(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the New Haven, Conn., area. Hearings"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



Q1IIRII 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA— Part I 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOUKTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



SEPTEMBER 24 AND 25, 1956 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



(Index in Part 2 of this series) 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1956 

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITLD BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENI 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN B. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHEKER, Ohio 

RiCHAED Arens, Director 
II 



(; O N T E N T S 



k 



September 24, 1956: Testimonv of— Page 

Bert David Gilden..! 5585 

Harold Kent 5599 

Bert D. Gilden (resumed) 5599 

Harold Kent (resumed) 5605 

Afternoon session: 

Oliver R. Arsenault 5612 

Frank Henrv Fazekas 5623 

William Pistey 563 1 

Milton Weinberg 5636 

Frank Peterson 5642 

September 25, 1956: Testimony of — 

Saul Kreas 5647 

Worden C. Mosher 5653 

Saul Kreas (resumed) 5654 

Worden C. Alosher (resumed) 5656 

Samuel Richter 5668 

Afternoon session: 

Harold W. Mosher 5678 

Charlotte Richter (Mrs. Samuel Richter) 5685 

Konstantine Jakowenko 5689 

Hyman Steinberg 5695 

PART 2 

September 26, 1956: Testimony of — 

Irving Dichter 5701 

Josephine Willard 57 12 

Rowena R. Paumi 5725 

Josephine Willard (resumed) 5726 

Rowena R. Paunii (resumed) 5727 

Joseph Barnes 5736 

Lois Barnes (Mrs. Joseph Barnes) 5739 

Afternoon session: 

Samuel Davis 5742 

Emma Davis (Mrs. Samuel Davis) 5745 

Paul Bloom 5749 

Doris Bloom (Mrs. Paul Bloom) 5751 

Bernard Burg 5754 

Saul Kreas (resumed) 5759 

Samuel Gru*'er 5761 

Rowena R Paumi (resumed) 5765 

Samuel Gruber (resumed) 5765 

Index j 

nx 



I 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress (1946), chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

RuleX 

sec. 121. standing committees 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) Ttie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (i) the extent, charac- 
ter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (ii) 
the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

• ••••*• 

RuleX 

standing committees 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress : 

*****♦• 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

• * <K * * * * 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

• ****•• 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make, from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA— PART 1 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 24, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 



New Haven^ Conn. 



PUBLIC HEARING 



A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met at 10 a. m,, pursuant to call, in the United States Courthouse. New 
Haven, Conn., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman of the subcommittee) 
presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, and Bernard W. Kearney, of New York. 

Stajff members present : Richard Arens, director ; Raymond T. Col- 
lins, investigator. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Pursuant to congressional authority and the rules of this commit- 
tee, Francis E. Walter, of Pennsylvania, Chairman of the Committee 
on Un-American Activities of the House of Representatives, has ap- 
pointed Bernard W. Kearney, of New York, James B. Frazier, Jr., of 
Tennessee, and myself, Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana, as chairman, 
of a subconnnittee for the purpose of conducting hearings here in New 
Haven, Conn. 

In the recent past, criminal proceedings were held in this city in- 
volving certain alleged violations of the Smith Act. The proposed 
hearings of this committee will not purport to cover the same subject 
matter; rather, these hearings will show a general pattern of Com- 
munist Party activities in the State of Connecticut. 

This is a continuation of similar investigations and hearings held 
throughout the Nation by the committee. During the year the com- 
mittee has held hearings in Charlotte, N. C. ; Denver, Colo. ; Chicago, 
111. ; Los Angeles, Calif. : and St. Louis, Mo., where information was 
furnished to this committee on Communist activities in these particu- 
lar localities. 

These area hearings on the Communist conspiracy throughout the 
United States are to enable the committee to gain current knowledge 
of the operation of the conspiracy so as to enable us to formulate such 
legislation as the facts may warrant. 

When investigating Communists and Communist activities, this 
committee frequently has been met with the false and unfounded 
charge that the committee is merely seeking headlines, that we are a 

5583 



5584 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

group of Fascists, that we are engaged in witch hunting, and the like. 
Such charges will not dissuade us from our duty. We seek the facts 
and only the facts. 

In the conduct of this hearing we are not interested in any dispute 
between labor and management or between one union and another 
union. We propose to ascertain the facts on Communist activity, 
irrespective of the field in which it occurs, so that the Congress will 
be enabled to legislate more ably and comprehensively to protect the 
security of our Nation. 

It is the standing rule of this committee that any person identified 
as a member of the Communist Party during the course of the commit- 
tee hearings be given an early opportunity to appear before this com- 
mittee, if he desires, for the purpose of denying or explaining any 
testimony adversely affecting him. 

I would remind those present that we are here as members of the 
Congress and, as authorized and directed by the Congress of the 
United States, to discharge a duty placed upon us by Public Law 601. 
Spectators are here by permission of the committee. A disturbance 
of any kind or audible comment during the testimony, whether favor- 
able or unfavorable, to any witness or the committee will not be tol- 
erated. Any infraction of this rule will result in the offender being 
ejected from the hearing room. Please observe the rules of the Federal 
court that there be no smoking in this room. 

Now I wish to welcome with us today your local Representative, 
Congressman Cretella. He is not a member of this particular com- 
mittee, but, like all Members of the Congress, he is very much interested 
in the work of the committee and the end that we seek. We are happy 
to have him with us. 

Congressman Frazier was unavoidably detained, and we are not cer- 
tain whether he will be able to be here during the course of the hear- 
ings. But we are two here and, therefore, have a quorum. 

We are happy to have you, Mr. Cretella, and hope you will be able 
to be with us throughout the hearings, if you find it convenient. 

The gentleman on my left is General Kearney, Congressman Kear- 
ney, of New York. And I am wondering whether you would care to 
make any opening observation. 

Mr. Kearney. No. 

Mr. Willis. Would you care to, Mr. Cretella ? 

Mr. Cretella. No. 

Mr. Willis. If not, our able counsel, Mr. Arens, may proceed. 

Mr. Cretella. I might say this, Mr. Chairman, that, representing 
the Third Congressional District of Connecticut, I welcome you and 
my colleague. General Kearney, to New Haven, and I trust that your 
stay here will be enjoyable. 

Mr. Willis. Thank you very much. This shows how fair things are 
on the committee: I am from Louisiana, and have a Republican on 
either side of me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bert Gilden. 

Will you please come forward? Kindly remain standing, Mr. 
Gilden, so that the chairman may administer the oath. 

Mr. Willis. Will you kindly raise your right hand, please ? 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5585 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. GiLDEN. So help me God. 

TESTIMONY OF BERT DAVID GILDEN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CATHERINE G. EORABACK 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. GiLDEN. May I be seated ? 

Mr. Arens. Certainly. 

Mr, Gilden. My name is Bert David Gilden. I live at 181 Grove 
Street, Bridgeport, Conn. The spelling of my name is G-i-1-d-e-n. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Gilden, will you kindly have a seat. 

Are you appearing today in response to a subpena which was served 
upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Gilden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Gilden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel please identify herself. 

Miss RoRABACK. Catherine G. Roraback, 185 Church Street, New 
Haven, Conn, 

Mr. Arens. Kindly give us, if you please, Mr. Gilden, a brief resume 
of your early life. AVliere and when were you born ? 

Mr, Gilden, Sir, before we proceed with the questioning, I have a 
procedural question which I would like to put to the chairman, and 
I am sure that, upon his answering, it would make it easier for me to 
answer the questions. 

It is also a question which I believe would clear up, tend to clear 
up, statements as to the nature of this meeing. 

I think the chairman has established this clearly, but I would like 
to put another question on procedure, if I may. 

May I proceed ? 

Mr. Willis. I do not quite get what you are inquiring about. 

Mr. Gilden. I have a procedural question that has to do with the 
nature of the hearing. 

Mr. Willis. I think you are intelligent, and you are represented by 
counsel, and as questions of procedure develop we will meet them. 

Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Gilden. This is a question that requires my full knowledge and 
understanding at the moment in order for me to go ahead with my 
answers. 

Mr. Willis. Our opening statement speaks for itself. 

Mr. Gilden. May I seek counsel ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Gilden. I was born January 15, 1915 ; Los Angeles, Calif. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly give us, if you please, sir, a brief resume of your 
education. 

Mr. Gilden. I began my education in the schools of Bridgeport. I 
would have to think back to the exact date at the moment. 

Mr. Arens. Your best recollection. 



5586 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. GiLDEN. The first school I attended in Bridgeport was Shelton 
School, Wheeler Avenue in Bridgeport, Conn. 

My family then moved to another section of the city, and I attended 
Barnum School on Noble Avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. Subsequently 
they moved again, and I attended Elias Howe School in Bridgeport, 
Conn. Subsequently I went to Central High School for 4 years in 
Bridgeport, Conn. Subsequently I attended Brown University at 
Providence, R. I. 

Mr. Arens. If you will pardon the interruption, Mr. Gilden. 

"W-lien did you attend Brown University ? 

Mr. Gilden. I attended Brown University from 1932 to 1936. Subse- 
quent to that I went to the Armed Forces Overseas Training School, 
in the Army. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a degree from Brown University ? 

Mr. Gilden. Yes. I received an A. B. degree, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. That was in 1936? 

Mv. Gilden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Pick up the thread of your narrative there, sir. 

Mr. Gilden. Subsequently I went — well, first, I took my basic train- 
ing at Fort Knox in the Armed Forces Training Center. Then I 
volunteered to attend the Officers Candidate School in the armored 
force. I attended that for the 16 weeks, I believe — whatever that 
course was at the time. Then I attended the Fifth Army Battle 
School in North Africa; I attended the Armored Force Training 
School in Italy ; I attended the Armed Force I. and E. School at the 
University of Sorbonne for several weeks in 1945, I believe it was. 
Subsequently to that 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. 

You were a commissioned officer ? 

Mr. Gilden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ArIsns. While attending these various schools? 

Mr. Gilden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What position did you hold? 

Mr. Gilden. I held the position of second lieutenant. 

Mr. Arens. Did you hold that commission throughout the period 
of your service ? 

Mr. Gilden. No. I held that position from 1943 to 1945, 1 believe. 
Previous to that I was an enlisted man in the United States Army. 

Mr. Arens. Did you hold a commission besides that of second 
lieutenant? 

Mr. Gilden. I held a noncommission of sergeant. 

Mr. Arens. But you held no commission other than the commission 
of second lieutenant ? 

Mr. Gilden. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. I am not quite sure as to whether the record is clear as 
to your branch of service. 

Mr. Gilden. I was commissioned in the United States Cavalry, 
trained in the United States Armored Force. I was in tank work. 
Following my release from the Army in 1948, until approximately — 
let's see. 

Excuse me. 

The spring of 1949, the fall of 1949 to the spring of 1952—3 years, 
I believe — I attended the Professional Writers' Clinic at New York 
University. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5587 

Mr. Arens. Will you excuse me a moment? 

When were you actually discharged from the United States Army ? 

Mr. GiLDEX. T think m}^ discharge actually reads — it is a matter of 
public record. I think it is January 1, 1946, or December 31, 1945. I 
was in the Army from August 1941 to, let's say, the end of 1945. 
■ Mr. AitENS. Now, if it will not discommode you, could you pick up 
the thread and narrative of your life at the time of your discharge 
from the Army at tlie end of 1945. I believe you said yon started 
school. But tlie record should be quite clear as to the exact time. 

Mr. GiLDEX. I started school in 1949. 

Mr. Akens. Then will you pardon this interruption, sir. 

From 1946 to 1949 how were you engaged ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. When I got out of the Army I decided that I would 
pursue a fiction-writing career, that having been my ambition. And, 
because of my war experience, I felt that I had advanced to a level of 
maturity in whicli I nnist strive to create my creative ability to its 
highest level, whicli I have been always taught is in the level of fiction, 
which is in the study of relationships of people and character. In 
order to pursue that, I felt that I wanted to get away from what seemed 
to me to be the turbulent life of the East where I had lived, and that I 
would go into the South and find some quiet, romantic spot where I 
wo\dd be able to get myself in tranquility and peace away from the 
normal exigencies of pressures of life, that I would be able to write a 
body of work which would indicate to me, and to others as well, the 
amount of talent and the potential that I had in the field, which was 
my prof oundest desire to participate in. 

Mr. Arens. Now we are in 1946 ? 

Mr.GiLDEN. Yes, 1946. 

I proceeded — well, I think my original intention was to go to Flor- 
ida, but in the process, because of events, mainly dealing with personal 
relationships, I stopped off at Georgia, and I remained in Georgia. 

I was in the area generally of Savannah, south of Savannah, 100 
miles, for, oh, 2 years in which I strove to the best of my ability to 
create a body of work which would prove as I have previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in the employ of any person or organization ? 

Mr. Gtlden. No, I was employed by no organization. I had no 
organizational contacts. 

Mr. Arens. Am I clear in my impression, from what you tell ns, 
that you were a free-lance writer ? 

Mr. Gilden. I think that would generally describe it. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us for what publications you were writing ? 

Mr. Gilden. I was not writing for any publication. I was striving, 
as I said, to get a body of work. 

Ixt me describe it this way : I had been taken out of my profession 
in 1941, when I went into the Army, and thrown into a situation of 
complete military activity. I was 21/2 years in the frontlines. I Avas 
completely removed from any kind of relationship with my profes- 
sion because of the nature of the war and the nature of the war situa- 
tion that I w^as thrown into as a frontline soldier in particular. 

Now, having been removed from that situation, therefore I was seek- 
ing a situation in which I could pick up the threads of my profession 
which had been shattered, and, in writing — practicing the writing — 
determine the extent of my ability and potential that I would be able 
to develop. 



5588 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

I was a free-lance writer without any connection whatsoever. I 
wrote for no magazine, but I did have contacts in New York because 
of my previous experience. 

Mr. Arens. And your works were published, I take it ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Subsequently, yes. 

Mr. Arens. In the form of books or articles? Or how were they 
published ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. The published works that I have published are in the 
form of fiction stories. 

Mr. Arens. I see. 

Mr. GiLDEN. May I say, sir, that this is all a matter of public record. 
The Bridgeport Herald has constantly followed my career. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

I believe we skipped a few years there in the sequence of events 
in your life. 

You received your bachelor of arts degree in 1936, you said, and 
were taken into the Army in 1941 ? 

Mr. Gilden. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a resume or thumbnail sketch of your activity. 

Mr. Gilden. I had no education in that. You were asking me ques- 
tions about my education. 

Mr. Arens. I understand. 

Mr. Gilden. Do you want me to revert to 

Mr. Arens. Employment. 

Mr. Gilden. Are we finished with my education ? 

Mr. Arens. I wanted to be sure that we have the correct chronology 
here. If you would pause and give us a quick fill-in on your employ- 
ment activities from 1936, when you received your bachelor of arts 
degree, until you went into the Army. 

Mr. Gilden. I will have to proceed before that, because I worked 
at jobs previous to my graduation from college. 

Mr. Arens. I do not want to confuse you. Perhaps you would 
rather continue on your education, and then we can come back. 

Mr. Gilden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now we are up to 1949, as I recall your statement. And 
you said you had gone to some school, I believe, for the study of the 
arts or literature. 

Mr. Gilden. No, sir. I said that in 1949 1 attended the Professional 
Writers' Clinic at New York University. 

Mr. Arens. 1949? 

Mr. Gilden. Wliich is not the study of the arts but the pursuit of 
the study of writing. 

Mr. Arens. In 1949. 

Mr. Gilden. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a degree ? 

Mr. Gilden. There was no degree coming out of this kind of work. 
There is no school in this country which provides a degree for a pro- 
fessional writer. 

New York University, Columbia, and perhaps 1 or 2 other univer- 
sities in this country provide a situation in which a person who is a 
writer can present certain materials. They will decide the merit of 
this work. If the work is considered to be a meritable work, they 
thereupon allow you to attend this university so that you can continue 



commuisjIst activities in new haven, conn., area 5589 

to develop as a professional writer or a writer who will ultimately 
meet the high standards of this field. 

I did present my work that I had done in the South, in Georgia, as 
I stated before, during this period. I presented it to the Professional 
Writers' Clinic at NYU. They read the work and thought it was a 
work of merit and had a potential, and they thereupon allowed me to 
enter this university. 

Mr. Arens. Now, would you just tell us how long you attended the 
university ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Three years. I was at the Professional Writers' Clinic 
for 3 years. 

jMr. Arens. Would you characterize your status there from 1949 to 
1952 as a student? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I would say "Yes," that I might call it being a student. 
I think it is a vague definition because I had already had a degree. 

Mr. Arens. That gets us up to 1952 in your education. Was there 
auA' other education besides that which you have described ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Any further education? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. GiLDEN. In a formal sense; no. 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps you would like to tell us about any education 
in an informal sense, 

Mr. GiLDEN, About an informal sense, yes, I think I can talk about 
education in an informal sense. May I consult my attorney on this 
point, please? 

Mr, Arens, Surely. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. "V^Hiiat I was referring to is a literary figure of speech, 
if you will, sir, one of the great writers 

Mr, Willis, The question is, as I understand it, Did he have any 
more formal education? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Informal. 

Mr. xYrens. This completed your formal education at New York 
University ? 

Mr. GiLDEN, That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any specialized or what you might charac- 
terize as informal training or education? 

^Ir. GiLDEN. As I say, I am referring to this as in tlie literary 
sense — life itself is a school. During the past few years I considered 
my work, my political activity, all of which, of course, is of a public 
nature, as informal education. 

Mr. Arens, Is all of this political activity which you describe of 
a public nature? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I would say to a considerable extent; yes, I would 
say that I am a public figure and that generally my political activity 
is controversial and discussed; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend any of the institutions to which you have 
alluded, New York I^niversity in particular, under the GI bill of 
rights? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Yes, sir; I did. I exercised my right under the GI 
bill in fulfillment of my Army experience. 

Mr, Arens, Now, please, sir, let us revert to the chronology of your 
life, to your employment. 



5590 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Tell us the principal employments which you have had since you 
gained adulthood. 

Mr. GiLDEN. I was employed 

Mr. Arens. We are not interested in menial jobs, errand boys, jobs 
that a boy might have while going to school. 

Mr. Gii.DEN. I think the first employment that I might indicate as 
an adult employee was while I vras in high school. I was a corres- 
pondent for the local newspaper. 

Mr. Arens. Wiat year was that ? Do you recall ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Let's see. 

Mr. Arens. Just your best recollection. 

Mr. GiLDEN. In the nature of 19,31-33. 

Mr. Arens. Then what next? 

Mr. GiLDEN. No, not 1931. I would say 1928 or 1929. 

Mr. Arens. What was the next significant employment that you 
had? 

Mr. GiLDEX. Well, I would say while I was going to Brown Uni- 
versity I had many jobs which I would consider of an adult nature. 
For instance, I held a free-lance advertising job while I was at Brown, 
in order to earn a living. I sold advertising for a blotter wiiich was 
distributed at the university. 

One summer there, through a classmate of mine, I secured a job as 
cashier at the Rockingham race track. I earned my meals, and it was 
menial work with the restaurant, 

Mr. Arens. What was your next principal employment after your 
work on the paper ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I worked with Warner Bros. Pictures. 

Mr, Arens. Can you tell us when and where that was ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Yes, That was 1936 to 1941 approximately, 

Mr, Arens. All right, sir. What type of work were you engaged 
in for Warner's ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I was a publicist at Warner Bros. Pictures. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that, please, sir ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. In New York City. I started out as an errand boy, 
and, if you are interested in it, I went to the publicity department as a 
trainee there. 

Mr, Arens. May we proceed after your work there. 

Mr. GiLDEN. I started as a trainee there, based on my college educa- 
tion, and when I finished I was the personal contact with the movie 
magazines. 

Mr. Arens. Then in 1941, after the conclusion of your employ- 
ment with Warner's, what was your next employment ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. The United States Army. 

Mr. Arens. You have told us about that, and that took you up to 
January of 1946 or thereabouts. 

Mr. GiLDKN. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us what your next employment was. 

Mr. GiLDEN. My next employment — well, I was a free-lance writer, 
as we designated before. 

Mr. Willis. I think he had explained that from 1946 to 1949 

Mr. GiLDEN. Sir? 

Mr. Willis. I think you explained the period from 1946 to 1949. 

Mr. GiLDEN. Yes, sir. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5591 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir ; what did you do after 1949 ? What was 
your employment? 

Mr. Gllden. My employment generally was a combination of sev- 
eral things. As a student from 1949 to 1952, I was a free-lance 
writer at that time as well. I had several things published during 
that period, in collaboration with my wife. I think I had 3 or 4 
stories sold during that x)eriod to magazines. 

Mr. ^Vbens. Let us pick up the thread of your employment record 
from 1951 or 1952. Tell us where you were employed, 

Mr.GiLDEX. 1951-52? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. GiLDEN. Again a combination of professions. I felt my general 
profession as a writer, because of a peculiar set of circumstances — 
my wife and I, who had begun to be established in our field — one of 
our stories was published quite widely. 

Actually, sir, because of a situation that developed, until recently 
I was not quite aware of it, of the Cogley report, put out by 

Mr. xVkens. Fund for the Kepublic, Inc. i 

Mr. GiLDEN. Fund for the llepublic. I began t^ understand exactly 
what did happen to me during that period. 

Mr. Arens. Employment opportunities were precluded to you i 

Mr. GiLDEN. I was a free-lance writer. 1 started to publish in major 
magazines in this country. Collier's magazine, for instance. 1 was 
looked upon in collaboration with my wife — we were looked upon 
as short-story writers of great ability and potential, and our repre- 
sentative, our literary representative, was making arrangements for 
us to submit our stutf to this magazine, first, because they wanted to 
see everything we did. They didn't want to sell it to any other 
magazine. 

This was going on during this period, and, all of a sudden, the 
people became very cold and we didn't understand the nature, and 
we got very curt letters. 

Subsequently, in reading the Cogley report, it became apparent to 
me that most writers were being cleared. As a matter of fact, we 
sold something some place that wasn't even published, and got paid 
for it. It was a script — nothing to do with politics, mind you, but a 
script about the war, actually. 

]\ir. Arens. That was never published ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. It was never published, never produced. 

Mr. Arens. What time are we in ? 1952 ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. In that general area. Because of the Cogley report, 
it seemed to me that we did not get clearance in these channels, the 
perverse channels that had been set up— I am not a lawyer — in which 
people had to get clearance in order for them to get even fiction 

Mr. Arens. What kind of clearance ^ 

Mr, GiLDEN. I am talking about the Cogley report. I don't know 
the details. 

Mr. Arens. Was that a security clearance ? 

Mr. GiLDEN, FBI agents working for organizations called Eed 
Channels 

Mr, Arens. Is it my understanding that you were not able to get 
a security clearance ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. This wasn't a security clearance. 

Mr. Arens. You weren't able to get a clearance ? 



5592 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. GiLDEN. You are more familiar with the Cogley report. 

Mr. Arens. What was your next employment in 1952 ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. May I finish the explanation ? 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. I thought you had. 

Mr. GiLDEN. No, sir ; I had not. 

I said I was a free-lance writer, and I continued to be, and my pro- 
fession at the moment was a free-lance fiction writer. 

What I was explaining was: During this period, though I didn-t 
understand at the time, subsequently the Cogley report made it ap- 
parent to me that certain individuals were pointing out that I was 
a person of certain political activity, which I was, and this was a 
matter of public record 

Mr. Kearney. Wliat political activity was that ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I had run as a candidate of the People's Party in 
1950, I believe it was. 

Mr. Kearney. Is that simply a political party in the State of Con- 
necticut ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. People's Party in the State of Connecticut affiliated 
with the Progressive Party of America. 

Mr. Arens. You were a candidate for the People's Party? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Let us get on with the chronolgy of your labors. 

Mr. GiLDEN. That is what I am trying to do. 

Mr. Arens. You told us about the difficulty you had, and it had 
become apparent where you were unable during that period to 

Mr. GiLDEN. To earn a living. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what other employment you had during this 
time, 1951 and 1952. 

Mr. GiLDEN. Wliat I was going to say, my major point: I was a 
free-lance writer, and the objective that my wife and I set for our- 
selves was to write a novel based on our own experience, which would 
be of such high standard and be so important and significant that 
there would be no censorship in any land or any country that could 
stop its publication. 

Our study of history and our study of literature indicated that 
this high type of thing transcended any censorship on the part of 
the self-appointed guardians of our culture. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us of any other employment that you 
had in 1951 or 1952? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I believe it was in 1950, while I was attending the 
Professional Writers' Clinic. May I say, sir, before I proceed to 
answer, that I recognize— though I am sure it is not the intent of 
the committee — that the question this is leading into is the general 
atmosphere, general ignorance of the country 

Mr. Kearney. We cannot hear you up here. 

Mr. Arens. If you will kindly keep your voice up and tell us the 
employment you had in 1951 and 1952. 

Mr. GiLDEN. I want to point out a constitutional exception at this 
point. 

Mr. Arens. I did not understand you. 

Mr. GiLDEN. I want to point out a constitutional exception. 

Mr. Willis. This is no forum to expound your theory on that open 
field yet. Maybe you will be given an opportunity after a while. 



COaaiUXIST ACTIVITIES II\ NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5593 

Counsel is simply trying to lay the foundation first for your edu- 
cation, which you did give after much time, and your employment. 
That is all he is talking about. 

Mr. GiLDEN. Yes; I will cooperate with the counsel, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell the committee what employment you had in 
1951 and 1952. 

Mr. GiLDEN. Sir, it is my understanding that procedural matters in 
these hearings have some precedence. I simply want to place a ques- 
tion of procedure, and then I will continue. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. GiLDEN. It will make it easier. 

Mr. Arens. Tell the committee what employment you had in 1951 
and 1952. 

Mr. Kearney. It would help if you shortened your answers a little. 

Mr. GiLDEN. Sir, I am attempting to give the committee as full a 
picture as possible. 

Mr. Kearney . As for procedural points, I think the committee is 
familiar with those. 

Mr. GiLDEN. May I state that I will answer the questions that fol- 
low, but this is a question of my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr, Willis. Mr. Arens, what is the pending question ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, the pending question to Mr. Gilden is : 
In what employment was he engaged in 1951 and 1952 ? 

Mr. Kearney. That is a very simple question. 

Mr. Gilden. I wish to simply state that under the fifth amendment, 
I believe that you are entering grounds which deprive me of my 
right to property, the right to hold a job. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
answer this question. 

Do you honestly apprehend, Mr. Gilden, that if you told this com- 
mittee, while you are under oath, the employment in which you were 
engaged in 1951 and 1952 you would be supplying information which 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Gilden. Sir, I said 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that last principal question. 

Mr. WiiAis. Yes; you are directed to answer the question, because 
that is the test of your good faith. 

Mr. Gilden. May I have the question repeated. 

Mr. Arens. I should be very happy to do so, Mr. Gilden. 

Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this committee truth- 
fully, while you are under oath, the employment in which you were 
engaged in 1951 and 1952 you would be supplying information which 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Gilden. Of couree not, sir. The answer is "No." 

Mr. Arens. Then, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to the employment 
in which he was engaged in 1951 and 1952. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer. 

Mr. Gilden. I shall proceed and answer that question. It is my 
intention to answer at all times, sir. 

I simply wanted to indicate that the question transgresses a consti- 
tutional right. 

8404(5—56— pt. 1 2 



5594 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Willis. Are you invoking that? 

Mr. GiLDEN. No ; I am not invoking. 

Mr. Arens. Please state to the committee wliat your employment 
was in 1951 and 1952. 

Mr. GiLDEN. I state that, sir, in order to help this committee in its 
inquiry because I don't think 

Mr. Kearney. I think if the witness would answer the question we 
would be able to get along. 

Mr. Willis. The simple question is what was the nature of your 
employment in 1951 and 1952. If you decline to give us that infor- 
mation, say so and we will proceed in another area of the investiga- 
tion. 

Mr. GiLDEN. No, sir, I am very happy to answer that question be- 
cause, as I said, I have done nothing incriminating. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Mr. GiLDEN. As I said, my major employment in this period was as 
a free-lance writer. 

In order to find the wherewithal to continue my education, I worked 
on production jobs in plants of Bridgeport, Conn. 

Do you want all the details ? 

Mr. Akens. Just tell us, if you please, where you were employed in 
1951 and 1952. 

Mr. GiLDEN. 1951 and 1952. Let's see. 

I think for several months there I worked at General Electric. 

Mr Arexs. Wliere did you work with General Electric ^ 

Mr. GiLDEN. Well, I worked — I have forgotten what the term was — 
in Bridgeport, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. What plant ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. In the Bridgeport plant. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat did they manufacture ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. What did they manufacture there ? 

Electrical appliances. 

One department I worked in was mercury switches. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a shop steward ? Or did you occupy any par- 
ticular post of significance in General Electric ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. No, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Were you on salary ? Were you salaried ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I was a wage worker, yes, sir. I carried things on my 
back. You know — moved things around. 

At mercury switch there were women on the line making these 
switches, and I was supposed to supply them with material. 

Mr. Arens. Did you work there both in 1951 and 1952? 

Mr. GiLDEN. AVell, I was laid off for a while, and then recalled. 

Mr. Arens. Did you work during the years 1951 and 1952? 

Mr. Giijjen. I don't remember exactly the chronology. I think it 
was 1949 and 1950. 

Mr. Arens. I show you now a photostatic copy of a document which 
has heretofore been identified before the committee as an employment 
record at the General Electric Co., Avhich shows on it dates of em- 
ployment and dates of leaving, Bert D. Gilden. That is you, is it not ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Yes. 

Mr. x4.RENs. I ask you if that will refresh your recollection. 

Mr. Gilden. I imagine this is a public — well, I don't know whether 
it's a matter of public information. 



COAIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5595 

Mr. Arexs. Is tluit substantially correct on the basis of your present 
recollection? 

Mr. GirnKx. I tliink that is yjenerally correct. 

Mr. Arexs. Kindly tell us your next employment after your clisas- 
f^ociation from General Electric in 1952? 

Mr. GiLDEX. 1 was — I think the major job I had during that year 
1952 was the executive director of the People's Pariy during the 1952 
campaign. 

Mr. Arexs. Then your next employment, if you please, sir. 

Mr. (tildex. That lasted for about 8 months, and then I foolivshly 

Thought — not realizing the real nature 

I free-lanced for 8 montlis after that trying to recoup some of the 
losses in funds I had during the political campaign, since I donated so 
much time during that period. We free-lanced an<l we tried, to the 
"best of our ability, to write things for TV, television field. 

My wife and l" thought that, well, this may be an outlet for our 
talents. 

We did aefually sell a scri})!: in this period, too. 

Mr. Arexs. What year are you in now ? 1953 or 1954? 

Mr. GiLDEx. Going into the spring of 1953. 

Mr. Arexs. All right, sir. what was your next emplojanent ? 

Mr. Giedex. My next employment. We are going into the fall of 
1954. and. again, mav I state 

Mr. Arexs. Your best recollection. 

Mr. GiLDEN. This is secondary employment. 

Mr. Arexs. Yes. 

Mr. GiLDEX. ]My major employment in this period was as a profes- 
sional free-lance writer in tlie field of fiction. 

The next jjeriod in my ])rofessional jo!) : I undertook to write a novel 
as my principal occupation, in order to. as I previously stated — and, 
in order to finance that, I decided to take jobs in the plants again. 
The first plant that I worked in under this schedule was Exide Bat- 
tery. I worked in the lead room there. 

Mr. Arexs. All right, sir. Any other place where jou worked? 

Mr. GiLDEX. I worked at Exide in the lead room until it was 
Febi'uary of that year- — no, no. Excuse me. 

It was December of that year. It was De<:;ember of that year. 

May I consult with my counsel, please? 

Mr. Arexs. Surely. 

I The witness confers w^ith his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEX^. I am raising a question with my counsel of picture 
taking. I think it is a little disconcerting. 

Mr. Arexs. Please do not annoy the witness with any pictures at 
the moment, please. 

Kindly tell us your next employment after Exide Battery. 

Mr. GiLDEX. I was laid off with Exide Battery, which, incidentally, 
was a nonunion shop. I was laid off with Exide in December, around 
Christmastime of December 1952, 1 believe it was. 

Then the next major job that I had was — whatever it was; a little 
later; I forget the exact date — at the shaver division of Remington 
Rand, in which there was also no union, and which numufactured elec- 
Tric shavers, and, to the best of my knowledge, did no Government 
work. 

Mr. Arexs. And your next employment, please, sir. 



5596 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. GiLDEN. My next employment. 

I was laid off there in the following year. 

The next major employment I had was with Vogel Manufacturing 
Co. for a short time, where I worked on a molding machine, plastic 
molding machine. And that place, too, was nonunion and had no 
Government contracts as far as I was able to ascertain. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment. 

Mr. GiLDEN. My next employment was at Singer Manufacturing 
Co., Bridgeport, Conn., which "had no Government contracts either, 
as far as I was able to ascertain. 

Mr. Arens. When did you commence your employment at Singer ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. My employment at Singer was in April — let's see. 
Where are we now ? 

Mr. Arens. Was it 1955 ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You are presently employed there ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I am a small-parts man in the paint department. I 
think the official designation is a benchhand. 

Mr. Arens. When you applied at Singer for employment, did you 
explain to them on your application or by oral conversation something 
about your employment record in the past? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I filled out an application record, and I gave them the 
information that I felt would be pertinent to that kind of job, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell them about your prior employment with 
General Electric? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I don't recall, sir. I may or I may not have told them. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell them about your education ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Well, I may. No; I thinly I omitted my education. 

Mr. Arens. May I lay before you a photostatic copy of a document 
entitled "Employment Application, Singer Manufacturing Co." dated 
March 14, 1955, bearing the signature of Bert Gilden. 

First of all, I invite your attention to the part of the application 
which deals with education, and ask you whether or not you recognize 
that application, first of all. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gilden. Yes ; this is the application. 

Mr. Arens. You did not tell them on that application, did you, about 
your extensive higher education ? 

Mr. Gilden. No, I don't see it there. 

Mr. Arens. You did not tell them on that application about your 
previous employment with General Electric, did you? 

Mr. Gilden. I listed the four previous employers. I didn't men- 
tion — yes. I don't see — it asked for 4 places, and I gave them 4 
places. 

Mr. Arens. Was your disassociation from General Electric vol- 
untary or involuntary ? 

Mr. Gilden. From GE ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Gilden. As far as I know, it was involuntary. 

Mr. Arens. That is your signature appearing on this photostatic 
copy of this application ; is it not ? 

Mr. GiiyDEN. Yes. 



COISIMUNIST ACTIVITIES m NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5597 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Gilden, do you know a person by the name of Har- 
old Kent? 

Mr. GiLDEX. Sir, would you identify Mr. Kent, please? 

Mr. Arens. First of all, can you tell us whether or not you have the 
recollection of knowing a person by the name of Harold Kent ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Harold Kent ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Gilden. My recollection is that it was a person who was an 
informant at the Smith Act trials. 

]Mr. Arens. Do you recollect knowing a man by the name of Harold 
Kent? 

Mr. Gilden. May I consult, please ? 

]SIr. Arens. Surely. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiiJ)EN. It is my considered judgment in this that I will invoke 
the fifth amendment, exercise the rights under the fifth amendment 
not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Rowena Paumi ? 
P-a-u-m-i. 

Mr. Gilden. May I consult, please. 

( The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Surely. 

Mr. Gilden. I will exercise my rights under the fifth amendment, 
on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, Mr. Gilden, that, if you 
told this committee truthfully whether or not you know Harold Kent 
and Rowena Paumi, you might be supplying information which might 
be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Gilden. Well, I have been informed, sir, that both Mr. Kent 
and Miss Paumi stated publicly that they were members of the Com- 
munist Party in the Smith Act trial, and this leads to legal complica- 
tions that, because of responsibilities of my family, I am not willing 
to involve myself. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the wit- 
ness be ordered to answer the last principal question as to whether 
or not, if he were to supply this information, he would be giving 
information which might be used against him in a criminal proceed- 
ing. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question because that 
is a test of whether or not you are honestly invoking the privilege of 
the fifth amendment. 

( The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gilden. Yes ; I am invoking it in good faith, and it might be 
used against me according to the legal advice I have had. 

Mr. Arens. Do you think that information might be used against 
you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Gilden. Yes ; according to the legal advice that I have. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a Communist ? 

Mr. Gilden. May I consult with my attorney ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gilden. The legal advice that I have — I will exercise my right 
imder the first and fifth amendments not to act as a witness against 
myself. 



5598 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr, Arens. While you were in the United States Army did you have 
access to confidential or restricted information ? 

Mr. GiLDEx. So far as I recall ; no, sir. 

Mr. Arens. While you were in the United States Army, or as a pre- 
requisite to the obtaining of a commission in the United States Anny, 
did you take an oath to support and defend the Constitution of the- 
United States ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. My best recollection is that I took that oath as an en- 
listed man ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you took this oath to support and defend the 
Constitution of the United States were you a member of a foreign- 
controlled conspiratorial apparatus ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. May I consult my attorney. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. Will you repeat the question, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. At the time you took an oath to support and defend the 
Constitution of the United States were you then a member of an organ- 
ization controlled by a foreign power dedicated to the overthrow ot tlie 
Government of the United States by force and violence ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. I am sorry I don't You would have to elaborate. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
took the oath ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Well, sir, why didn't you say so ? If that is what your 
question was. 

Mr. Kearney. You have a chance to answer now. 

Mr. GiLDEN. Yes, sir. May I consult ? 

Mr. Arens. Surely. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. I wish to exercise my rights under the first amendment 
and the fifth amendment, as previously stated. 

Mr. Kearney. Just one question, counsel. 

Following the question that counsel asked you, I would like to asfc 
you this question : 

If you were not a member of the Communist Party at that time,, 
would you so state ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I didn't get your question. 

Ml'. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1941 
when you were inducted into the United States Army ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I have already answered that question. I exercise my 
rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. While you were in the 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Counsel, I would like to have that question of 
mine answered. 

If you were not a member of the Communist Party at that time^ 
would you so state ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Would I so state ? 

Mr. Kearney. Yes. 

Mr. GiLDEN. No ; I wouldn't. 

Mr. Kearney. I did not think you would. 

Mr. GiLDEN. I would be willing to tell you my reasons if you waia 
to know them. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that in the pr<?s.- 
ence of this witness another witness be sworn. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5599 

Mr. Kent, will you kindly come forward ? 

You may take this seat, but remain standin<j: while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath to you. 

Mr. Willis. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you solenmly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but tlie truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Kent. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HAROLD KENT 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify youi-self by name, residence, 
and occupation ? 

Mr. Kent. JNIy name is Harold Kent. I liA^e in Bridgeport, Conn., 
270 Success xV^-enue. I am a paint sprayer in the General Electric. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kent, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Arens. Without at this time giving us the details — because we 
expect to interrogate you at length later on — tell us the period of your 
membership in tlie Communist Party. 

Mr. Kent. Well, I was in about a year or so in 1949, and I rejoined 
in 1952 until the beginning of the Smith trials. 

Mr. Arens. That was in 1956, this year ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your participation in the Commu- 
nist Party, did you supply information to tlie Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation at the behest of that agency ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your membership in the Commu- 
nist Party, did you know a person by the name of Bert D. Gilden, Bert 
David Gilden ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; I did. 

LIr. Arens. Did you know that person as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did that person identify himself to 3'ou as a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes ; he did. 

Mr. Arens. Do you see that person in the courtroom today ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly point out to the committee that per- 
son who was known by you to have been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Kent. Mr. Gilden is sitting to my left here at the table. 

Mr. Arens. Thank 3'ou. 

Mr. Kearney. That is the Avitness now testifying, prior to the time 
you took the stand ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; that is correct. 

TESTIMONY OF BEET DAVID GILDEN— Eesnmed 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Gilden, you have just heard the testimony 
of Harold Kent. 



5600 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

In the presence of this committee, while you are under oath, look 
him in the face and tell him whether or not he was telling the truth 
when he identified you as a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. GiLDEN. Sir, I looked him in the eye while he was making his 
statement. He did not look me in the eye. 

I still will exercise my rights. 

Mr. Willis. That is a very fine speech you made about looking him 
in the eye, and it is the type of complaint we hear all over the Nation. 

When we call people of your type before this committee, the com- 
mon complaint is that the accusers do not confront them, and they 
are ghost witnesses, and similar complaints. 

Now, here is your chance. The witness has just testified under oath. 

Now, will you look Mr. Kent in the eye, and answer counsel's 
question ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. May I consult with my counsel ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. As a person who is steeped in the literary traditions, 
I must say to the press that this is a degrading experience, and I 
won't 

Mr. Arens. Wliy do you not then stand up like a red-blooded Ameri- 
can and deny the accusation made by Mr. Kent that you have been 
or are a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I have already said that this is a degrading experience, 
and I will exercise my rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that Mr. Kent 
be temporarily excused. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Kent is temporarily excused. 

Mr. Arens. Now, while you were engaged in these various indus- 
trial establishments in the Bridgeport area, as you have recited in 
your employment record, were you under the discipline of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I will exercise my rights under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell this committee, on the basis of your 
literary background or upon the basis of any experience that you 
have had, what is meant by the term colonization in industry ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Sir, I never heard that term until the other day when 
I read it in the Michigan proceedings, and I am afraid I will have to 
ask you to define it. 

Mr. Arens. Wliile you were employed in these various industrial 
establishments, did you undertake to enlist into the Communist Party 
any other person or persons ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Sir, I have already answered your questions. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer. 

Mr. GiLDEN. I will exercise, as I have done before, my constitutional 
rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Kearney. May I break in here ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Gilden, I note that you are a Brown University 
graduate. 

Mr. Gilden. Yes, sir. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5601 

Mr. Kearney. And 3^011 also served in tlie Army of the United 
States. 

Mr. GiLDEN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. And I presume that you consider yourself a loyal 
American. 

Mr. GiLDEN. You don't have to presume that, sir; I do. 

Mr. Kearney. Just answer my question. 

I presume that you consider yourself a loyal American. 

Mr. GiLDEN. I consider myself a loyal American. 

Mr. Kearney. All right. 

Now, if you had any information concerning any organization which 
had for its aim and objective the overthrow of this Government by 
force or violence, would you give it to this committee ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Your question is vague, sir. Which organization are 
you talking about? 

Mr. Kearney. Any organization. 

IMr. GiLDEN. If I had any knowledge of any organization 

Will you repeat the question, sir? 

Mr. Kearney. Well, to a free-lance writer and a university grad- 
uate, I thought I made it pretty plain. 

My question, again, in simple language, is this : 

If you had any information concerning any organization which had 
for its aim and objective the overthrow of our Government by force 
or violence, would you give it to this committee ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. May I consult with my attorney ? 

Mr. Kearney. Certainly. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. Did you say to advocate or which had as its purposes? 

Mr. Kearney. Take either word you want, or both. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. I am afraid that the legal complications involved re- 
quire that I must exercise my rights under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Kearney. I thought you would do that. 

When you first took the stand here — I noticed the emphasis that you 
put on, when you were asked if you would tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth — you fairly shouted "So help me, 
God." 

Mr. GiLDEN. I what, sir? 

Mr. Kearney. You fairly shouted "So help me, God." You made 
it very emphatic. 

Mr. GiLDEN. Is that a question, sir? 

Mr. Kearney. I just made an observation. You do not have to 
answer that. I think I know the answer. 

I noticed in your testimony you brought up, on various occasions, 
your profession as a free-lance writer. Will you tell this com- 
mittee how many articles which you have written have been accepted 
by various magazines or other publications during the years you have 
been a free-lance writer ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Collier's magazine published a story of ours, my wife 
and I, in 1952. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. May I ask the chairman, Is this relevant ? 

Ml-. Kearney. I think it is. 



5602 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Willis. I think it is. 

Mr. GiLDEN. Would you state your grounds so that the people of 
Connecticut might be aware of the connection ? 

Mr. Willis. I think counsel might describe what he means by coloni- 
zation. That would be the answer to your question. 

Mr. GiLDEN. No, sir. 

The man is asking me about my writings. Mr. Kearney asked me 
about my writings. 

Referring to that specifically, is that relevant to this inquiry ? 

Mr. Willis. I think it is. 

Mr. GiLDEN. I think this committee must consider that. 

Mr. Kearney. I want to know whether you are a free-lance writer 
or not. 

Mr. GiLDEN. The Supreme Court has passed on this. 

Mr. Willis. You took exactly 35 minutes talking about the free- 
lance writing and so on, and I thought you were very proud of it. 

Now you are being given a chance to answer a few simple questions. 

Mr. GiLDEN. I raise the question of relevance. And do you say it 
is relevant ? 

Mr. Willis. The questions that you are asked are relevant. 

Mr. Kearney. You have already testified in your own behalf as to 
your profession as a free-lance writer. 

Mr. GiLDEN. May I have the question ? 

Mr. Kearney. You named one magazine that accepted one of your 
stories. 

Mr. GiLDEN. Collier's accepted one story under the conditions that 
I outlined, in which it was considered that my potential as a writer 
was great, and they would buy many other stories. They asked my 
wife and I to send all the stories that we wrote. And, following that, 
when I ran for office on the People's Party of Connecticut, that same 
year, we got very cold reception from them. 

Subsequently I published, in Liberty magazine, I published two 
stories. One of them was the "Unfinished House" based on the story 
of Georgia, published in Canada and in this country. 

Also I sold 1, possibly 2, television scripts. 

That is the extent. Other than that in the past 4 years, it is appar- 
ent, in this questioning, I have been trying to get over the situation 
described in the Cogley report. 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, from your own statement, you have 
had four articles accepted ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Not even that. 

In 1 year we sold 3 stories while we were at the clinic, in which we 
were considered by the professional writers in the clinic as professional 
writers. 

Mr. Arens. At the present time you recognize that you are under 
oath and subject to the pains and penalties of perjury? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you propose, as soon as you are released by this 
committee, to step out in the hall or step over to the representatives 
of the press and say, "Of course, I am not a Communist, never have 
been a Communist, but I am not telling that committee which is witch 
hunting all about that." ? 



(COMMUNIST ACnvrriES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5603 

Mr. GiLDEN. Could I have that question repeated. 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. 1 have no statement to the press. If they asked me 
•(questions I don't know what my answere would be. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under Communist Party discipline ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I must exercise my rights. 

Mr. Willis. You sa}'- you must. Do you? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I shall exercise my rights as provided by the Constitu- 
tion and as interpreted by the Supreme Court in recent decisions. 

Mr. Arens. While you were engaged in these industrial establish- 
ments were you under orders, directions by the Communist Party with 
reference to activities in which you would be engaged inside the plants ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. May I consult. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. I have never engaged in any trade-union activities in 
the past few years 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that this witness be ordered 
and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. GiLDEN. My work in the plants has been strictly of a production 
nature. I am not a steward and I have no connections with the trade- 
union except just being a member. 

I may say publicly that I have done this because someone might ques- 
tion my right to trade-union activity because of the nature of the 
hysteria along this line — -I don't mean general hysteria but general 
activity — and I have been very careful not to do this. 

Mr. Arens. You are not asserting that with regard to the query of 
this committee with respect to your political views, are you? 

Mr. GiLDEN. No, sir, I am not referring to the committee. I am 
•explaining to the committee that I never had any experience in trade- 
unions. 

Mr. Arens. Tell the committee, while you were employed in these 
industrial establishments whether you were under the discipline of the 
■Communist Party? You can either answer that "Yes" or ''No*' or 
invoke the first amendment. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. I must exercise my rights under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly aj^prehend that if you told this com- 
mittee that while you were engaged in these numerous industrial estab- 
lishments in this area you were under Communist Party discipline and 
tlirection, you would be supplying information which might be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. GiLDEN. It is a legal question. I must consult with my counsel. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. The question of the Communist Party discipline, to 
my mind, is a vague and moot question, and I wouldn't be able to 
answer it. 

Secondly, I understand that there is a complicated legal question 
involved. I don't know what it's all about. If you weigh one thing — 
it's some kind of business. 

Mr. Arens. Just tell the committee while under oath whether or not 
■when you were employed in these industrial establishments you were 
ander Communist Party discipline. 



5604 COMMtJNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. GiLDEN. Because of these reasons, I must exercise my rights. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you consider the Communist Party as a political 
party? 

Mr. GiLDEN. May I consult my counsel. '•^ 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. Yes ; I would say that I consider it that. 

Mr. Kearnet. Not an international conspiracy ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I think that is a matter of judgment, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. That is a matter of judgment for the people who 
belong to the party ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. I think that is a matter of judgment generally, sir. 
I think the Communist Parties are in every country and every land. 
They are parties represented in various countries. They are legal 
parties. 

Mr. Kearney. From where do they receive their orders ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. Sir, I am not aware of that. 

Mr. Arens. If the Communist Party is only a political party in 
your judgment, tell the committee the political parties to which yOu 
have belonged in the course of the last few years. 

(The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. GiLDEN. As I stated before, some legal complications are in- 
volved, and I don't want to get mixed up, and I exercise my rights. 

Mr. Aeens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that Miss Rowena 
Paumi stand up in the rear of the courtroom. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Will you look over your shoulder and tell us whether 
or not you have ever seen the lady standing there ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. May I consult with my attorney. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. I am sorry, sir, I will have to invoke my rights under 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi has told this committee that she has. known 
you and known you to be a member of the Communist conspiracy. 
Was she lying or was she telling the truth ? 

Mr. GiLDEN. May I consult ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. GiLDEN. Because of the legal complications involved, in the 
Supreme Court decisions on the fifth amendment, I must exercise my 
rights under the first and fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. Willis. At least you will admit that this committee has come 
to this great city of New Haven and put you on the stand, put you 
under oath; we have had two witnesses testify under oath, and you 
have had a chance to look them in the eye and state whether they are 
telling the truth or whether you are. 

I hope that if you do intend to make a statement to the press after 
you leave, which is not unusual, that you might explain that to them. 

Mr. GiLDEN. Was that a question ? 

Mr. Willis. That was a statement. 

Mr. GiLDEN. As I said before, I had no statement for the press, and 
whatever questions they ask me I will answer them with my deepest 
convictions, as I have answered and acted in my whole lifetime, as you 
can see and as the press can see, at great personal sacrifice. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5605 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I would respectfully suggest that would 
conclude the staff interrogation of this witness. 
Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 
May I suggest that we will take a short recess. 
(Whereupon, a brief recess was taken.) 
Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 
Will counsel call the next witness, please. 
Mr. Arens. Harold Kent. 
Will you kindly resume the witness stand. 

TESTIMONY OF HAROLD KENT— Eesumed 

Mr. Willis. The witness has already been sworn, has he not ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kent, for the sake of continuity in the record, I ask you to 
kindly give us a brief thumbnail sketch of your early life — where and 
when you were born, and a word about your education. 

]Mr. Kent. I was born in Philadelphia^ Pa., in 1915, July 13, and 
I went to grammar school in Philadelphia and Salem, N. J. I also 
went to high school in Salem, N. J., and Woodstown, N. J. 

I worked in the Du Pont Co. in Deep water, N. J. I came to Phila- 
delphia and worked as a parking lot attendant. 

Mr. Arens. What period of time was that, please ? 

Mr. KJENT. This was about 1937 or 1938. And as a chauffeur and 
butler. Then I moved to Bridgeport, Conn., and I worked as a chauf- 
feur-butler for Harvey Hubbell, 

Then I went to the General Electric plant in 1943, and I have been 
working there ever since. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity are you presently employed ? 

Mr. Kent. I am employed as a paint sprayer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kent, during the course of your life have you ever 
been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; I have. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, sir, the periods of your member- 
ship in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Kent. I was a member in 1949 for about a year, and I got out of 
it; and I got back in in 1952 until the present trial in New Haven last 
January. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio recruited you into the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kent. Well, the first time, Josephine Willard and Jake Gold- 
ring. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that? 

Mr. Kent. This was in Stratford, Jake Goldring's home. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you in the party ? 

Mr. Kent. Approximately a year. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ideologically at that time identified with the 
party ? 

Mr. Kent, Yes; I was. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened? 

Mr. Kent. Well, I got out of it. I found out what it was all about, 
and I got out. 

Mr. Arens. That was at your own volition ? 

Mr. Kent. That is correct. 



5606 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HLWEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Akens. Then when yon rejoined the Communist Party, as I 
understood you to say a moment ago, in 1952, at whose behest was 
that? 

Mr. Kent. The FBI, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Then from 1952 until 1956 you were in the Communist 
Party as a servant of your Government in order to develop informa- 
tion for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Is that correct ? 

]\Ir. Kent. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Willis. May I ask one question that I think should be asked 
for the record. 

As I understand, the first time you became identified with the party 
w^as at the solicitation of some active member whom you named, or two- 
members ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir; that is correct. 

Mr. Willis. I suppose they told you about the ideals of the party 
having to do with the labor movement and so on, and painted the pic- 
ture about like they paint to us here or to the newspapers, but that as 
you went along you found out for yourself there was something more 
to the representations than was portrayed. And so you got out as a 
good American citizen ? 

Mr. Kent. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us, if you please, the various positions which 
you held in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Kent. I became a member of the City Committee of the Com- 
munist Party of Bridgeport in, I believe it was, April of 1953. 

About the same time I also became a member of the Negro Com- 
mission of the Communist Party of Connecticut. 

In February of 1954 I became a member of the five-man concealed 
State Board. 

Mr. Arens. Now identify or describe the State Board. Not the in- 
dividuals on it but the board itself. What was the board and what 
was its purpose? 

Mr. Kent. It was a concealed board which met in New York City 
about twice a month. This board comprised five men. The purpose 
of the board was to make a long-range planning for the Communist 
Party in Connecticut. It would hand its findings down to the new 
Executive Committee replacing the State committee at that time, and 
they would carry out the local planning. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of your experience in the Communist 
Party did you have specialized training? 

Mr. Kent. I had some, sir. I went to the School of Social Science,. 
Jefferson School of Social Science. 

Mr. Arens. In New York City ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you trained there ? 

Mr. Kent. I had a course for 1 week. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your experience in the Com- 
munist Party did you gain knowledge as to the membership of the 
Communist Party City Committee in Bridgeport? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell this committee the names of the 
persons who to your certain knowledge were known by you to be 
members of the Communist Party on the City Committee in Bridge- 
port? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5607 

Mr. Kent. Well, there was Josephine Willard, who wjis the chair- 
man ; Frank Fuzekas, who Avas a past chairman ; Katcha Gilden, who 
was a member; Lois Barnes, Sam Richter, and, of course, myself. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you here and now identify under oath each of these 
persons as a person who was known by you to be a member of the 
City Conmiittee of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kent. Can 1 identify them, sir? 

Mr. AuENs. Do you liere and now identify under oath each of these 
persons as a person known by you to have been a member of the City 
Committee of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; I do. 

Mr. Arens. Did you serve in closed Communist sessions, with these 
people ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you serve in sessions in which only Communists 
were admitted with these people ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell this committee who were the membere of this 
concealed board that you have described, concealed board of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Kent. The members of the concealed board were Sid Taylor, 
who was chairman, Bob Ekins, Jake Goldring, Irving Dichter, and 
myself. 

Mr. Arens. And Taylor, Ekins, and Goldring were the defendants 
in the Smith Act trials which were held in this State. Is that correct? 

Mr. Kent. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Now kindly tell us, if you please, sir, wlio were the 
members of the Negro Commission of the Communist Party with 
which you were identified. 

Mr. Kent. Well, I can give you a list of the members, sir. After 
a certain period of time it was reduced because of the problem of 
meeting in security. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. Kent. There was Jim Tate, Joe Demow, Al Young, Gibbs,. 
from New Haven — I think his first name was Jimmy Gibbs. Roose- 
velt Ward, from Hartford; Cal Chapman, from Stamford. I believe 
there was one more. At the moment^ — his first name is Joe — I can't 
think of his last name. 

Mr. Arens. While you were employed at the General Electric Corp., 
were you likewise a member of a Communist Party fraction or cell 
which consisted of employees of General Electric ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time were you a member of that 
Communist Party cell? 

Mr. Kent. I was a member of that cell during the years 1953 and 
part of 1954, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was there a concentrated effort on behalf of the Com- 
munist Party to penetrate General Electric ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; there was. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us now who were the members of the Communist 
Party cell of which you were a member at General Electric. 

Mr. Kent. There was Josejihine Willard, who was the chairman. 
Joe Barnes Avas in that group temporarily while he was employed at 



5608 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

General Electric. Bill Pistey, Frank Fazekas, OUie Arsenault, Mattie 
Sykes. I believe I named them all. 

Mr. Arens. Now can you tell this committee who served on the 
State Board of the Communist Party during the period of your mem- 
bership ? Have you given us the names of all of them ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; the concealed State Board, I did, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Who were the active leaders of the Communist Party 
to your certain knowledge in the Bridgeport area as of the time you 
came out from the party and testified in the Smith Act cases? 

Mr. Kent. Well, there was Josephine Willard, Frank Fazekas, Bert 
Gilden, Katcha Gilden 

Mr. Kearney. That Bert Gilden. Is that the same individual who 
testified here prior to you ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; it is. 

And Bert McLeach who I don't believe is around at this time, but 
during the time of the trial he was here. 

Mr. Arens. Was Joe Barnes a member of that group? 

Mr. Kent. He was an active member, sir. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your experience in the Communist 
Party were you active at any time in the People's Party ? 

Mr. Kent. Back during the days of 1949 and 1950 1 was. 

Mr. Arens. Can you identify the People's Party ? What was it ? 

Mr. Kent. It was a political party which in my area, in my knowl- 
edge, was controlled by the Communist Party. Most of the leaders 
in the organization were members of the Communist Party to my 
knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your experience in the People's 
Party, did you ascertain whether or not the People's Party was con- 
trolled by the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Kent. I'm not sure I understand the question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not the People's Party was 
controlled by the Communists ? 

Mr. Kent. In my area ; yes, sir, it was. 

Mr. Arens. In what area was that ? 

Mr. Kent. Bridgeport. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Bert Gilden as a participant in the 
work of the People's Party ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Has Gilden ever identified himself to you as a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; he has. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when was that ? 

Mr. Kent. He spoke of himself many times as, "we Communists." 
He has attended Communist Party meetings with me. 

Mr. Willis. You mean meetings attended only by Communists ? 

Mr. Kent. Closed Communist Party meetings. 

Mr. Willis. For communistic purposes? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir. He attended the City Committee meetings. 
Although he wasn't a member, he attended them and he helped advise 
the committee on diJfferent problems. 

Mr. Arens. Do you laiow what Gilden's functions were, so far as 
the Communist Party was concerned, in the various industrial estab- 
lishments in which he found himself? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5609 

Mr. Kent. I know that he was working in the different factories 
throuofhout Bridgeport on different jobs, such as material handler and 
other jobs, where he has expressed to me that he was able to make 
contact with more people that way. 

Mr. Arens. Was that a Communist Party function or Communist 
Party program ? 

Mr. Kent. That was a Communist Party program, to get to the 
masses of employees in the shops. To get the Communist Party 
program active in the shops you must bring it into the shops through 
the employees. 

Mr. Arens. Is that generally what is known as colonization? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir; it is. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your experience in the Communist 
Party were you ever alerted that the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities might be coming to this area? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir; I have. 

Mr. Arens. What were you told by the comrades with reference to 
what you should do or what the comrades should do? 

Mr. Kent. In 1954, when they set up the new Connecticut State 
concealed Board and I became a member of that board, I was told 
by the chairman of the board to discontinue my activities in the City 
Committee of the Communist Party of Bridgeport, and to get out, 
promptly get out of the General Electric group, and discontinue all 
of my activities in the Communist Party except in the concealed 
State Board. 

Mr. Arens. You would still, for all intents and purposes, be a mem- 
ber of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes ; I would. They said they expected an investigation 
of this area sometime in the near future, and if I was called before this 
investigating committee there was a possibility that I may be instructed 
to admit my associations with the Communist Party and name a few 
names of known Communists in the State and clear my name and con- 
tinue to work in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. You were never told by the Communist Party to name 
any of the comrades who liad not heretofore been publicly identified? 

Mr. Kent. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your participation in the Com- 
munist Party from 1952 on were you in constant contact with the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Kent. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You testified on behalf of the Federal Government in 
connection with these Smith Act cases ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. As a preliminary arrangement to your testifying in the 
Smith Act cases, was there any discussion developed as to what your 
status might be in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kent. I am not sure I understand the question, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was there any suggestion that perhaps you would have 
to be tried yourself ? 

Mr. Kent. Well, there was a suggestion that I may be arrested with 
tliem. which I was. 

Mr. Arens. You were arrested with the other comrades ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir, in New York City. 

84046—56 — pt. 1 3 



5610 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Was there any suggestion that perhaps they might have 
to try you ? 

Mr. Kent. I don't recall it, sir. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you arrested ? 

Mr. Kent. 380 Broadway in an artist's studio, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Were you at that time giving the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation information respecting the operation of the conspiracy ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; I was. 

Mr. Arens. Now do you know or have you known a person by the 
name of Milton Weinberg ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir; I do. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a little better identification? Who is 
Milton Weinberg ? 

Mr. Kent. I believe Milton Weinberg did work in the AVCO plant 
in Stratford. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat company ? 

Mr. Kent. AVCO. 

I have attended one or two meetings with him of the group captains 
of the Communist Party of Bridgeport, 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not Milton Weinberg is or 
has been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he has been ? 

Mr. Kent. He is a member of the Communist Party, or was. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a person by the name of Sam Richter ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Charlotte Eichter ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were they husband and wife? 

Mr. Kent. Yes; they were. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us just a word of identification of those 
two persons? 

Mr. Kent. They live out in Trumbull. I believe it is Edison Road. 
Sam Richter was head of the group captains in the Bridgeport area. 

Mr. Arens. Group captains of what? 

Mr. Kent. Of the Communist Party. 

He was also a member of the City Committee of the Communist 
Party of Bridgeport. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now, while you are under oath, identify 
Sam and Charlotte Richter as persons, of your knowledge, to have 
been members of the Communist conspiracy? 

Mr. Kent. Yes; I do. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a person by the name of Frank Peterson ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes; I do. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word of identification about him ? 

Mr. Kent. I have known Frank Peterson for a number of years as 
a Communist in the plant. He has been in some cases publicly 
known — his membership — in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Where did he work? 

Mr. Kent. In the General Electric. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now identify him as a person who, to 
jour certain knowledge, was a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Kent. Yes; I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5611 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a person or persons by tlie name of Joe 
and Lois Barnes? 

Mr. Kent. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Give ns a word, please, describing them. 

Mr. Kent. Lois Barnes was a member of the City Committee of the 
Communist Party of Bridgeport. Joe Barnes was for a while a mem- 
ber of the General Electric group, and also, I believe, he was in charge 
of the literature in the Bridgeport area. 

Mr. Arens. Literature for what? 

Mr. Kent. Communist Party distribution of literature. 

Mr. Arens. Was Joe Barnes, to your certain knowledge, a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Kent. Yes; he was. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Communist Party, during your period of serv- 
ice in the party up until 1956, recognize the importance of the Con- 
necticut area industrially, to the industrial might of this country ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes; they do. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Communist Party have a specific concentra- 
tion of people in this area? 

Mr. Kent. Yes; they do. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other fact which you would like to call to 
the attention of the committee ? We have asked you a great number 
of specific questions, and we would like to ask you for any specific 
facts 3'ou would like to bring to the committee. 

Mr. Kent. In the colonization work there were two large meetings 
which members attended for the Communist Party in Bridgeport, 
where it was stressed there that the efforts of the members of the Com- 
munist Party should be exerted toward the General Electric union and 
getting into the company union. 

They should concentrate their efforts there. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I w^ould respectfully suggest that this 
would conclude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Kearney. I have no questions, Mr. Chairman, but I would like 
to say that we deeply appreciate the testimony of the witness here, the 
trials and tribulations you have gone through in the past few years in 
the service of the Government. 

It is my humble belief that all Americans should thank people of 
your caliber. 

Mr. Willis. Now you said that you knew very well the witness 
who preceded you here ? Mr. Gilden ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. You heard him say that he was a graduate from Brown 
University ? 

Mr. Kent. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. Our information is that his scholastic rating was un- 
usually high, and, from his own description of himself, he is an intel- 
lectual, and then the jobs that he described were most menial, the most 
laborious he could get in those plants. You said that that was your 
idea of what is known in communism as colonization. Is that correct? 

Mr. Kent. Yes, sir ; that is correct. 

Mr. Willis. That is, to get these smart college intellectuals after 
their college education and to place them in plants to try to colonize 
the plants. That is j^our notion of colonization, is it not? 

Mr. Kent. That is my understanding of it, sir. 



5612 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Willis. I notice in his applications for these jobs the previous 
witness did not talk at all about his education. 

By the way, that is the pattern we have heard time and time again 
throughout the country. That is exactly what these smart boys do. 

I want to join with General Kearney in his commendation of the 
role that you took for the good of your country. As I understand, 
from 1952 until you testified just this year in the Smith Act trials, you 
were actually in the service and employment of your Government 
through the FBI. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Kent. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Willis. What you have told us under oath here is the same 
information you reported to the FBI. How often did you report ? 

Mr. Kent. If possible, within an hour or two after I left the meet- 
ings, whenever possible; or over the phone immediately after I left 
the meeting. I always tried to make my reports just as soon as 
possible. 

Mr. Willis. If you were good enough to have had the confidence of 
the FBI and to have been asked by the FBI, because they had confi- 
dence in you, to serve your Government, you are good enough for me 
and you are good enough for America. And, on behalf of the whole 
Congress of the United States, I express the thanks that I think this 
community should likewise express to you. You are a great American. 

We appreciate the service and the contribution that you have made 
for the good and the preservation of this great land of ours. 

Mr. Kent. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will be in recess until 1 : 30. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 55 a. m., the committee was recessed, to be re- 
convened at 1 : 30 p. m., there being present at the time of taking 
the recess Representatives Willis and Kearney.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, SEPTEMBER 24, 1956 

('riie subcommittee was reconvened at 1 : 30 p. m., at the expira- 
tion of the recess, there being present Representatives Edwin E. 
Willis and Bernard W. Kearney. ) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel will please call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Oliver Arsenault. Please come forward. 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

Miss I^UFMAN. Mr. Counsel, may I request that my client not be 
televised during these proceedings. He prefers it that way. 

Mr. Arens. Please remain standing. 

Mr. Willis. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Arsenault. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF OLIVER L. ARSENAULT, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, MARY M. KAUFMAN 

Mr. Arens. Be seated, please. 

Miss Kaufman. Mr. Chairman, may I understand that my client 
is not being televised during these proceedings ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5613 

Mr. Willis. Yes; if it is the wish of the witness, it will be so 
ordered. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Arsexault. My name is Oliver L. Arsenault. 

Mr. Willis. How do you spell that ? 

Mr. Arsenault. A-r-s-e-n-a-u-1-t. 

Mr. Willis. And your residence ? 

]\Ir. Arsenault. 153 Marigold Avenue, Bridgeport. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation ? 

Mr. Arsenault. Machine operator in the General Electric. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today, Mr. Arsenault, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Arsenault. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Arsenault. lam, 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify yourself, please. 

Miss Kaufman. Mary M. "Kaufman, of 201 West 85th Street, New 
York City. 

Mr. Arens. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Arsenault. I was born in Prince Edward Island, Canada, the 
1st of February 1909. 

Mr. Arens. IVhen did you come to the United States ? 

jVIr. Arsenault. In 1918. 

Mr. Arens. Did you immigrate to the United States for permanent 
residence in 1918 ? 

Mr. Arsenault. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a naturalized citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Arsenault. lam. 

Mr. Arens, Wliere and when were you naturalized ? 

Mr. Arsenault. I was naturalized in Bridgeport in 1937. 

Mr. Arens. Now kindly give us, if you please, sir, a brief sketch of 
your educational background. 

Mr. Arsenault. I attended approximately a year and a half of 
grammar school in Canada. That is Prince Edward Island. I at- 
tended six grades of grammar school in Massachusetts at St. Anne's 
parochial school, 

Mr. Arens, Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Arsenault. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us what year you completed your formal 
education in school. Your best recollection. 

Mr, Arsenaui.t, 1923, 

Mr. Arens, Would you kindly give us a brief resume of the employ- 
ment you have had since completion of your formal education ? 

Mr. Arsenault. I completed my formal education at the age of 14 
years old. 

Seeing that we were a large family, with 9 in the family, and my 
fatlier was the sole provider, I quit school at 14 to take various jobs 
on farms. 

After I reached the age of 16, 1 received employment in two textile 
mills; first, at one of the textile mills they call Shawsheen, outside of 
Lawrence, Mass. I worked there for a period of 6 months or so, and 
was laid off. 



5614 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

In the year 1927 — I forget now. I believe I worked in two different 
mills. I also worked — prior to that time I worked as a bagger in the 
woodyard to help out with expenses in the family on account of the 
large family we had. 

In 1927, due to the lack of work in Lawrence, Mass., I had friends — 
personal friends of the family — who lived in Bridgeport, and I came to 
Bridgeport because they informed me there was a possibility of getting 
a job. 

I was successful in getting a job in Bridgeport Brass. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the period of time when you began your employ- 
ment there. 

Mr. Aksenault. I worked there from February 1927, until the 28th 
of April, approximately a year at the first. Then I went back to 
Massachusetts, because my family requested me. They thought there 
was a possibility of getting employment there and I would be more 
of a help to the family. 

I went back to Massachusetts and was successful in getting a job 
with a contractor. I worked directly for the St. Anne's parish, the 
same place I attended school. It was only a temporary job. 

After that I worked also — they laid me off there because it was 
only a temporary job. I was successful for getting employment for 
2 weeks — that was the understanding — with a private contractor 
breaking up machinery because the textile machinery at that time was 
shaky, and some of these companies wanted to go down South. This 
company here, apparently in the process of moving — I can't tell you 
the name of the contractor or the company — in process of moving, 
went bankrupt, and they decided to sell the machinery for junk. 

Mr. Arens. Now, your next employment was when ? 

Mr. Arsenault. Then after that, in the fall 

Mr. Arens. Of what year? 

Mr. Arsenault. Of 1928. 

I came back to Bridgeport. I would say that was about the month 
of maybe September or October. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment, please. 

Mr. Arsenault. I was slow in getting back my job in the brass 
shop. That was a job that they offered me 

Mr. Arens. Was that Bridgeport Brass Co. ? 

Mr. Arsenault. Bridgeport Brass. 

They offered me a job in the buffing room, which was my previous 
job, and then I was transferred to working 13 hours, from 6 o'clock 
at night to 7 o'clock in the morning. 

With the money that I was successful in earning I was able to bring 
another one of my brothers to Bridgeport, and, between the two of 
us 

Mr. Arens. He came from Canada? 

Mr. Arsenault. No; he came from Lawrence, Mass. My whole 
family lived in Lawrence, Mass., at that time. 

Mr. Arens. I see. 

Mr. Arsenault. Between the two of us, we saved enough money to 
pay the expenses of my whole family to come to Bridgeport. 

Also, I met, say at the end of that spring — before my family came ; 
about the month of February — we also sent for another of my younger 
brothers, who was about 16. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5615 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about your employment, which is the theme that 
we are following at this time. 

Mr. Arsenault. My next employment was 11 to 7 in the brass shop. 
After that, when my folks came to Bridgeport, my mother felt that 
was too much of a strenuous job, and some of the rest of the family 
were successful in getting employment. She felt I ought to be trans- 
ferred to a day job. They weren't too enthused about it, and I 
applied for a job with General Electric, which I received, I believe, 
in April of 1929. I worked there for 2 years 

Mr. Arens. That was where again ? 

Mr. Arsenault. General Electric, 1929-31, I worked in General 
Electric. At that time, if you remember, there was .lots of layoffs, 
but I was able, with a friend of mine, working part time, although at 
that time I was working 4 days a week — I was able to get a job as a 
house-to-house salesman selling fluid water ; bleaches they called it. 

I stayed with this company for 6 or 8 months. I worked also in 
Schenectady. 

Mr. Arens. What was the name of that company ? 

Mr. Arsenault. That was the Made-Right. 

Mr. Arens. It was a house-to-house product ? 

Mr. Arsenault. Correct. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you with that company ? 

Mr. Arsenault. I was with that company approximately 6 or 7 
months. 

Mr. Arens. Then what was your next employment? 

Mr. Arsenault. My next employment was — I remember applying 
in General Electric in 1933, August, and I was rehired. 

Mr. AkENs. Wliere ? 

;Mr. Arsenault. In General Electric, Bridgeport. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you maintain that employment? 

Mr. Arsenault. Until this day. 

Mr. Arens. And in what capacity are you presently employed? 

Mr. Arsenault. As a machine operator. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had any education other than the education 
which you have told us about ? 

The last education you told us about was the grammar school at 
St. Anne's School. Have you had any other education ? 

Mr. Arsenault. May I consult my counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Surely. 

(The witness confers with his counsel). 

Mr. Arsenault. Do you mean formal education? 

Mr. Arens. I^t's try it both ways. Have you had any other formal 
education ? 

Mr. Arsenault. Formal education? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. No. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about an^ informal education you may have had. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. I decline that question on the grounds of the first 
and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had specialized training of some kind? 

Mr. Arsenault. May I consult with my counsel ? 



5616 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Surely. Mr. Arsenault, at any time when you feel there 
is any question of your constitutional right, you are at perfect liberty 
to consult with counsel. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. I don't know what you mean when you say special- 
ized training. 

Mr. Arens. Well, what training have you had other than the train- 
ing you have heretofore announced to the committee ? 

"(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. Do you mean in my work or profession? 

Mr. Arens. Any kind of training. 

Mr. Arsenauj^t. No. 

Mr. Arens. You had no other kind of training? 

Mr. Arsenault. No ; not if I understand your question. 

Mr. Arens. Have you attended any classes of any kind, character, 
or description? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. I decline to answer that question on the first amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. When did you attend these classes, if you attended ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. I also decline for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. Why is it you attended classes, if you attended classes ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. I decline for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the board of edu- 
cation ? 

(The M^tness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. That is a matter of record. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us whether or not you have been a member of the 
board of education. 

Mr. Arsenault. Yes; I have. 

Mr. Arens. When were you a member of the board of education, 
and for what school or community ? 

Mr. Arsenault. I was a member of the board of education in 
Bridgeport from 1943 — an elected member of the board of education — 
from 1943 to 1945. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat were your duties and responsibilities as a member 
of the board of education? 

Mr. Arsenault. Well, you mean — you see the board of education 
is divided into communities. 

Mr. Arens. What committee did you serve on ? 

Mr. Arsenault. On the school committee. 

Mr. Arens. How many other members were there on this committee 
of the Bridgeport Board of Education ? 

Mr. Arsenault. There were supposed to be seven members, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat committee did you serve on ? WTiat subcommittee 
did you serve on? 

Mr. Arsenault. The school. 

Mr. Arens. The school committee? 

Mr. Arsenault. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. "V\^iat were your duties as a member of the school com- 
mittee of the board of education ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5617 

Mr. Arsenault. To see that the schools, the grounds, and the build- 
ings themselves were upheld ; to make reports to the committee them- 
selves for repairs; and work in conjunction with the director. They 
have what they call a director who takes care of the schools. 

Mr. Arens. This was an elected position ? 

Mr. Arsenault. Right. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been identified with a labor organiza- 
tion? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. Are you asking right now if I have been identified 
as a member of a trade union ? 

Mr. Arens. Any labor organization, yes — a perfectly honorable as- 
sociation, I assure you. 

Mr. Arsenault. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about any affiliation you have had with a labor 
organization. 

Mr. xVrsenault. I have been affiliated with the United Electrical, 
Radio, and Machine Workers of America. 

Mr. Arens. Commonly referred to as UE ? 

Mr. Arsenault. UE. 

Mr. Arens. Will you tell us about your affiliation with the UE ? 

Mr. Arsenault. I was a charter member of Local 203, and one of the 
founders of 203 in organizing the local itself. 

Mr. Arens. In what period of time? 

Mr. Arsenault. Approximately, I would say, maybe the latter part 
of 1935 and the beginning of 1936. 

Mr. Arens. Just for 2 years? 

Mr. Arsenault. No. I am telling you about the time that we 
started. 

Mr. Arens. You started in with this organization in 1935 or 1936. 
Is that correct? 

Mr. Arsenault. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you maintain your affiliation ? 

Mr. Arsenault. Until the UE lost their election here and were no 
longer the bargaining agency for General Electric. 

Mr. Arens. When was that? 

Mr. Arsenault. That question, I am not sure. 

Mr. Arens. What is your best recollection? Was it in the forties 
or the fifties? 

Mr. Arsenault. This I am not sure of. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been president of the local ? 

Mr. Arsenault. Yes. I was president of the local from the be- 
ginning of the local, for 7 years. 

Mr. Arens. What was the membership of the local ? 

Mr. Arsenault. The membership of the local started very small. 
Naturally, we were building it up, and the employees of General Elec- 
tric were on a smaller scale than in later years. 

At that time there were approximately, when we filed for NLRB, 
I would say close to 2,000 or 2,500. 

Mr. Arens. I did not get that number. 

Mr. Arsenault. About 2,500 employees in the plant. 

Mr. Arens. How many of those employees were members of Local 
203? 



5618 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arsenault. When we started I would say it was approxi- 
mately — started organizing — it was very small because we were only 
a few, and by the time 

Mr. Arens. What was the maximum number in Local 203, UE ? 

Mr. Arsenault. At any time? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Arsenault. 6,000. Approximately 6,000. 

Mr. Arens. Was that during your tenure of office as president ? 

Mr. Arsenault. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you appoint the shop stewards ? 

IVIr. Arsenault. No, Thej^ were elected by departments. 

Mr. Arens. Were the activities of the shop stewards in the organiza- 
tional arrangement subject to your direction in Local 203 ? 

Mr. Arsenault. They were not subject to my direction. They 
were subject to the stewards council which they were a part of, and 
in the interim they were subject to the executive board. 

The executive board met twice a month. 

Mr. Arens. How many were on the executive board of Local 203 ? 

Mr. Arsenault. That depended. As the plant grew we had 1 
member from each section that was part of the executive board, in- 
cluding the 10 officers. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever disassociated from Local 203 ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. Would you repeat that question, please ? 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever disassociated from Local 203 ? 

Mr. Arsenault. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. When was that ? 

Mr. Arsenault. I believe it was in 1947 or 1948. 

Mr. Arens. What occasioned that disassociation ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. I do know that I received an expulsion notice, 
but to tell you what was in the expulsion notice I can't tell. 

Mr. Arens. When were you expelled ? 

Mr. Arsenault. I believe it was sometime in 1947 or 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Did you thereafter ever reaffiliate or reassociate with 
Local 203? 

Mr. Arsenault. I tried it. That is. Local 203: we presented ap- 
plications. 

Mr. Arens. Did you thereafter ever become affiliated with a labor 
organization ? 

Mr. Arsenault. No. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently affiliated with a labor organization ? 

Mr. Arsenault. No. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever a candidate for public office ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. He said he was elected to the board of education. 

Mr. Arens. Other than your service on the board of education ? 

Mr. Arsenault. I refuse to answer that question on the first and 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this commit- 
tee whether or not you have ever been a candidate for public office 
other than the service you have told us about as a member of the board 
of education, you would be supplying information which might be 
used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5619 

]Mr. Arsexault. Under today's conditions my answer is Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before 5'^ou, sir, a photostatic copy of the Commu- 
nist Daily Worker of August 21, 1949. I invite your attention spe- 
cifically to an article appearing on page 7 entitled "The People's 
Party Nominates Election Slate," setting forth the names of a number 
of candidates on the People's Party of Bridgeport, including the name 
of an Oliver Arsenault identified here, for 7 years, president of the 
GE local, and former member of the Bridgeport Board of Educa- 
tion. 

Does that refresh your recollection as to any candidacy by your- 
self for public office? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsexault. I did not state that I have no recollection. 

I stand on the same answer I previously gave. 

Mr. Arexs. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact that you were a candidate for treasurer of the People's Party 
of Connecticut. 

Mr. Arsexault. I give the same answer. I stand on the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. During the tenure of yourself as president of Local 203 
of the General Electric UE workers, was there a person identified with 
you in the local by the name of Josephine Willard ? 

(The witness confers with liis counsel.) 

Mr. Arsexault. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your tenure as president of the Lo- 
cal 203 of UE in this area, were you, in the operation of your office, 
under the discipline of an organization not directly a part of that lo- 
cal union ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsexault. I give the same answer as previously. 

Mr. Arexs. At the time you were naturalized in 1937 did you take 
an oath to support and defend the Constitution of the United States 
of America ? 

Mr. Arsexault. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. At that time, when you took that oath, were you a mem- 
ber of an organization dedicated to the destruction of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States and the overthrow of the Government of the 
United States by force and violence? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsexault. I decline for the same reason. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you take that oath to become a citizen of the United 
States with any reservation ? 

(The witness confers Avith his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsexault. May I ask what you mean by reservation ? 

Mr. Arexs. Did you have a mental reservation at the time you took 
the oath to become a citizen of the LTnited States and pledge yourself 
to support and defend the Constitution of this country ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsexault. No, I never had any mental reservations. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you at that time a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



5620 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arsenault. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny 
it is a fact that in 1937, when you took the oath of allegiance, you 
were a member of the Communist Party. 

If it is not so, deny it under oath. 

Mr. Arsenatjlt. Will you state it again ? 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact that in 1937, when you took the oath of allegiance to sup- 
port the Constitution of the United States, you were then a member 
of the Communist Party. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. I decline on the same reason. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Counsel, it seems to me that we are getting into 
a field here that needs a little more explanation, for the simple reason 
that I am convinced, by the witness' answers, that this is the proper 
subject for the Federal authorities. 

If he was a member of an organization dedicated to the overthrow 
of our Government when he became a naturalized citizen, I think 
legally he should lose his citizenship and be deported. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
gained admission into the United States ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. At the time I entered the United States I was 7 
years old. 

Miss Kaufman. Congressman Kearney, may I suggest to the Con- 
gressman at this time that the refusal to answer questions on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment does not constitute an admission of 
the fact, which appears 

Mr. Kearney. The witness has a recollection of his own, madam. 

Miss Kaufman. I am informing the witness of his rights to proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us whether or not you were a member of 
the Communist Party within the period of 10 years prior to the 
time you took the oath of allegiance to become a citizen of the United 
States. That would be any time between 1927 and 1937. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arsenault. Under the climate that prevails today, I decline to 
answer that under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Under the climate which prevails today? What 
was that answer ? 

Mr. Arens. His answer was that under the climate which prevails 
today. 

Mr. Kearney. Does he mean the climate which was expressed in 
this morning's newspaper by the Communist Party that it was not 
dedicated to the forceful overthrow of the United States ? 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a Communist ? 

Mr. Arsenault. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a member of an organization dedi- 
cated to the forceful overthrow of the United States ? 

Mr. Arsenault. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kent, would you kindly stand up ? 

Please look over your right shoulder, Mr. Arsenault. 

Tell us whether or not you have ever seen that gentleman before. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 562! 

Mr. Arsenault. I refuse to answer for tl^e sdhle'^r^asbii/. '<'"M«"^^'> 

(The witness confers with his counsel.)' '') '^^'ii''';'-' '^ "= "."'. ^'.'y,' -'■ 

Mr. Arens. This man testified under' da Wl'tt-hdl^bfefctedl'MifiSelif and 
his future to the pains and penalties of perjurr. ' 'H^ 4ttijt^ this n\brn- 
infiT'befford this'c'o^mitt6^ th^t'he'kilfeW'ybU 'aS 'at'nifertib.ei^<5f -th^ 06m- 
munist Party. , ^, .nuuniiwl ) . .1/. ...-.a 

"(VMleydit ai^e unde'^-bkh'teW'this-ti^itottiitCe^ ^mh^i^'^'ricffthS'w^s 
lyin£r or tellin* the truth;' ''^ -'''' l.;i!!m')..( imu,.;'! >:.'..!/. !mik i,r)/l 

I^llss Kaufman. Yoit, ar6 iiot su?vg:sgti]'igj 'Mi*: Areris, you are -riot ^at-^ 
tempting to coerce the witnfes to fibkndon 'his- privilege:' under the fifthi 
amendment by these questions ; are you ? '. ' ' ''^■^^ ^* *, ''-* ^-^^'^^ 

• Mr. ARiNS. Wolvldyou kindly answerAth^'testibn/'*"^'*''''^' ■']^' 
^^('Tt&speCthiWygngffeit that the cotnisfelbfe guidfe'd'biy'iM'tules* of t|i6 
coiiiipnittefe whi6h (^ireuildsci'ibe' the' duties of' 'cotins^l'.i * *• ' - "'''•=_ " ' ' ' " 

Notv wduld yon' kindly tell this ' comriiit^ee whether" 't>iP' hot- ;Hr. 
Kent w^s lying 'ortellirig the trirth'this'riidi^niri^'WlTeri'hert^dk aii bath 
and subjected himself to the pains arid'perigtltifefe'of perjuiiy/and'^tatM 
he knew yott asa membet 6f the'Conltrluriist c<iriipiTa'cy1 '•' '*' ' ' "'■""' ^ 

( The witness confers with his '(iotinsel.)^'' ' ' ■ '!' '>iMi'*>> >V' "^''^ 
i ''Mr. ArsenaultI ' T refuse to iingWet- ^ ' ' ^'i^'^'^ ^•'♦*' * ' ''""f*^>^ 1 Jinoi^p/rro 
-"Mt-:ARiW*: Plea'^standvMisfe'Pattoil itoiiir-viHo-Kf uun^ vfifuiffmu 
-"'Will ybuldok over^ymir shdidd^,' Mr.' Ars^niaUlt,'Urid'tfeirus WK^te 
or not you have seen that lady before ? - .'..i: i..,M!'>iii 

Mr. Arsenault; I 'teius6' t6, answer' uridef thie? ^amfe' 'jJriVrlegev ^ 
■Mr! AREi<:s! ■ Miss Paumi has told this cOrtimitH^^ tllMt fell6 kriew*y6l[ 
ag ^'tneihhe^r'olP the ■Coniinnnist conspiracy. • '' ' ''.V'M ■'* •'.' ■" '!-iiii''> 
■' IVagfehe^Jying'Or'Mlfegthb'truthli ''''' "'*'^ ':'""' -;■ n /n-.,; ^uiov 

Mr. Arsenault. I refuse to answer oii TO's^'*c(fe''i)i^iViWg6V ' '", j '''"*' 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly 'apprehenid that i^ybu tbid ^his com- 
mittee v^hether'br not Harold Kent and Bb\t^eria' l^aiimi Wer6 teiliing 
the truth, you would be supplying irifotiriiati'o'ri •which nii^ht be (ised 
against fou in a erijriinal p'robeedini^ ! • ' -;"' ■; ^' '■"' •'-•'^^i* '' ••'•' 

(The witness confers with his cotmsel:)'' ^'>f,' ^f^ iun^psiiy Iin.t-),n<( 
■Mri Arsenau'lti Would ybu repeat that' ^ui^^tl6ri'~'a^in'''''' '''''''' ■'' 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly tell this committee whether '(i^'Wdt, if 
you'tfuthfillly told us -whether Harold Kent and Kowena Paumi -vi^ere 
telling the truth when'th^y identified 5)^011 a^ a' meriiber j'of the Com- 
toiirlist 'conspiracy;' yoti 'would be siipjilyih^' iiifbririatiBA Which thi^&t 
be used against you in a c'rirninar proceeding' t-'"''' ' "• '" '"''' "' '*' 
. (The witness confers with his counsel.) , r.;'^? • "f '*'^^''"J 

"'.' Mr. ARSENAuiT. Ihavetorest oh my privilege."" '' ; '' ' ' ''**', , 
■' ■ Mir; Arens. ^ Mr. Ch^irhian, I 'respectfully suggest' that' the -witneBS 
156 ordered and directed tb answer that question. ' ' '' '" '""• y'''M"" 

Mr. 'Willis. Ybii 'are directed 'to ans\Ver' ,th^t' 'questi(im''''.'*}'^'^^^l'; 
t" jThe witness'bbhfers^tvithhis cbiinsel.)'*" " " - Y, '""*' ■" " '"" 
' '''Mr. Aksenault. TittMd askthtAyoiinJomU^ihU^ 
an answer yes or no— , , ;^'Ti>irT)').1^ff^Mfoy,i -.f^/Mio 

■^ ' Mr.' Are^s. Surely" "''"■'•• -"-it^-M'P !(•.■•■ r.f;-,.( -n-.v c pi i;.i) i.i.: . 
■^''^Bb you honestly apprehend; 'sii*, that'if yoii told thife'cbMitiit'te'e'^liile 
'yoti are under oath whether o'r riot Mr. Kerit arid'Mi^s' Paipni w*ere' tell- 
ing the truth when they identified ybu as a riiember of the CbtamUriiSt 

i>'ni<>7i 'ill .slj;'10<(i>()'> ()) ]i\i;ii vtlno-l liov J()(f 'lo 'fxl)')!!// o) .^1; ,i->';iiiio) 
vlifb 'jfll u\ p.ii (\\oi\ hilt; ())ii-i'K\ocyj bfjiov/ ijoy !li 1i 'yU;i-)'n(\i\si YJlii-n 



5622 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

conspiracy, yau would be supplying information which might be used 

against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

[,,, (The witness confers with Jiis counsel.) ,^^\ 

. , , f^r. Arbns. Thi^t will, .cpi^^l^jdj?, tjh^ [stf^ff ; i^itieif jr^g^tion { 9! j.^J^^f^wfe 
ness, Mr. Chairman. viiii^l jainma 

. J^r, I I^i^i^EY,., i]VJ^r, phaip^PftW,. J[ tyrppl^ \ U^ jtft 1 ja^i; %Jli^tt[?i|v$fr. 
Kent and Miss Paumi identified this witness, ^^inngijthe^eipr^^S^i^^ 
hearings as a mein^jftr pfj the CjJon^jnijinii^ P^f ty^., , / ,. ,.,,.,,,}[ ^hTm " 
>i .Mr,,,AREi^s. ;Qfiiii^i-^i,|ve^i7ii^y, J^Vr Jveut^h^^^ {i^ne',i^',v>¥jis§ffl^VM^ 
has yet^to testify. s ;„,., ^,,^. , .,,orj:-)rrp m-)J] vd fn;Hnhii');ar. 

Mr. Kearney,, Ji )\:o,v4d^jLigg(3,sit,1j^a^itI>fi^tibe 4oj^^ ^W.i'^g^ 

to. ask the, cjliairrn^ini p^.the committee to; bring thi9ca,se tp.the attei^tjon 
of the immigration aiUtliprities and; the Fed^i-al dist^rict attorney^,,., 

,, |Mr.^ ARENS,..J^Iig? |*a,umi js scheduled ;tp testify j General Kear^^ey. 
jf l^h^ chairTOajUfpf Jthis, subcqmniittee |>a^ reguest^dj me to lay^belqpp 
^W.tlii^.prQpp^it^on^^^ 

Under the law^ }]i[Jiifi,ch,^^^s.f^£ff:^tficV,by,m 3Ji.,thj^,.CQ>ii:^^ g^ 

the last couple 61 yeArs, per|Spns , jwJiol lijay^ peeii, 9^tled, be^^^^^ 
gressional committees may, uii^e;^ certain, civcurnst^nces^b^jgr^l^ted 
immunity from prosecution in ,^l;he criminal, .cpu^tSjix th;;ey<tgivefln- 
f ppuiaitio.n tp.t|ie,i9pii}f|^ijt,<fqe.,iViid,il tl^^ f|p^ij^)[iii|:'^^;iipta^^§ifi^ti^^^ mw^- 

mendations. / _ ^ .vfo'hvf vl) J umI^ rc^i- tr/cJ uoy h..fio 

I a^l>;,y;pu,no:w^,lf the cpi^f^i^^t^e institutes proceedings .tp> cause lyou 
[(^, be^^}',apt^ jii^iiii^i>^l;^,,|f;pin.^?|imiiiial pi-oscputipn, tviU yp\^ tellj i^liis 
committee, in response to qi^e^tfqi,i^:>Yhicla,w^I,|),e>ppse4,,tp.j^p\i)(^U, Pi 
your activities while you were I^r,e^jj4^nj[j^9:^,jyp^y9^^|:}e^f\^ E 
local in th^.^pij^^ctimt^^^^af^^, .:,-,;. ^,;,; qi o'alo-i T .T.PjAx^rsiiA .iM 
^ (.The|Witjies^,cdnfers with hfSiPpunsel.X,,-,,,j rf^v oCT .a>i:T>iA Mf. 
„,,^r.| Aj^se;^^17lt. ; I cannot answertliAt ,quesffo]|^^-^%tfi^{^'<JijypplJ5i[l;^ 

ftJi^^W^i^fe?ii^^"'^^^#lPi^^^ ^^i^iuM'i^ ^h[ hluo-ff uo-i .d\in1 tub 
Mr. Willis. No; it is not a hypptl^etip^i^ .qi^ie^-ipiju, ..\t\ i^-,tliie,?n(^jt 

practical question that has be^u ar^ked of you, and j( \Yill.):elj yoivwliy, 

at least wh^;t pf]p^J:fij%\jm^,,•fp^'s^g;^est to cqua^se^'t|ip,<^.l^n|§tkei^ 

1 au said that un^w fhe phipate JfcJtW^ 
tl^e privilege of the fiftH pheiKlm€ih,t.i , Ypu t s,^i4 ^thalj ;.ypi;. j^Qj^essjifl;^ 
?(ppr^l^^.iidfe.d jtha^t' ^,^'jyGi|:were to answer tiaeo[ue^ti6jis|y,hich YVj^i|^f^>^f 
asKed' ydlitliat you' migh.t in spine .way subject, j^pUyseli^, to xr^ 

prosecution. ' •' , ,.,,n 1,0:. ,[ j ^jiv/'-io huv, -..,niv/ .mItV ' 

ISow, if what you,]^ye^^^^^d^i^ |;pV^e,.^^Q.u,,r;^f^ly,,lpe|if^\:,e^jhpi>^ly 
beli^v^, tl]i^t|tl}er^,j.^,,fV|CliJii|a^;wbich i or pids ; ypv^ o^ : preveujtss, y^l7 or 
impe'ls yoii to'fear tlf^^^yp,\i,'jCa|i^|pt ,spe^a^^ aup, ,i|) ypiv l^pjiie^tly .^<{) 

apprehend,j^^.,tii^t|';i,S| tnje..^^^^oiTi^ f^pr, ypyr st-atei^a^nt, t^ifsjp.;^jie ques- 
tion which' counsel" asked y6u|s,^^^piyjthig; Jf y^j^^j^pavi^illia^ of 

oh which you can shed lighr ? ' _^^ j ^ . c ^ , ^ . , , •, - , w ^ , i ;^. ,5 j> 

I said that is a very practical question, and it |s ?»- jt^^t pi .]^l;»eti^?F, or 
not you r^ajly belieye thpr.e i,S)^w;h; a pliniate,:tha(t,you .arci.r^^ajjy Wfler 

M]fi^fii#.^ ) Xf^PiOT.^fii^i!^''^!^ 3^PH>>>'affif?i mt, ii;;d,4^ i¥^nti tp .t^gt^itl^irpu^h 
counsel, as to whether or not you really want t6 cooperate. We would 
really appreciate it if you would cooperate and help us in the duty 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5623 

we have to perform. It is not a pleasant thino^ for me to leave 
Louisiana, for General Kearney to leave New York to come here, but 
it is a job imposed on us bv the Congress. ^ ■ • • - ■><■■. ii .> < hh/. :\j^. 

Let me tell you thisV'^'^'i'' iR'iQ^rsO Jioq-iB.briH arii nl .p^ajosa'^ .-iM 

^■- We make a report tb■iC^ft^**=efi^'f5^^aa<^>tolhi'^A^eSif*l^^e'I$fes 

oh!y oneMenibei'df Gbrigres^ W^?i!6>^(J^f^.^otf6'to'0r(!li^i^tl&^1iaacffiff^|rfl«? 

this job. SasiibfiloL 

AVe would like very much for vo.u to c»bf^&6«!^it.fe^i^83'^Alfo'al*&o 
not have to do it if yoirdo'flbt ^al^e ^^jSMtt^^df^mt im]>ly anythllig 
else beyond sayin<j "I do want to" or "I do not -wfiJnt to'- because thfen 
we might have to draw o\ir own eonclusions.f^s^'WO'J HiV/ .SMajiA .-iM 
■"•{The'Aritfiesfe'cOnfersi Avith hiScounserl) f'^ ticM r/LAir^-^uAX ?p.\1fi 

Mr. Arsenault. When I speak about climate I mean tha^tJft^gH^ 
these hearings and so fort^h ft'ltit 6f 'pe(5fpl^*i^^-^nB oiadW .szaaA .ill 

MrrWbxtB. 'Nb\t'thei-e is a question. j'fi niod g^w I .SAiiaSAl .iM 
VMt. Afis^NAfet*.: You ju9t want ftnangwb¥y^sm^^n(^ .^i/raaA .iM 

Mr. Willis. Not necessarily. The question is, if we removeftiife;f«rfi9 
ofprosecutljttii by ' taking §tefps t<y gi'ant'^ou immunity, would you tlYen 
answer all pertinent questions concerning any knowledge you' niigiit; 
hk^^iriboiiti llrt?i'4liaxihinn t4ons of the Gomraunist conspiracy inthis a^ea 
or any other area with which you are familiar? That isfiwhai-jifci 
amotiii€$ t^xno/lqoa odi d^2^uo^d1 irrov/^ I .s'lomorlqog .fikH'as.A'^. .ilL 

Mr. Arsenault. Just like I said,%ee&tKe^ffth« dMi¥te^[Hidrdan^fig 
IbtsM j)60pi^'tb"lofee theit jobe, yndiikejthktpl £ill(^iave .to claim the 
first and fifth amtendments. ndi :ia-^ o1 8-u>97 8 so/hd Ji ,bio st;:97; 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, tliat aoiydttidfesitpiBmstalff/ilteBK^itiiail/bf 
this witnessv' 1 s'ii ,2 bus; 8 basi '•) ,TLro Ii 9-ur<>n hot il .gAiiasA"^ .-iTf 
< Mf^WiiXisi? IrimiyitrfeuggBstwaiiflriL amiibeopa^^yMyJHHiEAt .T^ilh 
you — that I have aai Mi^rtWa* ijjfapnwould /be)iih;a:hetteP:po^it'idn.iif;5rbiii 
spoke oiitfifeelyiaind hmms/lAj<^ tbeistaiicly0tt"la;atfe>t«ke8i^.'i:i:\//tr .ilA 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman/ Wie-jnexitv witness; Js.-Mt'xoB'ifaiiAeHl 
Fazekas. ^ vn-jM\n'j ind-fr nL .j>>i3:hA .tK 

1' Win yojrfidrid)fy come forTYardIi;o vedt t^ilw ^c aA .8AirasA'5 .iM 

Please remain standing, Mr. Fazekas, while the chairman adBsanfl 
isters an oath to you. . ■'(>'[ f;;ft) ov/tH rroY hrb ^oriol v/'oTI .^xshA .-ilf 
olMrj Fazekas. I don't want no television or piotjag^I .p./.wa^a"^ .iM 
I'Mr. WiiiLis. May -I say, befomi you takef tlitfefOS^th^ntb^ sated^rOOi^^ 
lEtiiespictiTiresp^ay te takfenh'^f-orejyfOUist^pt testifying, [[no ot in^'w uo'^ 

Will you raise your right hand, please. ..ioj; ladl /lo »thot 

Do you solemnly swdki'itkat tliprle&timQnyfyAiii^^ifeejftbbufetorgii^'ejl^ 
bertfcd:tr.i!i!ya^ftli^fi^H(i)Ife fcyj»th'ind)ii0th}fc®rWrt|»M3trujlg>,56&Mpi^u 
Gkpdio joi) I .7od lellijq ^nred ■vj\'iA .fo9J8 sioerf-ir/) loi :!^niiho7/ no 

Mr. Fazekas. I do. .no iii^w btip. 

^[ooiR eriiOfrrnO to^ jf-joTr rroT hfb iifro[ 'rmTl .r'/'.tjiA .tM 

TESTIMONY OG? JRANK; HENRY' FAZEKAS, ACCOMPANIED ?1P 
COUNSEL, MARY; M.;iAUFMANl^i;. ..:i.iy..r!/ 
,noi1f!0RV I! 'lol- eigif qn ',i )-',■:•. I .iu/naToIqnio jzeri ydT .hasjisa'? .iM 
7oMilrAREiiRS.rKij>^lyTibftse9fted„sir5rn^9ff fnrA .^oTfi.nf'rf xjnroR 32rfi,99a 

PJ^ag?< d^fti^tAfji/iypui^seli, by :iw?iftjar^i^^(?e:ja]ji4^<?fi^H0atfeT|i.Yfn Ub 

hiMij, -FAzpjtjjv^,! ,My/nam^ ,4s i ;:Fli|a])k({^^WyriFj?,?^l<if)^ l7ftr#:^-^]^s. 

It has been misspelled on my subpena. ' S qoqj \q oanJi 

I live at 38 Columbia Court, Bri(Flgeix>rtb^f}H^iTio8 .SAjrasA'i .iM 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation ? 



5624 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Fazekas. My occupation at the present time is extruding. 

Officially they call it extruder. .. .. , ;. ;.: 

Mr. Arens. Where is that? . , . jjsgoqmr doi a ^\ n 

Mr. Fazekas. In the Bridgeport General Eleotii^f ^ot fisl 9nr j'jj 
siMr. A:ren8., Mr, Fazekas,, ^re, you, appeai^mg today ji;iiǤfiQ?^g%1?[? a 
suhpena served, uipon yo,ij, .by, t^^, JIo,u|se Coi»mit^ee , <m< '^mAwm^'^mh 
Activities? .clor iidi 

ft fMr. Fazekas. Isaidthat.o ot uoy to^ ihum viev siil hluorr slT 
T>_Mr. Arens. Areyou repr^s^tq^jby QqilHseilfjoY ij Yi oh ot sybH Jon 
fiMr. Fazekas. ■ I .axn. Vi^r r,[, i-- -ni "ot laKV/ ob \" xiffiYfig brroved 9r[9 
Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify herself ijT -,7 WmsX luiirn -77 
Miss Kaufman. Mary M. Klaufman, :201 ,Wwt,;85thag^F«eV[f^^w 
yorkCity.,, :^ ..r, \ ^t.,-;:;-, i ii.i.: .l!i->M' 1 :i'^ilY/' .TJU"Axa8aA .iK 
Mr. Arens. Where and wh©n wej^esyouibPJti^l)! o?: brtf! s--2rrrir.yf[ eserfi 
Mr. Fazekas. I was born in Duq^egn^, -Pa*,, October. 10stJ#8-,]/; 
Mr. Arens. And)a-w;oijdj.'ilHyQU .p^ea^jj^ir.,/ ^h9yk%:/SPM. .^^rly 
education.. o( I f'ii ev/ Yi ,?J; tioht^^oirp eilT .•/[iiBgaeoon JoZ .8Ijji7/' .iK 
f :Mr. Fazekas; I Mmik'MvQ(>A^j.gv^Mri^9^%^ 

aJQudS years olhi^h schooL, ■:.i\\<ivy>>\-r> ^aw\i1psu\) IroarJ-fsg^fff! 'lev/sifii 
j; 'Mr. Arens. • When did yioui ©omplete your »WORfc liji itJi^ iljiigh , 6clw)olj[ 

tiieSyearS?^ ■' \-\\:'U\\^-A V!!: ;MV '^-I'/f iifr'/^ :;';!i; I-iiit.s ViiK -lo 

Mr. Fazekas. Sophomore. I went through the sophompg^ 5^^.)ut« 
^oMrriAHE-NS.) What year was ithati?.;Mr- i ■>?;! i-.,;T. .■! .rjAX.:-i>:H/. /il/. 
SiMn; Fazekas. Oh, I don't know. If I startedjsehdoltwhftJb.!^ Iwia^cfi 
years old, it takes 8 years to get through grade schooLiu. aiiil bux; t^-iii 
ii]\lFi Arens.= Thatwas probably in the twenties? ' ; /sM .>r/^3aA .'iK 

Mr. Fazekas. If you figure it out, 6 and 8 and 2, it's 16, -I-guess.'(fi 
ri'Mr. Abens. Pick: up there aind give us. a thumbnail sketch 'of your 
principal employments after you completed; high schooL , : j:,i; sov 

Mr. Fazekas: Well,, after- 1 finished the second year/of-Mgh'SGhoqi 
I went ito ^ork for the Carnegie .Steel Coii! an i/jiKJ .-jM .aviaa/:. .(M 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? .gR/lesft'il 

Mr. Fazekas. As a, what they call ai;pu.liBBE'ifaoy,,fi6i!j'M%>ijeilt^^n 

hOUTi •■ - ^-.•!' ':■'•» ":!t '.:[.!. -7 .-i,y;-i>:, 1 , ! [/ .i;/ ilbiliijc; ili/i£II9'l SfefisH 

Mr. Arens, How long did you have that job ? .uov oi rlijjo rre s'laJai 

Mr. Fazekas. I had 'that job witil they had aipolicj thai) youliaS^to 
be 19 years old or something to get into. the men^ labor class, or wHat 
you want to call -i*i*i 8(> I' worked,! 'WeturaMyith^ f^r'ap|H?OixiiBia|:(ftlyia 
years on that job. r>'vMi\ a>a\- I 'ib'!-! -li/ov s^urr jioy lb // 

Mr. Arens. And then your next employ ment?j"'i /.biiiolos woy od 
: Mr.! Fazekas.! I didn't finish there. I'mean Ii'didn%!ftnMf.'nI).l!i:eptf 
on working for Carnegie Steel. After being puller boy, I got of ag^ 
and went on. -'''J [ .^r^iA^hi .iM 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work for Carnegie Steel? 

Mr. FA2!Ei/A'i.--It's so long'SgO;' Ap|-«-GXimale4^I,^^ jr^fii!ffIT83T 

Mr. Arens. And then your next eii1plbym6ht?rJC0 

Mr. Fazekas. The next employment. I came up here for a vacation, 
seeing some relatives. And because' of not wanting to ^ be a laborer 
all my life, I came up here on vacation and applied for a job in GE. 

Mr. ArensI Do you recall ^heii'thkt was? Would that bfe about 
June of 1929 ? .i:ri9qdi;3 '^m no bsileqeeira ri99d sfiri \1 

Mr. Fazekas. Something like^fclJ^feJ'/^^ ,)'moO uidniijIoO 88 in svil 1 

^ fioitfiqj/ODO 'irjOT bnA .axanA .iM 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5625 

Mr. Akens. Let me lay before you now a photostatic copy of an 
application for employment with General Electric Co., dated June 
1929, and ask you if you recognize that as a true and- ooa^reefc repre-; 
sentation of tlie applicatioa^wlwohiyou signed (for ettnploymei*. with 
General Electric in June of 1929. .I)i;->i{ii oV) ./I'h.k-: .^.XdJi/. .liA 

(The witness confers with hi&MHi!iiisel.4'i^ fHiv/ h-i9^ no-) ■r>p.<iii1if/ •^ilT) 
Mr. Arens. Is thaftyoui?:'8Jgn$itiin©''qpf!ea^]fing[¥f ths^3tQtiQiA oi\i&ie 
document, on the last line ?(<. I i-mio wml,!!',ij -.li i >.i jiuiV/ .^,; >i;i\/ ''! .il/. 
(itMr.;FAZEKAS..X don't have any, objeetiori-MVY til-oirodl i .av/ah/^ .iIlL 
Mr. Arens. Is that your signature? A'yanuo') rftiTr llnnrioo 

Mr, FAZiEKAS. -YeSiM-tii nial m*.: l-.Mii|i i^iiil.M'tu '.i['i^' .-//i.-.-. //,y! •-''!/. 
Mr. Arens. Did you, pursuant to this applicaticwa^^j6ec*a'B;fittipl(Sy- 
ment at General Electric ? ? yjiz aox bib norjaaup i^iVif .HAyi:=ix/.'4 .-iM 
'fiMr, Fazekas. ;Oh,y,es^ )-•;/. ji.rf; ;;rr/ i;)i' -to ■i')fljf)i{7/' .^^.x-ifl/i .\\fi 
Mr. Arens. How long did'youihold tlmt job«?y; ui omit io bot'ieq 9uiii« 
Mr. Fazekas. Oh,.I didn't work too longi. ' i m. ? T > >r !\ ,• 'T .-i ]/. 
I, Mr, A^EN8, What is your besta^eeolleotion as to thepetiodrof tim*]3^. 

Mr. Fazekas. Koughly, I might haivei worked there v^'.eJriTimxiJftfeliS^ 
I don'tkiiow exactly.,. Then I -wentbackliuome. / .^, a:i\/'-\ .-iM 

;. iMr. Arens. ; Did yoivsubsequently return to the; Bridg'eportarea ? ! ,' 
t iMr. Fazekas. ; It tvas, really .rough times^ those times. Jt washardto! 
get jobs. -I relied ;0>j mj .trade as an lelectriciau and knocked ax'ound 
ajpid finally ;foujid, ;thi:ough nay; brothet'-f-becasuse my ibrother came' .up 
with me at the time I came to Bridgeportrrt-rthati things were pickings 
up^ So X came back hereJ ', ;,.;i .(.- j.-ii» i.yj nov .'>i')// .^./.;iu/. .ilL 
Mr. Arens. What year was that, please, Sir ?<iq 434b iiQ .{'02 f/jooj jroi j 
Mr. Fazekas. That was in August 1930.1 ;! tr,-.' - f'>nio)>^Mi, i!// *|! l 
Mr. Arens. Then .did. !yow.irea.ssQdBlt@jry(Ju3?8e1tf .^tth\/.G:eiafetal 
Electric? U-isaaqq fidUd^lf .avranA .'iM 

Mr. Fazekas. Oh,-y^s.ft<)r(f{i orft iiio-r^ Fv^ffoqrn -ji-// T .j/.xriSAl .'iM 
-IcMr. AifENSiv Ho^^long w.e^P^y'OU'Wifch.GenferalEleotrie? .-^.wahA .i\A 

Mr. Fazekas. I have been with General Electric ever sinceffifea thief 
pres.ejit,d^y»![T fii()-»l -fn^fii-.n! 1; >i-. h-iflKj/s >i;v/ 1 WiitH \ .;^.A/!rrN//-! .-il' 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your employufeMW GFeaaearstl .Ellfec- 
tric were you affiliated with a labor organa^atioja ? . ■/[ ! ., r , .,-■., i • i ' , • ' r 
; i. r Ml". Fazekas, :Y^e;5; I,, was affiliatedi.; Xa;naiarch^rtBr.4Taeinftbe'it oflthe 
union when it first started in 1935 or 1936. , - i . . • 1 i 1 • r' I 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Arsenault^ who pileceded yoU) .QB,tJie/"wit|fiess 
stand, one of your .as9oeia,te6 m the kbor organization. ?i (i .<x;(h /. .i U. 
Mr. Fazekas^ ^Xes, r iH6wasp¥e»id;entof the union^^ .«Ajr?is/.% mK 
I also was elected as the treasurer fortliafc unjori^nuloD .p,y/Afik .iM 
Mr. Arens. How long did you serve as treasurer ?»)T .«/.h.tx/ "^ /ilf. 
Mr. Fazekas. I served fon approxiniately 7 years, as treasui^er. ; /'In 
fact, it's more, because alter I was treasurer I finished the;term)of the 
l^psiness pgQ^4,|]ntq.t{wjBjh^4j9*t tbiat.<^im$. n^ml w.mtrei.s\xmj;-md]Msi- 
nessagent. ' ' •; i.-j;,; ,,.[ 

I don't know exactly what year. i,, I t^ilk it was 1942>.Mf 1:// '»i[T' 
Mr. Arens. Was that period of yioui? service, as sin officer of I^tical 
203, about the^^ap^pewpd<(jf tiBa^iwJ^pn.ArBenault was pyesidentl. 
Mr. Fazekas. Yes. .bi:;-v huo:y,.. -mI 1 .^,, .-/ ,ji;,l'l' .«Aiiax;.'l .-d/. 

.e-il^r. Aeens^ , WihO'^e?-'© Sorfte?pf th^jQiihe? oflifierg ? j/oY .?M:iii A .-iM 
.x,^r.I<AZEiv^.,Qh>,^^<;^\7i^k,., ;;; ,;,.,,, :!,: ,;, , ; ! ).\n^ -riff^TT >fnR'i'^ 
tfiMrw^J^E^Sfi I^iy:OW(<Jp.¥ptir^Pa;]3('n?^yJ;rt ohlo^Ki Ijns 



5626 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Fazekas. I want to talk to my counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Did yon know Arsenault all the time you were treasurer 

and he was president? 1 -- '<-''' >• ^ -..-. 

Mr. Fazeka$. I'waiit.%otalktoTTiy!00iinsei.M:Jfioi[qqfi mij io xioU^inss 
Mr. Arens. Surely. Go ahead. - -I io onist id oiiJoertl {jnsfiax) 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 1 fi Ir// a-tglnoo aasft^iw sdT) 
'MissKAtrratAiN'.' Whatisthe:pending^qu€StioTr?1fifiJ p.T .»r/:uiiik .iM 
Mr. Fazekas. AVhat is the pending question ^tnl laal sdi no .;tir9rarf;)ob 
Mr. Arexs. I thought we hadan^kngw^P totit(.^!c>Fdu•mst"W'a3te^ 

consult with counsel. : *'!n ; ;\ a^l^ iijov Udi ?1 .p.wahA /\M 

Miss Kaufman. The pending question has been afiswere^^"^ .iM 

iVIr!.ARENSv-YeS.'. !;:■>: Li^ji; -i^f ■:>', lap.rre.iuq .hoy hid .:-;/\;>lA .iM 

Mr. Fazekas. What question did you say ? ' 'iiJ;)'*,- jT [j loii.O Ui U\om 
Mr. Arens. Whether or not you and Arsenawit i$^rvedids<t5igMie 
same period of time in yb-urfofficial capacities with the tmJoiS'T A .iM 
Mr. Fazekas. Yes, but you;Jiad another question. • ■■ * ,> a>t :isa'5 .-iM 
Mri! lA^ENSi ^IFeill us ' any^ other^ ^ organizations with ^^bitib'f y^'jMd 
Arsenaull likewise- wiereaiffiliatedj i ' : - : 1 ... > r!iH'5l .8Aiiai;A'^I .iM 
Mr. Fazekas. Will you repeat thdtquestion-^^aittj^^Rze word i'nob I 
Mr. Arens. ^ You have told us that you and Arseilault wereofflMrs 
together in the local of Gieneral Electric: Now I am asking !yoMif 
j^ou and Atsenault were together in any Mother organizatioiite. .adoj; ieg 
' ; Mr;iFAZEKASi Look; I would 'like tio'iiecline to answerit^te^eft ^^ 
basis of [the iftrstJand fifth tifflfend^M^htstl o3 amBo 1 eraii adi Ju sm dinr 
Mr. Arens. Were you ever disassociated il^md ibedsbModr^niz^ 
tion, Local 203, Bridgeport ?= .^^■n^\q Jsdi ?.iVfr ihbt iPAVJT .^vja-aK .iM 
(The witness confers with hiM'-^i:^nseJ;fV^ rrt asw :t>",f iT .yAiiasA'i .iM 
ffiMr. Fazekas. Y^S!;T'Wa&disassociatesd:>p\CitJj^efla!>iIT .aviaaA .tM 
Mr. Arens. What happened ? Soiijoeia 

Mr. Fazekas. I was expelled from the union--**<^HO .8A3T?rsA'5 .iM 
Mr. Arens. ?AsfW'hferi?inYmi>stjart'ed*t^^si8ey', ^ndll^dM i«Jt'q^^i6l- 

lowyOU.=' ni- 'vn-^ or:1'w!'M [iri-i-f iO dvrn iiooJ ovcj I .^A>i:is/.1 .lM 
Mr. Fazekas. I said I was expelled as a member from tber.ufeifelii^'^'^q 

- '-Mf. Arens.' Why t:f''-'fq"f-'' 'fnov '+■.> 9si«oo orli ■^^yd-miV .p.v.imA .iM 

(The witness confer^ with his cotinS©tiy fi Aihf bshdlihn uoz ^'^^'^^ ^ii^ 
Mr.> FAZEKiiS.-ii^ doni't^sreciall ariv iif6asbngii^Jr :If>nfas?^3^Ml^ iMm 
the union. .nrOi to r.mi :u hotnru j^^'iii li (fMrlv/ rroirni 

^' (The witness confers' with his 6ou]1^^^^ -: • ■^■^ ■ ; ^^ .aY.^nA .iM 
Mr. Arens. Did you ever live at 38 Gohtmbia Stt-eet ^ifoy ^o ano dm^is 
Mr. Fazekas. N(J;'not Columbia^ StFeJeti;'' gJMurtibYa Gotli^.^^'^ -i^^ 
Mr. Arens. Columbia ©oUrt-tu^i -fvi fa.j^H orft ph ivjjo^Io -bw oale I 
Mr. Fazekas. Yes.'^o'ti-a^iOiJ ^r, ovies fio'^; bib gaol woH .a>?aHA .'iM 
fMr^ARENS; 'Was that aiiipkFtmfeMibuiM^?^ I -aAaasA'il .;iM 
^^ MK'Fazekasi It's a tenement house. '^^ 1 'i'>«« ^'RHfiosd ,9iom eji ,^»fii 

- Mr. ARi?scs/-©<J I yow iec^l M' '^lia^ii i)5%fei'iift''Bflftgfep6H ^gt^JiS 
located? ine^^fjRson 

(Thewitne'gS^6nfei^s%ith'hisGouil'selV) *';•''' yJioBza wonil J nob I 
f*;Mr.FAZEKA^Si Whatwas that question agaiitil'i'f^ ^-^^^^ .g'^^JiaA .iM 
Mi-.. Arens; What Wfti^d wag that in? 'D^ydtii-ecalHs^f^ :tuofijj ,802 
Mr. Fazekas. That was the second ward. ' {_ .■^jji'^si.J. .iM 

Mr. Arens. You/- ft ^fe^lfndmeTite- ago/' identified^ Ihis s?gnaWH*e, 
Frank Henry Fazekas, on an application f6* employhielit'at the Gen- 
eral Electric Go. lfw<Md? like^i<) ky before you another (fcJcument 
in which there appears the name Frank Fazek%s^3^ ^ohjjmb^^. Court, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5627 

"Ward 2. Can you identify that signature as the signature of your- 
self? 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Fa^ekas, I want to decline to aiis wertilia ton 'the basis, of ! the 
fb.*st and fifth amendments. ■ . • I ..> ., j i ;/.-., lin; 

!-^£r. u\jRENS. Now tliis signature is on a document entitled "Nomi-« 
nating Petition for Novembec ; 1946 1 Klp^tion^,") i under ithe/^ title j rand 
designation of "'Communist Partjy.i'iliboy'jo'iq [Kairnf-!) i; ni no/ jHuijrQjS 
Did you sign a petition for the Commiiriist Party in 1946/? m!!'^ 
Mr. Fazekas. I stated I stand on my first and fifth amendmejiits.IA. 
■f Mr.; Kearney; lAt the time you were expelled from itheimion wfere 
y<ixu, e^eJile<:l;£<iHf; then reason, that) you were ;a; member of, the Com- 
munist P^irty ?>i; uov bsiii.jnnbi 7;9f{i u^iln dtrjij nii.t Tiiiif[oJ oi-itt- jrrgyl 
Mr. FAKXKAgj r'Pqcpay krio'^Ieclge, ith^revwasfaaorretatediTeasonr* -^rfl 
Mr. KE.vR>iit)35».'\^^eflli;y6ui a member, of nthei; Communist Party ikvk 

1 Me.- : li AJjEKASjR-JicdeOlme/ txj jajalswen) oil Wie r ifirst i andj : ifif th aniendf^ 
rnent^,:;j o[({<p'n] io 9?Mn-y-y\ ivyiW 9io'-v :)1([0')T vifjiiu •/[■iinWlMM v ;;,, v/i>ii/l 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Fazekas, are..5fe5i>jfy-eser^lyifaj(mfiinbep, oifiarJafooT 
organization? ^icrlw [^rjodA .B>i:jaA .iM 

,;.Mr. Fki^ZEttASi-Tliteiriniotjrr'iT/- x^tM TRrfj x^nirmo^nl .^kwArn.'^ :\\L 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Wi;G. iMosKecl 
To(The/witne8SGQnfe]jS')withliife>c0utiseh)i.>-:- , ocf Vfii::. YlvV!,,-.wf i 

]Mr. Fazekas. I decline for the sairiei. stated rreas«mst that i.;sta(ted 
befOiire.yTfi uov ofiffT/ ool'raiiio-. h:;!1 iK't u.v.t^ [)1i.kj7/ -•:,;:/. :'M. 

M.t.\^i^^\%viii^)^om^xi&^'mBj^\s^^ Comniunist dto^ 

spia'^cy'?',.(m9fa J3 ar. uo^^; Tz-sml y,'^-'^^ asMrriTinoo E-.irii i)ir.t t/jjiI rc.;iv/ 

Mr. Fazekas. I still maintain my position — fliet ifiifet^andafiiiit'li 
amendments. ( Jsgrruao p.'CA fbm aTjlrtoa gRr.irJiv,' mV ) 

( -Ml'* A^isJfSi I>o/y6Uj rknjoiwla'tpprsoro fby rtJie>a!i^m6>oi Hapold KMit ? 

Mr. Fazekas. T declin&H'toiaiiswePiOn'thetififSt; and fifth amend* 
ments. .irliiii liA .r-.vi.'iiiA . ii/. 

]Mr. Arexs. Mr. Kent, would'^yoiikiiiiidl|^ stand •?ijoY .ra3.tsa'^[ .iM 

,IiiO(jki,©v^ri,youuJrjght shoulder Mr. Fiazekas^I This mail 'testified 

here this morning, placed hi fe iliberty oh > thfe line^ and said, in effect^ 

that he kneAv you as a mernber of the Communist Part j'. . - ' a-w (.'\ ,' J/. 

, vl^Vhjie V(m ai*^ ujad?et oafehyteU tllis ccanihitted wastMr.TKeMt%in^ or 

Wft$jl"i^it#ling!tl^etr«th.|.9iri ^XLiad olqosq \o v^ord uo\ iRiii \s\a oJ 

( The witness confers with hiScroii]msek)^o R-Todrnorri o'^9^^^ vo.'it h-^tnig 

Mr. Fazekas. Look. You state Ihatrh^ ds /^TotfefetingJ-his'libei'ty. 
laniit^Tlfii^g yfiuf/tJ^ait J jam -^talking, my ijoib-inv trying to- ;p3fGf£ecU4he 
Constitution. ' ^ ^-i r 4 j^iaifai 

]Mr. Arexs. Are you a meitabeiiTrcrfciiHfi<br^aTiizati(Dfn>xiedic!at«dJ^^^^ 
destructioift'oC^ie^GiMnstiti^it/ioH,'? ipM ^v^uk-.o.J sr.v/ iT .t^/ >i;-\/1T /ih'!; 
;.4M4r;(^^^«^4f. jIistfindontliBffirstiand fifth amendnkents/'' ''^'1 'i '''^ 

Mr. Arexds. Mr. I^^tistjatedlr^on (pfeciiuited hiiri ■ inft©^^t)h<i GtefliiMUi 
nist Party. Was lie lying or was he tellingihe triith ? .hassisa'^I .iM 

Mr. Fazekas. I will stand on tliteiflffch; amendment/ .Y-rvrrr/ -•? 71 .-^U ^ 
>o^fcii^^KSA'S")I)o;yoiu!knjO"VY;ia/ jjeusoh by the. name- of RoWfeftalPalimi ? 

Mr. Fazekas. The same answer. ' .oonsioc/ biuj ^hvmh 

,; ]yfo-i.:(\,R¥e;sr Mi§s Fi^ujJiij iyolbl yDufkmdly stand/^oH .Y:maA?t>I .lU 

Look over your right shoulder, Mr. Fazekas. ^ oirn VIkiI.) 

Xow tliis lady has told this cohimittee^fehat Shefkiyewi-^^W-W^-fti^m- 
ber of the Communist conspiracy. -asY .YaviH/i-a/I /iV. 



5628 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

"^Vliile you are under oath, tell the committee was Miss Paumi ly- 
ing or was she telling the truth. 

Mr. Fazekas. I stand on my fifth amendmentiniooBasiiJiv/^aiiT) 
3 'Mr. Aeens.Do! you honestly apprehend thatvif ^ou told the cbm- 
mittee whether or not Kowena Paumi and Harold- Kent were telling 
the ti'uth T^v'hen they identified you as a member ©f the Oommukist 
conspiracy^ ifou would be supplying iliformation. which might be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding? \rM iaufcrnrmo' )"ionoiJiiniJSfaoi? 

(The witness! confeis with- his <;ounSeL)! iioiltloq xj n-gis uoj, bkl 

Mr.iFAzEfEAs. > What was that question a^diieitisJa 1 .HA.>i:iS/.''l .'il/. 
;Mr. Aeoens. Do you honestly fear that^ if ydt t61d;this corhmillytee 
while you are under oath whether or not RowenaPa^umi aiud Harold 
Kent were telling the truth when they identified you as a member of 
the Communist conspiracy, you would be supplying information 
which might be . used against you in . a criminal prdceeding ? / 1 ; 1 ' 

Mr. Fazekas. All I can say is this: that I have been a > charter 
nkember 6f thait union; and I know what it was to organize a union. I 
know very definitely many people were fired because of people talking, 
you knoW^ and informing on ^people, t;, ,^j;:-i )xj;'L .tl/- - ./ . i 

Mr. Arens. About what? ■ ' ■/ j~ 

Mr. Fazekas. Informing that they were m^sibdrs' ol J thel mllon 

and all iOf that./ i^> -»iinM -^i;; .'/\ ;;.-;-,■; >-. v/,.:i,[ n,;/ r.il ."/ ,;!/. ''J 

I positively can't be assocciEitediiiundiiliitiron-^^iissoKaaAe'mysell of 
being-ail informer^ and on that basis-*+i+-^f<H ')nii'^M) 1 .^/.hhx l .il/ 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell this committee while you are under 
oath whether or not Kent lied-and whether; or not Miss Paumi lied 
when they told this committee they knew you as a membei* 'of' tile 
Gomimunist Party.? i-'^^.^ v-t LiiKhi! .::! ihi- i .-:.,!:•, •( .-il/: 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) ■ * > . t ; . i < r s 

■ 7Mr; Fazekas. On tJae previous question i tha* (jou asked^lMso 
want to include; the fifth amendment, on thati.i(l->ob 1 .HA^ias^'i .-il/l 

Mr. Arens. All right. .sifftwi 

Mr. Fazekas. Your second question ?Mih>7/ JivhA .-ilA .-/..oi/. .il/. 
i >Mr^ Arens. Did Kent and Miss Paiaim lid i^^heiio^eygaid^^l^^ 
knew you as a member of the Gommunist Party ? . i q , a a i i 1 1 o i li - u i « vt > 1 1 

Mr. Fazekas. I stand on the fifth amendments ■ ; -- i-/ ' • ■ ' '^ ' -' 
•TO Ml"; KeariIet.- Did I understand 5^ou correctly- a few toitiufces'Ugo 
to say that you knew of people being fired froiii >jbbsiwh6ri they 
stated they were members of a union? i ; i i-.i > -- • ; u ' -:; 1 

.yiMr- Fazekas. People informed ; yesj > ;' .y\o<Kl .-/./Kix/ -i .il/. 
^y^Mr. Kearney. Or was it because they were meitibers sfi itflife? 06fmi 
munist Party ? . 1 1 o i n f t i t-, i to') 

9ii (The witness confers with his counsel.) - cvA .tl/^ 

Mr. Fazekas. It was because they were joimng 'a tiliion.<^n"^in^^-'*b 

Mr. Kearney, Do you mean to sit there and tell nke that employers 
fire men because they belong to a labor imionl' i- , i. / - 

Mr. Fazekas. At that time. ■ . ui -i;>/ (oiiiiivlsti ah If ./ tiii'I t-.i.i 

Mr. Kearney. What year, was that?) r.o bitct'^ Uln T .^./.Hirs/.'I .tV. 

Mr. Fazekas. 19S6-8I. .,lI Mok> up; many .grievances on i^ha^-^ 
threats and violence, ' , :• ■ i - ■\,'i. i/ 

Mr. Kearney. How many members did you hdve in your liniok at 
that time? ; , i . , [/. /iiDiKoii-: nji^ii Tiiov-i-t/o ><.»•>• i 

, Mr. Fazekas. At that time, inil9a7i?vvi nnfi bfo>1 p.ful 'rhrA --.iid "■ 

Mr. Kearney. Yes. .-y;;oiniqHr[0!) c^sinririUTio') fiHi "to r.> 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5629 

Mr. Fazekas. I don't know exactly how many. We went through 
an election in 1937 by the National Labor Relations Board, and won 
the majority vote in that plant on June 4 of 1937. We won the 
majority vote, and that consisted of approximately live thousand two 
hundred-some people that were actually in that election, involved 
in that election. 

Mr. Kearney. Were all of those people fired because they were 
members of the union ? 

Mr. Fazekas. We had the protection of the National Labor Rela- 
tions Board at that time. 

Mr. Kearney. Prior to the protection that you had with the Na- 
tional Labor Relations Board was every member of the union that 
you belong to fired because he belonged to that union ? 

Mr. Fazekas. No. 

Mr. Ke^vrney. You are a little off balance on your statement then, 
are you not ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fazekas. I think you must know of the La Follette committee 
about those times, in their reports on labor, spying and all that. 

Mr. Kearney. I would like to inform the witness that in 1937 I 
was not even a Member of the Congress. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever file a non-Communist affidavit pursuant 
to the National Labor Relations Act ? 

Mr. Fazekas. What was that question ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever file a non-Communist affidavit pursuant 
to the provisions of the National Labor Relations Act ? 

Mr. Fazekas. The National Labor Relations Act? 

]Miss Kaufman. You mean the Taft-Hartley law ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Fazekas. Why don't you say that? 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever file a non-Communist affidavit in accord- 
ance with that law ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fazekas. I never did. I didn't have to; there was no reason. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of a city wide organization 
in Bridgeport? 

Mr. Fazekas. What do you mean, city wide ? 

Mr. Arens. Well, can you not tax your memory a little bit and 
tell us whether or not in 1953 you were a member of a committee, 
city wide committee of any organization in Bridgeport ? 

5rr. Fazekas. Do you have any special one in mind ? 

Mr, Arens. Yes. The City Committee of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Fazekas. I decline on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Kent said that you were chairman of the City Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Fazekas. I decline on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Was he lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Mr. Fazekas. I decline on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. For what publications have you been a business agent? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fazekas. The question, I would like to have again. 

Mr. Arens. Have yon ever conducted a campaign for any publication 
that has been circulated in the State of Connecticut? 



5630 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Fazekas. Have I conducted a campaign ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Miss Kaufman. That is a different question. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever had a connection with a publication 
circulating in the State of Connecticut ? 

Mr. Fazekas. Well, as a business agent, I was editor of the union 
paper. We had a local union paper. 

Mr. Arens. What was the circulation ? ;i 

Mr. Fazekas. The circulation was, the paper was sent to every mem- 
ber of the local. 

Mr. Arens. How many were there at that time ? 

Mr. Fazekas. Oh, I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Was it up around 6,000 ? 

Mr. Fazekas. It must be somewhere around there. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any connection with the March of Labor ? 

Mr. Fazekas. Did I have any connection with the March of Labor ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fazekas. I decline to answer that on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that, if you told this com- 
mittee whether you had any connection with the March of Labor, you 
would be supplying information which might be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Fazekas. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest that the witness be directed to answer. 

Mr. Kearney. As a matter of fact, you were a State director for the 
March of Labor. 

Mr. Fazekas. I decline to answer that — fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Was that a Conununist publication ? 

Mr. Fazekas. I decline to answer — fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. How many people did you recruit into Local 203 when 
you were in it ? 

Mr. Fazekas. You mean members ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Fazekas. I can't remember how many. 

Mr. Arens. Was it several ? 

Mr. Fazekas. You mean members of the union ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Fazekas. I have recruited plenty. 

Mr. Arens. Would you say several hundred people ? 

Mr. Fazekas. I could say I had plenty to do with a hundred. 

Mr. Arens. Would you say you recruited into the local as many as 
a thousand ? 

Mr. Fazekas. I don't want to 

Mr. Arens. We do not want you to brag. 

Mr. Fazekas. I don't know how many I recruited. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us into what other organization you recruited 
members besides the local. 

Mr. Fazekas. I don't want to answer that on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that that will 
conclude the staff interrogation of this witness. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5631 

Mr. Willis. Any questions ? 

Mr. Kearney. No questions. 

]Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

We will take a short recess. 

(Whereupon, a brief recess was taken, there being present at the 
time of taking the recess Representatives AVillis and Kearney.) 

jSlr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Counsel Avill call the next witness, please. 

Mr. Arens. William P-i-s-t-e-y. 

Please come forw^ard. 

Kindly remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

Mr. ^^''iLLis. Will you raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help 
you, God ? 

Mr. PiSTEY. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM PISTEY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MARY M. KAUFMAN 

INIr. Arens. Please be seated. 

Kindly identify yourself by name, residence and occupation. 

Miss Kaufman. My client informs me that he would prefer not to 
be televised. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation ? 

Mr. Pistey. William Pistey, P-i-s-t-e-y. 

Mr. Arens. Your residence, please. 

Mr. Pistey. 389 Parkway Drive, Stratford, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. Your occupation, please. 

Mr. Pistey. Sheet-metal worker. 

Mr. Arens. Where ? 

Mr. Pistey. General Electric. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties? 

^Ir. Pistey. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Pistey. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself for this record, please. 

Miss Kaufman. Mary M." Kaufman, 201 West 85th Street, New 
York, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born, Mr. Pistey ? 

Mr. Pistey. August 31, 1909, in Bridgeport, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a thumbnail sketch, please, sir, of your educa- 
tion. 

Mr. Pistey. I went to grammar school for 71/2 years, in State trade 
school for lyn years. 

^Ir. Arens. When did you complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Pistey. In the trade school ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pistey. About 1926. 



5632 COMAIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Have you had other specialized training or other 
specialized courses since completion of your work at the State trade 
school ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ptstey. Wliat do you mean by specialized ? 

Mr. Abens. Tell us of any training that you have had since you 
completed your State trade schooling. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. PiSTEY. I have no other training. 

Mr. Arens. Have you taken any other courses since you completed 
your State trade school work ? 

Mr. PiSTEY. No. 

Mr. Arens. Now give us, if you please, sir, a brief sketch of the 
employment you have had since completion of your formal education. 

Mr. Pistey. Well, after I left trade school I went- to work for 
local contractors. That is small contractors: Bridgeport Furnace 
Works. I worked there for maybe a year or so. Then I went to 
work for a plumbing and heating contractor by the name of Al 
Menard. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that? 

Mr. PiSTEY. Bridgeport, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work there ? 

Mr. PisTEY. I should say approximately 5 or 6 years. I don't know 
definitely. 

Mr. Arens. Then your next employment ? 

Mr. Pistey. Then I was unemployed in 1931, and I had no regu- 
lar employment, I worked for various contractors here and there; 
short periods of, say, maybe a few weeks or a month. I was un- 
employed most of the time till I worked at the Bridgeport Brass Co. 
for a couple of years. 

I would say possibly around 1934 to 1936 somewhere, about 21^ 
years at the Bridgeport Brass Co. in Bridgeport, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. Then your next employment ? 

Mr. Pistey. A short period at Sikorsky Aircraft. They were in 
Stratford then. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do at Sikorsky ? 

Mr. Pistey. Sheet metal. 

Mr. Arens. Was that in 1937? 

Mr. Pistey. Around 1936 or 1937. I don't remember the dates. 

Mr. Arens. Then your next employment, sir ? 

Mr. Pistey. I went to work at the General Electric in 1937 to 
1938, and I was laid off due to lack of work. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment ? 

Mr. Pistey. When I was laid off I went on public relief for a short 
time, and I was on PWA. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment ? 

Mr. Pistey. Then I went back to work for the first concern I worked 
for. That was the Bridgeport Furnace Works ; for about 21^ years. 
I believe that was 1939, in the sheet-metal work. I was installing air 
conditioning. 

Then, in 1942, I went to work for the General Electric Co., and I 
have worked since. That is over 14 years now. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a member of a labor organiza- 
tion? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5633 

Mr. PisTEY. I am a member of lUE. 

Mr. Arens. How Ions: have you been a member of International 
Union of Electrical Workers ? 

Mr, PiSTEY. Approximately since they won the election in Bridge- 
port. 

Mr. Arexs. When was that, please, sir? Your best recollection. 

Mr. PisTEY. I would say a few years ago. I don't recollect dates. 

Mr. Arens. Have you held any office in lUE ? 

Mr. Pistey. No. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in any other labor organization prior to your 
present affiliation with lUE ? 

Mr. Pistey. The UE ; United Electrical. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat period of time were you identified with United 
Electrical ? 

Mr. Pistey. Since I have been employed till they lost the election. 

Mr. Arens. Have you held any post or office in UE ? 

Mr. Pistey. No. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other labor organization with which you 
have been affiliated ? 

Mr. Pistey. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Frank Fazekas? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pistey. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Oliver Arsenault ? 

Mr. Pistey. I decline for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever had any business dealings witli a law 
firm in New York City ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pistey. Sir, what is the relevance of that to this kind of 
inquiry ? 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully ask you to answer that question. 

What business dealings have you had, if any, with a law firm in 
New York City ? 

Miss Kaufman. The witness has raised a question of relevance. 

]Mr. Arens. This committee has rules of which you have been ad- 
vised, and we have been heckled by experts and we do not expect to be 
heckled by you today. 

Tell us whether or not you have had business dealings with a law 
firm in New York City ? 

Mr. Pistey. I would like to confer with my counsel. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pistey. I would like the ruling on this, the relevancy of the 
inquiry. 

Mr. Arens. '^'\^len did you first meet your counsel who appears 
today with you ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pistey. I would like to ask the chairman what relevance. 

Mr. Arens. The relevance — I say this for the record — is that this 
committee has under consideration legislation dealing with certain 
persons who appear in hearings before this committee. 

I, therefore, ask you now to tell us when you first met your counsel 
who appears with you today. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



5634 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Miss Kaufman. May I suggest the witness is unable to cope with 
the problem. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Pistey, please answer the question. 

When did you first meet your counsel who appears before us today ? 

Miss Kj^ufman. I would like to say, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Arens. Madam, we have been heckled by experts. 

You have appeared before, of course, representing other witnesses 
who have been identified as Communists. 

We do not propose to let you take over this hearing. 

Mr. Pistey, please answer this question : When did you first meet 
your counsel who appears before us today ? 

Mr. Willis. The witness will answer the question. 

Mr. Pistey. I would like advice of counsel, please. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pistey. I met my counsel the first time Sunday. 

Mr. Arens. Did you initiate the arrangements between yourself and 
your counsel, or were those arrangements initiated by some other 
person ? 

Mr. Pistey. I would like to confer with my counsel. 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Miss Kaufman. Mr. Chairman, since this affects me individu- 
ally 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, in a few moments, if you would like to be inter- 
rogated, we will swear you in. 

Now, Mr. Pistey, tell this committee whether or not the arrange- 
ments between you and your counsel were initiated by yourself or by 
some other person. 

(The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Pistey. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Was your counsel secured for you by a person who, to 
your certain knowledge, is a member of the Communist conspiracy? 

Mr. Pistey. I decline for the same reasons I have stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, then, that if you told this 
committee truthfully whether or not your counsel was lined up for 
you by a person who is a member of the Communist conspiracy, that 
you would be supplying information which might be used against you 
in a criminal proceeding ? 

Miss Kaufman. I would like to take exception to the remarks of 
counsel. 

Mr. Arens. If counsel wants to testify before the committee, I sug- 
gest that the counsel raise her right hand and be sworn, and we will 
interrogate her. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pistey. Under the present conditions my answer is "Yes." 

Mr. Arens. Your answer is "Yes," that you truthfully apprehend 
that if you told this committee whether or not your counsel was 
engaged for you by a member of the Communist conspiracy you would 
be supplying information which could be used against you in'a criminal 
proceeding. 

Did you have any consultation with Mr. Fazekas in anticipation of 
the engagement of your counsel today ? 

Mr. Pistey. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5635 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any consultation with Mr. Arsenault in 
anticipation of the engagement of your counsel today ? 

Mr. PiSTEY. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Sam Kichter ? 

Mr. PiSTEY. I refuse for the same reasons I have stated. 

Mr. Arens. State them again. 

Mr. PisTEY. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee whether or not you even know Sam Richter, you would be 
supplying information which could be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

Mr. PiSTEY. May I confer with counsel. 

( The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Miss Kaufman. May we have that question, counsel, reread. 

( The pending question was read by the reporter.) 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. PiSTEY. Under the present conditions the answer is "Yes." 

Mr. Arens. Have you been instructed as to the nature of the answers 
you are to give to this committee by any person who, to jonr certain 
knowledge, is a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. PisTEY. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Rowena Paumi ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. PisTEY. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Harold Kent ? 

Mr. Pistey. I refuse to answer on tlie grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi and Mr. Kent, would you kindly come 
forward a moment. 

Mr. Pistey, take a look at these two people. Tell this committee 
whether you have ever seen either of them before. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Pistey. What is that question ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

]Mr. Pistey. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

]Mr. Arens. Mr. Pistey, Mr. Kent testified under oath before this 
committee and subjected himself to the pains and penalties of perjury. 
He said that he knew you as a member of the Communist conspiracy. 

Was he lying or was he telling the truth ? 

]Mr. Pistey. I would like to confer with counsel. 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pistey. I refuse on the grounds of the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi has told this committee that she, too, knew 
you as a member of the Communist conspiracy. Is that lady standing 
there one who lied or did she tell the truth ? 

Mr. Pistey. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 



5636 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, Mr. Kent and Miss Paumi. 

Are you presently, in your work at the General Electric Co., under 
the discipline of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. PiSTEY. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments, 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. No questions. 

The witness is excused. 

Counsel will call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, was 
supposed to be one Mattie Sykes. 

We have received representations from an attorney representing 
Mattie Sykes that she is confined to a hospital in Bridgeport with an 
illness and will be unable to appear. 

I respectfully suggest that, on the basis of that representation, 
which has been supplemented by a telephone conversation, that Mattie 
Sykes for the period of time at least of these hearings in New Haven, 
be temporarily excused from appearing. 

Mr. Willis. It will be so ordered. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if the chairman please, will be Mr. 
Milton Weinberg. 

Please remain standing, Mr. Weinberg, while the chairman admin- 
isters an oath to you. 

Mr. Willis. Kaise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you, God ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MILTON WEINBERG, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

RALPH LOCKWOOD 

Mr. Arens. Have a seat, please, sir, and kindly identify your- 
self by name, residence, and occupation, 

Mr. Weinberg. Milton Weinberg, 355 Trumbull Avenue, Bridge- 
port, Conn. ; occupation, machinist. 

Mr. Arens. And where ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the protection afforded me by the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that, first, counsel 
advise his client on that subject because we do not want to take unfair 
advantage of him, and that, then, the chairman direct him to answer. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weinberg. I am presently employed by the AVCO Corp., Strat- 
ford, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. I did not get the name. 

Mr. Weinberg. The AVCO Corp. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena served 
upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Weinberg. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Weinberg. That is correct. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5637 

Mr. Arexs. Will counsel kindly identify himself. 

Mr. LocKwooD. Kalph Lockwood, 188 Main Street, Bridgeport, 
Conn. 

Mr. Arkns. "^A^ien and where were you born, Mr. Weinberg? 

Mr. AVeixberg. I was born in New York City, July 26, 1926. 

Mr. Akexs. Have you ever been known by any name other than 
Milton Weinberg ? 

^Ir. WEixBER(i. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arexs. Give us, if you please, sir, a brief resume of your educa- 
tion. 

Mr. Weinberg. My formal education, that is, public schools, which 
I attended: I went through public school and high school, finished 
high school and completed my education. 

Mr. Arens. A^-lien did you finish high school ? 

^Ir. Weinberg. Approximately 1942. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that, please, sir ? 

Mr. Weinberg. New York City. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

NoAv have you had any education other than the education which 
3'ou have heretofore on this record described ? 

Mr. Weinberg. What type of education ? 

Mr. Arens. Any kind. 

( Tlie Avitness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. T^niere else have you had education beside the education 
you have heretofore described ? 

]Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had any specialized training ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Now kindly tell us, please, sir, of your employment 
activity since you completed the education which you have heretofoi'e 
described on the record, terminating in 1942, 1 believe. 

(The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Weinberg. After 1 finislied high school, shortly afterward — 
I think it was a matter of months — I went to the United States Navy, 
volunteered for the Navy during the war. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you serve in the Navy ? 

Mr. Weinberg. Approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a commission ? 

]\Ir. Weinberg. No, sir. 

^Ir. Arens. In what unit of the Navy did you serve ? 

]\Ir. Weinberg. I think the actual unit was the advance forces unit. 

Our job was mainly being assigned to advance bases overseas. 

Mr. Arens. In what theater did you serve? 

Mr. AVeinberg. I was in both the Atlantic and the Pacific area. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of your service in the Navy did you have 
access to confidential or restricted information ? 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

^Ir. Weinberg. Not to my knowledge. 

]Mr. Arens. During the course of your service in the Navy were you 
under the discipline or direction of any organization other than the 
United States Armed Forces ? 



5638 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

(The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Was your enlistment in the Navy at the behest, sug- 
gestion, or direction of any organization other than an official Govern- 
ment agency ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer for the same reasons. I decline 
to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. When did your service in the Navy terminate? 

Mr. Weinberg. 1946, 1 believe. 

Mr. Kearney. Are you a member of any veterans' organization? 

Mr. Weinberg. While I was in the service ? 

Mr. Kearney. Now, 

Mr. Weinberg. Am I a member of any veterans' organization at 
the present time ? 

Mr. Kearney. Yes. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kearney. Surely that cannot be based upon a refusal to answer 
on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Weinberg. Well, can I consult with my counsel ? 

Mr. Kearney. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. That is a privilege accorded you by this committee. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weinberg. With the counsel's permission, I would like to read 
a very short statement. 

Mr. Arens. Just answer the general's question as to whether or not 
you are a member of the American Legion 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, I insist on an answer to my question. 

Mr. Weinberg. Will you repeat that question ? 

Mr. Kearney. I asked you if you are a member of any veterans' 
organization today. It is a very simple question. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weinberg. At the present time I am not a member of any vet- 
erans' organization. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of a veterans' organiza- 
tion? 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. Young man, you are directed to answer the question. 
But you are making a mistake. However, you have counsel. 

I direct you to answer the question, and suggest to you that you 
might be in contempt if you do not. 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Weinberg. I would like to state that 

Mr. Kearney. Just a minute, Mr. Witness. 

Mr. Chairman, if this witness is about to read a statement, I object 
to it. 

Mr. Willis. You were directed to answer the last question pro- 
pounded to you. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weinberg. I am refusing to answer that question not because 
of the nature of the question as such but because I feel that answering 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5639 

that and future questions in that field may constitute a link in a chain 
of questions 

Mr. Kearney. Are you reading from that statement ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I am referring to it but not reading it. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that that statement be 
handed to the chairman for the simple reason that the witness is going 
to answer the questions in his own way by referring to it. 

Mr. Arens. Who prepared this statement which counsel is now 
handing to the chairman ? 

Mr. Weinberg. It was prepared by counsel and myself. 

Mr. Arens. Has any person worked on that statement who, to your 
certain knowledge, is a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Weinberg. Would you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Did anyone work on that statement who, to your cer- 
tain knowledge, is a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I stated, as an answer to the previous question 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell this committee whether or not any Com- 
munist worked on that statement, w^iether it includes you, your coun- 
sel, or anyone else? 

Mr. Weinberg. I stated that the statement was prepared by the 
counsel and myself. 

Mr. Arens. Now, tell this committee whether or not any Commu- 
nists worked on that statement. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weinberg. I stand on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr, Arens. Now, you were in the Navy until when ? 

Mr. Weinberg. 1946. 

Mr. Arens. And then what was your employment after you were 
out of the Navy ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vliere were you employed after you concluded your 
service in the Navy? 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to ansAver on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you employed in the eastern part of the United 
States? 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes ; you are directed to answer that last question which 
simply is to the effect whether you were employed in the eastern part 
of the United States. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer that question not only on the 
basis of the fifth amendment, because, as I started to say before, I feel 
that, though the question on its face may seem very innocent and 
simple, that I do not wish to be led into a field where there can be 
possible repercussions. I do not feel that I should 

Mr. Ari:ns. When did you begin your iirst employment after you 
concluded your service in the Navy ? Wlien did you begin it ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I just stated that I came out of the Navy in 1946. 

Mr. Arens. When did you begin your next employment? 



5640 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Weinberg. I feel any questions regarding my employment are 
a violation of my rights under the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. When did you begin your next employment after you 
concluded your service in the United States Navy ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request that this witness 
be ordered and directed to answer. 

Mr. Weinberg. Also, I wish to point out that, although the question 
seems to be innocent and simple, I do not wish to be led into a field 

Mr. Arens. We will take it the hard way. 

You are presently employed by the Lycoming division of AVCO Co., 
at Bridgeport, are you not ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I believe I stated that before. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed there ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weinberg. I wish to invoke my privileges 

Approximately 4% years. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
employment at your present establishment ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer that on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

In addition, I wish to state that, although it may seem to be a simple 
question, I refuse to be led into a field which may have possible in- 
criminating effects. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any period of time between 1946 and the time 
you began your present employment with the Lycoming division of 
the AYCO Manufacturing Corp. in which you were engaged in an 
employment concerning which you could tell this committee without 
furnishing facts Avhich could be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I feel that, since my employment has always been 
a matter of public record, since I filed social security, that the counsel, 
in asking this question, can have no purpose other than to lead me into 
this field I described, and I am again using the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I again respectfully ask that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that last principal question. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weinberg. Will you repeat the question, please. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Reporter, read the question, please. 

(The pending question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Weinberg. No. 

Mr. Arens. Were you continuously from 1946 until you began your 
present employment engaged in an employment concerning which 
you cannot tell this committee without furnishing information which 
could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weinberg. I am not certain, but, to play it safe, I am going 
to invoke the privileges afforded me under the Constitution in the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that last principal question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5641 

Mr. Willis. Yes, you are directed to answer the question. 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Weinberg. Would you repeat the question. 

Mr. Arexs. The question is simply this, sir: From 1946 until you 
began your present employment with Lycoming division were j^ou 
continuously engaged in an employment concerning which, if you told 
this committee the truth, you would be supplying information which 
could be used against you in a criminal proceeding. 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Weinberg. To the best of my recollection and knowledge, the 
answer is probably, "Yes." 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. 

Now do you know a person by the name of Harold Kent ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Rowena Paumi ? 

Mr. Weinberg. Same answer. Fifth amendment. I decline to 
answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Weinberg, Harold A. Kent testified under oath be- 
fore this committee that while he was an undercover agent for the 
FBI in the Communist conspiracy he knew you as a Commumst. 
Was he lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Mr. AVeinberg. I decline to answer that question on the protection 
afforded me 

Mr. Arens. Rowena Paumi 



Mr. Weinberg. I would like to have, for the record, that I am 
using the fifth amendment on that question. 

Mi\ Arens. Rowena Paumi told this committee that she knew you 
as a Communist. Was she lying or was she telling the truth ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a Communist ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the fifth amendment of our Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under Communist Party discipline? 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment of our Constitution. 

Mr. Kearney. If you are not under Communist Party discipline 
would you so inform us ? 

Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer that question, as well, on the 
basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of an organization dedicated to the 
destruction of the Constitution of the United States ? 

]Mr. Weinberg. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
protection afforded me by the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

]Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that that would 
conclude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. Any questions ? 

Mr. Ke.vrnet. No. 

]Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

The committee will take a 5-minute recess. 

(Whereupon, a brief recess was taken, there being present at the 
time of taking the recess Representatives Willis and Kearney.) 

84046— 56— pt. 1 5 



5642 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Willis. The committee will please come to order. 

Counsel will call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Frank Peterson. Kindly come forward. 

Mr. Peterson, please remain standing while the chairman admin- 
isters an oath to you. 

Mr. Willis. Kaise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Peterson. I do. 

The television ; I would like to have that tasken off. 

Mr. Willis. All right 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK PETEESON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CATHERINE G. RORABACK 

Mr. Arens. Please have a seat. 

Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Peterson. My name? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Peterson. I want to tell you ahead of time that I am a little 
hard of hearing. 

Mr. Arens. I will keep my voice up. 

Mr. Peterson. I may have to ask you to repeat, and I hope you 
won't mind. 

Mr. xIrens. All right, sir. Please tell us your name. 

Mr. Peterson. Frank Peterson. ; 

Mr. Arens. And your residence ? 

Mr. Peterson. 90 Jennings Avenue, Bridgeport, Conn., United 
States of America. 

Mr. Arens. Your occupation ? 

Mr. Peterson. I am a retired millionaire. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your last employment ? 

Mr. Peterson. Oh, its about, I would say about 6 years ago. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere was that, please, sir ? 

Mr. Peterson. The last place I worked was in AVCO, Stratford. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Peterson, are you appearing today in response to 
a subpena served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr, Peterson. Yes ; if I understand you. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Peterson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify herself. 

Miss EoRABACK. Catherine G. Roraback, 185 Church Street, New 
Haven, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged at the AVCO Co., Mr. 
Peterson ? 

Mr. Peterson. 10 weeks. 

Mr. Arens. And in what capacity ? 

Mr. Peterson. You will have to come again. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of your employment at AVCO 
Co.? 

Mr. Peterson. Tool grinding. 



COMMTHSriST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5643 

IMr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to youi* 
employment at AVCO ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Peterson. Well, I worked up until 1949 in the General Electric. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you begin at General Electric ? 

Mr. Peterson. In 1942. 

Mr. Arens. And in whjit capacity did you work at General Elec- 
tric? 

Mr. Peterson. I worked as a tool grinder. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of a labor organization ? 

Mr. Peterson. Absolutely ; always believed in it. 

Mr, Arens. To what labor organization did you belong? 

Mr. Peterson. UE. 

Mr. Arens. Did you hold an office or post in the UE ? 

Mr. Peterson. No. I was just a common ordinajry run-of-the-mill 
worker. 

Mr. Arens. During the time that you were a member of the UE, 
did you receive orders or directions from any other organization ? 

Mr. Peterson. I received orders all right. I received orders from 
the company to report there at 7 o'clock in the morning and work 
until 4 o'clock in the afternoon. I was supposed to put in a certain 
amount of work. That was the orders I was getting at GE. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive orders from any other organization ? 

Mr. Peterson. That is the only organization that disciplined me 
that I have ever known of — General Electric. To turn out the work. 
If you wasn't doing that, out you go. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of any other organization which 
disciplined you ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Peterson. You will have to excuse me. I can't hear a word 
that counsel says. I want to get a little information from my counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Peterson. I want to be excused. I can't talk here because I 
can't catch what you said. 

Mr. Arens. To be sure that jou understand me 

Mr. Peterson. My hearing isn't good. 

Mr. Arens. Can you hear me now ? 

Mr. Peterson. Just about. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Were you a member or under discipline of any organization other 
than the labor organization you have told us about ? 

Mr. Peterson. I told you I worked with the GE, belonged to the 
UE, and was under discipline by the company. 

Mr. Arens. Were you under discipline of any other organization 
at the time you were under the discipline of that company ? 

You were not. Is that your answer ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Peterson. No. 

Mr. Arens. Were you disassociated from the labor organization 
at GE? 

Mr. Peterson. I can't catch you. 

Mr. Arens. Were you expelled from the labor organization ? 

Mr. Peterson. Oh, yes. 



5644 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. When was that ? 

Mr. Peterson. That seems like a century ago. 

Mr. Arens. Was that in 1947 ? 

Mr. Peterson. Well, I wouldn't give you the exact date because I 
never kept a record of it. 

Mr. Arens. Your sight is all right ? You can read all right ? 

Mr. Peterson. I was born in this country. I think I can master 
the English language well enough. 

Mr. Arens. Let me lay before you a photostatic copy of an article 
appearing in the Sunday Herald of Bridgeport, February 1947, 
"Commie Fight Linked With National Drive," in which is recited 
the facts of the expulsion of a number of people from UE Local 
No. 203, including a Frank Peterson, and I ask if you are the Frank 
Peterson alluded to in that article. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Peterson. Well, I guess that is me. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. 

Now I understood you to say, perhaps facetiously, in one of your 
opening remarks that you were a retired millionaire. 

Mr. Peterson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to invite your attention to a photostatic 
copy of the Communist Daily Worker of August 19, 1936. 

It refers to aid to Spain, and lists a number of contributors who gave 
money for aid to Spain, including E. Peterson, of Stratford, Conn., 
who sent a dollar. I ask you if you are the E. Peterson who sent that 
dollar. 

Mr. Peterson. That is not my name. 

Mr. Arens. F. Peterson. 

Mr. Peterson. That is different. 

Mr. Arens. Look at the article and tell us if you are the F. Peterson 
who sent a dollar for aid to Spain. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Peterson. I don't remember that. 

Mr. Arens. You do not remember whether or not you did? 

Mr. Peterson. No. There are so many things happen that I don't 
remember. 

Mr. Kearney. If that is so all you have left is $999,999 ? 

Mr. Peterson. I can't hear jt^ou. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall whether or not you signed a petition to 
free Earl Browder, the then general secretary of the Communist 
Party, back in 1941 ? 

Mr. Peterson. Kepeat that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a recollection of signing a petition to free 
Earl Browder back in 1941 ? 

Mr. Peterson. Earl Browder? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Peterson. What was he ? 

Mr. Arens. General secretary for the Communist Party. 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Peterson. No. 

Mr. Arens. You have no recollection of that ? 

Mr. Peterson. No. 

Mr. Arens. Let us test your memory then on a few individuals. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5645 

Apparently you are having a little difficulty on events. 

Do you know a person by the name of W. C. Mosher? 

Mr.'PETERSox. Do I know a person by the name of Mosher? 

Mr. Arexs. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Peterson. I don't know of anybody by the name of Mosher. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you ever know a person by the name of Kent ? 

( Tlie witness confers w^ith his counsel. ) 

Mr. Petersox. I refuse to answer that on my constitutional rights, 
on the fifth and first amendments. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know a person by the name of Rowena Paumi ? 

Mr. Petersox. I took the same position I took formerly. 

Mr. Arexs. Perliaps we can help refresh your recollection. You 
seem to be having difficulty in remembering. 

Mr. Kent and Miss Paumi, would you come forward, please? 

Mr. Peterson, look at these two people standing here and tell us 
whether or not you know them. 

Mr. Petersox. What is that ? I can't hear you. 

Mr. Arexs. Tell us whether or not you know these people standing 
here. 

Mr. Petersox. I don't hear what you are saying. You have to talk 
a little louder. 

Mr. Arexs. Look to your right and tell us whether or not you know 
these people. 

Mr. Petersox. I refuse to answer on the same grounds that I previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kent has said that he knew you as a Communist. 
Was he lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Mr. Peterson. I refuse to answer on the same conditions I previ- 
oushi' stated. 

Mr. Arexs. Miss Paumi said she knew you as a Communist. Was 
she l./ing or was she telling the truth ? 

Mr. Petersox. Let me hear that again. 

Mr. Arexs. The lady also has said she knew jou as a Communist, 
anc^i said you were a Communist, a member of the Communist con- 
spiracy. 

Was she lying or was she telling the truth ? 

Mr. Petersox. She said that, huh ? 

Mr. Arexs. Yes. 

Mr. Petersox. Well, I take the same position I previously have 
taken. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a Communist ? 

Mr. Peterson. I am taking the same position that I previously took 
on that question. 

Mr. Arexs. Thank you, Mr. Kent and Miss Paumi. 

Are you under Communist discipline at the present time ? 

Mr. Petersox. I will have to state the same as I stated before, that 
I am invoking the fifth and first amendment, giving me the consti- 
tutional right to my own political and my own religious views. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of an organization dedicated to the 
destruction of the Constitution of the United States ? 

Mr. Petersox. Will you repeat that again. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you a member of an organization dedicated to the 
destruction of the Constitution of the United States ? 



5646 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Peterson. Well, I am taking tlie same position on that that 
I took previously, that I invoke the fifth and first amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. You are excused, Mr. Peterson. 

Mr. Kearney. Can you hear that all right ? 

Mr. Peterson. No. You have a weak voice. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, I will say you are an engaging witness. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will stand adjourned, to reconvene 
tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 4 : 50 p. m., Monday, September 24, the committee 
was recessed, to be reconvened at 10 a. m., Tuesday, September 25, 
1956, there being present at the time of taking the recess Kepresenta- 
tives Willis and Kearney.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA— PART 1 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

New Haven^ Conn. 

public hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met at 
10 a. m., pursuant to recess, in the United States Courthouse, New 
Haven, Conn., Hon. Edwin E, Willis (chairman of the subcommittee) 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis of 
Louisiana, and Bernard W. Kearney of New York. 

Present also : Representative Albert W. Cretella of Connecticut. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director; Raymond T. Col- 
lins, investigator. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel will call the first witness. 

Mr. Arens. Saul Kreas. 

Please come forward. 

Kindly remain standing while the chairman administers an oath to 
you, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, 
so help you, God ? 

Mr. Kreas. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SATJL KEEAS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ALFEED M. BINGHAM 

Mr. Arens. Kindly be seated. 

Mr. Kreas. May I request that while I'm testifying that no photo- 
graphs be taken. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Kreas. My name is Saul Kreas, and my residence is 279 Bassett 
Street, and my occupation is that I am the business agent of the 
painters union. 

Mr. Arens. Would you spell your name for us. We have a little 
conflict in spelling here. 

5647 



5648 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Kreas. My first name is Saul, S-a-u-1, and the second name is 
K-r-e-a-s. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today, Mr. Kreas, in response to a 
subj^ena which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. Kreas. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly keep your voice up, Mr. Kreas, so 
that the gentlemen of the committee can hear you. 

Mr. Kreas. I shall do that. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Kreas. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself? 

Mr. Bingham. Alfred M. Bingham. My office is 10 Shatucket, 
N'orwich, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been known by any name other than Saul 
Kreas ? 

Mr. Kreas. When I came to this country my name was Sholem 
Krasnogorsky. And when I registered myself in the evening high 
school in Philadelphia, the high-school teacher suggested that I change 
my name to Saul Kreas to make it shorter. 

Mr. Akens. Have you had any name other than Saul Kreas and the 
name you have just told us? 

Mr.'KREAs. Yes. 

I had a name — Brunin. 

Mr. Arens. "\'\^iat was that name? 

Mr. Kreas. That name came as a result when I left the old country 
to come here, I left there a girl — girl friend — whose name was Brunin. 
During the war she got killed. When I learned, of course, I was very 
hurt about it, and I took my name in her memory. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born, Mr. Kreas, and when ? 

Mr. IvREAS. I was born February 3, 1894, in Ukraine, in a city by the 
name Yashin. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States? 

Mr. Kreas. I came to the United States in April 1914. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Kreas. I am. 

Mr. Arens. By what device are you a citizen ? By naturalization or 
derivative citizenship from your father ? 

Mr. Kreas. Naturalization. 

Mr. Arens. When were you naturalized? 

Mr. Kreas. In 1928, in New Haven. 

Mr. Arens. How old were you when you came to the United States? 

Mr. Kreas. I think it was about 20 years. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any education in the United States? 

Mr. Kreas. In the United States my education was only that I at- 
tended, in Philadelphia, the first year. It was a philanthropic Jewish 
school especially for aliens. And then I started to attend a night 
school in Philadelphia which was there. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Kreas. In the United States, correct. 

Mr. Arens. Now you are presently employed as organizer for a 
painters' union? 

Mr. Kreas. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5649 

Mr. Arens. How long liave you held that position ? 

Mr. Kreas. Since 1943 ; May 1943. 

Mr. Arens. What is the painters' union of which you are an organ- 
izer ? 

Mr. Kreas. It is a union of the painters in New Haven, which is a 
local of the Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers of 
America, of the A. F. of L. 

Mr. Arens. What is the designation of the local? What number? 

Mr. Kreas. 186. 

Mr. Arens. Who is your immediate superior ? 

Mr. Kreas. My immediate superior is the executive board of our 
organization. 

^h\ Arens. Are you the only organizer for the painters' union ? 

Mr. Kreas. Yes ; I am the only paid officer. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your employment immediately prior to 1943 
when you became associated with the painters' union ? 

Mr. Kreas. I was a paperhanger. 

Mr. Arens. You were a paperhanger ? 

Mr. Kreas. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was that employment of yours as an individual or 
did you work with a firm ? 

Mr. Kreas. The nature of paperhanging here in New Haven is so 
that no employer could fully employ a paperhanger all year round. 
By necessity, a paperhanger works for quite a few employers during 
the year. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you a paperhanger ? 

Mr. Kreas. I am a paperhanger since 1915. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a paperhanger in New Haven from 1915 
until 1943, or did you have any other principal occupation? 

Mr. Kreas. I was not in New Haven in 1915. I came to New Haven 
in 1925. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a paperhanger in New Haven from 1925 con- 
sistently up until 1943? 

Mr. Kreas. Correct. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to lay before you, Mr. Kreas, a photo- 
static copy of a document called Call to the American Continental 
Congress for Peace, Mexico City, September 5-10, 1949, in which there 
appear a number of names sponsoring this Call to the American Conti- 
nental Congress for Peace. Included on the last page as one of the 
sponsors is a person whose name appears here as Saul K-r-e-a-s. 

I ask you to please look at that document and tell us whether or not 
you are the Saul Kreas whose name appears on that document. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kreas. Yes, my name is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Did you sign that document ? 

Mr. Kreas. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest this document be 
incorporated by reference in the record. 

Mr. Willis. It will be so ordered. 

(The document referred to was marked "Kreas Exhibit No. 1," and 
filed for the information of the committee. ) 



5650 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Kreas, I lay before you a copy of the Commu- 
nist Daily Worker of May 25, 194Y, entitled "550 Union Officials 
Assail Ked Hunt" which, by the body of the article, indicates the 
attack upon the House Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Among those who are listed as the sponsors of the assault is one Saul 
Kreas, K-r-e-a-s, business representative, painters local 186, of New 
Haven. I ask you whether or not you are that person and if you con- 
sciously lent your name to that enterprise. 

Mr. Kreas. That is correct. That is my name. 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you a document which is a photo- 
static copy of an open letter to the then Attorney General of the 
United States with respect to the trial of a number of people under 
the Smith Act. Appearing in this list is a Saul Kreas, painter, 
A. F. of L., New York. This was in 1951. _ 

I ask you if that is your name and if you consciously lent your 
name to that enterprise. 

Mr. Kreas. Well, I was never in New York. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a recollection of that, Mr. Kreas ? 

Mr. Kreas. I have no recollection, but the name is spelled correct. 
But I was never in New York affiliated with any local of New York. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kreas, do you know an individual by the name 
of Rowena Paumi, P-a-u-m-i ? 

Mr, Kreas. I don't. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of W. C. Mosher? 

Mr. Kreas. I don't. 

Mr. Arens. You do not know him ? 

Mr. Kreas. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of H. W. Mosher? 

Mr. Kreas. I don't. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kreas. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Kreas. I was not a member of the party for a very long time. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever a member of the Communist Partj ? 

Mr. Kreas. On this question I think I will have to have advice of 
counsel. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question for this reason : He 
has advice of counsel here of his own choosing. I asked the witness 
whether or not he had ever been a member of the Communist Party, 
and he, in response, came back with "Not for a very long time." 

I was trying to clear the record. 

He has opened the door for this, and, I believe, has waived his 
immunity against self-incrimination on that particular question. 

Mr. Willis. I think so. I thinlv that is fundamentally correct. 

The witness is directed to answer the question, having opened the 
door in that respect. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kreas. When I answered the question that I was not for many 
years it was in answer to the question up to that period. I did not 
answer the question anything outside of that period. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5651 

Mr, Arens. We don't want to take advantage of you in any respect, 
Mr. I*v!reas. I want you to believe that. 

Could you tell us when you resigned from the Communist Party 
or when you were disassociated from the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kreas. I did not resign. I didn't have any office, and I didn't 
have to resign. 

I said that it is about 10 years that I am not a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Arens. For the last 10 years you have not been a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kreas. About. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time were you a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kreas. On this question I have to consult the counsel again 
since I stated that I am not a member for the last about 10 years. 
Now, what happened before that 10 years 

Mr. Arens. Maybe we can clear the record. 

This is 1956. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1946 ? 

Mr. Kreas. I cannot answer this question exactly because when I 
said I am not a member of the Communist Party for 10 years I said 
"about," and I cannot exactly at this time remember the date or the 
week or month or year, but it is about 10 years. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1940 ? 

Mr. Kreas. This question I will have to ask the advice of counsel. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kreas. Mr. Chairman, may I kindly request you to direct the 
counsel to withdraw this question since I stated that I am not and I 
was not a member of the Communist Party for about 10 years. There- 
fore, anything beyond that period it is the opinion of the counsel that 
your committee has no right to ask me any of these questions. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kreas, we have the right to ask the question. You 
also have a right to invoke the fifth amendment, if you feel that the 
answer to that question, if truthfully given, might give facts which 
would tend to incriminate you. 

Mr. Kreas. I just stated the advice of my counsel. The advice of 
counsel is that you have no right to ask me any question beyond the 
period that I stated, that is, about 10 years. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that you confer with your coun- 
sel again at the moment so that there is no misunderstanding here. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kreas. Am I directed to answer this question ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Mosher, I want you and your counsel to understand 
that 

Mr. Kreas. My name is not Mosher. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kreas, I mean. 

You have not invoked the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kreas. I did not answer the question. I am just wanting to 
establish if I am directed to answer that question. 

The advice of counsel is that you have no right to ask me this 
question. 

Mr. Kearney. Regardless of what your counsel says on that score, 
we have the right to go back. He is giving poor advice if that is the 
advice of your counsel. 



5652 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Kreas. I am just asking a question. Am I directed to answer 
this question ? 

Mr. Akens. Do not quibble with us, Mr. Kreas. 

I will just ask the question so this record is completely clear. 

Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Now answer that question, or, if you feel that a truthful answer to 
that question might be used against you in a criminal proceeding, you 
have the right to invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kreas. On the basis— what I said before, that since I made a 
statement here that I am not a member of the Communist Party at 
present, and I was not a member for a period of about 10 years — I 
feel that the committee forces me to decline to answer this question 
under the constitutional protection of the first, the fourth, and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Now do you honestly feel that, if you gave us a truthful 
answer to the question as to whether or not you have ever been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, that answer would supply information 
which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Kreas. I have reasonable fear that, if I should answer this 
question, it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Kreas, were you a member of the Communist 
Party in 1928 when you were naturalized as a citizen ? 

Mr. Kreas. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any period from 1928 until 1946 during which 
you were not a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kreas. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under Communist Party discipline ? 

Mr. Kreas. This question I answered. 

Mr. Arens. No ; you did not. 

Mr. Kreas. I said that I am not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us whether or not you are presently under 
Communist Party discipline. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kreas. I could only repeat again that I am not a member of 
the Communist Party, and, therefore, I feel that I am not under the 
discipline of that party, since I am not a member of the party. 

Mr. Arens. Have you at any time during the period in which you 
have served as organizer for the painters' union been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. EJiEAS. I could answer only for the period that I stated, that I 
am not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. The dates will speak for themselves in this record. 

Did you ever resign from the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kreas. No. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Kreas. I dropped out. I did not resign. 

Mr. Arens. You dropped out of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kreas. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. When did you drop out of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. KJREAS. I answered this question, that it is about 10 years. 1 
don't know exactly the day. 

Mr. Arens. What caused you to drop out of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. K!reas. I don't remember the causes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5653 

The question of dropping out of the Communist Party: I think it 
is a question that I want to consult my counsel about. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kreas. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a withdrawal of the f[ues- 
tion, that I misunderstood the question. It was asked in, such a way 
that I really did not understand the question when I withdrew from 
the party. " Now this question was confusing to me, and I did not 
answer it correctly. 

Mr. Arexs. Correct the record now. 

When did you drop out of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kreas. I have the same answer: That I am not a member of 
the Communist Party for about 10 years. Since that time I don't 
remember, since it is such a long period. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that in the pres- 
ence of this witness another witness be sworn. 

Mr, W. C. Mosher, would you kindly come forward ? 

Mr. Marshal, could we have a chair over here for just a few mo- 
ments for Mr. Mosher ? 

Mr. Willis. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are al^out to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Mosher. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WORDEN C. MOSHER, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

Mr. Arexs. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Mosher. Worden C. Mosher, 60 Shelton Terrace; occupation, 
television. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Mosher, we expect a little later on to interrogate 
you at length on a number of matters. I wanted, first of all. how- 
ever, to ask you at this time if you have ever been a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Mosher. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time were you a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Mosher. From 1939 to 1950. 

Mr. Arens. And were you ever ideologically identified with the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Mosher. I was never a Communist myself. I was a member 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. You went into the Communist Party solely and exclu- 
sively for the purpose of obtaining information which you subse- 
quently transmitted to the intelligence agencies of our Government. 
Is that correct ? 

Mr. Mosher. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your membership in the Com- 
munist Party, did you have occasion to know a person by the name of 
Saul Kreas, K-r-e-a-s? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know whether or not Saul Kreas was a Com- 
munist ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 



5654 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Aeens. Do you see in the room today the person whom you knew 
as Saul Kreas, and as a Communist? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. Arens. The gentleman seated to your left ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. MosHER. Well, for a period of 10 years. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was the nature of the information which led you 
to conclude and now testify under oath that you knew him as a Com- 
munist ? 

Mr. MosHER. Well, as dues secretary and also as membership direc- 
tor and many other instances. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever serve in a closed party meeting with Mr. 
Kreas ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did he know you from the standpoint of your own 
comprehension of someone knowing you ? 

Mr. MosHER. He knew me under the name of Mike Spencer. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Kreas, would you kindly turn to the right 
and look at the gentleman who has just testified, who has identified 
himself as Worden C. Mosher, and tell this committee whether or not 
you have ever known him. 

TESTIMONY OF SAUL KEEAS— Resumed 

Mr. Kreas. I decline to answer this question on the privileges of con- 
stitutional rights. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Mosher has just testified on this record that he 
knew you as a Communist. Wliile you are under oath and while you 
have an opportunity to confront the man who is talking about you, 
tell this committee, did Mr. Mosher lie or was he telling the truth when 
he identified you as a person known by him to be a Communist? 

Mr. Kreas. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that Miss Rowena 
Paumi be requested to just stand in the back of the courtroom. 

Mr. Kreas, would you kindly look over your right shoulder at the 
lady standing in the back of the courtroom, and tell the committee 
whether you have ever known her. 

Mr. Kreas. I never knew her. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been in a Communist Party meeting with 
her? 

Mr. KJREAS. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know a person by the name of Mike 
Spencer? 

Mr. Kreas. No. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that that would 
conclude the staff interrogation of Mr. Kreas. And we would like to, 
please, proceed with the interrogation of Mr. Mosher. 

Mr. Kearney. I have no questions. 

The only observation I would like to make is that we have heard 
throughout the years the cries of Communists that they are not given 
the opportunity to face their accusers. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5655 

Here, several times, it has happened during the hearings in New 
Haven, and still they seek refuge behind the fifth amendment. 

It is a phony issue as far as we are concerned. That is my point. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that Mr. Kreas 
be excused now. 

' ]Mr. Willis. I would like to ask him 1 or 2 specific questions. Mr. 
Kreas, these questions, I assure you, are not directed with any intent to 
cross you up. On the contrary, to give you an opportunity to be more 
specific than you have been. 

You say that you have not been a member of the Communist Party 
for the last 10 years, approximately. 

Mr. Kreas. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. During those 10 years did you attend any Communist 
Party meetings or functions ? During the last 10 years I am talking 
about. 

Mr. Kreas. Well, it could be that I attended some meetings. I at- 
tended so many meetings, and if it was a meeting that interested me, 
if it was an open meeting, it could be that I attended. I won't say 
yes, I won't say no. 

Mr. Willis. Well, then that makes it very difficult. If you say that 
you disassociated yourself from the Communist activities or Com- 
munist Party but then you kept on attending meetings, I am wonder- 
ing what kind of disassociation took place. 

Mr. IvREAS. I did not say that I kept on attending meetings. What 
I said was that it could be that sometimes I did attend a meeting to 
which one maybe I was invited or which was publicly announced. It 
could be that I attended. I didn't say that I continued attending. 

Mr. Willis. Let me ask you a specific question again with the idea 
of being fair to you, because this record is not going to look good 
for you. 

Did you ever attend meetings with this gentleman on your right 
there — Mr. Mosher ? 

Mr. Kreas. It could be that at a meeting I was present maybe he 
was also present, but I did not, to my knowledge, I don't remember. 
I wouldn't say no, because it could be that if it was a mass meeting 
or any other meeting where I was he could have been, too, present 
there. 

Mr. Willis. Do you recognize the gentleman ? 

Mr. EjtEAS. This question I think I answered. I answered this 
question. 

Mr. Willis. You answered it in what way ? 

Mr. Kreas. In the way that I took the constitutional privilege. 

Mr. Willis. For the record, here is the position you are placing 
yourself in, or are trying to place yourself m, that you say you are 
now not a Communist, that you do not want to talk about when you 
were, and you seem to have an idea that once you disassociated, why, 
then, you are the judge as to what is important in the past. 

Of course, if you honestly disembraced the philosophy of commu- 
nism I would congratulate you and be happy for you, but if a witness 
is to come here and say "I am not now a Communist and its none of 
your business what happened in the past," do you not see that there is 
a point of no-return there, a point where it becomes silly ? A man 



5656 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

would say "I am not a Communist now, but I won't say whether I 
was one yesterday." It is all left to him as to what is in his mind. 

Anyway, I wanted to give you an opportunity to explain yourself. 

Mr. Arens. You are excused, Mr. Kreas. 

Mr. Mosher will you kindly assume the principal witness seat there ? 

Mr. Kearney. I think the witness might have something to say. 

Mr, Kreas. A question of reconsidering one of the questions that 
the counsel asks me to ask you. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kreas. May I reconsider the question that you asked if I knew 
or if I know this gentleman — Mr. Mosher or whatever his name was. 

Mr. Arens. Would you keep your voice up, please, Mr. Kreas. We 
can hardly hear you. 

Mr. Willis. You want to reconsider your answer as to whether or 
not you know or have known the gentleman on your right — Mr. 
Mosher ? 

Mr. Kreas. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. What is your answer? ' It has been asked of you twice. 
I asked it and our counsel did. 

Mr. Kreas. My answer is during the 10 years, during the 10 years 
that I was out of the party I knew him as occasionally or accidentally, 
maybe I saw him at meetings where I was present. 

Mr. Kearney. Knew him by the name of Mike Spencer ? 

Ml'. Kseas. Yes ; I heard of the name of Mike Spencer ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. That was his Communist Party name, you said just a 
little while ago ? 

Mr. Kreas. I didn't say this was the Communist Party name. 

Mr. Arens. He said so. 

Mr. Kreas. He said so. 

Mr. Arens. Then you knew him under his Communist Party name. 
Is that correct ? 

Mr. Kreas. This is the name he called himself, I didn't know of 
any other name. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a Communist Party name ? 

Mr. Kreas. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever have a Communist Party card ? 

Mr, Kreas, I answered this question ; I take the privilege. 

Mr. Arens, That would conclude the staif interrogation of this 
witness, Mr. Chairman, 

Thank you, sir, Mr. Collins will take care of your voucher, 

Mr. Mosher would you kindly assume the principal witness chair 
there. 

TESTIMONY OP WORDEN C. MOSHER— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. I am fearful that the record might be a bit confused un- 
less we, in effect, start over again, Mr. Mosher, with you, because 
there has been considerable colloquy here. 

When did you join the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Mosher. 1939, 

Mr, Arens, How long were you in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Mosher. Until August of 1950. 

Mr. Arens, Let the record be clear, Mr. Mosher : It is a fact, is it 
not, that your membership in the Communist Party was solely and 
exclusively for the purpose of serving your Government ? 

Mr. Mosher. That is correct. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5657 

Mr. Akens. Procuring information which you transmitted to the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation and, I assume, to other agencies en- 
titled to receive it. Is that correct ? 

Mr. MosHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Now kindly tell us the various posts you held in the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. MosHER. Well, for a period of something like 10 years I was 
dues secretary ; various clubs, various branches, and for the city. Also, 
I was membership director, member of the finance committee. I was 
a member of the organizational education committee. 

Mr. Willis. A little louder, please, JNIr. Mosher. 

Mr. MosHER. And many other committees affiliated with the party. 

Mr. Arens. Before we get into the specific, tell us what is your 
best appraisal, knowing the techniques of the Communist Party, of 
the seriousness of the Communist operation in Connecticut as of the 
time, say, when you disassociated yourself from the Communist Party 
in 1950. How serious was the conspiracy, sir ? 

Mr. MosHER. Well, I feel that it is, not only here but throughout the 
entire country, a real threat to the United States Government. 

Mr. Arens. How can we, Mr. Mosher, reveal to the average Mr. 
and Mrs. America just how serious this Communist menace is in this 
Nation today ? 

Mr. Mosher. Well, I believe by exposing the names of the leaders. 

Mr. Arens. It is, in effect, a fifth column of a foreign-controlled 
conspiracy, is it not ? 

Mr. Mosher. That is my opinion. 

Mr. Arens. It is equivalent of at least a couple of divisions of 
trained conspirators on American soil, is it not? 

Mr. Mosher. I believe so. 

Mr. Arens. Did the hard-core Communists themselves, the actual, 
what we call, technical members of the conspiracy, have under their 
discipline other people ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes ; they did. 

Mr. Arens. What would be a fair proportion, Mr. Mosher, of the 
people who are under Communist Party discipline as distinct from the 
actual 23,000 hard-core members of the conspiracy on American soil? 

Mr. Mosher. I would feel that the fellow travelers or people who 
are sympathizers would be probably 10 to 1 at least. 

Mr. Arens. Ten to one of the hard core ? 

Mr. Mosher. Well, of the membership. 

Mr. Arens. "What is your estimate now of the basis of the conspiracy 
in Connecticut, as to the total membership in the conspiracy itself 
within this State? 

Mr. INIosHER. AVell, the total membership of the Communist Party 
members within the State at the time that I had knowledge was some- 
where in the vicinity of eight to nine hundred people. 

Mr. Willis. How many ? 

Mr. Mosher. Eight to nine hundred. 

Mr. Arens. These eight to nine hundred were just not namby- 
pamby intellectual jackasses; they were members of the conspiracy, 
were they not ? 

Mr. MosHER. Members of the Communist Party. 

84046 — 56— pt. 1 6 



5658 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES INT NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. They were instructed by the conduit to Moscow, under 
the control of Moscow, were they not ? 

Mr. MosHER. To the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. And a comparable setup exists in other areas of this 
Nation. Is that not true ? 

Mr. MosHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. What is your best estimate as to the number of hard- 
core members of the conspiracy within the community in which we 
presently sit, in New Haven? 

Mr. MosHER. Well, in the vicinity of 200. 

Mr. Arens. And these likewise were not just the intellectual dupes 
or fools ; they were the hard core, were they not ? 

Mr. MosHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. In addition to that, those under the discipline of the 
conspiracy. Is that correct ? 

Mr. MosHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Is this serious business in which we are engaged, Mr. 
Mosher, or are we out here witch hunting ? 

Mr. MosHER. It is a very serious business and a real threat to the 
United States Government. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Mosher, on the basis of your background and 
experience within the Communist conspiracy in this State, I should 
like to ask you about some of the specific groups with which you 
were identified. 

Tell us some of the entities within the conspiracy with which you 
were identified, and then we will proceed from there. 

Mr. MosHER. Some of the various clubs ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Mosher. There was one known as the Hill Club. 

Mr. Arens. Let us stop right there, if you please, sir, Mr. Mosher. 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us just a word about the Hill Club, and then tell 
us those people who, to your certain knowledge, were in the Hill 
Club as Communists. 

Mr. Mosher. There were probably about 15 to 20 members in that 
club. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere was that club located ? 

Mr. Mosher. 222 Lafayette Street. 

Mr. Arens. In New Haven? 

Mr. Mosher. New Haven. 

Mr. Arens. How late is your information respecting the club? 

Mr. Mosher. 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Now give us, if you please, sir, the best recollection 
you have of your certain knowledge — and if you have any doubt 
about any individual, withhold his name — your certain, moral con- 
viction of names of people who were actually members of the Hill 
Club of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Mosher. I probably can't remember all of them. 

Doris Bloom was a member. 

Mr. Arens. Doris Bloom ? 

Mr. Mosher. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Was her husband a member ? 

Mr. Mosher. At times ; not all the time. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5659 

Mr. Arens. What was his name ? 

Mr. MosHER. Paul Bloom. He was a member of another branch. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Is there another person ? 

Mr. Mosher. Diane Hubblebank. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

JNIr. MosHER. Louise Margolin. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. MosHER. Joseph Soyka. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Mosher. Helena Carter; Max Cnickray, I believe is correct. 

I do know them all, but I can't remember all of those names at the 
present time. 

Mr. Arens. Was there another club with which you were identified 
as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Mosher. The Howe Street Club, 37 Howe Street. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me, sir. 

Please tell me where the Howe Street Club operated. 

Mr. Mosher. 37 Howe Street. 

Mr. Arens. That was in New Haven ? 

Mr. Mosher. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the names of the people who, to your certain 
knowledge, were members of the Howe Street Club of the Communist 
Party, on the basis of the latest information you had when you dis- 
associated yourself from the party in 1950. 

Mr. Mosher. Saul Kreas was a member of that club. 

Mr. Arens. He is the gentleman who just preceded you on the 
witness stand ? 

Mr. Mosher. That is correct. Also his wife, Pauline. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was his wife's name ? 

Mr. Mosher. Pauline. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. Mosher. There was Isadore Spector and his wife, Sarah. 
Emma and Sam Davis were members of that club. Paul Bloom was 
also a member of that branch at times. Alperts. There were two 
couples. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell that ? 

Mr. Mosher. A-1-p-e-r-t. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall their first names ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes. Yetta was one of the ladies, Y-e-t-t-a. I do not 
recall their first names at the present time. 

Mr. Arens. Are those all the persons whom you can identify to a 
moral certainty as members of the Howe Street Club? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Well, was there another club with which you were 
identified ? 

Mr. Mosher. There were other members at that club that I can 
identify. 

Mr. Arens. Incidentally, I would like to ask you this question : Did 
the party have a cutout system here in order to isolate one cell of the 
•conspiracy from another cell? I know they have had it elsewhere. 

Mr. Mosher. They did have ; that is true. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was the purpose of the cutout system? 



5660 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. MosHER. To prevent members from one club knowing the mem- 
bers from another club. 

Mr. Kearney. May I ask one question there ? 

That brings a thought to my mind that yesterday one of the wit- 
nesses testified this Communist Party was a political party. Is that 
the way political parties generally act ? 

Mr. MosHER. I wouldn't say it's the way a political party acts ; No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any appraisal as to whether or not there 
was any concentration of Communist activity during your experience 
in this industrial area ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes ; there was. 

Mr. Arens. Wliy would the Communist Party or the Communist 
conspiracy, more aptly described, concentrate here in its activities?' 

Mr. Mosher. Well, because of the brass valley, what is so-called 
the brass valley. There is a great deal of industry throughout this 
area. 

Mr. Arens. Yesterday, some folks were named as members of the 
Communist conspiracy by live witnesses who had been in the con- 
spiracy, and they were brought before this committee and asserted the 
right which they have under the Constitution to not testify against 
themselves. Those persons — at least some of them — were presently 
engaged in some of the industrial establishments of this area. 

What difference does it make, from the basis of your background 
and experience, that these people Avho have been identified by live 
witnesses who have been in the conspiracy as undercover agents for 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the Communist Party, should 
be in the industrial establishments of this area? 

Mr. Mosher. Well, the party has always functioned on the basis 
of putting 1 or 2 persons in each industry in which, if you have a key 
person in an industry, it can affect many other people. 

Mr. Arens. Is there a fallacy in numbers, in undertaking to ap- 
praise the strength and potency of the conspiracy ? Is the conspiracy 
itself, in other words, a massive organization or is it a hard core of 
trained people who get at the nerve centers of communities ? 

Mr. Mosher. The function of the Communist Party is to establish 
people in various industries in order to form a core. 

Mr. Arens. And then does the party have mass organizations which 
are called Communist fronts ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes ; it does. 

Mr. Arens. Now could you tell us if there was any other club with 
which you were identified while you were in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Mosher. There was the Dixwell Club. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us where that was, please, sir. 

Mr. Mosher. That had various addresses; not always at the same 
location. 

Mr. Arens. Who, to your certain knowledge, were members of the 
Dixwell Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Mosher. Joe Demow ; Paul Bloom was also a member of that 
branch at one time. Fanny Green ; Thelma Meites, M-e-i-t-e-s ; Lil- 
lian Kaplan ; Emma Davis. 

Those are the ones I recall at this time. 

Mr. Arens. How does it serve the interests of the Communist con- 
spiracy to have people in the conspiracy located in such plants as Gen- 
eral Electric and in the AVCO plant that we heard about yesterday t 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5661 

Mr. MosHER. Well, members of the Communist Party that go in 
these plants usually become a steward or else an organizer in regard 
to the union, and, in that way, they are able to influence other people 
in the factory. 

Mr. Arens. According to the paper this morning, some people were 
iDeing called on the carpet or perhaps discharged from their jobs be- 
cause tliey invoked the fifth amendment before this connnittee yester- 
day, notwithstanding the fact that they had been identified by live 
witnesses, undercover agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
and had the opportunity to confront those witnesses yesterday. 

In your judgment, is it in the public interest and in the interest of 
the public security to fire people from the industrial plants of this 
Nation, not on the basis of invocation of the fifth amendment but when- 
ever they are identified by live undercover agents of the Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation as members of the Communist conspiracy and 
-when, given an opportunity to deny it, fail to do so ? 

In your judgment, from the basis of your experience, is that good 
procedure ? 

Mr. MosHER. I would say "Yes." 

]VIi\ Arens. Now was there another club with which you were iden- 
tified while you were in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. MosHER. Not that I was directly a member of. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting the existence of 
other clubs in the New Haven area ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes. There was from 10 to 12 clubs in New Haven. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us the names of some of these other clubs. 

Mr. Mosher. There was the Youth Club. 

Mr. Arens. How many members were there in the Youth Club ? 

Mr. Mosher. I would say approximately 25. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have the names of people who, to your certain 
knowledge, were at least the leaders of the Youth Club ? 

Mr. Mosher. Harold Mosher was one of them. 

Mr. Arens. Harold Mosher was your son ? 

Mr. Mosher. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. He, like you, was in the Communist Party in order to 
-obtain information. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Mosher. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. He did it as a patriotic service in order to procure infor- 
mation that could be transmitted to the intelligence agencies of this 
Government. Is that correct ? 

Mr. jVIospier. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Who else was in the Youth Club in leadership capacity ? 
Perhaps we should address that question a little later on to your son. 

Mr. Mosher. Barney Burke was a member of that club. Al Marder 
was a member of it. 

Mr. Arens. Spell it. 

Mr. Mosher. M-a-r-d-e-r. 

There was a Priscilla Small. 

I believe he can answer you the question on just the membership of 
the club. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Now, was there another club ? 

Mr, Moshee. Grand Avenue Club. 



5662 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Aeens, On the basis of your background and experience in the 
Communist Party, can you tell us who, to your certain knowledge, was 
a member or in leadership position in the Grand Avenue Club ? 

Mr. MosHER. To the best of my knowledge, I believe Oscar Margolin 
was mainly in charge of that club. 

Mr. Arens. You identify him here and now as a member of tha 
Communist Party. Is that correct ? 

Mr. MosHER. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another club? 

Mr. MosHER. There was an Industrial Club. 

Mr. Aeens. Could you tell us about that club ? 

Mr. MoSHER. That particular club — I do not know too many of the 
members of it. 

Mr. Arens. Do you remember the leadership of the club ? 
; Mr. MosHER. I believe Sidney Taylor, himself, had a lot to do with 
that club. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the number, the approximate number in 
that club? 

Mr. MosHER. I would believe there were probably 15 or 20 members. 

Mr. Arens. By the way, what percentage of the conspiracy operates 
in the open and what percentage operates in what we would call 
underground ? 

Mr. MoSHER. Well, supposedly they were supposed to be operating 
openly. 

Mr. Arens. How much of the conspiracy operates underground ? 

Mr. Mosher. That I could not 

Mr. Arens. You were not in the underground apparatus ? 

Mr. MoSHER. I was not. 

Mr. Aeens. Now, is there another club ? 

Mr. MosHER. The Kailroad Club. 

Mr. Arens. 'W^io was the head of or who were the leaders of that 
group ? 

Mr. MosHER. There is at least two of the group that are dead at the 
present time. 

Mr. Aeens. You might just as well leave them out. 

Mr. Mosher. There was a James McDonough. I believe there was 
a Bob Kennedy. I don't recall any others. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Do you have an idea as to the membership in the Railroad Club ? 

Mr. MosHER. I believe there were about 10 members. 

Mr. Arens. Now, is there another club ? 

Mr. MosHER. There are various outlying clubs, such as Branford. 

Mr. Arens. Is that a community here in this area ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes ; about 8 or 10 miles out. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the leaders of that club ? 

Mr. Mosher. There was a Jean Lindsey down there. 

Mr. Aeens. Is that a man or woman. 

Mr. Mosher. Woman. 

Mr. Arens. How is that spelled ? 

Mr. Mosher. J-e-a-n. 

Mr. Arens. L-i-n-d-s-e-y ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes. 



CO]\EVIUISriST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5663 

Leonard Farmer and, at least part of the time, his wife. And I 
believe lier name was Estelle. There were probably about 10 mem- 
bers in that club. 

Mr. Arens. Now is there another club ? 

Mr. MosHER. The Professional Club with a professional branch in 
New Haven. 

Mr. Arens. Professional branch? Who were the leaders of the 
professional branch ? 

Mr. MosHER. I did not have contact with that club. 

Mr. Arens. You just knew it was there. Did that apply to the cut- 
out system ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. "Was there a Yale Club ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, there was a Yale branch; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us the leaders of the Yale Club ? 

Mr. MosHER. I believe George Kaymond was one of the leaders of 
that club. 

IMr. Arens. How do you spell that ? 

Mr. Mosher. R-a-y-m-o-n-d. George Russell Raymond. 

Mr. Arens. Was that a club consisting of students ? 

Mr. MosHER. Mainly students ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. How many were in the Yale Club ? 

Mr. MosHER. I would say 15 to 20. 

Mr. Arens. Now was there another club ? 

Mr. Mosher. At various periods there was a CIO branch, and there 
was an A. F. of L. branch. 

Mr. Arens. Were you actively identified with those branches or was 
that part of the cutout system ? 

Mr. MosHER. This was mainly in the early 1940's. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us the names of the people in the Indus- 
trial Club. I believe I skipped that in the interrogation a mom^ent 
ago. 

Mr. MosHER. Joe Demow was active in that club. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a word of identification of Joe 
Demow ? 

Mr. Mosher. He was recently one of the defendants in the Smith 
Act trial. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know as a Communist a man by the name 
of Sam Gruber ? 

Mr. MosHER. I knew who Sam Gruber was. He was not from this 
area. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know as a Communist a person by the 
name of Josephine Willard ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of your acquaintanceship with 
her? 

Mr. MosHER. I met her at many State conventions of the party, 
which were closed meetings, over a period of many years. 

Mr. Arens. What was her status in the party ? 

Mr. MosHER. Well, she was always recognized as a leader, and, at 
various times, a member on the State board. State committee. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know a person in the party by the name 
of Frank Fazekas ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 



5664 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IIST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. What was his status in the party ? 

Mr. MosHER. Very similar to Josephine Willard's. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know a person in the Communist Party, 
or persons, by the name of Joe and Lois Barnes ? 

Mr. Mosher. I did. 

Mr. Arens. What was their status in the party ? 

Mr. MosHER. I do not know their correct status in the party. I 
know them at State convention meetings and like that where they used 
to speak. 

Mr. Arens. What occasioned your disassociation from the party in 
1950? 

Mr. MosHER. The State had a large State gathering at which time 
they, I believe, sifted out those who they were not positive of as mem- 
bers in the party. 

I was told that they did not know enough about my background, 
and, therefore, I was being dropped from the party. 

Mr. MosHER. You were, in other words, thrown out of the party 
because of party security ? They did not trust you ? 

Mr. MosHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Do you suppose they might have gotten some intima- 
tion that maybe you were not as trustworthy a comrade as they would 
like to have? 

Mr. MosHER. Quite possibly. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know a person by the name of Bernard, 
Bernie Burg ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Aeens. Could you give us a little identification of him ? 

Mr. MosHER. He was very active in all party work, committees; 
spoke at various meetings; was a member of the Howe Club, and I 
believe also a member of the Youth branch. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know a person by the name of Fanny 
Green ? 

Mr. Mosher. I did. She was a member of the Dixwell Club. 

Mr. Arens. The which club? 

Mr. MosHER. Dixwell. 

Mr, Arens, Did you ever know a person by the name of Frank 
Peterson ? 

Mr. MosHER. Frank Peterson was from Bridgeport or that area. 

Mr. Arens, Do you know whether or not Frank Peterson was a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Mr, Mosher. Yes, sir; he was. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know a person by the name of Dave 
Goldberg? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Dave Goldberg as a member of the party ? 

Mr. Mosher. I believe he was a member of the professional branch. 

Mr. Arens. Of the Communist Party in New Haven ? 

Mr. Mosher. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know a person by the name of Dave Stahl, 
S-t-a-h-1? 

Mr, Mosher, Yes, sir. 

Mr, Arens. Do you know whether or not he was a Communist? 

Mr. Mosher. Also, I believe, he was a member of the professional 
branch. 



COMMUNIST ACTWITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5665 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Mosher, I have asked you a great number of 
specific questions liere. Is there any other item of information which 
you feel is of sufficient significance that you would like to call to the 
attention of the committee^ Any area in which we may not have 
asked you about ? 

Mr. Mosher. There was one thing which came to my attention when 
Mr. Kreas was testifying — that he had not been a member in 10 
years. 

Mr. WiLUS. Who? 

Mr. Mosher. ]Mr. Kreas. 

Yet in 1949 he was in charge of raising funds for the defense of the 
Communist leaders in New York. 

Mr. Arens. Was that under the discipline of the Communist con- 
spiracy ? 

Mr. Mosher. It was under the Communist Party. 

Mr. Kearney. Is that the witness who just left the standi 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, it seems to me that there is a ques- 
tion of perjury involved in his testimony. 

Mr. Willis. The record, of course, will have to be reviewed. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any further information, Mr. Mosher, which 
you would like to give to the committee at this time, any items or 
areas in w^hich we have not interrogated you ? 

I do not want to press you or tax your memory on something you 
are not thoroughly familiar with. 

Mr. Mosher. Not at the present time. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you very much for your testimony. 

Mr. Chairman that would conclude the staff interrogation of this 
witness. 

Mr. Kearney. I have no questions, but I want to thank Mr. Mosher 
for his testimony. It shows, as one who has been definitely connected 
with the Communist Party, that there are over some 200 Communists 
in the New Haven area. 

Mr. Willis. Our counsel asked you a few questions about the se- 
curity measures, secrecy with respect to the membership of one club 
and another. Do I understand that here, as apparently elsewhere, the 
right hand does not know what the left hand is doing in these various 
clubs as a general rule ? Is that correct ? 

Mr. Mosher. In the earlier 1940's or middle 1940's there was not as 
much security as there was later. At a later time it was broken into 
not clubs of 15 or 20, but from 3 to 5 in a group for security measures. 
One group did not know the other group. 

Mr. Willis. Well, that came about as a result of the Smith Act and 
so on and tighter measures undertaken by the committees of Congress, 
and prosecution and so on. It was in response to the drive at that 
time. That is a matter of history. Is that not true ? 

Mr. Mosher. That is true. 

Mr. Willis. And it is particularly true today that the pattern is 
that these cells are becoming more and more restricted and more and 
more closel}^ knit so that one group of members in an area really does 
not know — are not supposed to know members of another group. That 
was the pattern as of the time you left the party in 1950 ? 

Mr. Mosher. That is correct. 



5666 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Willis. During all this time that you have testified about, you 
were regularly reporting to the FBI. Is that correct ? 

Mr. MosHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Willis. And you became a member, as an undercover agent 
for the FBI, in order to report to your Government as to the activities ? 

Mr. MosHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Willis. And in your reporting system, I suppose, you became 
aware of the techniques of investigation developed by this wonderful 
agency of the Government, the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Is 
that correct ? 

Mr. MosHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Willis. How often would you report to your superiors, Federal 
Government ? 

Mr. MosnER. It would depend somewhat on the value of the in- 
formation that we had. However, it would be probably 2 or 3 times 
each week. At times it was more often. 

Mr. Willis. Did you happen to be under particularly restricted 
security measures, not for the detection of your own self ? 

Mr. MosHER. Due to the fact that I lost many of my personal friends. 

Mr. Willis. Pardon? 

Mr. MosHER. I lost many personal friends, because they thought I 
was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Willis. In other words, word went around that you were 
suspect, and, as a result, you had to suffer scorn from your own 
friends. 

Mr. MosHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Willis. That is not unusual, is it? That is the experience of a 
lot of people like yourself and Mr. Kent and Miss Paumi, that very 
frequently in this wonderful work you have to do for the Govern- 
ment in trying to bring about security and, incidentally, in the preser- 
vation of the constitutional rights and liberties of all the people, that 
somebody has to do the job at the expense of losing friends and a lot 
of heartaches. Is that correct ? 

Mr. MosHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Willis. Well, let me tell you that we are very grateful to you, 
and by "we" I speak officially for my two colleagues here and for the 
committee, and, I know, for the Congress of the United States. 

You have done a dedicated piece of work. You are to be congratu- 
lated. And do not ever mind the thing that goes abroad, that you are 
a stool pigeon, that we members of this committee are witch hunters. 
Do not let that worry you a bit. That is all right. Somebody has 
to do the job, and we felicitate you and commend you with all we 
have in our hearts. 

Thank you very much. 

Mr. MosHER. Thank you. 

Mr. Kearney. I am quite interested about your thoughts about the 
previous witness, Kreas. Is that correct ? 

Mr. MosHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Kearney. I understood that you stated substantially that he 
was in charge of a drive to collect funds for something? 

Mr. MosHER. At the time the 12 top leaders were on trial in New 
York, in 1949 and 1950, there was a fund-raising campaign for their 
defense. Mr. Kreas was in charge of that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5667 

Mr. Kearney. He was in charge of raising funds for the defense 
cf the 12 top Communists who were being tried in the city of New 
York? 

Mr. MosHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Kearnet, That is a rather strange job for a man who said he 
disassociated himself from the party 10 j^ears previous, is it not? 

Mr. MosHER. He said that he didn't know me also. However, I 
attended many, many committee meetings where there were only a 
very few of us, together with Mr. Kreas. 

Mr. Arens. Were those closed party meetings ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. And they were not social ; they were serious ? 

Mr. JMosHER. No, sir ; not social. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, if that is so, unless the witness was a member 
of the Communist Party, certainly he would not be admitted to the 
Communist Party meeting, would he ? 

Mr. MosHER. Mr. Kreas paid dues to me for many years. 

Mr. Kearney. Did he j^ay dues to you in the late 1940's and early 
1950's? 

Mr. Mosher. I was out of the party from August 1950. 

Mr. Kearney. Did he pay dues from 1918 to 1949 ? 

Mr. MosHER. From 1939 to 1950. 

Mr. Kearney. So that belies his statement that he had disassociated 
himself from the party in the last 10 years because 1950 through 
today is only 6 years ? 

Mr. MosHER. That is my belief. 

Mr. Kearney. During his campaign or while he was in charge of 
the campaign to collect funds for these 12 Communists on trial in 
New York City, was, to your knowledge, any attempt made to collect 
funds through veterans' organizations ? 

Mr. MosHER. I wouldn't know correctly whether it was done 
tlirough veterans' organizations. 

Mr. Kearney. Or was this general fund raising? 

Mr. MosHER. Mainly from party members or sympathizers. 

Mr. Kearney. This disassociated Communist was in charge of that 
drive ? 

Mr. MosHER. That is correct. 

Mr. Kearney. That is a startling revelation. 

I still suggest, Mr. Chairman, that after the hearings are over that 
the file be reviewed and sent on to the Department of Justice for their 
opinion on whether to prefer charges against that witness. 

Mr. Willis. That certainly will be done. 

Did I understand the witness to say — or counsel — that the number 
of clubs in this area while he was in the party was 15 or 20? 

Mr. MosHER. 10 or 12. 

Mr. Willis. You have named here, on the witness stand, under 
oath, as a former individual having the confidence of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation — or I doubt that they would have kept you 
for 11 years from 1939 until 1950 — you have named clubs, you have 
named names, you have named events, you have subjected your word 
against the word of many other people very bravely and courageously, 
in my opinion. Let me remind those who have been named by you that, 
under the rules of this committee, anyone who has been named and 



5668 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

considers he has been damaged, has the right to get in touch with our 
counsel and explain away what you have testified. 

Let the record show that very clearly. 

That is all. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, Mr. Mosher. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will take an informal recess of 5 
rriinutes. 

(Whereupon, a brief recess was taken, there being present at the 
time of taking the recess Representatives Willis and Kearney.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Will counsel call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Samuel Richter. 

Please come forward. 

Remain standing, Mr. Richter, while the chairman administers 
an oath to you. 

Mr. Willis. Raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you, God ? 

Mr. Richter. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL RICHTER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Please be seated. 

Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Richter. My name is Samuel Richter. I live at 474 Edison 
Road, Trumbull. 

My occupation — 

(The witness confers with his coimsel.) 

Mr. Richter. I am — let's see. How should I put it ? 

I am a sort of superintendent. 

Mr. Arens. Well, we will be a little more specific a little later on. 

You are appearing today in response to a subpena which was served 
upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Richter. I am, but I would like to ask a question on procedure- 
of this committee. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Richter. I would like to ask a question. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Richter. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Where is it that you are employed, Mr. Richter? 

Mr. Richter. Before we commence with the questioning 

Wliat is your name, please ? 

Mr. Arens. Richard Arens. 

Would you kindly answer the question as to where you are em- 
ployed. 

Mr. Richter. I would like to ask a question on the procedure. 

Mr. Arens. Ask the question. That is all right. 

Mr. Richter. What is the subject of the investigation of this com- 
mittee in relation to me, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Communist conspiracy. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5669 

Kindly tell us where you were employed Mr. Richter. 

Mr. RicHTER. I would like to know what the names of the members 
of this committee are. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly 

]Mr. Willis. The subject of the investigation and all of that was 
brought out in the opening statement. 

Counsel will proceed. 

Mr. EiCHTER. I would like to know the names of the members of the 
committee. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
'be ordered and directed to answer the principal outstanding question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Richter. Your question, please. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Reporter, will you read the question. 

(The pending question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Rabinowitz. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Rabinowitz, you are an old hand before this com- 
mittee. You know the rules very well. There is a pending question, 
:and the witness has been directed to answer it. 

Mr. Rabixowitz. The witness would like to raise the question of the 
presence of a quorum. He has a right to know that under the Supreme 
Court decisions and, I believe, under the rules of this committee. 

Mr. Arens. You know there is a quorum present. This is a 3-man 
subcommittee which was appointed, and 2 are two-thirds of 3. 

Now please answer the question. 

"\'^liere are you employed, Mr. Richter? 

Mr. Richter. Mr. Arens, do you have to raise your voice ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest, for the second 
time, that the witness be ordered and directed to answer the question. 
And, if he does not intend to answer, I intend to ask another question. 

]\Ir. Richter. You ask me where I work, Mr. Arens? 

I work for the Reliable Steel Drum Co. in Bridgeport, Conn. 

]Mr. Arens. And what is your job at that company ? 

Mr. Richter. I am a sort of superintendent. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so engaged ? 

Mr. Richter. About 10 years. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of a labor organization there ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Richter. No. 

Mr. Arens. And what was your employment immediately preceding 
your employment at the Reliable Steel Drum Co. ? 

Mr. Richter. I was in the Army. 

]Mr. Arens. And during what period of time were you in the Army ? 

Mr. Richter. 1943 to 1946. 

Mr. Arens. Was there any employment that intervened after your 
discharge from the Army until your present employment with the 
Reliable Steel Drum Co.? 

Mr. Richter. I didn't get that, Mr. Arens. Will you repeat that, 
please ? 

Mr. Arens. After you were discharged from the Army in 1946 did 
you have anv other employment prior to your present employment at 
the Relia])le Steel Drum Co. ? 



5670 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. RiCHTER. You already asked me what I did before I worked 
for the Reliable Steel Drum, and I said I was in the Army. Therefore, 
there was nothing in between. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. RiCHTER. You are quite welcome. 

Mr. Arens. Were you drafted or did you enlist ? 

Mr. RiciiTER. I was drajf ted. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, did you have a commission ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. Xo. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you serve ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. In the continental United States. 

Mr. Arens. In what branch ®r unit of the Army did you serve ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. The Air Corps. 

Mr. Arens. In what unit of the Air Corps ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. What do you mean "what unit" ? 

Mr. Akens. What did you do in the Air Corps ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. I was a mechanic. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere were you located in the United States ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. Quite a few places. 

Mr. Arens. Name some of them, if you please, sir. 

Mr. RiCHTER. Well, let me think. 

Is it all right if I take a little time because I have been in quite 
a few places. 

I was at a place called Camp Upton, Long Island. That is where 
I was sent originally. Then I was sent to Mississippi, I believe. 

Mississippi. 

Then — you realize this is some time ago, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Surely. We want your best recollection, if you please, 
sir. 

Mr. RiCHTER. Then I think I was sent to Buffalo, a very cold place 
in the wintertime. Then I think I was sent to California, and it was 
a very warm place. 

It's funny to go in a short time from a cold place to a warm place. 

Then I think I was sent to Charleston, S. C, a horrible place. Then 
I was sent to New Jersey, I believe. 

Gee, I am close to being discharged. 

Then I was sent to Long Island. Then I was sent home. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive an honorable discharge ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. During your service in the United States Army did you 
have access to confidential or restricted information of any kind, char- 
acter or description ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. RiCHTER. No. 

Mr. Arens. During the period of your service in the United States 
Army, were you under the discipline of any organization which is con- 
trolled by a foreign power ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. RiCHTER. Aside from the fact that I consider it an impertinent 
question, I will refuse to answer it on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment, based on what this committee thinks about subversive organiza- 
tions and such, that it would tend to incriminate me. And, of course, 
the question is insulting, to begin with. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5671 

Mr, Arexs. Mr. Eichter, kindlj^ tell us, if you please, sir, what your 
employment was immediately prior to 1943 when you went into the 
United States Army. 

Mr. RicHTER. I worked for General Electric Co. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that, please, sir ? 

Mr. RiciiTER. Bridgeport. 

Mr. Arbns. And in what capacity ? 

Mr. RicHTER. Just a worker. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time ? 

Mr. RicHTER. It must be approximately a year or so, perhaps a little 
less. 

Mr. Arens. What occasioned your disassociation from General 
Electric? 

Mr. RiCHTER. I was drafted. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
emploj'ment at General Electric in 1942 ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kearney. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness conduct 
himself like a human being in the courtroom. If he is tired we might 
bring in a bed for him. 

Mr. RiCHTER. I wouldn't object. I think I am conducting myself as 
a gentleman. If I make myself comfortable I don't think the com- 
mittee has any objection. It shouldn't. You are trying to make it 
uncomfortable for me. 

Mr. Kearney. We want you to be comfortable. 

Mr. RiCHTER. Thank you. 

The question again, please. 

Mr. Arens. The outstanding question is what was your employment 
immediately prior to your employment at General Electric. 

Mr. RiCHTER. I refuse to answer that question. 

In the first place, its really none of your business. 

Mr. Willis. In the first place 

Mr. RiCHTER. I said it's none of your business. But I realize that is 
no constitutional grounds. So I will cite my constitutional grounds. 

My constitutional grounds are the fifth amendment. The answer 

.to this question will tend to incriminate me, although knowing full 

well that the incriminating provision of the fifth amendment was for 

the innocent, gentlemen, not for the guilty. So don't jump to any 

conclusions. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, Mr. Richter, that if you 
tell this committee the employment which you had immediately prior 
to your employment at General Electric you would be supplying infor- 
mation which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Richter. You put it very delicately, don't you, Mr. Arens ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Richter. The answer to that question, Mr. Arens — I have really 
stated my position. 

Mr. Arens, are you listening ? 

Pay attention. 

I have already stated my grounds, and, of course, this is my rioht, 
you understand. This committee understands that this is my right 
to fall back on the fifth amendment and not have to say before that 
or after that. 

I prefer not to elaborate. 



5672 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Do I have to stand on the fifth amendment to answer the second 
part of the question, Counsel ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kearney. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that he answer the ques- 
tion without making a speech. We are not interested in any speech 
he might make. 

(The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. RiCHTER. I have answered the question sufficiently. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Willis. What was the answer ? 

Mr. Richter. I said I have answered the question sufficiently. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, so that the record may be absolutely 
clear, I respectfully suggest that the witness now be ordered and 
directed to answer the question as to whether or not he honestly ap- 
prehends, if he told this committee the truth as to the employment 
which he had immediately prior to his employment at General Electric, 
he would be supplying information w^hich might be used against him 
in a criminal proceeding. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Yes ; you are directed to answer that question, particu- 
larly, because of your comment that to answer it is none of our busi- 
ness. 

Now it has to be something other than that for you to invoke the 
protection of the fifth amendment. You are at perfect liberty to 
invoke it. We do not challenge ; we concede your right to do it. You 
are welcome to do it. But that very constitutional provision means 
business, and that is, you must tell us whether honestly, in invoking 
it, you fear the pains and penalties of the consequences. 

So you are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. RicHTER. Well, in case it is not already clear that I have an- 
swered the question, I will clarify it by saying that I refuse to answer 
the question based on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that we let this 
record show we are not going to get on this subject with this witness 
again at this time. He has made his bed, and he will have to lie in it. 

Mr. Willis. Precisely. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, I lay before you a photostatic copy 
of a document entitled "Nominating Petition for November, 1946, 
Elections" under the title and designation of Communist Party. A 
signature appears at the bottom of the petition which we have under- 
lined with a red pencil. 

I ask you if you will kindly tell this committee whether or not that 
:isyour signature ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. RicHTER. Mr. Arens, is that underlined or crossed out ? 

Mr. Arens. It is the red underline there. 

Please tell us whether or not that is your signature. 

Mr. RicHTER. I see a line through it. I was wondering. 

Mr, Arens. Kindly tell us whether or not that is your signature. 

Mr. RiCHTER. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment, that the answer may tend to incriminate me. And, 
also, I repeat again that the fifth amendment is for the protection of 
the innocent. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5673 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment in 1941 ? 

;Mr. EicirraR. Well, Mr. Arens, yon are ^om<r back quite a ways, 
and I don't have a bad memory, I think you will admit, but 1941 

(The wilness confers with his counsel.) 

ilr. RiCHTER. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. The answer would tend to incriminate me. 

]Mr. Arens. Where did you live in 1941, please, sir ? 

Mv. RiCHTER. If my memory serves me correctly, and the reason I 
just refused to answer oo tojiether, I must have lived in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Arexs. How lon^- have you lived in Brid^jeport ? 

Mr. EicHTER. 1:2, 1?>, 14 years ; somethino- like that. 

Mr. Arexs. Where did you live immediately prior to the time that 
you came to Bridgeport? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RiciiTER. I am pretty sure I worked in Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Arexs. Where did you work in Baltimore; what establish- 
ment ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ricjiter. I refuse to answer that question, based on the fifth 
amendment that the answer Avould tend to incriminate me, and also 
to remind the committee that the fifth amendment is for the protec- 
tion of the innocent. 

Mr. Arexs. How lono- did you live in Baltimore ? 

Mv. RiCHTER. Oh, perhaps less than a year. I do not recall exactly, 

INIr. Arens. Where did you live prior to the time that you resided 
in Baltimore? 

Mr. RiCHTER. Didn't I just say Philadelphia ? 

Mr. Arexs. Is that where it was; Philadelphia? Thank you, sir. 
How lono- did you live in Philadelphia ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. Six or seven months; somethino- like that. 

Mr. Arexs. What was your employment when you lived in Phil- 
adelphia ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. I refuse to answer that question on the ^-rounds that 
the answer may incriminate me, and also to point out to the committee 
that the fifth amendment is for the protection of the innocent; thank 
you, gentlemen. 

Mr. Arexs. Where did you live immediately prior to the time you 
moved in Philadelphia? 

Mr. Rit'HTER. Do you remember the year, Mr. Arens? I don't want 
to get confused liere. 

Mr, Arens. Just tell us where you lived prior to the time }'ou took up 
this occupation in Philadelphia, about which if you told us you 
would be supplying information which could be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RiCHTER. You want to know where I worked before I went 
wdiere ? 

Mr. Arexs. Where did you live prior to the time that you moved 
to Philadelphia? 

Mr. RiCHTER. Where did I live prior to the time I moved to Phil- 
adelphia? 

Mr. Arexs. Yes, sir. 

Mr. RiCHTER. Bridgeport, 

84046—56— pt. 1 7 



5674 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. And how long did you live at Bridgeport during that 
period ? 

Mr. RicHTER. A little less than a year, I think. 

Mr. Arens. And what was your occupation ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RiCHTER. I was a mechanic. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you employed ? 

Mr. Richter. I refuse to answer that question, based on the fifth 
amendment, that the answer may incriminate me, and to remind the 
committee that the fifth amendment is for the protection of the 
innocent. 

Mr. Arens. What did you work on as a mechanic? 

Mr. Richter. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Did you work on automobiles? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Richter. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Did you work on contrivances other than automobiles ? 

Mr. Richter. Come, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in good faith a mechanic, or were you only 
masquerading as a mechanic^ 

Mr. Richter. I used to walk around in dirty pants masquerading. 

I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Richter. New York City. 

Mr. Arens. When ? 

Mr. Richter. July 17, 1912. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go to school ? 

Mr. Richter. In New York City. 

Mr. Arens. What school did you attend ? 

Mr. Richter. I went to school in Chicago, too. I lived in Chicago 
for a while. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you move from New York City to Chicago ? 

Mr. Richter. I think I was about 4 years old. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the schools you attended in Chicago. 

Mr. Richter. Well, I was only a youngster ; I really don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend grammar schools in Chicago ? 

Mr. Richter. I attended one, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend high school in Chicago ? 

Mr. Richter. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend high school ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Richter. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you attend high school ? 

Mr. Richter. In New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Then I take it the family moved back from Chicago to 
New York City ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Richter. Well, any other conclusion will have meant I ran 
away from home, but I didn't. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat high school did you attend in New York City? 

Mr. Richter. Peter Stuyvesant; a grand school. I wonder if it's 
still standing. It was 100 years old, I think, when I went there. 

Mr. Arens. When did you graduate from high school ? 

Mr. Richter. You mean to say you really don't know? 1932, I 
think. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5675 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. RicHTER. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you attended any other school in the course of your 
life? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RicHTER. I refuse to answer that question, based on the fifth 
amendment, that the answer may tend to incriminate me, and also 
to remind the committee that the fifth amendment is for the protection 
of the innocent. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever attend the Jefferson School of Social 
Science ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever receive any specialized training by some 
organization which is controlled by a foreign power? 

Mr. Richter, Are you kidding? Are you serious about that ques- 
tion, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Richter. Well, you asked me a question before, are you serious 
about — "did you in good faith, were you in good faith, a mechanic?" — 
and I ask you in good faith are you kidding or weren't you ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully ask that the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Richter. I refuse to to answer that question, based on the 
fifth amendment. I hate to go through this again, but in order to 
point out to the committee that I am serious about this, the fifth 
amendment, the answer may tend to incriminate me, and also that 
the fifth amendment and the incriminating provisions are for the 
protection of the innocent. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your first occupation after you concluded 
your schooling at Peter Stuj^vesant School in New York City ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Richter. I was an office boy. 

Mr. Arens. And in what establishment ? 

Mr. Richter. Wliat establishment ? Some beauty parlor establish- 
ment. 

Mr, Arens. How long were you employed there ? 

Mr, Richter, Maybe 2 or 3 years, I don't know, 

Mr, Arens. What was you next employment ? 

Mr, Richter, Let's see, where are we here ? What year ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Richter, I refuse to answer that question, based on the fifth 
amendment, that the answer may tend to incriminate me and to point 
out to this committee that the fifth amendment and its incriminating 
provisions are for the protection of the innocent. 

Mr. Arens. To what period of time are you alluding now ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Richter. I know where I was after that ; I was in the Army. 

Mr. Arens. Did you go into the Army directly after your employ- 
ment with the beauty establishment as an office boy ? 

Mr. Richter, Yes, I was in the Armv for 2 years, I enlisted, 
wasn't drafted. I served 2 years in Honolulu. 



5676 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. When you went into the Army, did you take an oath 
of allegiance to support and defend the Constitution of the United 
States % 

Mr. RiCHTER. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you took that oath, did you have any 
mental reservations ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RicHTER. No, 

Mr. Arens. Were you, at the time you took that oath, a member 
of an organization dedicated to the destruction of the Constitution of 
the United States and the overthrow of the Government of the United 
States by force and violence % 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. EicHTER. I invoke the fifth amendment on the basis that the 
answer may tend to incriminate me, and to point out to this committee 
that the fifth amendment is for the protection of the innocent. 

Mr. Arens. Are you imiocent of any conspiratorial operations or 
membership in a conspiratorial organization cledicated to the destruc- 
tion of the Constitution of the United States ? 

Mr. RicHTER. I refuse to answer that question, based on the fifth 
amendment, that the answer may tend to incriminate me, and to point 
out to this committee that in the fifth amendment, the incriminating 
provisions thereof are for the protection of the innocent ; therefore, I 
don't intend to impute or imply any guilt. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Mr. Kent? 

Mr. Richter. Would you please point him out? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kent, will you please stand ? 

Look over your shoulder and take a good look at this gentleman ? 

Mr. Richter. Who cleans up if I get sick and vomit? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kent, will you please come forward. 

Mr. Richter. Is it really human? 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that gentleman ? 

Mr. Richter. Is it human — the lousy S-O-B. 

I want to confer with my counsel. Stand back. Order him to 
stand back so I can confer with my counsel. 

Mr. Willis. Do you have a pending question, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Do you know Mr. Kent ? 

Mr. Richter. I want to confer with my counsel and I don't want this 
stool pigeon listening in. 

Mr. Willis. If you wish to confer with counsel, that is all right. 

Mr. Arens. Stand over here, Mr. Kent. 

Mr. Richter. Don't drop him, he will break. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Richter. I refuse to answer that question, based on the fifth 
amendment, that the answer may tend to — just let me finish. It made 
me sick. 

Mr, Arens. Excuse me. 

Mr. Richter. That the answer may tend to incriminate me and I 
also want to point out to the committee that the fifth amendment is 
for the protection of the innocent; besides, the degradation involved. 

Take him away, please. 

Mr. Willis. That amendment is frequently taken advantage of as 
a haven by the guilty. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5677 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Ricliter, Mr. Kent testified under oath before this 
committee that he knew you as a member of the Communist conspiracy 
while he was serving: the Federal Bureau of Investigation as an under- 
cover agent in that conspiracy. Was Mr. Kent lying or was he telling 
the truth? 

^Ir. RiCHTEK. I would like to confer at this point to see just how I 
should word this ; pretty tricky there. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RiCHTER. I refuse to answer that question based on the fifth 
amendment that the answer may tend to incriminate me and to point 
out to the committee that the fifth amendment is for the protection 
of the innocent. 

]Mr. Arexs. Do you deny that Mr. Kent was telling the truth ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Richter. Same answer. 

Mr. Arexs. Thank you, Mr. Kent. 

Miss Paumi, would you kindly stand ? 

Mr. Richter, do you know a person by the name of Rowena Paumi ? 

Mr. Richter. Is it standing ? 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know a person by the name of Rowena Paumi ? 

Mr. Richter. Have you sold your mother and father yet or haven't 
you done enough ? 

Mr. Willis. I warn the witness that one more outburst and I will 
personally recommend to the committee that this sort of conduct should 
be considered as nothing less than contemptuous, and that is all I 
have to say. You are on your own from now on. I suggest that you 
consult with your counsel. 

Mr. Richter. You submit these people to us and the reaction is 
something that is very difficult to control, you understand. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Richter, kindly tell the committee whether or not 
you know the lady who is standing back there, Miss Paumi. 

Mr. Richter. Same answer. 

Mr. Arexs. Thank you. Miss Paumi. 

Mr. Richter, Miss Paumi has told the committee that she knew you 
as a member of the Communist conspiracy. Was she lying or was she 
telling the truth ? 

Mr. Richter. You have my counsel to thank. He said "same 
answer" for a while. 

Same answer. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr, Richter, you have been identified as the present 
underground leader of the Communist conspiracy in Bridgeport. 
I now put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny the fact 
that you are the leader of the underground Communists in Bridge- 
port ? 

^Ir, Richter. Did he say I was now ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Richter. I will answer, Mr. Chairman. I just want to fix the 
words clearly in my mind. 

I refuse to answer that question, based on the fifth amendment, that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me, and to point out to this com- 
mittee that the fifth amendment is for the protection of the innocent. 



5678 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. For purposes of identification, are you the husband 
of Charlotte Richter ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Richter. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess until 1 : 30 p. m. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 20 p. m., the subcommittee recessed, to recon- 
vene at 1 : 30 p. m. of the same day. ) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25, 1956 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Call the next witness, counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Harold W. Mosher, please come forward. 

Remain standing, Mr. Mosher, while the chairman administers an 
oath to you, please, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Mosher. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HAEOLD W. MOSHEE 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Mosher. My name is Harold W. Mosher. I live at 27 Oregon 
Avenue, Hamden, Conn. My occupation is television serviceman. 

Mr. Arens. Are you the son of Worden C. Mosher, who was on the 
witness stand this morning? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Mosher, give us, if you please, just a brief sketch 
of your own personal life, where and when you were born, a word 
about your education and personal background. 

Mr. Mosher. I was born in New Haven, Conn., November 28, 1926. 
I have always lived in Hamden or New Haven or surrounding towns. 
I am a graduate of the Hamden High School and presently am at- 
tending evening courses in Quinnipiac College. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere is that located ? 

Mr. Mosher. In Hamden. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Mosher, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Mosher, I have been a member of the Communist Party as a 
Federal Bureau of Investigation informer; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been ideologically in sympathy with or 
identified with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mosher. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was your service in the Communist Party solely and 
exclusively at the behest of an agency of the Government of the 
United States for the purpose of procuring information which would 
help to protect the security of this country ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir ; that is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us, if you please, sir, the period in which you 
served in the Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5679 

Mr. MosHER. I served from April 1947 through August of 1950. 
Mr. Arens. Where was that service ? 
Mr. MosHER. In New Haven. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us in an outline form, please, sir, the various 
posts or assignments that you had in the party. 

Mr. MosHER. Well, in 1947 I was a recruiting director for the 
Youth Branch of the Communist Party. I was at one time a group 
captain of the Communist Party, Youth Branch. I was also a chair- 
man of the Youth Branch at one time, during 1948, 1 believe that was. 
I was a representative of the Youth Branch to the New Haven County 
section committee during 1948 to sometime in 1949. I was at one time 
secretary of the Youth Branch. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Mosher, I want, if I can, to avoid going over the 
same general subject matter that we discussed with your father. I 
should like to ask you, however, on the basis of your background and 
experience in the Communist Party, how serious is the Communist 
operation in Connecticut, of which you have knowledge? 

Mr. MosHER. Well, I would say it's a little bit too serious and that 
possibly the committee has waited a little too long to step in and take 
any present action. I feel that it is a definite threat to the United 
States and this Government and the majority of the people, although 
I don't believe the average person realizes it. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us, Mr. Mosher, about the clubs 
of the Communist conspiracy in Connecticut or New Haven of which 
you have knowledge, without duplicating the testimony of your 
father ? Do you have information respecting some clubs that he did 
not tell us about ? 

Mr. MosHER. Well, I have information respecting the same clubs. I 
may have additional names that were not mentioned by my father; 
whether the information would be the same, I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Your activity was principally in the youth group, was 
it not? 

Mr. Mosher. Principally. 

Mr. Arens. Let us start with the Yale Club. That was the youth 
group, was it not ? 

Mr. MosHER. I would consider the Yale Club in the youth group. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting the Yale Club of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. MosHER. Some. 

Mr. Arens. Give us what information you have, please, sir. 

Mr. Mosher. The Yale Club consisted solely of Yale students and 
usually was kept fairly well under cover. 

Mr. Arens. How many members were there in the Yale Club ? 

Mr. MosHER. The members weren't too generally known, I don't 
believe. 

Mr. Arens. How many members were there ? 

Mr. MosHER. I would say 15 to 20. 

Mr. Arens. Was there a cutout system here in New Haven when you 
were a member of the Communist Party whereby one cell or unit 
would be isolated from the others ? 

Mr. MosHER. In the latter years, 1949 or 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Did that cutout system apply to the Yale Club? 

Mr. MosHER. I don't know ; I imagine so. 



5680 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Were you personally a member of the Yale Club? 

Mr. MosHER. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How did you acquire your information with respect to 
the Yale Club? 

Mr. Mosher. Through affiliation, various club meetings, and in 
personal contacts. 

Mr. Arens. You w^ere at one time dues secretary of the Young Com- 
munist League ? 

Mr. Mosher. Not the Young Communist League. 

Mr. Arens. Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. The Labor Youth League was part of the Communist 
conspiracy ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How many members were there in the Labor Youth 
League in this vicinity? 

Mr. Mosher. I w^ould say approximately 25. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us, to your certain knowledge, 
the names of the members of the Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. Mosher. Sidney Kesnick. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell Eesnick ? 

Mr. Mosher. R-e-s-n-i-c-k, I believe. 

Arlene Kayser was her maiden name, who became the wife of Sidney 
Resnick. Priscilla Small, Jimmy Gibbs — if I may have just a mo- 
ment, please ? 

Mr. Arens. Surely. Incidentally, you were in the Labor Youth 
League up until the time you disassociated yourself from the party in 
1950 ; were you not ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir ; that is correct. 

There was a Celeste Hawley ; there was a Burl Towles 

Mr. Arens. What is that name? 

Mr. Mosher. T-o-w-l-e-s. 

Mr. Arens. First name ? 

Mr. Mosher. Burl, B-u-r-1. He was a member of the Labor Youth 
League later. 

Bernard Burg ; there was an Irv and Virginia Simons. There were 
others, but offhand the names escape me. 

Mr. Arens. You were also director of the Communist Party youth 
group for a period of time ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How extensive was the Communist Party youth group 
in New Haven ? 

Mr. Mosher. By extensive, you mean the size of it ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; numerical strength. 

Mr. Mosher. Approximately the same as the Labor Youth League. 
Basically, it was the members of the youth branch who were more 
or less transferred into the Labor Youth League. 

Mr. Arens. Were you also at one time captain of the Communist 
Party youth group in New Haven ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir ; I was. 

Mr. Arens. What was the strength of that group numerically ? 

Mr. Mosher. The strength of the groups was broken down to 4 or 
5 persons to each group. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5681 

Mr. Akexs. How many groups were there ? 

Mr. MosHER. p]ither 4 or 5. My memory is not clear. 

Mr. Arens. It is a fact, Mr. Mosher, is it not, that you cannot ap- 
praise the strength of the Connnunist conspiracy on just the numerical 
strength of the party or the conspiracy ; can you ^ 

Mr. Mosher. Xo, sir ; you cannot. 

Mr, Arens. Each of the members of the conspiracy is at a vital spot 
and he is in a position to alfect and influence a substantial number of 
other persons ; is that not correct ? 

Mr. Mosher. They attempt to get into vital spots so they can 
influence them. 

Mr. Arens. Did the conspiracy have a concentration in the New 
Haven area or in the Connecticut area ? 

Mr. Mosher. Well, I believe they concentrated more or less through 
the brass valley, as my father previously testified, up through the 
industrial sections. 

Mr. Arens. Did you also serve as a representative of the Com- 
munist Party youth group on the Communist Party New Haven 
County section committee ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And give us just a word about that, if you please, sir. 

Mr. Mosher. The committee usually consisted of the chairmen of 
the local branches of the New Haven County section, and usually 
they were more or less top-ranking meetings of the top leaders. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have information or do you have information 
respecting a Communist Party cell or fraction at the University of 
Connecticut ? 

Mr. Mosher. I have attended meetings with students whom I knew 
were from the University of Connecticut, and I believe there was a 
cell there ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall, to your certain knowledge, the names 
of an}^ students of that university who were Communists ? 

Mr. Mosher. I believe there was a Clyde Trudeau. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell that? Would it be T-r-u-d-e-a-u? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Does any other name occur to you? Take your time, 
1 do not mean to rush you. 

Mr. Mosher. I know of the individuals, sir; I just can't remember 
the names offhand. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know the gentleman who was on the witness 
stand this morning, Mr. Saul Kreas ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Mosher. I have attended mass meetings with him, mass mem- 
bership meetings ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were those mass meetings open only to comrades or 
were noncomrades also admitted ? 

Mr. Mosher. Noncomrades were admissible, but basically it was 
normally party members. 

Mr. Arens. How recently did you attend these meetings with Mr. 
Saul Kreas? 



5682 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. MosHER, I believe I can recall meetings as late as 1949. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall where those meetings were held ? 

Mr. MosHER. Most of the meetings at that time were held at 222 
Lafayette Street, New Haven. 

Mr. Arens. T\^at is that? 

Mr. MosHER. That was a headquarters of the Youth Branch of 
the Communist Party, Labor Youth League, and the Hill Club of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a person by the name of Bernie Burg as 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Give us such identification as comes to your mind with 
reference to Bernie Burg. 

Mr. MosHER. Bernie Burg at one time was chairman of the youth 
branch, for a brief period. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell Burg? 

Mr. Mosher. I believe he spelled it B-u-r-g. I may be wrong. 

Mr. Arens. Give us such description of him personally as you recall. 

Mr. MosHER. The physical description of him, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Mosher. Oh, I would say he is fairly heavy set; approximately 
five-six or seven ; weighing about, probably about, 165 ; no mustache ; 
no glasses. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a person by the name of Paul Bloom? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us such description as comes to your 
mind with reference to Paul Bloom ? 

Mr. MosHER. Paul Bloom was a smaller man, I would say approxi- 
mately, probably, about five-two or five-three and probably weighed 
about 130 or 135 pounds. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a member of the Communist 
conspiracy ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now to your certain knowledge identify 
him to be a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Doris Bloom? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of your knowledge of her? 

Mr. MosHER. The nature of my knowledge is personal contact in 
attending meetings with her. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now identify her to your certain 
knowledge as a member of the conspiracy ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a man by the name of Sam Davis ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word with respect to the identification of Sam 
Davis. 

Mr. Mosher. I would say he is fairly heavy set, approximately, oh, 
about five-six I would say offhand, five-five or five-six. 

Mr. Arens. How old would you say ? 

Mr. Mosher. I would say he is in the neighborhood of approxi- 
mately 55 years of age. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5683 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Sam Davis as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now identify him to your certain 
knowledge as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Emma Davis ? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you identify her by physical appearance ? 

Mr. Mosher. Emma Davis would be approximately five, I would 
say five-three or four and probably weighed 125 or 130 pounds — 
average size. 

Mr. Arens. And did you know her as a Communist? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir ; I do. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know a person by the name of Samuel 
Gruber, G-r-u-b-e-r? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And would vou kindly give us a brief description of 
him? 

Mr. MosHER. If my memory is correct, I believe he would be about 
five-four and probably 145, somewhere in there. 

Mr. Arens. What was his occupation ? 

Mr. MosHER. He was a lawyer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. MosHER. I don't believe I can specifically say he was a Com- 
munist positively. I do know that he has attended Communist Party 
functions but I cannot specifically identify him. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Mosher, are there any other items of information 
which you would like to bring to the attention of the committee? 
I do not want you necessarily to repeat the same areas of evidence or 
information which your father disclosed this morning. We would 
be very happy to have you recite any other items. 

Mr. Mosher. I believe there are possibly a few more names that 
I might recall from different branches. 

Mr. Arens. We would be happy to have you do so. To your cer- 
tain knowledge these persons were members of the Communist Party ; 
is that correct ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir ; that is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly proceed, then, and if you would please give 
us a brief personal description of them as you identify them. 

Mr. Mosher. Well, there was Lil Demow. 

Mr. Arens. D-e-m-o-w ? 

Mr. Mosher. D-e-m-o-w, who was the wife of Joseph Demow, re- 
cently before the Smith Act trial. I would say she was approximately 
five-five, probably weighing in the vicinity of 130. 

There was a Sol Weissman, W-e-i-s-s-m-a-n, who was a member, 
I believe, of the Howe Street branch and is a member of the local 
cleaners union. 

Mr. Arens. He was a member of the Howe Street branch ? 

Mr. Mosher. I believe he was a member of the Howe Street branch. 

Mr. Arens. He is currently in the local cleaners union ; you say ? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 



5684 COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. MosHER. I do not know that, sir ; I am not sure. There Avas a 
Harry Kaphin who was also a member, I believe, of the Howe Street 
branch. He is an organizer of the UE. 

Mr. Arens. Where is he located, please, sir? 

Mr. MosHER. He was from New Haven also, sir. 

I don't know whether my dad mentioned a Helena Carter. 

Mr. Arens. I have no recollection of it. 

Mr. MosHER. She was a member of the Hill branch. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of her, if you please, sir ? 

Mr. Mosher. I would say she was, oh, in her fifties, possibly her 
late fifties and probably about five-one or two, weighing probably 
about 115 pounds. 

There was a Rose Brunswick and I believe she was a member of 
the Howe Street Club. Possibly it was another, but I think she was a 
member of the Howe Street branch. She would probably be in the 
neighborhood of about 5 feet, 3 inches, probably, and about 120 or 125 
pounds. 

There was a Lillian Kaplan, wife of Harry Kaplan that I previ- 
ously mentioned. I believe she was a member of the Howe branch of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that she was a Communist? 

Mr. MosHER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are just a little uncertain as to the branch with 
which she may have been affiliated; is that correct? 

Mr. Mosher. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. All right. 

Mr. Mosher. There are others, sir, but I just can't remember them 
offhand. There are numerous others, but I just can't recall their 
names at the present. 

Mr. Arens. What is the objective of the Communist Party of the 
United States of America ? 

Mr. Mosher. In my opinion, the objective of the Communist Party 
throughout the world, as well as in America, is to take over the 
complete world as much as they can by obtaining key positions in 
basic industries so that one person might control several hundred, or 
even several thousand in some spots. 

Mr. Arens. At the present time they control lock, stock and barrel 
800 million people in the world ? 

Mr. Mosher. Somewhere in that area. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your background and experience, your 
intimate knowledge of the operation of the conspiracy, how late is it 
on the Soviet timetable for world domination? 

Mr. Moshj:r. I beg your pardon, I didn't catch that. 

Mr. Arens. How late is it on the Soviet timetable for world domi- 
nation ? 

Mr. Mosher. Pretty late, unfortunately. I think that the ultimate 
goal is to overthrow the world, and in my opinion the only way this 
can be done is through force and violence, and I don't believe it can 
be obtained through any other means. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other items of information you would 
like to bring to the attention of the committee ? 

Mr. Mosher. Not that I can recall at this time. 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Chairman, let me suggest that would conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 



COMMIJlSriST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5685 

Mr. Kearney. I just want to make this observation on behalf of this 
fine xVmerican's testimony here today. There is quite a contrast as 
between this witness who* is now on the stand and the character who 
was on before hmch. We owe you a deep debt of gratitude. AYe 
know you sacrificed your personal friends to act as an undercover 
agent for our Government, and you deserve a great deal of credit, 
]\Ir. Mosher. 

Mr. Willis. I certainly want to join in that observation by General 
Kearney. He sounded the exact thought that was in my mind when 
contrasting the testimony "as between you and the previous witness." 
Here you appear voluntarily without counsel, without hesitation and 
name names, places, and events. 

AVe have been engaged in this work for a long time and it takes 
a lot of self-restraint and so on, but I hope that there might be a 
reward for the kind of job that you are doing. I might say that I 
do not suppose there is much guesswork about it, but there are a lot 
of others like yourself avIio are doing the same thing all over the 
United States, and the work is still going on. 

The fact that you and your father retired in 1950 and could only 
bring your story up to that date from personal knowledge does not by 
any means indicate that the story from other sources is not being 
brought up to date. 

I congratulate you and commend you for your courage and the 
assistance that you have given to this committee and to your Govern- 
ment. 

Mr. xVrens. Thank you very much. 

Mr. MosHER. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. If the chairman please, the next witness will be Mrs. 
Charlotte Richter. 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath to 
you. 

Mr. Willis. Will you raise your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mrs. Richter. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CHAELOTTE RICHTER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. Richter. My name is Charlotte Richter. I live at 474 Edison 
Road, Trumbull, Conn., and I am a housewife. 

Mr. Arens. Are you the wife of Samuel Richter, who preceded you 
earlier today? 

Mrs. Richter. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Arexs. You are appearing today, Mrs. Richter, in response to 
a subpena served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Mrs. Richter. Yes, sir; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Richter. Yes, I am. 



5686 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself for this record? 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz, New York. 

Mr. Kearney. I would suggest that counsel give his address. 

Mr, Rabinowitz. 25 Broad Street. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Richter, has being a housewife been your full-time 
occupation in the course of the last 10 years ? 

Mrs. Richter. Well, I have held some part-time employment as a 
bookkeeper. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that and when, please ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Richter. I worked for the Printing Industry of Connecticut 
in their Bridgeport office as a part-time bookkeeper. 

Mr. Arens. What is the Printing Industry of Connecticut? 

Mrs. Richter. Well, it's an association. 

Mr. Arens. Is that an official body of printers, association of print- 
ers? 

Mrs. Richter. Yes, I believe so. 

Mr. Arens. You were a bookkeeper for them ? 

Mrs. Richter. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. When was that? 

Mi-s. Richter. About 3 years ago I started, and the office closed up 
last year. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio was your immediate superior ? 

Mrs. Richter. Mr. William Keating. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had any employment since the conclusion of 
this employment with the Printing Industry ? 

Mrs. Richter. None to speak of. I worked a few hours here and 
there. 

Mr. Arens. What would be the nature of the part-time employ- 
ment ? 

Mr. Richter. Bookkeeping. 

Mr. Arens. What employment have you had prior to this employ- 
ment with the Printing Industry ? 

Mrs. Richter. I was a housewife. My children were born and I 
couldn't work and was just home. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us the various organizations to which you have 
belonged in the last 10 years. 

Mrs. Richter. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any organizations to which you have belonged 
in the last 10 years concerning which you can tell us without supply- 
ing information which could be used against you in a criminal pro- 
ceeding. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Richter. I don't understand your question. What kind of 
organizations are you referring to ? 

Mr. Arens. Well, do you belong to any card clubs? 

Mrs. Richter. I belong to the PTA. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you belonged to the PTA ? 

Mrs. Richter. Well, this year I just joined as of last week, but I 
had belonged to previous ones in the other schools where my children 
went to. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever held an office or post in the PTA? 

Mrs. Richter. No ; I did not. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5687 

Mr. Arens. During what period of time did you belong to various 
posts or chapters of the PTA ? 

Mrs. KiCHTER. My children are 9 and 12 ; you can figure it out. 

Mr. Abens. Are there any other organizations to which you have 
belonged ? 

Mrs. RiCHTER. I can't think of any ; no. 

Mr. Arens. Have you belonged to any organizations in the last 10 
years that you have not told us about ? 

Mrs. RiCHTER. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been active in political or public affairs in the 
community ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. RiCHTER. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to lay before you, Mrs. Richter, a photo- 
static copy of a document on which appears the signature of Charlotte 
Richter, and ask you if that is your signature ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Richter. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever lived at 563 Fairview Avenue ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Rabinowitz. May I see that last one ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Richter. I refuse to answer on the gromids of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Where do you live now ? 

Mrs. Richter. 474 Edison Road, Trumbull, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived there ? 

Mrs. Richter. 8I/2 years. 

Mrs. Arens. Where did you live prior to that time ? 

Mrs. Richter. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, prior to the time you lived in your present 
establishment, live at 563 Fairview Avenue ? 

Mrs. Richter. I answered that question on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this docu- 
ment I have just displayed to the witness, nominating petition for 
November 1946 election of Connecticut Representative at Large under 
the title and designation of the Communist Party, be marked "Char- 
lotte Richter Exhibit No. 1" and incorporated by reference in the 
record. 

Mr. Willis. It will be so marked and so incorporated. 

(The document referred to, marked "Charlotte Richter Exhibit No. 
1," was incorporated in the record by reference.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you a photostatic copy of a document, 
nominating petition for November 1946 election of State Representa- 
tive in Connecticut under the title and designation of Communist 
Party, in which appears the signature of Charlotte Richter, 563 Fair- 
vied Avenue, and ask you if you will kindly identify that for us ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



5688 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mrs. RiCHTER. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this second 
document be marked "Charlotte Richter Exhibit No. 2" and be in- 
corporated by reference in this record. 

Mr. Willis. It will be so marked and so incorporated. 

(The document referred to, marked "Charlotte Richter Exhibit No. 
2," was incorporated in the record by reference.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, do you know a person by the name of Rowena 
Paumi ? 

Mrs. Richter. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Harold Kent ? 

Mrs. Richter. I refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi, would you kindly stand ? 

Would you, Mrs. Richter, kindly look over your right shoulder and 
tell us whether or not you know tlie lady who stands there ? 

Mrs. Richter. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. 

Mr. Kent, would you kindly stand ? 

Would you, Mrs. Richter, kindly look over your right shoulder and 
or not you recognize or know Mr. Kent, who stands there? 

Mrs. Richter. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mrs. Richter, Mr. Kent testified before this com- 
mittee, under oath, that while he was an undercover agent for the Fed- 
eral Bureau of Investigation, he knew you as a member of the Com- 
munist conspiracy. Was Mr, Kent lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Mrs. Richter. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi has told the committee that she knew you 
as a member of the Communist conspiracy ; was she lying or was she 
telling the truth ? 

Mrs. Richter. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a Communist ? 

Mrs. Richter. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever resigned from the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Richter. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a member of an organization dedi- 
cated to the overthrow of the Government by force and violence? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Richter. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any organizations of the nonsensitive 
variety, such as the parent-teachers' association? 

(The witness conferred wnth her counsel.) 

Mrs. Richter. Will you refer to specific organizations? I don't 
know. 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5689 

Mr. Arens. Tell us of any organizations to which you presently 
belong besides the PTA. 

Mrs. EicHTER. I can't think of any at the moment. 

Mr. Arexs. Xo other organizations ? 

I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that would conclude the 
staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness ma}^ be excused. 

The committee will stand in recess informally for 5 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

Mr. AViLLis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel will please call the next witness. ^ 

Mr. Arexs. Konstantine Jakowenko? 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

Mr. "Willis. "Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be tlie truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF KONSTANTINE JAKOWENKO, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Jakowexko. My name is Konstantine Jakowenko. I live at 
14 Talcott Street, New Britain, Conn. 

Mr. Arexs. How do you spell your last name ? 

Mr. Jakowex-ko. J-a-k-o-w-e-n-k-o. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you ever been known by any name other than 
Konstantine Jakowenko ? 

Mr. Jakowex'ko. Well, some nicknames. 

Mr. Arexs. Other than nicknames? 

Mr. Jakowenko. Not to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you appearing today, Mr. Jakowenko, in response 
to a subpena served upon you by the House Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. That is true. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you represented by counsel ? 

]\Ir. Jakowenko. I am. 

Mr. Arexs. Will counsel kindly identify himself ? 

Mr. Eabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz, 25 Broad Street, New York, 
N. Y. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Jakowenko, when did you first meet your counsel ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowexko. About a week ago. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you initiate the meeting ? 

Mr. Jakowexko. I did. 

Mr. Arexs. How did you first learn of Mr. Rabinowitz ? 

Mr. Jakowexko. I had learned that Mr. Rabinowitz had been a 
lawyer at these hearings, and I felt that I would like to retain him 
to represent me. 



84046— 56— pt. 1- 



5690 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Who gave you that information ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. Well, I learned of it through reading various 
newspapers. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any oral conversation with any person 
wlio recommended the retention of Mr. Rabinowitz by you ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. Well, I had 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. I had noted in the newspapers that a Mr. Stein- 
berg had received a subpena to appear before this committee. 
Mr. Arens. Did you know Mr. Steinberg? 
Mr. Jakowenko. I knew Mr. Steinberg. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of your acquaintanceship with 
Mr. Steinberg? 

Mr. Jakowenko. I had known Mr. Steinberg for a number of 
3^ears. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us of the nature of the acquaintanceship. 
Mr. Jakowenko. Just a friendly social relationship. 
Mr. Arens. Is that the only relationship you had with him? 
Mr. Jakowenko. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you and Mr. Steinberg belong to any organizations 
together ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. I would like to invoke the fifth amendment on 
that question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly fear that if you told us the names of 
any organizations in which you and Mr. Steinberg may have been 
co-members, that you might be supplying information which could 
be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Jakowenko. I would take the same answer. 
Mr. Arens. Did you know Sam Eichter ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Jakowenko. The same answer, fifth amendment. 
Mr. Arens. Did you have any conversation with Sam Richter re- 
specting the retention of Mr. Rabinowitz as your attorney? 
Mr. Jakowenko. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not Mr. Steinberg knows Mr. 
Eichter? 
Mr. Jakowenko. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the names of all the people with whom you 
discussed the retention of Mr. Rabinowitz as your counsel prior to the 
time that he was engaged. 
Mr. Jakowenko. I would invoke the fifth amendment. 
Mr. Arens. The fact is, he was engaged for you under the direction 
of the Communist conspiracy, was he not ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. I would invoke the fifth amendment. 
Mr. Arens. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. I am a truck driver, shipping clerk, receiving 
clerk, clerk of a general nature. 

Mr. Arens. What is the name of the firm ? 
Mr. Jakowenko. Smith & Klebes. 
Mr. Arens. What business? 
Mr, Jakowenko. Mill supply distributors. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5691 

]\Ir. Arexs. How long have you been employed there? 

Mr. Jakowexko. Approximately, well, 10 to 11 years. 

Mr. Arexs. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
present employment ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. I was in the Armed Forces. 

Mr. Arexs. Over what period of time were you in the Armed 
Forces ? 

Mr. Jakowexko. 1943, February, and it went through 1945. I 
think just approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you have a commission in the Army ? 

]\lr. Jakowex'ko. Noncommissioned. 

Mr. Arexs. In what branch of the service did you serve ? 

Mr. Jakowexko. I was in the Air Corps, attached to the Medical 
Department. 

]Mr. Arexs. Where did you serve ? 

]\Ir. Jakowexko. AVhere specifically do you mean ? 

Mr. Arens. In what ai'ea, or theater ? 

Mr. Jakowexko. Well, I was drafted and went to Fort Devens, and 
from Fort Devens to Kerns, Utah for basic training, and from there I 
was sent to Savannah, Ga., to a station hospital as a medical technician. 

Mr. Arex^s. You did not serve outside of the continental United 
States ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Jakowexko. Not at that time. 

Mr. Arex^s. Did you at some time ? 

Mr. Jakow^exko. Well, up through, well, that period of time which 
totaled about a year and a half of my service, I was transferred to a 
school in Louisville, Ky., to train for the medical air evacuation. I 
was taken from that school, put into a squadron, and soon after sent 
overseas in regard to my specific technical training. 

Mr. Arexs. Where were you sent overseas ? 

Mr. Jakowexko. Well, my port of embarkation was from Presque 
Isle in Maine. From there I was sent to Newfoundland, from there 
to the Azores for a period of time. Later on, I went to Bermuda, later 
on to France. That was the period of my service that I was in the 
Air Transport, the ATC, the Air Transport Command. 

Mr. Arexs. During the course of your service in the United States 
Army, did you have access to confidential or restricted information? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowex^ko. I recall that my travel orders in the main were 
marked "restricted.*' 

Mr. Arexs. During the course of your service in the Armed Forces 
of the United States, were you under the discipline of an organization 
controlled by a foreign power? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. JAK0■\^nEx^K0. I was under the discipline of the United States 
Army, sir. 

Mr. Arex's. Were you under the discipline of any other power ? 

Mr. Jakowexko. No, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1943? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

]Mr. Jakowexko. I invoke tlie fifth amendment. 

]Mr. Arex^s. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1940 ? 

Mr. Jakowexko. Same answer. 



5692 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arexs. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Then when yon testified a few minutes ago that you ' 
were not under the control of any organization except the United States ^ 
Army, you were speaking the truth ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. Sir? 

,Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you' 
were in the Army of the United States ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, during the course of your service in the United ' 
States Army, transmit to any person not authorised to receive the^ 
same, confidential or restricted information ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. I never transmitted anything to anybody. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when did you meet Hy Steinberg, whom 
you have told us you know and have known as a friend for some time? • 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. I would take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you known Hy Steinberg ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be' 
ordered and directed to answer that question. He has opened the door 
himself by volunteering earlier in his testimony that he knows Hy 
Steinberg. 

(The witness conferred Avith his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Yes. I do not see where the length of time would' 
prejudice him in any way. 

You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. I would invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You have been active in public affairs around Con- 
necticut, have you not? 

Mr. Jakowenko. I will invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are a great believer in the freedom of the press, as 
we all are ; are you not, sir ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. I would invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You mean to tell this committee that if you told us 
whether or not you are a believer in the freedom of the press, you 
might be supplying information that could be used against you in a 
criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Jakowenko. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Just a minute, counsel. 

I do not believe, Mr. Chairman, that the answers this witness has 
given are a proper invocation of the fifth amendment. He just says 
"fifth amendment." I do not know what he means. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. The fifth amendment, sir, if you are not aware 

Mr. Kearney. I am perfectly aware of it. 

Mr. Jakowenko. In part 

Mr. Willis. The question is, upon what provision or conception 
of the fifth amendment do you claim immunity from testifying 
in answering the question : Do you believe in the freedom of the press ? 



COMMUNIST ACTB'ITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5693 

Mr. Arens. Yes, freedom of the press. 

Mr. Willis. Now, if you want to invoke the fifth amendment, if it 
would involve you in some way — do not say "the fifth amendment." I 
really think that is too broad. 

Mr. Jakowenko. Thank you for permitting me to invoke the fifth 
amendment, but the portion of the fifth amendment that I would re- 
fer to is that no person shall be permitted to testify 

Mr. Willis. Be compelled. 

Mr. Jakowenko. Be compelled to testify against himself, 

Mr. Arens. In what type of proceedings ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. In a criminal proceeding. 

Mr. KJEARNEY. Is this a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. Not being a lawyer 

Mr. Kearney. You have a lawyer there. Ask him if this is a crim- 
inal proceeding. 

Mr. Jakowenko. These questions that are being put to me certainly 
are being put in such a manner that I certainly fear that I don't want to 
waive my privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. You have all the time in the world to consult with 
your attorney; that is why you have him. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. I wonder if I may ask for a short recess ? 

Mr. Eabinowitz. That is less than "all the time in the world," sir ; 
much less. 

Mr. Arens. Is your request based on the apprehension that you 
might break from the Communist Party and bare your soul? 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Based on the suggestion of Congressman Kearney 
that he could have all the time in the world, and he wants to take just 
5 minutes. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Attorney, you and I have met before and I know 
you just as well as you know this committee. Let us not have any 
stalling tactics here. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Are you withdrawing your previous suggestion? 

Mr. Kearney. If you mean to take an hour and a half, yes. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Five minutes. 

Mr. Kearney. Give him 5 minutes, then. 

Mr. Willis. Very well, if you ask for a recess of 5 minutes to inform 
yourself on the question at issue, it is granted to you. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Willis. The 5 minutes being up, the subcommittee will come to 
order. 

Counsel will restate the question and we will proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Jakowenko, what is your position on the freedom of 
the press ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. I will take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this commit- 
tee what your position is on the freedom of the press, you would be 
supplying information which might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You Avere chairman of the Freedom of the Press Com- 
mittee campaign here in Connecticut for a period of time, were you 
not ? 



5694 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Jakowenko. I invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are surely not ashamed of what you might have 
done for freedom of the press, such a laudable objective? 

Mr. Jakowenko. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
it is a fact, that from 1954 to 1956 you were chairman of the Freedom 
of the Press Committee campaign in Connecticut under the auspices 
and control of the Communist conspiracy. 

Mr. Jakowenko. I will take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a lady by the name of Eowena Paumi? 

Mr. Jakowenko. I will invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi, would you kindly stand ? 

Mr. Jakowenko, would you look over your right shoulder at the 
lady standing there ? Do you know her ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. I will take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi has told this committee that she knew yon 
as a member of the Communist conspiracy. Was she lying or was she 
telling the truth ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee all of the organizations to which 
you presently belong ? 

Mr. Jakowenko. 1 will invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any nonsensitive organizations ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. Would you please explain 

Mr. Arens. Organizations concerning which you could give us in- 
formation without supplying information which might be used against 
you in a criminal proceeding. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. I will invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Are you a member of any veterans' organizations ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jakowenko. No, 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. I have no questions. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. There was a question of law remaining un- 
answered. 

I refer the committee to cases that I am sure counsel is familiar with. 
The witness was asked the question, and that was the reason we took 
the recess, and the cases are, among others, Emspak against the United 
States, Quinn against the United States, and Bart against the United 
States, all of which I am sure the committee is familiar with, because 
it was licked in all three of the cases. All of them hold the witness 
has a right to use the fifth amendment in congressional committee 
hearings, as I am sure all members of the committee know. 

There are many cases to the same effect. 

Mr. Arens. There has been no suggestion, as you know, Mr. Rabino- 
witz, that the witness does not have the right to invoke the fifth amend- 
ment before a committee. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. I understood Mr. Kearney's questioning was 
whether this was a criminal proceeding to be exactly that. 

Mr. Kearney. I asked the gentleman if this was a criminal proceed- 
ing, and he had a right to consult with his attorney, and his attorney 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5695 

knows tliis is not a criminal proceeding. Now go ahead and cite some 
more cases. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, the next witness, if you please, is Mr. 
Hyman Steinberg. 

Please remain standing, Mr. Steinberg, while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath to you, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Will you please raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HYMAN STEINBERG, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Steinberg. Hyman Steinberg, 42 Cottage Grove Circle. I am 
a concessionaire. 

Mr. Arens. In what town? 

Mr. Steinberg. In Bloomfield. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today, Mr. Steinberg, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Steinberg. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself ? 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz, 25 Broad Street, New York, 
N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the gentleman who just left the witness 
stand, Mr. Jakowenko ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you known him ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I can't specifically say; over a period of years. 

Mr. Arens. As many as 5 years? 

Mr. Steinberg. Possibly. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you meet him ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. I will invoke the fifth amendment on the ground 
that I can't be compelled to testify against myself. 

Mr. Arens. When did you last see him prior to his appearance before 
the committee ? 

Mr. Steinberg. We rode down together. 

Mr. Arens. You rode down to New Haven ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Sure did. 

Mr. Arens. When did you see him prior to that time ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. Friday night. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that? 

Mr. Steinberg. We went down to consult with our counsel. 

Mr. Arens. That was Mr. Rabinowitz ? 

Mr. Steinberg. That is right. 



5696 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Is that the first time you ever met Mr. Eabinowitz ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How did you happen to go to see Mr. Rabinowitz ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Well, remembering his name in a period of about 
5 years in the New York Times, reading about these hearings, I re- 
membered his name and sought him for counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the sole and exclusive information you had with 
respect to Mr. Rabinowitz? 

Mr. Steinberg. Pardon? 

Mr. Arens. Is that the sole source of your information respect- 
ing Mr. Rabinowitz ? 

Mr. Steinberg. That is the sole source. 

Mr. Arens. How did you make contact with him ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. I believe after picking Mr. Rabinowitz as counsel, 
I asked Mr. Jakowenko to call Mr. Rabinowitz and make an appoint- 
ment for us to see him. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in the course of your prospective arrange- 
ment to see Mr. Rabinowitz, confer with anyone other than Mr. 
Jakowenko ? 

Mr. Steinberg. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you confer with Samuel Richter? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. No. 

Mr. Arens. You know Sam Richter, of course, do you not ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. I will invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what clubs or groups to which you and Mr. 
Jakowenko jointly belong? 

Mr. Steinberg. Again I will invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to golf clubs together? Do you play 
golf? 

Mr. Steinberg. I don't have that leisure. I will invoke the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any organizations to which you and Mr. 
J akowenko belong ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Again the answer remains the same. 

Mr. Arens. To how many organizations do you belong at the present 
time ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any nonsensitive organizations ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I will take the same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you operate this food concession yourself? Are 
you the owner of it ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I am. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you operated it? 

Mr. Steinberg. Well, within the same building, I would say about 
a year and a half, 2 years. 

Mr. Arens. What is the name of it ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Hy Jack Snack Bar. 

Mr. Arens. Where is it located ? In Bloomfield, Conn. ? -^1 

Mr. Steinberg. In a department store. 

Mr. Arens. In what department store ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Curry's. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5697 

Mr, Arens. Are you the sole owner of it ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Well, I have a very good partner ; my wife. 

Mr. Arens. "^^Hiere did you operate this food concession prior to the 
time that you located in the department store? 

Mr. Steinberg. Farmers Market. 

Mr. Arens. And where is that ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Bloomfield. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you operate it there ? 

Mr. Steinberg. As long as the place was opened. 

Mr. Arens. How long was that ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Oh, I would say 7 or 8 months. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Hartford, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. And when ? 

Mr. Steinberg. June 1, 1919. 

Mr. Arens. And a word, please, sir, about your education. 

Mr. Steinberg. High school. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only formal education you had ? 

Mr. Steinberg, Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever received any specialized training since 
you concluded your high-school education ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Hairdresser. 

Mr. Arens. Hairdressing ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Hair stylist, I am sorry. 

Mr. Arens. Did that develop immediately after you concluded your 
work at the high school ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Pardon ? 

Mr. Arens. "SAHien did you graduate from high school ? 

Mv. Steinberg. I didn't graduate from high school. 

INIr. Arens. When did you conclude your work in high school ? 

Mr. Steinberg. 1937. 

Mr. Arens. When did you commence your training in the hair- 
styling school ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Right after that. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you attend the hair-styling school ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I think 2,100 hours. 

Mr. Arens. Did you graduate from the hair-styling school ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What school was it ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Connecticut Institute of Hairdressing. 

Mr. Arens. When did you graduate from it ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I couldn't rightfully say — between 1938 and 1939. 

Mr. Arens. What was your occupation immediately after you grad- 
uated from the hairdressing school? 

Mr. Steinberg. Hair stylist. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vliere? 

Mr. Steinberg. Both in Hartford and New York. 

Mr, Arens. Did you have 2 establishments or did 1 occupation 
succeed the other? 

Mr. Steinberg. It was a back-and-forth deal. 

Mr. Arens. For whom were you employed ? 

Mr. Steinberg. By myself, and some businesses, I think, that are 
out of business today. 



5698 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Aeens. Did you have a shop in Connecticut? 

Mr. Steinberg. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were was that shop located? 

Mr. Steinberg. On Garden Street, Hartford. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you operate that shop ? 

Mr. Steinberg. About a year. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened ? 

Mr. Steinberg. What happened ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Steinberg. Nothing. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat caused your disassociation from the operation of 
that shop ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I was a temperamental hair stylist. 

Mr. Arens. Did you quit the hair-styling business ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Entirely. 

Mr. Arens. Then what did you do for a living? 

Mr. Steinberg. Mechanic. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Steinberg. I think O'Meara Motors, if I am not mistaken. 

Mr. Arens. Where is that located ? 

Mr. Steinberg. East Hartford. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio was your immediate superior ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you employed at O'Meara Motors ? 

Mr. Steinberg. A short time. 

Mr. Arens. Less than a year ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What was your next employment ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your next principal employment ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I went to work for a coin-vending place. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that? 

Mr. Steinberg. In Hartford. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged there ? 

Mr. Steinberg. About 11 or 12 years. 

Mr. Arens. Was that the employment which immediately preceded 
the opening by you of your food concession establishment ? 

Mr. Steinberg. No. I went into business for myself. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened after you concluded your employ- 
ment with the vending-machine company ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I went into vending myself. 

Mr. Arens. Where were your vending machines ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Hartford. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged 

Mr. Steinberg. I am not through. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Steinberg. Hartford, Windsor, Wethersfield, West Hartford, 
and Rocky Hill. 

Mr. Arens. What was your next employment ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Concessionaire. 

Mr. Arens. That is when you opened this establishment which, with 
your successor organization, you are presently running: is that cor- 
rect? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5699 

Mr. Steixberg. That is right. 

Mr. Arexs. Do yon know a person by the name of Rowena Paumi ? 

]Mr. Steixberg. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. WonkI you kindly look over your riglit shoulder — and 
"would you please stand, Miss Paumi — and tell us whether you recog- 
nize the lady standing there ? 

Mr. Steixberg. Fifth amendment. 

^Ir. Arex's. Do j'ou honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee, while you are under oath, whether or not you recognize Miss 
Paumi, you might be supplying information which could be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Sn:ixBERG. The answer remains the same. 

]Mr. Arex-^s. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that last principal question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes, you are directed to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rabixowitz. AYould you mind reading the question, please? 

(The pending question was read by the reporter.) 

]\Ir. Steix'berg. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi told this committee that she knew you as 
a Communist. Was she lying or was she telling the truth ? 

Mr. Steixberg. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. What do you mean, "fifth amendment"? 

Mr. Steix'berg. Xo one shall compel myself to testify against my- 
self. I invoke the privileges of that amendment. 

]Mr. Arex's. Do you honestly fear that if you gave a truthful answer 
to that question, you would be supplying information which could be 
used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Steixberg. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now^ a Communist ? 

Mr. Steixberg. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearxey. If you were not a member of the Communist Party, 
■would you so state to the committee ? 

Mr. Steixberg. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you a Communist in 1937 ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Fifth amendment. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever serve in the Armed Forces in this Govern- 
ment ? 

Mr. Steinberg. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you deferred ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. Yes, sir ; deferred. 

Mr. Arens. "What was your classification ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I think that is my personal business. 

^Ir. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes, you are directed to answer, 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. I was IV-F, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What is your home address ? 

Mr. Steinberg. 42 Cottage Grove Circle, Bloomfield. 



5700 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr, Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. No questions. 

At the suggestion of our counsel, the committee will go into executive 
session, and this will conclude the hearing for this afternoon. The 
committee will resume sessions tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 2 : 52 p. m., Tuesday, September 25, the subcommit- 
tee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a. m., AVednesday, September 26, 1956.) 

X 



i 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 






3 9999 05706 3248 



<\ 


^tH<\ 


^-^'^ yut ft ^ 


Ul 


^i.HO 


4^nfeffj#>^ |>fe3l-? 








1 » 


'i^'i^ 


T^tKcl, 


kl 


^HM^ 


A/e^i^^iftwA ff 1'^ 


\ 


1i«*f 


tA et n 


k 


^^^6 


5«**^"^KV* d^ 


I 


?^? 


^Ov,-v.j<^^^ ^oy- 



" . If .: 



I'.uy 






.< ;■ 



;'-'i;3ii 



• K