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Full text of "Investigation of Communist propaganda in the United States. Hearing"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN 

THE UNITED STATES— PART 6 

(NEW YORK CITY AREA) 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMmiTEE ON UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



MARCH 14 AND 15, 1957 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1957 

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 
DEPOSITED BY THE 

-r-^ ,^-r«Trc- r>n^/CDM^«CNT 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

Richard Arexs, Director 
II 



CONTENTS 



PART 5 Pagt. 

Synopsis vii 

March 12, 1957: Testimony of— 

Francis B. Laughlin 253 

Irving Fishman 253 

Serge But,eneff--.„ 272 

Afternoon session: 

Jolin Lautner 275^ 

March 13. 1957: Testimony of — 

John Gates 291 

Joseph Starobin 305^ 

Angus Cameron 320 

Rose Baron 329 

Margaret Cowl Krumbein 335 

Afternoon session: 

James S. Allen (Sol Auerbach) 343 

Jessica Smith (Abt) 347 

Joseph Felshin (Joseph Fields) 358 

Mihon Howard (^lilton Halpern) 361 

John Lautner (resumed) 364 

Ordway Southard 366 

PART 6 

March 14, 1957: Testimony of — ■ 

Theodore Bayer 369 

Zoltan Deak (Morton Grad) 373 

Catherine Gj^armaty 388 

Alex Rosner 397 

Afternoon session: 

Louis Dattler 403 

Arpad Fodor Nagv 406 

Clara Reich ." 409 

Michael Savides 412 

Charles Solon 414 

Michael Savides (resumed) 415 

Charles Solon (resumed) 415 

Michael Savides (resumed) 415 

James Lee (Shew Hong) 417 

Frank Bonora 419 

James Lee (Shew Hong) (resumed) 420 

March 15, 1957: Testimonv of — 

Michael Tkach..J 425 

Frank Ilchuk 435 

Anthony Bimba 438 

Rov Mizara 441 

David Z. Krinkin 448 

Sanmel J. Nikolauk 452 

John Lautner (resumed) 454 

Samuel J. Nikolauk (resumed) 454 

Afternoon session: 

Pa ul Novick 455 

P>ank Bonora 458 

Paul Novick (resumed) 459 

Irving Freed 465 

Gerhard Hagelberg 467 

Index i 

in 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides 

Be it enacted ty the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
• •«•*•• 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI > < -. i 

POWEBS AND DUTIES OP COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a wliole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in tlie United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attaclis the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

4e :): 4: 4: 4: ^ iH 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATrV'E OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent re- 
ports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive 
branch of the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of uin© Members. 
* * * * * * * 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee ou Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-xVmerican propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. SubiK'nas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

sjL * * if * 4: * 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness of 
the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee, and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE 
UNITED STATES— PART 6 

(New York City Area) 



THURSDAY, MARCH 14, 1957 

United States House of Represextatrt.s, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee ox Ux-Americax Acti^^ties, 

New York, N. Y. 

public hearixg 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, in room 518, United States Courthouse, Foley 
Square, New York, X. Y., at 10 a. m., Hon. Morgan M. Moulder (chair- 
man of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Morgan M. Moulder 
of Missouri, and Gordon H. Scherer of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director, "VY. Jackson Jones, 
and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

Mr. jSIoulder. The committee will be in order. ]Mr. Counsel, call 
your first witness. 

Mr. Arex'S. Mr. Hagelberg? 

(No response) 

Mr. Bajer i Please come forward. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you 
are about to give this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Bayer. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF THEODORE BAYER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Arex's. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

JNIr. Bater. Theodore Bayer, 200 West 15th Street, Manhattan. 

Mr. Arex's. And your occupation ? 

Mr. Bayer. I am the administrative secretary of the National Coun- 
cil of the American-Soviet Friendship. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Bayer. Yes. 

Mr. Arex^s. And you are represented by counsel? 

369 



370 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Ml*. Bayer. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer of Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Hoav long have you been administrative secretary of the 
Council on American-Soviet Friendship ? 

Mr. Bayer. This would be about the 11th year ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you been connected with the publication known 
as Russky Golos? 

Mr. Bayer. I am not connected with Russk}^ Golos. 

Mr. Arens. Plave }ou ever been connected wnth Russky Golos? 

Mr. Bayer. I have not been connected with the Russky Golos for at 
least 7 years. 

Mr. Arens. What was your position when you were connected with 
Russky Golos ? 

Mr. Bayer. As I said, I am not connected with the Russky Golos, 
and I would prefer not to discuss the Russlv}^ Golos since I have no 
connection with it. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us what was your comiection 7 years ago with 
Russky Golos. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bayer. I will refuse to answer this question on the basis of my 
rights under the first amendment and my privilege under the fifth 
amendment not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to display to you now, if you please, Mr. 
Bayer, a photostatic reproduction of a document filed with the clerk of 
the supreme court of New York County, to decrease the number of 
directors of the Russky Golos Publishing Corp., in which your name 
appears as president of the Russky Golos Publishing Corp. 

Kindly look at that document and tell us whether or not you are 
accurately described there as president of the Russky Golos Publish- 
ing Corp. 

(Document marked "Bayer Exhibit N"o. 1," and retained in commit- 
tees files. ) 

Mr. Bayer. I refuse to answer this question for the reasons stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel, Mr. Bayer, that if you told this 
committee truthfully whether or not you have been president of the 
Russky Golos Publishing Corp. you would be supplying information 
which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Bayer. It might. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Bayer. Russia. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you come to the United States for permanent 
residence ? 

Mr. Bayer. In 1912. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Bayer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen by naturalization or derivation ? 

Mr. Bayer. Naturalization. 

Mr. Arens. "Wlien were you naturalized and where ? 

Mr. Bayer. In 1919 at the District Court of Newark, N. J., Essex 
Comity. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the time 
of your naturalization ? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 371 

Mr. Bayer. I "will refuse to answer this question for the reasons 
given. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a Communist ? 

Mr. Bater. I will refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of John Lautner? 

Mr. Bater. I will refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Two days ago before this committee, Jolm Lautner took 
an oath and identified you as a person known by him to have been a 
member of the Communist Partv. Was he lying or was he telling 
the truth? 

Mr. Bater. I will refuse to answer this. 

Mr. Arens. What has been your connection, if any, with Soviet 
Russia Today? 

Mr. Bater. I have not had any connection with Soviet Russia To- 
day for about 11 years. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat was your connection when you did have a connec- 
tion with Soviet Russia Today? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bater. I will refuse to answer this on the same grounds. 

Mr. Abens. You were manager of Soviet Russia Today, were you 
not, Mr. Bayer ? 

Mr. Bater. I will refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. I will display to you now a photostatic reproduction of 
the masthead of Soviet Russia Today in which you are identified as 
manager of Soviet Russia Today. Kindly look at this document and 
tell us whether or not you are accurately described as manager of Soviet 
Russia Today. 

(Document marked "Bayer Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Bater. I will refuse to answer this on the grounds given 
previously. 

Mr. Arens. Was Soviet Russia Today a predecessor publication to 
New World Review ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bater. I will refuse to answer this. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel that if you told this committee 
what information you have with reference to the successor publication, 
New World Review, you would be supplying information which 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Bater. Possibly. 

Mr. Arens. We will display to you, if you please, sir, a photostatic 
reproduction of 2 pages from New World Review of March 1951 in 
whicli your name appears, Theodore Bayer, as one of the contributors. 
Kindly look at that document and tell us whether or not you are 
accurately described. 

(Document marked "Bayer Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Bater. I will refuse to answer this on the grounds stated before. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, or have you ever been, connected with the 
Citizens Emergenc}- Defense Conference? 

Mr. Bater. I will refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. We will display to you now, if you please, a photostatic 
reproduction of the letterhead of the Citizens Emergency Defense 



372 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Conference on which you are listed as one of the officials of that or- 
ganization. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Kindly look at that document and tell us whether or 
not you are accurately described there. 

Mr. Bayer. I will refuse to answer this quastjon on the grounds 
given before. 

(Document marked "Bayer Exhibit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bayer, as the chairman announced in the opening 
statement, this Committee on Un-American Activities is developing 
factual information with the A^iew of such amendments to the law as 
the facts might warrant with reference to the dissemination within 
the United States of Communist propaganda. Do you have infor- 
mation respecting contributions made from the International Workers 
Order to Eussk}^ Golos ? 

Mr. Bayer. I will refuse to answer this on the grounds given. 

]Mr. Arens. The fact is, is it not, that w^hile you were president of 
Russky Golos several thousand dollars were contributed from the 
International "Workers Order, a Communist-controlled organization, 
to your publication Russky Golos ? 

Mr. Bayi:r. I will refuse to answer this question on the ground 
given. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you occupied your present position ? 

Mr. Bayer. You are referring to the National Council ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. National Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship. 

Mr. Bayer. Since 1946. 

Mr. Arens. "\^nio is your immediate superior or superiors in the 
organization ? 

Mr. Bayer. Well, I don't know whether 

Mr. Arens. You are an employee of the organization are you not? 

Mr. Bayer. Yes. 

]\Ir. Arens. Who employs you ? 

JNIr. Bayer. The organization. 

]\Ir. Arens. Who in the organization emj^lo^^s you ? 

Mr. Bayer. There is an officer of the organization, the director of 
the organization. 

Mr. Arens. I have a letterhead of the National Council of Amer- 
ican-Soviet Friendship, Inc., on which appears the names of several 
officers of that organization. Kindly look at that letterhead and 
tell this committee, while you are under oath, the name of each 
person listed on that board of directors or who holds an official posi- 
tion with the National Council of American-Soviet Frienclship 
known by you to be a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Bayer. I didn't get 3'Our question. 

Mr. Arens. Please look at that letterhead and tell this committee, 
while you are under oath, the name of each person whose name appears 
on that letterhead known bv vou to be a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Bayer. I will refuse to answer the question as stated. 

(Document marked, ''Bayer Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



COMMUKIST PROPAGANDA IN THE "UNITED STATES 373 

Mr. Moulder. Is there any one whose name appears on the letter- 
head who is not a member of the Communist Party i 

Mr. Bayer. I would have to refuse to answer that, Mr. Chairman, 
for the same reasons given before. 

Mr. Moulder. It would not incriminate you, would it, to reveal the 
name of some person who was known to you not to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Bater. I will refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Zoltan Deak, 
editor of the Hungarian Daily ? 

Mr. Bayer. I refuse to answ^er that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Paul Novick, 
editor of the Morning Freiheit ? 

Mr. Bayer. I will refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of David Krinkin, 
editor of Kussky Golos ? 

]Mr. Bayer. I will refuse to ansMer this question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know" a person by the name of Michael Tkach, 
editor of the Ukrainian Daily News ^ 

ISIr. Bayer. I will refuse to answer this question on the grounds 
given. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of James Lee, editor 
of the China Daily News ? 

Mr. Bayer. I will give the same answer concerning individuals. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Catherine Gyar- 
maty, editor of Nok Vilaga ? 

Mr. Bayer. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. The names that you have read there, do w^e have evi- 
dence of their communistic activity ^ 

Mr. Arens. All but one on tliis record in tlie last 2 days have been 
identified as persons known to have been members of the Connnunist 
Party. 

Mr. Moulder. All of the documents presented by counsel to the wit- 
ness will be made a part of the records of the committee. 

The witness is excused ; and you may claim your witness fees with 
the clerk of the committee. 

Mr. Arens. Zoltan Deak, please come forward. 

]\Ir. Moulder. Do 5^011 solemnly swear that the testimony you give 
this committee will be the truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Deak. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ZOLTAN DEAK (MORTON GEAD), ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, ABRAHAM UNGER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Deak. Zoltan Deak, 660 Arnow Avenue, Bronx, newspaper- 
man. 



374 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities? 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Deak. Yes. 

Mr. Unger. Abraham linger, 320 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. Scherer. What did you say your address was ? 

Mr. Unger. 660 Arnow Avenue. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever live at 2251 Loring Place in New York? 

Mr. Deak. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know the Zoltan Deak who does live at 2251 
Loring Place? 

Mr. Deak. Just by hearsay. 

Mr, Scherer. To your knowledge there is another man named 
Zoltan Deak, then, in the city of New York ? 

Mr. Deak. To my Imowledge there is. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know what his business or profession is ? 

Mr. Deak. He has been a newspaperman, as far as I know. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere and when were you born ? 

Mr. Deak. I was born in Hungary in 1904, May 24. 

Mr. Arens. AVlien did you come to the United States for perma- 
nent residence ? 

Mr. Deak. I arrived here on December 1, 1923. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens, By what device are you a citizen; by naturalization or 
derivation ? 

Mr. Deak. By naturalization. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere and when were you naturalized ? 

Mr. Deak. I was naturalized in the District Court of Northern Illi- 
nois in 1930; I believe in February. I don't know the exact date. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
were naturalized as a citizen of the United States? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Deak. Mr. Chairman, permit me to say a few words before I 
answer this question. There are bad laws on the lawbooks of our 
country which jeopardize the existence • 

Mr. Scherer, Pardon me just a minute, I didn't hear what you 
said. There are what kind of laws on the books? 

Mr. Deak. Bad. Which jeopardize the livelihood of people and 
for this reason — and the liberty of the people — I decline to answer 
this question on the basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of John Lautner? 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lautner, 2 days ago before this committee, took an 
oath and identified you while he was under oath as a member of the 
Communist Party. Was he lying or telling the truth? 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer this on the same basis. 

Mr. Arens, Wliat is the firm or organization in which you are 
employed ? 

Mr. Deak, Are you asking a firm name ? 

Mr. Arens. ^^^ere do you work ? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 375 

Mr. Deak. Hungarian Word, Inc. 

Mr. Arens. Where is that located ? 

Mr. Deak. 130 East 16th Street, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity are you employed there ? 

Mr. Deak. As an editor. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed as an editor of the 
Hungarian Word ? That is the English translation of the publication, 
is it not ? 

Mr. Deak. I don't know the exact date. It must have been some- 
time in 1953 when this newspaper was established. 

Mr. Arens. What is the circulation of the Hungarian Word? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Deak. Approximately 3,500, I would say. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a daily ? 

Mr. Deak. No, sir. It is a weekly. 

Mr. Arens. Who publishes the Hungarian Word ? 

Mr. Deak. The Hungarian Word, Inc. 

Mr. Arens. And who are the principal officers of the Hmigarian 
Word, Inc. ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Deak. I wouldn't be able to list them correctly; Arpad Fodor 
Nagy is one officer. 

Mr. Arens. Spell his name. 

Mr. Deak. A-r-p-a-d F-o-d-o-r N-a-g-y. 

Mr. Arens. Will you pause there a moment, please ? Could you tell 
this committee whether or not to your certain knowledge he is a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer this on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Give us another name of an officer. 

Mr. Deak. Pardon me? 

Mr. Arens. Give us another name of an officer in this publishing 
firm. 

Mr. Deak. Louis Dattler. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us whether or not to your certain knowledge Louis 
Dattler is a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer this on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment and first amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Counsel, has Louis Dattler been identified? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir ; and so has the gentleman whose name I gave 
preceding Dattler. 

Proceed, if you please, sir. 

Mr. Deak. The otlier officers ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Deak. I can't recollect any other officer right now. 

Mr. Arens. Was there a predecessor publication to the Hungarian 
Word^ F p fe 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir; there was. 
Mr. Arens. VJlmt was the name of it ? 
Mr. Deak. That was the Hungarian Daily Journal. 
Mr. Arens. Were you editor of the Hungarian Daily Journal ? 
Mr. Deak. Part time. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your status with tlie Hungarian Daily 
Journal ? 



376 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Deak. Editor at a certain time of its existence. 

]\Ir. Arexs. Did the Hungarian Daily Journal receive subsidies 
from the International Workers Order ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Deak. I have not been in its business office. I couldn't possibly 
answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not the Hungarian Daily 
Journal received funds from the International Workers Order 'i 

Mr. Deak. I could not answer that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is Hugo Gellert identified with the Hungarian Word ? 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. G-e-1-l-e-r-t. 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee whether or not to your certain 
knowledge Hugo Gellert is a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Deak. I respectfully decline to answer it on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Is Alex Rosner connected with the Hungarian Word? 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir ; he is. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us whether or not to your certain knowledge Alex 
Rosner is a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Deak. I respectfullj- decline to answer this on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vliat sources of funds does the Hungarian Word have 
other tlian the funds derived from subscriptions and from advertise- 
ments ? 

Mr. Deak. I have not been coimex'ted with the business administra- 
tion of the paper. I know that we receive donations from the readers. 

Mr. Arens. Does the Hungarian Word leceive funds from any or- 
ganization which is a ( -ommunist-controUed organization? 

Mr. Deak. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. The insurance examiner's report during the proceedings 
by the State of New York against the International Workers Order 
disclosed that several thousand dollars were transferred from the 
International Workers Order, a Communist organization, to the Hun- 
garian Word. Are you cognizant of that fact ? I mean to the pred- 
ecessor organization, the Himgarian Daily Journal. Are you cog- 
nizant of that fact ? 

Mr. Deak. I am not. 

Mr. Arens. Does your publishing firm, in addition to publishing the 
Hungarian Word, also publish books, pamphlets, or periodicals of any 
other description ? 

Mr. Deak. Pardon me. What was the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Does your publishing firm also publish other material 
besides the paper ? 

Mr. Deak. From time to time, we did publish pamphlets and also 
some books. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a characterization of the pamphlets and of the 
books, if you please, sir. 

Mr. Deak. There is one collection of Hungarian short stories that 
we published recently. The title was Magyar Remekirok. 

Mr. Scherer. What does that mean in English ? 

Mr. Deak. It means the writers of Hungarian masterpieces, I would 
sav. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 377 

Mr. Arens. Are you, or to your certain knowledge is any one, 
connected with your firm 

]Mi\ Ungee. He is not finished with his answer. 

Mr. Deak. I did not finish describing the book, which collected 
works from classic Hungarian short-story writers and novelists. Also 
we jjublished — I was not prepared for this questioning — Springtime 
on the Danube, the work of two French journalists, Janine Boussin- 
nouse and her husband, Louis Villofosse, to the best of my recollection. 
These are two French newspaper people. One of them was the former 
admiral of the free French Navy who visited Hungary in 1954, and we 
thought this book would be of interest to the general public. We pub- 
lished this book in English and in Hungarian with the arrangement of 
the publishing firm in Paris. Some pamphlets, I can't recall them. 
One of them was the "Know Your Rights." We published pamphlets. 

Mr. Arens. Does your firm operate a bookstore ? 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where is the bookstore and what is its name ? 

Mr. Deak. It is on the same premises. 

Mr. Arens. What is the name of the bookstore ? 

Mr. Deak. Magyar Konyvesbolt. It means in Hungarian "book- 
shoi3." 

Mr. Arexs. Does this bookstore or does your firm 

Mr. Dear. Pardon me. It is not a store as such. It is a sort of 
stockroom from which we fill orders. 

Mr. Arens. Is your firm, or is any individual in your firm, registered 
under the Foreign Agents Registration Act ^ 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Deak. No ; not that I know of, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Does your firm import from abroad fi-om any Iron 
Curtain country publications or periodicals of any kind, character, 
or description ( 

Mr. Deak. For resale ? 

]Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Deak. While I am not directly connected with the business end 
of the newspa})er, to my knowledge it does not. The business itself 
publishes from sources in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever traveled abroad ? 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When and where did you go when you were traveling 
abroad? 

Mr. Deak. The last and only time I traveled abroad was in 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go ? 

Mr. Deak. I went to Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. What precipitated your visit to Hungary ? 

Mr. Deak. Hungary went through the Second World War through 
the course of which it was almost completely destroyed. Our readers 
and the Hungarian public in general have an abiding love toward their 
native land and its people. 

Mr. SciiERER. I didn't understand you. You have what ? 

Mr. Deak. An abiding love toward their native land and its people. 
There has been widespread demand among our readers to have their 
newspaper furnish firsthand information as to the condition of the 
country 3 years after the end of the Second AVorld War. In pursuance 



378 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

of that thing and also as a newspaperman who should, if possible, 
see things firsthand, I went to Hungary in 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Were you the guest of any group or organization in 
Hungary in 1948 ? 

Mr. Deak. No, sir; I would not say I was a guest. I had friends 
there, and relatives. 

Mr. Arens. How does your publication receive its information re- 
specting events in Hungary for portrayal to its readers ? 

Mr. Deak. Primarily we rely on the American press, especially the 
New York Times. 

Mr. Arens. Does your publication 

Mr. Deak. Pardon me, sir. I want to continue. The New York 
Times I read regularly. The Wall Street Journal I read also regu- 
larly. I am getting every newspaper and have been getting the 
Christian Science Monitor for a while. This we supplement with 
newspapers from Hungary. 

Mr. ScHERER. You said you rely on these diiierent newspapers. 
How about the Daily Worker? Do you read the Daily Worker? 

Mr. Deak. Yes; we read that, too. 

Mr. Arens. You receive newspapers from Hungary? 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir; we subscribe to newspapers in Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. Do you in the portrayal of news and in your editorial 
policy follow a line laid down by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer this on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Are you in the propagation of information presently 
under discipline of the Communist conspiracy? 

Mr. Deak. I respectfully decline to answer this on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. SciiERER. Did you say you were born in Hungary? 

Mr. De.\k. Yes. 

Mr. SciiERER. You came here at what age ? 

Mr. Deak. I was 19 years old. 

Mr. Scherer. And you are a naturalized American, then? 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SciiERER. Do you belong to any Hungarian societies in the 
United States ? 

(The witness conferred wnth his counsel.) 

Mr. Deak. I belong to a social club in the Bronx. 

Mr. SciiERER. Wliat is the name of that social club ? 

Mr. Deak. Hungarian Social Club, to my best knowledge, is the 
name of it. 

Mr. SciiERER. You said that your trip in 1948 to Hungary was 
prompted by the fact that your readers were evidently persons of 
Hungarian extraction, and have an abiding love for their native land 
and for the people of Hungaiy. Did you not say that? 

Mr. Deak. I must have said words to that effect. 

Mr. SciiERER. Since the Russian atrocities in Hungary, have you 
Mn-itten an3'thing in condemnation of the action of the Communists 
in Hungary? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. SciiERER. Are those publications available? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 379 

Mr. DiLiK. I am sorry. If I had been advised in time, I would 
have brought a copy to substantiate that statement. I stated in one 
but possibly more articles that I consider the calling in of the Soviet 
troops to suppress the popular demonstration of October 23 a fatal 
and tragic error. 

Mr. SciiERER. On the part of the Communists? 

Mr. DIL^.K. On the part of the authorities in charge of that particular 
step. 

Mr. ScHERER. I didn't understand you. You mean on the part 
of the authorities, did you say ? 

Mr. Deak. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. You mean the Russians ? 

Mr. Deak. No. The Russians didn't call in the Russians. It was 
the Hungarian authorities who called in, under the Warsaw^ Pact, the 
Soviet troops stationed in Hungary at that time. 

Mr. ScHERER. You know it was the Communists in Hungary who 
invited the Russians in ; do you not ? 

Mr. Deak. I couldn't answer as to the mechanism and the political 
coloration of people who called them in. I assume the call-in must 
have been by proper governmental authorities. 

Mr. ScHERER. You know actually now that the calling in of the 
Russians w^as a mere subterfuge, do you not, upon the part of the 
Communist Hungarian officials ? You know that, do you not ? 

Mr. Deak. The calling in was subterfuge, did you say, sir ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. 

Mr. Deak. Soviet troops were stationed in Hungary on Hungarian 
territory under the Warsaw Pact. 

Mr. ScHERER. You said they were called in, did you not? 

Mr. Deak. They were called into Budapest, I meant. 

Mr. Scherer. That is 'what I mean. You said that the Russians 
Avere called in by the Hungarians. 

Mr. Deak. I meant to say to Budapest, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You know, as a matter of fact, the calling in, if there 
was any such calling in, was a mere subterfuge, that the Russians 
decided and controlled exclusively the movements to be made in con- 
nection with Budapest ? 

Mr. Deak. I don't know that, sir. 

Air. Scherer. You don't know that, in spite of your close connec- 
tion? 

Mr. Deak. I have no close connections with the subject. 

Mr. Scherer. You have been identified as having been, at least at 
one time, a member of the Communist Party. Since the Russian 
atrocities in Hungary which you condemn — you said it was a mistake 
to call them into Budapest — have you severed your connection with 
the Communist Part}' ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

IVIr. Deak. In answer to a question on communism, sir, I stated 
before that I consider there are bad laws on our lawbooks which 
jeopardize the people's livelihood and the liberty of the American 
])eople. Therefore, any questions which have reference to this sub- 
ject I am compelled to respectfully decline on the basis of both the 
first and fifth amendments. Tliat is the reason why I camiot answer. 

90121 — 57— pt. 6 2 



380 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. ScHERER. You don't consider the fifth amendment as one of 
the bad laws to which you refer, do you ? 

Mr. Deak. The fifth amendment is an amendment to the Consti- 
tution, or part of the Constitution. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is right. But you don't consider that a bad 
provision ? 

Mr. Deak. No. I consider the Constitution in its entirety a very 
good bilL 

Mr. ScHERER. You are refusing to answer my question because you 
say there are certain bad laws. Which laws do you refer to — the 
anti-Communist laws, the Internal Security Act of 1950, the Com- 
munist Control Act of 1954 ? Are those the bad laws ? 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir. You properly listed them, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are there any others ? 

Mr. Deak. And the McCarran and Walter law. The Taft-Hartley 
law, while we are at it, I consider a bad law. 

Mr. ScHERER. You are opposed principally to the security provi- 
sions of the McCarran-Walter Immigration Act, those provisions 
which make it easier for us to deport alien Communists and more 
difficult for Communists to gain entrance to the United States. Are 
those the provisions you are specifically opposed to in the McCarran- 
Walter Act? 

Mr. Deak. I believe that every citizen should have equal rights in 
this country, and I particularly believe that there should not be any 
discrimination against foreign-born people. That is the reason, as 
far as I can formulate at this point, for mv opposition to the Mc- 
Carran-Walter Act. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you opposed to the security provisions because it 
may provide a means for denaturalization gf naturalized citizens like 
yourself and eventually lead to deportation? Is that the reason for 
opposition to these laws? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. You raised the issue of bad laws. That is the reason 
I am going into it. 

Mr. Deak. I believe the ^IcCarran-Walter law, as a citizen, is a bad 
law for the people. That is my opposition to it. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Deak. I also 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. Counsel. You understand the rules. 
You are not supposed to tell the witness wliat to answer on factual 
matters. You are supposed to advise him as to constitutional rights. 
You have been telling him everything he has said in response to the 
last few questions. 

Mr. Unger. Mr. Scherer, I don't think that last remark is quite fair 
or accurate. 

Mr. Scherer. I can hear you. 

Mr. Unger. If the whole point of tliis is that you want me to speak 
up louder so you hear it more distinctly, I have no objection. I say 
that with all due respect, Mr. Scherer. I say to you that I am not do- 
ing any more than advising him of his rights I don't think you are 
quite accurate when you say all I have to do is to advise him of his 
constitutional rights. That is not really an accurate statement. 

Mr. Scherer. All riffht : his legal ri«:lits, too. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 381 

Mr. Unger. That is all I am doing. When he sits here and asks 
me what reaction I have to questions that you ask him, I am perfectly 
free to give him my reaction. I don't think you should object to that, 
Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. MouLDEii. Let us proceed. Do you have any questions to ask ? 

Mr. Ungek. Mr. Chairman, I beg your pardon. I said no more 
than to answer Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Arens. Was the conviction of the American Communist lead- 
ers a f rameup ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer this on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arexs. In the December 19-19 issue of Political Affairs, you 
wrote : 

The trial of the American Communist leaders took place under the lying, 
frameup charge that they "conspired to teach and advocate force and violence" — 

did you not ? 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer this on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. x\rens. And, in 1949, writing in the December issue of Political 
Affairs, you attacked vigorously another uprising which took place 
in Hungar}' by the forces of freedom against the Communist regime, 
did you not ^ 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer this question. 

Mr. Arexs. Look at that article in the 1949 issue of Political Af- 
fairs as it is laid before you, authored by yourself, in which you 
vigorously attack those forces struggling for freedom in Hungary 
against the Communist masters, and tell us while you are under 
oath whether or not you authored that article. 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer this on the basis if the first and 
fifth amendments. 

(Document marked '*Deak Exhibit Xo. 1,'* and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. What names have you been known by, other than the 
name pursuant to which you have been appearing here today ^ 

Mr. Deak. Morton Gracl. 

Mr. Arexs. When did you use the name Morton Grad ? 

Mr. Deak. I used that all the time. 

Mr. Arexs. Was that a nom de plume ? 

Mr. Deak. No. Zoltan Deak is the nom de plume. 

Mr. Arexs. This Hungarian club to which you presently belong, is it 
a successor to the unit of the International Workers Order which was 
controlled by the Communists ^ 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer this on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arex'S. Are you a member, or have you been a member, of the 
International Workers Order ( 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer that on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. Tlie fact is that the roots of the International Workers 
Order are still in existence: isn't that true? Wlieii the State of 



382 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

New York dissolved the TWO, all it did was to lop off the top ; isn't 
that correct ? 

Mr. Deak. I am not aware of that. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, were you a member of the Communist fraction 
of the IWO working among the Hungarian nationality groups in this 
Nation? 

Mr. Deak. I respectfully decline decline to answer this question. 

Mr. Arens. Is the organization, this Hungarian club to which you 
belong, in truth and in fact the successor to the Hungarian fraction of 
the Communist Party within the IWO ? 

]Mr. Deak. I decline to answer this question on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the National Committee for Freedom of 
the Press? Have you been identified with that organization, the Na- 
tional Committee for Freedom of the Press ? 

Mr, Deak. I cannot recall it. 

Mr. Arens. I will display before you an exhibit of the Daily Worker 
(January 21, 1953) with reference to a- meeting organized by the 
National Connnittee for Freedom of the Press in which your name 
a])])ears in this article as one of those who participated. Would you 
tell us whether or not that prompts your recollection or refreshes your 
memory ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Deak. I don't recall this. 

(Document marked ''Deak Exhibit No. 2," and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. A little while ago in response to questions posed by 
Representative Scherer you evidenced your hostility to the immigra- 
tion laws. I should like to ask you if you Imow a person by the name 
of Michele Salerno ? 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. He was a Communist up for deportation, was he not ? 

Mr. Deak. I decline for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. You, according to this exhibit, which we are now going 
to display to you, were one of the sponsors of a testimonial dinner 
(October 26, 1917) in tribute to this Communist who was deported. 
Look at that exhibit and see if that refreshes your recollection in refer- 
ence to your interest in immigration matters and the phases of the 
immigration matters which whet your interest. 

Mr. Deak. This happened 10 years ago, and it was possible that I 
was a sponsor or my name was used without my knowledge, which 
sometimes happens. I can't recall. 

(Document marked "Deak Exhibit No. 3," and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. If you can't recall, that is good enough for us. 

You also evidenced to Mr. Scherer your hostility to certain laws. 
Does that hostility embrace the Smith Act pursuant to which the 11 
Communist traitors were convicted for conspiring to overthrow the 
Government of the United States by force and violence ? 

(The witness conferred with liis counsel.) 

Mr. Deak. I am opposed to the Smith Act. 

]Mr. Arens. You joined in a protest to Judge Medina, did you not, 
against the jailing of the Communist traitors ? Do you recall that I 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 383 

Mr. Deak, I don't. 

Mr. Arens. I will display before you now a photostatic repi-oduc- 
lion of the Daily Worker (June 7, 1949) in which your name appears 
as one who is protesting the jailing of these Communist traitors. 
Kindly glance at the second page where your name appears and see 
if that refreshes your recollection. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wouldn't that be rather natural, Mr. Counsel, for 
fellow Communists to join in such a protest? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Feeling that the law might strike them one of these 
days ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. The trouble is that the American people do not know 
how many of those who join in such protests are Communists and why 
they have ulterior motives. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Deak. I protested against the Smith Act. I must liave i)ro- 
tested at that time. 

(Document marked "Deak Exhibit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. You also wrote an article in Political Affairs (May 
1949) in which you were vigorously attacking Cardinal Mindszenty, 
and the cardinal's activities in Hungary, isn't that correct ? 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer this on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Look at this article and see if this refreshes your 
recollection with reference to your charges of treason against Cardi- 
nal Mindszenty and against the officials of the Government of the 
United States in their position on the Mindszenty case. See if that 
lefreshes your recollection in reference to your position in the Com- 
munist-controlled publication. Political Affairs. 

Mr. Deak. I decline to identify this. 

(Document marked "Deak Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr, Akens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that would con- 
clude the staff' interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. All documents referred to by counsel and presented 
to the witness will be made a part of the record. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Deak, you said in response to one of my previous 
questions that after the Eussian army moved into Budapest you wrote 
an article or two. How many articles did you write? 

Mr. Deak. On this question in general? We keep on writing on 
this subject so I must have written several articles. 

Mr. Scherer. And your criticism went to the extent of saying that 
the Communist Hungarian regime made a mistake in asking the Rus- 
sian troops to move into Budapest, is that right ? 

Mr. Deak. I said they made a tragic error — fatal and tragic error, 
or something to that eft'ect. 

Mr. Scherer. The Hungarian-American readers of your j^aper 
would not have tolerated any other position. If you had taken any 
other position your paper would have gone out of existence, would it 
not ? 



384 CO]\IMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Deak. As a matter of fact, there was some opposition to that 
attitude among our readers as manifested in letters coming to the 
newspaper. 

Mr. ScHERER. Those were the Communist readers of your pub- 
lication, were they not? 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer this question. 

Mr. ScHERER. You don't mean to tell us that the Hungarian com- 
mimity in New York that reads your paper would have tolerated for 
one minute any defense on your part whatsoever of the action of the 
Russians and the atrocities that were committed in Budapest, would 
they? 

INIr. Deak. As I stated before, I said that there was a lot of opposi- 
tion to that statement 

Mr. ScHERER. You mean opposition to the position you took with 
reference to condemning the Hungarian Communist regime by Hun- 
garians ? 

Mr. Deak. With reference to the October 23 events and the calling 
in of the Soviet troops, there was opposition and we published a lot 
of letters which appeared in the newspaper. 

Mr. ScHERER. Maybe I misunderstand you. My question assumed 
that there was a lot of opposition from the Hungarian community, 
and that is putting it mildly. Wasn't there almost a revolution 
among the Hungarian community to what happened in Hungary? 
Wasn't it almost universal ? Wasn't there almost a universal opposi- 
tion and condemnation of tlie Russians and the Hungarian puppet 
Communist regime in the Hungarian community? Isn't that right? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Deak. There are 

Mr. Scherer. These people who you said have an abiding love for 
their native land and the people of Hungary, didn't that group revolt 
and didn't they severely condemn actions of the Russians and the 
puppet Hungarian Communist regime? Didn't your whole com- 
munity^ revolt ? 

Mr. Deak. I can only speak, sir, on the basis of the letters that 
come into our paper from our readers. I cannot in truth — 

]Mr. Scherer. I am not a Hungarian, but I know that took place 
and everybody else in this room knows the Hungarians resented it ter- 
rifically. You only know from the letters tliat came into your 
paper ? 

Mr. Deak. Mostly on the basis of that. 

I^fr. Scherer. And those letters you say opposed the actions of the 
Russians in entering Budapest, is that what you are telling us? 

Mr. Deak. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Then I didn't misunderstand you. Tliey approved 
the action, the letters that came into your paper, is that right ? 

Mr. Deak. Some of our readers approved, some had reservations, 
some opposed it. Everybody tried to interpret it to his understanding 
of what actually transpired. Most of our readers were land-lease 
peasants as much as I know them, who came out from Hungary because 
they could not make a living. More than 2 million Hungarians came 
out from Hungary before the First World War. The readers of our 
paper belong to this group, who were land-lease poor peasants who 
could not make an existence and who also remembered what came after 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 385 

the First World War in the Horthy times. Therefore they have some 
knowledg-e of tlie events that were behind the October events in 
Ilmigary. 

Mr. ScHERER. Certainly everybody approved the Hungarian effort 
to throw over the Communist puppet regime. 

Mr. Deak. They formed their own views in their own minds and 
hearts. They communicated it to our paper and I, as an editor, pub- 
lished it in our newspaper. As I said, there were various views. Some 
people interpreted the October 23 events as an attempt of those peo- 
ple — the big landlords who had been expropriated in 1945 — as an at- 
tempt on the part of the big landlords and former Horthyite elements 
to regain power. 

Mr, Scherer. This was a revolt of young people and students, 17, 
18, 19, 20 year olds. 

Mr. Deak. Utilizing the grave mistakes which have been made in 
the last few years which led youth and other elements of the people 
to try to change certain aspects of the economic and political life in 
Hungary, coming as it did in the midst of a cold war and other factors, 
the developments took such an unfortunate and regrettable turn. 

Mr. Scherer. Don't you think that Hungary should have had self- 
determination rather than using the Russian troops to settle this inter- 
]ial conflict in Plungary? 

Mr. Deak. As n matter of fact, in one article I wrote T did make 
reference to the right of self-determination of the people. I l^elieve in 
is very much. But of course this element, like any other element, is 
not a pure situation that appears in any given country. Basically I 
believe in that. I believe the Hungarian people should determine for 
themselves what kind of existence they want to live in. They lived 
for 1,000 years under another type of social and economic system, and 
the result of it was that 2 million of them came to the United States 
because they were starving there and 2 million of them died in two 
world wai-s. That is why they tried a new system for 12 years. 
Obviously it was not as easy to build in 12 years a new order. It takes 
]nore than that to develop it, to remove imperfections and injustices. 

Mr. Scherer. And now thousands and thousands of them are com- 
ing to the United States and other countries of the world because of 
Communist persecution and because of the atrocities. 

Mr. Deak. Ma}^ I say, sir, or may I quote you Dr. Saunders, the 
head of the Save the Children Federation, who stated that of those 
people who left Hungary 

Mr. Scherer. Answer the question. 

Mr. Deak. I am answering the question, sii-. One-fifth of those 
who fled Hungary during this period were freedom fighters, two-fifths 
were common criminals, and two-fifths came for economic reasons 
which had no relationship whatsoever with the present 

Mr. Scherer. Two-fifths were common criminals? 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. We want to worry about that, Mr. Counsel, in the 
amendments to the McCarran-Walter Immigration Act. 

How many were Communists? You told us about the common 
criminals, the freedom fighters, and others. 

Mr. Deak. It is not my statement. I am quoting you Dr. Saunders, 
head of the Save the Children Federation. It is a statement which 



386 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

appeared in the New York Times and I am simply quoting it as one 
estimate of the people who left Hungary. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was there any estimate as to how many Communist 
Hungarians came over ? You know when the first revolt took place, a 
lot of the Communists fled, didn't they ? That is, fled Hungary. The 
first revolt was a revolt of the people of Hungary against the Commu- 
nists in Hungary. The first group that came over and fled across the 
border were the Communists. When the Russians came in, the free- 
dom fighters left. Do you have any idea how many Communists 
came over in that first group ? 

Mr. Deak. Sir, I have quoted you the statement of Dr. Saunders. 

Mr. ScHERER. I don't care about the other statements. I am asking 
you, you are apparently an expert. 

Mr. Deak. I am in no position to tell you. 

Mr. Scherer. You write on these subjects every day. 

Mr. Deak. I know. I just know what I see in the papers. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that all ? I know that, too. 

^Ir. Deak. So I am just trying to get the gist of the situation as 
it is reflected in the press. 

Mr. Scherer. Do the readers of your paper know that you were 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Deak. I respectfully decline to answer this on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Aeens. Do you follow the line of the international Communist 
apparatus in your paper? 

Mr. Deak. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Moulder. With reference to the refugees that you and Con- 
gressman Scherer have been discussing, have you had any contact 
with any of them who have come over recently ? 

Mr. Deak. Yes, sir ; I have. 

Mr. Moulder. Have you made any effort to organize them into any 
organizational group ? 

Mr. Deak. No, sir ; certainly not. 

Mr. Moulder. Did they contact you or did you contact them ? 

Mr, Deak. They came to our place of business, a few. Wliile we 
are at it, some of them who claim that they want to go back, I told 
them that 1 month in the United States is not enough to find out the 
value of being in the United States. I told them that^ have been 
in his country for 30 years and I went through some very hard times. 
I was unemployed for years. But I certainly didn't think that being 
here 1 month should be enough for a person to determine whether he 
wants to stay or not. I told that to one of those people who came to 
me. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have any knowledge or information as to any 
of those persons you have come in personal contact with of being 
active Communists or sympathizers for the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Deak. Sir, I never ask anj^body who comes up to our place 
what his affiliation is. If a person comes and asks for help, I am 
trying to help him to the best of my ability. 

Mr. Scherer. I don't think that answers the chairman's question. 

Mr. Deak. I am not aware. I never inquired. In fact, some of 
them expressed very condemnatory views as to the situation in Hun- 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 387 

gary. But inasmuch as they were unable to get a job here they still 
wanted 

Mr. Moulder. You say expressed comdemnatory 

Mr. Deak. Being opposed, yes. 

Mr. Moulder. You mean in sympathy with the Soviet Union? 

Mr. Deak. Xo, sir. They opposed many aspects of living in Hun- 
gary. Some of them wlio came asked us what they should do to get 
back. 

Mr. ScHERER. They oppose it but they want to go back ? 

Mr. Deak. They criticized the situation in Hungary. They said 
there were very many bad things and they probably would live poorer 
but for some reason or other these particular persons I am talking 
about wanted to go back. 

Mr. Scherer. They criticized the situation in Hungary. You mean 
they opposed the Communist regime and control of Hungary? Is 
that right? 

Mr. Deak. At least economic aspects. They were all very critical 
as to the economic standards they lived under. 

Mr. Scherer, They said nothing about the Communist regime or 
what happened in Hungary recently? 

Mr. Deak, That is all I can tell you, sir, as I told you so far. 

Mr. Scherer. "WHiere did you get this figure that two-fifths of those 
who came over were common criminals ? 

Mr. Deak. That is from Dr. Saunders, president of the Save the 
Children Federation, It is a national organization, Dr, Saunders 
was in Austria and investigated the camps in which Hungarian refu- 
gees are living. After I believe 2 weeks of visit and investigation 
he came back and made a statement to the representatives of the Amer- 
ican press. 

Mr, Scherer, And that is the only knowledge you have, that is, 
that which was reported by Dr. Saunders ? Is that right ? 

Mr. Deak. As to those specific facts and figui-es. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you have any opinions of your own from what 
you have learned as to how many were common criminals, how many 
were Communists? 

]VIr. Deak. I could not possibly because I did not investigate, I 
was never present in the processing of any of these people and I con- 
tacted only a few, 

Mr, Arexs. Do you think he might have been referring to crimi- 
nals as political prisoners ? 

Mr, Deak. I am not sure now of the exact text of the article but he 
referred that many jails were opened in consequence of the upheavals 
and as a result of that many criminals came over. 

Mr. Moulder. They would be common criminals ? 

Mr. Deak. Common. 

Mr. Scherer, "What other classification did j'ou give us ? 

Mr. Deak, The final two-fifths were people who came due to eco- 
nomic compulsion. That is, who would have left Hmigary regardless 
of tlie events if they had an opportmiity sooner. 

Mr. Moltlder. In other words, as I understand, only one-fifth were 
those who were seeking refuge as a result of tlieir opposition to the 
Communist or Soviet regime ? 

Mr. Deak. That is Dr. Saunders' estimate. 



388 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. ScHERER. "We are taking two-fifths common criminals and two- 
fifths of the people on welfare in Hungary ? 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. You may claim your wit- 
ness fee with the clerk of the committee. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order. Call your next wit- 
ness. 

Mr. Aeens. Catherine Gyarmat3^ 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that in the testimony you give 
this subcommittee you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so hel]) you God ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF CATHERINE GYARMATY,, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, DAVID FREEDMAN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Miss Gyarmaty. Catherine Gyarmaty, 1040 Fox Street, in the 
Bronx, editor oft he Hungarian women's magazine, Nok Vilaga. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Un-American Activities Committee? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Yes. 

Mr. Freedman. David Freedman, F-r-e-e-d-m-a-n, 320 Broadway, 
New York City. 

Mr. Arens. What is the circulation of Nok Vilaga ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. About 2,500. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been editor of the publication? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Since 1941. 

Mr. Arens. What firm publishes the publication ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Nok Vilaga, Inc. 

Mr. Arens. Who are the principal officers ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Margaret Torok, Clara Reich as secretary, and 
Catherine Gyarmaty, as treasurer. 

Mr. Arens. What is the address of Nok Vilaga ? 

Miss Gyarmaty, 130 East 16th Street, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. That is the same address as the Russky Golos and the 
Hungarian Word, is it not ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. It is. 

Mr. i^ENS. Are you a Communist? 

Miss Gyarmaty. You are implying with this question to incrimi- 
nate me. I decline to answer it under my rights of the fifth amend- 
ment of the American Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. John Lautner 2 days ago before this committee took 
an oath and identified you as a Communist. Was he lying or telling 
the truth ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you ask her yet whether she was naturalized ? 

Mr. Arens. I am ffoins to. Is it Mrs. or Miss ? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 389 

Miss Gyarmaty. I am a divorcee, so I don't know how to define it. 

Mr. Arexs Wliere were you born ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. In Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. "\^nien did you come to the United States for perma- 
nent residence ? 

Miss GyarjViaty. In 1922. 

Mr, Arens. Are you a citizen of this country ? 

Miss Gyariviaty. I am. 

Mr. Arens. By naturalization or derivation? 

Miss Gyarmaty. By naturalization. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere and when were you naturalized ? 

Miss Gyar^iaty. In the common pleas court in New Jersey, 1928. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you a member of the Commmiist Party at the 
time you were naturalized ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer on the same basis, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you asked any questions with reference to 
membership in an organization dedicated to the overthrow of this 
Government by force and violence at the time you made application 
for citizenship ? 

ISIiss Gyarmaty. I can't remember those questions. 

Mr. Scherer. If you had been asked that question, what would 
your answer have been ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arexs. Miss Gyarmaty, Mr. Bonora, investigator for this com- 
mittee, is going to read each of two translations from the February 
(1957) issue of your publication. I would like to have you follow him 
in the publication, and you check him now and be sure that he gives a 
correct translation of the language. 

Miss Gyarmaty. What page ? 

Mr. Arexs. He will tell you the page. 

Mr. Boxora. This is entitled "'Come on Home." 

The National Council of Hungarian Women sent a letter to the Women's 
International Democratic Federation to forward their appeal everywhere. The 
appeal is the followiujr : 

"In the near past weeks a great storm broke out over Hungary. After this 
storm, it is our will that life shall begin in a cleaner atmosphere, we want to 
build a socialist country, and a society that is really free. 

"But the storm did demand a lot of victims. Young lives were lost, homes 
are in ruins, and families are scattered. More than 100,000 of our countrymen 
left the country, partly because they fell under the influence of foreign propa- 
ganda. Many of them young, below the age of 18, almost kids, who in the 
mood for adventure, led by false promises and false reports, left tlaeir families, 
in many instances without consent and in many instances without notifying 
their parents. 

"Many a Hungarian family and many a mother cries for her child, and they 
would do everything if they could embrace them. A great part of these thought- 
less and badly informed youths would return to their homes if they would know 
that there was no reason for their running away, and if they would know that 
their families, friends, and the whole country waits for them with love and 
understanding. Many of them, who are disillusioned, because of their love for 
their country came back and started to work or study again, and spent Christmas 
and New Year with those dearest and closest to them. But there are still many 
who do not dare to face the truth. They listen to the distorted news in radio 
and newspapers. 

"The Hungarian mothers ask for the aid of the WIDF (Women's Interna- 
tional Democratic Federation), the women's organizations, and every mother to 
help in their respective countries, to bring l)ack to their families the boys and 
girls. Help them to know the truth, that we are waiting for them, they shall 



390 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

not be afraid, as those who already came home, know. We don't promise theiu 
an easier life, because our country must still conquer the hardships, but we 
promise them understanding and love, and we promise to help in building a kind 
of country which will parallel with the desires of the best amongst them. We 
need their young hearts and young arms. 

"We ask you to publish this in your paper. Go to the camp of the escapees, 
where the young Hungarians are, seek out the Hungarian youth at their place 
of work, tell them what you would say to your own kids, that their mother, 
family, and country is waiting for them with open arms and honest love. 

"With warmest greetings, 

"The National Council of Hungarian Women, 
"Anna Bodonyi, Secretary." 

Mr. Arens. Is that a true and correct translation ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. It is correct. 

(Docimient marked ''Gyarmaty Exhibit No. 1," and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bonora, will you read a translation of another 
article from the same issue, February 1957, Nok Vilaga, and we 
would like to have you follow him in the Hmigarian and tell us at 
the conclusion of his reading whether or not that is a true and correct 
translation. 

Mr. BoxoRA. This is entitled ''Through My Eyeglasses,*' a column 
by Catherine Gyarmaty. 

Mr. Arens. That is yourself, is it not ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Yes. 

Mr. BoNORA (reading) : 

A dear and old reader of ours sent us a letter in which she asks us to cancel her 
subscription to the Hungarian Word and the Women's World. This letter was 
painful, because this woman of ours at one time was for a long period a press 
director of our paper, and who at the time sent us a lot of new subscribers. 

In her letter she writes in detail how disillusioned she was in relation to the 
situation in Hungary — how dissatisfied she has been that on the packages she 
has sent to her needy relatives, high duty taxes had to be paid. Although she 
does not blame us, but because we have given so much support to that system, 
she has no desire any more for our publications. 

The fact is that both papers, in its entirety, brought out all the progress, con- 
struction, social gains that happened to aid the happiness of the Hungarian 
people. We brought this out and were happy to do so because we solemnly 
believed that all this was never there before in the thousand-year-old history of 
the Hungarian people. We not only knew the Hungarian past, but because we 
came from there, we knew what was left there — what was their life. 

All that we, for over a year, brought through pictures in the Women's World 
was true. It was true that the Hungarian people were given such a constitution, 
the kind they never had before. It was true that the right to work, equal rights 
to women, even the right to vacations, was guaranteed to the Hungarian people. 
It was true that the children of simple people could go to the universities, and 
that this was so is not idle talk. 

The witnesses are many American-Hungarians, to whom it is written from 
home, that the children of peasant relatives are preparing to become engineers, 
professors, doctors, or other professions, even army officers. I, myself, spoke to a 
woman in Stalin City, who with her husband and two other sons worked on a 
construction but had one son an army officer and a daughter at the Pest Uni- 
versity. I saw, myself, Stalin City in feverish construction, saw the new work- 
ers' homes in many places and the new schools. 

It is true that in case of sickness the patient received free medical treatment, 
free hospitalization, dental care was also free, and eyeglasses were free. Workers 
went through a systematic medical examination so they were able to detect 
serious illnesses in its early stages and treat it. It goes without saying that the 
American worker knows how to appreciate this, because he knows what it means 
to be sick here, how it takes away his hard-earned savings, and he knows even 
better if he had no money saved what kind of medical aid he receives under such 
circumstances. Although for this country war brought riches, for Hungary, ruins, 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 391 

gigantic loss in men, misery, starvation, and tens of thousands of orphans 
and waifs. 

There were mistakes, and as later revealed, serious mistakes. About these 
generally we have only recently gained some orientation. So there were not 
enough schools and some circles have suggested that in the new 5-year plan, if 
there is not enough money, then some other, less important thing, should be cut, 
and new schools should be built. It seems that the building of living quarters 
was also insufl5cient because, in spite of our known and described feverish con- 
struction, there still was "doubling up" and newlyweds had to live with their 
parents and other members of their family, or even wrose, the new wife and the 
new husband had to live separately with their own parents. 

Mr, ScHERER. That happens in this country. 
Mr. BoNORA (continuing) : 

There was a lot of complaint about the leaders of the housing authority, and 
]ierhaps justified, but if there would have been enough homes, there would be no 
need for the housing authority. 

As we have learned the nice and good "constitution" was not carried out in 
all its points. Why, we don't know. Is it because of the newly developed situa- 
tions that made it impossible or because the officers were permeated with bureau- 
cratism and they lost sight of the rights of the Hungarian iieople, only sqtieeziug 
their duties out of them — it would be hard to establish. Most likely this would 
be the starting p<^)iut. Wages were not enough, and this is important. The 
Hungarian people did not starve ; even the escapees would not say this, their 
looks don't show hunger. But there was very little for anything else or nothing, 
and this brought out the bitterness. Our woman companion, in her bitter letter, 
brings out the fact that American parcels with completely used clothing were 
highly taxed for duty. We have heard this complaint many times but while we, 
ourselves, could not understand it, somehow we just thought that the Hungarian 
Government most likely had a good reason for this arrangement. I confess that 
« complacency we acknowledged this without criticism, but it should serve as an 
extenuating circumstance, that many others got letters in which they thought 
there is no need for packages and also read such letters that the value and use 
of the received goods were higher than the paid duty. I understand this when 
only used goods was received but when good goods was received, then the duty 
was worth it. 

For all this — they placed the responsibility on the Rakosi-Gero government 
and there is no doubt they have part in it, but when in the workers' papers I 
read about "Rakosi-Gero click," I am somewhat indignant. According to the dic- 
tionary, the word "click" means a gang and is used to mean when individuals 
conspire to exploit others to advance their own gains. Let's see — can we apply 
this on Rakosi or GeroV As we know, Rakosi spent 16 years in the jails of 
Horthy, which is no small thing. Can it be visualized that lie was ready for this 
much sacrifice for the misery of the Himgarian people? Or let's take Gero. I 
don't know his past well, but every Hungarian can tell you that he spent 20 to 22 
years around the bridge constructions, and Hungary can be thankful, for the 
almost destroyed system of bridges was not only rehabilitated, but is in better 
.shape than ever before. It may be that Rakosi and Gero got rich from this. 
They could have established a faulty system. They could have lost from sight 
the important things. In their ambition, they might have taken away lawful 
rights, perhaps created things too much on the Russian pattern, but the gigantic 
progress and consruction going on in the country for 11 years, one cannot, and 
it is not right to talk only of mistakes, and brand them with the name of "gang." 
Let us not forget for a second that for the suffering of the Hungarian people, 
besides Rakosi and Gero, the stubborn cold war is also responsible. 

All the mistakes committed against the Hungarian public by the removal of 
Rakosi and Gero, and others who helped them, could have been easily corrected, 
but not in one stroke. But most certainly, if the counterrevolutionary gang, in 
alliance with the cold war "West," would not exploit this with such powerful 
force, which took the nation to the brink of disaster, and it will need a hard 
struggle until the 22d of October, 1956 (the day before the uprising), living 
conditions will be reestablished. Many thousands have run away but the ones 
who remain face a dreadful winter and unemployment. 

But the Hungarian i>eople will overcome this, we don't know how soon, and 
at what sacrifice but overcome it they will. My fellow woman should not have 
departed so soon from those newspapers that were enthusiastic for the well- 



392 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

being of the Hungarian people, even if these papers did not see the mistakes ; even 
then before our eyes we only held the happiness of our former country, and if 
there were a lot of mistakes in the government of the new system, the happiness 
of the Hungarian people cannot be restored by the old exploiting system, but 
only by a new democratic system, by the will of the people which we will con- 
tinue to support with a more critical eye. 

And we believe that the fellow woman, whose son was amongst the first to die 
in the war against fascism, and with whom at the time I cried together for the 
young son — one day she will return to us, with understanding that we struggle 
for the happiness of our former country and its people, and for the freedom 
of the peoples of all nations, as well as for our own complete democracy. 

Mr. Akens. Is the reading of Mr. Bonora a true and correct transla- 
tion of the article by yourself in the February issue of your publica- 
tion ? 

Miss Gyarmatt. I assume so. 

(Document marked "Gyarmaty Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. ScHERER. I gather from that article it did three things. It 
praised the economic conditions in Hungary under the Communists, 
condemned the freedom fighters, and was silent on any condemnation 
of the Russian atrocities in Hungary, She condemned the freedom 
fighters. She referred to them as the counterrevolutionary gang. 

It did three things : Praise the economic conditions of Hungary un- 
der the Communist regime, condemn the freedom fighters, and is 
strangely silent on the Communist Russian atrocities in Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you get the notion that the forces under- 
taking to overthrow the Communist terrorist regime in Hungary were 
a counterrevolutionary gang ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Sir, I Imow that many people who were the former 
owners of the land or the factories, or whatever they had, remained 
in Hungary. In the later years, the Hmigarian Government gave 
amnesty to people who ran away from the country and many of them 
returned. Many of these people were staying in the neighboring 
Austria and returned with an aim, and they were working on the 
Hungarian people to get back their former position. 

Mr. Scherer. You mentioned in one of your articles that the free- 
dom fighters, or, as you call them, a revolutionary gang, were the 
young people, the students, and the fine young people of Hungary. 
You are asking them to come back to Hungary ; that all is forgiven. 

Miss Gyarmaty. Sir, I was not asking them. The Hungarian 
mothers were asking them. 

Mr. Scherer, You approved that, did you not, because you pub- 
lished it in your paper? You approved that appeal for these boys, 
and in the one article you call these people a revolutionary gan^ and 
in the other article you are saying what fine people they are — -You 
should come back; all is forgiven; come home to mother." Where is 
there any consistency in those two articles ? 

Miss Gyarmaty, I think so. 

Mr. Moulder, As I understand your position, you object to the 
people making an effort to reclaim their property and their individual 
free enterprise — the property which they owned before and which 
was confiscated by the Soviet form of government or the Comnnmist 
form of government. Is that the way I understand your position 
to be? 

(No response,) 



COIVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 393 

Mr. MoTJLDER. You condemn the efforts on the part of the people 
to reclaim property which they formerly owned until invaded and 
taken over by the Communist regime ; you call them a counterrevolu- 
tionary gang. Is that the way I understand your position ? 

Miss GyarjMaty. Yes. I am not using judgment, sir, on that. I 
know it was a counterrevolution. It was stated in many newspapers 
also here in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Do you follow the line of the international Communist 
conspiracy in your publication? 

Miss Gyarsiaty. I decline to answer on this on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. The two articles written indicate conclusively she 
does. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vho is Clara Keich? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Clara Keich is the secretary of the Xok Vilaga, 
Inc. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us whether or not to your certain knowledge Clara 
Eeich is a member of the Commmiist Party. 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Erna Fodor? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Has she ever been associated with your publication, 
Nok Vilaga? 

(No response.) 

Mr. Arens. Has she ever been associated or identified with your 
publication ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. "We lay before you now a statement of ownership 
required by the postal laws. This was published in your paper in 
which you identify Erna Fodor as one of the owners of the publica- 
tion. Look at that document and tell us whether or not that is a true 
and correct reproduction. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Gyarmaty. This was before the incorporation. 

Mr. Ahens. Was she at that time a part owner of your publication ? 

Miss Gyakmaty. That is right. 

(Document marked ''Gyarmaty Exhibit No. 3," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not she is a Communist ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been connected witli the National Women's 
Appeal for the Rights of Foreign Born Americans ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I can't recollect that. 

Mr. Arens. Tlien I would like to lay before you, if you please, a 
photostatic reproduction of the Daily Worker, of January 25, 1951, in 
which an article announces that 40 noted women join to form an organi- 
zation known as the National Women's Appeal for the Rights of 
Foreign Born Americans, and your name appears as one of those 40 
prominent women forming this organization. 

Look at that document, if you please, ma'am, and tell us whether 
or not tliat refreshes your recollection. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

]Miss Gyarmaty. Yes, sir. 

(Document marked "Gyarmaty Exliibit No. 4*' and retained in 
committee files.) 



394 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. Look at the names of the other people who joined with 
you in the formation of that organization and tell us the name of each 
person known by you to be a member of the Communist Party. 

Miss Gtarmaty. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you ever been a member of the National Hungar- 
ian Bureau of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Gtarmaty, I decline to answer that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When were you last in Hungary ? 

Miss Gtarmaty. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer that question. 

IMr. Moulder. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the 
question and, in giving that direction and instruction to you, it is not 
given in the spirit of a threat but to ad,vise you of the possible dangers 
of being in contempt of Congress for refusal to answer. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Gtarmatt. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, in the course of the last 10 years, been in 
Hungary ? 

Miss Gtarmaty. I decline to answer that. 

Mr, Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee refuses to accept your response to the 
question. You are directed to answer. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Gtarmaty. I still decline. 

Mr. Arens, Have you in the course of the last 10 years traveled 
abroad ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Abens. When? 

Miss Gyarmaty. In 1953. 

Mr. Arens. And where did you go in 1953 ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. In several countries, 

Mr, Arens, Name them, please, 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Gyarmaty, I decline to answer, 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question, 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Gyarmaty. I still decline. 

Mr. Arens. Did you travel on an American passport? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens, Did you, in the application which you filed with the 
State Department to procure your passport, truthfully set forth the 
names of the countries you intended to visit in the course of your trip? 

Miss Gyarmaty, I decline to answer, 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Miss Gyarmaty. I still decline, 

Mr, Moulder, And for what reason do you decline ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. On the basis of the fifth amendment. It might 
involve me in some incrimination. 

Mr, Arens. Who paid your expenses on your trip ? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGAKDA IK THE UNITED STATES 395 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer that. ^ ,-: 

Mr. Arens. Was it paid by the Communist conspiracy? -., 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. A^^io accompanied you on the trip? 

Miss Gyarjiaty. Nobody. 

Mr. Arens. Did you go as a result of an invitation from someone 
;abroad or from some group or organization abroad? 

Miss Gyarmaty. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you gone on your trip ? 

Mr. SciiERER. Pardon just a moment. Did the Communist Party 
have any connection with that trip ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer. 

Mr. SciiERER. Did you visit Russia during your trip ? 

Miss Gy.vrmaty. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. SciiERER. Did you have any conferences with Communist Party 
leaders while you were in Europe ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of John Lautner ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. ^Ir. Lautner testified under oath a couple of days ago 
before this connnittee that he knew you as a member of the Com- 
munist conspiracy. Was he lying or telling the truth ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer that. 

yir. MoiTEDER. In each case in response to each question when you 
say you decline to answer, are you claiming or invoking the provisions 
of the lifth amendment? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Yes. On the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. As to every question that has been asked you ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do we have this witness' passport application for her 
trip abroad? 

Mr. Arens. We do not have it with us. 

Mr. Scherer. That application is sworn to under oath, is it not? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. I think that is probably one reason she in- 
voked tlie fifth amendment with refei-ence to the interrogation on the 
passport. 

]Mr. Scherer. How long is the statute of limitations on perjury? 

Mr. Arens. It is 5 years, I believe. Were you the guest of any 
group, person, or organization during any time you were on this trip 
to Euro])e in 1953 ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer tiiis. 

Mr. Arens. The fact is you were the guest of the leading Hungarian 
'Communist conspiratoi'S in Hungary ; vrere you not '( 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline, sir, on this. 

Mr. Moulder. You decline to answer for the reasons previously 
given ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Yes. . , 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the International 
Workers Order ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the names of all organizations to which you 
•presently belong. 

Miss Gyarmaty. I can't recollect an}'. •• , ; ^ 

90121— 57— pt. 6 3 



396 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any Hungarian nationality groups? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I can't recollect. 

Mr. Arens. Is there one gi'oup that you can recollect to which you 
presently belong and meet with '( 
(No response.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you a Communist ? Do you meet with Communists 
in closed party meetings ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I decline to answer that, sir. l^^^ienever you ask 
such questions, I will decline on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. You indicated in one of your articles the freedom 
fighters, to whom you referred as a counterrevolutionary gang, were 
young people ; did you not ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. That is what the Hungarian mothers stated. As 
far as I know, there were even 13- and 14-year-old children among 
them. The teachers were taking them out v»'ith them. 

Mr. Scherer. And then, in response to IVIr, Moulder's question, you 
said that the people who were behind this counterrevolutionary move- 
ment were the individuals who had been deprived of their properties 
under the Communist regime; is that right ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. These young people, these 13-, 14-, 17-, 18-, 19-year- 
olds whose mothers did not want to get into this fight and who were 
asking them to return home, had no property that was taken away 
from them by the Communist regime ? 

Miss Gyar-siaty. I would not think so myself. But they got in- 
volved in it. They became the tools of these people to whom you 
refer. 

Mr. Scherer. They became the tools of the people who had been 
deprived of their farms, their homes, their factories, when the Com- 
munist regime took over ; is that right ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. That is the Communist line. That is the position 
taken by the Communists today. It is the position taken by Russia, 
is it not ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. That is your opinion, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I am asking you if 3^ou know as a matter of fact, if 
that is not the position taken by the Communists. 

Miss Gyarmaty. Maybe someone else is sharing the same opinion 
and so it does not make someone Communist because the Communists 
think the same line as you do. 

Mr. Scherkr. You praised in the article the economic conditions in 
Hungary under the Communist regime and contrasted those conditions 
which existed in Hungary prior to the time that the Coimnunists took 
over, did you not ? 

Miss Gyarma'iy'. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you say here that the revolt in Hungary had noth- 
ing whatsoever to do with the austere conditions under which the 
people were compelled to live? 

IVIiss Gyarmaty. In that article, sir, I have stated the earning of 
the people was low. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 397 

Mr. ScHERER. Under this economic system which you praise — the 
Communist economic system which you praise — you say that the con- 
ditions were not austere. I am asking you if it is not a fact that part 
of this revohition resulted from the rule of the austere economic condi- 
tions under the Communist regime. 

Miss Gyarmaty. Sir, I don't know exactly how the conditions were 
in October in Hungary. I know when I left Hungary I could not 
buy a pair of shoes on my 1 month's earning. I don't think it was as 
bad in the Communist regime, as you call it, as it was at that time when 
I left Hungary. 

Mr. ScHERER. How long ago was it that you left Hungary ? 

Miss Gyarmaty. I left in 1922. 

Mr. ScHERFJR. We who came up during the depression as young men 
had a pretty bad situation in this country, too. 

Miss Gyarmaty. Yes. I enjoyed it, too. 

Mr. Scherer. That is all. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused, and you may claim your at- 
tendance fees with the clerk of the committee. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Alex Rosner, please come forward. 

Mr. ISIoulder. Do you solemnly swear the testimony which you are 
about to give before the committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. RosNER. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF ALEX EOSNES, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ABRAHAM UNGER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. RosNER. Alex Rosner, 150 West 80th Street, linotype operator 
by occupation and manager of the Hungarian Word. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Rosner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Rosner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Unger. Abraham Unger, 320 Broadway, N"ew York City. 

Mr. Arens. Where and wlien were you born ? 

Mr. Rosner. I was born in the free city of Pida, which was under 
the ])rotectorate of Hungary. Then it became Italian, and presently 
is part of Yugoslavia. 

Mr. Arens. When were you born ? 

Mr. Rosner. I was born on March 17, 1912. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States for permanent 
residence ? 

Mr. Rosner. I came to the United States in 1929. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen ? 

Mr. Rosner. I am a citizen. 

Mr. Arens. By derivation or naturalization ? 

Mr. Rosner. By derivation. That means my father was a citizen. 



398 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

]Mr, Arkns. How long have you been business manager of the Hun- 
garian Word ? 

Mr. RosNER. Since its organization. 

Mr. Arens. "\^^len was that? 

Mr. RosxER. 1053 or 1054. I don't know exactly. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
assum]ition of office as business manager of the Hungarian Word? 

Mr. Rosner. I was the business manager of the Hungarian Daily 
Journal. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you business manager of the Hungarian 
Daily Journal ? 

Mr. RosNER. Some time in 1048. 

Mr. Arens. The Hungarian Word is the successor publication to 
Hungarian Daily Journal ; is it not ? 

Mr. Rosner. Yes, sir. I don't know about the law, but it is the 
successor. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Zoltan Deak is identified with your publication; is 
he not ? 

Mr. Rosner. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. As business manager of the Hungarian Word, could 
you tell us what funds have been received by your publication from 
the International Workers Order ? 

Mr. Rosner. I don't think the Hungarian Word received any money 
from 

Mr. Arens. The predecessor organization. 

Mr. R< iSNER. The Hungarian Daily Journal ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Rosner. I think the Hungarian Daily Journal carried publicity 
for the IWO and was paid for it. How much it is I don't know. 

Mr, Arens. AYliat sources of revenue has the Hungarian Word at 
the present time, other than its revenue from subscriptions and adver- 
tisements ? 

Mr. Rosner. From fund-raising social affairs and collections. 

Mr. Arens. Does it receive funds from the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rosner. The Hungarian Word does not receive funds from the 
Communist Party, or from any party, for that matter. 

Mr. Arens. Is it controlled by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rosner. It is not controlled by anybody. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a Communist ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rosner. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully would like you to hear 
my reasons — or some of the reasons — for which I want to decline to 
answer this question. I know that there are laws in this country 
which I publicly opposed, which makes it criminal to be a member of 
this particular political party. 

Mr. SciiERER. There is no law such as that. 

Mr. Rosner. As a layman, this is my understanding. I know that 
I could get incriminated if I would answer a cjuestion of this kind. 

Mr. Sciierer. No ; if you teach and advocate the overthrow of this 
Government by force and violence, actively, then you can be prose- 
cuted under one of those laws. But mere membership is not a viola- 
tion of law\ 

Mr. Rosner. From what I have seen before, people who have been 
accused of being Communists have been prosecuted. Certainly I don't 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IX THE UNITED STATES 399 

have neither the funds to defend myself nor the wish to be dragged 
through the courts. Because of this, in view of the fact that 1 don't 
want to be incriminated, my answer must be that I denj' this question 
under my rights under tlie tifth amendment. 

^Nlr. Arens. Do you know John Lautner i 

Mr. KosNER. I understand 

Mr. ^Moulder. May I ask you this : If under the Tnununity Act you 
were promised and assured of immunity from criminal prosecution, 
would you answer the (piestion ( 

Mr. Kosxer. Mr. Chairman, at tliis time I am not ready to answer 
an}' questions in this category. 

Mr. Arexs, Do you know John Lautner^ 

Mr. Rosner. I refuse to answer tliis (juestion under the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. He testified the other day before this connnittee that 
while he was a member of the Communist Party he knew you as a 
Conununist. Was he lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Mr. Rosner. I respectfully decline to answer this question, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you ever live in Cleveland, Ohio ? 

Mr. Rosxer. Yes ; I lived in Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Arexs. When did vou live in Cleveland, Ohio? 

Mr. Rosxer. WM or 10:>2 or ld?,-?>. I don't know exactly. 

Mr. Arexs. What training did you receive in Cleveland, Ohio, in 
(he early thirties? 

Mr. Rosxer. What training? 

Mr. Arex^s. Yes. Did you attend any training school in Cleveland, 
Ohio, in the early thirties? 

Mr. Rosx^ER. I was an apprentice printer in a publication, if you 
are interested in that. 

Mr. Arex'^s. Just rack your brain a moment and tell us whether or 
not you recall any training school that you attended in Cleveland, 
Ohio, in the early thirties? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rosxer. I respectfidly decline to answer this cpiestion. 

Mr. Arexs. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that while you were in Cleveland, Ohio, in the earl}' thirties 
you were one of the top echelon being trained in secret underground 
o])erations in the National Hungarian Training School. If that is 
not true, deny it while you are under oath. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arexs. Were you trained in the National Hungarian Training 
School in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1032 by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rosxer. Again I decline to answer the question, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. In your refusal to answer, as I understand it, 3'ou are 
invoking the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Rosxer. Yes. sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you ever been a member of the International 
Workers Order ? 

Mr. Rosxer. Yes; I have been a member of tlie International 
Workers Order. 

Mr. Arexs. Over what period of time ? 

Mr. Rosxer. Quite a feAV years, I imagine. 

Mr. Arexs. You were active in the IWO up until 15)54; were you 
not? 



400 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. RosNER. You said what? 

Mr. ^Vrens. You were an active member of tlie International 
Workers Order until 1954? 

Mr. RosNER. I was a member of the IWO. I was never active in 
the IWO. 

]Mr. Arens. Do you presently belong to any Hungarian nationality 
group ? 

Mr. RosNER. Except those connected with my newspaper, 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any Hungarian nationality club? 

Mr. RosNER. No ; I don't belong to any nationality club. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. What I have heard here, and if I am incorrect so 
advise me, Witness ; everyone connected with this newspaper of yours, 
in an official capacity at least, is a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. RosNER. I didn't understand the question, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I say, from the evidence that I have heard here, every- 
one connected with your newspaper in an official capacity is a member 
of the Communist Party. If that statement is incorrect, would you 
so advise. 

Mr. RosNER. I don't think I am competent to tell you who and how 
or what is, because, perhaps, I don't Imow or perhaps I would not 
want to incriminate myself under the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know of anyone with your paper who is not 
a Communist? 

Mr. Rosner. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. For what reason? 

Mr. RosNER. The fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have any information or knowledge of any 
activity on the part of the Communist Party to contact or solicit mem- 
bership from the refugees — the so-called refugees — who have been 
recently coming into this country from Hungary? 

Mr. Rosner. No; I don't haVe any knowledge of that kind, sir. 
I did have refugees come up to my newspaper to talk to me, which 
has nothing to do with the Communist Party. That is the only knowl- 
edge I have of the refugees that are over here at this time. 

Mr. Scherer. You say, which had nothing to do with the Com- 
munist Party. Didn't any of them complain about the Communist 
atrocities ? 

Mr. RosNER. Who; the refugees? 

Mr. Scherer. The people who came to see you. 

Mr. Rosner. No. Some of them told me that they would eat 
potatoes and bread as long as they could go back. They were having 
an awful hard time to get back over there. If you wish, I can furnish 
you those names. 

Mr. Moulder. They wanted to go back ? 

Mr. Rosner. Yes. 

Mr, Arens. Do you recall their names at the moment ? 

Mr. Rosner, Yes. One was a man by the name of Nemeth, who at 
that time gave me his address. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 401 

Mr. Moulder. How do you spell his name ? 

Mr. KosNER. N-e-m-e-t-h. 

Mr. Arens. He wanted to go back to Hungary ? 

Mr. EosNER. Yes. He claimed that he was being given the run- 
aromid and tliat he didn't know where to go. I also tried to convince 
hmi, and told him that he is not a judge of American life. That 
America is a nice country, and that I was lonesome, too, when I came 
to this country, and I began to love this country. But he insisted 
that he wanted to go back and that he didn't know where to go. 

Mr. SciiERER. ^Vliy did this particular individual tell you that he 
left Hungary ? 

Mr. EosNER. Nemeth ? There were a number of people who told me 
that they wanted to go back to Plungary. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let us talk about the one you are talking about. That 
certainly entered into your discussion. 

Mr. EosNER. I certainly want to tell you. He told me that during 
the uprising he participated as a member of the Workers' Council ; and, 
when the events of November 4 began, he got scared since he belonged 
to the "Workers' Council. He claimed that he has never committed any 
criminal act, and he got scared and he left the country. He left the 
country, and he answered his son and got to Austria, and then he was 
taken over here. 

Mr. Arens. Was he a Communist? Did he tell you? 

Mr. EosNER. He did not tell me he was a Communist or not. 
Mr. ScHERER. Was the Workers' Council Communist ? 

^Ir. EosxER. From what I read in the newspaper the Workers' 
Councils were formed by the workers in the various factorie-s and in 
the various industries. From what I read today in the newspaper, 
the Workers' Councils are the so-called owners of these industries in 
Hungary. The Workers' Council is the legal owner. This is my un- 
derstanding. I would not swear to it, because I don't know. They 
are supposed to be owners of a particular factory. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wlien the anti-Communists started to revolt in Hun- 
gary, was he one of those who got scared and left because he was afraid 
of being designated as a Communist? Was he one of the first group 
that left? 

]Mr. EosNER, He said that he left after the November events ; that is, 
after the intervention of the Eussian Army. 

Mr, ScHERER. He didn't participate in the uprising against the Com- 
munist regime ; did he ? 

Mr. BosxER. Apparently the Workers' Council must have, because 
he claims that that is why he was afraid, that he participated in the 
Workers' Council. He got over here, and he was sorry to have left 
and he wants to go back. In his statement which we published in our 
paper, he stated that he would rather eat potatoes and bread to be back 
in the country where he was born. If you want to, I will give you 
some more names of people who want to go back to Hungary. I think 
it may be of interest to you to look into this aifair. I don't know. A 
man by the name of Mate. 

Mr. Arens. AMiere does he live? 

]Mr. EosNER. Also living on 23d Street and Tth Avenue, There is a 
hotel there. That is what he told me. He lives at the Chelsea Hotel. 
He went innumerable times up to the World Church Council, or what- 
ever the organization name is. 



402 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

And they were oiving- him the runaround, and the}- would not lielp 
him to get back to his country. His statement about leaving Hungary 
was as follows: He left Hungary because his son who went to the 
university in Budapest, when the uprising took place — he went to 
Budapest to see his son. being a student — and when he went to the 
house where his boy was living, he found the house destroyed and some 
peo])le that he contacted had told him that his son ran to Vienna. So 
he followed his son to Vienna. In Vienna he looked at the list of 
names and he found one name that was similar to his son's. Because 
of that he inquired and tried to tind where this name was. He found 
himself with information that his son was here in the United States. 
So he pleaded with the authorities that he wanted to go after his son 
and reach his son. He came to the United States, and in Camp Kilmer 
he found that tlie man by the name of JMate was not the same boy. 
When he detei'mined the fact that this lioy was not his son, he wanted 
to go back Init they tried to convince him to go to work. He is con- 
struction engineer, or something of that kind. When he went for 
employment he was told — he is 47 years old — to dye his hair if he 
wants to get a job at that age in this particular industry. He said 
that he was disillusioned and disgusted and he wanted to go back. 
I told him to go to the authorities, if he wants to go back, and ask the 
authorities to do something for him or to do whatever they see fit to do. 

There were other peo])le who similarly came with their complaints 
to our newspaper that they wanted to go back to Hungary. I am try- 
ing to recall at this moment the name. They also live in the Chelsea 
Hotel. They asked me since they did not speak Hungarian whether 
I was willing to go and interpret for them. 

Mr. UxGER. You mean do not speak English ? 

Mr. EosNER. Yes, did not speak English — if I was willing to inter- 
pret for them, which I did. I went up to the World Council of 
Churches. I found that they did not need an interpreter because there 
were people wlio wei-e competently speaking Hungarian. Then in 
questioning them as to why they wanted me to come with them, they 
said that they did not know wliether this i^erson was sincere or whether 
he sincerely translated what was told to them by whatever authorities 
there may have been. This was the story, some of which I think we 
published. I am not sure. We published something to that effect, 
anyway. 

]\Ir. Arexs. You know there is a Communist regime in Hungary 
now, do you not ? 

Mr, RosxER. I know that the members of the Hungarian Govern- 
ment, the Hungarian regime, are members of the Hungarian Workers 
Socialist Party and commonly. I guess, they say it is a Communist 
regime. 

]Mr. Arexs. Do you want a Communist regime in the United States? 

Mr. RosNER. I am very, very satisfied with our Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Wliy don't you then break from the Communist Party 
and testify before this committee so that we can help protect the 
Constitution of the United States and protect this Nation against 
the international Communist conspiracy? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 403 

Mr. RosNER, Mr. Chairman, I have been talking- over here and 
testifying and, as 1 said before, I am not ready to be victimized for 
the thinjrs that I may be believing now or for the things that I may 
have believed 2 days ago or 20 years ago. So I am not going to allow 
that I should be in any way incriminated, whether justly or unjustly. 

Mr. Arens. That would conclude the staff interrogation. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you tliink, or do you })elieve, there are a sufficient 
number of Hungarian refugees in this country desiring to return to 
justify our Government setting up some sort of project or commission 
to hear those people and provide transportation back to Hungary 'I 

Mr. RosNER. Mr. Chairman, if you want my opinion, when you 
talk about providing them with transportation back to their country 
or wherever it may be, it means that you and I will have to stand the 
expenses. It will reflect itself in our taxes. So I don't know exactly 
what I would suggest in this connection. I would say this : According 
to JMr. Walter there are about 7,000 Communists — I am quoting Mr. 
Walter, who is the chairman of your connnittee — and I would say 
not whether they are Communists or not, it is not my business, but 
tliere are people who are not satisfied with the conditions or the form 
of government that we have, that they probably have no place in this 
counti-y. 

INIr. ScHERER. You mean they have complained to you about being 
dissatisfied with the form of our Government? 

Mr. RosNER. I quoted Mr. Walter, sir. 

Mr. SciiERER. I thought you said that. 

Mr. Moulder. He said if they were not satisfied. 

Mr. RosNER. If they were not satisfied and wanted to go back to the 
country where they came from, I don't see why anybody would want 
to force them to stay over here. 

Mr. Moulder. For lack of transportation or means of getting back ? 

Mr. RosNER. I don't know. Let them work or let the Government 
take one ship. We spend a lot of money on a lot of things. Maybe 
we could put a ship at their disposal if they want to go back. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 30 p. m. the committee was recessed, to recon- 
vene at 2 p. m. the same da}'.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, MARCH 14, 1957 

(Committee members present: Representatives Moulder and 
Scherer.) 

]\Ir. Moulder. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Louis Battler, please come forward. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Dattler. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS DATTLEE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ABRAHAM UNGER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
'Cupation. 



404 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

]Mr. Dattler. Louis Dattler, 2229 Throgneck Boulevard, the 
Bronx. 

Mr. Arexs. You are appearing in response to a subpena by the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Dattler. That is right. 

Mr, Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Dattler. Yes, sir. Abraham Unger, 320 Broadway, New York 
City. 

Mr. Arexs. Wliere and when were you bom ? 

Mr, Dattler. In 1904 in Hungary. 

Mr. Arexs. When did you come to the United States for perma- 
nent residence? 

Mr. Dattler. 1931. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Dattler. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you obtain your citizenship by derivation or natu- 
ralization ? 

Mr. Dattler. Naturalization. 

Mr. Arexs. Where were you naturalized ? 

Mr. Dattler. In New York southern district court in 1945, 1 guess. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you been known by any name other than Ix)uis 
Dattler? 

Mr. Dattler. No, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you a Communist at the time you were naturalized 
a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. DATrLER. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you presently a Coirmiunist ? 

Mr. Dattler. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know a man bj^ the name of Jolm Lautner ? 

Mr. Dattler. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Lautner identified you 2 days ago before this com- 
mitte inider oath as a member of the Communist Party. Was he lying 
or telling the truth? 

Mr. Dx\ttler. I decline on the same basis. 

Mr. Arex's. Are you employed ? 

Mr. Dattler. I am unemployed right now. 

Mr. Arexs. Where were you last employed? 

Mr. Dattler. I was working with the painting industr3^ 

Mr. Arex^s. Have you ever been identified with the Hungarian 
Word ? 

Mr. Moulder. A newspaper. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dattler. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arex^s. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Dattler. Secretary. 

Air. Arexs. When were you secretary of the Hungarian Word ? 

Mr. Dattler. In 1956, October, I guess it is. 

Mr. Arexs. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Dattler. Since 1956, October. 

Mr. Arexs. Until when ? 

Mr. Dattler. Until recent days. I mean right now. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you presently secretary of the Hungarian Word ? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 405 

Mr. Dattler. That's right. 

Mr. Arens. Do you receive compensation for your service as sec- 
retary ? 

Mr. Dattler. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What is the Hungarian Word ? 

Mr. Dattler. It is a newspaper publication. 

Mr. Arens. Is it controlled by the Communist Party ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dattler. It isn't. 

Mr. Arens. Is the editor a Communist? 

Mr. Dattler. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Zoltan Deak? 

Mr. Dattler. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is he a Communist? 

Mr. Dattler. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever a member of the Hungarian IWO 
Center m the Bronx ? 

Mr. Dattler. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time were you a member of that 
organization ( 

Mr. Dattler. About 10 years. 

Mr. Arens. Beginning when and ending when, please? 

Mr. Dattler. I think since 1945. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently belong to any nationality group, club, 
or organization? 

Mr. Dattler. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. AYhat is the name of the organization ? 

Mr. Dattler. It is a small Hungarian society. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the name of it? 

Mr. Datixer. In English it doesn't come out right. Hungarian 
Social Club. 

Mr. Arens. ^\^io is president of it? 

Mr. Dattler. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Are you president of it ? 

Mr. Dattler. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dattt.er. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Is that club a gi'oup which is the successor to the Com- 
munist fraction within the IWO of Hungarian nationals? 

Mr. Dattler. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vliat are your duties as secretary of the Hungarian 
Word? 

Mr. Datti.er. I am signing checks. 

Mr. Arens. What is the annual income of Hungarian Word ? 

Mr. Moulder. You mean gross income ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Dattler. It is between $40,000 and $50,000. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Alex Rosner ? 

Mr. Dattler. He is the manager of the paper. 



406 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Aeens. Is he a Communist? 

Mr. Dattler. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Arpad Nagy ? 

Mr. Dattler. In what respect, who is he? 

Mr. Arens. Do you know him ? 

Mr. Dattler. I know him. 

Mr. Arens. Does he have any connection with Hungarian Word? 

Mr. Dattler. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is he a Communist? 

Mr. Dattler. I decline to answer. 

]Mr. Arens. What is his connection with Hungarian Word? 

Mr. Dattler. He is treasurer. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Hugo Gellert? 

Mr. Dattler. He is the president of the organization. 
. Mr. Arens. Is he a Communist? 

Mr. Daitler. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the name of the predecessor to Hungarian 
Word? 

Mr. Dattler. It is a Hungarian name. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell that in Hungarian ? 

Mr. Dattler. Unless I write it down, I can't spell it. I am veiy 
bad on spelling. In Hungarian? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Is that Magyar, first name, Jovo, last name; is 
that what it is ? 

Mr. Dattler. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Does the Hungarian Word receive financial support 
from the Communist Party? 

Mr. Dattler. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did it receive financial support or did its predecessor 
receive financial support from the IWO? 

Mr. Dattler. I wouldn't know nothing about that. 

Mr. Arens. Does it follow tlie Communist Party line ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dattler. I don't think so. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. Are there any questions, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scpierer. No. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Arpad F. Nagy. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Naoy. i do. 

TESTIMONY OF ARPAD FODOR NAGY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

ABRAHAM UNGER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Nagy. Arpad Fodor Nagy. 

Mr. Arens. Spell your name for the reporter, please. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 407 

Mr. Nagy. A-r-p-a-d F-o-d-o-r N-a-g-y. 

Mr. Arens. Your residence and occupation ? 

Mr. Nagy. 165 Higliwood, Weehawken, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation? 

Mr. Nagy. Dental technician. 

Mr. Arexs. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
wliich was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Mr. Nagy. That's correct. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Nagy. Yes. 

Mr. Unger. Abraham linger, 320 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed as a dental technician ? 

Mr. Nagy. I have a dental laboratory. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Nagy. 110 West 42d Street, New York. 

Mr. Arens. And the name ? 

Mr. Nagy. Master Touch Dental Laboratory. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Nagy. December 13, 1916, St. Paul, Minn. 

Mr. Arens. Are you connected with the Hungarian Word? 

Mr. Nagy. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Nagy. I am treasurer. 

Mr. Arens. Plow long have you been treasurer of Hungarian Word ? 

Mr. Nagy. About a year, I assume. 

Mr. Arens. Were you treasurer of the predecessor publication ? 

Mr. Nagy. No. 

Mr. Arens. As treasurer of the Hungarian Word, could you give us 
an indication of the income of Hungarian AVord? Its gross income? 

Mr. Nagy. Subscriptions readers' contrilnitions, advertisements. 

Mr. Arens. What is the aggregate amount? 

Mr. Nagy. What is the amount ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Nagy. The yearly income? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, please, an approximation. 

Mr. Nagy. Between $40,000 and $50,000. 

Mr. Arens. What percentage of that comes ^'rom subscriptions and 
what from advertisers and what percentage from any other source? 

Mr. Nagy. I believe about 70 percent of subscription, and adver- 
tisers and the remaining amount is contributions, fund raising by 
the I'eaders. 

Mr. Arens. What is the circulation of Hungarian Word? 

Mr. Nagy. I believe about 3,500. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a Communist ? 

Mr. Nagy. I decline to answer on this question. 

Mr. Arens. AMiy? 

Mr. Moulder. State your reasons. 

Mr. Nagy. It might incriminate me and I take tlio fifth amendment 
to protect myself. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by tlie name of John Lautner ? 

Mr. Nagy. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. Two days ago Mr. Lautner took an oath before this 
committee and identified you as a person known by him to have been 



408 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

a member of the Communist Party. Was lie lying or telling the 
truth? 

Mr. Nagy. He has the right to say whatever he pleases. I decline 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Akens. Were you a member of the Hungarian National Bu- 
reau of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Nagy. I decline to answer on that question. 

Mr. Akens. Have you ever registered under the Foreign Agents 
Eegistration Act ? 

Mr. Nagy. Pardon me? 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever registered under the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act ? 

Mr. Nagy. No. 

Mr. Arens. Has the Hungarian Word or any of its officers, to your 
knowledge, ever registered under the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act? 

Mr. Nagy. I don't know anything about it. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the International 
Workers Order ? 

Mr. Nagy. I decline to answer on that question. 

Mr. Arens. Wliy? 

Mr. Nagy. I believe I heard here this morning that the organiza- 
tion was dissolved and that it has no connection whatsoever for the 
individual who was a member or not a member. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. Your reasons stated are insufficient. The com- 
mittee rejects your reasons, and you are instructed and directed to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Nagy. I refuse to answer on that because it might incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Moulder. As I understand, you intend to invoke the provisions 
of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Nagy. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any group or organization of Hun- 
garian nationals ? 

Mr. Nagy. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to the club that the gentleman, Mr. 
Dattler, who preceded you on the witness stand, was speaking about? 
Do you and Mr. Dattler belong to the same club ? 

Mr. Nagy. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. Any questions, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. Does the Hungarian Word receive any literature, 
pamphlets, or newspapers from any country behind the Iron Curtain ? 

Mr. Nagy. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Scherer. Is there a bookshop connected with your printing 
plant ? 

Mr. Nagy. It is not a bookshop. It has some books available for 
the readers to buy. 

Mr. Scherer, You mean readers of the Hungarian Word? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 409 

Mr. Nagy. For that matter, everybody else who wants to buy books 
which have some advertisement in the paper, naming these books which 
are available to whoever wants to read Hungarian books. 

jVIr. ScHERER. Are they all books or are there some newspapers, 
pamphlets or other material? 

Mr. Nagy. No, those mostly are novels. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mostly novels? 

Mr. Nagy. Yes, or poems. 

Mr. ScHERER, Do these come from Iron Curtain countries ? 

Mr. Nagy. I really wouldn't be able to tell you that. 

Mr. ScHERER. But they are books that you advertise for sale in the 
Hungarian Word. 

Mr. Nagy^ Personally, I didn't buy any and I don't know any of 
these books, so I won't be able to answer where they were printed. 

Mr. ScHERER. Who in your organization would know the answer to 
the question ? 

Mr. Nagy. Most probably the manager of the paper would know. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Did I undei-stand you to say that you were born in 
Minnesota ? 

Mr. Nagy. St. Paul, Minn. 

Mr. Moulder. Is that where your parents were born ? 

Mr. Nagy. No, they came from Hungary and I was born here. 

Mr. Moulder. Wlien did you come to New York ? 

Mr. Nagy. I went back to Hungary to my mother. She took me 
back in 1921. I came back to my country, to the United States of 
America, in 1937. 

Since then I am a resident mostly of New York and lately Jersey. 

Mr. Moulder. Any further questions? 

Mr. Scherer. Did you serve in tlie Armed Forces, sir ? 

Mr. Nagy. No. I was deferred on two grounds. I was engaged 
in public health and family hardship. 

5lr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

( Witness excused. ) 

Mr. Arens. Clara Reich, please come forward. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the wliole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Reich. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. CLARA REICH, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

ABRAHAM UNGER 

Mr. Arexs. Kindly identify youi-self by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. Reich. My name is Mrs. ('lara Reich, 7-59 Custer Street, 
Bronx, N.Y. 

Mr. Arexs. And your occupation ? 

Mrs. Reich. I am a secretray or technical worker. 

Mr. Arexs. You are appearing here today in response to a subpena 
^vhicli was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Mrs. Reich, Yes. 



410 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Reich. Yes. 

Mr. UxGER. Abraham Unger, 320 Broadway. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mrs. Reich. In Hungary in 1912. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States ? 

Mrs. Reich. 1937. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mrs. Reich. I am. 

Mr. Arens. By naturalization or derivation ? 

Mrs. Reich. Naturalization. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you naturalized ? 

Mrs. Reich. In 1942, Southern District of New York. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist when you were naturalized ? 

Mrs. Reich. I decline to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed ? 

Mrs. Reich. Hungarian Word, Inc. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so employed ? 

Mrs. Reich. About 21/2 years or 3 years. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ^ 

Mrs. Reicti. As a technical worker. 

Mr. Arens. What do you do as a technical worker ? 

Mrs. Reich. I take care of correspondence with the readers, I send 
them their receipts, I take care of the circulation department. 

Mr. Arens. What was your occupation immediateley prior to your 
occupation with the Hungarian Word ? 

Mrs. Reich. I was unempk\ved. 

Mr. Moulder. jSIay I ask at this point, JNIr. Arens : Is the circulation 
of this newspaper restricted to the city of New York ? 

Mrs. Reich. No ; it is a national newspaper. 

Mr. Moulder. The majority of the subscribers are here in the city 
of New York ? 

Mrs. Reich. I don't know. I wouldn't say that. 

Mr. Moulder. Is that so ? 

Mrs. Reich. All over the United States. 

jSIr. Moulder. All over the United States ? 
Mrs. Reich. Yes. 

Mr. Moilder. It covers the entire country ? 

Mrs. Reich. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What was your last employment prior to your present 
employment? 

Mrs. Reich. My last emi)]ovment was with Hungarian Brother- 
hood, IWO. 

INIr. Arens. How long were you employed there and in what 
capacity? 

Mrs. Reich. I was employed there — I wouldn't be sure — about 16 
years as a technical employee. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been connected with Nok Vilaga, Inc. — 
Women's World i 

Mrs. Reich. Yes ; since October I am secretary, I think. 

Mr. Arens. Are you then, secretary of that* publication as well as 
employed by the Hungarian Word, or have you now become dis- 
associated from Women's World ? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 411 

Mrs. Reich. No. I am just secretary of tlie corporation of the 
Nok Vilaga. I am not employed by them. 

Mr. Arexs. Yon are presently secretary of the publishing firm 
which })nblislies Women's World ; is that riglit ? 

Mrs. Reich. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you receive any compensation for that ? 

Mrs. Reich. I don't. 

Mr. Arexs. Are yon a Communist ? 

Mrs. Reich. I decline to ansAver on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know a man by the name of John Lautner ? 

Mrs. Reich. I decline to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Arexs. He identified you under oath 2 days ago before this 
committee as a member of the Communist Party. Was he lying or 
telling the truth? 

Mrs. Reich. I decline to answer to that question on the same basis. 

]Mr. Arexs. Have you ever been a member of the IWO, Interna- 
tional Workers Order ? 

Mrs. Reich. I decline to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Arexs. You were employed by them, were you not ? 

Mrs. Reich. I didn't have to be a member for that. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you also a member? 

Mrs. Reich. I decline to answer. 

Mr. xA_rexs. As a former employee of the IWO and a present officer 
or present employee of the Hungarian Word and secretary of the 
Women's World, kindly tell this committee whether or not the IWO, 
International Workers Order, subsidized certain publications includ- 
ing Women's World and the predecessor publication to Hungarian 
Word. 

Mrs. Reich. I wouldn't know that. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you ever been to Hungary ? 

Mrs. Reich. I was born there. 

Mr. Arexs. Since you came to the United States? 

Mrs. Reich. No, I wasn't. 

Mr. Arexs. Who is Catherine Gyarmaty? 

Mrs. Reich. She is the editor of the Nok Vilaga. 

Mr. xVrexs. That is the publishing firm of which you are the secre- 
tary, is that correct? 

Mrs. Reich. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Is she a Communist ? 

Mrs. Reich. I decline to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs, Who is Margaret Torok? 

Mrs. Reich. I think she is the ]:)resident of that same corporation. 

Mr. Arexs. Is she a Communist? 

Mrs. Reich. I decline to answer. I don't even know. 

Mr. Arexs. I respectfully suggest, ^Mr. Chairman, that would con- 
clude the staft' interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. Are there any questions, Mr. Scherer? 

iSIr. Scherer. Yes. Are there any other Hungarian papers in the 
country ? 

Mrs. Reich. I guess so. Other Hungarian publications in this 
country ? 

Mr. Scherer. Newspapers. 

Mrs. Reich. There are. 

00121 — 57 — pt. 6 4 



412 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. ScHEREK. Similar to yours? 

Mrs. Reich. There are. 

Mr. ScHERER. Which is the most prominent of the Hungarian news- 
papers? 

Mrs. Reich. That I wouldn't know. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know which has the largest circulation ? 

Mrs. Reich. I don't know. There are many Hungarian papers, but 
I don't know what the circulation is. 

Mr. Scherer. Are there any others that are printed here in New 
York? 

Mrs. Reich. They might be. I think there are some weeklies. The 
Ember is printed in New York. It is called The Man in English. 
That is printed in New York I guess. I don't know. 

Mr. Scherer. Yours is a newspaper, is it not ? 

Mrs. Reich. Ours is weekly newspaper, 

Mr. Scherer. You do not know which of the Hungarian papers 
then, has the largest circulation, do you? 

Mrs. Reich. I don't know. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Arens. Michael Savides, come forward. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but 
the truth so help you God? 

Mr. Savides. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MICHAEL SAVIDES, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

IRA GOLLOBIN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Savides. Michael Savides, 322 West 20th Street, New York 
City. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation? 

Mr. Savides. Newspaperman. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mr. SA^^DES. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Sa\tdes. Yes. 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. Ira Gollobin, 1441 Broadway, New York, 18. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Savides. In Larnaca, the Greek island of Cyprus. 

Mr. Arens. 'Wlien? 

Mr. Savides. 1903. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States for permanent 
residence ? 

Mr. Savides. 1927. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States? 

Mr. Savides. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST THE UNITED STATES 413 

Mr. Arens. By naturalization or derivation ? 

Mr. Savides. Naturalization. 

Mr. Arens. ^Mien and where were you naturalized? 

Mr. Savides. I decline to answer that using the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
•answer the question as to where and when he was naturalized? 

Mi-. ]\Ioulder. Yes ; the committee rejects your refusal to answer the 
question. You are directed to answer the question. The purpose of 
so advising you is to inform you that the committee does not accept 
your response and to advise you of the possible dangers of being 
guilty of contempt of Congress. 

Mr. Savides. I still think and I believe that, according to the consti- 
tutional rights which I have, I can use the fifth amendment as a source 
of defending myself and be able not to be incriminated. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you conscientiously believe that to answer the 
question as to when and where you were naturalized might tend to 
incriminate you ? 

Mr. Savides. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask, Mr. Chairman, that you direct the witness to 
ranswer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so directed. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. SA^^DES. I still think it might incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist when you were naturalized? 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. Is there something in your applica- 
tion for naturalization that might tend to incriminate you ? Is that 
the reason you are refusing to answer ? 

Mr. Savides. I still decline because it might tend to. 

Mr. Scherer. Wlien you made your application for naturalization, 
did you tell the truth to all the questions asked ? 

Mr. Savides. I still stand on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, in view of this witness' statement, I 
think this is a matter that should be referred to the Department of 
Justice to determine whether or not proceedings should be commenced 
to denaturalize this individual. 

Mr. Arens. When you came to the United States, did you jump 
ship or did you come under the quotas? 

Mr. Savides. I came in the United States quota. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a Communist ? 

Mr. Savides. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. SAvroES. On that, I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. As a matter of fact, you are presently, are you not, the 
business manager of the Greek- American Tribune ? 

Mr. Savides. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. We will lay before you, if you please, the statement 
required by the postal laws of the Greek- American Tribune, which you 
signed with reference to that publication, and designated yourself as 
business manager of the Greek-American Tribune. 

Mr. Moulder. Does the record show that the witness is examin- 
ing the document now referred to by the counsel ? 

(Document marked "Savides Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 



414 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. Look at that document, if you please, Mr. Savides, and 
tell this committee whether or not you are accurately described in 
that document. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Savides. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact that you are business manager of the Greek- American Tribune. 

Mr. Savides. I believe in the Constitution of the United States 
and as a citizen I have a right to defend the Constitution of the United 
States and myself. I stand on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. That statement comes in ill grace from a man who 
will not even tell a congressional committee as to where and when 
he became a citizen of the United States. 

Mr. Savides. I have the riglit and I hold my rights. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I lay before you two copies of the Greek-Ameri- 
can Tribune. Please look at these publications and tell this committee 
while you are under oatli whether or not you are the business manager 
of that publication. (Published weekly by Proodos Publishing Co., 
New York. 

(Documents marked "Savides Exhibit No. 2" retained in committee 
files.) ^ 

Mr. SA^^DES. I stated before ; I decline. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that, in the presence of this wit- 
ness, another witness be sworn. 

Mr. Charles Solon, please come forward. 

Mr, Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the ti'uth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Solon. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES SOLON 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Solon. Charles Solon, 852 East I72d Street, Bronx, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation ? 

Mr. Solon. Consultant for the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service and part-time interpreter. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Solon, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Solon. I was. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, a brief sketch of the facts with 
respect to your membei-ship in the Communist Party, the period of 
your service, and any posts or offices yoy may have held in the party. 

Mr. Solon. I joined the Communist Party at about the end of 
1924 and left or was expelled from the Communist Party about Sep- 
tembei- of 1934. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your membership in the Com- 
munist Party, did you know a person by the name of Mike Savides^ 

Mr. Solon. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Do you see that person in the hearing room today ? 

Mr. Solon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you point him out to the committee ? 

Mr. Solon. The gentleman here. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE IHVITED STATES 415 

TESTIMONY OF MICHAEL SAVIDES— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Savides, you have just lieard the testimony of Mr. 
Solon, have you not ? 

Mr. Savides. I think I did. I lieard. 

Mr. Arens. He just now identified you, under oath, as a person 
Ivuown by him to ha^e been a member of the Communist Party. Was 
he lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Mr. Savides. I decline to say. That is his own business. That is 
not mine. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is not only his business. It is more important 
business to you. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES SOLON— Resumed 

Mr. Solon, can you give us the basis of the information upon which 
vou identify this witness as having been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

JNIr. Solon. I met with Mr. Savides on many, many occasions at 
niunerous party meetings of the Greek section of the Communist 
Party, and I had many occasions to meet with Mr. Savides in his 
<apacity as a leading member of the Greek section of the Communist 
Party while I was also one of the leading members of the Communist 
Party of the Gi'eek section and in charge of the Greek organ of the 
Communist Party in 1931. 

]\Ir. jMoulder. Are there any other questions? 

Mr. Arens. No further questions of Mr, Solon. 

Mr. Moulder. He will be recalled later on as a witness? 

Mr. Arens. No ; as far as we are concerned, he may b© excused. 

Mr. Scherer. When did you say you left the Connnunist Party? 

:\rr. Solon. 1934, September. 

Mr. Arens. That is all for the present, if you please. Mr. Chairman. 

^Ir. Moulder. He is excused as a witness. Mr. Solon, you are 
excused as a witness. Thank you very much for your information. 

(Witness Solon was excused.) 

TESTIMONY OF MICHAEL SAVIDES— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Savides, who is the editor of the Greek- American 
Tribune ? 

JNIr. Savides. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. What is the circulation of the Greek-xVmerican Trib- 
une ? 

Mr. Savides. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. "V\nio publishes the Greek-American Tribune? 

Mr. Savides. Still the same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Are you connected or have you been connected with the 
International Workers Order? 

Mr. Savides. I decline to answer on that question. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Greek- American Tribune controlled by the Com- 
munist conspiracy? 

Mr. Savides. I decline to answer. 

]Mr. Arens. The Daily Worker for May 2, 1956, which I now hold 
in my hand — the Communist Daily Worker lists you as a speaker at 



416 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

the May Day rally held in Union Square in this city just last year. 

Please look at this photostatic copy of the Communist Daily 
Worker and see if you will be good enough to tell this committee 
whether or not the facts are accurately reported there. 

(Document marked "Savides Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Moulder. The record should show the witness examining the 
document, 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly respond to the question ? 

Mr. Savides. I decline. 

Mr. Arens. Now, we have a photograph which was taken at that 
May Day celebration, a photograph showing you making a speech and 
right next to it is the name, Michael Savides. Please look at that 
photograph and see if you would not be good enough to help the 
Committee on Un-American Activities by identifying your physical 
features there. Is that a good likeness of you? 

Mr. Savides. I still decline. 

(Document marked "Savides Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. You are not ashamed of your own photograph, are you? 

Mr. Savides. That's a different thing. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Savides. I say that's a difterent question. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been to Greece? 

Mr. Savides. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. Savides. Wlien I was coming to the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been back to Greece ? 

Mr. Savides. Yes ; I went in 1933. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been there since ? 

Mr. Savides. No. 

Mr. Arens. What occasioned your trip to Greece in 1933? 

Mr. Sa\t[de8. I just took a trip. 

Mr. Arens, Under whose auspices? Just a personal trip? 

Mr, Savides. With my money. 

Mr. Arens, I beg your parclon ? 

Mr, Savides, With my money. My pocket money, after I worked 
hard to make the money during the depression, 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. Any questions, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. I am going to ask the witness once again and if you 
do not answer the question, you are placing yourself in contempt of the 
committee. When and where were you "naturalized? 

Mr. Savides. As I said before I still decline on the grounds that I 
have the right to use the fifth amendment because I am an American 
citizen and I know my constitutional rights. I want to show I know 
how to defend my constitutional rights. 

Mr. Scherer. 1 did not ask you whether you made any false state- 
ments in that application. I just asked you when and where you were 
naturalized. 

In the opinion of this member of the committee, at least, he places 
himself in contempt because it is a public record. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 417 

Mr. Savides. I still decline because it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, so that the record is clear, I ask that 
you direct the witness once again to answer the question after my 
statement. 

Mr. Moulder. As requested by Mr. Scherer, the witness is directed 
to answer the question. 

Mr. Savides. Again the same answer. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee is refusing to accept your response to 
the question. Therefore, you are directed to answer. 

Mr. Savides. I said before and I still say that I stand on the fifth 
amendment because, otherwise, it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you naturalized? 

Mr. Savides. I said before ; yes. 

Mr. Scherer. And then I submit for another reason, Mr Chairman, 
he waived the privilege if he ever had any and I don't believe he has. 
He says he was naturalized. 

Mr. Moulder. Any more questions? 

Mr. Arens. No ; thank you, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. You are excused as a witness. 

(The witness was excused.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. James Lee, please come forward. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Lee. I do. 

TESTIMONY OM JAMES LEE (SHEW HONG) ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, PAUL ROSS 

Mr. Eoss. I would like a statement on the record of the subject of 
the inquiry to be directed to this particular witness. 

Mr. Scherer. I object. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Lee. My name in English is James Lee, Shew Hong in Chinese. 

Mr. Arens. Your residence and occupation ? 

Mr. Lee. 56 East Fourth Street, New York City. I am a news- 
paperman. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Lee, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Lee. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Lee. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself ? 

Mr. Koss. Paul Ross, 160 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born, please ? 

Mr. Ross. Before you proceed 

Mr. Arens. I might read you the rules, counsel. The sole and ex- 
clusive prerogatives of comisel before this committee are to advise his 
client of his legal rights. 

Where and when were vou born ? 



418 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr, Ross. All I asked the chairman was a statement of the purpose 
of the inquiry. 

Mr. Moulder. You request has been overruled. You are being vex- 
atious by askins; that. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Lee. I was born in 1915, in China. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Lee. 1930. 

Mr. Arens. Did you come under the quotas or did you come other- 
wise ? 

Mr. Lee. My father was a citizen. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Lee. My father was a citizen. 

Mr. Arens. When did you arrive in the United States? 

Mr. Lee. 1930. 

Mr. Arens. And you are a citizen of the United States? 

Mr. Lee. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. By derivation or naturalization? 

Mr. Lee. Derivation. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lee, May I ask the chairman that you state the reason for this 
hearing ? 

Mr. Arens. Your lawyer just told you to say that, did he not? 

Mr. Ross. I have a right to advise the client. 

Mr. Arens. You do not have a i-ight to advise him to vex or harass 
this committee or overrule the decisions of the chairman of this 
committee. 

Tell us where you are employed, Mr. Lee. 

Mr. Lee. I refuse to answer that question on the ground of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly contend that if you told this committee 
truthfully where you are employed you would be supplying informa- 
tion which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Lee. I suppose. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to lay before you, Mr. Lee, a photostatic 
reproduction of the statement filed by the China Daily News pursuant 
to the postal laws in which you are identified as editor and as man- 
aging editor of the China Daily News, Inc. Kindly look at that and 
tell us while under oath whether or not that is a true and correct 
and accurate description of your status Avith that publication, 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer under the first and fifth amendment, 

(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr, Arens. You read Chinese, do you not? 

Mr. Lee, I do, 

Mr. Arens. We would like to have you, if you please, follow in 
Chinese some of these excerpts from this China Daily News that Mr. 
Bonora is going to read. We have 3 or 4 of them here. He is going 
to read them very slowly and you follow them if you please, in Chinese, 
and tell us Jifter he has concluded whether or not he has given a true 
and correct translation of the various issues. 

Mr. BoNORA. These are summarized reports : 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 419 

[China Daily News, October 26. 1956] 

To Overthrow the People's Authority Is a Fantasy ; Riots of Reactionaries 
IN Poland and Hungary; the Riots Have Subsided Under the Joint 
Suppression of the People and the Government 

A summarized report 

In the last few daj's, under the direction of foreign imperialists, counter-revolu- 
tionaries of Poland and Hungary have staged riots in many places in these 
two countries, tryinji to overthrow the peoples' democratic authorities and re- 
store the old capitalistic systems. But this fantasy vanished under the con- 
certed blow of the working people and their governments. At present the riots 
have been suppressed, and public order has begun to be restored. 

Rased on a broadcast from Warsaw, groups of narrowminded nationalists 
staged anti-Soviet demonstrati(»ns at Wei-lo-k'o-lo Monday evening. They In- 
tended to cast a dark shadow on Soviet-l'olish friendship, but this intrigue failed 
to materialize. 

According to news from Budai>est, in Hungary, reactionaries, hidden among 
the people, rioted on October 23, aiming at the overthrow of the people's au- 
thority. According to the news, these countei'-revolutionaries who had been 
constantly instigated by foreign reactionaries, rioted. 

Although they have destroyed some public enterprises and caused some blood- 
shed, the intrigues did not succeed, as a result of joint suppression by the masses 
of people and their national forces. 

Mr. Arens. oNIr. Lee, is that a substantially correct translation of the 
paper that is now before you ? I realize there is a difficulty of trans- 
lating: from Chinese to English. 

Is that substantiall}^ correct? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question under the first amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

]\Ir. Moulder. Yes, tlie record should show that the witness ex- 
amined the document leferred to by counsel and that he followed the 
i-eading of the transcript by Mr. Bonora as he read. 

Therefore, you are directed to answer the question. The reason for 
giving this direction is to show clearly that the committee refuses to 
accept your refusal to answer and to also advise you of the possible 
dangers of being in contempt of Congi-ess. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lee. Mr. Chairman, I still decline to answer that question on the 
first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 2," and retained in coinmittee 
tiles.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, so this record may be absolutely clear, I 
request that an oath be administered to Mr. Bonora so he can identify 
the translations. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Bonora. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FEANK BONORA 

Mr. Arens. You are Frank Bonora, an investigator for tlie House 
Committee on Un-American Activities, is that correct? 
Mr. Bonora. That is correct. 



420 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. Pursuant to directions from myself, did you cause to 
be translated certain issues of the China Daily News by the official 
translators in the Library of Congress? 

Mr. BoNORA. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have those translations with you today ? 

Mr. BoNORA. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Arens. Do those translations include that translation you just 
read ? 

Mr. BoNORA. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And they also include the translations which you pres- 
ently have in your hand and propose to read in just a few moments? 

Mr. BoNORA. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Aeens. That will be all. Thank you. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES LEE— Eesumed 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Lee, do you understand the question propounded 
to you was merely whether or not the translation read by Mr. Bonora 
was a substantially true and correct translation of the document which 
you held in your hand and followed the reading of during the time he 
was reading ? 

You understand that is all that is being asked of you, whether or 
not it is true or correct. You said you could speak and read Chinese. 

Mr. Lee. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. The question was asked whether or not it was a sub- 
stantially correct translation. You understand that? 

Mr. Lee. Yes ; I do. 

iSIr. ]MouLDER. And j^ou still decline to answer, even though directed 
by the committee? 

Mr. Lee. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Would you proceed. Mr. Bonora, please, to read addi- 
tional excerpts from another issue of the China Daily News and iden- 
tify the issue ? 

Mr. Bonora (reading) : 

[China Daily News, June 22, 1953] 

Although Dead, They Left a Gloeious Name — The People of the World 
MoTJKN the Death of the Rosenberg Couple Who Were Innocent — Where 
Is Democracy? — In Union Square 5.000 People Prayed for Them 

(A SUMMARIZED REPORT BY THIS NEWSPAPER, JUNE 20, 1953) 

Mr. and Mrs. Rosenberg, falsely accused as "atomic spies," have been electro- 
cuted in Sing Sing Prison. Rosenberg, 35 years old, was executed yesterday 
evening at 8 : 41 ; Mrs. Rosenberg, 37 years old, was electrocuted at 8 : 11. This 
case had been in existence for over 2 years. In spite of the righteous protest 
of the people of the world, this fine young couple were executed under the orders 
of the American Government, leaving two sons, Michael Rosenberg, age 10, and 
Robert Rosenberg, age 6. Both Mr. and Mrs. Rosenberg were very calm before 
the execution, and the latter kissed the matron before she sat on the electric 
chair. The bodies of Mr. and Mrs. Rosenberg were claimed by Mr. Rosenberg's 
mother. Interment may take place tomorrow. 

ELECTROCUTION CANNOT DESTROY MR. AND MRS. ROSENBERG HISTORY WILL DECIDE THE 

"ROSENBERG CASE" 

In the course of the case, Mr. and Mrs. Rosenberg maintained from the begin- 
ning to the end that "We are innocent ; we demand a just verdict." The National 
Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case has pointed out repeatedly 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA ES^ THE UNITED STATES 421 

that electrocution cannot destroy Mr. and Mrs. Rosenberg. The Government did 
not give Mr. and Mrs. Rosenberg a fair trial. Based only on evidence supplied by 
witnesses who were bought by the Government, this couple were sentenced to 
death. Recently new evidence was found, but the Government refused to grant 
them a new trial, thus concluding the case which had world repercussions. How- 
ever, this committee pointed out yesterday that they would not cease their work 
of seeking the truth, despite the fact that Mr. and Mrs. Rosenberg were dead. 
They would continue their tight against this "case of false accusation," so that 
right and justice might prevail, and a repetition of similar cases may be avoided 
in the future. 

Mr. Arens. Is that a true and correct translation of the issue of the 
China Dailj' News which is before you now, Mr. Lee? 

Mr. Moulder. The record should show that Mr. Lee has been read- 
ing the document which you have just referred to. 

Mr. Lee. I still decline to answer on the same ground. 

(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 3," and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer. 

Mr. Lee. I still decline on the same groimd. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lee, do you ever go back to China ? 

Mr. Lee. Since I have come here ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Lee. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You know, of course, that the Chinese Red machine has 
destroyed and murdered over 20 million people in your native land, do 
you not ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lee. In what connection are you asking me that question ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that the Chinese Eed machine has de- 
stroj^ed and murdered over 20 million people of your native land? 

(The witness consulted wnth his counsel.) 

Mr. Lee. Since I was here since 1930, how would I know ? I was 
not there. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the international Communist 
apparatus which murdered 20 million people in your native land ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. Arens. Are 3'ou now a Communist? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bonora, are you now laying before the witness an- 
other edition of the China Daily News? 

Mr. BoNORA. March 7, 1953. 

Mr. Arens. Please read some of the excerpts of that publication. 

Mr. BoNORA (reading) : 

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin — the Great Leader of the Soviet People, 
Teacher of the International Proletariat, Pillar of the World Peace 
Front, General Secretary of the U. S. S. R. Communist Party, and Chair- 
man of the U. S. S. R. Council of Ministers — Has Passed Away 

The peace-loving peoples of the world, who demand progress and who fight for 
democratic peace, mourn for the death of Stalin. * * * 

Neither friends nor foes may underestimate Stalin's influence and contribution 
to the world. 

He led the people of Soviet Russia toward the road of happiness and led 
the working people of Soviet Russia victoriously from socialism toward the con- 
structive work of Communism * * * 



422 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arexs. Is tliat a substantially true and correct translation, Mr. 
Lee, of the issue of the China Daily News presently before you? 

Mr. Lee. I still decline to answer the question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do the expressions contained in that article coincide 
with your position with reference to Comrade Stalin ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 4," and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you have another translation there, Mr. Bonora, 
that 3^ou would like to summarize or read ? Please announce the issue. 

Mr. Bonora. This is Septemer 7, 1951, and relates to the Japanese 
peace treaty signed around that tmie. It is entitled, "If You Sow 
Bad Seeds You Will Eat Bad Fruits'' : 

President Triimau declared during the Peace Conference with Japan held 
in San Francisco: "This peace treaty (referring to the peace ti'eaty manufac- 
tiiretl by the U. S. A.) is a very good treaty because it does not contain the seeds 
of another war. This treaty renews an old friendship. It looks to the future 
and forgets the past." 

Is it true that this American-manufactured peace treaty is really a "very 
good treaty''? Aside from the two principal nations of Asia — China and India — ■ 
which have repeatedly expressed their indignation and I'esentment, even the 
people of Australia are very much dissatisfied with it. 

The statement of Evatt, former President of the United Nations General As- 
sembly and Deputy Prime Minister and concurrently Minister of Foreign Affairs 
of Australia, is a concrete example. 

He held an almost identical opinion with the peoples of Asia. He believed that 
the United States manufactured peace treaty is not only a violation of interna- 
tional agreements, but also it jeopardizes the security of Asia. He stated that 
on the basis of this peace treaty, the Japanese militarists will be on the march in 
all directions. 

But the United States believes that the rebuilding of Japanese forces would 
be useful in resisting Soviet Russia and China, but this is a great fantasy. 
Finally Evatt stated that the majority of people in Australia understood that 
the peace treaty manufactured by the United States of America would imperil 
the security of the South Pacific and southeast Asia. This act disgracefully 
ignores international justice. 

Just because this treaty is iipfavorable to the peoples of Asia and Australia, 
Truman believes it is a very good treaty. The only persons who may profit are 
the American monopolistic capitalists and warmongers. 

This treaty permits the American authorities to expand and organize Japanese 
forces without restriction. They will be used as the vanguard and cannon 
fodder. This treaty permits American forces to be stationed permanently in 
Japan, and to use it as a springboard for future military movements. 

It permits American authorities in the name of justice to occupy the Ryukyu 
Islands, Ogasawara Gunto, and Formosa. The treaty does not require Japan 
to pay indemnities to the victorious nations, but to place her financial and human 
resources at the disposal of the big American capitalists. 

In short, the advantages of this treaty to the American authorities are unlim- 
ited. This is the reason why Eisenhower, Dulles, and others hurriedly ordered 
the satellites to sign and seal this one-sided peace treaty, making it a fait 
accompli as soon as possible. 

Mr. Arens. Is that a true and correct translation of the issue of the 
China. Daily News as presently before you ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. Moulder. You are again directed to answer. 

(No response.) 

(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 5," and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Sciierer. Why do you fellows not go back to Red China or 
Russia? This attack on the United States and praising Red China 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 423 

iind the Russian Government and Connnunists — why do yoti stay 
here? Do you have any desire to go back like some of these others? 
Do you want to go back ? I am asking a question. 

Mr. Lee. I am an American citizen. 

Mr. ScHERER. You do not act like one. You are an American citizen 
to the extent of using the rights of an American citizen, but you con- 
tinue with C-ommunist activities. 

( No response. ) 

Mr. Arens. Now, we would like to lay before you, and invite your 
attention to a World Peace Appeal signed by a ninnber of people 
including one James Lee, Chinese Youth Club, in New York. Please 
look at this document and tell this committee while you are under oath 
whether or not you are accurately described there as James Lee, of the 
Chinese Youth Club of New York in promoting world j^eace. 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer the question on the fifth amendment. 

(Docmnent marked "Lee Exhibit No. O," and retained in conmiittee 
files.) 

Mr. Arens. You would not be ashamed of promoting world peace, 
Avould you, unless you were doing it as part and parcel of an interna- 
tional conspiratorial apparatus? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. Arexs. How long have you been employed at your present place 
of employment ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer on the same groimd. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the Avitness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so ordered and directed. 

Mr. Lee. I still declirie to answer imder the fourth and fifth amend- 
3nent. 

Mr. Arens. Are you registered, or have you ever been registered, 
under the Foreign Agents Registration Act? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question under the first and fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you attend the recent Communist Party convention 
held here in New York City last month? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer on the same ground. 

]\Ir. Aren^s. Do you know Eugene Moy ? 

Mr. Lee. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arexs. He is one of the owners of the China Dixilj News, is 
lie not ? , 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answ^er on the same grounds. 

Mr. Moulder. May I ask, Mr. Arens, do we have any information 
concerning the subscriptions to this paper or the amount of circulation ? 

Mr. Arexs. We do not have that information with us in these hear- 
ings. We are in the process of trying to procure it right now, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Could you not help this Committee on Un-American Activities, 
undertaking to protect this Nation under whose flag you have protec- 
tion, by telling us the circulation of the China Daily News? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you a loyal American ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 



424 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Lee. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of an apparatus designed to destroy 
this country ? 

Mr. Lee. Will you give me that question again ? 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of a foreign- controlled apparatus 
designed to destroy this country ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer the question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Tlie tragic thing is that you give these fellows citizen- 
ship and then the first thing they do is attempt to destroy the very 
Nation that gave them the citizenship. 

Mr. JSIoulder. In the event of armed conflict between the United 
States of America 

Mr. Lee. I beg your pardon. I would like to answer Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I did not ask a question ; I made a comment. 

Mr. Lee. Could I answer it ? 

My. JNIgulder. In the event of armed conflict between the United 
States of America and Red China, would you fight for the United 
States of America ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lee. That kind of question is a speculative question. 

Mr. Moulder. It is a very simple question. I said in the event our 
country should become involved in armed conflict, would you join your 
country in fig:hting for your country against Red China ? 

]\Ir. Lee. I would say that, if the United States was attacked by a 
foreign country, I would defend the United States. If it is attacked 
by another country, I would come forward to defend the country. 

Mr. Scherer. That is the "out" all you fellows use. Then, you can 
always say that it was the other country. That the United States 
was the aggressor. That is the import of your writings, that the 
United States is the aggressor. That would excuse you from fighting 
on behalf of this country against Red China. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, we have no further questions, and there 
are no other witnesses under subpena to a]Dpear this afternoon. 

Mr. Moulder. All of the documents which counsel presented to the 
witness for identification, translation and examination are made a 
part of the record by reference. 

The committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock tomorrow 
morning. 

(Whereupon, at 3 : 15 p. m., Thursday, March 14, the committee was 
recessed, to be reconvened at 10 a. m., Friday, March 15, 1957.) 

(Committee members present: Representatives Moulder and 
Scherer.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN 
THE UNITED STATES— PART 6 

(New York City Area) 



FRIDAY, MARCH 15, 1957 

United States House of Repuesentatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Nem York, N. Y. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, in room 518, United States Courthouse, Foley 
Square, New York, N. Y., at 10 a. m., Hon. Morgan M. Moulder 
(chairman of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Morgan M. Moulder, 
of Missouri, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director, W. Jackson Jones 
and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order. 

The next witness w411 be Mr. Michael Tkach. 

Do you solemnly swear tliat the testimony you are about to give 
shall be the truth, the whole trutli, and nothing but the truth, so help 
3^ou God ? 

Mr. Tkach. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MICHAEL TKACH, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ISADORE G. NEEDLEMAN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Tkach. Michael Tkach. 

Mr. Arens. And your residence and occupation ? 

Mr. Tkach. I am a journalist, and my address is 42 East Third 
Street. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activitias ? 

Mr. Tkach. Yes, sir. 

JVIr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. 

]\Ir. Arens. Counsel kindly identify youi-self. 

Mr. Needleman. Isadore G. Needleman, 165 Broadway, Xew 
York 6. 

425 



426 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. Where are you ein])loyed ? 

Mr. Tkacii. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. On the ground of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you employed as editor of tlie Ukrainian Daily 
News Inc.? 

Mr. Tkach. The same ; I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. We lay before you a photostatic reproduction of a 
statement of ownership filed pui'suant to the provisions of the postal 
laws by the Ukrainian Daily News, in which you are listed as editor 
of the Ukrainian Daily News. Please look at that document and tell 
us whether or not you are accurately described therein. 

Mr. Tkach. The fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Tkach Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. TiiACH. In 1881, in Austria. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States for perma- 
nent residence? 

Mr. Tkach. I think it was 1908 or 1909. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen ? 

Mr. Tkach. Yes.' 

Mr. Arends. Were you naturalized in the United States? 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. 

Mr, Arends. lYliere and when ? 

Mr. Tkach. Southern district of New York. I think it was 1936. 

Mr. Arens. In the southern district of New York ? 

]\Ir. Tkach. Of New York. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Comnnmist when you were naturalized? 

Mr. Tkach. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. I^et him state his reasons. 

Mr. Tkach. On the ground that I might 

Mr. Needeeman. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. 

Mr. ]V,IouLDER. Let the witness answer. You invoke the fifth 
amendments ? 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Claiming to answer the question truthfully might 
incriminate vou and subject you to criminal prosecution? 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Elizabeth Bentley ? 

Mr. Tkach. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Needle3ian. Just so the record would be clear, may I make an 
observation ? 

Mr. Moulder. No. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, your only prerogative is to advise the client. 

Mr. Needleman. I want to ))rotect his rights. When he refuses 
to answer, it is understood that it is on the ground of the fifth amend- 
inent. We have a language difficulty here. 

Mr. Moulder. You can confer with him. If it is agreeable, when 
you say you refuse to answer, we understand upon each occasion when- 
ever you refuse you are claiming and invoking the protection of the 
fifth amendment: is that so? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 427 

Mr. Tkach, Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Elizabeth Bentley ? 

Mr. Tkach. I refuse to answer that question on the gi'ound of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Elizabeth Bentley swore before a congressional com- 
mittee ( a special subconnnittee of the Judiciary Committee, May 13, 
1949) and testified as follows : 

Question. By aliens, whom do yon refer toV Wliat general category of per- 
sons do you mean? I'ersoiis born abroad and sent into the country? 

Answer. That is correct ; people like Mr. Brown, who was never naturalized ; 
the editor of the Ukrainian Daily News, which was a Communist publication, 
Mr. Tkach, I don't believe was ever naturalized. In addition to his duties 
as being head of the Ukrainian Daily News, he was working with the Russian 
secret police. I worked with him, together with Mr. Golos. He found other 
agents for us among the Ukrainians in this country. 

Did you work with the Russian secret police in this country ? 

Mr. Tkach. No. 

Mr. Arens. Was Elizabeth Bentley lying when she said you did 
work with the Russian secret police ? 

Mr. Tkach. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. Your first response was "No" ; that you did not. 

Mr. Tkach. I personally did not work with any secret agency of 
nobody. 

Mr. Arens. With whom did you work? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. Scherer. Just a second. I think he understood the word 
"work" to mean "employ." That is what appears to be the problem 
here. 

Mr. Arens. Did you work with people who did work with the 
Russian secret ])olice? 

Mr. Tkach. I refuse to answer that question. I have no knowledge 
whatsoever of that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know John Lautner ? 

Mr. Scherer. Wait a minute. He says he has no loiowledge. 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. On the advice of my counsel, I invoke the fifth amend- 
ment, and that is that. 

Mr. Scherer. You just said. Witness, that you had no knowledge 
of any activity on your part with Russian secret police. Is that not 
right? You said you had no knowledge of that. Is that right? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. That is correct. I never personally worked with any- 
body on any secret mission. 

Mr. Scherer. Was Miss Bentley telling the truth when she told 
that committee that you were the editor of the Ukrainian Daily News? 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Was she telling the truth when she said that the 
Ukrainian Daily News was a Communist publication? 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you deny that she was telling the truth to that 
committee when she said that, in addition to your duties as the head 
of the Ukrainian Daily News, you were working with the Russian 
secret police? 

90121— 57— pt. 6 5 



428 COMIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. I never worked with the secret 
police. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you work with anyone who had contact with the 
Russian secret police 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHEREE. On Communist activities? 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment I invoke. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have knowledge of activities in this country 
of the Russian secret police ? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Miss Bentley told that committee that she worked 
with you. Did you kno'w Miss Bentley ? 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you know Mr. Golos ? She said you worked with 
Mr. Golos. 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you deny that she was telling the truth when she 
said that you worked with her and Mr. Golos ? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. You know that Mr. Golos was part of the Russian 
secret police ; do you not ? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you work with persons known by you to be espio- 
nage agents even though they may not have been Russian espionage 
agents ? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. No. 

Mr. JMoui.DER. A^Hiat do you mean by work ? Probably the question 
should be phrased this way : Did you ever knowingly cooperate with 
espionage agents? 

Mr. Tkach. No. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you cooperate with anv agents of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment I will invoke. 

Mr. Scherer. Let us get this straight. 

Do you deny that you knew Elizabeth Bentley ? 

Mr. Needleman. I think he invoked the fifth. 

Mr. Scherer. I think he did, too. 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. What about Golos ? Isn't it a fact that you did know 
Golos? 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever recommend anybody to Mr. Golos and 
Miss Bentley to help them with their work? 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know a man by the name of Maurice ^lalkin ? 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. He told this committee that he knew you as a charter 
member of the Communist Party. Was he lying or telling the truth? 

Mr, Tkach. Fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 429 

Mr. Arens. Do you know John Lautner? 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mv. Lautner, would you stand up, please? 

Look over your left shoulder, please, Mr. Tkach. This man here 
took an oath before this committee 2 or 3 days ago and swore that he 
knew you as a member of the Communist conspiracy. Look him in 
the eye and deny it while you are under oath. Would you please ? 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Areks. You were also, were you not, on the general executive 
board of the International Workers Order? 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to display to you a photostatic repro- 
duction of the executive board of the International Workers Order as 
released by that organization in 1940 in which your name appears as 
a member from New York City. Please look at that and tell us 
whether or not you are accurately described. 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Tkach Exhibit No. 2," and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. You were president of the Ukrainian- American Fra- 
ternal Union, were you not ? . 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to lay before you a photograph of your- 
self and others appearing in the program of the Third American Slav 
Congress in which you are described as Michael Tkach, president, 
Ukrainian- American Fraternal Union under date of 1946. Please 
look at that document and tell us whether or not you are accurately 
described. 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Tkach Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Who was Michael (Michele) Salerno? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Back in 1948 you and a number of other Communist 
editors joined in a blast against the deportation of Conmiunist agent 
Michael Salerno; did you not? 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens, We would like to lay before you now a photostatic re- 
production of the Communist Daily Worker of October 12, 1948, in 
which you are listed as one of a number of editors — 19 in total — who 
joined in this blast against the Government because of its deporta- 
tion proceedings against Michael Salerno, Communist agent. Please 
look at that document and tell us whether or not that refreshes your 
recollection. 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Tkach Exhibit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I would like to invite your attention, please, Mr. 
Tkach, to several editions of the Ukrainian Daily News which you 
edit. First of all I want to ask if you would be good enough to help 
this Committee on Un-American Activities and follow in that publica- 
tion, as we allude to certain of the articles. 



430 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

The first article I want to invite your attention to is the June 4, 1952, 
issue, page 4, in which the Ukrainian Daily News attacks the United 
States Government for allegedly using bacteriological warfare in 
Korea. 

Glance at page 4 of your publication, if you please, and tell this com- 
mittee if the article, which Mr. Bonora will point out to you, does not, 
in effect, charge the United States Government with the use of bacteri- 
ological warfare in Korea. 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Tkach Exhibit No. 5,'' and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I would like to lay before you still another edition, the 
August 21, 1955, edition of the Ukrainian Daily News, page 4 again, 
in which the article urges people of Poland to return to their home- 
land. Look at that article, if vou please, on page 4, entitled, "Go 
Back Home," and tell this committee if it is not true that the essence 
of that article is an appeal to the Polish nationals of this country to 
return to Poland. 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Tkach Exhibit No. 6," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Moulder. In what language is that paper published ? 

Mr. Arens. Ukrainian. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you speak the Ukrainian language ? 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sciierer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Moi^lder. The witness is directed to answer. In so directing 
you to answer that question, the committee refuses to accept your 
reasons for not answering, because certainly it is most unreasonable to 
assume that you might incriminate yourself and subject yourself to 
criminal prosecution by answering the question as to whether or not 
you speak the Ukrainian language. In so directing you, we do it not 
in a spirit of threat, but to advise you of the possible dangers you 
might be confronted with by refusing and being in contempt of 
Congress. 

Mr. Needleman. The question was. Did he read it ? 

Mr. Moulder. I asked him the question as to whether or not he 
could speak the Ukrainian language, and he invokes the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tkach. Yes ; I do speak Ukrainian. 

Mr. Arens. And do you read it ? 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I would like to lay before you still another edition 
of your paper, Ukrainian Daily News, if you will take hold of it, 
please, sir, of May 7, 1952, page 4 again. See if this exact language 
does not appear : 

As we know, the I'Uited States Goverument denies any use of the bacteriological 
weapon in Korea. But this denial does not convince anybody, nor does it guar- 
antee that this terrible weapon will not be used in the future, especially since, 
along with those denials by the United States, alarming news about preparations 
for use of this terrible means of destruction were circulated. 

Is that the essence of the article on bacteriological warfare in your 
paper, the Ukrainian Daily News of May 7, 1952, page 4? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGAjSTDA IN THE UNITED STATES 431 

Mr. Tkach. From your reading I could not gather it. 

(Document marked "Tkach Exhibit No. 7," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Akexs. Let us try it slowly. 

Mr. JVIouLDER. jNlay I suggest that we can probably expedite the 
proceedings. You do have a photostatic copy of the document there 
before you in the Ukrainian language? 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. And you can read Ukrainian and translate it into 
English? 

Mr. Needlemax. His English obviously is poor. You can see that. 

Mr. Scherer. I do not think it is as poor as he indicates. 

Mr. Needleman. There is no basis for that. The man is having 
difficulty with the language. 

]Mr. Moulder. 1 am interrogating the witness, and I want to ask him 
some questions. 

Is this document written in English or Ukrainian? 

JVIr. Tkach. Ukrainian. 

Mr. Moulder. Can you translate it and read it to us in English? 

Mr. Tkach. I can't translate it. 

Mr. Moulder. You can't? 

Mr. Tkach. I can't. 

jNIr. ]\[ouli)er. How long have j^ou been in the journalist business? 
In the beginning jon said you were a journalist. 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. I don't know enough English to translate the article 
from the Ukrainian or from any other language I would know. 

]\Ir. Moulder. I understand you have been here now — how long in 
the United States? 

Mr. Tkach. Close to 40 years. 

Mr. Scherer. I still say what I said. This man is pretending not 
to know the English language. 

Mr. Needleman. I think it is unjustified. He is obviously having 
great difficulty. 

Mr. Arexs. Counsel, you know you are violating the rules of this 
committee right now. 

Mr. Xeedleiniax. T\^ien Mr. Scherer makes a statement reflecting on 
the character and honesty of my client, I think it deserves a comment. 

Mr. Moulder. You have been approximately 40 years in the United 
States? 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. 

Mr. ]\IouLDER. How many years did j^ou wait before you applied for 
citizenship ? 

Mr. Tkach. About 20. 

Mr. Moulder. About 20 years ? 

Mr. TiiACH. Something like that. 

Mr. Moulder. And can you give us the reasons why you delayed so 
long seeking citizenshi]) ? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. I don't know myself why. I couldn't answer that 
question. 

Mr. ISIouLDER. Proceed. 



432 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. ScHERER. You are the editor of a newspaper. Do you read the 
local newspapers in order to get information to write in this Ukrainian 
newspaper ? 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wait a minute. Do you read local newspapers? 

Mr. Needleman. That was a double question. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, you know 3'^our sole duty is to advise your 
client. 

Mr. Needleman. He has language difficulties and that was a double 
question. He ought to be asked simple questions. 

Mr. Arens. If you do not restrain yourself I shall request the com- 
mittee to have you removed from the hearing room. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you read the local press ? 

Mr. Tkach. I read it. I understand some of it, but not all. 

Mr. Scherer. You mean you only understand some of what you 
read? 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. There might be some things I do not understand 
thoroughly. I could guess. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you read magazines ? 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. The same is true with magazines. 

Mr. Scherer. It is a strange world we live in. 

Mr. Moulder. Proceed. 

Mr. Aeens. I would like to lay before you still another copy of your 
paper, the Ukrainian Daily News. We have marked in red the article 
to which I want to direct your attention. It is December 19, 1956. It 
is entitled, "Normal State Has Been Kestored in Hungary," Would 
you be good enough to follow this as I read it in English and tell the 
committee whether or not I am giving a true and correct translation ? 

Mr. Needleman". Would you indicate where you are going to start ? 
It is a long article. 

Mr. Arens. Let us start with the second paragraph. 

We are sure that the reactionaries will be very soon disappointed. 

Do you see that Mr. Tkach ? 
Mr. Tkach. Yes. 
Mr. Arens (reading) : 

We are sure that the reactionaries will be very soon disappointed. The 
Hungarian people, the workers and the farmers, will use their experience of the 
past 2 months. But not only the Hungarian workers and farmers have recog- 
nized what was offered to them by the western liberators. Also all those who 
had some objections against their governments in the countries of people's democ- 
racies, have recognized that the course suggested to them by the West, leads 
them to dead end, toward ruin and destruction. 

Then the last paragraph : 

Today the Hungarian people owe the fact that they did not fall under the 
Fascist yoke, to a great degree to the solidarity of the countries of people's 
democracies, and to the Soviet people in the first place, who do their utmost 
in order to prevent the restoration of the Fascist danger in those countries 
which entered upon the road of socialism. 

Is that a true and correct translation of the article which I have 
just laid before you? 

Mr. Tkach. As far as the translation is concerned, I think substan- 
tially it is correct. Perhaps there is not all the detail, but substan- 
tially it is correct. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 433 

Mr. Arexs. Don't you feel ashamed, as an American citizen, writing 
that kind of Communist poison in a publication wliich is dissemmi- 
nated in a land which gives you protection under the American flag? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke fifth amendment on that question. 

(Document marked ''Tkach Exhibit No. 8," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I would like to invite your attention to one more 
article, an editorial m your paper, Ukrainian Daily News of December 
29, 1955, Successes of the So^det Policy of Peace. 

Mr. Needleman. Where are you reading? 

Mr. Arens. Page 4, the editorial. Great Successes — Great Defeats. 

Mr. Scherer. This is an editorial written by this witness? 

Mr. Arens. It is an editorial in the paper of which he is the editor, 
Successes of the Soviet Policy of Peace. 

Do you see that, Mr. Tkach ? 

Mr. Tkach. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is tliis a true and correct translation ? 

(Reading:) 

Defeats on the part of the partisans of war and of disturbance of international 
relations. 

Such are the conclusions of the majority of the American press and of nearly 
all Wall Street economic journals. 

The United Nations and the countries of Asia and of the Near East are stra- 
tegic points of their examinations. 

Let us drop down a paragraph or two. '• 

In all political and strategic movements the "West is checked by the East. 
All movements of the West are suffering defeats because they basically depend 
on military force, and if not on real military force then on talks about it. All 
movements of the East are accompanied by peace propaganda which appeals to 
the great majority of the peoples of all countries. 

Recent telegrams from Moscow reported that the Government of the Soviet 
Union proposed a 10-percent decrease of military expenditures as compared 
with last year's expenses, to the Supreme Soviet. But we talk about the neces- 
sity of increasing the expenses for defense and military aid to ou rallies. 

In spite of all the attempts of the "big press" to convince public opinion that 
the decrease of the expenses for war purposes by the Soviet Government is "not 
a real decrease," and that the attempts to increase our own expenses for arma- 
ment is "not a real increase," the masses both in our country and abroad 
remain under the impression that, while some organize military blocs and arm 
themselves, others regard peace as the safest means of security. In effect the 
policy of peace defeats the policy of war. 

Peoples want peace. 

Mr. Scherer. There he comments at length very fluently on what 
the American press talks about these involved matters and then he tells 
us that he can only understand a part of what he reads. 

(Document marked "Tkach Exhibit No. 9," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Needleman. Wliere in that editorial does it say he wrote it? 

Mr. Arens. You are in violation of the rules of this connnittee. 
, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that counsel be admonished. 
_ Mr. Moulder. If counsel for witness repeats these bursts you will be 
ejected. 

Mr. Needleman. Just so I understand my position, Mr. Chair- 
man 



434 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. We lay before you another article from the Ukrain- 
ian Daily News, your paper. It is the issue of July 2, 1950. The 
essence of this article, "\Vlio is responsible for the war in Korea?" 
an editorial, is that the United States Government is responsible for 
the war in Korea; isn't that correct? Isn't that the essence of this 
article ? 

Mr. Tkach. I could not tell offhand. 

Mr. Arens. Let me read, then, certain excerpts from it. It is a 
rather long editorial. If I vary from the essence of it, you be sure to 
correct me. 

(Reading:) 

In other words, the war in Korea is being waged with the American Armed 
Forces on one side and the armed forces of the Koreans on the other hand. Tales 
about participation of the Soviets in tliis war are unfounded, so much so that 
they begin to disappear even from the pages of the capitalistic press. 

Then the very last paragraph I would like to invite to your atten- 
tion, the same theme throughout the editorial, but I will not take 
the time of the comimittee to read it all. 

During the past few days we talked about the participation of the Soviets in 
the Korean war. Even now some of the papers and radio commentators keep 
I'epeating this lie. And in reality? At the Korean theater of war on one side 
fight the armed forces of the Korean i)eople who defend their independence and 
on the other hand, American Armed Forces aided by reactionary groups of 
Koreans. Is it, therefore, difficult to determine who is responsible for the war 
in Korea? 

Now, Mr. Tkach, don't you feel ashamed, don't you feel you be- 
trayed your country, by writing that type of material while the boys 
of this country were out defending you on the battlefields of Korea? 

]\Ir. Tkach. I invoke the fifth amendment to that. Tliere is indica- 
tion that I wrote this article? 

Mr. Arens. Do you deny that you wrote this article ? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Tkach. I don't know. 

(Docmnent marked ''Tkach Exhibit No. 10,'' and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

]\Ir. Arexs. Do you deny that you are editor of the paper in which 
this editorial appears? 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. That was written during the war. 

Mr. Arens- Yes, sir; when the boys were being shot in Korea. 

IVIr. ScHERER. Such an article gives aid and comfort to the enemy 
in Avar. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. "Treason" is defined by the statutes and Constitu- 
tion of the United States as giving aid and comfort to the enemy 
during time of war. Then they worry about me hurting the integrity 
of this man. 

I have no further questions. 

Mr. Arens. I have just 1 or 2 other questions, Mr. Chairman, to 
pose to the witness, if you please. 

Have you ever gone abroad since you came to the United States ? 

Mr. Tkach. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You did go abroad in 1946 ; did you not ? 

Mr. Tkach. Fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 435 

Mr. Arens. You went abroad in 1946 to attend an international 
Communist conference in Yui^oslava ; did you not ? 

Mr. Tkach. Fif til amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact that you went with a United 
States passport to attend an international conference of Communists 
held in Yuo-oslavia, and I ask you to affirm or deny that fact. 

Mr. Tkacii. 1 invoke fifth ameiidment. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I res])ectful]y suggest that would con- 
clude the staif interrogation of this witness. 

Mr, Moulder. All of the documents referred to by counsel and 
submitted to the witness for identification and examination are ad- 
mitted in evidence as a part of the record by reference, 

Mr. Scherer, do you have any additional questions? 

Mr. SoHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder, You are excused as a witness. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr, Frank Ilchuk, 

Mr, Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Ilciiuk. I do. -. ' . 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK ILCHUK, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ISADORE G. NEEDLEMAN 

Mr, Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Ilchuk. Frank Ilchuk, 100 Second Avenue, N"ew York City. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation ? 

Mr. Ilchuk. I decline to answer that question on the protection 
afforded me by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr, Ilchuk, That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Ilchuk, Yes, sir, 

Mr. Needleman, Isadore Needleman, 165 Broadway, Xew York, 
N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Ilchuk, who is the man who preceded you on the 
witness stand? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Ilciiuk. I decline to answer that question for the reason pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens, He is the editor of the Ukrainian Daily News, Inc., of 
which you are the secretary-treasurer; isn't that true? 

Mr. Ilchuk. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact 

Mr. Needleman. The answer was not completed, Mr, Chairman. 

Mr. Arens, You are secretary-treasurer of the Ukrainian Daily 
News Inc, ? 

Mr, Ilciiuk, Would you repeat that ? 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you are one of the owners of the Ukrainian Daily News. 
I ask vou to affirm or denv that fact. 



436 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Ilchuk. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. We lay before you the thermofax reproduction of the 
statement required by the postal laws filed by the Ukrainian Daily 
News in which your name appears as one of the owners of the Ukrain- 
ian Daily News, Inc. Please look at that document and tell us 
whether or not that is a true and accui'ate description of your status 
with that publication. 

(Document previously designated "Tkach Exhibit No. 1"; retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Needleman. The 2 questions, Mr. Chairman — I mean the an- 
swer to the question asked just before these last 2 simply said he de- 
clined, and then Mr. Arens went on. I don't want it to appear that he 
was declining without a reason. 

Mr. Moulder. Very well. At the appropriate place in the record 
where he declines to answer, you wish to add, do you, that you decline 
to answer for the reason it might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Ilchuk. The first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Moulder. You are invoking the protection of the first and fifth 
amendments ? 

Mr. Ilchuk. I decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever traveled abroad ? 

Mr. Ilchuk. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so ordered and directed. 

Mr. Ilchuk. I still decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. The fact is that in 1947 you did travel abroad as edu- 
cational director of the Ukrainian- American Fraternal Union ; is that 
not correct ? 

Mr. Ilchuk. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Were you educational director of the Ukrainian- 
American Fraternal Union ? 

Mr. Ilchuk. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever registered under the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ilchuk. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Has your paper, the Ukrainian Daily News, ever reg- 
istered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act ? 

Mr. Ilchuk. I decline to answer on the protection afforded me by 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. '\'\^iere are you employed ? What is the physical loca- 
tion of the establishment by which you are employed ? 

Mr. Ilchuk. I decline to answer that for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you this moment a Communist ? 

Mr. Ilchuk. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you ask the witness where he was born ? 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Ilchuk. I was born in the Ukraine. At that time it was part 
of Austria-Hungary. 



COMlVrUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 437 

Mr. Akens. Wlien did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Ilchuic. 1912. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen ? 

Mr. Ilchuk. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Akens. When did you become a citizen ? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Ilchuk. Will you repeat that last question ? 

Mr. Arens. When did you become a citizen? 

Mr. Ilchuk. 1919. I have derivative citizenship. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to lay before you several exhibits in 
order to economize on time. We will lay before you about 3 or 4 
at a time, showing your identification with each of several organiza- 
tions. The first exliibit I would like to lay before you is the Slavic 
American of 1947, in which an article appears and in which your 
photograph appears as one of those elected to represent the New York 
Youth Council at the World Youth Festival to be held at that time in 
Prague. 

Look at that one, if you please. 

(Document marked "Ilchuk Exliibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Also, would you be good enough to look at the Fraternal 
Outlook of June-July 1915, in which you are identified as a former 
director of the Ukrainian Leontovich Chorus and the IWO Ukrainian 
American Section cultural director. 

(Document marked "Ilchuk Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. A copy of the Communist Daily Worker of February 2, 
1953, in which you are identified as conductor of the Ukrainian Peoples 
Chorus. 

(Document marked "Ilchuk Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. A copy of the Daily Worker of July 9, 1948, in which 
you are identified as head of the American-Ukrainian Society, IWO. 

(Document marked "Ilchuk Exhibit No 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. A copy of the Daily Worker of August 10, 1949, in 
which you are identified as one of the leaders of a picket group to 
picket the trial of the traitors at Foley Square who were convicted 
here before Judge Medina. 

(Document marked "Ilchuk Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Look at each of those exhibits and see if you won't be 
good enough while you are under oath to tell this committee whether 
or not you are accurately described in each of those several exhibits. 

Mr. Ilchuk. In respect to all of them I refuse to answer the ques- 
tion for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. What clubs do you belong to at the present time which 
are not connected with the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Ilchuk. I decline to answer that question for reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. All exhibits referred to by counsel and submitted to 
the witness will be made a part of the record by reference. 



438 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness would be Mr. Anthony Bimba. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Bimba. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ANTHONY BIMBA, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ISADORE G. NEEDLEMAN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Bimba. Anthony Bimba, 9523 114th Street, Richmond Hill, 
N. Y. ; occupation, journalist. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Bimba. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel 'I 

Mr. Bimba. Yes. 

Mr. Needleman. Isadore G. Needleman, 165 Broadway, New York 
City. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed ? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Bimba. I invoke the protection of the tifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are employed, are you not, as editor of a Lithu- 
anian paper called Sviesa, isn't that correct? 

Mr. Bimba. I decline on the same ground. 

Mr. Arens. We lay before you a thermofax reproduction of a 
statement required under the postal laws filed by this paper, Sviesa, 
in which you are identified as editor and managing editor of the 
paper, Avhich is, according to this document, owned and operated by 
an American Lithuanian Workers Literary Association. Please look 
at that document and tell this Committee on Un-American i\.ctivities 
whether or not you are accurately described therein. 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Bimba. I invoke the protection of the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

(Document marked "Bimba Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born and when? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Bimba. Lithuania. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien? 

Mr. Bimba. 1894. 

Mr. Arens. When did vou come to the United States ? 

Mr. Bimba. 1913. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come for permanent residence? 

(No response.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the Lhiited States ? 

Mr. Bimba. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you naturalized? 

Mr. Bimba. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. ^^lien and wheie were you naturalized? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 439 

Mr. Bemba. 1927. 

Mr. Arens. 'Where? 

Mr. BiMBA. Queens, New York. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist conspiracy when 
you were naturalized? 

Mr. BiMBA. I invoke the protection of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you take an oath to support and defend the Consti- 
tution of the United States against all enemies foreign and domestic 
when you were naturalized? 

Mr. BiMBA. I decline. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest tliat the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. BiMBA. Yes, I did take an oath. 

Mr. Arens. Did you lie or tell the truth when you took that oath ? 

Mr. BiMBA. I told the truth. 

Mr. Arens. Were you then a member of a conspiratorial apparatus 
designed to destroy the Constitution of the United States and over- 
throw the Government of the United States by force and violence? 

Mr. BiMBA. I invoke the protection of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a Communist? 

Mr. BiMBA. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. You have been a Communist right from the start ; have 
you not? 

Mr. BiMBA. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I want to show you one of the exhibits of the Workers 
Party of America which even antedated the Communist Party in the 
United States, in which you served as a delegate of the Workers Party 
many, many years ago out in Chicago. 

Look at this document and tell this committee while you are under 
oath if you are not accurately described there as one of the leaders of 
the Workers Party which antedated the Communist Party. 

(Witness examined document and consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. BiMBA. Fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Bimba Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Are you a Marxist ? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Bimba. I decline on the same ground. 

Mr. Arens. I want to read you part of an article, and I will show 
you the whole article written by yourself, in The Communist, Novem- 
ber 1934, entitled, "Dynamite Against the Working Class, reviewed 
by Anthony Bimba."' 

We Marxists have always maintained that in a class society all writers are 
influenced by the existing class forces — 

And so forth. 

Look at this article if you please, sir, and tell this committee while 
you are under oath if it is true that you are the author of that article 
appearing in the publication then known as The Communist. 

(Witness exammed document and consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Bimba. Fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Bimba Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a candidate for public office? 



440 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. BiMBA. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Abens. Back in 1933 you ran for the supreme court of this 
State on the Communist Party ticket ; did you not ? 

Mr. Beviba. Decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Look at this exhibit, the Connnunist Daily Worker of 
September 19, 1933, in which you are listed as one of the candidates — 
running for the supreme court — along with some of the top-flight 
Communist agents in this country of the conspiratorial apparatus, and 
tell this committee whether or not you are accurately described. 

(Witness examined document and conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Bimba. I decline on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Bimba ExMbit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Your activities in the Communist Party have been 
somewhat broader than those in behalf of the United States, have 
they not ? 

Mr. Bimba. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I have a copy of the Communist Daily Worker of 
January 21, 1936, telling about some of your activities to aid the 
Communists in Italy. The article is headed, "Communists in U. S. 
Open Drive to Aid Brother Party in Italy," and tells about the activi- 
ties of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the United 
States in raising funds and assisting the Communist conspirators in 
Italy. Listed as part of this conspiratorial apparatus which is doing 
this to destroy the free Christian world is one A. Bimba. 

Look at this and tell this committee while mider oath whether that 
accurately describes that nefarious activity. 

(Witness examined document and consulted counsel.) 

Mr. Bimba. Decline on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Bimba Exliibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you Imow Manning Johnson ? 

Mr. Bimba. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. He identified you as one of the principal agents of the 
conspiratorial apparatus of the Communist Party. Was he lying or 
telling the truth ? 

Mr. Bimba. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. This newspaper of yours, Sviesa, follows the Commu- 
nist Party line of the Kremlin without deviation ; does it not ? 

Mr. Bimba. I invoke the protection of the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Moulder. Wliat is the name of the newspaper ? 

Mr. Arens. It is a publication called Sviesa printed in the Lithu- 
anian language. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you ever read that newspaper ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Bimba. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. All of the documents referred to by counsel and sub- 
mitted to the witness for identification will be admitted in evidence 
as a part of the record by reference. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 441 

Mr. ScHERER. You were born in, did you say, Russia ? 

Mr. BiMBA. I was born in Lithuania. 

Mr. ScHERER. "What city? 

Mr. BiMBA. Not a city ; a village. 

Mr. ScHERER. "What was the name of the village? 

Mr. BiMBA. Uzsieniai. 

Mr. ScHERER. How do you spell that? 

Mr. BiMBA, U-z-s-i-e-n-i-a-i. 

Mr. ScHERER. When were you naturalized ? 

Mr. BiMBA. 1927. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is all. Mr. Chairman, I move that this com- 
mittee recommend to the Department of Justice that the citizenship of 
Michael Tkach, the editor of the Ukrainian Daily News, in whose 
papers appeared the editorials which amounted to treason, be revoked. 

I also move that this committee recommend to the Department of 
Justice and the Immigration and Naturalization Service that the citi- 
zenship of this last witness be revoked. 

That is the only effective way we are going to deal with these people 
who come to this country and gain citizenship and then in time of war 
do what amounts to treason. 

Mr. Needleman. Mr. Chairman, I thought this committee reports 
to Congress. 

Mr. Moulder, W^ithout objection, it will be so ordered and recom- 
mended by this subcommittee. I would suggest, however, that pro- 
cedure be followed by submitting it to the full committee for the 
recommendation of the Committee on Un-American Activities, as you 
suggest. Is that agreeable ? 

Mr. Scherer. Surely. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Roy Mizara. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. MizARA. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ROY MIZARA, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ISADORE G. NEEDLEMAN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. MizARA. Roy Mizara, journalist. 

Mr. Arens. And your residence? 

Mr. MizARA. 35-38 75th Street, Jackson Heights, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by tlie House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mr. MizARA. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Mizara. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Needleman. Isadore G. Needleman, 165 Broadway, New York 
City. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are you employed ? I don't believe you told us. 

Mr. MizARA. I refuse to answer by invoking the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are employed as editor and managing editor of a 
Communist-controlled paper by the name of Laisve; are you not? 



442 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. MizARA. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to lay before you now the statement of 
ownership required by the postal laws and a statement which was filed 
by this publication, in which you are identified as the editor and as the 
managing editor. Please look at these documents and tell this com- 
mittee while you are under oath whether or not you are accurately 
described therein. 

Mr. MizARA. I decline to answer by invoking the first and fifth 
amendments. 

(Documents marked "Mizara Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Where were you born, Mr. Mizara ? 

Mr. Mizara. Lithuania. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Mizara. 1913. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen ? 

Mr. Mizara. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SciiERER. Lithuania is part of Russia now ? 

Mr. Mizara. It used to be part of Russia at that time. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was it part of Russia when you were born, or now ? 

Mr. Mizara. When I was born. 

Mr. ScHERER. It was part of Russia then ? 

Mr. Mizara. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. And you were born in Mercin, Russia, then ? 

Mr. Mizara, Yes, sir. It is a small town. 

Mr. SciiERER. You were naturalized when ? 

Mr. Mizara. 1927. 

Mr. ScnERER. In Brooldyn, N. Y. ? 

Mr. Mizara. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist conspiracy when 
you were naturalized ? 

Mr. Mizara. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a Communist this moment? 

Mr. Mizara. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to ask you, Do you read Lithuanian ? 

Mr. Mizara. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly be good enough to follow me here in your paper 
while I read excerpts from each of several of your articles. The first 
is an article ajipearing under date of June 21, 1950. 

Mr. Moulder. What is the name of this paper ? 

Mr. Arens. Laisve. What does that mean ? 

Mr. INIizARA. Liberty. 

Mr. Arens. Your paper stands for liberty ; does it ? 

(No response.) 

Mr, Arens, I am glad to have that translation, that it does stand 
for liberty, because, according to some of these translations, it stands 
pretty much for the massacre of liberty and for the Soviet Union. 
Follow me there, 

Mr, M(^ULDER, Let us get the record clear. The document which 
you hold before you is a photostatic copy of a newspaper (June 21, 
1950) , and in what language are the, articles printed ? 

Mr. Mizara. In Lithuanian. 

Mr. Moulder. And you can read and write Lithuanian; is that 
correct ? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 443 

Mr. MizARA. That is right. 

Mr. Moulder. Could you point out there the article in the docu- 
ment which you hold in your hand which you want to be read ? Could 
you read that to us in English ? 

jVIr. Mizara. I can't ; I'm sorry, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. You can't translate from Lithuanian to English by 
reading it ? 

]\Ir. SlizARA. I can read from English into Lithuanian, because that 
is easier. But it is difficult for me to translate correctly from Lithu- 
anian into English. 

Mr. Moulder. Then Mr. Arens will proceed along the lines he has 
been proceeding, to read it in English and ask you whether it is 
correct. 

Mr. xVrens. Do you have an article there, entitled : "Voices for Peace 
Throughout the World" ? 

Mr. IVIizARA. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I am going to read you 2 or 3 paragraphs from that. 

It is a happy event that the solicitation of signatures for the Stockholm 
petition for peace is being carried out on a large scale. It has already been 
signed by several hundred thousand Americans. Committees for peace have 
been organized everywhere. Lithuanians must not remain behind the others. 

* * * The solicitation of signatures has met with difficulties in our country. 
Here the Government, the radio, and the commercial press are unanimously 
condemning the supporters of peace and urge citizens not to sign the peace 
petition. It is surprising how many people are treating this question seriously 
and are signing the peace petition. By this action, they express their deepest 
desire for peace. 

It is not necessary to explain that people in the Soviet Union are signing 
the peace petitions by the millions. There the situation is completely different : 
The Government, the radio, and the press are urging the citizens to sign the 
Stockholm petition. 

Is that a substantially correct translation? 

Mr. Mizara. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you write that ? 

Mr. IVIizara. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. That appeared in your paper ; did it not ? 

IVIr. MizARx\. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Don't you have a sense of disgrace writing that line of 
the international Communist conspiracy for permeation here in this 
country mider whose protection you enjoy the rights of citizenship ? 

(No response.) 

Mr. Moulder. Do you decline to answer that by invoking the fifth 
amendment? 

Mr. Mizara. Yes. 

(Document marked "Mizara Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Moulder. How could you possibly be incriminated, or possibly 
be subjected to criminal prosecution, by promoting peace in the world 
or by signing a peace petition or by encouraging people to support a 
peace petition ? 

Mr. Mizara. I decline to answer for the previous reason. 

Mr. Arens. I want to read you an article, from your paper of No- 
vember 8, 19.56, on the Hungarian atrocity by the Soviets. This is 
"Regret and Reality." Follow me please while I read this. 

90121—57 — pt. 6 6 



444 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Let every decent person ask himself : Should the Soviet Army stationed there 
[in Hungary], seeing the horrible rage of the Fascists, the massacres and an- 
archy, not have interfered? 

Mr. MizARA. I beg your pardon. I can't follow that. 
Mr. Arens. This is the paper of November 8, 1956; the editorial 
entitled "Regret and Reality." Do you see that one ? 
Mr. MizARA. That is the headline. 
Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Let every decent person asls himself: Should the Soviet Army stationed there 
[in Hungary], seeing the horrible rage of the Fascists, the massacres and an- 
archy, not have interfered? If the Soviet Union had not helped, upon the 
demand of the Hungarian Government, the Soviet Union vpould have fallen into 
the disfavor of all the civilized world. * * * 

It seems to us that such should be the attitude tovpard events in Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. Is that a true and correct translation ? 

Mr. IVIizARA. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly believe that if the Soviet Union had 
not gone into Hungary and mowed down the innocent women and 
children fighting for their freedom, the Soviet Union would have 
fallen into the disfavor of all of the civilized world ? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. MiZARA. Is that a question? 

Mr. Arens. Yes; it is a question. You are a citizen of the United 
States. You have the protection of this flag. Tell us whether or not 
you honestly believe that, if the Soviet Union had not marched in 
there with its troops and mowed down those innocent people, it would 
have lost favor with the civilized world. 

Mr. MizARA. I don't want to discuss this. 

Mr. Moulder. The first question should be, Did you write the 
article ? 

Mr. MiZARA. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have any knowledge or information concern- 
ing the article that was read by Mr. Arens? 

Mr. MiZARA. Same answer. 

(Document marked "Mizara Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I want to lay before you several documents. One 
is an edition of your paper of May 15, 1952. Also, of June 12, 1952, 
two of them, about the massacre by the American troops of the inno- 
cent prisoners of war. 

Mr. Scherer. We were fighting in Korea at that time ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Follow this one: "New Massacre of Prisoners of War." Do you 
see that ? 

Mr. MizARA. Yes. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

What happened on the island of Koje, in Korea, last Monday will shock not 
only America but the whole world. Never in history has such an event taken 
place. More than 30 prisoners were killed, and about 150 were wounded. * * * 

It has been said that our principles and our conscience do not permit forcing 
the prisoners of war to return to Communist countries against their will; 
however, the same principles in conscience permits us to wage war against 
prisoners who are imprisoned, unarmed, and confined. 

Is that a true and correct translation of that editorial in your 
paper? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 445 

Mr. IVIizARA. I don't follow it exactly. 

Mr. Arens. Let me read the last paragraph to you again very 
carefully : 

It has been said that our principles and our conscience do not permit forcing 
the prisoners of war to return to the Communist countries against their will; 
however, the same principles and conscience permits us to wage war against 
prisoners who are imprisoned, unarmed, and confined. 

Is that a true and correct translation of the editorial in your paper ? 

Mr. MiZARA. Yes. 

(Documents marked "Mizara Exhibit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Moulder. According to your testimony you have not admitted 
that it is your paper, as I understand it. 

Mr. Mizara. Yes. 

Mr. Needleman. Mr. Arens has been doing that in every question. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Counsel, don't start tangling with me. 

Mr. Needleman. You keep saying "your" paper when we have not 
said so. 

Mr. Moulder. Let us proceed. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to invite your attention to one more. It is 
an editorial appearing in Laisve of February 9, 1952, entitled, "War 
Came to an End." Do you follow me ? 

Mr. Mizarx\. Yes. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

A cold war started. In our country a campaign to denounce the Soviet Union, 
our most powerful ally during the war, began * * * 

"Witnesses" with masks were called, and they said that they had seen Com- 
munists massacre Poles in the forest of Katyn ! 

All this "investigation" is nothing but a farce. No decent man believes or 
will believe it. But for those who want to influence public opinion against the 
Soviet Union, and favor hangmen and Nazis, the goal justifies the means. 

Is that a true and correct translation of that editorial ? 

Mr. Mizara. More or less. 

Mr. Arens. Is it substantially correct ? 

Mr. Mizara. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you write it! 

Mr. Mizara. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Mizara Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Another one I would like to invite to your attention — 
June 12, 1951, in your paper, Laisve. "Who is Afraid of Whom?" 
is the title of this editorial. Do you see it ? 

Mr. Mizara. Yes. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

George Sokolsliy, of the Hearst press, published the following in his column 
a few days ago : 

"The United Nations fears Soviet Russia. It appears from the testimony be- 
fore the Russell committee that the United States also feai-s Soviet Russia * * *" 

Everybody knows very well that the Soviet Union has not attacked and will 
not attack the United States. The Soviet Union is anxious for peace, but not 
for war. The people of the Soviet Union are concerned for, and are devoted to, 
the cause of peace and the prosperity of their country. Neither the Government 
of the Soviet Union, nor its press or radio, has ever threatened the United 
States with atom bombs or war. 

Then, why should the American people be afraid of the Soviet Union? 



446 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

It is true that the Soviet Union should be afraid of the United States because 
provocateurs in this country are threatening daily through the press and the- 
radio to completely destroy one or another Soviet city vpith an atom bomb and 
other weapons. 

Is that a substantially correct translation of the editorial appearing 
in Laisve? 

Mr. MizARA. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you write it? 

Mr. ]\IizARA. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Mizara Exhibit No. 6," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. We have others. We will use only a few more and 
that will be all, Mr. Chairman, that we want to submit for tliis 
record because I think the line is pretty clear here. 

This is a translation from Laisve. You say Laisve stands for lib- 
erty? 

Mr. MizARA. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. November 21, 1951. You see "The American Jewish 
Committee" ? 

Mr. MizARA. Yes. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

The American Jewish Committee a few days ago published a statement con- 
demning the Soviet Union for "persecution of Jews" living in the Soviet Repub- 
lics. 

It is evident that the accusations of the Jewish Committee are without any 
foundation. Anyone with any knowledge knows well that Jews in the Soviet 
Union have equal rights with other nations ; there is no place there for anti- 
Semitism. 

Is that a true and correct translation ? 

Mr. MizAKA. With the exception that this paragraph was not trans- 
lated fully. 

Mr. Arens. You complete the translation. That is the only transla- 
tion we have from the experts in the Library of Congress who 
translated this for us. 

Mr. Mizara. If I am incorrect, please excuse me, but I will try to 
translate. 

Jewish scientists, Jewish articles, Jewish writers, and Jewish other great 
people there have equal rights as other nationalities. 

Mr. Arens. That is in the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Mizara. That is the end of the paragraph, sir. 

(Document marked "Mizara Exhibit No. 7," and retained in com- 
mittee files. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. I have a copy of the Communist Daily 
Worker of August 7, 1929, showing you as a candidate of the Com- 
munist Party in the election here for State assembly. Please look 
at that document, as I display it to you, and tell this committee 
whether or not you are accurately described as one of the candidates of 
the Communist Party here. 

Mr. Scherer. What year was that ? 

Mr. Arens. 1929, August 7. 

Would you kindly tell us whether or not j^ou are accurately de- 
scribed ? 

Mr. Mizara. I refuse to answer on the same STOunds. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 447 

(Document marked "Mizara Exhibit No. 8," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I ^A'ould like to display to you another document in 
which you are shown to be one of the ringleaders of the Workers Party 
of America, which even antedated the Communist Party and out of 
which the Communist Party emerged. Please look at this — The Sec- 
ond Year of the Workers Party of America — in which your name ap- 
pears as one of the delegates : lloy Mizara, of the Polish Federation. 

Mr. Moulder. ^AHiat year was that? 

Mr. BoNORA. The 1024 convention of the party. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Moulder. What is your response? 

Mr. Mizara. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Mizara Exhibit No. 9," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. We have other documents along this same line here but 
I realize the press of time today, Mr. Chairman, and I believe we have 
made the record clear on this witness' background and activities. 

Mr. Moulder. All of the documents referred to by counsel and sub- 
mitted to the witness for examination, together with the translations 
read by counsel, will be admitted in evidence as a part of the record 
by reference. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. ]\[izara, in your newspaper, as has been read to 
us, you approve the action of Russia in Plungary ; then I assume that 
you have not severed your connections with the Communist Party since 
the atrocity by the Communists in Hungary, is that right? 

Mr. MizARA. I refuse to answer on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. The fact is that you are still a member of the party 
today, is it not? 

Mr. Mizara. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. And that your newspaper, as lias been demonstrated 
to us here today, is daily promoting the Russian and Communist line 
in regard to all of these matters. 

Mr. Mizara. I decline to answer on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you have any connections today with any people 
dn Russia? 

Mr. Mizara. I decline to answer, sir, on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you been abroad in the last 10 years? 

Mr. Mizara. I decline to answer, sir, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you ever been back to Russia? 

Mr. Mizara. I decline to answer, sir, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. jSIoulder. Are you married? 

Mr. IMizARA. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have a family? 

Mr. Mizara. No. 

Mr. Moulder. I was going to ask if any members of your family 
■were in the armed services in the last war. 

You are excused as a witness. 

The committee will stand in recess for a period of 5 minutes. 

(Thereupon, a brief recess was taken.) 

(Committee members present after the recess were: Representa- 
tives Moulder and Scherer.) 



448 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. David Krinkin. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Krinkin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP DAVID Z. KKINKIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ISADORE G. NEEDLEMAN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Krinkin. David Krinkin is my name. Occupation, journalist. 

Mr. Arens. Where do you live? 

Mr. Krinkin. 84 Horatio Street, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities ? 

Ml'. Krinkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Krinkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Needleisian. Isadore G. Needleman, 165 Broadway, New York, 
N.Y. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are you employed ? 

Mr. Krinkin. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. Let us clarify the record. Do I understand you cor- 
rectly when you say, in response, you invoke the privileges under the 
fifth amendment in declining to answer ? Is that your response now 
to his question ? 

Mr. Krinkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are employed and you are the editor of Kussky 
Golos ; are you not ? 

Mr. Krinkin. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. To clarify the record, you are claiming the privilege 
under the fifth amendment. You decline to answer for the same rea- 
sons you might say to expedite the hearings. 

Mr. Krinkin. The same reason. 

Mr. Arens. I have here, and I will display to you in just an instant, 
a copy of the statement of ownership required by the postal laws and 
filed by the Russky Golos Publishing Corp. under date of October 1, 
1956, in which David Z. Krinkin is identified as editor of the Russky 
Golos. Please look at that statement and tell us whether or not you 
are accurately described in that document. 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Krinkin. Decline on the first amendment and fifth. 

(Docmnent marked "Krinkin Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Krinkin. Where I was born i Russia. 

Mr. Arens. When ? 

Ml-. Krinkin. 1890. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you come to the United States ? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 449 

Mr. Krinkin. 1914, 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen ? 

Mr. Krinkin. I am ; naturalized. 

Mr. Arens. When were you naturalized ? 

Mr. Krinkin. In 1920. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere? 

Mr. Krinkin. Bronx Supreme Court. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist when you were naturalized ? 

Mr. Krinkin. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you read Russian ? 

Mr. Krinkin. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Would you be good enough to follow me here in this 
paper, Russky Golos, this editorial I am going to read, of December 
16, 1956, about the Hungarian Revolution, as reported in your paper. 

Mr. Moulder. May I ask a question ? 

You hold in your hands a photostatic copy of a document? 

Mr. IvRiNKiN. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. In what language is it printed ? 

Mr. Krinkin. What language? That is Russian. 

Mr. Moulder, Can you read the Russian language and translate it 
into English at the time you are reading it ? 

Mr. ICrinkin. Could I read the Russian language as well as the 
English? 

Mr. Moulder. Can you read that article to us that counsel refers to 
you, in English ? 

Mr. Krinkin. You want me to read that article ? 

Mr. Moulder. In English, if you can. 

Mr. KJRiNKiN. I could. 

Mr. Arens. Then would you be good enough to translate it for us? 
Do you see the article about. The Plans of Reactionary Forces ? 

Mr. IvRiNKiN. This article is called The Plan of Reaction. 

Mr. Arens. Read it loud, please. 

Mr, Krinkin. In Russian ? 
- Mr. Arens. No, in English. 

Mr, Krinkin, That would take some time. It would not be as 
quickly. 

Mr. Moulder. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Let me read it in English and you follow in Russian. 

* * * The events in Hungary throw a clear light on how American organizers 
of subversive work operate. American agents intensitied their subversive work 
just at the time that the Hungarian Government undertook a new policy and 
began to undo previously committed errors. If it had not been for American in- 
tervention in Hungary, changes would have been made which would have cor- 
responded to the interests and demands of the Hungarian people. Hungary 
could have taken the same road as Poland, avoiding catastrophic shocks, but the 
experience of Hungary clearly shows that in their drive to weaken the might of 
the Soviet Union and the whole Socialist camp, the rulers in AVashiugton are 
ready to use all means at their command, without concern for the results in 
the countries to which they are supposedly bringing "liberation." * * * 

Is that a true and correct translation ? 

Mr, Ivrinklin, The translation is true. 

Mr. Arens. Did you write this ? 

Mr, Kjiinkin. No, 

Mr, Arens. Who wrote it ? 

Mr. Krinkin. This I decline to answer on the fifth amendment. 



450 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. Was it written under your supervision ? 

Mr. Keinkhst. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Was it written in Moscow and then put in your paper 
here ? 

Mr. Krinkin. I decline to answer this on the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Krinkin Exhibit No. 2,'' and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. xA.RENS. Wliat does Eussky Golos mean ? How do you translate 
that title? 

Mr. Krinkin. Russky Golos means Russian Voice. 

Mr. ScHERER. It certainly is. 

Mr. Krinkin. Russian Voice. 

Mr. Moulder. Can you tell us approximately how many people 
there are in this country who were born in Russia ? 

Mr. Krinkin. I was born in Russia. 

Mr. Moulder. Can you tell us about how many people there are m 
this country who were born in Russia ? 

Mr. Krinkin. I have no idea. 

Mr. Moulder. Can you give us approximately how many people in 
this country can read the Russian language ? 

Mr. Krinkin. I have no idea. 

Mr. Scherer. What is the circulation of that paper of yours? 

Mr. Krinkin. Fifth amendment. I invoke my fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you understand my question? 

Mr. Krinkin. I do understand your question. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion as to the circulation of this paper. How could that incriminate 
liim? 

Mr. INIouLDER. The witness is directed to answer. 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Krinkin. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. We want to make it clear to you that the committee 
does not accept your reasons for refusing to answer, and you are di- 
rected to answer l^ecause of the possible dangers of being guilty of con- 
tempt of Congress. 

Mr. IvRiNKTN. I still insist upon the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know the circulation of the paper ? 

Mr. Krinkin. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. It is obvious to me that this witness is in contempt. 
How could that possibly incriminate you to say whether or not you 
know the circulation of this paper? What did you say the name of 
the paper was? 

Mr. Krinkin. The name of the paper that I read here is Russky 
Golos. 

]\Ir. ]\Ioulder. You may proceed. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to lay before you another copy of your 
paper, the Russky Golos, of September 16, 1951, page 4, and invite 
your attention to the editorial, or the article entitled "The laiited 
States and the Hopes of the People of Japan." 

Do you see that article, or editorial ? 

Mr. Krinkin. I see it here ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is that an editorial or article? I cannot tell from the 
translation. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGAXDA IN THE UNITED STATES 451 

Mr. Krinkix. Do vou mind if von read the translation as I follow 
it? ^ ' 

Mr. Arexs. I will do that. I want to know whether it is an edi- 
torial or an article. What is it? You have it there in Russian, You 
can read Russian and I can't. 

Mr. KRIX'^KIx^ That seems to be an article. 

Mr. Arexs, I would like to read it to you and you follow, 

Mr. Krixkix. O. K. 

Mr. Arens. If you please, sir. 

In the treaty just concluded between the United States and Japan, there is 
a special provision which should cause particular alarm for the people of 
America. 

The United States is undertaking the task of crushing popular movements 
within Japan. 

Such a circumstance not only violates all the principles of noninterference 
in the internal affairs of another nation, but tramples iipon the traditions of 
the United States itself, traditions which were born in the storm of a people's 
liberation movement, and makes the country an international policeman. 

One cannot say that such a situation is entirely new for the United States. 
Since the announcement of the '•Truman Doctrine," the United States has more 
than once undertaken to assist reactionaries against the people. It was thus 
in Greece, then in China, Indonesia, and in Vietnam. But as far back as the 
creation of the Atlantic Alliance, a similar "police provision" was shamefully 
hidden and masked by many provisions. And at the start of the Korean war, 
President Truman started to call the military operation a "police action," but 
soon preferred to hide under the shameful mask of carrying out an international 
decision of the United Nations. 

For the first time, in the treaty with Japan, the United States of America 
openly undertakes without any international pretexts the function of the suh- 
duer of people's movements against their national oppressors. * * * 

Is that a true and correct translation ? 

Mr. Krixkix, I think it is. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you write it ? 

Mr. Krix^kix-^, No, 

Mr, Arex^s. Was it published in your paper? 

Mr. Krix^kix'. Fifth amendment, 

Mr. Arex^s, Do you Iniow who wrote it? 

Mr. Krix'kix. Fifth amendment, 

(Document marked "Krinkin Exhibit No, 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. I want to display to you certain documents. 

The first is a document, by its face issued by the New York State 
Committee of the Communist Party in September 1930, telling all 
about the Communist Party, and calling upon the people to join. It 
has the hammer and sickle here. Listing a number of people on behalf 
of the Communist Party who are issuing this statement, including one 
D. Krinkin. 

Look at that document and tell us whether or not you are accurately 
described there. 

(Witness examined document and consulted counsel,) 

Mr. Krinkin. Fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Krinkin Exhibit No. 4," and retained in 
cominittee files.) 

Mr. Arens, Now I want to display to you 2 or 3 other documents. 

The first is a photostatic reproduction of the Communist Daily 
Worker of June 7, 1949, in which you are listed, among others, in 
protesting the jailing of the traitors who were convicted in Foley 
Square. 



452 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

The next one is an article of the Communist Daily Worker of 
October 12, 1948, in which you are listed as editor of Kussky Golos, 
joining with a number of other Communist editors in attacking de- 
portation of a Communist agent. 

Mr. Krinkin. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Needleman. Wait, he will give them all to you. 

Mr. Arens. The last that I will display to you now is a photostatic 
reproduction of 

Mr. Krinkin. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens (continuing). An article which states you were address- 
ing a group on behalf of the Rosenbergs ; (Daily Worker, October 27, 
1952, p. 8) Dr. David Krinkin, editor of the Russian newspaper, 
Russky Golos. 

Please look at those exhibits and tell this committee while you are 
under oath whether or not you are accurately described therein. 

Mr. Krinkin. Fifth amendment. 

(Documents marked "Krinkin Exhibits Nos. 5, 6, and 7," respec- 
tively, and retained in committee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Is your paper in truth and in fact an arm of the inter- 
national propaganda machine of the Kremlin ? 

Mr. Krinkin. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Akens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. All the documents referred to by counsel and sub- 
mitted to the witness for examination are admitted in evidence as a 
part of tlie record by reference. 

Are there any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. No. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness is Samuel Nikolauk. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL J. NIKOLAUK, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ISADOEE G. NEEDLEMAN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. Samuel J. Nikolauk, 2117 24th Avenue, Astoria. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation ? 

Mr. Nikolauk. A newspaperman. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the man who just left the stand ? 

Mr. Nikolauk. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon joii by the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties? 

Mr. Nikolauk. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Nikolauk. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Needleman. Isadore G. Needleman, 165 Broadway, New York, 
N.Y. 



COIVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 453 

Mr. Arens. Who was the man who just left the stand? I don't 
believe you told us. 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. I invoked the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Arens. He is the editor of the paper, Kussky Golos, of which 
you are one of the officials ; is he not ? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. Fifth amendment to that. 

Mr. Arens. He is the editor of Russky Golos, of which you are one 
of the officials; is he not? 

papers in which the Russky Golos corporation makes certain adjust- 
ment in the stock structure of the company, which you signed as secre- 
tary of the Russky Golos Publishing Corp. Please look at this docu- 
ment and, if you will be good enough, identify your own signature 
there as secretary of the Russky Golos Publishing Corp., which pub- 
lishes the newspaper, Russky Golos. 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. Fifth amendment. 

(Document previously identified as "Bayer Exhibit No. 1," and 
retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wliere was this witness born ? 

Mr. Arens. Wliere were you born ? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. In Russia. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. 1895. 

Mr. ScHERER. How many witnesses have we had here who were born 
in Russia, Lithuania, or part of Russia; five or six? 

Mr. Arens. I would say at least that number. 

When did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. 1912. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of this country? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. By naturalization? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. "\Yliere and when were you naturalized? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. 1919, January 14, in Atlanta, Ga. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist conspiracy when 
you were naturalized? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. Fifth amendment to that. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to display to you two or three documents, 
Mr. Nikolauk. 

The first is a publication of the Fraternal Outlook, published by 
the International Workers Order, "Brother Sam Nikolauk," identified 
here as president of the National Committee of the American Russian 
Fraternal Society, IWO. 

Please look at this and tell the committee while you are under oath 
whether or not you are accurately described there as president of the 
National Committee of the American Russian Fraternal Society, IWO. 

(Witness examined document and conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Nikolauk. I invoke the fifth amendment to that. 

(Document marked "Nikolauk Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



454 COMJVIUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. Yoli are also one of the leaders of the American Slav 
Congress ? 

Mr. NiKOLAuK. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Look at this docnment, if yon please, the Communist 
Daily Worker (May 18, 1950, p. 2) in which you are so identified in 
1950, as one of the leaders of the American Slav Congi-ess. 

Mr. NiKOEAUK. I invoke the fifth amendment to that. 

(Document marked ""Xikolauk Exhibit Xo. 2,"' and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Who is Theodore Bayer ? 

]Mr. NiKOLAUN. I invoke the fifth amendment to that. 

Mr. Arens. He is president of Eusskj' Golos; is he not 1 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. Fifth amendment to that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by tlie name of John Lautner? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. I never met him. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lautner. would you stand? Would you look over 
your left shoulder and see if you recofrnize this man ? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. I do not recognize him. 

Mr. Arens. You do not recognize him ? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever seen him before ? 

Mr. NiKOLxVUK. I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lautner, would you step forward ? 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN LAUTNER— Eesumed 

You have been sworn on this record. Tell this committee what 
knowledge or information you have respecting the man who is occn- 
pying the witness chair. 

Mr. Lautner. In 1941 and in 1942, I attended meetings with Niko- 
lauk, top-level party leaders meeting in the IWO. particularly in 
1942 when I w.is also national secretary of the Hungarian section 
of the IWO. Nikohiuk was the secretary of the Russian section of 
the IWO. 

Mr. Arens. Those top level meetings you are describing were meet- 
ings to which only membei's of tlie Connmmist Party were admissible? 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now identify the man seated in the 
witness chair as a person known by you to a certainty to have been a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL J. NIKOLAUK— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Nikolauk, you have just heard the testimony of 
Mr. Lautner. 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You heard the testimony? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Lautner lying or telling the truth, under 
oath ? Was he lying or telling the truth when he identified you as a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. NiKOLAUK. Fifth amendment to that. 



COMMUNIST PROPAG.\XDA IX THE UNITED STATES 455 

Mr. Abexs. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. All the documents referred to by counsel and sub- 
mitted to the witness for identification will be admitted in evidence 
as a part of the record by reference. 

Do you have anj^ questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. No. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will stand in recess until 1 p. m. 

(Thereupon, at 12 noon, the committee recessed, to reconvene at 
1 p. m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— FRIDAY, MARCH 15, 1957 

(Connnittee members present: Representatives Moulder and 
Scherer. ) 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order. 

Call your first witness, ]\Ir. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Paul Novick, kindly come forward. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. NoviCK. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL NOVICK, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HAERY SACHER 

Mr. Arexs. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. NoviCK. Paul Novick, 1639 Monroe Avenue, the Bronx, news- 
paperman. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. NoviCK. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. NoviCK. That is right. 

Mr. Sacher. Harry Sacher, 3-12 Madison Avenue, New York 17. 

Mr. Novice. Mr. Chairman, may I be permitted to read a statement 
before questioning starts ? 

Mr. Moulder. How long is the statement? 

Mr. Novick. It is one and a half pages, double-spaced. 

Mr. M0UI.DER. You can offer your statement and file it with the 
proceedings. However, the rules of the connnittee prohibit the read- 
ing or the making of a statement by a witness. 

Mr. Novick. Will you permit me, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Moulder. You may file the statement with the committee. 

Mr. Novick. Thank you. I appreciate that. I think if I read the 
statement 

Mr. Moulder. You can give copies of it to the press. 

(Statement filed with the records of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us where and when you were born. 

Mr. Novick. I was born in Poland. 

Mr. AiiENS. When? 



456 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. NoviCK. September 7, 1891. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. NoviCK. 1920. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a naturalized citizen ? 

Mr. No^T[CK. That's correct. 

Mr. Arens. When and where were you naturalized? 

J^Ir. NovrrcK. January 26, 1927, Bronx. 

Mr. Arens. "\^niere are you employed ? 

Mr. NovicK. Mr. Chairman, I would like to state my reasons why I 
am going to claim the amendments in order not to answer these ques- 
tions. 

Mr. Moulder. You are going to decline to answer questions and 
state your reasons for declining ? 

Mr. NovicK. If you will permit me, I will state my reasons. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you decline? 

Mr. NoviCK. Yes, I do decline and I give my reasons : I decline first 
on the basis of the first amendment. I think these hearings are a vio- 
lation of the freedom of the press. I was brought here because I am 
a newsman and for no other reason. 

Mr. Scherer. No, not because you are a newspaperman, but because 
you are a Conununist. 

Mr. Saciier. May the witness be permitted to state his grounds 
without interruption ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Sacher, you know the rules of the committee ? 

Mr. Sacher. I do. I think the Congressman should remember. 

Mr. Scherer. I will talk any time I wish. 

]\Ir. Arens. You know the rules of this conunittee. You are in 
violation of the rules of this committee. 

Mr. Sacher. I am not. 

Mr. NovicK. Mr. Sacher is here to protect me from Mr. Scherer or 
anybody else. 

Mr. Scherer. You do not need any protection from me. 

Mr. NoviCK. It seems I do. I was called here to these hearings 
because I am a newspaperman and no other reason. That is why I 
consider these hearings, and this calling me here, is a violation of the 
freedom of the press, a violation of the first amendment. I wish to 
state that the freedom of the press is just as sacred as the freedom of 
Mr. Scherer or any Congressman. For this reason I claim the first 
amendment and will not answer questions. I will not identify any 
documents. 

I am also claiming the fifth amendment for the following reason : 

it: ***** * 

The line of questioning is to legalistically trap witnesses with the assist- 
ance of stool pigeons. For this reason I am claiming the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Scherer. Where did you say you were born ? 

Mr. NovicK. Poland. 

Mr. Scherer. When were you naturalized ? 

Mr. NoviCK. 1927. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you were naturalized ? 

Mr. NoviCK. I decline on the first and fifth amendments. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 457 

Mr. ScHERER. Are yon a member of the Commmiist Party today ? 

Mr. NovacK. I decline to answer on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is the reason you were brought here, because of 
your Communist Party activities and no other reason. 

Mr. NoviCK. I gave my answer. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know a man by the name of John Lautner ? 

Mr, No^^:cK. I decline to answer under the protection of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. a couple of days ago, Mr. Lautner took an oath before 
this committee and swore that he knew you as a member of the Com- 
munist Party. Was he lying or was he telling the truth ^ 

Mr. No\t:ck. I decline to answer on the basis of the two amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. We are going to display to you a copy of the statement 
required by the postal laws to be filed, a statement which was filed by 
the Morning Freiheit, listing you as the editor of the Morning Freiheit. 

Kindly look at that exhibit and tell this committee, while you are 
under oath, whether or not you are accurately described as the editor 
of the Morning Freiheit. 

Mr. NovicK. Mr. Chairman, as I stated before, I will not identify 
any of these documents because they pertain to the activities of the 
press. This is a violation of the freedom of the press. 

Mr. ]\IouLDER. You are claiming the privilege mider the fifth amend- 
ment 

Mr. NovicK. The first and fifth. 

Mr. Moulder (contmuing) . In declining to answer that question ? 

Mr. No\t:ck. That's right. 

(Document marked "Novick Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. Have you ever been identified in any capacity with the 
International Workers Order? 

Mr. Novick. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Arexs. You were one of the original incorporators of it, were 
you not ? 

Mr. Novick. I decline for the same reason. 

Mr. Arexs. Please look at this petition in which you are listed as 
one of the incorporators of that organization. 

Mr. No^^CK. I decline to identify and to answer for the same rea- 
son. 

(Document marked "Novick Exhibit No. 2," and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. Now, I would like to ask you, first of all, do vou read 
Yiddish? 

Mr. Novick. I certainly do. 

Mr. Arexs. Kindly follow me. Here is a copy of your paper, the 
Morning Freiheit, of August 28, 1952. 

Mr, Novick. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arexs. This editorial is entitled, "Why Do They Shoot at War 
Prisoners in Korea?" 

Would you kindly folloAv me while I read the editorial and tell me 
whether or not it is a true and correct copy? 

]\Ir. Novick. I deny the right of a counsel and of the committee to 
delve into the contents of editorials or articles in the press. This is 
a violation of the freedom of the press. I will not follow. 



458 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Moulder. He lias not asked you a question. He has handed you 
a document to examine. 

Mr. NovicK. Yes, I have examined it. As I stated before 

Mr. Moulder. In what language is it written ? 

Mr. NovicK. In Yiddish. For this reason I will not follow, and I 
will not identify it. 

Mr. Moulder. To make the record clear, he is not asking you a ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Arens. Editorial, "Wliy Do They Shoot at War Prisoners in 
Korea?'' 

i\Ir. NoviCK. Pardon, me, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Moulder. Wait until he completes a question. 

Mr. NoviCK. I cannot follow because I would have to sit down and 
compare minutely every word whether it is translated right or wrong 
and I can't do it offhand. That is why, if Mr. Arens wants to make 
his speeches, he can do so. 

(Document marked "Novick Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request that in the pres- 
ence of this witness, Mr. Bonora be sworn to identify these documents, 
and read them into the record. Then we will interrogate the witness. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK BONORA 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Bonora. I do. 

Mr. Arens. You are Frank Bonora, an investigator for the Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Bonora. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you, at my request, caused to be translated by the 
expert tarnslators of the Library of Congress, several articles and 
editorials appearing in the Morning Freiheit; is that correct? 

Mr. BoNORA. Yes, sir. It was an official request. 

Mr. Arens. Do we have here today the official translations of each 
of those several articles? 

Mr. Bonora. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you ])lease, Mr. Bonora, read the editorial m the 
Morning Freiheit, August 28, 1952, the original of which I have laid 
before Mr. Novick. 

Mr. Bonora. The editorial is from the August 28, 1952, edition of 
the Morning Freiheit, page 4 : 

Why Do They Shoot at War Prisoners in Korea? 

At Koje Island in South Korea, where North Korean and Chinese war prisoners 
are interned under American guards, there is continuous shooting. The latest 
official reports tell of 52 newly wounded prisoners of war and 1 killed, whom 
military guards attacked with tear bombs and later shot at because their singing 
had gotten on the nerves of their guards. 

We must admit that, try hard as we may, it would be difficult to comprehend 
the actual crime committed by the prisoners of war through their singing in 
their prison camps. According to what law should the death penalty be applied 
for singing? It is especially incomprehensible when one remembers that the war 
in Korea is endlessly dragging on and is being brutally prosecuted ( or strength- 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 459 

ened) in the name of so-called American humanitailanism, regarding the prisun- 
eis of war who may perhaps never be released or returned to their homes. In 
order to safeguard the rights of such anti-Communist prisoners of war to remain 
in the prison camps, for nobody wants them and nobody needs them, bloody 
fighting is carried on daily and terrible air attacks against the North Korean 
civilian population. But this same humanitarianism is not opposed to firing at, 
wounding, and murdering locked-up prisoners of war who dare to sing in their 
camps. 

This is a translation from the Library of Congress. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL NOVICK— Eesumed 

Mr. Arexs. Did you publish that editorial which Mr. Bonora just 
read from that edition of the Morning Freiheit ? 

Mr. No\iCK. I was going to ask for the name of the translator. 

Mr. ScHERER. It wouldn't make any difference. If you had the 
name you would still take the fifth amendment. You refused to read 
it. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you refuse to answer the question ? 

Mr. NovicK. I do; on the basis of the first and fifth amendments, 
I would like to know by what right this committee is delvmg into 
editorials of the press. 

Mr. Arexs. Now would you please 

Mr. Saciier. May the record show that there is complete silence 
in response to the witness' request. 

Mr. ScHERER. I will answer. Because the Congress is investigating 
un-American propaganda activities. 

Mr. No%r[CK. Together with many Americans I question the right 
of this committee to delve into the freedom of the press. 

Mr. SciiERER. I answered your question. 

Mr. Moulder. You heard the statement read by Mr. Bonora? 

Mr. NovicK. That is right. 

Mr. Moulder. Without askmg you a question as to whether or not 
you wrote it or where it was published or anything else, do you con- 
sider what he read to be un-American ? 

Mr. NovicK. Mr. Chairman, you understand I would like to get into 
a discussion and have the same rights as the counsel has before a 
thousand or a number of people. 

Mr. jNIoulder. It is a very simple 

Mr. Sacher. Why don't you let the man talk ? He has been asked 
a question by the chairman. 

Mr. Arens. You are in violation of the rules of this committee. 

Mr. Sacher. You don't let a witness answer a question when you 
put it to him. 

Mr. Scherer. Brother Sacher 

Mr. Sacher. You and I are not brothers. Let us not get into that. 

Mr. Scherer. I am happy we are not. 

Mr. Sacher. Believe me, it is just as pleasant for me. 

Mr. Scherer. I don't see how they continue to allow you to prac- 
tice. 

Mr. Sacher. You are ready to condemn anybody. I don't see how 
you are in Congress. 

Mr. NovicK. I need protection from Mr. Scherer. I don't think he 
knows how to behave in a subcommittee hearing. 

90121— 57— pt. 6 7 



460 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Moulder. I just asked you if you believe that the freedom of 
the press should extend to the point where subversive and un-Ameri- 
can activities would be permitted to be published. 

Mr. NoviCK. Mr. Chairman, it is a pertinent question. I say there 
are laws of the country, and we can say anything or write anything 
against the laws of the country and we can be prosecuted for that. 
But a committee of Congress has no right to call an editor of any 
newspaper and hold him to account for the editorials and articles of 
that paper. This is the freedom of the press. 

Mr. Moulder. It is your position that if they have violated a crimi- 
nal law, they should be criminally prosecuted ? 

Mr. NovicK. That is correct. 

Mr. Moulder. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Have you exer registered under the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act ? 

Mr. No\t:ck. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arexs. I suggest he be ordered and directed to answer that 
question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. No\t:gk. May I hear the question again ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever registered under the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act ? 

Mr. NovicK. I decline on the same grounds most vehemently. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer that question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee refuses to accept your response to the 
question, and you are ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. NovicK. I respectfully decline. 

Mr. Sacher. On the same grounds. 

Mr. NoviCK. On the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to invite your attention to another edi- 
torial of your paper. INIr. Bonora will read it. It is from the August 
7, 1952, edition of the Morning Freiheit, page 4. Kindly read that, 
would you please, Mr. Bonora? 

Mr. BoNORA. August 7, 1952, page 4. There is no title. 

A shuclfler nmst seize everyone who heard the announcement recently made 
in the name of the U. N. 

Mr. Sacher. Did jou say there is a title or not ? 
Mr. BoNORA. There is no title. It is on page 4. It starts out "A 
shudder must seize." 

A shudder must seize everyone who heard the announcement recently made in 
the name of the U. N. by the American General Glenn Barnes, commander of 
the 8th Air Squadron. 

Mr. Arens. Do 3'ou read Yiddish? 

Mr. Sacher. Yes ; I do. You bet I do. I am reading. 

Mr. Scherer. You are not the witness. 

Mr. Sacher. That is all right. I am reading it. 

Mr. Scherer. I don't think we have to accommodate counsel. 

Mr. Sacher. You mean you are incapable of elemental courtesy, 
Congressman ? 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the counsel be admonished 
to restrain himself or be removed. He has attacked a member of this 
committee unjustly, vehemently, and is in violation of the rules of this 
committee, repeatedly. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 461 

Mr. Moulder. Any additional statements by counsel which would be 
vexatious or insulting or personal attacks will not be tolerated. 

Wliat I am coming to, though, is this : You handed a document to 
the witness. I understand that you have refused to examine the 
docmnent. 

Mr. NoviCK. To identify it. 

Mr. Moulder. Wliile Mr. Bonora reads the translation from the 
document ; is that correct ? 

Mr. NoviCK. That is right. I refuse to identify these documents on 
the same basis. 

Mr. Moulder. The point I am making is this : You refuse to take 
the document and examine it so you might be qualified to answer the 
questions which might be asked you about it. You are directed and 
requested by the committee to hold the document in your hand and 
examine it and look at it. 

Mr. NoviCK. Mr. Chairman, this is a fair request, of course. 

Mr. Moulder. Otherwise you could not even consider the questions 
which might be propounded to you. 

Mr. No\t:ck. Being that I am questioning the rights of the com- 
mittee to delve into the editorials of any newspaper and of this news- 
paper • 

Mr. Moulder, You base 3^our refusal on the same grounds, the first 
amendment ? 

Mr. NoviCK. Exactly. For this reason I am not identifying these 
documents. 

Mr. Moulder. Proceed. 

Mr. Bonora (reading) : 

The announcement says, in essence, that 78 cities in North Korea will be de- 
stroyed through air attacks. This is a repetition of the blitz in which Hitler's 
Luftwaffe specialized during the Second World War, and which was so sharply 
condemned everywhere in the civilized world. 

The translation is from the same section of the Library of Congress. 

Mr. No\t:ck. May I ask a question here ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you write that editorial just read to you by Mr. 
Bonora ? 

Mr. NoviCK. May I say a few words ? 

Mr. Moulder. The question is pending. 

Mr. No\^CK. I decline to answer on the same gToimds. I would like 
to ask, Mr. Chairman, most Americans fought for peace in Korea. 
Our President went to Korea for peace. 

(Document marked "Novick Exhibit No. J:,'' and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. ScHERER. I object to any speeches on the part of the witness. 
He refuses to answer any question. Why should he have the right 
to ask us questions or make a speech ? 

Mr. No\^CK. I heard Mr. Arens malce quite a few speeches 
yesterday. 

Mr. SciiERER. We will let you make a speech if you will answer 
one of the questions. 

Mr. Moulder. The editorial or the writing speaks for itself. Let 
us proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us what does Morning Freiheit 
mean ? 



462 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. NoviCK. Morning Freedom. 

Mr. Abens. We want to display to you the reproduction of several 
articles in your paper — Mr, Bonora will just allude to them — an- 
nouncing meetings of the Communist Party to be held in 1952 at 
various places over the community. 

Mr. BoNORA. September 1, 1952, page 2, Morning Freiheit. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest you not take the time to read the entire article, 
but allude to it. If he wants to follow the translation he can do so. 

Mr. BoNORA (reading) : Elections Meeting of Communist Party, 
September 5, 1952. 

Election Meeting of the Communist Party in New York 

The national office of the Communist Party announced yesterday that the 
Communist Party will officially open its 1952 election campaign at a mass meet- 
ing in Rockland Palace ballroom * * * 

and announces a conference of delegates. 
September 4, 1952, page 4 : 

Tomorrow, Friday, September 5, a large election meeting arranged by the 
Communist Party will be held in Kockland Palace, 155th Street and 8th Avenue. 
At this meeting the issues in the current election campaign will be discussed* * * 
The speakers will include Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Pettis Perry, and Simon 
Gerson * ♦ * 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Novick, are those articles alluded to by Mr. 
Bonora in these translations true and correct ? 

Mr. NovicK. I decline to identify and answer on the same grounds, 
the first and fifth amendments. 

(Documents marked "Novick Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I want to display to you the document which is the 
nominating petition of the Communist Party of November 1940 in 
which you are listed as one of the electors for the Communist Party, 
at large in New York City. Please look at that document and tell 
us whether or not you are accurately described. 

(Witness examined document.) 

Mr. NovrcK. I decline to identify and to answer the question on the 
same grounds. 

(Document marked "Novick Exhibit No. 6," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, I want to display to you a document, a Communist 
magazine entitled "The Communist," in which you have an article 
entitled "A Solution for Palestine," by Paul Novick. Please look at 
that document and tell us whether or not you are the author of that 
article. 

Mr. Novick. I decline to identify and to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed and ordered to at least cooper- 
ate to the extent of looking at and examining the document that is 
handed to the witness by counsel. 

Mr. Sacher. Let the record show that he did look at it. 

Mr. Novick. Yes ; I did look at it. But I refuse to identify it, 

(Document marked "Novick Exhibit No. 7," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now we have two other articles in The Communist 
written by Paul Novick. The first is Palestine — Land of Anti-Impe- 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 463 

rialist Struggle. The other is Zionism and Imperialist War, by Paul 
Novick. Please look at those articles and tell us whether or not you 
would be good enough to identify them. 

(Witness examined documents.) 

Mr. NoviCK. I respectfully decline to identify and to answer on the 
same grounds, both amendments, first and fifth. 

(Documents marked "Novick Exhibit No. 8," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. In 1944 you were one of the national committee members 
of the Communist Political Association, were you not ? 

Mr. NovicK. I respectfully decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of the Daily Worker, 
May 23, 1944, page 2, in which you are so identified. 

Mr. No^^:cK. Same answer, Mr. Chairman. 

(Document marked "Novick Exhibit No. 9," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. You have also been on the editorial board of another 
publication, Jewish Life, have you not ? 

Mr. No^T[CK. I decline to answer on the same grounds, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. We lay before you, if you please, a thermofax repro- 
duction of two issues of the publication, Jewish Life, November 1948, 
and April 1950, on which j^our name appears as a member of the edi- 
torial board. Please look at those and tell us whether or not you are 
accurately described. 

Mr. NovicK. Some more delving into the press, and I decline to 
answer on the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

(Documents marked "Novick Exhibit No. 10," and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. In 1936 you wrote an article which we have, in the 
Communist Daily Worker, November 7, page 2, entitled "All IMoscow 
Festive on Eve of 19th Soviet Anniversary," in which you hail the 
Soviet system and in which you tell all about how wonderful it is in 
Moscow. You are writing from Moscow. Please look at this article 
and tell us if you are accurately described therein. 

Mr. No^^[CK. There are quite a fevr correspondents writing in 
Moscow. You see every day cables from IMoscow in the New York 
Times and other newspapers. This is delving into the press. I decline 
on the same grounds, both amendments. 

(Document marked "Novick Exhibit No. 11," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Were you in Moscow in 1936 ? 

Mr. Novick. I respectfully decline. 

Mr. Arens. 'Wliat did you do in Moscow in 1936, completely di- 
vorced from any activities from the press ? 

Mr. NoAacK. I respectfully decline on the same grounds, both 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. How many times have you been in IMoscow since you 
came to the United States and obtained American citizenship? 

Mr. NovTCK. I respectfully decline, Mr. Chairman, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. You have also in addition to your journalistic career 
been active as a professor, have you not ? 

(No response.) 



464 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. Have you been active also as an instructor or professor I 

Mr. NowcK. You said professor. This is news to me. I am not a 
professor. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been an instructor or lecturer ? 

Mr. NoviCK. I respectfully decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Why i 

Mr, NovicK. On both grounds, the first and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to display to you a bulletin of the Work- 
ers School in which Mr. Earl Browder was celebrated and in which 
your name- 



Mr, Sacher. Celebrated as what ? 

Mr. Arens (continuing). And in which your name is listed as one 
of the instructors and lecturers at the Workers School in New York, 
along with a number of other leading Communist conspirators. 

Please look at that document and tell us, if you would be good 
enough, whether or not you are accurately identified. 

Mr. NovicK. I decline to identify and answer on the same grounds, 
Mr. Chairman. 

(Document marked "Novick Exhibit No. 12," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. We are going to lay before you several documents in 
which you are identified by the Communist Daily Worker and by 
various bulletins issued by certain organizations in your capacity as 
editor of the Morning Freiheit, as instructor in the School of Jewish 
Studies, in various public activities. 

Please look at those documents and be good enough to tell us if they 
truly and accurately reflect the facts. 

Mr. No\^CK. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully decline to identify and 
answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Moulder. As to each and every one of the documents submitted 
to you, is that right ? 

Mr. Novick. That is right ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. The fact is that the INIorning Freiheit is only one more 
tentacle of the international Communist propaganda apparatus in 
the United States, isn't that true ? 

Mr. Novick. Mr. Chairman, this is McCarthy talk. 

Mr. Arens. Deny it while you are under oath. 

Mr. Novick. I decline on the same grounds. This is not parliamen- 
tary language. This is inciting language ; McCarthy talk. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no questions. 

Mr. Moulder. May I make our position clear? In the beginning of 
these hearings we made it clear and emphasized that it certainly is 
not the intention on the part of this committee or members of the 
staff to interfere in any manner whatsoever with freedom of the press. 
We respect it, we have the highest regard for it, and we think it is 
one of the fundamental liberties which w^e enjoy in this country. 

However, we do feel it to be our duty to expose publications of a 
seditious nature or which carry, with them the spirit of sedition or 
treasonable writings which are un-American and probably subversive. 
And to expose it so that the people might know the origin from 
whence come such publications. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 465 

If such publications are Coiiiniuiiist controlled and the officers and 
editors are controlled by the Conmuinist conspiracy, then that fact 
should be revealed and the public should be advised and informed 
of it. 

The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Irving Freed, please come forward. Kindly re- 
main standing while the chairman administers an oath to you. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
tnith, so help you God ? 

Mr. Freed. I do. 

Mr. ScHERER. In view of what has been said, I think I should read 
into the record the powers and duties of the connnittee as fixed by law. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, i3 
authorized to make from time to time investigations of the extent, character, and 
objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States ; the diffusion 
within the United States of subversive and un-American propaganda that is insti- 
gated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks the principle 
of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution ; and all other 
questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary remedial 
legislation. 

Mr. Moulder. That is Public Law 601. 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. And M^e are dutybound and directed by the Con- 
gress of the United States to go into this subject and this investiga- 
tion. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING FREED, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

HARRY SACHER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Freed. Irving Freed, 2725 Barker Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. ; 
writer. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Un-American Activities 
Committee ? 

Mr. Freed. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Freed. That is right. 

Mr. Sacher. Harry Sacher, still at 342 Madison Avenue, New 
York, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. What is the name of tlie man who preceded you to the 
witness stand ? 

Mr. Freed. I respectfully decline on the basis of first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. He is editor of the Morning Freiheit, is he not? 

Mr. Freed. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere and when were you born ? 

Mr. Freed. October 24, 1908, in the town called Bershad, in Eus- 
sian Ukraine. 

Mr. Arens. 'Wlien did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Freed. November 1921. 



466 COlMlMTJiVIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen? 

Mr. Freed. I am, sir. 

Mr. Arens. By naturalization? 

Mr. Freed. Derivative citizenship. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are you employed? 

Mr. Freed. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

]Mr. Arens. You are the managing editor of the Morning Freiheit, 
are you not? 

Mr. Freed. I respectfully decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to display to you two documents at 
this time. 

The first is a statement filed with the postal authorities by the 
Morning Freiheit in which you are identified as the managing editor 
of the Morning Freiheit. 

(Document previously identified as "Novick Exhibit No. 1," and 
retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. The second is a certificate filed by the Morning Freiheit 
Association, Inc., pursuant to the membership corporation law with 
the State of New York in which you are likewise so identified and on 
which you signed your name as one of the directors of that corpora- 
tion. 

(Document marked "Freed Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

]\Ir. Arens. Please look at those two documents and tell this com- 
mittee while you are under oath whether or not you are accurately 
described therein. 

(Witness examined documents and conferred Avith coiuisel.) 

Mr. Freed. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of John Lautner ? 

Mr. Freed. I decline to answer on the sam.e grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lautner 2 or 3 days ago took an oath and identified 
vou as a member of the Communist Partj^ Was he lying or telling the 
truth? 

Mr. Freed. I respectfully decline on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What is Jewish Life, do you know ? 

Mr. Freed. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. That is a publication published by tlie Morning Frei- 
heit Association ; isn't that correct ? 

Mr. Freed. I decline on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to display to you now, if you please, an ar- 
ticle by yourself, a guest editorial, appearing in Jewish Life (Sep- 
tember 1947), by Irving Freed. Please look at this article in which 
you are identified as managing editor of the Morning Freiheit, daily 
Yiddish, anti-Fascist news])aper, and tell us whether or not you are 
accurately and truthfully identified there. 

(Witness examined document.) 

Mr. Freed. I decline on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Freed Exhibit No. 2," and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not the man who preceded 
3^ou to the witness stand, Paul Novick, is a member of the Communist 
conspiracy ? 

Mr. Freed. I decline on the same sronnds. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EN THE UNITED STATES 467 

Mr. Arens. We have 2 or 3 exhibits here in which your activities are 
described in the Communist Daily Worker. I should like to have 
you examine them, if you would please be good enough. One, the 
Communist Daily Worker of November 13, 1950, identiHes you as one 
of the persons who sought to visit the Communist leader, Alexander 
Bittelman. Please look at that and tell us whether or not you are 
axjcurately identified. 

(Witness examined document.) 

Mr. Freed. I respectfully decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

( Documents marked "Freed Exhibit No. 3," and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. ]\IouLDER. The witness is excuspd. 

Mr. Arens. ISIr. Gerhard Hagelberg. 

(No response.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that we take 
a. 5-minute recess. Mr. Hagelberg agreed to be here at 2 o'clock and 
it is just a little before 2 o'clock. 

JMr. Moulder. The committee will stand in recess for a few minutes. 

(Thereupon a brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Arfxs. Ml-. Hagelberg, do j^ou want to come forward, please? 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF GERHARD HAGELBERG ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

E. J. DONNER 

]SIr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Hagelberg. Gerhard Hagelberg, 127 West 82d Street, New 
York City 24 ; researcher. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Hagelberg, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. That is right ; by a marshal. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel? 

Mr. Hagelberg. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, would you kindly identify yourself? 

Mr. Donner. F. J. Donner, 342 Madison Avenue, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hagelberg, have you ever been known by any name 
other than Gerhard Hagelberg? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on tlio grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do 3^ou honestly feel that if you told this committee 
truthfully whether or not you have been known by any name other 
than the name, Gerhard Hagelberg, you would be supplying informa- 
tion which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Hagelberg. Mr. Arens, I cited the first and fifth amendments 
to the previous question. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that tlie witness be ordered and 
directed to answer that last question. 



468 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the 
question. I want to advise and inform you that the committee does 
not accept your response to the question as being a legitimate cause for 
refusing to answer. I further advise you of the possible dangers of 
being guilty of contempt of Congress for your refusal to answer. 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Hagelberg. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully decline on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. "V^riiere are you employed ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. Mr. Arens, I think the question upon which you 
are entering now, due to the nature of my work, opens up an area 
which I must respectfully decline to answer for this reason : I am a 
legal researcher and I think questions of the precise natuT'e of my em- 
ployment would violate confidential relationships. For that reason. 
Mr. Arens, I respectfully decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed ? 

Mr. Moulder, fliist a moment, please. Again the committee refuses 
to accept your reasons for refusal to answer and you are ordered and 
directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Hagelberg. In light of the fact that my previous objection has 
not been upheld by you, 1 must take the provisions of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

I\ir. Akexs. \^'liere are you employed ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. The same two answei-s that I just gave. That is the 
same question. 

Mr. Arens. In what city iire you emj)loyed? 

Mr. Hagelberg. In New Y(»rk (^ity. 

Mr. Arens. What is the physical location of the place where you 
are employed? 

Mr. Hagelberg. To that question I must give the same two answers 
that I just gave to your immediate preceding question. 

Mr. Moulder. Do I understand you decline to answer for the same 
reasons previously given ? 

!Mr. Hagelberg. Botli on the grounds of violation of confidential 
relationships and on the first and fifth amendments, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently managing editor of The German- 
American, published by The German-American, Inc. ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. That question I decline to answer on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments, violation of the freedom of the press. 
I think it goes beyond the scope of this committee. I think it is a 
violation of due process. It would tend to enter into an area in which 
self-incrimination lies. 

Mr. Arens. We should like to hn- before you now a thermof ax re- 
production of the statement filed pursuant to the postal laws by The 
German-American, Xew York, X. Y., on which you are designated or 
indicated as the managing editor of The German- American. 

Please look at that docmnent and tell this committee whether or not 
you are accurately described. 

(Witness examined document.) 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments, ]Mr. Arens. 

(Document marked "Hagelberg Exhibit No. 1,'' and retained in 
connnittee files.) 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IX THE UNITED STATES 469 

Mr. Arens. Where were 3011 bom, jukI when ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I atus boni in Berlin, (rerniany, on September 7, 
1925. 

Mr. Arexs. AVhen did you come to tlic rnilt'd States for peraianent 
residence ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I came to the United States in 1943. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ccnne under the quotas? 

Mr. HAGELBER(i. I should think so; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States? 

Mr. Hagelberg. Let me finish my answer, Mr. Arens. 

I have no precise recollection, but I know it was a regular entry and 
that sort of thing. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States? 

Mr. Hagelberg. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. By naturalization? 

Mr. Hagelberg. By naturalization. 

Mr. Arens. When and where were you naturalized? 

Mr. Hageli5erg. I was naturalized in the United States Army, in 
Camp Lee, Va., in 1941. 

Mr. Arens. Were 3'ou a member of the Connnunist Party at the 
time you were naturalized? 

Mr". Hagelberg. Mr. Arens. that is a little silly question. I was 18 
years old at the time I was in the Army. I had been in this country 
less than a year. So it is a frivolous question. 

Mr. Arens. Deny it if it is not true. 

Mr. Hagelberg. Excuse me, Mr. Arens, I am speaking. You asked 
me a question. In view of the area upon which you have entered I 
will decline to answer that question on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Kow give us a brief resume of your employment after 
you arrived in the United States. I believe you said in 1925. 

Mr. Hagelberg. I was born in 1925. 

Mr. Arens. 1943. I beg your pardon. 1943 until the present. 

Mr. Hagelberg. Shortly after coming here I began to w^ork on a 
spinach farm. Then I went into the Army. With minor small in- 
terruptions after coming out of the Army, I clerked for awhile. I 
was unemployed for awhile. I clerked some more and I finally be- 
came a researcher. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know or ha\e you loiown a person by the name 
of Enuga S. Reedy employed by United Nations ( 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens- Have you engaged in espionage ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. No, Mr. Arens, I have not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you knowledge of espionage? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I have not finished. I have never engaged in es- 
pionage, Mr. Arens, and I doubt whether the FBI Avould need your 
help to either find out about any espionage or lead to my conviction if 
I had done any espionage. 

Mr. Arens. Have you any knowledge of any espionage against this 
Government ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. If I had knowledge about any espionage against 
this Government, I would certainly bring it to the attention of the 
proper authorities, Mr. Arens, without your encouragement. 



470 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. Do j-ou honestly feel if you told this committee truth- 
fully whether or not you know Enuga S. Reedy, you would be supply- 
ing information which could be used against you in a criminal pro- 
ceeding ? 

Mr. IIagelbekg. I stand by my previous answer. 

Mr, Aeens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

]\Ir. Moulder. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Harold Leven- 
thal ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Isadore Needle- 
man? 

Mr. Hagleberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Kumar Goshal ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Prasauta, first 
name, and last name, Mahalanohis? 

Mr. Hagelberg. How do you pronounce that? 

Mr. Arens. I don't know. M-a-h-a-1-a-n-o-h-i-s. Do you know such 
a person ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat contact have you had in the course of the last 
year with persons who are representatives in the United States of for- 
eign governments ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments and I think it is completely beyond the 
scope of this committee and this particular inquiry. 

Mr. Arens. Did you on April 25, 1956, attend a meeting in New 
York City in the apartment of Harold Iveventhal? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. "Wlio is Milton Friedman? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I don't understand that question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Milton Friedman ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. Could you identify the Milton Friedman to whom 
you refer a little more ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Milton Friedman ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I think, Mr. Arens, we are again treading on the 
area of confidential relationships to my work as a legal researcher to 
which I must respectfully decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Does this legal research keep you in touch with the 
Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. You are staff consultant for the Committee for a Demo- 
cratic Far Eastern Policy ; are you not ? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST THE UNITED STATES 471 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated, the first and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used the name Charles Wisley ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. The fact is that you have used the name Charles Wisley 
in some of your writings; have you not? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I want to lay before you the Communist publication,. 
Masses and Mainstream, bearing an article by Charles Wisley, attack- 
ing United States imperialism, and ask you if it is not a fact that 
you are the Charles Wisley who wrote the article in Masses and 
Mainstream. 

(Witness examined document and consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Ha^gelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Hagelberg Exhibit Xo. 2," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. We have two other articles under which the name of 
Charles Wisley appears, August 12, 1947, and July 1, 1947, in New 
Masses. Look at those two articles and tell this committee if it is true 
that you wrote those articles under the name Charles Wisley. 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments and I think it is completely beyond 
the scope of this committee. 

(Documents marked "Hagelberg Exliibit No. 3" and retained in 
the committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used the name Jerry Kramer? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer on the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was the name under which you enlisted in the 
United States Army ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I didn't enlist. 

Mr. Arens. Under which you served in the United States Armyj 
I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Hagelberg. My name, Gerhard Hagelberg. I have two middle 
initials. 

Mr. Arens. When did you use the name Jeriy Kramer? 

Mr. Hagelberg. You as a lawyer know you can't ask a question like 
that. You are making an assumption ; aren't you ? 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact that you have used the name of Jerry Kramer. Deny it while 
you are under oath if you please, sir. 

Mr. HL^gelberg. I take the privileges accorded to me and any other 
Ajnerican citizen under tlie first and fifth amendments to that question 
in whatever form you put that. 

Mr. Arens. Do yon honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee truthfully whether or not you have ever used the name Jerry 
Kramer, you would be supplying information which could be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 



472 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so ordered to answer the question. 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Hagelberg. Mr. Chairman, I must respectfully give the same 
answer, the privileges of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is your present home address ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I am in the telephone book, Mr. Arens. My home 
address is 127 West 82d Street. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived there ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I am trying to think. 

Mr. Arens. Approximately. 

Mr. Hagelberg. For about 2 to 2^/^ years. 

Mr. Arens. AVliere did you live immediately prior to the time you 
moved to your present address ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. Prior to that time I lived on 73d Street, 

Mr. Arens. How long did you live there ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. Probably about 2 years. Don't hold me to that 
exactly. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you live immediately prior to the time that 
you lived on 73d Street ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. On East 12th Street. 

Mr. Ari<:ns. What is the address on East 12th Street ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I think 520. It is all the way over anyway. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you live there ? 

]\Ir. Hagelberg. A couple of years, approximately. 

Mr. Arens. And where did you live prior to that time? 

Mr. Hagelberg. In Brooklyn Heights, I think, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. And what was the address there ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. That was on Hicks Street. 

Mr. Arens. Was that 151: Hicks Street? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I am not quite sure. 

Mr. Arens. Or was it 156 Hicks Street? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I am afraid I could not say that definitely one 
way or another. 

Mr. Moulder. Was it on that street? 

Mr. HxVGELBERG. It was Hicks Street; yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. AVliat group did you belong to when you lived on Hicks 
Street in Brooklyn ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I think that question is so vague, Mr. Arens that 
you cannot expect me to answer it. 

Mr. Arens. Were you one of the ringleaders of the Boro Hall 
Section of the Communist Party on Hicks Street in Brooklyn in 1948 ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. Apart from the vagueness of the tenn "ringleader" 
in view of the area of the question I decline to answer it on the gromids 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. What has been your connection with the Committee 
for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the firet and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a thermofax reproduction of the 
letterhead of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy on 
which you are listed as one of the consultants to that organization. 



COIMIMUNIST PROPAGAXDA IN THE UTSHTED STATES 473 

Please look at that letterhead and tell us while you are under oath 
whether or not you are accurately described. 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Hagelberg Exhibit No. 4." and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. "iVliat has been vour connection with the Far East 
Spotlight? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to display to you now a bulletin of the 
Far East Spotlight (June 1949) in which your name appears as one 
of the consultan1:s to that publication. Please look at this bulletin 
and tell this committee while you are under oath wliether or not you 
are accurately described. 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Hagelberg Exhibit Xo. ,5" and retained in 
committee files.) 

iSIr. Arens. You have authored articles for the Spotlight on the 
Far East published by the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern 
Policy ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. Are you testifying, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arexs. I respectfully suggest that the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so ordered. 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline on the grounds of tlie first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a thermofax reproduction of an article 
in Spotlight of August-September 1947, under autliorship by yom' 
real name, Gerhard Hagelberg, entitled, "Indonesia at the U. N." 
Please look at that document and tell us whether or not you are accu- 
rately described. 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Hagelberg Exhibit No. 6,"' and retained in 
connnittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you two other articles which you have 
nurhored r.nder the name of Gerhard Hagelberg in the Far East Spot- 
light (September 1948 and March 1949) . Please look at those and see 
if you would be good enough to help the Committee on Un-American 
Activities by identifying those articles. 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer the question concerning these 
Iwo purported documents on the grounds of the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

(Documents marked "Hagelberg Exhibit No 7,"' and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. Wliat have you done toward revealing to the world the 
so-called spy operations, intelligence operations of the United States? 
Can you help us on that ? ^Yhat have you done to enlighten the world 
on the spy operations of the Government under whose flag you have 
protection ? 

Ivfr. IlAGri.'BERo. Would you mind enlightening me, Mr. Arens ? 



474 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Aeens. Yes; I would like to lay before you right now rather 
than to quibble, the Daily Worker of March 17, 1953, page 8. The 
article states, "A detailed account of United States intelligence opera- 
tions in the Socialist countries, documented by copious citations wholly 
drawn from commercial press sources, is the subject of an extended 
article bj^ Gerhard Hagelberg in the March issue of the progressive 
monthly, Jewish Life." 

Please look at this article in the Communist Daily Worker of March 
1953 and tell this committee while you are under oath whether or not 
you are accurately described as the author of the article detailing the 
so-called intelligence operations of the United States Government 
behind the Iron Curtain. 

Mr. Hagelberg. Will you enlighten me? Are you conducting a 
large inquiry into the American press? 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed and ordered to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Hagelberg. Would you repeat the question? I am sorry. 

Mr. Arens. Please read the question to him, Mr. Reporter. 

(Question read by the reporter.) 

Mr. PIagelberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Hagelberg Exhibit No. 8," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you obtain any information for that article from a 
restricted or confidential source? 

Mr. Hagelberg. Since that question assumes a fact not in evidence, 
I cannot answer it. As far as — apart from the particular area, my 
obtaining any material from confidential or restricted sources — I as- 
sume you mean by the United States Government, the answer to 
that 

Mr, ScHERER. Or from any Russian agent. 

Mr. Hagelberg. Mr. Scherer, one question at a time, please. 

Mr. Scherer. I just wanted to help you out. 

Mr. ELagelberg. No ; thank you, sir. 

To the extent that that aspect of the United States is covered, is 
covered by my previous answer to your previous question. 

Mr. Scherer. Let us quit the doubletalk. 

Mr. Hagelberg. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Scherer. Let us quit this doubletalk. Did you get any of this 
information that you published in this article from confidential 
sources ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. Of what nature, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. As I asked, from a Russian agent or material that is 
classified. 

Mr. Hagelberg. Since you assume, Mr. Scherer, that I published 
the article 

Mr. Scherer. Is there any question about it ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I don't think there is — ; — 

Mr. Scherer. Let me ask you this question. 

Mr. Hagelberg. Mr. Scherer, have you ever heard of the case of 
Burdick v. United States (236 U. S. 79) ? 



COMMUlSriST PROPAGANDA EST THE UNITED STATES 475 

Mr. ScHERER. You answer this question. Is my assumption that 
you published that article incorrect? I \Yant you to tell these people 
whether I have assumed incorrectly. 

Mr. Hagelberg. I am ti-ying to tell you, Mr. Scherer, that no as- 
sumption can be dra\vn from my taking the first and fifth amend- 
ments with regard to the previous question as to this purported 
document. 

Mr. Scherer. Let us forget the previous question. Is my assump- 
tion that you published this article incorrect? 

Mr. Hagelberg. The answer to that is again the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. I thought so. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to invite to your attention an article en- 
titled, "The Conspiracy Against Southeast Asia," by Gerhard Hagel- 
berg, appearing in theFar East Spotlight (November 1948). Please 
be good enough to tell this committee while you are under oath if you 
are the author of that article. 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer this question on the grounds 
that it is an invasion of the freedom of the press as guaranteed by the 
first amendment or the privileges accruing to me under the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Hagelberg Exhibit No. 9" are retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I would like to read you excerpts from this next article 
by yourself, Gerhard Hagelberg, appearing in April 17, 1949, issue 
of the Communist Daily Worker. I will read only excerpts : 

The Chinese people's victory is the most significant event since the October 
revolution because, like the founding of the Soviet Union, the emergence of 
China's new democracy will influence every move in both the reactionary and 
democratic camps in the world. The passing of China into the democratic camp 
means the addition of vast forces and vital lessons to the arsenal of the side 
fighting imperialism. From a base for an imperialistic war, China has been 
turned into stronghold of peace. China's lesson of the necessity of unity of all 
anti-imperialists, as well as the unity of the people with its army and the unity 
of the people with its Communist Party, has already been applied with success 
in Greece and Vietnam, and it is equally valid for Israel or Mexico. 

The Chinese people have proved that even American imperialism, which is 
today the leader of the world imperialist camp and the main prop of the colonial 
system, is in reality only a "paper tiger, terrible to look at, but melting when the 
rains come." They have done so by defeating American imperialism on a battle- 
ground of its own choice, for nowhere in the world have the American imperialists 
expended so much money and material in so many different ways as in China. 

With the victory in China, two paths have been opened to the people still suf- 
fering from imperialism. One is the path followed by the leaders of India and 
the Philippines, by Pandit Nehru and General Romulo — the jackals of Anglo- 
American imperialism. This is the path of compromise with imperialism, hidden 
by anti-imperialistic verbiage. It is followed by those who do not trust the i>eo- 
ple and who do not recognize the leadership of the Soviet Union. 

The other )>ath is the path of Mao Tse-tung. This is the path of Marx, Engels, 
Lenin, and Stalin applied to the concrete situation and needs of a country 
dominated by imperialism. 

It is the path of resolute opposition to reaction, and it entails the leadership 
of the Communist Party, the alliance of workers and peasants, as well as the 
organization of the entire people in the conscious cooperation with all the pro- 
gressive forces in the world in the establishment of a people's democratic dicta- 
torship. This is the path of success. 

Look at that masterpiece of Communist propaganda and tell this 
committee whether or not you are the author of it. 

90121— 57— pt. 6 8 



476 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. HiVGELBERG. Is this inquiry within the scope of the committee ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question at his peril. 

Mr. Scherer. If it isn't, then nothing is. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer the question, 

Mr. Scherer. This is a glaring example of subversive activities. 
Where would you have a more glaring example ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I decline to answer this question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Hagelberg Exhibit No. 10," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. MouT.DER. May I interrogate the witness in this respect ? Could 
you explain to us how and why your denial or admission of being 
the author of this article interferes with the freedom of the press'? 

Mr, Hagelberg. Mr. Moulder, it seems to me that the inquiry is an 
attempt to stifle the freedom of the press. 

Mr. Moulder. No interference has apparently ])revented the pub- 
lication of that article nor the author, whoever wrote it, from ])ublish- 
ing it. I can't understand your reasoning that there would be any 
interference with the freedom of the press by your admission or your 
denial of being the author of it. 

Mr. Hagelberg. Mr. Moulder, aren't you trying to intimidate pre- 
cisely by this sort of inquiry the future freedom of the press as well 
as past and future? 

Mr. Scherer. You will go out and write something real bad about 
this committee. 

Mr. PIagelberg. "We are discussing this now, I presume. 

Mr. Scherer. I want to show you that you are not intimidated. 

Mr. Hagelberg. Quite in the abstract. 

Mr. Scherer. We want to show the people, the type of people who 
write this tiling, that they are Communist agents. That is all. 

Mr. Moulder. Proceed with the questioning. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
conspiracy ? 

Mr. Hagelbercj. I don't know what that question means. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Hagelberg. How can I answer a question that I don't know 
the meaning of? 

Mr. Moulder. You mean you deny having any Iviiowledge or in- 
formation, or of knowing Avhat the Communist conspiracy is? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I merely said I don't understand the* meaning of 
the question. 

Mr. Arens. Let us change tlie question and be facetious. Are you 
a patriotic ('ommunist? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I don't know the meaning of that question either. 

Mr, Arens, Or are you just a plain Communist? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I will decline to answer the question on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that tliis concludes the staff 
interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Scherer. He has the right to write those articles and tomorrow 
write another one perhaps more violent and false than that one. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 477 

Nothing interferes with his writing. You can go ahead and do it. But 
nothing interferes with this Congress' right to point out to the Ameri- 
can people just who writes that kind of propaganda. They should 
have the advantage when they read that kind of stuff of knowing who 
the author is, knowing that he is a representative of the Communist 
conspiracy. 

Mr. Hagelberg. You seem to be under the misapprehension that 
there has been any admission here of anything whatsoever. There 
has not been. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you deny that you are a member of the Com- 
mimist Party? 

Mr. Hagelberg. I claim the protection of the United States Consti- 
tution, Mr. Scherer. From that there is no assumption, no inference. 

Mr. Scherer. I am inferring it. 

Mr. Hagelberg. That is your privilege. 

Mr. Scherer. Is my assumption incorrect? 

Mr. Hagelberg. It is your privilege to make any assumptions. 

Mr. Scherer. I am assuming that you are a dedicated Communist, 
one of the most dangerous people in the United States to this Gov- 
ernment. Is that assumption incorrect ? 

Mr. Hagelberg. Mr. Scherer, to the question of what your assump- 
tions are, I must also respectfully decline to answer and I cannot 
possibly enter into the workings of your mind, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Moulder. Are there any other questions ? 

The witness is excused. 

Do you have any statement to make, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. I have been asked, and properly so, by a rep- 
resentative of the press to point out that Jewish Life, published at 22 
East 17th Street, is not to be confused with the Orthodox Jewish Life 
published at 305 Broadway. The committee is happy to comply with 
tliat request. 

Mr. Chairman, I have just a few comments in relation to the hear- 
ings that have taken place here in New York. 

During the hearings this week there have ajjpeared before the 
Committee on Un-American Activities numerous owners, editors, and 
managers of various foreign-language newspapers published in the 
United States. The great majority of those who appeared are foreign 
born, who have been given citizenship in the United States. Now let 
us see how they used that citizenship. 

Most of these publications carry vigorous, false, pro-Russian, com- 
munistic propaganda. Some even bitterly attacked the United States 
during the Korean war with charges that have given aid and comfort 
to the enemy. This constitutes treason under the laws and the Con- 
stitution of the LTnited States. All who were called are, or have been, 
dedicated Communists. These newspapers are read by thousands of 
people in the United States, many of whom cannot read English ; and 
they must, therefore, rely on these newspapers for their political in- 
formation. These are publications carrying the Communist line and 
cleverly and subtly working toward the ultimate objective of the 
Communist conspiracy; namely, the internal subversion and destruc- 
tion of the Government of the United States, as indicated by the 
testimony involving the last witness. 



478 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 

They are the fifth column, more dangerous to our safety and secu- 
rity than 10,000 enemy troops poised on the other side of the Iron 
Curtain. They are doing the work of the Kremlin here in this coun- 
try. They have violated in every way the citizenship which has been 
given to them. In fact, they are hiding behind their citizenship. 

The law provides for the denaturalization of active Communists, 
people like these. In view of the overwhelming evidence adduced at 
these hearings here in New York, it is the duty of this subcommittee 
to recommend that the House Committee on Un-American Activities 
urge the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization and the Depart- 
ment of Justice to take such steps in accordance with law to bring 
about the denaturalization and eventual deportation of these people. 

Nothing I have said should be construed as indicating that all for- 
eign-language newspapers are Communist dominated and Communist 
controlled, because this is simply not true. As has been demonstrated, 
however, this week, and we have only scratched the surface, there are 
enough of these foreign-language newspapers so controlled as to 
warrant continued hearings. 

Furthermore, nothing which I have said should be construed, as 
the Daily Worker is planning to do, as an attack upon foreign-born 
citizens of this country. The vast majority, by far, of these people 
are fine, loyal, law-abiding citizens. They are being exploited and 
misinformed by these Communists who are using the very freedom 
of the press in this country to promote the aims of the Russian con- 
spiracy in this cold war. 

That is all I have to say. 

Mr. Moulder. Thank you, Mr. Scherer. 

First I want to i-eemphasize the statement we made in the begin- 
ning of the hearings. It is not the purpose nor intention of this 
committee to interfere with the freedom of the press in any manner 
whatsoever, except only as an agency of the Congress under Public 
Law 601 to investigate subversive and un-American propaganda that 
is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic nature. 

In concluding this series of hearings in New York, I should like 
to make a few observations respecting certain concrete accomplish- 
ments which I feel have resulted from the evidence Ave have adduced. 

In the first place we have heard testimony and seen numerous 
exhibits respecting the flood of Communist propaganda which is 
entering the port of New York from Communist countries and from 
Communist sources in non-Communist countries. This testimony and 
these exhibits are important in confirming similar evidence which we 
have received at other ports of entry. It helps complete the picture 
of the nationwide problem which confronts us. We have received, 
moreover, several concrete suggestions for amendments to various 
laws dealing with the labeling and processing of this foreign Com- 
munist propaganda. These suggestions we will take back to Congress 
in Washington and consider carefully in connection with the legis- 
lative phases of our committee work. 

I should like to point out here that most of the internal security 
legishition of the Congress in the course of the last several years has 
been processed through the Committee on Un-American Activities. 
This legislation includes the Internal Security Act, the Communist 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE UNITED STATES 479 

Control Act, the Imniuiiity Act, and numerous amendments to the 
Criminal Code. 

These hearings here in New York City have also developed im- 
portant facts respecting the source and nature of Connnunist propa- 
ganda which is formulated here in the United States. 

One significant phase of these hearings has been the testimony 
respecting the attempts of the Comnuinist conspiracy to subvert and 
control certain segments of the foreign-language press and thereby 
influence nationality groups in this country to the Communist cause. 
In this period of cold war in which the Kremlin and the free world are 
competing for the minds of men, it is vital for the free world to know 
as much as possible about tliose who serve the cause of international 
communism and tlie idealogical propaganda weapons which they use. 

We have also received in this series of hearings an indirect con- 
firmation of the fraud which the National Convention of the Com- 
munist Party tried to perpetrate by proclaiming its innocence of 
conspiratorial connections with Moscow. Time after time, witness 
after witness who had been identified as a Communist leader refused 
to reveal to us the facts respecting this so-called new look of the Com- 
munist Party. In spite of the searching questions which we posed to 
them, they evaded or i-efused to answer because they knew that they 
were under oath and could be proceeded against for perjury if they 
lied to this committee, as they are lying to the American public, re- 
specting their true nature and designs. We, and I am sure the great 
majority of the American people, prefer to accept the statements of 
J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the FBI, when he recently warned that 
the so-called new look of the Communist Party is a fraud and a ruse. 

Before closing the hearings, I should like to express our deep appre- 
ciation to the many who have cooperated with the committee, including 
the United States marslial : the representatives of the press, radio, and 
television; and the authorities having jurisdiction over this liearing 
room. 

The committee Avill be adjourned. 

(Thereupon, at 2:45 p. m., Friday, March 15, 1957, the liearing 
was adjourned subject to the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Pag* 

Adler, Margaret 282 

Allen, James (born Sol Auerbach) 285,343-346 (testimony) 

Astrovsky 265 

Auerbach, Sol. {See Allen, James.) 

Baron, Rose 285,329-334 ( testimony ), 335, 339 

Bayer, Theodore 283,369-^73 ( testimony ), 454 

Bentley, Elizabeth 426-428 

Bimba, Anthony 438-441 (testimony) 

Bittelman, Alexander 467 

Bodonyi, Anna 390 

Bonora, Frank 419-422 ( testimony ), 458-459 (testimony) 

Boussinnouse, Janine 377 

Browder, Earl 464 

Brown, Fred 427 

Brown, Lloyd 364 

Budenz. Louis 308, 324 

Buteneff. Serge 272-275 (testimony) 

Cameron, Angus 320-329 ( testimony ), 332 

Cohen, Boris 285 

Cowl, Margaret. (-S'ee Krumbein, Margaret.) 

Dattler. Louis 281,375.403-406 (testimony), 40S 

Deak, Zoltan (born Morton Grad)— _ 280,364,365,373-387 (testimony), 398, 405 

Deak, Zoltan (Dr.) 364,365 

Dennis, Eugene 294 

Dirba, Charlie 285 

Donner, F. J 467 

Eastland, James O 303 

Eisler, Gerhart 282 

Evatt (Herbert V.) 422 

Faulkner, Stanley 320 

Felshin, Joseph (also known as Joseph Fields) 285,358-361 (testimony) 

Field, Frederick Vanderbilt 348 

Fields, Joseph. (See Felshin, Joseph.) 

Fishman, Irving 253-271 (testimony), 272, 287 

Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley 462 

Fodor, Erna 393 

Forer, Joseph 347, 369 

Foster, William Z 331,339 

Fraenkel, Osmond K 305 

Freed. Irving 283,465^67 (testimony) 

Freedman, David M 329,335,388 

Friedman, IMilton 470 

Gates, John 284,291-304 (testimony), 309. 310, 317 

Gellert, Hugo 376, 406 

Gero (Erno) 391 

Gerson, Simon W 304, 462 

Gollobin, Ira 412 

Golos (Jacob) 427, 42S 

Goshal, Kumar 470 

Grad, Morton. (See Deak, Zoltan.) 

Gyarmaty, Catherine 282,373.388-397 (testimony), 411 

Hagelberg, Gerhard (also known as Charles Wisley and Jerry Kramer) 

467-477 (testimony) 
Halpern, Milton. {See Howard, Milton.) 
Hoover, J. Edgar 302-304,315,479 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Howard, Milton (born Milton Halpern) 286,361-364 (testimony) 

Ilchuk, Frank 435-437 (testimony) 

Johnson, Manning 440 

Kramer, Jerry. {See Hagelberg, Gerhard.) 

Kress, Irving 333 

Krinkin, David Z 373,448-452 (testimony) 

Krumbein, ^Margaret (nee Cowl) 284,332,335-342 (testimony) 

Laughlin, Francis B 253 (testimony), 254, 270,271 

Lautner, John 275-289 (testimony), 300, 310, 319, 330, 331, 

334, 340, 344. 347, 348, 361, 362, 364-365 (testimony), 371, 374, 388, 395, 
399, 404, 407, 411, 427, 429, 454 (testimony), 457, 466. 

Lee, James (Shew Hong) 373,417-424 (testimony) 

Leventhal, H|arold 470 

Mahalanohis, Prasauta 470 

Malkin, Maurice 428 

Marzani, Carl 320 

Mate 401,402 

Max, Alan 299 

Mizara, Roy 441-447 (testimony) 

Moy, Eugene 423 

Munsell, Alex 320 

Nagy, Arpad Fodor 281,375,406-409 (testimony) 

Needleman, Isadore G 425, 435, 438, 441, 448, 452, 470 

Nemeth 400,401 

Nestus. {See Tkach, Michael.) 

Nikolauk, Samuel J 283, 452-454 (testimony) 

Novick, Paul 284, 373, 455Mt64 ( testimony ), 466 

Orekhov, Fedor T 367 

Perry, Pettis 462 

Philbrick, Herbert 324 

Rabinowitz. Victor 366 

Rakosi ( Matyas ) 391 

Ratiani, Georgi Mikhailovich 367 

Reedy, Enuga S 469,470 

Reich. Clara 282,388,393,409-412 (testimony) 

Rosenberg, Ethel 420, 421 

Rosenberg, Julius 420, 421 

Rosenbei-g, Michael 420 

Rosenberg, Robert 420 

Rosner, Alex 376, 397-403 (testimony), 405 

Ross, Paul 417 

Sacher, Harry 291, 343, 358, 361, 455, 465 

Salerno, Michele (Michael) 382, 429 

Saunders, Dr. (Richard P.) 385-387 

Savides, Michael 412-417 (testimony) 

Shew Hong. {See Lee, James.) 

Smith, Jessica (Abt) 285, 347-358 (testimony) 

Sokolsky, George 445 

Solon, Charles 414-415 (testimony) 

Southard, Ordway 366-368 (testimony) 

Starobin, Joseph 284,286,305-319 (testimony) 

Thompson, Bob 282 

Tkach, Michael (also known as Nestus)_ 282, 283, 373, 425-435 (testimony), 441 

Torok, Margaret 388, 411 

linger, Abraham 373, 397, 403, 406, 409 

Villofosse, Louis 377 

Warner, James E 303 

Wisley, Charles. {See Hagelberg, Gerhard.) 

Organizations 

All-Slav Congress 283 

American Jewish Committee 446 

American League for Peace and Democracy 345 

American Lithuanian Workers Literary Association 438 

American-Russian Fraternal Society, IWO : 

National Committee 453 

American Slav Congress 454 

American-Ukrainian Society, IWO 437 



INDEX iil 

Page 

Cameron Associates 320 

Central Books 366 

China Peace Committee 312 

Citizens Emergency Defense Conference 371, 372 

Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy 472, 473 

Communist Information Bureau 279 

Communist Party, USA 277, 462 

National structure : 

16th National Convention, February 9-12, 1957, New York City_ 303, 304 

Central Committee 440 

Control Commission 283, 285 

Hungarian National Bureau 275, 276, 280-282, 304, 408 

Literature Commission 360 

National Hungarian Training School (Cleveland, Ohio) 399 

National Training School 276 

Nationality Groups Commission 276, 277, 279, 283 

Review Commission 276, 285 

Women's Commission 341 

Michigan : Control Commission 275 

New York 276 

Brooklyn. Boro Hall Section 472 

Review Commission 276 

West Virginia 276 

Communist Political Association 463 

Conference for Legislation in the National Interest 326 

German-American, Inc 468 

Guozi Shudian 337 

Hungarian Brotherhood. IWO 410 

Hungarian IWO Center (Bronx) 405 

Hungarian Social Club 378, 405 

Hungarian Word, Inc 375, 410 

Imported Publications and Products 333, 335 

International Lalior Defense 331 

International Publishers 332, 344 

International W^)rkprs Order 279, 280, 282, 372, 376, 382, 399, 400, 429. 457 

Hungarian Section 276, 282 

Russian Section 283, 454 

Jefferson School of Social Science 345 

Liberty Book Club 320, 321, 324 

Little Brown & Co .328 

^lagyar Konyvesltolt (bookshop) 377 

Mainstream Associates, Inc .360 

Mezhdunarodnaja Kniga (International Book Publishing Association) 366 

National Committee to Secure .Justice in the Rosenberg Case 420 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship 349, 369. 372 

National Council of Hungarian Women .389, .390 

National Wallace for President Committee .328 

National Women's Appeal for the Rights of Foreign Born Americans 393 

New Century Publishers. Inc 286, ,332, .358 

New York International Publishers 3.33 

New York Workers Book Shop .3.30 

Polonia Society for Liaison With Immigration 274 

Prompt Press 285 

Publishers New Press, Inc 299 

Russky Golos Publishing Corp 283, 284, 370, 448, 453 

Samuel Adams School for Social Studies 324 

Save the Children Federation 385, 387 

School of Jewish Studies 464 

Ukrainian-American Fraternal Union 429, 436 

United States Government : 

.Justice Department 2.54, 259 

Post Office Department 254, 256, 260, 265, 266 

State Department 2,58, 259 

Treasury Department 254 

Bureau of Customs 253, 2.54 

Women's International Democratic Federation 389 

Workers Book Shop 330, 331, 337 

Workers' Council 401 



iv INDEX 

Page 

Workers Library Publishers 286, 359 

Workers School (New York City) 340, 362, 464 

World Youth Festival : 

First Youth Festival, Prague, 1947 437 

Sixth Youth Festival, Youth and Students Festival for Peaceful 
Friendship, Moscow, July and August 1957 267 

Young Communist League (Youngstown, Ohio) 284 

Publications 

China Daily News 373, 41S-423 

Communist International 279 

Communist, The 286, a59, 462 

Daily Worker 279, 284, 293, 299, 306, 308, 318, 319, 345, 363 

Ember 412 

Events in Himgary, The 267 

Far East Spotlight 473 

For a Lasting Peace, for a People's Democracy 280 

German-American (Tribune) 282, 468 

Greek- Am ei-ican Tribune 413-415 

Home Front. The 264 

How "Steel Was Tempered 265 

Hungarian Daily Journal 277, 280, 281, 283, 373, 375. 376, 398 

Hungarian Word 281, 282, 375, 376, 397, 398, 404--408, 410 

Hungarian Working People Will Uphold Their Socialist Gains, The 267 

Inprecorr. (See International Press Correspondence.) 

International Affairs 288, 333 

International News 333 

International Press Correspondence (Inprecorr) 279 

Je^\^sh Life 463, 466, 477 

Kind of Freedom Reaction Wanted for Hungary, The 267 

Labor (No. 20) 268 

Labor Defender 345 

Labor's Work 264 

Laisve 441, 442, 445, 446 

Literary Gazette, The 264 

Magyar Jovo 406 

Masses and Mainstream 362, 364 

Morning Freiheit 283. 284, 373, 457, 458, 460, 461, 464, 466 

New Data for V. I. Lenin's Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism- _ 333 

New Masses 306 

New Times 257, 261, 264, 267, 3.33 

New World Review 348, 371 

News 261 

Nok Vilaga (Women's World) 282. 373, 388, 393, 410, 411 

Orthodox Jewish Life 477 

Our Homeland 274 

People Come Fir.st 352 

People's Daily, The (Peking, China) 268 

Poland 262 

Political Affairs 286, 359 

Pravda 367 

Rumania Today 262 

Russky Golos 283, 372, 373, 448-450 

Some Facts on Soviet Assistance to Hungary 267 

Soviet Literature 333 

Soviet Russia Today 283, 285, 348, 351. .371 

Soviet Union 261, 262, 264, 337 

Soviet Women ;'>33 

Sviesa 438, 440 

U. S. S. R 262 

Ukrainian Daily News 283, 373, 426, 427, 430, 432-436 

What Has Hapi>ened in Hungary 267 

Women in 'Soviet Russia 3."2 

Women's World. {See Nok Vilaga.) 

Worker, The 286, 345 

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