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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities ; (the Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case and affiliates) : hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-fourth Congress, first session .."

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

<THE COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG 
CASE AND AFFILIATES)— PART I 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOUKTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



AUGUST 2 AND 3, 1955 



PART I 

(Index in Part II of this series) 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




• t-LLIIGE LIBRARY. 
^-. oolihD BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENI 

NOV 2 1955. _, 

UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1955 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairma7i 

MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 
Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 
II 



CONTENTS 



PART I 
August 2, 1955: 

Testimony of — -Pago 

James W. Glatis 2044 

Herman Tamsky 2054 

Afternoon session: 

Herman Tamsky (resumed) 2058 

Philip Koritz 2065 

Herman Tamsky (resumed) 2070 

Don Rothenberg 2071 

Mrs. Mildred Rothenberg 2087 

John Oilman 2090 

August 3, 1955 : 

Testimony of — 

Herman E. Thomas 2101 

Mrs. Sylvia Freedland 2116 

Mrs. Adelaide Riskin 2118 

Mrs. Jean D. Frantjis 2119 

Afternoon session: 

Herman E. Thomas (resumed) 2124 

Theodore E. Norton 2124 

John B. Stone 2142 

Mrs. Ethel Weichbrod 2147 

Anzelm A. Czarnovvski 2150 

Mrs. Josephine Granat 2155 

Ruth Belmont 2160 

Index. (See pt. II.) 



PART II 

August 4, 1955 : 
Testimony of — 

Milton J. Santvvire 2165 

Eve Neidelman 2173 

Mrs. Emily Alman 2179 

Afternoon session : 

Mrs. Emily Alman (resumed) 2187 

David Alman 2197 

Mrs. Emily Alman (resumed) . 2205 

David Alman (resumed) 2206 

August 5, 1955: 

Testimony of — 

David Alman (resumed) 2217 

Louis Harap 2239 

Index i 

nx 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
* * * * * * * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 
* ****** 

Rule X 

STANDING COilMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
the following standing committees : 

(q) Coumiittee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

(THE COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE 
ROSENBERG CASE AND AFFILIATES)— PART I 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 2, 1955 

United States House of KEPRESENTATI^^s, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met at 10 a. m., pursuant to notice, in the caucus room of tlie Old House 
Office Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) j)residing. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter, 
Edwin E. Willis, and Gordon H. Scherer. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, counsel, George C. 
Williams, investigator. 

Chairman Walter. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Let the record show that pursuant to law, I, Francis E. Walter, 
chairman of the Committee on Un-American Activities, have ap- 
pointed a subcommittee composed of Representatives Edwin E. Willis, 
of Louisiana ; Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio ; and myself, as chairman, to 
conduct these hearings. 

The committee has received numerous inquiries from Members ot 
Congress and private citizens as to whether organizations established 
throughout the United States known by various names such as "The 
Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case," "To Secure 
Clemency for the Rosenbergs," and "To Secure Justice for Morton 
Sobell" are being exploited by the Communist Party for ideological 
purposes as distinguished from humane purposes, and inquiring as 
to the extent of Connnunist Party control or influence in the estab- 
lishment and operation of such organizations. In response to these 
inquiries, and in discharge of the legislative duties placed upon this 
committee, the Committee on Un-American Activities has decided to 
hold hearings beginning today for the pui-pose of investigating the 
extent, character and objects of Communist Party propaganda activi- 
ties within such organizations. 

Mr. Tavenner, call your first witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. James W. Glatis. 

Chainnan Walter. Raise your right hand please. Do you solemn- 
ly swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God. 

Mr. Glatis. I do, sir. 

2043 



2044 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES W. GLATIS 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you Mr. James W. Glatis ? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your last name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Glatis, G-1-a-t-i-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you familiar with the rule of this committee, 
that any witness has the right to have counsel with him during the 
course of his interrogation ? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you bom, Mr. Glatis? 

Mr. Glatis. Lynn, Mass., May 7, 1926. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Glatis. I am employed by the Sun Life Insurance Company 
of Canada, out of its Boston office. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you reside in the city of Boston ? 

Mr. Glatis. In one of the suburbs, Jamaica Plain. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your for- 
mal educational training has been? 

Mr. Glatis. High school, 2 years of electronics, and subsidiary 
courses dealing with my own profession at the present time, that is, 
sales executive management and training, and a course I am under- 
taking with the company at the present time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you served in the Armed Forces of the United 
States? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over what period of time ? 

Mr. Glatis. In 1944. I went in August 1, 1944, and was discharged 
in November of 1944 as a result of injuries received in the infantry 
training. Again I went back into the service in 1946 and was dis- 
charged in 1947. Since 1947 up until the present time, I have been 
a member of the United States Army Reserve. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Glatis, will you tell the committee, please, 
whether or not you had occasion to become, organizationally speaking, 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. I used the term "organizationally speaking" to dif- 
ferentiate between mere membership and that of dedicated ideo- 
logical reasons for becoming a member. 

Mr. Glatis. I understand, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What were the circumstances under which you 
became a member, organizationally speaking? 

Mr. Glatis. In the summer of 1948, while working as a professional 
photographer in the city of Boston, I had occasion to attend my 
employer's wedding at which I met witli two individuals, as a result 
of participating during the wedding proceedings, and we got to dis- 
cuss the question of racial prejudice and intolerance, which I was 
intensely interested in, and the fact that there was considerable 
activity in Greece, that is, the entire Balkan situation, with specific 
mention of Greece, the political situation. 

As a result of these conversations, and more particularly the result 
of discussing the question of racial prejudice and intolerance, I was 
invited by these two individuals to attend a meeting being sponsored 
by the Civil Rights Congress. At that particular moment I didn't 



mVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2045 

commit myself to attending this particular meeting, but the next 
day I made a telephone call to the local office of the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation to determine whether or not this organization was 
listed as a subversive organization on the Attorney General's list. 
The agent with whom I discussed this situation over the phone told 
me that it was, and he asked to see me and discussed the circumstances 
surrounding as to how I came to hear about this organization. 

I did in fact see this agent, who requested that I attend this meet- 
ing if possible, and take pictures at the same time, and to present a 
report and any copies of pictures I might have taken to this agent. 

Very briefly, after my flrst meeting with this particular agent, or — 
incidentally I was called upon to join the Civil Rights Congress at 
that particular evening where I attended this session, and was in- 
structed by the FBI agent who told me to go along with anything 
they asked — I signed up with tlie organization as a result. 

Shortly thereafter I received a call by several people of this par- 
ticular organization, the Civil Rights Congress, to come up to their 
headquarters to help them in their mailing of some literature. I 
again contacted the agent that I had first spoken to, who again re- 
quested that I follow through. 

A week later I was called up to the office of the FBI, in Boston, 
and I had a long conversation with the agent whom I first contacted, 
at which time he requested that I continue to operate in this particular 
manner, saying nothing to anybody that I maintained any relation- 
ship of any sort with the FBI. He told me that as a result of 
my attending or working with this particular organization I had an 
opportunity to become a member of the Communist Party, possibly. 
He told me at the time that if I volunteered to do this, that I would 
be given to understand there w^ould be no pay involved, that in the 
event I became involved in any difficulty, he couldn't promise to 
help me. 

So in December of 1948 I consented to go along with the suggestion 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Six months later as a result of attending various classes given by 
the Communist Party, not necessarily the Conununist Party but given 
at the Boston School of Marxist Studies, run by the chairman of the 
Communist Party of Massachusetts, I became a member of the Com- 
munist Party in April 1949. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you became a member at the request and sug- 
gestion of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Walter. What was the date, please? 

Mr. Glatis. April 1949. 

Chairman Walter. Where was the school located ? 

Mr. Glatis. In Boston, sir, at the home of the chairman of the 
Communist Party of Massachusetts. 

Chairman Walter. Where was that? 

Mr. Glatis. On Fasin Street, Roxbury, Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of the chairman of the Com- 
munist Party who conducted this school ? 

Mr. Glatis. Otis Hood. 

Mr. Tavenner. After becoming a member of the Communist Party, 
did you make reports to the Federal Bureau of Investigation of infor- 



2046 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

mation which you acquired of activities of the Communist Party and' 
its niembei*s? 

Mr. Glatis. I kept a steady relationship. I maintained a steady 
relationship with several agents of the FBI, either through a telephone 
or written or various other means of communication, constantly report- 
ing all of my activities within these organizations. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your principal activity as a Communist 
Party member at the instance of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Glatis. I maintained several positions. At the outset I was 
primarily involved in doing photography work for the Communist 
Party and assigned to several youth organizations. 

In 1919 I was assigned to work with what was called the East Boston 
Branch of the Communist Party. During this time, or let me put 
it this way, from December of 1948 until May of 1954 when I testified 
before the Subversive Activities Control Board, I associated and par- 
ticipated in the activities of many front organizations during the 
same time I was a member of the Communist Party. 

In 1950, I carried on, clu'onologically, I was assigned by one of the 
functionaries of the Communist Party to work in a three-man secret 
cell within the General Electric Co. 

In 1951, in the early spring, I was instructed by a member of the 
review commission of the Communist Party, to set myself up in an 
underground status, on a sleeper basis. His reasons that he gave me 
were the fact that there was legislation being proposed in the State 
of Massachusetts outlawing the Communist Party, and that because 
of my own position within the General Electric Co., where I worked 
in secret areas, he felt for my own security I should maintain a sleeper 
basis, and instructed me to work from then on through front organiza- 
tions, that is party-front organizations. That I did up until May of 
1954, of last year. 

Mr. Tavenner. "\^niat were the major front organizations to which 
you were assigned by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Glatis. It was practically a blanket situation. When an in- 
dividual is a member of the Communist Party, he normally partici- 
pates in most of the activities of the various front organizations, with- 
in that area. On a couple of occasions I was actually assigned by the 
party to a few of these front organizations. 

But to get back to your question, the organizations I dealt with 
while I was a member of the Communist Party, that is, the front or- 
ganizations I dealt with, were the Labor Youth League, the Civil 
Rights Congress, the Massachusetts Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship, of which I was one of the directors ; the National Council 
of American-Soviet Friendship, the Boston Committee for the Free- 
dom of the Press, the Boston Committee To Seek Clemency for the 
Rosenbergs. There were several other groups that I worked with 
at the instruction of the Communist l^irty, one of which was the 
Young Progressives of America. 

There were splinter organizations. I say "splinter" for example^ 
an organization that we set up overnight. That is, my own East Bos- 
ton branch of the Communist Party set up overnight, an organization 
known as the East Boston Tenants Committee to Protest Evictions, 
but this was just for the purpose of agitation and propaganda in a 
particular area, and the organization didn't last too long. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2047 

Mr. Tavenner. In the interest of saving time in this hearing, I will 
not be able to question you in detail about these various front groups. 
Possibly at a later date we will. But at this time I wish you would 
describe to the committee in a general way how Communist Party 
members, and why Communist Party members were expected to take 
part in these various front groups with which you worked, 

Mr. Glatis. Primarily, the majority of the work the Communist 
Party, that is legal work, above the surface, the only manifestations 
you see of Communist Party activities are through front organiza- 
tions, which are used for the distribution of propaganda, or for the 
manner in which they bring their propaganda to the masses, so to 
speak. They must set up a front organization with seemingly inno- 
cent title or innocuous title, and otherwise sometimes the public itself 
would not readily accept some of the propaganda that the party or the 
Communist Party itself hopes to get to the masses. 

The front group itself serves basic purposes of recruiting grounds 
for new members, such as my own case, and I first became a member of 
a front group such as the Civil Rights Congress, which eventually 
brought me into the Communist Party. It also serves as a proving 
ground for new members of the Communist Party, such as again in 
my own case where I was sent back into a front group to work after 
becoming a member of the Communist Party. As I pointed out 
before, it also serves the purpose of using them as a springboard for 
Communist Party propaganda. Very important also, it serves as a 
basis of financially assisting the Communist Party, in that a great deal 
of money that comes into the front group necessarily goes to the Com- 
munist Party as such since the front group is set up by the Communist 
Party. I may say at this time that I can't recall any time that I was 
working with the Communist Party that when a front group was set 
up or a branch of it, the local branch of it, of a national group was 
set up, that the same group of party members circulated from one 
front group to the other. If the Boston Committee for the Freedom 
of the Press had a meeting, the same faces would show up, and if the 
Civil Rights Congress had a meeting, the same faces would show up. 

In other words, it was practically mandatory that you support the 
activities of all of these groups in this area, the front groups set up 
by the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. In these groups that you call Communist-front 
groups, was the leadership Communist Party leadership ? 

Mr. Glatis. To a great extent ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Through this interlocking system of prominent 
Communist Party individuals in leadership in these organizations 
was the Communist Party able to influence and direct the work of 
those groups? 

Mr. Glatis. There is no question about it, sir. As far as I can recall 
myself, there was no question as to the leadership of the organization. 
A party member was taken out of circulation for a while, and when I 
say "taken out of circulation," I mean out of his regular party work 
for example, and told to set up an organization in which he was made 
chairman of it. There is no doubt in my mind, because I recall several 
instances, where discussions were brought up in my own branch 
wherein we discussed certain front organizations. I would like to be 
a little bit more specific to give the committee an idea. 



2048 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

In 1953, 1 attended a meeting in New York City, a joint meeting of 
various front groups such as the National Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship and the Labor Youth League, and Civil Rights Congress. 
At this particular meeting in New York, the question arose as to the 
amount of activity. There wasn't a sufficient amount of activity as 
brought up by this particular convention. We were told at that time 
we should go back to our respective areas and promote a greater 
amount of activity. 

When I returned to Boston I happened to attend a meeting of the 
Boston Freedom of the Press Committee. The president of this par- 
ticular meeting was a woman by the name of Ann Burlak who, at one 
time, was a member of the national committee of the Communist Party 
of the United States. I mentioned to Ann Burlak the fact that one 
of the biggest points made at this particular convention was that there 
wasn't sufficient activity in the hinterland, and in the other areas 
outside of the national office in New York. More specifically, I pointed 
out to her that the Civil Rights Congress hadn't been too active. Ann 
Burlak told me at the time that they were going to replace the chair- 
man of the Civil Rights Congress. 

Now, the reason I make that point is that here is a functionary of 
the Communist Party telling me that the chairman will be replaced, 
and the chairman of a seemingly innocent organization, as they pro- 
fess to be, having no connection with the Communist Party, was going 
to be replaced. 

Ann Burlak, I may point out, held a very powerful position within 
that area, and she was also a member of the review commission which 
I had appeared before at one time. So in a sense, if an individual was 
taken, as I said, out of Communist Party circulation, out of his regular 
work, and told to set up an organization, he was constantly under 
the direction and control of party leadership within that area. That 
was true at all times. 

Mr. Ta-\tenner. Were you, as a member of these various front or- 
ganizations, subject to the directions and control of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated in the earlier part of your testimony 
that in several instances you were appointed by individuals to work 
with various organizations. To what instances did you refer? 

Mr. Glatis. On two occasions I received instructions — and on one 
occasion it was Ann Burlak who told me to work ; it was Edith Abber, 
who is now under indictment by the State of Massachusetts. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name ? 

Mr. Glatis. A-b-b-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. Edith Abber? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir; who instructed me to work with the Labor 
Youth League. There in that case it was a situation where a recog- 
nized functionary within the Communist Party, primarily handling 
youth activities, instructed me to work with the Labor Youth League 
which was another one of the front organizations. 

Again, on another occasion, I discussed my position in the Massa- 
chusetts Council of American-Soviet Friendship with Ann Burlak, 
the individual I mentioned previously, who told me to maintain my 
status as a director on this particular board that had been set up — 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2049 

with the Massachusetts Council of American- Soviet Friendship board. 
I wouldn't have been able to maintain, or very bluntly, if Ann Burlak 
had told me no, I wouldn't have served on that particular board. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Elizabeth Moos active in any of these front 
organizations to which you have referred? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir ; Elizabeth Moos was the individual who ap- 
pointed me on the board of directors. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of what organization? 

Mr. Glatis. The Massachusetts Council of American- Soviet Friend- 
ship. 

Mr. Tavenner. You made reference to one of the objectives of th& 
Communist Party in this front organizational work having to do with 
financial matters. How did the Communist Party utilize these fronts 
in a financial way? 

Mr. Glatis. Well, it was practically SOP, or "standard operating 
procedure," every time a meeting was held, a front meeting, the hat 
would be passed around or collections would be made, or a drive for 
funds would be called for, and there were usually contributions made 
right then and there, and pledges were made at these various meetings. 

In other words, it was a standard operating procedure at all of these 
front group meetings to request donations and funds for the purpose 
of keeping that organization going. 

Mr. Tavenner. But those were meetings of the front organizations. 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, would not the money be used for the front or- 
ganization, as distinguished from the Communist Party proper or 
other purposes of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Glatis. I make no distinction between the front groups and 
the Communist Party, simply because if a Communist Party member 
picks up the money, I know the Communist Party in our area set up 
the organization ; to me the front group and the Communist Party in 
this particular instance are one and the same. If for example, $500 is 
required to keep this particular organization in continuous operation 
in the distribution of leaflets, for printing purposes, and things of 
that nature, and they collect $1,000, most naturally the balance of that 
money would be used for the Communist Party in other fields of en- 
deavor, or other front-group activity. 

In other words, if the money comes through a front group, it doesn't 
necessarily mean that the front group as such — they are all paper 
organizations, so to speak. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not in Boston there was 
an organization formed known as the Committee To Secure Justice 
in the Rosenberg Case, or some such similar title ? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir; there was. In 1952 an organization was set 
up, I believe it was called, Boston Committee To Seek Clemency for 
the Eosenbergs, and I believe that was done in the early part of 
1952. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Do you recall having heard that matter discussed 
among members of the Communist Party — that is, such an organiza- 
tion prior to the time of its formation ? 

Mr. Glatis. There was considerable discussion concerning the na- 
tional organization of the Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosen- 
berg Case, and the necessity and need for activity of that same type 
within the Boston area. 



2050 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. How did such a question arise ? 

Mr. Glatis. Well, the free discussions held between party mem- 
bers of the various front-group meetings — I would like to point out 
here that in 1952 things became rather tight within the Massachusetts 
area, because they had passed legislation outlawing the Communist 
Party, so that there was no actual above-ground activity on the part 
of the Communist Party, and most of the activity was carried through 
these front organizations. My attending a front-group meeting — 
while I attended it, of course I met with other Communist Party 
members, and we discussed various issues and activities that were car- 
ried on by the party in that area. 

It was at these particular meetings that the Rosenberg question was 
brought up and the work conducted by the national organization, dis- 
tribution of leaflets, not to a great extent in that particular stage of 
the game, but we had received some literature, I believe, from the 
Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, and it was 
there that the question was discussed freely among the members of the 
Communist Party in that area, the need of more activity in the Boston 
area. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you yourself have anything to do with the 
formation of such an organization ? 

Mr. Glatis. Not necessarily in the formation ; no, sir. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. You say there was such an organization formed in 
1952? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Do you know the location of its headquarters at 
the time of its establishment ? 

Mr. Glatis. I believe it was in Herman Tamsky's home. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell his last name, please ? 

Mr. Glatis. T-a-m-s-k-y. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the home of Herman Tamsky ? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir. If I am not mistaken, I believe it was 406 
Massachusetts Avenue. At least that is where the headquarters, once 
the organization was formed, that particular address was used as its 
headquarters, and later on they moved to 93 Massachusetts Avenue, 
which was the regular office building. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say you believed that that address, 406 Massa- 
chusetts Avenue, was the home of Herman Tamsky? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what position Herman Tamsky had, 
if any, in the organization known as the Boston Committee To Seek 
Clemency in the Rosenberg Case or some similar organization? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir ; he was the chairman. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. He was the chairman ? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he known to you as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Glatis. He was known to me as a member of the Communist 
Party but I have to qualify that, sir. I attended no actual under- 
cover, and when I say "undercover," I mean closed party meetings, 
with Herman Tamsky. My own east Boston branch of the Communist 
Party met in his home. 

Mr. Tavenner. Met in Herman Tamsky's home ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2051 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir. His wife was a member of my particular 
branch of the Communist Party. In addition to that, there was cer- 
tain common information, that was common to members of the Com- 
munist Party, which was common to Herman Tamsky and myself, 
or within discussions that we held at one time or another with his 
wife and several other members of the Communist Party. The Com- 
munist Party discussions were discussed freely in his presence. This 
is the only way I can determine that he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party, in that I worked with his wife and we met in his home, 
and that we discussed party matters in his presence in which he took 
part. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether or not Herman Tamsky was 
present at any of the meetings of your club, of which he was not 
a member, but which were held in his home ? 

Mr. Glatis. He didn't participate actively within my own branch 
of the Communist Party. I believe it was only on one occasion that he 
might have been present. That is, he didn't stay for the meeting, but 
he was present I believe when the meeting started. Very vaguely I 
can recall his presence. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee if you know, who was 
the executive secretary of the Boston Committee To Seek Clemency 
in the Rosenberg Case ? 

Mr. Glatis. A woman by the name of Sue Koritz. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not Sue Koritz was a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, she was ; that I can definitely state. 

Mr. Tavenner. On what do you base your identification ? 

Mr. Glatis. In June of 1950 we had a policy meeting, that is, the 
Communist Party District No. 1 had a policy meeting, wherein they 
discussed the Korean situation, and a letter was read from the national 
secretary of the Communist Party. The letter was read by the district 
organizer of the Communist Party, and all major functionaries of the 
Communist Party were present, and there was a certain amount of 
security at this particular meeting. By "security" I mean when I 
first entered the premises, I was questioned as to who had sent me 
to attend this particular meeting. I had received my instructions 
to attend this meeting by word of mouth, that is, from Ann Burlak, 
and this seemed to satisfy the person who was at the door when I 
said Ann Burlak had sent me. This was a closed party meeting, 
which Sue Koritz attended. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with her husband, Philip 
Koritz? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir ; I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you mention the name of Philip Koritz a little 
earlier in your testimony ? 

Mr. Glatis. I might have, sir. I knew both of them. I knew both 
of them as being members of the Communist Party. Philip Koritz 
also attended this same meeting. I believe at one time, Philij:* Koritz 
was the chairman of the Civil Rights Congress, and he was tlie indi- 
vidual that I referred to when Ann Burlak told me that the chairman 
would be replaced and when Ann Burlak made that statement she 
was talking of replacing Philip Koritz as chairman of that particular 
organization. 



2052 • INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not Philip Koritz was 
identified in any way with the work of the Boston Committee To 
Seek Clemency in the Rosenberg Case ? 

Mr. Glatis. Only to the extent where he took part in the picketing 
before the statehouse which the Boston Committee To Seek Clemency 
in the Rosenberg Case had set up, and Philip Koritz and many other 
members of the Communist Party took part in this picketline set up 
before the statehouse in Boston. As to any of his other activities, 
I am not quite sure, sir. 

JMr. Tavexxer. Tell the committee, please, the names of other mem- 
bers of the Communist Party you can recall who were active in the 
work of the Boston Committee To Seek Clemency in the Rosenberg 
Case? 

Mr. Glatis. Edith Abber, as I mentioned before, one of the func- 
tionaries in the Communist Party. Sid Ravden, who was a member,, 
and also attended this same policy meeting that I discussed before, 
and Herbert Zimmerman, who I suppose you classify as literary direc- 
tor or educational director of the Communist Party, and also under 
indictment by the State of Massachusetts. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you say that Edith Abber is likewise under 
indictment? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir ; they are now out on bail. 

Mr. Willis. Indictment for what? 

Mr. Glatis. I believe it is teaching and advocating the overthrow 
of the Government by force and violence. That is, the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts by force and violence. The prosecution of 
that case, sir, is awaiting a decision by the Supreme Court of the 
United States. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you stated that you had attended Com- 
munist Party meetings in the home of the wife of Herman Tamsky^ 
or Herman Tamsky's home. 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was his wife's name? 

Mr. Glatis. Florence. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she active in any way in connection with the 
Rosenberg committee? 

Mr. Glatis. There again to the extent of the active participation 
of many Communist Party members, may I point out that this organi- 
zation, they are another type of paper organization, there was no 
actual, nobody signed up with the organization, and the organization 
was set up and party members participated in the activity of this 
organization. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. There is no such thing as registered members? 

Mr. Glatis. No, sir. Actually the activity that this particular 
committee carried on was distribution of leaflets and pamphlets and 
picketing, and the seeking of signatures for clemency for the Rosen- 
bergs. Florence Tamsky participated in that. 

Mr. TA^^5NNER. Did you attend any meetings of this group, the 
Boston Committee To Seek Clemency in the Rosenberg Case? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir; they had one meeting that I do recall — that 
I personally attended was held I believe in January of 1953, at which 
time Emily Alman, I believe it is A-1-m-a-n, who was a member, served 
as an official of the National Committee To Secure Justice in the 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2053 

liosenberg Case, who addressed this particular meeting and it was 
held at Morton's Plaza, in Boston, or rather in Dorchester, at which 
time she discussed the formation of the national committee, and how 
it was set up, the sponsors of this particular organization, how they 
had gone about to secure the sponsors of this organization such as 
Professor Urey, and the deceased Albert Einstein, and what have you. 
The chairman of this particular meeting was the chairman of the 
committee, Herman Tamsky. I believe it was Mrs. Emily Alman who^ 
went into great detail as to the difficulties at the beginning to set 
up this particular organization, and asked for support from the local 
organization and described how difficult it would be in some cases tO' 
solicit the support of the public on this particular case. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive quantities of literature emanating 
from the Boston Committee To Seek Clemency in the Rosenberg Case? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, I did ; through the mails. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that by virtue of your membership in these 
various front organizations, or the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Glatis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, if you can, what was 
the purpose of the Communist Party in having its members become 
active in an organization of this character? 

Mr. Glatis. Basically let me say that this was standard procedure 
for a party member to become involved in the activity any front 
organization set up in any area. It was threefold : 

First, the securing of financial assistance, or securing funds for the 
Communist Party, and, secondly, there was the necessity of using this 
particular issue on a basis of propagandizing the fact that one of the 
reasons wliy the Kosenbergs were being executed was because they 
were Jewish. In other words, giving them a foundational basis for 
preaching there was anti-Semitism in the United States ; and, third, 
and most important to the Communist Party, was the fact that there 
were anti-Semitic programs taking place within the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. What were those programs at that particular time? 

Mr. Glatis. I believe the case of the Jewish doctors that was taking 
place in the Soviet Union. Actually, of necessity, it is necessary to 
preach what is taking place in someone else's backyard to smokescreen 
what is taking place in your own yard, such as in the case of the pro- 
grams taking place within tlie Soviet Union, 

Mr. Scherer. Will you repeat that last statement of yours? I did 
not hear it ; about the smoke in your backyard, 

Mr. Glatis, In other words, sir, sometimes of necessity it is neces- 
sary to preach what is happening, what is taking place in someone 
else's backyard to smokescreen what is taking place in your own yard. 
In other words, the fact that there were anti-Semitic purges taking 
place within the Soviet Union just about that time, of necessity, the 
party would preach that there was anti-Semitism in the United States, 
and one of the reasons they wanted to have this issue was the Rosen- 
berg case itself, and one of the reasons why they were being executed 
was because they were Jewish, and this was another phase of the 
anti-Semitism or anti-Semitic activity taking place in the United 
States. 



67275— 55— pt. 1- 



2054 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Therefore it was those same issues that the Commu- 
nist Party desired to raise and to propagandize ? 

Mr. Glatis. I can safely say, sir, that the Communist Party as far 
as my own knowledge is concerned, didn't give a hoot about the Rosen-, 
bergs, or never gave a hoot about any of the individuals whom they 
allegedly supported, because of the Willie McGee case, or other indi- 
viduals whose issues it has picked up and carried along and milked to 
the extent of whatever they could financially and from a propaganda 
viewpoint. It is a long time since Willie McGee has been hanged and 
buried, and there is very little discussion as to what happened to 
Willie McGee, the fact he was a Negro, and supposedly railroaded. 

The Communist Party, as far as I could possibly determine used 
various issues for its own purposes, of agitation and propagandizing. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. Are there any questions, Mr. Willis? 

Mr. Willis. None. 

Chairman Walter. Any questions, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

Chairman Walter. I want to take this opportunity of thanking you 
for coming here to assist us in our very unpleasant work. More im- 
portant than that I think is the debt the citizens of the United States 
owe you, and those who, like you, are endeavoring to expose the mach- 
inations of this group of conspirators. Your contribution is as great, 
perhaps, or greater than what you contributed to the preservation of 
this republic by your military service, and I thank you. 

Mr. Glatis. Thank you very much, sir. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Chairman Walter. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Herman Tamsky. 

Chairman Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please? Do 
you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HERMAN TAMSKY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name please, sir ? 

Mr. Tamsky. Herman Tamsky. T-a-m-s-k-y. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 
Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Tamsky ? 

Mr. Tamsky. April 2, 1915, in New Haven, Conn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Tamsky. In Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Boston? 

Mr. Tamsky. Seven years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside in Boston ? 

Mr. Tamsky. 56 Eeceiver Street, Boston. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever lived at 406 Massachusetts Avenue, 
Boston? 

Mr. Tamsky. Yes, I did. 



INVESTIGATION OF COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2055 

Mr. Tavenner. Over what period of time did you live there ? 

Mr. Tamsky. It was 1951 to 1953. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the name of the place located at 93 Mas- 
sachusetts Avenue? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. I refuse to answer on the basis of my privilege under 
the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. I abide by my refusal. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner, Was room 314 at the address of 93 Massachusetts 
Avenue a room with which you were acquainted ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I refuse to answer on the basis of my privilege under 
the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Tamsky, on December 30, 1952, according to 
the records of our committee, there was sent a telegram to Congress- 
man McCormack, of Massachusetts, and the Congressman called it 
to the attention of this committee. It was signed by Tamsky as chair- 
man, Boston Committee To Secure Clemency in the Rosenberg Case. 
The address was listed as room 314, 93 Massachusetts Avenue. 

Did you send a telegram at about that date, December 30, 1952, to 
Congressman McCormack? 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer on the basis of my privilege under 
the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Chairman Walter. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer on the basis that I have already 
stated. 

Chairman Walter. Have you the telegram, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir, the telegram was returned to Mr. McCor- 
mack's office, and he has been unable to find the telegram itself. We 
only have a memorandum in our files with regard to it. 

On December 30, 1952, were you chairman of the Boston Committee 
to Secure Clemency in the Rosenberg Case ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer on the same basis that I have used 
before. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct the witness to 
answer that question. 

Chairman Walter. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Scherer. How could chairmanship of this committee possibly 
incriminate him? 

Chairman Walter. Not unless he knows more about the committee. 

Mr. Scherer. I still think under the present condition of the record, 
he should be required to answer. 

Chairman Walter. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment, as I have already used it previously in previous answers. 

Mr. TA^rENNER. Are you a member of or an officer of the Boston 
Committee to Secure Clemency in the Rosenberg Case at this time, 
or of any other successor group or organization such as, for instance, 
the Committee To Secure Justice for Morton Sobell ? 



2056 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tamskt. If you are going to ask any more questions along this 
line, I can tell you right now that my response is going to be a re- 
fusal to answer on the basis of my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment, not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your answer to the question I asked you ? 

Mr. Tamsky. The response to your question, I am going to refuse 
to answer on the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment 
not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you confer with members of the Communist 
Party regarding your proposed election as chairman of the Boston 
Committee To Secure Clemency for the Rosenbergs prior to any 
action by that organization in selecting a chairman ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I am going to use my privilege as I have used it 
previously in answer to this question. I refuse to answer on the basis 
of my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you aware of the presence of any person known 
to you to be a member of the Communist Party in any office of the 
Boston Committee To Secure Clemency for the Rosenbergs or any 
successor organization ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. Inasmuch as you insist upon my using these re- 
sponses, I am going to continue. I refuse to answer on the basis of 
my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. Scherer. We are not insisting that you use those responses, we 
are asking you to answer the questions. 

Mr. Tamsky, The question always appears to be the same, loaded 
questions to me, and I refuse to answer this past question on the basis 
of my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against 
myself. 

Chairman Walter. Why not just say "for the same reason" and it 
will be understood it is for the reasons you have already stated? 

Mr. Tamsky. For the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend a convention held in the city of 
Chicago in 1953 ? 

Mr. Tamsky. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. For the same reason ? 

INIr. Tamsky. For the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a credential appli- 
cation, and I ask you if you authorized that credential application to- 
be made for you ? 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Tamsky. I am going to use the same answer I used in the pre- 
vious question. 

Mr. Scherer. I do not think, Mr. Chairman, that we should cut 
these answers down to merely the witness saying "the same answer."^ 
I think that he should say "I refuse to answer for the same reasons."^ 

Chairman Walter. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner, It is noted thereon that the name of the applicant 
is printed "Herman Tamsky," address, 406 Massachusetts Avenue,, 
city of Boston, Mass., the name of the committee is Boston Rosenberg- 
Sobell Committee," the occupation is printing. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2057 

Have you engaged in the printing business, or were so engaged in 
1953? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. Yes, not in business. I was employed in the printing 
trade, in 1953. 

^ Mr. Tavenner. The signature of the officer of the committee who 
signed this credential application is "Sue Koritz," secretary. Are you 
acquainted with Sue Koritz ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment and my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. You are not a witness against yourself. We are ask- 
ing you if you knew Sue Koritz. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Sue Koritz the executive secretary of the 
Boston Kosenberg-Sobell Committee ? 

Mr. Tamsky. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Sue Koritz known to you to be a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tamsky. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think that the record should show 
that the committee issued a subpena for Miss Sue Koritz, but upon the 
receipt of a medical certificate from her doctor, relating to the family 
situation, her appearance was continued. 

Chairman Walter. Yes ; I am aware of it. 

Mr, Tavenner. I have before me a photostatic copy of a typewritten 
statement of the conference schedule in Chicago, and included is this 
statement: "Nominations from the Chair for the following working 
service committees." Then follows this statement: "Political com- 
mittees," and then the names of five persons appear as members of the 
political committees, and one of the names is that of Herman Tamsky, 
Boston. 

Will you examine the document, please, and state whether or not 
you see the name "Herman Tamsky, Boston," as one of the members of 
the political committees ? 

(A document was handed to the witness. ) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Tamsky. I can't read very much of the title. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you any difficulty in reading the name "Her- 
man Tamsky, Boston" ? 

Mr. Tamsky. No ; I don't have any difficulty in reading the name, 
"Herman Tamsky, Boston." 

Mr. Tavenner. It appears there, doesn't it ? 

Mr. Tamsky. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do have difficulty in reading the title. You 
can see clearly the letters, "p-o-l-i," can you not ? 

Mr. Tamsky. It looks like "police" to me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you serve on a "police" committee during this 
conference in Chicago ? 

Mr. Tamsky. No, but I had some familiarity with Greek at one time, 
and I recognize the root of the word "p-o-1." 

Mr. Tavenner. You are uncertain as to what that meant ? 

Mr. Tamsky. Definitely, it is obscured. 



2058 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. What committee did you serve on ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I refuse to answer on the same reason that I gave to 
your previous question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it on a "police" committee? 

Mr. Tamsky. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. There also appears the name "Dave Alman," of 
New York. Is that correct? 

Mr. Tamsky. I believe so, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what position Dave Alman held in 
1953 with the Rosenberg committee or with the national Rosenberg 
committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer on the basis of my previous answer. 

Chairman Walter. At this point we will suspend, because the sec- 
ond bells rang and we must go over to the floor of the House. We will 
reconvene at 1 o'clock. 

(Thereupon, the subcommittee recessed at 11: 15 a. m., to reconvene, 
at 1 p. m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, AUGUST 2, 19 55 

Present: Representatives Walter (chairman), Willis, and Scherer. 
Chairman Walter. The hearing will come to order. 

TESTIMONY OF HEEMAN TAMSKY— Resumed 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Mr. Tamsky, at the time that the committee went 
into recess, I asked you whether or not the name of Dave Alman, of 
New York, appears on the document as one of those on the political 
or policy committee, as the case may be. 

Mr. Tamsky. I answered "Yes." 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you personally acquainted with Mr. Dave 
Alman ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I refuse to answer under my rights of the fifth amend- 
ment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Another named on this committee is a person by 
the name of Dr. Tushnut, New Jersey ; do you see that name appearing 
there ? 

Mr. Tamsky. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether Dr. Tushnut is as stated theret 
the same person as Dr. Leonard Tushnut, of Newark, N. J. ? 

Mr. Tamsky. The same answer to the previous question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether Dr. Leonard Tushnut was a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tamsky. Same answer as I gave in the preceding question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the staff endeavored to serve a sub- 
pena upon Dr. Leonard Tushnut, of Newark, N. J., but at the time of 
issuance of the subpena Dr. Tushnut was found to be in Europe. So, 
of course, the subpena was not served. However, Dr. Tushnut has 
been identified in sworn testimony before this committee as having 
been a member of the Communist Party from at least the period of 
1935 until the time that Dr. Tushnut entered the Armed Forces of 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2059 

the United States in the early 1940's, and that while a member of the 
Communist Party was actively engaged in Communist-front work. 

I now call your attention to the heading on another document en- 
titled, "Organization and Finance." There appears under that head- 
ing this statement : "One person from Detroit." Do you know who' 
from Detroit was designated a member of that organization and fi- 
nance committee ? 

(Witness consults consult.) 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer on the previous basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. I point out to you the second name on the second 
statement on the list. It is the name Don Rothenberg. Do you see 
that name? 

Mr. Tamsky. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Don Rothenberg a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer as previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. The next name under the organization and finance 
committee is Reid Robinson, Los Angeles. Do you know whether Reid 
Robinson was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should show that 
Mr. Gitlow identified Reid Robinson as a member of the Communist 
Party in testimony given this committee on July 7, 195'3. 

Do you know whether Dr. Tushnut, of New Jersey, whose name you 
saw on this document, is chairman of the Rosenberg committee in the 
area of Newark, N. J. ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Scherer. What was the last question ? 

Ml'. Tavenner. The question was does the witness know whether or 
not Dr. Tushnut, of New Jersey, is now chairman of the Rosenberg 
committee for the area of Newark, N. J. ? 

The last item appearing on the page is this "Report for the National 
Committee, Evaluation and Future Work, Emily Alman." Was 
Emily Alman in 1953 the executive secretary for the national commit- 
tee for the clemency of the Rosenbergs ? 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. Will you repeat that question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. The last item appearing on the document is the re- 
port for the national committee, "Evaluation and Future Work, Emily 
Alman." I hand you the document. State whether or not you see 
that language at the end of the document. 

Mr. Tamsky. Yes; I see it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Emily Alman in 1953 the executive secretary 
of the national organization to secure justice in the Rosenberg case? 

Mr. Tamsky. That is a matter of public record. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us what that public record is with 
regard to her. 

Mr. Tamsky. That Emily Alman was a member of the national 
committee of the Rosenberg case, I believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVliat was the exact title of the national organi- 
zation ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I am not certain. 

Mr. Tavenner. There is no date on this. 



2060 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. ScHERER. He did not answer the question, Mr. Tavenner. He 
said it is a matter of public record. You asked him what the public 
record was, and then your attention was diverted. I think he should 
answer the question. 

Mr. FoRER. He did. 

Mr. Tavenner. I thought he did, but I may be mistaken. 

Mr. FoRER. If you want him to do it again, it is all right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer to be sure? 

Mr. Scherer. If he did, I didn't hear it. 

Mr. FoRER. The question is, You said it was a matter of public 
record that Emily Alman had what position with the Rosenberg 
committee. That is the question which you answered before, so please 
answer it again. 

Mr. Scherer. I cannot hear counsel if he is talking to the committee. 

Mr. Tamsky. I believe it is a matter of public record. 

Mr. FoRER. That 

Mr. Scherer. That is not an answer. Wliat is a matter of public 
record ? 

Mr. Tamskt. That Emily Alman was a member of the committee 
for the clemency of the Eosenbergs. 

Mr. Scherer. That still does not answer. You asked him what 
position she held. 

Mr. Tavenner. I asked what official position she had with the 
national committee. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, what official position did Emily Alman have 
with the national committee ? 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. I believe it is a matter of public record that she was 
the executive secretary. 

Mr. Scherer. That still doesn't answer the question, Mr. Chair- 
man. I asked him what position she did have. He says it is a matter 
of public record that she was the executive secretary. That doesn't 
answer the question. 

Chairman Walter. Maybe that is the only answer he can give. Do 
you know of your own knowledge what position she occupied ? 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer for the reasons before stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wasn't she elected executive secretary of the na- 
tional organization at the meeting in Chicago at which the documents 
I have exhibited to you were used ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer for the reasons before stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wasn't that convention in Chicago held on the 10th 
day of October 1953 ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer for reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the name of the national organization changed 
at that convention so as to read "National Rosenberg-Sobell Com- 
mittee"? 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell the committee, please, irrespective of any posi- 
tion that you may or may not have held with the Boston Committee 
for Justice to the Rosenbergs — that is, whether or not you prepared 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2061 

leaflets or pamphlets for dissemination in the area of Boston based 
upon material issued by the national organization. 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

jkr. Tamsky. That is a pretty long question, Mr. Tavenner. Will 
you repeat it, please ? 

Mr. Ta\tnner. I am not asking you what you did as an officer of the 
Boston committee ; I am asking whether you, in any capacity, prepared 
leaflets or pamphlets — that is, wrote them — for dissemination in the 
area of Boston based upon information that had been put out by the 
national organization to secure justice for the Rosenbergs? 

Mr. Tamsky. I want to tell you that I felt that the Rosenberg case^ 
and I still feel strong, was a horrible miscarriage of justice. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is not an answer to my question. 

Mr. Tamsky. I would gladly discuss the Rosenberg matter or the 
Rosenberg case, and the Sobell matter with you gentlemen if I was 
not here under oath. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question? 

Mr. Tamsky. But inasmuch as I am compelled to answer the ques- 
tion as you state it, I am going to refuse to answer on the basis of my 
privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Would you be more inclined to tell the truth if you 
were discussing it with us when you were not under oath ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I have not told any untruths. 

Mr. ScHERER. I didn't ask you that question. You said you would 
be inclined to discuss it with us. 

Mr. Tamsky. I would gladly discuss it with you if I was not under 
oath, yes. I would be proud to. 

Mr. SciiERER. Would you expect me to believe you then ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I certainly think it is an awful situation where the 
Senate Judiciary Committee has been petitioned to investigate this 
horrible miscarriage of justice, that you gentleman should be spending 
time with me over here at this time. 

Chairman Walter. Are you sure that proposal for investigation 
has not been inspired because of the hearings we are holding? 

Mr. Tamsky. I didn't get that question. 

Chairman Walter. Never mind. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether or not 
the Civil Rights Congress in Boston was active in any manner in the 
work of the Boston committee for the clemency of the Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Tamsky. I can say there were many different groups interested 
in the Rosenberg case. I am declining to answer your specific ques- 
tion on the basis that I declined to answer other questions. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Chairman Walter. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer on the basis of my privilege under 
the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is your refusal to answer based upon the fact that 
you were the chairman of the Boston chapter of the Civil Rights 
Congress ? 

Mr. Tamsky. Do you want to repeat that question ? 



2062 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Read the question, please. 

(Question read by the reporter.) 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. I refuse to answer for the same reasons as in the past. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you chairman of the Boston chapter, Civil 
Eights Congress? 

Mr. Tamsky. I abide by my original refusal on this question. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that the witness be directed to answer the 
question. 

Chairman Walter. You are directed to answer. 

Mr. Tamsky. I refuse to answer on the basis that I have given 
before. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of the March 26, 
1952y issue of the Daily Worker, and call your attention to an article 
entitled, "Anti-Smith Act Rally in Boston." 

Mr. Tamsky. May I see it? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, in a second. I will describe the article a little 
more fully. It is stated, "The meeting conducted by Otis Hood, 
chairman of the Massachusetts Coimiiunist Party, collected money 
for Charney's defense. Other speakers included Phil Koritz, chair- 
man of the chapter of the Civil Rights Congress." That would ap- 
pear that Mr. Koritz was the chairman rather than you. Was Mr. 
Koritz chairman of the Civil Rights Congress in 1952 ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer on the basis that I used in the 
past. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position in the Civil Rights Congress did 
you hold? 

(Witness consults with comisel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in the city of Washington on January 5, 
1953? 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. Can you identify the occasion of my being in Wash- 
ington on that date ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in the city of Washington in January 
1953? 

Mr. Tamsky. Washington, January 1953? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Tamsky. That is much too vague a question. I decline to 
answer on the basis that I have used before. 

Mr. Willis. Do you object on the ground of vagueness or on other 
grounds ? 

Mr. Tamsky. Wliat? 

Mr. Willis. Are you objecting to answering because the question 
is too vague, or are you objecting on some other ground ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I am objecting on the ground that I have used for 
the previous questions. 

Mr. Forer. And also he added vagueness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you make any trip to the city of Washington 
in January 1953, in behalf of the Boston Committee To Secure Clem- 
ency in the Rosenberg Case ? 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. I refuse to answer on the same basis. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2063 

Chairman Walter. I notice, Mr. Tavenner, in what purports to 
be a statement by some certitied public accountants, an item on dele- 
gation to Washington, railroads, and so forth, $57,859.09. Is that the 
sort of thing you are trying to get into? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Walter. It is very significant to note that while they 
spent nearly $58,000 for traveling for delegations, they spent only 
$1,299 for the welfare of the Rosenberg children. Let us find out 
about this delegation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of a delegation from the Boston 
Committee To Secure Clemency in the Rosenberg Case which came to 
Washington ? 

Mr. Tajvisky. I decline to answer on the basis that I have used 
previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any part in the raising of money for 
the Boston Committee To Secure Clemency in the Rosenberg Case? 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer on the basis that I have used 
before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Civil Rights Congress in 
Boston? 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer on the basis that I have used 
previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you received any salary or compensation of 
any character from the Boston Committee To Secure Clemency in the 
Rosenberg Case? 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. Forer. Will you explain what you mean by the word 
"compensation" ? 

Mr. Ta%tenner. I think the witness certainly knows what compen- 
sation means. Whether he has been paid anything. 

Mr. FoRER. Whether he has been paid anything ? 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Yes. 

Mr. Forer. That would include payment of expenses. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let him explain what it is if he did receive anything. 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer on the basis that I have used 
previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. That there may be no misunderstanding about your 
answer; did you receive any salary from the Boston committee? 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. No; I didn't receive any salary from the Boston 
committee. 

Mr. Tavener. Then what was the nature of the compensation which 
you received? 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. Tamsky. It sounds like a loaded question to me, Mr. Tavenner. 
I decline to answer on the basis I used previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. Have you any questions, Mr. Willis ? 

Mr. Willis. No, sir. 

Chairman Walter. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ask him if he knew Mr. Donald Rothenberg, 
of Cleveland ? 



2064 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir ; I asked him that. 

Mr, ScHERER. What was his answer ? 

Mr. Tavenner. His answer was to refuse to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Will you turn around, Mr. Witness, and look at the 
gentleman in the second row ? 

Mr. Tamskt. Are you directing me to look behind myself and finger 
anybody ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Will you look around ? 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. Is it the direction of the committee that he look around ? 

Chairman Walter. No. 

Mr. Tamsky. I thought you could direct me to come to Washington. 
I didn't know you could direct me to turn around and point people 
out in the room. 

Chairman Walter. I ask you if you will look around and see if you 
know the man in the second row. You are not under any compulsion 
to do it. 

Mr. FoRER. Could we have that repeated ? 

Chairman Walter. I am asking him if he will turn around and see 
if he recognizes the man in the second row on the aisle. 

Mr. Forer. Is this a question or just a request ? 

Chairman Walter. No, I am merely asking him if he will look 
and then I am asking him if having looked, if he recognizes him. 

Mr. Forer. You are asking him if he knows the man on the second 
row? 

Chairman Walter. Yes; that is right. 

(Witness and counsel turn around and look.) 

Chairman Walter. On the aisle, I said, blue suit, polka dot tie. 

Mr. Forer. "Wliat is the question, whether he knows him or not? 

Mr. Tamsky. Yes ; I know him. 

Chairman Walter. Now look across the aisle and tell me if you 
know that man across the aisle. 

Mr. Tamsky. I was introduced to him casually. 

Chairman Walter. What is his name ? 

Mr. Tamsky. The name slipped my mind, as a matter of fact. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know Mr. Donald Rothenberg ? 

Mr. Tamsky. Yes; I have met Mr. Rothenberg. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that Mr. Rothenberg sitting on the aisle in the 
second row ? 

Mr. Tamsky. Yes, I believe so. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know ]\Ir. Rothenberg to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer for the same reasons I have given 
before. 

Chairman Walter. Is there anything further, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Chairman Walter. That is all. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Chairman Walter. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Philip Koritz. 

Chairman Walter. Do you swear the testimony you are about to 
give is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Koritz. I do. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2065 

TESTIMONY OF PHILIP KORITZ, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr, Tavenner. Are you Mr. Philip Koritz ? 

Mr. KoKiTz. That is right. K-o-r-i-t-z. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Will 
counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born, Mr. Koritz ? 

Mr. Koritz. In the east side in New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. What date ? 

Mr. Koritz. March 20, 1917. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Koritz. I am a salesman. 

Mr. TA^^]NNER. Will you tell the committee, please, how you have 
been employed since 1950 ? 

Mr. Koritz. I don't remember this to be exact. I think I have 
worked for a packing house. I worked for the Allis Chalmers Co. 
I worked for various sales organizations and possibly some others. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived in any place other than the State 
of Massachusetts ? 

Mr. Koritz. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where ? 

Mr. Koritz. Would you ask me the particular places ? Excuse me. 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. Do you want to do that ? 

Mr. Koritz. I think it is just as easy that way as me telling you 
where I lived. 

Mr. Tavenner. No, I would like you to tell me where you have 
lived. 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. Koritz. I was in an awful lot of places. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell us where you lived in 1945. 

Mr. Koritz. That means 1946 on? 

Mr. Tavenner. 1945 on. 

Mr. Koritz. I lived in California. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over what period? 

Mr. Koritz. In 1945, since you said 1945. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where in California? 

Mr. Koritz. San Francisco. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed there ? 

Mr. Koritz. I worked for the Utility Workers Organizing Commit- 
to., CIO. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment ? 

Mr. Koritz. My next employment was working for the Food and 
Tobacco Workers of the Food, Tobacco, Agricultural, and Allied 
Workers of America Union, CIO. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where? 

Mr. Koritz. North Carolina. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live in North Carolina? Where 
was your work while there ? 

Mr. Koritz. Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become acquainted with Ann Matthews at 
Winston-Salem, N. C. ? 



2066 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. KoRiTz. I am going to say at this time that I resent my asso- 
ciation of myself with any type of stoolie or any type of person in that 
category, and I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the priv- 
ilege granted to me under the fifth amendment not to be a witness- 
against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become a director of local 22 of the Food,, 
Tobacco, Agricultural and Allied Workers of America, CIO, in,' 
Winston- Salem ? 

Mr. KoRiTz. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was that ? 

Mr. KoRiTz. That w as in 1946. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. How long w^ere you in Winston-Salem? 

Mr. KoRiTz, Approximately 1 year. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was tlie approximate date when you left 
North Carolina « 

Mr. KoRiTz. I was in North Carolina twice. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. What was the date you left the first time ? 

Mr. KoRiTZ. Approximately January 1947, 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you return to North Carolina ? 

Mr. KoRiTz. In November — I think it was November 1'947. 

Mr. Tavenner. For what purpose? 

Mr. KoRiTz. I think this is about the first time I have had an op- 
portunity to actually explain that particular purpose, and I am going 
to welcome the opportunity to explain it. 

I was the director of the food and tobacco workers local union in 
North Carolina. We were carrying on a strike at that time to improve 
the wages and conditions of employment of the people in those particu- 
lar plants. This strike took place after a long period of negotiations. 

During the period of the strike, in my opinion, there was an attempt 
to frame us on the basis of the police Ijreaking the picket line. I ap- 
peared on the picket line, not having been there at the time they broke 
it, and asked what happened. On proceeding from there to my office 
to attempt to arrange counsel for the people who had been arrested I 
noticed that a Negro man was lying on the ground and proceeded over 
there, and there were police around that man. 

I made inquiries as to that man because he was not on strike, he 
was not in the area where the picket-line incident took place, and he 
worked in another plant which was under contract to our union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. 

Mr. KoRiTz. I attempted to make this known to the police, and 
I was arrested and we were all tried, and I was sentenced to the 
chain gang for 1 year after appeal. We appealed that case to the 
United States Supreme Court on the basis of systematic exclusion 
of Negroes from the jury. It was denied by the Court, since they 
had not had a case of that type up before it. 

While I was in prison, the Court reversed in a similar petition on,. 
I think, a vote of 8 to 1, saying that there w^as systematic exclusion 
of Negroes from the jury. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have told us 

Mr. KoRiTz. I was there until March 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have told us what occurred after you got there^ 
Now will you answer my question and tell us what your purpose- 
was in returnino; to North Carolina ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2067 

Mr. KoRiTz. My purpose was to serve my sentence. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was the purpose ? 

Mr. KoRiTz. That is right. As a matter of fact, I was in contact 
with the sheriif's office, and when he told me that the Court had 
ruled, and so forth, and I was to begin my sentence, I left the area 
I was in and took a plane and reported at 11 o'clock that evening 
to serve my sentence with the other victims of w^hat I consider a 
vicious frameup. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were sentenced during your first trip to North 
Carolina. 

Mr. Koritz. That is right. That is when the strike took place. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party dur- 
ing the period that you were director of Local 22, Food, Tobacco, 
Agricultural, and Allied Workers, CIO, in Winston- Salem, N. C. ? 

Mr. KoRiTz. I refuse to answer that question on my previous 
grounds, on the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment not 
to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Koritz. Same grounds, or same answer. I think you under- 
stand. 

Mr. Tavenner. After March 1948 where did you live? 

Mr. Koritz. As I recall, I was in the chain gang in 1048 until 
approximately March. From there I went to Missouri. I lived in 
Missouri and thereabouts — I was in the jurisdiction of Missouri in 
a sense — from then until the latter part of 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your business or employment in 
Missouri ? 

Mr. KoRiTz. I worked for the International Union of Mine, Mill, 
and Smelter Workers. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you so employed ? 

Mr. Koritz. I think I originally went to work for them in 1947 
in July. I am not absolutely sure of that date. Then I went to that 
chain gang, and then I worked for them when I got out in Missouri 
until approximately the end of October 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position did you hold with the International 
Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers? 

Mr. Koritz. I was an organizer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
that period of time ? 

Mr. Koritz. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of my 
privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the next place of your residence? 

Mr. Koritz. Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. About what date did you move to Boston? 

Mr. Koritz. I came there in approximately the end of October or 
the beginning of November 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived there continuously ? 

Mr. Koritz. Yes, sir, I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you president or chairman of the Boston 
chajoter of the Civil Rights Congress while living in Boston in 1952? 

Mr. Koritz. I think ever since I was in high school, you know — edu- 
cated in high school under the great traditions of our country — and 



2068 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

T have been interested in civil rights of myself and all people. I have 
done a great deal or as much as I possibly could under the circum- 
stances to fight for and promote and advance civil and democratic 
rights. However, I am going to have to decline to answer that ques- 
tion on the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment, not to be 
a witness against myself. While I say I was not the greatest fighter 
or the only fighter, I am just saying I was one of the men who loved 
this country. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you sufficiently interested in the work of the 
Civil Rights Congress to become its chairman? 

Mr. KoRiTz. I just declined to answer that question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. FoRER. For the same reason. 

Mr. KoRiTz. For the same reason. I think that is understood. If 
there is any question, I would like to have the gentleman ask me to 
make sure that is my reason because I might forget. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. To your knowledge, did the Boston chapter of the 
Civil Rights Congress have anything to do with the establishment of 
the Boston Committee To Secure Clemency in the Rosenberg Case, 
acting as an organization or through its members ? 

(Witness consults counsel.) 

Mr. KoRiTZ. I decline to answer that question on the basis of my 
privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you participate in the work of that Boston 
committee for the clemency of the Rosenbergs ? 

jNIr. KoRiTz. Well, finally we are sort of getting to the Rosenbergs 
which I understood was the purpose that you arranged this hearing. 

Chairman Walter. Will you answer the question, please? 

Mr. KoRiTz. On the Rosenbergs I would consider one of the most 
vicious f rameups that mankind ever saw 

Chairman Walter. I am sure you feel that way. 

Mr. KoRiTZ. I sure do, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. Answer the question, please. 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. KoRiTZ. I decline to answer that question for the reasons 
stated before. I think it was a tragedy in our time to have such a 
thing take place. 

Chairman Walter. No, you don't at all. You are not kidding 
anyone. 

Mr. KoRiTZ. I certainly do. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Scherer. Such a tragedy, and he refuses to tell us whether he " 
was connected with it or not. 

Mr. KoRiTz. I don't see you being concerned about the two orphans. 

Mr. Scherer. I was very much concerned about them. 

Mr. KoRiTz. At least the chairman came out for clemency. I am 
not sure. 

Chairman Walter. You are not sure, but I will straighten you out 
now. No. 

Mr. Koritz. I think it was in the paper. I am not sure. 

Chairman Walter. Wliat paper? The Daily Worker ? 

Mr. KoRiTz. I am going to decline on the same grounds. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2069 

Chairman Walter. That is understood, of course. 
Mr, Ta\t:nner. Will you tell the committee to what extent, if any, 
the Communist Party promoted or assisted in any propaganda work 
of the Boston committee for the clemency of the Rosenbergs? 

Mr. KoRiTZ. Mr. Tavenner, even when I was in jail the one thing 
that was the most despicable thing even among some of these people 
who did commit some kind of crimes was the informer. I am not an 
informer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know but you won't tell. 

Mr. KoRiTz. I am not an informer and I am not going to incriminate 
myself either. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you refusing to answer because as you said you 
don't want to be an informer ? Is that the reason you are refusing to 
answer ? 

Mr. KoRiTZ. I refuse to answer because I would not let this com- 
mittee make me an informer but also because if I answered I would be 
waiving my privilege, and my privilege is not to answer, guaranteed 
to me under the fifth amendment not to be forced to be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you go as a delegate or representative from the 
Boston Committee To Secure Clemency in the Rosenberg Case to 
Washington to take part in any demonstration in January 1953? 
(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. KoRiTz, I was for clemenc.y. However, I decline to answer that 
question on the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment not to 
be a witness against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. You mean it would incriminate you, although you 
were for clemency ? 

Mr. KoRiTz. I said not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let me finish. Witness. You say you were for clem- 
ency, and yet you say it would incriminate you if you told us whether 
or not you were one of those who came to Washington on behalf of 
clemency for the Rosenbergs ? 

Mr. KoRiTz. I don't recall that was the question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you come to Washington on behalf of clemency 
for the Rosenbergs? 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. KoRiTz. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. The fact is that you were one of many who came. 

Mr. KoRiTz. I refuse on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Weren't you a member of the Communist Party and 
came with a lot of other members of the Communist Party to Wash- 
ington ? 

Mr. KoRiTZ, I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth 

Mr. ScHERFR. And wasn't that trip controlled and dominated by the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. IvoRiTZ. You may have your opinion. I have my opinions. 
But I decline to answer. 

Mr. SciiERER. Is my opinion wrong? 

Mr. KoRiTz. I decline to answer the question. 

67275— 55— pt. 1 3 



2070 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr, ScHERER. You said I may have my opinion. Is the opinion 
I expressed true or false? 

Mr. KoRiTZ. Are you asking me a question ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that the witness be directed to answer. 

Chairman Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Forer. Do you know what the question is ? 

Mr. KoRiTZ. No. What is the question ? 

Chairman Walter. "Is my opinion as to the Rosenbergs true or 
false?" 

Mr. Scherer. That is right. 

Mr. KoRiTZ. Is that the question ? Is my opinion as to the Rosen- 
bergs 

Chairman Walter. Mr. Scherer's opinion. 

Mr. KoRiTZ. What is your opinion as to the Rosenbergs? 

Chairman Walter. I^et us get this straight. 

Mr. Scherer. Aly first question to you was whether it is not a fact 
that you, along with a lot of other Communists, came to Washington 
on behalf of clemency for the Rosenbergs, and wasn't it a fact that the 
delegation was completely controlled and dominated by the Commu- 
nist Party. 

Mr. KoRiTZ. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. It is my opinion that it was. You said before that 
may be my opinion. I wanted to know whether that opinion I have 
is true or false. 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Chairman Walter. Mr. Willis? 

Mr. Willis. No questions. 

Chairman Walter. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Koritz. May I ask Mr. Scherer a question ? 

Chairman Walter. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I would like to recall Mr. Tamsky 
for 1 or 2 questions. 

Chairman Walter. Mr. Tamsky, you will resume the stand, please. 

TESTIMONY OF HERMAN TAMSKY— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Tamsky, in light of the sworn testimony this 
committee has received, I think I should ask you pointedly the ques- 
tion as to whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party 
at any time since 1952. 

Mr. Tamsky. I decline to answer that question, on the basis of the 
fifth amendment as I used it before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time prior to 1952? 

Mr. Tamsky. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Tamsky. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Chairman Walter. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Don Rothenberg. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2071 

Chairman Walter. Kaise your right hand. Do you swear that the 
testimony you give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth ? 

Mr. EOTHENBERG. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DON ROTHENBERG, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Kothenberg. My name is Don Rothenberg. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your name, please ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. R-o-t-h-e-n-b-e-r-g. First name, D-o-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by the same 
counsel who accompanied the preceding witness. 

When and where were you born, Mr. Rothenberg ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. Mr. Tavenner and Mr. Congressman, I would like 
to read a short statement. 

Chairman Walter. No; you are not going to read any statement. 
Just answer the questions you are asked. When and where were you 
born ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. Mr. Walter, 1 was subpenaecl here 

Chairman Walter. That is right, you were subpenaed here to 
answer some questions, and now answer them. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Without any knowledge 

Chairman Walter. J\Ir. Tavenner, proceed. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Without any knowledge of the subject of the 
hearing. 

Chairman Walter. You know all about it. I read the purpose when 
the hearing opened this morning. 

Mr. Rothenberg. That is correct, and I have since prepared the 
statement. 

Chairman Walter. Never mind your statement. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name ^ 

Mr. Rothenberg. I stated my name. 

Mr. Tavenner. And your place of birth. 

Mr. Rothenberg. I was born in New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. What date ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. July 19, 1924, 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I attended the public schools in New York City. 
1 graduated from high school and went to Brooklyn College, which is a 
free city college in the city of New York until 1943, when I enlisted 
in the Army. I returned from service and completed by education in 
the Nation's Capital at George Washington University. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you return from service ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I was discharged in November 1945. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you enter George Washington 
University ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I can't tell you the exact date. It was probably 
in February of 1946 since the college term usually begins in February. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what field of educational work did you enter? 



2072 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I was a major in political science. That was my 
major. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many years did you attend George Washington 
University ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I belicve I stated, Mr. Tavenner, that I graduated 
in August of 1947, which would mean that I attended approximately 
a year and a half. It was during that time that my interest in justice 
for all persons was heightened, and it is for that reason, Mr. Chairman, 
that I would like to request that you allow me to read my statement. 

Chairman Walter. Was it then that you joined the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. May I read my statement? 

Chairman Walter. You are not going to read the statement at 
all. I have asked you a question. 

Mr. Rotheistberg. Aren't you interested in facts in this case ? 

Chairman Walter. I am interested in facts. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I would like to give you a book, then. 

Chairman Walter. Never mind that, I don't read that drivel. 

Mr. Tavenner. I ask that he answer the question. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. It is apparent, Mr, Chairman, that you are not 
interested in facts. 

Chairman Walter. I am interested in facts, but not the 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. You are interested in trying 

Chairman Walter. Never mind. Answer my question. Was it 
then that you joined the Communist Party ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. There are 4 million people who expressed them- 
selves on that case. 

Chairman Walter. Was it then that you joined the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. Mr. Chairman 

Chairman Walter. Was it? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. In view of your obvious attempt to show a lack of 
concern, lack of interest in a basic princij)le of free speech, free as- 
semblage, the right of a citizen of this country to petition his Con- 
gress for a redress of grievances, and in view of the obvious intent of 
this committee not to look into the facts of this case, and in view of 
the protection which was inserted into our Constitution by our 
Founding Fathers for exactly this type of situation, Mr. Walter, I 
refuse to answer your question under the privilege granted to me by 
the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

(Mr. Willis left the hearing room. ) 

Mr. Scherer. You said you wanted to know whether we are inter- 
ested in facts, and the very first fact we are interested in, and the most 
important fact we are interested in, is your membership in the Com- 
munist Party. You have a chance to tell us under oath about that 
fact, and you refuse. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. Mr. Congressman, it seems to me that there was 
a refusal even before mine, and that was the refusal of Mr. Walter to 
read a book which is fully documented, 672 pages, which a man worked 
3 years to produce and it exposes the entire framework of the Rosen- 
berg-Sobell case. I ask you as a Congressman who happens to be 
from my home State to at least have the decency to read the book. 

Mr. Scherer. I will read the book if you will tell us if you are a 
member of the Communist Party. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2073 

Mr. KoTHENBERG. Mr. Congressman, I think that any person who 
lias observed the hearings of this committee would not make a deal 
with this committee. I don't come to you to make deals. I come to 
)^ou as one of my representatives from my State 

Chairman Walter. To give us facts. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. That is correct, sir. 

Chairman Walter. Now we are starting on the proper basis. Give 
us facts. Now, are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. ROTHENBERG. Well 

Chairmsin Walter. I thought we were going to talk about facts, 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I tliouglit we were, too, sir. I had no idea why 
I was subpenaed here. 

Chairman Walter. You will find out if you answer the questions. 
I am sure you will make a great contribution to the matter with which 
we are concerned. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I am attempting to make such a contribution, 
Congressman. 

Chairman Walter. Never mind. You are not very funny. Mr. 
Tavenner wants to ask some questions. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I assurc you, Mr. Walter, I don't intend to be 
funny. This is a ver}^ serious matter. This involves a couple that 
was executed. 

Chairman Walter. You have no more interest in that than you 
have in the man in the moon. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I resent that statement, Mr. Congressman. 

Chairman Walter. I don't care whether you do or don't. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I Tcseut it and I ask you to withdraw it from 
the record. 

Chairman Walter. I am not going to withdraw 

Mr, RoTHENBERG. How dare you impugn my motives? 

Mr. Tavenner. ]Mr. Rothenberg, the Jbook to which you referred 
was Judgment of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, by John Wexley, was 
it not? 

Mr. Rothenberg. That is correct. 

Mr. Forer. Have you read it ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I am glad to see that you recognize it. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is a book written from the Communist Party 
point of view of the issues involved. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Have you read the book, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. I have examined the book. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Have you read the book? Have you read the 
documents ? Can you prove one lie in this book? I dare you to prove 
it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. You can't. You are not interested in the facts. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is by John Wexlej', and it is a presentation of 
the Communist Party point of view, is it not? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I ask any objective person in this room whether 
he be a reporter or not to read the book and form his own opinion. 

Chairman Walter. Answer the question. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Will you repeat the question ? 

Chairman Walter. Read the question, please. 

(Question read by the reporter.) 



2074 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I thiiik it is an objective presentation of the facts 
in this case, and it is by John Wexley. 

Mr. ScHERER. I submit he has not answered the question. 

Chairman Walter, Just answer the question. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Forer. He did. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Mr. Chairman, I think I answered that question. 

Chairman Walter. Never mind. Mr. Tavenner will ask the next 
question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know that Mr. John Wexley has been identi- 
fied before this committee as a member of the Communist Party ? 

INIr. Rothenberg. Is your question do I know that Mr. Wexley has 
been identified ? Are you stating at what time and what person identi- 
fied Mr. Wexley? 

Mr. Tavenner. No ; but I will if your recollection needs refreshing. 

Chairman Walter. I don't think that is necessary. Do you know 
whether or not he is a member of the Communist Party? 

(No response.) 

Chairman Walter. Do you? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I will refuse to answer that question, Mr. Walter, 
on the basis of the 

Mr. Scherer. There are two facts we wanted that we have not got- 
ten from this witness. 

Mr. Rothenberg. May I complete my answer ? 

Chairman Walter. You have answered the question. You say you 
refuse to answer because of the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Please don't put words in my mouth. It is diffi- 
cult as it is. I would like to complete my answer. 

Chairman Walter. Ask the next question. 

Mr. Rothenberg. I think I have the right to give the reasons for 
refusing to answer. 

Chairman Walter. You have refused to answer and given the rea- 
sons. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think it would be well for the 
record to show at this point the identification of Mr. John Wexley 
as a member of the Communist Party in sworn testimony before this 
committee. He has been identified by Martin Berkeley in testimony 
on September 19, 1951 ; by Mr. Robert Rossin on May 7, 1953 ; by Judith 
Raymond, testimony of September 11, 1953 ; by David A. Lang, March 
24, 1953 ; Pauline Townsend, testimony of March 12, 1953. 

Chairman Walter. Has he been subpenaed ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Chairman Walter. Why not? 

Mr. Tavenner. I don't know. 

]\Ir. Rothenberg. Subpena everyone who writes a book. Congress- 
man. 

Chairman Walter. No; we will subpena everybody who writes a 
- Conmiunist book. 

Mr. Rothenberg. You won't even read it and you say it is a Com- 
munist book. You are adjourning today. You will have time. 

Mr. Tav-enner. Testimony of Bart Lytton on March 26, 1953 ; Ed- 
ward Dmytryk, May 25, 1951; Leo Townsend, testimony of Septem- 
ber 18, 1951 ; Max Silver, by testimony of January 23, 1952. 

Mr. Scherer. How many witnesses identified him as a member of 
the Communist Party? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2075 

Mr. EoTHENBERG. May I point out- 



Chairman Walter, No ; there is no question before you. We will 
get around to some facts in a minute. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Rothenberg, you refused to answer the question 
whether or not you became a member of the Communist Party while 
you were in attendance at George Washington University. Did you 
become acquainted with Mary Stalcup Markward while you were at 
George Washington University? 

Mr. Rothenberg. Mary Stalcup Markward, is that correct ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mary Stalcup Markward. 

Mr. Rothenberg. I see. That was a long time ago. That was at 
least 8 years ago. 

Mr. ScHERER. You had your recollection refreshed about this woman 
just last year at Dayton, Ohio, Mr. Rothenberg; so it was not 8 years 
ago. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Tliat is, when I attended George Washington 
University was the question that was asked of me, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Yes; but just last year we talked at length. 

Mr. Rothenberg. You mean in the hearing room I was called with- 
out the benefit of counsel. You mean that one? When 1 was sub- 
penaed in the hearing room when you were chairman of the com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Scherer. That is right. 

Mr. Rothenberg. I thought you would remember. 

Mr. Scherer. I remember very well. 

Mr. Rothenberg. So do I, Congressman. 

Chairman Walter. Now that your memory is so good, do you re- 
member Mary Stalcup Markward ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I decline to answer that question on my privileges 
under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Eleanor Driesen in the 
city of Washington while you were a student at George Washington 
University ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. It might save time, to tell you that these 
questions seem to be similar to questions that you asked me in 
Dayton last year. You know the answers that I gave then on 
principle, not out of any fear, but on principle, and I would repeat 
my answer at this time. You have no right to ask me that question. 

Chairman Walter. Answer the question. Do you know this woman 
or not? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I decline to answer the question on the basis of 
my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. Scherer. I have a question while he is mentioning Dayton. 
During the time that you were testifying in Dayton you spoke at 
Antioch University, did you not ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. You mean Antioch College? 

Mr. Scherer. Well, college. 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Let us ask the question this way. 

Mr. RoTPiENBERG. I liope you realize. Congressman, why seeming- 
ly simple questions require some thought before this committee. I 
did speak at Antioch College. 



2076 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. ScHEKER. You spoke at Antioch College on the very night of 
the day that you took the fifth amendment before the committee at 
Dayton, did you not? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG, No, sir ; I don't believe that is correct. As I re- 
member it, I spoke on a Monday night. Your committee had issued 
a subpena to me Monday at 2 o'clock in the afternoon while I was 
sitting in the hearing room, and Tuesday morning at about 11 o'clock 
you issued a second subpena to me. As I remember it, I testified 15 
minutes after you issued me the subpena. 

Mr. ScHERER. When did you speak at Antioch College ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. To the best of my recollection it was the pre- 
vious evening, Monday night. I don't want to be held to it, but that 
is my recollection of the sequence of events. 

Mr. ScHERER. My question is, Who asked you to speak at Antioch 
College during those hearings? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I lionestly can't remember. 

Mr. ScHERER. To whom did you talk ? 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Before what group? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. Pardon ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Before what group of the college did you talk? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. Would you like to hear what I had to say at that 
time ? 

Mr. SCHERER. No. 

Mr. RarHENBERG. I didn't think you would. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wliat you said was in the newspaper. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. You have now invaded a new area of free as- 
sembly, Mr. Scherer. I don't know how many other aspects of the 
Constitution you are going to attempt to take care of in one afternoon. 

Chairman Walter. Answer the question : To whom did you speak ? 
What group was it ? That is a simple question. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I think I will decline to answer that question on 
the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Chairman Walter. Who invited you to come to the college to 
speak ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. And because I think it is a violation of free 
speech. 

Chairman Walter. Who invited you to come to the college to 
speak ? 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I think I answered that just a few moments ago, 
Mr. Walter. 

Chairman Walter. I was not listening. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I houestly don't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mary Stalcup Markward testified before the com- 
mittee on June 11, 1951, as follows [reading] : 

Ml'. Owens. With regard to the sttidents or students whom you have identi- 
fied, are there any other students in the Washington area whom you can recall 
as having been members of the Communist Party during your membership 
therein? 

I should add at this point that Mary Stalcup Markward was an 
undercover operative for the Federal IBureau of Investigation, and 



INl'ESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2077 

had joined the Communist Party and had risen at this time to the 
2:)Osition of treasurer of the Communist Party in the city of Wash- 
ington. 

Her reply was : 

There was an individual student recruited at George Washington University 
who was acutely security conscious at the time he was recruited, and was not 
associated with the students' club as such. That was Donald Rothenberg. He 
was sponsored by Eleanor Driesen who at that time was functionary for a 
Spanish aid committee, I believe at 802 F Street. 

Mr. Owens. Has she been previously identified by you as a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Markwakd. I believe not. She should have been. 

Mr. Owens. Will you identify her now? 

Mrs. Markwakd. She was a member of the industrial club, immediately after 
the reorganization of the Communist Party and then she transferred to the 
community club, and she transferred to Chicago around 1947. 

Mr. Owens. Continue about Mr. Rothenberg. 

Mrs. Markward. I was asked by Eleanor Driesen as city secretary to come 
to her office to interview Don Rotlienberg whom she highly recommended as a 
reputable person who should be a party member. He agreed to .ioin the Com- 
munist Party providing his membership would not be known to other than the 
very top leadership of the party. 

Mr. Owens. Was this in your presence? 

Mrs. Markward. This was in my presence as an official of the party. I was 
there to see if he could get such an agreement from the party. I was to decide 
whether the party would accept him under those conditions. I am certain his 
chairmanship of the AVC — 

whicli means American Veterans Committee — 

had something to do with the question but I was not certain it was the whole 
reason. I discussed this with William Taylor, and it was agreed that Don 
Rothenberg should be a member and pay dues as a member at large and not belong 
to a club. It is my recollection that after that time he was assigned to the 
community club. 

Were you a member at hirge of the Communist Party while you 
attended George Washington University as testified by ]Virs. Mark- 
ward ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. Mr. Tavenner, two people were executed on the 
basis of perjured testimony. Don't you understand that? 

Chairman Walter. Will you answer the question, please? Were 
you a member of the Communist Party during the period specified? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I must refuse to answer that question on the 
basis of my privilege granted to me under the fifth amendment not to 
be a witness against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was the testimony that INIr. Tavenner just read to 
you by Mrs. INIarkward true or false, particularly as it referred to you? 

Mr. Rothenberg. Mr. Scherer, you know that is the same question. 
Are you trying to trap me ? Is that your piu'pose ? 

Mr. Scherer. No ; you are too smart to be trapped. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Thank you very much, Mr. Scherer. I appre- 
ciate the compliment. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you answer the question ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. lAliat is the question ? 

Mr. Scherer. Is the testimony that Mr. Tavenner read, the testi- 
mony of Mrs. Markward, true or false, particularly as that testimony 
refers to you. 

Mr. Rothenberg. It seems to me that I have answered that ques- 
tion which was worded in a slightly different way just a moment ago. 



2078 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that the witness be directed to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG, I decline to answer the question, Mr. Scherer, on 
the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Mr. Rothenberg, after you left Washington in 1947, 
or after you completed your course, how did you become employed? 

Mr. Rothenberg. In view of the line of questioning that has been 
developed so far, and in view of your lack of interest in the facts of 
this case, which you are supposedly investigating today 

Chairman Walter. How do you know what we are investigating? 
A moment ago you said you didn't know what you came here for. 
But you came here with a whole boxful of material. 

JNIr. Rothenberg. I said when I received my subpena, Mr. Walter, 
and I will show it to you, it has nothing but my name on it. 

Chairman Walter. You said you didn't know what you were com- 
ing here for. You came prepared with a whole boxful of material. 

]\Ir. Rothenberg. I should correct my statement. Congressman. I 
didn't know at the time I was subpenaed why I was being called, and 
it was not until I read an article in a newspaper that hearings were 
taking place at this time that I thought it might be on this subject and 
for that reason I come prepared with the things which have brought 
me to my conviction on the Rosenberg-Sobell case. 

(Mr. Forer left the room.) 

Mr. Rothenberg. I have read the court record. It is right here. 
There are Members of Congress who have read the court record, and 
a number of them I understand have gi^eat doubts about the guilt of 
the Rosenbergs. Why don't you read the court record ? You are an 
attorney, Mr. Walter. 

Chairman Walter. Mr. Tavenner, will you proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. May we have a 5-minute recess? 

(Short recess.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere do you now reside, Mr. Rothenberg? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I live in Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Cleveland ? 

Mr. Scherer. Eight years. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Do you have to answer, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have just been reading your testimony. 

Mr. Rothenberg. The answer is 7 years, not 8 years, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. A year ago you said you were living there 8 years, 
so it ought to be 9. 

Mr. Rothenberg. I said I came there in May 17, 1948. I believe that 
is 7 years. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. Is that the date when you went to Cleveland? 

Mr. Rothenberg. Yes, that is my recollection. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present occupation or profession ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. Mr. Tavenner, I decline to answer that question 
on the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a 
witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you the State director of the Progressive Party 
for the State of Ohio ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. As you know, you place a witness in a very dif- 
ficult position. You are aware of that. I will decline to answer 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2079 

that question for good and sufficient reasons and because of my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had any official connection with the Cleve- 
land Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, or a similar 
committee ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I live in Cleveland. I have taken a great per- 
sonal interest in the Rosenberg case as has Dr. Urey, His Holiness, 
the Pope, Albert Einstein, Chief Cardinal of France 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. And I said myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your connection with that organization 
in Cleveland ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I didn't say that I had a connection with that 
organization in Cleveland. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have a connection with it ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I will decline to answer that question under the 
fifth amendment which includes my privilege not to be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend a convention of that national organ- 
ization in the city of Chicago where you were appointed by the chair- 
man to a position on the organization and finance committee? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. Of wliicli organization? 

Mr. Tavenner. The national organization for the defense of the 
Rosenbergs. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I Stated before that I took a great personal in- 
terest in the Rosenberg- Sobell case. I think I have indicated that 
interest rather strongly today. I hope not too strongly. But I will 
decline that particular question on the basis of my privilege under 
the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Weren't you an active participant in the national 
organization as early as 195'3 ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I read the court record, I believe, in 1953. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is not responsive to my question. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. As far as that specific question is concerned, I 
will decline to answer it on the basis of my privilege under the fifth 
amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who is the president of the national organiza- 
tion? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. President? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. Of the national organization that you referred 
to in previous questions ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

]Mr. RoTHENBERG. I will again decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. You will not tell the committee the name of its 
president ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I will give my answer, Mr. Tavenner. I will de- 
cline to answer that question because I don't think that you are serious- 
ly interested in what was actually done to try to save the Rosenbergs. 
I think you are trying to overlook the fact that 4 million people in this 
country expressed themselves 

Chairman Walter. We are not trying the Rosenbergs. We are 
interested in something entirely different. The Supreme Court of the 
United States passed on the validity of the proceedings in that par- 



2080 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

ticular case. We are not concerned with the book that you bring 
in here, published by some Communist publishers and written by a 
Communist : we are not concti-ned with that. We want to know some- 
thing entirely different. We are not trying the Rosenbergs. They 
have been tried, they have been convicted, and their conviction sus- 
tained. Nobody in the history of jurisprudence anywhere in the 
world had their case examined any more carefully than was the 
case with the Rosenbergs. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. RoTHEKBERG. Mr. Congressman, do you know the statement you 
made on the day of the execution of the Rosenbergs? Do you know 
you objected to the Supreme Court overruling Justice Douglas' stay? 
Sliall 1 produce the clipping containing vour statement concerning 
the act of 1925? 

Chairman Walter. No. I will not admit it. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. You wou't admit it. I will show it to you. 

Mr. Tavenner. We of course are not attempting to review the de- 
cision. What we are attempting to do is to ascertain facts regarding 
Communist Party participation in the matter if there was such. 

Chairman Walter. More than that, we are interested in ascertain- 
ing to wliat extent this cause celebre was used by the Communists to 
further their own interests. 

Mr. Tavenner. Precisely. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me an excerpt from the Dailv Worker 
of September 18, 1953, entitled, "5,000 at Rally Pledge Fight for 
New Trial for Sobell." 

In the last paragraph appears this statement: "Other speakers 
were Prof. E]:)hraim Cross and Don Rothenberg, the committee's 
Washington representative." 

Were you correctly noted here as the Sobell committee's Washington 
representative ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I am proud of everything I did to try to prevent 
an injustice against the Rosenbergs and Martin Sobell. I would not 
take back one word or one act. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was not my question. My question is whether 
or not it was correctly stated in tliat news item that you were the com- 
mittee's Washington representative. 

Mr. Rothenberg. I will decline to answer that question on the 
basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness 
against myself. 

]SIr. ScHERER. If you were so proud, why don't you answer ? Why 
don't you tell us whether or not you were the committee's Washington 
representative ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. Well, Congressman 

Mr. ScHERER. If you are so proud of what you have done in this 
case, why don't you tell us all you did and where the money went, 
and whether it all went to the defense of the Rosenbergs, or how much 
of it went to the Communist Party ? You can tell us all of that, in- 
stead of hiding behind the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Rothenberg. You ought to be ashamed to make a statement of 
that kind. 

Mr. Scherer. No, I am not. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2081 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. You really should. Y'oii are implying that 



persons 

Chairman Walter. Just a minute. I want to again refer to this 
document furnished by M. Harbus & Co., certified public accountants. 
You find on the fourth page of exhibit B, Washington office expense, 
$3,907.63, which incidentally is three times the amount of the money 
given to the Rosenberg children. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I wish you expressed your concern for the chil- 
dren in 1953, Mr. Walter. They are orphans today. 

Chairman Walter. I ask you whether or not this $3,900 was spent 
for the Washington office expenses. 

Mr. RoTiiENBERG. You See there is an implication in that question 
because of what Congressman Scherer said just preceding your ques- 
tion. It is precisely for that reason that a witness is put in a difficult 
position here. Congressman Scherer knows as well as I know 

Chairman Walter. Just answer my question. How was that 
money expended ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I decline to answer that question. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I liave not completed my answer. 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Let the record show that there is an extended con- 
sultation between the witness and counsel. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. Is it a crime to consult a lawyer? 

Mr. Scherer. I didn't say that. I want the record to show what is 
going on. If I don't say what is going on, it won't show in the record- 
Chairman Walter. Let us save a lot of time. I will withdraw that 
question and we will proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. In the June 22, 1953, issue of the Daily Worker, 
there is an article by Virginia Gardner entitled "Grim, Silent Vigil 
at the White House." Are you listening? In the course of the article 
appears this statement : 

Don Rothenberg of the National Committee To Secure Justice estimated 
Friday night about 550 persons stayed overnight. 

What position was it that you held at that time, in June 1953, with 
the national committee? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I think that is the same question restated. For 
your information I have a number of clippings. You seem to quote 
only from the Daily Worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question, please? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I have clippings from the New York Times, New 
York Herald Tribune, Washington Post and Star and Washington 
News, and newspapers throughout the world. 

Chairman Walter. Will you answer the question ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I have answered the same question before. 

Chairman Walter. Do you refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I decline to answer on the basis of my privilege 
under tlie fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Chairman Walter. Ask the next question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in charge of any part of the demonstra- 
tion in the District of Columbia between June 14 and 19, 1953, as a 
representative of the national organization ? 



2082 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. EoTHENBERG. Between June 14 and June 19, 1953 ? That was 
one of the finest, most peaceful demonstrations for justice that I have 
heard about. 

Chairman Walter. What was the date ? 

Mr. Tavenner. June 14 to June 19, 1953. Will you answer the 
question, please? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. According to clippings I have here there were 
over 13,000 people that took part in that demonstration. 

Mr. Tavenner. You will not have to turn to your clippings to de- 
termine whether or not you were in charge of part of the demonstra- 
tion. Will you answer the question, please ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. The question is was I in charge? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Of the demonstration ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Of any part of the demonstration. 

Mr. Rosenberg. Of 13,000 people in front of the Wliite House? 

Mr. Tavenner. I said of the demonstration. 

Mr. Rothenberg. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Chairman Walter. I notice there was some $57,859 for delegations 
to Washington, railroad and so on, to this demonstration that you 
mention. Did you pay the expenses of the people to come to the 
vdemonstration ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. According to these clippings. Congressman, there 
-were people who hitchhiked, people who came by train, people who 
lost time from work in order to come here. I honestly say that the 
implication you are leaving by that question is that some group, 
somewhere, pulled $58,000 out of a hat and paid people to come to 
Washington. 

Chairman Walter. That is right. That is what we want to know 
about it. We want to know out of whose hat this $58,000 was pulled. 
If you will answer the question, you will help us find the answer. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Congressman, all I can say is that to the best of 
my personal knowledge in my adult years I have never been con- 
nected with any group which misappropriated its funds, which mis- 
used its funds, or which diverted its funds, never. 

Chairman Walter. Now, then, having volunteered that, were you 
ever connected with any group that raised money for the Rosenberg 
defense ? 

Mr. Rothenberg. Congressman, that is a restatement, I believe 

Chairman Walter. That is not a statement. It is a question. 

Mr. Rothenberg. It is another form of the same question which 
I declined to answer before on the basis of my privilege under the 
fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Chairman Walter. I had forgotten that. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have not yet answered my question as to 
whether or not you were in charge of any part of the demonstration 
that was conducted here between June 14 and June 19, 1953. 

Mr. Rothenberg. I think if you will check back with the secretary 
I did ansM er that question by declining to answer under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will accept that. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2083 

Did you make arrangements for the chartering of 15 buses to bring 
people into the city of Washington for that demonstration? 

(No response.) 

Chairman Walter. Did you? 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I guess you will read a whole number of these 
things into the record. I will just decline to answer that question on 
the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Chairman Walter. It wasn't so funny after all; was it? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I don't consider this funny, Congressman. I hope 
you don't think I did. 

Chairman Walter. Yes; I think you do. You have been sitting 
here laughing ever since this question was asked. 

Mr. Rothenberg. I am laughing because of the position that a 
witness is placed in here. I would be very glad if you would consent 
at your convenience that I would hitchhike or travel anywhere in 
the country to discuss this case with you, because there are other 
Members of Congress who have indicated concern about the case. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, IVIr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't it a fact that you incurred an expense of 
$1,167.75 for the chartering of those buses? 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. He personally ? 

]Mr. Rothenberg. That I incurred such an expense ? 

Mr. Tavenner. That that expense was incurred for the chartering 
of those buses. 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. Rothenberg. I will just decline to answer that question on the 
basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. How was the bus company paid for its services in 
bringing in 15 buses? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I will decline to answer that question on the 
basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr, Tavenner. What was the source of the funds used to pay the 
bus company? 

Mr. Rothenberg. What do you mean, what was the source of the 
funds? 

Mr. Tavenner. Just what the question says. Wliat was the source 
of it. AYliere did the money come from ? 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. Rothenberg. The question was what was the source of the 
funds? 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Yes ; used to pay the bus company. 

Mr. Rothenberg. First of all, I have not discussed any payment 
to the bus company, to any bus company. Second, I am deeply con- 
cerned that you would ask questions about a peaceful assemblage of 
people. Why does it concern you so much ? 

Mr. Tavenner. It certainly would not if the Communist Party 
were not involved in it. But if the Communist Party is involved in 
it, we are deeply concerned. 

Mr. Rothenberg. In other words, if there was one Communist in 
any activity, it is bad ; is that correct ? 



2084 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Not at all. But if you, as a member of the Com- 
munist Party, were in charge of the demonstration, we want to know 
what the Communist Party was up to. Now, will you tell us ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. It was a peaceful demonstration ; wasn't it ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us ? 

Mr. E.OTHENBERG. Wasn't it a peaceful demonstration? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us? 

Chairman Walter. Answer the question, Mr. Witness, 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us what the Communist Party was 
up to ? 

Mr. RoTiiENBERG. You loiow that is a loaded question, Mr. Taven- 
ner. I decline to answer the question on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment not to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Here is one question that certainly is not loaded. Wit- 
ness. Between 1951 and 1953, the National Committee to Secure Jus- 
tice in the Rosenberg Case collected $302,530.17. What part of that,, 
if any, went to the Communist Party ? 

( Witness consults his counsel. ) 

Mr. RoTiiENBERG. I am sorry. I wonder if you would repeat it, 
because I want to get the exact language. 

Mr. ScHERER. Read the question, please. 

(Question read by the reporter.) 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I liave no loiowledge. Congressman Scherer, of 
any money collected for the Rosenberg-Sobell case going to the Com- 
munist Party or any other organization. I personally doubt, and this 
is my personal opinion 

Mr. Scherer. Did you handle any of the funds? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I will decline to answer that question, Mr. Con- 
gressman, under my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a 
witness against myself. 

Mr. SciiERER. Did you collect any funds ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I will auswer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you disburse any of the funds? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. That question has been asked of me before. 

Mr. Scherer. I am asking you again. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I will decline again to answer it on the basis of my 
rights under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Scherer. How much more, if any, was collected over and above 
the $302,530.17 as shown in the report of the auditors? 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. You mean collected by the committee ? 

Mr. Scherer. By the conmiittee. 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Or anyone on behalf of the committee, 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I have no knowledge whether there was any more 
or any less, but it is my personal conviction — my personal opinion — • 
that every cent that was collected to save the lives of the Rosenbergs 
was spent for that purpose. It was spent for things like a transcript 
of the court record which is a completely unprecedented thing in any 
case of this kind. 

Mr. Scherer. What connection did you have, then, with that com- 
mittee in order to be able to form the opinion you just gave us ? 
(Witness consults his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2085 

Mr. EoTiiENBERG. I will decline to answer that qnestion. It is the 
same qnestion which I declined to answer before. On the basis of my 
privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. You just testified what was done with reference to 
having the court record printed or reprinted. How did you happen 
to know about that, if you were not on the committee ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. Mr. Scherer, I told you earlier in my testimony 
that I became interested in this case on the basis of reading the court 
record. I think it is a wonderful thing that the committee 

Mr. Scherer. That is not what you said. You indicated that the 
transcript of the court record was quite expensive. 

Mr. Rothenberg. I think you know as a lawyer the amount of 
money tliat it would cost to reproduce it. If you w^ould like to take a 
look at it, I will be glad to show it to you [handing]. 

Mr. Scherer. Who paid for the reproduction of this record ? Who 
paid for this? 

Mr. Rothenberg. You have a copy of the record there. 

Mr. Scherer. I am asking you the question. You handed it to 
me now, and I want to know who paid for it ^ 

Mr. Rothenberg. It says there 

Mr. Scherer. I am not" asking you what it says there. I am asking 
you. I can read. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Well, Congressman, you know what it says. I 
know what it says. Let the record sliow that it says the National 
Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 

Mr. Scherer. I am asking you again, and I ask, Mr. Chairman, 
that you direct the witness to answer the question. 

Chairman Walter. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Forer. You mean of his personal knowledge, is that the ques- 
tion ? 

Mr. Scherer. I think he understands the question. 

Mr. Rothenberg. I will decline to answer that question on the 
basis of my privilege under the hfth amendment, and it is a part of 
a whole series of questions of that kind. I trust that you will get 
the opportunity to read that record. Congressman. It might be very 
interesting — I would be very interested in your opinions after you 
read it. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us because you have not yet answered 
tlie question : What was the source of the funds used to pay the bus 
companies for the transportation of people to the city of Washington? 

Mr. Rothenberg. I have answered that question, Mr. Tavenner,. 
and I think again if you will consult the record you will find that I 
have answered it. 

Mr. Tavenner. No, just indirectly. You have never answered the 
question directly. 

Mr. Rothenberg. Let me make it very clear that I decline to 
answer that question on the basis of my privilege under the fifth 
amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you presently officiallv connected with the Na- 
tional Committee for Justice to Morton Sobell? 

672T5— 55— pt. 1 4 



2086 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I retained my interest in this case and will do 
so until Morton Sobell is out of Alcatraz and has been granted a new 
trial. I think that is going to happen, because there have been events 
recently which point to it, such as the trial 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question, please? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. That is a question which I will decline to answer 
on the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a 
witness against myself. 

Mr. ScuERER. Witness, I forgot to ask you one question when I was 
asking about the financing of this committee. How much money did 
the Communist Party contribute to the fund ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. Congressman, I have no knowledge of any contri- 
butions by the Communist Party to the Rosenberg- Sobell case, and 
you are putting that kind of question in in order to leave certain im- 
plications. I think it is a disgrace. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you deny that there was such contribution? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I Say to you that I have no knowledge. 

Mr. ScHERER. As a member of the Communist Party and as one of 
the prime movers in this movement, you should know, shouldn't you ? 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. Is that a question or is that a statement? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes, a question. Do you know ? 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I would siuiply decline to answer that question 
on the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman, other 
than to ask the witness whether he is now a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. ROTHENBERG. Is that your last question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. May I read my statement after that question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No. Answer the question. 

Chairman Walter. No, we are not interested in the statement. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I kuow you are not interested in my statement, 
Congressman. You have evidenced that from the moment I came on 
the stand. 

Chairman Walter. I am very allergic to anything that comes from 
the lips of any Communist. That includes you. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. Everything that comes from the lips of a Con- 
gressman I am interested in. 

Chairman Walter. Are you a member of the Communist Party? 

(No response.) 

Chairman Walter. Are you ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. It was my understanding 

Chairman Walter. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I am going to give reasons. 

Chairman Walter. I am asking you a question. Are you a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. INIay I give my reasons 

Chairman Walter. No, you may not give any reasons at all. You 
can answer my question ; are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I Want to consult with my attorney as to whether 
I have the right to give legal reasons for declining to answer a question. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2087 

Chairman Walter. Go ahead and ask your attorney. 

(Witness consults his counsel.) 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I decline to answer that question. 

Chairman Walter. All right. 

Mr. RoTiiENBERG. For the following reasons. 

Chairman Walter. Any further questions ? That is all. 

Mr. RoTHENBERG. I think it is important that I get my reasons 

Chairman Walter, You are excused. 

(Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 

Chairman Walter. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Mildred Rothenberg. 

Chairman Walter. Do you swear the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. MILDRED ROTHENBERG, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you Mrs. Mildren Rothenberg? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. That is correct. 

Mr. Tav-enner. It is noted you are accompanied by the same counsel 
who accompanied the preceding witness. 

Do you live in Cleveland? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was your name prior to marriage ? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. Crum. 

Mr. Tai^enner. Have you held any official position on the Cleveland 
Committee To Secure Clemency for the Rosenbergs? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. Mr. Tavenner, I decline to answer that question 
on the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a 
witness against myself and also under the first amendment under my 
privilege of freedom of speech and to seek a redress of grievances. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, I have before me a photostatic copy of an 
advertisement which appeared in the Cleveland Plain Dealer on 
June 9, 1953, relating to the Rosenberg case. 

At the bottom of it I see the following : 

The advertisement was paid for by popular subscription and sponsored by the 
Cleveland Committee To Secure Clemency for the Rosenbergs, Post Office 
Box No. 21, Cleveland, Ohio, M. S. Rothenberg, executive secretary. 

Mrs. Rothenberg. May I see the ad, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the name of M. S. Rothenberg 
and state whether or not it refers to you [handing document to 
witness] ? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. I think it is a fine ad. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question after having made 
your speech. 

Mrs. Rothenberg. I'm sorry. I didn't know it was a speech. I 
decline to answer under my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your middle initial? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. My middle initial is "S." 

Mr. Tavenner. M. S., then, would be the proper initials to repre- 
sent your name ; is that correct ? 



2088 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mrs. RoTHENBERG. Presumably. 

Mr. Tavenner. Presumably? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. Presumably, if one's name were 

Mr. Forer. a very cute observation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Here is another article from the Plain Dealer which 
will be more specific as to the name. It bears date of June 14, 1953, 
"37 en route to appeal for spies, many left-wingers board bus to Wash- 
ington." 

In the course of the article I find this paragraph : 

Mrs. Don Rothenberg, a siwkesman for the group, said that the committee- 
had no officers. 

You are Mrs. Don Rothenberg, are you not ? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you correctly reported in stating that the 
committee had no officers ? 

( The witness consulted with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Rothenberg. I decline to answer under my privilege as stated 
previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. You didn't go to Washington, did you, with the 
group ? 

(The witness consulted with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Rothenberg. I decline to answer for the same reason. I be- 
lieve the story does say that a Mrs. Don Rothenberg did not board the 
bus ; it said she had to stay home with her children. 

Mr. Taatsnner. Is that correct ? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are not willing to state anything under oath 
about it ? 

Chairman Walter. Of what crime do you think you might be con- 
victed by admitting you stayed home with your children? 

(The witness consulted with her counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. There was a previous question she didn't answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let her answer the last question. 

Mr. Forer. Wliich one ? 

Mr. Tavenner. The chairman's. 

Mr. Forer. What crime does she think she is guilty of by staying 
home with her children ? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. I don't think it is any crime. As a matter of 
fact, that is Avhere I should be right now. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then Avill you answer the question ? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. Will you repeat the question, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. The question which was presented to you was this : 
Was it a fact that you did remain and so stated to the j^ress at the time 
the bus left with the people for Washington ? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. I refuse to answer for the reasons stated previ- 
ously. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether or not 
the first indication in Cleveland of the formation of a committee to 
secure justice for the Rosenbergs was annoiuiced at a meeting of the 
Progressive Party ? Do you know ? 

(The w^itness consulted with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Rothenberg. I have no such knowledge. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2089 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not the movement was 
first officially started throiio;h a joint meeting of the Cleveland Coun- 
cil of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, along with people representing 
the Ohio Committee To Secure Justice in tlie Kosenberg Case? 

Mrs. RoTHENBERG. I am sorry. I missed the first part of that 
question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will yon tell the committee, please, whether or not 
the first meeting that was held in establishing and promoting the 
work of this group was a joint meeting of the Cleveland Council of 
Arts, Sciences, and Professions and the Ohio committee to secure jus- 
tice for Julius and Ethel Rosenberg? 

(The witness consulted her counsel.) 

Mrs. Rothenberg. I have no such recollection. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were not an executive secretary of the organ- 
ization upon its foundation, were you ? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. I decline to answer for the reasons stated 
previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, you succeeded another person 
quite some time later as executive secretary, didn't you? 

(The witness consulted her counsel.) 

]\lrs. Rothenberg. I refuse, decline to answer for the reasons stated 
previously. 

(The witness consulted her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner, Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time during the year 1953 ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I decline to answer and invoke my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta%tenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Rothenberg. I am hesitating because I realize the dilemma 
this kind of questioning leads people into, but I am forced to invoke 
my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee what disposition was 
made by the Cleveland Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case, of the funds raised by it for the Rosenberg family ? 

]Mrs. Rothenberg. I decline to answer for the reasons stated pre- 
viously, but if you want a question of opinion, Mr. Counsel, my ob- 
jective opinion would be that any funds 

Mr. Ta\^nner. I am not interested in your opinion. If you have 
no facts on which you are willing to testify under oath, I am not in- 
terested in your opinion. 

I have no further questions. 

Chairman Walter. Any questions? 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Chairman Walter. Call your next witness, ]\Ir. Tavenner. 

Mr. TA\nEN>rER. JNIr. John Gilman. 

Chairman Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please. Do you 
swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Gh.man. I do. 



2090 INVESTIGATION OF COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN GILMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
MILTON H. FRIEDMAN 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Oilman. John Gilman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel accompanying the witness pleas© 
identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Friedman. Milton H. Friedman, New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^Vhere were you bom, Mr. Gilman ? 

Mr. Oilman. I think the committee has the record, but I will re- 
state it. I was born on September 16, 1920, in a town called Ches- 
ter, Pa. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere do you now reside ? 

Mr. Oilman. I think the committee has this record also, but I 
will restate it. Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Milwaukee, Mr. Gil- 
man? 

Mr. Oilman. I would say approximately 7 years. 

TVIr. Tavenner. What is your trade or occupation? 

Mr. Oilman. Does this hgure in the investigation some, Mr. Coun- 
selor ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Please answer the question. 

]\Ir. Oilman. I am an owner of a small business. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat type of business ? 

Mr. Oilman. A floor-covering and wall-covering business. 

Mr. Tavenner. In Milwaukee? 

Mr. Oilman. In Milwaukee, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Will you tell the committee, please, briefly, what 
your formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Oilman. At the age of 6 I started grammar school. At the 
termination of grammar school, I entered high school. At the termi- 
nation of high school I entered college. At the termination of my 
bachelor of science degree I entered graduate school for 1 semester. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you complete your undergraduate work ? 

JNIr. Oilman. I believe I completed my undergraduate work in Feb- 
ruary — one moment, I won't have a camera snapping at me. If you 
want to take pictures, you are welcome to first, but not while I am 
testifying. I am sorry. 

I believe I finished my undergraduate work in February of 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. At what university? 

JNIr. Oilman. At the University of Wisconsin. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Was your graduate work taken the following year? 

]Mr. Oilman. The graduate work was taken the very year when I 
finished my undergraduate work, the following semester, so to speak. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you move to jSIilwaukee immediately upon 
completion of your graduate work ? 

Mr. Oilman. No, I was not finished with my graduate work. I had 
a brother in Milwaukee who asked me to assist him in opening up a 
floor-covering establishment. That brother is dead today. I still 
run that very same business. 

In other words, I never got the opportunity to go back to complete 
my graduate work that I so desired. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the course of hearings conducted at Mil- 
waukee this year, Mr. Merle Snyder identified you as a member of the 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2091 

Communist Party and also Mr. James Eggleston, who had been em- 
ployed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and worked in an 
undercover capacity in the Communist Party, identified you as a 
member of the Communist Party. 

May I ask whether or not you were a member of the Communist 
Party in 1953 ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. I invoke the fifth amendment in refusing to answer 
this loaded question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me an article that was published in 
the press at Milwaukee entitled "Plea for Red Turned Down." It 
was a case in which District Attorney William McCauley rejected an 
appeal from the Wisconsin Civil Rights Congress to withdraw charges 
against a person who was a former member of the Communist Party. 

Do you recall the incident ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. May I see the article, Mr. Counselor ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir [handing document to witness]. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr, GiLMAN. This question and the answer to this question 
is an attempt to involve me in this particular instance with that 
of a man who was an avowed Communist and I refuse to be tricked 
into answering loaded questions for the benefit of attempting to si- 
lence me in any of my activity, and I am invoking the fifth amend- 
ment very strongly in this particular case because I don't feel that 
this committee or any particular authority has the right to restrict 
my beliefs under the first amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me call your attention to the last few para- 
graphs of this article in which the district attorney is quoted as 
having asked you 

(The witness consulted his attorney.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hear '( 

Mr. GiLMAN. Yes, I heard. I am sorry. 

Mr. Tavenner. Whether or not you are a Communist, to which 
you replied, "No, I am not, but I am very interested in civil rights." 

Did you make the reply attributed to you ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. I have been fighting for civil rights ever since I 
learned to understand 

Chairman Walter. That isn't an answer to the question. 

Mr. GiLMAN. Will you restate the question, Mr. Counselor? 

Mr. Tavenner. The article states that the district attorney asked 
you the question: "Are you a Communist?" and your reply is in 
quotations, "No, I am not, but I am very interested in civil rights." 

Did you make the reply attributed to you ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. My answer to that question is substantially the same 
answer that I previously gave when I invoked the fifth amendment, 
two answers back. 

Mr. Tavenner. If you were correctly quoted, was it the truth, 
or not the truth ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. This committee is attempting — and it is extremely 
obvious with other people throughout the country — to trick people 
into contempt citations, perjury citations, with the use of paid stool 
pigeons, and I invoke the fifth amendment for the previous reason I 
stated two questions back. 

Chairman Walter. Let's see that we und.erstand each other. 
What do you mean by "stool pigeon" ? 



2092 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. GiLMAN. A stool pigeon, Mr, Cliairman, I think you should 
know this 

Chairman Walter. I have my own ideas. 

Mr. Oilman. I have great respect for elderly people, and that is 
why I said I think you should know this. I think you have much 
more knowledge and understanding of what a stool pigeon is, long 
before I was born. 

Chairman Walter. Probably. 

Mr. Oilman. A stool pigeon is a commonly used word meaning a 
person for reasons of monetary gain, prestige, or what have you, will 
sell his whole soul away, either through lying, deception, half-truth, 
or whatever way he can. 

Chairman Walter. What you mean is this: He is a person who 
tells on somebody else who has been engaged in a criminal act, either 
with him or alone ; is that what you mean ? 

Mr. Oilman. I wouldn't interpret that as a stool pigeon. 

Mr. ScHERER. The person who • 

Mr. Oilman. I would like to finish the answer to my definition of a 
stool pigeon, Mr. Scherer, and with due respect to your position, 
I am just a citizen and I am sure you will allow me to finish. 

When I was small, I used to go to movies like cowboys and Indians — 
you know what the American heritage of cowboys and Indians is, 
I am sure — and in those very same movies there were people who 
used to make up stories, and they got to be known as stool pigeons, 
and as I grew older, stool pigeons meant anyone in my mind who, 
by his own personal gain or through pressui'e or coercion or some 
reason, is forced or voluntarily testifies and usually I found stool 
pigeons to have criminal records. 

Chairman Walter. We are not concerned with that. 

Mr. Oilman. I thought you wanted a definition of stool pigeon. 
I am sure you understand. 

Chairman Walter. Oo ahead, Mr. Scherer, 

Mr. Scherer. Do you classify Mr. Eggleston and Mr. Snyder who, 
before this committee under oath, identified you as a member of the 
Communist Party, to be stool pigeons ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Oilman. I most definitely would classify those two individuals 
in that definition that I just gave, but obviously not being a child, 
Mr. Scherer, I can see you are attempting to trap me to a perjury 
citation by lining them up against me in some way or other, and for 
that reason I am invoking the fifth amendment, 

Mr. Scherer. I merely asked you whether you consider these two 
men as stool pigeons, and you said you would put them in that classi- 
fication, I am going to ask you whether those two men when they 
identified you as a member of the Communist Party were telling the 
truth or whether they were lying, irrespective of the fact of whether 
or not they were stool pigeons. We want to know whether they were 
lying. 

Mr. Oilman, I just finished telling you that I am before this com- 
mittee, Mr. Chairman — I was just before this committee 3 or 4 months 
ago. 

Chairman Walter. I didn't have the pleasure of 

Mr. Oilman. I was heard before the Honorable Representative 
Doyle. I am sure I showed due respect to our institutions at that 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2093 

hearing, I am sure Mr, Scherer will agree, but I am before this com- 
mittee today because this committee feels for some unknown reason 
to me that I should be placed in contempt 

Chairman Walter. We are not interested in putting you in con- 
tempt. You say we want you for some unknown reason. We are 
interested in trying to get you to cooperate with us by telling us what 
we think you know. That is all. 

Mr. GiLMAN. Mr. Walter, if that were the case, with all due respect 
to your position in Congress, even though I heartily disagree with 
your legislation, if that were the case, you would permit me to tell 
you when I said — and I was cut off — that I have been fighting for 
civil rights ever since I began to understand the written word well 
enough to interpret. 

Chairman Walter. A moment ago you said you don't agree with 
my legislation. What legislation ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. Specifically, the Walter-McCarran Act. 

Chairman Walter. The Walter-McCarran Immigration Act? 

Mr. Gilman. I am sorry. 

Chairman Walter. I am not surprised at that. 

Mr. Gilman. I know you are not. 

Chairman Walter. The real fight against that law comes from 
your ilk, who don't like the provisions that make it 

Mr. Gilman. I happen to be Jewish, and the B'nai B'rith, if you 
wish to classify them as ilk, have denounced your legislation. 

Chairman Walter. I am not going to stand for that. You and 
others like you are casting a reflection on great people, and you are 
doing something that is very liarmf ul to America. 

Mr. Gilman. People who classify ethnically 

Chairman Walter. I don't want anything religious in this hearing. 

Mr. Gilman. I did not mention religion. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Gilman, the article I showed you referred to 
your representation of this individual, a former Communist Party 
organizer, and refers to you as the executive secretary of the Wiscon- 
sin Civil Rights Congress. Were you the executive secretary? 

Mr. Gilman. We went over this before, but since you asked the 
question again, I would like to address the question to Mr. Walter, too, 
since he wasn't present at that meeting. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. He hasn't answered the question. Will you answer 
the question ? 

Mr. Gilman. I am invoking for the same reason I have stated in 
four previous questions the fifth amendment, article Y, of the Bill 
of Eights, and it is obvious that this question was asked in order to 
attempt to trick me into some citation of contempt or perjury. I am 
very familiar from what this committee has performed throughout the 
country. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, you called two fine people who testified 
under oath before this committee stool pigeons. 

Mr. Gilman. I didn't say that. I placed them in that category. 
Quote me correctly. 



2094 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. ScHERER. You have an opportunity here to say publicly under 
oath whether those people you put in that class were telling the 
truth about you, and you refuse to tell us. 

Mr. Oilman. Mr. Scherer, I decline to answer. 

Mr. Counselor, may I have some water, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; indeed. To what extent was the Civil Rights 
Congress in Milwaukee or its leadership active in the promotion of 
the work of the Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. I have no knowledge of that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have no knowledge? 

Mr. GiLMAN. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Weren't you the chairman of the Coimnittee To 
Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case in Milwaukee? 

Mr. Oilman. I decline to answer that — article V. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a copy of a throwaway sheet bearing 
date of March 13, 1953, and ask you to examine it, please, and state 
whether or not your signature appears at the bottom of the paper. 
The other side, please. 

Mr. Oilman. You mean where it says about Pope Pius plead- 
ing 

Mr. Tavenner. You heard what I said. I asked you about the sig- 
nature at the bottom of the page and asked whether it was yours. 

Mr. Oilman. You asked me if this particular signature stenciled 
at the bottom is mine? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Oilman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. What name appears underneath the signature? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Oilman. Tom Clark. You mean what name — directly under 
the signature? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Oilman. It says "Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosen- 
berg Case." 

Mr. Tavenner. '\'\'liat position did you hold with the Committee To 
Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case at that time, March 1953? 

Mr. Oilman. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and I ask 
that it be marked "Oilman Exhibit No. 1." 

(The exhibit referred to follows :) 

Oilman Exhibit No. 1 

Milwaukee, W^isconsin, 
P. 0. Box 1919, March IS, 1953. 

Dear Friend : Like thousands of other Jews, Protestants, and Catholics in our 
own country and millions throughout the world, you have probably been deeply 
disturbed at the unprecedented death sentence of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. 

Thousands of Protestant clergyman and publications in dozens of countries 
have appealed for a reduction of the sentence. Catholic clergymen and publica- 
tions have done likewise ; notably Pope Pius Xll as noted in the official Catholic 
newspaper, L'Observatore Romano. 

Eminent lawyers here and abroad have protested the sentence; many like 
Chief Justice James Wolfe, of the Supreme Court of Utah, have strongly ques- 
tioned the testimony and evidence on which conviction was based. Famous sci- 
entists, among them Dr. Harold C. Urey and Dr. Albert Einstein, felt that the 
testimony was not fully convincing, and that the sentence was unjustified. As 



INVESTIGATION OF COJMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2095 

Dorothy Thompson said upon first learning of the sentence : "The death sentence 
depresses me. In 1944, we were not at war with the Soviet Union." And Arthur 
Garfield Hays remarked: "It is the damnable death penalty that causes the 
uneasiness." 

Some Jewish people have been held back from action which lay open to them, 
by a fear of being considered special pleaders for fellow Jews. We cannot, in 
justice to ourselves, refuse to stand up for a principle just because the persons 
involved in the case happen to be Jews. That would be a queer sort of inverted 
Anti-Semitism and the result would be the same as with the usual kind of Anti- 
Semitism. 

As the Jewish Day declared (Oct. 16, 1952) : "Believing in our democratic 
system of justice and in the just application of our laws, we feel that we are 
entitled to appeal to the President that he should commute the death sentence." 
If you have previously written to the President, please write again to Presi- 
dent Eisenhower, to ask him to reconsider his refusal to extend clemency. In 
any case, it is most important to write a letter before March 31st, to one or all 
of the Justices of the Supreme Court to urge them respectfully to review this 
case. 

Yours sincerely, 

John Oilman, 
Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Ca^e. 
Supreme Court Justices: 

Fred M. Vinson, Chief Justice Tom Clark 

Hugo Black William O. Douglas 

Sherman Minton Felix Frankfurter 

Chairman Walter. Mark it and let it be received. 

I notice that this is addressed to "Dear Friend" and signed "Yours 
sincerely, John Oilman, Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case." 

Mr. GiLMAN. "VA^iat does the rest of it say ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am only stating this for the purpose of identifica- 
tion. Are you the John Gilman whose signature appears on the 
bottom of this letter ? 

Mr. Oilman. I am the John Oilman who received the Distinguished 
Service Cross for valor fighting for our country. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am asking if you are the same person as the John 
Gilman whose name appears on this letter? 

Mr. Oilman. I answered that question. You asked me twice. You 
don't have to go over it so many times. Ask me the question once and 
I will answer it once, sir, with all due respect. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Did you compose the body of the letter based upon 
information furnished by the national organization of the com- 
mittee 

Mr. Oilman. I am invoking the- 



Mr. Tavenner. Wait a minute. [Continuing :] Of the Committee 
To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case ? 

Mr. Oilman. I just invoked the fifth amendment to that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, I ask you to look at the reverse side of the same 
document and state 

Mr. Oilman. Before I make any identification 

Mr. Tavenner. Wait until you get the question. 

Mr. Oilman. I am sorry. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the reverse side of the same docu- 
ment and state what organization it was that disseminated it? 

Mr. Oilman. Well, I will tell you. This doesn't mean a thing. 
It is a mimeographed document and the McCarthy committee was 
excellent in cutting pictures 



2096 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Chairman Walter. Did you see that document before ? 

Mr. Oilman. I never saw this side of this document before, but that 
is my point. 

Chairman Walter. Did you ever see one like it ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. I have never seen one like it. 

Chairman Walter. At the bottom of the letter appears your name. 
Is that your name ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. I refuse to answer that question. There is no name 
down here. 

Chairman Walter. Turn it over, who is the sponsor ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. Wisconsin Civil Eights Congress. 

Mr. Tavenner. The reverse side of the document advertises a meet- 
ing under the auspices of the Wisconsin Civil Rights Congress, does 
it not? 

Mr. GiLMAN. I just stated the McCarthy-Army hearings produced 
forgeries of all sorts. 

Chairman Walter. Is this a forgery? 

Mr. GiLMAN. I don't know. I don't know anything about that 
document on the other side. This is the first time I have seen it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you chairman of the Civil Rights Congress on 
March 13, 1953, when that document was prepared ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. I invoke the fiftli amendment to any questions about 
my capacity. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, actually, the Rosenberg committee 
and the Civil Rights Congress were acting jointly in putting out this 
document ; is that correct ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. From this document, which I haven't seen before on 
this side, but I would like this other side read into the record, with 
your permission, since you introduced it. 

Chairman Walter. You needn't bother reading it. 

Mr. GiLMAN. Why not ? Don't you want to be fair about it ? Why 
try to trap a person ? 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. GiLMAN. I will read it. 

Chairman Walter. No, you are not going to read it. That is a 
vicious attempt to do something that I think is 

Mr. GiLMAN. I misunderstood you. I thought you said, "Go ahead 
and read it." 

Chairman Walter. Go ahead, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me hand you another document entitled, "This 
is the ad the Milwaukee Journal refused to print," and look at the last 
line and state what committee it was that published that document and 
who was the chairman of it. 

Mr. GiLMAN. Well, I will tell you, it is a little torn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, a little of it is torn off, but I think you can make 
it out. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Friedman. What is the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. My question is: State what organization it was 
which sponsored the distribution of that document and the name of 
the chairman. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2097 

Mr. GiLMAN. I am invoking the fith amendment on this. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you read the name of the organization as it 
appears at the bottom ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. Well, it says "Provisional Committee to Commute 
the" — and it looks like "Death," and then underneath it is torn off on 
the right and it says "bergs, J. Oilman, P. O. Box 1919, Milwaukee." 
That is as far as it goes. The rest is torn off. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you chairman of the Provisional Committee 
To Commute the Death Sentence of the Rosenbergs ? 

Mr. Oilman. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that the post office box is 1919. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know to whom that post office box was 
issued ? 

Mr. Oilman. I am invoking the fifth amendment, but I want to say 
that I am not ashamed of anything that I have done to save the lives 
of the Rosenbergs. I believe the Rosenbergs were framed by such 
individuals in Oovernment who had disregard for human life. 

You are certainly connecting the Rosenberg case explicitly 
as though they were guilty, and I will fight as I fought against 
the Nazi overseas for their innocence. I made a mistake in Milwau- 
kee, and Mr. Doyle wouldn't let me speak there, but I was willing to 
sacrifice my life, and I am still willing to give my life for the Ameri- 
can people, and I am doing it because I believe in our heritage of our 
country, in the Thomas Jenersons and the Paines and the people who 
had to sweat and fight the Alien and Sedition Acts. That is what 
I am doing today, and I am very proud, and you brought a question 
up about this war. 

Chairman Walter. Never mind. 

Mr. Oilman. I can answer it right now. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Will you examine this application for post-office box 
and state whether or not opposite the typewritten statement "signa- 
ture of applicant" your name, John Oilman, appears? 

Mr. Oilman. As I said before, we went through this in Milwaukee. 

Mr. Tavenner. You v.ere not asked about that. 

(The witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Oilman. On this particular affidavit I am invoking the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Oilman Exhibit No. 2." 



2098 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTFV'ITIES 

(The exhibit referred to follows :) 

Oilman Exhibit No. 2 



AFPUCATION FOR POST-OFFICE BOX 



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to <5()i»J>! J- with the postal reg«Sationg a«»d nilm reJaliye So ttie tesmng and mn >>f p^wt-o! 

It the box 5« rc.nlc<3 for a (%>rporatJon, the a^>pijcant ahouldwrise on the Jmss lielow thea»n)« of tlus 

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■ to be piacaiin tte box. - •- . , - .. - ■-,:..-.■ „ -, 



S%isat«w« «{■ appifepatil 
Character of busjl^ .. 
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Cliainnan AValter. Mark it and let it be received. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is an application for the issuance of post office 
box 1919, mentioned in the document presented to the witness, to 
receive the mail of the Provisional Committee To Commute the Death 
Sentence for the Rosenbergs. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2099' 

Will you tell the committee, please, what part other members of the 
Communist Party in Milwaukee played in the organization and opera- 
tion of the committee in Milwaukee — that is, the Committee To Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 

Mr. Oilman. The framing of the Rosenbergs was McCarthyism 
at its height. To go into detail 

Chairman Walter. That is not an answer. I have heard better 
Communists than you. You are not impressing us. 

Mr. Oilman. That is your personal opinion. 

Chairman Walter. That is right. We are not trying the Rosen- 
bergs. 

Mr. Oilman. It is a habit of calling people Communists 

Chairman Walter. Are you one ? 

Mr. Oilman. I will not answer such a question to this committee 
that asks loaded questions. I invoke the fifth amendment because 
the Constitution was put there for such type of questions. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a document purporting to be issued by 
the Milwaukee committee in the Rosenberg-Sobell case, John Oilman, 
chairman, and ask you to examine the statement near the bottom of the 
second page. Do you see there the statement: Issued by the Mil- 
waukee Committee m the Rosenberg-Sobell Case, John Oilman, chair- 
man ; do you see that language there ? 

Mr. Oilman. What are you trying to prove ? I certainly do see it. 
I told you time and again that I will invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You see that language there. Now, my question 
is: Are you today the chairman of the Milwaukee committee in the 
Rosenberg-Sobell case ? 

Mr. Oilman. I invoke the fifth amendment to that question. I 
invoked it before because I feel that this committee is attempting to 
/trick me, and that is why I was asked so many times into being a 
witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you sent as a delegate or representative from 
the local organization of the Civil Rights Congress or the local or- 
ganization of the Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case to Washington in January 1953, or in June 1953, to take part in 
demonstrations here ? 

Mr. Oilman. I am invoking the fifth amendment in answer to that 
question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. No questions. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Oilman. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a personal request? 

Chairman Walter. The committee stands adjourned to meet at 10 
o'clock tomorrow morning. 

Mr. Oilman. May I have a personal request that has nothing to do 
with the hearings ? May I have the witness fee due me so that I can 
get back to Milwaukee ? 

Mr. Tavenner. At the close of our Milwaukee hearings, as you 
came forward to collect your witness fee, you stated for the record 
and for the audience that you were donating your fee or compensa- 
tion as a witness to the Civil Rights Congress. Did you do it ? 



2100 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. GiLMAN. I would like to tell you this. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you do it ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. I would like to correct his statement. It is not 
exactly accurate. 

Chairman Walter. That is the way our reporter got it. 

Mr. GiLMAN. That is not accurate. I have witnesses that I was 
dismissed, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. Newspaper people had it. 

Mr. GiLMAN. I had witnesses from newspaper people; I have 
checked on it, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. All right. That is not important, Mr. 
Tavenner. 

Mr. GiLMAN. I was dismissed from the hearings, but the reporter 
deliberately attempted to make it look like I was under oath. 

Mr. Tavenner. The only distinction you make is that you were not 
under oath when you said it? That is probably correct. 

Chairman Walter. Did you say it after you were excused from 
testifying ? 

Mr. GiLMAN. Yes. In fact, George L. 

Chairman Walter. Did you actually contribute it? 

Mr. GiLMAN. Yes, I made the contribution to the Civil Rights 
Congress of $6, just as I said I would. 

Chairman Walter. The committee will stand adjourned. 

(Whereupon, the committee adjourned, to reconvene at 10 a. m., 
Wednesday, August 3, 1955.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

(THE COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE 
ROSENBERG CASE AND AFFILIATES)— PART I 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 3, 1955 

United States House of Representatives, 

subcommiitee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington., D. C. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 10:30 a. m., pursuant to recess, in the caucus room of the Old 
House Office Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Present: Representatives Walter (presiding), Doyle. 

Present also: Frank S. Tavenner, counsel; George C. Williams, 
investigator. 

Chairman Walter. The committee will be in order. 

Under the authority vested in the chairman, I appoint a subcom- 
mittee consisting of Representatives Clyde Doyle, Edwin E, Willis, 
and myself. The quorum of the subcommittee being present, we will 
proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to call Mr. Herman E. Thomas. Will 
you come forward, please, Mr. Thomas. 

Chairman Walter. Raise your right hand, please. Do you swear 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Thomas. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HERMAN E. THOMAS 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your full name, jNIr. Thomas? 

Mr. Thomas. Herman E. Thomas. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are familiar with the rule of this committee, 
that each witness has the right to have counsel accompany him, and 
that he has a right if he so desires to consult counsel at any time during 
the course of his interrogation ? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Thomas. 

Mr. Thomas. I was born September 16, 1911, in Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Thomas. I now reside in Allentown, Pa. 

2101 

G7275 — 55 — pt. 1 5 



2102 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Thomas. I graduated from Bethlehem High School and Beth- 
lehem Business College, in Bethlehem. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Thomas, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes, sir, I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVill you state the period over which you were a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. I was a member of the Communist Party from 1937 
until 1939, the latter part of 1939, and then again from April 1944 until 
May 6, 1954. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the latter period of your membership, I be- 
lieve you reentered the Communist Party at the request of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation ; did you not ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that your membership during that period was 
organizational membership only at the request of an investigative 
branch of the Federal Government. 

Mr. Thomas. In January of 1944, 1 was approached by the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation and asked to try to get back into the party, 
and I was successful in April of 1944, getting back into the Com- 
munist Party, and I worked for the Bvireau for 10 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the occasion for the termination of your 
relationship with the Federal Bureau of Investigation as a person 
operating within the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. On May 6, 1954, I testified for the Government 
against 9 Communist leaders of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware 
who were indicted for advocating the overthrow of the United States 
Government by force and violence. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of course, as a result of that testimony your 
activity was disclosed to the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what branch 
of the Communist Party it was to which you were assigned in 1944, 
when you entered it on behalf of the Federal Bureau of Investigation? 

Mr. Thomas. In 1944, as I said, in April, I was assigned to the 
Bethlehem Club of the Communist Party, which was in Bethlehem. 
Then around the latter part of 1945 there was organized a Steel Club 
of the Communist Party, and I became a member of that club, being 
the membership director of that club. I remained in that club until 
the time I moved to Allentown, which was in 1947, and then I belonged 
to the Allentown Club of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what responsi- 
bility was given you by the Communist Party after 1944 ? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, I held the job of treasurer of the section for a 
time. I was also a member of the section committee. Then in 1950, 
in August, I think, the section committee was disbanded and there was 
formed a three-man secretariat to take charge of the Communist Party 
activities in the Lehigh Valley section. I became a member of that 
committee. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2103 

Mr. Tavenner. You said you were on the section committee of the 
Communist Party. During what period of time was that ? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, that was a short time after I got into the party, 
in 1944, and then up until 1950 when the section committee was dis- 
banded. Then for a time, I think it was around 1952, and part of 
1953, they reestablished the section committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the area over 
which the section committee had jurisdiction? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, the Lehigh Valley area of the Communist Party 
took in AUentown, Bethlehem, Easton, and including Bucks County. 

Mr. Tavenner. That would include what counties^ 

Mr. Thomas. Lehigh, Northampton, and Bucks. 

Mr. Tavenner. Normally how many persons composed the section 
committee of the Communist Party in that area ^ 

Mr. Thomas. It varied from time to time. At one time there were 
as many as 11 on the section committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the functions of the 
section connnittee of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, the section organizer of the Communist Party 
usually called the meetings of the section committee, and at those 
meetings we would discuss the plans of work to be carried out by 
the different clubs of the area — what the meetings would consist of 
in the clubs and probably during educational periods, what books 
would be discussed and studied. 

Mr. Tavenner. The section committee, in other words, had the 
responsibility of the direction of the work of all of the Communist 
Party clubs within the area ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. They were the liaison so to speak of 
the district, between the district and the section. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were the section committeemen chosen ? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, they were elected at a section convention, as 
a rule. From time to time they would hold section conventions, and 
a nominating committee would be appointed, and a list of names 
submitted to the convention, and then they would hold an election 
and would elect the members of the section committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then it would be correct to say that the members of 
the section committee were the leaders in the Communist Party in 
the particular areas represented by them? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated that you testified for the Government 
in May 1954? 

Mr. Thomas. May 6, 1954. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the Smith Act case in Philadelphia. Along 
about that time, did you receive a subpena from this connnittee? 

Mr. Thomas. I think the second week that I was testifying I re- 
ceived a subpena from the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities. 

Mr. Tavenner. '\^niat did you do when you received the subpena 
from this committee? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, I told the man who served the subpena that I 
was under subpena to the Justice Depaj-tment and I was a witness in 
the Smith Act case in Philadelphia. He told me that the subpena 



2104 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

would be held in abeyance until such a time that I could appear before 
the committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did this committee do that ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. At your request, and also at the request of the 
Attorney General? 

Mr, Ihomas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Because of your being a witness in that case ? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have not testified before this committee since 
that time, have you ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct ; this is the first time. 

Mr. Tavenner. But in the meantime, have you testified before 
another congressional committee? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes, I have appeared before a few congressional 
committees. 

Mr. Tavenner. Returning now to the question of your work on the 
section committee of the Communist Party, in the Lehigh Valley. 
Will you tell the committee, please, the names of the persons you can 
now recall who served on the section committee of the Communist 
Party in the Lehigh Valley with you ? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, from time to time there was Irving Riskin; 
Mother Ella Reeve Bloor, who is now dead ; a section organizer by the 
name of William Plood ; a section organizer we had by the name of 
William Powers, known in the party as just "'Jack." There was Ted 
Norton ; and Billie Jane Lipsett. 

Mr. Tavenner. Not quite so fast, please. 

Mr. Thomas. Billie Jane Lipsett. There was a fellow by the name 
of Joseph Picucci ; and a William Charles Erney. That is about all 
1 can recall at this time. 

Mr. Ta%^nner. The first name that you mentioned was Irving 
Riskin. Will you tell the committee what you can about his activity 
generally within the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. I think Irving Riskin came into our area around 1947. 
He had been chairman at the length of time I Avas in the party, he was 
chairman of the Allentown City Club. He served on the section com- 
mittee and also served on the section secretariat, and there was a time 
when we were without a section organizer, and he acted as the organiza- 
tional secretary of the Communist Party of Lehigh Valley. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he organizational secretary ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you mention the name of Ted Norton as one 
of the persons who served on the executive committee ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where was Mr. Norton from ? 

Mr. Thomas. Easton, Pa. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was his activity within the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. I just recall a few meetings of the section committee 
that Ted Norton attended. Pie was quite active in the political end of 
the party, and also in fund raising. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over what period of time would you i:)lace him on 
the executive committee of the Communist Party, or the section 
committee ? 



INVESTIGATION OF C02VIMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2105 

Mr. Thomas. Well, it was some time during the period 1945 until 
1954. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mentioned the name of Billie Jane Lipsett. 
In a general way what was her participation in the work of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. She had been the treasurer of the Easton Professional 
Club and served on the section committee. Her responsibilities were 
also of a political nature in the party. She was responsible for a time 
for the Progressive Party in our area. 

Mr. Ta^^enner. Was she from Easton? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you said that there was a time in 1950, 
about 1950 wlien the section committee was disbanded, and a different 
setup used. 

Mr. Thomas. In August 1950, there was a meeting, the section or- 
ganizer, William Hood at that time, called a meeting of the sec- 
tion committee and stated that the directives from the district in Phila- 
delphia were that we disband the section committee because it had too 
many members on it, and for security reasons it should be broken 
down, and also that the club meetings would be broken down into 
groups of 3 and 4. At that time there was a section secretariat ap- 
pointed to take over the activity of the Lehigh Valley Section. I was 
one of those members appointed on that section secretariat. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many composed the section secretariat'^ 

Mr. Thomas. There were two others, besides myself, and we would 
meet once or twice a month with the section organizer. 

Mr. Ta^-enner. "Wlio were the other members of the section secre- 
tariat ? 

Mr. Thomas. Joseph Picucci, who resided in Bethlehem, and Mau- 
rice Chasan, who resided in Bucks County. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Was there a time when Bucks County was removed 
from the jurisdiction of your section organization? 

Mr. Thomas. After William Hood was removed as a section organ- 
izer from the Lehigh Valley Section, the new section organizer re- 
quested that Bucks County be put into the Philadelphia district inas- 
much as it had become important with the establishment of the Fair- 
less plant of United States Steel. That was that they should be at- 
tached to Philadelphia and that was done. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was the wife of Irving Riskin ? 

Mr. Thomas. Adelaide Riskin. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Was Adelaide Riskin known to you as a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes, sir, she was. 

Mr. Tavenner. On what do you base your statement ? 

Mr. Thomas. She was a member of the same club that I belonged 
to in the Communist Party. She attended closed meetings of that 
club. 

Mr. Taatsnner. Were you acquainted with a person by the name of 
Harriet Karol ? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes, sir, I was. 

Mr. Ta'vtenner. Was she known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 



2106 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Thomas. As of May 6, 1954, she was a member of the Allen- 
town City Club of the Communist Party, 

Mr. Tavenner. On what do you base your statement ? 

Mr. Thomas. That I attended party meetings or club meetings both 
at Riskin's home and at Harriet Karol's home. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was this individual known as Billie Jane Lipsett 
from Easton, Pa., the same person in whose home a Communist Party 
meeting was held for the purpose of laying plans for the defeat of 
Representative Francis E. Walter, as you testified in another hearing? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes, sir, it was, the same place. 

Mr. TxWENNER. And the same individual ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. I do not want to go into detail in repeating other 
testimony that you have given, but will you tell us in a general way 
about that meeting which was held in her home? That is, the persons 
who attended it ? 

Mr. Thomas. Hank Beitscher, who was — Henry Beitscher was the 
Progressive Party candidate for Governor of Pennsylvania in the 
last election. He was at that meeting, along with Billie Jane Lipsett, 
Ted Norton, Dave Karol, Irving Riskin, and myself, and there were a 
few others there. 

(At this point, Mr. Willis entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. As a member of the secretariat, section secretariat, 
of the Communist Party, and living in Allentown, were you in charge 
of the work of the Communist Party in Allentown ? 

Mr. Thomas. I was more or less responsible for the activities in 
Allentown, for a time. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were responsible for its direction ? 

]Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Ta\t5Nner. May I ask you how long you remained in that posi- 
tion while living in Allentown ? 

Mr. Tttomas. I was a member of the secretariat until I testified in 
Philadelphia, May 6, 1954. 

IMr. Tavenner. During that period of time, was there anything 
that came to your attention regarding propaganda work in behalf 
of the Rosenbergs ? 

Mr. Thomas. Quite a bit of activity took place within the party on 
behalf of the Rosenbergs. 

]\Ir. TA\rENNER. Was an organized group formed in Allentown to 
be known or designated as a Committee To Secure Justice in the 
Rosenberg Case, or clemency for the Rosenbergs ? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes, sir. In the latter part of 1952, there was a meet- 
ing held at the home of Sylvia Freedland, in Allentown, at which time 
they had a speaker come from New York. I think his name was 
Yuri Suhl, and he was a writer. At that meeting, a committee was 
formed to secure justice for the Rosenbergs, inasmuch as it would dis- 
seminate literature, raise money, and send telegrams and be responsi- 
ble for that sort of work. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to the holding of that meeting, was literature 
or propaganda information relating to the Rosenbergs being dissemi- 
nated in that area of Allentown ? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, in the whole Lehigh Valley we would get 
material from district party headquarters in Philaclelphia, and they 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2107 

AYOuld distribute it in the Communist Party clubs, and on several occa- 
sions, requests were made to send telegrams, that is, party members 
send telegrams or letters of protest asking for clemency for the 
Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, that activity was engaged in before 
the committee was actually set up, is that correct ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenister. In Allentown ? 

Mr. Thomas. In the whole of Lehigh Valley. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did this material come from ? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, on several occasions it was brought up from 
Philadelphia by Michael Freedland. 

Mr. Tavenner. ]\Ir. Freedland brought it from Philadelphia ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. And on several occasions when a 
functionary of the party would come up from Philadelphia to attend 
a section meeting, they would bring up literature. 

Mr. Tavenner. So other functionaries brought the material from 
Philadelphia ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was this material put out by the national organi- 
zation known as the National Committee To Secure Justice in the 
Rosenberg Case? 

Mr. Thomas. I think some of it was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was this material brought to your Communist 
Party meetings ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. And the Communist Party in Allentown undertook 
the responsibility of dissemination of that material ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. And also asking that messages be sent the Presi- 
dent in behalf of the Rosenbergs? 

Mr. Thomas. To the Attorney General, that is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was any discussion held, to your Iniowledge, at 
these Communist Party meetings regarding the need of an organi- 
zation to be set up for the purpose or with the responsibility of carry- 
ing on this work ? 

Mr. Thomas. I cannot recall if there was actually any discussion 
in the party of the need for setting up a committee, although at many 
of the meetings we were told to work within the mass organization 
that we had contact with to bring the Rosenberg question up and to 
try to get support for clemency for the Rosenbergs, both in unions and 
churches and so forth. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say finally a meeting was held in August of 
1952, at which such an organization was estaolished ? 

Mr. Thomas. It wasn't in August, it was in the latter part, I would 
say around October or November of 1952 when this meeting was held. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Approximately how many persons were present at 
that organizational meeting? 

Mr. Thomas. There might have been about 12 or 14 people present. 
I Iniow some of them, and I don't recall all of them that were there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were any persons present who were not known to 
you to be members of the Communist Party, and if so, approximately 
how many ? 



2108 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Thomas. I think there were 3 or 4 that I didn't know to be 
members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you at this time give the committee the names 
of Communist Party members who were there ? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes. Ted Norton was there; Billie Jane Lipsett; 
Irving Riskin ; Adelaide Riskin ; and Maude and Scott Nichol. That 
is all that I can recall at the present time, who were Communists there. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many of those individuals were persons who 
were recognized leaders in the Communist Party by having been 
elected to the section committee of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. Ted Norton ; Billie Jane Lipsett ; and Irving Riskin. 

Mr. Tavenner. Three of them? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. And yourself as a fourth ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was this meeting in the home of a Mrs. Freedland ? 

Mr. Thomas, Sylvia Freedland ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Mrs. Sylvia Freedland known to you as a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Thomas. I have never seen a card which indicated that Mrs. 
Freedland was a member of the Communist Party, but I do know that 
she attended several meetings of tlie Bethlehem City Club in Bethle- 
hem which were closed Communist Party meetings, and had con- 
tributed to Communist Party causes. 

Ml-. Tavenner. How do jou know she contributed to Communist 
Party causes? 

Mr. Thomas. Well on one occasion I received money from her my- 
self. 

Mr, Tavenner, You mentioned the fact that a Mr. Freedland 
brought some of the Rosenberg material from Philadelphia to Allen- 
town, My recollection was it was to the Communist Party. 

Mr, Thomas. He would bring it to his home and I would pick it 
up from his home, or on several occasions he delivered it to me. 

Mr, Tavenner, Was Mr. Freedland known to vou to be a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr, TiiOivrAS, He told me at one time he belonged to the Communist 
Party and it was only that he told me. I have no proof that he was 
a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what business is Mr. Freedland engaged? 

Mr. Thomas. I think Mr, Freedland manages the Radio. Television, 
and Technical School in Allentown. 

Chairman Wali^er, Now ? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes. 

Chairman Walter, Is he a big heavy-set mail? 

Mr, Thomas, Yes, he is heavy-set. 

Chairman Walter, And tall ? 

Mr. Thomas. Not too tall, I imagine about my size. 

Mr. Tavenner, Do you know whether any directions were received 
by Communist Party members in Allentown from a higher level in 
the Communist Party regarding work to be done in connection with 
the Rosenberg case? 

Mr. Thomas, Well, I remember on one occasion Avhen Joseph 
Roberts came up to Allentown to meet with Sylvia Freedland and 
Harriet Karol, and Adelaide Riskin to discuss with them the carrying 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2109 

on of the work within an organization in Allentown in regard to the 
Rosenbergs, and also the Walter-McCarran bill. 

Mr. Tavexner. Who was this individnal? 

Mr. Thomas. Joseph Roberts. 

Mr. Tavexner. Who is Joseph Roberts? 

jSIr. Thomas. Joseph Roberts was 1 of those 9 indicted leaders in 
Philadelphia, and he was the district organizer for the Conminnist 
Party of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

Mr. TxVVENNER. And you say he gave directions relating to work to 
be done in connection with the Walter-McCarran Act? 

Mr. Thomas. And the defense of the Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Tavexner. What was the character of the directions that he 
gave ? 

INIr. TiioiNfAs. Well, three individuals from the Communist Party, 
namely Adelaide Iviskin, Sylvia Freedland, and Harriet Karol were 
members of tlie American Jewish Congress which had a branch in 
Allentown. Within tliat organization they would enlist support of 
telegrams jn-otesting or asking for clemency for the Rosenbergs, and 
on the Walter-McCarran Act they tried to organize meetings in pro- 
test of the Walter-McCarran Act. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Do you recall what position was held by Sylvia 
Freedland in the organization of the committee for justice to the 
Rosenbergs i 

Mr. Ti[():\[As. There weren't actually any officers to that group. 
The only thing is that Sylvia Freedland took the responsibility for 
tJie sending out of telegrams and disseminating the material received 
and work within the American JeAvish Congress. 

Mr. Tavex'xer. Who were the members of the Communist Party 
who actively participated in the work of the Rosenberg committee in 
Allentown ? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, there was Irving Riskin, Adelaide Riskin, Har- 
riet Karol, Sylvia Freedland, and myself. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Do you recall whether Ted Norton was actively 
engaged in that work ^ 

Mr. Thomas. He was engaged in the activity in Easton. I might 
say at this time that there is something comes to my recollection that 
there was a meeting of the section secretariat held in Kintnersville, 
Pa., on a Friday evening at which time Joseph Roberts was present 
and an individual who was the legislative director at one time for 
the Communist Party, nationally, who is now under indictment, a 
fellow by the name of Albert Emanuel Blumberg. At that meeting 
AVilliam Hood, who was the section organizer, made arrangements 
for a meeting the next day with Ted Norton and another individual. 
A few weeks later there appeared an editorial or letter written by 
Ted Norton in the Easton Express, and at a discussion later on at 
the section secretariat, it was brought up that Ted Norton had done 
the opposite of what the party hacl told me to do in reference to his 
way of A\ork. This letter in the Easton Express more or less put 
Ted Norton on the spot as far as the party was concerned, and they 
felt that he shouldn't have done that which jeopardized his position 
at the college and so forth. 

Mr. Tavexner. Was Billie Jane Lipsett active in Easton in the 
propaganda work being done in behalf of the Rosenbergs ? 



2110 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Thomas. Her responsibility was for Easton, and how active 
she was I don't know. That is as far as she was concerned. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Are you acquainted with efforts made by this group 
to raise money for the Rosenberg case ? 

Mr. Thomas. Oh, yes ; we raised money, the night that we had the 
meeting to form this committee, and then from time on, I recall one 
occasion where Sylvia Freedland called me and told me that they 
needed more money if I could possibly go out, and I think it was to 
round up about $25 among some friends. I was not able to do 
it. She said that the committee in New York had called and that 
they needed money desperately, and we were to try to raise a certain 
amount in the Allentown area. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there a local group of the Civil Rights Congress 
in Allentown? 

Mr. Thomas. No, sir; there wasn't. Attempts made at one time 
to organize it, but there never was a local group of the Civil Rights 
Congress in Allentown. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there any organization of the Civil Rights 
Congress in the Lehigh Valley within the jurisdiction of your section 
committee ? 

Mr. Thomas. No, sir; there wasn't. We raised money for Civil 
Rights Congress, but there wasn't an organization as such. I recall 
w^e had Howard Fast at one time at a meeting where we raised money 
to turn over to the Civil Rights Congress. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wlien you say "we," to whom do you refer ? 

Mr. Thomas. I mean the Communist Party at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. When money was raised by the Communist Party 
for front organizations, such as the Civil Rights Congress ; what dis- 
position was made of it? 

Mr. Thomas. At this one particular meeting we had raised a con- 
siderable sum of money, and there was a girl there from the Civil 
Rights Congress office who took the money. I recall at a later meeting 
of the section where Irving Riskin and myself both protested that we 
had worked so hard to organize the meeting, that a certain amount of 
that money should stay within the Communist Party in the Lehigh 
Valley. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it the practice of the Communist Party to 
retain for its purposes part of the funds raised in various campaigns? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes; we always kept a certain percentage of the 
money raised, whether it was by the Communist Party organizations 
or Progressive Party. I recall one time we had a festival in Sellers- 
ville that was sponsored by a front organization, and we were told 
that a certain amount of the concession we had there would be turned 
over to us in the valley. 

Mr. Tavenner. By "us," you mean the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is right. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Was any uniform percentage recognized as the 
proper percentage which the Communist Party was to retain from 
these front drives ? 

Mr. Thomas. Not that I recall. I do say that on this one occasion, 
this festival, we were told that we would have 30 percent of the pro- 
ceeds of our booth, that is the Communist Party booth that was set up 
there. 



■'mVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2111 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the particular front organization in- 
volved in that drive? 

Mr. Thomas. I think it was the American Peace Crusade at that 
time. They held what they called a Brotherhood Festival. 

Mr. Tavenner. Therefore, uninformed people laboring under a de- 
sire to promote peace, would patronize such an affair and make con- 
tributions because they believed in peace, and they were actually con- 
tributing to the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is the sole purpose of the Communist Party 
with these front organizations, and it is more or less a camouflage. 
When we couldn't go out and raise money in the name of the party, 
I gave receipts that were issued to me by William Hood's wife that 
had "Civil Rights Congress" on them that I signed in raising money 
for the Communist Party. That was in the Lehigh Valley. 

Mr. TxWENNER. Do you not consider that that was a fraud upon the 
public who were asked to make such contributions ? 

Mr. Thomas. Do you think the Communist Party stops to realize 
whether it is a fraud or not, in perpetrating their ideas among the 
American people, or on the American people ? 

Mr. Wn.Lis. ^Vhat do you think ? 

Mr. Thomas. They don't stop at anything, whether it is today or 
tomorrow, or if it will take 50 years. They say we have to take 2 
steps backward and 1 step forward. 

Mr, Tavenner. Do you recall occasions where money raised for 
front organizations was delivered to Communist Party members on a 
higher level than those locally ? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, the section organizer and I personally turned 
over money to Joseph Kuzma, that was raised in the Lehigh Valley 
section. When they had the drive to raise money for the defense of 
the nine Communists in Philadelphia, our quota in the Lehigh Valley 
was to raise $3,000. Some of that money was raised in the name of 
the party, and some was solicited among friends and sympathizers of 
the party under the name of civil rights. And that money as I say 
was turned over to Joseph Kuzma, who at that time was organizational 
secretary of the Communist Party of eastern Pennsylvania and 
Delaware. 

Chairman Walter. Do you know how much in all was raised for 
the defense of these people ? 

Mr. Thomas. Defense of the Rosenbergs? 

Chairman Walter. No ; the nine Communists in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Thomas. I might say this. At a meeting that Joseph Kuzma 
was at, he told us that the party in eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware 
had to raise $100,000. The part I get a big kick out of is the fact 
that the attorney for the Communists was supposed to volunteer his 
services, and now Joseph Kuzma told me in front of Irving Riskin 
and a few others, that McBride's, the attorney, fees would be $60,000, 
and that $40,000 would have to be raised for propaganda. It was at 
a meeting 2 days before I testified in Philadelphia where we discussed 
the raising of additional funds for the defense, so I might say that I 
think there was well over $100,000 raised for the defense of the 9 
Communist leaders. 

Chairman Walter. The fact of the matter is that the court ap- 
pointed counsel on the representation that these people had no money. 



2112 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Thomas. Well, Congressman, at a meeting of the section secre- 
tariat, the Communist Party stated, and I don't want to go over the 
whole trial, but I would like to say this in enlightenment, that they 
could have gotten attorneys, and they said they could have, but if they 
would have gotten Communist Party attorneys who were sympathetic 
to the party, how could they bring their case before the public ? But 
they figured it would arouse more attention in the press in that way, 
and they expected to get people on their side. 

Chairman Walter. So that the application for counsel because they 
could not retain anyone, not having any money, was a fraud, prac- 
ticed upon the court? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall how the funds raised for tlie Rosen- 
berg committee were handled^ 

Mr. Thomas. At the first meeting, in tlie latter part of 1952, the 
moneys collected there were turned over to Irving Riskin. He took 
that money, and what he did with it I don't know. On several occa- 
sions I had collected moneys that I had turned over to this fellow^ by 
the name of "Jack,"' who was known as William Powers. I had 
turned money over to him, and he was the section organizer of the 
Communist Party of the Lehigh Valley section. 

Mr. Doyle, "\\liat total amount did you raise? T am interested 
because of your relationship to tlie partv and the FBI. 

Mr. Thomas. Well, I think that I raised about $30 in total. Al- 
though I had a dual role, so to speak, I just coiddn't go out among 
people and raise money for the Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Tavenxer. After this organizational meeting in the fall of 
1952, at the home of Mrs. Sylvia Freedland, how was material brought 
in relating to the Rosenberg case, and how was it disposed of? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, most of the material, as I say, was brought in 
from Philadelphia, and sometimes by Michael Freedland or someone 
from the district committee coming np to speak at one of the section 
meetings. 

Mr. Tavexner. Of what? 

Mr. Thomas. Of the Communist Party. Well then, at the section 
secretariat meeting, different members would be given the material 
to take to the different clubs, Communist Party clubs. 

Mr. Tavenner. Different members of the Conununist Party ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavtinner. So you have the situation, of Communist Party 
members bringing the material from Philadelphia ? 

Mr. Thomas. They did all of the work. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where they obtained the material in 
Philadelphia? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, there was a drop in Philadelphia, that the party 
calls b}' the name of Rosa. I don't know Avho it is, and I don't know 
if it is a man or woman, but on several occasions ]Mike Freedland 
picked up material there, both party material, and material on the 
defense of the Rosenbergs. On one occasion, I picked up material at 
the home of Sherman Labovitz in Philadelphia. He was also one of 
the nine Communist leaders indicted in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any occasions when you delivered this 
material to Mrs. Freedland ? 



INVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2113 

Mr. Thomas. That I delivered materia] to Mrs. Freedlaiid? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Thomas. No, it was mostly that I got it from their home. 

Mr. Tavenxer. So you have the picture of members of the Com- 
munist Party obtaining the Kosenberg material from Communist 
Party sources in Philade]:)liia, and then Communist Party members 
disseminating it in Allentown ? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you any knoAvledge of the way in which the 
work of that committee in Allentown. that is the Rosenberg committee 
or the Sobell connnittee has functioned since Mnj of 1954 ? 

Mr. Thomas. I have no knowledge whatsoever as of May of 1954. 
1 might say that I was still kept on the Daily Worker and Sunday 
Worker list, that I had my subscri])tioii paid initil February of 1955, 
and from time to time in that paper tliei'e was activity to try to get 
release and new trial foi- Morton Sobell, and in fact it was just 2 
week:- ago that I received a lettei- fiom the Sunday Worker, asking for 
a renewal of my subscription, that the Worker was an important 
weapon in my everyday working kit. I don't know, they probably 
didn't erase my name from the list in New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was extensii'e propaganda woi-k for the Rosen- 
bergs done in Allentown? That is, did it cover a broad field? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, I might say that on one occasion, Irving Riskin 
told me tliat he was instir.mental in getting two ministers to conduct 
a Sunday sermon on the l\osen])ergs. and there was a collection taken. 
I might say that it was pretty broad in the respect that diti'erent organ- 
izations took on the Rosenbergs. I think most of it was under the 
influence of the Community Party by members in the church, and on 
one occasion in Bethlehem where they were able to secnre the signature 
of a minister in support of clemency for the Rosenbergs because this 
Communist Party member was a member of that particular chin-ch. 

Mr. Tavenner. Weie you ever told from any higher source in the 
Comnumist Party what the (^ommunist Party sought to attain by its 
work in connection with the Rosenberg matter ? 

Mr. Thomas. I might say that on June 19, 1953, the day of the 
evening that the Rosenbergs were executed, I was taking Joseph 
Kuzma from Allentown, Pa., to attend a Connnunist Party meeting 
in Atlantic City. We had the radio turned on, and after the execu- 
tion took place he spoke of how brave tlie Rosenbergs were, and that 
this was just a plot on the part of the American monopolies to camou- 
flage the i"eal issues, so to speak, the Korean war, and so forth. He 
said that the Rosenbergs were loyal people. 

Mr. Tamjnner. Was that an indication to you that this leader in 
the Communist Party felt that the Connnunists had some propaganda 
purpose to accomplish in its work? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. That was my feeling. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Chairman Walter. Are there any questions, Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. I think early in your testimony, there was some discus- 
sion on the use of force and violence. 

Mr. Thomas. Yes ; I stated, I think, in the arrest of the nine leaders 
of the Communist Party, that they were indicted for advocating the 
overthi'oAv of the T'nited States Govei-nment bv force and violence. 



2114 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Doyle. Was that subject ever discussed in the cell of which 
you were a member as a bona fide member of the Communist Party 
in 1937 to 1939? 

-Mr. Thomas. As to force and violence ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Thomas. No, not in the terms that you broadly speak of force 
and violence, but we were told to read certain books wherein it shows 
how the revolution — take for instance, the history of the Communist 
Party in the Soviet Union, and that book tells how the Russian revo- 
lution took place and also in a certain chapter in there at Lenin's 
death, where Stalin and a few of the other members of the Politburo 
pledged their support, that they wouldn't rest until there was inter- 
national communism. 

Mr. Doyle. With reference to the term you were an FBI agent in 
the Communist Party, from April 1944 to May 6, 1954, was this 
subject of force and violence either directly or indirectly ever dis- 
cussed in your presence in the Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. Thomas. Well, I might say, in September of 1950 I attended 
a meeting of the leadership at which Joseph Kuzma was present, 
and William Hood, the section organizer outlined to him the method 
we had taken for security of lowering the membership in the indi- 
vidual groups to 3 and 4, and that Joseph Kuzma asked me why 
my son wasn't in the party, and my son at that time was 18, and he 
was ready to go to college, and he wanted to take up law. Joseph 
Kuzma made a remark that when we take over, we won't have any 
use for lawyers from the bourgeois school, and you tell 3^our son to 
take up engineering, as we will need engineers. And he made another 
remark to this effect, that the only wa}^ the workers can control their 
means of livelihood is when there is an overthrow of the Government 
by revolution and we take over. That was the only occasion I heard 
the word "overthrow" used. 

Mr. Doyle. "Wliat level of authority in the Communist Party was 
this Joseph Kuzma at that time ? 

Mr. Thomas. He was organizational secretary of the Communist 
Party of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

Mr. Doyle. "Wliere is he now ? 

Mr. Thomas. Joseph Kuzma is out on bail, awaiting appeal. That 
is, along with the other eight defendants who were just sentenced a 
few weeks ago by the Honorable J. Cullen Ganey in the Federal 
court in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Doyle. I have one more question. I have never met you be- 
fore, and I have never talked with you, and I am asking this question 
not knowing what your answer is going to be, or what your experi- 
ence may have been. But preliminary to this question I want to 
say that I have asked this question at most of tlie committee hearings 
where I have been in attendance, and never yet have I heard any 
Communist, former or present, ever testify that in any Communist 
cell meeting the American flag was in evidence. Now I want to ask 
you the question, whether or not in any of these Communist meet- 
ings of Communist cells was there ever an American flag on display ? 

Mr. Thomas. It might seem that we rehearsed this thing, but I 
recall in 1946 attending a section convention of the Communist Party 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2115 

where they had draped over the podium, the hammer and sickle of the 
Soviet Union. 

Mr. Doyle. They had what ? 

Mr. Thomas. Draped over the podium, the flao; of the Soviet Union. 
But right after, I would say, in December of 1953, before I testified 
at the Smith Act trial in Philadelphia, there was a meeting held I 
think around 22d and Walnut, or 22d and Spruce Street, and the 
speaker was a writer from the Sunday Worker of the Communist 
Party, and then there was a big to-do about the fact that Minnie 
(Jessie) Schneiderman brought up the fact that they didn't have 
the American flag there, and they held up the meeting a half hour 
until someone went out and got the American flag. That is the only 
occasion I can recall that there was an American flag present. 

Mr. DoTLE. And they had the Russian flag there, too ? 

Mr. Thomas. No. 

Mr. DoTLE. At that meeting ? 

Mr. Tho^ias. That meeting was in 1946, and this was later. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I wish to congratulate you upon rendering the 
service you have to the United States of America by reason of your 
having been williug to enter the service of the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation and to have served your country in that manner. I sup- 
pose there might be some folks not 100 miles from here who would 
call you a stool pigeon. I am sure there are. But, of course, I, as 
a Member of Congress, have come to feel from my own experience that 
the man or woman who enters the ranks of the Government through 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, to help uncover and expose 
international conspiracy to subvert the American form of constitu- 
tional government is doing a service to his country, whether he is 
called a stool pigeon or a dozen stool pigeons. I wish to compliment 
you on the service you have rendered your country in that manner and 
in coming and helping us this morning. 

Mr. Thomas. Thank you, 

Mr. Willis. I want to join in that statement without repeating it, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. Mr. Thomas, I, too, wish to congratulate you. 
It is impossible to appraise the value of work done by you and other 
Israve people like you in this fight against international communism. 
When people have the courage to come forward and point out how 
good Americans are duped by worthy causes and think they are 
participating in what might be a worthy cause, I think that it serves 
a very useful purpose, and I cannot congratulate you enough for 
what you have done. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

I think we will take a break of 5 minutes at this time. 

(A brief recess was taken by the committee.) 

Chairman Walter. The committee will be in order. 

Do you have another witness, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Sylvia Freedland. 

Chairman Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Freedland. I do. 



2116 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

TESTIMONY OF MES. SYLVIA FREEDLAND, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, DAVID REIN 

Mr. Tamsnxer. Are you Mrs. Sylvia Freedland? 

Mrs. Freedland. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel, 
and will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside, Mrs. Freedland ? 

Mrs. Freedland. 230 South IGtli Street, Allentown, Pa. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Allentown 'i 

Mrs. Freedland. About 5 years. 

Mr, Tavenner. TVTiere were you born ? 

Mi-s. Freedland. New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. From what city did you move when you came to 
Allentown about 5 years ago ? 

Mrs. Freedland. Philadelphia. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long had you lived in Philadelphia ? 

Mrs. Freedland. Practically all of my life. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mrs. Freedland. I went to high school in Philadelphia. I attended 
the University of Pennsylvania, and received a degree of bachelor of 
arts, and then took a graduate course at the Drexel Institute, also 
in Philadelphia, and received a degree of bachelor of science in 
library science. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you receive that degree? 

Mrs. Freedland. In 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. What employment have you had since that time? 

Mrs. Freedland. I worked at the Lansdowne Public Library. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Where? 

Mrs. Freedland. That is a suburb of Philadelphia, and I worked 
at the Philadelphia City Institute Library. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you done any library work in Allentown? 

Mrs. Freedland. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been engaged in any occupation in 
Allentown ? 

Mrs. Freedland. I am a housewife and mother of three children. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you have not engaged in any occupation? 

Mrs. Freedland. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Other than being a housewife in Allentown ? 

Mrs. Freedland. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Freedland, do you recall a meeting held in 
your home in the fall of 1952 attended by Mr. Thomas, the preceding 
witness, Mr. Irving Riskin, and others, relating to the Rosenberg 
case? 

Mrs. Freedland, I decline f o answer under my privilege of the fifth 
am.endment against testifying against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held any official position with the Com- 
mittee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case in Allentown? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mrs, Freedland, I don't know whether there was such a committee 
in Allentown, 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2117 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Thomas has testified that there was no formal 
organization which had officers, but he advised the committee a few 
moments ago that j^ou were active in the work, and assmned certain 
responsibilities in connection with the work of that group. Is that 
correct ? 

Mrs. Freedland. Just a moment. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mrs. Freedland. I invoke my privilege and decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Approximately, how far is Bethlehem from Allen- 
town? 

Mrs. Freedland. Do you mean how many miles ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. Freedland. I really don't know, maybe 7 or 8, I don't know. 
It is very near. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you attended meetings, closed meetings of the 
Communist Party at the Professional Club of the Communist Party 
in Bethlehem ? 

Mrs. Freedland. I decline to answer that question, under my 
privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
during the period from the fall of 1952 on up to the present time? 

Mrs. Freedland. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party prior 
to the fall of 1952? 

Mrs. Freedland. I invoke my privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Freedland. I decline to answer that on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether INIr. Irving Riskin was active 
in work in behalf of the Rosenbergs in Allentown ? 

Mrs. Freedland. I decline to answer that on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at any time work with Mr. Riskin in the 
raising of funds for any purpose ? 

Mrs. Freedland. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you organize the distribution of Rosenberg 
propaganda information and material in Allentown ? 

Mrs. Freedland. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been engaged during the year of 1955 in 
work in the dissemination of documents, pamphlets, or other material 
relating to Morton Sobell ? 

Mrs. Freedland. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions. 

Mr. Willis. I have no questions. 

Chairman Walter. The witness is excused. 

(l^Tiereupon the witness was excused.) 



67275 — 55— pt. 1- 



2118 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr, Tavenner. Mrs. Adelaide Riskin. 

Chairman Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 
Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing* but the truth, so help you God? 
Mrs. RiSKiN. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. ADELAIDE RISKIN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, DAVID REIN 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

Mrs. Riskin. Adelaide Riskin. R-i-s-k-i-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that the witness is accompanied by the 
same counsel who accompanied the preceding witness. 

Where do you reside, Mrs. Riskin ? 

Mrs. Riskin. 329 North 22d Street, Allentown. Pa. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Allentown ? 

Mrs. Riskin. Approximately the last 9 years, and I was born in 
Allentown. 

Mr. Taatsnner. Wliere did you live prior to 9 years ago ? 

Mrs. RiSKiN. In Detroit, Mich. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you live in Detroit? 

Mrs. Riskin. Approximately 5 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your employment in Detroit ? 

Mrs. Riskin. I worked for 1 year at Plymouth Motors. 

Mr. Tavenner. What year was that ? 

Mrs. Riskin. Offhand I couldn't say. I couldn't recall. Wliile 
in Detroit I also worked for about a year for the department of pub- 
lic welfare as a student caseworker. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee when that was, please? 

Mrs. Riskin. I would say that it was about 1953 — no, it was 1943. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment in Detroit? 

Mrs. Riskin. Those were the only two. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you engaged in any occupation other than 
that of being a housewife in Allentown? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mrs. Riskin. Not on a full-time basis. I have done some part-time 
work. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the nature of that work ? 

Mrs. Riskin. Marketing research. 

Mr. Tavenner. Employed by whom? 

Mrs. Riskin. Well, employed by various marketing research agen- 
cies, such as McCann, Erickson, for example. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time worked for the United States 
Government ? 

Mrs. Riskin. I worked for the Department of Agriculture in 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was that? 

Mrs. Riskin. Without real surety, I would say approximately it 
was 1940 and 1941. 

Mr. Tavenner. In w^orking there, did you use your present name ? 

Mrs. Riskin. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you use your maiden name ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2119 

Mrs. KisKiN. When I worked for the Department of Agriculture 
my maiden name ; I was not married then. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, what was your maiden name 5 

Mrs. RiSKiN. Adelaide Schiff. . . a • i^ 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, what was your position m the Agriculture 

"^ MrsSKm. I don't recall the actual title, and I think I was what 
would be called a clerk-typist. . 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee please, what your for- 
mal educational training has been ? , , 

Mrs RiSKiN. Yes; I am a graduate of the University of Maryland. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you receive your degree there ? 

Mrs. RiSKiN. In 1938. . 

Mr Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether or not 
you were actively engaged with a group m Allentown m work m 
behalf of the Rosenbergs? ^ ., ^.^i i ^ f 

Mrs. RiSKiN. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment not 
to testify against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Therefore you refuse to answer i 

Mrs. RisKiN. Yes. o -, -, • v. i-p 

Mr Tavenner. Have you engaged m any fund drives by yourseil 
or in collaboration with others for the benefit of the Rosenbergs? 

Mrs. RiSKiN. Again I invoke my privilege. 

Chairman Walter. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mrs. RiSKiN. Will you repeat the question, please ? 

Chairman Walter. Read the question, please. 

The Reporter (reading) : 

Have you engaged in any fund drives by yourself or in collaboration with 
others for the benefit of the Rosenbergs? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mrs. RisKiN. I stick to my privilege, and I refuse to answer that. 

Chairman Walter. That is all. 

(Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 

Call your next witness, Mr. Tavenner. ^ 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Jean D. Frantjis. 

Chairman Walter. Will you raise you right hand, please? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole trut ii, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. JEAN D. ERANTJIS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, DAVID REIN 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. My name is Jean D. Frantjis. F-r-a-n-t-]-i-s. 

Mr. Ta\tcnner. It is noted that the witness is accompanied by the 
same counsel who accompanied the preceding witness. 

Where do you reside, Mrs. Frant j is ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I live in Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Philadelphia ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. Almost all of my life. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee please what your formal 
educational training has been ? 



2120 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mrs Frantjis. I am a graduate of high schooL Following my 
graduation I followed up with extracurricula courses with a buSness 
college. 

Mr. Tavenner. '\^liat business college « 

Mrs. Frantjis. The YM and YWHA. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us what those initials mean? 

Mrs. Frantjis. Young Men's and Young Women's Hebrew Asso- 

CIcIlIOII. 

Mr. Tavenner. Any other formal educational trainincr? 

Mrs. J^RANTJis. I have continued my schooling at the Beniamin' 
Franklm Evening High School, which is a public'educationaT^S 
lor adults. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you finished? 
Mrs. Frantjis. Yes. 

Mrs 'FmnnsT''" ^^^^'""^ o^'^^P'-^tion or profession have you followed, 
do^eloctf!ik" too.''' """' '"^^"^" employment, although I have 

Mr. Tavenner. Where have you done social work ? Bv that I mean 
where were you employed to do social work. 

Mrs. Frantjis. I worked for the Jewish Children's Bureau. 

JMr. lAVENNER. AYhen was that? 

Mrs. Frantjis. Well, I have been working since 1026, and that 
would mean approximately 29 years of employment 

( Jiairman Walter. Was that in Phi]adol])hia 5* 

Mrs. Frantjis Yes. So tliat I couldn't possiblv give you dates 
except to say that I was employed there. It (vas 29 'years of employ- 
ment. It IS a great deal to note. ^ empioy 

Mr. Tavenner. What other type of employment have you had? 

xViib. I-RANTjis. I have worked for building and construction and 
I have worked for the Pennsylvania Railroad o^^^^^^ction, and 

P^^l^XilS? "^^ '"' ''''' ^' ^'^^' ''''' ^- ^^^ f- *'- 
A?"^"a^'^'^^'^^^^^- ^^ ^^^ clerical and business trainin<T 

of work?^'^'"''™" ^''1'"""- statistical training? I mean that type 
Mrs. Frantjis. I needed clerical office training. 

wJJ^dlilgf''""- ^^''' ''' ^"'^ "^ ' '''^'''''''^ '^^'^'''^ ^h^f y«'^ 

Airs. Frantjis. No, I Avould say no. 
w™M L™:ilyV '"" "'»""^"' '" ^">- "■"* "'"* » ^^^^-" 

engage hUirarSnioT™*." ''^''^''"""' ""' ' ^°""' "<" "^-'o- 
Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside in Philadelphia ? 
Mrs. Frantjis. I reside at 249 South Melva Street ' 

PhYlade^;Sa7'" ""^"^ ^"^ ''""'^ ""' ^^^^ ^^^--- - the city of 

Mrs. Frantjis. May I consult counsel ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mrs Frantjis. Well, since I was born in Philadelphia I would 
have to start from the beginning, and that would be very difficult 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2121 

Ho\A ever, during my married life, which is some 22 years, I have lived 
in about 3 or 4 or 5 places. The longest being my present address 
where I have resided for 11 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did yon live prior to that? 

Mrs. Frantjis. At 5856 Spruce Street. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that time, where did you live ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. At 56 North Felton Street. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^Mien did you live there ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. Well, I will have to go back from 11 years. Prob- 
ably it was 15 years ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. That would be about 1940 ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. Yes, since it is 1955 now. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you known by any other name than that of 
*' Jean" as a first name ? Wliat is your first name ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. Jean, J-e-a-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you known by any otlier name than "Jean"' as a 
first name? 

Mrs. Frantjis. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever used the name of "Matilda" ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I have used it simply because that is my name. 
However, my parents registered me on birth, arid as a youngster I 
just felt that tlie full name of "Tilly" was "Matilda," and I did just 
as any other young person would use "Eobert" instead of "Bob." I 
learned that that actually wasn't my name. It is Jean. That is on 
record at the city hall, when I was born. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Have you also used the name "Matilda" ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I did up to a ceitain point, in my teens. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you engaged in any occupation or business at 
this time ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I am not employed at the present time. 

Mr. Tavennp:r. What was your last employment ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. May I consult counsel ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a nomination 
paper of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, which was circulated 
by an individual, and a number of signers obtained to support candi- 
dates on the Communist Party ticket for the General Assembly of 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the year 1940. An affidavit is 
given at the end of that list by a person by the name of Matilda D. 
Frantjis, residence 58 North Felton Street, Philadelphia, Pa. And 
that also the name of the first signature on the list is that of Matilda 
Frantjis, Philadelphia, North Felton Street, No. 58. Will you ex- 
amine it, and state whether or not you circulated that nomination 
paper ? 

^Irs. Frantjis. May I consult with my counsel ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke my privilege of the fifth amendment in 
this question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Frantjis Exhibit No. 1" for identification purposes 
only and made a part of the committee files. 

Chairman Walter. It is so ordered. 



2122 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1940? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment not 
to testify against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time attended a convention or 
conventions of the Communist Party in the city of Philadelphia ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke the privilege of the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr, Tavenner, I hand you a photostatic copy of a circular letter 
bearing the date of December 19, 1952, on the letterhead of the Com- 
mittee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. Will you examine 
the signature at the end of the letter and state whether or not it is your 
signature ? 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat name do you see signed at the closing of the 
letter? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mrs. Frantjis. Jean D. Frantjis. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Did you compose the letter appearing above the 
name "Jean D. Frantjis"? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that under the name of Jean D. Frantjis, 
appears the word "secretary." Were you the secretary of the Phila- 
delphia Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case in 1952 ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. Sir, I do not believe that you have a right to ask 
me this question, and I think it deals with a matter of speech and 
association. 

Chairman Walter. Are you going to answer the question, or are 
you not going to answer it ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. Yes, I will answer the question — by invoking the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of any committee working 
in behalf of Morton Sobell ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted on the letterhead that the executive sec- 
retary of the national organization is David Alman. Do you know 
who its president is, and was? 

Mrs. Frantjis. President of what ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Of the Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosen- 
berg Case. 

Mrs. Frantjis. Wliat committee? 

Mr. Tavenner. The National Committee To Secure Justice in the 
Rosenberg Case? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, may I ask for a direction ? 

Chairman Walter. I direct you to answer that question. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mrs. Frantjis. I stick to the privilege. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. The name of the president does not appear on the 
letterhead of the Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case. I ask you again, who was its president? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2123 

Mrs. Frantjis, I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think there should be a direction Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. I direct you to answer the last question. 

Mrs. Frantjis. I stick to my privilege, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a photostatic copy of an article 
appearing in the Evening Bulletin, a newspaper in Philadelphia, the 
issue of October 15, 1952, the heading of which is "200 Donate $1,200 
for Doomed Spies." In the course of the article, I find this para- 
graph : 

The meeting was called by the Philadelphia Committee To Secure Justice in 
the Rosenberg Case. Mrs. Jean D. Frantjis is secretary of the local group. 

Will you examine it please and state whether or not you were cor- 
rectly reported as the secretary of the group ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. Excuse me. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
it be marked as "Frantjis Exhibit No. 2," for identification only, and 
made a part of the committee files. 

Chairman Walter. It will be so marked and received. 

Mr. Tavenner. The article shows that $1,200 was donated at a 
money-raising rally at Town Hall in behalf of Ethel and Julius 
Rosenberg. Did you make arrangements for the renting or the leas- 
ing of that hall ? That is for the meeting in October of 1952 ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was $1,200 donated for the purposes indicated at 
the meeting to which I referred ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee what was done with the 
$1,200, or any other sum raised at the meeting at Town Hall, in Octo- 
ber of 1952? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was David Alman a speaker at that meeting? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did David Alman at that meeting state publicly 
that he was a close neighbor of the Rosenbergs, and knew them very 
well? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Taa'enner. Are you a member of the Communist Party at this 
time ? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I cannot be a party to a conspiracy of w^hich I con- 
sider this committee to be a part, to destroy the Constitution and the 
Bill of Rights, and you have no need to ask into my political beliefs. 

Chairman Walter. Answer the question. Are you a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Frantjis. I invoke the first and fifth amendments of the 
Constitution. 

Chairman Walter. You are excused. 

CWliereupon the witness was excused.) 

The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Thereupon, at 12:30 p. m., the committee recessed, to reconvene 
at 2 p. m., the same day.) 



2124 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

AFTERNOOX SESSION, AUGUST 3, 19 55 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p. m.) 
Chairman Walter. The committee will come to order. 
' Call your witness, Mr. Tavenner. 
Mr. Tavenner. I would like to recall Mr^Thomas. 

TESTIMONY OF HERMAN E. THOMAS— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you Mr. Herman E. Thomas ? 

Mv. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. Did you testify before the committee this morning? 

Mr. Thomas. That is rig-ht 

Mr, TAViiNNER. Were you in the hearing room during the testi- 
mony of Mrs. Jean D. Frantjis? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes, I Avas. 

Mr. Tavennj:r. Did you hear her testify ? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have an o})])ortunity to observe her when 
she was on the witness stand ? 

Mr. Thomas. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Ta\T2Nner. Have you at any time attended a meeting of the 
(^ommunist Party at which she was present? 

Mr. Tho^ias. Yes, sir ; I was to 1 or 2 conventions of the party held 
in Philadel])hia, large district committee meetings, at which time she 
was present. 

Mr. TAMiNNER. Were those meetings open to i\\e public or were 
they closed Connnunist Party meetings? 

Mr. Thomas. They were closed Connnunist Party a If airs — meet- 
ings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was this in the city of Philadelphia? 

Mr. Thomas. That is correct. 

Mr, Tavenner. Can you fix the approximate period over which 
those meetings were held ? 

Mr, Thomas. I recall in 1946, I think, a convention, and I would 
say in the period 1946 to 1040. After that time there were no con- 
ventions of the partv. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is all. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Chairman Walter. Call your next T^itness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Theodore Norton, will you come forward, 
please ? 

Chairman Walter, Will you raise your right hand? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the\truth, so help you God ? 

Mr, Norton, I do, 

TESTIMONY OF THEODORE E. NORTON ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL 
WILLIAM ALLEN RAHILL 

Mr. Tavenner. State your full name. 

Mr. Norton. Theodore E. Norton. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 

Will counsel please identify himself for the benefit of the record? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2125 

Mr. Raiiill. Yes; I am William Allen Rahill, 2730 Lewis Tower 
Building, Philadelphia 2, Pa. 

Mr. Chairman, may I make a brief statement for the record regard- 
ing the subpenas served in this matter? 

Chairman Wali-er. No ; we do not allow that. You can raise what- 
ever question you care to 

Mr. Eaiiill. I think it is relevant in tliat the subpena was addressed 
to Mr. Norton at no address. 

Chairman Walter. It is not relevant at all. 

Mr. Raiiill. I think it is relevant because we voluntarily called Mr. 
Tavenner and arranged to be here if we were the party intended. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has a second subpena been served on you. One was 
sent to the United States marshal. 

Mr. Rahill. Yes ; a second subpena was served. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVliat is the point ? 

Mr. Rahill. To show that Mr. Norton cooperated, anyway. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Norton. In Tacoma, Wash., May 20, 1899. 

Mr. Tam5nner. Wliere do you now reside ? 

Mr. Norton. Easton, Pa. 

Mr, Tamsnner. How long have you lived in Easton ? 

Mr. Norton. Twenty-four years. 

Mr. Tavenner. AYhat is your profession or occupation ? 

Mr. Norton. Librarian. 

Mr. Tavenner. College librarian? 

Mr. Norton. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, of what your 
formal educational training has consisted?^ 

Mr. Norton. I hold a bachelor of arts degree from the University 
of Washington, 1923 ; master of arts degree, librarian of science, Uni- 
versity of Michigan, 1928. That might be 1929. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position did you go to Easton to fulfill ? 

Mr. Norton. The librarianship of Lafayette College. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held that position until a comparatively 
recent date? 

Mr. Norton. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Norton, liave you been a member of the Com- 
munist Party at any time while living at Easton? 

Mr. Norton. I request my constitutional privilege not to be com- 
pelled to be a witness against myself. 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you identified with any movement in your 
area to disseminate information or propaganda relating to the Rosen- 
berg trials ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I invoke my right under the fifth amendment not to 
be compelled to be a witness against myself. 

(At this point Mr. Doyle left the committee room.) 

(At this point Mr. Moulder entered the committee room.) 

Chairman Walter. What was that question? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you read the question ? 

The Reporter (reading) : 

Were you ideutified with any movenieut in your area to disseminate infor- 
mation or propaganda relating to the Rosenberg trials? 



2126 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Chairman "Walter. I direct you to answer that question. 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I invoke my right under the Constitution of the United 
States not to be compelled to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you participate in any fund drives for either 
the national or a local organization for the benefit of the Rosenbergs? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have any knowledge of how funds were 
raised for that purpose? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I have no firsthand knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you assist in any manner in setting up an 
organization for the purpose of handling the business of propaganda 
support for the benefit of the Rosenbergs ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. No. 

Mr. Moulder. You say you had no firsthand knowledge. Do you 
have any knowledge of any nature whatsoever? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I don't recall, sir, but I think I may have received 
some solicitations in the mail. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the source of that solicitation ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I don't laiow. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. TVliat did you do in aiding or supporting the dis- 
semination of propaganda relating to the Rosenberg case? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I mailed out two pamphlets and I have them here and 
would like to submit them for incorporation in the transcript of this 
hearing. 

Mr. Rahill. May they be identified for the benefit of the record ? 

Chairman Walter. Will you direct your questions to the Chair ? 

Mr. Rahill. Excuse me, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. One of the documents handed me by the witness is 
entitled "Mercy for the Rosenbergs," published by the National Com- 
mittee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 

The second is entitled "The Rosenberg Case, a Fact Sheet," pub- 
lished by the National Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case. 

Chairman W^alter. Did you request that they be made a part of 
the record ? 

Mr. Rahill. The witness did, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. Yes ; let them be made a part of the record. 

(Norton Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2, respectively, are as follows:) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2127 

NoETON Exhibit No. 1 

MERCY 

for the 

ROSENBERGS 



By ABRAHAM CRONBACH 



Dr. Cronbach is a distinguished rabbi and scholar. He 
is a former professor of Social Science and the author 
of several books on peace. Rabbi Cronbach is the Hon- 
orary Chairman of the Jeivish Peace Fellotcship. 



Published by 

THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE 
IN THE ROSENBERG CASE 

1050 Sixth Avenue, New York 18, N. Y. 



2128 IlSrV^ESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 



nPHE American people are a merciful people. American sympatliies aiv \ tr 
■'- awakened by human suffering. In a thousand ways, among which our va^t 
benevolences furnish glorious examples, Americans have demonstrated that they 
are warm-hearted and not hard-hearted. Brotherhood is our ideal, recurrently 
acclaimed within our several religions as well as by our unchurched. All of us 
have, at times, fallen short of those ideals. But, deep in our souls, we cherish those 
ideals. Rare is the American who does not honor mercy and docs not revere 
brotherhood. 

Also among American ideals is that of loyalty to the United States. Sometimes 
religious ideals and national ideals conflict, and devout people occasionally affirm 
that there is a law of God which is higher than the law of the state. This is not 
our own position. Most of us defer to the laws of the state without reservation. 
The laws of the state should be obeyed. To the laws of the stale, everyone owes 
allegiance. 

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg have been convicted of a law violation. Large 
numbers of people look upon this conviction as unjust, like the conviction of Leo 
Frank or Alfred Dreyfus or others who, though pronounced guilty, were subse- 
quently proved innocent. Some deem Julius and Ethel Rosenberg innocent. There 
are also those who, while non-committal as to the couple's guilt or innocence, do 
nonetheless insist that the trial was unfairly conducted. Persons versed in the 
law have pointed out what they regard as improprieties in the proceedings. But 
wt%shall waive all this. Let us concede that Julius and Ethel Rosenberg did com- 
mit the crime with which they are charged. Let us grant that the trial entailed 
no breach of justice. Still, is it compatible with the finest in the American spirit 
that Julius and Ethel Rosenberg be -put to death? 

It is argued that, through the betrayal of atomic secrets by the Rosenbergs, 
Russia gained a military advantage. That the act alleged of the Rosenbergs im- 
parted to Russia any military advantage has, by no means, been proved. But 
^anted'that such advantage for Russia might have ensued, others convicted of the 
identical crime — Fuchs, Greenglass, Gold, Sobell, Slack, Simons, May, Brothman 
— have not been sentenced to die: they have been sentenced to terms of imprison- 
ment. If the death penalty was, in those other cases, not requisite for our national 
defense, why should it be so regarded in the case of the Rosenbergs? 

UNIQUE FACTORS 

npHE misdeed imputed to the Rosenbergs is said to have had its inception in 
■*• 1944 and 1945. At that time, the United States and Russia were allies. It is 
difficult to see why Russia should, at that time, have found espionage at all neces- 
sary. The United States was, at that time, sharing its military secrets with Russia 
as it was with England and with Canada. As matter of public record, Harry Hop- 
kins himself, at that period, mediated the transfer of nuclear materials to the 
Soviets. The law against atomic espionage does not, it is true, distinguish between 
a friendly power and a hostile power. It forbids the betrayal of atomic secrets 
to any foreign power. But must the punishment be made equally severe in both 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2129 

instances? There is a huge difference between a friendly power euid a hostile 
power. In the breadth of that difference, is there no room for mercy? 

The law violation of which the Rosenbergs are accused is alleged to have 
occurred at a time when the atomic bomb was unknown to everyone except a few 
highly trained experts; it was prior to Hiroshima. The day after Hiroshima, all 
of us knew, about the atomic bomb. Previous to Hiroshima, none of us knew. 
Even if the Rosenbergs did conspire to betray atomic secrets, they could not 
possibly have comprehended the import of what they were doing. Clemency to 
the Rosenbergs can, in no way, constitute a precedent against tb6 death sentence 
for future infractions. The factors in the case are utterly unique. Never can those 
same factors recur. 

All of this applies regardless of what might be said about tlie people by whom 
the Rosenbergs are being aided. Among those seeking to save the Rosenbergs are 
people of all political parties, several religious cults, and various walks of life. All 
of them are people like the reader and the writer of these words, Americans whose 
interests lie in America, who have everything to gain if America gains and every- 
thing to lose if America loses. By no stretch of the imagination, can any friend 
of the Rosenbergs, in any way, profit by anything through which America is 
injured. 

The sinister word "Communism" has entered into the situation. There are 
words which, by a kind of fatal spell, dissipate thought and generate fury. Among 
such words, "Communism" plays at present a dreadful role. The word conveys 
so many different meanings that it has become almost void of meaning but, the 
less meaning a word holds, the greater sometimes its potency for passions which 
imbalance thinking. 

THE OMINOUS WORD 

T ONG before the cold war began, a communist was understood to be someone 
■*-' who aims to overthrow the United States government "by force and vio- 
lence." Our imbroglio with Russia has, during the last seven years, woefully 
intensified this charge. A communist is now asserted to be someone who promotes 
the interests of Russia in opposition to the interests of the United States. Would 
it be out of place to ask the reader: Have you ever met anyone who advocated 
the overthrow of the United States? Have you ever read any book, article or 
pamphlet which urged such overthrow? Have you ever heard any public speaker 
recommend such overthrow? It is sometimes maintained that people harbor such 
designs but keep them secret, forbearing to express them openly. Yet how can 
we possibly know anyone's unexpressed thoughts? With equal warrant, one might 
accuse, of clandestine subversiveness, Dwight Eisenhower, Adlai E. Stevenson, 
Harry S. Truman or Robert A. Taft. Still, let us suppose that the friends of the 
Rosenbergs consist only of traitors. How does that touch the merits of the Rosen- 
berg case? How does that alter the preciousness of mercy? Must the Rosenbergs 
suffer because of the sins of their friends? 



2130 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 



The truth will have to be sought in the sinuosities of the human mind. Every 
life is beset with frustrations. All of us suffer vexation and disappointment. 
Psychologists have studied the tendency of organisms, whether human or animal, 
to retaliate for frustrations by striking back. If the organism can not reach its 
real offender, it attacks some substitute, some "displacement," as the psycholo- 
gists call it; like the man who, reprimanded by his employer, yet not daring to 
answer his employer, comes home and vents his spleen on his wife and his chil- 
dren: or like the boy who resented the domination of his father but, powerless 
to get even with his father, waited twenty-five years and shot down "Father" 
Abraham. That boy's name was John Wilkes Booth. This displacement of griev- 
ances is a familiar psychological phenomenon. Unable to get at those who are 
the real causes of our woes, we wreak vengeance on scapegoats. 

OUR BASIC TROUBLE 

Tj^OR some people, the scapegoat is the Jew. For others, it is the Catholic. For 
■*- still others, it is the "capitalists" or "Wall Street." The favorite scapegoat 
of the present hour is the "communists." This does not deny that there really 
are people who call themselves communists and who feverishly advance extreme 
theories about the obligations of the privileged toward the under-privileged. Most 
of us Americans dissent from those tlieories, even though the Republican Party 
and the Democratic Party to which we belong may count, among their followers, 
people holding views but slightly less radical. The fact is that the opinions pro- 
pounded by the communists have little to do with the conflict. Commimism is, for 
us, hardly a vehicle of political or economic ideas. It has grown to be an imcon- 
scious symbol of the troubles which embitter our lives. 

Regrettably the Rosenberg case has become implicated with that deadly word. 
Were the case to be judged on its merits, a great swell of protest would arise against 
the sentence of death. Public opinion would encourage and support the President 
in commuting the sentence.* The issue has unhappily gotten entangled in cliches 
which cause Americans to forget that Americans are merciful. 

One is reminded of the adage, "Know thyself." If we would look deeply into 
our souls, we might find that our troubles are rooted not in the "communists" but 
in the frustrations of our private lives. Once aware of this, we would recall words 
spoken more than nine decades ago by the noblest American of them all. Ours 
would then be the hope that America's splendid ideals of mercy and of brother- 
hood will yet reign within all hearts "when again touched, as surely they will be, 
by the better angels of our nature," 



' The case can not come before the President until all juridical expedients have been ex- 
hausted. The Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case is engaged in raising 
funds to finance an appeal to the Supreme Court and, if granted, a new trial. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 
Norton Exhibit No. 2 



THE 

ROSENBERG 

CASE 

a fact sheet 



2131 











Published by 

THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE TO 
SECURE JUSTICE IN THE 
ROSENBERG CASE 

1050 Sixth Ave., Neiv York 18, A' 1" 





2132 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 



On April 5, 1951, Julius Rosenberg and his wife Ethel were sentenced to die 

in the electric chair, having been convicted on a charge of conspiracy to 577 

on behalf of the Soviet Union. 

The Rosenbergs have unswervingly maintained their innocence from the .liy 

of their arrest. When Ethel Rosenberg was taken to the Sing Sing death 

house, she declared: 

"We said and we say again that we are victims of the grossest type of political 

frame-up ever known in America." 

On February 25, 1952, the U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the verdict 

and the sentences in a shocking decision that held, among other things, that 

persons could be considered disposed to commit espionage by virtue of their 

political or social views. The defendants' attorneys will appeal the case to 

the Supreme Court. 

Thousands of people, among them many eminent public figures, do not believe 

the Rosenbergs guilty or that their trial was a fair one. Thousands more, who 

have grave doubts of their guilt, are horrified at the death sentence. 

A number of these citizens have formed the National Committee to Secure 

Justice in the Rosenberg Case, and many times their number have contributed 

money and time to make new appeals possible and to bring the case, with its 

far-flung impUcations, to the public. 



THE ROSENBERGS 



Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, until their arrest, led the life of every-day people, 
struggling for a livelihood and education, and hoping that their two young 
sons, aged nine and four, would be spared the hardships familiar to the 
parents. 

Julius Rosenberg, 34, was born and raised on the lower East Side of New 
YoVk City. He attended public school and Seward Park High School as well 
as the Downtown Talmud Torah and Hebrew High School. He graduated 
from the City College of New York in 1939 with a Bachelor's Degree in 
Engineering. 

Ethel Rosenberg, 36, graduated from Seward Park High School, and took 
courses in bookkeeping, stenography, typing, Hebrew, piano, guitar, and 
voice, and a course in child psychology at the New School for Social Research. 
They lived in an apartment on the lower East Side for which they paid ap- 
proximately $45 a month. Since their marriage they lived solely on Julius' $70 
a-week income as a government engineer, except for the past few years when 
they managed a meager living from the profits of a small machine shop 
business. Julius was an active member of his trade union. Ethel did volunteer 
work in community and civilian defense organizations. 



THE INDICTMENT 



The indictment charged the Rosenbergs with initiating a conspiracy during 
1944, the last year of the war against nazism, to transmit information "relating 
to the national defense of the United States" to the Soviet Union. 
The prosecutor however, went far beyond the indictment, charged that the 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2133 



Rosenbergs had given the Soviet Union the "secret" of the atom bomb, ana 
attempted to create the impression that the Rosenbergs were "Communists," 
holding allegedly "subversive" views, and therefore disposed to commit 
espionage. He further attempted to impress the jury that a verdict of "inno- 
cent" vrould be tantamount to repudiation of our government's foreign policy. 



THE PROSECUTION'S CASE 



Before the trial the prosecutor announced that he would call 118 witnesses, 
among them top scientists Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, Dr. Harold C. Urey; 
Gen. Leslie R. Groves, head of the atom bomb project during the war; agents 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation; alleged associates of the Rosenbergs 
in the "conspiracy"; and two "star" witnesses. All witnesses were supposed 
to give evidence of Rosenberg's alleged spy activities. 

Of these 118, the prosecutor called only 20, among them none of the above 
named scientists or FBI agents. Of the 20, 8 merely gave details of a trip 
which Sobell took to Mexico, a trip which the prosecutor did not allege to be 
for espionage purposes: 1 testified to security measures taken at the Los 
Alamos project; 1 explained a lens mold drawn for the trial by Greenglass; 
1 was an engineer who interpreted a sketch and a report concerning the atom 
bomb submitted by Greenglass; 1 was the Rosenberg family doctor who 
testified that Rosenberg had asked him questions pertaining to inoculations 
necessary for a trip to Mexico; 1 was a relative of Ruth Greenglass, who tes- 
tified that David had given him $4000 to hold for him; 1 was the sister of Ruth 
Greenglass who testified that she was once asked to leave the room by Julius 
Rosenberg on a visit to the Greenglass home; 1 was a witness who identified 
a photograph of Anatoli Yakovlev, a former Soviet consular aide named a co- 
defendant in the trial, and who had returned to his country in December 1946; 
1 was Elizabeth Bentley, who in effect contended that all communists were 
spies, but had never met any of the defendants; 1 was Harry Gold, who, 
admitting that he had never known or seen or been involved in any way with 
the Rosenbergs or Sobell, luridly described his own espionage activities. Of 
the remaining 3 witnesses, 1 said that Rosenberg had on two occasions made 
espionage overtures to him, but he had declined each time. This witness, Max 
Elitcher, admitted that he faced a five year prison sentence for perjury, that 
he had been threatened by FBI agents with prosecution for espionage, and 
that he "hoped for the best" as a result of his uncorroborated testimony. He is 
free today, never having been tried. The remaining two witnesses, David and 
Ruth Greenglass, were both, according to the prosecutor, and their own 
statements, involved in the alleged conspiracy, but as a result of their tes- 
timony, of which more later, Ruth was never brought to trial, and her husband 
got off with a 15 year sentence. 

The government's entire case is based on the Greenglass's uncorroborate*? 
testimony, a fact conceded by the Court of Appeals, which in upholding the 
convictions declared that without the testimony of the Greenglasses, "the 
conviction could not stand." The prosecutor produced 32 exhibits as "docu- 
mentary evidence." Not one of these documents, by the prosecutor's owta 
admission, connected the Rosenbergs with a conspiracy to commit espionage. 
In fact, only two of the documents had any link whatever to the Rosenbergs. 

67275— 55— pt. 1 7 



2134 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 



One was a collection can issued, by the Siianish Refugee Appeal, the oilier 
was a nominating petition, signed by Ethel, for Peter V. Cacchione, a suc- 
cessful Communist candidate for the City Council of New York. 
The prosecutor filled the overwhelming bulk of his case with persistent in- 
sinuations that the Rosenbergs were Comttiunists, that U. S. monopoly of the 
atom bomb was important to world peace, and that war with the Soviet Union 
was virtually inevitable. 



THE STAR WITNESSES 



David Greenglass, brother of Ethel Rosenberg, and his wife Ruth, were the 
•tar witnesses against the Rosenbergs. Both admitted that they had committed 
espionage for which they received money and for which both could be given 
the death penalty. 

David Greenglass was arrested in June and indicted in July 1950. He was 
held in $100,000 bail, placed in solitary confinement, and visited for hours 
at a time by the FBI. 

He and Ruth hired 0. John Rogge, who himself later became a star govern- 
ment witness against the eminent Negro scholar Dr. W. E. B. DuBois in a 
case charging Dr. DuBois with being a foreign agent (the judge threw the 
case out of court). After extended negotiations by the Greenglasses, Rogge, 
Prosecutor Irving Saypol and agents of the Department of Justice, The FBI 
arrested Julius Rosenberg and later his wife Ethel solely on the basis of 
"information" given by the Greenglasses. 

The Greenglass' uncorroborated testimony was the only evidence presented 
that the Rosenbergs had conspired to steal the atom-bomb secret. Their tes- 
timony in respect to the Rosenbergs was solely oral, and no documents or 
other proofs linking the Rosenbergs to espionage were introduced. No wit- 
nesises were called to substantiate any conversations on espionage that alleg- 
edly took place between the Greenglasses and the Rosenbergs. David Green- 
glass testified that relying solely on his memory of snatches of overheard 
conversation at the atom-bomb project at Los Alamos, and his remembrance 
of details of blueprints which had been shown to him as part of his work as a 
machinist, he had dravm up an elaborate sketch of the atom bomb, together 
with twelve pages of written material, which he allegedly conveyed as a 
description of the bomb to Rosenberg. 
The following are Greenglass* actual qualifications for this impressive feat: 

1) experience as an ordinary machinist in both army and civilian life; 

2) a high school education, plus 8 technical courses at Brooklyn Poly- 
technic Institute, in all 8 of which he admitted he was graded "failure"; 

3) an admission that he was ignorant of the formulae governing com- 
ponent parts of the atom bomb, and that he had never taken courses or read 
books on such essential subjects as elementary, differential or advanced 
calculus, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, nuclear or atomic physics. 
Not a single atomic scientist was called to support David Greenglass' testi- 
mony concerning the atom bomb or to confirm the authenticity of the "sketch" 
of the atom bomb he made for the trial. Instead, John Derry, assigned as a 
First Lieutenant, an aide to General Groves, whose jol) in the Army was 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2135 



mainly related to personnel, was called upon to testify that the manufactured 
sketch reflected to a "substantial degree" the principles of the atom bomb. 
Derry's sole ''qualification" was a Bachelor of Engineering degree. 
Had Dr. Harold C. Urey been called by the prosecutor, as the latter had 
announced he would do, Dx. Urey could have demolished Greenglass' testi- 
mony by repeating what he had said on March 3, 1946, during Congressional 
hearings on whether the atom bomb should be controlled by civilians or the 
Army. The N. Y. Times reports him as saying: "Detailed data on the atomic 
bomb, he declared, would require '80 to 90 volumes of close print* which only 
a scientist or engineer would be able to read .... Any spies capable of pick- 
ing up this information,' Dr. Urey added, 'will get information more rapidly 
by staying at home and working in their oum laboratories' " 
Responsible periodicals and science editors commented as follows on Green- 
glass' testimony: 
TIME MAGAZINE: "Some of his testimony made little scientific sense." 
LIFE MAGAZINE'S Science Editor: "Greenglass' implosion bomb appears 
illogical, if not downright unworkable." 

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: "History's most elaborately guarded secret- 
how to make an atomic bomb— was casually let out of the bag in a courtroom 
last month. Or was it?" 



politics: instead of evidence 



The prosecutor set out to show that the defendants were Communists and 
that Communists are spies. This had nothing to do with either the indictment 
or proof that the Rosenbergs had conspired to commit espionage. The prose- 
cutor said that the Rosenbergs had allegedly committed this crime because 
their loyalty was to "communism in this country and communism throughout 
the world." But he did not establish that the Rosenbergs were Communists. 
Instead, he showed: 

1) the Rosenbergs had a Spanish Refugee appeal can in their home; 

2) Ethel Rosenberg was one of 50,000 New York citizens who had signed 
a nominating petition in 1941 for Peter V. Cacchione, successful Communist 
Party candidate for New York City Councilman; 

3) the Rosenbergs carried sick and death benefit insurance with the Inter- 
national Workers Order, a multi-national, inter-racial fraternal insurance 
society with 160,000 members in 18 states; 

4) the Rosenbergs were both active members of their trade unions; Ethel 
in Local 65 of the Wholesale, Retail and Warehouse Workers Union; Julius 
in the Federation of Architects, Engineers and Technicians; 

5) the Rosenbergs occasionally read the Daily Worker; 

6) the Rosenbergs believed that the Soviet Union had borne the brunt of 
the war against Nazi Germany, and that it had done its share in wiping out 
the murderers of 6 million Jews; 

7) the Rosenbergs had been pleased and lauded the United States and 
Great Britain for opening up a second front; 

8) Julius Rosenberg had once been accused of being a Communist, for 
which he had been fired from the Signal Corps, although he had sworn that 
he was no' a Communist. 



2136 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 



AN ARGUMENT FOR FOREIGN POLICY INSTEAD OF EVIDENCE 



The prosecutor argued that the atom bomb was "the one weapon that might 
well hold the key to the survival of this nation." He argued that the United 
States had made every effort to keep the principles of the atom bomb a secret, 
and insinuated that since the Soviet Union was by then known to have the 
bomb, the Rosenbergs must be guilty of having conspired to transmit its 
secret to that country. 

Leaving aside the absurdity of this kind of "proof" against the Rosenbergs, 
all recognized authorities deny the possibility of atom-bomb monopoly and 
atom-bomb "secrets." This is what these authorities say : 

ATOMICS, a monthly scientific magazine, September 1949: "Since the 
discovery of uranium fission in 1938 there has been no basic secret regarding 
an gtomic bomb." 

SMYTH REPORT, official report of the U. S. government on atomic energy 
development, published in 1945: ". . . the principles that have been used 
were well known to the international scientific world in 1940." 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS SERVICE, December, 1950, in a story date- 
lined Washington, D. C. : "The Atomic Energy Commission Friday bared 
secret documentary proof that Russia has known the scientific secrets of 
atom bomb manufacture since 1940, the year the United States began attempts 
to develop the missile." 

DR. J. ROBERT OPPENHEIMER, in a speech in January, 1951, said, 
according to the N. Y. Times: ". . . that there were no 'unpublished' secrets 
concerning atomic weapons, and no 'secret laws of nature' available only 
to a few." 

NEW YORK TIMES, Feb. 24, 1952: "The British development of an atom 
bomb confirmed what had been apparent when the Russians exploded their 
bomb in 1949— that the secret of the atom bomb was not a secret, that any 
nation with the resources could construct one, but only big and wealthy 
nations could afford this kind of armament." 



THE DEATH SENTENCE 



In imposing the death sentence against Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, Judge 
Irving Kaufman said that they had "altered the course of history to the dis- 
advantage of our country ... we have evidence of your treachery around us 
every day ... I believe your conduct has already caused, in my opinion, the 
Communist aggression in Korea, with resultant casualties exceeding 50,000 
and who knows but that millions more of innocent people may pay the price 
of your treason." 

From the Judge's comments, it appears that he sentenced the Rosenbergs to 
death for crimes with which they were not at all charged. They were neither 
accused of treason nor was any evidence brought in linking them in any way 
to the instigation of any wars, past, present, or future. But the Judge's com- 
mer>*" =»Qd the death sentence, like the jury's verdict, is in line with the 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2137 



prosecution's inability to bring in convincing proof tbat tbe Rosenbergs eon- 
spired to commit espionage, substituting, instead, inflammatory and reckless 
charges that had nothing to do with the case. 

It is unthinkable that the same verdict and the same sentence would have 
been given had these wild accusations formed the basis of a "case" during 
the war years (when the USSR was our ally), when the alleged conspiracy 
was supposed to have taken place, or even in the first years following the 
end of the war. 

Further, we can compare the sentences given to confessed or convicted traitors 
and saboteurs such as Axis Sally and Tokyo Rose, who got ten years each, 
and the famous Molzahn case in which four men who gave vital secrets t« 
Germany in the Fall of 1941 were let off with 5 to 15 year sentences. 
Finally, this is the first time in the history of our country that a civil court 
has imposed the death sentence for a charge of espionage. No person com- 
mitting treason, the gravest of all crimes, has ever been executed. 



THE TAINT OF ANTI-SEMITISM 



Shortly after the trial was over the prosecutor, although Jewish, was severely 
reprimanded by a United States Court of Appeals for practicing anti-Semi- 
tism in another case. This grave charge is bolstered by the fact that the 
Rosenberg trial, in a city whose population is one-third Jewish, proceeded 
without a single Jewish juror due to challenges by the prosecution. 
Here are comments from the Jewish press: 

THE DAY: "The death sentence imposed by Judge Kaufman left the feel- 
ing that precisely because he is a Jew did he go to an extreme and deal 
judgment with a heavy hand . . . that Judge Kaufman is a Jew has perhaps 
unconsciously motivated him to issue a sentence which, in the opinion of 
many, is considered to be unjust and brutal." 
DAILY FORWARD: "Too horrible . . . every Jew feels the same way." 
CHICAGO SENTINEL, an Anglo-Jewish paper, in a column on Feb. 7, 
1952 by Rabbi G. George Fox, one of the most widely known Rabbis in the 
raid-west, an eminent scholar and author: "I am certain that Judge Kaufman's 
decision will be found unjust, if not illegal." 



CONCLUSIONS 



1 ) The Rosenbergs were convicted on unsubstantial and incredible evidence. 

2) The prosecution prejudiced and inflamed the jury by bringing in ex- 
traneous issues in every phase of the trial. 

3) The suspicion of anti-Semitism taints the entire trial. 

When it is borne in mind that Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were ordinary folk 
like the vast majority of us, that they were not leaders of any political or 
eocial or economic movements, it becomes clear that a new danger faces this 
vast majority, the danger that past or present or future views on social issues 
may become the basis for wild accusations, imprisonment, and even death. 
That is why it is in the interest of aU Americans, regardless of their beliefs 
and creeds, to make certain thAt justice is done in the Rosenberg Cose. 



2138 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 



FOR JUSTICE 



WRITE to President Truman and Attorney General J. Howard McGrath. 
Tell them what you think. Ask that the government consent to a reversal of 
the Rosenberg, conviction, thus permitting a new trial or discontinuance of 
their prosecution. 

URGE your Senators and Congressmen to make the foregoing request to 
the White House and the Department of Justice. 

WRITE the National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 
for more information. We will send you our new 32-page pamphlet "to secure 
JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG CASE," by William A. Reuben, -which tells the 
whole story. Ask for as many as you can possibly circulate. Send us a financial 
contribution— hig or little. We need help. Use the form below. 



SPONSORS (Partial List) 



Nelsoa Algren 

Enjily Alman 

Dr. Herbert Aptheker 

Ivan Von Auw 

Dr. Edward K. Barsky 

Prof. E. Berry Burgum 

Alice Hill Byrne 

John F. Clewe 

Rev. I. C. CoUins 

Rabbi Abraham Cronbach 

Prof. Ephraim Cross 

Marjorie DiSilva 

Dr. Katherine Dodd 

Dr. W. E. B. DuBois 



Gertrude Evana 

Waldo Frank 

Joseph Friedman 

B. Z. Goldberg 

Shirley Graham 

Nahum Greenberg 

Rabbi Louis D. Gross 

Louise Harding Horr 

James Imbrie 

Rev. Spencer Kennard 

Hon. Robert Morss Lovett 

Dr. Bernard Lubka 

Joseph Brainin, Prov. Chairman 
David Alman, Exec. Sec'y. 



Dr. John Marsalka 
John T. McManus 
Mrs. Bessie Mitchell 
Capt. Hugh N. Mulzac 
William A. Reuben 
Dr. John L. Simon 
Leon Straus 
Lois Timmins 
Elizabeth Todd 
Dr. Leonard Tiishnel 
Dr. Gene Weltfish 



NATIONAL COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG CASE 

1050 Sixth Avenue, New York 18, ;V. Y. BRyant 9-9694 

I want to receive your material. I enclose $ . . to help. Please send 

me copies of the pamphlet on the Rosenberg case, and . . 

copies of the fact sheet. 



NAME- 



ADORESS- 



cmr. 



JONE. 



-STATE- 



PamphleU 5^ single copies, $4.00 per 100, $15 per 500 

Fact Sheet..^.^....^..^^., 3* single copies. $2.50 per 100. $8 per 500 

»2*4 



-INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2139 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is the source of those documents? Where 
did you get them ? 

(The witness confers with counsel) 

Mr. Norton. I do not recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you present at the home of Mrs. Sylvia Freed- 
land in the fall of 1952 when a meeting was held, attended by Mr. 
Irving Riskin, Mr. Herman E. Thomas, and others, relating to the 
Rosenberg matter ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. Again, sir, I invoke my right under the Constitution 
not to be compelled to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
the fall of 1952? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I invoke my right not to be compelled to be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. To your knowledge was the matter of dissemination 
of propaganda relating to the Rosenberg case discussed in your pres- 
ence at any meeting of the Communist Party or in any Communist 
Party group ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. Again, sir, I invoke the right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the name of the president of the 
National Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case? 

Mr. Norton. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the name of the chairman ? 

Mr. Norton. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the name of the executive secretary ? 

Mr. Norton. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you met on any occasion with any of the 
oflEicers of that national organization ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. So far is I know, no. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you on any occasion engaged in teaching? 

Mr. Norton. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you on the teaching staff of the Workers' 
School? 

Mr. Norton. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a circular for the spring term 
announcing the courses at the Workers' School, located on 431 South 
Dearborn Street, Chicago. Your name appears, the name of Theo- 
dore Norton appears as an instructor in certain courses there. Does 
that refresh your recollection? 

Mr. Rahill. Mr. Chairman, may we examine the document ? 

Chairman Walter. Surely. 

(The witness and counsel examine the document referred to.) 

Mr. Norton. I have never seen this leaflet before. I see that a 
Theodore Norton is listed there as giving a course. It was not I. 
I have never heard of the school. I have never been in Chicago except 
to change trains. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in 1940 working as librarian at Lafayette 
College? 



2140 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Norton. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Therefore, could that course conducted in the 
spring of 1940 been by you ? 

Mr. Norton. Could not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Mr. Herman E. Thomas? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I invoke my right under the Constitution of the United 
States not to be compelled to be a witness again myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Sylvia Freedland ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with the person by the name of 
Ernest Moyer ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I give the same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Irving Riskin ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Adelaide Riskin? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I invoke my right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Billie Jane Lipsett of 
Easton? 

Mr. Norton. I invoke the right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know wliether Billie Jane Lipsett was a 
member of the professional cell of the Communist Party in Easton? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I invoke my right. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you mean by that you are declining to answer, 
claiming your privilege under the fifth amendment ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. Perhaps I should make the whole statement each 
time. I invoke my right under the Constitution of the United States 
not to be compelled to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with a person by the name of 
William Powers, sometimes referred to as Jack? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Mother Ella Reeve 
Bloor? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I invoke my right under the Constitution of the 
United States not to be compelled to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with William Hood? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I invoke my right under the Constitution of the 
United States not to be compelled to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman, do you think it would be a good 
idea for counsel, when he refers to the names, to state who the person 
is and what the reference to that person may mean ? 

Chairman Walter. This morning a witness named these people. , 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2141 

Mr. Norton. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1933? 

Mr. Norton. I invoke my right under the Constitution of the 
United States not to be compelled to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1954? 

Mr. Norton, I invoke my right not to be compelled to be a v^itness 
against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you affiliated or connected in any way with 
the work being done in disseminating propaganda relating to the 
Sobell case? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Community Party 
at any time during the year 1955 ? 

Mr. Norton. I invoke my right under the Constitution of the United 
States not to be compelled to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner, Were you a member of the Communist Party yes- 
terday ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I invoke my right under the Constitution of the 
United States not to be compelled to be a witness against myself. 

Chairman Walter. Will you join again tomorrow? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I invoke my right under the Constitution of the 
United States not to be compelled to be a witness against myself, 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't it the situation, then, that you are not a 
member of the Communist Party only while you are on the witness 
stand ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. Will you repeat that, please? 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't the situation, then, substantially this: that 
for your own purposes you are not a member of the Communist Party 
while you are on the witness stand ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. The answer to that is "no," that is not the situation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then what is it? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Norton. I have told the committee that I am not a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. You will not tell the committee just why it is you 
are not a member today, but you will not testify as to what you were 
yesterday or what you will be tomorrow ? 

Mr. Norton. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Chairman Walter. Mr. Moulder? 

Mr. Moulder. No questions. 

Mr. Rahill. May we request a photostatic copy of this document 
regarding the Workers' School in Chicago from the committee, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. The document was not put into evidence for the 
reason it was testified that it is another individual. 



2142 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Kahill. We would appreciate a copy of it since it was dealt 
with. 

Chairman Walter. In view of the fact that it is not an exhibit^ 
we won't go to that expense. It seems to me that we ought to check 
further on that. 

Mr. Kahill. We will be very glad to have it done at our expense, 
Mr. Chairman. It is within your custody ; therefore we can't make 
a copy unless we do it at our expense. 

Chairman Walter. In view of the fact it is not a part of the record 
now, we will not comply with your request, but I do think you ought 
to investigate the testimony with respect to it in view of the fact 
3'ou have shown such an interest in it. 

Mr. Rahill. I will renew my request for a copy at the convenience 
of the committee. 

Chairman Walter. All right. 

Mr. Rahill. Do we understand that we are discharged from the 
subpena ? 

Chairman Walter. Yes. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. John B. Stone, will you come forward, please? 

Chairman Walter. Mr. Stone, do you swear the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Stone. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN B. STONE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name ? 

Mr. Stone. John B, Stone. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 
Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street NW., Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere and when were you born ? 

Mr. Stone. Missoula, Mont., September 19, 1898. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside? 

Mr. Stone. 2901 18th Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what profession or occupation are you engaged ? 

Mr. Stone. I am a newspaperman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been? 

Mr. Stone. I was educated in the grammar schools and high school 
of Missoula, Mont., and the University of Montana. I graduated in 
1923 with an A. B. degree in journalism. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been engaged in newspaper 
work in the city of Washington ? 

Mr. Stone. Since about 1943. I am not precisely sure of the dates. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that time what was your occupation or 
employment ? 

Mr. Stone. It is a long storv. Do you want all of the jobs I worked 
on? 

Mr. Tavenner. No ; immediately prior to 1943. 

Mr. Stone. I came to Washington in 1940 to work for the Treasury 
Department in promoting the sale of defense bonds. 



INVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2143 

Mr. Tavennek. Was lliat your employment after coming to Wash- 
ington ? 

Mr. Stone. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your employment before coming to 
Washington ? 

Mr. Stone. Immediately before that I was account-executive of the 
Illinois Central account of the Caples Co. That was a public rela- 
tions job for promoting passenger traffic on the Illinois Central. 

Mr. Tavbnner. Where was your post of duty ? 

Mr. Stone. The main office was in Chicago. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you employed in Chicago in that 
capacity ? 

Mr. Stone. About a year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been engaged in newspaper work in Wash- 
ington continuously since 1943? 

Mr. Stone. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What type of employment? By whom are you 
employed ? 

Mr. Stone. I am self-employed at this time. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed in 1943 ? 

Mr. Stone. Part of that time, as to the dates I am not specific to be 
sure, the dates going back to that time, I worked for the Office of War 
Information. I believe a short time in 1943, and then later in 1943 
and for about 4 years following that I was a correspondent on the 
staff of Newsweek magazine. I worked for the Office of Price Ad- 
ministration possibly in part of 1943, and all of 1942 and possibly 
part of 1941. 

I moved from the Treasury to the Procurement Division of the 
Treasury where I was a short time a liaison officer with the procure- 
ment agents to keep them informed of all of the economic orders on 
what they should and should not buy. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you employed by the United States 
Government ? 

Mr. Stone. From about May 1940 to sometime in 1943. I am not 
sure of the time. 

Mr. TA^'^NNER. As I understand it, the last newspaper employment 
you have told us about was your employment by Newsweek ? 

Mr. Stone. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment ? 

Mr. Stone. There were several periods in which I did some public 
relations work. I am not quite sure about the sequence. I was public 
relations chief for the World Congress of Statisticians which met here 
at the Shoreham and the Wardman-Park. The Bureau of the Budget 
commended me highly for that. 

Then sometime in the following periods I was a correspondent for 
the Bridgeport Herald, Washington correspondent for the Bridge- 
port Herald and for the National Guardian for a short time. 

Mr. Tavenner. During what period were you a correspondent for 
the National Guardian ? 

Mr. Stone. That must have been around 1948, a short period around 
that time. I can't recall exactly. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then what was your next employment ? 

Mr. Stone. The Federated Press. 



'2144 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you first employed by the Federated 
Press? 

Mr. Stone. I believe in 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. That continued for how long a period ? 

Mr. Stone. The first week in February, this year, 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you familiar, Mr. Stone, with the testimony of 
Mrs. Mary Stalcup Markward before this committee on June 11, 1951, 
relating to you? 

Mr. Stone. I have not seen that testimony and I wasn't here. 

Mr. Tavenner. The testimony is as follows: Question by Mr. 
Owens : 

Next we come to the Rob Hall Club — 
meaning club of the Communist Party — 

also known as the Newspaper Club. 

Mrs. Markward, we have been led to believe that this club changed its name 
many, many times. Do you have any knowledge regarding this? 

Mrs. Markward. Yes, I have. There were various names by which it was 
known, Lincoln Steffens and John Reed were the most characteristic of the 
other names by which it was known during that period. 

Mr. Owens. Has the membership of this club been fairly consistent, however? 

Mrs. Markward. Yes, at one time when we were tightening up the security 
it more or less separated into two groups. In other clubs they operated under 
one leadership, but in this club they divided into two, one Robert Hall, and the 
other Lincoln Steffens. That was a club separation. 

The city organization never recognized that separation, as such. 

Mr. Owens. Can you identfy for the committee the individuals whom you 
knew to be members of the Communist Party of the District of Columbia as- 
signed to this club ? 

I should state here that Mary Stalcup Markward was requested to 
become a member of the Communist Party by the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation and that she worked within the Communist Party in the 
District of Columbia for approximately 7 years and became treasurer 
of the Communist Party in the District of Columbia. 

Mrs. Markward's answer to the question as to who were the members 
assigned to this club : 

Robert Hall was a member. He is Washington editor of the Daily Worker, 

Mr. Owens. Was he chairman of this club? 

Mrs. Markward, I don't believe he held the title. He was their representative 
to the city organization, however. 

Mr. Owens. Will you continue with the members as you understood it, of 
this Newspaper Club ? 

Mrs, Markward, Travis Hedrick was a member of this club until he ob- 
tained some employment where he could not continue his activity. 

Alden Todd was a member, I believe he worked for the Federated Press, 

Millie White Hedrick, the wife of Travis Hedrick, was a member. I believe 
she worked at the UE office. 

Andrew Older, now deceased, and Isabel Older his wife. 

John B. Stone. 

Then she continued to mention others, 

Mr, Owens, You have mentioned John B. Stone as being a member of the 
Newspaper Club. Do you have any knowledge of his activity with the National 
Committee To Defeat the Mundt bill? 

Mrs. Markward. No, I know Robert Hall suggested him for membership due 
to his activity with the Progressive Party, 

Mr- Stone, were you a member of the Newspaper Club of the Com- 
munist Party in the city of Washington at any time after 1943 ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2145 

Mr. Stone. I refuse to answer that question based on my privilege 
under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavennek. You have been active, have you not, Mr. Stone, in 
a number of organizations sponsored by the Communist Party, one 
of which I will mention, which is the World Peace Appeal; is that 
true? 

Mr. Stone. I decline to answer that question under my rights under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee obtained an undated list of the sign- 
ers of the Stockholm World Peace Appeal on October 23, 1950. Your 
name appears on that list as Federated Press correspondent. Did 
you sign the Stockholm World Peace Appeal ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Stone. I decline to answer that for the same reason I gave 
before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have a working arrangement with the Daily 
People's World for the printing of articles written by you ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Stone. No, I wrote a lot of things for the Federated Press. I 
am not sure where they were all printed. I wouldn't be able to tell 
you. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a number of issues carrying arti- 
cles by John B. Stone, Federated Press. Does that indicate that 
there were articles merely carried by the Communist Party papers 
rather than being contributions directly by you to the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Stone. That indicates that I wrote that article for the Feder- 
ated Press just as a United Press correspondent writes an article for 
the United Press. It might be printed in any paper that subscribes 
to the Federated Press or the United Press. 

Mr. Tavenner. At a later date there was another organization with 
which you were purportedly connected, as to which I desire to ask 
you some questions. 

I have before me a photostatic copy of a letter on the stationery or 
the letterhead of the Washington Committee To Secure Justice in 
the Rosenberg Case over the name of John B. Stone. Will you exam- 
ine it, please, and state whether or not the signature at the bottom 
of the letter is your signature? 

(The witness examines the letter.) 

Mr. Stone. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason I 
gave before, based on my privilege under the fifth amendment, not to 
be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Stone Exhibit No. 1." for identification only and 
made a part of the committee files. 

Chairman Walter. I^t it be so marked. 

Mr. Tavenner. The letter in question is addressed "Dear Reverend." 
Did you disseminate copies of that letter or similar letters to the local 
clergy in the city of Washington ? 

Mr. Stone.' I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in 1953 chairman of the Washington 
Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case? 

Mr. Stone. I decline to answer that question for the same reason. 



2146 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Below the name John B. Stone there is certain in- 
formation typed on the exhibit which I just introduced. Will you 
read it, please, into the record ? 

Mr. Stone. The document says : 

Chairman, Washington Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 

Chairman Walter. Is that your signature, Mr. Stone ? 

Mr. Stone. I decline to answer that for the same reason I have given, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio were the officers of the Washington Commit- 
tee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case ? 

Mr. Stone. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was the executive secretary ? 

Mr. Stone. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you participate in the raising of funds for use 
by the Washington Committee To Secure Justice in the Eosenberg 
Case? 

Mr. Stone. I decline to answer that question for the reason I have 
stated before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you chairman or did you conduct a meeting 
sponsored by that Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 
on May 4, 1952, at the Odd Fellows Hall, 9th and T NW., Washington, 
D.C.? 

Mr. Stone. I refuse to answer that question for the reason I have 
given before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you an official of any successor committee to the 
Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, such as a com- 
mittee to secure justice or clemency in the Sobell case? 

Mr. Stone. I decline to answer that for the same reason I have cited 
before. 

Mr. Tavenner. "\yiio are the officers of the present organization ? 

Mr. Stone. I refuse to answer that question for the reason I have 
given before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there any statement in the testimony of Mrs. 
Markward which I read to you untrue, in so far as it related to you ? 

Mr. Stone. I decline to answer for the same reason I have 
cited. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Stone. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period that you were a representative 
of the Federated Press, were you aware that the Federated Press had 
been cited as a front organization by this committee as early as 1944 ? 

Mr. Stone. I have seen such a report, sir, and I place no more 
credence in it than I do the reports of the committee now. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you place any credence in the committee's re- 
port as to the Communist Party being a subversive organization? 

Mr. Stone. I have never seen that report. 

Chairman Walter. I think we can arrange for you to get a copy. 

Mr. Stone. Very good, sir. 

Mr. Mom^DER. Wliat is your opinion of the Communist Party ? Do 
you believe that it is a subversive organization ? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Stone. I would have to have the term "subversive" defined 
before I could answer such a question as that. That is a very "if" 
question. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2147 

If subversive means to be in favor of equal rights for citizens of 
all races and creeds and colors 

Chairman Walter. Never mind that. You do not mean it and 
you know you do not mean it. That is just as bad as the attempts 
that have been made to inject something else into this hearing. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Stone. I have never made any attempt to interject anything. 

Chairman Walter. Never mind. 

Mr. Stone. I was asked a simple question ; I gave a simple answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no more questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. Did you work for the Federated Press ? 

Mr. Stone. Yes, I have answered that ; I did work for them. 

Chairman Walter. Did you know when you worked for it that it 
had been cited as a subversive organization ? 

Mr. Stone. By the House Committee on Un-American Activities. 
I had seen such a report ; yes, sir. 

(At this point Mr. Willis entered the committee room.) 

Chairman Walter. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Ethel Weichbrod, will you come forw^ard, 
please ? 

Chairman Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. ETHEL WEICHBROD, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOSEPH PORER 

Chairman Walter. I notice a number of witnesses with the Wexley 
book. I would like to recommend to them the book written by Dr. 
Fineberg on the Rosenberg case. 

Mrs. Weichbrod. Are you recommending that to me, sir ? 

Chairman Walter. Yes. 

Mr. Forer. How about trading? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. That might be a good idea. 

Mr. Tavenner. "VYliat is your name, please? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. Ethel Weichbrod. 

Mr. Tavenner. Miss or Mrs. ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. Mrs., mother of 4 children, left home for 2 days. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by the same 
counsel who appeared for the previous witness. 

Where do you reside, Mrs. Weichbrod ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. 8321 Tahona Drive, Silver Spring, Md. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in the area of Washington ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. Since April 1942. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that time where did you live ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. In Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you born in Brooklyn ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat profession or occupation have you followed 
since being in Washington, besides being a housewife ? 



2148 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I have always been an office worker and secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. What type of office work and employed by whom ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. Since I am in Washington? 

Mr. Tavenner, Yes. 

Mrs. Weichbrod. In the middle of April 1942, I worked for the 
Soviet Purchasing Commission until, I believe, April of 1945; the 
Commission that was buying material for the war and for the Gov- 
ernment that was our great ally during that war. 

Mr. Moulder. How did you happen to come in contact with this 
Soviet Purchasing Commission? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. When I came back to Washington, sir — by the 
way, I don't know whom I am addressing. 

Mr. Moulder. My name is Moulder, 

Mrs. Weichbrod. Thank you. Mr. Moulder, when I came down to 
Washington in April 1942, I spent several days relaxing and setting 
up my apartment and went out job hunting. It was simply one of 
the few places I happened to look for a job. They were in so desperate 
need of help at that time that they hired me almost immediately. I 
believe I started working the day after I was interviewed. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you move here to Washington for the purpose 
of working here? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. No, I moved here because my husband's employ- 
ment had been moved to Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that known as Amtorg ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I believe the Soviet Purchasing Commission was 
an outgrowth of the Amtorg Commission. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you employed by that organization from 1942 
to 1945? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. My next employment was as mother. My first 
born was born on June 1, 1945. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been employed outside of your home since 
that time ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. No, I haven't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to your coming to the city of Washington, 
what was your employment in Brooklyn ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I believe my first job started in 1936. It was in 
a lace house in New York City. That continued until 1940. That 
particular establishment moved to New Jersey. It was one of the 
so-called runaway shops, running away from trade union organiza- 
tion. I then got a job in a garment shop in early 1941, I believe it 
was, and then worked there until I moved to Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, briefly, what 
your formal educational training has been ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I went to elementary school and high school in 
Brooklyn, N. Y. I attended 2 years in Brooklyn College, evening 
session. 

Mr. Moulder. What was your maiden name? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. My full maiden name was Ethel Medoi. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Weichbrod, were you a member of the Com- 
munist Party in 1952 ? * 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I am afraid I will have to refuse to answer that 
question on the basis of 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2149 

Mr. Willis. Do not be afraid of anything you say. 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I beg your pardon. 

Chairman Walter. You said "I am afraid I will have to decline 
to answer." 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I will be glad to explain why I am afraid. 

Chairman Walter. Answer the question. 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I refuse to answer the question, Mr. Chairman, 
on the basis of my privilege under the fifth amendment, not to be a 
witness against myself. If you care, I will elaborate on my opening 
statement. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to an investigation that the committee 
has made, it appears that there was a meeting held on May 4, 1952, 
in the first floor auditorium of the Odd Fellows Hall, Ninth and T 
Streets NW., and at that meeting Mr. John B. Stone addressed the 
group and introduced as local chairman Ethel Weichbrod of Silver 
Spring, Md. 

Were you local chairman of the Committee To Secure Justice in 
the Rosenberg Case in Washington ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the basis 
of my right under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at one time become the secretary of that 
organization? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I will have to refuse to answer that question on 
the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether at 
this meeting on May 4, to which I have referred, that you made a 
talk during the course of which you read from a handbill that you 
had taken from the bulletin board at the Jewish center and that the 
poster warned against giving the Rosenberg committee support and 
asked that the center be contacted for information it had on this 
group before any commitments of support were made ? Do you recall 
having read such a bulletin ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I don't quite understand your question, Mr. Tav- 
enner. Do I recall the bulletin that you are speaking of? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. Weichbrod. If you had the bulletin, I might be able to an- 
swer your question intelligently. On this basis I am afraid I can't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at the meeting I referred to read a bulletin 
you had procured, which advised that before any commitments were 
made to the Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, the 
Jewish center should be contacted for information that it had regard- 
ing that organization? 

(The witness confers with counsel.) 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
basis. 

Chairman Walter. I think at this point, Mr. Tavenner, I would 
like to read what the National Community Relations Advisory 
Council prepared for all of the Jewish community relation agencies 
to issue : 

Any group of American citizens has a right to express his views as to the 
severity of the sentence in any criminal case. Attempts are being made, how- 
67275— 55— pt. 1 8 



2150 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

ever, by a Communist-inspired group called the National Committee To Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case, to inject false issue of antisemitism in the Rosen- 
berg case. We condemn these efforts to mislead the i>eople of this country by 
unsupported charges that the religious ancestry of the defendants was a fac- 
tor in the case. We denounce this fraudulent effort to confuse and manipulate 
public opinion for ulterior political purposes. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you participate in drives for money for the 
Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
basis, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you at this time a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I refuse to answer, too, on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you at this time an officer of any successor 
organization to the Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case, such as a committee to secure justice or clemency for Morton 
Sobell? 

Mrs. Weichbrod. I refuse to answer that question on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. Are there any questions? 

Mr. Willis. No questions. 

Mr. Moulder. No questions. 

Chairman Walter. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

^A short recess was taken.) 

(At the conclusion of the recess Chairman Walter and Mr. Willis 
were present in the committee room.) 

Chairman Walter. The committee will come to order. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Czarnowski. 

Chairman Walter. Do you swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ANZELM A. CZARNOWSKI 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your full name ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Anzelm A. Czarnowski. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Czarnowski, I interrupted your testimony in 
executive session this afternoon to ask you about an entirely different 
matter than that about which you have been testifying today. For 
purpose of the record I w^ant to ask a few questions about your back- 
ground. 

When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. I was born in Poland, August 12, 1896. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you come to this country ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. In 1913. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a naturalized American citizen ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien and where were you naturalized ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2151 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. I was naturalized by act of Congress while I was 
in the Army, in Waco, Tex. 

Mr. Willis. What Army? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. In the the United States Army. 

Mr. Willis. When? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. In 1917. 

Mr. Willis. The First World War ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. The First World War, yes. I served 2 years in 
the United States Army. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Czarnowski, where do you now reside? 

Mr. Czarnowski. I reside at 7513 West 63d Street, Argo, 111. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that a suburb of Chicago ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in the vicinity of Chicago? 

Mr. Czarnowski. About 30 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. During that period of time did you have occasion 
to become a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir ; during the war 

Mr. Tavenner. Which war ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. The Second World War; I had a boy in the 
service. The same business that I was in the First World War, 
and I got a job in a defense plant in La Grange, 111., at the Electric 
Motors Corp. I was employed at the Electric Motors plant. 

I had reported some Nazi activities or anti-American activities such 
as preventing of purchase of bonds and other Nazi activities for the 
FBI. They asked me whether I wanted to help them in combating 
communism and I agreed to that, provided I see my priest. So when 
that was done I joined to help them out. 

Mr. Tavenner. You wanted an explanation made to your priest 
as to the reason why you were entering the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir. You see, my church, if I would be a 
member of the Communist Party, I would be subject to excommuni- 
cation. 

Mr. Willis. What church ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. The Roman Catholic Church. 

Mr. Tavenner. After conference with your priest, you agreed to 
help the United States Government by working for the Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. I didn't have a conference with the priest. I 
asked them to do it. 

Mr. Willis. When was that? 

Mr. Czarnowski. That was about October 1943. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period of time did you work for 
the United States Government in that capacity ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Up to January 20, 1955, when I became a star 
witness in the Lightf oot case. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were a witness for the Government in the Smith 
Act case against Lightf oot ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of course, that exposed your identity. 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I understand you are giving the committee in execu- 
tive testimony the benefit of your knowledge and experience during 
that period of time from 1943 until 1955. 



2152 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. What was that question again ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I say I understand that he is now giving to the 
committee in executive session the benefit of his experience and knowl- 
edge within the Communist Party from 1943 until 1955. I do not 
want to duplicate effort hy going into the general experience in the 
Communist Party and general knowledge at this time. What I do 
want to ask you is this. What position did you attain in the Commu- 
nist Party, between 1952 and 1955 ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. I was a literature director for the Argo Branch 
and for the Electromotive Branch. They used to call that the Auto 
No. 1 Branch. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. Yes, that is an industrial branch. 

Chairman Walter. What union was that ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. That was United Automobile Workers of Amer- 
ica, CIO. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did your work in the Communist Party bring you 
in touch with the Communist Party section organization? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. Yes, sir, I attended some of the section conven- 
tions and several section meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. We are inquiring here at this open hearing about 
Communist Party activities in the propaganda work relating to the 
Rosenberg case. I want to confine my questions to that subject. 
While you were working as literature director, did the Communist 
Party take any action or engage in any activity in connection with the 
Rosenberg case ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. There was some literature that was promoted by 
the section to be distributed to the cells, and they in turn distributed 
it to the public. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you required to participate in any way in that 
matter ? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. Yes, sir. The way we worked it is some of the 
literature, I am thinking of general literature, how they work it, 
which were 5 or 3 cents apiece, it is up to me to buy several of them 
and if I can collect my 3 or 5 cents, it is O. K., but if not, it is 
more important to have the person I contact read than to collect the 
3 cents, even though it is out of my pocket. But the main thing was 
to distribute the literature. In our club each member had to take 
at least 5, some of them took 10, 25, 60. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat particular literature are you talking about ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. I am talking about all kinds of Communist litera- 
ture. For instance, about the A-bomb, the Rosenberg case, the propa- 
ganda that is going on now to free Sobell, and many other such things. 
The Five-Power Conference, Peace Conference in Stockholm, and 
other such literature. 

One interesting one was William Patterson's booklet. We Charge 
Genocide. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you obtain these documents? 

Mr. CzARNOWsKi. I always got them from the Modern Bookstore, 
which is a Communist-controlled bookstore. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the city of Chicago ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, 64 West Randolph Street in Chicago. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2153 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee just how you managed 
to get the material, what was the plan for getting the material from 
that bookshop i 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. Well, it all depends on the section or the branch. 
Now, in the section that I belonged to, I always had a certain amount 
of PA's which is Political Affaii^s. Then some Masses and Masses 
and Main Stream, and the Bucharest Peace is a paper from Bucharest, 
and then when I got to the bookstore and they had something real 
important they told me, "Xow, here is a leaflet that should be used at 
the educational and for distribution." Some of that was one of the — 
if I see it — Rosenberg booklet, with the pictures of the Rosenbergs in 
it. It was gotten from the bookstore, distributed to branches, and the 
branches distributed it to the public. 

Mr. Ta\t:xxek. You have examined a number of pieces of Rosenberg 
literature presented to you by the staff and identified them as docu- 
ments which you obtained from this Communist Party bookstore, have 
you not ? 

]\Ir. CzARxowsKi. Yes, sir. I want to mention, too, that since a lot 
of people — you know, the American people despise the Communist, 
there is no question about it. but to have them read it, they go in a 
place and lose a leaflet, you know what I mean. I want to have it 
distributed here among people, I just drop one here and let it go. 
Then somebody else picks it up and reads it. Some people will get 
interested and read it. That is one way of distribution. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Have you identified certain of those articles of 
literature which you obtained ? 

Mr. CzARxowsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\'exx'er. Those particular ones which you identified were 
published by the Xational Committee To Secure Justice for the Rosen- 
bergs? 

Mr. CzARxowsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavexx'er. Was material also published bv the Communist 
Party { 

Mr. CzARX'^owsKi. There was some literature it published. 

Mr. Ta\texxer. "\Miat were you told to do with this material which 
you got from the Commmiist Party bookstore dealing with the Rosen- 
berg matter ( 

Mr. CzARXowsKi. We were supposed to distribute that to the public. 
Each member of the Communist Party was responsible to purchase 
many copies and then distribute them to the public. 

Mr, Ta\t:xxer. Was that done in Chicago ? 

Mr. Czarxowski. Yes, sir. 

'Sir. Ta\-ex^xer. Were you advised in any Communist Party meet- 
ing whether or not there was an organization that had been set up 
outside of the Conmiunist Party to do the same thing ? 

Mr. CzARX'owsKi. No, sir. 

^Ir. Tavexx'er. You yourself don't know of any separate organiza- 
tion doing that same thing with regard to the Rosenberg documents 
in Chicago ? 

^Ir. CzARx-QwsKi. No, sir. 

Mr. TA^^:xx-ER. You are just telling us what was done by the Com- 
munist Party in regard to it? 

Mr. Czarxowski, Yes, sir, because I purchased some of this litera- 
ture, whether I needed it or not. 



2154 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. How was that Communist Party literature paid for, 
or was it paid for? I am speaking now of the Rosenberg material. 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. By the individual members of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have to pay the bookstore for it, or did the 
bookstore make some arrangements about payment for it? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Well, I was told that I should lay out money for 
the section and they would pay me back, but they had a credit account, 
the southwest section of the Communinst Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had a credit account at the bookstore? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. Yes, at the bookstore, and at times when I didn't 
have any money, with me, they just put it on the books. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether the bookstore was actually 
paid or not by the Communist Party at a later date ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes, I know, because at one time they owed 
around $8 and they told me to tell the section. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that work going on right up until the time 
that you stopped your work in the Communist Party to become a 
witness in the Lightf oot case ? 

Mr. CzARNosKi. Yes, sir. I don't know just how close to it. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think that is all I want to ask him. 

Chairman Walter. Any questions? 

Mr. Wiixis. Where were you born ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. In Poland. 

Mr. Willis. When did you enter the country ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. In 1913. 

Mr. Willis. And you are an American citizen ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. We have had a lot of witnesses appear before us, Mr. 
Czarnowski, and while you were testifying I noticed some snickering 
going on in the room. 

During these hearings there have been present Congressman 
Doyle from California, the Far West ; Mr. Scherer from Ohio, some- 
where in the midpart of the United States ; Mr. Moulder from Mis- 
souri, which would be somewhere in the Midwest; Mr. Walter, our 
chairman, from the -East; I am from the South, from Louisiana. 

Kow, let me tell you something. This Congress is composed of 
435 Representatives of the people on the House side, and 96 on the 
Senate side. We disagree on many things — South, West, East, North. 
But there is one thing we don't disagree on, and that is our feeling 
toward people like you, born abroad, coming over here, dedicated to 
documents such as the Constitution of the United States, the Sermon 
on the Mount ; you have come here without a lawyer, without a thick 
book before you to tempt us to question you about the book, opened 
your soul and told us exactly how you feel about these things. 

May I say further : Don't give up. I think we know what we are 
talking about. I think that the representatives of the people here 
reflect by and large how we the people of America feel about this 
thing. We'wouldn't be here very long unless we reflected that feeling. 
There may be some defections here and there, and now and then one 
who might go wrong, but by and large this Congress knows how 
the people feel. 



DSrVESTIGATlOISr OF COMMUISTIST ACTIVITIES 2155 

Now, my dear friend, don't you give up what you are doing. You 
keep it up, and never mind the snickering from the back row. I 
compliment you, sir. 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Thank you Mr. Congressman. I have one thing 
to say. This snickering is an old thing with me because I was helping 
the snickering, too, when I was a member of the Communist Party. 
That is one good way of finding Communists. I sure thank you very 
much. 

Chairman Walter. I think in that connection you might be inter- 
ested in knowing that when the appropriation bill for the work of 
this committee came up in the House of Representatives there wasn't 
one single vote cast against it. When you consider that there are a 
great many very liberal Members in the House of Representatives, 
I think it bears out the truth of Mr. Willis' observation. Thank 
you very much, Mr. Czarnowski. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Do you have another witness, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr, Tavenner. Josephine Granat, will you come forward, please. 

Chairman Walter. Will you stand and raise your right hand. 
Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Granat. I do. 

Chairman Walter. Wliat was your reply ? 

Mrs. Granat. I said "I do." 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. JOSEPHINE GEANAT, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Tavt^nner. Will you state your name, please. 

Mrs. Granat. Mrs. Josephine Granat. G-r-a-n-a-t. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street WW., Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. Granat. I would like to say that I also have a statement to 
make to the committee. I noticed the other witness did. 

Chairman Walter. If you just answer the questions asked by Mr. 
Tavenner, we will get along nicely. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside? 

Mrs. Granat. 1163 East 54th Street, Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Mrs. Granat. Since the early forties. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, where you were 
born. 

Mrs. Granat. Griffin, Ga. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your formal educational training? 

Mrs. Granat. I am a graduate of the Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology, Chicago, 111., 1948, department of political science. I studied 
at Chicago Teachers College, Cliicago, 111., during the summer of 
1948, I believe, to get educational courses. Inasmuch as there is a 
tremendous amount of discrimination in employment, I could not 
find a job in my profession. I had to enter a business college. I 
entered a business school in 1949, Cortez-Peters Business College. 

Chairman Walter. Wliere is this discrimination? 

Mrs. Granat. Chicago. I couldn't find a job. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your profession? 



2156 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mrs. Granat. Teaching. 

Mr. Tavennek. What has been your employment since 1949 ? 

Mrs. Granat. Presently I am working for the Christian Advocate. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your employment from 1949 on ? 

Mrs. Granat. I will say regarding my employment, in 1949 I 
worked for the Chicago Tenants and Consumer Council. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period ? 

Mrs. Granat. It was a period of a little more than a year, I don't 
remember exactly when ; some time in 1950, in latter 1950 or 1951, I 
believe. The organization, after the rent-control act went out, after 
rent control expired, went out of existence. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that a Federal employment job? 

Mrs. Gkanat. No, it was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the nature of your position ? 

Mrs. Granat. I was secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. Secretary of what? 

Mrs. Granat. Of the Tenants Council. 

Mr- Tavenner, What was your next emi)loyment? 

Mrs. Granat. Kegarding any other questions along this line, I will 
tell you now I will refuse to answer on the basis of my privilege under 
the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Willis. In other words, you refuse to answer before you are 
questioned ? 

Mrs. Granat. He asked me. 

Mr. Willis. Did he? 

Mr. Ta\'enner. I asked what her employment was after 1951. 

Mr. Wellis. I am sorry. I didn't realize it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee whether or not Mr. Nel- 
son Algren was at any time chairman of the Chicago Committee To 
Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case? 

Mrs. Granat. It is a matter of public record, I am pretty certain, 
who the officers were of any committee that was established in Chicago. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question, please? 

Mrs. Granat. I will refuse to answer for the same reason I have 
given before. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask a direction of the witness to answer. 

Chairman Walter, I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Granat. I will abide by my refusal. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, Nelson Algren, if you recall, was 
subpenaed as a witness before the committee, but you postponed his 
appearance for some special reason that he took up with you. 

Chairman Walter. I believe he was ill. 

Mr. Tamsnner. I am not sure that was it, but he was finally reached 
in IMontana and you continued his appearance, 

I hand you a photostatic copy of any authorized signature for the 
Chicago Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case which 
was procured by subpena duces tecum by the committee, and I will 
ask you to examine it, please, and state whether or not the name Jo 
Granat appears as secretary of the organization in August 1952 (hand- 
ing document to witness). 

Mrs. Granat. It says Jo Granat. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you the secretary as indicated on the author- 
ized signature card ? 

Mrs. Granat. I feel very strongly about the Rosenberg case. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2157 

Chairman Walter. Never mind that. We don't care how you feel 
about the Rosenberg case. 

Mrs. Granat. I want to answer in my own way, if you don't mind. 

Chairman Walter. You are not going to make a speech. Answer 
the question. 

Mrs. Granat. I am sorry, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. You are not going to make a speech. You un- 
derstand that ? 

Mrs. Granat. Mr. Chairman, if I am going to answer questions, I 
will answer it in my own way. 

Chairman Walter. We have ovir own feeling about the Rosenberg 
case. "Wliat was the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Whether or not she was executive secretary in 
August 1952 of the Chicago Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosen- 
berg Case. 

Mrs. Granat. Do you want my answer to that question ? 

Chairman Walter. That is a simple question. 

Mrs. Granat. I will answer it in my way. No one will tell me how 
to answer a question. 

Chairman Walter. Yes or no, or the fifth amendment, but I don't 
want to hear your views. 

Mrs. Granat. I don't want you to put words in my mouth. 

Chairman Walter. Answer the question. 

Mrs. Granat. I will answer it in my way, if this committee wants 
to hear my answer. 

Chairman Walter. You are not going to make a speech. 

Mrs. Granat. I have no desire to make a speech, and I will answer 
the question. 

Chairman Walter. No, you are not going to read whatever this 
drivel is, this Commie stuff that we have heard so much. 

Mrs. Granat. Inasmuch as you have made up your own mind about 
this committee, I don't know why you are wasting the taxpayers' 
money with these hearings. 

Chairman Walter. Will you answer the question, please. 

Mrs. Granat. I will answer the question this way. 

Chairman Walter. No, you are not going to read that paper. 

Mrs. Granat. I will answer the question, I will refuse to answer 
the question based on my basis of the fifth amendment, which is my 
privilege not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Attached to the photostatic copy of the authorized 
signature card is a certificate of authority for organization which 
closes with this language : 

In witness whereof, I have subscribed my name as executive seci-etary and 
have caused the seal of said organization to be hereunto aflSxed. Jo Granat, 
Secretary. 

Is that your signature (handing document to witness) ? 

Mrs. Granat. I will refuse to answer for the same reason I have 
given before. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask it 
be marked as "Granat Exhibit No. 1," for identification purposes only 
and made a part of the committee files. 

Chairman Walter. Mark it and let it be received. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's investigation, Mrs. Granat, shows 
or indicates that you were a member of the policy committee of a con- 



2158 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

vention held in the city of Chicago in 1953, and on that committee 
were Herman Tamsky and Dr. Leonard Tushnet of New Jersey. 

Did you serve on such a committee with Dr. Tushnet of New 
Jersey and Herman Tamsky of Massachusetts ? 

Mrs. Granat. I will refuse to answer for the same reason that I 
have given before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Dr. Tushnet known to you to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Granat. I will refuse to answer for the same reason I have 
given before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Herman Tamsky known to you to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Granat. I think you know the purpose; this has nothing to 
do with what your stated purpose of this investigation was. 

Chairman Walter. We are the best judges of that. Proceed. 

Mrs. Granat. I resent this line of questioning. I think that it is a 
real abridgment of the first amendment of our Constitution, which 
guarantees the right of free speech, the right of freedom of associa- 
tion. For that reason I will refuse to answer and also I will refuse 
to answer on the same basis that I have stated before. 

Mr. Willis. "Wliy don't you stand only on the first amendment? 

Mrs. Granat. You will not tell me how to answer these questions. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Donald Kothenberg from Ohio and Keid Eob- 
inson from California serve on an organizational committee at that 
convention in Chicago in 1953 ? 

Mrs. Granat. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee in the course of its investigation 
has learned that you remitted certain sums collected in the city of 
Chicago to the national organization of the Committee To Secure 
Justice in the Rosenbergs Case. It was indicated that only half the 
sum collected was remitted. Will you tell the committee whether 
or not it was the practice to reserve for local purposes one-half of 
such funds collected ? 

Mrs. Granat. Your question is a very vague one. I have no idea 
what you are talking about, and I would refuse to answer it anyway 
on the basis of the 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you make remittances to the national organiza- 
tion of funds collected ? 

Mrs. Granat. I will refuse to answer on the same basis I have stated 
before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you make remittances on the basis of 50 per- 
cent of what was collected ? 

Mrs. Granat. I will refuse to answer that on the same basis I have 
stated before. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's investigation further discloses 
that a Civil Rights Congress and Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade rally — that is, a rally sponsored by those organizations — was 
held on March 4, 1953, in honor of Steve Nelson at the People's Audi- 
torium in Chicago. Did you participate in it? 

Mrs. Granat. I refuse to answer on the same basis that I have 
stated before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you shortly after March 4, 1953, resign as execu- 
tive secretary of the Chicago Committee To Secure Justice in the 
Rosenberg Case? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2159 

Mrs. Granat. That is a loaded question and you know it. I will 
refuse to answer on the same basis I have stated before. 

Mr. Tavenxer. It is not a loaded question. I want to know whether 
or not you withdrew from that organization in order to select another 
position. I don't care how the question is put. You can put the ques- 
tion yourself and answer it. 

Mrs. Granat. I will refuse to answer on the same basis I have stated 
before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't you a few months after March 4, 1953, be- 
come the executive secretary of the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mrs. Granat. I will refuse to answer that on the same basis. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Were you secretary of the Lightfoot Defense Com- 
mittee? 

Mrs. Granat. I will refuse to answer that question on the same basis. 

(The witness consulted with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavexner. Were you at any time a member of the International 
Workers Order? 

Mrs. Granat. I will refuse to answer on the basis that I have stated 
before. 

(The witness consulted with her counsel.) 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. Wasn't your appointment or selection as executive 
secretary of the Civil Rights Congress announced publicly on May 5, 
1954, by John T. Bernard, former member of Congress, acting as chair- 
man of the Civil Rights Congress ? 

Mrs. Granat. Mr. Tavenner, I have never been selected, appointed, 
or any of these things that you are trying to infer. Wliatever I have 
ever done I have done on the basis of my own, the dictates of my own 
conscience, whatever I have said I have said, whatever I felt, what- 
ever actions I have taken, nobody tells me what to do, just as you are 
not going to tell me here today how to answer anything, because nobody 
does. 

Chairman Walter. Answer the question, please. 

Mrs. Granat. I will refuse to answer on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said you were not elected or appointed. Were 
you in any manner acting as executive secretary of the Civil Rights 
Congress ? 

Mrs. Granat. I refuse to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Granat. I refuse to answer on the same basis as I have stated 
before. You know if you were really interested in doing something 
about the injustices or what you consider un-American activities, it 
seems to me you ought to participate or join in the request for an in- 
vestigation of the Rosenberg-Sobell trial. In that way the facts of 
the case will be revealed. 

Mr. Ta^-enner. Are you connected in any way with an organiza- 
tion or committee for justice or for clemency for INIorton Sobell ? 

Mrs. Granat. I will refuse to answer that on the same basis. 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. I have no further questions. 

Chairman Walter. The witness is excused. Call your next wit- 
ness, Mr. Tavenner. 

(Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 



2160 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 



Mr. Tavenner. Ruth Belmont. 

Chairman Walter. Do you swear the testimony you are about to 
ijive will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Miss Belmont. I do. 



Miss Belmont. 
Mr. Tavenner. 
Miss Belmont. 
Mr. Ta\t5nner. 



TESTIMONY OF RUTH BELMONT, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FOBER 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you Ruth Belmont ? 

Miss Belmont. That is my name, yes, Ruth Belmont. 

Mr. Tavenner. Miss or Mrs. ? 

Miss Belmont. Miss. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by the same 
counsel who accompanied the preceding witness. 

Where do you reside ? 

Miss Belmont. Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Miss Belmont. Since 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner. "WHiere did you live prior to that time ? 

Miss Belmont. I lived in Detroit, Mich. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you live in Detroit ? 
Approximately 5 years. 

That would be from 1942 approximately to 1947? 
1943, I believe, 4 years. 
Prior to that where did you reside? 

Miss' Belmont. I come from Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Mr. Ta\tsnner. Did you leave your home in Brooklyn to take up 
your residence in Detroit? , 

Miss Belmont. That is correct. 

Mr. TAiTiNNER. I presume you were born in Brooklyn ? 

Miss Belmont. Yes. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. What was your employment while living in Detroit ? 

Miss Belmont. I have held various positions as an ofiice secretary 
and office worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your employment as office worker or 
secretary in Detroit ? 

(The witness consulted with her counsel.) 

Miss Belmont. I think I would prefer to invoke the privilege under 
the fifth amendment and not bear witness against myself. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Do you you refuse to answer? 

Miss Belmont. I refuse to answer the question, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been employed since 1947 while living in 
Chicago ? 

Miss Belmont. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. What has been the nature of your employment? 

Miss Belmont. My most recent employment has been as an office 
sceretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. Employed by whom ? 

Miss Belmont. A manufacturing concern. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been. 

Miss Belmont. Yes. I have finished high school, attended a couple 
of years of college at Brooklyn College, and I have taken courses from 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2161 

time to time at Columbia, and I have also gone to Northwestern 
University. 

Mr. Tavenner. Miss Belmont, I hand you an authorized signature 
card for the Chicago Sobell Committee, attached to which is a cer- 
tificate of authority for organization of the Chicago Sobell Committee. 
The certificate of authority closes with this language : 

In witness whereof I have subscribed my name as secretary and have caused 
the seal of said organization to be hereto affixed, this 4th day of February 1955. 

Will you examine the name appearing as secretary and state what 
name you see there [handing document to witness]. 

Miss Belmont. ■ Yes ; it says "Ruth Belmont, secretary," on this 
document. 

Mr, Tavenner. Is the signature of the name appearing there your 
signature ? 

Miss Belmont. I refuse to answer under the privileges of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you the executive secretary of the Chicago 
Sobell Committee on February 4, 1955 ? 

(The witness consulted with her counsel.) 

Miss Belmont. I refuse on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you secretary of that organization now ? 

Miss Belmont. I refuse to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
it be marked "Belmont Exhibit No. 1" for identification only and 
made a part of the committee files. 

Chairman Walter. It may be so marked and received. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted from the certificate of authority for or- 
ganization that the chairman of that organization is Ruth Rothstein. 
Are you acquainted with her? 

Miss Belmont. I refuse to answer that question on the previous 
basis I stated before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, Ruth Rothstein was subpenaed as 
a witness before the committee at this time, but due to the receipt of a 
doctor's certificate showing sufficient cause for her not to appear, she 
was excused. 

Miss Belmont. Mr. Chairman, I would like — I would be very happy 
to make any kind of statement here in regard to the Rosenberg- Sobell 
case. 

Chairman Walter. We are not interested in knowing your opinion. 
This case has been before the higher courts of the land 7 times over 
a period of 2 years. So we are not concerned with your opinion. 

Miss Belmont. The Supreme Court has never reviewed the Rosen- 
berg-Sobell case. 

Chairman Walter. We are not interested in your views. 

Miss Belmont. This is not views. This is a legal fact, sir. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenne1{. While living in Detroit, did you become acquainted 
with the person named Bereniece Baldwin ? 

Miss Belmont. I refuse to answer that question on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Bereniece Baldwin became secretary of the 
Communist Party in the city of Detroit for the United States Gov- 
ernment in an undercover capacity under the direction of the Federal 
Bureau of investigation. She indicated in testimony before this com- 



2162 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

mittee tliat Ruth Belmont, holder of Communist Party card No. 
68709, 1947, transferred from the Johns Club, a professional club, of 
the Communist Party, to Chicago, 111., effective July 14, 1947. It 
is noted that it was in 1947 that you left Detroit and went to Chi- 
cago. Were you a member of the Communist Party in Detroit in 
1947? 

Miss Belmont. I refuse to answer that question on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was your Communist Party membership trans- 
ferred from Detroit to Chicago as indicated by Mrs. Baldwin? 

Miss Belmont. I refuse to answer the question on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not the holder of a Communist Party 
card in 1947 as stated by Mrs. Baldwin ? 

Miss Belmont. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
basis. You know, I think that as a Chicagoan I feel very proud of 
the fact that hundreds of thousands of people have expressed them- 
selves on an injustice that existed in the Rosenberg- Sobell case, and 
that a tremendous amount of work was done by many, many people 
to look into the facts of the case, and I think it is outrageous that this 
committee refuses to read material that would actually give them the 
information on this case and instead implying through this kind of 
evidence to besmirch a committee that was doing a job through hu- 
manity and that merely appealed for clemency in the lives of two 
people. 

Chairman Walter. In view of the fact that you seem to have 
made a very careful study of this thing, I am interested in knowing 
why it is that after the Rosenbergs were punished, and there is no 
amount of money that can do anything for them now, that of the 
money collected since that time less than 2 percent went ot the benefit 
of their children. 

Miss Belmont. I am sorry, sir, I don't know what the disburse- 
ments of funds are. 

Chairman Walter. That comes from an account filed by the Rosen- 
berg committee. 

Miss Belmont. According to the material, Mr. Walter, there has 
been a separate fund established for the children, a trust fund, and 
I think you can get that information very easily as to what money 
it provided for the two children. 

Mr. Tavenner. But the Communist Party was using the children 
as a means of propaganda to raise funds for purposes it was interested 
in, did it not? 

Miss Belmont. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have expressed or indicated considerable 
knowledge or study of the Rosenberg case. Here is evidence, positive, 
sworn evidence, by Mrs. Bereniece Baldwin, even to the extent of 
the number of your Communist Party card. You certainly are in a 
position to tell this committee what the purpose of the Communist 
Party was in engaging in propaganda activities relating to the Rosen- 
berg case if you will tell us. Will you tell us ? 

Miss Belmont. I refuse to answer that question on the same basis 
previously stated. 

(Witness consulted her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Belmont. I refuse to answer that question on the same basis. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2163 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Chairman Walter. Any questions ? 

Mr. Willis. No. 

Chairman Walter. You are excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. That is all the witnesses I have. 

Chairman Walter. It is interesting to me to note that the witness 
who complained a while ago about being forced to come here and 
leave her children alone at home has been here 2 hours and 7 minutes 
since she registered the complaint. 

The committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock tomorrow 
morning. 

(Whereupon, at 4: 55 p. m. August 3, 1955, the committee recessed 
to reconvene at 10 a. m. the following day, August 4, 1955.) 

(Testimony of witnesses appearing on August 4-5, 1955, printed 
in part II of this series.) 

X 



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