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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the State of California. Hearing"

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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF CALIFORNIA— Part 9 



HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF EEPRESENTATIYES 



EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



APRIL 21, 1954 
(AFTERNOON SESSION) 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
47718 WASHINGTON : 1954 




Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

SEP 8-1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Ukited States House of Representatives 
HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 

BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, Je., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kunzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

Courtney E. Owens, Acting Chief Investigator 

II 



I 



CONTENTS 



(Afteriioou session) 

April 20, 1954, testimony of: Page 

Lloyd Hamlin (resumed) 4SS9 

Louis Pollack 4893 

Tony Smith 4898 

La Verne Lym 4803 

Phillip Usquiano 4906 

Lee Gregovieh 4909 

Gladys Gatlin 4910 

Carol Bayme 4913 

Verna Langer 4921 

Joseph Langer 4925 

David Starcevic 4925 

Miriam Starcevic 4928 

Index i 

rn 



PuBLio Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OP THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEE 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to malie from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda tliat is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attaclis the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Consti- 
tution, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to tlie House (or to the 
Clerlj of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
Investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such boolis, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued imder 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, Januai'y 3, 1953 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

(1) There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, the following standing committees : 

******* 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

* * Us !f * * * 

Rule XI 

POWER AND DUTIES OF C0^rMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
tu take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any sucli cbairman or member. 

VI 



INYESTmATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF CALIFOENIA— PART 9 



WEDNESDAY, APBIL 21, 1954 

United States House of Representatives, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Actrtties, 

San Diego ^ Calif. 
PUBLIC session 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to adjournment, at 2 p. m., in the Chamber of Com- 
merce Building, Hon. Donald L. Jackson (acting chairman) pre- 
siding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Donald L. Jackson 
and Clyde Doyle. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; William 
A. Wheeler, staff investigator; and Mrs. Billie AVheeler, acting for the 
clerk. 

afternoon session 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be in order. 

The Chair wishes to acknowledge the presence in the hearing room 
of our distinguished colleague from AVashington, Congressman Bob 
Wilson. We are glad to have you here. 

Mr. Wilson. Thank you. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Counsel ? 

TESTIMONY OF LLOYD HAMLIN— Eesumed 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. At the end of the testimony this morning, Mr. Ham- 
lin, you were telling the committee about your experiences within the 
veterans' organization, the American Veterans' Committee organiza- 
tion, is that correct? 

Mr. Hamlin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there anything in addition regarding your ap- 
pearance as a delegation to a State convention of that organization in 
which tliis committee would be interested ? 

Mr. Hamlin. Not particularly, no, sir. I think one of the impor- 
tant things to remember in conjunction with the Communist Party's 
work in the American Veterans' Committee, particularly in Califor- 
nia, is the fact that only a handful of Communists could actually, in a 
sense, control a State organization of this type. 

Mr, Tavenner. What other mass organizational work did you en- 
gage in at the suggestion of the Communist Party ? 

4889 ■ 



4890 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Hamlin. Originally a number of Communist Party members 
participated in the CIO, PAC, later, of course, going into the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party. 

During the campaign for fair employment practices in San Diego 
I was given the job as the person in charge of that particular campaign 
by George Lohr. 

Now, may I clarify that from the standpoint of initiation of the 
signature campaign in San Diego. The signature campaign for fair 
employment practices was not originated by the Communist Party. 
As I remember, it was originated by the Democratic Party. This is 
only one of many, many instances where the Communist Party was 
able to influence a particular campaign or particular organization by 
infiltration and by their establishment of their own members in work- 
ing positions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give the committee the names of any of the 
members of the Communist Party who were active in that same field 
with you ? 

Mr. Hamlin. Well, as an example, in the fair employment practice 
campaign A. C. Rogers was quite a figurehead there, and the Commu- 
nist Party as a whole actually participated in this campaign from the 
standpoint of soliciting signatures and things of that type. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any other particular mass organizations 
in which you functioned ? 

Mr. Hamlin. Well, there were so many that offliand I don't recall 
any particular ones. There were a number of rather insignificant ones, 
such as an attempt by the party to start an arts and crafts profession 
here, and an ASP group, which was not successful, and a number of 
by-products of the veterans' committee on veterans' problems, such 
ajs a housing forum back in 1946, I believe, and things of that type. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the Committee, please, what the chief 
activities were of the Commimist Party during the period you were a 
member ? 

Mr. Hamlin. The chief activity of the Communist Party at all 
times is to : Number one, perhaps it would be wrong to put one ahead 
of the other, they both have about the same importance, recruitment 
of members and propagandizing the public from the standpoint of a 
particular tactic, maybe in operation at that time, or as is better 
known as the party line, at that particular time. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have heard during the years of attempts to 
arouse minority groups. What was your experience, or what did 
you observe in regard to the Communist Party in that field ? 

Mr. Hamlin. One of the most important fields of recruitment in 
the Communist Party definitely here in San Diego, and I understand 
through the Nation, is that of agitation and recruitment in minority 
groups. The Negro group, of course, is singled out as a special group 
for this type of work. In San Diego, of course, we were not peculiar 
in that instance. The Communist Party had as one of its primary 
goals always the working in the Negro community. 

Many examples could be given of that. I might say, and would 
like to say at this time, and give the Negro people a very high compli- 
ment in my estimation, and that is to the effect that although the Com- 
munist Party here in San Diego made special recruitment drives, 
and at all times tried to recruit and propagandize the Negro people, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4891 

the percentage of membersliip of Negroes in San Diego County has 
always been very low, and the Negro people by and large I found in 
my experience are people who do not actually swallow the Communist 
Party propaganda line. 

It is a fact^that Negroes do join the Communist Party, but by and 
large they immediately realize that the Communist Party is not a 
party that stands for in action the things they put forth in theory, 
and, therefore, the Negro people have withstood, in my estimation, 
admirably the drive that the Communist Party has put on against 
them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee in what way an effort 
was made by the Communist Party to recruit among the Negro people? 

Mr. Hamlin. There w^ere a number of special campaigns. A rather 
recent campaign, that has never been very successful, is that of jobs 
for Negroes on the bus lines. That was instigated originally by the 
Communist Party. Other organizations have been pulled into it, 
but only after its inception in thinking by the Communist Party. 

As a concrete example of the thinking behind a specific program 
of this type, in 1946, 1 believe, the Communist Party in session in its 
central committee, in its county committee, received a directive from 
Los Angeles which bawled them out because they had a very low mem- 
bership of Negro people, so they decided that they would put on a 
campaign in the Logan Heights area called a campaign for employ- 
ment of the Negro people. This is a matter of record, public record 
in new^spaper articles about that particular time. 

As an example, I believe the Safeway Store was originally picketed 
and later on the Victory Theater, a number of establishments there. 

But the thing I would like to bring out is the fact that although 
from the public standpoint the Communist Party publicized the fact 
they were definitely working for jobs for Negroes, it was only a sub- 
sidiary consideration, because the primary one was that of recruitment 
in the Negro community, involvement of the Negro community on the 
picket line where observation could be made as to the militancy of cer- 
tain individuals who were later set aside as contacts for possible 
recruiting. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have stated that the Communist Party was not 
successful to any material extent in recruiting members of the Negro 
race. 

Mr. Hamlin. That is right. In this particular instance, as an 
example, it was reported back to the county committee, of which I was 
a member, a number of people who had been solicited or who had been 
contacted and had actually attended a Communist Party meeting 
where they were given Communist Party material and more of an 
insight into the Communist Party were, of course, in view of the actual 
recruitment, and although there was a fair size number of Negroes 
attended this particular meeting, I wouldn't stipulate the number 
because I actually did not remember the exact number, to my knowl- 
edge there was not one Negro who actually remained a Communist 
Party member from that particular campaign. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know any instances in which the Commu- 
nist Party was successful in procuring the use of the names of more 
or less prominent Negroes in the community and got them to join the 
party and sent them as delegates to any of the State conventions? 

47718— 54— pt. 9 2 



4892 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Hamlin. Yes. Of course, that was, may I say in slang, a trick 
that was used quite often by the Communist Party in soliciting the 
names of well known persons using them on stationery or on propa- 
ganda to influence a particular area of the population. 

There was a gentleman in the Logan Heights area who was used 
about 1945 and 1946 quite extensively for that purpose. Later on 
actually he joined the Communist Party for a short period of time, 
was invited to and attended at least one county committee meeting of 
the Communist Party which, of course, was a secret meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was that, do you recall ? 

Mr. Hamlin. He is a real-estate gentleman in the Logan Heights 
area. His name escapes me for the moment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you Icnow whether he was sent to a State con- 
vention on one occasion '? 

Mr. Hamlin. Not from actual personal knowledge. Only from a 
very short discussion that I had personally with George Lohr at this 
time. His name was promoted as a possible person to attend a certain 
convention. Now, as to my i)ersonal knowledge of whether he actu- 
ally made that trip or not, I do not say, but at least he was supposed 
to have made it with George Lohr. This gentleman's name, inci- 
dentally, is Tony Smith. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. You recall nowthat this is his correct name? 

Mr. Hamlin. That is his correct name. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you on the county executive com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Hamlin. From September of 1945 until June of 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your ex- 
periences were while a member of that committee, without repeating 
testimony that you have already given ? 

Mr. PIamlin. Of course, that would be a real large order, inas- 
much as the county committee, which has been set forth before, of 
any particular Communist organization, is charged with the direct 
responsibility of planning and seeing that these plans are carried out 
of all of the activities of the Communist Party in any particular 
county. By that I mean that in San Diego our county committee was 
charged with the responsibility of discussing possible recruitment into 
the Communist Party; the county committee was charged with the 
responsibility of passing judgment on those people wdio were expelled 
from the party, dropped from the party; the educational programs 
that would be carried out by the particular clubs and units in the 
Communist Party ; all of the activities actually were routed through 
the county committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I believe that at this point I would 
like to interrupt this witness' testimony and call him back at a later 
time, possibly this afternoon or tomorrow morning, and proceed with 
some other testimony that we have here. We have quite a few wit- 
nesses that we are anxious to dispose of today. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. The witness is excused temporarily from 
further attendance, but subject to instructions from counsel as to what 
time he should return. 

Mr. Hamijn. Thank you, IVIr. Chairman. 
Mr, Tavenner. Would you remain here? 
Mr. Jackson. Who is vour next witness? 



COMMUNIST ACTniTIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4893 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to call Mr. Louis Pollack. 

Mr. Jackson". Will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give be- 
fore this subcommittee, you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Pollack. I will. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS POLLACK, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

WILLIAM MURRISH 

Mr. Pollack. I would like to request, I would like to tell you that 
I have a hearing handicap, unfortunately. Secondly, I do not mind 
pictures at all, but please tell them to conclude now, and after the 
hearing I would be most happy to cooperate with the photographers. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. The photographers will refrain at this 
time. 

Mr. Pollack. Just during the questioning, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Mr. Pollack. Thank you. 

Mr. Jackson. Your request pertains only to the photographers. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ^ 

Mr. Pollack. Louis Pollack. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Pollack. I am, sir. 

Mr. Ta"\^nner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Murrish, William Murrish, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Pollack? 

Mr. Pollack. I was born in Hungary, 46 years ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you come to this country? 

Mr. Pollack. When I was 2 years old, approximately. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are naturalized, a naturalized American citi- 
zen, I presume. 

Mr. Pollack. My citizenship is derived from my father, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside? 

Mr. Pollack. San Diego, sir. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. How long have you lived in San Diego? 

Mr. Pollack. Approximately 19 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your edu- 
cational training has been? 

Mr. Pollack. Would you like it complete, sir? 

Mr. Tavenner. No. sir ; just in brief, and your formal educational 
training. 

Mr. Pollack. No formal education, unfortunately, sir. I could 
say something else on that, if you would like, perhaps for your infor- 
mation. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Just as you desire about that. 

Mr. Pollack. Well, as I said, unfortunately I never had what you 
would call a formal education. I went to grammar school in the city 
of New York. We moved out to California approximately thirty- 
odd years ago, and I went to grammar school in Los Angeles. Unfor- 
tunately I had to earn a living and help my family, and I sold news- 



4894 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

papers on the corner of Sixth and Main Streets — Congressman Jack- 
son and Congressman Doyle know that area — fought in the Los 
Angeles Newsboys' Club for a living, sold papers on the city of Los 
Angeles streets for many years, finally thought I would like to add to 
my education, so I took an examination — I never graduated from 
grammar school — I took an examination for high school, was accepted, 
never graduated from high school, interrupted again for the purpose 
of making a living, went further and entered in Southwestern Uni- 
versity through an examination, which I passed ; went in for 1 year, 
and unfortunately I had to earn a living again for myself and my 
family. 

Mr. Tavenner. It certainly is no reflection on an individual that 
they have not had opportunity for extended formal education. Self- 
education quite frequently is the best kind. 

Mr. Pollack. I agree with you, sir ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tav-enner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your pro- 
fession or trade has been from 1940 ? 

Mr. Pollack. Well, I don't know what you mean by profession. 
I am not a professional man, in what I consider you are thinking of. 
I am not a lawyer, I am not a doctor or any of those things. 

Mr. Tavenner. I said profession or trade. 

Mr. Pollack. I don't have a trade either, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then what is your occupation? 

Mr. Pollack. I am a clothing man, I own a clothing store at the 
present. Is that what you mean ? 

Mr. Ta^t:nner. From 1940 until now? 

Mr. Pollack. I would like to remember always it has been since 
1940, I am quite sure, in a clothing store. Would you like to know 
where, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No ; I am not interested in that. 

The committee has received evidence of the existence in San Diego 
of a special group or club of the Communist Party sometimes referred 
to as a professional group, composed of individuals whose names 
were to be kept secret from the membership, the general membership 
of the Communist Party. We are inquiring into the membership of 
that club, and its activities. 

Information was given the committee this morning under oath by a 
witness that you were a member of that club, and I want to ask you 
questions regarding your membership in it, if you were a member, and 
what you know of the activities of that group. 

Mr. Pollack. Is that all one question, sir? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, that is a preliminary statement to you. My 
first question is, were you aware of the existence of such a group of 
the Communist Party in San Diego ? 

Mr. Pollack. Mr. Tavenner — is that correct? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Pollack. That question I am going to decline to answer for 
these reasons, sir. I decline to answer that question, and I deny the 
right or the power in the committee to ask such questions or to compel 
me to answer the same on each and every of the following grounds, 
both separately and jointly : 

Number one : That this and any other thought, speech and associa- 
tion question violates the first amendment, and grievously so. 



COJUMIINIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4895 

Two : That said question violates the fourth amendment by seeking 
to impose an unreasonable search, a search of thought and mind. 

Three : That said question and any other thought, speech, and 
association question in circumstances of my compulsory summoning 
here, and in the context of this committee's index of unnumbered in- 
dividuals, causes, organizations, and ideas, is jeopardous and endan- 
gers my rights and privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a 
compelled witness against myself. 

Four : Finally, that said question violates the moral lesson expressed 
in the following excerpts from the Bible, and I am quoting from the 
Bible, and the quotation is from St. Mark, Chapter 15, lines 2 to 5. 

And Pilate asked Him, "Art Thou the King of the Jews?" and He answering 
said unto him, "Thou sayest it." 

And the chief priests accused Him of many things, but He answered nothing. 

And Pilote asked Him again, saying, "Answerest Thou nothing? Behold how 
many things they witness against Thee." 

But .Tesus yet answered nothing ; so that Pilate marvelled. 

I want to explain that, if I may, that last one particularly. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, that has been stated before, before this com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Pollack. Has it ? I didn't know. I don't read, don't hardly 
ever have a chance, sessions of this kind, sir. But I do not want to 
be mistaken by anybody that I am a member of the very fine, any of 
the fine Christian churches. I quoted this from Jesus solely and 
wholly because I believe in the principles of Jesus, even though I am 
of the Jewish faith. Certainly I believe in what He has said, 'Do 
unto others only as you would have them do unto you," and peace on 
earth. I believe all of those very fine things Jesus has said, particu- 
larly this quotation from St. Mark, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a contributor to the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Pollack. Mr. Tavenner, as I told you, I had a very bad educa- 
tion, but I am a self-educated man, fortunately. I recognize questions 
of entrapment, sir. Please, I do not want to evade any of my rights. 
Please, I ask you, sir, I do not want to answer that question, sir, under 
the same legal reasons stated previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. There is certainly nothing in the nature of entrap- 
ment about that. It is a plain, simple question as to whether or not 
you have aided the Communist Party in San Diego by giving it money. 
That is a plain, direct question, and I w^ould like an answer to it. 

Mr. Pollack. Mr. Counsel, this is your place, this is your forum. 
This is not my forum. At a proper place, what I consider proper, at 
least something that between you and I, between the gentlemen from 
Congress, I would be most happy to discuss my life. 

Mr. Jackson, You decline to answer that question ? 

Mr. Pollack. Yes, I stated so, Congressman Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. For the reasons previously stated ? 

Mr. Pollack. Yes, I stated that, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at any time occupy an official position in 
the Communist Party in San Diego ? 

Mr. Pollack. The same answer, sir, under the same legal con- 
stitutional grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 



4896 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Pollack. 'Wliy don't yon ask me if I have stopped beating my 
wife, sir? I told you, please, do not ask me questions of entrapment. 
The same answer, the same legal constitutional grounds, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I make this observation there ? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr, Doyle. 

Mr. Pollack. (V)ngressman Doyle, I am sorry. I can't hear up there 
that far. 

Mr. DoTLE. May I make this observation there for the information 
of the witness and his counsel, assuming you were not in the room 
when any witness did this which I am relating. 

We have had witnesses which were formerly members of the Com- 
munist Party but who withdrew for one reason or another. They 
have taken the position before this committee that they desire to tell 
the committee that they were at one time members of the Communist 
Party but were not today members of tlie Communist Party, then 
stood on their constitutional rights. Now, I am naturally not trying 
to put words in your mouth, Mr. Pollack, because I have never met 
you, I have never talked with you, but I do know that many times men 
who worked for one reason or another in the Communist Party but 
have withdrawn desire to let their fellow neighbors know that they 
were not today members of that party. We have had many witnesses 
do that. 

I say I am saying this not to make any inference or suggestion to 
you or your lawyer, but in order to familiarize you with what fre- 
quently happens before this committee. 

Mr. Pollack. You didn't imply anything, did you, sir? 

Mr. DoTLE. I did not imply anything. 

Mr. Pollack. I wondered. I was hoping you were not making any 
implications, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I asn not making any implications or inference. I am 
just telling you, I had not seen you here in the room until you took 
the witness chair. 

Mr. P(^llack. I am very glad you said no inference, sir, because 
that is in the Constitution with reference to the fifth amendment. 
That you will agree with, that in my refusing to answer there is abso- 
lutely no inference of any guilt whatsoever. Is that correct? 

Mr. Doyle. Bless your heart, you are 100 percent right, and we 
compliment any citizen wlio conscientiously claims that right. We 
urge our fellow citizens to claim that riglit. when they do it in good 
faith and conscientiously undon- the advice of their legal counsel. So 
I am quite willing to j-ay to you. Mr. Pollack, the fact that you have 
claimed your constitutional right is the right which every Member 
of Congress recognizes, not only this committee, and if you have not 
had that urged to your attention before, may I publicly urge it to 
your attention, that we are quite aware of that right and we uphold 
it a thousand percent. 

Mr. Pollack. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Now, may the Chair make just a slight addition ? 

Mr. Pollack. Are von talking to me, sir ^ 

Mr. Jackson. I am making an observation relative to the fifth 
amendment. The fiftli amendment to the Constitution of the Ignited 
States says that no witness shall be required to give evidence against 
himself in a crhninal case. Those words are frequently not added 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4897 

l)y those who use the provisions of the fifth amendment. If your 
use of the fifth amendment is in wood faith and a truthful answer 
to tlie question wouhl, indeed, incriminate you, you are entitled to 
the use of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. MuRRisH. And he is entitled 

Mr. Jackson. Just a minute. If an answer to the question would 
not incriminate you, then that is an entirely different matter. 

Mr. MuRRiSH. On that, sir, you differ with several courts, and the 
word "incriminate" does not a})]:)ear in the Constitution, sir. 

Ml". Jacksox. May I assure counsel, as 1 assume he has been pro- 
vided with a set of the rules of the committee, which requires that 
counsel advise his client, which I assume he has done. You have every 
right to do it. 

jMr. MuRRiSH. I have. 

Mr. Jackson. The Chair respects that. However, counsel is not to 
engage in legal argument with the committee or with counsel. 

Mr. Pollack. Congressman Jackson, may I say a word on that, sir ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, of course. 

Mr. Pollack. Seemingly, you have not read the very latest ruling 
from the Circuit Court of Appeals. I believe it was either in the State 
of NeAv York or that area, which was noted, I believe it was, within 
the last couple of weeks — to be very, very honest with you, 1 read it 
just before I came over here at my house — in which, I can't think of 
his first name, but the judge's last name was Frank — is that name 
familiar to you at all ? 

Mr. Jackson. No. 

Mr. Pollack. Please look it up, will you please, sir ? It definitely 
and absolutely, this Circuit of Appeals judge in this case absolutely 
in reference to the fifth amendment said there is no such thing as there 
being allowed even an inference of any guilt for the privileges and the 
duty of using the fifth amendment. Believe me, sir, I read that today. 

Mr. Jackson. The connnittee is very happy to have the citation. 
However, and I repeat that in the case of the employees of the United 
States Government who were released from the United Nations, Mr. 
Trygve Lie appointed an international committee of jurists to deter- 
mine the question as to whether or not their taking of the fifth amend- 
ment could in any way be interpreted as an illegality, or whether they 
were entitled to reinstatement in the United Nations. 

This committee of eminent jurists, including an American jurist, a 
Belgian and, I believe, an Englishman, reported back to the Ignited 
Nations to the effect that the dismissal of the Ignited States emj)loyees 
in this instance was, in their opinion, and after a study of all the law 
relative to the subject, entirely justified in that the taking of the fifth 
amendment by these employees implied 1 of 2 things : Either, 1, that 
a truthful answer to the question as to whether they had done certain 
things would incriminate them, in which case the U. N. was justified 
in dismissing them, although in that case it was a proper use of the 
fifth amendment. It was the further finding of this board of distin- 
guished jurists that unless that condition existed they had misused 
the provisions of the fifth amendment. 

Now, those were the two alternatives which this board of jurists 
brouirht back to Mr. Lie of the United Nations. 



4898 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

I do not infer from your refusal to answer, your taking the pro- 
visions of the fifth amendment, any admission or inference of guilt on 
your part. 

Mr. Pollack. May I interpose, please? I think you are using the 
wrong term when you said the fifth amendment. I think the proper 
word should be the duty. 

Mr. Jackson. To stand upon. 

Mr. Pollack. Not behind, of course. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Pollack. Thank you, Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at any time a member of the professional 
group of the Communist Party in San Diego ? 

Mr. Pollack. You asked me that question, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. No, sir, I have not. 

Mr. Pollack. I am sorry. I thought you did. The same answer 
on the same legal constitutional grounds, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions. 

Mr. Jackson. If there are no further questions, the witness is 
excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Tony Smith. 

Mr. Jackson. During this short interlude, before the next witness, 
the Chair has several communications wdiich should be read into the 
record at this point. 

The subcommittee is in receipt of a telegram signed by Mr. Edward 
A. Walsh, formerly director of the FHA in San Diego. The tele- 
gram addressed to the subcommittee states as follows : 

I wish to say that the witness, Milton Lessner, who stated Tuesday that he 
was employed by the Federal Housing Administration in San Diego, was never 
employed by the Federal Housing Administration, of which I was director 
from 1935 to 1952, when I retired owing to ill health. 

The second communication deals with a similarity in names. Dur- 
ing the testimony this morning the name of a ISIr. Robert Watrous, 
W-a-t-r-o-u-s, was brought into the hearing when a witness testi- 
fied that the individual had been, to his personal knowledge, a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party here in San Diego. It happens that 
there is employed in the Bank of America here in San Diego an 
R. D. Watrous, Robert D. Watrous, who is desirous of informing the 
public generally that he is not the individual whose name was men- 
tioned by the witness here this morning. 

Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you solemnly swear that in the testimony you are about to give 
before tliis subcommittee, you will tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Smith. I do. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER, What is your name, please ? 

TESTIMONY OP TONY SMITH 

Mr. Smith. Tony Smith. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you come forward a little bit? 

What is your name ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4899 

Mr. Smith. Tony Smith. 

Mr. Tavenner, Where do you live, Mr. Smith ? 

Mr. Smith. San Diego. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Smith, the committee has heard through the 
last witness that was on the stand that you were a person of some 
prominence in your community who was brought into the Communist 
Party for the purposes of the Communist Party. Is that true? 

Mr. Smith. Well, part of that is true, but I don't want him to say 
I was prominent. I am just an ordinary citizen. But the rest of it I 
will aclmit. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, the witness said that you were a person of 
prominence. 

]\Ir. Smith. Well, if he said so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it true that you were brought into the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Smith. Well, according to the statement, I think he is right. 
I was brought in. The first thing, we had a committee against ais- 
crimination. I was one of the organizers of it, because we were fight- 
ing against discrimination. 

Mr. Doyle. May I interrupt ? I didn't hear you ask if he was will- 
ing to testify without counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. No, I did not. 

Mr. Smith. Oh, I don't need counsel. I have nothing to be ashamed 
of. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

Mr. Smith. You look good enough to me. 

Mr. Tavenner. No, I can't represent you, but I will certainly see 
that all the facts are brought out on both sides. 

Mr. Smith. I believe that, and I believe every word of it. So just 
ask me anything you want and I think Mr. Hamlin here told a very 
true picture of my getting into this business, and anything you want 
to ask me I will be glad to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, we are anxious to know how the Communist 
Party induced you to become a member. 

Mr. Smith. Well, on account of the conditions that existed in my 
neighborhood out there. They came in under a disguised manner. 

Mr. Tavenner. They indicated to you that they were genuinely 
interested in the problems that existed there ? 

Mr. Smith. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. And by that method got you to join their party? 

Mr. Smith. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Communist Party? 

Mr. Smith. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have heard a great deal of testimony here that 
that is what the Communist Party was endeavoring to do, was to 
recruit members in that manner. 

Mr. Smith. Well, they did a pretty good job out there. They did 
a lot of work, but I don't know whether the job was so good. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did they ask you to do any particular thing 
for the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Smith. No, they always came to me to get a little money. I 
didn't have time to do any recruiting. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your business? 

47718— 54— pt. 9 3 



4900 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Smith. Keal estate business. You see, when they were picket- 
ing the theater and the stores across the street, some of those people, 
they paid some of them for working up and down the street against 
the bosses to give these people jobs out there. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say they came to you for money ? 

Mr. Smith. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did they ask you to do anything other than to give 
money ? 

Mr. Smith. No, they didn't ask me to do anything, because I didn't 
have time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did they use your name in the community to help 
recruit other persons ? 

Mr. Smith. I imagine they did. 

Mr. Tavenner. What group of the Communist Party did you be- 
come a member of ? 

Mr. Smith. Well, I became a member of the Logan Heights Club, 
and I found out afterwards, just before they kicked me out, that it 
was out and out Communist, so they kicked me out of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. They kicked you out ? 

Mr. Smith. Kicked me out. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the reason for kicking you out ? 

Mr Smith. They claimed I didn't sit in. 

Mr. Tavenner. You didn't sit in? 

Mr. Smith. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. What happened to bring them to a conclusion or 
view that you didn't sit in ? 

Mr. Smith. Well, the only excuse I had was that I had some houses 
to rent and I was renting them to people of other races besides my 
race, and they said I should have put the other people out and put 
my own people in, and I told them I couldn't see that. A man was a 
man to me, and I didn't care anything about a man's color. 

Mr. Jackson. You mean they objected to the alleged discrimina- 
tion you were displaying ? 

Mr. Smith. I wasn't discriminating, because I had a lot of houses 
to rent. 

Mr. Jackson. I mean lack of discrimination. 

Mr. Smith. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. So they got you into the Communist Party, to 
begin with, because you were interested in the subject of non-discrimi- 
nation, and you got kicked out of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Smith. Got kicked out. 

Mr. Tavenner. For practicing the very thing that they took you in 
for? 

Mr. Smith. That is right. 

Mr, Doyle. May I ask at that point, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Do I understand that you are telling this committee 
that here in San Diego you as a Negro American were in your very 
extensive real estate operations renting your properties, the properties 
for which you were agent, to others than Negroes, and they objected 
to that? 

Mr. Smith. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. I mean the Communist Party objected and wanted you 
to limit your renting to just Negi'oes? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4901 

Mr. Smith. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. They wanted you to discriminate in favor of your 
Negro neighbors? 

Mr. Smith. That is right. And that is the thing I have been 
fighting ever since I have been in town, discrimination. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the Communist Party members assign any 
reason for asking you to expel your white patrons ? 

Mr. Smith. No, they didn't. I didn't have anything more to do 
with them after that. I never said anything more to them about it. 
Of course, they asked the Lighthouse out there, that publishes the 
paper, and I just forgot about it. I told them to go jump in the lake, 
because I wouldn't stand for it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Before you left the Communist Party did you at- 
tend any county and state conventions of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Smith. Well, I went up to Sacramento one time, mostly for 
the ride. 

Mr. Tavenner. You went up for the ride ? 

Mr. Smith. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who rode with you? 

Mr. Smith. Enos Baker. 

Mr. Tavenner. Enos Baker? 

Mr. Smith. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Enos Baker a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Smith. He was the man that had me kicked out. [Laughter.] 

Mr. Jackson. Please, the Chair will again ask the cooperation of 
the audience in refraining from any demonstration of approval or 
disapproval. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did any of the other members of the Communist 
'Party from San Diego go to that same convention ? 

Mr. Smith. Oh, there was quite a few, but I didn't — most all of 
them was of the other race, and I didn't know any of them. 

Mr. Tav-enner. Did you go to Los Angeles at any time on a 
convention ? 

Mr. Smith. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner, Tell the committee about that. 

Mr. Smith. That I don't know very much about, because I was up 
there, that is all I can say. And I think I was appointed on a com- 
mittee, but I can't remember what committee it was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend any county conventions in San 
Diego ? 

Mr. Smith. Not as I know of. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was it that you were dropped from the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Smith. I think it was in 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you go into the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Smith. It must have been some time in 1945, I am not sure; 
just before they started the drive out there. 

Mr. Tavenner. We are anxious to learn from you what success 
the Communist Party had, or what extent their efforts were a failure, 
in bringing Negro people into the Communist Party. 

Mr. Smith. I don't think they had very good luck, because after 
T was kicked out, why, the thing soon went down. 



4902 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. It took a spurt upward, though, when you went 
in, didn't it? 

Mr. Smith. I think it did. There was some woman out there that 
was representing some kind of other party called I. P. P., I don't 
know what it was. It hung out there about 6 or 8 months, maybe 
a year, but I couldn't tell just very much about them. I wouldn't 
know them if I would see them. They had a place out there in the 
2700 block, but I don't know them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has any effort been made to get you to go back 
into the Communist Party since you were expelled ? 

Mr. Smith. None whatever. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have no connection with the Communist Party 
now, of course ? 

Mr. Smith. None whatever. And I don't want to have none. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you have not been affiliated in any way with 
it since the time you were dropped? 

Mr. Smith. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. Was there any committee hearing or any hearing given 
you before you were expelled ? 

Mr. Smith. I don't understand you. 

Mr. Doyle. Was there any committee that you were invited to meet 
with of the Communist Party before you were expelled? I mean, 
did you have any hearing ? 

Mr. Smith. No, I didn't have any hearing. No. No hearing at all. 

Mr. Doyle. Did they send you a written notice of expulsion ? 

Mr. Smith. No, they give notice to the newspaper outfit. 

Mr. Doyle. They just published the notice? 

Mr. Smith. No, the man didn't publish. He thought it was very* 
foolish. He come and told me about it. I told him he could publish 
it if he wanted to ; if he didn't, to let it alone. I said, "I am through 
with that kind of stuff." 

Mr. Doyle. One more question. I think I heard you indicate at 
the time you were renting your houses and acting as an agent for 
houses too, there were plenty of houses other than those you rented 
just for Negroes, there were plenty of other houses to rent. 

Mr. Smith. Well, I didn't look at it — that wasn't the question that 
entered my mind. I figured if there wasn't any more houses the people 
that was in the houses, and because they were white I had no business 
putting them out, I had no excuse to put them out because their skin 
was a little lighter than mine. As long as they paid me my rent that is 
all I wanted. I figured the colored people could get houses, I was get- 
ting houses for people all the time. 

Mr. Doyle. That is all. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I neglected to ask the witness a 
question that I wanted to ask him. 

Who was it that came to you and got you to come into the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Smith. I think that Morgan Hull was the most responsible for 
it, and, of course, the woman that organized the committee against dis- 
crimination sold deceit out in that neighborhood. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall now about how much money you con- 
tributed to the Communist Party while you were a member? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4903 

Mr. Smith. That I couldn't tell. The committee against discrimi- 
nation, I put in maybe 10 or 15 dollars. You see, we had a lawsuit 
out there. I sold a woman a house on a corner of 25th and K, and we 
had to get a lawyer to keep the people from putting her out, so I was a 
pretty good contributor to that cause. At that time we had what is 
known out there as block restrictions. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Smith, you are something of a rara avis. I under- 
stand you are a member of the Republican Party. 

Mr. Smith. I am. 

Mr. Jackson. I am glad you didn't decline to answer on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Smith. I want to tell you, I am fighting for Bob Wilson, too. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you hold a position in the official organization 
of the party ? 

Mr. Smith. I am a member of the Congressional Committee and a 
member of the California State Republican Committee. 

Mr. Jackson. I hope I won't be accused of being partisan and show- 
ing a partisan attitude if I wish you future success in that office. 

Thank you for your testimony 

If there are no further questions, the witness will be excused from 
further attendance. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. LaVerne Lym. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee, you will tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Ltm. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

TESTIMONY OF LaVERNE LYM, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

BEN MARGOLIS 

Mr. Ltm. LaVerne Lym. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Ltm. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Margolis. My name is Ben Margolis, M-a-r-g-o-l-i-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Lym — excuse 
me. I won't want to rush you there. Take your time. 

Mr. Ltm. Was there a question ? I have a statement that I would 
like to present to the committee by reading it. 

Mr. Jackson. If it is a prepared statement, under the rules of the 
committee it may be submitted to the committee and will be considered 
at the conclusion of the testimony. If in the judgment of the com- 
mittee it fulfills the rules respecting statements, it will be inserted in 
the record. 

Mr. Ltm. May I submit it now, Mr. Congressman ? 

Mr. Jackson. You may submit it now. 

(The document was handed to the committee.) 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mr, Tavenner, may I ask this of the witness: Is the 
statement you have submitted to us, about three-fourths of a page long. 



4904 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

the same statement that you have just delivered to the members of the 
press here ? 

Mr. Lym. Yes ; it is. It is the same statement. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Lym ? 

Mr. Lym. 1902 in Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean the city of Washington or the State of 
Washington ? 

Mr. Lym. State. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere were you born in the State of Washington ? 

Mr, Lym. A town called Ellensburg. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVliere do you now reside ? 

Mr. Lym. I reside in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Lym. Since 1945. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that time where did you live ? 

Mr. Lym. I lived in San Diego. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you live in San Diego ? 

Mr. Lym. Fifteen years. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period of time that you lived in San 
Diego, what was the nature of your occupation ? 

Mr. Lym. Well, during the time that I lived in San Diego, I spent 
a great many of those years in the Vauclain Tuberculosis Sanitarium. 
I was not able to be employed at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you employed at any time during the period 
between 1940 and 1945 ? 

Mr. Lym. Mr. Counsel, I decline to answer that question on consti- 
tutional grounds. The first amendment of the Constitution provides 
that Congress can make no legislation regarding the freedom of as- 
sembly or association or freedom of speech or freedom of press and, 
therefore, if that is true, which it is, this legislative committee does not 
have any constitutional power to question me regarding my employ- 
ment or association at that time. 

I would like to state that this committee has for too long a time been 
hacking away at the Bill of Rights of the United States. 

I decline to state furthermore, Mr. Counsel, on the basis that I 
am not a stool pigeon and I will not become a stool pigeon. I will not 
participate in the efforts of this committee to subvert and convert 
our Nation into a Nation of informers, and I will not participate to any 
degree whatsoever in your efforts to undermine the love which our 
people have for the Constitution and the hatred which they have for 
McCarthyism. As long as there are people who will stand and fight 
for the fifth amendment of our Constitution, which protects the in- 
nocent, the McCarthys will never be able to subvert our country and 
our democracy. 

I demonstrate my support for the Constitution by standing upon 
my constitutional rights under the fifth, fourth and first amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Among the various grounds you have assigned was 
the fifth amendment, is that correct ? 

Mr. Lym. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you ever employed or engaged in work of any 
kind in the International Book Shop in San Diego ? 



C0M3HUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4905 

Mr. Ltm. I decline to answer that question on constitutional 
grounds. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Were you affiliated or connected in any way with 
the People's World while you were living in San Diego, either in a 
managerial capacity or that of any ordinary employee ? 

Mr. Lym. I decline to answer that question, Mr. Counsel, for the 
same reasons that I have stated. 

Mr. Tavennek. Mr. Lym, you have been identified in testimony be- 
fore this committee as having been an organizer of the Communist 
Party in San Diego. I would like to inquire as to whether or not 
that identification of you is correct. 

Mr. Lym. Mr, Counsel, I would like to state here and now that in 
each and every one of my declinations to reply to your questions that 
I wish to invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. I decline to 
answer this question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Lym. I decline to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Lym. I decline to answer. 

Mr, Tavenner. I have no further question, Mr. Chairman, 

Mr, Doyle. I do not question, of course, your right to use the fourth 
amendment of the United States Constitution. Can you help me to 
understand in what manner you feel the text of the fourth amendment 
applies to your constitutional rights at this hearing? 

Mr. Lym. Did I mention the fourth amendment, sir? 

Mr. Doyle. I am quite sure you did. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Lym. Then it may ha\e been that I was in error. 

Mr. Doyle. I thought probably it must be an error, because mani- 
festly the fourth amendment of the United States Constitution has 
no reference to your appearing before this committee. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there anything further, Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. No further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, the witness is excused from further at- 
tendance under the subpena. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner, Mr, Phillip Usquiano. 

Mr. UsQUTANO. Wait a minute. I would like to request no pictures 
be taken while I am testifying, please. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. Your request will be considered after 
you have been sworn. 

Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give be- 
fore this subcommittee you will tell the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. TJsQTJiANo. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated, please. 

Will the still photographers cooperate by not taking pictures during 
the witness' testimony. 

Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 



4906 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

TESTIMONY OF PHILLIP USQTJIANO, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, BEN MARGOLIS 

Mr. UsQuiANO, Phillip Usquiano, U-s-q-u-i-a-n-o. 

Would you mind if I read my statement? 

Mr. Jackson. The statement will be read following today's hearing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name once more ? 

Mr. Usquiano. Usquiano, U-s-q-u-i-a-n-o. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your first name? 

Mr. Usquiano. Phil. 

Mr. Tavenner. Phillip? 

Mr. Usquiano. Phillip. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Usquiano. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Margolis. Ben Margolis. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you bom ? 

Mr. Usquiano. I was born in Grant, New Mexico. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr, Usquiano. At 3188 Boston Avenue. 

Mr, Tavenner. In San Diego ? 

Mr. Usquiano. San Diego. 

Mr. Tavenner, How long have you lived in San Diego ? 

Mr, Usquiano, Since 1940. I resided in the County of San Diego 
since 1936. 

Mr, Tavenner, Mrs. Mildred Berman testified before this com- 
mittee and identified you as a person who was listed as a member of 
the Communist Party during the period that she was dues director 
in 1944, some time between 1944 and '46. Was she correct in identify- 
ing you as a member of the Communist Party in San Diego ? 

Mr. Usquiano, Well, I don't like to associate my name with any 
informer. I decline on the ground I am forced to testify against, 
myself; the fifth amendment, 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you willing to give the committee any facts 
within your knowledge regarding the operations of the Communist 
Party in San Diego ? 

(At this point Mr. Usquiano conferred with Mr. Margolis.) 

Mr. Usquiano. It is assumed that you have facts to this knowledge 
of something like that. I don't like to associate with any of those 
things that you have just mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you may not like to do it, but will you do it ? 

Mr, Usquiano, No, I won't. Congressman Jackson and Congress- 
man Doyle, and Mr, McCarthy, they have violated the Constitution 
and the oath they took to protect it, and they have violated that, and 
1 think that the people have a right, it is a privilege, and it is my 
privilege to stand on the ground that any decent people cannot testify 
on himself — innocent, not decent. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by innocent person not testify- 
ing against himself ? 

Mr, Usquiano, Well, there is on the fifth amendment, it is being 
used a lot, and that is why the fifth amendment was put in there. 

Mr. Tavenner. You think it is fashionable to use the fifth amend- 
ment? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4907 

Mr. UsQuiANO. Well, can I ask you, why was the fifth amendment 
[)ut in there? 

Mr. Ta\^nner. It was for protection of those whose testimony 
might tend to incriminate them. Now, you have said that you were 
entirely innocent of any wrongdoing. 

Mr. UsQUiANO. What was the question? 

Mr. Tavenner. So I would like to ask you, are you now a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. UsQUiANO. I refuse to answer any questions of that nature. I 
think — well, I know tliat the people have a right to protect the Con- 
stitution and I have that right to claim privilege under the first, fifth, 
ninth, and tenth amendments. 

Mr. Jackson. Let the record show that no one has in any way in- 
fringed upon his rights or disregarded those rights to claim the con- 
stitutional privilege. Counsel has not put in any objections to that 
at any time. 

Do you have any further questions, counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have any questions, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. You mentioned just now you claimed your right under 
the ninth and tenth amendments of the United States Constitution. 
In what way does Amen^lment No. 9 of the United States Constitution 
apply to your rights here today ? 

Mr. UsQUiANO. Are you an attorney? Would you like to define 
that ? You are an attorney, aren't you, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. I haven't practiced law for 8 years, since I have been 
in Congress, but I have the United States Constitution here in front 
of me, and as long as you speak of the ninth amendment and the 
tentli amendment, I thought of course, you were familiar with them. 

So will you please tell me in what way they apply to your rights 
here today? 

]N[r. UsQUiANo. Yes. I am short on words, you know, being a 
laborer. I am not a politician, and I would like counsel here to tell 
you exactly what the ninth and tenth amendments are so that you 
will know. 

Mr. Jackson. Let the Chair say that if the witness has been advised 
by counsel that he should take refuge in those amendments, I do not 
feel that it is essential for the witness to know the purport of the 
amendments. Evidently he has been advised by counsel to stand 
upon those amendments. 

Mr. Margolis. I will be glad to enlighten Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Jackson. I do not think it is necessary, Mr. Margolis. 

]\Ir. UsQuiANo. Mr. Jackson 

Mr, Jackson. That is all right. Your declination based on those 
amendments will be accepted without objection. 

Mr. UsQUiANO. ]\Ir. Jackson, investigating subversives and every- 
thing here in San Diego, I think it is up to you to report to Congress 
when you make your report that there is such a thing as something 
subversive over here. We have a little over 20,000 unemployed, and I 
think you ought to do something and report it to Congress, because I 
think that that is more of interest to people than this smear that 
you are trying to put on. 

47718— 54— pt. 9 4 



4908 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Jackson. Let me say to the witness that his short and illum- 
inating speech is in the record and will be a permanent part of it, 
so anyone reading it can read your statement. 

Mr. Doyle. I think, Mr. Chairman, that the witness has stated 
that you and I have violated our oath to the people of the United 
States, and I think I would like to hear the witness say if he is pre- 
pared to explain how I have violated my oath of office to the people 
of the United States. Will you please tell me, sir ? I am giving you 
a chance to propagandize, or anything else you want for a minute. 

Mr. UsQUiANO. Well, as a witness coming here without a jury you 
come out here to smear me and to let me invoke those amendments for 
my protection that you are violating, those constitutional amend- 
ments we have, and I think that you gentlemen, in spite of everything, 
you have violated that oath, because it states specifically in the fifth 
amendment that you cannot testify against yourself in any case until 
you have a jury or a witness is there. 

Mr. DoYLPL Well, just very briefly, may I reply to you thus: We 
have certainly not tried to urge you to violate your conscience and 
testify against yourself. You claimed the fifth amendment of the 
United States Constitution, and that is okay, but I want to call your 
attention to the fact that we are here as members of the United States 
Congress operating under Public Law 601, which directs us and 
authorizes us to go in the Continental United States and question 
people as to the extent and character of subversive activities, and that 
is why we are here questioning you. We believe that the record shows 
that the American Communist Party, without question, is a subversive 
organization and, therefore, we are questioning you as an American 
citizen to see if you can help us find the extent of it and the character 
of it in the San Diego area. 

Mr. UsQxnANO. I think that you can find that in the files of the 
FBI, and I am pretty sure that they are capable of acting on this. 
Wliat you are trying to do is smear people by making stool pigeons 
out of persons to smear our acquaintances and friendships in places 
where we are together, or anything that you think we touch. 

Mr. Jackson. It is quite apparent to the chairman that the witness is 
not going to answer any of the questions that are directed to him. I 
think any further discussion of it is simply a waste of the committee's 
time. 

Do you have any further questions, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Without objection, the witness is excused from fur- 
ther attendance under the subpena. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Lee Gregovich. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you raise your right hand and be sworn, please? 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee, you will tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Gregovich. I clo. 

Could I give a statement to the chairman of this committee ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, the committee will receive the statement. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4909 

TESTIMONY OF LEE GREGOVICH, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

BEN MABGOLIS 

Mr. Gregovich. Lee Gregovich.^ 

Mr, Tavexner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr, Grego\t:ch. Yes, 

Mr. Tavexner. It is the same counsel as the previous witness ? 

Mr. Margolis, That is correct, Mr, Tavenner, 

Mr, Tavenner, Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Gregovich ? 

Mr. Gregovich. I was born in Yugoslavia in 190i, June 14. 

Mr. Tavenner. "V\nien did you come to this country ? 

Mr. Gregovich. Oh, about 1912. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a naturalized American citizen ? 

]Mr. Gregovich. I derive my citizenship through my father. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was your father naturalized, and where ? 

Mr. Gregovich. I would say around the tw-enties. I don't exactly 
know the year, but I can get that information for you if you wish to 
have it. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the place of his naturalization ? 

Mr. Gregovich. You mean where he received his papers ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Gregovich. Globe, Arizona. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Gregovich. 3478 Glenn Drive, Spring Valley. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that near San Diego ? 

Mr. Gregovich. Yes ; it is in the county, within the county. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the county of San Diego ? 

Mr. Gregovich. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in the county of San 
Diego ? 

Mr. Grego\t[ch. Well, I have been approximately about 28 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your profession, trade or occupation 2 

Mr. Gregovich. Cook. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Gregovich, there has been information pre- 
sented to the committee which indicates that you have knowledge of 
Communist Party activities in the county of San Diego. 

Mr. Gregovich. Mr. Chairman, I am not responsible for what your 
stool pigeons and liars and 3^our informers say about me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tliis is an opportunity that you have of straight- 
ening out any testimony which has been given here which you claim 
is a lie. 

Mr. Gregovich. Mr. Chairman, wdien my boy was IT months in 
Korea they didn't hold investigations like this. I w^as a good Amer- 
ican ; I wasn't called up here by these stool pigeons of yours in this 
committee. 

Mr. Jackson. I would like to know, and I am sure Mr. Doyle woukt 
too, in what respect was the testimony touching on you a lie? 

Mr. Gregovich. Every one of your stool pigeons who has mentioned 
my name, in the newspapers, radio, and every means of propaganda 
there is. 

Mr. Jackson. Did they lie ? 

(At this point Mr. Gregovich conferred with Mr. Margolis.) 

Mr. Gregovich. Mr. Chairman, I am not going to discuss that with 
this committee. 



^ See note at end of this pubUcation. 



4910 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Jackson. You decline to answer my question as to whether or 
not they lie ? 

Mr. Gregovich. I do on constitutional rights, fifth amendment. 

Mr. Jackson. Ver}^ well. 

Mr. Ta\t2nner. It was testified here that you were a functionary 
in the Communist Party in San Diego; is that true or false? 

Mr. Gregovich. Mr. Chairman, same question, same answer. 

Mr. Taat^nner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gregovich. Same question, same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused from further attendance under 
the subpena. 

Call your next witness. 

At this time the subcommittee will stand in recess until 3 : 45. 

(Whereupon, at 3 p. m., a recess was taken until 3 : 47 p. m.) 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be in order. 

Who is your next witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Gladys Gatlin. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you please raise your right hand and be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give be- 
fore this subcommittee you Avill tell the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, so help you, God? 

Miss Gatlin. As a Christian I do not swear, but I will affirm. 

Mr. Jackson. Your affirmation will be considered. 

Mr. Ta's^nner. Mr. Chairman, this witness has not been subpenaed, 
and just a few moments ago in the corridor she requested the right to 
appear before the committee and I advised her under the rules of the 
committee she had that right. 

Mr. Jackson. Has the witness been named? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, she has. 

Mr. Jackson. Named in open hearing? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, in testimony here. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. Under the rules of the committee she is 
entitled to be heard. 

Mr. Tavenner. And she appears here as a voluntary witness. 

You have not been subpenaed, have you ? 

Miss Gatlin. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us your name ngain, please? 

TESTIMONY OF GLADYS GATLIN 

Miss Gatlin. Gladys Gatlin. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. G-a-t-1-i-n? 

Miss Gatlin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliere do you live. Miss Gatlin ? 

Miss Gatlin. 2701 Newton. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you say Newton, 2701 Newton ? 

Miss Gatlin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is in San Diego? 

Miss Gatlin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in San Diego ? 

Miss Gatlin. About 23 years. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4911 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, will you state to the committee anything that 
you desire to state, as you are here voluntarily, of course, regarding 
the matter of cormnunism. 

Miss Gatlin. I only wanted to make it clear to the committee and 
to all those who know me that I am not a Communist. 

Mr. Ta-s^enner. That you are not now a Communist ? 

Miss Gatlin. That I am not a Communist, and that I don't feel that 
I really ever have been a Communist, although at one time I did have 
my name 

Mr. Tavenner. Excuse me, we are not quite hearing you. If you 
will, raise your voice a little, please. 

Miss Gatlin. At one time I did sign my name to a paper that 
I would belong to the party, and officially I did belong to the party 
for a matter of about 4 months, but I never have been a Communist 
in principle. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were only in the party 4 months ? 

Miss Gatlin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. After that time you severed all connection of every 
kind with the Communist Party ? 

Miss Gatlin. Yes, I stopped going to any of their social functions 
which were the only things I remember ever going to, were the social 
functions, and when I moved away from the address where I was 
Jiving, then I no longer — I discarded the literature that was sent 
to me unopened. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, how it happened 
that you became a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Gatlin. Well, through a friend of mine and my husand, we 
met some people that were in the Young Progressive League, and 
through them we met some people by the name of Mr. and Mrs. 
Warren. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. and Mrs. Warren ? 

Miss Gatlin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you remember their first names? 

Miss Gatlin. Mrs. Vera Warren and I believe her husband's name 
was Robert Warren. And in attending social functions at their house 
and meeting other people through them, I believe it was one night 
at their house they asked us if we wanted to join tlie party, and they 
showed us a statement that said — more or less the meaning of it was 
that the Communist Party of America definitely did not advocate to 
overthrow this Government by force and violence, but they found no 
fault with the Constitution of the United States as it was written, 
but only in some of the ways it was executed, and it was their only 
desire to see that equality ran to all people, as it was guaranteed with- 
in the Constitution, and I found no fault with that, and, therefore, I 
felt I was willing to sign my name to it. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say you remained in the Communist Party only 
4 months? 

Miss Gatlin. Yes, I was active in the social functions only that 
length of time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why did you leave the Communist Party ? 

Miss Gatlin. Well, I became disillusioned because of some of the 
things that I found out. I didn't find anything that I could say 
that I think is subversive in any of the gatherings, or anything that 



4912 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

I went to. The only thing is that I remember once there came up the 
question about religion, and there was a couple of members that I 
knew that were discussing it, discussing religion, and they spoke 
rather lightly of Christianity, as though it meant nothing. 

Mr. Tavenner. They spoke lightly of Christianity ? 

Miss Gatlin. Of Christianity, and I began to see it was an anti- 
Christ organization. That was one of the things that disillusioned 
me. Another thing was once 

Mr. Ta%^nner. Excuse me. It is rather difficult to hear you. I 
heard you say it was anti-Christ. 

Miss Gatlin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. That the organization was anti- Christ, and I didn't 
understand you after that. 

Will you repeat as nearly as you can what you said ? 

Miss Gatlin. Another thing that disillusioned me was in speaking 
with another girl who was in the party, I mentioned that my husband 
and I thought we might go to another city to live, and she suggested 
to me that I should see the party about it and see what they thought 
about it, because the party might request that I didn't leave San Diego 
at the time, and I never had anything like that presented to me before. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was indicated to you that you might have to have 
permission of the Communist Party before you went to another city ? 

Miss Gatlin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. To work? 

Miss Gatlin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, what was it about the Communist Party that 
convinced you that it was anti-Christ ? 

Miss Gatlin. Well, just the matters of how — I don't remember the 
exact conversation, but it was spoken of so lightly — Christianity. 
Something was mentioned about it was' for the masses, or something 
like that. It was more or less it was bosh, or something like that. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you gather the impression you were expected to 
accept communism as a substitute for other spiritual values which 
you might have had before that time ? 

Miss Gatlin. No ; I didn't gather that, because in the conversation 
it was mentioned that it was all right, but as long as it didn't hurt the 
party, as long as the party came first. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you had to put the party before your religion ? 

Miss Gatlin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were not willing to do that? 

Miss Gatlin, No. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. DoTLE. No question. 

Mr. Jackson. I would say to the witness that I think she has exer- 
cised very good judgment in coming here and volunteering to tell the 
committee of her short activity in the Communist Party. The com- 
mittee has a standing invitation to anyone anywhere in this country 
who has at any time been a member of the Communist Party and has 
left it, to come forward and let the committee know. The committee 
has no intention nor desire to in any way lend itself to the persecution 
of such individuals, but to give them every help it can in making pos- 
sible social, economic, and political rehabilitation. 



COMMinsriST activities in the state of CALIFORNIA 4913 

We are most appreciative of your cooperation, and I hope that youi 
friends and neighbors and associates will understand the motivation 
that brought you down here. 

With the thanks of the committee, you are excused. 

Miss Gatlin. Thank you. 

Mr. Jackson. Who is your next witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Carol Bayme. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you solemnly swear, in the testimony you are about to give 
before this subcommittee, you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Miss Batme. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

TESTIMONY OF CAROL BAYME 

Miss Batme. Carol Bayme. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you here by virtue of a subpena ? 

Miss Batme. No ; I am a volunteer witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are appearing voluntarily ? 

Miss Batme. Yes. 

Mr. TA\rENNER. When and where were you born, Miss Bayme? 

Miss Batme. I am a native of San Diego. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in San Diego ? 

Miss Batme. All my life, except for a short period, more or less to 
visit elsewhere. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
educational training has been ? 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Tavenner, I notice that the witness has no lawyer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. I possibly should have asked her that ques- 
tion, even though she is a volunteer witness. 

Miss Batme. I waive that right. 

Mr. Jackson. But you understand that during the course of the 
interrogation you can consult with an attorney ? 

Miss Bayme. Yes ; I have consulted counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have consulted counsel, do I understand ? 

Miss Batme. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe I asked you what your educational train- 
ing has been. Miss Bayme. 

Miss Batme. I did not finish high school. I was in it 2 years when 
I quit, and I have had 2 years of art scliool besides that. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Have you at any time been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Miss Batme. Yes, sir ; I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did yoti become a member? 

Miss Bayme. I became a sympathizer in late 1948, and I became a 
member early in 1949 ; that is as close as I can put it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Batme. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you cease to be a member ? 

Miss Bayme. That is harder to tell. At my own request I ap- 
proached Mrs. Shermis about a year after I became inactive in tne 
party and asked that I be officially dropped, and I was so dropped, but 



4914 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

I wasn't informed just when it took place. I think it must have been 
sometime in 1951. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances under which you became a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Bayme. I first became interested in the problems of minority 
groups in this city, and was active in the National Association for 
the Advancement of the Colored People, and through associations I 
met people who were so-called progressives, and one of these people, 
non-Communist but progressive, took me to an organized meeting of 
Youth for Wallace, and I began to work with the Independent Pro- 
gressive Party, its campaign in 1948, and as I became more and more 
acquainted with the people who I began to realize were Communists, 
it seemed to me at the time that they had the answers to the problems 
that I was worried about. 

So I approached Jeff Boehm and asked him 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us that name again ? 

Miss Bayme. Jeff Boehm. His correct name is Godfrey Boehm, 
B-o-e-h-m. He is no longer a member of the party. 

Mr. Jackson. You know that of your personal knowledge? 

Miss Bayme. Yes, he told me so. He was expelled. 

Mr. Jackson. Then he is no longer a member. 

Miss Bayme. Jeff Boehm took me to Bernadette Doyle, who re- 
cruited me into the party, and introduced me into my first club, which 
was a youth group. 

Mr. Tavenner. A youth group of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Bayme. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, is that something separate and distinct from 
the Young Communist League, or the Labor Youth League ? 

Miss Bafme. At the time I joined, the Young Communist League 
did not exist nor did the Labor Youth League. 

Mr. Tavenner. So this was a youth group of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Bayme. A group of three. 

Mr. Tavenner. A group of three. Who were they, please ? 

Miss Bayme. Norman Lavine, and Paul Sleeth. 

Mr. Tavenner, Now, what was the function of this small group 
called the Youth Group ? 

Miss Bayme. We were to direct as far as possible the activities of 
the young progressives and the other youth organizations in this city, 
as well as the regular work you did in the party, picket lines, and so 
forth ; leaflets. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were to carry the Communist Party line and 
decision into what group ? 

Miss Bayme. The young progressives and into the NAACP youth 
group. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you engage in that activity ? 

Miss Bayme. Well, I stayed in the activity 

Mr. Tavenner. I mean in that particular youth group activity ? 

Miss Bayme. That was for a very short time. We were split up as 
a group and sent out to different clubs ratlier than segregated as 
youth, and I was tlien transferred to the Logan Heights Cliib. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was it that assigned the duties to this youth 
group which it was supposed to carry out ? 

Miss Bayme. Usually Bernadette Doyle. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4915 

Mr. Tav^nner. Bernadette Doyle? 

Miss Bayme, Yes. 

Mr. Tavexner. Will you tell the coininittee about when it was 
that you were assigned to the Logan Heights group of the Communist 
Party ; what year, if you can tell us ? 

Miss Bayme. Well, it must have been the same year I joined, be- 
cause it couldn't be very long I was in the youth group. I can't say 
very definitely. I am very bad at dates. 

Mr. Tevenner. That was approximately what year? 

Miss Bayme. Early 1949 was when I said I joined, so it must have 
been late 1949 when I transferred. That is pure conjecture. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the leaders in that group that you be- 
came a member of ? 

Miss Bayme. It is difficult to remember. David Starcevic, Miriam 
Starcevic; I don't know whether Ernestine Gatewood was there or 
not. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you know her as a Communist? 

Miss Bayme. I knew her as a Communist, but she is no longer a 
Communist. 

Mr. Jackson. She has left the party, to your own personal knowl- 
edge? 

Miss Bayme. She has left the party. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

Miss Bayme. J. Fonts. Her name is Frances J. Fonts. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I do not think the witness said yes, she 
nodded her head very nicely when you asked her is she was no longer 
in the party. I didn't hear you say anything. 

Miss Bayme. I stated it. It is in the record. 

Mr. Doyle. You nodded your head. 

Miss Bayme. Ernestine Gatewood has left the party. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. 

Miss Bayme. Nancy Rosenfeld Lund, and Richard Lund, Phillip 
Usquiano. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is he the same individual who appeared here as a 
witness a few minutes ago? 

Miss Bayme. Yes, sir. I can't say certainly whether any of the 
rest of the people I recollect were in the Logan Heights Club. These 
groups overlapped a great deal, you see, the same people all the time. 
One time in an executive meeting and the next time a club meeting, 
and it is hard to tell them apart. We used to call it organizing the 
organized. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the leaders in the Communist Party here, 
the ones who were most active in that period of time while you were 
a member ? 

Miss Bayme. Bernadette Doyle, of course; Ernestine Gatewood; 
Lynne Ackerstein; Godfrey Boehm; Rhoda Robinson, now Rhoda 
Lavine ; Norman Lavine ; Lolita Gibson ; Larry Moyer ; Nancy Rosen- 
feld Lund ; Goldwyn Brodsky ; Celia Shermis ; Harry Shermis ; Vema 
Langer; Joseph Langer 

Mr. Tavenner. What was that name ? 

Miss Bayme. Langer, L-a-n-g-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the first name ? 

Miss Bayme. Verna. 

Mr. Tavenner. Verna. 



4916 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Miss Bayme. And her husband Joseph Langer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what position Verna Langer held in 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss Bayme. Secretary, I believe. She usually gets those jobs. Bert 
Dugdale, Helen Dugdale, Laura Stevenson. 

Mr. Tavenner. Those were persons — I want to make certain — 
were those persons all known to you to be personally members of the 
Communist Party? 

Miss Bayme. Yes, I have either seen them at a meeting or they have 
told me personally that they were Communists. 

Mr. Jackson. Meeting them at closed meetings of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Bayme. I neglected to mention, I believe, that Lynne Acker- 
stein is also out of the party. She was also expelled. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who is that? 

Miss Bayme. Lynne Ackerstein. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was she expelled, do you know ? 

Miss Bayme. I can't say exactly. She told me she was expelled. 
She tried to get back into the party, but they wouldn't have her. I 
discussed it with her in San Francisco. That is where it happened. 

Mr. Jackson. Then it was not a philosophical break on her part? 

Miss Bayme. I think by this time it may be. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, any other as- 
signments that you were given in the Communist Party besides those 
you have already told the committee about ? 

Miss Bayme. Yes. One of the very last elections I was elected 
chairman of the Labor Youth League here. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you chairman of the Labor Youth League? 

Miss Bayme. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, how did the Communist Party function in 
the Labor Youth League? 

Miss Bayme. They ran it. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were present in the hearing room a moment 
ago, were you not, when the witness Gladys Gatlin testified? 

Miss Bayme. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. She testified she learned while in the Communist 
Party that it was anti-Christ in its attitude, and that the Communist 
Party must come before religion. Did you have any experience in 
the Communist Party that would throw any light on the attitude of 
the Communist Party toward religions? 

Miss Bayme. I personally couldn't throw any light on it. I am 
not a particularly religious person myself, and this question never 
came up as far as I am concerned. However, I think the answer is 
found in Marx, Engels, and Lenin. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you given instructions at any time by the 
Communist Party as to the attitude that should be taken by Com- 
munists toward religion or toward religious groups ? 

Miss Bayme. Toward religious groups. I can answer that, I was 
instructed not too long ago, in the hopes of assisting the FBI, when 
1 tried to get back into the party, I was instructed that I would have 
to join a church youth group, or a church, and become active in its 
work. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were told if you came back 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4917 

Miss Batme. In order to get back into the party I would have to 
get into a church group and work within it and try to influence it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who told you ? 

Miss Bayme. Also the Young Democrats, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio told you that ? 

Miss Bayme. Verna Langer. It was her report, she told me, from 
the county committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am sorry. I couldn't understand you. 

Miss Bayme. She told me it was a report from the county committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. A report from the county committee of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Miss Bayme. Yes. She had consulted them about my coming back 
into the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. "What did yovi do about it ? 

Miss Bayme. Well, there were some other requirements I couldn't 
fulfill, so I gave it up, but I thought that it was a point of interest any- 
way. 

Mr. Jackson. What would the date have been when these require- 
ments were set before you ? 

Miss Bayme. I am sorry. I didn't hear you. 

Mr. Jackson. What would the date have been when these require- 
ments were put before you for re-entering the party ? 

Miss Bayme. Some time in February. I didn't keep a record. 

Mr. Tavenner. February of what year ? 

Miss Bayme. Of the 

Mr. Jackson. Investigation ? 

Miss Bayme. This year. 

Mr. Jackson. This year? 

Miss Bayme. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. May I make it clear to myself ; do I understand that the 
reason in February of this year you were told by a known Communist 
functionary here in San Diego that one of the requirements for you 
to get back into the party was that you should infiltrate into the Young 
Democrats ? 

Miss Bayme. No. You see, I was already assisting the Young 
Democrats slightly, and I asked if I should change my registration and 
stop assisting them, and they said, "Oh, no, by all means stay with 
them and maybe you can influence them." 

Mr. Doyle. Stay with them as a registered Democrat ? 

Miss Bayme. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Even though you were in fact a Communist ? 

Miss Bayme. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there any more information that you can give us 
regarding the purpose of the Communist Party in requiring your af- 
filiation with some church. 

Miss Bayme. No, that is all that was mentioned. Oh ! Earlier, 
I mean it is an old story, they had asked this once before of the Labor 
Youth League members. None of them wanted to do it. They were 
an agnostic bunch and ill-disciplined, fortunately for us, so that it 
didn't work out. 

Mr. Tavenner. What instructions were given them ? 

Miss Bayme. The same, only not so firmly. 



4918 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any affiliation with the Civil Rights 

Congress ? 

Miss Bayme. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. While you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Bayme. Yes, sir. I was a member of the Civil Rights Con- 
gress. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there any motivation on the part of the Com- 
munist Party in your joining that group ? 

Miss Bayme. Surely. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell the committee about it, please. 

Miss Bayme. The Civil Rights Congress is run by the Communists. 
I don't think I ever attended a meeting that wasn't — well, at least 50 
percent, even the open meetings were at least 50 percent Communists. 
They were never very big. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did the Communist Party exert its influence 
within the Civil Rights Congress, how did it go about it ? 

Miss Bayme. It dictated the sort of cases that it would take up, 
and I think it is an organization that was put together to defend 
Communists and it defends other people occasionally, just to make it 
look a little more legitimate. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why is it that you quit the Communist Party ; what 
motivated you in quitting ? 

Miss Bayme. Well, you remember my motivation in going in was 
minority groups. I discovered that the Communist Party was more 
interested in a disturbance as a useful means to an end rather than 
interested in it to assist the people. They looked forward with a 
kind of unholy glee to racial cliscord in Logan Heights area here, or 
anywhere. Tliey used people. They are dishonest about it, and they 
think they are honest, too. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there any example that you can give the com- 
mittee at this time to demonstrate that ? 

Miss Bayme. I probably could if I could go through my files of 
People's World, but I am not prepared to otherwise. There are 
dozens of cases. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was that disillusionment that took you out of the 
party ? 

Miss Bayme. Yes, partly; and I was unable to swallow the idea 
that the South Koreans started the war. It sat less and less well, 
you know. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your reason for coming forward here as 
a voluntary witness and giving this information to the committee ? 

Miss Bayme. One reason is I would like it clearly understood where 
I stand now, and I also would like it known that this is a trap, that 
it is very easy to fall into. It is very much sugar-coated, and I would 
like people to know that there isn't any utopia at the end of this road. 
There isn't anything except regimentation and regimented thinking 
and regimented action, and also I would like people to know that 
once you get in it isn't as hard to get out as people think. 

Mr. D0YI.E. You mean it isn't as easy to get out? 

Miss Bayme. No ; it was very easy for me to get out. I just opened 
up the phone book and called the FBI and they were extremely nice 
tome. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4919 

Mr. Jackson. Didn't you have some hesitancy in coming in to what 
has frequently been described as a torture chamber to hiy this story 
out and get it otF your chest, so to speak ? 

IMiss Bayme. Yes; I had some hesitation, but this committee hasn't 
been one of the ones I am objecting to. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there anything else you desire to say to the com- 
mittee ? 

Miss Bayme. Not unless you have some more questions. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. I understand you in the first instance to indicate you 
had been in the party from 1949 to 1951, Did I understand you cor- 
rectly ? 

Miss Bayme. I can only be approximate. I think I so stated. 

Mr. Doyle. Then I am interested in how it came about as late as 
February of this year 

Miss Bayme. That was after I talked to the FBI, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I see. 

Miss Bayme. I went there in order to try to assist them in obtaining 
more information. I felt I hadn't enough to give them. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, you referred to the fact that you began work or 
became interested in working with the I. P. P. party in 1948. 

Miss Bayme. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. I wish to say in asking you this question, we have 
abundant evidence at some levels the I. P. P. party was in certain 
sections absolutely under the control of the Communist Party. 

Miss Bayme. I don't think it is necessary even to qualify that, sir. 
I think all sections in almost every way was under the control of 
the Communist Party at all times. 

Mr. Doyle. How far back ? 

Miss Bayme. I can only say after I got into the party. 

Mr. Doyle. After you got into the I. P. P. Party? 

Miss Bayme. No, after I got into the Communist Party. Of course, 
before that I wouldn't be able to tell. 

Mr. Doyle. After you got into the Communist Party did you ob- 
serve whether or not to what extent the Communist Party, of which 
you were a member, controlled the activities of the I. P. P. Party. 

Miss Bayme. Almost all of the office staif were — well Lloyd Hamlin, 
you know, he was not apparently a real Communist, but Lynne Acker- 
stein was and Ernestine Gatewood was, the chairman at that time I 
believe was A. C. Rogers. I can't testify myself as to whether or not 
he was a Communist, but I have heard the other testimony. The cam- 
paign manager, the speech writer, that is, was Jeff Boehm. He was a 
Communist. What have you left ? 

Mr. Doyi.e. May I ask you something about your youth group 
activities. The Labor Youth League, you said you were president 
when you were a Young Communist. 

Miss Bayme. No. There is a fine distinction. I don't really realize 
why they make it, but these organizations did not exist at the same 
time. When there was the Young Communist League there was no 
Youth Communist Club either. That came later, and that was dis- 
solved to be replaced by the Labor Youth League. They didn't exist 
at the same time. 



4920 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Doyle. But you were a Communist wlien you were president 
of that league? 

Miss Bayme. Oh, yes, of course. I was a rank and file Communist. 

Mr. Doyle. While you were a Young Communist, president of that 
league, or in the Communist Party, did you actually undertake to in- 
filtrate into any other youth group that was not Communist domi- 
nated; I mean, to spread communism? 

Miss Bayme. I did a very poor job, 

Mr. Doyle. Did you try? 

Miss Batme. Not too hard. 

Mr. Doyle. Were you instructed to try ? 

Miss Bayme. Yes, repeatedly. 

Mr. Doyle. And from what level of the Communist Party when 
you were president of the Young Communist League of San Diego 
did you receive instructions to try to infiltrate into other young peo- 
ples' groups for the purpose of spreading communism ? 

Miss Bayme. I received instructions through my club, my Com- 
munist Party club, and I received them from Bernadette Doyle, and on 
occasion from Celia Shermis. 

Mr. Doyle. What sort of young peoples' groups of San Diego, if 
any, did you under their direction or assignment try to infiltrate into, 
witliout revealing your identity as a Young Communist? 

Miss Bayme. I told you we failed ]>retty miserabl3\ I think one 
of our members actually joined the YAYCA and took a course in hula 
dancing, or something, but that is about as far as it went to my 
knowledge. 1 was beginning at about that time to fade away. 

Mr. Jackson. Miss Bayme, I should like to say that from a personal 
standpoint today has been one of the high points of my service on 
this committee. I believe Mr. Doyle will agree with me. I know of 
no other instances where in the course of public hearings of this kind 
two voluntary witnesses have come forward to tell of their experi- 
ences in the Communist Party. That to me is a most significant de- 
velopment and is well worth the concentrated vilification and abuse 
which this committee takes at various times. 

I am also most appreciative of the statement made by you relative 
to the activities of this committee and the conduct of this hearing. 
That is quite in contrast with what we hear from some of the wit- 
nesses. 

I should like to express to you the thanks of the committee for 
what is at best an unpleasant ordeal. 

Do you feel better? 

Miss Bayme. Oh, much. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, and in addition to those good words, will 
you again extend the invitation which the committee often extends to 
the radio, press, and otherwise, for patriotic citizens who have had 
enough in the Communist experience to come forward as these two 
ladies have today. 

Mr. Jackson. I mentioned earlier today that Ave urge anyone who 
has been a member of the Communist Party and who has left it and 
wants to unburden himself of it, to come before the committee, and 
I assure any such individuals that they will receive a courteous hear- 
ing, and that no attempt will be made to unduly embarrass them. 

Miss Bayme. May I thank Lloyd Hamlin for suggesting it. 



COMJMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4921 

Mr. Jackson. If there is nothing further and with the thanks of the 
committee you are excused from your voluntary appearance on your 
]y<irt. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Mrs. Verna Langer, will you come forward please. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you raise your riglit hand, please, and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee, you will tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Langer. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Please be seated. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

TESTIMONY OF VERNA LANGER, ACCOMPANIED BY HER COUNSEL, 

BEN MARGOLIS 

Mrs. Langer. Verna Langer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you live, Mrs. Langer ? 

Mrs. Langer. 5914 Adelaide. 

Mr. Tavenner. In San Diego? 

Mrs. Langer. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in San Diego ? 

Mrs. Langer. Six years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born? 

]Mrs. Langer. In Kentucky. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere did you live before coming to San Diego 
about 6 years ago? 

Mrs. Langer. Detroit, Mich. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live in Detroit? 

Mrs. Langer. I can't remember all those addresses in Detroit. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you live at more than one place in Detroit? 

Mrs. Langer. Oh, sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. Xame those that you can recall. 

Mrs. Langer. Offhand I can't recall any at this particular moment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you live at 320 East Milwaukee Street? 

Mrs. Langer. Now that you recall it, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did? 

Mrs. Langer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you live there? 

Mrs. Langer. Oh, maybe a couple of years. I have no idea, really. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you h\e there at the time that you moved to 
California? 

Mrs. Langer. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Langer, what was your name before coming 
to California? 

Mrs. Langer. McAllister. 

Mr. Tavenner. McAllister? 

Mrs. Langer. I'hat is right. Just a minute, please. May I make a 
suggestion. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. Langer. I Avould rather not be photographed during my testi- 
mony. I am having throat trouble, and it makes me more nervous 
than otherwise, so if you will just respect that. 



4922 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Jackson. The Chair will accede to that request and ask the 
photographers to refrain from photographing the witness during the 
course of her testimony. 

Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to read to you testimony taken by the 
committee in Detroit in 1952. This \vas testimony by Mrs. Bereniece 
Baldwin. Do you recall Mrs. Baldwin, having met her? 

Mrs. Langer. I would like to consult my attorney, please. 

Mr. Tavtsnxer. Yes. 

(At this point Mrs. Langer conferred with Mr. Margolis.) 

Mrs. Langer. I refuse to answer that question on the following 
grounds. I am standing on my constitutional rights, and refuse to 
answer that question. First of all, you have no right to ask me who 
my acquaintances are, wiiom I knew, whom I know now, and I am 
invoking the first amendment and the fifth amendment, and at any 
other time in my testimony I might invoke other amendments of the 
Constitution, 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you say the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Langer. That is right. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Since you mentioned advice of counsel, I realize 
that I forgot to ask you if you are accompanied by counsel, and to have 
counsel identify himself for the record. 

Mrs. Langer. I am. 

Mr. Margolis. Ben ISIargolis. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the course of the hearings in Detroit in 
1952, February 1952, Mrs. Bereniece Baldwin, who was a functionary 
in the Communist Party for a number of years, and who acted for 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation for years, witliin the Communist 
Party, was questioned. I asked Mrs. Baldwin this question : 

Mrs. Baldwin, the committee has from time to time heard evidence relating 
to the use of mail drops. Are you acquainted with the use of mail drops in this 
•area? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. In fact, I was stationed at one of those mail drops, sort 
of a secret affair. 

Question. Will you just tell the committee about it, please? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, it was located at 320 East Milwaukee and had been 
the apartment of Verna McAllister, who received special training, organizational 
training, that is, from the party, and was sent to California. This apartment 
was taken over by Laura Davis. I stationed myself there on the average of 
3 nights a week for several hours. The dues secretaries of the various clubs 
on the east side, and sometimes the west side, would call there to make their 
dues payments and straighten the membership out with me. 

Question. Do you know what has become of Verna McAllister, Mrs. Baldwin? 

Mrs. Baldwin. No, I have not heard from her or about her. 

Mr. Jackson. Where did she go in California, do you know? 

Mrs. Baldwin. No, I do not know what part of California she went to. 

Now, will you tell the committee, please, what training, special 
training, if any, you had in the organizational work of the Communist 
Party in Detroit ? 

Mrs. Langer. I refuse to answer that question, Mr. Tavenner, on the 
grounds that I previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a functionary of the Communist Party 
in Detroit ? 

Mrs. Langer. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4923 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Mrs. Bereniece Baldwin speaking the truth 
v.hen she stated to the committee that you were sent to California by 
the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Langer. I would like to consult my attorney on that. 

(At this point Mrs. Langer conferred with Mr. Margolis.) 

Mi-s. Langer. Mr. Tavenner, at the time I came to California I was 
suffering from bronchial trouble. I was advised to come here by my 
doctor. I came here for my health, and aside from that I refuse to 
answer any more of that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. By that do you mean that there was some other rea- 
son for your coming to California besides your health ? 

Mrs. Langer. I stand on my constitutional rights on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. What work did you engage in when you arrived in 
California 6 years ago ? 

Mrs. Langer. For about 4 months I did no work at all because, as I 
told you, was suffering from bronchial trouble. I then obtained what 
started out to be parttime employment at a department store, a small 
department store, and I think maybe, oh, maybe a month I worked one 
day a week, something like that, I don't remember the exact length 
of time that it was on this parttime basis, maybe one day a week or so, 
and I began feeling better and they put me on a fulltime basis there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you affiliate with the Communist Party on 
jour arrival in California ? 

Mrs. Langer. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated, 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in the hearing room during the testimony 
of the witness who appeared just before you did. Miss Carol Bayme? 

Mrs. Langer. Well, I was sitting right over there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hear her testimony ? 

Mrs. Langer. I heard it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it true what she said about coming to you for 
the purpose of rejoining the Communist Party after she had been 
dropped, this occuring in February of 1954, and that you presented 
the matter to the executive committee of the Communist Party, or 
counsel of the Communist Party, and informed her of the results ? 

Mrs. Langer. I would like to consult my counsel, please. 

(At this point Mrs. Langer conferred with Mr. Margolis.) 

Mrs. Langer. I refuse to answer that question on the ground pre- 
viously stated. I am not going to debate with you as to whether her 
testimony was true or false. I think the record on the previous 
stool pigeons or w^itnesses friendly to this committee will bear out 
the fact that there has been misrepresentation in their testimony, 
and I do not intend to debate this issue with you. 

Mr. Tavenner. This is not a debate. 

Mrs. Langer. Or discuss it with you. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is a mere inquiry as to purely factual matter. 
Aside from what the witness testified to, did she appear before you 
and ask to get back into the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Langer. It is the same question. I will give you the same 
answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you advise Miss Carol Bayme that one of the 
conditions of her returning to the Communist Party was that she must. 



4924 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

become a chiircli member or affiliate with some chiircli for the purpose 
of carrying out Communist Party instructions ? 

Mrs. Langer. I just told you, Mr. Tavenner, I do not intend to dis- 
cuss the testimony with you. You have her word. If I deny it, well. 
I would probably be up for prosecution under the Smith Act. If I ad- 
mitted it, so what ? I am not here to discuss her testimony at all, and 
I don't intend to. 

Mr. Jackson. You decline to answer? 

Mrs. Langer. I decline to answer, as I said at the beginning : I 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Jackson. Upon the ground previously stated? 

Mrs. Langer. I stated that already. 

Mr. Jackson. I am just making it clear. 

Mrs. Langer. Yes, I stated that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you hold any position in the Communist Party 
today ? And no witness has testified to that. 

Mrs. Langer. Well, I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. So it isn't a question then of what some witness has 
said? 

Mrs. Langer. You have no right to inquire into my political beliefs, 
my activities, my thinking, and this committee here is trying to tell me 
what I can think or wliat I can't tliink, and I do not intend to co- 
operate with this conmiittee in any way. 

Mr. Tamsnner. Are j^ou now a member of the Communist Party ^ 

Mrs. Langer. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Counsel, I see no useful purpose to be served in 
pursuing further interrogation of this witness. It is quite obvious 
she is not going to cooperate with the committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask the witness one further question? 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now the organizer for the Communist Partv 
for the County of San Diego ? 

Mrs. Langer. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused from further attendance on 
the subpena. 

Mrs. Langer. Could I read a statement before I leave ? 

Mr. Jackson. You may leave the statement with the reporter, and it 
will be considered together with other statements which have been 
presented at the hearing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Joe Langer. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you raise your right hand, please? Do you 
solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before this sub- 
committee, you will tell the truth, the whole truth nnd nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Langer. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please, sir ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4925 

Mr. Margolis. May we have the pictures over with before we start ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

jNIr. Ta^enner. Wliat is your name, please, sir ? 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH LANGER, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

BEN MAEGOLIS 

Mr. Langer. Joseph Langer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Langer. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record'^ 

Mr. Margolis. Ben Margolis. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Langer ? 

Mr. Langer. 1902 in North Dakota. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now live in San Diego ? 

Mr. Langer. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in San Diego ? 

Mr, Langer. Since about 1920. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has been informed through testi- 
mony that you are in a position to advise it regarding Communist 
Party activities in San Diego. Were you at any time a member of 
the Communist Party in San Diego ? 

Mr. Langer. I refuse to answer that question by the use of the fifth 
amendment. I will not be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Langer. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused from further testifying under 
his subpena. 

Mr. Langer. I have a statement I would like to leave. 

Mr. Jackson. Leave it with the reporter. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. David Starcevic. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you raise your right hand and be sworn, please? 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee, you will tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Starcevik. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 

TESTIMONY OF DAVID STARCEVIC, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, BEN MARGOLIS 

Mr. Starcevic. David Starcevic, S-t-a-r-c-e-v-i-c. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by the same 
counsel as the previous witness. 

Mr. Starcevic. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Starcevic? 

Mr. Starcevic. I was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Septem- 
ber 7, 1915. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in San Diego ? 

Mr. Starcevic. I do. 



4926 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in San Diego ? 

Mr. Starcevic. Perhaps from 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had you lived in this area prior to that time? 

Mr. Starcevic. No ; I think it would be correct to say that I had 
no legal residence here, although I had come and gone from about 
1941. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your profession, trade or occupation 
from 1041 until the present time? 

Mr. Starcevic. Well, there were various occupations. In the early 
part you mentioned from 1941 on to about 1945, 1 was a merchant sea- 
man. I made my headquarters in San Pedro, and probably would 
consider that my address at that time. I shipped in and out of the 
port of San Pedro. 

Mr. Tavenner. After you moved to San Diego, what was your 
occupation ? 

Mr. Starcevic. I engaged in building a house for our own use. 

ISIr. Tavenner. During the period of time that you were a merchant 
seaman, did you have occasion to observe any activity on the part of 
the Communist Party among merchant seamen ? 

Mr. Starcevic. I think that is an invasion of my rights under the 
first amendment. I think you have no right to ask me about my 
political activities. I am guaranteed freedom under the first amend- 
ment to belong to a party of my choosing, to read whatever I please, 
and to assemble peacefully with whomsoever I may desire. 

Mr. Tavenner. I suggest the witness be directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Margolis. Mr. Chairman, I would like to raise the question of 
a quorum. Is this a one-man committee ? 

Mr. Doyle. Well, Mr. Jackson has stepped out of the room for 
1 minute. If you object to it we will just wait until he returns. 

Mr. Margolis. I think if there are any questions to answer we ought 
to wait until there is a quorum here. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; I think we should have a quorum of the com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Doyle. All right, we will wait. 

(A brief intermission was taken, after which Representative Don- 
ald L. Jackson returned to the hearing room.) 

(Brief intermission.) 

Mr. Jackson. A quorum is present. The witness is directed to 
answer. 

Mr. Starcevic. I would have felt lost without your quips, sir, and 
your gavel. 

Mr. Jackson. I thank you very much, sir. I feel the same with 
respect to your inimitable sarcasm. Is there a question pending. 
Counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I think I should reframe the question, or ask it over. 

Mr. Margolis. Is the order to answer withdrawn ? 

Mr. Jackson. I will withdraw it if counsel is going to reframe the 
question, 

Mr. Tavenner. My question to the witness was, did you observe, 
while a merchant seaman. Communist Party activity within or among 
the merchant seamen ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4927 

Mr. Starcevic. As I stated before, I will try to repeat as best I can, 
1 don't think the committee has any constitutional right to invade my 
privacy with reference to any political party that I may have belonged 
to, to any association that I have had peacefully, with anything I may 
have read, or with any religion that I may possibly have belonged to. 

Mr. Tavenner. I suggest that the witness be directed to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to answer. 

Mr. Starcevic. And further, insofar as I intend to resist this com- 
mittee, because I think it is part and parcel of McCarthyism, despite 
the fact it carries a different name, I think I will further invoke all 
the other provisions in the Constitution that may apply, including 
the fatal fifth. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Mr. Starcevic. Wliich has fallen into disrepute because of innuen- 
does made by the Congressmen liere and by counsel. 

Mr. Jackson. No ; it has fallen into disrepute, sir, not because of the 
activity of the Members of Congress, but I think it is being abused 
because of the conditions under which it has been taken by some of the 
witnesses. 

Mr. Starcevic. I beg to differ with you, sir. Thomas Jefferson put 
it in for political dissenters. He put it in there so people like myself 
could answer people like you if they didn't happen to agree with you 
politically, and for no other reason. He didn't put it in there for bank 
robbers to hide behind. 

Mr. Jackson. The buzzing sound that is heard is probably the 
revered Jefferson turning over in his grave at the abuse to which the 
amendment is being subjected. 

Mr. Starcevic, I disagree with you. I think the people who are 
dead in Valley Forge would refute your quip. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Starcevic. Do we really need to go into that? I am going to 
refuse, because you are invading my privacy, under the provisions 
of the first amendment, which says that this committee is not allowed 
to recommend legislation abridging my privilege to belong to any 
political party that I choose, any legal political party. You can make 
no law abridging my right to a religion, to speak, or anything I choose 
to read, or to assemble peacefully with whomsoever I please. Sec- 
ondly, you can make no law abridging that which is your purpose of 
asking. Are you frightening me or are you frightening the young 
people assembled here or perhaps the ones listening on TV? 

Mr. Jackson. Will the witness answer the question? 

Mr. Starcevic. Wliy are you frightening the people? They are 
allowed to have any political belief they choose, are they not? 

Mr. Jackson. You may hold any political beliefs you want. 

Mr. Starcevic. And I have further invoked the first amendment 
and told you you were an illegal body, that you had no right to ask 
me the question, and I further invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, the witness declines to answer on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 



4928 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is released from further attendance un- 
der the subpena. 

Mr. Starcevic. There is one more thing I would like to cite. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused from fl^rther attendance un- 
der the subpena. 

Mr. Starcevic. I have a statement. May I file it with you? 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. You may leave the statement. 

Mr. Starcevic. Thank you very much for your courtesy, Mr. Chair- 
man. My children who are looking on the TV will appreciate your 
sharp tone. 

Mr. Jackson. You have only been repaid in the currency of your 
own selection, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Miriam Starcevic. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee, you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Starcevic. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF MIRIAM STAECEVIC, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 
COUNSEL, BEN MARGOIIS 

Mrs. Starcevic. I also would appreciate if some of the pictures 
were taken now and not during the testimony, and to simplify the 
matter, I too, have a statement, as my husband has. Shall I file it? 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. Leave it with the reporter. 

Mr. Ta-\^nner. What is your name, please ? 

Mrs. Starcevic. Miriam Starcevic, spelled the same as the previous 
witness. M-i-r-i-a-m. 

Mr, Tavenner. It is noted that the witness is accompanied by the 
same counsel. 

Mrs. Starcevic. I am very proud of Mr. Margolis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time been a member of the Com- 
munist Party in San Diego ? 

Mrs. Starcevic. It looks like we are going to get started right away. 
I have an answer here for that question which I would like to make 
here. 

I believe that this committee here in the last few days has not been 
at all interested in what we call un-American activities and uncover- 
ing it. I have sat here for 3 days at the expense of several baby- 
sitters and leaving my family at home, four young children, to listen 
to what kind of violence can be brought forward. There has not 
been one witness, in my estimation, who could testify to any acts of 
violence against the United States Government. All we have heard 
from this committee is a group of informers and stool pigeons who 
couldn't tell the truth even if they tried. I know lots of them are 
paid for that, and it is their business. 

Mr. TA^^<:NNER. Did anyone of the witnesses tell an untruth regard- 
ing you ? 

Mrs. Starcevic. May I finish my statement? 

Mr. Tavenner. No; I am asking that question. Did anyone tell 
an untruth regarding you? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4929 

Mr. Margolis. Do you withdraw the previous question, Mr. 
Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No ; I am asking her this question. 

Mr. Margolis. Then she has the right to finish the answer to the 
previous question. 

Mrs. Starcevic. Mr. Chairman, may I finish my answer. 

Mr. Jackson. I note the witness is reading a prepared statement. 

Mrs. Starcevic. I am not equipped, Mr. Chairman, to speak fluently, 
and I have to take a f ew^ little notes to help me. 

Mr. Jackson. The rules of the committee specifically prohibit the 
reading of a statement. 

Mrs. Starcevic. Fine. 

Mr. Jackson. Therefore, the statement which has just been read 
into the record will be stricken from the record. The statement will 
be considered upon the conclusion of your testimony together with 
other written statements. 

Mrs. Starcevic. I am not reading that statement, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Will the reporter please read back the statement. 
You say this is not the statement ? 

Mrs. Starcevic. No. 

Mr. Jackson. It is not ? 

Mrs. Starcevic. I have prepared a few notes. That is not the one 
I was reading, Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, proceed. 

Mrs. Starcevic. I feel this investigation should investigate real 
actions of violence, and that is in the record, where many acts have 
been performed all over the country, such as groups like the KKK 
and other acts against minority groups. As far as I know, such 
people haven't been brought forth in any of these committee hearings. 

I feel, secondly, as part of my reasons that I owe it to my children 
and their future not to cooperate with such a committee. If that 
were the case, it would allow would-be Hitlers and McCarthys to try 
to dictate to us how to think. Knowing from what has gone on it 
is a question here of what people think, not so much what they have 
been doing. They have been togetlier here, and all that has been 
brought forth is a mass of thoughts and, therefore, I rely on my 
constitutional rights under the first amendment, the fourth, the ninth, 
tenth, and, of course, the fifth. Of course, by bringing them on myself 
liere, I might bring testimony against myself. I think by taking this 
stand that thousands of people will find some courage to fight back 
and put a stop to sucli committees as McCarthy ism. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused from further attendance un- 
der the subpena and the committee will stand in recess until 9 o'clock 
tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon at 5 p. m., an adjournment was taken until Thurs- 
day, April 22, 1954, at 9 a. m. ) 

(By order of the chairman, information received from Leo Grego- 
vich, 7-33 14th Street, San Diego, to the effect that he is not the 
individual, Lee Gregovich, who was named as a Communist and whose 
testimony is included herein, is now included in the record.) 



INDEX TO PART 9 



INDIVIDUALS 

Page 

Ackerstein, Lynne 4915, 4916, 4919 

Baker, Enos ^ —- 4901 

Baldwin, Beremece ^y^-^. ^rii 

Bayme, Carol 4913-4921 (testimony), 4923 

Berman, Mildred 4906 

Boehm, Godfrey (Jeff) 4914, 4915, 4919 

Brodsky, Goldwyn 491o 

Davis, Laura > 49^2 

Doyle, Bernadette 4914, 4915, 4920 

Dugdale, Bert 4916 

Dugdale, Helen (Mrs. Bert Dugdale) , 4916 

Fonts, Frances J 4915 

Gatewood. Ernestine 4915, 4919 

Gatlin, Gladys 4910-4913 (testimony), 4916 

Gibson, Lolita 4915 

Gregovich, Lee 4908-4910 (testimony) 

Gregovich,' Leo . 4929 

Hamlin, Llovd 4889-^892 (testimony), 4899, 4919, 4920 

Hull, Morgan 4902 

Langer, Joseph (Joe) 4915, 4916, 4924-4925 (testimony) 

Langer, Verna (see also McAllister, Verna) 4915- 

4917, 4921-4924 (testimony) 

Lavine, Norman 4914, 4915 

Levine, Rhoda , 4915 

Lessner, Milton 4898 

Lie, Trygve 4897 

Lohr, George 4890, 4892 

liUnd, Nancv Eosenfeld .-- 4915 

Lund, Richard 4915 

Lvm, LaVerne 4903-4905 (testimony) 

Margolis, Ben 4903^910, 4921-4929 

McAllister, Verna (see also Langer, Verna) 4921,4922 

Moyer, Larry 4915 

Murrish. William 4893-4898 (testimony) 

Pollack, Louis 4893-4898 (testimony) 

Robinson. Rhoda (now Rhoda Lavine) 4915 

Rogers, A. C 4890, 4919 

Shermis, Celia 4915,4920 

Shermis, Harry 4915 

Sleeth, Paul 4914 

Smith, Tony 4892,4898-4903 (testimony) 

Starcevic, David 4915,4925-4928 (testimony) 

Starcevic, Miriam 4915,4928-4929 (testimony) 

Stevenson, Laura 4916 

Usquiano. Phillip 4905-4908 (testimony), 4915 

Walsh, Edward A 4898 

Warren, Robert 4911 

Warren, Vera (Mrs. Robert Warren) 4911 

Watrous, Robert D 4898 

Wilson, Bob 4903 



ii INDEX 

ORGANIZATIONS 

Page 

American Veterans' Committee 4889 

Bank of America 4898 

California State Republican Committee 4903 

Civil Rights Congress 4918 

Communist Party, Detroit 4922 

Communist Party. San Diego 4890,4895,4898,4905,4906,4910,4925 

Logan Heights Club 4900, 4914, 4915 

Daily People's World 4918 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 4908,4916,4918,49.19,4922 

Federal Housing Administration 4898 

Independent Progressive Party 4890, 4902, 4914, 4919 

International Book Shop, San Diego 4904 

Labor Youth League 4914,4916,4917,4919 

Lighthouse 4901 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 4914 

Political Action Committee. CIO 4890 

Southwestern University, San Diego 4894 

United Nations 4897 

Young Communist League 4914, 4919 

Young Communist League, San Diego 4920 

Young Democrats 4917 

Young Progressive League 4911 

Young Women's Christian Association 4920 

Youth for Wallace 4914 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF CALIFORNIA— Part 10 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



SEPTEMBER 11, 1953, AND APRIL 22, 1954 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

47718 WASHINGTON : 1954 



^ 



"y 



Boston Puhlic iiibrary 
Superintendent of Dociiments 

SEP 8 -1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 
HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois. Chairman 
BERNARD W. KEARNEY. New York FRANCIS B. WALTER, Penns.vlvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON. California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, Callforula 

GORDON H. SCHKKER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIEK, in., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kdnzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavennkr, Jr., Counsel 

Thomas W. Bealk, St.. Chief Clerk 

Raphael 1. Nixon, Director of Research 

COXJBXNEY B. OWKNSj Acting Chief Investigator 



CONTENTS 



April 22, 1954, testimony of: Pag« 

Sterling Campbell Alexander (resumed) 4931 

Ernestine Gatewood 4943 

Artie Sykes 4956 

Lloyd Hamlin (resumed) 4959 

John Quimby 4970 

September 11, 1953, testimony taken in executive session and released 

with this printing of Judith Raymond 4973 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946J, chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMrrXEES 

* * * 4: :«: * * 

17. Ck)mmittee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rxn^E XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

« 4: 4: « * :(: * 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together, with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 

• •***** 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
the following standing committees : 

• *«**** 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attaclis the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such bool<s, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF CALIFOKNIA-Part 10 



THURSDAY, APRIL 22, 1954 

United States House of Representatives, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 

San Diego^ Calif. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to adjournment, at 9 a. m., in the Chamber of Commerce 
Building, Hon. Donald L, Jackson (acting chairman), presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Donald L. Jackson 
and Clyde Doyle. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; William 
A. Wheeler, investigator; Mrs. Billie Wlieeler, acting for the clerk. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be in order. 

Before calling the first witness this morning, the Chair would like 
to announce that he is in receipt of a telegram which reads as follows: 

Under title "More Than Score of Communists" Evening Tribune, April 20, the 
name Bob Fuller (no address) is included in list of acknowledged Communists. 
My name is Robert Harry Fuller known to hundreds in the community as Bob 
Fuller from my past presidency of Kiwanis', Toastmasters and Service Clubs 
Presidents Council. I live at 4297 Panorama Dr., La Mesa. I am most anxious 
that it be made publicly known that I am not that Bob Fuller listed in this 
article but I am strongly opposed to communism and have taken a strong public 
stand against it. My volunteer son died at Omaha Beach. I am ready to die 
fighting communism. Thank you. R. H. Fullee. 

Who is your first witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, during the course of the session 
yesterday, Mr. Sterling C. Alexander made known his desire to return 
to the witness stand for a purpose of his own, I think this would be 
a good opportunity for him to do so. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

TESTIMONY OF STERLING C. ALEXANDER— Resumed 

Mr. Alexander. I would like to be sworn, if you will. 

Mr. Jackson. I intend to swear you. Your testimony will not be 
received except under oath. 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before 
this committee that you will tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Alexander. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated, please. 

Mr. Alexander (referring to the microphones). Are all these 
operative, or just one of them? 

4931 



4932 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Jackson. I believe the one on the outside is. 

Mr. Alexander. Mr. Tavenner, would you like me to develop the 
evidence ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Whatever it is your desire to state, why please 
proceed. 

Mr. Alexander. I first want to state that yesterday I requested 
of this committee that the testimony of Dan P. Taylor on the 19th, 
that was Monday, in respect to his testimony on Henry Weihe of 
San Diego be ready for presentation. However, I have learned from 
the committee that this is not available. However, I remember very 
well the testimony and I am going to review it. If you, Mr. Taven- 
ner, or any of the committee men, you Mr. Wheeler, who interviewed 
Mr. Taylor, if you feel that I have not presented it correctly I wish 
you would correct me, and between us I think we can determine what 
this testimony was. 

Mr. Tavenner. I gave you the opportunity to do that when you 
were on the witness stand, but if you have decided now to testify 
regarding it we will be very glad to hear it. 

Mr. Alexander. I tried very hard to testify in regard to certain 
points, but when you face a situation which is not due process, Mr. 
Tavenner, but just a continuous prosecution, we have to fight to get 
in any defense, it is a very difficult thing to do. 

Mr. Jackson. Will the witness suspend. The subcommittee has 
interrupted this hearing, at considerable inconvenience to ourselves, 
to give the witness, out of order, an opportunity to present certain 
material in the interest of equity and fairness. The subcommittee does 
not feel constrained to take abuse from any witness under the cir- 
cumstances prevailing. If you have material which is relevant to 
your testimony or discussion of several days ago, we will receive the 
material, but we are not going to take it mixed with abuse. 

Mr. Alexander. It is not abuse. I stated a plain simple fact. 

Mr. Jackson. The plain simple fact is that due process of law 
is a matter of court procedure. This is an investigation to develop 
certain facts. It is not a proceeding in law. So when you say that 
people are denied due process of law and at the same time you ask to 
give additional material, I cannot reconcile the two statements. How- 
ever, you may proceed with the presentation of whatever relevant in- 
formation you have. 

Mr. Alexander. I think the facts that I present will develop that, 
Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Mr. Alexander. I first want to state that, in large part, in regard 
to the testimony of Daniel P. Taylor, my evidence is documentary, and 
I have it here, and I intend to show it to you. 

I want to review first his testimony in respect to an elderly man, a 
resident of San Diego, Mr. Henry Weihe. He stated that at the 
time — I didn't catch precisely the time ; I don't know, Mr. Tavenner, 
if you questioned him on the point of time, I had no opportunity for 
cross examination to break down his testimony — but that tlie Inter- 
national Book Shop, I believe it was stated, that I had said to Mr. 
Taylor that I was designing to get from Mr. Weihe $10,000 so that 
his heirs wouldn't get it. In other words, so that his heirs would be 
defrauded of it. And that this money had been directed, if I under- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4933 

Stood what he said, by Eussia, in the interest of the Communist Party 
of the United States. 

Now, you and I, Mr. Tavenner exchanged some words in respect 
to it, and I pointed out, or tried to as well as I could, that the testi- 
mony was on its face absurd ; that a country the size of Russia doesn't 
order unknown persons, such as myself, to turn over $10,000 in funds 
to the Communist Party of the United States. And then you said, 
"Well, what about the Communist Party of Russia?" I understood 
you to say, and I said, "That is equally absurd." 

Now, i was going to review a little more of what he said, but I 
think, because I want to be very direct, that we won't go into that 
any further. 

Mr, Tavenner. Oh, yes, we will. 

Mr. Alexander. Go ahead. I would be very glad to. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have a conversation with Mr. Taylor ? 

Mr. Alexander. I am very glad you asked that. No ; I never had 
any conversation with Mr. Taylor, and there is just one point I want 
to raise right now. I want it noted in view of the documents I hold 
here. His claim in regard to a sum of $10,000, these documents will 
show that this as a financial unity never occurred in the transactions 
between me and Mr. Weihe until several years after, but yet in your 
papers dating to a long time after he possibly could claim this con- 
versation, the sum of $10,000 was in your photostatic copy, but yet at 
the time he said it there was never any question of the $10,000, and 
I am going to develop that very fully, but I just want to point that 
out. 

Now, go ahead. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let's be plain about this. Were you assigned by the 
Communist Party to influence Mr. Weihe? 

Mr. Alexander. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. In any manner with regard to the disposition of his 
estate ? 

Mr. Alexander. No ; absolutely no, and I have papers here to prove 
it absolutely. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any such conversation with Mr. 
Taylor to the effect that you had such an assignment from the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Alexander. It was absolutely totally entirely perjured. I 
never had such a conversation. What he said I said was untrue. I am 
not the kind of a person who would think of discussing Mr. Weihe's 
affairs with anyone without Mr. Weihe being present. I am not the 
type of person to do it. It was perjured from top to bottom. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you engage in any way in advising Mr. 
Weihe to make a disposition of his property for the benefit or ultimate 
use by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Alexander. I did not, and I have papers here to show that I 
did not. I did not in any way. I will develop that in the testimony. 
It is no use going into that, saying it is not so, and you saying perhaps 
that it is. I have papers here which will show that that is false. 

Mr. Jackson. Let the Chairman say that the committee is not say- 
ing that anything is true or false. The subcommittee is attempting 
to arrive at the truth of the matter. If the facts develop that there has 
been perjury committed before the committee, appropriate action will 

47T18— 54- 



4934 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

be taken to place that matter before the proper Federal authorities. 
But to state that counsel or the subcommittee is attempting to estab- 
lish any fact against you is not a statement of fact. 

Mr. Alexander. I say as it stands, and I want to point this out, 
Mr. Jackson, if I may, that under our law legal procedures are as- 
sured wherein the defense has an opportunity to present testimony. 
Now, had I appeared under circumstances like that, I could have 
shown at the time that this was perjured testimony. I could have by 
cross-examination, and much better had I had an attorney, a good 
attorney, he would have broken down Mr. Taylor's testimony. I had 
no such opportunity, and consequently your records are perjured 
records. They do not represent the truth, and I assume, inasmuch as 
this is true of myself, it is true of most of your witnesses, or many of 
your witnesses. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I move that statement be stricken out, 
and that this witness be confined to take the time of this committee 
to the question in issue. I do not care to sit here this morning and 
hear this witness harangue and attack the committee. 

Mr. Jackson. The Chair has already made that statement, in sub- 
stance, but I should like to say in reference to it again, to stress the 
fact that if the witness desires an opportunity with his counsel to 
cross-examine in this matter, that opportunity will undoubtedly be- 
come available in this case, as the witness says, there is obviously a 
serious conflict in the testimony. However, that privilege of cross- 
examination is reserved for a court of law, and I wish that the witness 
would in his discussion of the facts of this case not impugn the 
motives or the character of the committee. The committee seeks the 
facts, and on that basis you may proceed. 

Mr. Alexander. Mr. Jackson, I have no intention of charging here 
subordination of testimony, if that is what you mean. I am going to 
let the facts speak for themselves, and let the people be judges of what 
happened. 

I want to state, too, I am not the kind of a person to do what was 
said I did. I received the Distinguished Service Cross, the highest 
award for fighting in the United States Army, and I am not a person 
who is trying to wheedle an elderly man to get his money, and I have 
papers here to prove that. 

I wish to bring up right now a very odd conflicting incident 
that applies to Mr. Wheeler, who sits at this table at my left a few 
feet from me, who is the investigator for this committee on the West 
Coast, and who interviews informers 

Mr. Jackson. Just a minute, Mr. Alexander. The committee 
is quite willing to receive your testimony relative to the facts in this 
case. However, the committee is not going to permit any personal 
attack upon any of the staff or any Member of Congress. 

Mr. Alexander. I am not making any attack on Mr. Wheeler at all. 

Mr. Jackson. When you say Mr. Wlieeler interviews informers 

Mr. Alexander. Of course he does. 

Mr. Jackson (continuing). The inference is not a pleasant one. 
We do not look upon people who come forward with information as 
informers. An informer, in the first place, is someone in a conspiracy 
who gives testimony relative to his co-conspirators. That is the defini- 
tion of an informer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVmES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4935 

Mr. Alexander. You seem to think that is the definition. Then 
why do you object to it? 

Mr. Jackson. Are you willing to admit then that a conspiracy 
does or did exist? 

Mr. Alexander. No; I simply stated a very simple fact, that Mr. 
Wheeler is a man who has a job out here of interviewing informers, 
that is all I said. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. The Chair will state that Mr. Wheeler 
has the job of interviewing witnesses. 

Mr. Alexander. This is the incident. I have stated what this 
scurrilous attack was, that it went over the air, that there was a vast 
publicity in the newspapers about it, and this was the incident, that 
as I was leaving this hearing room on Monday, the day that Taylor 
testified to this, I met Mr. Wheeler going down the stairs, and going 
down the stairs to the street, Mr. Wheeler said this rather surprising 
thing; he said, "Alexander, Taylor represents you as a very moral 
man." That was precisely Mr. Wheeler's statement. 

Now, what I am interested in, how under oath Taylor could throw 
over the air a scurrilous attack on me of exactly the opposite nature, 
and that he would say to Mr. Wheeler confidentially that I am a moral 
man, a very moral man. 

Now, what I want to do, Mr. Jackson, you can resolve this and it 
is important in this matter, I would like you to ask Mr. Wheeler to 
take this chair for a moment and explain this contradiction, why Mr. 
Taylor says to him in confidence that I am moral, and he says over 
the air that I am immoral. 

Mr. Jackson. The matter of your morality is not directly related 
to the chain of questioning that is presently being conducted by 
counsel. The matter of perjury, or anything else of a legal nature 
must be de<iided in some other forum than this. I wish that you 
would proceed with the introduction of such evidence as you 
have which will demonstrate that perjury has been committed, if it 
has. 

Mr. Alexander. May I ask you, Mr. Jackson, that you do not wish 
Mr. Wheeler to testify ? 

Mr. Jackson. Not at this time, no. 

Mr. Alexander. Just as an introduction, I would like to ask Mr. 
Tavenner a single question. 

Mr. Jackson. That request is also denied. 

Mr. Alexander. It is very important to this case. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. It is still denied. 

Mr. Alexander. Then I will make it as a statement: That Mr. 
Tavenner presented at this hearing a whole handful of photostatic 
copies which indicated that he had used the State and Grovernment in 
a broad investigation in regard to the matter of Mr. Henry Weihe. 
He presented one after another of those documents and showed them 
to me on a matter that had occurred 13 to 16 years ago. 

Now, when I was served my subpena by Mr. Wheeler, I asked him 
specifically if he could tell me what the charges would be, and Mr. 
Wheeler said, "Oh" — I remember the exact words — he said, "I can't 
do that, but they are going to say that you are a member of the Com- 
munist Party, you know." Those were exactly his words. 

Now, why, Mr. Tavenner, if you wish to get at the truth in a matter 
that involved all these papers, 13 to 16 years ago, why wasn't I in- 



4936 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

formed that this was to be brought up so that I could renew my memory 
in the matter and bring the proper papers to this committee here? 
Didn't you act as a prosecutor ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Weren't you 

Mr. Jackson. Counsel will suspend. Counsel is directed by the 
Chair not to place himself in the position of being interrogated, and 
the Chair specifically directs he is not to answer any questions but is to 
direct questions to the witness relative to this matter. 

Mr. Alexander. Well, I will go into it very directly. I wish 
to give you the full facts. If you have them — do you have those pa- 
pers with you, Mr. Tavenner ? I will be very glad to look at them one 
at a time. I will be very glad to glance at them and tell you whether 
my signature is on them, whether they are real or whether they are 
false. If you don't have those papers with you, I will assume, pro- 
vided they don't contradict anything in the evidence of the papers I 
will show, that they are correct. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that this witness do that 
which he said he was going to do, produce the documents to show that 
the testimony of Dan Taylor, and the records we have, were perjured. 

Mr. Alexander. Very well. 

Mr. Doyle. This is not to be a rehash of day before yesterday's 
witnesses. Produce your documents. They are the best evidence be- 
fore any group that wants to know the facts. 

Mr. Alexander. Very well. I will start in on the evidence. 

In July 1938 Mr. Henry Weihe, a man of approximately 76 years, 
an elderly man, a resident of San Diego, gave me twenty-four thou- 
sand — not ten thousand — $24,576.70. This represented about, I think, 
almost totally all that he owned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that in cash ? 

Mr. Alexander. No ; I will come to that, what it was in. 

Mr. Jackson. The question is, was it in cash ? 

Mr. Alexander. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. What type of securities was it in? 

Mr. Alexander. Well, I will go to that first, then, if you want it 
that way. 

Long before I knew Mr. Weihe he had invested in the gold-bond 
series of the Bank of Foreign Trade at Moscow. At the time that 
he made the investment, to the best of my knowledge, although I 
did not know him at the time, it was paying 10 percent interest. Now, 
it was not an odd thing for this investment to be paid. I suppose 
that hundreds of thousands of American citizens invested in that 
bond issue, and I would like to wager that among them were many 
Republicans, because I think the left-wingers and the Republicans, 
the left-wingers like Mr. Weihe, and the Republicans, felt more as- 
sured of the stability of the Soviet Union, one through hope and the 
other through fear, than the middle people. The middle people ex- 
pected to hear every morning a frightful detonation in that direction. 

But anyway, Mr. Weihe, a left-winger, had confidence and he put 
it there at 10 percent. That is where the money was. And a legal 
transfer of the money to me was made. It was really in bonds. It 
wasn't cash. The value as given by the Bank of Foreign Trade was 
$24,576.70. 

Now, you may wonder right away, and I don't blame you in the 
least, that an elderly man giving to a middle-aged man this sum of 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4937 

money, if he had not been defrauded, if I had not issued pressure on 
him, if he had been protected, whether his heirs had been protected. 

Taylor in his testimony said that his heirs were victimized; that 
was essentially his testimony. 

I will state now he had absolutely no legal guarantee in regard to 
this. It was a gift, and I protected him only at the time in filing 
a will which, if I should predecease him, tliis money would go to him 
through inheritance. The agreement was entirely a verbal agree- 
ment. 

The verbal agreement was this : That I would use this money for 
purposes of interests of the working class and toward the collective 
ownership of the means of production, and that I would protect his 
daughter. Those were the agreements. 

Now, rather than my urging him to do it, it was — I should mention 
right now I told him, too — it wasn't a matter of high pressure ; it was 
a conversation. I told him, too, that at any time that he wanted the 
money back all he would have to do is to mention it, he would get it 
back in part or he would get it back in whole. I would just think a 
man wasn't in a competent state of mind to do that, but as it turned 
out it seems that his judgment in this investment and his confidence 
were very well founded. The real truth is that, as these documents 
will show, he decided for reasons, which I am perfectly willing to give, 
to have the money back, first part of it and then all of it, and I engaged 
in correspondence for him to the end of getting it back. I have the 
itemized statement here signed by him, which his banks can confirm, 
showing not a generalized statement of the return, but an itemized 
statement of the banks in which it was, the dates that it was trans- 
ferred to him, and the entries in the banks under his name in which 
it was put. I did not consider, despite there being no legal provision, 
that this was other than a trust, and that is exactly how I observed it. 

In one of these letters that ]\Ir. AVeihe wrote to me for protection, 
he states, and I am going to read it to you, that it was he who urged 
me, and he wants it on record that it was he who urged me to do it. 
I would not take one penny of this money ; I never took one penny of 
his money. I never charged him 1 cent, and there is one thing more 
I want to say. 

Mr. Ta\tnner. Let me interrupt you there. 

Mr. Alexander. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any arrangement with the Communist 
Party functionaries as to what use should be made of that money if 
you procured it? 

Mr. Alex^vnder. No ; absolutely not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you use it for Communist Party purposes in 
any manner? 

Mr. Alexander. I certainly did not. The only time was an invest- 
ment — I will have to go into that a little. When the money was in my 
name — in the first place, I want to show you the type of letters that 
came, if anyone thinks that this is a conspiratorial matter. They came 
to a box number, Box 2121, San Diego, which was my box number. 
They came with Bank of Foreign Trade and a lot of very conspicuous 
stamps, registered, with the Bank of Foreign Trade spread across 
the top of all of the envelopes. 

Mr. Tavenner, you asked whether the Sterling was correct, Alex- 
ander C. Sterling. Most of these letters came correctly, Sterling C. 



4938 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Alexander, but one of these was simply a clerical error. What did you 
do about it, open my mail and get a photostat ? 

Mr. Jackson. Wait just a moment. May the Chair ask whether 
or not these documents and all this material was in the possession of 
the witness on day before yesterday ? 

Mr. Alexander. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Why were the statements not made at that time? 
Why was not this information introduced at the time this matter was 
originally under discussion? 

Mr. Alexander. I tried to explain it very carefully to you just a 
few minutes ago, Mr. Jackson. I said when I inquired of Mr. 
Wheeler if he would specify what was to be raised, he refused to give 
me that information. I had no idea such a thing, I hadn't thoughj: 
of the things for years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Excuse me a minute. Weren't you invited to con- 
fer with counsel or the staff before your testimony when Mr. Wheeler 
served the subpena on you? 

Mr. Alexander. I will tell you frankly, I would ask Mr. Wheeler 
if that was so. I don't recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't recall? 

Mr. Alexander. I don't recall that happening, I do not. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you so informed, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Alexander. I would like to ask Mr. Wheeler if he did. I don't 
recall. I think when I did, he said, "Well, that is all right." I think 
he said, "I am sorry." I think that is the remark he made. Wasn't 
that right, Mr. Wheeler? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Counsel, is it the information of counsel that an 
invitation was extended? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; that is the information I have. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, that is the established policy of your 
investigators, and every witness when he is subpenaed by our staff, 
so far as I know, from my inquiries on the committee has received an 
invitation to confer with the staff if he so desires before the hearing. 

Mr. Alexander. If that is true, I do not want to misrepresent Mr. 
Wheeler in any way, and I will not state positively. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said you did not remember whether he did or 
not. 

Mr. Alexander. I know there was something said, a word or two, 
and if it was said, and I think something was said, I don't remember 
exactly what it was, it was just a few words, but any information 
about discussion with the committee, not a word was said about that, 
if I remember. 

Mr. Jackson. To return to the matter of documentation you brought 
with you this morning, I do not recall in your testimony the other day 
that any mention was made of the fact that you had this documenta- 
tion, or that you would present it upon the request of the committee or 
that the testimony relative to this matter by Mr. Taylor was perjured. 
I seem to recall a wall of silence relative to this matter, and I am 
very naturally wondering why mention was not made on the day 
before yesterday that you were in a position to fully document your 
transactions and your relations with Mr. Weihe. 

Mr. Alexander. I would be very glad to explain that to you, Mr. 
Jackson, so you will understand. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4939 

Mr. Jackson. I should be glad to have you. I think it calls for 
some explanation. 

Mr. Alexander. In the first place, the transactions to which the 
documents refer were 13 to 16 years back. Your mind, in a thing 
being sprung at a hearing of this type, doesn't instantly go back and 
pick up all this information. 

There was a second reason: That I was standing on justified con- 
stitutional grounds that you should not pry into my political or 
religious beliefs, or my opinions. I considered that it was violating 
my constitutional right, and consequently I stood on it. 

But in thinking it over, although I think it was a correct position 
in regard to constitutional rights, I do think it would have been better 
to present this evidence, but as a matter of fact I did not have the 
evidence with me, not knowing that it was to be raised, and I could 
not possibly see how you can claim this is an investigation after facts 
when I am not informed of a major investigation on a certain point, 
and I have no opportunity to bring the evidence to this hearing. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest this to this witness. You 
brought your file with you this morning. Now, the first thing you 
said was you had the documents here with you. 

Mr. Alexander. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, I suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be urged 
again to produce these documents to show Mr. Daniel Taylor's testi- 
mony is perjured. That is what you first stated when you came here. 
Now, please do it. 

Mr. Alexander. Yes. 

Mr. DoYi^E. We have already taken an hour, and we want to give 
you an opportunity, but not an unreasonable amount of time, because 
we have other things to do. 

Mr. Jackson. The Chair concurs, and the witness will proceed with 
the documentation of his case. 

Mr. Alexander. I should explain that Mr. Weihe had asked an 
attorney in Los Angeles to represent him in this matter, Mr. Leo 
Gallagher, an attorney. This is a letter in Mr. Weihe's handwriting, 
one and a quarter pages, written from his residence, 1205 18th Street, 
San Diego, California, dated October 30, 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. To whom is the letter addressed ? 

Mr. Alexander. It is addressed to Sterling C. Alexander. 

Now, as to the validity of the handwriting, I can give you the banks 
where Mr. Weihe banked and the signature and the writing can be 
confirmed. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I think it should be understood by the 
witness that any document he refers to will, of course, be offered for 
filing in this matter. 

Mr. Alexander. I am very glad to give you these, but first to pro- 
tect myself, in view of what has happened, I wish photostatic copies. 
I will give you the photostatic copies. I will be very glad to do it. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. We will be happy to receive them. 

Mr. Alexander. This is the letter [reading] : 

Dear Al : I have just written Leo Gallagher about the reinvestment of the 
25,000 rubles, and I thought it best for you too to have record of my instructions 
in this matter. So this is to record that I have instructed you to reinvest the 
25,000 rubles which were drawn in the first redemption drawing of the second 
7 percent five year loan issue of the first year in the so-called fixed term deposit 



4940 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

act of the Bank of Foreign Trade bearing 4 percent interest and liaviug a 1 year 
withdrawal clause, and once again I make record that you are to make upon 
my death precisely the same disposal of the money in your name and ownership 
in the Bank of Foreign Trade as I previously instructed you. I am now very 
anxious to leave everything so you will have no trouble. 

He was a very f arsiglited man, and I thank him very much. 

So I want to leave this record that you agree to personally accept the job 
of taking ownership of my money so as to be able to at once carry out my wishes 
upon my death only when I insisted that you take the job 

Does that sound like the testimony of Dan Taylor, that went over 
the air ? 

Mr. Doyle. That is the best evidence of what it sounds like. Go 
ahead. 

Mr. Alexander (continuing to read) : 

to do the things I wanted to have done, one of which I think I already wrote you 
about. 

First, you never in any way influenced me or attempted to inflluence me in 
the matter of what I should do with the money. 

Second, you never have accepted anything whatever from me, either small or 
large. 

With best regards to you, 

Henry Weihe. 

Mr. Doyle. May I see the letter, please ? 

Mr. Alexander. Sure. 

Mr. Jackson. May I say to the witness, I do not want to in any 
way limit a full presentation of his case, but we must set some limits 
upon this, inasmuch as we have other witnesses whom the committee 
must hear before it adjourns. I will say this so the witness may be 
advised to be selective in the choice of the documents he wishes to 
introduce. We will conclude this matter promptly at 10 o'clock. 
That will give 25 minutes for the further presentation. 

Mr. Alexander. I should state a little as an explanation of what 
happened that although when Mr. Weihe prior to my knowing him 
invested in the Bank of Foreign Trade, he was drawing 10 percent, 
he received letters from the bank, and I in turn received them when 
the money was in my name, of a progressively shocking economic 
nature. First, the reduction to 7 percent as the series elapsed. They 
paid everything they owed, but it was reduced to 7 percent, then 6, 
5, 4, 3, 2, and I finally have a letter here, which I will be glad to read 
if you want, in which they say, "The funds invested in such a series 
will hereafter bring 0.00 percent." So in view of this Mr. Weihe asked 
me to withdraw the money; he wanted a sound investment that 
brought him an income, and he made an arrangement with the People's 
World, that is, it was in my name, but it was under his direction — 
I have the papers here directing me in respect to it — to invest $10,000, 
and the People's World agreed to pay him 6 percent on the investment. 
It was a chattel mortgage on the equipment of the People's World. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I submit the original document should 
now be produced. He has referred to an original document between 
this gentleman who died and the People's World, and that manifestly 
is the best evidence, without the comments of this witness. I am only 
saying that to expedite the matter and try to help you get the time 
to present by 10 o'clock all your evidence. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4941 

Mr. Alexander. I apparently have overlooked bringing it, but I 
am willing to produce it for the committee. Oh, here it is. Here it 
is. 1205 18th Street, December 11, San Diego, Calif. 

Mr. DoTLE. December 11, what year, please? 

Mr, AiiEXANDER. 1939. 

Sterling C. Alexander. 

Dear Al: Please write to the Bank of Foreign Trade, Moscow, and draw 
$10,000 of the money in your ownership. 

Although I don't have the People's World letter, and I don't even 
know if I possess that, I see it was a little more by indirection. 

Mr. Doyle. Where is that People's World letter, please ? We want 
that. 

Mr. Alexander. I say I am not sure. 

Mr. Doyle. Where did you last have it, please? You referred to 
it and said you had it in your possession there. Now, where is it? 

Mr. Alexander. I thought that I had that letter. 

Mr. Doyle. Where did you last have it ? 

Mr. Alexander. Will you let me finish, please ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, I will, of course. 

Mr. Alexander. I thought I had that letter, and apparently in 
thinking so I referred to this letter instead, which is an indication to 
that transaction, but I will state under oath that upon the arrival of 
the $10,000 Mr. Weihe made an arrangement with the People's 
Woild — the money was in my name — for a chattel mortgage on the 
equipment of the People's World, and the People's World agreed to 
pay 6 percent interest annually. 

Mr. Doyle. Was that in writing, that arrangement with the People's 
World? 

Mr. Alexander. Oh, yes, it was an entirely legal arrangement. 

Mr. Doyle. I submit, Mr. Chairman, the witness ought to be di- 
rected to submit that original document within the next day or two. 

Mr, Alexander. I don't really know if I can get it, but, however, I 
have the statement of Mr. Weihe in reference to it. 

Mr. Jackson. Is the committee in possession of a photostat of that 
document ? 

Mr. Tavenner. We introduced in evidence a copy of the chattel 
mortgage, and also the release of it, so it is merely a repetition of 
that part of it. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I submit there was a written agreement, 
according to this witness, between the People's World and Mr. Weihe, 
and if so, I want the agreement out of which grew the chattel mort- 
gage. 

Mr. Alexander. Mr. Congressman, if you have limited me to 10 
o'clock, which is in 20 minutes, I do not see how we can get to it. 

Mr. Jackson. That observation is a reasonable one and we will 
try not to interrupt. 

Mr. Alexander. The final disposition of the loan to the People's 
World was that Mr. Weihe received one thousand — and I have a paper 
which I will read, it is inclusive with other material — ^he received 
$1,050 interest from this amount and the full principal was returned 
to me. 

Now, there is one thing that I have not stated. In all of these 
amounts, Mr. Weihe always received all interest. This is itemized 

47718 — 54 — pt. 10 3 



4942 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

here in a general statement signed by him. He received all interest. 
I never received a penny of interest. The arrangement with the Bank 
of Foreign Trade, on my instruction, was that the interest should be 
sent to Mr. Weihe directly, and it was. I think there were two in- 
stances where, by mistake, they sent them to me, and in this itemized 
statement signed by him, it is stated exactly what was done with them, 
where they were put. I even endorsed "Payable to Mr. Weihe only," 
to Henry Weihe only. 

I thiiik, now as I have so little time, I will read this itemized state- 
ment with Mr. Henry Weihe's signature. [Reading :] 

I, Henry Weihe, December 1, 1941 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest to the witness, who has 
so limited time, if you have other documents, we can examine that and 
will, naturally, assume it is what it shows on its face. 

Mr. Alexander. This is an essential one ; I would like to read it, if 
you don't mind. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. 

Mr. Alexander (reading) : 

1205 18th Street, San Diego, Calif., December 1, 1941. 
I, Henry Weihe, wish to place on record that Sterling C. Alexander has ful- 
filled all agreements between us ; that he has returned to me all that I gave 
him — 

I will go into it if you want why this was done — 

as I requested him to do, and that I have always received all interest on the 
principal while it was in his name. 

The full amount which I gave him was $24,576.70. This was in July 1938. 
His return to me of the principal on my request was as follows : 

1. $1,600 from the Bank of Foreign Trade on my request of Mr. Alexander on 
his order that account 4595 in his name be sent directly to me. This account 
was for $2,456.70. The difference between the $1,600 principal and the 
$2,456.70, which I received, was interest due and deposited by Mr. Alexander on 
my request in this account. 

On May 31, 1939, I deposited the $2,456.70 in Savings Account No. 78631 in the 
First National Trust and Savings Bank, San Diego. 

2. $13,014.62, by check from Sterling C. Alexander to me, dated November 13, 
1941, on the Bank of America, San Diego. I deposited this check on Novem- 
ber 14, 1941, in a checking account in the First National Trust and Savings Bank, 
San Diego. 

3. $10,072 by my check from Sterling Alexander to me dated November 28, 
1941, on the Bank of America, San Diego, and deposited by me the same day in 
my checking account in the First National Bank, San Diego. 

As to the interest on the principal, while it was in Mr. Aelxander's name I 
always received all interest and all interest came directly to me in my name and 
to my home, with the following exceptions : 

1. The difference between the $1,600 principal and the $2,456.70 I specifically 
asked Sterling Alexander to deposit was assigned to me, the $1,600 on Mr. Alex- 
ander's order when I requested. 

2. $21.46 quarterly interest check April 16, 1940, on the bond then remaining in 
Account No. 1951, sent by the Bank of Foreign Trades by mistake to Mr. Alex- 
ander instead of directly to me and endorsed by Mr. Alexander to me when he 
received it. 

3. Final quarterly interest check for $150 on a $10,000 mortgage representing a 
change of investment on my request, which was due November 14, 1941, was paid 
by check to Mr. Alexander. It was endorsed paid to Henry Weihe only by Mr. 
Alexander on November 21, 1941, and deposited by me in my checking account in 
the First National Trust and Savings Bank, San Diego, on November 28. 

Sterling Alexander has never received an interest check in his name except the 
$21.46 and the $150 as in 2 and 3 above. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4943 

On the $10,000 mortgage I received — 

that is People's World mortgage — 

$1,050 interest for ttie period from February 14, 1940, to November 14, 1941, seven 
quarterly payments of $150 each. 

All these payments, except the last, as explained above, were paid directly to 
me by check on the Citizens National Trust and Savings Bank, Los Angeles. 

( Signed) Henry Weihe. 

Now, as I have only a few minutes, I wish to simply state, and I hope 
I won't be interrupted in this, when you are prosecuted without due 
process what happened in these records are inevitable. These records 
are diametrically opposed to the truth, and the publicity that went out 
on the air was a rotten smear. 

Now, as this has occurred with me, it has occurred with many wit- 
nesses. 

Mr. Jackson. I will ask the witness to suspend. If he wishes to 
continue with his documentation, we will give him every opportunity. 
If he insists upon his unfounded charges that the committee has 
smeared him, if he insists that the committee prosecuted him without 
due process of law, the Chair will have only one alternative, and that 
is to suspend further testimony of the witness. 

Mr. Alexander. I will say, Mr. Jackson, that both are true and 
overwhelmingly true. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, the witness is excused from further testi- 
mony. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Ernestine Gatewood. 

TESTIMONY OF ERNESTINE GATEWOOD 

Mr. Jackson. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before 
the subcommittee you will tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God. 

Miss Gatewood. I do. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. What is your name, please? 

Miss Gatewood. Ernestine Gatewood. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you appear here pursuant to a subpena or are 
you appearing before the committee voluntarily? 

Miss Gatewood. Voluntarily. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. It is noted that you are not accompanied by counsel. 
You are entitled to have counsel with you and to consult counsel at any 
time you desire. 

Miss Gatewood. I didn't think that it would be necessary. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Inasmuch as you desire to appear before the com- 
mittee voluntarily, will you state to the committee, please, just for 
what purpose you desire to appear? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes. There are many people who know, I am 
sure, and many who don't know that at one time I was a member of the 
Communist Party, but I am not now. I want to make it absolutely 
plain that I am not, and to try to elucidate from there. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. When were you a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Gatewood. I entered the Communist Party approximately 



4944 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, how you became 
a member, the circumstances under which you became a member ? 

Miss Gatewood. Well, it was around a minority group problem and 
I was terribly interested, and always have been, in problems of minor- 
ity groups, so that was my entry into the party. I asked to become 
a member of the Communist Party, incidentally. I thought that here 
was an organization which was, I imagined, going to work miracles 
overnight, so to speak, and I wanted to become a part of such an 
organization if it could be done that quickly. 

There was an awful lot of hard work and more of regimentation, 
as I found out later on. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall who was the party you came in con- 
tact with in becoming a party member ? 

Miss Gatewood. The Logan Heights Branch of the Communist 
Party in San Diego. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall who within the branch you consulted 
about becoming a member ? 

Miss Gatewood. Enos Baker. I can't say whether he was in the 
branch itself or that he had overall charge of Communist Party 
activities in San Diego. 

Mr. Tavenner. You state that it was because of your interest in 
minority problems which took you into the Communist Party ? 

Miss Gatewood. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. What took you out of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Gatewood. Lip service, and no practical application of the lip 
service took me out. 

Mr. Tavenner. Explain a little more fully what you mean. 

Miss Gatewood. In theory the Communist Party, as I understand 
it, advocates equality, social, economic, for minority groups, that thej' 
are going to work very hard to see that that becomes a reality. There 
is so much running around and so much theorizing about this thing, 
so much lopping off of people who don't agree with every little detail, 
that I came to the conclusion that this wasn't the place for me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you conclude that they had some other motives 
besides attempting to aid in the solution of the problem of discrimi- 
nation? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes; I think this, that — well, there are an awful 
lot of people who hand down directives in the Communist Party who 
are psychologically or, you know, way off the beam, and it is sort of 
sadistic pleasure they get from sort of directing peo])le below and run- 
ning around like ants and distributing this and that and the other 
things secretly. I just felt that I didn't want to remain a participant 
of such an organization any longer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you assigned any particular job within the 
Communist Party, or any particular work ? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes. I remember a specific task that I had, to assist 
in organizing branch clubs in the Logan Heights area. There wasn't 
too good a job done. There are only so many people, I imagine, who 
want to be foolish enough to become a member of the Communist 
Party, so there wasn't too fine a job done there. 

Mr. Tavenner. From whom did you receive your directions to do 
that organization work? 

Miss Gatewood. Let's see. As I recall vaguely, it came from Evelyn 
Ackerstein. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4945 

Mr. Tavenner. Were efforts made to instruct you in Communist 
doctrines, that is, the principles of Leninism and Marxism ? 

Miss Gatewood. When I first joined the party there was a new 
members class set up for joiners, a 3-w^eek period — I think it had been 
a 6- or 10-week period class, but because they wanted to rush us into 
the field, as it were, it had been cut down. So that was the only 
schooling period actually, actual schooling period that I had. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become associated in any way with the 
work of the Communist Party with Bernadette Doyle ? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes ; very definitely in San Diego. I think it was 
after Enos Baker left and Bernadette Doyle came down I became 
acquainted with her and worked under Bernadette indirectly most of 
the time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did she give you any directions as to the fields in 
which you should work in the Communist Party ? 

Miss Gatewood. I don't remember that I ever had any specific 
directives from Bernadette in that regard, but indirectly it came 
from her because she had overall responsibility for Communist Party 
members in San Diego. I was as a Negro and as a wonderful front 
to the organization being groomed for a leadership position. That 
w^as from the beginning to almost the end when I started participating 
actively myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat was the nature of the general instructions 
that you got as to your participation in the work of the party which 
you said indirectly came from Bernadette Doyle ? 

Miss Gatewood. Well, because the Negro membership was so rela- 
tively small here I don't think there was ever a time when the members 
of the Communist Party went out on a mobilization that Negro mem- 
bers weren't along. It just wasn't the thing for it to be an all white 
mobilization. So in that respect mobilization and General Jimmie 
Higgins' work was the first rung of the ladder. You had to do that 
if you were one of the masses before you could become a person placed 
in a leadership position. 

Mr. Tavenner. I note that you say there were not many Negroes 
who became members of the Communist Party. 

Miss Gatewood. I didn't know. There might have been a few 
more that I didn't see, but it was fairly small. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know of any reason for that ? 

Miss Gatewood. I think basically Negroes are pretty busy, you 
know, taking care of their own afi'airs, and if at some time the Com- 
munist Party happens to do something sensational, then it calls it to 
the attention of Negro people, whom I am sure are all of them very 
interested in their problems as Americans, of course. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not the Communist Party 
was continuously seeking out issues to raise among the various groups 
in the community which they could utilize to increase the member- 
ship of the party? 

Miss Gatewood. Well, very definitely. Well, practically all mem- 
bers of the Communist Party, if they are good Communists, scan 
very closely newspapers, and we are constantly on the alert, either 
from reading the newspapers or by coming in contact with other 
people as to some act of brutality that had occurred, and if it was 
something that we could sink our teeth into and really make it a 
very sensational sort of thing, that is what happened, and that is 



4946 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

the thing that actually brought the Communist Party to the attention 
and kept it alive, as far as the layman was concerned, the non-Com- 
munist, that we were constantly seeking these things out trying to 
find out what had happened, if there had been an act of brutality 
committed, and if so, especially if it wasn't between two individuals. 
If the police force or any other body of that kind had been involved, 
it was always a good issue. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have an organized system of learning about 
such instances ? 

Miss Gatewood. Well, I don't know how, but there were many • 

Mrs. Tavenner. I have heard, for instance, that a clipping service 
was maintained. 

Miss Gatewood. That is it. This scanning of the newspaper, that 
was a ritual. It was an everday, everyweek occurrence that the news- 
papers were to be gone through thoroughly to sort of canvass for 
this sort of thing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you conclude from your experience in the 
Communist Party that it was sincerely motivated by a desire to be 
of real help to the minority groups? 

Miss Gatewood. Maybe fundamentally as it was set up to begin 
with, that might have been the motivation, but I sincerely believe 
from having been a Communist, there is so much internal strife within 
the Communist Party, there is tattling, there is stool-pigeoning, if 
I might use the word. 

Mr, Doyle. You don't mean within the Communist Party there is 
stool-pigeoning ? 

Miss Gatewood. Well, I haven't belonged to any other organiza- 
tions other than those that have been Communist dominated, and 
the Communist Party itself. We who were in the Communist Party — 
I know there were a lot of us, I can't speak for all of them, because 
there are some very hard core Communists in the Communist Party, 
but to the people, who are like myself, who far outnumber the hard 
core Communists, we were afraid most of the time to express our- 
selves freely because we didn't want it to get back to the section 
organizer. If we wanted to criticize the section organizer, I know 
it has been done many times and the reprimand has been very severe, 
because it was done. For instance, in clubs, if there was to be an 
expulsion, it was rigged, it was set up before. These things are 
always discussed before a general meeting, so that the voting, you 
can cast your vote as you should cast it, and if you don't, then you 
are either placed under a controlled task or you are just expelled, 
you are just put out, you Imow. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have occasion during your experience in 
the Communist Party to learn there was in existence what was known 
as a professional group of the party ? 

Miss Gatewood, Yes, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the committee any and all informa- 
tion you have regarding a professional group? 

Miss Gatewood. Well, the professional group as set up was com- 
posed of people who were in the professions, as it were, newspaper 
people, secretaries, those bordering on scientists, anyone who wasn't 
a common laborer would sort of fall into the professional category. 

Mr. Tavenner. That would include white collar workers? 

Miss Gatewood. That is right. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4947 

Mr. Tavenner. So-called? 

Miss Gate WOOD. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Did you have occasion to learn the membership 
of that group ? 

Miss Uatewood. In San Diego I remember a few people who were 
part of the gi^oup. There was 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you first, how were you able to know 
that they were members of that group ? 

Miss Gatewood. Because I was a part of it myself at one time. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. I know counsel will instruct the witness to not name 
anyone unless she under oath knows she can positively identify such 
person. 

Miss Gatewood. I don't intend to. I wouldn't want that placed 
on me. 

Mr. Dotle. I realize that, and we don't want it either. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. 

Miss Gatewood. Jeif Boehm; I can't remember Crittenden's first 
name, Wilma Crittenden, Lynn Ackerstein, myself, and at the moment 
other names sort of escape me. But it was a relatively small group. 

Mr. Doyle. As many as 8 or 10 ? Not more? 

Miss Gatewood. Well, I imagine that there was. The attendance 
was so sort of on again oS again that they never attended at one time, 
but I imagine it was approximately 8 or 10 people. That was a pretty 
large group, though. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any experience within the IPP of a 
Communist character? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes, in this regard : At IPP meetings Communist 
Party discussion was not present, but the Communists who were 
members of the IPP, after meetings naturally would discuss IPP 
affairs. At Communist Party meetings, however, the IPP was dis- 
cussed, and naturally it would have been, because in San Diego, Lynn 
Ackerstein, who headed the IPP here, was a member of the Communist 
Party. So naturally it was necessary for her to confer with the top 
level Communist who was in San Diego, or Communists, in order to 
direct her work and activity in party channels. 

]Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain active in the Communist 
Party in San Diego? 

Miss Gatewood. Well, I will say all of 1948. I am not quite sure 
when I joined. About 8 months, I imagine, 7 or 8 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then where did you go from there ? 

Miss Gatewood. I went to San Francisco in 1949, January of 1949. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Were you active in the Communist Party in San 
Francisco ? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period of time ? 

Miss Gatewood. Approximately 2 years, I would say, actually 
active. 

Mr. Tavenner. How is that ? 

Miss Gatewood. Approximately 2 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any discussion with Bernadette 
Doyle, or any other high functionary in the Communist Party, prior 
to your going to San Francisco ? 



4948 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Miss Gatewood. I don't remember it. I know that I did, because 
my contact came from Bernadette Doyle. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean after arriving in San Francisco ? 

Miss Gatewood. Before leaving San Diego, I know I had a discus- 
sion with Bernadette Doyle, because my contact came from Bernadette 
Doyle. I don't remember the actual meeting with her, but I know it 
was. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of your conference with the 
contact from Bernadette Doyle, do you recall ? 

Miss Gatewood. Well, vaguely I do, yes ; that I was to be placed in 
a club as soon as I settle my residence, you know, secured a permanent 
residence, and I was to keep in contact with her, and that was about 
it, and she would let me know when I was to be placed in an area. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did your work in the Communist Party have any- 
thing to do with your going to San Francisco ? 

Miss Gatewood. Not directly in the sense of being direct. I felt that 
because of the publicity that had surrounded me and my work and my 
activity in the IPP, as a member of the Communist Party, it was sort 
of one and the same thing, that it would be terribly difficult for me 
to secure any kind of work in San Diego unless I falsified myself on 
the job application, so I decided to go to a larger city where I might 
not be so conspicuous. So that was my motivation for leaving San 
Die^o. 

Mr. Tavenner. What became your chief activities in the Com- 
munist Party in San Francisco? 

Miss Gatewood. Well, attending classes mostly. I worked very 
irregular hours at the California Labor School, and the whole time 
I was there, with the exception of a couple of weeks, I didn't attend 
party club meetings? 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you affiliated with the Civil Eights Congress 
in San Francisco? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you tell the committee briefly about that ? 

Miss Gatewood. I can't remember. Members of the Communist 
Party are expected to be members of Communist- front organizations 
naturally, and to bring in like people or non-Communists. It swells 
the organization. The directions come from Communists until such 
time as they feel the non-Communist is ready to become a full-fledged 
Communist, or they will let themselves be directed, and it doesn't mat- 
ter whether they are or they aren't. So I became a member of the 
Civil Rights Congress around some minority issue, I can't remember 
what, but I have always worked, always did work very closely with 
the head of CRC, and as I before stated, the fine line of demarcation 
just isn't there; there was such an overlapping. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you observe any particular activity of the 
Communist Party within labor unions or within the field of labor 
generally ? 

Miss Gatewood. Well, only in my very small union, and it was con- 
trolled by the Communist Party. A member of the Communist Party 
was its secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. What union was that? 

Miss Gatewood. The United Office and Professional Workers. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of the person who was secretary 
and who was a member of the Communist Party, do you recall ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4949 

Miss Gatewood. Marian Sanjines. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell it, please. 

Miss Gatewood. S-a-n-j-i-n-e-s. The membership of our local was 
so small and there were so few who weren't members of the Com- 
munist Party that it was ineffective. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed at that time? Were you 
a member of this local union, United Ofhce and Professional Workers 
Union ? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed? 

Miss Gatewood. In 1949, from 1949 to the latter part of 1951 I 
worked for the California Labor School as registrar, secretary 
from 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me interrupt you there. Did your membership 
in the Communist Party have anything to do with your obtaining that 
position ? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes, it did very definitely. My contact recom- 
mended me to the director of the labor school. The director in turn 
checked on my party affiliation through Bernadette Doyle, and it took 
2 or 3 days, and I was employed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well now. Will you go on with your other 
employment 'l 

Miss Gatewood. Well, for 2 months — let's see, the early part of 
1952, I imagine, I worked for the Community Chest 2 months. In 
April of 1952 I went to work for the International Longshoremen and 
Warehousemen's Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of your employment there? 

Miss Gatewood. I was clerk-typist there for a year, and then as- 
sistant research associate, and I terminated my work at the ILWU 
July 15, 1953, at their request, I might add. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the reason for that request, if it was not 
personal ? 

Miss Gatewood. No, it wasn't personal. I think it is very general 
and a very specific thing. Upon going to the ILWU I had been made 
very welcome. I, in turn, intended to study — I studied with the inten- 
tion of up-grading myself. There was a constant turnover at the 
ILWU. I imagine I had been there a year and a half and had worked 
from one position to another, and I felt that I was ready for a real top 
level position. They gave me a trial run on the job for supposedly 4 
weeks, but it ran into 8 weeks. The secretary-treasurer of the ILWU 
at that point didn't feel that I was capable of handling the job. We 
went into very lengthy discussion on this 2 or 3 times, at which time 
I sort of voiced my views, which went something like this, that the 
ILWU as set up and as they intended to practice their philosophy and 
ideals, were naturally for upgrading Negroes. That was the hue and 
cry at all times. Immediately upon upgrading myself or trying to 
upgrade myself the secretary-treasurer didn't feel that I could pos- 
sibly handle the job. There had been one other in the history of 
office workers at the ILWU who had been a secretary, so naturally 
that wasn't much of a precedent to have been established, and this just 
couldn't happen. 

I was also accused of stealing. Later their attorney told me that 
it was just impossible, no one thought that I had taken anything, but 

47718— 54— pt. 10 i 



4950 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

they had to ^et rid of the bad apple in the barrel, and that is the way 
they did it. 

So my termination was the 15th of July, 1953. 

Mr. Taveistner. That marked the termination of your membership 
in the Communist Party ? 

Miss Gatewood. No, that occurred a year before. 

Mr. Tavenner. A year before ? 

Miss Gatewood. That is right, or a year and a half before. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you w^ere a member of the Communist Party 
when you obtained the position in the ILWU ? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did your membership in the Communist Party 
play any part in your selection for a position with the ILWU, in the 
first place ? 

Miss Gatewood. Well, I sort of think so, because when I was inter- 
viewed for the job there was a member of the Communist Party who 
had a very top level position in the department that I was to work in, 
and I am pretty sure that having talked to her, that she in turn talked 
to the head of the department, and I thereby secured this position. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did this Communist Party member know of your 
Communist Party membership ? 

Miss Gatewood. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. "V\n^iat was her name ? 

Miss Gatewood. Helen Bender. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then some time later you dropped out of the Com- 
munist Party, and then you had your trouble within the ILWU ? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what you know 
about Communist Party activities within the ILWU ? 

Miss Gatewood. I don't think that there are 3 staunch members 
of the Communist Party working at the ILWU. There were when I 
left very lukewarm members of the Communist Party. In so far as 
they could hold their jobs it was all right with them to be members of 
the Communist Party, and this has been stated to me by 2 or 3 per- 
sons at the ILWU, that it was expedient they be members of the Com- 
munist Party in order to hold their jobs. Now, from talking to the 
secretary-treasurer and my department head, my former department 
head, they are at the ILWU concentrating on evicting progressives 
and members of the Communist Party from the IL"WU, if they can 
find out w^ho they are, and it is not too hard a task to do so, because 
it is overrun with progressives. It is a very close tightly knit little 
office staff there. No non-Communist — well, it is very hard for them 
to get into the ILWU. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is hard for whom to get in ? 

Miss Gatewood. For a non-Communist to become a member of the 
office staff at the ILWU. 

Mr. Tavenner. Possibly I misunderstood you. I thought you said 
an effort was being made to expel Communist members of the staff. 

Miss Gatewood. Well, that was my undei-standing from two 
people in top level positions there. 

Mr. Tavenner. The two things seem inconsistent, if it is hard for 
a non-Communist to get on the staff and yet they are trying to expel 
Communists from it; the two things seem inconsistent. 

Miss Gaitswood. Let me make myself clear. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4951 

Mr. Tavenner. If you will make yourself plain about that, please. 

Miss Gatewood. Mostly, most all of the office staff at the ILWU are 
members of the Communist Party. Now, it is felt by the persons in 
authority who hire and fire that this situation has prevailed long 
enough, that the girls, office girls aren't there 15 minutes before they 
feel that they have the run of the place, that they can tell the officers 
what is to be done, that they don't like this or that or the other thing. 
They feel, and they have the protection of the Communist Party to 
keep them in these positions, as long as they are party members, you 
see, and it is a relatively hard thing for a non-Communist to secure 
a position at the ILWU. At the same time they want non-Commu- 
nists now because they feel that it would be, as it is in private indus- 
try, that a person is there 8 hours a day to do a job, and they are not 
going to try to tell the boss what to do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Oh, I understand ; in order to get a more efficient 
organization they should have non-Communists ? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes; efficient in this sense, that they mind their 
own business. They have efficient people there, but it is just that 
they have the protection of the party. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, the Communist Party was managing 
the office force. 

Miss Gatewood. No ; I wouldn't s ay t hat, because Louis Goldblatt 
had overall responsibility for the ILWU, for the international office, 
and I don't know Lou as a Communist, but I do know that people 
who are one position down from top level jobs there are Communists, 
and it makes for a very closely knit sort of office staff. 

]\Ir. Doyle. In other words, the girls on the office staff did about as 
they pleased because they were members of the Communist Party. 

Miss Gatewood. Well, they did sort of flaunt responsibility and 
authority at times. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, if they wanted to work they worked, 
and if they didn't, they didn't? 

Miss Gatewood. No ; I will have to clarify this, because it is not that. 
Precision was expected or is expected at the ILWU. They get very 
close to it, but there are certain liberties that are taken there. We 
might go off and stay a little longer than we should on a lunch hour, 
for instance, or we might tell an officer off, and a person who prob- 
ablv isn't a member of the Communist Party would tell an officer off 
and resijzn, but we would tell them off and know we were going to stay. 
So that becomes a little hard to take, you see. 

Mr. Doyle. Then my assumption was pretty accurate, that the 
Communist Party was bossing the office. 

Miss Gatew^ood. INIaybe as you see it. I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee what led up to your 
withdrawal from the Communist Party? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes, I will try. For some time prior to my 
termination in the Communist Party I had become pretty bitter and 
pretty disillusioned and pretty darn mad. I had seen many people 
whom I love very much expelled and just lopped off from membership 
in the Communist Party. The degree of discussion that led up to 
their expulsion was such that it demoralized them mentally and 
physically. They were just total wrecks, some of these people, for 
months on end. It was terribly difficult when they did finally get 
themselves together to secure employment. 



4952 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

I might add this, however, that it was a little easier for a white 
member of the Communist Party to secure work in private industry 
than it was for Negro members who were ex- Communists. 

I haven't tried to secure work in San Diego, but I do know that in 
San Francisco practically every place I applied for a job I saw an 
old familiar face, and they are in such a position that you either get 
in or you don't, and if you are a member of the Communist Party, or 
an ex-member of the Communist Party, they whisper behind the hand, 
then you just don't get in, and I lived in mortal fear all the time if 
one job played out how in the world was I going to get another job, 
and that made it very, very difficult. They are just sort of all over 
the place. You don't go to a place of entertainment without bump- 
ing into them, and there is always more than one, and there is this 
discussion. You never apply for a job — at least I didn't — where I 
didn't meet up with one. 

Mr. Tavenner. You saw this occurring around about you? 

Miss Gatewood. Oh, yes, I did. I certainly did, and experienced 
the latter statement. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, to what extent? I mean, were there other 
matters that affected your decision to withdraw from the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes. In addition to the lopping off and the can- 
cellation of Lynn's membership in the Communist Party, and Jeff 
and Lillian Eothenberg, whom I had the utmost respect for, in their 
judgment, their thinking, the way they worked; it became increasing- 
ly difficult for my family to maintain any kind of family together- 
ness here. My party activities spilled over onto them, and I felt that 
it was just about time for me to get myself in hand and do some- 
thing, try to — I didn't think of correcting a bad situation at the 
time. My first and only thought was to disassociate myself from 
these people immediately, which I did. Once I had spoken to the 
secretary organizer I considered my membership terminated, all activi- 
ty, all thought, all everything that pertained to the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that occurred when, approximately? 

Miss Gatewood. Approximately the latter part of 1951 or early 
part of 1952. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had any Communist Party affiliations 
since then? 

Miss Gatewood. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you have withdrawn finally and completely 
from the Communist Party ? 

Miss Gatewood. I certainly have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there anything else you desire to state as to why 
you have volunteered to appear here before the committee and give 
the benefit of your experience in the Communist Party ? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes. I would like to try and say this, if I possibly 
can. Not only to Negroes, because we are not the only ones who are 
hoodwinked, but I think that we are more susceptible to being hood- 
winked. 

Mr. Doyle, Hoodwinked by what ? 

Miss Gatewood. The ideologies, the philosophy of the Communist 
Party. We as Americans all have problems, some to a greater or 
lesser degree. I am at this point thoroughly convinced that the Com- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4953 

munist Party is not capable of settling or attempting to settle any 
minority group problem that comes up. They are looking for a great 
fanfare, and to all people who are fairly gullible or naive in any 
sense, it would certainly behoove them to listen to what we ex-Com- 
munists have attempted to say. It has just been a great mistake, just 
an awful mistake, and to whom I am going to ask forgiveness in a 
sense, I don't know, other than myself, because I feel that I have 
betrayed myself. 

I have talked to many, many men who have gone from the United 
States and returned, and their whole discussion is "It is wonderful to 
see other countries, but it sort of reminds me of Chicago or New York 
or my home town, but there are problems in the United States, of 
course, but then there are problems in other countries. You have 
never been there, and you wouldn't want to stay if you did go." 

I personally am happy to be an American. I hope that I can re- 
make myself into the American I was before I became a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. May I just ask two questions before the witness is 
excused ? 

You said, in substance, or I understood you to say this, that the 
IPP Party and the Communist Party was one and the same thing. 
Now, the IPP initials that you used stand for Independent Progres- 
sive Party in California, do they not ? 

Miss Gatewood. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. And are you telling us that throughout our membership 
in the Communist Party and the IPP Party, those few years, that it 
was a fact that the Communist Party membership and the IPP con- 
trols were one and the same thing ? 

Miss Gatewood. Well, what I attempted to say was this — yes ; this 
control of the IPP is in the hands of the Communist Party ; that is 
very true. 

Mr. Doyle. Up until the date you left the Communist Party ? 

Miss Gatewood. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. That was in California? 

Miss Gatewood. That was in California. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, you said there was a fine line of demarcation that 
just isn't there. 

Miss Gatewood. There isn't. 

Mr. Doyle. Between the Civil Rights Congress and the Communist 
Party ? 

Miss Gatewood. That is right. 

Mr. Doyi.e. As I understand it, then, in that language you are tel- 
ling us that the control of the Civil Rights Congress has been and up 
to the time you left, and all the time you were in the Communist 
Party, the Civil Rights Congress was in the hands of the Communist 
Party in California ? 

Miss Gatewood. It was until a few months — well, a few weeks, I 
imagine, before I left. Ida Rothstein, who was a member of the Com- 
munist Party, and also headed CRC, was killed. So I don't know in 
whose hands it is at this point. 

Mr. Doyle. The last you knew it was in the control of the Com- 
munist Party, so far as the control of the CRC is concerned in Cali- 
fornia ? 



4954 COMMXTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Miss Gatewood. That is right. 

Mr, Doyle. You mentioned the director of the California Labor 
School. Was he known to you to be a Communist ? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes ; he was. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you give his name to counsel ? I don't know. 

Miss Gatewood, Dave Jenkins. 

Mr. Doyle. Was that at San Francisco ? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. And in your judgment, to your personal knowledge, 
did you appraise that as a Communist front, or was it stronger than 
that ; was it a Communist Party activity 'i 

Miss Gatewood. Yes. Let me say that it was stronger than a 
Communist-front organization. 

Mr. Doyle. I have been so advised. That is why I asked that ques- 
tion in that language. 

I didn't hear whether or not you gave to our distinguished counsel, 
Mr. Tavenner, or whether he asked you the extent of your educational 
background. You have had some college work? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Or full college work, did you not ? 

Miss Gatewood. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you so testify ? 

Miss Gatewood. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Doyle. I didn't hear it. How many years of college or uni- 
versity did you have ? 

Miss Gatewood. A year and a half. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, very briefly, it must be very brief, but never- 
theless I want you to know it is very sincere on behalf of the com- 
mittee and the United States Congress, I want to thank you for 
coming this morning voluntarily and making that which is manifestly 
a very definite and very valuable contribution to the work of the 
United States Congress. You realize that this subcommittee, Mr. 
Jackson and I, are here representing the United States Congress, 
and that this committee which you have helped this morning in our 
official duties is a creature of the United States Congress under Public 
Law 601. It is not a special commission; it is not a temporary com- 
mittee. It is a standing committee of the United States Congress. 

I want to add this, that you say you want to remake yourself. I 
am sure we recognize that you have started that way, and we also 
recognize that you assert leadership which can with the dedication 
you have been making to amend those mistakes that you made be a 
very definite contribution, especially in the activities of the attitude 
of the very splendid Negro American population. I want to say that 
especially, because I have the honor of representing in the United 
States Congress 75,000, more or less, Negro American citizens in my 
congressional district. I know your testimony will help them and 
will help every Negro American, I want to thank you. 

Miss Gatewood. Thank you. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle, before Miss Gatewood leaves, I, first of 
all, must apologize for having been absent during part of j^our testi- 
mony. However, I did get back in time to hear your final summation, 
and the greatest compliment I can pay to it is to say that I wish that 
the television and radio facilities that are here in the room today could 
carry your message to every corner of the country. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4955 

You say that we have inequities. There is no question about that. 
We have, unfortunately, discriminations which still exist. We are 
a long way from utopia. But in my opinion, and I am sure out of 
your words you agree, we will find the answer under the American 
Republic long before they will find it under the Communist state. 

I want to add to what my distinguished colleague Mr. Doyle has 
said by saying that I am delighted that today there are a number of 
children of school age here in the hearing room, and I hope that they, 
too, will remember what you have had to say about America and the 
American way. 

Thank you very much for your testimony. 

We will stand in recess until 10 : 50. 

( At 10 : 15 a. m., a short recess was taken until 10 : 55 a. m.) 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be in order. 

The Chair has several communications which should be read at 
this time. 

There is one communication from Elmer Larson and Mary Larson 
from Ocean Beach, who wish to make it known that they are in no 
way connected or related to the Larson mentioned during the course 
of this testimony, or in these hearings. 

The second communication is from Loren Field and Benton Field, 
who are owners of the Twentieth Century Upholstery Co., 2603 Uni- 
versity Avenue, and have been for the past 22 years, and they would 
like it understood that their business concern is not the one which 
was heretofore mentioned in testimony before the committee. 

The Chair would also like to state at this time that another signif- 
icant development which characterizes this hearing and sets it apart 
somewhat from any which Mr. Doyle and I have had any experience 
with heretofore is the number of voluntary witnesses who are com- 
ing forward to give testimony without the compulsion of a subpena. 
I think Mr. Doyle will agree that this is not only significant in itself, 
but constitutes one of the best things that could conceivably happen 
in the area of congressional investigation, when citizens seek to come 
forward and volunteer their services. 

Mr. Doyle. I entirely agree with that statement. 

Mr. Jackson. I do not know of any other period in the life of the 
committee, certainly not since I have been a member, and Mr. Doyle's 
membership is about the same as my own, when in 2 days we have 
had not less than 4 former members of the Communist Party come 
forward voluntarily and offer their testimony. It is significant. It is 
encouraging. And again the subcommittee would like to extend an 
invitation — it will not be possible to hear any more witnesses than 
those who are presently scheduled to appear this morning — but if 
there are any additional witnesses, any former Communists who do 
want to be heard by the committee, we urge that they communicate 
with the counsel of the committee. The communication should be 
addressed to the House Committee on Un-American Activities, House 
Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. DoTLE. May I suggest this, Mr. Chairman, that if they do not 
want to do that, because they know it will be considerable time before 
they might have opportunity to testify, that they cooperate with the 
Sheriff's office here and with the FBI here. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, by all means. The Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation has an ofiice here in San Diego, and the end and ultimate effect 



4956 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

of going to the Federal Bureau of Investigation would be precisely the 
same as it would in coming before the committee. 

One further message before you call your next witness, Mr. Counsel. 

A telegram addressed to the subcommittee reads : 

For matter of record, I, Bob Anj^us, sports writer for the Evening Tribune, 
wish to state that I am not the Robert Anguis mentioned in the Un-American 
Activities hearings in San Diego. 

Signed — 

Bob Angus. 

Who is your next witness, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the next witness is a person that 
I met for the first time in the corridors of the building a few min- 
utes ago, and who desires to appear. In light of your announcement, I 
do not know whether to call him or not, purely from the standpoint 
of time. 

Mr. Jackson. It is not generally the custom to place witnesses on 
the stand who have not previously been interrogated in executive ses- 
sion. However, I think the circumstances are somewhat different in 
this connection, inasmuch as the witness has volunteered to take the 
stand. I leave it to the judgment of Mr. Doyle as to what course of 
action the subcommittee should follow. 

Mr. Doyle, I would think, Mr. Chairman, we should allow only the 
few minutes that we can allow, because the full time has been sched- 
uled up to the time we adjourn, but I think in view of the volunteer 

Mr. Jackson. Can this matter be disposed of quickly? 

Mr. Tavenner. I think perhaps I can dispose of it in 5 or 10 minutes. 

Mr. Jackson. All right, you may proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Artie Sykes. 

Mr. Doyle. While he is coming forward, may the record show in 
regard to the witness who testified about having received $24,576.70 
and alleged that the testimony of Dan Taylor was perjured testimony, 
that we allowed him an hour, but he voluntarily only consumed 47 
minutes. 

Mr. Jackson. No, I think his departure from the stand was not vol- 
untary. His departure from the stand was somewhat speeded by the 
fact he insisted on maligning the committee. He still had 15 min- 
utes remaining of the time originally allotted. 

TESTIMONY OF ARTIE SYKES 

Mr. Jackson. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee you will tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Sykes. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated, please. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Sykes. Artie Sykes, S-y-k-e-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you desire to have the benefit of counsel with you 
while you are questioned ? 

Mr. Sykes. No, I don't. I don't think it is necessary. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Sykes, I must be very brief. You indicated a 
desire to appear before the committee voluntarily, did you not? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4957 

Mr, Sykes. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at any time a member of the Coimiimiist 
Party? 

Mr. Sykes. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member ? 

Mr. Sykes. No, I am not. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Sykes. I would say from 1948 actively until about the latter 
part of 1949. 

Mr. Tavenner. What branch or group of the Communist Party 
were you a member of? 

Mr. Sykes. Logan Heights. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee briefly how you became 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sykes. Well, at the time that Lynn Ackerstein, well, she was 
chairman of this committee, and she was asking that it was a party 
that was supposed to be set up to provide for jobs. At this particular 
time they was writing pamphlets, that is, for Negro bus drivers, and 
this party was supposed to get jobs, that is, for Negroes and bus 
drivers here in San Diego. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, you were told that an organization was to be 
set up to get jobs? 

Mr. Sykes. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. As bus drivers? 

Mr. Sykes. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean you thought you were joining a group 
that had that as its objective? 

Mr. Sykes. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you told it was a Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sykes. No, it was the Independent Progi-essive [Party]. 

Mr. Tavenner. Independent Progressive [Party] ? 

Mr. Sykes. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you find out any different later? 

Mr. Sykes. Later on I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did you find out later on ? 

Mr. Sykes. The first experience was my wife, she went out to the 
Navy Hospital, and she was hired out there, that is, as a 

Mr. Tavenner. Excuse me. I don't want to go too much into detail. 
I don't believe that is quite in answer to my question. Now, you 
thought that you were joining a group other than the Communist 
Party. How did you find out that it was the Communist Party that 
you joined? 

Mr. Sykes. By being turned away from different jobs, and later 
on when she goes back to Mr, Stevenson, that is, to get a statement 
that she wasn't a Communist, he then tells her that he couldn't say 
that she wasn't a Communist. He said that she wasn't, but he couldn't 
give her any statement like that, that she was not a Communist. . 

Mr. Tavenner. I still don't quite understand. Explain a little more 
fully how you found out that it was the Communist Party that you 
had joined. 

Mr. Sykes. Well, the only definition that I could give, I was turned 
away from several jobs; in fact, I stood examination and was told 

47718 — 54— pt. 10 5 



4958 COMMXTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

to report to work, and then after I reported for work they wouldn't 
hire me. 
Mr. Jackson. It was a matter of security clearance ? 
Mr. Stkes. That is right. 

Mr. Jackson. Were you informed that you were not considered a 
good security risk ? 

Mr. Sykes. That is right. 

Mr. Jackson. Did they say why you were not; did they say you 
were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Stkes. No; they didn't. They didn't say exactly that I was 
a member of the Communist Party, but they did say it was a security 
risk, and on account of my loyalty oath, they couldn't give me em- 
ployment. 

Mr. Jackson. When did you determine then that you were in the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Stkes. Well, I would say the latter part of 1950. 

Mr. Jackson. How did you find it out ? 

Mr. Stkes. Well, they had several meetings, that is, at my house. 
Well, they proposed several dinners. First, they had us to distribute 
leaflets, that is, to different churches, and then they asked about hav- 
ing a dinner at my house, that is. Well, after having the dinner at 
my house, Mr, Grady of the FBI came out and they told me it was 
cited as a Communist front and asked me if I knew it, and I told him 
no. Then he asked me would I come down to his office, so I went down 
to his office and he had me to make a sworn statement that I was not 
a Communist. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, were you a Communist at that time ? 

Mr. Stkes. No ; I was in the Independent Progressive Party, but 
I still didn't consider it Communist. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were never able to understand the difference 
between the IPP group that you thought you had joined and the 
Communist Party, which you were later accused of being a member 
of? 

Mr. Stkes. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. It seemed like all the same thing to you ? 

Mr. Stkes. All the same thing. 

Mr. Jackson. I can see where one would be a little puzzled about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did you do about getting out of it? 

Mr. Stkes. Well, the first thing after I went to the FBI here, to Mr. 
Grady here in San Diego, and I explained to him up in the Trust and 
Savings Building, then I later went down and changed my registra- 
tion, that is, from Progressive to Democrat. 

Mr. Tavenner. That will please Mr. Doyle. 

Well, the point is that you got into the Communist Party, if I under- 
stand your testimony, without its being explained to you just what 
it is you were joining? 

Mr. Stkes. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. If I understand you correctly, you were told it was 
an organization to get jobs for bus drivers? 

Mr. Stkes. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think that is all I want to ask. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4959 

Mr. Doyle. You have made a full statement to the FBI, haven't 
you? 

Mr. Sykes. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you very much. I want to invite you now to 
be active against the Communist Party philosophy. I can see you are, 
because you helped the FBI and you are helping us this morning. 

Mr. Jackson. With the thanks of the committee you are excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Lloyd Hamlin. 

TESTIMONY OF LLOYD HAMLIN— Resumed 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Hamlin has heretofore been sworn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hamlin, I regret that it was necessary to inter- 
rupt your testimony yesterday in order to dispose of many other wit- 
nesses who were waiting. I would now like to resume with your testi- 
mony. 

A few moments ago a witness by the name of Ernestine Gatewood 
testified. She described the situation that came to her knowledge both 
here and in San Francisco about the attempted discipline within the 
Communist Party resulting in instances of expulsion under circum- 
stances which very much alarmed her. I think it may be well at this 
time for you to tell the committee what you know about the operations 
of the Communist Party in that respect. Did it have a specially or- 
ganized group or commission that dealt with deviationists or other 
serious offenses by members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hamlin. Yes. In the Communist Party, both on a state level 
and a party level, it has what is known as a security commission. 

Mr. Tavenner. A security commission? 

Mr. Hamlin. A security commission, yes. I believe nation-wide the 
setup exists as well. The security commission is actually a group of 
people in the Communist Party whose duty it is and whose assign- 
ment it is to investigate their own members or to snoop on them, so that, 
as was so aptly put by Miss Gatewood just a few moments ago, these 
people report back to their leaders of the Communist Party any small 
deviation that the individual may have. Now, those deviations may 
be and are generally very sincere ones. As an example, in San Diego 
County in 1948 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you raise your voice just a little bit ? 

Mr. Hamlin. I am sorry. In San Diego County in 1948, the latter 
part of that year, we had an excellent example of this sort of thing. 
I was on the county committee at that particular time. The county 
committee was charged with hearing the ultimate reports on all devia- 
tion cases and cases that were up for explusion. At that particular 
time the issue was particularly that of individual members, so-called 
rank and file members, of the Communist Party who had in the eyes of 
Bernadette Doyle, the county organizer at that particular time, de- 
viated from party discipline, which is enumerated hundreds of times 
in Marxist literature as iron discipline, and, believe me, it is iron dis- 
cipline. These people, as has already been stated by other witnesses, 
Mr. Hagan as an example, felt that the dictatorial policy promoted by 
Miss Doyle upon her arrival in San Diego in the Communist Party 
was not conducive to either good participation by Communist members 
or loyalty by those members. 

As a result, in the latter part of 1948 these people were actually, a 



4960 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

number of tliem were actually brought before the county committee, 
which was acting as a security commission at this particular time, and 
asked about their deviations. They were permitted only to state those 
things that would more or less incriminate them, and any time that any 
of the individuals made an attempt to criticize Miss Doyle for her dic- 
tatorial methods, they were immediately shut up and made fun of. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask this question, counsel, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Do I understand this was a committee of top Commu- 
nist Party functionaries in San Diego County ? 

Mr. Hamlin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. You say the witnesses couldn't plead the fifth amend- 
ment? 

Mr. Hamlin. The witnesses, ironically enough, one of them in par- 
ticular, brought that subject up, and it was very embarrassing to the 
county committee, of course, of which I was a member, the issuance of 
the first, fifth, and I believe, the fourteenth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. You don't mean that the Communist Party function- 
aries investigating the conduct of a member of the Communist Party, 
that they were allowed to testify or forced to testify to things that 
would incriminate them ? 

Mr. Hamlin. I am afraid that is the case, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I am glad we don't function that way, Mr. Chairman. 
I am glad we observe the American Constitution. 

Mr. Hamlin. May I state a personal opinion here, please, with the 
indulgence of the committee? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Hamlin. I can assure you, after having lived for many years, 
7 years, with Communists that Communists have never enjoyed in 
the Communist Party the complete democracy that is afforded them 
by this committee. 

Mr Doyle. Of course, they were notified they had the right of 
counsel before this Communist Pgrty committee. Didn't they bring 
in some lawyers, these people who were up for expulsion? 

Mr. Hamlin. I am afraid the Communist Party does not work 
that way. When you are up for expulsion you have no counsel, you 
have no privilege of calling witnesses. You are there to belittle your- 
self, as these people were. These people were expelled. 

Mr. Doyle. And that occurred in San Diego ? 

Mr. Hamlin. That occurred in San Diego. It occurred to me sev- 
eral times in San Diego. As an example, I might give one other 
instance, if time permits, and that is the expulsion of the gentleman 
who testified the other day. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hagan ? 

Mr. Hamlin. No, the lawyer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Adams? 

Mr. Hamlin. Mr. Richard Adams. Mr. Richard Adams was in the 
early part, I believe, of 1946 preparing to run for the city council, 
election to the City Council of National City, in which he resided. 
I believe it was National City. Mr. Adams was a member of the 
county committee of the Communist Party in San Diego County. Mr. 
Adams had been in responsible positions with the Communist Party 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4961 

prior to that time and had in some circles, at least, become known as 
a representative of the Communist Party. During the preliminaries 
and early part of the election procedure Mr, Adams became involved 
in a matter, the details of which I am not prepared to go into, because 
I do not remember them. 

The county committee inquired into this affair with Mr. Adams, and 
Mr. Adams became very indignant at such an inquiry. The county 
committee itself took under advisement — of which I was a member 
and sat during all of the hearings — the fact that Mr. Adams had be- 
come involved in such an alleged procedure, and that inasmuch as 
not even the Communist Party, the members themselves, did not trust 
Mr. Adams, and inasmuch as he was somewhat known publicly as an 
official representative of the Communist Party, it was deemed ad- 
visable at that time to expel Mr. Adams from the party, which was 
done. 

Mr. Adams was not expelled from the Communist Party because of 
any deviations that he might have with the Communist Party so far 
as its beliefs or its actions were concerned. Mr. Adams was expelled 
from the Communist Party primarily because the Communist Party 
was actually afraid to trust him any longer as a representative of them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there any other illustrations that you can give 
the committee from your experience as a member of the executive 
committee of the Communist Party for San Diego which you think 
would be worth while in advising the committee as to the method of 
operations of the Communist Party within the field of security, or any 
other matter ? 

Mr. Hamlin. I believe that the witnesses who have been on, not the 
subpenaed witnesses, but as an example. Miss Gatewood, who just 
testified, have explained very vividly and very dramatically, I believe, 
the procedure in the Communist Party, and I do not believe that any- 
thing I could say probably would add a great deal to this procedure. 
I believe that the important thing to be brought out in the dealings 
of the Communist Party which have been reflected time and time 
again in the voluntary witnesses' testimony, is the fact that the Com- 
munist Party does not by any stretch of the imagination do the 
things that it purports to do, and that it stands for publicly ; that the 
Communist Party has no form or even excuse for being, as far as 
democracy is concerned, and may I make one observation with the in- 
dulgence of the committee. Miss Gatewood and the other witnesses 
who have been here voluntarily, I want to say this, because I believe 
that I personally have knowledge that perhaps a great many people 
who may be listening on the air, or listening in the courtroom, do not 
have, of just what these three young ladies went through in making 
their testimony, and I think the important thing to bring forth at this 
particular time is that even though a person is a Communist, when 
they find out, and it is inevitable, that the Communist Party is not 
going to give them the thing that they thought it was going to give 
them, or that the Communist Party does not stand for the high ideals 
that they first felt it stood for when they were duped into becoming 
Communists, that they can get out of the Communist Party. I think 
we have had some excellent living examples of the people who have 
been Communists, ardent Communists, believe me, I lived with them 
and I know, and now they have gotten out of the Communist Party, 
and it can be done. 



4962 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. I do not desire to repeat the names of persons who 
have been identified in the testimony, but there are several persons 
whose names were mentioned and very little said about their function 
in the Communist Party. Possibly you can clear the matter up a 
little more definitely. 

The name of Enos Baker was mentioned yesterday by a witness by 
the name of Tony Smith, as being the one responsible for putting 
him out of the party, but who went along on the ride to San Francisco 
to attend a State convention of the Communist Party. Will you tell 
the committee briefly what Enos Baker's part in the Communist Party 
activities was? 

Mr. Hamlin. Enos Baker, from the period of possibly the middle 
of 1947 until the latter part of that year, was the Communist Party 
organizer in San Diego County. Prior to that period of time Mr. 
Baker was an official in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner, The witness Miss Carol Bayme mentioned the name 
of Nancy Rosenfeld. Possibly that person was mentioned by another 
witness. I believe her present married name now is Lund, L-u-n-d. 

Mr. Hamlin. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what her 
activity was in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hamlin. Nancy Rosenfeld was, by her own statement, sent to 
San Diego from Los Angeles to become the organizational secretary 
of the Communist Party in San Diego County. Miss Rosenfeld came 
to San Diego approximately in the fall of 1945. She married Richard 
Lund. Her name now is Nancy Rosenfeld Lund. Both of them 
were party functionaries, and they are now residing in Los Angeles, 
believe. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Counsel, if I may interpose at this moment a 
summary in conclusion because I think the people who have been 
watching the committee during the past few days would be interested 
in it, and the television facilities, I am informed, are going off at 
11:30. 

Upon the conclusion of the present hearings in the San Diego area, 
the subcommittee wishes to make several acknowledgments and 
observations. 

Hearings such as the ones presently concluding require for their 
success a large measure of cooperation between Federal, county, and 
city agencies, press, radio, television, and the public. In this regard 
the subcommittee is happy to report that in no city where the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities has heretofore held public hear- 
ings has that cooperation been more willing or effective than here 
in the Border City. 

The committee and the Congress are most grateful for the assistance 
rendered by Chief of Police Elmer Jansen of the San Diego Police 
Department. The great contribution to the hearings made by Sheriff 
Bert Strand has been especially welcome. The sheriff's department, 
in addition to assigning deputies for the service of subpenas, has also 
furnished the committee members and staff with transportation facili- 
ties. Not the least' of the contributions made by that department 
was the assignment on a full time basis during the course of the hear- 
ings of Bob Newsom whose G feet 4 inches lias been in constant attend- 
ance at counsel's table, and whose cheerful and helpful cooperation 
is deeply appreciated by all of us. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4963 

The Federal Bureau of Investigation within the limits imposed 
upon it by regulations, has lent what assistance it could, as have the 
representatives of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. All 
of the agencies I have mentioned are due the thanks of the committee 
which are tendered herewith. 

Wliile it is yet too early to properly evaluate the testimony of wit- 
nesses who have been heard this week, several significant facts ap- 
pear documented at this time. These appear to the subcommittee 
members, as follows : 

1. That during the 1930's and 1940's, a considerable effort was 
made in the San Diego area to establish branch organizations. 

2. That parallel efforts were made to infiltrate the ranks of organ- 
ized labor in the San Diego area. 

3. That leadership in tlie party organization in the area, due either 
to its own inefficiency or to the alertness of security agencies failed 
to weld a cohesive and effective apparatus. 

4. That after a brief ascendency in organized labor, the efforts of 
the Communist Party to infiltrate were completely frustrated by loyal 
Americans within the field of organized labor. 

While these evidences are encouraging ones, it should not be as- 
sumed that the Communist Party and its numerous non-Communist 
aflaiiates, will in any way cease their efforts to plant Communists and 
Communist sympathizers in mass organizations, labor, youth groups, 
churches, and organizations whose efforts are directed toward the 
improvement of race relationships. The ultimate goal of world dom- 
ination as enunciated by all Communist leaders since Marx and Engels 
has in no way changed and infrequent defeats such as that which may 
have been met in this area have historically spurred the Communists 
to increased activity. 

The subcommittee appreciates the testimony which has been re- 
ceived from those who served for the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion within the Communist Party, and from those former Communists 
who have broken with the conspiracy and have come forward to give 
the Congress of the United States and the American people the bene- 
fit of their personal knowledge of Communist objectives and methods 
of operation. 

Knowledge is power, and information relative to the past history 
of Communist Party activities within the United States will make it 
possible for this Republic and its people to meet the threat posed by 
the new and fearful aggression against self-determination and the 
freedom of the individual. 

The coverage of the hearings by press, radio, and television here in 
San Diego has been excellent and has rendered it possible for hundreds 
of thousands of citizens to see communism in action. It has made a 
vague and indistinct threat something real and personal. The con- 
gratulations and the thanks of the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities are herewith tendered to the representatives of the informa- 
tional media who have covered these hearings. 

Last, but certainly not least, the committee wishes to extend its 
thanks to those who have attended the hearings here in the Chamber of 
Commerce Auditorium and to the many citizens of this area who have 
telegraphed, telephoned, or written in to express their approval and 
support. We, who are required to take sustained abuse and vilification 
from unfriendly witnesses, are frequently asked how we are able to 



4964 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

do it. The answer lies in those letters and telegrams from friends 
and supporters whose faces we never see but whose presence is con- 
stantly behind the committee table. 

In conclusion, the committee wishes to thank hospitable and beau- 
tiful San Diego, its public officials and its citizens for scores of little 
courtesies which the pressure of official business may make it impos- 
sible for us to acknowledge personally. The subcommittee and staff 
will remember each of them, however, as an added evidence of courtesy 
and good will. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee during the course of this investiga- 
tion has endeavored to determine the source of the financial help given 
the Communist Party. During the course of the testimony a will 
has been introduced in evidence, from the terms of which and from the 
settlement made in court, and which has been produced for the com- 
mittee, shows that the money went, a substantial sum of money, vir- 
tually the entire estate of the individual went to three persons. One 
of them was Laura Colwell. Laura Colwell testified that she did not 
consider the money was hers, but she refused to testify as to what 
occurred, as to what disposition was made of the money. 

William Schneiderman was another person to whom this large sum 
of money was left. William Schneiderman, of course, everyone knows 
was the head of the Communist Party of the 13th district comprising 
the State of California and certain other territory. 

Another person mentioned in the will as the beneficiary of this 
fund for certain stated purposes was Elizabeth Roe. 

There has been no testimony relating to Elizabeth Roe. Were you 
acquainted with Elizabeth Roe ? 

Mr. Hamlin. I am acquainted w^ith an Elizabeth Roe, but I would 
hesitate to develop that point inasmuch as I would not be positive to 
which Elizabeth Roe the document referred. So I would hesitate to 
go any further on that. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you know her as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Hamlin. Not as a member of the Communist Party during my 
period of time ; no. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Will you tell the committee, please, what the gen- 
eral scheme of the Communist Party was for financing its operations 
in the area of San Diego ? 

Mr. Hamlin. The Communist Party primarily raised its funds for 
operational expense from so-called donations of individuals in the 
San Diego area. A very small amount of money was, of course, ob- 
tained through dues payments, of which a certain small percent was 
to be kept in the county area. The balance, and the larger part of 
the dues payments, of course, went elsewhere. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have information of your own, based on 
your own personal knowledge, I mean of your own personal and 
direct knowledge, of the contributors to the Communist Party in this 
area? 

Mr. Hamlin. No. My job was never to collect from so-called 
angels. Mr. Toback, who has already been a witness before the com- 
mittee, an unfriendly witness, I believe, for a number of years that 
was his particular job, to collect from these people. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4965 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, it may well be that the committee 
should hear in executive session any other information that this wit- 
ness may be able to give us as lead information for further inves- 
tigation. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. Counsel will make whatever arrange- 
ments necessary. 

Mr. Tavenner. You w^ere active in the Communist Party in San 
Diego at the time of the beginning or the outbreak of the Korean 
War, were you not ? 

Mr. Hamlin. Yes, sir ; I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the Communist Party line with regard 
to responsibility for the Korean War as handed down through Com- 
munist Party channels to the local group ? 

Mr. Hamlin. The Communist Party line in regard to the Korean 
War was one that was pursued for quite a length of time, that being 
that the South Korean regime had instituted and had conducted the 
war, and that they were the people to be blamed for the whole thing, 
and, incidentally, I might add that there were a number of quite 
heated discussions on this particular issue, inasmuch as many of the 
actual rank and file Communist members, although their dissension 
and their argument was to no avail and very brief, had a hard time 
swallowing this kind of thing. 

The discussions from the standpoint of educational discussions prior 
to club meetings for quite a length of time were devoted, many of 
them, to the propulsion of this theory of the South Korean invasion 
of North Korea, 

Mr. Tavenner. And, of course, the adoption of such a line, such 
a theory of propaganda, could do nothing other than to hurt the 
prestige of the United States and interfere with its international rela- 
tions and destroy the morale of the fighting forces in the Korean War, 
isn't that true? 

Mr. Hamlin. That was the primary purpose of the propaganda by 
the Communist Party. Communists are taught that the Soviet Union 
can do no wrong. The Soviet Union in all instances, communism in 
all instances, is right. The theory of materialistic dialectics, as an 
example, which is a basis of operation of the Communist Party, can, 
if necessary, explain anything and the next day can explain it just 
the opposite and make Communists believe it is true. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Do you know of any instance in your long work 
within the Communist Party when the line of the Communist Party 
was in any way antagonistic to the foreign policy of the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Hamlin. That is the day I live to see. At no time did it ever 
deviate. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has there been any instance, to your knowledge, 
when the Communist Party supported as an organization the foreign 
policy of the United States Government when that was in any way in 
conflict with the interests of the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Hamlin. Not to my knowledge, and I think I could go a little 
further than that and say it had never been, 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there anything else you would like to state to 
the committee at this time, Mr, Hamlin? 

Mr. Hamlin. With the indulgence of the committee, I would like 
to read one short line from a book by William Z. Foster, entitled "The 
Twilight of Capitalism," which throws a great deal of light on the 



4966 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

subject of religion and the aspect of it in regard to communism, how 
Communists feel about religion. This has been projected into the 
hearing room at least by one witness who was an unfriendly witness, 
and I couldn't possibly close my testimony without bringing some 
light to shed on it because, in my estimation, and I believe in the esti- 
mation of many of the people, the leaders in the world who are 
fighting communism feel that at least religion, some form of religion, 
is possibly one of the guiding lights that we have for the destruction 
eternally of communism. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask what year that was published ? 

Mr. Hamlin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Who was William Z. Foster when he wrote it ? 

Mr. Hamlin. This book is copyrighted in 1949 by the International 
Publishers Company, Incorporated. William Z. Foster was at that 
time, and is at this very moment, head of the Communist Party of 
the United States of America. I will read one line at page 101 of 
this book. This line is as follows : 

There is no God of any kind anywhere in the Communist cosmos. 

Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think I shall change my mind and ask you about 
some other matters, although it is getting late. I think it is impor- 
tant enough to do it. 

A member of the committee asked about this matter during the 
course of the examination of another witness, and that is the directions 
that were given to the Communist members in the State of California, 
or in that area, regarding their attitude toward industry and what 
their approach to industry should be, and I have before me a letter 
under date of June 27, 1946, addressed to all Communists in Cali- 
fornia, signed William Z. Foster. I desire to offer the letter in 
evidence and ask it be marked "Hamlin Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Jackson. It is so admitted. 

(The document above referred to was marked "Hamlin Exhibit 
No. 1" and received in evidence.^) 

Mr. Tavenner. I will ask you to review the contents of the letter 
for the committee, in so much as may be necessary to show what 
the purposes of the Communist Party were in this area, what they 
were directed to do. 

Mr. Hamlin. This letter is dated June 27, 1946, and, as has been 
established, is addressed to all Communists in California. "Dear 
Communists." I will not read all the letter, but only a little bit of 
it. The first sentence is indicative of the purpose of the letter, I 
believe. Incidentally, I might divert here for a moment and say 
this is a letter that I had personally given to me as a member of the 
county committee in San Diego County, and as chairman of the club, 
in order to use it for promoting the activities which are directed in 
this particular letter. It says : 

Our national convention of the Communist I'arty was reconstituted. We have 
stressed the urgent need of securing a firm worli;iug class base for our party 
everywhere throughout the country. 

The contents of this letter go on to emphasize to the Communist 
Party and to the Communist Party workers on all levels that they 

^ Retained In committee files. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4967 

must as Communist Party members concentrate on infiltration and 
recruitment in industry. 

Here in San Diego that was one of the hues and cries of the Com- 
munist Party throughout the period of time that I was a member, 
that of having contacts, having Communist Party members if pos- 
sible in the industrial areas and shops in San Diego, and I might 
say that through the efforts of our government the Communist Party 
in the city and county of San Diego were in almost all instances frus- 
trated in their attempts to infiltrate into labor or into industry. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you consider as the best protection that 
can be afforded against — I am not speaking of security matters in 
which the Government is interested — but what would you think is 
the best method of protection that could be afforded the public gen- 
erally against the development of the Communist Party, the organi- 
zation of the Communist Party into a strong group in this community? 

Mr. Hamlin. One of the crying needs, not only in San Diego, I 
believe, but all over the United States and the world, for that matter, 
is a working knowledge of what the Communist Party actually stands 
for, not what it says it stands for, but what it actually stands for. 
A knowledge by the public that communism actually exists and is 
at their door, and in San Diego, as for example, we do have Commu- 
nists, that we would liave a Communist Party, a very hard core of 
working Communists, and the important thing is that although there 
may be very few Communists, relatively speaking, in the United States 
of America, that they are definitely a threat to our security. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Counsel, may I interject a question. Following 
the conclusion of each one of these hearings throughout the country, 
average loyal disturbed American citizens have come to Mr. Doyle 
and myself. They have said, "What contribution can I make person- 
ally, what can I do ? What should I do as an individual to play a role 
in this fight?" 

Is there anything out of your experience that you might pass along 
in answer to that question ? Frankly, there are times when I do not 
know what to answer as to how the individual citizen can play a 
part. 

Mr. Hamlin. Would you like me to say '? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, if you have any comment to make on that. 

Mr. Hamlin. That always is a very distressing question, inasmuch 
as I personally, when I am asked that question, would like to tell them 
something a little more concrete to do than to become familiar with 
communism and know how it works, be aware of it. It is a very dif- 
ficult thing, because the individual is limited in the amount of physi- 
cal participation that he can take in this particular thing at this par- 
ticular time. So, therefore, I reiterate that one of the best ways of 
fighting communism today, I think, is to know more about commu- 
nism and to tell their neighbors and their friends about communism. 

I have no fear as an individual that if every person in the United 
States of America knew what communism was about — I have no fear 
that they would become Communists. If the people in the world, 
even though people in occupied countries, who many today believe 
they are Communists, if they could foresee, if subconsciously they 
could foresee the end of communism, I feel certain that they would 
of their own accord rise up and crush communism. 



4968 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hamlin, this committee has striven for a num- 
ber of years as hard as it could to present evidence to the Congress 
of just exactly how the Communist Party operates. It has been 
unable to do that except to take individuals and show from their 
testimony all the circumstances relating to their experience in the 
party, each case being somewhat of the nature of a laboratory test. 
By that method Congress can be made aware of the real type of activ- 
ity with which the country is being confronted. Any time that we 
can learn of any other method of informing the Congress of the real 
intrigue and the real operations of this group, why, of course, we want 
to comply with it. If you have any other suggestions I would like to 
hear them. 

Mr, Hamlin. I think the procedure of the committee itself, as has 
been conducted in San Diego to all of our personal experiences here 
now, and I am sure under the same conditions in other places, is, in 
my estimation, one of the best ways that the public can be brought 
face to face with the reality of communism now. 

Personally, I would like to thank the committee for having come 
to San Diego and for making it possible for the people of San Diego, 
and I hope thousands of them, to see in action what they have seen in 
the last few days. [Applause.] 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, at that point, as long as our distin- 
guished committee counsel has referred to the United States Congress, 
of which you and I have the honor and responsibility of being Mem- 
bers, I have kept open this Public Law 601, the text thereof before 
me, these last few days, and yet the time is so short with these witnesses 
I haven't taken time heretofore to ask this question which generally 
I ask, as you know. 

Referring to Public Law 601, Mr. Witness, subdivision 3 of para- 
graph 2 says this to the Un-American Activities Committee, that we 
shall engage ourselves on — 

All other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

Now, you no doubt know that for a month before we came here the 
Judiciary Committee of the United States Congress have been con- 
sidering legislation to outlaw the Communist Party, and also for your 
information I will say that our own House Un-American Activities 
Committee is considering what legislation we shall recommend to the 
United States Congress, and in many cases, on important legislation, 
the recommendations we have made as a result of hearings such as 
this have been adopted in toto or in part by the United States Con- 
gress in legislation. 

Mr. Jackson. In 32 instances, if I may interject. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. Now, because you have been, and are, manifestly, 
a real scholar in the field of subversive activities, and have rendered 
a great patriotic service to our country, have you any thought you 
might give the committee in that area, and liave you thought through 
any legislation in addition to what we now have, if any should be 
placed on our statute books in the field of subversive activities? 

Mr. Hamlin. I have given it a great deal of thought, as I assume 
many of our citizens have. 

Mr. Doyle. I assume you have. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4969 

Mr. Hamlin. But, frankly, I am still at a loss to even suggest legis- 
lation that I feel would cope with the Communist situation. Per- 
sonally, I am rather inclined to favor the jjroposed legislation at the 
present time, of our outlawing the Communist Party. Now, I realize 
the difficulties involved there, as I believe you people, other than 
Communists would realize, but at the same time, I believe that we are 
in a world situation now that warrants such drastic action. 

As far as legislation is concerned, I do not personally believe, and 
as history has shown, that legislation alone will ever be the answer to 
it, because, in my estimation, and I am sure others agree with me on 
this, scholars of communism, we are at a point in the world situation, 
in the world today, where it must either of necessity be Communist 
or must remain free. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask this question. We are freedom-loving peo- 
ple. We believe in the freedom of expression, freedom of thought, 
freedom of the press, freedom of political debate ; and we must always 
do that, must we not? But what would justify, in your judgment. 
States or the United States Congress, on what basis would we be 
justified in legislating out of existence, out of legal existence, the 
Communist Party ? Why should we do that ? 

Mr. Hamlin. I would be happy to qualify the statement that 1 
made that I felt we are now in a world situation that warranted that. 
I would be glad to elucidate on that. 

From the standpoint of my personal belief, we are now operating 
against a totalitarian dictatorship. I am sure that everyone is aware 
that many things can be accomplished in a dictatorship, such as forced 
labor, stepped-up production of war machines, which would ultimately 
be our destruction and the destruction of democracy in the world. 
Since I believe that the United States of America is the last bulwark 
against communism in the world, I believe that we have the responsi- 
bility of taking every step that we possibly can to see that we prepare 
ourselves to keep democracy alive in the world. I, therefore, believe 
that of necessity this would be justified. 

Mr. DoTLE. Thank you. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have anything further, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. You may step down, Mr. Hamlin. 

I want first of all to pay you the compliment that I heard last night 
from mutual friends who had worked with you on veterans' affairs 
and who told me that during the period of your service to the FBI that 
you were considered to be the most obnoxious individual in San Diego. 
So well did you play your role and play your part that you were sus- 
pected of carrying bombs in every pocket. 

Secondly, I should like to say that your testimony — this is certainly 
without any reflection upon the testimony of other witnesses — has been 
marked by a dispassionate calm and practical quality which is quite in 
contrast with the hysteria that is brought to the witness chair by some 
who are determined not to lend any assistance in the fight against 
Communist aggression. Your calm and dispassionate appraisal of 
the situation as you knew it personally has added invaluable sub- 
stance to what the Congress already knows about the objectives and the 
methods and the nature of communism. I want to extend to you the 
thanks of the full Committee on Un-American Activities and to state 



4970 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

that we recognize the sacrifice which you made, and the great contri- 
bution which grew out of that sacrifice. 

With those words and sincere thanks from the committee and staff, 
you are excused from further attendance upon the committee, and the 
committee will stand in adjournment at this time subject to the call of 
the Chair. 

I am informed by counsel there is an additional witness to be 
heard at this time. Will you call your witness, and before he takes 
the stand, I should like to make one announcement, that Elbert A. 
Fonts and Frances J. Fonts, who were identified in these hearings as 
former members of the Communist Party, and who presently reside in 
La Jolla, will cooperate fully with the committee's staff in giving us all 
of the information in their possession. This statement is made at this 
time so that the public may know that these two individuals are avail- 
able and have evidenced their willingness to cooperate fully with 
the committee in making its study. 

Will you call your next witness, please. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN QUIMBY 

Mr. Jackson. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to gi^e 
before the subcommittee you will tell the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. QuiMBY. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. QuiMBT. John Quimby, Q-u-i-m-b-y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Quimby, you indicated a desire to appear be- 
fore the committee for the purpose of informing the committee what 
action has been taken and is being taken and what success has been 
reached in preventing the Communist Party infiltration in this area 
within the field of labor. We are very glad to have you make such a 
statement to the committee. 

Wliat is your official position ? 

Mr. QuiMBT. I am the secretary -treasurer of the San Diego Central 
Labor Council, A. F. of L. I am very happy to have this opportunity, 
and for the record I would like to say this, that the president of the 
Central Labor Council, Mr. C. O. Taylor, has had several phone calls 
in the last 2 days, and he would like me to make it clear that he is not 
the reformed Communist that testified the first day and I would like 
to have that for the record because Mr. Taylor is the president of our 
council, and has been in the forefront in fighting the Communists for 
many years. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee is very glad to have that made clear 
in the record. 

Mr. Quimby. Thank you, sir. 

May I say this, that it is no accident that the Communist have had 
no success infiltrating the American Federation of Labor and our 
unions in San Diego, and the reason for that is the heritage we have 
received from tlie very inception of the formation of the American 
Federation of Labor, in which Samuel Gompers laid down the policy 
that we will not be captured by any radical groups, and this has pre- 
vailed throughout many, many years. We even go further than that. 
We take specific steps at our national level, in which we have a wealth 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4971 

of information of all types on Communist activities, Communist 
techniques and the popular Commie front issue of the day. 

We furthermore go farther than that. We have a good many 
pamphlets which we use for consumption of our membership in com- 
paring, for instance, the number of working hours that it takes, or 
working days that it might take, to earn a pair of shoes in Russia and 
that it might take to earn a pair of shoes in the United States, and 
that, above all things, certainly would convince any American worker 
that they should have no part of the Communist Party. 

Now, I know it is late, and I do not want to stay too long, but I do 
want to say this : As far as our local history is concerned, we recog- 
nized the radical element, of course, many many years ago, in which 
the Central Labor Council and the local A. F. of L. Union said no- 
body will carry a dual card, they will not have a card in the IWW 
and the American Federation of Labor. When that was found, they 
were expelled from the American Federation of Labor. 

About approximately 1936 it was found in the Central Labor Coun- 
cil that there were a great many radical people, including Commies, 
that actually became officers of the Central Labor Council, and at that 
time they decided it was time to unload those Commies, and that is 
exactly what was done. 

At one meeting, as has been expressed, they were shaken up by the 
heels and their Commie cards shaken out of them, and those that re- 
fused to go were thrown down the stairs, and that is actually what 
happened. 

Back in those days, of course, the techniques of Commie infiltration 
was not as well known, but we in the American Federation of Labor 
recognize the danger ; we recognize the danger, because we know what 
happened to the free trade unions in Russia. They do not have such 
a thing. We knew what Mussolini, we knew what Hitler, and we 
knew what Joe Stalin did to trade unions. They dissolved them. 
They don't have any. That is why we have been so adamant in our 
fight. 

Now, again, throughout a period of years, in 1947 we again felt that 
we had what we thought might be Commies or fellow travelers, and at 
that time we changed our constitution of the Central Labor Coun- 
cil and made it impossible, we refused to seat a Communist, so we 
made an addition to that and stated we will refuse to seat a Commie 
or a fellow traveler, and at that time we liad 5 people, we felt, women 
and men, who were Commies or fellow travelers, and we made a little 
different approach this time. We gathered what we felt was conclu- 
sive evidence on what their position was, and we observed their opera- 
tion on the floor of our Council, in which all of the Commie techniques 
were used, and we expelled them from the Council. Some of the 
unions even went further than that and they took their livelihood 
away from them by taking their cards, which is an extreme measure, 
but we feel that dealing with Communists you cannot let any type 
of sentimentality interfere with your convictions. 

So some of those people that we ousted from the Central Labor 
Council were further ousted from their individual unions, and in many 
cases had to leave San Diego, because they couldn't find employment. 
It was an extreme measure, but something, we felt, was necessary. 

Now, through the Central Labor Council back in around 194G and 
1947 there was a great rush of Commie front organizations. We have 



4972 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

trained our affiliated unions to check with the Central Labor Council 
upon any type of what they might think would be a Commie front 
organization, or any organization that might involve organized labor 
in any type of Communist activities. 

Even as late as last Wednesday, when we had our Central Council 
meeting we had two characters down in front of the Central Council 
Hall starting to pass out these pamphlets that have been spoken of 
before attacking this committee. We believe in strong measures, and 
we ran them off and ran them up the street. That is the way we feel 
we must deal with them. 

I wish to further say I think we have been successful in combatting 
infiltration of communism, because we feel you can't compromise with 
a Commie. You can't say maybe there is only 1 or 2 here, and 1 or 2 
there, and there is not any particular danger. That is not true. As 
long as you have one there is a danger, and that has been our philoso- 
phy. The Central Labor Council of San Diego will never have a 
Commie or fellow traveler seated and we are adamant about that fact. 

We think further another way to combat communism is a well 
informed membership, and we use every medium we have through our 
international union magazines, also through our own labor paper 
which is distributed to all of the A. F. of L. members in San Diego 
County, to make every opportunity available to them to understand 
the dangers of communism and to let them know that the American 
Federation of Labor are solidly behind the capitalistic system which 
we operate under. 

Those are just a few brief remarks I am very happy to make, and 
I appreciate the opportunity, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Quimby, may I say that the congratula- 
tions of the people of San Diego and all the people of the country 
are due to the splendid job that has been done in ridding organized 
labor's ranks of these influences. Certainly there is nothing at all 
compatible between the Communist Party and free American labor. 

We are very happy to have you here today to make these few re- 
marks, and if we ever return to San Diego, and it does not appear 
particularly necessary to do so at this moment, we shall look forward 
to having the pleasure of your appearance again. 

Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mr. Jackson, Mr. Quimby's testimony in relating what 
the A. F. of L. has done in San Diego reminds me that some great 
man said eternal vigilance is the price of our liberty. Apparently 
the A. F. of L. in San Diego has applied eternal vigilance. I desire 
to congratulate them. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you very much, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Counsel, may we now adjourn? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. There being no further business to be taken by the 
subcomimttee, the subcommittee stands adjourned subject to the call 
of the Chair. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 14 p. m., the hearing was adjourned, subject to 
the call of the Chair.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF CALIFORNIA— Part 10 



TBIDAY, SEPTEMBER 11, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee 

ON un-American Activities, 

Los Angeles^ Calif. 
ExECUTTVE Session ^ 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10:55 a. m., in room 1117, Statler Hotel, Los 
Angeles, Calif., Honorable Donald L. Jackson presiding. 

Committee member present : Representative Donald L. Jackson. 

Staff member present : William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Miss Raymond. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JUDITH RAYMOND 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you please state your name ? 

Miss Raymond. Judith Raymond. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you born ? 

Misg Raymond. In New York City. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliere do you presently reside ? 

Miss Raymond. Los Angeles. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you relate your eductional background? 

Miss Raymond. Beginning how far back ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Begin with high school. 

Miss Raymond. I started high school in an experimental school in 
New York City, the Waldon School, and then I went to a Quaker 
preparatory school in Pennsylvania, and Vassar College, and gradu- 
ated from Vassar. 

Mr. Wheeler. What year did you graduate from Vassar ? 

Miss Raymond. 1944. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your employment background since 
leaving college ? 

Miss Raymond. Well, in August of 1944 I came to California. For 
the rest of that year I worked as a free-lance reader in motion pictures 
and other odd jobs like that, proof-reading. 

In December of that year I went to work for the Hollywood Writers' 
Mobilization. I worked for them until June 1946, and then took a 
brief vacation. 

1 Released by the committee following the hearings held In San Diego in April 1954. 

4973 



4974 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

In September I went to work for the Joan Davis Radio Show as a 
script girl. I worked through that season, until June of 1947, and in 
July I went to work for the Coronet Theater. It is hard to describe 
that job. There was publicity and running of 16 millimeter films that 
they were showing, and helping with the promotional work of the 
theater activities. 

I was employed until May 1948, when I went to work for the Berg, 
Allen Berg Agency. I was a secretary in the literary department. 1 
went with them with the merger with the William Morris office. 

I quit there in December and I haven't been working since. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you under subpena by this committee ? 

Miss Raymond. No, I am not. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are appearing here voluntarily today? 

Miss Raymond. That is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you represented by counsel? 

Miss Raymond. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you desire counsel? 

Miss Raymond. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. The committee's investigation of Communist infil- 
tration of the motion-picture industry discloses that you were at one 
time a member of the Communist Party. Is that correct? 

Miss Raymond. That is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you related your experiences as a member of 
the Communist Party to any other Government agency? 

Miss Raymond. Yes, I went to the FBI April of 1951. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you first become a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Miss Raymond. In the late spring of 1945. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you cease to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Miss Raymond. It is hard to establish a date for that, but it was 
early 1949, is my recollection. 

Mr. Wheeler. What prompted you to join the Communist Party? 

Miss Raymond. I had been aware of the Communist Party for many 
years. I was brought up in New York City during the depression 
and the Communist Party was very vocal during that period. 

I had friends socially who were, many of them, I found out, in the 
Communist Party. And when I came to Los Angeles, one of my old 
friends was William Pomerance, who many years ago, when I was a 
child, had been a riding counselor of mine. He was one of the few 
social contacts I had. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliere did you first meet Mr. Pomerance? 

Miss Raymond. At this children's camp. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you please identify that camp? 

Miss Raymond. Ethical Culture Camp. 

Mr. Wheeler. "Wliere is it located? 

Miss Raymond. Cooperstown, N. Y. 

Mr. Wheeler. Continue. 

Miss Raymond. Through Bill Pomerance and through my job at the 
Hollywood Writers' Mobilization, most of my social life, as well as 
everything I was doing at the office, seemed to involve the party, and 
at that time the avowed purpose of the party was not, in my somewhat 
confused mind, too divergent from that of the United States, which 
was mainly winning the war, and civil rights. I think those are the 
main reasons. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4975 

Mr. Wheeler. Prior to becoming a member of the Communist 
Party in Hollywood, were you a member of any youth organization 
affiliated with the Communist Party ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. In college I was a member of the YCL, Young 
Communist League. 

Mr. Wheeler. During what year in college did you become a mem- 
ber of the YCL? 

Miss Raymond. I became a member in my freshman year. 

Mr. Wheeler. The year of 1941 ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes, college year 1940-41. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall how you became a member of the 
Young Communist League ? 

Miss Raymond. Most of the students at college to whom I had in- 
troductions were through some of the same friends I knew through 
my associations with Bill Pomerance and his friends, who were mem- 
bers of the Young Communist League. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Bill Pomerance to be a member of 
the Communist Party prior to your entrance into Vassar? 

Miss Raymond. I didn't know him to be. I knew his sympathies 
were strongly in that direction, and arguments and discussions seemed 
to follow the party line. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you assigned to a unit of the Young Com- 
munist League while a student at Vassar ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes, there was just one unit at Vassar. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long did you remain a member of the Young 
Communist League ? 

Miss Raymond. I suppose for all 4 years. The last 2 I didn't do 
much about it. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many individuals were members of the Young 
Communist League group to which you were assigned, of which you 
were a member ? What w^as the total membership ? 

Miss Raymond. Between 15 and 20. I don't recall exactly. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you have any knowledge of any other group of 
the Young Communist League at Vassar ? 

Miss Raymond. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who recruited you into the Young 
Communist League? 

Miss Raymond. Well, I don't know if you could say I was recruited, 
because I was fairly willing, in the sense I sought them out. 

Mr. Jackson. Wliom did you seek out, specifically ? 

Miss Raymond. The 2 people I had my most direct contacts with 
on that were Claire Lipman Perry and Marcia Durant. 

Mr. Wheeler. You knew her as Claire Lipman ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. To whom is she married now ? 

Miss Raymond. Dr. Tom Perry. 

Mr. Wheeler. For the record, I would like to say that Tom Perry 
has been identified as a member of the Communist Party and appeared 
before the committee and pleaded the fifth amendment. 

Who is the second party ? 

Miss Raymond. Marcia Durant. I don't know whether she is 
married. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you know where she resides ? 

Miss Raymond. The last I knew was New York City. 



4976 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the other members of the YCL 
group were at Vassar ? 

Miss Raymond. I have some of them. Do you want me to give the 
names ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, if you will, and identify them as much as pos- 
sible. 

Miss Raymond. Charlotte Feldman, married to a gentleman by the 
name of Jonas Muller. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know where they presently reside ? 

Miss Raymond. He is a doctor, too, I believe. The last I knew was 
San Francisco. 

Molly Thomas, Ann Folsom, who is now the wife of Dr. Richard 
Lipman. 

Betty Bushnell, Dodie Ferris; she must have another name, but I 
don't know it. 

Ruth Murray. Bertha Cummings. Marjorie Polin. 

That is all I am sure of. There must have been others, but I don't 
recall them. 

Mr. Wheeler. How often were these meetings held ? 

Miss Raymond. About once every 2 weeks. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the oflScers were of the YCL ? 

Miss Raymond. I don't recall who the officers were, but Charlotte 
Feldman was the leading light. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall where the meetings were held? 

Miss Raymond. In one of the girls' rooms; whichever seemed the 
most secure. 

Mr. Wheeler. You mean in the dormitory ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the primary objective of the YCL at 
Vassar ? 

Miss Raymond. Well, during the 4 years it changed radically. At 
the beginning of that year it was the peace mobilization, and then when 
we got in the war, of course, it switched entirely ; it was for the sec- 
ond front. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was this in line with the Soviet foreign policy ? 

Miss Raymond. It was in line with the American Communist Party 
policy, which I assume was in accordance with the Soviet policy. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever known of an occasion where the line 
of the YCL and the Communist Party altered from the Soviet policy ? 

Miss Raymond. Not personally. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wag there a branch of the American Student Union 
at Vassar ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. To what extent did the YCL influence or control 
the policies of the American Student Union ? 

Miss Raymond. Completely controlled it, in my opinion. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did any members of the YCL hold offices in the 
American Student Union ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Could you identify that person ? 

Miss Raymond. I don't recall who was chairman when I arrived. 
At the end of my freshman year I was made chairman. It died 
shortly thereafter. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4977 

Mr. Wheeler. Did the American Student Union advocate peace 
during the Stalin-Hitler Pact, when the pact was broken on the second 
front? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. They were in accord with the same objectives as the 
YCL? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. You previously stated that Charlotte Feldman was 
a member of the YCL and also editor of the campus paper. What 
was the name of the school paper at Vassar ? 

Miss Raymond. Student News. 

Mr. Wheeler. To what extent were the policies of the YCL re- 
flected in the paper ? 

Miss Raymond. I think they were reflected in the sense there was 
usually an editorial giving more or less the party policy, but because 
there was only one paper occasionally there wag an opposing editorial 
or they would print letters back and forth. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever hold any position on the school paper ? 

Miss Raymond, No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know who the faculty adviser was of the 
school paper ? 

Miss Raymond. No, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did the YCL unit have a faculty adviser ? 

Miss Raymond. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did any professors at Vassar attend the meetings 
of the YCL, either as guests or lecturers ? 

Miss Raymond. Not of the YCL ; no. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was there a faculty adviser to the American Student 
Union? 

Miss Raymond. My recollection is there had to be, in order for it 
to be a campus organization ; but I don't recall who it was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Whoever it was, the faculty would be in accord with 
the policies of the American Student Union, or was there any friction 
between the faculty and the American Student Union or the paper? 

Miss Raymond. I would say most of the faculty was opposed to 
the Student Union, but Vassar has always had a liberal tradition for 
having the minority to be heard. No action was taken, to my knowl- 
edge. 

Mr. Wheeler. To your knowledge was there any unit comprised 
of faculty members of the Vassar faculty ? 

Miss Raymond. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Wheeler. Why did you sever your membership in the YCL? 

Miss Raymond. Well, I graduated and once out of college there was 
no point in being in the youth group. I didn't know precisely where 
I was heading ; I must have dropped out. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you have any additional information you can 
add to your testimony regarding your experiences in the YCL? 

Miss Raymond. I don't recall anything further. 

Mr. Wheeler. I believe you testified that you moved to Los Angeles 
in 1944. 

Miss Raymond. That is right. 

Mr. Wheeler. After your graduation from Vassar ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Before leaving the matter of the branch of the YCL 
at Vassar, perhaps you have touched on this, but were there any 



4978 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

faculty counselors or advisers or others of the faculty in any way con- 
nected with the student branch ? 

Miss Raymond. Not officially. Well, I would say there were two 
faculty members, both of whom are now dead, who were considered 
by the other members of the group to be friendly and were sometimes 
sought out for advice ; but they had no official connection. 

Mr. Jackson. They did not attend any of the meetings of the 
branch ? 

Miss Raymond. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. You previously testified that you first became a 
member of the Communist Party in 1945. Wlio recruited you into 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss Raymond. Bill Pomerance and Pauline Lauber Finn. 

Mr. Wheeler. Identify Pauline Lauber Finn as to her position. 

Miss Raymond. She was the executive secretary of the Hollywood 
Writers' Mobilization, where I was working at the time. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was William Pomerance's occupation ? 

Miss Raymond. He was executive secretary of the Screen Writers^ 
Guild, I believe. 

Mr. Wheeler. "Who was responsible for your employment in the 
Hollywood Writers' Mobilization ? 

Miss Raymond. Bill Pomerance. 

Mr. Wheeler. After joining the Communist Party, were you as- 
signed to any particular branch or unit ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. After what period of time, after you actually be- 
came a member were you assigned immediately or was there a lapse 
of a few weeks or months ? 

Miss Raymond. There was a lapse of at least 7 weeks, and perhaps 
longer, due partly to confusion in the party itself, upon the publica- 
tion of the Duclos letter. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the Duclos letter ? 

Miss Raymond. The Duclos letter was a public letter written by 
Jacques Duclos of the French Communist Party attacking the role of 
the American Communist Party, that it was playing. 

The American Communist Party was not a working-class party, 
not militant, that it was subject to all the influences of middle-class 
bourgeoisie. 

Mr. Jackson. It denounced Earl Browder's leadership of the Com- 
munist Party in the United States ? 

Miss Raymond. That is right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did it not also infer or state that there could be no 
further coexistence between communism and capitalism ? 

Miss Raymond. I do not recall the letter itself, but certainly that 
was ■ 

Mr. Wheeler. The interpretation ? 

Miss Raymond. Implication, as I recall the attitude. 

Mr. Wheeler. You previously testified tluit one reason for becom- 
ing a member of the YCL was that the YCL was in accord with the 
Government ; isn't that right ? I mean with the policies of the United 
States. 

Miss Raymond. I won't say that that was one of the reasons I joined, 
but I liad no reason to be suspicious of its being opposed. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4979 

Mr. Wheeler. After the Duclos letter was issued, wasn't there a 
sharp difference in the policies by the Soviet Union toward the 
Government of the United States ? 

Miss Kaymond. That is true. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did this affect you in any way, as you had just 
recently become a member of the Communist Party, did this in any 
way affect your thinking or did you just accept it as a matter of 
course ? 

Miss Raymond. I think I could explain it this way : I was a fairly 
lonely unstable girl in a new town. Most of my social life was involved 
with the Communist Party, as well as my work and political activities. 

Unreasonable as it sounds, I think my attempt was to try and fit 
my thinking to the people I was with, rather than to think for myself. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are placing the Duclos letter and the sharp 
difference of opinion then, arising then as secondary. 

Miss Raymond. My attitude was, "Well, they all say so, they must 
be right. I am wrong." My attempt was to keep myself in step, 
rather than to think for myself, what I really believed. 

]Mr. Wheeler. To what type of group were you originally assigned ? 

Miss Raymond. It was a mixed group of professional people mostly. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a member of the first group ? 

Miss Raymond. About 6 months is my recollection. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall whether the group had a name or 
number ? 

Miss Raymond. I don't recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall what section it was in ? Would it be 
the Hollywood section ? 

Miss Raymond. It was the Hollywood section. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever heard of the Hollywood section re- 
ferred to as the Northwest Section ? 

Miss Raymond. I heard that expression. I wasn't aware it was the 
Hollywood section. 

Mr. Wheeler. It is one at the same. I don't want to confuse the 
record. How many individuals comprised this group ? 

Miss Raymond. I would guess about 15 to 20. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the chairman was ? 

Miss Raymond. Maurice Clark. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you further identify Maurice Clark ? 

Miss Raymond. He was a writer, married to Helen Fisher Clark, 
who was the executive secretary of the Spanish Refugee Appeal, if 
that was the title it was going under at that point; whatever that 
organization was call in that year. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know her as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Raymond. It was an assumption; not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any other officers of this group ? 

Miss Raymond. No, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you pay dues ? 

Miss Raymond. I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall to whom you paid your dues ? 

Miss Raymond. No, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the names of any of the other indi- 
viduals of this group ? 

Miss Raymond. Jerry and Mildred Robinson. 



4980 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Wheeler. Is that Jerome Robinson ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. R-o-b-i-n-s-o-n ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was their occupation ? 

Miss Raymond. Jerome Robinson was a photographer. I believe 
his wife was just a housewife. 

Buddy Yarus, also known as George Tyne, the actor. Lynn Wliit- 
ney, a radio actress. And Frank Tarloff . 

Those are all the names I recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall where the meetings were held ? 

Miss Raymond. In people's homes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall what homes particularly ? 

Miss Raymond. In the Robinsons' home, and there was another 
home somewhere around New Hampshire, north of Hollywood Boule- 
vard, but I don't know the name of the people. 

Mr. Wheeler. You mentioned the Duclos letter. Do you recall if 
any outsiders or lecturers came to your group to explain the meaning 
of the Duclos letter? 

Miss Raymond. Not while I was in attendance. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you subsequently transferred to a second 
group ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the approximate date? 

Miss Raymond. About January 1946. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the reason why you were transferred ? 

Miss Raymond. There was a general reorganization at that time, 
and the group into which I went were mostly writers, who were also 
working with the Hollj^wood Writers' Mobilization, who by then had 
very little income. 

Mr. Wheeler. This second group was composed mostly of writers ? 

Miss Raymond. That is right. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a member of tlie second group ? 

Miss Raymond. Roughly a year. I am not too clear. 

Mr. Wheeler. That would bring it up approximately to January 
1947? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall how m.any members comprised this 
group ? 

Miss Raymond. Between 20 and 25. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the officers were? 

Miss Raymond. Pauline Townsend was the chairman. Dick Collins 
was the secretary. I was the financial director. 

Mr. Wheeler. You were the treasurer and financial director? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. "V^-lio else were the members ? Will you identify the 
membership ? 

Miss Raymond. Pauline and Leo Townsend, Ring Lardner, Jr., 
Alice and Ian Hunter, Bob and Mary Shaw 

Mr. Wheeler. Is that the Robert Shaw that held a position with 
the Screen Writers' Guild? 

Miss Raymond. That is right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Head of that publication department? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4981 

Miss Raymond. Yes. Jay and Sondra Gorney, John and Cookie 
Wexley 

Mr. Wheeler. Cookie Wexley is his wife? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. Pauline Lauber Finn, Bob and Kay Roberts. 

Mr. Wheeler. This Bob Roberts was head of Roberts Productions, 
and 1 believe he was a partner of John Garfield at one time? 

Miss Raymond. Yes, the same one. Meta Reis was on our rolls 
but never came. 

Mr. Jackson. Later Meta Reis Rosenberg? 

Miss Raymond. That is right. John Webber, and Lou Amster. 
Ben and Norma Barzman, Sol Barzman, Ben Maddow, and Bess 
Taffel. 

Mr. Jackson. Were these individuals you named as being members 
of the second group all or in large part members of the Hollywood 
Writers' Mobilization ? 

Miss Raymond. They were members of the Screen Writers' Guild. 
The Hollywood Writers' Mobilization didn't have individual mem- 
bership. 

Mr. Jackson. Wliat was your capacity in the Hollywood Writers' 
Mobilization ? 

Miss Raymond. Secretary, sort of assistant to — secretary to Pauline 
Lauber. 

Mr. Jackson. A great many of the writers were working at that time 
on Government work, were they not, on scripts and so forth for the 
United States Government? 

Miss Raymond. Many of them were, yes. 

Mr. Jackson. To what extent were Communist Party members 
given preference in the preparation of these Government scripts ? 

Miss Raymond. My impression was most of these Government 
scripts were voluntary jobs. It was hard to get anybody who wanted 
to do something for nothing in those days, and the chances were you 
got Communists to do the work because there was more discipline over 
them. 

The attempt was to get non-Communists activated in the mobiliza- 
tion, in order to keep it as a front and not let it become strictly a 
Communist group. 

Mr, Jackson. But Communist writers were doing scripts for the 
Government ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. However, when I worked for the mobiliza- 
tion most of that was toward the end of the war and most of that 
work was coming to a close. 

Mr. Jackson. What were the mechanics of this organization, so 
far as Washington and Hollywood were concerned? That is, would 
there be a request made for scripts or how did this whole thing 
operate ? 

Let's say, for example, the Department of the Army wanted to 
do 

Miss Raymond. I am aware of what you want. I came in in 1945. 
This was fairly late. At one time, according to what I could gather 
from the file, in past operations they worked very closely with the 
USO and did a great deal of material for camp shows. 

I am sorry to say I don't know too much about the exact channels, 
how these assignments came there. There was connection with the 
OWI. 



4982 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Jackson. What was the actual operation of getting a given 
script handled through the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization or 
handled through the Screen Writers' Guild ? 

Miss Raymond. The Hollywood Writers' Mobilization was con- 
sidered as the wartime writers' agency, much as the Victory Committee 
was considered the actors' agency. However, the Victory Committee 
stuck strictly to the war. 

The Hollywood Writers' Mobilization, through the Communist in- 
fluence, was continually hoping to expand its activities and keep 
functioning after the war. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have any personal knowledge of any contacts 
in Washington who were responsible for getting scripts ? 

Miss Raymond. I was too late for that. 

Mr. Wheeler. Getting back to the Communist Party membership, 
you stated you were treasurer ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Of this second group ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. And your membership was approximately a year 
from January 1944 

Miss Raymond. 1946. 

Mr. Wheeler. To- 



Miss Raymond. 1947. 

Mr. Wheeler. From 1946 to 1947? 

Miss Raymond. Roughly. 

Mr. Wheeler. You collected dues from all the individuals you 
have mentioned ? 

Miss Raymond. I tried. 

Mr. Wheeler. To what extent did you achieve that ? 

Miss Raymond. I was usually fairly successful in collecting the 
basic dues, which are the dues that every party member, regardless 
of occupation and income, must pay. 

The Hollywood section had an additional assessment of, to my 
recollection, 4 percent of the writers' net salary. 

Mr. Jackson. Net salary or gross salary ? 

Miss Raymond. My recollection is that the definition was net. How- 
ever, almost every case had to be taken and weighed for special con- 
sideration. There was much discussion whether an agent's fee should 
be taken off before you computed it, and alimony problems. 

Mr. Jackson. It would be a complicated procedure to arrive at any 
rule of thumb. 

Miss Raymond. That was the rule. It couldn't be arbitrary; you 
couldn't have collected anything. 

Mr. Wheeler. You mentioned some individuals refused. What 
individuals refused to pay ? 

Miss Raymond. No one refused to pay. It was a question of their 
parting with the cash, I guess. 

Mr. Jackson. It was more difficult to collect from some than others ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. It was always a problem to collect large sums 
of money. The writers would owe as much as 2 or 3 or 4 hundred 
dollars a quarter and we didn't want any checks floating around, so it 
was a question^ — many of the writers had business managers Avho were 
not Communists, and it was a question of how to spring that much 
cash without arousing suspicion of their business managers. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4983 

Mr, Wheeler. How much money would you say you collected dur- 
ing the period of one year ? 

Miss Raymond. My recollection is 3 or 4 thousand dollars; that is 
very rough. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you maintain any records '? 

Miss Raymond. I am sorry to say, I destroyed them all. 

Mr. Wheeler. The money you collected, whom did you turn it 
over to ? 

Miss Raymond. I turned it over to George and Tiba Willner. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know what happened to the dues after you 
gave it to them ? 

Miss Raymond. There was a division — I don't recall how much — 
a certain portion of it was supposed to go to the National Communist 
Party and a certain portion to the State organization and a certain 
portion to the county, and each club was permitted to retain a small 
amount for its own treasury. 

Mr. AVheeler. Did any of the individuals in this group appeal the 
4 percent and become what is termed as hardship cases ^ 

Miss Raymond. Yes. These are the people that had alimony prob- 
lems or other problems which made the 4 percent unreasonable to them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who settled the dispute of how much they were to 
pay? 

Miss Raymond. Well, people usually wanted these things kept con- 
fidential, so that the person involved would discuss it with his own 
financial secretary, who would then take up the case, either with 
George and Tiba Willner or possibly with the committee in charge of 
finances for the Hollywood section, and hand down a decision. 

Mr. Wheeler. In approximately 1947 you were transferred to a 
third group, is that correct ? 

Miss Raymond. That is right. 

Mr. Wheeler. AAHiat type of group was this ? 

Miss Raymond. That was a group of people in radio. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a member of the third group? 

Miss Raymond. Until about June of 1948. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who were the officers of the third group, as you 
recall ? 

Miss Raymond. The leaders of the group, I don't recall exactly 
what positions they held, but Sam Moore, Pauline Hopkins, and 
Mitchel Lindeman, and he was also quite active on a county level. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you further identify each of the three indi- 
viduals ? 

Miss Raymond. Sam Moore was a radio writer, comedy writer. 
Pauline Hopkins was also a radio writer. 

Mitch Lindeman, I don't recall exactly where he is working at this 
time. He worked in the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization for a while. 
He later became associated with Harold Hecht. 

Mr. Wheeler. Sam Moore at one time was president of the Radio 
Writers' Guild, national president, the same individual ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Pauline Hopkins at one time was married to Owen 
Vinson ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. I would like the record to show at this point that 
some of these individuals identified have appeared before the com- 



4984 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

mittee and cooperated. The ones that have cooperated are Richard 
Collins, Leo Townsend, Pauline Townsend, Meta Reis, Owen Vinson. 

Do you recall the names of the other members of this group ? 

Miss Raymond. Some of them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you relate the ones you do recall, and also 
identify them as to their occupation or any other pertinent informa- 
tion you may have concerning them ? 

Miss Raymond. Muni Diamond, Bill Wolff, a radio writer. Jack 
and Mary Robinson, radio writers. Gene Stone, a radio writer and 
partner of Jack Robinson. Angela Clarke, actress. Rubin Ship, 
radio writer. Jerry and Ann Fielding ; Jerry is a musician and com- 
poser for radio. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is he the same individual or same person as the ar- 
ranger for the group on Groucho Marx's program ? 

Miss Raymond. I believe so. 

Mr. Wheeler. He is an orchestra leader ? 

Miss Raymond. He is an orchestra leader. 

Bill Alland. Virginia Mullen. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is Bill Alland a producer ? 

Miss Raymond. At the Universal International. 

Lee Witner. Mike and Ellen Davidson. Fern Shea. 

Mr. Wheeler, Mike Davidson is known as Michael Davidson and 
he is executive secretary of the Radio Writers' Guild ? 

Miss Raymond. That is right. 

Bert Cooper and Ed Max, Stanley Waxman, and Ben Polin. 

Mr. Wheeler. Going back to Fern Shea, I believe she is the wife 
of a writer named Arthur Strawn ? 

Miss Raymond. So I understand. 

Mr. Wheeler. Bert Cooper is a radio writer ? 

Miss Raymond. She was when I entered the group. She left the 
group shortly thereafter to go to Chicago, and I believe she returned 
to Los Angeles, I don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. Ed Max is a writer ? 

Miss Raymond. Actor. Stan Waxman is an actor, and Ben Polin 
is a photographer for CBS. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you hold any official position in this group? 

Miss Raymond. I was again treasurer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you collect dues from all the individuals you 
have mentioned ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes ; I tried to, yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall to whom you gave the money you 
collected ? 

Miss Raymond. For a while I gave it to Margaret Maltz. And 
then to Naomi Robison. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did all the individuals in this group subscribe to the 
4 percent system ? 

Miss Raymond. That percentage only applied if you were making 
more than a certain amount a week or a quarter, I think, was the 
designation. Only a very few of these people were making that kind 
of money. 

Mr. Wheeler. What were some of the topics of discussion with the 
radio group ? 

Miss Raymond. Mostly about the radio industry. To some extent 
the contents of radio scripts that were appearing on the air. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4985 

Mr. Wheeler, You referred to contents. Will you elaborate 
further ? 

Miss Ratmond. I think the object of most of the people in the group 
was to improve their work, the radio writers, as well as be as progres- 
sive about it as possible. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were there any instructions for them to put any 
particular material in the script ? 

Miss Raymond. Most of them didn't work on the kind of scripts 
where that was likely. They were comedy writers; just old jokes, 
more than politics. 

Mr. Wheeler. Then there was no — — 

Miss Raymond. There was discussion of the woman question, how 
to i^resent women on the radio, and not as the butt of jokes, and to 
get away from the mother-in-law and that kind of joke. 

Mr, Wheeler. Do you recall how many radio groups there were? 

Miss Raymond. Three to my knowledge. 

Mr. Wheeler, Did you ever attend any meetings of the other groups 
or meet any officers of the other groups ? 

Miss Raymond, I never attended any meetings. There were occa- 
sionally joint executive sessions of the 3 groups, and there was also 
an educational class organized, made up of representatives of the 3 
groups. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the names of any of the individuals 
who were members of the executive committees of the other groups ? 

Miss Raymond. I think Charles Glenn and Elaine Gonda appeared 
at those meetings. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anyone else ? 

Miss Raymond. Hy Alexander, I think. I don't recall whether he 
was in my group or in the executive committee of one of the others. 
It seems to me that Angers Wooley was in one of those groups. 

Mr. Wheeler. In one of those meetings, you mean ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. It is very difficult for me to separate the 
people, where I met them, especially the ones I knew well. 

Mr. Wheeler. You attended educational classes or study groups ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat was the purpose of the class ? 

Miss Raymond. A class in basic Marxism, an elementary class. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long did this class last ? 

Miss Raymond. There were supposed to be about 12 sessions, I 
think, once a week. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall where the classes were held ? 

Miss Raymond. They were also held in people's homes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall whose homes ? 

Miss Raymond. That one was held at the home of Gene Stone some- 
times, and David and Pat Ellis. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who was the instructor ? 

Miss Raymond. Harry Carlisle. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is this the only educational class you attended, or 
study group ? 

Miss Raymond. To my recollection. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the individuals who attended this par- 
ticular study group or educational class? 

Miss Raymond. Aside from people I have already mentioned, I 
don't know of any others. There undoubtedly were. 



4986 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Wheeler. Approximately in July 1948, I believe you were 
transferred to a fourth group, is that correct ? 

Miss Raymond. That is right. 

Mr. Wheeler. AVhat type of group was this ? 

Miss Eaymond. This was again a writers' group. I was switched 
to that because I changed jobs and was working with writers. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the officers were of the fourth 
group ? 

Miss Raymond. Lou Solomon was chairman. I don't recall — the 
officers would keep shifting, and I don't recall who they were exactly. 
I was financial director again. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who were the members of this group ? 

Miss Raymond. David Robison, Louise Rousseau, Edward and 
Stella Eliscu. Joseph and Florence Michel, and Margaret Gruen, and 
Mary and Mike Simmons, and Sol Kaplan and his wife, Min. Selvin, 
and Harry Carlisle, and Carleton Moss. 

Dr. Frank Davis, and Nelda Salenger, Henry Meyers and his wife, 
and Seymour Robinson. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you collect dues from all these individuals ? 

Miss Raymond. For the most part. 

Mr. Wheller. Do you recall who you turned the money over to that 
you collected from this group. 

Miss Raymond. Mortimer Offner. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long did you remain a member of this particu- 
lar group ? 

Miss Raymond. Roughly until the early part of 1949. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, did you have occasion to meet people outside 
of your group whom you knew to be Communists ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes, from time to time. When the financial direc- 
tors would meet, and also during the many discussions on so-called 
Maltz articles which appeared in the New Masses. 

Mr. Wheeler. You stated the financial directors or treasurers' 
group would meet occasionally ? 

Miss Raymond. About once a month. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the names of the treasurers you met 
with? 

Miss Raymond. Some of them. There was Julian Zimet. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you further identify him ? 

Miss Raymond. A writer, motion-picture writer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who else ? 

Miss Rayiviond. Leo Townsend and Joan La Cour. I believe she 
was a secretary for the Hollywood Committee for the Arts, Sciences 
and Professions. I have forgotten the title of that committee. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is that all you recall of the treasurers ? 

Miss Raymond. That is all I recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat was discussed at these particular meetings? 

Miss Raymond. The purpose of the meetings was, first, to turn over 
the funds we had collected to Mortimer Offner ; and secondly, to dis- 
cuss possible methods of not only getting better collections of dues 
owed, but otherwise to raise money for the party. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many treasurers or financial directors attended 
these meetings ? 

Miss Raymond. I think there were supposed to be about 8 or 10. 
There were always a few that didn't show up. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4987 

Mr. Wheeler. Would this be the northwest section ? 

Miss Raymond. The Hollywood section. 

Mr. Wheeler. In other words, it would be 8 to 10 branches in the 
Hollywood section, is that correct ? 

Miss Ratmond. That is right. 

Mr. Wheei.er. That would include the radio writers, the motion- 
picture writers, the actors, the back-lot employees? 

Miss Ratmoxd. I don't recall whether the back-lot employees were 
ill it or not, but, yes, the others. The back-lot employees were always 
changing their notion as to whether they should be a part of the Holly- 
wood section or not. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would it be a group comprised of individuals en- 
gaged in talent field, rather than the craft field? 

Miss Raymond. Again it is hard for me to recall, because there were 
constant discussions as to whether the group should be organized along 
those lines. 

Mr. Wheeler. There was a secretarial group in Hollywood, too. 
Was there a representative of the secretarial group there? 

Miss Raymond. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Wheeler. There was also a musicians' group. Do you recall 
representatives of the musicians' group? 

Miss Raymond. I don't recall it. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have mentioned you attended some meetings in 
regard to the Maltz letter. Will you explain what the Maltz letter 
was? 

Miss Raymond. It was articles. He had written an article in the 
New Masses magazine about the role of the writer. The party took 
great exception to his point of view. 

Mr. Wheeler. In this article Maltz wrote he was pleading for more 
self-expression of the artist or writer, isn't that right? 

Miss Raymond. That is right, and more freedom to express himself. 

Mr. Wheeler. A^^lat was the result of Maltz' article ? I believe this 
appeared in the New Masses, this article? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. As I said, the party took exception to his 
position and 

Mr. Wheeler. The rank and file of the party or the officials of the 
party ? 

Miss Raymond. The officials officially took exception and created a 
great deal of discussion in the rank and file, even before the officials 
had come down. It was an old fight, in a sense, within the party of to 
what extent a writer should write his own expression and to what 
extent his writings — he was responsible for making his writings a 
social document of some sort; not necessarily a pamphlet, but at least 
a political point of view. 

Mr. Wheeler. "V^Hiat was the ultimate decision reached by the Com- 
munist Party in regard to this article? 

Miss Raymond. They followed the usual procedure of discussing it 
and discussing it until everybody, at least on the surface, agreed with 
them, and Maltz, I am sorry to say, finally wrote another article for 
the New Masses, saying that perhaps he was wrong, and reversing his 
position to a large extent. 

Mr. Wheeler. In the matter of reversing his position, what did it 
mean to you? 

Miss Raymond. I think I was pretty disgusted with him. 



4988 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Wheeler. I mean on a Communist theory level, what did it 
actually mean to you when he was directed to reverse his position ? 

Miss Raymond. It was never put that bluntly. 
Mr. Wheeler. Here is the first article he wrote expressing a desire 
for more freedom for the artists and writers. And he recanted, he 
reversed his position. 

Miss Raymond. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Certainly you can derive something out of that. 

Miss Raymond. I derived that he has no freedom. I think many of 
us were hoping that he would have the courage to maintain his con- 
victions. 

I at that point even was still of the opinion the party was dicta- 
torial in spots, that the way to change it was from within, because in 
having been brought up with democracy, the way you correct things 
is to work at them where they are and not to walk out on them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall if any top functionary came from 
New York City to discuss the Maltz article with the membership of 
the party ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes. I believe it was Samuel Sillen. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you present at any meeting at which Samuel 
Sillen spoke ? 

Miss Raymond. Yes, I was. I don't recall whether there were one 
or two meetings. 

Mr. Wheeler. The Maltz article has been discussed on numerous 
occasions in previous testimony. To go into it any further now, I 
don't think is necessary. 

However, I would like for you to advise the committee of the names 
of tlie individuals you have met at these particular discussions over 
the Maltz situation. 

Miss Raymond. Well, they were held again in homes. Compara- 
tively few homes could accommodate so many people. Dan and Lilith 
James, their home was used. And Abe Polonsky and his wife. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall his wife's name ? 

Miss Raymond. I knew the girl very well. I can't remember the 
first name ; I am sorry. 

Mr, Wheeler. Do you recall anyone else you met as a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss Raymond. There were two people, however, at the Hollywood 
Writers' Mobilization, Bert Bargeman and Thelma Walker. 

Mr. Wheeler. Can you further identify these people ? 

Miss Rayiniond. Bert Bargeman was assistant to Pauline Lauber 
Finn, I would say, and Thelma Walker was the secretary. John 
Stapp. 

Mr. Wheeler. He is a party functionary ? 

Miss Raymond. He is a party functionary. 

One other is Arnold Manoff who conducted a class. 

Mr. Wheeler. He conducted what type of class ? 

Miss Raymond. I said I didn't think I attended any other educa- 
tional class. I must be wrong, because it seems to me he was holding 
a series at his house. I don't recall the specific orientation of it. 

Paul Perlin spoke to us when I was in the second group, of the 
writers, at one of the meetings. 

Ray Glazer was in the radio group I was in. 

Mr. Wheeler. A radio writer ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4989 

Miss Raymond. He was, yes. He was very briefly. He became 
quite ill after that, and I don't know what happened to him. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now, how many months were you employed with 
the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization ? 

Miss Raymond. About 18, 1 think. 

Mr. Wheeler. Could you date the time, approximately ? 

Miss Raymond. Well, the middle of December 1944 to, I believe it 
was, June 1946. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was there a fraction of Communists who were also 
members of the Writers' Mobilization ? 

Miss Raymond. I think there was, but I was not a part of it. 

Mr. Wheeler. You were not a part of it ? 

Miss Raymond. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever attend any meetings of the executive 
committee of the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization f 

Miss Raymond. Yes, occasionally. 

Mr. Wheeler. To what extent did the Communist Party control 
the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization ? 

Miss Raymond. I would say to a very large extent. The most vocal 
people on the executive board, for the most part, were Communists. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Milton Merlin ? 

Miss Raymond. I know of him, not very well. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever attend an executive board meeting of 
the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization at which he was present ? 

Miss Raymond. I may have ; I am not sure. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever meet him as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Miss Raymond. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. At any time did you ever hold any position at the 
section level of the Communist Party or were you ever asked to hold 
such a position ? 

Miss Raymond. At one time — it must have been the summer of 
1946 — I went East for a vacation and I got a letter asking me would 
I be section organizer for the Hollywood section. They had just 
relieved Charley Glenn of the job. I declined the invitation. 

Mr. Wheeler. Getting back to the Hollywood Writers' Mobiliza- 
tion, do you know if any issue ever arose, any given issue ever arose, 
that a decision was reached by the executive board of the Hollywood 
Writers' Mobilization that would assist the Communist Party in its 
efforts and be detrimental to the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization, or 
were there any issues that sharp during the period of time you were 
employed by them ? 

Miss Raymond. I don't recall anything that sharp. When the war 
was over, after V-J Day particularly, the conflict was more whether 
the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization should continue or should not 
continue. It was mainly the Communists who wanted it to continue. 

Mr. Wheeler. Could you state for what reason they wanted it to 
continue ? 

Miss Raymond. As a propaganda medium. They had embarked 
upon the publication of the Hollywood Quarterly. There was an 
attempt to set up various craft committees again, which they have had 
from time to time, radio writers, screen writers, and there was an 
attempt at the end of the war. There was a series of radio programs 
on returning veterans. There was preparation for something on the 



4990 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

atomic bomb. I think the idea was to continue that kind of work as 
long as possible. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know of any connection between the Holly- 
wood Writers' Mobilization and the Actors' Laboratory ? 

Miss Raymond. I don't think officially there was any connection. 
They certainly worked closely. If there was an affair of some sort 
that needed actors, they would go and if the lab needed writers they 
would go. 

Mr. Wheeler. "VVliat was your reason for leaving the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Raymond. Fundamentally I think it was a process of growing 
up, where I finally came to realize, one, actually what they were saying 
was not what I wanted to hear. 

Also there was a sharp division between their avowed purpose and 
what they seemed to be actually doing^ when I got myself straight- 
ened out enough to see the thing more objectively. 

Also I realize that it wasn't a question of trying to make the organ- 
ization more democratic from within; this just was not possible. I 
no longer cared to be a member of the organization then. 

On the other hand, my whole social life for almost — almost com- 
pletely was involved with people of this group. One just doesn't sum- 
marily break it off. It isn't that easy. 

I was trying to find some more or less gentle way of disassociating, 
because if you quit with any show, then no party member is supposed 
to speak to you ; you are an outcast and untrustworthy. From their 
point of view, I suppose I was. 

However, one hesitates to disrupt one's entire life to that extent. 

They solved my problem for me a little bit. I was taking some treat- 
ments from a psychotherapist at the time, and the party held a posi- 
tion against psychotherapy to a large extent, and they asked me to 
take a leave of absence. I readily assented. They asked me to please 
be sure, when I finished, to come back. I left that hanging, knowing 
I had no intention of ever returning. 

Mr. Wheeler. The party recommended that you see a psychologist, 
other than one you did ? 

Miss Raymond. No, they did not. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you have anything else you would like to add 
to the record ? 

Miss Raymond. I just would like to say I am glad to have this op- 
portunity to tell you what I know. If I can add anything new, fine. 

Mr. Wheeler. That is all. 

Mr. Jackson. Miss Raymond, the committee is most appreciative 
of your cooperation in this matter. I am sure that I speak for all of 
the members of the committee in expressing our thanks to you. 

(Whereupon the hearing was adjourned subject to call.) 



INDEX TO PART 10 



INDIVIDUALS 

Page 

Ackerstein, Evelyn 4944 

Ackerstein, Lynn 4947 

Adams, Richard 4960, 4961 

Alexander, Hy 4985 

Alexander, Sterling C. (testimony) 4931-4943 

Alland, Bill 4984 

Amster, Lou 4981 

Anguis, Robert 4956 

Angus, Bob 4956 

Baker, Enos 4944, 4945, 4962 

Bargeman, Bert 4988 

Barzman, Ben 4981 

Barzman, Norma (Mrs. Ben Barzman) 4981 

Barzman, Sol 4981 

Bayme, Carol 4962 

Bender, Helen 49^0 

Boehm, Jeff 4947 

Browder, Earl 4978 

Bushnell, Betty 4976 

Carlisle, Harry 4985, 4986 

Clark, Helen Fisher (Mrs. Maurice Clark) 4979 

Clark, Maurice 4979 

Clarke, Angela 4984 

Collins, Richard (Dick) 4980, 4984 

Colwell, Laura 4964 

Cooper, Bert 4984 

Crittenden, Mr 4947 

Crittenden, Wilma 4947 

Cummings, Bertha 4976 

Davidson, Ellen (Mrs. Mike Davidson) 4184 

Davidson, Mike 4984 

Davis, Joan 4974 

Diamond, Muni 4984 

Doyle, Bernadette 4945, 4947-4949, 4959, 4960 

Duclos, Jacques 497&-4980 

Durant, Marcia 4975 

Eliscu, Edward 4986 

Eliscu, Stella (Mrs. Edward Eliscu) 4986 

Ellis, David 4985 

Ellis, Pat (Mrs. David Ellis) 4985 

Feldman, Charlotte 4976, 4977 

Ferris, Dodie 4976 

Field, Benton 4955 

Field, Loren 4955 

Fielding, Ann (Mrs. Jerry Fielding) 4984 

Fielding, Jerry 4984 

Finn, Pauline Lauber {see also Lauber, Pauline) 4978,4981,4988 

Folsom, Ann (see also Lipman, Ann) 4976 

Foster, William Z 4965, 4966 

Fonts, Elbert A 4970 

Fouts, Frances J 4970 

Fuller, Robert Harry (Bob) 4931 

Gallagher, Leo 4939 

i 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Garfield, John 4981 

Gatewood, Ernestine 4943-4955 (testimony) 4959,4961 

Glazer, Ray 4988 

Glenn, Charles 4985, 4989 

Goldblatt, Louis 4951 

Gompers, Samuel 4970 

Gonda, Elaine 4985 

Gorney, Jay 4981 

Gorney, Sondra 4981 

Gruen, Margaret 4986 

Hamlin, Lloyd 4959-4970 (testimony) 

Hecht, Harold 4983 

Hopkins, Pauline 4983 

Hunter, Alice 4980 

Hunter, Ian 4980 

James, Dan 4988 

James, Lilith 4988 

Jansen, Elmer 4962 

Jenkins, Dave 4954 

Kaplan, Min (Mrs. Sol Kaplan) 4986 

Kaplan, Sol 4986 

La four, Joan 4968 

Lardner, Ring. Jr 4980 

Larson, Elmer 4955 

I^arson, Mary 4955 

Lauber, Pauline (see also Finn, Pauline Lauber) 4981 

Llndeman, Mitchel 4983 

Lipman, Ann (Mrs. Richard Lipman ; see also Folsom, Ann) 4976 

Lipman, Claire (see also Perry, Claire Lipman) 4975 

Lipman, Richard 4976 

Lund, Nancy Rosenfeld (Mrs. Richard Lund ; see also Rosenfeld, Nancy) 4962 

Lund, Richard 4962 

Maddow, Ben 4981 

Maltz, Albert 4986-4988 

Maltz, Margaret 4984 

Manoff, Arnold 4988 

Max, Ed 4984 

Merlin, Milton 4989 

Meyers, Henry 4986 

Michel, Florence (Mrs. Joseph Michel) 4986 

Michel, Joseph 4986 

Moore, Sam 4983 

Moss, Carleton 4986 

Mullen, Virginia 4984 

Muller, Jonas 4976 

Murray, Ruth 4976 

Newsom, Bob 4962 

Offner, Mortimer 4986 

Perlin, Paul 4988 

Perry, Claire Lipman (Mrs. Tom Perry; see also Lipman, Claire) 4975 

Perry, Tom 4975 

Polin, Ben 4984 

Polin, Marjorie 4976 

Polonsky, Abe 4988 

Polonsky, Mrs. Abe 4988 

Pomerance, William 4974, 4975, 4978 

Quimbv, John 4970-4972 (testimony) 

Raymond, Judith 4973-4990 (testimony) 

Reis, Meta (see also Rosenberg, Meta Reis) 4981, 4984 

Roberts, Bob 4981 

Roberts, Kay (Mrs. Bob Roberts) 4981 

Robinson, Jack 4984 

Robinson, Jerome 4979, 4980 

Robinson, Mary (Mrs. Jack Robinson) 4984 

Robinson, Mildred 4979 

Robinson, Seymour 4986 



INDEX iii 

Pago 

Robison, David 4986 

Robison, Naomi 4984 

Roe, Elizabeth 4964 

Rosenberg, Meta Reis (see also Reis, Meta) 4981 

Rosenfeld, Nancy (see also, Lund, Nancy Rosenfeld) 4962 

Rothenberg, Jeff 4952 

Rotlienberg, Lillian 4952 

Rothstein, Ida 4953 

Rousseau, Louise 4986 

Salenger, Nelda 4986 

Sanjines, Marian 4949 

Schneiderman, William 4964 

Selvin 4986 

Shaw, Bob 4980 

Shaw, Mary 4980 

Shea, Fern 4984 

Ship, Rubin 4984 

Sillen, Samuel 4988 

Simmons, Mary (Mrs. Mike Simmons) 4986 

Simmons, Mike 4986 

Smith, Tony 4962 

Solomon, Lou 4986 

Stapp, John 4988 

Stevenson, Mr 4957 

Stone, Gene 4984, 4985 

Strand, Bert 4962 

Strawu, Arthur 4984 

Sykes, Artie 4956-4959 (testimony) 

Taffel, Bess 4981 

Tarloff, Frank 4980 

Taylor, C. O 4970 

Taylor, Daniel P 4932^934, 4936, 4939, 4940, 4956 

Thomas, Molly 4976 

Toback, James 4964 

Townsend, Leo 4980, 4984, 4986 

Townsend, Pauline 4980, 4984 

Tyne, George 4980 

Vinson, Owen 4983, 4984 

Walker, Thelma 4988 

Waxman, Stanley 4984 

Webber, John 4981 

Weihe, Henry 4932, 4933, 4935-4943 

Wexley, Cookie (Mrs. John Wexley) 4981 

Wexley, John 4981 

Whitney, Lynn 4980 

Wilner, George 4983 

AVilner, Tiba 4983 

Wolff, Bill 4984 

Wooley, Angers 4985 

Yarus, Buddy 4980 

Zimet, Julian 4986 

ORGANIZATIONS 

Actors' Laboratory 4990 

American Federation of Labor 4970-4972 

American Student Union 4976,4977 

Berg, Allen Berg Agency 4974 

California Labor School 4948, 4949, 4954 

Central Labor Council, San Diego, A. F. of L 4970-4972 

Civil Rights Congress 4948, 4953 

Columbia Broadcasting System 4984 

Communist Party, San Diego 4961,4962,4965 

Communist Party, San Diego, Logan Heights Branch 4944, 4957 

Communist Party, San Francisco 4948 

Ethical Culture Camp, Cooperstown, N. Y 4974 



Iv INDEX 

Page 

Hollywood Committee for the Arts, Sciences and Professions 4986 

Hollywood Writers' Mobilization 4973, 

4974, 4978, 4980, 4981, 4982, 4983, 4988, 4989, 4990 

Independent Progressive Party 4947, 4948, 4953, 4957, 4958 

Industrial Workers of the World 4971 

International Book Shop, San Diego 4932 

International Longshoremen and Warehousemen's Union 4949-4951 

International Publishers Company, Inc 4966 

Office of War Information 4981 

Office Workers Union 4948,4949 

Radio Writers' Guild 4983, 4984 

Roberts Productions 4981 

Screen Writers Guild 4978, 4980, 4981, 4982 

United Service Organization 4981 

Vassar College 4973, 4975-4977 

Victory Committee 4982 

Young Communist League 4975-4978 

William Morris Office 4974 

PUBLICATIONS 

Daily People's World 4940, 4941, 4943 

Hollywood Quarterly 4989 

New Masses 4986, 4987 

San Diego Evening Tribune 4931 

Student News, Vassar College 4977 

o 



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