(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the Los Angeles, Calif., area. Hearings"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA— Part 4 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



JULY 1 AND 2, 1955 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

001311955 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE! 
66500 WASHINGTON : 1955 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Thomas W. Bbalk^ Sr., Chief Clerk 
n 



CONTENTS 



Part 1 

June 27, 1955: Testimony of — Page 

Paul Wright Orr 1 440 

Aft^ernoon session: 

Andries Deinum 1 474 

Anita Bell Schneider 1498 

June 28, 1955: Testimony of — 

Angela Clarke 1523 

Cecil Beard 1538 

Diamond Kim 1543 

Afternoon session: 

Diamond Kim (resumed) 1565 

Sue Lavvson 1572 

George Hugh Murray Maitland Hardyman 1575 

Part 2 
June 29, 1955: Testimony of — 

George Hugh Murray Maitland Hardyman (resumed) 1599 

Raphael Konigsberg 1656 

Afternoon session: 

Sylvia Schonfield 1668 

Jean Wilkinson 1676 

Frank C. Davis 1 679 

Irene B. Bowerman 1689 

Carl Sugar 1 697 

Part 3 
June 30, 1955: Testimonj^ of — 

Matthe'rt^ Samuel Vidaver, Jr 1707 

William Elconin 1713 

William Ward Kimple 1731 

Afternoon session: 

William Ward Kimple (resumed) 1742 

Max Benjamin Natapoff 1761 

Tashia Freed 1764 

Max Appleman 1 768 

Joseph W. Aidlin 1771 

Part 4 

July 1, 1955: Testimony of— 

Stephen A. Wereb 1779 

Afternoon session: 

Stephen A. Wereb (resumed) 1811 

James Burford 1827 

Anne Pollock 1837 

Margaret Vaughn Mever _ 1844 

July 2, 1955: Testimony of— 

Stephen A. Wereb (resumed) 1851 

Jolm Waters Houston I860 

Harry Hay 1872 

Martha Hard Wheeldin 1875 

Louis Stark 1882 

Robert L. Brock 1889 

Index I 

rn 



Public Law 601, 79tii Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assemhled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-Ameriean Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Connnittee on Un-American Activities, as a wliole, or by subcom- 
mittee, is authorized to malve from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hokl such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such cliairmau or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolutiou 5, January 5, 1955 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the eoimuenceiuent of each Congress, 
the following standing committees : 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS A>"D DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session ) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigati<ni, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any mem- 
ber designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person designated by 
any such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA— Part 4 



FBIDAY, JULY 1, 1955 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Los Angeles^ Calif. 

public hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 9 : 40 a. m., pursuant to recess, in room 518, Federal Building, Los 
Angeles, Calif., Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman of the subcommittee) 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Clyde Doyle (chair- 
man) ; Morgan M. Moulder, Donald L. Jackson, and Gordon H. 
Scherer. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, counsel; and William 
A. Wheeler, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will please convene. 

Mr. Wereb, will you please rise and be sworn. Do you solemnly 
swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God % 

Mr. Wereb. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF STEPHEN A. WEEEB 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you state your name, please sir. 

Mr. Wereb. Stephen A. Wereb. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are not accompanied by counsel. 
You are familiar with the rule of the committee, are you not, that you 
are entitled to counsel if you so desire % 

Mr. Wereb. I am, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your name, please. 

Mr. Wereb, W-e-r-e-b. 

Mr. Tavenner, When and where were you born, Mr. Wereb ? 

Mr. Wereb. I was born at Alpha, N, J., April 27, 1898, 

Mr. Tay-enner. Do you presently reside in Los Angeles County ? 

Mr. Wereb. I do, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you resided in Los Angeles County ? 

Mr. Wereb. Thirty- five years, sir, 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been? 

Mr. Wereb. I have had grade-school education, high-school educa- 
tion, and I have had 1 year of business and business administration 
at the University of Pennsylvania, 

1779 



1780 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr, Tavenner. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Wereb. At the present time I own and operate the Weber Type- 
writer Service. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had occasion in the past to be employed 
by any investigative branch of the Federal Government ? 

Mr. Wereb. I have, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of that employment ? 

Mr. Wereb. I worked for the Federal Bureau of Investigation as 
an undercover agent. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, how it happened 
that you were employed in that capacity ? 

Mr. Wereb. My attention first to subversive talks, literature, activi- 
ties, was drawn by leaflets, speeches, and aggressiveness and the pro- 
Russian attitude of certain people along my stops, and this alarmed me 
to such an extent that 1 took the necessary steps to inquire further, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by saying "along your stops"? 

Mr. Wereb. During my work at the Typewriter Service, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to your being employed by the Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation, had you been affiliated in any manner with the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. I had not, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you testified prior to today on the subject of 
communism ? 

Mr. Wereb. I have, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what courts or before what bodies did you 
testify ? 

Mr. Wereb. I have testified at the Smith Act trials of Schneider- 
man V. the United States Government in 1953, I believe, and then I 
appeared before this committee in San Diego last year. 

Mr. Tav'enner. That was for a limited purpose at San Diego, I 
believe. 

Mr. Wereb. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did not at that time testify generally about 
your knowledge of Communist Party activities in the Los Angeles 
County area ? 

Mr. Wereb. I did not. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. As a result of being employed by the Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation, did you seek admission to the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. I did, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of what appears to be 
a Communist Party card. Will you identify it, please ? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Wereb. Tliis was my membership book in the Hawthorne group 
of the Communist Party in 1944. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it issued to you by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. It was issued to me by the membership director at that 
time, one Vernon L. Potter, at my home, who identified himself as the 
membership chairman of that group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the card and state whether or not 
it shows the name of the person who was the owner of the book ? 

Mr. Wereb. It does. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the name ? 

Mr. Wereb. S. A. Weber. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1781 

Mr. Tavenner. S. A. Weber ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your name is Wereb ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that your party name ? 

Mr. Wereb. It was used during my membership in the party, but 
this name has been published in the Daily News — not the Daily News, 
but the I^gal Daily, for the purpose of doing business under the name 
of Weber Typewriter Service and it was at the behest and suggestion 
of some of my accounts. Therefore, I took legal steps to change it to 
that only doing business. 

Mr. Tavenner. But that is the name in the Communist Party by 
which you registered ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct ; they never knew my real name. 

Mr, Tavenner. During what period of time did you work within the 
Communist Party for the Federal Bureau of Investigation? 

Mr. Wereb. Approximately from October of 1943 until the 1st of 
January or thereabouts of 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. "^Vliat prompted you to undertake an assignment of 
that character? 

Mr. Wereb. Well, sir, my people came from Europe — they came 
from a place of oppression — and I was born here and I just could not 
quite understand the stories that I heard from immigrants and other 
people who have taken refuge here, what a wonderful place this is, 
and how anyone could attempt to use force or violence to try to over- 
throw or even subversion to overthrow this type of government, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. That motivated you in undertaking this difficult 
assignment ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the course of these years which you gave to 
work Avithin the Communist Party, did you find it to be a difficult 
assignment and one which influenced your life during that period of 
time ? 

Mr. Wereb. The only influence I have ever had with my associa- 
tion — that is, through the association of the Communist Party— was a 
greater love that I have for the country, because of their teaching, of 
their unacceptable philosophy, of their impossible attitude, and the 
continuous mistrust of one another — the revolutionary tendencies. In 
other words, if I did have, shall we say, such a thought as a progressive 
thought ever in my bones, which I don't believe I ever had, that cer- 
tainly would have cured me. 

Mr. Tavi:nner. In what sense do you use the term "progressive"? 

Mr. Wereb. I mean that as the Communist Party uses it. There are 
times that it is more applicable to use that you are a progressive rather 
than a Communist, wherever the case may fit. For instance, if you 
are an active person in the union, they do not exactly relish the idea 
of you standing out there as a Communist but they would rather have 
you there as a "progressive" person ; or if you are active in any politics 
of any kind, they try and avert the Communist apx)roach from any- 
thingj but what they try to do is use the words "progressive," "demo- 
cratic," "democracy." They drag that around just like a dirty rug. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there anything of significance that occurred 
within a few months prior to the time you actually became a member 
of the Communist Party in carrying out your assignment which would 
be of value to the committee ? 



1782 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Wereb. Just the sort of an explanation of how hard it is to get 
into this o;roup. In other words, I tried wholeheartedly, I attended 
every function advertised in the Peoples Daily World and everywhere 
where I might have met some of these "progressive" people, I have 
attended every function and it took me 

Mr. Tavenner. In using the term "progressive," are you using it in 
quotation marks? 

Mr. Wereb. In quotation marks — still the same men, still the same 
answer as in the previous answer, sir. I tried my very best, visited 
book stores at that time known as the progressive book shop, and there 
Marxist literature of all types was to be had; guides as to how to be a 
good Communist; Lenin's works, Stalin's works, and I managed to 
read up on those the best I could until I was finally api^roached to join 
the party at one of the functions, but it was a 3-month chore. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, who it was that 
approaclied you to interest 3'ou in becoming a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. In the month of January in 1944 a Wilhelmina ]Maise, 
whom I knew for a long time as a functionary and as one of the full- 
time workers at the Peoples Daily World, approached me and signed 
me up for the Communist Party. 

Mr. Taa-enner. Is the proper spelling of the name M-a-i-s-e? 

Mr. Wereb. That is as far as I can remember, sir. 

]\rr. Tavenner. Will you proceed to describe what occurred. 

Mr. Wereb. At this party tliere were approximately two to three 
liundrecl people present. It was held at 2200 West Seventh Street 
and it was held by the West Lake group, at that time known as the 
West Lake Club of the Communist Party. They had a lot of drink- 
ing, they had an affair called their social. It Avas a celebration of an 
officers' installation. At that time Willamena Maise was also installed 
as the cliairman of the West Lake group. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Who was it that actually gave you your Communist 
Party card, the photostatic copy of which I exhibited to you? 

]Mr. Wereb. A person known to me by the name of Vernon L. Potter 
came to my home and I identified myself and he identified himself as 
the membership chairman of the Hawtliorne Communist group, and 
he gave me my meml^ership card and also my first assignment. 

Mr. Taatix^x'er. What was that assignment? 

Mr. Wereb. INIy first assignment was, sir, to attend a function known 
also as an installation affair at the home of one John and Georgiana 
Garrish. I tliink the address — I am not sure of the number, but it 
was on Paseo de Gracia in Redondo. 

Mr. Tavex'ner. What is the spelling? 

Mr. Wereb. G-a-r-r-i-s-h. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. That is the party's name? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavex'ner. Was anj^ security measure taken to ascertain your 
future reliability by the Communist Party at the time you entered the 
Communist Party, or was any such security measure taken at a later 
date? 

Mr. Wereb. Security measures of that type were taken at a later 
date. I was closely watched and sent to workers' school the first time 
before I was integrated into the party. 

Mr. Taa-enner. Will you state again briefly what this first assign- 
ment was ? 



COMMUNIST ACTH'ITIES IX THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1783 

Mr. Werer. This first assignment was for me to attend this inaugu- 
ration affair on Paseo de Gracia at the liome of Cxarrisli, and there the 
neAY elected or — well. I Avonld not say elected, but dictated officers of 
the club were introduced. I imagine there were 40 or 45 people there. 
At that time I did not know too many, but I did identify ^>rnon 
Potter. John Houston, the Garrish family, and Juanita Smith. I do 
not recall at the ]5resent time any more names that I would remember 
because that was my first alfair. 

At this party, of course after tlie introductions finally, a man by 
the name of John Houston was introduced, brought out from one of 
the side rooms, and he came in and they introduced him as the chair- 
man, the new chairman of the Hawthorne-lnglewood Connuunist 

]Mr. Tavenner. Tliis was a meeting of the Hawthorne grou]) of the 
Commnnist Party '. 

Mr. Wereb. That is right, sir. There was no official meeting known 
fis — like the other meetings that consist of Marxist class or an educa- 
tional period. There was no educational period but there were some 
guessing games played such as what Lenin did and who Engels was, 
and then they gave" prizes, maybe, of a sandwich or «o or gave you a 
little extra pamphlet if you liad the right answers. I had no answers 
because I did not know anything about them. Then there was this 
man Houston. When he was introduced to the crowd of 50 people or 
40 people, he expressed his feeling of gratitude to the crowd and stated 
at that time that if we had been reading the papers, liussia at that 
time was divided into 16 separate countries and if we worked hard 
t^nough in the United States of America, we — that is, the Commu- 
nists—we could make this country the 17th state or country of the 
Soviet Union. 

Mr. Tavexner. Do you recall liis first Jiame. Houston's first name? 

Mr. Wereb. John. 

Mr. Tavexner. Did you become well acquainted with ^Ir. Houst(m 
i]i your future connection Avith the Hawthorne Group of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. We became personal acquaintaneces. sir. I met him on 
the average of. oh. I would say, 3 times a month or sometimes 5 times 
a month. It would all depend on the assignments and the meetings 
that we held. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask a question here, please. 

You mean that right here in Hawthorne and Los Angeles County, 
Hawthorne being, as I remember it — maybe it is ])art of the city limits 
of Los Angeles now ; I don't know. But I know it is right next door to 
the city limits of Los Angeles on the south. You mean right t'nere 
in our midst this man was preaching and advocating that your Com- 
munist cell work hard toward the objective of making the United 
States of America the 17th state of the Soviet LTnion ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. It is not a laughing matter, I am sure, for folks who may 
be in the room ; nothing funny about it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were we going to get a star ? 

Mr. Wereb. I do not know. sir. No star was mentioned. 

Mr. Doyle. How many would be at a meeting like that ? 

Mr. Wereb. At that meeting I believe there were 40 or 50 people, but 
outside of the names I have alreadv called, I could not identifv more 



1784 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF,, AREA 

because I did not know any more. That was my first function and first 
assignment. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you know at what level of authority in the Com- 
munist Party Houston came from ? 

Mr. Wereb. He was a chairman, and to become a chairman of any 
Communist group you must liave the a]:)proval of the county officers 
and the county officers usually know and aj^prove all candidates. For 
instance, at one time I was elected a membership director but the 
county kind of did not think that was the proper thing to do, so 
they unelected me very quickly within 2 months. In other words, 
I was not given any records at that time of any members or member- 
ship. I was not given any authority like the other membership direc- 
tors had, and there w^as nothing done at club level that was not dic- 
tated by the county Communist Party. 

Mr. JDoYLE. How did you know they unelected you? Did they tell 
you so ? 

Mr. Wereb. Well, yes, sir; I believe I was told that Edith Smith, 
who has been the membership director up until that time, would be 
the ])roper person for that job. I was not directly told, but I was not 
trusted; but I could read between the lines that — well, they were not 
sure. 

Mr. Doyle. How old a man would you estimate this fellow Houston 
to be that was speaking apparently with the authority of the Com- 
munist County Committee in Los Angeles County when he said the 
objective was to work to have the United States of America the l7th 
state of the Soviet Union ? How old a man would he be ? 

Mr, Wereb, I would say at that time approximately 36 to 38 years 
old. 

Mr. DoYLE. He was not a child, then, and he was not in his dotage ? 

Mr. Wereb. No, sir. He was a well-educated man. 

Mr. Doyle. In this meeting room at Inglewood, the Communist 
Club or cell where it met, what decorations did they have so far as 
pictures, if any, of people or — of course, they had the flag of the 
United States up, did they not? 

Mr. Wereb. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle, They did not? 

Mr. Wereb. No, sir. This was at a home of Mr, and Mrs, Garrish. 

Mr. Doyle, Did you ever see a flag of the United States at any 
Communist cell meeting? 

Mr. Wereb. I believe at one time at the Embassy Auditorium they 
had one underneath the balcony in a little hidden corner, but it was a 
flag that was small and there were so many large Communist posters 
up that you certainly would have to be a trickster to see the American 
flag. 

Mr, Doyle. What kind of posters were up ? 

Mr, Wereb, Money drives for membership and money drives for 
defense, money drives for fighting different CongTessmen. 

Mr, Doyle, Did they have any pictures of Stalin or any of the rest 
of the Communist leaders ? The reason I ask you that question is that 
in many of our hearings we have evidence under oath by former bona 
fide Communists the fact that they never display an American flag in 
their club meetings or cells but they almost always have a picture in 
their established club rooms, if they are such, of Stalin and Engels 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1785 

and these other Communists leaders but never any of distinguished 
Americans. 

Mr. Wereb. I have never seen Stalin's picture, with the exception 
at the Embassy Auditorium and at the Shrine Auditorium at one 
time. The rest of the times our group always met at different homes 
and under different circumstances. We tried never to meet twice in 
the same place. 

]Mr. ScHERER. When you say you saw a picture at the Shrine Audi- 
torium, is that when the Communists had rented the auditorium and 
were conducting the meeting ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is right, sir. I am sorry if you misunderstood. 

Mr. ScHERER. I did not misunderstand, I wanted the record clear. 

Mr. Wereb. Thank you. 

Mr. Doyle. If they had Stalin's picture on those occasions, they 
must have had the picture of some President of the United States 
right alongside, did they not ? 

Mr. Wereb. They may have, but at the present time I do not recall. 

Mr. DoTLE. You would be apt to recall it, would you not? 

]Mr. Wereb. I do not think I looked for the President's picture to 
be there, but if I did, I would have ignored the President's picture 
regardless of the circumstances because I have always considered the 
President of the United States to be a wonderful person, no matter 
who he was, and thought his picture might have been misused. At 
one time I think Mr. Truman's picture was up, but I do not recall 
where. 

Mr. Doyle. I do not think we have had any testimony in any 
place in the country that any picture of any great American was 
displayed in any Communist cell meeting. That is the reason for 
my question, even though the pictures of Soviet great men were 
prominently displayed. 

Thank you, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Did Mr. John Houston give you any Communist 
Party assignments i 

Mr. Wereb. The very first assignment Mr. Houston gave me was 
to attend a workers school. This school I did attend, and it was 
conducted in a building on Third Street between Spring and Broad- 
way. At the present time I do not know the name of this building, 
but it was on the second floor. There were no markings on the doors, 
but I did see a number of people in the evening going into these 
places. So I followed one of the bunches — that is, one of the groups — 
and I went into this class. There were 10 weeks of this Marxist 
class. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the instructors ? 

Mr. Wereb. The first class I attended, sir, was taught by a man 
named Max Silver and he taught the advanced Marxist sciences, as 
they called it, or Communist program, and — well, they asked me a 
question and I felt kind of stupid because I did not know what they 
were talking about. They asked me how long had I been a Com- 
munist, and I told them I had just joined and been assigned to this 
school. He said, "Did you ever learn Marxism or communism?" 
and I said, "Xo." He said, "You go across the hall and there is 
another teacher, Emily Gordon, and she will teach all the beginners." 
Then I attended the rest of the nine sessions under the tutelage of 
Miss Gordon. 



1786 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any further Communist Party in- 
struction or schooling ? 

Mr. Wereb. I have had about 35 different classes that I attended 
during my membership in the Communist Party, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you describe them in just a general way? 

Mr. Wereb. The Peoples Educational Center. 

Mr. Tavenner, Did you attend that at the instruction of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. I did, sir. I was told to go there by Emily Gordon 
and 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that school being operated by the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. Well, the only way I could explain that to you, sir, 
to be frank, is that they did not want to be known as Communists, 
but the Communist Party gave them all their papers, all their type- 
writers, all the equipment, all the money, and the teachers. That 
I know to be true, sir, because I helped transfer some of the type- 
writers and some of the instructive literature which were of Com- 
munist nature into this school. I believe there were two teachers 
there. One was known as William Wolf. They introduced him as 
a member of the party from New York. Then there was one John 
Howard Lawson who was the other instructor that I met and I knew 
there. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say you attended 35 classes. Do you mean 
by that a dilfei'ent teaching group ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is right, sir. You see, the policy of the party is — 
that is, it was at that time — tliat Marxism and Leninism and bol- 
shevism would be the prime and the only objective. Therefore, there 
would be refresher courses that would average 4 to 5 a year and they 
would be, say, classes of 4, classes of 5 — that is, -a series of 4 or 5 is 
what I meant — and they, especially the leadership, would be instructed 
to attend these meetings. These meetings ordinarily were held by 
full-time county functionaries, such as tlie educational directors or 
working from the educational director of the Communist Party of 
Los Angeles County, sometimes the State: and then there were func- 
tionaries' schools, preparatory schools. To become a functionary, I 
have attended some of those, sir. They are too numerous to mention. 

Mr. Doyle. "Wliat year was that? 

Mr. Wereb. This is all between the year of 1944, January, and 
1948. That is, the first of January 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner, Was there any substantial difference in the type 
of instruction that was received ifrom January 1944 up until 1948 ? 

Mr, Wereb, Yes. The classes that were conducted directly by the 
party were of more revolutionary nature than conducted by the 
Peoples Educational Center. This Peoples Educational Center class 
was sort of an introductory class to some who might be a prey or easy 
prey to communism. 

Eva Shafran — she is deceased at this time — she was a Russian citi- 
zen and here direct from Russia to teach this. Eva Shafran held 
some open classes to labor leaders and union members. I think this 
was at the second floor of the Embassy Auditorium, prior to my actu- 
ally becoming a member, during the time I tried to gain membership. 

Mr. DoYLE, Did you attend any of those classes ? 

Mr. Wereb. I did, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1787 

Mr. Tavexner. Wliere were these classes generally held? 

Mr. Wekeb. Most of the classes for the club members were held in 
homes of people who had been Marxists for quite a while. There were 
a number of classes held at the home of Lou Stark. I do not recall 
his address. Then there were a number of classes held at the home 
of Edith Smith, Mike Gorman — a number of classes held at William 
Kellas' home. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me stop you there a moment. In mentioning 
the names of these persons in whose homes the meetings wei'e held, 
I want to know whether you knew those people to be members of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Wereb. I did, sir, because these were all closed Communist 
affairs and you could not enter unless you were identified or you had 
some identification from the county as a representative, you were the 
instructor. 

Mr. Tavenner. Up to this point you have mentioned the name of 
Mr. Loviis Stark, 

Mr. Wereb. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. He was a member of the Communist Party because I 
issued him, I believe in the year 1946 I issued the membership cards, 
and I believe that it is a record of the Government that I did issue that 
card. 

Mr. Tavenner. The second person that you named in whose home 
these meetings were held, I do not recall. Do you recall who the 
second one was ? 

Mr. Wereb. Edith Smith or William Kellas. 

Mr. Tavenner. Both of those ? 

Mr. Wereb. Edith Smith was the membership director of our group 
throughout most of the time. We had what they called club internal 
strife. That is where your distrust of 1 member of another and the 
accusation of 1 member and another was continuous. We had continual 
turnover. Instead of a man serving in an office for a period of 1 year 
that he was supposedly elected to, he would probably serve 3 or 4 
months and something would come along and they would change 
officers. 

Then the home of this William Kellas, who was known to me as a 
chairman, I believe on two occasions of our Communist group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is the spelling K-e-1-l-a-s ? 

Mr. Wereb. Correct, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask one question here ? A few moments ago you 
said that some of these classes were more revolutionary in their nature 
and instruction than others. Do you remember saying that ? 

Mr. Wereb. I did, sir. 

Mr. DoYLE. In what way do you use the term "revolutionary" ? 

Mr. Wereb. May I call one class event to your attention, sir, with 
your permission? We had a teacher by the name of Elizabeth 
Leich ■ 

Mr. Doyle. How do you spell it ? 

Mr. Wereb. Elizabeth L-e-i-c-h G-1-e-n-n. This woman w^as sent 
to us by the county educational committee, Los Angeles County Com- 
munist Party Educational Committee. She was sent to teach us Marx- 
ism and Leninism, of course. During this class she spoke of the 



1788 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

progress of Marxism and Leninism and liow well it is and trieid to sell 
the idea of the capitalists not owning tools and labor, having just 
labor, but the people should own everything and how eventually it 
would wind into an impossible situation. 

So one of the members of the class asked what she meant by that. 
She said, "Of course I mean that there would be a revolution," and 
she said this revolution would come about and there would be many 
people, hurt, people get killed — including workers; there would be 
an overthrow of the Government, confiscation of private property. 
This woman, sir, was an official teacher of the Los Angeles County 
Communist Party. 

]Mr. Doyle. Did you hear her say that ? 

Mr. Wereb. I did, sir. I sat there and heard her say so, 

Mr. Doyle. Where did that occur ? 

Mr. Wereb. That occurred at the home of Lou Stark. 

Mr. Doyle. About what year ? 

Mr. Wereb. I would say the year of 1945, latter part of 1945 or 
first of 1946. 

Mr. Doyle. Was that a closed Communist Party meeting ? 

]Mr. Wereb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. About how many people were there ? 

Mr. Wereb, I believe I have notes. Would you like to hear tliem, 
sir ? I believe I have ■ 

Mr. Doyle, I do not mean to take over your examination, ■ 

Mr. Tavenner. I think since you asked that question he should 
answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I was interested in that one particular thing, that 
particular revolutionary matter, 

Mr. Tavenner. He should be allowed to refresh his recollection. 

Mr, Wereb, I have notes, 

Mr, Doyle, When did j^ou make those notes ? 

Mr, Wereb, I made them regularly riglit after the meeting and at 
the present time after I severed my connection with the party I did 
manage to keep out a few little things for myself, and I do have some 
information which was not easy to get, I could give you this class and 
the people that were there. Yes ; here it is, sir, 

Mr. Doyle. Is there a date on those notes ? 

Mr. Wereb. No, sir, just general; no dates. Yes, it shows when 
his teaching w^as — I beg your pardon. It was 1947, not 1946. There 
were present at that time John Houston, Vernon Potter, Jack Karson, 
Edith Smith, Lou Stark and his wife Mrs. Marion Stark, Mike 
Gorman and Ed Fitzgerald, I believe. There was a Lillian Frong. 

Mr, TavennI':r, What was that last name ? 

Mr, Wereb, Lillian Frong, F-r-o-n-g, and Sam Chriss. 

Mr, Tavenner. What is the spelling of Chriss ? 

Mr, Wereb. C-h-r-i-s-s. That is plionetic, as close as I ever came 
to the correct spelling. Marion Stark is the first name of Mrs. Stark. 
Pauline Sullivan, Ida Karson, Chester Fein, 

Mr, Tavenner, F-e-i-n ? 

Mr, Wereb, Correct, sir; Adrienne Fein, And a man known to me 
by the name of Mel Wilkerson at that meeting, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask one more question, Counsel. 

At that ])articular class which you have mentioned when this woman 
was describing the revolutionary action that had to come or would 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF,, AREA 1789 

come in her judgment, what part, if any, was the Communist member- 
ship to phiy in the revohition i What were they to do ? 

Mr. Wereb. They were to be the prime and the rulins: factor of 
tliis revohition, sir. They would guide it and that was one of the 
reasons they said the only way it could be done is having enough 
people in tlie labor unions who were Marxist trained and Marxist and 
Leninist education and had the Stalin spirit, and those people were 
the people who would help put about this program. That is at one 
of the classes. There were a number of classes of this nature, sir. 

Mr. Taa'enner. You say there were a number of classes of this 
nature? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, there were. I also recall another class that was 
held at the home of William Kellas. This man Kellas was known to 
me as a party member and by his own admission as far back as 1923 
or 1924, at that time, was known by a different name. 

Mr. Kellas was a very, very well read and well educated Marxist 
and all his time and all his effort went into the Marxist education and 
teaching. He taught a class. I would have to refer to my notes as 
to wdien this was again, but I will give you a general idea of what 
they called a cadre class. This cadre class, I will manage to explain, 
is a class who is taught leadership. He most naturally was questioned 
as to what this — well, we only have one leadership, but at the present 
time what is it? — and he said this cadre class is for a leadership of 
five depth. 

Mr. Doyle. What? 

Mr. Wereb. Five depth. Five labor chairmen, five literature direc- 
tors, five of everything. If the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
decided or the Government decided to have the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation arrest these people for subversive activities or trouble 
came along, the second group automatically would step right up. If 
the police or some other law-enforcement agency came along and 
arrested these people, the third would function and so on down the 
line until tlie five were exhausted, and by that time there would be a 
fruitful result of this turmoil that he was speaking of at that time. 

Mr. Scherer. They recognized, then, the possible illegality of their 
actions and their organization in setting up such an organization? 

Mr. Wereb. They never doubted for one moment that they were an 
illegal and a revolutionary group, sir. If they thought for one moment 
that any member in that group did not have revolutionary ideas or 
was not progressing well enough in his Marxist teaching or his revolu- 
tionary tendencies, he did not stay very long. The party would man- 
age to bounce him or kick him out. 

Mr. Doyle. As I understand it, right here in Los Angeles, in Haw- 
thorne and other places, these Communist meetings and classes which 
you attended, this doctrine and philosoplw which you have related was 
openly taught in secret meetings ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. What year was that? 

Mr. Wereb. That was in August of 1946. I have that. I also have 
other classes to that effect, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. That was a year and a half or 2 years after Earl 
Browder was kicked out of the control of the American Communist 
Party because he believed that the two systems of economy could get 

65500— 55— pt. 4 2 



1790 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

along side by side in the world. Didn't you ever hear anyone object 
to that sort of philosophy? 

Mr. Wereb. That they should get along ? 

Mr. DovLE. No, this revolutionary philosophy. Didn't any of the 
American citizens present there ever object to that sort of instruction? 

Mr. Wereb. Mr. Doyle, with all apologies to this committee, I do 
not believe a Communist could be a citizen of this country because I do 
not believe that his allegiance would be strong enough to call himself 
a citizen, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I agree with you, but then I am asking you now the 
c{uestion : Did you ever hear any American citizen object to this sort of 
teaching in any of these meetings ? 

Mr. Wereb. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Not even question them ? 

Mr. Wereb. No, sir; just as to procedure sometimes. 

Mr. Doyle. Was that the procedure whereby they were teaching 
that it would be necessary to arm sometimes, use arms and force? 

Mr. Wereb. In order to use arms and force to shoot people, includ- 
ing workers, to have bloodshed you must have arms. The source of 
arms I never was told where it would come from, just how it would 
come about. I was never given that information, but I am sure there 
were others who did have that information. Do you want me to go 
on further with these classes, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you a question at that point. You spoke 
of Elizabeth Glenn being one of the instructors sent down from a 
higher level of the Communist Party. You have told us of the nature 
of the instructions she gave you. Can you tell us anything further 
about the instruction that she gave your group ? 

Mr. Wereb. P^lizabeth Leich Glenn taught a series of different 
classes. I mentioned to you the last, the most outstanding of all, and 
she of course taught Marxism, Leninism, the works of Stalin, wages 
and price, and actions of labor in strife. This is the type of education 
she taught. There were others that taught something different, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very w^ell. Proceed. 

Mr. Wereb. We had another series of classes at the home of Dan 
McComb. M-c-C-o-m-b, I believe. I would have to see the spelling. 
This man I knew to be a good jNIarxist, a good Commie. He worked 
hard for the party, and he also served as chairman of the Hawthorne 
Communist group and at his home we had a series of classes that was 
taught by a person named Harry Hay. This man Hay also identified 
himself to the group as being sent to our club as a teacher of ISIarxism- 
Leninism by the county educational committee. He said that he was 
from the Eagle Rock district, and he also was an active Communist for 
a long time. This man spoke of the American system of elections 
whereby the American elections are just not right; they couldn't be — 
it is a Fascist-like election system and it could not serve the masses. 
He taught that the Communist Party had a plan. For example, he 
would say the maritime union. He said, "Now th^ re is a good example 
for you." 

Mr. ScHERER. What type of elections did he propose ? 

Mr. Wereb. The general elections of representatives like yourself, 
sir. Government elections. 

Mr. SciiERER. What type of elections did he pro])ose ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1791 

Mr. Wereb. I am coming to that, sir. He said that you take your 
maritime union, for example, as a group. Those people are not in port 
most of the time. They are absent. Therefore, some of the absentee 
ballots never get in. What the party proposed at that time was to have 
one man of the Communist Party vote as a block for the maritime 
union. They questioned him somewhat as to the [)0ssibility of that, 
and he said that many places in the Soviet Union or in countries where 
they have a Bolshevik government such practices are common. In 
other words, instead of having the workers always come in and vote, 
they have one man cast the ballot for them as a blanket ballot. That 
was one of the series of classes. I have more. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did they advocate any other system of voting? 
Mr. Wereb. Tliat system whereby one man votes for a group. 
Mr. Scherer. Did they advocate the proportional representation 
system of voting ? 

Mr. Wereb. That was a Fascist idea. 
Mr. Scherer. Proportional representation ? 

Mr. Wereb. In other words, if you took a man from a certain dis- 
trict because he represented that district, that was not any good ; that 
was a reactionary idea. But as one man, they would manage to pick 
and appoint and elect. Is that what you had reference to^ 

Mr. Scherer. No, I do not think you quite understand what I mean 
by proportional representation system of voting, so I will just with- 
draw the question. 

Mr. Wereb. All right. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask one question along a different line ? I do not 
know what your answer may be because I have never discussed it w4th 
you. What did you see, if anything, in activity for or with children 
and young people, the teen-age in Los Angeles County ? Did you come 
in toucli with that phase of the activities of the Communist Party? If 
so, what did you learn ? 

Mr. Wereb. The oidy phase of that I know, sir, is that they had one 
man by the name of Mayer Frieden. 

Mr. Doyle. How do you spell his last name ? 

Mr. Wereb. F-r-i-e-d-e-n, I believe. The Mayer would be phonetic, 
M-e-y-e-r or M-a-y-e-r, I would not know. He had charge of the youth 
group at that time. Young Communist league, which became Ameri- 
can Youth for Democracy. They tossed it around for some other 
name. I visited their office once or twice, but I do not recall that I — 
I was too busy with other assignments to get into the youth group, sir. 
Mr. Doyle. Our hearings all over the country show they very ac- 
tively endeavored to get activity among American youth and interest. 
In fact they established camps known as a pioneer group to counteract 
the influence of the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts. 

Mr. Wereb. That is true, because they were asked — I remember that 
they impressed the classes, especially on members, to have their chil- 
dren — at that time their policy was a little different. They would 
shift their policy at wil] any way they liked. At that time the policy 
was to get them into the YMCxl, YWCA, church groups — any grou])s 
whereby they could influence. In fact, we, the senior members of the 
oro^anization, also were requested to do so regardless of under what 
guise. It did not make any difference. 

We had a man by the name of George Sandy. He was a full-time 
functionary for the party, I guess during the WPA days and up. This 



1792 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

man and I had personal meetings. At the county offices we had 
meetings together. He met with our group a number of times, and 
he said, "Now you Commvmists, you have got one job to do — it does 
not make a bit of difference under what guise — you get into the general 
public, get there. If you have to pick on a sewer bond issue, pick on 
it : go from house to house. Don't tell them you are a Communist, tell 
them you are a citizen and you are interested, until you are well enough 
known whereby you can run for city council or wliatever office that the 
public might think that you are lit for." And that was the program 
at one time. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you very much. I must not take more of the 
counsel's time. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is all right, Mr. Chairman ; it helps develop 
the picture. 

You were describing these various classes which you attended. I 
believe you said there were still others. 

Mr. Wereb. Yes; there were. If you will excuse me a moment, I 
do have one more I jotted down here that I would like to call the com- 
mittee's attention to, to one other class here. 

Elizabeth Leich Glenn had a series of classes with us and she spoke 
of manpower. She said, "Well, it is hardly possible to recruit that 
many men into the Communist Party or into a Communist group that 
would be a strong manpower group." Therefore, she said, that the 
party proposed to split this Nation into two nations, creating a nation 
of the Negroes separate from the whites. This Negro nation who, 
according to her words, were an oppressed group, would be very 
easy prey or very easy subjects to this manpower proposition that they 
had in mind. 

Now she spoke of this at two separate classes, and all of a sudden it 
disappeared. I don't know why, but I did read this in some other 
Communist literature previous to that time. Somehow or other all of a 
sudden a little fight over the thing and that was the last of it and we 
could not follow it up. In my position you could not ask too many 
questions ; you observed and partook in different things. This Negro 
nation was a very serious move at one time in other clubs because I 
knew other people in other clubs. 

Mr. ScHERER. The Negroes in the Communist Party, and properly 
so, immediately rose up against any idea of segregation. That was 
just one of the reasons they immediately abandoned it. 

Mr. Wereb. We had no Negroes in our gi-oup. 

Mr. Scherer. That was the testimony, I believe, in San Francisco, 
was it not? 

Mr, Tavenner. We have had testimony in Washington, Milwaukee, 
and a number of places on this subject. The estimate that Elizabeth 
Glenn gave that the Negro people would be an easy prey was found 
out not to be at all prophetic or correct. A great deal of evidence has 
been introduced showing that they met no substantial measure of suc- 
cess with the persons of the Negro race, 

Mr. Scherer. The evidence is overwhelming that they resisted 
attempts to infiltrate groups almost better than any other group. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is correct. In many areas that has been the 
burden of the testimony. 

Mr. Wereb. May I add this, Mr. Doyle, that the Negroes that I 
know and have known over the period of years in the city of Los An- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1793 

geles were all fine, upstanding citizens. With the exception of very 
few, say nine during my whole time of membership in the party — and 
I don't think they stayed very long — I do not believe that I have known 
any Negro or person of the Negro race who was a willing prey or would 
accept such a policy at all. They were too busy trying to make their 
own way and trying to better themselves. 

Mr. DoTLE. I think it appropriate, perhaps, for me to just refer to 
one paragraph at this point in view of the witness's testimony about 
revolutionary methods. I read a couple of paragraplis of this decision 
the other day. This is the decision of the United States of America v. 
Title (17,368), civil opinion by the Honorable Judge of the Federal 
Court in this very building on June 4, 1955, Leon E,. Yankwich, United 
States District Judge, in wliich a defendant admitted he had been a 
Communist and was a Communist, and lie introduced the constitution 
of the Communist Party as part of his defense, by the way, to the court. 

The court in this case said, among other things : 

How anyone can find in them — 

referring to the literature of the Communist Party used by the Ameri- 
can Communist Party — ■ 

any advocacy of lawful means for effectuating the aims of communism or even 
lip service to democratic institutions is beyond our comprehension, for there is 
none. As appears more fully from other writings by Lenin which are in the 
record, in one he states that the proletarian state can only be achieved "through 
a violent revolution." This is repeated elsewhere. 

The Sixth World Congress of the Commuui,'- 1 International's held in 1928 states 
emphatically that Leninism is the dominant approach on that — "the overthrow 
i)t capitalism is impossible without force, without armed uprising and proletarian 
wars against the bourgeosie." This interpretation is adopted by Stalin, who 
expresses it in this manner : "The dictatorship of the proletariat is a revo- 
lutionary power based on the use of force against the bourgeosie." 

I read that into the record and I repeat that which I have often re- 
peated in this liearing au.d elsewhere: I do not see how any patriotic 
American since 1914 or 1945 could possibly have been an active par- 
ticipant in Communist cell meetings such as you attended, sir, without 
knowing that the primary objective or intention, whenever it suited 
tlieir convenience, was to build up a ])hilosophy that the American 
working peo]ile were justified in using force against constitutional 
government. 

I repeat it now. I just have never understood how a patriotic 
American could do that if he ever learned of that objective. The 
court in this case says, and we know it, that the Connnunist literature 
advocated that and still does. 

Mr. Tavennek. Mr. Wereb, what positions have you held in the 
Communist Party ? 

jMr. Wereb. I held various ])ositions, sir. I was for a short time, as 
I said, membership director and Peoples World director, press di- 
rector, literature director; I was a functionary delegate to all the 
functionaries conventions. I w^as a delegate to the Southwest indus- 
ti'ial section and — gosh, it has been so long I almost have to look. It 
was plenty. I was a member of the executive committee ; also district 
manager Jfor the Peoples World in the Southwest section, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. And all this time you were an FBI operator ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Then I suppose you would be classified as a paid in- 
former or stoolpigeon or something like that? 



1794 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

^Ir. Wereh. I have been called that. 

Mr. Doyle. I want to com])linieiit you for doing the job you did^ 
Avhether you were paid or not. 

Mr. Wereb. Micjjht I add at this time, sir, that I never was ])aid a 
salary by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. I had, or rather I 
would put out and j^ut all bills ahead of time, made donations out of 
my own ])oc'ket to Communist drives, ])aper drives, the newspaper 
drives, defense drives, out of my own |)ocket. I was reimbursed by 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation after I had given a statement to 
that eliect. 

Mr. Doyle. ( )nly your expenses ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is all, sir. I have Jiever received 10 cents worth of 
salary at any time from anyone, sir. 

]Mr. Doyle. We congratulate you more than ever if that is the case. 
I sui)])osed you were paid a little sonnething for it. 

Mr. Wereb. Well, I think my freedom, sir, and the honor of calling 
myself an American citizen is pay enough. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Wereb, I "asked you at an earlier point in your 
testimony what security measures were taken by the Connnunist Party 
to make sure of you. 

Mr. Wereb. At one time — I am tiying to hnd the exact time— two 
people came to my home; one John HoustoiL I am trying to hnd the 
name of the other ])erson. It was one evening, and I am very anxious 
to give you the name of that person. 

Just one second, sir. I have it among a lot of these notes here. Elsie 
Monjar. At one time she also ran for city council. The Communist 
label did not do so good. 

Mr. Doyle. What city ? 

Mr. Wereb. Los Angeles, sir. These two people came to my home 
and said, "Pete, what are you doing in the party?" That is not a 
very easy question to answer, especially when you know that you are 
under a sham, you are living a life other than what you really believe 
in. I made them explain just what they meant by it. I asked them 
a ([uestion on a question. 

I said, "John, do you have to be a bum to be a Communist?" That 
question kind of backed him down a little bit. They wanted to know 
all my progressive record, shall we say; again this bandied word of 
])rogressivism. I told them a story that happened to me Avhen I was 
a young boy. It was of no consequence, but it was a sales idea and 
it AA-ent over. I invited them to examine my home, see if there were any 
])olice or Federal Bureau of Investigation documents about. I just told 
them how, gave them a real sad sob story. After them making me 
promise an allegiance to the Communist Party and to the Soviet Union, 
they left satisfied and I stayed on in my regular way. That was a 
harrowing 2i/^ hours. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was anv question raised about your wife ? 
Mr. Wereb. Yes, sir. One of the questions that did not seem to have 
a satisfactory answer in their mind was why my wife was not a Com- 
munist. My" wife is a very good church member, a very devout person, 
and it was 'a very hard tliing to think one up, so I said she had a very 
serious nerve disorder, and therefore for the security of the party 
in my judgment she should not be a member. That was accepted. 

Now to give you a point of just how far they drove this security, 
a person by the name of Bronson- Parrett and Fern Parrett, active 
Communists 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES. CALIF., AREA 1795 

Mr. Tavenxer. Spell it. 

Mr. Wereb. P-a-r-r-o-t, I believe. I would have to check. Would 
it be all right if I check ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; I think you should make certain as to the spell- 
ing of the name. 

Mr. Wereb. I will try the best I can, sir. He also was at one time 

chairman of our group. P-a-r-r-e-t-t, B-r-o-n-s-o-n. His wife was 

Fern Parrett. Now at one time he got into difficulty with the party. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Just a moment. We understand that there may be 

a little different spelling to that name. 

Mr. Wereb. There might be, sir, but that is as close as I can give 
at the present time. I still haven't found the name. Would you mind 
i f I looked up the name and spelled it ? 
Mr. Tavenxer. Yes : and you can give it to us. 

Mr. Wereb. All right, sir. I tried to get these names correctly. I 
have an awful lot of names here. P-a-r-r-e-t-t, Parrett. His wife. 
Fern Parrett. This man got into a difficulty of some type with the 
Communist leadership at the higher levels. He kept Avriting back to 
the NeAv York office contiiuially and that was objected to bv the local 
group here — that is, the county group. Therefore, he was tried by the 
Communist security group and banned from the party. His "wife 
stayed on. They approached his wife within a few davs of the time 

1 hey approached me 

Mr. Scherer. May I interrupt? Did you ever attend one of the 
trials or hearings where members were barred ? 

Mr. Wereb. I believe I have, yes, sir, but at this time I would like 
to leave that for a little later because it would confuse this tliought 
of mine. 

Mr. Scherer. Go ahead. 

Mr. Wereb. They went to this woman and told her that unless 
she divorced her husband they would have to bounce her from the 
party or kick her out. The woman being a real Communist, as she 
called herself, did divorce her husbancL That was not the only 
mstance. There were many instances like it where they thought 
that the security of the party was affected bv both man' and wife 
not being members ; and if both did not wish to be members, none 
of them could be members. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, if both did not want to become mem- 
bers of the conspiracy, break up the home ? 
Mr. Wereb. That is right, sir. 

Mr. DoYLE. And the home is the most important unit we have in 
our Nation of people. 

Mr. Wereb. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. Break them up for the sake of the Communist Party. 
That is their philosophy, if need be, to further their conspiratorial 
aims, dastardly objectives. 

Mr. Wereb. I believe at one time, to answer vour question, Con- 
gressnian, that I attended a meeting— I did not get into all of the 
meeting because someone called me out as to the progress of the 
Peoples World drive. At that time I believe it was one Alice Ward. 
She called me out. At that time they were trying one Lou — a man 
from Watts. I believe he also appeared in a number of Smith cases. 
I am trying to place his last name but it slips mv mind a second. 
I did attend one of tho.se farce trials, a cut and "dried affair. He 



1796 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

was an enemy of the workers— they classified him so. Secret litera- 
ture was made up to the effect and it was dispatched to each club 
that no one should speak, contact him in any wa}'^, shape, manner, 
or form on any business because he had contact with the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation or the police department or that he was an 
enemy of the working classes, and that was that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that individual's name Lou Rosser? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, sir. I know the man by seeing him. I did not 
recall his name, but that is an outstanding event. 

Mr. ScHERER. Lou Rosser was blacklisted from obtaining any 
employment in certain areas, was he not, or am I wrong? 

Mr. Tavenner. I do not believe I should comment on it. 

Mr. Scherer. I remember his testimony very well. 

Mr. Doyle, Was not Mr. Rosser a Negro ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. He was prevented from getting employment, he testi- 
fied, because of his breaking with the party. They attempted to dis- 
credit him with even non-Communist employers. I remember the 
testimony very well. 

Mr. Tavenner. I failed to ask you a question I intended to ask 
you. When you were discussing these educational classes which you 
attended — I want to go back and pick it up — you told the committee 
about instruction that was received when Mr. Harry Hay came to 
your club as a teacher sent from the educational commission of the 
Communist Party. I am not sure whether j^ou told us where that 
meeting was held. 

Mr. Wereb. That meeting was held on Yukon Street at the home 
of Dan and Eleanor McComb. That was their home. The whole 
series of classes held by this Harry Hay was conducted at that ad- 
dress, 

Mr. Tavenner. The question I failed to ask you is: Who were 
present at that meeting, if you can recall ? 

Mr. Wereb. I would again have to refer to my notes, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well, sir. 

Mr. Wereb. By the way, these are my own notes. 

Mr. Tavenner. When I ask who were present, I mean what persons 
as members of the Communist Party were present. 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, sir ; I will be happy to give you that. There were 
John Houston, Vernon Potter, Jack Karson, Edith Smith. Lou Stark, 
Mike Gorman, G-o-r-m-a-n. John Baldo, B-a-1-d-o; Ed Fitzgerald; 
Lillian Frong; Laura Lee Musick, M-u-s-i-c-k; Edwin Hagen, 
H-a-g-e-n ; Dan McComb ; Ellen Taylor, also known as Mary Rankin. 
At the present time I believe that is all I have as to that school. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are the spellings which you have given phonetic 
spellings? 

Mr. Wereb. Some may be, sir, but some are not. Some of the spell- 
ings I have which are correct would be the spellings that I have taken 
wliile I was membershi]:) — that is, the Peoples World district manager. 
Therefore, I would have to have some type of a spelling which was near 
correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you give a phonetic spelling for the name 
Laura T^ee Musick? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1797 

Mr. Wereb. I believe that would be spelled M-ii-s-i-c-k, but as I say, 
some of the spellings in my mind are j^honetic, sir, and they are very, 
very hard to place at the present time as to the exact spelling. I will 
try my very best and honest best to give you the nearest I possibly can. 

Mr. Tavenxer. We want to be as accurate about it as we can. The 
name Edwin Hagen, as to the spelling of that name, I am wondering 
whether it is a phonetic spelling you were giving or whether it was 
what you thought was the true spelling of the name. 

Mr. Wereb. That was a true spelling as far as I knew because Mr. 
Hagen came to my home a number of times and I have read a number 
of letters that were addressed to him by tliat name. Therefore, I just 
copied that, and that is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let us see if we can give some further identifying 
facts about that individual. 

Mr. Wereb. Edwin Hagen was a refugee from Germany, a Com- 
munist-banned refugee. He was banned into Holland, and Holland I 
guess deported him as an undesirable. They deported him to Sweden. 
These are all according to his stories to me which were verified by his 
wife wliom I met at one time and they laughed over it. Then Sweden 
deported him to Canada. He stayed a very short time in Canada and 
lie was deported into Mexico and from Mexico he came to this country, 
and under what circumstances I never did find out, sir. 

Mr. Tavexner. Do you know wliere he lived ? 

Mr. Wereb. I have been to his home at that time. Of course, he no 
longer lives there. He lived in Inglewood. He was also a very, very 
close friend of 

Mr. Tavenner. I would not speak of other persons unless those other 
persons were members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wereb. They are members of the Communist Party. In other 
words, she was the head of the Communist Party at the time of Hagen's 
last disappearance and that was — she was one of the Smith cases with 
Schneiderman. That was Dorothy Healy. I met him a number of 
times at her home. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now you have told us that this group of the Com- 
munist Party to which you were assigned was the Hawthorne group. 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, who were the 
officers of that group from time to time as far as you can now recall ? 

Mr. Wereb. Would it be permissible to read that ? I had that pre- 
pared because it is hard from memory to remember all the names. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that statement you have a statement which you 
made at the time of your reports to the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion? 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct, sir. These are all bona fide accepted 
names as Commvuiists whom I have known and met at closed Com- 
inunist Party meetings and Communist functions and classes and func- 
tionary meetings. These people could not have attended any of these 
doings unless they were members in good standing in the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Doyle. Right at that point, were these meetings conducted 
under such circumstances that those people would realize they were 
secret meetings ? 



1798 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, may I call your attention— my ques- 
tion was as to who were the officials at this point. Later I will want 
to come to that question. 

Mr. Doyle. I withdraw my question at present. 

Mr. Wereb. Would it be iDermissible if I read these names to you ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I would suggest, Mr. Chairman, that he be per- 
mitted to examine the list he prepared to refresh his recollection. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, indeed. These were made in a prompt manner 
after the meeting ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. For the purpose of your day-to-day record to the FBI ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. This is a record of your own original memorandum 
you made ? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Certainly it would be good in any court. 

Mr. Tavenner. Before you begin that, it may be well to consider 
taking the usual recess. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will stand in recess 5 minutes. 

(Whereupon, a short recess was taken.) 

(Representatives Doyle, Scherer, and Moulder present after the 
recess. ) 

Mr. Doyle. Let us proceed. T^t the record show that 3 members 
of the subcommittee of 4 are present and therefore a legal quorum is 
here— Mr. Scherer, of Ohio, Mr. Moulder, of Missouri, and Mr. Doyle, 
of Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you now proceed to tell the committee who 
were the officers of the Hawthorne Club of the Communist Party 
during the period that you were a member of it ? 

Mr. Wereb. I am trying to find that, sir. I had that here, and to 
the best of my recollection we have had John Houston 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. 

Mr. Wereb. Do you want the officers ? 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. "Yes; the officers first. Is John Houston the same 
person that you referred to earlier in your testimony ^ 

Mr. Wereb. Th^t is correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is the correct spelling of his last name H-o-u-s-t-o-n ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think, Mr. Chairman, Ijecaiise of the similarity of 
names, although there is a difference in spelling, the record should 
plainly show that this is not John Huston, H-u-s-t-o-n. 

Mr.' Doyle. That is correct, Mr. Counsel. The committee appreci- 
ates your being careful, just like you always are. 

Mi". Tavenner. Very well, if you will proceed, please. 

Mr. Wereb. William Kellas, also chairman; Dan McComb, chair- 
man ; Edith Smith, membership secretary and dues secretary. They 
are the same, only known under different names. Literature agent, 
Ola Pacifico, Eleanor Taylor. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell the name, please. 

Mr. Wereb. P-a-c-i-f-i-c-o, O-l-a. Eleanor Taylor. Also financial 
director, Eleanor Taylor again. Marion Stark, educational director ; 
Jack Karson, chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. How does he spell the name ? 

Mr. Wereb. K-a-r-s-o-n. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1799 

Mr. Moulder. In addition to the spelling of tlie name, can you give 
further identification ? 

Mr. Wereb. Tlie man at one time 

Mr. Moulder. I mean as to any and all of those names. There may 
be a dozen people by the same name when you name one. Where he 
resided, his occupation. 

Mr. Wekeb. Occupation was helper, and he was also em])loyed by 
the board of education at one time as a truckdriver and later became 
helper to his brother in the 'plumbing business. 

Mr. Moulder. His approximate age ^ 

Mr. Wereb. He was approximately 40 years old at the time I knew 
him, and also he was a lieutenant in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade 
during the Spanish civil war, sir. He was a known Communist for 
many, many years. 

Mr. Moulder. Where did he reside at that time ? 

Mr. Wereb. He resided in Hawthorne, Calif. I am no longer 
familiar with the street addresses because there may be other people 
living at those addresses at the present time and it might be embar- 
rassing to some of those people. That is why I do not like to give 
out street numbers, sir. These, to my recollection, were tlie officers 
at different times, various periods during my 4 years as a party 
member in Hawthorne and Inglewood. 

Mr. Tavexxer. You have testified that you were a member of the 
executive committee at one time. 

Mr. AVereb. I was a member of the executive conunittee within 3 
weeks of my party affiliation. 

Mr. Tavexxi<:r. Will you tell the conunittee, please, who served on 
the executive conunittee of the Hawthorne group of the Counnunist 
Party with you ? And in giving their names, as suggested by a mem- 
ber of the committee, it would be well for you to give us much identify- 
ing information as you can recall so there will be no possible mistake 
of identity of the individuals. 

Mr. Wereb. Ola Pacifico. She was with the health department of 
tlie county for a time and refused to take the loyalty oath and there- 
fore she now is a private individual. Marion Stark, the wife of one 
Lou Stark, of Hawthorne. Calif. 

Dan McComb, worker in the airplane industry for a while, a barber, 
n student, and Lord knows what else. 

Edith Smith, a housewife and a bookkeeper for a short time with a 
concern which I do not recall at this time. 

Eleanor Taylor, a housewife of Inglewood. 

Mike Gorman. Mike (lorman was a jack-of -all-trades, uiaster oi 
none. He tried to repair clocks, radios. The last I heard, he never 
made the grade on any of those. He was originally from New York. 

Vernon L. Potter, a carpenter, for a time known as a contractor for 
himself, too. He also lived in Hawthorne. 

Louis Stark, the husband of Marion Stark, of the previously men- 
tioned Hawthorne group. 

Ed Hagen 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. You may as well identify at this 
time, if you can, just what his activity was in the Communist Party, 
if you can tell us. 

Mr. Wereb. Louis Stark was a liaison man of the Communist Party 
between the different political groups in our district, doing regional 



1800 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

as well as municipal, county, or otherwise, and I believe, if I remember 
correctly, he was at one time a member of the Democratic central com- 
mittee. His job was not to be known as a Communist but act as, shall 
we say^ — this is an unwelcome word — a liberal or a progressive repre- 
senting those groups and acting as a liaison officer on anything that the 
party wanted to put over or any candidate the party wished to put 
over — any political program they might have had in mind which was 
also always on issues, never general political. They never accepted 
the Democrat or the Republican or the other principles in toto. They 
always picked on the issue and played the issue up because they 
thought that was the easiest key to the door they finally wanted to 
open. 

Mr. Moulder. May I interrupt? You say you believe he was a 
member of the Democratic central committee. Do you know posi- 
tively of your own personal knowledge he was ? 

Mr. Wereb. I believe I have read that, sir, but I never saw him 
there. 

Mr. Moulder. You do not know, you just heard it ? 

ISIr. Wereb. I read it. 

Mr. Moulder. Read it where ? 

jSIr. Wereb. I read it in the circulars that were put out by different 
election committees and different drive committees of different parties. 
1 have seen his name on it, and he also reported to us in person at the 
party that he was a member of the Democratic central committee of 
that district. 

Mr. Moulder. What period was that ? 

Mr. Wereb. That was the period of 1945, 1946, 1947, sir ; latter part 
of 1945. I am sorry, I do not mean to take any political party because 
T do not want — it is just an instance I wish to use there as he used to 
further himself and the party progi'am, I do not wish to be disre- 
spectful to any political party, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether at a subsequent date he be- 
came active in any other political group ? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, he did. He became very active in the Independent 
Progressive Party, the IPP. I never was a member, so I would not 
know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can j'ou tell the committee of any action that was 
taken by the Communist Party at any of its meetings regarding the 
Independent Progressive Party ? 

]\Ir. Wereb. For a time the Communist Party tried to run candi- 
dates of their own. For instance, Archie Brown ran for governor of 
the State, and I do not believe anybody saw it outside of the party. 
I do not believe he got any more votes than the party. So the Com- 
munist Party decided that a third party was necessary, that it is im- 
perative; they cannot run it as a Communist Party because it would 
not be acceptable to the average liberal group. Therefore, they de- 
cided that they would have another party. This party at the time was 
not identified. Later it became known by the literature that was 
brought to the club by this Lou Stark that the IPP was a constituted 
political party, and he was very active in this group. That is about 
all I can tell tell you on that, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. If you will proceed with your 

Mr. Wereb. Pardon me. Just one more addition to that. It was 
with party approval and it was a party "must'' tliat every member 



COAIjVIUNIST activities in the LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1801 

go out and distribute all the literature, attend all IPP meetings; it 
was a "must." In other words, the hands were asked for at every club 
meeting which were closed Communist meetings, how many were 
going and how many were not. Somebody that did not raise their 
hands had to have a pretty good excuse, such as work or no one to 
leave the baby with or something of that sort in order not to partici- 
pate in any of the IPP drives — mobilizations, call it whatever you 
like. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now will you proceed in your description of the 
membership of the executive committee of the Hawthorne Club? 

Mr. Wereb. We had this Ed Hagen as a member of the executive 
conmiittee. For a very short time we had a man named Earl Kelly 
from the Reclondo group and a jNIickey Johnson who was very active 
in the El Segundo group, which also was part of the Hawthorne- 
Inglewood general group. 

Bert Coffee, C-o-f-f-e-e. He was known as an organizer of the 
oil workers; also came with credentials of the Communist Party to 
the executive meeting and became part of the executive committee at 
the time they had the strike at the Standard Oil Co. at El Segundo. 
He directed, with the assistance of the rest of the Communist group, 
the activities, the literature distribution, the picket line walking ; and 
the progress of the strike was also directed by him. 

Mr. Tavenner. You testified at some length regarding his activity 
in the hearings at San Diego last year, I believe. 

Mr. Wereb. I did, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that complete the list of the executive 
committee ? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, of the executive committee, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you make a record of the membership of the 
Hawthorne Club of the Communist Party during the period of your 
work for the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Wereb. I certainly did, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you advise the committee, please, as to that 
membership — but in doing so, let me ask you, to be certain that any 
name yo uidentif}^, that you do it on the basis of your own personal 
knowledge of their membership on the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wereb. Do you want me to read the names now ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. And in making such identification, 
give us such descriptive information of the individual as you can so 
that should there be another person of a similar name or the same 
name, that description you would give would properly identify the 
person you are speaking of. 

Mr. Wereb. I will try that, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

Mr. Wereb. Membership of the Ilawthorne-Inglewood, El Segundo, 
Redondo Beach, and bay area groups, official membership that I have 
seen numbers for which I cannot give you at this time, I do not have 
those numbers, but these parties' membership cards I have seen with 
my own eyes and I have seen these people at different Communist 
meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Communist meetings, what type of Communist 
meetings ? 

Mr. Wereb. Closed meetings and closed meetings only. 

Mr. Doyle. How do you know they were closed meetings ? 



1802 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Wereb. Being a member of tlie executive committee, I believe 
I had something to do with it that we had riothing but Communists in 
that meeting or if it was a functionaries meeting, sir, it was up to the 
credentials committees and those governing the attendance to see to it 
that everyone had proper credentials before entering any of these 
meetings. There were no liaphazard accounts of an}' of these names. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right, sir. 

Mr. Wereb. ()];if Johnson, an elderly man employed by the Navy 
Department at Seattle, a Avarehouseman, lived near me in Inglewood. 

Lillian Frong, F-r-o-n-g, a houscAvife, in the Westchester area, I 
believe. 

Lawrence Pacifico, ex-soldier — that I know — and went to school out 
at the college, El Camino College, as a student under the GI bill. 

Nathan Strout, an elderly man, a violin teacher. S-t-r-o-u-t. 

Gene Chriss, a member of the New York group of the Communist 
Party, of the San Joaquin Valley group aiid hnally the Los Angeles- 
Hawthorne and El Segundo group. 

Mr. Tavenner. You gave the spelling of the last name earlier, but 
AY ill you giA^e it again ? 

Mr. Wereb. C-h-r-i-s-s, G-e-n-e. Gene Chriss Avas also a P. W. 
dire<?tor and district manager after the district Avas split up into a 
number of groups. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean b}^ P. W. director? 

Mr. Wereb. Peoples World director. 

Sally Chriss, house AA'ife, his Avife. aaIio liA ed on Aviation BouleA^ard 
as his Avife. 

Dave Chriss: The father of Gene Chriss, elderly man. 

Barney Frong : An aviation Avorker. 

Pauline Sullivan : Redondo Beach, a houseAvife, 

Da\^e Belt, B-e-l-t : A contract cesspool digger. 

Ida Karson, K-a-r-s-o-n : Tlie wife of Jack Karson, the man I spoke 
of as being a lieutenant in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 

Adrienne Fein, F-e-i-n : A houseAvife, A^ery actiA'e in another organi- 
zation known as the IWO. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is the first name Adrienne, or is that Mrs. Adrian ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is Mrs. Adrienne. I want to apologize for omit- 
ting this. In the party we never call anybody Mr. or Mrs. and it is 
natural for me to omit them. I am sorry. 

Mr. Tavenner. The point I want to g:et clear is whether the first 
name Adrian is tlie name of the husband or is it the AA'ife 's first name ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is the AA'ife's first name. 

Jack Good : Occupation unkiioAvn. 

I. M. Tomren, T-o-m-r-e-n: This man Avas a retired old man, kind 
of helpless, but a member. 

Ruth Schorr, S-c-h-o-r-r, lived in another district. She Avas ver}^ 
actiA^e in a labor group somewhere. 

Pat Ruso : A mystery character. He w^ould go and disappear and 
come back and the club or group or county never seemed to ask Avhy. 
He AA'as about 38 years old, and the only AA^ay I could identify him, he 
Avas of Italian origin, I believe, and that is all. 

Morrey Korngold. i\I-o-r-r-e-y K-o-r-n-g-o-l-d, a printer or print- 
er's helper, of the Westchester area. His wife Rochelle Korngold, 
R-o-c-h-e-l-l-e. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1803 

Jules Tanzman, T-a-n-z-m-a-n : A merchant in surplus merchandise. 
Mr. Moulder. Where ? 

Mr. "Wereb. His residence was IngleAvood or Westchester, and his 
business was located on Santa Fe Street in the 2600 block. He special- 
ized in surplus aluminum. 

Rudy Love : He was an indigent loafer here and there, and that is 
all. He had no occupation or no connection whatsoever. 

David B. Glass : The partner of Jules Tanzman in the same surplus 
business. 

Ellen McComb : Wife of Dan McComb, housewife. 

Jerry Kramer, K-r-a-m-e-r: Aircraft Avorker, Westchester District. 

Elsie ]\[ancar, M-a-n-c-a-r: Full-time employee of the United Mine, 
Mill and Smelter I'nion as a secretary. Also, executive secretary to 
the southwest section of the industrial section of the Los Angeles 
County Communist Party. 

Don Healy, former husband of Dorothy Healy. 

Fern Parrett : The lady referred to as the person who had to divorce 
her husband because of non-Communist membership after the dis- 
charge of the man. 

Laura Lee Musick 

Mr. SciiERER. Pardon me. Do you know whether in that divorce 
case that was mentioned as a ground for divorce ? 

Mr. Wereb. Xot in the United States courts, I do not believe, but 
in the Communist trial it was. You see, she was tried by a special 
committee giving her tlie choice of either staying in the party, sir, or 
divorcing her husband. That still is a trial and a security trial known 
by the Communists as such. 

Mr. Scherer. I was referring to the divorce court. 

Mr. Wereb. I do not believe our local courts would accept that. 

Mr. Doyle. You mean the Communist cell of which you were or 
one of the committees 

Did you ever hear any Communist Party member in a Communist 
Party trial or meeting claim that he did not have to testify because 
it might incriminate him ? 

Mr. Wereb. No, sir; there is no such a thing in the Communist 
Party, sir. 

Mr. DoYLE. Xo such thing as declining 

Mr. Wereb. That is a dictatorship in toto. 

Mr. DoYLE. There is no such thing as having the constitutional 
l^rivilege in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. There is no constitutional privilege. 

Mr. Doyle. They are American citizens most of them. 

Mr. Moulder. Every one understands that. You say you were not 
there and you do not personally have any knowledge of this occurrence 
other than by hearsay? 

Mr. Wereb. I have a person also at that trial by the name of Mickey 
Johnson who came to me and said she was a member of that investi- 
gative or whatever trial bodyj and she told me so. 

Mr. Moulder. I am not trying to discredit you or c^uestion whether 
or not that occurred, but it is just bringing up the proposition that 
you did not know it yourself. 

Mr. Doyle. My question was directed because I Avanted to know the 
method they used in Communist Party trials. 



1804 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Moulder. He says he was not there. I do not know how he 
would know. 

Mr. Wereb. I sat through 2i/^ hours of one of those trial ordeals by 
John Houston and Elsie Mancar, and I need not be anywhere else to 
know what goes on. With me it was just like anybody else, no different. 
When it came to party security and party progress, no one stood in the 
way, whether it was Browder or whoever. It did not make any differ- 
ence. It was the party or else. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. Wereb. Where did I stop on the last name ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Don Healy, I believe, was the last name. 

Mr. Wereb. He was the ex-husband of one Dorothy Healy, a Smith 
Act case. 

Fern Parrett is the woman I just referred to. 

Laura Lee Musick : A housewife, M-u-s-i-c-k. 

Barney Frong : I believe he was an aircraft worker. 

Marion Hart : I saw her card, but I do not recall what her occupa- 
tion was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether she has another name? 

Mr. Wereb. I believe most of those people had another name, but I 
do not recall just at the present moment. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

Mr. Wereb. Alice Elconin, wife of a union organizer of some type. 
I do not know, but I think he was connected with the Electrical 
Workers Union or something. Alice Elconin — she was recruited by 
Ruth Schorr, and this took place at the home of Morrey and Rochelle 
Korngold in the early part of 1947. That is the only way I can identify 
the lady. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the spelling of the last name ? 

Mr. Wereb. E-1-c-o-n-i-n. 

Mr Tavenner. Would that membership have been during the period 
of World War II? 

Mr. AVereb. I believe World War II was over in 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner. I did not understand ; I thought you said it began 
earlier. 

Mr. Wereb. Early part of 1947 at the home of Morrey Korngold 
and Rochelle Korngold. 

Mr. Tavenner. I misunderstood the date. 

Mr. Wereb. Processed and brought to the meeting by one Ruth 
Schorr. 

Byron Taylor, a merchant marine. 

Floyd Wallace: I believe he was an auto mechanic, husband of 
Shevey Wallace, a f ulltime Los Angeles County Communist Party em- 
ployee. S-h-e-v-e-y — I believe that is the spelling. 

§ybil Ward, an aircraft worker. 

Chai:les C. Watkins, retired mailman. He delivered mail m that 
district. 

Mrs. Mel Wilkerson, housewife. 

Blanche Zamudio, a member in the east side ; Z-a-m-u-d-i-o. 

Ed Bodner : I do not recall too much of the man at the present time 
or his occupation. I may later on. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the spelling of the last name ? 

Mr. Wereb. I believe it is B-o-d-n-e-r. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1805 

Steve Adams, for a while an aircraft worker, later engaged in busi- 
ness for himself in machinist work. 

Rose Mary Bennick, B-e-n-n-i-c-k, housewife. 

John Biluk, B-i-1-u-k. I think he is an aircraft worker. 

Gary Cain, president. I do not know what his trade or what he was. 

Alice Cantu, C-a-n-t-u, housewife. 

Wayne Cantu. 

Mel Christiansen : I do not recall what his connection was, but he 
was in the district in the Hawthorne-Inglewood group. 

Leo Clark, insurance salesman. 

Araby Colton, C-o-l-t-o-n, A-r-a-b-y ; housewife. For a while em- 
ployed at one of the aircraft companies. 

Victor Colton, her husband ; shipyard worker. 

Edith Dexter, housewife ; Inglewood district. 

Mansell Dexter : lie was a mechanic of some type. 

Louis Emery, E-m-e-r-y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Which spelling of Louis is used ? 

Mr. Wereb. L-o-u-i-s. 

Herb Evans, industrial worker in the Hawthorne group. 

Ruth Evans, housewife. That is his wife. 

Pen Vandervoort, P-e-n, V-a-n-d-e-r-v-o-o-r-t, private secretary. 

Susan Vandervoort, wife ; same spelling. Housewife. 

I believe I have here a little addition of a few more names. 

Sam Fujimoto, F-u-j-i-m-o-t-o. I think he was a truck gardener. 

Florence Goldman, Inglewood district ; transferee from the Young 
Communist League. 

George Hawks, a shipyard worker ; H-a-w-k-s. 

Wenzel Lehr, W-e-n-z-e-1, L-e-h-r, industrial worker. I believe he 
was in the Hawthorne district there. 

Gerda Leiva, G-e-r-d-a, L-e-i-v-a, an elderly lady living alone in, I 
believe, Redondo or the next town further, I guess, Manhattan district. 

Carl Pekstan, C-a-r-1, P-e-k-s-t-a-n; occupation unknown. 

Frank Phiell'er, P-h-i-e-f-f-e-r. I do not know his occupation, but 
he was of the Inglewood district. 
Earl Pinkston, Westchester district ; P-i-n-k-s-t-o-n. 

Ruth Smith, housewife ; f ulltime Communist. 

Mr, Moulder. May I intervene here? As an illustration of what 
I had in mind a while ago, I venture to say probably in the great 
metropolitan area of Los Angeles there are very likely 15 or 20 people 
by the name of Ruth Smith, a housewife. The naming and publica- 
tion of that name will be a reflection upon each of them unless there is 
some definite 

Mr. Wereb. Hawthorne district. I referred to Edith Smith, Ruth 
Smith — same family, same group, same occupation as far as com- 
munism was concerned. I believe at one time she was an Army nurse. 
I believe that; I do not know that to be a fact. Daughter of Edith 
Smith. I met her and I knew her to be — I went to Edith Smith's 
home on the average of twice a week for the period of 3 or 4 years, 
and I believe I would know her. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you locate the home ? 

Mr. Wereb. I think the number was, if you must have it 

Mr. Doyle. Without giving the number, give the general location. 
Somebody else may live there now. 

65500— 55— pt. 4 3 



1806 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Wereb. It was in Imperial and Hawthorne Boulevard district, 
in the immediate vicinity of. 

Peggy Vaughn, a schoolteacher, V-a-u-g-h-n. 

Tony Talon, T-a-1-o-n, industrial aircraft worker of some type. 
This was the membership of the Hawthorne Communist group, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You referred to a person by the name of Vaughn. 
What was her first name ? 

Mr. Wereb. Peggy. That was her party name, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was her party name ? 

Mr. Wereb. That was the name that I knew her by. At the time 
I knew her, the party did not exactly ban the correct names unless 
it was for some activity that the party did not want you to be known in. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give us further identifying information 
relating to her ? 

Mr. Wereb. She was a schoolteacher in the Los Angeles Board of 
Education District. She was a person about 5 foot, if I recall right. 
She had light chestnut hair; weighed, I would say, a hundred five 
pounds. She was very active in Communist circles as to education. 
She was very much displeased with the changeover of the Communist 
Party of America, to the phony we had there at one time known 
as the Communist Political Association. When that change came 
she transfered from our group to what is known — they cut the gi'oups 
up into language groups; they cut them into industrial groups; they 
cut them into shop groups; they cut them into teachers, artists, dif- 
ferent union groups. Then I lost track of her after that, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is adequate. 

Mr. Wereb. That was the total membership, to the best of my 
knowledge, of the Hawthorne-Inglewood and bay area Communist 
groups. These are taken from my own notes that I have saved over 
a period of time that I was with the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
as their undercover man. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. The spirit in which I question you is not at all in 
the spirit of doubting your testimony or anything that you have 
said as to be the exact truth as you have testified to it, but the pur- 
pose of it is this: The question which I wish to ask you is this: 
You have named approximately how many people? 

Mr. Wereb. Approximately a hundred in that group, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. A hundred people as liaving been affiliated and ac- 
tively affiliated with the Communist Party and its activities over a 
certain period of time. Each of those parties named will be published 
in the newspapers, are going to be, revealed in that light with great 
injury to themselves wherever they may reside, doing great damage 
to them and their reputation, just as severely as if they had been tried 
in a court of law and convicted. To a degree, that is the result. 

Now, you have stated that each one of those that you have named' 
was in attendance at closed party meetings. Can you state the time 
and place as to each one of those persons and the occasion that you 
recall when they did so attend and to what degree they did partici- 
pate in Communist Party functions and affairs ? 

Mr. Wereb. I believe, sir, that I have separated those who were in 
the executive meetings. Executive meetings were held every week of 
the year, sir. Then membership meetings were held every other week.. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1807 

Some groups met once a month. It would be humanly impossible to 
take each and every one of these people, sir, and put them into any 
special one meeting unless tliere was any special activity whereby their 
names stood out in my mind or stood out as to they have acted in a 
violent manner, taught or advocated personally those instances — yes, I 
probably could give you time and dates on those. But these other 
general memberships, sir, it would be humanly impossible to place 
these people at different meetings. 

Mr. Moulder. Were the meetings held at different places ? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. At those meetings, did you record the names of thc^e 
present from which you now present the names before this committ'.(^? 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. You took notes during the meetings or immediately 
after the meetings ? 

Mr. Wereb. I did, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. AVhichway? 

Mr. Wereb. Sometimes mental, sometimes match covers, sometimes 
back of Peoples World. I can say that I have a fairly good memory, 
sir, and when the meeting was over and when I delivered my charges — 
I had to pick up a number of indigents who had no transportation, 
delivered them home — I searched my mind just like I was on trial, 
who was there. That one thing, I did not know who else was checking 
up on me, too. Therefore, I could not possibly make a mistake because 
someone would call me on it in a hurry or say, Who Avas such and such 
person ? 

I do not believe during the 4 years or over I have acted in that 
capacity that I have made an error because there were a number of 
others who would check on others, too. I was not the only one. There- 
fore, say the police department had their intelligence men there and 
they do compare notes, you know ; I didn't, but they do. Therefore, it 
was very important to me that I would minimize rather than exag- 
gerate. 

Mr. Moulder. I am sure of that. Now you say each of those per- 
sons named attended regularly at closed Communist Party meetings. 

Mr. Wereb. Over the period of 4 years; yes, sir. There was no one 
person outside of probably myself that attended every meeting. The 
only meeting I missed during that period, sir, was a time I had very 
serious surgery and I had to miss it because I could not possibly go 
that way. But outside of that, I made sure there was no such thing. I 
never went to bed any morning until a full report was written out 
while fresh in my mind from the notes and no chance for error and no 
chance for dreaming overnight that did not happen. Sometimes I did 
not get to bed before 4 or 5 o'clock in the morning, and that is what 
broke my health, I put in so much time. I would go to the embassy, 
150 names of people present, or at the Shrine auditorium or any doings 
at 2200, which is a favorite haunt. 

Mr. Moulder. The testimony now before the committee has just 
covered the Hawthorne area ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is right, just the Hawthorne area. I got more. 

Mr. Tavenner. You submitted the reports that you prepared of each 
meeting to the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 
Mr. Wereb. I did, sir. 



1808 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. I understand you to say that other people were 
doing the same thing. 

Mr. Wereb. Possibly. I did not know any, but possibly there were 
because I do not really believe the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
would rely on just one person, or the sheriff's office or the police 
department. They probably did not even know I existed. But these 
were all persons whose names I have given you, sir, who were at 
closed Communist functions and meetings where no one else can appear 
but Communists in good standing as far as the Communist Party is 
concerned. 

Mr. Moulder. I think you have made a very careful and accurate 
ref;ord. 

Mr. Wereb. I was very careful about it because I was very conscious 
of the fact that people did not get smeared, and it is something — words 
you can say, you can never take back. It is just like water ; if you spill 
water, you can never pick it up. 

Mr. Moulder. I believe you have performed your duty very care- 
fully. 

Mr. Wereb. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask one question of this witness before we adjourn 
for luncheon ? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. You have testified, both in your orignial statement and 
then in answers to my question and others, that definitely there was 
revolutionary propaganda and program spoken of by these instructors 
at these classes who came to your group from the county educa- 
tional level. Then I questioned you as to whether or not that included 
statements by these instructors from the county level of the Com- 
munist Party that there would be force necessary eventually to over- 
throw the capitalistic system. 

Now, up until the time you left the party, did you ever hear any 
instructor from the county" level or any other level in the Communist 
Party tell your cell when you were present that they had changed their 
revolutionary line ? In other words, did they stop teaching that func- 
tion? 

Mr. Wereb. To a peaceful line ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Wereb. No, sir. The works of Lenin, if anyone has read, and 
I was compelled to read some of it, sir, the works of Lenin will tell 
you the method of revolution, sir ; the method of violence. 

Mr. Doyle. I know that, sir. 

Mr. Wereb. They cannot practice anything, but Marxism teaches 
you what, Leninism tells you how to — how to force it. 

Mr. Doyle. You attended meetings almost every week or so. Any- 
one attending the meetings which you attended of the Communist 
Party, the closed meetings in the Hawthorne-Inglewood area, more or 
less during the period which you attended — what is your answer to 
the question whether or not it 'would have been possible, or probable, 
put it that way — would have been probable that any adult attending 
those meetings in that cell such as you attended over that period of 3 
or 4 years could possibly have attended more or less regularly without 
hearing instruction that sooner or later there would be force and 
violence needed ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1809 

Mr. Wereb. It would be impossible for this reason, sir, not to hear, 
because when you joined the Communist Party, sir, you were sent to 
a Marxist class of some type, whether club level or downtown level, 
and therefore they would teach you this tenet. In other words, this 
creed they teach it to you ; and if you attend Communist Party meet- 
ings more than 3 or 4 times, unless you are a — pardon the expression — 
nitwit, you could not help but know it was a revolutionary group that 
had as its purpose the overthrow of the United States Government by 
force and violence. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, some of those in attendance might have just 
figured that was a sort of theoretical philosophy rather than anything 
they intended to put into practice, could they not? 

Mr. Wereb. To prove practice in that respect, Mr. Doyle, you have 
to take this into consideration. It was not only the teaching but the 
actual practice of mobilization in the Communist Party which demon- 
strated its worth, its power, and its position. Even if you went out 
on a newspaper drive, they would say it was a mobilization, to mobilize 
forces to bring about — that is No. 1. If you went out to distribute 
leaflets, there was a leaflet distribution mobilization. Everything per- 
taining to anything that they know of — if I were to go out and distri- 
bute literature of any kind, I would say it is a literature distribution 
in favor of or against. "When you are constantly reminded that this 
io a party activity, this is a must, this is a mobilization, you could not 
very well be stupid enough, no one could be stupid enough, to not know 
what they were doing. 

Mr. DoYT.E. Tliat explains to me again one reason Avhy so many 
people plead the fifth amendment, because they heard that sort of 
philosophy talked and they did it with their eyes open. Now and then 
I find one tliat was asleep with his eyes open, but generally not. I 
asked you that question because I surmise there will be other witnesses 
from that area today or tomorrow who may plead the fifth amendment, 
and I just want to understand some of the reasons why they might. 
Your testimonj^ today makes me understand why they do, because 
it might incriminate them. 

INIr. Wereb. I have omitted here about 10 very important names 
from this group. I wonder if it would be all right to call them. 

Mr. TA\^N]srER. Which group ? 

Mr. Wereb. Ten very important names from this group I have 
omitted which I would like to identify at this time, if you can give 
me 5 minutes. 

Mr. DoYu.. Are these people personally known to you to be mem- 
bers of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, very important people. 

Mr. Doyle. To your personal knowledge ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is right, sir; those who contributed to the Com- 
munist effort. 

Mr. Doyle. I thinl?: we ought to hear the witness on these positive 
identifications. We are not going to shield any of them. 

Mr. Wereb. Eleanor Potter, the wife of" the Vernon L. Potter; 
Bronson Parrett, this man who was tossed from the Communist Party 
for certain reasons : Charles Karson, brother of Morris Karson, brother 
of Jack Karson. 



1810 COMMXTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

The Karson family are in the plumbing business in the southwest 
side somewhere or in the Adams district. I would not know, but that 
i;- the last I knew where they were active; Gladys Houston, the wife 
of one John Houston, H-o-u-s-t-o-n, a housewife. Contributed her 
efforts as to mailing, typing — whatever work, literary work, was 
necessary. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she the wife of the same John Houston you 
identified as chairman of the group ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is right. Henry Garrish, a self-styled aviation 
mechanic; Georgiana Garrish, the mother of Henry Garrish; John 
Garrish, same family at the Paseo de Gracia address; Laura R. Gar- 
rish ; Onya Fisher, 0-n-y-a F-i-s-h-e-r ; Ed Fisher. I believe the Fish- 
ers were aircraft workers of some type. I do not know their exact — 
they are from the Hawthorne district. 

These are the last few names I omitted from our group which was 
a little over a hundred there at one time. 

]Mr. Doyle. You have given us these names as contributors to the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. Any time you contribute effort, time, or moneys and 
carry a Communist card, sir, you are a Communist. 

Mr. Doyle. Did they carry cards ? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, most of them. 

Mr. Doyle. Are any people of that group that you knew not mem- 
bers of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. They were members of the Communist Party of that 
group at one time or another during that 4-year period. 

Mr. Doyle. The 4-year period beginning when and ending when? 

Mr. Wereb. I would say January 1944 to the first of January 1948. 

]VIr. Doyle, They were members, all of them, from time to time of 
the same group you were a member of ? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, same group ; either transferred in or transferred 
out. 

Mr. Doyle. You sat in closed meetings with them ? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, sir; I was one of the executive committee mem- 
bers, and therefore I had to be there. 

Mr. Doyle. We will adjourn until 2 o'clock. 

( Wliereupon, at 12 : 20 p. m., a recess was taken until 2 p. m., of 
the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— JULY 1, 1955 

(At the reconvening of the hearing after the noon recess. Repre- 
sentatives Doyle, Moulder, and Scherer were present.) 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will please reconvene. Let the record 
show that Congressman Scherer, of Ohio; Congressman Moulder, of 
Missouri ; and Congressman Doyle, of California, are present. 

This morning at 12 : 20, Mr. Counsel, we recessed until 2 o'clock, 
and it is now just exactly 2 o'clock. Again this afternoon I know we 
will have the very fine cooperation of everyone in the room, neither 
making any demonstration for anything that harms or against any- 
thing that happens by way of approbation. Thank you very much. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1811 

TESTIMONY OF STEPHEN A. WEREB— Resumed 

Mr. Taveistner. Mr. Wereb, we have heard through an earlier wit- 
ness during these hearings of the activities of the Communist Party 
in an early period of the history of the Communist Party in this area 
in the field of veterans' work. During the period that you were active 
in the Communist Party in behalf of the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation, did you observe any activities among veterans or veterans' 
organizations ? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, I did, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like for you to tell the committee, please, 
what you observed. 

Mr. Wereb. A man by the name of Stanley Chemiel who was known 
as a Communist came to an executive committee meeting. This will 
have to be phonetic, or as close as possible. Stanley was his first name, 
C-h-e-m-i-e-1. That is as close as I could get to that name. He was a 
real-estate broker, and I do not know what else around the city. He 
came and he said that the party was very much interested in the veter- 
ans and gaining enough veterans with military experience, and they 
were thinking of establishing a group similar to the American Legion 
or the AMVETS or the Veterans of Foreign Wars, and that they 
would give this a new name. 

Again they dragged out the liberal, progressive name and said the 
other veterans' organizations were reactionary and Fascist-minded and 
therefore they would try to institute a new organization. 

In the South Bay area at that time a party by the name of Jack 
Kramer, K-r-a-m-e-r — this is the same Kramer I previously mentioned 
as a member of the Hawthorne Communist group — Mike Gorman and 
Pete Johnson — Johnson — by the way this was at his home, and John- 
son was a Communist of long record. At one time at my home he said 
tliat during the riot somewhere in Joliet or somewhere he hoisted the 
Red flag above the city hall and tore down the American flag. These 
were the type of peo]^le that held the meeting and were going to start 
this new organization. 

At that time they named it the American Veterans Committee. I 
am a veteran and do not know anything about it, never belonged to 
them. They had quite a meeting. A committee was appointed to rep- 
resent the group, and in that committee was a Mike Gorman and P. 
Johnson representing the Hawthorne group. Being Peoples World 
director at that time and district manager, I was left out of the further 
proceedings. But the next general meeting that I know of the vet- 
erans 

Mr. Tavenner. Before you come to the next general meeting, you 
said that the principal instigator was a person named Stanley Chemiel. 

Mr. Wereb. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether he used any other name? 

]Mr. Wereb. I do not believe I do, sir. This is the only name I ever 
knew the man by. He was one that represented the group. 

The next meeting was held in the Venus area, and after that there 
was, I believe on Vermont Avenue somewhere, a very large meeting 
held. Only through newspapers and through the Peoples World did 
I follow the progress of this American Veterans Committee. The 
Peoples World, of course being very friendly to it, immediately pointed 
out to me that, well, things could be clifTerent and they should be dif- 
ferent as far as veterans' organizations are concerned. 



1812 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

At subsequent meetings of the gjroup and the functionaries, the 
American Veterans Committee always received firsthand attention 
because they did put up a veterans' commission in the functionaries 
of the Los Angeles County Communist organization. So in the future 
when I mention Los Angeles County, I do not mean the State or the 
county organization of our instituted Government, but I mean the 
Communist Party. Further from that, of course, I could not be inter- 
ested because I had too many other duties to do. Someone else prob- 
ably took up where I left off, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You gave us a list of the positions which you held 
in the Communist Party. I do not believe that any of those positions 
were on a county or State level, were they ? 

Mr. Wereb. Any functionary attending any of the county functions, 
meetings, is considered as a working part of the Communist function- 
ary group. You are not one of the county committee board members, 
but you do function as an active functionary in your district. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever function in that capacity ? 

Mr. Wereb. I did. sir. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Will you describe that to the committee ? 

Mr. Wereb. One of the functions I would like to call your attention 
to was in the month of June, I believe, 1945. I was given credentials 
by the club chairman, John Houston. This was printed by the Los 
Angeles County Communist Board, and it was signed. With these 
credentials I attended what was known as the southwest section, 
southern section of the State of California Convention of the Commu- 
nist Party. That was held in the Danish Hall around 24th or 25th 
Street, a few doors east of Vermont Avenue. This was approximately 
the month of June in 1945. 

Mr. Tan^nner. What was the purpose of that meeting? 

Mr. Wereb. Prior to the meeting there was a copy of a letter or a 
printed form of a letter that was submitted to each group known as 
the Duclos letter. This Duclos letter was a speech that was written by 
a French Communist by the name of Duclos in France criticizing the 
Browder regime at that time for its semicooperation with capitalism 
and capitalist governments. 

An educational, which is held 1 hour of each meeting of the regular 
membership of each group, was held prior to this and the oldtimers^ 
the old revolutionaries — were very elated that the letter appeared. 
They thought they would send their best representatives of the group 
to this doing. I attended that, entered the auditorium on the second 
floor with this pass. 

Mr. Tavenner. With this what ? 

Mr. Wereb. With this credential pass. There were about 350 to 
400 people present at this, and they were all functionaries. There 
could be no one that would enter that group without a pass, an official 
pass. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat means were adopted to be certain that those 
present had proper credentials ? 

Mr. Wereb. There were these passes, and if you did not have a 
credential card you were sent to a committee room to be identified. I 
happened to be fortunate enough to be elected to the credentials com- 
mittee with Emily Gordon and Max Silver — the three of us were on 
the credentials committee — and there we had to identify or someone 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1813 

had to identify a person who had no Communist credentials but who 
was a known and active Communist. 

There, sir, I met a man who was brought into that room whom I 
identified as Ring Lardner, Jr. He came into that room and Max 
Silver identified the man and vouched for him. Therefore, we seated 
him with the Hollywood delegation. 

This meeting went on for a day, full day, and a night. There were 
new chairmen elected to this group and, as I said before, they were all 
active functionaries of the Communist Party. Difi^erent people ap- 
proached microphones located at strategic positions on the convention 
floor. I believe there were 5, 1 for the speaker and 2 in each aisle. As 
these members would come up, they would come up with a prepared 
text praising the Duclos letter and danming Browder but darn good. 

The very first speaker that I recall was William Schneiderman, a 
Smith Act case. He stood there before thece 400 delegates and said 
he was very sorry that he had cooperated with the Browder revision- 
ism and that if the party would elect him or appoint him as the head 
of the State Communist group, he would try to be more militant and 
lead the party to a more militant role. 

Next came, I believe, Dorothy Healy. She was always revolution- 
ary. She just went on down the line staying with the rest. 

Paul Cline, who at one time was assistant editor of the Peoples 
World, approached the microphone and he also confessed to his re- 
visionist attitude and prepared to be and promised to be more revolu- 
tionary. 

Max Silver made a very feeble effort, but he was the head of the 
Los Angeles County Communist Party during the Browder adminis- 
tration, so he was doomed and he knew it. 

Next came a person by the name 

Mr. Ta\'enner. I would like to refresh the recollection of the com- 
mittee on the point of IMax Silver. 
Mr. Doyle. He has testified and cooperated with this committee. 
Mr. Ta\texner. Yes. He testified before the committee that when 
he saw this letter for the first time, which I believe was at breakfast, 
he stated to his wife that that letter was the equivalent of a declaration 
of war and that the only thing that was uncertain was the time at which 
the war would occur. He laid his plans then, as soon as he saw that 
letter, to get out of the Communist Party, which he did. 
Mr. Moulder. Declaration of war by what country ? 
Mr. Tavenner. By the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Wereb. It is very true that Mr. Silver made a very feeble effort 
to defend himself. 

The next speaker was a person by the name of Buth Goldstein, 
G-o-l-d-s-t-e-i-n, I believe. This man stood in the center of the audi- 
torium — I beg your pardon; the right side of the auditorium — and 
stated he was a Communist for 11 years; that he was a sergeant in the 
Abraham Lincoln Brigade ; that he served under the command of one 
Jack Karson, previously mentioned as a member of the Hawthorne 
group, who was a lieutenant in this group. He could not understand 
why the Communist Party of the United States ever sunk to the level 
of cooperation, revisionism, and he demanded that there would be a 
revolution of the workers of this country ; that there would be estab- 
lished a dictatorship of the proletariat. With that, when he finished, 
he got quite an ovation. 



1814 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

The next speaker was a man by the name of Kay Durant, also iden- 
tified himself. As to his Communist membership and leadership, beat 
his breast like the rest of them, I guess, about how sorry they were 
about revisionism. He promised a very much more militant role. He 
demanded that in the resolution of the day, which was to be drawn up 
by the resolutions committee of that group, that it be embodied, his 
demand, that there would be an overthrow of the United States Gov- 
ernment and the establishment of a dictatorship of the proletariat. 
With that, the whole group gave him a terrific, terrific sendoff. He 
really got quite an applause. 

That is one of the functions that I have attended. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has heard evidence a number of 
times about tlie purpose of the Duclos letter and the result of the 
Duclos letter, l)ut I believe this is the first time we have had an eye- 
witness account of a meeting in a locality describing the participation 
that people took in the deliberations. 

May I ask you whether or not, at the time or very shortly 
after the time that you observed this meeting that you made a report 
of it to the Federal Bureau of Investigation? 

Mr. Wereb. I made a report that evening and the following day; 
that is, the following evening, after the meeting was over, because I 
had too many names and it seemed like everyone was taking notes. 
I took notes and I managed to identify a lot of people as they stood 
and identified themselves to speak and as to their union affiliation, 
their positions in the union. I could not help but feel that that was an 
important step toward protection of the proper union people, people 
with good, respectable standings in their unions. It alarmed me to 
this extent: that I believe labor was slandered, having people like 
that at any command or leadership post, but that was the party's pro- 
gram and policy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you record the names of the persons present 
that you could identify ? 

;Mr. Wereb. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. As members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Wereb. I did, sir. Did you wish to hear them now? 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you this first : Do they include in some 
instances the names of the members of the Hawthorne Club that you 
have already given us? 

Mr. Wereb. I believe there are about four names in there in that 
group. There were, I believe, four delegates to this convention. 

Mr. Tavenner. With the exception of a very small number, these 
are persons not already identified by you ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct, and these are all functionaries of the 
party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. I would like for to proceed. Again, if 
you can give any identifying information in addition to the name 
itself, I wish you would do it. 

Mr. Wereb. I will try. 

The first person was William Schneiderman, Smith case. 

Mr. Taa'enner. When you say 'Smith case," you are speaking of one 
of the defendants in the Smith trial ? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes ; who was convicted of the Smith Act. 

Alice Ward Sparks : The assistant manager, business manager, of 
the People's World in Los Angeles. 



COMMinsnST activities in the LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1815 

Bud Blair, B-l-a-i-r : This man was the chairman of the South Side 
or industrial section, 

Emil Freed, F-r-e-e-d, who was convicted in the Los Angeles courts 
for inciting a riot at some strike line or other, and he served a little 
time. 

Harold Koberts : An employee of the Peoples World. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I interrupt you a moment. Do you know 
whether Emil Freed was at one time a candidate for the United States 
Senate on the Communist ticket? 

Mr. Wereb. I do not recall. 

Helen Norf jor, N-o-r-f-j-o-r : A printer's helper. 

John Stapp, active in the moving picture unions. I do not know 
which one, in the moving picture industry. 

Mr. Tavenner. These, I understand, were functionaries. 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, sir; functionaries. These were all people who 
were delegated with these credentials and these credential cards, be- 
cause as the cards were turned in I copied the names. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has had considerable evidence re- 
garding John Stapp and his activities as a functionary. 

Mr. Wereb. Beebe Goldstein, an employee of a trucking concern. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell Goldstein. 

Mr. Wereb. G-o-l-d-s-t-e-i-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. And spell all of the names after this, 

Mr. Wereb. I am sorry. 

Miriam Brooks, M-i-r-i-a-m B-r-o-o-k-s. So far as I knew, that 
was correct. 

We have a repetition here ; Dan McComb. 

Mr. Tavenner, Whom you have already identified. 

Mr. Wereb. I have already identified him in the Hawthorne group. 

Edith Smith : I have already identified her in the Hawthorne group. 

Dave Chriss, who at that time was heading the El Segundo-Redondo 
group. They had split. 

Jean Chriss : I have already identified her as the relative of Dave 
Chriss. 

Wilhelmina Maise, M-a-i-s-e : She is the one that signed me up to tlie 
Communist Party and was chairman of the West Lake group. 

Elizabeth Glenn- — also knew her as Elizabeth Leich Glenn. 

Adele Young, a housewife, I believe, and active around the book- 
store quite a bit. Progressive Book Shop. 

Lou Baron, active in a builder's union ; also I believe for awhile on 
the county committee, B-a-r-o-n. 

Mike Gorman ; also identified this person before. 

Chester Fein, F-e-i-n : I also identified him in the Hawthorne group. 

Bea or Beatrice Baron, B-a-r-o-n, a fulltime employee of the Los 
Angeles County Communist Party collecting dues from dues secre- 
taries. 

Bill O'Neil : I believe he was an aircraft worker, O'-N-e-i-l, of a 
group on the west side somewhere. 

Frank Whitley, W-h-i-t-1-e-y : Whitley was the chairman, I believe, 
of the Adams Communist Party group. 

Ann Trojan, T-r-o-j-a-n, very active in the Rhetta group. 

Mr. Tavenner. What group ? 

Mr. Wereb. Rhetta Club of the Communist Party ; R-h-e-t-t-a, I 
believe. The Rhetta group. 



1816 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Louise McCord, M-c-C-o-r-d : I believe she was one of the delegates 
in a number of functions from a different group, but I cannot recall 
which one. 

Nemmy Sparks: This man was the chairman of tlie Los Angeles 
County Communist Party at 124 West Sixth Street for a period of 
a year and a half or more. N-e-m-m-y. This was an alias, and I never 
did find out what his real name was. 

Dorothy Healy, H-e-a-1-y: She succeeded Max Silver in his posi- 
tion as the party executive secretary. 

Mr. DoTx,E. When was Max Silver deposed or when did he get out? 
What happened? 

Mr. Wereb. Right after the Duclos letter he was disposed of. 

Mr. Doyle. Just like Browder? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, evicted ; could not serve the purpose of the revolu- 
tionary group. Was of no use to the party. 

Mr. Doyle. I read the Duclos letter some years ago, and as I recall 
the appraisal I made of it , it was the same as you have. The 
Communist papers disagreed with Browder's belief that the Com- 
munist policy would fit in and keep economic peace with the 
capitalistic philosophy of our Nation, and the Soviet Communist 
Party through Duclis, the Frenchman as you say, wrote this letter 
to this country showing it could not be ; that there must be the survival 
of one economic philosophy or he other, Soviet communism or our own 
capitalist people. Some people favor the Soviet Commimist 
philosophy. 

Mr. Wereb. At one time I was appointed temporary educational 
director. A full-time Communist employee of the party by the name 
of George Sandy instructed me as to how to conduct an educational, 
which is most important of any Communist meeting. He said, "Well, 
you know during this Browder period" — there was no Duclos letter 
in sight at that time, but he said during this Browder period, "Tell 
them anything, what is the difference? It is not going to stay put 
anyway ; they won't know the difference. Wlien the right time comes 
the party will become" — it was way over my head; I didn't know 
what he was talking about. 

I talked of some of the writings of Browder at that time. He 
thought at the end of the meeting I had done a fairly good job, but 
it was of no consequence, meant nothing; and the party was aware 
this was only temporary, just one sidestep before stepping forward. 

Mr. Doyle. AVliat was the sidestep ? 

Mr. Wereb. This cooperative period of Browder. It was in my 
mind — to the best of my judgment, sir, it was nothing but a sham 
until the war was over, that they could get all they possibly could 
from this country and then they would turn and become the same old 
revolutionary brigands they have ever been. 

Mr. ScHERER. I wonder if we can apply a little of that philosophy 
to the present world situation. 

Mr. Wereb. They took a step back this time, sir. Marxist philoso- 
phy is you can't always march forward; sometimes take a step side- 
wise, retreat 1 step to gain 4 steps. As far as I am concerned, this 
smiling and wearing of the 10-gallon hat in my estimation is a lot of 
hokum: something to make a lot of good, honest, decent thinking 
Americans sleep and think, well, manana is here and we are all all 
right now ; he is fine. That is my personal opinion. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1817 

Mr. ScHERER. The reason I asked the question, I wondered if we 
can draw any conclusions from what you said 

Mr. Wereb. I hoped you would. 

Mr. ScHERER. With present-day conditions. 

Mr. "\Yereb. I had hoped you would, Congressman. 

Next was Merle Brodsky, M-e-r-1-e B-r-o-d-s-k-y, active in one of 
the east side groups and also a delegate from one of the east side 
groups. 

Elmer Averbuck, A-v-e-r-b-u-c-k, a stuttering, tall fellow, active 
also in the Hollywood group. 

Now comes Shevy Wallace, at one time member of the Rhetta group, 
and then finally a full-time employee of the county Communist Party. 

(At this point Representative Jackson entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Wereb. Trudy Siminov, T-r-u-d-y S-i-m-i-n-o-v. She was an 
employee, I believe, of the Yugoslav Relief Committee, the Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee, and then she worked for the county part 
time. She was also a delegate to all the county functions and the 
functionaries meetings. 

Barbara Morley, M-o-r-l-e-y, full-time paid employee of the Los 
Angeles County Communist Party. 

Frances Stapp, S-t-a-p-p, of the Hollywood group. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Is that a man or woman ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is a woman, F-r-a-n-c-e-s. 

Pettis Perry, a man who headed the colored commission, very active 
at the CIO hall most of the time. 

Delphine Smith, D-e-1-p-h-i-n-e Smith. She was very active in the 
Long Beach and Wilmington area and San Pedro area. I think she 
worked in the shi]Dyards for a while. 

Frances Lynn. I knew her just as a delegate. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Was that individual a man or AAoman ? 

Mr. Wereb. Woman ; L-y-n-n. It might be L-y-n, but we used the 
name Lynn most of the time for her in our reports. 

Ola Pacifico, 0-1-a P-a-c-i-f-i-c-o, the employee of the county who 
was discharged from the health department because she would not 
sign the non-Communist oath. 

Sally Chriss, previously mentioned as a member of the Redondo 
group. 

Frank Spector, S-p-e-c-t-o-r, an oldtimer; made the papers a lot 
of times. 

Ken Ostreimer, O-s-t-r-e-i-m-e-r, male. 

Ben Richman. This Ben Richman was also one of tlie proponents 
and instigators from the group around the— I cannot recall that area 
right now, near the West Lake group in the American Veterans' Com- 
mittee. He was active at putting on parties at liis home for the bene- 
fit of the Communist Party and the Peoples World. 

Al Richmond, R-i-c-h-m-o-n-d. He is a Smith Act conviction from 
the Peoples World. 

George Sandy, the man I have previously mentioned as a full-time 
employee or organizer for the Los Angeles County Communist Party. 

Ester Miller Sazer, illegal entry into the country from Canada, the 
best I can remember. She went by two names : Miller and Sazer both. 

Mr. Moulder. Can you further identify the people by the name of 
Richmond? 

Mr. Wereb. Wliich Richmond, Al or Ben ? 



1818 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Moulder. There was a Richman. 

Mr. Wereb. Richman was the man that was active in the AVC 
movement; Richmond was the editor of the Peoples World in San 
Francisco. 

Mr. Moulder. Wliat was his full name ? 

Mr. Wereb. A1. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you know where he lived ? 

Mr. Wereb. He lived in San Francisco. He was convicted under 
the Smith Act. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe Sazer was the last. 

]\Ir. Wereb. That is the illegal entry into the county, the Sazer 
woman. 

Judy Schmidt, S-c-h-m-i-d-t, for a time full-time employee of the 
Peoples World. 

Al Sherman, S-h-e-r-m-a-n, Hollywood group. 

ISIiriam Brook Sherman, wife, very active and constant delegate. 
According to one of her speeches, she was given a trip to Russia to see 
Stalin because she recruited more members into the Communist Party 
than anyone in the Los Angeles County, so her reward was a trip to see 
Stalin. 

Mr. ScHERER, Do you know whether she got to see him or not ? 

Mr. Wereb. She stated that she did. It was only through her story 
and what she repeated to the functionaries group is where I got my 
information. 

Mr. Doyle. Where did she make that statement ? 

Mr. Wereb. She made that at 2200 East Seventh Street sometime 
in August of 1945. 

Mr. Scherer. Was she impressed ? 

Mr. Wereb. I guess she was. She was rather a big figure in the 
Hollywood Communist group. She was very influential. 

Walter Smith, male; in the San Pedro area. 

(At this point. Representative Moulder left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Wereb. Jane Sniffen, S-n-i-f-f-e-n. This is a woman who be- 
longed to a group, but I could not tell you what group she belonged to. 
I had seen her a number of times at functionaries meetings, out it 
seemed like I always tried to find out who somebody else was. I had 
her pegged already, so it was all right. 

Loretta Stack of San Francisco, I believe, and she was also known 
as Starvus. She is the woman that got up at this meeting I have refer- 
ence to and stated that the workers of the United States would be the 
gravediggers of the capitalist government of this comitry. Also re- 
ceived quite an ovation. 

Mr. Doyle. Where was that ? 

Mr. Wereb. At 2200 West Seventh Street, the second section of the 
California Communist convention. I believe it was in August of 1945. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you make it clear to me how high up the ladder of 
Communist functionaries she was? 

Mr. Wereb. She was one of the State committee members. 

Mr. Doyle. State of California ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Was there any way. Witness, of you knowing whether 
these people who made these statements did so with conviction and 
sincerity, or were they merely going through a ritual ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1819 

Mr. Wereb. At a Communist Party functionary meeting, sir, you 
only say the policy of the party. You do not repeat any iriesponsible 
self-thought or self-induced speeches or ideas. You repeat only the 
party policy, especially when you are holding a position as high as 
she has held. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is what I meant, whether it was merely a ritual 
or repetition of party policy, or whether these people actually were 
convinced. Of course, it is difficult for you to look into somebody's 
mind, I know that; but from your wide experience and acquaintance 
with these individuals, I was wondering whether or not you came to 
any conclusions as to whether they were actually revolutionaries at 
heart or whether they were merely repeating a ritual or policy of the 
party in line with what was expected of them. 

Mr. Wereb. Might I explain this way: She was also 1 of the 14 
convicted in Federal courts in this country, in this State, under the 
Smith Act. 

Mr. Scherer. That certainly answers my question as to her. 

Mr. Wereb. Anna Tenoyucca, T-e-n-o-y-u-c-c-a. I believe she was 
one of the Spanish or Mexican descent delegates, or of the Mexican 
group — I am not too sure. 

Harry Bennett, B-e-n-n-e-t-t, of the Terrace Communist group. 
That is an East Side group. 

His wife, Sophia, S-o-p-h-i-a, Bennett. 

Charlotte, C-h-a-r-1-o-t-t-e, Benoitte, B-e-n-o-i-t-t-e — just known as 
a delegate, did not have too much time with her. 

Mrs. Bud Blair, this is the wife of the chairman of the industrial 
section of the South Side section of the Communist Party. 

Carl Brant, B-r-a-n-t. He was labor chairman of the Los Angeles 
County labor group ; also chairman of this meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee endeavored to subpena Mr. Brant 
for this hearing but was unable to serve the subpena. Do you have 
any other information about his activities in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. I do, sir. And this is where I believe that the honor- 
able Congressmen would be very much interested as to the violence 
put into practice by the Communist Party. 

Mr. Scherer. May I interrupt, Mr. Chairman? This witness cer- 
tainly has been on the stand a long time and must be tired. Is there 
not some way we could give him a little recess and call some other 
witness in the meantime and then bring him back ? He has been on 
the stand a couple of hours before lunch and now also another hour. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I would like for him to proceed a 
little further, if you do not mind. Will you tell us about Carl Brant? 

Mr. Wereb. In the fall— rather, the early part of the winter of 
1946, I believe it was near Christmas, we were given instruction by 
the chairmen of our groups to attend a meeting held at the Templar 
Hall, which is located just west of Jefferson, west of Vermont Ave- 
nue on Jefferson Boulevard. The meeting ordinarily for a function- 
ary group, has always been designated— it is designated as to its 
nature, whether a Peoples World drive, membership drive, or what- 
ever drive this is. This was nameless. Only the South Side section, 
including the San Pedro area, the Long Beach area, Wilmington, was 
called to this meeting. 



1820 COMMUlSriST activities est the LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

The meeting was chaired by Bud Blair, the section chairman. 
He started off by reading off some Peoples World drives, which 
were absolutely impertinent to what we were called for. A few 
minutes after we started speaking of the Peoples World progress, 
a man walked in whom I knew to be a Communist for a long time, 
Carl Brant. He was also the head of a union that was on strike at 
that time at the United States Motors located near Slausson and 
Avalon Boulevards, I believe two blocks west. 

Bud Blair introduced Carl Brant to the group; that Carl Brant 
would have something very serious to say to this group. Everyone 
sat back and listened. He said, "Comrades" 

Mr. Tavenner. Who said this ? 

Mr. Wereb. Carl Brant. He now was addressing this meeting. He 
said, "Comrades, there has been by the superior court in the county of 
Los Angeles an order issued limiting the pickets. This is unfair, a 
screwy decision, and we are not going to stand by and take it. There- 
fore tomorrow morning each and every one of you recruit, bring out 
all the husky manpower you possibly can because we are going to boot 
the hell out of the Los Angeles police and we are going to break that 
order." 

Mr. ScETERER. I wonder what becomes of all of the assertions and 
statements that we hear before this committee by certain witnesses; 
namely, that we should leave these matters up to the courts and that 
they will abide by the decisions of the courts, and they are not inter- 
ested in the conclusions of this committee. It seems that when they 
get into court the same reasoning applies to court decisions and the 
attitudes of courts as it does to the activities of this committee. I just 
wanted to make that observation. 

Mr. Wereb. He said, "This is the time for Communist action. You 
have mobilized, you have learned to mobilize. Now we are going to 
put mobilization into force." 

Mr. Doyle. How many men were there ? 

Mr. Wereb. The following morning, sir, I went out, being Peoples 
World director. 

Mr. Doyle. How many were at this meeting? 

Mr. Weree. I would say 30 people. 

Mr. Doyle. Any women? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, there were, because there were functionaries, wom- 
en functionaries in the group ; women can recruit and mobilize as well 
as men can, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. This incident which he is relating demonstrates to 
me clearly the value of having informants within that group because 
I am sure that before he had concluded the police department and the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation knew the intention of that group to 
mobilize against the police. 

Mr. Doyle. In any sense, was this a Communist closed meeting or 
union ? 

Mr. Wereb. This was a Communist functionary meeting of the 
South Side industrial section ; there was no one else but Communists 
there. I believe Alice Ward, Nemmy Spark's wife, was one. I be- 
lieve Elsie Mancar, secretary of the Mine, Mill and Smelters Workers 
Union, was present. There were a number of other people. At the 
present time I am too much occupied in my mind to relate who were 
there. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1821 

Mr. DoTLE. In other words, here was a bunch of 35 or 40 Commu- 
nists planning to do something on the picket line. 

Mr. Wereb. The idea, sir, was we were going to break the police line. 

Mr. ScHERER. Violate the order of the court. 

Mr. Doyle. Violate the order of the court and bring reputable or- 
ganized labor into disrepute. 

Mr. Wereb. The following morning I was on the f)icket line with the 
manpower we mobilized. The police department had a hundred or 
more policemen out there in the morning, and at 7 o'clock the parade 
started. In spite of the police loudspeaker warnings, the parade 
started down Lawson Avenue going west; I would say 1,500 people. 
This was led by 2 people. They spearheaded this. One was Philip 
Connelly. This Philip Connelly was convicted of the Smith Act in 
this trial in Los Angeles, and this man Carl Brant. They came at the 
head of this and defied the police, defied all of the people — all its law- 
makers — and they were going to have violence, and they did have 
violence. There were a number of heads broken, tear gas. There was 
fighting, there was general rioting. 

Mr. Jackson. The usual police brutality, isn't that the expression ? 
That is how it was reported in the paper, Cossacks attack the innocent 
workers and violence 

Mr. Wereb. I took refuse in the railroad yards, over the back fenc€. 
I am not young, but I made it. I wanted no tear gas or police. 

Mr. Scherer. How many joined the picket line ? 

Mr. Wereb. I would say 1,500 ; I do not say all Conunies. 

Mr. Scherer. Three hundred less than picketed us last month in 
Newark. 

Mr. Wereb. That demonstrated to me violence and bloodshed as 
taught by Marxism and Leninism. It was a method of carrying out 
defiance of legal authority. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, here were two known Communists lead- 
ing a group of American working men and women, most of whom 
probably had no idea that the Communist Party was leading them 
down the road. 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. Again bringing reputable labor in my State in disrepute. 

Mr. Wereb. That is right. This was just one of the instances of 
bringing out mobilization, bringing out force, bringing out violence — 
because I could not describe it better, I could not conscientiously in 
my own mind justify it any other way but an actual revolutionary 
step. I can be told by authorities not to do so, and the reason I am 
told that is because a law was enacted by the greatest majority of the 
people through the representatives for that, and when I defy that I 
know I am doing the wrong thing. And they knew, because the police 
came with loudspeakers and warned them that they are acting against 
the orders of the court and that if they dispersed there would be no 
trouble. But instead of dispersing, these two men led this group — 
and most naturally, most of the front people were Communists. 

Mr. Scherer. Instead of following the procedures prescribed by the 
Constitution which they pretend to defend in these hearings and ap- 
pealing the decision of that court through the procedures prescribed, 
they took the law into their own hands and violated the order of the 
court. 

65500—55 — pt. 4 4 



1822 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Wereb. This was one of the instances, sir. 

I would appreciate about a 10 minute recess. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask you one question first. The Philip Con- 
nelly you referred to as being one of the two leaders of this group, 
do you recall whether or not he served a jail sentence on the charge 
oi inciting a riot? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, he did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Relating to this very matter ? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, he did, sir. There were about 15 people of the 
leadership of that group who served sentences, but I stayed out of that 
mostly because I did not want to get involved. There was a chance 
for me to be uncovered, so I stepped back and stayed away. There 
A^ ere chances there of being uncovered, and I could not take that. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will stand in recess 5 minutes. 

(Whereupon, a short recess was taken.) 

ISIr, Doyle. Come to order. 

Let the record show that a legal quorum of the subcommittee is 
here, Mr. Jackson, of California; Mr. Scherer, of Ohio; and Mr. 
Doyle, of California. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Wereb, you were answering a few questions I 
had asked you regarding Carl Brandt. Will you proceed now with 
giving of the names of the functionaries of the Communist Party 
who attended the meeting regarding the Duclos letter ? 

Mr. Wereb. We had one Archie Brown, who at one time ran for 
Governor of the State of California on the Communist Party ticket. 
Rose Chernin, convicted in the Smith Act. Philip Connelly, con- 
victed in the Smith Act. Ben Dobbs, convicted. Smith Act. Dr. Hy 
Engelberg. This next name I am going to omit because this woman 
was not at that meeting. That was Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. She 
was at another meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, you do not place her at that meeting ? 

Mr. Wereb. Not at that particular meeting. She was at another 
meeting and somehow this name got into this wrong place. She was 
one of the national committeemen, I think, of the Communist Party 
of the United States. 

Jim Forrest — he was the chairman and organizer in the Long 
Beach area of the Communist Party. Leon Ginsberg, functionary 
from the west side. Shirley Gray, functionary, I don't recall from 
what club at this time. Henry Steinberg, convicted in the Smith Act. 
Jane Swanhauser. She is of the Hollywood group, I believe, a func- 
tionary, and very active in the People's World drive. She was very 
active in membership committee drives. 

James Talley, a functionary of the Central Avenue section. Frank 
ICadish, member of the county committee of the Los Angeles party. 
Pat Kiloran. Pat Kiloran I believe was also a reporter for the People's 
World. 

Eva Korn — she assisted very often besides her functionary work, 
she assisted at the county offices with literature work, mimeographing, 
mailing, and whatnot. 

Rudy Lambert, convicted. Smith case. Ring Lardner, Jr., was 
supposed to have been at the first section, not the second section I am 
speaking of now. He should have been mentioned as present at the 
first section at the Danish Hall. Albert Lima, convicted. Smith Act. 
George Lohr, representing, I believe, the San Diego area. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1823 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, that is the same individual that 
we learned during the San Diego hearings was in Czechoslovakia. 
He is in Czechoslovakia now. 

All right, go ahead. 

Mr. Wereb. Jack Moss. I omitted two names until later for other 
purposes. Those two were not present at that meeting. 

Fletcher Nester, father-in-law or father of Dorothy Healey, con- 
victed under the Smith Act, not Fletcher Nester but Dorothy Healey 
was. Sophie Nester. These are the names. 

There are more names I have but these are names of those people 
who were at the southern section of the California Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have been asking you what functionary meetings 
of the Communist Party you attended and this one in which you have 
named all these functionaries was one of them. 

Were there any other functionary meetings that you attended? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes; there were, sir. I recall one functionary meeting 
in the early part of 1947. At this meeting ,there were 2 within 3 weeks, 
large functionary meetings that were held at '2-20i) East Seventh Sti'eet. 
I think it was known as the Park Manor. There at the first meeting 
William Schneiderman instructed all functionaries due to tlie trouble 
he is having with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the police de- 
partment, and other stool-pigeon agencies as he called them, he no 
longer wants any contact with party members by mail, telephone; the 
correct names are no longer necessary to be used. 

If you have any new member or a recruit as they would call them 
you are to take them to places of integration personally and see that 
they were integrated into their Marxist classes or into the groups to 
which they will be assigned, be it labor, be it language, or be it arts or 
whatever group that they had work in. 

He seemed very, very much dissatisfied with the treatment the 
American people were giving the Communist Party and he urged 
that there would be a doublecheck on all members, there would be a 
security check on everybody and that this check would include a very 
severe Marxist program and this Marxist program would include all 
labor leaders and those who are active in their union to be given special 
Marxist training and that no longer 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. 

Mr. Wereb. May I finish the sentence ? 

Mr. Scherer. To keep the record straight, when you said give these 
instructions to all leaders in labor unions, you mean leaders who 
were already members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is right. You broke my thought there. 

Mr. Scherer. It sounded too bad on the record. 

Mr. Wereb. He said that labor union men who might think that 
their position in the party as Communists would jeopardize their posi- 
tion in the union, they no longer would have to be known as Commu- 
nists. That was the sum and substance of the security meeting of that 
group. 

Mr. Scherer. You mean they wouldn't have to disclose their 
identity, those groups would go underground ? 

Mr. Wereb. Especially in labor movement or labor leadership. 

Mr. Scherer. You said this was a rather rigid security check ? 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, it was. The order was to conduct a rigid security 
check. 



1824 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you given your security check following that 
meeting ? 

Mr. Wereb. Very shortly. I want no more. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were members dismissed as a result of that security 
check ? 

Mr. Wereb. They would be tried by a security group or security 
body and then if the party found that they were antagonistic to the 
party or they were not loyal or were not willing to go down the full 
line of the party, they would be tried in absentia or within their 
presence, didn't make a bit of difference, and they would be listed by 
the party as enemies of labor, stool pigeons of capitalism and they 
would tag them, they would manage to hang a tag or some type on 
them whereby that individual was no longer accepted by capital or 
by labor. 

Mr. Tavenner. The party felt for its own safety and security it had 
to expel those from its list those who were not loyal to the party ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am wondering today when the United States Gov- 
ernment is doing the same thing, expelling from its employ persons 
who it feels are security risks, why there is such a hue and cry about 
that type of check by this same group who did the same thing to protect 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask this : I understood you to say that these Com- 
munist Party members were tried for security clearance even in their 
absence. 

Mr. Wereb. They were tried 

Mr. Doyle. You said in absentia. 

Mr. Wereb. In other words, they didn't have to be present at the- 
trial. 

Mr. Doyle. They always got notice of the trial, I hope. 

Mr. Wereb. Yes; they did, but ordinarily it wasn't very compli- 
mentary, they would get it in a roundabout way in such a way as to 
destroy their standing in the union, in their job. 

Mr. Doyle. Did they get a bill of particulars or complaint? 

Mr. Wereb. That was always prewritten, always the same charge,, 
as being an enemy to the masses. That was the general charge and 

Mr. Doyle. Very indefinite. 

Mr. Wereb. They didn't care about any points that were definite. 
You were just an enemy to the masses of the people and therefore you 
were expelled or you were tagged or you were eliminated. 

There was another class- — may I proceed ? 

There was another class within 3 weeks or so of this security class, 
which was chaired by Dorothy Healy. Dorothy Healy reminded us of 
the meeting 3 weeks previous and agreed fully that the worst, that 
there were spies in the organization, there were disruptions, anything 
that didn't please them was a disruption. There was opportunism, 
that is another tag they would hang on somebody, an opportunist, and 
you were dead. 

Of course saying dead would be just as a member. This meeting, 
she proposed another group, some of them of this first bunch that were 
present and then I have other names that were present at this other 
class or group for instruction and she told the functionaries not to use 
the mail, not to contact by phone, but all strikes are to be Communist 
led and they are to be controlled by the Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1825 

The progress of the strike was to be reported to the county board 
from time to time as to its progress or no progress. She urged that 
there would be mass meetings of disruption of proceedings, disorderly 
conduct, and what-not, at shop gates, open Communist meetings or 
progressive meetings, shall we say, on street corners, that Congressmen 
were to be picketed at their homes in case they enacted legislation con- 
trary to the welfare of the party. 

Mr. Doyle. The Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is right. Would you mind if I refresh my mind 
on that meeting? I have a note or two here which I would like to 
bring out. I hate to delay. She also urged that every one would be 
doubly checked ag;ain for Marxist and Leninist training. _ She de- 
manded the reinstitution of all Leninist programs. A Leninist pro- 
gram was the means of carrying out revolution. It wasn't Marxist 
so much, it was the Leninist program she was driving at. 

Mr. Doyle. Wliat woman was that ? 

Mr. Wereb. Dorothy Healy, the head of the Los Angeles County 
Communist Party. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. Where is she today ? 

Mr. Wereb. She has been convicted under the Smith Act, the trial 
here 2 years ago. All recruiting must be very careful as to who they 
recruit. There should be a concentration on labor leader'? and these 
labor leaders are to have their training quietly and according to the 
set rules of the party. 

Mr. Doyle. Why do they try to get top labor leaders in to the 
Communist conspiracy? They seem to put more effort on that than 
any other group. 

Mr. Wereb. I believe the best way I can explain that, sir, is that 
labor everywhere in the world I believe at one time or other has had 
some uneasy experiences and if you want to talk to a man, I will give 
you a for instance here, if you want to talk to a man about a traffic 
cop, all you have to do is talk to a fellow who already has a ticket and 
you have got a sour apple. There were some people at one time or 
other that had been discharged from their jobs or they had been laid 
off from their work, and they didn't have the best of everything we 
have. 

Most naturally they were easiest to prey on. They would do things 
for their own welfare and not know what they were doing because 
the Communist Party didn't go after membership in large numbers. 
Their power was not in numbers. Their power was in a close-knit 
well organized group whereby in leadership, in government, every- 
where else — she also said at this meeting that the industries to con- 
centrate on would be aviation, shipping, transportation, communica- 
tions, I believe she covered those pretty darn well, all basic industries. 

Mr. DoYLE. In other words, the industries that the Communist con- 
spiracy would want to weaken or destroy or handicap in the event we 
were attacked by a foreign enemy. 

Mr. Wereb. It would be necessary that they control that. 

Mr. DoYLE. I think some of these young people, and the older people 
in this room, ought to hear this witness with their ears open pretty 
wide. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think it should be pointed out that this testimony 
of this witness here isn't isolated testimony. We have heard this story 



1 826 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

from witnesses from one end of this country to the other, same type- 
of testimony. 

Mr. Doyle. That is rijjht. 

Mr. ScHERER. I wouldn't want some people who are hearing it for 
the first time to think this is something new. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. At this point will you give us the names of individ- 
uals who attended either of these two meetings which you said were 
held 1 or 2 weeks apart or additional functionary meetings; then 
possibly at a later time we will come back to a further discussion of 
what took place at these meetings. 

Mr. Werep.. I would say further, sir, that there was a person by the 
name of "H," that is the only initial I have, Tilles. 

Mr. Tavenner. What about her? 

Mr. Wereb. She was a functionary of the Communist Party from 
some district which I wasn't aware of at that time. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. What meeting was it ? 

Mr. Wereb. This is the second meeting I have reference to now,, 
second meeting of the security meeting which was chaired by Dorothy 
Healy, not the one chaired by Schneiderman. 

E. C. Twine, this man was from the Central Avenue District and 
he has had a prison record once or twice, I believe. 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you make it clear for us what meeting this is ? 

Mr. Wereb. This is that second meeting, sir. 

Mr. Ta%t:nner. 1947. 

Mr. Wereb. 1947, early part of 1947. 

Harry Ultrich, also known as Uttrech, an alias. I knew the man 
by both names, a functionary delegate from one of the clubs. 

Virginia Warren. Anne Pollock. That is the spelling I have, 
P-o-l-l-o-c-k. Dave Warford, William Weintraub, Dave Wnrford 
was active in a labor group somewhere in, whether it was a building 
trades union I don't recall, but he gave his status at one of the 
mepfings. 

William Weintraub, W-e-i-n-t-r-a-u-b. For a while local manager 
for the People's World, full time employee at that time on Second and 
Spring Street. 

Robert Wilkerson, W-i-1-k-e-r-s-o-n. Charles Gladstone, also known 
as Charles Young. He was from the Garment Workers group. 

Gertrude Staughton, S-t-a-u-g-h-t-o-n. She was from I believe 
HoMvwood. I wouldn't know for sure at this time. 

Nathan Shapiro, district manager in the north end of town for 
People's World and a functionary delegate to most of the meetings. 

Anne Bilan, a delegate from one of the group, I don't recall right 
at the present moment. Irving Goldman, a recent transfer at that 
time from the Young Communist League who had reached the age 
where he was too old for the Young Communist League, and it was 
his turn to take part and take action duty in the Communist Party. 
He lived within about six blocks of my residence, he and his wife 
both belonged there. 

Don Healy. This man was formerly husband of Dorothy Healy, 
whom I mentioned as the Smith case. Larue McCormick. She be- 
longed to an east side group, I am not sure if it was the Watts Club 
or not. She at one time, I believe, ran for city council or something, 
some little office, didn't amount to anything. 

Mr. Jackson. City council of what ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1827 

Mr. Weeeb. I believe it was either Watts or that district in there. 
I am not too sure of that but I know she ran for some office. At one 
time she ran for the board of education too and she flopped there. 

Cliff Houdeck, H-o-u-d-e-c-k, a functionary delegate. Ed HoUings- 
head. Ed Hollingshead was the watchdog of the party. He would 
manage to hang about the CIO hall most of the time and find some 
one who was anti-Communist or didn't exactly like the party and he 
was there to cause all the trouble and all the headaches at one time. 
He was known as their security officer at large. They had two, you 
know. Hershel Alexander, Watts group, very active functionary, also 
a member of the southwest industrial group. 

(Representative Jackson left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Wereb. Harden Westman, for a time People's World director 
and district manager for People's World in Inglewood District. 
Martha Hard, functionary delegate from one club, I don't recall 
which club at this time. 

Shevey Wallace. This Shevey Wallace is the one I had reference 
to as a full time employee of the Los Angeles County Comnmnist 
Party. Those are about all the names that I have for tliat meeting, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, this witness has been on the stand 
all day. There are more questions that I would like to ask him but 
I would prefer to pass it over until tomorrow morning and proceed 
with other witnesses at this time. 

Mr. DoTLE. We begin tomorrow morning at 9 o'clock. 

Mr. DoYLE. Is that satisfactory to you, sir ? 

Mr. Wereb. Very satisfactory. 

Mr. Doyle. You are excused until 9 o'clock tomorrow morning. 
Thank you. 

Mr. Wereb. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. James Burford. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Burford. I do. 

Mr. DoYLE. Thank you. Be seated, please. 

(Representative Jackson returned to the hearing room.) 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES BURFORD, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

LEON BRONTON, JR. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Burford. James Burford. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 
Would counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Bronton. Leon Bronton, Jr., Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Burford ? 

Mr. Burford. I was born in the United States of America, 1910. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where in the United States ? 

Mr. Burford. California. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in California ? 

Mr. Burford. I do, sir. A native son. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you resided continuously in Cali- 
fornia? 

Mr. Burford. Oh, most of my life. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation ? 



1828 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. BuRFORD. Well, Mr. Doyle, this question bears upon some phone 
calls that I received over a period of the last, well, within the last 
4 months telling me that unless I violated, this was the demand, not 
in these terms, 1 am not quoting the phone call now — The substance 
of the phone call was unless I violated 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. Witness. I am addressing the Chair. 
I ask for regular order. One question is: What is his occupation. 
He can either tell us his occupation or take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. BuRFORD, Mr. Doyle, I think this is a very important matter 
and it has a bearing upon the answer which I am about to give. Now 
may I answer the question ? 

Mr. ScHERER. He can give his answer and then explain his answer 
if he wants to. 

Mr. Doyle. Do the phone calls have anything to do with this 
committee ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Not with the committee, but with his occupation. 

Mr. BuRFORD. It has to do with this committee and with my 
occupation. 

Mr. Doyle. Let's hear it, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I object. 

Mr. BuRFORD. This phone call threatened me. I would be put 
out of business and the way of putting me out of business was going 
to be by calling me before this committee. 

Mr. Doyle. Who called you ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I don't know. It was an anonymous call like often 
those things are. 

Mr. Doyle. At what place of business did they call you? 

You have made a charge against this committee. 

Mr. BuRFORD. I was called on my telephone. 

Mr. Doyle. You made a charge against this committee that was 
pretty serious. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, if the charge has no more substanti- 
ation than the unsupported word of the witness that he was called 
and threatened, it doesn't concern me a great deal. 

Mr. BuRFORD. For a committee that has taken the kind of unsub- 
stantiated testimony that this has, it is a funny time to start worrying 
about— — 

Mr. Jackson. Give me the unsubstantiated testimony. Which 
one? What testimony do you have reference to, sir ? You have vol- 
unteered the statement that we have received unsupported testimony. 
I want to know what it is. In case there is a refusal to answer, I want 
a direction, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. Tell us in what case in this hearing we 
have received testimony that isn't true ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I read the book of Mr. Harvey Matusow. 

Mr. Jackson. That is not an answer to the question. I don't care 
about Matusow. 

Mr. BuRFORD. It is embarrassing to you to hear about Harvey 
Matusow. 

Mr. Jackson. Let's not get away from the question. There is a 
question pending. You have made the statement that this committee 
during these hearings has taken unsupported testimony. I want to 
know what testimony. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1829 

Mr. Jackson. I want it on the record. 

Mr. BuKFORD. I do not have a copy of the record. 

Mr. Jackson. The copy of the record is being made. I want your 
answer on the record. 

Mr. BuRFORD. I do not have a copy of the record in front of me. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have any proof that this committee has 
received any unsupported testimony as you have just stated volun- 
tarily ? 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer. We don't accept the answer 
you gave. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel . ) 

Mr. BtTRFORD. Mr. Chairman, I would suggest that the committee 
go back into the record of the testimony of Mr. Harvey Matusow who 
later said that he had 

Mr. Jackson. Just a minute. Don't beat around the bush. 

Mr. BuRFORD. I am not. 

Mr. Jackson. This is evasive. You said this committee has received 
misupported testimony. 

Mr. BuRTORD. Did this committee receive testimony from Harvey 
Matusow ? 

Mr. Jackson. In this hearing ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I didn't say in this hearing. I said this committee. 

Mr. Jackson. All right. In what regard was the testimony of Mr. 
Matusow before this committee in error ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BuRFORD. By his own admission. 

Mr. Jackson. No. Every witness who has been called as a result 
of the Matusow testimony before this committee has taken the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. BuRFORD. That is my answer. 

Mr. Jackson. Of course the answer is entirely evasive. It was your 
intention to say that witnesses who have appeared here during this 
hearing 

Mr. BuRFORD. Don't tell me my intention. I know what my inten- 
tion is. 

Mr. Jackson. You say, sir, any testimony which you have heard or 
has been taken before this hearing during this week is unsupported ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I have not been here but a short time this week. 

Mr. Jackson. You have been here 2 or 3 days. I have seen you in 
the corner, which is all right, we are glad to have you here. 

Mr. BuRFORD. Mr. Doyle, I decline to answer any comment on any 
testimony of any witness before this hearing in this room. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle, I think the question has been adequately 
covered. 

Mr. DoTLE. I want to ask one more question on this anonymous 
phone situation that you blurted out as you first took the stand. What 
did you do ? Did you report it to the police ? If you didn't, why didn't 
you ? 

You didn't, did you ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. No, I did not. 

Mr. DoYLE. Of course not. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you report it to the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion? 

Mr. BuRFORD. That is your opinion, Mr. Doyle — "of course not." 



1830 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Jackson. You didn't. Did you report it to the Bureau? 

Mr, BuRFORD. I made a statement that I didn't. 

Mr. Jackson. Why didn't you ? Isn't that the act of a law-abiding 
citizen who is threatened over the telephone ? Isn't the logical thing 
as soon as the caller hangs up to call the police ? 

Mr. ScHERER. His statement in my opinion is pure fabrication. 

Mr. Doyle. This began 3 weeks ago, according to your words. 

Mr. Bronton. I resent the fact that you sit there and call him a 
liar and you do that when you say, "pure fabrication." He is here 
under subpena, not to take insults. 

Mr. ScHERER. You know the rules of this committte, Counsel. 

Mr. Bronton. I know them very well. 

Mr. SciiERER. If you can't abide by them, I will ask that you be 
cited for contempt. 

Mr. Bronton. I think it is contemptuous when any Congressman 
calls a witness a liar, 

Mr. Jackson. ^Vliy didn't you call the police ? If your occupation 
was threatened, if your life was threatened, isn't the normal thing for 
an American citizen to do to notify the authorities rather than main- 
tain the alleged threat inside himself as a basis for a speech when he 
came up here ? 

JNIr. Burford. ]Mr. Jackson asked me a question ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Burford. When you ask questions and supply the answers at 
the same time I don't think there is anything further required. 

Mr. Jackson. I haven't supplied any answer. The question still 
stands. I would like to have the witness tell me why he didn't notify 
the authorities that he had been threatened. 

Mr. Burford. Mr. Jackson, I made on oath a statement here as to 
what happened. I cannot — it is obvious that I cannot prove it. I 
did not have a tape-recording machine, I do not have anything mate- 
rial to substantiate it. This I would readily say, and readily admit. 
However, I do say on oath that I received a phone call. 

Mr. DoYLE. One or more ? 

Mr. Burford. I received two. 

Mr. Doyle. All the same day, or how far apart ? 

Mr. Burford. They were a matter of several weeks apart. 

Mr. Doyle. When was the first one ? 

Mr. Burford, Exact day I do not remember. 

Mr. Doyle. When was the second one ? 

Mr. Burford. About 3 or 4 weeks after the first. 

Mr. Doyle. Didn't you make any record of the dates or the hour ? 

]Mr. Burford. I don't keep a logbook. 

Mr. Jackson. Not when people call to tlireaten you ? 

Mr. Doyle. I would think it would be important as to when people 
called and threatened you. What phone number did they call you 
over? 

Mr. Burford. I decline to answer what phone it was on, Mr. Doyle, 
because that would be to accomplish it, help to accomplish the pur- 
pose that the caller made. 

Mr, Doyle, Didn't you even ask the phone company who called 
you ? Didn't you even ask the operator who called you ? 

Mr, Burford. No operator involved, Mr. Doyle. We have auto- 
matic phones in this town. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1831 

Mr. Do^'LE. Of course. Didn't you even rin^: tlie chief operator to 
find out if slie could trace where that phone call came from? I have 
done that, you know, and I lind it is quite helpful. Let's proceed. 

Mr. ScHERER. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I decline to answer this question under the prerojj^a- 
tives that I have under the Constitution of the United States, a consti- 
tution that I have sworn in the. past to uphold and to abide by and 
which I now swear to uphold and to abide by, and which I will in the 
future. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you plead your constitutional privileges? If so, 
wdiat amendments? 

Mr. BuRFORD. Mr. Chairman, I plead the first, the fifth, that amend- 
ment which has to do that a person's rights and property wnll not be 
taken away from them without due process of law. I don't know the 
number of it. 

Mr. SciiERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion because how could his occupation of Modern Lithographic Press 
operator incriminate him? I ask that you direct the witness. 

Mr. Doyle. I want the record to show, Mr. Burford, in view of the 
Supreme Court decision, which is clear to all of us, we are not accept- 
ing the answer as you gave it and therefore I instruct you to answer 
the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. SciiERER. It is obvious he is improperly invoking the fifth 
amendment and invoking it in bad faith. No basis for invoking the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. BiTRFORD. Mr. Doyle, this committee has toppled people before 
this and the Supreme Court has reversed them and slapped this com- 
mittee down. 

Mr. DoYLE. No. You know w-e have a Supreme Court decision. 

Mr. Burford. That is good. 

Mr. Jackson. It is in direct line with the Supreme Court injunc- 
tions to the committee that this immediate procedure is being followed. 
The subcommittee is making it entirely clear on the record that we 
believe that your occupation is a matter of proper identification and 
we do not accept your refusal to answer for the reason given as being 
a proper use of the fifth amendment. 

(The witness conferred wnth his counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. We have copies of the full text of the Supreme Court 
decisions for the use of any witness. 

Mr. Burford. I have, too, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Jackson. I ask that the direction stand. 

Mr. Burford. Mr. Doyle, in line that this question might tend to 
imperil my rights under the first and the fifth amendments, I decline 
to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Aren't you the ownier of the Modern Lithographic 
Press at 1416 West Seventh Street, Los Angeles, Calif. ? 

Mr. Burford. Mr. Scherer, you are reading that into the record for 
only one purpose and there isn't anything I can do about it. I am 
defenseless under this situation. I declined to answer that question 
for the same reasons that I indicated a moment ago, the first and fifth 
amendments. 



1832 COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. Is the information we ha ve in our file correct, namely, , 
that you are the owner of the Modern Lithographic Press at 1416 
West Seventh Street, Los Angeles, Calif. ? 

Mr. Bttrtgrd. I decline to answer that question as previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. DoTLE. I direct that you answer the question. We don't accept 
your answer as sufficient. 

Mr. ScHERER. Before he answers, it is my opinion under the circum- 
stances that if he doesn't answer that question he is clearly in contempt 
of this committee, and if he invokes the fifth amendment I intend to 
move at a later date to cite him for contempt. Now he knows how I 
feel -about the matter. 

Mr. Btjrford. Mr. Scherer, if for no other reason, my concern for 
the Constitution of the United States prohibits me from answering 
this, but also and specifically because any question having to do with 
the operation of the concern that you mentioned might tend to imperil 
my rights and privileges under the first and the fifth amendments and 
I remind this committee again that the Supreme Court has said that 
the fifth amendment is as much for the innocent, protection of the 
innocent, as anything else. And by pleading this I in no way stipu- 
late that I have broken any of the laws of the United States. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you refused to tell us whether or not the infor- 
mation we have with reference to your business is correct, because you 
print at this printing company literature for the Communist Party ? 
Is that the reason ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I refuse to answer that question for the reasons stated 
previously. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you engage in any other illegal activity at the 
Modern Lithographic Press ? 

Mr. Btjrford. Mr. Scherer, you have rather contradicted yourself ,. 
you now ask me if I engage in illegal activity and a moment ago that 
you were going to cite me for contempt for refusing to answer a ques- 
tion invoking the fifth amendment. There is a contradiction. 

Mr. Scherer. Yes, because when you answered that question you 
said that I may ask you something about the operation of that com- 
pany and that gave me an idea. That is the reason I asked you about 
the operation of this company. 

Mr. BuRFORD. I want it on the record that I decline to answer on 
the basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Doyle. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Burford, the committee during the course of 
this hearing has been inquiring into the activities of the Southern Cali- 
fornia Peace Crusade organization. It has sought to acquire informa- 
tion as to how its affairs are conducted, and by Avhom they are con- 
ducted. 

Are you affiliated in any way with the Southern California Peace 
Crusade ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I decline to answer any question relative to my 
affiliation with any organization and for the reasons that I have 
previously stated. 

Mr. Jackson. I have a question I should like to ask. Are you a 
member of the chamber of commerce ? 

Mr. Burford. I decline to answer that question. 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, GALTb'., AREA 1833 

Mr. jACKSoisr. Mr. Chairman, I am certainly not satisfied with that 
answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BuRFORD. Would you repeat the question, please ? 

Mr. Jackson. Are you a member of the chamber of commerce ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. No. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has the Southern California Peace Crusade em- 
ployed you in any respect in carrying out any of its functions ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with any of the officials of 
that organization? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not Sue Lawson was sec- 
retary of this organization in May 1955 ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the Southern California Peace Crusade through 
Sue Lawson as one of its officers draw and deliver a check bearing 
date of May 9, 1955, payable to Jim Burford in the amount of $45, 
and if so will you tell us the purpose ? 

I hand you a photostatic copy of the check for your examination. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Btjrford. Mr. Chairman, this question directly relates to the 
freedom of the press and the question of — well, that directly relates 
to the question of the freedom of the press. I decline to answer for 
that reason, but I also decline to answer under my rights under the 
first and the fifth. 

Mr. DoTLE. Do you publish a newspaper ? I didn't know freedom 
of the press applied to a commercial printer. 

Mr. Burford. You didn't, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. Not the kind of shop you have. 

Mr. Scherer. May I make a statement, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. I think I have to admit I made a mistake, I think 
the witness properly invoked the fifth amendment when he refused 
to answer the question as to his occupation, because it becomes now 
apparent that there was something about that occupation that might 
tend to incriminate him if he told us in the beginning, and therefore 
I acknowledge that I made a mistake and I think he properly invoked 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Burford. I was going to say there is an interesting piece of 
history relating to this, at one time people advocated freedom of 
the slaves that couldn't get things printed because of the kind of 
community pressure and even the pressure of the law applied against 
them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me explain to you the reason for asking these 
questions. 

The committee w^ants to find out what type of literature was pub- 
lished by the Southern California Peace Crusade, and if you printed 
it for them you would be in a position to advise the committee as to 
those facts. That is the purpose for my inquiring from you about 
these matters. 



1834 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. BuRFORD. Well, if I were in your position and wanted to find 
out what any particular organization printed, 1 would simply go and 
get the copies of what had been printed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of course what you would do is subpena the officials 
of the company who disbursed tlie information, but if they take the 
fifth amendment, you must proceed by some other course and that is 
why I am proceeding through the person who may have printed it. 

Mr. P)URroRD. I decline to answer the question because of my rights 
under the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't it true that you keep sample copies of the mate- 
rials you printed for the Southern California Peace Crusade'^ 

Mr. BuRFORD. I decline to answer that for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to oiler the check in evidence and ask that 
it be marked "Burford Exhibit 1" for identification only. 

Mr. Doyle. So received and so marked. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a check bearing date of Mnv 17, 1955, 
payable to the Modern Lithographic Press by the Los Angeles Com- 
mittee for Protection of the Foreign Born. I will ask you to examine 
that check and state what it was for. 

Mr. Burford. I decline to answer any questions concerning this 
check for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you affiliated with the organization ? 

Mr. Burford. I decline to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to ofi'er the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Burford Exhibit No. 2" for identification only. 

Mr. DoYLE. It will be so received and so marked. 

Mr. Ta\\enner. Mr. Burford, in the course of the investigation con- 
ducted by the committee, it has been ascertained from the issue of the 
Daily People's World of June 6, 1051, that there was an article pub- 
lished in that paper entitled "Fight Opens and Communist Ruling." 
In the course of the article it is stated that a demand was made upon 
President Truman to urge the Supreme Court to grant a rehearing in 
the case of the 11 national Communist Party leaders and that that 
action was taken by the Independent Progressive County Club Council. 
It was stated in the article that it was the first step in the Independent 
Progressive Party campaign for freedom for the Communist leaders 
and repeal of the Smith Act under which they were convicted. 

Do you recall anything about a meeting of the Independent Pro- 
gressive Party Council at which those matters were discussed — that 
is, in June 1951? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Burford. I decline to answer that question on the same ground 
as I previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't it a fact that the Independent Progressive 
Party engaged in a campaign in behalf of the 11 Communist leaders 
who were convicted under the Smith Act in New York ? 

Mr. Burford. Are you stating it as a fact ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am asking you isn't it a fact. 

Mr. Burford. I decline to answer any such question on the grounds 
of the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Weren't you a member of the Independent Pro- 
gressive Party Council in June 1951 ? 

Mr. Burford. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1835 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you later in 1952 become a member of the State 
central committee of the Independent Progressive Party? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. In June of 1951, at the time that the Daily People's 
World referred to this position of the Independent Progressive Party 
to which I have referred, were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I decline to answer that question on the same basics 
that I stated before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Max Silver, at one time organizational secre- 
tary of the Communist Party for Los Angeles County, and who with- 
drew shortly after 1945 from the Communist Party, testified before 
this committee on June 24, 1952. At that time he identified you as 
having been a member of the Communist Party, and as having been 
the labor director of the Independent Progressive Party in the State 
of California. 

Is there any error in that statement insofar as the reference to you ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I decline to answer that question and all similar 
questions under my privileges of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you the labor director of the Independen*" 
Progressive Party in the State of California ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I believe that is a similar question. 

Mr. Tavenner. No. 

Mr. BuRFORD. Well, I decline to answer that one, too, then, under 
the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you ask that line of questions in order to supplement 
our information to the effect that the Communist Party was pretty 
well initiated and took over control of the IPP in many, many places ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. DoTLE. In other words, it is in line with Public Law 601 to 
find out the extent of subversive activities, whether Communist Party 
or otherwise, and our information is the Communist Party in Cali- 
fornia generally took over membership and control of the IPP in cer- 
tain places and certain times. I ought to make that statement to you 
so you understand why we are asking those questions. 

Mr. BuRFORD. I think I understand. 

Mr. Doyle. It isn't a matter of your political belief, but it is a 
matter of finding out the effort of the Communist Party to infiltrate 
and control the political parties. That is what it is doing now, try- 
ing to crawl into the Democratic Party because the IPP didn't qualify 
itself as a legal party in California. You Calif ornians ought to wake 
up and realize what is going on. Both young and old people are 
crowdine: into both these bona fide political parties because they don't 
have the IPP any longer as a legal entity, and therefore the Commies 
can't control a legal political party because the IPP doesn't exist any 
longer as a legal party. Therefore, it is now going into both political 
parties. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Burf ord, I want to go back and ask preliminary 
questions which I usually ask and have not asked. 

How long have you lived in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. Well, I have lived here on and off since about 1930, 
I believe. 



1836 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Since 1930 have you resided in any other place ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. Many places. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived in Oakland, Calif., during any part 
of that time ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. Mr. Chairman, I have to say to that question that to 
the best of my knowledge and belief I have never lived in Oakland, but 
for a number of years my occupation was a traveling one and it is very 
difficult for me, it would be very difficult for me to list all of the places 
that I lived. 

Mr. Doyle. You would know whether you lived there for any length 
of time or not, 6 months or a year, you wouldn't forget that. 

Mr. BuRFORD. Well, I have been in the bay area, but whether I have 
lived in Oakland I don't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever used any name other than your own ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I decline to answer that question under the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Doyle. We are satisfied with that answer and I direct 
you to answer. The United States is entitled to know the people that 
live within its borders, surely those who have been using some phony 
name or something of that kind. Congress is entitled to know it. 

We are investigating the activities or subversive people and sub- 
versive groups who are apt to use secret names and other names — 
without making any inference as far as you are concerned. 

Mr. BuRFORD. I understand that. Anything that has to do with the 
question, this general line of questioning that has been proceeding 
here, I will decline to answer under the first and fifth amendments. 
I so decline. 

Mr. Doyle. On what grounds ? 

Mr. BuFORD. On the grounds I have just stated. 

Mr. Ta%t:nner. Have you used the name Ron Hillyer ? 

Mr. BuRFORD. I decline to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burford. I decline to answer that for the same reason that I 
have declined before. 

Mr. Tav'enner. Have you at any time been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Burford. I decline to answer that question for the same reasons 
I have stated before. 

Mr. Tamsnner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer? 

]Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. Burford, you can get your witness fee there if you want it. 

Mr. Burford. I will donate that to the Red Cross drive, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. I think that is fine of you. They need it. 

(Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tai-enner. Mrs. Anne Pollock. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth ? 

Mrs. Pollock. I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1837 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. ANNE POLLOCK, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
NATHAN L. SCHOICHET 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please i 

Mrs. Pollock. Anne Pollock. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Will 
counsel please identify himself for the record ^ 

Mr. ScHoiGHET. My name is Nathan L. Schoichet, S-c-h-o-i-c-h-e-t. 
I am an attorney practicing here in Los Angeles, and my office is in 
Beverly Hills. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a native of California, Mrs. Pollock? 

Mrs. Pollock. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Pollock. I was born in Russia. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you come to this country ? 

Mrs. Pollock. In 1906. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a naturalized American citizen ? 

Mrs. Pollock. I am a derivative citizen of my father. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was he naturalized ? 

Mrs. Pollock. In 1922. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. Pollock. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you resided in Los Angeles? 

Mrs. Pollock. Since early 1932. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your profession or occupation, please? 

(The witness conferred with lier counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. I am west coast director of the American Technical 
Society Technoin. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Pollock, we have been engaged in an investi- 
gation of Communist Party activities in the area of Los Angeles. 
Sworn testimony has been adduced before the committee to the effect 
that you were assigned by the Communist Party to engage in certain 
Communist Party activities. Will you tell the committee first, please, 
when you became a member of the Communist Party, if you did ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. Do you suggest that any testimony that the com- 
mittee had before is binding on me ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Not at all. My question was to tell us when you 
became a member of the Communist Party, if you did. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Pollock. Has it been established in the record that I am a 
member of t lie Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tavenner. There has been evidence here indicating that. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. I ask is that evidence binding on me ? 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. Will you answer the question, please? The answer 
is not responsive to my question. 

Mrs. Pollock. I would like to know whether or not testimony given 
about me is binding on me. 

Mr. Doyle. It depends on whether or not it is the truth, but we are 
asking you whether or not you were a member of the Communist 
Party. If you were, when? 

Mrs. Pollock. That was not the question that I was asked. 

65500 — 55 — pt. 4 5 



1838 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Cliairman, I don't understand the question as to 
whether the evidence given is binding upon her. As a matter of fact, 
the committee has not necessarily accepted it as evidence or anything 
else. Basing it upon certain information in the possession of the 
committee, a question has been asked of you. If it is not true, then 
certainly this is the forum in which to say so. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. What was the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. The question was to state when she first became a 
member of the Communist Party, if she did become a member. I 
am not particular about the form of the question. If the witness is 
puzzled by the question, I will change the question. 

Mrs. Pollock. I am puzzled because you seem to be assmning a 
statement of fact. I want to understand your question. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Let me ask the question very pointedly. Have you 
ever been a member of the Communist Party, and if so, when did you 
join ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. I would make it simpler than that and break the ques- 
tion down into two parts. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will change the question again. 

Have you ever been a membgr of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. In the context of this inquiry I consider myself in 
jeopardy and therefore I invoke the first and fifth amendments to 
the Constitution. 

(Representative Moulder returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Mrs. Pollock, you seem to be concerned as to whether 
or not the committee has evidence that you are a member of the Com- 
munist Part}', or whether it has been established before this committee 
that you are a member of the Communist Party. Mr. Stephen 
Werel3 testified here just a few minutes ago that j^ou were a member 
of the Communist Party. It would go a long way toward making me 
make up my mind as to whether his testimony is correct if you answer 
the question as to whetlier or not he told the truth, when he said 
that you were a member of the Communist Party. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. I am sure that during the testimony of Mr. Wereb, I 
saw you seated within a few feet of him, so I assume you heard him 
name you. 

Mrs. Pollock. I heard it. 

Mr. DoTLE. I was sure you heard it. 

Mr. ScHERER, You remember the question, Witness? Did Mr. 
Stephen Wereb who testified before this committee this afternoon 
tell the truth when 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. I can see how she can't understand 
the question if you are talking to her. 

Mr. ScHoiCHET. I am trying to behave here and don't want these 
comments against me. 

Mr. ScHEKER. Continue to behave, then. 

Mr. Doyle. Go ahead, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. My question, Mrs. Pollock, is whether or not Mr- 
Stephen Wereb who testified before this committee this afternoon tes- 



COMMXJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1839 

tified correctly when he said that you were a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mr. ScHERER. It is no laughing matter at all. Both counsel and the 
witness are laughing about the question. 

Mrs. Pollock. I am perfectly willing to answer questions but I 
want to make it clear I came here and certainly do not expect to have 
any kind of pressure. I will do the best that I can. If something 
strikes me as funny, you know I might even feel I have the right to 
smile and this too, I think, should be permitted. 

Mr. ScHERER. I just want it noted for the record what was happen- 
ing because the record doesn't show that. 

Mrs. Pollock. The record does not also show why I smiled, and I 
don't think it is a fitting thing to place into the record. 

Mr. DoTLE. Do you feel now, Mrs, Pollock, you are ready to answer' 
the question ? 

Mrs. Pollock. Yes, sir. Excuse me a minute. 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Pollock. Before this committee I do feel myself in jeopardy 
and I shall invoke the privileges of the first and fifth amendments. 

(Representative Jackson left the hearing room. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. By that do you mean you refuse to answer the 
question ? 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavexner. You invoke the privilege because, I assume, you 
refuse to answer the question ? 

Mrs. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask the witness a question? It is substantially 
the same question, I grant, but I want to ask it in a little different way : 
I am not trying to trap you in any way, but I happened to notice you 
were within a few feet of the witness who testified that he had personal 
knowledge of the fact that you were a Communist. He had your name 
listed as you will remember, and read it off with other names. 

He made a positive declaration that he knew you as a Communist 
because he was one even though it was for the FBI, and it is always 
good, we feel as a committee of Congress, when it happens that a 
witness on the stand testifies so that the person he names is right in 
the room at the same time and hears him testify. 

Now you have indicated you heard him testify, naming you. I 
am bringing that to your attention because here is one of the cases 
where it is possible for a witness to positively deny another witness' 
testimony. In other words, he was under oath, you are under oath. 
I want to call to your attention that that is the situation and in other 
words, it is very fortunate, as we see it, when a witness testifies that 
John Jones is in the party, and John Jones hears that testimony, and 
then we call John Jones and say what about it, did the witness tell 
the truth, or did he lie. 

We are giving you an opportunity to tell us whether or not it was 
true or false what that witness said about you. That is a good op- 
portunity because it doesn't often happen that the person named is 
in the hearing room at the same time. I just don't know whether 
your counsel was in the room at the same time and heard that testi- 
mony. 



1840 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. ScHoicHET. I understand. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Pollock, have you ever used the name 

Mr. Doyle. Wait a minute. 

Mr. Tavenner. Excuse me. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. DoYLE. I laid my foundation. Counsel, for the question I want 
to ask. I want to give you plenty of time and not hurry you. I want 
you to have every opportunity to confer with your distinguished coun- 
sel. Before you confer with him again, I want to ask you now, were 
you ever a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. I am going to invoke my privileges under the first 
and the fifth amendments, Mr. Doyle, and I decline to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know Stephen Wereb? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. The same answer. I decline to answ^er on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. So there will be no mistake, did you see the man 
on the stand who testified here this afternoon who was called by the 
name of Stephen Wereb. Did you see him on the stand? 

Mrs. Pollock. Yes, I saw him on the stand. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know that man by the name of Stephen 
Wereb or by the name of Weber? 

Mrs. Pollock. I have already declined to answer that. 

Mr. ScHERER. For the same reasons ? 

Mrs. Pollock. For the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever used the name Anne Burton? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Tashia Freed ? 

Mrs. Pollock. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in the hearing room when Tashia Freed 
testified ? 

JNIrs. Pollock. No, I was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether you 
have ever lived at 6530 Maryland Drive? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. I will decline to answer that question for the same 
reasons. 

Mr. Doyle. We can't accept that answer. I direct you to answer 
the question. 

Mrs. Pollock. I believe that in the context of this inquiry that I 
am in jeopardy and that therefore these questions can be refused on 
the grounds of the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr, Scherer. You said you believe you are in jeopardy and to per- 
tinent questions invoked you have — and I think properly so — the pro- 
tection of the fifth amendment, namely, that if you answered the ques- 
tions you might be in jeopardy and might be prosecuted or might in- 
criminate yourself, so I tliink you have properly invoked the fifth 
amendment. 

Now what I want to say, IVIrs. Pollock, is this : The 83d Congress 
passed a law which gives this committee the right with the approval of 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1841 

the Federal court to grant you immunity from any prosecution — that 
is, that if such immunity is granted, no matter what answers ycu 
give, you wouldn't be in jeopardy, the jeopardy which you say you 
fear. We feel you have quite a substantial bit of information con- 
cerning the activities of the Communist Party and which would be 
vei*y helpful to this committee, and so I am going to ask you now if 
the committee should invoke that law and grant you immunity so that 
you wouldn't be in jeopardy no matter what answer you gave or bo 
subject to any kind of prosecution, would you then answer the ques- 
tions we ask you ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. I will answer that I decline to speculate on what 
this committee will do and I stand on my answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. The same answer you gave before ? 

Mrs. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. You feel to answer my question would tend to in- 
criminate you then ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel) 

Mrs. Pollock. I feel that the answer to this question might involve 
me in jeopardy and I don't have to answer the question. 

Mr. SciiERER. Maybe you misunderstand me. I am merely saying 
that if this committee with the approval of the Federal court should 
grant you immunity — that is, should free you from this jeopardy 
which you say you fear, and there would be no jeopardy, there would 
be no possibility of any prosecution for any answer that you might 
give us, if you were freed from that, would you then answer our 
questions ? 

(The witness conferred with lier counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. T think I Avill make that decision at the time. 

Mr. ScHERER. You can see, then, Mrs. Pollock, how there arises 
in our mind then some question as to perhaps your good faith in in- 
voking the fifth amendment. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.^ 

Mi-s. Pollock. I am advised by counsel that I have the right to in- 
voke the first and fifth amendments without any implications of this 
kind. 

Mr. ScHERER. You do have the right, but we have the right in view 
of what I just said to draw our own conclusions, the same as you have. 

Mr. T.WTLNNER. IVIrs. Pollock, were you a member of the unit J-5 
of the Hollywood section of the Communist Party in 1938 ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. I will decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you transferred from the unit I mentioned 
to the 5Tth assembly branch, section of the Communist Party in 1938'^ 

Mrs. Pollock. Same answer on the same grounds. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Tashia Freed the unit membership director of 
your unit? 

Mrs. Pollock. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I desire to read into the record at 
this point an exhibit which was introduced by the witness. Mi-. William 
Kimple. He identified this when it was introduced as Exhibit 13 
as an original Communist Party document. 



1842 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

• It is entitled "Section transfer, transferred from section Hollywood 
Unit J-5, name, Anne Burton, real name, Amie Pollock, new address 
6530 Maryland Drive, dues paid to January 1938, signed Tashia Freed, 
Unit membership director, assigned to section 67th assembly branch 
(this card to be given to county membership director) ," 

Were you issued Communist Party book No. 59962 in the name 
of Anne Burton ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand this exhibit to you. 

Mrs. Pollock. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to introduce a photostatic copy of this Com- 
munist Party card in evidence and ask that it be marked "Pollock 
Exhibit No. 1," for identification only. 

Mr. Doyle. It will be so received and so marked. 

Mr. TAi'ENNER. I have before me a blue card 

Mr. ScHOiCHET. Just a moment. May I confer ? 

Mr. Doyle. Go ahead. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Pollock, I have before me a receipt card bear- 
ing date of December 7, 1937, for the same Communist Party book — 
that is. Communist Party book No. 59962. Will j'ou examine it, please, 
and state whether or not the signature thereon of Anne Burton was 
made by you ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. I answer it the same way, Mr. Tavenner, I refuse to 
answer on the ground of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to introduce in evidence the photostatic 
copy of the receipt card and ask that it be marked "Pollock Exhibit 
No. 2," for identification only. 

Mr, Doyle. It will be so received and marked. 

Mr. Tavenner. It reads as follows : 

I have received membership book, Anne Burton, State of California, District 13, 
County LA., City, L. A., section Union J-5, 12-7-37. 

Irrespective of any question of membership on your part in the Com- 
munist Party, did you receive any directions, instructions, or sugges- 
tions by the Communist Party to engage in Communist Party activities 
in the Jewish community ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. On the advice of counsel I refuse to answer that ques- 
tion on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you engage in any such Communist Party activ- 
ities? 

Mrs. Pollock. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has information that there was in 
existence in Hollywood at least as late as 1950 a secret group within 
the Communist Party whose identity was endeavored to be kept secret 
from the rank and file member.ship of the Communist Party. Do you 
know anything about the existence of such a secret group ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at any time a member of such a group? 

Mrs. Pollock. Same answer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1843 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Community Party? 

Mrs. Pollock. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Moulder ? 

Mr. Moulder. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Just one question. 

How much money have you contributed to the Communist Party, 
Mrs. Pollock? 

Mrs. Pollock. Isn't that just like asking me if I still beat my wife? 
Isn't that the same kind of category ? I beg your pardon. I am sorry. 

Mr. Scherer. I will change it. Have you contributed any funds 
to the Communist Party ? 

Mi'^. Pollock. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Scherer. Then what was wrong with my question of how much 
money have you contributed ? The fact is you contributed large sums, 
have you not, to the Communist Party and Communist Party front 
organizations ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. Would you testify to that under oath? 

Mr. Scherer. I am asking. 

Mrs. Pollock. You are making the statement, you are not asking 
the question. I have tried to answer questions but I object to state- 
ments. There are certain statements I would make but because this 
is a congressional committee and because of that I have tried hard 
not to and I find Congressmen making statements for the press or for 
the record. I don't know 

Mr. Scherer. You have an opportunity to say if you call it a state- 
ment. I said it was a question. 

Mrs. Pollock. It is not a question. 

Mr. Scherer. If you say it is a statement, we will let it stand as a 
statement. Is what I said in my statement mitrue? You have the 
right to answer now. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. If you ask the question I will do my best to answer it. 

Mr. Scherer. I said isn't it a fact — now, you can answer to that 
question "Yes" or "No" — but isn't it a fact that you have contributed 
large sums of money to the Communist Party and Communist front 
organizations ? 

If that is not a fact, you can say "No" ; if it is a fact, you can say 
"Yes." If you say "Yes" my next question is going to be : How much ? 
But I know what you are going to say. You are going to take the 
fifth amendment. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs, Pollock. Thank God I have an attome3^ I mean that. 

(Representative Jackson returned to the hearing room.) 

Mrs. Pollock. I am calmer now due to the good offices of my attor- 
ney. I think we will both agree for reasons that the first and fifth 
amendments are in my Constitution — I am not trying to make a speech, 
I think we agree the reason they are in the Constitution is so I shall 
not be compelled in any way to furnish any kind of evidence which 
might tend at any time now or later by any chain to incriminate me. 
Knowing that I think I have the right and the privilege to claim the 
amendments which I have and I have so done and do now. 



1844 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr, ScHERER. I think you do have that right and I thought you 
would. 

Mrs. Pollock. Well, is that because of personal knowledge of me? 

Mr. ScHERER. No ; but I have sat in hearings 

Mrs. Pollock. By what right do you have the right to say that? I 
don't think you have any, not until I give an answer. 

(The witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Pollock. I am sorry. Again thanks to you [addressing her 
counsel]. Perhaps my work in the community is also — 

Mr. ScHOicnET. There is no question before you. 

Mrs. Pollock. All right. 

Mr. DoTLE. Thank you very much. You are excused. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Mrs. Margaret Vaughn ISIeyer. 

Mr. DoTLE. May I ask you to rise and raise your right hand. Do 
you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Meyer. I do. 

Mr, Doyle. Thank you. Have a chair by your counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. MARGARET VAUGHN MEYER, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, DANIEL G. MARSHALL 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please. 

Mrs. Meyer. My name is Margaret Vaughn Meyer. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Will 
counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Marshall. Daniel G. Marshall, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a native of California ? 

Mrs. Meyer. No, sir. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. When and where were you born ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyer. I was born in Philadelphia, Pa., United States of 
America. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your last name, please ? 

Mrs. Meyer. M-e-y-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you move to California ? 

Mrs. ]\Ieyer. To the best of my recollection, I am almost certain that 
it was the fall of 1987. I can't state positively. I think that was it. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is sufficient. What profession are you en- 
gaged in ? 

Mrs, Meyer, I am a housewife, 

Mr, Tavenner, Have you engaged in any profession or trade? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. ]\Ieyer. Mr. Doyle, at this time I wish to stand on my rights as 
an American citizen, democratic rights, which the committee has stated 
they believe in and I believe in ; I have a right to decline, I am going 
to refuse to answer this question under the protection of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, specifically the first amendment to the Con- 
stitution, supplemented by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Was your question whether or not she had 

Mr. Tavenner. What was her occupation, is the substance of it. 

Mr. Doyle. We cannot accept your answer and I direct you to 
answer the question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1845 

Mr. Marshall. This question is somewhat different than the one 
you proposed and I suggest we read it. 

Mr. Tavenner. I didn't ask the question the second time. The 
chairman asked what I asked and I advised him the substance of it. 
If the witness does not understand and wants the question reread we 
will have it reread. I didn't ask the question over. 

To end the matter, will you read the question. 

Mr. Marshall. We want the question read which the chairman said 
he was not satisfied with her answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is the only question I asked. 

Mr. Marshall. The chairman didn't say he wasn't satisfied with 
the answer to your question. He said he wasn't satisfied with the 
witness' answer to the chairman's question. 

Mr. Tavenner. No. 

Mr. Jackson. What is the original question? The question asked 
by counsel. 

(The reporter read from his notes as directed.) 

Mrs. jMeyer. Will you reread the phrasing of it? I am not sure 
of the phrasing. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you ever engaged in any profession or trade? 

Mrs. Meyer. I am now a housewife. I have been a teacher in the 
past. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you last engage in the profession of teach- 
ing? 

(The witness conferred w^ith her counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyer. I believe it was December of 1952 when I last was 
actually in a classroom. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am sorry, I couldn't hear you. 

Mr. Marshall. Let the reporter read it. 

Mr. Doyle. December 1952. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask the witness to reply to my question, please, 
as to when it was that she last taught — and I do not like for counsel 
to prevent her from answering my question. 

Mr. Doyle. She answered it. 

Mr. Marshall. She answered it. My only suggestion was when 
you didn't hear to have the reporter read it rather than have her 
restate it. Let's have the reporter read it if you have any doubt 
about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have a right to ask the witness. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness answered the question in an inaudible 
manner. 

Mr. Marshall. Did the reporter hear it ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you still hold your teaching credentials ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyer. Yes, sir ; I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you commonly known by the name of Peggy ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyer. I gave you my name, sir, and I refuse to answer ques- 
tions on the grounds of the first amendment supplemented by the 
fifth in regard to any other name. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask that the witness be directed to answer? 

Mr. Doyle. We cannot accept that answer as sufficient. I direct you 
to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



1846 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mrs. Meyer. I refuse to answer this question on the pounds of the 
first amendment of the Constitution, supplemented by the fifth amend- 
ment to the Constitution. I believe I have that right. 

Mr. Jackson. No one has questioned your right. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated that your name is Margaret Vaughn 
Meyer. How long has your name been Margaret Vaughn Meyer ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyer. I decline to answer this question on the same grounds 
of my rights under the first amendment supplemented by the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. We do not accept the answer as sufficient, Mrs. Meyer, 
and I direct you to answer the question. I think it is a very reasonable 
question to know who you are and how long you have been known by 
the name you use. 

Mrs. Meyer. I stated my name when first asked, and I refuse to 
answer any further questions about my name under my rights on the 
same ground previously stated, the first amendment supplemented by 
the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was your name Margaret Vaughn on October 17, 
1950? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyer. I decline to answer for the same reasons, on the grounds 
of the first amendment supplemented by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of an oath of alle- 
giance for public employees bearing date 17th day of October 1950, 
and I will ask you to examine the signature of Margaret Vaughn and 
state whether or not you signed it or made it. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyer. I decline to answer this question on the same ground 
as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Meyer Exhibit No. 1," for identification only. It 
is an oath of allegiance for public employees with the signature 
Margaret Vaughn on it, position title, elementary teacher, subscribed 
and sworn to on the I7th day of October 1950. On the 17tli of October 
1950 were you a member of the Communist party? 

Mr. Doyle. It will be received and so marked. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyer. I refuse to discuss anything of this nature in the pres- 
ence of this committee, it is my right to discuss or not to discuss and 
so I refuse to answer any such questions so I wish to decline to answer 
that question on the basis of my rights under the Constitution, the 
first amendment supplemented by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Meyer, were you in the hearing room during 
the testimony of Mr. Stephen Wereb ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.') 

Mrs. Meyer. I do not wish to discuss this. I refuse to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Jackson. I ask direction. Obviously whether or not she was 
in the hearing room at the time any other witness testified is in no 
manner incriminating, and I don't accept the answer and request a 
direction. 

Mr. Doyle. I don't, either. I direct you to answer the question. 
It is manifestly pertinent and reasonable. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1847 

Mrs. Meyer. I believe it is my right to decline to answer this ques- 
tion, which I do on the same grounds as previously stated, the first 
amendment supplemented by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, the answer is still not acceptable so 
far as I am concerned. I think it is a pertinent question and I ask 
that the witness again be directed to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you again, Mrs. Meyer, to answer the question. 

Mrs. Meyer. I should like to ask the reason for asking such a ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Doyle. We don't think your answer was sufficient nor com- 
petent. 

Mrs. Meyer. In what way ? 

Mr. Doyle. We are not going to argue about it. You can stand 
on your rights, whatever your counsel advises you, of course. But I 
direct you to answer the question so the record will show very clearly 
what we did. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyer. I refuse to answer that question, sir, I believe that is 
my right and I am so advised by counsel, on the basis of the protec- 
tion of the first amendment to the Constitution supplemented by the 
fifth, which is for the very existence of protecting the rights of the 
citizens of the United States of America. 

Mr. Moulder. May I say I want to clarify the record. So far as 
I am concerned, I think this idea of directing a witness to answer 
the question time after time is a very silly, frivolous procedure. 
The purpose of that of course is to advise you that in the event you 
fail to answer you may be cited for contempt. 

I think after a witness has once been informed of that fact, there 
is no reason time after time to say "I direct you to answer." 

Mr. Tavenner. Otherwise, they would contend they didn't under- 
stand. 

Mr. Jackson. I think it is necessary in this case on subsequent 
questions relating to that individual which might conceivably be in- 
criminating where the invocation it seems to me would be perfectly 
proper. However, as to whether or not a witness was in the hear- 
ing room at the time any given individual testified is in my opinion 
not incriminating, and I want it definitely understood in the record 
and for that reason I asked for the two directions and I still do not 
accept it. 

Mr. Moulder. It just makes a silly show of the committee sitting 
here. As a lawyer I want to make my position clear. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have to disagree. I have read the Emspak case 
and the only reason we do it is because the Supreme Court accord- 
ing to my interpretation of the Emspak case makes us do it. I think 
it is silly, too. We are bound by it. 

Mr. Moulder. That case held the only purpose it served was to 
advise the witness they might be cited for contempt. They are ad- 
vised. There is no reason to direct them time after time. 

Mr. Jackson. I agree the record is clear now. 

Mrs. Meyer. Sir, in view of the remarks you have made, I would 
like to answer the question a little differently, if I may. 

I was here today during all of the proceedings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hear Mr. Wereb testify that he was known 
in the Communist Party by the name of Stephen Weber? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



1848 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mrs, Meyer. I decline to answer questions regarding testimony of 
any other witness, sir. Mr. Jackson stated that he failed to see any- 
thing incriminating in stating whether or not I was here during testi- 
mony of another witness, so I decided I would state that I was here 
today during this testimony of this other witness. However, I feel 
it is entirely my right to decline to discuss any matter referring to 
testimony given here. I have that right under the first amendment 
and fifth amendment of the Constitution and since there is no due 
process or opportunity to cross-examine witnesses as there would be 
in a court, I wish to decline to answer the question on those grounds. 

Mr. Jackson. With apologies to my colleague, I am going to enter 
in the record again the fact that I am not satisfied that one person 
heard another person say something in the hearing room is incrimi- 
nating in and of itself, and I am going to ask that the chairman direct 
the witness to answer. 

Mr. Marshall. Why don't you have the testimony of that witness 
read and direct questions to the witness about it instead of asking her 
if she was here or wasn't here ? 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Marshall, please. I direct your witness to answer 
the question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. SciTERER. While we are waiting for that answer, I might say 
that the Supreme Court, in the case referred to, says in short, unless 
the witness is clearly apprised, that the committee demands that 
answer, notwithstanding his objection, there can be no conviction, 
under section 192, for refusal to answer the question. 

Mr, Marshall. Am I supposed to hear part of that, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Spht^rfr. No, that is for the benefit of us who have a little dis- 
agreement here. 

Mrs. Meyer. The testimony of the witness to whom you refer is a 
matter of record and I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment, supplemented by the fifth. 

Mr. DoYi.E. Manifestly we can't accept that as an adequate, j^roper 
answer to the ouestion and I direct you to answer. It is an avoidance 
of a fair question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyer. Such a question might conceivably tend to incriminate 
me. Otherwise, I fail to see why it is being asked. I feel that I 
definitely have the right to refuse to answer the question on the first 
amendment and supplemented by the fifth. 

Mr. Doyle. You have a right to stand on your constitutional privi- 
lege. I^o you stand on your constitutional privilege? 

Mrs. Meyer. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Let the record show I consider the question entirely 
pro]>er and I do not consider the answer to be a proper use of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Neither do I, but I have directed her twice to answer 
it and that ought to be sufficient for her to understand that we don't 
accept it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hear the witness, Mr. Wereb, state that 
Peggy Vaughn, a teacher, was an active member of the Hawthorne 
group of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1849 

Mrs. Meyer. That is the same type of question and therefore I 
invoke the protection of the Constitution and decline to answer on the 
basis of the first amendment supplemented by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Hawthorne group of the 
Connnunist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Meyer. I refuse to answer any questions of this kind on the 
basis of the first amendment sup})lemented by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Jackson. Do 3'ou specifically refuse to answer this question? 

Mrs. Meyer. I decline to answer this question on the basis of the 
first amendment supplemented by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Meyer. I decline to answer this question also on the basis of 
the first amendment, supplemented by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you knowingly been a member of the Com- 
munist Party at any time since Se])tember 10, 19-i8 ? 

Mrs. Meyer, I refuse to answer this question on the basis of the first 
amendment as well as the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Jackson? 

Mr. Jackson. Xo questions. 

Mr. Moulder. No questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. No questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions. Thank you, Mrs. Meyer, and 
Counsel. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to make two announcements. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you stand by a moment because it may affect some 
of you in the room. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the course of the testimony of Mr. Wereb, 
mention of the name of Mr. John Houston was made. Mr. Houston 
has indicated a desire to be cooperative with the committee. I 
thought that it was due him to make that statement now and as an 
indication he is not a member of the Communist Party at this time. 
I have reason to believe he will cooperate with the committee in 
giving such facts as are witliin his knowledge. 

A second matter. It has been called to my attention that there is 
a Mr. Bert Coffee living in Los Angeles. If that is true, he is not 
the person referred to by the witness Mr. Wereb. The Bert Coffee 
referred to by Mr. Wereb lives in the vicinitv of San Francisco and 
I^ have mqun-ed into it enough to know that it is not the Mr. Bert 
Coffee who a short time ago was employed in Los Angeles by the FHA. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Mr. Tavenner. 

The committee will stand in recess until 9 o'clock tomorrow 
morning. 

(Whereupon, at 5 : 30 p. m. the committee was recessed, to reconvene 
at 9 a. m. the following day, Saturday, July 2, 1955.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA— Part 4 



SATURDAY, JULY 2, 1955 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Lo8 Angeles^ California, 

PUBLIC hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 9 : 10 a. m., pursuant to recess, in room 518 Federal Building, Los 
Angeles, Calif., Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman of the subcommittee) 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Clyde Doyle (chair- 
man) ; Morgan M. Moulder, and Gordon H. Scherer. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, counsel, and William 
A. Wheeler, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. Will the committee please convene ? 

May the record show there is a legal quorum present : Mr. Scherer 
of Ohio, Mr. Moulder of Missouri, and Mr. Doyle of California act- 
ing as chairman. 

Are you ready, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. I would like to recall Mr. Wereb at this 
time. Mr. Wereb was sworn yesterday. 

TESTIMONY OF STEPHEN A. WEREB— Resumed 

Mr. Wereb, you described yesterday for us the Communist Party 
convention at which the Duclos letter episode was discussed. You 
described for us the attendance at that meeting of the Communist 
Party functionaries throughout the State of California. You also de- 
scribed for us or told us of statements and arguments that were made 
on the floor of that convention. 

I would like to ask you at this time to go a little more fully into 
statements made by several of the leading functionaries of the Com- 
munist Party in California, Mr. Schneiderman and Mrs. Yates. 

Mr. Wereb. To the best of my recollection there was a meeting held 
at the Embassy Auditorium, I believe in the latter part of 1946, and 
at this large meeting of functionaries the general s]Deaker or the main 
speaker was William Schneiderman, who was convicted under the 
Smith Act at the trial 2 years ago. 

Mr. Schneiderman spoke very derogatorily of Mr. Truman, our past 
president, as to his "A" bomb policy, trying to force on to the world 

1851 



1852 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

the threat of the A-bomb which at that time only we possessed. But 
he also brought to the attention of those present that due to the Social- 
ist and Communist gains in Burma, China, Italy, France, Great Bri- 
tain, and the rest of the world where Marxism and Leninism now is 
a serious factor, where could the ITnited States of America in case of 
a war between the U. S. S. R., appeal for help or allies '? 

He questioned in his own mind and he put this other question to 
those present of about 700 at that meeting as to the foreign policy 
that this country led and conducted. 

He demanded that the party through all its agencies and all its 
forces — forces was the word used most of the time, seemed to be the 
party pet word — the forces that are capable of influencing or bringing 
about other decisions than the decision of this Government, such as the 
immediate demobilization of all American troops and bringing them 
home, removal of all labels from relief goods to all countries, no United 
States names or any identification whatsoever that it might have come 
as a relief or gift package from the United States, and further again 
he went into the Marxist training, the extreme care which the party 
must under all circumstances give to their new recruits and to their 
retraining and their institution into the party. That w^as the general 
view and the general speech that Mr. Schneiderman made at that time. 

Mr. Schneiderman, I believe, was a member of the national board 
of the Communist Party of the United States or a committee member 
thereof. Therefore, in my opinion, he could not speak anything 
that was contrary to the policy of the Communist Party of the United 
States and no one in the United States Communist Party could speak 
unless it was a policy of the Russian Conununist Govermnent. 

As a proof I could refer back to the Duclos letter, the immediate 
U])set of the whole Communist movement in the United States just 
by one Frenchman's letter. If therefore that letter had such terriffic 
impact, naturally all other directives had their origin. 

I have never seen any of the directives myself, but I do know that 
whatever any of the literature that came through from Embassy 
sources and whatnot, they were almost identical to the policy of the 
party that was adopted here in the United States by the Communists. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have any direct knowledge of messages com- 
ing from the Russian Embassy to the party leadership here? 

Mr. Wereb. Just the regular directives which are I believe sent 
through public mail and I believe every embassy has the same type of 
literature that tliey send to their constitutents or their subjects and 
they have, those letters which I did have or copies thereof, I believe I 
have turned in to the Federal Bureau of Investigation at that time, but 
they almost identically jibe with every move of the ])arty at that time. 
I do not have any of those letters in my possession because they were 
very hard to g,et, and only through different sources which I am not 
at this time permitted to reveal, received them. 

Mr. Moulder. But you do recall of your own personal knowledge 
having seen such letters from the Russian Embassy which dictated 
the policy to be followed by the Communists in this country? 

Mr. Wereb. They were a form letter, understand, they were not a 
written individual letter addressed to a certain party, they were a 
form letter, and I imagine, this is just purely imaginary or reasoning 
on my part that if they were sent to this local office of the Communist 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1853 

Party, that they would also be sent to other groups in other cities and 
headquarters of the Communist Party elsewhere in the United States. 

Mr. Moulder. The point I want to emphasize is ; you know of your 
own personal knowledge they were sent to the local Communist or- 
ganization here '? 

Mr. Wereb. That is correct, sir, and sometimes they were sent to 
what were known as supportive members. The Communist Party was 
divided into three groups: There were the leadership group, or the 
functionary group, whether they be on State, National, or other levels. 
Then there were your general membership, what they called the 
nucleus of the group. Then there was another group which were very, 
very hard to keep track of. I received checks at one time or another, 
as donations to the People's World and different drives even as high 
as $50 checks. I couldn't tell you who they come from because I am 
not permitted to tell you that at this time. In fact, I wouldn't be too 
sure because it went further than myself and this came from the third 
group of members known as the supportive members. 

Now these people actually do not partake in any Communist move- 
ments with the exception of the moneys that they give. At one time 
there was a report made at one of the functionary meetings that the 
Hollywood Club had sent $3,000 as a soup kitchen fund to this United 
States Motors strike that I testified to yesterday. They were identi- 
fied, only we were told in Nemmy Spai'ks' office, who was head of the 
Los Angeles County Communist Party, we were told that this came 
from a very loyal actors' group and he was not at liberty to say who 
the donors were. 

Does that answer your question, sir? 

Mr. Moulder. I want to take you back to the contact with the 
Russian Embassy that they kept in contact with the Communist or- 
ganization here locally and your assumption that they probably pur- 
sued the same practice throughout the United States. What period 
was that ; what date, approximately ? 

Mr. Wereb. That began, sir, the very first letter I saw was at the 
inception and I think immediately after the United Nations went into 
effect. In other words, also again there was another instance per- 
taining to this man Nemmy Sparks. We went to this functionaries' 
closed meeting, it was also held at 124 West Sixth Street on the fifth 
floor ; and he told us at that time, he said "Now, look, comrades, this 
United Nations step is a lot of bunk as far as I am concerned. It 
means nothing; it is an avenue, a pavement, a road that we want to 
travel on where and how it pleases us, and don't pay too much strict 
attention until you get further pai'ty orders." That was the very 
first time that I noticed a letter in the office from the Russian Embassy 
which I immediately happened to take and forwarded to the proper 
authorities. 

Now, this letter was of no consequence outside of a directive as to 
Marxist or newsworthy policy, I at this time couldn't say because I 
don't believe anyone has testified to that and I don't have anything 
substantial here to show for that, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. I wish to emphasize the importance of it in this re- 
spect: That if the Russian Embassy was openly using the mails to 
encourage Communist activity in this country during that period of 

65500— 55— pt. 4 6 



1854 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

time, tlien they probably are still in contact with the Communists, 
loyal Communists that are now active or under cover actively en^a^ed 
in communism in this country today. If the Russian Embassy was 
so conducting its office in that manner, then they probably haven't lost 
contact today. How did you identify the correspondence or letters or 
documents that came here ? 

Mr. Wereb. It said it was Russian Information Service, news serv- 
ice, and it was sent by the Russian Embassy from Washington, sir, and 
that type of letter has been circulated in this city. It isn't new and I 
believe newspapers know of it and they have known of it for a long 
time that such letters do exist and such correspondence does exist. 

Sometimes it does come under the guise of news and information. 
But many, many times in those news and informations there are things 
that you can read between lines. 

In 1947, I believe, January, was another Communist Party day of 
some type or, was it a People's World drive of $75,000? We had a 
speaker here known as Oleta Yates, also convicted of the Smith Act 2 
years ago in the local Federal courts. This Oleta Yates spoke of fur- 
ther Russian policy and the guaranty of communism and socialism in 
such countries as France, Burma, Italy, China, Czechoslovakia, and 
these countries which are now sadly behind the Iron Curtain. She 
spoke how it was possible for these countries to get there. It was 
through the Marxist training of the Communist leadership, its core. 
Also at this meeting there were about 400 to 450 people at the Embassy 
auditorium. She spoke of the possibilities of other countries under 
Marxist and Leninist training coming under this said Russian haven. 
She spoke very menacingly of the foreign policy of the United States 
at that time. Each of them drove the objective of union leaders, union 
leaders, absolute labor leaders whether openly or otherwise, to be 
Marxist trained, strikes to be Marxist led, all activities are to be 
looked at not from a Fascist standpoint but a Marxist and Bolshevik 
standpoint. That was the outstanding thing. They switched to the 
Bolshevik shortlj^ after the war was closed. I noticed in their press 
they avoided during Browder's period the word bolshevism as much as 
possible, but immediately afterward, the word became in common use. 

Proletariat, all these words which in my mind are very annoying 
because I know what they meant and I just knew what they were driv- 
ing at, to me they were very alarming so I have noticed them a little 
more, probably, than the average person. 

There were a number of other things she repeated over and over 
again but again, sir, may I call your attention to that, that she too was 
one of the very highups in tlie Communist Party in the State of Cali- 
fornia. She was a member of the State board of the Communist Party 
in the State of California and they do not make statements, no one in 
the Communist Party makes statements unless they have either instruc- 
tions or approval to make it so. That is all I can say on these two 
meetings, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. One of the functions which you performed in the 
Communist Party, according to your early testimony, was that of act- 
ing as press director for your club. Will you explain your duties 
briefly and state wliether or not in the course of the performance of 
your duties you had occasion to meet members of the press and particu- 
larly the Daily People's World. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1855 

Mr. Wereb. I didn't have to refer to my notes here because these are 
very outstanding in my mind, being that they took up so much of my 
free time. Time allotted to rest in the evening, I spent at this People's 
"World drive in order to carry out a sham that I stood for in the Com- 
munist Party. 

Shortly after I was inducted into the Hawthorne group and I 
finished my 10 weeks' course in the workers' school, at the present time 
I do not recall how I became a press director and I was instructed I 
believe by the executive board of the group as to what I would do 
and who I would report to and get further instructions. 

I was sent to Second and Spring Street, that is, I think the top 
floor they occupied, the publication known as the People's World. 
1 met there a person by the name of William Weintraub. This man 
gave me application blanks, receipts, receipt books; the application 
blanks were to the party, to the Connnunist Party, and subscription 
blanks to the People's World, so if there is any doubt in anybody's 
mind that they were not connected I don't see why the Herald Express 
or some other paper would give me as a representative a card to belong 
to any organization or to subscribe or bring some people into the 
organization. 

I was sent to my group and was told that I was to make a 5-minute 
speech at every Communist Party meeting of our group pleading to 
those who did not subscribe at that time to buy the paper. We had 
had many mobilizations, as they called it, of newspapers which would 
take Sunday mornings which I didn't take too much part in because 
I was busy with other functions in the evenings and being also 
appointed by the People's World known as a Communist as a district 
director, therefore I had other Communist groups or clubs in that area 
whom I contacted whose press directors I met with, and planned 
strategy as to fund raising, as to subscription drives, as to distribution 
of papers. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. May I interrupt you a moment. 

Mr. Wereb. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were those selected as press directors of the Com- 
munist Party supposed to represent any particular group of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. Each Communist club, sir, had their own press director. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Attached to the Daily People's World? 

Mr. Wereb. One of the offices in the Communist group. That was 
a "must." First was your chairman, then your membership chair- 
man, your educational director, your press director, your literature 
director, your executive committee members. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not certain I understand. Did those press di- 
rectors have some function regarding the Daily People's World. I am 
not certain whether that is true or not. 

Mr. Wereb. The only publication that we were to handle was the 
Daily People's World. Occasionally there came a request from some 
oldtimer for the Daily Worker of New York or the Sunday supple- 
ment thereof, but it was not a "must," so much, because that was ob- 
tainable at the Progressive Bookshop and many a time there were free 
distributions of it to different groups, but Daily People's World publi- 
cation was a "must." That is the reason 1 held the office in the group, 



1856 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

was to further financialwise and the subscription drive of this news- 
paper. 

Does that answer your question, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wereb. Over the period of time these peo])le were known to me 
and have met with me at the People's Daily World as district man- 
agers. Alice "Ward, Sparks, one of the two is an alias, I combined the 
two Sparks, wife of one Nemmy Sparks. 

Nathan Shapiro, a little foreign speaking man from the Hollywood 
area. 

Elsie Monjar, a person whom I have mentioned previously, came to 
my home and wanted to find out why I belonged to the Communist 
Party. 

James Dixon, Arden Westman, Anne Trojan. She was of the Rhetta 
group, I believe. 

Edwin Hagen was a member of our group and was the person I 
described yesterday as being a refugee or an unwanted character from 
so many countries. 

Ann Chernick. She also was convicted in the Smith case. 

These people I have met and these people all were Communist Party 
members. I knew them at functionary meetings, I met with them at 
Communist groups. Each of them held an office in the Comnmnist 
Party. 

Every person working with the exception of one whom I have never 
seen at a closed meeting but I did see at many of the rallies, as they 
called them, they were members of the party. 

If you didn't belong to the party directly and openly you were listed 
as a supportive member, but you were connected with the party if you 
had anything to do with the Daily People's World and the security of 
the Los Angeles County Communist Party saw to it that no one had 
that job unless you were of the three categories. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the Communist Party assist the financing of 
the Daily People's World by any method other than contribution of 
funds derived from dues ? 

Mr. Wereb. The finances of the Daily People's World to the best 
of my knowledge, which I made it my business to find out, was derived 
in three ways : Those liberal advertisers, and that was very small, and 
the amount was very little, from the commercial side. 

There were the funds that were raised by subscription. Then the 
party — that is, the Communist Party — was required to put on a fund- 
raising campaign at intervals. Each club was required to raise a cer- 
tain amount of money besides their subscription. I conducted about 
4 or 5 social affairs to this effect which were open to others than only 
Communist Party members, but this was for raising funds and I be- 
lieve the very first successful fund raising I had in that group which 
was previous to any history that they made, I think was $400, the very 
first time that I raised funds for them. 

This repeated itself at intervals at least twice a year where you were 
compelled to raise funds through one means or another. 

Of course the balance of the time one got after old subscribers, dis- 
continued subscribers, new subscribers, or those who wished to have 
them reissued. 

The People's World was sent to people by mail, it was delivered 
personally, it was distributed at all the riots, all disturbances, all ques- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1857 

tioiiable political meetings. The clubs were taxed for the amount of 
bundles that they had taken. 

I believe if I am right I took 100 copies to the United States Motors. 
The club had no money in the fund at that time because they were 
-always short, the county Communist Party took the clubs' funds if 
they were over $10, I believe, or in the vicinity of $10, they wouldn't 
trust a club with any more than $10. 

In other words, you had to function from whatever you could raise 
immediately. These papers were distributed at all these doings. 

Mr. Moulder. You say one bundle was delivered to United States 
Motors. That is rather vague. You didn't follow it up as to what 
that meant ? 

Mr. Wereb. I distributed those at that riot as long as I could and 
as I said yesterday, when distribution got a little too much and tear 
gas got too close, I took off. 

Mr. Moulder. I didn't understand your statement. In other words, 
it was delivered there for distribution among those who were par- 
ticipating in the strike at United States Motors ? 

Mr. Wereb. That is right, anywhere, sir, where they could get 
workers congi-egated and there were many a distribution at shop 
gates as they came out and if you couldn't sell it to them, give it to 
them, and the club would pay for it. 

I also was treasurer for a while to the group in Hawthorne, kept 
accurate records. I believe two of us kept records of that club. From 
those funds we sent to the People's Word a certain allotment at dif- 
ferent periods, at intervals. The People's World to my knowledge 
was and still is a Communist publication and all employees, agents, or 
distributors thereof are connected with tlie Communist Party, sir. 

Any tiling else you wish to know on that, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. You mentioned a Communist bookstore. Will you 
tell the committee whether you know of your own knowledge that 
the employees of that bookstore were members of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. The Progressive Bookshop employees or director of 
the bookstore was always a member of the Los Angeles County Com- 
mittee of the Communist Party. That was the county committee. 
I do believe that I have a name or two here of that bookstore because 
I did have contact with them many times and times when the club 
■couldn't pay their bill, I paid it, never mentioned it, because the club 
was always in debt for something. Ten dollars was the maximimi 
the county would permit the club to have before they taxed you for 
something. There was a Lillian Alexander of the Watts Club, a 
temporary employee, the wife of one Hershel Alexander, the past 
chairman of the Watts Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Which one of the two was chairman of the Watts 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wereb. Hershel Alexander was the cliairman of the Watts 
Communist Club. There was a Nettie or the nickname slie used was 
Eddie, Baker, a woman. She was in that store continuously — that 
is, during business hours or hours appointed by the county, to be open 
for the use of different clubs to pick up literature because all Com- 
munist literature, pamphlets, directives, books, works of Stalin, 
Engels, and all these bums, their books were obtained from this 
bookstore. 



1858 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

The Communist Party itself at 124 West Sixth Street, just gave 
directives, recommendations of what books to get, what literature 
to get from this progressive bookshop. 

Mr. Moulder. Is that bookshop still in operation ? 

Mr. Wereb. I believe that is on Central Avenue somewhere, but 
I do not know its present number. That bookstore is still in opera- 
tion and still operates the same as ever and is still under the same prin- 
ciples. In fact, in Canada at one time they banned bookstores of that 
type and we had a man in our group, a well-to-do elderly man, I will 
try and find his name for you from our group, he didn't attend meet- 
ings very often, but he was a very wealthy elderly man and he bought 
most of the books that they had banned from Canada at one time and 
we distributed that by mail and by other means, it didn't make any dif- 
ference how, we sent them to the city council and mayor of Ingle- 
wood, mayor of Hawthorne, everybody got a copy of some type of 
Marxist book. 

I will try to find the name. I can't recall at this time the name of 
the person but he did spend over a thousand dollars, I believe it was 
$1,500 that he sent the check for to the Canadian Communist organ- 
ization to buy these books and, as I say, they were distributed in the 
district and those that were not distributed were sent to this bookstore. 

Anything else on that, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

I would like you to tell the committee now wlien it was that you 
terminated your connection with the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wereb. In the latter part of 1947 I believe that I was going 
about 5 nights a week against the advice of my physician, I just 
couldn't give up, and I just wouldn't give up, and I kept going to these 
places and I paid taxicabs for most of the members that had no trans- 
portation, took them to meetings and brought them home and my hours 
were sometimes I would say from 7 : 30 in the evening and my owu 
personal working hours from 7:30 in the evening, sir, until 1 or 2 
o'clock in the morning, after that would be possibly 2 hours of report 
writing immediately because I never went to bed until I wrote my re- 
ports and finally I had 1 attack of this coronary thrombosis that laid 
me up about 3 weeks, I went back again after that, sir, and I had a 
very serious one and afterward and the doctor said it is either that 
or he says I don't know what you are doing but you certainly aren't 
yourself, I have known you for many years, and on the advice of my 
physician at the last party I had to leave, and I slowly began to drift 
out. I attended less, I paid less attention to everything I had done. 
T did it that way in order not to uncover myself or my usefulness to my 
Government in case, so up until the time of the Smith trial I was not 
in the eyes of the party known as, shall we say, as the People's World 
put me "memory machine." or stool pigeon. 

In the early part of 1948 my health was still very bad and Mr. Hous- 
ton, John Houston, whom I have mentioned as our club chairman, 
came to my home and wanted me to siffn up, that is, stay in the part}', 
he was alone when he came and I told him, you kiiow I can't partake 
fully, I just can't go on the other way, and I played the part of a very 
broken man, financially and physically, so I believe that I did receive 
3 months' subscription free from the People's World as a gift. That 
just about ended it until the Smith Act, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1859 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Moulder ? 

Mr. Moulder. I have no additional questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. I suppose, Mr. Chairman, you are going to express 
the thanks and appreciation of the committee to this fine gentleman. 

Mr. Doyle. You do it so much better than I do, I will be glad to have 
you do it. 

Mr. Scherer. I think the testimony of Mr. Wereb speaks for itself. 
He has rendered to his country and now to this committee a fine and 
outstanding service. I wish there were more Americans like him and 
we want to congratulate you and express to you the thanks of the Un- 
American Activities Committee and the Congress of the United States 
for this fine patriotic service at great personal sacrifice to yourself. 

Mr. Wereb. May I thank you, sir, and I wish to thank the people of 
the United States for the opportunity that I have had for serving. I 
was only too happy to. Of course I am getting a little bit old for any- 
thing but at any time I can serve this committee or any organization 
representing the free Government of the United States, I w-ill be very 
happy to serve. 

Mr. Doyle. Wouldn't it be a wonderful thing, if all over the coun- 
try men such as this witness would enter into an attitude of mind 
toward our Government which makes this witness happy and contented 
to serve in terms of real financial sacrifice such as he did ? Isn't that 
the spirit that our Nation was born with and isn't that the spirit our 
Nation needs really when you come down to it, a spirit of placing our 
national welfare against our own personal, material gain. 

In other words, the Nation will only be as strong as we citizens are 
willing to make it by virtue of being willing to give something to our 
country instead of trying to tear it down. 

Mr. Scherer. Here is a man if it were possible certainly deserves 
a Congressional Medal of Honor. 

Mr, Wereb. Thank you, sir, and I am sorry if I have been in some 
v;ay inacceptable or some of my words might not have meant what I 
meant to say and I repeat, any time in the future you wish to call on 
me I will be happy to do anything I can. Thank you. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mrs. Martha Hard. My counsel has not arrived this morning and 
he is due to come when he is through with his prior appointment. I 
would like to request that I not be called until he comes. 

Mr. Doyle. We will be glad not to call you until he comes pro- 
vided he comes in time. You are subpenaed to be here and if 3"0u 
have arranged for your counsel to be here, he is expected to be here 
on time. 

Mrs. Hard. I would like to point out, Mr. Doyle, that my counsel 
and I were, I was called for yesterday, my counsel and I were here 
all day yesterday and we waited. We were told we weren't to be 
called yesterday afternoon and we were here until a quarter to 6 yester- 
day evening, and I will be very happy to come as soon as he arrives 
and that should be any moment. 

Mr. Doyle. That is very good. Your counsel is familiar with the 
problems of either court appearance or a hearing appearance and 
that subpena continues from day to day until it is possible to be 



1860 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

heard. That applies to congressional committees as well as to any 
other hearing, whether in court or a congressional hearing, but we 
will try to cooperate of course as we always do. 

But we expect your counsel to be here and if there is any question 
about his being here I suggest you call him on the phone and tell 
him we are ready for him. We began here at 9 o'clock this morning. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. John Houston. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please raise your right hand. Do you sol- 
emnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth ? 

Mr. Houston. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you very much. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN WATERS HOUSTON 

Mr. Tavenner. You are John Houston ? 

Mr. Houston. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have a middle name ? 

Mr. Houston. John Waters Houston. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are not accompanied by coun- 
sel, Mr. Houston. 

Mr. Houston. No, I am not. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee desires to make it plain that a wit- 
ness has the right to have counsel with him if he desires, or the right 
to consult counsel at any time during the course of his testimony 
should he so desire. You understand that, do you not ? 

Mr. Houston. I understand. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Houston? 

Mr. Houston. I was born in Bozeman, Mont., September 1908. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Houston. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in the State of California ? 

Mr. Houston. I have lived in California since 1941. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your principal occupation or trade? 

Mr. Houston. My principal occupation I would say would be in 
the educational field as a teacher. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been? 

Mr. Houston. Well, I have a master's degree in the University of 
Montana and I have done postgraduate work at the Yale University 
and also at UCLA. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you receive your master's degree ? 

Mr. Houston. That was in 1934. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what field did you receive your degree? 

Mr. Houston. It was in English. I had a lot of work in mathe- 
matics, too, at the same time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you went to Yale University ? 

Mr. Houston. Yes, I taught school in Montana about 3 years in a 
small town, high-school teaching, and then decided I needed to get a 
Ph. D. Degree, so I went back east and went to Yale for a year. 

Mr. Tavenner. What year was that ? 

Mr. Houston. That would have been around 1938 or 1939, one of 
those years. 1938 and 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you take your undergraduate work? 



COMMUlSriST ACTrV'ITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES^ CALIF., AREA 1861 

Mr. Houston". Undergraduate work at University of Montana at 
Missoula, Mont. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that immediately prior to your receiving your 
master's work ? 

Mr. Houston. Yes, I continued right on into the master's degree. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Houston, were you at any time a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Houston. That is correct, I have been. I was a member for a 
short time back in Connecticut, New Haven that would be, and then 
I was, my participation in the Communist Party was out here in 
California. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Houston. No, I am not. I quit, actually in my own mind I 
quit in 1946, I think it would be about May or June that I made the 
decision that I was going to get out of the Communist Party, but it 
wasn't until 1948 that I got out of the area where I had been active 
and saw no more Communists and was not pressured to attend any 
meetings, and since tliat date, I would say it would be June 1948, 
that would be almost, that would be 7 years ago now, I have seen none 
of the Communists whom I was formerly associated with except some 
that I have seen here at this hearing today and yesterday. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then I understand your break with the party did 
not become final and complete until you moved out of the environ- 
ment in which you had been living ? 

Mr. Houston. That is correct. That is, if you are a member of 
the Communist party the party makes every effort to activate all its 
members and if you are not active somebody visits you to see wliy you 
aren't and you are therefore among those people whom you have 
been active with and naturally you will be asked to attend meetings 
and do this and do that. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, it was the continuous pressure 
brought to bear upon you which kept you in the Communist Party as 
long as you did stay ? 

Mr. Houston. I would say that, yes. 

Mr, Tavenner. And in the communities to which you moved you 
have had no Communist Party associations whatever? 

Mr. HousTOX. That is correct ; none whatsoever. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say you were a member of the Communist 
Party when you were at Yale University. May I ask you whether you 
had iiad any affiliation with the Communist Party prior to that time? 

Mr. Houston. No. Where I first became acquainted with com- 
munism at all, strangely enough, was in the library at the University 
of Montana where there were some books on the subject. However, to 
my knowledge there was no active organized Communist group there 
ond I was an age where I read quite a bit and I read Norman Thomas, 
the Socialist, first, and he mentioned the Communists and I wanted to 
see w^hat the Communists had to say, so I would say I was generally 
familiar and in New Haven I attended some, as I recollect, some local 
meeting which was of a Communist tinge and there I was persuaded 
to get in and I did participate to some extent, though my main interest 
was in schoolwork but there were no Communists I knew of at the Uni- 
versity of Yale, and I had no contact with them if there were. 

Mr. MouEDER. AYliat was your age at that time ? 

Mr. Houston. My age at that time would be around 30 years old. 

Mr. Moulder. You were then a student at Yale ? 



1862 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Houston. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has received evidence regarding 
Communist activity at Yale, but as I understand it, you knew no one 
connected with the teaching profession at Yale University who was a 
member of your group, is that correct ? 

Mr. Houston. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was this group of the Communist Party that 
you belonged to there ? Was it an organized group of the student body 
or of the community ? 

Mr. Houston. It was of the community in the area where I lived. 

Mr. Tavenner. No connection with the University ? 

]Mr. Houston. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was in 1938-39 ? 

Mr. Houston. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the committee, please, a statement of 
your employment record ? 

Mr. Houston. Well, I was employed, as I said, I worked in Mon- 
tana as a school teacher for 3 years in a small town, Twin Bridges, 
Mont. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any Commimist Party affiliations dur- 
ing that period ? 

Mr. Houston. None whatsoever. 

And I attended Yale after that and after that I went to Washington, 
D. C, and I worked for the Republican National Committee for a 
while as a research assistant and at that time I was not connected 
with the Communist Party whatsoever, so I hope the Republicans 
aren't embarrassed. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain in Washington, employed 
in Washington ? 

Mr. Houston. That would be approximately a year or a little better. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live while employed in Washington ? 

Mr. Houston. Arlington, Va. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the address ? 

Mr. Houston. No ; I am afraid I can't. 

Mr. Tavenner. 800 North Fillmore Street ? 

Mr. Houston. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Washington Book Shop 
while you lived in the city of Washington ? 

Mr. Houston. Not that I recollect. I think I may have gone there 
now that you mention it. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment ? 

Mr. Houston. My next employment was, I came out to California 
and began to work for the Douglas Aircraft. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Where was that ? 

Mr. Houston. Santa Monica plant. 
' Mr. Tavenner. What year ? 

Mr. Houston. That vrould be 1041, I came in August I believe of 
1941 and started right there after September. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain employed by the Douglas 
Aircraft ? 

Mr. Houston. I worked for them for 4 years, 1941 through 1944, 
I think, 3 or 4 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment ? 

Mr. Houston. At Northrup Aircraft Co. 

Mr. Tavenenr. Where is that located ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1863 

Mr. Houston. That was in, let's see, that would be Inglewood or 
Hawthorne, I guess it would be ; yes. 

Mr. Tamsnner. That employment began about the time of the ter- 
mination of your employment at Douglas Aircraft ? 

Mr. Houston. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain employed ? 

Mr. Houston. To 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment after 1946 ? 

Mr. Houston. After 1946 1 attended UCLA in attem]3ting to get 
that Ph. D. which I started at Yale, but financial difficulties were too 
much. I was working and working at the university as assistant 
instructor and working on the side and my wife was working and it 
was just too much vrork, that is all, I wasn't young enough to take it. 
So that ended about, when would it be, I was there 2 years — 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did you do next ? 

Mr. Houston. Then I went to work for Allied Fur Industry which 
was a fur farming company. They raised chinchilla and mink. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did your employment continue there? 

Mr. Houston. That would be I would say 2 years I worked for them. 

Mr. Tavenner. That would bring you up to approximately 1950, 
would it not ? 

Mr. Houston. Yes. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. What was your next employment ? 

Mr. Houston. Then I worked for El Camino College, teacher of 
mathematics, 2 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. And vour employment there was terminated in 
1952? 

Mr. Houston. Correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did your former Communist Party membership 
have anything to do with the termination of your emjiloyment there? 

Mr. Houston. Yes ; it was. The president called me in to his office 
one day and told me that my name had been published in the paper, 
I hadn't read it, and asked me pointblank if I was a Communist. I 
told him "No," and he asked me if I had ever been and I said I had 
been, and told him about it and he asked me if I was through with it 
and I said I was, but he felt that the board would be, he already had 
some, trouble in that respect with some other teachers I guess and he 
though it would be better, he didn't think the board would go along 
with rehiring me next year, although he would have supported me, 
and I just resigned and decided that teaching v.'as out, and I quit. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, let us go back to the time that you arrived in 
California, in approximately 1941, from Washington, when you be- 
came employed at the Douglas Aircraft plant. Plad you affiliated with 
the Communist Party in California before being employed by the 
Douglas Aircraft plant, or was it after? 

Mr. Houston. I would say after, I believe. 

Mr. Taat.nner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances under which you affiliated with the Communist Party in Cali- 
fornia? 

Mr. Houston. I don't exactly recall them. I had had of course 
this general interest in communism, had been in it, and as I recall I 
probably attended some meeting or other and then probably said I 
would join up. 



1864 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. In what group of the Communist Party did you 
become a member? 

Mr. Houston. I became a member of the Hawthorne-Inglewood 
group, the Hawthorne Chib, I guess it was at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you affiliate with any other unit or group of 
the Communist Party in addition to the Hawthorne group? 

Mr. Houston. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your membership was confined to the Hawthorne 
Club? 

Mr. Houston. The Hawthorne club, that is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall or will you tell the committee more 
in detail about how you became a member of the Hawthorne Club? 

Mr. Houston. Well, that is quite a while back and the exact cir- 
cumstances I don't believe I can recall, except the usual procedure 
would be where at some meeting you indicated your interest and 
were apj^roached by some active Connnunist and then were inducted 
and put to work. 

(Representative Moulder left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was the active Communist that saw you ? 

Mr. Houston. I don't know. I presume it would have been Vernon 
Potter. That is my guess. I am not sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you employed in aircraft, from 1941 until 
1916 while you were a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Houston. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any other members of the Hawthorne 
group of the Communist Party who were employed in either of these- 
two plants, airplane plants, in which you were employed? 

(Representative Moulder returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Houston. I don't remember any that worked in the Santa 
Monica plant and in the Northrup plant there was one girl whose 
name I can't recall now who came into the group from I don't know 
where and went out. She was a pretty militant person and that is all 
I can recall in tlie ])lants that I worked. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has heard from time to time of 
emphasis that the Communist Party put upon Communist Party 
organizational work within industry. Can you tell the committee 
what effort was made to do organizational work within the industry 
in which you were employed? 

Mr. Houston. Well, the emphasis was of course to recruit workers 
and the party made every effort to have its members working in 
industry to try to recruit other people in the plant they were working 
in into the Communist Party. I didn't do that. I don't remember 
recruiting any person whom I worked with into the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell the committee what effort was made 
by others to recruit from your particular industry ? 

Mr. Houston. Well, it seems to me if I remember correctly there 
was the industrial work of the party that was handled by industrial 
units, at least that occurred sometime in the history of that group, 
while I was there, that the members, if you were working in a par- 
ticular plant and they organized a group maybe where workers didn't 
live near you but were Communists and in the same plant as you all 
meet together as a group. My recollection is that it wasn't ver}' 
effective work done there in that respect. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1865 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the Hawthorne group considered an industrial 
unit or was it — — 

Mr. Houston. It was a geographical grouping. Later on it was an 
assembly district grouping. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with the names of industrial 
groups that were organized within the airplane industry ? 

Mr. Houston. Some clubs were named after people who were re- 
spected in the movement. I can't offhand — let's see 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not sure I made the question clear, I want 
to know whether there were any industrial groups of the Communist 
Party in which the membership was from the airplane industry. 

Mr. Houston. Yes, there was an aircraft group I am sure, a group- 
ing of the aircraft workers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever meet with them ? 

Mr. Houston. As to that I don't recall. I may have at some time 
or other, but I would attend simply as an observer, I guess, from my 
group. Or perhaps it was this I heard at a section gathering of some 
kind of functionaries they were going to have such a meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was the practice in the Communist Party, was it 
not, to have meetings of functionaries where the functionaries repre- 
sented the various units such as the industrial units of the Communist 
Party and neighborhood units ? 

Mr. Houston. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give the committee the names of the func- 
tionaries from any of these industrial units in aircraft ? 

Mr. Houston. Well, I am sorry, I can't at this time because I have 
a lapse of memory, I don't recall them, I didn't have much connection 
with them. My work was primarily in this assembly district group- 
ing and mainly concerned with routine duties of trying to get people 
to meetings and People's World drives and that sort of thing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become the chainnan of the Hawthorne 
group of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Houston. I did at one time for a short period of time. 

Mr, Tavenner. Were you acquainted with the witness who just 
preceded you on the stand, Mr. Wereb ? 

Mr. Houston. Yes, I was. He was very active in our group and I 
met him at his house a number of times. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you and a person by the name of Monjar engage 
in a security check at his home on one occasion ? 

Mr. Houston. Yes, I think we did put him on the frying pan and 
that would be — I was attending UCLA, most of the time as I said I 
had o jobs, trying to go to school and 2 jobs on the side and I did on 
some occasions participate. As I remember, I was called to Elsie 
Monjar's and said they were going to ask him some questions about 
Steve and we went over there. I believe she did most of the talking. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were called to her house to be advised to go 
with her over to Mr. Wereb's home ? 

Mr. Houston. That is right, 

Mr. Tavenner. What was told you as the purpose of this trip ? 
Mr. Houston. The purpose was to question him about his lack of 
understanding of Marxism and the question was, as he put it: "Why 
are you in the Communist Party?" 



1866 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

The idea would be to question liim and see what his background was 
and what his understanding of the party philosophy was and as I. 
remember it came out, at that inquiry it came out that he was given a 
clean bill of health, 

Mr. Tavenneh. Mr. Wereb has advised the committee as to what 
occurred at the first Communist Party meeting that he attended when> 
you were introduced to the group as the newly elected chairman. 

Mr. Houston. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the occasion ? 

Mr, Houston. I do, although it seems to me that that wasn't the first 
time he was inducted into the party, but the remarks there I find it a 
little hard, I don't remember myself ever thinking at that time in that 
way of this country being a state of the Soviet Union, or words to that 
effect, and of course Steve wrote it all down at the time and I have 
only my memory to put against his fact taking, I would say. 

My recollection, if I said it, I didn't mean it that way and I think 
that it is twisted a little, even Wereb can make mistakes in getting stuff^ 
down. The reason I was in the Communist Party primarily at that 
time I think was because we were in the war, we were fighting the Ger- 
mans and the Russians were on our side and the Communists were 
fighting for the war effort, supporting it in every way, and that was 
chiefly it. 

Mr. Tavenner, Wasn't it the Communist Party view at that time 
that the United States should be made a Soviet state, whether it be a 
Soviet state under the leadership of the Soviet Union or just a Soviet 
state? 

Mr. Houston. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. There may be a question ? 

Mr. Houston. Correct, that is the objective of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. To make the United States a Soviet state ? 

Mr. Houston. That is correct, I would say that is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. If I understand you correctly, you do not deny hav- 
ing made the statement attributed to you by Mr. Wereb ? 

Mr. Houston. Well, I will say this for the record, that I think I 
am misquoted or quoted out of context in such a way as to give a mean- 
ing which I don't believe I ever intended to give That is, as I can 
remember, I never thought of making this country a subject part of 
the Russian setup. 

Mr. Tavenner. But after all, there is very little distinction, isn't 
there, in fact between making this country a part of the Soviet Union 
and making it a Soviet state, actually there is very little distinction, 
isn't there ? 

]VIr. Houston, Perhaps there is a distinction. 

Mr. Doyle. As I understand your testimony, it is that you do state 
that you realized that the Communist Party during the time you were 
in it had the objective of making the United States of America a 
Soviet state, is that correct? 

Mr. Houston. I would say yes, 

Mr. DoYLE. All right, if you say yes, there isn't much difference be- 
tween what you say now and Mr. Wereb's statement that was their 
objective, and he heard you say tliat their objective was to make it 
the 18th because if tliere are only 17 states in the Soviet Union and 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1867" 

this became a Soviet state, it would be the 18th state, wouldn't it,, 
and tliat is what he said you said, so you are not far apart, are you? 

Mr. Houston. Probably there is a distinction without a difference. 
That is, I thought, my understanding at that time would be that this 
country would have a setup like the Russians, but its own setup. 

Mr. Moulder. Independent of the U. S. S. R. ? 

Mr. Houston. Yes, going along with it 

Mr. Moulder. That was your thought at the time ? 

Mr. Houston. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. But not a part of the Soviet Union dominated by 
another foreign country? Was it your underetanding that it was to 
be made an independent Soviet state? Is that the way I understand' 
you ? 

Mr. Houston. That is my understanding of it. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Moulder, you and I may agree but politically I 
can't conceive of the Soviet Union getting enough control over the 
United States of America to have it turn into a Soviet form of govern- 
ment without the Soviet Union and Russia controlling it; do you?' 
If they give us birth as a Soviet state, sure they are our parents. 

Mr. Moulder. Don't misunderstand me. I am trying to get his 
thought about the matter; I Avasn't expressing one of my own. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, we become their Soviet buby and they 
nurse us until we are adults and then they continue to feed us, sure. 
My belief from what I read and know is that they definiftjly intended 
to tie us under their apron strings and give us birth as a Soviet state 
and then keep us tied to tlieir apron strings. Why not? That would 
give them control of the world and that is what they are after, of 
course. 

Mr. Moulder. May I make the statement there is no contention or- 
argument about that matter. This witness just seems to construe 
what I said differently from what the previous witness testified to. 

Mr. Houston, I would say my understanding at the time — right, 
now I say well, it is a distinction without a difl'erence. 

Mr. Doyle. You did say, however, that of course you recognized 
that the witness made notes. 

Mr. Houston. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. You don't questioji his accuracy ? 

Mr. Houston. Well, I wouldn't say he is a hundred percent accurate- 
in detail. We are all human, liut as I say, I can't put my memory 
against his writing afterward, but maybe I said it. 

Mr. Doyle. You may have said it in the enthusiasm and context of 
a Communist Party meeting? 

Mr. Houston. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. At any rate, he wrote it down and as you say his notes 
are probably more accurate than your memory. 

Mr. Moulder. May I say again. Witness, as I understand it, you. 
do not affirm nor deny that, but you are making an explanation of a, 
possible error on his part in construing the meaning of your statement? 

TM"!-. TToTTSTON. rV)7-rect. I accent that. 

Mr. Moulder. I don't know why the witness should be compelled 
to be placed in a position of perjury. 

Mr. Doyle. 1 don t, either, i iiad no intention in trying to clarify 
what I understood to be the witness' testimony. I had no intention of 



1868 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

placiiifr you in the position of falsifying or anything ol the sort. I 
want the witness to understand that. 
Mr. Houston. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. You heard the names of the persons identified by 
Mr. Wereb as members of the Hawthorne group of which you were 
chairman ? 
Mr. Houston. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of that group during the entire 
period Mr. Wereb was a member ? 
Mr. Houston. I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. As far as you know was there any error in his 
identification of members of the Hawthorne group ? You heard his 
testimony. 

Mr. Houston. I would say it was substantially correct, although 
I believe it is only fair to say that a number of those people were what 
would be classified, according to the Communist Party at that time, 
as deadwood, that is, people who are inactive. And maybe attended 
a meeting and the active membership certainly made valiant efi'orts 
to get them out to the meetings, but I say in the main the list is correct, 
although I will have to state to be truthful that I can't remember all 
those names. I don't recall all those names. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Houston, that is true with a lot of organizations; 
isn't it ? They have a large membership or a membership and only a 
few are activ* and attend meetings and it is a constant struggle on the 
part of the active members to get out the inactive ? That happens in 
about every organization ? 
Mr, Houston. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. That happens in church. We do not have enough 
people out to church on Sunday. 
Mr. Houston. That is right; true. 
Mr. Scherer. Yet they are members of the church, 
Mr. Houston. That is right. 

Mr. SciiERicR. It is those what pay the dues that help support the 
organization and provide for the activities of those who are active. 
Mr. Houston. That is correct. 

Mr. Moulder. Inasmuch as you have liad the courage to come before 
the committee and frankly admit your former Communist Party 
affiliations and participation in the cell or branch of the party, that 
you testified about, don't you wish to make some explanation, I 
believe you should be entitled to make some explanation of the cause 
or reason which induced you to become a member of the Communist 
Party and also what influenced you to become an active member in 
participation in Communist Party affairs, 

Mr. Houston. As near as I can say on that, I have wondered about 
that myself here tlie last 6 years particularly the last few weeks, I 
would say that probably it is probably my background. I had a rather 
tough time at home, I was young, we had hardships, didn't have enough 
money in our family, there was a lot of dissension in the family, and 
the Communist Party, what attracted me to it, was this positiveness 
with which they seemed to hold their opinions and the people in it, 
I think that is what attracted me to it. And the theory of it, to my 
mind the revolutionary aspect of it I more or less in my mind brack- 
eted with the early history in Eussia and I didn't buy it, didn't think 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF,, AREA 1869 

in terms of that actively here in this country, and at the time I was 
in the Communist Party it was what was called a revisionist period. 
That side of the party was soft pedalled, it was only after the Duclos 
letter that I began to really think the thing out a little bit and see 
that I was not for that. I am not a revolutionist and I don't believe 
in it. That is all. 

I want to take this occasion for all the people who formerly knew 
me in the Communist Party to say that I in 1946 in my mind I quit 
and I quit for good. I rejected it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did j^ou find the answer to those problems you had 
in your youth in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Houston. Well, there was a lot of activity and, no, I didn't 
find the answer to my problems of my youth. The only thing, as I see 
it now, is I just grew up and became a little more practical and began 
to see the world as it really is and to see that American people aren't 
going to buy communism. They haven't bought it and we will work 
out our own destiny in this country. 

Mr. ScHERER. That was a good statement. ]Many of us as young 
people had financial problems. 

Mr. Houston. That is true. There are people in the depression 
that had a difficult time, more difficult even than I had and they 
never became interested in the Communist Party. 

Mr. SciiERER. You would say that the ideology of communism is 
attractive ; wouldn't you ? On the surface it is attractive. It would 
have to be attractive to attract the masses. 

Mr. Houston. The youth particularly. 

Mr. ScHERER. Actually, did it practice what it preached ? 

Mr. Houston. No. 

Mr. ScHERER. The ideology doesn't emphasize revolution, that is 
what 3^ou wanted to tell us i 

Mr. Houston. I would say that the Communist Party is the revolu- 
tionary party. 

Mr. ScHERER. Does it emphasize it, though ? 

Mr. Houston. That aspect of it is kind of left in the background. 
It is really only what you would call the mature Communists that think 
that. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is, the hard core. 

Mr. Houston. The hard core. 

Mr. ScHERER. That understand it. 

Mr. Houston. Yes, that understand it. 

Mr. ScHERER. In other words, when you joined the party you may 
not have joined if you had known the substance of the Duclos letter 
at that time ? 

Mr. Houston. I don't think I would have. 

Mr. ScHERER. The actual and real purpose of the Communist Party 
is often hidden insofar as new members are concerned or in many 
cases insofar as the ordinary, average, inactive member is concerned? 

Mr. Houston. Yes ; I would say it is. 

Mr. ScHERER. But there is no question in j^our mind no^v that its 
main objective has prompted men who have sought power and domi- 
nation over other peoples from time immemorial, namely, power and 
domination and control. 

Mr. Houston. Yes. 

65500— 55— pt. 4 7 



1870 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF,, AREA 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask a question there : 

Witness, I have never met you, I am sure, never spoken with you. 
If you were listening over the radio or if the newspapers were able 
to print all you have said about the Communist Party being a revolu- 
tionary party, which I know they can't possibly do for lack of space 
and other reasons, but if any young people of the teen age or about 
that, high school or college age, were thinking in terms of either stay- 
ing in or joining the Communist Party, sliould ask your experi- 
ence — you are a college man, were graduated— if those young people 
should ask you your advice as to whether to stay in the Communist 
Party or of getting into it, what would you say to them? 

Mr. Houston. Well, I would say that what they ought to do is to 
work in the traditional American way for whatever reforms they think 
necessary ; that the Communist Party is not the answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is what we all agree, as long as the majority 
of the people in this country would agree on a different form of gov- 
ernment and that different form would be brought about through 
constitutional means, nobody could object. 

Mr. Houston. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Houston, were you connected or affiliated with 
the Communist Party in any manner while you were employed as a 
teacher at college that you mentioned ? 

Mr. Houston. La Comita College ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Houston. I was not. That was after 1948, I completely disas- 
sociated myself. I didn't see any Communists or had nothing to do 
with them. 

Mr. Tavenner. After you received your subpena to appear as a 
witness in this hearing, did you get in touch with the staff of the 
committee ? 

Mr. Houston, Yes; I did. I received a letter to the effect that any 
person who was so subpenaed and had any questions to ask could meet 
with the counsel of the committee and I did. Prior to that, 2 years 
prior to that I was visited by the FBI and asked about my connec- 
tions and since I had quit, and determined to have nothing more to 
do with it, I told them what I knew about it, 

Mr, Tavenner. You voluntarily told counsel for this committee 
that you were willing to testify here, 

Mr, Houston, That is right, 

Mr. Tavenner. And desired to do so ? 

Mr. Houston. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you were advised by counsel that you would 
be given every opportunity to state the reasons for your going into 
the Communist Party and the reasons for your getting out of it ? 

Mr, Houston, Yes, 

Mr, Tavenner. You have already in answer to the questions of the 
committee members pretty well covered that field, but if there is 
anything else you desire to say as to the circumstances under which 
you got into the Communist Party and the circumstances under which 
you left, I want to give you an opportunity to say it, 

Mr, Houston, I don't believe that I can add any more to what I 
have said, 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1871 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Moulder ? 

Mr. Moulder. Nothing other than that I wish to commend you for 
your straightforward testimony before the committee, the admissions 
which you have made concerning your Communist Party affiliations 
and which certainly should not in any way have any unfavorable 
reflection upon you or you as a citizen in your occupation or work 
you are doing. 

Mr. ScHERER. I agree with Congressman Moulder that there should 
be absolutely no sanctions against this man of any kind or nature 
by employer or fellow citizens whatsoever. 

Mr. Doyle. I feel the same, Witness, of course. I want to ask you 
one question, if I may, about the Duclos letter. 

I have heai'd many witnesses, I have read much on the subject, and 
from your testimony about the effect the Duclos letter had on you, 
it awakened you to the fact that the two systems, the Soviet system, 
and the American system could not exist side by side in the same 
world; is that true? That was the claim of the Soviet Union party 
through the Duclos letter ? 

Mr. Houston. Yes; it indicated that the Communist Party was 
going to become a revolutionary party. 

Mr. Doyle. And that is as we have understood it and I think that 
came to this country in April or May, 1945. 

Mr. Houston. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. That is as I recall it. And as I said the other day, 
I have come to make a good deal of allowance for people wlio went into 
the Communist Party prior to April or May 1945, but I still don't 
undei'stand Iioav any person could stay in the Communist Party very 
long, say a year or two or even iii some cases three, after April 1945. 
If you allow 1 or 2 or o years for any patriotic American citizen to 
comprehend the significance of the Duclos letter, and then if they still 
stay in the Communist Party, tliej' stay in with their eyes open and 
they are a revolutionary party. 

That is my position on it. I want to commend you for what you 
have done and may I urge you to do everything in God's world that 
you can to overcome maybe even the little damage that you may realize 
you did while you were in it. 

With your great ability and now your devoted dedication to your 
country as contrasted to what you were dedicated to even as a scholar, 
won't you devote some of your material and spiritual resources and 
your fine education to helping even teen-agers, because you have had 
a great education in the university. 

Mr. Scherer. I think by his appearance here on the stand he has 
done that in a great measure. 

Mr. Doyle. I know that, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I know what you mean, but I just wanted to comment. 

Mr. Doyle. Still you are in such a strategic position, won't you think 
in terms of putting out some of your fine ability and educational re- 
sources to counteract that. We urge you to do it, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman, may I add that all of us if we had 
had the power of f rontsight as good as our hindsight' might have 
changed the course of conduct of our lives. 



1872 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

I merely wish to add to what has already been said, that I hope this 
committee will cooperate in every way possible in the event your 
testimony and honest admissions and statements here before the com- 
mittee, in injury to you results. If that occurs the committee should 
cooperate to render you such assistance as it can to rehabilitate your- 
self Qr to adjust any injury that might come about as a result of your 
appearance before the committee. 

Mr. Houston. Thank you. 

Mr. DoYUE, That is our established policy all over the country and 
we will be glad to apply that to you, sir. 

Mr. Houston. I appreciate that. 

Mr. Doyle. Are there any other questions of the witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you very much. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Harry Hay. 

Mr. Hay. May I beg allowance of this committee to have counsel 
sit on the right hand side. I have very poor hearing on the left. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, indeed. Counsel should always be in the right. 
Let's adjourn for 5 minutes before you are sworn in. 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Hay. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Let the record show that the committee reconvenes after the recess 
and that a legal quorum of the committee is here, Mr. Scherer, of 
Ohio, Mr. Moulder, of Missouri, and Mr. Doyle, of California. 

TESTIMONY OF HARRY HAY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
PRANK PESTANA 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Hay. My name is Harry Hay. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Will 
counsel please identify himself. 

Mr. Pestana. Frank Pestana, P-e-s-t-a-n-a. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Hay ? 

Mr. Hay. April 7, 1912, in Worthing, England. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVhen did you first arrive in this country ? 

Mr. Hay. ISfy father and mother were American citizens at the 
time of my birth and the family returned to the United States at the 
end of 1916. 

Mr. Tavenner. Therefore you are an American citizen. 

Mr. Hay. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Hay. We came here to Los Angeles in 1916, and we have been 
here ever since. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation, please, sir? 

Mr. Hay. I am a production control engineer. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what industry ? 

Mr. Hay. We make burners and boilers for basic industry. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1873 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Hay. Yes; I would say that in the beginning the position of 
production control engineer up until about 1947 or 1948 did not have 
regular university training so that my education for that is partly 
formal and partly applicatory in the field. I will do the best I can 
in that field, 6 years of grade school, 3 years of junior high school. 
Because I was graduated from high school before I was 14 I went 
through 3 years and dropped back and took 2 additional years of 
electives so I had 5 years of high school. 

Two years at Stanford ; financial difficulties made it impossible for 
me to continue, so that in preparation for the type of work I do now, 
I had a]Dproximately 2 years in historical research, 1 year in record 
research, 1 year in market analysis, 1 year in actual practice as a 
foundry man, 3 years, 1 year in architectural^ — — 

Mr. Tavenner. I didn't mean for you to go into the detail of stating 
your curriculum. 

Mr. Hay. I suggested these things because to speak of yourself as 
a production control engineer without a degree sometimes seems a 
little strange. Would you like me to stop now ? 

Mr. Tavenner. If you have covered in a general way, that is suf- 
ficient. If you have not, I don't want to limit you. 

Mr. Hay. I would simply want to mention 3 years as a small tool 
analysis and material planning and 2 years in production planning. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you also engaged in the profession of teach- 
ing in addition to the other occupation which you mentioned ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hay. My Chairman, I must decline to answer that question 
on the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had any training in music ? , 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hay. I must decline to answer that question on the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Investigation by the committee discloses that under 
the schedule of classes for the winter of 1950 of the California Labor 
School you were an instructor of a class in music and the people's strug- 
gle through the centuries. Did you actually teach such a course in 
the California Labor School ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hay. Mr. Chairman, I am compelled to answer by declining 
to answer your question for the reason of the first and the fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether the Communist Party in 
Los Angeles on the county level selected persons to teach in the Cali- 
fornia Labor School ? 

Mr. Hay. I beg your pardon. Is that the whole question? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Hay. Would you repeat it ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, I will try to repeat it. 

Do you know whether or not the Communist Party in Los Angeles 
on a county level selected those who were to teach in the California 
Labor School ? 

Mr. Hay. I decline to answer that for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you given instructions by the Communist 
Party to conduct classes on any occasion ? 



1874 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF. ^ AREA 

Mr. Hay. I decline for the same reasons, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Wereb, who appeared as a witness yesterday, 
and also this morning, stated that you had been sent by the educational 
director of the Communist Party in Los Angeles to the Hawthorne 
Club of the Communist Party to give a course of instruction. Was 
that an accurate statement by him '^ 

Mr. Hay. Mr. Chairman, you are asking me to give an opinion, I 
believe, in this case. I wish to state that I have neither opinions nor 
recollections to give to stoolpigeons and their buddies on this com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Let's put the question in a different form. 

Were you instructed by the educational director of the Communist 
Party to conduct classes in the Hawthorne group of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Hay. I decline to answer that based upon the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. You called JMr. Wereb a stoolpigeon. Is anything 
he said about you untrue ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hay. I decline to answer that based upon the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. It certainly comes with ill grace to tag a man like 
Mr. Wereb as you have and then refuse to say whether what he said 
about you was untrue or not. 

Mr. Hay. Mr. Chairman, this is your opinion. You may keep it. 

Mr. ScHERER. It certainly is and it is opinion founded on a little 
testimony and a little experience on this committee. 

Mr. Hay. Mr. Chairman, some of the altercation that went on with 
the last witness — I might suggest a question in that direction. 

"Mr. Doyle, May I have that statement ? What do you say, please ? 

Mr. Hay. In effect, Mr. Chairman, what I said a moment ago was 
that some of the altercation concerning the last witness in this chair 
might suggest a difference of opinion on that matter. 

Mr. DoYLE. Altercation? I wasn't aware there was any alterca- 
tion with the last witness. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think I know what he means. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hay, did you in January or February of 1947 
conduct a Marxist school in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Hay. I decline to answer that question based on the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner, Were you a member of the Communist Partv in 
1947? 

Mr. Hay. I decline for the same reasons, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hay. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1950? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hay, I decline to state on the first and fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr, Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1954? 

Mr. Hay. I decline to state on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr, Tavenner. Were you a member of the Comnmnist Party 
yesterday ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1875 

Mr. Hay. I decline to state on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, is it just on Saturdays that you are not a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hay. I decline to answer that, Mr. Chairman, on the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavennek. Were you a member of the Communist Party this 
morning when you entered this hearino- room? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hat. I decline to state on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it a plan of the Communist Party that when a 
Communist Party member is called to testify before this committee 
that he is to deny membership for the period of time he is on the 
witness stand ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hay. On the advice of counsel I decline to answer that one on 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions ? 

Mr. ScHERER. No questions. 

Mr. Moulder. No questions. 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. Thank you very much. 

("Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Martha Hard Wheeldin. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. MARTHA HARD WHEELDIN, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, EDWARD CARTER MADDOX 

Mr. TA^^NNER. What is your name, please ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. ]\Iartha Hard Wheeldin. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Will 
counsel please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. AIaddox. Edward Carter Maddox. I practice law in Los 
Angeles. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Are you a native of California ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. In the interest of saving time for the committee, 
I understand you don't want to work after 12 o'clock 

]\Ir. Doyle. We will work as late as necessary. We have plenty 
of time to hear the witness fully. We would like to be out by 12. If 
it keeps us to 2 or 3 this afternoon, we will perform our duty so don't 
worry about that. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Well, I was going to say that in light of the nature 
of the inquiry — and I have been here and observed the nature of it 
throughout the week — that I do not intend to answer any of the type 
of questions that have been directed to various witnesses. 

Mr. Doyle. None has been directed to you yet, so please don't antic- 
ipate. We may change our line of questions as to you. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Any further questions that are not in the same 
nature of inquiry would therefore be not pertinent to the subject and 
would be out of order. 



1876 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. DoTLE. We will decide what we think is pertinent and you 
reiy upon the advice of your counsel. We will perform our duty and 
your counsel will perform his. So let's proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question, please ? 

Mrs. Wheeldix. What was the question, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a native of California ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin, No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. This question, sir, I hesitate to ansAver in light of 
some of the previous 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer. We are not satisfied with your 
answer and you know we would not be. I direct you to answer the 
question. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I will be glad to answer if I am not told to go back 
where I came from as some of the pre"\dous witnesses were. 

Mr. Dotle. This committee has no jurisdiction to tell you where 
to go. We have never done it. Now please don't be facetious. Just 
proceed in a dignified manner. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I was born in Suchow, China. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you come to this country ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I don't recall exactly, sir, I was a few months of 
age. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are jon a naturalized American citizen ? 

]\Irs. Wheeldin. No, I am a citizen by birth. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in California ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I don't quite understand that question. I first 
came to California, again I don't recall exactly, I was only about 8 
years of age at the time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived here continuously since then ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. No. 

Mr. Ta^-enner. Well, then, please tell us what other places it was 
where you lived. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. That is a rather involved question. Do you want 
me to go into all the places I have been ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No. Let us begin with 1945 and tell us where you 
have lived since that time. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Well, sir, I hardly see that this is pertinent and if 
it is pertinent then it behooves me to resort to the first and fifth amend- 
ments and decline to answer your question. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that the witness be directed to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. We believe it is a pertinent and proper question and 
I instruct you to answer. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Wheeldin. You said since 1945 : is that correct ? 

Mr. Tavenner, I will change the question and make it 1944. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I have lived in California since 1944. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where in California ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. In Los Angeles County. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you reside in Los Angeles now ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. No, I do not, sir. Do you mean county or city? 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, where do you reside ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. At the present time I live in Pasadena. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived there ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1877 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I have to stop and think a minute. I woukl say 
roii£>-hly speaking around 10 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I am a housewife, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t3nner. Do you have any business or occupation in which 
you are engaged other than that of being a housewife ? 

JMrs. Wheeldin. I have a profession. However, I am, at present 
I have no work, I have no job at all, I am a housewife. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your profession ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. By profession I am a social worker. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. When were you last engaged in the practice of that 
profession ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Sir, if this question is pertinent, and I doubt that 
it is, I would like to ask for direction of the committee as to whether 
or not the question is pertinent, I don't 

Mr. Doyle. Our distinguished counsel asked you a question and he 
doesn't waste his time or your time in asking any questions that are 
not pertinent. We are not satisfied with j^our answer. You didn't 
answer it. I direct you to answer it. 

jNIrs. Wheeldin. Well, sir, on the basis of my rights as very defi- 
nitely established in the first amendment guaranteeing me the right 
of free speech, free association, and the right I have not to inquire into 
my private affairs and also upon the fifth amendment, which I do take 
at this time also in view of the nature of the whole nature of this type 
of inquiry that you have been conducting here, which corresponds to 
the inquisition during the 1700's 

Mr. Doyle. You have a right to stand on your constitutional priv- 
ilege. We always admire a person who does it honestly, in good faith, 
but I am not going to allow you to take this forum to make a speech. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I have stated my reasons for refusing to answer 
the questions, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you plead the constitutional privileges ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I think I made that clear. 

Mr. DoYi.E. I didn't think you made it quite clear enough for the 
record. If you will claim your constitutional privilege 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I have done so, the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Doyle. You stand upon those ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you active in PTA work in Pasadena ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Again I question the pertinency of such questions. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. May I ask a direction of the w^itness ? 

Mr. Doyle. We are instructed by Congress to investigate Commu- 
nist Party activity w'herever it is, whether it is in the schools or labor 
or anything, any group. We believe therefore it is pertinent. I 
instruct you to answer the question. 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mr. Wheeldin. I don't quite understand what you mean by active. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the PTA ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Yes, I am a member of tiie PTA. 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. Do you take active part in its work ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I still don't understand what you mean by active. 

Do you mean am I an officer or what ? 



1878 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. I want to know what your activity is in the PTA. 
You know better than I do. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I am a member and that is about the extent of it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, aren't you very active, in fact, so active that 
jour picture has appeared in magazines in connection with your 
activity in schoolwork and PTA work and in controversies arising 
over school matters ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Mr. Scherer, you seem to know more about that 
than I do. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you answer the question ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. What is the question ? 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Tavenner asked you whether you were active in 
PTA work and you didn't seem to know 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I have answered the question. 

Mr. Scherer. You asked me a question and I want to explain my 
question. Mr. Tavenner asked you whether or not you were active 
in the PTA work. You have fenced with him and dodged the question 
and said you didn't know what "active" meant, you were merely a 
member. Now I am calling your attention to information that has 
come to me and asking you isn't it a fact that you were active to such 
an extent that I believe it was Life magazine that carried your picture 
showing your activities in connection with PTA and schoolwork. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Well, sir, I have belonged to the PTA for many 
years, ever since I had children in the school system because I feel this 
is an important part of my responsibility as a parent and if you 
refer to a picture that appeared in Life, yes, I saw it, too. 

Mr. Scherer. That is all. 

Mr. Tavenner. That of course was based on your activity in the 
PTA, was it not? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I would hardly say so. 

Mr. Scherer. What was it based on ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I don't know what you have reference to, what was 
it based on. It is a very ambiguous question. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, it was based on a controversy, then, in an edu- 
cational matter in Pasadena, was it not ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Any further 

Mr. Scherer. I asked you a question. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I thought he was speaking. 

Mr. Scherer. He was talking to my colleague. Will you read the 
question to the witness ? 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) 

Mr. Scherer. That is the question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Whi:eldin. Well, sir, it sounds like a rather opinionated ques- 
tion. It calls for stating my opinion and I have no opinion on it. I 
think the story in the magazine itself tells you what you might want 
to know. 

Mr. Scherer. What was it based on then ? You tell us. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. What was what based on? 

Mr. Scherer. You just admitted that your picture appeared in Life 
magazine and I asked you if it didn't appear in connection with a 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1879 

controversy in the educational system of Pasadena. Or did it appear 
in connection with some other activity or event. That question is 
clear. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I see what you mean. 

Well, this was around Pasadena schools, yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is all I want to know. 
Mr. Tavenner. What was your name prior to your marriage? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. My maiden name, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Snell. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been known by the name of Martha 
Hard? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. It is my name, sir, I was married previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was vour name Martha Hard during the period 
of 1945 to 1948 ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct tlie witness 

Mr. Doyle. We cannot accept your answer and I direct you to 
answer the question. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in the hearing room yesterday during the 
period of time that Mr. Wereb testified regarding a functionary meet- 
ing of the Connnunist Party at which he named those functionaries 
who were present? 
(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. The witness volunteered the statement she had been in 
the hearing room all week. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I was here yesterday, if that is what you mean. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. Did j^ou hear Mr. Wereb identify you as a 
functionary of the Communist Party who attended a functionary 
meeting attended by him ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer because 
Mr. Tavenner only asked if she heard that part of Mr. Wereb's tes- 
timony. 

Mr. Doyle. We do not accept your answer, Madam Witness, and 
I direct you to answer. 

Mr. Scherer. Couldn-t possibly incriminate her. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Yes, in a whole day's testimony I truly can't trust 
my recollection of everything the witness said. If you want to have 
the record ret aped or reread — 

ISIr. Doyle. Not even about yourself. You couldn't trust your 
memory as to that ? I ask j^ou that. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. AVheeldin. I can't even trust my recollection as to that. 

Mr. Doyle. As to yourself, what you heard him say ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I stand on what I have said. 

Mr. Doyle. You understand the question is whether or not you 
heard him : heard what he said ? 



1880 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I heard some of the things he said. 

Mr. Doyle. About you. 

Mrs. Wiieeldin. I do not recall all of the things he said. 

Mr. DoYLE. About you? I notice you were close by him when he 
was testifying. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. May I pursue it ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, indeed. 

Mrs. Wiieeldin. I recall him having said the name Martha Hard, 
but I have no basis for knowing that is the same person as me. There 
are other persons by such name. 

Mr. Tavenner. To be certain about this, were you a member of the 
Hawthorne group of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. I do not feel that you can call me to answer such 
a question in the light of the type of inquiry you have been conducting. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Were you a member of any group of the Com- 
munist Party other than the Plawthorne group ? 

Mrs. AVheeldin. Again I decline on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. You indicated some uncertainty as to the testimony 
of Mr. Wereb relating to Martha Hard. His testimony was that 
Martha Hard, a functionary of the Communist Party, attended a 
functionaries' meeting which he also attended. Were you a func- 
tionary of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I decline to answer your question, sir, for the rea- 
sons previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. To your knowledge, did you attend any Communist 
Party meeting which was also attended by Mr. Wereb ? 

Mrs. AVheeldin. Again, sir, I decline to answer. As I told you 
when I made my original statement in the interest of saving time there 
would be no need of asking me questions on any of this area because 
I decline to answer them on the basis of the first and the fifth amend- 
ments, which I am sure you are as well aware of their meaning as I am. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you look around, Witness, and look at the gentle- 
man standing there — stand up — look at the gentleman 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know that gentleman ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I refuse to answer such a question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Tavenner just told you what he said when he was 
on the stand the other day. Was that testimony about you true ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Sir, I decline to answer on the reasons previously 
stated, and again I say in the interest of saving time there is really no 
point in asking me such questions, because I will continue to decline 
to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I wish to answer you. Madam, you needn't worry about 
saving our time. We have plenty of time. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I have time. Time is valuable to me, too. My 
housework and children have been negelected this week. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you given any Communist Party assignment 
in Pasadena? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the 
grounds previously stated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1881 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Generally I decline to answer on the grounds of 
the first and the fifth amendments and I do not feel that anybody has 
a right to ask such a question. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course under Public Law 601 we are delegated by 
your Congress, your United States Congress, to ask that very ques- 
tion in the field of subversive activities of the Communist Party or 
any other subversive group. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. We are on an investigation of subversive activities. 
We know of no Supreme Court decision which stops us from investi- 
gating in any field in which we can legislate and clearly the United 
States Congress has and no doubt will further legislate in the field of 
subversive activities. So when we ask you about Communist Party 
activities, it is an illegal party, it is a subversive outfit, has been so 
declared and recognized, we believe it pertinent. 

Mrs. Wheeldin. Sir, your investigation may well be in order as 
long as it does not violate my constitutional rights. The Constitution 
has been in effect in this country for many years and I trust will con- 
tinue for many years. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. We are certainly in agreement on that 
and of course the Communist Party is known to us as an outfit, a gang, 
a conspiracy that would forcibly overthrow that form of constitutional 
government. I think you know that, you may know it. 

Mrs. Wheeldin, I am not anxious to get into an argument %vith you 
about the Constitution or anything else. 

Mr. Doyle. I know that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
at any time? 

Mrs. Wheeldin. I decline to answer that question on the same 
ground as previously stated. It is the same question, 

Mr, Tavenner, I have no further questions. 

Mr, Moulder, No reflection is to be made upon the Parent-Teach- 
ers Association as a result of questions asked. It is not the purpose 
of the committee to investigate the Parent-Teachers Association, 
which is one of the most important, effective, and finest influential or- 
ganizations in this country, I want to make that clear. 

Your membership and activity in that organization certainly should 
not be criticized, you should be commended for any Parent-Teachers 
Association work that you have performed, I make that statement to 
clarify that it is not our purpose to investigate the Parent-Teachers 
Association. 

Mr, Scherer. I agree with what Mr, Moulder says about PTA, but 
of course we are interested in determining whether or not Com- 
munists belong or are active in any organization whether it be PTA, 
labor union, fraternal organization, or what. That is the purpose of 
the questions. 

Mr. Moulder. I w^ant to make our position clear, I don't know 
whether there is any testimony q,s to w^hether in the interests of the 
Communists she was a member of the Parent Teachers Association, 
That is my point, 

Mr, Doyle, I am glad you made that statement, Mr. Moulder. I 
concur in it. As a matter of fact, I used to be president of a PTA. 



1882 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF,, AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. I am a member now. 

Mr. Doyle. You are a member now ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. There is nothing wrong with the PTA. 

Mr. Doyle. Let's congratuhite the PTA on having a member like 
you, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Thank you. 

Mr. Doyle. I want to' congratulate the PTA on the great work they 
have done and always do, but that doesn't stop us as a congressional 
committee from trying to find out the extent to which the Com- 
munist conspiracy even tries to infiltrate the PTA and other groups. 
That is our job and we would hope that this witness might try to 
help us. 

Any other questions ? 

INIr. Moulder. I understand that. I wanted to clarify the point that 
we are not investigating the Parent-Teachers Association here or any- 
where else. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. We are investigating individuals. 

Any question ? 

Mr. Moulder. We could ask the question as to whether or not she 
has ever held any official position in that Parent Teachers Association? 

Mr. Doyle. We did ask that. 

Mr. Moulder. You just asked about the extent of her activities but 
every parent who is a member will be active to some extent. I don't 
know to what extent she was active. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Madam Witness, and Counsel. You are 
excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Louis Stark. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Stark. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS STARK, ACCOMPAmED BY COUNSEL, 
ROBERT KENNY 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Stark. Louis Stark. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Will 
counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Kenny. Robert Kenny, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. TV^ien and where were you born, Mr. Stark? 

Mr, Stark. December 4, 1915, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where ? 

Mr. Stark. In New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Stark. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you first come to California? 

Mr. Stark. Approximately 35 years ago, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived here continuously since that time ? 

Mr. Stark. Continuously with the exception of a period from 
March 1941 to— this is a copy of my honorable discharge here — period 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1883 

of March 1941 to November 16, 1945, when I was discharged at Fort 
McArthur. Other than that period I resided in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner, You served overseas in the fighting forces of the 
United States ? 

Mr. Stark. I was a member of the 355th Infantry. 

To those who were in the Pacific, we were more fortunate. We were 
in Europe. I was an infantryman, sir. 

Mr. Ta\ti;nner. Will yon tell the committee what your educational 
training has been? 

Mr. Stark. I have been educated in the Los Angeles school system, 
sir. I had 6 years of grammar school, junior high school, graduate of 
high school. I attended evening high school for perhaps a period of 
a year or more at various times. 

That is the extent of my formal education. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed between 1945 and 1948? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stark. During that ])eriod, sir, I believe I was primarily self- 
employed in the produce business. 

Mr. Tavenner. During that period of time were you acquainted 
with Mr. Stephen Wereb, either by his true name as Stephen Weber or 
by his name as Stephen Wereb ? 

Mr. Stark. I must refuse to answer that question based on my 
rights under the Constitution, the first and fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think you were present in the hearing while Mr. 
Wereb testified regarding your participation in Communist Party 
activities during that period of 1945 to 1948, were you not ? 

Mr. Stark. I have been in the committee hearing room on and off 
Friday and again today, sir. I have been in and out of the room at 
various times. 

Mr. Tavenner. If you heard his testimony relating to you, I do not 
want to take the time to repeat it, if you didn't I will repeat it or 
attempt to refresh your recollection. 

Mr. Stark. Well, sir, in view of the fact that I have been in and 
out, I would not be in a position to know whether I had heard all 
of his testimony. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you hear his testimony as it related to you? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stark. Sir, the record will have to speak for itself. I per- 
sonally am not sure. 

Mr. ScHERER. You are not sure whether you heard his testimon}^ 
as related to you ? 

Mr. Stark. Completely, I couldn't be sure because I was not here 
all the time. The record will be complete and I do not have it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you hear him say anything about jou at all ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stark. I am not sure, sir, and I will have to depend on the 
record. 

Mr. ScHERER. You mean you are not sure whether you heard him 
mention your name at all ? 

Mr. Stark. Sir, I will have to rely on my previous answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Wereb testified to the effect that there were 
a number of occasions where Communist Party classes were con- 
ducted in your home at which you were present. 



1884 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Stark. I must refuse to answer that question based on the 
reasons previously given, sir. 

Mr. Tavekner. I haven't actually asked you whether that occurred 
or not, but I will ask you now. Were you present at any such classes, 
when such classes were held at your home ? 

Mr. Stark. I must reply the same way, sir. I refuse to answer 
based on my rights and in a sense obligations to the Constitution 
under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Hawthorne group of 
the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stark. I refuse, sir, for the reasons previously given. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was also testified to that you acted as the liaison 
between the Communist Party and certain political groups. Did 
you act as such a liaison ? 

Mr. Stark. I must refuse to answer that question based on the 
reasons previously given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a candidate for Congress on the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party ticket in 1948 ? 

Mr. Stark. I cross-filed as a member, as a candidate under the 
Independent Progressive Party, but due to the actual laws of this 
State governing elections, I have always been a registered Demo- 
crat, sir, and ran as a Democratic candidate and if I had had the 
funds at the time probably would have run as a Republican, as well. 
The termination of the election was that the Democratic candidate 
won not only his but the Republican nomination as well and ap- 
parently won nothing. 

Mr. Tavenner. In that campaign were you essentially the candi- 
date of the Independent Progressive Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stark, I really can't answer that question, it is rather am- 
biguous, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you discuss your candidacy on the ticket of 
the Independent Progressive Party with functionaries of the Com- 
munist Party prior to your filing as a candidate with the Independent 
Progressive Party ? 

Mr. Stark. I am sorry I interrupted you, but I believe I gathered 
the sense of your question and I must refuse to answer that on the first 
supported by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with the membership of the 
committee for the Independent Progressive Party at the time of your 
candidacy ? 

Mr. Stark. I must for the reasons previously stated refuse to answer 
that question. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Will you tell the committee, please, how many of 
the members of that committee were members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Stark. My answer to that, sir, in view of the fact that it is a 
similar question, must be the same. 

Mr. Doyle. I think, Mr. Tavenner, our evidence is that by far more 
than one was a member of that group, I mean more than one Com- 
munist was a member of the IPP committee in control at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of declaration of 
candidacy as an Independent Progressive Party candidate for nomi- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1885 

nation to the office of Congressman from the I7th District, Jmie 1, 
1948. On the second page of which appears the signature of the 
candidate, to which is attached sponsors certificate showing signatures 
required by law to be obtained. 

Will you examine the document, please, and state whether or not 
that is your signature on the second page as candidate ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stark. I am sorry, sir, I have the document but I have lost the 
question directed to it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the second page and state whether 
or not the signature there of the candidate is your signature ? 

Mr. Stark. I decline to answer that, sir, based on the grounds 
previousl^y stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the list of sponsors which follow ? 

Mr. Stark. I have done that, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have done that ? 

Mr. Stark. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. If you will examine the document, I am certain 
you will see names of people identified by Mr, Wereb as members of 
the Hawthorne group of the Communist Party. 

Will you tell the committee, please, which of those you agree with 
Mr. Wereb were members of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stark. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are at perfect liberty to make any explanation 
you desire. 

Mr. Stark. I realize that, sir, but I must rely on advice of counsel, 
whom I have implicit faith in. This is more complicated that I had 
originally thought, sir, and counsel is aware of my position, as is the 
chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat complicated situation do you speak of? 

Mr. Stark. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend a meeting of the Communist Party 
at which your candidacy as an Independent Progressive Party candi- 
date was urged ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stark. I would like to reiterate, sir, that I never was a candi- 
date of the Independent Progressive Party. I have always been a 
registered Democrat and ran on that, as a Democrat. I crossfiled, 
which is a part of the election laws of this State as a candidate for 
the Progressive Party and did not run as a candidate of that party 
in the runotl's because I was not eligible. 

Mr. Moulder. You say if you had had the filing fee you would 
also have filed on the Republican ticket ? 

Mr, Stark. It is a practice used by all of the politicians 

Mr. SciiERER. He said he was a registered Democrat. 

Mr. Stark. I would have run if I had had the additional filing fee, 
sir, as a Republican, 

Mr. Scherer. I agree that he would have filed if he had had the 
fee. I doubt if the Republicans would have let him run. 

65500— 55— pt. 4 8 



1886 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. The declaration of candidacy I hand you states : 

I hereby declare myself an Independent Progressive Party candidate for 
nomination. 

Doesn't that make you a candidate for nomination on the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party ticket ? 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. Stark. The document speaks for itself, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, then, it is true that if it speaks tlie trutli that 
you were a candidate, an Independent Progressive Party candidate. 
If that is not true, please so state. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stark. Well, sir, apparently it would take a good deal of time 
to understand the peculiar election laws in this State which is evi- 
dent in the document, but the document must speak for itself, con- 
fusing as it is. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me see if I can clear it up. Does that language 
indicate that though you may have been a candidate on some other 
ticket that this meant crossfiling ? 

Mr. Stark. Yes, it does, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am trying to get the facts. That is what I want 
to know, 

Mr. Stark. As I say, the general practice is for candidates for 
political office to file on all parties. 

Mr. Scherer. That is not the general practice. 

Mr. Stark. The general practice 

Mr. Scherer. To file in all three parties? I thought they filed in 
the Democratic and Republican primaries. 

Mr. Stark. Many of tliem did. I am not qualified to state how 
many, but I think many of them did. 

Mr. Doyle. I think in view of the fact that I am a California Con- 
gressman and a registered Democrat, I wish to state it wasn't the gen- 
eral practice as far as I am concerned. I never filed in the IPP, cross- 
filed. I did crossfile in the Republican Party and I think I won its 
nomination, too, once in a while. 

Mr. Stark. Well, sir, it might be profitable to go to the secretary 
of State for a matter of record and engage in research to determine 
how many candidates for political office did this. I have no way 
of saying at the present time. 

Mr. Tavenner. The point I have asked you to clear up is: What 
part did the Communist Party play in your crossfiling or participa- 
tion in that election on the Independent Progressive Party ticket. 

Mr. Stark. I must refuse to answer that question based on the 
grounds previously given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee whether or not the Com- 
munist Party at that time controlled and directed the Independent 
Progressive Party in its function ? 

Mr. Stark. I cannot answer that question based on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. DoYLE. I think Mr. Tavenner as a California Congressman 
I think it has been discovered that in those days in too large man- 
ner the Communist Party in California did control too much entirely 
the policy and practices of the IPP party. That was discovered by 
me and it was discovered by many California Congressmen and it is 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1887 

self-evident and I think that the IPP is still infiltrated with too many 
Communists and that the IPP is — that is, the Communist members 
of the IPP party, formerly IPP party because it isn't now, legally 
qualified in California as I understand it, are now trying to infiltrate 
the Democratic and Eepublican political machinery in Los Angeles 
County and other counties in California. No question about that. 

Mr. ScHERER. They have a hard time getting in the Republican 
Party, don't they ? 

Mr. Doyle. They get in the Republican Party too often and too 
often in the Democratic Party. They get into both parties. But they 
still have the same Communist intent and purpose in my book. [ 
think I know a few of them. 

Mr. Moulder. There was a question asked you as to whether or not 
you are now a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Stark, I am not now a member of the Conmiunist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Conmiunist Party at 
the time you were a candidate for Congress ? 

Mr. Stark. I refuse to answer that question based on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Independent Progres- 
sive Party ? 

Mr. Stark. I was never a member to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Never a member ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stark. Never registered, I will put it that way, as a member 
of the Independent Progressive Party. I was always registered since 
I was a little whelp in this city as a Democrat. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Tavenner, the law used to be in California we could 
cross-file into other parties without being registered in that party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, I understand. 

Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1954 ? 

Mr. Stark. I refuse to answer that question based on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you cease to become a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

]\Ir. Stark. I refuse to answer that question based on the same 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. You desire to rely upon your statement that you 
are not now a member of the Communist Party, but will give no other 
facts relating to membership ? 

Mr. Stark. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I want to give you every opportunity to explain 
your answer, how you got out of the Communist Party, if you did. 

Mr. Stark. I have no legal training and I must, as you know I must, 
give that answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. This committee has no information indicating that 
you are not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Stark. I am aware of that, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner, It has evidence that you were a member of the Com- 
munist Party in 1948. I want to give you every o])portunity to 

Mr. Stark. I am not now a Communist, sir. Beyond that I can 
answer no questions. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not desire to go any further with the 
matter ? 



1888 COMMXFNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Stark. Under the rights as I understand them, under the Con- 
stitution, without implying, although unfortunately in the minds of 
many people the use of these amendments which were put into our 
Constitution and a great deal of hard work by many Americans whom 
I have always admired historically, these are now being misconstrued 
and I use them as they were intended to be. 

Mr. ScHERER. I do think this witness has properly invoked the fifth 
amendment and he is to be complimented on his demeanor and attitude 
here as a witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. I want to be sure to give him every possible oppor- 
tunity to explain his action if he desires to do so. 

Mr. Stark. Counsel knows the reasons that I 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Moulder. Let me ask a question: Have you ever knowingly 
engaged in any espionage or subversive activities ? 

Mr. Stark. No, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Have you ever knowingly committed any acts of dis- 
loyalty to your country, the United States of America ? 

Mr. Stark. Unequivocally no, sir, and I might add that I will resent 
and have in the past and in the last few days, any implications of that, 
and without going into any braggadocio I tliink my activity in this 
city socially and politically, going back to the recall of Mayor Frank 
Shaw 

Mr. Moulder. I merely asked you the question to give you an 
opportunity to make that statement in explanation. 

Mr. Stark. I have not, sir. 

Mr. Sciierer. We have not tried to leave that impression or create 
any such implication. 

Mr. Stark. I appreciate that. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think your attitude toward the committee has been 
splendid, that you properly invoked the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Stark. I tried to do it honestly. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you testify as to your service in the Armed 
Forces of the United States ? 

Mr. Stark. Yes, sir ; I was in the service ; for a period of less than 5 
3'^ears and, as I say, I have several items which I treasure most. One 
is the Combat Infantryman's Badge, and the other for domestic pur- 
poses, a Good Conduct Medal. 

Mr. Moulder. With an honorable discharge for your service. 

Mr. Stark. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. I must ask you another question. Were you a mem- 
ber of the party when you were in the armed services ? 

Mr. Stark. I refuse to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. On what grounds ? 

Mr. Stark. On the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. May I make a very brief observation. I think I as 
an individual have reason to believe you haven't been in the Com- 
munist Party for several years. I am not asking you to — I want to 
congratulate you on getting out, and I wish the legal situation was 
such that you could do that which I know you would be glad to do 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1889 

and therefore officially as a fellow citizen may I urge you to use the 
^reat ability you have and the great knowledge you have of how the 
Communist Party used to operate, use that vigorously and vigilantly, 
my friend, to overcome the damage done by the Communist Party 
both past and present. 

I kind of have a hunch that you are in a position to contribute much, 
especially to the education and information of young people of teen 
age and college age, and help them from the danger of it in any way 
identifying with the Communist conspiracy. Again I wish the legal 
situation was different so that you could help us. 

Mr. Stark. I appreciate your saying it, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. And I may say although you may have been in the 
hearing room when my distinguished colleagues, Mr. Moulder and 
Mr. Scherer said it, but we hope that there will be no reprisal in any 
way against you as a result of the necessity we have had in calling you 
before the committee. If there is, I am making a sincere statement, 
we hope it doesn't occur and if it does, we regret it and will do what- 
ever we properly can to help correct it. 

Mr. Stark. Thank you. 

Mr. Scherer. I just want the record to show that in view of his 
taking the fifth amendment, I can't fully associate myself with your 
last statement. 

Mr. Doyle. I understand, but it is my statement and I feel that 
way about it. 

Mr. Scherer. You said "we." 

Mr. Doyle. I am sorry. I will eliminate you but sometimes these 
things occur and we know a man presently before us as a patriotic 
citizen entitled to every honest break he can have. 

Is there any other question ? 

jMr. Moulder. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, witness, and counsel. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr, Wheeler. We have one more witness. Mr. Robert Brock. 

]Mr. Brock. I have a press statement I would like to give. I will 
give one to the committee if they want one. 

Mr. Doyle. We will be glad of course to have a press statement, 
that is issued at the time the witness takes the stand. May I ask 
you to be sworn. 

Mr. Brock. Surely. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Brock. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EOBEET L. BROCK, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

ARTHUE A. BEOOKS 

Mr. Tavenxer. Will you state your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Brock. Robert L. Brock. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Will 
. ounsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Brooks. I did. Arthur A. Brooks, Jr., of Held & Brooks, 
Beverly Hills. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Brock ? 



1890 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Brock. I was born January 2, 1914, in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan,. 
Canada. 

Mr. Tavennp:r. When did you first come to the United States? 

Mr. Brock. This is only what my mother tells me, but it was prob- 
ably 1915. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a naturalized American citizen or American 
citizen by birth ? 

Mr. Brock. In my opinion I am an American citizen by derivative, 
howevei", on my return from Army service at the sufrcrestion of the 
Immijrration Service, in order to take the bar examination I went 
through the naturalization that was then provided by Congress for 
servicemen. I think it was early in 1947, at the beginning of 1947 
or end of 1946. 

Mr. Tam^nner. Your profession, tlien, is the legal profession ? 

Mr. Brock. I am a member of the State bar of the State of Califor- 
nia. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your for- 
mal educational training has been? 

Mr. Brock. I have lived in Los Angeles since 1920. During that 
period I attended public and one or two private schools. I went to 
Hollywood High School from which I graduated in 1980. I went to 
the University of California at Los Angeles from wliich T graduated 
in 1934. I then commenced working for the county and took I think 
three courses in sociology at the University of Southern California 
at night school and started then to go to night law school. I com- 
pleted night law school just before going into the service. Then 
during my time in service I spent a year's study at the LTniversity of 
California at Berkeley under an Army training program. 

Mr. Tavenner. What year was that ? 

Mr. Brock. This is a matter of record, it may not be too accurate, 
but I think it was 194-3 and into 1944. I don't have my service record 
or I could tell you. It was 1 calendar year. I don't mean calendar 
year but it was a year's period. That is the extent of my education. 

Mr. Tavenner. What period of time were you in the service? 

Mr. Brock. I went into the service in, I think it was, September of 
1942 and was discharged in, I believe, February of 1946. I was in 314 
years. 

Mr. Tavenner. You served overseas ? 

Mr. Brock. I served in the China-Burma-India theater. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell tlie committee, please, what your em- 
ployment has been since your retui-n from the service up until the 
time you began the practice of law. 

Mr. Brock. I went into the service, I got a leave of absence from a 
civil service position with the county of Los Angeles as a clerk of the 
superior court. 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you first employed as clerk of the su- 
perior court? 

Mr. Brock. I started working for the county of Los Angeles in 
June 1934, it may be July, when I graduated from UCLA, as a mes- 
senger for the county clerk's office at a salary of $68.18 a month. I 
continued in that, going through the civil service stages, until I became 
a court clerk, my recollection is it was probably 1941, and I was still 
holding that position when I was inducted into the Armed Forces : and 



COMRfUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1891 

when I came back I resumed that employment and then prepared my- 
self and took the bar examination and became admitted. 

Shortly subsequent to my admission I was elected by the judges of 
the superior court of this county as a superior court commissioner and 
served in that position until April 1, 1954. 

Mr. Taatexner. Describe briefly the position of commissioner. 

Mr. Brock. A commissioner acts as a sort of referee, ordinarily sev- 
eral commissioners will work in one department under a judge. They 
hear cases in a manner similar to the manner in w^hich a judge hears 
them, they make findings and recommendations. Probably in your 
practice it w^ould be more equivalent to a master in chancery. 

I worked almost exclusively in the field of family problems and 
domestic relations. 

Mr. Ta\t5xner. How long were you so employed ? 

Mr. Brock. I started, I think, in September of 1947 and continued 
until the end of March of 1954. 

Mr. Ta\texxer. What was the reason for the termination of your 
employment ? 

Mr. Brock. I think I explained it in my press release, but I will ex- 
plain it again. First I wanted to go into private practice, I had never 
practiced. In the second place, I felt I could be more effective in sup- 
porting the Constitution and the Bill of Rights as a practicing attor- 
ney than I could on the bench. 

Mr. Scherer. Some of these judges w^on't like that. 

Mr. Brock. I wasn't sitting as a judge. I was hearing domestic 
relations cases as commissioner. 

Mr. ScHERER. You said you were on the bench. 

Mr. Brock. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenxer. In occupying the position of commissioner were you 
required to give an oath or affidavit required by law ? 

Mr. Brock. The law would speak for itself. I rather think so. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you give such an oath ? 

Mr. Brock. I do not recall such an oath. If you have a copy of it 
I would be glad to look at it. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Brock. I have looked at the document which appears to bear a 
date in February 1948. 

Mr. Tavex'xer. At the time of the signing of that document were 
you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Brock. I refuse to answer that question on the following 
grounds : Firstly, I would suggest that if the committee wishes to play 
fair in the American way, they produce any evidence they may have 
that I was ever a member of the Communist Party and produce it 
before a court and not this type of a hearing. 

Second ground I have for refusing to answer that question is that 
it became obvious I think in yesterday's hearing and from Mr. AYereb 
himself that all of the parties named by Mr. Wereb had been turned 
in to the FBI and quite apparently the only function served by his 
testimony here was releasing those names to the press. I do not wish 
to be a party to this. 

I have an answer to isms and I will be glad to give it to the com- 
mittee if the committee wants it here. I f urther^decline to answer 
because it is a violation of my rights under the first amendment. 



1892 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

I further decline to answer on the grounds it violates my natural 
rights because in a democratic form of government the people have 
an absolute right to free expression and free association. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Tavenner asked you if at the time you signed 
that document if you were a member of the Communist Party. Did 
you admit your signature to the document ? 

Mr. Brock. I did not. 

Mr. Moulder. I didn't recall any such testimony. 

Mr. Brock. There was not, but if there were, the answer woiild be 
the same. 

Mr. Dotle. In view of the witness being an attorney at the Cali- 
fornia bar and I am also one, I wish to say that my own position as a 
California lawyer — I haven't practiced for 9 years now — is this : I will 
fight for your right, Witness, to think what you please and be what 
you please and do what you please. But I expect you to do this within 
the four corners of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Brock. If you have any other evidence I would like to see it. 

Mr. Doyle. Maybe it will be produced either here or later. I 
assume it will be. 

Mr. Sciierer. The best evidence of nonmembership in the Commu- 
nist Party on the part of this gentleman would be his sworn testimony 
here that he is not. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. That is why w^e are giving him the opportunity. 

Mr. Brock. I didn't ask for any opportunity, Congressman. I am 
here involuntaril}^ sir. • 

Mr. Tavexner. I had understood you acknowledged signing the 
affidavit when you re^jlied to my question, but apparently I misunder- 
stood you. 

Mr. Brock. I think you did, sir. 

Mr, Tavenner. Did you sign it ? 

Mr. Brock. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds hereto- 
fore stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. My question that followed related to whether or not 
you were a member of the Communist Party at the date of that docu- 
ment, which was in Id-iS. That was clear, wasn't it ? 

Mr. Brock. Yes, sir ; that was quite clear. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever use the name Bob Lehman ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Brock. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds hereto- 
fore given. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your address in 1940 ? 

Mr. Brock. I wish I could tell you. I really don't remember. I 
think I was living on Verendo Street, but I am not sure. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. On what other streets did you live, say, between 
1935 and 1945 ? 

Mr. Brock. That is a long period and I can't tell you. I lived for 
a time on a street called Hicks. I lived for a time at Pasadena at two 
different addresses. If you want to suggest an address, Mr. Tavenner, 
I will be glad to answer it. I am not trying to conceal where I live. 
I don't think it has any bearing on the hearing, but I will be glad to 
answer it. 

Mr. Doyle. It helps us in identification. 

Mr. Brock. Certainly, 



COxvIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1893 

• 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you live at 6010 North 

Mr. Brock. That sounds familiar. 

Mr. Tavenner. G-r-a-c-i-o-s-o Drive ? 

Mr, Brock. Yes; I did some year or other, I am not sure when. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you live there a period of about 10 years ? 

Mr. Brock. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you live there ? 

Mr. Brock. I couldn't say, but I think probably at one period for 
about a year during the time right after I got out of college about the 
time my daughter was born I was living there. 

Mr. Tavenner. That would be about what year ? 

Mr. Brock. 1935, I think, and I might have lived there for a few 
months on some subsequent occasion. 

Mr. Tavenner. You lived there about a year beginning in 1935? 

Mr. Brock. Sometime like that, I am not sure if it was a year or 6 
month?; or 8 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. So then during a part of 1936 that would have been 
your correct address? 

Mr. Brock. I can't say, but it is possible. I think I probably did 
for part of the time during 1936. My daughter was born in December 
1935 and I think I was there then. 

Mr. Sciierer. Didn't you ask this witness whether he ever used any 
other name? 

Mr. Tavenner. I asked him whether he had used the name Bob 
Lehman, L-e-h-m-a-n. 

Mr. Doyle. What was his answer? I don't think he answered it. 

Mr. Moulder. He declined to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe he refused to answer. 

Mr. Sciierer. He took the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Brock, you have helped us now on identification 
of where you lived in answer to these questions, frankly; you have 
told us you probably lived there and identified the fact that your 
daughter was born and so forth about that time. Now you have 
helped us in that matter of identification because if there is any error 
we don't want to be in error. If there is any error in identification 
given us as far as you are concerned, we want to know it. 

Mr. Brock. I certainly appreciate it, Congressman. 

Mr. Doyle. You have held high positions. May I say this : If you 
have used any other name than the one you have given us, why don't 
you help us in the matter of identification as to name, too? I should 
think you would be very anxious 

Mr. Brock. Congressman, it is my sincere view that this commit- 
tee is doing a real disservice to the Constitution and that is why I am 
not helping you. 

Mr, Doyle. You helped us on the matter of 

Mr. Brock. I will help any committee dedicated to preserving 
civil rights. 

Mr. Doyle. I resent that, "Witness, because I think — but again I 
want to urge, sir, that to me as a member of the bar I would suspect 
that you ought to in justice to yourself and the bar and the court 
where you have served these years as commissioner, you ought to help 
us know who you have been, under what different names if any. I 
would think you would be interested in that. 



1894 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

* 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Doyle, if you have an opportunity to look at this 
affidavit that he swore to on February 3, 1948, you would see that he 
properly invokes the fifth ammendment when he refused to answer as 
to whether or not he ever used the name Lehman, because in this 
affidavit of course he was under oath, he says he never used any other 
name. There is a specific provision of this affidavit which says that I 
never used or have been known by any names other than those listed 
as follows, so he can't admit here that he used the name of Lehman 
because he would admit he was guilty of perjury when he signed this 
affidavit. 

Mr. Doyle. I see. 

Mr. ScHERER. So he is properly invoking the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you ever a member of unit x\.-3 of the Com- 
munist Party in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, I would like to know who accuses me of such mem- 
bership and what you have to show me that would refresh my memory. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a document, a Communist Party docu- 
ment which was obtained by the committee. 

Mr. Scherer. This is the first little bit of evidence he asked for. 

Mr. Brock. May I state for the record in answering the question 
that this document is entirely typed, bears no signature, starts off 
"Bob Brock" and under that" "Bob Lehman," and right side "1914, 
unit A-3." 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. 

Mr. Brock (reading) : 

Clerk, Canadian, joined in '36, proposed by — 

and that is all there is on the document, none of which is written in 
any one's hand. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds hereto- 
fore stated. 

Mr. Scherer. I think we should state for the record that his state- 
ment is in error because it has been identified under oath as a Com- 
munist Party document. 

Mr. Doyle. All he is saying is there is nothing in handwriting. 

Mr. Scherer. I see that. 

Mr. Brock. I didn't hear it identified, Mr. Tavenner, by anyone. 

Mr. Tavenner. No; it has not been identified in this hearing. 

Mr. Brock. I guess Mr. Scherer is in error. 

Mr. Scherer. Not in this hearing. 

Mr. Brock. Has it been identified at any hearing? 

Mr. Tavenner. It has not been identified at a hearing. 

Mr. Doyle. It has been identified, whether at a hearing or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. It has been identified. 

Mr. Brock. By whom ? 

Mr. Doyle. I know it has been identified, I assure you, but not in 
a public hearing. We wouldn't put a document in front of 3^ou that 
hasn't been identified to our satisfaction, even if not in a hearing. 

Mr. Brock. Under committee rules I am entitled to be apprised of 
any evidence in a prior hearing involving me and I have not been so 
advised. 

Mr. Doyle. No such committee rule, you know that, but I assure 
you we don't present a document under your eyes that hasn't been 
identified as such in the judgment of our distinguished legal counsel 
as sufficient identification of a Communist Party record for your 
information in answers. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1895 

Mr. Tavenner. You read the year 1914. That was the date of your 
birth, was it not ? 

Mr. Brock. Part of the date, January 1, 1914 : yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You read the address, 6010 North Gracioso Drive, 

That was your residence in 1936, wasn't it ? 

Mr. Brock. I can't say for how long in 1936 but it was I think for 
part of 1936. 

Mr. Tavenner. You read the employment as clerk. You were a 
clerk, were you not ? 

Mr. Brock. I was either a clerk or messenger at that time, I am not 
sure which. 

Mr. Tavenner. You read the name Canadian, did you not? 

Mr. Brock. The word Canadian, that is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you were born in Canada, weren't you? 

Mr. Brock. I was, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You read the name Bob Lehman ? 

Mr. Brock. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever use that name ? 

Mr. Brock. I am sure you asked me that question and I have already 
declined to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you still decline to answer it after reading it 
from this card ? 

Mr. Brock. Yes, sir ; I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. On what grounds ? 

Mr. Brock. On the grounds heretofore stated at the time of your 
last question. 

Mr. Tavenner. You read "joined in 1936." Did you join the Com- 
munist Party in 1936? 

Mr. Brock. I think I have already declined to answer that question, 
too. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have not asked you that. 

Mr. Brock. I thought you had. I am sorry. I will decline to answer 
that question on the grounds heretofore stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you questioned at the time that you termi- 
nated the position of commissioner, or shortly prior thereto, regard- 
ing Communist Party membership ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Brock. I will decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds heretofore given. 

Mr. Scherer. I want to interrupt now because it is very important. 
The statement this man gave to the press before he sat down on this 
witness stand says that one of his most compelling reasons for his 
resignation from the bench "Was my desire to work more effectively 
against the un-American hysteria and fear generated by this and like 
committees.*' 

Now he takes the fifth amendment when he is asked about the cir- 
cumstances surrounding that resignation. I can readily believe now 
that this is not so. 

Mr. Brock. Why don't you call the judges and ask them? 

Mr. Scherer. We have you here now. 

Mr. Doyle. My former law partner of 20 y(iars is on the superior 
bench of Los Angeles County, Hon. George G. Clark. I think I will 
ask him. 

Mr. Brock. I would welcome it. 



1896 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you interviewed by the personnel committee 
of the sii])erior court regarding this subject, the subject of your alleged 
Communist Party membership ? 

Mr. Brock. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Weren't you required to resign ? 

Mr. Brock. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't j^ou resign because of the situation which 
I have mentioned ? 

Mr. Brock. No, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. How soon after you were questioned about your 
Communist Party activities did you resign ? 

Mr. Brock. I am sure, Mr. Scherer, you are not trying to trick me 
into an answer to a question to which I claimed my constitutional 
rights. Therefore, I will decline to discuss this on the same grounds. 

Mr. DoYLE. Let me ask you this in all sincerity : Were you a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party at the time you resigned ? 

Mr. Brock. I will decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds, sir. I might state with all deference to the committee, if I 
may be given leave, it has been my practice for many years to asso- 
ciate myself v\'ith whatever people I wish to pursue, objectives which 
I consider to be proper, to sign anything I wish if I agree with it. 
regardless of who put it out, and this is a practice I will continue. I 
will not discuss organization or people with this committee. 

If I had at any time any evidence of any unlaAvful activity, sabotage, 
or espionage, I would turn that evidence over to the FBI where it 
belongs. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask you this: What was the date of your 
resignation ? 

Mr. Brock. It was sent in some time before it took effect. My pres- 
ent recollection is it was effective tlie end of March of 1954. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was April 2, 1954, was it not? 

Mr. Brock. I am not sure. If you saj^ so that could be true. 

Mr. Ta\t5Nner. Weren't you interviewed by the personnel com- 
mittee of the superior court on the 29th day of March 1954 just a few 
days prior to your resignation? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brock. Not according to my recollection, sir. In fact, I was 
never interviewed by the personnel committee of the superior court 
except when I was employed. 

Mr. Tavenner. By whom were you interviewed regarding alleged 
Communist Party activity prior to your resignation ? 

Mr. Brock. I have already declined to answer that question, sir, 
and I will continue to do so. 

Mr. TxUTSNNER. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brock. I am not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
January 1,1955? 

Mr. Brock. Please, sir, do not try to fence with me. I have told 
you I am not going to give you information of that type. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am going to put you on oath, sir, as to the time 
you left the Communist Party and if you refuse to answer that is 
your refusal. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1897 

Mr. Brock. I shall do that, sir, consistently to the rest of your 
questions on that subject. 

Mr. Doyle. You volunteered you were not a member of the Com- 
munist Party at this minute. Excuse me for interrupting. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you a member of the Communist Party 
yesterday ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brock. My answer will be the same to that as I have just indi- 
cated to Mr. Tavenner, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. You mean you are refusing to answer on the basis 
of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Brock. I am refusing to answer that question on the grounds 
as follows: First, that this committee is violating my natural rights; 
second, the committee is not pursuing its proper legislative purpose ; 
thirdly, on the grounds that I have rights not to answer as to my 
associations under the first amendment ; and, fourthly, the first amend- 
ment supplemented by the fifth amendment, in that I do not choose 
to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Scherer. You refused to answer as to whether you were a 
member of the Communist Party yesterday. Were you a member 
of the Communist Party when you came here this morning? 

Mr. Brock. Would it be satisfactory, sir, if I just incorporated 
my last refusal ? 

Mr. Doyle. Very satisfactory. 

Mr. Brock. I will do that right along if you wish. 

Mr. Doyle. It is in order to save time, but not because we accept 
it as sufficient, I assure you. 

Mr. Scherer. Let's get this straight. He is under oath now and 
I am going to ask whether or not the statements you made in this 
release to the press before you got on the stand are true, all of them 
true, every one of them. 

(Witness read his own statement.) 

Mr. Doyle. Let the witness read the statement. 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. 

Mr. Brock. You don't mind if I read my copy ? 

Mr. Scherer. I hope you wrote it. 

Mr. Brock. I did. Every statement I have made in this press 
release is unequivocally true. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. You still say that the chief reason for 
resigning from the bench, as you put it, was because of your desire 
to work more effectively against this committee. 

Mr. Brock. Yes, sir ; I do so state that. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. 

Mr. Brock. And I want it understood I do not mean this committee 
as individuals. I have no personal feeling against the members of 
this committee. I feel what you are doing is wrong. 

Mr. Scherer. You say that was your reason for resigning from the 
bench ? 

Mr. Brock. I said that was one of my most compelling reasons for 
resigning from the bench. 

Mr. Scherer. What were the other reasons ? 

Mr. Brock. I wanted to go into private practice of law. 



1898 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr, SciiERER. Are those the only two reasons ? 

(The witness conferred with his connseL) 

Mr. Brock. I felt also that my activities in connection with civil 
liberties issues might be a source of embarrassment to the courts and 
I have always held the courts in high respect and I did not wish to be 
a source of any controversy. 

Excuse me, sir. May I state something to supplement that answer ? 
I was already in the process of involving myself in what I considered 
to be one of the crucial civil liberties cases in this day and I wished to 
resign to devote myself to it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did your association in Communist Party activities 
have anything to do with your resignation from the bench ? 

Mr. Brock. No. 

Mr. ScHERER. Not at all ? 

Mr. Brock. No. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did the fact that you had signed an affidavit 

Mr. Moulder. I believe that question is a presumption you were a 
member or associated with Communist activities. 

Mr. Brock. If it does, I didn't so understand it or so intend the 
answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you resigned from the bench ? 

Mr. Brock. I have already declined to answer that question and all 
similar questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now let's get one more thing. Did the fact that you 
signed an affidavit under oath on February 8, 1948, when you obtained 
your position with the superior court, in which affidavit you swore 
that you had never used any other name than Robert L. Broughton 
have anything to do with your resignation ? 

Mr. Brock. I might say the name Robert L. Broughton is the name 
under which I was born. 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand that. 

Mr. Brock. I must decline to answer the question on the grounds 
heretofore given. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you tell the truth when you swore to this affidavit 
on February 3, 1948, when you obtained your job in the Superior 
court ? 

Mr. Brock. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds hereto- 
fore stated. 

Mr. Scherer. You mean as a member of this bar that you are refus- 
ing to tell his committee, sir, whether or not you told the truth when 
you signed an affidavit under oath for a position with the court of this 
county ? 

]Mr. Brock. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the affidavit should be introduced in 
evidence and I request that it be marked "Brock Exhibit No. 1," for 
identification and retained in the committee files. 

Mr. Doyle. It will be so received and so marked. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman. I hate to delay the proceedings at 
the closing of the hearings, but could the reporter go back and read 
the question which Mr. Scherer asked, which was in substance "Did 
your affiliation or association with the Communist Party influence 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1899 

your resignation as a commissioner of the court V I would like to have 
that question read, and the answer. 

(The reporter read from his notes as follows :) 

Mr. ScHERER. Did your association in Communist Party activities have any- 
thing to do with your resignation from the bench? 
Mr. Brock. No. 

Mr. Moulder. "What was the answer ? 

Mr. Brock. The answer was ''No." I can tell you, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have another question. At the time you resigned 
did you make any public statement as to the reasons for your 
resignation ? 

Mr. Brock. I don't think so. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wasn't there an article in the press about your 
resignation ? 

Mr. Brock. I don't think so. I think there probably was an article 
in the legal paper that I was going to private practice. 

Mr. ScHERER. And there was no statement that you made at that 
time as to why you were resigning ? 

Mr. Brock. If it was I don't remember it. Oh, I think so. I think 
I said I was resigning to go into private practice. I will look at it 
if you will show it to me. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is right. Did you give any other reasons at 
that time to the press for your resignation ? 

Mr. Brock. If you have the article, the fair thing would be to let 
me see it. This is a matter of a year and a half ago and I am sure 
you don't want to be unfair. 

Mr. ScHERER. No ; I don't want to be unfair. 

Mr. Doyle. A year and a half isn't very long. 

Mr. Brock. Quite long to remember a newspaper article. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you give any reasons when you resigned other 
than that you wanted to go into the private practice of law ? 

Mr. Brock. You mean in a newspaper article? 

Mr. SciiERER. Yes. 

Mr. Brock. Show me the article and I will tell you. It will speak 
for itself. I don't think I did. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is all I want to know because I don't have such 
an article. You never did say at any time when you resigned that the 
reasons, the most compelling reason that you were resigning was to 
fight this committee ? Have you ever made that statement prior to the 
time you prepared this memorandum for the press here today ? 

Mr. Brock. Do you mean in the form of a press release, sir? 

Mr. SciiERER. Any time. Did you ever make such a statement? 

Mr. Brock. I have made it many times, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. You never made such a statement at the time you 
left the bench ? 

Mr. Brock. To individuals ; yes. 

Mr. Doyle. You volunteered the statement that you made this 
charge against this committee many times. I think in view of your 
volunteering that statement I am entitled to ask you where you made 
that statement in public. 

Mr. Brock. You may be entitled to ask me, sir, but I won't answer 
it on the grounds heretofore given. 

Mr. Doyle. I think you have waived your privilege you might have 
had and the answer is not satisfactory and I instruct you to answer. 



1900 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Brock. I have made that statement to my wife and friends and 
other people. 

Mr. Doyle. Any public meeting ever ? 

Mr. Brock. If so, I don't recall it. 

Mr. Doyle. Yon don't recall it. You have made it in private but 
not in a public meeting ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brock. I may have made it from the platform when I resigned 
from the board of education. I am not sure. I have made it of this 
committee on more than one occasion. 

Mr. Doyle. No, I am not sure of it. I am not sure you ever criti- 
cized this committee in public. 

You are a member of the California bar and so am I. You made a 
charge here that I know is basically on a false premise, that is the way 
I will put it. I will dignify it that way, although it is kind of hard 
to do it, to give it any dignity, but you are a member of the bar and 
you are under oath. Here is what you said, it is clear. I charge that 
"this committee is attempting to punish me solely because of my 
strenuous opposition to all the committee stands for." 

We are here as American Congressmen under Public Law 601. 
We .are here performing our official duty, which official duty by the 
way has been assigned us from time to time by overwhelming vote of 
the House of Representatives, overwhelming votes. Two votes against 
this committee in the House, that is all, out of -164 or 465 and none 
this last year. The House of Representatives unanimously approving 
our functioning as we are. Xow I want to say to you that as a member 
of this committee I would not have shared in any attempt to punish 
you because you attacked this committee, but we have documentary 
evidence and testimony under oath on occasions that you were a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, and we have presented some of it here 
and you have pleaded your constitutional privilege. I merely want 
the record to show and the press to know, that this charge by you is 
based on absolutely a false premise, this committee did not come to 
California to take your time or its time to bring you in merely because 
you attacked the committee. 

In fact, you can't identify a single time when you attacked this 
committee in public. That is why I asked you that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Until after he was subpenaed. 

Mr. Doyle. After he was subpenaed. That is why I asked you that 
question. What knowledge did we have of you criticizing this com- 
mittee ? We had no knowledge in that sense. It is a facetious and 
false claim on your part and I am disappointed to find you making it. 

Mr. SciiERER. I never knew this man existed until he took the stand. 

Mr. Doyle. You are here now telling us for press release purposes 
that we are punishing you because of your strenuous opposition to all 
the committee stands for. We never heard of you criticizing the com- 
mittee any place. We did hear of you as a Communist Party member 
and you know it. 

Mr. Brock. From whom, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyl,e. The document here which has been identified. You 
don't even have it 

Mr. Scherer. He doesn't deny that. 

Mr. Doyle. I won't enter into that. At any rate I gave you the 
opportunity to testify as to a single meeting where you criticized the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1901 

committee in public and you say you have done it in private only, as 
far as you know. 

How do you expect me or anybody in this room or anyone else to 
believe your sincerity in that charge ? It is false. 

Mr. ScHERER. That if^ the reason I asked him under oath whether 
the statements here are true. He is going to have a hard time proving 
that statement. 

Mr. Moulder. Is the commissioner of the county court an elective or 
an appointive office? 

Mr. Brock. The practice here, sir, it is elected by the judges, not 
elected by the people. 

Mr. Moulder. I recall again the question which I asked the reporter 
to read a while ago which was in substance : Did your association with 
the Communist Party have anything to do with your resignation? 
That question was propounded to you by Congressman Scherer. It 
carries with it the implication on one construction that you are deny- 
ing that you ever associated with the Communist Party. It also car- 
ries a strong implication as to a double-barreled answer that you were 
associated with the Communist Party, but it had nothing to do with 
your resignation. 

I am wondering whether or not you want to clarify the conflict in 
the two constructions that can be made from that question and answer. 

Mr. Brock. Was the question about my running for office or re- 
signing? It slipped me. It was a question about my resignation? 
The Communist Party so far as I know had nothing to do with my 
resignation. I have never taken orders from the Communist Party 
or anyone else. 

Mr. Scherer. That wasn't my question. If you understand my 
question to be that then you misunderstood my question. My question 
was whether or not the questioning of you by officials connected either 
directly or indirectly with the superior court here about your Com- 
munist Party activities had anything to do with your resignation. 
That was my question. I didn't ask whether the Communist Party 
had anything to do with your resignation. Obviously they would want 
to keep you on the bench. 

Mr. Brock. The question is whether the questioning of me by public 
officials had anything to do with my resignation. 

Mr. Scherer. By anyone shortly before you retired ? 

Mr. Brock. The answer is I have not admitted being questioned, 
sir. You have assumed it. The answer to the question is that I have 
already given you my reasons for resigning. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you answer my question, whether or not the 
questioning of you by any officials connected with the Superior Court 
either directly or indirectly by the FBI or anyone else had anything 
to do with your resigning a few days later ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Scherer. You may have had other reasons you say but I want 
to know whether that had anything to do with your resigning. 

Mr. Brock. Insofar as the question contains some implication that 
there was a questioning — and I have already claimed the privilege 
as to that — I must claim it again as to this question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Moulder ? 



65500 — 55 — pt. 4- 



1902 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE' LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Moulder. No questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I hope if you did join the Communist Party — I am not 
inferring you did, for the purpose of this question, but if you ever did 
join it, sir, why don't you turn tables on whatever activity you have 
shared in the Communist Party and give the benefit to your Nation 
of your ability in the upholding of law ? 

This is Public Law 601 under which we are here operating. Why 
don't you give your Nation the benefit of upholding every declared 
law ? You are not doing it as I see it. One statement here, one attack 
you have made upon this committee is the 

Mr. Brock. Mr. Doyle, it has not been my intention to attack the 
committee on a personal level, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I understand that, and I don't know of any reason why 
you could attack us on an individual, personal level, because we are 
all members of the bar ; Mr. Moulder, a distinguished member of the 
bar of Missouri ; Mr. Scherer of the State of Ohio ; and I supported 
myself honorably in California law practice for 30 years. Now where 
you refer to the decision of the Emspak case — and you base your attack 
on the committee activities in part on the Emspak decision — I say 
to you right here so you will understand, that the Emspak decision 
does not go to the point that you say it goes to in this press release. 

It does not go that far and again you are on a false premise, abso- 
lutely false. 

Here you are saying that the Chief Justice, former Governor of this 
State, Earl Warren, charged, or in the Emspak case indicated that this 
committee operated in a "highly immoral invasion of man's natural 
rights." And it is false. 

Mr. Brock. Read the question, sir. You will see that statement 
refers to the earlier part of the sentence. You have read it incor- 
rectly. 

Mr. Doyle. It is in there. You may give it a technical explanation 
if you can, but for the purpose of the reading of the press they would 
think that Earl Warren charged us with immoral conduct. 

Mr. Brock. Off the record now, I didn't mean to charge that. 

Mr. Doyle. You had better correct it. 

Mr. Brock. I alone charged you with that. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Witness, and Counsel. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Doyle. May I say it is customary for the cliairman of the 
'Committee at the conclusion of a hearing to make a statement, some 
observations about the hearing, perhaps, and some impressions we 
get, some conclusions we draw, and so I have written out here just 
more or less extemporaneously — a statement which I want to read 
in part. 

Upon conclusion of these week-long hearings in this area, this sub- 
committee of the House ITn-American Activities Committee wishes to 
express its appreciation to all government agencies and public offi- 
cials in this very important metropolitan area who have been helpful 
and cooperative in assuring the expeditious conduct in the business of 
the committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1903 

In fact, every time we come to the Los Angeles area we always re-eive 
tliis same gracious and helpful cooperation from all public officials 
and agencies. 

This subcommittee and its staff are appreciative of the fine standard 
of public service rendered by all these men and ladies in the execution 
of their duties. 

United States Marshal Kobert Ware of Los Angeles County, Sheriff 
Eugene W. Biscailuz and his deputies and assistants have rendered 
valuable assistance and cooperation, as has Chief William Parker of 
the Los Angeles Police Department and all officers under his command. 

Mayor Poulson and his assistants and United States Attorney 
Laugiilin Waters, have all been helpful with their staffs. 

Now, I am glad that I was able to get the names of the individual 
deputies of the United States Marshal's office and the Sheriff's office 
because they certainly have been very cooperative and helpful. They 
are here this morning when they might otherwise be off. They are 
Deputy United States Marshals" Charles W. Ross, Edward E. Free- 
man and John E. Sears. 

Deputy Sheriffs Bert Caughey, Clarence Steinberg, Don Simpson, 
Ralph Ciiervy, Galen Nichols, Charles Gilleland. 

Mr. Stillwell, superintendent of Federal employees in this build- 
ing, rendered valuable assistance to the committee. I would feel dere- 
lict if I did not express a special word of appreciation in this regard 
to Mr. Stillwell and his associates because this is a repetition of many 
other courtesies when we have been here before. The ultimate success 
of any hearing is dependent upon the adequacy of coverage, both news 
and photography. In this respect the present hearing has been out- 
standing. To the representatives of all the news media covering the 
hearings this week, the committee extends its thanks and I have heard 
nothing but commendation of the press and the manner in which they 
have so accurately reported these hearings. 

Wliile it is too early to evaluate fully the mass of testimony taken 
during the course of the hearings, the committee is satisfied it has re- 
ceived very important and valuable information, all of which will 
help enable this committee of Congress to fulfill its obligation to the 
Congress under the terms of Public Law 601, which specifically charges 
this committee of only nine members, to investigate the extent and 
character and objectives of subversive activities throughout our great 
Nation, whether this subversive propaganda activity emanates from 
some foreign counti^^ or from within our own borders. 

In these present heai-ings we have again made it clear that we are 
determined to investigate and expose subversive activity or subversive 
propaganda wherever it shows its ugly head. 

Our excellent investigative staff always does a very accurate field 
job before we ever arrive in a city to conduct public hearings. 

It is our duty to look into the extent of subversive activity and the 
extent to which the Communist Party subversive program, or any 
other subversive program, controls or infiltrates, wherever this trail 
is found, to lead us in sufficient quantity to be material and within our 
ability to substantiate by competent evidence. 

Evidence clearly shows that the Communist Party began some time 
ago to systematically infiltrate both political parties in California, 
We urge the responsible leaders of these two major political parties in 
California to be extremely vigilant to protect against this deliberate 



1904 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

attempt to weaken the sincere, patriotic expression of political patriot- 
ism through the channels of both the major parties. 

The clear evidence we have received under oath shows that the In- 
dependent Progressive Party is likely so heavy with Communist Party 
persons that it became in many places an effective tool of the Com- 
munist Party. The Independent Progressive Party in California 
did not qualify, I am informed, legally as a legal party in California. 
We believe we are reliably informed that many former members, many 
present members of the Communist Party to all intents and purposes 
are recently undertaking to join the Democratic and Republican 
Parties in Los Angeles County and throughout the State. 

To the extent to which the Communists identified with the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party during its legal existence and still remain 
Communists in intent and purpose and interests and objectives, such 
persons joining either of patriotic major political parties would there- 
fore infiltrate with continued subversive intent, which is always t3 
disrupt, always to cause confusion and always to cause dissatisfaction 
in any group in which they infiltrate. 

Two patriotic American citizens who entered the confidential serv- 
ice of the FBI for several years and who appeared as witnesses before 
this committee have, of course, been by some of the witnesses called 
stool pigeons and paid informers — that is, by some of the witnesses 
here who have pleaded the fifth amendment. 

The committee states that it approves the use of the fifth amend- 
ment or any constitutional privilege wherever this witness does so 
honestly and in good faith with the United States Constitution, but 
we abhor — and so do you if you are patriotic Americans — the use of 
it dishonestly and in bad faith. 

We also know it is still the continued Communist Party line to have 
their former or present members of the Communist Party always plead 
their constitutional privilege, whether it is in rotten faith or in good 
faith, even if it is dishonest, to avoid having this committee obtain as 
much information as possible. 

We thank the former FBI agents who appeared before this com- 
mittee in these hearings and were so helpful in this hearing in Los 
Angeles, as in other large cities; also witnesses who were formerly 
Communist Party members in Los Angeles and in the Los Angeles 
area and without subpena have cooperated with the committee on the 
witness stand. 

These have not been paid witnesses, nor paid informers, nor stool 
pigeons, but are American citizens who have heretofore withdrawn 
from the Community Party because they got their fill of Communist 
garbage and on account of discovering it had no place in their lives 
or in the life of our Nation and on account of becoming disgusted 
with it or discovering its totalitarian and subversive purposes. 

So these individuals who have cooperated with the committee came 
to realize that it was their bounden public duty to their native country 
to cooperate with this committee and help it expose wherever the 
Communist Party had control or infiltrated any group. 

We now again invite any other former Communist Party member 
or present Communist Party member who has arrived at the same 
point at which these cooperative witnesses have arrived, to also make 
known their desire to help their Nation and come forward and let us 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1905 

hear from them so that we can cooperate with them and they with us 
and further expose the conspiracy. 

During these hearings, as chairman I have publicly announced that 
this committee had a standing invitation to any person who was named 
as a Communist Party member by any witness before this committee 
under oath to voluntarily come forward before the committee and take 
the oath and deny or affirm as to the testimony in which they had been 
named as Communist Party members. 

We renew that standing invitation. 

Also in this hearing room when it occurred that a witness named a 
person who happened to be in the hearing room at the same time, and 
who heard himself named as a Communist Party member, there was 
again announced our standing invitation to such person so named to 
come forward and take the oath, the same oath, and either deny or 
affirm what the witness under oath had said about him. In these 
hearings no such person has come forward, either directly or indirectly. 

In these hearings very few witnesses from the field of labor have 
stated that this committee was injuring labor. We repeat that this 
committee has not and will not fail to refuse to investigate subversive 
Communist Party activities in any area merely because it happens to 
be in some particular area of American activity, whether it is in labor 
or law or any other. 

We note that the Communist Party has definitely sought to control 
patriotic American labor. We congratulate patriotic labor organiza- 
tion on their vigorous steps already taken to eradicate Communist 
individuals or Communist Party activities and their continuing to do 
it. We compliment them. 

Again in this hearing, as in many areas throughout the United 
States, the uncontradicted testimony of witnesses we believe reliable, 
is that the Communist Party in the United States has as its ultimate 
aim the forceful overthrow of our constitutional form of government 
in favor of totalitarian Communist Party control as is in control in 
the Soviet Union. 

This committee in a few days goes to San Diego for a few days' 
work there similar to that here in performance of our public duty and 
we then return to our official duties at the Nation's Capital. 

I want to thank the audience, you folks that have sat here from day 
to day, or 1 day, or an hour, outside of too few incidents to be men- 
tioned or emphasized, I want to say that I am sure we members of the 
committee and staff all appreciate the understanding and cooperation 
of most everyone who has ever been present as our guests in this room. 

If there is nothing further, counsel and members, the committee 
stands adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 1 : 10 p. m., July 2, 1955, the committee was recessed 
subject to call.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Adams, Charlotte Darling 1541 

Adams, Steve 1805 

Aidlin, Joseph W 1753, 1754, 1771-1778 (testimony) 

Alexander, Hershel 1827, 1857 

Alexander, Lillian (Mrs. Hershel Alexander) 1857 

Appelman, Max 176S-1771 (testimony) 

Ashe, Harold 1754, 1771 

Averbuclf, Elmer 1817 

Avery, John B 1680 

Baker, Nettie (Eddie) 1857 

Baldo, John 1796 

Bargeman, Bert. (See Bovperman, Irene B.) 

Baron, Beatrice (Bea) 1815 

Baron, Lou 1815 

Barrv, Clemmie 1461 

Beard, Cecil 1538-1543 (testimony) 

Belt, Dave 1802 

Bennett, Harry 1819 

Bennett, Sophia (Mrs. Harry Bennett) 1819 

Bennick, Rose Mary 1805 

Benoitte, Charlotte 1819 

Bilan, Anne 1826 

Biluk, John 1805 

Blair, Bud 1815, 1820 

Blair, Mrs. Bud 1819 

Blowitz, William 1575 

Bodner, Ed 1804 

Bowerman, Irene B. (formerly Bertha Bargeman) 1689-1696 (testimony) 

Bovlan, Tom 1461 

Brant, Carl 1747, 1819-1822 

Brock, Robert L. (born Robert L. Broughton) 1889-1902 (testimony) 

Brodsky, Merle 1817 

Bronton, Leon, Jr 1827 

Brooks, Arthur A 1889 

Brooks, Miriam 1815 

Broughton, Robert L. (See Robert L. Brock.) 

Browder, Earl 1484 

Brown, Archie 1461, 1822 

Bryan, AI 1769 

Buchanan, Harry 1738 

Buchman, Sidney 1485 

Burford, James (also known as Ron Hillyer) 1754, 1827-1836 (testimony) 

Burton, Anne. ( See Pollock, Anne. ) 

Cain, Gary 1805 

Callahan, Charlotte 1461 

Cantu, Alice 1805 

Cantu, Wayne 1805 

Carl, C. C. (See Sugar, Carl.) 

Cerney, Isobel 1517 

Chemiel, Stanley 1811 

Chernick, Ann 1856 

Chernin, Rose 1517, 1822 

I 



Xi INDEX 

Paee 

-Chriss, Dave 1802, 1815 

Chriss, Gene 1802 

Chriss, Jean 1815 

Chriss, Sally (Mrs. Gene Chriss) 1802,1817 

Chriss, Sam 1788 

Christiansen, Mel 1805 

Clark, Leo : 1805 

Clarke, Angela (married name Angela Wilkerson) 1523-1538 (testimony) 

Cline, Paul 1733, 1769, 1818 

Coffee, Bert 1801, 1849 

Colton, Araby 1805 

Colton, Victor 1805 

Connelly, Philip 1821, 1822 

Daggett, Charles 1773 

Davis, Frank C 1616, 1679-1688 (testimony), 1758 

Davis, Gorham 1699 

Delnum, Andries 1474-1498 (testimony) 

DeMaio, Ernest 1607-1609 

Dexter, Edith 1805 

Dexter, Mansell 1805 

Dixon, James 1856 

Dobbs, Ben 1822 

Doyle, Bernadette 1509, 1517 

Durant, Ray 1814 

Elconin, Alice 1804 

Elconin, William 1713-1731 (testimony) 

Emery, Louis 1805 

Engelberg, Hy 1822 

Esterman, William B 1572-1575 

Evans, Herb 1805 

E^'ans, Ruth (Mrs. Herb Evans) 1805 

Parmer, Virginia 1747, 1748 

Fast, Howard 1609 

Fein, Adrienne 1788, 1802 

Fein, Chester 1788, 1815 

Fisher, Ed 1810 

Fisher, Onya 1810 

Fitzgerald, Ed 1788, 1796 

Flyiin, Elizabeth Gurley 1822 

Forrest, Jim 1822 

Pranchi, Davida 1744 

Franchi, Fred 1748 

Freed, Emll 1517, 1815 

Freed, Tasia 1752, 1764-1767 (testimony), 1840-1842 

Frieden, Mayer 1791 

Frong, Barney 1802, 1804 

Frong, Lillian 1788, 1796, 1802 

Fujimoto, Sam 1805 

Gardner, Helen 1769 

Garrish, Georgiana (Mrs. John Garrish) 1782-1784, 1810 

Garrish, Henry 1810 

Garrish, John 1782-1784, 1810 

Garrish, Laura R 1810 

Garlin, Sender 1503 

Gibson, Howard ; 1503 

Gibson, Lolita 1500, 1501, 1503 

Ginsberg, Leon 1822 

Gladstone, Charles (also known as Charles Young) 1826 

Glass, David B 1803 

Glenn, Elizabeth Leich 1787, 1788, 1790, 1792, 1815 

Goiack, John T 1607-1609 

Goldman, Florence 1805 

Goldman, Irving 1826 

Goldstein, Beebe 1815 

Goldstein, Buth 1813 

Good, Jack 1802 



INDEX iii 

Page 
Gordon, Emily 1785, 1786, 1812 

Gorman, Mike 1787, 1788, 1796, 1799, 1811, 1815 

Gray, Shirley 1822 

Hagen. Edwin 1796, 1797, 1799, 1801, 1856 

Hard, Martha. (See Wheeldin, Martha.) 

Hardyman, Hugh (full name George Hugh Murray Maitland Hardyman)__ 1504, 
1575-1598 (testimony), 1599-1655 (testimony), 1609, 1674 

Hardyman, Susan 1661 

Harris, Lew 1666 

Harrison, William 1609 

Hart, Marion 1804 

Hawks, George 1805 

Hay, Harry 1790, 1791, 1796, 1872-1875 (testimony) 

Healy, Don 1803, 1804, 1826 

Healy, Dorothy 1797, 1804, 1813, 1816, 1823-1826 

Helgren, George 1757 

Helgren, Nora (Mrs. George Helgren) 1756 

Hillyer, Ron. (See Jim Burford.) 

Hollingshead, Ed 1827 

Houdeck, Cliff 1827 

Houston, Gladys (Mrs. John Houston) 1810 

Houston, John Waters 1783-1785, 

1788, 1794, 1796, 1798, 1804, 1810, 1812, 1849, 1860-1872 (testimony) 

Hwan, Lee Tnk 1557 

Hyun, Alice 1502, 1553, 1556 

Hyun, David 1520 

Hyun, Peter 1501-1506 

1508, 1509, 1512-1514, 1516, 1570, 1574, 1592, 1593, 1611, 1750 

Hyun, Peter S., Sr 1706 

Irvine, Ray 1461 

Jelte, George 1685 

Johnson, Mickey 1801 

Johnson, Olaf 1802 

Johnson, Pete 1811 

Kadish, Frank 1822 

Kang, Kim. (See Kim, Diamond.) 

Karson, Charles 1809 

Karson, Ida (Mrs. Jack Karson) 1788, 1802 

Karson, Jack 1788, 1796, 1798, 1799, 1809, 1813 

Karson, Morris 1809 

Katz, Charles J 1667 

Kellas, William 1787, 1789, 1798 

Kelly, Earl 1801 

Kemer, William 1501 

Kennard, J. Spencer, Jr 1609 

Kenny, Robert 1474, 1523, 1538, 1676, 1679, 1761, 1882 

Kent, Rockwell 1609 

Kibre, Jeff 1744 

Kiloran, Pat 1822 

Kim, Diamond (also known as Kim Kang) 1516,1543-1572 (testimony) 

Kimple, William (also known as William Ward and William Wallace) _ 1458, 1469, 

1731-1761 (testimony), 1773-1775, 1841 

Kingsbury, John A 1503, 1505, 1510-1514, 1591, 1592 

Kingsbury, J'ohn W 1601 

Kingsbury, Mabel (Mrs. John A. Kingsbury) 1505, 1513, 1514 

Konigsberg, Raphael 1601, 1612, 1613, 1615, 1655, 165&-1666 (testimony) 

Korn, Eva 1822 

Korngold, Morrey 1802, 1804 

Korngold, Rochelle (Mrs. Morrey Korngold) 1802, 1804 

Kramer, Jerry (Jack) 1803, 1811 

Kuchler, Alfred 1609 

Kutnick, Sam 1463 

Kykyri, Dorothy (Mrs. John Kykyri) ^ x —^— 1517, 1518 

Kykyri, John 1517, 1518 

Kyung Sun. (See Lee, Sa Min.) 

Lambert, Rudy (or Rudie) 1461, 1822 



iv INDEX 

Page 

Langer, Verna 1504, 1506, 1517 

Lardner, Ring, Jr 1813, 1822 

Lavino, Ernest 1461 

Lawson, John Howard 1485, 1786 

Lawson, Sue 1572-1575 (testimony), 1833 

Lee, Sa Min (also known as Kyung Sun) 1551-1553, 1556, 1558 

Leiiman, Bob 1893, 1895 

Lehr, Wenzel 1805 

Leiva, Gerda 1805 

Lima, Albert 1822 

Lindbergh, Virginia 1461 

Lohr, George 1822 

Love, Rudy - 1803 

Lovett, Robert Morss 1609 

Lynn. Frances 1817 

Maddox, Edward Carter 1875 

Maise, Wilhelmina 1782, 1815 

Mancar, Elsie 1803, 1804, 1820 

Margolis. Ben 1689, 1707 

Marshall, Daniel G 1668, 1676, 1679, 1844, 1845, 1848 

Massey, Henry 1461 

Matiisow, Harvey 170f> 

McComb, Dan 1790, 1796, 1798, 1799, 1815 

Mcromb, Eleanor (or Ellen; Mrs. Dan McComb) 1796,1803 

MeCord, Louise 1816 

McCormick, Larue 1826, 1827 

McGenty, Naomi 1747 

McNeil, Jackie 1461 

Meyer, Margaret Vaughn (nee Vaughn) 1806, 1844-1849 (testimony) 

Min, Lee Sa 1560 

Monjar, Elsie 1794, 1856. 1865 

Moos. Elizabeth 1503-1506 

Morford, Richard 1504, 1505, 1507 

Morley, Barbara 1817 

Morley, Karen 1607-1609 

Morrison, Philip 1609' 

Moss, Jack 1823 

Mucha, Reva 1505, 1507, 151ff 

Musick. Laura Lee 1796, 1797. 1803, 1804 

Natapoff, Max Benjamin (also known as Max Roth) _ 1751, 1761-1764 (testimony) 

Nester, Fletcher 1823 

Nester, Sophie 1823 

Norfjor, Helen 1815 

O'Neil, Bill 1815 

Oppenheimer, Frank 1698 

Orr, Paul Wright 1440-1473 (testimony) 

Orr, Violet (Mrs. Paul Orr) 1461, 1463 

Ostrelmer, Ken 1817 

Osvald, Clara (Mrs. William Kimple) 1745 

Pacifico, Lawrence 1802 

Pacifico, Ola 1798, 1799, 1817 

Paolone, Clementina J 1609 

Parrett, Bronson 1794, 1795, 1809 

Parrett, Fern (Mrs. Bronson Parrett) 1794, 1795, 1803, 1804 

Patton, Jack 1461 

Pekstan, Carl 1805 

Pelman, Matt (Mat) 1749, 1750, 1769 

Perry, Pettis 1769, 1817 

Pestana, Frank : 1872 

Phieffer, Frank : ; . 1805 

Pinkston, Earl 1805 

Pittman, John 1461 

Pollock, Anne (also known as Anne Burton) 1752, 

1765, 1766, 1826, 1836-1844 (testimony) 
Potter, Eleanor 1809 



INDEX V 

Page 

Potter, Vernon L 1780, 1782, 1783, 1788, 1796, 1799, 1809 

Prater, William 1451 

Prokel 1699 

Pyen, Choon Ho 1549, 1551, 1553, 1556, 1558 

Kaiden, Mary (Mrs. Joseph Aidlin) 1753, 1754, 1773 

Rankin, Mary. (See Taylor, Ellen.) 

Ransom, Willard 1609 

Remington, William 1503, 1504 

Resner, Herbert 1461 

Richardson, Thomas 1609 

Richman, Ben 1817, 1818 

Richmond. Al 1817, 1818 

Roberts, Harold 1815 

Robeson, Paul 1510 

Robinson, Marguerite 1517 

Rosenbersc, IVIeta Reis 1575 

Rossen, Robert— 1484, 1485 

Rosser, I.ou 1796 

Roth, Max. (See Natapofif, Max Benjamin.) 

Ruso, Pat — — _ 1802 

Russell, Maud 1505 

Samuels, William 1548 

Sandy, George 1791, 1792, 1816, 1817 

Sazer, Ester Miller 1817 

Schlesinger, Tess 1755 

Schmidt. Judy 1818 

Schneider. Anita Bell 1498-1521 (testimony), 1568, 1569, 1620 

Schneiderman, William 1700, 1750, 1813, 1814, 1851, 1852 

Schoechet, Nathan L 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842 

Schonfield, Sylvia 1601, 1616, 1668-1675 (testimony), 1673 

Schorr. Ruth 1802, 1804 

Schribner, David 1718 

Shafran, Eva 1786 

Shanchig, Mike 1744 

Shapiro, Nathan 1826, 1856 

Sherman, Al 1818 

Sherman, Miriam Brook (Mrs. Al Sherman) 1818 

Shermis, Celia 1517 

Sik. Sin Tu 1556 

Silver, Max 1485, 1575, 1709, 1710, 1769, 1785, 1812, 1813, 1816, 1835 

Siminov, Trudy 1817 

Simmons, Herbert 1656 

Smith, Delphine 1817 

Smith. Edith 1784, 1787, 1788, 1796, 1798, 1799, 1805, 1815 

Smith, Juanita 1783 

Smith, Ruth 1805 

Sniffen, Jane 1818 

Sparks, Alice Ward (Mrs. Nemmy Sparks) 1795, 1814, 1820, 1856 

Sparks, Nemmy 1816, 1853, 1856 

Spector, Frank 1517, 1817 

Spencer. Yaino (Mrs.) 1764 

Stack, Loretta 1818 

Stack, Walter 1461 

Stapp, Frances 1817 

Stapp. John 1815 

Starcovik, Dave 1519 

Stark, Louis 1787, 1788, 1796, 1799, 1800, 1882-1889 (testimony) 

Stark. Marion (Mrs. Lou Stark) 1788, 1798, 1799 

Staughton, Gertrude 1826 

Steinberg, Beatrice , 1517 

Steinberg, Henry 1822 

Steinmetz, Harry 1501 

Stevens, Arthur 1500, 1501, 150^ 

Stevenson, June 1461 

Stout, Ann 1461 

Strange, Arthur 1744 



vi INDEX 

Page 

Straus, Leon 1609 

Strong, Anna Louise 1581 

Strout, Nathan 1802 

Sugar Carl (also known as C. C. Carl) 1697-1704 (testimony) 

Sullivan, Pauline 1788, 1802 

Sun, Kwak Chong 1556 

Sunoo, Harold W 1551, 1552, 1558 

Swanhauser, Jane 1822 

Talley, James 1822 

Talon, Tony 1806 

Tanzman, Jules 1803 

Taylor, Byron 1804 

Taylor, Eleanor 1798, 1799 

Taylor, Ellen (also known as Mary Rankin) 1796 

Tenoyucca, Anna 1819 

Tomren, I. M 1802 

Trojan, Ann 1815, 1856 

Tse-tung, Mao 1501, 1505 

Twine, E. C 1826 

Ultrich, Harry 1826 

Uphaus, Willard 1609 

Vandervoort, Pen 1805 

Vandervoort, Susan (Mrs. Pen Vandervoort) 1805 

Vaughn, Margaret. (See Meyer, Margaret Vaughn.) 

Vidaver, Matthew, SamueL, Jr 1601,1704,1707-1713 (testimony) 

Wallace, Floyd 1804 

Wallace, Henry 1518 

Wallace, Shevey (Mrs. Floyd Wallace) 1804,1817,1827 

Wallace, William. {See Kimple, William Ward.) 

Walsh, Patrick 1728 

Ward, Alice. (See Sparks, Alice Ward.) 

Ward, Sybil 1804 

Ward, William. {See Kimple, William Ward.) 

Warford, Dave 1826 

Warren, Virginia , 1823 

Watkins, Charles C 1804 

Weintraub, William 1826, 1855 

Weber, S. A. ( -See Wereb, Stephen A. ) 

Wellington, Chong 1554,1557 

Wereb, Stephen A. (also known as S. A. Weber) 1779-1827 

(testimony), 1838, 1840, 1846-1848, 1851-1859 (testimony), 1865, 

1874, 1883. 

Westman, Arden (or Harden) 1827,1856 

Weyl, Nathaniel, Jr , 1510 

Wheeldin, Martha Hard (formerly Martha Hard) 1827, 

1859, 1875-1882 (testimony) 

White, Eliot 1609 

Whitley, Frank , 1815 

Whitney, Anita 1766 

Wilkerson, Angela. {See Clarke, Angela.) 

Wilkerson, Mel 1788 

Wilkerson, Mrs. Mel , 1804 

Wilkerson, Robert 1826 

Wilkinson, Jean 1001,1614,1615,1676-1678 (testimony) 

Wilson, Elizabeth 1575 

Wirin, A. L 1440, 1575, 1599, 1768 

Wolf, William 1786 

Won, Sonu Hak 1560, 1556 

Yates, Oleta O'Connor 1461, 1854 

Yong, Pak Hon . 1552 

Young, Adele 1815 

Young, Charles. {See Gladstone, Charles.) 

25amudio, Blanche 1804 



INDEX vii 

Organizations 

Page 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade 1799, 1813 

American Committee for Protection of the Foreign Born : Los Angeles 

Committee 1834 

American Federation of Radio Artists 1527 

American League Against War and Fascism 1697 

American Peace Crusade 1501, 1505, 1568, 1573, 1593, 1594, 1607, 1609 

Northern California 1501 

Southern California 1501, 1504, 1505, 1513, 1516, 1568, 1570, 1573, 

1574, 1578, 1579, 1591-1593, 1596, 1597, 1617, 1618, 1620, 1832-1834 

Executive Board 1502, 1516 

San Diego Peace Forum 1500, 1501, 1503, 1505, 1514, 1516 

Executive Board 1502 

American-Russian Institute (Los Angeles) 1505-1507 

American Veterans Committee 1811, 1812 

American Women for Peace 1609 

Asian and Pacific Peace Conference. (See Peace Conference of the Asian 
and Pacific Regions.) 

California Institute of Technology 1465-1468, 1470-1472 

California Labor School (San Francisco) 1510, 1873 

Civil Rights Congress 1500 

Communist Party : 

California 1451, 1518 

Hollywood: Unit J-5 1841 

Los Angeles City 1458 

Adams group 1815 

57th Assembly Branch 1841, 1842 

Hawthorne Club 1798, 1864 

Rhetta Club 1815 

South Side Section 1819, 1820 

Unit A-3 1894 

Watts Club 1857 

West Lake Club 1782 

Los Angeles County 1817, 1857 

San Diego 1510, 1516-1520 

San Francisco : North Beach No. 1 Club 1463 

Communist Political Association 1461, 1462 

Daily People's World 1461 

Democratic Peoples Front League 1556 

Digest of Soviet News 1507 

Electrical Radio and Machine Workers of America. United 1714 

Friends of Ormsby Village 1616, 1673, 1674, 1678 

Friends of the Soviet Union 1449,1550 

German-American Bund 1697 

Hollywood Writers Mobilization 1693 

Independent Progressive Party 1500, 1503, 1518, 1800, 1801, 1834, 1884 

California 1611, 1663, 1693, 1694 

San Diego County Central Committee 1518 

State Central Committee 1835 

West Adams Club 1 1610 

International Bookstore (San Francisco) 1462 

International Labor Defense 1751 

International Scientific Commission for the Investigation of the Facts 

Concerning Bacterial Warfare in Korea and China 1623 

International Workers Order (Los Angeles) 1460 

Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee 1817 

Korean Independence 1516, 1549, 1552, 1553, 1556, 1557, 1559, 1566, 1567 

Longslioremen's and Warehousemen's Union, International 1729 

Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Union, United 1803 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship 1503-1506, 1511 

Ormsby Hill Trust, The 1619 

Ormsby Village for Youth Foundation 1612, 

1613, 1015, 1619. 1660, 1661, 1665, 1674, 1677, 1678, 1682 
Peace Conference of the Asian and Pacific Regions 1584, 1585, 1611, 1619 



Viii INDEX 

Page 
Peiping Peace Conference. {See Peace Conference of the Asian and 

Pacific Regions.) -, „ .^ 

Peking Peace Conference. (See Peace Conference of the Asian and Pacific 

Regions.) 

People's Educational Center, The -_ l78b 

Progressive Bookshop, The (Los Angeles) 1815,1855,1857 

Progressive Party }qka 

Russian Information Service 1854 

Screen Actors Guild 1^^27 

Screen Cartoonists Guild 1541 

Screen Office Employees Guild 1692, 1693 

Seamen's Union, Canada 1'729 

Southern California Peace Crusade. (See American Peace Crusade.) 

Stockholm Peace Appeal 1596, 1597 

Stockholm Peace Conference 1511 

Thirtieth District Young Democrats 1519 

Unemployed Councils IIM 

United States, Government of : Office of Strategic Services 1476, 

1477, 1492, 1493, 1547 

Workers Alliance 1J^4 

Workers Ex-Servicemen's League (Los Angeles) 1734, 17o5 

Young Communist League 1736, 1742, 1749, 1791 

Young Pioneers IISQ, 1742 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05706 3222 



^;i^/ 


%rxi 2L ^ jj^r-8 


b 


5i2^^ OW,c> 


c^cf 


^22Mr^ ^1-^ 


9 


%i^<r &P 


Ai 


t;fc?t^- ^«ir*4«rr p65.|-2