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Full text of "Investigation of communist activities, New York area. Hearing"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



V- ^ \s^> 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 
NEW YORK AREA— PART 5 

(SUMMER CAMPS) 

Since these hearings are consecutively paged 
they are arranged by page number instead of 
aljiiabe tic ally by title. 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



JULY 25, 28, 29, AND AUGUST 1, 1955 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




HARVA.JO COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

SEP 19 1955 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
G6838 WASHINGTON : 1955 



/ 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 
NEW YORK AREA— PART 5 

(SUMMER CAMPS) 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



JULY 25, 28, 29, AND AUGUST 1, 1955 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




HARVA.^O COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

SEP 19 1955 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
66838 WASHINGTON : 1955 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

• Thomas W. Bealb, Sr., Chief Clerk 
II 









CONTENTS 



July 25, 1955: Testimony of — Paw 

Stanley Wechkin __ 1327 

July 28, 1955: testimony of— 

Dave Green 1345 

Kenneth Friedman 1362 

Norman Studer 1372 

July 29, 1955: Testimony of— 

Elton T. Gustafson 1379 

Elliott Sullivan 1383 

Herbert Gutman 1394 

Morris Salz 1400 

August 1, 1955: Testimony of — 

Fred Briehl 1407 

Index _ i 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted hy tJie Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

RuxE X 

SEC 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

• ♦**•*• 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

• **♦♦•♦ 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a wliole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to malve from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda tliat is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such, 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 
• *••**• 

RULE X 
STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
the following standing committees : 

******* 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
-such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES, NEW 
YORK AREA— PART 5 

(Summer Camps) 



MONDAY, JULY 25, 1955 

United States House of Representatives, 
Subcommittee or the Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. G. 
executive session ^ 

The subcommittee met at 10 a. m., pursuant to call, in room 227, 
House Office Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representative Francis E. Walter. 

Staff members present: Thomas W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk; Court- 
ney Owens and Raymond Collins, investigators. 

The Chairman, The committee will come to order. 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give w^ill be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF STANLEY WECHKIN 

Mr. Oavens. Will you give the committee your full name, please ? 

Mr. Wechkin. My full name is Stanley Wechkin. 

Mr. Owens. Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Wechkin ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I was born November 2, 1934, at the Lutheran Hos- 
pital at Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Owens. IVliere do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I have a couple of addresses right now. One is the 
Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 361:th Infantry Regiment 
at Fort Dix, N. J., and my home address is 458 East 96th Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Owens. I take it, then, you are currently in the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. When did you enter the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Wechkin. The 18th of June 1954. 

Mr. Owens. What branch of the service are you in ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I am in the Army. 

Mr. Owens. In the recent past, you were contacted by a repre- 
sentative of this committee and asked about your experiences with 
summer camps in the State of New York. 

Mr. Wechkin. That is right, sir. 



1 Released by the committee. 

1327 



1328 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Owens. At that time Mr. Collins, who contacted you, asked 
you several questions about these summer camps, which we will re- 
view here again this morning. State what your formal education 
has been, please. 

Mr. Wechkin. I was graduated from Brooklyn College in June 
of 1954. 

Mr. Owens. Mr. Wechkin, have you ever attended any summer 
camps in the State of New York ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I have. 

Mr. Owens. Would you give the committee the names and dates 
of the camps so attended by you ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I was a camper. I attended Camp Kinderland in 
1947 and 1948, the summers of 1947 and 1948. 

Mr. Owens. T\niere was Camp Kinderland located ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Hopewell Junction, N. Y. 

Mr. Owens. How old were you, Mr. Wechkin, at the time you at- 
tended there? 

Mr. Wechkin. I was 12 and 13 years old at the time. 

Mr. Owens. Could you tell the committee how your family learned 
of the existence of Camp Kinderland, if you can recall ? 

Mr. Wechkin. My mother died, I believe, in May or June of 
1947, and at that time it was difficult to place me in any summer 
camp, most of the places having been closed. Camp Kinderland was 
recommended to my father and they would get me accepted there for 
the summer of 1947. 

Mr. Owens. Did you remain the entire summer at Camp Kinder- 
land in 1947 and 1948? 

Mr. Wechkin. I remained there the entire summer of 1948. I 
missed the first 2 weeks of camp in 1947. 

Mr. Owens. So is it correct to state that for the summer of 1947 
you were at Camp Kinderland for a period of 7 weeks ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Approximately 7 weeks. 

Mr. Owens. How long were you at the camp in 1948 ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Approximately 8 or 9 weeks. 

Mr. Owens. This is off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Owens. Wlien you first arrived at Camp Kinderland in 1947 
what, exactly, took place with respect to your getting established at 
the camp ? 

Mr. Wechkin. The camp was divided into five groups, depending 
upon the age of the camper. And, being 12 years old, I just made 
the senior group. I was assigned to a bunk in the senior group. 

Mr. Owens, Wlien you first arrived at camp, were you immediately 
met by a counselor who became in charge of you or your group and 
assigned you to your bunk ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't remember that, sir. 

Mr. Owens. Do you recollect who was in charge of Camp Kinder- 
land in 1947? 

Mr. Wechkin. I believe it was a Mr. Korn. 

Mr. Owens. Do you recall his exact title ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I believe that he was called the director of Camp 
Kinderland. 

Mr. Oavens. Had you ever seen or met Mr. Korn before that time? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't believe so. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1329 

Mr. Owens, Have you seen him or met him since your two sum- 
mers at Camp Kinderland? 

Mr, Wechkin, I once saw him in a cafeteria on 14th Street. That 
is about all. 

Mr, Owens. After your arrival at camp, were you assigned a group 
leader or section counselor or something of that sort ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes; I was assigned both a counselor and a group 
leader. 

Mr. Owens. Wlio was your group leader ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Mr. Tobatchnikoff. 

Mr. Owens, T-o-b-a-t-c-h-n-i-k-o-f-f ? 

Mr, Wechkin. Approximately, 

Mr. Owens. He was your group leader, is that correct ? 

Mr. Wechkin. That is right. 

Mr. Owens. Did you say you were also assigned a counselor? 

Mr. Wechkin. His name was Chaim, C-h-a-i-m Berman, B-e-r- 
m-a-n. 

Mr. Owens. Did you ever hear Mr, Berman referred to as Irving 
Berman ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't believe so. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Owens. Do you remember what other occupations, if any, Mr. 
Tobatchnikoff had? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't. 

Mr. Owens. Do you remember what other occupations, if any, Mr. 
Berman had ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I was told several years later, approximately 1951 
or 1952, that Mr. Berman was instructor in history at City College 
of New York. 

Mr. Owens. Do you know whether or not he is still an instructor 
at City College? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't know. I imagine he is, though. 

Just one more thing : I also believe that he was an instructor at the 
Jewish People's Fraternal Order, JPFO, Mittelschule, in the Bronx, 
N. Y. 

Mr. Owens. In your opinion, Mr. Wechkin, was there any con- 
nection between Kinderland and the Jewish People's Fraternal 
Order's schools in New York City ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I was given to understand that Kinderland was a 
summer extension of JPFO schools in New York and Philadelphia. 

Mr. Owens, Keturning to your first summer at Camp Kinderland, 
other than the recreational facilities which we understand are avail- 
able at these camps — and we will go into these things individually 
later on — what type of activity were you required to participate in 
as a camper ? 

Mr. Wechkin. There were classes in Jewish language and culture 
at Camp Kinderland, I believe, almost weekly or semiweekly. 

Mr. Owens. What other activities? 

Mr. Wechkin. Well, it all depends on what you consider the normal 
run of activities then. For instance, we would do a lot of singing. 
But we didn't do the kind of singing you get at most other camps. 

Mr, Owens, Were you children — and that is what you were at that 
time — required to attend lectures or forums or group discussions, or 
anything of that kind ? 



1330 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't remember. 

Mr. Owens. When Mr. Collins talked to you in June, you advised 
him that during your stay at Kinderland you recollected that you 
constantly heard a knocking of the capitalist system of the United 
States ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. 0^vENS. Just how would this line, so to speak, come about ? 

Mr. Wechkin. It was more or less an informal, person-to-person 
thing from a counselor to a camper or from a counselor to a group 
of campers. It wasn't anything organized. It was, as I say, in- 
formal ; spontaneous almost. 

Mr. Owens. Do you recollect whom you heard such statements 
from ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I remember some statements from my counselor, 
Chaim Berman, to that effect, although I don't recollect any individual 
statements. 

Mr. Owens Was this a continuous thing or sporadic ? 

Mr. Wechkin. It was spontaneous as the occasion demanded. 

Mr. Owens. Could you elaborate a little more on what that line 

was ? 

Mr. Wechkin. If anybody had a question about any aspect ot 
politics, economics and/or any of the social questions, and if we 
brought it to a counselor, he would more or less give it the Communist 
twist, or what I now understand to be the Communist twist. 

Mr. Owens. At the time, however, you could not recognize it as 
the Communist Party line? 

Mr. Wechkin. No; although I knew at that time that there was 
an element of communism about Camp Kinderland. 

Mr. Owens. How did you know that? 

Mr. Wechkin. It is rather hard to say, but it more or less permeated 
the atmosphere there. 

Mr. Owens. I have a notation here of a statement "Economic con- 
flict of the classes." 

Was that being constantly spoken of or debated ? 

Mr. Wechkin. It wasn't spoken of in quite those terms. After 
all, we were 12 and 13 and 14 years old. I don't remember coming 
across it so much in 1947 as in 1948, when my counselor that year was 
quite specific, emphatic, and frequent on the subject. 

Mr. Owens. Do you recollect any of the pageants or plays that were 
presented your first summer at the camp ? 

Mr. Wechkin. It is rather hard to distinguish what took place in 
the first summer and second summer. 

Mr. Owens. I think perhaps for recollection purposes that these 
questions from now on, will pertain to either 1947 or 1948. If any of 
these circumstances took place at any time during your attendance 
there, so state. 

So that we will have the record clear as to who your leaders were 
during the 2 years, in 1948 did you have the same group leader and 
counselor ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No ; I didn't. 

Mr. Owens. Wlio was your group leader in 1948 ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't remember. 

Mr. Owens. Off the record. 
(Discussion off the record.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1331 

Mr. Owens. Back on the record. 

Do you recall who your counselor was in 1948 ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. My counselor was Herbert Gutman, 
G-u-t-m-a-n. 

Mr. OwExs. Do you recall any of the individuals who served as 
group leaders in 1948 ? 

Mr. Wechkin. There was a Sara, S-a-r-a, Davidovitch. I believe 
that is D-a-v-i-d-o-v-i-t-c-h. 

Mr. Owens. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Owens. Do you recall any other group leaders? 

Mr. Wechkin. There was one gentleman by the name of Loeb. I 
am not familiar with the exact spelling of it. 

Mr. Owens. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Owens. Could you tell the committee, to the best of your recol- 
lection, all the names of the individuals who were connected with 
Camp Kinderland during your experience with the camp ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Well, there was a Sidney Weinstein. 

Mr. Owens. W-e-i-n-s-t-e-i-n? 

Mr. Wechkin. Right ; who was either director or a group leader in 
1948, and, I believe, a director in succeeding years. 

Mr. Owens. Is that all j^^ou can recollect ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No; there are some more. There was Edith Segal, 
S-e-g-a-1, who was sort of activities director there, who was responsible 
for most of the pageants we had at Camp Kinderland. 

Mr. Collins. Are there any more ? 

Mr. Wechkin. None that I can recall offhand right now. 

Mr. Owens. If you recollect any, feel free to state that you recol- 
lect them. 

The questions I shall direct will pertain to both years that you were 
at the camp so that if you had any experiences along the lines I shall 
ask you, just so state that during your 2 summers there such-and-such 
took place. 

Now, with respect to plays and pageants that were presented, were 
the children participants in the pageants or plays ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Fes ; they were. 

Mr. Owens. Do you recollect specifically any of the plays that you 
may have participated in or observed ? 

Mr. Wechkin. There was one sports pageant in 1948 that was less 
political or had less political coloring than most other pageants that 
I don't remember. I don't remember any other pageants specifically. 
But I remember that there were pageants, and in those pageants and 
plays a number of concepts were expressed, namely, American-Soviet 
friendship, fight against segregation in the south, and I guess it was 
part and parcel of the Communist Party line. 

Mr. Owens, Did most of the pageants seem to have political over- 
tones stressing friendship to the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Was that fairly obvious in the great majority of them? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. I believe you have already stated the individual who 
was in charge of the pageant work. 



1332 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Wechkin. It was a joint effort between Edith Segal, who spe- 
cialized in dancing, and Sara Davidovitch, who was also responsible 
for these endeavors. 

Mr. Owens. Off the record a minute. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Owens. In addition to the pageants or plays in which the 
campers participated themselves, were there performances put on by 
imported actors and performers ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes ; there were. 

Mr. Owens. Do you recall any of those individuals ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. Owens. Would you tell the committee the names of the ones 
you recall ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I remember Pete Seeger, and another folk singer 
by the name of Bennie Sanders. 

Mr. Owens. How were these entertainers presented to the campers, 
if you recall ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I believe there were concerts on Sunday night. And 
these people entertained at these concerts. These concerts were a joint 
effort of Camp Lakeland, which was contiguous to Camp Kinderland. 

Mr. Owens. Do you know personally how the directors of the camp 
secured the services of these performers ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No ; I don't. 

Mr. Owens. During your two summers at Kinderland, Mr. Wech- 
kin, do you recall any open and avowed discussion of Communist 
Party purposes, propaganda or aims ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't recall any group level. As I said before, it 
was in the course of social intercourse between the counselors and 
campers, I remember specifically, where the Communist Party aims 
were put forth. 

Mr. Owens. Would it be on an individual basis? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Were they designated in these individual contacts as 
Communist Party program or platform ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't think so. But certainly they didn't deny 
the name of being Communist. 

Mr. Owens. Do you mean b;^ that they used the name Communist? 

Mr. Wechkin. Well, they just didn't argue when you called it 
Communist. 

Mr. Owens. In your reply or in your interrogation, if you chose 
the word "Communist," there would be no denial ? 

Mr. Wechkin. That is right. 

Mr. Owens. Did you personally have any such conversations? 

Mr. Wechkin. I did. 

Mr. Owens. Do you recall with whom ? 

Mr. Wechkin. My counselor in 1948, Herbert Gutman. 

Mr. Owens. And prior to meeting him in 1948 ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No ; I didn't. 

Excuse me, I remember him as being a counselor in 1947. 

Mr. Owens. Prior to that, you had never met him ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. 

Mr. Oavens. Could you tell us what you know about the background 
of Herbert Gutman ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES 1333 

Mr. Wechkin. Herbert Gutman graduated Queens College in New 
York approximately 1947 or 19-48. He played on the varsity basket- 
ball team there. He attended the Columbia School of Journalism, 
Columbia Graduate School of Journalism, in 1949 or 1950. He "was 
a student at the Institute of Marxist Studies, Jefferson School of Social 
Science, in 1950. 

Then I had a personal contact with Herbert Gutman. 

Mr. Owens. We shall cover that later. 

What occupation did he pursue, if you know, during the off season 
of the years 1947 and 1948 ? 

Mr. Wechkin". He was a student at that time. 

Mr. OwExs. Turning now to these contacts you may have had with 
Mr. Gutman at Kinderland, do you recall specifically any of the in- 
stances where he discussed with you what was apparent to you to be 
Communist Party line? 

Mr. Wechkin. Well, he urged my membership in the Youth for 
Wallace movement. 

Mr. Owens. Did that materialize into your joining the Young Pro- 
gressives of America ? 

Mr. Wechkin. It did. 

Mr. Owens. You are saying, then, that your joining the Young 
Progressives of America was brought about by your contact with 
Mr. Gutman at Camp Kinderland ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. And I would like to make a statement right 
now. 

When I came to Camp Kinderland in 1947, I was no Communist. 

I think that primarily through the influence of Camp Kinderland 
and, more specifically, the influence of my counselor, Herbert Gutman, 
I did eventually become a Communist in succeeding years. 

Mr. Owens. And the first step in that direction was the joining of 
the Young Progressives of America ? 

Mr. Wechkin. The first step was the Youth for Wallace Club, 
which eventually became the Young Progressives of America. 

Mr. Owens. Would you tell the committee the circumstances or the 
actual details of your joining the Youth for Wallace movement ? 

Mr. Wechkin. My counselor, Herbert Gutman, was a delegate or 
an observer — I forget which — to the Philadelphia convention of the 
Progressive Party in 1948. And when he came back, he urged mem- 
bership of the campers in his bunk in the Youth for Wallace Club. 

Mr. Owens. Was there an actual signing or registration in the 
group ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes ; there was. 

Mr. Owens. Where did that take place ? 

Mr. Wechkin. As a matter of fact, it took place in the bunk itself. 

Mr. Owens. In the quarters at Camp Kinderland ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Did Gutman sign you and others into the movement ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes, he did. 

Mr. Owens. You would have been 14 at the time, or approaching 14 ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes, that is right. 

Mr. Owens. Would you tell the committee the next step with respect 
to your Communist affiliations, with respect to your own participation ? 

Mr. Wechkin. In May of 1949 I joined the Young Progressives 
of America. 



1334 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Owens. At whose request ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Well, it was more or less on my own impetus at that 
time. I believe in November or December of 1949 I joined the Labor 
Youth League. 

Mr. Owens. Let's separate the two. 

Had you joined the Young Progressives of America, which we 
understand later became the Labor Youth League 

Mr. Wechkin. No, that is not correct at all. 

Both organizations existed as separate groups. 

Mr. Owens. Existing concurrently ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. In 1949? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes, and succeeding years ; I believe as late as 1954 
or so. I don't know what happened to them later than that. 

Mr. Owens. Did you join the Young Progressives of America 
before you joined the Labor Youth League? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Owens. "V\^ien and where did you join the Young Progres- 
sives of America ? 

Mr, Wechkin. I joined the Young Progressives of America in May 
of 1949 at the ALP headquarters, 5222 Church Avenue, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

Mr. Owens. Is that the American Labor Party headquarters? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owen. How old were you at the time ? 

Mr. Wechkin, I was 141/2, 1 believe, 

Mr, Owen, When did you join the Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. Wechkin. In either November or December of 1949. 

Mr. Owens. Where? 

Mr. Wechkin. It was in a cellar on Eastern Parkway in Brook- 
lyn, I can't remember the exact address, 

Mr. Owens. How were you directed to this address? 

Mr. Wechkin. There were a number of members of YPA who 
were also members of the Labor Youth League, and at their insistence 
or, I won't say insistence, rather, at their advice or prodding, I at- 
tended a Labor Youth League meeting and I joined at that time. 

Mr. Owens. Were you in touch with Herb Gutman during this 
period in 1949 ? 

Mr, Wechkin. I don't know if it was 1949 or the early part of 1950, 
around January or February of 1950. At that time I wanted to at- 
tend courses at the Jefferson School of Social Science. My parents 
were hesitant about allowing me to attend. 

I called Herbert Gutman on the telephone and I had him speak 
to my parents. And apparently what he told them was enough to 
convince them that my attending the Jefferson School of Social 
Science wouldn't be harmfvd, in fact, it would be quite beneficial. 

Mr. Owens. He satisfied your parents' uneasiness with respect to 
your attendance at the Jefferson School? 

Mr. Wechkin. That is right, 

Mr, O^VENS, Before we get to attendance at the Jefferson School, 
1 want to ask j^ou some more questions about 1948 and 1949, 

Can you recollect, Mr. Wechkin, any other instance during your 
attendance at Kinderland which clearly portrayed to the campers and 
the people at the camp a Communist Party line or ideology ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1335 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes, I can. 

The songs which we were taught and which we sang had a decided 
Communist character to them. As examples of these songs, we sang 
Bandiera Rosa and the Soviet national anthem. 

Mr. Owens. Bandiera Eosa is an Italian Communist song, isn't it? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Translated, is that Red Flag? 

Mr. "Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Do you recollect any of the lyrics of these songs ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. The concluding line of the chorus is : "Long 
live communism and liberty." 

Mr. Owens. x\1so, as campers, did you sing the Soviet national 
anthem ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Do you recall any other songs ? 

Mr. Wechkin. We sang a number of Spanish civil war songs. 

Would you like some of the titles of those ? 

Mr. Owens. If you recall. 

Mr. Wechkin. There was Vive la Quince Brigada, which means 
Long live the 15th brigade, which was the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 

Mr. Owens. How about the famous Red Army song, Meadowland ? 

Mr. Wechkin. We also sang that one. 

Mr. Owens. How was the singing of these songs usually brought 
about? 

Mr. Wechkin. They were sung in more or less informal groups of 
campers, informal large groups of campers. And the words were 
taught to us either by the counselors or campers who knew them. 
In addition, the words appeared in a pamphlet called Sing which 
was distributed among the campers and contained all of the Commu- 
nist songs that I mentioned. '-'■'> 

Mr. Owens. Prior to your arrival at this camp, had you ever heard 
any of these songs ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I believe I had heard Meadowland before, but that 
is about all. 

Mr. Owens. The rest of them were completely strange and new to 
you? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. "Wliat explanation, if any, did the counselors and di- 
rectors give for the singing of these songs ? 

Mr. Wechkin. They gave no explanation at all. It was more or 
less implied they were good songs to sing. And, as a matter of fact, 
they are melodious. 

Mr. Owens. This is off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Owens. Mr. Wechkin, can you recollect any other instances or 
situations where the counselors or directors were somewhat open with 
regard to Communist Party propaganda or performance? 

Mr. Wechkin. Oh, yes. At the advice of my counselor in 1948, once 
more Herbert Gutman, I bought and read The Great Conspiracy by 
Cameron and Kahn. 

Mr. Owens. Had you ever heard of the book before ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. 

Mr. Owens. How did Gutman encourage you to read it? 



1336 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Wechkin. I was inquisitive about the nature of the Soviet 
Union and Soviet development and he advised me to read that in order 
to get insight into that subject. 

Mr. Owens. As campers, how did you address your couselors and 
directors ? 

Mr. Wechkin. With group leaders and the director the address 
was Chaver, which is Hebrew for comrade. 

Mr. Owens. Did you call Gutman by that title? 

Mr. Wechkin. No ; I didn't. We called Korn by that title, though. 

Mr. Owens. Was Korn the camp director in 1948 also? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't remember. It is entirely possible that Sidney 
Weinstein, to my recollection, was camp director in that year. 

Mr. Owens. You reported, when Mr. Collins talked with you last 
month, that between the physical locations of Camp Lakeland and 
Kinderland there is a spot of ground containing a plaque. 

Mr, Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Wliat could you tell the committee about the plaque 
that is erected there ? 

Mr. Wechkin. It was in a triangle which was between Kinderland 
and Lakeland in front of the dining hall at the base of a flagpole 
containing the American flag. 

Mr. Owens. Were you campers ever told in detail what it repre- 
sented ? 

Mr. Wechkin. We were. 

Mr. Owens. Were you told in a lecture ? 

Mr. Wechkin. It was a formal lecture, I believe. 

Mr. Owens. Do you recall who lectured you on this plaque ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't remember who it was. I remember it being 
a rather high official of Camp Kinderland, either Sidney Weinstein 
or Korn, or someone of equivalent positicii. 

Mr. Owens. Returning to your statement of a few moments ago 
that you expressed a desire to attend the Jefferson School in New 
York City and that Gutman dispelled any uneasiness your family 
may have had with regard to that, how did you make your first con- 
tact with the Jefferson School ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Through the Labor Youth League. At that time 
I believe the Labor Youth League was offering reduced fees for its 
members attending the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

Mr. Owens. Wliere did the Labor Youth League group that you 
blonged to, used to meet ? 

Mr. Wechkin. It had a club on Eastern Parkway near Hopkinson 
Avenue in Brooklyn. 

Mr. Owens. Did your LYL group have a name or designation? 

Mr. Wechkin. I think it was called the Brownsville East New York 
LYL. 

Mr. Owens. Approximately how many young people belonged to 
your branch? 

Mr. Wechkin. It was rather hard to say. It was a rather amor- 
phous group. People were always coming and going. You didn't 
know who the actual members were. But in November or December 
3'ou would get something like 25 or 80, 35 people down to a meeting 
of the club. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1337 

Mr. Owens. As you have stated before to the staff, you joined the 
LYL in November of 1949 and left in September the following year, 
1950 ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Who were the leaders of your branch when you joined 
in 1949? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't remember their names. 

Mr. Owens. Do you recollect who chaired your meetings' at any 
time? 

Mr. Wechkin. No, I don't. At the time, most of my activities in 
the Communist movement were carried on in YPA rather than LYL. 
As a result, I wasn't familiar with the workings of the people in the — 
my local LYL people. 

Mr. Owens. Did you remain a member of the YPA concurrently 
with your membersliip in LYL ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Owens. You say that you were much more active in YPA than 
you were in LYL ? 

Mr. Wechkin. That is right. 

Mr. Owens. In your meetings of the YPA, then, were open Com- 
munist Party policies and propaganda discussed? 

Mr. Wechkin. The YPA is a Communist front, and the Communist 
line was put forth, but not as the Communist line per se. 

Mr. Owens. It was thinly veiled, let us say ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes, that is about the size of it. 

Mr. Owens. Were the members of your YPA gi'oup and LYL 
group about the same age. as you or somewhat older? 

Mr. Wechkin. They were perhaps one or 2 or 3 years older than 
I was. 

Mr. Owens. "\Y1io were the leaders of j^our YPA group, if you 
recollect ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I remember people, but I don't remember their names 
offhand. 

Mr. Owens. "Wlien you joined the YPA, were you required to reg- 
ister as a member of the YPA ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. I believe that the initial initiation fee was a 
half dollar at the time. 

Mr. Owens. Did you pay dues to the YPA ? 

Mr. Wechkin. The dues were collected scatteredly and spottily, 
like a great many organizations. 

Mr. Owens. Was Gutman active in either your group of the YPA 
or the LYL? 

Mr. Wechkin. No, he wasn't, though I believe he was on a high or 
governing body of the YPA. I am not too sure about that. 

Mr. Owens. Could you tell the committee some of the programs 
that the YPA or LYL attempted to put forward through your youth 
groups ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. In 1949, the election campaign, both the YPA 
and the LYL campaigned vigorously for tlie election of Marcantonio 
for mayor of the city of New York. In addition, there were protests 
against the McCarran Act, protests against discrimination against 
Negroes, protest against Feinberg law, which was pending in the New 
York State Legislature. 

66838 — 55 — pt. 5 2 



1338 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Owens. Were your groups of the YPA or LYL ever ad- 
dressed by individuals who were brought in as guest lecturers or guest 
speakers ? 

Mr. Wechkin. We had some people from higher positions in the 
yPA come down as speakers. I remember Hal Collins once coming 
down and speaking to us. 

Mr. Owens. Can you remember the names of any other speakers? 

Mr. Wechkin. There was a Dave McCanns who once spoke to us. 
He was a Negro fellow. 

Mr. Owens. How do you spell his name? 

Mr. Wechkin. M-c-C-a-n-n-s. 

Mr. Owens. Were these speakers introduced to you as officers of the 
YPA? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes, they were. 

Excuse me, I don't know if Hal Collins was. He was an instructor 
at the Jefferson School at that time, I believe. 

Mr. Owens. Mr. Wechkin, you have stated that you left the LYL 
in September of 1950. Wlien did you sever your relationship with 
the Young Progressives of America ? 

Mr. Wechkin. At the same time. 

Mr. Owens. Returning to your statement regarding Jefferson 
School in New York City, after your parents had condescended to let 
you attend this school, what was your next step ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I attended the school. 

Mr. Owens. You went down and registered for classes ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Did you go alone? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. 

Mr. Oavens. Who went with you ? 

Mr. Wechkin. A fellow YPA and LYL man by the name of Alvin 
Dorfman, D-o-r-f-m-a-n. 

Mr. Owens. Did he register at the same time you did ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes ; he did. 

Mr. Owens. Exactly when did you register for classes at the Jeffer- 
son School of Social Science? 

Mr. Wechkin. I believe in either late January or early February of 
1950. 

Mr. Oavens. How long did you attend ? 

Mr. Wechkin. The curriculum was divided up into 8- or 10-week 
courses, and I attended one course through, I believe, April, and I 
attended another course through the latter part of May or early part 
of June, I forget which. 

Mr. Owens. So you attended classes from January 1950 approx- 
imately through June 1950? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. The classes represented the two semesters, so to speak? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. The semesters being 8 or 10 weeks long? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Do you recollect the subject that von took at Jefferson 
School ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. The first semester I took a course called 
science and society, or science of society. I forget what the exact 
title was. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1339 

The second semester I took a course called political economy I. 

Mr. Owens. Who were your instructors in your first course, if you 
recall ? 

Mr. Wechkin. My instructor in the science of society course was 
Elizabeth Lawson, although she wasn't there a great deal of the time. 
There were other people who filled in for her. Among them were 
Doxy Wilkerson, Jack Foner 

Mr. Owens. F-o-n-e-r ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. That is about all I remember. 

Mr. Owens. I imagine that there was required reading for both 
these courses, was there not ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. With respect to the course, science of society, do you 
recollect the parallel reading material for this course ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Off the record now. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Owens. During your interview with Mr. Ray Collins of the 
committee, you outlined to him the reading which was required for 
the course we are discussing at this time. 

Were you required to read and study the Communist Manifesto ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Dialectical and Historical Materialism by Lenin ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. In both of those there were just selected pas- 
sages which we were required to read. 

Mr. Owens. Marxism versus Liberalism by Stalin? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't remember that. 

Mr. Owens. The State by Stalin ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't remember that. 

Mr. Owens. The Twilight of World Capitalism by Foster? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Theory and Practice of the Communist Party by 
Davis? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. The Path of Negro Liberation? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Constitution of the U. S. S. R. ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. You stated that you were required to read passages 
from the Communist Manifesto. 

Mr. Wechkin, Excuse me. Now that I think of it, we were required 
to read the entire Communist Manifesto. It was only some of the 
selections of the other work. 

Mr. Owens. Do you mean you were required to read only certain 
passages from Dialectical and Historical Materialism by Lenin? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Oft' the record. 
(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Owens. Were you required to read the entire work or just 
passages of the book. The Twilight of World Capitalism? 

Mr. Wechkin. The entire book, I believe. 

Mr. Owens. Were you required to read certain passages or the 
entire publication. Theory and Practice of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Wechkin. The entire work. 



,1340 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Owens. Were you required to read the entire work of the Path 
of Negro Liberation? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't remember. 

Mr. Owens. Were you required to read the entire Constitution of 
theU. S. S. K.? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. With regard to your other course, political economy 
I, did you have reqiiired reading for that course? 

Mr. Wechkin. We did. 

Mr. Owens. Do you recollect any of that? 

Mr. Wechkin. There was a book by an English economist, whose 
name I don't remember, which was the basic text for the course. 

Mr. O^vens. You don't remember the author ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. 

Mr. Owens. Was it Laski? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. 

Mr. Owens. Who was the instructor in political economy I? 

Mr. Wechkin. Mr. Victor Perlo. 

Mr. Owens. During your attendance at Jefferson School in 1950, 
did you have occasion to see Herb Gutman ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I did. 

Mr. Owens. What were the occasions that you would meet Mr. 
Gutman ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I had arranged to meet him, having several doubts 
and reservations about the Communist Party of the United States. 
I didn't believe that they were militant enough and went to discuss 
the subject with Herbert Gutman. 

Mr. O^vENS. How did you contact him? 

Mr. Wechkin. I called him on the telephone. And since he was 
also attending Jefferson School at the time I was, we arranged to meet 
one day before classes. 

Mr. Owens. And you discussed with him the lack of militancy on 
the part of the United States Communist Party in regard to interna- 
tional communism; is that correct? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. "Wliy did you pick Herbert Gutman to discuss this 
subject with? 

Mr. Wechkin. Well, he was probably — I don't know. I just felt 
kindly toward him. I felt fond of the guy, I suppose. 

Mr. Oa\t:ns. Did you discuss this with him because you had reason 
to believe he was a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. You did believe that? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. How did you come by such belief ? 

Mr. Wechkin. It was more or less evident from his entire attitude 
on a number of questions. If he was not a party member, he was at 
least a Communist. 

At this meeting which was, I believe, in March or April of 1950, he 
admitted to being a Communist Party member. 

Mr. Owens. Was that the meeting when you sought him out to 
discuss the problem you just mentioned? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1341 

Mr. Owens. And Gutman admitted to you he was a Communist? 

Mr. Wechkin". A Communist Party member. 

Mr. Owens. Wliat effect, if any, did it have on your own thinking? 

Mr. Wechkin. It had no effect at all. I more or less assumed he 
was a party member. 

Mr. Owens. It came as no great shock? 

Mr. Wechkin. No, not at all. 

Mr. Owens. Did Gutman ever talk to you about joining the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I don't think so. 

Mr. Owens. Did Gutman express continuing interest in your mem- 
bership in LYL and YPA ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Now, Mr. Wechkin, when you enrolled at Jefferson 
School in January of 1950, you were approaching your 16th birthday, 
or would have been 16 on your next birthday; is that correct? 

Mr. Wechkin. I just turned 15, I think. My birthday was in 
November and this took place in January. 

Mr. Owens. Was there any question about your attending the Jef- 
ferson School by virtue of your tender years, so to speak ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No ; I don't think so. As a matter of fact, they had 
a number of courses for young children at the Jefferson School at that 
time. 

Mr. Owens. In other words, your youth never entered into the fact 
one way or the other with respect to attending Jefferson School ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. 

Mr. Owens. Actually, you were still attending high school in Brook- 
lyn ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Did you take your Jefferson courses at night? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. Well, no. The first course that I took was 
held on Saturday, I believe. The second course in political economy 
was taken at night. 

Mr. Owens. Mr. Wechkin, prior to your attendance at Camp 
Kinderland in 1947 and 1948, had you ever been exposed to the Com- 
munist influence that you came to experience in the next 2 or 3 years ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes ; I was. 

I attended JPFO schools in Brooklyn since the age of about 7 or so. 

Mr. Owens. I asked you if you had been exposed to a Communist 
influence. Are you saying that in the JPFO (Jewish Peoples Fra- 
ternal Order) school in Brooklyn there was an apparent show of 
Communist line or propaganda. 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Owens. "Wlien did you attend the JPFO school in Brooklyn ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I suppose I started when I was around 7 or 8 years 
old, which would make it in 1942 or 1943. 

Excuse me. It just occurred to me. I believe I attended Camp 
Kinderland in 1941 for a couple of weeks. 

Mr. Owens. T\nien you were 6 or 7 years old ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

Yes, that is right ; I did. It just occurred to me, as a matter of fact. 
I remember that. 

Mr. Owens. In your own words, Mr. Wechkin, can you tell the 
committee what experiences in your life were most responsible for 



1342 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

you joining the YPA, the LYL, and attending classes at the Jefferson 
School of Social Science ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I suppose it is more or less a number of several ele- 
ments. Perhaps most important was this adolescent revolt, and the 
influence of Camp Kinderland and my counselor, Herbert Gutman. 

Mr. Owens. Had you ever been asked to join the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Owens. Would you tell the committee the circumstances sur- 
rounding that request ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I am not too clear on it. It seemed that at one 
time I expressed a desire to join the Communist Party, and I was sup- 
posed to see a member of the Communist Party at the Communist 
Party lieadquarters on Pitkin Avenue near Bruckway Avenue in 
Brooklyn. 

And, somehow, we got our signals crossed, and I was there and he 
wasn't. He was there the following night. As a result, I never 
joined the party. 

Mr. Owens. How was the appointment made? 

Mr. Wechkin. Through a member of the YPA and LYL, whom I 
believe was a Communist Party member. 

Mr. Owens. A^liom you believe was a party member but have no 
positive knowledge ? 

Mr. Wechkin. That is right. 

Mr. OwTENS. Who was the person you were to meet at Communist 
Party headquarters in Brooklyn? 

Mr. Wechkin. I forget his name. 

I just remembered the name of the leader of the Bronx YPA. 

Mr. Owens. Who was that ? 

Mr. Wechkin. His name is Myer Wolovitz. He was an acknowl- 
edged Communist Party member, W-o-l-o-v-i-t-z. 

Mr. Owens. Was it ever discussed, either at caucuses or personal 
conversations or open meetings of the YPA or LYL that the Commu- 
nist Party was tlie party of the working class and had the best inter- 
ests of the most people at heart ? 

Mr. Wechkin. It was openly stated at LYL metings, although I 
don't believe we ever reached that point in YPA. 

Mr. Oavens. Do you recall such open statements in meetings of the 
LYL? 

Mr. Wechkin. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Owens. In answer to my question a few minutes ago, were you 
ever asked to join the Communist Party, you said, "Yes." 

Mr. Wechkin. Well, I will have to change that, then. I wasn't 
really asked. It was more or less by mutual consent. 

Mr. Owens. Did you solicit an appointment ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I just expressed a desire and, as a result of that 
expression, a meeting was arranged. 

Mr. Owens. Who advised you to meet, if you recall ? 

Mr. Wechkin. A young man who was a member of the YPA and 
LYL. His name was Norman Masur, Ma-s-u-r, something like that. 
I am not too sure. 

Mr. Owens. Is he the one that gave you the instructions to meet 
this individual at Communist Party headquarters in Brooklyn? 
Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 



rNTV^ESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1343 

Mr. Oavens. The meeting never took place; is that correct? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. 

Mr. Oavens. Have you at any other time been asked or solicited 
for membership in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. 

Mr. Owens. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Owens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Wechkin. No ; I have not. 

Mr. Owens. Returning now for a minute to Mr. Gutman, subse- 
quent to the years 1947 and 1948, do you have any knowledge as to 
whether or not Mr. Gutman was active in other summer camps in 
New York State? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. 

Mr. Oavens. Have you seen Mr. Gutman since 1950 ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. 

Mr. Oavens. Do you have anv knowledge of jSIr. Gutman's activities 
since 1950 ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I can only draw several suppositions on the basis of 
my knowledge of his political inclination, but that is neither here nor 
there. 

Mr. Owens. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Owens. You have no positive knowledge ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes; that is correct. 

Mr. Owens. To sum up now, Mr. Wechkin, during your attendance 
at Camp Kinderland, did you ever hear discussions of other camps 
of the same character as Camp Kinderland ? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. Camp Wo-chi-ca, which I believe stands for 
workers children's camps. A number of people who were both 
campers and counselors at Kinderland were campers and counselors 
at Camp Wo-chi-ca. 

Mr. Collins. Camp Wo-chi-ca is out of business. 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes ; I have heard about it. 

Mr. Owens. While in the YPA and LYL, did the subject of sum- 
mer camps ever come up for discussion ? 

Mr. Wechkin. I met a number of people who had been campers at 
Camp Kinderland at that time, who were at that time members of 
YPA and/or LYL, and we discussed old times. 

Mr. Owens. Would you say, Mr. Wechkin, that daring your at- 
tendance at Kinderland the advancement of Communist propaganda 
and theory was not too thinly veiled in some of the camp activities? 

Mr. Wechkin. Well, "not too thinly veiled" is a rather ambiguous 
term. I just say that at times it was more than apparent. 

Mr. Oavens. I realize this is an opinion question, but the committee, 
as you know, is seeking information on this subject, and I would like 
A'ery much to have your opinion on it. 

We have learned in recent weeks and months that in the current ses- 
sions of the summer camps, their programs, pageants, and activities 
seem to be less apparent witli respect to Communist ideology. 

Would you have any opinion as to why this change for public 
consumption ? 



1344 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

I might add one more point : The same type of individual seems to 
be directing and counseling the camps, but the activities seem to be 
less obvious with respect to Communist ideology. 

Do I make myself clear? 

Mr. Wechkin. Yes. 

I can only draw my suppositions on this. From what I read in the 
newspapers, the Communist Party is going underground and Com- 
munist fronts are becoming harder and harder to detect. 

In keeping with this historical swing, Camp Kinderland is in step. 

Mr. Owens. You haven't been to any of these camps since 1948 ; is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. 

In the summer of 1950 I paid a visit to Camp Kinderland for just 
Iday. 

Mr. O^vENS. Did you see any old faces ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. I was rather surprised at the extent to which 
most of the people I knew at Camp Kinderland were no longer there. 

Mr. Owens. Does anything remain in your mind about what activi- 
ties you participated in for that 1 day in 1950 ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. 

Mr. Owens. Do you know anyone in the last year or two or this 
year or last year who has attended these camps ? 

Mr. Wechkin. No. 

Mr. Owens. I think that is all I have at this time, Mr. Wechkin, 
unless Mr. Collins has some questions he would like to ask. 

Mr. Collins. I have no questions. 

Mr. Owens. Mr. Wechkin, I certainly want to thank you on behalf 
of the committee for coming down here. We are most appreciative 
of your attitude. 

Mr. Wechkin. I was glad to do it, Mr. Owens. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES, NEW 
YORK AREA— PART 5 

(Summer Camps) 



THURSDAY, JULY 28, 1955 

House of Representatives, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on 

Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. G. 

executive session ^ 

The subcommittee met at 2 p. m., pursuant to call, in room 226, Old 
House Office Building, Hon. Morgan M. Moulder, chairman of the 
subcommittee, presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Morgan M. Moulder 
and Gordon H. Scherer. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; Thomas 
W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk; Courtney Owens and Raymond Collins, 
investigators. 

Mr. Moulder. It will be noted and recorded that this is a subcom- 
mittee composed of three members, the Honorable Gordon Scherer of 
Ohio, the Honorable Clyde Doyle of California, and myself, Morgan 
M. Moulder of Missouri as chainnan of the subcommittee duly ap- 
pointed by the Honorable Francis E. Walter, chairman of the full 
Committee on Un-American Activities. 

It is noted that the Honorable Gordon Scherer and myself as sub- 
committee chairman, Morgan Moulder, are now present, constituting 
a quorum. 

The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Tavenner, are you ready to proceed ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Green, will you come forward, please ? 

Mr. Moulder. Will you hold up your right hand and be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Green. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DAVE GREEN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

RALPH SHAPIRO 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 
Mr. Green. Dave Green. 



1 Released by the committee. 

1345 



1346 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Will 
counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Shapiro. Ilalph Shapiro, 9 East 40th Street, New York 16. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and when were you born, Mr. Green? 

Mr. Green. New York City in April of 1905. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Green. I am the manager of Camp Lakeland, Inc. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere is that located ? 

Mr. Green. Hopewell Junction, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Green, the committee is currently considering 
the operation of certain camps in the State of New York and the reason 
for calling you here is to interrogate you with regard particularly to 
the camp you have just mentioned. 

How long have you been the manager of that camp ? 

Mr. Green. Pardon me. If I may, I anticipated that was the rea- 
son I was being called here and I have a statement I would like to 
present to the committee in regard to the camp. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it responsive to the question or is it a prepared 
statement concerning some other subject? 

Mr. Green. It is a prepared statement in regard to the subject- 
matter of Camp Lakeland. 

Mr. Moulder. May we see the statement ? 

(Document handed to the chairman by the witness.) 

Mr. Green. I have some more copies here. 

Mr. Moulder. It has been the policy and rule of this committee, 
Mr. Green, that prepared statements will be admitted for filing as part 
of the proceedings, and it is ordered that the statement now offered 
by the witness will be duly filed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Green, how long have you been the manager of 
Camp Lakeland, Inc. ? 

Mr. Green. Since March of 1954. 

Mr. TA\Ti:NNER. Have you had any connection with the camp prior 
to that time ? 

Mr. Green. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. "V\^io are the present officers of Camp Lakeland, 
Inc.? 

Mr. Green. Sol Vail is the president. 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you spell the name, please? 

Mr. Green. Sol V-a-i'-l. 

Mr. Harry Sandler, S-a-n-d-1-e-r, is the treasurer, and Mr. Jack 
Goldman, G-o-l-d-m-a-n, is the vice president. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is one of those mentioned the secretary to the 
corporation ? 

Mr. Green. One is the treasurer and one is the vice president. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who is the secretary? 

Mr. Green. I really don't know of any secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a photostatic copy of the certifi- 
cate of incorporation bearing date the 11th day of February 1939, 
in which the following-named persons, Joseph Galstuck, G-a-1- 
s-t-u-c-k, Seymore, S-e-y-m-o-r-e Roseberg, and Betty Greenbaum 
were the incorporators and the stockholders named as directors until 
the first annual meeting of the stockholders was held. 

Are any of those three persons connected with the corporation at this 
time? 



riSr»'ESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1347 

Mr. Green. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know them ? 

Mr. Green. One name sounds familiar. I don't think I know the 
•others. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did the present officers whose names you gave 
us take over the management and operation of this corporation ? 

Mr. Green. I do not know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what the issued and outstanding 
shares of the capital stock of this corporation aggregated ? 

Mr. Green. I do not know. 

Mr. Scherer. Is it a corporation for profit, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. It is a corporation, one purpose of which is to carry 
on the business of providing board, lodging, entertainment, and other 
necessities to vacationists, tourists, transients, and so forth. 

Mr. Scherer. Do the articles of incorporation indicate that stock 
has been issued ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. It provides that the amount of capital stock 
shall be $20,000, which shall consist of 200 shares of par value of $100 
each, and that the number of shares held by the 3 incorporators were 
1 share each. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, do you know whether this is a corporation 
for profit or a nonprofit corporation under the laws of New York at 
this time? 

Mr. Green. It is to my best knowledge a stock corporation. 

Mr. Scherer. In other words, a corporation for profit? 

Mr. Green. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you own any stock in the corporation ? 

Mr. Green. I do not; nor have I sold any to my children, either. 

Mr. Tavenner. When proceedings were instituted by the State of 
New York against the IWO, according to the investigation of the 
committee, there were certain mortgages on this property which were 
held by the IWO and which the State of New York took over and 
later assigned to the Sylvan Lake Holding Corp. 

Do you know what the amount of that mortgage was ? 

Mr. Green. Tliere were two mortgages involved. One was approxi- 
mately $G5,000, held by the IWO, and the other was a $15,000 or 
$16,000 mortgage, held by the IWO Funeral and Cemetery Depart- 
ment, Inc. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. That made an indebtedness of approximately 
$80,000? 

Mr. Green. $80,000. Sixty-five and fifteen, to my best knowledge. 

Mr. Ta^tnner. $80,000 held by the IWO. 

What year was that? 

Mr. Green. I am sorry, let's have it correct. Congressman, or 
counsel. 

There were two mortgages. One was held by the IWO, Inc. The 
other was held by the Funeral and Cemetery Department, IWO, Inc., 
which is distinct and a separate entity. 

Mr. Tavenner. When were those mortgages placed on the prop- 
erty ? Do you know ? 

Mr. Green. I imagine they were about 10 years on the books. I 
really don't know the exact date. About 10 years, I would say, would 
be about correct. 



1348 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Is the property still subject to those two mort- 
gages ? 

Mr. Green. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were they paid off? 

Mr. Green. They were paid off. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long ago was it ? 

Mr. Green. I think it was, one was paid off in December and the 
other was paid off in January or February. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of what year ? 

Mr. Green. December of 1954 the IWO mortgage was paid off and 
the Funeral and Cemetery Department, Inc., was paid off, I think, 
in January or February of this year. 

Mr. Scherer. To whom did you say these mortgages were assigned ? 

Mr. Green. They were assigned to the Sylvan Lake Holding Corp. 

Mr. Scherer. Wliat is the Sylvan Lake Holding Corp.? 

Mr. Green. That is the corporation that purchased the two mort- 
gages, and gave a loan to Camp Lakeland for which they have a first 
mortgage. 

Mr. Scherer. You say those mortgages have all been paid off. 

Mr. Shapiro. I think he has misstated himself. 

Mr. Scherer. Can you explain it? 

Mr. Shapiro. He correctly states the mortgage was paid off. They 
were paid off to the IWO and the IWO Cemetery Department, Inc., 
by being bought by, as I understand it, Sylvan Lake Holding Corp., 
which now holds — which consolidated these 2 mortgages into 1 mort- 
gage and now, as I understand it, holds a consolidated first mortgage 
in the principal amount, less any payments that have been made, of 
these 2 mortgages on the property of Camp Lakeland. 

That is my understanding of the financial setup. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, the form of the mortgage has been 
changed in that the amount of $70,000 is now owing to this holding 
corporation instead of to the IWO. 

Mr. Shapiro. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has that mortgage been increased ? 

Mr. Green. Yes; it has been increased to $90,000. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien was it increased? 

Mr. Green. Also in, I think it was, January or February of this 
year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the purpose of increasing the mortgage 
from $70,000 to $90,000? 

Mr. Green. To pay off current obligations and to operate the camp. 

Mr. Tavenner. From whom was this additional $20,000 borrowed ? 

Mr. Green. From Sylvan Lake Holding Corp. And they were all 
consolidated into one first mortgage which the Sylvan Lake Holding 
Corp. now holds on Camp Lakeland, Inc. 

Mr. Tavenner. So the mortgage is now $90,000 ? 

Mr. Green. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a shareholder in the Sylvan Lake Holding 
Corp.? 

Mr. Green. Yes. Let me get it straight now. I am sorry, I may 
be mistaken. 

I am not a shareholder in Sylvan Lake Holding Corp. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your interest in it ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1349 

Mr. Gkeen. My only interest is a $300 loan which I made to Sylvan 
Lake Holding Corp. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose of your making a loan of 
$300 to the Sylvan Lake Holding Corp. ? 

Mr. Green. That was to help raise the $90,000 to buy oif the two 
mortgages and to increase it to a first mortgage of $90,000. 

Mr. Tavenner. So you actually are participating in the $90,000 
mortgage to the extent of $300? 

Mr. Green. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you issued any evidence of the debt? 

Mr. Green. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat is the nature of that ? 

JNIr. Green. I have a certificate which indicates that I have loaned 
to the Sylvan Lake Holding Corp. $300. 

Mr. Tavenner. How was the rest of the $20,000 of cash raised ? 

Mr. Green. I assume the same way. 

Mr. Tavenner. From whom? 

Mr. Green. From individuals. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who are the individuals who made the loans ? 

Mr. Green. I have no list of them. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you know who many of them are? 

Mr. Green. I know some of them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who are they? 

Mr. Green. Well, I don't know whether that kind of a question is 
appropriate to ask me. I am not an officer of Sylvan Lake Holding 
Corp., neither am I an officer of the Camp Lakeland, Inc. And I don't 
think I can give out information like that without consulting the 
owners either of Camp Lakeland, and certainly the owners of Sylvan 
Lake Holding Corp. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is not a matter of privilege. 

Mr. Moulder. It is not privileged. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you know of your own personal knowledge of any 
persons who have made loans ? 

Mr. Green. I know possibly 1 or 2 who might have made loans. 

Mr. Moulder. Then do you refuse to answer as to who those per- 
sons are ? 

Mr. Shapiro. May I confer with the witness ? 

Mr. Moulder. You may confer with him. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Green. I can give you 1 or 2 names. 

I can give you the names of Simon Federman and Sam Nelson. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the amount of their loans ? 

Mr. Green. I don't now. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the loans of any other persons? 

Mr. Green. Offhand, none come to mind. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know the names of any other persons who 
have made loans for the purposes stated ? 

Mr. Green. If I saw the list I would probably recall a number of 
others. I don't have a list available of those names. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^Vlio has the list ? 

Mr. Green. I assume the Sylvan Lake Holding Corp. has such a list. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who are the officers of Sylvan Lake Holding Corp. ? 

Mr. Green. Simon Federman. 



1350 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. What is his position ? 

Mr. Green. I think he is president of the corporation. 

Mr. ScHERER. Where does he live ? 

Mr. Green. New York City, in Brooklyn, I think. 

Sam Nelson, I don't know whether he is — I think he is the vice presi- 
dent or secretary. 

And then there is Abraham Estersohn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell that name, please. 

Mr. Green. E-s-t-e-r-s-o-h-n, who I think is the treasurer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Does the corporation have an office ? 

Mr. Green. I don't think they have an office of their own, no. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you mean the office of the Sylvan Lake Corp. is 
the same as the office of Camp Lakeland ? 

Mr. Green. They receive their mail at the Camp Lakeland office; 
yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Where is the Camp Lakeland office ? 

Mr. Green. 1 Union Square West, New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the Sylvan Lake Holding Corp. borrow any 
part of the $20,000 from any organization ? 

Mr. Green. Well, I am in a peculiar position here. I don't repre- 
sent the Sylvan Lake Holding Corp. I am not a part of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. That doesn't make any difference. I am just asking 
about your knowledge of it. 

Mr, Green. I think they borrowed some money from a union. 

Mr. Tavenner. What union ? 

Mr. Green. Furriers' union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us more about that, please? What 
furriers' union ? 

Mr. Green. I don't know the number of the local. It is a furriers' 
local in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Tavenner. How much money was borrowed from the furriers* 
union in Philadelphia ? 

Mr. Green. Between $20,000 and $30,000, I think is the amount. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that the International Fur and Leather Workers 
Union ? 

Mr. Green. Yes ; that is right. 

Mr. Moulder. Pardon me. Did you get the date when that loan 
transpired ? 

Mr. Tavenner. "\Ylien did that loan occur ? 

Mr. Green. I don't know the exact date. It must be between De- 
cember or November and January. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who negotiated the loan ? 

Mr. Green. I assume it was the officers of Camp Lakeland, Inc. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliich officers of that corporation took part in the 
negotiations ? 

Mr. Green. I don't know which ones took part in it. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know whether the International Fur and 
Leather Workers Union who loaned the corporation this money has 
a certificate similar to yours evidencing the indebtedness of the cor- 
poration to the union ? 

Mr. Green. I assume they have some certificate but if it is the same 
as mine, I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. What other organizations loaned funds to the Syl- 
van Lake Holding Corp. ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1351 

Mr. Green. To my knowledge, I don't know of any other organi- 
zation. 

Mr. ScHERER. And you can't recall the names of any other indi- 
viduals other than those you have already mentioned ? 

Mr. Green. No; I can't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not the International Fur 
and Leather Workers Union negotiated this loan through another 
holding corporation ? 

Mr. Green. I don't know the details. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you familiar with an organization known as 
1953 Holding Corp.? 

Mr. Green. I am not familiar with that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know of the existence of such a corporation? 

Mr. Green. No. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Shapiro. May we go on the record a minute? I think the 
witness misspoke himself before in response to the last question, par- 
tially, I think because of the name which you ascribed to that corpora^ 
tion. It is not the precise name and that is why he misspoke himself 
on that, so I think we had better go over that again. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the correct name of the holding corporation 
that was an intermediary? 

Mr. Green. I know the loan was gotten through an intermediary 
but I don't know the exact title or the name. 

Mr. ScHERER. What is your best recollection of the name of the 
intermediary corporation? 

Mr. Green. Will you repeat that name to me again? 

Mr. Tavenner. 1953 Holding Corp. 

Mr. Green. I don't think that is the exact title of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your best recollection of the title. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Shapiro. Do you remember the name ? 

Mr. Green. No; I don't. 

Mr. Shapiro. May I refresh his recollection ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Green. The 1953 Holding Corp. is the exact name. 

Mr. Shapiro. No; let me correct that. The exact name is Fifty- 
three Holding Corp. 

Mr, Tavenner. What part did the Fifty-three Holding Corp. take 
in this financing? 

Mr. Green. To my best knowledge, they were the ones who loaned 
the money to the Sylvan Lake Holding Corp. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is, a part of the money, because you have told' 
us that some of the money was bori'owed from individuals. Some of 
the money was put up by the fur and leather workers union, and now 
I assume you mean that an additional sum was put up by the Fifty- 
three Holding Corp. ? 

Mr. Green. When I said the furriers gave some money, I was re- 
ferring to this money which was given through this Fifty-three 
Holding Corp. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you mean the amount of money that the furriers- 
gave to the corporation was handled through the Fifty-three Corp.? 

Mr. Green. That is correct. 

Mr. Shapiro. In other words, there was just one sum of money to. 



1352 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

be ascribed to the Fifty-three Holding Corp. and the furriers. Just 
one amount. 

Mr. ScHERER. The Fifty-three Corp. did not act as a mediator for 
any other funds except the specific fund which originated from the 
International Fur and Leather Workers Union. 

Mr. Green. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the officers' of the Fifty-three Holding 
Corp. ? 

Mr. Green. I don't know. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you know of any reason why the loan wasn't made 
directly to the Sylvan Lake Holding Co. instead of, by, and through 
the Fifty-three Corp. 

Mr. Green. I don't know. 

Mr. Shapiro. I don't think you listened directly to the Congress- 
man's question. 

Your question wasn't why it wasn't made directly through the 
Fifty-three Holding Corp. It was made by the Fifty-three Holding 
Corp. 

I think your question was, sir, why wasn't it made directly through 
the fur and leather workers union. 

Mr. Moulder. I am wondering why the fur and leather workers 
union, if they were loaning the money, didn't make it directly to you 
instead of to the Fifty-three Corp. 

Mr. Green. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your address in the city of New York? 

Mr. Green. 183 East 98th Street, New York 29, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Anne Williams ? 

Mr. Green. The name doesn't sound familiar to me. 

Mr. Shapiro. Let me interrupt. He doesn't know her. 

But you are acquainted with her. She is a stenographer in my 
office. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recognize her as a stenographer in the office 
of your counsel ? 

Mr. Green. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenn'er. Was she one of the incorporators of the Fifty- 
three Holding Corp. ? 

Mr. Green. I don't know that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she also one of the incorporators of the Sylvan 
Lake Holding Corp. ? 

Mr. Green. I don't know that either. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Molly Tallentire? 

Mr. Green. Yes, she is one of the girls in the attorney's office. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she one of the incorporators of the Fifty-three 
Holding Corp. ? 

Mr. Green. I wouldn't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she one of the incorporators for the Sylvan 
Lake Holding Corp. ? 

Mr. Green. I wouldn't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Arlene Hersh? 

Mr. Green. I don't know her. 

Mr. Shapiro. Let me say for the record that she is also a secretary 
in the office but not employed by this counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Rosita Krugthof, 
K-r-u-ff-t-h-o-f? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1353 

Mr. Green. No. 

Mr. Shapiro. Let me say also, to clarify the record, she is also a 
secretary in the office but not employed by this counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the latter person known to you as one of the 
incorporators of the Fifty-three Holding Corp. ? 

Mr, Green. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner, Was Arlene Hersch an incorporator of Sylvan 
Lake Holding Corp. ? 

Mr. Green. I don't know. 

Mr. Shapiro. Mr. Tavenner, may we go off the record a moment? 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I do not intend that any connotation be given to 
the identification of the names of these persons as incorporators. As 
1 understand they were employees in the office of counsel who pre- 
pared the corporation papers. 

Mr. Shapiro. Would you mind adding that they are dummy 
incorporators so we will know what that means 'I 

Mr. Tavenner. I have been assured that they are dummy incor- 
porators. 

Who were the real parties in interest in the formation of the Fifty- 
three Holding Corp.? 

Mr. Green. I assume it is tlie furriers union, but I wouldn't know 
any details. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is Camp Lakeland operated for children, adults, 
or both ? 

Mr. Green. Both. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long has it been in operation, according to 
your knowledge? 

Mr. Green. About 32 or 33 years. 

Mr. Scherer. Where is it located ? 

Mr. Green. Hopewell Junction, N. Y. That is 14 miles this side 
of Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. As manager, do you employ the counselors? 

Mr. Green. No, I don't directly employ the counselors. 

Mr. Scherer. Who does? 

Mr. Green. The two directors are the ones who choose the coun- 
selors of the children's camp, 

Mr. Tavenner. Who are the directors that make the choice? 

Mr. Green. Harry Sandler and Dave Glaser. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated you do not directly employ them. Do 
you make recommendations to the directors for employment? 

Mr. Green. No. They may consult me from time to time in! 
regard to some individual, whether I know him or not, whether I 
think he would be capable to hold the post of counselor, but they 
are the ones who do the choosing. They interview them and choose 
them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you worked in connection with other camps 
besides Camp Lakeland in New York State ? 

Mr. Green. Many years back I was in charge of the office of the 
Upper Ferndale Mansion. That is a resort in the Catskill 
Mountains. 

Mr. Tavenner. "WHien did you work there ? 

. 66838— 55— pt. 5 3 



1354 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Green. That must be back in 1928 or 1929. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had a connection with any other camp ? 

Mr. Green. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had a connection with any other camp 
in the State of New York ? 

Mr. Green. No. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Have you been connected with summer camps in 
any other State ? 

Mr. Green. No. 

Mr. Ta^tsnner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your em- 
ployment was prior to your taking the position of manager of Camp 
Lakeland, Inc. ? 

Mr. Green. I was unemployed prior to my getting the job in Camp 
Lakeland. 

Mr. Taa^nner. For how long a period of time were you unem- 
ployed ? 

Mr. Green. For a period of about 4 months. 

Mr. Ta\-enner, "\\niat was your employment prior to that ? 

Mr. Green. I don't know whether that is relevant to this discussion 
or not and I don't think I should be asked to answer that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. 

]Mr. Moulder. You are directed by the committee to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
grounds that I can't be asked to testif}' against myself, the fifth amend- 
ment. 

]Mr. Ta\^nner. How long were you employed in an activity which 
you refuse to advise the committee about ? 

Mr. Green. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. How were you employed on January 1, 1953 ? 

Mr. Shapiro. Do you mean in what job? Is that what you mean? 

Mr. Taatenner. Yes. What was your employment on January 1, 
1953 ? 

Mr. Green. I was unemployed — 1953, 1 am sorry, I refuse to answer 
that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed on January 1, 1952? 

Mr. Green. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds? 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed on January 1, 1951? 

Mr. Green. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed on January 1, 1950? 

Mr. Green. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed on January 1, 1949 ? 

Mr. Green. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed on January 1, 1948 ? 

Mr. Green. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you employed at any time between January 1, 
1948, and the time of your employment as general manager of Camp 
Lakeland, Inc., by thelWO ? 

Mr. Green. Tlie same answer. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Do you refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Green. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the IWO ? 

Mr. Green. Same answer. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1355 

Mr. Tayenner. Were you a member of the IWO at the time you 
were employed as manager of Camp Lakeland, Inc. ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Green^. Same ans\\"er, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Should we have the record show that the witness 
declines to answer by claiming the privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment ? 
Mr. Green. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. We will stand in recess for 10 minutes. 
(Whereupon, a brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. TA^•ENNER. Are you acquainted with Max Bedacht, formerly 
IWO general secretary. 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of the 
lifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. I hand you a photostatic copy of the Ser%dce Men's 
Issue, 1945, of Fraternal Outlook and call your^attention to an article 
entitled, "Fraternalism in Our Veterans." 

I will ask you to examine the photograph appearing in the middle 
of the right-hand column under which the name Cpl. Dave Green, 
IWO general council member, appears. 
Is that a photograph of you ? [Handing document to the witness.] 
Mr. Greex. I respectfully decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavexner. Were you a member of the general council of the 
IWO in 1945 ? 

Mr. Greex. I respectfully decline to answer. 
^ Mr. Tavexxer. Did you serve in the Armed Forces of the United 
States ? 
Mr. Greex. I did. 

Mr. Tavex'Xer. Were you a corporal ? 
]\Ir. Greex. I was. 

Mr. Tavexxer. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that It be marked "Green Exhibit No. 1," for identification purposes 
only and to be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. Shapiro. Might it be understood when he said he respectfully 
dechnes, he was doing so on the grounds of the fifth amendment, so 
the record will be clear ? 

Mr. Moulder. The record will so show. Exhibit No. 1 offered by 
counsel, will be received and marked for identification only. 

Mr. TA^^:xxER. I hand you now the February 8, 1954, issue of the 
Daily Worker and call your attention to an article entitled, ''Winnin<T 
of Bail for Dolson Cheered at Nelson Rally," and I will ask yo5 
whether or not you attended the rallv for Steve Nelson, which is the 
sub]ect of that article, and which celebrated the decision of the Su- 
preme Court of the State of Pennsylvania which reversed Nelson's 
conviction. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Greex. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of the 
hfth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. The question directed to you was as to whether or 
not you are the Dave Green referred to in the newspaper article of 
the exhibit. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Pardon me, I asked him whether he attended that 



1356 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

meeting referred to. I point out to you the third paragraph from 
the bottom of the second page, in which it is stated : 

Dave Green. lAVO leader, pointed to the part the foreign language groups in 
America played in the Nelson fight. 

Did you take part in the discussion at that meeting as indicated 
[handing document to the witness] ? It is on the second page. 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Green Exhibit No. 2," for identification only and 
to be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. MoTTLDER. The document will be so received and admitted in 
evidence. , 

Mr. Ta\t5Nner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a telegram ad- 
dressed to this committee and I will ask you whether or not you can 
identifv it [handing document to the witness]. 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds ot the 

fifth amendment. . t. +t, 

Mr Tavenner. This telegram purports to have been sent by the 

New York Central Committee, International Workers Order, by 

Dave Green, executive secretary. . ^i i - j^ 

Were you the executive secretary of that organization on the date ot 

the telegram, which appears to be September 21, 1945 ? ,. <► ^, 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds o± the 

fifth amendment. . , , 

Mr Twenner. I desire to offer the document m evidence and ask 

that it be marked "Green Exhibit No. 3," for identification only and 

to be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. Moulder. The document will be admitted m evidence and so 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you say, Mr. Counsel, that the telegram was 

addressed to this committee? 
Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Let me see it. . , , .i i. 

Mr Tw^NNER. Will vou tell the committee, please, whether or not, 

during the period of time that vou have been identified with Canip 

Lakeland, Inc., the Communist Party has exercised any influence m 

the appointment of personnel at that camp? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr Green. The answer to that is "No." , . , , 
Mr Twenner. Are any members connected with the corporation 

members of the Communist Party, to your knowledge? 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) , <, .i z>i!^-u 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer on the basis ot the htth 

^"mt^ Tavenner. You gave us the name of the current president of the 

corporation. What was his name? 

Mr. Green. Sol Vail. r. i tt -i v. -p +i.« 

Mr. TA^^2NNER. Do you know whether Sol Vail was a member ot the 

^Mi\^ Green.' I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
aroinids of the fifth amendment. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1357 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with this testimony given by 
Mr. Herbert A. Philbrick before the committee on the 23d day of 
July 1951, which reads as follows: 

I believe that Sol Vail, V-a-i-1, taught a course at the Sam Adams school, 
and he was known to me as a Communist Party member and a member of IWO 
and JPPO. He was an undercover party agent because I know occasionally, 
instead of delivering material to his oflice, I delivered it to his home on Parks- 
dale Avenue in Boston. 

Are you acquainted with the fact that that testimony was given 
before this committee by Mr. Philbrick? 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. My question is whether or not you are aware that 
such testimony was given before this committee. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Green. No, I am not aware. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have any individuals been employed in connection 
with the operation of Camp Lakeland who were known to you to be 
members of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there any individuals currently employed at 
Camp Lakeland known to you to be members of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a page of the New 
York Times issue of August 27, 1937, and direct your attention to an 
article entitled "Communist Party Backs LaGuardia," in the course 
of which article there is a section considered under the title of New 
York County, there giving the names of certain persons running for 
office on the Communist Party ticket. 

I will ask you to examine the third name appearing there for the 
office of sherifl; and state whether that name, Dave Green, accurately 
describes you as a candidate for sheriff on the Communist Party 
ticket? 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a candidate for sheriff of New York 
County in 1937 on the Communist Party ticket ? 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of the 
firth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Green Exhibit No. 4," for identification only and 
to be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. Moulder. The document will be so marked and received. 

Mr. Green, were you a candidate for sheriff on any political party 
ticket during that period ? 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Green, on July 14, 1949, Manning Johnson 
testified before the Committee on Un-American Activities with regard 
to his experiences within the Communist Party in the United States, 
and I quote a portion of his testimony : 



1358 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you now another issue of the Daily Worker bearing 
date January 21, 1936, and call your attention to an article entitled "Communists 
in the United States Open Drive to Aid Brother Party in Italy," and I will ask 
you if you took part in that meeting and to state the names of others who were 
associated with you in that work. 

Mr. Johnson. Yes ; I recall this drive that was opened by the central com- 
mittee or national committee of the Communist Party to raise funds to aid the 
Communist Party in Italy. I was on the sponsoring committee and was active 
in raising funds and along with me on this committee were William Z. Foster, 
Earl Browder, J. W. Ford, Mother Bloor, Margaret Cowl, Gil Green, I. Amter, 
John Little, Max Bedacht, Ben Gold, N. Schaeffer, M. Olgin, A. Bimba, Tito 
Nunzie, C. Nemeroff, M. Perlow, I. Candella, Secretary D. Green, and Treasurer 
A. Blake. 

Did you at any time serve on such a committee as that described by 
Mr. Johnson in the testimony ^Yhich I have just read to you? 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Green. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. Any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Moulder. I do want to ask 2 or 3 questions. I don't recall 
whether or not counsel asked you questions concerning your place of 
birth. 

Mr. Green. He did, sir. I was born in New York City in April of 
1905. 

Mr. Moulder. And you say you went into the service. For what 
period of time did you serve in the United States Army ? 

Mr. Green, I served 20 months. I will give you my exact time. I 
was separated on the 6th of July 1945 and entered the service on 
February 5, 1943. 

Mr. Moulder. In what branch of the service were you ? 

Mr. Green. The Ninth Air Force, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. In what countries did you serve ? 

Mr. Green. I was in England, France, and Germany, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Were you in combat service? 

Mr. Green. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. "Wliat kind of discharge did you receive ? 

Mr. Green. Honorable discharge. 

Mr. Moulder. And did you receive any decorations ? 

Mr. Green. Yes, sir ; I did. I can read them off to you ; Distin- 
guished service unit, European-African campaign. Middle East serv- 
ice medal. Good Conduct medal, and 1 or 2 others, Air Offensive, 
Ardennes, Central European campaign, Normandy, Northern France, 
and the Rhineland campaigns. 

Mr. Moulder. Are you married ? 

Mr. Green. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. How long have you been married ? 

Mr. Green. This is my second marriage, sir. I have been married 
for the last 12 years. 

Mr. Moulder. How many children do you have ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1359 

Mr. Green. Two children, I have three altogether. 

Mr. Moulder. What service organizations, if any, do you belong to ? 

Mr. Green. None right now. 

Mr. Moulder. You are not a member of the Legion ? 

Mr. Green. I was a member of the Jewish War Veterans, but I 
haven't 

Mr. Moulder. That is all. 

Mr. Scherer may ask questions. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you serve in the Second World War ? 

Mr. Green. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the time that you were in the Army of the United States? 

Mr. Green. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. When did you say you entered the service ? 

Mr. Green. February 1942. I got out in 1945. 

Mr. Shapiro. I thought you said 1943. 

Mr, Scherer. That is close enough. At that time Russia and the 
United States were cobelligerents, isn't that right? 

Mr. Green. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 

Mr. Shapiro, Listen to the question instead of reading. 

Mr. Green. I am sorry ; 1943 is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. At that time, during your service, the United States 
and Russia were cobelligerents, were they not? 

Mr. Green. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. You have filed this statement in connection with the 
operations of Camp Lakeland, and I asked the questions I did to give 
you the opportunity to place on the record the favorable conduct and 
actions on your part in the service of your country. 

I don't remember whether or not Mr. Tavenner asked you questions 
concerning the teachings and meetings, if any, that are held at the 
lake, and I now ask you whether or not there is any teaching of Com- 
munist philosophy, or shall we say any teaching concerning govern- 
ment at the camp ? 

Mr. Green. Would you reformulate that, please ? I don't think I 
exactly understand your question. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you hold classes and meetings with the people 
who are at the camp ? 

Mr. Green. There are meetings held to discuss the program of 
the camp. 

Mr. Moulder. Are there any meetings held where government 
philosophy is discussed ? 

Mr. Green. Unless you mean by that, sir, that we tried to give the 
kids an understanding of our Constitution and of our democratic 
way of life, in that sense, yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Then I will ask it more directly : Are there ever any 
teachings or discussions concerning communism? 

Mr. Green. No. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you ever have any speakers at the camp who 
speak to groups who are supporting the Communist cause or the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Green. I might say that we don't ask anybody what their po- 
litical beliefs are when they are invited to become guests at camp. 
We don't ask anybody their political beliefs. 



1360 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. ScHERER. That wasn't Mr. Moulder's question. 

Mr, Moulder. That wasn't my question. 

Mr. Green. For instance, we had some lectures on poetry and' 
literature. We have had lectures on the history of the contributions 
of the Jews to America. We had a lecture on Einstein. 

This is the type of lectures we have. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Moulder, I still don't think he has answered your 
question. 

As I understand it, Mr. Moulder merely asked whether or not these 
lecturers themselves are members of the Communist Party or whether 
they support the Communist Party. 

Mr. Moulder, I asked whether or not they support the Communist 
Party philosophy, or the party, either one. 

Mr. Green. I will have to consult my attorney on that. 

Mr. Scherer. I will withdraw it and break it down. 

Are any of the lecturers that you have members of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Green. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of" 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr, Moulder. We will state the question this way again : Do you 
have any knowledge as to whether or not any of the persons who 
speak at the camp as lecturers are members of the Communist Party?' 

Mr, Green. I have to decline to answer that on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Green, Again I might repeat that we don't ask anybody their 
political beliefs, 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Green, did you ever speak to any groups that 
attend the camp on any subject other than the camp activities? 

Mr. Green, No, 

Mr, Scherer, Were you teaching any school up there, any class,, 
yourself, at the camp ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel,) 

Mr. Green. If you are referring to the present period, the answer 
is "No." 

Mr, Scherer, My question refers to any time, 

Mr, Green. Then I will have to decline to answer on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment, 

Mr, Scherer. Is it not a fact that you were teaching what is known 
as a leadership class or school at the camp ? 

Mr, Green, I decline to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment, 

Mr. Scherer. Is it not a fact that you were teaching a class at the 
camp from 1950 to 1953 ? 

Mr. Green. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr, Scherer. And didn't that instruction, to some degree at least,, 
consist of the teaching of Communist Party organization? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Green. May I answer the following : I would like to go back 
to your question. Did you say the school between 1950 and when ? 

Mr. Scherer. Fifty-three. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1361 

Mr, Green. To my best recollection, I never taught a school at Camp 
Lakeland between 1950 and 1953. 

Mr. ScHEREK, Wlien did you teach a class or school at Camp Lake- 
land? 

Mr. Green. I will have to decline to answer that on the ground of 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. I will now come back to my previous question : Is it 
not a fact that you did teach at Camp Lakeland a class or a school in 
Communist Party leadership tactics ? 

Mr. Green. I will ask my attorney again. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Green. I am sorry, I decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. I have just 1 or 2 more questions to ask. 

Wliat are the facilities that are made available at the camp, say 
buildings and 

Mr. Green. We have our own lake, we have a recreation hall, we 
have two ball fields, we have basketball courts, we have volleyball 
courts, we have all the sports and other facilities and boats and bunks, 
of course, with a dining room and all the facilities of a camp. 

Mr. Moulder. About how many people can you accommodate? 

Mr. Green. We can accommodate some 320 children and some 250 
adults. 

Mr. Moulder. Is that about the average attendance every year ? 

Mr. Green. That is right. 

Mr. Moulder. For what period of time are they at the camp ? 

Mr. Green. Usually for 10 weeks, from July through August to 
Labor Day. 

Mr. Moulder. After they leave, does another group come in ? 

Mr. Green. The camp is closed for the rest of the year. 

Mr. Moulder. It is just open for that period ? 

Mr. Green. It is the summer only. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. Who. solicited the $300 which you loaned to Sylvan 
Lake, Inc.? 

Mr. Green. I voluntarily made that because I knew the campaign 
was on to raise the money. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. To whom did you make the loan ? 

Mr. Green. Sylvan Lake Holding Corp. 

Mr. Tavenner. "VVliat official did you pay the money to ? 

Mr. Green. I paid it to the secretary, who was collecting the 
money. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio was the secretary ? 

Mr. Green. I think her name was Mrs. Melcher. She received the 
money and gave me a receipt for it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you advertise the camp; in what papers? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Green. National Guardian. 

Mr. Tavenner. Through what mediums? 

Mr. Green. Through newspapers and through publicity circulars 
we mail out. We had ads this year in the National Guardian, in the 
Jewish Day, and in the Freiheit and the Daily Worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. Any other papers? 

Mr. Green. Those are the only four. 



1362 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. I call your attention to an article appearing in the 
June 28, 1953, issue of the New York Herald Tribune by Mr. Herbert 
A. Philbrick. He refers in this article to summer camps in this 
language : 

Proud parents of potential pinks received instructions last week concerning 
accredited summer camps for Communist Party indoctrination and training. 
In a party cell meeting held in the New York area last week, a list of summer 
sanctuaries was designated by a party leader as "approved." 

The article then proceeds to name the camps which were approved,, 
and one of those mentioned is Camp Lakeland. 

Do you have any knowledge of the Communist Party issuing an 
approval or accrediting Camp Lakeland in recommendations to others? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Green. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Green, you are excused as a witness. 

Mr. Green. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Friedman? 

Mr. Friedman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. "Will you hold up your right hand and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Friedman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF KENNETH FRIEDMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, MOE L. TANDLER 

Mr. Ta\^nner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Friedman. Kenneth Friedman. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 

Will coimsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Tandler. My name is' Moe L. Tandler. My office is at 168-16 
Liberty Avenue, Jamaica 33, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, when and where 
you were born ? 

Mr. Friedman. New York City, April 2, 1922. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Friedman, General manager of Wingdale Lodge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that a summer camp in the State of New York? 

Mr. Friedman. It is a resort, yes, in the State of New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliere is it located ? 

Mr. Friedman. At Wingdale, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your edu- 
cational training has been ? 

Mr. Friedman. A year and a half of college. 

Mr. Tavenner. What college? 

Mr. Friedman. CCNY, a year at Pratt Institute and Brooklyn 
Law School. Actually, Brooklyn Law School and Pratt Institute 
was a defense institute training school for subengineering during, I 
believe, 1941-42 ; I don't recall exactly. 

Mr. Ta%t:nner. W^ien did you last attend college ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1363 

Mr. Friedman. This past February I took an evening course in 
liotel management at CCNY, 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you complete your course of training 
that you spoke of a moment ago ? 

Mr. Friedman. I didn't actually finish the course. I started the 
course. I didn't complete it. I went to, I would say, classes through 
March. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of what year? 
. Mr. Friedman. 1955. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you acted in the capacity of manager of any 
other summer camps besides that of Wingdale Lodge ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Friedman, I would prefer to decline to answer that question, 
sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Friedman. I refuse on the basis of the first and fifth amend- 
ments, sir. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. How many other camps have you been employed 
at? 

Mr. Friedman. I would like to decline to answer that on the same 
grounds as the previous question, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee directs the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Friedman. Once again, sir, on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been the manager of Wingdale 
Lodge ? 

Mr. Friedman. Since March 14 of this year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had any connection with Wingdale Lodge 
as an employee prior to the time you mentioned ? 

Mr. Friedman. Wingdale Lodge was incorporated on March 14, I 
believe, 1955, sir. It was not in existence prior to that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has the camp ever had another name ? 

Mr. Friedman. No, sir. This corporation I helped organize at that 
time. 

Mr. Tavenner. The corporation under which you are now em- 
ployed, or by which you are now employed, you say was formed in 
1955. Did this corporation acquire the assets of another corpora- 
tion located at the same place? 

Mr. Friedman. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did it build and construct the summer camp that 
now exists? 

Mr. Friedman. No. We lease the property from a holding cor- 
poration which owns the property that Wingdale Lodge now occu- 
pies. 

Mr. Tavenner. From whom do you rent the property ? 

Mr. Friedman. Loujack Camp Corp. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the camp have a name prior to the time that 
your corporation leased it ? 

Mr. Friedman, Another camp occupied it ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of that camp ? 

Mr. Friedman. That was Camp Unity. 



1364 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. How long had Camp Unity been operated? 

Mr. Friedman. I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio are the present officers of the Lou jack Corp. 
with whom you dealt in leasing the property that you are operating 
as Wingdale Lodge ? • ■, r. 

Mr. Friedman. Louis Pasternack was the gentleman who signed the 
lease as president of that corporation and their attorney. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio are the other officers of that corporation? 

Mr. Friedman. I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a photostatic copy of the certifi- 
cate of incorporation of Lou jack Camp Corp. bearing the date the 
7th day of July 1941, from which it appears that the directors named 
to conduct the business until the first annual meeting are I^uis Paster- 
nack — that is the individual you referred to, is it not? 

Mr. Friedman. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Jack M. Epstein and Arthur P. Wendorf. 

Do you know all three of those individuals? 

Mr.FRiEDMAN. Just Mr. Pasternack, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether the other two are in any 
way connected with that corporation at the present time? 

Mr. Friedman. No; I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. I understood you to state that your corporation is 
the Wingdale Lodge Corp. ? 

Mr. Friedman. Yes ; that is correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the correct name ? 

Mr. Tandler. Mr. Tavenner, it is Wingdale Lodge, Inc. 

Mr. Tavenner. Licorporated ? 

Mr. Tandler. It is abbreviated. It is not spelled out in full. 

I believe you gentlemen have a copy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who is the president of that corporation? 

Mr. Friedman. Milton M. Schreiber. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you spell the name? 

Mr. Friedman. S-c-h-r-e-i-b-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who are the other officers ? 

Mr. Friedman. Isador Dicker, D-i-c-k-e-r, and John Tozser, 
T-o-z-s-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated that the corporation rented the premises 
or leased the f)remises from a holding corporation? "What was the 
name of the holding corporation ? 

Mr. Friedman. Loujack Camp Corp. When I referred to a hold- 
ing corporation, they are the property owners, as far as we know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know by what corporation the business was 
operated prior to obtaining the lease by your corporation? 

Mr. Friedman. I am sorry, I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the Lake Ellis Corp. the one that operated 
Camp Unity prior to the time that your corporation leased it ? 

Mr. Friedman. I have seen stationery about with that name on it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the names of the officers of the Lake 
Ellis Corp, ? 

Mr. Friedman. No ; I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not the Loujack Camp 
Corp. property was one of those summer camp properties mortgaged 
to the IWO and which became involved in the suit which the State of 
New York brought against the IWO ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1365 

Mr. Friedman. No; I don't know about that, sir. Our lease with 
Loujack Camp Corp. didn't involve any of their problems at all. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know of the existence of a mortgage on that 
property ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Friedman. I was just informed that there is a foreclosure notice 
and that our attorney was made party to that foreclosure notice. 
Mr. Tavenner. Who gave that notice? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Friedman. Could I ask Mr. Tandler to help me on this ? 
Mr. Tavenner. Well, if it refreshes your recollection. 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Friedman. It seems that the State of New York has a fore- 
closure action against Loujack Camp Corp. Since we are the lessees 
of the property, we were made party to this foreclosure, and that — • 
what is the date ? 

Mr. Tandler. It has been adjourned until the fall, giving the de- 
fendants time to raise the necessary funds. They have entered into a 
gtipulation. 

Mr. Tavenner. In leasing this property, of course, you made an ex- 
amination to determine the extent of the indebtedness against the 
corporation ; did you not ^ 

Mr. Friedman. Against which corporation? 
Mr. Tavenner. Against Loujack Corp. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Friedman. No ; I didn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean you leased this premises without know- 
ing whether or not there was a likelihood of a mortgage to foreclose 
on the property ? 

Mr. Friedman. We approached the leasing of the property on the 
basis that the Loujack Camp Corp. owned the property and was in a 
position to sign such a lease. The other business of Loujack Camp 
Corp. we did not investigate, to my knowledge. 

My attorney tells me that his office did not, as well. Wliether there 
was an existing mortgage or not to us would not be the determining 
factor of leasing or not leasing. 

Mr. Tavenner. The State of New York brought an action against 
the IWO and had assigned to it the mortgages on this and other camps 
before you made this lease ; did it not ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Friedman. This may be a fact, but frankly I don't know it as 
a matter of knowledga^ I Iniow that what you say probably is true. 
Mr. Tavenner. Mr.^riedman, it would be a most unusual thing, 
1 would think, for any corporation to take over a camp to operate it 
when it Avas involved as this camp was Avithout making some investi- 
gation ahead of time about this mortgage debt whicli was due the IWO. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Friedman. Frankly, the extent of our investigation was that 
the Loujack Camp Corp. were the real and true owners of the prop- 
erty, and that we could make a lease with the corporation. 

As far as the debts and the mortgages held against that holding 
or owning corporation, frankly, we did not make any investigation in 
relation to that. 



1366 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

The existence of a mortgage held by the State of New York was 
not made news to me until the stipulation was forwarded to our 
attorney and he asked me to sign it. As well, because our lease is a 
short-term lease. 

The stipulation foreclosure falls within that lease time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; the mortgage was due during the period in 
which your camp was expecting to operate. It fell due the 31st of 
August; did it not? 

Mr. Friedman, I understand from the stipulation that the agree- 
ment is that there must be payment of that mortgage at that time. 
But anything more about it, I didn't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not a fact that Mr. Pasternack arranged for 
the formation of your corporation for tlie purpose of operating this 
business ? 

Mr. Friedman. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you confer with him prior to the formation of 
your corporation about the proposal to lease this property ? 

Mr. Friedman. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What reason did Mr. Pasternack give as to why 
the camp would not continue to be operated by the Lake Ellis Corp.? 

Mr. Friedman. He thought it was no longer profitable, I imagine. 

I heard that this property was available for sale or for lease and 
then is when we went to speak to him about it. 

Mr. Moulder. Did I understand that the State of New York was 
the holder of the mortgage? 

Mr. Tandler. It became the holder by assignment when it liqui- 
dated the International Workers Order. That is my understanding. 
Is that correct? 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. How many counselors or staff members do you have 
at Wingdale Lodge? 

Mr. Friedman. During the week, approximately 68 or 69 ; on week- 
ends a bit more. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who employed them ? 

Mr. Friedman. I did, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were any of the staff members or employees of 
this lodge recommended to you by any members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Friedman. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have members of the Communist Party recom- 
mended the employment of counselors or staff' members or employees 
at any other camp operated by you ? 

Mr. Friedman. No, sir. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Have you hired any indi^^uals to work at this 
camp who were known to you to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Friedman. I frankly didn't inquire into their political beliefs 
at all. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is not an answer to my question. 

And you may not have made an inquiry, but, nevertheless, were any 
of them known to 3'ou to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Friedman. I would like to refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask a direction to answer ? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes ; you are directed to answ^er. 

Mr. Friedman. I refuse again on the first and fifth amendments. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1367 

Mr. Moulder. Do you decline to answer on the grounds of the first 
and fifth amendments ? 

Mr. Friedman. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there individuals currently employed at your 
camp who are known to you to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Friedman. I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds 
as the previous one. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a circular advertising your camp 
for the July weekend 1955. Will you examine it, please, and identify 
it [handing] and advise the committee whether or not it is an adver- 
tisement for your camp for this year ? 

Mr. Friedman. Yes ; it is. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Friedman Exhibit No. 1" for identification only 
and to be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. Moulder. The document will be admitted and marked for iden- 
tification only. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted from the advertisement that a person 
by the name of Elliott Sullivan was director of the entertainment 
group. 

Did you employ him ? 

Mr. Friedman. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Taat-:nner. Did you make any inquiry as to whether or not he 
was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Friedman. No ; I did not. 

Mr. ScHERER. How long before you employed him did you know 
him? 

Mr. Friedman. I didn't know Mr. Sullivan before I employed him. 
I heard of Mr. Sullivan. I heard that he had worked at another 
resort. I heard he did a very fine job. And I was in the field of 
hiring somebody who did entertainment. 

I spoke to Mr. Sullivan and was impressed by him. 

Mr. Scherer. Wlien did you speak to him ? 

Mr. Friedman. I think I spoke to him in April. 

Mr. Scherer. Who recommended him to you ? 

Mr. Friedman. I don't recall, frankly, the individual, but the person 
was connected with White Lake Lodge and he said that Elliott did a 
fine job at that lodge. I frankly don't recall the individual who said 
this. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. What other camp did he operate, which you just 
referred to ? 

Mr. Friedman. He didn't operate it. I understand he was in charge 
of entertainment at White Lake Lodge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where is that located ? 

Mr. Friedman. Monticello, N. Y., I believe. I don't Imow whether 
it was White Lake, N. Y., or whether it was Monticello, N. Y. I 
don't know the exact location. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know how long he was employed ther? ? 

Mr. Friedman. No; I don't. 

Mv. Tavenner. Do you know why Mr. Sullivan's employment was 
tei-niinated at the ^Yliite Lake Lodge? 

Mr. Friedman. I guess like any employment is terminated at a 
summer resort ; when the season is over, that part of the staff is out of 



1368 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

a job. And next year that part of the staff, if interested in going: 
back to summer work, shops around for jobs again. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean to say that was the reason in his case ? 

Mr. Friedman. As far as I know, that was the reason, because 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, you don't know the exact reason?' 

Mr. Friedman. No. 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Elliott Sullivan was identified before this 
committee by Mr. Lee J. Cobb in Mr. Cobb's testimony of June 2, 1953,. 
as a member of the Communist Party. He was also placed at a frac- 
tion meeting of the Communist Party in New York by Mr. Martin 
Berkeley in his testimony before this committee on September 19,. 
1951. 

And on May 5, 1953, he is identified as a member of the Communist 
Party by Jerome Robbins. And on the 14th day of December 1954, 
Nicholas Bel a identified Elliott Sullivan, an actor, as a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Was he known to you to be a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Friedman. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you aware of any of the testimony before this- 
committee, of the individuals that I have mentioned identifying Mr, 
Sullivan as a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Friedman. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would it have made any difference to you in his 
employment had you known it ? 

Mr. Friedman. I would imagine I would have given it some 
thought, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you have employed him? 

Mr. Tandler. May I object here? 

Mr. Moulder. The rules of the committee do not permit counsel to 
make objections as you do in the courtroom. However, you can con- 
fer with him and make any suggestion you desire to make. 

Mr. Tandler. All right. I was not too fully aware of the pro- 
cedure. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Friedman. I am advised by the lawyer I will have to answer. 
I will try to give you the best I can. 

I don't know, frankly, at this point. 

In the organization of the lodge, and the organization of the enter- 
tainment of the lodge, many factors of whom I hired came to mind, 
why I would hire somebody and not another. Had I known this, I 
don't know whether I would have hired him or not at this point. 

Mr. Tavenner. Referring again to Friedman Exhibit No. 1, I see 
Lloyd Gough was employed. "Wliat was the nature of his employ- 
ment? 

Mr. Friedman. Mr. Gough never appeared at our lodge. 

We employ weekend guest artists to come up and perform. Mr. 
Gougli was one of the artists that we had engaged for that particular 
weekend, but he never made it as a guest artist just for that one week- 
end. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you select him as a guest artist? 

Mr. Friedman. Mr. Sullivan recommended the guest artists and 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1369 

spoke to me about it. I would be the person responsible for his hiring 
and not hiring. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the hiring of Mr. Gough a result of Mr. Sul- 
livan's recommendation? 

Mr. Friedman. It would be similar to any department head making 
a recommendation. I carry that responsibility, not Mr. Sullivan. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you know Mr. Lloyd Gough to be a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Friedman. No. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Mr. Lloyd Gough was likewise identified as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party by the witness Jerome Kobbins. Mr. 
Lloyd Gougli appeared as a witness before this committee and refused 
to testify regarding questions about his Communist Party member- 
ship on the gi-ound that to do so might tend to incriminate him. 

Were you aware of the appearance of Mr. Gough before this com- 
mittee and the testimony relating to him which I have read to you? 

Mr. Friedman. No, sir; I was not. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. He was also identified as a member of the fraction 
meeting of the Communist Party in the Screen Actors Guild by the 
witness Paul Marion when he testified on October 2, 1952. 

Are you acquainted with Morris Salz, S-a-l-z? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Friedman. Yes ; I know Mr. Salz. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you worked in the same project with him at 
any time? 

Mr. Friedman. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not he was employed at 
this camp at any time ? 

Mr. Friedman. Which camp, sir? 

Mr. Tavenner. Camp Unity, or, as it is now called, Wingdale 
Lodge. 

Mr. Friedman. Well, Wingdale Lodge is not Camp Unity. 

Mr. Ta^t:nner. It is the same place, is it not ? 

Mr. Friedman. Yes, but it isn't the same organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know of his being employed at that place 
at any time? 

Mr. Friedman. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was he so employed ? 

Mr. Friedman. Last year. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was his position ? 

Mr. Friedman. He was in charge of the day camp. 

IVIr. Taatenner. Do you know whether Mr. Salz was a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Friedman. No, I don't. 

(The w^itness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether any 
persons known to you to be members of the Communist Party, be- 
sides Mr. Lloyd Gough and Mr. Sullivan, lectured or addressed the 
campers at your lodge? 

Mr. Friedman. One, I don't know whether Mr. Gough and Mr. Sul- 
livan are members of the Communist Party. 

Two, as far as I know, no one has addressed the guests at our place 
who are members of any organization. 

6683S — 55— pt. 5 4 



1370 rNTV'ESTIGATION OF COIMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Ta%'enner. How many campers attend your lodge ? 

Mr. Friedman. It varies from week to week. This week we have 
about 191 people. 

Mr. Ta\t:nxer. Are they children? Adults? 

Mr. Frjed^iax. Adults and children, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. During what period of time is your lodge open? 

Mr. Friedmax. We are open Decoration Day weekend. Then we 
were closed through June, except for a couple of weekends. Then we 
opened officially July 1 and stay open through September 6. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you receive any income or money in connection 
with the operation of the camp other than from the charges and fees 
you collect from the persons who come there as guests ? 

Mr. Friedmax. Xo, we don't. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Were you employed at Camp Lakeland in 1947? 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. Freedmax. Xo. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Were you ever employed at Camp Lakeland ? 

Mr. Friedmax. Xo. 

Mr. Tavexxer. At what other camps have you accepted employ- 
ment? 

Mr. Friedmax. I refused to answer that question before on the 
basis of the first and fifth amendments, and I will answer that question 
that way again. 

Mr. Ta\t:xxer. Are you a member of the IWO ? 

Mr. Friedmax. Xo. 

Mr. Ta\-exxer. Have you ever been a member ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Friedmax". I will refuse to answer that question on the basis 
of the first and fifth amendments again. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ta%'exxer. Do you have any personal knowledge of the opera- 
tion of the camp when it was known as Camp Unity? 

Mr. Friedman. When you sj^eak about personal knowledge, I know 
it existed. Is that the question ? I knew it existed, yes. 

Mr. Tavexx^er. Do you have any knowledge besides that ? 

Mr. FRIED3LA.X. Do I know how they operate in an adult resort? 

Mr. Tavexxer. Xo ; that particular camp. Do you have any knowl- 
edge about its operation, who its managers were? 

Mr. Friedmax. I knew who Pasternack was, the manager of Camp 
Unity. 

Mr. Ta\-enxer. Was he manager up until the period of time that 
your organization leased it? 

Mr. Friedmax. Yes ; as far as I know. 

Mr. TA^'EXXER. Did you ever work for Pasternack in connection 
with the operation of Camp Unity ? 

Mr. Friedmax. Xo. 

Mr. Ta\-exxer. What connection did the IWO have, if any, with 
the operation of Camp Unity ? 

Mr. Friedmax. I don't know. 

Mr. ]Moulder. Have you ever lived anywhere else other than in 
New York City ? 

Mr. Friedmax. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Have vou ever resided anvwhere else other than in 
X^ew York City? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1371 

Mr. Friedman. Yes. Not officially, in the sense that I have always 
kept an apartment in New York, even when I worked outside of New 
York. 

Mr. Moulder. I mean were you ever absent and residing some- 
where else for any period of time other than just a temporary ab- 
sence ? 

Mr. Friedman. For 6 months one time. 

Mr. Moulder. Where wei-e you residing then? 

Mr. Friedman. Mayville, N. Y. 
, Mr. Moulder. Were you employed there at that time ? 

Mr. Friedman. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. What was your employment there? 

Mr. Friedman. I was an organizer for United Public Workers of 
America. 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. Did you at any time hold a position of director of 
Camp Wyandotte? 

Mr. Friedman. I would like to refuse to answer that question, sir, 
on the basis of the first and fifth amendments, and if I could say a few 
words about that, I will explain why. 

I don't want to get anybody involved with Camp Wyandotte in- 
volved with these hearings. I think they are very fine people there 
and, generally speaking, getting involved with committee hearings, 
particularly of this committee, doesn't reflect to the best interests of 
these people. 

For that reason, I decline to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was a different type of camp from the one 
that you are operating now. Is that what you mean to say? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Friedman. I will have to rely on the answer I just gave, that 
1 refuse to answer that question on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. I ask that the witness be directed to answer whether 
or not he was a director at Camp Wyandotte. 

Mr. Moulder. I direct you to answer the question. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Moulder. The purpose, as counsel will tell you, of directing 
you to answer, is the Supreme Court has held that the committee must 
inform you that in your refusal to answer you may be in contempt of 
Congress. That is the purpose in so directing you and reminding 
you that you should answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Friedman. I will have to refuse to answer that question on the 
basis of the first and fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
at any time during the period that you have operated a summer camp ? 

Mr. Friedman. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments as well. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Friedman. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments as well. 

, Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you were organizer of United Public Workers of America? 



1372 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Friedman. I refuse to answer that question again on the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
at any time ? 

Mr. Friedman. I again must refuse to answer that question on the 
basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. ( 'ongressman Scherer, any questions ? 

Mr. Scherer. Xo questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have any further statement that you would 
like to make ? 

Mr. Friedman. No, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. I mean by that, do you have any statement that you 
would like to make concerning your services in the Armed Forces or 
anything of that sort? Did you serve in the Armed Forces? 

Mr. Friedman. No, I did not. 

Mr. Moulder. Referring to what you said awhile ago about an 
unfavorable reflection by appearance before the committee, I think 
every witness should be given an opportunity to say anything he 
desires which might reflect favorably upon his record. 

If you have anything to say 

Mr. Friedman. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Moulder. You are excused as a witness. 

Mr. Studer, will you hold up your right hand and be sworn, please? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony whicli you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Studer. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF NORMAN STUDER, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

DAVID REIN 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mr. Studer. Norman Studer. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. 

Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, R-e-i-n, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, 
D.C. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Studer? 

Mr. Studer. September 7, 1902, Wliitehouse, Ohio. 

JSIr. Tavenner. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Studer. I am director of a camp. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVliat is the name of that camp ? 

Mr. Studer. Camp Woodland. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that at Phoenicia, N. Y. ? 

Mr. Studer. Right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your edu- 
cational training has been ? 

Mr. Studer. I was an undergraduate at Oberlin College, and I re- 
ceived my B, A. degree at Columbia College and my masters from 
Columbia University. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive your master's degree immediately 
after you received your B. A. degree ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1373 

Mr. Studer. Yes; it was immediately after. I received my B. A. 
degree in 1929 and my master's degree in 1932. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your em- 
ployment has been since 1940 ? 

Mr. Studer. Since 1941, during the summers, I have been director 
of Camp Woodland. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you first become a director at Camp 
Woodland ? 

Mr. Studer. I was director of Camp Woodland, Inc., beginning 
the summer of 1941. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to 1941, how were you employed ? 

Mr. Studer. I was a teacher at the Little Red School House. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere is that located ? 

Mr. Studer. In Manhattan, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you a teacher there ? 

Mr. Studer. I was a teacher there from 1934 to 1950. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. In other words, your employment when not en- 
gaged in summer camp work has been that of teaching ? 

Mr. Studer. Right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you teach that entire period at the Little Red 
School House? 

Mr. Studer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. From 1934 to 1950? 

Mr. Studer. Right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your occupation now, other than that of 
conducting summer camps ? 

Mr. Studer. I am director of downtown community school. 

Mr. Tavenner. At what place ? 

Mr. Studer. In Manhattan. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been so engaged ? 

Mr. Studer. From 1951 to the present. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the nature of that work ? 

Mr. Studer. I am in complete administrative charge of this school. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Wliat type of school is it ? 

Mr. Studer. It is a nursery and elementary private school. 

Mr. Scherer. About how many students attend this school ? 

Mr. Studer. About 260. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a photostatic copy of the cer- 
tificate of incorporation of Camp Woodland bearing the date 31st 
day of December 1941, from which it appears that Sarah Abelson, 
Regine Dicker, Hannah Studer, Norman Studer, and Rose Weitzman 
were the persons named as directors until the first annual meeting of 
the stockholders and were the incorporators. 

How many of those individuals are officially connected with the 
corporation now ? 

Mr. Studer. One. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliich one ? 

Mr. Studer. Hannah Studer. 

Mr. Tavenner. And yourself, Norman Studer ? 

Mr. Studer. And Norman Studer ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio are the officers of the corporation at this time ? 

Mr. Studer. President, Norman Studer ; secretary, Hannah Studer ; 
treasurer, Meyer Parodneck. 



1374 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name ? 

Mr. Studer. P-a-r-o-d-n-e-c-k. 

(Representative Morgan M. Moulder left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Studer, is your camp operated for children, 
adults, or both ? 

Mr. Studer. For children only. 

Mr. Tavenner. Up to what age ? 

Mr. Studer. Sixteen. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many children are normally in attendance at 
the summer camp ? 

Mr. Studer. The attendance has fluctuated. At this point 160. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many counselors or staff members do you 
normally have ? 

Mr. Studer. Approximately TO staff members. That includes coun- 
selors, maintenance, everyone. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^Vlio chooses or selects and employs the counselors 
and staff members and other employees ? 

Mr. Studer. I do. 

Mr. Tamsnner. Has the IWO played any part in the operation of 
your summer camp ? 

Mr. Studer. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the IWO ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Studer. Yes ; I was a member of the IWO. 

Mr. Ta-\t:nner. During what period of time? 

Mr. Studer. I carried an insurance policy which, with the demise 
of the IWO, was transferred to another agency, and I still carry that. 
The extent of my membership was the insurance. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Over what period of time have you carried that 
policy ? 

Mr. Studer. I have no recollection, but I would say over the last 
10 years at any rate. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Did I understand you to say that the extent of your 
participation in the IWO was having insurance? 

Mr. Studer. Right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you also contribute to IWO publications? 

Mr. Studer. I don't recollect whether I did or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Fraternal Outlook is or was a publication of 
the IWO; was it not? 

Mr. Studer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a photostatic copy of the issue of 
August-September 1939 carrying an article entitled, "Leather 
Britches, A Story by Norman Studer." Do you recall that? 

Mr. Studer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you make other contributions to the Fraternal 
Outlook? 

Mr. Studer. You mean did I write other stories for it? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Studer. Yes, I wrote several stories for publication. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you engaged in any other activities in the 
IWO besides that which we have mentioned ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) ' ' 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1375 

Mr. Studer. I don't consider that an activity as an IWO member. 

I wrote several articles for children which I contributed as a con- 
tributor for the publication. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period you have been engaged in the 
teaching profession, have you been a member of the American Federa- 
tion of Teachers Union ? 

Mr. Studer. Yes. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. In New York City ? 

Mr. Studer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hold any office in that organization? 

Mr. Studer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the office and when did you hold it? 

Mr. Studer. I was vice president for a term, and there again my 
memory fails me, I don't recall just when. But I know I was vice 
president for a period of time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Dr. Bella Dodd? 

Mr. Studer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What local were you a member of in New York 
City? 

Mr. Studer. I don't recall the number of the local. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you still a member ? 

Mr. Studer. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Is it the same local ? 

Mr. Studer. It is no longer a local of the union. It is an inde- 
pendent union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your group, then, was one of those expelled from 
the American Federation of Teachers on the ground of Communist 
infiltration ; was it not ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Studer. As I understand, that was the ground given for the 
expulsion. 

Mr. Tavenner. That took place at the same time in New York 
that the locals in Philadelphia were also expelled from the national 
organization because of Communist Party infiltration; was it not? 

Mr. Studer. I wouldn't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever attended a national convention of 
the organization? 

Mr. Studer. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time you were vice president of your local 
in the American Federation of Teachers, were there other persons 
holding an official position in that union known to you to be members 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Studer. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at that time a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Studer. I would claim the privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. And therefore you refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Studer. Eight. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member in 1944 of the Sunnyside 
Branch of the Communist Party in New York City ? 

Mr. Studer. I again claim the privilege. 

Mr. Scherer. Do I understand. Witness, that you refuse to answer 
the question on the basis of the fifth amendment ? 



1376 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Studer. Right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you employ anyone in the operation of your 
summer camp known to you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Studer. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there any individuals currently employed at 
your summer camp known to you to be members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Studer. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the course of the conduct of your smnmer camp, 
did you secure as lecturers or as guest-artists any person known to you 
to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Studer. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Scherer. Are you a member of the Communist Party today? 

Mr. Studer. I again claim the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your me- 
dium of advertising is ? 

Mr. Studer. Through various publications which change from year 
to year as we can get response from. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you advertised at any time in the National 
Guardian ? 

Mr. Studer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that apply to this year ? 

Mr. Studer. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time advertised in the Daily 
Worker ? 

Mr. Studer. No. 

I would like to add that we advertise in the New York Times. We 
have advertised in Parents magazine. 

This year our only medium was the New York Times. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1934? 

Mr. Studer. I again claim the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was the time you began teaching in the public 
school system. 

Is it public school system ? 

Mr. Rein. In private school. 

Mr. Studer. I never taught in the public school system. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1950? 

Mr. Studer. I claim the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think that is all, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. The witness is excused, 

Mr. Rein. I think I have the next witness, if you want to call Mr. 
Gustafson. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please, sir ? 

Excuse me, wait a minute. I think we had better wait. 

Mr. Rein. I would like to say, as far as the witness is concerned, he 
is willing to go ahead with just Mr. Scherer here, if that makes any 
difference. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am afraid it does make a difference. 

Mr. Rein. I will state he is willing to go ahead then with Mr. 
Scherer. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1377 

Mr. Tavenner. I am afraid we can't do that. 

Mr. Rein. You say it doesn't make a difference. I thought you said 
his preference doesn't make a difference. 

Mr. Tavenner. I didn't mean that. I don't think his consent or 
agreement to it 

Mr. Rein. Would make a difference. If it did make a difference, 
we could indicate it on the record. 

Mr. Tavenner. We can let him take a few minutes recess. 

Mr. Scherer. We will stand in recess for a few minutes. 

(Whereupon, a brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Scherer. Due to legislation on the floor of the House and 
repeated quorum calls, we are unable to obtain a quorum of the sub- 
committee, and therefore this hearing will be continued tomorrow 
morning, July 29, at 10 : 30 a. m. 

(Wliereupon, at 5 : 30 p. m., the subcommittee was recessed, to be 
reconvened at 10: 30 a. m., Friday, July 29, 1955.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES, NEW 
YORK AREA— PART 5 

(Summer Camps) 

FRIDAY, JULY 29, 1955 

United States House of Repkesentatives, 

Subcommittee of Committee on 

Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. O . 

EXECUTIVE session ^ 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 50 a. m., in room 226, of the House Office 
Building, Hon. Clyde Doyle, presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Clyde Doyle and 
Gordon H. Scherer. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; Raymond 
T. Collins, investigator, and Courtney Owens, investigator. 

Mr. Dotle. The committee is in order. 

Mr. Gustafson, would you rise and be sworn? Do you solemnly 
swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Gustafson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ELTON T. GUSTAFSON, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, DAVID REIN 

Mr. Doyle. The chairman of the full committee, Mr. Walter, has 
appointed a subcommittee for this hearing, consisting of Committee 
Members Moulder, Doyle, and Scherer. Mr. Moulder is absent, but 
the subcommittee members Doyle and Scherer are present, making 
a legal quorum of the subcommittee. 

Are you ready, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Wliat is you name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Gustafson. Elton T. Gustafson. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your last name ? 

Mr. Gustafson. G-u-s-t-a-f-s-o-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Coun- 
sel will please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, iTll 14th Street, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Gustafson ? 

Mr. Gustafson. Manchester, N. H., December 30, 1905. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your present occupation ? 

^ Released by the committee. 

1379 



1380 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr, GusTAFSON. I am codirector with my wife of Camp Timber- 
line. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere is Camp Timberline located ? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. In Jewett, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
educational training has been ? 

Mr. GusTAFsoN. I went to public schools in Manchester, N. H., to 
the University of New Hampshire, and to the New York University. 
I have an AB and an MA. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you complete your educational work at 
New York University ? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. Well, I took my last course there, I guess, about 
1933 or 1934, somewhere along there, 

Mr, Tavenner. When did you become a director or codirector of 
Timberline Camp ? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. Well, more or less automatically when I married 
my present wife, 

Mr, Tavenner. When was that? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. That was in December, the year before last. De- 
cember 1953. 

Mr. Tavenner. "V^^liat was your employment prior to your work 
with this camp ? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. I was an instructor at Brooklyn College. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you an instructor there? 

Mr. GusTAFSON, I was employed at the college from 1931 to 1953, 
I was instructor, I think, from 11)35 or 193G on. I don't remember the 
date, 

Mr. Tavenner, Is this a camp which is operated only in the summer 
months ? 

Mr, GusTAFSON. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. What employment do you have while the camp is 
not in operation? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. I don't have any employment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who is the present owner of Timberline Camp ? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. My wife, Sarah Gustafson. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Will you tell this committee, please, if you know, 
over how long a period of time this camp has been operating? 

Mr. Gustafson. I don't know exactly. I think this is its 14th, 15th, 
or 16th year, or something like that. It was operated up to last year 
as a parent-child camp, mothers and infants, 2- and 3-year-old chil- 
dren. We changed it last year to a children's camp. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat are the ages of the children ? 

Mr. Gustafson. Last year from 5 to 12 ; this year from 6 to 13, 

Mr, Tavenner. Who were the owners of the camp in 1953 ? 

Mr. Gustafson. I guess that it was my wife and her former hus- 
band. I am not positive. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was lier former husband's name? 

Mr. Gustafson. Maurice Iliedman. 

Mr. Tavenner. For the purposes of the record, I think it should 
appear that Mrs, Dorothy K. Funn testified before this committee on 
May 4, 1953, and identified Maurice Riedman as a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Gustafson, how many children were in attendance at your camp 
this year ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1381 

Mr. GusTAFSON. There are 78, 1 believe, right now. 
Mr. Tavenner. How many were in attendance last year? 
Mr. GusTAFSox. We started off with 63. There was a few less than 
that during the month of August. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Over how many months is the camp operated each 



summer 



Mr. GusTAFSOx. I am up there last year and this year for about 7 
months, but the actual operation, for instance, this year, we had a few 
parents up over Decoration Day. The actual operation of the camp is 
8 weeks, exactly. Sometimes, perhaps, a half dozen children and 
parents Avould like to stay over until schools open so we keep them 
there. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Plow many counselors or instructors are employed 
at Camp Timberline ? 

Mr. GusTAFSOx. Eight now I don't know exactly. Approximately 
20. Maybe a few less and ma^^be 1 or 2 more. It varies. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Would you tell the committee, please, how these 
counselors are employed? 

Mr. GusTAFSOx. They apply for jobs, presumably through seeing 
our ads in the papers or because of talking to parents who had 
children up there, who had children up there last year. 

Mr. Tavexxer. "Wlio has the responsibility of employment? 

Mr. GusTAFSOx. My wife and myself. She does more of it than I 
do, because she has had far more experience. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Are any of the counselors employed at your camp 
at this time known to jou to be members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. Certainly not. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Have any of the counselors or employees hereto- 
fore employed at the camp been members of the Communist Party 
to your knowledge ? 

Mr. GusTAFSOx. I can only state for last year, and certainly not to 
my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Have any individuals known to you as members 
of the Communist Party been invited to the camp for the purpose 
of lecturing or conducting courses or entering into discussion forums ? 

Mr. GusTAFSOx. Since I have been there no one has been invited 
for lecturing forums or anything else of that kind. 

Mr. Tavexxer. You spoke of counselors applying for employment 
as a result of the advertisements in the press. 

Mr. GusTAFSox. That is right, 

Mr. Tavexxer. I hand you a copy of an advertisement under the 
heading of "Timberline Camp" and ask you if that is one of the 
advertisements. 

(Documents handed to witness.) 

Mr. GusTAFSOx. That certainly appears to be. I would say yes. 

Mr. Tavexxer. This is an advertisement taken from the National 
Guardian, issue of April 13, 1955. I desire to offer the document in 
evidence and ask that it be marked "Gustafson Exhibit No. 1" for 
identification only and to be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. Doyle. It will be so received and so marked. 

Mr. Tav'exxer. In what other papers do you advertise besides 
the National Guardian ? 

Mr. GusTAFsox. Show Business, the New York Times, New York 
Herald Tribune, the Post, The Amsterdam News, Stuy vesant Town — 



1382 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

I forget the name of the paper, a local paper, and five of the Afro- 
American papers, and the Age Defender, a Negro paper. To the 
best of my recollection, that is where we advertised this year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you advertised this year or last year in the 
Daily Worker ? 

Mr. GusFTAsoN. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the IWO ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gustafsox. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period that you were a teacher, from 
1931 to 1953, were you a member of the American Federation of 
Teachers ? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. Yes, an affiliate, the New York Teachers Union; 
it was part of NFTU for some time. I have forgotten exactly. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of what local were you a member ? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. As I remember, it is a little hazy, at the begin- 
ning it was a college chapter of the Teachers Union in New York, 
and then that broke up later, as it grew a little bit, to chapters of 
various colleges in the city, and I was a member of the Brooklyn 
College chapter. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did joii hold office in that organization? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. I don't think I ever held office in the city imion. 
I wouldn't know the name of the office, but I am pretty sure I was 
once or twice, for a year, perhaps, a member and one officer or 
another of the local. 

I\rr. Tavenner. What office did you hold? 

jSIr. GusTAFSON. I frankly don't remember. That is very easy. 
It could be looked up very easily, I suppose. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a meuiber of the Communist Party 
at any time while you held that office? 

Mr. GusTAFsoN. I am afraid I will have to refuse to answer that 
question, on the basis of my privileges under the fifth amendment 
of tlie Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you aware of any effort being made by the 
Counnunist Party to have members of the Communist Party elected 
to office in the local of the Teachers Union, of which you were a 
member ? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. I shall have to refuse to answer that question for 
the same reason. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time in 1954 and 1955, when you were connected with the 
operation of Camp Timberline? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. I refuse to answer that question also, on the basis 
of the fifth amendment. 

jNIr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. I shall have to give the same answer. I refuse 
to answer on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist 
Party at any time? 

Mr. GusTAFSON. Same answer. I refuse to answer on the basis 
of my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 



nsrS^ESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1383 

Mr. DoTLE. I wish to make this observation very sincerely to you, 
sir : I have often said, that I can understand how patriotic American 
citizens prior to April 1945, prior to the time Earl Browder was 
kicked out of the Communist Party leadership, might have gone into 
the Communist Party as a matter of research or philosophical research 
and investigation. I have not been able to understand how a member 
with college training could stay in the Communist Party, say, a year 
or two after Earl Browder was kicked out, because as I understand 
it, at that time, the Duclos letter came to this country, as a result of 
which he was deposed. 

Of course that drew the lines pretty sharply, as you and I know, 
between the two systems of economy. You are in a line of business 
now affecting young American citizens. For the purpose of this 
statement, I am going to assume that at one time you were a member 
of the Communist Party. I am not criticizing you for pleading your 
constitutional privilege either. l-)ut in my work as a Congressman it 
makes me feel uncomfortable, shall I say, when men with college back- 
ground and training like you find it necessary to not cooperate with 
Congress to the extent of saying whether or not you are a member of 
the Communist Party now. Because you are a leader of American 
children in camp, I hope you will get yourself in a position where 
you do not have to refuse to say whether or not you are a Communist 
now. 

I realize you are in no position, perhaps, to answer my off-the-cuff 
statement, but I am sure we in Congress feel very uncomfortable when 
we find American people that cannot come right out and say, ''I am 
not a Communist now."' 

I have no further statement. 

Mr. Ta^tnner, Mr. Sullivan will be the next witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Sullivan, will you please raise your right hand? 
Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing 
but the truth, so help j'ou God ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP ELLIOTT SULLIVAN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, DAVID REIN 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, sir ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Elliott Sullivan. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that Mr. Sullivan is accompanied by 
the same counsel who accompanied the preceding witness. 
• When and where were you born, Mr. Sullivan ? 

Mr. SuLLiVAX. I was born in San Antonio, Tex., July 4, 1907. 

Mr. Tavenner, "\^niat is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I am an actor and director. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Permanently? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Sullivan. In New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present employment? 

Mr. Sullivan. I am the director of shows at Wingdale Lodge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where is Wingdale Lodge located? 

Mr. Sullivan. In Wingdale, N. Y. 



1384 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I graduated from high school and had, I guess, about 
6 months of college. 
Mr. Tavenner. When did you move to New York? 
Mr. Sullivan. In 1929. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
record of employment has been since 1940 ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I was in Hollywood making motion pictures until 
the time I went into the Army, which was in 1943. I got out in 1945. 
Then I worked in New York and Hollywood since then, not con- 
sistently. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what the nature 
of your employment was in Hollywood ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I worked as an actor in motion pictures. 

Mr. Tavenner. What screen credits did you receive ? 

Mr. Sullivan. There are about 80 of them. 

Mr. Tavenner. I mean give us some of them. 

Mr. Sullivan. The most notable was a picture called Each Dawn 
I Die. Most of those gangster pictures in the 1930's. I should be 
able to reel them otf fast, but I can't recall any of the names at the 
moment. Three Sisters, Angels With Dirty Faces, Yankee Doodle 
Dandy. 

Mr. Tavenner. What producers did you work for m Hollywood? 

Mr. Sullivan. I worked for all the major studios. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did your work in Hollywood begin? 

Mr. Sullivan. It began in 1937. 

Mr. Tavenner. While in Hollywood, did you at any time meet 
V. J. Jerome? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sullivan. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the privi- 
leges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you take up your profession in New York 
City? 

Mr. Sullivan. In 1929. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you return from Los Angeles, from 
Hollywood — to New York City to continue with your profession? 

Mr. Sullivan. I went into the Army in Los Angeles, and when I 
came out I came to New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been in New York ever since? 

Mr. Sullivan. Except for one motion picture that I made where 
I went to Hollywood. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat motion picture was that? 

Mr. Sullivan. A picture called The Lady Gambles, with Barbara 
Stanwyck. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what year did you return to Hollywood? 

Mr. Sullivan. I think it was 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been connected with the operation of 
any summer camps other than Wingdale Lodge ? 

iVIr. Sullivan. I worked, yes, sir, at White Lake. That was 2 years 
ago, 1953, in the summer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that a camp ? 

Mr. Sullivan. White Lake Lodge, I believe it is called. 

Mr. ScHERER. "\^niere is that located? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1385 

Mr. Sullivan. It is on a place called White Lake. It is close to 
Monticello, N. Y. 

Mr. TA^^3NNER. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
^orkinf^ at AVliite Lake Lodge? 

Mr. Sullivan. I refuse to answer that question, on the same ground. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
employed by Wingdale Lodge? 

Mr. Sullivan. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Doyle. On what ground do you refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Sullivan. The privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavbner, Wliat is the nature of your employment at Wingdale 
Lodge ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I put on shows there. 

Mr. Ta-v^nner. Are you the entertainment director? 

Mr. Sullivan. There is no specific title given to me, nor did I choose 
one. I simply put on the shows. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me an advertisement of the camp 
which has been introduced in evidence as Friedman Exhibit No. 1, 
which refers to you as Elliott Sullivan, director. What does the word 
"director" refer to in the advertisement? 

Mr. Sullivan. It refers to directing the shows that are put on 
there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was your employment to direct shows that were 
put on at this camp ? 

Mr. Sullivan. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you have been employed there two seasons? 

Mr. Sullivan. No ; just this year. 

Mr. Tavenner. As the director of these shows, do you choose those 
who participate in them ? 

Mr. Sullivan. No. The manager hires everyone. 

Mr. Tavenner. I noticed in Friedman Exhibit No. 1, that Lloyd 
Gough is one of those who was taking part in the program. 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes. I am familiar with it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you select Mr. Gough for the part that he 
played in that program ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Frankly, I don't remember exactly how it came 
about. The manager also knew Gough. It sort of evolved. 

It is possible that I may have been the one to suggest him. 

Mr.TAVENNER. To Mr. Friedman, do you mean ? 

Mr. Sullivan. That is right. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. You say Mr. Friedman knew Mr. Gough ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I think he did. I am not positive about this, but I 
seem to recall his saying he did know him. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not you recommended Mr. 
Gough to Mr. Friedman ? 

Mr. Sullivan. The reason it may seem hazy to you is that a great 
number of people were under consideration when we were selecting 
people, or when he was throwing out names at me or I was throwing 
out names at him. I am actually not positive as to where this name 
came from first. It is quite possible that I might have mentioned 
him. I have known Lloyd Gough for a long time and worked in 
plays with him. I have known him to be an entertainer and a good 
one. 

66838— 55— pt. 5 5 



1386 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you know him as a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of the Communist Party, to your 
knowledge ? 

Mr. Sullivan. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew at the time he was employed at this 
camp that he had appeared as a witness before this committee, did 
you not ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes, I did. I read it in the papers. 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew that he had refused to testify before 
this committee regarding alleged membership in the Communist 
Party on the ground that to do so might tend to incriminate him? 

Mr. Sullivan. I know that he did refuse to answer, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew that he had been identified in sworn tes- 
timony before this committee as a member of the Communist Party, 
did you not? 

Mr. Sullivan. I simply remember reading about his having ap- 
peared and having refused to testify. I don't remember anything 
about the testimony. 

Mr. Tavi-:nner. Were there any otlier persons recommended by you 
for work at this camp who were known to you to be members of the 
Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. There might be an inference from the way I asked 
the question that should not be, so I desire to change the question. 
Leaving out of the consideration Mr. Gough, were there any persons 
employed at the camp for entertainment purposes wlio were known 
to you to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I refuse to answer that under the fiftli amend- 
ment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Sullivan, this summer you have regularly put 
on shows at the Camp Wingdale Lodge, have you not ? 

Mr. Sullivan. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you recall the show directed by you on the night 
of July 2, that is, the Fourth of July weekend? Do you recall that 
show at Wingdale Lodge ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Can you refresh me whether that was a Saturday 
or Sunday ? 

Mr. ScHERER. That was a Saturday night. 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes, I recall the show. 

Mr. ScHERER. You participated in that show, did you not? 

Mr. StTvLivAN. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. You had 10 acts in that show, do you remember? 
Do you recall there were 10 acts? 

Mr. Sullivan. I don't recall exactly. It is possible. Ten sounds 
right, yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let us see if this refreshes your recollection : The first 
act was a chorus line of 6 girls, the second was a comedy act by you. 
Do you recall that ? 

Mr. Sullivan. That is right. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1387 

* Mr. ScHERER. And the third was a girl who sang. Do you remember 
that ? 

Mr. Sullivan. It is quite possible. I don't remember the exact 
order. 

Mr. ScHERER. Then the fourth act that you put on that night is the 
one that puzzles me a little bit and perhaps you can explain it. Let 
me refresh your recollection as to what happened. It was a very short 
skit in which you and another man participated. Do you remember 
who that man was ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Do you mean his name ? Do you want his name ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. 

Mr. Sullivan. I refuse to answer as to his name. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that he be directed to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. We are not satis- 
hed to accept your answer as given as sufficient. You are directed to 
answer the question, 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sullivan. I refuse to answer on the grounds — rather, under the 
privileges of the fifth amendment as to names. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was this man who participated with you in this act a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. As I said, this skit or act was a very short one. I 
would like you to explain to me what it meant. It opened with you 
saying to the other man, "Want to buy a copy of the Bill of Rights?" 
And he answered, "How much?" You said, "Two bucks." And the 
other man said, "I will take it for a dollar." And at the time the 
other man said, "I will take it for a dollar," one of you passed money 
and the other one a piece of paper to the other. Then both of you said 
simultaneously, "You're under arrest." 

Will you explain to me what that skit meant, what lesson it at- 
tempted to promote? 

Mr. Sullivan. As far as I am concerned, a skit like that is a satire. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is a little too deep for me. 

Mr. Sullivan. It is an attempt to put into humorous theatrical 
terms things that are going on in this country today. That is a 
famous story of a newspaper reporter who took the Bill of Hights in 
some city or another and tried to get signatures on it. Out of some 120, 
I think he got one, simply because people are afraid to sign any peti- 
tions, afraid to, even the Bill of Rights. 

Mr. ScHERER. As a Member of Congress, I find just the opposite. 
The people are willing to sign almost anything. 

Mr. Sullivan. This is a story that has been reported. 

Mr. ScHERER. I did not want to interrupt. Go ahead. 

Mr. Sullivan. That is about it. This is an attempt to take that 
kind of an incident and satirize it in theatrical terms. 

Mr. ScHERER. The explanation does not help me to understand the 
skit. Can you enlarge upon it in any way ? 

]\Ir. Sullivan. I don't think so. I think I have explained it to the 
best of my ability. Except that I would like to say this about it : If 
there is any inference in your recalling this sketch to the effect that 
this is intended to be disrespect on my part for the Bill of Rights, I 



1388 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

would certainly like to assure you that this is not the case, that I have 
the greatest respect for the Constitution and the Bill of Eights. 

Mr. ScHERER. Does the skit itself indicate respect for the Bill of 
Rights ? Let us look at it a little more. You said, "Do you want to 
■buy a copy of the Bill of Rights?" And the other man said, "How 
much?" And you put a price of $2 on it, and then sold it for $1 when 
he agreed to pay $1. How do you explain that? 

Mr. Sullivan. It is one of those incidental jokes that comes in the 
middle of sketches sometimes. But this still does not derogate the 
Bill of Rights in my estimation in that skit. 

Mr. ScHERER. I just cannot understand. If it does not do that, 
what does it do, or what is it intended to do ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Well, sir, I do not think it is possible to take a single 
line out of context and try to make hay out of it, because I can't ex- 
plain one line. The purpose of the skit, as a whole, was to indicate to 
the audience there, in humorous terms, as I said before, some of the 
things that are going on in this country. 

Mr. ScHERER. What do you mean ? What things are going on ? 

jMr. Sullivan. This incident which has been reported in the press 
and in magazines of a newspaper reporter who attempted to get sig- 
natures to the Bill of Rights, and out of 120 people he was accused of 
being a Communist by some, I don't know, 20 or so. Everybody 
refused to sign it except one person. This, I think, is a very interest- 
ing comment on American life today. 

Mr. ScHERER. You think this skit, then, is analogous to the situ- 
ation you just told us about, namely, the man trying to get signatures 
to the Bill of Rights? 

Mr. Sullivan. I think the comedy lay in the fact that the man is 
trying to sell the Bill of Rights as though he was selling something 
subversive. 

Mr. ScHERER. You said it is hard to explain a sentence or two taken 
out of context. I have not taken anything out of context, because I 
read to you, and you acknowledged that it was the entire skit. Let us 
go over it again. This is the entire skit so nothing is taken out of 
context. You and the other man whom you refuse to identify are on 
the stage, and you say, "Do you want to buy a copy of the Bill of 
Rights"? And the other man says. "How much?" Your answer is 
"Two bucks," and he replies, "I will take it for a dollar," And you 
sell it to him for a dollar, and then both of you say, "You are under 
arrest." Then there is a blackout and the curtain falls. 

That is all there is to the skit. There is nothing taken out of 
context. 

Mr. SuLUVAN. You were asking me to explain the line about the 
$2 and $1. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask a question, please. Is this a camp where 
children were in attendance ? 

Mr. Sullivan. There is a day camp in connection with the camp. 

Mr. Doyle. Were they in the audience? American cliildren of 
what age were in the audience ? 

Mr. Sullivan. It is hard for me to tell. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. Approximately. Were they teen-agers ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes, teen-agers. We are trying to adopt a policy 
of keeping children under 12 out of the 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1389 

Mr. DoTiiE. There were about how many high-school and college 
children in the audience? 

Mr. Sullivan. It would be hard to say. 

Mr. Doyle. Fifty? 

Mr. Sullivan. I doubt if there were that many — 10 or 20. 

Mr. Doyle. Were most of the people in the audience fairly young 
people ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I think we have a mixed crowd, some young and 
some older. 

Mr. Doyle. But there would not be many of them over 40 or 50 
years of age, would there? 

Mr. Sullivan. It is hard to approximate, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. How many were in the audience altogether, approxi- 
mately ? 

Mr. Sullivan. It differs with different weekends. 

Mr. Doyle. 150 or 200? 

Mr. Sullivan. Something like that, yes. 

Mr. Doyle. I can give you my opinion of what this skit was in- 
tended to mean, in part, that the Bill of Rights was not worth $2, it 
was not worth 2 bucks. It is very clear that that is one of the things 
you men intended to get across in this alleged satire in theatrical 
terms on the Bill of Rights. You were asked how much and you said, 
"2 bucks," and then your companion said, "I will take it for a dollar." 
In other words, it is a deliberate attempt to cheapen the Bill of Rights 
as a matter of value. 

Mr. Scherer. But today he is using the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Sure. It is worth more than a dollar today to him. It 
is worth using. We are glad to see a man use it if he can do it honestly 
and sincerely, and in good faith. But what do you mean by your 
claiming satire when you ended with "You're under arrest"? Why 
would a man be put under arrest for selling a copy of the Bill of 
Rights? 

Mr. Sullivan. I believe in your home State, Congressman Doyle, 
some years ago, a man down in that square near the courthouse was 
frying to sell the Bill of Rights and he was arrested. That is a matter 
of record. 

Mr. Scherer. He was not arrested for selling the Bill of Rights. 

Mr. SuLUVAN. Wliat other implications can there be? 

Mr. Scherer. Do you mean to say he was arrested because he was 
selling the Bill of Rights? 

Mr. Sullivan. I don't know exactly what the charge was, but that 
is the way it was reported. 

Mr. Scherer. You do not believe that, do you ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I believe it is possible for this to happen. 

Mr. Scherer. That a man was arrested for selling the Bill of Rights 
in the city of Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Doyle. I do not know the incident, but I can thoroughly under- 
stand that an alleged American citizen who was undertaking to ridi- 
cule and subvert the purposes of the Bill of Rights to the American 
public should be pulled in and investigated, whether or not he was 
crazy or whether or not he was a patriotic citizen. That is probably 
why that fellow was pulled in. 

You think it is all right for you folks in the theatrical profession 
to allegedly satire the Bill of Rights before a bunch of young Ameri- 



1390 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

can citizens, by cheapening it, by saying it is not worth more than a 
dollar? I do not. 

Mr. Stillivan. I don't either, but that is not my interpretation of 
this sketch. 

Mr. Doyle. The language speaks for itself, Mr. Sullivan, plus your 
answer. That is the kind of thing that does subvert a constitutional 
government, a bunch of you experts in the theatrical or amusement 
world making light of our American Constitution. And that is what 
you did in this case. That is the way I see it. 

Mr. Sullivan. I repeat, sir, it is a matter of interpretation. 

Mr. DoYXrE. We are exchanging viewpoints. 

Mr. Sullivan. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank God we can do that. 

Mr. Sullivan. You said it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Sullivan, as a matter of fact did you not from 
time to time endeavor by subtle means to get over to these young 
people what you recognize as the Communist Party line, through the 
medium of skits? 

(The witness conferred w^ith his counsel.) 

Mr. Sullivan. That is not true. 

Mr. Scherer. What did you try to get across to them by these 
skits? 

Mr. Sullivan. Entertainment. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that all ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes ; that is all. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you think it is entertainment in the highest sense 
of the word — I am not thinking of the cheap sense of the word— for 
an expert trained in the professional world such as you to put on a 
skit that on the face of it makes a monkey or tries to make light, I do 
not know how else to describe it, except to make a monkey out of the 
Bill of Eights in the esteem of the people who are listening? Is that 
entertainment ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Congressman Doyle, you keep repeating that, and 
I keep repeating it is not my intention to ever derogate or belittle the 
Bill of Eights. On the other hand, I hold it in very high esteem. The 
point of this sketch was not to in a sense even talk about the Bill of 
Eights itself so much as it was to satirize an actual incident that has 
occurred on the American scene. 

Mr. Doyle. But the incident was not connected with the skit. The 
chances are that most of the people in the audience did not even hear 
of the incident. Why did you not connect it up with the incident, so 
it could substantiate your statement now ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Well, sketches are written and done and they do not 
always have to be spelled out. 

Mr. Doyle. I realize that. But the effect of that to me, sir, and 
I have directed several youth camps myself in the earlier days, is that 
you could not have helped but know in advance, as the expert public- 
relations man you are, that in the eyes of those teen-agers, the young 
ones at least, that the brief language you used and the way you used 
it would have resulted in those young American citizens taking a laugh 
at the Bill of Eights. 

Mr. Sullivan. I don't agree with you, sir. I think if it alerted 
anyone to what is going on, on the American scene today, I think 
that 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1391 

Mr. Doyle. You got a good laugh out of it, did you not ? You put it 
on for entertainment and you got your laugh. You could not have 
helped but receive a big laugh out of it, and that is what you designed 
it for, as I see it, as part of the entertainment of the camp, to cause 
something that would amuse and entertain and get laughs for your 
performance. That was part of your professional responsibility, 
entertainment. So you entertained these young people at the expense 
of the Bill of Riglits and cheapened it by getting across that it was 
not worth even 2 "bucks." It was only worth half that much. 

Mr. Sullivan. There is an inference in your statement, Mr. Doyle, 
that seems to imply that somehow I saw there were young people 
there, and I saw an opportunity, somehow, to get some kind of a "dig" 
at the Bill of Rights. In the first place we did not want any children 
in the audience at all. We tried to keep them out. 
Mr. Doyle. You said you kept them out under 12. 
Mr. Sullivan. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. You were there with your eyes open and you saw 
there was a bunch over 12? 

Mr. Sullivan. What I am getting at is that an audience is an audi- 
ence to me, and I do not distinguish between the young people and 
the old. 

Mr. ScHERER. It would not have made any difference whether they 
were young or old, so far as this goes. 
Mr. Tavenner. Is this a young people's camp ? 

Mr. Sullivan. No, it is not a young people's camp. It is an adult 
camp which has a day camp as an adjunct for families to leave their 
children in the day camp. 

Mr. ScHERER. No matter what you say your intention was when you 
put on this skit, the party that reported the incident got tlie impression 
from the skit that you were doing exactly what Mr. Doyle said you 
were doing. Your intention, you say, was different from that, but at 
least one person in the audience did not understand it that way. 

Mr, Doyle. The evidence that we have shows that there were at 
least a few college students there, and you entertainers knew the nature 
of the audience because you saw them. Your purpose was to provide 
entertainment, as you say, and get a laugh, and to amuse the people 
wlio had paid $30 to go there over the weekend. That is understand- 
able. But I am shocked, Mr. Sullivan, at your satire of the Bill of 
Rights, to cheapen it deliberately, or to at least cheapen it, I will say, 
by bringing out to the people present that it was not worth $2, that 
it was only worth half that much, and that is what you sold it for. 
Mr. Tavexner. Mr. Chairman, you were not present yesterday 
v^llen tlie manager of this camp, Mr. Friedman, testified. I asked 
him whether this was a camp for adults or children or both and his 
reply was that it was a camp for both. 

Do you recall that another skit followed in which an individual sang 
a song m which he referred to certain victories at different places, the 
victory at Valley Forge, for instance, with the verse concluding with 
Oh, what a time it was," and then another verse regarding the victory 
at Gettysburg concluding also with the last line of "Oh, what a time 
that was." There was a reference to Nazi Chains, with the verse wind- 
ing up as, "Oh, what a time that was." And then as to a fourth vic- 
tory, the verse was entitled, "Our victory is endangered while freemen 
are m jail. Oh, what time this is." 



1392 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

You recall that ; do you not ? 

Mr, Sullivan. Only vaguely. I am trying to. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that a means of getting over to the people 
in the audience, particularly the young people, the Communist Party 
view regarding Communist leaders who were in jail as a result of 
Federal prosecution? 

Mr. Sullivan. I frankly don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who sang that song? 

Mr. Sullivan. I don't even recall. That is why I am vague about 
the recollection of it. I don't remember who sang it. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you know who wrote it? 

Mr. Sullivan. No ; I don't. 

Mr. ScHERER. Obviously, that was the meaning of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall that this same person who put on 
that skit also put on another in which he made an explanation that, 
"There is a superstition among men in jail that if a light shines 
through the cell window they will be freed," and that this light is 
commonly referred to as the midnight special ; he further said, "A lot 
of men are waiting for the midnight special and each one of you," 
meaning the audience, "is a midnight special." Do you recall that 
incident? 

Mr. Sullivan. I recall it, not fully ; but yes, I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. You recall it well enough to identify that as having 
occurred ? 

Mr. Sullivan. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that also born out of a desire to get across 
to the audience a Communist Party twist? 

Mr. Sullivan. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did it mean ? 

Mr. Sullivan. There are many dozens, in fact hundreds, of songs 
through history that have been written about freedom, and this, to 
the best of my recollection, is one of those. As a matter of fact, I think 
this idea of the midnight special was originated by a fellow named 
Ledbetter, a Negro prisoner who was later released because of his 
ability to sing, as well as I remember the story. So this is one of 
those kinds of songs. 

Mr. Scherer. But in this instance, was it not used particularly in 
reference to the Communist leaders who are now in jail, and was it 
not intended to point out that each one of them in that audience was 
the light or the midnight special that was going to release those 
so-called freemen that were in jail? 

Mr. Sullivan. That is perhaps a possible interpretation. If the 
implication is that it was deliberately selected in order to do this, I 
would say it was not. 

Mr. Scherer. Your answer might carry some weight with me if 
that song stood alone. But that song is connected with other skits 
certainly, in my opinion at least, was sung for the very purpose that 
I just indicated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there also a skit put on and participated in by 
you depicting 4 babies talking together acted out by 2 girls, yourself, 
and another man, and in which the characters talk about being 
grownup, with grownup people going around dropping bombs on each 
other? Do you recall that? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes; I do. .1^ iiuij ^.u- 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1393 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that planned as part of this program? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes; it was put on that evening, I believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose of the sketch ? 

Mr. Sullivan. It was a funny sketch, again, dealing with what we 
consider to be humorous aspects of our daily lives. 

Mr. Tavenner. Actually, is it not an illustration of using your 
profession to get across a certain viewpoint in which the Communist 
Farty was interested ? 

Mr. Sullivan. No ; it was not. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you put on these skits last month ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I refuse to answer that question under the privileges 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party now ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. May I suggest this to you, Mr. Sullivan. I have 
already stated how I interpret the skit about paying only $1 for the 
Bill of Rights. Instead of satirizing the American form of Govern- 
ment, the constitutional Government, and our daily lives in terms of 
ridicule and sarcasm and fear, why do you not, through your native 
ability and theatrical training, inspire people to strongly support the 
constitutional form of government and the Bill of Rights instead of 
allowing anything to come into your presence that would ridicule it 
or make it look cheap ? 

You have the ability and you have the opportunity. In other 
words, why do you not satire it in some way that will give inspira- 
tion to the young people that hear you and see you in your able acting? 

Mr. Sullivan. Well, sir, I don't accept the premise that I have 
cheapened the Bill of Rights in this sketch. I don't recall any other 
sketches or any of the other works we do on drama nights, at the mo- 
ment, but it has always been my intention to do precisely what you 
are saying, and to the best of my ability I have tried to do this, and 
I will continue to try to do this. 

Mr. Doyle. I hope you put a lot more vigor, vim, and vitality into 
that objective, if that is what you have, because we certainly need 
it and the country certainly deserves it, and the world certainly needs 
and deserves it. 

Mr. Sullivan. This I agree with 100 percent. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Sullivan, you are aware, are you not, that you 
have been identified before this committee in sworn testimony as hav- 
ing been a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes ; I am aware of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. If you desire to deny that testimony or explain it 
in any way, I give you the opportunity to do so. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sullivan. No ; I don't care to comment on it. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle, Thank you very much, Mr. Sullivan. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Taa^nner. Mr. Gutman is the next witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Please stand and be sworn. 

66838 — 55— pt. 5 6 



1394 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God ? 
Mr. GuTMAN. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HERBERT GUTMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ^ 

Mr. GuTMAN. Herbert Gutman. 

Mr. Tavenner, It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. 

Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz, 25 Broad Street, New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. A^^ien and where were you born, Mr. Gutman? 

Mr. Gutman. New York City, March 18, 1928. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you tell the committee, please, what your 
educational training has been? 

Mr. Gutman. Do you mean from the beginning? 

Mr. Tavenner. Since public school. 

Mr. Gutman. High school; a graduate of Queens College, New 
York, 1949 ; with a B. A. ; graduate of Columbia University, 1950, 
M. A.; graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, 1950 and 
1953. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Gutman. I am currently unemployed. I am working on a 
book and doing private research which, if you are interested in, I 
will tell you about. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what general field are you doing research? 

Mr. Gutman. It is a social and economic history of the United 
States after the Civil War, with special reference to Pennsylvania 
and Ohio. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time been actively engaged in the 
work of a summer camp known as the Camp Kinderland in the State 
of New York? 

Mr. Gutman. I will respond to that question in the following 
manner. I have never hidden my views from anyone or my associa- 
tions. In the past I have worked in summer camps. I have worked 
in summer camps fi'om 1943 to 1948 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you work in Camp Kinderland? 

Mr. Gutman (continuing). In a minor position of counselor. I 
never held any directive or supervisory capacities in these camps, and 
I have had nothing to do with summer camps since that date. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Since what date? 

Mr. GuT3iAN. 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now would you answer my question, please ? Were 
you actively engaged in any way in connection with the operation of 
Camp Kinderland ? 

Mr. Gutman. With reference to that specific question, I will refuse 
to answer that question on the basis of the 1st, 4th, 5th, 6th, 9th, and 
10th amendments to the Bill of Rights. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated that you were a counselor at certain 
camps. That is correct, isn't it ? 

Mr. Gutman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a counselor at Camp Kinderland in 1947 
and 1948 ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1395 

Mr. GuTMAN. I plead the fifth amendment and all the other amend- 
ments I pleaded and, therefore, refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Tavexner. Mr. Gutman, a young man by the name of Mr. 
Stanley Wechkin, a graduate of Brooklyn College and currently in 
the Armed Forces of the United States, testified before this commit- 
tee that at the age of 12 he attended Camp Kinderland at Hopewell 
Junction, X. Y., in the summer of 1947, and that he was also there the 
following summer, 1948. 

His counselor, he testified, in the summer of 1948, was Herbert 
Gutman. Upon being asked whether he recalled specifically any in- 
stance where Herbert Gutman discussed with him what was apparent 
to liini to be the Communist Party line, he replied : 

Well, he urged my member.^hip iu the Youth for Wallace movement. Mr. 
Gntinan — 

lie stated, 

was a delegate or observer to the Philadelphia convention of the Progressive 
Party in 1948. When he returned to the camp, he urged membership of the 
campers in his bunlv to join the Youth for Wallace group and we registered in 
this group. 

Did you attend the Philadelphia convention of the Progressive 
Party in 1948 as a delegate? 

Mr. Gutman. I decline to answer that question on the previous 
groinids stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Doyle. We are not satisfied that your answer was sufficient, and, 
therefore, I direct you to answer. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]VIr. Gutman. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated, on the grounds of the 1st, 4th, 5th, 6th, 9th, and 10th 
amendments. 

]Mr. Ta\t.nner. Did you urge Mr. Wechkin to join the Youth for 
Wallace group ? 

Mr. Gutman. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. DoYEE. We are not satisfied that your former answer was suffi- 
cient, and I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Gutman. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the testimony of Mr. Wechkin, after 
joining the Youth for Wallace group he joined the Young Progres- 
sives of America in May of 1949, and in the same year the Labor Youth 
League. 

In 1950, according to his testimony, his parents opposed his attend- 
ing the Jefferson School of Social Science. Wechkin testified : 

I called Herbert Gutman on the telephone and I had him speak to my parents, 
and apparently what he told them was enough to convince them that my attend- 
ing the .Jefferson School of Social Science wouldn't be harmful. In fact, it would 
be quite beneticial. 

Do you recall calling his parents with reference to his attending 
tlie Jefferson School of Social Science? 

Mr. Gutman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 



1396 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend the Jefferson School of Social Science 
at any time? 

Mr. GuTMAN. I decline to answer tliat question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. At another place in his testimony, Mr. Wechkin 
stated : 

When I came to Camp Kinderland in 1947, I was no Communist. I think that 
primarily through the influence of Camp Kinderland, and more specifically the 
influence of my counselor, Herbert Gutman, I did eventually become a Com- 
munist in succeeding years. 

I should point out, however, that Mr. Wechkin did not become an 
organizational member of the Communist Party. According to his 
testimony, he had an appointment at Communist Party headquarters 
with an individual for the purpose of obtaining membership, but due 
to a confusion as to the time of appearance, the other party did not 
show up, with the result that ]\Ir. Wechkin never became a dues- 
paying member of the Communist Part3\ 

Mr. Wechkin was asked the following question by Mr, Owens : 

Can you recollect, Mr. Wechkin, any other instances during your attendance 
at Kinderland which clearly portrayed to the cami)ers and to the people at the 
camp a Communist Party line or ideology? 

Mr. Wechkin's reply was : 

Yes, I can. The songs which we were taught and which we sang had a decided 
Communist character to them. 

He testified that tliey sang Bandiera Rosa, an Italian Communist 
song, the concluding line of the chorus of which was "long live com- 
munism and the Communist Party"; the Soviet National Anthem; 
Spanish Civil War Songs, including Viva La Quince Brigada, which 
means "Long Live the 15th Brigade," which was the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade ; and the famous Red Army song, Meadowland. 

"These songs," he said, "were sung informally by large groups of 
campers. The words were taught either by the counselors or campers 
who knew them. In addition," he said, "the words appeared in a 
pamphlet called Sing, which was distributed among the campers and 
contained all the Communist songs referred to." 

Will you tell the committee, please, whether, according to Mr. Wech- 
kin, the practice of singing these Communist songs occurred ? 

Mr. Gutman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Wechkin also testified that at the advice of 
his counselor in 1948, Herbert Gutman, he bought and read a book 
entitled "The Great Conspiracy," by Cameron & Kahn. 

Do you recall whether that occurred ? 

Mr. Gutman, I decline to answer that question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. Sgherer. Was anything that Stanley Wechkin told this com- 
mittee untrue ? 

Mr. Gutman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Sgherer. Is anything that he said with reference to you untrue ? 

Mr. Gutman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Doyle. May I interrupt here ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1397 

The committee will have to recess for a few minutes until we answer 
a quorum call. We regret the inconvenience it causes everyone. We 
will stand in recess and return in a few minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will be in order. 

(At the time of reconvening following the taking of the recess, the 
following members were present : Representatives Doyle and Scherer.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Gutman, I hand you a photostatic copy of the 
June 28, 1953, article of the New York Herald Tribune, and call your 
attention to an article entitled ""The Red Underground, Propaganda 
Is Mapped Out Around the Rosenbergs," by Herbert A. Philbrick. 

Please look at the paragraph in that article entitled "Summer 
Camps." The paragraph in question reads as follows: 

Proud parents of potential pinks received instructions last week concerning 
accredited summer camps for Communist Party indoctrination and training. In 
a party cell meeting held in the New York area last week, a list of summer 
sanctuaries was designated by a party leader as approved. Among them were — 

and there are certain named camps here, including Camp Kinderland. 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Rabinowitz. May I ask the date of that document? 

Mr. Collins. June 28, 1953. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have any knowledge of the designation of 
Camp Kinderland or any other camps mentioned in the article by 
Communist Party leaders as appro vecl camps ? 

Mr. Gutman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party 
today ? 

Mr. Gutman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist 
Party at any time ? 

Mr, Gutman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I think, Mr. Tavenner, should we not at this point 
call attention to the witness and put into the record the fact that 
uncontradicted evidence before this committee clearly shows that 
the Independent Progressive Party in its inception was a Communist- 
initiated organization ? 

Therefore, our questions to you, Mr. Gutman, with reference to the 
Independent Progressive Party, have a direct bearing on our responsi- 
bility under Public Law 601, to ascertain the extent to which the sub- 
versive influences were infiltrating any organization. 

Mr. Gutman. I would ansAver that question by saying that I think 
that is a matter of opinion, sir, and I would remind the committee 
that it is my belief that this committee violates the fundamental prin- 
ciples of American democracy which have shaped the institutions 
which I cherish and which other people cherish and seek to uphold, 
that these fundamental principles are, one, the right of freedom of 
speech and association, the right to due process of law, and the right 
to a trial by a fair jury, and the right to be presented with witnesses. 



1398 INVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

I would further state that it is my belief that to attack the principle 
of freedom of association is to attack the principle upon which all of 
the great democratic gains that the American people have made in the 
last 300 years are based on. 

I would refer you to Alexis Tocqueville's famous book, Democracy 
in America, published more than 100 years ago, which I imagine some 
of you people are acquainted with. Most people who are students and 
seek to understand American history are acquainted with this book, 
because it is a major commentary on our institutions. 

Mr. Tocqueville, a very learned Frenchman, said once you deprive 
a person of freedom of association, you deprive him of the right next 
to liberty and the right to act in his own behalf. 

Mr. DoTLE. We have been pleased to give you the few minutes to 
make your statement. I sensed you wanted to make the statement 
to us, showing your philosophy. You are a young American citizen. 
You have a great many years ahead of you in which you could be a 
very constructive force for law-abiding American citizenship instead 
of the revei'se. 

Now that you have had a good opportunity to give us part of your 
philosophy about what this committee is doing, under established 
law. Public Law 601, which, by the way, is tlie law passed by your 
Congress, what have you to say about the philosophy of the Commu- 
nist Party in the United States ? 

We have let you talk freely about this committee, and criticize 
it and condemn it. What about the Communist Party in the United 
States? You are a scholar, apparently, and well read. In your judg- 
ment, along the lines which justified you in criticizing your congres- 
sional law, what is your philosophy about the Communist Party? 

Mr. GuTMAN. I would respond to that question in the following 
manner : That, sir, is a matter of opinion. 

Mr. Doyle. No, give us your opinion about the Communist Party. 
1 am giving you the opportunity. 

Mr, GuTMAN. I would refer you to Judge Edgerton's dissent in 
the — will you let me finish my answer ? 

Mr. Doyle. I am asking your opinion. 

Mr. GuTMAN. I am trying to give you my opinion. I would refer 
you to Judge Edgerton's dissent in the Barsky case, in which he 
clearly pointed out 

Mr. Doyle. We are familiar with that, young man, but I am asking 
you your opinion. 

Mr. GuTMAN. My opinion is based upon Judge Edgerton's dissent, 
and the writings of the people like Judge Brandies. 

Mr. Doyle. What is j'our opinion about the American Communist 
Party, not the Justices. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, you said your opinion is based upon some 
judge's decision. Is it not a fact your opinion results from your own 
membership in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. GuTMAN. May I answer the previous question ? 

Mr. Scherer. You answer my question. 

Mr. Doyle. I yielded to him, Mr. Gutman. 

Mr. Gutman. My answer to that question would be the following: 
As I said at the beginning of this testimony, I am not ashamed of any 
of the associations or opinions I have held in the past. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1399 

Mr. ScHERER. If you are not ashamed of them, tell us. 

Mr. GuTMAN. I would gladly discuss these questions with any of 
the members of this committee outside of the hearing room. 

Mr. Doyle. You discussed your criticism of this committee in 
the hearing room. Why are you afraid to discuss the Communist 
Party in the hearing room ? 

What is the difference between your criticizing this committee 
freely, and we gave you the opportunity, and discussing the Com- 
munist Party, discussing whether or not you were a member of it. 

Why do you not discuss that freely ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, GuTMAN. I just don't choose to discuss that question with the 
gentlemen in this room. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course not. We understand that. 

Mr. ScHERER. May I go back to my question. Is it not a fact that 
you do not derive your opinion from a decision by the judge to whom 
you referred, but you have an opinion concerning the Communist 
Party as a result of your own membership in the Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

JNIr. GuTMAN. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Sciierer. I thought you would, because the speech you gave 
about the committee, sir, we have heard literally hundreds of times by 
persons who have been before the committee, who have been known 
and identified as Communists. 

Your statement does not vary in the least from those statements. 

Mr. Doyle. May I say, Mr. Gutman, in closing, I am assuming, from 
what evidence we have and what knowledge we have, association on 
your part with the Communist Party. 

Mr. Gutman. That, sir, is an assumption. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that assumption of Mr. Doyle's incorrect.? 

Mr. Gutman. Mr. Doyle is permitted to make any assumptions he 
desires to make. 

Mv. ScHERER. My question is — and I want to ask, Mr. Chairman, 
that you direct the witness to answer — whether Mr. Doyle's assump- 
tion that you are a member of the Communist Party is an incorrect 
assum]:)tion ? 

Mr. DoYiJs. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Gutman. I decline to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. I can only assume, then, that Mr. Doyle's assumption 
was correct, because you were given an opportunity under oath to state 
whether that assumption was incorrect, and j'ou criticized him for 
having that assumption. 

Mr. Doyle. I made that assiim]:)tion, ]Mr. Gutman, and premise this 
brief statement by me on that assumption, because some of us practiced 
law for many years before we came to Congress, and we learned to 
make certain conclusions that we think are reasonable based upon the 
evidence and the information that we have. I am assuming that for 
the purpose of this statement. 

You are a young American citizen. Why in Heaven do you not get 
out of any relationship that exists in your experience, either past or 
present, which puts you in a position where you refuse to cooperate 



1400 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

with the United States Congress in the field of subversive activities, if 
you have any knowledge of such activities? 

You have a great chance to serve your country, but you certainly 
cannot serve it in the highest level of activity if you continue in any 
relationship wherein you have to be fearful that you might be in- 
criminated, if you honestly and fully answer and cooperate with Con- 
gress in trying to get at the extent to which the Communist Party is 
subversively trying to undermine our constitutional form of govern- 
ment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Or recommend to 12-year-olds that they attend the 
Jefferson School of Social Science, which is Communist dominated 
and controlled. 

Mr. Doyle. We cannot do other than believe the evidence we have 
about you. 

That is all, Counsel and Mr. Witness. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Salz is the next witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please rise ? 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Salz. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MORRIS SALZ, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Salz. Morris Salz. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your first and last names? 

Mr. Salz. M-o-r-r-i-s S-a-l-z. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that the witness is accompanied by the 
same counsel who accompanied the preceding witness. 

When and where were yoif ^orn, Mr. Salz ? 

Mr. Salz. June 18, 1910, Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present occupation? 

Mr. Salz. I am a camp director, a day camp, the Straight Arrow 
Camp. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Where is that camp located ? 

Mr. Salz. New York State, Golden's Bridge, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been? 

Mr. Salz. I graduated from the New York City High School, 
Teacher Training School, NYU, received my degree in education. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had any other course of training or 
schooling ? 

Mr. Salz. What do you mean by that question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you attended any other schools or engaged in 
any other educational training? 

Mr. Salz. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Doyle. We cannot accept that as a satisfactory answer, Wit- 
ness, and I direct you to answer the question. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1401 

Mr. Salz. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, how you have 
been employed since 1945 ? 

Mr. Salz. I refuse to answer that question, too, on the basis of the 
fifth and first amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, did you ever go to the Jefferson School of 
Social Science? 

Mr. Salz. I refuse to answer that question on the fifth and first 
amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you receive any training outside the (Jnited 
States? 

Mr. Salz. I refuse to answer that question on the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you ever travel outside the United States? 

Mr. Salz. I have never been outside the United States. 

Mr. ScHERER. Then I submit, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
should again be directed to answer the question whether he ever 
received any educational training outside of the United States. 

Mr. Salz. The answer is "No."' 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Salz, will you tell the committee, please, how 
you have been employed 

Mr. Salz. I refuse to answer that on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments, too, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been employed as a director of 
the Straight Arrow Camp ? 

Mr. Salz. This is the first summer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been employed at any summer camp 
prior to that time? 

Mr. Salz. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Doyle. We do not feel that we can accept that answer, witness, 
and I direct you answer it. 

I cannot possibly see how whether or not you were employed at a 
summer camp might incriminate you. 

Mr. Salz, On the basis of the first and fifth, I feel I am within my 
rights to decline to answer the question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, the counsel did not ask you whether or not 
you were employed at any particular camp. All he asked you was 
whether or not you had ever been employed by any summer camp. 

Mr. Salz. I refuse to answer on the same basis, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. When did you finish school ? 

Mr. Salz. My schooling? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. 

Mr. Salz. I finished my schooling that I mentioned before in around 
1932 or 1933. 

Mr. ScHERER. Where were you employed immediately after you 
got out of school ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Salz. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and the fifth 
amendments. 



1402 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you mean you will not tell us where you were 
employed at any time between the time you finished your formal edu- 
cation and the time you started to work for the Straight Arrow Camp ? 

Mr. Salz. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. The investigation made by the committee staff in- 
dicates that you were employed as an instructor in 1952 at Camp Lake- 
land ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Salz. I mentioned before that I would refuse to answer that 
question. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a camp director at a camp known as Wo- 
chica in 1950? 

Mr. Salz. As I mentioned earlier, on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments, I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a ))hotostatic copy of the January 30, 
1950, issue of the Daily Compass, and direct your attention to a letter 
appearing on that page, which is The Reader's Forum, addressed to 
the editor, entitled "Public Interracial Camps Sought by Council 
Group." 

In the course of the article, the question is asked : ""VVliere are the 
interracial camps for children ? We know of these" and tlie second 
camp named is Wochica, one director Morris Salz, IWO, 80 Fifth 
Avenue. 

Will you examine it, please? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you please state to the committee whether or 
not you were the director of that camp in the year indicated by the 
issue ? 

Mr. Salz. I have indicated before that I wouldn't answer that ques- 
tion on the basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Taatenner. What was your address in 1950? 

Mr. Salz. My address in 1950, which is a public record, was my 
present address, 1799 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the Wochica Camp have the address IWO, 80 
Fifth Avenue, in 1950? 

Mr. Salz. Whether it did or it didn't I would refuse to answer on 
the same basis, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you connected with the operation of any camp 
which was managed or otherwise controlled by the IWO ? 

Mr. Salz. There again, sir, on the basis of the fifth and first amend- 
ments, I wouldn't answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the IWO at any time ? 

Mr. Salz. There, again, I think we are invading my rights and I 
refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth and the first amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a circular adver- 
tising the winter session curriculum for the year 1952 of the Jefferson 
School of Social Science — that is, page 22 of that document — and 
there, under "Item 23," appears the following : 

Problems of progressive parents and children, Morris Salz. The course de- 
scribed is a practical course designed to help parents of school-age children meet 
some of the problems they face today ; your child's school experiences ; national 
chauvinism ; war hysteria and bomb scares ; anti-Soviet indoctrination ; white 
chauvnism and anti-Semitism ; combating prejudices and irrational fears ; in- 
stilling an orientation toward peace and democracy, toward the working class 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1403 

and the Negro people ; special problems of the child in his relation to his fellows. 
Major attention is paid to the question and problems presented by the parents 

themselves. 

Will you examine the document and state whether or not you 
conducted such a course as advertised by the Jefferson School of Social 
Science ? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Salz. On the same basis, of the first and fifth amendments, I 
refuse to answer that, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Has the Jefferson School of Social Science been iden- 
tified as a Communist front? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. SciiERER. Did not the Subversive Activities Control Board 
within the last few weeks make a finding that the Jefferson School 
of Social Science was a Communist-dominated and controlled insti- 
tution ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

I desire to offer in evidence the curriculum of the Jefferson School 
of Social Science for the winter of 1952 and ask that it be marked 
"Salz Exhibit No. l'' for identification only and to be made a part of 
the committee files. 

Mr. Doyle. The exhibit as offeied will be received and so marked. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, how many are 
in attendance at the Straight Arrow Camp, of which you are now the 
manager ? 

Mr. Salz. I am a director of a camp of 85 children. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of what ages ? 

Mr. Salz. Six through 15. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many counselors or staff members are em- 
ployed at the camp ? 

Mr. Salz. There are some who work part time, some who work a 
half-day, and some who work a full day. 

Mr. Ta\t3nner. How many are employed half-time? 

Mr. Salz. Two, 

Mr. Ta-stlnner. How many full time ? 

Mr. Salz. Six. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were those staff members selected? 

Mr. Salz. They were selected, one, by the camp committee of the 
year before, I presume. They are people that have been there for 
several years. There were a few that the camp committee interviewed 
and hired. I was part of that committee that interviewed and hired. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many are on the committee? 

Mr. Salz. There were 3 besides myself who were there for 1 of the 
meetings, and there was another meeting on the program where there 
maybe were more, 7 or 8. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is this camp owned by a corporation or by indi- 
viduals ? 

Mr. Salz. This is a day camp that is attached to a community. 
They are community bungalows. They have a day camp attached to it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who are the owners of the camp ? 

]\Ir. Salz. I think a camp board might be the owners. Let me ex- 
plain. This is a community of probably 100 acres, and there are a 
number of bungalows, people that have been there for years, I presume, 



1404 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

and have been developing their bungalow areas. They have set up 
grounds and a building where they have a day camp in operation. 
They have a lake which is community-owned and shared for the chil- 
dren. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you mean the camp is conducted for the children of 
the people who own the bungalows ? 

Mr. Salz. Wlio either own or who rent. That is, there are some 
people who may rent out a unit or a part of a unit. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is this a summer community ? 

Mr. Salz. I believe there are some people who have winterized homes 
there and who live there the year round. I presimie it is predom- 
inantly a summer community. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is the IWO connected in any manner with the de- 
velopment of that camp ? 

Mr. Salz. I wouldn't know, and on tlie basis of the first and fifth 
I wouldn't answer one way or the other on that kind of thing. Things 
that I don't know about I don't think it is fair to ask or fair to an- 
swer. 

Mr. Tavenner. There is no way for us to know what you know 
unless we ask you. 

Mr. Salz. True. I have no knowledge of that. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Who employed you ? 

Mr. Salz. I was interviewed by a committee of ?> people, and I was 
told I could have the job if I wanted it after the interview. Not 
innnediately after, but they must have been interviewing people 

Mr. Ta\'t:nner. Were you asked any question prior to your em- 
ployment relative to any Communist Party activities on your part? 

Mr. Salz. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the first 
and fifth amendments, too, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. That leaves the matter with the inference that you 
were asked some questions about Communist activities. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Out of fairness to those individuals, I think you 
should answer that question. 

Mr. Salz. Actually, as far as I am concerned, whatever the infer- 
ences may be, they are up to you. I have answered on the basis of 
the answer which I feel is proper and fair in this matter, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were a member of the Communist Party, were 
you not, at the time you were employed to operate the camp ? 

Mr. Salz. There, again, I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth 
and the first amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you have been a member of the Communist 
Party during the period that you have been operating that camp; 
have you not? 

Mr. Salz. There again, may I say, on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments, I feel that is a very unfair question and outside of your 
province. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with a person by the name of 
Dorothy Funn? 

Mr. Salz. There, again, on the basis of the first and fifth amend- 
ments I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Dorothy Funn testified before this committee 
and identified you as the individual who recruited her into the Com- 
munist Partv. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1405 

Did that occur? 

Mr. Salz. On the same basis, of the first and fifth amendments, I 
refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was Mrs. Funn telling this committee the truth when 
she stated under oath you had recruited her as a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Salz. As I say, I will not engage in a discussion on what 
or what not was in a person's mind or conscience on any of these 
matters. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am not asking that question. I am asking you 
whether or not Mrs. Funn, when she told this committee that you 
were the one that recruited her into the Communist Party, was telling 
the committee the truth. That is not an opinion. 

Mr. Salz. Again, I told you that I refuse to answer on the basis 
of the first and fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a teacher in the Bedford-Stuyvesant 
area ? 

Mr. Salz. Again, on the basis of the first and fifth, I refuse to 
answer that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer that 
question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. We are not satisfied with your answer, and cannot 
accept it. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Salz. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Were you a teacher in a public school in the State of 
New York prior to the time you became director of this particular 
camp this summer? 

Mr. Salz. Once again, on the same basis, I refuse to answer that 
question, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, the question of whether or not you 
were a public-school teacher might incriminate you ? 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. We cannot accept your answer as satisfactory, and I will 
direct you to answ^er the question. 

Mr. Salz. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party now? 

Mr. Salz. On the basis of the first and fifth amendments, sir, I re- 
fuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Salz. Same answer. 

Mr. Scherer. I think I should say to you that in my opinion, your 
refusal to answer the question of Mr. Doyle as to whether or not you 
were ever a teacher in the public schools, on the basis of the fifth 
amendment, in that instance you are not invoking the fifth amendment 
properly, and that you are in contempt of this committee. That is 
just my opinion. 

Mr. Salz. I have tried to answer as I saw my rights. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have any employment other than the opera- 
tion of the summer camp ? 

Mr. Salz. On that same, the first and fifth amendment, basis, sir, 
I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you have any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 



1406 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. SCHERER. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Are any of the staff of counselors or assistants ot yours 
at the camp this summer college men or women from nearby colleges? 

Mr. Salz. I am not sure. 

Mr. Doyle. Would you take a minute to refresh your memoi^ { 

Mr. Salz. A'V^iether they are taking courses at college or not, 1 
don't know. 

Mr. Doyle. They might be in summer recess right now. 

Mr. Salz. I am thinking in terms that most of them are mature 
people who, if they have been college trained, would have been prou- 
ably graduated from college. 

Mr. Doyle. Are any of them high school youngsters from nearoy 
high schools ? 

Mr. Salz. To my knowledge, I don't know that either. I haven't 
gone into the background of the people in that regard. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course not, but are any of your counselors or assist- 
ants high-school age? 

Mr. Salz. The formal counselor staff is not, to my knowledge. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, the informal counselor staff, then, if you have 
both. You said the formal counselor staff. 

Mr. Salz. Some of our people that they have are intra ining people. 
They have one person as an intraining person, who might be. She is a 
resident of the community. I might say that the community commit- 
tee has placed people, and I presume they are owners in the com- 
munity. They would know. I don't have that much knowledge of 
their background. 

Mr. Doyle, I understand some of those problems because I have 
directed some summer camps myself. 

Are any of the counselors or your assistants at the camp this sum- 
mer known to you to be members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Salz. I refuse to answer a question of that kind also, on the 
basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Doyle. Are you at this time a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Salz. I believe I have answered that question, too. 

Mr. Doyle. I do not want to repeat it. 

Mr. Salz. On the basis of the first and fifth amendments, I refuse 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you have any other questions? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. If there are no other questions, thank you. 

(Wliereupon, at 1 : 10 p. m., the committee recessed subject to the 
call of the chair.) 



r.^ 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES, NEW 
YORK AREA— PART 5 

(Summer Camps) 



MONDAY, AUGUST 1, 1955 

House of Representatives, 
Subcommittee of the Committee 

ON Un-Aimerican Activities, 

Washington^ D. C. 
Executive Session ^ 

The subcommittee met at 10 : 30 a. m., pursuant to notice, in room 
227 of the House Office Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chair- 
man) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representative Walter (presiding) 
and Scherer. 

Stair members present: Thomas W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk; Frank 
S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; Raymond T. Collins, and C. E. Owens, in- 
\estigators. 

Mr, Walter. The subcommittee will be in order. 

(Representatives Walter and Scherer were present at the convening 
<,f the hearing and remained present throughout the hearing.) 

Mr. Walter. Will you stand and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will 
l»p the* truth, the whole truth and nothiiig but the truth, so help you 
(Jod? 

Mr. Briehl. I do. 

'iESTIMONY OF FEED BRIEHL, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 
MILTON H. FRIEDMAN AND JOSEPH KOOPERMAN 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Briehl. Fred Briehl. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by two coun- 
sels. Will each identify himself for the record ? 

]Mr. Friedman. Milton H. Friedman, 342 Madison Avenue, New 
\ ork. 

Mr. KooPERMAN. Joseph Kooperman, Ellenville, Ulster County, 
^[. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVlien and where were you born, Mr. Briehl ? 

Mr. Briehl. I was born in Paterson, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. What date? 



' Released by the committee. 

1407 



1408 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Briehl. December 15, 1892. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside? 

Mr. Briehl. Wallkill, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present occupation? 

Mr. Briehl. I operate a farm. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where is this farm located ? 

Mr. Briehl. The post office address is Wallkill, N. Y., but it is in 
a township of Gardiner. 

Mr. Tavenner. What other occupations do you have besides that 
of farming? 

Mr. Briehl. Mr. Chairman, I think on this question I will invoke 
the fifth amendment, and I shall not answer. 

Mr. Walter. I direct you to answer the question as to whether or 
not you have any other occupation. 

Mr. Briehl. I shall invoke the fifth amendment and I shall not 
answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever engaged in the occupation of print- 
ing or in the trade of printing ? 

Mr. Briehl. Many years ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was that ? 

Mr. Briehl. I don't remember exactly. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the last position that you held in which 
you worked as a printer ? 

Mr. Briehl. On that question I shall also invoke the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Walter. I direct you to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Briehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee please what your em- 
ployment has been since 1930 ? 

Mr. Briehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. Walter. I direct you to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Briehl. I think that I stated before when you asked me that 
I was operating a farm. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has that been your occupation since 1930 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Briehl. I have been operating a farm as I stated before, and 
beyond that, on this question, I invoke again the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. I think he should be directed to answer Mr. Taven- 
ner's question of whether he has been operating this farm since 1930. 

Mr. Walter. I direct him to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Briehl. Since 1925. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is this farm owned solely by you ? 

Mr. Briehl. It is in my wife's name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is the size of the farm ? 

Mr. Briehl. One hundred and twenty acres. 

Mr. Tavenner. What type of farming operations do you engage in ? 

Mr. Briehl. I raise hay, and I have been dairying. 

Mr. Tavenner. What other employment have you had since 1930 ? 

Mr. Briehl. I shall invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you to direct the witness to answer. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1409 

Mr. Wauter. I direct you to answer that question. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. I believe the chairman directed you to answer the 
question of Mr. Tavenner, as to what other employment you have 
had since 1930. 

Mr. Brtehl. I shall invoke the fifth amendment on that question as 
I stated before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you live on the farm, or do you have a residence 
elsewhere ? 

Mr. Briehl. I live on the farm. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you live there the entire year ? 

Mr. Briehl. All year around. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you have another residence other than the farm ? 

Mr. Briehl. None. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you conduct any business on this farm other 
than that of normal farming operations ? 

Mr. Briehl. On that question I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Briehl. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you engaged in writing for magazines or pub- 
lications ? 

Mr. Briehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of the March 1944 
issue of The Communist, and on the front page of which appears the 
contents of the magazine. I see there a subject entitled "National 
Unity and the Farmers, by Fred Briehl." Will you look at the article 
appearing there by that title, under which appears the name "by Fred 
Briehl," and state whether or not you are the writer of that article? 

Mr. Briehl. I shall invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Briehl. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that the subject of this article attributed 
to you is "National Unity and the Farmers," and the date is 1944. 
Will you tell the committee, please, whether or not in 1944 you were 
a member of the New York State Farm Commission of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Briehl. That is a similar question, Mr. Chairman, and a similar 
answer. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. It is not a similar question. 

Mr. Briehl. I refuse to answer. It is a question of a similar nature. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a document en- 
titled "Two Decades of the Communist Party," which includes the 
frontispiece and page 13. On page 13 there are a number of photo- 
graphs under the heading "State Leaders." Will you examine it, 
please, and state whether or not you find your photograph in the 
right-hand margin of page 13 ? 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 
Mr. Briehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 
Mr. Tavenner. On this document, Mr. Chairman, appears a photo- 
graph of a person under which appears the name "Fred Briehl," a 
member of the New York State Farm Commission. I desire to intro- 
duce the document in evidence and ask that it be marked "Briehl Ex- 
hibit No. 1" for identification only and to be made a part of the com- 
mittee files. 

66838— 55— pt. 5 7 



1410 mVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you now a photostatic copy of what purports 
to be the election platform of the Communist Party of New York State 
for the year 1934, on one page of which appears the New York State 
ticket of the Communist Party, announcing the candidates for gov- 
ernor, lieutenant governor, and for attorney general. Will you ex- 
amine it please and state whether or not you see your photograph, and 
under the photograph the name of Fred Briehl as a candidate for 
attorney general for the State of New York ? 

Mr. Briehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, this document shows that the New 
York State ticket of the Communist Party for the year 1984 was 
I. Amter for governor, W. Burroughs for lieutenant governor, and 
Fred Briehl for attorney general, with photographs of those three. 
It is noted also that the candidate on the Communist Party ticket for 
United States Senator was Max Bedacht. 

At the bottom of the left-hand page, or the back of the pamphlet 
you will find these comments : "Vote Communist," in black type, fol- 
lowed by a hammer and sickle. Under that appears "Read and spread 
the Daily AVorker." Under that, "Join the Communist Party." 

I desire to ofi'er the document in evidence, and asking it to be marked 
"Briehl Exhibit No. 2" for identification only and to be made a part 
of the committee files. 

Mr. Walter. It will be so marked. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had legal training, Mr. Briehl ? 

Mr. Briehl. I shall invoke the fifth amendment on that question, 
also. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee at this time what your 
educational training has been ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Briehl. On the question of, did I ever have any legal educa- 
tion- — was that your question? 

Mr. Tavenner. I asked you to tell the committee what your formal 
educational training has been. 

Counsel for the Witness. He means the prior question. 

Mr. Tavenner. My question now, that I have propounded to him, 
which he has not answered is this, and I will repeat it, AVhat has been 
your formal educational training? 

Counsel for the Witness. What he means is he wanted to change 
his response to the prior question before answering the present one. 

Mr. Briehl. That is right; you asked me did I ever have any legal 
education, and the answer to that is "No." 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Briehl. I have graduated from public school ; I went a short 
time only a matter of several months, to high school, and I attended 
evening high school for a number of years. Likewise, I attended 
schooling on accounting. . 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you take your course in accounting, and 

Mr. Briehl. I don't recall the exact year offhand. I studied in 
various places, with the YMCA, and I think it was with Euden for a 
while, and with Pace & Pace. 

Mr. Tavenner. In New York City ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1411 

Mr. Briehl. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner, What was the approximate date ? 

Mr. Briehl. It is hard to tell. It was somewhere around 1916. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you followed the profession of accounting? 

Mr. Briehl. I did for several years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien was your last employment in that field ? 

Mr. Briehl. I think around 1924. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of an excerpt from the 
November 3, 1936, issue of the Daily Worker, entitled "How To Vote 
on Election Day," and there appears in the middle of this document a 
statement of the statewide officers. Will you examine it, please, and 
state whether or not you were a candidate for attorney general in 1936, 
as indicated by the advertisement ? 

Mr. Briehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question, and 
refuse to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Briehl Exhibit No. 3." 

Mr. Walter. It will be received and so marked. 

(The exhibit is as follows :) 

[Daily Worker, New York, Tuesday, November 3, 1936] 

How TO Vote on Election Day 

(Save This Coupon) 

following ai"e the issues on wliich the Commimist Party of New York State 
uris:es all voters to vote "jes." 

Proposition No. 1 — $30 million relief bond issue. 

Question No. 1 — State — Constitutional convention. 

Question No. 2 — Local — Proportional representation. 

Question No. o — Local — Three-platoon system for firemen. 

On question No. 1 — Local — The New York City charter, all voters are urged 
to vote "no." 

Following are the candidates which the Communist Party urges all voters to 
elect : 

Earl Browder, for President. 

James W. Ford, for Vice President. 

statewide 

Governor, New York State — Robert Minor. 

Lieutenant Governor — Julian S. Sawyer. 

Attorney General — Fred Briehl. 

Comptroller — Grace Hutchins. 

Judge, court of appeals — Irving Schwab. 

Congressmen at large — Roy Hudson, Simon W. Gerson. 

CITYWIDE 

President of board of aldermen — Israel Amter. 

NEW YORK COUNTY 

Justices of the city court — Harry Cannes, Alexander Tratchtenberg, John 
Itigram. 

BRONX COUNTY 

Justices of the city court — Mollie Picheny, Philip Kaplan. 

KINGS COUNTY 

Justices of the city court — Joseph Roberts, Molly Lee Samuels. 



1412 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 



Sheriff — Giovannii Mattey. 



RICHMOND COUNTY 



NEW YORK COUNTY 



Congressmen 



11th District- 
12th District- 
13th Distriet- 
14th District- 
15th District- 
I6th District- 
17th District- 
19th District- 
21st District- 
22d District- 



-Edward Crowley 
-Sadie Van Veen 
-Joseph Magliacano 
-Max Bedacht 
-Harold Hickerson 
-Marthe Teichman 
—Louis Budenz 
—Theodore Bassett 
-Samuel C. Patterson 
-Richard Sullivan 



State senators 



12th District — Margaret Cowl 
13th District— Harry Raymond 
14th District— John Little 
15th District — Joseph Victory 
16th District — Mark Baum 
17th District — Sara Rice 
18th District — Ben Davis 
19th District — Felix Padilla 
20th District— Cyril Phillips 



State assemhly 



1st District — Henry Forbes 

2d District — Pauline Rogers 

3d District— Paul White 

4th District — Sam Wiseman 

5th District— Ed Ahearn 

6th District— Rubin Shulman 

7th District— Abner T. Levin 

8th District— Carl Brodsky 

9th District — Philip Holmes 
10th District — George Powers 
11th District— Clara Severn 
12th District— Chapman T. Smith 
13th District— Abner W. Berry 
14th District — Karl Leitner 
15th District— John Strasser 
16th District — George Loh 
17th District — Jose Santiago 
18th District — Elsie Canepa 
19th District — Merrill C. Work 
20th District— George Michael Wastilla 
21st District— Angelo Herndon 
22d District — Al Graber 
23d District— William Davis 



22d District — Richard Sullivan 
2:^d District — Alice Udren 
24th District— George Primoff 



21st District— John Murphy 
22d District — Carl Carter 
23d District — Benjamin Levy 



BRONX COUNTY 

Congressmen 



State senators 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1413 

Assembly 



1st District — Isadore Baker 
2d District — Esther Hagler 
3d District — Frances Brown 
4th District — Margaret Walker 
4th District — Moissaye J. Olgin 
6th District — Sam Nesin 
7th District— Ben Gold 
8th District — Murray Schneider 

KINGS COUNTY 

Congressmen 
3d District — Domenic Flaini 
4th District — Charles Warren 
5th District — Sadie Berg 
(jth District — Constance Jackson 
7th District— Tom Malloy 
8th District — Isadore Begun 
9th District — Charles Oberkirsh 
10th District — Joe Weiss 

State senators 
4th District — Arthur Berson 
5th District — Peter Cacchione 
6th District — Marcus Alphonse Murphy 
7th District — Robert A. Campbell 
8th District— Ben Stein 
9th District — Louis Di Santis 
10th District — Dorothy Loevv 

Assembly 

Ist District — Joseph Martin 

2d District — Clara Shavelson 

3d District — Henry Cabot 

4th District — Frank Cestare 

5th District — Joseph A. Burns 

6th District — Sophie Savage 

7th District — Robert Rasmussen 

8th District— Earl Miles 

9th District — Isadore Solomon 
10th District— Sally Bloom 
11th District — Joseph Taylor 
12th District— Mike Saunders 
13th District— Ada Vladimir 
14th District — Maratha Stone 
15th District— Frank Cinilla 
16th District— Leon Gerst 
17th District — Timothy Holmes 
18th District — Irving Caress 
19th District — Bessie Davis 
20th District — Mary Marron 
21st District — John Michael Cooke 
22d District— Robert Martin 
23d District— Helen Fichtenbaum 

Justice municipal court 
2d District — Don Mortimer 

QUEENS COUNTY 

Congressmen 
1st District — August Henkel 
2d District — Paul Crosbie 
9th District — Charles Oberkirsh 



1414 INVESTIGATION OF COMMtJNIST ACTIVITIES 

State senator 

2(1 District — Charles Archer 

3d District — Eusebio Imragliazzo 

Assembly 

1st District — David Jordan 
2d District — Rubin Schechter 
3d District — George Graves 
4th District — IMabel Brown 
5th District — Herman Greenfield 
6th District — Fritz Ackerman 

RICHMOND COUNTY 

Congressman 

11th District — Edward Growley 

State senator 

24th District — Minnie Nichols 

Assembly 

1st District — Jack Callahan 

2d District— Sebastian Urcinolia 

CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS 

25th — Antonio Lombardo, New Rochelle 
30th — Clarence H. Carr, Johnstown 
35th— Lempi Makela, Syracuse 
37th — ^AUen R. Chase — Trumansburg 
o9th — Canio Perrini — Rochester 
40th— Edwin Richards— Buffalo 
4od — Axel W. Berggren — Jamestown 
51st — George W. Reader — Jamestown 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Mr. Briehl, during the course of an investigation 
conducted by the committee, Mr. Marwig testified before tliis com- 
mittee that he had examined the record of a check payable to you, 
and that this check bears the date of July 28, 1939, payable to you 
in the amount of $1,000, and signed by William Weiner, secretary 
of the Communist Party, USA. The committee's investigation also 
reflects that this check was deposited by you on August 2, 1939, at 
the Wallkill National Bank. Will you tell the committee please 
what tlie purpose was in giving you a check for $1,000 by the secre- 
tary of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Briehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question, and 
refuse to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a candidate for comptroller of the State 
of New York on the Communist Party ticket in 1942? 

Mr. Briehl. The same answer, I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the same year were you elected the third vice 
president of the State committee of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Briehl. The same answer, fifth , amendment, and refuse to 
answer. 

(The witness conferred witli his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1415 

Mr. Tavenner. The July 28, 1950, issue of the Daily Worker car- 
ries an advertisement : 

Briehl's, Wallkill, Ulster County, New York, phone 3-2214, scenic country, 
pleasant informality, private lake, swimming, free boating, recreation hall] 
indoor and outdoor games and sports, saddle horses available, wholesome food' 
oix?n all year, August— Adults only, rate per week, $35, weekends— $6 per day' 
write for folder. 

Did you place that advertisement in the Daily Worker, in 1950? 
Mr. Briehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 
Mr. Tav-enner. Were you conductino; a recreation center or camp 
on your farm in 1950, as indicated by this advertisement? 

Mr. Brieiil. I again refuse to answer on the same grounds, and I 
invoke the hfth amendment. Mr. Tavenner, I think we can save time 
for you. Any question of this nature I shall invoke the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. ScHERER. We are going to ask the questions, and you just go 
ahead and answer them, 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer a copy of the Dailv Worker of July 
29, 1950, in evidence and ask it be marked "Briehl Exhibit No. 
4," for identification only and to be made a part of the committee 
files. 

Mr. Wali-er. It will be received and so marked. 
Mr. Tavenner. It is noted in the advertisement that you specify 
tliat adults only would be admitted during the month of August. 
Will you explain whether or not in your business each year you re- 
strict 1 month to adults only ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Briehl. I will invoke the fifth amendment on that question 
also. 

Mr. Tamsnner. ^V]\en an investigator of this committee served the 
subpena upon you, weren't there a group of younger people at your 
place of business? 

Mr. Brieiil. I will invoke the fifth amendment on that question, 
too. ^ ' 

Mr. Tavenner. During the month of July 1955, did you conduct a 
resort business on your farm attended by young people ? 
Mr. Brieiil. The same answer, the fifth amendment. 
Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether it has 
been the practice at your farm or resort, whichever it might be, to 
operate a training school for the waterfront section of the Communist 
Party in New York? 

Mr. Briehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question and 
refuse to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before be the August 25, 1954, issue of the 
Daily Worker. On page 8 of that, there is an article describing a 
social affair at your place of business which was termed "Freedom of 
the Press Picnic for Ulster, Sullivan, and Dutchess Counties." 

I hand you the article and ask you to state whether or not such a 
picnic Avas held in August of 1954 ? 

Mr. Brlehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 
Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask it 
to be marked "Briehl Exhibit No. 5." for identification only and to be 
made a part of the committee files. 
Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 



1416 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it correct to state that a "Freedom of the Press" 
function was designed for assistance to the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. Briehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with V. J. Jerome? 

Mr. Briehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Eugene Dennis? 

Mr. Briehl. The same kind of a question and the same kind of an 
answer, and I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Gil Green ? 

Mr. Briehl. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did any one of these three persons or all of them 
attend your resort located on your farm ? 

Mr. Briehl. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it the practice at your resort to conduct forums, 
and have lectures made by various individuals ? 

Mr. Briehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. As a matter of fact, you use your farm each year as 
a Communist Party training school, do you not ? 

Mr. Briehl. Is that a statement on your part? 

Mr. Scherer. It is a question. 

Mr. Briehl. You put it in the form of a question ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Briehl. In that case, I invoke the fifth amendment and refuse 
to answer. 

Mr. Scherer. Is what I said true or false ? 

Mr. Briehl. I will give you the same answer on that, I won't answer 
that question, on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. At periods you have children at this school, do you 
not? , , 

Mr. Briehl. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the course of the investigation conducted 
by the staff, there came to our attention a letter which was alleged to 
have been circulated by you, in 1942, which appeared to be in the form 
of a Christmas greeting. It reads as follows : 

Dear Friend: Again we are at that period of the year when it is customary 
to send greetings or good wishes to those with whom we are closely acquainted. 
Accordingly, we send to you our best wishes, not only as a matter of custom, 
but we mean it so all of the time. 

However, the mere wish by itself can do little or nothing to so arrange social 
and economic problems to make a better life possible. 

So when we send our greetings to you, we mean it so completely that we 
intend to struggle earnestly for the working class to take over full economic and 
political power, for only then will it be possible for all of us to live our lives to 
the fullest and best. 

Did you compose that letter ? 

Mr. Briehl. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. By what means did you propose to work for the 
working class to take over full economic and political power? 

Mr. Briehl. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a photostatic copy of the June 28, 
1953, issue of the New York Herald Tribune, and I refer to an article 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 1417 

there entitled "The Red Underground," by Herbert A, Philbrick. 
Under the heading "Summer Camps," Mr. Philbrick has this to say : 

Proud parents of potential "pinks" received instructions last week concerning 
accredited summer camps for Communist Party indoctrination and training. 

In a party cell meeting held In the New York area last week, a list of summer 
sanctuaries was designated by party leaders as approved. Among them were 
Camp Unity, and certain other camps, and Briehl's. 

Are you aware of action taken by the Communist Party approving 
or accrediting your camp as a place for indoctrination and training 
for potential Communist Party members ? 

Mr. Briehl. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment, and I certainly am not responsible for what a 
character like Philbrick writes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is anything that Philbrick wrote in that article un- 
true ? You have called him a "character," and said that you are not 
responsible for what he does, and now you have an opportunity to tell 
us whether anything he said in that article is untrue. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. I am asking you the question. Is anything that Pliil- 
brick said in that article untrue ? 

Mr. Briehl. If your particular question is what you said is true or 
untrue, I will invoke the fifth amendment on that and refuse to 
answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Regardless of what Mr. Philbrick said, is it a fact 
that Communist indoctrination and training was offered to young 
people at your resort ? 

Mr. Briehl. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Briehl. I refuse to answer that for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Walter. If there are no further questions, the witness is 
excused. 

We will adjourn. 

(Thereupon the subcommittee recessed subject to the call of the 
Chair.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Abelson, Sarah 1373 

Ackerman, Fritz 1414 

Ahearn, Ed 1412 

Amter, Israel 1410, 1411 

Archer, Charles 1414 

Baker, Isadore 1413 

Bassett, Theodore 1412 

Baum. Mark 1412 

Bedacht, Max 1410, 1412 

Begun, Isadore 1413 

Bela, Nicholas 1368 

Berg. Sadie :_ 1413 

Berggi-en, Axel W 1414 

Berkeley, Martin 1368 

Berman. Chaim 1329, 1330 

Berry, Abner W 1412 

Berson, Arthur 1413 

Bloom, Sally 1413 

Briehl, Fred 1407-1417 (testimony) 

Brodsky, Carl 1412 

Browder, Earl 1411 

Brown, Frances 1413 

Brown, Mabel 1414 

Budenz, Louis 1412 

Burns, Joseph A 1413 

Burroughs, W 1410 

Cabot, Henry 1413 

Cacchione, Peter 1413 

Callahan, Jack 1414 

Campbell, Robert A 1413 

Canepa, Elsie 1412 

Caress, Irving 1413 

Carr, Clarence H 1414 

Carter, Carl 1412 

Cestare, Frank 1413 

Chase, Allen R 1414 

Cinilla, Frank 1413 

Cobb, Lee J 1368 

Collins, Hal 1338 

Cooke. John Michael 1413 

Cowl, Margaret 1412 

Crosbie, Paul 1413 

Crowley, Edward 1412 

Davidovitch, Sara 1331, 1332 

Davis, Ben 1412 

Davis, Bessie 1413 

Davis, William 1412 

Dicker, Isador 1364 

Dicker, Regine 1373 

Di Santis, Louis 1413 

Dorfman, Alvin 1338 

Epstein, Jack M 1364 

Estersohn, Abraham 1350 

Federman, Simon 1349 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Fichtenbaum, Helen 1413 

Flaini, Domenic 1413 

Foner, Jack 1339 

Forbes, Henry 1412 

Ford, James W 1411 

Friedman, Kenneth 1362-1372 (testimony), 1385 

Friedman, Milton H 1407 

Funn, Dorothy K 1380, 1404, 1405 

Galstuck, Joseph 1346 

Cannes, Harry 1411 

Gerson, Simon W 1411 

Gerst, Leon 1413 

Glaser, Dave 1353 

Gold, Ben 1413 

Goldman, Jack 1346 

Gough, Lloyd 1368, 1369, 1385, 1386 

Graber, Al 1412 

Graves, George 1414 

Green. Dave 1345-1362 (testimony) 

Greenbaum, Betty 1346 

Greenfield, Herman 1414 

Growley, Edward 1414 

Gustafson, Elton T 1379-1383 (testimony) 

Gustafson, Sarah (Mrs. Elton Gustafson) 1380 

Gutman, Herbert , 1331, 

1333-1335, 1337, 1340-1343, 1394-1400 (testimony) 

Hagler, Esther 1413 

Henkel, August 1413 

Herndon, Angelo 1412 

Hersh, Arlene 1352, 1353 

Hickerson, Harold 1412 

Holmes, Philip 1412 

Holmes, Timothy 1413 

Hudson, Roy 1411 

Hutchins, Grace 1411 

Imragliazzo, Eusebio 1414 

Ingram, John 1411 

Jackson, Constance 1413 

Jordan, David 1414 

Kaplan, Philip 1411 

Kooperman, Joseph 1407 

Korn 1328, 1336 

Krugthof, Rosita 1352 

Lawson, Elizabeth 1339 

Leitner, Karl 1412 

Levin, Abner T 1412 

Levy, Benjamin 1412 

Little, John 1412 

Loew, Dorothy 1413 

Loh, George 1412 

Lombardo, Antonio 1414 

Magliacano, Joseph 1412 

Makela, Lempi 1414 

Malloy, Tom 1413 

Marion, Paul 1369 

Marron, Marry 1413 

Martin, Joseph 1413 

Martin, Robert 1413 

Masur, Norman 1342 

Mattey, Giovannii 1412 

McCanns, Dave 1338 

Melcher, (Mrs.) 1361 

Miles, Earl 1413 

Minor, Robert 1411 

Mortimer, Don 1413 

Murphy, John 1412 

Murphy, Marcus Alphonse 1413 



INDEX iii 

Page 
Nelson, Sam 1349 

Nessin, Sam 1413 

Nichols, Minnie 1414 

Oberkirsh, Charles 1413 

Olgin, Moissaye J 1413 

Padilla, Felix 1412 

Parodneck, Meyer 1373 

rasternack, Louis 1364, 1366, 1370 

Patterson, Samuel C 1412 

Perlo, Victor 1340 

Perrini, Canio 1414 

Phillips, Cyril 1412 

Picheny, Mollie 1411 

Powers, George 1412 

Primoff, George 1412 

Rabinowitz, Victor 1394, 1400 

Rasmussen, Robert 1413 

Raymond, Harry 1412 

Reader, George W 1414 

Rein, David 1372, 1379, 1383 

Rice, Sara 1412 

Richards, Edwin 1414 

Riedman, Maurice 1380 

Robbins, Jerome 1368, 1369 

Roberts, Joseph 1411 

Rogers, Pauline • 1412 

Roseberg, Seymore 1346 

Salz, Morris 1369, 1400-1406 (testimony) 

Samuels, Molly Lee 1411 

Sanders, Bennie 1332 

Sandler, Harry 1346, 1353 

Santiago, Jose 1412 

Saunders, Mike 1413 

Savage, Sophie 1413 

Sawyer, Julian S 1411 

Schechter, Rubin 1414 

Schneider, Murray 1413 

Schreiber, Milton M 1364 

Schwab, Irving 1411 

Seeger, Pete 1332 

Segal, Edith 1331, 1332 

Severn, Clara 1412 

Shapiro, Ralph 1345 

Shavelson, Clara 1413 

Shulman, Rubin 1412 

Smith, Chapman T 1412 

Solomon, Isadore 1413 

Stein, Ben 1413 

Stone, Martha 1413 

Strasser, John 1412 

Studer, Hannah 1373 

Studer, Norman 1372-1377 (testimony) 

Sullivan, Elliott 1367,1368,1369,1383-1393 (testimony) 

Sullivan, Richard 1412 

Tallentire, Molly 1352 

Tandler, Moe L 1362 

Taylor, Joseph 1413 

Teichman, Marthe 1412 

Tobatchnikoff 1329 

Tozser, John 1364 

Tratchtenberg, Alexander 1411 

Udren, Alice 1412 

Urcinolia, Sebastian 1414 

Vail, Sol 1346, 1356 

Van Veen, Sadie 1412 

Victory, Joseph 1412 

Vladimir. Ada 1413 



iv INDEX 

Page 

Walker, Margaret 1413 

Warreu, Charles 1413 

Wastllla, George Michael 1412 

Wechkin. Stanley 1327-1344 (testimony), 1396 

Weiner, William 1414 

Weinstein, Sidney 1331, 1336 

Weiss, Joe 1413 

Weitzman, Rose 1373 

Wendorf, Arthur P 1364 

White, Paul 1412 

Wilkerson, Doxy 1339 

Williams, Anue 1352 

Wiseman, Sam 1412 

Wolovitz, Myer 1342 

Work, Merrill C 1412 

Organizations 

American Federation of Teachers 1375 

Camp Kinderland__ 1328-1330, 1332-1334, 1336, 1341, 1342, 1343, 1344, 1394, 1397 

Camp Lakeland, Inc 1332, 1346, 

1348, 1350, 1353, 1354, 1356, 1357, 1359, 1360, 1361, 1362, 1370, 1402 

Camp Timberline 1380-1382 

Camp Unity 1363, 1364, 1369, 1370 

Camp Wo-Chi-Ca 1343, 1402 

Camp Woodland, Inc 1372,1373 

Camp Wyandotte 1371 

College of the City of New York 1329 

Communist Party : 

New York State 1410 

Greater New York City : 

Brooklyn, Waterfront Section 1415 

Farm Commission 1409 

Long Island, Sunnyside Branch 1375 

New York County 1357 

State Committee 1414 

Fifty-three Holding Corp 1351-1353 

Fur and Leather Workers Union, International 1350-1353 

International Workers Order__ 1347, 1348, 136i, 1365, 1366, 1370, 1374, 1402, 1404 

Funeral and Cemetery Department, Inc 1347, 1348 

Jefferson School of Social Science 1833, 1334, 1336, 133S, 1340, 1341 

Jewish People's Fraternal Order, Mittelschuee, Bronx, New York 1329, 1341 

Labor Youth League 1334, 1337, 1338, 1342 

Brownsville, East New York 1336 

Lake Ellis Corp 1364, 1366 

Little Red School House 1373 

Loujack Camp Corp 1363, 1364, 13a5 

Progressive Party, Philadelphia 1338 

Public Workers of America, United 1371 

Screen Actors Guild 1369 

Straight Arrow Camp 1400-1403 

Sylvan Lake Holding Corp 1347-1352, 1361 

Teachers Union (New York City) 1375, 1382 

Brooklyn College chapter 1382 

Upper Ferndale Mansion 1353 

White Lake Lodge 1367, 1384, 1385 

Wiiigdale Lodge, Inc 1362-1364, 1369, 1383, 1385, 1386 

Young Progressives of America 1333, 1334, 1337, 1338 

Bronx chapter 1342 

Youth for Wallace Club 1333 

Publication s 

Dialectical and Historical Materialism 1339 

Fraternal Outlook 1374 

Path of Negro Liberation, The 1339 

Theory and Practice of the Communist Partv 1339 

Twilight of World Capitalism, The 1339 

o 



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