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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities ; (the Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case and affiliates) : hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-fourth Congress, first session .."

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



y 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

(THE COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG 
CASE AND AFFILIATES)— PART II 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF EEPEESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



AUGUST 4 AND 5, 1955 



PART II 

INCLUDING INDEX 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

NOV 2 1955 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
*7275 WASHINGTON : 1955 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY. New York 

JAMES B FRAZIER, JK., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Thomas W. Bhalb, Sr., Chief Clerk 

n 



CONTENTS 



PART I 
August 2, 1955 : 

Testimony of — Pag« 

James W. Glatis 2044 

Herman Tamsky 2054 

Afternoon session : 

Herman Tamsky (resumed) 2058 

Philip Koritz 2065 

Herman Tamsky (resumed) 2070 

Don Rothenberg 2071 

Mrs. Mildred Rothenberg 2087 

John Gilman 2090 

August 3, 1935 : 

Testimony of — 

Herman E. Thomas 2101 

Mrs. Sylvia Freedland 2116 

Mrs. Adelaide Riskin 2118 

Mrs. Jean D. Frantjis 2119 

Afternoon session : 

Herman E. Thomas (resumed) 2124 

Theodore E. Norton 2124 

John B. Stone 2142 

Mrs. Ethel Weichbrod 2147 

Anzelm A. Czarnowski 2150 

Mrs. Josephine Granat 2155 

Ruth Belmont 2160 

Index. {See pt. II.) 

PART II 
August 4, 1955 : 

Testimony of — 

Milton J. Santwire 2165 

Eve Neidelman 2173 

Mrs. Emily Alman 2179 

Afternoon session : 

Mrs. Emily Alman (resumed) 2187 

David Alman 2197 

Mrs. Emily Alman (resumed) 2205 

David Alman (resumed) 2206 

August 5, 1955 : 

Testimony of — 

David Alman (resumed) 2217 

Louis Harap 2239 

Index i 

in 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79tli Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted htj the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled. * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

17. Committee ou Uu-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
« * 4: * * * * 

(q) (1) Committee ou Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in tlie United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

♦ ••••** 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
the following standing committees : 

«**♦••♦ 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

♦ *****• 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

(THE COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE 
ROSENBERG CASE AND AFFILIATES)— PART II 



THURSDAY, AUGUST 4, 1955 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. G. 
public hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 10 : 15 a. m., pursuant to recess, in the caucus room, Old House 
Office Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Present : Representatives Francis E. Walter and Edwin E. Willis. 

Present also: Frank S. Tavenner, counsel; George C. Williams, 
investigator. 

Chairman Walter. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Tavenner, call your first witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Milton J. Santwire, will you come forward, 
please ? 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Santwire. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MILTON J. SANTWIEE 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Santwire. Milton J. Santwire. 

Mr. Tavenner. Please spell your last name. 

Mr. Saniwire. S-a-n-t-w-i-r-e. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Santwire, you are familiar with the rules of 
this committee, are you not, permitting all witnesses to have counsel 
to accompany them? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes. 

Mr. Ta^^enner. Are you willing to proceed in the absence of coun- 
sel, as it is noted counsel is not with you ? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Santwire? 

Mr. Santwire. I was born in Windsor, Vt., May 21, 1915. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Santwire. In Allen Park, Mich. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that a suburb of Detroit? 

2165 



2166 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Saktwire. It is. 

Mr. Tavennek. How long have you lived in the general area of 
Detroit, Mich.? 

Mr. Santwire. Since 1937. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your for- 
mal educational training has been? 

Mr. Santwire. Tlirough high school. 

Mr. Ta\^xner. Are you the same Mr. Milton Joseph Santwire who 
testified in the Smith Act cases in the city of Detroit in 1953? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, when you first 
became a member? 

Mr. Santwine. I first became a member of the Young Communist 
League in 1939, and remained in the Young Communist League until 
1943 ; was then a member of the Communist Party until December of 
1953. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. During any part of that time, were you em- 
ployed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation to assist the United 
States Government in obtaining information necessary for the Gov- 
ernment in connection with Communist Party activities in the area 
of Detroit? 

Mr. Santavire. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What were the circumstances under which that em- 
ployment occurred ? 

Mr. Santwire. I was approached in the summer of 1942. In Octo- 
ber of the same year I started submitting information to the FBI. 

Mr. Taat2Nner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time that you were approached? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. From that time until what date did you continue in 
your work for the Federal Bureau of Investigation? 

Mr. Santavire. December of 1953. 

]\Ir. Taw.nner. Was your identity disclosed at the time of the 
trial of the Smith Act cases ? 

Mr. Santwire. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. To what groups or branches of the Communist 
Party in the area of Detroit have you belonged? 

Mr. Santwire. I belonged to a neighborhood club known as the Ben 
Davis Club of the Communist Party. 

I belonged to what was known as Plastic Club, which is an indi- 
vidual club within the Ford section of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tamsnner. By Ford section, you mean a Communist Party 
group working in the Ford plant ? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes ; one of the many groups. 

Mr. TA\Ti:NNER. Did you occupy any position in any of these clubs 
of the Communist Party to which you belonged ? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes. I was dues secretary of one club. I worked 
on the literature committee of that same clufe. I was secretary of the 
club; worked on publicity. I was a member of the section committee 
of the Ford section. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2167 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. SantAvire, the committee is now investigatino; 
Communist Party activities in connection with work clone in behalf 
of the Rosenberg's. Will yon tell the committee, whether or not the 
Communist Party in the area of Detroit was active in behalf of the 
Rosenbergs ? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes; there were many people who became active in 
a committee on behalf of the Rosenberg;s in Detroit. 

Mr. Ta\t<:nxer. Are you aware of the existence of a group in Detroit 
known as the Detroit Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case? 

Mr. Santwire. I am familiar with it to the extent that a committee 
did exist. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. As far as you know was the membership of that 
committee ever made public^ 

Mr. Santwire. Never to my knowledge. 

Mr. Willis. What was that question? 

Mr. TA^TiNNER. Whether the membershi]) of the Detroit Committee 
for Justice to the Rosenbergs was made public. 

As a member of the Communist Partj% did you learn the names 
of any officers of that organization, such as the chairman or secretary? 

Mr. Santwire. I never knew anyone with a title who was considered 
an officer of the committee. There were certain people who took 
leadership in it. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the first knowledge you had of the inter- 
est of the Communist Party in the Rosenberg matter? 

^Ir. Santwire. It was late in 1951 that I first heard through Com- 
munist Party circles that action was to be taken on behalf of the 
Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Santwire. Did you learn as to what type of action was to be 
taken? 

Mr. Santwire. Xot until months afterward. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was it that you learned months afterward? 

Mr. Santwire. I had it related to me that a committee was being 
formed; that a committee had been in existence, and it was being 
formed for the purpose to secure activity on behalf of the Rosenbergs. 
Then a couple of months after that public meetings were held. 

Mr. Tavenner. This, then, was before the time the Detroit Com- 
mittee for Justice to the Rosenbergs was actually having public 
meetings? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner, That information, you say you obtained in con- 
nection with your Communist Party work? 

Mr. Santavire. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what you recall 
about the activity of the Communist Party and to what extent it 
pressed the work that was being done in behalf of the Rosenbergs ? 

JNIr. Santw^ire. The party press in Michigan immediately seized 
upon this Rosenberg issue and made big headlines of it, various dis- 
tributions of literature were made at factory gates, theaters, ball 
parks, even churches. 

And the leadership of the party who w^as taking an active part in 
the leadership of this Rosenberg committee endeavored to secure any 
additional help that they could get in the name of and on behalf of 
the Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 



2168 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the type of participation that the active 
Communist Party members gave in that work ? 

Mr. Santwiee. Well, in addition to attending meetings sponsored 
by the committee, they would distribute leaflets. One person might 
circulate in a neighborhood. Another person would circulate m a 
plant, in a factory, and secure funds, if possible, and help; even 
names on petitions, and things like that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are speaking now of Communist Party 
members ? 

Mr. Santwiee. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the names, if you recall, 
of active members of the Communist Party who engaged in that type 

of work ? , r>, -, ^ 

Mr. Santwire. There was Philip Halper. There was Sol Gross- 
man, Anne Shore, Art McPhaul, Nelson Davis, Tom Crow. There 
were many. 

Mr. Tavenner. There were many others ? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your basis for identifying those persons 
whose names you have given as members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Santwire. I have attended hundreds of meetings with these 
people over a period of years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What kind of meetings ? 

Mr. Santwire. Communist Party meetings, closed meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mentioned the name of Anne Shore. Was she 
engaged in any other Communist Party activities besides that of 
assisting in the Rosenberg case ? 

Mr. Santwire. Anne Shore has been involved in the leadership in 
all of the front groups of the Communist Party, to one degree or 
another. In the Civil Rights Congress, I don't know what her title 
was. She was a secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have a letterhead of the Civil Rights Congress 
before me in which her name is signed "Anne Shore, director of 
organization." 

Chairman Walter. How does she spell her name ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name Anne Shore, please ? 

Mr. Santwire. A-n-n-e S-h-o-r-e. 

Mr. Tavenner. This was a circular letter, the heading of which 
is "Save the Rosenbergs." 

I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask that it be marked 
"Santwire Exhibit No. 1," and ask that it be made a part of the 
transcript of the record. 

Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 

(Santwire Exhibit No. 1 is as follows:) 



I 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2169 

Santwire Exhibit No., 1 

C IVIL RIGHTS CONGRESS 

■ OF MICH IGAN " 

918-19 Chorlevoix BIdg . 2033 Pork Avenue • Detroit 26, Michigon . WOodword 1 -6278 



SAVE THE ROSEIBEROS WIRE EISENHOWKH T0D4.Y 



Dear Friend: 

The people of America can save the Rooenbergs* Aa ve vrlte you this 
letter another brief stay of execution has been granted to permit the attorneys 
for the Rosenbergs to make a new appeal to the United State Supremo Court. 

Since President Eisenhower's savage denial of clemency, and, the 
revelation of the intervention of His Holiness Pope Pius XII, thousands of new 
▼oices are being raised to INSIST THAT PRESIDENT EISENHOWER RECONSIDER. 

But this figure must be raised to millions if the lives of Julius and 
Ethel Rosenberg are to be saved. 

There Ib something which each and every one of us must and can do. 
XIRE OR WRITE TO THE PRESIDENT. (The cost of wires is small. 81^ for a night 
letter of 50 words, ta;c included. $1.44 for a day letter of 50 words, tax 
included.) 

■Wires should be addressed to: President Dwlght D. Eisenhower 

White House 
Tfashington, D.C. 

Each of us should get at least five others to do the seme. 

Ve think the article in the "Labor Defender" (enclosed) tells the most 
urgent reasons why the lives of the Rosenbergs must be saved. While it is cruel 
and inhuman to murder the parents of two young children — and particularly when 
NO ONE HAS EVER RECEIVED such a penalty before — -what is of paramount ijnpor- 
tance is tha t the future security of each and every one of us is wrapped up in 
the fate of the Rosenbergs. When two people can be electrocuted for "conspiracy 
to commit espionage", the charge against the Rosenbergs, and where no proof of 
actual deeds is necessary, then our unions, our organizations, our very own 
lives are in danger. 

Ue firmly believe that a tremendous upsurge of demands, directed to the 

President, can mean the difference between life and death — can be the one 

single factor responsible for saving their lives — and the honor, decency and 
democracy which we all cherish. 

Respectfully yours. 



AHVE SHORE 
AS: sa Director of Organization 

Mr. TA\nENNER. You say she was active, in many Communist fronts? 

Mr. Santwire. All of them to some degree or another. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have said that the names of the officers of the 
Detroit committee for justice for the Rosenbergs were not made public 
so far as you knew. Do you recall whether there were any dociiments 
issued by that organization which carried the name of the chairman, 
the name of the secretary, as seems to have been customary in most 
areas ? 

Mr. Santwire. No ; to my knowledge there were never any officers, 
as such. There were, as I stated, people who did take leadership, but 
I never knew any of them having a title. 



2170 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavennek. If there were officers it was not made public ? 

Mr. Santwire. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Actually the committee has through its investiga- 
tion discovered one evidence of the existence of officers, including the 
name of the officer. 

The committee has a letter, a photostatic copy of a letter, signed 
by Pat Rush, secretary of the Detroit Committee for Justice in the 
Rosenberg Case, dated January IG, 1953, which was written to the 
Governor of the State of Michigan asking that he may add his name 
and high office to tlie plea for clemency for Ethel and Julius Rosen- 
berg, 

Mr. Chairman, I would like to introduce this document in evidence 
and ask that it be marked "'Santwire Exhibit Xo. 2'" for identification 
only and made a part of the committee files. 

Chairman Walter. Let it be marked and received. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you personally acquainted with Pat Rush ? 

Mr. Santwire. I don't recall ever me^^ting Pat Rush. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have another photostatic copy of a letter on the 
letterhead of the Detroit Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosen- 
berg Case, under date of January 21, 1953, addressed to the Honorable 
Mennen G. Williams, Governor of the State of Michigan, from which 
I quote : 

On January 13 we asked for an appointment so that we might briefly discuss 
with you the case of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. We had expected to be in 
Lansing on Wednesday, January 21. 1953. and later realized that you probably 
would not have returned from your visit to Washington, D. C. 

Our committee, therefore, has postponed its visit to Lansing to Thursday, 
January 27 at 11 :30 a. m. We hope that it will be possible for you to give us a 
few minutes of your time. 
Respectfully yours, 

Mrs. Leo Rush, Secretary. 

I desire to offer that document in evidence and ask that it be marked 
"Santwire Exhibit No. 3"' for identification only and made a part 
of the committee files. 

Chairman Walter. Mark it and let it be received. 

Mr. Tavenner. Investigation conducted by the connnittee shows 
that such a conference was held. The conference was not held with 
the Governor, but with one of his secretaries. 

The committee start' has been able to procure photographs of the 
persons who appeared for that conference in res]3onse to the request 
by the secretary of tlie organization. I want to see if you can identify 
any of the persons appearing in the photographs as persons known 
to you to be members of the (^ommunist Party. It is not my purpose 
to ask you whether you know them, but whether you know that they 
were members of the Communist Party. So I only want you to 
identify any persons from tlie photograph whom you know to be 
members of the Communist Party. 

These photographs were taken at various angles and some of them 
with the backs of individuals to the camera and, of course, could not 
be identified. I will have to exhibit three photographs to you. Num- 
bers have been placed above the photographs of each person. 

I hand you the first photograph, which I will ask to be introduced 
in evidence, and ask that it be marked "Santwire Exhibit No. 4" for 
identification only and made a part of the committee files. 



IXVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2171 

Chairman Walter. It is so ordered. 

]Mr. Tavexxer. The person on the immediate left has tlie number 
"l"' above her photograpln Can you identify that individual? 

Mr. Saxtavire. Xo. 

Mr. Tavexxer. The person with Xo. 2 above the name, can you 
identify that individual ? 

Mr. SAXTAAaRE. Xo. 

Mr. Tavexxer. When I say identify them. I mean identify as a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Saxtavire. I cannot. 

]Mr. Taa'exxer. "Will you examine the photograph of Xo. 3, the lady 
Avith her hand to her face, and state vrhether or not the picture is 
clear enouo-h for you to identify that individual from the photo- 
graph ? 

Mr. Saxtavire. Xo. 

Mr. Taa-exxer. Can you identify Xo. 4. the lady looking doAvn. 

Mr. Saxtaa^re. Xo ; 1 cannot. 

Mr. Taat.xxer. Xo. 5, the face is partially obscured, so I Avill not 
ask you unless you can see enough to identify it. 

Mr. Saxtavire. Xo. 

Mr. Taa-exxer. The person AA'itli the figure "6"' above the photo- 
graph ? 

Mr. Saxtavire. Yes. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Whose ])hotogra])h is that i 

Mr, Saxtavire. Ethel JacoboAvitz. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you spell it ( 

Mr. Saxtavire. J-a-c-o-b-o-Av-i-t-z. 

Mr. Tavexxer. On AA'hat do you base A'our identification? 

Mr. Saxtavire. I have attended dozens and dozens of meetings at 
AA'hich she Avas present, closed meetings. 

Mr. Taat.xxer. Seven. Can you identify- that individual? 

Mr. Saxtavire. Xo. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Eight ? 

Mr. Saxtavire. Yes. 

Mr. Taa'exxer. Who is that individual ? 

Mr. Saxtavire. Lydia Mates. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Is she the Avife of David Mates Avho appeared 
before this committee a short time ago? 

Mr. Saxtaa'ire. She is the AA^ife of Dave Mates. 

Mr. Taa'exxer. On Avhat do you base your identification of her as 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

JNIr. Saxtavire. She is one of the most active people in the Com- 
munist Party in Detroit, and front groups of the party. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Xo. 9 ? 

Mr. Saxtavire. Xo. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Xo. 10 is a man. 

Mr. Saxtaa^ire. Xo. 

Mr. TAAT.XXER. Xo. 11? 

Mr. Saxtaa'ire. Xo. 

Mr. Taa'exxer. Is that because the photograph is not clear, shoAving 
merely a profile ? 

Mr. Saxtavire. I can't see enougli of the individual to positively 
identify her. 



2172 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. You have identified out of that photograph defi- 
nitely Nos. 6 and 8, Ethel Jacobowitz and Lydia Mates, respectively? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the second photograph in evidence 
and ask that it be marked "Santwire Exhibit No. 5," for identification 
only, and to be made a part of the committee files. 

Will you examine it, please. It is taken at a different angle and 
showing a lesser group in the photograph. There are only two per- 
sons. The persons are so seated in the photograph that only one is 
facing the camera. 

Mr. Santwire. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio is that? 

Mr. Santwire. Ethel Jacobowitz. 

Mr. Tavenner. No. 2 in that photograph ? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes, No. 2. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is she the same person you identified in the other 
photograph ? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. I hand you a third photograph, which I ask be 
introduced in evidence and marked "Santwire Exhibit No. 6" for 
identification only, and to be made a part of the committee files. 

Chairman Walter. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state whether or not you can identify from 
that photograph the person marked No. 2 above the head ? — would it 
appear to be the same person whose opposite profile appeared in the 
first photograph ? 

Mr. Santwire. No. I would hesitate to identify her. 

Mr. Tavenner. From the photograph ? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine No. 3, the lady partially shield- 
ing her face with her hand. Can you identify that individual ? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVliat is her name ? 

Mr. Santwire. Her name is Gert Schatz. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell the last name, please. 

Mr. Santwire. S-c-h-a-t-z. 

Mr. Tavenner. On what do you base your identification of her? 

Mr. Santwire. She is one of the leadership in the party in Michigan. 
Her husband is — well, he is very, very active in not only the party, 
but since 1951 in the front groups, also. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the person marked No. 4 above 
her head ? "Wlio is that ? 

Mr. Santwire. The person is Anne Shore. 

Mr. Tavenner. The person you identified a few moments ago as 
being active in the Rosenberg matter ? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you able to identify No. 1 appearing in this 
photograph ? 

Mr. Santwire. As a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Santwire. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee was successful in securing the names 
of some of those who took part in this conference from their signature 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2173 

of a register. The name of one of those that signed the register was 
Helen Travis. Are you acquainted with Helen Travis ? 

Mr. Santwire. Very well. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Santwire. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. On what do you base your identification of Helen 
Travis? 

Mr. Santwire. As a participant with her in many, many closed 
party meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Irrespective of whether or not you could identify 
another name from the photograph, let me ask you if you are ac- 
quainted with a person by the name of Joy Trachtenberg ? 

Mr. Sant^vire. I am familiar with the name of Joy Trachtenberg, 
but I don't know the individual personally. The name Trachtenberg 
is commonly known within Communist Party circles 

Mr. Tavenner. You identified Lydia Mates. Do you know whether 
she was also known as Lydia Mapes? 

Mr. Santwire. No, I do not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us in a general way what her activity 
was' in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Santwire. Lydia Mates was always active and a very likable 
person and was able to secure the activity of other individuals when 
others might have failed. She was especially active in the 12th Street 
area and that particular area consisted mostly in securing attention 
and activity on the part of other women on a community basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee investigations developed that she 
was the speaker at this conference ; that she was the one who was the 
speaker for the group at this conference at the governor's office. 

Mr. Chairman, I think the record should show at this point that 
Mrs. Bereniece Baldwin testified that Mrs. Pat Kush, who has been 
identified as the same person as Mrs. Leo Rush, was chairman of the 
North Dexter Club of the Commtinist Party in Detroit. 

Chairman Walter. "Wlien was that? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not certain as to the exact date. It was in 
1952. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. Mr. Santwire, you are excused with the thanks 
of the committee. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Chairman Walter. Call your next witness. 
Mr. Tavenner. I would like to call Eve Neidelman. 
Chairman Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 
Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give is the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 
Miss Neidelman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EVE NEIDELMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please ? 

Miss Neidekman. My name is Eve Neidelman. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 

Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street NW., Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is Miss or Mrs. Neidelman ? 



2174 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Miss Neidelman. Miss. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside ? 

Miss Neidelman. Detroit, Midi. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Detroit '. 

Miss Neidelman. Forty years, and there was a break of 9 years 
when I lived in New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the period during which you lived in 
New York? 

Miss Neidelman. From 1929 to approximately 1938. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your employment in New York? 

Miss Neidelman. I worked for the Home Relief Bureau through 
the period of the depression. 

Mr. Tavenner. A State or Federal position? 

Miss Neidelman. That was a city position, I believe. I also worked 
for the Charity Organization Society which calls itself something else 
at the present time. 

I was secretary to Upton Close when I first went to live in New 
York. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your employment in Detroit ? 

Miss Neidelman. About 1940 I worked for the United Automobile 
Workers of America. I also worked for the Wayne County CIO 
Council. 

Mr. Tavenner. During what period have you worked for the 
Wayne County CIO Council? 

Miss Neidelman. I don't remember the years exactly, but probably 
from 1911 to 1945 or 1946. I don't remember the exact period. 

Mr. Tavenner. What Avas your other employment in Detroit? 

Mi ^s Neidelman. For the ITAW, for various locals of the UAW. 

Mr Tavenner. Are you so employed now? 

Mi::- 3 Neidelman. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Miss Neidelman 

(The witness confers with her ccrunsel.) 

Miss Neidelman. I also want to state there was other emjiloyment 
both in New York and in Detroit on which I want to invoke the fifth 
amendment against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Tavenner. During what period of time in Detroit was your 
employment of such type that you refuse to testif}' on the ground 
that to do so might tend to inci'iminate you ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer that for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your full 
employment has been since 1950 ? 

Miss Neidelman. I worked for the UAW, as far as I can remember. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Have you had any other employment ? 

Mr. FoRER. Since 1950 ? 

Mr. Taatenner. Since 1950. 

Miss Neidelman. Not that I recall. There was a short period when 
I was unemployed and had a number of jobs. I don't remember 
exactly when that period ended. That was after my employment 
with the Wayne County CIO Council. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you the private secretary to Elmer Johnson, 
State secretary of the Commvmist Part}^ for district T in 1943? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the same basis, the fifth 
amendment. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2175 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed in 1943 ? 

Miss Neidelmax. I refuse to answer on the saane basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Miss Neidelman, what position, if any, did you 
liold on the Detroit Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment, as previously stated. 

Chairman Walter. Do I understand you to mean that if you admit 
that you were connected with this committee to aid the Eosenbergs 
3'ou might be in danger of being prosecuted ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Neidelman. Sir, I am neither admitting or denying it. 

Chairman Walter. Were you connected with this committee ? 

Miss Neidelman. I am sorrv. I refuse to ansAver on the basis of 
the fifth. 

]Mr. Tavenner. What was your residence address in 1953? 

Miss Neidelman. I don't recall, I moved in a recent period a number 
of times 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Neidelman. I believe at that time I lived at 321:0 Blain, in 
Detroit. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever lived at 3032 Burlingame or 
Bulingame ? 

Miss Neidelman. I believe I did — no, I didn't. I don't remember 
living at Burlingame. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what that address is ? 

Miss Neidelman. No ; I don't. 

Chairman Walter. What is it? 

Mr. Tavenner. I don't know, sir. 

Did you ever have that address, 3032 ? 

Miss Neidelman. 1 don't recall having that address. 

IVfr. Ta\t:nner. Is it the address of a place of business? 

Miss Neidelman. No, sir ; not that I know of. 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1953 did you have an address of 2123 Gratiot? 

Miss Neidelman. I worked at 2123 Gratiot. 

Mv. Tavenner. In what position? 

Miss Neidelman. I was in charge of the local union office. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's investigation has disclosed that 
after a meeting held at Parkside Hall on September 22, 1953, in De- 
troit, that is a meeting sponsored by the Detroit committee for justice 
in the Rosenberg case, there was found the outside cover of a package 
addressed to Eve Neidelman, 3032 Bulingame, Detroit, Mich. Will 
you examine a photostatic copy and state whether you recall having 
received the contents of such a package? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Neidelman. This doesn't register with me at all. I do not 
recall it. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. You do not recall it ? 

Miss Neidelman. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. There appears on the enevelojoe "Postmaster, this 
parcel mav be opened for postal inspection if necessary," and then 
under it, "Box 2, 1050 Sixth Avenue, New York 18, N. Y." Do you 
know what place of business in New York had that address ? 

67275 — 55 — pt. 2 2 



2176 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Neidelman. I don't recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a letterhead of the Committee To Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case and ask you to look in the righthand 
margin at the top to see if there appears there exactly the same ad- 
dress, 1050 Sixth Avenue, New York 18, N. Y.; is that correct? 

Miss Neidelman. Yes, sir ; it does so appear. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall now having received a package from 
that address ? 

Mr. FoRER. Are you talking about a package or this one? 

Mr. Tavenner. A package. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer in evidence the photostatic copy of 
the document with the address of Eve Neidelman on it, and ask that 
it be marked "Neidelman Exhibit No. 1" for identification only and 
be made a part of the committee files. 

Chairman Walter. Mark it and let it be received. 

Mr. Tavenner. I also offer in evidence the letterhead of the Com- 
mittee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, with the New York 
address, and ask that it be marked "Neidelman Exhibit No. 2" for 
identification only and to be made a part of the committee files. 

Chairman Walter. Mark it and let it be received. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a similar envelope 
which was picked up at the Madison ballroom on June 7, 1953, after 
a meeting sponsored by the Committee of One Hundred. 

This document is addressed to Eve Neidelman, 2123 Gratiot, De- 
troit. Will you examine it, please, and state whether or not you 
received that document ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Neidelman. I am sorry. I don't recognize this document. 

Mr. Tavenner. This document likewise has the notation "From Box 
2, 1050 Sixth Avenue, New York 18, N. Y." 

I desire to offer this document in evidence and ask that it be marked 
"Neidelman Exhibit No. 3" for identification only and to be made 
a part of the committee files. 

Chairman Walter. Mark it and let it be received. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a third document addressed to Eve 
Neidelman, 2123 Gratiot, Detroit, Mich., and ask if you received that 
package. This shows that it was a package upon which a consider- 
able amount of canceled postage appears. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Neidelman. I don't recognize it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recognize your name? 

Miss Neidelman. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. And your address? 

Miss Neidelman. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive the package in the mail ? 
, Miss Neidelman. Not that I know of ; not that I recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. This document also shows that it is from Box 2, 1050 
Sixth Avenue, New York ; is that correct ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2177 

Weren't you the person who received the propaganda material for 
the Detroit Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, 
wliich was sent from the national office in New York ? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you chairman of the Detroit Committee To 
Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case ? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the last-mentioned document in 
evidence and ask that it be marked "Neidelman Exhibit No. 4" for 
identification only and be made a part of the committee files. 

Chairman Walter. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Lydia Mates? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with a person by the name of 
Ben Plotkins? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with a person by the name of 
Bob Taylor? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. In testimony before the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, May 7, 1954, Bereniece Baldwin was questioned. I asked 
the witness this question, this witness being Bereniece Baldwin : 

Identify Curt Davis in the 1952 hearings. 

Curt Davis has been a witness during the course of this hearing. 

That is the hearing in Detroit in 1954. 

We have heard of the Twelfth Street Club during the course of our hearing 
at this time. Will you give us the names of the officers of that club, please? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That was also located in the territory of 12th Street. Eve 
Neidelman was chairman, and she was succeeded by Ben Plotkins in 1946. Bob 
Taylor took care of the press work. Lydia Mates was organizer and executive 
secretary. 

Is any part of that testimony by Mrs. Baldwin, in so far as it relates 
to you, false ? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you the chairman of the Twelfth Street Club 
Communist Party in Detroit, Mich. ? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were vou a member of the Communist Party in 
1953- • 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer 



Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. [Continuing:] The date the ex- 
Iiibits were passing through the mails as shown from the exhibits ? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a document put out in Detroit under the 
auspices of the Detroit Committee for Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 
1 ask you to examine it and see whether or not the name of any officer 
appears on it. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not, do you ? 

Miss Neidelman. No ; I don't see any names. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a second document at the bottom of 
"which appears "Detroit Committee for Clemency in the Rosenberg 



2178 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Case,'" and ask if you see the name of tlie president or secretary of 
the Detroit org^anization ? 

Miss Neidelmax. I see the name and address of a committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is that ? 

Miss Neidelman. I see the name and address of the committee. I 
also see a reference to Pope Pius asking; for clemency. 

Mr. Tavenner. I noticed you pointed that out, but now will you 
answer my questioii whether the name of any officer of the club appears 
on it? 

Miss Neidelman. I didn't see any. 

Mr, Tavenner. I hand you a third. This is the last one I will 
hand you. I ask you whether or not it show^s that the distribution 
of it was sponsored by the Detroit Committee To Secure Justice for 
the Rosenbergs, without the use of the name of the president or sec- 
retary. 

Miss Neidelman. It says something about William Reuben speak- 
ing about the Rosenberg case and giving the facts of the case. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, will you answer the question after you have 
made your voluntary statement? 

Miss Neidelman. I don't see any names. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, Mr. Chairman, the staif of the committee has 
examined every document it can hud from the Detroit area. It has 
not discovered an instance in which the names of the officers of the 
Detroit Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case has been 
made public. 

I want to show you another document. This is a document relating 
to the agenda of a conference held in October 1953 in the city of Chi- 
cago, in which a committee is described under the heading "Organiza- 
tion and Finance." I notice the first item appealing in this form, 
"One person from Detroit," without mentioning the name of the 
officer. Do you see that ? 

Miss Neidelman. Yes; I see that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why was it that in the city of Detroit public knowl- 
edge of the names of the officers were ke])t secret ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Neidelman. That is a loaded question. I never said that it 
was ke])t secret. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVasn't it kept secret ? 

Miss Neidelman. What was kept secret? 

Mr. Tavenner. You understood the question, didn't you? 

Chairman Walter. Were the names of the officers kept secret? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Neidei,man. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. They were kept secret because they were members 
of the Communist Party, weren't tliey ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Let me see the document. 

Miss Neidelman. You are still assuming they were kept secret and 
you have produced a number of letters here that were signed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; we found one letter because the committee 
could not get a conference with the Governor without putting in 
writing who its secretary was. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2179 

Miss NeidelMxVN. I believe there were a couple of letters that were 
signed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Pat Rush? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. The only time that your committee went on record 
as showing the name of an officer was when it attempted to get a con- 
ference with the Governor of the State of Michigan. Isn't that the 
only time ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth. 

Mr. Tam^nner. Do you hold any official position with the present 
organization or committee for justice to Morton Sobell, or for clemency 
to Morton Sobell ? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who are the officers of that organization ? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth. 

Chairman Walter. Do you know who they are? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on tJie same basis. 

Chairman Walter. I am particularly anxious to know because I 
would like to ask why Sobell refused to take the witness stand in his 
own trial. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did ,you take part in the raising of funds for the 
Detroit committee for justice to the Rosenbergs? 

Miss Neidelman. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Chairman Walter. You may be excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Emily Alman, will you come forward, please. 

Chairman Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth so help you God? 

Mrs. Alman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. EMILY ALMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

Mrs. Alman. Emily Alman. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 

Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz, 25 Broad Street, New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside, Mrs. Alman ? 

Mrs. Alman. Engiishtown, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived there ? 

Mrs. Alman. Approximately 2 years, sir. 

Mr. TxWenner. Prior to that, where did you reside, Mrs. Alman? 

Mrs. Alman. 10 Monrose Street, New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you reside in New York City ? 

Mrs. Alman. All my life. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
educational training has been ? 

Mrs. Alman. I am a graduate social worker from Hunter Col- 
lege 



2180 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Let us begin back with high school. 

Mrs. Alman. I attended high school. 

Mr. Tavenner. What high school ? 

Mrs. Alman. Seward Park High School. I attended and gradu- 
ated from Hunter College. I took graduate courses at the New York 
School of Social Work. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the date of the completion of your grad- 
uate courses ? 

Mrs. Alman. You mean at the New York school ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. Alman. I believe in 1951, or 1952. I am not sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. Other than being a housewife, what has your em- 
ployment been since 1950 ? 

Mrs. Alman. My employment began in 1939 or 1940. I am not sure 
of the years. I worked as a social worker for a major portion of my 
working life. 

Mr. Tavenner, For the city of New York ? 

Mrs. Alman. I worked as a probation officer at the magistrate's 
court for 2 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is of the city of New York? 

Mrs. Alman. Of the city of New York. 

I worked as a recreation director for the aged at an old age home 
and later at a Young Men and Women's Hebrew Association of New 
York at 92d Street. I had other positions for very short periods. 
These were my primary positions. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your employment now ? 

Mrs. Alman. Presently we are farmers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you occupy any other position of employment?' 

Mrs. Alman. No. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. What employment have you had beginning with 
1952, for which you received compensation ? 

Mrs. Alman. I worked for the Y, as a recreation director until 
about May of 1952 when I left that position to work full time with 
the National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 
I continued there, including the summer months, I would say, 3 
months, until the execution, and then about 6 months thereafter. 

Mr. Ta\tnner. During the time you attended high school were you 
aware of the existence of an organized group of the Young Commu- 
nist League ? 

Mrs. Alman. Was I aware of the existence? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. Alman. Definitely. I was aware of the existence of many 
organizations. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you connected with it in any way ? 

Mrs. Alman. No. 

Chairman Walter. May I ask a question at this point? 

Did I understand you to say that for 6 months after the execution 
of the Rosenbergs you were a member of the National Committee 
to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case ? 

Mrs. Alman. No ; I said I worked for the committee. We worked 
primarily on cleaning up some of the details of the Rosenberg case 
and preparing the Sobell case, which is now being appealed. We 
continued for a short period there, I would call it almost a transition 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2181 

period, taking care of some of the details that were left, the funeral, 
tlie burial, and that type of details. 

The Chairman. By transition, you mean from the justice for the 
Ilosenbergs to justice for Sobell ? 

Mrs. Alman. In a sense you could call it that. The Rosenberg 
connnittee was concerned with Sobell all during its existence, so it 
is simply a question of where the emphasis was placed. We also 
prepared at that time, I believe, our application to the Senate Judi- 
ciary Committee asking for complete investigation of the entire case. 
I believe that was about the period when we were doing it. Of 
course, that covers both the Rosenberg and the Sobell aspects of the 
case. 

Mr. Tavenner. TVTiat salary did you receive during the period of 
time you were giving full time to tlie committee? 

Mrs. Alman. I believe for 3 months, the 3 months until the execu- 
tion, I received approximately $35 a week and $30 for expenses, which 
covered the cost of my baby sitter, taking care of my two children. 

Mr. Tavenner. Sixty-five? 

Mrs. Alman. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wasn't your gross salary $85 a week ? 

Mrs. Alman. Not during that period. The ]3eriod I think you are 
referring to began afterward when I was working full time only and 
did not have a baby sitter. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, let us get the record straight on this because 
it is confused. What was the date you began to receive salary ? 

Mrs. Alman. I couldn't tell you exactly ; I don't know. I left the 

Y somewhere around May. I would have to check my dates. Up to 
that point I was working full time at the Y as a recreation director 
for the aged. I was not employed by the Y. I was employed by the 
Yorktown Neighborhood Club. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to your best judgment, when did your 
employment begin at $65 a week with the national committee? 

Mrs. Alman. As I said, I think it was in May. 

Mr. Tavenner. May of what year ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Alman. Let's take it this way. We ran a large dinner in May, 
$25-a-plate dinner for a thousand people. I worked on that dinner 
while I was also employed at the Y. 

The work became too much for me, because I was trying to do too 
much, and, therefore, right after that dinner at which we had Pro- 
fessor Love speak on the case, right after that I quit my job at the 

Y and took $35 a week salary and $30 a week expenses, or perhaps it 
was reversed, I am not sure. I would have to check my income tax 
for that period, and I could let you know. 

Mr. Tavenner. My question was : That was May of what year? 

Mrs. Alman. 1952. 

Mr. Tavenner. May 1952. You continued to receive that salary 
for about how long ? 

Mrs. Alman. Thirty, and thirty-five, approximately 3 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your salary then was increased to ^85 a week? 

Mrs. Alman. No; I think that was a period on which I was not 
on salary, about 2 months, then a period when I went on salary, I 
think in October of 1952, I then went on salary again; between July 



2182 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

and October I was not on salary, I believe, and in October of 1952 I 
went on salary and remained, I believe, until March of 1953. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Alman. My years are wrong. Let's start over again. 

If the execution was in 1953, then it was in 1953 that I went on sal- 
ary, and it was again in 1954 that I went off. Are we clear on that 
now? 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me see if we have it correct. 

Are you changing the years to mean 1953 i 

Mrs. Alman 1953. Prior to that time I received no salary. At 
that time I must again insist my salary was 30, and expenses were 35 
for a period of 3 months. Then w^e go into the fall of 1953 where I 
went on salary as a full-time organizer, and remained there until 
about iSIarch of 1954, October, November, December, January — yes, 
about that. I would have to check it with my own records. 

Mr. Tavenxer. That is accurate enough. 

Prior to May 1953 did you make any loans? 

Mrs. Alman. Loans ? 

Mr. Tavexner. Yes; of money to the organization? Did you 
have any financial transactions? 

Mrs. Almax. Did I lend money to which organization? 

Mr. Tavexxer. To the National Committee To Secure Justice in the 
Rosenberg Case ? 

Mrs. Almax. I don't think that I loaned any money to them during 
that period. I would have to check the records. 

Mr. Ta\'exxer. Did you make any loans after May 1953? 

Mrs. Almax. I personally never had money to lend. 

Mr. Tavexxer. The committee's investigation discloses the issuance 
of a check bearing date of June 15, 1953, payable to cash in the amount 
of $1,000, and that the check was endorsed "Pay to the order of Chase 
National Bank," and signed "National Committee To Secure Justice 
in the Rosenberg Case," that check was cashed and was redeposited to 
the credit of the committee and was marked "Return of loan, Emily 
Alman." 

Can you describe that? 

Mrs. Almax. I can't speak of that particular check, but let me 
say this: I handled pretty much, about $300,000 during that entire 
period. The money that started to come in started to come in Octo- 
ber 1951. Some of it came in anonymous, some of it came in in 
checks. People gave me money to give to the committee. People 
gave me loans to give 

Chairman Walter. You haven't been asked that. 

Mrs. Almax. You will have to let me answer it my way. 

Chairman Walter. Go ahead. 

Mr. Rabixowitz. Do you mind restating the question, and may I 
suggest counsel and his associate get together on what the question is. 

Chairman Walter. Never mind. 

Mr. Rabixowitz. Even I, who am an attorney, didn't understand 
the last question, and I don't understand how the witness can. 

Chairman Walter. I think everybody did but you. 

Go ahead and ask another question. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2183 

Mrs. Alman, Do you want another question because I can't- 



Chairman Walter. We withdraw it. A moment ago you said you 
never loaned the committee any money. Now you are asked about a 
clieck that contains the endorsement 

Mrs. Alman. You withdrew it before I could answer it. Are we 
clear on that ? 

Chairman Walter. I am asking another question. 

Mrs. Alman. You can ask another question, but be sure you with- 
draw it before you wait for an answer. 

Chainnan Walter. You w^ere asked about a check that contained 
the notation "Return of loan." Did you make a loan to the com- 
mittee ? 

Mrs. Alman. I stated I did not make any personal loans to the 
committee. If you would care to let me answ^er the question, I could. 
If you withdrew the question, that is your privilege. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. The committee's investigation shows that on Sep- 
tember 1, 1953, a check for $500 was issued payable to cash, that was 
endorsed by Emily Alman, and that that check was cashed. There is 
no further notation. 

Mr. Alman. May I ask you, are you going to withdraw that ques- 
tion, too, when I try to answer it ? Because I won't even try. I can 
answer the question, but I have to be permitted to answer 

Mr. Tavenner. Answer the question. 

Mrs. Alman. Let me continue. I received moneys from people and 
lent it to the committee in their name. I received the moneys and 
lent it to the committee in my name. These moneys were returned to 
these individuals. The transactions took place through me. Person- 
ally I never had the money nor did I ever lend or take back any sums 
of that nature from the committee. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Alman. The word might be that I was acting as an agent 
through which money was lent to the committee and returned to these 
people. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why were the loans made in such a manner ? 

Mrs. Alman. I assume a number of the people would not care to 
have their names either on the books publicly, privately, or any other 
way. That was their decision to make. 

Mr. Tavenner. The auditor's report of funds shows this. The 
highest salary paid was $85 per week before tax deductions, the num- 
ber of persons and staff varied from time to time, numbering at its 
height 10, of whom 7 were professional, and 3 technical. 

The national office paid the salary of a full-time professional w orker 
in Chicago and at various times ])aid the salaries of workers in Boston, 
KeAv Jersey, and Washington, D. C. 

Will you tell the committee, please, wdio the professional worker 
was in Chicago who was being paid by the national office? 

Mrs. Alman. I cannot mention the name of the person in Chicago. 
I am invoking my rights under the fifth amendment and first amend- 
ment of free association. I invoke my right against self-incrimina- 
tion on naming the name of the person in Chicago. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it Josephine Granat? 

Mrs. Alman. I repeat that under the first amendment I am per- 
mitted to see and talk to and associate with w'hom I please, and I re- 



2184 INVESTIGATION OP COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

peat that under the fifth amendment I am protected against self- 
incrimination. I cannot mention the name. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted from the audit that salaries were ]")aid 
in Boston. Who were the employees in Boston who were being paid 
by the national office ? 

Mrs. Alman. Salaries were paid to Boston through checks. They 
were all in our checkbook and accounted for by the auditor and by 
the Internal Revenue Department, which checked all our figures. 

I, however, must repeat that I cannot under the first amendment 
mention the names of those people, and under the fifth amendment 
I cannot mention it because of reasons of self-incrimination. 

Chairman Walter. You say you cannot; you mean you will not; 
is that not it? You could if you would ? 

Mrs. Alman. I will accept the correction. I will not. However, 
I must repeat, it is all in our checkbook. Everything was paid with 
checks. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Sue Koritz, the executive secretary of the local 
group in Boston, ever paid compensation by the national office? 

Mrs. Alman. Our checkbooks would show who was paid by the 
national office. I cannot under the first amendment, which permits 
me, or I will not, and under the fifth amendment, discuss the name 
that you mentioned. 

I will gladly discuss the funds of the national committee, which 
I was in charge of. I will gladly discuss how we got our money, 
how we spent our money. I will gladly discuss how the organization 
began. 

Mr. Tavenner. Apparently everything except how you paid the 
money out. 

Mrs. Alman. I will discuss how I paid the money out. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did you pay the employees of the commit- 
tee at Boston? 

Mrs. Alman. Through checks. 

Mr. Tavenner. How much did you pay them ? 

Mrs. Alman. I would have to check my checkbook on that, but 
the figures all exist. There is no attempt to conceal them. I believe, 
if I am not mistaken, Boston took about $35 a week for their technical 
worker. This is a belief; I am not sure. I would have to check the 
exact check on that. No salaries above $85, and in the case of Boston 
I think it was approximately $35 a week in Boston. 

IMr. Tavenner. AVlio was the executive secretary at Boston? 

Mrs. Alman. I repeat under the first and fifth amendment I cannot, 
I will not, mention that name, but a check exists in the name in the 
checkbook. 

]\fr. Tavenner. Was your correspondence directly with the in- 
dividual or with the secretary of the local group in Boston relating 
to the payment of funds for Boston workers? 

Or did you handle it through the executive secretary ? 

Mrs. Alman. I would have to check our correspondence and let you 
know just how it came about. Each one was different. You have 
to understand that there were committees throughout the entire coun- 
try. Some were formal committees ; some were simply gatherings of 
people. It is hard at this point without actually documenting it to 
tell you which ones had set up offices, which ones had officers in a 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2185 

sense, and which were a group of people simply interested in doing 
this work. I would have to check. 

Mr. Tavenner. The auditor says you paid salaries of workers in 
New Jersey. Where were those workers located in New Jersey ? 

Mrs. Alman, Well, there were a couple of spots, if I am not mis- 
taken. I believe that in Newark, yes ; I believe Newark was the spot. 
I really couldn't say. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say there were probably others ? 

Mrs. Alman. Possibly. I tliink it was in Newark. There, again, 
it is in our checkbook, and it exists. 

Mr. Tavenner. "\'V1io was the chairman of the local group at New- 
ark, N.J. ? 

Mrs. Alman. For the same reasons as I mentioned before, I will not 
discuss the names of tlie people in New Jersey, other than to say that 
they were paid through checks, all records exist. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was any of the money handled through Dr. Leonard 
Tushnet, of Newark, N. J. ? 

Mrs. Alman. According to the first amendment, who I associate 
with is sacred, first ; and, second, under the fifth amendment, I cannot 
and will not incriminate myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. The statement of the auditor is that you paid sums 
of money to workers in Washington, D. C. How many different people 
were on the payroll of the national organization for Washington, 
D. C? 

Mrs. Alman. You mean altogether? I don't have the breakdown 
of that before me. I would have to check that, too. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it more than one ? 

Mrs. Alman. I really wouldn't know. I really wouldn't. It could 
be one. It could be three. It couldn't be much more, since at the 
height we had only 7, or 3, or something of that nature. You have to 
understand that this last 2 j^ears, during that period $300,000 was 
received and spent, and this is done with the help of people; it cannot 
be done simply by one's self. Tremendous campaigns were going on ; 
people were in Washington at that time and it took money and time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give the committee any idea of the amount 
of mone}' that was paid back into the local areas for salaries of 
workers ? 

Mrs. Al^sian. Let me put it this way : Moneys were received by the 
national office from all over the country. Some again from groups, 
some from committees, some from 1 or 2 individuals. The money 
was not earmarked in the sense that some came from here and so much, 
from there. Nor was it spent that way. When we felt we couldn't 
get enough attention to some of the clemency pleas and came to Wash- 
ington in large groups, naturally at that time more money was spent 
in this area. When we had a group of people in front of the IVliite 
House for a vigil, naturally, during that period more money was spent 
in this area. This money would be coming back into this area, if you 
mean that. 
Mr. Tavenner. That is not what I am talking about. 
Mrs. Alman. During that period, for instance, we might put on 3 
or 4 technical workers for a period. The first vigil lasted about 2 
weeks. For 2 weeks we might have 3 people on. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not speaking of that. The report says that 
money was paid for the salaries of workers 



2186 IN^•ESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mrs. Alman. At various times. That is my point, 

Mr. Tavenner. At various times in Chicago, in Boston, in New 
Jersey, and Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. Alman. Again, that is my point. At various times, depending 
on what was taking place within the case. 

Chairman Walter. What was the total spent ? 

Mrs. Alman. For salaries? $28,891.95, which was 9 percent of the 
entire monej^s collected and spent. 

Chairman Walter. For what was the largest percentage spent ? 

Mrs. Alman. Largest percentage. You have 13 percent spent for 
legal fees and printing; 22 percent was the largest for printing of 
literature. That included this court record, which we printed in toto, 
we printed 10,000 copies of the court record verbatim, plus about 6 
million pieces of literature, which included things like the New Evi- 
dence in the Case, Eabbi Cronbach's Appeal for Mercy, Central 
Methodist Church, or the Three Faiths leaflet, which mentions the 
three groups that had spoken for clemency, including the Pope's 
appeal. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell the committee who it was on salary in the city 
of Washington. 

Mrs. Alman. Again for the same reasons stated previously, the first 
amendment and the fifth amendment, I will not mention the names of 
these people. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was noted from an exhibit introduced that Don 
Rothenberg was spoken of as the Washington representative of the 
national organization. Was he on a salary, Mrs. Alman ? 

Mrs. Alman. For the same reasons previously stated, I cannot and 
will not mention 

Mr. Tavenner. You will not say how much money if any you paid 
to Mr. Rothenberg ? 

Mrs. Alman. 1 will state this exists in check forms, no money was 
spent any other way, that these books were checked by the Internal 
Revenue Department, and I will further state I cannot and will not 
mention the name of the persons you suggested. 

Mr. Tavenner. I asked jow how much money you paid Don Rothen- 
berg, if any. 

Mrs. Alman. I will state any moneys paid to anybody were paid 
by checks. No money over $85. 

Chairman Walter. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mrs. Alman. Again, under the first and fifth amendments I regret 
that I will not mention what you ask me to. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you know Don Rothenberg to be a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Alman. I can only repeat that I will discuss myself, I will 
discuss my activities; under the first and fifth amendments I cannot 
and will not discuss the person you are suggesting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Alman. There, again, under the first and fifth amendments^ 
I will not discuss 

Mr. Tavenner. You just told us you would be perfectly willing to 
discuss yourself. 

Mrs. Alman. I worked for 2 years on a case, I will discuss every 
minute of those 2 years with you. I will discuss the formation of this 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2187 

committee, which was supposedly the reason you called, these hearings, 
because you were interested in knowing 

Chairman Walter. Mr. Tavenner, the committee will stand in recess 
to reconvene at a quarter after 1. 

(Thereupon, at 11: 15 a. m., the subcommittee was recessed, to re- 
convene at 1 : 15 p. m., same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, AUGUST 4, 195 5 

The subcommittee reconvened at 1 : 15 p. m., upon the expiration of 
the recess. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. EMILY ALMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ— Resumed 

Chairman "Walter. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Alman, at the time of the adjournment, I was 
asking you about the payment of salaries in Washington, D. C. 

Was any salary paid to Mr. John Stone, who was one of the wit- 
nesses in this hearing ? 

Mrs. Alman. Again I have to invoke my privilege under the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is our understanding from investigation that 
organizers from the national committee went out to organize local 
groups of the Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 
Is that correct, that organizers were sent out to organize local groups ? 

Mrs. Alman. That is right. They were sent, I would say, pretty 
much across the country, 4 or 5 times, at least. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the organizers? 

Mrs. Alman. Under the first and fifth amendments, I decline to 
answer who the organizers were. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who went to Boston and selected Herman Tamsky 
as chairman of the group with Sue Koritz as secretary ? 

Mrs. Alman. On at least one occasion I went to Boston. With 
reference to the names you are questioning me about, I invoke again 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you select the persons in Boston to head the 
local organization there? 

Mrs. Alman. I went to Boston and I met with people who had writ- 
ten in to our committee that they were interested in our work. I 
had occasion to discuss the case with them, the facts in case with them, 
and I arranged at certain periods to send them the fact sheets in the 
case, the transcript of the case, the Columbia Law Review of the case, 
and some of the other material. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, will you answer my question ? 

Mrs. Alman. Will you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you read the question ? 

The Reporter (reading) : 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you select the persons in Boston to head the local organ- 
ization there? 

Mrs. Alman. I would say no, I didn't select anybody. I met with 
people and I think between themselves they made the decision as to 
who would take the responsibility for receiving mail, who would take 



2188 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

the responsibility for setting up an office, who would take the respon- 
sibility for one and another of the things that had to be accomplished 
if one was to get the material out to people around Boston. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there any other representative or organizer of 
the national committee who assisted in setting up the organization 
in Boston. 

Mrs. Alman. Offhand, I would say yes. I think some of the other 
people in and around the national committee also went to Boston on 
different occasions. I know I went twice. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not speaking of different occasions. I am 
speaking of the time of the setting vip of the committee which meant 
prior to the formation of it. 

Mrs. Alman. Let me put it this way : There wasn't any one com- 
mittee necessarily in Boston. We would go up and meet at any one of 
a number of houses, speak to a group of people. That group might 
set itself up as a Boston committee. 

In terms of when were there any one Boston committee, I couldn't 
even place the dates so I wouldn't know who was responsible for what 
you might call today the Boston committee. 

There are committees in a number of the neighborhoods in and 
around Boston. I don't know the ones I was responsible for the 
organization of and other ones which others were responsible for 
the organization of. 

There was no specific date where you could say "We have now formed 
a Boston committee." There were no charters; there were no forms. 
There was nothing of that kind, so I couldn't even pinpoint it if I 
wanted to. 

I would like to say I set up as many committees as I could and 
whatever I did I hope worked out very well, but I couldn't say I 
necessarily set up a Boston committee or the Boston committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you aware that Herman Tamsky, the chair- 
man of the Boston committee, and Sue Koritz, its secretary, were 
members of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Alman. Let me say now I wasn't aware of anybody's beliefs. 
I am not referring necessarily to these two people. I could say of the 
thousands of people I spoke to, I didn't Imow 

Mr. Tavenner. I did not ask you about their political opinions or 
beliefs. I asked you about your Iniowledge of whether or not they 
were members of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Alman. I had no knowledge of anybody's membership in 
anything. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the organizers sent by the national com- 
mittee to Boston ? 

Mrs. Alman. As I said, I went. With the exception of myself, a 
number of people have gone, and I think the chances are that about 
three of us went altogether. 

In reference to any names, which is what I assume you are asking 
me, I again invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were they salaried employees of the national 
organization ? 

Mrs. Alman. Wlien I went I wasn't under any type of salary. I 
was working at a private job. Therefore, I would say for myself, 
No, I was not a salaried employee at that time. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2189 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you the executive secretary of the New York 
State organization of the Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosen- 
berg Case ? 

Mrs, Alman. I was the national treasurer and I believe for a while 
1 was also the New York State, or State — frankly, we didn't draw 
any sharp distinction — I think it was the city — executive secretary. 
I was not on a salary at the time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the other two persons who represented 
the national organization in the establishment of the local group in 
Boston ? 
Mrs. Alman. Again I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 
Mr. Tavenner. Who were the organizers that went to Cleveland 
to assist in the organization of the group there ? 

Mrs'. Alman. 1 can answer there tliat I know at least 2 people or 
possibly not 2, I don't know. I know somebody went there. I was 
not the person, therefore I can answer as to whether I was there. 
Therefore, I can only again say I couldn't answer that question under 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were treasurer of the national organization? 
Mrs. Alman. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew whom you were paying for services as 
organizers; did you not? 
Mrs. Alman. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then whom did you pay to represent the na- 
tional organization in the organizational work done in Cleveland? 
Mrs. Alman. I would have to check my balances to see, or, rather, 
my bankbook to see who actually got paid for what trip. However, I 
can say now I would not answer and will not answer under the first 
and fifth amendments, who was sent by our committee to Cleveland. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were organizers from the national organization 
sent to Chicago ? 

Mrs. Alman. Yes, they were. 
Mr. Tavenner. Who were they? 

Mrs. Alman. Again, under the first and the fifth amendment I will 
not answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you compensate them for representing the na- 
tional organization in that organizational work in Chicago? 

Mrs, Alman. I would say some were paid and some were not. When 
I took a trip to Chicago, I was not on a salary. I can answer for my- 
self. Some were; some were not, 

Mr. Tavenner. How were your expenses paid ? 
Mrs. Alman. I think they paid the traveling fare and probably got 
5iJ4 or $5 a day wliich was pretty much what we took for expenses. 
Mr. Tavenner. You say ''they" paid. To whom do you refer ? 
Mrs. Alman. The committee as a whole. 
Mr. Tavenner. The national organization? 

Mrs, Alman, That is right, the National Committee To Secure Jus- 
tice in the Rosenberg Case. 

Mr. Tan^enner. Did you send organizers to the city of Philadel- 
phia ? 

Mrs. Alman. Yes, we did, 

Mr, Tavenner. Wlio were the persons sent there? 
Mrs. Alman. Again I took at least one trip to Philadelphia to see 
people who liad written in to the committee stating their interest in 



2190 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

the case. I spoke to them and in turn they did set up connnittees. 
I think that I was there, 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Mrs. Jean D. Frantjis one of those persons? 

Mrs. Alman. Based on the first and the fifth amendments, I decline 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were representatives of the national organization 
sent as organizers to Allentown, Pa., for work in organizing the local 
group there? 

Mrs. Alman. Well, I did not go. I could not say for certain 
whether somebody did actually go there, or not. I would almost 
assume that somebody did, but I couldn't answer that with full 
knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the national organization send representatives 
to Detroit to organize a local group ? 

Mrs. Alman. I couldn't tell you that in detail. I could say that 
they sent speakers perhaps to meetings there and that as a result of 
these meetings perhaps a committee or a group of people formed — 
as I said, I am not sure there was a formal committee in Detroit or 
just what form the committee did take. You must understand that 
there were a number of committees in each city. Some of whom 
worked together and some of whom perhaps did not. Some of the 
people formed themselves as a committee. Again there were no char- 
ters. We gave nobody a kind of official designation being part of the 
national committee. People simply got together and formed them- 
selves as a committee and then they existed and we were aware of it. 

In Detroit, I was not there. Possibly speakers were there for the 
meeting and possibly in that measure groups formed themselves. 

Generally our contact would be with people who had written in to 
the committee and said they were interested in the facts of the case. 
Many were interested in the clemency aspect. Others were interested 
in what they considered the miscarriage of justice, and the facts 
themselves. 

Mr. Tavtrnner. Was Mr. John Stone the chairman of the local 
group in Washington, D. C. ? 

Mrs. Alman. On the basis of the first and the fifth amendments 1 
decline to answer that, 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Was Ethel Weichbrod the executive secretary of 
the local organization in Washington? 

Mrs. Alman. On the basis of the first and the fifth amendments, I 
decline to answer that. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Did you send organizers from the national organi- 
zation to Washington to organize a local group ? 

Mrs. Alman. I personally went to Washington ; I personally spoke 
with a number of people. I gave them the facts of the case as I knew 
them. I brought them the transcript of the case. I discussed the 
details of the case with them, sent them material. They, in turn, or- 
ganized themselves into a formal or informal type of committee. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Did any other persons from the national organi- 
zation assist in the organizing of that group in the District of Co- 
lumbia? 

Mrs. Alman. I believe so. As I say, I don't think it was all or- 
ganized at any one time. Someone else may have visited the city 
and in turn organized another group or possibly got them all to- 
irether to do more work. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2191 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio were they ? 

Mrs. Alman. Under the first and the fifth amendments I decline 
to answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you send organizers from the national party 
to Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. Alman. The National Committee To Secure Justice in the 
Rosenberg Case did send organizei^ to I^os Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you go ? 

Mrs. Alman. No, I did not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the organizers ? 

Mrs. Alman. I decline to answer that under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has a leaflet published by the Los 
Angeles Committee To Secure Justice in the Eosenberg Case which 
names William Esterman as the chairman. Mr. William Esterman 
in this document is also given the title of chairman of the National 
Lawyers Guild of Southern California. 

The committee also received testimony just a few weeks ago in 
Los Angeles that Mr. William Esterman was chairman of the Los 
Angeles Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. Did 
you know that he was chairman ? 

Mrs. Alman. People who worked as chairmen of the Rosenberg 
committees generally signed all their letters, put their names to leaflets, 
put their names to ads in the newspapers. As much as possible, no 
material left the office without at least 1, 2, or 3 people taking per- 
sonal responsibility for it. So that I don't think you could find much 
material from the national office, or anywhere else, that did not carry 
the names of people who associated themselves openly and fully with 
the case. With respect to Mr. Esterman I invoke the first and the 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you aware that Mr. William Esterman, an 
attorney in Los Angeles, has been identified before this committee by 
a number of witnesses as a member of a professional cell of the Com- 
munist Party composed exclusively of lawyers. These included an 
attorney by the name of David Aaron, who had himself been a mem- 
ber of that group, but wdio withdrew from it, by Marburg Yerkes, by 
William Israel, and by Milton Tyre. Are you not aware of that^ 

Mrs. Alman. I am aware of no such thing. I know nothing about 
the person you are discussing with respect to whatever you have been 
saying here. I know nothing whatsoever about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many organizers from the national commit- 
tee took part in assisting in the establishment of the Los Angeles com- 
mittee to secure justice for the Rosenbergs ? 

Mrs. Alman. Our exhibit here which I would like to, incidentally, 
submit as an exhibit in these hearings — that is our entire financial 
report 

Chairman Walter. We have it, 

Mrs. Alman. Fine. 

We have here as an asterisk : 

All told the committee sent some 10 organizers out in the field at one time 
or another during its 2-year campaign, trips for organizations and investiga- 
tions ran from 3 days to 6 weeks, reaching himdreds of communities and covering 
hundreds of thousands of miles. 
67275— 55— pt. 2 3 



2192 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, will you answer my question, please ? 

Mrs. Alman. Pardon me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer my question? That was not at 
all in response to my question. 

Mrs. Alman, I would say from my own figures here that 10 organ- 
izers went out into the field. 

Mr. Tavenner. My question was how many took part in organizing 
the local group in Los Angeles? 

Mrs. Alman. I am sorry, I didn't understand your question. I 
really couldn't say with full knowledge. I know I didn't. I don't 
know how many other people did. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated earlier in your testimony that the $500 
check payable to cash and endorsed by you, that is the check of the 
national organization, represented a loan from some individual who 
made the loan through you. Was that money repaid to that individual ? 

Mrs. Al^ian. I would have to see what check you are referring 
to. If it states "return loan" on it, then I would say simply yes, it 
was returned to that individual. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. I advised you at the time there was no notation 
on that check as to any description as to the purpose of it. 

Mrs. Alman. I would have to see the check and check the date. 
I would have to see what the check was for and under what circum- 
stances. I don't know what you are reading there. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have given you information as to the date of the 
check, how it was payable, the fact that it was payable to cash. 

Mrs. Alman. Mr. Tavenner, I signed and handled hundreds and 
hundreds of checks over a period of 2 years. If I had the check 
before me and if I had my records, perhaps I could reconstruct what 
that particular $500 was for. At this moment I cannot. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you handle hundreds of checks payable to cash 
and endorsed by you? 

Mrs. Alman. I lumdled a considerable number. I think you would 
have to check through to see just what the check was about. I couldn't 
answer that with the slightest degree of knowledge at this time. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you continue as treasurer, national 
treasurer, of the Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case? 

Mrs. Alman. Until the committee went out of existence, which 
was, I believe, in October of 1953. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time that you say it went out of existence 
in October 1953, was another organization formed known as the 
Committee To Secure Justice in the Sobell case? 

Mrs. Alman. In October of 1953 Morton Sobell was in Alcatraz. 
At tliat time a group formed itself and called itself the National 
Committee To Secure Justice for Morton Sobell. To my knowledge 
they are working on the Sobell case trying to get a retrial and based 
on new evidence. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did that take place at a convention in Chicago in 
October 1953? 

Mrs. Alman. Yes; it did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become the national treasurer of that organ- 
ization ? 

Mrs. Alman. No; I don't believe I did. I think that at that time 
I went on salary as a national executive secretary. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2193 

Mr. Tavenner. Weren't you treasurer of the Rosenberg committee 
as late as October 19, 1954? 

Mrs. Akman. No, I was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have a photostatic copy of the authorization card 
for the Chase National Bank of the City of New York which we ob- 
tained by subpena duces tecum, which shows Emily Alman, treasurer, 
and that the account was closed on November 5, 1954. The date of 
the card was in 1952, but it shows that the account was closed out in 
1954. 

Mrs. Alman. ^Vlien we received our first moneys, and this is in com- 
plete answer to your question, when we received our first moneys for 
the Rosenberg committee we had extreme difficulty in getting a bank 
to open an account. I personally carried money around for a period 
of 2 weeks trying to open an account in the name of the committee. 

The account was opened at the Chase National Bank. At the time 
when the committee went out of existence and all its formalities, closed 
up its books, the Rosenberg committee, we tried to change our bank 
account at the Chase National Bank of the City of New York to the 
Committee To Secure Justice for Morton Sobell. At that time the 
bank informed us that they would not open an account in such a name; 
that the account as it stood, they would permit to continue, but they 
would not open a new account for us. I believe we tried, or somebody 
tried, from the national Sobell committee, to get a bank to open an 
account. This could not be accomplished. As a result we permitted 
this particular account to go on and handle the other funds. In terms 
of any formal position, I no longer considered myself the treasurer, 
naturally. The fact is that the account remained open in tliis name 
until such a time as it was formally closed up. I was not at that time 
treasurer. 

Mr. Ta'^'enner. Were checks issued on that account signed by you 
as treasurer? 

Mrs. Alman. They were for some time ; that is right. 

Mr. TA^T.NNER. For some time after October 1953? 

Mrs. Alman. Yes. I couldn't say exactly when that stopped either, 
because there was a transition period when money was finallv taken 
out of that account, and I don't know what the present financial 
arrangement of the present committee is. I couldn't say. 

Mr. Tavenner. During that period of time was the money which 
was raised in the Sobell matter deposited in the same account ? 

Mrs. Alman. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. So whether you were officially the treasurer or not, 
you were actually drawing checks on the account for both the Rosen- 
berg and the Sobell cases? 

Mrs. Alman. Well, no, there was no Rosenberg case any more. The 
Rosenberg committee had gone out of existence. The Sobell commit- 
tee was drawing it. I was permitting my signature to be used for all 
checks. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Whom did you permit to use your signature ? 

Mrs. Alman. Wioever was in charge of the Sobell connnittee^s 
money. 

Mr. Tavenner. 'Wlio was that? 

Mrs. Alman. I decline under the first and fifth amendments to an- 
swer that question. 



2194 ESrS^ESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio is the treasurer of the Sobell committee now, 
that is, the national committee to secure justice for Sobell? 

Mrs. Alman. Again under the first and fifth amendments, I refuse 
to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the exact title of that organization ? 

Mrs. Alman. The National Committee To Secure Justice for 
Morton Sobell is the official name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who are the other officers of that organization? 

Mrs. Alman. Under the first and fifth amendments, I decline to 
answer that. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Prior to the closing out of this account on Novem- 
ber 5, 1954, was a bank account opened in any other bank ? 

Mrs. Alman. I have no knowledge of that matter. 

Mr. Tavenner. After the account was closed out on November 5, 
1954, was a new account opened in tlie name of the National Commit- 
tee To Secure Justice for Morton Sobell ? 

Mrs. Alman. I don't know. I had become a farmer by that time 
and was very busy on the farm. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now officially connected in any way with 
the National Committee To Secure Justice for Morton Sobell? 

Mrs. Alman. At the present time, because I am terribly busy, I am 
unable to work with that committee or become or take any official 
part in it. As soon as I have the time I intend to devote much of my 
■fifi'ort to the Sobell case. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held any position on that committee at 
any time? 

Mrs. Alman. Yes, I did. At the formation of the committee, 
which as we checked through, was in 1953 and 1954 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you terminate your relationship with the 
new committee? 

Mrs. Alman. I became ill in March of 1954. At that period I ter- 
minated my formal relationship with that committee. I, however, 
.continued my interest in the Sobell work and do to this day. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee whether in the trans- 
mission of money from local groups to the national group, was there 
any understanding that a percentage of the funds raised should be re- 
tained by the local group? 

Mrs. Alman. It wasn't a question of understanding the percentages. 
I would say that the local groups generally kept enough money so 
that they could work locally, that they used other of their moneys to 
buy literature, most of which was published at the national committee, 
and that what they had left over was sent to the national committee. 
The national cominittee in turn might send money to a local group 
which seemed to be preparing a dinner or public meeting and needed 
some assistance. There was no formal division, no percentages set, no 
quotas set , or anything of that nature. People simply cooperated to 
the best of their ability. Tremendous amounts of funds came through 
no committee, merely through small contributions. 

Mr. TA^ enner. Do you recall any situations where remittances were 
made to you in tlie form of one-half the amount raised ? 

Mrs. xiLMAN. This might have happened. I really could not say. 
A local group might have said, "We are keeping half of this," or the 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2195 

other thing. "You take the other half." They might have said, 
"You take half of the money to pay for the transcript which you 
bought or to pay for the leaflets you shipped to us." 

I could not say under what circumstances one group might have 
said, "This is half." It could have happened. They could have said, 
"Here is a quarter or here is all of it." depending on what they would 
do after a public meeting, after a collection, depending on what they 
would do in their city at the time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of course, there has been no audit made of the funds 
raised by local organizations, a part of which was sent to you ? 

Mrs. Alman. The only audit I know about was money which came 
in our office and was handled through our office. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think that is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Chairman Walter. The committee is in recess for 5 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

Chairman Walter. Are you ready, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. I would like to recall the previous wit- 
ness, Mrs. Alman, for a moment. 

TESTIMONY OP MRS. EMILY ALMAN— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Alman, I am not certain that I asked you 
specifically who the person was that made the contribution of $500 
that you thought might be the explanation for the check of $500 which 
was referred to. 

Mrs. Alman. I must insist that I would have to see the check and 
know the period before I could even answer. I don't know what 
check you are talking about. I would just have to see it or, at least, 
some record of it. I don't know. Maybe it wasn't a contribution. 
Maybe it was six thousand other things. I couldn't answer. I would 
have to know. 

Mr. Tavenner. You volunteered the information in explaining the 
check that persons made loans to the organization through you. 

Mrs. Alman. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were they? 

Mrs. Alman. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and the 
fifth amendment. I would like to discuss the children's fund with you, 
because it was something that you have been raising for a number of 
sessions now, how much money was spent for the children and under 
what circumstances. Since you are inquiring of the funds, I would 
very much like to discuss that matter with you, if you will so permit. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you keep any record of the contributors ? 

Mrs. Alman. There were receipt books for all moneys received, some 
of which carried the names of contributors, some of which were done 
anonymously. The money was sent in anonymously and it was so 
registered. 

Mr. Tavenner. "WHiere is the record of those whose names were 
signed as contributors? 

Mrs. Alman. At the present time the records do not exist. They 
existed through the accounting and through the time when the Inter- 
nal Revenue Department studied our books for quite a period of 
time. They were in the office of the Internal Revenue Department for 



2196 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

many, many weeks. After that we were advised by our attorney that 
they were no longer necessary and I believe they were destroyed. 

Mr. Tavenner. With reference to the children, it has been noted in 
various publications issued throughout the country that a great deal 
of emphasis was placed upon the raising of funds for the children; 
isn't it a fact that the department of welfare was anxious to retain 
custody of those eliildren ? 

Mrs. Alman. That is a kind of peculiar question to answer. I am 
not sure what you are asking me. Are you asking me about the 
department of welfare, or whether our committee called for funds for 
the children ? Those are two separate things. 

Mr. Tavenner. I only asked you one question. That is whether 
or not the department of welfare was anxious to retain custody of 
those children? 

Mrs. Alman. I really couldn't answer for the department of wel- 
fare. I would say that the children are not in the custody of the de- 
partment of welfare today. That is, the children as far as their 
parents were concerned, and as far as anybody who was interested in 
them was concerned, that the children were never to be placed in 
the custody of the department of welfare, but were to be raised in 
a home like any other young American children. 

Mr. Tavenner. They were taken out of the custody of the depart- 
ment of welfare, weren't they? 

Mrs. Alman. Yes, they were ; and funds were raised for them and 
the children were placed in a private home. AVlien they were in the 
care of the department of welfare they were living in a small, over- 
crowded little institution in the Bronx. This was hardly the type of 
upbringing anyone would want for two young boys. They were taken 
and placed with a private family. 

Mr. Tavenner. After they were taken out of that custody they 
were exhibited for propaganda purposes, weren't they? 

Mrs. Alisian. The Rosenberg children were never exihibited by 
anybody. The only time they were seen publicly was, I believe, 1 week 
before the execution. The committee had been in existence at that 
time. The children themselves were never used for fund-raising pur- 
poses until the execution date became very close and the parents felt 
they would like to know that a fund existed for their children. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wasn't one of them brought to the city of Wash- 
ington ? 

Mrs. Alman. Both boys came to the city of Washington and pre- 
sented a letter to the President just prior to the execution. They 
asked at that time for clemency for their parents. I believe this 
was a week before, or maybe 3 or 4 days before. Prior to that time, I 
repeat, those children were never used in any fact sheet, were never 
used in any leaflets. The funds for the children began shortly before 
the execution. It began because of the parents' tremendous concern 
for the future of the children. All funds were raised for the children 
separate from the committee. Our committee never used the chil- 
dren's names in raising money for any other work. As far as we 
were concerned, the work we were doing was for the children because 
it was to save their parents. However, we did not use them as an 
argument for raising that money. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it not so used all over the country, by the local 
organizations ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2197 

Mrs. Alman. The names of the children for fund raising other than 
for the children specifically, no, it was used for the children. I can- 
not, of course, answer for every single letter written by every human 
being. I can onl}^ say that the national committee had a position 
on it, that the children were not to be exploited in any way, all the 
money that came in was to save their parents' lives, to get them a new 
trial. The money specifically for the children was always raised 
specifically for them. Again I can't answer for everybody, but I think 
everyone knew that was the committee's position at all times. After 
the execution we kept the children out of the public light and the 
children did not become a question of public concern until they were 
seized, first thrown out of Toms River, and then seized one night in an 
apartment. They then became public interest. Again the committee 
tried to see to it that the children's names be removed from the papers; 
that the children be permitted to live a quiet and normal existence, 
which is what we hope is happening to them at this time. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I asked you a question earlier as to whether at any 
time you became a member of the Communist Party. Are you now a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Alman. I answer the same question with the same answer. I 
invoke my privilege under the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. All right. Call your next witness. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Dave Alman. 

Chairman Walter. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Alman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DAVID ALMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Ta\t:nner, What is your name? 

Mr. Alman. David Alman. Former executive secretary of the Na- 
tional Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. I am 
prepared to discuss fully the origins of that committee, all the work 
that I did, and personally know of, the finances and where the money 
was spent. 

Chairman Walter. The counsel will ask you the questions. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Wlien and where were you born? 

Mr. Alman. In New York City, March' 29, 1919. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by the same 
counsel who accompanied the preceding witness. 

^Vliat is your occupation or profession, sir? 

Mr. Alman. I am a novelist and a farmer at the present. I have 
been in the past a social worker, a parole officer for the State of New 
York, a shipyard worker, a machinist, and mechanic. 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you parole officer in the State of New 
York? 

Mr. Alman. I was parole officer approximately, I believe, in 1944. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period of time? 

Mr. Alman. Just about a year. 



2198 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat has been your employment since that time? 

Mr. Alman. I might add by the way that I gained considerable ex- 
perience in that job in reviewing testimony, in being able to judge it, 
and being able to make up my own mind as to the guilt or innocence 
of the people. It helped me considerably in making up my mind as to 
the innocence of Morton Sobell and the Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Tavenner. This committee is not here to determine the guilt 
or innocence of anyone. It is here to determine to what extent the 
Communist Party has been involved in this work and for other pur- 
poses. 

Mr. Alman. If you will put specific questions to me, sir, as to 
what involvement there was, if any, with the Communist Party, I 
will answer them in a specific fashion. 

Mr. Tavenner, The first question is whether or not you have at 
any time been a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Alman. I will tell you this, sir : No matter what reply I give 
to that question, you undoubtedly, or some other committee, will find 
some creature who will get up and swear under oath that I was 

Chairman Walter. Will you answer the question ? 

Mr. Alman. I do not intend to place myself in a position where I 
have to reply to a lie of that kind and therefore, I plead both the 
first amendment, which guarantees me my right of association and 
speech, and the fifth amendment against being a witness against my- 
self. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Alman. I give you the same reply for the same reasons. The 
question as to whether I am a Communist has nothing to do with the 
issues. 

Chairman Walter. Just answer the questions that are asked. 

Mr. Alman. I have to answer them in my own way. 

Chairman Walter. You have answered. You refused to answer on 
tlie ground of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Mr. Alman, what has been your employment since 
1944? J I J 

Mr. Alman. You would have to become specific on that. I have 
done public relations work. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. AVliat employment did you obtain after severing 
your connection as parole officer in the State of New York? 

Mr. Alman. I think for a period of time there was no employment 
because I was at that time at work on my second book and was able 
to live for a short while on the royalties that my first book brought 
me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then what was your next employment ? 

Mr. Alman. Offhand, I don't recall, sir. But you may refresh my 
memory on it, and I will confirm the things that are true. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you not know what your next employment was? 

Mr. Alman. As I said, I did public relations work for people. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was your next employment ? You don't have 
to generalize about that. You know perfectly well what it was. 

Mr. Alman. I do not recall at this moment what my next employ- 
ment was. If I had known you were going to ask me these questions, 
I would have refreshed my memory on it. I thought you were con- 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2199 

cerned with the Sobell case and the Sobell committee. This com- 
mittee gave me no notice at all of what it intended to ask me specifically 
as to my background, my occupation, my beliefs, or anything under the 
sun. I had to gather from the newspapers and sitting here in the last 
2 days what sort of questions you were going to ask. Since my main 
concern is with the case itself, it is on that I have refreshed my memory. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat was your next employment ? 

Mr. Alman. I tell you I do not recall at this moment what my next 
employment was. 

Mr. Tavenner. T\Tiat is the next employment that you do recall ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I fail to see how a conference with 
counsel could possibly be of any legitimate assistance to answer a 
factual question like that. There is no legal question involved in a 
matter of that kind. 

Mr. Alman. Counsel may have asked me a question. You don't 
know what he told me. A communication between himself and my- 
self is a private one. 

Mr. Tavenner. But it would not be material to the question. 

Mr. Alma.n. You don't know whether it is, or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. If it was not, he had no right to make it. You 
said he said something 

Mr. Eabinowitz, I may have advised my client with respect to his 
legal rights as to that question. 

Chairman Walter. Don't admit you are employed by the Commu- 
nist Party. 

Mr. Alman. Are you charging that? The inference of that re- 
mark is that I was employed. Are you asking me that? Why didn't 
you ask me that question ? I will answer it. 

Chairman Walter. I will say it outside where I do not have any 
immunity. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the next employment after 1944 that you 
can recall ? 

Mr. Alman. To the best of my knowledge my next employment 
arose out of a very deep feeling that I have had for some time against 
capital punishment. There took place in Greece over a period of 2 
days the execution of some 248 people, in Madrid, I believe it was. 

Chairman Walter. Madrid, Greece ? 

Mr. Alman. I am sorry, in Athens. 

Chairman Walter. I remember that. Where were you employed 
then ? 

Mr. Alman. At that time I believe I offered my services to the 
American Council for a Democratic Greece, and to the best of my 
recollection that may have been my next employment. 

Chairman Walter. Do you remember about when that was? 

Mr. Alman. Well, perhaps 1947. 

Chairman Walter. You do not remember where you were employed 
between 1944 and 1947? 

Mr. Alivian. Offhand, no. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did you do for those years ? 

Mr, Alman. I explained I am a novelist. I have written three 
books and had them published. It may be that I held some jobs in 
that period. If I did, they were not, at least in my memory, for 



2200 ESrVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

any considerable period of time. I did free-lance work, both in 
terms of writing and in public relations, but the major part of my 
time, as I recall it, as of this moment, was in writing a book. 

Mr. Tavenner. What were the public relations jobs which you 
have twice mentioned you held about that time? 

Mr. Alman. These were public relation jobs for individuals or 
around events. At this moment I cannot recall just what they were. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can't you recall for whom you worked on public re- 
lations? 

Mr. Alman. I have had so many jobs in that period that it would 
just be impossible for me to pick out of my brain now the names of 
various individuals or companies for which I may have worked for 
a day or two in any special capacity. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said you worked on public relations work? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. It is a perfectly plain and a reasonable question to 
ask you for whom you worked. 

Mr. Alman. And I have answered you, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. No. You have answered only by saying that there 
were so many that you could not recall. 

Mr. Alman. I told you that I did not work steadily in that period, 
sir. I was writing a book. Unless there is something sinister in 
writing a book, then I cannot understand the purpose of your ques- 
tion. If you have any information there that 1 worked for this outfit 
or another outfit, you ask me the question and if it is true I will 
confirm it. This business of playing a game is nonsense. If you 
have information as to whom I worked for, I will confirm it if it is 
true. We are not playing games here. Two people went to death and 
a man is in Alcatraz for 30 years and we sit here playing this game. 
You asked me a question and I answered it to the best of my ability. 
I will continue to do so. 

Chairman Walter. You have made a very careful study of this 
Sobell case ? 

Mr. Alman. Yes. 

Chairman Walter. Why did Sobell not take the witness stand and 
deny his guilt ? 

Mr. Alman. Sobell did not take the witness stand, and I hope the 
lawyer here forgives me because his lawyers advised him wrongly, in 
my opinion. He subsequently supplied an affidavit to that effect. 

Chairman Walter. Why did the Rosenbergs invoke the first and 
fifth amendment when they were asked questions during their trial? 

Mr. Alman. Mr. Rosenberg had been fired from Government em- 
ployment at one time on an allegation of Communist Party member- 
ship. He at that time submitted an affidavit denying that there was 
such membership. At the time of the trial, the allegation of con- 
spiring to commit espionage was so ridiculous in the opinion of Mr. 
and Mrs. Rosenberg and their attorney, that what they feared was not 
a sentence on that charge, but they feared a perjury sentence if some 
stool pigeon or person who was prepared to lie on the witness stand 
would call them members of the Communist Party. 

Chairman Walter, So, rather than be confronted with the prose- 
cution of perjury, they went to the electric chair? 

Mr. Alman. No. Are you saying that their refusal to state that they 
were not members of the Cormnunist Party is what sent them to the 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2201 

electric chair ? As a matter of fact, to some extent, you are right. It 
was not the evidence. There was no evidence of guilt against them ; 
there was a lot of hysteria about their being Communists. That is 
what sent them to the electric chair and a lot of nonsense about Sobell 
being a Communist and being an espionage agent. That is what sent 
him to Alcatraz for -30 years. You are right on that, and I agree with 
you, sir. 

Chairman Walter Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated you took emplojnnent in connection with 
this matter in Greece in 1947. For whom did you work or by whom 
were you employed ? 

Mr. Alman. The American Council for a Democratic Greece, I 
believe is its name. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you so employed ? 

Mr. Alman. I don't recall oii'hand. It might have been 6 months; 
it might have been 8 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment ? 

Mr. Alman. I camiot recall that, sir, at the moment. If you want 
to give me time to try to refresh my memory, I will try. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was hi 1947. You said for 6 months, it was 
the latter part of 1947 or beginning of 1948 ? 

Mr. Alman. Something in that nature, of that period ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you aware of the fact that the American Council 
for a Democratic Greece was cited by the xVttorney General of the 
United States as subversive and Communist ? 

Mr. Alman. I have not studied the xlttorney General's list to the 
extent of being familiar with every organization that is cited. 

Mr, Tavenner. Were you aware of that citation as to that organi- 
zation ? 

Mr. Alman. I cannot recall. Are you asking me whetlier that 
organization was on the Attorney General's list at the time of my 
employment, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. It was on the list in 1948. 

Mr. Alman. Are you asking me whether it was on the list at the 
time of my employment ? 

Mr. Tavenner. These citations do not refer necessarily to the date 
on which the Attorney General wrote the letter citing it. It dates 
back to the origin of the organization and would, of course, include 
the year 1947. 

Mr. Alman. What is your question, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. My question now is, what was your next employ- 
ment after termination of your position with the American Council 
for a Democratic Greece ? 

Mr. Alman. Let me try to bimch some of these employments to- 
gether. I cannot tell you specifically at this moment which came 
first, although, as I said, if you want to give me some time to think 
about it, I will try to unravel it. I became concerned and interested 
in what became known as the Trenton Six case, in which six Negroes 
of Trenton, N. J., were charged with murder and so convicted and 
sentenced to die. 

Mr. Tavenner. By whom were you employed ? 

Mr. Alman. I became interested in that case, and I might add 
that subsequently four of those men were retried and found innocent. 

Chairman Walter. By whom were you employed, is the question? 



2202 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Alman. At that time I became employed by the Civil Rights 
Congress of New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you employed by the Civil Rights 
Congress ? 

Mr. Alman. Again, I will say for a period of about 6 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment? Let me ask 
you this, first : What year was that employment with the Civil Rights 
Congress ? 

Mr. Alman. I do not recall, but my guess is that it was sometime in 
1949, but that is a guess. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you aware that the Civil Rights Congress 
had been cited as subversive and Communist by the Attorney Gen- 
eral, Tom Clark ? 

Mr. Alman. May I ask whether they were cited at the time of my 
employment? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question ? 

Mr. Alman. I don't know what your question is. Are you asking 
me when I was working there they had been cited by the Attorney 
General, whether I knew it at that time ? 

Mr. Tavenner. That was my question. 

Mr. Alman. At the time I worked for them ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Alman. I do not believe at this moment that I was aware of 
that, although I might add that my interest in the Trenton Six case 
would have surmounted the citation on the Attorney General's list, 
because my concern was with justice and not pinning labels on either 
me individually or organizations. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was cited by the Attorney General on December 
4, 1947. 

Now, what was your next employment? 

Mr. Alman. I do not recall that. You see, there was a period in 
which I again dropped all employment and began working on my 
third book, my second having been published. 

Mr. Tavenner. After the completion of your book, what was your 
next employment? 

Mr. Alaian. My next employment, I believe, although I am not 
certain, was with the American Peace Crusade. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you employed by the American Peace 
Crusade ? 

Mr. Alman. I am sorry, I don't think I understand the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I mean, in what locality were you employed ? Were 
you working in New York ? 

Mr. Alman. Part of the time ; yes. 

Mr. Tav-enner. What was the nature of your duties ? 

INIr. Alman. Public relations. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wlien did that employment begin and terminate? 

J\[r. Alman. Sometime in 1950 or 1951, although again I am not 
certain as to the dates. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was not organized until 1951, was it? 

Mr. Alman. As I said, I am not certain as to the dates. If you 
say that is when it was organized, sir, I will take your word for it. 

Mr. Ta\t2NNER. Then that would place your period of employment 
sometime after January 1951 ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2203 

Mr. Alman. I would say that would be so ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you participate in any way in helping to 
organize it ? 

Mr. Alman. In a public relations sense ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you hold any position or office in it I 

Mr. Alman. Did I have any official title as officer ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Alman. Not to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did 30U remain with the American Peace 
Crusade ? 

Mr. Alman. Again possibly for a period of about 6 months, or 
thereabouts. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. The American Peace Crusade, was organized in 
January 1951 with national headquarters at 1186 Broadway, New 
York 1, N. Y. Were your headquarters at that place ? 

Mr. Alman. I have come here so well prepared to speak on the- 
Rosenberg-Sobell case and the Rosenberg-Sobell committee which is; 
what the committee says it is interested in, I will answer all those 
questions fully and I think you ought to get to 

Chairman Walter. Will you just answer the questions being asked?' 

Mr. Alman. Will you re])eat that question, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am asking you whether you were employed at the 
headquarters of 1186 Broadway, the headquarters of the American. 
Peace Crusade ? 

Mr. Alman. If that was the address of the headquarters of the 
American Peace Crusade, that is where I was employed. 

Mr. Tavenner, According to the Committee on ITn-American Ac- 
tivities statement in the March of Treason pamphlet of February 
1951, the American Peace Crusade was cited as an organization which 
the Communists established as a new instrument for their peace 
offensive in the United States and which was heralded by the Daily 
Worker with the usual bold headlines reserved for projects in line 
with Communist objectives. 

What was your next employment after working for the American 
Peace Crusade ? 

Mr. Alman. I am not certain, but I believe that my next employ- 
ment was with the National Committee To Secure Justice in the 
Rosenberg Case. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that began at what date? 

Mr. Alman. I would say roughly in March of 1952. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what capacity were you employed ? 

Mr. Alman. As I stated before, I was the executive secretary of 
the National Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain executive secretary ? 

Mr. Alman. Until the late summer or fall of 1952. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hold any other position with the organi- 
zation ? 

Mr. Alman. That is the only position I held in that organization^ 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the other officers ? 



2204 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Alman. Are you going to ask me questions on the cases, the 
activities of the committee, or are you going to simply try to get me 
to identify all sorts of individuals ? 

Chairman Walter. If you will keep quiet long enough you will find 
out what he is going to ask you. 

Ask the next question, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I am anxious to have an answer to 
that question, as to who the other officers were. 

Mr. Alman. I was the executive secretary of the National Commit- 
tee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. Wliom I associated 
with, what I said to them, is my privilege under the first amendment. 
Also, in order to prevent any injury to myself, to become a witness 
against myself, I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. How could your telling the committee the names of 
the officers of this organization incriminate you ? 

Mr. Alman. Well, I think, sir, you can probably answer that better 
than I can. 

Mr. Willis. I think he should be directed to answer. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Alman. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment and 
.refuse to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio was the president of the association ? 

Mr. Alman. I give you the same reply for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did it have a president? 

Mr. Alman. Yes — yes, it had a president, I believe it had a presi- 
dent. I am not certain, I couldn't answer that with any certainty. 

Mr. Tavenner. You couldn't answer with certainty? 

Chairman Walter. You got pretty close to it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your first reply was "Yes." 

Mr. Alman. Because in my mind, sir, as in everybody's, I suppose, 
one can confuse or mix titles like chairman or president or just as we 
mix titles like secretary or executive secretary, and if you are asking 
was there a president or a chairman of that committee, my answer is 
"Yes.'* To the best of my knowledge there was a chairman of that 
committee. 

Chairman Walter, Wlio was the chairman? 

Mr. Alman. Once again, sir, under the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment and the first amendment, I decline to answer that question. 

Chairman Walter. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr, Alman. I decline to reply to that question under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You asked yourself the question as to whether or 
not we were interested in knowing whether there was a president or a 
chairman. Your first reply was that there was a president when I 
formerly asked you the question. So I want to place it that way now. 
Was there a president ? You know the answer to that. 

Mr. Alman. How do you know I know the answer to that, sir? 

Mr, Tavenner. You couldn't help but know as the executive sec- 
rete ry of the oro-nnization for all that period of time. 

Mr. Alman. If you say there was a president, I will go along with 
you and say yes, I know there was a president. 

Mr, Tavenner, Then you agree with me that there was a president? 

Mr! Alman. On that I would agree with you since you tell me that. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2205 

Mr. Tavenner. "V^Hiy didn't you say so in the first place ? 

Mr. Alman. Because to my recollection I don't recall anyone hold- 
ing that title, but it may be at one period there was such a title, or 
office, and someone may have held it. Therefore, if you tell me that 
is so, I am willing to take your word for it and say yes, there was a 
president. 

Mr. Tavenner. No; I don't want you to take my word for it. I 
want you to testify. 

Mr. Alman. Well, I am testifying and giving you the best re- 

ply — 

Mr. Taa^nner. Was there a president, or not ? 

Mr. Alman. There may have been one time when there was a presi- 
dent of the National Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case, and therefore, I will answer yes, there was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that fact ever made public on any of your pub- 
lications or on your committee letterhead? 

Mr. Alman. As I recall it, our letterheads carried the name of the 
chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why didn't it carry the name of the president? 

Mr. Alman. Was there a president, sir? 

Mr. Tavenner. You just said there was. 

Mr. Alman. I have said there was if at one time there was such a 
post in the committee. It is possible that at the time that there was 
such a post the committee had not yet gotten its stationery. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say it was possible. But was there some pur- 
pose in not making known the name of the president of your organi- 
zation? 

Mr. Alman. There is very little that we did not make known in the 
National Committee To Secure Justice 

Mr. Ta\tnner. Was there some little part that you didn't make 
known ? 

Mr. Alman. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any business connection or associa- 
tion with the president of your organization ? 

Mr. Alman. I don't know whom you are referring to, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't know the president of your organiza- 
tion ? 

Mr. Alman. I don't know if there is a president of that organiza- 
tion. I told you before that at one time there may have been such 
a title or office in that committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you know who it was, too, don't you ? 

Mr. Alman. No, sir; I do not. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not know who was the president of your 
organization? 

Mr. Alman. No, sir ; I do not. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think, Mr. Chairman, at this point I would like 
to excuse the witness and recall the former witness. 

(Whereupon the witness was temporarily excused.) 

TESTIMONY OF MES. EMILY ALMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUITSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ— Resumed 



\h\ Tavenner. Can you refresh the memory of your husband 
name of the president of your organization ? 



2206 ESrVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mrs. Alman. Yes, I could refresh my husband's memory as to the 
name of a person who was listed in our bank deposit as president. 
Under the first and the fifth amendment I will not mention his name, 
but I can tell you how that came on the bank deposit and what the 
office actually was. 

Chairman Walter. You were asked another question, and you de- 
clined to answer on the ground that the answer might incriminate you. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is all. 

Mrs. Alman. If you don't want to know, that is up to you. 

Chairman Walter. We know; don't worry about that. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

TESTIMONY OF DAVID ALMAN— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Alman, has the statement made by your wife 
refreshed the recollection as to who the person may be? 

Mr. Alman. Within my memory, sir, I have never contradicted 
any statement made by my wife. 

Chairman Walter. I don't blame you. 

Mr. Alman. And, therefore, I tell you that there was a president 
listed as she says, for purposes of a bank account, I believe was the 
statement that she used. 

Mr. Tavenner. In connection with the authorized signature card 
which was required by the bank when deposits were first made in the 
name of the National Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case, there is an affidavit attached which the committee obtained under 
a subpena duces tecum. I will ask you to examine that affidavit and 
state whether or not you see there the name of the president. Do you 
see it ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Alman. Would you repeat your question, sir? 

Mr. Tavenner. The question was whether or not you see on the doc- 
ument I have handed you a statement of the name of the president ? 

Mr. Alman. I see the title "president" on the righthand side. I 
see a name on the lefthand side. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the name ? 

Mr. Alman. You want me to read that name, sir? 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you have it before you. I am asking you 
who it was. 

Mr. Alman. You are asking me to read the name ; is that it ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; give us the name. 

Mr. Alman. The name written here is Louis Harap. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell the last name. 

Mr. Alman. H-a-r-a-p. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you personally acquainted with Mr. Harap ? 

Mr. Alman. I decline to answer that question on the ground of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, haven't you had a business as- 
sociation with Mr. Harap in the past? 

Mr. Alman. I decline to answer that question on the ground of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Haven't you known all along that Mr. Harap was 
the president of your organization ? 

Mr. Alman. I have answered your question, sir. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2207 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask you a direction ? 

Chairman Walter. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Airman. I don't know that I was involved in taking out that 
bank account 

Chairman Walter. That is not the question that you have been 
asked. 

Mr. Alman. Well, I will go along with my wife and testify that 
for the purpose of the bank account 

Mr. Tavenner. You go by your own recollection. 

Mr. Alman. Mr. Harap was the president of the National Commi<> 
tee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Alman. I never asked anyone for their political affiliations, 
nor do I care what their political affiliations are. I don't pin labels 
on myself nor on other people nor do I permit other people to pin 
labels on me. I am concerned with justice in this country and I will 
worlv for those ends where I feel I am right, regardless of what label 
anyone seeks to pin on me or put on other people. 

Chairman Walter. Was Mr. Harap the president of this organiza- 
tion ? 

Mr. Alman. I have just answered that question. 

Chairman Walter. Was he a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Alman. I would not know, because I never asked anyone their 
political affiliations. 

Chairman Walter. Did you attend any Communist Party meetings 
with him ? 

Mr. Alman. I am going to involve my right under tlie fifth amend- 
ment not to reply to that question. 

Cliairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. What business association or connection have you 
had with him, Mr. Harap ? 

Mr. Alman. I will have to repeat what I have said before, that is, 
I have come here prepared to discuss the Rosenberg case, the Rosenberg 
committee, its activities and fund raising, its purposes and aims. 

Cliairman Walter. Will you answer the question asked ? 

Mr. Alman. You have had people up here for 2 days asl<:ing them 
questions about the finances and operations of the committee. I am 
prepared to answer those questions. 

Chairman Walter. Repeat the question, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat business or association or connection have you 
had with Mr. Harap? 

Mr. Alman. I am going to take the fifth amendment on that, sir. 
I decline to answer on those grounds. 

Mr Tavenner. Hadn't you been employed by him to write book 
reviews for a publication of his known as Jewish Life ? 

Mr. Alman. Sir, I have never been employed by anyone to write 
book reviews for any organization, magazine, or what have you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you written book reviews for Mr. Harap ? 

Mr. Alman. I have written book reviews, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. For Mr. Harap ? 

67275— 55— pt. 2 4 



2208 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Alman. Again I say that I have been called here ostensibly to 
discuss my knowledge 

Mr. Tavenner. This is not responsive 

Mr. Alman (continuing) . Of the Rosenberg case and committee, its 
fund-raising activities and I say that you 

Chairman Walter. You answer the question. You have been throw- 
ing a great deal of light on this subject matter, maybe unconsciously. 

Mr. Alman. I am being asked every question except those that con- 
cern the case, or the committee. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. How are you now employed, Mr. Alman ? 

Mr. Alman. I am a farmer and a novelist. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat are the novels, principal novels, which you 
have written? 

Mr. Alman. The first was The Hourglass. The second was The 
Well of Compassion. The third was World Full of Strangers. 

Having said that, can we get down to the Rosenberg- Sobell case and 
the Rosenberg-Sobell committee, its activities, its fund raising, return 
to the questions you have been asking people before ? 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you also write for the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. Alman. I am anxious to get to the subject that I discussed a 
moment ago 

Chairman Walter. We are right in the middle of it. 

Mr. Alman. You are not in the middle of it, sir. 

Chairman Walter. I believe we are. You have proved beyond any 
peradventure of a doubt that the Communists hit upon this case to 
exploit 

Mr. Alman. Do you want to know the origins of this committee? 
I am prepared to discuss in detail the origins of this committee. Do 
you want to put that question to me ? 

Chairman Walter. We know all about it. 

Mr. Alman. You don't know about it, sir. How did this com- 
mittee arise. I will answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Answer my question. 

Mr. Alman. Those are questions you will not ask because you are 
trying to conceal the origins of this committee. You try to make it 
appear that there was something sinister in a sincere desire of people 
to bring about justice where they thought there was a miscarriage of 
justice. 

Chairman Walter. You are not kidding anybody within the hear- 
ing of your voice with that statement. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I have direction that the witness answer the 
question ? 

Chairman Walter. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. The question was: Did you also write for the Daily 
Worker ? 

JNIr. Alman. I am going to invoke the fifth amendment on these 
questions. I do not wish to become a witness against myself or dis- 
cuss the relevancies here. I want to discuss the Rosenberg-Sobell 
cases. If a miscarriage of justice has occurred, this committee ought 
to be interested in it as much as anyone else, if not more. 



ESrVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2209 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you any connection with the National Com- 
mittee To Secure Justice for Sobell in the Rosenberg Case? 

Mr. Alman. I have been extremely busy on the farm, with a book, 
and have had too little time, unfortunately, to give to the work of that 
committee in its attempt to secure a new trial for Morton Sobell. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had any connection with it at any time 
since its formation in October 1953 ? 

Mr. Alman. When my advice has been sought on matters, I have 
given that advice. I would say that that, unfortunately, has been in 
the main the extent of my connection with the Sobell committee. 

Before you go to that, however, sir, I thought you were interested 
in how the National Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case began. 

Chairman Walter. We know about that. 

Mr. Alman. You don't know about that. 

Chairman Walter. We know all about that. 

Mr. Alman. You have asked people this question, but now you 
know there is someone who is prepared to answer it, you are not ask- 
ing that question. I am prepared to answer that question. Why 
don't you ask it? 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Have you at any time served in the position of execu- 
tive secretary of the Sobell committee ? 

Mr. Alman. No, sir ; I have not. 

Mr. Tavenner, Ilave you prepared any particular material, docu- 
ments, or pamphlets for the Sobell case? 

Mr. Alman. At their request, I have, yes. 

Mr. Ta\^enner. What have you prepared for them? 

Mr. Alman. Well, I had a hand in the preparation of the briefs that 
were submitted to the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional 
Liberties of the Senate Judiciary Committee. I think that you have 
a copy of that, sir. This document deals with contradictions in testi- 
mony given at the trial, new evidence of perjury. 

Chainnan Walter. How can there be any contradiction of testi- 
mony when Sobell didn't testify? 

Mr. Ai>MAN. That doesn't answer the question, sir. You have asked 
me what material I prepared and I tell you what material I prepared. 
Whether Mr, Sobell took the stand or not, the fact is that witnesses 
there made statements which have been proved to be false. 

Mr, Tavenner, What other documents did you prepare for the 
Sobell committee? 

Mr. Alman. I believe at one time I prepared an evaluation of the 
opportunities that existed for securing a new trial for Morton Sobell. 
This was based, I believe, on the fact that a key witness in other cases 
had recanted his testimony. 

This opens the possibility perhaps of witnesses in the Rosenberg- 
Sobell case recanting and also because one of the prosecutors in the 
Rosenberg-Sobell case, Roy Cohn, has been found in a public hearing 
by a Senate committee to have, or at least it was alleged that he was 
involved in the doctoring of some photographs. Interestingly 
enough, in the Rosenberg-Sobell case there was admitted photographs 
which, too, brought about false implications in that case. As a matter 
of fact, I might add this 

Mr. Tavenner. You say you have prepared that evaluation for the 
Sobell case? 



2210 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Alman. I prepared that evaluation for the committee. 

Mr. Tavbnner. What else have you prepared ? 

Mr. Alman. I believe I had a hand in the preparation of a 4-pager 
document based on the McCarthy-Army hearings in which it was 
shown that Mr. Cohn's conduct was less than exemplary and because 
this man was also involved as a prosecutor in the Rosenberg-Sobell 
case it raised certain doubts which we felt had to be called to the atten- 
tion of the public. 

Mr. Tavenner. How much were you paid for that? 

Mr. Alman. I was not paid anything for that. I did that because 
I believe in justice, because I believed that our courts are strong 
enough, firm enough, and everlasting enough to withstand correction 
when error is made, because I believe that when that correction is not 
made it undermines our system of justice. 

Mr. Tavenner. What else have you prepared for the Sobell case? 

Mr. Alman. At this moment I do not recall. I hope there are other 
things as well. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, here is one, entitled "National Committee To 
Secure Justice for Morton Sobell, 1050 Sixth Avenue, New York 18^ 
N. Y., March 1, 1955, the New Phase in the Sobell Case." 

On February 13 a conference was held in Chicago — 

I am reading from the document — 

With representatives from the national committee and committees from San 
Francisco, Los Angeles, Minneapolis and St. Paul, Milwaukee, Chicago, Des 
Moines, Iowa City, Cleveland, and New York. The following is a report on ideas 
expressed at the conference and on a program of action for the coming months. 
It has been prepared by David Alman. 

I hand it to you and ask you to identify that as having been pre- 
pared by you. 

Mr. Alman. This document begins with the words "The integrity 
of justice as administered" 

Chairman Walter. Will you answer the question ? Was that pre- 
pared by you? Did you prepare that 

Mr. Alman. My guess is that in the main I did; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "David Alman Exhibit No. 1," and made a part of 
the transcript of the record. 

Chairman Walter, It is so ordered. 

(David Alman Exhibit No. 1 is as follows:) 

National Committee To Secure Justice for Morton Sobell, 

1050 Sixth Avenue, New York 18, N. Y., March 1, 1955. 

The New Phase in the Sobell Case 

(On Feb. 13th a conference was held in Chicago with representatives from the 
national committee and committees from San Francisco, Los Angeles, Minne- 
apolis and St. Paul, Milwaukee, Chicago, Des Moines, Iowa City, Cleveland, ami 
New York. The following is a report on ideas expressed at the conference andi 
on a program of action for the coming months. It has been prepared by David 
Alman). 

"The integrity of justice as administered in the United States is at stake." 
These words, spoken by Dr. Urey at the Chicago Dinner, place the Rosenberg-^ 
Sobell case in its true perspective. Only the righting of the wrong in this case can. 
reestablish a pattern of fairness and democracy in our courts. Without a reversal 
of the verdict, said Dr. Urey, "no justice is possible at all." 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2211 

There are in our country today a number of cases historically related to the 
•one that has been our prime interest since the fall of 1951. The same prose- 
cutors, judges, and witnesses appeared in a number of them. They all led to the 
Rosenberg- S'obell case, to the ultimate stigma of treason upon the names of non- 
conformists, to the ultimate sentence of death. Were it not for an extraordinary 
campaign of enlightenment, involving at its height the participation of several 
million people, the Rosenberg-Sobell case would have led us into a time of 
"Wholesale executions and repeated sentences of living death. 

Today, the Rosenberg-Sobell case haunts the equilibrium of all who directly 
■or indirectly participated in its frauds and cruelties. No case in our time com- 
manded so much attention, drew so many advocates, created so many doubts, 
or compelled so much self -justification on the part of the team of executioners. 
Other verdicts in other related cases may be reversed without laying bare to 
the American people the lengths to which life and freedom have been subor- 
dinated to the demands of transitional policies at home and abroad. Indeed, that 
has happened in some instances. But were the Rosenberg-Sobell case to obtain 
a new and honest verdict, no other related case could stand unchanged. No 
person connected with the Attorney General's conduct of the case could re- 
main in public life, and some would undoubtedly find themselves indicted. No 
piece of legislation resting on the Rosenberg-Sobell case for its justification 
•could remain unchanged. And all design for further attacks on life and liberty, 
in the name of saving the nation, would have to be set aside. 

Wherever men and women are in prison today solely for social, economic, or 
political nonconformity, their hope lies in an exposure of the Rosenberg-Sobell 
case, for that is a key to all undeserved prison doors. 

The nationwide justice and clemency campaigns between the fall of 1951 and 
June of 1953, and the constant — if not yet intense — efforts around INIorton Sobell, 
have been an indispensable background to many new developments in our coun- 
try. There is today a growing sentiment for the restoration of due process in 
the courts. There are confessions by men and women who played the role of 
perjured witness in trials and congressional hearings. (It is interesting to note 
that, according to Harvey Matusow, he first decided to reveal his perjuries shortly 
after the execution of the Rosenbergs.) There are a number of Federal judges 
who have shown a courage akin to that of Justice Douglas when he dared stand 
alone on June 17, 1953. There are newspaper columnists, like the Alsops, who 
have taken their stand in the Oppenheimer case. There has been the censure 
of Senator McCarthy and the subsequent exposure of Roy Cohn. 

These events had their origin in the profound disturbances created by the 
Rosenberg-Sobell case. They would have been immeasurably delayed had not 
the justice and clemency campaigns halted further plans to create an atmosphere 
of frenzied hysteria on the bodies of the tortured and the dead. 

A new step forward was created by the advocates of Morton Sobell on the 
Tiight of February 12, when the dinner to Dr. Urey took place. Dr. Urey and the 
•other eminent guests that evening chose to speak directly under the auspices of 
the Chicago Sobell Committee, and they made it clear that the Sobell case was, to 
their thinking, of key importance in our times. Some 6,000 Americans, in a 
scroll to Dr. Urey, made known their belief — at the very least — that they ap- 
plauded the great scientists' exercise of his right to speak his mind on the case 
itself. Some of these signers, like Dr. Urey himself, are Nobel prize winners. 
■Others are eminent in science, religion, philosoiihy, and history. 

Within less than 24 hours following this historic event newspapers throughout 
the country carrying portions of Dr. Urey's speech, placed at least some of the 
facts in the case before large numbers of the American people. 

With this impetus, and within the framework of an improving atmosphere, the 
various committees, groups, or individuals who have interested themselves in 
the Sobell case have an extraordinary opportunity to move towards new, more 
far-reaching steps leading to Morton Sobell's freedom. 

The National Committee, therefore, is now preparing public and legal steps 
that will carry the case to a new stage. This program will reflect the willingness 
■of large numbers of people to take a second look at the conduct of the Attorney 
General's office, and their growing apprehension that our standards of justice 
have been flagrantly abused. This program will be cognizant of the fact that 
we are entering a time when our fellow citizens can be moved not only by humane 
and ethical considerations, but by indignation at exposed falsehood. 

This progi-am will be characterized, in the first place, by the placing of the 
facts in the case before larger numbers of the American people. Dr. Urey's 
speech and the press coverage that followed it, was the initial step in that direc- 



2212 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

tion. Now, new ways must be devised to make public the contradiction in testi- 
mony, the perjuries, the tortures, and cruelties involved in the case. 

This program will be characterized, secondly, by activities directed at all three 
branches of our government. Our attorneys will press in the courts for trans- 
fer, for review, for a new trial. Our appeal for an investigation by an appro- 
priate Committee of Congress will be renewed, with the solicitation of public 
support for such a step. Within the Executive Department, we will press for 
transfer, for the withdrawal of objection to a court review, and finally, if neces- 
sary, an appeal for Presidential pardon or commutation. 

The third characteristic of this program will be its widespread scope. Every 
section of the population, regardless of its station in public, in private life, will 
be reached with the facts in the case. The scientist, minister, lawyer, educator, 
social worker, union leader, the worker, housewife, and student must all find 
themselves in possession of the facts and encouraged to take whatever steps are 
appropriate to the moment. 

The fourth characteristic will be a further seeking out of the diversity of 
levels upon which people can take action on the case. The Sobell Case is replete 
with inhuman and immoral acts by the Attorney General's Office, as well as with 
grievous denial of due process and outright fraud. The process of enlightenment 
for differing persons and sections can begin at any of these points, and must 
always tend to move towards fuller knowledge. We have seen, heretofore, that 
many persons, while actually doubting the validity of the verdict and sentences, 
nevertheless chose to limit the expression of their opinion to humane questions. 
These opinions are of extreme value to the efforts on Sobell's behalf. To raise 
those opinions and actions to a more effective level, it is necessary to enlighten 
people on the key importance of the case for the future of democracy in our 
courts and country. Those who share our view that Sobell is the victim of a 
terrible fraud, and yet limit the range of their appeal, can be made to understand 
that it is in the best interests of our country that they come to grips with the 
fundamental issues in the case. 

Such a program requires a detailed plan of activities, most carefully thought 
out, exceedingly flexible, and realistic in purpose and fulfillment. It cannot be 
entirely blueprinted, but must be created step by step as new developments take 
place, as our program, of education grows and takes hold, and as new situations 
arise. 

It is essential to keep in mind that, regardless of the step we call for at any 
particular moment, we must seek to find the broadest and most numerous sup- 
port. This applies equally to the campaign for transfer now being strengthened 
and to a possibly not too distant campaign for Presidential commutation of 
sentence. Just as the former must find the means of embracing all shades of 
opinion— from the humane to the advocate of Sobell's innocence, so the latter 
must encompass these as well, so that even persons believing in Sobell's guilt 
will recognize that his sentence was far too severe and that his freedom would 
materially aid the growing sentiment against extremism and unprecedented 
harshness in the courts. 

The following are the steps with which we propose to open this new period 
in the campaign for justice for Morton Sobell. 

First : The immediate development of a legal program that will place before the 
courts the errors of the trial, the perjuries of the witnesses, the new evidence 
continuously being uncovered, the revelations of Harvey Matusow in respect to 
Koy Cohu, and other proper courtroom steps which may become feasible. These 
legal steps would involve both question of transfer and a new trial. This would 
require additional legal help, a step that is already being taken. The motions 
and arguments prescribed to the courts will require popularization and dissemi- 
nation among large numbers of people, for an appeal to the Executive Depart- 
ment to withdraw opposition to consideration of these motions by the courts. 

Second : The immediate undertakins of a national imified cami)aign around the 
question of Sobell's transfer from Alcatraz. There will be those who will sup- 
port an appeal liased on humane grounds. There will be others who, though 
in agreement with the verdict and sentence, nevertheless recognize that a man 
who maintains his innocence has the right to press his case in the courts under 
fairer conditions than Alcatraz permits. And there will be those who are in- 
dignant that a man who has not been convicted by due process is compelled to 
live out his life in that distant and harsh institution. A campaign unifying all 
these diverse groups, bringing their divergent reasons together, must display 
an intelligent and effective flexibility. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2213 

Heretofore, our efforts for transfer have been directed, for the most part, to 
the Director of Prisons. As indicated earlier, an appeal to the courts will also 
be made. But we see the need to open new directions on this question, namely, 
the Congress and the Senate. An appeal to all three branches is therefore 
called for, and there is now in preparation material, petitions, etc., directed to 
each. As this campaign grows, as it meets and solves new problems, it must 
begin to reflect the whole truth in the case, and must lead to the development of 
a public consciousness that will, by its number and importance, elevate the case 
and the campaign to a new level. 

One of the tirst steps is the preparation of a new appeal for the removal of 
Morton Sobell from Alcatraz. This appeal will be sent to leading Americans who 
have already individually expressed their request for transfer, and they will be 
asked to join in this statement. The circulation of this appeal will then be made 
among leading persons on community, state, and national levels, with the inten- 
tion of making the statement public (in the form of newspaper ads, for example) 
when enough names are collected. We see tlie possibility of every committee get- 
ting enough leaders in its particular city to endorse such an appeal and agi'ee to 
having their names included when the statement is made public. Of course, this 
must be done with the utmost care and integrity, both on the national and local 
levels. Persons must be assured that their names will not be released befoi'e 
they are consulted with again prior to the making public of such an appeal. 

A leaflet now going to the printer makes the tieup between the Matusow dis- 
closures and the pattern in the Sobell case. These leaflets will be rushed to 
you, and it is hoped you will make the fullest possible use of the leaflet, either 
as is, or by adapting it to suit your needs. This is the kind of material we believe 
can be used to reach millions of Americans in a grassroots campaign. Other 
material will be published and issued in large quantities. We have been getting 
many demands for the Dr. Urey speech, and arrangements are being made to 
get printed copies. This speech is excellent to include in mailings to persons 
whom you want to reach. Also available is a reprint of a foUowup letter which 
appeared in the New York Times. 

Committees are urged to see all those whom they visited for the scroll for 
Dr. Urey. Wherever possible, these people should be brought material on the 
Sobell case, with the aim of advancing their thinking and viewpoint on the case. 

The National Committee is preparing an addendum to the request for an 
investigation of the case. This material will be presented to the Senate and 
House Judiciary Committees, and to all Senators and Congressmen. Copies will 
be made available to all of our committees. It is urged that a letter-writing 
campaign to Congressmen and Senators be carried out, and that committees take 
specific quotas of letters they will get written. These letters should urge the 
investigation, and also urge the Senators and Congressmen to intervene with 
the Justice Department, to effect Morton Sobell's transfer. (In this connection, 
Helen Sobell has already received many letters from Congressmen and Senators 
in answer to personal appeals from her. All of the replies were very cordial, 
and in many cases, copies of the correspondence were sent to Bennett's oflSce, 
and Bennett felt it necessary to write to the legislators.) 

One of the greatest means of education we will soon have, will be John 
Wexley's book. The Judgment of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. For various rea- 
sons there have been delays, and we are pressing for copies of the book as soon 
as possible. Preparations are under way for a national speaking tour for John 
Wexley. Wherever he has spoken in the past months, he has evoked tremendous 
interest in the case. All committees are urged to begin thinking about the 
possibilities for a meeting around Wexley and his book, and the national office 
will be in touch on working out the specific dates. This book must be placed 
in the hands of every important person in your city, no matter what his or her 
position on the case has been * * *. Another illuminating book just published 
is the Atom Spy Hoax, by William Reuben. This book contains much information 
that will be helpful to persons working on the Sobell case. 

The national office will undertake a number of field trips in the next few 
months, so that every section of the country can be covered, and committees can 
be assisted in carrying out their programs. 

The National Committee and individual committees are to begin planning now 
for large events to be held for Morton Sobell on June 19th, in memory of the 
Rosenbergs. Our activities developed during the next months should be done 
with this culmination date in mind. Between now and June 19th, we must see 
that our literature reaches tremendous numbers of people, that many names are 
added to the national appeal for transfer from Alcatraz, so that there will be a 



2214 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

firm base for meaningful and widespread activity on January 19th on a co- 
ordinated, national basis. 

To conduct the kind of a campaign necessary will take many thousands of 
dollars and will require much greater financial participation from our com- 
mittees. A detailed explanation of these needs and suggestions for quotas and 
means of raising funds are being prepared and will be mailed to you. 

We believe this program, coupled with our legal plans, presents the framework 
for the kind of campaign that can win Morton Sobell's transfer from Alcatraz, 
and set the stage for winning his complete freedom. How this program is devel- 
oped will depend not only on the work of the national committee and staff, but 
on what each Sobell committee does to develop its program and win over large 
numbers of people in each major city. As was demonstrated in other phases of 
this case, it will be the creative work of the many groups throughout the country 
that will add up to a significant national campaign for justice for Morton Sobell. 

What Will You Do to Win Justice fob Morton Sobell? 

Please fill in blanks 
I pledge to : 

* Write a letter to James V. Bennett, Director of Prisons, Justice Department, 
Washington, D, C, asking that MORTON SOBELL be transferred from 
Alcatraz, and to get other people to write similar letters 

* Write a letter to my Congressman urging him to investigate the ROSENBERG- 
SOBELL case, and get others to write similar letters 

* Sell tickets for the MORTON SOBELL affair to be held June 16th at 

Carnegie Hall in memory of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg 

* Sell copies of John Wexley's book 

* Raise $ toward the SOBELL campaign by June 19th, by holding parties 

or through individual contacts 

* Volunteer for (check activity desired) 
D Leaflet distribution 

n Office work 

Name 

Address 

Phone 

Return to Committee to Secure Justice for INIortnn Sobell, 1050 Sixth Ave., 
New York 18, N. Y. LO 4-9585. 

Mr. Alman. T ask you once more when are you going to put that 
question as to the origins of the National Committee To Secure Justice 
in the Rosenberg Case? Why are you afraid of an answer to that 
question ? I think the record ought to show, sir, tliat there is silence on 
that. This committee will not ask me that question because this com- 
mittee does not want the answer. 

Chairman Walter. This would be funny if it were not for the 
foreign implications. 

Mr. Alman. There is a man in Alcatraz. There is nothing funny 
about that. A bunch of ambitious prosecutors decided they didn't 
care what happened to the system of justice, didn't care about rules 
of law or anything. 

Mr. Tavenner. Page 4 of the document has this language : 

The following are the steps with which we propose to open this new period 
in the campaign for justice for Morton Sobell : 

First, the immediate development of the legal program that will place before 
the courts the errors of the trial, the perjuries of the witnesses, the new evi- 
dence continuously being uncovered, the revelations of Harvey Matusow in re- 
spect to Roy Cohn and other proper courtroom steps which may become feasible. 

In other words, it was your plan, I take it from that, to attempt to 
use the testimony of Harvey Matusow to discredit Government wit- 
nesses generally in the other cases. Is that what you were driving at ? 

Mr. Alman. I cannot speak for the attorneys in the Sobell case, sir. 
How they use material, evidence, and et cetera is beyond my ken. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2215 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer my question ? 

Mr. Alman. I have answered your question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wasn't it your purpose to use the action taken by 
Harvey Matusow to attempt to discredit Government witnesses in the 
other cases? 

Mr. Alman. My purpose and my interest in the Kosenberg case is 
to secure freedom for Morton Sobell, who I believe to be an innocent 
man. 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you answer the question? 

Mr. Alman. I have answered your question. I have told you what 
my purposes are. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, he has evaded the question. May I 
ask a direction? 

Chairman Walter. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Alman. Will you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Read him the question. 

The Reporter (reading) : 

Mr. Tavenner. Wasn't it your purpose to use the action taken by Harvey 
Matusow to attempt to discredit Government witnesses in the other cases? 

Mr. Alman. What do you mean by other cases, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Any other case. 

Mr. Alman. No, sir. 

Chairman Walter. The Sobell case. 

Mr. Alman. The Sobel case. Those witnesses already are dis- 
credited, sir. Ill the handwriting of David Greenglass himself, the 
chief prosecution witness, he refutes his own testimony in that court- 
room. He says he does not know who sent him to Gold. He says he 
is willing to state what the FBI tells him to state. 

Chairman Walter. Ask the next question. 

Mr. Alman. No one can discredit those witnesses. They have 
done it themselves. Mrs. Greenglass, the wife of David Greenglass, 
calls her husband a liar. 

Chairman Walter. I have read all the record. 

Mr, Alman. I have a copy of it here. Have you read this entire 
record ? 

Chairman Walter. Yes. 

Mr. Alman, I would love to have the opportunity to ask you ques- 
tions on that record. 

Chairman Walter, You are not a lawyer, I am. 

Mr. Alman. I have behind me plenty of lawyers who have read this 
record, including three Justices of the Supreme Court who felt the 
Rosenbergs should not be executed, 

Mr, Tavenner, Attached to the document is a circular to which I 
call your attention and ask you who helped you to prepare that? 

Mr, Alman. This leaflet, which was apparently meant for the public 
and probably distributed in thousands of copies, reprints a portion of 
the testimony of the witness against Sobell, a man by the name of 
Elitcher. He was asked whether he lied under oath. He said "Yes." 
Then he was asked who coached him, who talked to him. He says 
Mr. Colin as well as other members of the prosecution. It also states 
that the Supreme Court has never reviewed the testimony in this case. 

Mr. Tavenner. I didn't ask you to read the document. I asked you 
if you helped prepare it, or did prepare it. 



2216 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Alman. I am very proud of the fact I did help prepare it. It 
is even conceivable that I did this myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, actually it is the Communist Party plan in 
this country to use Harvey Matusow to attempt to discredit Govern- 
ment witnesses generally, isn't it ? You know that, don't you ? 

Mr. Alman. I do not know that, sir. I don't know what the Com- 
munist Party intends to do, what it plans to do, what its program is. 
No, sir ; I do not. My concern with Harvey Matusow relates to So- 
bell, period. 

Chairman Walter. The committee will stand in recess until 10 
o'clock in the morning. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. You are not finished with him ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No. 

( Thereupon, at 3 p. m., Thursday, August 4, the subcommittee was 
recessed, to reconvene at 10 a. m. Friday, August 5, 1955.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

(THE COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE 
ROSENBERG CASE AND AFFILIATES)— PART II 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 5, 1955 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American AciTviTrES, 

Washington^ D. G. 

PUBLIC hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
^t 10:20 a. m., pursuant to recess, in the caucus room, Old House 
Office Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Present: Representatives Walter (chairman) and Edwin E. Willis. 

Present also : Frank S. Tavenner, counsel to the committee ; George 
'C. Williams, investigator. 

The Chairman. Please come to order. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Alman, come forward, please. 

TESTIMONY OF DAVID ALMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Alman, yesterday, I understood you to make 
reference to certain documents obtained after the trial by the Com- 
mittee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. Were those the same 
■documents which were given general circulation by the national or- 
ganization ? 

Mr. Alman. Yes; I believe they were. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has been informed that these docu- 
ments were released by the national committee to secure justice for 
the Rosenbergs at a press conference held on June 4, 1953. Were you 
present at the conference? 

Mr. Alman. In all likelihood I was. I couldn't answer for certain, 
but I am quite sure I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the other persons present from your 
national organization ? 

Mr. Alman. I am going to invoke the fifth amendment, because I 
cannot, I will not be compelled to become a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you informed at an earlier date that this re- 
lease was to be made on or about June 4 ? 

Mr. Alman. I am not sure I understand the question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wien did you first learn that the committee pro- 
posed to release these documents? 

2217 



2218 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Alman. I couldn't tell you exactly how far before we released 
them we had decided to release them. First of all, one of the docu- 
ments was taken to a handwriting expert — that is, the document in 
David Greenglass' handwriting — and that was authenticated by Mrs. 
Elizabeth McCarthy at Boston. 

Mr. Tavenner. On what date did you have that done? 

Mr. Alman. The authentication? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Alman. I may have it in my papers. I will have to look for a 
moment to see. I have not got the date here on which Mrs. McCarthy 
authenticated the document. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you this question. Wlien did the na- 
tional committee obtain those documents? 

Mr. Alman. My guess would be that it was approximately a month 
and a half, about 6 weeks, before they were made public, and I am just 
guessing. 

Chairman Walter. Give us the best of your recollection. 

Mr. Alman. That is the best of my recollection now. I think about 
6 weeks passed between the time that the documents came into our 
possession and the time we released them. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was approximately what date in April? 

Mr. Alman. Well, if we released them, you have the date, June 4^ 
then I guess it must have been about the middle of April. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know from what source the committee ob- 
tained the documents ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Alman. The present Sobell committee is still in search of new 
evidence, and I do not wish to assist in cutting off any information 
they may obtain, and in addition to that, I wish to invoke my right 
under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have some part in procuring the documents ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Alman. I will avail myself of my privilege under the fifth 
amendment not to become a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's investigation indicates that these 
documents were published in a French newspaper some time, a day or 
two prior to April 18 or on April 18. Is that substantially correct? 
I will change the question. 

Were they published by a French newspaper prior to theii' being 
released by your committee ? 

Mr. Alman. Yes, sir; they were. They were published in Le 
Monde, which is a large French newspaper. I think it is a Catholic 
newspaper. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell it, please. 

Mr. Alman. L-e M-o-n-d-e, I believe it is. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that a reprint from the French newspaper 
called Le Combat ? 

Mr. Alman. I wouldn't know. You mean is the material appear- 
ing in Le Monde a reprint of the material appearing 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Yes. 

Mr. Alman. I wouldn't know that, sir. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Do you recall the date on which that press release 
was made in France ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2219 

Mr. Alman. No, sir ; I do not, except that I do recall it was made 
before we released this material here in the United States. 

Mr. Tavenner. Accordin^^ to your best recollection, was it aromid 
the 18th of April? 

Mr. Alman. It might very well have been. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's investio:ation discloses that Mr. 
Joseph Brainin, chairman of the National Committee To Secure Jus- 
tice in the Rosenberg Case, traveled to Europe on a passport in April 
1953 and that he was in London from April 7 to the 10th, in Paris 
from the 10th to the 14th, and in Rome from April 14 to the 18th. Do 
you know whether or not he took these documents to France with him ? 

Mr. Alman. I shall decline to answer for the same reasons I gave 
before, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were those documents in the possession of or in the 
control of the National Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosen- 
berg Case prior to Mr. Joseph Brainin's trip to Paris? 

Mr. Alman. I shall decline to answer that question for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. What reason ? 

Mr. Alman. That is, I do not wish to be compelled to become a 
witness against myself, and therefore I avail myself of the privilege 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were Mr. Brainin's expenses to Europe paid by 
your committee? 

Mr. Alman. I shall decline to answer for the reason given before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Investigation made by the committee shows that on 
March 30 there was an item charged or paid by your committee for 
ocean travel in the amount of $295. Will you tell tliis committee what 
that ocean travel was and who engaged in it ? 

Mr. Alman. To the best of my recollection Ocean Travel is the name 
of a travel agency from which I believe we used to purchase our rail- 
road and plane tickets for various trips around the country. Now, as 
to the specific check you are referring to, I would have to see that check 
and look at it to try to refresh my memory as to what particular trip 
that was for. 

Mr. Tavenner. If a check was paid on March 30 and charged on 
your books as ocean travel in the amount of $295, what would it have 
been for ? 

Mr. Alman. I could not tell you, sir, without referring to the check 
and trying to refresh my memory. You must remember that as the 
financial report indicates, we had seven professional organizers over a 
period of time, we were constantly moving around, traveling to 
Chicago, to the west coast, other cities. That particular check may re- 
fer to a trip someone may have made to California. I really wouldn't 
know unless I had the check. 

Mr. Tavenner. You didn't constantly have people going to Europe 
in behalf of the committee, did you ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Alman. The point I am making is that I have not said that this 
check was for Europe or for Los Angeles or for any other place in the 
country, or the world. I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have indicated those are your reasons for not 
knowing, that you had so much travel over the United States that you 



2220 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

are unable to recall just what this was, but you didn't have so much 
travel abroad, did you, that you would have any difficulty in remember- 
ing whether you paid the expenses of an officer of your organization 
to go to Europe ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Alman. Let me repeat something before for clarification. I 
think I may have been misunderstood. 

The notation "Ocean Travel" does not refer to a European trip. 
Ocean Travel is the name of a travel agency, and you find quite a 
number of checks made out to Ocean Travel, from whom we used to- 
purchase our plane and railroad tickets, whether we went to Bostoa 
or Chicago or Los Angeles, or anywhere else. 

Chairman Walter. Where is its place of business ? 

Mr. Alman. New York. 

Mr. Willis. The point is, just as it might have been according to- 
you, payment of travel in the United States, but by the same token,, 
wouldn't you be frank enough to say it could have been for travel to- 
Europe ? 

Mr. Alman. I would have to look at the check rather than guess and 
speculate. If you show me the check and the stub, or if you want me 
to try to refresh my memory in some other way, I would be able to tell 
you with certainty, but as a piece of speculation I don't know what 
value it has. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where are the checks and stubs ? 

Mr. Alman. I assume they are available. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where ? 

Mr. Alman. I assume if this committee wants them they will be- 
made available. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where? 

Mr. Alman. Offhand, I don't Imow. In all likelihood they would 
be at the offices of the present Sobell committee, but I am not certain. 
My guess is that is where they would be. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. AVe understood from the treasurer of the organi- 
zation that a great deal of the material had been destroyed. 

Mr, Alman. Well, a "great deal"' covers a lot of ground. 

Mr. Tavenner. I mean a great deal of the records, financial records- 
Have they been destroyed ? 

(The witness consulted wnth his counsel.) 

Mr. Alman. I am sorry, sir. I do not know the answer to that 
question. 

Mr. Tavenner, Did you at any time pay the expenses of an officer 
of your organization to go to Europe ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Alman. Would you repeat that question, sir? 

Mr, Ta MANNER. Did your organization at any time pay the expenses-, 
of an official of your organization to travel in Europe ? 

Mr. Alman. Yes, sir. We did. Check stubs would carry that in- 
formation. All our expenses were paid by check. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Were the expenses of Mr. Brainin on his trip to- 
Europe in April 1953 paid by your committee ? 

Mr. Alman. I shall decline to answer for the reasons I gave before^ 
the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Willis. You realize that makes that trip pretty important ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2221 

Mr. Alman. Sir, I hope that everything we did, I know everything 
we did was important. In this case we hoped to bring about a remedy 
of a wrong we felt had been done. 

Chairman Walter. Wliat business did your committee have in 
Europe ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Alman. One of the things our committee was very much con- 
cerned with was the obtaining of legal opinion from lawyers, jurists, 
abroad. 

Chairman Walter. Of what value would the opinion of lawyers 
or jurists abroad be as to the criminal code of the State of New York 
or the United States ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Alman. These people, sir, we thought, would be able to recog- 
nize an injustice if they saw one. We were concerned with their 
opinions in that respect. We also were concerned with bringing some 
firsthand reports of the case to people in Europe generally. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did that include taking to France the documents 
we have been discussing? 

Mr. Alman. I shall decline to answer for the reason I have given 
before. 

Chairman Walter. The real purpose was to attempt to discredit 
the Govermnent of the United States throughout the world; was it 
not? 

Mr. Alman. Sir, I don't know how to reply to you because I want 
to be respectful and courteous. 

Chairman Walter. Don't bother being respectful. 

Mr. Alman. That is a terrible misstatement. We were conerned 
with the honor and integrity of our country. An injustice had been 
done by people who we felt were unscrupulously using the courts to- 
further their own political or private ambitions. 

Chairman Walter. Why call to the attention of people of other 
nations what you regarded as an imperfection in the system of the 
United States jurisprudence? 

Mr. Alman. I didn't regard this case as an imperfection in our 
judicial system. I regarded the error made in our courts as an im- 
perfection in the behavior of some individuals who were connected 
with the Attorney GeneraFs office. 

Chairman Walter. Why was anyone in any other nation con- 
cerned with that? 

Mr. Alman. They simply were. The fact remains that from the 
beginning of this case, the beginning of the time that this committee 
began to work on the case, we received mail from individuals in Eu- 
rope asking questions about the case, wanting more information, ex- 
pressing opinions, asking, by the way, in great numbers for copies of 
the court record which we did send abroad. 

Chairman Walter. For what purpose ? 

Mr. Alman. Because people were interested in this case, sir. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wasn't a second purpose of the national committee 
in sending Mr. Brainin, the chairman, to Europe at this particular 
time to lay the groundwork for agitation in Europe in behalf of the 
Rosenbergs ? 



2222 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Alman. If you would rephrase that question, sir, so that you 
would ask why we were concerned with opinion in Europe 

Mr. Tavenner. I can't let you ask the questions and answer them, 
too. Will you answer my question, please. 

Mr. Alman. Well, in the manner that the question is posed, I shall 
decline to answer for the reasons that I gave before. 

Mr. Tavenner. What are those reasons ? 

Mr. Alman. I do not wish to be compelled to become a witness 
against myself, and I therefore avail myself of the privilege under 
the fifth amendment. 

But I will tell you this with respect to what you have called agita- 
tion in Europe. 

Mr. Tavenner. If you will not answer the question I asked, I don't 
think it calls for any comment from you. 

Mr. Tavenner. This morning I received an affidavit of O. John 
Rogge, with copies of two letters attached relating to the affidavit, 
which I will read. I ask Mr. Chairman that the following three 
documents be marked "Rosenberg Exhibit No. 1" and admitted in 
evidence as part of the record. 

Chairman Walter. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Ta\'enner (reading the above documents) : 

Rosenberg Exhibit No. 1 

affidaviti of o. john rogge 
State of New York, 

County of Neiv York, ss: 

0. John Rogge, being first duly sworn on oath deposes and says that : 

1. I am engaged in the practice of the law as a member of the firm of 
Rogge, Zucker, Fabricant & Gordon, 401 Broadway, New York 13, New York. 

2. I make this affidavit at the written request of J^rank S. Tavenner, Jr., 
counsel to the House Committee on Un-American Activities. 

3. I represent Ruth and David Greenglass and have represented them since 
sometime in June 1950. 

4. Sometime, probably in April 1953, our file in this matter was stolen from 
our oflRce and various of its contents, perhaps even all, photostated by unau- 
thorized persons. 

5. Then some of these photostats were reproduced in a Paris newspaper 
Combat. In my opinion these reproductions occurred abroad in order to divert 
attention from the author or authors of the theft of our file and make their 
detection more difficult. 

6. Our file with the exception of a handwritten statement by David Green- 
glass was returned prior to April 29, 1953. The facts would indicate that the 
handwritten statement was returned on the night of April 29, 1953, for my 
partner, Mr. Murray A. Gordon, and my secretary. Miss Helen R. Pagano, looked 
through this file on April 29, 1953, and did not see this handwritten statement of 
David Greenglass; but this statement was found in the file on the following 
day, namely, April 30, 1953. 

7. I am attaching to this affidavit copies of my letters of May 6, and June 
5, 1953, to Mr. Emanuel H. Bloch, counsel to Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, with 
reference to his possession of any material which had been stolen from our file. 

O. John Rogge. 
Sworn to before me this 4th day of August 1955. 

Freda D. Maisel, 
Notary Public, State of Neic York. 
Term expires March 30, 1956. 

Chairman Walter. Was Rogge in that case ? 
Mr. Tavenner. He represented Greenglass. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2223 

May 6, 1953. 
Emanuel H. Bloch, Esq., 

J/Ol Broadway, New York 13, N. Y. 

Re United States v. Rosenberg et al. 

Dear Manny : At a conference held at our office with you on May 4, 1953, we 
advised you that what purported to be a photostat of a statement in writing by 
our client, David Greenglass, which photostat recently appeared in the I'aris 
Combat, was an authentic photostatic copy of such a statement pi-eviously pre- 
pared at our request by David Greenglass. We further advised you that the 
photostatic copy in your possession of a typed memorandum dated June 19, 
1950, and initialed "'RHG" is likewise an authentic photostatic copy of a memo- 
randum prepared by Mr. Robert H. Goldman on that date. Mr. Goldman was at 
that time a member of our firm. This latter memorandum pertained to informa- 
tion adduced by Mr. Goldman from, Ruth Greenglass in connection with the 
above-entitled matter. 

At our conference we further advised you that the originals of the foregoing 
documents were in our firm files and that they were never released therefrom to 
our knowledge or with our consent or approval. And we then also advised you 
that we had not released the originals or copies of the foregoing documents for 
publication or otherwise to anyone not connected with our firm, and, of course, 
we never knew, consented, or approved of any such release or use. 

In the circumstances it is plain, and we have so told you, that the documents, 
photostats of which were published as mentioned and have come into your 
possession, must of necessity have been stolen from our files. We, at this time, 
have no knowledge of who perpetrated or was responsible for any sufh theft. 
Wherever the responsibility for such improper impairment of the security of 
a lawyer's confidential files may lie, and however innocent may be the manner 
in which you obtained photostatic copies of the materials mentioned, we feel 
certain that, having been advised that these materials have been stolen from our 
files, you will not hesitate to return to us any originals or copies, photostatic or 
otherwise, of any such materials which may have come from our files. We 
therefore i-equest that you return to us any such originals or copies promptly and 
that you refrain from disclosing or using the contents thereof in any manner or 
fashion. 

Of course, if by means of any legal process you are entitled to any documents, 
records, or other materials in our custody or control, such process has always 
been and remains available to you in order that you may safeguard fully the 
rights of your clients, defendants in the above-entitled prosecution. We do not 
at this time suggest what your legal rights in this respect may be, nor do we 
waive any objections that we may have thereto. But however broad or narrow 
your rights to obtain access to the described materials, we are confident you will 
agree with us — and that you will act accordingly — that the way, and the only 
way, to delve into the data accunuilated by a lawyer in connection with the 
defense of a criminal case is by ni,eans of apiu'opriate legal process rather than 
stealth and guile. 

Very trulv yours, 

OJR : HRP 

Rogge, Fabricant & Gordon. 

cc : Bar Association of the City of New York; Chief Judge Knox, U. S. 
District Court, Southern District of New York ; United States Attorney, Southern 
District of New York ; Federal Bureau of Investigation, New York. 



RoGGE, Fabricant & Gordon, 

June 5, 1953. 
Emanuel H. Block, Esq., 

J/Ol Broadaay, Neiv York 13, lY. Y. 

Re United States v. Rosenberg et al. 

Dear Manny : By letter dated May 6, 1953, I asked you to return to us "any 
originals or copies, photostatic or otherwise, of any * * * materials which may 
have come from our files" in connection with the above-entitled matter. I made 
this request of you because, as I indicated in that letter, 1 was certain that 

67275— 55— pt. 2 5 



2224 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

you would not hesitate to return documents which you knew to be stolen from 
our files. 

By letter dated May 7, 1953, you enclosed and returned to us photostatic copies 
of a handwritten letter dated "Saturday June 1950" and a memorandum dated 
June 19, 1950, made by "RHG." In your letter of May 7 you stated that you had 
neither made nor retained copies of the foregoing documents, and, further, "I 
have not now nor have I ever had in my possession any other 'originals or copies, 
photostatic or otherwise, of any such materials which may have come from 
[your] files'." Subsequently by letter dated May 12, 19.53, you communicated the 
contents of our correspondence of May 6 and May 7 to the Committee on Pro- 
fessional Ethics of the Bar Association of the City of New York and requested 
an opinion on problems which you considered to be posed by the circumstances 
herein. 

I have just been advised that at a press conference held yesterday, June 4, 
1953, by the Committee to Secure Justice for the Rosenbergs, that Committee 
released to the press what purported to be the contents of two memoranda : one 
dated "8/21/.50" designated "Memo to OJR from RHG re : Greenglass" ; and the 
second likewise designated "Memo re : Greenglass" dated "8/23/.50" "from RHG 
to File." As you ai"e undoubtedly aware any such memoranda of necessity came 
from our files ; and this is particularly true concerning the August 23 memo- 
randum which contained original handwritten notations, which notations were 
referred to by the Committee in the course of its press conference. 

I understand, of course, that you are not retained by nor counsel for the afore- 
.said Committee. However, its alleged function is to secure justice for the Rosen- 
bergs and it is inconceivable to me that it would not have brought to your at- 
tention or supplied you with copies of documents which that Committee deemed 
sufficiently relevant and material to the demonstration of the innocence of the 
Rosenbergs as to warrant a press conference and a release on those documents. 
Accordingly I feel that the circumstances here at least require from you an ex- 
planation of your assertion in your letter of May 7 that you had turned over to 
us all originals or copies of documents which came from our files. 

I further call to your attention that in your letter of May 7 you explain that 
you had received the photostatic copy of the handwritten letter of June 1950 
and of the typed memorandum dated June 19, 1950, from one Paul Villard, a 
French attorney, who in turn had received these documents from a French pub- 
lication, "Combat." The correspondence which you enclosed in your letter of 
May 7, 1953, purported to show that the foregoing documents were the only docu- 
ments whicla you had received from M. Villard. I think it is now appropriate 
that explanation be made of the source of the additional memoranda referred 
to ; why the possession of those memoranda was not disclosed in your corres- 
pondence with me ; and whether you have now in your possession any other docu- 
ments, whether originals or copies, which appear on their face to have come 
from our files. 

Very truly yours, 

O. John Rogge. 
OJR : HRP 
cc : Chief Judge John C. Knox, 

United States Courthouse, 

Foley Square, New York ; 

Edward J. Lumbard, United States Attorney, 

United States Courthouse, 

Foley Square, New Yort; 

Federal Bureau of Investigation, 

290 Broadway, 

New York City ; 

Committee on Professional Ethics, 

Bar Association of the City of New York, 

42 West 44th Street, 

New York City. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Mr. Chairman, miglit we have a short recess and 
mi<2:ht I have an opportunity to examine the affidavit ? 
Chairman Walter. Certainly. 

(Whereupon, a recess was taken from 10: 52 until 10: 57.) 
Chairman Walter. Are you ready to proceed ? 
Mr. Rabinowitz. Yes, sir. Thank you. 
Chairman Walter. Proceed. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2225 

Mr. Tavenxer. Mr. Almuii, do you know the docinnents were ob- 
tained from the files of Mr. Rofige ( 

Mr. Alman. 1 think hi*st of all I would like to comment that Mr. 
Rogge's statement here authenticates the documents in question. 
There is no question as to the validity of these documents. 

Chairman Waltek. You have been asked a simple question. Please 
answer it. 

Mr. Aljnean. I am goino- to invoke my privilege mider the fifth. 
I do not wish to be compelled to become a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then we have the situation where atomic secrets 
were stolen and now confidential files stolen. 

Mr. Almax. The documents in question, sir, indicate that no atomic 
secrets were stolen b}' the Rosenbergs and Sobells. That we have 
established. I would like to have an o])portunity to read those docu- 
ments. We have documents to pro'.e the iiniocence of the Rosenbergs 
and Sobell. 

Chairman Walter. We are not trying the Rosenbergs here. 

Mr. Alman. You are asking a question. 

Chairman Walter. Did you take those files ? 

Mr. Alman. I have answered that question, sir. 

Chairman Walter. No, you have not answered it. Did you take 
tliose files i 

Mr. AL]\rAX. 1 have answered that question, sir. 1 have invoked 
my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be compelled to become 
a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavex'^xer. Do you agiee that it is a Comnnmist tactic to do 
just that sort of thing ( 

Mr. AL:\rAX. 1 can't e\en understand that ([uestion, sir. To do what 
sort of tiling^ 

Mr. Tavexxer. I will strike tlie question. 

AVill you tell the committee, please, whether the statement in ^Ir. 
Rogge's affidavit that these documents in his judgment were repro- 
duced abroad in order to divert attention from the authors of the 
theft- 
Mr. Almax. Sir. I cannot answer for the newspapers Combat and 
Le Monde as to what their purpose was in publishing these documents. 
I must assume they published them for the information of the French 
public. 

Mr. Tavexxer. How did the newspaper Combat get these papei-s? 

Mr. AL:\rAX'. I cannot answer that question. 

Mr. Tavexxer. You mean you do not know ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Al:max. I am <>()ino- to decline to answer that question for 
leasons 1 gave before. 

Mr. Tavexx'er. Mr. Chairman, I should advise you that I think 
the record should show tliat Mr. Brainin was subpeiiaed to appear as 
a witness at this hearino-, but was unable to appear according to a 
doctor's certificate which was presented. 

Mr. Willis, Let me ask you a question as a matter of information. 
At the conference where conunent was made on these documents, the 
statement made to the Dress at that conference, was that a release of 
the reprint of those documents in the French paper, or an onffinal 
j-elease to tlie Ameiiian i)ress { Do you know that ^ 

Mr. Almax. I am sorrv. 



2226 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Willis. I am asking counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not certain. The witness probably was in a 
position to know. 

Mr. Willis. Was tlie subject of that conference released to the press 
or are you just developing that a conference was had about these 
papers? Were the documents turned over to the press, Mr. Witness, 
the photostatic copies, or merely a reprint of an article ? 

Were the documents turned over to the press, Mr. Witness, the photo- 
static copies, or merely a reprint of an article ? 

Mr. Alman. Photostatic copies of the material wei-e turned over to 
the press plus a statement by Mrs. McCarthy authenticating the hand- 
writing of David Greenglass. 

Mr. Ta\tlnner. A^^iere did you get those documents ? 

Mr. Alman. I shall avail myself of the privilege under the fifth 
amendment not to be compelled to testify against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mention is made in the course of one of these letters 
that Mr. Emanuel Bloch received photostatic copies from an attorney 
in France by the name of Paul Villard, who in turn had received the 
documents from the French publication Combat. Did your committer 
receive photostatic copies from Mr. Paul Villard ? 

Mr. Alman. I shall decline to answer that question for the reasons 
I gave before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had your committee had any correspondence with 
Mr. Paul Villard prior to April 18, 1953 ? 

Mr. Alman. I cannot recall. I would not know the answer to that 
at this moment, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you advised by JMr. Joseph Brainin that he 
had conferred with Mr. Paul Villard in Paris between April 10 and 
14 when he was there ? 

Mr. Alman. I decline to answer that question for the reasons I gave 
before. 

Mr. Taa^nner. What w^as the purpose of Mr. Brainin going to 
Rome? 

Mr. Alman. I shall decline to answer that question for the reasons 
1 gave before. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was his purpose in going to London? 

Mr. Alman. I shall decline to answer that (juestion for the reasons 
I gave before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, there Avas some very pertinent testi- 
mony given at a prior hearing to this committee wdiich Avas especially 
significant in connection Avith this hearing, and I AA'ould like to make 
reference to it and read part of it into the recoi-d as a basis for seA^eral 
questions to this witness. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Alman, a man by the name of Patrick Walsh, a 
Canadian, announced publicly in the press in February 1953 his resig- 
nation as a member of the Communist Party of Canada, and his simul- 
taneous resignation from a number of organizations to which he be- 
longed, and Avhich he described in effect as Communist-front organi- 
zations. 

We secured the attendance of Patrick Walsh as a AAatness before this 
committee just a few months after that in hearings conducted in Al- 
bany, N. Y., in July 1953. Mr, Walsh had been one of the leading 
Communists in Canada, I mean actiA^e Avorking Communist. He had 
been a keyman in the Canadian Seaman's Union strike in 1919, which 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2227 

according to his testimony was planned and organized by the Maritime 
Commission of the Communist Party in Italy, and which was designed 
to extend itself into a worldwide maritime strike, the purpose of which 
was to defeat the Marshall plan, as a Soviet move. It is one of the 
clearest statements of international Communist conspiratorial methods 
that this committee has had. I shall not go into any of this testimony 
with the exception of this. 

I asked him why he got out of the Communist Party. He said it 
was on account of the Rosenberg matter. He describes here what 
may well be a pattern for Communist Party activity in connection 
with the Rosenberg matter. The testimony reads as follows : 

Mr. Ta\^nnek. The committee discovered in February of 1953 through the 
public press that you had announced your resignation from a number of Com- 
munist organizations. Was that the time that you severed your participation 
in the Communist movement? 

Mr. Walsh. Yes. When I resigned I resigned from all Communist organiza- 
tions, and I named specifically at least 9 or 10 organizations where 1 held execu- 
tive i)ositions. 

Mr. Tavenneb. And this occurred as. late as February of 19u3V 

Mr. Walsh. To be very exact, because it has been one of the greatest days in 
my life, it was on February 27, 19.53. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee is interested to know what motivated you in 
taking that action. 

Mr. Walsh. Well, there were many factors which motivated me, Imt the 
really deciding factor was the question of the Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Kearney. What do you mean by the "question of the Rosenbergs?" 

Mr. Walsh. Well, I was in the Canadian Union of Woodworkers, and I re- 
ceived instructions from Ilio Bosi of the World Federation of Trade Unions; 
Bosi was my boss in this section to which I belonged, and to which I had been 
transferred. 

Parenthetically, I should state that the World Federation of Trade 
Unions is the same organization which is now functioning in Prague 
and is spreading its propaganda material throughout the United 
States, particularly in the field of labor, that it is the same organiza- 
tion which the American Federation of Labor refused to join because 
of its Communist character. It is tlie same organization which the 
CIO did affiliate with and, as it appears, largely for the purpose of 
disclosing the Communist Party activities of that organization, which 
it did, and after which it got out. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Mr. Chairman, can the witness be excused while 
Mr. Tavenner completes his testimony ? 

Mr. Tavenner. That is a rather facetious remark. I can under- 
stand why some people don't want to hear the facts regarding com- 
munism. 

Mr. Alman. I am concerned about the facts in the Rosenberg- 
Sobell case, sir. I don't see what all this has to do with the Rosenberg- 
Sobell case. You were talking about documents and new evidence 
before. Why not read them into the record ? 

j\Ir. Tavenner (continuing to read) : 

Mr. Walsh. The World Federation of Trade Unions has different sections. 
As you have noticed, I spoke this afternoon and this morning on the seaman 
and dockers section, and later I was transferred to the agriculture and forestry 
workers' section, and as such I was directly under the orders of Ilio Bosi. 

Now, I am mentioning Bosi's name, because it will come out sooner or later 
that he was the main Communist responsible for the triumph of the popular 
front in Guatemala in 1950. Bosi made a secret trip by plane to Cuba, and 
from there he went to Mexico, and from Mexico he went to Guatemala, where he 
succeeded in creating through Communist organizations the basis of what is 



2228 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

known today as the Arhenz Popular Front Goveriiment. This Bosi is au old- 
tin)e agent of both the Comintern, which was dissolvert, and the present-day 
Corninform, which is the international Cuiniunnist organization. 

Mr. ScHEUER. Where does he live? 

Mr. Walsh. He lives in Rome, Italy, but he is often in Moscow. He travels 
about quite frequently. Now I have evidence to substantiate that, and I am 
going to submit to your committee letters from Bosi and also a report on his 
trip to Guatemala in 1950, as I referred to it. Bosi sent me this letter knowing I 
was an oldtime and trusted Communist, and in this letter he requested that 
our union, the Canadian Union of Woodworkers, that we should pass a resolu- 
tion and send him a copy in favor of clemency for the Rosenbergs. 

Now, I think I will have to go back to explain, because of my status in the civil 
liberties front organization, what I know about the Rosenberg case as it relates 
to Canada. 

May I ask, did your organization send any representative to 
Canada? 

Mr. Alman. All I can say to you, sir, is that the poor Rosenbergs 
are now charged with some connection with a strike in 1949 of seamen 
in Canada. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not charging the Rosenbergs 

Mr. Alman. Some government in Guatemala. I cannot really 
understand. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tiie Communist Party 

Mr. Alman. I will tell you this as a point-blank statement in re- 
spect to Communists or any other political party, if anj^ 

Mr. "Willis. That is not the question. 

Mr. Alman. If anybody would have attempted to do it for their 
purposes, they would have had to answer to me. I would not permit 
any political party or group to use the Rosenberg case for any pur- 
poses except for the purpose of justice. 

Chairman "Walter. Do you think j'ou are fooling anyone with that 
statement ? Answer the question. 

Mr. Alman. "Will you repeat your question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. My question was whether or not your national or- 
ganization at any time sent a representative to Canada in behalf of the 
Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Alman. "We sent speakers to Canadian cities at their request. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you send a representative there to organize 
work in behalf of the Rosenbergs ? 

Mr. Alman. No, sir ; we did not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Continuing to read the testimony of Mr. Patrick 
Walsh: 

In 1951 I was on the executive board of the League for Democratic Rights, 
more commonly known in Canada as the LDR, and which is the covinterpart of 
the Civil Rights Congress which you have in the United States, and which is 
the Communist front in the civil liberties group. 

It is called the Civil Rights Congress, and I have been getting the material 
and letters from Patterson, and so on, and so forth, for the past 3 years, copies 
of which also will be submitted to the committee. Now in 1951 we held a meeting, 
it was in the latter part of 1951, and this question of the Rosenbergs came up, 
whether we as Canadian Communists should not take up the clamor for clemency, 
and William Cashton, who was formerly the leader of the Communist league 
and is now an official of the Labor Progressive Party, he told us that the 
Communist Party in Canada, the LPP was going to ketp its hands off the Rosen- 
berg affair because of the similarity of the names of Julius Rosenberg and 
Fred Rose, whose real name, incidentally, is Fred Rosenberg. 

Now, after the Canadian spy trials of 1946, the Canadian Communists were 
dealt a severe blow when it was revealed publicly that so many prominent Com- 
munists, including a member of Parliament, had been openly engaged in espionage 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2229 

against the Canadian Government, and there are many people who broke away 
from the party at that time because they did not want to go that far. They 
did not consider that treason was accepted Communist Party doctrine and that is 
why the Fred Rose case has been a very touchy one. Cashton explained to us in 
Toronto that we should just forget all about the Rosenberg affair. 

Now, sometime last year, apparently, I haven't got the actual proof, but 
apparently the woi'ldwide campaign for clemency for the Rosenbergs, which 
was being sponsored, directed, and supported by Soviet agents all over the 
globe — and I have newspapers and publications and pamphlets from nearly 
every country where the Communist Party has an organization — and it is no 
coincidence that all these appeals follow along the same pattern. It was decided 
that Canada should not be an exception, and that we should join the hue and cry 
of the Rosenberg clemency campaign. 

Now, the way the League for Democratic Rights went about this is an illustra- 
tion of Communist tactics. They sent word to Regina — in Saskatchewan, that is, 
western Canada — to a Communist there that he should write in and suggest that 
people in the west wei'e bothered about this Rosenberg affair and that in his 
opinion we should start a campaign in favor of the Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a person of any known record in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Walsh. Well, he was a member of Parliament, a Communist member of 
Parliament, and his name is William Kardash, the well-known leader of the 
Ukrainian Communist section of the party for the past 20 years, and also a leader 
of the International Brigade in Spain between 1936 and 1939. 

So Kardash wrote to the League for Democratic Rights and we had the 
excuse that it was not something that was coming from the central body. It 
was not a campaign that was being imposed because of the decision of leadership,^ 
but that people from the west were anxious that we should do something about' 
it and in about 2 weeks we began to flood the country with "Save the Rosenbergs" 
pamphlets, petitions, circulars, and whatnot. 

Now, I knew from a study of the Rosenbergs' case that in my opinion both 
Rosenbergs were guilty, and I was not surprised that such people had been 
carrying on espionage activity because of my long experience with the Communist 
Party. And in my heart and soul I knew that they had had every possible chance 
for defending themselves and that they could thank God they were living in 
America where they had the right to have a lawyer and to defend themselves 
and to enjoy the benefits of counsel, something which is denied to every citizen 
in the Soviet Union and every other country behind the Iron Curtain. They 
certainly had more chance than Comrade Beria is going to get, and in my heart 
and soul I could not endorse or have anything to do with something which 
smacked of treason. 

So at a meeting of the Canadian Union of Woodworkers executives, I publicly — ■ 
this was on December 1."). 19ri2 — I opposed the resolution by the president, Gerard 
Fortain, who was a well-known Communist leader in Canada, I opposed his reso- 
lution that in the name of 100,000 bush workers, which incidentally we did not 
represent, because at the very most we had only 5,000 members, that in the name 
of 100,000 French Canadian bush workers we were going to request President 
Eisenhower to grant clemency to the Rosenbergs. I opposed the motion, and I 
made a vigorous statement which even rallied some of the Communists, and the 
motion was voted down. 

But I knew from that day on that my days were counted, that if I didn't move 
fast they would. So I prepared everything and I got as many documents and 
letters as possible, and I timed my I'esignation so that it would have the most 
effect against Communist Party plans in Canada. That was one of the factors, 
the question of the Rosenbergs. 

Now, Mr. Alman, I call special attention to the part of Mr. Walsh's 
testimony where he describes Communist tactics, of having someone 
write in in behalf of a campaign in favor of the Eosenbergs so that 
it would not appear as something coming from the Communist Party 
cell. Was that tactic or pattern used in the United States in regard 
to the way in which the work of formation of your organization 
began ? 

Mr. Alman. By whom, sir? 

Mr. Tavenner. By anyone. 



2230 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Alman. I would have absolutely no way of knowing that at 
all. Everything that our committee did was in the open daylight. 
Everything that we did we wanted to make public. Everything that 
we did we did in as direct a fashion as we knew how. 

Mr. Tavenner. The national committee to secure justice for the 
Kosenbergs in the foreword of a pamphlet entitled "To Secure Justice 
in the Rosenberg Case," states this : 

But a full report of the case was not made available to the public until August 
1951, when the National Guardian began to publish a series of articles by 
W^illiam A. Reuben. His revelations have confirmed the fears of many who had 
doubted the guilt of the Rosenbergs and convinced many others who had not 
followed the case originally. As a result of this series, the National Committee 
to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case was formed. 

Is that a correct statement of the origin of your committee? 

Mr. Alman. That statement, sir, is partially correct. It is a rather 
broad kind of statement. The fact is that no one circumstance created 
the National Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, 
and if you are opening that question, sir, I am prepared to speak 
on it. 

Mr. Tavenner. You state that the statement appearing in that 
pamphlet over the name of your committee is only partially correct? 

Mr. Alman. Well, I would say this, that the articles that appeared 
by Mr. Reuben in the National Guardian certainly gave a great deal 
of impetus to the formation of such a committee because 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, your committee over its name has said that 
that was the basis for the formation of it. Is it right or wrong? 

Mr. Alman. Well, in the sense that the facts disclosed by Mr. 
Reuben were the central reasons for our belief that a miscarriage of 
justice had occurred, in that sense his articles, which were the first 
to bring these facts together, did result in the formation of the Rosen- 
berg-Sobell committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did not your committee use the articles published 
by the National Guardian in a calculated attempt to make it appear 
that there was a public demand or interest outside of the Communist 
Party for a campaign in behalf of the Rosenbergs ? 

Mr. Alman. Well, I know of my own accord that there was interest, 
at least among people I spoke to. 

Mr. Tavenner. But why was it that you resorted to the tactic 

Mr. Alman. We did not resort to tactics. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. 

Mr. Alman. I mean the phrase itself is one that loads the question 
beyond any kind of comprehension. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let us change that and make it less drastic. 

Why did your committee resort to the plan that it did resort to in 
publishing in the foreword that the basis for the formation of the 
organization was the articles appearing in the National Guardian? 

Mr. Alman. I have just explained that, sir. Those articles con- 
tained the facts in the Rosenberg-Sobell case, or at least they dealt 
with certain aspects of that case. 

Now, it is on the facts themselves that the National Committee to 
Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case was formed. If there had been 
no miscarriage of justice, in my o])inion there would have been no 
National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2231 

Mr. Tavenner. Yoii are aware of the fact, are yon not, that there 
was peculiar silence on tlie part of the Daily Worker regarding this 
whole matter during the period of the formation of your organization? 

Mr. Alman. I am aware of the fact, sir, that there was a peculiar 
silence, in my opinion, on the part of the entire country's newspapers. 
I think that our newspapers have an obligation to the citizenry, I think 
they have an obligation to look into the facts wdiere there is question. 
Some newspapers did this. Some newspapers did not. 

When the campaign was over, a number of newspapers had come 
out for clemency, like tlie Chicago Daily News, the Loredo Times of 
Texas, other newspapers as well. 

I think it was a most unfortunate thing that our large metropolitan 
newspapers did not accept as an obligation the most thorough screen- 
ing of the facts in the Rosenberg-Sobell case. 

Chairman Walit^r. Did you see the editorial in the St. Louis Post 
Dispatch, a very liberal newspaper ? 

Mr. Alman. I saw a number of editorials in that newspaper, sir. 
One I remember in particular after the execution where they said 
they felt that the Supreme Court should be obliged in every capital 
case to review the case because the Supreme Court had never reviewed 
tlie Ivosenberg-Sobell case. 

Chairman Walter. That is not what the editorial stated. It 
stated that they made a very careful examination of all the facts in 
connection with this case and were convinced that there was no mis- 
carriage of justice. 

Mr. Alman. They had an editorial to that effect, yes, they did, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, when the first 
suggestion Avas made for the formation of such a committee, as far 
as you know ? 

Mr. Al]man. We Avere neighbors of the Rosenbergs in the sense that 
we liA'ed in Knickerbocker Village, a housing development on the East 
Side. They occupied an apartment in that development. We were 
naturally interested, if for no other reason than for the reason of 
proximity. There Avere scA^eral things that we read in the newspapers 
that did not seem to us to be consistent, either with the behavior of 
espionage agents or Avith what Ave could see, even though not at close 
range, of the Rosenbergs. 

For example, it appeared to us extremely unlikely that people en- 
gaged in espionage on behalf of Russia Avould themselves be, as the 
prosecution charged, openly active in Communist causes. It ap- 
peared to us that espionage agents Avould more likely attempt to con- 
ceal the 

Mr. Taaenxer. I asked you Avhen the first suggestion Avas made for 
the formation of such a committee, as far as you knew ? 

Mr. Almax. I have to ansAver the question, sir, in my own words. 

Mr. Tavexner. Let me repeat the question to you so that you 
knoAv what it is. I think you have forgotten Avhat it is. 

Mr. Alman. I remember Avhat it is. 

Chairman Walter. What was the question? 

Mr. Alinian. When was the first suggestion made that a committee 
l)e formed around the Rosenberg case. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is right. 
• Chairman Walter. When Avas it? What month ? 



2232 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Alman. Well, I have to come to that. I cannot simply give 
you a date. 

Chairman Walter. Wliat date was it ? 

Mr. Alman. I have to come to that. 

Chairman Walter. What year was it? 

Mr. Alman. I should like to be permitted to explain 

Chairman Walter. What year was it ? Answer the question. 

Mr. Almax. All right, sir. This was in the fall of 1951. 

Chairman Walter. All right, now that is an answer to the question. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. TA\rENNER. The conviction was in April, was it not, of 1951 ? 

Mr. Alman. The conviction was in March, I believe, the end of 
March. The sentence was given the beginning of April. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why did you wait from April 5 to the late fall to 
start a movement for such a campaign ^ 

Mr. Alman. I waited because I did not know enough about the 
case at the time, because my first impression, frankly, was that the 
Rosenbergs were guilty. It was not until I had read the court record 
and studied the case that I became convinced that tlie Rosenbergs and 
Morton Sobell were innocent. 

Mr. Taat2Nner. Then it was as a result of that conviction on your 
part that you instigated the movement for the formation of this com- 
mittee? 

Mr. Aliman. As a result of that conviction on my part, I confeiTed 
further with other people whom I had spoken to as to what might 
be done to bring the facts in the case to light. 

Chairman Walter. With whom did you confer ? 

Mr. Alman. Those of us who were convinced that the Rosenbergs 
either were innocent 

Chairman Walter. You said that you conferred with others. 
With whom did you confer? You said, "I conferred with others." 
With whom did you confer ? 

Mr. Alman. We decided at that time to — 

Chairman Walter. I asked with whom did you confer? 

Mr. Alman. I will decline to answer that question, sir, on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Chairman Walter. Were any of the people with whom you con- 
ferred non-Communists, or were they all Communists? 

Mr. Alman. Do you really want an answer to that question, sir? 

Chairman Walter. Yes. 

Mr. Alman. I did not ask anyone what their political opinions were, 
what their affiliations were, what they thought about any subject under 
the sun, except the subject of the Rosenbergs and Sobell. 

Chairman Walter. The fact of the matter is that you conferred only 
with Communists concerning 

Mr. Alman. Have you established that as a fact, sir ? 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Alman. You cannot establish that as a fact. There is no such 
fact. The facts in the case have nothing to do with that, as a matter 
of fact. The facts have to do with new eviderji3e that you raised before, 
but you will not put in the record. That is what the facts are. There 
would be no Rosenberg-Sobell campaign in this country had this not 
been a miscarriage of justice, had there not been perjured witnesses. 
That is what created the campaign. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2235 

Mr. Tavenner. AVere you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you had the conferences you referred to ? 

Mr. Alman. I am not going to answer that question on the gromids 
of the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did any of the persons you discussed this matter 
with on the occasion that you mentioned become officers of this organ- 
ization, tlie National Committee To Secure Justice in the Kosenberg 
Case ? 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Alman. Well, I can answer in respect to myself. I did become 
an officer, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know I am not speaking of you. We know that 
you did, that you considered yourself as one of the participants. 

Mr. Alman. Will you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you read him the question ? 

(Question read by reporter.) 

Mr. Alman. I shall decline to answer that question for the reasons 
given before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Louis Harap one of the gi-oup you consulted? 

Mr. Alman. I shall decline to answer the question for the reasons I 
gave before. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you chosen as the executive secretary? 

Mr. Alman. A public meeting was in preparation in New York for 
March of 1952 at the Pythian Temple in New York. At that time, it 
became quite obvious that the work involved required that some one 
give full time to the meeting, the preparation of materials, and it was 
agreed that I would become executive secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the practice of your committee about 
paying money back to certain individuals connected with the local 
organizations who were collecting money for your national organi- 
zation ? 

Mr. Alman. Are you asking what was our practice in i-eturning 
loans made to us ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, not loans. The payment of money for services 
or otherwise. 

Mr. Alman. We paid by check, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, but what was your practice about doing it \ 

Mr. Alman. That was the practice, sir, we paid by check. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not asking the manner of payment. What was 
your practice in paying it back % How did you select individuals in 
the locality to pay money over to ? 

Mr. Alman. Well, where a group was formed in a city that felt it 
needed some assistance from tlie national committee to conduct these 
public meetings, organize other activities, and if they felt that they 
did not have sufficient funds to pay someone consistently, the na- 
tional office, if it had the money at the time and it felt that a great 
deal of good would come of it, would agree to pay the salary of some- 
one that the people in that particular city might select. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you pay a salary for a while of $70 a week to 
Sue Koritz, the secretary of the committee in Boston ? 

Mr. Alman. I decline to answer that question under the privi- 
lege of the fifth amendment, sir. 



'2234 INVESTIGATION OF COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. For what purpose was the salary paid to her by 
the national organization when she was collecting money through 
fund drives in Boston for the national organization 'i 

Mr. Alman. Any salaries paid to anyone were for the purpose of 
permitting them to give all their time and energies to the bringing 
of the truth in the Rosenberg-Sobell case to the public in their 
cities and areas. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, Philip Koritz is one of the witnesses who 
testified here. He refused to deny Communist Party membership 
after his identification was presented to him. made by witnesses under 
oath before this committee. Pie was likewise paid a salarj^ of $75 for 
a period of time in Boston, was he not ? 

Mr. Alman. I decline to answer that question for the reasons I 
gave before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Josephine Granat, from Chicago, who appeared 
here as a witness and who refused to deny Communist Party mem- 
bership, was paid a salary of $75 a month by your national organiza- 
tion over a period of time, was she not ? 

Mr. Alman. I decline to answer that question for the reason I gave 
before. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's investigation discloses that Don 
Rothenberg received legal fees of $225 on June 20, 1953 ; $75 on June 
6, 1953; $V5 on June 1, 1953; $200 on May 26, 1953. What was the 
purpose of that payment to Don Rothenberg for legal fees? 

Mr. Alman. I decline to answer that question for the reasons I 
gave before. 

Mr. TxVVenner. If there js any error about the payment being for 
legal fees, were such payments made to Mr. Rothenberg? 

Mr. Alman. Any legal fees that we may have paid, sir, were paid to 
one of two categories of people, either to attorneys directly or to 
printers for printing legal briefs. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; but you are not answering my question. 

Mr. Alman. I believe I am, sir. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. It was not an answer. My question is. If the com- 
mittee's information about these payments having been made to Mr. 
Rothenberg for legal fees is in error, what M-ere the pavments made 
for? 

Mr. Alman. I am unable to answer questions about payments, as 
all our payments were made by check, without having those checks 
before me, the stubs, and the opportunity to attempt to refresh my 
memory as to what the payments were made for. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. You do recall that Mr. Rothenberg was paid sub- 
stantial sums by your national committee, do j^ou not? 

Mr. Alman. I decline to answer that question for the reasons I gave 
before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been aware that Mr. Don Rothenberg 
was not a member of the legal profession ? 

Mr. Alman. I decline to answer that question for the reasons I gave 
before. 

yir. TA^TNNER. You know that he is not a lawyer, do you not? 

Mr. Alman. I decline to answer that question for the reasons I 
gave before, and state to you again that all moneys paid out for legal 
purposes were either paid to attorneys or were paid to printers for 
printing up legal briefs. 



ESrVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2235 

Chairman Walter. But this shoAvs tlie payment of legal fees to a 
man Avlio is not a lawyer. 

Mr. Alman. Sir, I do not know what it shows. I haven't seen it. 
1 read tlie newspapers in the Rosenberg- Sobell case there and when 
1 read the record I read an entirely different story, as you would, too, 
sir, if you read that record. 

Chairman Walter. For your information, I would like to tell you 
tliat a Communist lawyer came to me, because I happened to be the 
ranking member of tlie Judiciary Committee, and asked me to in- 
tercede and endeavor to obtain justice, and I did examine the record. 
I was assisted in that examination by a very fine staff member of 
the Committee on the Judiciary. And if there was ever a conviction 
within tlie framework of our constitutional laws, it was that. So 
do not tell me to read the record. 

Mr. Alman. Have you read the new evidence that contradicts the 
testimony ? Have you read David Greenglass' own statement in his 
own handwriting where he refutes his own testimony? Have you 
read that, too. sir? Why is there an attempt to conceal the truth 
in this case? Why don't we talk about the David Greenglass state- 
ment ? 

Chairman Walter. It is you who is concealing the truth. 

Mr. Almax. An organization that conducts itself publicly, that 
fights its way into a bank, as we did, that publishes its material 
publicly and holds its meetings publicly is not an attempt to conceal 
anything. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did your committee make an all-out effort to 
attempt to get organized labor to support yoiu" campaign in behalf of 
the Rosenbergs ? 

Mr. Alman. Our committee went, or attempted to get the support 
of unions, clergymen, teachers, housewives, scientists, businessmen, 
labor leaders — the list is endless, sir — Congressmen, Senators. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me read into the record what is said by the 
Daily Worker in an article entitled "World of Labor" by George 
Morris, under date of June 22, 1953. I am not quoting the entire 
article but I am quoting enough of it to demonstrate clearly what 
tlie views of the Daily Worker were about the attitude of organized 
labor in this matter. 

I read as follows : 

The brutal murder of the Rosenbergs in face of the rapidly rising protest of 
world opinion was therefore unquestionably a serious blow against the people, 
an arrogant display of Wall Street's puppets in Government, of their master 
role in the capitalist world. But it is even more important to see that the 
decision to go through with the heinous crime stems not from strength but 
from weakness. The criminals hastened to carry out their deed in the belief 
that it would stem the worldwide movement, clamp a lid over the truth that 
was breaking into the open and thereby close the case. 

The criminals have already paid a very high price for taking the two lives. 
Throughout the world there is a rapidly mounting hatred of the United States 
imperialists. As in previous major frameups, the high tide of popular pressure 
came too late to make the difference between life and death but the trend 
was definitely toward victory and was even reflected in the minority of four 
in the Supreme Court. Victory could have been the result if the main sections 
of the labor movement had supported the strike. 

The main stem of labor's officials played a more despicable and cowardly role 
and conspiracy to keep silent on the Rosenberg case has even affected some trade 
unionists in the progressive camp. It instilled in some of them, too, a fear to 
speak out or a fatalistic what's-the-use feeling. 



2236 ESrVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

In contrast to the shameless and cold-blooded attitude of most leaders of 
American labor, we have the facts — 

and there the author refers to the action of trade unions in Europe, 
in the countries of France, Italy, and England. 

The labor movement — 
the article states — 
can have an important role in the new stage in the Rosenberg flght. 

Now, that is a very scathing criticism of labor by the Communist 
organ, the Daily Worker, indicating that organized labor had not 
fallen for the Communist plan to engage and assist in the propaganda 
effort that was being made, though I understand that your organiza- 
tion did everything it could to obtain the support of labor. 

Mr. Alman. Would you want me to comment on that article, sir, 
because I am willing to. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask jon this about the article. Was it not 
a case where the Communist Party coidd not fool the hibor organizers 
in this matter ? 

Mr. Alman. I am willing to comment on that article, sir, in my own 
words, and I would like to do so now. 

I do not think that the author of that article knew what he was 
talking about when he said that American labor ignored the Rosen- 
berg-feobell case. There were 3 to 4 million people who eventually, 
in one form or another, expressed their opinion on this case. Among 
them must have been millions of people who belonged to trade unions. 

Mr. Tavenner. The article does not refer to rank-and-file members. 
It refers to organized labor. 

Mr. Alman. I have never been concerned with whether the people 
were rank and file, or leaders, or what have you. I am concerned with 
whether they spoke up on the case, whether their feeling in this case is 
one that reflected the facts in the case, whether they were concerned 
with humane things, with just things. I am not concerned, as I told 
you yesterday, with titles and labels, because to me that is nonsense. 

I live by what I know. I study things that I want to know. I get 
convictions on that basis. I don't turn away from a book and say I 
will not read that book because it is Republican, Democratic, vege- 
tarian, Communist, or anj'thing else. 

If you want to know, there is a paragraph in that article which 
refers, to some extent, to the United States being held in contempt, 
or something of that sort, by the people of Europe. If that is so, sir, 
the responsibility for that must lie at the doorstep of the prosecutors 
who intended to get a conviction regardless of the facts, who would get 
a conviction in the face of the facts, who used newspaper hysteria 
and every other means to obtain a conviction. They are responsible 
for disgracing the good name of our country, which I and others tried 
to defend in this case. 

Chairman Walter. I will give you a little enlightenment. You 
and your crowd did not succeed in doing that. The people of the 
world appreciate the fact that $38 billion of American taxpayers' 
money has made the world more prosperous than it has ever been, and 
you did not get away with what you tried to do to discredit this 
country in the eyes of other nations. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2237 

Mr. Alman. The prosecution in this case discredited this country. 
They were more concerned with their own reputations than the repu- 
tation of this country. 

Chairman Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. How do you explain this, Mr. Alman? Here we 
have a situation in which the titular head of your organization, ac- 
cording to committee testimony, was a member of the Communist 
Party. That is Mr. Harap. 

You, yourself, as executive secretary, declined to state whether or 
not you were a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Alman, And I told you why, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner, The treasurer declines to so state. 

Mr. Alman, And she stated why. 

Mr. Tavenner, Mr. Herman Tamsky declined also, as the chairman 
of the Communist Paily group in a highly sensitive area, a key city 
in the United States, as to whom there is evidence identifying him as 
a member of the Communist Party. And Sue Koritz, the executive 
secretary in this same key city, was identified as a member of the Com- 
munist Party and her husband, Philip Koritz, very active in the party 
work, that Donald Rothenberg from Cleveland, having been identified 
as a member of the Communist Party, and who refused to testify on 
the subject, was active, as one of the national officers and probably 
the Washington representative as far as we can find out of your 
organization. And John (xilman, the head of the Civil Rights Con- 
gress in Milwaukee, and identified as a Communist Party member. 
That here in the city of Washington, John Stone has been identified 
as a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr, Willis. You mean at the same time were local level officers of 
the national organization to secure justice in the Rosenberg case? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; all of whom were staff members of the local 
groups or instriunental in the organization of them. 

And Ethel Weichbrod, the executive secretary in Washington, who 
refused to testify. 

We find it was the Communist Party in Allentown that organized 
the local group of your committee and Mi's. Jean D. Frantjis in Phil- 
adelphia, a member who would not admit being actively participant 
as a staff' member and who would not testify as to her Communist 
Party membership. And numerous other people active in these or- 
ganizations who have been shown to be members of the Communist 
Party, including, in the city of Detroit, Ruth Belmont, an official; 
Josephine Granat in Chicago, who woidd not testify regarding Com- 
munist Party membership ; Eve Neidelman in Detroit, who had been 
identified before this committee as a member of the Communist Party 
and under circumstances which would indicate her official connection 
with the local committee in Detroit. And Pat Rush, identified as a 
member of the Communist Party, who was executive secretary in the 
city of Detroit, of your organization. And Dr. Leonard Tushnet, in 
Newark, N, J., who was the head of the organization. And William 
B. Esterman, an attorney in Los Angeles, was the head of your organi- 
zation. 

Do you expect us to believe that it is just a coincidence that all those 
Connnunist Party members took the lead in the work of your group ? 

Mr. Alman. Sir, there are many things I could say to that. 



2238 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

. Let me say this, speaking for myself. I studied the court record of 
the Rosenberg- Sobell case. There was a witness there, David Green- 
glass — this is how David Greenglass' wife describes him. She said, 
"He would say things were so, even if they were not." This, she states 
to her attorney. I do not know the witnesses who spoke here and 
named people as Communists or otherwise, but it is a fact, sir, that 
there are people who say things that may not be so. 

Chairman Walter. Will you name an officer of your organization 
who is not a Communist ? Will you name one single officer in your 
organization who is not a Communist ? 

Mr. Alman. The fact is 

Chairman Walter. Will you name one officer who is not a Com- 
munist? 

Mr. Alman. May I finish, please ? 

Chairman Walter. Will you name one officer who is not a Com- 
munist ? 

Mr. Alman. I would like to finish the answer. 

Chairman Walter. You are not answering any question. You are 
reading from something you brought in here this morning;. 

Tell me this : Do you know any officer in your organization who is 
not a Communist? 

Mr. Alman. I have answei-ed that question quite a number of times 
here, sir. I did not ask. 

Chairman Walter. Do you have any more questions, Mr. Taven- 
ner? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

I want to go back to a matter that you referred so that I may more 
dearly understand it, in the very beginning of your testimony. You 
said that you were employed in connection with an organization 
interested in Greece. What was the name of the organization ? 

Mr. Alman. The American Council for a Democratic Greece. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it your job to help raise funds for that organi- 
zation ? 

Mr. Alman. Not to my recollection, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the organization successful in raising substan- 
tial funds in New York City and other places ? 

Mr. Alman. I don't think I was familiar enough with that organi- 
zation to be able to answer that question. I will, however, say I must 
assume that the organization did raise money. 

Mr. Tavenner, The committee has received information indicating 
that as much as $75,000 was raised in a short period of time, I think in 
the area of New York. Would that sound uni-easonable to you as 
the amount that they may have raised ? 

Mr. Alman. I honestly would have no way of knowing. You might 
ask me that about $10,000 or $100,000. I simply don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee whether or not sub- 
stantial sums raised in this country were sent to a newspaper in 
Greece, known as Rizopastis ? 

Mr. Alman. Not to my knowledge, sir ; no. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was done with the money ? 

Mr. Alman. With what money ? 

Mr. Tavenner. The money that was raised for this organization. 

Mr. Alman. I must assiune it went for salaries or public meetings. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2239 

1 mean, these are things that just occurred to me as the nonnal 
practices of an organization. Beyond that I am simply not familiar 
with the workings of the organization, or was not, to the extent that 
1 could answer that question. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. To your knowledge, did any funds of this organi- 
zation go for Communist Party purposes in Greece ? 

Mr. Alman. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Walter. Do you have any questions, Mr. ^Villis? 

jNIr. Willis. No. 

Chairman Walter. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Chairman Walter. The connnittee will be in recess until 1 : 15 
sharp. 

(AVhereupon, at 12 noon, a recess was taken until 1 : 15 p. m., this 
same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, AUGUST .5, 1955 

The Chairman. The connnittee will be in order. Call your next 
witness. 

Mr, Tavenner, Mr. Louis Harap. 

Chairman Walter. Do you swear the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Harap. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS HARAP, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name ? 

Mr, Harap. Louis Harap. 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you spell Louis? 

Mr. Harap. L-o-u-i-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 
Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr, Tavenner. Where were you born, Mr. Harap ? 

Mr. Harap. I was born in New York City in 1904. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere do you now reside ? 

Mr. Harap. New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived in New York City the major part 
of your life? 

Mr. Harap. I would say the major part of my life; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived at any other place during the past 
10 years, since 1945 ? 

Mr. Harap. Not since I have returned from the Army. I have been 
in New York all that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. During what period of time were you in the Army ? 

Mr. Harap. From 1943 to 1945, August of both years. 

Mr. Tav'enner. Did you have overseas service? 

Mr. Harap. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^Yliat is your profession, Mr. Harap ? 

Mr. Harap. I am a writer and an editor. 

67275 — 55— pt. 2 6 



2240 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been. 

Mr. Harap. I graduated from Ethical Culture School and High 
School in New York City, went on for a few years to Antioch College 
in Ohio, transferred 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat period of time were you at Antioch College? 

Mr. Harap. 1922 to 1925. I transferred to Harvard University and 
received my bachelor's degree, my masters degree, and my Ph. D. in 
philosophy in 1932. That concludes 

Mr. Tavenner. At Harvard? 

Mr. Harap. All at Harvard. That concludes my formal education. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliile at Harvard did you hold the position of 
instructor or any administrative position ? 

Mr. Harap. Yes, I was librarian at the philosophy library for a 
period of 4 or 5 years there, I don't remember the exact period, up to 
1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us again the exact period that you 
were at Harvard ? 

Mr. Harap. You mean both as student and after completion of my 
formal training ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Harap. 1925 to 1939. That is to say, I wasn't enrolled in the 
university all that time. I was either a student, research worker, or 
employed as I described a few minutes ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by research worker? 

Mr. Harap. I did research in philosophy and other things. That 
is one of my professions, so to speak. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period of time that you were at Antioch 
College, were you aware of the existence there of an organized group 
of the Young Communist League ? 

Mr. Harap. No, I was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. At Harvard University were yovi aware of the 
existence of an organized group of the Communist Party composed 
of instructors and others connected with the administration and teach- 
ing at Harvard ? 

Mr. Harap. I have said before, before this committee, that I regai'd 
such questions as rather destructive of our democratic freedoms. I 
must decline to answer that question for the following reasons : First, 
I believe it infringes the first amendment — tliat is to say, I invoke the 
protection of the first amendment, which guarantees freedom of 
thought and expression and opinion- — and I also invoke the fifth 
amendment, which protects a person from being a witness against him- 
self, and I may say that the fifth amendment does not, of course, neces- 
sarily imply guilt. As a matter of fact, historically, the fifth amend- 
ment was designed quite precisely to protect the innocent. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Harap, the committee received testimony from 
Dr. Robert G. Davis, who was an instructor at Harvard University 
during part of the period of time you have described, at the time when 
you were there. Dr. Davis tokl this committee frankly and fully 
about his own Communist Party membership at Harvard University, 
and what as far as he knew was the purpose of the Communist Party 
in its activity at Harvard. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2241 

In the course of his testimony, he st&,ted that he was asked to go to 
a Communist Party meeting by either of 2 individals, he was not 
certain which of the 2. Then this testimony took place : 

Mr. Tavenner. Were both of the persons which you have iu inind persons 
known by you to be members of the Communist Party V 

Mr. Davis. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenneb. Then I will ask you to give the names of both of them. 

Mr. Davis. Louis Harap. 

Mr. Tavenner. If you know what his subsequent connection was with the 
Communist Party I think, you should tell us. That is, if you know of your 
own knowledge whether he has remained in the Communist Party for any 
definite period of time, or whether he withdrew from the party at any time, 
I would like you to so state. 

Mr. Davis. I have no firsthand knowledge. I have read writings by him in 
recent years which would suggest that his tendency had remained the same. 

Mr. Kearney. Is he a professor at Harvard? 

Mr. Davis. No; he was not. He was employed in a very minor capacity, I 
believe,' as librarian, I believe, of the philosophy library. 

Mr. Ke.\rney. Is lie still connected with that position? 

Mr. Davis. No, he left Harvard many years ago. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you know what he is doing now? 

Mr. Davis. I believe he is editor of a magazine. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you know the name of the magazine? 

Mr. Davis. It is the Jewish Affairs, I believe, some such magazine. 

Mr. Kearney. Is he the editor? 

Mr. Davis. Yes ; I think he is the editor. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you know where that is published? 

Mr. Davis. In New York. 

Was Dr. Davis' testimony truthful insofar as it related to you ? 

Mr. Harap. I have always thought that Dr. Davis' testimony was 
a great disservice to academic freedom in this country. 

Mr. Tavenner. Answer the question, please. 

Mr. Harap. But I shall decline to answer the question on the basis 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Granville Hicks also testified before this com- 
mittee at approximately the same time. I believe it was the next day. 
This testimony occurred : 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall an individual by the name of Louis Harap? 
Mr. Hicks. Yes. 

I should state Mr. Granville Hicks likewise testified that he had 
been a member of this same group of the Communist Party of which 
Dr. Davis was a member, I should add for the record here that both 
Dr. Davis and Mr. Granville Hicks testified that they left the Com- 
munist Party, and the reasons for it. 

Mr. Tavennek. What connection, if any, did he have with this Communist 
Party group? 

Mr. Hicks. He was a member of the group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell how the directives or instructions from the Com- 
liiUTJist Party were transmitted to your group? 

Mr. Hicks. My recollection is that they came in various ways. As a matter 
of fact, I have often carried them myself, since I had — I was carrying on a rather 
wide range of Communist propaganda activities, and therefore was likely to go 
into Phil Fraukel's ofBce, and he would tell me things he wished our group would 
discuss or would do. I think Harap also acted as a kind of go-between, and there 
may have been others. It was pretty informal in that particular year. 

Is there anything about the testimony of Mr. Granville Hicks 
insofar as it relates to you which is in error? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 



2242 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavennee, Were you a member of the Commmiist Party group 
at Harvard of which Dr. Davis and Mr. Granville Hicks were 
members? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer that question on grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Reference was made by Dr. Davis to your bein<i- 
the editor of a paper, of a magazine, known by the name of Jewish Life. 
I hand you the January 1953 issue of that publication and ask you 
to look on page 2 and state to the committee, who is shoAvn to be the 
managing editor at that time. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. You wish me to tell you what it says here ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Harap. It says here Louis Harap, managing editor. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to introduce the frontispiece of this publi- 
cation and page 2 in evidence and ask it be marked "Harap Exhibit 
No. 1" for identification only and to be made a part of the committee 
files. 

Chairman Walter. ISIark it and let it be received. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you the editor of Jewish Life in January 
1953, as indicated by page 2 of the magazine marked "Harap Exhibit 
No. 1"? 

Mr. Harap. I think these questions are an infringement on freedom 
of the press, and I must decline to answer them on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Willis. I think he should be instructed to answer. 

(^hairman Walter. I direct you to answer the question. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over how long a period of time were you maimging 
editor of that magazine? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Willis. I suggest he be directed to answer the question. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Willis. Are you now invoking the first amendment only? 

Mr. Harap. On the same grounds, sir, the first and fifth, both. ' 

Mr. Ta'vt.nner. Is it a fact to state, Mr Harap, that tliis magazine, 
Jewish Life, always followed and never differed with the interests 
of the Soviet Union even in cases where the interests of the Soviet 
Union were in conflict with the interests of the ITnited States ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. I would just like to say that this magazine, witli wliicli 
1 am acquainted, is designed to further the interests of the Jewish 
people in all respects in connection with all affairs that touch upon 
tlie Jewish people. That is, as far as I can see, the ])ni'i)ose of this 
magazine. 

Mr Tavenner. You are in a position to know what the purposes are, 
aren't you ? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, Avill you go back, please, and answer the ques- 
tion that I asked you. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2243 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. Will you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you read the question, please ? 

( The pending question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr, Harap. The only way I can answer that is by sayino; the in- 
terests, from my knowledge of the magazine, my acquaintance with 
the magazine, that the interests of Jewish people and the masses of 
people in the United States were the prime interests that the magazine 
furthered, and that seems to me clear enough. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Mr. Chairman, the answer is not at all responsive 
and may I ask for a direction ? 

Chairman Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. I think this is a loaded question and I have stated that 
in my opinion the magazine was exclusively interested in furthering 
the interests of the Jewish people and of the people of the United 
States. 

Mr. Tavenxer. That is the same answer. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Chairman Walter. Answer the question. 

Mr. Harap. Shall I say this? That in my view, I mean to say, my 
answer to this would be a flat "No.'' 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you on the editorial statf of Jewish Life as 
early as November 1946 ? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and the 
fifth. 

Chairman Walter. You decline to answer the question whether or 
not you were connected with that magazine? 

Mr. Harap. Yes, I do, on the basis of the first and the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. On May 3, 1950, a statement was made by John 
Williamson, national labor secretary of the Communist Party, and 
a member of its national committee, in which he was speaking for 
the party's national committee, referring to this paper, Jewish Life. 
The statement he made included the following : 

The national committee — 

referring to the national committee of the Connnunist Party — 

takes note of tlie many activities that have been developed under the leadership 
of our party in the field of work among the Jewish people, of the continued 
popular support to the Morning Freiheit and its generally correct line, of the 
issuance of the magazine, Jewish Life, in English, of the devotion to the party 
of the comrades concerned. It is our judgment that greater efforts should he 
made to work among the English-speaking Jews, particularly the workers : 
the bourgeois concentrates special attention on tliese sections for the purpose 
of influencing the entire Jewish people with chauvinist nationalism, and jingoism, 
and winning their support for imperialist policies. Without neglecting the Yid- 
dish-speaking population, the beginnings of work among the English-speaking 
Jews, made with the publication of Jewish Life, should be extended and or- 
ganized activities initiated among them. 

Did you collaborate with persons known to you to be members of 
the Communist Party in fixing the policy of Jewish Life ? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on tlie basis of the first and fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, as indicated by this expression 
from Communist Party leadership itself, because Mr.' Williamson was 
an outstanding member of the Communist Party, having been one of 



2244 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

those indicted and convicted under the Smith Act, is it not true to 
say that the publication of Jewish Life endeavored to extend and 
propagate the Communist Party line in this country? 

Mr, Harap. Jewish Life attempted to propagate a position, as far 
as I know, the magazine, on the line of working for the best interests of 
the Jew^ish people and the people of the United States. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer my question ? 

Mr. Harap. Would you repeat it, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Please read him the question. 

(The pending question was read by the reporter.) 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. I think the question is very vag"ue. ^Vliat could be 
meant by Communist Party line is very general and vague term that 
IS loaded with all sorts of connotations, and so that I really don't see 
how I could answer the question, since the question actually is not 
precise. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know, do you not, whether or not this paper or 
this magazine is a publication which propagates the Communist Party 
line? 

Mr. Harap. I just indicated that that phrase "the Communist Party 
line" is one whose meaning is not clear. 

Chairman Walter. You know what the Commmiist Party line is 
right along, don't you ? 

Mr. Harap. My question, Mr. Walter — that is to say, my mi- 
clarity. I am indicating unclarity as to the precise meaning of the 
question. 

Chairman Walter. I am trying to help you. You know what the 
Communist Party line is right along, don't you ? 

Mr. Harap. But you are not clarifying the question, Mr. Walter^ 
because my 

Chairman Walter. Do you know what the Communists in the 
United States advocate from day to day ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. Will you kindly repeat the question ? 

Chairman Walter. Do you know what the Communist Party in the 
United States advocates from day to day ? 

Mr. Harap. Well, that is a pretty big order. Sometimes, as one who 
reads the press, I know, I can't say I know what they advocate from 
day to day. 

Chairman Walter. In other words, you are trying to create the im- 
pression all you know is w^hat you read about. Are you a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the first 
and the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the owners of the magazine ? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the first 
and the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who are the remaining members of the editorial 
staff at this time ? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer that on the basis of the first and the 
fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the editorial staff or are you the 
managing editor at this time ? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2245 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been active in connection with the Rosen- 
berg case ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. I would like to explain something that turned up yes- 
terday in the hearing, because it is connected with the Rosenberg case. 

Mr. Tavenner. We are not 

Mr. Harap. It is very relevant; if you wait to see what I have to 
say, you will see it is relevant. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will give you every opportunity. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Forer. Could you clarify and particularize the question? 

Mr, TA^^NNER. Have you been active in work on behalf of the 
Rosenbergs ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. The truth of the matter is that I was as a matter of 
fact, deeply interested in the Rosenberg case. I was very much con- 
cerned, very deeply concerned, that this grievous miscarriage of justice 
was in a sense depressing the reputation of our country, depressing 
the judicial processes of justice in this country, and I was very much 
interested in it for that reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, did you 

Mr. Harap. I am coming to that. Now, I wish I could say that I 
did a great deal to help forward the campaign for the Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you lend the assistance of Jewish Life to the 
support of the Rosenbergs ? 

Mr. Tarap. I decline to answer that on the basis of the first and 
the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you write numerous articles published in that 
magazine in behalf of the Rosenliergs ? 

Mr. Hqrap. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth. 

Mr. Willis. Did you write articles for any other magazine or news- 
paper on behalf of the Rosenbergs? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer that on the basis of the first and 
fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you an original copy of the Daily People's 
World, issue of March 21, 1952, the whole page of which is devoted to 
an article which is headed "By Louis Harap,'' and the topic is anti- 
semitism in the Rosenberg spy case. 

Mr. Willis. What magazine is that ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Daily People's World. Will you state whether or 
not you wrote that article ? 

Mr. Harap. I am familiar with this article, and I would say that 
substantially I endorse what it says there. However, I will invoke 
tlie first and the fifth as to your question. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are not willing to state whether it is an article 
that you prepared ? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Do you mean to indicate that the Daily People's 
World used the name Louis Harap without authority from you? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Actually, you wrote extensively, charging that the 
trials were anti-Semitic, did you not ? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth. 



2246 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee for justice to the Rosenbergs picked 
that up and broadcast it in their literature throughout the country, 
did it not? 

Mr. Harap. Picked what up? 

Mr. Tavenner. Your charge against the courts of this country that 
the prosecution was an anti-Semitic affair. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. I think, Mr. Tavenner, you have made a misstatement. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what respect ? 

Mr. Harap. In this respect. Tlie article that you have before you 
did not initiate the charge of anti-Semitism in the Rosenberg case. As 
a matter of fact, that charge was initiated in the anti-Communist 
Yiddish jjress and English Jewish press in this country, and that can 
be amply documented, April 12, 1952. 

Mr. Tavenner. I didn't say you initiated it. 

Mr. Forer. You said "your" 

Mr. Tavenner. I said your charge was picked up and broadcast over 
the country through the press. 

Mr. Forer. He is explaining it wasn't his charge. 

Mr. Harap. You seem to be saying that the charge made in that 
article was the chaige of antisemitism in the Rosenberg case and I 
am claiming that is erroneous. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is what I am asking. 

Mr. HAii.\p. I was explaining it was not. that this article didn't make 
that charge initially, it simply carried forward — that is to say, it 
simi)ly reported that this charge had been made. It reported, it did 
more than that, but it reported that this charge had been made in the 
anti-Connnunist Yiddish press and in the English Jewish press within 
2 weeks after the conviction of the Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Tavenner. You made that charge j'ourself, didn't you? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of the hrst and fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. I thought so. Actually, the fact sheet that was put 
out by the National Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case quotes you on that subject, doesn't it? Let me read it to you : 

Louis Harap, managing editor of .Jewish Life, in January 1952 : "It has been 
said that no antisemitism intruded into tlie trial itself. But this is to overlook 
the fact that Irving Saypol, the .Jewish prosecutor, did not permit a single Jew, 
of the 300 jurors in tlie panel, to sit on the jury." 

You made that statement, didn't you ? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. You did make a charge, didn't you, if you are un- 
willing to make it now, you did make a charge of antisemitism which 
was picked up and spread, broadcast over this country by this national 
Rosenberg committee ? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew it was absolutely false, didn't you ? 

]\Ir. Harap. If you are askiug me my opinion of the — of the presence 
of antisemitism in some respect — and I can indicate the precise 
respect 

Mr. Tavenner. Don't get away from my question. 

Mr. Harap. I am not. I am answering your question precisely, and 
I don't want you to say that I said certain things which I did not say. 

Mr. Tavennp.r. Do you deny making that statement attributed to 
you ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES 2247 

Mr. FoRER. That is not the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. Don't interfere, please. 

Do you deny making this statement ^ 

Mr. Harap. I invoke the first and the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't deny it, then, my statement to you. 

Mr. IIarap. I would like to answer the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. My question to you is : Didn't you know that what 
I have quoted as your having said is absolutely false and that it is 
untrue ^ 

Mr. Harap. If you are asking me whether what you read was abso- 
lutely untrue, I would say in my opinion it is not. 

Mr. Tamsnner. So you think it is true, actually? 

Mr. Harap. I think that it could be, it could be maintained. There 
are very strong arguments to support that view. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know, as a matter of fact, that it was absolutely 
untruthful to say that Irving Saypol did not pennit a single Jew to 
sit on the panel. You know that, don't you ? 

Mr. Harap. I know this: That in the book by John Wexley, the 
judgment 

Mr. Tavenner. Answer my question. 

Mr. Harap. I am answering your question. 

Chairman Walter. Let me tell you something. The only Jew^ 
who was selected for that jury was challenged peremptorially by 
Bloch, the defendant's lawyer. That is why there were no Jews on 
the jury. The defendants' own lawyer kept them off. 

Mr. Harap. According to the account in Wexley's book 

Chairman Walter. He is another Communist, and I don't care what 
he said. I am telling you the fact. 

]Mr. Harap. If anyone has the book 

Chairman Walter. I am telliug you the fact according to the record, 
which I saw myself. 

Mr. Harap. Mr. Wexley's facts are drawn from the record. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, that book was published in 1955, 
Avasn'tit? 

Mr. Harap. Wexley's? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Harap. Yes. 

Mr. Taa^nner. This statement was made, attributed to you, on 
October 14, 1952 ; so you didn't read Wexley's book in connection with 
this statement. You are trying to deceive this committee. 

Mr. Harap. I am not. All I said before was that in my opinion, I 
was not referring to the statement you read. 

I was referring to it only as the substance of what it said. Now, 
truth is eternal. If what Mr. Wexlev said in 1955 is true, it was also 
true in 1952. 

Mr. Tavenner. My question to you was whether or not when this 
statement was made back in 1952 you knew that it was false. When 
the statement was made that the prosecuting attorney did not permit 
a single Jew to sit on the jury. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. To the best of my knowledge, in 1952, that statement 
was true, and to the best of my knowledge, that statement is still true. 
I categorically deny — and incidentally, I resent the implications of 



2248 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

your stating that I deliberately endorse falsehoods. I do not do that, 
and therefore I categorically deny that I believed that statement to be 
true, rather, false, in 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955 et cetera. 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew, as a matter of fact, that there were 10 
Jews on the panel who were excused at their own request. You knew 
tliat tliere was not a challenge made either in the way of peremptory 
challenge or for cause in the prosecution in that case ? 

Mr. Harap. You are asking questions about details, and so on, 
which I can't say I knew or didn't know. It was some time ago when 
that statement was written and I 

Mr. Tavenner. Then why would you make such a damaging state- 
ment as that without having knowledge? 

Mr. Harap. All that I am saying is that I believed that statement 
was true in 1952. That is all I say. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't you make that statement just for propa- 
ganda purposes ? 

Mr. Harap. When I say or write anything, I don't do it for propa- 
ganda purposes. I do it in order to propagate the truth, and in that 
sense to propagate the truth, in that sense I do write and say propa- 
ganda in order to further the truth. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Now, in that same fact sheet which quoted the 
statement attributed to you is another statement designed to raise 
racial and religious issues. It is as follows : 

Phineas J. Biron, syndicated English-Jewish columnist, in the Indianapolis 
Jewish Chronicle (March 7, 1952) ; "* * * not ^ single memb?r was Jewish 
and this in the city of New York, which has a Jewish population 'amounting to 
one-third of the total population * * * strange, or rather sinister, if you ask 
us." 

That is a statement along the same general lines as the one attributed 
to you. Who is Phineas J. Biron ? 

Mr, Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and the 
fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know Phineas J. Bii'on i 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of tlie first and the 
fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Phineas J. Biron have any official connection 
with the National Committee To Secure Justice in the Eosenberg Case? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, isn't he the same person as 
Joseph Brainin, the chairman of the committee? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and the 
fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was very much to the interest of the Communist 
Party, was it not, to raise issues of that type, issues of prejudice, both 
racial and religious, in order that it may capitalize on those issues? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. Is the question : Do I know whether it was to the inter- 
est of the Communist Party 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Head the question. 

(The pending question was read by the reporter.) 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. Are you asking whether to my knowledge it is true 
that the Comnnniist Party capitalizes on such things ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. Let's put it just that way. 



IISA^ESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2249 

Mr. Harap. Wlietlier it is true? 

Mr. Taa^nner. Yes. 

]SIr. Harap. To my knowledge, you mean ? 

Mr. Tavenner. As far as you know. 

Mr. Harap. As far as I know, 1 have no knowledge of that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have no knowledge? 

Mr. Harap. No knowledge whatever of that, that it is true that the 
Communist Party capitalizes on such things, no. 

Chairman Walter. Let me read you something which might be of 
interest to you, taken from the paper in January 1953, datelined 
London : 

Left-wing laborite, Sydney Silverman, told tlie World Jewish Congress last 
night that Communists are stupid for accusing the United States for anti- 
Semitism in the trial of doomed atom spies Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. Quot- 
ing Silverman, "The judge, both defendants, both prosecuting and defense attor- 
neys all were Jews. It would be stupid to deduce it was an anti-Semitic trial." 
Silverman challenged the Czechoslovakia Government, on the other hand, to 
prove that its recent purge trial of Rudolph Slansky and other Zionist leaders 
was not anti-Semitic. 

Mr. Harap. Is that a question ? 

Chairman "Walter. I thought it would be of interest to you. 

]Mr. Harap. Would Mr. Silverman's opinion be of interest? 

Mr. Forer. He has not asked a question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, as a matter of fact, as a result of these charges 
being disseminated by the National Committee To Secure Justice in 
the Rosenberg Case, part of which it appears you were responsible for 
as they quoted you, and also the chairman of their own committee under 
another name, it was found necessary for the Jewish community to 
speak out on this subject. We find that on May 13, 1952, the National 
Community Relations Advisory Council, speaking on behalf of the 
American Jewish Committee and the Anti-Defamation League of 
B'nai B'rith and American Jewish Congress, the Jewish War Veterans 
of the United States, the Jewish Labor Committee, and the Union of 
American Hebrew Congregations, as well as the local Jewish com- 
munity relations agencies, all the great organizations within that 
area, issued the following statement, which pinpoints the whole thing 
and nails it down for what it is, and this is what they said: 

Any group of American citizens has a right to express its views as to the 
severity of the sentence in any criminal case. Attempts are being made, how- 
ever, by Communist-inspired group called the National Committee To Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case to inject the false issue of anti-Semitism into 
the Rosenberg case. We condemn tliese efforts to mislead the people of this 
country by unsupported cliarges that the religious ancestry of the defendants 
was a factor in this case. We denounce that fraudulent effort to confuse and 
manipulate public opinion for ulterior political purposes. 

I want to call your attention 

Mr. Harap. There are some inaccuracies in that statement, Mr. 
Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. "\A^iat is the inaccuracy? 

Mr. Harap. If you let me see it 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it inaccurate to say that those organizations took 
a position against the view that you expressed ? 

Mr. Harap. I wasn't saying that, but the statement itself, in the 
statement itself, if you let me see it just a moment, the thought has 
flown from my head, but as you were reading it, it seemed to me there 
was some — I am sorry. I don't remember it precisely. So I can't 



2250 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Shall I read it over to you ? 

Chairman Walter. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. I want to call to your attention a document that 
was disseminated in the area of Milwaukee, and this was gotten out 
by John Gilman, who was a witness here before this committee. John 
Gilman was head of the Civil Rights organization in Milwaukee and 
chairman of the local Rosenberg committee. 

On the front page it contains an open letter to the President on the 
subject. On the back page is a quotation from the Wisconsin Jewish 
Chronicle. I think most certainly that the publisher of this document 
didn't realize what he was publishing. It is true that the document 
contains argument against the imposition of the extreme penalty, but 
the paragraph he didn't know was in it when he published it is this, 
and I want to read it to you : 

At the outset let us repeat, as we have said previously in comment on the 
Rosenberg ease, it is not a Jewish case. The Communists have raised it as an 
issue, but it is strictly a phony. Traitorous conduct, whether by Jews or Chris- 
tians, is despicable and reprehensible, and we have no sympathy for anyone who 
has defiled himself by spying for an enemy country. 

Mr. Harap. The intention was, it was an anti-Semitic case, but that 
the death penalty, the heart of the charge of anti-Semitism, the death 
penalty was imposed by Judge Kaufman as a kind of reverse anti- 
Semitism on account of the fact that the defendants and the judge 
were Jews and that in his view made it necessary for him to emphasize 
his 150 percent Americanism in order to avoid charges against the 
Jews in this case. 

The anti-Semitism rests on the fact that Judge Kaufman leaned 
over backward, as Rabbi G. George Fox of the Chicago Sentinel 
said, in imposing this sentence, and Dr. Fox says anti-Semites would 
be anti-Semites no matter whether 

Mr. Tavenner. You persist in taking the same position as that 
which I described to you in the quotation from you on the fact sheet. 

Mr. Harap. I persist in taking the position that in some sense anti- 
Semitism in this reverse sense, in relation to Judge Kaufman, was 
involved in the case. Naturally, the brunt of the case was not anti- 
Semitism, but a frameu]) against two innocent individuals who hap- 
pened to be Jews, and from that ensued certain anti-Semitic impli- 
cations. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. I desire to offer in evidence the fact sheet referred 
to and ask it be marked "Harap Exhibit No. 2" and to be incorporated 
in the transcript of the record.) 

Chairman Walter. It will be marked and received. 

(Harap exhibit No. 2 is as follows :) 

Natioxal Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, 

246 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

A Fact Sheet on Anti-Semitism in the Case : Newspaper Comment 

Did anti-Semitism play a part in the case of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg and 
Morton Sobell (the Rosenbergs were sentenced to death, Sobell to 30 years for 
alleged atomic espionage) ? The following newspaper comment, mainly from 
the Yiddish and the English-Jewish press, helps answer this question. 

Although the following extract from the NEW YORK TIMES (December 26, 
1951) does not refer directly to the case, it is relevant: "Oak Ridge, Tenn., Dec. 
25 (UP). — The Govei'nment said today it was less concerned about Communists 
and saboteurs than about hoodlums * * * United States law enforcement officials 



INYESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2251 

^^ave two reasons for the apparent absence of Communists here: (1) a pre- 
dominance of pure Anglo-Saxon stock * * *" 

Rabbi G. Georse Fox in the SENTINEL: Chicago English Jewish weekly (Feb. 
7, 1952) : "* * * When Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were condemned to death 
for allegedly giving secret information to enemy spies, I condemned the verdict 
and accused the presiding judge, who happened to be a Jew, of leaning over 
backward in his desire to show that Jews condemn treason * * * (His decision) 
will be found unjust, if not illegal * * * I believe strongly that a grassroots 
letter and telegram protest to President Truman will get those who are moved by 
the injustice of the decision, to some action." (Feb. 14, 1952) : "The Jewish 
angle is important as a matter of our public relations. The death of the 
Rosenbergs for treason, even though undeserved, will give our enemies a 
handle to a paddle which will never be out of use. Let us avoid such a pos- 
sibility." 

Rabbi Louis D. Gross, publisher of the JEWISH EXAMINER (March 14, 1952) : 
"After plowing through volumes of the evidence presented in this tragic case, 
I am not convinced beyond the shadow of a doubt, that the Rosenbergs are 
guilty * * * It is quite possible, and very disturbing, to feel that the hapless 
Rosenberg couple may have been victimized by the anti-Communist hysteria 
which has been sweeping this country with deadly effect * * * Why did Judge 
Kaufman in this case impose the extreme penalty? * * * Did he think the 
death sentences against the Rosenbergs was necessary to counteract the anti- 
Semitic charge of Communism against Jews in general? Apparently this jurist 
has not learned that anti-Semitism has nothing to do with the truth." 

JEWISH DAILY FORWARD (April 6, 1951) : "When we editors got the news 
that Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were sentenced to death, a shudder passed 
through all of us * * * We are certain that every Jew who read this sad news 
felt this way. From our hearts came the words, 'Death sentence, too horrible' 
* * * Every Jewish home will be shattered by this tragedy." 

THE JEWISH DAY, editorial (April 8, 1951) : "Judge Kaufman's verdict is 
more in harmony with the time in which we live at present than with the time 
during which the crime was committed. We hope that a way will be found to 
set aside the death sentence." 

Phineas J. Biron, Syndicated English-Jewish columnist, in the INDIANAPOLIS 
JEWISH CHRONICLE (March 7, 19-52) : "* * * Not a single jury member w^as 
Jewish and this in the city of New York, which has a Jewish population amount- 
ing to one-third of the total population * * * Strange, or rather sinister, if you 
ask us." (November 9, 1951) : "It is not for us to decide whether the Rosen- 
bergs are guilty, but from what we have read of the legal proceedings we have 
come to the conclusion that more than reasonable doubt exists as to their guilt." 
Samuel B. Gach, pulilisher of the CALIFORNIA JEWISH VOICE (February 2i>, 
1952) : "My only concern was why a Jewish judge had to * * * decide a death 
penalty for peacetime espionage and so scribble a shameful precedent on the 
pages of American jurisprudence. It could only have been because the legal 
killer. Judge Irving Kaufman, is a Jew, and the defendants were Jews; and to 
prove that he was unbiased, he acquiesced to legal murder in the time of national 
hysteria and only because the berobed and politically annointed 'punk' was a 
scared and synthetic American and a weaker tlian no-good Jew * * * I alihor 
the death sentence and despise the judge who proclaimed it." (March 7, 1952) 
(In reply to criticism for his ixisition on the case) : "Was Judge Kaufman in 
full command of his emotional lialance when he passed sentence? Are any of 
us vacuumed against the witcli-hunting hysteria? * * *" (March 14, 1952) : 
"The domestic Hitlers and anti-Semites will wield the degradation of the Rosen- 
bergs as a cudgel with which to bludgeon ALL Jews * * * We shall continue 
NOT to be silent." 

M. Danzis, then Editor, in the JEWISH DAY (April 12, 1951) : "The death 
sentence which Judge Kaufman passed on the Rosenbergs left bitter doubts as 
to the justice of the verdict and above all, about the note w^hich the judge 
sounded in his summary before the jury. * * * The fact is, that the Rosenberg 
trial was Jewish throughout because of the fact that the accused, the judge, the 
prosecutor, and the lawyer were all Jewish. The press made a point of it. 
In Hearst's Daily Mirror there was an editorial saying that those who do not 
wish to accuse all Jews of Communism because of the Rosenbergs, should not 
forget that the prosecutor w^ho conducted the trial against the Rosenbergs, and 
the judge who condemned them to death, are themselves Jewish. In other 
words, that Judge Kaufman and prosecutor Saypol are atoning not only for the 
sins of the liosenbergs, but of all other Jews. 



2252 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

"The death sentence which Judge Kaufman issued left the feeling that pre- 
cisely because he is a Jew, he went to an extreme and applied the heavy hand 
of judgment. * * * There is a suspicion that the fact that Judge Kaufman is a 
Jew perhaps unconsciously motivated him to issue a verdict which, in the opinion 
of many, is considered to be unjust and brutal. * * * One cannot overlook the 
Jewish element in this unfortunate, tragic Rosenberg trial * * * jf tjjg Rosen- 
bergs are, as Judge Kaufman has said, guilty of the death of 50,000 American 
soldiers in Korea, one can easily hold the Rosenbergs and their like responsible 
for the atom war against America. 

"Has Judge Kaufman considered to what his speech can lead?" 

H. Leivik, well-known Yiddish poet, in the JEWISH DAY (April 16, 1951) : 
"What led the judge to give the extreme penalty (to Ethel Rosenberg)? Is it 
not perhaps the fact that the judge is a Jew and the defendants are Jews? 
The judge was confronted with the bitter fact that those tried for treason were 
Jews. He, himself, a Jew, struggled with his duty to be objective and did not 
have the strength to rise above himself, did not have the power to free him- 
self from today's heated tensions in the land, and was also afraid that perhaps, 
if he were not to give them the death penalty, he would be suspected of not 
having done .so because he is a Jew. * * * Precisely because against the accused 
Jews stood Jewish accusers and a Jewish judge, whose loyalty to America is 
beyond a shadow of a doubt — precisely because the judge should have been 
free from every Jewish complex — he should under no circumstances have issued 
the death sentence in this trial against the mother of two children. * * * it is 
hard to accept the severity of the verdict. * * * The death penalty should be 
changed." 

Louis Harap, Managing Editor of JEWISH LIFE (January 1952) : "It has 
been said that no anti-Semitism intruded into the trial itself. But this is to over- 
look the fact that Irving Saypol, the Jewish prosecutor, did not permit a singh* 
Jew, of the three hundred jurors in the panel, to sit on the jury. * * * Irving 
Saypol, as is now widely Ijjiown, was admonished by the Court of Appeals in 
August 1951, for his appeals to 'racial prejudice' against a Jewish witness in the 
Remington case." 

In an article in the CANADIAN JEWISH WEEKLY (February 28, 1952) : 
"A study of the details of the case shows that it will go down in history as a 
parallel to the Dreyfus case — and the Sacco-Vanzetti case." 

For additional material and inquiries, write to NATIONAL COMMITTEE TO 
SECURE JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG CASE, 246 Fifth Avenue. New York, 
N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, you said you desired to explain a matter 
which came up yesterday. I exhibited to a witness a document signed 
by you under oath whicli L now have before me which reads as follows. 
This is in connection with the authorized si^jnature card which was 
given to the bank on November 8, 1951. It concludes with this 
langtiage : 

We further certify that the present ofticers of said association and the offices 
respectively held by them are as follows. Louis Harap, president. 

Mr. FoRER. May we look at it ? 
Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands as president and secretary 
respectively of the said association and affixed the seal of said association this 
blank day of blank — 

the date does not appear, signed, 

Louis Harap, president, William A. Reuben, provisional chairman, 

and this is stamped apparently by the bank appearing over it. 

Will you examine it, please, and state whether or not you signed the 
document [handling document to witness]. 

Mr. FoRER. This is not a sworn document. 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. I thought it was a notary stamp, but it is 
apparently a stamp from the bank, but it is a certificate. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2253 

Mr. Harap. Yes, I did sign that. In that connection I wanted to 
explain the situation. I, of course, was interested in the case, and 
when Emily Alman asked me to sign this document, which would 
make it possible for the committee to open a bank account, I was 
willing to do that. I was never in any sense thought of, never 
thought of myself as president, acted as president, or anything like 
that. It was simply a formal technical bank requirement which I 
helped her to fulfill. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you think the bank required you to make a 
statement, a certification, that was false ? 

Mr. HAR.VP. I didn't say false, but it is one of these technical formal 
things. I was sort of pre,-,ident of a bank account, or something like 
that, purely technical. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were accepted as president of this organiza- 
tion? 

Mr. Harap. No. As I say, I never acted as president. I never, I 
didn't consider myself as president. It was simply adding my name 
to a formal bank statement in order to enable the committee to get a 
bank account, and that was all there was to it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you sign any other papers ? 

Mr. Harap. To my knowledge, I don't— what do you mean, other 
papers of what kind ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Of any kind as president of the organization. 

Mr. Harap. To my knowledge, I never signed any other papers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Than the one before you ? 

Mr. Harap. Than the orie before me. 

Mr. Twenner. What about this one, bearing date of March 12, 
1952, in which you certify again that the present officers of said asso- 
ciation and the offices respectively held by them are as follows: Louis 
Harap, president; Joseph Brainin, chairman; Emily Alman, 
treasurer. 

Mr. Harap. Is this one dated, this first one, is it dated? 

Mr. Tavenner. Filed with the signature cards. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. You see, I believe you said the first document was not 
dated? 

]Mr. Tavenner. That is right. 

IVIr. Harap. I believe that probably these were duplicates, which 
were signed at the same time, one dated and the other not, but 

Mr. Tavtsnner. It was necessary to attach the certificate to the card 
authorizing the signatures, wasn't it ? 

Mr. Harap. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that the reason for it? 

Mr. Harap. That is right. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Look at the date upon which the first card was re- 
ceived. Isn't it printed or stamped on it November 8, 1951 ? 
(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. Yes ; that is so. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is attached to the first certificate ? 

Mr. Harap. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Look at the card on the second certificate and see 
what date it is. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 



2254 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Harap. November 5, 1954, and this is November- 



Mr. Tavenner. That was when the account was closed ? 

Mr. FoRER, They have several stamps. 

Mr. Tavenner. One stamp says it is the date the account was closed. 
It is the other side. 

Mr. FoRER. On this side there is a date in 1952 on the top liere, two 
dates here. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is right. 

Mr. FoRER. I am not talking about the closing date. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let the witness testify. 

Mr. Harap. This is a technical matter of reading a technical docu- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You can see as well as your attorney can see, and it 
is your testimony. 

Mr. Harap. I will have to change my glasses. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think you should. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. I see March 17, 1952. If that is the date, and I did 
sign it, then that is the case. 

Mr. Tax-enner. You signed two of them '? 

Mr. Harap. Apparently so. Believe me, I have no recollection, 
but I must have signed it. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. You took the ]30sition that one of those certificates 
was a duplicate of the other. Do you continue to take that posi- 
tion ? 

Mr. Harap. No, I don't, because, as I say, I don't recollect. I recol- 
lect vaguely having signed it once, but that is the only thing I recol- 
lect. 

Now, if it were necessary to sign again, naturally I would have done 
so. I simply liave no recollection of it. The fact that I have no recol- 
lection of it attests to the fact that it was simply a purely formal mat- 
ter which was a technical bank requirement and was no more than 
that in de facto. 

Chairman Walter. What is a technical bank requirement? 

Mr. Harap. A certain number of signatures for a bank account, as 
far as I know, a certain number of signatures to fulfill the require- 
ments to open up a bank account. That is all. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did it happen that you were chosen for that 
position ? 

Mr, Harap. As president ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Harap. I think it was because perhaps that was the onlj' blank 
that was vacant, not signed by somebody else. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. Who chose you for it, the treasurer, Mrs. Alman? 

Mr. Harap. She didn't choose me. She needed one more signature, 
so she asked me to sign it. I will tell you something. 

Mr. Tavenner. Plow long have you known Mrs. Alman? 

Mr. Harap. I will tell you 

Chairman Walter. You have been asked a question. How long 
have you known Mrs. Alman? 

Mr. Harap. I don't recall, but I was not aware of the fact 

Chairman Walter. Five years? 

Mr. Harap. I really don't recall. 

Chairman Walter. Six vears? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2255 

Mr. Harap. I don't recall. 

Chairman Walter. Seven years? 

Mr. Harap. I was not aware of the fact that- 



Chairman Walter. How long have you known her? 

Mr. Harap. I really don't recall, Mr. Walter. 

Chairman Walter. You certainly recall 'way back there, 

Mr. Harap. Yes; naturally at that time I knew her. 

Chairman Walter. This unimportant matter, you recall about that. 
Now certainly, how long before you signed your name, for what rea- 
son I don't know 

Mr. Harap. My recollection is that it was a fairly short time. I 
really don't recollect how long a time it was, before I signed this, that 
I met Mrs. Alman for the first time. 

Chairman Walter. You only knew her casually? 

Mr. Harap. I didn't know her very well. 

Chairman Walitsr. Didn't you ask her why she would ask you, a 
comparative stranger, to join with her in a bank account involving 
$H0O,000 plus? 

Mr. Harap. At that time, Mr. Walter, there was hardly $300,000 
involved. 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1952? 

Mr. Harap. Yes. There was not much. I don't know how much, 
but it was a very insignificant amount. 

Mr. Tavenner. "V^-liat was your opportunity for knowing how much 
money there was? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. What is the question? 

Mr. Tavenner. My question is. You were talking about how much 
money was there, so you must have known right much about the busi- 
ness, then. 

Mr. Harap. No; except that it was at the very opening of the 
operations of the Rosenberg committee, and they were having a very 
hard go of it to exist, so that it stands to reason, and this fact of 
course can be ascertained. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are not speaking of knowledge, but just of 
reason ? 

Mr. Harap. I say this fact can easily be ascertained by seeing how 
much was deposited. I don't know how much but in opening the 
account you can ascertain it. You probably know it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the period of time that you held the position as president of this 
organization? 

Mr. Harap. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your occupation, you say, has been that of a writer. 
You have refused to testify as to what position you held with the 
Jewish Life or what its policies were. 

Mr. Harap. I did say, correction, that the policy of Jewish Life, 
as far as I know, is to further the interests of the Jewish people, and 
all of the people of the United States, the best interests. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you did know about its cari-ying the Commu- 
nist Party line, being dedicated to that purpose? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Harap. Did I say that? 

67275— 55— pt. 2 7 



2256 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. That is what I understood you didn't know. 

Mr. FoRER. He said he didn't know what you were talking about. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me see if you know what I am talking about 
now. 

You were aware that Jewish organizations condemned Jewish Life 
as a Communist-controlled organization ? 

Mr. Harap. As a Communist — well 

Mr. Tavenner. You know that, do you not ? 

Mr. Harap. I am aware of the fact that Jewish organizations have 
said uncomplimentary things about Jewish Life from time to time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Confine yourself to my question. 

Mr. Harap. They may very well have said that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know that ? 

Mr. Harap. They may very well have. 

Chairman Walter. Wliat did they say that was uncomplimen- 
tary? 

Mr. Harap. I can't just out of the top of my head 

Chairman Walter. They said it was Communist, didn't they? 

Mr. Harap. Did they ? 

Chairman Walter. Do you regard that as being uncomplimentary ? 

Mr. Harap. I mean from their point of view. 

Mr, Tavenner. But not from your point of view ? 

Mr. Harap. The point is, this is a smear, that is to say the labeling 
of a publication is a smear. If they had discussed articles and 
material published in the magazine in substance 

Chairman Walter. What is a smear, to bring the name of the maga- 
zine here ? 

Mr. Harap. No, to label the magazine anything without discussing 
substantive articles published in the magazine is a smear, because 
the characterization of the magazine derives from what it publishes, 
and from what it says, and Jewish Life to my best knowledge has 
very faithfully pursued the best interests of the Jewish people and 
of the people of the United States. 

Chairman Walter. I would like to straighten out something in the 
record. A great attempt was made for several days to create the 
impression that the Pope of Rome interceded on behalf of these people. 
I have just had handed to me the letter from the Apostolic Delegate 
to Sherman Adams, February 13, 1953 : 

I am directed by the Holy See to inform the competent United States authori- 
ties that many new demands are being received at the Vatican urging the Holy 
Father to intervene for clemency in behalf of the Rosenbergs. I would be most 
grateful if you will kindly notify this to the President. 

That is a custom of long standing, and by no stretch of the imagina- 
tion constitutes any kind of a plea. 

Mr. Harap. I doubt whether the Pope would have had that issued 
if they did not believe 

ChaiiTnan Walter. Never mind, I am not asking you to comment. I 
do not care about your views on anything, understand that ? Proceed 
Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions to ask 
the witness. 

("\Yliereupon the witness was excused.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 2257 

Chairman Walter. These hearings will stand in recess pending the 
further inquiry into additional activities in which the staff is now 
engaged . The committee is adjourned for today. 

(Whereupon, at 2 : 35 p. m., Friday, August 5, 1955, the hearing was 
adjourned subject to call of the Chair.) 

(Testimony of witnesses appearing August 2-3, 1955, printed in 
part I of this series.) 



INDEX 



Individxtals 

Page 

Aaron, David 2191 

Abber, Edith 2048, 2052 

Algren, Nelson 2138, 2156 

Alman, Emily 2059, 

2060, 2138, 2179-2197 (testimony), 2205-2206 (testimony), 2253 

Alman, David 2058,2122,2123,2138,2197-2205,2206-2239 (testimony) 

Aptheker, Herbert , 2138 

Baldwin, Bereniece 2161, 2162, 2173, 2177 

Barsky, Edward K 2138 

Beitscher, Henry 2106 

Belmont, Ruth 2160-2163 (testimony), 2237 

Berkeley, Martin 2074 

Bernard, John T 2159 

Biron, Phineas J. (See Brainin, Joseph.) 

Bloch, Emanuel H 2223, 2226 

Bloor, Ella Reeve 2104, 2140 

Blumberg, Albert Emanuel 2109 

Brainin, Joseph (also known as Biron, Phineas J.) 2138, 2226, 2248, 2253 

Burgum, E. Berry 2138 

Burlak, Ann 2048, 2049 

Byrne, Alice Hill 2138 

Clewe, John F 2138 

Collins, I. C 2138 

Cronbach, Abraham 2127, 2138 

Cross, Ephraim 2080, 2138 

Crow, Tom 2168 

Czarnowski, Anzelm A 2150-2155 (testimony) 

Davis, Curt 2177 

Davis, Nelson 2168 

Davis, Robert G 2240 

Di Silva, Marjorie 2138 

Dmytryk, Edward 2074 

Dodd, Katherine 2138 

Driesen, Eleanor 2077 

DuBois, W. E. B 2138 

Eggleston, James 2091 

Erney, William Charles 2104 

Esterman, William B 2191, 2237 

Evans, Gertrude 2138 

Fast, Howard 2110 

Forer, Joseph 2054, 2065, 2071, 2142, 2147, 2155, 2160, 2173, 2239 

Fox, George G 2250 

Frank, Waldo 2138 

Frantjis, Jean D. (also known as Matilda D. Frantjis) 2119- 

2124 (testimony), 2190, 2237 

Freedland, Michael 2107, 2112 

Freedland, Sylvia 2106, 2108-2110, 2112, 2116-2118 (testimony), 2139, 2140 

Friedman, Joseph 2138 

Friedman, Milton H 2090 

Gardner, Virginia 2081 

Gihnan, John 2090-2100 (testimony), 2237, 2250 



il INDEX 

Page 

Glatis, James W 2044-2054 (testimony) 

Goldberg, B. Z 2138 

Goldman, Robert H 2223 

Gordon, Murray A 2222 

Graham, Shirley 2138 

Granat, Josephine 2155-2159 (testimony), 2183,2234,2237 

Greenberg, Nahum 2138 

Greenglass, David 2215, 2218, 2222, 2223, 2226 

Greenglass, Ruth 2222, 2223 

Gross, Rabbi Louis D 2138 

Grossman, Sol 2168 

Hall, Robert 2144 

Halper, Philip 2168 

Harap, Louis 2206,2207,2233,2239-2257 (testimony) 

Hedrick, Millie White (Mrs. Travis Hedrick) 2144 

Hedrick, Travis 2144 

Hicks, Granville 2241 

Hood, Otis 2045, 2062 

Hood, William 2104, 2105, 2109, 2114, 2140 

Horr, Louise Harding 2138 

Imbrie, James 2138 

Israel, William 2191 

Jacobowitz, Ethel 2171, 2172 

Johnson, Elmer 2174 

Karol, Dave 2106 

Karol, Harriet 2105, 2106, 2108, 2109 

Kennard, Spencer 2138 

Koritz, Philip 2051, 2052, 2062, 2065-2071 (testimony), 2234, 2237 

Koritz, Sue (Mrs. Philip Koritz) 2051, 2057, 2184, 2187, 2188, 2237 

Kuzma, Joseph 2111-2114 

Labovitz, Sherman 2112 

Lang, David A 2074 

Lipsett, Billie Jane 210^2106, 2108, 2109, 2140 

Lovett, Robert Morss 2138 

Lubka, Bernard 2138 

Lytton, Bart 2074 

Markward, Mary Stalcup 2075, 2076, 2144 

Marsalka, John 2138 

Mates, David 2171 

Mates, Lydia (Mrs. David Mates) 2171-2173,2177 

Matusow, Harvey 2214 

McCarthy, Elizabeth 2218, 2226 

McManus, .John T 2138 

McPhaul, Art 2168 

Mitchell, Bessie 2138 

Moss, Elizabeth 2049 

Mulzac, Hugh N 2138 

Neidelman, Eve 2173-2179 (testimony), 2237 

Nichol, Maude 2108 

Nichol, Scott 2108 

Norton, Theodore E 2104, 2106, 2108, 2109, 2124-2142 (testimony) 

Older, Andrew 2144 

Older, Isabel (Mrs. Andrew Older) 2144 

Pagano, Helen R 2222 

Picucci, Joseph 2104, 2105 

Powers, William 2104, 2112, 2140 

Rabinwitz, Victor 2179,2187, 2197, 2217 

Rahill, William Allen 2124 

Rayden, Sid 2052 

Raymond, Judith 2074 

Rein, David 2116, 2118, 2119 

Reuben, William A 2138,2178,2252 



INDEX iii 

Page 

Riskin, Adelaide (Mrs. Irving Riskin) 2105, 

2108, 2109, 2118-2119 (testimony) , 2140 

Riskin, Irving 2104, 2106, 2108-2112, 2116, 2117, 2139, 2140 

Roberts, Joseph 2108, 2109 

Robinson, Reid 2059, 2158 

Rogge, O. John 2222, 2224 

Rossin, Robert 2()74 

Rothenberg, Donald 2059, 

2063, 2064, 2071-2087 (testimony) , 2158, 2186, 2234, 2237 

Rothenberg, Mildred (Mrs. Donald Rothenberg) 2087-2089 (testimony) 

Rothstein, Ruth 2161 

Rush. Pat (Mrs. Leo Rush) 2170,2173,2179,2237 

Santwire, Milton J 2165-2173 (testimony) 

Sehatz, Gert 2172 

Schiff, Adelaide 2119 

Schneiderman, Minnie (Jessie) 2115 

Shore, Anne 2168, 2172 

Silver, Max 2074 

Silverman, Sidney 2249 

Simon, John L 2138 

Sobell, Morton 2086 

Stone, John B 2142-2147 (testimony), 2149, 2187, 2190, 2237 

Straus, Leon 2138 

Tamsky, Florence (Mrs. Herman Tamsky) 2052 

Tamsky, Herman 2050-2053, 

2054-2064 (testimony), 2070 (testimony), 2158, 2187, 2188, 2237 

Taylor, William 2077 

Thomas, Herman E 2101-2115 (testimony), 2124 (testimony), 2139, 2140 

Timmins, Lois 2138 

Todd, Alden 2144 

Todd, Elizabeth 2138 

Townsend, Leo 2074 

Townsend, Pauline 2074 

Trachtenberg, Joy 2173 

Travis, Helen 2173 

Tushnet, Leonard 2058, 2138, 2158, 2185, 2237 

Tyre, Milton 2191 

Urey, Harold C 20.53 

Villard, Paul 2226 

Von Auw, Ivan 2138 

Walsh, Patrick 2226 

Weichbrod, Ethel (nee Medoi) 2147-2150 (testimony), 2190. 2287 

Weltfish, Dr. Gene 2138 

Wexley, John 2073, 2074 

Williamson, John 2243 

Yerkes, Marburg 2191 

Yuri, Suhl 2106 

Zimmerman, Herbert 2052 

Organizations 

American Council for a Democratic Greece 2199, 2201, 2238 

American Jewish Committee 2249 

American Jewish Congress 2109 

American Peace Crusade 2202 

American "Veterans Committee 2077 

Amtorg 2148 

Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 2249 

Automobile Workers of America, United (CIO) 2152,2174 

Boston Committee for the Freedom of the Press 2046-2048 

Boston School of Marxist Studies 2045 



It index 

Fas* 

Civil Rights Congress 2046-2048, 2110 

Boston 2044, 2045, 2051, 2061, 2062, 2067, 2068 

Chicago 2159 

Michigan 2168 

New York 2202 

Wisconsin 2091 2093, 2096 

CJommittee of One Hundred 2176 

Communist Party: 
Chicago : 

Argo Branch 2152 

Electromotive Branch (also known as Auto No. 1 Branch) 2152 

District of Columbia : 

John Reed Club 2144 

Lincoln Steffens Club 2144 

Newspaper Club 2144 

Rob Hall Club . 2144 

Massachusetts : 

East Boston Branch 2046 

East Boston Tenants Committee To Protest Evictions 2046 

Michigan:. _ 

Detroit: 

Ben Davis Club 2166 

Ford Section, Plastic Club 2166 

John's Club 2162 

North Dexter Club 2173 

Twelfth Street Club 2177 

Pennsylvania : 

Allentown : Allentown dub 2102, 2104, 2106 

Bethlehem : 

Bethlehem Club 2102, 2108 

Professional Club 2117 

Steel Club 2102 

Easton : Professional Club 2105 

Lehigh Valley Section 2102, 2105 

Congress of Industrial Organizations : Wayne County Council (Detroit) 2174 

Food, Tobacco, Agricultural, and Allied Workers of America', CIO 2066, 2067 

Labor Youth League 2046, 2048 

Lightfoot Defense Committee 2159 

Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, International Union of 2067 

National Committee to Defeat the Mundt Bill 2144 

National Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell in the Rosenberg 

Case 2055, 2085, 2192-2194, 2210 

Boston Rosenberg-Sobell Committee , 2056 

Chicago Sobell Committee 2161 

National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 2049, 2052, 

2084, 2085, 2095, 2116, 2122, 2126, 2139, 2153, 2158, 2176, 2180, 2187, 
2189, 2191, 2203, 2210, 2230. 

Allentown Group 2106 

Boston Committee To Secure Clemency in the Rosenberg Case 2046, 

2049-2052, 2054-2056, 2062, 2063, 2068, 2069, 2087 

Cleveland Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 2079, 2094 

Chicago Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 2157, 2158 

Detroit Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 2167, 

2170, 2175, 2177, 2187, 2188 

Los Angeles Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 2191 

Ohio Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 2089 

Provisional Committee To Commute the Death Sentence of the 

Rosenbergs 2097,2098 

Washington, D. C, Committee 2145,2146,2149,2150 

National Rosenberg-Sobell Committee 2060 

Boston Rosenberg-Sobell Committee 2056 

National Community Relations Advisory Council 2249 



INDEX T 

Pasa 

National Council of American- Soviet Friendship 2046,2048 

Massachusetts Council 2046, 2048, 2049 

National Council of the Arts, Sciences and Professions : Cleveland, Ohio 

Council 2089 

National Lawyers Guild, Southern California 2191 

Ocean Travel 2219, 2220 

Progressive Party, Ohio 2078 

Soviet Purchasing Commission , 2148 

Stockholm World Peace Appeal 2145 

Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade 2158 

Workers School, Chicago 2139 

World Federation of Trade Unions . 2227 

Young Communist League 2166 

Young Progressives of America, Massachusetts 2046 

PtJBLICATIONS 

Bucharest Peace 2153 

Federated Press , 2143, 2144, 2146 

Jewish Life 2207, 2242, 2243, 2256 

Masses and Mainstream , 2153 

National Guardian 2143 

PoHtical Affairs 2153 

Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle , 2250 

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