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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the Philadelphia area. Hearing"

INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
PHILADELPHIA AREA-Part 3 



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HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
H0il8E or EEPEESENTATIYES 

EIGHTY-THIED CONGRP^SS 

SECOND SESSION 



FEBRUARY 16, 1954 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 

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UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
4ni6S WASHINGTON : 1934 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAY 2 4 1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 

BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kunzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Pf -^h 

n 



T 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121 STANDING COMMITTEES 
:4< :)! % 4: * ^ i|t 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
4= * Nc 4: * :)< 3|E 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated bj^ any such chairman or member. 

rn 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, the following standing committees: 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or tc the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

rv 



CONTENTS 



Testimony of— ^a^e 

Miss Delphia Augenblick 3901 

Mrs. Angelina Intille 3904 

Mrs. Eleanor Fleet 3911 

Francis P. Jennings 3917 

Samuel Drasin 3929 

Wesley Randall 3931 

Abraham Egnal 3933 

Harry Nathan Dubin 3937 

Wilbur Lee Mahaney, Jr 3942 

Index 3969 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES INiTHE 
PHILADELPHIA AKEA-PAET 3 



TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1954 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee on 

Un-American Activities, 

Washington D. C. 

PUBLIC hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pm-suant to call, at 10:40 a. m., in the caucus room 362, Old 
House Office Building, Hon. Gordon H. Scherer presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Gordon H. Scherer 
(presiding) and Francis E. Walter (appearance noted in transcript). 

Staff members present: Robert L. Kunzig and Frank S. Tavenner, 
Jr., counsel; Raphael I. Nixon, director of research; Earl L. Fuoss and 
George E. Cooper, investigators; and Thomas W. Beale, Sr., chief 
clerk. 

Mr. Scherer. The committee will be in session. 

Let the record show that the hearing this morning is a continuation 
of the hearings held in Philadelphia, Pa., on November 16, 17, and 
18, 1953. 

Let the record also show that the Honorable Harold H. Velde, chair- 
man of the House Un-American Activities Committee, has appointed 
a subcommittee consisting of Representative Francis E. Walter and 
Representative Gordon H. Scherer for the purpose of conducting the 
hearing this morning. I understand Mr. Walter will be here any- 
minute, but Mr. Kunzig will proceed. 

Mr. Kunzig. Miss Augenblick. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter entered the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Scherer. Will the witness rise and raise your right hand. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this subcommittee shall be the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Miss Augenblick. I do. 

Mr. Scherer. You will be seated. 

Mr. Counsel, you will proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF DELPHIA AUGENBLICK, ACCOMPANIED BY 
HER COUNSEL, DAVID BERGER 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you state your full name, please? 

Miss Augenblick. Delphia Augenblick. 

Mr. Kunzig. Will you please spell your name for the reporter. 

3901 



3902 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Miss AuGENBLicK. .D-e-1-p-h-i-a A-u-g-e-n-b-1-i-c-k. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is it Miss or Mrs.? 

Miss AuGENBLicK. Miss. 

Mr. KuNziG. I note you are accompanied by counsel. 

Will you please state your name and office address for the record? 

Mr. Berger. David Berger, 1516 Girard Trust Building, Philadel- 
phia 2, Pa. 

Mr. ScHERER. How does the witness spell her last name, Mr. 
Kunzig? 

Miss AuGENBLiCK. A-u-g-e-u-b-l-i-c-k. 

Mr. Kunzig. Thank you, Miss Augenblick. 

Would you state your addess, please. Miss Augenblick? 

Miss Augenblick. 2020 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background? 

Miss Augenblick. I am a graduate of the Nanticoke High School, 
Nanticoke, Pa. ; the Bloomsburg Normal School, which is now Teach- 
ers State College, and I have taken work at colleges in Philadelphia 
to get a degree. 

Mr. Kunzig. What degree do you have? 

Miss Augenblick. I have not a degree from college. I have a 
bachelor's equivalent from the Philadelphia school system. 

Mr. Kunzig. Miss Augenblick, would you give the committee a 
brief resume of your employment background? 

Miss Augenblick. I substituted for a short time in Nanticoke. 

Mr. Kunzig. About when was that? 

Miss Augenblick. In 1918. I took the exammation in Phila- 
delphia schools in 1920, and I have been teaching here in Philadelphia 
since. 

Mr. Kunzig. In which Philadelphia schools have you taught? 

Miss Augenblick. Watts was one; C. O. Nichol School ^I think 
it has been abandoned; the Hoffman School; the Southwark School. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is that S-o-u-t-h-w-a-r-k? 

Miss Augenblick. Yes. 

The Hartranft School. 

Mr. Kunzig. There are elementary schools, are they, Miss Augen- 
blick? 

Miss Augenblick. Yes; and now my present school is Stokley. 

Mr. Kunzig. You are now teaching at the Stokley School? 

Miss Augenblick. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. And what grade do you teach there? 

Miss Augenblick. The first grade. 

Mr. Kunzig. You teach the first grade at the Stokley School? 

Miss Augenblick. Yes. I do not teach strictly first grade; I 
teach a cycle. I start the children in first grade and keep them 20 
months. They go to 3-A when they leave me. It is a practice I 
have been observing the last 2 years. 

Mr. Kunzig. Miss Augenblick, we have testimony that you were 
a delegate to the city committee of the Communist Party from 
branch 8-A of section 8 of the Communist Party in Philadelphia in 
1943. Is that correct? 

(At this point IMiss Augenblick conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Augenblick. Upon advice of counsel, I respectfully decline 
to answer that question on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3903 

Mr. ScHERER. What was the question? 

Will you read it again? 

Mr. KuNziG. Will the reporter read back the question, please. 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr, Walter. Now, at this point, Mr. Chairman, I would like to 
ask a question. 

The occurrence that you have been interrogated about was 1943; 
is that right? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walter. Well, let's assume that you were a member of the 
Communist Party in 1943. How could any testimony now possibly 
incriminate you? 

Mr. Bergbr. May I answer that, sir? 

Mr. Walter. No; you are not the mtness. 

(At this point Miss Augenblick conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Augenblick. I am acting entirely on advice of my counsel. 

Mr. Walter. In other words, the answer you have given has been 
on the advice of your counsel and it is not your own considered reason 
for not answermg, is that it? 

(At this point Miss Augenblick conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Augenblick. I have considered it, and on the basis of the 
law as told to me by my counsel I must invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. Now, you don't have to. You said "I must." You 
are not under any compidsion. You just choose not to answer on 
the gi'ounds you stated? 

Miss Augenblick. I respectfully plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. We have reason to believe that you could make a 
great contribution toward the work of this committee, and I am 
terribly disappointed that you have decided not to cooperate with us. 
I assure you that we don't enjoy what we are doing. It certainly 
gives me no pleasure to find that in our midst in this great Republic 
there are those who don't think enough about preserving it to assist. 
It is disappointing, but we do have reason to believe that you can 
help us. 

Now, if you are assured that no attempt would be made to bring 
any prosecution against you for any reason at aU, would you then 
assist this committee? 

(At this point Miss Augenblick conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Augenblick. On the basis of the law as I understand it, I 
feel that I am unable to answer that question now. 

Mr. Walter. Because the law is what it is, you feel that you are 
unable to answer that question? 

(No response.) 

Mr. Walter. All right, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes, sir. 

Have you ever been. Miss Augenblick, membership director of the 
special group section of section 8 of the Communist Party in PhOa- 
delphia? 

(At this point Miss Augenblick conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Augenblick. On advice of counsel I must respectfully decline 
to answer on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. We have sworn testimony. Miss Augenblick, that in 
1944 you held Communist Party membership book No. 78312 in 
Philadelphia. Did you ever hold such membersliip book? 

40168— 54— pt. 3 2 



3904 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

(At this point Miss Aiigenblick conferred with Air. Berger.) 

Miss AuGENBLicK. On advice of counsel I must respectfully decline 
to answer that question. 

Mr. KuNZiG. We also have sworn testimony that in 1945 you held 
Communist Party membership book No. 87597. Did you ever hold 
such membership book in 1945 in the Communist Party? 

(At this point Miss Augenblick conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Augenblick. On advice of counsel 1 7nust respectfully decline 
to answer that on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. If you had not held such a membership card as Mr. 
Kunzig related, would you answer the question and so state? 

(At this point Miss Augenblick conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Augenblick. Upon advice of my counsel I must respectfully 
decline to answer your question on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Miss Augenblick, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

(At this point Miss Augenblick conferred with Mr, Berger.) 

Miss Augenblick. Upon advice of my counsel I must respectfully 
decline to answer the question on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Chairman and Mr. Walter, I have no further 
questions. 

Mr. Walter. I have no questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Kunzig. May I have a 1-minute break? 

(There was a brief interruption.) 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Angelina Intille, please. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you ready, Mr. Kunzig? 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Will the witness rise and be sworn. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
at this hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the 
thrth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Intille. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ANGELINA INTILLE, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 

COUNSEL, LOIS FORER 

Mr. Kunzig. Will you state your name, please? 

Mrs. Intille. Angelina Intille. 

Mr. Kunzig. Will you please spell your name for the record? 

Mrs. Intille. I-n-t-i-1-l-e. 

Mr. Scherer. I am sorry, but as we explained to the previous 
witness, we do not have a loudspeaker system and it is difficult to 
hear. Would you mind talking a little louder? 

Mrs. Intille. I ^^dll tiy. 

Angelina, A-n-g-e-1-i-n-a 

Mr. Kunzig. And the last name is l-n-t 

Mrs. Intille. -i-l-l-e. 

Mr. Scherer. I am sorry. 

Will you give that to me, Mr.- Counsel? 

Mr. Kunzig. Angelina, A-n-g-e-1-i-n-a, Intille, I-n-t-i-1-l-e. 

Is that Miss? 

Mrs. Intille. Mrs. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3905 

Mr. KuNziG. I see that you are accompanied by counsel, Mrs. 
Intille. 

Will counsel please state her name and office address for the record. 

Mrs. FoRER. Lois Forer, F-o-r-e-r, 1415 Walnut Street, Phila- 
delphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. WTiat is your present address, Mrs. Intille? 

Mrs. Intille. 7123 Horracks Street, H-o-r-r-a-c-k-s. 

Mr. KuNziG. In Philadelphia? 

Mrs. Intille. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a brief resume of 
your educational background? 

Mrs. Intille. I graduated from the Philadelphia Normal School. 

Mr. KuNziG. ^Mien was that? 

Mrs. Intille. In 1932. And I was married after that; had three 
children; but that is all the educational background. 

Mr. KuNziG. I see. And then could you give the committee a 
brief resume of your employment, your teaching employment? 

Mrs. Intille. Well, I have worked for the board for the last 6 
years, &% years. 

Mr. ScHERER. In what capacity did you work for the board of 
education? 

Mrs. Intille. As an elementary school teacher. 

Mr. Scherer. As an elementary school teacher. 

Mr. KuNziG. WTiat schools have you taught in during this period 
of time? 

Mrs. Intille. I taught at the Comly School. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you always been at the same school? 

Mrs. Intille. Well,^ yes, I got my appointment there and have 
been there ever since. 

Mr. KuNziG. And that is where you are now? 

Mrs. Intille. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. At the Comly School. \¥liat grade do you teach 
there? 

Mrs. Intille. Fourth grade. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Fourth gTade. Do you know Bessie Stensky, 
S-t-e-n-s-k-y? 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Intille. I am here to cooperate with you and help you in 
any wa}^ I can, but I will not answer questions about anyone but 
myself. 

Mr. Walter. Now, you have been asked a question if you know 
somebody. Do you or don't you know her? That is a very simple 
question to answer. 

(At this point Mrs. IntiUe conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Intille. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr, Scherer. Now, I can't see, Witness, bow that fact might tend 
to incriminate you, so the Chair will direct you to answer the question. 
(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred wTth Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Intille. I'll tell you, I am willing to cooperate \vith you, 
but 

Mr. Scherer. Will you talk a little louder? 

Mrs. Intille. I am willing to help you, but I don't see how asking 
me about someone else will help you. 



3906 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Walter. That is up to us to determine whether or not these 
questions are relevant and material. You have been asked a very 
simple question. 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Intiiie. I will not answer anything in this line of inquiry 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Again I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Forer. Mr. Kunzig, is she directed under penalty of contempt 
for failure to answer this? 

Mr. Scherer. Well, that is, of course, the purpose of the Chair's 
directing her to answer the question, because we feel that she has not 
properly invoked the fifth amendment. 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Forer. May we have a clarification from the chairman with 
respect to this direction? The witness has stated that in her opin- 
ion 

Mr. Scherer. Would you talk just a little louder? The Chair 
cannot hear you. 

Mrs. Forer. May we have a clarification? The witness has stated 
that this line of questioning with respect to other persons may lead to 
a chain of inquiry which might tend to incriminate her. 

Mr. Walter. She didn't say anything of the sort. She may have 
been thinking about it and been instructed to say it, but she never 
said that at all. 

Mrs. Forer. I beg your pardon. 

Mrs. Intille. I thought I had. 

Mr. Walter. She didn't state that. 

Mrs. Forer. Please so state for the record. 

Mrs. Intille. I feel that this line of inquiry may tend to incriminate 
me and, therefore, I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. You feel that because you have been asked if you 
know whoever it is and you admit that you know that person, you 
might be prosecuted criminally for knowing somebody? 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Intille. It might lead to a chain of inquiry. 

Mr. Walter. Yes, but you can't anticipate what the chain of 
inquiry will be. 

Suppose we stop right here, now. We have asked 3'ou if you know 
somebody, and you have declined to answer on the grounds it might 
incriminate you. Suppose we didn't ask 3^ou another question. 
You don't know whether there are going to be any other questions 
asked or not, nor do I. 

Mrs. Forer. Mr. Kunzig, is the witness directed to answer this 
question? 

Mr. Kunzig. She has been directed to answer under penalty of 
contempt, as is always the case. 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Intille. Since I am directed to answer, I am acquainted 
with such a person. 

Mr. Kunzig. You are acquainted with Bessie Stensky? 

Mrs. Intille. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. How long have you known Bessie Stensky? 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3907 

Mrs. Intille. I decline to answer this on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request that the witness 
be directed to answer this question, which was, how long have you 
known Bessie Stensky. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, I am not going to direct the witness to answer 
that, Mr. Kunzig, because I think that she properly invoked the fifth 
amendment when she said she felt that saying whether she knew this 
individual or not might lead to a chain of circumstances that might 
incriminate her. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you ever attend a meeting of the Philadelphia 
Council of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, at the Broadwood Hotel 
on January 30, 1953, together with Bessie Stensky and one Eleanor 
Fleet? 

I might add, Mr. Chairman, Bessie Stensky is a witness subpenaed 
for tomorrow before this committee, and Eleanor Fleet is subpenaed 
for today, and the Philadelphia Council of Arts, Sciences, and Pro- 
fessions, part of the national council, is a cited Communist-front 
organization. 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Intille. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, when asked whether you knew Bessie Stensky, 
you answered "yes." I now ask you, do you know Eleanor Fleet? 

Mrs. Intille. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. Are you going to direct her to answer? 

Mr. Scherer. No; I am not going to direct her to answer. 

Mr. Walter. I think that is entirely immaterial. You ask a ques- 
tion and it isn't answered. What difference does it make if you 
direct them or not? 

Mr. Kunzig. AU right. 

Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Intiile. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you have any questions? 

Mr. Walter. When did you start to work for the Philadelphia 
School Board first? 

Mrs. Intille Do you mean before I was a regular teacher? 

Mr. Walter. Yes. 

Mrs. Intille. Well, I substituted when I first got out of Normal 
School. 

Mr. Walter. When was that? 

Mrs. Intille. 1932. 

Mr. Walter. Were you a Communist then? 

(At this point Mrs. IntiUe conferred with Mrs Forer.) 

Mrs. Intille. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. When did you receive your first permanent appoint- 
ment as a school teacher? 

Mrs. Intille. About 6 years ago, Q% years ago. 

Mr. Walter. Nineteen forty what, 1947, 1946? 



3908 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mrs. Intille. I guess it was in about 1948. 

Mr. Walter. Were you a member of the Conmiunist Party at 
that time? 

Mrs. Intille. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. All right. 

Mr. ScHERER. I would like to follow Mr. Walter's question with 1 
or 2 questions, Witness. 

Did you make any application or fill out any forms in connection 
with your obtaining the position that you did with the Philadelphia 
Board of Education? 

Mrs. Intille. Well, the regular form that they give to anyone 
that applies. 

Mr. ScHERER. On any of those applications were you asked whether 
or not you were a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Intille. I don't remember. 

Mr. ScHERER. You don't remember? 

Mrs. Intille. I don't remember. 

(At this point Mrs. IntiUe conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Intille. Any answer I made to the school board was made in 
good faith. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, was it a truthful answer at the time you 
made it? 

Mrs. Intille. Yes, absolutely. 

Mr. vScHERER. Do you recall making any application or applica- 
tions for your position? 

(At this pomt Mrs. IntUle conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Intille. The only questionnaire that I remember —  — - 

Mr. ScHERER. Will you talk a httle louder? 

Mrs. Intille. The only questionnaire that I remember having to 
sign about organizations was the Pechan loyalty oath. 

Mr. ScHERER. I can't hear you. 

Mrs. Intille. The only such questionnah'e was the Pechan loyalty 
oath which I took and signed in good faith. 

Mr. Scherer. And when did you sign the Pechan loyalty oath? 

Mrs. Intille. That I believe was in 1952. 

Mr. Scherer. And when you signed that application, at that time 
were you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Intille. I was not. 

Mr. Walter. Well, now, why are you willing to answer that 
question, you were not a member of the Communist Party at that 
time, and then you refuse to answer the question of whether or not 
you were a member of the Communist Party when you received your 
appointment? 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Intille. I have signed that and that is a public record and, 
therefore, I feel that I can state here the same thing. I took that in 
good faith, and it is on public record, but I feel that I 

Mr. Scherer. Well, at the time that you took that oath, did you 
state affirmatively that you were not a member of the Communist 
Party at that time? 

Mrs. Intille. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you state that you have never been a member 
of the Communist Party? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3909 

Airs. Intille. That question was not asked. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you resign from the Communist Party because 
you knew you had to take that oath? 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Intille. I nev^er said that I was. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, I ask you, were you ever a member of the 
Communist Party? 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Intille. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, were you a member of the Communist Party 
a week before you took the oath? 

Mrs. Intille. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you a member of the Communist Party a 
day before you took the oath? 

Mrs. Intille. I decline to answer that on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Isn't it a fact that you resigned because you knew 
you had to take that oath? 

Mrs. Intille. I never said I was. 

Mr. Scherer. This loyalty oath that you took was in writing, was 
it not, and you subscribed to that oath? 

Mrs. Intille. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Scherer. And you swore before a notary public? 

Mrs. Intille. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Scherer. Ancl you say that m no place in that oath did it 
inquire as to whether or not you were formerly a member of the 
Communist Party or a member of a subversive organization or an 
organization which advocated the overthrow of the Government of 
the United vStates by force and violence? 

Mrs. Intille. No; that is right. 

Mr. Scherer. And, as I understand it, you have refused to state, 
on the basis of the fifth amendment, whether or not you were a member 
of the Communist Party the day before you took that oath? 

Mrs. Intille. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you send 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mr. Scherer. Any communication to the Communist Party resign- 
ing from the Communist Part}^? 

Airs. Intille. I never said that I was m the Communist Party. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand that, but I am asking you the question. 

Mrs. Intille. You can't assume that. I have never said it. 

Mr. Scherer. You can answer my question by either invoking the 
fifth amendment or denying 

Mrs. Intille. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. You decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment as I understand it? 

Mr. Intille. That is right. 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Air. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Do you have any questions, Air. Kimzig? 

Air. KuNziG. No. 

Air. Scherer. The witness is excused. 



3910 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

r Mrs. FoRER. I would like the record to show that this witness 
offered at the beginning of her testimony to give any information 
respecting herself which this committee was interested in, but 

Mr. Walter. Then why didn't she? 

Mrs. FoRER. But that she, in view of the fact that one individual 
has incomplete and inaccurate knowledge about other persons, de- 
clined to answer questions with respect to other questions; that if 
this committee were interested in obtaining information respecting her 
alone she would waive her rights and privileges under the Constitu- 
tion, and I understood from — — - 

Mr. Walter. I am sure the record shows that there wasn't one 
question that she could have really refused to answer without invoking 
the fifth amendment. She w^as asked only about herself. 

Mr. Scherer. Of course, Counsel, we can't possibly, for many 
reasons that it would take too long to explain, enter into such an 
agreement with the witness. 

The Supreme Court, as perhaps you know, has said that she can 
invoke the fifth amendment so far as any questions which she is asked 
which might tend to incriminate her, but she cannot invoke the fifth 
amendment with reference to any knowledge she might have concern- 
ing third persons, even though what information she might give us 
might mcriminate those third parties. 

You understand that to be the law? 

Mrs. Forer. I understand, and the witness understands. She was 
willing to waive her rights under the Constitution with reference to 
herself. If the committee were interested in finding out any informa- 
tion about her- —  — 

Mr. Walter. We are. 

I am only going to ask one question — one question, not about any- 
body else, just her. 

Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Forer. Mr. Walter, will the record^ — — 

Mr. Walter. Now, I have asked the witness a question. 

Mrs. Forer. I would like, before the witness answers, I would like 
the record to show whether or not there will be any further questions. 

Mr. Walter. No; there are going to be no further questions. 

Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Mrs. Forer. Mr. Kunzig, is this an agreement of this com- 
mittee  

Mr. Walter. We are making no agreements whatsoever. I have 
asked the witness a question, a very simple question, too. 

Mrs. Forer. Mr. Walter, this witness 

Mr. Walter, I don't propose to get into an argument with counsel. 
I have asked the witness a question. 

Mrs. Forer. I cannot advise the witness unless I have 

Mr. Walter. I haven't asked you any questions, anything, I 
asked the w^itness a question. You can advise your client. 

Mrs. Forer. The witness has requested advice, and I cannot give 
it to her unless 

Mr. Walter. Give it to her, not to me. 

Mrs. Forer. I am requesting information from you, sir. The 
witness would like to know if the committee will agree not to ask her 
anything more. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3911 

Mr. Walter. I don't propose to get into any argument with you. 
I have asked the witness a question. 

(At this point Mrs. Intille conferred with Mrs. Forer.) 

Airs. Intille. Will this committee agree to ask me no further 
questions? 

Mr. ScHERER. No. As I explained to you, we can't make such 
agreements. 

Airs. Intille. Then I am going to have to decline to answer that 
on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. I am not surprised. 

Mr. Scherer. No further questions. The witness is excused. 

Mr. KuNziG. Eleanor Fleet. 

Mr. Scherer. Will the witness rise and be sworn. 

You do solemnly swear the testimony jou are about to give at this 
hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mrs. Fleet. I do. 

Air. Scherer. Proceed, Air. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF ELEANOR FLEET, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 

COUNSEL, W. R. LORRY 

Air. KuNZiG. Would you state your name, please, for the record? 

Airs. Fleet. Eleanor Fleet. 

Air. KuNziG. Is that Aliss or Airs.? 

Mr. Scherer. I am sorry, but would you taJk a little louder? I 
dichi't hear. 

Airs. Fleet. Eleanor Fleet. 

Air. KuNZiG. That is Airs. Eleanor Fleet? 

Airs. Fleet. Right. 

Air. KuNziG. Would you, counsel, please state your name and office 
address for the record. 

Air. Lorry. W. R. Lorry, L-o-r-r-r, 1415 Wahiut Street, Philadel- 
phia 2. 

Air. KuNziG. Would you give your present address, please. Airs. 
Fleet? 

Alls. Fleet. 7621 Brockelhurst Street. 

Air. KuNziG. Is that Philadelphia? 

Airs. Fleet. Yes. 

Air. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a biief resume of your 
educational background? 

Mrs. Fleet. I went to William Penn High School, and graduated 
in 1926. From there I went to the LTiiversity of Pennsylvania and 
graduated in 1930.| 

Air. KuNZiG. You graduated from the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1930? 

Airs. Fleet. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. And is that the completion of your formal education? 

Mrs. Fleet. Well, I took a number of other com'ses, graduate 
courses. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Then would you give the committee a brief resum^ 
of yom- employment? 

Airs. Fleet. I have been employed by the Board of Education 
since 1930. 

4016S— 54— pt. 3 3 



3912 COMJMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. Board of Education of what city? 

Mrs. Fleet. Of PhiJadelpliia. 

Mr. ScHERER. Philadelphia? 

Mrs. Fleet. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. And in what capacities have you been employed by 
the Board of Education? 

Mrs. Fleet. As a teacher. 

Mr. KuNziCx. Wliere have you taught, Mrs. Fleet? 

Mrs. Fleet. I started teaching in Gratz High School, until I went 
out on maternity leave in 1940. 

Mr. KuNziG. What did you teach at Gratz High School? 

Airs. Fleet. I taught stenography and typewriting. 

Mr. KuNziG. I see. And then after your maternity leave, where 
did you teach? 

Mrs. Fleet. I went to South Philadelphia High School, until I 
went out on maternity leave again. 

Mr. KuNziG. And was that for boys or girls? 

Mrs. Fleet. Girls. 

Mr. KuNziG. South Philadelphia for girls? 

Mrs. Fleet. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where after that did you teach? 

Mrs. Fleet. After that I went back to South Philadelphia, and 
then I transferred to Olney High School from where I was suspended 
when this committee came to town last. 

Mr. KuNziG. How long have you been at Olney High School? 

Mrs. Fleet. I guess about 4 years. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you are at present at Olney High School — until, 
as you say, you were recently suspended? 

Mrs. Fleet. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have vou ever been a member of the Communist 
Party, Mrs. Fleet? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

Mrs. Fleet. I decline to answer under protection of the fifth 
amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever live at the Carl Mackley apartment 
house, or apartments? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

Mrs. Fleet. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have testimony that you have held Communist 
Party meetings in your apartment at that apartment house; is that 
correct? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

Mrs. Fleet. I decline to answer under the protection of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Isn't it a fact that you held such a meeting on Sep- 
tember 4, 1942, and that you came from Atlantic City to hold this 
Communist Party meeting in your apartment house? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

Mrs. Fleet. I decline to answer under the protection of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuxziG. Did you ever siga nominating petitions for the 
Communist Party? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3913 

Mrs. Fleet. I decline to answer under the protection of the fifth 
amendment. 

]Mr. KuxziG. We normally, ]\Ir. Chairman, don't go into questions 
about husband and wife, but this is a different situation here. This 
is a personal question with regard to this witness. 

Subject's husband, it is our information, has been a candidate for 
the United States Senate in 1938 on the Communist Party ticket. 

I want to ask joii, did you support your husband for the United 
States Senate on the Communist Party ticket? 

Mrs. Fleet. I decline to answer on the gound of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was your husband such a candidate— — 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. I^orry.) 

■\Ir. ScHERER. Counsel, wait until I finish my question before you 
consult with her. 

Was you husband such a candidate? 

Mr. Lorry. I thought you had finished. 

(At this point Airs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

]\Irs. Fleet. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

]\Ir. Scherer. I direct the witness to answer, because I can't see 
how the answer would incriminate this witness. 

Mr. Lorry. I submit, sir, this bemg a husband and wife relation- 
ship, the matter of association, the matter of 

Mr. Walter. Well, it is a matter of public record. Wliy bother 
with it? 

Air. Lorry. Then why ask? 

Mr. Walter. The record show^s he was a candidate, doesn't it? 

Mr. Lorry. I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Walter. Does it, Mr. Kunzig? 

Mr. Kunzig. Our record shows that, yes, sir. 

Mr. Lorry. I am willing to accept Air. Kunzig's statement. 

Air. Scherer. Let the record show that our records indicate he 
was such a candidate. 

I still say, I direct the witness to answer the question as to whether 
she knows whether he was or not. 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Air. Lorry.) 

Airs. Fleet. I never heard of that. 

Air. Lorry. The witness has answered, sir, that she never heard 
of that. 

Air. Scherer. When did you marry? 

Airs. Fleet. 1932; 21 years. 

Air. Lorry. It is not unusual, sir, that this committee knows more 
than some of the witnesses know. 

Air. Walter. No, it is not unusual that husbands get away with 
things, but I just couldn't conceive of a husband getting away with 
that. 

Air. Scherer. Well, do you know whether your husband was a 
candidate for office at any time? 

Airs. Fleet. No, I never heard of it. 

(At this point Airs. Fleet conferred with Air. Lorry.) 

Airs. Fleet. I never heard of it. I am sure it is not true. 

Air. KuxziG. Were you a member of the North Philadelphia group, 
section 8, of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware? 



3914 COaiMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mrs. Fleet. I decline to answer under the protection of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuxziG. We have sworn testimony that you held Communist 
Party Membership Book No. 78367 in 1944. Is that correct? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred witli Mr. Lorry.) 

^Irs. Fleet. I dechne to answer under the protection of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. In 1945  

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lony.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Fleet, we have sworn testimony that you held 
Communist Party Membership Book No. 87625. Is that correct? 

Mrs. Fleet. I decline to answer under protection of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Walter. What was the number, if that is a wrong number? 

Mrs. Fleet. I thought I answered that. 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

Mrs. Fleet. I decline to answer that under protection of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Were you ever membership director of the North 
Philadelphia branch of the professional section of the Communist 
Political Association? This would have been in or about 1945. 

Mrs. Fleet. I decline to answer under protection of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. We have testimony that you were a member of the 
Commmiist Party, Mrs. Fleet, as recently as 1950. Is that correct? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

Airs. Fleei . I decline to answer under protection of the fifth amend- 
ment . 

Mr. Walter. Wliat was that date? 

Mr. KuNziG. 1950. 

Mr. Walter. \^^iat date? 

Mr. KuNZiG. We just have the year, that she was a member of the 
party as recenth^ as 1950. 

Mr. Walter. Is that since the North Koreans moved into South 
Korea? Is that the date you are fixing? 

Mr. KuKziG. No. 

Mr. Walter. What about 1951? 

Mr. KuNZiG. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1951? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

]\Irs. Fleet. I decline to answer under the protection of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know Angelina Ititille, who testified here 
earlier today? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

Mrs. Fleet. I decline to answer under the protection of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know Bessie Stensky? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

Mrs. Fleet. I decline to answer under the protection of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. On January 30, 1953, did you attend a meeting of the 
Philadelphia Council of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, at ToAvn Hall, 
150 North Broad Street, in Philadelphia, in the company of Angelina 
latille and Bessie Stensky? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 



COMAnJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3915 

]\Irs. Fleet. I decline to answer that under the protection of the 
fifth amendment. 

]Mr. KuNziG. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 
This meeting was under the sponsorship, Mr. "\A'alter, of a cited 
Communist-front group. 

]\Ir. A\ ALTER. ^Vhat was tlie date of that? 
jMr. KuNziG. The date of the meeting was January 30, 1953. 
^Ir. AValter. Did you attend a meeting January 30, 1953, the 
meeting described by Air. Kunzig? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 
Airs. Fleet. I decline to answer under the protection of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Walter. That is all. 

Air. Scherer. I direct the witness to answer. How could that 
possibly incriminate you? 

Mr. Lorry. That could incriminate her, Mr. Congressman, under 
the Supreme Court decisions. 

Mr. Walter. We are acquainted with those decisions. 
Mr. Scherer. I am directing the witness to answer the question. 
(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 
Airs. Fleet. Since Air. Kunzig has stated this is a subversive 
group, I decline to answer this under the protection of the fifth 
amendment, on the advice of counsel. 

Air. Scherer. Let me ask you, Airs. Fleet, did vou ever make an 
application for emploAmient with the Philadelphia School Board? 
(At this point Airs. Fleet conferred with Air. Lorry.) 
Mrs. Fleet. I imagine I did. I don't remember anything. 
Air. Scherer. You have no independent recollection? 
Airs. Fleet. No. 

Air. Scherer. Did you ever take the loyalty oath prescribed by 
the State of Pennsylvania? 
Airs. Fleet. Yes. 

Air. Scherer. Do you recall when you took that loyalty oath? 
(At this point Airs. Fleet conferred with Air. Lorry.) 
Airs. Fleet. Alarch 1952. 
Air. Scherer. Alarch 1952. 

Was that a written oath to which you subscribed? 
(At this pomt Airs. Fleet conferred with Air. Lorry.) 
Mrs. Fleet. Yes. 

Air. Scherer. Do you remember whether or not. that oath asked 
whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party? 
Airs. Fleet. I don't thmk it did. 
(At this point Airs. Fleet conferred wath Air. Lorry.) 
Airs. Fleet. I don't remember. 

Air. Scherer. Alay I ask whether or not you were ever a member 
of any organization, group, or party which advocated the overthrow 
of the Government of the United States by force and violence? 
(At this pomt Airs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 
Mr. Lorry. I don't laiow what you are asking. 
Air. Scherer. I don't see how^ the witness can possibly hear the 
question with you talking to her before I get half way through. 
Air. Lorry. All right, Mr. Congressman. 
Air. Scherer. Will you please read the question? 
(The reporter read the question.) 



3916 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

jMr. Lorry. I thought your question was with regard to the 
Pechan oath, sir. The question the reporter read 

Mr. ScHERER. That is because you weren't paying any attention, 
but were talking to her at that time. 

Mr. Lorry. That may be so. I am sorry, sir. That may be so, 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

Mrs. Fleet. I refuse to answer that on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. On the day you took that loyalty oath were you a 
member of the Communist Party? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

Mrs. Fleet. No; of course not. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you a member of the Communist Party the 
day before? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

Mrs. Fleet. I refuse to answer this on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you resign specifically so you could take that 
oath? 

(At this point Mrs. Fleet conferred with Mr. Lorry.) 

Airs. Fleet. I refuse to answer that, and I do not accept the 
implications that you make. 

Air. Scherer. Well, were you a member of the Communist Party 
a week before you took that oath? 

(At this point Airs. Fleet conferred with Air. Lorry.) 

Airs. Fleet. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth amend- 
ment; same reason. 

Air. Scherer. Well, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party since you took the oath? 

Mrs. Fleet. No ; of course not. 

Air. Scherer. Were you a member of the Communist Party the 
day after you took the oath? 

Mrs. Fleet. No. 

Air. Scherer. But you refuse to tell us whether you were the day 
before? 

(At this point Airs. Fleet conferred with Air. Lorry.) 

Mrs. Fleet. I decline to answer that on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Air. Scherer. I thought so. I have no further questions. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have none. 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is excused. 

Mr. KuNziG. Francis P. Jennings. 

Mr. Scherer. Will the witness rise and be sworn. 

You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give in 
this hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Jennings. I do. 

Air. Scherer. Be seated. 

Mr. Kimzig, you may proceed. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3917 

TESTIMONY OF FRANCIS P. JENNINGS, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, JOHN ROGERS CARROLL 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your full name for the record, 
please? 

Mr. Jennings. Francis P, Jennings. 

Mr. IvuNziG. Is that J-e-n-n-i-n-g-s? 

Mr. Jennings. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would counsel please state his name and office 
address for the record? 

Mr. Carroll. John Rogers Carroll, 631 Land Title Building, Phila- 
delphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. How do you spell Carroll? 

Mr. Carroll. With two r's and two I's. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would 3"ou state your present address, please, Mr. 
Jennings? 

Mr. Jennings. 215 East Johnson Street, East Philadelphia 44. 

Air. KuNziG. Will you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background? 

Mr. Jennings. I went through the public schools at Pottsville, 
Pa., and then after having graduated from the high school there I 
took my bachelor of science in education at Temple University, 
and master of education at the same institution. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wlieii did you get the bachelor and master degrees? 

Mr. Jennings. The bachelor's degree was in 1939; the master's 
would have been in the summer of 1951, I think it was. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you now give the committee, please, a brief 
resume of your employment background? 

Mr. Jennings. I have been employed since 1941 by the school 
district of Philadelphia as a teacher. Before that time I worked 
briefly in the quartermaster depot, navy yard. 

Mr. ScHERER. The quartermaster depot in the navy yard? 

Mr. Jennings. In Philadelphia. 

Mr. ScHERER. And when was that? 

Mr. Jennings. That was in 1940 to 1941. 

Mr. ScHERER. But during the 



'■to 



Mr. Jennings. Before that I had brief employment in a factory in 
Philadelphia. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you a civilian employee in the quartermaster 
department? 

Mr. Jennings. That is right, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wliat type of work did you do? 

Mr. Jennings. I was an underoperator of mimeograph equipment, 
duplicating machines. 

Mr. Scherer. Go ahead. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wliat was your emplovment from September 1935, 
until 1939? 

Mr. Jennings. I worked for the National Youth Administration 
as an aid in the library at Temple University. 

Mr. Kunzig. As an aid in the library at Temple University? 

Mr. Jennings. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. And after that, what was your employment? 

Mr. Jennings. I was unemployed until September 1939. 

Mr. Scherer. Let me go back, Mr. Kunzig. 



3918 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

The National Youth Admhiistration — -you worked for that organ- 
ization, you say? 

Mr. Jennings. Well, I don't know the exact technicalities of the 
thing. I worked for the library. That was under their grant. 

Mr. Walter. You were a student at that time? 

Mr. Jennings. At Temple University. That was a part-time job. 

Mr. Scherer. And helped pay your way through school? 

Mr. Jennings. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. Did that money come from the Federal Govern- 
ment, Mr. Kunzig? 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walter. Formed by the Democratic administration, I knovr — • 
a program we are very proud of, incidentally. 

Mr. Kunzig. What was your next employment after this part- 
time employment wliile you were at Temple? 

Mr. Jennings. I was unemployed until September, and I worked 
for a factory, Castellis, as a general laborer, which lasted until 
Clmstmas, when I received a Christmas gift in the form of a layoff 
and was unemployed again; I don't know the exact month, but for 
a while then; I finally received WPA employment. 

Mr. Kunzig. What was your WPA employment? 

Mr. Jennings. In the education and recreation program. 

Mr. Kunzig. In Philadelphia? 

Mr. Jennings. In Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. And was it after that that you then worked at the 
navy yard? 

Mr. Jennings. No; it was after that that I received a temporary 
appointment at the quartermaster depot. 

Mr. Kunzig. I see. 

Mr. Jennings. And then the quartermaster depot, after that I 
went to the navy yard. 

Mr. Kunzig. You went to the quartermaster depot in Phila- 
delphia, first, and that was a civilian job for the Army? 

Mr. Jennings. I presume so. 

Mr. Kunzig. And then to the navy yard? 

Mr. Jennings. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. And after that, as a teacher employed by the Board 
of Education? 

Mr. Jennings. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wliat was your first work for the Board of Education 
after you went with them? 

Mr. Jennings. I was appointed as a teacher in the Benjamin 
Franklin High School in Philadelphia, as a regular teacher. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wliat did you teach there, Mr. Jennings? 

Mr. Jennings. Social studies, American history. 

Mr. Kunzig. American history. Has that been your subject 
through the years? 

Mr. Jennings. That plus English and a subject called common 
learnings, which amounts to civics and English combined. 

Mr. Kunzig. At what schools have you been employed in addition 
to Benjamin Franlvlin, if any? 

Mr. Jennings. Well, I transferred, after my 3 years in the service 
I was transferred to the veterans accelerated program of the Benjamin 
Franklin High School and spent a year or two, I think it was 2 years 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3919 

there, and then back and forth between that program and the 
Benjamui Franldin High School. 

^Ir. KuNziG. Wliat was your most recent employment in the 
Philadelpliia school system, at which school? 

Mr. Jennings. At the Benjamin Franklin High School. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Are you presentl}^ under suspension? 

]Mr. Jennings. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Jennings, are you associated with the Teachers' 
Union of Philadelphia? 

Mr. Jennings. I am president of it. 

Mr. KuNZiG. "When did you first become associated with this union? 

Mr. Jennings. I believe I was asked to become a member of it 
in 19 — ^late in 1941. I don't recall whether I was a member or not 
at the time. I may have joined, but I am quite certain that after I 
came out of the service in 1946 I joined. 

Mr. KuNziG. The earlier date that you gave in 1941, it was then 
local 192, is that correct, of the American Federation of Teachers? 

Mr. Jennings. I think so. I was very foggy about it at the time. 
Somebody said "Will you join the union?" and I may have done so, 
and I may not. 

Mr. KuNziG. That was A. F. of L., is that correct? 

Mr. Jennings. It was then; yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Later this union left or was out of the A. F. of L., 
is that correct? 

Mr. Jennings. Yes; that is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. Why did the group end its relationship with the 
A. F. of L., or has it ended? 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with ]Mr. Carroll.) 

Mr. Jennings. The union was brought through a series of 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

]\Ir. Jennings. The union was brought through a series of argu- 
ments internally and, to m}^ knowledge, I do not — I was not present 
when all this went on, but by hearsay and by reading the papers I 
gather that it was expelled from it, that its charter was listed by the 
national union on charges of Communist domination. 

Mr. Kunzig. You were a member of this union at that time? 

Mr. Jennings. I said I do not recall whether I was or not. 

Mr. Kunzig. Well, I will change it, then, and say you were in some 
way associated with the union at that time? 

Air. Jennings. Well, I knew people. 

Mr. Kunzig. Then the union became, later, a CIO union, local 556, 
is that correct? 

Mr. Jennings. Of the State, county, and municipal workers union, 
I believe it was. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is that correct? 

]\rr. Jennings. I don't loiow how the numbers ran on those things. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you a member of it at that time? 

Mr. Jennings. That was in — at the time that the affiliation was 
made, I don't think so. I joined or rejoined, whichever it was, the 
local union in — it would have been early in 1946, I think, and it was 
at that time a member of the CIO. 

Mr. Walter. When was it expelled from the AFL? 

Mr. Jennings. Now, I am not sure on that; back around the early 
forties. 

40168 — 54 — pt. 3 4 



3920 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. Roughly, August 31, sir. 

Then did this union remain in the CIO or did it get out of the CIO? 
Mr. Jennings. It was expelled from the CIO. 
Mr. KuNziG. And what were the reasons for its expulsion from the 
CIO? 

]\Ir. Jennings. It was expelled on formal grounds of Communist 
domination. 

Mr. Walter. May I interrupt at that point. 

Who were the officers when it was expelled from the CIO because of 
Communist domination? 

Mr. Jennings. I think that I shall decline to answer that question 
on the grounds of the 1st, 4th, 5th, 9th, and 10th amendments of the 
Constitution 

Mr. Walter. Wliy don't you just say ''the Constitution?" 
Mr. Jennings. That would save some time. 
(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 
Mr. Walter. Now, have you made up your mind? You said "I 
think I will decline." Do you decline? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer on those grounds. 
Mr. Walter. Well, let's get this straight. 

The union was expelled from the CIO because of Communist 
domination at the time you were head of the union. Am I safe in 
assuming that the reason why it was expelled from the CIO was 
because of you; is that the answer? 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 
Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 
Mr. KuNZiG. Now, the present union, the Teachers Union of Phil- 
adelphia, am I correct in saying that is a successor union; it was the 
same group in the A. F. of L. and was expelled, and then in the CIO 
and was expelled, as you have just testified, is that correct? 
(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 
Mr. Jennings. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Now, I have a document here I wish to mark Jennings 
exhibit 1 for identification, Mr. Chairman. It is an open letter to 
Mr. Walter Biddle Saul, president of the Philadelphia Board of Public 
Education, signed "Teachers Union of Philadelphia." It requests 
money to be raised for the legal defense or for the welfare of teachers. 
This appeared in the Philadelphia Bulletin, Mr. Chairman, Feb- 
ruary 3d — it is a paid advertisement — February 3, 1953. 

Was this advertisement inserted — I now pass it to you, exhibit 1— 
in that paper by this union wliich you have just testified to this 
morning? 

'54, I meant, excuse me. 
Mr. Walter. This jeav? 
Mr. KuNziG. Yes; just now, sir. 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 
Mr. Jennings. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And at the bottom of the ad it says "This advertise- 
ment inserted by the Teachers Union of Philadelphia, Francis P. 
Jennings, president." That is yourself, is that right? 
Mr. Jennings. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, this advertisement denouncing tliis committee 
then goes on in its fund raising to list two uses for the money to be 
raised: 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3921 

1. Lepal defense to assist in defraying court costs as the teachers' cas s are 
appealed; and 

2. Welfare to help in the family expenses of jobless teachers while they seek 
employment. 

Please make checks payable to the Teachers Union of Philadelphia. 

Is that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

Air. Carroll. There was no question asked. 

Mr. KuxziG. I am asking you, does this appear in this document, 
and is that correct, and did you so insert it? 

Mr. Carroll. Did he insert it — is that the question? 

Mr. KuxziG. You, as president of the union, did you ever insert it 
or cause it to be inserted? 

Mr. Jennings. I see that it says as you have said. 

Mr. KuNziG. All right. Now, I have in ni}' hand, Mr. Chair- 
man  

Mr. ScHERER. He didn't answer the latter part of the question, 
whether he had anything to do with the insertion. 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer that part of the question on the 
grounds hitherto asserted. 

Mr. ScHERER. You are president of the union toda}^, I understand? 

Mr. Jennings. I am president of the union today, yes, sir. 

Mr. KuxziG. Xow, Mr. Jennings — — 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I am sorry, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know anything at all about the insertion of 
that ad in the Philadelphia paper? 

Mr. Jenxixgs. I decline to answer that question, also, sir, on the 
same grounds. 

]Mr. KuxziG. Now, Mr. Jennings, the advertisement asked people 
to come hear the teachers tell then- story Frida}^, February 5, at the 
Adelphia Hotel, 8:30 p. m., 13th and Chestnut Streets, in Philadelphia, 
Did such a meeting take place? 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

Mr. Jennings. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walter. Their story about what? 

Mr. KuNziG. Their story about their hearings, presumably, before 
this committee, and so forth. 

Mr. Walter. Who spoke at that meeting? 

Mr. KuNziG. I was just about to ask. 

Who spoke at that meeting? 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

Air. Jexxings. I decline to answer on the grounds hitherto asserted. 

Mr. Walter. Did you attend that meeting? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Kunzig. We have a situation here, Air. Chairman, which seems 
to be rather ludicrous. 

A public meeting was held in a very fine and decent hotel in the 
city of Philadelphia, the Adelphia Hotel, and the witness refuses to 
answer whether he was present on the grounds that to do so might 
incriminate him. 

Mr. Scherer. Yes, I think so. 

I will direct the mtness to answer. 

Air. Jennings. I added other grounds, also, sir. 



3922 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. You have just been directed by the chairman to 
answer the question. 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

]\Ir. Jennings. I still decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. On the grounds that your answer might tend to 
incriminate you, whether you attended this meeting of public school 
teachers? 

Mr. Jennings. On the grounds of the first, fourth, fifth, ninth, and 
tenth amendments. 

Mr. Walter. ^\^iat is there in the ninth amendment which you 
think affords you the opportunity or privilege of refusing to answer 
the question? 

Mr. Jennings. The ninth amendment specifies, as I recall it, that 
the powers not specifically given to the Federal Government are 
reserved to the States or to the individuals. 

Mr. Walter. And don't you think the Federal Government has 
been given the express authorit}' and charged with the responsibility 
of maintaining the security of the Federal Government and protecting 
it from enemies from within and without? 

Mr. Carroll. That is a legal question. 

Mr. Jennings. I think, sir, that I would rather have m^^ attorney 
answer that question since he is a lawyer. 

Mr. W^ALTER. Well, I wouldn't want to engage in any discussion 
with counsel. 

Mr. Carroll. Obviously a legal question, sir. I don't think he is 
competent to answer it. 

Mr. Walter. All right. But I think this is more than a legal 
question. 

Now, you have invoked a privilege given to citizens of this great 
Republic by the Constitution that some people would destroy, and I 
have asked you whether or not you believe that the citizens ought to 
do whatever they can to protect this Republic from its enemies. 

What is your answer? 

Mr. Jennings. I answer that I have great faith in the Government 
of the United States. I have taught loyalty to it over the years. I 
believe in it, and I believe particularly in its Bill of Rights, which is 
as much a part of the Government of the United States as any other 
part. 

Mr. W^VLTER. Well, there is no question about that, and that being 
the case, why don't you help us in our efi'orts to find out who it was 
in the city of Philadelphia who quite obviously was assisting people, 
who today refuse to cooperate with this committee, in obtaining 
employment? That is what we want to know. That is the cold, 
brutal fact. We have never discussed it before, but I think we have 
come to the point where we ought to, because we believe that you 
can give us that information. 

Mr. Jennings. I think I have stated the gi'ounds for my refusal to 
answer the question, sir. 

]Mr. Walter. You refuse to answer the question because you believe 
the Constitution of the United States protects you from doing any- 
thing that might cause you trouble, is that it? 

Mr. Jennings. I 

Mr. Walter. Among other things? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3923 

Mr. Jennings. Because I believe it protects me from having to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Walter. Is that your idea of teaching loyalty? 

Mr. Jennings. I am not teaching loyalty at the present moment. 
I am on the witness stand. 

Mr. Walter. All right. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Mr. Jennings, I am going to come back to this adver- 
tisement, which has been marked "Jennings Exhibit No. 1" for iden- 
tification, in the Philadelpliia Bulletin of February 3, 1954. 

I have in my hand a small card marked "Jennings Exhibit No. 2" 
for identification which, Mr. Chairman, was a card which came to this 
committee which was passed out at this meeting on Friday, February 5, 
at the Adelphia Hotel in Philadelphia. 

There is an interesting difference in this card which I think should 
be a part of this record, and I wish to ask the witness about it. 

It has nothing on it to identif}^ it in any way whatsoever with any 
group. It says: 

"Enclosed find my contribution or pledge of — " and then the 
dollar mark is blank. "I am interested in working with the Citizens 
Committee to Defend the Schools." 

Then there is a blank for the name, address, and phone. But then 
it says, and here is the difference, "Please earmark" — referring to the 
money — "Please earmark the money for — " and mstead of 2 items as 
listed in the newspaper, which were legal defense and welfare, there 
are 3 items here, legal defense, welfare, and general needs, the new 
item being general needs. 

Now, I hand you this card marked "Jennings Exhibit No. 2" for 
identification and ask you if that card was passed out at the meeting 
held at the Adelphia Hotel on Friday, February 5, 1954? 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

\Iy. Jennings. I decline to answer on the same grounds as pre- 
viously. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Now, you are president of this union that held this 
meetmg; you testified that you are president of it today. Will you 
please tell the committee if funds were collected at the Adelphia Hotel 
on February 5? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. How many of the funds collected, if any, were for 
general needs, and please explain what general needs is? 

Mr. «Tennings. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. I would like to ask one other further question on the 
subject of this meeting and the funds collected. 

Are you required by any law to get a State permit to collect or raise 
funds and, if so, did you have such a permit? 

Mr. Carroll. I don't thmk that the witness 

Mr. KuNziG. Let the witness answer, please. 

Mr. Carroll. Can answer a legal question, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you repeat the question. 

Mr. KuNziG. I asked whether they are required by any State law 
or any law to have a permit to raise fmids and, if so, did they have such 
a permit. 

Air. Scherer. If the w^itness knows, he certainly may answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. He can say he doesn't know. 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 



3924 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Jennings. I have been advised that the State law exempts 
unions from the provisions of the SoUcitation Act, and I have never 
personally procured such a permit. 

Mr. KuNziG. I would like to offer Jennings exhibits Nos. 1 and 2 
into evidence, ]Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. So received. 

(Advertisement appearing in the Philadelphia Bulletin under date 
of February 3, 1954, marked "Jennings Exhibit No. 1" for identifica- 
tion and received in evidence; card headed "Enclosed Find My Con- 
tribution or Pledge of $ ", marked "Jennings Exhibit No. 2," 

for identification and received in evidence.)^ 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, just so the record is clear, Mr. Chairman, there 
are other teachers unions in Philadelphia  

Is that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

Mr. Jennings. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. There are, rougldy, I believe, three others? 

Mr. Jennings. I know of not tkree other unions, other associations. 

Mr. Kunzig. I want to make it absolutely clear, Mr. Chairman, for 
the record, that we are only talking here this morning about the 
group kno\vn as the Teachers Union of Philadelphia, and no other 
group. There are other groups entirely different from this one. 

How many members are there in your union of which you are 
president? 

• Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer that for the same reasons I have 
enumerated before, and for the additional one that it is part of trade 
union tradition not to answer such questions. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Isn't it a fact that of the 8,000 teachers in the city of 
Philadelphia, your union has, rouglily, 200 members, if that? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer on the grounds stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am gomg to direct the witness to answer the 
question, how many members belong to the union of which he admits 
that he is president. 

How could that possibly mcriminate him? 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Air. Carroll.) 

Mr. Jennings. According to my last knowledge, membership was 
about 150. 

Mr. ScHERER. How many of those were members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer that on the grounds hitherto 
stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know how many of that gi-oup were members 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. Go ahead. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer on the same gi'ounds. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you ever been active in the American Student 
Union? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer on the same gi'ounds. 

Mr. Kunzig.- Were you not active in the Young Communist League 
of Pennsylvania? 

1 Retained in the files of the committee. 



COMlVrUXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3925 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer on the same gi'ounds. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Isn't it a fact that you were president of the Young 
Communist League of Pennsylvania? 

Mr. Jennings. Same answer; same reason. 

Mr. Kunzig. Isn't it a fact that you were not only president of this 
Young Conmmnist League, but that you were president at the time 
you were employed in the Philadelphia Navy Yard? 

Mr. Jennings. Same answer; same reason. 

\h\ Kfnzig. Were you treasurer of the Philadelphia Youth 
Congi'ess? 

Mr. Jennings. Same answer; same reason. 

Mr. ScHERER. How did you get your job in the navy yard? 

Mr. Jennings. Applied for it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did the person that employed you know that at that 
time you were a member of the Communist Party or president of the 
Yoimg Communist League? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer on the same grounds previously 
stated. 

Air. Scherer. Did you make an application for that position? 

Mr. Jennings. Which position? 

Mr. Scherer. The one we are talking about, in the navy yard. 

Mr. Jennings. \'\Tiich one is that? 

Air. Scherer. WeU, the one we are talking about in the navy yard. 

Mr. Jennings. The job in the na\'y yard? 

Air. Scherer. Yes, Quartermaster^  

Air. Kunzig. The Quartermaster came first, and then the navy 
yard. 

Air. Scherer. Well, let's take the navy yard, then. When were 
you employed in the navy yard? 

Air. Walter. Nineteen forty-one. 

Air. Jennings. Roughly, between about Alarch to late in August 
or early September of 194L 

Air. Scherer. And you were a civilian employee? 

Air. Jennings. That is right. 

Air. Scherer. And will you tell us again what you did? 

Air. Jennings. I operated a duplicating machine. 

Air. Scherer. Now, did you make an application to the United 
States Government for that employment? 

Air. Jennings. As I remember the situation, they had put out a 
circular opening up these jobs and I put in an application, yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you ever asked in that application w^hether you 
were a member of the Communist Party or not? 

Air. Jennings. I don't recall the exact phrasing of the application. 
I don't think it said so. 

Air. Scherer. WeU, did it ask whether or not you were a member 
of an organization, party or group that advocated the overthrow of 
the Government of the United States by force or violence? 

Mr. Jennings. As I recall, it said something to that effect, yes. 

Mr. Scherer. How did you answer that question? 

Mr. Jennings. I said that I was not. 

Air. Scherer. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
that time? 

Air. Jennings. I decline to answer that question on the grounds I 
have stated. 



3926 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, when were you employed in the Quartermaster 
Department of the Army? 

Mr. Jennings. It would have been just from about September — 
wait a minute — 1950, or, rather, perhaps it was October 1950, roughly, 
in around there, until around March — not 1950, 1940, until around 
March of 1941. 

Mr. ScHERER. How did 3^ou obtain that position? 

Mr. Jennings. In the same manner. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you give any reference at that time? 

Mr. Jennings. I presume so. I don't remember who they are. 

Mr. Scherer. Now% did that application ask the question whether 
or not you were a member of any organization or group that advocated 
the overthrow of the Government of the United States? 

Mr, Jennings. I really don't recall. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, did you ever take the Pennsylvania State 
loyalty oath for teachers? 

Mr. Jennings. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you remember when that was? 

Mr. Jennings. That would be in March 1952. 

Mr. Scherer. That was an oath in writing, was it not? 

Mr. Jennings. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. And you swore to the affidavit? 

Mr. Jennings. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. Or to the oath? 

Mr. Jennings. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you recall w^hat question they asked in that oath 
with reference to whether or not you had ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Jennings. The oath, as I recall it, was rather broader, even, 
than that. It went on to ask if you were a member of any organiza- 
tion that was subversive or was so inclined to overthrow the Govern- 
ment by force and violence. 

Mr. Scherer. What answer did you give at that time? 

Mr. Jennings. I took the oath, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You took the oath? 

Mr. Jennings. I took the oath that I was not. 

Mr. Scherer. You said at that time you were not a member of 
the Communist Party or any organization that advocates the over- 
throw of this Government; is that right? 

Mr. Jennings. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. At that time were you a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Jennings. I took the oath, sir. It would have been perjury 
if I had been a member at the time I answered it. 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

Mr. Jennings. I was not. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you a member the day before? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer that question on the grounds I 
have hitherto stated. 

Mr. Scherer. You resigned from the Communist Party, did you 
not, Mr. Witness, so that you could take that oath — — • 
(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 
Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 



COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3927 

Mr. ScHERER. Let me finish my question. 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroil.) 

Mr. ScHERER. You resigned from the Communist Party so you 
could take that oath and not subject yourself to the penalties of per- 
jury; is that right? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer the question on the grounds I 
have enumerated and on the further ground that it is an unfau' ques- 
tion. It presumes things. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, what time of the day did you take that; do 
you remember? 

Mr. Jennings. I think it was in the afternoon. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, on that morning were you still a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Jennings. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds I 
have stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. And when did you say it was that you took that oath? 

Mr. Jennings. March 1952. 

Mr. KuNziG. Well, now, you stated that you were not a member of 
the party or of any group seeking to overthi'ow the Government of 
the United States by force or violence when you took the oath in 1952. 
Have you been a member of any such group at any time since that 
time? 

Mr. Jennings. Not to my knowledge. 

Air. KuNZiG, Then why do you not wish to answer the question, 
and why did you raise the fifth amendment on the question of the 
meeting at the Adelphia Hotel just a few weeks ago? 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer that question on all the grounds 
I have stated. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were there Communists present at the meeting at 
the Adelphia Hotel? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer on all the grounds that I have 
stated. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you met with any Communists or members of 
the Communist Party since March of 1952? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer on all the grounds I have stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Witness, why did you say in response to Mr. 
Kunzig's question as to whether or not you have been a member of 
the Communist Party or a subversive organization since 1952, why 
did you say not to your knowledge? 

Mr. Jennings. Well, because it seems to be fashionable nowadays 
to call a lot of things Communist, and I don't know of any that I 
have belonged to that were. I can only testify according to my 
knowledge, as I understand it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, to what organizations do you belong today? 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer that, sir, on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. I direct the witness to answer. 

Let me ask it this way, then. 

Wliat organizations do you belong to other than the Communist 
Party? 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

Mr, Jennings. I still decline to answer on the same grounds. 

40168— 54— pt. 3 5 



3928 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Walter. Mr. Chairman, the House is in session, and the 
Judiciary Committee has some legislation on the calendar. I would 
Hke to ask one question. 

What do you teach in the Philadelphia schools? 

Mr. Jennings. I taught American history. 

Mr. Walter. Civics? 

Mr. Jennings. And this common learnings subject, that is all. 

Mr. ScHERER. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

(At this point Representative Francis E. Walter left the hearing 
room.) 

Mr. KuNziG. This loyalty oath which you took in Pennsylvania 
I believe also has in it a future clause, that you will not at any time — 
I don't know the exact wording — you will not at any time during 
your employment be a member of any group which seeks to overthrow 
the United States Government by force or violence, is that not correct? 

Mr. Jennings. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. Then, having taken that oath, why do you refuse 
to answer today on these questions concerning membership in groups 
as just asked by the chairman, Mr. Scherer? 

(At this point Mr. Jennings conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

Mr. Jennings. I think I have answered that already. 

Mr. Kunzig. In other words, you took the oath in Pennsylvania, 
but when asked here by the committee of the Congress of the United 
States the same question as to whether you belong to any group now 
which seeks to overthrow the Government of the United States by 
force and violence, you resort to the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Carroll. That is not correct. The record will show it. 

Mr. Jennings. I answered the question. 

Mr. Kunzig. What was your answer. 

Mr. Jennings. I am not a member of any organization, to my 
knowledge, that attempts to overthrow the Government of the 
United States by force and violence. 

Mr. Kunzig. But then when asked by Mr. Scherer what organiza- 
tions you belonged to, I believe at that time you refused to answer 
on the grounds of the fifth amendment, is that correct? 

Mr. Carroll. That is correct. 

Mr. Jennings. On all the grounds I enumerated, I refused to 
answer. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you ever chairman of the Veterans Commission 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer that on the grounds I stated. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is it not a fact that you are a member of the Civil 
Rights Congress, Philadelphia chapter, which is a cited Communist- 
front organization? 

Mr. Jennings. I decline to answer that on the the grounds I have 
stated. 

Mr. Kunzig. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Scherer. The witness will be excused. 

Mr. Kunzig. Samuel Drasin. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you rise, please. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give at 
this hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Drasin. I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3929 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL DRASIN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

JOHN ROGERS CARROLL 

Mr. KuNziG. State your full name for the record, please. 

Mr. Carroll. Just a moment, Mr. Chairman — if I might, for a 
moment. 

If my understanding that this is a subcommittee of two members 
appointed by the chairman is correct, then I think that one member 
is not a quorum, and for the sake of preserving the record, we object 
to any questioning if there is not a quorum present. 

Perhaps I am wrong. Correct me on that, please. 

Mr. ScHERER. Your statement will be noted in the record, and 
your objection will also be noted. 

Mr. Carroll. May we further consider, sir, any question which 
we refuse to answer we refuse to answer for grounds stated and also 
on the grounds there is not a quorum? 

Mr. ScHERER. You can make that statement. 

Mr. Carroll. For the sake of the record — I am just trying to save 
the trouble of making objections each time. 

Mr. ScHERER. You need not make objection each time. You have 
made your objection and it will apply to all of the questions. 

Mr. Carroll. Fine. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Drasin. Can I object to the photography? 

Mr. SCHERER. No. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Now, what is your full name, su"? 

Mr. Drasin. Samuel Drasin, D-r-a-s-i-n. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Counsel, would you once again please state your name 
for the record? 

Mr. Carroll. John Rogers Carroll, C-a-r-r-o-1-1, 631 Land Title 
Building, Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Wliat is your present address, Mr. Drasin? 

Mr. Drasin. 312 Glen Echo Road, Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background? 

Mr. Drasin. I was graduated from West Philadelphia High School; 
from the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School, and I got my 
master's degree from the graduate school of said institution. 

Mr. KuNZiG. When did you graduate from the University of 
Pennsylvania? 

Mr. Drasin. 1929 and 1930. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, would you tell us of your employment? 

Mr. Drasin. I was appointed in September of 1931 to the Phila- 
delphia public school system. 

Mr. KuNziG. And where have you taught in the Philadelphia 
public school system? 

Mr. Drasin. Tilden Junior High, Sulzberger Junior High, South 
Philadelphia School for Boys, Olney High School, Central High School. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Where do you teach at the present time? 

Mr. Drasin. I don't, thanks to this committee; I am suspended. 

Mr. Kunzig. You are suspended? 

Mr. Drasin. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. When were you suspended? 

Mr. Drasin. On the 20th of November, 1953. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you testify before the committee in Philadelphia? 



3930 C0]\OIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Drasin. No, sir. I was subpenaed, but I did not testify. 

Mr. KuNziG. Just to make the record clear, Mr. Chairman, of 
course, the action, or whatever action has been taken against this 
teacher, was taken by the Pliiladelpliia Board of Education, which 
has no connection whatsoever with this committee. This witness 
is appearing for the first time before this committee today. 

Now, Mr. Drasin, where did you teach prior to your suspension? 

Mr. Drasin. On November 20, you mean, last year? 

Mr. KuNZiG. Yes, prior to tliis suspension. 

Mr. Drazin. Central High School. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Wliat did you teach? 

Mr. Drasin. Social studies. 

Mr. KuNziG. Social studies? 

Mr. Drasin. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Has history of social studies been your specialty 
through the years? 

Mr. Drasin. Yes, su", with one term that I taught English, I 
believe. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Drasin. I decline to answer on the grounds of the 1st, 4th, 
5th, and 10th amendments, and on the grounds offered by my counsel 
of the lack of a quorum. 

Mr. Kunzig. The last witness also used the ninth. Was there any 
reason for the ninth being left out? 

Mr. Drasin. I think a case could be made, sir, but I am not going 
into that field. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, in 1944, tliis committee has testimony you were 
secretary of the West Philadelphia Club of section 8 of the Communist 
Party. Did you have that position? 

(At this point Mr. Drasin conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

Mr. Drasin. I decline to answer on the grounds of the 1st, 4th, 
5th, and 10th amendments, and lack of a quorum. 

Mr. Kunzig. We have testimony that in 1944 you had Com- 
munist Book No. 78335. Is that coVrect? 

(At this point Mr. Drasin conferred with Mr. Carroll.) 

Mr. Drasin. I decline to answer on the grounds given aforesaid. 

Mr. Kunzig. In 1945, that you had Communist Party membership 
book No. 85377. Is that correct? 

Mr. Drasin. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Kunzig. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. I don't believe I have any questions. 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wesley Randall. 

Mr. ScHERER. Will you rise and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give at this 
hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mr. Randall. I do. 

Mr. ScHERER. Be seated. 

Mr. Counsel, you may proceed. 



COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3931 

TESTIMONY OF WESLEY RANDALL ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, FRANKLIN FOUL 

Mr. KuNziG. State your full name, please, and spell it for tlie 
record. 

Mr. Randall. Wesley Randall, R-a-n-d-a-1-1. 

Mr. KuNziG. And would counsel kindly state his name and 
address for the record? 

Mr. PouL. Franklin Foul, F-o-u-1, 2100 Girard Trust Building, 
Philadelphia 2, Fa. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your present address, please, Mr. 
Randall? 

Mr. Randall. 5535 Femberton Street, Philadelphia 43. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would you give the committee your educational 
background, please, sh'? 

Mr. Randall. I attended the elementary schools of Philadelphia. 
I graduated from Olney High School in February 1943. 

I attended the University of Pennsylvania during 1943, and trans- 
ferred to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, where I 
received the degree of bachelor of science in chemistry in June 1946. 

Since that time I have taken assorted com-ses in education at the 
University of Pennsylvania, Temple, and Pennsylvania State Uni- 
versity. 

Mr." Kunzig. Now, would you tell us of yoiu- employment, please? 

Mr. Randall. I was employed by the school district of Philadel- 
phia in the spring of 1947. 1 taught as a science teacher — may I 
qualify that — as a substitute science teacher at the Thomas Junior 
High School, at the Vare Junior High School. 

In the fall of 1948 I became a substitute teacher for the mentally 
retarded at the Rush School in Philadelphia, and later, in September 
of 1951, was transferred to the Kearney School, still as a teacher of the 
mentally retarded. I was appointed a regular teacher of the Kearney 
School in September 1952. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, Mr. Randall, have you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Randall. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you ever connected in any way with the Labor 
Youth League? 

(At this point Mr. Randall conferred with Mr. Foul.) 

Mr. Randall. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. To what union do you belong? 
. I beg your pardon? 

To what union do you belong? 
, At the present time? 
Yes. 
. I am a member of the Teachers Union of Fhila- 

The union which has been discussed here this morn- 
Mr. Randall. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. Of which the president was on the stand prior to you 
this morning? 



Mr. 


Randall. 


Mr. 


ScHERER. 


Mr. 


Randall. 


Mr. 


ScHERER. 


Mr. 


Randall 


delphia. 


Mr. 


Kunzig. 



3932 coMMm^iST activities m the Philadelphia area 

Mr. ScHERER. How long have you been a member of that union? 

Mr. Randall. I have been a member of the Teachers Union since 
the fall of 1951. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, were you a member of any other teachers 
union prior to that? 

Mr. Randall. No ; I was not. 

Mr. ScHERER. You may proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. I want the record to show that the Labor Youth 
League which I referred to a few moments ago has been designated by 
the Attorney General as a subversive organization. 

Mr. Randall, did you transfer in 1950 from the youth and student 
section of the Communist Party to the southwest section of the Com- 
munist Party of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware? 

Mr. Randall. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was that transfer after the invasion of Korea? 

Mr. KuNziG. We merely have the date 1950, Mr. Chairman. We 
don't have what part of 1950 he was there. 

Did you later in the same year act as an organizer of the Flynn Club 
of the Communist Party section, new section, formed in west Phila- 
delphia from a consolidation of the southwest and West Park sections 
of the Communist Party? 

Air. Randall. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. On June 23, 1951, did you attend a sendoff party for 
delegates to the Chicago Peace Congress of the American Peace 
Crusade, which is a cited organization, Mr. Chairman. 

(At this point Mr. Randall conferred with Mr. Poul.) 

Mr. Randall. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Pardon me just a minute. Are you a member of the 
party today? 

Mr. Randall. I am not a member of the party today. 

Mr. ScHERER. Of course, I meant the Communist Party. 

Mr. Randall. I am not a member of any party today. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. Now, were you a member of the Com- 
munist Party last year? 

Mr. KuNziG. In 1953. 

Mr. Randall. No; I was not a member of the Communist Party in 
1953. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1952? 

Mr. Randall. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, it is a fact, Witness, that you resigned from 
the party at the time you were required to take the teachers' loyalty 
oath under the laws of Pennsylvania, isn't that a fact? 

Mr. Randall. I am sorry, but I did not get the full question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Isn't it a fact that you resigned from the Communist 
Party when you were required to take the teachers' loyalty oath under 
the laws of the State of Pennsylvania? 

(At this point Mr. Randall conferred with Mr. Poul.) 

Mr. Randall. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3933 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you take the teachers' loyalty oath? 

Mr. Randall. I did take the teachers' loyalty oath in Pennsylvania. 

Mr. ScHERER. And on the day you took the teachers' loyalty oath, 
were you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Randall. I was not a member of the Communist Party on the 
day I took the loyalty oath. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you remember when you took the loyalty oath? 

Mr. Randall, It was during the last week of February 1952. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, were you a member of the party the day before 
you took the loyalty oath? 

Mr. Randall. I'was not a member of the Communist Party the 
day before I took the oath. 

Mr. ScHERER. What about a month before? 

Mr. Randall. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. KuNziG. On July 17, 1951, you were observed attending a 
meeting of the Philadelphia Council of the American Peace Crusade 
held at the Hotel Whittier, W-h-i-t-t-i-e-r, 140 North 15th Street, 
Philadelphia. 

This again is the cited organization, as I mentioned previously. 

Did you attend this meeting? 

Mr. Randall. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. KuNziG. On August 26, 1951, you were observed entering the 
Peace and Brotherhood Festival — we have had testimony about this 
before — held on the Old Mill picnic grounds, West Rockhill Township, 
Bucks County, Pa. This was a Communist meeting of district 3. 
Did you attend this meeting? 

Mr. Randall. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have no further questions, Mr, Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. I believe that is all. 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Abraham Egnal, 

Mr. ScHERER. Would you raise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
at this hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Egnal. I do. 

Mr. ScHERER, Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF ABRAHAM EGNAL, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, IRVING W. BACKMAN 

Mr. Backman. May I raise for the purpose of the record the ques- 
tion of the quorum here, whether or not there is a quorum of the 
subcommittee, if this is a subcommittee? 

Mr. ScHERER. The objection of counsel will be noted for the record. 
You need not raise the objection after each question. Your objection 
will be preserved for each question. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you state your name for the record? 

Mr. Egnal. Abraham Egnal, E-g-n-a-1. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would counsel kindly state his name and address for 
the record? 



3934 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

^ Mr. Backman. Irving W. Backman, 1612 Market Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is your present address, Mr. Egnal? 

Mr. Egnal. 5223 Diamond Street, Philadelphia, zone 31. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a resiune of your 
educational background? 

Mr. Egnal. I was graduated from the public schools in Philadelphia. 

I received a bachelor of science degree from the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1929, a master of arts degree in 1933, and have con- 
tinued taking courses on and off since then. 

Mr. KuNziG. And your employment background, sir? 

Mr. Egnal. I was appointed to the Philadelphia schools in May 
1935. I had previously had substitute work with them, and was 
teaching down to November of this year. 

Mr^ KuNZiG. In November of this year, after the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities held hearings in Philadelphia, you 
were suspended ; is that correct? 

Mr. Egnal. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. And, for the record, you have had a hearing since 
that time, and have been discharged, is that correct? 

Mr. Egnal. I have been dismissed. It is in the process of litiga- 
tion. 

Mr. KuNZiG. At the present time? 

Mr. Egnal. An appeal is being made. 

Mr. Backman. For the record, that was November 1953. I believe 
he said November of this year. He meant 1953. 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, November, 1953. 

Now, Mr. Egnal, have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Egnal. I will decline to answer that question on the ground, 
first, of the first amendment, which guarantees to me my freedom of 
speech, press, and association, reinforced by the decision of Justice 
Jackson, who said that the right of any governmental body to investi- 
gate the private life of an individual doesn't exist. 

This is a decision which can be cited, a case involving the fu'st 
amendment. 

I also decline on the ground of the fifth amendment, which indicates 
that I am not to be questioned or made to be a witness against myself 
in any case, and also protects me, that no life, liberty, or property 
will be taken without due process of law. 

I also decline to answer on the ground of the ninth amendment, 
which preserves to the people all rights not delegated to Congress, 
and there is nowhere that I can read the right to investigate the private 
lives of individuals. 

So, on those grounds I decline to answer. 

Mr. Kunzig. The tenth? 

Mr. Egnal. No, the ninth. 

Mr. ScHERER. Even if that private life involves subversive activity? 

Mr. Egnal. The term "subversive" — well — excuse me. 

(At this point Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Egnal 

He didn't answer that last question. 

Mr. Egnal. On the same grounds. 



COjVIMUNIST activities in the PHILADELPHIA AREA 3935 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, Mr. Egnal, on October 23, 1943, the Commu- 
nist Party sponsored a meeting held at 40th and Poplar Streets in 
Philadelphia. You were observed, Abraham Egnal, as one of the 
speakers at this meeting. Did you attend this meeting and were 
you one of the speakers? 

(At this point Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Egnal. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. Isn't it a fact, Mr, Egnal, that this meeting we have 
referred to earlier this morning held at the Adelphia Hotel, 13th and 
Chestnut Streets m Philadelphia, on February 5, this year, just a few 
weeks ago — did you attend that meeting? Isn't it a fact that you did 
so attend that meeting? 

(At this pomt Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Egnal. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. You feel that to state that you attended this meeting 
in the Adelphia Hotel, a public meeting, advertised publicly in the 
Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, will in some way incriminate you? 

(At this point Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Egnal. I decline to answer, and in addition, it is the feeling 
that this may be a link in a chain which may make me a witness 
against myself, and, therefore, I decline to answer the question on the 
basis of the previously indicated reasons. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Now, this paid advertisement in the Philadelphia 
Bulletin also says "Come hear the teachers tell their story." 

Isn't it a fact that you were one of the teachers allegedly telling 
your story at this meeting at the Adelphia  

(At this point Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. KuNziG. The same story which you refuse to tell here under 
oath before the Congress? 

(At this point Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Egnal. Same answer; same reasons. 

Mr. KuNZiG. So that the story that you may or may not have told, 
or that was advertised that would be told in this public hearing, you 
refuse to repeat here today under oath before this committee? 

(At this point Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Egnal. I have already stated the answer to the question and 
my reasons therefor. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Wynnefield, W-y-n-n-e- 
f-i-e-1-d. Club of District 3 of the Communist Party of Philadelphia? 

(At this point Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Egnal. Same answer; same reasons. 

Mr. KuNziG. Isn't it a fact that you were a member of that club 
as recently as 1952? 

(At this point Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Egnal. Same answer; same reasons. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you take the Pennsylvania loyalty oath in 1952? 

Mr. Egnal. I took the Pennsylvania loj^alty oath in the spring of 
1952. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you took that oath? 

(At this point Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Egnal. I was not a member of the Communist Party on the 
day I took the loyalty oath. 



3936 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. How about the day before you took the loyalty^ 
oath? 

(At this point Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Backman. Is there an open question? 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you read the question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes, there is a question pending. 

Was he a member of the party the day before he took the oath? 

Mr. Egnal. The same answer I have given before, for the same 
reasons. 

Mr. KuNziG. You refuse to answer that question? 

Mr. Egnal. Yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. You taught in the Philadelphia schools up until 
what date? 

Mr. Egnal. I think it was November 20, 1953. 

Mr. ScHERER. You said you were not a member of the party on 
the day you took the loyalty oath, but you have attended Communist 
meetings since then, haven't you? 

(At this point Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Egnal. Same answer; same reasons. 

Mr. ScHERER. The fact is, you have attended closed meetings of 
the Communist Party since then, isn't it, Mr. Witness? 

(At this point Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Egnal. Same answer; same reasons. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, you refuse to answer, as you just did just then, 
on meetings of the Communist Party which you may have attended 
since you took the loyalty oath. 

Now, in that oath, you swore that you would not be a member of 
any group seeking to overthrow the Government of the United States 
in the future as long as you were a member of the school system; is 
that not correct? 

Mr. Egnal. As to the wording of the oath? 

Mr. Kunzig. I don't have the exact wording, but it went into the 
future, not only that you were not then a member, but would not be 
a member in the future ; is that not correct? 

(At this point Mr. Egnal conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Egnal. I don't have the oath here. The wording can be 
checked. 

Mr. Kunzig. Well, it does so say that, Mr. Chairman, for the record. 

I have no further questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

The only reason I am running this meeting straight on through is 
that we have a meeting of the Public Works Committee that I must 
attend this afternoon, and these people are down from Philadelphia, 
and their lawyers are here, and we don't want to ask them to come 
back, so we will conclude this morning. We only have two more 
witnesses, I believe. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Dubin. 

Mr. ScHERER. Will you raise yoiu* right hand. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
at this hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Dubin. I do. 

Mr. ScHERER. Be seated. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 



COMJMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3937 

TESTIMONY OF HARRY NATHAN DUBIN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, MARTIN PAPISH 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your name, please? 

Mr, DuBiN. My name is Harry Dubin, D-u-b-i-n. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Is your middle name Harry Nathan Dubin? 

Mr. Dubin. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would counsel please state his name and office ad- 
dress for the record? 

Mr. Papish. Martin Papish, 2015 Philadelphia Savings Bank 
Building. 

Mr. Chairman, may I ask that there be noted on the record that 
there is no quorum of the committee present during this interrogation, 
sir? 

Mr. ScHERER. Your statement will be noted in the record, and you 
need not repeat your objection after every question. 

Mr. Papish. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What is 3'our present address, Mr. Dubin? 

Mr. DuBiN. 1316 Gilham Street, Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNZiG. How do you spell that? 

Mr. Dubin. G-i-1-h-a-ni. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would you give the committee your educational back- 
ground, please, sir? 

Mr. Dubin. I was graduated from — you want me to begin with 
what point, sir? 

Mr. Kunzig. Say, high school. 

Mr. Dubin. South Philadelphia High School for boys, in 1935, 
June, I believe; received a bachelor of science degree from Temple 
University in February of 1948. 

I began attending Temple in 1938, interrupted with over 4 years of 
war service; received a master of education degree from Temple 
University in, I believe, the summer of 1951. 

I am still continuing my education. I have been accepted as a 
candidate for the doctorate at Temple University in the field of 
special education. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, would you tell us of j^our employment back- 
ground, SU'? 

Mr. Dubin. Total background, teaching background? 

Mr. Kunzig. Let's talk about the teaching background, yes. 

Mr. Dubin. I was employed by the Pennsbury Schools of Bucks 
County, Pa., as an elementary teacher, 1949, I believe. I spent 3 
years with the Pennsbury Schools, during which time I was in the 
homebound department where I worked, in addition to my regular 
duties, with homebound children who are mentally retarded and 
physically disabled. 

x4t the same time I was an employee of the Philadelphia public 
schools, as an evening-school teacher, teaching literacy and citizen- 
ship to displaced persons. I did that for a period of some 2 years. 

I am now principal and teacher of the Park Training School for 
severely mentally retarded children who have not been accepted in 
public schools, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. This is a private school, is that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Air. Dubin. This is a school maintained by a private organization. 



3938 CORIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. What is that private organization? 

(At this point Air. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Mr. Dubin. The private organization is the Pennsylvania Associa- 
tion for Retarded Children. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you paid by that organization or by the public 
school system? 

Mr. Dubin. I am paid 

(.;\.t this point Mr. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Mr. Dubin. By that organization. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Do you know Bessie Stensky? 

(At this point Air. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Mr. Dubin. I do know Bessie Stensky? 

Mr. KuNZiG. She is employed at your school, is that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Mr. Dubin. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you ever work at the — to return for just a brief 
moment to your work — Philadelphia Navy Yard? 

Mr. Dubin. I was an employee of the Philadelphia Navy Yard 
some time before World War II, I am not sure of the date, the late 
thu'ties. 

Mr. Kunzig. After that time did you ever work for the United 
States Government in the Government Printing Office in Washington, 
D. C? 

(At this point Mr. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Mr. Dubin. The answer to that question is yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wlien was that, sir? 

Mr. Dubin. I will attempt to be specific 

Mr. Kunzig. To the best of your ability. 

Mr. Dubin. Yes. I say, I will attempt to be as specific as I can. 
Roughly, from the period of about December of 1940 or January of 
1941 until I was drafted into the Armed Forces, and that was in 
September of 1941. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you active after the war in the American Youth 
for Democracy — cited, Mr. Chairman, as subversive and Communist 
by Attorney General Tom Clark. 

(At this point Mr. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Mr. Dubin. Because I feel that either a yes or no answer to that 
question would tend to incriminate me, I must invoke my privileges 
as an American citizen on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. You refuse to answer the question? 

Mr. Dubin. I believe that is what I said. 

Mr. Kunzig. Isn't it a fact that you are intercollegiate director of 
the American Youth for Democracy, and a member of the stafl^ of 
Youth in Action, an official organ of the American Youth for Democ- 
racy in the Philadelphia area? 

Mr. Dubin. I have the exact answer to that question as to the 
previous question, and with the same grounds. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you attend the meeting at the Hotel Adelphia 
that we just referred to several times this morning, just a week or so 
ago? 

Mr. Dubin. Again I feel that a yes or no answer would tend to 
incriminate me, and I feel that this committee is attempting to invade 
my private rights as a citizen, and I must invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. And you refuse to answer? 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3939 

Mr. DuBiN. I beg your pardon, I do not believe that was my 
answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. Let's get that clear, Mr. Chairman. 

I am asking yon whether you attended the meeting at the Hotel 
Adelphia held on February 5, 1954. That is the question. Wliat is 
your answer? 

Mr. DuBiN. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. KuNziG. All right. Now, have you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. DuBix. Again, sir, because I feel that either a yes or no answer 
would incriminate me or tend to incriminate me, I refuse to answer 
that question on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. You feel that a "no" answer would tend to incrim- 
inate 3'OU— did I understand you to say that? 

Mr. DuBiN. Yes, sir, I did; that is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have here a picture 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a moment. 

Mr. Kunzig. Pardon me. I am very sorry. 

Mr. ScHERER. You feel if you answered "no" it would tend to 
mcriminate you because you would be committing perjury, is that 
the reason? 

(At this point Mr. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Air. Dubin. I must invoke my rights on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment because, as an American citizen, I feel that I have certain 
constitutional rights to which I am entitled, and I answer on that 
basis. 

Mr. ScHERER. We have been giving you those rights, but you said 
that if vou would answer the question as to whether you were a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, "no," that would tend to incriminate 
you. 

Now, I am going to direct you to answer the question, Mr. Witness 
on the basis of your answer. 

(At this point Mr. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Mr. Dubin. The point that I was attempting to make, sir, is that 
a flat no or yes answer could possibly lead to a further chain of ques- 
tions which would tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. ScHERER. I still dhect the witness to answer the question. 

(At this point Mr. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, obviously, your answer "no" to Mr. 
Kunzig's question could only incriminate you if the "no" answer was 
not true. 

Air. Dubin. I am sorry, sir. I didn't fully understand your 
question. Would you repeat it, please? 

Air. ScHERER. I'said that if you answered "no," that you were not 
a member of the Communist Party, to Air. Kunzig's question, the 
only way that could possibly incriminate you is if you were answering 
untruthifully when you said "no." 

Mr. Dubin. I must invoke my rights under the fifth amendment 
to your question, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is all right. You have that privilege, but you 
are refusing to answer my order to answer that question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

We will proceed. 



3940 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have a picture, a photograph marked Dubin exhibit 
No. 1 for identification, which, investigation has shown, Mr. Chairman, 
to be a picture of a picket Hne in front of the Federal Building at 
Ninth and Market Streets in Philadelphia, Pa., protesting the Federal 
indictment of the 12 national leaders of the Communist Party. 

In this picture is, allegedly, one Harry Dubin, and I pass this to 
you, Dubin exhibit No. 1 for identification, and ask you if that is a 
picture of yourself. 

(At this point Mr. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Mr. KuNZiG. And if you participated in that picket line. 

(At this point Mr. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Mr. Dubin. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You refuse to answer? 

Mr. Dubin. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I offer Dubin exhibit No. 1 for 
identification into evidence as Dubin exhibit No. 1. The date on the 
picture is September 25, 1948. 

Mr. ScHERER. The exhibit will be admitted as requested by counsel. 

(The photograph marked Dubin exhibit No. 1 for identification 
was received in evidence.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know a person by the name of Joe Kuzma, 
K-u-z-m-a? 

Mr. Dubin. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, Joe Kuzma was identified before this 
committee as a member of the party, and is one of the 9 leaders of the 
Communist Party of eastern Pennsylvania who has been arrested in 
violation of the Smith Act. I would like 

Mr. ScHERER. Wliat does that prove? 

Mr. KuNziG. I am now going to pass once again this picture, Dubin 
Exhibit No. 1, to the witness and ask if the person standing near you, 
marked 'No. 2" on that picture, is not Joe Kuzma in this picket line? 

(At this point Mr. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Mr. Dubin. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Papish. Mr. Chairman, I would like to interpose my objection 
to the admission of the photograph in evidence, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, we are not bound by the rules of court, and 
you cannot interpose such objection, but might I explain, since the 
person in the picture is obviously the witness, I have admitted it. 
We are not bound by the rules of court; I mean, that we are not bound 
by the same rules on admissibility of evidence. 

Mr. Papish. I know that, but it seems so futile to sit here and do 
nothing; that as a counsel of 28 years standing I should do something, 
sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is perfectly all right, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Dubin, I have here a document marked "Dubin 
Exhibit No. 2" for identification, and I pass it to you 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3941 

Mr. ScHERER. Let me say this: 

You have a perfect right, as you have done, to advise your client 
on every answer that he makes, and you do not have that privilege 
in the courtroom, so you have a few more rights here than you have 
in court. 

Mr. P APISH. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have this document which is a nomination paper 
for the Communist Party; No. 3, signature of elector, is Harry Dubin, 
of Philadelphia. This is March 22, 1946. 

Did you sign this nomination petition for the Communist Party? 

I now pass you this document marked "Dubin Exhibit No. 2" for 
identification. 

(At this point Mr. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Mr. Dubin. I invoke my rights on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And you refuse to answer the question? 

Mr. Dubin. Yes, sir. 

Air. KuNziG. I offer in evidence, Mr. Chairman, this document 
which is marked "Dubin Exhibit No. 2" for identification as exhibit 
2, Dubin. 

Mr. ScHERER. Where do you live now, Mr. Dubin? 

Mr. Dubin. 1316 Gilham Street, Philadelphia. 

Air. ScHERER. You lived at 3227 West Montgomery Avenue at one 
time, did you not? 

(At this point Mr. Dubin conferred with Mr. Papish.) 

Mr. Dubin. Yes, I did. 

Mr. ScHERER. And on March 22, 1946, you were a student, were 
you not? 

Air. Dubin. Yes, I was. 

Air. ScHERER. And you went by the name of Harry Dubin at that 
time? 

Air. Dubin. That has always been my name. 

Air. ScHERER. When I said 3227 West Alontgomery Avenue, I 
meant 3227 West Alontgomery Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. You lived 
at that address in Philadelphia, Pa? 

Air. Dubin. That is correct. 

Air. ScHERER. The exhibit will be admitted in evidence. 

(Document entitled "Nomination Paper", marked "Dubin Exhibit 
No. 2" for identification and received in evidence.) ^ 

Air. KuNZiG. I have no further questions. Air. Chairman. 

Air. ScHERER. I have no questions. 

The witness will be excused. 

Air. KuNziG. Dr. Alahaney. 

Air. ScHERER. Will the witness raise his right hand. 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
at this hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God. 

Dr. AIahaney. I do. 

Air. Scherer. You may be seated. 

» Retained in the files of the committee. 



3942 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

TESTIMONY OF WILBUR LEE MAHANEY, JR., ACCOMPANIED BY 
HIS COUNSEL, WILLIAM ALLEN RAHILL 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Counsel, I understand you have a statement 
to make for the record. 

Mr. Rahill. If it please the committee, my name is William Allen 
RahUl, 2107 Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Building, Philadelphia 9, 
Pa. 

I would like to make a statement for the record that my client, 
Dr. Mahaney, has asked me on his behalf formally to waive our 
objection to the lack of a quorum at this time in order that we may not 
be required to return tomorrow to be heard by the committee. 

Mr. KuxziG. Dr. Mahaney, you have heard the statement of your 
counsel. Are you in agreement with that statement? 

Dr. Mahaney. Quite all right. 

Mr. KuNziG. You are in agreement? 

Dr. Mahaney. I am in agreement. 

Mr. KuNZiG. State your full name, sir. 

Dr. Mahaney. Wilbur Lee Mahaney, Jr. 

Mr. Kinzig. And your address, please. Dr. Mahaney? 

Dr. Mahaney. 704 Main Street, Trappe, Pa. 

Mr. KuNziG. How is that spelled? 

Dr. Mahaney. T-r-a-p-p-e. 

Mr. KuNziG. Trappe, Pa.? 

Dr. Mahaney. That is right. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would you give the committee a resume of your edu- 
cational background? 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, I was educated in the public schools of the 
State of Virginia; took a bachelor's degree from the University of 
Richmond in 1924, a master's degree from the University of Virginia 
in 1926. I took my Ph. D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 
1938. 

In 1933 and 1934 I held the Penfield Fellowship in Belles Lettres 
and International Diplomacy at the League of Nations, Geneva, 
1933-34, and I taught in the public and private schools of Virginia 
and Delaware, and have been in the Philadelphia school system since 
1929. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, would you give us the schools in which you have 
been employed? 

Dr. Mahaney. Only one, West Philadelphia High School. 

Mr. KuNziG. And what do you teach there. Dr. Mahaney? 

Dr. Mahaney. Social studies. 

Mr. KuNZiG. History and social studies? 

Dr. Mahaney. American history, and any other kuad. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. There is only one school I have ever taught in in 
the Philadelphia school system. That is what you meant, isn't it? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. 

Dr. Mahaney. That is right. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3943 

Mr. KuNziG. And how long has it been, just to refresh my memory, 
that you have taught at West Philadelphia High School? 

Dr. Mahaney. Since 1929; September 1929. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And has it always been history and social studies 
during that period of time? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, Dr. ]\Iahaney, have you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes, I have. 

Mr. KuNziG. Your answer to that question was "j^es"? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would you please state for the record how you became 
a member, and when this was? 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, there is nothing spectacular about it. I 
joined the Communist Party I think about the year after I came 
back from Europe. 

Mr. KuNziG. When was that? 

Dr. Mahaney. About 1934, and I think, my best recollection of 
that — it has been so long ago — ^it would be that it was about 1935. 

Mr. KuNZiG. How did you become recruited into the party? De- 
scribe the events leading up to your membership. 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, I was just solicited, asked if I didn't want to 
join, and I was asked that a number of times, and it was explained to 
me that the Communist Party was very liberal and very much the 
same kind of a sociological and political program as the Roosevelt 
administration, and so far as I could see, it didn't seem to be too 
different, and so — —  

Mr. KuNziG. You mean as far as you could see, the Communist 
Party wasn't very different from the Roosevelt administration? 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, I mean the aims, apparently, as far as I under- 
stood them, were in luie with the 1934, 1935, 1936 pohtical situation. 

\h: KuNziG. Now, who recruited you into the Communist Party? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, now, I have never engaged in, nor could I 
ever engage in, any subversive activity or believe in any such thing. 
It would be utterly repugnant to my teaching and to everything that 
I have ever taught for the past 30 years and, most emphatically, I 
have never known anyone to advocate the overthrow of the Govern- 
ment by force or violence, or anything of that sort, and if I had, I most 
assuredly would have reported it to the proper authorities. 

Since my earliest childhood I have been taught at home and at 
church, by my parents, that talebearing is a very sad, very unworthy 
business, and, since the question that you have asked me would 
involve the name of a person now dead, among other things, I don't 
feel that in good conscience I could possibly discuss anything of that 
sort. 

I have always believed, and have been taught, that to be an informer 
as to the friends that you might have or acquaintances that you might 
meet along the pathway of life is contrary to every tenet of the 
American way of thinking. 



3944 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you refusing to answer? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. I don't think I could answer that in good 
conscience, Mr. Kunzig. 

]\Ir. Kunzig. Now, to make it clear, and clear for the record, are 
you refusing to answer on the grounds of the fifth amendment, or are 
you not involving the fifth amendment? 

Dr. Mahaney. No; I am not invoking the fifth amendment. 
"Wliat you are asking me to do, inadvertently, and possibly without 
intending to do so, you are asking me to violate one of my most 
deepseated convictions and one which you might say I have held 
since I was old enough to remember, the sacredness of human relation- 
ship and, especially, of "speak well of the dead." 

Air. Kunzig. Now, to make the record clear, is eveiyone who 
recruited you into the Communist Party dead? 

Dr. Mahaney. No, there is one who is. 

Mr. Kunzig. So there were others? 

Dr. Mahaney. No, there was one who did. 

Mr. Kunzig. And the one who did is dead? 

Dr. Mahaney. Absolutely. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, just a minute. 

Doctor, I respect your feelings and appreciate what you said, but 
I must dhect that you answer the question. 

All over this countr}^, in courtrooms and in congressional hearings, 
persons are required to do just what you say you don't like to do. 
In every trial and eveiy hearing, it is necessary for witnesses, when 
the}^ are called under oath, to identify individuals that they would 
rather not identify. I would feel, perhaps, the same way, but that 
isn't the law, so I am directing you to answer. 

Now, you can refuse to answer. 

(At tills point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Mr. ScHERER. That responsibility isn't yours; it is ours, when we 
ask that question. If it is in the courtroom, it is the court's respon- 
sibility. If a witness is compelled, he is not doing it voluntarily; he 
is doing it in accordance with the laws of the land. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Kahili.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, gentlemen, I 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, I don't want to labor the point — — - 

Mr. Rahill. He wishes to answer your question, I think. 

Dr. Mahaney. I want to answer the question the best way I 
thinlv. 

I understand that, and my counsel made that perfectly clear; in 
other words, I wasn't enthely hazy on it when you brought the thing 
to my attention again because I had already been told that by my 
counsel. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand you have one of the most capable 
counsel in Philadelphia, and he most likely told you that, but I 
wanted to put it in the record after your statement. 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Well, in following my conscience in this matter, I wish to make it 
perfectly clear that I do not intend to show any disrespect to the com- 
mittee — — 

Mr. Scherer. I understand that. 



COMMUXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3945 

Dr. Mahaney. Or to any of its members, or to any organ of our 
Government, but in all honesty, I would assure you that I would 
take this stand in a court of law. It is a matter of deep and abiding 
conscience with me, and so I would probably have to say that, without 
fear or without hope of favor, I will have to entrust myself to the 
conscience of my fellow countrymen and, in the words of Martin 
Luther, I would have to say, "So help me God, I can do no other." 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand it is a refusal on yom' part. Of course, 
in a court of law, the judge could sentence you immediately for 
contempt. 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, that is the dictates of my conscience. 

Mr. ScHERER. I appreciate that, and your answer is no, so let's 
proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. So the record is clear, you have not stood upon any 
amendment or anything else; you are answering it flatly, "No"? 

Dr. Mahaney. No, that is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think that is clear, Mr. Counsel. Let us proceed. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I would like to ask you this question, Dr. Mahaney: 

You tallved about the desne not to tell upon people, and that sort 
of thmg, as the basic motivation in your very sincere statement just 
now as to your beliefs. 

If you saw one of your friends, someone close to you, committing a 
robbery or a burglary, would you feel the same way; would you refuse 
to tell on that person? 

Dr. Mahaney. No; I don't think so. 

Mr. KuNZiG. But when it comes to membership in the Commimist 
Party or who recruited you in the Communist Party, as to that you 
don't wish to tell? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, I don't think the two illustrations are analo- 
gous, that is, someone committing a felony, let's say, but I draw a 
distinction between 

Fhst, of aU, my objection isn't based upon not tellmg because they 
are members of the Communist Party. The objection is a deep- 
seated one having to do with my personal integrity and what I 
consider an inviolate code of honor, which may be misplaced 

Mr. Scherer. Now, Air. Kunzig, I think we understand each other. 

Mr. Rahill. He wants to answer. 

Dr. AIahaney. I want to answer Mr. Kimzig's question, because 
I think there is a great difference between an overt act which is 
pmiishable by law and the possible holding of an opinion in which 
no overt act is involved. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you feel that membership in the Communist 
Party is not a serious enough matter of which you shoidd impart the 
knowledge of au}^ members that you may know to yom' Government? 

Dr. AIahaney. I don't know of any members of the Commmiist 
Party, and never did, who were, or even so far as I knew, engaged in 
any kind of conspiracy or any plot, or anything of the sort. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know members in the Communist Party? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes, of course — I thought they were. I assumed 
that they were. That is, they seemed to have the same political 
status in the party that I had. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you were a member, as you said? 

Dr. Mahaney. I was a member for some years. 



3946 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. "Wlio were the other members that you knew m the 
Communist Party? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. That is the same question. I answered that to the 
best of ray abihty. 

Mr. KuNziG. This is a different question. You were asked as to 
who recruited you, and you refused to answer. Now I am asking 
you, what other members of the Commimist Party did you know 
during the time you were a member? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. RahilL) 

Mr. ScHERER. Rather than repeat all that you have said 

Mr. Rahill. I think he can answer it in a sentence. 

Mr. ScHERER. We understand you are going to refuse to answer 
this question for the same reasons that you have given up to this 
point. 

Dr. Mahaney. I would say it is the same thing, only different. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I want to make it very clear for this 
record. This is not the same question; there may be the same 
answer, but it is not the same question. 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand it is a different question, but, as I 
understand, he is refusing to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. KuNziG. But he has been saying, Mr. Chairman, that this is 
the same question. I would like the record clear. 

Mr. ScHERER. No, it is not the same question. 

(At this point Dr. ]\Iahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. So far as I am concerned, there is no difference in 
the nature of the question. It is my personal integrity involved. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, whether there is a difference in the questions 
or not, you are refusing to answer this particular question for the same 
reasons you have given up to this point? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. Now, let's proceed. 

Mr. KuNZiG. How long were you a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, to the best of my recollection, I would say 
from about 1935 to possiblv the fall of 1948. 

Mr. KuNZiG. The fall of 1948? 

Dr. Mahaney. 1948, yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you pay dues during that period of time? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. I think I did, irregularly; I am sure I did. I paid 
money in, but they were not always necessarily dues. 

Mr. ScHERER. What caused you to leave the party. Doctor? 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, that is a long story. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, that is one I would like to hear, or the com- 
mittee would like to hear. 

Mr. Kunzig. Before that question, there is one more I would like 
to ask, if I may. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. I will withdraw the question. 

Mr. Kunzig. Thank you sir. 

You said you paid dues to the party during that period of time. 
You have also stated that you know of nothing ever done in any way 
by cither yourself or other acquaintances against the country. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3947 

Dr. Mahaney. Personally. 

IMr. KuNZiG. Do you know what was done with the dues money 
that you gave to the Communist Party? 

Dr. Mahaney. No, I wouldn't say that I did. 

Air. KuNZiG. And you don't know, then, whether that money was 
used bv the Communist Party against the best interests of the United 
States? 

(At tills point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. I have no personal knowledge of it at all. 

Mr. KuNziG. But you did contribute the dues money? 

Dr. Mahaney I did contribute. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Now, to go back to the question that was asked by 
the chau'man a moment ago, what were the reasons which caused you 
to leave the Communist Partv in 1948— was that it? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes, I think about the fall of 1948. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Are you ready? 

Mr. KuNziG. We are ready. 

Dr. Mahaney. I should say that around after the war things 
changed considerably, at least I thought thev did, and that I was less 
interested in the party at the time; that I had more things that I was 
more interested m, including teaching jobs during and after school, 
and then 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you find out, Doctor, that the objectives of the 
party were different from those that you thought they were when 
you first joined? 

Dr. Mahaney. They may have been, but I didn't notice too much 
of the objectives changing, as far as I was aware, but I think the 
political climate changed and the relationship between our country 
and former allies changed. 

Mr. ScHERER. You read quite a bit, don't you. Doctor? 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, yes, I did, and I still do, and I thought that 
the political atmosphere had changed considerably. 

Mr. Scherer. Certainly you learned during that period that the 
objectives of the party were different from what you told us you 
thought they were when you first joined? 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, no, I wasn't too sure of it, but that was one 
reason why I lost interest. In other words, I was no longer interested 
in a lot of things that I was interested in in 1930, 1935, 1938, 1940, 
1941, 1942, and I thought at the time that mavbe the United Nations, 
when this was set up, would change the thing back to where we would 
be in a political entente with not only our former enemies, but also 
our so-called allies. 

Then about the same time my whole manner and mode of living 
changed, and that probably had just as much to do v/ith it, if not 
more, than anything else. 

Mr. Scherer. You mean you never became more of a capitalist? 

Dr. AIahaney. Well, I never 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. This is a perponal matter. That is why I told you 
it was a long story. 



3948 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

My first wife and I were separated and then we were divorced, and I 
moved 25 or 30 miles out of town, and I had teaching jobs dming and 
after school, and I never saw anybody, and I got entn^ely wrapped up, 
and more so, in what I was doing. I was teaching 2 or 3 nights a 
week, and I practically did nothing else, except on weekends, or some- 
thing of that sort, I would go to see my present wife, and my whole 
thinking changed and my whole attitude toward everything changed, 
including my inward self. I wasn't interested in things of that sort, 
and then when I — I had already moved out of town about 27 or 28 
miles, and when my present wife and I married I moved back for 
approximately a year to the apartment in Germantown. 

Then, after living there a year, our first son was born and, of course, 
the apartment wasimpossible, so then I proceeded to buy my present 
residence. In other words, we moved back, actually, to the place 
where I had lived, although at that time, of course, I had never 
dreamed of living at that particular spot, never dreamed of it, because 
I was merely renting a room there; so, in 1948 we moved there, and 
I would say that my marriage and my two sons who have been born 
subsequently, and all of that, and my complete lack and divorcement 
of interest, is the answer, and there is no spectacular answer that I 
am aware of. 

Mr. KuNziG. May I go on? 
Mr. Rahill. Excuse me just a minute. 
Mr. KuNZiG. Yes, certainly. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 
Mr. Rahill. Dr. Mahaney wants to say just another word. 
Dr. Mahaney. Could I elaborate on part of that? 
Now, the reason I said 1948 is because that was the year — I made a 
mistake, I think, when I calculated before. I based it on the birth 
of my youngster, which was 1947 instead of 1948, so even during the 
time when I lived about 25 or 30 miles out, during the year 1946 and 
1947, I had very, very few connections with anything or anyone in 
town. I rarely saw anybody because I was never in town, and I 
had too many other interests, and then in 1948, when we moved up 
there, why, 1 have a recollection of possibly I was in town to one 
meeting, but my recollection is that it was not a party meeting, that 
it was — I stayed in town to go to a Teachers Union meeting and took 
dinner with the people, left my car at their house, and they drove me 
to the Teachers Union meeting, and then I came back and got in my 
car. This must have been, I imagine, October. That would be the 
nearest I could place it. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, Dr. Mahaney, you were a member of the party 
from 1935, roughly, to 1948? 

Dr. Mahaney. I think that is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, in 1939, when Russia joined in August of 
that year with Germany and the Communists in this country found 
that the group that they believed in had suddenly become a partner 
with the party that was an enemy of communism, you still remained 
a member of the party, is that right? 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, I still wasn't too much concerned because, 
actually, I thought the arrangement, which I didn't understand and, 

frankly, I wasn't too concerned about it • 

Mr. ScHERER. You were teaching history, weren't you? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3949 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes, but not that kind of history. 

Mr. ScHERE. What kind of history were you teaching? 

Dr. Mahaney. American history. 

And I didn't think it concerned us too much, and I looked upon it 
myself, having been back from the league 2 or 3 years, I looked upon 
it as one of these transitory arrangements which the boys in Europe 
frequently think up until they can think up something better. 

Mr. ScHERER. Go ahead. Sir. Kunzig. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, were you a member of a teachers union and, if 
so, what union? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes, I was a member of a teachers union. 

Mr. Kunzig. You were a member of the Teachers Union? 

Dr. Mahaney. A member of the Teachers Union referred to this 



mornmg. 



Mr. Kunzig. The one of which ]Mr. Jennings is the head? 

Dr. Mahaney. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. \Vlien were you a member of that union? 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, I was a member of it for quite a while; I 
would say probably from about, well, this all might have dated back 
to around the same time, around wSeptember or October 1935. 

Mr. Kunzig. Until? 

Dr. Mahaney. Until probably about 3 years ago 

(At this point Dr. Mahane}^ conferred with Mr. Rahill.'^ 

Dr. Mahaney. I would say approximately 1951. 

Mr. Kunzig. Until approximately 1951? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes, when I didn't pay dues, stopped. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wlien you were a member of the Communist Party 
did you know any other members of this union to be members of the 
Communist Part}'^? 

Dr. Mahaney. That is the same question. 

Mr. Kunzig. No, that is not the same question. Are you going'to 
give the same answer, which is that you refuse to answer? 

(At this point Dr, Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, m}' answer would be somewhat the same, 
Mr. Kunzig. wSince the membership of the Teachers Union is a matter 
of public record, or is open to this committee, this committee could, if 
it wishes, and probabl}^ does have the names of those people that are 
members of the union. 

Mr. Kunzig. But you have said that you are a member of the 
union, and you are a witness before this committee. Dr. Mahaney, 
and we are asking you as a man who knows something about this field, 
as a member of the party, we are asking you to help the committee — 
I understand your viewpoint on it — but we are asking you who you 
knew from this Teachers Union to be members of the Communist 
Party with you. 

That is the question. If he wishes to give the same answer, he can 
can say. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, the chairman will direct you to answer that 
question. 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, there may be a fine distinction which I do not 
see, and so as a matter of conscience, I would have to give you the 
same answer because I cannot distinguish between my conscience 



3950 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you going to give iis the same answer you gave 
to the question as to who recruited you into the party? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes, for the same reason. 

Mr. ScHERER. And the record will so state? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. 

]\Ir. KuNziG. May I suggest, then, if it is agreeable with the witness, 
when he wishes to do that, it will be the same answer and we will 
understand him to mean he is refusing to answer because of the same 
grounds given in refusing to answer the question as to who recruited 
him into the party. 

Mr. Rahill. We will be happy with that. 

Dr. Mahaney. That is agreeable. 

Mr. KuNziG. Dr. Mahaney, what is your present age? 

Dr. Mahaney. I am 51. 

Mr. ScHERER. May I ask, other than persons who you knew 
intimately in the teaching field or as neighbors or as close friends, 
did 3'ou know any high functionaries in the Communist Party? 

Dr. Mahaney. Personally, do you mean? I would know names 
that would appear in the paper, but if you mean 

Mr. ScHERER. No. Did you ever come in contact with any 
functionaries of the party? 

Dr. Mahaney. I don't recall it, no, sir; as far as the — • — • 

Mr. ScHERER. Outside of the cell to which you belonged? 

Dr. Mahaney. To the best of my knowledge, I don't recall 
anything. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you know Bella Dodd, who testified in Phila- 
delphia — you must have come in contact with her? 

Dr. Mahaney. I laiew her as a teacher, or a functionary of the 
Teachers Union only. 

Mr. Kunzig. Well, she was very active in the Teachers Union? 

Dr. Mahaney. That is right. 
.Mr. Kunzig. And as a member of the Communist Party? 

Dr. Mahaney. I thought she was, too, but after I heard her 
testimony I was quite sure I was wrong on lots of things. 

Mr. Scherer. Dr. Dodd testified on a number of occasions that 
she was a functionary of the party — -I am not hurting Dr. Dodd; 
she testified before this committee, and the Jenner committee, that 
she was a member of the Comminust Party and a high functionary of 
the party. 

Dr. ^iAHANEY. That is why I admit to knowing her, because I 
heard her testify and also heard her testify that she had become a 
Communist Party member, and I knew her as a functionary in the 
Teachers Union, as an official of some sort. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Kunzig, that is the second bell for the quorum 
call. I am going to have to answer it. 

We will adjourn for 20 minutes. I will try to be back in 20 minutes. 

C\^^lereupon, at 1:45 p. m., the committee recessed, to reconvene 
at 2:05 p. m., the same day.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 2:21 p. m., the following committee 
members being present: Representative Gordon H. Scherer (pre- 
siding).) 

Mr. Scherer. The committee will be in session, and you may 
proceed, Mr. Counsel. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3951 

Mr. KuNziG. Dr. Malianey, it is my understanding you wish to 
make a brief statement based upon the refreshing of your recollection 
as to dates when you may have left the party. Would you make 
that statement now, please sir? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with ]Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. M.vHANEY. j\ly wife received the impression that I was too 
fuzzy on the dates, and I talked with her, and her memory on those 
tlimgs is much better than mme, and I didn't mtend to give the impres- 
sion of the time I left the party, which was around 1946-47 — in other 
words, I didn't pay any dues at all after that time, and I think I 
said something about 1948. Well, I was thinking I did attend 1 or 
2 meetings. I wasn't entirely clear in my o^vn mind as to whether 
they were party meetmgs or not. The only one I could recall 

Mr. ScHERER. You mean you attended 1 or 2 meetings after you 
had stopped paying dues? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes; after I had stopped paying dues, and one of 
those occasions was in 1948, when I went to this meeting, stayed in 
town, took dinner with people in town, and went to the Teachers 
Union meeting. 

That is my recollection. It was not a party meeting, and that 
was in 1948. 

Now, so far as dues to the Teachers Union is concerned, I stopped 
paj'ing dues to them probably about 1948 — in other words, about 2 
3^ear3 later. 

]\Ir. KuNZKJ. Were Teachers Union meetings so similar to Com- 
munist Party meetings that j^ou were able to confuse the two? 

Dr. Mahaney. No; except I just merel}^ brought that in to indicate 
that I had severed all connections with any kind of organizations 
whatsoever, that I was not active in any organization. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you belong to the Teachers Union? 

(Representative Francis E. Walter entered the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Dr. Mahaney. I don't know. I imagine I don't, because, as I say, 
I haven't paid dues for a number of years. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, vou don't belong. 

nit* 

Dr. Mahaney. I don't belong, I suppose, on account of the basis 
of the bylaws, and so forth, and I haven't paid dues for years. 

Mr. Kunzig. Dr. Mahaney, you talked about the principles that 
you believed in back in the thirties, that they were similar to the 
Communist Party principles, and that you joined the part3\ Do you 
still believe in those same principles today? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. RahiU.) ''^ 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, now, would you state the question over again, 
because I had to consult my counsel? *■« 

Mr. Kunzig. I will gladly state it again. The point is: I am 
asking — considering the principles you said you believed in that 
caused you to join the Communist Party, do you still believe in 
those same principles today? 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, the principles which were most persuasive in 
the period 1935-36, that led me to be interested, were the principles 
of world peace and disarmament, accord among the nations and the 
establishment of a firm foundation for international peace, which at 
that time was the League of Nations, although it apparently was 
beginning its death march. 



3952 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Now, I'm still interested in world peace, in international accord, 
and disarmament, and I still believe that it's possible for countries 
and people of divergent cultures and opinions to get together io 
harmony. 

In otiier words, if 3"0u ask me if I believe in the things the United 
Nations stand for, I would say "Yes." 

Mr. KuNziG. That wasn't what I asked, but we will go on. 

Do you feel that the Communist Party today just stands for peace 
and fellowship among nations? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Wlien I shrugged my shoulders, all I meant was I 
don't know what the party stands for, except what I see in the news- 
papers and I wouldn't really be able to say "Yes" or "No," because 
that's all I know about it. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Mary Foley Grossman to be a member 
of the Communist Party? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Same answer; same reason. In other words, it is a 
matter of conscience. 

Mr. KuNziG. We understand. That is already on the record. 

Did vou know Miss Sarah Walsh as a member of the Communist 
Party?' 

Dr. AIahaney. Same answer, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. Kunzig. I don't think I have asked you specifically whether 
you knew Mr. Jennings who testified here this morning and who was 
head of the Teachers Union to be a member of the Communist Party. 

Dr. Mahaney. I could answer that truthfully and say I never knew. 

Mr. IvuNziG. Your answer is you never laiew. 

But could he have been a member of the Communist Party without 
your knowledge? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. I answered the question conscientiously and hon- 
estly when I said I had no knowledge whatsoever, but I guess I should 
give the same answer for the same reason. 

I didn't know. I do not know. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Dr. Mahaney, the Murray Defense Committee — 
M-u-r-r-a-y — and this is a letterhead of 7 South Street, Philadelphia — 
in^l940, April 26, sent out a letter, and on their stationery Dr. W. L. 
Mahaney, Jr., is listed as chairman of the Philadelphia Conference on 
Anti-Alien Legislation. 

This organization, Mr. Chairman, and for the record, has been cited 
as a Communist front. 

Were you a member of this committee? 

I will pass you this document, marked "Mahaney exhibit No. 1" 
for identification, and ask you if you were on the committee, as listed 
on that letterhead. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Mr. Rahill. May we ask counsel if he knows which Murray is 
referred to? 

We don't seem to know. 

Mr. Scherer. If the witness doesn't know, doesn't recollect, he 
can so state. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3953 

Dr. Mahaney. I see it, and I assume — it's my name, of com-se, but 
truthfully, I have absolutely no recollection of it whatsoever. 

Mr. KuNZiG. So, as to this cited front organization and the name, 
Dr. W. L. Mahaney, Jr., appearing on it, you have no knowledge as 
to whether you lent your name or did not lend your name? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. That's true. I wouldn't know whether it was used 
with or without permission. I recall giving no permission. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with ]\lr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. I don't know — could I ask what 

Mr. KuNziG. Just wait a minute. 

Dr. Mahaney. Could I ask what Murray this is supposed to be? 

(At this point Dr. Mahanev conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. 1 don't know. 

(At this pomt Dr. Mahaney conferred further with Mr. Rahill.) 

j\Ir. KuNziG. Strike all that last part from the record. 

Mr. .Rahill. I don't think that should be stricken, Mr. Kunzig. 
We are trying honestly to give his best answers and, as he doesn't 
know who the Murray referred to is, he wants to say that for 
the record. 

Mr. KuNziG. On the record, Mr. Chairman, I suggest we not have 
constant conferences here, back and forth. If counsel wishes to talk 
to his client, he may do so; but I suggest a constant three-way con- 
ference not go on because the reporter can't possible get these facts. 

If you wish to make a further statement about whether you did or 
did not know about this defense committee, please make it now. 

Dr. Mahaney. I don't even know to whom the Murray refers. 

Mr. KuNziG. All right. 

Air. Walter. Do you know Frank Staats — S-t-a-a-t-s? 

Dr. Mahaney. It doesn't ring any bell at all, Representative 
Walter. 

Mr. Walter. His name appears on the letterhead as secretary 
of the Murray defense committee. 

Dr. Mahaney. Even vaguely. 

Mr. KuNziG. I offer Mahaney exhibit No. 1 for identification into 
evidence, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. Which one? 

Mr. KuNziG. The one you have, the one already identified as 
Mahaney exhibit No. 1 for identification. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

^Ir. Walter. Will you look at these names, please. Doctor, and 
see if you recognize the people whose names appear at the bottom? 

]Mr. KuNZiG. I am handing you a document marked "Mahaney 
exhibit No. 1" for identification. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Air. Scherer. Mr. Walter's question was: Do you recognize or 
do 3'ou know any of the individuals whose name appears on that 
document along with yours? 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, Congressman, I would respectfully have to 
give you the same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Scherer. Irrespective of naming any one or more persons, 
do you recognize the names of any persons whom 3"0u know? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes; I would say that I recognize a few on here. 



3954 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

IVIr. ScHERER. All right. Xow, I know what voiir answer is going 
to be, but I am going to ask you the question: Do you know any 
of those to have been members of the Communist Party at the time 
you were a member of the party? 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, I will respectfully have to • 

Mr. ScHERER. I didn't ask you which one, understand. There are a 
lot of them. You can answer yes or no to that question without 
revealing the individuals. 

(At this point Dr. ^Maliane}' conferred with Mr. Kahili.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Are you 

Mr. Sherer. Yes; we are waiting for the answer. 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, of my own personal knowledge, there is none 
on there that I would know to have been a Communist. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you associated with any of those individuals 
whose names appear on that document in any activity? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with ]Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, the only answer that I can conceivably give 
to that, I imagine, is I knew two of them to be teachers, or to be 
employed by the board of education. 

Air. Scherer. Out of all the names that appear on the document 
you hold in 3^our hand, you sa}" you recognize the names of two 
individuals other than your own name; is that right? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Air. Scherer. Doctor, you don't need any help to answer that 
question. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred further with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, as I said to my counsel, I recognize some 
of these people's names as names, merel}^, as 

Mr. Scherer. Maybe my question wasn't clear. How many 
individuals whose names appear on the document you hold in your 
hand did you know and were you acquainted with? 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, I can onl}^ see on this document probably 
3 or 4 that I knew, I would know as names merely. 

Mr. Scherer. As names merely? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Then your answer is j^ou don't 

Dr. Mahaney. I would have to- 

Mr. Scherer (continuing). Know any of them personally? 

Dr. AIahaney. Yes; to see them. I would know them if I saw 
them; yes, if I saw them. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. I would say that I know four as personal acquaint- 
ances, either I know their names from their pictures in the paper or 
something of that sort. 

Mr. Scherer. You know four as personal acquaintances? 

Dr. Mahaney. Approximately; yes. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you ever associated with those four in any 
kind of activity? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. Yes; three of them at one time, in the Teach- 
ers' Union. 

Mr. Scherer. In the Teachers' Union? 

Dr. Mahaney. That would be the only way. 

Mr. Scherer. Were 1 or more of the 4 with whom you were per- 
sonally acquainted members of the Communist Party? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3955 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, as I said, not to my knowledge. I wouldn't 
know, to my personal knowledge. I would have no knowledge of 
that. 

Mr. ScHERER. Since you are not naming them, did you consider 
them to be members of the Communist Party during the time that 
you were a member? 

Dr. Mahaney. No; three of them I wouldn't. The one I would 
probably have a mental reservation about, with no reason at all, except 
that I just didn't know. 

(At this point Dr. ]\Iahanev conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Go ahead, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I offer this into evidence as exhibit 1. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right; it may be so received. 

(A photostatic copy of a letter dated April 26, 1940, on the letter- 
head of the Murray Defense Committee, 7 South St., Philadelphia, Pa., 
previously marked "Exhibit No. 1" for identification, was received in 
evidence as Mahaney exhibit No. 1.) ^ 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have another document marked Mahaney Exhibit 
No. 2, for identification, which is a call to a Conference on Consti- 
tutional Liberties in America, dated June 7, 8, and 9, 1940. Listed 
as a sponsor to this conference call, which group was cited by Attorney 
General Francis Biddle in 1942, is Dr. W. L. Mahaney, Jr., of Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Did you sponsor this group during the period of time that you were 
a member of the Communist Party? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. I have no recollection of it, although it's quite 
possible. I mean 

Mr. KuNZiG. You have no recollection of having been a sponsor? 

Dr. Mahaney. I have no recollection of agreeing to be a sponsor, 
or even being one. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you have a recollection of having attended any 
meetings of this group? 

Dr. ]\Iahaney. That I do not recall either. It's very 

Mr. KuNZiG. Do you have any possible explanation as to how your 
name was used? 

Dr. Mahaney. I wouldn't have the slightest idea. 

Since it came in June, June 7, 8, and 9, presumably I would be 
teaching school and I probably wouldn't be there. I mean without 
checking the dates or anything 

Mr. KuNziG. Has it ever come to your attention at any time that 
your name has been used on documents unauthorizedly? 
(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with IMr. Rahill.) 

Dr. AL\haney. I don't think I ever had it called to my attention 
until just now; and I'm not at all certain about it, how they got the 
name. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I offer Mahaney exhibit No. 2 for 
identification in evidence as Mahaney exhibit No. 2. 

Mr. Scherer. It may be so received. 

(A photostatic copy of a document entitled "Cah to a Conference 
on Constitutional Liberties in America", dated June 7, 8, and 9, 

3 Retained in the files of the committee. 



3956 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

previously marked "Exliibit No. 2" for identification, was received 
in evidence as Mahaney exhibit No. 2.) ^ 

jMr. KuNziG. I have another document, marked ''Mahaney Exhibit 
No. 3" for identification, which is a letterhead of the National Fed- 
eration for Constitutional Liberties, 1410 H Street NW., Washington, 
T>. C, dated November 6, 1940. 

The National Federation for Constitutional Liberties has been 
cited as subversive and Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark. 

On the back of that, in addition to Mary Foley Grossman and 
others, appears the name of Dr. W. L. Mahaney, Jr., of Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

Dr. Mahaney, I hand you a document marked "Mahaney Exhibit 
No. 3" for identification and ask you whether you were a sponsor of 
that organization. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Kunzig, I am sorry but we are going to have to 
recess for another 20 minutes, at least. 

Mr. Rahill. Would it be possible, Mr. Chairman, to recess long 
enough to have a little lunch — or if you would be back in 20 minutes, 
we would rather get on with it, of course. 

Mr. ScHERER. We will leave it up to you. You wanted to get 
back to Philadelphia as soon as you can. 

Mr. Rahill. We will wait. 

Mr. KuNziG. There is a little lunch room right below here. 

Mr. ScHERER. We will do what you want. 

We will recess for a half hour. 

Mr. Rahill. That will be fine. 

(Wliereupon, at 2:45 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 3:15 p. m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 3:20 p. m., the following committee 
members being present: Representative Gordon H. Scherer (pre- 
siding) .) 

Mr. Scherer. We will proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Kunzig. Will you read back the last question, please, Mr. 
Reporter? 

(The reporter read the question as follows: 

Doctor Mahaney, I hand you a document marked "Mahaney Exhibit No. 3" for 
identification and ask you whether you were a sponsor of that organization.) 

Dr. Mahaney. I don't recall giving my permission to use my name 
on this sponsorship sheet, and I have no recollection of having given it. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you deny that you were a sponsor of that 
organization? 

Dr. Mahaney. No; I don't think I would deny it because I have 
no recollection of so doing, and I think it may have been used without 
my permission. 

I know of one other case, Mr. Kunzig, where my name appeared on 
a sponsorship sheet and I knew nothing of it until I received a notifica- 
tion of the meeting. 

This may be a similar thing. I have no recollection of having 
given permission. 

Mr. Kunzig. So, this is another organization, another group, and, 
I might add, another cited Communist-front group, that you have no 
recollection of having lent your name to? 

* Retained in the files of the committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3957 

Dr. Mahaney. That's correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. I offer ]Malianey exhibit No. 3 for identification into 
evidence, Mr. Chairman, as ]\Iahaney Exhibit No. 3. 

Mr. ScHERER. It may be so received. 

(A letter dated November 6, 1940, on the letterhead of the National 
Federation for Constitutional Liberties, 1410 H Street, NW., Wash- 
ington, D. C., addressed to a Miss Eastman and signed by Owen A. 
Knox, previously marked Mahaney exhibit No. 3 for identification, 
was received in evidence as Mahaney exhibit No. 3.)^ 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have here an issue of the Daih^ Worker of Thurs- 
day, December 19, 1940, in which there is an appeal article, special 
to'^the Daily Worker, Free Sam Darcy, Educators and Writers Urge 
Olson. 

This was an article in which a group of people signed an appeal on 
behalf of Sam Darcy, and among the names listed there is Dr. W. L. 
Mahaney, Jr., of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Did 3'ou authorize you name to be used in this appeal for the Com- 
munist, Sam Darcy? 

Dr. Mahaney. Certainly and to the best of my knowlege absolutely 
not. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you remember ever signing an appeal for Sam 

Darcy? 

Di\ Mahaney. I certainly did not, so far as I recall ; never. 

CAt this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Mr. Scherer. Do 3^ou.know who Sam Darcy was? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes; I think I knew who he was, but I'm not sure. 
He was a Communist leader in Philadelphia or Pennsylvania, as far 
as I recall 

Mr. Scherer. You have no recollection now^ of signing the petition? 

Dr. Mahaney. So far 

Mr. Scherer. The question is not whether j^ou loaned your name. 
My question is whether you actually signed a petition for and on his 
behalf. 

Dr. Mahaney. I have absolutely no recollection of so doing; 
absolutely none, and personally 

Mr. Scherer. I can see, Doctor, how you mighty 

Dr. Mahaney (continuing). And I would doubt it. 

Mr. Scherer (continuing). Fail to recollect sponsoring 1 or 2 of 
these organizations, but it is difficult for me to fully appreciate how 
aU of these organizations would have used your name without your 
authority or you having no recollection with reference to the same. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. I know nothing about this. This strikes no chord 
of memory whatsoever. 

Mr. KuNziG. The others didn't either, did they? 

Dr. Mahaney. No; not particularly. No ; they did not. 

Air. Scherer. Although you would infer that the doctor is per- 
fectly frank because of the "fact he admitted his membership in the 
party. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I should like to offer this document, which I shall 
mark "Mahaney Exhibit No. 4" for identification, into evidence as 
Mahaney exhibit No. 4. I now so offer it. 

5 Retained in the files of the committee. 



395S COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. It may be so received. 

(A copy of the December 19, 1940, issue of the Daily Worker, con- 
taining; an article entitled "Free Sam Darcy, Educators and Writers 
Urge Olson," previously marked "Mahaney Exhibit No. 4" for identi- 
fication, was received in evidence as Mahaney exliibit No. 4.)^ 

Mr. KuNziG. I have here a document, marked ''Mahaney Exhibit 
No. 5," for idejitification, which is a photostat of the Daily Worker, 
Wednesday, March 5, 1941, which contains a list of sig"iiers of a state- 
ment defending the Communist Party, in a letter addressed to the 
President of the United States. Among the names is the name of 
Dr. W. L. Mahaney, Jr., of Philadelphia. 

Did 3"ou sign this statement defending the Communist Party? 

I hand you ^lahaney exhibit No. 5 for identification. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

jvlr. Rahill. Whereabouts is it? 

Dr. Mahaney. "V^liere is it? 

]\Ir. KuNZiG. All the way down, below, to the right, marked in red. 

This is during the period of time, of course, that you were, by your 
own admission, a member of the Communist Party. 

Dr. Mahaney. I haven't 

Mr. Scherer. Of course, what might have happened, ]Mr. Kunzig — 
they, knowing the doctor was a member of the Communist Party, 
without his consent or knowledge, just used his name. 

Dr. Mahaney. I think that is the only conceivable explanation, 
Mr. Scherer, because I haven't the faintest recollection of signing any- 
thing like that or giving any permission for my name to be used. 

Mr. Scherer. You can appreciate now, you being a doctor and 
an educator, the weight ^our name gave to these various Com- 
mmiist-front organizations . 

Dr. Mahaney. I saw this — so far as I know, this is the first time 
I ever saw it in my life. 

(At this pomt Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Oh, certainly I agree with that, what you just said, 
and I am also trying to make this clear — that seeing this is the first 
time to my recollection I ever saw it. 

Mr. Scherer. At the beginning of your testimony you said you 
felt your membership in the party in no way harmed the Government 
of the United States. Now your membership m the party, together 
with tlie place that you hold in tlie education field, you can see has 
contributed much to the Communist Party strength, let us say, in 
this country. 

Dr. Mahaney. I would say unbeknownst to me. 

Mr. Scherer. All right; your membership in the party made that 
possible, though, did it not? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes; I think that's right. 

Mr. Kunzig. I offer Mahaney exhibit No. 5 for identification into 
evidence as Mahaney exhibit No. 5, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Scherer. It may be so received. 

(A photostatic copy of p. 2 of the March 5, 1941, issue of the Daily 
Worker, previously marked "Mahaney Exhibit No.5," for identification, 
was received in evidence as Mahaney exhibit No. 5.) ^ 

Mr. Kunzig. I have here a document marked "Mahaney Exhibit 

' Retained in the files of the committee. 
' Retained in the files of the committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3959 

No. 6" for identification, which is a program of the Fifth National 
Conference of the American Committee for Protection of Foreign 
Born in 1941 at the President Hotel in Atlantic City. One of the 
sponsors, listed on the back of this program, of this conference is 
Dr. W. L. Mahaney, Jr., of Philadelphia, Pa. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Mr. KuNziG. The American Committee for Protection of Foreign 
Born has been cited as subversive and Communist by Attorney 
General Tom Clark. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred further with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Mr. Kunzig, I at one time was a member or 1 
contributed — I don't recall signing any membership card — ^that might 
even have happened, but at one time I did contribute to the American 
Committee for the Protection of the Foreign Born. 

Mr. Kunzig. What did you contribute? 

Dr. Mahaney. I mean I 

Mr. Kunzig. Money? 

Dr. Mahaney. I think I gave them a couple of dollars; maybe 
a dollar, maybe $2. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter entered the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Dr. Mahaney. But that would be the extent. 

I don't recall anything of this sort. I don't recall anything like 
this. 

Mr. Kunzig. I see. 

Dr. Mahaney. As far as I recall, I was never at any meeting in 
Atlantic City. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. And I certainly didn't authorize that. 

I suppose this was used because of the fact they had my name on a 
contributors' list. 

Mr. Kunzig. Then, Dr. Mahaney, this is the sixth consecutive ex- 
hibit, right along the way, where your name was used and in which 
you, I believe, quite sincerely and honestly say you had no recollection 
of it whatsoever? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. You never knew about it? 

Dr. Mahaney. That's quite true. 

Mr. Kunzig. It is beginning to be apparent that your name was 
used quite frequently, isn't it? 

Dr. Mahaney. I don't doubt it at all now. 

Mr. Kunzig. I offer this document in evidence as Mahaney 
exhibit No. 6, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is obvious, as I said before, they felt free to use 
it because of this 

Dr. Mahaney. Membership. 

Mr. ScHERER. Membership in the party. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you admit that, sh? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes; that will be admitted. 

(A copy of a program of the Fifth National Conference of the 
American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, previously 
marked "Mahaney Exhibit No. 6" for identification, was received in 
evidence as Mahaney exhibit No. 6.)* 

« Retained in the files of the committee. 



3960 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have a document, marked "Malianey Exhibit No. 7" 
for identification, which refers to this same group, the American Com- 
mittee for the Protection of Foreign Born. This is a document 
called the Registration of Aliens, written by the Honorable, at that 
time, Vito Marcantonio, with an introduction by Carey McWilliams — 
Carey McWilhams was cliairman of this committee, and listed again 
is a Dr. W. L. Mahaney, Jr. 

Dr. Mahaney. I think the answer is probably the same. 

Mr. Eahill. Let's look at it. 

Dr. Mahaney. Let me see. I don't know. 

Mr. KuNZiG. This is the seventh consecutive document. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr, Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. Yes; I think so. 

Mr. Walter. Wliat is the name of that organization? 

Dr. Mahaney. This is the American Committee for the Protection 
of the Foreign Born. 

Mr. KuNziG. Cited as subversive by Attorney General Tom Clark. 

Mr. Walter. That is the crowd that is trying to have the iniquitous 
McCarran-Walter Immigration Act repealed. 

Mr. Rahill. I thought they died long before that illustrious act 
came into bemg. 

Mr. Walter. No; no. It has been revived. It is the same rose, 
you know. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you lend your name to that, sir? 

Dr. Mahaney. If I recall this particular incident, or this par- 
ticular pamphlet, I received a letter from the national office asking 
if my name might be used in this respect. 

It's been an awfully long time ago — 1941 — and I was asked to let 
my name be used on the letterhead as one of the directors. 

I attended one meeting m New York City one Sunday and it 
possibly was about this same period, and that lasted — I got off the 
board ;*I dropped out of the thing, and I never heard anything more 
of it. 

Mr. ScHERER. It may be marked and received in evidence. 

Mr. KuNZiG. May I ofter this in evidence, then, Mr. Chairman, 
as Mahaney exhibit No. 7? 

Mr. ScHERER. You may. It is so received. 

(A pamphlet entitled ''The Registration of Aliens, by Hon. Vito 
Marcantonio, Member of Congress, with an introduction by Carey 
McWifiiams," previously marked "Mahaney Exhibit No. 7" for 
identification, was received ui evidence as Mahaney exhibit No. 7.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you ever a sponsor of the American Peace 
Mobilization? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Mr. KuNziG. That was cited as subversive, Mr. Chairman, and for 
the record, by Attorney General Tom Clark. 

Dr. Mahaney. The thing sounds familiar, but it doesn't ring any 
beU. 

May I see that? 

Mr. KuNziG. I hand you a document, marked "Mahaney Exhibit 
No. 8" for identification, which is a caU to the American People's 
Meeting, and so forth, and lists as signers of the call the name of 
Dr. W. L. Mahaney, in red. 

This was in 1941. 



COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3961 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Mr. Chairman, I have no recollection of the in- 
vitation or the request to use this name. 

Now, it was probably used in virtue of the fact that one time I was 
secretary of the Pennsylvania Federation of Teachers, which was an 
organization of statewide locals. We had 10 or 15 locals. That 
was back in 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940. 

Mr. KuNZiG. That was when the local was still under the A. F. of L. ? 

Dr. Mahaney. That was when it was in the A. F. of L. 

Mr. KuNziG. You are one of the organizers of that A. F. of L. 
union that was discussed here this morning? 

Dr. Mahaney. No; I was elected secretary of the federation, which 
embraced about 8 or 10 locals. 

jVIr. KuNziG. Let me ask you: Were you an officer at anv time of 
local 192? 

Was that the local number of that A. F. of L. group? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. The group that has been discussed here all day? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Were you an officei of that union at any time? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes; some years ago, back around, I guess, this 
period. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you an officer when it was throwai out of the 
A. F. of L., as testified here by a witness this morning, Jennings, for 
Communist activities? 

Dr. ^Mahaney. I wasn't actually an officer of that local. I was a 
member. 

Mr. Kunzig. You were a member? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. 

]Mr. Kunzig. Were you at that time an officer? 

Dr. Mahaney. No; I don't think I was. 

Mr. Kunzig. Just a member? 

Dr. Mahaney. Just a member. 

Mr. Kunzig. And you have no particular recoUection at all of au- 
thorizing the use of your name as a signer of that call? 

Dr. AIahaney. None at all. I think it was probably taken from 
a list. 

Mr. Kunzig. I offer this in evidence as exhibit 8, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Scherer. It may be so received. 

(A document headed "CaU, American People's Meeting, New York 
City, April 5-6, 1941", previously marked "Mahaney Exhibit No. 
8" for identification, was received in evidence as Mahaney exhibit 
No. 8.)^^ 

Mr. Kunzig. Here is a document, marked "Mahaney Exhibit 
No. 9" for identification, which, over a list of speakers, says: 

The Philadelphia Council of American-Soviet Friendship will furnish authorita- 
tive speakers on a variety of subjects, without charge or at a nominal cost — 

and amongst the teachers it lists Adele Margolis, from Philadelphia 
schools, and it says: 

Dr. W. L. Mahanej', professor of history, Soviet Foreign Policy — 

apparently listing you as a speaker in that field. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

'Retained in the flies of the committee. 



3962 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you give permission for your name to be so listed 
by this group? 

Dr. AIahaney. Mr. Chaii-man, I don't know whether this has any 
connection with it or not, but I did my doctor's work in the field of 
international disarmament. My doctor's thesis was done in the field 
of disarmament, the Soviet Union, and the League of Nations. So, 
my doctor's work was done in that field, and that certainly doesn't 
quite qualify me — I don't consider myself and nobody else that I 
ever knew considered me an expert in Soviet relations. 

Mr. ScHERER. The question is: "Did you authorize 

Dr. Mahaney. No; I knew nothing about it, 

Mr. ScHERER. The use of your name in connection with that 
publication? 

Dr. Mahaney. I knew nothing about this. There's no question 
about this. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever give any lectures 

Dr. Mahaney. Under their auspices? 

Not to my recollection. 

Mr. Scherer. Let me finish my question. 

Did you ever give any lectures which were 

Dr. Mahaney. On Soviet foreign policy? 

Mr. Scherer. Let me see that. 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Did this group ever obtain any lecturing engage- 
ments for you? 

Dr. Mahaney. I don't recall a single one. 

Mr. Kunzig. For the record, Mr. Chairman, the National Council of 
American-Soviet Friendship is cited as subversive and Communist 
by Attorney General Tom Clark. 

I offer this into evidence as exhibit 9, Mr. Chau*man. 

Mr. Scherer. It may be so received. 

(A photostatic copy of a document entitled "Friends in War; 
Friends in Peace", previously marked "Mahaney Exhibit No. 9" for 
identification, was received in evidence as Mahaney exhibit No. 9.) ^° 

Mr. Kunzig. I have a document marked "Mahaney Exhibit No. 
10" for identification, which is a letterhead, Mr. Mahaney, of the 
Philadelphia Council of American-Soviet Friendship, and listed as one 
of the vice chairmen, this time as vice chairman of the organization, 
is Dr. W. L. Mahaney. This is in March of 1946. 

I hand you Mahaney Exliibit No. 10 for identification and ask you 
whether you were in the position so listed there. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Mr. Kunzig. While I am at it, I ^vill hand you Mahaney exhibit 
No. 11, dated May 21, 1947, a year later, which also lists Dr. W. L. 
Mahaney as vice chairman of the Philadelphia Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Mr. Chahman, as far as I ever knew, I don't 
recall ever being a vice chairman. I was on the board of directors for 
about, possibly a year or something of that sort. 

Mr. Kunzig. During that year did you ever see a letterhead once 
with your name listed as vice chairman? 

10 Retained in the files of the committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3963 

Dr. Mahaney. I may have. I have no recollection of it whatso- 
ever. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have no recollection? 

Dr. Mahaney. I never saw anything, to my knowledge. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Mr. Chairman, I offer these documents into evidence 
as Mahaney Exhibits Nos. 10 and 11. 

Dr. Mahaney. I don't mean to seem facetious, or anything. 

Mr. Scherer. The documents may be received. 
(A photostatic copy of a letter dated March 1946, on the letter- 
head of the Philadelphia Council of American-Soviet Friendship, and 
signed by Elizabeth P. Frazier, previously marked "Mahaney Exhibit 
No. 10" for identification, was received in evidence as Mahaney 
exhibit No. 10; and a photostatic copy of a letter dated May 21, 
1947, on the letterhead of the Philadelphia Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship, signed by Elizabeth P. Frazier and Katzman, pre- 
viously marked "Exhibit No. 11" for identification, was received in 
evidence as Mahaney exhibit No. 11.)^^ 

Dr. Mahaney. I was on the board of directors. I know that. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever act as instructor at the Philadelphia 
School of Social Science and Art, which has been cited as an adjunct 
to the Communist Party by Attorney General Tom Clark? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. I taught a course in American history there, 
I think, which covered a 6-week period. 

Mr. Walter. ^^Tiat textbooks were used? 

Dr. Mahaney. I'm trying to think, Mr. Walter. I don't know 
whether we used any textbooks. It was a sort of a lecture course for 
adults, and it was mostly lectures. 

We went back to the American Revolution and came up to the 
CivU War. 

Mr. Walter. Who were the lecturers? 

Dr. Mahaney. I was the only one. 

Mr. Walter. You were the only one? 

Dr. Mahaney. In this particular course that I know anything 
about. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Mr. Walter. You don't think you used any textbooks? 

Dr. Mahaney. No; I think I probably used the same information 
that I had acquired in years of study. In other words, I don't think 
I used any written notes. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. I didn't assign readings, and things of that sort. 

Mr. Walter. You did not assign readings? 

Dr. Mahaney. I did not, as I recall. 

Air. Walter. My curiosity is aroused. I would like to know what 
kind of course in American history you teach. 

Mr. Kunzig. May I 

Mr. Walter. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. I have here a Philadelphia school catalog, marked 
"Mahaney Exhibit No. 14" for identification, which I will hand to 
you, and I will also give you Mahaney exhibits Nos. 12 and 13 for 
identification, which are catalogs of the school. 

I point out to you on page 5 of Mahaney exhibit No. 14 for identi- 
fication there is listed Dr. Wilbur Lee Mahaney, Jr., as lecturer in 

II Retained In the files of the committee. 



3964 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

America's Role in World Politics, and it says: "This course will 
trade the historical background of our country's present foreign 
policy." 

Did you so lecture? 

Dr. Mahaney. I don't think so. I don't recall that at all. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Mr. KuNZiG. Alahaney exhibit No. 13 for identification, on page 
21, lists "American History — ^Dr. Wilbur Lee Mahaney, Jr.," and it 
says: "A general survey of the main epochs in American history. 
Events leading up to the conflict with fascism." 

Did you lecture on those subjects? 

Dr. Mahaney. I certainly did not. 

(At this point Dr. ]\Iahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. This is the one I taught. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Will you identify it? 

Dr. Mahaney. This is the only one I know anything about. 

Mr. Rahill. You identify it for him, Mr. Kunzig. 

Dr. Mahaney. This one. 

Mr. KuNziG. In Mahaney Exhibit No. 13, marked so for identifica- 
tion, you are referring to a course in American history, on page 21 of 
that document, which is the fall session, 1944, of the Philadelphia 
School of Social Science and Art. That is the lecture that talks about 
events leading up to the conflict with fascism. Did you give that 
lecture? 

Dr. Mahaney. No; not that particular lecture that I know any- 
thing about. We only got up to about — not quite to the CivU War, 
actually. 

Mr. Kunzig. I see. 

Dr. Mahaney. The election of Lincoln. 

Mr. KuNziG. You got as far as Lincoln, but no further? 

Dr. ]\Iahaney. The election of Lincoln; not even the Civil War. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, these three documents, all of which 
list Dr. Alahaney's name, I offer into evidence as exhibits 12, 13, and 
14. 

Mr. ScHERER. They may be so received. 

(A booklet entitled "The Philadelphia School of Social Science and 
Art, Winter Session 1945," previously marked "Mahaney Exhibit 
No. 12" for identification, was received in evidence as Mahaney 
exhibit No. 12; a copy of a booklet entitled "The Philadelphia School 
of Social Science and Art, Fall Session, 1944," previously marked 
"Mahaney Exhibit No. 13" for identification, was received in evi- 
dence as Mahaney exhibit No. 13; and a booklet entitled "Catalog 
of the Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art, 174 Walnut 
Street, Philadelphia 3, Pennsylvania, Spring Term, April to June 
1944," previously marked "Mahaney Exhibit No. 14" for identification, 
was received in evidence as Mahaney exhibit No. 14.) ^- 

Air. KuNziG. If it hasn't been made clear, I will gladly make 
clear for the record that these are catalogs, announcing courses of 
this Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art for the years 1944 
and 1945. 

How many lectures do you recollect that you gave for this school? 

Dr. Mahaney. I think it probably lasted — ^I think there were 10 
lectures, Mr. Kunzig, and I believe that was just 1 course, if I recall. 

12 Retained in the files of the committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3965 

Air. KuNziG. I should like to show you a document marked 
"Mahaney Exhibit No. 15" for identification, headed "The tribute to 
Jewish youth on the occasion of the fourth anniversary of American 
Youth for Democracy." 

The American Youth for Democracy is a cited organization, cited 
by Attorney General Tom Clark as subversive and Communist. 

Listed as one of the sponsors of this tribute to Jewish youth on the 
fourth anniversary of the American Youth for Democracy is Dr. 
W. L. Mahanej^, Jr. 

I neglected to read that date. Will you read that date there, 
please? 

Dr. AIahaxey. The date is November 1947. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a sponsor of that group, sir, and did you so 
lend your name? 

Dr. Mahaney. I certainly did not. I am hearing about it for 
the first time, when you read it, as far as I recall. I never heard of 
it, to my recollection. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. RahilL) 

Mr. KuNziG. That fourth anniversary was celebrated by a dinner 
and a meeting at the Benjamin Franklin Hotel in Philadelphia. 
Did you attend that dinner and meeting, Dr. Mahaney, to the best 
of your recollection? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. I have absolutely no recollection of having gone to 
this; none whatsoever. 

Mr. KuNziG. I offer in evidence, then, this document marked 
"Mahaney Exliibit No. 15" for identification, Mr. Chairman, as 
Mahaney exhibit No. 15. 

Mr. ScHERER. It may be so received. 

(A docmnent entitled "A tribute to Jewish youth on the occasion 
of the fourth anniversary of American Youth for Democracy," pre- 
vioush" marked "Mahaney Exhibit No. 15" for identification, was 
received in evidence as Mahaney exhibit No. 15.) ^^ 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Eleanor Fleet as a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Dr. Mahaney. Pll have to give you the same answer, for the same 
reason, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. Kunzig. So that the record is clear, I want to make sure it is 
understood this same answer is the answer you gave earlier today 
with regard to the first question as to who recruited you into the 
party 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Which is that you refuse to answer for reasons of 
conscience and not relying upon any amendment of the Constitution? 

(At this pomt Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. RahiU.) 

Mr. Scherer. I will direct the witness to answer the question as to 
whether or not he knew Mrs. Fleet. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Mr. Kunzig. As a member of the Communist Party is the way I 
asked the question; to be a member of the Communist Party. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred further with Mr. Rahill.) 

» Retained in the files of the committee. 



3966 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Dr. Mahaney. Mr. Chairman, I must respectfully give the same 
answer as I gave at the first, about the question about who recruited 
me into the party, even though that person is now dead. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think my question is a little different from Mr. 
Kunzig's. He asked you whether you knew Mrs. Fleet as a Commun- 
ist Party member. I am going to ask you the question: Do you loiow 
Mrs. Fleet or did you know Mrs. Fleet? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred \vith Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. I think, Mr. Chairman, I can't differentiate in my 
own mind the difference between your question and Mr. Kunzig's. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. 

Dr. Mahaney. So, I just respectfully will have to submit the same 
answer. 

Mr. Scherer. I will direct you to answer the question as to whether 
or not you laiow Mrs. Fleet. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. RahiU.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Will you repeat that again, Mr. Scherer? 

The question is 

Mr. Scherer. I am directing you to answer the question whether 
or not you know Mrs. Fleet. 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes; I know her. I have met her. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, the question is: Do you know whether or not 
Mrs. Fleet was ever a member of the Communist Party? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, I think mv answer will have to be^ — I'll have 
to give you the same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Scherer. I will direct you to answer that question, Doctor. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, it's the same answer, I think, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Same answer? 

Dr. Mahaney. Same answer. 

Mr. Scherer. You refuse to answer for the reasons you gave in 
response to the question asked you about vour joining the Communist 
Party? 

Dr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. So the record is clear, those reasons are that you 
refuse to answer on the grounds of conscience? 

Dr. Mahaney. That's right. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you are not relying on any constitutional amend- 
ment? 

Dr. Mahaney. I am not. That's correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. That is correct. All right. 

Dr. Mahaney, we have sworn testimony here that Communist 
Party meetings were held at the residence of Sidney and Geneive — 
G-e-n-e-i-v-e — Fox, 2220 Pine Street in Philadelphia and that you 
attended the meetings at the home of the Foxes; is that correct? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. That's the same answer, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. KuisiziG. The same answer. 

Dr. Mahaney. And for the same reason. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you know Sidney and Geneive Fox? 

I am just asking you whether you knew them. 

Dr. Mahaney. Same answer. 

Mr. Kunzig. For the same reason? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AKEA 3967 

Dr. Mahaney. For the same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. I will ask you whether you knew them to be members 
of the Communist Party. 

Dr. Mahaney. Same answer, for the same reason, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. Kunzig. The sworn testimony goes on to list a group of people 
who frequented these meetings of the Communist Party held at 2220 
Pine Street in Philadelphia: 

Adeline Mahaney is listed as one — and she was, I believe, your 
former wife; Wilbur Mahaney; Lillian Lowenfels — L-o-w-e-n-f-e-l-s ; 
Adele Margolis; Harry and Ethel Fruit — F-r-u-i-t; Esther Soler — 
S-o-l-e-r; Abe Egnal — E-g-n-a-1; and Mary Foley Grossman. 

The question is, with the exception of yourself, did you know any 
of these other people to be members of the Communist Party? 

(At this pomt Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Mr. Kunzig, I would have to give you, as a matter 
of conscience, the same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Kunzig. You don't have to. Do you? 

Dr. Mahaney. I do. I am compelled under my conscience. 

Mr. Walter. Doctor, don't you realize in taking the position you 
are taking you are in contempt of Congress? 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Mr. Walter, I cion't believe you were here when  

Mr. Walter. Yes; you say you refuse to answer the questions on 
the ground of your conscience. I don't know what section of the 
Constitution permits j^ou to do that; but if I understand you correctly 
I am afraid that you have been advised to take a position that very 
definitely places 3^ou in contempt of the Congress. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. Well, I started to say, Mr. Walter, you weren't 
here when Mr. Scherer explained that to me, and he asked me if this 
was my conscientious position, and I told him that it was, and he 
explained to me that I would probably be in jeopardy of contempt 
of Congress; and I told him that I had realized that, that my counsel 
had so advised me, but that some things were a matter of conscience, 
and I recall William Penn and a lot of other Quakers and pacifists 
who, for one reason or another, were placed in jeopardy, and I cannot 
escape it. 

I explained to Mr. Scherer and to Mr. Kunzig 

Mr. Walter. All right; I just wanted to know that you knew. 
I am sorry that I wasn't here. 

Dr. Mahaney. That I meant no disrespect to the committee, as a 
committee, or to Congress, or to our Govermnent, or to persons on 
the committee, and that this was a matter of deepest conscience with 
me; and I'm sorry you weren't here, and I've taken up your time to go 
over it. 

Mr. Walter. I am, too. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Chairman, I want to get directions on the record 
here. 

I respectfully request the chairman to direct the question be 
answered as to whether Dr. Mahaney knew Sidney and Geneive Fox. 

Mr. Scherer. You are directed to answer that question. 

(At this point Dr. Mahaney conferred with Mr. Rahill.) 

Dr. Mahaney. I thought I answered that. Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is your answer the same? 



3968 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Dr. Mahaney. The same answer; the same reason. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I respectfully request the chau-man to du-ect the wit- 
ness to answer the question as to whether he knew Adele Margolis, 
Lillian Lowenfels, Nathan Margolis, Harry and Ethel Fruit, Esther 
Soler and Abe Egnal, and Mary Foley Grossman to be members of 
the Commimist Party, or any one of those. 

Mr. ScHERER. I direct you to answer that question, Doctor. 

Dr. Mahaney. Mr. Kunzig, I will have to say I 

Mr. Kunzig. The same answer? 

Dr. Mahaney. The same answer; the same reason. 

I don't want to seem perfunctory. 

Mr. Kunzig. All right. 

I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Walter. 

Mr. Walter. I have no questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions and, if that is all, the 
witness will be excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until tomorrow morning at 
10 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 3:55 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 10 a. m., Wednesday, February 17, 1954.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Augenblick, Delphia 3901-3904 (testimony) 

Backman, Irving W 3933-3936 

Berger, David 3901-3904 

Biddle, Francis 3955 

Carroll, John Rogers 3917-3930 

Clark Tom - 3938.3956,3959,3960,3963,3965 

Darcv, Sam '- 3957, 3958 

Dodd, Bella 3950 

Drasin, Samuel 3928, 3929-3930 (testimony) 

Dubin, Harry Nathan 3937-3941 (testimony) 

Eastman , Miss 3967 

Egnal Abraham 3933-3936 (testimonv), 3967, 3968 

Fleet, Eleanor 3707, 3911-3916 (testimonv), 3965, 3966 

Forer, Lois 3904-3911 

Fox, Geneive 3966 

Fox, Sidnev 3966 

Frazier, Elizabeth P 3963 

Fruit, Ethel 3967, 3968 

Fruit, Harrv 3967, 3968 

Grossman, Marv Folev 3952, 3956, 3967, 3968 

Intille, Angelina - 3904-3911 (testimony), 3914 

Jennings, Francis P 3916, 3917-3928 (testimony), 3949, 3952, 3961 

Katzman 3963 

Knox, Owen A 3957 

Kuzma, Joe 3940 

Lorry, W. R 3911-3916 

Lowenfels, Lillian 3967, 3968 

Mackley, Carl 3912 

Mahanev, Adehne 3967 

Mahaney, Wilbur Lee, Jr 3942-3968 (testimony) 

Marcantonio, Vito 3960 

Margolis, Adele 3961, 3967, 3968 

Margolis, Nathan 3968 

Mc Williams, Carey 3960 

Murray 3953 

Olson, Governor (California) 3957, 3958 

Papish, Martin 3937-3941 

Poul, Franklin 3931-3933 

Rahill, Wilham Allen 3942-3968 

Randall, Wesley 3930, 3931-3933 (testimony) 

Saul, Walter Biddle 3920 

Soler, Esther 3967, 3968 

Staats, Frank 3953 

Stenskv, Bessie 3905-3907, 3914, 3938 

Walsh,' Sarah 3952 

Organizations 

Adelphia Hotel 3921, 3923, 3927, 3935, 3938, 3939 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 3959, 3960 

American Federation of Labor 3919, 3920, 3961 

American Federation of Teachers 3919 

American Peace Crusade 3932, 3933 

American Peace Mobilization 3960 

3969 



3970 INDEX 

Page 

American People's Meeting 3960, 3961 

American Student Union 3924 

American Youth for Democracj^ 3938, 3965 

Benjamin Franklin Hish School, Philadelphia 3918, 3919 

C. O. Nichol School, Philadelphia 3902 

Central High School, Philadelphia 3929, 3930 

Chicago Peace Congress 3932 

Citizens Committee to Defend the Schools, Philadelphia 3923 

Civil Rights Congress, Philadelphia chapter 3928 

Comly School, Philadelphia 3905 

Communist Party 3902-3904, 

3907-3909, 3913-3916, 3924, 3926, 3927, 3930-3932, 3935, 3936, 
3939-3941, 3945-3947, 3950, 3951, 3954, 3955, 3958, 3965, 3966, 
3967. 

Communist Party of Eastern Pennsylvania 3940 

Communist Pohtical Association 3914 

Conference on Constitutional Liberties in America 3955 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 3919, 3920 

Congress of Industrial Organizations Union, local 556 3919 

Flynn Club of the Communist Party 3932 

Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C 3938 

Gratz High School, Philadelphia 3912 

Hoffman School, Philadelphia 3902 

Jackson, Justice 3934 

Kearney School, Philadelphia 3931 

Labor Youth League 3932 

League of Nations 3942, 3951, 3962 

Murray Defense Committee 3952, 3955 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship 3962 

National Federation for Constitutional Liberties 3956, 3957 

National Youth Administration 3917, 3918 

Olney High School, Philadelphia 3912, 3929 

Park Training School, Philadelphia 3937 

Peace and Brotherhood Festival 3933 

Pechan 3908,3916 

Pennsbury Schools, Bucks County, Pa 3937 

Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children 3938 

Pennsylvania Federation of Teachers 3961 

Pennsvlvania State University 3931 

Philadelphia Board of Education 3908, 3911, 3912, 3930 

Philadelphia Board of Public Education 3920 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science 3931 

Philadelphia Conference on Anti-Alien Legislation 3952 

Philadelphia Council of American-Soviet Friendship 3961-3963 

Philadelphia Council of Arts, Sciences, and Professions 3907, 3914 

Philadelphia Navv Yard 3925, 3938 

Philadelphia Normal School 3905, 3907 

Philadelphia School Board 3907, 3915 

Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art 3963, 3964 

Philadelphia Youth Congress ^^or 

Quartermaster Department of the Army 3926 

Registration of Aliens 3960 

Rush School, Philadelphia 3931 

South Philadelphia High School 3912 

South Philadelphia School for Bovs 3929 

Southwark School, Philadelphia 3902 

Stokley School, Philadelphia 3902 

Sulzberger Junior High School, Philadelphia 3929 

Teachers State College, Pennsvlvania 3902 

Teachers Union_...: : 3948-3952, 3954 

Teachers Union of Philadelphia 3919-3921, 3924, 3931, 3932 

Temple University 3917, 3918, 3931, 3937 

Thomas Junior High School 3931 

Tilden Junior High School, Philadelphia 3929 

United States Supreme Court 3910, 3915 

United Nations 3947, 3952 



INDEX 3971 

Page 

University of Pennsylvania 3911, 3931, 3934, 3942 

University of Pennsylvania Graduate School 3929 

University of Richmond 3942 

University of Virginia 3942 

Vare Junior High School, Philadelphia 3911 

Veterans Commission of the Communist Party 3928 

West Park sections of the Communist Party 3932 

West Philadelphia Club of section 8 of the Communist Party 3930 

West Philadelphia High School... 3942 

Works Progress Administration 1 3918 

Wynnefield Club of District 3 of the Communist Party of Philadelphia... 3935 
Young Communist League of Pennsylvania 3924, 3925 

Publications 

Daily Worker 3957, 3958 

Philadelphia Bulletin 3920, 3923, 3924 

Philadelphia Evening Bulletin 3935 

o 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
PHILADELPHIA AREA-Part 4 




HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



FEBRUARY 17, 1954 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
-40168 WASHINGTON : 1954 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAY 2 4 1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 

BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, Je., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kunzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavennee, Jr., Counsel 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



February 17, 1954, testimony of — ^^ee 

Leanora C. Jacobs 3973 

Bessie Stensky 3976 

Bernard August 3987 

Goldie E. Watson 3991 

Mary Foley Grossman 3994 

Wilbert Rudolph McCabe 3998 

Sarah T. Crome 4001 

Celestine Fulchon 4005 

Adeline L. Mahaney 4006 

Index 4011 

m 



i 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



VI COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 

* * * * * :i! * 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. Tliere shall be elected by the House, at the com.mencement of each Con- 
gress, the following standing committees: 

****** Its 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to bold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
PHILADELPHIA AEEA— PAET 4 



WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 17, 1954 

United States House of Representatives, 

subcommitee of the committee on 

Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 
PUBLIC hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pm'suant to adjournment, at 10:20 a. m., in the caucus room, 
362 Old House Office Building, Hon. Gordon H. Scherer presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Gordon H. Scherer, 
and Francis E. Walter. 

Staff members present: Robert L. Kunzig, counsel; and George C. 
Williams and George E. Cooper, investigators; and Juliette P. Joray, 
acting clerk. 

Mr. Scherer. The subcommittee will be in session. 

Would the witness rise and be sworn? 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
at'ithis hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Jacobs. I do. 

Mr. Scherer. Be seated. 

Mr. Kunzig, you may proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF lEANORA C. JACOBS, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 

COUNSEL, A. HARRY LEVITAN 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you state your full name, please? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Leanora Jacobs. 

Mr. Kunzig. That is L-e-o-n-o-r-a? 

Mrs. Jacobs. L-e-a-n-o-r-a. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is it Mrs. Jacobs? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would counsel please state his name and office address 
for the record? 

Mr. Levitan. A. Harry Levitan, 1412 Fox Building, Philadelphia 3. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Jacobs, would you kindly give us your present 
address? 

Mrs. Jacobs. 1919 Spruce Street, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, would you give the committee a resum6 of 
your educational background, starting with high school? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Yes. I am a graduate of the West Philadelphia High 
School, and I went to the University of Pennsylvania on a scholarship 

3973 



3974 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

and majored in Spanish and minoi'cd in French. I took a master's 
at Columbia University in EngHsh. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wlien did you graduate from the University of 
Pennsylvania? 

Mrs. Jacobs. 1929. 

Air. KuNziG. What sort of a scholarship did you have there? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Board of education scholarship. 

Mr. KuNziG. A Philadelphia Board of Education scholarship? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Yes. 

Mr. Ku>:ziG. No^v, vould you give the committee a resum^ of 
your employment background? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Yes. I began to teach in junior high school; I taught 
there for one term. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And what junior high school was that? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Gillespie. I received an appointment to South Phila- 
delphia Girls High School in Philadelphia, and I have been teaching 
there ever since. 

Mr. KuNziG. South Philadelphia High School for Girls? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And you are there at the present time? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. What subjects do you teach? 

Mrs. Jacobs. I teach Spanish and French. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Mrs. Jacobs, this committee is in possession of testi- 
mony that you have been a member of the city committee of the 
Communist Party representing branch 8-A of section 8 of the Com- 
munist Party of Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware, and I would 
now like to ask you the question, and I do ask: Have you ever been 
a member of the Communist Party? 

(At this point Mrs. Jacobs conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Jacobs. I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You refuse to answer on the grounds it might incrim- 
inate you under the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Yes. 

Mr. Waltek. Vv^hat States was that, what territory? 

Mr. KuNziG. A member of the city committee of the Communist 
Party representing branch 8-A, section 8, of the Communist Party 
of Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

Mr. Walter. Well, isn't this the witness that you hoped would 
disclose the connection between this operation in the eastern United 
States and the main organization in New York? 

Mr. KuNziG. That is correct, sir, but apparently we are not going 
to get the information. 

Mr. Walter. Then ask her the questions along that line. 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you tell the committee what connection there 
was between the Communist Party of the city committee in Phil- 
adelphia and the national organization of the party? 

(At this point Mrs. Jacobs conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Jacobs. Same reason; same answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have sworn testimony that later, in the end of the 
forties, you were a member of the in-town group of section 8, trans- 
ferred to the in-town group of section 8 of the Communist Party. Is 
that correct? 

(At this point Mrs. Jacobs conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3975 

Mrs. Jacobs. I am not a member of the Communist Party. 
Mr. KuNziG. You are not a member of the Communist Party? 
Mrs. Jacobs. No. 

(At this point Mrs. Jacobs conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 
Mr. KuNziG. Will you answer the previous question? 
Mrs. Jacobs. As to the previous question? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. You answered by saying — would you please 
read back the question. 

(The reporter read the question as foUows:) 

We have sworn testimony that later, in the end of the forties, you were a member 
of the in-town group of section 8, transferred to the in-town group of section 8 of 
the Communist Party. Is that correct? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Same reason; same answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. You refuse to answer for the same reason? 

Now, you said you are not a member of the Communist Party. 
Did you take the teachers' loyalty oath in Philadelphia? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You did. When did you take that? 

(At this point Mrs. Jacobs conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Jacobs. It was April or March of 1952. 

Mr. KuNziG. All right. Were you a member of the Communist 
Party the day you took that oath? 

(At this point Mrs. Jacobs conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Jacobs. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party the 
day before you took that oath? 

(At this point Mrs. Jacobs conferred with JVIr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Jacobs. Same answer; same reason. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You refuse to answer as to the day before. 

Did you resign from the Communist Party in order that you might 
take the oath without feai* of arrest? 

(At this point Mrs. Jacobs conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs Jacobs. Same reason; same answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have sworn testimony, Mrs. Jacobs, that in 1944 
you had membership card 78325. Did you have that card number 
in the Communist Party? 

(At this point Mrs. Jacobs conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Jacobs. Same reason; same answer. 

Mr. KxjNziG. And in 1945, we have sworn testimony that you had 
Communist Party card No. 87614. Did you have that number? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Same reason; same answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you teaching in the Philadelphia schools at 
the time Mr. Kunzig is inquiring about? 

(At this point Mrs. Jacobs conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. KuNziG. That would be 1944, 1945. 

Mrs. Jacobs. Oh, yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. How long did you say you had been teaching in the 
schools, Mrs. Jacobs? 

Mrs. Jacobs. Since 1930. 

Mr. KuNziG. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERBR. Mr. Walter? 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is excused. 



40168— 54— pt. 4- 



3976 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. Bernard August.^ Goldie Watsoa.' Bessie Steasky. 

Mr. ScHERER. Will the witness rise and be sworn. 

You do solemnly testify that the testimony you are about to give 
at this hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Stensky. I do. 

Mr. ScHERER. Be seated. 

Mr. Kunzig, proceed.^; 

TESTIMONY OF BESSIE STENSKY, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 
COUNSEL, A. HAERY LEVITAN 

Air. Kunzig. Would you please state your name for the record? 

Mrs. Stensky. Bessie Stensky. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is that Miss or Mrs. Stensky? 

Mrs. Stensky. Mrs. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is that S-t-e-n-s-k-y? 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. And would counsel please state his name and address 
for the record once again? 

Mr. Levitan. A. Harry Levitan, 1412 Fox Building, Philadelphia 3. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Stensky, would you kindly give us your present 
address? 

Mrs. Stensky. 2009 East Rittenhouse Street, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you give the committee a brief resume of 
your educational background, starting with high school? 

Mrs. Stensky. WeU, I went to South Philadelphia High School for 
Girls; graduated from the Philadelphia Normal School in 1932; from 
Temple University in 1939. 

I took some graduate courses in social work at the University of 
Southern California, and some additional courses at Temple. 

Mr. Kunzig. And what is your employment background, Mrs. 
Stensky? 

Mr. Levitan. Excuse me. Could we ask that the pictures be 
taken either before or after the hearing? We have no objection to 
pictures 

Mrs. Stensky. Will you take it? 

Mr. Levitan. Could we ask that the pictures be taken before we 
begin or after we complete? We have no objection to pictures, of 
course, but they are very disconcerting during the proceeding. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. You may proceed. 

Mrs. Stensky. I gather you are chiefly concerned with work in 
teaching. I have done no teaching in the Philadelphia public schools 
since 1940. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you give us your employment background? 

I believe you were first a social investigator with the WPA, is that 
correct? 

Mrs. Stensky. Well, not first. That was in 1940. I had done 
some substituting m the public schools before that. 

Mr. Kunzig. In Philadelphia? 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

• At this point, the time was earlier than the hour specified in the subpenas of these two witnesses, and 
they had not yet arrived in the hearing room. Tliey were heard later in the day's proceedings. 



COACVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3977 

Mr. KuNziG. What schools were they? 

Mrs. Stensky. Well, throughout, in part of the city. I don't 
remember which particular district it was, but in South Philadelphia. 

?^Ir. KuNziG. In South Philadelphia? 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. What subject did you teach? 

Mrs. Stensky. The elementary grades, wherever I was needed. 

Mr. KuNziG. As a substitute? 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. Now, thi'ough that period 

Shall I go tlirough this? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, please. 

Mrs. Stensky. Through that period from the time I graduated, we 
will say, from about 1933 to about 1938 or 1939, 1 worked on a number 
of education projects, chiefly adult education, teaching handicapped 
children in their homes, preschool education, and so on, child psy- 
chology. 

Now, in 1940 I went into the social work field. From, I would say, 
by and large, from 1940 until 1953 I was in social work and didn't 
return to teaching until September 1953. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you work for the Department of Public Assistance 
in Peansylvania? 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. When was that, and in what capacity? 

Mrs. Stensky. From 1940 to 1945, as a social worker. 

Mr. Kunzig. a visitor? 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. I see. Now, did you ever live at 1536 South Sixth 
Street? 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. The committee has testimony that in 1941 you were 
one of the educational directors of the Communist Party of Phila- 
delphia. Is that correct? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Stensky. I refuse to answer that question on the ground of 
the fifth amendment. 

I wonder whether it would help for me to make a basic statement 
that I think would set the basis for the remainder of the interview, 
and might save some time? 

Mr. Scherer. No; if you have a written statement we would be 
glad to receive the statement. 

Mrs. Stensky. I mean it is simply a statement of the philosophy 
I will be following throughout this discussion, and I think it would 
save a lot of repetition if I were allowed to state it. 

Mr. Scherer. No. If you would answer the questions we would 
be glad to let you make any statement you desire, Witness, but you 
haven't answered the questions thathave been asked. 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. I say, you haven't answered the questions that have 
been asked. 

Mrs. Stensky. I have answered it. 

Mr. Scherer. No; you refused to answer on the ground of the 
fifth amendment. Now, you haven't answered the questions. 



3978 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN" THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Now, the Chair will not permit you to read a statement, a voluntary 
statement, in view of your refusal to answer the questions. 

Mrs. Stensky. Weil, the statement is in the nature of a reply. 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand the natm-e of your statement. 

Mr. KwNZiG. Where do you presentl}^ teach? 

Mrs. Stensky. I teach mentally retarded children for the Phila- 
delphia Association for Retarded Children. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Now, is that at the same school from which we 
had a witness yesterday? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. Walter. What was the name, Mr. Kunzig? 

Mrs. Stensky. I fail to see what connection that would have with 
me. 

Mr. Kunzig. What is the name of the principal of the school? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Stensky. Harry Dubin. 

Mr. Kunzig. And he was a witness here yesterday. 

Mrs. Stensky'. Was he? 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes. You are, then, at the same school and work 
under Mr. Dubin as one of the teachers; is that correct? 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, this is a private institution and does not come 
under the Philadelphia public-school system? 

Mrs. Stensky. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party, Mrs. Stensky? 

Mrs. Stensky'. I feel that my associations, my ideas, and political 
beliefs are protected by the Constitution of the United States Gov- 
ernment, my Government, and I am not requu-ed to reply to the 
questions about them. 

I am refusing to answer that question and all other questions along 
the same line, not only because it violates my right of freedom of 
thought and association guaranteed under the first amendment, but 
also, maybe even more, because I feel I owe it to other Americans to 
protect the Constitution itself from attacks against it. 

Mr. Kunzig. You refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment, do you? 

Mrs. Stensky. I haven't finished my statement. Wait a minute. 

Also, I decline to answer under the fifth amendment on the ground 
it may possibly tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Walter. In what criminal matter do you feel that you might 
become involved if you would answer the questions? 

(At this point Airs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Stensky. I must respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Air. Walter. In other words, as I understand it, you refuse to 
answer the question because you feel if you do answer the question 
your answer might tend to incriminate you; is that correct? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Stensky. Same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Walter. Is my understanding correct? 

Mrs. Stensky. Same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Walter. Do we know when she was employed at this school 
first? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3979 

Mr. KuNziG. 1 will ask. 

When were you first employed at this present school where you 
now work? 

Mrs. Stenskt. As I said, September 1952- — pardon me, 1953. 

Mr. Walter. Were you employed by Nathan Dubin? Did he 
give you your job? 

Mrs. Stensky. By whom? 

Mr. Walter. What was his name? 

Mr, KuNZiG. Harry Nathan Dubui, principal. 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. Walter. Did he give you your job because you were a Com- 
mmiist? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levi tan.) 

IVIrs. Stensky. Same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Walter. You might be interested in knowing that yesterday 
Mr. Dubin also refused to answer the questions we are now asking for 
the same reasons that you are now refusing to answer. 

Mr. KiTNziG. Did you attend a Communist Party meetina" held at 
the Met, M-e-t, Broad and Poplar Streets, on February 26, 1946? 

Mrs. Stensky. Mr. Kunzig^ —  — 

Mr. Levitan. Now please answer the question. 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Stensky. I don't understand. 

Mr. Levitan. You don't understand it? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

^Irs. Stensky. Same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have here a document marked "StenskA^ Exhibit 
No. 1 " 

Mr. Scherer. Now, Witness, this isn't funny, and I would appre- 
ciate it if you would quit laughing. 

Mrs. Stensky. I assure you, it isn't a bit funny to me. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, you have been laughing. 

Mr. Walter. It isn't funny to us, because we don't like this job, 
and it is just the opposite from being funny to see Americans, at least 
people who enjoy the birthright of American citizens, flaunting the 
Constitution in the faces of the duly elected representatives of the 
Government. 

Mrs. Stensky. I don't feel I am flaunting the Constitution. I 
feel I am protecting it. 

Mr. Walter. You feel it is funny — 

Mrs. Stensky. I haven't been laughing. 

Mr. Walter. This isn't any funnier than it was to the boys in 
Korea who died there, I can assure you of that. 

Mr. KuNziG. 1 have here a document marked "Stensky Exhibit 
No. 1" for identification, Mrs. Stensky — which, Mr. Chairman, is a 
picture taken at the Communist Party meeting at the Met, Broad 
and Poplar Streets, Philadelphia, on February 26, 1946. 

Would you look at this and see if the person in the middle marked 
"1" isn't yourself? 

(At this point Mrs. vStensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Airs. Stensky. Same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, may I pass this to you, and I ask 
that this be admitted into evidence as Stensky exhibit No. 1. 

Mr. Walter. How does the witness spell her name? 



3980 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. S-t-e-n-s-k-y. 

Mr. Walter. You were born in the United States, I take it, Mrs. 
Stensky? 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes, J was; Philadelphia. 

Mr. Walter. Were either of your parents born in Russia? 

Mrs. Stensky. Both. 

Mr. Walter. Well, it is indeed significant that of the Philadelphia 
witnesses, so-called, every single one of them was either the son or 
the daughter of a mother or father born in Russia. I suppose that 
is a mere coincidence, but I think that is the fact — isn't it, Mr. 
Kunzig? 

Mr. Kunzig. All but one. 

Mr. Walter. All but one. Excuse me; I apologize. Thirty-nine 
out of forty. 

Mr. Scherer. The photograph will be received in evidence as 
requested by counsel. 

(Photograph marked "Stensky Exhibit No. 1" for identification 
was received in evidence as Stensky exhibit No. 1.) ^ 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, I have another document marked "Stensky 
Exhibit No. 2" for identification, which is a photograph of a picket 
line, Mrs. Stensky, in front of the Federal Building at Ninth and 
Market, held in protest of the Federal indictment of 12 Communist 
leaders of the Communist Party, September 25, 1948. 

I hand you this picture, Stensky exliibit No. 2 for identification, 
and ask you if you recognize yourself as one of those in that picket 
Une. 

Mrs. Stensky. Same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Kunzig. I offer Stensky exhibit No. 2 into evidence, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Let me pass you Stensky exhibit No. 1 again, Mrs. Stensky 

Mr. Scherer. Just a second. 

The second exhibit submitted by counsel will be admitted in 
evidence. 

(Photograph marked "Stensky Exhibit No. 2" for identification was 
received in evidence as Stensky exhibit No. 2.) ^ 

Mr. Scherer. I think the record should show that the sign 
in the picture right above the present witness' head reads: "Prevent 
American fascism. Dismiss indictments against Communist leaders. 

Mr. Walter. When was that taken? 

Mr. Kunzig. September 25, 1948. 

I hand you again Stensky exhibit No. 1, which was the photograph 
of the Communist Party meeting, a picture of the meeting at the 
Met, and ask you, since the faces are so clearly recognizable on this 
picture, whether you can identify any of the other members of that 
picture as members of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Stensky. I will give you the same answer for the same 
reasons. 

Mr. Kunzig. On March 13, 1948, Mrs. Stensky, you were observed 
participating in the picketing of the United States Immigration and 
Naturalization Service at 15th and Chestnut Streets in Philadelphia, 
which was a demonstration sponsored by the Civil Rights Congress, 
protesting the deportation proceedings against Claudia Jones, John 

' Retained in the files of the committee. 
' Retained in the files of the committee. 



COIVOVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3981 

Williamson, and other Communist labor leaders. Did you participate 
in this demonstration in picketing? 

Mrs. Stensky. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. On September 25, 1948, you were observed partici- 
pating in the picketing of the Federal Building at Ninth and Market 
by a Civil Rights Congress group; this was the same as before, but 
you were there on September 25, and again on October 16. Did you 
participate in those two picke tings? 

Mrs. Stensky. What year was that? 

Mr. KuNZiG. 1948. 

Mrs. Stensky. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNZiG. On December 14, 1948, you were observed attending 
a Peace Rall}^ at Town Hall, 150 North Broad Street, sponsored by 
the Philadelphia Council of American-Soviet Friendship, a cited 
organization. The meeting was attended by many known Com- 
munists, December 14, 1948. Did you attend this meeting? 

Mrs. Stensky. I decline to answer for the same reasons given. 

Mr. KuNZiG. We have sworn testimony that in December of 1948 
you were appointed as section organizer of the Germantown section, 
old section 10, district 3 of the Communist Party. Is that correct? 

Mrs. Stensky. I declme to answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNZiG. On January 18, 1949, you were obsered in the com- 
pany of Esther Soler, Minnie Jessie Schneiderman, Helen Gaylburd, 
Lucille Tommy Childs, and Ollie Holmes, boarding a train at 30th 
Street Station to participate in the Freedom Crusade sponsored by 
the Communist Party and the Civil Rights Congress to come down 
and make demands from the United States Congress. Did you par- 
ticipate in this crusade sponsored by the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Stensky. Same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. Of com-se, Mr. Chau-man, for the record, the Civil 
Rights Congress is a cited front organization. 

On January 30, 1953, you were observed attending a meeting of the 
Philadelphia Council of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, in the south 
gold room of the Broadwood Hotel in Philadelphia, in the company 
of Angelina Intille and Eleanor Fleet, both of whom testified here 
yesterday, or refused to testify. Did you attend this meeting spon- 
sored by the Philadelphia Council of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, 
a cited group? 

Mrs. Stensky. Same answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. KuNziG. On June 10, 1953, the Philadelphia Committee To 
Secure Justice for the Rosenbergs held a meeting at the Paramount 
Mansion at the southeast corner of Broad Street and Gerard Avenue, 
and you were observed attending this meeting. Did you so attend? 

Mrs. Stensky. I will give you the same answer for the same 
reasons. 

Mr. ScHERER. What was that committee? 

Mr. KuNziG. The Philadelphia Committee To Secure Justice for 
the Rosenbergs. 

Mr. ScHERER. Has that committee been cited? 

The Chair is going to direct you to answer that question, Witness. 

Mr. Levitan. Will you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you attend a meetmg on June 10, 1953, of the 
Philadelphia Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg case? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 



3982 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mrs. Stensky. I must respectfully decline to answer that, for the 
same reason. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. 

Mr. Walter. Now, let's get the record straight. She said "I 
must." 

You are not under any compulsion; you don't have to decline to 
answer. You can say "I decline to answer." You are not under any 
compulsion at all. 

Mrs. Stensky. I am sorry; I can't hear. 

Mr. Walter. I say, you are not under any compulsion. You said 
"I must decline to answer." You don't have to answer. 

Mrs. Stensky. Thank you. 

Mr. Walter. Well, do you 

Mrs. Stensky. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNZiG. On June 14 

Mr. Walter. Wait a minute, before you go on further. 

I think we owe it to the witness to let her know that this is not a 
cited organization, and for that reason to answer the question would in 
nowise, even by the greatest stretch of imagination, incriminate you. 

Mrs. Stensky. I appreciate that, but I would still decline to 
answer. 

Mr. KuNZiG. On June 14, 1953, at 10:20 a. m., a delegation of 120 
persons of the Philadelphia Committee to Secure Justice in the 
Rosenberg Case boarded a special clemency train at the B. & O. 
Railroad station. The delegation was en route to Washington, D. C, 
to demonstrate in front of the White House on behalf of Ethel and 
Julius Rosenberg. 

I have here a document marked "Stensk}^ exhibit No. 3" for iden- 
tification, which is a picture taken of the group boarding the special 
train. The person with "11" written around it, No. 11, is identified 
as Bessie Stensky. 

I hand you Stensky exhibit No. 3 for identification and ask you if 
that is a picture of yourself. 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Stensky. Same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact that that delegation which came to 
Washington was organized by the Communist Party of Philadelphia? 

Mrs. Stensky. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Walter. Well, you see, so many witnesses have, after they 
have left the committee I'oom, and others, have charged us with mo- 
tives that are not entirely pm-e in interrogating witnesses, so I think, in 
order to dispel any feeling that might exist with respect to 3*011, you 
ought to know that we would like to know, and the reason why we 
are asking you these questions, who it was that directed certain people 
in Philadelphia to engage in this enterprise. 

Now, we feel that you, as the leader of this Communist group, 
could inform this committee as to who it was you were taking your 
orders from. 

Now, you can render a great service, you see, to our work if you 
would answer these questions. 

Mrs. Stensky. Mr. Walter, you are only assumirig certain things. 

Mr. Walter. Well, assuming what? 

Mrs. Stensky. What you have just said is a pure assumption 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IK THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3983 

Mr. Walter. No, it isn't assumption. I am thoroughly convinced 
you are a Communist, and I am thoroughly convinced you are very 
active in the organization of this group, and I didn't suck this out of 
my thumb — I know. I know what I am talking about. 

Now, I appeal to you to assist our committee. I am not merely 
assuming that you are a Communist. 

Were you a Communist at the time this march took place? 

Mrs. Stensky. I decline to answer that question for the reasons 
given. 

Mr. Walter. Well, now, you see that just adds to my feeling of 
being positive that you were a Communist. 

All right, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't there some testimony, Mr. Kunzig — do we 
not have some identification of this witness as a member of the partj^? 

Mr. Kunzig. We have sworn testimony in executive session, Mr. 
Chairman, by former members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Scherer. That the present witness was a member of the party? 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I thought so. 

Well, it isn't an assumption, then, on your part. 

Mr. Walter. Oh, no. 

Mr. Kunzig. I offer in evidence Stensky Exhibit No. 3, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Scherer. It may be so received. 

(Photograph entitled "Philadelphia Committee To Secure Justice 
in the Rosenberg Case," marked "Stensky Exhibit No. 3" for identi- 
fication, was received in evidence as wStensky exhibit No. 3.)* 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Stensky, we also have sworn testimony that as 
of June 1953 you were an organizer of the Logan-Olney section of the 
Communist Party of the Sixth Congressional District of eastern Penn- 
sylvania. Were you an organizer of the Logan-Olney section? 

Mrs. Stensky. Same answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Kunzig. We also have evidence that on the evening of May 27, 
1953, Sherman Labovitz, L-a-b-o-v-i-t-z, a well-known Communist, 
and 1 of the 9 Communist leaders of eastern Pennsylvania and Dela- 
ware who have been arrested in violation of the Smith Act and are now 
awaiting trial, we have evidence that Sherman Labovitz and 2 un- 
identified women entered your home on Rittenbouse Street and left 
at approximately 10 p. m.; is that correct? 

Mrs. Stensky. I decline to answer, for the reasons given. 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you know Sherman Labovitz? 

Mrs. Stensky. I decline to answer for the reasons given. 

Mr. Kunzig. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Walter? 

Mr. Walter. No. 

Mr. Scherer. During the time that you were employed by the city 
of Philadelphia in the Department of Public Assistance, were you a 
member of the party? 

Mrs. Stensky. I feel that my associations, my ideas, and political 
beliefs are protected by the Constitution of the United States Govern- 
ment, my Government, and I am not required to reply to questions 
about it. 

* Retained in the files of the committee. 
40168— 54— pt. 4 3 



3984 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE. PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, is that your answer to my question? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Stensky. The answer to the question is that I am refusing to 
answer on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. 

Now, when you made application for employment with the city of 
Philadelphia, in what form did you make that application? 

Mrs. Stensky. City of Philadelphia, at what time, when do you 
mean? 

Mr. vScherer. Were you employed by the city of Philadelphia or 
the State of Pennsylvania? 

Mrs. Stensky. The State of Pennsylvania, I suppose. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. How did you get that job? 

Mrs. Stensky. Do you mean the job I had from 1940 to 1945? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes, the time that you stated you were employed by 
the department of public assistance. 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. You stated that was between 1940 and 1945. 

Mrs. Stensky. I took a competitive examination. 

Mr. Scherer. Civil service examination? 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you file an application in connection with the 
taking of that examination? 

Mrs. Stensky. I suppose I did. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you file an application of any kind subsequent 
to the taking of that exammation? 

Mrs. Stensky. You mean for a job in Philadelphia? I am not 
clear about that. When? 

Mr. Scherer. Well, for this job with the department of public 
assistance. 

Mrs. Stensky. Oh, no. 

Mr. wScherer. How many applications do you recall that you filed 
in connection with obtaining positions with either the government of 
the State of Pennsylvania or the city government? 

Mrs. Stensky. So far as I know, the only application was the one 
you have referred to in 1940 

Mr. Scherer. And did that application 

Mrs. Stensky. Pardon me. 

And, also, I applied for work with the Board of Education in the 
attendance department in 1952. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, on any of those applications that you made, 
were you asked the question whether or not you were a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Stensky. For the Board of Education application, 1952, I 
was — not on the application, but there was a Pechan oath which was 
later signed. 

Mr. Scherer. How did you answer? 

Mrs. Stensky. That is a matter of record. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand it may be a matter of record. My 
question is. How did you answer? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. Levitan. Will you excuse me one moment, sir. 

Explain it to Mr. Scherer just that way, that you signed it. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3985 

Mrs. Stensky. As I said, I signed the Pechan oath either in 
September or October of 1952. I signed it truthfully, I was not a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. ScHERER. You were not a member of the Communist 
Party 

Mrs. Stensky. At that time; no. 

Mr. ScHERER. (continuing). When you signed that? 

Mrs. Stensky. No. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you a member of the Communist Party the 
week before? 

Mrs. Stensky. I decline to answer any further questions 

Mr. Levitan. No — excuse me. 

Just this question, give Mr. Scherer, the Chairman, the answer to 
this question, please. 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with J\Ir. Levitan.) 

Airs. Stensky. I am soriy. 

Mr. Scherer. The question is. Were you a member of the Com- 
mmiist Party a week before you signed this loyalty oath in 1952? 

Mrs. Stensky. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you a member of the Communist Party a week 
after you signed the oath? 

Mrs. Stensky. I refuse to answer that question for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, I asked you originally with reference to the 
application j^ou nuide in 1940 for the job in the department of public 
works. Do you recall whether that application had a question on it 
asking whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Stensky. I don't recall. I don't remember any such. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you recall whether or not the application had a 
question on it asking whether or not you were a member of any organi- 
zation that advocated the overthrow of the Government of the United 
States? 

Mrs. Stensky. I don't recall any such. There may have been. It 
just didn't — I don't remember. 

Mr. Scherer. If there had been such a question, how would you 
have answered it? 

Mrs. Stensky. Same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Levitan. Mr. Walter, I wonder if you would be willing to 
reconsider your statement about the immigrant parents of many of 
the people who have been before you? It seems to me to contain an 
unintentional reflection upon many decent people. 

Mr. Walter. That wasn't intended at all, I assure you. It just 
struck me when I learned her name as being very strange, and more 
than a mere coincidence that so many of the people from Philadelphia 
came from Russian families. I am not talking about immigrants as 
such. But I am just wondering whether or not there is brought to 
this country Old World ideologies that are kept alive, that is all. 

No, I won't, of course, remove from the record anything I have 
said, because that is the way I feel. It is certainly not intended to 
be a reflection on any of the thousands nor millions of decent people 
who have become citizens of the United States through naturalization 
who appreciate what the institutions of freedom mean to them and 
who, because of old world experiences, get down on their knees and 



3986 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

thank God every day of the week that they are among the privileged 
permitted to be here. 

Does that answer your question? 

Mr. Levitan. That is all right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Stensky 

We are not tlirough. 

Mr. Levitan. I thought you said "That is all." Forgive me. 

Mr. KuNziG. You made the statement that you took the loyalty 
oath, is that right? 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. The Pechan oath. You also made a statement, 
when you were an organizer of the Communist Party in June 1953 — 
you said you took the oath in 1952 — when I asked you about 1953 
you refused to answer on the grounds it might incriminate you. 

Now, that loyalty oath has in it a provision that a person will 
not be a member of the Communist Party, and so forth. Have you 
joined the Commimist Party after you took the oath? 

Mrs. Stensky. Same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. You mean you took an oath that you wouldn't join 
any group of this nature, but now, when asked about it as to the time 
after you took the oath, you refuse to answer on the grounds that it 
might incriminate you? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Stensky. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, in 1941 there was quite a clean-out of the 
department of public assistance in Pennsylvania; a gi'oup of people, 
a whole group, were dismissed for subversive activity in connection 
with Communist activity. Do you recall that? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, you do recall, was your answer? 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You worked for the department of public assistance 
at that time, did you not? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You were not discharged, however, were you, in this 
group? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Stensky. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
that time? 

Mrs. Stensky. I will give you the same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You refuse to answer? 

Mrs. Stensky. Yes. 

IVIr. KuNZiG. Now, another person who will be a witness here today, 
Mrs. Sarah Crome, C-r-o-m-e, was one of those dismissed for subver- 
sive activity. Did you know Mrs. Crome? 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. Levitan. Excuse me. That was not meant with any d'srespect. 
That was because of an exchange between us. 

(At this point Mrs. Stensky conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mrs. Stensky. I invoke the same privilege. 

Mr. KuNziG. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3987 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Walter? 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is excused. 

We will have a 5-minute recess. 

(Whereupon, at 11:05 a. m., the committee recessed, to reconvene 
at 11:10 a. m.) 

(The committee reconvened and 11:15 a.m., and the proceedings 
were resumed as follows:) 

Mr. Scherer. Call your next witness. 

Mr. KuNziG. Bernard August. 

Mr. Scherer. Will the witness rise and be sworn. 

You do solemnl}^ swear that the testimony you are about to give 
at this hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. August. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BERNARD AUGUST, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, A. HARRY LEVITAN 

Mr. KuNziG, Will you state your full name, please? 

Mr. August. Bernard August. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Will counsel once again state his name for the record. 

Mr. Levitan. A. Harry Levitan, 1412 Fox Building, Philadelphia 3. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Mr. August, would you give us your full address, 
please. 

Mr. August. Apartment 422. Mackley House, M and Crystal 
Streets, Philadelphia 24, Pa. 

Mr. Kunzig. How do you spell Mackley? 

Mr. August. Mackley, M-a-c-k-1-e-y. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What is your educational background? 

Mr. August. I attended the public schools of the city of Phila- 
delphia and got a bachelor's degree 

Mr. Kunzig. What high school did you attend? 

Mr. August. Frankford High School. 

Mr. Kunzig. What year did you graduate? 

Mr. August. 1928. University of Pennsylvania, bachelor's degree 
in education, 1932; master of arts, 1933. 

Mr. Kunzig. What is your employment background, sir? 

Mr. August. I was appointed to teach in the Philadelphia schools 
in 1934, at Gratz High School. 

Mr. Kunzig. What subject? 

Mr. August. Mathematics. I taught there until 1942, at which 
time, due to a decrease in pupil enrollment, I was transferred to the 
Olney High School in Philadelphia, and I have been teaching there 
since. 

Mr. Kunzig. And you are presently employed at the Olney High 
School in Philadelphia? 

Mr. August. That is right. 

(At this point Mr. August conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you been suspended? We will put that on the 
record. 

Mr. August. Yes, I have been suspended. 

Mr. Kunzig. When were you suspended? 

Mr. August. November 20, 1953. 



3988 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. By action of the school board? 

Mr. August. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. For that reason? 

Mr. August. The charge was refusal to answer questions of Dr. 
Hoyer. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Dr. Hoyer is superintendent of schools? 

Mr. August. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, Mr. August, we have testimony that you were 
one of the leaders of a Communist group at this Carl Mackley apart- 
ments, and have been from virtually the time you moved there. Is 
that correct? 

Mr. August. I respectfully decline to answer any question con- 
cerning membership in any organization which is deemed to be sub- 
versive today. 

Mr. Levitan. Why? 

Mr. August. I decline on the grounds that such questions infringe 
on the first amendment of the Constitution regarding the right of 
people to peaceably assemble and, further, on the grounds that such 
questioning may somehow involve me in criminal proceedings. 

I have a right under the fifth amendment not to furnish information 
which might incriminate me, and while such a possibility, in my opinion, 
is very remote, nevertheless, I will not waive that right. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you on July 25, 1942, attend a Communist Party 
meeting at the home of Paul Geislman, G-e-i-s-1-m-a-n, 6016 North 
10th Street, Philadelphia, at which meeting the first formal announce- 
ment of the Tom Paine School was made? 

Mr. August. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Kunzig. The Tom Paine School is cited as an adjunct in 
Philadelphia, Pa., of the Communist Party b}^ Attorney General 
Tom Clark. 

In 1945, we have testimony that you were financial secretary oi the 
Northeast Club of the Communist Party. Is that correct? 

Mr. August. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Air. Kunzig. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. August. At the present time I am not a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Kunzig. The question was, very clearly, have you ever been 
a member of the Communist Party? 

Would you please answer that question? 

Mr. August. I have already declined an answer to that question. 

Mr. Levitan. Answer the question, please. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. August. I decline to answer such questions on the grounds 
that I gave. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, you said that j^ou are not now a member of the 
Communist Party; is that correct? 

Mr. August. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you take the Philadelphia, Pa., loyalty oath? 

Mr. August. I did. 

Mr. Kunzig. That was, roughly, in the spring of 1952? 

Mr. August. 1952. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3989 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you took that oath? 

Mr. August. I was not. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you been a member of the Communist Party at 
any time since you took that oath? 

Mr. August. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you attended any Communist Party meetings 
since you took that oath? 

Mr. August. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party the day 
before you took that oath? 

Mr. August. Any questions 

(At this point Mr. August conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. August. I decHne to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. KuNziG. So that you were not a member of the party on the 
day you took the oath, but you decHne to answer on the grounds that 
it might incriminate you as to the day before you took the oath, is 
that correct? 

Mr. August. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you resign from the Communist Party in order 
to be able to take the oath without fear of prosecution? 

Mr. August. I declme to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have sworn testimony that in 1945, to go back a 
few years, you held Communist Party membership book No. 84483. 
Did you have that membership book number? 

Mr. August. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, the Communist Party uses a key number system 
and has frequently used this key number S3^stem instead of names 
with regard to people paying dues. It was used particularly with the 
professional section of the party in order to further conceal identities 
of members of this professional section. 

In 1946, we have sworn testimony that you were a member of the 
North Philadelphia branch of the Communist Party, section 2, and 
that kev No. 125 was listed in back of your name. 

Were you a member of the North Philadelphia branch of the Com- 
munist Party at that time? 

Mr. August. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you have key No. 125? 

Mr. August. Same answer, same reasons. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, there is also testimony that you were an 
alternate delegate to the Saturday session in 1946 of the Communist 
Party at a convention held in Philadelphia June 20 to 23. Did you 
attend that convention? 

Mr. August. I decline to answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you an alternate delegate? 

Mr. August. I decline to answer; same reasons. 

Mr. Walter. What was that date? 

Mr. KuNziG. June 20 to 23, 1946. 

Wliat union do you belong to, if any? 

Mr. August. I belong to the Teachers Union of Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Is that the union that Jennings is the president of, 
the man who took the fifth amendment here yesterday? 

(At this point Mr. August conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 



3990 COMMUNIST ACTrV^ITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. August. I have the right under the fifth amendment not to 
furnish information which might incriminate me, and while such a 
possibiHty, in my opinion, is very remote, nevertheless, I will not 
waive that right. I decline to answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. You refuse to answer? 

Mr. August. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. When did you join the union? 

Mr. August. I am not quite sure of the year, but I would say about 
1937, 1938. 

Mr. KuNziG. 1937, 1938. 

Mr. ScHERER. Pardon me just a moment. 

Has your membership been continuous since that date? 

Mr. August. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now isn't it a fact that that is the same union that 
was expelled by the A. F, of L. and later by the CIO for being Com- 
munist dominated? 

Mr. August. I believe that is a matter of record. 

Mr. KuNziG, Well, the president of the union said so here yesterday 
under oath. 

Now, were you a member when it was thrown out of the A. F. of L. 
for Communist activity? 

Mr. August. I was a member at that time. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you remain a member after that happened? 

Mr. August. I remained a member. 

Mr. KuNziG. Then it became a CIO union and was thrown out of 
the CIO for Communist domination. Were you a member at the 
time it was a member of the CIO? 

Mr. August. My membership was continuous. 

Mr. Kunzig. And you remained a member after that? 

Mr. August. I remained a member after that. 

Mr. Kunzig. And these facts were known to you; it is not a surprise? 

Mr. August. The facts were known. 

Mr. Kunzig. As a matter of fact, you were financial secretary at 
one time of this union, is that right? 

Mr. August. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you also treasurer or was that the same position? 

Mr. August. Same office. 

Mr. Kunzig. Same office. 

No further questions, Mr. Chan-man. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you have any questions, Mr. Walter? 

Mr, Walter. No, I have no questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no questions. 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. Kunzig. Goldie Watson. 

Mr. ScHERER. Will the witness raise her right hand. 

You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give at 
this hearing sliaU be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Watson. I solemnly swear. 

Mr. ScHERER. Be seated. 

(At this point Representative Francis E. Walter left the hearing 
room.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3991 

TESTIMONY OF GOLDIE E. WATSON, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 

COUNSEL, PHILIP DORFMAN 

Mr. KxjNziG. Would you state your name, please? 

Mrs. Watson. Mrs. Goldie E. Watson. 

Mr. ScHERER. Pardon me, Mr. Kmizig. Will you let the press 
take their pictures fii*st. 

All right, Air. Kunzig. 

Mrs. Watson. Mrs. Goldie E. Watson. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Watson, I see you are accompanied by counsel. 

Would counsel please state his name and office address for the 
record? 

Mr, DoRFMAN. Philip Dorfman, D-o-r-f-m-a-n, 820 Lewis Tower 
Building, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. Thank you, Mr. Dorfman. 

Mr. Dorfman. All right, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you give us your address, please? 

Mrs. Watson. 2335 North College Avenue, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. Will you give us a brief resume of yom* schooling, 
your education? 

Mrs. Watson. I finished the Wdliam Penn High School in Phila- 
delphia in 1927. I completed my normal school education at the 
Philadelphia Normal School in 1929. 

I have since carried on my college activity at the University of 
Pennsylvania. 1 suppose I would be listed as a low senior at this 
time. 

Mr. Kunzig. And your employment record, Mrs. Watson? 

Mrs. Watson. I was a substitute teacher in Philadelphia from 
September 1929 to January 1931. 

I was appointed as an elementary teacher in the Martha Washington 
Public School, February 1, 1931. I have been there ever since, 23 
years. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, Mrs. Watson, I believe it is known to you that 
Mrs. Dorothy Funn, I believe at one time a friend of yours and a 
member of yom- race, testified publicly before this committee in 
Philadelphia just a few months ago to the effect that she had known 
you as a member of the Communist Party, so I ask: Have you 
ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Watson. Mr. Kunzig, I ask yom- first questions to be com- 
pletely identified before this committee. I will not answer any other 
question I am asked about membership in organizations, associations, 
societies, people I have met with, or anything else. 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. If you are not going to answer 
the questions, your counsel will instruct you how to take advantage 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Dorfman. Mr. Scherer, I think you are presuming that this 
Avitness intends to invoke the fifth amendment, and I am going to 
suggest the witness answer the questions individually as she is asked. 

Mr. Scherer. That is what I want her to do, answer them indi- 
viduallv. 

Mr. Kunzig. You have been asked whether you have ever been a 
member of the Communist Party. Would you please answer that 
question? 



3992 coMMuisriST activities in the Philadelphia area 

Mrs. Watson. I said that I would not answer the question, and 
that it is a violation of my constitutional rights for you to bring me 
here and attempt to compel me to answer questions about my associa- 
tions, memberships, conferences, or speeches. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Is that the end of your answer? 

Mr. ScHBRER. That is enough, now. 

(At this point Mrs. Watson conferred with Mr. Dorfman.) 

Mrs. Watson. Yes, it is the end of my answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. In view of your answer, witness, I am going to 
dhect you to answer the question Mr. Kunzig asked you. 

Mr. Kunzig. Which is: Have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mrs. Watson. I refuse to answer on the basis of my first statement. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you ever attend a Communist school or a school 
for instruction of Communist teachers in New York State? 

Mrs. Watson. Mr. Kunzig, I have intimated that I am not going 
to answer your questions —  — • 

(At this point Mrs. Watson conferred with Mr. Dorfman.) 

Mr. Scherer. Just answer the question, Miss. 

Mrs. Watson. I will not answer. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. 

Ask her another question. 

I am going to direct you to answer the question, but 

(At tliis point Mrs. Watson conferred with Mr. Dorfman.) 

Mrs. Watson. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you ever attend any Communist 

(At this point Airs. Watson conferred with Mr. Dorfman.) 

Mrs. Watson. Excuse me. 

Mr. KuNZKi. Go right ahead. 

(At this point Mrs. Watson conferred with Mr. Dorfman.) 

Mr. Kunzig. Ai-e you ready? 

Mr. Dorfman. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you ever attended any Communist instruction 
school at any place? 

Mrs. Watson. Mr. Kunzig, I refuse to answer, specifically on the 
basis of my rights as guaranteed by the first amendment to the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Scherer. I will direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Watson. I refuse to answer, on the basis of the first amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. 

Mr. Kunzig. Let the record show that in voice and tone the witness 
has emphasized the use of the words "first amendment." 

Mr. Dorfman. Mr. Kunzig, let the record show that regardless of 



voice 

Mr. Kunzig. That is 

Mr. Dorfman. Pardon. 

Mrs. Watson. Thank you, Mr. Kunzig. I do mean to emphasize 
the first. 

Mr. Kunzig. I want the record to be perfectly clear on that point. 

(At this point Mrs. Watson conferred with Mr. Dorfman.) 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, Mrs. Watson, were you active in work with the 
National Negro Congress, a Communist-cited organization, Com- 
munist-front organization? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3993 

Mrs. Watson. Mr. Kunzig, I refuse to answer on the basis of the 
fii'st amendment exchisively. 

Mr. ScHERER. I will direct the witness to answer the question. 

(At this point Representative Francis E. Walter returned to the 
hearing room.) 

Mrs. Watson. I will refuse to answer on the basis of the first 
amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Chairman, it is obvious this witness is not going 
to cooperate. I have no further questions to ask at this time. 

Mr. ScHERER. Of course, I think it is fair to tell the witness — 
evidently, she already has been told by her counsel — that the manner 
in which you answered the questions this morning clearly indicates 
that you are in contempt of the Congi-ess. 

Mrs. Watson. Why do you say that? 

Mr. ScHERER. I think you understand. I think your attorney can 
explain. 

Mrs. Watson. Well, shall I let him explain to me now? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. 

(At this point Mrs. Watson conferred with Mr. Dorfman.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you have any further questions? 

Mr. Dorfman. Well, she has to answer Mr. Scherer's dhection, or 
the last question, I believe. 

Mrs. Watson. I have been advised by my counsel of the risks and 
the dangers that I run by taking this position. I still take the risks 
and the dangers because this position is very sacred to me. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. 

Mrs. Watson. A violation of my rights are sacred. I hold them 
as sacred as anything else, and I woiild not permit this committee 
to compel me to violate them. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let me ask you a question. 

Did you take the loyalty oath? 

Mrs. Watson. I will not answer that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, I direct you to answer 

Mrs. Watson. It seems to me taking the loyalty oath is a matter 
between 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute, now. You have made your speech. 

Mrs. Watson. I haven't made a speech, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. I direct you to answer that question. 

(At this point Mrs. Watson conferred with ^Ir. Dorfman.) 

Mrs. Watson. It is a matter of public record that I took the 
loyalty oath. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. Now, at the time you took the loyalty 
oath were you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Watson. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of the 
first amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Watson. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Walter, do you have any questions. 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mary Foley Grossman. 



3994 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give at this hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Grossman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MARY FOLEY GROSSMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
HER COUNSEL, A. HARRY LEVITAN 

Mrs. Grossman. May I know your name? 

Mr. ScHERER. My name is Scherer. 

This is Mr. Walter. 

Mrs. Grossman. I know Mr. Walter. 

Mr. KuNziG. Your full name, please, Mrs. Grossman? 

Mrs. Grossman. My name is Mary Foley Grossman. 

Mr. Levitan. And my name is A. Harry Levitan, 1412 Fox Build- 
ing, Philadelphia 3. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is your present address? 

Mrs. Grossman. 2302 Delancey Street, Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, a resume, if we may, of your educational back- 
ground, Mrs. Grossman? 

Mrs. Grossman. I should like to say first that I was born in Phila- 
delphia; my parents were born in Philadelphia; my ancestors come 
from Scotland and Ireland. 

I was educated for the first few years in parochial schools of Phil- 
adelphia, where I learned the commandments, among them, "Thou 
shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor." 

Mr. Walter. Who bore false witness against you? Who ever bore 
false witness against you? 

Mrs. Grossman. Nobody that I know of. 

Mr. Walter. Then why do you tell us that? We are acquainted 
with the commandments. 

Mrs. Grossman. Very good. 

May I go on? 

Mr. Walter. No. Mr. Kunzig will ask you some questions. 

Mrs. Grossman. You wanted my educational background. 

Mr. Kunzig. Give us your educational background in brief, please. 

Mrs. Grossman. I attended Germantown High School — I went to 
public elementary schools thereafter, and went to Germantown High 
School; University of Pennsylvania; Columbia University; Drexel 
Institute. 

Mr. Kunzig. Does that finish your answer? 

Mrs. Grossman. That is it. 

Mr. Kunzig. And your employment background, please? 

Mrs. Grossman. I have been emploj^ed for 28 years by the 
Philadelphia school system. 

Mr. Kunzig. Where have you been employed, and in what 
capacities? 

Mrs. Grossman. For 3 years I did substitute work while I was in 
college, and shortly thereafter, and then I was appointed to the Vara 
Junior High School, where I remained for 25 years. 

Mr. Kunzig. And you were librarian at Vare Junior High School, 
is that correct? 

Mrs. Grossman. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you been suspended by the school authorities? 



COMISIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3995 

Mrs. Grossman. I have, as of November 20. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And for what reason? 

Mrs. Grossman. I am not quite clear yet, because I haven't been 
tried. I had some statements made about incompetence. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party, Mrs. Grossman? 

Mrs. Grossman. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first amendment and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you ever been a member of a teachers union in 
Philadelphia? 

Mrs. Grossman. I am proud to be a member of the Teachers 
Union, it has done so much for the schools of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. That is a union that has 150 members out of the 8,000 
teachers? 

Mrs. Grossman. I don't know how many. 

Air. Kunzig. It is the same union about which we have heard 
testimony all day yesterday and today, is that correct? 

Mrs. Grossman. I don't know. I have not heard any testimony 
yesterday. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wlio is the present president of that teachers union 
of which you are proud to be a member? 

Mrs. Grossman. Mr. Jennings. 

Mr. Kunzig. Who was a witness here yesterday. You, as a matter 
of fact, have been a president of that union, is that correct? 

Mrs. Grossman. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. When were you president? 

Mrs. Grossman. I honestly don't remember. 

Mr. Kunzig. To the best of your ability and knowledge, tell us. 

Mrs. Grossman. Well, I remember 1940, I think; I don't know 
whether I was president in 1941 or not. I don't know how long 
before that. 

Mr. Kunzig. You were president in 1941, roughly, isn't that 
correct? 

Mrs. Grossman. I think so. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you president of the union at the time that it 
was thrown out of the A. F. of L. for Communist domination? 

Mrs. Grossman. I honestly don't remember. 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you remember that the union was thrown out of 
the A. F. of L. for Communist domination 

Mrs. Grossman. I remember 

Mr. Kunzig. As was testified to by the present president yesterday? 

Mrs. Grossman. I wasn't here yesterday. I remember that there 
was some business of it being separated from the A. F. of L. I can't 
remember the exact reasons. 

Mr. Kunzig. I see. Well, for your information, the president of 
the union today, Mr. Jennings, testified here under oath yesterday 
that it was thrown out of the A. F. of L. for alleged Communist domina- 
tion. 

Mr. Walter. Wlio were the officers of the union at that time? 

Mrs. Grossman. I don't know. 

Mr. Kunzig. I will just ask that question. 

Who were the officers of the union at the time that it was thrown 
out of the A. F. of L.? 



3996 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mrs. Grossman. 1 don't remember, and that is quite sincere; I 
don't remember. 

Mr. KuNziG. Could the following have been the officers: Herman 
Kaufman, vice president; Benjamin Anton, A-n-t-o-n, who resigned 
from the school system recently, vice president; Adolph Myerson, 
recording secretary; Nathan Slager, financial secretary; and Sarah T. 
Walsh, legislativ^e representative. 

Could they have been the officers in 1941? 

Mrs. Grossman. Truthfidly, I couldn't answer that, because I 
don't remember. 

Mr. ScHERER. \\liat does the investigation show, that they were in 
1941? 

Mr. KuNziG. It does, sir, yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let the record show, then, that the committee has 
information to the effect that those individuals just named by Mr. 
Kunzig were the officers of the union at that time. 

Mr. Kunzig. How many of those names which I just read to you 
did you know to be members of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Grossman. I refuse to answer that under the first and fifth 
amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. KuNZio. As a member of the Philadelphia school system did 
you take the loyalty oath in 1952 required of all teachers in Penn- 
sylvania? 

Mrs. Grossman. Sometime in March, toward the end of the month, 
in 1952. 

Mr. Kunzig. You did? 

Mrs. Grossman. In good faith. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you a member of the Communist Party the day 
you took the oath in good faith? 

Mrs. Grossman. I took the oath in good faith. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you a member of the Communist Party at that 
time? 

Mrs. Grossman. I couldn't have been and taken it in good faith. 

Mr. Kunzig. Are you answering that you were not a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Grossman. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. That you were not. 

Mrs. Grossman. That I was not. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party at any time since the day you took that oath? 

Mrs. Grossman. No. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you a member of the Communist Party the 
day before you took that oath? 

Mrs. Grossman. I refuse to answer under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Grossman, you made a big point of saying that 
you took the oath in good faith. 

Mrs. Grossman. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you want this committe(> to believe that in the 
same good faith you cannot answer a question as to whether or not 
you were a member of the Commimist Party the day before the oath? 

Mrs. Grossman. I want nothing that might involve me in any 
way, and therefore I must answer that way in order to avoid any 
possible incrimination. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3997 

Mr. KuNZiG. Were you a member of the professional group of the 
Communist PoUtical Association in 1944 and in 1945? 

Mrs. Grossman. I decline to answer under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. KuNziG. This committee is in possession of sworn testimony, 
Mrs. Grossman, that you were such a member and that in 1944 you 
held Communist Party card No. 78316. Did you have that card 
number? 

Mrs. Grossman. Well, I have to count three — football numbers 
could be pulled out of the air. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Oh, but they are not, Mrs. Grossman. We have 
sworn testimony that your card number was 78316 in the Communist 
Party. It is not pulled out of the air. 

Mrs. Grossman. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. Kunzig. And that in 1945 your Communist Party card num- 
ber was 87G08. Did you have that number in 1945? 

Mrs. Grossman. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, you are listed as an instructor of the labor and 
trade union in 1945 with the Philadelphia School of Social Science 
and Arts, which is a cited group. Were you on that faculty? 

Mrs. Grossman. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have sworn testimon^^ that you presided at 
meetings held in connection with this school in 1944, 1945, and 1946. 

Mrs. Grossman. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNZiG. There is also sworn testimony that in 1945 you were 
a delegate to the Communist Party convention from section 8, 
district 3 of the Communist Party. Were you such a delegate? 

Mrs. Grossman. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you attend that convention in any capacity? 

Mrs. Grossman. Same answer, same reason. 

Air. KuNziG. Now, it has been alleged and sworn to that in the 
past many meetings of the Communist Party have been held at your 
home at 2302 Delancey Street in Philadelphia. Have you ever 
held Communist Party meetings in your home? 

Mrs. Grossman. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you ever a member of the professional section 
of the Communist Party of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware? 

Mrs. Grossman. Same answer and the same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you a member of the Civil Rights Congress, a 
cited Communist-front group? 

Mrs. Grossman. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you have any questions, Mr. Walter? 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no questions. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Mr. Wilbert McCabe. 

Mr. ScHERER. In the testimony you are about to give before this 
subcommittee, do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. McCabe. I do. 



3998 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 
TESTIMONY OF WILBERT RUDOLPH McCABE 

Mr. KuNZiG. State your name, please. 

Mr. McCabb. Wilbert Rudolph McCabe. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. McCabe, I see that you are not represented by 
counsel. Do you know your right to have a counsel before this com- 
mittee? 

Mr. McCabe. I am aware of that right. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you do not desu-e to have counsel? 

Mr. McCabe. That is right. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Wliat is your present address, Mr. McCabe? 

Mr. McCabe. 1026 North 43d Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. KuNziG. Your educational background, please, sir. 

Mr. McCabe. I went to the elementary schools in Philadelphia, 
graduated from Central High School in Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. When? 

Mr. McCabe. 1931, in January. I attended the Philadelphia 
Normal School for 2 years and went from there to the State Teachers 
College at Chanev, where I received the bachelor of science degree 
in 1935. 

Since then I have attended the University of Pennsylvania for 2 
years and received a master of science degree in education. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give us a resume of your employment, 
starting from the time that you finished your college education? 

Mr. McCabe. I taught for a year in the schools of Vhginia, and in 
1936 I worked as a substitute in the elementary evening school, 
and stayed there until about tO or 1941. 

In about 1938 I worked on the Works Progress Administration for 
about a year, approximately. 

In 1939 I worked with the department of public assistance for a 
little over a year. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What was your capacity when you worked for the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the department of public as- 
sistance? 

Mr. McCabe. I was a visitor. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are vou sure of those dates? 

Mr. McCabe. Fairly sure; yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. T\^at were they, to the best of your knowledge when 
you worked for the department of public assistance? 

Mr. McCabe. From about September 1939 to the end of January 
1941. 

Mr. KiTNZiG. Then where did you go? 

Mr. McCabe. I worked for the United States Treasury Depart- 
ment as a customs inspector out of the port of Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. And where after that? 

Mr. McCabe. I worked in the shipyard, the Sun shipyard from 
December 1941 until August of 1944. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that when you went with the board of education 
as a teacher? 

Mr. McCabe. September 1944. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Wliere have you taught and what subjects have you 
taught since then? 

Mr. McCabe. Well, I taught at Arnold Elementary School for 
about 2 years and in February 1947 I started working in the junior 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3999 

high schools, working at Vaux for one term and in September 1947 I 
went to Sahsbin-y, where I am now teaching. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat subject or class do you teach? 

Mr. McCabe. I have been teaching general education for the most 
part. Now I teach social studies and English. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Social studies? Is that historv and English? 

Mr. McCabe. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. For what reason did you leave your employment with 
the department of public assistance? 

Mr. McCabe. Well, I left because I was offered a job with the 
United States Treasury Department that paid more. 

Air. KuNziG. Were you working for the department of public 
assistance at the time a group of alleged Communists were dismissed 
from the department, or did that come later? 

Mr. McCabe. Well, I did not know that any were dismissed. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you worked for the department of public assistance? 

Mr. McCabe. No, I was not. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. McCabe. No, I have not. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. McCabe, have you ever been active in working 
for the National Negro Congress? 

Mr. McCabe. Yes, I was. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Will you tell us something about your activity with 
that group? 

Did you laiow it was a Communist-crted front group? 

Mr. McCabe. I know it has been cited, but I was active in the 
congress from about 1938 and 1939. At that time it was not cited. 

Mr. KrNziG. What was your activity with the National Negro 
Congress? 

Mr. McCabe. I was the secretary for the congress for a part of the 
period. 

Mr. KuNziG. What were your responsibilities in your capacity 
as secretaiy? 

Mr. McCabe. To take the minutes of the meetings and help out 
in any way that I could w4tli the various activities that the congress 
conducted. 

Mr. KuNziG. W^as that in Philadelphia? 

Mr. McCabe. In Philadelphia only. 

Mr. KuNziG. In Philadelphia only? 

Mr. AIcCabe. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever been connected in any way with the 
International Workers' Order? 

Mr. McCabe. Well, in 1949, we bought a house and at that time 
the attorney that handled the settlement for us suggested that I 
ought to have a little more insurance because at that time I was not 
cariying veiy much, and I took out a policy which I carried ^^^th the 
International Workers' Order for about 6 montlis. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Were you ever a meml)er of the International 
Workers' Order, or was it just a connection with the insurance policy? 

Mr. McCabe. Just an insurance policy. 

Mr. KuNziG. Not membership? 

Mr. McCabe. No. 



4000 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. McCabe, one other thing we would like to ask 
3^ou to go into is this; would you describe in detail as to how you got 
this insurance you are referring to, the situation involving the Inter- 
national Workers' Order? Who recommended that to you? 

Mr. McCabe. The attorney. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you remember his name? 

Mr. McCabe. Yes, I can tell j^ou in a minute. Morris Shafritz. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that in Philadelphia? 

Mr. McCabe. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. He recommended you take out insurance with the 
International Workers' Order? 

Mr. McCabe. That is right. He at that time knew that I did not 
have too much money and it was cheaper insurance. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you ask the attorney for advice concerning where 
you should obtain insurance? 

Mr. McCabe. Well, he thought that I should — I did not ask him 
for advice, no, but since I was only carrying a little insurance and 
something might happen during the period in which I was buying the 
house it would be better to have the insurance. 

Mr. Walter. How long had you known this man? Had you 
known him for any period of time? 

Mr. McCabe. No, not too well. I had been associated with him 
during the da3^s I was with the Negro Congress. 

Mr. Walter. He was associated with the National Negro Congress? 

Mr. McCabe. He was one of the attorneys they worked with. 

Mr. Walter. You know, of course, that the International Workers' 
Order is a proscribed organization? It is a Communist-front 
organization. 

Mr. McCabe. Well, I heard that since. That is possibly one 
reason 

Mr. Walter. What we are interested in knowing from you is 
whether or not anybody in that proscribed organization took advan- 
tage of innocent people, dupes, where they got their lists of prospec- 
tive customers from the organization that you were connected with. 

Mr. McCabe. I wouldn't know that. 

Mr. Walter. Do you know whether or not there were other 
people solicited by this same lawyer? 

Mr. McCabe. No; I wouldn't. 

Mr. Walter. What was his name again? 

Mr. McCabe. Morris Shafritz. 

Mr. Walter. Where is his office? 

Mr. McCabe. He was in the City Center Building on North 
Broad Street. 

Mr. Walter. Was he an officer in the International Workers' 
Order Insurance Co.? 

Mr. McCabe. I think he might have been. He is now deceased. 

Mr. Walter. But you don't know whether or not that group took 
the lists of members of the organization that you were active in in 
order to solicit business for this Communist insurance company? 

Mr. McCabe. I wouldn't have any way of knowing that. 

Mr. Walter. That is all I have. 

Mr. KuNziG. The date you took this insurance and you did this 
was when, 1949, did you say? 

Mr. McCabe. It was about 1950, about the 15th of January, 
somewhere around there. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES ENT THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 4001 

Mr. KuNziG. Attorney General Francis Biddle listed this as early 
as 1942 as one of the strongest Communist organizations, and Attorney 
General Tom Clark listed it on his list of subversive groups in 1947. 

We are interested, since this was quite a period prior to the time 
you took the insurance, in whether you could give us any further 
information as to the workings of this group or in any way how you 
came to take the insurance? That is the sum total of your 
information? 

Mr. McCabe. That is the sum total of my information. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you still have your policy? 

Mr. McCabe. No, I only kept it up until about June. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you still have the policy itself, whether it is in 
force and effect or not? 

Mr. McCabe. No, the policy would not be in force. 

Mr. Scherer. I know it isn't in force and effect, but do you have 
possession of the actual policy that was issued, the piece of paper? 

Mr. McCabe. I might have, I don't laiow. 

Mr. Walter. If you have that piece of paper, will you mail it to 
us, please? 

Mr. McCabe. Yes. 

Mr. Walter. That is all I have. 

Mr. Scherer. Are there any more questions, Mr. Kunzig? 

Mr. Kunzig. No further questions. 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Kunzig. I call Sarah T. Crome. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give at this hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs, Crome. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SARAH T. CROME, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 

COUNSEL, A. HARRY LEVITAN 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you give your full name, please? 

Mrs. Crome. Sarah Crome. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is that Mrs. Crome? 

Mrs. Crome. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you state you full name, please, sir? 

Mr. Levitan. A. Harry Levi tan, 1412 Fox Building, Philadelphia 
3, Pa. 

Mr. Kunzig. You are Mrs. Crome's counsel? 

Mr. Levitan. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. What is your present address, Mrs. Crome? 

Mrs. Crome. Croydon, 49th and Locust Streets, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. It is very difficult to hear you. Did you say Croydon? 

Mrs. Crome. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. And where? 

Mrs. Crome. 49th and Locust Streets, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. What is your educational background, please, Mrs. 
Crome? 

Mrs. Crome. I was educated in the Philadelphia public schools 
and attended the Philadelphia High School for Girls, and then the 
University of Pennsylvania, where I was graduated. 



4002 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. What year did you graduate from the University of 
Pennsylvania? 

Mrs. Crome. 1932. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you tell us of your employment background? 

Mrs. Crome. I came to the board of pubhc education first as an 
attendance officer and then after taking an examination was assigned 
as a mathematics teacher at the Shore Junior High School where I 
was rated satisfactory, and then given an appointment to teach mathe- 
matics at the Lincoln High School in Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat do you teach now? 

Mrs. Crome. I am presently employed in teaching at the Abraham 
Lincoln High School in Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What is your maiden name, Mrs. Crome? 

Mrs. Crome. Tulchinsky. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Have you ever used any other names besides Tul- 
chinsky, Mrs. Crome? 

Mrs. Crome. I decline to answer that question and invoke the 
privilege of the fifth amendment in so doing. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You mean that to answer a question as to whether or 
not you used any aliases of any kind would tend to incriminate you? 

Mrs. Crome. It might possibly tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Have you ever used the name Tillem? 

Mrs. Crome. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Have you ever used the name Toland? 

Mrs. Crome. I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment in 
refusing to answer that question. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever used the name Tullen? 

Airs. Crome. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you ever work for the department of public 
assistance? 

Mrs. Crome. It is a matter of public record that I worked at the 
department of public assistance. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And isn't it a fact that you were dismissed from the 
departme.it of public assistance back in 1941? 

Mrs. Crome. I respectfully decline to answer that question, invoking 
my privilege under the fift amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Well now, I will hand you a copy of a newspaper 
story, which lists, under a photograph of various employees of the 
department of public assistance, a list of the dismissed workers, 
dismissed by the county boaid of public assistance, and on this list is 
Mrs. Sarah Crome of 4935 North 16th Street. 

Let me ask you first did you ever live at 4935 North 16th Street? 

Mrs. Crome. I lived up in that area. I am sorry it has been a 
good number of years, and I do not recall the exact address. 

Air. KuNziG. I will hand you this document and ask you are you 
the Mrs. Crome referred to there, listed there as having been dismissed 
by the Philadelphia Board of County Assistance on subversive 
charges? 

Mrs. Crome. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment to 
decline to answer that question. 

Air. KuNziG. We have sworn testimon}^. Airs. Crome, that you 
were a member of the Communist Party in January 1942. Have you 
ever been a member of the Communist Party? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 4003 

Mrs. Crome. Gentlemen, the Constitution of the United States, 
which I revere, guarantees me the right of free speech, free opinion, 
free association, and I consider it an infringement of my rights under 
the Constitution to ask questions about my associations or opinions. 

Mr. Walter. One thing it does not guarantee, and you are probably 
under the misapprehension, and that is participation in any conspiracy 
to overthrow the Government of the United States. That is not 
guaranteed. That doesn't come within the provisions mth respect 
to freedom of speech. 

Mrs. Crome. Are you accusing me of a crime, sir? 

If so, I would like the guarantees provided in a court procedure. 
You are placing me in that position without giving me those 
guarantees. 

Mr. Walter. Well, I am certainly very sorry if I have. Are you a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Crome. I am not a member. 

Mr. Walter. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Crome. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments, as I have previously stated. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you take the Pennsylvania loyalty oath? 

Mrs. Crome. I did. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you took that oath? 

Mrs. Crome. I was not. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party the 
day before you took that oath? 

Mrs. Crome. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. I feel it is an infringement of my 
rights as an American. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you resign from the Communist Party the day 
before you took the oath so that you would not be prosecuted? 

Mrs. Crome. I decline to answer that question for the same 
reasons that I have stated. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you attended any Communist Party meetings 
since you took the oath? 

Mrs. Crome. I don't know what you call Communist meetings, 
sir, and therefore I decline to answer that question, using the privilege 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever taught in a Philadelphia School of 
Social Sciences and Arts at 1704 Walnut Street? 

Mrs. Crome. I decline to answer that question, invoking the 
privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that a cited organization? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, sir; this was cited as an adjunct to the Com- 
munist Party b}^ Attorney General Tom Clark in 1947. 

Mrs. Crome. I understand that the Supreme Court said that the 
Attorney General has no right to list organizations unless those 
organizations have been heard. 

Mr. Walter. In what case was that decision? 

Mrs. Crome. I cannot cite the case. May I ask my attorney? 

Mr. Walter. Yes. 

(At this point Mrs. Crome conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 



4004 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mrs. Crome. Joint Anti-Fascist Committee against McGrath 
(341 U.S.). I am sorry, I am not familiar with the legal names involved. 

Mr. KuNziG. Since you say that the Attorney General has no right 
to list these groups, then why don't you testify now freely and honestly 
whether you ever taught at that school. 

Mrs. Crome. The situation is such and the hysteria is such that 
any answer I may give to any such question may possibly tend to 
incriminate me, and I feel it is an infringement upon my right to 
answer any such question. 

Mr. KuNziG. It is not hysteria to ask you a simple question as to 
whether you have ever been a member of the Communist Party, and 
it is not hysteria to ask a question as to whether you have lived under 
aliases. You are a school teacher in the city of Philadelphia. Have 
you ever used the false names, different names than the name you went 
under as a teacher? 

Mrs. Crome. I am a loyal American citizen. I feel I am a compe- 
tent school teacher. I have been rated satisfactory. I have been told 
by my superiors that my work is satisfactory. My relationship with 
my students has been satisfactory, as well as other personnel in the 
school. I feel I have carried through my responsibility well and 
adequately and that is where my obligation lies. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do your superiors know that you lived under aliases. 

Mrs. Crome. I decline to answer that question, invoking the privi- 
lege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do your students and fellow teachers know that you 
lived under aliases? 

Mrs. Crome. I decline to answer that question, invoking the privi- 
lege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Where were you born? 

Mrs. Crome. I was born in Czarist Russia and came here or was 
brought here at the age of 1 year, I should say. I might say at this 
point in reference to Representative Walter's previous comment, 
that I certainly did not like to hear that because my parents left 
Czarist Russia to get away from religious, political, and economic 
oppression and persecution. They came here to find freedom, and 
they have told me stories of experiences and what they saw, what they 
heard, and what they experienced, and they taught me to revere 
freedom and liberty such as is guaranteed under our Constitution, and 
I would certainly resent any reflection upon them or upon the entire 
group. 

Mr. Walter. What I said w^as not intended to be a reflection upon 
your parents, and as I stated at that time it was not intended to be 
a reflection upon any of the millions of fine people from all over the 
world that have made this Republic of ours as strong as it is; and I am 
sure that those kinds of people resent what you are doing here just as 
much as I do. 

Mrs. Crome. I believe those kinds of people as well as 

Mr. Walter. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr, KuNziG. No further questions. 

Mr. Scherer. The witness is excused. 

Mr. KuNziG, I call Mrs. Fulchon. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer left the hearing room at this 
point.) 



COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 4005 

Mr. Walter. Will you raise your right hand? Do you solemnly 
swear that the testimony you will give before this subcommittee w^ill 
be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mrs. FuLCHON. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CELESTINE FULCHON 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your full name, please, Mrs. Fulchon? 

Mrs. Fulchon. I would be happy to state my full name. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Will you please do it. 

Mr, Fulchon. I am very proud of my family background. 

Mr. Walter. I am sure you are. 

Mrs. Fulchon. I am one of the Potts of Penns3dvania. My name 
is Ceiestine Fulchon. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is that Miss or Mrs.? 

Mrs. Fulchon. Mrs. 

Mr. Kunzig. What is your present address? 

Mrs. Fulchon. 4859 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Kunzig. I note that you are not accompanied by counsel. 

Mrs. Fulchon. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you know your rights to have counsel? 

Mrs. Fulchon. I do. 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you now desire to testify without counsel? 

Mrs. Fulchon. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. What is your educational background, Mrs. Fulchon? 

Mrs. Fulchon. I was educated in the public schools of Philadelphia 
and attended West Philadelphia High School and Philadelphia Normal 
School, and the University of Pennsjdvania. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you graduate from the University of 
Pennsylvania? 

Mrs. Fulchon. No, I took courses there. 

Mr. Kunzig. When did you graduate from normal school? 

Mrs. Fulchon. In 1922. 

Mr. Kunzig. Where have you taught in the public schools of 
Philadelphia? 

Mrs. Fulchon. I have taught in the Martha Washington, and at 
present I am teaching at the Charles Richard Drew School. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party, Mrs. Fulchon? 

Mrs. Fulchon. I have not. 

Mr. Kunzig. What were your activities with the National Negro 
Congress, Mrs. Fulchon? 

Mrs. Fulchon. I cannot give you the exact dates, but you can 
date this when President Roosevelt declared we were the arsenal of 
democracy. It is true in Philadelphia there were no Negroes working 
in labor industry and when the National Negro Congress started a 
jobs campaign, I worked on the jobs campaign to get Negroes into 
industry in Philadelphia. 

I also taught first aid in the National Negro Congress. 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you have any idea what period of time that was? 

Mrs. Fulchon. No, I worked until the President issued his Execu- 
tive order that if you took Government money you could not 
discriminate. 



4006 COMMUNIST ACTIVITTES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

There was no need after that for a jobs campaign. 

Mr. KuNziG. You don't know the period of time that you were as- 
sociated with the National Negro Congress? 

Mrs. FuLCHON. No, I don't know the exact time. Wlien he issued 
the order, that is when. It was during the war. 

Mr. Walter. We beheve that the balance of the information we 
seek from you should be obtained in executive session. If you don't 
mind coming to the office of Mr. Kunzig this afternoon, we would 
appreciate it. 

Mrs. FuLCHON. At what time and where? 

Mr. Walter. It is in room 226 in this building, one floor below this 
room, at 2 o'clock this afternoon. Would that be convenient? 

Mrs. Fulchon. I will still be here. 

Mr. Walter. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Kunzig. I call Mrs. Mahaney. 

Mr. Walter. Do you solemnly swear that vou will tell the truth, 
the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Mahaney. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ADELINE L. MAHANEY, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 

COUNSEL, A. HARRY LEVITAN 

Mr. Kunzig. wState your full name, please. 

Mrs. Mahaney. Mrs. Adeline L. Mahaney. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would comisel please state his name. 

Mr, Levitan. A. Harry Levitan, 1412 Fox Building, Philadelphia 
3, Fa. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Mahaney, would you give us your present 
address? 

Mrs. Mahaney. Mr. Kunzig, I think it is a matter of record, but 
I would rather not have it in the newspapers, because people who 
have given their addresses have received threats and I have a 78-year- 
old mother whom I don't want to subject to any such threats. 

Mr. Walter. It is in the record. 

Mr. Kunzig. What is your educational background? 

Mrs. Mahaney. I went to Frankford High School, where your 
father taught. I went to the same Presbyterian church and Sunday 
school as you did. 

Mr. Kunzig. Just answer the question. I know all these facts 
very well. 

Mrs. Mahaney. I graduated with a scholarship from the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania and I graduated from the University of Penn- 
sylvania cum laude with a membership in Pi Lambda Theta. 

Mr. Kunzig. What has been your employment background? 

Mrs. Mahaney. I was employed 1 year in Myrna, Del. in the 
high school there and then my mother was there and I came home 
and I studied for the Philadelphia teachers' examination. I passed 
No. 1 on the hst and was appointed to Theodore Roosevelt Junior 
High School, and have been there ever since. 

Mr. Kunzig. What do you teach there? 

Mrs. Mahaney. French. 

Mr. Kunzig. To get the record straight, you are the former wife 
of the witness who was before this committee yesterday? 

Mrs. Mahaney. That was stated in the paper yesterday. 



COMAIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 4007 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that correct? Just answer my question. 

Mrs. Mahaney. Could I ask you this, please? 

Mr. KuNziG. I am asking, please. 

Mrs. Mahaney. It has been 

Mr. KuNZiG. I am asking the questions, please. 

Mr. Chairman, I will ask the witness to please stop making speeches. 

Mr. Walter. Yes. 

Mrs. Mahaney. I want to know why my name was in the paper 
when the Velde committee said that they would not publish in advance 
the names of witnesses. 

Mr. KuNziG. I shall now ask you: Have you ever been a member 
of the Communist Party? 

]Mrs. Mahaney. And I shaU be very glad to tell you what I am going 
to tell you. 

In 1946, to the best of my knowledge, I went to a meeting. It was 
an open meeting, anybody went. The doors were open. There was 
nothing secret about it. It was not a meeting of the Communist 
Party. It was a meeting of the political association. 

Mr. KuNziG. Meeting of what, the Communist Political Associa- 
tion? 

Mrs. Mahaney. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. So you are saying now that you did attend a meeting 
of the Communist Political Association? 

Mrs. Mahaney. Yes. 

Air. Kunzig. I am asking you whether you ever have been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Mahaney. To go on from there, I attended maybe a very few 
meetings. 

Mr. Kunzig. A very few meetings? 

Mrs. Mahaney. Yes. I became involved in personal problems- 
and I ceased to go to the meetings. 

Air. Kunzig. I will ask you the question again, Have you ever been 
a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Mahaney. I suppose if you would consider that being a 
member of the Communist Political Association 

Mr. Kunzig. And in what j^ears were these? 

Airs. AIahaney. This was in 1946, to the best of my knowledge. 

Air. Kunzig. Isn't it about that time that the Communist Political 
Association turned again to the Communist Party? 

Airs. AIahaney. Turned again? 

Mr. Kunzig. The Communist Political Association, it became 
again the Communist Party. Whatever it was, you went to the 
meeting. 

Mrs. Mahaney. I believe there was a change of names, yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you ever have a membership book in the party, 
the Communist Party? 

Mrs. AIahaney. Never to my knowledge, I never had such a book. 

Air. Kunzig. Do you know that you were listed as a member of 
the North Philadelphia group of section 8 of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Mahaney. I did not know anything about any sections, or 
anything. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Mahaney, isn't it a fact that you attended 
meetings at the home of the Foxes, Mr. and Mrs. Fox? 



4008 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mrs. Mahaney. Mr. Kunzig, I feel that I cannot talk about any- 
body else. I think it is un-American to mention anybody's name at 
all. 

Mr. Kunzig, Well now, you have said that jou were attending 
these meetings and that you were a member of the party. I am now 
asking you who else you knew to be members of the party. I am 
asking you whether you knew that Mr. Sidney Fox and Mrs. Geneive 
Fox were members of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Mahaney. I said that I would not talk about anybody else 
but myself. I will talk about myself. 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you know Ade]e Margolis? 

Mrs. Mahaney. Do I know her? 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes; that is my question. 

Mrs. Mahaney. I know an Adele Margolis. I know who she is. 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you know Adele Margolis to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Mahaney. I did not. 

Mr. Kunzig. You did not? Is that your answer? 

Mrs. Mahaney. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. What other members of the Communist Party at- 
tended meetings with you? 

Mrs. Mahaney. Mr. Kunzig, I have already said that I think it is 
wrong for anybody to become a common informer. 

Mr. Walter. Informer, is that the word you used? 

Mrs. Mahaney. That is right. 

Mr. Walter. WTiat do you mean by that? 

Mrs. Mahaney. I mean telling on other people who had been doing 
something, if somebody ever had attended a meeting. At the meet- 
ing there was never any talk of overthrowing of government or con- 
spiracy or violence or anything of that sort. 

Mr. Walter. WTio invited you to attend your first meeting? How 
did you happen to go to it? 

Mrs. Mahaney. I have already said, Mr. Walter, that I will not 
talk about other people. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request that the witness 
be directed to answer the question as to what other members of the 
Communist Party she knew during her period of membership. 

Mr. Walter. I won't direct the witness to answer the question. I 
think that is just a lot of talk. Wliat difference does it make whether 
she is du'ccted to answer a question or is asked a question and doesn't 
answer it? It means nothing. She refuses to answer the question. 

Do you refuse to answer that question? 

Mrs. Mahaney. I have already said that I would not. 

Mr. Walter. Will you repeat the question, Mr. Kunzig? 

Mr. Kunzig. I will repeat the question. Would jou please name 
the other members of the Communist Party whom you knew attend- 
ing the meeting with you to be membere of the Party? 

Mrs. Mahaney. Mr. Kunzig, I tell my children in school not to tell 
on other children unless there is a question involved 

Mr. Walter. That is not responsive. 

Mrs. Mahaney. Unless there is a question involving something 
which is wrong for the whole situation, criminally involved. 

Mr. Kunzig. And you do not think it is wrong to be a member of 
the Communist Party; do you? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 4009 

Mrs. Mahaney. I do that. 

Mr. KuNziG. You did not think it was wrong when you were a 
member? 

Mrs. Mahaney. There is nothing wrong about it. That was an 
open meeting. 

Mr. KuNZiG. This was in 1946. 

Mrs, Mahaney. We had just finished a war where our ally was 
Russia. 

Mr. Walter. Let us not go into all this. We understand that. 
Answer the question. 

Mrs. Mahaney. I beg your pardon. Will you repeat the question? 

Mr. Walter. Answer the question. 

Mrs. Mahaney. Do I think it is wrong? 

Mr. Walter. No. Answer the question as to who attended these 
meetings. 

Mrs. Mahaney. I said I would not answer that. 

Mr. Walter. Go ahead, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mrs. Mahaney. I would like to state for the record that my 
ancestors came from England and Scotland. There was a little 
French thrown in there, and they have been in this country for 
hundreds of years. 

Mr. Walter. All this was prompted by what I said. The next 
thing you know somebody will charge me with being anti-Russian. 

Mr. Kunzig. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Walter. The committee stands adjourned, 

(Whereupon, at 12:32 p. m., the hearing was adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Anton, Benjamin 3996 

August, Bernard 3976, 3987-3990 (testimony) 

Biddle, Francis 4001 

Childs, Lucille Tommy 3981 

Clark, Tom 4001, 4003 

Crome, Sarah T 3986, 4001-4005 (testimony) 

Dorfman, Philip 3991-3994 

Dubin, Harrv 3978, 3979 

Fleet, Eleanor 3981 

Fox. Geneive 4007, 4008 

Fox, Sidney 4007, 4008 

Fulchon, Celestine 4005-4005 (testimony) 

Fimn, Dorothy 3991 

Gaylburd, Helen 3981 

Geislman, Paul 3988 

Grossman, Mary Foley 3993,3994-3997 (testimony) 

Holmes, Ollie 3981 

Hoyer, Dr 3988 

Intille, Angelina 3981 

Jacobs, Leonora, C 3973-3976 (testimony^ 

Jennings 3989, 3995 

Jones, Claudia 3980 

Kaufman , Herman 3996 

Laboyitz, Sherman 3983 

Levitan, A. Harry 3973-3990, 3994-3997, 4001-4009 

Mahanev, Adeline L_ 4006-4009 (testimony) 

Margolis, Adele_._ 4008 

McCabe, William Rudolph 3997,3998-4001 (testimony) 

M verson, Adolph 3996 

Pechan 3985, 3986 

President Rooseyelt 4005 

Rosenberg, EtheL. 3981, 3982 

Rosenberg, Julius 3981, 3982 

Schneiderman, Minnie Jessie 3981 

Shafritz, Morris. 4000 

Slager, Nathan_. 3996 

Soler, Esther, . 3981 

Stensky, Bessie... 3976-3987 (testimony) 

Tillem, Sarah. {See Crome, Sarah T.) 
Toland, Sarah. (See Crome, Sarah T.) 
Tulchinsky, Sarah. (See Crome, Sarah T.) 
Tullen. Sarah. {See Crome, Sarah T.) 

Walsh, Sarah T___ 3996 

Watson, Goldie E . . 3976, 3990, 3991-3994 (testimony) 

Williamson, John. 3981 

Organizations 

Abraham Lincoln High School, Philadelphia 4002 

American Federation of Labor 3990, 3995 

Arnold Elementary School, Philadelphia 3998 

Branch 8-A of section 8 of the Communist Party of eastern Pennsylvania 

and Delaware 3974 

4011 



4012 INDEX 

Page 

Charles Richard Drew School, Philadelphia 4005 

City of Philadelphia, Department of Public Assistance 3983 

Civil Rights Congress 3980, 9381, 3997 

Columbia University 3994 

Communist Party 3974, 

3975, 3978-3981, 3983, 3986, 3988, 3989, 3991-3993, 
3995-3997, 3999, 4002, 4003, 4005, 4007, 4008. 

Communist Party of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware 3997 

Communist Party of Philadelphia 3977, 3982 

Communist Political Association 3997, 4007 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 3990 

Department of Public Assistance, Pennsylvania 3977 

Drexel Institute 3994 

Freedom Crusade 3981 

Germantown section, old section 10, district 3 of the Communist Party __ 3981 

Gratz High School (Philadelphia) 3987 

International Workers' Order 3999, 4000 

In-town group of section 8 of the Communist Party (Philadelphia) 3975 

Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee 4004 

Logan-Olney section of the Communist Party of the Sixth Congressional 

District of eastern Pennsylvania 3983 

Martha Washington Public School (Philadelphia) 3991, 4005 

National Negro Congress 3992, 3999, 4005, 4006 

Northeast Club of the Communist Party, Philadelphia 3988 

North Philadelphia Branch of the Communist Party 3989 

Olney High School in Philadelphia 3987 

Philadelphia Association for Retarded Children 3978 

Philadelphia Board of Education 3974, 3984 

Philadelphia Board of County Assistance 4002 

Philadelphia Committee to Secure Justice for the Rosenbergs 3981-3983 

Philadelphia Council of American-Soviet Friendship 3981 

Philadelphia Council of Arts, Sciences, and Professions 3981 

Philadelphia Normal School 3976, 3991, 3998, 4005 

Philadelphia School of Social Science and Arts 3997, 4003 

Shore Junior High School (Philadelphia) 4002 

South Philadelphia High Schools for Girls (Philadelphia) 3974 

State Teachers College, Chaney 3998 

Sun Shipyard 3998 

Teachers Union 3995 

Teachers Union of Philadelphia 3989 

Temple University 3976 

Theodore Roosevelt Junior High School 4006 

Tom Paine School 3988 

United States Immigration and Naturahzation Service 3980 

United States Treasury Department 3998, 3999 

University of Pennsylvania 3973, 

3974, 3987, 3991, 3994, 3998, 4001, 4002, 4005, 4006 

University of Southern California 3976 

Vare Junior High School, Philadelphia 3994 

Vaux School (Philadelphia) 3999 

Works Progress Administration 3976, 3998