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Full text of "Investigation of Communist propaganda in the United States. Hearing"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN 

THE UNITED STATES— PART 8 
(BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA) 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE OX UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPEESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



OCTOBER 1, 1957 



I'riuted for the use of the Committee on Un-Americuu Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
97760 WASHINGTON : 1957 

HAR, , - CCLLEGE LIBRARY. 

Li.-:.i,rt;^:': RY THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, JE., Tennessee GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

Richard Aeens, Director 



f 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis vii 

October 1, 1957: Testimony of — 

Irving Fishman 1534 

Eleanor Suske 1534 

Serge Buteneff 1547 

W. Jackson Jones 1549 

Mortimer Scheer , 1 554 

Charles V. Regan • 1560 

Mortimer Scheer (resumed) 1561 

Afternoon session: 

Alan Dietch 1565 

Sidney TurofiF 1568 

Alan Dietch (resumed) 1568 

Sidney Turoff (resumed) 1569 

Index i 

' See Investigation of Communist Activities in the Buffalo, N. Y., Area— Part 1, October 2, 1957. 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Revresentatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a wliole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation tliereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House ( or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at sucli 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary- Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member, 

* * * * * If 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each Standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent re- 
ports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch 
of the Government. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 
• «**«*• 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEaiS 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 

****** 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
****** 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

****** 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness of 
the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee, and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 

IXATCSTIGATION OF COMMUXIST PROPAGANDA IX THE IJnITED StATES 

Part 8, Buffalo, N. Y., Area 

In a continuation of its investigation of the dissemination of Com- 
munist propaganda in the United States, the Committee on Un- 
American Activities, in public hearings in Buffalo, N. Y., on October 1, 
1957, heard Irving Fishman, Deputy Collector of Customs in New 
York, and Miss Eleanor Suske and Serge Buteneft', administrative 
assistants in the Restricted Material Division of the United States 
Customs in New York. They testified that approximately 3,000 pieces 
of Communist propaganda were being sent to the Buffalo area for 
distribution per month. 

In addition, Mr. Fishman stressed the need for passage of those 
parts of the committee's omnibus security bill (H. R. 9352) of the 85th 
Congress, which would strengthen the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act and impose stricter controls on the dissemination of Communist 
propaganda in the United States. 

Other testimony demonstrated the need for possible additional 
amendments to the Foreign Agents Registration Act to control the 
dissemination of foreign Communist propaganda in the United States 
which originates from a source outside of the Soviet Union or satellite 
countries but forms a part of the political and propaganda program 
of the Kremlin. 

The committee interrogated at length two identified Communists, 
Sidney Turoff and Mortimer Scheer, about the distribution of Com- 
munist propaganda in the Buffalo area- 

Mortimer Scheer invoked the fifth amendment in response to all 
questions relating to Communist Party membership and activity. Mr. 
Turoff readily admitted his own membership and activity in the 
Communist Party. However, he refused to give the committee the 
identity of any individuals known to him to have been members of 
the Communist Party. Mr. Turoff also admitted purchasing print- 
ing presses to be used by the Communist Party and its members in 
the Buffalo area. The evidence demonstrated conclusively that the 
purchase of this equipment was done in a manner illustrating anew 
the conspiratorial role of the Communist Party. 

vn 



INVESTIGATION OF C0M3IUNIST PROPAGANDA IN 
THE UNITED STATES— PART 8 

(Buffalo, N. Y., Area) 



TUESDAY, OCTOBER 1, 1957 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Public Hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a. m. in room 600, United States Courthouse, 
Buffalo, N. Y., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman of the subcommittee) , 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, 
Louisiana, and Gordon H. Scherer, Ohio. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, director ; W. Jackson Jones, 
and George C. Williams, investigators. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will be in order. 

This subcommittee, consisting of Hon. Francis E. Walter, of Penn- 
sylvania, Hon. Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio, seated here, and myself, 
Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana, has been duly appointed by the chair- 
man of the Committee on Un-American Activities, Hon. Francis E. 
Walter, to conduct hearings here in Buffalo, N. Y. Unfortunately, 
Mr. Walter is unable to be present because of a physical injury from 
which he is recuperating. There is, however, a quorum present and 
the subcommittee will accordingly proceed with its duties. 

Let the record at this point include the authorization by the com- 
mittee (July 10, 1957) for the holding of these hearings in Buffalo, 
N. Y., which I have designated appendix I. 

Appendix I 

Committee Authorization for Buffalo Hearings 

A motion was made by Mr. Jackson, seconded by Mr. Doyle and unanimously 
carried, approving and authorizing the holding of hearings in Buffalo, N. Y., 
beginning September 17, 1957, or on any other date determined by the chair- 
man of the committee, and the conduct of investigations deemed reasonably 
necessary by the staff in preparation therefor, relating to the following sub- 
jects and having the legislative purposes indicated : 

1. Entry and dissemination in the Buffalo area of foreign Communist Party 
propaganda, the legislative purpose being to determine the necessity for, and 
advisability of, amendments to the Foreign Agents Registration Act designed 
more effectively to counteract the Communist schemes and devices now used in 
avoiding the prohibitions of the act; 

2. Execution by administrative agencies concerned of laws requiring the list- 
ing of printing presses and machines capable of being used to produce or pub- 
lish printed matter, in the possession, custody, ownership or control of the Com- 

97750—57 2 1531 



1532 INVESTIGATION OF COIMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

munist Party or Communist fronts, the legislative purpose being to assist Con- 
gress in appraising the administration of title 50, United States Code, section 
786 (6), and in developing such amendments to the Internal Security Act of 
1950, as it may deem necessary ; 

3. The extent, character, and objects of Communist infiltration into in- 
dustrial, civic, and political organizations of the Buffalo area, the legislative 
purpose being to add to the committee's overall knovpledge on the subject so 
that Congress may be kept informed and thus prepare to enact remedial legis- 
lation in the national defense and for internal security, when and if the exigen- 
cies of the situation require it ; 

4. Misuse of passports by subversives and concealment of material facts in 
applications for passports, the legislative purpose being to enact legislation in 
the field of un-American activities relating to the misuse of passports, designed 
to amend and strengthen the provisions of H. R. 5612 now being considered by 
the Committee on the Judiciary ; and 

5. All other matters within the jurisdiction of the committee which may be 
developed in the course of the staff's investigation. 

Likewise, let the record reflect at this point the order of apj)oint- 
ment of the subcommittee which order I have designated appendix II. 

Appendix II 
Appointment of Subcommittee for Buffalo Heabings 

August 29, 1957. 
To Mr. Richard Arens, Director, House Committee on TJn- American Activities: 
Pursuant to the provisions of law and the rules of this committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consisting 
of Representatives Gordon H. Scherer and Edwin E. Willis, associate members, 
and myself, Francis E. Walter, as chairman, to conduct hearings in Buffalo, 
N. Y., on October 1, 2, and 3, 1957, at 10 a. m., on subjects under investigation 
by the committee and take such testimony on said days or succeeding days, as 
it may deem necessary. 

Please make this action a matter of committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 29th day of August 1957. 

Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Vn-American Activities. 

Under the provisions of Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress, the 
Congress has placed upon this committee the duty of investigating 
the extent, character, and objects of un-American propaganda activ- 
ities in the United States, the diffusion within the United States of 
subversive an;d un-American propaganda that is instigated from 
foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks the principle of 
the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and all 
other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. Congress has also placed upon this 
committee the duty of exercising continuous watchfulness over the 
execution of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of this committee. 

For the past 2 years, the committee has engaged in an extensive 
investigation to ascertain the amount and variety of foreign Commu- 
nist propaganda disseminated in the United States. The committee 
has held hearings and taken testimony relating to the three principal 

Sorts of entry of this material, namely. New York, San Francisco, and 
ew Orleans. The committee is vitally interested in the type and 
volume of material entering the United States from the Soviet and 
satellite countries through all ports of entry of the United States. 
Ports such as Buffalo do not have regularly constituted officials whose 
sole and exclusive function is examining this material and confiscating 
that which enters this country illegally. However, at the request 



INIVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN TJ. S. 1533 

of the committee, the United States Customs Service has conducted a 
survey of this and other ports of entry along the Canadian border 
relating to Communist propaganda entering the country in this area 
and will give us the benefit of their findings today. 

We shall also receive testimony from individuals in this area con- 
cerning Communist techniques and tactics of infiltration or attempted 
infiltration of basic industries.^ Without this information, it would 
be impossible for the committee to carry out its legislative duties as 
required of it by the Congress and the American people. In response 
to the mandate from the Congress to keep constant surveillance oyer 
existing security legislation, the committee is constantly surveying 
the operation of" the Internal Security Act of 1950, the Foreign Agents 
Kegistration Act, espionage statutes, the Communist Control Act of 
1954, and similar laws. 

The committee, operating through its staff recently formulated an 
omnibus security bill, H. K. 9352, which represents the most com- 
prehensive eflort ever made to deal with all problems in the field of 
mternal security. This bill combines numerous proposals for em- 
powering the Government to combat the various aspects of the Com- 
munist conspiracy which are not dealt with adequately in our present 
laws. 

We hope to obtain here in Buffalo factual information which will 
help us in refining this omnibus security bill on which we will be work- 
ing further as soon as the Congress convenes in January. 

It is a standing rule of this committee that any person named in 
the course of committee hearings be given an early opportunity to ap- 
pear before this committee if he so desires, for the purpose of denying 
or explaining any testimony adversely aft'ecting him. In the event 
there are such persons, they should immediately communicate with 
any member of the staff and make their request known. 

I would remind those present that we are here at the direction of 
the Congress of the United States to discharge an important legis- 
lative function. You are here by permission of this committee, and 
I trust will conduct yourselves as guests of the committee at all times. 
A disturbance of any kind or audible comment during the course of 
testimony, whether favorable or unfavorable to any witness, will not 
be tolerated. 

In every hearing, the committee has encouraged witnesses to have 
counsel with them if they so desire, and has always welcomed the 
presence of counsel. In fact, the rules of the committee expressly 
provide that at every hearing, public or executive, every witness 
shall be accorded the privilege of having counsel of his own choosing. 

The participation of counsel during the course of any hearing and 
while the witness is testifying shall be limited to advising the witness 
as to his legal rights. Counsel shall not be permitted to engage in oral 
argument with the committee, but shall confine his activity to the 
area of legal advice to his client. 

I wish to say also, finally, that I admonish those present not to 
smoke in the courtroom. 

Mr. Counsel, please call your first witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that at this time 
two witnesses be jointly sworn, who will testify in concert. The first 

1 See Investigation of Communist Activities in the Buffalo, N. Y., Area — Parts 1 and 2, 
October 2, 3, and 4, respectively. 



1534 IlsrS^ESTIGATION OF COMMUNiIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Avitness is Mr. Irving Fishman, deputy collector of customs, New York, 
and the second witness, who is accompanying Mr. Fishman, is Miss 
Eleanor Suske, who is the administrative assistant to the deputy col- 
lector of customs of New York. 

Mr. Willis. Please rise. 

Do each and both of you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
tlie truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Fishman. I do. 

Miss Suske. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING FISHMAN, DEPUTY COLLECTOR OF CUS- 
TOMS, PORT OF NEW YORK; AND ELEANOR SUSKE, ADMINISTRA- 
TIVE ASSISTANT TO DEPUTY COLLECTOR OF CUSTOMS, PORT OF 
NEW YORK 

Mr. Arens. Will you each, beginning with Mr. Fishman, kindly 
identify yourself. 

Mr. Fishman. My name is Irving Fishman. I live in New York, 
and I am deputy collector of customs at the customs port of New 
York. 

Mr. Arens. How long luive you been so engaged, Mr, Fishman '^ 

Mr. Fishman. For the past 30 years. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about your duties and responsibilities, 
please. 

Mr. Fishman. As deputy collector of customs, I have been assigned 
by the Treasury Department to take cliarge of the enforcement of 
certain provisions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act on a coun- 
trywide basis. 

Mr. Arens. Those provisions deal with tlie importation into this 
country of Communist political propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Suske, will you kindly give us a word of identifica- 
tion of yourself, your name, your residence, and a word of your back- 
ground ? 

Miss Suske. jNIy name is Eleanor Suske. I reside in New York 
City. I am administrative assistant to Deputy Collector Fishman in 
tlie office of tlie collector of customs in New York City. My duties 
at the customs port in New York include the supervision of all ad- 
ministratiA'e details which arise in connection with the handling of 
political propaganda. This includes receiving all reports submitted 
by our control units, nationwide, of which there are three, and re- 
viewing them. In addition, it is my function to compile sucli sta- 
tistics as are required by our agency, the Post Office Department, and 
other related Government agencies. 

Mr. Arens. Have you. Miss Suske. in tlie recent past, at tlie direc- 
tion of ]Mr. Fishman, made a study of the situation in the greater 
Buffalo area with respect to the importation of Communist prop- 
aganda ? 

Miss Suske. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I expect to interrogate you on that subject a little 
later. I just wanted to be sure that the record at this point reflects 
the fact that you have so made that study officially. 

]\riss Suske. Yes. 



INVESTIGATION OF COINIMUXIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1535 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, will you kindly give us a word about 
the applicable law which is administered by yourself and others in the 
Customs Bureau? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. I am certain that members of this committee 
are familiar with the interest of the Bureau of Customs in the impor- 
tation of political Communist propaganda into the United States. The 
Bureau of Customs, which is a branch of the Treasury Department, in 
cooperation with the Post Office and Justice Departments, has a joint 
responsibility under certain Federal statutes to control the importa- 
tion of political Communist propaganda. 

First, under the Tariff Act of 1930, subversive materials which advo- 
cate treason or insurrection against the United States. 

Second, the sending of political Communist propaganda materials 
to the United States from the Soviet-bloc countries by the mails or by 
means other than the mails, misolicited, and intended for dissemina- 
tion in the United States, may be in violation of the Foreign Agents 
Kegistration Act. The Department of Justice has expressed the opin- 
ion that propaganda materials arriving in the United States from 
abroad by means other than the mails may be seized as an importation 
contrary to law, under section 545 of title 18, United States Code. 

It is important to note that the Justice Department has held that 
persons not within the United States who use interstate or foreign 
commerce within the United States to disseminate Communist propa- 
ganda shall be regarded as acting within the United States, so that 
they are subject to the Foreign Agents Kegistration Act. 

Mr. Arexs. Give us, if you please, Mr. Fishman, a thumbnail sketch 
of the prmcipal provisions of the Foreign Agents Kegistration Act. 

Mr. Fishman. The Government agencies concerned consider the 
Foreign Agents Kegistration Act as a disclosure-type statute. It con- 
templates that those people in the United States who desire to read 
foreign Communist political propaganda be made aware of the source 
of the material. The law also provides that a person in the United 
States who disseminates foreign political propaganda shall register 
with the Department of Justice and thus keep the United States Gov- 
ernment aware of his activity. 

Mr, Akens. Is the theor}^, in just the language of the street, similar 
to the theory under our food-and-drug laws, namely, that the recipi- 
ent of Communist propaganda is entitled to know the nature of the 
commodity which he consumes ? Is that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. The law provides a labeling of the Communist propa- 
ganda as a prerequisite to its distribution, and also requires that the 
person who distributes it, if he is an agent of a foreign power, register 
with the Department of Justice ; is that right ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Willis. May I interpose another thought there, Mr. Counsel ? 

I happened to have been the author of the report on that bill some 
years ago in Congress, I remind you, also for the record, that there 
is no substantial difference between the law of Congress which re- 
quires lobbyists, people representing industry, to register as such m 
"Washington, so that we can know whom they represent, and the law 
requiring agents of foreign countries to come forward and register 
and let us know what they are doing. 



1536 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I think it might be pertinent for the record, Mr. 
Arens, to note several statements made by the Attorney General in 
his report to the Congress this last year, in which he refers to the 
activities of these registered agents. It is completely relevant to 
some of the information Avhich we hope to give later, on the volume 
of material which these registered agents disseminate in the United 
States. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed to do so. 

Mr. FiSHMAX. "In 1956, 63 new registration statements were filed 
pursuant to the act, * * * An alphabetical list of the registrants 
* * * together with the name of the foreign principal and a brief 
description of the nature of each agency is contained in appendix 
II, * * *." I will skip through this. 

"As in the past, the largest number of new registration statments 
were filed by persons engaged in publicity, public relations, adver- 
tising, or allied activities, on behalf of foreign principals. The second 
largest class of registrants consists of those engaged in legal and 
economic consulting services.'" But more pertinent, "Materials dis- 
seminated by official foreign government information and tourist 
offices and by foreign political parties are the largest sources of 
political propaganda disseminated in the United States. Such mate- 
rials aim, in the main, for the promotion of good will, and are designed 
to present to the American public particular viewpoints on various 
national and international issues." 

"The expenditure of over $6.8 million * * * by official foreign 
government information and tourist offices reflect the continued im- 
portance of American trade and tourism in the economies of such 
foreign nations." 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, how long have you been in the Customs 
Service ? 

Mr. Fishman. Thirty years. 

Mr. Aeens. During the course of this 30-year period of time or 
your service in the Customs Service, have you ever seen a single piece 
of Communist propaganda sent into the United States from abroad 
which was labeled as such in accordance with the provisions of the 
law? 

Mr. Fishman. I have never seen a piece labeled. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, a brief sketch of the excep- 
tions to the Foreign Agents Registration Act. 

Mr. Fishman. The most significant exception applies to those 
agents who are registered with the Department of Justice. They may 
import propaganda materials by the ton and have no restriction other 
than to report to the Attorney General. The report of the Attorney 
General refers to the U. S. S. E. in this fashion : 

"Unlike most other foreign governments, the Soviet Union does not 
maintain an official information office in the United States. Printed 
political propaganda is disseminated through Imported Publications 
and Products, Inc. and the Four Continent Book Corporation, both of 
which are registered as agents of the All-Union Soviet Book Combine 
in Moscow." 

Mr. Arens. In other words, there is no limitation on Communist 
propaganda that can be imported into this country, is there? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. There is none. 

Mr. Arens. There is no requirement on labeling or registration of 
Communist propaganda which comes in in first-class mail? 



ESrVE'STIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1537 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We ordinarily do not examine first-class mail, except 
under certain situations, in which event we would call upon the ad- 
dressee to waive the privacy of the seal. 

Mr. Arens. May I just interpose this question at this point: The 
mails are not self-sustaining, are they, Mr. Fishman ? You know that, 
as a matter of common knowledge ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is a matter of common knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. It is a fact, then, is it not, that part of the cost of dis- 
tributing Communist propaganda in the United States, which ema- 
nates from abroad, irrespective of its volume, which we will get into 
in a moment, a part of the cost of distributing Commmiist propaganda 
in the United States is borne by the United States taxpayers who 
support the mails ; is that correct ? , 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. You have no idea what the figure is of the subsidy ? 

Mr. Fishman. No, I don't. Congressman. I had heard it a number 
of times, but it just escapes me right now. 

Mr. Arens. Has the Post Office Department made an estimate of 
the subsidy we give for handling this Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. I believe one of the Senate committees asked for such 
a report, and it is now being prepared. But it hasn't been submitted 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Fishman, give us, if you please, or Miss Suske, 
if it is within the domain of your information, the total volume of 
Communist propaganda coming into the United States within the 
purview of the Foreign Agents Registration Act. 

I am excluding propaganda created domestically. I am excluding 
Communist propaganda that goes through diplomatic pouches. I am 
excluding Communist propaganda that goes in first-class mail. I am 
excluding Communist propaganda that is not within the specific pur- 
view of the Foreign Agents Registration Act. Give us your best sta- 
tistics on the total volume of foreign Communist propaganda which 
hits this country every year. 

Miss Suske. I do have statistics for the year of 1956. On a nation- 
wide basis, including the three control units, there were approximate- 
ly ZVo million packages. 

Mr. Arens. How many individual items would you estimate are 
in the 31/^ million packages ? 

Miss Suske. There were almost 7 million items included or which 
made part of these 314 million packages. 

Mr. Arens. Of these 7 million items that came in to the United 
States in the course of last year from abroad. Communist political 
propaganda, has any one in the United States customs service to your 
knowledge seen a single item that is registered and labeled Communist 
propaganda in accordance with the provisions of the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act? 

Miss Suske. No, sir ; not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us the statistics on the importation of 
Communist propaganda in comparable status, which has come in your 
check period into what we would call the greater Buffalo area ? 

Miss Suske. Yes. I have those figures here. 

During a 4-week period, approximately 1,400 parcels of mail during 
this 4-week period were examined and found to contain Communist 



1538 INVESTIGATION OF COIVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

propaganda . These 1,400 parcels contained approximately 3,000 items ; 
pamphlets, publications, newspapers. 

Mr. Arens. That was just over a 4- week period ? 

Miss SusKE. That was just over a 4- week period ; j'es, sir, 

Mr. Abens. Does your information lead you to believe that the im- 
portation in this area of Communist propaganda emanating from 
abroad is increasing or decreasing ? 

Miss Suske. Actually, according to our statistics, the material com- 
ing in from abroad is definitely increasing. As a matter of fact, 
during the 7-month period of 1957, there is a definite show of at least 
22 percent increase in the volume of material being sent in, 

Mr. Willis, May I ask a question there to clarify our arithmetic? 

Did you say that 1,400 parcels )vere examined, or is that the total 
that came in ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I would like to make one thing clear. 

As you said, Mr. Chairman, in your opening statement, we do not 
Iiave a control unit in Buffalo. These statistics reflect the findings 
at our control units in New York and Chicago, and the findings in 
Buffalo, so that actually we have found Communist propaganda in 
1,400 parcels addressed to this area, and the total number of items 
of political propaganda, printed items, totaled 3,000. 

Mr. Arens. Did anyone see a single item there of these 3,000 pieces 
of Communist propaganda in the course of the last few weeks directed 
to this area, which was labeled in accordance with the provisions of 
the Foreign Agents Registration Act ? 

IMiss Suske. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I would like to add in connection with this general 
subject of increase in mail that the Commissioner of Customs in a 
recent report had to say, with regard to mail, that foreign mail pack- 
ages are increasing at tlie rate of 5 million per year, and total 40 mil- 
lio]i submitted to the customs in the past 12 months. So generally 
mail from all countries is increasing. 

Mr. i^RENS. So the total volume of foreign Communist propaganda 
which is hitting these shores is increasing? 

Miss Suske. Statistics show that there is a definite increase. 

Mr. Arexs. What would be an appraisal as to the approximate 
amount of increase or percentage increase ? 

Miss Suske. I started to give you that information before. For the 
first 7 months of 1957, there has been an increase of approximately 
22 percent. 

Mr. Scherer. During that same period, what was the percentage of 
increase in regular packages of mail coming from foreign countries, 
other than this Communist propaganda? 

Mr. FiSHMAisr. This Communist propaganda became very active as 
a result of that student festival in Moscow, and the country was prac- 
hcally flooded with every kind of propaganda type of material. We 
had posters, books, invitations to every school and college in the United 
States. The Soviet and the Communist propaganda mill must have 
spent millions of dollars on this one festival in Moscow. 

Mr. Scherer. What I am trying to find out is whether the percent- 
age of increase in Communist propaganda exceeds the percentage of 
increase of regular mail coming from foreign countries. 

Mr. FisTiMAN. The increase of regular mail was somewhere around 
7 percent. 



INVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1539 

Mr. ScHERER. That is what I wanted. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. This actually is 22 percent. I merely gave the gen- 
eral statistics to show the distinction. General foreign mail increases 
between 5 and 7 percent a year over the past few years, but mail from 
the Communist countries jumjis 20 or 25 percent, dependiiig on the 
issues raised in this country. 

Mr. Arens. Does some of this Communist propaganda which hits 
our shores from countries abroad emanate from non-Communist for- 
eign countries ? 

Mr. P'isHMAN. Unfortunately, many friendly countries serve as 
transit shipment points. 

Mr. Arens. Did 3-011, in the course of the last few months, in coop- 
eration with the Connnittee on Un-American Activities, and at the 
solicitation of the Committee on Un-American Activities, make a spot 
check in Europe and elsewhere respecting this very situation, namely, 
sources in non-Communist countries which are presently developing 
and sending into the United States Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a summary of your findings there, 
Mr. Fishman? 

Mr. Fishman. The interest of the committee, as you will recall, 
dealt with the need to amend the present law to clarify the issue of 
establishing agency relationships. One of our greatest problems in 
enforcing the Foreign Agents Registration Act is the necessity for 
establishing agency relationship and making an attempt to declare 
unmailable Communist propaganda which comes from friendly foreign 
countries. 

The Department of Justice has given the opinion that Communist 
propaganda from a Soviet bloc country may be considered as from 
the Government itself, and so it automatically comes within the 
purview of the Foreign Agents Registration Act. That Department, 
however, has not given that same opinion with regard to Communist 
propaganda coming from a friendly nation. 

In my investigation I found that it was a comparatively simple 
matter to walk into a Soviet controlled and subsidized bookshop 
in France, for example, and purchase as much Communist propaganda 
as one pleased, and arrange to ship it to the United States. That type 
of material would not be detained by the customs service or the Post 
Office Department, because in order to declare such material unmail- 
able or subject to seizure, we would have to establish an agency 
relationship between that bookshop and the Soviet Government, which 
is almost an impossibility. 

Mr. Arens. May I interpose this question at this point: Is much 
of this Communist propaganda which comes into this country of a 
variety or style that a person receiving it and reading it, unless he were 
alerted, might think it was not Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, is it of the insidious, subtle variety? 

Mr. Fishman. The trend for the past several years has been to make 
it as subtle as possible. The figures reflect that about 60 percent of 
this material is in the English language. 

Mr. Arens. And about 40 percent in foreign language, I take it? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. 

97750—57 3 



1540 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

That material which comes in in foreign languages is particularly 
dangerous because it bears no masthead. Much of it consists of state- 
ments of so-called facts on issues which develop here in the United 
States. A good deal of this regularly issued Communist propaganda — 
and we have a considerable number of exhibits here for you this morn- 
ing — follows a routine, and the format remains the same and it is 
somewhat easy to identify. But much of this material is specifically 
prepared to cover problems which arise in the United States, either 
domestic or political problems, and is not so clearly defined. It is 
pretty difficult to understand just who has issued the statement, 
whether it is something which is issued in this country, whether it is 
government inspired or government agency inspired. There is obso- 
Tutely no way of identifying it or know^ing where it was printed. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, may I invite your attention to these mail 
sacks? We asked you to bring, did we not, at random, some of the 
mail sacks arriving in the Buffalo area which could be opened here? 
May I respectfully ask you now if you could step over to where those 
mail sacks are and pick out a typical sack, and if it is not in violation 
of your regulations to publicly break the seal and let us see by the 
hazards of chance here what specimens might be in this particular 
bundle of material ? 

Mr. Fishman. I would like to make one correction. These mail 
sacks were turned over to us by the general post office in New York 
City. The material is destined for this area. 

Mr. Arens. Are you just now breaking the seal for the first time 
on some of these sacks ? 

Mr. Fishman. This is the first time I have seen any of the contents 
of these sacks. 

Mr. Arens. Just take out a handful or so, if you please, Mr. Fish- 
man, and then walk back or put it on the table and give us a thumbnail 
description of the material. You had to pick this material up in 
New York because there is no control unit in the Buffalo area ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let me ask this question : Do these sacks presumably 
contain all types of mail coming to this area from behind Iron Curtain 
countries ? 

Mr. Fishman. From behind Iron Curtain countries ; yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Containing, presumably, regular and legitimate mail 
in addition to the propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. The Post Office Department turns over to us all paper 
mail from the Soviet bloc countries. That may include parcel post, 
merchandise, printed matter, anything considered by the Post Office 
Department in the class of paper mail. A magazine or a book, a news- 
paper, is defined as paper mail. 

Mr. ScHERER. Presumably, then, am I correct; out of these sacks 
come not only Communist propaganda but regular mail from Iron 
Curtain countries ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us a thumbnail description of what 
you found in that typical sack ? 

Mr. Fishman. These are very easily identified. We have seen so 
much of this that without opening the envelopes or making any at- 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1541 

tempt to examine it, we know this is the format of the redefection 
program, the type of material which is sent to citizens of foreign 
heritage. 

Mr. Akens. Let me be sure the record is clear on this, Mr. Fishman. 
You have in your hand and from the distance that I am from you it 
appears to be, a number of letters. You say from the format that 
you are able to conclude that those letters contain solicitations to 
people in the United States to return to Communist bloc countries; 
IS that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. How extensive is this program at the present time? 

Mr. Fishman. Well, it has been on the increase. Originally a good 
deal of this material came from the Soviet Union, Poland. It has 
spread to other languages : Bulgarian, Lithuanian, and so on. 

Mr. Arens. There is no control on this ; is there ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. This is first-class mail. The joint post office and 
customs regulations provide that tlie addressee may be requested to 
waive the privacy of the seal. We would examine the contents of this 
envelope and if it were found to contain political propaganda, we 
would advise the Post Office Department that it was unmailable. 
Similar action would be taken with all of this material. I have 
brought with me, and we have had, many letters from some of the 
addressees to whom this type of material was delivered. Here is one, 
and it says : 

In case sealed envelopes contain propaganda material sent by the Russian 
Repatriation Commission, do not forward it to me because I don't want it. 

Mr. Arens. Would that lead you to believe that the individual was 
a regular recipient of Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. As we pointed out to the commit- 
tee — and I think the committee did heroic work on this program of 
acquainting the American people with this whole redefection pro- 
gram — many of these people, until the time that they receive this type 
of thing, feel that they have come to the United States and are free 
and clear of any chains they may have had in the Soviet bloc countries. 
Suddenly they receive one of these letters and they fear they have been 
identified here and have no idea of what may follow. Many of them 
are anxious to have this material withheld from them. 

Mr. Arens. How would you characterize the volume of the letters 
addressed to these persons? I take it they are the foreign language 
group in the United States. 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the volume ? 

Mr. Fishman. In that 4- week period, when we checked it in New 
York, Chicago, and some here in Buffalo, we found about a thousand 
of these were sent into this area. 

Mr. Arens. These would be letters addressed principally to persons 
who had some tie by background or by some relative in an Iron Cur- 
tain country; is that correct? 

Mr. Fishman. That would be one way of ascertaining these ad- 
dresses. Another system, of course, is to pick up bulletins of many 
societies. The American-Polish Congress, I believe, has some 250,000 
members. Anyone getting hold of the membership list of that organ- 



1542 im^ESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

ization has 250,000 prospective people to write to in this country, 
people they hope will disseminate a good deal of this material. 

Mr. Akens. May I invite your attention to just tlie general mass of 
material which you have taken out of that one mail sack, if you 
please? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Mr. Buteneff, who will testify a little later on, rec- 
ognizes some of these titles. He has indicated to me on some of these 
envelopes and wrappers the titles of the publications. In some in- 
stances, the title, of course, is on the wrapper. These he has given to 
me are addressed to this area. People's Tribune, from Poland, that 
is an official organ of the Communist Part3^ 

Mr. Arens. This is all material coming from an Iron Curtain bloc ? 
Do you have in that sack material of a Communist variety coming 
from a friendly or western country ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN". No. I have submitted under separate cover to the 
committee, as you know, a good deal of that material, which I have 
personally purchased and which we have subsequently picked up as 
coming from the friendly countries. 

Mr. Arens. May I just inquire, almost at the expense of being 
monotonous, do you see on any of that material emanating from Com- 
munist countries, any label indicating it to be Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. No ; in fact, they are careful not to show the address 
source, so that if we wanted to return this material we can't. 

Mr. Willis. And likewise, the addressees, or the persons receiving 
that material, could not know where it comes from ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. Here is another type of letter received 
from an addressee in this country : 

Please do not let these things pass through. I do not need that smelly stuff. 

And many of these people are a little crude in their expressions to us: 

Lately I have been receiving propaganda from Berlin. I do not know who 
sent my name in or how they found my address. I sent some packages to rela- 
tives in the U. S. S. R. a few months ago which were returned. This may be 
the manner in which the Communist machine located me. Please return this 
material. My husband and I do not want trouble with this Government. 

I would like to advise you that I do not want any mail sent to me sealed from 
Berlin. This is a black, dirty Communist Party literature to return us new 
Americans to our native countries. I am loyal to my new home, the U. S. A., and 
do not want to hear any of that kind of literature. Please destroy all that. 

But we can't do that. A good many of these people would love to 
have us keep it from them. 

Mr. Arens. And it is paid for in part by the taxpayers of the United 
States? ^ ^ ^ 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, have you concluded your description of 
the sampling of this mail sack ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes, sir. Much of it is the same. Here is the Hun- 
garian News, from Hungary. We haven't gone into many of these 
other things, but a good deal of it is redefection material. Here is the 
Literary Gazette, from Hungary. People's Freedom, the official Com- 
munist organ in Himgary. 

Mr. ScHERER. You emptied about what, one-third of a sack of mail ? 



rXVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1543 

Mr. FisiiMAx. That is right. 

Mr. SciiERER. One-third of a sack of mail, and practical]}^ all of 
that one-third is Communist projjaganda? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. There is hardly any general mail in there, is there? 

]Mr. FiSHMAN. Very little. We have asked the Post Office Depart- 
ment to try not to send us too much of the first-class type mail, because 
we just can't examine it, we have no authority to open it. So in some 
instances, a preliminary segregation may be made at the general post 
office or the exchange post office, so we would get moi-e of the paper 
mail. I think 95 pei'cent of the fourth-class mail or paper mail from 
the Soviet bloc countries consists of this type of material. That goes 
for all areas of the United States, not necessarily this particular area. 

Mr. Arens. How about these mail sacks that we see here ? I think 
you have apparently 6 or 8 of them there. From whence did those 
mail sacks come? 

Mr. FiSHMAX. Every one of them is from a Soviet bloc comitry. 

Mr. Arens. Over what course of time did they arrive ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. This was during this last 4-week period. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fisliman, in the course of the last day or so, I 
believe it was last evening, you were telling me informally about this 
contest that was sponsored by the Soviet bloc. Would you relate that 
on this record for a moment, please? 

]Mr. FiSHMAN. The propaganda program, as you know, has many 
facets. In many instances, it is used as a means of obtaining infor- 
mation. It is done in a very subtle mamier. Recently there was sent 
to the United States, to many radio hams — the names, I suppose, 
Avere obtained through some radio journal — a series of questions, and 
it was a sort of radio quiz. The sender said : 

If you will answer these questions, we will award you a prize, if you win, if 
your answers are pretty much correct. 

Mr. Arens. What was the type of information that was elicited ? 
Mr, FiSHMAN. This is an award made to an individual in this 
country. It says : 

Dear Listener : We wish to inform you of the correct answers to the eight 
questions in the radio quiz to which you contributed. 

Question: In what year and what month did the Soviet Union and the United 
States enter into diplomatic relations? 

Name the Soviet airmen who made the first nonstop flights over the North 
Pole to the United States? 

In what part of the Soviet Union has the greater land area of new land 
been reclaimed in the past 3 years? 

Who was the Soviet athlete who returned from the Melbourne Olympics with 
two gold medals? 

What city used to be the capital of the first Russian state and is now the 
capital of one of the Soviet Republics and stands on one of the longest rivers in 
the world? 

And so on. The significant thing was that in the answer the con- 
testant was asked to say where he lived, what his call letters were, and 
give a little more pertinent information about what he did as a ham. 
It is a little humorous to know that most everybody v>on second prize. 



1544 INVESTIGATION OF COR-IMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

It says here, "You answered eight questions correctly and won second 
prize." We must have seen several thousand of these second prizes. 

Mr. Arens. Were tl)e)-e several thousand who participated in this 
contest ? 

Mr. FisHMAx. That is right. The prize was a copy of Radio Mos- 
cow and another publication in English. It tells the story about one 
of the stars in Russia. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, 1 have in my hand what appears to be an 
award medal, which I understand was sent into the country. Will 
you tell us about this? 

Mr. Fishman. The American students who attended the Moscow 
festival were given that award. It was one more piece of the propa- 
ganda that was sent back to the United States. 

Mr. Arens. May I invite your attention to a general characteriza- 
tion and description of the Communist propaganda which I take is 
typical, which you have displayed here on the table before you. 

Mr. Fishman. The propaganda machine divides this material. 
They send what we describe pretty much as material which is similar 
to Life magazine and Newsweek and so on. This type of material 
comes in here in great volumes. It is printed, as I have mentioned, 
in many languages. For example, this copy of Soviet Union, which is 
a beautifully illustrated publication, is printed in Russian, English, 
Chinese, Korean, Hindi Urdu, Arabic, Serbo-Croat, French, German, 
Spanish, and Japanese. We see it in 2 or 3 languages. This is the 
Russian copy, this is the English, the same issue. Another popular 
one is Soviet Woman, because considerable eft'ort is made to inculcate 
American women w-ith the ideas of Soviet propaganda. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do any of these magazines that you are showing us 
contain any advertising? 

Mr. Fishman, None at all. That is the amazing thing about it. 
These magazines are printed without any advertising. They must 
cost upwards of a dollar to print, and yet sell for very little in this 
country. 

Mr. ScHERER. Someone is subsidizing them. 

jMr. Fishman. Yes. Yet at the same time, the Foar Continent Book 
Shoj:), which distributes a lot of this material, is reported to have done 
business amounting to only $385,000 during 1956. They probably did 
a lot more in dollar value, except that we have no way of determining 
liow much this magazine cost to print. So w^hatever they declare to 
be the value of it, we just have to accept. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, as you know, over the course of about the 
last year and a half, the stail of the Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities, under committee instruction, has been working on develop- 
ment of a bill called the National Security Act, which the chairman 
of this committee introduced some several weeks ago, H. R. 9352, a 
bill which contains hundreds of provisions, dealing w^ith a great num- 
ber of the facets of the Communist operation, including certain pro- 
visions bearing upon this problem of foreign Communist propaganda. 

Are you familiar in general with those provisions of H. R. 9352? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1545 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes; I am. I have had occasion to examine and 
study those provisions which affect us in our work. 

Mr. Arens. I know you are not in a position as of the moment to 
speak authoritatively on behalf of the Department of the Treasury or 
on behalf of the Bureau of the Customs, but I think at the first op- 
portunity — and this is th* first opportunity since the bill was formu- 
lated — we should have a comment by yourself in view of your own 
expert background and experience in this field with respect to the 
provisions of H. K. 9352. 

I should like to invite your attention now to those provisions and 
solicit from you those observations. 

Mr. ScHERER, We understand, Mr. Arens, that he can't give the 
opinion of his agency or department. Is there anything that pre- 
vents him from telling this committee now whether he supports the 
provisions in this bill personally ? 

Mr. Arens. That is what I had in mind, Mr. Scherer, to ask him 
about the essence of the provisions of the bill which deal with foreign 
Communist propaganda. 

That is with the understanding that you are not speaking officially 
on behalf of the Department, but only on the basis of your own back- 
ground and intimate experience over many years of time undertaking 
to cope with this very serious problem. 

Mr. FisHMAN. One of the significant features of the new proposed 
legislation will be to close the very large gap which now exists in 
connection with the labeling of this material. There has been much 
confusion as to when the requirement for labeling applies to this ma- 
terial. There has been some discussion as to whether it applies when 
the registered agent is about to place it in the United States mails, or 
in any other transportation facility, interstate commerce, and so on. 
We, on the other hand, have urged that this provision of law, the need 
for labeling this material, exists at the time the material arrives in 
the United States. The proposed legislation clears that question up 
very directly when it says, and I recall some of the language, that it 
applies to material at the time of importation into the United States. 
It is a like requirement to that wliich applies to food and drug prod- 
ucts, for example, or some of the other customs requirements for 
identifying foreign merchandise. 

I think that, to me, because of my experience and the difficulties we 
have had in getting this material labeled, is one of the most significant 
parts of the proposed legislation. There are other provisions which 
close a lot of gaps in identifying foreign agents, for example, or the 
need for registration, and so on and so forth, which I am familiar 
with because of some of my past experience, which I think will be 
helpful. Altogether I think we will find it a much simpler problem 
to do our work should this logislatioii become law. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand, from your testimoiiv tliat you ])er- 
sonally, with your background and experience, would reconnnend the 
passage of this legislation ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I definitely would. 



1546 ESrVESTIGATIOX OF COJVIMUXIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Aeens. Mr. Fishman, is there anything in this legislation, H. R. 
9352, bearing upon foreign Communist propaganda, which smacks 
of censorship ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. 1 think the legislation makes very clear that 
the Congress, for example, has no objection to people reading anything 
that they want to read, providing thev knov* the source of the material, 
which is exactly the position of the (jovernment agencies. "We see no 
objection to anybody asking and soliciting this material and having it 
if they have solicited it. 

But what we are trying to cope with are letters like we have read 
this morning, people who don't want it, or if they do get it, should 
have an opportunity, which the law specifies as a requirement, to 
learn from a statement on the envelope just what is contained in it. 

Mr. Arexs. Miss Suske or Mr. Fishman, may I ask if there is an- 
other item of information that you would like to supply to the com- 
mittee on any area on which Ave have not interrogated you this 
morning? 

I know you have testified before tliis committee elsewhere, in com- 
parable hearings, respecting the foreign Communist propaganda sit- 
uation in other areas of the country. "We do not want to burden the 
record with unnecessar}^ repetition, but we would like to have you 
make any comments or supply any information bearing on this subject 
that you feel the facts warrant. 

Miss SusKE. No, I don't believe tliere are any additional comments 
that I wish to make, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have a question. 

If Congress raises the postal rates, as it should do, would that do 
away with some of the subsidy for this type of mail i 

Mr. Fishman. It would help pay for this, but it wouldn't affect it in 
any way. "We would still have to be carrying it half free. You see, 
the sending government pays a percentage of the cost of transportation 
on the theory that we are doing the same thing in that country, but 
actually it is not at all true. "We don't ship anywhere near the volume 
of material to the Soviet bloc countries that they ship to us. 

Mr. ScHERER. It would just reduce the cost^ 

]Mr. Fishman. It would reduce it in the sense that the American 
citizens who use the mails would be paying for the cost of transporting 
these materials. That is all. 

Mr. Arens. "We have no further (questions of these two witnesses, 
]\Ir. Chairman. 

Mr. "Willis. Thank you very much, both of you. "We appreciate 
your appearance. 

The Chair suggests a 5-minute recess. 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Our guests will please be seated. 

Counsel may call his next witness. 

Mr. Arens. "Sir. Buteneff, will you kindly remain standing while 
the chairman administers an oath ? 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give Avill be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Buteneff. I do. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1547 

TESTIMONY OF SEKGE BUTENEFF, ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT 
AND SUPERVISOR, RESTRICTED MERCHANDISE DIVISION, UNITED 
STATES CUSTOMS, PORT OF NEW YORK 

Mr. Arexs. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. BuTENEFF. My name is Serge Buteneff. I live in New York 
City. I am administrative assistant and supervisor of the Restricted 
Merchandise Division in the United States Customs, the Port of New 
York. 

Mr. Willis. Will you kindly address yourself to the microphone so 
we can liear you a little more easily i 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Butenetf, where were you born ? 

Mr. Buteneff. I was born in Vienna, right after the revolution. 
I am actually of Russian-Polish extraction. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been a citizen and resident of the 
United States ? 

Mr. Buteneff. I haA^e been a resident since 1940 and a citizen since 
1944. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your work in the United States 
Customs Service; during tlie course of your activities in a private ca- 
pacity, have you had contact with nationality groups in the United 
States? 

Mr. Buteneff. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us a word about that experience or experiences, 
please, and the contacts you have had. 

Mr. Buteneff. Most of my experience, of course, comes with my 
very close and friendly relations with the Tolstoy Foundation. 

Mr. Willis. What foundation ? 

Mr. Buteneff. The Tolstoy Foundation. The Tolstoy Founda- 
tion is an organization which deals with bringing the displaced per- 
sons to the United States and resettling them over here. Of course, I 
know all the problems they face, and I have a good knowledge of the 
type of persons who arrive in the United States. I have talked to 
them innumerable times. Of course, my work presently with the 
propaganda which arrives in the United States and which is intended 
to hit these particular people gives me a very good idea of what is the 
intent behind sending this propaganda to the United States, particu- 
larly the redef ection propaganda. 

Mr. Arens. It is precisely for that reason that we invited you to 
appear today, to give the committee some insight into the impact 
that this foreign Communist propaganda has on nationality groups 
m the United States, and the reaction of those nationality groups, 
particularly those groups that are receiving this flood of redefection 
material. 

I should like now, if you please, ^Ir. Buteneff, to invite your atten- 
tion to that matter and ask you to proceed at your own pace to tell 
the committee what is the situation among the nationality groups 
who receive this material. 

Mr. Buteneff. Well, to make it as short as possible, I would like 
first to state that, in general, propaganda is a very involved and a very 
deep science, the purpose of which is to demoralize the recipient, 
particularly when it deals with the redefection program, and with the 

97750—57 4 



1548 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

minority groups living in the United States. In other words, not 
truly American people, but those who have arrived here since the last 
war, or even before the last war, but new citizens. I came to the 
conclusion that actually propaganda is based on one principle. It 
is to divide and conquer. Its main objective is to divide. They do 
everything possible to demoralize the people, to create dissension 
among groups, let's say people living in one city, like Poles living in 
Buffalo, or Russians in New York. They try to create disagreement 
in their political views or in their religious views, and thus weaken 
the unity of these people, and the unity, of course, by that I mean 
their unity to fight and to be against communism. In this redefection 
program, a very great importance is given to that particular matter. 
They try to first incite great nostalgia and homesickness; then, of 
course, they try to persuade the people that here, let us say, in the 
United States, they cannot be understood by Americans as well as 
they can be understood by their own people in their own country. In 
other words, that it is better to suffer a little more at home than to 
suffer in the foreign land, 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any incidents to recount of the impact 
of this redefection program upon particular individuals with whom 
you have had some contact ? 

Mr, BuTENEFF. Yes. Well, I know, again through the Tolstoy 
Foundation, that some of the people who have gone through that 
foundation have complained to this organization that they have been 
receiving this particular type of mail. 

I know of one instance which may illustrate their reaction, in gen- 
eral, as to the fact that they had been contacted by a Soviet agent. 

For instance, there was one worker whom I personally knew. He 
has a family, a wife and two small children, who settled in a small 
town, I think in the State of New York, who has been working there 
in the factory for a few months. His factory friends, on April 1, 
decided to make a little joke on him, and they told him that a Soviet 
Embassy car had been parked in front of his house. At that instance, 
the man became insane. That shows you under what stress and what 
nervousness these people live, even in the United States, far away 
from their own country, and separated by a large ocean. They still 
feel insecurity, and their nerves are really always on edge. 

I know of some instances where people have moved as soon as they 
have received a copy of this newspaper. They have moved and they 
have changed their names. They tried to completely erase all trace 
of where they have gone to. 

Yet a little later, again they will receive this material. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, Mr. Buteneff. We wanted this record to 
reflect a general appraisal of one who is in a position to know the 
impact of Communist foreign propaganda which is hitting our shores 
in such volume. 

We have no further questions of this witness, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. Thank you very much, sir. 

(Present: Representatives Willis and Scherer.) 

Mr. Arens, Mr, Chairman, the next witness, if you please, is Mr. 
W. Jackson Jones. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Jones. I do. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1549 

TESTIMONY OF W. JACKSON JONES, INVESTIGATOR, COMMITTEE 
ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Jones. I am W. Jackson Jones. I reside in Washington, D. C., 
and I am an investigator for the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you occupied the post of an investigator 
with the Committee on Un-American Activities, Mr. Jones? 

Mr. Jones. Since February of 1949. 

Mr. AnENS. Did you, in the course of the last few months, receive 
instructions from myself to go to Canada for the purpose of acquiring 
information respecting the emanation from that country of Commu- 
nist propaganda which has been sent into the United States? 

Mr. Jones. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Were you instructed that the first thing you were to do 
was to contact the Canadian police authorities ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And did you so contact the Canadian police authori- 
ties and make yourself known as an investigator of the Committee on 
Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Jones. The authorities were contacted, my identity made 
known, and the purpose of my visit. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make known to the police authorities in Canada 
that you were seeking information which could be used by you in 
public testimony before the Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Jones. They were advised that the only information I was 
seeking was that of a public nature, information which could be ob- 
tained by any private citizen in the course of inquiry by him in Canada. 

Mr. Arens. Prior to the time that you actually made your trips to 
Canada, did the committee acquire information from within the 
United States respecting Communist propaganda which was emanat- 
ing from Canada ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. Just as Mr. Fishman testified, the committee is 
receiving letters regularly from individuals within the United States, 
asking us to do something about this Communist propaganda coming 
into the United States. 

One of those letters contained information which was being dissemi- 
nated by an organization called News-Facts of Toronto, Canada. The 
address at that time was 753 Bathurst Street, Toronto. 

That information, in addition to soliciting orders for information 
about the U. S. S. R., contained, as a complimentary copy, a little 
booklet printed in Canada entitled "Trade With the Soviet Union." 

I would like to introduce that as an exhibit at this time. 

Mr. Willis. It will be so received. 

(The document referred to was marked "Committee Exhibit No. 1" 
and received for the information of the committee.) 

Mr. Jones. An examination of this document reveals that it was 
printed by a printing firm authorized to use the printer's bug No. 28, 
and it was disseminated by, as I said, the organization known as News- 
Facts, of 753 Bathurst Street, Toronto. 



1550 I>r\'ERTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

My investigation disclosed that the printer's bug 28 was used by an 
organization known as the Eveready Printers, Ltd. This is a printing 
firm in Canada which not only printed this material, but also prints 
the Canadian Tribune and other literature of the Labor Progressive 
Party of Canada, the Canadian equivalent of our Communist Party of 
the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Would you proceed at your own pace to recount the 
incidents of significance in 3- our trips into Canada ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. It was learned that the News-Facts was the offi- 
cial publication of an organization known as the Canadian-Soviet 
Friendship Society, a similai- organization to our American-Soviet 
Friendship Society. 

The city directory for Toronto for 1957 carried its address as 753 
Bathurst Street, and its president as Dyson Carter. 

I would like to introduce this as an exhibit. 

(Document referred to marked "Committee Exhibit No. 2" and re- 
ceived for the information of the committee.) 

Mr. JoNES. The Eveready Printers, Ltd., according to this same 
directory, had as its president William Sydney and its address as 
60-72 Tecumseth, Toronto. 

The address of Dyson Carter, who was the president of the Cana- 
dian-Soviet Friendship Society, was listed as 134 Colbeck. 

I would like to introduce at this time a picture of 753 Bathurst 
Street, which was the original point of origin of the information com- 
ing into the United States, and at that time the home of the Canadian- 
Soviet Friendship Society. 

Mr. Arens. Does that picture reveal any identification of that es- 
tablishment on the outside as a source for Communist propaganda? 

Mr. Jones. No. Obviously, the Canadian-Soviet Friendship So- 
ciety and the other bookstores operating from this address used the 
second floor, because the first floor is an organization which concerns 
itself with the manufacture of kitchen cuj^boards. But there is no 
identification, no identification on the door or anywhere, to show that 
this is a place where people can purchase material, and so forth. 

(The picture referred to was marked "Committee Exhibit No. 3" 
and received for the information of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. Will you proceed now ? 

Mr. Jones. It was learned that as of now the publication News- 
Facts, is undej' the supervision and direct charge of an organization 
which is now called the Northern Neighbors Publishing Association. 

Mr. Arens. And where is that located ? 

Mr. Jones. It is in Toronto, Canada, at 1334 Bloor Street West. 

Mr. Arens. Did you visit that establishment? 

Mr. Jones. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what transpired on your visit. 

Mr. Jones. If I may, I would like to show the connection between 
the organizations first. 

Mr, Arens. You may proceed. 

Mr. Jones. I would like to introduce into the record at this time 
a declaration of partnership filed with the city of Toronto, in which 
a group is requesting the use of the name Northern Neighbors Pub- 
lishing Association. It is filed on behalf of William Muir Tweedale, 
Ellet D. Maclnness, and Charlotte Carter. 



INVE'STIGATIOX OF COAIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1 551 

It is interesting to note that the address given is 134 (Jolbeck Street, 
the home and residence of Charlotte and Dyson Carter, the president of 
the Canadian-Soviet Friendship Society. 

(Document referred to marked "Committee Exhibit No. 4" and 
received for the information of the committee.) 

Mr. Jones. Here again, the organization or its place of doing busi- 
ness, shows no indication that this is a bookstore or that this is a pub- 
lishing firm. It AYOuld appear from a casual observation that this 
is a private residence within a block of other small residences and 
places of business. 

I would like to introduce in evidence a photograph of this place, 
1334 Bloor Street West, Toronto. 

Mr. "Willis. It will be received. 

(The photograph referred to was marked "Committee Exhibit No. 
5" and received for the information of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, if you please, of the events or incidents which 
transpired when you personally visited this last-named establish- 
ment. 

]\Ir. Jones. Having learned that the organization News-Facts was 
no longer in existence and that it was superseded by the group call- 
ing themselves the Northern Neighbors Publishing Association, I 
Avent to 1334 Bloor and there purchased some material from two wom- 
en who were obviously office managers or clerks in this store. 

The material purchased there was the new publication : Northern 
Neighbors, which was a successor to the publication originally referred 
to as News-Facts. 

The April issue of this publication is significant because it says: 

By arrangement with the publishers of News-Facts, which stopped publish- 
ing in October 1956, all subscribers will receive Northern Neighbors for the 
full time of their unexpired subscriptions, issue for issue, at no extra charge. 

This is a magazine, I think, which will be interesting to the com- 
mittee, because obviously it is copied from our U. S. News & World 
Report. It is the same format, the same type of information. 

Again, this magazine has no advertising 

Mr. Arens. When you say "the same type of information," you 
don't mean to imply 

Mr. Jones. The format, the printing format. 

Mr. Arens. The format is the only similarity ? 

Mr. Jones. The only similarity. 

Mr. Arens. It is clearly Communist propaganda; is it not? 

Mr. Jones. It calls itself "Canada's Reliable and Independent 
Magazine Reporting the U. S. S. R." There is no information in 
here about anything that is happening in Canada. All of it is about 
the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any conversations with the clerks who 
were at this establishment when you visited it ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. I engaged the people in conversation. I advised 
them that I was from the United States and the procedure that I would 
have to follow to obtain publications from them. 

They readily bragged about the fact that they sent books and this 
magazine of theirs to the United States. 

It was interesting to me in light of our investigations of the dissemi- 
nation of Communist propaganda in the United States that thev said 



1552 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

occasionally this material was lost, but that they would be very glad 
to replace it with a like copy if any of it was lost. 

Mr. Arens. Did they give you any indication as to the volume of 
this material which was being sent into the United States ? 

Mr. Jones. No. The only indication is a letterhead from the North- 
ern Neighbors, which was over the signature of Dyson Carter as editor, 
under date of July 29, 1957. This was a letter which was sent out 
soliciting subscrij^tions to this magazine. I quote from the last para- 
gi-aph : 

It gives us an idea of what we've been giving our readers . . . exclusive 
articles that have won thousands of subscribers all over Canada and the USA. 

I can bring to the committee's attention several other articles appear- 
ing in Northern Neighbors, which demonstrate conclusively that it is 
a propaganda vehicle for the Soviet Union or those acting for the 
Soviet Union. 

One article goes into great detail about how — as we would say — 
"well off" the average worker is in the Soviet Union. It gives a 
family's average income as around $10,000 a year equivalent. 

Mr. Willis. Wliere? 

Mr. Jones. In the Soviet Union. This is supposed to be an exclu- 
sive to Northern Neighbors. 

Mr. Arens. Were there other publications in this establishment 
which you visited, other than the publication to which you have just 
alluded ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. It would appear that this organization, the North- 
ern Neighbors Publishing Association, divides itself into two branches : 
One is a northern bookstore, which handles the books or publications ; 
the other is its publication, Northern Neighbors. I will file for inclu- 
sion in the record a similar certificate of organization of the Northern 
Book House. 

The Northern Book House concerns itself primarily with books, 
rather than the type of information Mr. Fishman evidenced here this 
morning. All of their books originate in the Soviet Union, are pub- 
lished by the Foreign Languages Publishing House or the equivalent 
there. Because it was important in the Buffalo investigation, I pur- 
chased a copy from them of a Soviet publication, a three-volume set of 
books entitled "The Road to Life." It is a survey by a Russian author 
of educational conditions within the Soviet Union. 

I might say in passing that they did have all of the regular standard 
literature from the Soviet Union, such as the publications — Soviet 
Union, New Times, et cetera — but it would appear that their primary 
concern is with the dissemination of books which originate in the Soviet 
Union. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive any information respecting any label- 
ing of this Communist material before it is sent into the United States, 
pursuant to the provisions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act? 

Mr. Jones. As all of this material was purchased directly from the 
Northern Book House, obviously, it would not bear any registration. 
However, we may be in a position in the very near future to secure 
a copy of Northern Neighbors which did come into the United States. 
At that time we will, of course, examine it for the stamp required under 
the Foreign Agents Registration Act. 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 1553 

Mr. Willis. I believe the witness who preceded you stated that 
there were points of transshipment of material coming into the United 
States from friendly countries. I remember, at hearings in New 
Orleans, Mexico and certain South and Central American countries 
were used as points from which material originating in Communist- 
dominated countries found its way into these friendly countries 
and then into the United States. The net effect of your testimony, 
I take it, is that we have a pattern here up in Canada. 

Mr. Jones. Obviously, from the title of the publication itself, 
Northern Neighbors would indicate that it is for dissemination out- 
side of Canada, and the fact that it bears no advertising, which any 
Canadian publication disseminated within the country would obvi- 
ously have, to support the cost. 

I might say the cost is nominal ; it is 15 cents an issue — and I doubt 
if they sell many of those — or 10 issues for a dollar, which is 10 cents 
a copy. From reliable sources, I have learned that it would cost three 
times that to print the material. Therefore, as Mr. Fishman said, it 
is obviously material that is being subsidized by someone else. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Jones, you have been participating in this inves- 
tigation of Communist propaganda coming into the United States for 
quite some time. Let me ask you the same question Mr. Arens asked 
Mr. Fishman : Have you ever seen any of these publications properly 
labeled under the Foreign Agents Kegistration Act? 

Mr. Jones. The only ones I have seen are those which Four Con- 
tinent Book Corp. files with the United States Government in answer 
to the Foreign Agents Registration Act. All of the others which we 
have seen disseminated in the United States, other than those, bear no 
stamp at all. 

Mr. ScHERER. Those that they file with the Government of the 
United States under the law are the only ones that you have ever seen 
that have complied with the act ? 

Mr. Jones. One of the requirements is that they file with the Gov- 
ernment in Washington one copy of all this material. That copy is 
labeled, and I have seen the labels on those. A copy of the same issue 
filed with the Government I have purchased in bookstores throughout 
the country, and I have seen copies that have been received by indi- 
viduals and bore no registration. 

Mr. Willis. You mean, generally, one issue is deposited in Wash- 
ington ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. If it is a publication, one issue. Say if it is the 
January 1957 issue, then one copy of that issue is filed with the Depart- 
ment of Justice in Washington. On those I have seen labels, but only 
on those. 

Mr. Willis. But not those received by the public? 

Mr. Jones. No. Those received by the public or purchased by us 
have never borne a stamp. 

Mr. Willis. In other words, what you are saying is that the Com- 
munists have found a loophole in our law, as they frequently do. 

Mr. Jones. It is a loophole or they just disregarded the law. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. Mortimer Scheer. 

Mr. Willis. Eaise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear that 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Scheer. I do. 



1554 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

TESTIMONY OF MORTIMER SCHEER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ROBERT B. FLEMING 

Mr. Arkxs. Kindly identify y;jurself by nunie, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Sche7<:r. My name is Mortinrei- Scheer. I live at 519 Fourth 
Street, and I work for Leluoh Portland Cement, 

Mr. Ari:xs. You are appearing today, Mr. Scheer, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities 'i 

Mr. Scheer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are lepresented liy counsel ( 

Mr. Scheer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. FlemixCt. Robert B. Flemin^::, 77 West F.ajjle Street. 

Mr. Willis. Buffalo? 

Mr. Fleming. Buffalo 2, N. y. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Scheer, will you kindly give us just a thumbnail 
sketch of your personal history? First of all, where and when were 
you born ? 

Mr. Scheer. Brooklyn, N. Y., July 29, 1924. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be convenient for you, Mr. Scheer, to keep 
your voice up a little bit? It is a little difficult to hear you. And a 
word about your education, please. 

Mr. Scheer. I would care to decline to answer that question, sir, 
upon the grounds of the first amendment and the fifth amendment 
to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly ap])rehend that if you told this com- 
mittee where you were educated, you would be supplying information 
which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Scheer. Well, in my mind it might tencl to do that, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. Before doing that, is there any part of your earliest 
education that you mean you cannot talk about — as to where you 
went in the first grade? Do you think that would incriminate you? 
I want to give you a chance to straighten this out. Can't you give 
us some 

Mr. Scheer. I would prefer to decline to answer that, because I 
think, in my mind, referring to my educational background might 
tend to incriminate me in some way. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let's ask : Were you educated in this country ? 

Mr. Scheer. Well, sir, I would rather not go into my educational 
background because something in my educational background might 
tend to incriminate me, and, therefore, I think it would be better for 
me not to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to pursue this theme, if the committee 
please, of the education, by presenting to the witness certain exhibits. 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. We have not had a direction to an- 
swer the question yet. 

Mr. Arens. I believe he has answered the question. 

I should like to invite your attention to a letter dated September 5, 
1957, received by this staff in response to a query we sent to Queens 



I 

INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1555 

College in Flushing, N. Y. According to this letter, and I should 
like to read it to j'ou : 

This is to verify that Mortimer Scheer attended Queens College from Sept. 
1946 to February 1949. He graduated with a bachelor of arts degree. 

It is signed "George E. Oettinger, assistant registrar." 

Kindly look at that letter as it is displayed to you, and tell this 
committee whether or not Mr. Oettinger was telling us the facts when 
he advised that you are a college graduate. 
(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Scheer. I have seen the letter, sir, but I would prefer to de- 
cline to discuss my educational background because I think in dis- 
cussing my educational background there might be something in there 
to incriminate me. I would prefer not to answer under the fifth 
amendment to the Bill of Rights. 

(Document marked "Scheer Exhibit No. 1"' and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I understand. Mr. Scheer, we want to display to you a 
photostatic copy of your application for employment with the Lehigh 
Portland Cement Co., which was made subsequent to your gradua- 
tion from college. This application for employment, signed by your- 
self, lists your education only as a high-school graduate. 

First of all, look at this photostatic application for employment 
and tell this committee whether or not that is a true and correct repre- 
sentation of the application you made for employment, and whether 
or not you filled out that form and listed your education as only that 
of a high-school graduate. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

yiv. Scheer. I would like to decline to answer that question, sir, 
under the same ground as before. 

(Document marked "Scheer Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed, again, please, sir? 

Mr. Scheer. Lehigh Portland Cement. 

Mr. Arens. And in what capacity ? 

Mv. Scheer. Eight now I am an electrician helper. 

jNIr. Arens. And how long have you been engaged in that capacity ? 

Mr. Scheer. As an electrician helper ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Scheer, A few weeks. 

Mr. Arens. And what was your employment immediately prior to 
your present employment as an electrician helper? 

Mr. Scheer. A laboratory helper. 

Mv. Arens. How long were you engaged in that capacity ? 

Mr. Scheer. Approximately 4 years, 

Mr. Arens. ^Yliat was your employment immediately prior to that 
employment ? 

Mr. Scheer. I would prefer to decline to ans,wer going into my 
employment history, sir, on the same grounds as before. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel that if you told this committee 
truthfully what your employment was immediately prior to the em- 

97750—57 5 



1556 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

ployment which you have recited, you would be supplying facts which 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. ScHEER. It might, going into my job history might, tend to 
incriminate me in some way. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel that if you told us the job held 
immediately prior to the time that you had this assignment with 
Lehigh Portland, you would be supplying facts which could be used — 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

If you honestly feel so, tell us. If you do not, you are not entitled 
to invoke the rights of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHEER. I think there might be something that may tend to 
incriminate me, and I would prefer not to go into, you know, my job 
history. 

Mr. Arens. I want to make it absolutely clear tliat just the stand- 
point of your personal preference is not decisive. The thing that is 
decisive is whether or not you honestly apprehend that if you gave us 
that information you would be giving us facts which might be used 
against jou in a criminal proceeding. Do j^ou understand that ? 

Mr. ScHEER. Yes. It might. It might do that. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. 

Now, during the course of your employment at the Lehigh Port- 
land Cement Co., have you been under the discipline at any time of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. ScHEER. Well, I will have to respectfully decline to answer that 
question, sir, under the grounds of the first amendment to the Con- 
stitution and the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been engaging in Communist Party function- 
ary work while you have been employed in a menial capacity at the 
Lehigh Portland Cement Co. ? 

Mr. Scheer. a menial capacity ? I did not understand that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. In the capacity of a high-school graduate rather than 
in the capacity of a college graduate. 

Mr, Scheer. What was the whole question ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you been engaging in Communist Party activities 
within the Lehigh Portland Cement plant? 

Mr. Scheer. I will have to decline to answer that question under 
previous statement. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us what the term "colonization"' means in 
any activity of your life ? 

Mr. Scheer. I will have to decline to answer that — I will have to 
decline to answer that under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact that you are now a "colonizer"' of the Communist Party 
within the Lehigh Portland Cement plant. If it is not true, deny it 
while you are under oath. 

Mr. Scheer. I would like to decline to answer that statement, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. There was no reason given for the declination. On 
what basis do you decline to answer that question ? 

Mr. Scheer. Under the first and fifth amendments to the Bill of 
nights, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Could you help this committee in its attempt to develop 
facts to preserve the internal security of this country by telling us 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1557 

why you would indicate after you were a college graduate, to the 
Portland Cement Co., that you were only a high-school graduated 
Could you help us on that ? 

Mr. ScHEER. I think I answered that question before, sir, when I 
said I declined to answer, you know, questions relating to that area, 
because I think it might tend to incriminate me, and I don't want to 
do that. 

Mr. Arens. When did you conclude your formal education, Mr. 
Scheer? 

Mr. Scheer. Well, I think that is a repetition of the same question. 

Mr. Arens. No. I am asking you the year you concluded your 
formal education. 

Mr. Scheer. I would like to decline to answer that, because I be- 
lieve that if I go into my educational background something in there 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Then let me ask you this question so w^e can close the 
gap in your life and make this record absolutely clear. Is there any 
occupation in which you were engaged from the time you completed 
your formal college education until you assumed your position with 
the Lehigh Portland Cement Co., concerning which you can tell this 
committee without revealing facts which could be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding ? 

Do you understand the question ? 

Mr. Scheer. I am not fully clear on the question. 

Mr. Arens. Let me repeat it, tlien. 

Is there any period of time in your life, from the time you com- 
pleted your formal education, until you assumed this job with the 
Lehigh Portland Cement Co., when you were engaged in an occupa- 
tion concerning which you could tell this committee without revealing 
facts that could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scheer. In other words, did I ever work any place else besides 
the Portland Cement plant ? Is that the question ? 

Mr. Arens. We will start with that. If you can answer that, we 
will start with that. Yes, we will be glad to have that information 
as of the moment. 

Did you ever work anywhere other than with Lehigh Portland? 

Mr. Scheer. Well, I would rather not go into my full job his- 
tory 

Mr. Arens. We want you to stop at any point where you feel that 
if you gave us facts, and if you are honest in your apprehension, 
that you would be giving facts that could be used against you in a 
criminal proceeding. Do you understand that? 

Mr. Scheer. Yes. You see, the thing is that I do feel that if I 
do go into my job history, there might be something in that job his- 
tory tliat might tend to incriminate me, and that is why I hesitate 
to go into my job history. 

Mr. Arens. So we are clear on the record, where did you work prior 
to the time you worked at Lehigh Portland ? 

Mr. Scheer. Where did I work part of the time ? 

Mr, Arens. Prior to the time you worked at Lehigh Portland, 
please, sir. 



1558 INVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. WiijLIs. I think he said lie was a hiborator}- helper. 

Mr. Akens. That was with Lehigh Portland Cement, 1 believe, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Is that correct, Mr. Scheer? 

Mr. ScHEER. Yes, sir. 

(Witness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. ScHEER. I, you know, have to decline because there may be 
something in my job history that might tend to incriminate me and, 
therefore, I would prefer not to go into it. 

Mr. Arens. Your answer is not satisfactory, Mr. Scheer, unless you 
feel that the job which you occupied or your activity within that job 
which you occupied was such that, if you told us about it, you would 
be supplying information that could be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding. 

Mr. Scheer. Well, in my mind, it might very well tend to be used, 
could be used. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir, you are entitled to invoke the privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

]Mr. Scheer. That is why I declined. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us about the job that preceded that job. 

]Mr. Scheer. I would have to give you the same answer. 

jNIr. Arens. Answer the principal question : Is there any job which 
you held from the time you com]:)leted your formal education until the 
present moment, except the Lehigh Portland job, that you can tell us 
about without giving information that could be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scheer. While I was out on strike, sir, I worked at Vernor's 
Ginger Ale Co. 

Mr. Arens. When was that? 

Mr. Scheer. That was this year. 

]Mr. Arens. You were on strike at Portland ? 

ISIr. Scheer, Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any job you have held since you completed your 
formal education until you went with Lehigh Portland Cement, pur- 
suant to this application which we have displayed to you, any job you 
have held that you can tell us about, without giving us information 
that could be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scheer. I would have to decline to answer that question, be- 
cause I do feel that going into my job history in that way might tend 
to incriminate me, and I think I will invoke my privileges under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this minute, a Communist ? 

Mr. Scheer. I will have to decline to answer that under the first 
amendment and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this minute, under discipline of an or- 
ganization controlled by a foreign power designed to overthrow the 
Government of the TTnited States by force and violence? 

Mr. Scheer. I will have to decline to answer that under the first 
amendment and under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 



IN^'E'STIGATIOX OF COMMUISTIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1559 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us, Mr. Scheer, whether or not you have 
had any connection with the Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. SciiEER. I will have to also decline to answer that question, sir, 
under the first amendment to the Constitution and the fifth amend- 
ment to the Constitution, for the similar reasons that I gave you before. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist when you were receiving your 
formal education ? 

Mr. Scheer. I will have to cite the same statement as before. 
Should I repeat it ? 

I respectfully decline to answer that question, because it might tend 
to incriminate me, and also under the first amendment to the Consti- 
tution. 

Mr. Arens. Tliis Committee on Un-American Activities, Mr. 
Scheer, is developing facts, respecting the operation within this coun- 
try of the conspiracy designed to overthrow this country, under whose 
flag you and I receive protection. Do you now, this moment, have 
information respecting that conspiracy and its operations within the 
United States ? 

Mr. Scheer. I am sorry, but I will have to decline to answer that, 
sir, because of the first amendment to the Constitution and the fifth 
amendment, that it might tend to incriminate me in some way. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Scheer, we have here a photostatic application for 
a post-office box for the Buffalo Labor Youth League. It is signed 
Mortimer Scheer, and the character of the business of this organiza- 
tion is listed as educational. 

Kindly look at this photostatic copy of the application for the post- 
office box, and tell this committee while you are under oath whether 
or not you are that Mortimer Scheer; whether or not that is a true 
and correct copy of an application you made for the post-office box. 

( Document handed to the witness.) 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr- Arens. Would you kindly answer this question, Mr. Scheer? 

Mr. Scheer. Sir, I am sorry, but I will have to decline to answer 
that question under the first amendment and the fifth amendment to 
the Constitution. 

Mr. Willis. You do not have to. 

Mr. Arens. You are under no compulsion to, you understand. 

Mr. Willis. Do you invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Scheer. Yes, sir. 

(Document marked "Scheer Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Scheer, Mr. Jones, one of the investigators for 
this committee, testified this morning respecting certain publica- 
tions which he bought in Canada at a certain establishment, includ- 
ing a set of the publication entitled "The Road to Life." 

Look at the publication and tell this committee whether or not 
you have ever seen this publication before. 

(Documents handed to witness.) 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scheer. I am sorry, sir, but I will have to decline to answer. 

(Document marked "Scheer Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



1560 INVESTIGATION OP COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. The fact is, Mr. Sclieer, you had a set of this publica- 
tion at the plant, the Portland plant, about a year ago; did you 
not? 

Mr. ScHEER. I will have to decline to answer that question, sir. 

(Witness conferred w^ith his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Have joii been a disseminator here, in the Buffalo 
area, of Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. SciiEER. Would you repeat that question ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you disseminated Communist propaganda in 
this area ? 

Mr. ScHEER. I will have to decline to answer that question, sir, 
under the first amendment and the fifth amendment to the Consti- 
tution. 

Mr. Abens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact that you have been one of the principal disseminators 
of Communist propaganda among youth in the Buffalo area in the 
course of the last few years. If that is not true, please deny it 
while you are under oath. 

Mr. ScHEER. I will have to decline to answer that question under 
the first amendment and the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Scheer, we want to be sure here that there is no 
faceless informer charge leveled against this committee. Although 
we are accused of everj'^thing under the sun we try to be absolutely 
fair. We would like to have you just remain here a moment, and we 
want you to be in the presence of a man who is going to submit himself 
to an oath. 

We do not want the charge made, Mr. Scheer the faceless in- 
former sort of charge. 

Mr. Charles Regan, would you kindly come forward ? 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Regan. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Regan, I expect to interrogate you at length later 
in the course of our proceedings while we are in Buffalo.^ I only 
propose now to ask you one or two questions, and then we will pro- 
ceed later with your testimony. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES V. REGAN 

]Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party, 
Mr. Regan? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
behest of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was the period of your service in the Communist 
Party at the behest of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Regan. From the spring of 1943 to 1953. 



1 See Investigation of Communist Activities in the Buffalo, N. Y., Area — Part 1, October 
, 1957. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 1561 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your membership in the Commu- 
nist Party at the behest of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, did 
you know, as a Communist, a man by the name of Mortimer Scheer ? 

Mr. Eegan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you see that person whom you knew as a Communist 
in this courtroom in Buffalo today ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly look him in the face and let him look 
in your face, so tliere will be no "faceless informers," and tell this 
committee whether or not you now see the person you knew as a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you point him out ? 

Mr. Regan. He is sitting right here. 

TESTIMONY OF MORTIMER SCHEER— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Scheer, you heard the testimony of Mr. Regan. 
We want to give you an opportunity now while you are under oath 
to deny his testimony respecting you. Do you care to avail yourself 
of that opportunity ? 

Mr. Scheer. I decline to answer that question under the first 
amendment to the Constitution and also the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. You heard the testimony of Mr. Regan ; did you not ? 

Mr. Scheer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Regan telling the truth or was he in error 
w^ien he identified you as a person known by him to have been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Scheer. I will decline to answer that question, sir, because I 
believe in the first amendment and the fifth amendment to the Con- 
stitution and I want to invoke both of those. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that Mr. Regan 
now be temporarily excused. 

Mr. Willis. You will be temporarily excused, Mr. Regan. 

(Witness temporarily excused.) 

Mr. Scheer. Could I request no further pictures being taken because 
it disrupts my ability to testify. 

Mr. Arens. Certainly. 

Mr. Scheer. Thank you. 

Mr .Willis. You have not given us much testimony up to now. 

Mr. Scheer. AYell, it is disconcerting. 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Scheer, have you ever been in the military service 
of this Government ? 

Mr. Scheer. In the United States Army, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, 

Mr. Scheer. Yes, sir ; I was in the United States Army. 

Mr, Arens, Over what period of time were you in the United 
States Army? 

Mr. Scheer, I believe August 1943 to April 1946. 



1562 INVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. ScHERER. He lists in his application for employment with the 
Lehigh Portland Cement Co. the fact that he had been in the Army 
between those dates. 

Mr. Arens. And where did you serve ? 

Mr. ScHEER. I served with the 75th Division in Europe in the 
Battle of the Bulge. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a commission ? 

Mr. Scheer. No, sir ; I was just a doughboy, a pfc. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, as a prerequisite to your service in the United 
States Army, take an oath to support and defend the Constitution 
of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic? 

Mr. Scheer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. During the period of your service in the United States 
Army, were you a Communist? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scheer. I would have to decline to answer that question, sir, 
under the first amendment and the fifth amendment to the Consti- 
tution. 

Mr. Willis. I would like to ask you a couple of questions, Mr. 
Scheer. Our counsel asked you whether you knew what "coloniza- 
tion" meant. We have received evidence before this committee over 
the year, from throughout the country, that part of the Communist 
technique and operations and machinations of the conspiracy in the 
United States is to have as members young men with high education 
who would be placed in basic industry and other facets of our econ- 
omy and assigned jobs way below their educational abilities in order 
to do on the side the special work for the Communist conspiracy. 
That is what colonization is. I think counsel asked you, were you 
now a colonizer or were you colonizing the Lehigh Portland Cement 
plant ? 

Did you ask him that, Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. With that knowledge of what colonization is, I ask 
you if you will reflect on that and tell us whether you are engaged 
in that kind of work. I know it is obvious that you have a high edu- 
cation, and you have talked only about menial positions and jobs. 
Are you a colonizer ? 

Mr. Scheer. Well, sir, I would have to decline to answer that 
under the first amendment and particularly the fifth amendment to 
the Constitution, I believe. 

Mr. Willis. If you honestly fear that it would incriminate you, 
you have a right to invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scheer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. In keeping, Mr. Chairman, with some of the ques- 
tions you have just propounded to the witness, I would like to ask a 
few questions. 

You went to work for the Lehigh Portland Cement Co., accord- 
ing to your application, on April 28, 1953 ; is that right ? 

Mr. Scheer. I believe so, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. At that time you were living at 901 Perry Boule- 
vard? 

Mr. Scheer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. And your wife's name was Phyllis and your son's 
name was Ben. Is that right ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1563 

Mv. ScHEER. Yes, sir. I have another son now. 

Mr. ScHERER. And you went to work in the mill department of Le- 
high Portland Cement Co. as a day laborer ? 

Mr. SciiEER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. And voii did, in that application for employment with 
the Lehigh Portland Cement Co., list your previous occupations, or 
previous employment, did you not ? 

Mr. ScHEER. I believe I did, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. One of the occupations you list is the one you have 
alreadv given us, when you wore in the United States Army. You 
list your last job, which you refused to tell us about, the one prior to 
your position with the Lehigh Portland Cement Co., as the Markel 
Electric Co., at 145 Seneca Street, and the position you held with that 
compan}^ was freight-elevator operator. Is that correct ? 

Mr. ^CHEER. Sir, I was asked that question before, and I had to 
decline to answer that question under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Tlien, your second-to-the-last job you list as the New 
York Carwheel Co. at Forest and Niagara, and the type of work being 
yard work and truckdriver. Did you perform that type of work when 
you were employed by the New York Carwheel Co. ? 

Mr. ScHEER.'l will have to decline to answer that question, sir, 
under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Then the third-last employment which you list in 
your application witli the Lehigh Portland Cement Co. was with the 
Meridel Co. at Flatbush Avenue, and there you were a stock packer. 
Is that right? 

]Mr. ScHEER. I will have to decline to answer that, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Your fourth-last employment was with, if I can read 
it, the Quality Grove Products Co. Is that correct ? 

Mr. SciiEER. I will have to decline to answer that one, too, sir, on 
the grounds of the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. ScHERER. There you list your employment as having been a 
packer in the factory : is that right ? 

Mr. ScHEER. Sir, I will have to decline to answer that question under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. During your periods of employment, did you have 
any compensation other than the money you received from these jobs? 

Mr. ScHEER. Was I working someplace else, sir; is that what you 
mean? 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, yes. 

Mr. ScHEER. I will have to decline to answer that question, sir, under 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Frankly, let us put the question this way : I ask you 
to affirm or deny the fact that you had your income supplemented by 
compensation either directly or indirectly from the Communist Party. 

Mr. ScHEER. I will have to decline to answer that question under the 
first amendment and fifth amendment to the Bill of Rights. 

Mr, ScHERER. How much were you making at the Lehigh Portland 
Cement Co. when you started work ? 

Mr. ScHEER. I don't recall. It was an hourly rate — $1.45 or some- 
thing. I don't recall exactly the amount, but it was around a dollar 
and a half. I foriret. 



1564 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PBOPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. ScHERER. You were working for less than $2,000 a year, were 
you not, when you started with the Portland Cement Co. 

Mr. ScHEER. Less than $2,000 a year 'i 

Mr. ScHERER. What ? 

Mr. ScHEER. Less than $2,000 a year, you said, sir ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. 

Mr. ScHEER. I think I was earning around a dollar and a half an 
hour. I think that comes to more than $2,000 a year, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Your rate of pay started at $1.38 an hour. 

Mr. ScHEER. $1.38, was it ? 

Mr. ScHERER. $1.38 an hour. You made $2,000 a year, if you 
worked all the time. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. That is what your application shows. 

Mr. ScHEER. Well, I know it is a low-paying place. 

Mr. ScHERER. Will you answer my question whether or not you ever 
received any compensation from the Communist Party either directly 
or indirectly ? 

Mr. ScHEER. I will have to decline to answer that, sir, because it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you ever been abroad ? 

Mr. ScHEER. Under the armed services, I Avas in Europe. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that the only time ? 

Mr. ScHEER. To the best of my knowledge, that is the only time I 
was abroad ; yes, sir. 

Mr, SoHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Willis. That is all. 

Mr. ScHEER. Am I excused ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. You are excused. Is that correct, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. That will conclude the interrogation of witnesses 
for this morning, if you please, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess until 1 : 30. 

("Wliereupon, at 12 : 10 p. m., a recess was taken to reconvene at 1 : 30 
p. m., the same day.) 

(Mr, Willis and Mr. Scherer were present at the time of the recess.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, TUESDAY, OCTOBER 1, 1957 

(The hearing was resumed at 1 : 30 p. m., pursuant to the recess. 
Mr. Willis and Mr. Scherer were present. ) 

Mr. W^illis. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Counsel will call our next witness, 

Mr. Arens, Mr, Alan Dietch, kindly come forward, 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Dietch. I do. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1565 
TESTIMONY OF ALAN DIETCH 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify youiself bv name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. DiETCH. My name is Alan Dietch. I am a manufacturer's rep- 
resentative and machinery dealer, of Kochester, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Dietch, we know, as does the world, that during the 
trial in this community of John Francis Noto, in 195G, under the 
jjrovisions of the Smith Act, you testified at that time respecting 
your onetime membership in the Communist Party and your identi- 
fication of Mr. Noto and other information germane to that particular 
trial, so I do not propose today to have you repeat any of those facts. 

The purpose of your appearance here today is to invite your atten- 
tion to a specific instance, and then we wdll proceed from there, if you 
please, sir. 

Did you, in the course of the last several years, have occasion to sell 
to persons in the Communist Party apparatus, certain printing or 
reproducing equipment to be used in the Communist Party under- 
ground ? 

Mr. Dietch. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us in your own words the cir- 
cumstances surrounding that particular incident ? 

Mr. Dietch. In the spring of 1951, John Noto came to me at my 
home, and asked me if I would sell some duplicating equipment to the 
Communist Party, and I told him I w^oulcl. 

Upon receiving this information, he told me that he would arrange 
an appointment for me to meet a young man whom I would know as 
"Jack." 

He set up an appointment for me. I came here to Buffalo and met 
this person whom I knew only as "Jack" in one of the Waldorf restau- 
rants here. 

After that, I had a number of meetings, all of them in Rochester, 
with this person. In the course of the contact I had with him, I sold 
him two duplicating machines. 

Mr. Arens. We are going to display to you reproductions of cer- 
tain duplicating equipment and ask if you could kindly identify that 
equipment. 

(Document handed to the witness.) 



1566 IXVESTIGATIOX OF COIVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 



DiETCH Exhibit No. 1 



aoE m. 36 



Mu/ti graph 

I M u I r I i I r H p « o c r s s ) 

MODEL 40 

jxsa m. $4-»-28joo (6) 



This compoci, eleclfkoHy 0{>BfOt«<j Muffigroph 
ujmg th« rxtfinive Muititi-ih pKKf.ss, will rerofo 
duj» (ypewtifing, howiwrifi.i-g, iifle swowmg', 
ruled fcfms, and text motter in any ie«i o' l>p« 
The subjisd moMer !o be dupiicarcd i» wmHi 
6! (jtor*r< oo c Muifiirth Mosfef with t>p«wii!er, 
pe«, pencil, coy^n ot any writing moch'fl*; t*)<» 
Moifsr ii ploced CM in-s Muirtg-oph CS'd «". 
me«y c<!pt«s OS needed ssr* fun o<f quicUy Ofvi 
««««>•. Ati {tries of Muiiiiifh Mosteti, mdad'ng 
t!vM« with photographic iircscn <ki tHsm, cof- 
b« use<S 

Th« MuMigraph Mo<ie! 40, ai iil>jsfi«e<i, s 
e<Juipp«-d w*1h oytomolif. p«p*f f««*;fef, ie< bacV 
sheet cowntcf, ^stto*Yiot«: ^«ip*?*ex ioynto^n, ajto- 
rcotic inliing meihonisnj, poj>er rsteive', storage 
cabii^t stand wish <Ji!i3ppe,afiog <JoQf and C!v>. 
venieot ihelf !o( stoting opefotmg soppiies. 
Ait mOjOi cwtifois <J*e tt^r^venie^tiy tocaied Of^ 
one side o* the mothine, fl^is f^otyie simpfifies 
opefoiion ond qtiatiy 5(iee-i> pfodiiclion. Ttj,-; 
new finish is olfuX'tw*, bteids <*el! witii ofr.ii; 
fufivisKingi anti k e<jvy 'o Siee» cieon. 




SPECIFICATIONS 



fAn% SJ3DSS: The moKii^w"^ sheet sue is VV, 
inches wide by U mches tong !34 7iS. « 3566 CT-h 
m»«imtf«i »h<-ef siie u 3V. mchej '«ieie by iV; inches 
twig (SJ4 « t3?7 cm; Poper sJocks fOfiging ffom 
M pound* P J5 kg! subsfonce to stondcid ps-itcofd 
itock in a wide voriet;.- oi Svrfoce fmisbes con be 
outomoticoiiy f»d 

OWri.iCATiM« A»tA: !h« mo.imi,™ {o.^ si^c 
is 9V} mchei wide by !3 inci^s tong 124 i3 « SS.Oi 
ctti). 

HIATURSS: The simpie ow'Ofn«t>c poper feed^i h<n 
a copocitc «s( 500 sK«e1» o* 20 pound i^O-'' feg- bend 
pope< A fout-foll iftting mechomsir, wiih crciitoifed 
ink ftow miui«$ *»»« di-slnbutioo o,-?d piO'ides kx 
shuhifig off tH« ink when popcf (s ncit possi'ig throujh 



ttie nochine Both mk end ilep.;!e« methonisms ate 

ouKjmofic One control Sever star's the dijpiicatmg of 

copies end the large hoi»d whtel makes it eosy to 

chong^ pi'jsiii<m oi mostec cyfindei*. 

SH5S0; OpefOting speeci ii C50 (evolutions pet hour, 

A three speed device pioiiding 2400, 3600 of 44O0 

niachine rcvoluliOM, per Hour is ovo.lohie Vi ovtiiiory 

egu jxnent. 

MOTOR: 'i i htstsc-power eiect'ic mofof o< i'andofd 

>-ottoge. 

H.OOR SPACi: Opetotmg, 20 .n.hr:< by 31 mches 

(60 8t3 « 6*3*..>«l 

WE?aMT: Machine vctght is 165 pountis ?4 84 kg}. 

Ootncjfic shipping weight, ??C pounds fi^,^ kg?,- 

cocked fo! expo<», ?75 p.Juud» |i24 74 kg). 



<tkTM(ll» I««OOMCT 0» ll88»£»iOC«*l'H-««<'ltlOiA»» ed«»0«*TtOM 



For Pricaa »e« Page So. 43 



INYESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1567 
DiETCH Exhibit No. 2 




n.Q-& SO. 38 



MODEL 50 

rmi no. 54-14.28300 (ii) 

Eiec1rica!!)f ofwratcd Vn;!t!g!05>i ys-ng t^ciusixe 
Muitilifh pioccss fo'lKii'a'^y iU''i4 !»' sK.>" >cn 
and sy^»em$ dupii<o't(V5 U*e5 o^' vyisfs ;?* Mui*<i:»h 

M«!>i9'<ip*i Mode! SO IS sjmpie Id cpeio'e O^iy 

SKjndofrf equipment ct)nsi5>! of STANDARD CLAMP 
fo» <^oplica^<ng mastets, HANiO fffO ?AP£R 
TABlf wifh quick -ooiui'ofei* 'ight ond leh side 
motgrn gv.id«; AU'OMATiC iMPSfSSION SOUirR 
RRfASE AND SBET which h.mgs .mp,e5s,or. 
f oiler and rubifer faionte' ia ftsnfoct only *Hen 
pop«r (S (soiling tfiio-iigh mtschine; AUTOMAT- 
ICAUY CONTROlUD !NK, rOUisTAiN «OUtR 
wht<h ptavtdci ^jntirnfn in* cov^ro^fc on of- cop;«$, 
AUTOMATIC ReP£l£X MtCHANfSM «»»<.h o-ppl.es 
con*foHed mofthire to ttie d-^plttoJiftg ma^ie'. 
Cabinet base wjHi disoppeofmg <tKjr oid <«;n 
veoii?i»t ?HeH tor 3tOf;ng ir<k, so!iv»i<;f>i, arid popef, 
atCTRtC MOTO« Q> Koodofd wKsKje, STR6A.M 
U(*tfD DfSIGN ts hormoni-ze *'i>h mo<j«!n oTieo 
lyfroundtn^t. Harrim^red 'neicji:!*? fmtsh <n (r^.h 
toup* with matching doil btowt ^rlm, Sun'oce is 
smoom, «oj)' to cleo!'. 




SPECIFICATIONS 



^AW» SIZfS: The r,<«.mvm shsoi s:Jc. .i V'/< 
inches Wide by 14 .ncHts lon-t; |J4 7* k 35 5<S en; 
MKitmom sheet stjte. 3 mcHes by ^Vj inchc-i iong 
57,6? s 8.89 cm! con be *«d ic p.'h*! s.de guide. 
Pojjc-r siocks ranging from !6 pounds S7.25 i(gj wb 
ilooce to stondord po5tcotd sick "i o widp vdfitly 
o' sw^acr fmishes con be honti led 

OUftiCATtNG ARBA; The <t^<!.,<r>um torrr- iue ii 
9'/; lAfhff! wdc by 13 .-.th«! Isng (24 i 3 « 33.02 

iNX MICHANISM: A fow-ioiter .r,k>r^ mecSon. 
}>w with cDntfoi'cd ink flO'V. Ink is ioke^ t<Dm Icuntom 
only'wh^n popcf IS passiri^ throygh o>ttch:nc 

HtniSX MSCHAKISM: A ih.ee <c.!lef --no,«.ten,r.g 
tnechoni^m whtch conholi Riijpeiex ftov,. 



f>ffo!s on light s:d«: 
novement o^ fvioiift? 



CONTROtS: AH csperoCng t 
)'3rge horvd whe^! ior easy 
cylinder. 

SI^UD: The n«fmo! ciperaSmg spestd is 70 
revolutions pei minijle, 

MOTOH; ' 6 Horsepowc' etectn.; molsr 

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1568 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliile he is doino; so, Mr. Chairman, I would like to 
ask, if it meets with your pleasure, to have a <Teneral order on this 
record that all documents introduced be appropriately marked and 
either incorporated in the recoi'd directly or by reference, as the case 
may be. It will save us a little time as we proceed in the next few days. 

Mr. Willis. I will officially so order. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. DiETCH. These are photographs of each of the two machines 
which I sold to this person known to me as "Jack." One of these is a 
Model 40 Multilith, a machine with a friction feeder. The other 
is a Model 50 Multilith, a similar machine but hand fed. 

Mr. Arexs. Was there a cloak of secrecy involved in the transaction, 
Mr.Dietch? 

Mr. DiETCH. There was, to this extent: While I knew this person 
as "Jack," I also knew that it wasn't his name, and I felt his name was 
of no concern to me, so I never asked him his name. He paid for the 
equipment in cash rather than by check. Also, we never shi]:)ped the 
machines to him. He came and got them himself. I never knew 
except on very short notice when he would come to see me. He would 
phone and say either that he was in town or that he would be in in 
a day or so. 

The thing was, generally speaking, kept under a mantle of secrecy. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, in the presence of this witness, I respect- 
fully suggest that another witness be called, and that an oath be 
administered to him. 

Mr. Sidney Turoff, w^ould you kindly come forward ? 

Mr. Dietch, would you moA^e over here, please ? 

Mr. Willis. Raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SIDNEY TUEOFF (ALIAS MICHAEL NAPOLI), 
ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, RICHARD LIPSITZ 

Mr. Arens. Will you identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation ? 

Mr. Turoff. Sidney Turoff, 115 Warren Avenue, Kenmore, N. Y. 
Occupation, general factory worker, I imagine would be the only 
classification for it. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Turoff, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Turoff. Yes ; I am, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Turoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. LiPSiTZ. Richard Lipsitz, 35 dourt Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

TESTIMONY OF ALAN DIETCH— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. ]\Ir. Dietch, do you see in the courtroom today the 
person to whom you sold this printing equipment to be used in the 
Communist Party underground, and who was identified to you as 
"Jack"? 



ESrVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1569 

Mr. DiETCH. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. Arens. "Would you kindly identify him now ? 

Mr. DiETCH. Mr, Turoff is the person whom I knew as "Jack." 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions at this time of Mr. Dietch. 

TESTIMONY OF SIDNEY TUROFr— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Turoff, you just heard the testimony of Mr. Dietch 
identifying you as the person known by him as "Jack" to whom he sold 
certain printing equipment to be used in the Communist Party under- 
ground. Do you care to avail yourself of the opportunity to deny that 
allegation ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. No ; I do not, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Dietch telling the truth or was he in error 
when he just now, while he was under oath, identified you as the 
person to whom he sold printing equipment to be used in the Com- 
munist Party underground ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. I am the person Mr. Dietch is referring to. There is 
no doubt about that. There is a diiference, however; the equipment 
was not sold to me. It was purchased at my request. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist when you bought the equip- 
ment ? 

Mr. Turoff. Yes, sir ; I was. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a Communist ? 

( Witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Turoff. I do not at this time consider myself a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist at any time in the course of 
the last year ? 

]Mr. Turoff. Yes, sir ; I was. 

Mr. Arens. And when did you disassociate yourself from the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr- Turoff. I couldn't give the exact date. It was the day after 
the State convention of the Communist Party. It was either April 1 
or April 2. 

]Mr. ScHERER. I did not get your answer. 

Mr. Turoff. Either April 1 or April 2 of this year. 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand that. But what did you say it was — 
the day after what ? 

Mr. TiRdFF. The State convention, the New York State Convention 
of tlie Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under Communist Party discipline ? 

Mr. Turoff. No, sir, I am not. 

Mr. Arens. Now, will you kindly tell us, then, Mr. Turoff, where 
and when you joined the Communist Party ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. New York City, in April 1947. 

Mr. Arens. And where were you engaged at that time? What 
line of work ? 

Mr. Turoff. I have a problem of memory. 

Mr. Willis. What is the pending question ? I am sorry. 



1570 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. Where lie was employed at the time. 

Mr. TuRorr. I don't recall whether I had just stopped working in 
order to go to college, or whether I w^as still working. In fact^ I 
believe I was still working at the time at a mortgage and title com- 
pany, the exact name of which I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us the circumstances of your joining the 
Communist Party ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuRorr. I don't believe I understand the meaning of the 
question. 

Mr. Arens. What caused you to join the Communist Party ? 

Mr, TuRorr. It was my feeling at the time that I joined the Com- 
munist Party that the Communist Partj^ in America was that organi- 
zation which had an approach to the solution of certain very im- 
portant problems, such as economic insecurity, the question of dis- 
crimination, which I felt very deeply as a Jewish person, and which 
I was very concerned with in regard to the Negro people, the Puerto 
Rican people in New York City, and also the question of war and 
peace. I felt that at that time they had an answer which suited my 
purposes, or that I felt would be helpful. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us, if you please, sir, the unit of the Com- 
munist Party to which you were first allied. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuRorr. What is the purpose, sir, if I may ask, as to identi- 
fication of a particular unit that I joined ? 

Mr. Arens. I would be very happy to make that explanation to 
you. You are asking, I take it, the pertinency of the question, is that 
correct ? 

Mr, TuROFF. I guess. 

Mr. Arens. I see you have been in consultation with your counsel, 
and it is perfectly proper that you should be, and it is perfectly 
proper that you should ask that question. 

This Committee on Un-American Activities is under a mandate 
from the United States Congress to develop certain facts so that the 
Congress can legislate intelligently on the subject of communism. 
As you know, undoubtedly, as we will call you now, a onetime mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, the Communist Party is a conspiratorial 
apparatus operating in the United States as part of a worldwide web 
of 25 million people, with target U. S. A., to destroy this country. 

There is pending before this Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties at the present time, a bill, H. R. 9-352, which has numerous provi- 
sions, each of which is designed to cope with some particular facet 
of the Communist operation. 

The Communist Party, as you know as a onetime member of the 
Communist Party, is constantly changing its strategy, its tactics, 
its teclmiques, constantly demanding Congressional surveillance of 
its operations in this land in which you and I live. 

This Committee on Un-American Activities is trying to develop as 
much factual material as it can upon the operation of the Communist 
Party over the course of the last several years, comparing that opera- 
tion with the operation today, its techniques, its designs, its purposes, 
and the like, all with the overall objective of being able to recommend 
to the Congress amendments to existing law, modifications of existing 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1571 

Jaw, new law, new regulations, and the like, so that the Congress of the 
United States can legislate continuously in undertaking to cope with 
this conspiratorial apparatus of an atheistic, godless, criminally di- 
rected force, which today encompasses approximately one-third of 
this globe, and has enmeshed approximately one- fourth of humanity. 

Now, sir, would you kindly answer the question and tell this com- 
mittee while you are under oath the name of the unit to which you 
were first attached when you joined the Communist Party in 1947? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wn.Lis. Let me supplement that. I understand from your 
testimony that you withdrew from the Communist Party — in April of 
this year, did you say ? 

Mr. TuROFF. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Well, obviously, as of that time, and I am not going 
to press it, you belonged to some unit. Some go, some come. That is 
fairly recently. It is fairly important to us to bring to date old units, 
changed units, units under new names, so that we can follow those 
patterns. That is what makes it important, pertinent, for our inquiry, 
to carry out the objectives and purposes of the Congress in establish- 
ing this committee, w^hich is not an easy job — it is no particular 
pleasure for us to travel around and conduct these hearings. We 
have to make a report to Congress every year, and they reinstate the 
committee. This year we were reinstated, as every year, without any 
dissenting vote. I do not think there was one vote in the whole Con- 
gress against it on the appropriations for the committee ; I am talking 
about — for operations. Obviously that is a widespread and bipar- 
tisan and universal feeling that the job must go on, and we are desig- 
nated to do it. However distasteful it may be, that is it. 

I suspect that if we should fold up overnight, in that proportion 
the Communists would mushroom. We have to do it. So we have to 
do it. So don't you see, the deadly importance of this inquiry to 
check up on the continuous operation, and machinations and change 
of operations and techniques and so on ? That is the importance and 
pertinency of these questions to you. 

I think you could be of considerable help to us. Up to now you 
have been very helpful. For instance, I did not know you were going 
to admit your participation in the past. Up to this extent, up to 
now, I congratulate you. And I hope you will continue answering 
the questions. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScuERER. I might make this further observation as to per- 
tinency. Mr. Arens, isn't it the 1954 Communist Control Act which 
provides for the registration of printing equipment used in connection 
with the printing of Communist propaganda? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. It was an act approved July 29, 1954. 

Mr. ScHERER. And we are considering — particularly since some of 
the recent Supreme Court decisions — considering the amending of 
that act? 

Mr. Arens. That is under advisement at the present time; yes, sir. 

Mr. Ttjroff. Would you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. Arens. The outstanding question is, sir, please tell us the name, 
identification, and any description you can give us of the first unit to 
which you were attached in the Communist Party. 



1572 INVESTIGATION OF COMJMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. TuRorr. It would have been a community club in Queens 
County, N. Y. As for a name, I don't know of any particular name 
that it did bear. 

Mr. Arens. How many members were there in the unit ? Could you 
help us on that, please ? 

Mr. Ttjroff. There, again, I don't think I would have the least idea. 
I never functioned with that unit. I was assigned to it. 

Mr. Arens. All right. What is the next unit to which you were 
assigned ? 

Mr. TuROFF. At New York University, it was a club, a unit, that 
existed at the school itself. 

Mr. Arens. And that was in what year, please ? Was it 1948 ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. No, it would have been, as — as I recall, I started school 
in September of 1947, 1 believe. 

Mr. ScHERER. When did you finish ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I did not finish. I left. 

Mr. Arexs. When did you leave ? 

Mr.TuROFF. Left NYU? 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Turoff. Left New York University ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Turoff. It would be before the end of the spring term of 1949, 
the spring semester of 1949. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you continue your higher education at any other 
institution after you left there ? 

Mr. Turoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, just take for a while, please, Mr. Turoff, this 
period when you were in New York University from 1947 to 1949. 
You surely have information to give this committee which will help 
us on what happened in the Communist group to which you were 
attached. 

"What did you do? What went on? What were the techniques? 
What did they do? How many members were there and the like? 
Can't you help us on that, please sir ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. I find it quite difficult to answer a question of that 
nature, mostly because it is a long time ago. 

Mr. Arens. I understand how a person's memory might not be too 
clear. Let's do this : Let's go the other way, the other direction. You 
told us a little while ago you left the Communist Party last year, is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Turoff. That is correct. This year. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. April of this year. That has just 
been a few months ago. 

Mr. Turoff. About six. 

Mr. Arens. About 6 months ago. Now, let's just go backward. 
What unit were you in when you left the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Turoff. In the Steel Section of the Communist Party of Erie 
County. 

Mr. ScHERER. In the Steel Section ? 

Mr. Turoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was there at that time more than one section, more 
than one Steel Section? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1573 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. TuROFF. To the best of my knowledge, there were two. 

Mr. Arens. How many persons were in your section ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Willis. We know that for quite a number of years the cells are 
becoming smaller and smaller and smaller because the Communists 
do not want to expose themselves, and they have to have their own 
security measures. Sometimes a man in one cell has no idea what is 
going on in the other cell or who belongs to it. 

We know there are numerous cells, but you could help out with the 
cells you know about. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. Could I ask just what is meant by how many persons 
were in the unit, in the section to which I belonged ? 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of our knowledge we know of section 
levels and we know of clubs below the section levels. We would like 
to have you tell us how many people 

Mr. Willis. Would you explain the three general terms ? I guess 
he knows them. 

Mr. Arens. Your section level was your highest level within the 
conspiratorial apparatus within steel, isn't that correct, in April of 
1957? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I would answer that question on the basis that it was 
the highest level in the organization in the steel industry. I would 
not accept your definition which included the conspiratorial 

Mr. Ajiens. That is what I mean, within the steel industry. 

Mr. TuROFF. But definitely without accepting the question of con- 
spiratorial. I mean for my purposes, my answer does not include that 
aspect of your statement. 

Mr. Arens. I understand what you are saying. How many per- 
sons were in the Steel Section to which you were attached of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Again 

Mr. Arens. That is in April of 1957. 

Mr. TuROFF. Again, I find myself unable to answer that question, 
unless I get some kind of definition about what is meant by people who 
were in, by what is meant by membership. 

Mr. Arens. How many operated within the section, the Steel Sec- 
tion, to which you were attached ? 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I still find myself in a very difficult position for answer- 
ing that question. 

Mr. Arens. Well, do the best you can. You know what we are 
driving at. Now help us, please. 

Mr. TuROFF. Please don't push because I get nervous and then I 
wouldn't be able to help at all. 

Mr. Arens. We don't want you to get nervous. We want you to 
keep calm. 

Mr. TuROFF. The number varied tremendously. I don't know what 
is meant by the question, really. Is it meant dues-paying members? 

Mr. Arens. Let's start with dues-paying members. 

Mr. TuROFF. Dues-paying members, very few people. 

Mr. Arens. How many? 



1574 mVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

INIr. TuEorr. Four or five. 

Mr. Arexs. Thilt would be in the Steel Section to which you were 
at tached ? 

Mr. TuEOFF, That is right. 

Mr. xVrens. Where was that section operating? 

Mr. TuROFF. In Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Were there also 4 or 5 dues-paying members in the alter- 
nate section, in April of 1957? 

Mr. TuROFF. I could give no figure at all for April of 1957 of that 
section. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you liave a figure at any time on the other section ? 

Mr. TuROFF. To the best of m}- knowledge, it would be between 5 
and 8. 

Mr. Arexs. Now, below each of these two sections, were there clubs, 
in April of 1957, the steel clubs of the Communist Party, steel frac- 
tions, or steel units, or steel cells ? 

Mr. TuROFF. In the section to which I was working with, with which 
I was working, there were no functioning clubs. 

Mr. Arexs." In April of 1957 ? 

Mr. TuRoFF. That is right. 

Mr. Arexs. Were there, at any time in the course of your attach- 
ment to this section, clubs ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes, there were. 

Mr. Arex^s. Wlien were they in existence ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. Over a period of several years, you would have one 
club that would disintegrate and another one would come. I really 
couldn't give any precise picture of how many there were at an}' one 
time. I reall}' don't know. I can't recall. 

Mr. Arens. Then let's move over to the other section, the alternate 
section, of the Steel Section, in the Buffalo area. Were there clubs in 
April of 1957 allied with the Steel Section, the alternate Steel Section '. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I am not sure whether there were or were not. 

Mr. Arexs. Did the part}^ have what they call a cut-out system, 
whereby people in one section were not apprised of the identity of 
people in another section ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes ; I would say that was so. 

Mr. Arens. "VYliat was the duration of your affiliation with the one 
Steel Section of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. TuROFF. "Wliich one ? 

Mr. Arex^s. The one to which you were attached, that you have been 
talking about. 

Mr. Willis. The one that we started with in April of this year 
going back. 

Mr. Arexs. How long were you with that one ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. In the neighborhood of 2 years, gi\c or take. 

Mr. Arexs. Was that the only entity of the Communist Party to 
which you were attached from 1957 goino; backward to, say, 1955? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. No. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. No ; I was attached to another group. 



INVE'STIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 1575 

Mr. Arens. During that period ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes, sir. 

JNIr. Arens. Tell us what group that was. 

Mr. TuROFF. The county committee or the county board, I don't 
know which was the correct name, of the Erie County Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. And what post did you have in the County Committee of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. TuROFF. No ]3ost in the committee itself. I was there as a repre- 
sentative from the Steel Section. 

Mr. Arens. And over what period of time did you occupy that 
post? 

Mr. Willis. Would it be during those 2 years when you were con- 
nected with the steel section ? 

Mr. TuROFF. It would be during those 2 years, but not the full 2 
years. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you employed in 1957, April of 1957 ? 

Mr. TuROFF. At my present place of employment, which is the Tube 
Manifold, North Tonawanda. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at Tube Manifold ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Approximately 2^^ years. 

Mr. Arens. And in what capacity ? 

Mr. TuROFF. General factory workman. 

Mr. Arens. Did you do any Communist Party work on the plant ? 

Mr. TuROFF. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir, let's keep going backward, if you 
please 

Mr. SciiERER. Before we go backward any further, Mr. Chairman, 
I would like to know the circumstances under which he left the Com- 
munist Party in April of this year. 

Mr. Willis. Before you inquire into the period of time prior to 
1957, Mr. Arens, he might have belonged to some other units besides 
being in the Steel Section and affiliated with the county committee. 

Mr- Arens. I propose to ask him along that line, Mr. Chairman, 
as the very next item. 

During the period that we are now considering, between 1955 and 
1957, dicl you have a connection, an affiliation with any other unit or 
entity of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I don't follow. Didn't we just go through that ? 

Mr. Arens. You told us of two. I wondered if there might be a 
third. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I would say from about the middle of 1956, and again 
I am not sure of the dates, I was appointed as a member of the New 
York State Committee of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Scherer. In what capacity ? 

Mr. TuROFF. None. None at all. Just a member. 

Mr. Willis- You were a member of the New York State committee ? 

Mr. TuROFF. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Sciierer. I misunderstood him. I thought he said he was 
employed. 

Mr. Arens. We are still in the period between 1955 and 1957. Is 
there any other entity of the Communist Party during that period 
with which you were allied, affiliated, or identified ? 



1576 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. No ; I don't believe I was a member of anything else. 

Mr. Arens. Let's take another year or two backward. Let's get 
back to 1954. That is agreeable to you now ? Your memory is follow- 
ing us ? "\^^lat was your identification, affiliation, or connection with 
the Communist Party or an entity of the Communist Party in 1954? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. Do you mean by that what group I was affiliated with ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; that is correct. 

Mr. Willis. In other words, prior to your connection with this Steel 
Section. 

Mr. Arens. You have told us of 3 connections, 1 of the 2 Steel Sec- 
tions; you have told us of your connection with the County Committee 
of the Communist Party here in Erie County ; and you have told us 
of your connection with the State committee of the Communist Party, 
all within the last 2 years. 

Now, I am going back in the chronology of your career in the 
Communist Party and asking you in 1954 what were your connections 
or affiliations in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I was at that time affiliated with the other Steel Sec- 
tion of the Communist Party in Erie County. 

Mr. Arens. And how long was your affiliation with that other 
Steel Section? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I don't remember for sure. It might have been in 
the neighborhood of 3 years. 

Mr. Arens. And where were you employed at that time ? 

Mr. Ttjroff. Various places ; a number of places. 

Mr. Arens. Give us the principal places, would you please, sir? 

Mr. TuROFF. Kepublic Steel, Worthington, J. H. Williams. I 
would say those were the principal ones. 

Mr. Arens. They are all located in the Buffalo area ? 

Mr. Ttjroff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you do any recruiting of other persons into the 
Communist Party any time from 1952 to 1957, this period we are 
now covering ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Would you repeat that, please ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you do any recruiting of other persons into the 
Communist Party at any time from 1952 to 1957 ? 

Mr. Ttjroff. In the Steel Section ? 

Mr. Arens. In any section, any entity of the party ? 

(The witness conferred witli his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I can't remember whether anyone was recruited 
in that period or not. Occasionally I would see a new face, but I 
had no idea of knowing when they became members of the party or 
not, and in some cases whether they even were members. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Now, let's move backwards in the 
chronology of the party. You told us a few moments ago you were 
in the alternate or other Steel Section of the Communist Party be- 
tween 1952, approximately, and 1954. 

During that period of time were you connected with any other 
entity of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COAIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1577 

Mr. Ttjroff. I don't know if it is considered an entity of the party 
or not. There was a kind of council of these alternate sections that 
did meet and I was a member of that. It didn't have any particular 
name, to the best of my knowledge. 
Mr. Arens. Where did it meet? 

Mr. TuROFF. Nor was it an official function — you know, an official 
part of the organizational setup of the part3\ 

Mr. Arens. It has been suggested to us from confidential sources, 
Mr. Turoff, that you were in the Communist Party underground 
about this period. Can you tell us about that ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. What is meant by underground, sir? 

Mr. Arexs. I think you know. You are an adult and you have 
been in the Communist Party and you have been reading the papers. 

Mr. TuEOFF. Frankly, sir, I don't mean to be impolite, but I 
don't know. I would appreciate 

Mr. Arens. Let's try it this way : Were you in secret Communist 
Party activity about this time ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. The question is a difficult one to answer. Obviousty, 
it wasn't too big a secret as you have the information there. We 
did try not to be too openly loiown because of the Smith Act and the 
implications of it, and no one being particularly anxious to be 
charged with the Smith Act. 

Mr. Arens. What other entity of the Communist Party did you 
ally yourself with or were you allied with, from 1952 to 1954, other 
than the alternate Steel Section and this little informal group you were 
telling us about a few moments ago ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ttjroff. I can't recall belonging to any other entity, as you 
have termed it. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Now, may we leave that area ? We are 
going to come back to all of this in a little while. 

We have a number of questions to ask. But I want to get the pat- 
tern. We will go back another year or so. We are now in 1952. Let 
us go back, say, to 1951. 

With what group were you comiected in the Communist apparatus 
in 1951? 

Mr. TuROFF. I was at that time not working with any particular 
group. I was just an individual along with several other individuals. 

Mr. Arens. In the Communist Party ? 

Mr. TuROFF. In the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. And how long did that situation prevail in reverse 
chronological order in 1951? Was the same situation prevailing in 
1950? 

Mr. TuROFF. The end of 1950, the latter part. 

Mr. Arens. We will group here, for the purpose on this little pad 
I am writing on, 1950 and 1951 together. Part of 1950 and all of 
1951 

Mr. TuROFF. I don't know if it is all of 1951. 

Mr. Arens. Your best recollection is the approximate time. We 
appreciate the difficulty of recollecting precisely. 



1578 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Ill this period, I am going to make a notation here. Would yon 
call it open party membership or just general party membership? 

Mr. TuROFF. It was not open party membership. 

Mr. Arens. Well, we will call it general party secret membership ; 
is that correct? Well, let's back up then, beyond 1950. Let's start 
in with 1949. What was your connection with the Communist Party 
in 1949? 

I appreciate we are moving in a little bit into 1950 there, too. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. From the end of 1949 up until the latter part of 1950, 
I believe, if I recollect correctly, that I was connected with the Steel 
Section. 

Mr. Arens. Was that the first Steel Section or the second one ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I guess it would be the first one that we talked about. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. TuROFF. With no particular function in that. 

Mr. Arens. You just had a connection ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Just had a connection. 

]\Ir. Arexs. Before I forget about it, we are going to ask you a 
number of other questions that I have been asking about here. 

A^Hien did the party quit using cards ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I don't know the answer to that question. 

Mr. Arens. AVhen did you last have a card ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I am not eA'en sure I had one. I may have had one the 
first year I came in. I am not sure. 

Mr. Arens. You were in in 1947 ? 

Mr. Turoff. That is right. 

INIr. Arens. And although you have been a Communist, up until, 
according to your sworn testimony, April of 1957, you at no time 
had a card, is that correct? 

Mr. Turoff. No, I didn't say that. I said I may have had one the 
first year I was a member. I am positive not after that. 

Mr. Arens. I did not mean to misquote you. At least from 1948 
on you have not had a card, is that correct ? 

Mr. Turoff. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Willis. Isn't that just about the evidence before us heretofore? 

Mr. Arens. That confirms, Mr. Chairman, the evidence we have 
had. Since about 1948 we began work on the Internal Security 
Act and the party disbanded the use of cards, membership records, 
and the like. 

To your knowledge has there been a membership record entry of 
your membership in the Communist Party of anv kind since, say, 
1948 on? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. I would not know whether such records were kept or 
not. 

Mr. Arens. You have just used various aliases in the Communist 
Party, have you not ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. I used one other name. I lived with one other name 
other than my own, for a period of years, which I suppose could be — 
it is an alias. 

As to the rest, for a particular meeting, for a particular get-together, 
I might have been called Jack or Joe or Jim or somethinof of the sort. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1579 

Mr. Arens. What was your alias, would yon tell us \ 

Mr. TuROFF. Michael Napoli. 

Mr. i\jRENS. N-a-p-o-l-i ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Correct. 

jMr. Arens. Let's now, before we lose track of the chronology, the 
skeleton of vonr operations within the Communist Party, please, Mr. 
Turort', go on back into 1948. What entity were you connected with 
in the Communist Party in 1948? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I believe that is the same question as before. I was 
a student at Xew York University and I was connected with — — 

Mr. Arens. I see. Now have we traced your entire career in the 
Communist Party from the standpoint of chronology ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Pretty close, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, without equivocation, broken from the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. TuEOFF. What do you mean by "without equivocation" ? 

Mr. Arens. Well, there again I thought that was rather commonly 
understood terminology;. Have you finally, decisively, completely, 
severed your relationship, membership connection, allegiance to the 
Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. The answer to that would have to be that I did sever 
all allegiance, all organizational relationship with the Communist 
l^arty. 

Mr. Arens. xVre you under Communist Party discipline now ? 

Mr. TuROFF. No, sir, I am not. 

Mr. Arens. What caused you to sever your connections with the 
Communist Party ? I take it that was April of 1957 ; is that right ? 

Mr. Turoff. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What caused you to take that step ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. The reason for leaving cannot be too briefly stated 
because it goes back over a year to the time when Khrushchev made 
his report to the 20th Congress of the Soviet Union in which he made 
certain clisclosements of crimes that had been committed there which 
came as quite a shock to myself and many thousands of other Com- 
munists at the time. 

The reason for leaving concretely is that the American party would 
not adopt such a i)olicy which would condemn this lack of democracy 
in the Soviet Union, condemn the crimes of the Soviet Union and 
probably most particularly, the question of no position on the inter- 
vention in Hungary and the question of no position on the question of 
existing anti-Semitism within the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. Are you still a Marxist ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. Miglit 1 ask, sir, what is the purpose of that question? 

Mr. Arens. If you would rather not answer it, you are not obliged 
to answer it. It is just to be helpful to us. We not only develop in- 
formation for legislation, but we develop information which is dis- 
seminated in the foi-m of reports and the like on what makes a Com- 
munist, why does a person want to get himself enmeshed in this mate- 
rialistic, ruthless, barbaric force, and why would he sever his con- 
nection with it. 



1580 mVBSTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

And if he does sever his connection with it, does he do it only 
because he has been disilhisioned Avith the promises of Marxism, or 
has he generally had a change of heart and the like. 

I would earnestly solicit you to answer, but you are under no com- 
pulsion to answer it. You would be helpful to this committee and 
helpful to this Government if you would care to answer it. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think he gave a pretty cogent reason as to why he 
got out of the party. 

Mr. TuROFF. No, I would decline to answer that. I don't think 
I could do justice to my beliefs and thinking in just a few minutes 
without adequate preparation. 

Mr. Arens. Have you gone to the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
at any time since you broke with the Communist Party and told them 
all about this operation in which you, for a decade, were enmeshed? 

Mr. TuROFT. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you come to any congressional committee that is 
seeking facts by which they could legislate on this subject and revealed 
to them voluntarily the facts respecting this operation in which you 
were enmeshed ? 

Mr. TuROFF. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, kindly tell us. sir, who were the members of the 
Steel Section of the Communist Party to which you were attached 
as of the time you disassociated yourself from the Communist Party 
hi April of 1957? 

Mr. TuROFF. May I ask, sir, what is the purpose of that question? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. The purpose of that question is this, that if 
you tell us the names of the people who were nembers of the Steel 
Section of the Communist Party in April of 1957 this committee will, 
if we have not already done so, forthwith cause to be issued for their 
appearance before this committe subpenas, so that we can undertake 
to elicit from them, as we have from you today, such information as 
we are able to procure from them respecting the operation of the Com- 
munist Party in this industrial area for the purpose of enabling the 
Congress of the United States to better enact legislation or amend- 
ments to existing legislation undertaking to cope with this existing 
situation. 

The Internal Security Act of 1950, as amended by the Commu- 
nist Control Act of 1954, undertakes in many particulars to deal 
right with this problem of Communist penetration of heavy in- 
dustry. 

This committee is under a mandate to maintain a surveillance over 
the operation and administration of that legislation. I now repeat : 
Would you kindly tell this committee the names of the persons who, 
in April of 1957, just some few months ago, were known to a cer- 
tainty by you to be members of the Steel Section of the Communist 
Party in this heavy industrial area of Buffalo ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. JNIr. Chairman, up to this point I think this witness 
has answered frankly the questions asked by our counsel. Before 
he is required to answer questions with reference to his associates, I 
think we should give him time to consider the question and talk to 
his attorney. Maybe at a later date he might be willing to give to 
our staff the information that we need. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN IT. S. 1581 

Mr. Willis. Suppose we let the witness choose whether he decides 
to answer or not answer or avail himself of the suggestion of Mr. 
Scherer. 

Mr. TuEOFF. I appreciate the oifer of additional time. I feel, how- 
ever, that I would prefer to have the questions now and have the an- 
swers as I see fit now. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Mr. jVrens. Kindly answer the question, then, please, sir. 

Mr. TuROFF. I still fail to see any purpose for the question based 
on your explanation. I further feel that it violates my constitutional 
rights of association under the first amendment and I do sincerely 
feel that it is beyond the scope of this committee to ask questions of 
that nature. 

I, therefore, decline to answer. 

j\Ir. Arexs. Xow, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest this record 
now reflect an order and direction to this witness to answer the last 
outstanding principal question, namely, the names of those persons 
known to a certainty by him to have been a member of the Steel Sec- 
tion of the Communist Party in the Buffalo area, to which he, the 
witness, was attached in April of 1957. 

Mr. Willis. I order and direct you to answer the question. Per- 
sonally, there has been a very kind suggestion made by Mr. Scherer, 
whether you would like to reflect over it. But, in support of our job, 
in support of the mandate of Congress, we must have the information. 
I direct you to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. In response to the direction, I must repeat the same 
answer : The first amendment, for the reasons I gave. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Turoff, I do not want at this time to unnecessarily 
burden the record with a series of questions and declinations. Will 
you now give to the committee the names of persons who, to a cer- 
tainty, were known by you while a member of each of these several 
entities of this Communist Party which you have described ? 

Mr. Scherer. I think you could make it more specific, and who 
were members at the time he left the party as recently as April of 
1957. 

Mr. TuROFF. Is that part of the question ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. That is part of the question, as amended by the Con- 
gressman, but I want to come back and be sure that we have every 
entity encompassed in here at any time. 

Mr. Turoff. I must decline to answer that question on the same 
ground as before. 

Mr. Arens. jSlr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer this question. 

Mr. Willis. For the same reasons, you are directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. TuROFF. And, without seeming cute or anything, for the same 
reasons, I must decline, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Let the record also reflect, if you please, Mr. Chair- 
man, an explanation to this witness that it is pertinent to the inquiry 
of this committee, pertinent to the jurisdiction of this committee, per- 
tinent to the duty of this committee, for this committee to know the 
names of persons who, at least in the course of the last few years. 



1582 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAG.\NDA IN U. S. 

were members (jf tl\e Communist Party, so that tliis ('01111111(100 ran 
undertake to solicit from thorn information lospeotinj; the o]>eration 
of the Communist Party. 

With that explanation, Mr. Witness, I should like to ask you this 
question: Will you give us the name of any perso7i in the course of 
the history of your association, afliliation, identitication in the Com- 
munist Party, at any time, who was known by you to a certainty to be 
a Communist or a member of tlie Connnunist Party ;' 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. Again, I invoke the tirst, for the same reasons stated 
before. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Chairman, so tliat this record is abundantly 
clear, I respectfully suggest that the witness be ordered and directed 
now to answer the (piery which was just ])osed to liim, to please give 
us the name of some person or persons who at any time was known by 
him to be a member of the Communist Party. 

Is the record clear tliat you have been directed to answer that last 
question? 

Mr. TiTEOFF. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, so that we can be abiuidantly clear, I 
now respectfully suggest that the record reflect an abundantly clear 
direction and order to answer these questions. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to ansAver the questions. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, TuROFF. In respect to the general direction to answer that, I 
still do not understand the purpose or the pertinency ; I still feel that 
it is a violation of my rights under the first amendment to be directed 
to answer this question, and I fail very honestly to see a question of 
this type within the scope of this committee's investigation, and I, 
therefore, decline. 

Mr. Arens, Since the time that you have disassociated yourself 
from the Comnumist Party here in April of 1957, have you enter- 
tained in your home a person or persons in the leadership echelons of 
the Communist Party of this community ? 

(The w^itness conferred M'ith his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I am not certain here today wdio is and who is not a 
member of the Communist Party at all. People whom I have known 
as Communists in the past have been to my house since my resignation 
from the part}". 

Mr. SciiERER. Mr. Witness, you questioned the pertinency of this 
committee asking you about ]iorsons who were members of the Com- 
munist Party as late as April of this year. I think you can see that 
that is extremel}' pertinent. We are not asking you about people who 
were in the party 3, 5, 10 years ago and who may have gotten out. We 
are asking you about people who remained in the party after you got 
out, as late as April of 1957. You said, as I remember, that you got 
out of the party because Khrushchev made certain revelations about 
the Communist Party in Russia. 

Mr. TuROFF. No ; may I correct you ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. 

Mr. TuROFF. Because the American party would not condemn these 
revelations or the continuance of such policies, not because they were 



riSrVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 1583 

I-)ermitted there. I doivt feel I have any control over any other coun- 
try or organization or anything else. 

Mr. ScHERER. Your reason is even stronger than the one I was go- 
ing to advance for you, because the American party would not even 
condemn the so-called crimes of Stalin ; is that not right, as revealed 
by Khrushchev I That was one reason. The second reason, I think 
you said, that caused you to get out of the party was because they would 
'not take any action oii the anti-Semitism m Kussia ; is that right ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes. 

Mr. ScpiERER. What was the third reason you gave? Oh, yes; be- 
cause tliey would r.ot take any ])osition on condemning the Russians 
for the intervention in Hungary. Those are the three reasons, are 
they not ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Generally, yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you not think it is very important for us, then, 
to know what individuals remained in the party after those three 
events took place, as late as. April 1957 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. No; I am afraid I don't. I don't see where it makes 
any difference Avho the individuals are. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you entertained in your home Al Lutsky, in the 
course of the period of time since you disassociated yourself from the 
Conmumist Partj^ ? 

( The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I must resjiectfully decline to name the names of any 
[)eople Avhom I have entertained in my home as guests. 

]\[r. SciiFRER. Let me give you this as an example: Suppose, just 
for the purpose of an argument, you had been identified with a 
narcotics ring up until April of 1957, and you had broken from it. and 
you admitted you broke away from it. Do you think it would be 
jiertinent to a ])roper committee investigating laws dealing with nar- 
cotics to ask you who the persons were with you in that conspiracy at 
the time you broke in April I 

(Tlie witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Is there any difference? Is not the Communist con- 
spiracy more dangerous to the safety and security of this Nation than 
any narcotics ring ? 

Mr. TuROj^F. I don't like to appear backward in any sense, but I 
do not see them as the same thing. Xo: I do not see them as tlie same 
tiling, and 1 still don't understand the purpose or the necessit}' for 
indicating who has visited my home as a guest. 

Mr. Arexs. We were going to pursue that a little further, with, 
after he got there as a guest, what did he do? What happened, and 
what information could you give us about what he was, and what he 
did that would be of interest to your Government. I should like to 
ask you now to whom did you deliver this printing equipment which 
was delivei'ed to you by Mi-. Alan Dietch ( 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

jNIr. Ti'ROFF. Again, sir. I fail to understand the purpose of that 
([uestion, and decline to answer it on the same grounds stated before. 

]\rr. Arexs. The purpose is very clear. I don't mean to a])])ear im- 
]):itient with you here, ]Mr. Turoff. We have here, and I have in 



1584 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA m U. S. 

my hand, a copy of the Liw of the United States Congress, and an 
amendment to this haw is ]5resently under consideration. 

It is an act of July 1954, dealing with the registration of printing 
equipment which will be or has been in the custody or control of a 
Communist-action or a Communist-front organization. 

This committee, believe me, is seriously developing facts so that we 
can, if possible, amend this act to compel registration of Communist 
printing equipment, underground printing equipment, and the like. 
Now, I am asking you again, please, sir, tell this committee while you 
are under oath to whom did you deliver that printing equipment ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER, We certainly have a right to know where that equip- 
ment is now and who is operating it. 

Mr. TuROFF. To the best of my recollection, I kept that equipment 
myself for some time, I don't remember how long. I decline for the 
same reasons as stated before to indicate to whom it was given. 

Mr. ScHERER. May I ask one question? You said you declined to 
reveal to us the identity of the person to whom it was given. Let me 
ask you this question : Without revealing his identity, was the person 
known to you to be a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness, Mr. Chairman, to 
name that individual. 

Mr. Willis. Yes ; I think that is pertinent. 

I direct you to name that individual, since he was knoAvn to you to 
to be a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. TuROFF. I still answer with the same explanation. I don't un- 
derstand the purpose for it. I do think it is a violation of the consti- 
tutional right under the first, and I do feel it is beyond the scope of this 
committee's jurisdiction. 

Mr. Arens. So there can be no possible question on this record, I 
want to again invite your attention to the law presently under scrutiny 
by this committee relating to printing equipment. 

If you can tell us the name of the person to whom you delivered this 
printing equipment, which was used by you as a Communist, we under- 
stand, we will then, by our investigative sources, try to find that in- 
dividual, try to find that printing equipment, try to find information 
about its use and operation so that this committee and the Congress 
might, with those facts, better appraise the existing law, better ap- 
praise and devise legislation to cope with the very situation which we 
are presently confronted with, the use of printing equipment by the 
Communist Party. 

With that explanation, Mr. Chairman, I again respectfully sug- 
gest that the witness be directed and ordered to answer the question as 
to whom he delivered the printing equipment. 

Mr. Willis. I order and direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. TuROFF. I must, sir, respectfully repeat the same answer as to 
the prior question. 

Mr. Arens. "What did you do with the equipment while you had it? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. To the best of my knowledge, it was never used, if I 
recollect correctly. I think it just sat in the closet and took up room. 

Mr. Arens. It was never used by you ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1585 

Mr. TuRorr. Well, in the time that I had it. 

Mr. Abens. Where is the equipment now ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I wouldn't have the least idea. 

Mr. Arens. Where was it the last time that you knew where it was ? 

Mr. TuROFF. One piece was in my house. One piece was in my 
house the last time I knew where it was. After that I don't kno\A . 

Mr. Arens. You delivered it to someone ? 

Mr. TuROFF. One piece. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. TuROFF. One piece I delivered to someone. 

Mr. Arens. And where was that one piece going ^ 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. He said to a party known to him to be a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. TuROFF. To someone in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Where was he going to use it, in his home, in his base- 
ment, or in a store ? Could you tell us on that ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I wouldn't know. 

Mr. Arens. What caused you to turn the printing equipment over 
to this invididual ? How did you happen to do that ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. One piece was given away at the request of the party 
leadership in the area some time ago. The other piece was given 
away 

Mr. Scherer. Was that after you withdrew from the party that 
this last piece of equipment was transferred to someone else? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. About the same time ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you fear reprisals from the Communist Party if 
you should tell this committee the names of the people who, to a cer- 
tainty, were known by you to be Communists ? 

Mr. TuROFF. No, sir ; I don't. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do under this alias, Napoli, that you 
told us about ? What was your activity as Napoli ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Just what do you mean by that, sir ? Activity in the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Arens. Any place, as Napoli. You told us you used an alias 
of Napoli. Kindly tell us what did you do as Napoli ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I worked and raised a family. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you assume this alias as Napoli ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. Approximately 5 years. 

Mr. Willis. Let me ask you this : Was that name assumed by you 
for general purposes and all other purposes, or just the purposes of 
the Communist activities ? 

Mr. TuROFF. No ; it was a name that I used for all purposes. 

Mr. Arens. What name did you use in the party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tltroff. Could you be more specific ? 

Mr. Arens. "V\^iat name did you use in the Communist Party ? Did 
you use your own name or did you use an alias ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Well, before I assumed the name Napoli, I used my 
own name. 



1586 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Akkxs. And then after you discarded the name of Napoli, did 
you again assume your own name in the C/ommunist Party? 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes, generally, though there was a hangover. Some 
people called me one thing and some people another. 

Mr. Arens. Who told you to go get tliis ])riiiting equipment from 
Mr. Dietch ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. Again I must decline to identify the name of the per- 
son for the same reasons stated before. 

Mr. Arens. How much education have you had ? 

Mr. Turoff. I had— I guess I got ciedit for a year and a half of 
college, which I attended on the GI bill. I left school at the age of 
IC) and tinished high school at the age of 2('), after getting out of the 
service. 

Mr. Arens. When you applied at Tube Manifold, did you tell them 
about your college education ? 

Mr. TuROFF. No, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Why not? 

Mr. Turoff. Because it is very often difficult to get a job and because 
of the information j^ou have elicited from me I certainly could not give 
them that kind of background, and I did need a job. 

Mr. Arens. Was your employment at the tube company where you 
are presently engaged suggested to you by any person or persons 
known by you to be Communists ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. No, sir. I went around and made a tour of a number 
of plants. I didn't even know the name of the place, in fact, when I 
went into it. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever applied for a United States passport ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. AATien was that ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. I lielieve it was in the spring of 1949. 

Mr. Arens. And was the passport issued to you ? 

Mr. Turoff. Yes, sir ; it was. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you say you were going to go on this passport 
when you made your application ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. I don't remember for sure. I think it listed about 4 oi- 
5 countries. 

Mr. Arens. And where did you go ? 

Mr. Turoff. To 4 or 5 countries, or possibly more. 

Mr. Arens. What 4 or 5 countries did you go to? Can you tell us? 

Mr. Turoff. I will try. Holland. Belgium, France, Italy, Austria, 
Hungary, and I believe the return was through various of those coun- 
tries again. 

Mr. Arens. Did you get into Czechoslovakia ? 

Mr. Turoff. I am sorry. And Canada. i 

Mr. Arens. Did you get into Czechoslovakia ? 

Mr. Turoff. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Hungary had been taken over bv the Communists at that 
time, 1949, had it not? ' 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



I 



INVESTIGATION OF COAIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1587 

Mr. TuROFF. I frankly don't remember whether they had the popu- 
lar front government or 

Mr. Arens. Did you intend to go to Hungary as of the time you 
made your application for the passport? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I had a pretty good idea that we would go there. I 
will put it that way. There was some reservation as to the certainty 
of it, but I thought I would go. 

Mr. Arens. What was your idea as to what you thought you were 
going to do when you got into Hungary ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

ilr. TuROFF. There was a youth festival, as described earlier, in 
Budapest at the time. I didn't have any idea what we would do, not 
having any idea of what these things were like or about. 

Mr. Arens. Did you intend to go to the youth festival at the time 
you filed your application for your passport ? 

Mr. TuROFF. If I went to Hungary, I intended to go to the youth 
festival. 

Mr. Arens. Let's get the question absolutely clear. Did you intend 
to go to Hungary, to the youth festival, as of the time in 1949 that you 
filed your application for a passport ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. It is sort of obvious, is it not, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. TuROFF. The answer would be much as it was before. I thought 
I might go. I made certain plans to go, but it was uncertain. I did 
not know for absolutely sure whether I would go or not. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Witness, was that not your real purpose of going 
there, to attend this festival ? 

Mr. TuROFF. No. sir; that was not. The real purpose was a very 
personal family problem, which I would certainly not discuss here. 

Mr. Arens. You did not on your application for a passport, when 
they asked you for the purpose of your proposed trip, make any refer- 
ence to the possibility of going to Hungary ; did you ? 

Mr. TuROFF. No, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vhynot? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I wanted to make that trip to Europe for the reasons 
which I have indicated, which were not all going down there and I 
felt that if I put ''planning to go to Hungary" down, my passport 
would be refused. 

Mr. Arens. Now, on this trip to Europe that you made with a falsi- 
fied passport, procured by fraud, did you contact, or were you in com- 
munication with, any Communists ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. TuROFF, I could not answer the question on the basis of fraudu- 
lent and- — I don't remember the words you used, fraud and so on. 

Mr. Arens. A fraudulently procured passport, yes, sir, where you 
misrepresented to tlie State Department on your application. 

Mr. TuROFF. I don't acce]:>t that. I will answer the other part of 
the question, tliat I did see people who were Communists from other 
countries. 

Mr. Arens. You attended the youth festival there ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes. 



1588 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend as a delegate from any group in this 
country ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Xo. 

ISIr. Arexs. Did you have any difficulty getting into Hungary ? 

Mr. TuROFF. No. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you get your visa to get into Hungary ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I believe it was in Austria. 

Mr. Arens. You did not make application for your visa before you 
left the United States ; is that correct ? 

Mr, TuROFF. I can't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Was your visa to get into Hungary procured for you 
by any person known by you to be a Communist ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I procured it myself in Austria. 

Mr. Arens. Why didn't you make application for that visa before 
you left the United States ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I may have, I just don't remember whether I did or 
did not. I may have. 

Mr. Scherer. You just said a minute ago you didn't because you 
did not know if they would give you the passport if you showed that. 
Now, why do you say you may have or may not have ? 

Mr. TuROFF. No. We are talking about different things, sir. I am 
not talking about the passport. The counsel asked about the en- 
trance visa to get into Hungary, and I plain don't just remember 
where I applied for it. 

Mr. Scherer. You would not have applied for it in the United 
States, would you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr- TuROFF. I am not sure whether you can or can't. Would you 
have to go to Washington for it, to apply for it ? 

If so, then I definitely did not apply here, I just don't remember 
where I applied for it. 

Mr. Arens. You applied for a visa to get to England ; didn't you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I can't remember. 

Mr. Arens. You applied for a visa to get into France; didn't you? 

Mr. TuROFF. No; as a matter of fact, I don't think you needed a 
visa for any of these countries. The Marshall Plan countries, I think, 
you could cross without visas. If I remember correctly, I don't 
think you needed any prior authorization if you carried an American 
passport. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work with the Imco Manufactur- 
ing Co.? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I never worked there. 

Mr. Arens. Well, I have here an application signed Sidney Turoff 
for employment, an application for employment at this tube com- 
pany where you are presently employed, and I see on the back "Pre- 
vious employment: 5 years at Imco Manufacturing Co." 

Could you look at this application and see if that refreshes your 
recollection and see if that is your signature ? If so, perhaps you can 
help us on why that Imco Manufacturing 5 years' employment appears 
on that application. 



ESrVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1589 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. It looks like the one I filled out. 

(Document marked "Turoff Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Can you help us ? How does that Imco Manufacturing 
Co., 5 years' employment 

Mr. Willis. Wliat period of time is that ? 

Mr. Arexs. 1950 to 1955 or thereabouts. 

Can you help us on that? How did that happen to appear on your 
application ? 

Mr. ScHERER. It appears on his application as a previous employ- 
ment by the applicant ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. I wanted a job and I didn't want to divulge that I had 
lived under another name. Consequently, I made up that work 
reference. 

Mr. "Willis. Was it because of your use of another name during 
that period of time. Is that it ? 

Mr. Turoff. I don't follow you. 

Mr. Willis. You stated that the reason for it was connected with 
your use of an alias at that time. I did not quite catch that. 

Mr. Turoff. Well, that is right. It covers the period, approxi- 
mately, when I was living under the name of Michael Napoli. 

Mr.' Willis. That is what I understood. 

Mr. Turoff. I could not give those references, which were all in 
Buffalo, and which could be checked. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at any time work at the Spar Metal Products 
Co.? 

Mr. Turoff. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work there ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. It must have been in the neighborhood of a year. 

Mr. Arens. On your application you told them you had been there 
about 4 or 5 years, did you not ? 

Mr. Turoff. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. At any time, did you ever use a false social-security 
number ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. Would you explain what you mean by a false social- 
security number? 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever falsified your application for a social- 
security card ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. So this record may be abundantly clear, may I say to 
you, sir, that this bill, H. E. 9352, and other legislation which is pend- 
ing in the Congress of the United States, is directed directly at that 
proposition, because we have had innumerable instances in the course 
of a number of hearings by this committee, or subcommittees of this 
committee, to the effect that Communists, and those imder Commu- 
nist discipline, have used false applications for social -security cards. 
They have used false cards. 



1590 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Willis. And false passports. 

Mr. Abens. And false passports. Now, with that explanation, I 
respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness now be ordered and 
directed to answer the principal question outstanding. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. I order you to answer that question for the obvious 
reasons stated, that if reasons for it were connected with your Com- 
munist activities, we want to pick up that pattern and justify passing- 
such a law. 

Mr. TuRoFF. I must decline to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. If you gave us a truthful answer to this last outstand- 
ing principal question, would you, in your judgment, be supplying 
information which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding^ 

Mr. TuROFF. I repeat, sir, on this question, the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the last outstanding question, namely, 
whether or not he truly apprehends possible criminal prosecution if 
he gives us a truthful answer to the preceding principal question. 

Mr. Willis. That is the test of the justification for invoking the 
privilege of the fifth amendment. I can see where you might have 
justification, frankly, if you fear that it would involve you in a 
criminal prosecution. But you cannot invoke the fifth amendment 
unless you honestly feel it might get you into trouble. 

Mr. TuROFF. I honestly feel thei-e is an element of danger in an- 
swering that question any other way. 

Mr. Arens. Now, kiiully tell us what you did while you were a 
Communist, what you did to further the work of the Communist 
Party, what assignments you had, and the like. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. In general, I was the section organizer of the Steel 
Section. 

Mr. Arens. AMiat did you do as section organizer of the Steel Sec- 
tion of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Coordinated the activities of the members of that 
section. 

Mr. Arens. How many members did you coordinate ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I refer to my previous answer around that question 
of how many members. It varied, it fluctuated. I think we estab- 
lished that if it meant people who paid dues, there is a very small 
number. 

Mr. Arens. What did it mean by others, who were under discipline 
but did not pay dues ? 

(The witness conferred with liis counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I don't know of people who were under discipline who 
did not pay dues. 

Mr. Arens. What is the other category ? Category 1 is the one you 
just alluded to. What is the other category ? 

Mr. TuROFF. As far as I am concerned, that is the basic category. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do to coordinate their eli'orts^ 

Mr. TuROFF. I would meet with them, find out wliat is happening 
at the various places of worlv. 



ESrVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1591 

Mr. Arens. Wliat places of work were they engaged in in April 
of 1957? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. At Bethlehem Steel. 

Mr. Arens. How many were there in April of 1957 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. That is, that you kncAY as Communists. 

Mr. TuROFF. On the basis of the definition I used before in my 
answer, I would say 3 or 4. 

Mr. Arens. And where were tliey engaged with Bethlehem? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

JNIr. TuROFF. In Lackawanna, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Is there a plant here called the Lackawanna plant? 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes. 

]Mr. Arens. And where were they within the Lackawanna plant 
please, sir? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I would say they were in various facilities of the 
plant. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us first of all wliat did they do there at the be- 
liest of the Communist Party ? You said you coordinated their work. 
What was it that they did that you had to coordinate ? 

(The witness conferred wdth his counsel.) 

iNIr. TuROFF. Their main function was going to work. I mean, 
they were earning a living by working in the plant. 

Mr. Arens. This is not amusing. 

Mr. TuROFF. No, I don't 

Mr. Arens. You did not coordinate them going to work. Tell 
this Committee on Un-American Activities, please, sir, while you 
are under oath and under subpena by this committee, what they did 
in behalf and at the direction of the Communist Party, which you as 
the director coordinated. 

(Ihe witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. We discussed, when we met, we discussed the ques- 
tion of wliat was happening at the plant, what kind of grievances 
there were, what kind of problems the workers in the plant had, 
and what they as individuals in that plant could do and attempted, 
wliere possible, to coordinate the efforts if it was a problem that was 
mutual to move tlian one person. 

Mr. Arens. Why didn't you come out in the open, if you were do- 
ing such humanitarian work for the uplift of people, if you were 
doing work to help workmen in the plants? Why didn't you come 
out in the open? A^Hiy did you have to be secretive about it? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I think, sir, for the very obvious reason that a person 
coming out openly as a member of the Communist Party would not 
have survived in that plant. He would have been fired. 

Mr. Arens. W^iy did you have to be identified with the Communist 
Party in your efforts to settle grievances ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. Because we believed that they had a perspective to 
these problems that others did not have. Obviously, speaking for my- 
self personally, I have left the Communist Party because I feel 



1592 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

that there are other means by which I can work for the best interests 
of the workers of the shop. 

Mr. Arens, Did colonizers come in here from outside Buffalo, 
colonizers of the party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TtiRorr. Would you explain what you mean by colonizers? 

Mr. Arens. Do you mean to tell me that you do not know what a 
colonizer is in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. TuRorr. I know what I think it is, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Then tell us whether or not there were sent into this 
community, peo]:)le who were colonizers as you think they were. 

Mr. Turoff. I think there were people who were sent into this area 
to go to work in shops for the purpose of 

Mr. Arens. Sent in first of all, by whom ? 

Mr. Turoff. Sent in 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. Not sent. I could only go by my own case. I was not 
sent anywhere. I voluntarily came to Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. T^t's get back to the principal question now, as to 
colonizers being sent in here. You started to address yourself to that 
proposition. Continue, please, sir. 

Mr. Turoff. There were people who came into the area to go to 
work in the various industries around here. 

Mr. Arens. Communists? 

Mr. Turoff. Communists. 

Mr. Arens. And did they come at the behest of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Turoff. They came, surely, after discussion with the Commu- 
nist Party. How each individual came, I could not speak for. 

Mr. Arens. How many, and over what period of time, to your 
knowledge ? 

Mr. Turoff. Well, I came in 1949. I could not give any kind of 
number. 

Mr. Arens. As many as a dozen ? 

Mr. Turoff. I would say yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. As many as two dozen ? 

Mr. Turoff. I am not sure. 

Mr. Arens. Well, as many as 15 in the course of a year ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Remember, we are in the period now of around April 
of 1957 or in 1957, 1956. 

Mr. Turoff. As far as I know in that period no one came that I 
know of. 

Mr. Arens. Then in what period did they come in that you know 
of? 

Mr. TuRoiT. In an early period, probably 1950, 1951, 1952. 

Mr. Arens. And why were they sent in here by the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Turoff. As I said before, I don't know who was sent or who 
was not sent. 

Mr. Arens. I did not ask you that. I asked you why. 

Mr. Turoff. They came to go to work in shops in the area. 

Mr. Arens. 'Why ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EN U. S. 1593 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. TuEOFF. It was, to the best of my knowledge, part of a policy 
that was established at one of the conventions, I am not sure which 
one 

Mr. Arens. Conventions of what ? 

Mr. TuROFF. The Conununist Party. It might have been the 15th 
convention in which it was indicated that the composition of the Com- 
munist Party had an insufficient number of workers in it, that the 
workers were the most important section of the American population 
and that if Communist influence sliould be felt, it should be felt among 
the working people. 

Mr. Arens. And did the party, to your knowledge, take people who 
were high echelon, intellectually, from the standpoint of educational 
background, coUege graduates, masters. Ph. D.'s, and the like, and have 
them come into this heavy industrial area and apply for menial tasks, 
just to get themselves within the operation here ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Can you help us on that ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. This falls into the realm of speculation unfortunately. 

Mr. Arens. Let's get back to your definition of colonizing, then. 

Mr. TuROFF. Would you please let me finish my answer to your 
question ? 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. TuROFF. There were a number of people that came, I suppose, 
with that background. 

Mr. Arens. High educational background ? 

Mr. TuROFF. High educational background. I don't think it was 
a deliberate choice. I think these people responded to the thinking 
that it was necessary to go out of New York and other big cities into 
areas where they could work in shops. 

Mr. Arens. T\Tiat is a colonizer as you understand that term in 
party lingo ? 

Mr. TuROFF. As I have always understood it, from my point of view 
it was always an unfortunate term, even as a Communist. My posi- 
tion on it has always been that it is a person who came into an area to 
go to work, who left his prior background, whatever it may be, 
whether it was work, or school or academic, whatever it was, and came 
to go to work. 

Mr. ScHERER. And while at work advanced the interests of the Com- 
munist Party among the workers in that particular factory, is that 
right? 

Mr. TuROFF. Well, I would say in a particular geographical area 
rather than a geographical factory. When people come here, they 
don't know where they are going to work. They just come to an area. 

Mr. Arens. Would you regard yourself as a colonizer? 

Mr. TuROFF. At the present time ? 

Mr. Arens. As of the time you were in the party ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I don't think so. 

Mr. Arens. The party at no time 

Mr.TuROFF. Could I finish? 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. I beg your pardon. 



1594 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PEOPAGANDA IN U. S, 

Mr. TuROFF. I don't liave any higher degrees, Ph. D.'s, M. A.'s, or 
so forth. 

Mr. Arens. You have a college education. 

Mr. TuROFF. I have 2 years of college which prepared me for noth- 
ing. I have had, since the age of 16, accumulated work experience. 1 
had to get a job if I was going to raise a family; $110 a month, the 
GI subsistence, was insufficient. I did discuss with the Communist 
Party where would be a good place to go. 

But I came here of my own free will. I was not under direction or 
any kind of compulsion and, therefore, I don't know how to answer 
tlie question. 

Mr. SciiEKER. You said you discussed it with the Connnunist Party 
where you Avere going to go. Did they suggest Buffalo ? 

JNIr. TuROFF. in answer to that last question, Buff'alo is one of a 
whole number of cities that were suggested as places where employ- 
ment possibilities were good. 

jNIr. Arens. Did the party emphasize heavy industry I 

Mr. TuROFF. I would say "Yes." Rather, actually, the emphasis was 
]iot heavy. It was industry that had a large number of workers. 

Mr. Arens. "Was there any espionage operation conducted to your 
knowledge by the colonizers, or was that separate and distinct ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I have absolutely and unequivocably no knowledge of 
anyone in the Communist Party mentioning the subject, no less men- 
tioning it. 

Mr. Arens. Our information is that it is a separate channel. Did 
the party, in your experience have its sabotage operations operating 
through the conduits or channels of the colonizers ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I could not even begin to answer such a question. I 
don't know what existed besides those things that I am familiar with. 

Mr. Arens. That confirms our information of elsewhere, that that 
is a separate operation. 

Mr. TuROFF. I don't know what it is. 

Mr. Arens. Could you kindly tell us, if you please, sir, the training 
which you had in the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. If by training you mean classes and that sort of 
thing, to the best of my recollection I attended a class in NeAv York 
City in 1947 or 1948 for about 2 or 3 days. 

Mr. Arens. A^Hiere was that, the Jeffei*son School of Social Science? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuEOFF. It was probably there. It might have been at the 
12th Street, the 35 East 12th Street address. 

Mr. Arens. Headquarters ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. The party must haA'e had its eye on you very young, 
then, to have you at the headquarters ? 

Mr. Turoff. No, it was quite open then and people went there. 
Also, I attended a class for a week here in Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I don't knoAv the address. 

Mr. Arens. What was the general neighborhood? Was it in a 
home ? A store ? 

(The w^itness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Was it in a basement ? Where was it? 



ESrVESTIGATIOX OF CO]VIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 1595 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. It was in a home in the North Park area. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien, just your best recollection? Wliat year approxi- 
mately ? 

Mr. TuROFF. It must have been between 2% or 3 years ago. 

Mr. Arens. Two and a half years ago? 

Mr. Turoff. I think so. 

Mr. Arexs. How many people were engaged in the courses there 
or the course ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I tliink it was 8 or 9, somewhere. I am not positive. 

Mr. Arens. Normally I would ask you who they were, but I know 
there is no use wasting my breath. That is right, is it not ? 

Mr. Turoff. I will not divulge the names; that is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, kindly tell us the fronts with which you were 
connected in the course of your affiliation in the Communist Party. 
You know what a Communist front is, surely ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Those are organizations penetrated or controlled by the 
Communists of which there are about 300 in the United States and 
about 2,000 or 3,000 fronts within fronts. Tell us the fronts within 
which you were connected. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I really don't remember joining too many other oi-gan- 
izations of any sort. 

Mr. Arens. Well, not too many. How many? 

Mr. Turoff. No, I mean I frankly can't — if you throw out some 
names of what you consider 

Mr. Arens. The Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. TuROFF. No. 

Mr. Arens. The American Committee for Protection of Foreign 
Born? 

Mr. Turoff. No. 

Mr. Arens. The Civil Rights Congress ? 

Mr. Turoff. I had made a contribution to the Civil Rights Con- 
gress. I don't know if that constitutes membership. 

Mr. Arens. Were you under direction by the party to engage in any 
activities in non-Communist-front groups, to penetrate even anti- 
Communist groups? Did you belong to any groups other than your 
regular assignments within the party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Turoff. To the best of my recollection, no. I belonged to sev- 
eral groups on my own free will and volition in the course of my 
years, but 

Mr. Arens. What were some of those groups ? Could you tell us ? 

Mr. Turoff. Well, I guess during one of the election campaigns, I 
guess it was during the Wallace campaign 

Mr. Arens. The Progressive Party ? 

Mr. Turoff (continuing) . I worked with the Young Progressives 
of America. 

Mr. Arens. Was that penetrated by the Communists here in this 
area? 

Mr. Turoff. It was not in this area, where I was. It Avas not 
penetrated 



1596 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. It was iii New York City ? 

Mr. TuROFF. It was the students in New York University. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us an estimate, by the way, of the num- 
ber of Communists who were in New York University while you were 
there ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. If I ever knew, I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Tell me this : To what extent did the Communist Party 
in 1957 use non-Communists, dupes, intellectuals, fools, and the like, 
which they could trick into pursuing the Communist Party line as a 
technique of the conspiracy ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I don't know how to answer the question, primarily 
because I have not worked in the direction 

Mr. Arens. You were a specialist of the pai-ty, is that correct, in 
steel? 

Mr. TuROFF. If you could call it that. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what you did for tlie Communist Party liesides 
coordinate, as you said, the work of these associates of yours, the com- 
rades who were in April 1957 in this one Steel Section with which you 
were identified ? What else did you do as a Connnunist for the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I attended tlie county committee meetings, the State 
committee meetings ; I was a delegate to both tlie State and National 
conventions. 

Mr. Arens. How many are tliere on the county committee? Just 
your best judgment. 

Mr. TuROFF. Now ? I have no idea. 

Mr. i^iENS. As of the time you were a member, sir ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. There must be about eight people, somewhere in that 
neighborhood. 

Mr. Arens. And, of course, it would be fruitless for me to ask you 
who they were ? 

Mr. TuROFF. On the same basis ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, how many are there on the State committee? 

Mr. TuROFF. Now, I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. As of the time you were on the State committee ? 

Mr. TuROFF. The last time I was there the number varied from 
maybe 30 to 50. 

Mr. Arens. And when was that ? 

Mr. TuROFF. That was in the half-year or 7 months or so. 

Mr. Arens. "V^nien did you last meet Avith the county committee? 
Did you meet with them during 1957 ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes, before mj^ resignation. 

Mr. Arens. "Where did you meet ? 

Mr, TuROFF. At homes. 

Mr. Arens. It would be fruitless for me to ask you whose home; 
would it not ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were they homes here in the Buffalo area ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Arens. And what transpired at a typical meeting, the last 
meeting that you recall ? 



INVESTIGATldX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN TJ. S. 1597 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. TuROFF. I could not really remember any one particular meet- 
ing because there were (juite a few meetings that I attended that year. 
I would say this : That m the main mostly higher level meetings, say, 
from county on upwards, most of the discussion was very bitter. 

It was conflict and controversy over major disagreements of policy, 
which resulted in people such as myself leaving the party. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the names of other persons besides your- 
self who have in the course of the last several months left the Com- 
munist Party in that area ? 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. Ttjroff. Yes, I know them, but my answer as to who they are 
would be the same. 

Mr. Arens. Could you not help this committee of your Government 
by giving us the names of those people so we can contact them and see 
if they can't give us information that will help us evolve legislation 
for the United States Congress to cope with the problems posed by the 
Conununist apparatus within the United States ? 

Can't you please do that and serve your Government ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Before you answer that question, was the disassociation 
of others about the time of your disassociation or later on ? 

Mr. Turoff. Within the general period. 

Mr. Willis. And was it generally for the reasons that you have 
assigned, if you remember ? 

Mr. TuROFF. The people I am referring to, the people that I know, 
I would say yes, the same general reasons. There might be a specific 
difference. 

Mr. Willis. I think you would be doing them a compliment. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. In answer to that question, I don't feel I could give 
those names. I feel that I have attempted to give information, any- 
thing that was asked, about myself with just one exception. 

I do not feel that morally I could give my friends or people I know 
to the kind of situation that I am in, where I have been threatened with 
discharge, where there has been an attempt to create a hysteria in my 
shop in order to have me fired. 

I don't feel that there is any guaranty for anyone. They know 
about these committee meetings and if anyone felt they wanted to come 
and voluntarily testify, they are intelligent people and would do so. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us in executive session ? 

Mr. TuROFF. No, sir. I would not tell you anything in executive 
session. I am not afraid of anything that I have said in public. I 
think it is 

Mr. Arens. Are you against the Communist Party ? You said you 
broke with it. Are you against it ? 

Mr. TuROFF. What does that mean ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you mean to say you do not know what that means? 

Mr. TuROFF. No, sir; I do not know what it means, not put as 
vaguely as that. I don't know what it means. 

Mr. Arens. Are you for the Communist Party ? ^ 

Mr. TuROFF. I don't know what that means, either. There is a 
question. If you ask me what do I stand for, I can tell you the things 
I want. 



1598 mVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. Would yon like to see the Communist Party, the Com- 
munist operatiou in this country, eradicated? 

Mr. TuROFF. If it continues alon^ the pattern that it chooses to 
follow now, absolutely. 

Mr. Arens. Then why do yon not give us the information we seek 
here, the names of people who aie engaged in the very activity which 
you now say you should like to see eradicated ? 

Mr, TuROFF. I believe I have already explained that question, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You have abundantly. 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfidly suggest that will conclude the stall' 
interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. There are one or two things I would like to clear up 
with the witness. 

When you were asked about your application for a passport I believe 
you said one of the reasons you were going abroad was a family matter. 
Did you say that ? 

Mr. TuROFF. I said a personal matter. The word "family" might 
have entered into it. 

Mr. Scherer. Did that personal matter involve any Communist 
Party activity ( 

Mr. TuROFF. Absolutel}^ none. It was purely personal between my 
Avife and myself. 

Mr, Scherer, Was she abroad at that time? 

Mr. TuROFF. I decline to answer any questions about my wife, sir. 
I think that privilege should be respected by the committee as you 
suggest you customarily do. 

Mr. Scherer. I am not asking you al)out any difficulties that might 
have existed. I was just wondering whether she was in Europe at 
that time. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tfroff. I think, sir, your own rules specify that you only on 
the rarest occasions do that and I don't think the situation warrants 
it. 

Mr. Scherer. I am familiar with the rule. Did you go to visit 
your wife abroad ? 

Ml-. TuROFF. No, sir. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. You said the purpose of your trip and your appli- 
cation for passport was to visit relatives in England. Who were 
the lelatives you had in England ? Your family came from Russia 
originally, according to the pass])ort. 

Mv. TuROFF. I do have some relatives by marriage in England. 
AVe did not, however, get to visit them. 

Mr. Scherer. You did not visit your relatives in England? Al- 
though you did indicate when you made your application for a pass- 
]>ort the purpose of the trip was to vivsit these relatives in England and 
investigate educational possibilities ? 

Mr, TuROFF, Yes. That is correct. I was an economics student 
at New York University. I was majoring in economics and I had 
considered the possibility of trying to get into the London School of 
Economics. 



ENYESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 1599 

Mr. ScHERER. And I believe yon said you did not visit relatives in 
England. Who is Joseph Needlenian Avho was the witness w^ho signed 
the affidavit of identification on your passport ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. TuROFF. I am inclined to think you do not have the right name 
there. I don't know anybody of that name. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, I may not. Would you sho\v him this sig- 
nature ? 

(A document was handed to the witness. ) 

Mr. TuROFF. That is a friend of mine who I have not seen in several 
years. 

Mr. SciiERER. What is his name ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Needleman, Joseph Needleman. 

Mr. ScHERER. You say that is Needleman ? 

Mr. TuROFF. Yes. 

(Document marked "Turoff Exhibit Xo. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Was he a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. TuROFF. I don't laiow. 

Mr. SciiERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will go into executive session. All the 
witnesses who are under subpena and who are here right now who 
have not been heard up to now, will remain available during the 
executive session. 

The marshal will call their names as we need them. We will not 
have any more public session this afternoon. Those who wish to go 
may go. The rest of the work will be in executive session. 

Mr. TuROFF. Am I excused, sir ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes, you are excused. 

Mr. TuROFF. I mean for good ? I don't have to come back ? It is 
from this subpena ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

(Wliereupon, at 3 : 47 p. m., Tuesday, October 1, 1957, the hearing 
in the above-entitled matter was recessed to go into executive session.) 



INDEX 



Individualb 

Page 

ButenefiE, Serge 1542, 1547-1548 (Testimony) 

Carter, Charlotte 1550, 1551 

Carter, Dyson 1550-1552 

Dietch, Alan 1565-1569 (testimony), 1583, 1586 

Fishman, Irving 1534-1546 (testimony), 1549, 1553 

Fleming, Robert B 1554 

Jones, W. Jackson 1549-1553 (testimony), 1559 

Khrushchev 1579 

Lipsitz, Richard 1568 

Lutsky, Albert 1583 

Maclnness, Ellet D 1550 

Napoli, Michael. (See Turoff, Sidney.) 

Needleman, Joseph 1599 

Noto, John Francis - 1565 

Oettinger, George E 1555 

Regan, Charles V 1560-1561 (testimony) 

Scheer, Mortimer 1554-1564 (testimony) 

Scheer, Phyllis (Mrs. Mortimer Scheer) 1562 

Suske, Eleanor 1534-1546 (testimony) 

Sydney, William ^ 1550 

Turoff, Sidney (alias Michael Napoli) 1568-1599 (testimony) 

Tweedale, William Muir 1550 

Oeganizations 

Addressograph-Multigraph Corp 1566, 1567 

All-Union Soviet Book Combine (Moscow) 1536 

Bethlehem Steel Corp. (Lackawanna, N. Y.) 1591 

Canadian Labor Progressive Party 1550 

Canadian-Soviet Friendship Society 1550 

Communist Party, New York State : 
Erie County : 

County Committee 1575, 1596 

Buffalo : 

Steel Section 1572-1574, 1576, 1578, 1590 

Lackawanna : 

Cell within Bethlehem Steel Corp 1591 

New York City: 

Cell within New York University 1572 

Queens County 1572 

State Committee 1575, 1596 

State Convention, 1957 1569 

Eveready Printers, Ltd 1550 

Foreign Languages Publishing House 1552 

Four Continent Book Corp 1536, 1544, 1553 

Imco Manufacturing Co 1588,1589 

Imported Publications and Products 1536 

Labor Progressive Party of Canada. (See Canadian Labor Progressive Party.) 

Labor Youth League, Buffalo 1559 

Lehigh Portland Cement Co 1554-1556, 1562, 1563 

New York University 1572, 1596, 1598 

News-Facts (Toronto, Canada) 1549, 1551 

Northern Book House 1552 

Northern Neighbors Publishing Association 1550-1552 

i 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Spar Metal Products Co 1589 

Tolstoy Foundation 1547, 1548 

United States Government: 

Justice Department 1535, 1539 

Post Office Department 1535, 1537, 1539, 1540 

Treasury Department: 

Customs, Bureau of 1533-1535, 1547 

Young Progressives of America : 

Cell within New York University 1595 

Publications 

Hungarian News 1542 

Literary CJazette (Hungary) 1542 

New Times 1552 

News-Facts 1550, 1551 

Northern Neighbors 1551-1553 

People's Freedom 1542 

People's Tribune 1542 

Koad to Life, The 1552, 1559 

Soviet Union 1544, 1552 

Soviet Woman 1544 

Trade With the Soviet Union 1549 

o 



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