GIFT OF THE
OF THE UNITED STATES
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN
THE UNITED STATES— PART 4
(Foreign Propaganda — -Entry and Dissemination in New Orleans, La., Area)
COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES
HOUSE OF EEPEESENTATIVES
FEBRUARY 14, 1957
Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities
GOVERNMENT PRINTESTG OFFICE
88955 WASHINGTON : 1957
HARVAhj CC.L£GE LtBfiARy
DEPOSITED 8V THE
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT
COMMITTEE OX UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES
United States House of Representatives
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York
CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California
JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio
EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan
Richard Arens, Director
February 14, 1957: Testimony of —
Milton L. LeBlanc 67
Irving Fishman 70
Margaret M. Rosano 88
SaulJ. Mindel 92
Hubert J. Badeaux 105
(Part 4 (New Orleans, La., February 14, 1957) is a continuation of the series
of hearings entitled "Investigation of Communist Propaganda In the United
States (Foreign Propaganda — Entry and DLssemiuation)" held in several areas
of the country during 1956; Parts 1, 2, and 3 were held in Washington, D. C,
June 13; Philadelphia, Pa., July 17; and San Francisco, Calif., December 10
and 11, 1956, respectively. )
Public Law 601, 79th Congress
The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress , chapter
753, 2d session, which provides:
Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States
of America in Congress assembled, * * *
PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES
m ***** *
17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members.
POWEKS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES
(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities.
(A) Un-American activities.
(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee,
is authoi'ized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent,
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United
States, (ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American
propaganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu-
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in
any necessary remedial legislation.
The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi-
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable.
For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting,
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to retiuire the attendance
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person
designated by any such chairman or member.
LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES
Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces-
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris-
diction of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of
RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85th CONGRESS
House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957
1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress,
:« iti « 4: i|: * 4:
(a) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members.
POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES
17. Committee on Un-American Activities.
(a) Un-American activities.
(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee,
i.s authorized to make fi'om time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char-
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States,
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa-
ganda that is instigated f i-om foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks
the principle of the form of government as gTiaranteed by our Constitution, and
(3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces-
sary remedial legislation.
The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi-
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable.
For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act as such times
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to
take such testimony, as it deems necessai-y. Subpenas may be issued under the
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person
designated by any such chairman or member.
26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, each
standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the
execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the
agencies in the executive branch of the Government.
Hearings were held in New Orleans, La., on February 14, 1957, on
the dissemination of Communist propaganda in that area.
Witnesses who testified before a subcommittee of the Committee on
Un-American Activities were Milton L. LeBlanc, Assistant Collector
of Customs, New Orleans, La. ; Irving Fishman, Deputy Collector of
Customs, New York City; Margaret M. Rosano, United States Cus-
toms Service, New York City ; Saul J. Mindel, Post Office Department,
Washington, D. C. ; and Sgt. Hubert J. Badeaux, New Orleans Police
Their testimony provided further confirmation that the propaganda
operations of the Communist conspiracy raaik among its foremost
instruments of conquest and that communism cannot successfully exist
without the effective distribution of its propaganda.
Mr. Fishman, who dealt at length with the transshipment of propa-
ganda through the port of New Orleans, testified also on the efforts
of the United States Government to control the flow of Communist
propaganda into the United States. He stated that the customs serv-
ice has control units at three ports of entry : in San Francisco, Chicago,
and New York. However, he noted that there are approximately 45
ports of entry through which material may be sent into the United
Commenting on the labeling of Communist propaganda as required
by the Foreign Agents Registration Act, Mr. Fishman stated that
during his entire period of service with United States Customs he
had never seen a piece of Communist propaganda from abroad labeled
in compliance with the act.
Mr. Fishman testified further that during 1956 customs officers had
examined some 6,900,000 pieces of individual Communist propaganda
coming into this country from foreign sources. Most of these, he said,
were weekly, monthly, or special issue publications. About 40 percent
were printed in foreign languages.
In a 30-day spot check of material transshipped from New Orleans
to points outside the United States, he said, customs officers examined
1,246 sacks of mail and found that these contained some 11,000 indi-
vidual pieces of Communist propaganda. This proportion, he said,
would indicate that some 1?)0,000 individual items of Communist
propaganda passed through the port of New Orleans each year.
During the hearings, several sacks of mail were opened and in-
spected for the first time. In them the committee found a number of
copies of a Bulletin of Information from the Soviet Embassy in
Mexico, along with other propaganda material.
Most of this material, the committee was told, was destined for
schools, colleges, libraries, and church groups. Mr. Fishman testified
that many of the officials of these organizations receiving this propa-
ganda had asked Customs to withhold any future material of this type
so addressed because they did not want it and would rather have it
destroyed before they receive it.
Mr. Fishman stated further that not all of the Communist propa-
ganda he had examined during his service with Customs originated
from the Soviet Union or the satellite countries ; much of it came from
France and England.
Sgt. Hubert J. Badeaux, of the New Orleans Police Department,
gave the committee extensive information about the dissemination of
Communist propaganda and the activities of the Commmiist Party in
general in the New Orleans area. He supplied a number of Commu-
nist Party directives and examples of propaganda which he had
obtained in the course of official investigations.
Sergeant Badeaux testified that the Communist Party in the South
planned to distribute some 25,000 copies of the party's national pro-
gram, as well as some 3,000 copies of party literature. These included
William Z. Foster's History of the Third International, Doxey
Wilkerson's People Versus Segregated Schools, and pamphlets dealing
with the farm problems and racial issues.
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN
THE UNITED STATES— PART 4
(Foreign Propaganda — Entry and Dissemination in New
Orleans, La., Area)
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 14, 1957
United States House of Representatives,
Subcommittee of the
Committee on Un-American Activities,
New Orleans^ La.
A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-x\merican Activities met,
pursuant to call, at 10 : 07 a. m. in room 245, Post Office Building, 600
Camp Street, New Orleans, La., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, chairman,
Committee members present : Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana ; Mor-
gan M. Moulder, of Missouri ; and Bernard W. Kearney, of New York.
Staff members present: Richard Arens, director; W. Jackson Jones
and George C. AYilliams, investigators.
Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order.
Let the record show that the Honorable Francis E. Walter, of
Pennsylvania, chairman of the Committee on Un-American Activities
of the United States House of Representatives, pursuant to law and
the rules of the committee, has duly appointed a subcommittee for
the purpose of conducting this hearing composed of Representatives
Morgan M. JSIoulder, Bernard W. Ivearney, and myself as chairman.
The authorizing resolution was adopted by the committee on Janu-
ary 22, 1957, and will be inserted in the record at this point.
(The pertinent resolution and order in the New Orleans hearings
are as follows:)
The following is an extract from the minutes of an executive meeting
of the Committee on Un-American Activities, held on January 22,
A motion was made by Mr. Kearney, seconded by Mr. Willis, and unanimously
carried, approving and authorizing tbe bolding of hearings in New Orleans, La.,
beginning February 14, 1957, and the conduct of investigations deemed reasonably
necessary by the staff in preparation therefor, the subject of which hearings and
the investigations in connection therewith to include, in general, all matters
within the jurisdiction of the committee and, in particular. Communist foreign
propaganda entering New Orleans, and dissemination thereof.
The following order was entered by the chairman appointing this
Pursuant to the provisions of law and the rules of this committee, I hereby
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of
88955— 57— pt. 4 2 65
66 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Representatives, consisting of Hon. Edwin E. Willis, chairman, and Hon. Morgan
M. Moulder and Hon. Bernard W. Kearney, associate members, to hold hearings
in New Orleans, La., beginning on February 14, 1957, on all matters within the
jurisdiction of the committee, and to take testimony on said day or any succeed-
ing days, and at such times and places as it may deem necessary, until its work
The clerk of the committee is directed to immediately notify the appointees
of their appointment and to file this order as an oflScial committee record, in
the order book kept for that purpose.
Given under my hand this 11th day of February 1957.
Francis E. Walter,
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities,
House of Representatives.
Mr. Willis. The committee has devoted much time to the investiga-
tion of the subject of communism and has endeavored to keep Congress
Avell informed regarding the extent, character, and objects of the
Communist conspiracy in this country.
It has been duly established by testimony before congressional com-
mittees and before the courts of our land that the Communist Party
of the United States is a part of an international conspiracy which
is being used as a tool or weapon by a foreign power to promote its
own foreign policy, and which has for its object the overthrow of the
governments of non-Communist countries, resorting to the use of
force, if necessary.
It has become increasingly apparent that the propaganda operations
of the Communist apparatus rank as one of its foremost instruments
of conquest by engendering strife, division, and subversion. The pur-
pose of this hearing today is to investigate the extent, character, and
objects of un-American propaganda activities.
Communism cannot successfully exist in our country except by the
promulgation and diffusion of subversive and un-American propa-
ganda and, in the opinion of this committee, every person who remains
a member of the Communist Party is contributing to the ultimate
accomplishment of the objectives of the Communist conspiracy.
Communism and Communist activities cannot be investigated in a
vacuum. Therefore, it is necessary, if Congress is to legislate intelli-
gently on the subject, to call as witnesses those who the committee
has reason to believe have knowledge on the subject.
This the committee proposes to do in the discharge of the respon-
sibilities placed upon us by the Congress of the United States. From
such knowledge acquired, it is the hope of the committee that legis-
lative means may be found to more adequately protect our form of
government and our country and our American way of life from the
threat of this international Communist conspiracy.
In addition to the testimony relating to the propaganda activities
of the international Communist conspiracy, while in New Orleans
we will take testimony relating to the activities of the Communist
Party in this area of the United States or its members which is avail-
able for presentation to the committee at this time. We propose to
ascertain the facts regarding Communist schemes and the activities
of individuals affiliated with them, whether that be in the field of labor
or in any other field, so that Congress will be enabled to legislate more
ably and comprehensively on the subject.
It is the standing rule of this committee that any person identified
as a member of the Communist Party during the course of the com-
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 67
mittee hearings be given an early ojoportunity to appear before this
committee, if he desires, for the purpose of denying, affirming, or
expLaining any testimony adversely affecting him.
If this be any person's desire, he should communicate with a member
of our staff. Any individual called before the committee is accorded
tlie privilege of having counsel of his own choosing. These are the
rules of the committee promulgated for the benefit of the individual
witness as well as to facilitate an orderly hearing.
Of course, there will be no smoking during the hearing of the com-
mittee, and we will request order among those in attendance at all
General Kearney, Avould you care to make a supplemental state-
Mr. Kearney. Not at this time.
Mr. Willis. Mr. Moulder?
Mr. Moulder. I have nothing except to compliment you on your
Mr. Willis. Mr. Arens, call your first witness.
Mr. Arens. Mr, Milton LeBlanc, kindly come forward and remain
standing while an oath is administered to you, please, sir.
INIr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth,
and nothing but the truth, so help you God?
Mr. LeBlanc. I do.
TESTIMONY OF MILTON L. leBLANC, ASSISTANT COLLECTOE OF
CUSTOMS, DISTRICT, 20, NEW ORLEANS, LA.
Mr. Arens. Have a seat in the witness chair, please.
Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occupation.
Mr. LeBlanc. Milton L. LeBlanc, Assistant Collector of Customs,
District No. 20 ; residence. New Orleans, La.
Mr. Arens. How long have you been assistant collector of customs ?
Mr. LeBlanc. 25 years, sir.
Mr. Arens. Could you give us just a brief sketch of your career
in the Customs Service?
Mr. LeBlanc. I entered Customs on October 19, 1920, as a clerk
and later went into another division as cashier. I was cashier for
about 4 years and then was promoted to the position that I presently
hold for the past 25 years, sir.
Mr. Arens. Kindly tell the committee, Mr. LeBlanc, the physical
area which is embraced within the jurisdiction of this customs office.
Mr. LeBlanc. All of the State of Louisiana, excepting the two
parishes of Calcasieu and Cameron, and all of the State of Mississippi
lying north of the 31 North latitude.
Mr. Arens. Could you kindly give us a resume of the jurisdiction
of the collector of customs from the standpoint of day-by-day op-
Mr. LeBlanc. Briefly, the collector of customs is charged with
enforcing all customs law^s and navigation laws, and naturally he
works with other Federal agencies in the enforcement of other laws.
68 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
His primary job is to collect revenues or duties on merchandise enter-
ing the district. We have approximately 10 vessels a day entering;
say, between 3,300 to 3,600 vessels a year entering, which would
probably be equally divided between foreign arrivals and coastwise
arrivals. Probably half of those vessels would be American vessels
and others would be vessels under foreign registry. The collector's
job is to see that every piece of merchandise that enters the port is
properly covered by a foreign manifest which must be presented to the
boarding officer, and every piece of merchandise on the manifest has
to be properly entered through Customs and duty paid or accounted
for through some type of entry, either by export without the payment
of duty or the warehousing of the merchandise or the payment of
The collector's job includes, naturally, the entrance and the clear-
ance of the vessels, to see that the necessary tonnages are collected.
Without going into too many details that is just about the col-
Mr. Arens. What is the volume of mail arriving in the course of
a year in the New Orleans area ?
Mr. LeBlanc. Are you speaking of this type of mail [indicating] ?
Mr. Arens. Yes, sir.
Mr. LeBlano. I have no records at all concerning
Mr. Willis. The record will show when you say "this type of mail,"
you are referring to political propaganda.
Mr. LeBlanc. Yes, sir.
I have no record on the in-transit mail at all. Mr. Fishman could
give you that data because he has been investigating that and has
made several surveys on it.
I have a memorandum here which I had compiled by the Chief of
our Mail Division, who is here now, and during 1956 he examined
approximately 141,895 bags of this magazine type of mail.
Mr. Arens. How do you characterize that professionally?
Mr. LeBlanc. That would be fourth-class ; wouldn't it ?
Mr. Henry Wilde (Deputy Collector of Customs, Mail Division).
Mr. LeBlanc. That is the percentage that was turned over to us
by the Post Office Department. He informed me this morning that
that represents only about 10 percent of the number of mail bags that
actually came through the Post Office Department. But this was a
Mr. Arens. "VYhat percentage of this fourth-class mail which we
have been discussing is in transit and what percentage is for domestic
Mr. LeBlanc. The majority of it, these data that I have just given
you, is for domestic consumption except that once in a while, he tells
me, intransit mail will get mixed with the mail for domestic consump-
tion, but it is a very small percentage. All of this is for domestic
Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the memo-
randum which the witness has submitted be marked, "LeBlanc Exhibit
No. 1" and incorporated in the record.
Mr. Willis. Let it be so marked and incorporated in the record.
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
LeBlanc Exhibit No. 1
February 13, 1957.
Prints, consisting of magazines, periodicals, pamphlets, newspapers, etc., were
submitted to this office by the Foreign Station, United States Post Office for the
past 12 months as follows :
Average per sack.
The above represents not less than 10 percent of the sacks of prints received
by the Foreign Station, United States Post Office.
The above are received directly from Central and South American countries
The majority of the prints are received from countries listed in the following
manner as to volume :
Various Central and South American countries and Mexico
Occasionally, sacks received from Brazil and Honduras labeled for New
Orleans, will also contain prints intended for foreign countries mixed with those
for domestic delivery.
Mr. Arens. We thank you very much, Mr. LeBlanc, for your testi-
Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, I would like to inquire as to whether
future witnesses appearing today will identify the areas of the coun-
try to which the mail is in transit.
Mr. LeBlanc. Sir, I believe that Mr. Fishman will tell you that
most of this mail is in-transit mail. This is mail which has come
into the United States for reexportation, in other words. It isn't
mail which is coming in for domestic consumption. The data that I
submitted to the chairman, sir, are mail that we examined that goes
into domestic consumption. The in-transit mail, most of which goes
into Puerto Rico, I miderstand, isn't that right, is not screened here
in the LTnited States at all. It is screened in Puerto Rico.
Mr. Kearney. Is the mail you are talking about, which you scruti-
nize, mailed for the southeastern area of our country ?
Mr. LeBlanc. That mail is for any part, all over the Nation.
Mr. Kearney. Thank you.
Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be
Mr. Irving Fishman. Please come forward and remain standing
while the chairman administers an oath.
Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth,
so help you God ?
Mr. Fishman. I do.
70 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
TESTIMONY OF IRVING PISHMAN, DEPUTY COLLECTOR OF
CUSTOMS, DISTRICT 10, NEW YORK
Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu-
Mr. FiSHMAN. My name is Irving Fisliman. I live in New York
City. I am Deputy Collector of Customs assigned to the New York
port of entry.
Mr, Arens. Mr. Fislnnan, give us, if you please, just a brief sketch
of your own personal career.
Mr. FiSHMAN. I have been in the Customs Service for over 29 years.
The last 5 or 6 years the Treasury Department has assigned me on a
nationwide basis to enforce those provisions of existing law which
deal with the importation of political propaganda into the United
Mr. Arens, Tell us, if you please, about the setup of your par-
ticular units within the Customs Service.
Mr. FiSHMAN. We have three control units around the country.
One is located in San Francisco, one in Chicago, and one in New
York. We are presently considering the possibility of establish-
ing such a control unit here in New Orleans. The three miits which
are now established examine such mail from the Soviet bloc countries
and from Hong Kong as is directed to these units by the Post Office
Department, We have attempted, with the assistance of the Post
Office Department, to divide the country so that we get all of the
mail which comes from European countries to the East referred to
our New York office, all of the mail which comes from the West to
the San Francisco office; and as much of it as is destined to Wisconsin
and Illinois is sent to our Chicago office for examination at that port.
In that way we think we have covered about as much of the mail
from abroad as we can without setting up additional units and within
the limits of our budgetary appropriations.
Mr. Arens. How many ports of entry are there in the United States
through which foreign political propaganda enters?
Mr. FiSHMAN. There are 45 customs ports of entry. That refers
to the major collection districts. Of course, each port of entry may
have 6 or 7 subports, smaller ports, through which imported merchan-
dise may be entered into the United States.
Mr. Moulder. Will you explain that ?
For example, would New Orleans have 6 or 7 of the subports that
Mr. FiSHMAN. The port of New Orleans has one subport.
Mr. LeBlanc, Baton Rouge is the only subport in the State?
Mr. FiSHMAN. This port has one. For example, the port which
incorporates Laredo, Tex,, may have 7 or 8 subports, customs offices
in various parts of that State through Avhich imported material may be
cleared. It would include San Antonio, Houston, and other small
ports of entry.
New York State, for example, is divided. In the city of New York,
we concern ourselves with importation of all merchandise which enters
through the port of New York, Perth Amboy, Newark, and Albany.
We have a port in Buffalo which takes care of some of the Canadian
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 71
border. We have another port in Ogdensburg, N. Y. But the main
office or the customs port of entry \Yhere the collector is stationed will
be in a principal city. Then an attempt is made to cover all of the
border of the United States by establishing these subports. Actually
there may be several hundred subports with 45 major customs ports of
Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, kindly tell the committee the principal
statute or law which governs your operations.
Mr. Fishman. The Customs Service concerns itself with the im-
portation of merchandise into the United States. In dealing with the
assessment of duty, which is our principal function, we have as a
matter of law, the responsibility for concerning ourselves with pro-
hibitions in Federal statutes which deal with imported merchandise.
There is a provision in the customs law which prohibits the importa-
tion of obscene and immoral material and also with treasonable
material or material which advocates insurrection against the
United States. There is also a statute, the Foreign Agents Registra-
tion x\.ct of 1938, as amended, which is for the most part a disclosure-
type type of legislation. It very briefly contemplates that agents of
foreign governments will record themselves with the Justice Depart-
ment and will keep the Justice Department advised of their activities
in the United States on behalf of foreign governments. This pro-
vision of law also contemplates that, having identified themselves,
these agents will also identify political propaganda which they dis-
seminate in the United States so that recipients of this material may
be aware of the source.
Mr. Arens. The theory is about the same as the theory of the food
and drug laws, namely, that the recipient is entitled to know the nature
of the commodity which he consumes ; is that correct ?
Mr. Fishman. That is correct.
Mr. Kearney. May I interrupt, Mr. Chairman ?
Mr. "Willis. Yes, General.
Mr. Kearney. You say that the registered agent of a foreign gov-
ernment is supposed to advise the recipients of this propaganda mail
concerning its contents ?
Mr. Fishman. At least identify its source so that the person in this
country who reads it may evaluate it properly and not suspect
Mr. Kearney. Let me ask you this : Do they generally do that?
Mr. Fishman. It hasn't come to my attention that they have done it.
Mr. Kearney. In other words, we are rather naive in this country
to think they would do it.
Mr. Fishman. That is correct.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, in the course of your experience in the
Customs Service, have you ever seen a single piece of Communist
propaganda emanating from abroad which has been labeled in accord-
ance with the provisions of the Foreign Agents' Registration Act?
Mr. Fishman. Personally, I have never seen a piece labeled, but I
understand that some of the exhibits which under the law registered
agents are required to file with the Library of Congress have been
so labeled. There is an ambiguity here, which I expect to touch on
later, on the issue of whether this material is to be labeled on its way
into the country or by the registered agent who is to decide for him-
self whether the material he disseminates is political propaganda.
72 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Mr. Willis. "\'Vliat the act contemplates, as counsel pointed out, is
that this subject of political propaganda should be treated as we do
under the Pure Food and Drug Acts. Thus, if a compound, a liquid,
or anything, is poison, it must be labeled "Poison." In my judgment,
this political literature, which I hope you will go into in more detail
later, is poisonous, as a liquid may be poisonous. I think it is true
that loopholes have been found to get away from the law.
Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right.
Mr. Willis. By the way, may I say for the record that this ques-
tion was the subject of legislative recommendations made by this com-
mittee to the Congress this year, on Januaiy 2, in our annual report,
so we are considering this morning something dealing with a direct
legislative purpose and direct legislation.
Mr. FiSHMAN. Mr. Arens, may I read this one provision of the law
which covers this sul:)ject. It is section 4 (b) of the Foreign Agents
Registration Act, and it provides :
It shall be unlawful for any person within the United States who is an agent
of a foreign principal and I'equired to register under the provisions of this Act to
transmit or cause to be transmitted in the United States mails or by any means
or instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce, any political propaganda
in the form of prints —
and so forth —
unless such political propaganda is conspicuously marked at its beginning with
or prefaced or accompanied by. a true and accurate statement, in the language
or languages used in such political propaganda setting forth that the person
transmitting such political propaganda or causing it to be transmitted is regis-
tered under this Act with the Department of Justice, Washington, D. C, as an
agent of a foreign principal —
and so on. It has other requirements,
Mr. Arens. Of the tens of thousands of pieces which I am sure
you have seen, have you ever personally seen a single piece of Com-
munist propaganda emanating from abroad labeled in accordance
with the provisions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act?
Mr. FiSHMAN. I have neA^er personally seen such a piece.
Mr. Arens. I would like to explore, before you proceed with the
pattern of your presentation today, the exceptions to the Foreign
Agents Registration Act. Is the Foreign Agents Registration Act
applicable to a person in diplomatic status who imports Communist
Mr. FiSHMAN. No. In section 3 of the act there are exemptions :
The requirement of section 2 (a) hereof shall not apply to the following
agents of foreign principals : (a) A duly accredited diplomatic or consular officer
of a foreign government who is so recognized by the Department of State while
said officer is engaged exclusively in activities which are recognized by the
Department of State as being within the scope of the functions of such officer.
Mr. Arens. Has the State Department interpreted that language
with reference to any person in diplomatic status so as to require
his registration or require labeling of Communist political propa-
ganda which he may import in the country and disseminate over
the land ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. It has never been brought to my attention that such
a decision was made.
Mr. Arens. Is the Foreign Agents Registration Act applicable to
another category, namely, to individuals who themselves receive Com-
munist propaganda in single issues ?
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 73
Mr. FiSHMAN. No.
Mr. Arens. In other words, if Mr. Jorxes, Mr. Brown, or Mr. Smith
here in New Orleans opens up his mailbox and sees a magazine such as
one of these exhibits which you have on the table, Communist propa-
ganda, emanating from the Soviet Union or from any country in
the world, is there any requirement in the Foreign Agents Eegistra-
tion Act that that propaganda be labeled as such before lie receives it ?
Mr. FisH3iAX. Not at the present time. Unless he disseminates
the information, he is entitled to receive it and read and use it —
provided he knows the source of the material. There is another
ap]:)lication of this act, which is in line with the discussion of our
interest in this problem. Rule 50, w^iich was promulgated pursuant to
an opinion of the Attorney General, provides that —
Any person not within the United States who uses any means or Instrumen-
tality of interstate or foreign commerce within the United States or the United
States mails to circulate or disseminate any political propaganda in the form
of prints or in any other form reasonably adapted to being or which he believes
will be or which he intends to be circulated or disseminated to two or more
persons shall be regarded as acting within the United States and as subject
to the provisions of this Act.
Mr. Arens. If a person disseminates Communist propaganda in
the United States which is of domestic origin, is he obliged to register
under the Foreign Agents Registration Act and to label it Com-
munist propaganda ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. I believe so. That is part of the requirements of
the Foreign Agents Registration Act.
Mr. Arens. If the Communist Daily Worker disseminates Com-
munist propaganda, as it does, is it required to register ?
Mr. FisHMAN. I believe so, although there is a current test being
made of the provisions of the Internal Security Act as it applies to
the Communist Party and possibly to other similar organizations.
Mr. Arens. If a Communist in the United States disseminates
political propaganda which he has procured from abroad but which
he has not procured in any official capacity with a foreign govern-
ment, is he required to register ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes.
Mr. Arens. jNIr. Fishman, kindly tell this committee something of
the volume of Communist propaganda which is arriving in bulk
shipment in the United States.
Mr. Fishman. As I pointed out, w^e have established three control
units throughout the United States, and we have just completed our
1956 statistics. The Post Office Department turned over to our units
for examination around the country a total of 3,462,640 packages
Mr. Arens. Over what period of time ?
Mr. Fishman. The calendar year 1956.
Mr. Arens. How many individual items would there be in a
Mr. Fishman. We do not keep specific statistics on that subject,
but we have estimated, because of our experience, that these packages
contain some 6,900,000 individually printed periodicals, newspapers,
Mr. Arens. And from whence do they emanate ?
88955— 57— pt, 4 3
74 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Mr. FiSHMAN. Most of this, or practically all of it, came from
Soviet bloc countries and Hong Kong.
Mr. Kearney. Wlien you say packages mailed do I understand you
to refer to what is exhibited here as "sacks of mail" ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. No. We have no count of the number of sacks.
When we talk about a package, the Post Office Department refers to
it more particularly as a mail article. A mail article is a wrapper
of possibly a dozen or two dozen of one publication. For the purpose
of maintaining our own records we refer to the package as the mail
article which may contain from 1 to 50 individual publications.
Mr. Willis. You estimate the individual f)ieces would run to
Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes.
Mr. Willis. Is that material which has been turned over to you?
In other words, from that figure can you say what the actual figure
is or can you estimate it or can anyone estimate it ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. We like to think that we are now handling 85 per-
cent of all the material at our three units. It would be merely
conjecture to say what else comes in which we do not see. We are
talking here today, incidentally, about mail, but a good deal of
propagnda material comes by means other than mail.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Fisliman, do you process first-class mail at all ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. No.
]Mr. Arens. The Post Office Department does not process or inspect
first-class mail ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. No. We respect the privacy of the seal on fii-st-class
Mr. Arens. So the only processing you do on Communist propa-
ganda from abroad is what we generally refer to as fourth-class mail.
Mr. FiSHMAN. Ordinarily mail and registered mail, and mail which
is suspected of being dutiable. That would include fourth-class mail.
Mr. Moulder. You mentioned packages a while ago and a certain
number, and within those packages a certain number. Could you
give us the total of the individual pieces of propaganda?
Mr. FiSHMAN. There were some 6.9 million, approximately 7 million
pieces that were turned over to us for examination. That is country-
wide for the year 1956.
Mr. Arens. The only mail coming in in fourth-class which was
turned over to j'ou and which is subject to confiscation would be mail
of the obscene variety or mail which calls for the commission of a crim-
inal act ; is that correct ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right.
Mr. Arens. If the particular propaganda said in effect, "We must
now overthrow the Government by force and violence," that would be
subject to confiscation ; would it not?
Mr. FiSHMAN. That is a violation of the customs law.
Mr. Arens. But the propaganda which comes in, as I am sure you
will exhibit in a few moments, is of the subtle variety; isn't that
Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Fislnnan, in what languages is this propaganda
coming into the United States in fourth-class mail ?
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 75
Mr. FisHMAN. I was just glancing through these publications. One
of them, for example, is published in 13 different languages. I guess
that would cover almost anything that could be read here in the United
Mr. Arens. What percentage of the propaganda which is coming in
is in a foreign language as distinct from the English language?
What would be a rough estimate?
Mr. FiSHMAN, Probably 40 percent of it.
]Mr. Arens. What other mode of transmission is there for Com-
munist propaganda besides the fourth-class mail which you inspect
and the first-class mail which you cannot touch ?
Mr. FiSHMAN". We get to examine a good deal of printed matter
which comes by vessel and a good deal of it which comes by air ex-
press — not by mail, by means other than mail.
Mr. Arens. What is the total aggregate volume of that per year?^
Mr. FiSHMAN. I do not have the figures here, but they are quite
sizable because some of the freight shipments we have examined in
New York, consisting of possibly 10 cases of printed matter, may have
anywhere from five to six or ten thousand publications in a given
shipment. The airfreight usually concerns itself with current peri-
odicals, things which senders are anxious to have disseminated almost
immediately. A good deal of that comes from China via Hong Kong.
Mr. Arens. Then your 6 million figure does not include first-class
mail. It does not include mail which comes in in diplomatic pouch or
diplomatic mail bags. It does not include the shipments which you
have just alluded to; is that correct?
Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct.
Mr. Arens. And it does not include plates which are sent in to be
used for reproduction of propaganda; is that correct?
Mr. FiSHMAN. No.
Mr. Arens. Have you any way of ascertaining the volume either
of the plates or of the reprints ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. No, sir.
Mr. Willis. Where would those plates be fabricated ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. We have seen shipments from the Soviet Union sent
here for use.
Mr. Willis. And the format is in their style ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes ; that is right.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, do you also have occasion to notice Com-
munist propaganda motion-picture films, coming to the United States ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. Oh, yes. There are regular shipments of film.
Most of this material is consigned to agents registered with the De-
partment of Justice.
Mr. Arens. If Communist propaganda is coming to a registered
agent, do you inspect that ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. No. We have no control over it.
Mr. Arens. So we have still another area in which you have no in-
formation as to the volume ?
Mr. Moulder. Can you estimate where the major part of it goes?
Mr. FiSHMAN. I didn't get the question. Congressman.
Mr. Moulder. To what city or to what area of the country is the
major part of the material destined ?
76 INVESTIGATION OF COIMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Mr. FiSHMAN. With the cooperation of the Post Office Department,
we broke down a 2-week importation of this material and tried to
determine the areas to which it was directed. We found, for exam-
ple, if my memory serves me right, that the greatest portion of this
was directed to the Nevv York area; second, Pennsylvania, Illinois,
San Francisco, and California.
Mr. Moulder. Chicago?
Mr. FiSHMAN. Chicago ^^ould be included in that Illinois area.
I may have some of those figures here.
Mr. Kearney. "\^^ien jou say they were directed to New York or
Chicago areas, to whom was it directed ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. I suspect that the senders obtained telephone direc-
tories for these areas. They obtain organization directories. Some
of these very large organizations, for example, the Polish American
Congress, has some 25,000 members. If any one had access to their
membership list, they could flood the area around Chicago, for ex-
ample, with some 20,000 individual pieces of propaganda. You see,
the political propaganda program varies depending upon the issues
Mr. Moulder. Are they individually addressed?
Mr. FisiiMAN. Yes; a lot of it is individually addressed. If an
issue concerns tlie Poles, for example, there is a heavy influx of mate-
rial from Poland addressed to people of Polish extraction. If the
situation touches on Hungary, there is another approach. Of course
there are the regular shipments of periodicals, apart from these specific
publications, which are directed to current events and current subjects
in the United States, where the propaganda seeks to give the other
side of the picture, so to speak.
Mr. Kearney. Who receives that particular material ?
Mr. FiSHinAN. That would be consigned to people who do not
request it and who frequently have pleaded with us to see to it that
this mail does not reach them. We hnve had, both in our service and
in the Post Office Department, hundreds of requests.
Mr. Moulder. Will someone testify as to that ?
Mr. Arens. Yes. We will link it up.
In addition to the Communist propaganda which you have discussed
which is disseminated in the Unitecl States, do you have information
respecting Communist propaganda that goes in transit through the
United States from Communist area to another area?
Mr. FisHMAN. That would bring it closer home here. My job is to
try to keep abreast as much as we can with the transportation situa-
tion of this material into the United States. Sometimes we feel that,
when the pressure is put on in one given area, an attempt is made to
divert the material to other areas. We then have occasion to make
tests around the country to see what is coming into the United States
at other ports of entry. At New Orleans we conducted such a test a
year or so ago and we conducted a test about 2 months ago.
Mr. Arens. Will you give us the findings of your tests as to the
Mr. FisHMAN. We have opened the transit m.ails these last several
days while the committee is here. We also examined this mail in
October 1956 to determine whether the influx of this political propa-
ganda through the ITnited States was as heavj' as it had been a year
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 77
or SO ago. We found that it is not only as heavy but that it has
My information here deals particularly with what is known as
transit mail, mail which comes from South American countries and
from Europe through the port of New Orleans on its way to other
South American countries, apart from such mail which is destined
to the United States, to which Mr. Lel^lanc alluded a few minutes ago.
Because of the lack of adequate personnel, our test necessarily had
to be very limited. We chose a number of bags from mail presented
to us by the Post Oflice Department. We found during the test we
conducted that approximately 26,000 sacks of mail were available for
our examination. AVe could have examined that many sacks of mail.
Mr. Arexs. 26,000 over what course of time ?
Mr. FisHMAN. This was a 3V2-^eek period, I believe.
We actually examined 1,200 sacks of that mail. In those 1,200 sacks
we found one hundred eighty-three-some-odd-thousand parcels or ar-
ticles of mail which contained approximately three hundred ninety-
some-odd-thousand individual periodicals.
Mr. Arens. Of Communist propaganda ?
Mr. FisiiiiAx. This was the overall figure. We hadn't had it segi'e-
gated. We found political propaganda in 7,552 of these packages, or
a total of 11,000 individual pieces of what we consider political prop-
aganda as defined by the Foreign Agents Registration Act.
Mr. Arens. If your spot check has value as to the aggregate mail
passing here, what would that indicate as to the volume?
Mr. FisHMAX. We would anticipate that if we were to examine all
the mail that came througli here in transit through the United States,
there would be some 291,000 sacks a year.
Mr. Arexs. 294,000 sacks a year through New Orleans?
Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes.
Mr. Arexs. How many of the 294,000 sacks would contain Com-
munist propaganda, using the same average ?
Mr. FisiiMAX'. 7,000 represented a month. We could multiply that
by 12 and you would have a pretty good idea. Of course many of the
periodicals we saw were weekly and monthly periodicals. We may
have missed a huge shipment, for example, of periodicals because we
missed that printing date. We don't know.
Mr. Arexs. Do you feel the average of 84,000 mail sacks a year
through New Orleans of Communist propaganda is a fair appraisal or
fair estimate ?
Mr. FisiiMAX-. Yes, that is right.
Mr. Willis. You are talking only about transit mail?
Mr. FiSHMAX'. I am talking now about trjinsit mail. We have not
touched the situation as it applies to mail di;stined for people in the
Mr. Arexs. Let the record be clear. Is it your testimony that you
estimate there are approximately 84,000 mail sacks a year similar to
the sacks which we see before us today — 84,000 a year that contain
Communist propaganda, which are processed through New Orleans?
Is that correct ?
Mr. FiSHMAX'. No. The figure I was giving you was on packages.
If you are talking about sacks
78 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Mr. Arens. 84,000 packao:es.
Mr. FisTiMAN. 84,000, We found in these 1,246 sacks that we ex-
amined over a period of 30 days, not working days but calendar days,
7,552 packages of propaganda mail. If you multiply 7,552 by 12
you will have a pretty accurate figure of what our estimate is of the
amount of political propaganda.
Mr. Arens. You have 84,000 packages, and what is your estimate as
to the number of individual items per package ?
Mr. FisiiMAN. In these 7,500 packages we found 11,560 items.
Multiply that by 12 and you will have an estimate of the yearly ship-
ment of transit propaganda.
Mr. Arens. Eighty-four thousand packages a year through New
Orleans times how many in order to get the individual items?
Mr. FisHMAN. Eleven thousand would give you the individual
Mr. Willis. Multiply 11,000 by 12.
Mr. Arens. That would be over 130,000 individual items of Com-
munist propaganda processed through here a year; is that correct?
Mr. Fishman. Approximately; yes, sir.
Mr. Kearney. That is just through New Orleans ?
Mr. Fishman. That is correct.
Mr. Arens. Eighty-four thousand times how many?
Mr. Fishman. Let us see if we can get this straight. In 30 days
we saw 7,552 packages containing 11,560 items. If you multiply both
by 12 you will have the total number of packages and the total number
of items. I would say about 120,000 items and eighty thousand-some-
Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, that was all transit mail going from one
South American country to another ?
Mr. Fishman. Yes; including some to possessions of the United
States, of course.
Mr. Arens. Did you have occasion to examine, or do you have infoi"-
mation respecting, the Communist pi'opaganda that veers off here in
New Orleans for distribution to the south ?
Mr. Fishman. Not too much information. I have just returned
from a visit to Laredo where I tried to determine how much of this
material was actually destined for the United States. There is every
indication that considerable quantities of it are destined to our coun-
try, and especially in those areas where there are people of Mexican
extraction. We liave as yet not com])leted our survey. Neither do we
have a re])Oi't for you this morning on that.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, you have brought with you this morning
several mail sacks. First of all, could you tell us what are in those
mail sacks? Wliat are they?
Mr. Fishman. Daring this test, our representative here went to
the Foreign Mail Division of the Post Office and selected a number
of sacks from the mail which were there. We could not possibly look
at all of them. So we selected about 10 percent, I would say. These
13 sacks represent the material selected for examination.
Mr. Arens. Over what course of time ?
Mr. Fishman. I would say 2 days.
Mr. Arens. Am I clear in my impression that these mail sacks which
3'ou have broiight with you, these 13 mail sacks, represent 2 days-
processing of Communist propaganda?
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 79
Mr. FiSHMAN. Two days of a 10 percent selection from the mate-
rial we could have examined here as suspected of containing political
propaganda. We can't tell you right now how much political propa-
ganda there is in those sack's. We can open 1 or 2 of them for you.
Mr. Arens. I would suggest you might pick out a sample sack here
and open it, Mr. Fishman.
Have you opened at random one of the mail sacks ?
Mr. FisiiMAN. Yes. This is a sack of mail which emanates in
Mexico and is on its way to Lima, Peru.
Mr. Arens. Those 13 mail sacks represent 10 percent of the volume
processed here in 2 days ?
Mr. Fishman. Yes; 2 days.
Mr. Arexs. This represents 10 percent of 2 days' processing. In
other words, you have 10 times that amount.
Mr. Fishman. That we could have selected from.
Mr. Arens. Being processed from here in just 2 days' time?
Mr. FiSH^^rAN. That is right. One of these packages, for example,
contains individuallv addressed material. This contains a publication
'^Bulletin of Inforniation of the Embassy of the URSS" in Mexico.
Mr. Arens. Is there any indication on that that it is stamped as
Communist propaganda ?
Mr. Fishman. No; not that I can see.
Mr. Arens. This has a picture of Lenin on the front of it.
Mr. Fishman. Yes.
Mr. Arens. Lenin's picture. UBvSS. What does URSS stand for?
Mr. Fishman. It is the Soviet Union. Here it is. Bulletin of
Information of the Embassv of the URSS. (Boletin de Informacion
De La Embajada de la URSS.)
Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, this Communist propaganda which is
going through the United States is paid for in part by the United
States taxpayers, is it not ?
]\Ir. Fishman. I would prefer to have the representative from the
Post Office Department comment on that.
Mr. Arens. I was only surmising that from the fact that the Post
Office Department is not self-sustaming.
Mr. Fishman. So far as I know.
Mr. Wilij:s, From the package that you selected I see you have one
Mr. Fishman, Each one of these is individually addressed.
Mr. Moulder. May we see them?
Mr. KEi\RNEY. For the record, Mr. Fishman, I think you should
clear up why this mail from the U. S. S. R. infoiTnation center in
Mexico would come to New Orleans and then be shipped to Peru.
Mr. Fishman. We discussed that this morning. We have an idea
that it probably moves faster going through this area on its way out
to other areas of South America. It probably is cheaper and faster
from the transportation standpoint.
Mr. Kearney. In other words, they get, let us say, speedier service
from here instead of sending it out direct from Mexico to South
Mr. Fishman. That is right.
80 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, was there not a convention entered into
among the various powers governing the shipment of transit mail?
Mr. Fishman. I believe so. There is in existence the agreement
readied as a result of a postal convention.
Mr. Arens. Yes. Where and when was that held ?
Mr. Fishman. 1952, I think, was the latest meeting of the various
countries. I have something on that here.
]Mr. Arens. Under the provisions of that postal convention, if a
recipient country does not want the Communist propaganda, it is
subject to confiscation in the transit country, is it not?
Mr. Fishman, You are touching on two sections of law. One of
them, of course, is contained in the Postal Union Convention of
Brussels in 1952, article 59, paragraph 5, which provides :
Moreover, the right is reserved for any country not to convey in transit in
open mail over the territory articles, other than letters and postcards, in regard
to which the legal provisions regulating the conditions of their publication or
circulation in that country have not been observed. Such articles must be
returned to the administration of origin.
That is the end of that quote. There is also a proviso in the Foreign
Agents Registration Act which more closely touches on this subject
you just mentioned.
Mr. Arens. In other words, if Peru in this instance would notify,
tlirough its diplomatic chamiels, the United States Government that it,
Peru, did not want the Communist propaganda coming into their
country, that propaganda which you have just displayed to us today
would be subject to confiscation in the United States. Isn't that
Mr. Fishman. Yes, sir. Also the Foreign Agents Registration Act
says that —
The Postmaster General may declare to be nonmailable any commimication * * *
in the form of prints or in any other form reasonably adapted to or reasonably
appearing to be intended for dissemination or circulation * * * which is offered
or caused to be offered for transmittal in United States mails to any person or
persons in any other American repul)lic by any agent of a foreign principal if the
Postmaster General is informed in writing by the Secretary of State that the duly
accredited diplomatic representative of such American republic has made written
representation to tlie Department of State that the admission or circulation of
such communication * * « i^^ prohibited l)y the laws thereof —
of this South American Republic.
Mr. Arens. This thouglit crosses my mind and I would like to pose
it to you, Mr. Fishman : To your knowledge, has anyone in the United
States taken it upon himself through diplomatic channels to notify
tlie Government of Peru in this instance — or in other instances, other
governments — that we are processing through this country into their
country Communist propaganda, so they could notify us please to
confiscate it ?
Mr. Fishman. Not to my knowledge.
Mr. Kearney. Mr. Counsel, that also brings to my mind the great
difficulty that any agency of our Government might have in arriving
at what is political propaganda.
Mr. Fishman. It is defined in the law.
INVESTIGATION OF COJVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 81
]Mr. Kearney. I know it is defined in the law, but it seems to nie from
some of the test cases made with the Post Office Department a year or
so ago that there are loopholes in this law which should be plugged up.
Mr. FisHMAN. I thought, Congressman, you were going to touch
on another subject. It is difScult for our agencies to know of the
existence of this material. We do not have units established to handle
this. It is a huge volume of mail and it is in transit through the
country. There is also some question as to whether we have any con-
cern with it.
Mr. AiiENS. ISIr. Fishman, do you have with you certain typical
exhibits of the Communist propaganda coming in from abroad which
is disseminated in the United States ?
Mr. FisioiAN. During our test we found a quantity of this material
which was dc'stined to people in the United States.
We found some in English and I have selected several at random.
Mv. Arens. Would you select one and describe it, and then we will
move to another one. I hope you have them on the basis of typical
JNIr. Fishman. I would like to point out that many of these pub-
lications make the same approach to a specific problem. Although
they came from various countries in the Soviet bloc, they will dis-
cuss the same issue and refer to the same issue, Avhich indicates pretty
clearly that these are all dictated by the same source.
I am trying to find specific examples so we can make reference to
Mr. Arens. TV^iile you are looking for that may I ask you, does
the recipient pay a cost at all conunensurate with the apparent cost
of publication ?
Mr. FisHaiAN. Xo. Some of these publications in this country,
without advertising probably would have to sell for $1 or $1.50.
There is no advertising in these publications except a statement tell-
ing you where you can buy them.
New Times, December 1956, issue No. 50, discussion is had on the
situation affecting Egypt. The same discussion appears in Bul-
garia Today, issue No. 22, of November; People's China, issue
No. 22 of November ; and in News, A Soviet Review of World Events,
Mr. Moulder. A question arose a moment ago m counsel's ques-
tion to you along the line that existing laws were sufficient, without
any action on the part of Congress, to call to the attention of foreign
countries this propaganda coming through into our comitry — that
no additional legislation is necessary; that it is just a question of en-
forcement under our present administration in the executive depart-
ment, which is neglecting to take any action on it. Could you clarify
Mr. Fishman. There is merit to the suggestion. As I have said,
we intend to make a report to our administrative branch of this in-
formation which has come to us by way of these tests, and the Post
Office is now aware of it. Possibly the committee might bring it to
the attention of other agencies. We will try to cover every agency
we can think of and see if they will go further with the problem.
88955— 57— pt. 4 4
82 INVESTIGATION OF COJVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Mr. Moulder. My point, though, is whether any action should be
taken by Congress.
Mr. FisHMAN. In connection with this transit mail ?
Mr. Moulder. As I understand you, reading the laws and the regu-
lations you have mentioned, additional legislation is not needed.
Mr. FiSHMAN. I mean specifically for the transit mail.
Mr. Moulder. It is a matter of execution of the laws which are now
being neglected ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. I think that is probably correct.
Mr. Willis. I think, thougli, it should be pointed out that the exist-
ing law, either under the Foreign Agents Kegistration Act or the con-
vention there, touches upon only one phase of the picture, that is, the
Mr. FisHiMAN. That is what I was trying to bring out.
Mr. Willis, We do have, as I understand, looplioles in existing law
for mail destined for, and distributed in, the United States.
Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right.
Mr. Moulder. I am referring to mail coming through this coimtry
destined for another country.
Mr. Arens. May we clear that up by a question, Mr. Fislmian.
Under existing postal conventions if the recipient country requests the
United States or tells the United States it does not want this Com-
munist propaganda coming into its country, the United States is em-
powered to confiscate it ; is it not ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes, under the Foreign Agents Registration Act.
Mr. Arens. But we have loopholes, which we will discuss, in the
existing law with respect to the dissemination of propaganda in the
United States ?
Mr. Fishman. Yes.
Mr. Willis. By the same token, it appears that some of this ma-
terial comes from ISIexico. I wonder why we cannot notify Mexico
that we do not want it here, and let Mexico invoke its laws.
Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, I think it might be proper to ask any
of the witnesses who appear before us this morning as to whether our
Government has asked that of any of these countries, not particularly
Mexico, but all of the South American countries.
Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not the United States has
requested any of the countries through which Communist propaganda
is coming to the United States not to ship it in here and to confiscate it ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. I have no information that such a request has been
made on any of the South American countries, or any other country
for that matter.
I was going to continue with some of the material which we have
found. In this publication, New Times, No. 50 of December 1956,
under International Notes, in discussing the "Plot Against Syria," the
comment is made :
But the most active and sinister role in the conspiracy is played by the United
States. This is evident from the State Department's announcement that it sup-
ports the Baghdad Pact. The American press is whippiu.^ up anti-Syrian hys-
teria, and on November 30 the New York Times bluntly declared that the United
States "would have to move troops if war broke out in the Syria area, with or
without the authorization of the United Nations."
INVESTIGATION OF COIMISIUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 83
Propaganda carried on against Syria by the press and oflScial spokesmen of
the United States warrants the belief that it is Washington which is behind those
who have joined in conspiracy against Syria, a conspiracy which, in effect, is
directed against all the Arab nations and the peace of the Middle East.
Mr. Akens. All of this is material which has been disseminated in
the United States ; is that correct?
Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct.
Mr. Arens. Do 3^011 see on a single copy the label required by the
Foreign Agents Registration Act that it is Communist propaganda?
Mr. FiSHMAx. No.
Mr. Akens. Do you have another exhibit or two that you have
alluded to? Perhaps the committee would like to see some of them.
Mr. FisiiMAN. People's China, issue No. 22, November 1956, from
the Editor's Desk :
The wanton aggi-ession of the British and French imperialists on Egypt has
aroused the bitter indignation of the Chinese people. The hope that a peaceful
solution to the Suez Canal question would be found on the basis of the principles
worked out by the U. N. Security Council has been cynically shattered. A
powder keg has been lit which jeopardizes peace in the Middle East and through-
out the world.
Other comments :
There lias been relief at the latest news that the Hungarian people, rallying
to the new Worker-Peasant Revolutionary Government and with the support of
the Soviet Army, has smashed the plots of the reactionaries and got the situation
Comment of that type, as I say, appears in Bulgaria Today and in
many of these weekly and monthly publications, all during the same
time, all in November, and all on the same subject.
Mr. Arexs. Mr. Fishman, is this Communist propaganda to which
3"ou are alluding now going to schools, colleges, libraries, church
groups, various organizations of a non-Communist nature at the cross-
roads of this country ?
Mr. Fishman. Yes. Also such publications, for example, as World
Youth, World Student News, publications which are directed to the
youth, go to the students. These are sent to all colleges and youth
organizations. They contain the same line of propaganda.
Mr. Moulder. Let us be specific. You say they are sent to all
colleges. Are they individually addressed or how are they sent?
Mr. Fishman. No. These are sent generally to student organiza-
tions at the colleges, the chairman of the student committee or what-
ever title they can dig up.
Mr. Moulder. They apparently have information as to the name
of the organizations.
Mr. Fishman. They know the names of all of the colleges in the
United States. That is a sure thing.
Mr. Moulder. But the individual organizations that you referred to.
Mr. Fishman. They suspect it is going to get to the people for whom
it is intended if they say "student council" or "student organization"
or "general organization." It generally gets to someone who is asso-
cated with the student group in the college.
Mr. Arens. Is it a fact that the individual recipients in most cases
do not ask for the propaganda ?
84 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Mr. FiSHMAN. That is true. Many of the colleges have requested
us to discontinue letting this material through.
Here in the World Student News, still on the subject of Suez, there
is a chapter :
Students and Suez. Where do you stand? What has Suez nationalism to do
with students? Egyptian students do not need to be asked. Letters and infor-
mation poured into the lUS —
which is the International Union of Students —
from them explaining how they stood united to defend the nationalism and their
country's sovereignty. They also said that they were willing to die in defense
of these things. "Long years of foreign oppression have taught them that their
lives as students are indivisibly linked with their country's freedom and economic
Mr. Aeens. Mr. Fishman, may I interpose this question : Much of
this Communist propaganda w^hich you are alluding to here obviously
emanates from behind the Iron Curtain. Are there also instances in
which the Communists, in order to conceal the source of the material,
have had it printed in non-Communist countries, say countries such
as France or England, and then sent it into the United States?
Mr. Fishman. There is considerable quantity of this material com-
ing in from France and England. The names of the suppliers gen-
erally appear in these publications. They will list all the places where
you can obtain them so you do not have necessarily to v/rite to the
Soviet Union. In this publication, for example, addresses are listed
in Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Cejdon, China, Colom-
bia, Denmark, East Africa, France, England, Egypt, and so on. You
can write to any of these places and obtain the same publications and
probably escape scrutiny by our service since we do not examine
thoroughly, publications or periodicals or paper mail from neutral
or friendly countries.
Mr. Arens. Is the amount of Communist propaganda hitting the
shores of the United States from abroad increasing or decreasing?
Mr. Fishman. I would say it is increasing. It keeps pretty steady
when it comes to the usual weekly and monthly publications.
Mr. Arens. I would like to ask you a few specifics with reference to
proposed concepts and changes in the law. Would it be of service in
your judgment in undertaking to cope with this problem, if the law
provided that a single agency should have jurisdiction over the sur-
veillance of this material ?
Mr. Fishman. I think it would be of inestimable help. I think
right now the agencies to some degree — this is my own personal opin-
ion — are shifting for themselves. We know this material should be
scrutinized and some control should be exercised. It leaves it pretty
much u]:) to the Post Office and Treasury, customs, to exercise what
control it can under the law.
Mr. Arens. As a practical matter there is no control to speak of?
Mr. Fishman. I wouldn't say that.
Mr. Arens. I don't mean to criticize the agencies as such, but the
material is getting through.
Mr. Fishman. Some of it does come through, and it is largely due
to the fact that there are no specific prohibitions. Neither is there a
INVESTIGATION OF COAIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 85
specific provision of law which deals only with this subject. There is
a little anibiguit}' here as to what may not be imported.
Mr. Moulder. For example, will the packages over there on the
table go through and be distributed ?
Mr. FisHMAN. Yes. We have made no attempt to define this mate-
rial or to report its condition, since our position here is merely one
of observers. We are just looking tliis material over. We make
reports on it which we hope to get to all of the agencies concerned.
What action they will take we don't know.
Mr. Kearney. But under the law, you cannot hold any of this back
unless you definitely know that it is political propaganda.
Mr. FisuMAN. That is right. The only way we can tell is by looking
Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, would it be helpful in your judgment in
undertaking to cope with this problem if the law required that all
political propaganda fed into the United States be labeled before it
actually hits our shores?
Mr. Fishman. I would like to state my own position on this. It is a
serious problem. The picture as it now exists is somewhat like this :
A. registered agent may have sent to him 50,000 copies of a publica-
tion, and he may have delivery of it without any question. The
agent then, as it works out in practice, decides whether tliis material
which he has just received consists of political propaganda, also
whether he is distributing it in the United States mails or by any
means or instrumentality of interstate commerce.
If, within his judgment, this consists of political propaganda, he
then labels the material. It would seem a more direct and simple
approach to require this material to be labeled at the time it arrives
in the United States rather than at a time it becomes the property
of the registered agent, who tlien decides whether he shall label it.
Mr. Arens. But under the existing practice, as it comes to an indi-
vidual recipient who is not a registered agent, no labeling is afhxed
to it; isn't that right?
Mr. Fishman. Yes.
Mr. Arexs. Would it be helpful in your judgment if the law
stated in effect that all Communist propaganda coming to the United
States must be labeled before it reaches our shores?
Mr. Fishman. It surely would be helpful.
Mr. Arens. Or be subject to confiscation ?
Mr. Fishman. It would be very helpful.
Mr. Arens. JMr. Fishman, are there problems with reference to
agency in the law, as to who is a foreign agent?
Mr. FiSHsiAN. That always presents a problem. We have to try on
frequent occasions to define such agents.
Mr. Arens. "Would it be helpful if the law provided in effect that
any one who distributes Communist propaganda in the United States
emanating from abroad shall be deemed to be the agent of the principal
for whom he is distributing the propaganda?
Mr. Fishman. It would be helpful.
Mr. Arens. Have you other suggestions for undertaking to cope
with this serious problem ?
Mr. Fishman. I don't think so. I think if we could have the law
specifically state the agency charged with responsibility for this work,
86 INVESTIGATION OF COJVUHUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
and if we could get this ambiguity concerning when the Libeling
requirement applies clarified, that would be helpful. Those are two
of the major problems.
Mr. Arens. May I ask you about a third problem, namely, diplo-
mats. Would it be helpfid if the law required the labeling of Com-
munist propaganda disseminated in the United States by people who
are engaged full time as propagandists for a foreign power on our
Mr. FisHMAN. It would be helpful.
Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, it would be but, Mr. Counsel, do
you think that has ever happened? In other words, what I am
getting at is that you can take punitive measures, let us say, against
a certain diplomatic mission in this country, but what results then?
Mr. Arens. The material would be subject to confiscation, would
it not, Mr. Fishman ?
Mr. Fishman. I think probably the law contemplated that the dis-
semination of this material would be within the scope of the functions
of that officer. As I read before, the requirements of this section shall
not apply to agents of foreign principals engaged exclusively m
activities which are recognized by the Department of State as being
within the scope of the f mictions of that officer.
Mr. Kearney. I agi*ee with the question of counsel. As a matter
of fact, I agree that a lot of these diplomatic immunity laws should
be changed. We see violations in the city of Washington every day.
If an ordinary American citizen did those things, he would be in jail.
They are getting away with murder today all over the country because
every diplomatic agent they have over here is a potential spy.
Mr. Arens. The law is clear, at the present time, or at least the
practice is clear, that a person in diplomatic status in the United States
can disseminate all the Conmiunist propaganda he wants, all the
magazines, books, or anything else he wants, and not label them as
Mr. Kearney. Do you have an estimate as to the volume of that
practice? That is beyond the purview of your inquiry is it not?
Mr. Fishman. It is a domestic mailing problem with which I am
Mr. Kearney. Mr. Fishman, we have asked you a number of ques-
tions here. In view of your background and experience and special-
ized activity in this field, I should like to ask you if there are other
items of information of significance which you would like to bring
to the attention of the committee before you conclude your testimony.
Mr. Fishman. I don't believe so. We have additional exhibits
which the committee might like to look at and observe.
Mr. Kearney. Allude to them, please.
Mr. Fishman. We talked about tliese Information bulletins. For
example, here in New Orleans there are continuous importations of
a Daily News release from Hong Kong.
Mr. Kearney. That is imported here in New Orleans ?
Mr. Fishman. That is right.
Mr. Kearney. In what language ?
Mr. Fishman. English. This one is January 8, 1957.
Mr. Kearney. To whom is that Daily News release directed ?
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 87
Mr. FiSHMAN. It was directed to an individual whose name, as the
committee knows, we cannot disclose at this open hearing. One of
the items is dated at Peking, January 7 :
A Governmeut delegation of the Chinese Peoples Republic headed by Premier
Chou En-lai left here for Moscow on a special TU-104 jet plane this morning
for a friendly visit to the Soviet Union.
Members of the delegation included,
SO and on. ,,.,.,
Mr. Arens. Is that directed to people m public-relations work
Mr. FisHMAN. That is right.
Mr. Arens. Is that directed to one of the newspapers?
Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes, and intended for dissemination.
Mr. Arens. This was intended for dissemination or for reproduc-
I ion by a newspaper here?
Mr. FiSHMAN. I would suspect so, since it is a daily-news release.
Most other news releases of this type are sent to newspapers and
other disseminating agents. I don't know, however, that any news-
papers would disseminate much of this material.
Mr. Arens. Does that daily bulletin that you are talking about
which comes in here indicate, except from its source, that it is Com-
Mr. FiSHMAN. It is issued by the Hsinhua News Agency of Kow-
loon, Hong Kong, but there is no other indication here.
Mr. Arens. They come in every day here ?
Mr. FiSBrarAN. They are made up every day. Some of them may
come in once or twice a week, but they are daily reports.
Mr. Kearney. Is there any indication on any of those reports that
it is political propaganda ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. No. We have other material here. We have ob-
served a great deal of material being sent from Hong Kong, which
probably emanates in China. The speeches of Mao Tse-tung; a
publication, Equality of Soviet Women in the Economic Sphere; a
semimonthly published in China which contains anti-American prop-
aganda dealing witli invasion by an American plane on the terri-
torial air limits of China. It talks about the fact that the plane was
actually shot down by the Communist government. We also observe
here some of tlie usual run of "Return to the Homeland" material
with wliich we had experience in Philadelphia. This is a Polish pub-
lication, Kraj, which is a homeland publication. In one package, for
example, there are a dozen copies of this publication.
Mr. Kearney. Are those copies that you have in your hand, indi-
Mr. FiSHMAN. No, these 12 were addressed to 1 individual.
Mr. Kearney. I take it, that it was contemplated that individual
would disseminate the other 11.
Mr. FisHMAN. Yes. He would have no use for 12 of them.
]Mr. Kearney. Is there any other item of information you want to
call to the attention of the committee ?
Mr. FiSHMAN. I think we have covered the scope of the inquiry
that we made here. I would be glad to answer any other questions
that the committee has.
88 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Mr. Arens. I have no further questions to ask, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. ]\IouLDER. What percent of the packao^es or mail of Communist
propaganda entering New Orleans is destined to domestic consumption
in this country and what percentage flows to South America?
Mr. FiSHMAN. We would have to estimate that. Mr. LeBlanc has
given some figures on material which is submitted to Customs for
examination and intended for domestic consumption. But the scope
of our investigation here dealt pretty much with transit mail. I made
some small inquiries in Laredo and San Antonio about this, but in the
1 day available to me I could not get very much specific informa-
tion. We know that Mexico sacks mail directly for states in the
United States, so several bags of mail intended, for example, for the
State of Illinois, will come through Laredo directly on its way to
Chicago for distribution in the Illinois district.
Mr. Moulder. It seems to me to be so ridiculous that our great
Nation is serving as an intermediary in transporting Communist
propaganda, say, to South America.
Mr. FiSHMAN. That is the ironic part of the situation here.
Mr. Moulder. It certainly is. My personal observation and con-
viction is that our country has neglected South America in our fight
against communism and more attention should be concentrated on
South America, because in the future it will become one of the most
impoi tant areas in the world.
Mr. FisHMAN. We could save them from a lot of this material if
we kept it out.
Mr. Moulder. As far as I am concerned, we have done nothing
tow^ard that end.
Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest we might have a brief recess.
Mr. Willis. Thank you very much, Mr. Fishman.
The committee will take a 5-minute recess.
(Members of the committee present: Representatives Willis,
Kearney, and Moulder.)
Mr. Wn.Lis. The subcommittee will come to order.
Counsel, will j'^ou call the next witness.
Mr, Arens. Miss Margaret Rosano, kindly come forward.
Will you kindly remain standing while the chairman administers
an oath to you.
Mr. Willis. Do j^ou solemnly swear the testimony you are about
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth,
so help you God ?
Miss RosANO. I do.
TESTIMONY OF MARGARET M. ROSANO, UNITED STATES CUSTOMS
SERVICE, NEW YORK CITY, N. Y.
Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu-
Miss RosANO. Margaret Rosano. I live at 292 Claflin Court, New
York. I am a clerk-translator for the Customs Service at New York.
Mr. Arens. What languages do you translate?
Miss RosANO. French, Italian, and Spanish.
INVESTIGATION OF COMJVIUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 89
Mr. Arens. Miss Kosano, did you in the course of the recent past
conduct a test in the Xew Orleans area of Communist propaganda
which is coming through this port of entry 'i
Miss RosAKO. Yes, in November I was here for about three and a
half weeks conducting a survey on the mail that arrived here.
Mr. Arens. May I suggest, just at your own pace, you tell the com-
mittee first of all what you did in the test and, secondly, what your
Miss RosANO, During the test I went to the foreign mailroom and
selected from the thousands of bags there those which I could contain-
ing miscellaneous matter that would be of interest to us insofar as it
might contain propaganda. There are very many of the bags that do
come in that contain serial-tj'pe things like comics, family magazines,
or scientific magazines, that are wrapped in such a way that they are
almost visible from the outside. They come in bulk. Those we did
not handle at all, but we took all the miscellaneous that we could
handle during that period to examine fully at the customhouse.
Mr. Arens. Proceed to tell us the results of your examination.
Miss RosANO. I believe Mr. Fishman has given you the figures on
what Avas accomplished at that time. "Wliat we did was open each
bag that came through the customhouse and segregate among the
things found in each bag those which contained political propaganda
emanating usually from Mexico or Hong Kong and destined almost
exclusively for South America.
Mr. Arens. Did you make any examination of the bags for distri-
bution in the United States ?
Miss RosANO, No, we did not.
'Mr. Arens. Your examination was exclusively with reference to
transit mail ?
Miss RosANO. Transit mail, yes.
Mr. Arens. Would you give us a quick resume of your findings?
Miss RosANO. The majority of the propaganda found seems to ema-
nate from the Russian Legation in Mexico. They put out a semi-
monthly publication. They call it an information bulletin. They
disseminate it throughout the South American countries. Practically
ever}' one of them is represented. I do not know how many of those
may come in for distribution in the United States because I did not see
Mr. Arens. You did not examine anything except the transit mail ?
Miss RosANO. That is right.
Mr, Arens. ^Miat was the total volume ?
Miss RosANo. Those are the figures that Mr. Fishman gave you.
(The figures supplied by Mr. Fishman follow :)
Period covered. — November, 1956
Sacks of mail received by Nevr Orleans Post Office Department en route to
destinations in United States island possessions and South American Repub-
lics. — Ordinary mail, 19,350 sacks ; registered mail, 6,862 sacks ; total, 26,212
Sacks actually examined during test period of 1 month, 1,246 sacks ; quantity
of mail packages contained therein, 183,593 packages ; quantity of mail packages
found to contain political Communist propaganda, 7,552 packages ; quantity of
individual printed books, pamphlets, etc., 11,560 pieces.
Mr. Arens. Do you have other information to submit?
90 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Miss EosANO. Mr. Fishman has stated some of the items that appear
in these publications. They are all apparently dictated by Russian
rule, and all they do is try to disseminate their propaganda and their
mode of life.
Mr. Arens. What percentage of it is in foreign language ?
Miss RosANO. The majority I would say is in Spanish or French,
going to the South American countries.
Mr. FisHMAN. Transit mail.
Mr. Arens. You translate from Spanish to English ?
Miss RosANO. Yes.
Mr. Arens. Did it contain what we regard as the Communist Party
Miss RosANO. Yes indeed.
Mr. Arens. Wliat were the principal lines which were used ?
Miss RosANO. I tried to get a translation of one of the Informational
Bulletins of the Embassy of the U. S. S. R.
Mr. Arens. Is that the bulletin you have your hand on now ?
Miss RosANO. It is this one specifically, of January. They refer
to speeches made by the Russian high officials in reference to world
events. This is a reply by Bulganin to the Polish question. In answer
to "Wliat in your opinion will 1957 bring to Humanity?" Bulganin
The aggressive circles of some of the Western countries and their propaganda
are endeavoring strongly to inspire pessimism and insecurity in the people inso-
far as the perspective to perservere and consolidate peace, by compelling them
to believe in the unavoidable need of the race for armaments and war.
Mr. Arens. Have you seen any propaganda coming through which
undertakes to explain away the Hungarian situation ?
Miss RosANO. They have referred to Hungary in what I have read
in the last few ones. It refers specifically to the Egyptian question
and includes the Hungarian in tliat, too. As to what new steps
should be taken to minimize the tensions in the Middle East and
Hungary, they said :
The first step must be taken by the colonial powers. They must acknowledge
the independence and freedom of the people in these zones. They must end
their interference in internal affairs of other countries.
Mr. Arens. Is there any other principal source in Mexico than the
Russian Embassy in Mexico ?
Miss RosANO. Yes. They have the Bulgarian Embassy. They also
have a bulletin of information for Hungarian people. They have
Czechoslovakia of Today, which is issued by the Czech Legation in
Mexico. Then they also have some workers organizations in Mexico.
These are not from the Communist bloc. They are just workers
organizations. This type of propaganda, though different from the
actual Legation propaganda, is usually directed against the United
Mr. Arens. Can you give us just a word about them ?
Miss RosANO. One of the articles I noticed is this particular one:
First of all they are against armaments. They want it unified, but
without use of weapons because arming Germany again means a
threat to all of Europe and the world. They also have an article in
here about the Hungarian situation which they claim was instituted
by Hoover. Hoover, Senior, they call him, was the one who plotted
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 91
the first revolution in Hungary in 1919, and his son, now in the State
Department, is the one who plotted and contrived to have this new
revolution which is only for their monetary gains and not anything
Mr. FisHMAN. I didn't know whether it may be of interest in
connection with previous testimony, but the committee might like
to know the countries which are covered by this propaganda in South
America. I don't know whether you want the record to include that.
Mr. Arens. I think it would be well to have it; yes, sir.
Mr. FisHMAx. For example, some of this material is addressed to
Venezuela, Peru, Ecuador, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Panama, Cuba,
the Dominican Republic, Colombia, Uruguay, Honduras, Bolivia,
Puerto Rico, Paraguay, Costa Rica, and the Canal Zone.
j\lr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, is Puerto Rico a dissemination point in
the "Western Hemisphere for Connnunist propaganda emanating from
behind the Iron Curtain ?
Mr. Fishman. We have had comment to that effect. As yet we
have made no investigations. There is information in our informal
reports which make that a possibility because of the volume of mate-
rial which is destined for Puerto l\ico.
Mr. Arens. From where?
Mr. Fishman. Some of it from South America, some from Europe.
There is quite a sizable quantity of it. Our last information was that
there were some 400 bags of this mail which comes through this port
on its way to Puerto Rico per month.
Mr. Arens. That is Communist propaganda ?
Mr. Fishman. No, that is mail which we suspect may contain politi-
cal propaganda. "We may not have looked in yet to see.
Mr. Arens. Miss Rosano, are there any other items of information
you would like to comment on ?
Miss RosANO. No, I think I have covered all of the publications
that I have looked through.
Mr. Arens. Thank you very much.
Mr. Willis. I certainly want to compliment you for the very splen-
did contribution you have made to this committee and to the Govern-
ment in connection with this work.
Miss RosANO. Thank you.
Mr. Moulder. How did you secure the position that you hold, may
Miss RosANO. I was appointed in Customs about 7 years ago as a
translator, and when Mr. Fishman was given this task I was assigned
to this work.
Mr. Fishman. We have a limited budget for this kind of test and,
rather than employ somebody locally on a temporary basis, we gen-
erally send someone from one of our active units. Miss Rosano's
normal function is in New York City but since she is aware of our
interest and the kind of work we do, it saves a lot of time to send her
out on these trips.
Mr. Wnxis. Is that all, Counsel?
Mr. Arens. That is all.
Mr. Willis. Thank you very much.
The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock this afternoon.
(Whereupon, at 11 : 50 a. m., Thursday, February 14, 1957, the
committee was recessed, to reconvene at 2 p. m. the same day.)
92 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 14 1957
(Committee members present: Eepresentatives Moulder, Willis,
Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order, and counsel will
call tlie next witness.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Saul Mindel, kindly come forward and please
remain standing while the chairman administers an oath to you.
Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the
truth, so help you God ?
Mr. Mindel. I do, sir.
TESTIMONY OF SAUL J. MINDEL, ATTOHNEY, BUREAU OE GENEEAL
COUNSEL, POST OEEICE DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON, D. C.
Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu-
Mr. Mindel. My name is Saul J. Mindel. I am an attorney in the
Bureau of the General Counsel, Post Office Department, Washington,
Mr. Arens. How long have you been so engaged ?
Mr. Mindel. For a period of approximately 161/^ years. That is,
in that Bureau. Prior thereto I was in the Post Office Department for
an additional period of about 9 years.
Mr. Arens. What are your responsibilities ?
Mr. Mindel. Part of my responsibilities are to review reports from
the postmasters concerning mailings of foreign propaganda or mate-
rials suspected of being foreign political propaganda received from
Mr. Arens. Mr. Mindel, in what classes, from the standpoint of
the postal service, does the foreign Communist political propaganda
arrive into the United States ?
Mr. Mindel. I think you could classify them broadly as open mail
and closed mail. That is, under closed mail you would have personal
correspondence in sealed envelopes. Other mail would be printed
matter, periodicals, and other publications that would be sent in
a form of mail comparable to our third-class mail here in the
United States. Still others perhaps in larger shipments might go in
parcels which would be designated as parcel post and still subject to
Mr. Arens. "Wliich of the mail is subject to inspection ?
INIr. Mindel. Everything that is in the open mail.
Mr. Arens. If the open mail comes to a recipient who has solicited
the propaganda, is that subject to inspection or confiscation?
Mr. Mindel. It is subject to inspection. However, it would not be
confiscated, and I make that statement with reference to our proce-
dures in enforcing the Foreign Agents Registration Act with respect
to political propaganda sent by foreign agents who have not com-
plied with the requirements for registration with the Department of
Mr. Arens. IVliat mail coming in, in the nature of foreign Com-
munist propaganda, is subject to confiscation under present postal
Mr. Mindel. So far as the character of the mail itself is concerned,
I think I would have to answer all of it, but I think you probably have
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 93
in mind the exceptions because of the type of addresses for whom
destined. Is that correct ?
Mr. Arens. Yes, sir.
Mr. MiNDEL. Under that heading you would have, first of all, the
foreign agents in the United States who have registered with the De-
partment of Justice. Secondly, you would have the diplomatic and
consular officers who are located in the United States. Thirdly, you
would have the group of persons who have ordered or subscribed for
]Mr. Arens. May I hesitate there a moment, please, sir, so the record
is absolutely clear. If the Communist propaganda comes to a regis-
tered agent or to a person in diplomatic status or to a person who has
solicited that propaganda, it is not subject to confiscation under any
circumstances, is that correct?
Mr. jNIixdel. It is not subject to confiscation if the only question as
to mailability is with regard to the Foreign Agents Eegistration Act
and its foreign political propaganda character.
Mr. Arens. If the propaganda does ask for or incite to riot or call
for the overthrow of the Government by force and violence or is of a
scurrilous nature, it would be subject to confiscation in any event,
would it not ?
Mr. INIiNDEL. If it is of a character to incite acts of violence, treason,
insurrection, and so forth, yes, sir, it would be nonmailable under a
separate statute, section lTi7 of title 18 of the United States Code.
Of course, if it were of a different character and involved obscene and
indecent matters, then you would have it under still another statute,
the domestic statute here being section 1461 of title 18 of the United
Mr. Moulder. Who ascertains and determines whether or not the
material that you have referred to is Communist or that it proposes
the overthrow of the Government ? Vfiw is to judge that ?
Mr. Mindel. The Bureau of Customs in its control units, as Mr.
Fishman referred to them this morning, will have the first chance at
inspection of most of this material. Some additional foreign mailings
come in at points where there is no such unit, for example, Los An-
geles, and the material itself is forwarded to us in Washington, where
we make the initial examination and determination as to whether it is
of that character. I might say. Congressman, that in my recollection
none of this material has ever gone in that direction. They have ap-
jjarently been satisfied with the efforts to propagandize people here
to accept their statements and viewpoints with regard to the inter-
national issues and the Communist movement.
Mr. Moulder. Who are the individuals who decide whether or not
it should be censored and not distributed or not permitted to go
through our mails ?
Mr. Mindel. With regard to that which customs examines they
would make the initial decision that in their opinion it constitutes
foreign political propaganda ^Yithin the meaning of the Foreign
Agents Eegistration Act. That would then be turned over to the
postmasters at whichever port it is received. With that information
the postmaster in turn would make a report to the Bureau of the
General Counsel of the Post Office Department in Washington, and
then we Avould issue the final instruction as to the disposition to be
94 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
made of that mail. I am now speaking of mail shipments exclusively.
Mr. Moulder. I miderstand that material has been passed here in
New Orleans and gotten delivered which I would regard as at least
indirectly subversive, promoting and sponosoring the Communist
cause. I am wondering whose duty it would be to censor that
Mr. MiNDEL. I believe the answer to that might lie in certain ad-
ministrative problems in the area with regard to adequate staff for
handling, and so forth.
Mr. Arens. If this foreign Communist political propaganda ar-
rives at the shores of the United States in open mail status and is not
destined to a recipient who has requested it, nor is it destined to a
person in diplomatic status, nor is it destined to a registered agent,
what is its status from the standpoint of operations of the post office ?
Mr. MiNDEL. Its status, Mr. Arens, is that it is nonmailable under
section 1717, the statute I referred to before, which has been the
subject of interpretation by the Attorney General of the United States
in his opinion to the Postmaster General on December 10, 1940, when
the question was put to him as to the treatment that might be given
by the Post Office Department to great numbers of mailing pieces
that were then being received, in 1940, via Siberia from various coun-
tries abroad, consisting of propaganda with regard to the controversy
at the time. The Attorney General's opinion was to the effect that
if this or any material constituted foreign political propaganda within
the definition of the statute, the Foreign Agents Registration Act, and
if also it was being distributed by an agent of the foreign principal
and if, finally, that agent had not complied with the Foreign Agents
Registration Act by registering and labeling, then the Postmaster
General may treat that material as nonmailable under that section of
Mr. Arens. That would be in effect, would it not, a finding that the
agent in a foreign country should have registered and labeled his
material before he sent it into the United States. Isn't that correct?
Mr. MiNDEL. That would be inherent in that determination; yes,
Mr. Arens. Since he did not register and since he did not label his
material which was being sent in, that material w^ould be subject to
confiscation; is that correct?
Mr. MiNDEL. That is correct.
Mr. Arens. How much material was confiscated by the post office
in that status during the course of, let us say, the last year?
Mr. MiNDEL. We do not have exact fisrures. In fact, we do not
have figures to give you that answer. We have compiled a figure
showing that during the calendar year 1956 there were reported to us
in Washington by the several postmasters to whose offices propaganda
has come, approximately 1.5 million pieces that were either regarded
as propaganda by customs or that had not been examined by customs
and yet were suspected of being propaganda. We approximate, and
it is only an approximation because we do not have any figures on
it, that of that total possibly 60 to 70 percent were finally held to be
nonmailable and therefore subject to disposition as confiscated ma-
terial. I think that that comes out to something like 900,000 pieces.
Mr. Arens. Let the record be clear here. May I state the fact and
see if I have it correct. Is it your testimony that during the course of
INVESTIGATION OF COMAIUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 95
the last year approximately 900,000 pieces of Communist propa<yanda
were confiscated in tlie United States because that Communist prop-
aganda was beino- sent into the United States by an agent abroad
who had not registered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act in
the United States nor had he labeled the material pursuant to the
provisions of the Foreigii Agents Registration Act. Is that correct?
Mr. MiNDEL. That is correct, sir.
Mr. INIouLDER. What percentage would you say that would repre-
sent in comparison to the total amount of foreign propaganda from
the Soviet Union or its satellite countries ?
Mr. MiNDEL. To this country ?
Mr. Moulder. Yes.
Mr. MiNDEE. I can't ansvver that, Congressman, for this reason:
The propaganda comes in not only in the mails but by way of freight
shipments which we would not see at all in the postal service. That
is one reason I can't answer that.
The second is that it is the practice, as I understand it, at New York
that the shipments of propaganda that come in there, mail or other-
wise, addressed to the registered foreign agents located in New York
City, are delivered to them without referring to us in the usual man-
ner as they do with regard to tlie others.
In other words, it is an established fact in the way the law is in-
terpreted, that these people are entitled to receive it, so there is no
point in setting up another phase of administrative handling to report
it to us and report it to the Postmaster and have him go through the
other steps. So they turn it over directly and therefore we do not
have any figures on that.
Mr. Arens. At how many ports of entry does the post office main-
tain this check system ?
Mr. MiNDEL. Actually any postmaster, under the regulations, if
he sees something in the mails that he regards as of questionable mail-
ability, is authorized and, as a matter of fact, directed in effect to hold
it and send it in to us for an opinion. That has actually, though,
boiled down to several of the larger ports or exchange offices, especial-
ly New York. Through New York port comes about 75 percent of all
the mail that comes in from abroad. So New York, Chicago, and San
Francisco are the three where customs has control units, and then also
we get a good bit from Los Angeles, some from Seattle, and some little
bit from San Juan, Puerto Rico; Detroit; and several others.
Mr. Moulder. Do you have a control unit in New Orleans?
Mr. Mindel. No, sir ; there is none here.
Mr. Moulder. Then how do you know that 75 percent of it comes
through New York?
Mr. Mindel. I was speaking there not of propaganda but of total
Mr. Arens. Do you have access in the Post Office Department to
Communist propaganda which comes in as first-class mail?
Mr. Mindel. There is more of a problem there, because there is in
the law of this country the concept of the protection of a person's
private papers. However, there is a joint regulation, that is, between
Customs and Post Office, under v^'hich sealed matter, if it is suspected
of containing prohibited matter of whatever character — propaganda,
lottery, or whatever — is to be endorsed by the postmaster who first
96 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
makes that determination that it is suspected of containing matter
prohibited importation — that is the language — and then a notice will
be sent to the addressee that that mail is being held because of
that suspicion, and he will be called on to authorize the opening of
that mail in the presence of a customs agent.
That has been done sparingly for the reason, I must say, with regard
to propaganda that it is difficult to detect it when it is sent in, in what
is apparently letter-mail form. On 1 or 2 occasions it came in in great
numbers. That is, five or ten thousand pieces, I believe, at one time.
They had certain identifying markings on them which we could recog-
nize from previous mailings that had not been withdrawn from the
mails but that had been reported to us by the addressees.
In those 1 or 2 cases where that happened we were able by a sampling
and the receipt of authorizations from those which were sampled to
establish that the material was of the character suspected, and then we
treated it all in that fashion, that it was nonmailable.
Mr. Akens. Mr. Minclel, kindly give us the highlights of the appli-
cable law and regulation pertaining to mail in transit, bulk shipments
of mail in transit, such as the mail which Mr. Fishman identified this
morning as pouring through the port of New Orleans.
Mr, MiNDEL. Under the Universal Postal Union Convention, the
last one at Brussels in 1952, and under the Convention of the Postal
Union of the Americas and Spain, transit mail, as it is termed, is to be
dispatched across our country and out to wherever it is going without
examination. In other words, they are closed pouches and we don't
ordinarily make any examination of them because of those treaty
Mr. Kearney. You spoke about the representatives of foreign gov-
ernments in New York City. Do you know the individuals ?
Mr. MiNDEL. There are at least two I guess you would call bookstores
in New York. One is Four Continent Book Corp., and the other one
I believe is called Imported Publications and l^roducts. They are
registered as agents. They receive for their customers here gxeat
numbers of publications of all sorts, including the type of material
which we are talking about.
Mr. Kearney. Can you tell the committee whether or not the own-
ers of those bookstores are American citizens or not ?
Mr. MiNDEL. 1 have no information on that, sir.
Mr. Willis. I believe in that connection, one of the registered agents
of the Soviet Union was before our committee in Washington last
year. What was his name, Counsel?
Mr. Arens. Mr. Edwin S. Smith.
Mr. Willis. Mr. Edwin Smith. He admitted that he was a regular
vistor of the Russian Embassy in Washington. He admitted that he
received and distributed propaganda material, and so on. Among
the things that he admitted he received were faked photographs show-
ing that we were supposed to be using germ warfare in Korea. We
asked him whether that provided him with any qualms of conscience,
and I think his reply was that it didn't bother him at all. Isn't that
Mr. Arens. That is substantially correct, yes, sir.
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 97
Mr. Kearney. As a matter of fact, I believe lie also admitted in his
testimony that he didn't take the trouble to find out whether these
pictures v»'ere faked or not.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Mindel, under the Foreign Agents Kegistration Act,
is it not true that a country processing mail that goes in transit to an-
other country may confiscate that material if the ultimate recipient
country requests tliat it be confiscated or requests that it not be sent in
transit through the transit country ?
Mr. Mindel. There is something in the nature of that in the Foreign
Agents Registration Act.
Mr. Arens. May I read you an excerpt from the Foreign Agents
Registration Act, and then I should like to ask you what has been
done to implement that. I am quoting now from the Foreign Agents
Registration Act of 1938.
The Postmaster General may declare to be nonmailable any communication or
expression falling within clause (2) of section 1 (j) hereof in the form of prints
or in any other form reasonably adapted to or reasonably appearing to be in-
tended for dissemination or circulation among two or more persons, which is
offered or caused to be offered for transmittal in the United States mails to any
person or persons in any other American Republic by any agent of a foreign
principal, if the Postmaster General is informed in writing by the Secretary of
State that the duly accredited diplomatic representative of such American
Republic has made written representation to the Department of State that the
admission or circulation of such communication or expression in such American
Republic is prohibited by the laws thereof and has requested in writing that its
transmittal thereto be stopped.
Mr. Arens. In other words, under the Foreign Agents Registration
Act, if the nation of Peru, to which much of this Communist propa-
ganda alluded to by Mr. Fishman is destined, would through diplo-
matic channels express to the Secretary of State of our Nation their
abhorrence of that material and that its admission would be in violation
of the laws of Peru, the Secretary of State of this Nation then is
empowered to direct that fact to the Postmaster General of the United
States, and he in turn is empowered to confiscate the material. Is
that correct ?
Mr. ]\Iindel. Yes, sir ; that is correct.
Mr. Arens. To your knowledge, in the course of your career in the
Post Office Department, has our Department of State ever called to
the attention of any of the Republics of South America the fact to
which Mr. Fishman testified this morning, namely, that there is this
flood of Connnunist propaganda going into those Republics in transit
through the United States ?
Mr. Mindel. I have no information whether the State Department
has done that, except that I can only say I have never seen any
indication of it in the files of the Post "Office Department that I have
had contact with.
Mr. Arens. Without saying anything offensive to yourself or with-
out undertaking to condemn yourself, does it occur to you that the
Post Office Department or the Customs or some agency of this Govern-
ment which has cognizance of this flood of Communist propaganda
crossing the United States into neighboring Republics in South
America ought to call the State Department's attention to it and say
in effect, "State Department, please notify these other countries of this
98 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
flood of Communist propaganda and undertake to solicit them to ask
us to please stop it"? Don't you think that would be a good idea?
Mr. ]MI^^)EL. Undoubtedly it is. I think to keep the record straight
on the law here, I should point out, however, that the section of the
act that you read, about notification by the other American Eepub-
lics, and so forth, specifically referred to part 2 of the section of the
act interpreting political propaganda, and that that part 2 is not of
the same broad nature as is part 1, which is what we have been talking
about generally, but is material which, and now I am reading —
advocates, advises, instigates, or promotes any racial, social, political, or religious
disorder, civil riot, or other conflict involving the use of force or violence in any-
other American Republic or the overthrow of any government or political subdi-
vision of any other American republic by any means involving the use of force
Mr. Arens. Then is it your position — if I misinterpret it please
correct me — that under existing law, even though the President
of Peru would tell the Secretary of State they don't want this material
coming in to Peru, we could not confiscate it unless we could show
that that particular propaganda calls for forcible overthrow of the
Government of Peru ?
Mr. IMiNDEL. Within this act I think the answer to that is "Yes."
There is generally in international postal administration a provision,
wliich undoubtedly is in the Universal Postal Union Convention, that
any country may notify the other member countries that material of
whatever character is regarded by them as "prohibited." That is the
term they use.
Then notice will go out to all of those other postal administrations
so that none of them should thereafter dispatch any mail to the
country which has established that prohibited item.
Mr. Arens. Then we are back where we started from, Mr. Mindel,
are we not, namely, that under the Postal Convention or treaty that
you referred to, if the President of Peru tomorrow morning went to
the post office in Peru and saw tliis flood of Communist propaganda
and said to himself, "This is unwholesome, this is in violation of our
laws," and if he then notified the Secretaiy of State, the Secretary
of State could notify the Postmaster of the United States, who would
cause this material to be seized in transit. Is that correct?
Mr. Mindel. I think it could be done that way.
Mr. Arens. From wliat j^ou have told us of your background and
experience, you have been in this field a long time. To your knowledge
has anyone in our Government undertaken to initiate such a course
of action ?
Mr. Mindel. I don't know of any such instance.
Mr. Arens. I would like to invite your attention to the Universal
Postal Union Convention of Brussels, article 59, paragraph 5, which
Moreover, the right is reserved for any country not to convey in transit in
open mail over its territory articles, other than letters and postcards, in
regard to which the legal provisions regulating the conditions of their publication
or circulation in that country have not been observed. Such articles must be
returned to the administration of origin.
Mr. Mindel. Yes, sir.
Mr. Arens. How could that particular provision in your judgment
be made applicable to this flood of Communist propaganda which
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 99
Mr. Fishman identified this morning as moving through this country
to the Latin American Republics ?
Mr. MiNDEL. There is one key word in that section which would
stop us on most of this transit material, and that is the word "open."
It says "transit in open mail." With small exception, transit mail
is closed mail. But it occurs to me that there is also question, even as
to that which is open, as to whether it constitutes political propaganda
within the meaning of the Foreign Agents Registration Act, which
requires that it be intended for dissemination to people within the
United States. So there is an additional question.
Mr. Moulder. Going back to the section of law which you referred
to about advocating the overthrow of our constitutional form of
Government by force and violence, I am curious to know how the
Department ascertains just what kind of propaganda would constitute
the advocacy of the overthrow of our Government by force or violence.
Mr. MiNDEL. That goes back to the original statement. Is that
what you have reference to?
Mr. Moulder. Yes.
Mr. MiNDEL. We would have to do as we attempt to do in applying
various mailability statutes, and that is to make a judgment in the
Bureau of the General Counsel of what the law would require as to a
particular writing, and that of course would have to be considered in
the light of decisions by the courts which have interpreted the statute.
Mr. Moulder. My point is : Don't you think any propaganda that
promotes the Communist philosophy and its cause or its form of
government is actually propaganda advocating the overthrow of our
form of government?
Mr. JVIindel. I certainly would agree that it is their ultimate ob-
jective to cause its overthrow.
Mr. Moulder. As a part of the international conspiracy ?
Mr. MiNDEL. Certainly. But considering the mailability of a par-
ticular writing, a particular piece of mail, the Supreme Court has said
in the Flartzel case, in which I think it spoke of this last, that you
must find there some direct appeal to do this overt act, whatever it is.
Mr. Moulder. The advocacy of immediate action or violence ?
Mr. MiNDEL. You must have something to equate with "get your
gun and let's go," something direct, not just a sort of laying the
groundwork for getting the recipient to accept further suggestions
that might be made by the Communists later on. That was a case
that involved a man in the United States who was convicted in the
lower courts of sending what the courts and jury regarded as a viola-
tion of the law. It came up to the Supreme Court on two questions ;
Was the intent of the sender shown that this should have the pro-
liibited effect ? And, was its nature such as to come Avithin the terms
of the law ? The Supreme Court held that it failed on both counts.
This is Hartzel v. United States, found in volume 322 of the United
States Reports, page 680, in 1944.
This was an action under what they referred to as the Espionage
Act, which is section 1717 of title 18. The Court said that there were
two elements requisite for a conviction under that law. One was the
so-called clear and present danger test, which had previously been
laid down in the case of /Schenck v. United States, and the second was
the need to show intent to violate the law. In reaching its decision —
this is a note I made for myself here — upon the latter element the
100 INVESTIGATION OF COIMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Court failed to fiiid that there was evidence tliat the defendant,
quoting from the decision —
intended specifically to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of
duty in the military forces or to obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service.
And then the court commented that "no direct or affirmative ap-
peals are made to that effect."
Mr. MoTJLDER. That would apply internally. How would that ap-
ply to the transmittal of mail that we referred to? What jurisdic-
tion would the Supreme Court have over that ?
Mr. MiNDEL. This constitutes an interpretation of the terms of the
Mr. MoTJLDER. Insofar as controlling the Department's action in
Mr. MiNDEL. Your question, as I recall, is how would we know what
constitutes matters in violation of the statute? Isn't that correct?
Mr. ]\IouLDER. Yes.
Mr. MiNDEL. We must refer to the decisions of the courts, if there
are any, under a statute which we are applying.
Mr. Moulder. Would the Supreme Court's decision apply to the
Department's action in connection with the transmittal wliich coimsel
has i-ef erred to ?
Mr. Mindel. Yes, sir. If it came down to a decision as to whether
it constitutes matter in violation of 1717, that is, advocating or urging
treason, insurrection or forcible resistance to any law of the United
States, we would have to refer to the decisions of the Supreme Court
or any other Federal court vrhich interpreted the law.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Mindel, under the present international agree-
ments right now in effect, if Peru says to the United States, "We don't
want this Communist propaganda coming in here," the verj^ propa-
ganda that Mr. Fishman talked about this morning and displayed to
this committee, which didn't call for treason, didn't call for the over-
throw of the Govei'nment, but was nevertheless Communist propa,-
ganda, if Peru did that tomorrow morning, the Secretary of State
would be empowered, if he were so disposed, to notify the Post Office
Department to seize it, would he not?
Mr. ^iixDEL. I thinJv he could infomn us of the protest, and I think
we could find a way to do it.
Mr. Arens. I would like to ask what is the total volume of Com-
munist propaganda going in transit through the United States in the
course of, say, the last year.
Mr. Mindel. ISIr. Arens, I don't have any figures on that. Those
figures are not kept in the Department, so far as I know. I think one
reason for that is this: The postal administrations which are mem-
bers of the Universal Postal Union pay one another for the handling
of transit mail according to established schedules of payment, but
those payments are based upon a count taken once every 3 years for a
period of 14 days, or, in cases where the mailings are not daily during
that period, I believe they take a count for a period of 28 days. The
last such count was taken in 1955, and that would govern payments
for mail in transit handled during the vear previous, 1954, and in
1955 and 1956. The next count would be\958.
As to transit mail coming from the Latin American countries which
are members of the Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, they
INVESTIGATION OF COIVIMUNIST PROPAG.\NDA IN U. S. 101
have a provision in the convention for that postal union which is re-
ferred to as gratuity of transit, meaning that there sliall be no charge,
as there is and has been for other administrations whicli are members
of the Universal Postal Union Convention. However, at its last con-
vention in Colombia the United States filed what is referred to as a
reservation to that provision, which means that we do not any longer
agree to carry transit mail free from the countries of Latin America
and Spain. That reservation was effective March 1, 1956.
Mr. Arexs. While you are talking about pay, is it a fact, that as
a practical matter the taxpaj^ers of the United States are paying part
of the cost of this Communist propaganda which is shipped through
the United States to South America ?
Mr. JMiNDEL. Tliey certainly are paying part of the cost.
Mr. Arexs. That is because the mails are not self-sustaining; isn't
Mr. MiNDEL. Yes, sir.
jNlr. Kearxey. I would like to ask the witness this : We have been
talking about countries other than our own. If they call the Secre-
tary of State and say they do not care any longer to receive these ship-
ments of political propaganda, by the same token, is there any reason
why our Secretary of State should not call up, for instance, London,
from which a great portion of this propaganda is mailed — Mexico, and
other countries — and say "We in the United States do not care to
receive this propaganda?"
Vr^iy should we have it understood that it must come from foreign
governments to us ? Why can't we do the complaining, too, concern-
ing all this political propaganda coming in here?
Mr. Mix^DEL. I think the only answer I can make to that is that there
is no reason wlw we can't complain about it.
Mr. Moulder. You are talking about the Universal Postal agree-
ment. Do we have the same access to Soviet Russia with publications
going from this country into the Soviet Union ?
Mr. Mix^del. As to that, I would have to make my answers depend
upon what I have read in the newspapers, which is the only informa-
tion I have on that. We know that fairly recently there was some
arrangement established to permit the United States to send in a
publication of its own to Russia in return for the distribution of a
publication here by the Russian Embassy.
Mr. Moulder. We are being literally showered with all sorts of
Communist propaganda in this country, not only in this country but
passing in transit through this country to other countries, by a so-
called universal convention or agreement that you have referred to,
when we have no freedom whatsoever to do the same thing in their
country. I do not understand it.
Mr. Willis. Is Russia a party to that convention ?
Mr. MixDEL. Yes, sir ; it is.
Mr. Arexs. Islr. Mindel, I think there are three simple proposi-
tions that I should like to clear on this record. No. 1, I take it that
you and the Post Office Department feel that it is unwliolesome —
it is bad, it is not in the interest of our Nation — that Communist
propaganda, be emanating from Mexico, going in transit into other
South American countries. You agree to that, I take it?
Mr. MiXDEL, I would certainly agree that we have no pleasure in
serving as an instrument for the distribution of any propaganda.
102 INVESTIGATION OF COIMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Mr. Arens, Proposition No. 2 is this : In view of the fact that you
abhor that, is there now a legal instrumentality pursuant to which,
if proper channels are opened up, that material can be diverted,
seized, or labeled ?
Mr. MiNDEL. Are you speaking of transit mail exclusively?
Mr. Arens. Yes, sir; this mail that Mr. Fishman was identifying
this morning. You have said that it is bad to do it. I am asking
you now : Is there an instrumentality pursuant to which we can
seize or destroy or stop it?
Mr. MiNDEL. Other than in tlie ways ^
Mr. Arens. In the ways that you mentioned, that are available.
Mr. MiNDEL. Just in those ways, that is all.
Mr. Arens. Please answer the third question : "VVliy is it we haven't
done it? That is the difficult question that I have in my mind today.
There is an instrumentality available to stop it. Wliy is it we
haven't done so ?
Mr. MiNDEL. The instrumentality that I recall our discussing was
a representation to this Government by the foreign government of
destination that the material is regarded as prohibited ? Is that what
you have in mind?
Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Why hasn't that vehicle, route, or instrument
been used ?
Mr. MiNDEL. That, I would think, would have to be initiated by
the foreign countiy of destination. In other words, we couldn't very
well tell them to establish something as a prohibited item.
Mr. Arens. We have diplomatic relations with Peru.
Mr. MiNDEL. I can't get into a discussion on that level of con-
Mr. Arens. I should like to invite your attention, if you please,
Mr. Mindel, to 1 or 2 other items. Are you conversant with the
statutes applicable to domestic Communist propaganda which goes
through the United States mails ?
Mr. Mindel. I am conversant with various mailability statutes
which I may refer to as follows :
One is the part of section 1461 of title 18 of the United States
Code which declares to be nonmailable matter of a character tending
to incite arson, murder, or assassination, and which provides for the
punishment of those who make such mailing.
Mr. Arens. That is subject to confiscation ; is it not ?
Mr. Mindel. Yes, sir; because the law specifically says that these
things are nonmailable and shall not be carried in the mails or deliv-
ered by any letter carrier.
Section 1717 of title 18 provides that every letter, writing, circular,
and other categories of material in violation of several other sections,
which I won't specify at this moment, of title 18, including section
2388, or which contains any matter advocating or urging treason, in-
surrection, or forcible resistance to any law of the United States, is
nonmailable and shall not be conveyed in the mails or delivered from
any post office or by any letter carrier.
So there you have 2 facets actually to that 1 statute. You have
the one part which makes directly nonmailable those types of material
which I referred to last, and then by reference makes nonmailable
things which are in violation of other sections of the law. I am speci-
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 103
fying at the moment Just the one, which is section 2388, for that is the
section which makes it a crime for anyone, while the United States is
at war to —
willfully make or convey false reports or false statements with intent to inter-
fere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United
States, or to promote the success of its enemies or who, when the United States
is at war, willfully causes or attempts to cause insubordination, disloyalty,
mutiny, or refusal of duty in the military or naval forces of the United States.
I have referred to the Language "when the United States is at war."
That has been extended by section 2391 of title 18 so that the provi-
sions of 2388 dealing with wartime acts are continued in effect until
6 months after the termination of the national emergency proclaimed
by the President on December 16, 1950. It provides that —
Acts which would give rise to legal consequences and penalties under section 2388
when performed during a state of war, shall give rise to the same legal conse-
quences and penalties when they are performed during the period above pro-
So that law is presently in effect.
Mr. Arens. Doesn't the Internal Security Act bear on the dissemi-
nation of Communist propaganda by domestic Communists?
Mr. MiNDEL. Yes, sir. The Internal Security Act of 1950, section
10, provides that it shall be unlawful for any organization which is
registered under the act or concerning which there is a final order
requiring it to register, to disseminate in the mail or by any other
means of interstate commerce any matter unless it is marked, that is,
on material itself and on the envelope or other wrapper in which it
is sent, in the following manner : "Disseminated by " which, of
course, would be the name of the organization, "a Communist organi-
Mr. Arens. That isn't in effect yet because the Communist Party
has not yet been found to be a Communist action organization under
the Internal Security Act ; isn't that correct ?
Mr. MiNDEL. Not finally found. There has been an order by the
Subversive Activities Control Board so finding, but, as you know, it
is in the courts. It went up to the Supreme Court and then was thrown
back to the Board because of certain perjured testimony that was
included in the record. So the order is not yet final under the law.
Mr. Kjiarney. Going back to the testimony just given by this wit-
ness, my mind goes back to the hearing in which the name of Edwin
Mr. Arens. A former chairman of the National Labor Kelations
Board, Edwin S. Smith.
Mr. Kearney appeared last year in the Washington area hear-
ing. There was an individual, who was an American citizen, who not
only disseminated propaganda but falsified pictures showing the
American troops using germ warfare in the Korean war. I think the
recommendation at that time was to send his file down to the Depart-
ment of Justice. That individual doesn't have to come under this
particular section that you are discussing. I think under the United
States Code he can come under the definition of treason.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Mindel, how many Communist publications in the
United States have second-class mailing privileges?
Mr. Mindel. We do not have an accurate figure on that, Mr. Arens.
We do know, of course, that the Daily Worker, the principal one, has
104 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
an entry, and I believe it is possible that there might be as many as
7 or 8. I am not sure of the figure, but perhaps no more than that.
Mr. Arens. Does the holder of a second-class mailing privilege get
a reduced rate?
Mr. MiNDEL. Yes ; indeed he does.
Mr. Arens. Has any consideration been given by the Post Office
Department to propose legislation which would preclude the second-
class mailing privilege to organizations found to be Communist, so
that the taxpayer would not be paying for the dissemination of their
Mr. MiNDEL. I do not know of any that we have proposed ; no, sir.
Mr. Willis. You mean a requirement by the Subversive Activities
Control Board under the Internal Security Act?
Mr. Arens. Yes, sir.
Mr. Willis. There is no provision in it ?
Mr. Arens. No, sir. There is no provision of law presently, is there,
Mr. Mindel, which precludes the second-class mailing privilege at a
reduced rate to Communist publications in the United States? Isn't
that correct ?
Mr. Mindel. The Communist Control Act of 1954 I believe has
language which might possibly be interpreted to mean that such a
privilege should be withdrawn. That is a matter still under discussion
Mr. Arens. But as of now no second-class mailing mailing privi-
lege has been denied to a Comnmnist publication, has it?
Mr. Mindel. Not on that sole basis ; no, sir.
Mr. Arens. Do you have any other items of information, Mr.
Mindel, which you should like to lay before the committee in connection
with this subject matter in the attempt of the committee to develop
facts upon which it can recommend legislation to cope with this
flood of Communist propaganda?
Mr. Mindel. I could only refer, Mr. Arens, to a proposed amend-
ment to the Foreign Agents Registration Act which I believe was
considered while Mr. Willis \^'as sitting as chairman last fall, pro-
posed by the Department of Justice. That would include a direct
and express statement that mail which is sent in violation of the
Foreign Agents Registration Act shall be treated as nonmailable by
the Postmaster General, and also shall be subject to confiscation by
the Bureau of Customs if it is not in the mails.
Mr. Arens. Would that in effect be incorporating into law the
opinion of tlie Attorney General of December 10, 1940?
Mr. ^IiNDEL. It would be doing that; yes, sir. In his opinion he
held that these matters were to be treated as nonmailable, and we
have been following that ever since.
Mr. Arens. During your experience in the Post Office Department,
have you ever seen a single piece of Communist propaganda sent into
the United States labeled in accordance with the provisions of the
Foreign Agents Registration Act?
Mr. MiNDEL. I recall none.
Mr. Arens. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will conclude the staff
interrogation of Mr. Mindel, v^dth our thanks.
Mr. Kearney. The question I have regards counsel's statement to
the witness that if this mail is not labeled according to the terms of
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 105
the Foreign Agents Registration Act, doesn't the Post Office Depart-
ment then have the right to seize that mail ?
Mr. MixDEL. The foreign political propaganda which comes in
from abroad is subject to seizure if it is not so labeled and if it is also
of the political propaganda character as the term is interpreted in the
law and it appears that it has been sent by an agent of a foreign prin-
cipal wliich can be assujued to be the fact, certainly, when it comes
from the Iron Curtain countries.
Mr. Kearxey. According to that in past years thousands and thou-
sands of pieces of mail have come into this country without a notice
that this comes from blank, as prescribed in the act.
Mr. MiNDEL. We have seized millions of pieces. "We have done
that. It has been going on for a period of ;^ears now. We are
regularly seizing this propaganda which is coming in without com-
Mr. Kearxey. Yet there are millions more coming in ?
Mr. IMixDEL. Yes. They evidently have no end of funds to use
in preparing, publishing, and distributing this material. And the
flow continues despite the large numbers continually being seized.
Mr. Moulder. There is just one question I wish to ask you. In
your work in the Department, are you handicapped by lack of per-
]\Ir. IMixDEL. I hesitate to answer because my work doesn't bring
me into budgetary questions and questions of manpower. I tliink
certainly, however, in any such situation if there were more people
to handle it, it could be handled more expeditiously.
Mr. Willis. Thank you very much, Mr. Mindel.
We will take a 5-minutes recess.
J\Ir. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order.
Call your next witness.
(Committee members present : Representatives Moulder, Willis, and
Mr. Arexs. Sergeant Badeaux, kindly stand while the chairman
administers an oath to you.
Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are
about to give will be truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the
truth, so help you God ?
Sergeant Bx\deaux. I do.
TESTIMONY OF SERGEANT HUBEET J. BADEATJX, AGENT IN
CHAEGE, DIVISION OE INTELLIGENCE AFEAIES, NEW OELEANS
Mr. Arexs. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu-
Sergeant Badeaux. Hubert Badeaux. I reside at 220 Claiborne
Court, New Orleans 21, La. I am a sergeant in the New Orleans
Mr. Arexs. How long have you been so engaged ?
Sergeant Badeaux. July of 1947.
Mr. Arexs. How long have you been with the police department in
any capacity ?
106 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S.
Sergeant Badeaux. Since July of 1947.
Mr. Arens. "^Vliat are your duties and responsibilities at the present
Sergeant Badeaux. I am the agent in charge of the division of in-
telligence ajffairs at this time.
Mr. Arens. Wliat is the jurisdiction of that particular unit ?
Sergeant Badeaux. Our primary scope of duties would be to collect
information on Communists and subversive activities in this area,
to be referred, of course, to the proper Federal agencies.
Mr. Arens. Sergeant Badeaux, over the course of the last 10 years,
have you devoted yourself intensely to the study of the problem of
communism, particularly as it affects this area?
Sergeant Badeaux, Yes, sir.
Mr. Arens. Sergeant, about 10 years ago the Communist Party dis-
associated from itself the soft, namby-pamby membership, did it not ?
Sergeant Badeaux. That is correct, sir.
Mr. Arens. So it has now only the hard core within its framework,
is that correct ?
Sergeant Badeaux. That would be correct, sir.
Mr. Arens. This hard core might be characterized as the agents
of Moscow on American soil, isn't that correct ?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes. They would be trained agents of Soviet
Mr. Arens. To what extent does a particular Communist, on the
basis of your background and experience, influence other people, have
other people under his discipline ?
Sergeant Badeaux. He would have a tremendous influence, Mr.
Arens, not only on people who are willing to accept the discipline
of the party but others who have no intention of being connected with
the party, but the party member exerts severe discipline particularly
upon those who will accept Communist discipline.
Mr. Arens. Wliere do these Communist Party operatives, these
agents of Moscow, operate ? Wliat type of operation ?
Sergeant Badeaux. You would find them in every area of activity.
Particularly of course the party wants to infiltrate and dominate basic
Mr. Arens. Do these agents of Moscow, the hard core, disciplined
Communists, go to the nerve centers ?
Sergeant Badeaux. In communications, are you referring to ?
Mr. Arens. Yes.
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes, sir; that would be a basic industry as far
as they are concerned.
Mr. Arens. Is the Communist Party — I say this almost with
tongue in cheek, knowing that I am speaking to a man with jouv back-
ground and experience — is it a political party ?
Sergeant Badeaux. No, sir ; definitely not.
Mr. Arens. Is it a conspiracy ?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes, sir.
Mr. Arens. There is a fallacy, is there not, in undertaking to ap-
]3raise the strength of the Communist Party on the basis of just mem-
bership or numbers ?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes. It would be foolhardy to try to assess
their strength simply by numerical strength. Their true strength is
far out of proportion to their numbers, Mr. Arens.
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 107
Mr. Moulder. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman.
Your response to questions propounded to you by counsel are based
upon experience you have had in this area ^
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes, sir ; I think I can demonstrate that to you
in a few moments.
Mr. Arens. On the basis of the last 10 years' experience and ob-
Mr. Willis. Before you proceed, on the question of numbers, I think
our records indicate — correct me if 1 am wrong — that in Eussia proper,
in the Soviet Union, something less than 4 percent of the population
are card-carrying Communists. Is that right ?
Mr. Arens. Between 314 and 4 percent, sir.
Sergeant, on the basis of your background and experience and sur-
veillance in this area, how many persons have you, on the basis of
either informants or intelligence information, been able to identify
in the last 10 years as Moscow agents operating in the New Orleans
Sergeant Badeaux. I would not like to give a figure without my
records here, but if you would ask for the minimum number I could
give you, about 90, about 90 individuals in this immediate area.
Mr. Arens. These 90 individuals whom you have been able to iden-
tify from your intelligence sources of information are not the namby-
pamby intellectual dupes, are they ?
Sergeant Badeaux. No, sir. These are the hard-core members of
Mr. Arens. The party has long ago divested itself of what w^e
would call the intellectual dupes, isn't that correct?
Sergeant Badeaux. That is correct. These people are dedicated
to violent overthrow of the Government.
Mr. Arens. These people are responsive to a single will, are they
Sergeant Badeaux. Correct, sir.
Mr. Arens. Sergeant, on the basis of your background and exper-
ience in this field, can you tell this committee the degree to which
just 2 or 3 Communists within an organization can control that organi-
Sergeant Badeaux. If they will go by the directives of the party,
that is, adhere faithfully to the party line and exert their influence
in accordance with specific directives given to them virtually day by
day, it is a simple matter of the Trojan-horse technique.
Mr. Arens. Does the Communist Party — we call it a party even
though w^e know it is a conspiracy— does the Communist Party oper-
ate openly these days ?
Sergeant Badeaux. If they do, they do not do it in this area, Mr.
Mr. Arens. Do they operate underground ?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes, sir.
Mr. Arens. Sergeant, in the course of the last several months have
you had occasion to conduct a seizure of certain Communist Party
literature and directives in the New Orleans area?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes, sir. We have made several seizures, one
which received prominent attention, Mr. Arens.
Mr. Arens. I do not want you to violate any confidences within
your Department which you feel would not be in your interest or in
108 INVESTIGATION OF COACVIUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
the interest of j-our Department to disclose publiclj^ Could you
allude, in any terms which you see fit, to some of the seizures which
you have made?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes, sir. These particular documents which
you see displayed here are all from one source. That is, they came
to us from one particular source. Their ultimate end, of course, is
various parts of the globe. If you wish, I will introduce some of these
to the committee.
Mr. Arens. If the chairman please, I should like the sergeant to
allude to the highlights of the documents that he has procured in this
seizure, that they may be appropriately marked and we will cause
them to be reproduced or incorporated by reference in this record.
Mr. Willis. It is so ordered.
Mr. Arens. Will you kindly proceed at your own pace, Sergeant,
to tell us about these documents and their significance.
Sergeant Badeaux. We were particularly fortunate in receiving
this first document. At the time that we obtained it, it was you might
say, of recent vintage. It is the proposals on the entire southern
Communist Party organization for 1955 and 1956.
Mr. Arens. Was that seized on the premises of a person you know
to be a Communist agent 'I
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes. We have known this man to be, as a
matter of fact, the top man in the State since 1950.
Mr. Moulder. Can 3'ou disclose the name of this Communist agent?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes. Hunter Pitts O'Dell.
Mr. Arens. O'-D-e-l-l-?
Sergeant Badeaux. That is correct.
Mr. Arens. Tell us the contents of the document.
Sergeant Badeaux. This particular document is the complete de-
tails of every phase of party organization, their proposals for the
party in the South, not only in the New Orleans area, but the entire
Southland. You are particularly interested in the propaganda phase
of it. In the paragraph entitled "jMass Education," the plan here is
to distribute 25,000 copies of the national program in 1955, just in the
South ; also to distribute 2,000 to 3,000 copies of the Southern supple-
ment 3 times a vear. the first issue at the end of May, the second in the
Mr. Arens. Do you know by whom that directive was issued ?
Sergeant Badeaux. I can only assume it came from the center, the
national headquarters of the party, the central committee. However,
this may have been made on a typewriter. It is not printed. He may
have taken what he w^anted for himself, the district organizer or
leader, or it could have come from the party just as it is here, which
would be very miusual since anyone familiar with security measures
in the party knows these people are supposed to memorize this and
destroy it and leave no vestige of it.
Mr. Arens. But you caught it before they were able to destroy it ?
Sergeant Badeaux. Correct, sir.
Mr. Arens. Proceed to describe the documents, please.
Sergeant Badeaux. The next item under "Mass education" is a plan
to place the party's political analysis and program for 1956 elections
before the people of the South. We got a copy of that intact also in
Distribute 50,000 copies of brochure on desegregation in the fall.
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 109
Of course, that is primarily aimed at agitation and not to help any
Plan the distribution of the Southern program after bringing it up to date.
We also seized approximately 400 copies of that Southern program.
Plan the issuance and distribution of State and club material in accordance
with needs and possibilities, coordinating with above-mentioned Southwide
That would be the bulletins, shop papers, and leaflets, which are
specifically marked here.
Use the Southern return address on mailings as soon as available. Examine
and analyze the content of materials we use.
Of course that is for the critical discussion in the closed sessions.
Then another paragraph. I am skipping a lot of this, because it
doesn't pertain, I believe, too much to propaganda.
Mr. Arens. I would suggest, if you feel it is of significance, even
though it may not be germane to propaganda as such, you might allude
Sergeant Badeaux. I think you will have sufficient examples in the
Under the paragraph entitled "Literature," the plan was to organize
the regular receipts of literature by using all of the following methods :
A. Secure the mailing addresses for P. A. —
that is, Political Affairs, one of their leading theoretical organs, and
B. Plan the trips for bulky materials, the Foster books, such as Histoi-y of the
Third International, Twilight of Capitalism, and so forth, the Stalin sets, large
quantities of pamphlets for mass use, programs and brochures, once or twice a
C. Plan to use every trip in to the center or from the center for carrying
literature into the South.
Obviously they don't use the mail for this bulky literature. They
don't want these people to make needless trips to and from the center
without making full use of the necessity for transportation, carrying
as much literature back and forth as possible.
Mr. Arens. Does the document indicate that the center to which
they allude is outside of this area?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes.
Mr. Arens. And the recipient or the person to whom that directive
was issued was to go to some center away from New Orleans to ])rocure
this information, literature, and propaganda?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes. If the party member went on an assign-
ment or perhaps he might be transferred with the approval of his
district officer, he would still be utilized in carrying this material,
whether to the center or from the center.
The next :
Select literature for special sale and concentration.
In the next period sell Foster's History of the Third International and Doxey
Wilkerson's People Versus Segregated Schools.
The last part is an outline and plan for the industrial concentration
club wliich they want to organize.
So they are instructing the party members to join the mass organiza-
tions. They are talking about the mass organizations. This is not
110 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
a specific organization. These workers are to infiltrate them whenever
possible. They give examples — the churcheSj the Democratic Party,
the NAACP, et cetera. Then once they are in, they put out the party
literature, especially planned for these workers, whichever they may
be, a political organization, a church, or whatever it is.
Using the information acquired through personal contact as well as
general material like the southern program, the national program, the
leaflet desegregation or whatever the sphere of interest of these par-
ticular people in the mass gi'oup might be. Then they would have a
particular type of propaganda aimed at making these people favor-
ably inclined toward the party and thereby widening their influence.
Mr. Arens. Sergeant, in the course of your allusion to that docu-
ment, you referred to a program of the Communist Party for the South
or a southern program ?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes.
Mr. Arens. What is the essence of the Conununist Party program
for the South?
Sergeant Badeaux. To get the essence of it, of course they have no
particular program for the South. It is strictly an international
objective that they have, namely, world domination, but what they will
do, Mr. Arens, is to make something palatable to an individual group
or section of the country, whether it be the South, the Northwest, or
whatever it might be. They have general principles. These you will
find running internationally.
For instance, England has a system of government somewhat simi-
lar to ours, and I think I will be able to demonstrate that to you. The
Communists want univei*sal military training abolished; they want
the two-house system of legislative government abolished ; they want
the size of the national militia, the National Guard units, cut down.
In this program for the South, in very high-flown language about
struggling and improving people and whatnot, they will insert these
Secure the right to vote for every i)erson, Negro and white, IS-year-olds and
The significance is not too apparent from that.
Further on, and under the heading of "Expand the public health,
educational, cultural, and recreational facilities," they also insert in
Restore and uphold academic freedom. Abolish the practice of loyalty testing
and thought control. Cut the size of and introduce democratic reforms into the
State Militia, the National Guard, and the police force.
Mr. Arens. That is what we call the Aesopian language of the
Sergeant Badeaux. That is correct. So it would come out in the
name of reform and following Lenin's directives to use reforms not for
the sake of reforms, but merely to screen illegal activity. That is
plainly in this document as well as others from foreign countries.
Mr. Moulder. May I ask you to be more specific about the National
Guard? That seems to be very controversial at this time. To cut
down the strength or to place the National Guard under Federal
Sergeant Badeaux. No ; they simply want to cut the strength of the
National Guard as an economy measure. That is the reason they offer
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. HI
that they want it cut, because we are living in peace and we should
adhere to the theory of peaceful coexistence, which of course the
Communist is incapable of doing.
Mr. Moulder. For example, the period of training for National
Guard — what is their attitude about that? Have you any knowledge
about that ?
Sergeant Badeaux. They are not concerned with the period of
training. There are other phases of party work to subvert people
once they are in the Armed Forces. They are talking about the over-
all picture of cutting the strength of the armed forces in the Western
Mr. Moulder. If you extended the period required for training in
the National Guard, it would have the result of diminishing the
number of men who would have the opportunity to serve in our
respective National Guards in each State.
Sergeant Badeaux. I have no cause to disagree with you on that,
Mr. Moulder, except that they allude not at all to that. They are
concerned only about the overall strength, the numerical strength of
the guard unit.
Mr. Moulder. I won't make any further comments about that.
Mr. Kearney. I am inclined to Congressman Moulder's idea. In
other words, their idea is to do everything possible to reduce the
strength of any arms for the security of our own country.
Sergeant Badeaux Yes. Then it is primarily an agitation point,
to get enough people concerned about it to show them the uselessness
of having all this military strength. Once they are talking about it,
then, of course, the party can wield its influence in that respect.
You will notice at the end of this southern program you will see
the slogan : "If it is about communism, ask a Communist." I hope you
don't follow that too literally in your questions toward me because
I assure you I am not a Communist.
Mr. Arens. Sergeant, have you had occasion to seize Communist
propaganda which originated abroad ?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes, sir. You understand, JNIr. Arens, I haven't
put this exactly in any special form that would be acceptable to the
committee. I have first taken all of the important directives
Mr. Arens. You have more directives ?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes; we have several directives which enlarge
upon the original one.
Mr, Arens. Please go ahead and summarize those. These are direc-
tives to the hard-core Communists in this area ?
Sergeant Badeaux. Only.
Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please.
Sergeant Badeaux, This is Additional Notes on Party Organiza-
tion, Immediate Tasks — 1955. That was significant to us and it
should be significant to everyone because it details the thoroughness
with which the Communists organize distribution and dissemination
of propaganda. There is nothing haphazard in their methods. In
this document party members are instructed what literature to dis-
seminate and what specific group to disseminate it to, so there is no
chance of a mistake.
I would like to read to you at this time under the paragraph "Mass
Education and Literature Sales," if I may.
112 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Mr. Arens. Go right ahead.
Sergeant Badeaux. The first publication they are interested in dis-
seminating is William Z. Foster's History of the Third International.
They give the price and tell the members to sell that only to members
and friends of members.
Then, Doxey Wilkerson's People Versus Segregated Schools, which
is a pamphlet. Sell to every member and all contacts. JNIail some to
the Negro and white community leaders and the trade-union leaders.
The farm pamphlet: Sell to the farm and trade-union members
and friends and mail to farm list and to selected trade-union people.
Of course the district organizers have those lists.
The farm folder on Soutliern farm issues: Their instructions are
that that can be mailed together with the pamphlet described above
and to additional lists of sharecroppers, tenant farmers and farm
The Case of Claude Lightfoot, another pamphlet. Sell to every
member and to all contacts. Mail some to Negro and white leaders.
We have in our files, Mr. Arens, not pertaining to these documents,
a breakdown of what these selected contacts are, taken from a member
of the party here.
The Junius Scales Case, which is a brochure. Some of that was
received in the mail by various individuals in the city of New Orleans
and turned over to our division. They can be used together, the
members are instructed, with the pamphlet on Lightfoot, and far
beyond that, mass distribution. That goes into the mass organiza-
tions, labor unions and what-not.
The desegregation leaflet issued by the National Organization Com-
mission, in the fall of 1955. That is also scheduled for mass distribu-
tion and mailing. The trade-union merger leaflets issued by the same
National Organization Commission is also for mass distribution and
mailing. And they are told the leaflets above will cost about $5 for
1,000. The national center is also putting out six other leaflets for the
1956 campaign. All literature, brochures, and leaflets will be avail-
able at the new center for the South. The textile pamphlet, mass dis-
tribution and. mailing to textile workers and trade unions.
Attached to that is the concrete goal for 1955, so I can only assume —
I can't prove it — that he referred to the 1955 notes since it was at-
tached. He refers to mass education and agitation and particularly
to guard the security of the party.
He also has for the club organizers class a list of material that these
people who are being instructed in the organizers class are to read :
The General Crisis of Capital; the Convention Resolutions of the
Opening Session; Foster's Twilight of World Capitalism; chapter 1,
Malenkov's report to the 19th Congress of the CPSU; United States
Imperialism; Stalin on Foundations of Leninism; Foster's History
of the CPUSA ; selected material on American imperialism.
The role of the working class : When they come to that subject in
the organizers class, the reading material is as follows: Communist
Manifesto, chapter 1; The 15th Convention Resolutions, section 3;
on united front for peace and democracy, Dimitrov's United Front;
and other selected material.
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U, S. 113
The National Question and the struggle against white chauvinism,
which plagues the party at times. The reading material is again the
15th Convention Resolutions, section 4; and Jim Jaclvson's Report in
Political Affairs, February 1951. Then the party, Stalin's Founda-
tions of Leninism, the History of the CPUSA (Bolshevik), and so
This is all quite detailed. Tliey don't leave the people too much
room for flexibility when it comes to distributing the propaganda and
having it fall into the right hands.
Mr. Kearney. Not to appear to be to naive, I would like your opin-
ion as to what effect all this has now with reference to the convention
of last week in New York City of the Communist Party where they
disavowed all connection with Moscow, whether that is a front.
Sergeant Badeaux, Yes, of course. They can't possibly disavow
connection with Moscow. In the very material which is mentioned
there, the Foundations of Leninism, among others, Lenin himself is
constantly exhorting the party members, the Bolsheviks, not to fall
into petty bourgeois concepts of nationalism and so forth. Tliey can't
do that. There is only one party, the Communist Party. However,
Lenin himself instructs them to use whatever device is necessary to
deceive the bourgeoisie and capitalism. You may do anything you
like but you can't deviate from the ultimate objective of the world
Communist conspiracy, which is to overthrow the capitalistic system
and set up a Socialist government and the dictatorship of the pro-
Mr. Arens. Is it your judgment, as one who has spent 10 years of
your life in this field, that this new look of the Communist Party in
the United States is only a facade ?
Sergeant Badeaux. Correct. It has been done before.
Mr. Arens. It is done, is it not, for the purpose of undertaking to
upset the convictions in the Smith Act cases or future convictions?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes, sir.
Mr. Arens. And to upset the findings of the Subversive Activities
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes. It is to make people more amenable to
be recruited into the Communist Party. Many an American will have
nothing to do with the Communist Party if he is convinced that it leads
to overthrow of the United States Government, but with such a pro-
gram as that, peaceful coexistence, "you go your ways and we go ours,"
and "live side by side in peace and harmony," a lot of people are lulled
into the belief, "Well, the Communists are all right. It is just their
views, and we as Americans should respect their views."
Many a liberal would insist that you respect these people for their
views. Of course they won't bother to get the education in what is
actually behind the expression of views, wliicli is only deceit, a screen,
as Lenin says, to hide your illegal activity.
Mr. Arens. Now would you kindly proceed with further discussion
of the documents.
Sergeant Badeaux. We were particularly glad to get this one also.
This was sent to all districts, addressed "Dear Comrade," signed by
Martha Stone, who was convicted under the Smith Act. It deals with
the urgency of improving the circulation drive of the Daily Worker
114 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
and publications of the Marxist press in order to promote party
The fourth one, Proposals on Farm Work for the Party Organiza-
tion in the South, deals with specific pamphlets and publications to
be given in organizing the farmers and to get them close to the party
line. For instance, in this paragraph No. 3 :
We must orient on the development of a mass approach to farmwork and a
tactical line as set forth in the national party program. We must seek for the
necessity, the forms, and tactical approaches around specific issues such as
those outlined in the program for the southern farmers. The district leadership
must give lead to our forces in the rural areas and how they are to function, hovp
to develop and unfold issue movements, which organizations to concentrate
and so forth.
The main emphasis at this time to be placed on working with and
in existing rural organizations. They are not going to organize any-
thing. They are going to infiltrate the farm and nonfarm, the
churches, the 4— H clubs, the farm union groups, the cooperatives, the
voter organizations, the fraternal and beneficent societies, the trade
unions. Anything that is already organized in the farming region
tliey will infiltrate — they are instructed to do so — and bring the
propaganda with them.
The program for the southern farmers was alluded to. We also
received a copy of that. Of course they emphasize trade with the
Soviet and Eed China.
Again, do away with universal military training and promote their
program for peaceful coexistence.
You see that theme harked upon in all of the documents, no matter
where they come from throughout the world.
The next one : A directive from the National Organization Com-
mission. It is actually an abridged version of a report of one of the
members of the commission on the state of the ISIarxist press, the
importance of the Marxist press to every member of the party, and
the use of the press in widening the influence of tlie party. He talks
about reorientation and what it does consist of. It is to make circula-
tion of the Marxist press a basic primary function of the party's
political work, integrated with all its activities and part of its way of
life at all times.
Here is how they want the press to be used :
The systematic use of the paper both in mass struggles and campaigns with
the aim of projecting the position of the left and strengthening its influence.
Also systematic use in all mass movements, trade unions, shops, mass organiza-
tions, with the same aim in view. At all times the question of expanding
clrciilation has to be in the minds of State, county, or local leadership —
they are talking about Communist leadership —
as an integral part of their political thinking and planning.
This came out as a reaction to the attempts of the party to organize
a special press cadre, as they call it, people who would do nothing but
promote the circulation. They didn't seem to get as much of a degree
of success as they desired, so now they are making it a basic and
primary function of every member of the party, to be headed by the
district leadership but to be participated in daily by every member
of the party in all phases of activities, whoever he might be, a trade
union, a mass group — it makes no difference.
INVESTIGATION OF COIVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 115
The Communists have no concern at all for the capitalistic system.
Yet I could not help but think that they have taken a page from the
book of the capitalists in order to promote themselves, which they
don't mind doing.
This next document is nothing more than the details of a special
technique for improving the circulation of the Marxist press. It is
somewhat similar to the sales manager's pep talk to his salesmen down
to even offering premiums for the best man in the sales force, which
is certainly not to their way of thinking. The Big Five movement,
it is called. It is termed a movement initiated by tlie rank and file of
a particular section taken up, popularized by the leadership through-
out the region. To qualify for the Big Five, a member of the party
must have a perfect attendance record at club meetings for 5 months,
have a perfect dues-payment record for 5 consecutive months, secure
5 subscriptions to one or another of our publications or other approved
progressive publications, and sold — apparently there is a typograph-
ical error — and sell 5 basic Marxist books or pamphlets to 5 different
people. They are being instructed to exert their influence and become
a Big Fiver. Then you contribute or raise $5 for the sustaining fund.
Then write 5 letters to Eugene Dennis or other political prisonei^.
It goes on just as any other capitalistic sales meeting would be.
The next, Mr. Arens, is an extremely valuable document. This is
the actual proceedings in its entirety of a closed meeting of a Com-
munist division. It richly illustrates the party discipline, the amen-
ability of these people to criticize themselves. They grovel in self-
criticism. The names of the people attending the meeting are stated
in this document, which I would prefer not to state in public. You
have a section dealing with the press.
Mr. Moulder. How many are named in the document ?
Sergeant Badeaux. They have 8 or 9 actual names given. This is
a division. It is obviously a district meeting, Mr. Moulder. It goes
a little further than what a cell would undertake to do. We have
been able to identify the location of this meeting in the Birmingham,
Ala., area. The person we seized this from actually extended his
sphere of influence and his demand for party discipline as far as
Birmingham from New Orleans. He speaks about the agitation in
putting the Alabama police force in a bad light. "We have kept
alive the stories about police brutality on television, radio, and in
As a matter of fact, he feels a little put out because the district
organizer didn't give them too much credit for it. He was criticized
for it by some of the members present, and he states that, "like a good
Marxist, I accepted my criticism and confessed by mistakes."
He didn't have the true Marxist position on this, and he had ad-
mitted he was wu'ong and he was going to make every effort to better
himself as a Marxist.
There is one section that you would be interested in, and that is on
the press. They set a goal. "For the next 6 months we set ourselves
the goal to increase the workers' subscriptions from its present state."
Whoever wrote this was either deficient in grammar or spelling or
both, and his ability with the typewriter left much to be desired. But
still it is rather simple to make it out. It is hard to read, though.
The plans to be made particularly by white workers to sell 15 March of Labor —
116 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
which is a Communist publication in the labor movement —
with the Negro workers playing a part among labor. We work to carry out our
previous plan of getting 150 Freedom subscriptions.
We have some copies of Freedom.
To issue at least 3 hot blasts in the 6-moulh period and at least 3 statewide
leaflets and 5,000 of our national program.
These directives, Mr. Arens, are of significance to people in our
Intelligence Division and indicate to us that there was active in the
city an individual who was specifically assigned to receive and dis-
tribute and disseminate this propaganda, and not on a haphazard or
intermittent basis, but as part of an overall plan which was well pre-
pared in advance and meant to be put into effect on a widespread and
Since it is stated and reiterated and emphasized that this plan of
dissemination of propaganda is the active duty of every Marxist and
a basic and primary function of his work in the party, it is not too
difficult to understand how threatening the presence of this plan is to
the community ; and of course the danger spreads out of the community
and ultimately threatens the security of the Nation since propaganda
is but one duty of the Communist to improve the influence and power
of the party, a party whose objective, as described by J. Peters in his
Manual of Organization, is to fight for the revolutionary overthrow
of capitalism, for the establishment of the dictatorship of the pro-
letariat, for the establishment of a Socialist Soviet Republic in the
That will end the directives that I selected which pertain to propa-
ganda and literature.
Mr. Arexs. "Will you kindly allude to the typical exhibits you have
brought with you ? As I understand it, these are only typical of a
vast quantity of Communist propaganda which you have caused to be
seized in this area in the course of the last several months. Is that
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes.
Mr. Arens. You have much more than tliis?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes; we have hundreds of documents, Mr.
Arens. As a matter of fact, we have not had time to analyze and
extract all of them as yet.
Mr. Arexs. This is just typical material you have brought today?
Sergeant Badeaux. Yes.
Mr. Aeens. Would you allude to each of the several categories
Sergeant Bade^vux. I have put them in some semblance of order
in order to show j^ou the main themes of international propaganda
and how it is promulgated in our own immediate area and in the
This is a copy of the Cominform, the Communist Information Bu-
reau, printed in Bucharest, Rumania, which carries the directive of
the party and the usual diatribes against the United States, their im-
perialism, the struggle of the Canadian workers against United States
monopolies, and so forth.
At the time we received this it was fairly recent, January 1956. I
have no idea how it got into the country.
This is the policy for Britain. Again you will see this is the gen-
eral election program of the Communist Party in Great Britain. It
INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 117
is a propaganda leaflet aimed, first of all, at creating public pressure
in England for splitting the Anglo-American unity and in turn in-
creasing the friendship of the English with the Soviet and Red China ;
destruction of NATO and SEATO; recognition of Red China and
her admisssion to the United Nations and trade with Red China ; then
the abolition of the bicameral system of representative government
and that they want to do away with the House of Lords.
Mr. Arens. Incidentally, does there appear on any of that Commu-
nist propaganda you have, which has come from abroad, any stamp
pursuant to the provisions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act
that it is Communist propaganda ?
Sergeant Badeaux. No, sir. We searched diligently for such a
stamp, but on none of them does it appear.
In England the Communist Party is also interested in the vote at
18. They are also interested in cutting the strength of the armed
forces. They plan the breakup of big business through nationaliza-
tion and increased taxation on business, and to extend nationalization
of British industry.
This document was published by the Foreign Languages Press in
Mr. Arens. Identify the document, please.
Sergeant Badeaux. This is Stalin and the Chinese Revolution, writ-
ten by Cheen Po-ta, a member of the Central Committee of the Com-
munist Party of the Chinese Republic. In talking of Stalin and the
Chinese revolution, it seems that they are trying to replace the birth-
day of Christ with the birthday of Stalin. Mao Tse-tung is quoted on
the first page as saying :
Stalin is the leader of world revolution. This is of paramount importance.
It is a great event that mankind is blessed with Stalin.
Mr. Akens. Was that written before or after the desanctification ?
Sergeant Badeaux. It was before the desanctification. I often
wonder how people get out of that when they write things so dog-
Since we have him, things can go well. As you all know, Marx is dead and
so are Engels and Lenin. Had there been no Stalin, who would be there to give
direction, but having him this is really a blessing. Now there exists in the world
a Soviet Union, a Communist Party, and also a Stalin. Thus the affairs of the
world can go well.
A simple philosophy as far as this man is concerned. Everything
is provided for.
People's China. I have marked some pages here which I would
like to call to your attention. It is featured by American atrocities
in Korea. This is also published in Peking, China, by the Foreign
Languages Press. They luive photographs and the full text of what
is supposed to be a captured United States document. The photo-
graph purports to show American crimes in Korea, with the legend :
These photographs, captured at the home of au American adviser in Korea,
show the real nature of the American puppet regime of Syngnian Rhee. Puppet
troops and gendarmes, armed, clothed, and directed by America, carry out
mass murder of Korean and patriots south of the 38th parallel.
Mr. Arens. Sergeant, I just wonder in view of the relative lateness
of the afternoon, if you could merely summarize in essence the types
of propaganda you have there.
118 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S.
Sergeant Badeaux. Some of the propaganda here is textbooks for
people studying in the Communist movement. The actual propa-
ganda documents have a central theme, that is, propaganda of this
particular period, which would be agitation among the minorities,
particularly the Negi'o; the splitting of capital and labor, making
their aims further apart ; the recognition of Red China ; revoking the
present United States embargo upon trade with Red China; agitation
against universal military service, a decline in every country of the
strength of armed forces.
There are several other journals which purport to show the cultural
side, cultural scenes in Soviet life.
There is one particular document which was prepared to show
that the United States is planning an atomic war upon humanity.
That is International Law and Preparation for Atomic War, under
the auspices of the Bureau of the International Association of Demo-
cratic Lawyers, which although first disseminated in April of 1955,
is virtually the same words as spoken by the Foreign Minister of
Soviet Russia just the other day, Mr. Shepilov. He just repeats
This particular one should be of interest to your committee, Mr.
Arens, because people in this country tend to be agitated by any
attempt at what they term "censorship" or any attempt to restrict
intellectual freedom. This is a series of decisions of the Central
Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks)
on literature and art. Apparently this committee reviewed several
newspapers, a play, and a movie. This is typical of what they
The papers were decided to be liquidated. The movie was ordered
not to be shown. One poet's style of poetry didn't agree with this
committee and he was forbidden to publish any more poetry what-
Mr. Arens. Sergeant, I believe you have given us a good sampling
of the material which you have seized to indicate to the committee
the nature and style of the Communist line which was disseminated
in this material. We thank you very much for your appearance
here today, and that will conclude the stall interrogation of this
Mr, MoTjLDEE. Mr. Chairman, the witness mentioned a number of
names. Are they to be divulged in public hearings or is that to be in
executive session ?
Mr. Arens. He will give those to the staff in executive session.
They are not people, Mr. Moulder, who have been identified by live
witnesses. His source of information is principally confidential in-
formants and intelligence sources. Therefore, he cannot reveal those
Mr. Willis. Before recessing until tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock,
the Chair wishes to state that all witnesses not heard today but sum-
moned to appear today will be continued under subpena until tomor-
row at 10 o'clock, to return to this same hearing room.
We will adjourn until tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock.
(Wliereupon, at 4 p. m., Thursday, February 14, 1957, the hearing
was recessed to reconvene at 10 a. m. the following day, Fridav, Febru-
ary 15, 1957.)
Badeaux, Hubert J 105-118 (testimouy)
Cheen Po-ta 117
Dennis, Eugene 115
En-lai, Chou 87
Fishman, Irving 68, 69, 70-88 (testimony^, 89, 90, 93, 96, 97, 100, 102
Foster, William Z 109, 112
Jackson, James E 113
Le Blanc, Milton L 67-69 (testimony), 77, 88
Lightfoot, Claude 112
Mindel, Saul J 92-105 (testimony)
O'Dell, Hunter Pitts 108
Peters, J 116
Rhee, Syngman 117
Rosano, Margaret M 88-91 (testimony)
Scales, Junius 112
Smith, Edwin S 96, 103
Stone, Martha 113
Tse-tung, Mao 87, 117
Wilde, Henry 68
Wilkerson, Doxey 109, 112
Communist Party, China :
Central Committee 117
Communist Party, Soviet Union :
Central Committee IIS
Communist Party, United States :
National Organization Commission 112,111
Czechoslovakian Legation (Mexico) 90
Foreign Language Press (Peking, China) 117
Four Continent Book Corp 96
H'sinhua News Agency (Kowloon, Hong Kong) 87
Imported Publications and Products 96
International Association of Democratic Lawyers 118
Russian Legation (Mexico) 89,90
United States Government:
Justice Department 71, 72, 88
National Labor Relations Board 103
Post Office Department 68, 69, 73, 74, 92, 93, 95
Treasury Department, Bureau of Customs 67, 70, 71, 93, 95
Universal Postal Union, Convention, Brussels, 1952 80
Additional Notes on Party Organization, Immediate Tasks 1955 111
Bulgaria Today 81, 83
Bulletin of Information of the Embassy of the URSS 79,90
Case of Claude Lightfoot, The (pamphlet) 112
Communist Manifesto 112
Czechoslovakia of Today 90
Daily News Release 86
Equality of Soviet Women in the Economic Sphere 87
Foundations of Leninism 112, 113
General Crisis of Capital 112
History of the CPUSA 112, 113
History of the Third International 109, 112
International Law and Preparation for Atomic War 118
Junius Scales Case, The (brochure) 112
Malenkov's Report to the 19th Congress of the CPSU 112
March of Labor 115
National Question, The (How the Soviet Government Solves the National
New Times, No. 50 81, 82
News, A Soviet Review of World Events (December 1956) 81
People Versus Segregated Schools (pamphlet) 109,112
People's China 81, 83, 117
Political Affairs 109, 113
Return to the Homeland 87
Stalin and the Chinese Revolution 117
Twilight of World Capitalism 112
United Front 112
United States Imperialism 112
World Student News 83,84
World Youth 83
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