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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the Los Angeles area. Hearings"

INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 
IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA-Part 5 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIYES 



EIGHTY-THIED CONGKESS 

FIRST SESSION 



DECEMBER 2, 1952; FEBRUARY 17, MARCH 12 AND 27, \ 

AND APRIL 7 AND 13, 1953 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 

IN " DING .DEX ' 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTmG OFFICB 
31747 WASHINGTON : 1858 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

JUN 2 1 1S53 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 
BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, Ja., Tennessee 

ROBEET L. KuNziG, Couusel 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

LOUIS J. RUSSELL, Chief Investigator 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 



CONTENTS 



Paga 

March 27, 1953: Testimony of Charles H. Garrigues 847 

April 7, 1953: Testimony of Jerome Robinson 857 

April 13, 1953: Testimony of— 

Thomas Matthew McGrath 859 

Matilda Lewis 864 

December 22, 1952: Executive statement of Anne Kinney 867 

February 17, 1953: Executive statement of Mildred BenofiF 901 

March 12, 1953: Executive statements — 

Stanley Rubin 909 

Sol Shor 923 

Leopold Lawrence Atlas 935 

Pauline Swanson Townsend 953 

Paul Benedict Radin 965 

Index 969 

m 



The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American Activities 
operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 753, 2d session, which 
provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

RlTLE X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in tlie United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Consti- 
tution, and (ill) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE S3D CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, the following standing committees : 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
• •**•*• 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to malje from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES AREA-Part 5 



FRIDAY, MARCH 27, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Los Angeles^ Calif. 

executive session 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 3 : 10 p. m., in room 527-D, United States Post 
Offi'-e and Court House Building, Los Angeles, Calif., Hon. Harold H. 
Velde (chairman), presiding. 

Committee member present : Representative Harold H. Velde. 

Start' member present : Raphael I. Nixon, director of research. 

Mr. Velde. Acting upon the authority vested in me as chairman of 
the Committee on Un-American Activities, I have appointed myself 
as a subconmiittee of one for the purpose of this executive session. 

Mr. Nixon, will you please call the witness. 

Mr. Nixon. Charles H. Garrigues. 

Mr. Velde. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Garrigues. I do. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Nixon, will you proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES H. GARRiaUES 

Mr. Nixon. Mr. Garrigues, are you appearing in response to a 
subpena ? 

Mr. Garrigues. I am. 

Mr. Nixon. And will you state your full name ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Charles H. Garrigues. 

Mr. Nixon. When and where were you born, Mr. Garrigues? 

Mr. Garrigues. Before I answer, may I ask this question: Is this 
proceeding now considered a part of the main hearing? 

Mr. Nixon. Yes. 

Mr. Garrigues. This is evidence before the committee ? 

Mr. Nixon. For the purpose of the record, Mr. Velde is sitting as a 
subcommittee of one for the purpose of receiving your testimony. 

Mr. Garrigues. This is a public record ? 

Mr. Nixon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Garrigues. I wanted to be sure of that. I was born in Kansas 
in 1902. 

Mr. Nixon. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Garrigues. At 1623 Per Alta, Albany, Calif. 

847 



848 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Nixox. Are you presently emploj^ed ? 

Mr. Garrigues. I am, with the San Francisco Examiner. 

Mr. Nixon. How long have you been so employed ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Since 1939. 

Mr. Nixon. Will you state briefly what your previous occupational 
backfrround is? 

Mr. Garrigues. I have been a newspaperman for — commenced about 
1922, working on many papers in southern California and Arizona. 
In 1926 I came to Los Angeles and worked on the old Express, and I 
moved to the old Herald in 19 — I think it was 1929. I went to the 
Daily News, where I was employed, with various leaves of absence, 
until, I think, 1935. 

Mr. NixoN. During the course of those leaves of absence did you 
have other employment ? 

Mr. ( Jarrigues. Yes, I did. I was engaged during most of that time 
in which I was working with the News as the political expert or politi- 
cal editor, and from time to time I was assigned by Mr. Boddy to take 
leave and work for various civic and governmental organizations as an 
investigator of conditions. And at 2 or 3 times I was employed during 
those periods as investigator for the Los Angeles County Grand Jury, 
or the District Attornev's Office, I am not sure which. 

Mr. NixoN. In a special capacity? 

Mr. Garrigues. In a special capacity ; yes. 

Mr. Nixox. Now, in order to complete the record, will you tell the 
committee what your educational background was prior to that? 

Mr. Garrigues. I graduated from the Per Alta High School in 1919 
and spent 1 year at the University of Southern California. 

Mr. Nixox. Are you presently employed in a writing capacity? 

Mr. Garrigues. No; I am what you would call a copyreader, sub- 
editor. That is one who reads copy and writes headlines. 

Mr. Nixon. I understand that. During most of this period you 
have been associated in the field of journalism, has it been in a writing 
capacity? 

Mr. Garrigues. No, chiefly as a copyreader, except when I was 
working on the Daily News. 

Mr. Nixon. Wliat was your employment during the period of ap- 
proximately 1935 to 1939? 

]\Ir. Garhigues. Well, it was very scattered and vague. I really have 
to think. 

Mr. NixoN. Just generally, I mean. Was there any particular 
period of employment with any paper or publication during that 
period of time? 

Mr. Garrigues. Well, I edited a little paper called tlie Utopian News 
for several months. I was engaged in political work as a free-lance 
public relations man at various times. 

Mr. Nixon. When you say "political," what do you mean ? 

Mr. Garrigues. I had a bureau, a public relations bureau, and we 
hired ourselves out to candidates, prepared their copy and 

Mr. Nixon. For campaign purposes? 

Mr. Garrigues. For campaign purposes, yes, sir. 

Mr. Nixon. Now, has there been any time during this period that 
you have related that you had occasion to join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes, I did join the Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 849 

Mr. Nixon. Would you tell the committee the circumstances of your 
joining? 

Mr. Garrigues. If I may, I would like to go back to the inception, 
when I started the trend again. 

Mr. Nixon. The committee would be glad to hear. 

Mr. Garrigues. My first contact with the Communist Party was in — 
I think during the presidential campaign of 1934, when I was em- 
ployed on the Daily News, and I was assigned there to go down and 
interview William Z. Foster. 

Mr. Nixon. Just for the purpose of clarification here, I don't be- 
lieve there was a presidential campaign in 1934. 

Mr. Garrigues. It could not have been. It must have been 1932. 

Mr. Nixon. 1932 or 1936. 

Mr. Garrigues. 1932. 

Mr. Nixon. For the presidential campaign of President Roosevelt 
against President Hoover ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes. That was 1932, of course it was. 

Mr. Nixon. Continue. You saw William Z. Foster ? 

Mr. Garrigues. I was assigned to go and interview him, which I 
did. I was rather impressed by the man's attitude, wrote what I 
would consider a very favorable honest interview, was quite proud 
of the fact that it was probably the first honest interview written of 
a Communist and published in a Los Angeles newspaper. 

Mr. NixON. For what newspaper was this ? 

Mr. Garrigues. This was the Daily News. At that time I was — 
you remember that was the depth of the depression, and one of my 
jobs was meeting the people who came to the Examiner — to the News — 
excuse me — in search of some kind of help. Many people came there 
very desperate for food or paying their rent, and during many days 
20 and 30 sometimes, and I would question them and sometimes, very 
frequently call reports in to the WPA, I would very frequentlj'^ call 
friends of mine at the city and county offices and ask them to help this 
particular family or that particular family. 

After this interview with Foster I began to — or the boys came and 
called upon me, several Commies whom I don't now recall, and they 
made no particular impression on me. 

Mr. Nixon. They were known to you as Communists or so identified 
themselves ? 

Mr. Garrigues. They identified themselves as Communists. 

Mr. Nixon. All Communists, were they ? 

Mr. Garrigues. As well as people of all other left-wing political 
beliefs. And during the campaign I had contact for the first time 
with what the people called first just "the movement," which consisted 
of the Communists, Guild Socialists, Walker Socialists, Utopian 
Socialists, remnants of the old IWW, as well as merely ordinary 
socialists and left-wing Democrats, and noted trade unionists, began 
to come in later, I think. 

They didn't make too much impression upon me, except I became 
aware for the first time that there was a good body of political theory 
which I was not familiar with. 

During those times when I was engaged in political work for Mr. 
Boddy, the publisher of the News, as a reform investigator, I had 
begun to theorize a great deal about the basis of the American Gov- 



850 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

ernment, municipal and higher governments, and had at various times 
started preparation of a book relating to some of my experiences as 
an investigator, and some of the things which I thought could be 
done and could not be done and should be done or should not be done 
in order to save the American system from downfall from internal 
corruption. 

As my experience in that direction became wider I began to have 
more and more definite ideas, and by 1935 they had begun to crystallize 
in a book in which I set forth quite completely my conclusions as to 
the relationships between business and government, the genesis of 
graft, and that sort of thing. 

Mr. Nixon. Now, fixing this again in period of time, you just re- 
ferred to 1935. Wliat was the commencement of this feeling? 1932, 
1929? 

Mr. Garkigues. The commencement of the feeling of relationship i 

Mr. Nixon. That is right, or that tendency or thought ? 

Mr. Garrigues. My interest in the subject? 

Mr. Nixon. That is right. 

Mr. Garrigues. My interest in the subject began when I was a kid. 
The first work I did I was a newspaper editor in Venice, Calif., when 
Venice had a realty boom in 1922. I didn't have any opportunity to 
do any more investigation probably until 1930, when I assisted in 
the prosecution, the detection and prosecution of certain people known 
as the dam graft ring, which sent a couple of men to the penitentiarj^, 
and out of that there came not only the political idea, you might say 
moral idea of what should be done, but I was interested to see if it 
was possible to convict a bribery case solely on circumstantial evi- 
dence, and they did that in the first bribe case in American juris- 
prudence with no evidence other than circumstantial, got a conviction 
and got it sustained by the Supreme Court. 

Mr. Nixon. All right. We will get down to the actual period 
of your joining. You have previously referred to your interview 
witii William Z. Foster. Am I to understand that that was in con- 
nection with his presidential candidacy at that time ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes. 

Mr. Nixon. And it was an assigned interview ? 

Mr. Garrigues. It was an assigned interview, just as any news- 
paperman would be assigned. The particular topic was how it feels 
to be a presidential candidate. He had been beaten up by a bunch 
of hoodlums in I believe one campaign speech, and I was assigned the 
job of finding out how it feels to be a presidential candidate and to 
be beaten up in his campaign. 

Mr. Nixon. As I understand from what you said before, you were 
given what you considered a completely objective interview? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes. 

Mr. Nixon. By IVfr. Foster ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Well, he presented his point of view, and I tried 
to get his personal point of view as accurately as I could. 

Mr. Nixon. In repeating it, you mean? 

Mr. Garrigues. In repeating it, yes. 

Mr. Nixon. That, as the record shows, was in 1932. It was not at 
that time that you actually joined the Communist Party. 

Mr. Garrigues. No, that was my first contact with it, as I say. 
Then increasingly during the rest of the depression I began to come 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 851 

in contact with this segment of society who called themselves "the 
movement,-' and in 1935 when I left the News — I think it was 1935. 
Now, maybe I am wrong on the date. Late in 1935 or early in 1936, 
possibly. 

I had just finished my first book, and it was accepted and I then 
began to debate the idea of doing another book on the relationship be- 
tween labor and govermnent, the potentialities in there. At that time 
I had been employed — it must have been in 1936. I was employed by 
a committee working for Harlan Palmer for district attorney, and 
after that campaign ended I went to San Diego. 

I was then employed by the King-Ramsey-Connor defense com- 
mittee; investigated a murder trial in Alameda County a couple 
months, where I met more and more Communists. 

I came back to San Diego and went to work for the San Diego Sun. 
That must have been early in 1937. And at that time I decided that 
I would make a thorough investigation of the potentialities of the 
labor movement in the same manner that I had previously done with 
the graft situation, except to approach it on a different angle. 

I went down to the Communist Party offices and book shop, head- 
quarters in San Die^o, and told them, this man there, that I wanted 
to join the party. He handed me a card and I signed it. And a couple 
of months later or possibly a month, about that time, I would say, I 
had a call from him that I was to meet a certain man at a certain place. 
I remember who, but where I don't recall. 

Mr. Nixon. From that you recruited yourself actually in the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Garrigues. That is right. 

Mr. Nixon. Tliere was no effort other than the initiation that you 
made in going to the headquarters and expressing your interest in 
becoming a member ? 

Mr. Qarrigues. That is right. 

Mr. Nixon. Who was it that you met ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Stanley Hancock, the county organizer. 

Mr. Nixon. He was county organizer of the Communist Party in 
San Diego at that time. Was there the formality of issuing you a 
card? 

Mr. Garrigues. He issued me a card or a book, I don't remember 
now which it was. 

Mr. Nixon. Were there any instructions given to you as to future 
meetings or activities ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes. I was told that I was to — the party would 
keep in contact with me, but that I was to keep undercover, not to 
expose myself, and they would have more information for me later. 

Mr. Nixon. Hancock was the only one that you met at this partic- 
ular time ? 

Mr. Garrigues. At that particular time, yes. 

Mr. Nixon. During that period of time were you given any in- 
structions or indoctrination instructions into the party, or Marxism? 

Mr. Garrigues. Well, by this time I had begun to read theoretical 
Marxism, which is what I say most interested me, that aspect of it. 
There was a person who came to me or called me from time to time, 
would come to me from time to time and bring me pamphlets and 
books. 

Mr. Nixon. Do you recall the identity of any of those? 



852 COkRlUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. (jakuigijes. Yes. His name was Morrie Smolan. 

Mr. Nixon.' You were not throughout the period of time assigned 
to any particuhir group or anything, but more in a position of a 
member at large ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes, for a little while ; I don't remember how long. 
As a matter of fact, I know I was regarded with considerable suspicion 
at first. 

Mr. Nixon. Why ? 

Mr. Gahrigues. Because I had i-ecruited myself. 

Mr. NixoN. At the time of your recruitment, you made it known to 
them that you were in the newspaper field? 

Mr. Gakiiigues. Yes; I told them. They knew my background. 

Mr. NixoN. Was there anyone else beside Stanley Hancock and 
Morrie Smolan that you recall now ? 

Mr. Gapjuguks. Well, not verj' definitely, other than a fellow named 
Dick, who was a — I can't remember his name. I think his last name 
was Richards. They called him Dick. 

Mr. NixoN. But you are not sure what his first name was. Is there 
any other identifying data that you could now recall ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Not in relation to him. I would know him if I 
saw him. 

Mr. Nixon. AVas lif a party functionary? 

Mr. Garrigue!-. A part-time party functionary or something. 

Mv. NixON. Was there any time while you were in San Diego that 
you were assigned to a particular group or unit of the party? 

Mr. Garrigues. I am under the impression I got, that those were a 
group, and I can remember one meeting in particular at which Han- 
cock was not present and there Avas some criticism of Hancock. I 
think he was later disciplined oi- something at that time in connection 
with something at that meeting. But who was there except for Dick 
and a woman — I can't remember who the woman was, but her name is 
Bessie, but I couldn't identify her. She is a housewife. 

Mr. Nixon. And tlien I think you referred to having left San Diego. 
When was that ? 

JNIr. Garrigues. That was in — must have been probably October of 
1937. 

Mr. Nixon. Where did you go ? 

Mr. Garrigues. I came to Los Angeles. 

Mr. Nixon. Was your party affiliation transferred from San Diego 
to Los Angeles? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes; it nuist have been. 

Mr. NixuN. And you continued in the Comnmnist Party? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes, I came up here; they asked me, that is, the 
newspaper ^uild — of course, by this time I was a part-time organizer 
emi:)loyed either by the American Newspaper Guild or by the CIO 
in San Diego, I am not sure where my pay came from, or maybe from 
both. And they were having troulile in the guild in Los Angeles, 
and the guild officers here asked me to come up. 

Mr. Nixon. In connection with your work in organizing the guild, 
did you receixe any instructions or directives from the Communist 
Party as to what action your work should be directed to ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Not in the sense of instructions or directions; no. 



COMMXJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELAS AREA 853 

Mr. Nixon. Well, would it be on a basis that because of your knowl- 
edge of the purposes and your activities in the party, that your direc- 
tion or the activities that you used in organizing the guild were influ- 
enced by the Communist Party to the extent that you were a member 
of the Communist Party as well as an organizer for this particular 
organization ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Well, I think you can go further than that. I was 
in the Communist Party, at least in theory, because I believe in the 
importance of the labor movement as such. The guild, according to 
the theory under which we were working, was a very important aspect 
of that labor movement, and anything I could do to strengthen the 
labor movement 

Mr. Nixon. By the guild are you referring to the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Garrigues. I am referring to both, although I mean the labor 
movement particularly. 

]Mr. Nixon. Particularly in regard to aiding the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes; that is right. 

Mr. Nixon. When you came to Los Angeles, were you assigned to 
any unit or group of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Garrigues. Yes; I was assigned to a unit. I remember going 
to the first meeting, because it was not a meeting, it was actually just 
not a real party meeting. But I think I stayed in that unit, or possibly 
another unit was formed later, but I didn't meet very mucli with the 
unit. 

Mr. Nixon. Were the components of this unit from the newspaper 
field only, or was it a miscellaneous unit ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Well, it was preponderantly so, but I think some- 
what mixed. 

Mr. Nixon. Do you recall any individuals who were in this unit ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Well, not too thoroughly, not too distinctly, for 
this reason, that I don't say I don^t recall any of them, but 

Mr. Nixon. During the course of the interrogation here there are 
certain names that I will ask you if you can recall. During the or- 
ganization of the guild was any outside help given to you ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Any help from outside the guild ? 

Mr. Nixon. No ; from outside of Los Angeles, in the organizing of 
the unit. 

Mr. Garrigues. No; I think not. 

Mr. Nixon. Do you recall a person named Morgan Hull ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Oh, yes ; I recall Morgan Hull. Morgan Hull was 
a member of the Los Angeles guild. 

Mr, Nixon. Was he in it at the time that you first knew him ? Were 
you in the unit when Morgan Hull joined the unit, or was he already 
in the unit when you joined up ? 

Mr. Garrigues. My impression is that Morgan Hull was a Commu- 
nist Party member long before I was and before there was a guild. I 
knew him previously. He and I worked on the same paper. 

Mr. Nixon. During the course of that period did you know an 
individual named Lou Amster ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes ; I loiew a Lou Amster. My impression is 

Mr. Nixon. Is it a definite impression? 

Mr. Garrigues. Not too definite. 

Mr. Nixon. It is only an impression? 



854 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes. Well, it is a recollection. 

Mr. Nixon. Do you recall an individual named Leo Seiko wski ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes; I knew Leo Selkowski. 

Mr. Nixon. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Garrigues. I don't know whether I knew him to be in the party. 

Mr. Nixon. Did you know Urcel Daniel? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes; I knew her. 

Mr. Nixon. For the record, Miss Daniel has appeared before the 
committee and has admitted past membership in the Communist 
Party. Did you know her during the time as a member of the party? 

Mr. Garrigues. My impression is that she was the secretaiy of our 
unit, but the date I can't remember just now. It was sometime during 
the period. Just when, I can't remember. 

Mr. Nixon. Was that unit to any degree financing the guild, your 
Communist Party unit ? 

Mr. Garrigues, Well, I think — it is hard to remember. I am trying 
to place it as closely as I can, but most of the unit members, that is, 
the party members were guild members unquestionably, not all of them, 
I think, but probably most of them. They were possibly during that 
time — this was the period, if you recollect, right after I got into Los 
Angeles, and they had at the time the policy of having open meetings, 
where there were various types of open meetings, but there was no 
longer, as I understood at the time, there were no longer occasional 
fraction meetings of the guild, but the progressive interest we had in 
that term came from our crucial problems, and we had 1 or 2 or 3 
or more nonparty members who were progressing the labor movement. 

Mr. Nixon. That is, you mean some of the individuals who were 
in attendance were not necessarily Communist Party members to have 
been in attendance? 

Mr. Garrigues. That is right, and it is very difficult to distinguish 
between the two. 

Mr, NixoN.„In those instances in which there is no question in your 
mind, for the matter of the record, we want it indicated by you. I 
mean the basis of the interrogation or the questioning is to have you 
identify the names of certain individuals whom j^ou are certain of, 
but if there is any question in your mind, make it known so that the 
record will be complete on it. 

Mr. Garrigues. Let me say this before that, that I remember dis- 
tinctly 5 or 6 members of them that were in this labor guild mobiliza- 
tion. Now, I don't think they were all Communists, I think 2 or 
3 of them were, and then there may be certain others that were in 
there at the time. 

Mr. Nixon. Did you know a person named Burke ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes, 

Mr, Nixon. Did you laiow Burke to be a Conmiunist ? 

Mr, Garrigues. Yes ; I know that he was in. 

Mr. Nixon. Dorothy Healey ? 

Mr, Garrigues. I knew her before I was in the party, and we had 
a good many discussions. 

Mr. Nixon. Charles Judson? 

Mr. Garrigues. I knew Judson. I know he has testified that he 
was not in the party, but I could say definitely he was. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 855 

Mr. Nixon. I think that during the course of Mr. Judson's testi- 
mony, I believe he is one of the individuals who testified to his having 
been a member of the Communist Party. 

Do you remember Paul Cline ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes. Paul Cline was a party organizer, if that 
is — I want to get that name right now. This is Paul Cline who was 
the party organizer. 

Mr. Nixon. Do you know a Minna Klein ? 

Mr. Garrigtjes. Yes; I knew Minna Klein. I think she was a 
writer, but I don't know her as a party member, honestly. She was 
one of the people we saw. 

Mr. NixoN. For identification, she was the wife of Herbert Klein. 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes, I knew Herbert, but whether they were party 
members 

Mr. Nixon. Did you know a William E. Oliver? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes. 

Mr. Nixon. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Garrigues. No, not at the time that I was there. I might say 
that there was some effort to recruit him at one time. 

Mr. Nixon. During the course of the testimony before the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, Miss Alice Bennett identified 
both Minna Kiein and William E. Oliver as having been in this unit 
of the Los Angeles Newspaper Guild. 

Did you know Philip Johnson? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes. I mean not at the time. I know him now, 
but I did not at the time. 

Mr. NixoN. Do you know George Shaffer? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes, I did. George Shaffer? 

Mr. Nixon. That is S-h-a-f-f-e-r. 

Mr. Garrigues. I saw him liand out a lot of folders. I know there 
are two people there. 

Mr. Nixon. Do you know Ed Robbins? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes, I think I know him. I did meet him. 

Mr. Nixon. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Garrigues. I think he was. 

Mr. Nixon. Did you know Sarah Bognoff ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes, I met Sarah Bognoff working in, I think she 
was in the guild offices or some other union office. 

Mr. Nixon. You know her as a member of the party ? 

Mr. Garrigues. I know her as a member of the party. 

Mr. Nixon. Tom O'Connor? 

Mr. Garrigues. I know him as a newspaperman. 

Mr. Nixon. Have you during the course of your membership in the 
Communist Party been assigned any Communist name or any party 
name ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Yes, I took a party name of E. Scott. 



856 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Nixon. When did you leave the Comnmnist Party? 

Mr. Garrigues. In 1939. 

Mr. Nixon. Was there any formality in your leaving or did you 
merely drift away from the party and was there an actual break in 
your membership? 

Mr. Garrigues. Well, there was a break when I came to Los An- 
geles. I had no more contact with the party for a year or two. 

Mr. NixoN. Can you remember the approximate date? 

Mr. Garrigues. It must have been the early part of 1939. 

Mr. NixoN. Was there any occasion or reason for you to feel all 
the time that you were in the Communist Party that it was a revolu- 
tionary party or was a conspiracy in the sense of advocating the 
overthrow of this Government, as it was stated? 

Mr. Garrigues. No, not in the sense in which the terms are now 
being used. That was not my experience with it at all. That was 
the particular point I studied most carefully. I didn't want to be in 
such a conspiracy. 

Mr. Nixon. After you left Los Angeles and left the Communist 
Party, were any efforts made to recruit you into the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Garrigues. No. 

Mr. Nixon. You were not contacted subsequently to be reactivated ? 

Mr. Garrigues. Not at any time, no. 

Mr. Nixon. And since the time you left you have had no further 
dealing with the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Garrigues- That is correct, none whatsoever. 

Mr. Nixon. And you have not been a member of the Communist 
Party since that time? 

Mr. Garrigues. That is correct. 

Mr. Nixon. Well, I want to express my appreciation for the in- 
formation which you have given us. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Garrigues, on behalf of the entire Committee on 
Un-American Activities, I wish to express our thanks for your testi- 
mon}^ today. 

You may be excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused and the subcommittee 
adjourned subject to the call of the Chair.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES AREA— Part 5 



TUESDAY, APRIL 7, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Un-Americax Activities, 

LoH Angeles^ Calif. 

EXECUTIVE session ^ 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pui^iiant to call, at 9 : 15 p. m., in the Cleveland Room, Hotel Stat- 
ler, Los Angeles, Calif., Hon. Donald L. Jackson (acting chairman), 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Donald L. Jackson 
(acting chairman), and Clyde Doyle. 

Stan members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; Thomas 
W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk ; and William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will please be in order. 

Mr. Tavenner, will you call the witness ? 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Jerome Robinson. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about 
to give to be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

TESTIMONY OF JEROME ROBINSON 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your full name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Robinson. Jerome Robinson. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel? 

Mr. Robinson. I am not. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is the practice of the committee to make known 
to every witness they are entitled to have counsel with them if they 
desire. And furthermore, you would have the right to consult coun- 
sel at any time during your interrogation. You understand that? 

Mr. Robinson. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Notwithstanding, you are ready to proceed without 
counsel ? 

Mr. Robinson. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Robinson ? 

Mr. Robinson. New York City, February 25, 1910. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Robinson. I am a photographer. 



* Released by the committee, April 13, 1953. 

31747— 53— pt. 5 2 857 



858 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

JVIr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your for- 
mal educational training has been? 

Mr. Robinson. Public school. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside? 

Mr. Robinson. I live in North Hollywood. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles? 

Mr. Robinson. About 8, 9 years, maybe 10. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that time, where did you live? 

Mr. Robinson. 15 East 53d St., I think, New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you live in New York City ? 

Mr. Robinson. All my life. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed in New York City for a 
period of 2 years before coming to Los Angeles? 

Mr. Robinson. I was a free-lance photographer, mostly. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Did you engage in any other business in Los An- 
geles besides that of photography after your arrival here ? 

Mr. Robinson. I think so ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of that business ? 

Mr. Robinson. Well, I was employed in the shipyards when I first 
came out here. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. The committee has information, Mr. Robinson, that 
in 1944 you were a member of a branch of the Communist Party in 
Los Angeles. Is that correct? 

Mr. Robinson. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. On what grounds do you decline ? 

Mr. Robinson. The fifth amendment, I guess. 

Mr. Tavenner. I see no occasion for my asking any additional 
questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Any questions, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness shouldn't be 
excused ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No. 

Mr. Jackson. You are excused. 

Mr. Robinson. Will you need me again ? 

Mr. Jackson. No. You are excused from your subpena. 

(Wliereupon the witness was excused and the subcommittee con- 
tinued the executive session in relation to other matters.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES AREA— Part 5 



MONDAY, APRIL 13, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 
Subcommittee or the Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Los Angeles^ Calif. 
executive session ^ 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursucant to call, at 10 : 10 a. m., in the chambers of Courtroom 9", 
United States Post OiRce and Courthouse Building, Hon. Donald L. 
Jackson (acting chairman), presiding. 

Committee member present: Representative Donald L. Jackson 
(acting chairman). 

Staff member present : William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

Mr. Jackson. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Mr. Wheeler, will you call the witness. 

Mr. Wheeler. Thomas M. McGrath. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God 1 

Mr. McGrath. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS MATTHEW McGRATH, ACCOMPANIED BY 
HIS COUNSEL, WILLIAM B. ESTERMAN 

Mr. Wheeler. Will the witness state his full name, please ? 

Mr. McGrath. Thomas McGrath, or with the middle name, Thomas 
Matthew McGrath. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliere do you presently reside ? 

Mr. McGrath. In the county of Los Angeles. 

Mr. Wheeler. Your present occupation ? 

Mr. McGrath. I am an assistant professor at Los Angeles State 
College. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you give us a brief resume of your educa- 
tional background ? 

Mr. McGrath. Well, the first 8 years, I guess it is, the public school 
of Highland Township, I believe, District 69, if I am not mistaken, 
the county of Cass, in North Dakota. 

Following that, 4 years in high school, Sheldon High School, in the 
county of Ransom. 

Following that 4 years I took a B. A. at the University of North 
Dakota. 



* Released by the committee on same day. 

859 



860 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

And following that, a year and a quarter semester — I have forgotten 
how it was called — at Louisiana State University, when I took a 
master of arts. 

Mr. Wheelek. Approximately what year was that? 

Mr. McGrath. ]\Iaster of arts, 1939-40. Following that, 1 year at 
New College, Uni\ crsity of Oxford, Oxford, England. That is about 
it. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you attend Oxford ? 

Mr. McGrath. 1947-4'8. The year 1947-48. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you receive any type of scholarship at Oxford ? 

Mr. McGrath. Yes, I received a Rhodes scholarship. I received 
that scholarship in — I was a Rhodes scholar-elect for 1939, if I am 
not mistaken, but I didn't go to Oxford until 1947, because in the fall 
of 1939 Rhodes scholars were forbidden to go to England because of 
the war. Then there was the war, and following the war I couldn't 
manage to get there until 1947. 

Mr. Wheeler. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. McGrath. When and where was I born ? 

Mr, Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. McGrath. I was born November 20, 1916, in North Dakota. 

Mr. Wheeler. What has your emploj^ment been since 1939? 

Mr. McGrath. Since 1939, let's see. It would have been since 
1940, since that is the year I took my degree. I taught one year then 
ut Colby College in Waterville, Maine, and following that I jobbed 
around at this and that, and went into the Army, I came out of the 
Army 

Mr. AViieeler, Would you continue your employment from 1940 
until 3'ou went to the Army? 

Mr, McGrath, From 1940 until I went into the Army, most of those 
jobs, I guess I can't remember. There are a couple I can't remember. 

Could I speak to you about this? (Witness addresses his counsel.) 

Mr. EsTERMAN. Yes, 

(At this point Mr. IMcGrath conferred with Mr. Esterman.) 

Mr, Jackson. Let the record show at this point, pursuant to the 
authority vested in the chairman of the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities, he has appointed Mr, Jackson as a subcommittee 
of one to take testimony today. 

Mr. EsTERMAisr. What is the question? The employment record 
since 1940 ? 

Mr. Wheeler. His employment, yes, since 1940, until he entered the 
United States Army. 

Mr, Esterman. Give them your best recollection. 

]Mr. MoGratii. All right. I worked for a while, I don't know ex- 
actly how long, for a law firm of Stern and Pollett, I think it was, 
if I am not mistaken, or. Pollock, rather, in New York. Then I 
worked 

Mr. Wheeler. Approximately the dates? 

]\Ir. McGrath. Approximate dates, this would have been — I think 
it would have been straddling the end of 1940 and first part of 1941. 
And then later on I worked at Kearny Shipyards, Kearny, N. J, 

]\fr, Wheeler, That would have been 

Mr. McGrath. From about March, or something of that sort, until 
1 went into the Army, which was about — I am not certain of this. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 861 

It was July or August, I believe. I remember I was going to get 
frozen into' my job and I had the notion I wanted to be in the Army, 
so I quit the job and joined the Army. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you enter the United States Army ? 

Mr. McGratii. I think it was something like August— it was the 
year of Pearl Harbor. 

Mr. Jackson. 1942 ? 

Mr. McGrath. 1942. 

Mr. EsTERMAN. Pearl Harbor was 1941. 

Mr. Jackson, Yes ; December 7, 1941. 

Mr. EsTERMAN. What was that date, August 1941? 

^Ir. McGrath. August 1941, 1 think. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask you at this time, are you reprevSented by 
counsel ? 

Mr. McGrath. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. EsTERMAN. William B. Esterman. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long did you serve in the United States Army ? 

Mr. McGrath. For 3 years and some odd months. I am not sure 
how many months; or 4. 

]Mr. WiiEELER. Were you honorably discharged? 

Mr. McGrath. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. At what rank? 

Mr. McGrath. Sergeant, buck sergeant. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you discharged ? 

Mr. McGrath. I was discharged at Mitchel Field, Long Island. 

Mr. Wheeler. After your discharge, what has your employment 
been ? 

Mr. McGrath. For the most part it was free-lance writing. I 
worked for, oh, I guess a couple of weeks or something like that, for 
the New York State Employment Service. 

Mr. Jackson. What was the nature of your writing? 

Mr. McGrath. The nature of my writing ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Esterman. Just a minute. 

(At this point Mr. McGrath conferred with Mr. Esterman.) 

Mr. McGrath. Could I have the legislative purpose of this question ? 

Mr. Jackson. In general, the legislative purpose of the question is 
to determine in general what type of writing and what publications 
you have written for, to determine whether or not it falls within the 
scope of this inquiry which is the extent and nature of Communist 
propaganda activities. 

(At this point Mr. ]McGrath conferred with Mr. Esterman.) 

Mr. McGrath. Do you have a particular publication in mind? 

Mr. Jackson. No; I have no particular publication in mind. I 
assiune your writings were in the realm of public knowledge. 

Mr. Wheeler. In January 1947 were you 

Mr. Jackson. Just a moment. 

Mr. Esterman. Are you withdrawing the question? 

Mr. Jackson. Is this on the same question ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. No. I was inquiring from you as to what the nature 
of your writing had been. 

( At this point Mr. IMcGrath conferred with Mr. Esterman. ) 



862 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. McGratii. So far as I can see, this question has no legisla- 
tive purpose. 

Mr. Jackson. Let me rephrase the question. Did you ever submit 
for publication any article or script to a publication known to you to 
be a Communist publication ? 

(At this point Mr. McGrath conferred with Mr. Esterman.) 

Mr. McGrath. I decline to answer for the following reasons : 
After a dead serious consideration of the effects of this committee's 
work and of my relation to it. I find that for the following reasons I 
must refuse to cooperate with this body : 

In the first place, as a teacher, my first responsibility is to my stu- 
dents. To cooperate with this committee would be to set for them 
an example of accommodation to forces which can only have, as their 
end effect, the destruction of education itself. Such accommodation 
on my part would ruin my value as a teacher, and I am proud to say 
that a great majority of my students — and I believe this is true of 
students generally — do not want me to accommodate myself to this 
committee. In a certain sense, I have no choice in the matter — the 
students would not want me back in the classroom if I were to take 
any course of action other than the one I am pursuing. 

Secondly, as a teacher, I have a responsibility to the profession it- 
self. We teachers have no professional oath of the sort that doctors 
take, but tliere is a kind of unwritten oath which we follow : To teach 
as honestly, fairly, and fully as we can. The effect of this committee 
is destructive of such an ideal, destructive of academic freedom. As 
Mr. Justice Douglas has said : 

This system of spying and surveillance with Its accompanying reports and trials 
cannot go hand in hand with academic freedom. It produces standardized 
thought, not the pursuit of truth. 

_A teacher who will tack and turn with every shift of the political 
wind cannot be a good teacher. I have never done this myself, nor 
will I ever. In regard to my teaching I have tried to hold to two 
guidelines, the first from Chaucer that "gladly will I learn and gladly 
teach"; the second a paraphrase of the motto of the late General Stil- 
■svell "Illiterati non carborundum." 

Thirdly, as a poet, I must refuse to cooperate with the committee on 
what I can only call esthetic grounds. The view of life which we 
receive through the great works of art is a privileged one— it is a view 
of life according to probability or necessity, not subject to the chance 
and accident of our real world and therefore in a sense truer than 
the life we see lived all around us. I believe that one of the things 
required of us is to try to give life an esthetic ground, to give it some 
of the pattern and beauty of art. I have tried as best I can to do this 
with my own life, and while I do not claim any very great success, it 
would be anticlimactic, destructive of the pattern of my life, if I were 
to cooperate with the committee. Then too, poets have" been notorious 
noncooperators where committees of this sort are concerned. As a 
traditiojialist. I Avould prefer to take my stand with Marvell, Blake, 
Shelley, and Garcia Lorca rather than with innovators like Mr. Jack- 
son. I do not wish to bring dishonor upon my tribe. 

These, then, are reasons for refusing to cooperate, but I am aware 
that none of them is acceptable to the committee. Wlien I was noti- 
fied to appear here, my first instinct was simplv to refuse to answer 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 863 

committee questions out of personal principle and on the grounds 
of the rights of man and to let it go at that. On further considera- 
tion, however, I have come to feel that such a stand would be mere 
self-indulgence and that it would weaken the fight which other wit- 
nesses have made to protect the rights guaranteed under our Constitu- 
tion. Therefore, I further refuse to answer to the committee on the 
grounds of the fourth amendment. I regard this committee as 
usurpers of illegal powers and my enforced appearance here as in the 
nature of unreasonable search and seizure. 

I further refuse on the grounds of the first amendment, which 
in guaranteeing free speech also guarantees my right to be silent. 
Although the first amendment expressly forbids any abridgement 
of this and other freedoms, the committee is illegally engaged in the 
establishment of a religion of fear. I cannot cooperate with it in 
this unconstitutional activity. 

Lastly, it is my duty to refuse to answer this committee, claiming 
my rights under the fifth amendment as a whole and in all its parts, 
and understanding that the fifth amendment was inserted in the Con- 
stitution to bulwark the first amendment against the activities of 
committees such as this one, so that no one may be forced to bear 
witness against himself. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have any further questions ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, I do. 

Wliere are the Kearny Shipyards located ? 

Mr. McGrath. Kearny, N. J. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the shipyards branch of the 
Communist Party known as the Kearny Club ? 

(At this point Mr. McGrath conferred with Mr. Esterman.) 

Mr. McGrath. I decline to answer this question, and I incorporate 
all the reasons I have given in my declination. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long have you lived in the city of Los Angeles? 

Mr. McGrath. Since about April, I believe, 1949.'^ 

Mr. Wheeler. How long have you been a teacher at Los Angeles 
State College? 

Mr. McGrath. For 3I/2 years ; at the end of this year it will be 3i/^ 
years. 

Mr. Wheeler. In 1951 were you a member of the John Keed divi- 
sion of the Los Angeles County Communist Party? 

(At this point Mr. McGrath conferred with Mr. Esterman.) 

Mr. McGrath. I decline to answer this question on the same gi'ounds 
previously stated, incorporating them without repeating them. 

Mr. Wheeler. During the first quarter of the year 1952 were you 
transferred from the John Reed division of the Communist Party 
to the eastern division of the Communist Party of the county of Los 
Angeles ? 

Mr. McGrath. I decline to answer on the same grounds previously 
given, and incorporate all my grounds as above. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a member of the Community Party today? 

Mr. McGrath. I decline to answer on the grounds previously given 
and incorporate my reasons. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there anj^ reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? 

Mr. Wheeler. No. 



864 COiVrMUNIST activities in the LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Jackson. You are excused. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Wheeler, will you call the next witness? 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Matilda Lewis. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about 
to give to be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God? 

Mrs. Lewis. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MATILDA LEWIS, ACCOMPANIED BY HER COUNSEL, 

ROBERT W. KENNY 

Afr. Wheeler, Will you please state your name? 

Mrs. Lewis. Matilda Lewis. 

]Mr. Wheeler. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Lew^is. In Los Angeles. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where do you presently reside? 

Mi-s. Lewis. In Laguna Beach. 

Mr. Wheeler. Your present occupation? 

Mrs. Lewis. As principal. 

Mr. Wheeler. Of what school? 

Mrs. Lewis. Park Avenue School. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you briefly relate your educational back- 
ground ? 

Mrs. Lewis. Yes: I went through the schools of Los Angeles, 
public schools, and went to UCLA and USC, Columbia University, 
and San Diego State College. 

Mr. Wheei^r. What year did you graduate from the San Diego 
State College? 

Mrs. Lewis. I didn't graduate from there. I worked; taking work 
at the present time off and on. 

Mr. Wheeler, Did you graduate 

Mrs. Lewis, I graduated from Columbia University. 

Mr. Wheeler. In what year? 

Mrs. Lewis. I think it was '35. I can't tell vou exactly, but — no, 
'36. I think it was '36, the summer of '36. 

Mr. Wheeler. How have you been employed since 1936 ? 

Mrs. LEA^^[s. As a teacher. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you relate in which schools you taught? 

Mrs. Lewis. I taught 

Mr. Wheeler, Giving the approximate dates. 

Mrs. Lewis. I have done all my teaching in the Inglewood schools, 
except for the last 4 years. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Lewis, are you acquainted with Leroy Hern- 
don ? 

Mrs. Lewis, I will not answer any questions pertaining to my 
former husband or pertaining to the time I was married to him, I 
therefore refuse to answer any question for the reasons previously 
stated. 

I have taken the Levering Act oath required of every teacher in 
this State, and if anyone has the courage to come forward in open 
court to charge and prove I committed perjury, I am ready to defend 
myself before a jury of my fellow citizens. That is the American 
way. In the meantime I am entitled to the right of the presumption 
of innocence and not be compelled to give evidence against myself. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 865 

All your pertinent questions, outside of the period of 1935-40, will 
be answered by me. 

Mr. "VVheeler. From what period of time? 

Mrs. Lewis. 1935-40. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you repeat the sentence in regard to the word 
"perjury," that contains the word "perjury"? 

Mrs. Lewis. The sentence starts, "I have taken the Levering Act 
oath required of every teacher in this State, and if anyone has the 
courage to come forward in open court to charge and prove I com- 
mittecl perjury, I am ready to defend myself before a jury of my 
fellow citizens. That is the American way." 

INIr. Wheeler. ]Mr. Herndon testified under oath before this com- 
mittee, during the recent hearings, he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party and a member of a teachers' unit in Los Angeles County. 

During the course of his testimony he stated that Matilda Lewis 
was also a member of this group. Is Mr. Herndon's testimony 
correct ? 

(At this point Mrs. Lewis conferred with Mr. Kenny.) 

Mrs. Lewis. I decline to answer for the reasons already stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you acquainted with Anne Kinney, also known 
as Jane Howe? 

Mrs. Lewis. I refuse on the same reasons. 

Mr. Wheeler. She testified in an executive statement on December 
22, 1952, that she was also a member of the Communist Party and 
also assigned to the teachers' unit, the same group as Mr. Herndon, 
and she has testified under oatli you were also a member of that group. 
Is that correct ? 

Mrs. Lewis. I decline for the same reasons as stated before. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of local 430 of the American 
Federation of Teachers in Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. Lewis. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. During what period of time? 

Mrs. Lewis. About 1936 or '37, I don't recall which, and up to — 
I paid dues, I can't recall the exact date, but as close as I can remem- 
ber, about 19 — I don't know whether it was '47 or '48. I don't recall. 
I don't know, because I wasn't attending meetings. 

^Ir. Wheeler. What offices did you hold in this union? 

Mrs. Lew^is. I was vice president for 1 year. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall what year ? 

Mrs. LE^\^s. No, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have an article from the Santa Ana Register dated 
July 14, 1948, with the heading "County Parties Are Organized." 

In this article it states that you were elected secretary of the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party of Orange County. Are you the same 
Matilda Lewis referred to ? 

Mrs. Lewis. Yes, I was interested in the Progressive Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1940 ? 

Mrs. Lewis. I said that I decline to answer between those years for 
the same reasons given. 

Mr. Wheeler. Between what years, again ? 

Mrs. Lewis. 1935 to 1940. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1941? 

(At this point Mrs. Lewis conferred with Mr. Kenny.) 



866 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mrs. Lewis. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party from 
1941 to the present date? 

Mrs. Lewis. No. 

Mr. Jackson. During the period of time, Mrs. Lewis, that you were 
an officer in the American Federation of Teachers, did you have any 
personal knowledge of any efforts by the Communist Party to influ- 
ence in any way the actions or the policy of the organization ? 

Mrs. Lewis. No ; I didn't. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? 

Mr. Wheeler. None at all. 

(Whereupon, at 10: 40 a. m., Monday, April 13, 1953, the executive 
session adjourned.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES AKEA— PART 5 



MONDAY, DECEMBER 22, 1953 



United Stait.s House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-x\merican Activities, 

Hollywood^ Calif. 



EXECUTI\^ statement ' 



An executive statement given at 1 : 30 p. m. December 22, 195"2, at 
room 1118, Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, Hollywood, Calif. 
Present: William A. AA^ieeler, investigator. 

TESTIMONY OF ANNE KINNEY - 

Mr. Wheeler. AVill you state your full name? 

Miss Kinney. Anne Kinney. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you born ? 

Miss Kinney. Chicago. 

Mr. Wheeler. What has been your educational background? 

Miss Kinney. Well, I am a graduate of Chicago Normal College ; 
now Chicago Teachers' College. 

Mr. Wheeler. What has been your employment background I 

Miss Kinney. I taught for a year after I graduated from college. 
Later most of my employment was in clerical capacities. I worked 
as an inspector during the war. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you employed during the war ? 

Miss Kinney. From 1942 to 1944 I worked for Studebaker Corp. 
in Chicago. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you been employed since that time I 

Miss Kinney. From the fall of 1944 until December of 1946, I 
worked for the United OfHce and Professional Workers. Since then 
I have had temporary jobs of maybe 2 to 4 weeks' duration, 3 or 4 of 
those. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where do you presently reside? 

Miss Kinney. Los Angeles. 

Mr. AViiEELER. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party I 

Miss Kinney. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you join the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kinney. August 1933. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you been known by any other name ? 

Miss Kinney. I was Jane Howe. 



1 Releasor! by the committee. 

^ Anne Kinney was sworn in as a witness by the court reporter. 

«67 



868 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Whei-xer. Was this a Communist Party name? 

Miss KiNXEY. Yes. 

Mr Wheeler. For what purpose did you use the name Jane Howe? 

Miss KixNEY. Principally as a means of protecting the person with 
whom. I was living at the time I joined. It was common practice for 
peo]:>le to use a different name in the party. 

Mr. Wheeler. What were the reasons for your becoming a member 
of the Communist Party? 

INIiss Kinney. Like many people, I was appalled by what happened 
during the depression, by the conditions under which people were 
forced to live. Being both idealistic and without any knowledge of 
political science or economics, I was easily convinced that Marxism 
was the answer. 

When the Socialist Party seemed to be doing nothing that was 
effective, I began to wonder if perhaps the Communist Party was 
where I would find more immediate activity. 

I did some reading in the public library which led me to believe that 
they and not the Socialists were following IMarxist principles. There- 
fore, in August 1933, 1 applied for membership by going to the coimty 
office and asking to join. 

]\Ir. Wheeler. Were you recruited by any specific person ? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. After becoming a member of the Communist Party, 
to what branches were you assigned ? 

Miss Kinney. 'First to a neighborhood branch. 

]\Ir. Wheeler. You correct me if I am wrong about this. I under- 
stand that from October 1933 to February 1934 there was a special 
group within the Socialist Party. 

Miss Kinney. I had forgotten about that. 

Mr. Wheeler. February 1934 to May 1934, Hollywood street group. 
May 1934 to September 1934, a Burbank street group. From Septem- 
ber 1934 to the fall of 1935, a member at large. 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

INIr. Wheeler. The fall of 1935 to December 1938, a teachers' unit. 
December 1938 to August 1939, 56th assembly district, which is in the 
13th Congressional District. 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. From August 1939 to the fall of 1940, section organ- 
izer, 15th Congressional District. 

The fall of 1940 to May 1942, working on the county membership 
commission, organizer of the 65th assembly district, and for a short 
period of time county membership director. 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. From May 1942 to the summer or fall of 1944, a 
Studebaker plant unit in Chicago. 

Miss Kinney. Just a minute. There is actually a gap of a few 
months there, while I was in transit, so to speak. 

Mr. Wheeler. We will explain that when we cover each group. 

Miss Kinney. I was going from here to there. 

Mr. Wheeler. Transferred. That can be clarified. 

Miss Kinney. That covers almost 6 months. 

Mr. Wheeler. From the fall of 1944 to the fall of 1945, the Hyde 
Park branch in Chicago, a street unit. Is that correct? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 



COMJVITJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 869 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you reported to the Federal Bureau of Inves- 
tigation what knowledge you have of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Wheeler. When and to what office did you give your infor- 
mation i 

Miss Kjnney. I think it was March 1951, in Phoenix. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who were the members of the Communist Party 
assigned to the Socialist branch? 

Miss Kjnney. I remember Harold and Mildred Ashe, John Spears, 
Marjorie Hay. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you describe a little more fully each indi- 
vidual ? 

Miss Kinney. Harold Ashe was at that time State secretary of the 
Socialist Party. 

John Spears was unemployed. Marjorie Hay was teaching in the 
Los Angeles city schools. All were members of the Socialist Party at 
that time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you given any instructions by any member of 
the Communist Party as to your activity within the Socialist Party? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you explain your answer more fully ? 

Miss Kinney. Well, I don't remember now too well, except we were 
supposed to build up this rank and file group, which was sort of an 
opposition group to the State leadership. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did the members of this Communist Party unit 
within the Socialist Party have anything to do to disrupt the normal 
proceedings of the Socialist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Well, I think the group tried. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did they have any success ? 

Miss Kinney. To a certain extent, yes. There were perhaps 3 locals 
of the Socialist Party that withdrew. Two of them, I think, turned 
into unemployed organizations, and I think the third one may have 
become a branch of the American League Against War and Fascism. 

Mr. Wheeler. How was this accomplished ? 

Miss Kinney. At this point I really couldn't tell you. 

Mr. Wheeler. AVill you identify the members of the Hollywood 
street branch to which you were assigned ? 

Miss Kinney. I think the only one I remember is Dr. Tashjian.^ 

Mr. Wheeler. How many individuals comprised the Hollywood 
branch ? 

Miss Kinney. I think there were about 10. 

Mr. Wheeler, Then you recall no additional individuals at this time ? 

Miss Kinney. No, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. You testified that you were a member of a street 
branch in Burbank from approximately September 1934 to the fall 
of 1945. Can you identify the members of the Burbank group? 

Miss Kinney. Bill and Nina Ingham, Albert Lockett. That is all 
I can remember now. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many individuals comprised this group? 

Miss Kinney. I think there were just about 7 or 8. 

Mr. Wheeler. From September 1934 to the fall of 1935, you stated 
you were a member at large. What is meant by the term "member at 
large?" 

' Dr. Vaughan A. K. Tashjian. 



870 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Miss Kinney. You are not attached to any branch of any sort. 

Mr. Wheeler. For what reason ? 

Miss Kinney. Because I was given a special assignment. 

Mr. Wheeler. In your opinion, would you say that you were a 
member at large and not assigned to any group because of security 
reasons of the party ? 

Miss Kinney. I presume so. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you assigned to any particular person? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, to'Harrison George. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you further identify Mr. Harrison George? 

Miss Kinney. Harrison George was apparently carrying out some 
special assignment which had to do with publishing what I think was 
a trade-union paper that was sent to Japan. 

I knew very little about it, because all I was supposed to do was 
pick up mail for him that was sent to various addresses and take it 

to him. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall from whom you picked up the mail ? 

I^Iiss Kinney. No, I don't. I never made the arrangements for the 
use of the addresses. I simply went and got the envelopes and took 
them to George. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any of the addresses where you picked 
up the envelopes? 

Miss Kinney. No, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you at any time acquire any knowledge as to 
what the envelopes contained? 

Miss Kinney. No, I didn't, nor did I ever know where they came 
from. 

Mr. Wheeler. "\A^ien assigned to Harrison George, did you at any 
time have any Icnowledge of a branch of the party known as the 
Philipj)ine committee? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

]Mr. WiLEELER. According to your testimony, you were assigned to 
a teachers' unit from the fall of 1935 to December 1938. A^^10 were 
the members of this group ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't remember when they came in, with rare excep- 
tions. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who were the members of this group during the time 
you were a member ? 

Miss Kinney. Marjorie Hay, who was teaching in the Los Angeles 
schools. Harry Shepro. I think you should assume that, unless I 
mention anything to the contrary, all of them were in the city schools. 

Mr. Wheeler. All right. 

Miss Kinney. Sam Wixman. I tliink his wife was a member. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall her first name ? 

Miss Kinney. No. Norman Byrne. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall a member of this unit by the name of 
Honore Moxley Carey ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall whether or not you recruited this 
individual ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, I did. She subsequently dropped out, I think, 
probably about 1937, but I am not sure exactly when. I do know she 
did drop out. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 871 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall how long she was a member of this 
group ? 

Miss Kinney. No, I am not sure. There was Beulah Wales, who 
was a member only for the first few months. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Eose Posell a member of this unit? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was she still a member when you left the teachers' 
gi'oup 'i 

Miss Kinney. So far as I can recall. There were two teachers from 
Glendale, Dick Lewis and LeRoy Herndon. 

Mr. Wheeler. Dick Lewis, would that be Richard B. Lewis ? 

Miss Kinney. It is Richard ; I don't know his middle initial. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long was Mr. Lewis in this group, do you 
recall ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't remember exactly when he joined. He still 
was a member at the time I left. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Mr. Herndon also a member at the time you 
left the teachers' unit ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall Abe Minkus? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was he a member of this group ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes ; he was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Zara Becker? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Ruth Stoddard Ryan ? 

Miss Kinney. Ruth Ryan was a member. She was not in the city 
schools. I am not sure whether she was teaching in the nursery 
school at that time or whether she had in the past. Becky Goodman 
was also a member. She was a nursery school teacher. I am not 
sure she was teaching then. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Angelina Riskin a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 
Mr. Wheeler. Was Brodia Most a member of this teachers' unit ? 

Miss Kinney. I think so. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you acquainted with Davida Franchia ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes ; but she wasn't a member of the teachers' unit. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall what group she was a member of ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. However, you did meet her as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Al I^wis a member of the teachers' unit? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall if his wife, Matilda Lewis, was a 
member ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes; she was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you acquainted with Frank Oppenheimer? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was he a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes ; in Pasadena. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Oppenheimer was not a member of the group 
you were in? 



872 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the occasion you met him as a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. It was at some meeting in connection with the pro- 
fessional section. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would that meeting be termed as a fraction meeting ? 

Miss Kinney. No; it was not a section meeting. It may have been 
a meeting of branch organizers in that section, something of that sort. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever have the occasion to meet any other 
teachers who were members of the Communist Party from the Pasa- 
dena section? 

Miss Kinney. I don't think there were any teachers. Oppen- 
heimer, as I recall, was a research assistant, or something like that, at 
Caltech. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many individuals were members of this group, 
the total amount of people going in and being transferred and quit- 
ting 'i What would your estimate be ? 

Miss Kinney. I would imagine there would have been maybe 25. 
That is allowing for a few I uncloubtedly have forgotten about. 

Mr. Wheeler. When I interviewed you the first time, you men- 
tioned a teacher wliose first name was Claire. Do you recall the last 
name ? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of local 430, American Federa- 
tion of Teachers ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. When was local 430 organized ? 

Miss Kinney. Fall of 1935. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you at any time hold an office in local 430 ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes ; I was recording secretary for a year, almost a 
year. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall what year ? 

Miss Kinney. I think the fall of 1938. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did any of the individuals you mentioned, mem- 
bers of the Communist Party, hold any office in local 430 ? 

Miss Kinney. At one time or another Harry Shepro and Marjorie 
Hay, and I think Sam Wixman, held office. I am not sure whether 
any of the others did or not. 

Mr. Wheeler. In your opinion, did the Communist Party control 
local 430? 

Miss Kinney. I would say it exerted considerable influence. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the party's main objective in bringing 
teachers to the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. It may have been the intention of higher party au- 
thorities to exert influence on the teachers and thereby on the material 
they taught, and the way in which they repeated it to the children. 
In practice, I don't think it worked out to any great extent. At least, 
during the time I was in the teachers' branch, there never was any 
discussion of what doctrines we taught and what we did with it. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you employed as a teacher ? 

Miss Kinney. No ; I wasn't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did member teachers have meetings prior to regu- 
lar meetings in local 430 to discuss what course of action was to be 
taken by the Communist fraction in real meetings ? 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 873 

Miss Kinney. Subjects of that nature were discussed in them. 
Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any specific problems that were dis- 
cussed prior to union meetings? 

Miss Kinney. Largely the question of building up the union mem- 
bership. The teachers would hold meetings prior to regular meetings 
and at times — one problem was to keep some of the non-Communist 
teachers, union members, from being busier "saving the world" than 
they were on the problems facing the teachers in Los Angeles. 

The Communists were anxious to build up the union as a stronger 
force among the teachers in Los Angeles. 
Mr. Wheeler. What was the approximate membership of local 430 ? 
Miss KiNKEY. I have forgotten. 
Mr. Wheeler. Well, would you say 100 ? 

Miss Kinney. No; it was over that. I don't remember whether 
it was close to 200 or just what it was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were all the teachers you mentioned as members 
of the Communist Party also members of local 430 ? 
Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. On what percentage of votes could the Communist 
Party depend on, on any given subject, which reflected the Commu- 
nist Party line ? 

JNIiss Kinney. There were, as I recall, no issues on which there was 
any sharp fight. The situation in the thirties was different than it is 
now, and as a rule there was no particular opposition to any proposals 
Vvhich Communists in the hearings might have made. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was a Communist teacher given any particular in- 
structions regarding indoctrination of students ? 
Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would a Communist teacher- in class discussion 
ever take an anti-Soviet attitude? 

Miss Kinney. I doubt that they would. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you believe a Communist teacher is a suitable 
person to educate the students of this country ? 
Miss Kinney. No. 
Mr. Wheeler. Why? 

Miss Kinney. Because I don't think their first loyalty is to the 
welfare of this country. 

Mr. Wheeler. To what country would you say they owe their 
allegiance? 

Miss Kinney. To Russia. 

Mr. Wheeler. On what do you base this answer ? 
Miss Kinney. The fact that all during the time I was in the party 
it was considered the Soviet Union could do no wrong. 

Mr. Wheeler. During the time you were a member of the Commu- 
nist Party, did you place your allegiance to the Soviet Union above 
that of the United States ? 

Miss Kinney. I wouldn't say that I did, because I felt that there 
wasn't a contradiction. I, of course, no longer feel that way. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many branches of the American Federation 
of Teachers were there in California ? 
Miss Kinney. I think six. 
Mr. Wheeler. Where were these locals located ? 



31747— 53— pt. 5- 



874 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Miss Kinney. I can remember there were locals in Oakland, San 
Francisco, San Jose, San Diego, and Los Angeles. I am not sure- 
about Sacramento. 

INIr. Whkklkh. Were thei-e any members of the Communist Party in 
the locals which you have mentioned? 

Miss Kinney. I think there were in San Diego, in Oakland. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever attend a Communist fraction meeting 
comprised of representatives of the various locals? 

Misr. Kinney. Yes. It didn't include people fr(mi all the locals. 1 
left one out, incidentally. There was one in Palo Alto. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where was this fraction meeting held? 

Miss Kinxky. Somewhere in Palo Alto, previous to a State conven- 
tion of the American Federation of Teachers. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do }'ou remember how many individuals attended 
this meeting? 

Miss Kinney. No. I aot verv ill in the middle of that convention 
and I spent a lot of the time in bed, in the hotel, and 1 don't remember.. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, do you recall any of the teachers who attended 
this Communist fraction meeting? 

Miss Kinney. There were two teachers from Oakland whose names 
I don't remember. Dr. Holland Eoberts, in Palo Alto. 1 think Harry 
Steinmetz, from San Diego. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever meet Harry Steinmetz on any other 
occasion ? 

]\liss Kinney. I think he came to our house one time. I know he 
came to our house at one time. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are certain he was a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, he was; he was at that fraction meeting. Pre- 
sumably he was or he wouldn't have been at the meeting. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do vou recall anvone else who attended the meeting? 

Miss Kinney. No; I don't even remember who else from Los An- 
geles was there. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall what was discussed ? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have knowledge of Communist Party member- 
ship of any other teachers than the ones previously identified? 

Miss Kinney. I was told there was a teacher in San Francisco, but 
I don't remember the name, if I ever knew it. 

Mr. Wheeler. You don't recall anyone else at this time? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Ml". Wheeler. Do j'ou have knowledge of Communist Party mem- 
bership of any present or former member of the Los Angeles City 
lioard of Education? 

Miss Kinney. The board of education? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Miss Kinney. Oh, no. 

Mr. WiHCELER. What is your answer regarding the Los Angeles 
County Board of Education? 

JSIiss Kinney. I don't think I have ever even known who was on the 
county board of education. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you have knowledge of Communist Party mem- 
bership of any present or former member of the State board of 
education ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE LOS ANGELES AREA 875 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were any members or employees of the city, county^ 
or State boards of education considered to be friends or individuals 
who would be trusted by the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Not so far as I know. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you have knowledge of Communist Party mem- 
hership of any present or former employee of the city, county, or 
State boards of education? I don't mean the teachers. I mean the 
actual people employed by the city and county and State boards to 
actually help the board members ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know that I remember anything about it. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you ever a member of the disciplinary com- 
mittee of the Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. I have been a member of a committee that acted as a 
disciplinary committee. It was a committee appointed by the 13th 
congressional section. As for the county disciplinary committee, I 
never was a member of it. 

Mr. Wheeler. For what purpose was this committee set up? 

Miss Kinney. You mean the one in the 13th congressional district?" 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Miss Kinney. Well, there were two members of a branch, whose 
names I don't recall, who had done something, I don't recall what, 
and it was felt they should be called in and questioned. Who they 
were, I don't know, or about what. Nor do I remember what final 
action the committee took. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you recall the members of this committee? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you at any time prefer charges against any 
member of the Communist Party which resulted in a hearing before 
a disciplinary committee ? 

Miss Kinney. Well, the teachers' branch acted, as a whole, as a 
disciplinary committee, so far as Sam Wixman was concerned. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you prefer the charges against Sam Wixman? 

Miss Kinney. Well, in the sense the charges were preferred; yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. What were the nature of the charges, do you recall ? 

Miss Kinney. In general, disruption, but I don't remember anything 
specific. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where was the meeting held ? 

Miss Kinney. It was a regular teachers' branch meeting. I mean, 
we met at various teachers' homes, and I don't remember at what 
particular homes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who was present at this meeting? 

Miss Kinney. Harry Shepro, Marjorie Hay, Honore Moxley Carey, 
Mildred ^ Wixman. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would her name be Myrtle? 

Miss Kinney. Myrtle, yes. 

Mr. AViieeler. You recall her name as Myrtle? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, it is Myrtle. I don't remember who all was 
there. The whole branch membersliip was there, whoever the mem- 
bers at that time were. But I don't recall exactly. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the witnesses were ? 

Miss Kinney. It^ wasn't conducted in sucli a formal manner, as to 
have witnesses. We discussed Wixman's actions at great length. 

Mr. Whi :eler. Was Wixman present to defend himself? 

' Name correcteil to be Myrtle. 



876 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Miss Kinney. We had two meetings on this. He was present at 
the first one. As I recall, he refused lo come to the second. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall what his position was at the first 
meeting? 

Miss Kinney. Well, he of course maintained he hadn't been dis- 
rupting. He maintained that position at considerable length, but I 
couldn't give any details. 

]\[r. AVheeler. Do you recall the approximate date of this dis- 
ciplinary hearing? 

Miss Kinney. I would guess it was about January 1937. 

Mr, Wheeler. What was the result? 

Miss Kinney. The branch voted that he be expelled. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Wixman so notified? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, I think so. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Wixman ever^ permitted to rejoin the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Not that I know of. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall when Wixman lost his teaching posi- 
tion in June 1940 ? 

Miss Kinney. I heard that he had. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did not the Communist Party attempt to assist 
Wixman in regaining his employment? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you familiar with the Classroom Teachers' 
Federation ? 

Miss Kinney. I knew there was such an organization, which had 
been in existence a long time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know the background of the organization, 
a little information as to when it was started and what the purpose 
was? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know when it was started. The people that 
started the Classroom Teachers' Federation felt the teachers' organ- 
izations were not doing enough to look after the interests of the class- 
room teachers and were to a great extent influenced by the principles. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were the teachers you have identified as members 
of the Communist Party also members of the Classroom Teachers' 
Federation ? 

Miss Kinney. I think some of them were. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did the Teachers' Federation support Wixman in 
his difficulty with the board of education ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. From December 1938 to August 1939, you have testi- 
fied that you were a member of the 56th-assembly-district branch 
of the 13th Congressional District, is that correct? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you hold any official f)osition ? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you remember any of the members of this group ? 

Miss Kinney. The chairman of the branch was called Ann. Lew 
Scott was a member. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you further identify Lew Scott? 

Miss Kinney. I can't. I don't know what he did. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you transferred to the 56th assembly branch 
for any specific reason ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 877 

Miss Kinney. Lew Scott was causing some difficulty in the branch 
and I was assigned there, shall we say, to keep him from becoming too 
influential, because it was felt by many people he was perhaps, as we 
called it an unrealiable element. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anyone else who was a member of 
this unit ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't; no. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have testified that from August 1939 to the 
fall of 1940 you were a section organizer.of the 15th Congressional Dis- 
trict. What were your duties? 

Miss Kinney. Well, in general, I was held responsible for the prop- 
er functioning and activity of the branches making up the 15th 
Congressional District section. 

Mr. Wheeler. Could you estimate the approximate membership of 
the 15th Congressional District? 

Miss Kinney. I think there were about 150 members. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you familiar with the publication Two Decades 
of Progress ? 



to^ 



Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler, I will ask you if that document was an official pub- 
lication of the Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. I think it was supposed to be. 

Mr. Wheeler. For identification, the cover reads : "Two Decades of 
Progress, Communist Party, L. A. County, 1919-39." 

The back cover discloses the document was printed by the Depend- 
able Printers, 2510 Brooklyn Avenue. 

I will ask you to look at page 30 of the document, or, the book, 
rather, and state whether or not the photograph appearing on that 
page is yours. 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you read the entire page into the record? 

Miss Kinney (reading) : 

Fifteenth Congressional District, room 213, 3950 West Sixth Street, FA. 9552. 
Jane Howe, Organizer. 

From Hollywood Boulevard to Slauson, from Fairfax to Hoover Street, the 
15th Congressional District is typical of Los Angeles. The workers in the close- 
to-billion-dollar motion-picture industry, fighting for honest, democratic trade 
unionism ; the unemployed, fighting for jobs and adequate relief, the small- 
business men, struggling to keep from being squeezed out ; these are the people 
who, along with the Negro and Japanese people who live In the district, have 
begun to come together in a movement for progressive government. The election 
of four progressive councilmen — Nelson, Benett, Briggs, and Rasmussen — is 
an indication of the possibility of ousting the present Tory Democrat, Congress- 
man Costello, in 1940. 

Since 1934, with the first fight for free speech in Hollywood, the Communist 
Party has been an important factor in every struggle of the people. The studio 
strikers of 1937, the Hollywood Citizen-News pickets of 1938, the Workers' Al- 
liance, Labor's Nonpartisan League, Ham and Eggers have all seen the party 
in action, helping in every progressive movement. Their appreciation was 
shown in the large vote given Emil Freed, Communist candidate for Congress in 
1938. 

57th assembly district : 

East branch, Emil Freed, president, 1505 North Western Avenue 
West branch. Jack Ginsberg, president, 3950 West Sixth Street 
Day branch, J. Caroway, president, 3950 West Sixth Street 
Hans Eisler branch, M. Morris, president, 3950 West Sixth Street 
Hollywood Studio, Milton Henry, president, 3950 West Sixth Street 
Newspaper branch, Peter Steel, president, 39.50 West Sixth Street 



878 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

58th assembly district : 

Wilshire branch, Libby .Tacobson, president, 3084 San Marino Street 
Japanese branch, John Matsuto, president, 3950 West Sixth Street 
Lawyers' branch, Lawrence West, president, 3950 West Sixth Street 

63d assembly district : 

63d assembly-district branch, Sara Kusnitz, president, 2180 West Twenty- 
ninth Street 
Culver City Studio, Frank Oats, president, 3950 West Sixth Street 

65th assembly district : 

Anya Lieberson, president, 1240 West Fortieth Place 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall writing what you have just read? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know whether I wrote it or Emil Freed wrote 
it. 

Mr, Wheeler. In your position as organizer, would you have ap- 
proved it? 

Miss Kinney. I would have approved it. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were any of the councilmen mentioned on this page 
members of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. What part did you, as organizer of the 15th Con- 
gressional District, or the Communist Party have in the "first fight for 
free speech in Hollywood" ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know what they mean by the "first fight for 
free speech in Hollywood" in 1939. I have no recollection of it. 

Mr. Wheeler. To quote from this page : 

The studio strikers of 1937, the Hollywood Citizen-News pickets of 1938, the 
Workers' Alliance, Labor's Nonpartisan League, Ham and Eggers have all seen 
the party in action. 

"VVliat part did the Communist Party take in the studio strike of 
1937? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you take any part in it ? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. What part did the party take in the Workers' 
Alliance? 

Miss Kinney. I presume that some party members were members 
of the Workers' Alliance and probably helped to establish branches of 
the Workers' Alliance. I don't know. At the time that this publica- 
tion appeared, I had only been sedition organizer for about 3 weeks in 
this section. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Workers' Alliance ? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. WiiEixER. Were you ever employed by the Workers' Alliance? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you consider the Workers' Alliance a front for 
the Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. To a certain extent, I think it was. To a certain 
extent, I think it was a legitimate organization that probably was 
able to do something for the unemployed ; what they would not have 
been able to do without an organization. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have mentioned in your testimony that the 
Communist Party may have been instrumental in assisting in setting 
up branches of the Workers' Alliance, isn't that correct? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 879 

Mr. Wheeler. The Communist Party certainly wouldn't lend their 
assistance to organizations unless the organizations were in sympathy 
with the objectives of the party, would they ? The Communist Party 
wouldn't assist in setting up a branch of the German- American Bund? 

Miss Kinney. No. Wliat I mean by my previous answer is this: 
The party may have had definite ideas about what it hoped to ac- 
complish for the Workers' Alliance, but I think that at the same time 
some good things were accomplished for the unemployed. Do you 
understand the distinction I am trying to make ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Miss Kinney. I don't feel that you can condemn the Workers' Al- 
liance outright and say everything they did was bad. I think they 
did a lot of things that were better left undone. 

Mr. Wheeler. I don't think you can say that the Communist Party 
is all bad. I think there is some agreement in some of their objec- 
tives that perhaps most American citizens do agree with. 

Miss Kinney. The objectives on top, the public objectives are per- 
haps some things with which you can agree. 

Mr. Wheeler. I think we all agree with shun clearance. 

Miss Kinney. The party, I think, has always followed a practice 
of trying to pick a public objective that many people are in agree- 
ment with. 

Mr. Wheeler. Getting back to page 30 again, what part did the 
party take in the Labor's Non-Partisan League ? 

Miss Kinney. I think some party members were members of the 
Labor's Non-Partisan League. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you say that the Labor's Non-Partisan 
League was in the same category as Workers' Alliance, so far as your 
■description of Workers' Alliance goes ? 

Miss Kinney. I think it was probably less 

Mr. Wheller. Infiltrated? 

Miss Kinney. Influenced by the party. I think that the Labor's 
Non-Partisan League was less influenced by the party. 

Mr. Wheller. According to page 30 of this document, a number of 
Communist Party branches were in your district. The first listed is 
the east branch of the 57th Assembly District. Emil Freed is listed as 
president. Do you know Emil Freed as a Communist and president 
'of the East Branch? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheller. Do you recall any other members in that branch ? 

Miss Kinney. His wife was a member. 

Mr. Wheller. Do you recall her given name? 

Miss Kinney. Tassia. 

Mr. Wheller. Do you recall anyone else? 

Miss Kinney. No, I don't 

Mr. Wheller. What type of branch was the East Branch? 

Miss Kinney. A street branch. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who maintained the membership records for the 15th 
Congressional District? 

Miss Kinney. It would be the section membership director, and I 
don't remember who it was. 

Mr. Wheller. Who was section treasurer? 

Miss Kinney. Tassia Freed. 



880 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheller. Do you recall the approximate amount of moneys 
collected per month as dues? 
Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. WiiELLER. Do you recall what percentage of the money taken 
in as dues was retained by the section and what part went to the Los 
Angeles County organization? 

Miss Kinney. I used to know all those things. I think the section 
kept 10 percent. How much the branches kept and how much went to 
the county, I don't remember. 

Mr. Wheller. Who appointed you section organizer? 
Miss Kinney. I was elected by the section committee on the pro- 
posal of the — proposed to them, I believe, by the county committee or 
by the county organizer. 

Mr. Wheller. The county organizer at that time was Max Silver? 
Miss Kinney. I don't remember whether it was Max Silver or Paul 
Cline. 

Mr. Wheller. The second branch listed in the document "2 Decades 
of Progress" is the West Branch. What can you tell us about this 
unit? 

Miss Kinney. It was also a street branch. Aside from Jack Gins- 
berg, who is listed as president, his wife Margaret was a member. I 
believe Fanya Friedman was a member. I don't remember anybody 
else. 

Mr. Wheller. The next branch listed is a day branch, 57th Assembly 
District, with J. Caroway listed as president. What do you remember 
about this branch? 
Miss Kinney. Not a thing. 
Mr. Wheller. Do you recall J. Caroway ? 

Miss Kinney. No. I am not sure whether it was supposed to be 
housewives or whether it was people who worked at night. 

Mr. Wheeler. The next branch listed in the document is the Hans 
Eisler Branch, T5th Assembly District. AVhat type of branch was 
the Eisler Branch ? 

Miss Kinney. The branch listed as the Eisler Branch, was a branch 
of musicians. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the head of this branch was? 
Miss Kinney. Miriam Brooks. 
Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any of the members? 
Miss Kinney. No, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. How do branches acquire the names? 
Miss Kinney. The branch chooses the name. If it chooses the name 
of a person dead or alive, it is somebody whom they feel may not 
necessarily have been or be a Communist, but represents principles 
which the Communists support. 

I know of one branch named Thomas Masaryk, who I believe was 
the first president of Czechoslovakia. What I am trying to say is 
that because a branch is named for a person doesn't necessarily mean 
that person is or was a Communist. 

Mr. Wheeler. It doesn't mean he is anti-Communist, does it? 
Miss Kinney. Certainly wouldn't be anti-Communist. That is, 
if it were someone who is alive. Someone dead, you can assume the 
party may assume he might have been pro-Communist; other people 
may have had their doubts. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 881 

Mr. Wheeler. We had testimony in 1945 in regard to this matter 
we are discussing. The witness said that they would never name a 
branch of the Communist Party after a live Communist because of 
the fact that he may be driven out of the party and turn against them. 

I am somewhat surprised a Hans Eisler branch appears, which is 
named after a man who is currently alive. 

Miss Kinney. I think there have been instances when branches 
have been named for live Communists, and I believe there have been 
embarrassing consequences sometimes, too. 

Mr. Wheeler. This procedure probably started after Eisler's branch 
was set up. 

The next branch entered in the document "2 Decades of Progress" 
is a Hollywood branch. What knowledge do you have concerning 
this branch ? 

Miss Kinney. The members were workers in the studios, in the 
crafts, that is, carpenters, painters, electricians, and so on. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the head of this branch ? 

Miss Kinney. It says here Milton Henry, which doesn't mean a 
thing. John Bevins was the head of that branch, so far as I remember. 

Mr. Wheeler. How was Mr. Bevins employed ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't remember what John was doing at that time. 
I don't know^ whether he was working in the studios then or not. 
I know he had in the past, one time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall that John Bevins was his true name 
or a party name ? 

Miss Kinney. John Bevins was the name I knew him by. It may 
liave been a party name. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall whether or not he was also known as 
Jacob Levine ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever meet a Jacob Levine in the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. No, not that I recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. The next branch listed is the newspaper branch. It 
tells who was head of the newspaper branch. 

Miss Kinney. I am not sure who was head of the newspaper branch. 
I know that Sid Burke was a member. 

Mr. Wheeler. Peter Steel is listed in the document as president. 
Do you recall Peter Steel ? 

Miss Kinney. Not by that name. 

Mr. Wheeler. For the record, Peter Steel is a party name and is 
actually Charles Judson, who testified as a cooperative witness in 
Washington last year. 

Did you know Charles Judson ? 

Miss Kinney. I think so. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who else were members? 

Miss Kinney. I think Tom Cullen was a member. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who else do you remember? 

Miss Kinney. Ed Kobbins, Herb Klein, Brick Garrigues ; ^ I don't 
remember Brick's real first name. I know him as Brick. I know 
that at one time Jay Moss and Dolph Winebrenner and Urcel Daniel 
were members, but I don't remember whether it was at this particular 
time or not. 

1 According to information received by the committee, the full name of this individual is 
Cliarles H. Garrigues. 



882 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. Were all these individuals connected with the news- 
paper business? 

Miss Kinney, So far as I know. 

Mr. Wheeler. For the record, Urcel Daniel testified as a coopera- 
tive witness in Washington in 1952. 

Do you recall if George Shaffer was a member of this group ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Minna Klein a member of this group, also ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know. I know she was a member of the 
party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall if William E. Oliver was a member of 
this group ? 

Miss Kinney. I am not sure. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever meet Mr. Oliver as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. I think I have heard the name, but I don't recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. Lillian Jones? 

Miss Kinney. Lillian Jones? 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall if Lillian Jones was a member of the 
newspaper branch ? 

Miss Kinney. Not so far as I know. She, I think, was a member 
of that branch in Hollywood that I was in, in 1934. 

Mr, Wheeler. Do you know her occupation ? 

Miss Kinney. She was secretary of the workers' school at the time 
I knew her, I believe. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was she employed in the film industry ? 

Miss Kinney. Not as far as I Imow, 

Mr, Wheeler, "2 Decades of Progress," page 30, also discloses that 
the 58th Assembly District was in the 15th Congressional District. 
According to this document the 58th Assembly District contained 
three Communist Party branches, the first being the Wilshire branch. 
What type of branch was the Wilshire branch? 

Miss Kinney, That was a street branch. 

Mr. Wheeler, Do you recall anything about the Wilshire branch? 

Miss Kinney. Libby Jacobson was the chairman of the branch. 
Emily and Julian Gordon were members of it. 

Mr. Wheeler. The second group listed within the 58th Assembly 
District is a Japanese group. What knowledge do yo have regard- 
ing this group? 

Miss Kinney. There was a small group of Japanese and it was my 
impression they were all Japanese gardeners; none of them spoke 
English. The president of the branch I knew only as George, I 
doirt know his last name. He spoke very little English, 

Mr, Wheeler, The third branch listed within the 58th Assembly 
District is a lawyers branch. What can you tell us about this branch ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't remember this Lawrence West, who is listed 
as president. I believe Jack Franko was a member of that branch. 
I must have known other members at the time, but I don't remember 
now. 

Mr, Wheeler, I would like to refer to volume III of executive hear- 
ings of July 17, 18, 19, 22, 26; August 5, 6, 16, IT, 19 and 20, 1940, of 
hearings before Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House 
of Representatives, 76th Congress. 



COROIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 883 

On page 1239 of this document, I read the following : 

Carey MeWilliams, state housing commissioner. Jane Howe, former profes- 
sional section merabersliip director, gave me his name as the one to contact to 
make arrangements for my appearance at the Communist Party's lawyers' unit. 
The Communist Party unit is synonymous with the lawyers guild faction. 

This is the testimony of a person, a former member of the Com- 
munist Party, who appeared before the committee in 1940, and testi- 
fied to what I have just read. 

Miss Kinney. That I told them to contact Carey MeWilliams? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Miss Kinney. I never would have, because to my knowledge Carey 
MeWilliams was never a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Carey MeWilliams? 

Miss Kinney I met him once. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the occasion? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. It was at a time when he and a group of othei-s, 
whom I do not remember, were planning a conference in connection 
with the foreign born, and I think it was alien registration. 

I went to his office. I think he was State housing commissioner at 
that time. I went to his office in my capacity as section organizer for 
the 15tli Congressional District, to offer him the help of our section 
in organizing this group. 

Mr. Wheeler. You identified yourself to him as an organizer of the 
Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was his reaction ? 

Miss Kinney. He was very polite and noncommittal. He said he 
would be glad to have help from anybody that was concerned about 
these things but did not make any specific suggestions as to what our 
section of the Communist Party could do. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you sent there by someone else in the party ? 

Miss Kinney. Our section committee decided this would be a good 
idea. Nothing came of it. I mean we didn't really do anytliing to help 
the conference. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did your section committee consider Carey Me- 
Williams as sympathetic to the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Not particularly. Carey MeWilliams, I think they 
considered him as a progressive member of Governor Olsen's adminis- 
tration. This was a case of the party trying to horn in on something. 

Mr. Wheeler. "Two Decades of Progress" reflects that the 63d 
assembly district was also in the 15th Congressional District. Two 
branches of the Communist Party, according to this document, were 
in this assembly district, the 63d Assembly District Branch and the 
Culver City Studio Branch. What can you tell the committee of the 
first branch ? 

Miss Kinney. Sara Kusnetz was a chairman of the branch. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any of the members of the branch? 
What type of branch was that ? 

Miss Kinney. It was a street branch, and so far as this Culver City 
Studio Branch is concerned, I have absolutely no recollection of the 
existence of such a branch. 

Mr. Wheeler. The last branch was in the 15th Congressional Dis- 
trict, as recorded in "Two Decades of Progress" and was the 65th 
assembly district. Will you describe this branch ? 



884 coivcvruNisT actr^ities in the los angeles area 

Miss Kinney. This was a small street branch. Anya Lieberson was 
president. Her husband, Eddie Fisher, was a member of that branch. 

Mr. Wheeler. Can you further identify Eddie Fisher? 

Miss Kinney. No. I think he worked as a salesman. I don't know 
what he sold. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anyone else who was a member of the 
15th Congressional District? Do you recall if Joseph Zadow was a 
member? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, he was in the 58th assembly. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall his occupation? 

Miss Kinney. He was a tailor. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall Sanders Sheff ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know whether he belonged to the 63d or the 
65th assembly district. He is an engineer ; I don't know what kind of 
engineer. 

Mr. Wheeler. You knew him as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss ICinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeijer. Do you recall who he married ? 

Miss I^nney. He was on the section committee for a while. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who he married ? 

Miss Kinney. I think his wife's name was Eve. I don't remem- 
ber her last name. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever meet an individual by the name of 
Lynn Taf t ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't think so. 

Mr. Wheeler. An organizer of the 15th Congressional District. 
Did you have occasion to meet Margaret Ginsberg as a member of the 
Communst Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. I previously mentioned her as a member of 
the west branch of the 56th assembly district. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall if Ernest Dawson was a member of 
the Communist Party in the 15th Congressional District? 

Miss Kinney. Not that I know of. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any person by the name of Dawson 
that owned a bookstore ? 

Miss Kinney. I know a person in Los Angeles by the name of 
Ernest Dawson that owned a bookstore, but he was not a member of the 
Communist Party, so far as I know. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anyone else in the 15th Congressional 
District? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you acquainted with the unit in the Communist 
Party comprised of social workers? 

Miss Kinney. I knew some social workers. There were, I think, 
two units of social workers in the professional section. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the names of any of these people ? The 
other day in our interview you mentioned you knew Betty Selden as 
a member of the Communist Party. 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Ruth Ober as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. I am not positive whether slie was or not. I met her 
but I am not positive. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 885 

Mr, Wheeler. Did you meet John Jeffrey ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. You met him as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you meet Henrietta Palley as a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall Sonya Solatoy as a member of the 
Socialist Workers Club ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Rose Most a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall if Maurine Ryan was a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall if Rose Segure was a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mis Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever have occasion to meet Milton Cashner 
as a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. And Max Bogner was a member. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you met anyone else as a member of the Com- 
munist Party who was assigned to any professional section other than 
what we have previously discussed? 

Miss Kinney. I knew Al Rislun. 

Mr. Wheeler. Albert Riskin ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know what his 

Mr. Wheeler. Riskin? 

Miss Kinney. Riskin, yes. Alexander Riskin is his name. 

Mr. Wheeler. A doctor ? 

Miss KinJtey. Yes. Alexander Riskin and Dr. Leo Bigelman were 
in the doctor's branch. 

Mr. Wheeler. In our previous discussion you mentioned that you 
met Ann Howe as a member of the Communist Party. 

Miss Kinney. Yes. I don't remember now what branch of the 
professional section she was in. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know her occupation or any further descrip- 
tion ? 

_ Miss Kinney. She, I believe, at that time was working as an execu- 
tive secretary of the Contemporary Theater. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever have occasion to meet Joseph J. 
Posell ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was he a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. I think he was in the pharmacists' branch, 
along with Jack Fox. I may be wrong about Joe Possell being in 
the pharmacists' branch. Jack Fox I know was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any other phannacists ? 

Miss Kinney. No ; I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Does the name Albert Byler mean anything to you? 

Miss Kinney. Oh, yes. He was an engineer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall where he worked ? 

Miss Kinney. At one time he worked for the board of education 
as an engineer. I think it was at the time I knew him. 



886 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. WiiEELER. Do you recall the name Sam Gelf and ? 

Miss KixNEY. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was he a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know what his occupation was at that tinie? 

Miss Kinney. I think he was working for the State relief admin- 
istration as a social worker. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have occasion to meet Nell Higman as a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was she a member of some professional group? 

Miss Kinney. No; she wasn't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall her occupation? 

Miss Kinney. She is a retired teacher. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have occasion to meet Kose Bush? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall her occupation? 

Miss Kinney. She, as I recall — it was my impression she was, or 
may have been working full time for the party, but I don't know in 
what capacity. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have occasion to meet Abraham Maymadus? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. You knew him as a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes ; he was working for IWO. 

Mr. Wheeler. That is known as the International Workers Order? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have occasion to meet Libby Nathan Mekus 
as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes; she was in a street branch, I believe. 

Mr, Wheeler. Do you recall her occupation? 

Miss Kinney. She was a housewife. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Jane Wilson ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was she also known as Jane Wallace? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know which was her correct name? 

Miss Kinney. Wilson. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was she a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. Yes ; she was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever meet Jack Wetherwax? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was his occupation? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. You knew him as a Communist? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. The next one, the first name is Barta, and the last 
is Humouna. Did you meet her as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. She was a teacher, but I don't know her real 
name. She also was active in Contemporary Theater, and that was 
the name she used and preferred, 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you ever a member of the United Office and 
Professional Workers of America ? 



COMIVIUNIST ACTR'ITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 887 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler, When were you a member? 

Miss Kinney. Here in Los Angeles, in the fall of 1940, until the 
fall of 1941 ; I never attended a meeting. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you have an}^ knowledge of the Communist in- 
filtration of United Office and Professional Workers of America ? 

Miss Kinney.I know that some were Communist members. I have 
no direct knowledge; I never attended a meeting. 

Mr. Wheeler. We previously discussed this, and at that time I read 
to you a list of individuals whom we have evidence of Communist 
Party membership. These are the individuals that you have previ- 
ously identified in our interview. 

Bea Baron ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. Do you want to read the whole list ? 

Mr. Wheeler. All right. Carter Brown, Oscar Fuss, Harry Tar- 
noff, John Lockett, whom you have previously identified 

Miss Kinney. As Albert Lockett, in Burbank. 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. Wilhelmina Maise, Helen Mallof, Violet Orr, 
Clara Stevens, Bert Stone. Do you recall having met all these indi- 
viduals as members of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is Bert Stone male or female ? 

Miss Kinney. Female. 

Mr. Wheeler. You previously testified that you were employed by 
the United Office and Professional Workers of America in Chicago. 
Were you active at all as a Communist in that organization ? 

Miss Kinney. Well, I was still a Communist at the time I started 
working for them. I had dropped out of the party before I stopped 
working for them. 

Mr. W^heeler. Did you know anyone in Chicago connected with the 
United Office and Professional Workers of America to be a Commu- 
nist? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, there were some members of the union whom I 
knew to be Communists. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was this knowledge based upon party meetings? 

Miss Kinney. In the case of one, yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who was that one? 

Miss Kinney. Joan Place. 

Mr. Wheeler. What do you base your knowledge on, the other 
individuals whom you know to be members of the Com.munist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Evelyn Keller said she was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was she employed by the UOWPA ? 

Miss Kinney. Evelyn Keller was clerical worker in the union office 
in Chicago. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was there anyone connected with the UOWPA in 
Chicago a Communist? 

Miss Kinney. There were, I think, several members whom I as- 
sumed were Communists, altliough I didn't necessarily see them at 
meetings. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, we will not go into that. How did you obtain 
your job with United Office and Professional Workers of America? 

Miss Kinney. I heard that they were looking for someone to work 
in the office who knew something about editing a paper, and I had 
been editing — I had been editor of the union paper at Studebaker and 



888 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

I wanted to change jobs because the job at Studebaker was very hard 
on me physically. So I applied for this job with United Office and 
Professional Workers. 

They were at that time, that is, the regional office at that time was 
publishing a monthly paper for the insurance division 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you sa^'^ being a member of the Communist 
Party was a good recommendation for employment with the United 
Office and Professional Workers of America ? 

Miss Kinney. So far as I know it had nothing to do with it. So far 
as I know, Morris Yanoff, who was the regional director, didn't know I 
was a Communist when he hired me. 

Mr. Wheeler. You testified from the fall of 1940 until May 1942 
you were working on the county membership connnittee, organizer for 
the 65th assembly district and also for a short period of time county 
membership director. What were your duties while working on the 
county membership committee ? 

Miss Kinney. I think principally it was a matter of working out 
methods for keeping closer check on dues payments and transfers from 
one branch to another. 

Mr, Wheeler. Did you have anything to do with individuals being 
transferred out of the Los Angeles district and individuals being trans- 
ferred in from other areas ? 

Miss Kinney. As county membership director, I sent transfers out 
to San Francisco, the district office, if they were transferring some- 
where out of the county. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the names of any individuals that you 
transferred out of Los Angeles ? 

Miss Kinney. No ; I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the names of any of the individuals 
who may have been transferred into Los Angeles ? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many individuals comprised the membership, 
the county membership commission ? 

Miss lijNNEY. I can only remember three of us, but it seems to me 
there was a fourth person. I don't remember who it was. The three I 
remember was myself, Helen Gardner, and Max Silver. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall how long you were organizer for the 
65th assembly district ? 

Miss Kinney. I think only about 2 months. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anyone in the 65th assembly district 
as members of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Only the ones I mentioned previously, Anya Lieber- 
son and Eddie Fisher were the two I mentioned before. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a membership director of the Los 
Angeles County ? 

Miss Kinney. I would say 4, possibly 5 months ; not any longer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the total membership of Los Angeles 
County during the time you were membership director in 1942 ? 

Miss Kinney. The figure, I think, was 3,000. It isn't necessarily 
correct, though. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat were your duties ? 

Miss Kinney. To collect dues from the section membership direc- 
tors, to handle transfers from one section to another within the county, 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 889 

assign people being transferred into Los Angles County from outside, 
to sejid to the district office in San Francisco those transfers of people 
who were leaving the county. 

Mr. W11EEI.ER. Do you recall the names of the individuals that you 
received dues from on the sectional level ? 

Miss Kinney. Well, as often as not it might be the section organizer 
who turned it over to me, rather than the section membership director. 
I remember some of the section organizers better than I do the member- 
ship directors. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you name the individuals ? 

]!iliss Kinney. George Sandy. 

Mr. Wheeler. If you recall the district for which he was an organ- 
izer, will you please mention that? 

Miss Kinney. I think he was from the 12th Congressional District. 

Jean Mayer was section organizer in the 13th Congressional District. 

Mr. Wheeler. How do you spell her last name? 

Miss Kinney. M-a-y-e-r, I guess. Frank Beye, from San Fernando 
Valley. Betty Martin, from the harbor. Miriam Brooks. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the organizer or the treasurer 
was of the northwest section, which comprised Hollywood ? 

Miss Kinney. Elizabeth. I don't remember her last name. 

Mr. Wheeler. Leech? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. How much money would you estimate that you 
received from these individuals a month ? 

Miss IviNNEY. In the Hollywood section ? 

Mr. Wheeler. No, the whole Los Angeles County. 

Miss Kinney. I have no recollection. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, would you say $1,000? 

Miss Kinney. Honestly, I don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall how much money you received from 
the Hollywood section or the northwest section ? 

Miss iviNNEY. Yes, because all that I received was the equivalent 
of unemployed dues, which were 10 cents a month. The rest of the 
dues which they paid were turned in direct to, I presume, the county 
organizer. The records only showed unemployed dues for Hollywood. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did they turn them in to the county organizer or 
would these dues they collected from Hollywood go direct to the 
national ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know. I knew that I got only the unemployed 
amount, and that there was a larger amount which I never got. 

Mr. Wheele;r. W^ouldn't this be considered unusual procedure? 

Miss Kinney. It was not like any other section. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever hear discussed how much money came 
out of Hollywood a month ? 

Miss Kinney. Not that I recall. 

]Mr. Wheeler. Would you list all the Communist Party officials in 
Los Angeles County that you have met ? 

Miss Kinney. Paul Cline. You want their titles ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Miss Kinney. County organizer. 

Mr. Wheeler. And approximate time he was county organizer, 
which went back to '38 or '39 ? 

31747— 53— pt. o 4 



890 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Miss Kinney. I think from '37 to sometime around — I don't know 
whether it was '40 or '41 ; I am not sure. 

Max Silver took his place. 

Pettis Perry, county chairman. 

Matt Pellman, as educational director for a while. Part of the 
time Al Ryan was educational director. 

Lou Baron, I think, was trade-union director at one time. 

Helen Gardner was membership director. I don't recall anybody 
else. 

1 think in 1937, just before Paul Cline came, Betty Gannett was 
county organizer for a brief time. 

Carl Winter was county organizer in 1942. He came just a few 
months before I left Los Angeles. I can't think of anybody else. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who of the Communist Party have you met that 
w^as on the national level of the party structure ? 

Miss Kinney. At one time or another there were national commit- 
tee members who spoke here at public meetings. I didn't meet them 
personally. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you familiar with the political commission of 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. I have a vague recollection there was some sort of 
committee set up at one time. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have here a photostat of a card which I will hand 
you and ask you if it is your handwriting. 

Miss Kinney. The writing on one side is; the writing on the other 
side isn't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you read into the record the portion of the 
handwriting that is yours ? 

Miss Kinney. The portion that is mine is the side listing the names 
of three people. It states they are transferring into the political 
unit. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you read the names ? 

Miss Kinney. And signed Jane Howe. 

Mr. Wheeler. Read the names and also party names. 

Miss Kinney. Dennis Dane. That is Leo Bigelnian. Alice Starr, 
who was Rose Segure. And Margaret — it looks like P-e-t-o-s, who was 
Elinore Bogigian. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was that Mrs. Murray Abowitz ? 

Miss Kinney. Was it? 

Mr. Wheeler. For the record, it is Mrs. Murray Abowitz. 

Miss Kinney. I don't know whose writing this is on the other side. 

Mr. Wheeler. I will introduce that as Kinney Exhibit No. 1. 

You have previously testified that in 1942 you became a member of 
the Studebaker branch of the Communist Party in Chicago, 111. Will 
you give us the approximate date you moved to Chicago ? 

Miss Kinney. I moved to Chicago in July of 1942. I didn't be- 
come a member of the Studebaker branch until, I think, December; 
transfers sometimes take a long time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you transferred by the direction of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have any discussion with any member of the 
Communist Party concerning your transfer? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 891 

Miss Kinney. I decided on my own I wanted to go back to Chicago, 
and when I mentioned it to Carl Winter, who was the county organizer, 
he said, "Well, I don't know whether we will let you." 

I didn't like that. I intended to go anyway. But before I left 
he sent word to me, I think, by Max Silver, that it was all right for 
me to go. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was he disturbed because you didn't advise him prior 
to the making of your decision to move to Chicago? 

Miss Kinney. I don't think Carl Winter ever liked anyone to make 
a decision that he didn't approve of. It hadn't occurred to me that 
there would be any question or objection. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many members comprised the Studebaker 
branch in Chicago? 

Miss Kinney. I think between 15 and 20, but I am not sure. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were these individuals all employed with the Stude- 
baker plant? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the United Auto Workers of 
America ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were any officials of the United Auto Workers of 
America members of the Communist Party, to your knowledge? 

Miss Kinney. You mean in our local union ? 

Mr. Wheeler. In your local union. 

Miss Kinney. Yes, Carl Swanson, Gertrude Selig, and Evelyn 
Fargo were members of the Studebaker branch, and part of the time 
officers of the local union. 

Mr. Wheeler. What number was the union ? 

Miss Kinney. 998. 

Mr. Wheeler. To your knowledge is it still in existence ? 

Miss Kinney. I am sure it isn't because the plant was closed in, I 
think, June of 1945, and never reopened by Studebaker. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any other members of the Studebaker 
branch ? 

Miss Kinney. Reva Handle, Wally, whose last name I can't re- 
member. Evelyn Fargo was the other one. Jane March. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anyone else ? 

Miss Kinney. No, those were the only ones. 

Mr. Wheeler. While a member of the Communist Party, and while 
assigned to the Studebaker branch, did you have any specific function 
with the union ? 

Miss Kinney. I was appointed to the staff of the union paper in 
June of 1943, and elected editor of the paper by the staff. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did this paper reflect in any way the Communist 
Party line ? Were you under any orders from the Communist Party 
to slant this publication in any way? 

Miss Kinney. I had some disagreements with some of the members 
of the branch, particularly Carl Swanson and Gertrude Selig, about 
whether or not the paper w^ould be a miniature Daily Worker. I re- 
fused to turn it into that and maintained that it was a union paper 
and it should follow CIO policy. It did follow CIO policy. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you at that time consider yourself in more 
agreement with CIO policy than the Communist Party directives? 



892 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

In other words, did you place the CIO above the Communist Party 
while editor of this paper? 

Miss Kinney. It wasn't that clear-cut, but it seemed to me a union 
paper is a union paper, and that you don't turn a union paper into 
a Communist paper. I felt I was responsible to the entire union 
membersliip for putting out a paper that reflected the policies of the 
union. 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, but you still were removing yourself from Com- 
munist Party discipline, were you not? 

Miss Kinney. Well, my disagreements didn't make me too popular 
in the branch. At that time there wasn't too much difference in the 
immediate policies of the Communist Party and the CIO. If there 
had been greater divergence, I think it might have created consid- 
erably more difficulties than it did. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have previously testified that you were a mem- 
ber of the Hyde Park branch in Chicago from the fall of 1944 to 
the fall of 1945. 

What was the reason for your transfer from the Studebaker group 
to the Hyde Park group ? 

Miss Kinney. The shop branch was disbanded. All shop branches 
were disbanded in the summer of 1944. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was this because of security reasons ? 

Miss Kinney. No, this was during the period of the Communist 
Political Association. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the m.embers of the Hyde Park 
branch were ? 

Miss I&nney. Joan Place was the chairman of the branch. Lucy 
Arnold was a member. Sue Cohen, Morton Nadler. I told you he 
worked at Dodge. I was mistaken. It was Meyer Wineberg that 
worked at Dodge. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know where Morton Nadler worked? 

Miss Kinney. No. Jens and Sarah Simonsgard were members. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are those all the individuals that you recall from 
this group ? 

Miss I^NNEY. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. How big a group was this ? 

Miss Kinney. I think it was supposed to have about 50 members. 
The attendance at meetings was perhaps about 20, at best. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you regular in your attendance ? 

Miss Kinney. I was not very regular in my attendance. I became 
less and less regular. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was this the last group that you were in while a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. And when did you cease to attend this group ? 

Miss Kinney. In the fall of 1945. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did the Communist Party at any time give you any 
special training to assist you in furthering its program? 

Miss Ivinney. Yes ; here in Los Angeles, in 1937, 1 went to 2 weeks' 
county training school. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where was this held ? 

Miss Kinney. In Ocean Park, I believe, or Venice ; I am not sure 
which. 

Mr. Wheeler. How were you selected to attend this school ? 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 893 

Miss Kinney. By the county committee. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did they select individuals that they thought would 
make good workers for the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Presumably you had leadership possibilities. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who attended this meeting ? 

Miss Kinney. You mean who were students at the school ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Miss Kinney. Helen Gardner was a student and LaKue McCormick, 
Betty Martin, Bob Cole. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is Bob Cole or Robert Cole, the son of Rabbi Colin? 

Miss Kinney. I think so. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many people attended the school? 

Miss Ivjnney. Offhand, I would say 16 or maybe as many as 20 ; I am 
not sure. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the instructors were ? 

Miss Kinney. Jules Carson was the director of the school. Paul 
Cline, I think, taught one session. Pettis Perry taught one session. 
1 believe Lou Baron taught one session, but I am not sure. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the subjects that were taught to the 
students ? 

Miss IviNNEY. Perry was teaching Negro problems. Lou Baron 
taught trade-union problems. Paul Cline, I tliink, taught organi- 
zation. 

I imagine that part of the time must have been spent on political 
economy. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was anything of a revolutionary nature taught at 
this school ? 

Miss IviNNEY. By that you mean 

Mr. Wheeler, Anything that you could construe in your mind 
as 

Miss Kinney. The question of the use of force and violence, you 
mean ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, yes. Force and violence. 

Miss Kjnney. That is a question that they usually get around, and 
the party usually gets around that by stating that, of course, the party 
would like to see the working class take power peacefully, but that 
they would never be allowed to do it in a democratic way because the 
capitalist class would always use violence against the working class 
taking power. 

The assumption is that then the working class would have to defend 
itself. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you in your own mind think that the Commu- 
nist Party was a revolutionary party that would resort to force and 
violence here in the United States ? 

Miss Kinney. I believed at that time what they told me; that is, 
what I have just explained. And the answer, if you raised a question 
about the use of force in the Russian revolution, was that the situation 
there was different than it might be here, and that there was no blue- 
print for how a revolution worked. 

Mr. Wheeler, Did you ever attend any other training school ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes ; I went to a State training school in the fall of 
1988 in San Francisco at the party's headquarters there, which I think 
were on Haiglit Street. 



894 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. "Were you selected the same way for this training? 

Miss Kinney. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who were present as students ? 

Miss Kinney. Dorothy Zadow, Jean Richardson, Donald Healey. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state what part of the State tliey were 
from, if you know ? 

Miss Kinney. Dorothy Zadow was from Oakland. Jean Richard- 
son was from San Diego. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would that be Barbara Richardson? 

Miss Kinney. No ; Jean. 

Mr. Wheeler. Male or female? 

Miss Kinney. Female. Allen Yates, a seaman from San Francisco.. 
John Bevins, Emil Freed from Los Angeles. Margaret Wilson, a. 
blind girl from San Francisco. Arcus Reddock, from Arizona; but 
he didn't go back to Arizona. 

Mr. Wheeler. How about Honolulu, was anyone there from 
Honolulu ? 

Miss Kinney. I am not sure. I don't think so. 

Mr. Wheeler. We had some previous testimony about that period 
of time; a person named Robert McElrath, a seaman, originally from 
Seattle, attended school. 

Miss Kinney. I don't remember him. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the instructors were ? 

Miss Kinney. There was a George McLean, a longshoreman frouL 
San Pedro there. 

JSIr. Wheeler. As a student? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. This school was under the direction of Louise 
Todd, and she taught some of the sessions. Betty Gannett taught 
most of the first 2 weeks. 

Oleta O'Connor, Jules Carson, Walter Lambert also taught. Most 
of them just 1 day. 

Mr. Wheeler. Does that cover it? 

Miss Kinney. I don't remember, there may have been 1 or 2 others,. 
but I don't recall them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Getting back for a moment to when you were county 
membership director, you stated that you received the dues collected 
by the secretary-treasurers or organizers. What did you do with this 
money? Did you place it in the bank account for the Communist 
Party in Los Angeles or did you turn it over to a superior? 

Miss Kinney. I turned over the county's percentage to Max Silver,. 
I believe, but I am not sure whether it was to Max or somebody else. 
I recall it as bein^Max. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall what the county percentage was? 

Miss Kinney. No. And I sent the rest to San Francisco. 

Mr. Wheeler. To whom in San Francisco ? 

Miss Kinney. Leo Baroway. 

Mr. AVheeler. Do you recall where the Communist Party kept its 
bank account at that time ? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know that they had one. 

Mr. Wheei^r. Getting back to the time when you were a member 
at large and working for Harrison George, I would like to read the 
following from executive testimony of the committee hearings which 
have been previously identified: 



COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 895 

In the early part of 1935, also, I think, I was called in to Dr. Tashjian's ' office 
to meet Harrison George, who is at present editor in chief of the People's World 
in San Francisco. He informed me at that time that he was working out here, 
had charge of a committee Ivnown as the Communist Party Philippine Committee, 
which was charged with the duty of rendering assistance to the Communist Party 
in the Philippine Islands. And on the occasion of this meeting he asked that I 
turn over to him immediately a list of all members of the party in Los Angeles 
who were either Japanese or Filipinos, that they were to be organized into a 
separate group over which he would have jurisdiction. 

At a later meeting, under similar conditions, they not only discussed phases 
of the Los Angeles County activity and gave us suggestions as to improving the 
tempo of our Communist work, but lie asked me if I could find him a thoroughly 
trustworthy comrade who could bring some packages from San Pedro to Los 
Angeles for him. He indicated to me he was receiving packages or mail from 
some of the ships in San Pedro and wanted a messenger to bring them from San 
Pedro to Los Angeles. 

Does that mean anytliing to you at all ? 

Miss Kinney. No; I didn't know anything about any packages or 
anything about any Philippine committee. 

Mr. Wheeler. It was during this period of time that you were 
acting as a messenger for Harrison George? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. And I thought that maybe you might have been the 
"thoroughly trustworthy comrade" selected. 

Miss Kinney. No ; I wasn't. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was your reaction to the Stalin-Hitler Pact ? 

Miss Kinney. I accepted the party's explanation. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the party's explanation given to you ? 

Miss Kinney. As I recall, it was that this didn't mean that Russia 
condoned fascism with Germany, but because of the inability to reach 
an agreement with the United States and England and France, it took 
this means of giving Russia longer to prepare for an inevitable attack. 
That is the way I remember it. 

Mr. Wheeler. That was agreeable to you at that period of time?' 

Miss Kinney. I accepted it. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the Duclos letter? 

Miss Kinney. That was a letter written by the head of the French 
Communist Party, to whom I don't recall, but severely criticizing the 
Communist Party in the United States for its activity in the previous 
several years, and particularly for changing itself in 1944 from Com- 
munist Party to Communist Political Association, and ostensibly 
giving up any revolutionary aims for an indefinite period. 

Mr. Wheeler. What effect did the Diiclos letter have on the Com- 
munist Party in the United States? 

Miss Kinney. To put it colloquially, it threw everybody into a panic 
and occasioned a great deal of discussion and a great deal of com- 
motion. 

Mr. Wheeler. Why? 

Miss Kinney. Because it was extremely critical and because, appar- 
ently, Communists in other countries felt that the party here wasn't 
acting as it should and thereby, as they put it, betraying the interests 
of the. working class. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you think that the defeat of Germany, Italy, 
and Japan had anything to do with the issuance of the Duclos letter? 

Miss Kinney. I think it is quite possible. I had never thought 
about it. 

^ Dr. Vaughan A. K. Tashjian. 



896 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheeler, During the war years that the Communist Party line 
was in accord with the Government of the United States? 

Miss Kinney. Winning the war was the primary consideration 
during the war years. 

Mr. Wheeler. And actually the Communist Party line never devi- 
ated from the Government's position here. There wasn't any great 
deviation? 

Miss Kinney. No, no great deviation. 

Mr. Wheeler. There was 100 percent war effort which the Commu- 
nist Party backed. 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did the Duclos letter change this cooperative atti- 
tude? 

Miss Kinney. Very definitely it did. I recall the idea was that the 
Communist Party here should forget about supporting the Govern- 
ment as it had during the war. 

Mr. Wheeler. During the war years Browder put forth the coexist- 
ence policy that capitalism and communism could exist in this world ; 
is that right? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. What did the Duclos letter do? 

Miss Kinney. The Duclos letter, as I recall, said, "You can't have 
any such equilibrium. Inevitably there is a clash between the two." 
And the idea, I think, was the sooner the better. 

Mr. Wheeler. And Earl Browder was removed as the Communist 
Party 

Miss Kinney. The effect of the letter was that Browder was re- 
moved, but aside from minor shifting of positions, the rest of the lead- 
ership remained in leadership, but presumably following now a 
totally different line from the line that presumably they had all agreed 
to up until the day the Duclos letter appeared. 

It was as if somebody had said to a marching column, "About-face," 
and the column about-faced and started marching in the completely 
opposite direction. 

Mr. Wheeler. It wouldn't be hard to find many such instances in 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. That, I think, is the most pronounced. I think that 
certainly one of the important effects of the Duclos letter, so far as I 
was concerned, was the hypocrisy and dishonesty that came to the 
surface at that time. People who had said one thing one day were 
now saying that this was all wrong and hadn't ought to be and that 
we should never have done it ; we must do something else. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well now, did you know John Leech to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. He has county organizer at one time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you Imow James Thorme to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, I think he was county, a county official at the 
time Leech was county organizer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Mori-ie Smolan to be a Communist ? 
To be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know he was a member of the Connnunist 
Party? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 897 

Miss Kinney, Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. His occupation ? 

Miss IviNNEY. I don't know. He may have worked for the People's 

World. 

Mr. AViiEELER. Did yon know Marian Shire as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, I rented a room from her for a couple of months. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was her occupation ? 

Miss I^[inney. She was a housewife at the time I was living there. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was she in a street group or professional group ? 

Miss Kinney. Street. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was her husband's name? 

Miss Kinney. Henry Shire. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know him to be a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, he was in a street group, too ; he drove a truck. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Rude Lambert to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. I think he was in San Francisco. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know William Schneidermann to be a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes; State chairman. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Mary Radin to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, I think she worked for the countj^ office a long, 
long time ago. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Rena Vale to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, I knew her. She was membership director of a 
branch in the professional section at one time; I don't remember 
which branch. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever meet Bea Burke as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. "Yes. She was in a professional branch, but I don't 
remember which one. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall her occupation ? 

Miss Kinney. No, I don't. If I knew her occupation I would know 
what branch she was in. I would think she was a writer, but I don't 
know. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Dorothy Pezman to be a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. I think she was a social worker. 

Mr. Wheeler. You knew her as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know her husband ? 

Miss Kinney. No, if she had a husband. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Zema Matlin to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know her occupation ? 

Miss Kinney. She was, at the time I knew her, executive secretary 
of the American League Against War and Fascism. That was in 
1934. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Fred Franchia ? 



898 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Miss Kinney. That is the husband of Davida Franchia. I don't 
recall seeing him in a meeting, but I somehow knew or thought he was 
a party member. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Howland Chamberlin to be a member 
of the Communist Party^ 

Miss Kinney. Yes. He was at one time in the theater-project 
branch and later, for a brief time, on the 15th congressional section 
committee. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Sam Kalish to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, I think we discussed Kalish. He was a PWA 
teacher, member of the union. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Jack Moore to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. I knew Jack ISIoore. He was a county functionary. 
I don't remember what capacity. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Al Heltness to be a member of the 
<I!ommunist Party? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, he was in the 13th Congressional District. I 
don't remember which branch. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall his occupation ? 

Miss Kinney. I think he worked on a railroad, but I am not sure. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Leona McGinty to be a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. She is the wife of Howland Chamberlin. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did vou know Carl Grant to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. He was in the theater project branch. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Donald Murray to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. He was in the theater project branch. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was he an actor ? 

Miss Kinney. I think so, yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Betty Arden to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney, Yes, I knew Betty Arden. She was a housewife. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Belle Lewitski to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. She is a dancer. 

Mr. Wheeij^.r. Did you know Benny Goodman to be a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, but not the dance band leader. He was, I think, 
in the theater project branch, too. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Leo Selfrid to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Miss Kinney. I think he is an engineer or draftsman, or something 
like that. He was in the professional section. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall where he worked? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Miriam Holtz to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

]\Iiss Kinney. Yes, she is a stenographer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know her as a member of the Communist 
Party? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 899 

Miss Kinney. Yes, 

Mr. Wheeler. You previously stated in your testimony that the 
organizer for the 56th assembly district was known to you only as 
Anna; that you didn't recall her last name. I might ask you if you 
recognize this picture ? 

Miss Kinney. That might be a picture of her. 

Mr. Wheeler. It might be ? 

Miss Kinney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you know her last name if I mentioned it to 
you? 

Miss Kinney. I might. 

Mr. Wheeler. Galkin; G-a-1-k-i-n. 

Miss Kinney. I think perhaps that is it. 

Mr. Wheeler. What periods of time was she organizer for the 56th 
assembly district? 

Miss Kinney. I don't know. She was organizer when I was as- 
signed to that branch, and she still was when I left it. 

Mr. Wheeler. When was that ? 

Miss Kinney. That was, I think, December of 1938 to August of 
1939. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, can you recall at tliis time any other individual 
that you have met as a member of the Communist Party any place 
in the United States while you were a member? 

Miss Kinney. Ethel Holmstock. I didn't think of her before. 

Mr. Wheeler, Who is she ? 

Miss Kinney. She at one time was secretary of the China Aid 
Council. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, the next question is, why did you leave the 
Communist Party after approximately 12 years of membership ? 

Miss Kinney. That is a difficult question to answer, because dis- 
illusionment is a gradual process that begins with personal dissatis- 
faction — sometimes very vague in character — and progresses to more 
and more basic questions. It is a process that begins long before one 
leaves the party and continues for a long time afterward. 

When I left Los Angeles to go to Chicago in 1942, 1 had a sense of 
personal dissatisfaction, that there seemed to be no particular place 
for me in the party. In Chicago, in the branch at Studebaker, some 
of this dissatisfaction disappeared temporarily, I was elected by 
the staff of the union paper to be editor, although the party branch 
had wanted a nonparty pei-son in that position (with me to guide 
them). 

During the year I was editor I had some disagreements with the 
branch leaders because I insisted the paper not be turned into a minia- 
ture Daily Worker but use CIO policy as a guide. 

"V^Hien the shop branch was disbanded, I was assigned to a neighbor- 
hood branch in Hyde Park, My attendance at meetings became less 
;and less regular, and I participated in no activity. I was, like most 
people, gi-eatly shocked and disturbed by the Duclos letter. 

It soon became evident that Browder was to be the scapegoat, but 
that tlie rest of the leaders would continue in their positions, but pre- 
sumably along a completely different line. 

The hypocrisy and dishonesty that had always been under the sur- 
face came into full view. Since in Chicago I had never formed per- 



900 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

sonal attiiclinieiits, I could look at the whole thing more objectively 
and I drifted out without appearing to take any definite position. 
This was not difficult to do, since there was considerable reorganiza- 
tion going on. 

The process of disillusionment continues, until today I believe that 
Marxist theory is based on false premises and conditions which no 
longer are as true as they may have been a hundred years ago when 
Marx was developing his theories. 

I also believe that many things are done by the "inner circle" of the 
Communist Party of which the average member or minor functionary 
is completely unaware, and which he would strongly oppose. 

Democracy, as we know it in the United States, may bring about 
changes slowly. It may make mistakes and then correct them. It 
may not seem to have a clear blueprint for the future, but progress is 
made and the average individual has more freedom and more oppor- 
tunity to lead his own life in his own way. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you have any records that you may have retained 
while you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Your statement will be most interesting to the com- 
mittee. Miss Kinney. Thank you very much. 

(Whereupon the statement of Miss Kinney was concluded.) 



INVESTICtATION of communist activities m THE 
LOS ANGELES AREA-Part 5 



TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 17, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Hollywood, Calif. 
executive statement^ 

An executive statement, given at 4 : 15 o'clock p. m., February 17, 
1953, at G400 Sunset Boulevard, Hollywood, Calif. 
Present : William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

INTERROGATION OF MILDRED BENOFF ^ 

Mr. Wheeler. Will the witness state her full name, please ? 

Mrs. Benoff. Mildred Benoff . Do you want my maiden name ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, please. 

Mrs. Benoff. Stern. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mrs. Benoff. 160 South Vista Street, Los Angeles 36. 

Mr. Wheeler. When w^ere you born? 

Mrs. Benoff. May 30, 1920. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you presently under subpena to appear before 
the Committee on Un-American Activities on March 23, 1953 ? 

Mrs. Benoff. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are, however, appearing voluntarily today to 
answer any questions propounded by me ? 

Mrs. Benoff. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. You know I am an investigator of the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities? 

Mrs. Benoff. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. You further realize by giving me this statement it 
does not in any way cancel your subpena, and it is up to the committee's 
discretion whether to call you or not. 

Mrs. Benoff. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Benoff, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Benoff. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wlien did you first become a member ? 

Mrs. Benoff. Sometime in '44. I am sorry, I am very vague on 
dates. It was in '44, but I can't remember what month. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you say it might have been 1943 ? 

Mrs. Benoff. No. 



* Released by the committee. 

^ Mildred Benoff was sworn as a witness by the court reporter. 



901 



902 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IK THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. The records of the committee show you joined the 
Communist Party in September 1943. I was wondering if it might 
be correct. 

Mrs. BENorr. Xo. I may have started going to meetings then, but 
I did not go in then. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the designation of the branch to which 
you were assigned? 

Mrs. Benoff. No, I haven't the vaguest idea. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was it a branch comprised only of women? 

Mrs. Benoff. Just a few women. There was this one man, Mischa, 
with his wife. I didn't have anything to do with Hollywood. This 
man seemed to have the hands of a workiiig man. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you relate the events that led to your joining 
the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Benoff. When I came out here I started working for Rus- 
sian War Relief. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state the time you came out? 

Mrs. i^ENOFF. We came out in July '43. I joined the Russian War 
Relief, which was an open and very pleasant organization to belong to 
at the time. Tliere I met Elena Beck, and she and I became close 
friends at the time. 

She was having a good deal of difficulty with her husband. 1 was 
having my trouble adjusting from a very different kind of life in 
New York City to the life here. I was interested in proving myself 
as an individual in my own right. Elena seemed to be the one to 
help me this way very much. She told me that part of my growth, 
part of my growing up would be to develop politically. She did her 
best. She took me to several meetings over a period of time. 

My resistance to joining the party was that it was secretive, and 
knowing Max's great resistance to it 

Mr. WiHiELER. By Max you are referring to your husband? 

Mrs. Benoff. Yes — and' I didn't want to join that. When I did 
join it was with the understanding it would be an open organization 
and would no longei- be the Connnunist Party, but was on the way of 
being the Communist Political Association. 

Mr. Wheeler. You mentioned your husband's name. Max Benoff'. 
You brought his name into the testimony, and I might ask in what 
ways he showed resistance to the Communist Party. 

Mi-s. l^ENOFF. General discussion. 

Mr. Wheeler. You had previously discussed the Connnunist 
Party ? 

Mrs. Benoff. Well, when you live with a person over a number of 
years, even if you didn't nevertheless, you do have views and your 
views will be discussed. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did I break the continuity of your thought ? 

Mrs. Benoff. I will try to recall at Avhat point I left off. I was 
assure'd by Elena and the others that this would be an open organiza- 
tion, that eventually everyone would be o])eidy known, that there 
would be nothing secretive about it. I guess I was just right for 
joining, and this I did. 

As I told my attorney Mr. Gang, when 1 did, it was with my full 
name, with the hopes that eventually it was going to be a really and 
truly open thing. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 903 

Mr. Wheeler. Elena Beck was actually responsible for recruiting 
you into this movement? 

Mrs. Benoff. Yes. Actually, when I tinally was a member and 
had gone to these several meetings it seemed to me that nothing really 
had changed and it wasn't on the way to being an open organization. 
It was just as secretive as before. 

At this time I was quite i)regnant and my husband was facing 
induction. I was 3,000 miles from home and without a very good 
help situation, and another child, and my problem was somehow to 
keep Max with me until I give birth to my child and could get some 
family out with me. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, do you recall in whose home these meetings 
were held? 

Mrs. Benoff. The ones I can recall, meetings in Pauline Town- 
send 's home 

Mr. Wheeler. Are those the Townsends who live up in Laurel 
Canyon ? 

Mrs. Benoff. Xo. I was taken by Elena Beck. She would pick 
me up. I couldn't find my way to these homes again. And Tania 
Tuttle. 

Mr. Wheeler. How about your own home? 

Mrs. Benoff. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are those the only two places you remember going 
to meetings? 

Mrs. Benoff. That I can say I remember. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who else were members of this group? 

Mrs. Benoff. Pauline Townsend, Tania Tuttle, Elena Beck, Marie 
Rinaldo, and this Mischa. If I knew his second name I don't recall 
it. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anyone else ? 

Mrs. Benoff. His wife. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall her name? 

Mrs. Benoff. No. 

Mrs. Benoff. Mischa is also a nickname in Russia, you know. I 
don't know if that is any help. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anyone else ? 

Mi's. Benoff. It was a very small group. No. 

Mr. Whi':eler. How many members would you say comprised this ? 

Mrs. Benoff. I don't know. A half a dozen all told, I would say. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you only in one group during the time of your 
membership i 

Mrs. Benoff. That is all. 

Mr. Wheeler. Or two ? 

Mrs. Benoff. No, just one group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Ruth Burrows a member of this group? 

Mrs. Benoff. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever meet Ruth Burrows as a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Benoff. No. I know Ruth Burrows. I didn't meet her as a 
member of the Communist Party, to my knowledge. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Ruth Kanin ? 

Mrs. Benoff. Yes. I think she is Michael Kanin's sister, from 
meeting her at the Kanin home. 



904 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever meet her as a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mrs. Benoff. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Anna Lask? 

Mrs. Benoff. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. You don't know her at all ? 

Mrs. Benoff. No, not at all. 

Mr. Wheeler. How about Bea Buchman? 

Mrs. Benoff. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Dalton Trumbo? 

Mrs. Benoff. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall if anyone came in to instruct your 
group on the theory of Marxism or anything? 

Mrs. Benoff. I think one man. I can't say I recall him. I just 
vaguely remember. 

Mr. Wheeijsr. Did you pay dues to the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Benoff. Yes. I told Mr. Gang I assumed I did. I don't 
remember giving anyone dues, or who I gave it to; I just can't 
remember. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wlio were the leaders of the group, if you recall? 

Mrs. Benofi^. It seems to me this man Mischa knew more politi- 
cally ; that is about all. Just general discussion. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long would you say you were a member of this 
group ? 

Mrs. Benoff. Several months. 

Mr. Wheeler. Five, four? 

Mrs. Benoff. Something like that, I would say ; the best I can say. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your estimate of the number of meetings 
you attended? 

Mrs. Benoff. Oh, I don't know. I would say a dozen. It is hard 
to say. 

Mr. Wheeler. What would be your best guess ? 

Mrs. Benoff. I just would assume a dozen. I would say a dozen. 
That is the best I can do. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you ever a member of the Communist Party 
while in New York City ? 

Mrs. Benoff. No, not at all. 

Mr. Wheeler. After your cleavage with the Communist Party, 
did anyone attempt to re-recruit you ? 

Mrs. Benoff. Elena did, just for a while, when I was still pregnant 
and hadn't given birth to my baby. She asked if I wouldn't come. 

By this time I was growing up. I was much more concerned with 
my immediate problems and didn't have time for that. 

Mr. Wiieeli:r. Did Mr. Benol! at any time accompany you to any 
of the meetings? 

Mrs. Benoff. No, never. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did Mr. BenolT know of your membership in the 
Communist Partv ? 

Mrs. Benoff. tie didn't know until I think you yourself told him, 
and Mr. Gang told him. 

Mr, Wheeler. Did you ha^•e any knowledge of your husband's 
membership in the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Benoff. No, I did not. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 905 

Mr. Wheeler. Would it have been possible for him to have been 
a member of the Communist Party without your knowing it? 

Mrs. Benoff. To the best of my knowledge, knowing Max, I would 
say he was never a Communist. Max is just not that type, he is not 
a joiner of any kind.^ 

Mr. Wheeler. W^ould you like to elaborate at all as to the reason 
why you left the party ^ 

Mrs. Benoff. It just seemed to me kind of not grownup at all, con- 
trary to what they say. But, actually, kind of an evaluation of the 
realities of life, which is bringing up children and facing your dij3i- 
culties with your husband and adjusting yourself to the society you 
are living in. And the meetings were really very dull. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your present attitude concerning the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mrs. Benoff. I would say the same. I think it is not realistic. If 
it was, all this couldn't have happened. 

Mr. Wheeler. All of what? 

Mrs. Benoff. War, and the things they told you that the Com- 
munist Party was doing when they were trying to get you to join, 
that they were fighting Hitler. I do feel very strongly about that. 
I am a strong Jew. And to tliis day that is how I feel about that. 

Mr. Wheeler. When you were in it, what did you find out ? 

Mrs. Benoff. This wasn't really the issue. They weren't doing 
any better job than anyone else, and I really found it dull, and it 
was a waste of a good evening after a while. It just didn't seem adult. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was there any discussion about subversion or any- 
thing illegal? 

Mrs, Benoff. No. Honestly, if anything, what you might classify 
as a study group and a very dull one. 

Mr. Wheeler. What did you study ? 

Mrs. Benoff. As I recall now, it was the encouragement to read 
Marxism. At best I am not a student. And I was very anxious not 
to bring any material home with me. 

For a while it was really quite exciting, exciting being with what 
I thought were very forward-thinking people. When that wore off it 
was nothing. 

Mr. Wheeler. During this time when you were a member of the 
Communist Party, were you and your husband living together ? 

Mrs. Benoff. Oh, yes, we lived together all the time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was there any discussion between you and your hus- 
band as to where you were spending your evenings ? 

Mrs. Benoff. No. I didn't question him and he didn't question me. 

Mr. Wheeler. What do you think of the Communist Party as it 
has been operating the last few years ? 

Mrs. Benoff. Well, I no longer think it is a thing to belong to. I 
think they are mistaken. I think their attitude has caused a lot of 
distress. And as a Jew, it isn't my answer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Let's clarify that. 

Mrs. Benoff. Not the answer to my problems. It is not the answer 
to my problems. 

^ Testimony of Max Nathan Benoff, March 24, 1953, is printed in "Investigation of Com- 
munist Activities in the Los Angeles Area — Part 1," beginning with p. 355. 

31747— 53— pt. 5 5 



906 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you join tlie Communist Party purely on a 
racial basis? 

Mrs. Benoff. I would say yes and no. I was very disturbed by 
Hitler and very f ri^rhtened by him. 

Mr. Wheeler. What events fix the time when you severed con- 
nections with the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Benoff. My second child was going to be born at the end of 
November. 

Mr. Wheeler. Of what year? 

Mrs. Benoff. Of 1944. 

Mr. Wheeler, How long prior to that time did you cease going to 
meetings ? 

Mrs. Benoff. I would say quite a bit before. 

Mr. Wheeler. You say quite a bit ? 

Mrs. Benoff. Two or three months, really. 

Mr. Wheeler. If you joined sometime in December of 1943, you 
left sometime in the fall of 1944? 

Mrs. Benoff. I don't know if it was necessarily the summer of 1944. 
It might have been the spring of '44. 

Mr. Wheeler. As I previously stated, our records show it was 
September 1943. 

Mrs. Benoff. I was going to ask you. Elena first started taking 
me to meetings around that time. I did not join at that time. 

Mr. Wheeler. These meetings she started to take you to prior to 
your membership, in what classification do you put this type of 
meeting? 

Mrs. Benoff. I would assume them to be Communist Party meet- 
ings or study groups. 

Mr. Wheeler. Indoctrination course on Marxism? 

Mrs. Benoff. These meetings didn't change from when I was in the 
party. No one said, "This is a party meeting." The same people 
Avere there. They were very charming, very cordial, very friendly 
people. There Avas no difference. In other words, you weren't told, 
"This is an indoctrination meeting for when you will go into the 
party." 

Mr. Wheeler. How many meetings of this nature did you attend 
before becoming an actual member of the party? 

Mrs. Benoff. I don't know. Several, half a dozen or more, possibly. 
I just don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. The personnel of the meetings did not change at all, 
in other words. 

Mrs. Benoff. No, not to my knowledge or recollection. 

Mr. Wheeler. Yon have identified every person you met? 

Mrs. Benoff.. That I can remember. 

Mr. Wheeler. To be a member of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Benoff. That I can remember. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you think yoii may have forgotten any? 

Mrs. Benoff. Time passes. I liave suppressed this a long time. 
My husband didn't know. I really suppressed this. 

I know that Elena was my friend and did bring me to these meet- 
ings, and this was it. It didn't change in character then, so therefore 
I can assume it was Conmmnist Party meetings she was taking me to. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 907 

Mr. Whekler. You didn't answer my question. T asked yon if tliere 
is a possibility you may liave forgotten, some individuals who may 
have attended these meetings. . . 

Mrs. Benoff. I may have forgotten possibly before I joined. But 
when I joined those were the ones I remember. These I haven't for- 
gotten because it was a A^erv small group. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many individuals attended the so-called indoc- 
trination ? 

Mrs. Benoff, Again it was just a small group. 

Mr. WHFET.ER. Could it have been more than the actual people you 
previously mentioned ? 

Mrs. Benoff. I can't say that. I can't recall. Possibly there was 
another person. I just can't recall, to say they made a special impres- 
sion on me, because they didn't. 

Mr. Wheeler. You, however, are positive you never met Ruth 
Burrows as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Benoff. No, but I do know" this woman. 

Mr. Wheeler. Or Ruth Kanin? 

Mrs. Benoff. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Or Anna Lask? 

Mrs. Benoff. T don't kno^^' her at all. Ruth Kanin I met through 
her brother Mike. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you seen any of the people socially or otherwise 
in the last 7 years ? 

Mrs. Benoff. No. I saw Ruth Kanin at her brother's home. She 
came out to visit. That was about all; we had very little in common. 

Mr, Wheeler. You said you didn't know her in the Communist 
Party ? 

Mrs. Benoff. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. I am talking about the ladies in your gi-oup in the 
Communist Party, Have you ever seen any of them in the last 7 
years ? 

INIrs. Benoff. No, except, as I told you, if I met them on the street 
or at nursery school, or something like that. 

Mr. Weeeeler, You have never had any social contact with them ? 

Mrs. Benoff. No, or phone calls or any kind of contact. 

Mr. Wheeler. From the time you broke with the group you have 
never rejoined? 

Mrs. Benoff. I severed all relation ; that is right, 

Mr, Wheeler, Is there anything you would like to add before we 
conclude your testimony? 

Mrs. Benoff. No, 

Mr, Wheeler, Thank you, Mrs, Benoff. 

(Whereupon the interrogation of Mrs. Benoff was concluded.) 



INYESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES AREA— Part 5 



THURSDAY, MARCH 12, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Los Angeles^ Calif. 
executive statement ^ 

An executive statement given at 10 a. m., March 12, 1953, at room. 
1109, Statler Hotel, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Present : William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

TESTIMONY OF STANLEY RUBIN ^ 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name ? 

Mr. Rubin. My name is Stanley Rubin ; R-u-b-i-n. 

Mr. Wheeler. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Rubin. I was born in New York City October 8, 1917. 

Mr. Wheeler. Give us your educational background. 

Mr. Rubin. I went to public schools in New York City, to junior 
high school in New York City, and to DeWitt Clinton High School. 
I finished high school in January of 1933. In September of 1933 
I came out to California to go to the University of California in Los 
Angeles. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you graduate from UCLA ? 

Mr. Rubin. No; I did not get a degree from UCLA. I went 4 
years. At the end of my fourth year I was still short a few units, 
but I had to go to work. 

Mr. Wheeler. What year did you cease to be a student? 

Mr. Rubin. June 1937. 

Mr. Wheeler. How have you been employed since June 1937? 

Mr. Rubin. I worked for a short while as a cub reporter and general 
flunky for the Beverly Hills Citizen News, and then became mail boy 
or messenger room worker at Paramount Studios. 

I worked as a cub reporter and flunky for the Beverly Hills Citizen 
News, roughly, through the balance of 1937 and possibly into 1938. 
I then went to work at Paramount in the mailroom as a messenger 
boy. I worked in the mailroom for Paramount a little less than 
a year. 

During this time I was writing fiction — I should say I was trying 
to write fiction. I finally sold a magazine article on my mailroom 
experience to the Grover Jones magazine. This was a west coast 
publication put out by a screen writer named Grover Jones. 

 Released by the committee. 

* Stanley Rubin was sworn as a witness by the court reporter. 

909 



910 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Through this story and through Mr. Jones' help I came to the 
attention of the Paramount story department and when they offered 
me work as an outside reader I left the maih'oom department. That 
was sometime in late 1938. 

Do you want me to go on ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes ; up to the present time. 

Mr. RuBix. I then started work as an outside reader, workincr mostly 
for Paramount Studios, but recommended by them I also did some 
outside reading for Samuel Goldwyn Studios and for RKO. 

I then was called in to an interview at Universal Studios for a 
possible job in the story department. The story editor was a man 
named Marshall Grant. "^ I got the job. I worked as a reader and an 
assistant to Mr. Grant probably iov a little less than a year, at which 
tinie Mr. Grant was promoted from story editor to a producer. 

When Mr. Grant became a producer he offered me a job of working 
as a writer for him. This was my first entrance into screen writing. 
I wrote a good number of pictures for Universal, working not only for 
Mr. Grant but also for several other producers whose names I have 
given you in a statement previously, and I would be willing to dis- 
cuss if you so desire. 

Mr. Wheeler. That won't be necessary. 

Mr. Rlbin. Late in 1940 I was offered a higher paying writing 
job at Twentieth Century-Fox, and went to work there as a free-lance 
writer. From that time on I was in the freelance writere' market, 
taking jobs by the assignment. 

In 1941 I worked mostly for Columbia Pictures. In the fall of 
1941, being unemployed, or, rather, being without a studio on assign- 
ment, I collaborated with a radio writer named Jerome Lawrence on 
a speculative piece of original material, which we sold to Columbia 
Broadcasting System for a Christmas show. 

Since the show was to be done out of New York, I went East to 
work on it. And I came back to California shortly after the New 
Year and sought employment again, and finally found it back at 
Columbia Pictures. 

When I completed my work at Columbia Pictures I enlisted in the 
Army Air Forces. That was September 10, 1942. I enlisted as a 
private in the Air Forces. I got out of the Army as a first lieutenant 
early in 1946. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat is your present status with the Army? 

Mr. Rubin, I am a first lieutenant in the Army Air Forces 
Reserves. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, while in the Armj^, what type of assignments 
did you have ? 

Mr. Rubin. I was assigned by the Air Force to its motion-picture 
unit, and my general work consisted of doing orientation, training, 
and combat films. 

I M'orked at many airfields around the country. For example, 
Randolph Field, in Texas, Langle}' Field, in Virginia, and Scott Field, 
in Missouri, Mitchel Field, in Long Island. 

Mr. Wheeler. While in the Army did you have access to classified 
or confidential information? 

I\Ir. Rubin. Yes, I did. At one point I volunteered for an over- 
seas assignment which was classified. That consisted of an aerial 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 911 

mapping of Alaska and North Pacific fliglit routes. For completing 
this assignment successfully I was given a personal conmiendation 
by the Air Transport Command. 

Subsequently I also volunteered for a highly secret mission in 
which I was transferred to the first B-29 group training in the United 
States. My job to move in with these men, live with them, train with 
them, fly with them. And finally I went to Saipan with them to par- 
ticipated in their strikes at Truk, and Iwo Jima, and their first B-29 
strike at Tokyo. All of this I recorded on film for the Air Forces. 

Finally, upon my return to the States, I edited this film into one uni- 
fied picture. The Air Force was pleased with this picture, which 
was titled "Target Tokyo," and released it to theaters throughout the 
Nation. Again I was personally coimnended by Headquarters, Army 
Air Forces. 

To clear me for this mission, I was investigated by the local FBI, 
ONI, Service Command Intelligence, and home-town police. I as- 
sume the results were satisfactory, as I continued in confidential 
work. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, after your release from the United States 
Army, did you continue your employment in the motion-picture in- 
dustry ? 

Mr. Rubin. Yes, I did. I was offered a job again at Universal 
Pictures by the same man I had worked for there originally, Marshall 
Grant. I went to work for him as a writer-associate producer, and 
worked there roughly 9 or 10 months, at which time Universal Pic- 
tures were taken over by International Studios. 

When I left Universal I was back in the free-lance market. I 
started speculative writing again, doing radio scripts with a radio 
writer I had met in the Army named Joe Malone, and doing pictures 
with a screen writer named Louis Lantz, whom I had met at Columbia 
[Pictures] just before the war. 

Malone and I sold many radio scripts to the Whistler, Theater of 
Romance, Hollywood Theatre of the Air. Lantz and I worked for 
Monogram Pictures and then for Columbia Pictures. 

Sometime late in 1947 or early in 1918 I had an idea for a film service 
for television, which was then just beginning to take very rapid 
strides forward. Lantz collaborated with me on this television idea 
and we turned it into a pilot script. 

I then went back to Marshall Grant, who in the meantime had 
formed his own independent picture company called Sheg, Inc., for 
production advice. 

Grant introduced me to a short-subject director named Sobey Mar- 
tin, and to a man of finance named Norman Elzer. Then Martin, 
Lantz, Elzer, and myself incorporated our own company. Realm Tele- 
vision Productions, Inc. We made our first film. It was shown to 
the American Tobacco Co., which liked it enough to offer us a contract 
to make the first 26 half-hour films on television, to be sponsored by a 
national company. 

It took us a year and a half to make these 26 pictures for the Amer- 
ican Tobacco Co. 

That takes me to the summer of 1949, at which time, seeking em- 
ployment, I was hired again as a writer by Mr. Sid Rogell, head of 
production at RKO. After one script for Mr. Rogell, he offered me a 
job there as a producer, which I accepted. 



912 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

I worked as a producer for RKO for a little under a year, at which 
time Wald & Krasna came in and asked me to join their unit. I 
workod in the Wald & Krasna unit as an associate producer for ap- 
proximately a year. 

Then Twentieth Century-Fox offered me a better contract as a full 
producer, and in June of 1951 I moved over to Twentieth C-entury- 
Fox. 

Mr. Wheeler. What screen credits do you have, Mr. Rubm? 

Mr. Rubin. Shall I start at the beginning and go right through? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, start at the beginning. 

Mr. Rubin. My pictures include both in solo work and in collab- 
oration. South To Katanga, Flying Cadets, Mister Dynamite, Bom- 
bay Clipper, Six Lessons From Madam Lazonga, Where Did You Get 
That Girl, Lucky Legs, Two Senoritas From Macao. 

Do you want producer credits, too, separately ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Rubin. Macao, and my producer credits include Little Miss 
Big, Slightly Scandalous, The Narrow Margin, Behave Yourself, My 
Pal Gus, and Destination Gobi. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Rubin, who is your agent? 

Mr. Rubin. My agent is Famous Artists. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long have you been associated with Famous 
Artists? 

Mr. Rubin. I have been associated with Famous Artists, I would 
say, a little more than 3 years, but the man in Famous Artists who 
represents me, named Ray Stark, was my agent even before I was 
■with Famous Artists. He was in partnership with a company called 
Levee-Stark. 

When he moved from that company to Famous, I went with him. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you had any other agents besides Mr. Stark ? 

Mr. Rubin. Yes. As I called it, my first agent in town was Ned 
Brown ; at that time he was an independent agent. 

I was also subsequently represented by the Sam Jaffee office, and 
by the Allen Berg office. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Rubin, information has come to the attention of 
the committee that you were in attendance at meetings of the Com- 
munist Party. Is that true? 

Mr. Rubin. No; it is not true. I did attend what were described 
to me as classes; another term for which I have now heard is a study 
group. That was supposed to inform me on the Communist Party 
and on Marxism and Soviet Russia. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did this occur? 

Mr. Rubin. This occurred in the spring — no, I am sorry. I was 
first told or asked about them in the spring of 1942, but to the best 
of my recollection I started attending either late in the spring of 
1942 or early in the summer of 1942. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you explain fully how you became associated 
with this group ? 

Mr. Rubin. In 1941 I was working at Columbia Pictures and I 
met the writer in the office next to me. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was his name? 

Mr. Rubin. His name was Louis Lantz. We weren't working to- 
gether; we just shared adjoining offices and became friendly. This 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 913 

acquaintance developed into friendship through the course of dis- 
cussing story problems and through social evenings. 

Sometime in the spring of 1942, after I had become friends with Mr. 
Lantz, he surprised me one evening by bringing up the subject of the 
Communist Party. Mr. Lantz expressed the belief that communism 
was the answer for any man of liberal views, and he asked me if I 
was interested in it. 

I told him that I had never thought about it, that I knew nothing 
about it, that I really knew nothing about it, and that besides, despite 
my liberal instincts, I was not political. The matter rested there 
for a week or two and then on another evening Mr. Lantz brought 
it up again. 

This time he asked me, since I admitted total ignorance about com- 
munism, would I be interested in attending a series of discussions or 
classes which would inform me on the Communist Party, Marxism, 
and Soviet Russia. 

I thought it over and finally said that I would be interested. There 
were many reasons behind my accepting this idea of attending classes 
on the various aspects of communism. These reasons being both emo- 
tional and growing out of the lopsided attitude and atmosphere of 
the times. 

In the first place, at that time Soviet Russia was our war ally, 
accepted from the White House down. I was interested in what had 
been going on in that country and I was curious about what had been 
going on in that country. 

In the second place, my earlier revulsion at the Soviet-Nazi Pact 
had been replaced by an admiration for the courageous stand of the 
Russian soldiers which they were making against the Nazi armies. 

As a Jew, my sympathies naturally went out to everyone and anyone 
fighting Hitlerism. 

Finally, I was interested in educating myself on the subject which 
was part of the world I was living in. The Communist Party was 
a so-called legal party, about which I knew nothing. I was 24 years 
old at the time, highly idealistic and intellectually curious. I was 
eager to hear and debate new ideas, and I decided there was nothing 
to fear. If I didn't like the classes I would cease to attend. 

As things turned out, I was disgusted and disillusioned after only 
3 or 4 sessions of the class, and I never went back. 

Mr. Wheeler. What caused your disillusionment? 

Mr. Rubin. The general conduct of the classes. I had been told 
that this was to be a discussion group in which we would discuss 
various aspects of the subjects named. Instead of discussion, however, 
I heard diatribes. Instead of open debate I got closed edicts. 

I had gone, ready to discuss anything, but before very long I learned 
the discussion group was not ready to discuss anything. The best 
example I can remember was when the leader of the discussion group, 
a screen writer named Mitchell Wilson, brought up the subject of 
Trotskyism. 

Mr, Wilson painted the followers of Trotsky as liars, assassins, and 
villains incarnate. Anyone trying to get a grasp of true communism, 
Mr. Wilson stated, had better make sure that he had no Trotskyites 
among his friends or acquaintances. 

Now, I knew practically nothing about Mr. Trotsky and I certainly 
held no brief for him, but the idea that a supposedly American politi- 



914 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

cal paity would try to dictate with whom I was to associate and to 
whom I was to talk was totally reprehensible and inacceptable to me. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many meetmgs of this study group would you 
say you attended ? 

Mr. Rubin. Koughly 3 or 4. 

Mr. AViiEELER. Do you recall where they were held? 

Mr. Rubin. Yes. They were held at the home of a screen writer 
named Mitchell Gordon. 

Mr. Whp:eler. Was Mitchell Gordon at any of these discussions? 

Mr. Rubin. To the best of my knowledge he was not. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Mr. Lou Lantz present? 

Mr. Rubin. No. Mr. I^antz was not present. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who was present ? 

Mr. Rubin. The only one I definitely recall was the leader of the 
group, Mitchell Wilson. The others I liadn't known before and I have 
never seen since. And after a lapse of 11 or more years I just don't 
remember any of them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Meta Reis ? 

Mr. Rubin. Yes, I know Meta Reis. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall whether or not she was present ? 

Mr. Rubin. To the best of my knowledge, Meta Reis was not present. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Oscar Saul ? 

Mr. Rubin. I know Oscar Saul. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Oscar Saul present? 

Mr. Rubin. No, Oscar Saul was not present. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are stating that categorically. 

Mr. Rubin. Perhaps I had better say to the best of my knowledge. 
I stated categorically, feeling that if Oscar Saul had been present — I 
have known him as a screen writer, or I have seen him at Guild meet- 
ings' or at parties, social affairs since. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Ed Rolfe? 

Mr. Rubin. I met Ed Rolfe at the home of Lou Lantz, either at a 
social evening or dinner. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Bess Taffel ? 

Mr. Rubin. The same applies to her. I met her at the home of Louis 
Lantz. 

Mr. Wheei^er. How many individuals would you say attended this 
study group? 

Mr. Rubin. My best recollection is roughly 5, 6, or 7 at the most. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have testified that Mr. Lantz was instrumental 
in getting you to attend these study group meetings. 

Mr. Rubin. Yes, that is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you discuss your leaving the discussion group 
meetings with Mr. Lantz? 

Mr. Rubin. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. You did? 

Mr. Rubin. Yes, I did. After the meeting which particularly an- 
noyed and disillusioned me, when I decided I wasn't going back to 
another class, I told Mr. Lantz my reactions' to the kind of totalitarian 
viewpoint and discussion that liad been going on, citing the reference 
to Trotsky that I mentioned above, and told him I was not going back 
to another class. 

Never subsequently did Mr. Lantz himself ever try to persuade me 
to go back to the classes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 915 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat was' Mr. Lantz' reaction ? 

Mr. Rubin. Mr. Lantz just accepted it. 

Mr. Wheeler. What did he say ? 

Mr. Rubin. Mr. Lantz actually tried to discuss it with me. He 
tried to point out that this was not totalitarianism, but merely, in his 
opinion, an effort at organization or at organizational discipline. 

I told him I couldn't accept, this argument, that it wouldn't change 
my mind. 

Mr. Lantz then accepted my argument, and as I have stated, made 
no further attempt to persuade me to return to the classes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did ]Mr. Lantz ever directly ask you to become a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rubin. No, he did not. 

Mr. Wiieei^r. Did you reach any conclusion in your own mind 
regarding Mr. Lantz' political affiliation? 

Mr. Rubin. Well, as I have said before, I attended no meetings to 
compare, and therefore never saw Mr. Lantz at any meeting of the 
Communist Party. I have no direct knowledge of Mr. Lantz being 
a Connnunist or of Mr. Lantz having been a Communist. 

The only thing I can say to you, if you want it, is that I assumed 
in my own mind, since Lantz said to me it was his belief that com- 
munism was the best answer for a man of liberal viewpoints, that 
at that time he either was a Communist or was sympathetic to the 
Communist viewpoint. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Rubin, I would like to repeat a sentence you 
just testified to. "He tried to point out that this was not totalitarian- 
ism, but merely, in his opinion, an effort at organization or at organi- 
zational discipline." What conclusion did you reach when Mr. Lantz 
stated to you that this was just a matter of accepting organizational 
discipline ? 

Mr. Rubin. Let me make this clearer. I believe, or I should say 
I think I can make this clearer. Mr. Lantz did not say to me that 
I was to accept organizational discipline. He was explaining, I 
assumed, a theory or his viewpoint of communism and the Communist 
Party, and this viewpoint was that to understand communism you 
had to accept certain channels, certain precepts of Marxism. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Lantz then had accepted the discipline ? 

]\lr. Rubin. I don't know. I will answer that, to the best of my 
ability. 

Mr. Wheeler. He was espousing the theory that discipline should 
be accepted by Marxists or Communists? 

Mr. Rubin. Yes, he was. 

Mr. Wheeler. You don't recall anyone else who was in attendance 
at these meetings ? 

Mr. Rubin. No, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you attended any meetings of the progi'essivei 
caucus of the Screen Writers' Guild, and if so, where were these meet- 
ings held? 

Mr. Rubin. I can't honestly say. I attended meetings — the only 
specific meetings I recall of the progressive caucus — and there may 
have been others — that I attended were held usually just before the 
Screen Writers' Guild regular meeting; either at the hotel where 
the meeting was to take place or in the very room, or outside the very 
room the meeting was to take place. 



916 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. "Wliat was the purpose of these meetings of the 
progressive caucus? 

Mr. Rubin. The purpose of the meetings of the progressive caucus 
was to discuss the agenda that was coming up at the subsequent Screen 
Writers' Guild meeting and to try to organize everyone who attended 
the progressive caucus meeting into a single viewpoint on the subjects 
that were to come up. 

Mr. Wheeler. AVlio were the leaders in the progressive caucus? 
Explain what was the progressive caucus, please. 

Mr. Rubin. The progressive caucus to me was just what its name 
said. I took it to be a group of writers within the Screen Writers' 
Guild, whose viewpoints on union activities were liberal, and who 
would work for these viewpoints. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who were the leaders 1 

Mr. Rubin. I can't answer that. I don't know who the leaders of 
the progressive caucus were. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many individuals were members of the progres- 
sive caucus ? 

Mr. Rubin. That is a very difficult question to answer, because when 
I went to a meeting of the progressive caucus, on the various occasions 
when they asked me to come, the attendance varied enormously. 

Mr. Wheeler. From what to what ? 

Mr. Rubin. From, let's say, 15 people up to as high as, let's say — 
I don't know — 40, 50 people. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who is "they"? Who asked you to go to these 
meetings ? 

Mr. Rubin. I have to think back on that. I cannot say definitely 
who asked me to go to these meetings. I will try to recall to the best 
of my ability how some of these things came about. 

Inone instance it might have been a phone call. In another instance 
I may have received a mimeographed letter or sheet which stated what 
the progressive caucus was going to discuss at its meeting before the 
next guild meeting, and asking me to come. Now, these mimeo- 
graphed sheets occasionally were signed by members of the Screen 
Writers' Guild, but I honestly don't remember who signed them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you remember any specific subject which was 
discussed ? 

Mr. Rubin. It was always the current working business of the guild 
that was discussed. And I was by no means a regular attender of the 
progressive caucus. 

As I have explained or tried to explain in a statement I have sub- 
mitted, when they would inform me by phone or by mimeographed 
letter of a subject in which I agreed with their viewpoint, which was 
also expressed in that phone call, I would attend the meeting and try 
to help them on that point in the subsequent Screen Writers' Guild 
meeting discussion or vote. 

Wlien I disagreed with the point involved, I did not attend the 
progressive caucus. I know for a fact that the negative was far more 
frequent than the positive, but, nevertheless, I did attend several 
progressive caucus meetings. 

Mr. Wheeler. How closely have you followed the investigation 
here in Hollywood, being conducted by the committee? 

Mr. Rubin. Average closely. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 917 

Mr. Wheeler. You are familiar then with the great number of 
writers who have been identified as members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Rubin. I am familiar, I should say, with the ones whose names 
have appeared in the newspaper, in the main, or with people I have 
been acquainted with who have. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you say the percentage of people in attend- 
ance at the progressive caucus meeting was largely made up of subse- 
quently identified members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rubin. I would say that many of the people named were pres- 
ent at progressive caucus meetings ; that is, at that time they had not 
been named. But subsequently, when I discovered their names, they 
had been present at the progressive caucus meetings. But I would 
not say, for example, that they were preponderant, necessarily pre- 
ponderant at those meetings. For example, the only way I can state 
it is if there were 40 members present at a meeting, to discuss a subject 
that was coming up, my guess now would be, say, 25 or 30 percent of 
the people there were subsequently named. 

Mr. Wheeler. You testified you left this study group in 1942. 

Mr. Rubin. That is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Since leaving this group, have you been approached 
by anyone to resume your association with them ? 

Mr. Rubin. Yes, I was. This happened after I was released from 
the Army Air Forces in 1946 and had gone back to work at Universal 
Pictures. 

One day, to the best of my Imowledge, in mid-spring of 1946, I re- 
ceived a phone call. It was from a woman whose name I had never 
heard before, and if she gave it to me over the phone or to my secre- 
tary — because I had never heard it — I paid no particular attention to 
it, and I do not remember it now. 

However, this woman over the phone asked me if I would consider 
joining a new evening study group. I told her emphatically I would 
not, and hung up the phone. 

Mr. Wheeler. In recent years have you had any close association 
with Mr. Lantz ? 

Mr. Rubin. Yes, I have. Again — and this does not attempt to 
undermine the friendship — the association has been sporadic, but, 
nevertheless, it has been a fairly close friendship. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever discussed the Communist Party in 
recent years ? 

Mr. Rubin. Yes, I have. Mr. Lantz, as I recall it, got out of the 
Army sometime in the spring of 1946. When I saw him after that I 
told him about this phone call I had received. I told him also that 
I had flatly turned the woman down, and I remember discussing the 
incident with him. 

I was particularly pleased at that time to find that Mr. Lantz agreed 
with what I had said to this woman and with what I had done. And 
to the best of my recollection the gist of Mr. Lantz' conversation to me 
at that time was that he was no longer in sympathy with communism or 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. This was in 1946 ? 

Mr. Rubin. That is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Subsequent to 1946, have you and Mr. Lantz had any 
discussions ? 



918 COMMUNIST ACTR^ITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Rubin. From the time of that conversation in 1946 until a few 
days ago Mr. Lantz and I had no discussions about the Communist 
Party at all. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have a discussion a few days ago? 

Mr. Rubin. Yes, we did. 

Mr. Wheeler. A\niat was the nature of this discussion ? 

Mr. Rubin. Well, when the studio informed me of certain items 
that had been listed against me, including one which stated that I was 
known to have been a Communist Party member, and asked me to 
answer these charges, I went about the business of answering them. 

In preparing an answer to the items given me by my employer, 
I went into my files and records, and talked to people, to refresh 
my recollection, so that I could prepare a statement under oath, which 
I did do, which I have delivered to my employer and a copy of which 
I have given to 3'ou, Mr. ^^Hieeler. 

In that connection I went to see Mr. Lantz. I felt that I had done 
nothing whatsoever that was wrong, and I went to see Mr. Lantz to 
tell him that I was going to make a full statement of the study group 
classes I had attended and that this would necessarily involve my tell- 
ing who had asked me to these classes. 

I wanted Mr. Lantz to understand what I was doing, and I also 
wanted him either to come with me or on his own to cooperate with 
the House Committee on un-American Activities. 

Again, at this conversation, Mr. Lantz reiterated that he had long 
been out of sympathy with Communism and the Communist Party, 
but that he felt he could not cooperate with the House Committee 
on un-xVmerican Activities because it would involve what he called 
informing. 

I disputed the use of the word "informing." I said to Mr. Lantz 
that while testifying was certainly not a joyous task, I felt that when 
loyalties clashed, the higher loyalty had to take precedence ; and in this 
case I felt that loyalty to friends had to give way to loyalty to our 
country and its urgent needs for security. This I felt involved co- 
operating with the House Committee on un-American Activities. 

Mr. Lantz simply did not agree with this, and the conversation 
ended. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Rubin, have you ever been connected with the 
Writers" Congress ? 

Mr. Rubin. To the best of my loiowledge, no. Now, I know that in 
the list of items that the studio gave me, as charged against me, there 
was one which stated that I was part of a panel on training films, spon- 
sored by the Connnunist Party front, the Writers' Congi-ess, in 1943. 

My first reaction to this was that I had no recollection of it what- 
soever. I then proceeded to check the item. I called Professor 
McGowan's office at UCLA, when I learned that that was where the 
congress was held, and I was informed by that office that as my name 
did not appear on the list of speakers, apparently I did not participate. 

I then checked it even further, and I discovered that I could not 
have participated in this congress because at the time it Avas held I was 
at Army Air Forces Cadet School in Miami, Fla. Therefore, the 
item is wrong. 

Mr. Whei-:ler. a directory issued by the People's Educational Cen- 
ter for the winter term of 1947 lists you as an instructor. Is that 
correct ? 



COMlVrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 919 

Mr. KuBiN. Yes; that is correct. I did instruct for one semester 
at the People's Educational Center. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who asked you ? Give the story. 

Mr. Rubin. I was asked to instruct on the craft of writing screen 
plays by a screen writer named Robert Lees. This invitation came 
by a phone call, in which I asked Mr. Lees what the People's Educa- 
tional Center, of which I had never heard, was. 

He told me that it was essentially a night school for adults who 
could not alt'ord regular professional school tuition, and asked if I 
would donate my services in teaching screen writing. I agreed to do 
this. 

Never at any time in the conversation with Mr. Lees or subsequently 
at the school itself was the subject of the Communist Party mentioned 
or brought up, or was any discussion of communism itself ever con- 
ducted in my presence. 

I don't know what the other instructors or other classes talked 
about. I do very definitely know that in my classroom we talked 
simply about the craft of writing motion picture screen plays. I 
had no knowledge at the time that the People's Educational Center 
was in any way connected with the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know that it was known as the Los Angeles 
Labor School prior to the time it became the People's Educational 
Center? 

Mr. Rubin. No ; I did not. I have never heard that name before. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you quit? 

Mr. Rubin. When the sponsorship of the People's Educational 
Center came into question, and when I saw for the first time that it 
was linked with the Communist Party, then I left the school and 
refused to teach there another semester. 

I have never had any conversation or association with anybody 
connected with it since. 

Mr. Wheeler. According to the People's World, page 5, May 12, 
1949, it lists you as a speaker before the Hollywood Independent 
Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions. 

Is it true that you spoke at this meeting ? 

Mr. Rubin. I had no recollection of speaking at this meeting. But 
since I checked at the UCLA library, the People's World edition that 
reported this incident, and since I find they have words put in my 
mouth, I must assume that I did speak there. This was when? 

Mr, Wheeler. May 12, 1949, as reported in the People's World. 

Mr. Rubin. At that time I was a producer of the very first nation- 
ally sponsored TV film show, and TV itself was the hottest subject 
in show business. 

1 recall being asked all the time to appear, for example, at the 
Academy of Television Arts and Sciences meeting, to tell to other 
people interested in this growing industry my experiences as a so- 
called pioneer in TV. 

I acx?epted several of these invitations, because I was anxious to 
publicize my own work and my American Tobacco Co. show. 

In checking the People's World at the UCLA library, I noticed that 
according to them what I said at this meeting was to argue in favor 
of the importance of sponsorship and network backing in the making 
of television shows. 



920 coivDviTJisriST activities m the los angeles area 

Mr. Wheeler. In other words, private enterprise ? 

Mr. Rubin. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you ever a member of this organization ? 

Mr. Rubin. I didn't know, and my attorney, Mr. Gang, asked me 
to check my records on this. I went over them very thoroughly. I 
could find no evidence of having belonged to this organization nor 
could 1 find any evidence of having belonged to organizations which 
I now know were either stemmed out of this group or were affiliated 
with it, namely, the Progressive Citizens of America and the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have submitted to the committee the list of 
your donations from 1946 through 1952. I notice in 1948 a contribu- 
tion of $3 to the Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of 
Arts, Sciences, and Professions. Would this be a contribution or 
perhaps could it be a payment of dues for membership ? 

Mr. Rubin. I can't answer that. I made every effort to check this 
particular list of donations, including the effort of tracking down and 
talking to the current office of the above organization. The only 
answer they would give me was that all records had been destroyed 
and they could give me no information. I am at a loss to specifically 
identify that $3 donation. 

Mr. Wheeler. According to our information, Mr. Rubin, you 
signed the amicus curiae brief on behalf of John Howard Lawson and 
Dalton Trumbo. Is that correct? 

Mr. Rubin. That is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who listed your signature? 

Mr. Rubin. No; I do not. Petitions of that nature were circulated 
at luncheon tables in the commissary or passed from office to office 
at the studio. 

Mr, Wheeler, During that time, what was your position in regard 
to the indictment and conviction of Lawson and Trumbo following 
their contempt citations before the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Rubin. I did not agree in any way whatsoever with the political 
viewpoint of these men under indictment for contempt. But I signed 
the amicus curiae brief because it was my understanding that signing 
it did not mean you had to be in sympathy with the political views 
of the men involved. 

To me, signing it was simply an American act of signing a docu- 
ment concerned with getting these men as complete and thorough a 
hearing as possible, 

Mr. Wheeler, Do you recall signing the nominating petition on 
behalf of Albert Maltz for the executive board of the Screen Writers' 
Guild? 

Mr. Rubin. I do not recall signing this petition. But because it 
was listed again among the items charged against me, I contacted the 
Screen Writers' Guild and I was told by the guild that my name does 
appear on the Maltz' petition, dated October 1949. 

Mr. Wheeler. This, I believe, was after the conviction of Albert 
Maltz for contempt of Congress. It was quite evident that during 
that period of time in 1949 that Mr, Maltz had been a member of the 
Communist Party. Were you in accord with having a member of 
the Communist Party on the executive board of the Screen Writers' 
Guild? 



COJMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 921 

Mr, Rubin. . No; I was not. But I was in accord with the idea 
that the guild itself ought to vote on this, and that the best way for 
the guild to vote on it was by putting Mr. Maltz' name up. I felt 
this was something that should come up on the guild floor and be 
discussed and recognized. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat is your present-day attitude regarding the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rubin. The same as it was when I left the study group in 
1942. I started attending the study group because I was totally 
ignorant of the Communist Party. In very short order I learned 
enough about it to disagree and to disapprove of it thoroughly. My 
learning on the subject since, my knowledge through the newspapers 
of Soviet Russia's conduct in world affairs since, its aggressive nature 
and the ludicrous switches of American Communists, as identified in 
the newspapers, as they swing to and fro with the thoughts and 
activities of Soviet Russia, all of these tilings have only further sub- 
stantiated the judgment I made in 1942. 

Mr. Wheeler. We have just discussed what might be termed as a 
front record. Do you believe that this front record of yours indicates 
sympathy with the Communist movement? 

Mr. Rubin. No, I do not, I believe — and in my own mind I 
know — that these items have grown out of a natural liberal instinct 
inside myself, an instinct which always sought fair play and equality 
of opportunity, I never knowingly participated in any group which 
was Communist or Communist front. But I must assume, from 
things which I have learned about things I signed or groups I occa- 
sionally worked with, that my very liberal instincts made me usable 
to these groups. And these groups I now know are Communists. 

Mr. Wheeler. I would like for the record to show that Mr. Rubin 
has made available to the committee his contributions or donations 
from 1946 through 1952. This list discloses 68 separate contribu- 
tions to various organizations and only one organization cited is a 
Communist front. This organization we have previously discussed, 
which is the Hollywood Independent Citizens' Committee of the Arts, 
Sciences and Professions. 

Mr. Rubin, do you have anything else you would like to say for 
the record ? 

Mr, Rubin, Mr, Wheeler, I have given a copy of my sworn state- 
ment to you and to the Federal Bureau of Investigation and to my 
employer. I can only state to you, as I advised my employer and 
the FBI, that I am not now and never have been a member of the 
Communist Party, and that I am ready to answer any questions at 
all times. Any time you desire my cooperation, I will make myself 
available. 

Mr. Wheeler. All right, Mr, Rubin, The committee will be most 
interested in what you have said here today. 

(Whereupon the interrogation of Stanley Rubin was concluded.) 



31747— 53— pt. 5- 



INVESTIGATION OF ^COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES AKEA-Part 5 



THURSDAY, MARCH 12, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Actiyities, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

executive statement ^ 

An executive statement given at 11 : 45 a. m., March 12, 1953, at 
room 1109, Statler Hotel, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Present: William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

TESTIMONY OF SOL SHOE ^ 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name? 

Mr. Shor. Sol Shor. 

Mr. Wheeler. Allien and where were you born ? 

Mr. Shor. In New York City, July 16, 1913. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your educational background ? 

Mr. Shor. I was educated in the public schools in New York and 
went to the College of the City of New York at night for about two and 
a half years and then went to New York University, from which school 
I graduated in 1937. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Shor. I am a writer. 

Mr. Wheeler. How have you been employed since your graduation 
from New York University? 

Mr. Shor. I moved from New York to California with my family 
in 1937. First I got a job on the back lot at Republic Pictures and 
later became a writer, and since then have been working as a writer. 

Mr. Wheeler. What are your screen credits ? 

Mr. Shor. Mainly at Republic Pictures and Columbia Pictures. 
The titles are mainly serial titles, like Dick Tracy, the Lone Ranger, 
Zoro. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you presently employed? 

Mr. Shor. No ; I am working on a free-lance basis now. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Shor. Yes, I have. 

Ml-. Wheeler. When did you first join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Shor. I believe that it was sometime in 1938. 



" Released by the committee. 

* Sol Shor was sworn as a witness by the court reporter. 



923 



924 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. What were the events leading up to your member- 
ship? 

Mr. Stioh. I believe that I became interested in the Hollywood 
Anti-Nazi League during that period, and somehow through my 
attendance at meetings there I was induced to attend a group in cur- 
rent events. I don't remember whether this was a pay group or not. 

From there I went to a group that was to prepare for recruiting into 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who solicited your membership into the Communist 
Party, do you recall ? 

Mr. Shor. Well, as I recall, there was one person I knew at that time 
by the name of Michael Alexander, and I tliink he was the one that got 
me to take this current events class. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who was Michael Alexander? 

Mr. Shor. He was working either as a cutter or assistant cutter or in 
the messenger department at Republic Pictures at the time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, was he known to you as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Shor. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. But he did suggest that you attend the 

Mr. Shor. Current events from which the recruitments were made 
for this other group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did Mr. Alexander attend the current events group 
or the study group ? 

Mr. Shor. No, he didn't. 

Mr. Wheeler. However, he did make arrangements for you to 
attend ? 

Mr. Shor. No, he just suggested this current events group, since 
I was apparently interested in world affairs, through my interest in 
the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League. 

Mr. Wheeler. But still he would be the individual who made ar- 
rangements for you to attend, isn't that correct? 

Mr. Shor. Actually, I am trying to recall now what procedure took 
place for the enrollment, whether he was actually the one that enrolled 
me or whether he just suggested this group that met, this current 
events group. 

Mr. Wheeler. He would have to suggest you see somebody in this 
group to get you started ? 

Mr. Shor. That is right, in this current events group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Therefore, he would be instrumental in getting you 
into the group. 

Mr. Shor. Yes. Actually, as I say, I don't know whether he was 
an official in this current events or group or not at the time. 

Mr. Wheeler. All right. Now, how many meetings did you at- 
tend of this current events group? Approximately. 

Mr. Shor. I should imagine it was about a dozen meetings. It 
was a complete course, sort of, that went over a period of about 3 
months. As well as I can recall, we used to meet one evening a week. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall where the meetings were held? 

Mr. Shor. They were held at various people's houses, but right now 
I don't think I can recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any of the individuals who attended 
these discussion groups ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 925 

Mr. Shor. This is really very vague in my mind. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
you attended this discussion group ? 

Mr. Shor. No. This was kind of a preliminary paving of the way, 
apparently, for indoctrination into the second group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the instructor was of this group ? 

Mr. Shor. I remember the instructor of the second group was a 
Sam Silver. But this first group 

Mr. Wheeler. How long after you became a member of the dis- 
cussion group were you asked to become a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Shor. Then I went into this preliminary group that made pos- 
sible my entrance into the Communist Party. And I attended meet- 
ings at this group which Sam Silver was an instructor of for about 
12 weeks. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat I am trying to get at is when you joined the 
party. 

Mr. Shor. This was at the end of the second group. 

Mr. Wheeler. At the end of the second group ? 

Mr. Shor. That is right. That also lasted about 10 or 12 meetings. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall Sam Silver as being the discussion 
leader in the second group ? 

Mr. Shor. In the second group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, how many individuals comprised the second 
group ? 

Mr. Shor. I imagine there must have been between 8 and 10 in that 
second group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you attended the second group ? 

Mr. Shor. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any of the individuals who attended 
this second group with you ? 

Mr.SnoR. I remember it was held at the house of Blanche Cole. I 
believe she is a sister of Lester Cole. 

Mr. Wheeler. Lester Cole ? 

Mr. Shor. Lester Cole. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Lester Cole present? 

Mr. Shor. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who was present ? 

Mr. Shor. It is sort of a blank right there, because I don't remember 
any of these people being in any group I went into later on. 

Mr. Wheeler. All right. Now, you have stated at the conclusion 
of your attendance of the second discussion group you became a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Shor. Yes, at the last meeting the pitch was made, asking those 
who wanted to join to join up. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who was instrumental in soliciting 
your membership in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Shor. Well, it came as a result of this Sam Silver, who was the 
instructor. Actually, he was the one who made the pitch at that time. 

Mr. Wheeler. At this time you signed up as a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Shor. That is right, at the end of this second discussion group. 



926 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. WiiEELEK. Do you recall an^yone else who signed up as a member 
of the Communist Party at the same time you did ^ 

Mr. SiiOR. No, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you subsequently assigned to a group of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Shor. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a member of this first group ? 

Mr. Shor. Well, this fii-st group, I remember I attended one big 
meeting where there were a lot of people whom I didn't know, since 
this was brand new to me, and immediately after this first meeting I 
was moved into a very small group, consisting of about 5 or 6 people. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a member of the first group ? 

Mr, Shor. That must have been about maybe a year. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, do you recall the names of the individuals who 
were members of this first group ? 

Mr. Shor. There were the two people. Lillian — he is a business 
manager now. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is it Lillian and Bernard Skadron ? 

Mr. Shor. That is right. There was a girl of Finnish descent in 
the group, whose name I do not know. 

Harold Salemson. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anyone else who was a member of 
this group ? 

Mr. Shor. No, I don't think I can. I don't think I can call the 
sixth person. But these 4 I remember definitely as part of the group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who was the head of this group, the 
chairman ? 

Mr. SiiOR. I think it was Lillian, either Lillian or Bernie Skadron. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you pay dues? 

Mr. Shor. At that time I did, yes ; I did pay dues. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall to whom you paid your dues? 

Mr. Shor. I may have paid them to Bernie Skadron. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was this group classified as a motion-picture in- 
dustry group, a talent group, or more or less a neighborhood group ? 

Mr. Shor. I don't know whether they classified it at that time, 
because I was the only writer in the group. Mrs. Skadron, I think, 
was a housewife at the tmie, Lillian Skadron. Bernie Skadron was 
an accountant, I believe. Harold Salemson was a representative of 
magazines, as far as I could remember, publicity or a writer. 

Mr. Wheeler. On how many occasions would you say you saw 
Mr. Salemson present at these Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. Shor. He wasn't too regiilar an attendant. We used to meet 
sometimes once every week and sometimes once every second week, 
and I imagine he would be there, oh, about 50 percent of the time. 

Mr. Wheeler. He was, however, a dues-paying member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. SiroR. Yes, I imagine he was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, were you subsequently transferred to a sec- 
ond group ? 

Mr. Shor. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Can you give us the approximate date? 

Mr. Shor. Let's see, I joined sometime in 1938. This lasted 
through 1939, and it must have been possibly sometime in 1939 that 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 927 

I was transferred to a second group. This I believe was considered 
more of a talent group. 

Mr. Wheeker. How long were you a member of the second group ? 

Mr. Shor. I believe I was a member of the second group for about 
6 months and then went into a third group before I went into the 
Army. 

Mr. Wheeler. On what date did you enter the United States 
Army ? 

Mr. Shor. Pearl Harbor was December 1941. I was inducted in 
February of 1941. About 10 months before Pearl Harbor. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who were members of the second group? 

Mr. Shor. The second group — there was, I think, Salemson was 
a part of this second group also. There was Edward Eliscu. I am 
trying to separate the second and the third groups. I think Mickey 
Uris was in this group. There may have been Morton Grant in this 
group at that time. 

I remember the third group more clearly because that was closest 
to my entrance in the Army. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many members would you say were in the 
second group ? 

Mr. Shor. I imagine about 10 that I saw at various times. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were they all writers in the motion-picture 
industry ? 

Mr. Shor. I should imagine that all of them were writers, that this 
was purely a writers' group at the time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who was the chairman of this group ? 

Mr. Shor. No, I don't think I could. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you recall to whom you paid your dues? 

Mr. Shor. I know it wasn't Eliscu. My memory on that is not 
too clear. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, prior to your entrance in the Army, you say 
you were in a third group? 

Mr. Shor. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the members of the third group 
were? 

Mr. Shor. Yes. In the third group there was Lester Koenig. 
There was a Nicholas Bela. I believe Eliscu was also a member of 
this group. A fellow by the name of Rivers, I believe — he didn't 
work in pictures. I think he was a novelist. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would that be W. L. Eivers, or Les Rivers? 

Mr. Shor. Yes, Les Rivers. I believe Mortimer Offner was a mem- 
ber of this group. 

Mr. Wheeler. "V\^iat was the total number of individuals in this 
group ? 

Mr. Shor. I think that was about the biggest group I attended. I 
think there were about 12, I would imagine. Now, there was one I 
ran across, a Trivers, Paul Trivers. I recall the name. A tall, dark- 
haired fellow. I don't remember whether he was in the third group 
or the second one. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the chairman was of the third 
group ? 

Mr. Shor. The chairman of the third group I believe was this 
Nicholas Bela. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall to whom you paid your dues? 



928 COMJMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Shor. It may have been his wife, who was also a member of 
that group. She was a housewife or she may have been a writer, I 
don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall her given name ? 

Mr. Shor. No, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were the wives of any of the other individuals you 
mentioned in the groups? 

Mr. Shor. No, just this Nicholas Bela's wife. Maybe it is because 
we used to meet at his house occasionally — not occasionally. I think 
most of the time this group met at his house in Westwood some place. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have testified you entered the Army in Febru- 
ary of 1941. 

Mr. Shor. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. "When were you discharged fi'om the Army ? 

Mr. Shor. The end of October in 1945. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you receive an honorable discharge? 

Mr. Shor. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. What branch of service were you in ? 

Mr. Shor. I was in the Signal Corps, United States Army. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you stationed? 

Mr. Shor. When I was first inducted as a private I was stationed at 
Fort Francis E. Warren in Cheyenne, Wyo., with the Quartermaster 
Corps, where I was assistant to the public relations director of the 
post. Then on orders from Washington I was transferred to Fort 
Monmouth Motion Picture Division. I remained with the motion 
picture division after it had moved to Astoria, Long Island. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was your rank at the time of discharge? 

Mr. Shor. I was a first lieutenant. I went to the Signal Corps Of- 
ficer Cadet School at Fort Monmouth, where I secured my commission. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you still retain a commission with the United 
States Army ? 

Mr. Shor. No, I am on the Inactive Reserves. 

Mr. Wheeler. But you still have your commission ? 

Mr. Shor. Yes, that remains with me. 

Mr. Wheeler. After you were released from the Army, did you re- 
turn to Hollywood ? 

Mr. Shor. Yes, I returned to Hollywood in November of 1945. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliile you were in the United States Army, 
did you participate in any Communist activities ? 

Mr. Shor. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Wheeler. After your return to Hollywood, did you renew your 
affiliation with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Shor. Yes. It was in around 1946, I believe, when I rejoined 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. What were the mechanics involved in your reaffil- 
iation with the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Shor. Let's see, it was through Offner 

Mr. Wheeler. Mortimer Offner? 

Mr. Shor. Yes that I was again reintroduced or sort of reattached 
to a group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did Offner contact you personally ? 

Mr. Shor. I think it was a kind of a mutual thing. 

Mr. Wheeler. However, through Mr, Offner you were reassigned 
to another group in the Communist Party ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 929 

Mr. Shoe. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. This would be the fourth gi'oup ? 

Mr. Shor. That is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Whas this a group comprised of so-called talent 
group in Hollywood? 

Mr. Shor. Yes, this was again mainly writers. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a member of the fourth group ? 

Mr. Shor. I was a member of the fourth group until I moved to the 
valley, where I purchased a home. 

Mr. Wheeler. Could you give us the approximate date? 

Mr. Shor. Yes, this was through the year of '46, and I moved to my 
new home in February of '47. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who were members of this fourth group ? 

Mr. Shor. In the fourth group there was Michael Wilson, Herbert 
Biberman, I believe Carl Foreman, a fellow by the name of White. 

Mr. Wheeler. Could that be Irving White ? 

Mr. Shor. Irving White. Ray Spencer. That reminds me, Ray 
Spencer was somebody whom I had known as a member of one of the 
groups previously. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is Mr. Spencer's occupation ? 

Mr. Shor. I believe he was a writer. I believe Mickey Uris was a 
member of this group, and Bernard Vorhaus. Paul Trivers may have 
been in this group, also. 

Mr. Wheeler. You did know Paul Trivers as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Shor. Prior to my entrance into the Army. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the total number of members in this 
group ? 

Mr. Shor. The most I saw at any one meeting were about, I think, 
between 9 and 10. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who was the head of this group, the 
chairman ? 

Mr. Shor. The chairman of this group I think shifted between 
Biberman and Mike Wilson. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall to whom you paid your dues? 

Mr. Shor. It may have been Irving White. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, you have testified that in February 1947 you 
changed your residence. 

Mr. Shor. That is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. And because of this change of residence you were 
assigned to another group. 

Mr. Shor. In the valley. 

Mr. Wheeler. In the San Fernando Valley? 

Mr. Shor. Yes, that is right. In North Hollywood, that is. 

Mr. Wheeler. This would be a different group of which you were 
a member ? 

Mr. Shor. That is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long did you remain a member of the fifth 
group ? 

Mr. Shor. I remained a member of it until my disassociation from 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. When was your disassociation ? 



930 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr, SiioR. Well, I could say that spiritually my clisassociation 
started somewhere in 1948. And either toward the end of '48 or early 
'49 I physically separated myself from the party. 

To explain this a little more fully, I began to attend fewer and 
fewer meetings during the period of '48, because I had begun to have 
this fight within myself with regard to my attachment. 

Mr. Wheeler. We will go into that in just a minute. Do you recall 
who the members of the fifth group were? 

Mr. Shor. Yes. The fifth group I believe was about the largest 
group I was a member of, and it later split up into 2 groups. It was 
still apparently the same group. In the fifth group there were 
Lester Cole, John Howard Lawson, I remember at the first few meet- 
ings of this large group, a fellow by the name of Manotf 

Mr. Wheeler. Arnold Manoff? 

Mr. Shor. Arnie Manoff, that sounds right. Morton Grant, Al 
Levitt, Carl Foreman, and Mortimer Offner. Sanford 

Mr. Wheeler. John Sanford? 

Mr. Shor. John Sanford. Betty Wilson, Melvin Levy. 

Mr. Wheeler. John Weber?' 

Mr. Shor. No. If I recall in our last interview I believe I said 
John Weber, but it was his wife that belonged to this group. John 
Weber was not part of that group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall John Weber's wife's given name? 

Mr. Shor. Ruth, I believe. George Beck was a member of that 
group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Mrs. Beck a member of that gi^oup? 

Mr. Shor. I don't recall having seen her at any meetings. I 
believe we met at his house once or twice very early in that time, 
that I was transferred to that group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Leopold Atlas a member of this group ? 

Mr. Shor. Leopold Atlas I remember seeing at either 1 or 2 meetings 
very early in my attachment to that group. After those 1 or 2 
meetings I never saw him again. 

Anne Froelich w^as a member of that group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anyone else ? 

Mr. Shor. Tom Chapman was a member of that group. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was Tom Chapman's occupation? 

Mr. Shor. I believe he was a reader. Just going back, this goes 
way back. There was a director Tuttle, Frank Tuttle. This was 
back in, I believe, the second group that I was a member of. 

I remember Heni-y Meyers, a writer, as a member of the Communist 
Party, who was in one of the groups prior to mj^ entrance in the 
Army. 

Ring Larclner, Jr. That was prior to my entrance in the Army. 
Hugo Butler was in one of the groups after I came out of the Army, 
in that first group. Maurice Rapf was before I went into the Army. 
I remember him in one of the groups prior to my entrance in the Army. 

Waldo Salt, that was prior to my entrance in the Army. 

There is a name I recall, Madelaine Ruthven, not as a member of 
the Communist Party but as either an assistant or one who was 
directly responsible for my signing the card initially from that second 
discussion group. 

I recall Jessie Burns as being in one of the discussion groups 
just prior to my entrance in the Comnmnist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 931 

Clarice Chapman was in the last group, which I have called the 
Valley group. 

Mr, Wheeler. Will you further identify Clarice Chapman? 

Mr. SiiOR. I believe she is the wife of Tom Chapman. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was she employed in the motion-picture industry 
or was she typified as a housewife? 

Mr. Shor. I don't believe she was employed in pictures at the time. 

There is a name that rings a bell and I think this is part of the 
first group that I ever attended. There was a George, I believe it 
was George Hellgren, and I think he went back to Sweden or 
something. 

iSIr. Wheeler. George Hellgi-en was in one of your earlier groups? 

Mr. Shor. The first one. He was only there for a couple of the 
early meetings. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall Mr. Hellgren's occupation? 

Mr. Shor. It wasn't in motion pictures, I don't believe. 

Mr. Wheeler. I believe Mr. Hellgren was credit manager at Fox 
Studios. Does that refresh your memory ? 

Mr. Shor. He may have been in some kind of business end of it. 

Mr. Wheeler. His wife's name is Nora Hellgren. 

Mr. Shor. There is a Nora Hellgren listed right under here. Are 
they Swedish? 

Mr. Wheeler. I don't laiow. 

Mr. Shor. Somehow I vaguely recall they went back to live in 
Sweden. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Nora Hellgren a member of this group ? 

Mr. Shor. No ; it was just George. That may have been the other 
l^erson in that first group. 

Josef Mischel was a member, I believe, of the group I was in after 
I came back from the Army. 

Here is a name I recall. Dorothy Comingore, but not as a member 
of the Communist Party, but a member of the first study group I was 
in. It may have been at that time Dick Collins was also a member 
of that group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Dorothy Comingore was known to you as Dick Col- 
lins' wife? 

Mr. Shor. I don't know whether they were married at that time 
or not. 

Mr. Wheeler. They were subsequently married ? 

Mr. Shor. Yes. In the last group there was a David Eobison. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Mr. Kobison's occupation? 

Mr. Shor. I don't recall whether he was a reader at the time or a 
writer. Maurice Clark is one of the names I recall as being in the 
group I went into after I came out of the Army. 

Mr. Wheeler. The first group you went into after you got out of 
the Army ? 

Mr. Shor. Yes, that is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Shor, would you advise the committee the rea- 
sons why you severed your relationship with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Shor. Well, when I came out of the Army, and probablv the 
thing that brought me back into it was perhaps the still idealistic 
interest and hope that maybe this was the right answer to the things 
that I though were politically and socially inequitable in the country 
at the time. 



932 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

However, after a year in which I found that I was ordered to 
adhere to certain things, that is, if I disagreed, my disagreement meant 
nothing — in other words, yon had to succumb to the general trend of 
thought and policy of the Communist Party as dictated from some- 
where up above, and that to me absolutely ran against the gi-ain. 

I felt that all the things that were being said about the Communist 
Party were more and more true, that it was more the tail of a kite 
that was flown somewhere in Moscow and this was just another ap- 
pendage of it. It wasn't American in any sense of the term. It 
wasn't a truly free third party in the tradition of American third 
parties. 

My feeling was that since such an overwhelming majority of the 
people, including many leading, honorable citizens of the country, 
felt tliis party was not for the best interests of the American people, 
that these doubts that began to assail me finally crystallized, that this 
party was inequitable to the best interest of the American people and 
was inequitable to the democratic tradition of the American people, 
and it was something I didn't want to be associated with any longer 
and I felt any of my associations in the past had been a grave error, 
a mistake in thinking, probably thinking in which I was led by the 
nose by others without trying to think things out for myself. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall in 1939 Stalin and Hitler entered into 
a pact, a nonaggression pact? 

Mr. Shor. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Wheeler. I believe from your previous testimony you stated 
one of the reasons you joined the Communist Party was because 
of your interest in fighting nazism. 

Mr. Shor. That is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. How did you accept the Stalin-Hitler pact? 

Mr. Shor. As best I can recall, this was a great shock to me, but 
as I say, at that time my thinking was dominated by others. And 
even though I remember at the time trying to argue against this feeling 
that it wasn't right, that making an alliance with nazism at the time 
was merely aiding nazism. 

However, the thinking of the other people in the group that I was 
associated with and the thoughts which dominated were that this 
was the best interest for peace, and so on and so forth. I finally 
succumbed and fell into line and accepted this, even though my better 
judgment said to me that this couldn't be so at the time, that this 
wasn't right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you in the Army at the time Browder was 
expelled from the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Shor. I believe I was. It was the period of the disclosure 
or the writing of the letter by Duclos, which made world history at the 
time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, were you ready to accept the Duclos letter? 

Mr. Shor. Perhaps this is one of the things, even though when 
I returned from the Army and I reentered the Communist Party, 
I think this is one of the things that subconsciously remained with 
me more than anything else. It showed that the Communist Party 
was not acting as an American entity. It wasn't acting as a third 
party in the democratic tradition of the United States. It was merely 
acting as part of a world Communist gi'oup and merely accepting 
orders and dictates of people who are higher up in the, I should say, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 933 

hierarchy of the Communist Party; that is, the world Communist 
Party, if such a thing exists. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
Albert Maltz wrote his article for New Masses, wherein he appealed 
for freer expression among writers? 

Mr. Shor. I remember there was a great stir about this. Truth- 
fully, this was a little above my level of understanding, the ramifica- 
tions of what was good Marxist writing and what wasn't good Marxist 
writing. 

I recall that there was some discussion about this, but truthfully 
I could not fathom exactly what this was. Again, I think this is 
something that gave me the feeling that the man, if he was a member 
of the Communist Party, couldn't express himself in his own way, but 
had to follow a line that was dictated from somewhere above and 
that if he failed to follow this line he wasn't writing the way a good 
Communist should be writing. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, during the time you were a member of the 
Communist Party, did you ever make an attempt to introduce into 
scripts any Communist Party line or doctrine? 

Mr. Shor. Well, I think from the kind of material I wrote, mainly 
blood and thunder thrillers, there was very little opportunity, even 
if I had wanted to, to introduce any Communist ideology. I don't 
think I was well enough versed in it myself to be able to introduce 
any, and my feeling was to do as good a job on a picture as I possibly 
could and that was it. 

Additionally, I would like to add this ; that those first years that I 
worked at Republic Studios I worked in a group with 2 or 3 other 
writers, and anything that I worked on was a collaborating effort, and 
certainly I didn't use any story ideas to try to influence these other 
writers. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who have your agents been since you have been a 
writer in the motion-picture industry ? 

Mr. Shor. At the present time my agent is the Jaffee Agency. Be- 
fore then it was Mitchell Gertz Agency. And those were the only two. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you feel that your membership in the Communist 
Party assisted you in any way in your writing profession? I mean, 
in regard to securing employment in the studios. 

Mr. Shor. No, it didn't, as far as I know, because my first job I 
secured at Republic Studios after working on the back lot. There 
was this opening, and I had been around pestering the producers, and 
finally secured a job on the serial staff of writers, and I worked on the 
serial staff until I was inducted into the Army. 

After I came out of the Army I went back to work at Republic 
Studios again and I never secured any help of any of these people that 
I knew in the Communist Party in any way whatsoever to help me 
secure employment. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is there anything else, Mr. Shor, you would like to 
add to the record ? 

Mr. Shor. Well, I would like to add this : Since my disassociation 
from the Communist Party I feel much freer, as though a burden were 
taken off of my mind, because as I said, for some time the struggle 
had been going on within me, whether I was doing the right thing by 
still being attached to something that was so definitely opposed to 
American democratic tradition, and that having severed all connec- 



934 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

tions and bonds with the Comnmnist Party, I can think and conduct 
myself, I believe, more in the American tradition. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever have an occasion to meet Danny Dare, 
either as a member of the Conmiunist Party or in study groups ? 

jNIr. SiiOR. I believe Danny Dare was a man that I met in the second 
study group I Avas a part of, before I became a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

IVIr. Wheeler. Well, do you recall if he became a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Shor. To the best of my knowledge, I don't know whether he 
became a member of the Communist Party. I never was in any group 
with him. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you acquainted with Harold Hecht ? 

Mr. Shor. At present? I haven't seen him in many years. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, did you ever have an occasion to meet Harold 
Hecht as a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr, Shor. Yes, in the second group that I was in. 

Mr. Wheeler. Again, what are the approximate dates of your mem- 
bership in the second group? 

Mr. Shor. In the second group it was around 1939, the greater 
part of that. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long a period of time did you say you were in 
the second group ? 

Mr. Shor. It must have been about a year, because then I was in 
the third group before I went into the Army. 

Mr. Wheeler. On how many occasions would you say you saw 
Harold Hecht in attendance at these meetings? 

Mr. Shor. I imagine I saw him about 2 or 3 times at these meetings. 

Mr. Wheeler. These were closed meetings of the Communist Party ? 

]\Ir. Shor. Yes, at the time, they were. 

Mr. Wheeler. Everybody who attended these meetings were dues- 
paying members? 

Mr. Shor. I imagine they were. 

Mr. Wheeler. You were a dues-paying member ? 

Mr. Shor. Yes, at that time, certainly. 

ISIr. Wheeler. You would reach the conclusion that the other in- 
dividuals in attendance were dues-paying members ? 

Mr. Shor. Certainly. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no further questions, Mr. Shor. If you have 
anything in addition you would like to add to the record, anything 
you can think of, you have the opportunity now of saying whatever 
you so desire. 

Mr. Shor. I believe I have covered it all. As I say, in regard to 
people and events, I have gone over the past to the best of my recol- 
lection, and as to my feelings now and in the future, I think I have 
expressed those as fully as I can. 

Mr. Wheeler. I want to take this opportunity now of thanking 
you for your cooperation. 

Mr. Shor. Thank .vou. Mr. Wheeler. 

(Whereupon the interrogation of Sol Shor was concluded.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES AKEA— Part 5 



THURSDAY, MARCH 12, 1953 

United States House of Eepresentatives, 

Committee on Un-Amekican Activities, 

Los Angeles^ Calif. 



executive statement^ 



An executive statement given at 1 : 45 p. m., March 12, 1953, at room 
1109, Statler Hotel, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Present: William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

TESTIMONY OF LEOPOLD LAWRENCE ATLAS =^ 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name? 

Mr. Atlas. My full name is Leopold Lawrence Atlas. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wlien and where were you born ? 

Mr. Atlas. October 19, 1907, in Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Wheeler. Your present occupation? 

Mi\ Atlas. Writer. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your educational background? 

Mr, Atlas. Public schools of Brooklyn, Boys High School of Brook- 
lyn, Yale University School of Fine Arts. That was a graduate 
school. They gave me a special dispensation. We were supposed to 
have a college degree. 

I had written a play Professor Baker liked so much that they gave 
me a scholarship. 

Mr. Wheeler. How have you been employed since leaving the 
university ? 

Mr. Atlas. I worked for the Brooklyn Eagle and shortly thereafter 
I sold a play, and after that I worked as a playwright independently, 
until I came out to Hollywood in 1942, I believe. In other words, I 
worked on my own completely at all times. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you been employed in the motion-picture in- 
industry ? 

Mr. Atlas. Have I ever been employed ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Atlas. Yes; I was' employed in the motion-picture industry 
shortly after my first play was produced on Broadway. That was, I 
believe, in 1935. I remained in Hollywood for about 8 months and 
then returned east and received a Guggenheim Fellowship, and sat 
down and wrote another play which the Theater Guild purchased and 
produced. 

'■ Released by the committee. 

* Leopold Lawrence Atlas was sworn as a witness by the court reporter. 

935 



936 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Since that time I have worked independently again, until the time 
I came out to Hollywood, once more, in 1942. 

Mr. Wheeler. What screen credits do you have, Mr. Atlas? 

Mr. Atlas. Do you want them all the way down ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Atlas. Well, Mystery of Edwin Drew in 1935. A Notorious 
Gentleman, Wednesday's Child, Story of G. I. Joe, Tomorrow the 
World, Her Kind of Man, Raw Deal. The name escapes me, but it was 
a screen play based on Carriage Entrance. 

Ava Gardner was in it, and Robert Mitchum. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Political Association ? 

Mr. Atlas. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you become a member of this organization ? 

Mr. Atlas. It must have been — I am not very accurate on date, I 
must admit — in the latter part of 1944. 

Mr. Wheeler. What led up to your membership in the Communist 
Political Association ? 

Mr. Atlas. I was approached by 2 people on 2 occasions. One, 
George Willner, who was my agent then. The other, Lester Fuller, 
who was an old, old friend, also, way back from college. 

Do you want me to tell how I came to this town and the offers of 
friendship and all that? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Atlas. I came to Hollywood in 1942 and signed up with the 
Goldstone Agency, when they offered me a sum of money to work on 
an original story for them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you sent to the Goldstone Agency by a par- 
ticular individual or was the agency of your own choice? 

Mr. Atlas. There was a correspondence while I was back east 
between myself and Harold Hecht, in which he encouraged me to come 
out to Hollywood, that there probably would be opportunity for em- 
ployment for me. Then he offered me a sum of money, I think it was 
something like $50 a week, through the Goldstone Agency, to write an 
original story. I was pretty bad off financially at the time and I 
accepted this and came out and became associated with the Goldstone 
Agency. 

Mr. Wheeler. You previously knew Harold Hecht in New York? 

Mr. Atlas. Yes ; I did. Harold Hecht I knew in 1935, when I came 
out here, and I think he was a dance director at that time, or something. 
When my play But For The Grace of God was produced, it was pro- 
duced by the Theater Guild in conjunction with Sidney Harmon, we 
had our own stage manager. 

Then a curious situation arose. Benno Schneider was the director 
of the play, and attached to Benno Schneider was Harold Hecht, who 
claimed that he was Benno Schneider's stage manager. The truth 
of the matter is that our stage manager did all the work. Wliat 
Harold did I don't know. And after the play closed I had no more 
relationship with Mr. Hecht in any way whatsoever, until this 1942 
period. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Mr. Hecht with the Willner Agency then ? 

Mr. Atlas. At the time I came out? Yes. As a matter of fact, 
George Willner was Harold Hecht's assistant. 



COMMITNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 937 

Mr. Wheeler. It was due to your prior relationship or acquaintance 
with Hecht that you became attached to the AViUner Agency ? 

Mr. Atlas. I would say in general that would be true ; yes. Harold 
knew I had written plays, and all the rest of that, and knew my ability. 
In 1942 I was handled by Harold Hecht for a very short time and then 
by George Willner, Avhom I had never met or known before my arrival 
in Hollywood. 

I worked for a short period at Columbia and Republic Studios. 
Shortly thereafter, I think it was in 1943, 1 was rejected by the Army 
because of my physical condition. Feeling very strongly about the 
war, and wanting to aid in any possible way I could, I personally re- 
quested a Signal Corps assignment to make training films for the 
Arm}'. These were made in xVstoria, Long Island. 

Upon entering the Signal Corps I took the pledge of loyalty, and 
I am prepared to take a similar pledge now. My children pledge their 
allegiance every day in school, as I did when I was a child. I see no 
contradiction in taking an oath at any time in what I truly believB. 
Never for an instant have I swerved from my loyalty to my country. 

I returned to Hollywood after my assignment with the Signal Corps. 
There I met several people whom I had known back in my college and 
theater days. One of these friends offered to help me find a house. 

As you may recall, there was a great shortage at this time. This 
friend Avas Lester Fuller, who had gone to Yale with me, and at on^ 
time wanted to produce a play of mine, House We Live In. 

Let me state here I never knew of Lester Fuller's political convic- 
tions. In fact, I would have been astonished if he had any at all. 
He found a sublet for us from Lester Cole, who I had never met 
before or known before or ever heard of, nor did I know anything of 
his political convictions. 

The Coles were going to Oregon for about 4 months and sublet their 
house to us for $50 a month, which was half of what they were paying. 
Being busted, I naturally appreciated this. 

Shortly after, Mr. Fuller, who was a director at Paramount, rec- 
ommended me for an assignment at that sttidio. I got the assign- 
ment. I naturally was gi'atef ul. 

Upon the Coles' return from Oregon, my wife, who was then preg- 
2iant with our first child, and I moved into a small apartment on 
Fountain Avenue. This was, I believe, early in 1944. 

One day while riding with my agent George Willner — who, I 
want to reiterate, I had never met before or known, or even heard of 
before I came to Hollywood — to an interview for an assignment, he 
broached me about joining a discussion group called the Communist 
Political Association. 

This request utterly astonished me. One, that George Willner was 
a Communist, Second, that I would even have been asked to join, 
in view of my very outspoken criticism of the party at various times. 
It is of prime significance to point out to the committee that I had 
been in Hollywood for 2 years before anyone approached me on the 
subject. It was only now that the Communist Party had evidently 
changed its spots, that they thought I would even listen to them. 

As a matter of fact, at a small gathering several days before, I had 
said openly that in my opinion Mr. Browder was nothing more than 
a grocery clerk. When I mentioned this statement again, Mr. Willner 

31747— 53~pt. 5 7 



938 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

smiled and said it had been reported back to him but that it didn't 
matter. The Communist Party, he told me, had completely dissolved 
itself. It was now completely nonpolitical and was now merely going 
to be a discussion group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anything additional in your conversa- 
tion with Mr. Willner, at this time ? 

Mr. Atlas. Yes. I recall saying to Mr. Willner that I didn't see 
eye to eye with his group on many issues. Again he reassured me that 
it didn't matter, that on the major premises of winning the war and 
working within the two-party system we were agreed. 

Mr. Wheeler. What issues did you disagree on ? 

Mr. Atlas. I told him that I could under no circumstances join 
any organization unless I had assurances on three premises. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall what these three premises were ? 

Mr. Atlas. These premises were: 1. That this organization no 
longer had any connection with the Communist Party whatsoever; 

2. That it had no link with any foreign country; 

3. That I refused at any time and all times to subject myself to 
disciplinary action of any kind, mental or physical or spiritual. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did he give you any assurances? 

Mr. Atlas. He gave me these assurances, but I was not entirely 
satisfied. I was still skeptical and wary. I requested that I receive 
the same assurances from as high an official in the association as 
possible. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you subsequently contact a high functionary 
in the party, in regard to the assurances you requested ? 

Mr. Atlas. I did, or, rather, they did in the following manner : I 
was then asked to come to a social gathering at Ben Barzman's house, 
where John Howard Lawson was to talk. Lester Fuller also invited 
me to this gathering. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall what Mr. Lawson said that particular 



evening 



2 



Mr. Atlas. Yes. I went to the gathering. John Howard Lawson 
gave a talk which concerned itself with the necessity of all elements 
in our country to unite in a win-the-war effort. This I devoutly and 
ferverently believed in. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you subsequently asked to join the Communist 
Political Association? 

Mr. Atlas. At the close of his talk I was invited by Lawson to join 
the Communist Political Association. Not a political party, mind 
you, but a discussion group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you discuss with Mr. Lawson the conditions on 
which you would join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Atlas. Yes. I again demanded the three conditions I have 
already mentioned, and I was once more assured. As a matter of 
fact, another thing turned up in our talk in which I said I thought 
it would be a good thing for the poltitical association to study Ameri- 
can history instead of constantly boring back into Russian history. 
And I was assured by Lawson that they were going to do that. 

Mr. Wheeler. How did you have prior knowledge that Russian 
history was discussed by the Communist Political Association? 

Mr. Atlas. By hearsay. I had been around, I had gotten into argu- 
ments with them on any number of occasions. The discussions always 
referred back to Russian thought. 



COl^OIUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE LOS ANGELES AREA 939 

May I add this : Having personally received these vital assurances 
from the top men in the association, I saw no harm in joining this dis- 
cussion group or any other group following these principles. In 
fact, it was a oit of gratification to me that the Communist Party had 
been dissolved. I hoped the association, in its place, might now enter 
into the broad stream of American life and thought, which to my mind 
they had never done before. 

It was a further matter of gratification to me that they had departed 
from their position ; not I to theirs. In other words, they had osten- 
sibly come over to my way of liberal thinking. I also privately, and 
perhaps naively, in view of what took place later, hoped that I might 
inject my own liberal thought into the association and educate them 
at the same time that they were trying to educate me. 

I fully accepted John Howard Lawson's statement about the sever- 
ance of the Communist Political Association from contact with any 
other foreign government. Many years later, after I was out of the 
Communist Political Association, during the period when the com- 
mittee was conducting one of its investigations, I expected that at some 
time I might be contacted or identified, and I wondered how I could 
prove that these important assurances, which I demanded at the very 
beginning, were the only conditions under which I would join the 
association. I knew there were only three other people who Imew 
about this. One was John Howard Lawson, one was George Willner, 
and the other was my wife. 

I was pretty certain that neither Lawson nor Willner would come 
and verify this statement, and I racked my brains for some verifica- 
tion of the early position I had taken, and suddenly it occurred to 
me — and I think this was sometime in 1950 or around there — to check 
in the Encyclopedia Britannica. 

In the yearbook of 1945, in their article on communism, page 203, 
there is the following revelatory statement : 

* * * in the United States the Communist Party became, on May 22, 1944, 
a Communist Political Association, with Earl Browder as its first president, who, 
in addressing the convention, used "ladies and gentlemen" instead of the former 
official greeting "comrades." The resolutions adopted deprecated class war and 
stressed national unity. 

I was all for that. 

All strikes in wartime were violently opposed. 

I was in favor of that. 

During the elections the Communists in the United States supported Roosevelt. 

I was in favor of that. 

They aflBrmed their willingness to work within the traditional American sys- 
tem of two parties and of free enterprise. * * * 

On all of these accounts I was certainly in favor of all of these 
things. And here further was printed proof of the position I had 
taken at that time, and it gave me some gratification to have it 
reaffirmed. 

Mr. Wheeler. From your testimony, Mr. Atlas, I believe the re- 
sponsible people for getting you into the association were Lester Ful- 
ler, George Willner, and John Howard Lawson ? 

Mr. Atlas, Yes. As a matter of fact, Lester Fuller and George 
Willner had a big hassle about who was to get credit for getting me in. 



940 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE LOS AXGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. It was actually a threefold effort? 

Mr. Atlas. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall sinning a membership card for the 
Comnumist Political Association? 

]Mr. Atlas. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you explain where this took place and the 
circumstances involved ? 

Mr. Atlas. This took place at Mr. Barzman's house, in the den off 
the living room. I was asked to sign a card. I balked at this when 
I saw the card had the "Communist Party of America'* on it. It was 
explained to me that they were still using the stationery of the party 
which bore the same initials as the association, as an economy measure. 
This sounded logical, and at that time I had no reason to doubt it. 

At the same time my wife joined the Communist Political Asso- 
ciation, on the same conditions and terms as myself. She also, I be- 
lieve, signed a card at the same time, and thereafter at all times we 
were members of the same groups and when we got out we got out 
together. Her position at this time is identical with mine. 

Mr. Wheeler. After becoming a member of the Communist Politi- 
cal Association were you assigned to a group? 

Mr. Atlas. Yes. I was assigned to a small neighborhood group 
in Hollywood and I was, frankly, more than a little contemptuous of 
many of the discussions and papers that were read there. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the members of this group were? 

Mr. Atlas. I can only recall three members. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you identify them, please, for the record? 

Mr. Atlas. One was Vic Shapiro, who was the leader of that group, 
evidently. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall Mr. Shapiro's occupation? 

Mr. Atlas. I believe he was in public relations. 

The others wliom I recall were Gertrude Fuller, the wife of Lester 
Fuller, Bess Taffel, and Ann Morgan was in that group, too. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is that Ann Roth Morgan ? 

Mr. Atlas. Ann Roth Morgan. 

Mr. Wheeler. She was secretary of the Screen Writers' Guild? 

Mr. Atlas. Of the Screen Writers' Guild at the time; yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a member of this first unit ? 

Mr. Atlas. Not very long. I would say no more than a month 
at the outside, I don't think, when the entire thing was reorganized. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the chairman of this group was, 
the first gi-oup? 

Mr. Atlas. To the best of my knowledge, Vic Shapiro. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall to whom you paid your dues? 

Mr. Atlas. No. In the first group, no. I don't know whether I 
paid dues. 

Mr. Wheeleir. You were subsequently transferreld to a second 
group? 

Mr. ATKtVS. Yes, which was to be a craft grouj), a Hollywood craft 
group. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you in the second gi-oup ? 

Mr. Atlas. I can't be exact about this. I would say about 3 or 4 — 
wait a minute. I can be exact. It couldn't have been more than a 
month or two at the outside. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 941 

Mr. WiiEELKK. Do you remember liow many individuals were in 
this group ? 

Mr. Atlas. I only recall three of the Hollywood craft. Lester Cole, 
Albert INIaltz, and Gordon Kahn. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the leaders of this second group 
were? 

Mr. Atlas. No; but an ironic situation occurred at that time. 
They wanted to elect me leader of the group and I said T didn't know 
enough about what was going on to be a leader yet. Who the leader 
was, I don't recall. I recall who the treasurer was: Albert Maltz. 

Mr. Wheeler. Xow, you were subsequently transferred to a third 
group, is that correct? 

Mr. Atlas. That is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long did you remain in the third group ? 

Mr. Atlas. Xow, the third group took a long time organizing 

itself, first of all. Exactly when it did become organized, I don't 

recall. But when it did become organized, I became a member of that 

third group, and I left them in 1047, to the best of my recollection. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well now, who were the members of the third group ? 

Mr. Atlas. John Howard Lawson, Lester Cole, Johnny Cole, 

Arnold Manoff, Alfred Levitt, John Sanford, Maggie Roberts, who 

was the wife of John Sanford. May I say she came to the meetings 

very, very infrequently. 

Anne Green, Howard Koch's wife, Betty Wilson, Lewis Allen for 
a short period. Arthur Strawn for a short period. Alvah Bessie, 
Mrs. Bessie, Tom Chapman, Mrs. Chapman. 
Mr. Wheeler. Is her name Clarise? 

Mr. Atlas. Something like that. She is a stout dark woman. Yes, 
I would say Clarise is his wife. Mel Levy, Morton Grant, Betty 
Grant, and Anne Froelich. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who were the officers of the valley group ? 
Mr. Atlas. There were various officers at various times. At one 
time John Howard Lawson, I believe, was one of the officers. Lester 
Cole was one of the officers. Arnold Manoff was one of the officers. 
Alfred Levitt was one of the officers. 

Mr. Wheeler. Could you identify what office they held ? 
Mr. Atlas. No, I can't. I am terribly sorry. One was with 1 
committee and 1 was with an educational committee; 1 went to the 
central committee, or something of that sort. My last recollection 
of the person who ran the meeting, or sort of officered the meeting, 
was Morton Grant. Also myself, I guess, as treasurer. 
Mr. Wheeler. What office did you hold, Mr. Atlas. 
Mr. Atlas. I held the office of treasurer. 

Ml-. Wheeler. Did you collect dues from all the individuals you 
have identified ? 
Mr. Atlas. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. How much were the dues of this group, if you recall ? 
Mr. Atlas. When I first joined the association the dues were, to 
the best of iny recollection — and I must admit here that it is a bit 
hazy, it having been so long ago — a nominal $1 a month, if you were 
employed, and 20 cents a month if unemployed. I was originally told 
also that I need not pay this if I were unable to do so or chose not 
to. Later-— how nuicli later I cannot recall — the entire orj^anization 



942 COMRIUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

voted to assess itself voluntary contributions, based on a percentage 
of their earnings. Exactly what percentage this was, I do not now 
recall, but I do recall that it varied at times, that is, new systems 
at arriving at percentages were worked out. At one point it was, I 
believe, 4 percent of the net earnings. Several times this changed. 
This voluntary contribution was in addition to the so-called basic 
dues. 

On two occasions I was elected treasurer of the valley group, 
that is, I was elected once for a fi-months' term and then reelected to 
succeed myself. It was purely a functionary job. The only qualifica- 
tion was personal honesty and integrity. Evidently the valley group, 
despite what else the}' might have thought of me, knew I possessed 
these. 

Dues were collected once a month and in the following manner: 
To facilitate the business of the meetings, the treasurer early in the 
meetings retired to a separate room to make his collection. This was 
necessary, since almost every member had an individual dues problem 
which frequently required discussion and explanations, for a variety 
of reasons. 

Firstly, there was the working out of percentages, often rather com- 
plicated. And, secondly, many members frequently asked for a low- 
ering of their voluntary contribution. This required further figuring 
and explanation. 

The treasurer had the peisoiial discretionary power of permitting 
a lowerino; of the voluntarv contribution. Manv felt a distinct hard- 
ship m meeting their allotted sums. Some had family problems of 
various sorts, illnesses, new additions to the family, relatives to sup- 
port, back debts, et cetera. In almost all cases I accepted a lowering 
ox the voluntary contribution, in view of personal hardships. 

Further, the entire system of voluntary contributions was based on 
a sort of tacit honor system, that is, each member stated what he or 
she earned and I accepted tlieir word. There was no check-back, so 
far as I knew, of the correctness of tlieir statements. In return for 
their basic dues they were given a little gummed stamp, which many 
simply tore up. No stamp of anj' kind was given for the so-called 
voluntary contributions. 

As treasurer, I would have each member come in individually. 
Together we would compute his voluntary contribution or arrange 
for payment of arrears, a condition into which many had fallen. 
When that member left, he sent another member in to me. At the 
end of the collection of dues, which took at least an hour, and often 
longer, I would return to the meeting. Later in the week I would 
take whatever dues and contributions I had collected, along with an 
itemized account, and I would deposit those sums in the hands of 
Napmi Robeson at her home. 

Mrs. Robeson was called the section treasurer, I believe. 

The sums of money varied in amounts according to the employment 
of the membership. To the best of my present recollection, it usually 
was several hundred dollars each month. What ha]i])ened with these 
sums of money after I delivered them to Mrs. Robeson, I do not know. 
She, in turn, I believe, was required to turn over the collected sums 
to the comnuniity treasurer or county treasurer. At least I assumed so. 

My functional part in the transaction was over. At various times 
several of the members requested to know how the money w\as dis- 



COMIVrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 943 

tributed. Notably Lester Cole, I recall. I made inquiries from Mrs. 
IRobeson, on his behalf, but was always told that some day a report 
would be made. This report was given to me only on one occasion. 
It was a highly complex report, and to the best of my recollection it, 
in essence, indicated that moneys were divided percentagewise be- 
tween the community, county, state, and national organizations. In 
what proportion I do not recall, nor do I recall that the specific uses 
this money was put to was ever stated. I am certain we all presumed 
it was utilized for organizational and operative expenses. 

I paid dues and voluntary contributions along with the rest. I felt 
that I was in honor bound to do so, since I requested the dues from 
the others. 

I recall only one general meeting of the treasurers of all the local 
clubs. This was held at the Robeson house. Its purpose, to the best 
of my recollection, was to explore more efficient methods of collec- 
tions of dues and contributions, since many of the members were con- 
stantly in arrears. I don't think the meeting solved its problem. 
Club members were in arrears as long as I can recall. 

On the msny occasions, when I absented myself from regular meet- 
ings, dues were collected for me by one of the other members ; usually, 
I think Mrs. Morton Grant. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have testified that you gave stamps to the mem- 
bers of the club after you received dues from them. Do you recall 
from where you received the stamps ? 

Mr. Atlas. Yes ; from Naomi Robeson. 

Mr. Wheeler. You also testified that you attended a meeting at her 
home with treasurers of other units. 

Mr. Atlas. That is true. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the treasurers of the other units 
were that you met with ? 

Mr. Atlas. No. There were units from all over, so far as I knew^ 

Mr. Wheeler. When did your disillusionment begin with the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Atlas. After 6 months I knew definitely this was not for me. 
But how to get out was the question. By now I had insight into 
their methods of work. Without knowing exactly who the people 
were, I knew that many of the members were in strategic positions 
in the motion-picture industry. I had seen instances of it, such as 
Meta Reis in the Paramount story department, and Tom Chapman at 
Warner's, Ann Roth Morgan in the Screen Writers' Guild itself, and 
George Willner as an agent and a person who had been introduced to 
me as head reader at M. G. M. and whose name I cannot recall. From 
this I could infer that they were in many other strategic places. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you feel that the Communist Party had a great 
deal of influence in Hollywood? 

Mr. Atlas. I do. I do feel they were there. Where they were, I 
don't know. You have the feeling they were, though. I knew that if 
I had gotten out, these ruthless experts at character assassination 
would have tried to ruin me with no compunction whatsoever. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know of any example of character assassina- 
tion of individuals whom the Communist Party was hostile to? 

Mr. Atlas. Yes, I had seen a perfect example of this a week or two 
after I had joined. A general meeting had been called of all the 



944 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

writers in Hollywood. At this ineetiii<i, someone — I believe it was 
Lawson — advised all members to be careful of a man named Herb 
Klein, that he was unrealiable, et cetera, et cetera. 

I waited for someone to defend Herb Kline, for I personally knew 
that he had reconnnended and <^otten employment for at least three 
I^eople there, namely, Guy Endore. Phil Stevenson, and Ben Bengal. 
In fact, they were working very closely with Mr. Kline at the time. 

I was ajrhast when none of them had the common decency to stand 
up and say a good word for ^Slr. Kline; but none did. I was new^ to 
all this. I watched and observed and knew that if ever the occasion 
occurred when I wanted to walk out that the same vicious, ruthless, 
underhanded treatment would be accorded me. So I remained. 

I was struggling to raise my small growing family, and in the final 
analysis if I were injuring anyone it was only myself. Furthermore, 
1 had faith in my own independent integrity and believed I could 
maintain it despite all. 

Mr. Whp:eler. Do you have any further instances which you can 
recall which further caused your disillusionment with the party ? 

Mr. Atlas. As a second instance of corrupt and unethical practice 
that I found occurred on the screen play of GI Joe. Based on Ernie 
Pyle's books. 1 am very proud of the work I did on GI Joe. I wrote, 
I believe, 90 percent of it. The script was nominated for the Academy 
Award. It lost the Film Critics Award by only 1 vote, after 16 bal- 
lots, and I was told it was accepted as the official Infantry film by the 
United States Army. No one but a loyal American could have ivrit- 
ten it. 

Some of you may have seen the picture, and I think you will agi'ee 
with me it was a fine film. I worked harder on this than I had ever 
worked in my life. In fact, on its completion I suffered a nervous and 
physical collapse from exhaustion and had to remain in bed for several 
days. But it was a splendid subject, one in which a writer could truly 
put his heart and soul into, and I did, holding back no reserve. 

When the time for the choice of credits came, however, Guy Endore 
and Phil Stevenson — two longtime members of the part}^ and associa- 
tion — who had worked on a prior and unsuccessful script, demanded 
equal share in the accredited authorship of GI Joe. This to me was 
absurd. 

Finally the matter went to arbitration, and although it Avas acceeded 
that I had written a])])roximately 80 percent of the script and the other 
2, as a team, mind you, only 10 percent — the other 10 percent incorpo- 
rated in the body and nature of the stor}' itself — the arbitration com- 
mittee, which was composed of Mary McCall, Jr., Richard Collins, and 
Dorothy Kingsley, decided that, despite the great disparity of contri-; 
bution, all ^^ names should be equally placed on the screen play. 

I was aghast at this decision, as were many other i)eople connected 
with GI Joe. Specifically, Bill AVelhnan, the director, and Alan 
LeMay, who had worked on a still earlier version of the screen play. 

Being new to the industry, I denuinded to know upon what rules this 
decision had been based, and was told there was no standardized rules 
in the matter of such credits. 

Api^roximately 4 months later Miss Alice Penneman, who was then 
executive seci'etary of the Screen Writers' Guild, unearthed a set of 
prior rules wdiich indicated that unless a team of writers had done, I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 945 

believe, at least 30 percent of the writing, their names could not be 
placed on the screen play. 

Did the others withdraw their names then ? No. Did the arbitra- 
tion committee do anything about rectifying their error? No. 

Miss Penneman was the only one who had the common decency to 
write me a note apologizing for the great injustice done me. I have a 
copy of that letter if the committee wishes to see it. 

Later, I understand, Mr. Richard Collins, whom I did not personally 
know then nor now, admitted to a friend of mine that before I got on 
the script there was no script at all. Perhaps he will be willing to 
corroborate that statement now. 

For any writer to accept credit for something he hadn't written was 
to me not only abhorent, but also an indication of a breakdown in 
moral and ethical principles. For this to happen among so-called 
progressive elements was doubly revelatory and shocking. 

On another occasion I remember getting into a controversy with 
John Howard Lawson on the merits of Brooks Atkinson's series 
of articles on the Eussian theater. Mr. Atkinson had returned 
from Moscow to America and had written, in essence, that the Russian 
theater was sterile and decadent. Lawson attacked Atkinson as 
having become corrupt and probably senile. 

I have known Mr. Atkinson and his writings for a long time. I 
believe him and do at this moment to be a person of great honesty, 
understanding and integrity. I ardently stated that if Mr. Atkinson 
wrote what he did about the Russian theater it was probably true. 
For this heresy I was smiled upon as the group's pet "confused liberal." 

Now let's take up the Maltz' New Masses article affair. This was 
truly a ghastly business. Here one saw the wolfpack in full opera- 
tion, working on one of their ow^n long-term members. The mere 
recalling of the incident is abhorrent to me. 

Let me briefly sketch what took place. Mr. Maltz wrote an article 
in the New" Masses in which he expressed, in essence, the belief that 
even non-Marxist writers could write truthfully and honestly, simple 
and short. It was no great shakes of an original thought. Many of 
us had subscribed to that idea even way back in our adolescence. And 
I believe the idea was abroad ever since man first began to write, 
that is, that shades of political thought had nothing to do with a 
man's ability to write truthfully. The key word here, of course, is 
"truthfully.'' 

But for a Communist, and one of long standing, to make the above 
concession was quite a step. Wlien I heard of Maltz' article and 
read it, I was enormously pleased. This was not only a further 
indication to me that the Communist Political Association had hon- 
estly broken with the tenets of the Communist Party, but also that 
Albert Maltz, after long contemplation, had fought his way clear 
through to the liberal humanitarian way of thinking and writing. 

Albert and I worked at Warner's at the time and I recall going over 
to his office to congratulate him on the independent position he had 
taken. There was another chap named Arnold Manon at Warner's at 
the time. I remember that he too agreed with the basic tenets of 
Maltz' article. 

A week later the roof fell in, and that is a very mild way of putting 
it. By his article, Maltz evidently had been guilty of some great 

31747— 53— pt. 5 8 



946 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

heresy, and the execution squad, shipped in from the East, came 
marching in. 

Some nigh muckamucks, AA-liom I had never known, never heard 
of and wliom to this day don't remember, came striding in on giant 
steps. This was the intellectual goon squad. 

A general meeting of all the writers was called at Abe Polonsky's 
house. Knowing that Maltz was in trouble, I was prepared to defend 
his position, despite the fact that I was sorely aware of my deficiencies 
as a public speaker. 

From this point on I can only give you my impressions of that meet- 
ing. It was a nightmarish and shameful experience. 

I remember that Albert tried to explain his thoughts on the article. 
I remember that almost instantly all sorts of howls went up in pro- 
test against it. I remember that I and one or two others made small 
attempts to speak in favor of Maltz, and we were literally shouted 
down. I think I remember seeing Leonardo Bercovici trying to 
defend the article. But the wolves were loose and you should have 
seen them. It was a spectacle for all time. Manoff, from whom 
I had expected some statement in defense, in view of his prior attitude, 
said nothing. 

From one corner Alvah Bessie, with bitter vituperation and venom, 
rose up and denounced Maltz. From another corner Herbert Biber- 
man rose and spouted elaborate mouthfuls of nothing, his every ac- 
cent dripping with hatred. Others from every ])art of the room 
jumped in on the kill. 

Aside from the merits of the article in quertion, this spectacle was 
appalling to me, for one simple reason. Malt?, I knew, was an asso- 
ciate of theirs of long standing. He was at that time a person of 
some literary stature and, as I then believed, a man of considerable 
personal integrity. The least one might have accorded him, even in 
disagreement, was some measure of understanding, some measure of 
consideration. But not they. They worked over him with ever}^ 
verbal fang and claw at their command ; every ax and bludgeon, and 
they had plenty. They evidently were past masters at this sort of 
intellectual cannibalism. 

The meeting was finally adjourned, to be reconvened the next week 
at the same place. I firmly resolved in heart and mind that if at 
this next meeting Maltz decided to renounce them all and stick by 
his guns, I would be the first to follow him out. However, at the 
next meeting they completely broke him. 

The hyena attack — that is the only way I can describe them — con- 
tinued with a rising snarl of triumph, and made him crawl and 
recant. This entire episode is an extremely distasteful thing for me 
to recall. 

I remember feeling a deep anguish for him as a human being, that 
his closest friends for j^ears, or, at least associates, would treat him 
so shamefully, so uncaritably, so wolfishly. Whatever the cause, his 
friends had no right, in all decency, to humiliate and break him in 
this fashion. Or if they did they were not his friends. And what- 
ever they stood for should have been proof eternal to him that they 
were wrong and evil. 

Maltz' martyrdom, if that is what it was, was false, sterile, and 
destructive. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 947 

Further in that hour he betrayed not only himself and his justly 
derived thoughts, but also all those who had entered and remained 
in the organization, in a large measure, due to him. So long as he 
was there, one felt some good was there. A sense of justice to which 
one could always appeal. 

I say this was a deep sorrow for Albert, because I respected him. 
Many others, I believe, were as deeply shocked as myself; but none 
spoke of it. One lasting impression that I took away was that of a 
certain Nemmy Sparks, evidently a high muckamuck somewhere in 
the liierarch3\ 

I recall the sneering look of contempt he had for all those present. 
His clamping, grindstone jaws. The personification of the commissar. 
Frankly, I cx)uld understand his contempt, for I felt it myself for 
other reasons. 

After this I knew positively that I had to get out. But how, I 
frankly didn't know. I believe I have already mentioned that they 
were placed in strategic positions throughout the industry. That 
withdrawal from them would have meant professional and economic 
suicide. I had already seen the utterly ruthless, unprincipled, cut- 
throat act of character assassination they had performed on Albert 
Maltz and others. There wasn't the slightest reason to believe they 
would not perform the same service to me. 

I had two little babies, one newly born and the other a 2-year-old 
child. I had to protect them at whatever cost to myself, though, as 
we will see later, and probably already know, despite all this, I did 
leave them voluntarily and of my own free will, accepting with cer- 
tain knowledge retaliatory measures. I could no longer compromise 
with my principles. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was your reaction to the Duclos letter? 

Mr. Atlas. Now let us take up the Duclos affair. It is true I re- 
mained in the organization after the Duclos affair. But, believe me, 
I didn't understand all its implications until much later, very much 
later; years after I left the organization. It was only then that I 
tied up the Duclos affair with the specific causes which led to a direct 
and final break. 

To me the Duclos affair was just another internecine war. Now, 
to understand this, you must remember there were internecine wars 
almost every week. There were, as you have probably learned from 
other testimony, constant organizing and reorganizing and counter- 
organizing of clubs. 

One week we were a neighborhood club and the next a craft club, and 
the following week something else again. And within these organi- 
zations if Lester Cole wasn't constantly trying to tear Lawson apart, 
Alvah Bessie was morosely clawing away at Cole, or Manoff would 
join in to work on both, while still a further newcomer from the East, 
Alfred Levitt, would take on all three. 

I recall this Levitt at one time demanding the expulsion of Cole, 
and for what reason I cannot now remember. It was indeed a spec- 
tacle to watch. 

Now, that was only in our "peaceful" group. There was the larger 
group of all writers which also was constantly in a state of flux and 
reorganization. At one time it was thought that writers ought to 
mingle more with "living" people and edicts went out that all groups 



948 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

were to be reorganized so that the so-called common man could enter 
our clubs, that is, bookkeepers, machine workei-s, office personnel, 
housewives, et cetera. But this order was countermanded before it 
could be put into practice, for some unknown reason. Possibly con- 
tact with reality might have been too drastic. 

Further, at the larger meetings of writers, you woidd get experts 
from other groups axing away at experts from your clubs. Dalton 
Trumbo, a brilliant speaker, taking Lester Cole apart, piece by piece. 
Or Herbert Biberman, a sterile, pedantic speaker, hammering away 
at someone else. Or Polonsky, the fiery type, going into real old- 
fashioned Union Square soap box oratory. 

The only thing the Duclos affair meant to me was that here was an- 
otlier reorganization, probably on a larger scale, and that Earl Brow- 
der was out. Now, that was all right with me. You may rememlDer 
my early opinion of Browder. This just meant that someone else 
was on top for the time being, and that probably the week after a 
tliird person would supersede him. The fourth week Browder would 
probably be! back where he was, and the roundelay would continue 
over again. Everything else went on the same. The meetings went 
on the same. Dues were collected the same. 

Internecine feuds went on the same. Gobbledegook went on the 
same. It still voted independently at the Screen Writers' Guild. 
1 still openly and avowedly didn't subscribe to the People's World. 
I still did no recruiting. I still stayed away from meetings whenever 
it suited me. There was no difference at all in my mind. 

Very vaguely I recall the evening the Duclos affair was discussed. 
It was an evening, I recall, when I was collecting dues in a side room. 
I also recall that about halfway through whatever discussion was 
taking place somebody, either Lawson or Cole, thought it advisable 
that I sit in on the meeting and listen to what was being discussed. 

Whether I ceased dues collecting for the moment or delayed it, I 
do not recall. But this I do know, so far as I was concerned this was 
another big hassle with Cole shouting at Lawson and Lawson trying 
to defend himself. Very frankly, by this time I had developed what 
is known as a radio ear. You just didn't listen. You sat there, but you 
just didn't listen. And what was more, didn't care. 

In all probability the next meeting was attended by my wife and I 
stayed home with the children. My wife tells me she used to get a 
lot of knitting done at those meetings. I know for a fact my children 
had a great many hand-knitted sweaters at the time. So some good, 
at least, came out of that. 

In all further probability I was given a copy of the Duclos letter to 
read at home. Witli great certainty, I know I threw it into the fire- 
place. Why I did this and why I did the same with most of the so- 
called literature handed out to me may be readily apparent. 

First, it was the dullest and most complex stuff you ever came across. 
Second, I wasn't going to waste any time on stuff I had long ago dis- 
counted. Third — and most to the point — I knew that if one exposed 
himself too much to this kind of pretzel-bent reasoning, one could grow 
distorted. You might even get to believe it. 

And here may I throw in an interesting observation. I think there 
may have even been a calculated method to their madness of continual 
switches, reversals, and contradictions. A calculated policy to so con- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 949 

fuse the minds of their own members that they could no longer have 
any integrity. If a person allowed himself to be subjected to this sort 
of unprincipled thinking for 3 or 4 years he would no longer be capable 
of individual judgment and decision. He would become a complete 
intellectual and spiritual zombi. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you ever threatened with any disciplinary 
action by the Communist Party ? 

]Mr. Atlas. I went to a meeting of the Screen Writers' Guild in 
which the major business was the matter of the proxy. 

Wr. Wheeler. What do you mean by "proxy" ? 

Mr. Atlas. The proxy to me had always meant the democratic right 
of every member in the organization to vote all issues they wished to, 
whetlier he were present at the meetings or not present at the meetings. 

This proxy is used, and I am grateful for it, in the Dramatists' Guild, 
and to the best of my knowledge had always been in force in the Screen 
Writers' Guild. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you continue with your answer ? 

Mr. Atlas. I was aware that the purpose of the "dyed-in-the-wool"' 
was to destroy the proxy for various reasons of their own. This was 
self-evident from the speeches made on the floor. 

I was violently opposed to the destruction of the proxy. I believe 
in the democratic principles of the proxy, and I believe in it today. 
As a member of the dramatists' guild, I had on many occasions been 
grateful for the privilege of the proxy, which allowed me to vote on 
any issue, no matter where I was at the time. The proxy was a form 
of democratic principle. 

So long as a man was a member of an organization he had a right 
to think on issues and then cast his vote as he saw fit, whether he was 
present at the meeting or not. To this principle I strenuously and 
firmly hold. 

Wlien the vote on the proxy issue came to a head, 1 openly raised 
my hand and voted in favor of the retention of the proxy, despite 
these speeches of the "dyed in the wool." I believe I was the only 
member of the association who did so. Several had seen me do this. 
When the meeting w^as adjourned, two approached me. One was 
Morton Grant and the other one a chap who I believe had recently 
come from the East, and whom I had never seen before, heard of 
before, or known before. 

It was pointed out to me that I had voted in contradiction to the 
way the "fraction" had decided. I told them I didn't give a darn 
which way the "fraction" had decided. I voted in what I believed 
was democratically just and right. 

I further avowed that I was unalterably opposed to the elimination 
of the proxy, that I believed in it and that I was not bound by anyone 
to vote against the dictates of my own conscience. 

The chap from the East grew angry and said something about 
disciplinary action. I grew angry, in turn, and pointed out that 
never under any circumstances would I subject my thoughts or actions 
to disciplinary action of the organization. My thoughts and my acts 
were my own, subject to no control of theirs. 

JMorton, whom I rather liked, hushed up and smoothed over what 
rapidly was becoming a heated argument. However, the word "dis- 
cipline" was an alarm bell to me. It awakened me to the fact that 
perhaps certain changes had taken place, of which I was unaware. 



950 COMlVrUNIST activities in the LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. Did tliere ever come an occasion when you came to 
the conclusion that the Communist Party or the Communist Political 
Association was again directly connected with the Comintern or the 
Russian Government? 

Mr. Atlas. It didn't quite come about that way. AVhat occurred 
was after the disciplinary action was threatened, and which I utterly 
rejected, I became aware that probably something had changed in 
the organization since. 

I had acted independently at all times, but never before had I been 
threatened with this sort of thing. Shortly thereafter I sought out 
John Howard Lawson. I asked him a question, which I suppose was 
quite naive to him, but all important to me. I asked him directly 
whether our group was linked in any way to any international body or 
any foreign country. 

For reply, he merely smiled at me. I needed no further answer 
than that smile. From that point on my wife and I decided to get 
out. We were not going to subject any of our acts and thoughts to 
the discipline of any group, especially one that was even vaguely con- 
trolled by some foreign body. That was the line we had drawn from 
the very first. We knew that in all probability there would be 
retaliations of some sort. We knew beyond doubt there would be 
character assassination. We knew that we were risking our profes- 
sional and economic life, and that of our children, who were merely 
babies at the time. 

We had no income whatsoever, other than that produced by my 
writing, which, as we knew at best, was always a precarious one. 
We were probably taking our livelihood in our hands, but despite 
all this, we felt we could no longer continue with an organization of 
this character, and out we got. 

Mr. Wheeler. After you left the Communist Party, were you con- 
tacted by any individual to try to reactivate your membership? 

Mr. Atlas. Yes, my wife and I, when we failed to appear at meet- 
ings, they phoned us, sent emissaries to us. We told them flatly we 
weren't coming back. They wanted to know whether anything was 
disturbing us, that perhaps they could send one of their officials to 
talk to us. We replied that wasn't going to do any good, we just 
weren't coming any more. 

Finally they sent Mrs. John Weber to us. Now, this wasn't just 
an ordinary emissary, this was an emissary with hidden implications, 
as you may well see. We had never known or met Mrs. Weber before, 
or since. She evidently served a special purpose. Mrs, Weber was 
the wife of John Weber, one of the important writer's agents in 
Hollywood. A significant word or whisper from him, in the proper 
places, could mean the end of employment. 

Mrs. Weber came to our home and asked us to come back, not once, 
but twice. On both occasions my wife and I were adamant. We told 
her the answer was not maybe or perhaps, but a flat no. 

]Mr. Wheeler. After leaving the Communist Party, did you have 
difficulty in getting writing assignments with the studios? 

Mr. Atlas. Yes, from that time on I didn't work with but one ex- 
ception. Suddenly, from being an Academy nominee, a Pulitzer for 
creative writing, a writer whom Mr. Edward Small once flattered by 
saying I would go far in the industry, suddenly I received no more 
assignments with, as I said, one exception. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 951 

There was a great deal of shadow boxing along the same line that 
Martin Berkeley described, though I haven't as concrete evidence as 
his. Mine was all in the realm of conjecture; could be or could not 
be. And one thing I wanted to guard myself against was developing 
a persecution phobia. Nor did I want to grow soured and embittered 
in myself. 

Of one occasion I must speak, however. I had still retained George 
Willner as my agent, as naively perhaps as Berkeley. 

Mr. Wheeler^ Do you recall any further instances of attempted 
character assassination by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Atlas. Immediately subsequent to the congressional hearings 
in Washington, D. C, concerning the motion-picture industry, my 
wife and I bumped into Ben Barzman on the street. He was deeply 
exercised over what he called the "betrayal" by Dore Schary. What 
his reasons were I don't recall, but I do remember he was seriously 
considering drawing up a petition from all writers in town to demand 
Dore's resignation from MGM. 

This I thought was the rankest hypocrisy, and I flatly told him so. 
I stated that if any of the writers of MGM were dissatisfied with 
Dore's political views, they could take the initial step by first resigning 
themselves in protest. This I knew they would never clo. 

I specifically had in mind several of the "dyed in the wool" who were 
at the very moment working at MGM. I told him this directly, 
knowing full well that it would get back to the "Cognoscenti" in one 
form or another. 

The crowning irony of the w^iole matter was that shortly thereafter, 
I believe it was, Mr. Barzman was working at MGM under Dore 
Schary, his very strenuous views evidently didn't prevent him from 
accepting paychecks from Dore, although he had been so ready to 
petition for the man's resignation a short time earlier. 

]Mr. Wheeler. Do you have anything in addition that you would 
like to state for the record ? 

Mr. Atlas. There is one point I wish to make distinctly clear. I 
cannot emphasize it too strongly, because it is the truth. I do not — 
despite my having belonged to this discussion group — consider myself 
as having been even a fellow traveler. 

And here is a sharp distinction. At one point in time they traveled 
with my liberal point of view. Not I with their. They changed their 
credo, their standards, their basic tenets. I did not change mine. 
Nor have I done so to this day. This is the literal and spiritual truth, 
as can be ascertained from the Encyclopaedia Britannica Yearbook 
article. The factual, ascertainable truth further is that I at all times 
acted and thought independently of them, even while being right in 
the midst of their circle. 

Further factual proof of this is that when I belatedly discovered 
that they had reverted to their original tenets, I left them as sharply 
as I could ; even, mark you, to the extent that I knew I would be per- 
sonally injured, economically and professionally ; and that that injury 
would further affect my wife and my children. Nevertheless, I did 
what I had to, what I was compelled to do by my own conscience and 
belief. 

It didn't take a Korean war or any other world event to drive me 
from them. From the very first I wanted to break from them. When 



952 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

I discovered that they had gone back to their old stand I left them, 
sharply and distinctly, and have suffered sorely for having done so. 

If for a time I was bemused by their blandishments, may I state here 
that not only I, but many important men, men whose sources of income 
were vastly astronomically greater than mine, men too of great na- 
tional responsibility, were also bemused. 

If we are guilty of anything, it is only of a fervent, idealistic and 
shining hope that out of the war-torn battered world might come a time 
of peace and amity everywhere. 

The slightest, the merest imputation that I might have been, if even 
for only a split second, disloyal to this great Nation of ours and its 
democratic principles, is sickening and abhorrent to me. 

As for my political affiliations, I am not ashamed of them. On the 
contrary, I am rather proud of them. I have been a registered Demo- 
crat all my life. 

Mr. Wheeler. All right, Mr. Atlas. Thank you very much for 
your enlightening answers. 

(^Thereupon the interrogation of Leopold Atlas was concluded.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES AEEA— Part 5 



THURSDAY, MARCH 12, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Los Angeles^ Calif. 
executive statement^ 

An executive statement given at 4 :10 o'clock, p. m., March 12, 1953, 
at room 1109, Statler Hotel, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Present : William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL BENEDICT EADIN ^ 

Mr. Wheeler. Please state your full name. 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Pauline Swanson Townsend. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Townsend. Athens, Ohio. 

Mr. Wheeler. Your educational background? 

Mrs. Townsend. I was educated in the public schools in Athens, 
Ohio, and graduated from Ohio University in 1929. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you been employed, or is your occupation 
that of a housewife ? 

Mrs. Townsend. I have been employed all my life, practically. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, would you state what your occupation is ? 

Mrs. Townsend. I am a writer. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are the wife of Leo Townsend ? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Townsend, have you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state when you first became a member? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. In the spring of 1943. 

Mr. Wheeler. What were the events that led up to your member- 
ship ? 

Mrs. Townsend. We had been interested for many years in liberal 
causes, such as the migratory workers, relief for Spain. In the be- 
ginning of the United States' participation in the war we felt it very 
important to do something about the war. 

Friends whom we thought were liberals invited us to lecture groups, 
study groups. At one of these meetings we were invited to join the 
Communist Party, and did. 

Mr. Wheeler, Who was actually responsible for you joining the 
party ? 

' Released by the committee. 

2 Pauline Swanson Townsend was sworn as a witness by the court reporter. 

953 



954 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Actually the responsibility is John Howard Law- 
son's. AVe went to a meeting at Waldo Salt's house, which had been 
represented to us as a discussion of current events. 

John Howard LaAvson made a brilliant analysis of what was going 
on in the world, and in the meeting we were asked if we would like 
to join the Communist Party, and in a moment of excitement we did. 

Mr. WiiEFXER. Mrs. Townsend, during your membership in the 
party you were assigned to some of the same groups which your 
husband was a member of, is that correct? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes, but not all. 

]\Ir. Wheeler. It is those of which your husband was not a member 
that we are interested in. I would like to ask you what individuals 
you have met in the Communist Party, other than the ones you and 
your husband met together. 

Mrs. Townsend. I will tell you the whole history of my member- 
ship in the Communist Party. After the meeting at the Salts we were 
told that we would hear from an official of the Communist Party. 
We were called by a girl who called herself Marjorie MacGregor. 
She said we should go to a meeting at such and such address in Beverly 
Hills. 

We went there. It was the home of Harold Buchman. There we 
met Mr. and JNIrs. Buchman, of course, and the Maurice Kapfs, Eobert 
Rossen and his wife Sue Rossen, Nicholas Bela, Fred Rinaldo. There 
must have been others, but at this point that is all I remember about 
that meeting. 

And at that meeting I felt unsatisfied and felt that I didn't under- 
stand what was going on and I made some comment to this effect, 
so I wasn't surprised when I was called and told I was reassigned tc 
another group. 

I was put into a women's group, in which many of these same women 
were present. In addition to these women, Louis Solomon was billed 
as our educational director. He did not appear, but he was supposed 
to. Maclelaine Ruthven was the executive secretary. Mrs. Goldie 
Bromberg was the chairman. This was a group of writers' wives, 
for the most part. 

Soon after this group was organized I had a call from Elizabeth 
Leech, who was the section organizer, accountable to the county or- 
ganization of the party, who said that it had been decided I should 
take over the job of executive secretarj^ of the Los Angeles Council 
of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. 

I had been in the party very briefly and I knew very little about 
the Soviet Union. I knew even less about political organizations. 
I protested. My husband protested. I said no. Actually, my 
friends protested. Susan D'Usseau wrote from New York protesting. 

The reason for these protests was that I was working at the time in 
the 4th Fighter Command as a radar plotter. I loved it and I was use- 
ful and I felt fine about it. The party said, "This is more important." 
Mv friends felt that moving me was a mistake. 

Elizabeth Leech called back and said, "Jack feels you are the only 
person to do this job." And of course having met Jack in the original 
meeting and having felt from the beginning that this was the man 
who knew all the answers, I took the job over the protests of my hus- 
band and my friends. 



COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 955 

Mr. Wheeler. Who was the actual head of the National Council 
of American-Soviet Friendship in Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. The Los Angeles Council was headed by a Dr. 
Thomas L. Harris, who was sent out here to organize this group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Dr. Harris as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did any functionaries of the Communist Party in 
Los Angeles, Calif., have any voice in the Los Angeles Chapter of 
the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship? 

Mrs. Townsend. Indeed they did. 

Mr. Wheeler. Could you identify any of those? 

Mrs. Townsend. I was introduced to Dr. Thomas Harris by Helen 
Leonard, who was a Communist, and had been the executive secretary 
of an earlier group, the American Council on Soviet Relations. I met 
Dr. Harris at Helen Leonard's house, having been sent there by 
Elizabeth Leech. Elizabeth Leech was a functionary. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did Carl Winter have any voice in the chapter here ? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. Very soon after I went to work for the 
council we established offices and brought in equipment. We had to 
draw up a program of influencing people in the direction of more 
friendship for the Soviet Union. 

Tom Harris and I met several times with Carl Winter in the restau- 
rant at the Clark Hotel at Fourth and Hill Streets. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the nature of your discussions with Mr. 
Winter? 

Mrs. Townsend. Vaguely, yes. We told Mr. Winter what we had 
managed to do so far in the way of organization, what people we had 
been able to enlist as board members and so forth, and we cliscussed 
program in the sense that whatever we did in the way of program 
would need the support and the assistance of the Communist Party 
"troops," we called them. 

Mr. Wheeler. As a member of the Communist Party, do you think 
the party itself was instrumental in the organization and the success 
of the local chapter? 

Mrs. Townsend. In restrospect, I think the Communist Party was 
completely responsible for the organization of the local council. 

Mr. Wheeler. In restrospect, would you say the Communist Party 
was in control of the local chapter? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you assigned to any special or particular 
branch of the Communist Party while you were an employee of the 
National Council of American-Soviet Friendship? 

Mrs. Townsend. As a matter of fact, I was. I was assigned dur- 
ing my tenure on the board of the council to a special branch made up 
of people working in organizations devoted to the interest of Ameri- 
can-Soviet friendship. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was the emphasis placed on the Soviet friendship or 
the American friendship? 

Mrs. Townsend. The emphasis at this time was on winning the war. 
We were completely sold on the idea that American-Soviet friendship 
and American-Soviet collaboration were the most effective means of 
speeding up victory in the world conflict. 



956 COMMUNIST ACTWITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. Who were the members of this group, Mrs. Town- 
send? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Arthur Birnkrant, Helen Leonard, Marie Rinaldo, 
Tania Tuttle, Ernest Dawson, Clara Walden, ]\Iischa Waldoii's wife. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anybody else who was a member of 
this group? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. There were other people who met with this group. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was there ever a fraction meeting that you attended 
that was called specifically to discuss the work of the local chapter 
of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did individuals who were members of the Com- 
munist Party but assigned to other branches of the party attend this 
fraction meeting? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who these individuals were? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. I recall some of them. Dorothy Atlas,^ Ruth Bur- 
rows, Patsy Moore, Mildred Benoff, Elena Beck, Edwina Pomerance. 

Mr. Wheeler. You said Ruth Burrows ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you cease to be active in the National 
Council of American-Soviet Friendship ? 

INIrs. TowNSEND. In November 1943, after the Shrine Auditorium 
meeting. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did that have something to do with your ceasing 
to be active in the National Council of American- Soviet Friendship! 

INIrs. TowNSEND. Yes. I, as a really naive operator in this kind of 
business, had involved all kinds of people in this particular celebra- 
tion. This, as I recall, was a celebration of an anniversary of the 
Soviet Revolution. The sponsors included the archbishop of thft 
Catholic Church, Rabbi Magnin, Bishop Stevens, who made the invo- 
cation. Important American political and cultural figures appeared. 

From my standpoint it seemed a great success. I realized later, 
after having been called on the carpet by the county head of the Com- 
munist Party, that a communitywide acceptance of the program was 
not important, but that what was said, the content of what was said 
from the stage was what was important, and the content had not been 
satisfactory. 

Mr. Wheeler. You were severely criticized for the program? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. "V^Hio was the county functionary who criticized 
you? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Max Silver. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did INIr. Silver remove you from your position or 
did you voluntarily make an exit? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Nobody removed me from my position. When 
I had begun this job, as I said, I had done it under protest. I worked 
very hard for 9 months, producing, with little understanding of what 
I was doing, several important events. I realized after this extremely 
well publicized and well attended meeting that I was working in the 
dark. I didn't know why or for what I was doing this. 

» Mrs. Leopold Atlas. See p. 935 for testimony of Leopold Atlas. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 957 

I met with Tom Harris and said I would not work any longer as a 
full-time member of the council ; that I would do what I could as a 
friend, but I would not work in the office. 

Very soon afterward my husband was called into the service and 
I w^ent with him and dropped all contact w^ith my organizational 
jobs. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you remain a member of the special party 
branch, concentrating on activities pertaining to the Soviet Union 
until you left 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Until I left. 

Mr. Wheeler. With your husband for New York. 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Until I left. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you leave for New York ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Exactly February 12, 1944. 

Mr. Wheeler. While in New York City did you reaffiliate with 
the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. I meant to. I had a transfer slip which I was 
told to take to the New York Communist Party. I made one phone 
call. 

Mr. Wheeler. From whom did you get the transfer slip here in 
Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND, Marjorie MacGregor. 

Mr. Wheeler. In New York did you present it to any particular 
individual ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. Can you recall to whom ? 

Mrs. Townsend. Peter Lyon. 

Mr. Wheeler. Peter Lyon is a radio writer ; is that right ? 

Mrs. Townsend. I think so. 

Mr. Wheeler. Through Peter Lyon were you assigned to any group 
or branch? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes, I was. I was assigned to a writer's group, 
meeting at the 13th Street headquarters of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a member of this group in New 
York City? 

Mrs. Townsend. Exactly one meeting. 

Mr. AVheeler. Do you recall anyone who was present in the meeting 
you attended? 

Mrs. Townsend. The only people I knew there were Howard Fast 
and — I didn't know them — 1 only knew them from reputation. There 
were Howard Fast and Eichard O. Boyer. 

Mr. Wheeler. "Wlien you received your transfer slip from Marjorie 
MacGregor in Los Angeles, were you instructed to contact Peter Lyon 
in New York City? 

Mrs. Townsend. No, I was told somebody would contact me. 

Mr. Wheeler. And Mr. Lyon contacted you ? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you in New York ? 

Mrs. Townsend. Four and a half months. 

Mr. Wheeler. At the end of the 4i/2 months you returned to 
Hollywood ? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Upon your return to Hollywood did you renew your 
activities within the Communist Party ? 



958 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS AXGELES AREA 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. We hadn't meant to, but we did. 
Mr. Wheeler. Did you transfer from New York to Los Angeles? 
Mrs. TowNSEND. No. I had no real afliliation with the New York 
group. I went to one meeting. I had planned actually to go to many 
more, but at this point my husband's ])lans were changed. He was 
not going overseas as he had thought. We had to make arrangements 
to go back to California. 

It seemed a very bad mistake to do anything further with the Com- 
munist Party, and I didn't go back to any meetings. I made no further 
contact with the Communist Party in New York. 

Mr. Wheeler. How did you reaffiliate after your arrival back in 
Hollywood ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. We came back feeling that we should break with 
the Communist Party. However, after we arrived we found ourselves 
in the same social groups. I am not sure who asked us to a meeting, 
but we were asked to a meeting and we went to a meeting, and we 
reaffiliated with the Communist Political Association. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you and your husband assigned to the same 
group after you returned? 
Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you continue in the same group ? 
Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you identify individuals whom you met as 
members of the Communist Party ? 
Mrs. TowNSEND. In the first group? 
Mr. Wheeler. In the first group. 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Actually, I belonged to three groups after we came 
back. Leo belonged to two. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you identify the individuals that you met as 
Communists, in the first group? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Ben and Norma Barzman, Jay and Sondra Gor- 
ney, Pauline Lauber Finn, Ring Lardner, Alice Hunter, Bill Pomer- 
ance, Meta Reis, Richard Collins, Lewis Allen, Ben Bengal, Jolin 
Weber. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you in the first group, Mrs. Town- 
send ? 
Mrs. TowNSEND. A year and a half. 
Mr. Wheeler. Did you hold any office in this group ? 
]\Irs. TowNSEND. At one time I was chairman. Also, I recall Ben 
Maddow. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was Alice Hunter's occupation ? 
Mrs. TowNSEND. She was the head of the Hollywood Democratic 
Committee or its successor the HollyAvood Independent Citizens' 
Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the treasurer of this first group 
was? 

]\Irs. TowNSEND. Jay Gorne}'. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, 3^ou were subsequently transferred to a second 
group, is that correct ? 
Mrs. Townsend. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a member of the second group ? 
Mrs. Townsend. It was a matter of months; I don't know how 
long. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 959 

Mr. Wheeler, Did you hold any office in the second group ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. I did for a while. I was literature director. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the members were of the second 
group ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Additional people, you mean? 

Mr. Wheeler. Additional people. 

Mrs. TowNSEND. John Wexley, Mrs. John^ Wexley. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall Mrs. Wexley 's given name? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Cookie. Dan James, Lilith James, Sol Barzman. 
We were told that Euth Bay and somebody else Bay were coming, 
but they never came. 

Mr. Wheeler. Howard Bay? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. Beatrice Lubitz Cole, Louise Janis, Shirley 
Kanter, Bart Lytton, Stanley Praeger, Paul Rosenfeld. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is he attorney for Music Corporation of America? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. I think so. Paul Radin, Artie Shaw^ 

Mr. Wheeler. Artie Shaw, is he the orchestra leader ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. Robert Shaw. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is Robert Shaw's position? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. I don't know what he is doing now. At that time 
he was writing on the Screen Writers' Guild magazine. Mary Shaw. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is Mary Shaw the wife of Robert Shaw ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. I don't think I remember any more. 

Mr. Wheeler. Then you were subsequently transferred to a third 
group, is that correct ? 

Mrs. Tow^NSEND. That is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a member of the third gi'oup ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Two weeks. 

Mr. Wheeler. Two weeks? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you hold any position in the third group ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. No. I was offered a position and I turned it 
down. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the members were of the third 
group ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. Andreas Dinam, Catherine Becker, Julian 
Zimet, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Richards. 

Mr. Wheeler. Which Mrs. Richards was that ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Ann Roth Morgan Richards. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever meet Pamela Richards? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. No, I didn't. Mr. and Mrs. Phil Stevenson. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was her given name ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Janet Stevenson. Mr. and Mrs. Les Edgley. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall Mrs. Edgley's given name ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you ever in a position to have access to any 
information that would indicate that Angus and Barbara Wooley 
were members of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Tow^NSEND. Yes, I recruited them. 

Mr. Wheeler. You recruited them into the party ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were they assigned to any group or unit you were 
a member of? 



960 COIVEMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mrs. TowNSEND. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have occasion to process their membership 
application? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. No. Their cards were brought into our branch. 
This is Communist Party technique. The cards were brought into 
our branch ; we recruited them. They were voted on there. No one 
had any objection and they were sent on to the section, and from that 
point I have no idea what happened. 

Mr. Wheeler. But your group voted on their membership? 
. Mrs. Townsend. Not really voted. The cards are presented. If 
there is no objection the cards are turned over to the organizational 
secretary, who takes them to the section organizational meeting. I 
have no idea to what branch they were assigned. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know of any similar cases to that of the 
Wooleys ? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you testify to that? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. The same evening that the Wooleys' cards 
were — as a matter of fact, she was not Mrs. Wooley at that time, 
but Barbara Roberts — and at that same time a card was presented 
f6r Reuben Ship. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who presented Reuben Ship's card 
to your meeting? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. Cyril Endfield. 

Mr. Wheeler. That would indicate that Mr. Endfield recruited 
Reuben Ship ? 

Mrs. Townsend. He had brought in his application card, yes. 
Since you brought up the name of Reuben Ship, I now remember that 
Cyril JEndfield was a member of this particular branch. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you have any information of Communist Party 
membership regarding Henrietta Martin ? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. The last branch to which I was assigned, 
meetings of which I attended twice, Henrietta Martin was supposedly 
a member. She was not present when I was there, but her absence 
was discussed. 

Mr. AVheeler. Did you ever meet Patsy Moore or Patricia Moore as 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Townsend. I never attended a Communist Party branch meet- 
ing with Patricia Moore. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever attend a fraction meeting with Patricia 
Moore ? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. Shortly after I joined the Communist Party 
I was invited to meet with Communist members of the Committee for 
the Care of Children in Wartime. We met at Mrs. Moore's house. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who else attended this meeting that you recall ? 

Mrs. Townsend. There must have been 8 or 9 women there. I re- 
member Mrs. Moore, Elizabeth Faragoh, and Louise Moss, who is now 
Louise Losey, and several women representing union organizations 
whose names I do not recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you attend any special classes set up by the 
Communist Party for indoctrination? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes, one. Soon after we joined the Communist 
Party we were assigned to a class in Marxist theory, led by Dr. Leo 
Bigelman. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 961 

Mr. Wheeler. Where was this class held, do you recall ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. At Dr. Bigelman's house in the valley. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many people attended this class ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. From 6 to 12. 

Mr. Wpieeler. How long did the class last? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Eight weeks, 1 think. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who else attended this particular class ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. In part, I remember Frank Tarloff, Mar- 
guerite Roberts. 

Mr. Wheeler. Marguerite Roberts is Mrs. John Sanford? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was John Sanford also present ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes. Everett Weil. There were others also. 
Those are all I remember. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, do you recall any other individual you met as 
a member of the Communist Party who has not been identified publicly 
before the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you meet Max Benoff, a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. I have met Max Benoff. 

Mr. Wheeler. Under what circumstances did you meet Max Benoff ? 

Mrs. Townsend. I first met Max Benoff when he was sent to Holly- 
wood as a writer on a radio show on which my husband was working. 
I met him later socially with his wife Mickey. I went once with my 
husband to their house, to what might have been a meeting of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you and your husband friends of Mr. and Mrs. 
Benoff? 

Mrs. Townsend. Not really, no. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever go to their home socially ? 

Mrs. Townsend. Not that I recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. Had they ever been at your home just socially? 

Mrs. Townsend. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know any reason why you would ever meet 
them socially? 

Mrs. Townsend. Outside of the political atmosphere ; no. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the purpose of your visit to the 
Benoff 's home? 

Mrs. Townsend. I really don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you remember if it was for dinner ? 

Mrs. Townsend. No ; it was not. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall if there were other people there, other 
than you and your husband ? 

JNIrs. Townsend. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. There were other people ? 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who they were ? 

Mrs. Townsend. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. You previously stated in your testimony that Mickey 
Benoff was assigned to work with you in the council. 

Mrs. Townsend. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. And that you met her as a member of the Communist 
Party in a fraction meeting, 

31747— 53— pt. 5 ^9 



962 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mrs. TowNSEND. I assumed she was a member of the Communist 
Party, since she was assigned to work for the council and sent from 
a certain branch in the valley. 

Ml'. Wheeler. You knew Mrs. Benoff as a member of the Com- 
jnujiirit I'arty? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. I assumed she was a member of the Communist 
Party. She was assigned to work for me. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Mr. Benoff active in the National Council of 
American-Soviet Friendship, to your knowledge? 

Mrs. Townsend. No. 

iVIr. Wheeler. When did you say you severed your relationship 
watli the Communist Party? 

JNIrs. TowxsEXD. The summer of 1948. 

Mr. Wheeler. WI15' did you leave the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Townsend. I never belonged in the Communist Party. At 
the very first meeting I attended I was called a disruptive influence. 
I asked questions and got unsatisfactory answers. Instead of answers 
1 got a transfer to another branch and yet another branch and yet 
another branch. 

I worked in the higher levels of the Communist Partv activities 
during my work with the council still asking questions, still gettnig 
no answers, and fled. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do ^you tliink the Communist Party works in the 
best interest of the American Government? 

Mrs. Townsend. No. I recall one specific instance. I think that 
the American Communist Party, whether members are aware of tliis 
or not, moves only in the interests of the Soviet Union. 

I recall at one point in 19-i7 wlien I felt uncomfortable in the Com- 
munist Party, but didn't know quite the way out. I was instrumental 
in starting through the branches a protest report in which Bob Shaw 
and I collaborated, which said, in effect, that the American Commu- 
nist Party had no contact witli the American people. It talked gib- 
berish gobbledygook to the American people; that it was useless in 
this country in relation to liberal issues and progressive issue; that 
indeed it was destroying Henry A. Wallace at the moment, because 
as we said then when Stalin snuffs pepper the American Communist 
Party sneezes. 

We felt then, naively, that the American Communist Party could 
exist separately from Soviet domination and we strongly urged a 
try. This report was presented at our branch to the great consterna- 
tion of some people. A section convention was coming up and it was 
proposed the report go to the convention, as supported by our branch. 
The vote was, as I recall, 8 to 5 in favor of taking it to the convention. 
The opposition said, "Let's hear it once more. We will call everybody 
and see that everybody comes next week," 

So the next week 23 people came to hear this report. Also in at- 
tendance was Mr. Sidney Benson from the county educational de- 
partment. The report was read and voted on, and approved for 
presentation to the county convention by a vote, I think, of 14 to 9, 
after which Mr. Benson was introduced, and protested. He felt the 
report was naive and misunderstood the conflicts of the day. 

Nevertheless, the people who had voted the report in insisted it go 
on to the convention. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 963 

The next order of business was that they elected me as a delegate to 
the convention to take the report. 

The report went to a resolutions committee headed by John Howard 
Lawson, and at the convention where I went as a delegate I waited for 
its presentation, since it had gone through three readings in our 
branch and been approved by a large majority at each. 

At about noon, and in the program of the convention the resolu- 
tions had their time, and Mr. Lawson read excerpts from many res- 
olutions, from the 20 or so branches in the sections, and took great 
pains to denounce as infantile and leftist and Trotskyist the resolu- 
tion from our particular branch. 

There was no chance for the delegates to hear or disapprove the ma- 
terial. It was not read. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did this cause your final break from the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Yes ; it really did. I stayed throughout the day. 

1 protested in my own way during the afternoon. When the con- 
vention voted as a body to send Nemmy Sparks to the State conven- 
tion, there were all ayes but mine, and I was a no, the one no. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Lawson was against moving the Communist 
Party in the United States from under the control of the Russsian 
•Government ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. I can only assume that. I know after this con- 
vention I was visited in sequence by Harry Carlyle, who was educa- 
tional director for the section, and by John Stapp, who was the 
section organizer. With John Stapp I had a very long talk about this 
resolution, which was a 40-page document full of everything I be- 
lieved, and my collaborator believed at the time. 

After questioning certain points in the resolution for an hour or 

2 hours, Mr. Stapp said, "Of course, if you are anti-Soviet, there 
is no hope." Suddenly I realized I was. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was Robert Shaw's attitude toward the way 
the resolution was handled at the convention ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. Robert Shaw was not at the convention, but he 
wrote the resolution. Actually, I would say he wrote the major part 
of it. We discussed it in collaboration. He wrote the first draft. 
I wrote the second draft. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you discuss the procedure followed ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. He was present with Harry Carlyle. He was 
present with John Stapp. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was his attitude with regard to the resolu- 
tion ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. His attitude was completely sympathetic to me. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is there anything else you would like to add for 
the record ? 

Mrs. TowNSEND. I can't think of anything. 

Mr. Wheeler. Thank you, Mrs. Townsend. 

(Whereupon the interrogation of Mrs. Pauline Swanson Townsend 
was concluded.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES AREA— Part 5 



THURSDAY, MARCH 12, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-Amekican Activities, 

1,08 Angeles^ Calif. 
executive statement^ 

An executive statement given at 5 : 30 p. m., March 12, 1953, at room 
1109, Statler Hotel, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Present : William A. Wlieeler, investigator. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL BENEDICT KADIN ^ 

Mr. Wheeler. Will the witness state his full name ? 

Mr. Eadin. Paul Benedict Radin ; R-a-d-i-n. 

Mr. Wheeler. When and where were 3^ou born ? 

Mr. Radin. I was born September 15, 1913, in New York City. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat is your educational background ? 

Mr. Radin. I went to the public school system in New York City, 
graduated from James Madison High School in Brooklyn in 1929, and 
graduated from New York University in 1933. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Radin. I am at present an agent employed in the radio and 
television field. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long have you been in this particular occupa- 
tion? 

Mr. Radin. I have been an agent for approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Wheeler. Prior to that what was your business ? 

Mr. Radin. Prior to that I was in the advertising business. 

Mr. Wheeler. And for how long ? 

Mr. Radin. Ever since I was graduated from college, with time out 
during the war. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat was your major in college? 

Mr. Radin. Advertising. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you any relation at all to Dr. Max Radin ? 

Mr. Radin. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. We have in our files information concerning one Paul 
Radin, which I don't believe is you. However, I would like to clear 
this up. 

Mr. Radin. I will be glad to clear up anything I can. There is a 
Paul Radin that I know of who is a brother of Max Radin, who is, 
I believe, a professor of anthropology, or some such subject. 

* Released by the committee. 

^ Paul Benedict Radin was sworn as a witness by the court reporter. 

965 



966 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. That is right. We have here one Paul Radin who 
was instructor at the California Labor School in 1948. 

Mr. Radin. This is not I. 

Mr. Wheeler. We have one Paul Radin who was a member of the 
League of American Writers in 1938, according to the summer bulletin 
of that organization. 

Mr. Radin. This is not I. 

Mr. Wheeler. We have one Paul Radin who, according to Soviet 
Russia Today, Avhicli is a magazine, dated Sept-ember 1939, was a signer 
of a letter advocating closer cooperation with the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Radin. To the best of my knowledge this is not I. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you ever recall signing such a letter? 

Mr. Radin. No ; I don't recall signing any such thing. 

Mr. Wheeler. According to the New Masses, a Communist publica- 
tion of April 27, 1937, a Paul Radin contributed an article to S -ience 
and Society. 

Mr. Radin. This is not I. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever live in Washington, D. C. ? 

Mr. Radin. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. We have a Paul Radin who was a member of the- 
Washington Book Shop. 

Mr. Radin. I never heard of the Washington Book Shop. 

Mr. Wheeler. You were never a member ? 

Mr. Radin. No ; I was never a member. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever review any books for the Western 
Worker? 

Mr. Radin. I have never reviewed any books. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Radin, the committee has in its possession testi- 
mony from a former member of the Communist Party who testified 
under oath that you were in attendance at meetings of the Communist 
Party here in Hollywood. Is that a true statement ? 

Mr. Radin. I attended meetings which I believe were Communist 
Party meetings. 

INIr. Wheeler. Were you ever a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Radin. I was not. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many meetings would you say you attended? 

Mr. Radin. Since we last spoke I have tried to pinpoint this. To 
the best of my knowledge, I attended 3 meetings. 

Mr. Wheeler. When w^ould you date these meetings ? 

Mr. Radin. I would date them in 1946 or 1947. I measure this by 
the time I met my now present wife. I have been married 4 years, 
almost 5. 

JNIr. Wheeler. What arrangements were made for you to attend the 
meetings and by whom ? 

INIr. Radin. I was brought to the meetings by Joe Losey, who was 
a friend of mine, social friend. 

Mr. Wheeler. How did you first meet Joe Losey ? 

Mr. Radin. I think I met him at a party, I am not sure at whose 
house it was. I was a newcomer to Hollywood at the time. 

INIr. Wheeler. Was Mrs. Losey also in attendance ? 

JNfr. Radin. Where ? 

IVIr. Wheeler. At the meetings you attended. 

Mr. Radin. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 967 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall where tlie meetings were held ? 

Mv. Radin. One meeting was held at the home of John Wexley. 
Another meeting was held at the home of Leo Townsend. The 
third meeting was held at the home, I believe, of Jay Gorney. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the individuals were that were 
in attendance at these meetings ? 

Mr. Radin. To the best of my recollection, the following were at 
the meetings — I don't know whether all of these people attended 
all the meetings — Mr. and Mrs. Losey, Meta Reis, Lester Cole, Jay 
Gorney, John Wexley, Dick Collins, Mrs. Gorney, Waldo Salt, Mr. 
and Mrs. Townsend, John Weber. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall if dues were collected at these 
meetings ? 

]Mr. Radin. I believe dues were collected at the meetings. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you pay any dues ? 

Mr. Radin. I never paid dues. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the individual who collected the dues ? 

Mr. Radin. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who was chairman of these particular 
meetings or who was running the meetings ? 

Mr. Radin. No; I don't recall. I have a feeling that the leaders 
of the group — and I don't remember whether they conducted the 
meetings or not — were Dick Collins and Waldo Salt. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you asked to join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Radin. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Wheeler. By whom? 

Mr. Radin. By Joe Losey. 

Mr. AVheeler. Can you date the approximate time? Was it the 
first meeting, the second meeting, the third meeting or prior to the time 
you attended the meetings or subsequently? 

Mr. Radin. I would say that the 3 meetings that I attended were over 
a period of about 6 wrecks. To the best of my recollection, I was asked 
to join the Communist Party during that time. I don't remember 
when. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, if it would be prior to the time you attended 
these meetings, you would have full knowledge of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Radin. No ; it was not prior to the attending of the meetings. 

Mr. Wheeler. You say it was subsequent to the attending of the 
meetings ? 

Mr. Radin. It was during that 6-weeks' period, I believe. It was 
either after the first meeting or the second meeting. 

Mr. Wheeler. Tlien you, at least, attended 1 or 2 meetings with 
full knowledge that they were Communist Party meetings ? 

Mr. Radin. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was your immediate reaction to being asked 
to join tlie Communist Party? 

Mr. Radin. It left me cold. I had no interest in it. 

Mr. Wheeler. What would be your reasoning then for attending 
the meeting subsequent to the time you were asked ? 

Mr. Radin. Joe was a friend of mine — I just was not too sure of 
myself. I didn't want to encourage Joe's displeasure. It wasn't 
until the third meeting that I knew that I never wanted to have any- 
thing to do with it. 



968 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. How did you reach this decision? 

Mr. Radin. Sitting at this £>toli]:) or with this group, I was im- 
pressed by the lack of independent thinking, by the ahnost automaton 
procedure that went on. Also that these people weren't at all in- 
terested in the same things I was interested in. 

I liave always considered myself more or less of a liberal, and this 
was not my idea of what liberalism was. This was a rigid unequivo- 
cal dictatorship of thought. I don't know how else to put it. 

Mr. Wheeler. You realized that every person present at this meet- 
ing, with the exception of yourself, was a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Radin. No, I don't know ; to my knowledge, I don't know they 
were all members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, they have all been identified as such before 
this House committee. 

Mr. Radin. If you say so. I do not know at firsthand knowledge 
whether anybody was there in the same position I was. 

Mr. Wheeler. I would like to make the observation it is highly un- 
usual for a person who is not a member to attend closed meetings of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Radin. I don't know anything of the procedure. 

Mr. Wheeler. But you did not sign a Communist Party card ? 

Mr. Radin. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. You did not receive a Communist Party card ? 

Mr. Radin. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. You did not pay dues ? 

Mr. Radin. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your present attitude regarding the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Radin, I have absolutely no sympathy with them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you made any information you may have re- 
garding the Communist Party available to any other agency? 

Mr. Radin. Yes, I made whatever information I had available to 
the FBI. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are these the only three meetings you ever attended ? 

Mr. Radin. To the best of my knowledge, yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you like to add anything to the record ? 

Mr. Radin. I just want to add that I come here in the spirit of com- 
plete cooperation and will do everything I can to help. 

Mr. Wheeler. But you have not been subpenaed ? 

Mr. Radin. I have not been subpenaed. 

Mr. Wheeler. This is voluntary? 

Mr. Radin. This is voluntary. 

"VTi- Wheeler. Thank you, Mr. Radin. 

(Whereupon the interrogation of Paul Benedict Radin was 
concluded.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Abowitz, Mrs. Murray 890 

Alexander, Michael 924 

Allen, Lewis 941, 958 

Amster, Lou 853 

Ardeu, Betty 898 

Arnold, Lucy 892 

Ashe, Harold 869 

Ashe, Mildred 869 

Atkinson, Brooks 945 

Atlas, Dorothy (Mrs. Leopold Atlas) 956 

Atlas, Leopold Lawrence 930, 935-952 (testimony) 

Baker, Prote.ssor 935 

Baron, Lou 890, 893 

Baroway, Leo 894 

Barzman, Ben 938, 940, 951, 958 

Barzman, Norma 958 

Barzman, Sol 959 

Bay, Howard 959 

Bay, Ruth 959 

Beck, Elena 902-904, 906, 956 

Beck, George 930 

Becker, Catherine 959 

Becker, Zara 871 

Bela, Nicholas 927, 954 

Bela, Mrs. Nicholas 928 

Bengal, Ben 944, 958 

Bennett 877 

Bennett, Alice 855 

BenofT, Max 803, 902-905, 96l 

Benoff, Mickey 961 

Benoff, Mildred 901-907 (testimony), 956, 962 

Benson, Sidney 962 

Bercovici, Leonardo 946 

Berg, Allen 912 

Berkeley, Martin 951 

Bessie, Alvah 941, 946, 947 

Bessie, Mrs. Alvah 941 

Bevins, John 881, 894 

Beye, Frank 889 

Biberman, Herbert 929, 946, 948 

Bigelman, Leo 885, 890, 960, 961 

Birnkrant, Arthur 956 

Boddy, Mr 848, 849 

Bogigian, Eleanor 890 

Bogner, Max 885 

Bognoff, Sarah 855 

Boyer, Richard O 957 

Briggs 877 

Bromberg, ]\Irs. Goldie 954 

Brooks, Miriam 880, 889 

Browder, Earl 896, 899, 932, 937, 939, 948 

Brown, Carter 887 

Brown, Ned 912 

969 



970 INDEX 

Page 

Buehman, Bea 904 

Buehiiian, Harold 954 

BiH'hinan, Mrs. Harold 954 

Burko 854 

Burke, Bea 897 

Burke, Sid 881 

Burns, Jessie 930 

Burrows, Ruth 903, 907, 956 

Bush, Rose 886 

Butler, Huw 930 

Byler, Albert 885 

Byrne, Norman 870 

Carey, Honore Moxley 870, 875 

Carlyle, Harry 903 

Caroway, J 877, 880 

Carson, Jules 893, 894 

Cashner, IMilton 885 

Chaniberlin, Howland 898 

Chapman, Clarice 931 

Chapman, Tom 930, 931, 941, 943 

Chapman, Mrs. Tom (Clarise) 941 

Clark, Maurice 931 

Cline, Paul 855, 880, 889, 893 

Cohen, Sue 892 

€ohn, Rabbi 893 

Cole, Beatrice Lubitz 959 

Cole, Blanche 925 

Cole, Bob 893 

-Cole, Johnny 941 

Cole, Lester 925, 930, 937, 941, 943, 947, 948, 967 

Collins, Richard (Dick) 931, 944, 945, 958, 967 

Comingore, Dorothy 931 

Cullen, Tom 881 

Dane, Dennis 890 

Daniel, Urcel 854, 881, 882 

Dare, Danny 934 

Dawson, Ernest 884, 956 

Dinam, Andreas 959 

Douglas, Mr. Justice - 862 

D'Usseau, Susan . 954 

Edgley, Les 959 

Edgley, Mrs. Les 959 

Eliscu, Edward 927 

Elzer, Norman 911 

Endfield, Cyril 960 

Endore, Guy - 944 

Esterman, William B 859-864 

Faragoh, Elizabeth 960 

Fargo, Evelyn 891 

Fast, Howard 957 

Finn. Pauline Lauber 958 

Fisher, Eddie 884, 888 

Foreman, Carl 929, 930 

Foster, William Z 849, 850 

Pox, Jack 885 

Franchia, Davida 871, 898 

Franchia, Fred 897 

Franko, Jack 882 

Freed, Eniil 877, 878, 879, 894 

Freed, Tassia 879 

Freidman, Fanya 880 

Froelich, Anne 930, 941 

Fuller, Gertrude 936-940 

Fuller, Lester 936-940 

Fuss, Oscar S87 

Galkin. Anna 899 

•Gang, Martin 902, 904, 920 



INDEX 971 

Page 

Gannett, Betty 890, 894 

Gardner, Ava 936 

Gardner, Helen 888, 893 

Garrigues, Charles H. (Brick) 847-856 (testimony), 881 

Gelfand, Sam 886 

George, Harrison 870, 894, 895 

Ginsberg, Jack 877, 880 

Ginsberg, Margaret :. 880, 884 

Goodman, Becky 871 

Goodman, Benny 898 

Gordon, Emily . 882 

Gordon, Julian 882 

Gordon, Mitchell 914 

Gorney, Jay 958, 967 

Gorney, Sondra 958, 967 

Grant, Betty i 941 

Grant, Carl 898 

Grant, Marshall 910, 911 

Grant, Morton 927, 930, 941, 949 

Grant, Mrs. Morton 943 

Green, Anne 941 

Hancock, Stanley 851, 852 

Handle, Eeva 891 

Harmon, Sidney 936 

Harris, Thomas L 955, 957 

Hay, Marjorie 869, 870, 872, 875 

Healey, Donald 894 

Healey, Dorothy 854 

Hecht, Harold 934, 936, 937 

Hellgren, George 931 

Hellsren, Nora 931 

Heltness, Al 898 

Henry, Milton 877, 881 

Herndon, Leroy 864, 865, 871 

Higman, Nell 886 

Holmstock, Ethel 899 

Holtz, Miriam 898 

Howe, Jane 865, 867, 868, 877, 883, 890 

Hull, Morgan 853 

Humouna, Barta 886 

Hunter, Alice 958 

Ingham, Bill 869 

Ingham, Nina 869 

Jacobson, Libby 878, 882 

Jaffee, Sam 912 

James, Dan 959 

James, Lilith 959 

Janis, Louise 959 

Jeffrey, John 885 

Johnson, Philip 855 

Jones, Grover 909 

Jones, Lillian 882 

Judson, Charles 854, 881 

Kahn, Gordon 941 

Kalish, Sam 898 

Kanin, Michael 903, 907 

Kanin, Ruth 903, 907 

Kanter, Shirley 959 

Keller, Evelyn 887 

Kenny, Robert W 864-866 

Kinney, Anne 865, 867-886 (testimony) 

Kingsley, Dorothy 944 

Klein, Herbert 855, 881, 944 

Klein, Minna 855, 882 

Koch, Mrs. Howard 941 

Koenig, Lester 927 



972 INDEX 

Page 

Kusnetz, Sara 878, 883 

Lambert, Rude 897 

Lambert, Walter 894 

Lantz, Louis 911-915, 917, 918 

Lardner, Ring, Jr 930, 958 

Lask, Anna 9(H, 907 

Lawrence, Jerome 910 

Lawson, John Howard 920, 930, 938, 939, 941, 944, 945, 947, 948, 950, 954, 963 

Leech, Elizabeth 889, 954, 955 

Leech, John 896 

Lees, Robert 919 

LeMay, Alan 944 

Leonard, Helen 955, 956 

Levine, Jacob 881 

Levitt, Alfred (Al) 930,941,947 

Levy, Melvin (Mel) 930,941 

Lewis, Al 871 

Lewis, Matilda 864-866 (testimony), 871 

Lewis, Richard B. (Dick) 871 

Lewitski, Belle 898 

Lieberson, Anya 878, 884, 888 

Lockett, Albert 869, 887 

Lockett, John 887 

Losey, Joe 966, 967 

Losey, Mrs. Joseph 966, 967 

Losey, Louise 960 

Lyon, Peter 957 

Lytton, Bart 959 

MacGregor, Marjorie 957 

Maddow, Ben 958 

Masnin, Rabbi 956 

Maise, Wilhelmina 887 

Mallof, Helen 887 

Malone, Joe 911 

Maltz, Albert 920, 921, 933, 941, 945-947 

Manoff, Arnold 930, 941, 945, 946 

March, Jane 891 

Martin, Betty 889, 893 

Martin, Henrietta 960 

Martin, Sobey 911 

Mntlin Zema 897 

Matsuto, John 878 

Mayer, Jean 889 

Maymadus, Abraham 886 

McCall, Mary, Jr 944 

McCormick, LaRue 893 

McElrath, Robert 894 

McGinty, Leona 898 

McGowan, Professor 918 

McGrath, Thomas Matthew 859-864 (testimony) 

McLean, George 894 

McWilliams, Carey 883 

INIedus, Libby Nathan 886 

Mpyex's, Henry 930 

Minkus, Abe 871 

Mischa 902-904 

Miscbel, Josef 931 

Mitclinm, Robert 936 

Moore, Jack 898 

Moore, Patricia (Patsy) 956, 960 

Morgan, Ann Roth (see also Ann Roth Morgan Richards) 940,943 

Morris, M 877 

Moss, Jay 881 

Moss, Louise 960 

Most, Brodia 871 

Most. Rose 885 



INDEX 973 

Pag' 

Murray, Donald 89S 

Nadler, Morton 892 

Nelson 877 

Oatis, Prank S7S 

Ober. Ruth 8S4 

O'Connor, Oleta 894 

O'Connor. Tom 855 

Offner, IMortimer 927, 928, 930 

Oliver, William E_ 855, 882 

Orr, Violet 887 

Oppenheimer, Frank 871, 872 

Palley, Henrietta 885 

Palmer, Harlan 851 

Pellman, Matt 890 

Penneman, Alice 944, 945 

Perry, Pettis 890, 893 

Petos, Margaret 890 

Pezman, Dorothy 897 

Place. Joan 887, 892 

Polonsky, Abe 946, 948 

Pomerance, Bill 958 

Pomerance. Edwina 956 

Posell, Joseph J 8S5 

Posell, Rose 871 

Praeger. Stanley 959 

Radin, Benedict 965-968 (testimony) 

Radin, Mary 897 

Radin, Max 965 

Radin, Paul 959, 965, 966 

Rapf, Maurice 930, 954 

Rasmussen 877 

Reddock, Arcus 894 

Reis, Meta 914, 943, 958, 967 

Richards. Ann Roth Morgan (see also Ann Roth Morgan) 959 

Richards, Dick 852 

Richards, Pamela 959 

Richards, Robert 959 

Richards, Mrs. Robert 959 

Richardson, Barbara 894 

Richardson, Jean 894 

Rinaldo, Fred 954 

Rinaldo, Marie 903, 956 

Riskin, Alexander (Al) 885 

Riskin, Angelina 871 

Rivers, W. L 927 

Robbing, Ed 855, 881 

Roberts, Barbara 960 

Roberts, Holland 874 

Roberts, Maggie 941 

Roberts, Marguerite 961 

Robeson, Naomi 942, 943 

Robison, David 931 

Robinson, Jerome i857-858 (testimony) 

Ro?;ell. Sid 911 

Rolf, Ed 914 

Rosenfeld, Paul 959 

Rossen, Robert 954 

Rossen, Sue (Mrs. Robert Rossen) 954 

Rubin, Stanley 909-921 (testimony) 

Ruthven, Madelaine 930, 954 

Ryan, Al 890 

Ryan, Maurlne 885 

Ryan, Ruth Stoddard 871 

Salemson, Harold 926, 927 

Salt, Waldo 930, 954, 967 

;Saudy, George 889 



974 INDEX 

Page 

Sanford, John 930, 941, 961 

Sanford, Mrs. John 961 

Saul, Oscar 914 

Schary, Dore 951 

Schneid<n", Benno 936 

Schneidermann, William 897 

Scolt, E 855 

Scott, Lew 876, 877 

Segure, Rose 885, 890 

Seldcn, Betty 884 

Selfrid, Leo 898 

Selig, Gertrude 891 

Selkowski, Leo 854 

Shaffer, George 855, 882 

Shapiro, Vic 940 

Shaw, Artie 950 

Shaw, Mary 959 

Shaw, Robert (Bob) 959, 962, 963 

Sheff, Eve 884 

Shoff, Sanders 884 

Shepro, Harry 870, 872, 875 

Ship, Reuben 960 

Shire, Henry 897 

Shire, Marian 897 

Shor, Sol 923-933 (testimony) 

Silver, Max 880, 888, 890, 891, 894, 956 

Silver, Sam 925 

Simonsgard, Jens 892 

Simonsgard, Sarah 892 

Skadron, Bernard 926 

Skadron, Lillian 92o 

Small, Edward 950 

Siuolan, Morrie 852, 896 

Solatoy, Sonya 885 

Solomon, Louis 954 

Sparks, Nemmy 947, 963 

Spears, John 869 

Spencer, Ray 929 

Stapp, John 963 

Stark, Ray 912 

Steel, Peter 877, 881 

Steinmetz, Harry 874 

Stevens, Bishop 956 

Stevens, Clara 887 

Stevenson, Janet 959 

Stevenson, Phil 944, 959 

Stevenson, Mrs. Phil 959 

Stilwell, General 862 

Stone, Bert 887 

Strawn, Arthur 941 

Swanson, Carl 801 

Tiiffel, Bess 914, 940 

Taft, Lynn 884 

Tarloff, Frank 961 

Tarnoff, Harry 887 

Tashjian, Dr. Vaughan A, K 869,895 

Thorme, James 896 

Todd, Louise 894 

Townsend, Leo 953, 958,967 

Townsend, Pauline Swanson 903, 953-963 (testimony), 967 

Trivers. Paul 927", 929 

Trunibo. Dalton 904, 920, 948 

Trumbo. Mrs. Dalton 904 

Tuttle, Frank 930 

Tuttle, Tania 903, 956 

Uris, Mickey 927, 929 

Vale, Rena 897 



INDEX 975 

Page 

Vorhaus. Bernard 029 

Waklen, Clara (Mrs. Mischa Walden) 956 

Walden, Mischa 956 

Wales, Beulah 871 

Wallace, Henry A 962 

Wallace, Jane : 886 

Weber, John 930, 950, 958, 967 

Weber, Ruth (Mrs. John Weber) 930, 950 

Weil, Everett 961 

Wellman, Bill 944 

West, Lawrence 878, 882 

Wetherwax, Jack 886 

Wexley, John 959, 967 

Wexley, Cookie (Mrs. John Wexley) 959 

White, Irving 929 

Winner, George 936-939, 943, 951 

Wilson, Betty 930, 941 

Wilson, Jane 886 

Wilson, Margaret 894 

Wilson, Michael 929 

Wilson, Mitchell 913, 914 

Weinberg, Meyer 892 

Winebrenner, Dolph 881 

Winter, Carl 890, 891, 953 

Wixman, Myrtle 875 

Wixman, Sam 870, 872, 875, 876 

Wooley 960 

Wooley, Angus 959 

Wooley, Barbara 959 

Wooley, Mrs 960 

Yanoff, Morris 888 

Tates, Allen 894 

Zadow, Dorothy 894 

Zadow, Joseph 884 

Zimet, Julian 959 

Organizations 

Academy of Television Arts and Sciences 919 

American Council on Soviet Relations 955 

American Federation of Teachers 866, 872-874 

American Federation of Teachers, Los Angeles ^ 865 

American League Against War and Fascism 869, 897 

American Newspaper Guild 852 

California Labor School 966 

Chicago Normal College 867 

Chicago Teachers' College 867 

China Aid Council 899 

Classroom Teachers' Federation 876 

Colby College 860 

College of the City of New York 923 

Columbia Broadcasting System 910 

Columbia University 864 

Committee for the Care of Children in Wartime 960 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 852, 891, 892, 899 

Contemporary Theater 885, 886 

Dependable Printers 877 

Dramatists' Guild 949 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 869, 911, 921 

German-American Bund S79 

Hollywood Anti-Nazi League 924 

Hollywood Democratic Committee 958 

Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and 

Professions 919-921, 958 

International Workers' Order 886 

King-Conner-Ramsey Defense Committee 851 



976 INDEX , 

Page 

Labor's Nonpartisan League 877-879 

League of American Writers 966 

Levee-Stark 912 

Los Angeles City Board of Education 874 

• Los Angeles County Board of Education 874 

Los Angeles Labor School 919 

Los Angeles Newspaper Guild 853, 855 

Los Angeles State College 859, 863 

Louisiana State University 800 

New York State P^mployment Service 861 

National Council of American- Soviet Friendship 954—956, 962 

New York University 923, 965 

Office of Naval Intelligence 911 

Ohio University 953 

Oxford University 860 

People's Educational Center 918, 919 

Philippine Committee, Communist Party 895 

Progressive Citizens of America 920 

Public Works Administration 898 

Russian War Relief 902 

San Diego State College 864 

Screen Writers' Guild 915, 916, 920, 940, 943, 944, 948, 949, 959 

Service Command Intelligence 911 

State Relief Administration 886 

Theater Guild 935 

United Auto Workers 891 

United Office and Professional Workers of America 886-888 

University of California at Los Angeles 864, 909. 918, 919 

University of North Dakota 859 

University of Southern California 848, 864 

Washington Book Shop 966 

Workers' Alliance 877-879 

Works Progress Administration 849 

AVriters' Congress 918 

Yale University 935 

Publications 

Beverly Hills Citizen-News 909 

Brooklyn Eagle 935 

Daily News 848, 849, 851 

Daily Worker 891, 899 

Hollywood Citizen-News 877, 878 

New Masses 933, 945, 966 

People's World 895, 897, 919, 948 

San Francisco Examiner 848 

Santa Ana Register 865 

Science and Society 966 

Soviet Russia Today 966 

Two Decades of Progress, Communist Party, Los Angeles County, 

1919-39 880-883, 877 

Utopian News 848 

Western Worker ^ 966 

o 



■id