a basic industry is, do you not^ Do you know what a colonizer is for 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a colonizer on behalf of the Communist Party 
when you went into this basic industry and when you failed to disclose 
your prior record, either your educational attainments or 3'our em- 
ployment record ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I am sure I don't know exactly what you mean, 
but I think, if you will let me, I told you that I needed a job ; I went in 
and took a job where I needed it when I needed it. 

]Mr. Arens. Let us have the record absolutely clear on this. Were 
you a colonizer on behalf of the Communist Party in basic industry? 

]\Ir. Kotelchuck. I don't know what you mean and you will have 
to tell me what a colonizer is. 

Mr. Arens. You know what a colonizer on behalf of the Communist 
Party is ; one who penetrates a basic industry for the purpose of weav- 
ing a web of Communist conspiracy among others. 

Mr. Kotelchuck. Is that your definition ? 

Mr. Arens. That is good enough for the moment. 

Mr. Kotelchuck. In that case the answer is "No." 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist at the time you signed this 
application which I have just displayed to you for employment at 
the American Chain & Cable Co. ? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this docu- 
ment which I have disj^layed to the witness, be appropriately marked 
and incorporated in the record. 

Mr. Wh,lis. It is so ordered, 

(Seepp. 1020 and 1021.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of George Me3'ers? 

Mr. Kotelchuck. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you this moment a Communist ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1023 

Mr. KoTELCiiucK. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you Itnow a person by the name of Charles M. Craig: ? 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that in the pres- 
ence of this witness, so there can be no question of a faceless informer, 
Charles Craig kindly be summoned to come forward and be adminis- 
tered an oath. 

Mr. Craig, will you kindly come forward ? 

Mr. Wiixis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the w^iole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Craig. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES M. CRAIG, Sr. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Craig, I expect in a few moments to interrogate you 
at length. For the present purpose may I ask, have you ever been a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Arens. During what period of time were you a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Craig. From the year 1943 to 1951. 

Mr. Arens. During all that period of time were you in sympathy 
with the Communist Party, or were you an undercover agent at the 
request of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Craig. I went in for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. Arens. As I said, I expect to interrogate you at length later. 

During the course of your experience in the Communist Party as 
an undercover agent, did you know a person by the name of Abraham 
Kotelchuck ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, I knew him. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know that person as a Communist ? 

Mr. Craig. He was a Communist. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now testify under oath that you knew 
Abraham Kotelchuck to a certainty to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Craig. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Do you see that person you knew^ to a certainty to be a 
member of the Communist Party in the courtroom today ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly point him out to the committee? 

Mr. Craig. Yes [indicating]. 

TESTIMONY OF ABRAHAM KOTELCHUCK— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kotelchuck, you have just heard the testimony of 
this man under oath. We would like to afford you an opportunity 
while you are under oath to deny it. Would you care to avail your- 
self of that opportunity ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



1024 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. KoTELCHUCK. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that we conclude 
the staff interrogation of Mr. Kotelchuck. If there are no questions 
by the committee, I respectfully suggest that Mr. Craig assume the 
principal witness chair. 

Mr. Willis. The Witness Kotelchuck is excused. The next witness 
has been previously sworn. 

May I suggest a 5-minute recess. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. Counsel will 
please proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES M. CRAIG, Sr.— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Craig, it would perhaps be well to clear our record 
and again cover the brief questions and answers that we had a few 
moments ago. 

Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, please, the period of your membership in the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Craig. In the year 1943 to the year 1951. 

Mr. Arens. And at whose request? 

Mr. Craig. The Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. Arens. Have you at any time in your life been sympathetic 
with the ideology, program, or purpose of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Craig. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You have at all times during your membership been 
serving your Goverimient? 

Mr. CiRAiG. That is right. 

Mr. Ajrens. By piping information to intelligence agencies ; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Craig. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us in your own case the circumstances of 
your membership, where you joined the Communist Party, and your 
career in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Craig. I joined the Communist Party at the Fred Douglass 
Club. 

Mr. Arens, Was that in Baltimore? 

Mr. Craig. In Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you a member of the Fred Douglass 
Club? 

Mr. Craig. About 2 years, from 1943 to 1945. 

Mr. Arens. How many members were there in the Fred Douglass 
Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Craig. There were about 30 members in tlie club, but it was a 
bookshop and conmiunity center so a good many of the other members 
would come there at the time. 

Mr. Arens. Who actually recruited you into the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Craig. Rose Lambert. 

Mr. Arf:ns. L-a-m-b-e-r-t? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1025 

Mr. Arens. Can you recall the identity of other persons who to a 
certainty were members of the Fred Douglass Club of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Craig. At the Fred Douglass Club there were several of them, 
but I could not recall them all. 

Cinch O'Hara. 

Mr. Arens. C-i-n-c-h ? 

Mr. Craig. It is either C or S. The last name is O'Hara. 

Mr. Arens. Was that his party name or regular name ? 

Mr. Craig. That was the name I knew him by. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another person who. to your certain knowledge, 
was a member of the Fred Douglass Club ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. There was Pete Forrest. 

Mr. Arens. I assume you spell Forrest — F-o-r-r-e-s-t? 

Mr. Craig. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Craig, for the purpose of identification, could you 
tell us, were Mr. Cinch O'Hara and Pete Forrest colored or white ? 

Mr. Craig. Cinch O'Hara was white. Pete Forrest was colored. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have another name that comes to your mind? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. There were several others, but I can't recall all. 

Mr. Arens. Was Mildred Collidge a member of the Fred Douglass 
Club? 

Mr. Craig. She was a member. 

JNIr. Arens. Was Dorothy Blumberg, B-1-u-m-b-e-r-g, a member ? 

Mr. Craig. She was from the central office, but she came to the Fred 
Douglass Club. 

Mr. Arens. Have you served in closed party meetings with her ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. To your knowledge do you identify her as a Communist ? 

Mr. Craig. Definitely. 

Mr. Arens. Was Jeanette Kaplan ? 

Mr. Craig. Jeanette Kaplan ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was Jeanette Fino a member of the club ? 

Mr. Craig. She was not a member of that club, but she came from 
another club. 

Mr. Arens. Did you meet wdth her in closed Communist Party 
sessions ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know her as a Communist ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other names that come to your mind at 
the present time ? 

Mr. Craig. Not in that club. 

Mr. Arens. A^Hiat was your post or office, if any, in the Fred 
Douglass Club? 

Mr. Craig. I was financial secretary for the Fred Douglass Club. 

Mr. Arens. Did you collect dues from the club members? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat type of cell or unit was that club ? 

Mr. Craig. Neighborhood club. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean ? 

Mr. Craig. It only had those in the neighborhood groups. 



1026 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. During this period of time did the party have groups 
other than neighborhood groups ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, they had industrial groups, youth groups. 
Mr. Arens. We are back in the 1943 period at the present time, are 
* we not ? 

Mr. Craig. 1943 to 1945. 

Mr. Arens. In the industrial groups of the Communist Party, did 
the type of employment in which the individual was engaged deter- 
mine the group to which he would be assigned by the Commmiist 
conspiracy ? 

Mr. Craig. Generally it did. 

Mr. Arens. Incidentally, before I forget it, we had testimony from 
our very first witness, Clifford Miller, who testified he had been in 
the Communist Party for a number of years, at the behest of intelli- 
gence agencies, operating ostensibly in various activities in the con- 
spiracy here in the Baltimore area. Did you in your operations in the 
Communist Party come in contact with Miller? 

Mr. Craig. I don't recall Miller. Pie evidently must have been 
in an industrial group. I don't recall him. 

Mr. Arens. Was the fact that you and he were both operating in 
the same conspiracy here and didn't know each other due to the cutout 
system or security measures of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Craig. They generally kept industrial ones away from party 
meetings. 

Mr. Arens. They are isolated in their own activities from the other 
tentacles of the conspiracy within the operation; is that correct? 

Mr. Craig. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Were you subsequently assigned to another club of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, I was transferred to the Dundalk Club. 

Mr. Arens. D-u-n-d-a-1-k; is that correct? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. When was that ? 

Mr. Craig. That was in the early part of 1945. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you a member of this particular group ? 

Mr. Craig. I was there 2 years. 

Mr. Arens. Was this also a neighborhood group ? 

Mr. Craig. This was a neighborhood group. 

Mr. Arens. How many persons were assigned or active in that 
particular club? 

Mr. Craig. It was about 20. 

Mr. Arens. This is the period 1945 to 1947 ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did the membership change from time to time — a per- 
son would be added and a person taken away — or was it fairly stable? 

Mr. Craig. Fairly stable. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall any of the individuals who to your 
certain knowledge were members of this Dundalk Club? 

Mr. Craig. Those members in there with me were, when we first 
started : Joe Henderson started this club. Milt Newman and John 
Goodell, Edna Goodell. 

Mr. Arens. Let me be sure the record reflects clearly the spelling 
of these names. Is John Goodell's last name G-o-o-d-e-1-1 ? 

Mr. Craig. I think that is right. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD,, AREA 1027 

Mr. Arens. Is Milton Newman spelled N-e-w-m-a-n? 

Mr. CiL^iG. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Henderson is H-e-n-d-e-r-s-o-n? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

]Mr. Arens. "Was there any other person you presently recall who 
was a member of that chib ? How about Levy Williamson ? 

Mr. Craig. He was a member. 

Mv. Arens. Were you subsequently assigned to another group 
within the Communist Party? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, sir. 

Mv. Arens. And when was that ? 

Mv. Craig. That was about 1947, right after I left the other group. 

Mr. Arens. What was the name of that particular club? 

Mv. Craig. Tom Paine Club. 

Mr. Arens. P-a-i-n-e? 

Mr. Craig. That is right. 

Mv. Arens. Was this also a neighborhood group ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any office or post of responsibility in tliis 
particular club? 

Mr. Craig. I was literary director in that. 

Mr. Arens. What were your functions or responsibilities as literary 
director ? 

Mr. Craig. Selling literature. 

Mr. Arens. How many people to your certain knowledge were 
members of this Tom Paine Club? 

;Mr. Craig. They had 20 members there, but they used to have mem- 
bers that didn't always come to meetings and I didn't know all of 
them. 

Mr. Arens. Who. to vour certain knowledge, was a member of the 
Tom Paine Club? 

Mr, Craig. At that time Dorothy Blumberg was a member and 
Elsie Winter. 

Mr. Arens. Is that B-1-u-m-b-e-r-g? 

Mr. Craig. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any others? 

Mr. Craig. Elsie Winter. 

Mr. Arens. E-1-s-i-e W-i-ii-t-e-r ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, Eegina Frankfeld. 

Mv. Arens. You will have to speak up. 

Mr. Craig. Eegina Frankfeld. 

Mr. Arens. F-r-a-n-k-f-e-1-d? 

Mr. Craig. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Any othei-s ? 

Mr. Craig. Vivian Barad. 

Mr. Arens. Vivian Barad, B-a-r-a-d? 

Mr. Craig. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Any others? 

^Ir, Craig. So many I can't 

Mr. Arens. What about Sam Swogell, S-w-o-g-e-1-1? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How about Mary Koberts ? 

Mr. Craig. Mary Roberts was a member of that cell. 



1028 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens, How long did you remain a member of the Tom Paine 
Club? 

Mr. Craig. Until 1949. 

Mr. Arens. What happened then ? 

Mr. Craig. In 1949 we went into smaller groups for security reasons. 

Mr. Arens. That was for security reasons witliin the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Craig. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Was that in anticipation of the passage by the Congress 
of the Internal Security Act of 1950 and other anti- Communist legis- 
lative endeavors ? 

Mr. Craig. At that time the trial was pending in New York, and 
the Ober law in Maryland. 

Mr. Arens. How many were in the group to which you were then 
assigned ? 

Mr. Craig. About six. 

Mr. Arens. Then the personnel, the aggregate or maximum pei'son- 
nel of the cells apparently — check me on this if I misconstme your 
testimony — was reduced from 20 to 30 down to about 6 within each 
unit ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Craig. That is correct. 

Mr. Willis. That was in 1949 ? 

Mr. Craig. 1949. 

Mr. Willis. The Internal Security Act was under discussion by 
the Congress at that time, was it not ? 

Mr. Craig. That is correct. 

Mr. Willis. How did the members of the Communist Party groups 
feel about that act we were about to pass in Congress ? 

Mr. Craig. I can't hear you. 

Mr. Willis. How did the members of those groups feel about that 
law which we were about to pass in Congress, a law sponsored by this 
committee, and I wrote the report on it. How did the boys in the 
Communist Party feel about what Congress was about to do? 

Mr. Craig. They criticized it. 

JNIr. Willis. To what extent did they criticize it? 

Mr. Craig. So much that they were required to go into small units. 

Mr. Willis. So they started to break up from big groups into 
smaller groups ? 

Mr. Craig. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. When you first went into this conspiracy as an agent 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, did they have a card system 
then? 

Mr. Craig. They did at one time. 

Mr. Willis. There are no more cards now ? 

Mr. Craig. No; the card system was changed a year before that. 

Mr. Willis. They started to tighten up their own security for their 

OVvtl- 

Mr. Craig. Personal reasons. 

]Mr. Willis. For their own protection against detection by the 
Govevinnent. 

Mr. Craig, That is right. 

Mr Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Communist Party about that time eject from 
the party the intellectual groups and the softies who were not hard- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1029 

core? Was that part of the security program of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Chatg. Well, I don't recall that. 

]Mr. AjtEXS. Now, you started to tell us about this next group to 
which you were assigned, the smaller group in 1949. Do you recall 
jDresentlj the names of other persons who were in that group ? 

Mr. Ckatg. Well, in that group, Dorothy Blumberg went over with 
us, and Belva Dean. 

Mr, Arens. Is that B-e-1-v-a D-e-a-n ? 

]\[r. Crak;. I think that is right. 

And Dorothy 

Mr. Arens. Is that Dorothy Ostrof sky ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. 0-s-t-r-o-f-s-k-y? 

Mr. Craig. Something like that. 

Mr. Arens. All right. How about Ann Zucker? Was she there? 

Mr. Craig. She was there, but she didn't attend meetings after we 
transferred. 

Mr. Arens. Did you say Ann Zucker ? Z-u-c-k-e-r ? 

Mr. Craig. She very seldom attended meetings in the new setup. 

■Vrr. Arens. How about Nettie Kandel ? 

Mr. Craig. She came occasionally to that meeting, too. 

Mr. Arens. K-a-n-d-e-1, Nettie, N-e-t-t-i-e? 

^Ir. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other persons whose names come to your 
mejuory who to your certain knowledge were members of the cell? 

Mr. Craig. No. After the 6 were sent to the cell, very seldom there 
was any more than 3 or 4 that was there. 

Mr. Arens. The cell in turn was broken down into smaller units? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. With whom did you meet in the subsidiary units of the 
smaller units ? 

Mr. Craig. They put me into the unit with three. 

Mr. Arens. "Wlio was in that unit? 

Mr. Craig. That unit was with Herbert Hall and his wife and I, but 
they were putting me through the squeeze. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall Herbert's wife's name? 

Mr. Craig. Laddie Hall. Then they were putting me through the 
squeeze then. They had come to feel as though I was an informer. 

Mr. Arens. They began to realize you were not quite ideologically 
in sympathy with the operation as they had originally anticipated; 
is that correct ? 

!Mr. Craig. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. During this period of your membership, did you attend 
any Communist Party meetings outside of your regular club or unit 
to which you were attached ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. We attended all of the citywide meetings and the 
general Communist meetings. 

Mr. Arens. Were some of these general meetings closed meetings ? 

]Mr. Craig. Most all of them Communist meetings were generally 
closed meetings with the Communists. 

Mr. Arens. IVliere were these meetings held ? 

Mr. Craig. North Avenue, Finnish Hall, Greek Center, and in Fred 
Douglass we had a public hall there. 

92360— 57— pt. 2 4 



1030 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the names of some of the people who met 
Avith you in the larger assemblages of the Connnimist Party who to 
your certain knowledge were members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Craig. There were numerous ones in the general Connnunist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. Would you then name for our record those who, to a cer- 
tainty to your knowledge, served with you in closed Connnunist 
Party meetings to which only comrades were admitted? 

As you do so, if you please, give us a word of identifying informa- 
tion or characterization of the individual. 

Mr. Craig. What position the}^ held, you mean? 

Mr. Arens. Any information that would come to your mind as of 
the present time. I realize it has been over the course of some several 
years. 

Mr. Craig. Well, in the larger group we had Jeanette Fino. 

Mr. Arens. Let us take it so that I can be sure 

Mr. Craig. Jeanette Fino was in the larger group. 

Al and Willie Blank. 

Mr. Arens. Al Blank? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I think the record should reflect, ]Mr. Chairman, that 
Ave have been searching for JNIr. Blank for many weeks to serve a 
subpena on him, and we have been unable to locate him. He seems to 
be attracted to some other geographical location of the country. 

Mr. Willis. I would not be surprised if we catch up with him some 
day. 

Mr. Arens. We are going to try to. How about Phil Gran ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. G-r-a-n? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. I knew him as a party member. 

Mr. Arens. And the man that preceded you to the witness stand, 
Abe Kotelchuck ? 

Mr. Craig. I knew him from the open meetings, is where I met 
them. 

Mr. Arens. But those Avere closed meetings of the party, were they 
not? 

Mr. Craig. Closed meetings of the party. 

Mr. Arens. Who is George Meyers? 

Mr. Craig. He was one that served under the Smith Act. 

Mr. Arens. Did you knoAv him ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. ' 

Mr. Arens. Asa Communist? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Hoav about William Wood ? 

Mr. Craig. William Wood, too. He was one of them. 

Mr. Arens. As you identifj^ these people, if there is particular 
significant information that comes to your mind as to either their 
appearance, particular assignment, or activity, just interrupt and be 
sure to inject it in the record. 

Irving Spector ? 

Mr. Craig. Irving Spector, yes. 

Mr. Arsens. You knew him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Milton and Claire NeAvman ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1031 

Mr. Ckaig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. They were in your cell, were they not ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How about Marcella Avnet, A-v-n-e-t ? 

Mr. Craig. She attended several meetings. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know her as a Communist ? 

Mr. CR:iiG. Yes, sir ; by attending those meetings. 

Mr. Arens. John Henderson ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Otto Yerrell ? 

Mr. Craig. He was one, but he attended the big meetings, but I 
didn't know what club he belonged to. 

Mr. Arens. Those big meetings were closed Communist meetings? 

Mr. Craig. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. In whicli admission was available only to persons 
vouched for as comrades ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Craig. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. How about Hannah Freishtat, F-r-e-i-s-h-t-a-t ? 

Mr. Craig. I know Hannah Freishtat. 

Mr. Arens. Was she a Communist ? 

Mr. Craig. She was a Communist. 

Mr. Arens. How about Jeanette Braverman, B-r-a-v-e-r-m-a-n? 

Mr. Craig. She was one. 

Mr. Arens. How about Jack Freishtat? 

Mr. Craig. Jack Freishtat, Hannah's husband, was one. 

Mr. Arens. Do any other names come to your mind ? 

Mr. Craig. Not right off. 

Mr. Arens. How about Ruth Fox ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was she a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you certain of that ? 

Mr. Craig. I am positive. 

Mr. Arens. Benjamin Fino? 

Mr. Craig. Benjamin Fino. 

]Mr. Arens. During the time you were a member of the Communist 
Party, did you attend any educational classes ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall studying the history of the Communist 
Party and Communist literature ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you attend these educational classes ? 

Mr. Craig. They were held in two or three places. One was on 
Madison Avenue here in Baltimore. One was on Pennsylvania 
Avenue. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us just a word of description of these classes. 
What was taught there, who did the teaching ? 

Mr. Craig. They taught the role of the Communist Party in the 
Soviet Union and the Communist Manifesto. 

Mr. Arens. Were you taught the techniques of infiltration ? 

Mr. Craig. Of infiltration. Then those who taught, there were three 
or four, but I just know of two, Dorothy Blumberg and Phil Frank- 
f eld. There were others, but I can't recall them now. 



1032 COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, AID., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Did Milton Bates teach? 

Mr. Craig. He never taught me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did Milton Seif teach ? 

Mr. Craig. I remember reporting his name as being present at the 
meeting, but I can't picture him now. 

Mr. Arens. Did you report it a certainty he was a Commmiist ? 

Mr. Craig. That is right. At the time I reported, I had his name 
for the record. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Communist Party in its classes teach tech- 
niques of how to influence public opinion on issues vital to the party, 
by giving the comrades at nerve centers 

Mr. Craig. Say that again. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Communist Party teach to the comrades tech- 
niques of what we call political subversion ? 

Mr. Craig. Well, they taught their techniques. 

Mr. Arens. That is what I mean. 

Mr. Craig. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What did they teach about that ? Did they teach about 
the operation of front groups ? 

Mr. Craig. Front groups, that is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did they teach about the operation of letterwriting, 
telegrams, phone calls to representatives of the Government in order 
to get the Communist Party program across ? 

Mr. Craig. As a political act, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did they teach how comrades were supposed to react 
if they were called before a congressional committee such as this 
committee ? 

Mr. Craig. Well, at that time they weren't contemplating being 
called before a congressional committee. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your study of Communist Party 
techniques and Communist Party literature, did you reach any con- 
clusions in your mind with respect to whether or not the Communist 
Party is a bona fide political party or whether it is a conspiratorial 
operation ? 

Mr. Craig. ]\Iore of a revolutionary operation. 

Mr. Arens. Does it stand for the overthrow of the Government by 
force and violence ? 

Mr. Craig. I was never taught force and violence. 

Mr. Arens. Is it connected with Moscow ? 

Mr. Craig. They follow the rules of the CP in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. Who is the patron saint of the Communist Party? 
Wlio is the ideological master of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Craig. At present ? 

Mr. Arens. At any time. 

Mr. Craig. It used to be Stalin. 

Mr. Arens. Who is the theoretician of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Craig. Marx. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend the 1944 Communist Party Conven- 
tion ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that held ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1033 

Mr. Craig. In 1944 it was held at the Greek Center. I think that 
■was the Greek Center in 1944. 

Mr. Arens. That was the State convention ? 

Mr. Craig. The State convention. 

Mr. Arens. In Avhat capacity did you attend ? 

Mr. Craig. I was a delegate to that. 

Mr. Arens. "\^nio were the leaders at this particular convention ? 

Mr. Craig. A1 Landman was the chairman at that time. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word of description or identification 
of him ? 

Mr. Craig. Well, he was a small man. 

Mr. Arens. He was the chairman of the convention ? 

Mr. Craig. He was the chairman of the convention. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall any of the other principal leaders of the 
Communist convention ? 

Mr. CRiViG. They were numerous at that time. I can't remember 
them all. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever attend any meetings in Washington, the 
Xation's capital ? 

Mr. Craig. The last meeting I attended was in Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. When was that ? 

Mr. Craig. That was in 1950, 1 think it was. 

Mr. Abens. Do you recall who the leaders were at that particular 
session ? 

Mr. Craig. That was chaired by Roy Wood. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to ask you a question here — it might ap- 
pear to be a little delicate, but I am sure you understand. 

Mr. Craig, we read in the Communist Party literature that the Com- 
munist Party is the great champion of the Negro race, that it is the 
spearhead of the rights and privileges and better living for the 
Negroes. Did you as a member of the Negro race find this to be true 
while you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Craig. I feel as though their fights and their struggles were 
for their own purpose. I don't see where the Negro has gained anj'- 
thing by being members in it. They were losing jobs constantly from 
being members. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel that the Communist Party has a sincere 
and genuine interest in the problems of the Negro race, or that it is 
undertaking to use the difficulties of the Negro race for the purpose 
of wooing people within the orbit of their influence, all for the avowed 
purpose of accomplishing their overall objective of world control ? 

Mr. Craig. I Avould say yes, I do ; except the world control. I will 
leave that out. 

Mr. Arens. We have asked you a number of cjuestions here on con- 
siderable items of information. Is there any other item of informa- 
tion which you would like to tell us about, the basis of your back- 
ground or experience, anything which you feel we have omitted from 
this record today ? 

Mr, Craig, I would say that I thought I was doing a loyal job for 
the country when I took the job of reporting the activities and the 
names of those who belonged. 

Mr. Arens. You have never testified before a congressional com- 
mittee before, have you ^ 



1034 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Craig. No, sir ; just on the Smith Act trial. 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. Do you spell your name C-r-a-i-g? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. ' 

Mr. Willis. How old are you ? 

Mr. Craig. Fifty-six. 

Mr. Willis. You became a member of the Communist Party at the 
request of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. Back in 1943 until 1951 ? 

Mr. Craig. That is correct. 

Mr. Willis. Did you report regularly to the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation ? 

Mr. Craig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. The usual pattern for an undercover agent such as you 
were is to make very frequent reports while things are fresh on your 
mind; is that not correct? 

Mr. Craig. That is right ; I did. I had to turn them in the next 
morning. 

Mr. Willis. I do not know whether you know it, Mr. Craig, but if 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation did to you what they do in con- 
nection with everyone else who renders tlie service you did, you were 
investigated yourself. They investigate you, they know who they 
want and they know w^hat kind of American citizen they will use for 
the purposes for which you gave your services. And they are very 
careful. 

I think it is the finest organization under the globe. 

Now, from experience, the chances are, because you appeared here, 
that members of this conspiracy will try to call you stool pigeon and a 
rat. They call us that, and worse. Do not let that worry you at all. 
I think you have done a grand job for your Government. 

Mr. Craig. Thank you. 

Mr. Willis. You are a very fine American citizen. On behalf of 
this committee I give you the thanks of us, and I think for the whole 
Congress. 

Mr. Craig. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Milton Seif, will you kindly come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Self. I do. 

Mr. RoMBRO. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Seif has requested that he not be 
televised when he gives his testimony. 

TESTIMONY OF MILTON SEIF, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
RICHARD H. ROMBRO 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify youreelf by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Self. Milton Seif, 4012 Duvall Avenue, an electrical welder. 
Mr. Arens. "VYliere are you employed? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1035 

Mr. Seif. Bethlehem Steel Co. 

Mr. A KENS. You are appearing today, Mr. Seif, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

]\fr. Seif. Yes. 

Mr, Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Seh'. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on the record ? 

Mr. RoivrBRO. Richard Rombro, of Baltimore, 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Seif, in July 1951, you were interrogated by this 
Committee on Un-American Activities; were you not? 

Mr. Seif. That is right. 

]Mr. Arens. At that time, you were confronted with the testimony 
of a witness who had testified under oath before this committee and 
who had identified you as a person known by her to be a member of 
the Communist Party; is that correct? 

]\Ir. Seif. To the best of my recollection, it is. 

]Mr. Arens. At the time of that particular hearing, you asserted 
your privilege under the provisions of the fifth amendment not to 
respond to the question as to whether or not you were then, or had 
ever l>een, a member of the Communist Party; is that correct? 

Mr. Seif. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. vSeif, thereafter, last year, in March of 1956, 
did you have a hearing before a general executive board of the Indus- 
trial Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers of America? 

iNIr. Seif. I refuse to answer any questions involving my activities 
in the union. 

JMr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, T respectfully suggest now that this 
record reflect an order and direction to the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Willis. You are so directed. 

Mr. Seif. Because of the position taken by the chairman of this 
committee I have no other alternative but to invoke the fifth amend- 
ment, in view of the statement that he has made. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, so this record is absolutely clear, I 
respectfully suggest again that the witness now be ordered and directed 
to answer the outstanding principal question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question. There is 
nothing in the question that involves your constitutional rights, you 
have counsel, and I will direct you to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Seif. I presume you are referring to the hearing in which I 
had appealed the case. 

Mr. Arens. I am alluding to the hearing afforded you on March 22, 
1956, by a general executive board for the Industrial Union of Marine 
and Shipbuilding Workers of America. Did you have such a hearing 
on or about the date I have indicated? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Seif, In view of the direction of the chairman of the commit- 
tee, I will answer affirmatively to that question. 

Mr. Arens. You did have such a hearing; is that correct? 

Mr. Seif. Yes. 



1036 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arp:ns. During the course of that hearing was an oath adminis- 
tered to you? 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. Seif. I don't recall any. 

Mr. Arens. During the coui-se of that hearing, was allusion made 
by your interrogator to the fact that you had been identified by a 
witness, under oath, before this committee as a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Self. 1 don't recall the question. 

Mr. Arens. Were you asked in the course of that hearing whether 
or not you are a member, or were a member, of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Seif. I don't recall that specifically 

Mr. Arens. Let me read you, then, a transcript of a portion of the 
hearing and see if that refreshes your recollection : 

Question : You mean you are not a member of the Communist Party now ? 
Answer by Milton Seif: No, I am not or never was. 

Is that the question and answer which transpired at the hearing 
which you have told us you had before the general executive board of 
the Industrial Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers of America 
on March 22, 1956? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Seif. Mr. Director, do you claim this was in the transcript? 

Mr. Arens. The outstanding question is: Is the question which I 
read you and the answer which I read you substantially corre€t, as 
having transpired in that proceeding of March 22, 1956 ? 

(Excerpts of hearing marked "Seif Exhibit No. 1'' and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Seif, They might be. I don't recall them. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, before that board in 1956, deny that you 
had ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Seif. I want to invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You knew, as of the time that you had this hearing 
before this general executive board for the Industrial Union of 
Marine and Shipbuilding Workers of America, that they did not 
have power to cite you for contempt or to cite you for perjury, 
did you not? 

Mr. Seif. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell them the truth when you were inter- 
rogated as to whether or not you were then, or had been, a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Seif. I am advised to plead the fifth amendment. 

]Mr. Arens. Were you as of the time that you were interrogated 
by this general executive board for the Industrial Union of Marine 
and Shipbuilding Workers of America, on March 22, 1956, a mem- 
Ix'r of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Seif. I plead the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Are vou now a Communist ? 

Mr. Seif. I plead tlie fifth. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to invite your attention, if you please, 
to another situation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1037 

After the hearing before this committee, which hearing was held 
in July 1951, did you have a problem come up in your career with 
respect to whether or not you should be granted security clearance in 
your employment 

Mr. Seif. After when ? 

Mr. Arens. After you had appeared before this committee and were 
identified as a member of the Communist Party, did you have a 
problem come up as to whether or not you should be given a security 
clearance by the Coast Guard ^ 

Mr. Seif. I didn't have any problem. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Government have a problem ? 

Mr. Seif. You will have to ask the Government that. 

Mr. Arens. Were you denied security clearance by the Govern- 
ment ? 

Mr. Seif. I was. 

Mr. Arens. When was that ? 

Mr. Seif. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. What is your best recollection, please, sir? 

Mr. Seif. Some time about the time you claim, I imagine it was 
in 1951 some time. 

Mr. Arens. Was it as late as August 1952 ? 

Mr. Seif. It might have been. I don't recall the date. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever run for public office ? 

Mr. Seif. That is a matter of public record, isn't it ? 

Mr. Arens. Tell us if you have run for public office and then 
we will allude to some of these public records. Can you help us on 
that ? Have you ever run for public office ? 

Mr. Seif. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you now one of these public 
records to which you have alluded, a certificate of nomination wherein 
Milton Seif was nominated as a candidate of the Progressive Party 
for the State legislature. 

Mr. Seif. What year was that ? 

Mr. Arens. 1950, and I observe here, and I invite your attention 
specifically to the last part of the this photostatic reproduction of this 
declaration, an affidavit of the candidate. This is dated and sworn to 
as of September 1, 1950 : 

I, Milton H. Seif, do hereby certify and affirm that I am not a subversive per- 
son as defined in chapter 86 of the acts of the General Assembly of Maryland 
of 194D, namely, that I am not a person who commits, attempts to commit, or 
aids in the commission, or advocates, abets, advises, or teaches by any means 
any person to commit, attempt to commit, or aid in the commission of any act 
intended to overthrow, destroy, or alter, or to assist in the overthrow, destruc- 
tion or alteration of, the constitutional form of the Government of the United 
States, or of the State of Maryland, or any political subdivision of either of 
them, by revolution, force, or violence. 

I do further certify and affirm that I am not a member of a subversive or- 
ganization as defined in said chapter 86. namely, that I am not a member of an 
organization which engages in or advocates, abets, advises, or teaches, or a pur- 
pose of which is to engage in or advocate, abet, advise, or teach activities in- 
tended to overthrow, destroy or alter, or to assist in the overthrow, destruction 
or alteration of, the constitutional form of the Government of the United States, 
or of the State of Maryland, or of any political subdivision of either of them, 
by revolution, force, or violence. 

I further certify and affirm that I am not a member of a foreign organiza- 
tion as defined in said chapter 86, namely, that I am not a member of any or- 
92360— 57— pt. 2 -5 



1038 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

ganization directed, dominated, or controlled directly or indirectly by a foreign 
government which engages in or advocates, abets, advises, or teaches, or a pur- 
pose of which is to engage in or to advocate, abet, advise, or teach activities 
intended to overthrow, destroy or alter, or to assist in the overthrow, destruc- 
tion or alteration of the constitutional form of Government of the United 
States, or of the State of Maryland, or of any political subdivision of either 
of them, and to establish in place thereof any form of government the direction 
and control of which is to be vested in, or exercised by or under, the domina- 
tion or control of any foreign government, organization, or individual. 

Kindly look at that public dociuneiit now, which I have produced 
in response to your suggestion, and tell us, first of all, whether that 
is your signature and whether or not you affixed your signature and 
subscribed to it and took an oath when you ran for the State Legis- 
lature of Maryland in 1950. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Seif. This appears to be my signature. 

Mr. Arens. Did you subscribe to that and take an oath ? 

Mr. Seif. I suppose I did. 

Mr. Arens. As of the time you affixed your signature to that docu- 
ment, were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Seif. I refuse to answer that question, but as far as the provi- 
sions outlined in that statement, I even hate the inference of having 
to be questioned about it. 

Mr. Arens. I don't quite understand you. 

Mr. Seif. My statement is very simple. As far as any kind of 
inference 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of a subversive organization ? 

Mr. Seif. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly look at this next document, Certifi- 
cate of Nomination, wherein you were nominated as a candidate in 
1951 for comptroller of Baltimore City. 

I see here a form affixed to that, an affidavit signed by Milton Seif. 
Kindly look at that document and see if you can accommodate us by 
verifying its authenticity, particularly the verification of your 
signature. 

Mr. Seif. It appears to be my signature. 

Mr. Arens. As of the time you signed that document, were you then 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Seif. I plead the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that each of these 
two documents be appropriatel}^ marked and incorporated by refer- 
ence in the record. 

Mr. Willis. It is so ordered. 

(Documents marked ''Seif Exhibits Nos. 2 and 3," respectively, and 
retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you, if you please, sir, a 
photostatic reproduction of a letterhead of the Provisional Trade 
Union Committee for Eepeal of the Smith Act bearing a letter ad- 
dressed "Dear Brothers and Sistei-s." Listed among the sponsors of 
this enterprise is Milton Seif, local union 24, Shipyard Workers, CIO, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Kindly look at this document, if you please, sir, and tell us whethei 
or not 3^ou consciously participated in that enterprise. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Could you help us on that, please ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1039 

Mr. Seif. I refuse to answer on the previous grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel if you told the committee whether 
or not you consciously participated in this Trade Union Committee 
for Repeal of the Smith Act, you would be supplying information 
which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Seif. I don't get the meaning of your question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel if you told us whether or not you 
participated in this enterprise, you would be supplying information 
which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Seif. It possibly could; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the docu- 
ment be appropriately marked and incorporated by reference in this 
record. 

Mr. Wiij:.is. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Seif Exhibit No. 4," and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I should like to invite your attention to a photostatic 
reproduction of an article on page 9 of the Worker of May 25, 1947, 
entitled "550 Union Officials Assail 'Red Hunt'." 

Part of the article reads : 

550 CIO and AFL iiniou officials warned last week that the House Un-Ameri- 
cans are spearheading the drive of Big Business against labor "in the name of 
hunting Communists." The warning was contained in a statement released by 
the Civil Eights Congress. 

A number of i)ersons are listed here in this alert to the world to be 
cautious about the activities of the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties. Listed as one of those who is so informing the American people 
is Milton Seif, chairman. Local 24, Baltimore Industrial Union Marine 
and Shipbuilding Workers of America. 

Tell this connnittee whether or not that refreshes your recollection 
and whether or not you consciously, actively participated in that 
enterprise. 

Mr. Seif. Pardon me. Do you know whether this was reported 
or a letter written ? 

Mr. Arens. I am only displaying to you, Mr. Seif, the photostatic 
reproduction of an article from the Worker, and asking you whether or 
not that document refreshes your recollection as to any participation 
you may have had in the events or in the circumstances described in 
that article. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Seif. Very vaguely. I just see my name here. 

(Document marked "Seif Exhibit No. 5," and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

jSIr. Arens. Does the vagueness of your recollection encompass the 
recollection of whether or not, as of the time you were one of the 
moving lights in informing the American people of the dangers of 
this committee, you were then a member of the Communist Party? 
Do you recall that, or is your memory fresh on that subject? 

Mr. Seif. What is specifically the question? 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist at the time you loaned your 
name to the enterprise? 

Mr. Seif. I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You certainly would not be ashamed, would you, Mr. 
Seif, to alert the American people on something which was trying to 



1040 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

destroy labor and working people, unless there might have been some 
chip under the ru^ ? 

Mr. Seif. I don t get your point. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist when you participated in this 
enterprise ? 

Mr. Self. I answered that question, didn't I? 

Mr. Arens. Answer it again, please, sir. 

Mr. Self. I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to invite your attention to another docu- 
ment, an article in the Communist Daily Worker in New York 
for Thursday, February 28, 1952, Unionists Across Nation Support 
Move To Kepeal Smith Act. 

A number of people are listed here, calling upon the Congress and 
upon the Government to repeal the Smith Act. I observe here among 
those who are so announcing this program Milton Seif, Local 24, CIO 
Shipyard Workei-s, Baltimore. 

Kindly look at that document and see Avhether or not tliat refreshes 
your recollection with reference to any activity in which you may have 
been engaged in connection with that movement. 

Mr. Seif. I don't recall that. I am not saying it might not have 
happened. I don't just recall seeing this particular thing. 

(Document marked "Seif Exhibit No. 6'" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the man Avho preceded you to the witness 
stand ? 

Mr. Seif. AAHiom are you referring to? 

Mr. Arens. Charles Craig. 

Mr. Seif. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Mai*y Markward ? 

Mr. Seif. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Both of these persons have laid their liberty on the line. 
If they falsified their testimony, they will be prosecuted for perjury. 
They said they knew you as a Communist. We want to give you an 
opportunity to deny it while you are under oath. Do you care to avail 
yourself of that opportunity? 

]Mr. Seif. Under the circumstances I have to plead a good friend 
of mine which is the fifth amendment, which is a constitutional liberty 
granted to me that I think I am protecting right at this moment. 

Mr. Arens. You know, Mr. Seif, that you presently are under oath 
and that if you falsify any statements deliberately on a material matter 
before this committee, you can be prosecuted for perjury; you know 
that, do you not? After you are relieved from the pains, penalties, 
and obligations of your oa^h, do you intend to announce to the world, 
as you api)arently have done on previous occasions, "Of coui-se I am 
not a (^mmunist, but I wasn't going to tell that witch-hunting, Rexi- 
baiting, Fascist, House Un-American Activities Committee that I was 
not a Communist"? 

Do you intend to do that, or substantially that, after vou are relieved 
from the pains, penalties, and obligations of your oath before this com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Seif. I intend to do whatever I think is best to do. 

Mr. Arkxs. Do you encompass what is best to do for yourself to say 
to the world and your associates, "Of course, I am not a Communist," 
after you are relieved from the obligations of vour oatli^ 



COMIVIUXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTEVIORE, MD., AREA 1041 

Mr. Seif. Does this committee grant all the privileges of a court? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest now that this 
record reflect an order and direction to the witness to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Seif. Will you please repeat the question ? 

Mr. Arens. After you have been released from the obligation of 
your oath, do you expect to deny Communist Party membership, as 
you have in the course of the period intervening since you were last 
identified as a Communist before this committee? 

Mr. Seif. I don't know what I am going to do in the future. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Otto Yerrell ? 

Mr. Seif. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Seif. May I make a statement, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Willis. I do not see any purpose of your making a statement. 
Is it a statement that will answer any question ? 

Mr. Seif. No, I don't think it will answer the question placed be- 
fore me here, but it will answer some questions that are in my mind 
if I can get an answer. 

Mr. Willis. I see no purpose. 

Mr. Seif. That is quite obvious. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that the next witness, if you 
please, be Gertrude Swogell. The purpose of calling her now, Mr. 
Chairman, is so that the counsel may make a record. 

Miss Levt. My name is Elsbeth Levy. I am a member of the 
Baltimore Bar. I represent Mrs. Swogell. I am informed that 
Mrs. Swogell is to be hospitalized today. Therefore, she can't appear. 

I therefore request you excuse her from testifying at this time. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that this request be acceded to 
and that Mrs. Swogell presently be excused from appearing before this 
committee, but that she be continued under subpena subject to the call 
of the chairman after we have communicated with counsel. 

Mr. Willis. Is that satisfactory with counsel? 

Miss Levy. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Otto Yerrell, kindly come forward. 

Mr. Murphy. Mr. Chairman, my client has requested he not be 
televised during the course of his interrogation. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Yerrell. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF OTTO YERRELL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
WILLIAM H. MURPHY 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Yerrell. My name is Otto Yerrell. My address is 2442 Mc- 
Culloh Street. My employment is Bethlehem Steel Corp., Key High- 
way. 



1042 COMMUNTIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arexs. Yoli are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Yerrell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be convenient for you to keep your voice 
up ? 

Mr. Yerrell. Yes, sir. 

j\Ir. Arens. You are represented by counsel? 

Mr. Yerrell. Yes, sir. 

Mv. Arexs. Will counsel kindly identify himself on this record. 

Mr. MuRPiiY. William H. Murphy, East Pleasant Street, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Charles Craig? 

Mr. Yerrell. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Craig, this morning, took an oath and said that, 
while he was an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion in the Communist Party, he knew you as a Communist. That is 
a pretty serious thing to say about a man. 

Now, I want to give you an opportunity to stand up and deny it 
while you are under oath. 

Mr. Yerrell. I still invoke the fifth amendment. I refuse to 
answer that question on the grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at Bethlehem Steel ? 

Mr. Yerrell. Approximately 22 years. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity are you employed? 

Mr. Yerrell. I am employed as a wood carpenter and a carpenter. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
present employment ? 

Mr. Yerreli^. What do you mean, with the companj^, or elsewhere? 

Mr. Arexs. Where did you work before you got your present job? 

Mr. Yerrell. I worked for such a place as Chesapeake Marine, and 
Booz Bros. 

Mr. Arexs. I did not get the last place. 

Mr. Yerrell. Booz Bros., on Key Highway, now located on this 
side of the sugar refinery. 

Mr. Arens. You have lived in Baltimore a great many years; is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Yerrell. I have lived in Baltimore since the year 1929. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to a labor organization ? 

Mr. Yerrell. I am a member of a labor organization. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever held any office or post of responsibility 
in that labor organization? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Yerrell. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this record 
reflect an oi'der and direction to the witness to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Yerrell. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Willis. It is a simple question. Are you now, or have you 
ever been, an officer of your union ? I have directed you to answer it, 
and you refuse to answer it. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1043 

I just want to know if you understood what the question was. 

Mr. Yerrell. I understood your question. 

Mr. Arens. You understand the committee is not undertaking to 
threaten you or intimidate you, but we are advising you in the 
opinion and judgment of this committee that is a proper question con- 
cerning which we are entitled to an answer. If you do not answer it, 
you may subject yourself to some pains and penalties. 

Are you, or have you been, an officer of the labor organization of 
which you are a member ? 

Mr. Yerrell. I decline to answer the question on the grounds it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Now, may the record be abundantly clear, Mr. Chair- 
man, with a direction to him to answer the question ? 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer that question. You have coun- 
sel and you can do what you want. It is perfectly immaterial to us, 
but obviously counsel can give you advice and opinion. If you want 
to invoke the fifth amendment on this question, that is all right. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Yerrell. I do invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do yon know the man who just preceded you to the 
witness stand? 

Mr. Yerrell. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. You would not be ashamed of his acquaintanceship, 
would you ? He is a friend of yours, isn't he ? 

Mr. Yerrell. I refuse to answer that question on the ground it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Xow, we would like you to help us a little bit. You 
want to help this committee, do you not ? 

Mr. Yerrell. I have been subpenaed before the committee. I am 
not antagonistic toward the committee, yet I want to be protected 
under the laws and the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to have you help us. I will display to 
you here certain documents. The first document, if you please, is a 
Call to the Second Annual Convention of the National Negro Labor 
Council, November 21, 22, 23, 1952. A number of people are alerting 
the world to come to tliis council. 

I see here among those wlio are sending out this call is Otto Yerrell, 
president of the Baltimore Negro Labor Council. 

Kindly look at this document as I display it to you and see if that 
might refresh your recollection. Tell us, first of all, if you partici- 
pated in the issuance of that call and, secondly, whether or not you 
are accurately described there as president of the Baltimore Negro 
Labor Council. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Yerrell. I decline to answer that question on the ground it 
miofht tend to incriminate me. 

(Document marked "Yerrell Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Would you keep your voice up ? 

Were you president of the Baltimore Negro Labor Council? 

Mr. Yerrell. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to incriminate me. 



1044 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Akens. I lay before you a copy of an open letter addressed to 
the members of the Maryland delegation in the Congress. Those are 
the Congressmen in Washington from Maryland : 

We the undersigned, citizens of the State of Maryland, urge you to actively 
support and vote for the repeal of the McCarran Internal Security Act. 

And they tell in this letter about how undemocratic and how dis- 
graceful this act is, how it denies basic rights, strikes extremely seri- 
ous blows to our democratic traditions, thouglit control, punishes 
people for their beliefs and not for crimes, and is a threat to all politi- 
cal beliefs. 

If such a thing as that existed, I am sure we would all take pride 
in undertaking to cause it to be repealed. 

I want you to tell this committee while you are under oath if you are 
accurately described there as one of the sponsors of this enterprise to 
get this infamous law off the books of the Federal statutes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Wliile you are looking at that, let me display another 
document to you from the Communist Daily Worker, Wednesday, 
June 6, 1951, Maryland Notables Ask McCarran Repeal. A number 
of notables described here, civic leaders, ask for the repeal of this 
infamous McCarran Act, the Internal Security Act. Ajnong those 
notables who are sallying forth against this infamous legislation, 
according to this article, is Otto B. Yerrell. 

Kindly look at that document in connection with the first one you 
have in your hand and see if each or both of those documents refresh 
your recollection as to your participation in that movement. 

Do you remember that ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Yerrell. In answer to both questions I decline. Any answer 
I give may tend to incriminate me. 

(Documents marked "Yerrell Exhibits Nos. 2 and 3," respectively, 
and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. You would not be ashamed to advocate the repeal 
of infamous legislation which is out to destroy people's thoughts and 
which is undemocratic, which does all these things that you and your 
colleagues describe here? There is nothing to be ashamed about, is 
there ? 

Mr. Yerrell. I decline to answer. Any answer I might give may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Your public service has also injected you into legislative 
matters in the State, apparently. I should like to display to you now 
a bulletin : 

Defeat the Ober law. Vote for price controls, end war profiteering, abolish 
discrimination, civil liberties, eliminate Taft-Hartley law. Save Maryland and 
the Nation from the fate of Fascist Germany, Italy, and Japan. Your liberty 
is in your hands. Vote against the Ober law. Protect our living standards, pro- 
tect our lives, protect and extend our democratic rights. 

One of those who is calling that challenge to the American people 
to rise in their self-interest is described here as Otto Yerreel^ ship- 
yard worker, candidate for the House of Delegates, Fourth District, 
member of local 24, Industrial Union Marine and Shipbuilding 
Workers of America, CIO. 

He is quoted here as saying : 



COMMUNIST ACTWITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1045 

The people in the fourth legislative district know only too well what dis- 
crimination means in terms of poor housing, low-paying jobs * * * 

and the like. 

Kindly look at this bulletin and tell us whether or not you will 
now somehow overcome your modesty and profess to the world that it 
was you who was championing the cause of civil liberty, ciril rights, 
and democracy, peace and the integi'ity of this Nation. Can't you 
help us on that ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Yerrell. I decline on the grounds that any answer I might 
give would tend to incriminate me. 

(Document marked "Yerrell Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

]\Ir. Arens. You certainly would not be ashamed to alert the Amer- 
ican people to something that was going to destroy their liberties. 
Certainly you would not be ashamed to protect their lives, their living 
standards, and democratic rights. 

You are not ashamed of what you did on this, are you ? 

Mr. McIxTOSH. Mr. Arens, the witness has already declined to 
answer the question. I suggest we go on. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, I would like to ask you whether or not when 
you were a candidate for the Progressive Party for the house of 
delegates you signed a non-Communist affidavit. Did you do that? 

Mr. Yerrell. What was that question ? 

Mr. Arexs. You ran for public office on the Progressive Party 
ticket, did you not? 

Mr. Yerrell. I decline to answer that question on the ground it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arsens. I would like to display to you thermof ax reproductions 
of newspaper clippings here in Baltimore, in 1950 and 1952, re- 
ferring to a number of people who filed as candidates on the Pro- 
gressive Party ticket. 

At that time, as I am sure you know, it was necessary that there 
be filed along with the announcement of candidacy a non-Commimist 
affidavit. Kindly look at that document and tell this committee, while 
you are under oath, whether or not that article refreshes your recol- 
lection as to any affidavit you may have filed with the State of Marj^- 
land, denying membership in the Communist Party or in a subversive 
organization. 

Mr. Yerrell. I decline to answer that; any answer I might give 
would tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arexs. According to one of the articles, you were one of the 
cochairmen of the Progressive Party. Do 3'ou recall that status? 
Were you a cochairman of the Progressive Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]SIr. Yerrell. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it tends to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arexs. The other cocliairman was a man by the name of Harold 
Buchman. Did you know him? 

Mr. Yerrell. I refuse to answer that question on the ground it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you go to Chicago for any purpose in 1952? Do 
you recall? Do you recall any trip you mav have made to Chicago 
in 1952? 

92360 — 57 — pt. 2 6 



1046 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. YEitRELi.. Have you any specific reference? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, did you attend the Progressive Party convention 
in Chicago in 1952? 

Mr. Yerrell, I decline to answer that question on the ground it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

(Documents marked "Yerrell Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever applied for a port security card? 

(The veitness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Yerrell. I decline to answer that question on the ground it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Murphy. I don't think the witness heard your direction. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Yerrell. I decline to answer that question because any answer 
1 might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that all exliibits 
which have been displayed to this witness be appropriately marked 
and incorporated by reference in this record. 

Mr. Willis. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Arens. What have you done at the Bethlehem Shipyard be- 
sides working for the ship company ? 

Mr. Yerrell. Sir, would you direct that question again ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. What have you done at the Bethlehem Shipyard, 
what type of activity have you been engaged in, besides building 
ships ? 

Mr. Yerrell. I wish you would make yourself more explicit. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any official function for some organiza- 
tion at Bethlehem? 

Mr, Yerrell. I would like you to be more specific, please. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been working at Bethlehem Shipyard in 
behalf and in the interest of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Yerrell. I refuse to answer that question on the ground that 
the answer might tend to incriminate me, 

Mr, Arens. Are you now, this moment, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Yerrell. I refuse to answer that question on the ground any 
answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. J\lr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the interrogation of this witness. 

Mr, Willis. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Yerrell. Mr. Chairman, I refuse; any answer I might give 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until 1 : 30. 

(Thereupon, at 12 : 10 p. m., May 9, 1957, the subcommittee was re- 
cessed, to reconvene at 1 : ?>() p. m., the same day.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1047 
AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, MAY 9, 1957 

(The subcommittee was reconvened at 1 : 30 p. m., upon the expira- 
tion of the recess. Committee members present: Representatives 
Willis and Mcintosh.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommitte will come to order. Will counsel call 
the next witness ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Milton Bates, please come forward. 

Mr. FoRER. We request that the cameras be turned off, Mr. Chair- 
man. Will you rule on my request ? 

Mr. Willis. I have no control of the cameras until the witness is 
sworn. 

Will you please raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Bates. I do. 

Mr. FoRER. Will you now rule on my request ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. That is a rule of the committee. Counsel knows 
that as well as I. 

TESTIMONY OF MILTON BATES, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FOUER 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify yourself by name, residence, 
and occupation ? 

Mr. Bates. May I sit down ? 

Mr. Arens. If you please, then kindly identify yourself by name, 
residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Bates. My name is Milton Bates. I reside at 4210 Clarkdale 
Road. My occupation is that of a salesman. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Bates, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities : is that correct ? 

Mr. Bates. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Bates. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on the 
record ? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed, Mr. Bates? 

Mr. Bates. I am currently employed with the Seaview Co. 

Mr. Arens. "\Yliere is that and in what line of work, please? 

Mr. Bates. That is in real estate. 

Mr. Arens. Is that here in Baltimore? 

Mr. Bates. Yes, it is. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so employed? 

Mr. Bates. Since March 1955. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us where and when you were born. 

Mr. Bates. I was born in this city, August 22, 1921. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you educated, your higher edu- 
cation ? What schools did you attend, please ? 



1048 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Bates. 1 assume you want me to leave out grammar school, 
junior high school. Come to think of it, I attended junior high school 
at School No. 49. 

Mr. Arens. In the Baltimore area? 

Mr. Bates. Yes, my early schooling was in the Baltimore area. 

Mr. Arens. Then your higher education ? 

Mr. Bates. I went to Baltimore City College. I graduated there 
in February 1938. I took a feAv courses in accounting at the Balti- 
more College of Commerce. That was terminated by my entry into 
the Army in October 1942. 

Mr. Arens. "\'\'lien were you discharged from the Army ? 

Mr. Bates. I was honorably discliarged from the Army in April 
1946. 

Mr. Arens. Before we pursue further the chronology of events in 
your life, tell us where you served in the Army. 

Mr. Bates. Yes, certainly. The first 2 years of my approximate 
31/2 years' service in the Army, I was in this country, various camps. 
If you want me to give you that information, I will be glad to do so. 

Mr. Arens. No, just the highlights of your service. Did you serve 
overseas ? 

Mr. Bates. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. AVliere? 

Mr. Bates. I served in the European theater of operations from 
October 1944 to March 1946, when I returned to this country, au<1 1 
was separated from service April 1, 1946. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a commission ? 

Mr. Bates. No; I held a noncommissioued rank. 

Mr. Arens. In what branch or activity of the Army were you 
engaged ? 

Mr. Bates. I was, well, excluding my basic training period, I was 
finally assigned to a branch of service, it was the United States Signal 
Corps. 

Mr. Arens. On the day of your discharge from the United States 
Army, were j^ou a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bates. Well, Mr. Arens, let me — I will refuse to answer that 
question on the following grounds : 

I feel that this question is an improper one. I think it invades my 
freedom of conscience, freedom of political activity, political ideas. 
I think that I am protected under the first amendment of the Con- 
stitution which, if I read my history correctly, gives me this pro- 
tection. It speaks of freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free- 
dom of speech, freedom of assembly. Therefore, I think that question 
has to do with my political ideas. I respectfully refuse to answer on 
that ground. In addition, I refuse to answer under the privilege of 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution, in that I refuse to be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
all the period of your service in the United States Army ? 

Mr. Bates. Now, Mr. Arens, that is a loaded question, I would 
think. I have not said I was a meml^er of tlie Communist Party at 
all. I refused to answer the previous question. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party on the, 
day of your induction into the United States Army ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1049 

Mr. Bates. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. Those grounds being, of course, the first amend- 
ment to the Constitution and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us of your activity immediately after your 
discharge from the Army, your principal employment or pursuit of 
education. 

Mr. Bates. Yes. My principal employment was with a publish- 
ing concern. That employment started in May of 1946 and con- 
tinued on to approximately February of 1951. 

Mr. Arens. What was the name of the publishing firm and where 
was it located, please, sir ? 

Mr. Bates. The firm was located in New York City. The name 
of the firm is the Independent News Co. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity were you employed ? 

Mr. Bates. I was the local area representative for that concern. 

Mr. Arens. Did any of your pursuit of education coincide in point 
of time with your employment by this publishing firm ? 

Mr. Bates. Yes. I took several night courses at McCoy College 
during this period. 

Mr. Arens. What is McCoy College? What type of courses are 
taught there ? 

Mr. Bates. As I recall, I think I took a course in short story 
writing. English, that sort of thing. It is a branch of Johns Hop- 
kins University. It has a good reputation locally. 

Mr. Arens, Tell us any other education which you had, please, sir. 

Mr. Bates. Well, I started my higher education, that is beyond 
the high school level, in the Army. I became a member of the Army 
specialized training program which at the time I entered it was, my 
understanding it was, that in 21 months — that is a relatively short 
space of time — a full college degree could be obtained and, at the suc- 
cessful conclusion thereof, I would become an officer and gentleman 
of the United States Army. 

Mr. iVRENS. Did you complete the course ? 

Mr, Bates, No, sir ; I did not. 

IMr. Arens. What occasioned the fact that you did not complete 
the course ? 

Mr. Batics. Well, sir, I have no knowledge of the way the Army 
works. I was simply, after about 4 months — this was at Virginia 
Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Va. — I was simply reassigned to 
Fort Monmouth, N. J. 

Mr, Arens, What did you do at Fort Monmouth, N, J. ? 

Mr. Bates. Actually the program collapsed a couple of months 
thereafter, and the rest of the fellows went into the infantry. I guess 
I was lucky. 

Mr. Arexs. What did you do at Fort Monmouth, N. J. ? 

Mr, Bates, I attended several training schools at the direction of 
my Army superiors. 

^Ir. Arens, Tra.ining schools in what subjects? 

Mrs. Bates. Message center work originally, and then cryptograph 
work. 

Mr, Arens. During the course of your experience in the United 
States Army, as well as during your experience in the pursuit of these 
various courses under the auspices of the United States Army, did you 
liave access to any confidential, restricted, or securitv information? 



1050 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Bates. Oh, by all means. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of the confidential, restricted, or 
security information to which you had access? 

INIr. Bates. Well, the various types of machines used in coding and 
decoding classified messages, ranging from restricted to top secret, 
eventually. 

Mr. Arens. Were you cleared for top secret ? 

Mr. Bates. Apparently I was, sir. I did the work. I am sure I 
must have been cleared. 

Mr. Arens. During the period of your life when you were cleared 
for top secret work and during the period of your life coextensively 
in which you had access to confidential or security information, were 
you then under the discipline of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bates. Mr. Arens, during that period of my life, I was under 
the discipline of the Anny and only under the discipline of the United 
States Army. 

Mr. Arens. And 

':.- Mr. Bates. Please, Mr. Arens, you have asked a question. I will 
attem])t to ajiswer this question, but you did interrupt me at that point. 

Mr. Arens. Were you then a Communist; that is the question. 

Mr. Bates. Of course, you have the same reply as I gave you before. 
Under the first and fifth amendments of the Constitution, I will re- 
spectfully refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. McIntosh. I understand you to say, in your first answer to those 
questions, that you were under the discipline of the United States 
Army and of no other organization during that period. 

Mr. Bates. That was my answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you take an oath as a prerequisite to your admission 
in the Armed Forces of tliis Government to support and defend the 
Constitution of the United States? 

Mr. Bates. I believe 1 recall sucli an oath; yes, sir. I am sure I 
took it. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you took the oath, were you a member of an 
organization which has been found by the Congress of the United 
States, by the Supreme Court of the United States, to be an organiza- 
tion dedicated to the overthrow of the Government of the United 
States by force and violence? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bates. Well, sir, what organization do you have reference to? 

Mr. Arens. The Communist Party. 

Mr. Bates. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Now, may I ask you if you will kindly pick up the 
chronology of your life, particularly the pursuit of your education. 

INIr. Bates. Gladly. 

Mr. Arens. And tell us the next educational work which you 
undertook. 

Mr. Bates. Well, now, where were we, Mr. Arens? 

Mr. Arens. We were last, according to my recollection, considering 
the Army courses which you took. 

Mr. Bates. Of course, subsequent to the Army, as I have already 
told you, the next college credits I earned were at McCoy College in the 
courses I have already mentioned to you, writing courses. 

Mr. Arens. Does that complete your formal education ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1051 

Mr. Bates. No ; it did not. In February of 1951, 1 left my full-time 
employment with the Independent News Co. and resumed my educa- 
tion on a more or less full-time basis at the Baltimore Junior College. 

Mr. Arens. That was in about 1952 ? 

Mr. Bates. As I recall, February 1951. 

Mr. Arens. What courses did 3'ou pursue there ? 

JVIr. Bates. Well, there I pursued the required courses in an attempt 
to complete my prelaw education for later subsequent entry into law 
school. 

Mr. Arens. Did you complete your prelaw work ? 

Mr. Bates. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you thereafter enter law school ? 

Mr. Bates. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Bates. At the University of Maryland in Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. And did you complete your law work ? 

Mr. Bates. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive an LL. B. degree ? 

Mr. Bates. I did. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. Bates. Well, I completed my work in May or so, June was tlie 
final exams, in 1955, and I received my degi'ee that year. 

Mr. Arens. That was in 1955 ? 

Mr. Bates. As I recall ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you apply for admission to the bar ? 

Mr. Bates. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Were you admitted to the bar? 

Mr. Bates. I withdrew my application after applying. 

Mr. Arens. What caused you to withdraw your application after 
you applied for admission to the bar? 

Mr. Bates. Excuse me. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bates. Mr. Arens, of course, you are referring now to a fairly 
complicated period of my life. I would like to say that my decision to 
withdraw in the main — -I don't intend to encompass the whole situa- 
tion — was based on the fact that unfortunately having passed the 
written examination, that part of the entrance requirements to the bar, 
with a grade, I think, of 243 

Mr. Arens. That is a rather significant grade, is it not, a high 
grade ? 

Mr. Bates, Well, I don't know. That was the grade. 

Mr. Arens. You passed the written part of the bar with flying 
colors, did you not? 

Mr. Bates. Nice of you to say so, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Why is it you did not pursue vour application for 
admission to the bar? 

Mr. Bates. Because the oral part of the examination which took 
place before a subcommittee of the character committee of the State 
bar seemed to be more concerned with my political beliefs and activities 
than with other things that I hoped had a little more relevance to my 
qualifications to practice. 

Mr. Arens. Did they evidence a concern as to whether or not you 
were a member of the Democratic Party or the Kepublican Party? 



1052 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

You said they were concerned about your political philosophy, I be- 
lieve, or something to that effect. Now, which was it that they were 
concerned about, whether you were a Republican or Democrat ? Can 
you help us on that ? 

Mr. Bates. Yes, sir; I can help you on that. As I recall, they 
weren't, at least — now, you must understand this — again unfortunately 
there is no written transcript of the interview that I had with the 
subcommittee. 

I requested it and I have been told that no transcript exists. 

They asked me a number of questions relating to my political activi- 
ties. I answered these questions under vigorous protest. 

I hope that the record will show that. 

Mr. Arens. Did they ask you whether or not you were a member of 
this group called the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bates. Yes ; they did. 

Mr. Arens. What did you tell them ? 

Mr. Bates. I told them I was not. 

Mr. Arens. Were you truthful when you told them you were not 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bates. Mr. Arens, I will respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the grounds previously stated. 

I would like to say this, though, if I am permitted to do it. It 
is a little bit late and then perhaps again it is not, but the Supreme 
Court of the United States, according to a clipping from the Baltimore 
Sun, on the morning that these hearings opened in Baltimore City 

Mr. Arens. You mean these hearings of the last 2 or 3 days? 

Mr. Bates. Tuesday morning. May 7, 1957— carries the news of 
the decision that I think is significant and that I hope would justify 
to some extent the position that I took, that these questions put 
to me were political in nature and should not have been put to me. 

If you wish, I shall be glad to read what the Baltimore Morning 
Sun has to say in relation to this case. It is headed as the Koenigsberg 
case. 

I think it is a pretty significant decision. 

Mr. Arens. We have an outstanding question on this record. I 
want the record to reflect the state of the proceedings as of the moment. 
You have been asked the question whether or not you were interrogated 
by the bar association as to any Communist Party membership. 

You have volunteered the statement on this record that you told the 
bar association group that you were not then a Communist. There 
is now an outstanding question on this record : Did you tell them the 
truth? 

And I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Bates. Mr. Arens, you didn't have to speak so quickly. I can 
understand you, sir. That question has alreadj' been answered to my 
knowledge. I have declined to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that, in view of 
the status of this record, the witness now be ordered and directed to 
answer the question. He has opened the door by asserting that he 
told the bar group that he was not a Communist. 

A perfectly proper question to follow is : Was that a truthful an- 
swer ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1053 

I respectfully suggest now that the witness be ordered and directed 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. FoRER. May the record show that I have advised the witness 
that direction is improper and that he is entitled to abide by his 
refusal. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, you know your sole and exclusive prerogative 
in this proceeding is to advise your client. 

Mr. FoRER. I just did advise him. 

Mr. Willis, That is all right. That is your right to advise him, 
but he has to answer my direction. 

Mr. FoRER. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Bates. Mr. Willis, there are channels open to me provided 
by the State board of law examiners if I want to pursue further the 
question of my law school and legal potential, if any, legal career. 
Under those channels, as I understand them, I would have there a 
right to present witnesses in my own behalf, a right to cross-examine 
any witnesses against me. Obviously, if I choose to pursue this ques- 
tion further, I will take advantage of those channels. That is a fairer 
situation than what is presented to me here by this committee. 

Mr. Arens. So the record is clear, do you understand, sir, that you 
are now under a direction and order by the committee to answer the 
question as to whether or not your response to the bar association 
group in reference to Communist Party membersliip was a truthful 
response? Do you understand the status of this record now? 

Mr. Bates. I would like a moment or two to confer with counsel. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bates. Mr. Chairman, I understand your question perfectly. 
I abide by my previous refusal to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. 

Were you under oath when you appeared before this bar associa- 
tion group ? 

Mr. Bates. To the best of my knowledge, I was not. 

Mr. Arens. On the very day you appeared before the bar associa- 
tion group and told them you were not a Communist, were you a Com- 
munist ? 

Mr. Bates. This is a rephrasing of the question I have 

Mr. Arens. No ; it is not. It is a different approach. 

Mr. Bates. I have refused to answer it a number of times prior. I 
feel when you put the question to me, "Are you a Communist?" that 
this has to do with political beliefs and ideas. I think that this 
committee does not have the jurisdiction to so inquire. I think it has 
even less jurisdiction to inquire — if you will permit me to continue — 
I think it has even less jurisdiction to inquire into that area than the 
subcommittee of the character committee of the bar. I think the Su- 
preme Court agrees — of course, they don't agree with me. I would 
agree with them on this question. I feel I am protected under the first 
and fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. McIntosh. If I might interrupt, the American people, through 
the United States Congress, are going to spend somewhere in the 
neighborhood of $40 billion this year to protect Americans and other 
free people against the military threat controlled by the Communist 



1054 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Party. We are directed by the American people acting through the 
Congress of the United States to make inquiries of the nature of 
the inquiries directed to you. 

If you believe that the American people and the Congi*ess, and the 
Supreme Court, are incorrectly interpreting the Constitution of the 
country, you are entitled to your view. We are acting pursuant to 
the instructions of the Congress of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. There is an outstanding question on this record. I 
solicit your answer. 

Mr. Bates. What is the question, sir? 

Mr. Arens. The outstanding question on this record now is : On 
the very day that you denied to the bar association group that you 
were a Communist, were you a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bates. I cannot help but comment- — I think this question has 
been asked me 2 or 3 or 4 times previously. 

Mr. Willis. You have never answered it. 

Mr. Bates. Yes, I refuse, Mr. Willis, on the ground of the protec- 
tion afforded me by the first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Charles Craig, 
C-r-a-i-g? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bates. I refuse to answer that question on the previously stated 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Charles Craig this morning took an oath and testified 
that while he was an undercover agent in tlie Communist conspiracy, 
at the behest of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, he knew you 
to a C€Ttainty to be a member of the Communist Party. 

We would like to give you now an opportunity to speak up before 
this committee, as you spoke up before the bar group, and deny it if 
you care to avail yourself of that privilege. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bates. Yes; you say you wish to give me an opportunity. I 
thank you for the opportunity. I don't consider it an opportunity. 
Of course, that is the interpretation. I do not consider it an oppor- 
tunity because, according to the rules I read in the little blue book 
that was handed to me when I got the subpena, there is no right in 
there to present witnesses in my behalf, to cross-examine those who 
made accusations against me. 

So I just respectfully decline to accept what you have termed an 
opportunity for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did Charles Craig lie this morning, or did he tell the 
truth, when he was under oath subject to the pains and penalties of 
perjury ? Did he lie or did he tell the truth when he said you were a 
Communist ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Bates. I refuse to answer the question on tlie grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I believe we have arrived at the point in the chronology 
of your life when you voluntarily withdrew your application to pursue 
the profession of law. ^Vliat time was that ? "Wliat was the year again, 
to clear our record, if you recall, 1955 or 1956 ? 

Mr. Bates. What date are you seeking, the time I withdrew my 
application ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1055 

Mr. Arens. The time you had an interview before the bar asso- 
ciation. 

Mr. Bates. That was in the summer of 1955, as I recall. 

Mr. Arens. Then pick up the thread of your life and tell us of 
your principal engagements and activities. It has not been too long 
now. 

Mr. Bates. In what connection ? 

Mr. Arens. Employment. 

Mr. Bates. Occupation? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, please, sir. 

Mr. Bates. Well, in the summer of 1955 

Mr. Arens. Just your principal occupation. 

Mr. Bates. I was working at sales work just as I am doing now. 

Mr. Arens. The same company, same type of work ? 

Mr. Bates. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You have been continuously employed ever since ? 

Mr. Ba'tes. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Were you secretarv of the Progressive Party of Mary- 
land in 1950? 

Mr. Baiics. Now, Mr. Arens, you are getting back to the same area 
that I consider political in nature, and I respectfully refuse to answer 
the question under the two amendments previously cited. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in xipril of 1950 attack the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation or attack a pattern of thought control caused by the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation coming around to visit you? Per- 
haps I had better read this and display it to you so there will be no 
misinterpretation of what I have in mind. 

I have in my hand and I will display to you in just a moment, the 
Baltimore Sun of April 3, 1950. It is an article entitled "Progressive 
Candidates Ask 'Peace on Ballot'." 

In the course of this article the following appears : 

Milton Bates, .secretary of the Progressive Party in Maryland, said a man 
wbo identified himself as an FBI agent called him on the telephone prior to 
the meeting and asked, "Is there anything you want to tell me?" "The Justice 
Department has been exposed as the most corrupt branch of a very corrupt 
Government," said Mr. Bates, and this one single action (the call), was part 
of a pattern, a pattern of thought control. The purpose is to silence and to make 
sure that meetings like this are not held. 

Do you recall making those statements in this meeting described 
in the article from the Baltimore Sun, which I shall now lay before 
you ? See if that refreshes your recollection if you please, sir. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bates. Mr. Arens, this is a newspaper clipping and apparently 
it purports to be a quote of what I said ; I don't know how accurate 
that is, frankly. 

Mr. Arens. I don't either. That is why I asked you if that article 
refreshed your recollections to see if you can help this committee on 
un-American activities. 

Mr. Bates. It has been a long time ago. 

Mr. Arens. You have no recollection of it; is that correct, or do 
you have a recollection ? 

Mr. FoRER. Recollection of what ? 

Mr. Arens. Counsel knows your sole and exclusive prerogative is 
to advise your witness. 



1056 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. FoRER, I can't advise him if I don't nnderstand the question. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us whether or not you have a recollec- 
tion of the meeting and of the statements attributed to you in that 
article ? 

Mr. Bates. I have said before, Mr. Arens, I am not going to give 
this committee, on the gi'ounds previously stated, any meetings that I 
attended. 

Mr. Arens. Then you had better make your record clear here. 

Do you feel if you told this committee whether or not you have a 
recollection of the events described in that newspaper clipping which 
is before you, you would be supplying information which might be 
used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bates. It might. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this document which I 
have displayed to the witness, be appropriately marked and incor- 
porated by reference in the record. 

Mr. "Willis. It may be so marked and incorporated. 

(Document marked "Bates Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

IVIr. Arens. Did vou attend the convention of the Progressive Party 
in Chicago in 1952? 

Mr. Bates. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been connected as a member, participant, 
or sponsor of a group fighting for the Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell ? 

Mr. Bates. Will you make your question a little more specific ? 

Mjr. Arens. Perhaps it would be more helpful if I displayed to 
you an invitation we have, the Baltimore Sobell Committee, Post 
Office Box 7043, Walbrook Street, Baltimore. 

On Thursday evening, March 24, 1955, so I understand, this group 
was assembling for the purpose of participating in a movement to 
assist Morton Sobell. See if that invitation refreshes your recol- 
lection. , 

Mr. Bates. Recollection of what ? 

Mr. Arens. Your participation in the organization. 

Mr. Bates. Whether this card refreshes my recollection? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bates. I can't say that I am refreshed by it. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a present recollection, irrespective of the 
source of the recollection, whether it is refreshed by that document or 
otherwise, of any participation by vourself in a committee to aid 
Morton Sobell? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bates. I refuse to answer the question on the ground previ- 
ously stated. 

(Docmnent marked "Bates Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. So that the record is clear — I am not quite sure that 
we have had an opportunity for a response by yourself to this ques- 
tion — are vou at this moment a Communist? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1057 

Mr. Bates. I respectfully refuse to answer that question on the 
previously cited grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Counsel, call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Claire Friedman Round, kindly come forward. 

Mr. Cadavalader. I object to the television cameras showing my 
client. 

Mr. Arens. During the testimony ? 

Mr. Cadwalader. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. That is right. We have no control over the witness 
until the witness is sworn. It is a free country and free press. We 
will assume control after the swearing, then we invoke the rule. 

Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mrs. Round. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CLAIRE FRIEDMAN ROUND, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, THOMAS F. CADWALADER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself, please ma'am, by name, resi- 
dence, and occupation. 

Mrs. Round. My name is Claire Round. I live at 2533 Brookfield 
Avenue. 

Mr. Arens. I will have to request you to raise your voice. It is 
very difficult to hear you since you are not speaking loudly enough. 

Mrs. Round. The whole thing ? 

Mr. Arens. It will onl}^ take a minute. 

Mrs. Round. My name is Claire Round. I live at 2533 Brook- 
field Avenue, and I am a housewife. 

Mr. Arens. I want to be sure that your name is reflected accu- 
rately in the record. Is it C-1-a-i-r-e ? 

Mrs. Round. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. F-r-i-e-d-m-a-n R-o-u-n-d? 

Mrs. Round. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mrs. Round. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Round. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on this 
record. 

Mr. Cadw^alader. Thomas F. Cadwalader, member of the Mary- 
land Bar. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a lady by the name of Irene Barkaga ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Round. Would you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, ma'am. Do you know a lady by the name of Irene 
Barkaga ? 

Mrs. Round. Sir, I will avail myself of the privilege of the fifth 
amendment. 



1058 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. I hate to ask you to do it again, but could you raise 
your voice ? This is a large room. 

Mrs. Round. I will avail myself of my privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment and I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Irene Barkaga testified yesterday that she knew you as 
a Communist while she was in the Communist Party. Was she in 
error, or was she telling the truth ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Round. I decline to answer for the same reason that was previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been employed as a school teacher ? 

Mrs. Round. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere and when, please? 

Mrs. Round. I taught in 1952 at Elmslane Elementary School. 

Mr. Arens. Is that part of the public school system of Baltimore? 

Mrs. Round. Yes, it is. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have, or did you at that time have, a teacher's 
certificate ? 

Mrs. Round. No, I have never had a certificate. 

Mr, Arens. Speak up please, ma'am. I don't want to be offensive, 
but I want you to keep your voice up. 

Mrs. Round. Wliat was the question again ? I am sorry. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a teacher's certificate ? 

Mrs, Round. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the circumstances pursuant to which you ac- 
quired a status as a school teacher in the public school system of 
Baltimore. How did you happen to be a teacher ? 

Mrs. Round. I graduated from Carlson's State Teachers College 
and was immediately given, immediately had a teaching position on 
graduation. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you teach? 

Mi's. Round. I taught from September until January. 

Mr, Arens. What classes did you have? By that, I mean what 
grade of students? 

Mrs, Round. Kindergarten. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party as of the 
time 3' ou were teaching these kindergarten students ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Round. I will decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr, Arens. You have been identified as a person who was on the 
Youth Commission of the Communist Party in Baltimore. We should 
like to liave you now avail yourself, if you care to do so, of the oppor- 
tunity to deny that identification. 

Mrs. Round, I will decline to answer that question also. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately after you 
concluded your work teaching these kindergarten students in the 
Baltimore public schools? 

Mrs. Round. I went to work at the Monarch Rubber Co. 

Mr, Arens. How long were you engaged there ? 

Mrs. Round. Approximately 1 year, 

Mr, Arens. Then your next employment, please? 

Mrs. Round. I was employed at the Associated Jewish Charities. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1059 

Mrs. Round. I worked in their statistical office. 

Mr. Arens. For liow lon^-, please? 

Mrs. Round. For approximately a year also. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment? 

Mrs. Round. A housewife. 

Mr. Arens. Was your disassociation from the public school system 
voluntary or involuntary? 

Mrs. Round. It was completely voluntary. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Labor Youth League? 

Mrs. Round. I will refuse to answer that question for the reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Charles Swan? Do you know a j^erson by that 
name? 

Mrs. Round. I refuse to answer that question also. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell this committee while you are under oath 
what you have done in pursuit of the objective of peace? Have you 
been active in certain organizations dedicated to the pursuit of peace ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Round. I will decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. You were one of the leaders in the Baltimore Youth 
for Peace, were you not ? 

Mrs, Round. I will also decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been active, or were you active, in the Pro- 
gressive Party in Baltimore ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Round. I will also decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon? 

Mrs. Round. I said I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. AVliy ? 

Mrs. Round. Under the fifth amendment I am granted that 
privilege. 

Mr. Arens. What privilege ? 

Mrs. Round. Of not being a witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel, young lady, if you told the truth 
to this committee whether or not you were active in the Progressive 
Party, you would be supplying information which might be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with lier counsel.) 

Mrs. Round. Would you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel that if you told this committee 
truthfully whether or not you were active in the Progressive Party 
in the Baltimore area, you would be supplying information which 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mrs. Round. Perhaps. 

Mr. Arens. "Wlio is Mr. Sam Schmerler, S-c-h-m-e-r-1-e-r ? Do you 
know him? 

Mrs. Round. I decline to answer that question for reasons previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee the organizations to which you cur- 
I'ently belong, if you please. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Counsel, I am afraid we have to move on a bit. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us the organizations to which you currently 
belonff ? 



1060 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mrs. Round. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any organizations whicli are not con- 
trolled by the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Round. I refuse to answer that question also. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any sewing clubs ? 

Mrs. Round. No, I don't belong to any sewing clubs. 

Mr. Arens. Are you this moment a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Round. I refuse to ans\ver that question. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

^Ir. Willis. Tlie witness is excused. 

I will suggest a five minute recess. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Counsel, call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Elsie Winter, kindly come forward. 

Mr. WiiJ-is. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mrs. Winter. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. ELSIE WINTER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

FRED E. WEISGAL 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Weisgal. Mr. Chairman, will you kindly ask the television 
cameras to be taken off the witness ? 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

ISIr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself, please, ma'am. 

Mrs. Winter. My name is Elsie Winter, 5322 Gist Avenue. I work 
as a typist-clerk for Remington Rand. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Connnittee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mrs. Winter. I am. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Winter. lam. 

Mr. Arens. JSIr. Cliairman, at this time I should like to make an 
announcement with reference to counsel's appearance here, niunely^ 
that this witness a day or so ago announced to me that she had a coun- 
sel who, for reasons of his own, declined to appear today. 

As is the custom of the committee, we permit witnesses as a matter 
of privilege, not as a matter of right, to have counsel. 

This young lady said she wanted counsel. So at the suggestion 
of someone wlio was present, I pei-sonally solicited tlie gentleman who 
is now appearing here, Mr. Fred W. Weisgal of the Baltimore Bar,, 
who was present at that time in the court and whom I aslced to repre- 
sent this young lady. 

He is doing so in response to my request. 

Mr. Willis. We are verv grateful to vou for this service. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1061 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Weisgal, will you identify yourself on this record ? 

Mr. Weisgal. Fred E. Weisgal, W-e-i-s-g-a-1, Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Arens. Are you Miss or JNlrs. ? 

Mrs. Winter. JNIrs. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Charles Craig, 
C-r-a-i g? 

(TJ(o Nvitness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Winter. I refuse to answer that question on the privilege of 
thii lij'th amendment that it may incriminate me. 

jMr. Arens. Mr. Craig testified this morning he knew you as a 
Co^nmmiist. Was he in error, or was he telling the truth ^ 

]Mrs. Winter. I refuse to answer that question on the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. To what organizations do you now belong, exclusive of 
any organization which may be either Communist or under Commu- 
nist control ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Winter. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I think I had better make this clear to you : To what 
organizations, if any, do you presently belong besides organizations 
^^■hich are controlled by the Communist Party '^ 

A[rs. Winter. I refuse to answer on the same 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest 3"ou consult Avitli your counsel 
on that. 

(Tii.e Avitness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. I take it that this answer is for general information 
only ; is that right ? 

Mr. Arens. The reason for the question, Mr. Chairman, is because 
we have had friendly witnesses who have told us repeatedly, in the 
course of the last 3 days, of the directions by the Commmiist Party 
to the comrades to penetrate non-Communist and anti-Communist 
organizations, including such innocent sounding groups or innocent 
groups — I am sure patriotic groups — as every commimity has. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Winter. I belong to the PTA. My children go to school. 

jNfr. Arens. How long have you belonged to the PTA ? 

INlrs. ^\''iNTER. As long as my children have been in school. 

]Mr. Arens. Plas that been a matter of some few years ? 

Mrs. Winter. Yes, just about 7 years. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever held an office in the PTA ? 

Mrs. Winter. Xo. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever served on committees in the PTA? 

Mrs. Winter. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What committees have you served on in the PTA? 

Mrs. Winter. The fun festival to raise money for the schools. 

Mr. Arens. Where do you belong to the PTA ? 

Mrs. Winter. Arlington School and 49. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to ask you to raise your voice, please. 

Mrs. Winter. It is Arlington School and 49. 

Mr. Arens. May I repeat it and see if it is correct. Did you say 
Arlington school and school 49? 

Mrs. Winter. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Those are groups in this community in Baltimore ? 

Mrs. Winter. That is right. 



1062 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. I don't exj)ect an affirmative answer, but I want to rlear 
the record. Is your membership in the PTA at the direction of any 
person known by you to be a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Winter. No. 

INIr. Arens. Is the Communist Party or any person in the Com- 
munist Partv in consultation with you with respect to any of your 
activities in the PTA ? 

Mr. Weisgal. Would you mind repeating- the question, please ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you in the recent past been in consultation with 
any person known by you to be a Communist with respect to your 
activities, membership, in the PTA? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Winter. I refuse on the same ground as before. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other organizations of comparable dis- 
position or comparable makeup to tlie PTA to which you belong? 
By that I mean non-Communist organizations. 

Mrs. Winter. I can't think of any. 

INIr. Arens. Just one final question. Are you this moment a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Winter. I refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. ]Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Mitzi Freishtat Swan, kindly come forward. 

Mr. Chairman, I have been reminded that the counsel for IVIiss Swan 
earlier today requested, because of her physical condition, the she be 
deferi-ed. So I belie^ve this record reflects that she was deferred. It 
slipped my mind. I am sorry for having called her at this time. 

Herbert Nichol, will you kindly come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Nichol. I do. 

Mr. Lewis. May I request that the television be turned off? 

Mr. Willis. All right, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF HERBERT NICHOL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

ROBERT LEWIS 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Nichol. My name is Herbert Nichol. I live at 806 Cliff Edge 
Road, Baltimore 8. I am a private schoolteacher of mathematics. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are you employed as a private schoolteacher, 
Mr. Nichol ? 

Mr. Nichol. I would prefer not to answer that unless it is ma- 
terial, but I will. 

Mr. Arens. You are requested to answer it; yes, sir. 

Mr. Nichol. At the Boys' Latin School. 

Mr. Arens. Is that in Baltimore ? 

Mr. Nichol. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1063 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing here today in response to a sub- 
pena served on you by the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you Ivindly identify yourself on the 
record. 

Mr. Lewis. Robert Lewis, offices at 11 East 51st Street, New York. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. I was born in Philadelphia, March 28, 1913. 

Mr. ArEns. Give us, if you please, a word of your formal education. 

Mr. NiCHOL. I went to grammar school in Philadelphia, high 
school in Philadelphia, and to college. 

Mr. Arens. What college did you attend? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Haverford College. 

Mr. Arens. In Pennsylvania? 

Mr. NicHOL. Right. 

Mr. Arens. You graduated in 1934 ? 

Mr. NicHOL. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What degree did you receive? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Bachelor of arts. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education? 

Mr. NiCHOL. That did. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, if you please, the principal employment you 
have liad since you completed your formal education. 

Mr. NiCHOL. Well, I was employed for almost a year. Then I 
worked for an insurance company in Philadelphia as an actuarial 
clerk for approximately 2i/^ years. 

Mr. Arens. What firm was that ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. The Penn Mutual Life Insurance Co. 

Mr. Arens. Was that in Philadelphia? 

Mr. NiCHOii. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your next employment? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Then I worked for the Department of Public Assist- 
ance in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. NicHOL. As a social worker. 

Mr. Arens. For how long? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Two, 2% years ; something like that. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Then I was unemployed for awhile. Then I was 
employed by the CIO as a secretary in the Wilmington, Del., office. 

Mr. Arens. For what organization? 

Mr. NiCHOL. For the National CIO. 

Mr. Arens. When did that employment begin ? 

Mr. NiciiOL. I believe in 1940 or 1941 ; somewhere around there. 

Mr. Arens. How long did it endure? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Until 19 — the war ended in 1945, until approximately 
the spring of 1946 with the exception of my service in the United 
States Araiy. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do as an employee of this labor organ- 
ization in Wihnington? 

Mr. NiCHOL. My chief duties were secretary to the regional director. 

Mr. Arens. Who was he ? 



1064 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. NiCHOL. Well, there were various ones. 

Mr. Arens. Who were the principal ones you recall ? 

Mr. NiciioL. The first man I served under was a man by the name 
of Hodson. I don't recall his first name completely. 

Mr. Arens. May I inquire here so that the record is clear, when 
was your term of service interrupted in order that you could serve or 
did serve in the military ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. I was inducted in the Army I believe in July of 1942, 
and I was discharged either the end of November or beginning of 
December 1946. 

Mr. Arexs. I take it, then, you immediately resumed your em- 
ployment. 

Mr. NiciioL. Not mitil January. I took a month's rest. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a commission in the Arm}' ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you serve ? 

Mr. NicHOL. In the Central Pacific and the Far Eastern Theater. 

Mr. Arens. In the Infantry ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive an honorable discharge ? 

Mr. NicHOL. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you a member of the Communist Party while you 
wore the uniform of this Government ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Well, sir, I thinli: in view of the constitutional rights 
that protect me against inquiry into my associations or beliefs under 
the first amendment and also my right not to be a witness against 
myself, that I decline under both the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. All right, pick up your employment chronology there, 
if you please 

Mr. NiCHOL. 1946? 

Mr. Arens. After 1946, when j'ou had concluded this term of service 
in Wilmington, with the labor organization. 

Mr. NiCHOL. Then I went to work with a few weeks' vacation for the 
United Electrical Workers, a CIO union. 

Mr. Arens. You worked for UE ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. I want to get the dates of that employment. 

Mr. NiCHOL. In the spring of 1946 until January 1956. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vliere did you work and in what capacity ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. I worked first in Wilmington, Del. 

Mr. Arens. This is as an organizer for UE ? 

Mr. NicHOL. Field representative; yes. 

Mr. Arens. AVliere was that ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. In Wilmington, Del., first. Tlien for a short time in 
the district office, out of the district office in Philadelphia. 

Then for a couple of weeks I believe in Allentown, Pa.; for several 
years in Lancaster, Pa., and then finally in Baltimore, IMd. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat plants did you have access to as an organizer 
for UE? 

Mr. NiCHOL. What do you mean, access? 

Mr, Arens. UE had contracts at that time with a number of estab- 
lishments, heavy industry here on the eastern seaboard and as far in as 
Pittsburgh. What plants did you try to organize or work in during 
your organizational functions for UE ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE^ MD., AREA 1065 

Mr. NiCHOL. Well, in Allentown, which was — in Wilmington, I 
serviced the local in a fiber plant. 

Mr. Arens. What was the name of it ? Do you recall ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. I believe it was — frankly, I don't remember the name. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir, if you don't remember the name, kindly 
give us the next one. 

Mr. NiCHOL. In Allentown I worked for a very short time on an 
organizing campaign at a small newly opened Western Electric plant, 
but only for a short time. There were very few people there when 
I worked on the campaign. It later became a big plant. 

Mr. Arens. The next, please, sir ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. In Lancaster my main duties were servicing the local 
of the union and the RCA television plant just outside of Lancaster. 

There was another small plant, machine shop, where I did some 
service. 

In Baltimore, when I came here, my main duties were servicing our 
local at Westinghouse plant in the city of Baltimore and in Lans- 
downe, Avhich is a suburb of Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. Who was your supervisor or person to whom you re- 
ported in your work ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. The director of organization of our union. 

Mr. Arens. AVhat is his name ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. James Matles. 

Mr. Arens. Did you and James Matles belong to any organization 
together ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. We belonged to the union. 

Mr. Arens. Any other organizations of which you and he were 
members ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. What organizations? 

Mr. Arens. The Communist Party. 

Mr. NiCHOL. Sir, I decline to answer that on the previous grounds 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member or working for UE when it was 
ejected from the CIO? When was the UE ejected from the CIO? 

Mr. NiCHOL. I believe in 1949. We were not ejected. We with- 
drew. 

Then later the CIO considered that tantamount to being expelled. 

Mr. Arens. The CIO found after its own investigation and inquiry 
that the UE was loyal to a foreign power, that it was in effect con- 
trolled by the Communist Party ; is that not true ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Sir, I don't know that that is so. I don't recall any 
investigation having been held. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your next employment ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. My next employment was my present employment. 

Mr. Arens. How did you happen to procure this next employment? 

Mr. NicHOL. Through a professional employment agency. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a teacher's license of some kind? 

Mr. NicHOL. I do not have a teacher's license, sir. 

Mr. Arens. "Wlio actually helped you procure this job at the Boys' 
Latin School? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Professional employment agency, sir. 

Mr, Arens. How many boys do you have vuider your tutelage? 



1066 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. NicHOL. Approximately 85. 

JNIr. Arens. Do they receive your instruction regularly, every school 
day ? 

Mr. NicHOL. Most every day. 

Mr. Arens. Is this a full-time school ? 

Mr. NicHOL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. "\'\niat is the average age group of the boys who are 
under your supervision ? 

Mr. NicHOL. High-school age. 

(The "witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. NicHOL. I teach mathematics to all boys in the high school in 
that school. 

Mr. Arens. Is that a private institution here? 

Mr. NicHOL. A private school, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any supervision over the boys in any 
extracurricular work, any clubs, YMCA work, or anything of that 
character ? 

Mr. NicHOL. No, sir. "We do not have such things at our school. 

Mr. Arens. Do the boys have any social organizations in connec- 
tion with this institution ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. I believe they have parties together and social affairs. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been, or are you, a sponsor of any of the 
parties or clubs ? 

Mr. NicHOL. No, sir. 

Mr, Arens. How long have you been actually engaged in this school ? 

Mr. NicHOL. Since the end of January 1946. 

Mr. Arens. Since the end of January 1956? 

Mr. NicHOL. 1956. 

Mr. Arens. Considerably^ over a j^ear ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had two complete classes of boys under your 
tutelage? 

i\Ir. NicHOL. I teach all of the boys from the last part of the eighth 
grade through the twelfth grade. 

Mr. Arens. You taught through 1956 ? 

Mr. NicHOL. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Now, we are in 1957. Do you have a new group 
of boys ? 

Mr. NicHOL. The eighth-grade boys. 

Mr. Arens. How many boys in the aggregate since you l^egan 
teaching at that institution have been under your tutelage ? 

Mr. NicHOL. Perhaps a hundred. 

Mr. Arens. That is in the aggregate, both years ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. That is right, because the graduating class has about 
16 boys and the ncAv class has about 

Mr. Arens. Who is the immediate supervisor at the institution? 

Mr. NicHOL. The headmaster. 

Mr. Arens. His name ? 

Mr. NicHOL. Mr. Frederick Hahn. 

Mr, Arens. Have you had any conversation with him since you 
received your supena to appear before this committee? 

Mv. NicHOL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Has he interrogated you as to whether or not you are 
a member of the Communist Party ? 



COMMXJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1067 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. NicHOL. Sir, I think that question is entirely immaterial to 
the matter at hand. 

Mr. Arens. It is exceedingly material. I respectfully suggest that 
you answer the question. 

Mr. NicHOL. I will have to decline on the grounds I have previously 
sated, of the first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you deny to the headmaster that you are or ever 
have been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. NicHOL. I decline to answer that on the grounds previously 
stated, in view of the fact that I think it is immaterial 

Mr. Arens. We want to get the record clear on tliis point. You 
recognize, sir, you are under oath, do you not? 

Mr. NicHOL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You recognize the potential liability of yourself, or 
any witness, who may misrepresent to this committee deliberately on 
a material fact? 

Mr. NicHOL. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. After your release from oath before this committee^ 
do you intend to return to the school and announce to the headmaster 
and to the governing body, "Of course I am not a Communist, but 
for a number of reasons 1 was not going to tell that Committee on 
Un-American Activities that I am not a Communist." Do you in- 
tend to do that ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Sir, I have not given thought to what I intend to do. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Ernest Mover ? 

]\Ir. NicHOL. Ernest Moyer was at one time a district president of 
the IJE, district 1, in which I worked. 

Mr. Arens. I want to read you some testimony. A couple of years 
ago I was director of the Internal Security Subcommittee of the 
Senate Judiciary Committee and I was interrogating under oath a man 
by the name of Ernest Moyer. Here are the questions and answers. 
He was then listing people known by him to be members of the Com- 
munist Party. 

We will proceed along with the questions. Here are Mr, Moyer's 
answers : 

Herbert Nichol. He is a field organizer for UE in Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Arens. Is he there now, or in the recent past was he there? 

Mr. Moyer. He was there when I left the UE. 

Mr. Arens. That was in 1950? 

Mr. Moyer. V,)'>6. 

I\Ir. Arens. Do you have any additional information with reference to Mr. 
Nichol? 

Mr. Moyer. No, outside of the fact he attended UE Communist Party caucuses. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend party caucuses with him? 

Mr. Moyer. In UE? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Moyer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And do you say he is a person, to your certain knowledge, who was 
a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Moyer. Yes, sir. 

You have heard the testimony of Mr. Moyer which was given under 
oath before a congressional committee. Do you care now, while you 
are under oath, so that you can go back and have it on this record to 
present to the headmaster of the school — do you care now to deny that 
testimony while you are under oath, sir ? 



1068 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. NiCHOL. My recollection of Mr, Moyer was that he left our 
union under a cloud for having misused union funds and for being a 
confirmed alcoholic. I therefore feel that his testimony is to be con- 
sidered in that light. 

Mr, Arens. Then stand up like a red-blooded American and deny 
that you are a member of the Communist Party. [Applause.] 

INIr. Willis. We will not have any such outburst in the courtroom 
either favorable or adverse to any witness. This must be enforced. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. NicHOL. I think that my service in the Army speaks for itself 
as regards my Americanism and conduct as a citizen. 

I respectfully decline, however, under the circumstances surround- 
ing this whole hearing, and so forth, under the first and fifth amend- 
ments to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Does that circumstance, which is surrounding you now, 
encompass the fact that you are presently under oath before a con- 
gressional committee, or is this not an element which you are taking 
into consideration? 

Mr. NiCHOL. The whole situation under which the 

Mr. Willis. Wliat circumstances surrounding this committee's hear- 
ing influence you in your testimony ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Sir, I have heard it implied here as I sat here this 
morning waiting to be called that even membership in a parent- 
teachers association where one's children go to school might l)e a link 
in a subversive chain. Now, if such circumstances exist 

Mr. Willis. Who made that implication? Certainly not this com- 
mittee. 

Mr. NiCHOL. The director in questioning the previous witness. 

Mr. Arens. You know as well as you know you are alive that tliat 
is completely fabricated out of whole cloth. You heard me say the 
testimony under oath here is that Communists are under orders to 
go into non-Communist organizations. 

Mr. NiCHOL. I said 

Mr. Willis. It is a very kind act to the PTA on the part of coun- 
sel, I can assure you. That witness happened to be a member of the 
PTA according to her own testimony. Naturally the question in fair- 
ness to that very organization had to be asked. 

Now, speaking about yourself, what is it that surrounds you today 
by this committee that influences your testimony ? 

Mr. NiciTOL. The circumstances that things are imputed which I 
feel do not have a fair opportunity to be clarified to their full extent, 
witnesses cross-examined, and so forth, as to their testimony, and 
therefore, I think I would be compromising my right under the first 
and fifth amendments to answer this question. 

Mr. Willis. It was a simple question that was asked you, the last 
one. 

Mr. NiCTiOL. I decline under the first and fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr. Wn.Lis. You cannot pussyfoot on that. Counsel read you 
from sworn testimony by a witness Avho, if he misrepresented the 
facts, is subject, just as you are subject, to perjury prosecution. 

Now, you are under oath and you were asked a simple question: 
Did that witness tell the truth, or did he misrepresent the facts? 



COMJMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1069 

It seems to me one thin^ you owe to yourself, especially when you 
imply lie is the kind of witness who perhaps should not be believed, 
is that you now come forward and say he told a lie or told the truth. 
That is the only question that has been asked you. Do you want to 
answer it? 

Mr. NicHOL. I decline to answer it, sir, on the grounds of the 
reasons given. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know a person by the name of Mary Mark- 
ward ? 

Mr. NicHOL. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. She likewise took an oath before this committee in 
1951 and stated that while she was an undercover agent in the Com- 
munist Party at the behest of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
she knew you as a Communist. Do you want to attack her character 
or do you want to deny it, or what do you want to say about it ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. "What question are you asking me, sir? 

Mr. Arens. Was Mary Markward telling the truth when she took 
an oath before this committee and identified you as a person who to a 
certainty was known by her to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. NicHOL. I decline to ansAver on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Willis. Did you know such a person ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. I decline to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Willis. Well, that person who took an oath was working for 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Do you have anything against 
her character ? 

Mr. NiCHOL. Sir, my experience in the labor movement leads me to 
the conclusion that many people take oatlis about many things for 
many reasons, some of which are valid and some of which are not, 
and Avlien such testimony is involved it is very hard to establish one 
way or anotlier their motives, the truth of their testimony, and so 
forth, and, therefore, I decline to answer these questions. 

Mr. Willis. You would include in that category of people, persons 
who have been investigated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 
Do you know of a finer American organization ? If you cannot trust 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, whom are you going to trust? 
Do you think it has false motives in trying to protect this coim- 
try ? You brought that up. I did not. 

Mr. Nichols. I am just telling you why I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Willis. That answer does not make much sense to this in- 
stance. 

Mr. Arens. So the record is clear, are you now, this moment, sir, 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Nichols. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. IVIr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest we conclude the 
staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. We will take a 5-minute recess. 

(A short recess was taken.) 



1070 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

]Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Counsel, please call the next witness. 

Mr, Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, is 
Marcella Avnet, A-v-n-e-t. 

Mr. Levine. I would like to protest against television, as well as 
the skilled photographs. I heard what Your Honor said, but I 
think if Your Honor should ask the press to desist until the hearing, 
that they will probably do it. 

Mr. Willis. We have no control over TV or the press, photogra- 
phers, or anyone else until the witness has been sworn and is within 
our jurisdiction. 

Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are a])out to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God? 

Mrs. Avnet. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. MARCELLA HALPER AVNET, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, HARRY 0. LEVINE 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. Avnet. I have a statement to file. Do I file it now? 

Mr. Willis. The rule with regard to the taking of photographs 
during testimony will be enforced. The counsel has asked for it. 

Mr. Levine. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify yourself by name, residence, 
and occupation? 

Mrs. Avnet. I have a statement to file. Do I do it now ? 

Mr. Arens. The rules of the committee provide that statements 
must be filed in advance with the committee and it will be taken 
under advisement by the committee. 

So if you care to do so, you may file your statement and it will be 
taken under advisement by the committee. 

INIrs. Avnet. To whom do I give this, sir? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bonora, would you kindly receive it? Will you 
kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occupation ? 

]Mrs. Avnet. Marcella Avnet, 3900 block of Mortimer Avenue. 

Mr. Arens. I wonder if I could impose upon you to repeat that. 
The acoustics here are not too good. 

Mrs. Avnet. Marcella Avnet, 3900 Mortimer Avenue. 

Mr. Arens. In Baltimore ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Correct. 

Mr. Arens. Are you Miss or Mrs. ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Mrs. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mrs. Avnet, in response 
to a subpena served upon you by the House Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities ? 

Mrs. Avnet. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel? 

Mrs. Avnet. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BALTIMORE, MD,, AREA 1071 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on this 
record ? 

Mr. Levine. Harry O. Levine, L-e-v-i-n-e, Madison Building, 
member of the Maryland bar. 

Mr. Arens. I will not ask you when you were born, but I will ask 
you where you were born. 

Mrs. AvNET. I appreciate the first — I don't know what you call it. 
Anyhow, I was born in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. ~\"Miat was your maiden name, please ? 
Mrs. AvNET. Marcella Halper. 

Mr. AnENS. Give us just a word about your formal education. 
Mrs. AvNET. I graduated from elementary school, from high 
school. I have a bachelor's degree from Hunter College. 

However, while I attended there during my junior year I attended 
Eollins College, in Winter Park, Fla. 

Mr. Arens. "Would it be convenient for you to raise your voice? 
It is difficult to hear you. 

Mrs. AvNET. I graduated from elementary school, from high 
school, from Hunter College. I received a B. A. degree. 

However, in my junior year I attended Rollins College, in Winter 
Park, Fla. 

I also attended one summer Cornell University. Upon graduation 
from Hunter College I took courses at New York University, Colum- 
bia University, City College, and also Hunter College. 
Mr. Arens. What degrees did you receive, please? 
]Mrs. Avnet. I have a bachelor's degree in art. I also have the 
equivalent of bachelor's degree in business administration. 
Mr, Arens. When did you complete your formal education? 
Mrs. Avnet. I don't know what you consider formal education be- 
cause I am going to school now. 

Mr. Arens. You are still pursuing your education? 
Mrs. Avnet. Yes. I intend to for a long time. 
Mr. Arens. When did you complete your full-time studying in 
these various schools to which you have alluded? Give us your 
best recollection. 

Mrs. Avnet. It is a long time ago. 
Mr. Arens. Was it in the early thirties ? 
Mrs. Avnet. I presume that is close enough. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the first principal occupation which you had 
after you had completed your full-time pursuit of your education. 
Mrs. Avnet. I was a school teacher. 
Mr. Arens. "WHiere did you teach school ? 
Mrs. Avnet. In New York City. 
Mr. Arens. Where, in New York City? 

Mrs. Avnet. Junior high school. Oh, during that time it was 
very hard to get a job. I taught in many schools. It was during 
the depression. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about your principal teaching in the public 
school sysi-'em in New York City. 

Mrs. Avnet. I taught in the junior high school. 



f 



1072 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. What school ? 

Mrs. AvNET. Public School No. 12. 

Mr. Arens. What courses did you teach ? 

Mrs. AvNET. Commercial work. I am sorry, I taught a lot of 
subjects because at that time you were a substitute teacher and you 
were called on to teach practically anything. When a teacher was 
absent if you were lucky enough you got the job and you taught. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us in your own words, when did you teach, what 
did you teach, and in what institutions did you teach ? 

Mrs. AvNET. It is a long time ago. If I fail to remember some 
of them, I know I am under oath, I hope you won't hold it against 
me. 

Mr. Arens. We want your best recollection, please. 

Mr. AvNET. Junior High School 12; Theodore Roosevelt High 
School. 

Mr. Arens. I take it all of these are in New York City? 

Mrs. AvNET. All of them are in New York City. Is that suf- 
ficient ? Do you still want the names of all ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, ma'am. 

Mrs. AvNET. Jewish Evening High. I am not really certain of 
all these names ; it is long ago. 

Richmond High School, Girls High School. 

At this moment that is all I can remember. I may have taught 
elsewhere, though, I want to make that clear. 

Mr. Arens. You mean elsewhere in New York City ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you taught any place besides New York City? 

Mrs. Avnet. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Mrs. Avnet. In Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. When ? Give us 3- our best recollectioii. 

Mrs. Avnet. About 25 years ago, I would say. 

Mr. Arens. Was that immediately after your teaching engage- 
ments in New York City ? 

Mrs. Avnet. No ; it was long, long after. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any teaching activities after your teach- 
ing activities in New York City, but before your teaching activities 
in Baltimore? 

Mrs. Avnet. None whatsoever. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any principal employment after your 
teaching activities terminated in New York City ? 

Mrs. Avnet. "What do you mean by principal employment, sir? 

Mr. Arens. Any full-time job ? 

Mrs. Avnet. You mean I was paid for ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Tell us about them, please. Just the principal 
employments. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Avnet. I was a secretary. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Baltimore. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1073 

Mr. Arens. How long after you terminated your teaching activities 
in New York did you move to Baltimore? 

Mr. Willis. When did you move to Baltimore? 

Mi-s. AvNET. Twelve years ago. 

Mr. Arens. How long after you completed your teaching in New 
York City did you move to Baltimore? Was there an interval there, 
or did you come immediately to Baltimore? 

Mrs.'AvNET. I came immediately to Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. Then did you assume this secretarial position here in 
Baltimore ? 

Mi-s. AvNET. No, not immediately. 

Mr. Arens. How long was it after you were here in Baltimore that 
you assumed this secretarial position? 

Mrs. Avnet. Seven years. 

Mr. Arens. Did yoii at any time in that 7-year period have any 
principal employment activities ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Not that I recall. If I have the years correct. If I 
have the period correct. It is to the best of rny knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you maintain this secretarial position to 
which you have referred ? 

Mrs. Avnet. A short while. 

Mr. Arens. A matter of a year or so, or less than a year ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Less, I would say. 

Mr. Arens. Was it a matter of 6 months? 

Mrs. Avnet. About. 

Mr. Arens. Then what was your next position ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Secretary again. ^ 

Mr. AnENS. And in what establishment ? 

Mr. Avnet. Multi-Service. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged there, please? 

Mrs. Avnet. It probably sounds ridiculous that I don't remember 
these things, but I don't keep a diary. 

Mr. Arens. Not at all. It is difficult sometimes to recall specific 
events over the course of many years. I just want your best recollec- 
tion. 

Mrs. Avnet. All right. A couple of years, I would say. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Office manager, I suppose you would call it. 

Mr. Arens. What enterprise or organization ? 

Mrs, Avnet. You know, I skipped one. I was a teacher in Balti- 
more which I mentioned before and I did not put that in where I was 
supposed to. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us where and when you taught? 

Mrs. Avnet. I mentioned before that I taught about 5 years ago in 
Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. And for how long did you teach ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Not long. It was less than a year. 

]\Ir. Arens. "V^Hiere did you teach? 

Mrs. Avnet. Bais Yaakov School for Girls, a parochial school. 

Mr. Arens, Is it run by the Catholic Church? 

Mrs. Avnet. No, it is a Jewish parochial school. 



1074 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arexs. How many students did you have there? 
Mrs. AvNET. You mean the total number? 
Mr. Arens. Yes. 
Mrs. AvNET. I would say 30. 
JNIr. Arens. What did you teach there? 

Mrs. AvNET. Seventh-, eighth-, ninth-year English, Latin ; seventh-, 
eighth-, ninth-year math ; music and sewing, if I recall correctly. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at any time superintend or visit the young 
ladies in extracurricular activities. 
Mr. AvNET. Xo. 

Mr. Arens. What caused your disassociation from this parochial 
school ? 

iVIrs. AvNET. I don't want to cast any reflection on the school, because 
I tliink very highly of it. but the reason that I discontinued teaching 
there, although they wished me to continue to teach, was that they 
don't pay on time. That was the reason. It takes a long time. 

Mr. Arens. Was the disassociation entirely voluntary on your part? 
Mrs. Avnet. I am sorry? 

Mrs. Arens. Was your disassociation from the institution entirely 
voluntary on your part? 

Mrs. Avnet. Definitely, because I needed the money. 
Mr. Arens. Now, your next employment, please, ma'am. 
Mrs. Avnet. Well, Multi-Service, I belie,ve, was the next one. 
]\Ir. Arens. How long were you engaged in Multi- Service? 
Mrs. Avnet. A couple of years, I think I said. 
Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 
Mrs. Avnet. Office manager. 
Mr. Arens. For what organization or company ? 
( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mr. Arens. Do you understand there is a question outstanding? 
Mrs. Avnet. Yes, I was consulting counsel, sir. 
Mr. Arens. Go right ahead. 

Mrs. Avnet. I refuse to answer the question on the following 
grounds : 

One, that the question in this hearing exceeds the boundaries of the 
legislative inquiry and is, therefore, in violation of the first, second 
and third articles of the United States Constitution ; 

Two, that the question violates the first amendment of the United 
States Constitution because it invades my right to freedom of speech, 
press, and assembly. 

Three, that the question is violative of the fifth amendment because 
it would compel me to act as a witness against myself, and the answer 
might tend to incriminate me. 

On the last point, since there has been such screaming headlines 
about the fifth amendment, I would like to make this point clear: 
that in no way does the use of the fifth amendment have any sinister 
or evil meaning attached to it. That as far as I believe there is no 
confession of guilt to the fifth amendment. 

This is not only my own thinking; this has been the decision of 
the United States Supreme Court, the highest ruling body in this 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1075 

country of ours, in the Slochower case against the board of liigher 
education in the city of New York. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by tlie name of Charles Craig ? 

]Mr. AvxET. I refuse to answer the question on the three grounds 
which I stated. 

Mr. Arens. Charles Craig this morning, while he was testifying 
under oath, recited that he had been a member of the Communist 
Party serving his Government. While he was under oath, he said 
that he knew you as a member of the Communist Party. 

Do you care now to avail yourself of the opportunity to deny that 
identification ? 

Mrs. AvxET. I will avail myself of the opportunity under the Con- 
stitution and refuse to answer that question on the three grounds 
wdiich I have previously stated. 

]\Ir. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Dorothy K. Funn ? 

Mrs. AvNET. I refuse to answer that question on the three grounds 
previously stated. 

]Mr. Arens. She likewise took an oath before this committee in 
1953, laid her liberty on the line by saying that she knew to a cer- 
tainty that you were a member of the Communist Party. 

Do you care now to avail yourself of the opportunity, while you 
are under oath, to deny that you were a member of the Communist 
Party i 

JNlrs. AvNET. I refuse to answer that question on the same three 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
you were in the public-school system in New York City ? 

Mrs. AvNET. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
you were teaching at this parochial school in the Baltimore area? 

JVIrs. AvNET. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you noAv a member of the Communist Party? 

]Mrs. AvNET. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you, please, a photostatic 
reproduction of two documents. They are on the same photostat. 
The first is an application for a post office box for the Committee to 
Defeat the Smith Act. 

Tlie applicant is Mary Eoberts. She gives as one of the references 
3^ourself, Marcella Avnet. Then we see here accompanying it a 
signature of Marcella Avnet and a statement, in which Marcella Avnet 
says that the applicant is trustwortliy and responsible, on the verifica- 
tion of reference of applicant for box of the organization, the Commit- 
tee to Defeat tlie Smith Act. 

Would you kindly accommodate this Committee on Un-American 
Activities which is trying to protect internal security by verifying 
the authenticity of your signature on these documents? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

]\Irs. Avnet. I refuse to answer that question on the three grounds 
previously stated. 

(Documents marked "Avnet Exhibit No. 1,'' follows :) 



1076 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

AvNET Exhibit No. 1 




i 1 \J'X.%> 




°~^ A 



Mr. Arens. Do you know the person who gives you as a reference, 
according to this document, and concerning whose trustworthiness 
and character and responsibility you attest? Caji you tell us whether 
you know her? 

Mrs. AvNET. I refuse to answer that on the three grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us about this Committee to Defeat the 
Smith Act, the anti-Communist Act? Do you have any knowledge 
or information presently respecting that organization ? 



I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1077 

Mrs. AvNET. I refuse to answer that question on the three grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the PTA ? 

Mrs. AvNET. I am, 

Mr. Arens. To what PTA do you belong? 

Mrs. AvNET. Two of them. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat are the names of them, please? 

Mrs. AvNET. Pimlico Junior High and City College PTA. 

Mr. Arens. Do you now, or have you ever, held any position or post 
or office in either of those two organizations ? 

Mrs. AvNET. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any other organizations of compa- 
rable non-Communist composition ? 

Mrs. AvNET. What do you mean by "non-Communist composition" ? 
You are not asserting that PTA is Communist ? 

Mr. Arens. I am not asserting anything. I am just asking you 
for clarification. Do you belong to any other organization which we 
in this type of work call nonsensitive organizations ? Do you belong 
to any other clubs which are clearly not Communist creed? 

Mrs. AvNET. I have no way of knowing, sir. 

Mr. Arens. To what clubs or organizations do you belong? You 
have told us you belong to the PTA. To what other groups do you 
belong ? 

Mrs. AvNET. The Citizens Planning and Housing. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about that organization. 

Mrs. AvNET. They do a very good job, I think. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat do they plan? Is it an official organization of 
the city? 

Mrs. Avnet. No. It is a private organization. People who are 
interested in slum-clearance work or better housing conditions and 
so on. 

Mr, Arens, Have you held any office or post in that organization ? 

Mrs. Avnet. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other organization of which you are a 
member ? 

Mi-s. Avnet. The Hilltop Civic Association. 

Mr. Arens. Have you held any office or post in the Hilltop Civic 
Association ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What office or post have you held in that organization ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Program chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently program chairman ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you held that position ? 

Mrs. Avnet. This year. You know, for the current year. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other post or office which you have held in 
that organization ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Last year I believe I was on the executive board as a 
delegate at large, or whatever you want to call it. 

Mr. Arens. Delegate at large of what ? 

Mi-s. Avnet. Of the Hilltop Association. 

Mr. Arens. Delegate at large to what? 

Mrs, Avnet. I thought you asked me if I ever held any post in that 
organization. 



1078 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. I perhaps am a little confused. Are you a delegate 
from the Hilltop Civic Association to some other group, or from some 
group to the Hilltop Association '( 

Mrs. AvNET. I was on the executive board of the Hilltop Civic 
Association last year as a delegate at large. 

In other words, I did not hold any post other than being on the 
executive board. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other organization of which you are a 
member? 

Mi-s. AvNET. The Coordinating Council of PTA. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about that, just a word about it, please. 

Mrs. AvNET. That is an organization that is made up of — it is a 
delegated body from all the PTA's in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. That was some years ago you were on that; is that 
correct ? 

Mrs. AvNET. No. 

Mr. Arens. You still maintain 

Mr. Willis. You mean Baltimore? 

Mrs. AvNET. In Baltimore. Did I say New York City ? 

Mr. Arens. You said New York City. 

Mrs. AvNET. I meant in Baltimore. All the PTA's in Baltimore 
City. 

Mr. Arens. How many member are there on this council ? 

Mrs. AvNET. Well, each PTA is permitted 1 delegate for every 
200 school population. So that is a large number. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know any person in the PTA, who to your cer- 
tain knowledge is a member of the Communist Party ? 

We are going to exclude yourself from this question. Do you know 
any person who is now an official, officer, or member of the PTA who 
is a Communist, and we are not going to talk about yourself. You 
are out of this question. 

Mrs. AvNET. I never asked anyone. Since I am under oath, I really 
don't know how to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. If you do not know, say you do not know. 

Mrs. AvNET. I do not know. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other organizations to wliich you belong ? 

Mrs. AvNET. There may be. I have always been a very active mem- 
ber in my community. I don't know whether I joined the United 
Nations or I didn't. I don't think I did. I get applications every 
day to join organizations. 

Mr. Arens. You don't mean to join the United Nations. You mean 
the American Association? 

Mi's. AvNET. American Association, whatever it is called. 

Mr. Arens. Have you joined that? 

Mrs. AvNET. I don't think so. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other organization of which you are a 
member ? 

Mrs. AvNET. I don't believe so, sir ; not to my recollection. 

Mr. Arens. So that this record is perfectly clear, is there any other 
organization of another nature or variety of which you are a member ? 

Mrs. AvNET. What do you mean by that, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. The Communist Party ? 

Mrs. AvNET. I refuse to answer that question on the three grounds 
previously stated. 



COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1079 

Mr. Arens. And so this record is clear, are you presently, this mo- 
ment, a member of the Communist Party ? 

]Mrs. AvNET. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any professional groups ? 

Mrs. AvNET. What do you mean by professional groups ? 

Mr. Arens. Well, teachers organizations of some kind ? 

Mrs. AvNET. No ; I am not a teacher, so I would not be eligible to 
join. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any club of professional women, any- 
thing of that character ? 

Mrs. Avnet. No ; I don't. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. 

That concludes the staff interrogation of this witness, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. The witness has not been excused. 

Mrs. Avnet. I am sorry ; there was so much commotion 

Mr. Willis. Under questioning by Mr. Arens, you freely disclosed 
that 3'ou taught school in New York and that you taught school here, 
and that you were a secretary and office manager. Then counsel asked 
you what your next employment was. You invoked the privilege of 
the hf th amendment. 

Mrs. Avnet. May I interrupt you, sir. I think that is incorrect. 
If we go to the record, I was asked where I was employed. That is 
when I invoked, not the fifth only, but the three privileges. 

Mr. Willis. We will not quibble about 1 or 2 or 3 or more. I had 
understood that you invoked the privilege of the fifth amendment 
and the other two which you enumerated. 

Mrs. Avnet. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. In not wanting to answer the question as to what was 
your next employment, did I misunderstand you ? 

Mr. Avnet. Yes; you did. I was office manager. That was my 
next employment. 

Mr. Willis. "\Yliat was the question you refused to answer in con- 
nection with it 

Mrs. Avnet. Maybe we could find it in the minutes, or whatever 
you call that, the record. 

Mr. Willis. You said yourself that I had misunderstood you. It 
was not the type of employment, but when or where you were em- 
ployed ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Well, at this point I am confused, too. So perhaps 
we had better go back to the record. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever worked for the Progressive Party? 

Mr. Willis. In other words, having disclosed a number of employ- 
ments, you have opened the door for all employments and I wanted 
to clarify the record in my mind. 

Mrs. Avnet. AVhat do you mean by work, sir ? Paid work ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Avnet. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been engaged by the Progressive Party ? 

Mrs. Avnet. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been active in the Progressive Party ? 

Mrs. Avnet. Active in what sense ? 

Mr. Arens. In any sense. 



1080 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mrs. AvNET, You mean go to a party ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you been active in tlie work of tlie Progressive 
Party ? 

Mrs. AvNET. You mean voting ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you been active in the organization or work of 
the Progressive Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. AvNET. Active has 

Mr. Arens. What have you done, if anything, in connection with 
the Progressive Party ? 

Mrs. AvNET. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. Will you call the next wit- 
ness, please. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Mr. Harold Buchman. Kindly 
come forward. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. Will you 
raise your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Buchman. I do. 

Mr. Forer. May we have the television off, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Willis. You certainly may. 

TESTIMONY OF HAROLD BUCHMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Buchman. My name is Harold Buchman, 4578 Derby Manor 
Drive, Baltimore, Md. Occupation, lawyer. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing here today, Mr. Buchman, in re- 
sponse to a subpena served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. Buchman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Buchman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel will please identify himself on this record. 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Buchman. July 28, 1916, in Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. Just a word about your education, please. 

Mr. Buchman. AYell, No. 62 elementary school. No. 49 Junior High 
School. Baltimore City College; University of Baltimore Law 
School, and a few miscellaneous language courses. 

Mr. Arens, "VSlien did you complete your law work? 

Mr. Buchman. In 1938. 

Mr. Arens. When were you admitted to practice law ? 

Mr. Buchman. The same year. 

Mr. Arens. As a prerequisite to attaining the privilege of practicing 
law in this State, did you take an oath to support and defend the 



COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1081 

Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and 
domestic ? 

Mr. BucHMAN. I certainly did. 

Mr. Akens. Were you at the very time you took an oath to become 
a lawyer in this State, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BucHMAN. Is that why you called me here, Mr. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest this witness on 
this record be ordei'ed and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. BucHMAN. Well, I am going to decline to answer that question 
for the following reasons : 

First of all, under the fii'st amendment which was a product of the 
persecution of people under the seditious libel trials in England in the 
I7th century, and as a result of the experience of colonists here where 
hysteria by the majority deprived minorities of rights, the 1st amend- 
ment was enacted to prevent the recurrence of such situations in this 
country. 

Therefore, the first ground of my objection to any such question is 
that Congress has no power mider the Constitution to appoint a com- 
mittee with the powers that you so have used. 

Secondly, that even if you had such powers under the fii'st amend- 
ment, you liave no right to interrogate me as to any political views, 
associations, or beliefs under the guaranties of freedom of speech and 
assembly, sir. 

Thirdly, under the doctrine of the separation of powers this is sup- 
posed to be a committee of a legislative body without any power to 
act as a judicial body to try a person without the customary procedures 
that accompany a trial, and also under the same doctrine you are not 
a police enforcing body and I am pointing out to you what was con- 
tained in the case of Quinn v. United States in the recent Supreme 
Court decision. 

Furthermore, I claim my privilege under the lawyer-client relation- 
ship because it is common knowledge that in this State I have repre- 
sented people accused of leftwing and Communist activities, Smith 
Act case, and so on, but I don't press that objection primarily at this 
point. 

In addition, I also object to answering the question because I do not 
see how that answer serves any possible valid legislative purpose. It is 
irrelevant, it is remote, it has nothing to do with any function of Con- 
gress or of this committee in proposing any valid legislation. 

I have several other reasons, but my final reason at this time, and I 
am expanding at this point so that I can use shorthand if the case 
arises, to decline to answer questions in the future, the 5th amendment 
which grew out of a case in England in the iTth century where people 
were persecuted for heresy and the doctrine was embodied in the com- 
mon law and as a result of Salem witchhunts in this country it became 
a part of the common law in this country, incorporated in State stat- 
utes and finally incorporated in the Federal Constitution as a fifth 
amendment, that no person shall be compelled to accuse himself. 

In taking that privilege I want to be made clear that I am not mak- 
ing any admission of guilt, that this is a protection for the innocent 
as well as for the guilty, and that furthermore it is, in addition, a 
protection against unjust prosecutions. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently innocent of Communist Party mem- 
bership ? 



1082 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. BucHMAN. I refuse to answer that question, that cute question, 
for the same ground f)reviously assigned. 

IMr. Arens. Now, sir, I have in ni}^ hand a copy of an article appear- 
ing in the Baltimore Sun of August 16, 1952, quoting yourself : 

Harold Buchman, attorney and cochairman of the Progressive Party of 
Maryland, said the party does not object to taking the oath required by the 
Ober law if "it really means what it means on the face of it." 

Is that quote a true and correct quotation of yours on that occasion ? 

Mr. Buchman. Wliat I say is a rather difficult thing, to hold a man 
up here and go back 5 years and ask on such and such a night where 
were you, but it sounds reasonable, so I accept your version of it. 

Mr. Arens. Is that a correct quotation ? 

Mr. Buchman. It is in the paper. It sounds reasonable. I accept 
your interpretation. 

(Document marked "Buchman Exhibit No. 1," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you object or did your colleagues in the Progressive 
Party object to taking the oath under the Ober law ? 

Mr. Buchman. I think as a matter of fact — let us see. I represented 
candidates for the Progressive Party in the courts where the oath was 
eliminated as to candidates for Federal office and in the Supreme 
Court the oath was so interpreted by the Supreme Court and so 
narrowed that it wouldn't, it couldn't, lead to unjust persecutions by 
reason of vague and ambiguous language contained in that affidavit. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever sign an oath under the Ober law ? 

Mr. Buchman. I think I did, as an elector to put the candidacy of 
Vincent Hallinan on the ballot in Maryland in 1952 and that was a 
truthful oath. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the time 
you signed the oath under the Ober law ? 

Mr. BucH^rAN. I again, for the various reasons that I have pre- 
viously cited, and again adding that claiming particularly the fifth 
amendment does not constitute an admission of guilt as to anything 
and, further, that it is a protection of the innocent as well as the 
guilty and a protection against unjust prosecution, I decline to answer 
your question. 

Mr. Arens. We are interested in developing facts that can protect 
the Constitution of the United States and the internal security of this 
Government. 

Mr. Buchman. I have my doubts on that score. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to ask you, in the pursuit of that avowed 
objective of this committee in developing facts to protect the Con- 
stitution and this Republic, if you can tell us what, if anything, you 
know about the Council for Jobs and Relief in Baltimore. Do you 
know anything about that organization ? 

Mr. Buchman. That was asked me the last time I sent out a puni- 
tive expedition in 1951. 

Mr. Arens. The punitive expedition to which you refer was the 
committee's interrogations ( 

Mr. Buchman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Is this present session a punitive expedition? 

Mr. Buchman. I consider it so. Why do you have me up here ? I 
told you then I didn't remember what it was. I have a vague recollec- 
tion, what was that, in 1949 ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1083 

Mr. Arens. The Council for Jobs and Relief in Baltimore; yes, 
thereabouts. 

]Mr. BucHMAX. I have a vague recollection of helping people to get 
welfare at that time when I had the time to act as an eleemosjaiary 
institution. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you employed in 1948 ? Do you recall ? 

Mr. BucHMAx. Yes, I was executive secretary of the Progressive 
Party, full tune. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio employed you ? 

Mr. BucHMAx. Well, as I recall, I was elected by a duly constituted 
committee of the Progressive Party. 

]Mr. Arens. How many people were on the executive council here, 
approximately ? 

Mr. BucHMAN. In 1948 ? 

]\Ir. Arex's. Yes. sir. Do you have a recollection ? 

Mr. Btjchman. I am sure your dossier is far more complete than 
mine. I have no recollection, 20, 30, 40. 

Mr. Arens. Were there as many as a dozen on the executive council ? 

Mr. BuoHMAN. As I recall, I think there was a State executive 
committee. I am surely speculating. This was 9 years ago. A State 
executive committee and a State board. 

I really couldn't tell you the composition or the number of people. 

yh\ Arens. Did you thereafter or at any time become cochairman 
of the Progressive Party in the Baltimore area ? 

Mr. BucHMAN. If you had asked me before I heard you mention 
it as one of your previous statements, I would not have recalled it, but 
I think I did hear you say I was cochairman with Otto Yerrell at one 
time or another. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Otto Yerrell ? 

Mr. BucHMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you serve as cochairman with him ? 

Mr. BucHMAN. Apparently I did. I have no recollection. 

Mr. Arens. Can you state to your certain knowledge whether or not 
Otto Yerrell was a member, or has been a member, of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. BucHMAN. Again, for the various reasons I have stated, I 
decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel if you told this committee truth- 
fully whether or not to your certain knowledge Otto Yerrell has been 
a member of the Communist Party, you would be supplying informa- 
tion which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. BucHMAN. It is possible, but remember, it is not an admission 
of guilt, that the fifth amendment as the Supreme Court has said 
time and again, and I think it ought to be made clear because of the 
misinterpretation of that amendment made yesterday by the chair- 
man, is a protection for the innocent as well as for the guilty and 
against, also, unjust prosecution. 

Mr, Arens. Did you know a man by the name of Milton Bates ? 

Mr. BucHMAN. I certainly did. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon? 

Mr. BucHMAN. Surely, yes. 

Mr. Arens. How did you know him? 

Mr. BucHMAN. How did I know him? 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did you know him ? 



I 



1084 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. BucHMAN. As a client. 

Mr. Arens. In any other capacity? 

Mr. BucHMAN. As a friend. 

Mr. Arens. Any other capacity? 

Mr. BucHMAN. You are trying the process of exclusion. Why not 
save time and get down to what you are after. I am going to decline 
to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. In any capacity in which you knew him, sir? 

Mr. BucHMAN. What do you mean? 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. BucHMAN. That is what I asked you to ask so we will save 
time. I say I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you, sir, as a fact, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that you recruited Milton Bates into the Communist 
Party. If that is not so, deny it under oath. 

Mr. BucHMAN. Why don't you stop hamming for the television 
cameras, Mr. Arens ? I refuse to answer that question for the same 
reasons. Just calm down and ask the questions properly. 

Mr. Arens. We have been maligned by experts. It does not bother 
me a bit. 

Mr. BucHMAN. I am not trying to malign you. And I am not 
an expert, but it is a trying thing to sit here through the day when 
you have an active law practice and to be put through the second time 
the same kind of ordeal. It is a bit of a strain. 

If I in any way appear to be offensive, I am sorry. I don't want 
to give that impression. 

Mr. Arbns. Do you know a man by the name of George Meyere? 

Mr. BucHMAN. Well, of course, Mr. Meyers is a client of mine. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know him in any other capacity? 

Mr. BucHMAN. The same answer I have previously given. Of 
course, your question is vague, but I assume you are leading up to 
the question 

Mr. Arens. To what? 

Mr. BucHMAN. To the question that you are already asking, I think 
you have set the pattern. I just want to save time. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever served in a closed Communist Party 
meeting with George Meyers? 

Mr. BucHMAN. Again I will have to exercise the — give the same 
answer and decline to answer the question. 

You know I represented him in the Smith Act case in 1951 or 1952 
in Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. Just one final question. Are you presently a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BucHMAN. Again I have to, for the reasons stated at length, 
refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest we conclude the 
staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Buchman. And again reiterating my claim of privilege does 
not constitute an admission of guilt of anything. The privilege is a 
protection for the innocent as well as the guilty and a protection 
against unjust prosecution. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. Tlie witness is excused. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1085 

The counsel for the committee has just told me that this concludes 
the hearings in Baltimore. In concluding the hearings, I should like 
to make a few observations on behalf of the committee. 

Although I have been able to be present only during the last day 
of the hearings, I have had the benefit of consultations with my col- 
league on the subcommittee, Mr. Robert Mcintosh, and the staff. 
These hearings have revealed, first of all, the continuing menace of 
the Communist conspiracy. 

This is evident by the fact that notwithstanding convictions under 
the criminal statutes of Communist conspirators, and notwithstanding 
prior hearings covering this area in which Communist agents have 
been identified, the conspiracy continues to function now, and as Mr. 
Clifford Miller, the first witness, declared : The Communist Party is 
a greater menace now than ever before. 

It is deeper underground. Therefore, more difficult to detect and 
expose. 

Therefore, at this point I want to make one thing perfectly clear 
now, that the conmiittee knows that we have only produced in these 
hearings a fair sampling of the Communist activity in this area. We 
feel that our responsibility is too broad and our resources too limited 
for us to undertake to run down all possible leads in any given area. 

Remember, the entire staff of our committee, including our clerical, 
research, and investigative staff, is approximately only 35 persons. 
We have only 8 investigators. 

TJie Communist Party, on the other hand, has a force of over 17,000 
who may be accurately described as trained, dedicated, hard working- 
agents of a foreign power. 

In view of this situation, it is our profound hope that the local au- 
thorities here, and especially the antisubversive unit of the office of 
the Attorney General, will be continued and strengthened in the splen- 
did work which it has been doing. 

We of the Committee on Un-American Activities are pleased to 
commend this unit and express our deep appreciation for the thorough 
cooperation we have received not only from the Attorney General, 
C. Ferdinand Sybert, but from Walter W. Claggett, Edward R. 
Jeunette, Louis E. Schmidt, McNeal Brockington, and Flan Couch. 

What has been accomplished by these hearings in Baltimore ? First, 
we have confirmed the pattern which we have seen in other areas of the 
Communist operations of the conspiracy. 

Second, we have received authoritative information by under- 
cover agents which explodes the hoax which the Communist Party is 
seeking to perpetuate, that is, that it is just another innocent political 
movement. 

Third, we have uncovered new fronts and new techniques of the 
Communist Party. 

This entire record will be studied very carefully by our com- 
mittee and considered from the standpoint of possible amendment to 
existing internal security laws, so that we may more effectively deal 
with the new techniques, new strategies, and tactics of this conspiracy. 

I should like to express the committee's appreciation for the cour- 
tesy of the many who have cooperated with us, including Chief Judge 
Roszel Thomsen of the United States District Court, in whose court- 
room these hearings have been held; Mr. Gerald Bracken, United 



1086 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

States Marshal, and his able deputies; the press; the radio, and TV 
representatives ; and finally, those who have been present here and who 
have so graciously cooperated in these sessions. 

Mr. Mcintosh, do you wish to make a statement ? 

Mr. McIntosh. I would like to concur with our chairman's state- 
ment. I would like to say in explanation to some of the people that 
have been here quite diligently, that we do not attempt to debate 
law with the witnesses or their counsel. 

Counsel and myself are former practicing attorneys. It is not that 
we are not willing to discuss the point. It is that the time and the 
procedures do not allow a legal debate with each witness. 

We are here because Congress and members of this committee are 
convinced that when the central fact of our existence today is our 
conflict with the Communist Party overseas, it would be less than 
prudent to ignore Communist activities within the United States. 

I again say we have appreciated the courtesy which we have re- 
ceivecL Thank you. 

Mr. Willis. The hearing is adjourned. 

(Present: Representatives Willis and Mcintosh.) 

(Thereupon, at 4: 25 p. m., Thursday, May 9, 1957, the subcommit- 
tee was adjourned subject to call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Avnet, Marcella (nee Halper) 1006, 1031, 1070-1080 (testimony), 1076 

Barad, Vivian 1027 

Barkaga, Irene 964, 065-972 (testimony), 976, 983, 1057 

Bas-s, Hallinan 909 

Bates, Milton 958, 1032, 1047-1057 (testimony), 1083, 1084 

Baumsteen, Marvin 1006 

Berman, Paul 958 

Biener, Karl F 949, 997 

Blank. Albert 904, 1030 

Blank, AYilliam (Willie) 904, 1030 

Blumberg, Dorothy Rose 901, 1025, 1027, 1029, 1031 

Bornshein, Mrs 959 

Braverman, Jeanette 1031 

Buchman, Harold 925, 930, 1004, 1080-1086 (testimony) 

Oadwalader, Thomas F 1057 

Chambers, Whittaker 918, 924 

Chou En-lai 920 

Collidge, Mildred . 1025 

Craig, Charles M., Sr 1023 (testimony), 1024-1034 (testimony), 

1040, 1042, 1054, 1061, 1075 

Dean, Belva 1029 

Fast, Howard 914 

Fenn, Lil 904 

Fino, Benjamin M 898, 930, 949-956 (testimony), 997, 1031 

Fiuo. Jeanette (Mrs. Benjamin M. Fino) 902, 903, 929, 939, 997-1004 

(testimony), 1005, 1025, 1030 

Florey, Edward 995 

Forer, Joseph 977, 982, 991, 1047, 1080 

Forrest, Pete 1025 

Foster (William Z.) 915 

Fox. Ruth 903, 1031 

Frankfeld, Philip 903, 904, 1031 

Frankfeld, Regina (Mrs. Philip Frankfeld) 903,1027 

Freishtat, Hannah (Mrs. Jack Freishtat) 1031 

Freishtat, Jack 904, 1031 

Friese. Frederick 961 

Funn, Dorothy K 993, 1075 

Gates, (John) 914 

Ginsberg, Mrs. I 936 

Goforth, Eddie 912, 929, 939 

Goldstone. Barnett 936 

Goodell, Edna 1026 

Goodell, John 1026 

Gran, Philip 899, 1030 

Greenberg, Joe 897, 898 

Hahn, Frederick 1066 

Hall, Herbert 1029 

Hall, Laddie (Mrs. Herbert Hall) 1029 

Hallengren, Fred 966,967,969,973-977 (testimony) 

Hallengren, Kirsten 967, 968, 970 

HalUnan, Vincent 1082 



11 INDEX 

Halper, Marcella. {See Avnet, Marcella.) Page 

Henderson, John 1031 

Henderson, Joseph P 899, 946-949 (testimony), 1026, 1027 

Hobart, Giles 906 

Hodson 1064 

Howard, Charles P. Jr 943 

Isaacs, Mama (Mrs. Chase Isaacs) 903,904 

Jacobs, William, Jr 1021 

Johnson, William S 981, 991-997 (testimony), 1002 

Kaudel, Irving (also known as Henry Ross) 914, 919, 920, 955, 968, 972, 

981, 982-991 (testimony), 1003 

Kandel, Nettie 1029 

Kaplan, Jeanette 1025 

Khrushchev (Nikita S.) 901,917 

Klauzenberg, John J 912 

Kotelchuck, Abraham 939, 969, 1011-1024 (testimony) 

Kotelchuck, David 1020 

Kotelchuck, Julia (nee Rutkoff ; Mrs. Abraham Kotelchuck) 1020 

Kotelchuck, Sarah 1020 

Kralik, Joseph 967, 968 

Lambert, Rose 1024 

Landman, Al 10.33 

Lee, Robert 897, 898, 906, 908, 958 

Lee, Sirkka Tuomi (Mrs. Robert Lee) 957-965 (testimony), 967, 969-972 

Levine, Harry O 1070 

Levy, Elsbeth 1041 

Levy, M 1021 

Lewis, Robert 1062 

Markward, Mary 941, 992, 1006, 1040, 1069 

Matles, James 1065 

Mendelsehn (Rheabel) J 939,1017 

Meyers, George 900, 903, 

910, 929, 968, 977-982 (testimony) , 991, 994, 1003, 1022, 1030, 1084 

Miller, Clifford C, Jr 894-925 (testimony), 928, 929, 937, 938, 

941, 942, 945, 948, 955, 956, 969, 972, 981, 983, 1003, 1026, 1085 

Meyer, Ernest 1067, 1068 

Murphy, William H 946, 1041 

Murrell, Alan H 940, 957, 973 

Newman, Claire (Clare) 90.5, 1030 

Newman, Milton 967, 971, 1026, 1027, 1030 

Nichol, Herbert 1062-1070 (testimony) 

O'Hara, Cinch 1025 

Ostrofsky, Aaron 895, 896, 898, 907, 

912-914, 918, 921, 922, 924, 925-930 (testimony), 943, 945 

Ostrofsky, Dorothy (Mrs. Aaron Ostrofsky) 1029 

Price, Myron 936 

Reed, Jesse 944 

Roberts, D 1021 

Roberts, Mary 999, 1004-1009 (testimony), 1027, 1075, 1076 

Rombro, Richard H 1011, 1034 

Ross, Henry. (See Kandel, Irving.) 

Round, Claire Friedman 969, 970, 1057-1060 (testimony) 

Ruke, John 896, 911, 912, 923, 989 

Rutkoff, Julia. (See Kotelchuck, Julia.) 

Schmerler, Sam 903, 990, 1059 

Schmerler, Mrs. Sam 990 

Seif, Milton 1032, 1034-1041 (testimony) 

Silverberg, Howard 899, 905 

Silverberg, Jean (Mrs. Howard Silverberg) 905, 966, 907, 971 

Spector, Irving 912, 

913, 915, 919, 922, 924, 929, 930-940 ( testimony ), 936, 1016, 1030 



INDEX lli 

Page 

Spector, Rhea (Mrs. Irving Spector) 936 

Swan, Charles 1059 

Swan, Mitzi Freishtat 964, 967-972 

Swogell, Gertrude 1041 

Swogell, Sam 1027 

Thomas, Henry 992 

Turner, Dundalk 945 

Weisgel, Fred E 1060 

Weiss, Phil 939, 1016 

Williamson, Levy 899, 910, 929, 943-946 (testimony), 971, 1027 

Winkler, Irving 903, 968 

Winkler, Sally (Mrs. Irving Winkler) 903 

Winter, Elsie 1027, 1060-1062 (testimony) 

Wood, Corinne 904, 966, 967, 971 

Wood, Roy 905, 1033 

Wood, William 898, 899, 905, 910, 911, 923, 924, 929, 940-943 

(testimony), 1030 

Woolford, Llewellyn W 943 

Yerrell, Otto 1031, 1041-1047 (testimony), 1083 

Zucker, Ann 1029 

Zueker, Jack 902 

Obganizations 

Aberdeen Proving Ground. {See U. S. Government, Army, Department of 
the.) 

American Chain & Cable Co 1018-1020 

American Civil Liberties Union 921, 922 

Baltimore Freedom of the Press Committee 999, 1005, 1006 

Baltimore Negro Labor Council 1043 

Baltimore Sobell Committee 10.~6 

Baltimore Youth for Peace 966, 970, 10.")9 

Bendix Radio Corp 965, 971, 972 

Bethlehem Steel Corp 894, 

897, 906, 907, 911, 918, 925-927, 930, 932, 935, 936, 940, 944, 946, 
949, 1013, 1035, 1041, 1042. 

Boys' Latin School 1062, 1065 

Capital Airlines 973, 974 

Civil Rights Congress 909 

Committee for the Benefit of Screened Seamen 939, 1002 

Committee To Defeat the Smith Act 966, 971, 1005, 1006, 1075, 1076 

Communist Party, USA 917, 920 

District 4 904, 979, 991 

National Election Conference (1956) 977, 978 

16th National Convention, February 1957, New York City 915 

District of Columbia 981, 994, 996 

Maryland 914 

Baltimore 901, 966-968, 1024, 1028, 1030 

Dundalk (Turner) Club 945, 1026 

Fred Douglass Club 1024, 1025, 1029 

Steel Club (cell within Locals 2609, 2610, respectively. 
United Steelworkers of America, at Bethlehem Steel 

Corp.) 898-900, 905, 906, 911-913, 915, 921, 923 

Steel Section (Bethlehem Steel Corp.) 918 

Tom Paine Club 1027,1028 

Youth Commission 968, 1058 

State Convention (1944) 1032, 1033 

New York, Trade Union Commission 915 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 1063 

Cooks, Pastry Cooks and Kitchen Employees Union. {See Hotel and Restau- 
rant Employees' International Alliance and Bartenders' International 
League of America, AFL.) 

Council for Jobs and Relief, Baltimore 1082, 1083 

Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America, United 1064, 1065 

District 1 1067 



iv INDEX 

Page 

F. & D. Printing Co 999-1002 

Hotel and Kestaurant Employees' International Alliance and Bartenders' 
International League of America, Local 209 (Cooks, Pastry Cooks, and 

Kitchen Employees Union) 992 

Jesse Reed Committee 944, 970 

Labor Youth League 970 

League of Women Voters 971 

Marine and Shipbuilding Workers of America, Industrial Union of, 

CIO 1035, 103ft 

Local 24 1039, 1040 

Martin, Glenn L., Co 896 

Maryland Bolt & Nut Co 1018 

Maryland Peace Council 970 

Parent Teachers Association, Baltimore 971, 1061, 1062, 1077, 1078 

Progressive Party, Maryland 897, 903, 1037, 1045, 1055, 1082, 1083- 

Baltimore 909, 946, 947, 958 

Sewing Group (Baltimore) 966, 970 

Steelworkers of America, United : 

Local 2609 922 

Local 2610 922, 933, 941, 988 

United States Government : 
Army, Department of the : 

Aberdeen Proving Ground— 931, 932, 935, 938, 939, 1013, 1014, 1017-1019 

Civil Aeronautics Administration 974 

Coast Guard 1037 

Commerce Department 950 

Navy Department 952, 998, 999, 1004, 1012, 1013 

Social Security Board 931 

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 950, 951, 953 

Young Progressives of America 904 

Publications 

Daily Worker 1001, 1002 

Educator, The (newspaper) 919* 

Facts for Steelworkers 914, 915, 918- 

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